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Exercises in Modern English Grammar. А. С. Саакян


Chapter I.


Classification of Nouns

Ex. 1.     State whether the nouns in bold type are proper or common.

1. The Imperial State Crown of the Queen of England is normally kept at the Tower. 2. This church has a tower attached to it. 3. The English Channel is the narrow area of water between England and France. 4. The main channels had been closed by enemy submarines. 5. You are like a Figaro. One minute here, another there. 6. I've bought a Kodak, but I don't know how it works. 7. In the art circles he was known as a Metsenat. 8. Wellington defeated Napoleon's army in the battle of Waterloo. 9. Wellingtons are rubber boots. Americans call them galoshes. 10. What had happened, became a Waterloo Bridge for him. 11. He is a real Paparatssi in everything that concerns making money. 12. Rita Brown writes like an American Evelyn Waugh. 13. He is thrilled at his new buy: a classic Mercedes Benz. 14. Antony Marshall lives outside the city. Every morning he drives to the City where he works as staff manager. 15. The Red-White-and-Blue Union Jack hung out of every window, fluttering in the breeze. 16. Degas and Monet were her husband's favourite artists, and both were well represented in their

house. 17. He glanced at the list of her art collection. Sisleys, Monets, Manets, a Dali, Renoirs and a Degas. It was a fabulous collection. 18. Carl Faberge was Russia's Imperial Jeweller. 19. — What a beautiful Easter egg! — Yes,it's a Faberge. 20. The two friends bought a Johnny Walker to celebrate the event. 21. Kurt Vonnegut is writing with the half-embittered, half-amused voice of a later-day Mark Twain. 22. Tonight Samantha wore highly polished black Oxfords.


Ex. 2.     Explain the origin and the meaning of the following common

nouns. Use them in sentences of your own.

A Dracula, a Cartier, a Sony, a Camel, a Marlborough, a complete Shakespeare, a Reebok, a Mauzer, a Lovelace, a Webster, a Don Juan, a Dunhill, the White House, a Barbie, a Jillet, a Petroff, a Stradivarius, an Oscar, a Walkman, a hooligan, bermudas, a Xerox, a Newton.


Ex. 3.     Read and translate the following. Explain the use of the nouns in bold type.

1. The Uffizi in Florence have more perfect paintings than any other gallery on the planet — not just Tintorettos and Botticellis, but the most arresting works by people like Gentile da Fabriano and Simone Martini. Some Caravaggios, "Bachus" among them, were found in an Uffizi store-room in 1916.

2. The Earl of Cardigan gave his name to one of the garments we wear. A cardigan is a knitted jacket that is fastened up the front with buttons or a zip.

3.  — Now, how about some  Bellinis to celebrate the holiday? — I've forgotten what  a Bellini is. I know Bellini, the composer, of course. I mean, I know it's also champagne but what's in it besides that? — Fresh peach juice. — Now I remember! It's a fabulous drink.

4. — Rumor has it that you're suffering from a terminal Don Juan complex. — It's not such a bad reputation to have, when you think about it. After all no man can be a Don Juan unless women are interested in him.

5. Long ago in prerevolutionary France there lived one Etienne de Silhouette, a controller general for Louis XV. Because of his fanatical zeal for raising taxes and slashing expenses and pensions, he enraged royalty and citizens alike, who ran him out of office within eight months. At about the same time that Silhouette was sacked, the method of making cutouts of profiles by throwing the shadow of the subjects on the screen captured the fancy of the Paris public. Because the process was cheap, the man and the method became associated. Ever since, we have called shadow profiles silhouettes, with a small s.


Ex. 4.    Translate into English.

I. Какой потрясающий человек! Настоящий Монтекри­сто! 2. Она такая романтичная! Ну просто Наташа Рос­това. 3. — Я вижу, что твой приятель — мастер на все руки. — Да, и ничего не делает толком. 4. Он настоящий Казакова. Почему она его не оставит? 5. — Какие вкус­ные конфеты! — Да, это Моцарт. 6. — Что это за духи? — Это Кензо. 7. На этой стоянке припарковано несколько машин: Мерседес, Хонда, Линкольн, Форд и старенький Москвич. 8. — Тебе нравится эта картина? — Это Пи­кассо. 9. На стенах его кабинета развешено оружие: кольт, винчестер, браунинг, Калашников. 10. Англичанин Ватман изобрел бумагу, которая называется его именем.

II. Ричард Чемберлен купил маленький остров и жи­вет на нем как современный Робинзон Крузо. 12. — Ка­кую сигару ты куришь? — Это Корона. 13. В этом зале выставлены три Рембрандта. 14. Это была современная сказка о принце и Золушке. 15. — Какое очарователь­ное платье! — Неудивительно, ведь это Шанель.


Ex. 5.     Match the six common words given below and the following descriptions.

1. Two-piece swimsuits are named after a Pacific atoll on which hydrogen bombs were detonated — a truly explosive and figurative word.

2. The most popular of all humorous verse forms in English comes from a country in Ireland. One theory says that Irish mercenaries used to compose verses in that form about each other and then join in a chorus of "When we get back to town, 'twill be a glorious morning."

3. Nearly two-and-a-half millennia ago, a little band of ten thousand Persians were defeated at the battle of Pheidippides. A courageous runner brought the news of the glorious victory to Athens, and thus gave his name to a long-distance run.

4. A contraction of "St. Mary's of Bethlehem," a sixteenth century London hospital for the insane, has become a word for uproar or confusion.

5. The Pilgrims found in America a wild fowl somewhat similar in appearance to a fowl they had known back in England — a bird that had acquired its name because it was first imported by way of a particular country. Because we perceive this bird as ugly in appearance and voice, we sometimes assign its name to people we don't care for.

6. The inhabitants of an ancient Greek city were noted for their ability to say a lot in a few words. During a siege of their capital, a Roman general sent a note to this city's commander warning that if the Romans captured the city, they would burn it to the ground. From within the city gates came back the terse reply: "If!" The city's name lives on in an adjective that describes spare speech.

a marathon, a bedlam, a bikini, a limerick, a turkey, laconic


Ex. 6.     Explain the difference between the following pairs of words and use them in sentences of your own.

1.  air — an air

2. beauty — a beauty

3. coffee — a coffee

4. cloth — a cloth

5.  dinner — a dinner

6.  fire — a fire 8

7.  glass — a glass

8.  language — a language

9.  lemon — a lemon

10.  light — a light

11.  nature — a nature

12.  oak — an oak

13.  paper — a paper

14.  play — a play

15.  power — a power

16.  rubber — a rubber

17.  ice — an ice

18.  stone — a stone

19.  study — a study

20.  will — a will


Ex. 7.     Make up exclamatory sentences according to the model.

Model: competent advice — What competent advice! good question — What a good question!

1.  original advice great idea

2.  beautiful nature difficult character

3.  fashionable furniture big refrigerator

4.  modern equipment ancient fortress

5.  unexpected money great fortune

6.  wonderful music sentimental tune

7.  hitting news strange call

8.  good progress big success

9.  heavy traffic busy line

10. miserable weather nasty day

11.  deep knowledge excellent certificate

12.  difficult work pleasant job

13.  Russian linen linen towel

14.  leafy foliage beautiful leaf


Ex. 8.     Comment on the nouns in bold type.

1. Harrods has so much to offer. Vintage  wines and sparkling   champagne, rustic country pates and silky smooth terrines, delicate scented teas and subtle infusions, buttery shortbread biscuits and rich fruity jams, robust pickles and tangy relishes, mature farmhouse cheddars and crumbly stiltons, hams and smoked salmon which melts in the mouth — all presented in traditional wicker baskets or Harrods boxes. The only thing Harrods can't supply is the weather! 2. Good wines are the best buys before Christmas. 3.1 dropped in at the supermarket and bought a few cold meats, and I also made a salad. 4. Fruit juices are ideal in hot weather. 5. My Granny makes four jams every year. 6.1 used to eat  toast with orange marmalade. 7. France has an excellent range of cheeses. 8. A set menu in this Chinese cafe consists of four soups. I prefer a Singaporean seafood soup. It tastes and smells terrific. 9. Herbal teas are my favourite. 10. This shop sells fine foods. 11. The finest rums come from Puerto Rico. 12.1 always have a beer while watching television.

13. Can I offer you something? Coffee, tea, a soda, perhaps?

14. Tea is our most social and sociable drink — a part of our daily life for well over 300 years.

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