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NB5@8, B0: V H01;>=8 (?;0AB<0A>2V 5;V?A8). VA;O =0=5A5==O =0 :0@BC ?@>3=>7>20=8E 7>= 70@065==O 287=0G0NBLAO =0A5;5=V ?C=:B8 B0 V=HV >1 T:B8, O:V <>6CBL >?8=8B8AO 2 @09>=0E 70@065==O, V 26820NBLAO 70E>48, A?@O<>20=V =0 <0:A8<0;L=5 7<5=H5==O 2?;82C @04V0FV9=>3> D0:B>@0 =0 68BBT4VO;L=VABL =0A5;5==O 9 DC=:FV>=C20==O >1 T:BV2. @8 2AB0=>2;5==V <0AHB01V2 V E0@0:B5@C ?@>3=>7>20=>3> @04V>0:B82=>3> 70@065==O <VAF52>ABV =5>1EV4=> 2@0E>2C20B8 ?@8?CAB8<V ?><8;:8 C 287=0G5==V 5?VF5=B@C 9 ?>BC6=>ABV 281CEC, =0?@O<:C V H284:>ABV 2VB@C, I>1 <0:A8<0;L=> C=8:=CB8 2V4E8;5==O 2V4 D0:B8G=8E @57C;LB0BV2 70@065==O. "><C I> A0<5 FV 40=V 1C4CBL 287=0G0B8 >1AO38 7040G V 2V4?>2V4=V 70E>48 70157?5G5==O 157?5:8 68BBT4VO;L=>ABV =0A5;5==O 2 @04V0FV9=> =5157?5G=8E A8BC0FVOE. 0A;V4:8 V ABC?V=L 2?;82C @04V>0:B82=>3> 701@C4=5==O (70@065==O) 68BBT2>3> A5@54>28I0 =0 68BBT4VO;L=VABL ;N48=8 >1C<>2;5=V 7030;L=8< 7>2=VH=V< V 2=CB@VH=V< >?@><V=5==O< >@30=V7<C. '5@57 B5, I> 2=CB@VH=T >?@><V=5==O >1C<>2;5=> =04E>465==O< @04V>0:B82=8E @5G>28= CA5@548=C >@30=V7<C, 0 =0A;V4:8 9>3> 2?;82C <>6CBL 28O2;OB8AO ?@>BO3>< B@820;>3> G0AC, 0 >B65, BV;L:8 73>4>< >FV=N20B8AO D0EV2FO<8 <548G=8E CAB0=>2, ?@8 287=0G5==V ABC?5=O 2?;82C @04V>0:B82=>3> 70@065==O =0 =0A5;5==O 28<V@NTBLAO 4>70 7>2=VH=L>3> >?@><V=5==O. @8 @04V>0:B82=><C 701@C4=5==V (70@065==V) =5>1EV4=> 7@>18B8:  @>7@0EC=>: <>6;828E 4>7 @04V0FVW (>?@><V=5==O), I> <>6CBL 1CB8 >B@8<0=V ?V4 G0A 4V9 2 C<>20E 701@C4=5==O (70@065==O);  ?@>3=>7C20==O >GV:C20=8E CB@0B 2V4 @04V0FV9=>3> 701@C4=5==O;  281V@ =091V;LH 4>FV;L=8E 4V9 2 C<>20E @04V>0:B82=>3> 701@C4=5==O (70@065==O);  28<V@N20==O B0 2AB0=>2;5==O ABC?5=O 701@C4=5==O (70@065==O) <0B5@V0;L=8E 70A>1V2, ?@>4C:BV2 E0@GC20==O, 2>48 B>I>. >7@0EC=>: <>6;828E 4>7 @04V0FVW, >B@8<C20=8E C?@>4>26 ?5@51C20==O ;N459 2 C<>20E @04V>0:B82=>3> 70@065==O, 74V9A=NTBLAO 70 D>@<C;0<8, 3@0DV:0<8 B0 V=H8<8 4>2V4:>28<8 <0B5@V0;0<8. 8EV4=V 40=V 4;O @>7@0EC=:C <>6;828E 4>7 @04V0FVW:  ?>BC6=VABL 4>78 @04V0FVW =0 <><5=B ?>G0B:C (:V=FO) >?@><V=5==O, ? ( :);  B@820;VABL >?@><V=5==O (@>1>B8), t@;  :>5DVFVT=B >A;01;5==O 4>78 @04V0FVW C:@8BBO< (70E8A=>N A?>@C4>N), >A;.  > 7 @ 0 E C = > : < > 6 ; 8 2 8 E 4 > 7 @ 0 4 V 0 F V W 70 D>@<C;0<8:   EMBED Equation.3  45: A5@54  A5@54=T 7=0G5==O ?>BC6=>ABV 4>78 @04V0FVW 70 G0A ?5@51C20==O 2 @09>=V 70@065==O, @04/3>4; t@  B@820;VABL @>1>B8 (?5@51C20==O) C @09>=V 70@065==O, 3>4; L  4>268=0 70@065=>3> <0@H@CBC @CEC, :<; V  H284:VABL @CEC, :</3>4; >A;  :>5DVFVT=B >A;01;5==O 4>7 @04V0FVW C:@8BBO< (70E8A=>N A?>@C4>N). !5@54=T 7=0G5==O ?>BC6=>ABV 4>78 @04V0FVW 287=0G0TBLAO 70 D>@<C;>N:  45 ? V :  ?>BC6=>ABV 4>7 @04V0FVW =0 ?>G0B:C V :V=FV ?5@51C20==O 2 @09>=V 70@065==O (=0 <0@H@CBV @CEC), @04/3>4. >:07=8:8 70E8I5=>ABV ;N48=8 2V4 V>=V7CNG8E 28?@><V=N20=L E0@0:B5@87CNBLAO :>5DVFVT=B>< >A;01;5==O 4>78 @04V0FVW >A;. !5@54=V 7=0G5==O >A; 4;O 45O:8E C:@8BBV2, I> <>6CBL 28:>@8AB>2C20B8AO O: 70E8A=V A?>@C48, =02545=> 2 B01;.24. GV:C20=V @04V0FV9=V 2B@0B8 287=0G0NBLAO ?> B01;8FOE 4>2V4=8:V2 B0 V=H8E <5B>48G=8E <0B5@V0;V2 (B01;. 20, 21). @8:;04 1 !?V2@>1VB=8:8 ?@02>>E>@>==>W CAB0=>28 1C4CBL ?@0FN20B8 2 @09>=V 020@VW =0 ! ?@>BO3>< 3 3>4 =0 2V4:@8BV9 <VAF52>ABV. >BC6=VABL 4>78 @04V0FVW =0 <VAF52>ABV =0 ?5@HC 3>4 ?VA;O 020@VW 1= 200 @04/3>4. >G0B>: @>1>B8  70 4 3>4 ?VA;O 020@VW. 87=0G8B8 4>7C @04V0FVW V <>6;82V =0A;V4:8 >?@><V=5==O A?V2@>1VB=8:V2. VH5==O 87=0G0TBLAO ?>BC6=VABL 4>78 @04V0FVW =0 ?>G0B>: V :V=5FL @>1>B8 (?5@5@0E>2CTBLAO 1 =0 4 V 8 70 B01;. 23): ?= 1/4 = 200/2,0 =100 @04/3>4 : = 1/8 = 200/2,7H" 74 @04/3>4    3. 0 B01;. 21, 22 CB@0B8 <>6CBL A:;0AB8 100% (?@><5=520 E2>@>10 A5@54=L>3> ABC?5=O 206:>ABV). 8A=>2>: @0FN20B8 2 @09>=V 020@VW ?@8 7040=8E C<>20E C:@09 @878:>20=>. 0965 2AV >?@><V=5=V 2B@0BOBL ?@0F5740B=VABL =091;86G8< G0A>< ?VA;O >?@><V=5==O. >7@0EC=>: 4>7 @04V0FVW 70 D>@<C;>N  74V9A=NTBLAO 70 C<>2 @CEC ?> 7040=><C <0@H@CBC L 7 2V4><8<8 ?>BC6=>ABO<8 4>7 @04V0FVW V A5@54=L>N H284:VABN @CEC v. " 0 1 ; 8 F O 24 >5DVFVT=B8 >A;01;5==O 4VW @04V0FVW 4;O 45O:8E C:@8BBV2 09<5=C20==O C:@8BBO>5DVFVT=B8 >A;01;5==O, >A;8B;>2V 45@52 O=V 1C48=:8 4=>?>25@E>2V V420; 2>?>25@E>2V V420; 8B;>2V :0< O=V 1C48=:8 4=>?>25@E>2V V420; 2>?>25@E>2V V420; "@8?>25@E>2V V420; @><8A;>2V 9 04<V=VAB@0B82=V 1C48=:8 8@>1=8GV >4=>?>25@E>2V 1C48=:8 (F5E) 8@>1=8GV 9 04<V=VAB@0B82=V B@8?>25@E>2V 1C48=:8 "@0=A?>@B=V 70A>18 2B><>1V;V 9 02B>1CA8 0A068@AL:V 70;V7=8G=V 203>=8 0E8A=V A?>@C465==O V4:@8BV >:>?8, IV;8=8 5@5:@8BV IV;8=8 @>B8@04V0FV9=V C:@8BBO ( #) !E>28I0 2 7 8 12 10 40 15 100 20 400 7 6 2 3 3 50 100 V > 1000 V >  > 6 ; 8 2 V 4 > 7 8 @ 0 4 V 0 F V W 2 8 7 = 0 G 0 N B L B 0 : > 6 V 7 0 4 > ? > < > 3 > N 3 @ 0 D V : V 2 (= > < > 3 @ 0 <). @0DV:8 (=><>3@0<8)  =091V;LH @>7?>2AN465=V 9 B>G=V <5B>48 287=0G5==O 4>7 @04V0FVW, O:V 2@0E>2CNBL >1C<>2;5=VABL G0A>< 7<5=H5==O ?>BC6=>AB59 4>7 @04V0FVW. 0 >1 T:B0E & 9 C =02G0;L=><C ?@>F5AV 28I8E =02G0;L=8E 70:;04V2 H8@>:> 28:>@8AB>2CNBLAO 3@0DV:8 (482. 4>40B>: 1,2). 8EV4=8<8 40=8<8 2 F8E 3@0DV:0E T 2V4=>A=0 25;8G8=0   45 1  ?>BC6=VABL 4>78 @04V0FVW =0 ?5@HC 3>48=C ?VA;O 020@VW =0 ! G8 O45@=>3> 281CEC, CAB  CAB0=>2;5=0 4>70 >?@><V=5==O; >A;  :>5DVFVT=B >A;01;5==O @04V0FVW; t?  G0A ?>G0B:C ?5@51C20==O 2 7>=V >?@><V=5==O; t@  B@820;VABL ?5@51C20==O (@>1>B8) 2 7>=V >?@><V=5==O. !E5<0 3@0DV:V2 V ?>@O4>: :>@8ABC20==O =8<8 =02545=V =0 @8A. 8. @8:;04 2 87=0G8B8 4>7C @04V0FVW V <>6;82V =0A;V4:8 >?@><V=5==O A?V2@>1VB=8:V2 CAB0=>28 4;O C<>2 ?@8:;04C !1. VH5==O 0 3@0DV:>< (4;O 7040=8E t? = 4 3>4, t@ = 3 3>4) 287=0-G0TBLAO 2V4=>A=0 25;8G8=0  = 0,65. > 2V4=>A=V9 25;8G8=V  7=0E>48<>  EMBED Equation.3   EMBED Word.Picture.8  8A. 8. >7@0EC=>: 4>7 @04V0FVW. 87=0G5==O =091V;LH 4>FV;L=8E 4V9 =0A5;5==O 9 DC=:FV>=C20==O >1 T:BV2 2 C<>20E 70@065==O 2:;NG0T: 287=0G5==O ?@8?CAB8<>W B@820;>ABV 9 G0A ?>G0B:C @>1>B8 (t@, t?), @>7@0EC=>: :>5DVFVT=BV2 >A;01;5==O @04V0FVW 70E8A=8<8 A?>@C465==O<8 (>A;), I> 70157?5GCNBL @04V0FV9=C 157?5:C, ?V43>B>2:C V=H8E 40=8E 4;O CE20;5==O @VH5==O :5@V2=8:>< >1 T:B0 &. 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