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A=>2C 4;O B0:>9 A2O78 2 :C;LBC@=>9 B@048F88 <>6=> =09B8 2 ?@>H;KE @50:F8OE 8;8 ?@>H;>< >?KB5. >=B@>;8@>20BL ?@>3@0<<C, =0E>4OICNAO 2 ?>4A>7=0=88, ?@0:B8G5A:8 =52>7<>6=>, ?>MB><C ?>4A>7=0B5;L=>5 ?>2545=85 2A5340 8A:@5==5, B0: :0: >B@0605B E0@0:B5@=>5, B8?8G=>5 4;O G5;>25:0 @5G52>5 459AB285.  59AB28O =0 02B>?8;>B5 70<5=ONBAO  @CG=K< C?@02;5=85< , :>340 G5;>25: AB0;:8205BAO A =5AB0=40@B=>9 A8BC0F859.  =5AB0=40@B=K<, 20@8015;L=K<, A8BC0F8O< >B=>AOBAO B0:85 A8BC0F88, 2 :>B>@KE D>@<0 @5G8 =5 AB>;L B5A=> A2O70=0 A A>45@60=85<, 0 1>;55  A A>F80;L=>-;8G=>AB=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8 A>15A54=8:>2, A 8E >1I5>1@07>20B5;L=K< C@>2=5<, A B>=0;L=>ABLN, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@>B5:05B 15A540 (5@5I038=, >AB><0@>2, 1973: 98). 45AL 3>2>@OI89 2A5340 AB0;:8205BAO A 2K1>@>< 87 @O40 2>7<>6=>AB59. :B 2K1>@0 2 ?>4>1=KE A8BC0F8OE ?@87=05B 1>;LH8=AB2> 8AA;54>20B5;59 ("..8=>:C@, ..8E0;LA:0O, "..(<5;520, ./:>1A>= 8 4@.). "0:, ./:>1A>= 2K45;O5B 425 >?5@0F88, 8A?>;L7C5<K5 2 @5G52>< ?>2545=88,  A5;5:F8N 8 :><18=0F8N (/:>1A>= 1975: 204). ".. (<5;520, >?@545;OO @5G52>5 ?>2545=85, 2848B 53> ?@>O2;5=8O 2 :>=AB@C8@>20=88 :><<C=8:0B82=>9 A8BC0F88, 2K1>@5 @5G52KE 60=@>2, >B1>@5 O7K:>2KE A@54AB2 ((<5;520 1995: 60). 5@10;L=K9 >B1>@ 2 CA;>28OE ?@5>4>;5=8O 0;LB5@=0B82K 5ABL @57C;LB0B ?@>O2;5=8O :><<C=8:0B82=>9 AB@0B5388 3>2>@OI53>, ?>4 :>B>@>9 ?>=8<05BAO  B2>@G5A:0O @50;870F8O :><<C=8:0=B>< ?;0=0 ?>AB@>5=8O A2>53> @5G52>3> ?@>872545=8O A F5;LN 4>AB865=8O >1I59 (3;>10;L=>9) O7K:>2>9 (=5O7K:>2>9) 7040G8 >1I5=8O 2 @5G52>< A>1KB88 (5@=5F:89 1988: 40). C45< CG8BK20BL, GB> >A>7=0==>5 8 ?>4A>7=0B5;L=>5 ?>2545=85 G5;>25:0 >?@545;ONB A>>B25BAB25==> 420 B8?0 :><<C=8:0B82=KE AB@0B5389  >A>7=0==CN 8 ?>4A>7=0B5;L=CN, =5 >?@545;O5<CN >14C<0==K< ?;0=><, 70<KA;><.  >4A>7=0B5;L=0O AB@0B538O 5ABL @50;870F8O 2 @5G8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9, F5==>AB=>-;8G=>AB=>9 >@85=B0F88 3>2>@OI8E, >=0 A>>B=>A8BAO A ?>=OB85< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 CAB0=>2:8 3>2>@OI53> (>@8A>20 1996: 23). ..48=F>2 >?@545;O5B AB@0B538N :0: F5;52CN CAB0=>2:C, :>B>@0O  70AB02;O5B A>>B25BAB25==> >@30=87>2K20BL @5GL, >1CA;>2;8205B :><?>78F8N 8 E0@0:B5@ O7K:>2KE A@54AB2 (48=F>2 1982: 160). 0==>5 >?@545;5=85 1C45< 8A?>;L7>20BL 2 :0G5AB25 @01>G53>.  ?>2A54=52=>< @5G52>< >1I5=88 G0I5 @50;87C5BAO ?>4A>7=0B5;L=0O AB@0B538O, =>, =0 =0H 273;O4, =5 @54:8 ?5@5:;NG5=8O A >4=>9 AB@0B5388 =0 4@C3CN 2 F5;OE 040?B0F88 2 :><<C=8:0B82=>9 A8BC0F88 8 MDD5:B82=>AB8 >1I5=8O; 2>7<>6=> :><18=8@>20=85 =5A:>;L:8E AB@0B5389, 0:BC0;878@C5<KE 87 =01>@0 2>7<>6=KE. ><<C=8:0B82=CN AB@0B538N <>6=> AB@C:BC@8@>20BL, B.5. 2K45;8BL 2 =59 =01>@ 8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL :><<C=8:0B82=KE E>4>2 (B0:B8:), ?>4 :>B>@K<8 2A;54 70 ..5@5I038=K< 1C45< ?>=8<0BL >4=C 87 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> @5H05<KE 7040G 2 3@0=8F0E >?@545;5==>9 AB@0B538G5A:>9 ;8=88 (5@5I038= 1990). AA;54>20B5;8 3>2>@OB > 2>7<>6=>AB8 2K45;5=8O B8?>2 8 85@0@E89 AB@0B5389. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B E0@0:B5@0 :><<C=8:0B82=>9 F5;5CAB0=>2:8 2K45;ONB @53C;OB82=CN AB@0B538N (F5;L  2K720BL 65;05<K5 87<5=5=8O 2 H8@>:>< M:AB@0;8=328AB8G5A:>< :>=B5:AB5 A8BC0F88), 48:B0;L=CN AB@0B538N (F5;L  8=D>@<8@>20BL A>15A54=8:0 > D0:B0E, A>1KB8OE >1J5:B82=>9 @50;L=>AB8, ;>38G5A:8 >A<KA;8BL B5<C @073>2>@0) 8 <>40;L=CN AB@0B538N (F5;L  2K@078BL A2>8 GC2AB20, M<>F88, >F5=:8, :><<C=8:0B82=K5 8=B5=F88, ?@54?>GB5=8O, =0AB@>5=8O 2 >B=>H5=88 @5G8 8 :><<C=8:0B82=>9 A8BC0F88) (A<.: >@8A>20 1996: 46-47). !..!CE8E >B<5G05B 42CEC@>2=52CN AB@C:BC@C @5G52>9 AB@0B5388, 2K45;OO ?>25@E=>AB=CN, >@85=B8@>20==CN =0 =>@<K A>F8C<0, 8 3;C18==CN, 345 8AB>G=8:>< ?>AB@>5=8O O2;ONBAO =5 =>@<K A>F8C<0, 0 48A?>78F8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@K ;8G=>AB8 (!CE8E 1998: 13). ;0AA8D8:0F8O AB@0B5389 A B>G:8 7@5=8O DC=:F88 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL .!.AA5@A 2K45;8BL >A=>2=K5 (:>3=8B82=K5) 8 2A?><>30B5;L=K5 (@8B>@8G5A:85) AB@0B5388.  >A=>2=K< >B=>AOBAO: <>45;8@>20=85 A>F8C<0 ?> ?@8=F8?C  A2>8   GC685 , <>45;8@>20=85 AD5@K  ;8G=>5  >1I5AB25==>5 , >B>645AB2;5=85 (<5B0D>@870F8O), ?>AB@>5=85 85@0@E8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89. 8B>@8G5A:85 AB@0B5388 ?><>30NB 3>2>@OI5<C 4>AB8GL F5;8 70 AG5B 8A?>;L7C5<KE @8B>@8G5A:8E 8 MB8:5B=KE ?@85<>2. ! MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 2K45;ONBAO AB@0B5388 256;82>AB8 (AA5@A 1997: 58), 03@5AA88 (5;L28A 1988: 104), D>:CA8@>20=8O (>;LF>20 1988: 20).B<5B8<, GB> B5@<8=K  AB@0B538O 8  B0:B8:0 G0AB> C?>B@51;ONBAO :0: A8=>=8<K. C45< AG8B0BL, GB> AB@0B538O AB@C:BC@8@C5BAO, B.5. 2:;NG05B =01>@ 8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL :><<C=8:0B82=KE E>4>2 (B0:B8:). B0:, 2ABC?0O 2 @5G52CN :><<C=8:0F8N, AC1J5:BK >1I5=8O 4>;6=K 8<5BL >@30=87>20==>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 >:@C60NI59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 8;8  2=CB@5==55 ?@54AB02;5=85, AE5<C, <>45;L A5;5==>9, >1@07, ?;0= (0;0=B5@, 8;;5@, @81@0< 1965: 19). > GB> ;568B 2 >A=>20=88 2K1>@0 AB@0B538G5A:8E >@85=B8@>2 8 ?;0=8@>20=8O :><<C=8:0B82=>9 ?0@B88 ?0@B=5@>2 >1I5=8O? ;O 045:20B=>3> :>=AB@C8@>20=8O :><<C=8:0B82=>9 A8BC0F88 :064K9 87 ?0@B=5@>2 (2 @50;L=>< 480;>38G5A:>< >1I5=88 >=8 2KABC?0NB ?>?5@5<5==> B> 2 @>;8 04@5A0=B0, B> 2 @>;8 04@5A0B0) 4>;65= 2KAB@>8BL :>=B5:AB MB>9 A8BC0F88, D0:B>@K, :>B>@K5 55 >?@545;ONB. !>2>:C?=>ABL MB8E D0:B>@>2  AB@C:BC@8@>20==0O 8 85@0@E878@>20==0O A8AB5<0. "0:, A>3;0A=> A>F8>;8=328AB8G5A:>9 <>45;8 .%09<A0, 2 >A=>25 :><<C=8:0B82=>9 A8BC0F88 ;568B =01>@ 2=5H=8E 8 2=CB@5==8E D0:B>@>2, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A :>B>@K<8 >@30=87C5BAO @5G52>5 >1I5=85. ><18=0F8N =0720=89 MB8E D0:B>@>2 =0 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 <>6=> ?@54AB028BL 2 2845 0:@>=8<0 (%09<A 1975: 42-70; 5;; 1980: 95-96, 110-111). SETTING 1AB0=>2:0 8 AF5=0 (2@5<O, <5AB>, :C;LBC@=K9 :>=B5:AB) PARTICIPANTS #G0AB=8:8 >1I5=8O  >2>@OI89 8 !;CH0NI89 ENDS -DD5:B, 2 :>B>@>< @0745;O5BAO 8AE>4, B.5. ?@54?>;0305<K9 8 =5?@542845==K9 :><<C=8:0B82=K9 @57C;LB0B ACT SEQUENCE %>4 459AB28O  D>@<0 8 A>45@60=85 A>>1I5=8O KEY ;NG  <0=5@0 ?5@540G8 A>>1I5=8O INSTRUMENTALITIES =AB@C<5=B0@89, 2:;NG0NI89 8A?>;L7C5<K5 :0=0;K 8 D>@<K @5G8 NORMS >@<K GENRES 0=@K  2=5H=8< D0:B>@0< 8AA;54>20B5;L >B=>A8B >1AB0=>2:C, @>;52K5 >B=>H5=8O :><<C=8:0=B>2, F5;8; : 2=CB@5==8<  D>@<C 8 A>45@60=85, <0=5@C, 2K@065=85, 60=@K. 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A0<>< >1I5< A<KA;5 =>@<0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ;N1>5 4>;65=AB2>20=85 (70?@5I5=85, @07@5H5=85, C?>;=><>G820=85), ?@8=OB>5 2 @0<:0E =5:>B>@>3> A>>1I5AB20; >1I5?@87=0==>5 ?@028;>, >1@075F ?>2545=8O ;81> 459AB28O, ;N1>9 MB0;>= 8;8 AB0=40@B (..>1=520, ..;0E>2, .!.!0@8=3C;O=, ..!B5@=8= 8 4@.). 1@0I5=85 : :C;LBC@=>9 @50;L=>AB8 D8:A8@C5B =0;8G85 =>@<0B82=>AB8 2> 2A5E >1;0ABOE :C;LBC@K: 2 M:>=><8:5 8 ?@>872>4AB25, 2 AD5@5 <8@>2>77@5=8O, ?>;8B8:5 8 >1;0AB8 ?@020, AD5@5 <>@0;8, 8A:CAAB25, 2 >1;0AB8 1KB0, 2 O7K:5. .4;8G:0 ?@54;>68; @073@0=8G820BL O7K:>2K5 (A8AB5<=K5) =>@<K 8 :><<C=8:0B82=K5 =>@<K, 206=>9 G5@B>9 :>B>@KE O2;O5BAO A8BC0B82=0O >1CA;>2;5==>ABL, B.5. 7028A8<>ABL >B D0:B>@>2 8 CA;>289 A8BC0F88, 0 B0:65 A<5H0==>ABL M;5<5=B>2 2 @5G52KE 0:B0E, B.5. @50;870F8O ?@5645 2A53> 2 @073>2>@=>9 D>@<5 8 ?>2A54=52=>< >1I5=88. ><<C=8:0B82=0O =>@<0 <0=8D5AB8@C5BAO =5 B>;L:> O7K:>2K<8 M;5<5=B0<8, => 8 :><?>=5=B0<8 =5O7K:>2K<8 (=525@10;L=K<8) (4;8G:0 1988: 141,146). !..8=>3@04>2 >?@545;O5B :><<C=8:0B82=CN =>@<C :0: 045:20B=>ABL :><<C=8:0B82=>3> ?@>F5AA0 A8BC0F88 >1I5=8O. (8=>3@04>2 1996: 126). >@<K @>640NBAO 2 >1I5=88 ;N459, >15A?5G820NB 2>7<>6=>ABL 8 :0G5AB25==>5 A2>5>1@0785 @07;8G=KE D>@< >1I5=8O. C4CG8 CA2>5==K<8, 8=B5@8>@878@>20==K<8, =>@<K ?@52@0I0NBAO 2 D0:B>@K 2=CB@5==53> <8@0 G5;>25:0, 2>7459AB2CNB =0 53> ?>2545=85 G5@57 A8AB5<C 2=CB@5==8E D0:B>@>2 @53C;OF88  A0<>A>7=0=85 8 A0<>>F5=:C, <>B820F8>==CN A8AB5<C, ?>=8<0=85 8 CAB0=>2:8, B.5. AB0=>2OBAO A>1AB25==> ;8G=>AB=K<8 A@54AB20<8 @53C;OF88 ?>2545=8O (A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K A>F80;L=>9 @53C;OF88 ?>2545=8O 1976). >2545=85 G5;>25:0 2A5340 ?@>B5:05B 2 CA;>28OE =>@<0B82=>3> <8@0 8 2A5340 <>65B 1KBL ?@>0=0;878@>20=> 8 >F5=5=> 2 B5@<8=0E =>@<K 8 >B:;>=5=8O >B =55. @54AB02;5==>ABL =>@<K 2 AB@C:BC@5 8=48284C0;L=>3> A>7=0=8O 45B5@<8=8@C5B ?5@5AB@>9:C ;8G=>AB=KE A<KA;>2 8 7=0G5=89, ?>MB><C G5;>25: 1C45B >?@545;5==K< >1@07>< >F5=820BL 8 ?>=8<0BL @07;8G=K5 D0:BK, A>1KB8O, B5:ABK. 064>9 :C;LBC@5 8 AC1:C;LBC@5 =0 >?@545;5==>< MB0?5 55 @0728B8O ?@8ACI =>@<0B82=K9 :0=>= ;8G=>AB8 (>= 1987). >@<0B82=K9 >1@07 G5;>25:0 7028A8B >B B@048F89 >?@545;5==>9 :C;LBC@K, ACI5AB2C5B 2 8=48284C0;L=>< 8 >1I5AB25==>< A>7=0=88 :0: =5:89 >4>1@O5<K9 >1@075F, D>@<8@C5BAO =0 845>;>38G5A:>< 8 >1K45==>-1KB>2>< C@>2=5. 0 845>;>38G5A:>< C@>2=5 53> 45B5@<8=8@CNB 845>;>38G5A:85 CAB0=>2:8, M:A?;8F8B=> 8;8 8<?;8F8B=> ?@>O2;O5<K5 2 MB8G5A:8E B@0:B0B0E, EC4>65AB25==KE ?@>872545=8OE, ?C1;8F8AB8:5. 0 >1K45==>-1KB>2>< C@>2=5 =>@<0B82=K9 >1@07 G5;>25:0 D>@<8@C5BAO ?>A@54AB2>< 68B59A:8E ?@54AB02;5=89, @0A?@>AB@0=5==KE 2 <0AA>2>< A>7=0=88. 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