ࡱ> @B123456789:;<=>?zy z y"bjbjI {{}U` ` 8)D m'lc/|U6@6666e"Xe de$8 :]6e 866}& > 6(6 RʤJ6@IlbIp30c\^KK<\Klew8 & Qlelele88aplelelec Klelelelelelelelele` ? :"$545@0;L=>5 035=BAB2> ?> >1@07>20=8N >AC40@AB25==>5 >1@07>20B5;L=>5 CG@5645=85 2KAH53> ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >1@07>20=8O '"! !# !"+ # !"" ('8B#)  =48284C0;L=K5 4><0H=85 7040=8O ?> E8<88 5B>48G5A:85 C:070=8O 4;O ABC45=B>2 1 :C@A>2 =5E8<8G5A:>9 A?5F80;L=>AB8 '8B0 2006 # 54(075)  < 24   602 =48284C0;L=K5 4><0H=85 7040=8O ?> E8<88: <5B>4. C:070=8O 4;O ABC45=B>2 1 :C@A0 / .!. !5@35520 [8 4@.]  '8B0: '8B#, 2006 5B>48G5A:85 C:070=8O 2:;NG0NB 8=48284C0;L=K5 4><0H=85 7040=8O ?> A;54CNI8< B5<0<: :;0AAK =5>@30=8G5A:8E A>548=5=89, E8<8G5A:89 M:2820;5=B, AB@>5=85 0B><0, E8<8G5A:0O A2O7L, E8<8G5A:0O B5@<>48=0<8:0, E8<8G5A:0O :8=5B8:0, :>=F5=B@0F8O @0AB2>@>2, 8>==K5 @50:F88 8 384@>;87 A>;59, >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K5 @50:F88, M;5:B@>E8<8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK, A2>9AB20 <5B0;;>2. 5B>48G5A:85 C:070=8O @07@01>B0=K :. E8<. =. .!. !5@3552>9, :. B5E=. =. !.. "NB@8=>9, .. C@=0H>2>9, -.. !B0@F52>9, ... @N:>2>9, :. E8<. =. .. 8<15@>2>9, $.. >G0@=8:>2K<, .. 5709:8=K<. #B25@645=K 8 @5:><5=4>20=K : 8740=8N @5H5=85< @540:F8>==>-8740B5;LA:>3> A>25B0 '8B#. B25BAB25==K9 70 2K?CA: :.E8<.=. .!. !5@35520. '8B8=A:89 3>AC40@AB25==K9 C=825@A8B5B, 2006 .!. !5@35520, !.. "NB@8=0, 2006 @0:B8:0  :@8B5@89 8AB8==>AB8 8 =0CG=>AB8 7=0=8O  ! 0AB>OI85 <5B>48G5A:85 C:070=8O ?@54=07=0G5=K 4;O ABC45=B>2 ?5@2>3> :C@A0 B5E=8G5A:8E (=5E8<8G5A:8E) A?5F80;L=>AB59.  @01>B5 ?@54AB02;5=K 8=48284C0;L=K5 4><0H=85 7040=8O ?> >A=>2=K< @0745;0< >1I59 E8<88 2 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 8E CA;>6=5=8O. >;CG5=85 ?>;=>F5==KE 7=0=89 ?> E8<88 >A=>20=> =0 :>=:@5B=>< ?@54AB02;5=88 >1 87CG05<KE 25I5AB20E 8 8E ?@52@0I5=8OE. /7K: E8<88  D>@<C;K 25I5AB2 8 C@02=5=8O E8<8G5A:8E @50:F89.  D>@<C;5 25I5AB20 70:>48@>20=0 8=D>@<0F8O > A>AB025, AB@C:BC@5, @50:F8>==>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 MB>3> 25I5AB20. #@02=5=85 @50:F88 405B 8=D>@<0F8N > E8<8G5A:>< ?@>F5AA5 8 53> ?0@0<5B@0E. ;O @5H5=8O 7040G8 ABC45=B 4>;65= 87CG8BL B5>@5B8G5A:89 <0B5@80;, @C:>2>4AB2COAL <0B5@80;0<8 ;5:F89 8 CG51=8:><, 87 G53> A;54C5B, GB> @5H5=85 7040G ?> E8<88 A?>A>1AB2C5B ?>=8<0=8N 8 70:@5?;5=8N B5>@5B8G5A:8E 7=0=89, ?@8>1@5B5=8N =02K:>2 A>AB02;5=8O E8<8G5A:8E D>@<C;, =0?8A0=8O C@02=5=89 E8<8G5A:8E @50:F89 8 ?@>2545=8N @0AG5B>2 ?> =8<. K?>;=5=85 8=48284C0;L=KE 4><0H=8E 7040=89 AB8<C;8@C5B A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN @01>BC ABC45=B0, ?@828205B =02K:8 @01>BK A @07;8G=K<8 2840<8 A?5F80;L=>9 ;8B5@0BC@K, @0728205B 53> A?>A>1=>AB8.  %8<8O, O2;OOAL >4=>9 87 DC=40<5=B0;L=KE 5AB5AB25==>=0CG=KE 48AF8?;8=, 87CG05B <0B5@80;L=K9 <8@, 70:>=K 53> @0728B8O, E8<8G5A:CN D>@<C 42865=8O <0B5@88.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O >A>1>5 7=0G5=85 ?@8>1@5B05B C=825@A0;L=>ABL E8<8G5A:8E 7=0=89 ?> @07;8G=K< =0?@02;5=8O< ?>43>B>2:8 A?5F80;8AB>2. =0=85 B5>@88 AB@>5=8O 25I5AB20, 70:>=><5@=>AB59 E8<8G5A:>3> 2708<>459AB28O, A2>9AB2 ?@>ABKE 8 A;>6=KE 25I5AB2 8 A8AB5< =0 8E >A=>25 2 >48=0:>2>9 AB5?5=8 =C6=K M=5@35B8:C, 3>@=O:C, <5E0=8:C, AB@>8B5;N 8 4@C38< A?5F80;8AB0<. @8 MB>< E8<8G5A:85 7=0=8O 83@0NB 42>O:CN @>;L. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K >=8 C3;C1;ONB <8@>2>77@5=85 G5;>25:0, ?>72>;ONB 5<C ?>=8<0BL A;>6=K5 ?@>F5AAK, ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 ?@8@>45 8 B5E=8:5, ?@8=8<0BL >A<KA;5==K5 @5H5=8O, =0?@02;5==K5 =0 4>AB865=85 ?>78B82=>3> @57C;LB0B0. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K E8<8G5A:85 7=0=8O ?@8=>AOB CB8;8B0@=CN ?>;L7C  >=8 O2;ONBAO M;5<5=B>< M=F8:;>?548G5A:8E 7=0=89, :C;LBC@K G5;>25:0 8 ?>72>;ONB ?>;CG8BL >G5284=CN 2K3>4C >B 8E ?@8<5=5=8O. !0<>AB>OB5;L=0O @01>B0, =0 :>B>@CN 2K45;O5BAO 7=0G8B5;L=0O 4>;O CG51=>3> 2@5<5=8, O2;O5BAO 206=>9 D>@<>9 @0728B8O 8=8F80B82K ABC45=B0.  ?@>F5AA5 CG51K A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O @01>B0 ?> E8<88 2:;NG05B ?>43>B>2:C : ?@0:B8G5A:8< 8 ;01>@0B>@=K< 70=OB8O< 8 7025@H05BAO @5H5=85< 8=48284C0;L=KE 4><0H=8E 7040=89. >43>B>2:0 MB0 4>;6=0 ?@>2>48BLAO ?> ;5:F8>==><C <0B5@80;C, CG51=8:0< 8 >1O70B5;L=> A :0@0=40H>< 2 @C:5. 5B>48G5A:85 C:070=8O A>45@60B 8=48284C0;L=K5 7040=8O ?> >A=>2=K< @0745;0< >1I59 E8<88.  :064>9 B5<5 40=K >1@07FK ?@8<5@>2 @5H5=8O 7040G, :>B>@K< 4>;65= A;54>20BL ABC45=B ?@8 2K?>;=5=88 4><0H=53> 7040=8O. 1. !!+  '!% !  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 8725AB=> 1>;55 100 BKA. =5>@30=8G5A:8E 25I5AB2. A5 =5>@30=8G5A:85 25I5AB20 <>6=> @0745;8BL =0 :;0AAK, :064K9 :;0AA >1J548=O5B 25I5AB20, AE>4=K5 ?> A>AB02C 8 ?> A2>9AB20<. 06=59H8<8 :;0AA0<8 A;>6=KE =5>@30=8G5A:8E 25I5AB2 O2;ONBAO: >:A84K, >A=>20=8O, :8A;>BK, A>;8. @8<5@ 1.  :0:>< :>;8G5AB25 2>4K A;54C5B @0AB2>@8BL 50 3 CuSO4(5H2O, GB>1K :064K9 3@0<< ?>;CG5==>3> @0AB2>@0 A>45@60; 0,053 8>=>2 <548? 5H5=85. 0945< <>;5:C;O@=CN <0AAC CuSO4(5H2O 8 <548, B.:. 50 3 CuSO4(5H2O A>45@60B  EMBED Equation.3  3 <548, B> <>6=> =09B8 >1ICN <0AAC @0AB2>@0: 0,05 3 8>=>2 <548 A>45@68BAO 2 1 3 @0AB2>@0 12,73 3((((((((((( 3 @0AB2>@0, B>340  EMBED Equation.3  3 !;54>20B5;L=>, =5>1E>48<> 4>1028BL 254,6  50 = 204,6 3 2>4K. 0@80=B 1 0?8A0BL D>@<C;K 0=384@84>2 C:070==KE :8A;>B: 2SO3, H4P2O7, HNO3, H3AsO4, H2Cr2O7. @82548B5 ?@8<5@K 8 =0?8H8B5 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, 4>:07K20NI8E E8<8G5A:85 A2>9AB20: 0) >A=>2=>3> >:A840; 1) :8A;>B=>3> >:A840; 2) 0<D>B5@=>3> >:A840.  @0AB2>@C, A>45@60I5<C 12,6 3 HNO3, 4>1028;8 @0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 7,2 3 NaOH. 0:>5 25I5AB2> 8 A:>;L:> 53> >AB0=5BAO 2 871KB:5? 0@80=B 2 !>;8 ZnSO4, Al2(SO4)3, Mg(NO3)2 ?@54AB028BL :0: @57C;LB0B 2708<>459AB28O: 0) <5B0;;0 A :8A;>B>9; 1) >A=>2=>3> 8 :8A;>B=>3> >:A84>2; 2) >A=>2=>3> >:A840 A :8A;>B>9; 3) >A=>20=8O A :8A;>B>9. 0?8A0BL C@02=5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E @50:F89. 0:85 =>2K5 A>;8 <>6=> ?>;CG8BL, 8<5O 2 A2>5< @0A?>@O65=88 A;54CNI85 25I5AB20: CuSO4, AgNO3, K3PO4, 8 BaCl2? 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E @50:F89 8 C:068B5 =0720=8O ?>;CG5==KE A>;59. 1 <; @0AB2>@0 A>45@68B 0,014 3 . !:>;L:> <8;;8;8B@>2 B0:>3> @0AB2>@0 ?>B@51C5BAO 4;O =59B@0;870F88 1,96 3 H2SO4? !:>;L:> <8;;8;8B@>2 B>3> 65 @0AB2>@0 ?>B@51C5BAO 4;O >1@07>20=8O =>@<0;L=>9 A>;8 ?@8 2708<>459AB288 A 1,906 3 H3PO4? 0@80=B 3 >6=> ;8 >ACI5AB28BL 2 @0AB2>@0E C:070==K5 =865 @50:F88: CuSO4 + BaCl2 (BaSO4 + CuCl2; FeS + K2SO4 ( FeSO4 + K2S; AgCl + KNO3 ( AgNO3 + KCl. 09B5 <>B828@>20==K9 >B25B, ?@8- =O2 2> 2=8<0=85 @0AB2>@8<>ABL A>;59. 0?8A0BL 3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K A;54CNI8E A>;59: Ca(AlO2)2, Mg2P2O7, Ba(ClO4)2, Al(AsO2)3 8 40BL 8< =0720=8O. !:>;L:> NaCl A;54C5B @0AB2>@8BL 2 100 3 2>4K 4;O B>3>, GB>1K :064K9 30<< ?>;CG5==>3> @0AB2>@0 A>45@60; 0,1 3 NaCl? 0@80=B 4 0:85 87 ?@82545==KE >:A84>2 CO2, CaO, Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3 A?>A>1=K : A>;5>1@07>20=8N A :8A;>B0<8? 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O 8E 2708<>459AB28O A 07>B=>9 :8A;>B>9. >6=> ;8 ?@83>B>28BL @0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 >4=>2@5<5==>: Ba(OH)2 8 HCl; CaCl2 8 Na2CO3; NaCl 8 AgNO3; KCl 8 NaNO3. #:068B5, :0:85 :><18=0F88 =52>7<>6=K 8 ?>G5<C. 0:>9 >1J5< :8A;>BK, A>45@60I59 73 3 HCl 2 1 ; @0AB2>@0 ?>B@51C5BAO 4;O 2708<>459AB28O A 1 :3 !0!3? 0@80=B 5 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, E0@0:B5@87CNI8E 0<D>B5@=K5 A2>9AB20 Sb2O3, SnO, Cr2O3 8 BeO. ?@545;8B5 <0AAC AgNO3, A?>A>1=CN ?@>@5038@>20BL A 27,03 3 FeCl3(6H2O. !:>;L:> AgCl >1@07C5BAO ?@8 MB><? 0?8H8B5 3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K A;54CNI8E 25I5AB2: Bi(OH)3, H2CrO4, H2SiO3. 0:0O AB5?5=L >:8A;5=8O F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 :064>< >B45;L=>< A;CG05? 0@80=B 6 0?8H8B5 :8A;>B=K5 >AB0B:8 ?5@5G8A;5==KE =865 :8A;KE A>;59: NaHCO3, CaHPO4, KH2PO4, Ba(HSO3)2 8 C:068B5 8E 20;5=B=>ABL. >A;5 4>102;5=8O BaCl2 2 @0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 1 3 A<5A8 K2SO4 8 Na2SO4, >1@07>20;>AL 1,491 3 BaSO4.  :0:>< A>>B=>H5=88 A<5H0=K K2SO4 8 Na2SO4? 09B5 =0720=8O A;54CNI8< A>548=5=8O<: Fe(OH)2, Fe(OH)3, Zn(OH)2, H2S, H2SO4, HPO3, Pb(OH)2, H2Se, Cr(OH)3. 0@80=B 7 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O 2708<>459AB28O A;54CNI8E 25I5AB2 8 =07>28B5 ?>;CG5==K5 A>;8: 0) Al(OH)3 + SO2 =; 1) Ba(OH)2 + NO2 =; 1) Fe(OH)3 + SO3 =; 3) Ca(OH)2 + Cl2O =; 2) Ca(OH)2 N2O5 =; 5) Mg(OH)2 + Cl2O3 =. 0?8A0BL 3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K A;54CNI8E >:A84>2: Cr2O3, SiO2, N2O5, SO3, Mn2O7, MnO3, OsO4.  @0AB2>@C, A>45@60I5<C 0,2 <>;L E;>@840 65;570 (III), ?@81028;8 0,24 <>;L 384@>:A840 =0B@8O. !:>;L:> <>;59 384@>:A840 65;570 >1@07>20;>AL 2 @57C;LB0B5 @50:F88 8 A:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 E;>@840 65;570 (III) >AB0;>AL 2 @0AB2>@5? 0@80=B 8 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89 0B><>2 M;5<5=B>2 8 409B5 8< =0720=85: 0) :@5<=8O  A 07>B><, 1@><><, A5@>9, 2>4>@>4>< 8 :0;LF85<; 1) D>AD>@0  A ;8B85<, 8=485<, DB>@><, C3;5@>4><, 1@><><; 2) 0;N<8=8O  A DB>@><, A5@>9, 07>B><, C3;5@>4>< 8 2>4>@>4><; 3) 1>@0  A D>AD>@><, E;>@><, :8A;>@>4><, <KHLO:>< 8 9>4><. 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O 2708<>459AB28O A;54CNI8E 25I5AB2 8 =07>28B5 ?>;CG5==K5 A>;8: 0) Ba(OH)2 + N2O3 =; 1) Bi2O3 + HNO3 =; 1) NaOH + Cl2O7 =; 3) P2O5 + CaO =; 2) Ca(OH)2 + Cl2O7 =; 5) Al(OH)3 + N2O3 =. !:>;L:> ;8B@>2 >:A840 C3;5@>40 (IV) >1@07C5BAO ?@8 A6830=88 A>548=5=8O <0AA>9 8 3, A>AB>OI53> 87 75 % C3;5@>40 8 25 % 2>4>@>40? 0@80=B 9 @82548B5 ?@8<5@K >1@07>20=8O A>;8: 0) 87 42CE ?@>ABKE 25I5AB2; 1) 87 42CE A;>6=KE 25I5AB2; 2) 87 ?@>AB>3> 8 A;>6=>3> 25I5AB20. KG8A;8B5 ?@>F5=B=>5 A>45@60=85 E;>@0 2 25I5AB25, 0,496 3 :>B>@>3> >1@07>20;8 1,284 3 E;>@840 A5@51@0. 0?8H8B5 @50:F88, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> ?>;CG8BL 07>B=CN :8A;>BC (CG8BK20O 2>7<>6=>ABL 55 >B45;5=8O >B 4@C38E ?@>4C:B>2 @50:F88), 5A;8 8<5NBAO 2 @0A?>@O65=88 B0:85 25I5AB20: KNO3, Pb(NO3)2, HCl, H2SO4. 0@80=B 10 !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNI85 ?@52@0I5=8O: 0) BaO ( BaCl2 ( Ba(NO3)2 ( BaSO4; 1) MgSO4 ( Mg(OH)2 ( MgO ( MgSO4. ;O >1@07>20=8O AgCl 2708<>459AB285< KCl A AgNO3 ?>B@51C5BAO KCl =0 10 3 <5=LH5, G5< AgNO3. KG8A;8B5 <0AAC AgNO3. !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A;54CNI8E A>548=5=89: 0) 1@><84 ;0=B0=0, E;>@84-48384@>AC;LD84 AB@>=F8O, ?5@>:A84 :0;LF8O, 0@A5=0B 0<<>=8O, E;>@8B 10@8O, D5@@0B :0;8O; 1) 384@>:0@1>=0B :0;LF8O, :0@184 :0;LF8O, B8>AC;LD0B :0;8O, AC;LD84 C@0=8;0, 8>484 @BCB8. 0@80=B 11 <5NBAO A;54CNI85 A>548=5=8O: K2CO3, BaCl2, NaCl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g(OH)2 + HCl =; 1) Fe(OH)3 + H3PO4 =; 1) Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4 =; 3) Ba(OH)2 + H4P2O7 =; 2) Ca(OH)2 + H3PO4 =; 5) Mg(OH)2 + H4SiO4 =. @8 >:8A;5=88 D>AD>@0 1K;> 87@0AE>4>20=> 16 3 :8A;>@>40. >;CG5==K9 D>AD>@=K9 0=384@84 @0AB2>@8;8 2 50 A<3 25 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0 384@>:A840 =0B@8O, ?;>B=>ABLN 1,28 3/A<3. 0:0O A>;L ?@8 MB>< >1@07>20;0AL 8 :0:>20 55 <0AA>20O 4>;O 2 @0AB2>@5? 0:>9 87 A;54CNI8E 384@>:A84>2 >1;0405B =081>;55 >A=>2=K< E0@0:B5@>< 8 ?>G5<C: Ga(OH)3, In(OH)3 8;8 Tl(OH)3? 0@80=B 13 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNI85 ?@52@0I5=8O: 0) P(P2O5(H3PO4(Ca3(PO4)2 (CaHPO4(Ca(H2PO4)2; 1) KNO3(O2(CO2(O2(H2O(O2(P2O5. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 A5@=8AB>3> 3070 2K45;8BAO ?@8 2708<>459AB288 6,4 3 <548 A :>=F5=B@8@>20==>9 A5@=>9 :8A;>B>9. !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K =>@<0;L=KE 8 :8A;KE A>;59 C3>;L=>9 8 <KHLO:>28AB>9 :8A;>B 8 <5B0;;>2 :0;8O 8 :0;LF8O. 0@80=B 14 0: ?>;CG8BL >@B>D>AD>@=CN :8A;>BC 87 55 :0;LF852>9 A>;8 Ca3(PO4)2? %;>@84 <548 CuCl2 87 >:A840 <548 CuO? 0:>5 :>;8G5AB2> A5@K 2K?045B 2 >A04>: ?@8 ?@>?CA:0=88 11,2 ; A5@>2>4>@>40 (=.C.) G5@57 @0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 41 3 A5@=8AB>9 :8A;>BK? 0?8A0BL M<?8@8G5A:85 8 3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K A;54CNI8E :8A;KE A>;59: 0) 384@>AC;LD840 10@8O; 1) 384@>:0@1>=0B0 ;8B8O; 2) 384@>>@B>0@A5=0B0 0;N<8=8O. 0@80=B 15 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 A;54CNI8E ?@52@0I5=89: 0) Fe ( FeSO4 ( Fe(OH)2 ( Fe(OH)3 ( Fe2(SO4)3; 1) Fe ( Fe2O3 ( FeCl3 ( Fe(OH)3 ( K[Fe(OH)4]. '5<C @02=K AB5?5=L >:8A;5=8O 8 :>>@48=0F8>==>5 G8A;> :><?;5:A>>1@07>20B5;O 2 A>548=5=8OE: [Cu(NH3)4]SO4, K2[PtCl6], Na3[Co(CN)6]? 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O 48AA>F80F88 MB8E :><?;5:A=KE A>548=5=89. >6=> ;8 ?@83>B>28BL @0AB2>@K, :>B>@K5 A>45@60;8 1K >4=>2@5<5==>: AlCl3 8 NaOH, Al2(SO4)3 8 Ba(NO3)2, KAlO2 8 HCl? B25B <>B828@C9B5 A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 C@02=5=8O<8 @50:F89. 0@80=B 16 !>AB02LB5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 @0AB2>@5=8O 384@>:A840 E@><0(III) 2 @0AB2>@0E A5@=>9 :8A;>BK 8 384@>:A840 =0B@8O. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 Na[Cr(OH)4] >1@07C5BAO, 5A;8 2 @50:F8N 2ABC?8;> 32 3 384@>:A840 =0B@8O? 0:8<8 D878G5A:8<8 A2>9AB20<8 >1;040NB :8A;>BK? 0:85 8=48:0B>@K 2K 7=05B5, 8 :0: :8A;>BK 87<5=ONB F25B 8=48:0B>@>2? 0?8H8B5 AE5<K >1@07>20=8O <>;5:C; A;54CNI8E A>548=5=89: 0) CaS, FeCl2, Al2O3, CsF; 1) BaO, Rb2S, AlF3, KBr. 0@80=B 17 0?8H8B5 2 ?>;=>9 8 A>:@0I5==>9 8>==>9 D>@<0E C@02=5=8O A;54CNI8E @50:F89: 0) Ca(NO3)2 + K2CO3 (; 1) Na2SiO3 + Ba(OH)2 (; 1) Fe(OH)2 + HNO3 (; 3) AlCl3 + AgNO3 (; 2) MgCO3 + HCl (. 2. :A84 C3;5@>40 <>6=> ?>;CG8BL ?@8 2708<>459AB288 C3;5@>40 A >:A84>< 65;570(III). !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=8O @50:F88 8 2KG8A;8B5, A:>;L:> ;8B@>2 >:A840 C3;5@>40(II) >1@07C5BAO 87 >:A840 65;570(III) <0AA>9 80 3? 3. 5@52548B5 AC;LD0B <03=8O 2 >A=>2=CN 8 :8A;CN A>;8, 0 384@>:0@1>=0B 65;570 8 AC;LD8B 384@>:A>:0;LF8O 2 =>@<0;L=K5 A>;8. 0@80=B 18 AE>4O 87 ?@54;>65==KE >:A84>2 ?>;CG8B5 384@>:A84K 8 409B5 8< =0720=85: CrO3, Ta2O5, MoO3, NiO, P2O5, Sb2O3, OsO4, Cl2O7. #:068B5, : :0:><C B8?C 384@>:A84>2 >B=>A8BAO :064K9 87 =8E. !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 4;O A;54CNI8E ?@52@0I5=89: D>AD>@ ( D>AD>@=K9 0=384@84 ( D>AD>@=0O :8A;>B0 ( 48384@>D>AD0B 0<<>=8O ( D>AD0B 0<<>=8O. @8 2708<>459AB288 871KB:0 AC;LD0B0 :0;8O A @0AB2>@>< =8B@0B0 A28=F0(II) >1@07>20;AO >A04>: <0AA>9 9,09 3. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 =8B@0B0 A28=F0(II) A>45@60;>AL 2 @0AB2>@5? 0@80=B 19 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A@54=8E 8 >A=>2=KE A>;59 65;570(III) A A5@=>9 8 07>B=>9 :8A;>B0<8. 09B5 8< =0720=8O. !:>;L:> Mn3O4 <>6=> ?>;CG8BL 87 10 :3 MnO2? !:>;L:> :8A;>@>40 2K45;8BLAO ?@8 MB><? !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 <564C A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 :8A;>B0<8 8 >A=>20=8O<8, ?@82>4OI8E : >1@07>20=8N A;54CNI8E A>;59: Ni(NO3)2, NaHCO3, Na2HPO4, K2S, K2HAsO3, CaHPO4. 09B5 =0720=8O 40==K< A>;O<. 0@80=B 20 !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 ?>;CG5=8O :8A;KE A>;59 A5@=8AB>9 :8A;>BK 8 <5B0;;>2 :0;8O 8 :0;LF8O. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K A;54CNI8E :8A;>B: 9>48AB>2>4>@>4=>9, <5B0D>AD>@8AB>9, A5@=8AB>9, >@B>:@5<=852>9, <5B02>;LD@0<>2>9, <5B0E@><>2>9, >@B>0;N<8=852>9, E;>@=>9 8 E;>@>2>4>@>4=>9.  :0:>9 <0AA5 2>4K A;54C5B @0AB2>@8BL 8,5 3 8>4840 :0;8O, GB>1K :064K9 3@0<< ?>;CG5==>3> @0AB2>@0 A>45@60; 0,05 3 8>484-8>=>2? 0@80=B 21 >3CB ;8 2708<>459AB2>20BL 4@C3 A 4@C3><: ZnO 8 FeO, K2O 8 Al2O3, Na2O 8 MgO, CO2 8 BaO, N2O5 8 Fe2O3, Cl2O7 8 Al2O3, SO3 8 N2O5, P2O5 8 K2O. 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O 2>7<>6=KE @50:F89, 409B5 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 =0720=8O ?>;CG5==K< A>548=5=8O<. !:>;L:> <>;59 07>B=>9 :8A;>BK ?>945B =0 =59B@0;870F8N 11,1 3 384@>:A840 :0;LF8O? 0?8H8B5 M<?8@8G5A:85 8 3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K A;54CNI8E >A=>2=KE A>;59: =8B@0B0 48384@>:A><03=8O, AC;LD0B0 384@>:A>F8=:0, E;>@840 384@>:A>65;570(III). 0@80=B 22 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, ?>:07K20NI8E 0<D>B5@=K9 E0@0:B5@ >:A84>2 10@8O, F8=:0, >;>20, 0;N<8=8O 8 E@><0. 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O >1@07>20=8O >A=>2=KE A>;59 87 A;54CNI8E 25I5AB2: 0) 384@>:A840 <03=8O 8 A>;O=>9 :8A;>BK; 1) 384@>:A840 <548(II) 8 A5@=>9 :8A;>BK; 2) 384@>:A840 :0;LF8O 8 D>AD>@=>9 :8A;>BK; 3) 384@>:A840 65;570(III) 8 A5@=8AB>9 :8A;>BK. 0?8H8B5 3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K ?>;CG5==KE A>;59. :A84 <03=8O <0AA>9 15 3 >1@01>B0;8 @0AB2>@><, A>45@60I8< 28 3 A5@=>9 :8A;>BK. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 A>;8 >1@07>20;>AL? 0@80=B 23 0?8H8B5 3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K A;54CNI8E >:A84>2: Cr2O3, SiO2, N2O5, SO3, Mn2O7, MnO3, OsO4. 0:>5 :>;8G5AB2> F8=:0 8 20 %-=>9 A5@=>9 :8A;>BK ?>B@51C5BAO 4;O ?>;CG5=8O 56 ; 2>4>@>40? >?8H8B5 =54>AB0NI85 A>548=5=8O 2 C@02=5=8OE E8<8G5A:8E @50:F89: 0) Na2O + ((((((=((((((((+ H2O; 1) KOH + ((((( = ((((((( + H2O; 1) (((((+ SO2 = (((((((; 3) H2SO4 + (((((= (((( + H2O; 2) SiO2 + CaO = (((((; 5) ZnS + ((((((((= Zn(HS)2 +. 0@80=B 24 !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 2>4>@>40 <>6=> ?>;CG8BL ?@8 2708<>459AB288 65;570 <0AA>9 11,2 3 A A>;O=>9 :8A;>B>9. >?8H8B5 =54>AB0NI85 A>548=5=8O 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89: 0) Zn(NO3)2 + ((((((( = ZnOHNO3; 1) ZnSO4 + (((((((= Zn(HSO3)2 +; 1) Cu(HCO3)2 + (((((= (((((((+ H2O; 3) FeOHSO4 + (((((= ((((((+ H2O. 3. 0:85 87 ?5@5G8A;5==KE >:A84>2 <>6=> @0AB2>@8BL 2 A>;O=>9 :8A;>B5, 0 :0:85 2 384@>:A845 =0B@8O: Rb2O, BiO, CaO, CuO, Al2O3, SO3 N2O5. 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O 2>7<>6=KE @50:F89 8 =0720=8O ?>;CG5==KE 25I5AB2. 0@80=B 25 AE>4O 87 ?@54;>65==KE >:A84>2 ?>;CG8B5 384@>:A84K, C:068B5 : :0:><C B8?C 384@>:A84>2 >=8 >B=>AOBAO: >:A84 :0;8O, >:A84 15@8;;8O, >:A84 <03=8O, >:A84 E@><0(III), >:A84 E@><0(VI), >:A84 B0=B0;0(V), >:A84 =8:5;O, >:A84 0;N<8=8O(III), >:A84 <>;8145=0 (VI). !<5H0;8 7,3 3 E;>@>2>4>@>40 A 4 3 0<<80:0. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 E;>@840 0<<>=8O >1@07C5BAO? 71KB>: :0:>3> 3070 8 2 :0:>< :>;8G5AB25 >AB0=5BAO ?>A;5 @50:F88? 0?8A0BL D>@<C;K A;54CNI8E A>;59 (?@8254O 4;O :064>9 87 =8E 4@C3>5 =0720=85): A5@=>:8A;K9 <03=89, 07>B=>:8A;K9 0;N<8=89, E;>@=>:8A;K9 0;N<8=89, E;>@=>20B>:8A;K9 0;N<8=89, A5@=>:8A;>5 65;57>->:8A=>5, <0@30=F>2>:8A;K9 :0;89. 2. %'! -" -:2820;5=B>< M;5<5=B0 =07K205BAO B0:>5 53> :>;8G5AB2>, :>B>@>5 ?@8A>548=O5B 8;8 70<5I05B 2 E8<8G5A:8E @50:F8OE 1 <>;L 0B><>2 2>4>@>40 8;8 <>;L 0B><>2 :8A;>@>40. @8<5@ 1. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B 8 M:2820;5=B=K5 <0AAK M;5<5=B>2 2 A>548=5=8OE A 2>4>@>4><: H2O, HCl, PH3. 5H5=85. -:2820;5=B 5ABL :>;8G5AB2> 25I5AB20 8 2K@0605BAO 2 <>;OE. - = 1/ <>;L, 345 -  M:2820;5=B M;5<5=B0;   20;5=B=>ABL M;5<5=B0.  C:070==KE A>548=5=8OE M:2820;5=B :8A;>@>40 @025= 1/2 <>;L, M:2820;5=B E;>@0 @025= 1 <>;L, 0 M:2820;5=B D>AD>@0 1/3 <>;L. 0AA0 >4=>3> M:2820;5=B0 M;5<5=B0, 2K@065==0O 2 3@0<<0E, =07K205BAO 53> M:2820;5=B=>9 <0AA>9 (mM). mM = / 3/<>;L, 345   <>;O@=0O <0AA0 0B><0 M;5<5=B0; mM() = 16/2 = 8 3/<>;L; mM(Cl) = 35,5/1 = 35,5 3/<>;L; mM( ) = 30,9/3 = 10,3 3/<>;L. @8<5@ 2. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=K5 <0AAK A;54CNI8E A>548=5=89: CO2, H2SO4, Cu(OH)2, MgCl2. 5H5=85. -:2820;5=B=K5 <0AAK A;>6=KE 25I5AB2 2KG8A;ONB ?> A;54CNI8< D>@<C;0<: mM(>:A840) =  EMBED Equation.3 , 345   <>;O@=0O <0AA0 >:A840; n  G8A;> 0B><>2 M;5<5=B0 2 >:A845;   20;5=B=>ABL M;5<5=B0. mM (:8A;>BK) =  (:8A;>BK)/>A=>2=>ABL :8A;>BK; mM (>A=>20=8O) =  (>A=>20=8O)/:8A;>B=>ABL >A=>20=8O; mM (A>;8) =  (A>;8)/n(; 345 n  G8A;> 0B><>2 <5B0;;0;  " 20;5=B=>ABL <5B0;;0. mM(CO2) = 44/1( 4 = 11 3/<>;L; mM(H2SO4) = 98/2 = 49 3/<>;L; mM(Cu(OH)2) = 98/2 = 49 3/<>;L; mM(MgCl2) = 95/2 = 47,5 3/<>;L. @8<5@ 3. 0 =59B@0;870F8N :8A;>BK <0AA>9 2,18 3 87@0AE>4>20=> KOH <0AA>9 2,49 3. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC :8A;>BK. 5H5=85. -:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC KOH @0AAG8B05< ?> D>@<C;5: mM(KOH) = (KOH)/:8A;>B=>ABL = 56/1 = 56 3/<>;L. -:2820;5=B=CN <0AAK :8A;>BK >?@545;8< 8AE>4O 87 70:>=0 M:2820;5=B>2: m(KOH)/m(:8A;>BK) = mM(KOH)/mM(:8A;>BK)  EMBED Equation.3 =  EMBED Equation.3   EMBED Equation.3 =  EMBED Equation.3  = 49 3/<>;L @8<5@ 4. ?@545;8B5 <0AAC <5B0;;0, 2ABC?82H53> 2 @50:F8N A :8A;>B>9, 5A;8 ?@8 MB>< 2K45;8;AO 2>4>@>4 >1JQ<>< 260 <; ?@8 =>@<0;L=KE CA;>28OE. -:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 <5B0;;0 mM(5) = 9 3/<>;L. 5H5=85. !>3;0A=> 70:>=C M:2820;5=B>2 <0AAK (>1JQ<K) @5038@CNI8E 4@C3 A 4@C3>< 25I5AB2 ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=K 8E M:2820;5=B=K< <0AA0< (>1JQ<0<).  EMBED Equation.3 =  EMBED Equation.3 , 345 V-(H2)  M:2820;5=B=K9 >1JQ< 2>4>@>40 @02=K9 11,2 ;. m(Me) =  EMBED Equation.3  = 9(0,26/11,2 = 0,2 3. @8<5@ 5. -:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 <5B0;;0 A>AB02;O5B 63,5 3/<>;L. KG8A;8B5 <0AA>2CN 4>;N <5B0;;0 ( (5) 2 53> >:A845. 5H5=85. 0AA>20O 4>;O :8A;>@>40 2 >:A845 <5B0;;0 1C45B @02=0 100 " ( (5). !>3;0A=> 70:>=C M:2820;5=B>2:  EMBED Equation.3 . -:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 :8A;>@>40 mM() = 16/2 = 8 3/<>;L. 7 C@02=5=8O 2K@078< <0AA>2CN 4>;N <5B0;;0  EMBED Equation.3  =  EMBED Equation.3  8((5) = 6350  63,5 ((5) 71,5((5) = 6350 ((5) =  EMBED Equation.3 = 88,8 % @8<5@ 6. 7 3,85 3 =8B@0B0 <5B0;;0 ?>;CG5=> 1,60 3 53> 384@>:A840. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0. 5H5=85. -:2820;5=B (M:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0) E8<8G5A:>3> A>548=5=8O @025= AC<<5 M:2820;5=B>2 (M:2820;5=B=KE <0AA) A>AB02;ONI8E 53> G0AB59. -:2820;5=B (M:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0) 384@>:A840 @025= AC<<5 M:2820;5=B>2 (M:2820;5=B=KE <0AA) <5B0;;0 8 384@>:A8;L=>9 3@C??K. -:2820;5=B (M:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0) A>;8 @025= AC<<5 M:2820;5=B>2 (M:2820;5=B=KE <0AA) <5B0;;0 8 :8A;>B=>3> >AB0B:0. !>3;0A=> 70:>=C M:2820;5=B>2:  EMBED Equation.3   EMBED Equation.3   EMBED Equation.3   EMBED Equation.3   EMBED Equation.3  0@80=B 1 ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0 2 A;54CNI8E A>548=5=8OE: Mn2O7, Ba(OH)2, Ca3(PO4)2, FeSO4(7H2O. @8 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 2>4>@>4>< 1,34 3 >:A840 <5B0;;0 4> <5B0;;0 >1@07>20;>AL 0,324 3 2>4K. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0. ;N<8=89 <0AA>9 0,752 3 ?@8 2708<>459AB288 A :8A;>B>9 2KB5A=8; 2>4>@>4 >1JQ<>< 0,936 ; (=.C.). ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 0;N<8=8O. 0@80=B 2 KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 384@>:A840 28A<CB0(III) 2 @50:F8OE 2708<>459AB28O A HCl ?@8 ?>;CG5=88 E;>@840 28A<CB0 8 384@>E;>@840 28A<CB0. -;5<5=B >1@07C5B 384@84, 345 53> <0AA>20O 4>;O 75 %. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC M;5<5=B0. @8 @0AB2>@5=88 2 :8A;>B5 <5B0;;0 <0AA>9 11,9 3 2K45;8;AO 2>4>@>4 >1JQ<>< 2,24 ; (=.C.). ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0. 0@80=B 3 '5<C @02=0 M:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 ZnSO4 2 @50:F8OE A> I5;>GLN, 84CI8E A >1@07>20=85< Zn(OH)2, (ZnOH)2SO4, Na2[Zn(OH)4]. ;O @0AB2>@5=8O <5B0;;0 <0AA>9 16,86 3 ?>B@51>20;0AL A5@=0O :8A;>B0 <0AA>9 14,7 3. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0. 0 A6830=85 0,5 3 42CE20;5=B=>3> <5B0;;0 B@51C5BAO 0,23 ; :8A;>@>40 (=.C.). ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0, C:068B5 :0:>9 MB> <5B0;;. 0@80=B 4 ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B 8 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC A5@K 2 A;54CNI8E A>548=5=8OE: H2S, SO2, H2SO4. 5B0;; <0AA>9 0,150 3 2KB5A=O5B 87 @0AB2>@0 =8:5;52>9 A>;8 =8:5;L <0AA>9 0,367 3, 0 87 @0AB2>@0 :8A;>BK  2>4>@>4 >1JQ<>< 140 <; (=.C.). ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC =8:5;O. :A84 <0@30=F0 A>45@68B 22,56 % :8A;>@>40. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <0@30=F0 2 >:A845 8 A>AB02LB5 53> D>@<C;C. 0@80=B 5 -:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 =5:>B>@>3> M;5<5=B0 @02=0 24,99 3/<>;L. KG8A;8B5: 0) <0AA>2CN 4>;N :8A;>@>40 2 >:A845 MB>3> M;5<5=B0; 1) >1JQ< 2>4>@>40, :>B>@K9 ?>B@51C5BAO 4;O 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O 4,95 3 53> :8A;>@>4=>3> A>548=5=8O. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC H3PO4 2 @50:F8OE 2708<>459AB28O A  ?@8 ?>;CG5=8O: 0) D>AD0B0 :0;8O; 1) 48384@>D>AD0B0 :0;8O; 2) 384@>D>AD0B0 :0;8O. 0 =59B@0;870F8N 1 3 >A=>20=8O 87@0AE>4>20=> 2,14 3 A>;O=>9 :8A;>BK. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC >A=>20=8O. 0@80=B 6 KHLO: >1@07C5B 420 >:A840, <0AA>20O 4>;O <KHLO:0 2 :>B>@KE A>>B25BAB25==> @02=0 65,2 8 75,7 %. 0AAG8B09B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <KHLO:0 2 MB8E >:A840E. 0948B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 2>4K ?@8 @50:F88 5Q 0) A <5B0;;8G5A:8< =0B@85<; 1) A >:A84>< =0B@8O. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC F8=:0, 5A;8 1,168 3 53> 2KB5A=8;8 87 :8A;>BK 43,8 <; 2>4>@>40, 87<5@5==>3> ?@8 =.C. 0@80=B 7 0 =59B@0;870F8N 0,943 3 D>AD>@8AB>9 :8A;>BK H3PO4 87@0AE>4>20=> 1,291 3 384@>:A840 :0;8O. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC :8A;>BK 8 5Q >A=>2=>ABL. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B 8 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC E;>@840 0;N<8=8O 2 @50:F8OE: 0) AlCl3 + 2NaOH = Al(OH)2Cl + 2NaCl; 1) AlCl3 + 3NaOH = Al(OH)3 + 3 NaCl. 3. '5<C @02=0 M:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 <5B0;;0, 5A;8 53> =025A:0 <0AA>9 20 3 2KB5A=O5B 87 :8A;>BK 2>4>@>4 >1J5<>< 7,01 ; ?@8 =.C. 0@80=B 8 0 >A0645=85 E;>@840, A>45@60I53>AO 2 0,666 3 A>;8, 87@0AE>4>20=> 1,088 3. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC A>;8. 2. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B 8 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 384@>:A840 =8:5;O 2 @50:F8OE: 0) Ni(OH)2 + H2SO4 = NiSO4 + 2H2O; 1) 2Ni(OH)2 + H2SO4 = (NiOH)2SO4 + 2H2O. 3. -:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 <5B0;;0 @02=0 29,36 3/<>;L. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 MB>3> <5B0;;0 =5>1E>48<> 4;O 2KB5A=5=8O 105 <; 2>4>@>40 (=.C.) 87 :8A;>BK? 0@80=B 9 ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 42CE20;5=B=>3> <5B0;;0, 5A;8 87 48,15 3 53> >:A840 <>6=> ?>;CG8BL 88,65 3 53> =8B@0B0. #:068B5, :0:>9 MB> <5B0;;. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0 2 A;54CNI8E A>548=5=8OE: Ag2O, Al2(SO4)3(18H2O, CuCl. !:>;L:> M:2820;5=B=KE <0AA :8A;>@>40 A>45@68BAO 2 33,6 ; 53> (=.C.)? 0@80=B 10 0AA>2K5 4>;8 30;>35=0 2 30;>35=845 <5B0;;0 A>>B25BAB25==> @02=K 64,5 8 15,4 %. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0, <0AAC <5B0;;0 8 >1JQ< 2K45;82H53>AO 2>4>@>40 (=.C.). ;O @0AB2>@5=8O 16,8 3 <5B0;;0 ?>B@51>20;>AL 14,7 3 A5@=>9 :8A;>BK. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0 8 >1JQ< 2K45;82H53>AO 2>4>@>40 (=.C.).  :0:>< :>;8G5AB25 Cr(OH)3 A>45@68BAO AB>;L:> 65 M:2820;5=B>2, A:>;L:> 2 174,96 3 Mg(OH)2? 0@80=B 11 ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B 8 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC D>AD>@0, :8A;>@>40 8 1@><0 2 A>548=5=8OE PH3, H2O, HBr. @8 ?@>?CA:0=88 H2S G5@57 @0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 2,98 3 E;>@840 =5:>B>@>3> >4=>20;5=B=>3> <5B0;;0, >1@07C5BAO 2,2 3 53> AC;LD840. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0. !:>;L:> <5B0;;0, M:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 :>B>@>3> 12,16 3/<>;L, 2708<>459AB2C5B A 310 A<3 :8A;>@>40 (=.C.). 0@80=B12  A>AB02 >:A840 A5@51@0 2E>48B 93,09 % A5@51@0, 0 2 A>AB02 8>4840 A5@51@0  45,95 % A5@51@0. 0948B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 9>40.  :0:>9 <0AA5 384@>:A840 =0B@8O A>45@68BAO AB>;L:> 65 M:2820;5=B=KE <0AA, A:>;L:> A>45@68BAO 2 140 3 . 0 A6830=8O 1,5 3 42CE20;5=B=>3> <5B0;;0 B@51C5BAO 0,69 ; :8A;>@>40 (=.C.). KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 8 0B><=CN <0AAC MB>3> <5B0;;0. 0@80=B 13 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 Fe(OH)3 A A>;O=>9 :8A;>B>9, ?@8 :>B>@KE >1@07C5BAO: 0) E;>@84 48384@>:A>65;570; 1) E;>@84 65;570 (III). KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B 8 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC Fe(OH)3 2 MB8E @50:F8OE. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC A5@K, 5A;8 6,48 3 <5B0;;0 >1@07C5B 6,96 3 >:A840 8 7,44 3 AC;LD840. @8 2708<>459AB288 3,24 3 B@QE20;5=B=>3> <5B0;;0 A :8A;>B>9 2K45;ONBAO 4,03 ; 2>4>@>40 (=.C.). KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN 8 0B><=CN <0AAK <5B0;;0. 0@80=B 14 7 1,35 3 >:A840 <5B0;;0 ?>;CG05BAO 3,15 3 53> =8B@0B0. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC MB>3> <5B0;;0. 71KB:>< A>;O=>9 :8A;>BK ?>459AB2>20;8 =0 @0AB2>@K: 0) 384@>:0@1>=0B0 :0;LF8O; 1) 48E;>@840 384@>:A>0;N<8=8O. 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 MB8E 25I5AB2 A HCl 8 >?@545;8B5 8E M:2820;5=B=K5 <0AAK. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 <5B0;;0, M:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 :>B>@>3> 12 3/<>;L, 2708<>459AB2C5B A 3,1 ; :8A;>@>40 (=.C.). 0@80=B 15 4,0863 <5B0;;0 2KB5A=ONB 87 :8A;>BK 1,4 ; 2>4>@>40, 87<5@5==>3> ?@8 =.C. -B0 65 <0AA0 <5B0;;0 2KB5A=O5B 12,95 3 A28=F0 87 @0AB2>@>2 53> A>;59. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC A28=F0. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B 8 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 1>@0, E@><0 8 :0;LF8O 2 A>548=5=8OE: B2O3; Cr(OH)3; Ca3(PO4)2. !:>;L:> M:2820;5=B=KE <0AA A>45@68BAO 2 340 3 =8B@0B0 A5@51@0? 0@80=B 16 @8 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 4,34 3 >:A840 <0@30=F0 0;N<8=85< ?>;CG5=> 3,4 3 >:A840 0;N<8=8O Al2O3. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC <0@30=F0, 53> 20;5=B=>ABL 8 A>AB02LB5 D>@<C;C >:A840 <0@30=F0. @8 >:8A;5=88 0,24 3 <5B0;;0 87@0AE>4>20=> 112 <; :8A;>@>40 (=.C.). ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=K5 <0AAK <5B0;;0 8 53> >:A840. -:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 M;5<5=B0 A>AB02;O5B 24,99 3/<>;L. KG8A;8B5, A:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 2>4>@>40 B@51C5BAO 4;O 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O 4,95 3 53> A>;8. 0@80=B 17 -:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 <5B0;;0 @02=0 56,2 3/<>;L. KG8A;8B5 ?@>F5=B=>5 A>45@60=85 MB>3> <5B0;;0 2 53> >:A845. 2. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B 8 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 384@>:A840 0;N<8=8O 2 @50:F8OE: 0) Al(OH)3 + HNO3 = AlOH(NO3)2 + H2O; 1) Al(OH)3 + 3HNO3 = Al(NO3)3 + 3H2O. 3. 4=0 8 B0 65 <0AA0 <5B0;;0 A>548=O5BAO A 1,591 3 30;>35=0 8 A 70,2 <; :8A;>@>40 (=.C.). KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B 30;>35=0. 0@80=B 18 0 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 2,33 3 E;>@840 F8@:>=8O 4> A2>1>4=>3> 87@0AE>4>20=> 0,48 3 <03=8O. -:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 <03=8O @02=0 12 3/<>;L. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B F8@:>=8O 8 53> 20;5=B=>ABL. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC KHSO4 2 A;54CNI8E @50:F8OE: 0) KHSO4 + BaCl2 = BaSO4 + KCl + HCl; 1) KHSO4 + KOH = K2SO4 + H2O. 3. -;5<5=B >1@07C5B >:A84, A>45@60I89 31,58 % :8A;>@>40. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B M;5<5=B0. 0@80=B 19 ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=K5 <0AAK A;54CNI8E :8A;>B: HClO; H2SiO3; HMnO4; H2SnO3. 5I5AB2> A>45@68B 39 % A5@K, M:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 :>B>@>9 16 3/<>;L 8 <KHLO:. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 8 20;5=B=>ABL <KHLO:0, A>AB02LB5 D>@<C;C MB>3> 25I5AB20. 1 3 <5B0;;0 A>548=O5BAO A <0AA>9 E;>@0, 70=8<0NI59 >1JQ< 336 <; (=.C.). KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B <5B0;;0. 0@80=B 20 @8 A3>@0=88 A5@K 2 :8A;>@>45 >1@07>20;>AL 12,8 3 SO2. !:>;L:> M:2820;5=B>2 :8A;>@>40 B@51C5BAO =0 MBC @50:F8N. '5<C @02=K M:2820;5=BK A5@K 8 5Q >:A840. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC H2SO3 2 @50:F8OE >1@07>20=8O: 0) AC;LD8B0 ;8B8O; 1) 384@>AC;LD8B0 ;8B8O. 0,934 3 <5B0;;0 2KB5A=8;8 87 A>;O=>9 :8A;>BK 348 <; 2>4>@>40 (=.C.). KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B <5B0;;0. 0@80=B 21 CBQ< @07;>65=8O =03@520=85< 0,26 3 >:A840 A5@51@0 ?>;CG5=> 0,243 3 <5B0;;8G5A:>3> A5@51@0. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC A5@51@0. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 384@>:A840 <548(II) 2 @50:F8OE 2708<>459AB28O A HCl ?@8 ?>;CG5=88 0) E;>@840 <548; 1) 384@>:A>E;>@840 <548. -:2820;5=B <5B0;;0 @025= 8,99. 0:>9 >1JQ< 2>4>@>40 (=.C.) 2K45;8BAO ?@8 2708<>459AB288 0,4495 3 <5B0;;0 A A>;O=>9 :8A;>B>9. 0@80=B 22 @8 2708<>459AB288 >@B>D>AD>@=>9 :8A;>BK A> I5;>GLN >1@07>20;>AL A>;L Na2HPO4. 09B8 4;O MB>9 @50:F88 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC >@B>D>AD>@=>9 :8A;>BK.  A>AB02 <5B0=0 2E>48B 25 % 2>4>@>40 8 75 % C3;5@>40. '5<C @02=0 M:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 C3;5@>40. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B <5B0;;0 8 53> >:A840, 7=0O, GB> 0,304 3 <5B0;;0 2KB5A=O5B 87 :8A;>BK 0,282; :8A;>@>40 (=.C.). 0@80=B 23 ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 384@>:A840 <03=8O 2 @50:F8OE: 0) Mg(OH)2 + HBr = MgOHBr +H2O; 1) Mg(OH)2 + 2HBr = MgBr2 + 2 H2O. 2. @8 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 1,506 3 >:A840 >;>20 2>4>@>4>< >1@07>20;>AL 0,36 3 2>4K. ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC >;>20 8 53> 20;5=B=>ABL. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;C >:A840 >;>20. 3. 0:>9 >1JQ< 2>4>@>40 (=.C.) 2K45;8BAO ?@8 2708<>459AB288 3,6 3 <5B0;;0 A :8A;>B>9, M:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 :>B>@>3> @02=0 12 3/<>;L? 0@80=B 24 ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=K5 <0AAK A;54CNI8E A>;59: NaNO2, Cr2(SO4)3, CH3COOH, MgOHNO3, LiHSO4. -:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 <5B0;;0 @02=0 56,2 3/<>;L. KG8A;8B5 ?@>F5=B=>5 A>45@60=85 MB>3> <5B0;;0 2 53> >:A845. @8 2708<>459AB288 3,182 3 30;>35=0 87@0AE>4>20=> 140,4 <; :8A;>@>40 (=.C.). KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B 30;>35=0 8 =07>28B5 53>. 0@80=B 25 -:2820;5=B=0O <0AA0 <5B0;;0 @02=0 29,36 3/<>;L. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 MB>3> <5B0;;0 =5>1E>48<> 4;O 2KB5A=5=8O 105 <; 2>4>@>40 (=.C.)? ?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B D>AD>@0 2 A>548=5=8OE: PH3, P2O5, P2O3, H3PO3. 4=0 8 B0 65 <0AA0 <5B0;;0 A>548=O5BAO A 1,591 3 30;>35=0 8 70,2 A<3 :8A;>@>40 ?@8 =.C. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC 30;>35=0. 3. !"  " @8<5@ 1. 0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 C3;5@>40 8 A5@K 8 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89 8E A :8A;>@>4>< 8 2>4>@>4><. 5H5=85. -;5:B@>==0O D>@<C;0 0B><0 C3;5@>40 6! 1s22s22p2, >= 8<55B G5BK@5 20;5=B=KE M;5:B@>=0, 4;O =53> E0@0:B5@=K AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O +2, +4,  4 (4> 2>AL<8M;5:B@>==>3> 2=5H=53> C@>2=O =5 4>AB05B 4 M;5:B@>=0). !+2  >:A84 C3;5@>40(II), !+4O2  >:A84 C3;5@>40(IV), C-4H4  <5B0=. -;5:B@>==0O D>@<C;0 0B><0 A5@K 16S 1s22s2p63s23p4. ;O A5@K E0@0:B5@=K AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O  2, +4, +6. S+4O2  >:A84 A5@K(IV), S+6O3  >:A84 A5@K(VI), H2S 2  384@84 A5@K (II). @8<5@ 2. 7>1@078B5 M;5:B@>==K5 8 M;5:B@>==>-3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 5 8 21Sc. #:068B5 20;5=B=K5 M;5:B@>=K.  :0:><C A5<59AB2C >B=>AOBAO 0B><K 40==KE M;5<5=B>2? 5H5=85. -;5:B@>==0O D>@<C;0 0B><0 1>@0 5 1s22s22p1  20;5=B=K5 M;5:B@>=K B25B: 1>@ >B=>A8BAO : @  M;5<5=B0< 21Sc 1s22s22p63s23p63d14s2 B25B: A:0=489 >B=>A8BAO : d-M;5<5=B0<. @8<5@ 3. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 0B><0 E;>@0. 5H5=85. >;O@=0O <0AA0 0B><0 E;>@0 @02=0 35,45 3 ( <>;L-1. 1 <>;L ;N1>3> 25I5AB20 A>45@68B 6,02 10 23 (G8A;> 2>304@>, N) AB@C:BC@=KE 548=8F, =0?@8<5@, 0B><>2. 6,02 1023 0B><>2 E;>@0 8<5NB <0AAC 35,45 3 1 0B>< >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> % %= EMBED Equation.3  B25B: mCl = 5,89(10  23 3. @8<5@ 4. 0AAG8B09B5 @048CA 0B><0 <03=8O  EMBED Equation.3 Mg=1,74 3 ( A< -3. 5H5=85.  B25@4>< A>AB>O=88 0B><K <=>38E <5B0;;>2 >1@07CNB B0: =07K205<CN ?;>B=59HCN C?0:>2:C.  ?;>B=59H59 C?0:>2:5 0B><K (H0@K) 70=8<0NB 74 % >1J5<0. 1J5< >4=>3> 0B><0 V=  EMBED Equation.3 , >48= <>;L 0B><>2 (N) 8<55B >1J5< V<>;L =  EMBED Equation.3  A< 3. -B>B >1J5< A>AB02;O5B 74 % <>;O@=>3> >1J5<0 V<>;L. BAN40  EMBED Equation.3 = 0,74V<>;L = 0,74( EMBED Equation.3 , 345 Mg  <>;O@=0O <0AA0 <03=8O. Mg = 24,3 3 " <>;L-1. r =  EMBED Equation.3   EMBED Equation.3  B25B: rMg = 0,16 =<. @8<5@ 5. 7 :0:>3> G8A;0 0B><>2 A>AB>OB 13 8 1 A<3 <03=8O? 5H5=85. 6,02(1023 0B><>2 <03=8O 8<5NB <0AAC 24,3 3 % >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 13 % =  EMBED Equation.3  ;>B=>ABL <03=8O  = 1,74 3 ( A<  3, A;54>20B5;L=>, 1 A< 3 8<55B <0AAC 1,74 3. 6,02(10 23 0B><>2 <03=8O 8<5NB <0AAC 24,3 3 Y >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 1,74 3 Y =  EMBED Equation.3  B25B: n1 = 2,48 ( 10 22 0B; n2 = 4,31 ( 10 22 0B. 0@80=B 1 0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 A 70@O4>< O4@0 8 8 19. !>AB02LB5 3@0D8G5A:85 AE5<K 70?>;=5=8O M;5:B@>=0<8 20;5=B=KE >@18B0;59 MB8E 0B><>2. >G5<C C M;5<5=B>2 A54L<>9 3@C??K <0@30=F0 ?@5>1;040NB <5B0;;8G5A:85 A2>9AB20, 0 C E;>@0  =5<5B0;;8G5A:85? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0 MB8E M;5<5=B>2. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K 2KAH8E >:A84>2 M;5<5=B>2 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 8< 384@>:A84>2. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 0B><>2 F8@:>=8O 8 30D=8O. 0@80=B 2 0:85 >@18B0;8 0B><0 70?>;=ONBAO M;5:B@>=0<8 @0=LH5 4d 8;8 5s; 6s 8;8 5p? >G5<C? !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==CN D>@<C;C 0B><0 M;5<5=B0, ?>@O4:>2K9 =><5@ :>B>@>3> 21. >G5<C C M;5<5=B>2 ?OB>9 3@C??K 20=048O ?@5>1;040NB <5B0;;8G5A:85 A2>9AB20, 0 C D>AD>@0  =5<5B0;;8G5A:85? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0 MB8E M;5<5=B>2. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K 2KAH8E >:A84>2 M;5<5=B>2 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 8< 384@>:A84>2. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 0B><>2 2>4>@>40 8 A5;5=0. 0@80=B 3 !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 M;5<5=B>2 A ?>@O4:>2K<8 =><5@0<8 8 8 25. 0:85 M;5:B@>=K MB8E 0B><>2 O2;ONBAO 20;5=B=K<8? 0:CN =87HCN AB5?5=L >:8A;5=8O ?@>O2;ONB A5@0 8 07>B. >G5<C? !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89 :0;LF8O A 0B><0<8 40==KE M;5<5=B>2 2 MB>9 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O 8 =07>28B5 8E. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 8 @07<5@ 0B><0 65;570. Fe = 7,8 3A<  3. 0@80=B 4 !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 M;5<5=B>2 A ?>@O4:>2K<8 =><5@0<8 13 8 22.  :0:><C M;5:B@>==><C A5<59AB2C >B=>A8BAO :064K9 87 MB8E M;5<5=B>2? 0:85 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O <>65B ?@>O2;OBL 0B>< <0@30=F0? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K A>>B25BAB2CNI8E >:A84>2 8 384@>:A84>2. K;8=:0 0;N<8=8O 8<55B <0AAC 10  8 3. 7 :0:>3> G8A;0 0B><>2 >=0 A>AB>8B. Al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a =1,54 3 A<  3. 0@80=B 7 0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 A 70@O4>< O4@0 9 8 20. !>AB02LB5 3@0D8G5A:85 AE5<K 70?>;=5=8O M;5:B@>=0<8 20;5=B=KE >@18B0;59 MB8E 0B><>2. 0:85 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O <>65B ?@>O2;OBL 0B>< B8B0=0? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89, A>>B25BAB2CNI8E MB8< AB5?5=O< >:8A;5=8O, =07>28B5 8E. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 8 @07<5@ 0B><0 :>10;LB0. !> = 8,84 3 A<  3. 0@80=B 8 ?@545;8B5 ?>;>65=85 0B><0 M;5<5=B0 2 ?5@8>48G5A:>9 A8AB5<5 ?> 53> M;5:B@>==>9 D>@<C;5: 2s22p3; 3s23p5; 4s23d8. 0:85 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O <>65B ?@>O2;OBL 0B>< 65;570? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K A>>B25BAB2CNI8E >:A84>2 8 384@>:A84>2. 7 :0:>3> G8A;0 0B><>2 A>AB>OB 2 3 8 1 A< 3 =8:5;O. Ni = 8,9 3 A<  3. 0@80=B 9 !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 M;5<5=B>2 A ?>@O4:>2K<8 =><5@0<8 11 8 22.  :0:><C M;5:B@>==><C A5<59AB2C >B=>A8BAO :064K9 87 MB8E M;5<5=B>2? !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K >:A84>2 8 384@>:A84>2 0B><>2 M;5<5=B>2 B@5BL53> ?5@8>40, >B25G0NI85 8E 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O. 0: 87<5=ONBAO :8A;>B=>->A=>2=K5 A2>9AB20 MB8E A>548=5=89? 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 0B><>2 F8=:0 8 :04<8O. 0@80=B 10 ?@545;8B5 ?>;>65=85 0B><0 M;5<5=B0 2 ?5@8>48G5A:>9 A8AB5<5 ?> 53> M;5:B@>==>9 D>@<C;5: 2s22p5; 3s23p2; 4s23d10. 0:85 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O <>65B ?@>O2;OBL 0B>< 2>4>@>40? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89, A>>B25BAB2CNI8E MB8< AB5?5=O< >:8A;5=8O, =07>28B5 8E. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 0B><>2 =0B@8O 8 F578O. 0@80=B 11 !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 M;5<5=B>2 A ?>@O4:>2K<8 =><5@0<8 17 8 25.  :0:><C M;5:B@>==><C A5<59AB2C >B=>A8BAO :064K9 87 MB8E M;5<5=B>2? 0:85 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O <>65B ?@>O2;OBL 0B>< A5@K? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89, A>>B25BAB2CNI85 MB8< AB5?5=O< >:8A;5=8O, =07>28B5 8E. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 8 @07<5@ 0B><0 A5@51@0. Ag=10,5 3 " A<  3. 0@80=B 12 !B@C:BC@0 20;5=B=>3> M;5:B@>==>3> A;>O 0B><0 2K@0605BAO D>@<C;>9: 2s22p4; 3s23p5; 3d54s1. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4:>2K9 =><5@ 8 =0720=85 M;5<5=B0. 0:85 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O <>65B ?@>O2;OBL 0B>< C3;5@>40? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89, A>>B25BAB2CNI8E MB8< AB5?5=O< >:8A;5=8O, =07>28B5 8E. 3. !:>;L:> 0B><>2 :0;LF8O A>45@68BAO 2 1 A< 3, G5<C @02=0 ?;>B=>ABL :0;LF8O, 5A;8 <>;L=K9 >1J5< 53> V<>;L = 25,9 A< 3 <>;L 1. 0@80=B 13 !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 M;5<5=B>2 A ?>@O4:>2K<8 =><5@0<8 18 8 26.  :0:><C M;5:B@>==><C A5<59AB2C >B=>A8BAO :064K9 87 MB8E M;5<5=B>2? 0:>9 87 M;5<5=B>2 23V 8;8 33As >1;0405B 1>;55 2K@065==K<8 <5B0;;8G5A:8<8 A2>9AB20<8? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 2>7<>6=K5 D>@<C;K >:A84>2 8 384@84>2 MB8E M;5<5=B>2. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 8 @07<5@ 0B><0 15@8;;8O. Be = 1,86 3 " A<  3. 0@80=B 14 0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 A 70@O4>< O4@0 16 8 22. !>AB02LB5 3@0D8G5A:85 AE5<K 70?>;=5=8O M;5:B@>=0<8 20;5=B=KE >@18B0;59 MB8E 0B><>2. !@02=8B5 @048CAK 0B><>2 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;L=CN A?>A>1=>ABL: 20Ca 8 38Sr; 20Ca 8 30Zn. B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K >:A84>2 8 384@>:A84>2 MB8E <5B0;;>2. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 0B><>2 A5@51@0 8 7>;>B0. 0@80=B 15 -;5:B@>==0O AB@C:BC@0 0B><0 >?8AK205BAO D>@<C;>9: 0) 1s22s22p6; 1) 1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2. 0:>9 MB> M;5<5=B? 0:CN =87HCN 8 2KAHCN AB5?5=L >:8A;5=8O ?@>O2;ONB 0B><K C3;5@>40 8 A5@K. B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89 40==KE M;5<5=B>2, >B25G0NI85 MB8< AB5?5=O< >:8A;5=8O. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 8 @07<5@ 0B><0 F8@:>=8O. Zr = 6,52 3 A<  3. 0@80=B 16 !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 M;5<5=B>2 A ?>@O4:>2K<8 =><5@0<8 14 8 24. 0:85 M;5:B@>=K MB8E 0B><>2 O2;ONBAO 20;5=B=K<8? !@02=8B5 @048CAK 0B><>2 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;L=CN A?>A>1=>ABL: 19 8 29Cu; 19 8 37Rb. B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K >:A84>2 8 384@>:A84>2 MB8E <5B0;;>2. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 8 @07<5@ 0B><0 >;>20. Sn = 7,3 3 A<  3. 0@80=B 17 B><C :0:>3> 87 M;5<5=B>2 >B25G05B :0640O 87 ?@82545==KE M;5:B@>==KE D>@<C;: 2s22p4; 3s23p6; 4s23d10? 0?8H8B5 ?>;=CN M;5:B@>==CN D>@<C;C. 0:85 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O <>65B ?@>O2;OBL 0B>< E;>@0? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89, A>>B25BAB2CNI8E MB8< AB5?5=O< >:8A;5=8O, =07>28B5 8E. !:>;L:> 0B><>2 :0;LF8O A>45@68BAO 2 1 3 8 2 2 A<3? Ca = 1,55 3 A<  3. 0@80=B 18 !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 8 3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K 0B><0 17Cl 2 =>@<0;L=>< 8 2>71C645==KE A>AB>O=8OE. >G5<C C M;5<5=B>2 H5AB>9 3@C??K E@><0 ?@5>1;040NB <5B0;;8G5A:85 A2>9AB20, 0 C A5;5=0  =5<5B0;;8G5A:85? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0 MB8E M;5<5=B>2. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K 2KAH8E >:A84>2 M;5<5=B>2 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 8< 384@>:A84>2. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 8 @07<5@ 0B><0 28A<CB0. Bi = 9,84 3 A<  3. 0@80=B 19 !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 M;5<5=B>2 A ?>@O4:>2K<8 =><5@0<8 20 8 30. 0:85 M;5:B@>=K MB8E 0B><>2 O2;ONBAO 20;5=B=K<8? 0:85 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O <>65B ?@>O2;OBL 0B>< 33As? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89, A>>B25BAB2CNI85 MB8< AB5?5=O< >:8A;5=8O, =07>28B5 8E. KG8A;8B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 8 @07<5@ 0B><0 B8B0=0. Ti =4,49 3 A<  3. 0@80=B 20 !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 M;5<5=B>2 A ?>@O4:>2K<8 =><5@0<8 11 8 16. 0:85 M;5:B@>=K MB8E 0B><>2 O2;ONBAO 20;5=B=K<8? !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89, 2 :>B>@KE >=8 ?@>O2;ONB 2KAHCN 8 =87HCN AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O. 0:CN 2KAHCN 8 =87HCN AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O ?@>O2;ONB 2>4>@>4, DB>@ 8 :8A;>@>4? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89 40==KE M;5<5=B>2, >B25G0NI85 MB8< AB5?5=O< >:8A;5=8O. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 0B><>2 >;>20 8 A28=F0. 0@80=B 21 B><C :0:>3> 87 M;5<5=B>2 >B25G05B :0640O 87 ?@82545==KE M;5:B@>==KE D>@<C;: 2s22p2; 3s23p6; 4s23d5? 0?8H8B5 ?>;=CN M;5:B@>==CN D>@<C;C. 0:CN 2KAHCN AB5?5=L >:8A;5=8O ?@>O2;ONB 22Ti 8 25Mn? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K >:A84>2 8 384@>:A84>2 40==KE M;5<5=B>2, >B25G0NI8E MB>9 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 8 @07<5@ 0B><0 E@><0. Cr =7,2 3 A<  3. 0@80=B 22 0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K 0B><>2 A 70@O4>< O4@0 19 8 21. !>AB02LB5 3@0D8G5A:85 AE5<K 70?>;=5=8O M;5:B@>=0<8 20;5=B=KE >@18B0;59 MB8E 0B><>2. 0:85 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O <>65B ?@>O2;OBL 0B>< 34Se? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89, A>>B25BAB2CNI85 MB8< AB5?5=O< >:8A;5=8O, =07>28B5 8E. !:>;L:> 0B><>2 A>45@68BAO 2 1 3 B8B0=0? 0:>2 @048CA 0B><0 B8B0=0? >;L=K9 >1J5< B8B0=0 V<>;L = 10,72 A< 3 <>;L 1. 0@80=B 23 07>28B5 0B><K M;5<5=B>2, 8<5NI85 ?> >4=><C M;5:B@>=C =0 >@18B0;OE 3p, 3d. 0?8H8B5 8E M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 8 3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K 0B><0 16S 2 =>@<0;L=>< 8 2>71C645==KE A>AB>O=8OE. 0: >1JOA=O5B A?8=>20O B5>@8O =0;8G85 C A5@K G5B=>9 ?5@5<5==>9 20;5=B=>AB8. !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89 A5@K, >B25G0NI85 MB8< 20;5=B=>ABO<. 0AAG8B09B5 <0AAC 0B><0 8 ?;>B=>ABL B8B0=0 4822Ti, 5A;8 <>;L=K9 >1J5< 53> V<>;L = 10,72 A< 3 <>;L 1. 0@80=B 24 07>28B5 M;5<5=BK G5B25@B>3> ?5@8>40, 0B><K :>B>@KE A>45@60B <0:A8<0;L=>5 G8A;> =5?0@=KE M;5:B@>=>2 =0 d->@18B0;OE, p->@18B0;OE. 0?8H8B5 8E M;5:B@>==K5 D>@<C;K. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 8 M;5:B@>==>-3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K 0B><0 15P 2 =>@<0;L=>< 8 2>71C645==KE A>AB>O=8OE. !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>548=5=89, 2 :>B>@KE D>AD>@ ?@>O2;O5B E0@0:B5@=K5 4;O =53> AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O. 07>28B5 A>548=5=8O. 0AAG8B09B5 A@54=NN <0AAC 8 @07<5@ 0B><0 A28=F0. Pb = 6,62 3 A<  3. 0@80=B 25 1. 0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==>-3@0D8G5A:CN D>@<C;C 0B><0 A5@K 2 A>AB>O=88, ?@54H5AB2CNI5< >1@07>20=8O 5N A>548=5=8O SF6. 2. >G5<C C M;5<5=B>2 A54L<>9 3@C??K <0@30=F0 ?@5>1;040NB <5B0;;8G5A:85 A2>9AB20, 0 C E;>@0  =5<5B0;;8G5A:85? B25B <>B828@C9B5, 8AE>4O 87 M;5:B@>==>3> AB@>5=8O 0B><0 MB8E M;5<5=B>2. 0?8H8B5 D>@<C;K 2KAH8E >:A84>2 M;5<5=B>2 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 8< 384@>:A84>2. !:>;L:> 0B><>2 15@8;;8O A>45@68BAO 2 1 A< 3 8 G5<C @02=0 ?;>B=>ABL 15@8;;8O, 5A;8 <>;L=K9 >1J5< 53> V<>;L = 5 A< 3 <>;L 1. %'!/ !/,  !"  # @8<5@ 1. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K HCN @025= 0,97(10-29 ;(<. ?@545;8B5 4;8=C 48?>;O <>;5:C;K HCN. EMBED Equation.3  5H5=85. >;O@=>ABL A2O78 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO 25;8G8=>9 48?>;L=>3> <><5=B0 (. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B @025= (=5-(l, 345 5- 70@O4 M;5:B@>=0 (1,602(10-19 ;); l  4;8=0 48?>;O, <. ;8=0 48?>;O l @02=0  EMBED Equation.3  @8<5@ 2. 0:>9 284 381@84870F88 M;5:B@>==KE >1;0:>2 8<55B <5AB> 2 0B><5 :@5<=8O ?@8 >1@07>20=88 <>;5:C;K SiF4? 0:>20 ?@>AB@0=AB25==0O AB@C:BC@0 MB>9 <>;5:C;K? 5H5=85.  2>71C645==>< A>AB>O=88 AB@C:BC@0 2=5H=53> M=5@35B8G5A:>3> C@>2=O 0B><0 :@5<=8O A;54CNI0O: 3s 3pE3pC3pz 3s 3p  >1@07>20=88 E8<8G5A:8E A2O759 2 0B><5 :@5<=8O CG0AB2CNB M;5:B@>=K B@5BL53> M=5@35B8G5A:>3> C@>2=O: >48= M;5:B@>= 2 s-A>AB>O=88 8 B@8 M;5:B@>=0 2 @-A>AB>O=88. @8 >1@07>20=88 <>;5:C;K SiF4 2>7=8:0NB G5BK@5 381@84=KE M;5:B@>==KE >1;0:0 (sp3-381@84870F8O). >;5:C;0 SiF4 8<55B ?@>AB@0=AB25==CN B5B@0M4@8G5A:CN :>=D83C@0F8N. @8<5@ 3. ?8H8B5 A ?><>ILN <5B>40 <>;5:C;O@=KE >@18B0;59 <>;5:C;C 20. 5H5=85.  <5B>45 <>;5:C;O@=KE >@18B0;59 <>;5:C;0 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: 548=0O A8AB5<0, A>45@60I0O O4@0 8 M;5:B@>=K. @8 >1@07>20=88 <>;5:C;K 2>7=8:0NB <>;5:C;O@=K5 >@18B0;8 42CE 284>2  A2O7K20NI85 8 @07@KE;ONI85. A;8 ?@8 >1@07>20=88 <>;5:C;K 87 0B><>2 ?5@5E>4 M;5:B@>=0 =0 <>;5:C;O@=CN >@18B0;L 1C45B A>?@>2>640BLAO C<5=LH5=85< M=5@388, B> B0:0O <>;5:C;O@=0O >@18B0;L O2;O5BAO A2O7K20NI59.  A;CG05, 5A;8 ?5@5E>4 M;5:B@>=0 =0 <>;5:C;O@=CN >@18B0;L A>?@>2>6405BAO C25;8G5=85< M=5@388, B> B0:0O <>;5:C;O@=0O >@18B0;L 1C45B @07@KE;ONI59. -;5:B@>=K 2 <>;5:C;0E @0A?>;030NBAO =0 (-, (- 8 (-<>;5:C;O@=KE >@18B0;OE. (->@18B0;L <>65B 1KBL A:><18=8@>20=0 87 s-0B><=KE >@18B0;59, ?@8G5< >1@07CNBAO <>;5:C;O@=K5 >@18B0;8 42CE B8?>2: A2O7K20NI85 ((A2) 8 @07@KE;ONI85 ((@07@): (A21s 8 (@07@1s (8;8 (A22s 8 (@07@2s), (-<>;5:C;O@=K5 >@18B0;8 <>3CB 1KBL >1@07>20=K 8 ?5@5:@K20=85< 2pE-0B><=KE >@18B0;59. @8 ?5@5:@K20=88 2pC  8 2pz-0B><=KE >@18B0;59 >1@07CNBAO (C- 8 (z_ <>;5:C;O@=K5 >@18B0;8. >@O4>: @07<5I5=8O M;5:B@>=>2 ?> <>;5:C;O@=K< >@18B0;O< B>B 65, GB> 8 2 A;CG05 0B><=KE >@18B0;59: ?@5645 2A53> 70?>;=ONBAO >@18B0;8 A =87:>9 M=5@3859. 0?>;=5=85 <>;5:C;O@=KE >@18B0;59 ?>4G8=O5BAO ?@8=F8?C 0C;8 (=0 :064>9 >@18B0;8 <>65B 1KBL =5 1>;55 42CE M;5:B@>=>2 A ?@>B82>?>;>6=K<8 A?8=0<8) 8 ?@028;C C=40.  <>;5:C;5 2>4K 8 20;5=B=KE M;5:B@>=>2, 6 >B 0B><0 :8A;>@>40 (2s22p4) 8 2 >B 42CE 0B><>2 2>4>@>40 (1s). >;5:C;O@=K5 >@18B0;8 2>4K >1@07CNBAO 70 AG5B ?5@5:@K20=8O 2s- 8 2p->@18B0;59 0B><0 :8A;>@>40 8 1s->@18B0;59 42CE 0B><>2 2>4>@>40. A53> >1@07C5BAO 6 20;5=B=KE <>;5:C;O@=KE >@18B0;59 (G8A;> <>;5:C;O@=KE >@18B0;59 2> 2=5H=5< A;>5 <>;5:C;K @02=> AC<<5 20;5=B=KE 0B><=KE >@18B0;59 A>AB02;ONI8E 55 0B><>2). @8 ?5@5:@K20=88 2@E_ >@18B0;8 0B><0 :8A;>@>40 8 ls->@18B0;59 42CE 0B><>2 2>4>@>40 2>7=8:0NB 425 <>;5:C;O@=K5 >@18B0;8: (EA2 8 (E@07@. 5@5:@K20=85 2s- 8 2pz->@18B0;59 0B><0 :8A;>@>40 A ls->@18B0;O<8 42CE 0B><>2 2>4>@>40 ?@82>48B : >1@07>20=8N 5I5 B@5E <>;5:C;O@=KE >@18B0;59: (sA2 8 (z@07@ 8 ?>GB8 =5A2O7K20NI59 (z. 2@C_ >@18B0;L 0B><0 :8A;>@>40 =5 ?5@5:@K205BAO A ls->@18B0;O<8 0B><>2 2>4>@>40 8 ?>MB><C O2;O5BAO =5A2O7K20NI59 (C- >@18B0;LN. >A5<L 20;5=B=KE M;5:B@>=>2 2 <>;5:C;5 2>4K =0 <>;5:C;O@=KE >@18B0;OE @0A?>;030NBAO A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 2 [((sA2)2((EA2)2((z)2((C)2].  -=5@35B8G5A:85 C@>2=8 >@18B0;59 <>;5:C;K 2 87>1@060NB 4803@0<<>9 @8<5@ 4. ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 G0AB8F5 3+. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB>9 G0AB8FK.  5H5=85.  EMBED Equation.3   EMBED Equation.3   EMBED Equation.3   EMBED Equation.3  (4>=>@)  EMBED Equation.3  (0:F5?B>@) 3(-A2O78  EMBED ChemDraw.Document.6.0   sp3-381@84870- F8O, =57025@- H5==K9 B5B@0M4@ 1@07>20=85 (-A2O759 <564C 0B><0<8  8  =5 2;8O5B =0 35><5B@8N <>;5:C; 8 2 AE5<5 =5 C:07K205BAO, => 4>;6=> 1KBL CGB5=> 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25==KE 87>1@065=8OE G0AB8F. >340 G8A;> (, (-A2O70==KE :>=F52KE 0B><>2  (G0I5 4@C38E M;5<5=B>2-0B><>2 :8A;>@>40) 1>;LH5 >4=>3>, B> (-A2O7L 87>1@0605BAO ?C=:B8@><. @8 =0;8G88 (-A2O7K20=8O A8<<5B@8G=>ABL =0?@02;5==>AB8 E8<8G5A:8E A2O759 =5 C<5=LH05BAO. @8<5@ 5. ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 G0AB8F5 NO2. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB>9 G0AB8FK. 5H5=85. N+4+2O-2=NO2 N+4=[2He]2s12p0 (0:F5?B>@) O-2==[2He]2s22p6(4>=>@) 2(, (-A2O78  EMBED ChemDraw.Document.6.0   sp2-381@84870- F8O, =57025@- H5==K9 B@5C3>;L=8: 0@80=B 1 >:068B5, :0:85 >@18B0;8 8 :0: CG0AB2CNB 2 >1@07>20=88 E8<8G5A:8E A2O759 2 G0AB8F0E: NF3, LiClO. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C <>;5:C;O@=KE >@18B0;59 () 4;O G0AB8F 8 >?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E: Cl2, Pb2+, HJ. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K !l @025= 1,06 . KG8A;8BL 4;8=C 48?>;O. 0@80=B 2 >:068B5, :0:85 >@18B0;8 8 :0: CG0AB2CNB 2 >1@07>20=88 E8<8G5A:8E A2O759 2 G0AB8F0E: F2, SCl2. 5><5B@8O G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F 8 >?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E: Li2, B2, Si2. ;8=0 48?>;O <>;5:C;K DB>@>2>4>@>40 @02=0 4(10-11 <. KG8A;8BL 5Q 48?>;L=K9 <><5=B 2 4510OE 8 :C;>=-<5B@0E. 0@80=B 3 >:068B5 :0:85 >@18B0;8 8 :0: CG0AB2CNB 2 >1@07>20=88 E8<8G5A:8E A2O759 2 G0AB8F0E: CO, LiClO. 5><5B@8O G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F 8 >?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E: J2, C2, S2. 8?>;L=K5 <><5=BK 2>4K 8 A5@>2>4>@>40 @02=K A>>B25BAB25==> 1,84 8 0,94 . KG8A;8BL 4;8=K 48?>;59.  :0:>9 <>;5:C;5 A2O7L 1>;55 ?>;O@=0? 0@80=B 4 0?8H8B5 3@0D8G5A:85 D>@<C;K A;54CNI8E G0AB8F0E: HBO2, B2O2. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F 8 >?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E: Se2, N2, P2. ;8=0 48?>;O <>;5:C;K 0<<80:0 @02=0 0,3(10-8 A<. KG8A;8BL 48?>;L=K9 <><5=B. 0@80=B 5 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 A;54CNI8E G0AB8F0E: BBr3, CCl4. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB8E G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F 8 >?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E: Sn2, Na2, P2. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K r @025= 0,8 . KG8A;8BL 5Q 4;8=C 48?>;O 2 . 0@80=B 6 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 G0AB8F0E: PCl5, AlBr3. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB8E G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F 8 >?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E: He2, Be2, Ne2. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K A>AB02;O5B 3,3(10-31 ;(<. KG8A;8BL MBC 25;8G8=C 2 4510OE. KG8A;8BL 5Q 4;8=C 48?>;O 2 . 0@80=B 7 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 A;54CNI8E G0AB8F0E: SF6, SnH4. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB8E G0AB8F. >:068B5 A ?>78F89 <5B>40  :0:85 87 =865 ?5@5G8A;5==KE G0AB8F =5 <>3CB ACI5AB2>20BL 2 CAB>9G82>< A>AB>O=88: H+2, H2, H-2. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K CN @025= 2,9 . KG8A;8BL 4;8=C 48?>;O. 0@80=B 8 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 A;54CNI8E G0AB8F0E: BeCl2, CF4. 5><5B@8O <>;5:C;. A?>;L7CO <5B>4 , >?@545;8B5 8 4>:068B5, :0:85 87 ?@82545==KE =865 25I5AB2 >B=>AOBAO : 480<03=8B=K<, 0 :0:85 : ?0@0<03=8B=K<: O2, He2+, N2. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K 0<<80:0 @025= 1,48 . K@078BL MBC 25;8G8=C 2 ;(<. KG8A;8BL 4;8=C 48?>;O. 0@80=B 9 >:068B5 :0:85 >@18B0;8 8 :0: CG0AB2CNB 2 >1@07>20=88 E8<8G5A:8E A2O759 2 G0AB8F0E: NO2, N2O. 5><5B@8O G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  G0AB8F NO+, NO-, NO 8 A@02=8B5 8E :@0B=>ABL 8 M=5@38N A2O759. ;8=0 48?>;O !3!l @02=0 0,38(10-8 A<. KG8A;8BL 48?>;L=K9 <><5=B. 0@80=B 10 0:85 >@18B0;8 CG0AB2CNB 2 >1@07>20=88 E8<8G5A:8E A2O759 2 G0AB8F0E: BeO, SCl2? 5><5B@8O G0AB8F. !@02=8B5 :@0B=>ABL 8 M=5@38N A2O759 2 @O4C G0AB8F O2, O2-, O22-. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  MB8E G0AB8F. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B !3 @025= 1,68 . K@078BL 40==CN 25;8G8=C 2 ;(<. KG8A;8BL 4;8=C 48?>;O. 0@80=B 11 0:CN 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C 8<5NB =865?5@5G8A;5==K5 G0AB8FK, 8 :0:85 >@18B0;8 >?@545;ONB 8E AB@>5=85: SCl2, AlCl3? !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  G0AB8F CO+, CO-, CO. !@02=8B5 :@0B=>ABL, M=5@38N A2O759 8 <03=8B=K5 A2>9AB20 G0AB8F. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K 2>4K @025= 1,84 . K@078BL MBC 25;8G8=C 2 ;(<. KG8A;8BL 4;8=C 48?>;O. 0@80=B 12 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 A;54CNI8E G0AB8F0E: BeF2, AlJ3. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB8E G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F F2-, Br2-, JF 8 >?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. ;8=0 48?>;O <>;5:C;K !l @02=0 0,22(10-8A<. KG8A;8BL 48?>;L=K9 <><5=B 2 ;(<. 0@80=B 13 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 A;54CNI8E G0AB8F0E: PbCl2, AsF3. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB8E G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F Ar2 , Te2+, Si2+. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K A5@>2>4>@>40 @025= 0,94 . K@078BL MBC 25;8G8=C 2 ;(<. KG8A;8BL 4;8=C 48?>;O. 0@80=B 14 >:068B5 :0:85 0B><=K5 >@18B0;8 CG0AB2CNB 2 >1@07>20=88 G0AB8F: SF4, PCl5? 5><5B@8O G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F: Na2+, He2+, NS+. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B DB>@>2>4>@>40 1,94 . K@078BL 40==CN 25;8G8=C 2 ;(<. KG8A;8BL 4;8=C 48?>;O. 0@80=B 15 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 A;54CNI8E G0AB8F0E: BeF2, AlJ3. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB8E G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C 4;O G0AB8F LiBr, SeO, Rb2+. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K NO @025= 0,053(10-29 ;(<. KG8A;8B5 4;8=C 48?>;O <>;5:C;K NO. 0@80=B 16 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 A;54CNI8E G0AB8F0E: ClF5, SbJ3. 5><5B@8O <>;5:C;. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F: SiC, JCl, NO. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K NO2 @025= 0,091(10-29 ;(<. 0948B5 4;8=C 48?>;O MB>9 <>;5:C;K. 0@80=B 17 7>1@060O ?5@5:@K20=85 M;5:B@>==KE >1;0:>2, ?>:068B5 >1@07>20=85 (- A2O78 2 G0AB8F0E: Br2 8 HBr. 5><5B@8O G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F: NS+, CN , BO. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. ;8=0 48?>;O <>;5:C;K F @02=0 0,4(10-10 <. 0AAG8B09B5 48?>;L=K9 <><5=B <>;5:C;K F. 0@80=B 18 0:CN 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C 8<5NB =865?5@5G8A;5==K5 G0AB8FK 8 :0:85 >@18B0;8 >?@545;ONB 8E AB@>5=85: CF4, SeO2? !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F NS+, CN , SeO. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. ;8=0 48?>;O <>;5:C;K N3 @02=0 0,3(10-8 A<. KG8A;8BL 48?>;L=K9 <><5=B N3. 0@80=B 19 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 G0AB8F0E: SbJ3, SnF2. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB8E G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F BO, ClF, Se2-. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. ;8=0 48?>;O !3!l @02=0 0,39(10-8 A<. KG8A;8BL 48?>;L=K9 <><5=B !3!l. 0@80=B 20 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 >@18B0;59 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 G0AB8F0E: XeF4, POF3. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB8E G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F PN,CN+, CS. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. ;8=0 48?>;O 2 @025= 1,84(10-18 A<. KG8A;8BL 4;8=C 48?>;O 2. 0@80=B 21 7>1@078B5 M;5:B@>==CN :>=D83C@0F8N A;54CNI8E G0AB8F: TeO2, NOF3. 5><5B@8O G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F CS2, Na2, Cs2+. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. 8?>;L=K9 <><5=B !3 @025= 1,68(10-18 A<. KG8A;8BL 4;8=C 48?>;O !3. 0@80=B 22 7>1@060O ?5@5:@K20=85 M;5:B@>==KE >1;0:>2, ?>:068B5 >1@07>20=85 (- A2O78 2 G0AB8F0E: SeO, SbH3. 0:>20 ?@>AB@0=AB25==0O AB@C:BC@0 G0AB8F MB8E 25I5AB2? !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F SiC, PN, C2+. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. ;8=0 48?>;O A2O78 - l=0,315(10-10 <. KG8A;8BL 5Q <><5=B M;5:B@8G5A:>3> 48?>;O. 0@80=B 23 ?@545;8B5 B8? 381@84870F88 F5=B@0;L=>3> 0B><0 2 G0AB8F0E: TeO2, PbCl4. 07>28B5 8 87>1@078B5 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C MB8E G0AB8F. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F JBr, CO+, Bi2. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. ><5=B M;5:B@8G5A:>3> 48?>;O <>;5:C;K r @025= 2,66(10-30 ;(<. KG8A;8BL 5Q 4;8=C 48?>;O 2 <5B@0E. 0@80=B 24 0:CN 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C 8<5NB =865 ?5@5G8A;5==K5 G0AB8FK, 8 :0:85 >@18B0;8 >?@545;ONB 8E AB@>5=85: Cl2O, Cl2O3? !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F , !S+, LiJ. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. ;8=0 48?>;O <>;5:C;K F l = 0,4(10-10 <. KG8A;8BL 5Q <><5=B M;5:B@8G5A:>3> 48?>;O 2 :C;>=>-<5B@0E. 0@80=B 25 0:CN 35><5B@8G5A:CN D>@<C 8<5NB =865?5@5G8A;5==K5 G0AB8FK, 8 :0:85 >@18B0;8 >?@545;ONB 8E AB@>5=85: H2Se, COCl2. !>AB02LB5 M=5@35B8G5A:CN 4803@0<<C  4;O G0AB8F HH5, Ge2, Ar2+. ?@545;8B5 ?>@O4>: A2O78 2 =8E. ><5=B M;5:B@8G5A:>3> 48?>;O A2O78 !  A>AB02;O5B 3,3(10-31 ;(<. KG8A;8B5 2 <5B@0E 4;8=C 48?>;O A2O78. 5. %'!/ "  @8<5@ 1. ?@545;8B5 :>;8G5AB2> B5?;>BK, 2K45;ONI59AO ?@8 30H5=88 100 :3 8725AB8 2>4>9 ?@8 25 (!, 5A;8 8725AB=K AB0=40@B=K5 B5?;>BK >1@07>20=8O 25I5AB2, CG0AB2CNI8E 2 E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88: "(f CaO (:) = -635,1 :6/<>;L; "(f 2 (6) = -285,84 :6/<>;L; "(f !0()2 = -986,2 :6/<>;L. 5H5=85. 50:F8O 30H5=8O 8725AB8: !0 (:) + 2 (6) = !0() (:). !>3;0A=> ?5@2><C A;54AB28N 87 70:>=0 5AA0, B5?;>2>9 MDD5:B E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 @025= @07=>AB8 <564C AC<<>9 B5?;>B >1@07>20=8O ?@>4C:B>2 @50:F88 8 AC<<>9 B5?;>B >1@07>20=8O @5038@CNI8E 25I5AB2 A CGQB>< AB5E8><5B@8G5A:8E :>MDD8F85=B>2: "(@ = "(f !0()2 (:) - "(f !0 (:) - "(f 2 (6) "(@ = -986,2  (-635,1)  (-285,84) = -65,26 :6 "0:8< >1@07><, ?@8 30H5=88 1 <>;L !0 2K45;O5BAO 65,26 :6, (!0) = 56 3/<>;L . 563 2K45;O5BAO 65,26 :6 100(10 %Q%% E E = 65,26(100(10 / 56 = 116536 :6 B25B: 116536 :6. @8<5@ 2. KG8A;8B5 87<5=5=85 M=5@388 811A0 2 E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 ?> 7=0G5=8O< B5?;>B >1@07>20=8O 8 M=B@>?89 @5038@CNI8E 25I5AB2 8 ?@>4C:B>2 @50:F88. >7<>6=0 ;8 40==0O @50:F8O? NH3 (3) + !l (3) = NH4Cl (:) 5I5AB2> NH3 !l NH4Cl (0f :6/<>;L -46,19 -92,3 -315,39 (S0298 6/(<>;L() 192,5 186,7 94,56 5H5=85. 7<5=5=85 M=5@388 811A0 <>6=> 2KG8A;8BL ?> C@02=5=8N "G = "H  T"S "(@ = (0f NH4Cl (:)  (0f NH3 (3)  (0f !l (3) "(@ = -315,39  (-46,19)  (-92,3) = -176,9 :6 (S(@ = S(NH4Cl  S( NH3 (3)  S(!l (3) (S(@ = 94,56  192,5  186,7 = -284,64 6/ (G( = "(  "(S( ; " = 298  ; (G( = -176.9  298(-284.64)(10-3 = -92.08 :6 (G( ( 0. 50:F8O 2>7<>6=0. 0@80=B 1 0?8A0BL C@02=5=85 @50:F89, 4;O :>B>@>9 >?@545;O5BAO B5?;>B0 >1@07>20=8O 8 2KG8A;8BL (0f 2 :6/<>;L Al2O3, 5A;8 ?@8 A3>@0=88 1 3 Al 2K45;8;>AL 30,98 :6. KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=B@>?88 (S0298 A;54CNI53> ?@>F5AA0: 2(3)+S(B)=2S(3). KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=5@388 811A0 (G0f 8 >?@545;8BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>B5:0=8O @50:F88: Cl2(3)+0,52(3)=Cl2O(3). 0@80=B 2 0?8A0BL C@02=5=85 @50:F88, 4;O :>B>@>9 >?@545;O5BAO B5?;>B0 >1@07>20=8O 8 2KG8A;8BL (0f 2 :6/<>;L Cr2O3, 5A;8 ?@8 >1@07>20=88 3,8 3 >:A840 2K45;8;>AL 28,22 :6. KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=B@>?88 (S0298 A;54CNI53> ?@>F5AA0: !(3@0D8B)+!2(3)=2!(3). KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=5@388 811A0 (G0f 8 >?@545;8BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>B5:0=8O @50:F88: 2(6)+3(3)=22(6)+2(3). 0@80=B 3 0?8A0BL C@02=5=85 @50:F89, 4;O :>B>@>9 >?@545;O5BAO B5?;>B0 >1@07>20=8O, 8 2KG8A;8BL (0f 2 :6/<>;L  !O2, 5A;8 ?@8 >1@07>20=88 1000 <; !2 (=.C.) 2K45;8;>AL 17,58 :6. KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=B@>?88 (S0298 A;54CNI53> ?@>F5AA0: 23(B)+3g(B)=2(B)+3g(B). KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=5@388 811A0 (G0f 8 >?@545;8BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>B5:0=8O @50:F88: !2(3)+2(3)=!(3)+2(3). 0@80=B 4 0?8A0BL C@02=5=85 @50:F89, 4;O :>B>@>9 >?@545;O5BAO B5?;>B0 >1@07>20=8O, 8 2KG8A;8BL (0f 2 :6/<>;L SO2, 5A;8 ?@8 A3>@0=88 1 3 A5@K 2K45;8;>AL 92,69 :6. KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=B@>?88 (S0298 A;54CNI53> ?@>F5AA0: 0(B)+SO3(3)=0SO4(3). KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=5@388 811A0 (G0f 8 >?@545;8BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>B5:0=8O @50:F88: !0!3(B) = !0(B)+!2(3). 0@80=B 5 0?8A0BL C@02=5=85 @50:F89, 4;O :>B>@>9 >?@545;O5BAO B5?;>B0 >1@07>20=8O, 8 2KG8A;8BL (0f 2 :6/<>;L AlCl3, 5A;8 ?@8 >1@07>20=88 5 3 53> 2K45;8;>AL 26,08 :6. KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=B@>?88 (S0298 A;54CNI53> ?@>F5AA0: 0(B)+!O(3) = 0(B)+!2(3). KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=5@388 811A0 (G0f 8 >?@545;8BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>B5:0=8O @50:F88: Al23(B)+3!(3@0D8B) = 2Al(B)+3!(3). 0@80=B 6 !:>;L:> :8;>46>C;59 2K45;8BAO ?@8 >1@07>20=88 87 ?@>ABKE 25I5AB2 0,27 3 AlBr3? 0: >1JOA=8BL 87<5=5=85 25;8G8=K M=B@>?88 2 ?@82545==>< @O4C AE>4=KE 25I5AB2? 5I5AB2> NO (3) NO2(3) N2O5(3)  EMBED Equation.3 , 46/<>;L(  210,76 228,05 343,32 ;O @50:F88 H2(3) + F2(3) = 2HF(3) 2 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE 87<5=5=85 M=B0;L?88  268,79 :6/<>;L, 87<5=5=85 M=B@>?88 6,87 6/<>;L( . KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>3> 87>10@=>-87>B5@<8G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0 MB>9 @50:F88. 0@80=B 7 !:>;L:> :8;>46>C;59 2K45;8BAO ?@8 >1@07>20=88 87 ?@>ABKE 25I5AB2 5,1 3 Al2O3? 0: >1JOA=8BL 87<5=5=85 25;8G8=K M=B@>?88 2 ?@8254Q==>< @O4C AE>4=KE 25I5AB2? 5I5AB2> O(3) O2(3) O3(3)  EMBED Equation.3 , 6/<>;L( 161,07 205,19 239,07 >;L7COAL A?@02>G=K<8 40==K<8, @0AAG8B0BL 87<5=5=85 M=B0;L?88 4;O @50:F88, ?@>B5:0NI59 2 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE: 2Pb(NO3)2(B) = 2PbO(B) + 4NO2(3) + O2(3). 0@80=B 8 !:>;L:> :8;>46>C;59 2K45;8BAO ?@8 >1@07>20=88 87 ?@>ABKE 25I5AB2 1120 <; SO2 (=.C.)? 0: >1JOA=8BL 87<5=5=85 25;8G8=K M=B@>?88 2 ?@8254Q==>< @O4C AE>4=KE 25I5AB2? 5I5AB2> S(B) Se(B) Te(B)  EMBED Equation.3 , 6/<>;L( 31,90 43,98 49,61 KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 87>10@=>-87>B5@<8G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0 4;O @50:F88: 2NO(3) + O3(3) +H2O(6) = 2HNO3(6) 2 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE. 0@80=B 9 !:>;L:> :8;>46>C;59 2K45;8BAO ?@8 >1@07>20=88 87 ?@>ABKE 25I5AB2 2,8 :3 >:8A8 :0;LF8O? 0: 87<5=8BAO M=B@>?8O ?@8 >1@0B8<>< D07>2>< ?5@5E>45:  "2Q@4>5 25I5AB2> 684:>5 307 B2Q@4>5 25I5AB2>? KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 87>10@=>-87>B5@<8G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0 4;O @50:F88: 3Fe2O3(B) + CO(3) = 2Fe3O4(B) + CO2(3) 2 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE. 0@80=B 10 !:>;L:> :8;>46>C;59 2K45;8BAO ?@8 >1@07>20=88 87 ?@>ABKE 25I5AB2 18 3 42C>:8A8 :@5<=8O? 5 ?@>2>4O @0AG5B>2, >?@545;8BL 7=0: M=B@>?88 2 E>45 ?@52@0I5=89:  S(B) S(6) S8(3) S2(3) S(B) !B0=40@B=0O M=B@>?8O @><18G5A:>9 A5@K @02=0 31,90 6/<>;L(, <>=>:;8==>9  32,57 6/<>;L(, 0 AB0=40@B=K5 M=B0;L?88 A3>@0=8O A5@K A>>B25BAB25==> @02=K  297,01 8 297,35 :6/<>;L. KG8A;8B5 87<5=5=85 87>10@=>-87>B5@<8G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0 ?5@5E>40 @><18G5A:>9 A5@K 2 <>=>:;8==CN 2 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE. 0@80=B 11 !:>;L:> :8;>46>C;59 2K45;8BAO ?@8 >1@07>20=88 87 ?@>ABKE 25I5AB2 47,8 3 AC;LD840 A28=F0? 5 ?@>2>4O @0AG5B>2, >?@545;8BL 7=0: (S 2 E>45 E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88: 2P(B) + 5/2O2(3) = P2O5(B). KG8A;8BL ?> A?@02>G=K< 40==K< 87<5=5=85 87>10@=>-87>B5@<8G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0 2 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE 4;O @50:F88: BaCO3(B) = BaO(B) + CO2(3). 0@80=B 12 KG8A;8BL "H( @50:F88: !(3@0D8B) + !2(3) = 2!(3). KG8A;8B5 87<5=5=85 M=B@>?88 ?@8 ?;02;5=88 3 <>;59 C:ACA=>9 :8A;>BK CH3COOH, 5A;8 B5<?5@0BC@0 ?;02;5=8O 16,6 >!, 0 B5?;>B0 ?;02;5=8O 194 6/3. 0: 87<5=ONBAO >A=>2=K5 A2>9AB20 384@>:A84>2 2 @O4C  LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH? B25B 409B5, @0AAG8B02 "G( A8AB5<K Me2O + H2O = 2MeOH. 0@80=B 13 KG8A;8BL "H( @50:F88: 2CO(3) + O2(3) = 2CO2(3). KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 M=B@>?88 ?@8 ?;02;5=88 A5@51@0 54 3, 5A;8 8725AB=>, GB> B5<?5@0BC@0 ?;02;5=8O A5@51@0 960 oC, B5?;>B0 ?;02;5=8O 10,467 :6/<>;L. A?>;L7CO A?@02>G=K5 40==K5, >?@545;8BL B5@<>48=0<8G5A:CN 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>B5:0=8O 2 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE A;54CNI8E @50:F89: 0) 2Al(B) + 3/2O2(3) = Al2O3(B); 1) 2Au(B) + 3/2O2(3) = Au2O3(B). 0@80=B 14 KG8A;8BL "H( @50:F88: CuO(B) + H2(3) = Cu(B) + H2O(6). ;O =5:>B>@>9 @50:F88: 2A2(3) + B2(3) = 2A2B(3) (So < 0. =0G8B ;8 MB>, GB> @50:F8O B5@<>48=0<8G5A:8 2>7<>6=0? F5=8BL B5@<>48=0<8G5A:CN 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>B5:0=8O 2 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE @50:F88: N2(3) + 2H2O(6) = NH4NO2(B). >65B ;8 MB0 @50:F8O ?@>B5:0BL ?@8 2KA>:>9 B5<?5@0BC@5? 0@80=B 15 KG8A;8BL "H( @50:F88: 3Fe3O4(B) + 8Al(B) = 9Fe(B) + 4Al2O3(B). KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 M=B@>?88 2 E>45 E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 ?@8 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE: 2H2S(3) + 3O2(3) = 2SO2(3) + 2H2O(6). A?>;L7CO A?@02>G=K5 40==K5, >?@545;8BL, :0:0O 87 @50:F89 B5@<>48=0<8G5A:8 2>7<>6=0 ?@8 :><=0B=>9 B5<?5@0BC@5: 0) BaCO3(B) = BaO(B) + CO2(3); 1) BaO(B) + CO2(3) = BaCO3(B); 2) Ba(OH)2(B) + CO2(3) = BaCO3(B) + H2O(6). 0@80=B 16 KG8A;8BL "H( @50:F88: 2Pb(NO3)2(B) = 2PbO(B) +4NO2(3) +O2(3). KG8A;8BL  EMBED Equation.3  @50:F88 (1). KG8A;8BL "G( @50:F88 (1). 0@80=B 17 "5?;>2>9 MDD5:B @50:F88 SO2(3) + 2H2S(3) = 2S(@><1) +H2O(6) @025= -234,50 6. ?@545;8B5 AB0=40@B=CN B5?;>BC >1@07>20=8O A5@>2>4>@>40. KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 AB0=40@B=>9 M=B@>?88 A;54CNI53> ?@>F5AA0: MgO(B) + H2(3) = Mg(B) + H2O(6). >;L7COAL A?@02>G=K<8 40==K<8, >?@545;8BL, :0:0O 87 ?@82545==KE @50:F89 B5@<>48=0<8G5A:8 ?@54?>GB8B5;L=55: 2H2S(3) + 3O2(3) = 2H2O(6) + 2SO2(3) 2H2S(3) + O2(3) = 2H2O(3) + 2S(3). 0@80=B 18 KG8A;8BL "H( @50:F88: 4Fe(OH)2(B) + O2(3) + 2H2O(6) = 4Fe(OH)3(B). KG8A;8BL  EMBED Equation.3  @50:F88 (1). KG8A;8BL "G( @50:F88 (1). 0@80=B 19 ?@545;8BL AB0=40@B=CN B5?;>BC >1@07>20=8O A5@>C3;5@>40 CS2, 5A;8 8725AB=>, GB> CS2(6) + 3O2(3) = CO2(3) + 2SO3(3) "> @. = -1075 :6. >6=> ;8 8A?>;L7>20BL ?@8 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE @50:F8N NH4Cl(B) + NaOH(B)= NaCl(B) + H2O(3)+ NH3(3) 4;O ?>;CG5=8O 0<<80:0? ?@545;8BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>B5:0=8O @50:F88 2!(3@0D8B) + H2(3) = C2H2(3). >4AG8B0BL "G( ?@>F5AA0. 0@80=B 20 "5?;>2>9 MDD5:B @50:F88 SO2(3) + 2H2S(3) = 3S(@><1) + 2H2O(6) @025= -234,5 :6. ?@545;8BL AB0=40@B=CN B5?;>BC >1@07>20=8O H2S. ?@545;8BL "G( @50:F88 MeO(B) + CO2(3) = MeCO3(B) 4;O 5 >B 5 4> 0; =0 >A=>20=88 MB>3> A45;09B5 2K2>4 >1 87<5=5=88 >A=>2=KE A2>9AB2 >:A84>2 MB8E 5. ?@545;8B5  EMBED Equation.3  A8AB5<K: H2(3) + S(@><1) = H2S(3). 0@80=B 21 ?@545;8BL AB0=40@B=CN M=B0;L?8N "H(f PH3, 8AE>4O 87 C@02=5=8O: 2PH3(3) + 4O2(3) = P2O5(:) + 3H2O(6); "Ho = -2360 :6. AE>4O 87 25;8G8=K "G(f >1@07>20=8O A>548=5=89, CG0AB2CNI8E 2 @50:F88, >?@545;8BL 2>7<>6=0 ;8 @50:F8O: Al2O3(B) +3SO3(3) = Al2(SO4)3(B) #45;L=0O B5?;>B0 ?;02;5=8O ;L40 @02=0 33480 6/:3. ?@545;8BL 87<5=5=85 <>;O@=>9 M=B@>?88 ?@8 ?;02;5=88 ;L40. 0@80=B 22 AE>4O 87 B5?;>2>3> MDD5:B0 @50:F88 3CaO(:) + P2O5(:) = Ca3(PO4)2(:); "> = -739 :6, >?@545;8BL "H(f >1@07>20=8O >@B>D>AD0B0 :0;LF8O. 0:0O 87 ?@82545==KE @50:F89 @07;>65=8O KNO3 =081>;55 25@>OB=0: 0) KNO3 = K+NO2 + 1/2O2; 1) 2KNO3 = K2O +2NO2+O2; 2) KNO3 = KNO2 + 1/2O2. 7<5=5=85 M=B@>?88 ?@8 ?;02;5=88 100 3 Cu @02=> 1,28 6/. 0AAG8B0BL C45;L=CN B5?;>BC ?;02;5=8O <548, 5A;8 t?;02.=1083 o!. 0@80=B 23 !B0=40@B=K5 B5?;>BK >1@07>20=8O 0F5B8;5=0, C3;5:8A;>3> 3070 8 2>4K A>>B25BAB25==> @02=K 227,3; -394,4 8 -242,0 :6/<>;L. KG8A;8BL AB0=40@B=CN B5?;>BC A3>@0=8O 0F5B8;5=0. C4CB ;8 ?@8 25 >! ?@>B5:0BL @50:F88: 0) KH + H2O =KOH + H2; 1) KH = K + 1/2H2? KG8A;8BL 87<5=5=85 M=B@>?88 ?@8 8A?0@5=88 250 3 2>4K ?@8 25 >!, 5A;8 <>;O@=0O B5?;>B0 8A?0@5=8O 2>4K ?@8 MB>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 @02=0 44,08 :6/<>;L. 0@80=B 24 ?@545;8BL "H(f BiCl3(B), 5A;8 "H(f BiCl3(3) =-270,70 :6/<>;L, 0 "> 2>73>=:8 BiCl3(B) = 113,39 :6/<>;L. 0: 87<5=ONBAO >A=>2=K5 A2>9AB20 384@>:A84>2 2 @O4C: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH? B25B 40BL @0AAG8B02 "G( A8AB5<K Me2O + H2O = 2MeOH. 0AAG8B0BL 87<5=5=85 M=B@>?88 ?@8 ?;02;5=88 3 <>;59 C:ACA=>9 :8A;>BK, 5A;8 t?;02.=16,6 !, 0 B5?;>B0 ?;02;5=8O 194 6/3@04. 0@80=B 25 ?@545;8BL :>;8G5AB2> B5?;>BK, 2K45;ONI59AO ?@8 2708<>459AB288 503 D>AD>@=>3> 0=384@840 A 2>4>9 ?> @50:F88: P2O5 + H2O = 2HPO3, 5A;8 B5?;>2K5 MDD5:BK @50:F88 @02=K: 2P+ 5/2O2 = P2O5, "> @50:F88 = -1549,0 :6. 2P + H2 + 3O2 = 2HPO3, "> @50:F88 = -1854,8 :6. >7<>6=0 ;8 A;54CNI0O @50:F8O: 2Hg2Cl2 = 2HgCl2 + 2Hg? B25B ?>4B25@48BL, @0AAG8B02 "G( MB>9 A8AB5<K. "5?;>B0 8A?0@5=8O 1@><15=7>;0 ?@8 429,8  @02=0 241,0 6/3. ?@545;8BL "S ?@8 8A?0@5=88 1,25 <>;59 1@><15=7>;0. "01;8F0. "5@<>48=0<8G5A:85 A2>9AB20 25I5AB2 5I5AB2> (A>AB>O=85)"(f, :6/<>;LS(298, 6/<>;L("G(f, :6/<>;L1234Al (B)028,340AlBr3 (B)-528,4205,1-Al2O3 (B)-1676,0125,60-1582,0Al2(SO4)3 (B)-3437,4239,5-3091,9Au (B)047,390Au2O3 (B)80,80125,6- (B)05,9023 (B)-1281,654,2-0 (B)060,900 (B)-558,670,6528,80()2 (B)-947,0103,8-856,00!3 (B)-1218112,6-1140,50SO4 (B)-350,231,6-5 (B)-599,1141,1-581,65!3 (B)---944,75! (3@0D8B)05,70! (3)-110,5197,5-137,1!2 (3)-393,5213,7-394,4!22 (3)226,8200,8209,2!0 (B)-635,539,7-604,2!0!3 (B)-1207,088,7-1127,7!l2O (3)76,6266,294,21234Cs2O (B)---274,5CsOH (B)-407,077,9-355,2!u (B)033,360CuO (B)-162,042,6-129,9Cu2O (B)-167,4793,99-Fe (B)027,1740FeO (B)-264,860,8-244,3Fe2O3 (B)-822,287,4-740,3Fe3O4 (B)-1117,1146,2-1014,2Fe(OH)2 (B)-568,59579,553-Fe(OH)3 (B)-824,83996,301-2 (3)0130,602 (3)-241,8188,7-228,62 (6)-285,870,1-237,322 (6)-187,1105,9-117,57H2S (3)-21,0205,7-33,8HgCl2 (B)---185,77Hg2Cl2 (B)---210,66KH (B)-62,870,6-38,49KOH (B)-426,259,4-374,47K2O (B)---103,3KNO2 (B)---281KNO3 (B)-493,0133,0-393,1Li2O (B)-596,638,1-560,2LiOH (B)-488,242,7-443,1Mg (B)032,80MgO (B)-601,826,9-569,6MgCO3 (B)---955,96NH3 (3)-46,2192,6-16,64NH4Cl (B)---342,64NH4NO2 (B)-256--116,02NO (3)90,3210,686,6NO2 (3)33,5240,251,5HNO3 (6)-173,3155,7-80,0Na2O (B)-421,671,2-376,6NaOH (B)-428,364,1-337,0NaCl (B)-412,872,85-384,0O2 (3)0205,003 (3)142,8239,1163,54P2O5 (B)-1492114,5-1348,2 2 (B)-219,366,1-Pb(NO3)2 (B)-483,65213,27-PbS (B)-94,28--Rb2O (B)---290,79RbOH (B)-414,185,0-364,43S (@><1)031,880SO2 (3)-296,9248,1-300,21234SO3 (3)-395,8256,7-370,37SiO2 (B)-910,941,8-856,7SrO (B)-590,354,4-559,8SrCO3 (B)-1218,397,1-1137,6 %'!/ " 8=5B8:0  CG5=85 > A:>@>AB8 @07;8G=KE ?@>F5AA>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 E8<8G5A:8E @50:F89. !:>@>ABL E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 87<5@O5BAO :>;8G5AB2>< 25I5AB20, 2ABC?0NI53> 2 @50:F8N 8;8 >1@07CNI53>AO 2 @57C;LB0B5 @50:F88 2 548=8FC 2@5<5=8 2 548=8F5 >1J5<0 A8AB5<K (4;O 3><>35==>9 @50:F88) 8;8 =0 548=8F5 ?;>I048 ?>25@E=>AB8 @0745;0 D07 (4;O 35B5@>35==>9 @50:F88). -B> >?@545;5=85 <>6=> 2K@078BL C@02=5=85<  EMBED Equation.3 , 345 7=0: ?;NA >B=>A8BAO : 87<5=5=8N :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB20, >1@07CNI53>AO 2 @57C;LB0B5 @50:F88 ((!>), 0 7=0: <8=CA  : 87<5=5=8N :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB20, 2ABC?0NI53> 2 @50:F8N ((!<). !:>@>ABL @50:F88 7028A8B >B ?@8@>4K @5038@CNI8E 25I5AB2, 8E :>=F5=B@0F88, B5<?5@0BC@K 8 >B ?@8ACBAB28O :0B0;870B>@>2.  B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 4;O ?@>B5:0=8O @50:F88 =5>1E>48<> AB>;:=>25=85 @5038@CNI8E G0AB8F (<>;5:C;, 0B><>2), 7028A8<>ABL A:>@>AB8 @50:F88 >B :>=F5=B@0F88 >?@545;O5BAO 70:>=>< 459AB28O <0AA: ?@8 ?>AB>O==>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 A:>@>ABL E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 ?@O<> ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=0 ?@>872545=8N :>=F5=B@0F89 @5038@CNI8E 25I5AB2. "0:, 4;O @50:F88 B8?0 2 + 2 = 2 70:>= 459AB28O <0AA 2K@0605BAO A;54CNI8< >1@07><:  = k [A]2 [B2].  MB>< C@02=5=88 [A]2 8 [B2]  :>=F5=B@0F88 2ABC?0NI8E 2 @50:F8N 25I5AB2 (2 AB5?5=8 8E AB5E8><5B@8G5A:8E :>MDD8F85=B>2), 0 :>MDD8F85=B ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=>AB8 k  :>=AB0=B0 A:>@>AB8 @50:F88, 7=0G5=85 :>B>@>9 7028A8B >B ?@8@>4K @5038@CNI8E 25I5AB2. @8 35B5@>35==KE @50:F8OE :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2, =0E>4OI8EAO 2 B25@4>9 D075, >1KG=> =5 87<5=ONBAO 2 E>45 @50:F88 8 ?>MB><C =5 2:;NG0NBAO 2 C@02=5=85 70:>=0 459AB28O <0AA. @8<5@ 1. 0?8A0BL 2K@065=8O 70:>=0 459AB28O <0AA 4;O @50:F89: 0) 2NO(3) + Cl2(3) = 2NOCl(3); 1) !0!3(:) = !0(:) + !2(3). 5H5=85. 0)  = k [NO]2 [Cl2]; 1) ?>A:>;L:C :0@1>=0B :0;LF8O  B25@4>5 25I5AB2>, >B :>=F5=B@0F88 :>B>@>3> A:>@>ABL 35B5@>35==>9 @50:F88 =5 7028A8B, 8A:><>5 2K@065=85 1C45B 8<5BL 284:  = k , B. 5. 2 40==>< A;CG05 A:>@>ABL @50:F88 ?@8 >?@545;5==>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 ?>AB>O==0. @8<5@ 2. 0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88 2NO(3) + 2(3) = 2NO2(3), 5A;8 C<5=LH8BL >1J5< @50:F8>==>9 A<5A8 2 B@8 @070? 5H5=85. > 87<5=5=8O >1J5<0 A:>@>ABL @50:F88 2K@060;0AL C@02=5=85<  = k [NO]2 [2]. A;54AB285 C<5=LH5=8O >1J5<0 :>=F5=B@0F8O :064>3> 87 @5038@CNI8E 25I5AB2 2>7@0AB5B 2 B@8 @070. !;54>20B5;L=>, B5?5@L: 1 = k (3[NO])2 3[2] = 27 k [NO]2 [2]. !@02=820O 2K@065=8O 4;O  8 1, =0E>48<, GB> A:>@>ABL @50:F88 2>7@0AB5B 2 27 @07. 028A8<>ABL A:>@>AB8 @50:F88 (8;8 :>=AB0=BK A:>@>AB8 @50:F88) >B B5<?5@0BC@K <>65B 1KBL 2K@065=0 C@02=5=85<: t + (t/ t = kt + (t/ kt = ((t/10. @8<5@ 3. "5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 @50:F88 @025= 2,8. > A:>;L:> @07 2>7@0AB05B A:>@>ABL @50:F88 ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K >B 20 4> 75 0!? 5H5=85. >A:>;L:C (t = 55 0!, B> >1>7=0G82 A:>@>ABL @50:F88 ?@8 20 8 75 0! A>>B25BAB25==>  8 1, <>65< 70?8A0BL:  EMBED Equation.3 = 2,855/10; lg EMBED Equation.3  = 5,5 lg2,8 = 2,45. BAN40 A:>@>ABL @50:F88 C25;8G8BAO 2 287 @07. @8 ?@>B5:0=88 E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 :>=F5=B@0F88 8AE>4=KE 25I5AB2 C<5=LH0NBAO; 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 70:>=>< 459AB28O <0AA MB> ?@82>48B : C<5=LH5=8N A:>@>AB8 @50:F88. A;8 @50:F8O >1@0B8<0, B. 5. <>65B ?@>B5:0BL :0: 2 ?@O<><, B0: 8 2 >1@0B=>< =0?@02;5=8OE, B> A B5G5=85< 2@5<5=8 A:>@>ABL >1@0B=>9 @50:F88 1C45B 2>7@0AB0BL, B0: :0: C25;8G820NBAO :>=F5=B@0F88 ?@>4C:B>2 @50:F88. >340 A:>@>AB8 ?@O<>9 8 >1@0B=>9 @50:F88 AB0=>2OBAO >48=0:>2K<8, =0ABC?05B A>AB>O=85 E8<8G5A:>3> @02=>25A8O 8 40;L=59H53> 87<5=5=8O :>=F5=B@0F89 CG0AB2CNI8E 2 @50:F88 25I5AB2 =5 ?@>8AE>48B.  A;CG05 >1@0B8<>9 E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 0 + b ! A! + dD , 2 A>AB>O=88 E8<8G5A:>3> @02=>25A8O A:>@>ABL ?@O<>9 8 >1@0B=>9 @50:F88 @02=K.  EMBED Equation.3 , 345   :>=AB0=B0 @02=>25A8O @50:F88. >=F5=B@0F88, 2E>4OI85 2 2K@065=85 :>=AB0=BK @02=>25A8O, =07K20NBAO @02=>25A=K<8 :>=F5=B@0F8O<8. >=AB0=B0 @02=>25A8O  ?>AB>O==0O ?@8 40==>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 25;8G8=0. '5< 1>;LH5 :>=AB0=B0 @02=>25A8O, B5< 3;C165 ?@>B5:05B @50:F8O, B. 5. B5< 1>;LH5 2KE>4 55 ?@>4C:B>2.  2K@065=85 :>=AB0=BK @02=>25A8O 35B5@>35==>9 @50:F88, :0: 8 2 2K@065=8O 70:>=0 459AB28O <0AA, 2E>4OB B>;L:> :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2, =0E>4OI8EAO 2 684:>9 8;8 307>>1@07=>9 D075, B0: :0: :>=F5=B@0F88 B25@4KE 25I5AB2 >AB0NBAO, :0: ?@028;>, ?>AB>O==K<8. @8<5@ 4.  A8AB5<5 (3) + 2(3) = !(3) @02=>25A=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 @02=K: [] = 0,06 <>;L/;, [] = 0,12 <>;L/;, [!] = 0,216 <>;L/;. 09B8 :>=AB0=BC @02=>25A8O @50:F88 8 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2  8 . 5H5=85. >=AB0=B0 @02=>25A8O 40==>9 @50:F88 2K@0605BAO C@02=5=85<:  EMBED Equation.3 , ?>4AB02;OO 2 =53> 40==K5 7040G8, ?>;CG05<  EMBED Equation.3  = 2,5. ;O =0E>645=8O 8AE>4=KE :>=F5=B@0F89 25I5AB2  8  CGB5<, GB>, A>3;0A=> C@02=5=8N @50:F88 87 1 <>;O  8 2 <>;59  >1@07C5BAO 1 <>;L !. >A:>;L:C ?> CA;>28N 7040G8 2 :064>< ;8B@5 A8AB5<K >1@07>20;>AL 0,216 <>;O 25I5AB20 !, B> ?@8 MB>< 1K;> 87@0AE>4>20=> 0,216 <>;O  8 0,216*2 = 0,432 <>;O . "0:8< >1@07><, 8A:><K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 @02=K: [0] = 0,06 + 0,216 = 0,276 <>;L/;; [0] = 0,12 + 0,432 = 0,552 <>;L/;. 0@80=B I > A:>;L:> @07 C25;8G8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88 ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K >B 40 4> 200 !, ?@8=8<0O B5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 @02=K< 2. KG8A;8B5 :>=AB0=BC @02=>25A8O 4;O @50:F88: ! + 20 ! !02 + 2, 8AE>4O 87 B>3>, GB> ?@8 A>AB>O=88 @02=>25A8O [!] = 0,04 <>;L/;: [20] = 0,064 <>;L/;, [!02] = [2] = 0,016 <>;L/;. 02=>25A=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2, CG0AB2CNI8E 2 A8AB5<5: 2NO + 02 ! 2N02 , 1K;8: <>;L/; [NO] =0,056; [02] = 0,028; [N02] = 0,044. KG8A;8B5 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 [NO] 8 [O2] . 0@80=B 2 0: 87<5=OBAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88 2NO + 02 ! 2N02, 5A;8 C<5=LH8BL >1J5< @50:F8>==>3> A>AC40 2 2 @070? "5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 @50:F88 @025= 2. > A:>;L:> @07 2>7@0AB5B A:>@>ABL @50:F88 ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K >B 20 4> 75 !? 3. 50:F8O 845B ?> C@02=5=8N: 4HCl + O2 ! 2H2O + 2Cl2 . '5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O ?>A;5 =0G0;0 @50:F88 :>=F5=B@0F88 CG0AB2>202H8E 2 =59 25I5AB2 1K;8: (<>;L/;)[ HCl ] = 0,75; [02] = 0,42; [Cl2]  0,20. 0:8<8 1K;8 :>=F5=B@0F88 MB8E 25I5AB2 2 =0G0;5 @50:F88? 0@80=B 3 1. 0?8H8B5 2K@065=85 70:>=0 459AB28O <0AA 4;O @50:F89: 0) H2S (3) = H2 (3) + S (3); 1) N2O4 (3) = 2NO2 (3); 2) 2! (3) + 2 (3) = 2!2 (3).  A8AB5<5 (3) + 2(3) ! 3!(3) @02=>25A=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 @02=K: [ A ] = 0,6 <>;L/;; [ B ] = 1,2 <>;L/;: [ C ] = 2,16 <>;L/;. 09B8 :>=AB0=BC @02=>25A8O @50:F88. 09B8 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2  8  2 7040=88 2? 0@80=B 4 1. ?@545;8B5, :0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL ?@O<>9 @50:F88 2SO2 + O2 = 2SO3 , 5A;8 >1I55 402;5=85 2 A8AB5<5 C25;8G8BL 2 4 @070? 2. "5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 =5:>B>@>9 @50:F88 @025= 3. 0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL MB>9 @50:F88 ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K >B 80 4> 130 (!. 3. !<5I05BAO ;8 @02=>25A85 2 A8AB5<0E H2(3) + Cl2(3) ! HCl(3), 2N2O5(3) ! 2(3) + 4NO2(3) ?@8 87<5=5=88 402;5=8O? 0?8H8B5 2K@065=8O 4;O :>=AB0=B @02=>25A8O :064>9 87 A8AB5<. 0@80=B 5 1. 0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL ?@O<>9 @50:F88 !3 + 303 = (!3)3 + 20, 5A;8 C25;8G8BL :>=F5=B@0F8N <5B8;>2>3> A?8@B0 A 0,3 4> 0,6 <>;L/;, 0 :>=F5=B@0F8N 1>@=>9 :8A;>BK A 0,2 4> 1,2 <>;L/;? 2. @8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K >B 10 4> 50 0! A:>@>ABL =5:>B>@>9 @50:F88 C25;8G8;0AL 2 16 @07. KG8A;8B5 B5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 MB>9 @50:F88. 3. 0?8A0BL D>@<C;C 4;O 2KG8A;5=8O :>=AB0=BK @02=>25A8O @50:F88: 4HCl + O2 ! 2H2O + 2Cl2.  :0:>< =0?@02;5=88 A<5AB8BAO MB> @02=>25A85 2 A;CG05 C25;8G5=8O >1JQ<0 A8AB5<K 2 4 @070? 0@80=B 6 1. 0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 N2 (3) + 3H2 (3) = 2NH3 (3), ?@>B5:0NI59 2 70:@KB>< A>AC45, 5A;8 402;5=85 2 =5< C25;8G8BL 2 3 @070. 2. >=AB0=B0 @02=>25A8O @50:F88 2NO ! N2O4 ?@8 =5:>B>@>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 @02=0 0,25. KG8A;8BL :>=F5=B@0F8N :><?>=5=B>2 2 A8AB5<5 ?@8 =0ABC?;5=88 @02=>25A8O, 5A;8 [NO]8AE = 9,2 <>;L/;. 3. 0: 1K;8 87<5=5=K B5<?5@0BC@0 8 402;5=85 2 35B5@>35==>9 A8AB5<5: !0!03 = !0 + CO2  43 ::0;, 5A;8 @02=>25A85 A<5AB8;>AL 2?@02>? 0@80=B 7 1. @8 =5:>B>@>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 @02=>25A=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 2 A8AB5<5: 2SO2 + O2 ! 2SO3 A>AB02;O;8 A>>B25BAB25==> [SO2 ] = 0,04<>;L/;, [ 02 ] = 0,06 <>;L/;; [ S03 ] = 0,02 <>;L/;. KG8A;8BL :>=AB0=BC @02=>25A8O 8 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 [SO2] 8 [O2]. 2.  :0:>< =0?@02;5=88 A<5AB8BLAO @02=>25A85 A;54CNI8E @50:F89 ?@8 ?>=865=88 B5<?5@0BC@K: H2S (3) ! H2 (3) + S (3)  4,8 ::0;; N2O4 (3) ! 2NO2 (3) + 15,92 ::0;. 3. @8 B5<?5@0BC@5 100 (! A:>@>ABL >4=>9 @50:F88 2 2 @070 1>;LH5 A:>@>AB8 2B>@>9. "5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 ?5@2>9 @025= 2, 2B>@>9  4. @8 :0:>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 A:>@>AB8 >158E @50:F89 2K@02=ONBAO? 0@80=B 8 1. 50:F8O 845B A>3;0A=> C@02=5=8N: 2NO (3) + Cl2 (3) = 2NOCl (3). >=F5=B@0F88 8AE>4=KE 25I5AB2 4> =0G0;0 @50:F88 A>AB02;O;8: [ NO ] = 0,4 <>;L/;; [ Cl2 ] = 0,3 <>;L/;, 2> A:>;L:> @07 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88 ?> A@02=5=8N A ?5@2>=0G0;L=>9 2 B>B <><5=B, :>340 CA?55B ?@>@5038@>20BL ?>;>28=0 >:A840 07>B0? 2. 0: <>6=> C25;8G8BL ?@>F5=B=>5 A>45@60=85 PCl3 2 @02=>25A=>9 A8AB5<5: PCl5 ! PCl3 + Cl2  130::0;. 3. 0 A:>;L:> 3@04CA>2 A;54C5B ?>2KA8BL B5<?5@0BC@C A8AB5<K, GB>1K A:>@>ABL ?@>B5:0NI59 2 =59 @50:F88 2>7@>A;0 2 50 @07? "5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 @50:F88 @025= 1,8. 0@80=B 9 1. C40 A<5AB8BAO @02=>25A85 2A;54AB285 C<5=LH5=8O >1JQ<0 2 A8AB5<0E: 4HCl + O2 ! 2H2O + 2Cl2; 2NO + 02 ! 2N02. 2. KG8A;8BL @02=>25A=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2, CG0AB2CNI8E 2 @50:F88: ! + 20 ! !02 + 2 ?> A;54CNI8< 40==K<: [C0] = 0,1 <>;L/;; [20] = 0,4 <>;L/;, @ = I. 3. > A:>;L:> @07 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88 2 +  = 2, 5A;8 :>=F5=B@0F8N 25I5AB20  C25;8G8BL 2 2 @070, 0 :>=F5=B@0F8N 25I5AB20  C<5=LH8BL 2 2 @070? 0@80=B 10 1. > A:>;L:> @07 =5>1E>48<> C25;8G8BL :>=F5=B@0F8N 25I5AB20 , GB>1K ?@8 C<5=LH5=88 :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB20 2 4 @070 A:>@>ABL @50:F88 2 (3) +  (3) = ! (3) =5 87<5=8;0AL? 2. >=AB0=B0 @02=>25A8O >1@0B8<>9 @50:F88 2 (3) +  (3) ! ! (3) + 2D (3) @02=0 0,0208. KG8A;8BL @02=>25A=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 2A5E 25I5AB2, 5A;8 8725AB=>, GB> 2=0G0;5 @50:F88 A8AB5<0 A>45@60;0 60 <>;L 25I5AB20  8 40 <>;L 25I5AB20 . 1J5< A8AB5<K 10;. 3.  :0:>< =0?@02;5=88 A<5ABOBAO @02=>25A8O: 2!(3) + 02(3) ! 2!02(3) ( = 566 :6; N2(3) + 02(3) ! 2NO(3) ( = 180 :6 ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 402;5=8O 8 ?>=865=88 B5<?5@0BC@K? 0@80=B 11 1. @8 =5:>B>@>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 @02=>25A=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 @5035=B>2 >1@0B8<>9 E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 2 (3) +  (3) ! 2! (3) A>AB02;O;8 [ A ]=0,04 <>;L/;, [ B ] =0,06 <>;L/;, [ C ]=0,02 <>;L/;. KG8A;8BL :>=AB0=BC @02=>25A8O 8 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2  8 . 2. > A:>;L:> @07 =04> 87<5=8BL 402;5=85 307>2>9 A<5A8 4;O B>3>, GB>1K C25;8G8BL A:>@>ABL @50:F88 2SO2(3) + 2(3) = 2SO3(3) 2 27 @07? 3. 0?8H8B5 <0B5<0B8G5A:85 2K@065=8O 70:>=0 459AB28O <0AA 4;O A;54CNI8E A8AB5<: 0)2 3(3) + 42(3 ) = 25(:) + 32(6), (0 = -2360 :6; 1) 2SO2(3) + 2(3) = 2S3(3) , ( = -198 :6. 0: ?>2;8ONB =0 40==K5 A8AB5<K 87<5=5=8O B5<?5@0BC@K 8 402;5=8O? 0@80=B 12 1.  :0:CN AB>@>=C A<5AB8BAO E8<8G5A:>5 @02=>25A85 @50:F88:  (3) + 2 (3) ! 2! (3) + Q, 5A;8 402;5=85 C25;8G8BL 2 3 @070 8 >4=>2@5<5==> ?>2KA8BL B5<?5@0BC@C =0 20 (!, B5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 M:7>B5@<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 @025= 2, 0 M=4>B5@<8G5A:>9  3. 2. '5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O ?>A;5 =0G0;0 @50:F88  +  = 2! +  :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2 A>AB02;O;8: [  ] = 3 <>;L/;, [  ] = 1 <>;L/;, [ ! ] = 0,8 <>;L/;. 0:>2K 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88  8 ? 3. 0?8H8B5 2K@065=85 70:>=0 459AB28O <0AA 4;O @50:F89: 0) 4(3) + (3) = 4(3); 1) !(B) + 2(3) = !2(B); 2) 3(3) + 2!(3) = (6). 0@80=B 13 1. > A:>;L:> @07 C25;8G8BAO A:>@>ABL E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88, ?@>B5:0NI59 2 307>2>9 D075, 5A;8 B5<?5@0BC@C 87<5=8BL >B 10 4> 100 !? 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2. 0AAG8B09B5, :0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL ?@O<>9 8 >1@0B=>9 @50:F88 2 A8AB5<5 2SO2 + O2 ! 2SO3, 5A;8 C<5=LH8BL >1JQ<, 70=8<05<K9 3070<8 2 2 @070. !<5AB8BAO ;8 ?@8 MB>< @02=>25A85 A8AB5<K? 3. >G5<C 87<5=5=85 402;5=8O A<5I05B @02=>25A85 A8AB5<K N2 (3) + 3H2 (3) ! 2NH3 8 =5 A<5I05B @02=>25A85 A8AB5<K N2 (3) + O2 (3) ! 2NO (3)? B25BK 409B5 =0 >A=>20=88 @0AG5B0 A:>@>AB8 ?@O<>9 8 >1@0B=>9 @50:F88 2 MB8E A8AB5<0E 4> 8 ?>A;5 87<5=5=8O 402;5=8O. 0@80=B 14 1. >=AB0=B0 @02=>25A8O 2 3><>35==>9 A8AB5<5 N2 + 3H2 ! 2NH3 ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 400 ! @02=0 0,1. 02=>25A=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 2>4>@>40 8 0<<80:0 A>>B25BAB25==> @02=K 0,2 <>;L/; 8 0,08 <>;L/;. KG8A;8B5 @02=>25A=CN 8 =0G0;L=CN :>=F5=B@0F88 07>B0. 2. @54A:068B5, :0: 1C45B <5=OBLAO >:@0A:0 A<5A8 307>2, CG0AB2CNI8E 2 @02=>25A88 2NO2 ! N2O4, ?@8 >4=>2@5<5==>< C25;8G5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K 8 C<5=LH5=8O 402;5=8O. 725AB=>, GB> NO2 >:@0H5= 2 1C@K9 F25B, 0 N2O4 15AF25B5=. 3. KG8A;8B5 :>=AB0=BC @02=>25A8O @50:F88 N2O4(3) ! 2NO2(3), 5A;8 8AE>4=0O :>=F5=B@0F8O N2O4 A>AB02;O;0 0,09 <>;L/;, 0 : <><5=BC @02=>25A8O ?@>48AA>F88@>20;> 50 % <>;5:C; N2O4. 0@80=B 15 1. 02=>25A85 2 307>>1@07=>< A>AB>O=88 2 A8AB5<5 2NO2 ! 2NO +O2 ?@8 =5:>B>@>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 CAB0=>28;>AL ?@8 :>=F5=B@0F8OE [NO2]=0,07 <>;L/;, [NO]= 0,25 <>;L/;, [O2] = 0,11 <>;L/;. 09B8 :>=AB0=BC @02=>25A8O 8 8AE>4=CN :>=F5=B@0F8N NO2. 2. KG8A;8B5, 2> A:>;L:> @07 C25;8G8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F89, ?@>B5:0NI59 2 307>2>9 D075, ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K >B 30 4> 70 !, 5A;8 B5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B @025= 2. 3. > A:>;L:> @07 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL ?@O<>9 8 >1@0B=>9 @50:F88 2 A8AB5<5 2SO2(3) + 2(3) ! 2SO3(3), 5A;8 >1JQ< 307>2>9 A<5A8 C<5=LH8BL 2 B@8 @070?  :0:CN AB>@>=C A<5AB8BAO @02=>25A85 A8AB5<K? 0@80=B 16 1. >=AB0=B0 @02=>25A8O 3><>35==>9 A8AB5<K CO(3) + 2(3) ! !2(3) + 2(3) ?@8 850 ! @02=0 1. KG8A;8B5 :>=F5=B@0F88 2A5E 25I5AB2 ?@8 @02=>25A88, 5A;8 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 @02=K [!0]8AE. = 3 <>;L/;, [2] 8AE. = 2 <>;L/;. 2. 0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88, ?@>B5:0NI59 2 307>2>9 D075 ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K =0 30 !, 5A;8 B5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 40==>9 @50:F88 @025= B@5<? 3. 0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88 2NO(3) + 2(3) ! 2N2(3) ( = -113 :6, 5A;8 402;5=85 2 MB>9 E8<8G5A:>9 A8AB5<5, =0E>4OI59AO 2 70<:=CB>< A>AC45, C25;8G8BL 2 3 @070?  :0:>< =0?@02;5=88 A<5AB8BAO E8<8G5A:>5 @02=>25A85 ?@8 ?>=865=88: 0) B5<?5@0BC@K; 1) 402;5=8O; 2) :>=F5=B@0F88 :8A;>@>40? 0@80=B 17 1. 0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88, ?@>B5:0NI59 2 307>2>9 D075 ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K =0 30 0!, 5A;8 ( =2,7? 2. 0?8H8B5 2K@065=85 4;O :>=AB0=BK @02=>25A8O 35B5@>35==>9 A8AB5<K !(:) + 22(3) ! !2(3) + 22(3). 0: A;54C5B 87<5=8BL :>=F5=B@0F8N 8 402;5=85, GB>1K A<5AB8BL @02=>25A85 2 AB>@>=C >1@0B=>9 @50:F88  >1@07>20=85 2>4O=KE ?0@>2? 3. > A:>;L:> @07 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL ?@O<>9 8 >1@0B=>9 E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88 H2(3) + I2(3) = 2HI(3), 5A;8 >1J5< 307>2>9 A<5A8 C25;8G8BL 2 3 @070? 0@80=B 18 1. "5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 @50:F88 @025= 3. > A:>;L:> @07 2>7@0AB5B A:>@>ABL @50:F88 ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K >B 80 4> 200 !? 2. 0?8H8B5 =0 >A=>20=88 70:>=0 459AB28O <0AA 2K@065=8O ?@O<>9 8 >1@0B=>9 @50:F88 4;O A;54CNI8E ?@8<5@>2: 2!(3) + 02(3) = 2!02(3); !02(3) + !(B) = 2!(3); F5(B) + !(3) = F5(B) + !02(3). 3. > A:>;L:> @07 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL ?@O<>9 @50:F88 8 >1@0B=>9 2 A8AB5<5 C4(3) + 4Cl2(3) ! !Cl4(3) + 4!l(3)), 5A;8 >1JQ< 307>2>9 A<5A8 C<5=LH8BL 2 B@8 @070, 2 :0:CN AB>@>=C A<5AB8BAO @02=>25A85 A8AB5<K? 0@80=B 19 1.  =5:>B>@><C <><5=BC 2@5<5=8 A:>@>ABL @50:F88 (3) +(3) = !(3) C<5=LH8;0AL 2 10 @07. 0: 87<5=8;8AL :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2  8 , 5A;8 8E 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 1K;8 @02=K <564C A>1>9? 2. > A:>;L:> @07 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88 ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K =0 50 0!, 5A;8 ( =2,4? 3. 0:85 D0:B>@K >?@545;ONB 7=0G5=85 :>=AB0=BK A:>@>AB8 E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88? 028A8B ;8 :>=AB0=B0 A:>@>AB8, ?>4>1=> A:>@>AB8 @50:F88, >B ?@8@>4K @5038@CNI8E 25I5AB2, 8E :>=F5=B@0F88, 402;5=8O, B5<?5@0BC@K, :0B0;870B>@0? >65B ;8 87<5=OBLAO 7=0G5=85 :>=AB0=BK A:>@>AB8 2 E>45 @50:F88? 0@80=B 20 1. 0: 2;8O5B =0 @02=>25A85 A;54CNI8E @50:F89: 22 + 02 ! 220(3) (  = - 453,6 :6 !0!03(B) ! !0(B) + !02(3) (  = 179 :6 0) ?>2KH5=85 402;5=8O; 1) ?>2KH5=85 B5<?5@0BC@K; 2) C<5=LH5=85 :>=F5=B@0F88 20 8 !2. 2. '5<C @025= B5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 @50:F88, 5A;8 ?@8 C25;8G5=88 B5<?5@0BC@K =0 30 ! A:>@>ABL @50:F88 2>7@>A;0 2 30 @07. 3. '5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O ?>A;5 =0G0;0 3><>35==>9 @50:F88 2 307>2>9 D075 2 +2 ! 3! + @02=>25A=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 A>AB02;O;8: [A] = 2 <>;L/;, [B] = 1 <>;L/;, [C] =0,6 <>;L/;. 0AAG8B09B5 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2  8 . 0@80=B 21 1. 0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88 ?@8 C25;8G5=88 :>=F5=B@0F88 ?5@2>3> 8 2B>@>3> 25I5AB20 2 420 @070 4;O 3><>35==>9 A8AB5<K: C2(3) + 2(3) = !(3) + 2(3). 2. 7 ?5@2>=0G0;L=> 27OBKE 2 <>;L/; 07>B0 8 2 <>;L/; 2>4>@>40 ?>A;5 CAB0=>2;5=8O @02=>25A8O >1@07>20;>AL 0,5 <>;L/; 0<<80:0. KG8A;8BL :>=AB0=BC @02=>25A8O A8AB5<K: N2 + 3H2 ! 2NH3 . 3. 0 A:>;L:> 3@04CA>2 A;54C5B ?>2KA8BL B5<?5@0BC@C A8AB5<K, GB>1K A:>@>ABL ?@>B5:0NI59 2 =59 @50:F88 2>7@>A;0 2 20 @07, 5A;8 B5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B @025= 3. 0@80=B 22 1. @8 =5:>B>@>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 :>=AB0=B0 @02=>25A8O FeO(:) + !(3) ! !2(3) + Fe(:) @02=0 0,5. 0?8A0BL 2K@065=85 4;O :>=AB0=BK @02=>25A8O 8 =09B8 @02=>25A=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 307>>1@07=KE :><?>=5=B>2, 5A;8 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 [!] = 0,05 <>;L/; 8 [!2 ]= 0,015 <>;L/;. 2. 0: 87<5=8BAO A:>@>ABL @50:F88 H2 + I2 = 2HI, 5A;8 242>5 C25;8G8BL: 0) 402;5=85 2 A8AB5<5; 1) >1J5< A8AB5<K (157 87<5=5=8O :>;8G5AB2 25I5AB2); 2) :>=F5=B@0F8N 9>40 2 A8AB5<5? 3. ?@545;8B5 B5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B A:>@>AB8 @50:F88, 5A;8 ?@8 ?>=865=88 B5<?5@0BC@K =0 50 C @50:F8O 70<54;8;0AL 2 243 @07? 0@80=B 23 1. 02=>25A85 2 A8AB5<5 H2(3) + I2(3) ! 2HI(3) CAB0=>28;>AL ?@8 A;54CNI8E :>=F5=B@0F8OE: [H2] = 0,23 <>;L/;, [I2] = 0,04 <>;L/; 8 [HI] = 0,85 <>;L/;. ?@545;8B5 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 9>40 8 2>4>@>40 8 @0AAG8B09B5 :>=AB0=BC @02=>25A8O 4;O MB>9 A8AB5<K. 2. 0?8A0BL 2K@065=8O 4;O :>=AB0=B @02=>25A8O A;54CNI8E >1@0B8<KE @50:F89: 0) BaO (B) + C2 (3) ! 0!3 (B); 1) Fe3O4 (B) + 4H2 (3) ! 3Fe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r; !24 + !l2 = !24!l2. 2. ?@545;8B5 8AE>4=K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 07>B0 8 2>4>@>40, 5A;8 ?@8 =0ABC?;5=88 @02=>25A8O A8AB5<K N2 + 3H2 ! 2NH3 :>=F5=B@0F88 25I5AB2 1K;8: 07>B0  0,5 <>;L/;, 2>4>@>40  0,3 <>;L/;, 0<<80:0  2 <>;L/;.  :0:CN AB>@>=C A<5AB8BAO @02=>25A85, 5A;8 C25;8G8BL 402;5=85? 3. 0 A:>;L:> 3@04CA>2 A;54C5B ?>2KA8BL B5<?5@0BC@C A8AB5<K, GB>1K A:>@>ABL ?@>B5:0NI59 2 =59 @50:F88 2>7@>A;0 2 80 @07, 5A;8 B5<?5@0BC@=K9 :>MDD8F85=B @025= 3? &" &/ !"  @8<5@ 1. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 ?>20@5==>9 A>;8 8 2>4K =5>1E>48<> 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 2 :3 20 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0? 5H5=85. 20 %-=K9 @0AB2>@ A>45@68B 20 3 A>;8 2 100 3 @0AB2>@0: 20 3_________100 3 x 3_________2000 3 x = 20 " 2000 / 100 = 400 3. B25B. ;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 2 :3 20 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0 ?>20@5==>9 A>;8 =5>1E>48<> 400 3 A>;8 8 (2000 - 400) = 1600 3 2>4K. @8<5@ 2. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2  =C6=> 27OBL 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 500 <; 0,1 @0AB2>@0? 5H5=85. 1 <>;L  8<55B <0AAC 39 + 16 + 1 = 56 3, 0,1 <>;L A>AB02;O5B 5,6. !;54>20B5;L=>, 2 1000 <; 0,1 @0AB2>@0 A>45@68BAO 5,6 3, 0 2 500 <; 2 2 @070 <5=LH5, B. 5. 2,8 3. B25B. ;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 500 <; 0,1 @0AB2>@0  =C6=> 27OBL 2,8 3 , @0AB2>@8BL 2 =51>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25 2>4K 2 <5@=>9 :>;15 8 @071028BL 2>4>9 4> 500 <;. @8<5@ 3. !:>;L:> <8;;8;8B@>2 96 %-=>9 H2SO4 (@ = 1,84 3/<;) =C6=> 27OBL 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 1 ; 0,5 =. @0AB2>@0? 5H5=85. -:2820;5=B A5@=>9 :8A;>BK @025= ?>;>28=5 <>;5:C;O@=>9 <0AAK, B. 5. 98 / 2 = 49 ;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 1 ; 0,5 =. ?>B@51C5BAO 0,5 <>;L-M:2., 8;8 49 " 0,5=24,5 3.  1 <; 96 %-=>9 H2SO4 A>45@68BAO 1,84 " 96 / 100 = 1,77 3, A;54>20B5;L=>, 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 1 ; 0,5 =. @0AB2>@0 =04> 27OBL 24,5 / 1,77 = 13,84 <; 96 %-=>9 H2SO4. @8<5@ 4. "@51C5BAO 2KG8A;8BL 402;5=85 ?0@0 @0AB2>@0, A>45@60I53> 0,2 <>;O A0E0@0 2 450 3 2>4K. 02;5=85 ?0@0 G8AB>9 2>4K ?@8 20 ! @02=> 17,5 << @B. AB. 5H5=85. KG8A;O5<, A:>;L:> <>;59 2>4K A>45@68BAO 2 450 3. 1 <>;L 2>4K @025= 18 3, >BAN40 G8A;> <>;59 @0AB2>@8B5;O N = 450 / 18 = 25. '8A;> <>;59 @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20 (?) @02=> 0,2. >4AB02;O5< 2A5 MB8 25;8G8=K 2 D>@<C;C   = 0 " n / N = 17,5 " 0,2 / 25 = 0,14 <<. BAN40 402;5=85 ?0@0 @0AB2>@0   = 0   =17,5  0,14 = 17,36 << @B. AB. @8<5@ 5. KG8A;8BL B5<?5@0BC@C 70<5@70=8O @0AB2>@0 A>45@60I53> 54 3 3;N:>7K !6126 2 2503 2>4K. @8>A:>?8G5A:0O :>=AB0=B0 2>4K @02=0 1,86 0!. 5H5=85.  250 3 2>4K A>45@68BAO 54 3 3;N:>7K, 7=0G8B 2 1000 3 2>4K 54 " 1000 / 250 = 216 3, GB> A>AB02;O5B 216 / 180, 8;8 1,2 <>;O (<>;5:C;O@=0O <0AA0 3;N:>7K @02=0 180). KG8A;8< ?>=865=85 B5<?5@0BC@K 70<5@70=8O:  t0=  " != 1,86 " 1,2 = 2,23 . B25B. 0AB2>@ 1C45B 70<5@70BL ?@8  2,23 !. 0@80=B 1 1. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 HCI A>45@68BAO 2 300 <; 10 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0 (p =1,03 3/<;)? 2.  1 :3 2>4K @0AB2>@5=> 666 3 ; ?;>B=>ABL @0AB2>@0 @02=0 1,395 3/<;. 09B8: 0) <0AA>2CN 4>;N ; 1) <>;O@=>ABL; 2) <>;O;L=>ABL; 3) <>;L=K5 4>;8 I5;>G8 8 2>4K. 3. 02;5=85 ?0@0 2>4K ?@8 25 A>AB02;O5B 23,76 << @B. AB. KG8A;8BL 4;O B>9 65 B5<?5@0BC@K 402;5=85 ?0@0 @0AB2>@0, 2 450 3 :>B>@>3> A>45@68BAO 90 3 3;N:>7K !6126. 0@80=B 2 1.  400 <; 32 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0 HNO3 (p =1,8 r/<;) ?@81028;8 1 ; 20. '5<C @02=0 ?@>F5=B=0O :>=F5=B@0F8O 07>B=>9 :8A;>BK 2 ?>;CG5==>< @0AB2>@5. 2. ;>B=>ABL 15 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 H2SO4 @02=0 1,105 3/<;. KG8A;8BL: 0) =>@<0;L=>ABL; 1) <>;O@=>ABL; 2) <>;O;L=>ABL @0AB2>@0. 3. 02;5=85 ?0@0 2>4K ?@8 20 ! A>AB02;O5B 17,54 << @B. AB. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 A0E0@0 !122211 A;54C5B @0AB2>@8BL 2 720 3 2>4K 4;O ?>;CG5=8O @0AB2>@0, 402;5=85 ?0@0 :>B>@>3> =0 0,14 << @B. AB. =865 402;5=8O ?0@0 2>4K? 0@80=B 3 1. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 30 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 NaCl =C6=> 4>1028BL : 300 3 2>4K, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 10 %-=K9 @0AB2>@ A>;8? 2. ;>B=>ABL 9 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 A0E0@>7K C12H22O11 @02=0 1,035 3/<;. KG8A;8BL: 0) :>=F5=B@0F8N A0E0@>7K 2 3/;; 1) <>;O@=>ABL; 2) <>;O;L=>ABL @0AB2>@0. 3. KG8A;8BL, :0:>2> 1C45B 402;5=85 ?0@0 @0AB2>@0 ?@8 65 !, A>45@60I53> 13,68 3 A0E0@0 2 90 3 2>4K, 5A;8 402;5=85 2>4O=>3> ?0@0 ?@8 B>9 65 B5<?5@0BC@5 @02=> 187,5 << @B. AB. 0@80=B 4 1.  :0:>9 <0AA5 2>4K =04> @0AB2>@8BL 67,2 ; !1 (>1J5< 87<5@5= ?@8 =>@<0;L=KE CA;>28OE), GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 9 %-=K9 (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@ !1? 2. ;>B=>ABL 40 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 HNO3 @02=0 1,25 3/<;. 0AAG8B0BL <>;O@=>ABL 8 <>;O;L=>ABL MB>3> @0AB2>@0. 3. @8 42 ! 402;5=85 2>4O=>3> ?0@0 61,5 << @B. AB. 0 A:>;L:> ?>=878BAO 402;5=85 ?0@0 ?@8 C:070==>9 B5<?5@0BC@5, 5A;8 2 540 3 2>4K @0AB2>@8BL 36 3 3;N:>7K !6126. 0@80=B 5 1. 0:CN <0AAC 20 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0  =04> 4>1028BL : 1 :3 50 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 25 %-=K9 @0AB2>@? 2. ;>B=>ABL 9 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 A0E0@>7K C12H22O11 @02=0 1,035 3/<;. KG8A;8BL: 0) :>=F5=B@0F8N A0E0@>7K 2 3/;; 1) <>;O@=>ABL; 2) <>;O;L=>ABL @0AB2>@0. KG8A;8BL 402;5=85 ?0@0 10 %-=>3> 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0 A0E0@0 !122211 ?@8 100. 0@80=B 6 1. ?@545;8BL <0AA>2CN 4>;N 25I5AB20 2 @0AB2>@5, ?>;CG5==>< A<5I5=85< 300 3 25 %-=>3> 8 4003 40%-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@>2 MB>3> 25I5AB20. 0:>9 >1J5< 2 @0AB2>@0 Na2CO3 =04> 27OBL 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 1 ; 0,25 =. @0AB2>@0? 3. 0:>2> 1C45B 402;5=85 ?0@0 10 %-=>3> 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0 <>G528=K CO(NH2)2 ?@8 100 !? 0@80=B 7 1. 7 4003 20 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 ?@8 >E;0645=88 2K45;8;>AL 50 3 @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20. '5<C @02=0 <0AA>20O 4>;O MB>3> 25I5AB20 2 >AB02H5<AO @0AB2>@5? 2. !:>;L:> <8;;8;8B@>2 :>=F5=B@8@>20==>9 A>;O=>9 :8A;>BK (@ = 1,19 3/<;), A>45@60I59 38 % (<0AA5) !1, =C6=> 27OBL 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 1 ; 2 =. @0AB2>@0? 3. 02;5=85 2>4O=>3> ?0@0 ?@8 70 ! @02=> 233,8<< @B. AB., 402;5=85 ?0@0 @0AB2>@0, A>45@60I53> 2 270 3 2>4K 123 @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20 ?@8 B>9 65 B5<?5@0BC@5, @02=> 230,68 << @B. AB. ?@545;8BL <>;5:C;O@=CN <0AAC @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20. 0@80=B 8 1. 0:>9 >1J5< 2>4K =04> ?@81028BL : 100 <; 20 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 H2SO4 (p =1,14 3/<;), GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 5 %-=K9 @0AB2>@? 2.  100 <; 96 %-=>9 (?> <0AA5) H2SO4 (?;>B=>ABL 1,84, 3/<;) ?@81028;8 400 <; 2>4K. >;CG8;AO @0AB2>@ ?;>B=>ABLN 1,220 3/<;. KG8A;8BL 53> M:2820;5=B=CN :>=F5=B@0F8N 8 <0AA>2CN 4>;N H2SO4. 3. ?@545;8BL <>;5:C;O@=CN <0AAC 0=8;8=0, 5A;8 ?@8 30 0! 402;5=85 ?0@0 @0AB2>@0, A>45@60I53> 3,09 3 0=8;8=0 2 370 3 MD8@0 !410, @02=> 643,6<< @B. AB., 0 402;5=85 ?0@0 G8AB>3> MD8@0 ?@8 B>9 65 B5<?5@0BC@5 @02=> 647,9 << @B. AB. 0@80=B 9 1.  500 <; 32 %-=>9 (?> <0AA5) HNO3 (@ = 1,20 3/<;) ?@81028;8 1 ; 2>4K. '5<C @02=0 <0AA>20O 4>;O HNO3 2 ?>;CG5==>< @0AB2>@5? 2. 0AAG8B0BL =>@<0;L=>ABL :>=F5=B@8@>20==>9 A>;O=>9 :8A;>BK (?;>B=>ABL 1,18 3/<;), A>45@60I59 36,5 % (<0AA.) !1. 3. KG8A;8BL, =0 A:>;L:> 3@04CA>2 ?>=878BAO B5<?5@0BC@0 70<5@70=8O 15=7>;0, 5A;8 2 100 3 53> @0AB2>@8BL 4 3 =0DB0;8=0 C10H8. 0@80=B 10 1. > :0:>3> >1J5<0 =04> @071028BL 500 <; 20 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 NaCl (p =1,152 3/<;), GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 4,5 %-=K9 @0AB2>@ (p =1,029 3/<;)? 2. <55BAO @0AB2>@, 2 1 ; :>B>@>3> A>45@68BAO 18,9 3 HNO3, 8 @0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 2 1 ; 3,23 NaO  :0:>< >1J5<=>< >B=>H5=88 =C6=> A<5H0BL MB8 @0AB2>@K 4;O ?>;CG5=8O @0AB2>@0, 8<5NI53> =59B@0;L=CN @50:F8N? 3. 0 A:>;L:> 3@04CA>2 ?>2KA8BAO B5<?5@0BC@0 :8?5=8O, 5A;8 2 100 3 2>4K @0AB2>@8BL 9 3 3;N:>7K C6H1206? 0@80=B 11 1. 09B8 <0AA>2CN 4>;N 07>B=>9 :8A;>BK 2 paAB2>@5, 2 1 ; :>B>@>3> A>45@68BAO 224 3 HNO3 (p =1,12 3/<;). 2. 0:>9 >1J5< 0,2 =. @0AB2>@0 I5;>G8 ?>B@51C5BAO 4;O >A0645=8O 2 2845 Fe(OH)3 2A53> 65;570, A>45@60I53>AO 2 100 <; 0,5 =. @0AB2>@0 FeCl3? 3. @8 :0:>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 1C45B :8?5BL 50 %-=K9 2>4=K9 @0AB2>@ !122211? 0@80=B 12 1. ;>B=>ABL 26 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0  @02=0 1,24 3/<;. !:>;L:> <>;59  =0E>48BAO 2 5 ; @0AB2>@0? 2. ;O =59B@0;870F88 20 <; 0,1=. @0AB2>@0 :8A;>BK ?>B@51>20;>AL 8 <; @0AB2>@0 NaOH !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 NaOH A>45@68B 1 ; MB>3> @0AB2>@0? 3. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 A0E0@0 !122211 =04> @0AB2>@8BL 2 100 3 2>4K, GB>1K ?>=878BL 55 B>G:C 70<5@70=8O =0 1 0!? 0@80=B 13 1. ;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 5 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) pacB2>@0 MgSO4 27OB> 400 3 MgSO4" 7H2O. 09B8 <0AAC ?>;CG5==>3> @0AB2>@0. 2. 0 =59B@0;870F8N 40 <; @0AB2>@0 I5;>G8 87@0AE>4>20=> 25 <; 0,5=. @0AB2>@0 H2SO4. 0:>20 =>@<0;L=>ABL @0AB2>@0 I5;>G8? 0:>9 >1J5< 0,5=. @0AB2>@0 !1 ?>B@51>20;AO 1K 4;O B>9 65 F5;8? 3.  :0:>< :>;8G5AB25 2>4K A;54C5B @0AB2>@8BL 23 3 3;8F5@8=0 !383, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL @0AB2>@ A B5<?5@0BC@>9 :8?5=8O 100,104 !? 0@80=B 14 1. !:>;L:> <>;59 MgSO4-7H2O =04> ?@81028BL : 100 <>;O< 2>4K, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 10 %-=K9 (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@ MgSO4? 2. ;O ?>;=>3> >A0645=8O BaSO4 87 100 3 15 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 0!12 ?>B@51>20;>AL 14,4 <; H2SO4. 09B8 =>@<0;L=>ABL @0AB2>@0 H2SO4. 3. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 3;N:>7K !6126 A;54C5B @0AB2>@8BL 2 260 3 2>4K, GB>1K B5<?5@0BC@0 :8?5=8O @0AB2>@0 ?>2KA8;0AL =0 0,05 ? 0@80=B 15 1. ?@545;8BL <0AA>2CN 4>;N CuSO4 2 @0AB2>@5, ?>;CG5==>< ?@8 @0AB2>@5=88 50 3 <54=>3> :C?>@>A0 CuSO4-5H2O 2 450 3 2>4K. B25B: 6,4 %. 2. 09B8 <0AAC 2>4K, =5>1E>48<CN 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O @0AB2>@0 E;>@840 =0B@8O, A>45@60I53> 1,50 <>;O NaCl =0 1000 3 2, 5A;8 8<55BAO 10 3 NaCl? 0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 5,4 3 =5M;5:B@>;8B0 2 200 3 2>4K, :8?8B ?@8 100,078 !. KG8A;8BL <>;5:C;O@=CN <0AAC @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20. 0@80=B 16 1.  :0:>9 <0AA5 2>4K =C6=> @0AB2>@8BL 25 3 CuSO4"5H2O, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 8 %-=K9 (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@ CuSO4? 2. 0:>9 >1J5< 2 =. @0AB2>@0 H2SO4 ?>B@51C5BAO 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 500 <; 0,5 =. @0AB2>@0? 3. 0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 2 3 @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20 2 200 3 2>4K, 70<5@705B ?@8  0,547 !. KG8A;8BL <>;5:C;O@=CN <0AAC @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20. 0@80=B 17 1. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 Na2SO4-10H2O =04> @0AB2>@8BL 2 800 3 2>4K, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 10 %-=K9 (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@ Na2SO4? 2. 0:>9 >1J5< 0,05 =. @0AB2>@0 <>6=> ?>;CG8BL 87 100 <; 1 =. @0AB2>@0? 3. 0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 6,15 3 @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20 2 150 3 2>4K, 70<5@705B ?@8 t = 0,93 !. ?@545;8BL <>;5:C;O@=CN <0AAC @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20. 0@80=B 18 1. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 2 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 AgNO3 404CB ?@8 2708<>459AB288 A 871KB:>< NaCl 14,35 3 >A04:0 AgCl? 2. KG8A;8BL <>;O@=>ABL 8 =>@<0;L=>ABL 40 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0 3 4 (@ = 1,29 3/<;). 3. @8 @0AB2>@5=88 2,76 3 3;8F5@8=0 !383 2 2003 2>4K B5<?5@0BC@0 70<5@70=8O ?>=878;0AL =0 0,279 !. ?@545;8BL <>;5:C;O@=CN <0AAC 3;8F5@8=0. 0@80=B 19 1. !:>;L:> ;8B@>2 NH3 (>1J5< 87<5@5= ?@8 =>@<0;L=KE CA;>28OE) A;54C5B @0AB2>@8BL 2 2003 10 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 NH4OH, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 15 %-=K9 @0AB2>@ NH4OH? 2. !<5H0=K 800 <; 3 =.  8 1,2 ; 12 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0  (@ = 1,10 3/<;). '5<C @02=0 =>@<0;L=0O :>=F5=B@0F8O ?>;CG5==>3> @0AB2>@0? 3. 0AB2>@, ?@83>B>2;5==K9 87 2 :3 MB8;>2>3> A?8@B0 C2H5OH 8 8 :3 2>4K, 70;8;8 2 @0480B>@ 02B><>18;O. KG8A;8BL B5<?5@0BC@C 70<5@70=8O @0AB2>@0. 0@80=B 20 1. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 SO3 =04> @0AB2>@8BL 2 400 3 2, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 15 %-=K9 (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@ H2SO4? 2. !:>;L:> <8;;8;8B@>2 20 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0 HCI (@ = 1,10 3/<;) A;54C5B 4>1028BL : 4 ; 0,6 =. !1 4;O ?>;CG5=8O 1 =. @0AB2>@0? 3. 0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 2,7 3 D5=>;0 !65 2 75 3 15=7>;0, 70<5@705B ?@8 3,5 !, B>340 :0: G8ABK9 15=7>; 70<5@705B ?@8 5,5 !. KG8A;8BL :@8>A:>?8G5A:CN :>=AB0=BC 15=7>;0. 0@80=B 21 1. 09B8 ?@>F5=B=CN :>=F5=B@0F8N 3;N:>7K 2 @0AB2>@5, A>45@60I5< 280 3 2>4K 8 40 3 3;N:>7K. 2.  1 :3 2>4K @0AB2>@5=> 400 3 ; ?;>B=>ABL @0AB2>@0 @02=0 1,1 3/<;. 09B8: 0) <0AA>2CN 4>;N ; 1) <>;O@=>ABL; 2) <>;O;L=>ABL; 3) <>;L=K5 4>;8 I5;>G8 8 2>4K. 3.  :0:>< >B=>H5=88 4>;6=K =0E>48BLAO <0AAK 2>4K 8 MB8;>2>3> A?8@B0, GB>1K ?@8 8E A<5H5=88 ?>;CG8BL @0AB2>@, :@8AB0;;87CNI89AO ?@8 t = 20 0!? 0@80=B 22 1. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 Na2SO3, ?>B@51C5BAO 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 5 ; 8 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 (p =1,075 3/<;)? 2. ;O >A0645=8O 2A53> E;>@0, A>45@60I53>AO 2 15 <; @0AB2>@0 NaCl, 87@0AE>4>20=> 25 <; 0,1 =. @0AB2>@0 AgNO3. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 NaCl A>45@68B 1 ; MB>3> @0AB2>@0? 3.  @0480B>@ 02B><>18;O =0;8;8 9 ; 2>4K 8 ?@81028;8 2 ; <5B8;>2>3> A?8@B0 (@ = 0,8 3/<;). @8 :0:>9 A0<>9 =87:>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 <>6=> ?>A;5 MB>3> >AB02;OBL 02B><>18;L =0 >B:@KB>< 2>74CE5, =5 >?0A0OAL, GB> 2>40 2 @0480B>@5 70<5@7=5B? 0@80=B 23 1. 1 <; 25 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 A>45@68B 0,458 3 @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20. 0:>20 ?;>B=>ABL MB>3> @0AB2>@0? 2. ;>B=>ABL @0AB2>@0 2!3 A>AB02;O5B 1,22. 7 1 ; MB>3> @0AB2>@0 ?@8 459AB288 A>;O=>9 :8A;>BK ?>;CG5=> 44,5 ; !2 ?@8 =>@<0;L=KE CA;>28OE. KG8A;8BL ?@>F5=B=>5 A>45@60=85 2!3 2 @0AB2>@5 8 53> =>@<0;L=>ABL. 3. @8 @0AB2>@5=88 5,0 3 25I5AB20 2 200 3 2>4K ?>;CG05BAO =5 ?@>2>4OI89 B>:0 @0AB2>@, :@8AB0;;87CNI89AO ?@8 t = 1,45 0!. ?@545;8BL <>;5:C;O@=CN <0AAC @0AB2>@5==>3> 25I5AB20. 0@80=B 24 1. 7 400 3 50 %-=>3> (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@0 H2SO4 2K?0@820=85< C40;8;8 100 3 2>4K. '5<C @02=0 <0AA>20O 4>;O H2SO4 2 >AB02H5<AO @0AB2>@5? 2. !:>;L:> <8;;8;8B@>2 30 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0 HNO3 (@ = 1,205 3/<;) =C6=> 27OBL 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 0,5 ; 1 =. @0AB2>@0? 3. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 A0E0@>7K !122211 =04> @0AB2>@8BL 2 100 3 2>4K, GB>1K: 0) ?>=878BL B5<?5@0BC@C :@8AB0;;870F88 =0 1 3@04CA; 1) ?>2KA8BL B5<?5@0BC@C :8?5=8O =0 1 3@04CA? 0@80=B 25 1. @8 25 ! @0AB2>@8<>ABL NaCl @02=0 36 3 2 100 3 2>4K. 09B8 <0AA>2CN 4>;N NaCl 2 =0AKI5==>< @0AB2>@5. 2.  300 <; 18 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0 Na2CO3 (@ = l,19 3/<;) 4>1028;8 500 <; 6 %-=>3> @0AB2>@0 H2SO4 (@ = l,04 3/<;). !:>;L:> <8;;8;8B@>2 2,5 =. !1 ?>B@51C5BAO 4;O @07;>65=8O >AB02H59AO A>4K? 3. @8 :0:>9 ?@81;878B5;L=> B5<?5@0BC@5 1C45B :8?5BL 50 %-=K9 (?> <0AA5) @0AB2>@ A0E0@>7K !122211? + &.   ! 0@80=B 1 0:85 87 C:070==KE 8>=>2 <>3CB >1@07>2K20BL <564C A>1>9 <0;>48AA>F88@CI85 25I5AB20: NH4+, OH-, CH3COO-, H+, SO42-, Ca2+? !>AB02LB5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNI85 ?@52@0I5=8O:  EMBED Equation.3  !>AB02LB5 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O 384@>;870 A>;59 Na2S, Al(NO3)3 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 2  :0:CN AB>@>=C A<5AB8BAO 48AA>F80F8O A;01>3> M;5:B@>;8B0 @0AB2>@0 C3>;L=>9 :8A;>BK (H2CO3), 5A;8 4>1028BL: 0) NaCl; 1) Na2CO3; 2) HCl? 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNI85 ?@52@0I5=8O:  EMBED Equation.3  0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59 Cu(NO3)2, NH4CH3COO 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0. 0@80=B 3 0:85 87 C:070==KE 8>=>2, A>548=OOAL <564C A>1>9, >1@07CNB <0;>48AA>F8@CNI85 25I5AB20: K+, Na+, NH4+, OH-, SO42-, CH3COO-, H+.  :0:CN AB>@>=C A<5AB8BAO 48AA>F80F8O A;01>3> M;5:B@>;8B0 384@078=0 (NH2OH), 5A;8 : 53> @0AB2>@C 4>1028BL: 0) NaNO3; 1) HNO3. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59 Na3PO4, (NH4)2S 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 4 0:85 87 8>=>2, A>548=OOAL <564C A>1>9, >1@07CNB <0;>48AA>F8@CNI85 A>548=5=8O: K+, Na+, Cu2+, NO3 , NH4+, SO42-, OH-?  :0:CN AB>@>=C A<5AB8BAO @02=>25A85 ;N1>3> M;5:B@>;8B0, 5A;8 : @0AB2>@C A5@>2>4>@>4=>9 :8A;>BK 4>1028BL: 0) Na2SO4; 1) NaOH; 2) H2SO4. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59 FeCl3, CH3COON0 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 5 0:85 87 =0?8A0==KE 8>=>2, A>548=OOAL <564C A>1>9, >1@07CNB <0;>48AA>F8@CNI85 25I5AB20: H+, SO42-, CH3COO-, Na+, K+, OH-? 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F88, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNI85 ?@52@0I5=8O:  Cu Cu2+ Cu(OH)2 [Cu(NH3)4]+2. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59 K2CO3, Fe(NO3)3 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 6 50:F88 <564C :0:8<8 8>=0<8 ?@>B5:0NB ?@0:B8G5A:8 4> :>=F0 NO3-, PO43-, SO42-, S2-, K+, Na+, NH4+, H+. !>AB02LB5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> 1C45B >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNI85 ?@52@0I5=8O: MgSO4 Mg(OH)2 Mg(NO3)2 Mg3(PO4)2. @8 384@>;875 :0:>9 A>;8, =0E>4OI59AO =0 2>74CE5, MB0 A>;L 1C45B C<5=LH0BLAO ?> <0AA5: NaCl, Na2SO4, NH4Cl, Na2SO3, (NH4)2CO3. 0@80=B 7 50:F88 <564C :0:8<8 8>=0<8 ?@>B5:0NB ?@0:B8G5A:8 4> :>=F0: Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Cl-, NO3-, PO43-, CH3COO-, OH-. !>AB02LB5 8>==K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNI85 ?@52@0I5=8O:  Fe Fe2+ Fe3+ Fe(OH)3 . 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59 (NH4)2HPO4, BaS, KNO2 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 8 50:F88 <564C :0:8<8 8>=0<8 ?@>B5:0NB ?@0:B8G5A:8 4> :>=F0 CO32-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-, Na+, K+, NH4+, H+. !>AB02LB5 8>==K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL C:070==K5 ?@52@0I5=8O:  Cr Cr3+ Cr(OH)3 Cr(OH)6 CrO42-. @8 384@>;875 :0:8E A>;59 pH A@54K 1C45B <5=LH5 7: NaCl, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, FeCl3. !>AB02LB5 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O 384@>;870 MB8E A>;59. 0@80=B 9 50:F88 <564C :0:8<8 8>=0<8 ?@>B5:0NB ?@0:B8G5A:8 4> :>=F0: SO42-, !l-, OH-, NO3-, K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNI85 ?@52@0I5=8O:  SO3 SO42- BaSO4 . 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59: FeCl3, Fe(CH3COO)3. 0:0O A@540 1C45B 2 :064>< :>=:@5B=>< A;CG05. 0@80=B 10 50:F88 <564C :0:8<8 8>=0<8 ?@>B5:0NB ?@0:B8G5A:8 4> :>=F0: Na+, PO43-, NH4+, Cl-, OH-, H+. !>AB02LB5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNI85 ?@52@0I5=8O:  Na NaOH NaHCO3 NaCl. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59 (NH4)2SO4, Na2SO4, Fe(NO3)3 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 11 0?8H8B5 48AA>F80F8N 2 2>45 A;54CNI8E M;5:B@>;8B>2: Ba(OH)2, NH4CH3COO, H3BO3 !>AB02LB5 ?> 3 <>;5:C;O@=KE C@02=5=8O @50:F89, :>B>@K5 2K@060NBAO 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K<8 C@02=5=8O<8: 0) Cu2+ + S2-=CuS; 1) SiO32- + 2H+=H2SiO3. 3. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59: Ca(HS)2, Al2(SO4)3 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 12 0?8H8B5 ABC?5=G0BCN 48AA>F80F8N 2 2>45 A;54CNI8E A>;59: Na3PO4 8 Al(NO3)3. KG8A;8BL pH 0,001 @0AB2>@0 C3>;L=>9 :8A;>BK, KI H2CO3=4,5"10-7. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59 ZnBr2, KCN 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 13 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A@54=8E 8 :8A;KE A>;59, A>45@60I8E 8>=K NH4+ 8 Fe3+, NO3- 8 (CrO4)2-. 0?8H8B5 2 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=>9 D>@<5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 2708<>459AB28O <564C 2>4=K<8 @0AB2>@0<8 A;54CNI8E 25I5AB2: Pb(CH3COO)2 8 Na2S; KHS 8 H2SO4. ;O :064>3> A;CG0O C:068B5 ?@8G8=C A<5I5=8O @02=>25A8O 2 AB>@>=C ?@O<>9 @50:F88. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59 Na2HPO4, K2S 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 14 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A@54=8E 8 :8A;KE A>;59, A>45@60I8E 8>=K Na+ 8 Zn2+ 8 0=8>=K SO42- 8 PO43-. 0?8H8B5 8>==K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 2708<>459AB28O <564C 2>4=K<8 @0AB2>@0<8 A;54CNI8E 25I5AB2: !a(OH)2 8 CO2; Ca(OH)2 8 CO2 (871KB>:). ;O :064>3> A;CG0O C:068B5 ?@8G8=C A<5I5=8O @02=>25A8O 2 AB>@>=C ?@O<>9 @50:F88. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59 Ba(NO3)3, Na2SO4 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 15 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A@54=8E 8 :8A;KE A>;59 <03=8O 8 :0;LF8O 8 :8A;>B C3>;L=>9 8 A5@=>9. 0?8H8B5 2 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=>9 D>@<5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 2708<>459AB28O <564C 2>4=K<8 @0AB2>@0<8 A;54CNI8E 25I5AB2: HCl 8 NaHCO3; FeCl3 8 KOH. ;O :064>3> A;CG0O C:068B5 ?@8G8=C A<5I5=8O @02=>25A8O 2 AB>@>=C ?@O<>9 @50:F88. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K C@02=5=89 384@>;870 A>;59 (NH4)2CO3, Na2SO4 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 16 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K =>@<0;L=KE 8 :8A;KE A>;59 :0;8O 8 :0;LF8O, >1@07>20==KE: 0) C3>;L=>9 :8A;>B>9; 1) <KHLO:>28AB>9 :8A;>B>9. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 2708<>459AB28O 2 @0AB2>@0E <564C: 0) Na2CO3 8 CaCl2; 1) CuCl2 8 Na3PO4. C>AB02LB5 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O 384@>;870 A>;59 BaCl2, (NH4)2SO3. 0:>5 7=0G5=85 pH (> 7 <) 8<5NB @0AB2>@K MB8E A>;59. 0@80=B 17 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A@54=8E 8 >A=>2=KE A>;59 28A<CB0 (Bi3+) 8 0=8>=>2 NO3- 8 Cl-. !>AB02LB5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 2708<>459AB28O 2 @0AB2>@0E <564C: 0) HCl 8 CaSO4; 1) FeS 8 H2SO4. !>AB02LB5 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O 384@>;870 A>;59 CrCl3, Al(CH3COO)3 8 C:068B5 @50:F8N 8E 2>4=KE @0AB2>@>2. 0@80=B 18 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A@54=8E, >A=>2=KE 8 :8A;KE A>;59, A>45@60I8E 8>=K 65;570(III) 8 8>=K E;>@0, 8>=K Na+ 8 8>=K D>AD0B0 PO43- . 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 2708<>459AB28O 2 @0AB2>@0E <564C: 0) CuSO4 8 (NH4)2S; 1) MgCl2 8 Na2CO3. !>AB02LB5 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O 384@>;870 A>;59 (NH4)2SO3, (NH4)2S. 0:>5 7=0G5=85 pH (>7<) 8<5NB @0AB2>@K MB8E A>;59. 0@80=B 19 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A@54=8E, >A=>2=KE 8 :8A;KE A>;59 <03=8O 8 :0;LF8O 8 :8A;>B C3>;L=>9 8 A5@=>9, =0?8H8B5 @50:F88 8E M;5:B@>;8B8G5A:>9 48AA>F80F88. 0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=K5 8 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 2708<>459AB28O 2 @0AB2>@0E <564C: 0) Na HCO3 8 HCl; 1) Zn(NO3)2 8 KOH (871KB>:). !>AB02LB5 8>==>-<>;5:C;O@=K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O 384@>;870 A>;59 Cr2(SO4)3 8 AlCl3. 0:>5 7=0G5=85 pH (>7<) 8<5NB @0AB2>@K MB8E A>;59. 0@80=B 20 1. !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>;59, >1@07>20==KE A;54CNI8<8 :0B8>=0<8 8 0=8>=0<8: 0) K+ 8 MnO4-; 1) Al3+ 8 OH-; 2) NH4+ 8 Cr2O72-; 3) Al3+ 8 CH3COO-. 2. >;L7COAL AE5<>9, A>AB02LB5 8>==K5 C@02=5=8O:  FeS + 2HCl H2S + FeCl2;  CaCO3 + 2HCl CO2 + H2O + CaCl2. 3. #:068B5 E0@0:B5@ A@54K 8 =0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K 384@>;870 A>;59: NH4CH3COOH , KCl. 0@80=B 21 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>;59, >1@07>20==KE A;54CNI8<8 :0B8>=0<8 8 0=8>=0<8: 0) Fe3+ 8 NO3-; 1) Ca2+ 8 SO42-; 2) Mn4+ 8 OH-; 3) NH4+ 8 PO43-. >;L7COAL AE5<>9, A>AB02LB5 8>==K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O: Al(OH)3 + 3 Na = AlO3-3 + H2O;  Al(OH)3 + 3 NaOH Na3[Al(OH)6]. #:068B5 E0@0:B5@ A@54K 8 =0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K 384@>;870 A>;59 Na2SO4 8 Na2CO3. 0@80=B 22 1. !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>;59, >1@07>20==KE A;54CNI8<8 :0B8>=0<8 8 0=8>=0<8: 0) K+ 8 PO43-; 1) Al3+ 8 NO3-; 2) !a2+ 8 CO32-; 3) B3+ 8 SO42-. 2. >;L7COAL AE5<>9, A>AB02LB5 8>==K5 C@02=5=8O:  Ba(NO3)2 + MgSO4 Mg(NO3)2 + BaSO4  BaCl2 + CuSO4 BaSO4 + CuCl2. 3. #:068B5 E0@0:B5@ A@54K 8 =0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K 384@>;870 A>;59: MgCO3 8 Fe(NO3)3. 0@80=B 23 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>;59, >1@07>20==KE A;54CNI8<8 :0B8>=0<8 8 0=8>=0<8: 0) Al3+ 8 Cl-; 1) K+ 8 S-2; 2) Ca2+ 8 SO42-; 3) Fe2+ 8 CO32-. >;L7COAL AE5<>9, A>AB02LB5 8>==K5 C@02=5=8O:  K2CO3 +BaCl2 BaCO3 + 2 KCl;  Na2CO3 + KCl K2CO3 + 2 NaCl . #:068B5 E0@0:B5@ A@54K 8 =0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K 384@>;870 A>;59: Na3PO4, FeCl3. 0@80=B 24 !>AB02LB5 D>@<C;K A>;59, >1@07>20==KE A;54CNI8<8 :0B8>=0<8 8 0=8>=0<8: 0) Na+ 8 NO3-; 1) Li+ 8 HSO-; 2) Ca2+ 8 NO3-; 3) Ca2+ 8 HSO4-. >;L7COAL AE5<>9, A>AB02LB5 8>==K5 C@02=5=8O:  Na2S + FeSO4 FeS + Na2SO4;  2FeCl3 + 3CaCO3 Fe2(CO3)3 + 3 CaCl2. #:068B5 E0@0:B5@ A@54K 8 =0?8H8B5 <>;5:C;O@=>-8>==K5 D>@<K 384@>;870 A>;59: CaS, CrCl3. 0@80=B 25 50:F8O <564C :0:8<8 8>=0<8 ?@>B5:0NB ?@0:B8G5A:8 4> :>=F0: NO3-, PO43-, SO42-, S2-, K+, Na+, NH4+, H+. !>AB02LB5 8>==K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNI85 ?@52@0I5=8O:  Zn Zn2+ Zn(OH)2 [Zn(NH3)4]2+. @8 384@>;875 :0:>9 A>;8, =0E>4OI59AO =0 2>74CE5, MB0 A>;L 1C45B C<5=LH0BLAO ?> <0AA5: NaCl, Na2SO4, NH4Cl, Na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aCrO2 + Br2 + NaOH ! Na2CrO4 + NaBr + H2O. 5H5=85. ?@545;8< 25I5AB2>, O2;ONI55AO >:8A;8B5;5< 8 25I5AB2>, O2;ONI55AO 2>AAB0=>28B5;5<, 0 B0:65 8E AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O 4> 8 ?>A;5 @50:F88. %@>< A >:8A;8B5;L=K< G8A;>< +3: Cr+3, @0A?>;>65==K9 2 ;52>9 G0AB8 C@02=5=8O, O2;O5BAO 2>AAB0=>28B5;5<  >= >B405B B@8 M;5:B@>=0, ?@52@0I0OAL 2 E@>< A >:8A;8B5;L=K< G8A;>< +6: !r+6, @0A?>;>65==K9 2 ?@02>9 G0AB8 C@02=5=8O. >;5:C;0 Br2 O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, >=0 ?@8=8<05B 420 M;5:B@>=0, ?@52@0I0OAL 2 420 8>=0 1@><0 (2Br ). !>AB028< M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O, 2K@060NI85 ?@>F5AAK >B40G8 8 ?@8=OB8O M;5:B@>=>2, 8 =0945< :>MDD8F85=BK ?@8 >:8A;8B5;5 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;5:  2 Cr+3  3e ! Cr+6  >:8A;5=85 3 Br20 + 2e ! 2Br  2>AAB0=>2;5=85 2. 0?8H5< 2 ;52>9 G0AB8 C@02=5=8O 8AE>4=K5 25I5AB20 A =0945==K<8 :>MDD8F85=B0<8, 0 2 ?@02>9 D>@<C;K >1@07CNI8EAO 25I5AB2 A A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 :>MDD8F85=B0<8: 2Cr+3 + 3Br20 ! 2Cr+6 + 2Br 3. 0AAB028< ?>;CG5==K5 :>MDD8F85=B>2 2 C@02=5=85 @50:F88, 4>?8A02 =54>AB0NI85 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 25I5AB20E, =5 87<5=82H8E AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O: 2NaCrO2 + 3Br2 + 8NaOH = 2Na2CrO4 + 6NaBr + 4H2O. >AAB0=-;L :8A-;L !@540 @8<5@ 2. !>AB028BL C@02=5=85 @50:F88 AC;LD840 <KHLO:0 (III) As2S3 A :>=F5=B@8@>20==>9 07>B=>9 :8A;>B>9 ?> AE5<5 A2S2 + NO3 ! AsO43 + SO42 + NO2 + H2O. 5H5=85. A2S2  MB> 2>AAB0=>28B5;L, NO3  MB> >:8A;8B5;L, ?>MB><C 2 AC;LD845 <KHLO:0, A>3;0A=> AE5<5, >:8A;ONBAO >4=>2@5<5==> 0B><K A ?>;>68B5;L=>9 8 >B@8F0B5;L=>9 AB5?5=O<8 >:8A;5=8O. !>AB028< A>>B25BAB2CNI85 C@02=5=8O ?>;C@50:F89: A2S3 + 20H2O  28e = 2AsO43 + 3SO42 + 4OH ; -B> ?@>F5AA >:8A;5=8O 2>AAB0=>28B5;O (?5@20O ?>;C@50:F8O). @>F5AA 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O >:8A;8B5;O (2B>@0O ?>;C@50:F8O) 70?8AK25BAO A;54CNI8< >1@07><: NO3 + 2H+ + e = NO2 + H2O; 0;55 =5>1E>48<> C@02=OBL G8A;> >B40==KE 8 ?@8=OBKE M;5:B@>=>2 8 >B>1@078BL MB> A;54CNI59 AE5<>9: A2S3 + 20H2O  28e = 2AsO43 + 3SO42 + 4OH ; 1 NO3 + 2H+ + e = NO2 + H2O; 28 A2S3 + 20H2O + 28NO3 + 56H+ = 2AsO43 + 3SO42 + 4OH + 28NO2 + 28H2O; >A;5 ?@82545=8O ?>4>1=KE G;5=>2 ?>;CG8<: A2S3 + 28NO3 + 16H+ = 2AsO43 + 3SO42 + 28NO2 + 8H2O.  <>;5:C;O@=>9 D>@<5 40==>5 C@02=5=8O 8<55B 284: A2S3 + 28HNO3 = 2H3AsO4 + 3H2SO4 + 28NO2 + 8H2O. @8 2KG8A;5=88 M:2820;5=B>2 M;5<5=B>2 8 8E A>548=5=89 =5>1E>48<> CG8BK20BL, GB> M:2820;5=B >:8A;8B5;O (2>AAB0=>28B5;O) @025= 53> <>;5:C;O@=>9 <0AA5, 45;5==>9 =0 G8A;> M;5:B@>=>2, :>B>@>5 ?@8>1@5B05BAO (B5@O5BAO) >4=>9 <>;5:C;>9 >:8A;8B5;O (2>AAB0=>28B5;O) 2 @0AA<0B@8205<>9 >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=>9 @50:F88. @8<5@ 3. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 FeSO4 <>6=> >:8A;8BL 2 ?@8ACBAB288 H2SO4 A ?><>ILN 100 <; 0,25 =. @0AB2>@0 K2CrO4? 5H5=85.  100 <; 0,25 =. @0AB2>@0 K2CrO4 A>45@68BAO 0,025 <>;L-M:2. >:8A;8B5;O; 0,025 <>;L-M:2. >:8A;8B5;O <>3CB >:8A;8BL 0,025 <>;L-M:2 2>AAB0=>28B5;O. "0: :0: M:2820;5=B 2>AAB0=>28B5;O FeSO4 @025= 53> <>;5:C;O@=>9 <0AA5 (Fe2+  e = Fe3+) , B.5. 151,9, B> 8A:><0O <0AA0 A>AB028B: 151.9 " 0,025 = 3,83 FeSO4. 0@80=B 1 1. :8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K5 @50:F88 2K@060NBAO 8>==K<8 C@02=5=8O<8: !32O72- + 14+ + 6Cl ( 3!12 + 2!33+ + 72; 2Fe3+ + S2- ( 2Fe2+ + S. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>9 8>= O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>9  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>9 8>= >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>9  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2. 0:0O G0ABL M:2820;5=B0 A>45@68BAO 2 250 <; @0AB2>@0 FeSO4, A>45@60I53> 4 % FeSO4"7H2O ( = 1,02 3/<;)? 0@80=B 2 1. 50:F88 2K@060NBAO ?@82545==K<8 AE5<0<8:  + IO3 + 2O ( 3 O4 + HI; H2S + !l2 + 2O ( H2SO4 + !l. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>5 25I5AB2> >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>5  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=BK A;54CNI8E 2>AAB0=>28B5;59, 8AE>4O 87 8E <>;5:C;O@=KE <0AA: K2SO3, FeCO3, SnCl2, H3PO3. 0@80=B 3 1. KMnO4 2>AAB0=02;8205BAO 2 :8A;>9 A@545 2 A>548=5=8O, A>45@60I85 8>= Mn2+, 2 =59B@0;L=>9 8 A;01>I5;>G=>9 A@545  2 MnO2. KG8A;8BL M:2820;5=B KMnO4 2 :064>< A;CG05. 2. 0:85 87 ?@82545==KE @50:F89, ?@>B5:0NI8E ?> AE5<0<, O2;ONBAO >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K<8? 2!r2O7 + H2SO4 (:>=F) ( !rO3 + K2SO4 + 2; KBr + KBrO3 + H2SO4 ( r2 + K2SO4 + 2O; Na2SO3 + n4 + 2 ( Na2SO4 + MnO2 + . !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=KE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 87 MB8E @50:F89 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<.  :0:8< B8?0< @50:F89 >:8A;5=8O-2>AAB0=>2;5=8O <>6=> >B=5AB8 40==K5 C@02=5=8O? 0@80=B 4 1. 0:85 87 ?@82545==KE @50:F89, ?@>B5:0NI8E ?> AE5<0<, O2;ONBAO >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K<8? !0(!O3)2 + !0()2 ( 2!0!3 + 22; PbS + HNO3 ( S + Pb(NO3)2 + NO + H2O; KMnO4 + H2SO4 + KI ( I2 + K2SO4 +MnSO4 + H2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=KE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 87 MB8E @50:F89 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<. 2. 0:CN 4>;N M:2820;5=B0 A>AB02;ONB 0,971 3 K2CrO4 :0: >:8A;8B5;O? 0@80=B 5 1. 0:85 87 ?@82545==KE @50:F89, ?@>B5:0NI8E ?> AE5<0<, O2;ONBAO >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K<8? SbCl3 + H2O ( Sb(OH)Cl2 + HCI; H2SO3 + HC1O3 ( H2SO4 + HCI; EuSO4 + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 ( Eu2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)8 + H2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=KE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 87 MB8E @50:F89 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<. 2. ! CG5B>< AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O E@><0, A5@K 8 07>B0 >1JOA=8B5, :0:>5 87 A>548=5=89  48E@><0B :0;8O, A5@>2>4>@>4, 07>B8AB0O :8A;>B0 1C4CB ?@>O2;OBL A2>9AB20 B>;L:> >:8A;8B5;O, B>;L:> 2>AAB0=>28B5;O 8;8 A2>9AB20 8 >:8A;8B5;O 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;O >4=>2@5<5==>? 0@80=B 6 1. !>AB02LB5 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, 84CI85 ?> AE5<0<: 0) Mn+2 + PbO2 + H+ ! MnO4 + Pb+2 + H2O; 1) As2S3 + H2O2 ! AsO43 + SO4 + H+ + H2O; 2) SO32 + ClO3 ! SO42 + Cl . #:068B5 25I5AB20, O2;ONI85AO >:8A;8B5;O<8 8 25I5AB20, O2;ONI85AO 2>AAB0=>28B5;O<8.  :0:8< B8?0< @50:F89 >:8A;5=8O-2>AAB0=>2;5=8O <>6=> >B=5AB8 40==K5 C@02=5=8O? 2. 0:>9 >1J5< @0AB2>@0 48E@><0B0 :0;8O, A>45@60I53> 14 3 K2Cr2O7 21 ;, =5>1E>48< 4;O >:8A;5=8O 2 ; 0,1 @0AB2>@0 A5@>2>4>@>40 2 ?@8ACBAB288 @07102;5==>9 A5@=>9 :8A;>BK? 0@80=B 7 1. 50:F88 2K@060NBAO ?@82545==K<8 AE5<0<8: KC1O3 + Na2SO3 + H2SO4 ( KCI + Na2SO4 + H2O; KMnO4 + HBr ( Br2 + KBr + MnBr2 + H2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>5 25I5AB2> >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>5  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2. 0:CN <0AAC AC;LD0B0 65;570 (II) <>6=> >:8A;8BL 2 ?@8ACBAB288 A5@=>9 :8A;>BK A ?><>ILN 200 <; 0,25 =. @0AB2>@0 48E@><0B0 :0;8O K2Cr2O7? 0@80=B 8 1. 50:F88 2K@060NBAO ?@82545==K<8 AE5<0<8. KMnO4 + Na2SO3 + KOH ( K2MnO4 + Na2SO4 + H2O; P + HNO3 + H2O ( H3PO4 +2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>5 25I5AB2> >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>5  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2.  07>B=>:8A;><C @0AB2>@C, A>45@60I5<C 0,02 <>;L Mn2+ ?@8102;5=> 0,873 AC@8:0 Pb3O4. ?@545;8B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> 8 :0:>9 <0AAK >AB0;>AL ?>A;5 @50:F88? !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=85 @50:F88 8 C:068B5 0B><K >:8A;8B5;O 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;O. 0@80=B 9 1. 0:85 87 ?@82545==KE @50:F89, ?@>B5:0NI8E ?> AE5<0<, O2;ONBAO >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K<8? CuSO4 + 2NaOH ( Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4; H3AsO3 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 ( H3AsO4 +MnSO4 + K2SO4 + H2O; P + HC1O3 + H2O ( H3PO4 + HCI. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=KE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 87 MB8E @50:F89 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<. 2. 8A;>BK H3PO2 8 H3PO3 O2;ONBAO A8;L=K<8 2>AAB0=>28B5;O<8. !>AB028BL C@02=5=8O @50:F89 2708<>459AB28O 40==KE :8A;>B A @0AB2>@>< =8B@0B0 A5@51@0 AgNO3. 0@80=B 10 1. :8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K5 @50:F88 2K@060NBAO 8>==K<8 C@02=5=8O<8: O2 + 4H+ + 4C1( ( 2C12 + H2O; Ti4+ + Zn ( Ti3+ + Zn2+. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>9 8>= O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>9  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>9 8>= >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>9  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2. 84@>AC;LD84 =0B@8O ?>;CG0NB 2 B5E=8:5 =0AKI5=85< @0AB2>@0 Na2S A5@>2>4>@>4><. 0?8A0BL C@02=5=85 @50:F88, C:070BL >:8A;8B5;L 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;L, : :0:><C B8?C @50:F89 >:8A;5=8O-2>AAB0=>2;5=8O 55 <>6=> >B=5AB8 8 ?>G5<C? 0@80=B 11 1. 50:F88 2K@060NBAO ?@82545==K<8 AE5<0<8: K2S + KMnO4 + H2SO4 ( S + K2SO4 + MnSO4 + H2O; HNO3 + Ca ( NH4NO3 + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>5 25I5AB2> >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>5  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO.  :0:8< B8?0< @50:F89 >:8A;5=8O-2>AAB0=>2;5=8O <>6=> >B=5AB8 40==K5 C@02=5=8O? 2. 7>B8AB0O :8A;>B0 <>65B ?@>O2;OBL >:8A;8B5;L=K5 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K5 A2>9AB20. #:068B5 B8? 40==>9 @50:F88, 2 :0:>< C@02=5=88 :8A;>B0 83@05B @>;L >:8A;8B5;O, 0 2 :0:><  2>AAB0=>28B5;O? 0) KJ + HNO2 + H2SO4 ! NO + J2 + H2O; 1) Na2S + NaNO2 + H2SO4 ! S + NO + NaSO4 + H2O; 2) Zn + KNO2 KOH ! NH3 + K2[Zn(OH)4] + H2O. 0@80=B 12 1. 50:F88 2K@060NBAO ?@82545==K<8 AE5<0<8: I2 + NaOH ( NaOI + NaI; MnSO4 + PbO2 + HNO3 ( HMnO4 + Pb(NO3)2 + PbSO4 + H2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>5 25I5AB2> >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>5  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO.  :0:8< B8?0< @50:F89 >:8A;5=8O-2>AAB0=>2;5=8O <>6=> >B=5AB8 40==K5 C@02=5=8O? 2. !>AB028BL C@02=5=8O @50:F89 ?>;CG5=8O Sn(OH)2 8 Pb(OH)2 8 2708<>459AB28O 8E A A5@=>9 :8A;>B>9 8 384@>:A84>< =0B@8O.  :0:8< B8?0< @50:F89 >:8A;5=8O-2>AAB0=>2;5=8O <>6=> >B=5AB8 40==K5 C@02=5=8O? 0@80=B 13 1. 0:85 87 ?@82545==KE @50:F89, ?@>B5:0NI8E ?> AE5<0<, O2;ONBAO >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K<8? (NH4)2S + Pb(NO3)2 ( PbS + 2NH4NO3; NaCrO2 + PbO2 + NaOH ( Na2CrO4 + Na2PbO2 + H2O; KMnO4 + KNO2 + H2SO4 ( MnSO4 + KNO3 + K2SO4 + H2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=KE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 87 MB8E @50:F89 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<. 2. KG8A;8BL M:2820;5=BK A;54CNI8E >:8A;8B5;59, 8AE>4O 87 8E <>;5:C;O@=KE <0AA: KClO3, K2Cr2O7, NaClO, CaCl(OCl). 0@80=B 14 1. :8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K5 @50:F88 2K@060NBAO 8>==K<8 C@02=5=8O<8: Hg2+ + Sn2+ ( Hg +- Sn4+; 2Fe3+ + 2I = 2Fe2+ + I2. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 8 <>;5:C;O@=K5 C@02=5=8O. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>9 8>= O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>9  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>9 8>= >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>9  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2. '5<C @025= M:2820;5=B <5B0;;0 8 53> >:A840, 5A;8 8725AB=>, GB> 1,216 3 <5B0;;0 2KB5A=O5B 87 :8A;>BK 1,12 ; 2>4>@>40 ?@8 =.C.? 0@80=B 15 1. 50:F88 2K@060NBAO ?@82545==K<8 AE5<0<8: NaCrO2 + Br2 + NaOH ( Na2CrO4 + NaBr + H2O; FeS + HNO3 ( Fe(NO3)2 + S + NO + H2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>5 25I5AB2> >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>5  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC >:A840 A28=F0 (IV) 2 @50:F8OE: 0) HCl + PbO2 !Cl2 + PbCl2 + H2O; 1) C + PbO2 ! CO2 + Pb. 0@80=B 16 1. 50:F88 2K@060NBAO ?@82545==K<8 AE5<0<8: HNO3 + Zn ( N2O + Zn(NO3)2 + H2O; FeSO4 + KC1O3 + H2SO4 ( Fe2(SO)3 + KCI + H2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>5 25I5AB2> >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>5  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 40==KE C@02=5=8OE @50:F89, C:068B5 >:8A;8B5;L 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;L. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=K5 <0AAK KMnO4 8 22 2 A;54CNI8E AE5<0E: 0) FeSO4 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 ! Fe2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + MnSO4 + H2O; 1) MnSO4 + H2O2 + KOH ! MnO2 + K2SO4 + H2O. 0@80=B 17 1. 0:85 87 ?@82545==KE @50:F89, ?@>B5:0NI8E ?> AE5<0<, O2;ONBAO >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K<8? 1()3 + NaOH ( NaAlO2 + 22; Na3AsO3 + I2 + 2O ( Na3AsO4 + HI; Cu2O + HNO3 ( Cu(NO3)2 + NO + H2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=KE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 87 MB8E @50:F89 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<. 2. '5<C @02=K M:2820;5=B=K5 <0AAK KClO4, 5A;8 MB> 25I5AB2> 2 ?@>F5AA5 @50:F88 2>AAB0=02;8205BAO: 0) 4> KCl; 1) 4> Cl2? 0@80=B 18 1. 50:F88 2K@060NBAO ?@82545==K<8 AE5<0<8: 2!r2O7 + H2S + H2SO4 ( S + Cr2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + H2O; H2S + C12 + H2O ( H2SO4 + HC1. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>5 25I5AB2> >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>5  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2. !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=85 @50:F88 <564C E@><8B>< :0;8O KCrO2 8 1@><>< 2 I5;>G=>9 A@545 8 >?@545;8B5 M:2820;5=B=K5 <0AAK >:8A;8B5;O 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;O. 0@80=B 19 1. !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 2 <>;5:C;O@=>9 8 8>==>9 D>@<0E: 0) NO2 + ClO3 ! NO3 + Cl ; 1) MnO42 + H2O ! MnO4 + MnO2 + OH ; 2) C2O42 + MnO2 + H+ ! CO2 + Mn2+ + H2O. 2. !:>;L:> 3@0<<>2 KNO2 <>6=> >:8A;8BL 2 ?@8ACBAB288 H2SO4 30 <; 0,09 =. @0AB2>@0 KMnO4? 0@80=B 20 1.  ?>4:8A;5==><C @0AB2>@C KJ 4>1028;8 80 <; 0,15 =. @0AB2>@0 KMnO4. KG8A;8BL <0AAC 2K45;82H53>AO 9>40. 2. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 A;54CNI8E C@02=5=8OE @50:F89, C:068B5 >:8A;8B5;L 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;L 2 :064>9 AE5<5: 0) Ag + HNO3 ! AgNO3 + NO2 + H2O; 1) Al + KNO2 + KOH + H2O ! K[Al(OH)4] + NH3; 2) MnSO4 + KMnO4 + H2 ! MnO2 + K2SO4 + H2SO4. 0@80=B 21 1. 0:8< :>;8G5AB2>< 3@0<<>2 KMnO4, 459AB2CNI8< 2 :0G5AB25 >:8A;8B5;O 2 :8A;>9 A@545, <>6=> 70<5=8BL 1 3 KClO3? 2. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89, C:068B5 AB5?5=8 >:8A;5=8O M;5<5=B>2, >:8A;8B5;L 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;L 2 :064>9 AE5<5: 0) CrBr3 + H2O2 + NaOH ! Na2CrO4 + NaBr; 1) Cr2(SO4)3 + K2S2O8 + H2O ! K2Cr2O7 + K2SO4 + H2SO4; 2) MnSO4 + NaBiO3 + HNO3 ! KMnO4 + Na2SO4 + Bi(NO3)3 + NaNO3 + H2O. 0@80=B 22 1. 0:>9 87 30;>35=>2  E;>@, 1@>< 8;8 9>4  <>6=> ?@8<5=OBL 4;O >:8A;5=8O <0=30=0B0 4> ?5@<0=30=0B0? 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O @50:F88, C:068B5 >:8A;8B5;L 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;L. 2. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 A;54CNI8E C@02=5=8OE @50:F89, C:0702, A>>B25BAB25==>, >:8A;8B5;L 8 2>AAB0=>28B5;L: 0) Cr!l3 + H2O2 + NaOH ! Na2CrO4 + NaCl + H2O; 1) KJ + H2O2 + H2SO4 ! J2 + K2SO4 + H2O. 0@80=B 23 1. 0:>=G8BL A;54CNI85 C@02=5=8O @50:F89 8 =0720BL ?>;CG5==K5 ?@>4C:BK: BCl3 + H2O !& & & & & & & & & ; B2O3 + CaF2 + H2SO4 ! BF3 + & & & & ..; BF3 + H2O ! HBF4 + H3BO3 & & & & & .. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>5 25I5AB2> >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>5  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2. 0:>20 =>@<0;L=>ABL 1  @0AB2>@0 KNO2: 0) :0: 2>AAB0=>28B5;O, 5A;8 KNO2 ?5@5E>48B 2 KNO3; 1) :0: >:8A;8B5;O, 5A;8 KNO2 2>AAB0=02;8205BAO 4> NO? 0@80=B 24 1. 0:>=G8BL C@02=5=8O @50:F89, 2 :>B>@KE ?5@5:8AL 2>4>@>40 O2;O5BAO 2>AAB0=>28B5;5<: 0) H2O2 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 ! O2 + MnSO4 + K2SO4 + H2O; 1) H2O2 + AgNO3 + NH4OH ! O2 + Ag + NH4NO3 + H2O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 @50:F88 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<; :0:>5 25I5AB2> >:8A;O5BAO, :0:>5  2>AAB0=02;8205BAO. 2. 0:>20 =>@<0;L=>ABL @0AB2>@0 A5@=8AB>9 :8A;>BK :0: 2>AAB0=>28B5;O, 5A;8  = 1,09 3/<;. 0AB2>@ A>45@68B 10 % SO2? 0@80=B 25 1. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O. 0AAB02LB5 :>MDD8F85=BK 2 C@02=5=8OE >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=KE @50:F89. ;O :064>9 87 MB8E @50:F89 C:068B5, :0:>5 25I5AB2> O2;O5BAO >:8A;8B5;5<, :0:>5  2>AAB0=>28B5;5<. 0) Na2S2O4 + AgCl + + NH4OH ! (NH4)2SO3 + NaCl + Ag + H2O; 1) Na3AsO3 + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 ! Na3AsO4 + Cr2(SO4)3; 2) NaAsO2 + J2 + Na2CO3 + H2O ! NaH2AsO4 + NaCl. 2. 0:8<8 B@5<O A?>A>10<8 <>6=> ?>;CG8BL A5@>2>4>@>4, 8<5O 2 A2>5< @0A?>@O65=88 F8=:, A5@C, 2>4>@>4 8 A5@=CN :8A;>BC? !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E @50:F89. -" %'!  &!!+ @8<5@ 1. KG8A;8B5 M;5:B@>4286CICN A8;C (M.4.A.) 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, >1@07>20==>3> A28=F>2K< M;5:B@>4><, ?>3@C65==K< 2 0,01  @0AB2>@ Pb(NO3)2 8 A5@51@O=K< M;5:B@>4><, ?>3@C6Q==K< 2 0,1  @0AB2>@ AgNO3. 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2, A>AB02LB5 30;L20=8G5A:CN AE5<C M;5<5=B0. 5H5=85. ;O >?@545;5=8O -! MB>3> 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0 AB0=40@B=KE M;5:B@>4=KE ?>B5=F80;>2 =094Q< 7=0G5=8O  EMBED Equation.3 8  EMBED Equation.3 , 0 70B5< @0AAG8B05< M;5:B@>4=K5 ?>B5=F80;K MB8E <5B0;;>2. 7 B01;8FK C@02=5=8N 5@=AB0.  EMBED Equation.3 = -0,13 ;  EMBED Equation.3 = +0,80 ;  EMBED Equation.3 ;  EMBED Equation.3 . >A:>;L:C Ag>EPb, B> =0 A5@51@O=>< M;5:B@>45 1C45B ?@>B5:0BL ?@>F5AA 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O, >= 1C45B A;C68BL :0B>4><, B.5. ?>;>68B5;L=K< ?>;NA>< M;5<5=B0 Ag+ + 1 EMBED Equation.3  = Ag. !28=F>2K9 M;5:B@>4 1C45B 0=>4>< 8 A>>B25BAB25==> >B@8F0B5;L=K< ?>;NA>< 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, =0 :>B>@>< 1C45B ?@>B5:0BL ?@>F5AA >:8A;5=8O Pb = Pb2+ +  EMBED Equation.3 . 0E>48< -! M;5<5=B0, :0: @07=8FC ?>B5=F80;>2 :0B>40 () 8 0=>40 () -! =    = EAg  EPb = 0,741-(-0,189) = 0,93 B. !>AB028< AE5<C 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0:  EMBED ChemDraw.Document.6.0  EMBED Equation.3  EMBED ChemDraw.Document.6.0 . @8<5@ 2. AE>4O 87 7=0G5=89 AB0=40@B=KE M;5:B@>4=KE ?>B5=F80;>2 8 ( EMBED Equation.3  C:068B5, <>6=> ;8 2 30;L20=8G5A:>< M;5<5=B5 >ACI5AB28BL A;54CNICN @50:F8N:  EMBED ChemDraw.Document.6.0 . 5H5=85. !>AB028< C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 AE5<C 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, @01>B0NI53> ?> MB>9 @50:F88: 0=>4=K9 ?@>F5AA: Fe0   EMBED Equation.3  = Fe2+; :0B>4=K9 ?@>F5AA: Cd2+ + EMBED Equation.3  = Cd(.  30;L20=8G5A:>< M;5<5=B5 >B@8F0B5;L=K< 1C45B 65;57=K9 M;5:B@>4, 0 ?>;>68B5;L=K<  :04<852K9. !E5<0 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0:   EMBED ChemDraw.Document.6.0  EMBED Equation.3  EMBED ChemDraw.Document.6.0  >;L7COAL B01;8F59 AB0=40@B=KE M;5:B@>4=KE ?>B5=F80;>2, -! MB>3> 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0 -! =  EMBED Equation.3 . 7<5=5=85 M=5@388 811A0 ( EMBED Equation.3 8 -! M;5<5=B0 A2O70=> A>>B=>H5=85< ( EMBED Equation.3 , 345 n  G8A;> M;5:B@>=>2, ?@8=8<0NI8E CG0AB85 2 @50:F88; F  ?>AB>O==0O $0@045O (96500 ;); (E  -! 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0. !;54>20B5;L=>:  EMBED Equation.3 6(<>;L-1. "0: :0:  EMBED Equation.3 < 0, B> 40==CN @50:F8N 2 30;L20=8G5A:>< M;5<5=B5 <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL. 50:F8O 2 =0?@02;5=88 1 ?@>B5:05B A0<>?@>872>;L=>. @8<5@ 3. !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>B5:0NI8E ?@8 M;5:B@>;875 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0 E;>@840 =0B@8O A 8=5@B=K<8 M;5:B@>40<8. 5H5=85.  >:8A;8B5;L=>-2>AAB0=>28B5;L=KE ?@>F5AA0E, ?@>8AE>4OI8E =0 M;5:B@>40E ?@8 M;5:B@>;875 @0AB2>@>2, :@><5 8>=>2 M;5:B@>;8B0 ?@8=8<05B CG0AB85 2>40. 7 =5A:>;L:8E 2>7<>6=KE ?@>F5AA>2 =0 M;5:B@>45 1C45B ?@>B5:0BL B>B, >ACI5AB2;5=85 :>B>@>3>, A>?@O65=> A <8=8<0;L=>9 70B@0B>9 M=5@388. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> =0 :0B>45 1C4CB 2>AAB0=02;820BLAO >:8A;5==K5 D>@<K A8AB5<, 8<5NI85 =081>;LH85 M;5:B@>4=K5 ?>B5=F80;K, 0 =0 0=>45 1C4CB >:8A;OBLAO 2>AAB0=>2;5==K5 D>@<K A8AB5< A =08<5=LH8<8 M;5:B@>4=K<8 ?>B5=F80;0<8. !E5<0 M;5:B@>;870 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0 NaCl. 0 :0B>45 <>6=> >6840BL A;54CNI85 @50:F88 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O: Na+ +  EMBED Equation.3  EMBED Equation.3  Na(  EMBED Equation.3 ; 2H2O +  EMBED Equation.3  H2 + 2OH-  EMBED Equation.3 , B0: :0:  EMBED Equation.3 , B> =0 :0B>45 1C45B ?@>8AE>48BL ?@>F5AA M;5:B@>E8<8G5A:>3> 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O 2>4K. 0 0=>45 <>6=> >6840BL A;54CNI85 @50:F88 >:8A;5=8O: 2Cl   EMBED Equation.3  Cl2; 0l = +1,36; 2H2O   EMBED Equation.3  O2 + 4H+; 02 =+2,42. 02 1>;55 ?>;>68B5;5=, G5< 01, ?>MB><C =0 0=>45 ?@>8AE>48B >:8A;5=85 0=8>=>2 E;>@0. !C<<0@=>5 C@02=5=85 M;5:B@>;870: 2H2O + 2Cl = H2 + Cl2 + 2OH . @8<5@ 4. @8 M;5:B@>;875 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0 AgNO3 A 8=5@B=K<8 M;5:B@>40<8 2 B5G5=85 25 <8= ?@8 A8;5 B>:0 3 =0 :0B>45 2K45;8;>AL 4,8 3 A5@51@0. 0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 @0AAG8B09B5 2KE>4 ?> B>:C. 5H5=85. @8 M;5:B@>;875 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0 AgNO3 A 8=5@B=K<8 M;5:B@>40<8 (?;0B8=0, 3@0D8B) =0 M;5:B@>40E ?@>B5:0NB A;54CNI85 ?@>F5AAK: ( ) :0B>4: Ag+ + e = Ago; (+) 0=>4: 2H2O  4e = O2 + 4H+. > 70:>=C $0@045O @0AAG8B05< <0AAC 2K45;82H53>AO A5@51@0  EMBED Equation.3 ,  EMBED Equation.3 ;  EMBED Equation.3 . ;O E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 8AB8==>3> :>;8G5AB20 25I5AB20, 2K45;82H53>AO =0 M;5:B@>45, 22545=> ?>=OB85 2KE>4 ?> B>:C (, 2K@065==>5 2 ?@>F5=B0E  EMBED Equation.3 . @8<5@ 5. %@>< =0E>48BAO 2 :>=B0:B5 A <54LN. 0:>9 87 <5B0;;>2 1C45B >:8A;OBLAO ?@8 :>@@>788, 5A;8 MB0 ?0@0 <5B0;;>2 ?>?04QB 2 :8A;CN A@54C. !>AB02LB5 AE5<C 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, @01>B0NI53> ?@8 :>@@>788 <5B0;;0. 5H5=85. 7 B01;8FK AB0=40@B=KE M;5:B@>4=KE ?>B5=F80;>2 =0E>48< 7=0G5=85  EMBED Equation.3  8  EMBED Equation.3 . %@>< 1>;55 0:B82=K9 <5B0;; 8 2 >1@07CNI59AO 30;L20=8G5A:>9 ?0@5 1C45B 0=>4><, 0 <54L 1C45B A;C68BL :0B>4><. %@><>2K9 0=>4 @0AB2>@O5BAO, 0 =0 <54=>< :0B>45 2K45;O5BAO 2>4>@>4: 0=>4=K9 ?@>F5AA: Cr0   EMBED Equation.3 = Cr3+; :0B>4=K9 ?@>F5AA (Cu): 2H+ +  EMBED Equation.3 = H2. !E5<0 @01>B0NI53> 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0:  EMBED Equation.3 . 0@80=B 1 !>AB02LB5 AE5<C, =0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 2KG8A;8B5 -! <54=>-:04<852>3> 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0 2 :>B>@>< [Cd2+] = 0,8 <>;L/;, 0 [Cu2+] = 0,01 <>;L/;. 0: ?@>8AE>48B 0B<>AD5@=0O :>@@>78O ;C65=>3> 65;570 8 ;C65=>9 <548 ?@8 =0@CH5=88 ?>:@KB8O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>4=K5 C@02=5=8O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>4=K5 C@02=5=8O ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E =0 3@0D8B>2KE M;5:B@>40E ?@8 M;5:B@>;875 @0AB2>@0 KBr. 0:0O <0AA0 25I5AB20 2K45;8BAO =0 :0B>45 8 0=>45, 5A;8 M;5:B@>;87 ?@>2>48BL 2 B5G5=85 1 G 35 <8= ?@8 A8;5 B>:0 15. 0@80=B 2 !>AB02LB5 AE5<C, =0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 2KG8A;8B5 -! 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, A>AB>OI53> 87 A5@51@O=KE M;5:B@>4>2, ?>3@C65==KE: ?5@2K9 2 0,01 , 0 2B>@>9 2 0,01  =8B@0B0 A5@51@0. 5;57=>5 8745;85 ?>:@KB> =8:5;5<. 0:>9 87 <5B0;;>2 1C45B ?>425@30BLAO :>@@>788 2 :8A;>9 A@545. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O :0B>4=>3> 8 0=>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2, C:068B5 ?@>4C:BK :>@@>788. 0: ?@>B5:05B M;5:B@>;87 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0 A5@=>:8A;>3> =8:5;O: 1) A C3>;L=K< 0=>4><; 2) A =8:5;52K< 0=>4><. 0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O :0B>4=>3> 8 0=>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2. 0@80=B 3 !>AB02LB5 AE5<C, =0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 2KG8A;8B5 -! 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, A>AB>OI53> 87 ?;0AB8= :04<8O 8 <03=8O A :>=F5=B@0F859 [Cd2+] = [Mg2+] = 1 <>;L/;. 7<5=8BAO ;8 7=0G5=85 -!, 5A;8 :>=F5=B@0F8N :064>3> 87 8>=>2 ?>=878BL 4> 0,01 <>;L/;. >G5<C E8<8G5A:8 G8AB>5 65;57> 1>;55 AB>9:> ?@>B82 :>@@>788, G5< B5E=8G5A:>5 65;57>? !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==>5 C@02=5=85 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E ?@8 :>@@>788 B5E=8G5A:>3> 65;570 2> 2;06=>< 2>74CE5 8 2 :8A;>9 A@545. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E =0 C3>;L=KE M;5:B@>40E ?@8 M;5:B@>;875 @0AB2>@>2 CuCl2. KG8A;8B5 <0AAC <548, 2K45;82H59AO =0 :0B>45, 5A;8 =0 0=>45 2K45;8;>AL 560 <; 3070 (=.C.). 0@80=B 4 >B5=F80; A5@51@O=>3> M;5:B@>40 2 @0AB2>@5 =8B@0B0 A5@51@0 A>AB028; 95 % >B 7=0G5=8O 53> AB0=40@B=>3> M;5:B@>4=>3> ?>B5=F80;0. '5<C @02=0 :>=F5=B@0F8O 8>=>2 Ag+ (<>;L/;)? 5;57=>5 8745;85 ?>:@K;8 A28=F><. 0:>5 MB> ?>:@KB85  0=>4=>5 8;8 :0B>4=>5? >G5<C? !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2 :>@@>788 MB>3> 8745;8O ?@8 =0@CH5=88 ?>:@KB8O 2> 2;06=>< 2>74CE5 8 2 @0AB2>@5 A>;O=>9 :8A;>BK. #:068B5 ?@>4C:BK :>@@>788. 0 A:>;L:> C<5=LH8BAO <0AA0 A5@51@O=>3> 0=>40, 5A;8 M;5:B@>;87 @0AB2>@0 AgNO3 ?@>2>48BL ?@8 A8;5 B>:0 2 2 B5G5=85 38 <8= 20 A? !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O :0B>4=>3> 8 0=>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2. 0@80=B 5 !>AB02LB5 AE5<K 42CE 30;L20=8G5A:8E M;5<5=B>2, 2 >4=>< 87 :>B>@KE <54L 1K;0 1K :0B>4><, 0 2 4@C3><  0=>4><. 0?8H8B5 4;O :064>3> 87 MB8E M;5<5=B>2 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, ?@>B5:0NI8E =0 :0B>45 8 =0 0=>45. %@>< =0E>48BAO 2 :>=B0:B5 A <54LN. 0:>9 87 <5B0;;>2 1C45B >:8A;OBLAO ?@8 :>@@>788, 5A;8 MB0 ?0@0 <5B0;;>2 ?>?04QB 2 :8A;CN A@54C (HCl). !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==>5 C@02=5=85 :0B>4=>3> 8 0=>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O :0B>4=>3> 8 0=>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E =0 <54=KE M;5:B@>40E, ?@8 M;5:B@>;875 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0 KNO3. 0@80=B 6 0:85 ?@>F5AAK ?@>8AE>4OB =0 M;5:B@>40E 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0 Zn|Zn2+(0.1M)||Zn2+(0,01M)|Zn.  :0:>< =0?@02;5=88 ?5@5<5I0NBAO M;5:B@>=K 2> 2=5H=59 F5?8. 0AAG8B09B5 -! 40==>3> 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0. 0: ?@>8AE>48B :>@@>78O :04<8O, =0E>4OI53>AO 2 :>=B0:B5 A> A28=F>< 2 =59B@0;L=>< 8 :8A;>< @0AB2>@0E. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2. @8 M;5:B@>;875 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0 SnCl2 =0 0=>45 2K45;8;>AL 4,48 ; E;>@0. 0948B5 <0AAC 2K45;82H53>AO =0 :0B>45 >;>20. 0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2. 0@80=B 7 0;L20=8G5A:0O F5?L A>AB02;5=0 65;57><, ?>3@C65==K< 2 @0AB2>@ 53> A>;8 A :>=F5=B@0F859 8>=>2 Fe2+, @02=>9 0,001 <>;L/; 8 <54LN, ?>3@C65==>9 2 @0AB2>@ 5Q A>;8. 0:>9 :>=F5=B@0F888 4>;65= 1KBL @0AB2>@ A>;8 <548, GB>1K -! F5?8 AB0;0 @02=>9 =C;N? !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2 A :8A;>@>4=>9 8 2>4>@>4=>9 45?>;O@870F859 ?@8 :>@@>788 ?0@K <03=89  =8:5;L. 0:85 ?@>4C:BK :>@@>788 >1@07CNBAO 2 ?5@2>< 8 2> 2B>@>< A;CG0OE? @8 M;5:B@>;875 A>;8 B@QE20;5=B=>3> <5B0;;0 ?@8 A8;5 B>:0 1,5  2 B5G5=85 30 <8= =0 :0B>45 2K45;8;>AL 1,0710 3 <5B0;;0. KG8A;8B5 0B><=CN <0AAC <5B0;;0. 0@80=B 8 !>AB02LB5 AE5<C @01>BK 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, >1@07>20==>3> 65;57>< 8 A28=F><, ?>3@C65==K< 2 0,005  @0AB2>@ 8E A>;59. 0AAG8B09B5 -! MB>3> M;5<5=B0 8 87<5=5=85 25;8G8=K M=5@388 811A0. 0: ?@>8AE>48B :>@@>78O F8=:0, =0E>4OI53>AO 2 :>=B0:B5 A :04<85< 2 =59B@0;L=>< 8 :8A;>< @0AB2>@0E. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2. 0:>2 A>AB02 ?@>4C:B>2 :>@@>788? '5@57 @0AB2>@ FeCl2 ?@>?CA:0NB B>: A8;>9 5 2 B5G5=88 10 <8=, 0 G5@57 @0AB2>@ FeCl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l3+ (<>;L/;): 0,1; 0,01; 0,001; 0,0001, 0,00001  8 =0G5@B8B5 :@82CN 7028A8<>AB8 M;5:B@>4=>3> ?>B5=F80;0 0;N<8=8O >B :>=F5=B@0F88 53> 8>=>2 2 @0AB2>@5. ;>2> A?0O=> A A5@51@><. 0:>9 87 <5B0;;>2 1C45B >:8A;OBLAO ?@8 :>@@>788, 5A;8 MB0 ?0@0 <5B0;;>2 ?>?0405B 2 I5;>G=CN A@54C. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O :0B>4=>3> 8 0=>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2, 2KG8A;8B5 -!. 0AB2>@ AC;LD0B0 Fe (II) ?>425@305BAO M;5:B@>;87C =0 C3>;L=KE M;5:B@>40E 2 ?@8ACBAB288 A5@=>9 :8A;>BK. @8 :0:>9 :>=F5=B@0F88 8>=>2 2>4>@>40 2>7<>6=> A>2<5AB=>5 2K45;5=85 65;570 8 2>4>@>40, 5A;8 [Fe2+] = 1<>;L/;? 0@80=B 11 @8 :0:>9 :>=F5=B@0F88 8>=>2 Cu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n2+] = 0,001 <>;L/;? 0: ?@>8AE>48B 0B<>AD5@=0O :>@@>78O ;C65==>3> 65;570 8 ;C65==>9 <548 ?@8 =0@CH5=88 ?>:@KB8O? !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2. #:068B5 ?@>4C:BK :>@@>788. -;5:B@>;87 @0AB2>@0 CuSO4 ?@>2>48;8 2 B5G5=85 15 <8= ?@8 A8;5 B>:0 2,5 . K45;8;>AL 0,72 3 <548. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E =0 C3>;L=KE M;5:B@>40E. KG8A;8B5 2KE>4 ?> B>:C. 0@80=B 13 @8 :0:>< CA;>288 1C45B @01>B0BL 30;L20=8G5A:89 M;5<5=B , M;5:B@>4K :>B>@>3> A45;0=K 87 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 <5B0;;0? !>AB02LB5 AE5<C, =0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 2KG8A;8B5 -! 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, 2 :>B>@>< >48= =8:5;52K9 M;5:B@>4 =0E>48BAO 2 0,001  @0AB2>@5, 0 4@C3>9 B0:>9 65 M;5:B@>4 2 0,01  @0AB2>@5 AC;LD0B0 =8:5;O. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2 A 2>4>@>4=>9 8 :8A;>@>4=>9 45?>;O@870F859 ?@8 :>@@>788 ?0@K <03=89  A28=5F. 0:85 ?@>4C:BK >1@07CNBAO 2 ?5@2>< 8 2> 2B>@>< A;CG0OE. -;5:B@>;87 @0AB2>@0 K2SO4 ?@>2>48;8 ?@8 A8;5 B>:0 5  2 B5G5=85 3 G. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E =0 M;5:B@>40E. 0:0O <0AA0 2>4K ?@8 MB>< @07;>68;0AL 8 G5<C @025= >1J5< 307>2 (=.C.), 2K45;82H8EAO =0 :0B>45 8 0=>45? 0@80=B 14 0:85 @50:F88 ?@>B5:0NB 2 30;L20=8G5A:8E M;5<5=B0E, >1@07>20==KE: 0) 65;57>< 8 >;>2><; 1) >;>2>< 8 <54LN, ?>3@C65==K<8 2 @0AB2>@K 8E A>;59 A :>=F5=B@0F859 0,01 <>;L/;? 25 65;57=K5 ?;0AB8=:8, G0AB8G=> ?>:@KBK5, >4=0 >;>2><, 4@C30O <54LN, =0E>4OBAO 2> 2;06=>< 2>74CE5. 0 :0:>9 87 MB8E ?;0AB8=>: 1KAB@55 >1@07C5BAO @602G8=0? >G5<C? !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2 :>@@>788. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E =0 M;5:B@>40E ?@8 M;5:B@>;875 2>4=>3> @0AB2>@0 9>4840 :0;8O 0) A C3>;L=K<8 M;5:B@>40<8; 1) A> A28=F>2K< 0=>4><. 0@80=B 15 !>AB02LB5 AE5<C 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, A ?><>ILN :>B>@>3> <>6=> >?@545;8BL AB0=40@B=K9 >:8A;8B5;L=>  2>AAB0=>28B5;L=K9 ?>B5=F80; A8AB5<K Fe/Fe2+. 0:85 ?@>F5AAK 1C4CB ?@>8AE>48BL =0 M;5:B@>40E? 0;L20=8G5A:89 M;5<5=B, >1@07>202H89AO ?@8 :>@@>788 2 :8A;>9 A@545, E@><0 A?0O==>3> A =8:5;5< 405B B>: 5 . 0:>9 >1JQ< 2>4>@>40 (=.C.) 2K45;8;AO 70 30 A @01>BK MB>3> M;5<5=B0? 0:0O <0AA0 E@0<0 @0AB2>@8;0AL? -;5:B@>;87C ?>425@305BAO @0AB2>@ 0F5B0B0 A28=F0, ?>4:8A;5==K9 C:ACA=>9 :8A;>B>9. -;5:B@>4K <54=K5. '5< >1JOA=8BL ?>O2;5=85 3>;C1>3> >:@0H820=8O C 0=>40? 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, ?@>B5:0NI8E C M;5:B@>4>2. 0@80=B 16 5;57=0O 8 A5@51@O=0O ?;0AB8=K A>548=5=K 2=5H=8< ?@>2>4=8:>< 8 ?>3@C65=K 2 @0AB2>@ A5@=>9 :8A;>BK. !>AB02LB5 AE5<C 40==>3> 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0 8 =0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E =0 :0B>45, 0=>45. 0:85 <5B0;;K (Fe, Ag, Ca) 1C4CB @07@CH0BLAO 2 0B<>AD5@5 2;06=>3> 2>74CE0. 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E ?@>F5AA>2. -;5:B@>;87C ?>425@305BAO @0AB2>@, A>45@60I89 =8B@0B <548 (II) 8 A5@51@0 (I). 0:>9 <5B0;; 2K45;8BAO 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L? 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2. 0@80=B 17 '5<C @02=0 -! M;5<5=B0, >1@07>20==>3> 0;N<8=852K< 8 ?;0B8=>2K< M;5:B@>40<8, ?>3@C6Q==K<8 2 @0AB2>@K 8E A>;59 A :>=F5=B@0F859 0,1 <>;L/;. !>AB02LB5 AE5<C B0:>3> M;5<5=B0 8 =0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2. 0: ?@>B5:05B 0B<>AD5@=0O :>@@>78O 65;570, ?>:@KB0O A;>5< =8:5;O, 5A;8 ?>:@KB85 =0@CH5=>? !>AB02LB5 C@02=5=8O :0B>4=>3> 8 0=>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2. 0:>9 >1JQ< 2>4>@>40 8 :8A;>@>40 (=.C.) 2K45;8BAO ?@8 ?@>?CA:0=88 B>:0 A8;>9 2 3  2 B5G5=85 1 G G5@57 2>4=K9 @0AB2>@ A5@=>9 :8A;>BK. 0@80=B 18 5;57=0O 8 A5@51@O=0O ?;0AB8=:8 A>548=5=K 2=5H=8< ?@>2>4=8:>< 8 ?>3@C65=K 2 @0AB2>@ A5@=>9 :8A;>BK. !>AB02LB5 AE5<C 40==>3> 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0 8 =0?8H8B5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O :0B>4=>3> 8 0=>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2 A :8A;>@>4=>9 8 2>4>@>4=>9 45?>;O@870F859 ?@8 :>@@>788 ?0@K 0;N<8=89  >;>2>. #:068B5 ?@>4C:BK :>@@>788. -;5:B@>;87 @0AB2>@0 NaJ ?@>2>48;8 ?@8 A8;5 B>:0 6  2 B5G5=85 2,5 G. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E =0 C3>;L=KE M;5:B@>40E, 2KG8A;8B5 <0AAC 25I5AB20, 2K45;82H53>AO =0 0=>45. 0@80=B 19 0:85 ?@>F5AAK ?@>8AE>4OB =0 M;5:B@>40E 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, >1@07>20==>3> 65;57><, ?>3@C6Q==K< 2 @0AB2>@ 53> A>;8 A :>=F5=B@0F859 Fe2+ 10-3 <>;L/;, 8 A5@51@><, ?>3@C6Q==K< 2 @0AB2>@ 53> A>;8? ?@545;8B5 :>=F5=B@0F8N 8>=>2 Ag+ 2 @0AB2>@5 53> A>;8, 5A;8 -! MB>3> M;5<5=B0 1,152 . 8:5;52>5 8745;85 ?>:@KB> A5@51@><. 0:>9 87 <5B0;;>2 1C45B >:8A;OBLAO ?@8 :>@@>788 2 A;CG05 @07@CH5=8O ?>25@E=>AB8 ?>:@KB8O? 09B5 AE5<C >1@07CNI53>AO ?@8 MB>< 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, 5A;8 :>@@>78O ?@>B5:05B 2> 2;06=>< 2>74CE5, A>45@60I5< CO2. @8 M;5:B@>;875 A>;8 =5:>B>@>3> <5B0;;0 70 2 G 24 <8= 45 A ?@8 A8;5 B>:0 8  =0 :0B>45 2K45;8;>AL 6,48 3 MB>3> <5B0;;0. KG8A;8B5 M:2820;5=B=CN <0AAC MB>3> <5B0;;0. 0@80=B 20 KG8A;8B5 -! :>=F5=B@0F8>==>3> 30;L20=8G5A:>3> M;5<5=B0, A>AB>OI53> 87 F8=:>2KE M;5:B@>4>2, ?>3@C65==KE 2 @0AB2>@K ZnSO4 A :>=F5=B@0F859 2(10-2 <>;L/; 8 3,2(10-3 <>;L/;. 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE @50:F89. 0:>5 ?>:@KB85 <5B0;;0 =07K205BAO 0=>4=K< 8 :0:>5 :0B>4=K<? 07>28B5 =5A:>;L:> <5B0;;>2, :>B>@K5 <>3CB A;C68BL 4;O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?>:@KB8O 65;570. !>AB02LB5 M;5:B@>==K5 C@02=5=8O 0=>4=>3> 8 :0B>4=>3> ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E ?@8 :>@@>788 65;570, ?>:@KB>3> <54LN 2> 2;06=>< 2>74CE5 8 2 :8A;>9 A@545. -;5:B@>;87Q@ A>45@68B @0AB2>@ =8B@0B0 A28=F0 (II), 0=>4  A28=F>2K9. @>4>;68B5;L=>ABL M;5:B@>;870 2 G 40 <8= 50 A, A8;0 B>:0 5 . KG8A;8B5 B5>@5B8G5A:CN C1K;L 2 25A5 A28=F>2>3> 0=>40. 0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O @50:F89, ?@>8AE>4OI8E =0 M;5:B@>40E. 0@80=B 21 KG8A;8B5-! 30;L20=8G5A:8E M;5<5=B>2, >1@07>20==KE <5B0;;8G5A:8<8 M;5:B@>40<8 2 A>G5B0=88 A> AB0=40@B=K< 2>4>@>4=K< M;5:B@>4><. ?@545;8B5 2 :064>< A;CG05 7=0: 70@O40 <5B0;;8G5A:>3> M;5:B@>40 8 =0?8H8B5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2: 0) Ag/Ag+, [Ag+] = 0,5 <>;L/;; 1) Co/Co2+, [Co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