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C42>@BA0 8 . . #EB><A:>3> =0 4><8=0=BC 8, ?> ACI5AB2C, @0AA<0B@8205BAO ?>B@51=>ABL :0: 4><8=0=B=K9 >G03 2>71C645=8O).  20-5 8 ?>A;54CNI85 3>4K =0H53> AB>;5B8O 2 70?04=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?>O2;ONBAO B5>@88 <>B820F88, >B=>AOI85AO B>;L:> : G5;>25:C (. 528= [. Levin, 1926]; . ;?>@B [0. Allport, 1937] 8 4@.). 45AL, =0@O4C A >@30=8G5A:8<8, 2K45;5=K 2B>@8G=K5 (?A8E>35==K5) ?>B@51=>AB8, 2>7=8:0NI85 2 @57C;LB0B5 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O (. N@@59 [. Murrey, 1938]).  =8< >B=5A5=K ?>B@51=>ABL 2 4>AB865=88 CA?5E0, 2 0DD8;80F88 8 03@5AA88, ?>B@51=>ABL 2 =57028A8<>AB8 8 ?@>B82>459AB288, 2 C2065=88 8 70I8B5, 2 4><8=8@>20=88 8 ?@82;5G5=88 2=8<0=8O, ?>B@51=>ABL 2 871530=88 =5C40G 8 2@54=KE 2>7459AB289 8 B. 4. !2>N :;0AA8D8:0F8N ?>B@51=>AB59 G5;>25:0 40; 8 . 0A;>C (A. 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AE>4O 87 MB>3>, <>B820F8N AB0;8 ?>=8<0BL :0: A>AB>O=85, DC=:F8O :>B>@>3> 2 A=865=88 ?>@>30 @50:B82=>AB8 >@30=87<0 =0 =5:>B>@K5 @074@068B5;8.  MB>< A;CG05 <>B82 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: M=5@3870B>@ 8;8 A5=A818;870B>@. 081>;55 284=K9 ?@54AB028B5;L 48=0<8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 0<5@8:0=5F . C42>@BA (R. Woodworth, 1918), :@8B8:CO 18E528>@8AB>2, B@0:B>20; >B25B =0 2=5H=55 2>7459AB285 :0: A;>6=K9 8 87<5=G82K9 0:B, 2 :>B>@>< 8=B53@8@CNBAO ?@>H;K9 >?KB 8 A2>5>1@0785 2=5H=8E 8 2=CB@5==8E =0;8G=KE CA;>289. -B>B A8=B57 4>AB8305BAO 1;03>40@O ?A8E8G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8, >A=>2>9 :>B>@>9 A;C68B AB@5<;5=85 : F5;8 (?>B@51=>ABL).  >1K45==>9 687=8 ?@8=OB> AG8B0BL, GB> ?>2545=85 G5;>25:0 >?@545;O5BAO ?;0=>< 8 AB@5<;5=85< @50;87>20BL MB>B ?;0=, 4>AB8GL F5;8. -B0 AE5<0, :0: >B<5G05B . NBB5= (J. Nutten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otter, 1954), . 5;;8 (G. Kelly, 1955), X. %5:E0C75=0 (. Heckhausen, 1955), 6. B:8=A>=0 (J. Atkinson, 1964), . 0::;5;;0=40 (D. McClelland, 1971), 4;O :>B>@KE E0@0:B5@=K< O2;O5BAO ?@87=0=85 254CI59 @>;8 A>7=0=8O 2 45B5@<8=0F88 ?>2545=8O G5;>25:0. >3=8B82=K5 B5>@88 <>B820F88 ?>2;5:;8 70 A>1>9 22545=85 2 =0CG=K9 >18E>4 =>2KE <>B820F8>==KE ?>=OB89: A>F80;L=K5 ?>B@51=>AB8, 687=5==K5 F5;8, :>3=8B82=K5 D0:B>@K, :>3=8B82=K9 48AA>=0=A, F5==>AB8, >6840=85 CA?5E0, 1>O7=L =5C40G8, C@>25=L ?@8BO70=89. . 5BB5;; (R. Cattell, 1957) ?>AB@>8; 48=0<8G5A:CN @5H5B:C CAB@5<;5=89. = 2K45;8; <>B820F8>==K5 48A?>78F88 B8?0 M@3>2 (>B 3@5G. ergon  M=5@38O, @01>B0), 2 :>B>@KE 2845; A2>53> @>40 18>;>38G5A:8 >1CA;>2;5==K5 2;5G5=8O, 8 M=3@0<<K, ?@8@>40 :>B>@KE A>45@68BAO =5 2 18>;>38G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@5, 0 2 8AB>@88 687=8 AC1J5:B0. > <=>38E 70@C156=KE <>B820F8>==KE :>=F5?F8OE F5=B@0;L=K< ?A8E8G5A:8< ?@>F5AA><, >1JOA=ONI8< ?>2545=85, AB0=>28BAO ?@8=OB85 @5H5=8O. A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:85 B5>@88 <>B820F88. >2K9 MB0? 87CG5=8O 45B5@<8=0F88 ?>2545=8O =0G0;AO 2 :>=F5 XIX 25:0 2 A2O78 A ?>O2;5=85< CG5=8O 83<C=40 $@5940 (S. 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McDougall, 1923), :>B>@K9 AG8B0;, GB> C G5;>25:0 8<55BAO 2>A5<=04F0BL 8=AB8=:B>2. = 2K428=C; B5@<8G5A:CN :>=F5?F8N, A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 4286CI59 A8;>9 ?>2545=8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 A>F80;L=>3>, O2;O5BAO >A>10O 2@>645==0O (8=AB8=:B82=0O) M=5@38O (3>@<5), >?@545;ONI0O E0@0:B5@ 2>A?@8OB8O >1J5:B>2, A>740NI0O M<>F8>=0;L=>5 2>71C645=85 8 =0?@02;ONI0O C<AB25==K5 8 B5;5A=K5 459AB28O >@30=87<0 : F5;8. 064><C 8=AB8=:BC A>>B25BAB2C5B A2>O M<>F8O, :>B>@0O 87 :@0B:>2@5<5==>3> A>AB>O=8O ?@52@0I05BAO 2 GC2AB2> :0: CAB>9G82CN 8 >@30=87>20==CN A8AB5<C 48A?>78F89  ?@54@0A?>;>65=89 : 459AB28N "0:8< >1@07><, >= ?KB0;AO >1JOA=8BL ?>2545=85 8=482840 87=0G0;L=> 70;>65==K< 2 3;C18=0E 53> ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:>9 >@30=870F88 AB@5<;5=85< : F5;8. 1 >4@>1=K9 0=0;87 B5G5=89 8 B5>@89 <>B820F88 8 <>B820, @07@010BK202H8EAO 70@C156=K<8 ?A8E>;>30<8 2 ?5@2>9 ?>;>28=5 XX 25:0, <>6=> =09B8 2 <>=>3@0D8OE  . /:>1A>=0 (1969) 8 X. %5:E0C75=0 (1986). 8>;>3870B>@A:85 B5>@88 <>B820F88. !@548 =8E <>6=> >B<5B8BL B5, :>B>@K5 >1@0I0NBAO : ?>=OB8N <>B820F8O ;8HL 4;O >1JOA=5=8O ?@8G8= 0:B82=>AB8 >@30=87<0 (A<. @01>BC . 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LNA15@8 (1981) ?8H5B, GB> ?>=OB85 <>B820F8O 8A?>;L7C5BAO >1KG=> :0: <CA>@=0O :>@78=0 4;O @07=>3> @>40 D0:B>@>2, ?@8@>40 :>B>@KE =54>AB0B>G=> OA=0. 59AB28B5;L=>, <>B820F8N A2O7K20NB A ?>B@51=>ABO<8 8 <>B820<8, <8@>2>77@5=8O<8 G5;>25:0 8 >A>15==>ABO<8 53> ?@54AB02;5=8O > A515, ;8G=>AB=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 8 DC=:F8>=0;L=K<8 A>AB>O=8O<8, A ?5@56820=8O<8, 7=0=8O<8 > A@545 8 ?@>3=>7>< 55 87<5=5=8O, A >68405<K<8 ?>A;54AB28O<8 8 >F5=:0<8 4@C38E ;N459 (. . 20==8:>2, 1985, 1991). 5 ;CGH5 >1AB>8B 45;> A ?>=OB85< <>B82.  :0G5AB25 53> =07K20NBAO A0<K5 @07;8G=K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 D5=><5=K: ?@54AB02;5=8O 8 8458, GC2AB20 8 ?5@56820=8O (. . >6>28G, 1968), ?>B@51=>AB8 8 2;5G5=8O, ?>1C645=8O 8 A:;>==>AB8 (X. %5:E0C75=, 1986), 65;0=8O 8 E>B5=8O, ?@82KG:8, <KA;8 8 GC2AB2> 4>;30 (. . 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Butler, H. Harlow, 1954] 8 4@.). K;0 A45;0=0 ?>?KB:0 >1JOA=8BL B0:>5 =5 2K720==>5 >@30=8G5A:8<8 ?>B@51=>ABO<8 ?>2545=85 B5<, GB> 8<55BAO 2@>645==0O ?>B@51=>ABL =5@2=KE B:0=59 2 DC=:F8>=8@>20=88, ?@>O2;5=85< :>B>@>9 O2;O5BAO 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>5 ?>2545=85 ( . C42>@BA [R. Woodworth, 1918]). >=:@5B870F8N MB0 B>G:0 7@5=8O ?@8>1@5;0 2 38?>B575 . %5110 (D Hebb, 1949)^=C645 >@30=87<0 2 >?B8<0;L=>< C@>2=5 0:B820F88 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, :>B>@K9 4>AB8305BAO ?@8 @07;8G=KE ?@>O2;5=8OE 0:B82=>AB8: 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9, <0=8?C;OB>@=>9, 83@>2>9, ?>7=020B5;L=>9. 4=0:> 8 MB0 38?>B570 =5 ?>;CG8;0 ?>;=>3> ?>4B25@645=8O, 2 A2O78 A G5< @O4 CG5=KE 2K428=C;8 =>2CN 38?>B57C > 2=5H=5 2K720==>< 4@0925 (X. %0@;>C [H. Harlow, 1953]; . >=B3><5@8 [. 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B> 65 2@5<O 45;0BL H8@>:85 >1>1I5=8O 87 ?>;CG5==KE D0:B>2, =0 :>B>@K5 02B>@K AAK;0NBAO 2 A2>5< >17>@5, B>65 =5 A;54C5B. >-?5@2KE, 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 8AA;54>20=8O ?@>2>48;8AL =0 682>B=KE, AB>OI8E 2 85@0@E88 682>B=>3> <8@0 =5 =0 A0<KE 2KA>:8E ABC?5=OE @0728B8O (2 >A=>2=>< =0 :@KA0E). >MB><C B0:85 40==K5 =5 2A5340 <>6=> ?@O<> ?5@5=>A8BL =0 G5;>25:0: 254L =5@2=0O >@30=870F8O ?>A;54=53> =0<=>3> 2KH5, 8 2@O4 ;8 >= AB0=5B ?>4G8=OBLAO B>;L:> 18>;>38G5A:8< 70:>=><5@=>ABO< 2>7=8:=>25=8O ?>B@51=>AB=>3> =0?@O65=8O. >-2B>@KE, 87CG0;8AL B>;L:> 18>;>38G5A:85 ?>B@51=>AB8. -B@5BL8E, B>B D0:B, GB> 2 ?@>F5AAC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 682>B=KE (8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9, 83@>2>9) >BACBAB2CNB E0@0:B5@=K5 4;O ?>B@51=>AB8 G5@BK (B0:85, :0: CA8;5=85 4@0920 ?> <5@5 =0@0AB0=8O 45?@820F88 8 D5=><5= =0AKI5=8O, B. 5. @54C:F8O ?>B@51=>AB8), <>65B 3>2>@8BL 8 > B><, GB> ACI5AB2CNB ?>B@51=>AB8 8=>3> @>40, > :>B>@KE <K 5I5 <0;> 7=05<, =5 >1O70B5;L=> A2O70==K5 A 45D8F8B>< 8 ?>B@51;5=85< G53>-B>. > MB><C ?>2>4C . . !8<>=>2 70<5G05B, GB> ...87CG5=85 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>3> 8 83@>2>3> ?>2545=8O C 682>B=KE, ...>?KBK A A5=A>@=>9 (8=D>@<0F8>==>9) 45?@820F859 C G5;>25:0, ?>A;54AB28O A>F80;L=>9 87>;OF88 8 ?>4>1=>5 ?>:07K20NB, GB> 2 >A=>25 ?@54AB02;5=89 > =0;8G88 :0:8E-B> 8=KE D0:B>@>2 2=5 8 ?><8<> ?>B@51=>AB59, 8=8F88@CNI8E ?>2545=85, ;568B :@09=OO >3@0=8G5==>ABL =0H8E 7=0=89 > <=>3>>1@0788 @50;L=> ACI5AB2CNI8E ?>B@51=>AB59 (1987, A. 43). -G5B25@BKE, 40==K5, ?@>B82>@5G0I85 ?>;>65=8N >1 >?B8<0;L=>< C@>2=5 0:B820F88 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K 8 =0@0AB0=88 ?>B@51=>AB=>3> =0?@O65=8O ?@8 45?@820F88, ?@54AB02;ONBAO =5 >G5=L C1548B5;L=K<8 8 A:>@55 <>3CB @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: G0AB=K5 ?@>O2;5=8O :>=:@5B=>9 A8BC0F88. "0:, ?> 40==K< ". . 515452>9 (1971), 5A;8 2 :0:85-B> 4=8 42830B5;L=0O 0:B82=>ABL H:>;L=8:>2 1K;0 A=865=0, 2 ?>A;54CNI85 4=8 >=8 C25;8G820;8 A2>N 0:B82=>ABL A25@E =>@<K, :><?5=A8@CO B0:8< >1@07>< 55 45D8F8B. @C3>5 45;>, GB> =0@0AB0=85 ?>B@51=>AB=>3> =0?@O65=8O =5 2A5340 ?@82>48B : ?>2KH5=8N 0:B82=>AB8, >15A?5G820NI59 ?>;=CN @07@O4:C MB>3> =0?@O65=8O; ?@O<> ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=>9 7028A8<>AB8 <564C @>AB>< ?>B@51=>AB=>3> =0?@O65=8O 8 2=5H=59 0:B82=>AB8 <>65B 8 =5 1KBL. > >BAN40 2>2A5 =5 A;54C5B 2K2>4, GB> ?>B@51=>ABL ;8H5=0 ?>1C48B5;L=>9 DC=:F88 (B>, GB> G5;>25: =8G53> =5 45;05B, GB>1K CAB@0=8BL GC2AB2> 3>;>40, 5I5 =5 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> C =53> =5B ?>1C645=8O ?>5ABL). ! 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AO:89 AD>@<C;8@>20==K9 2 @5G8 70<KA5; 2K7K205B F5;CN ?@>3@0<<C 459AB289, =0?@02;5==KE : 4>AB865=8N MB>9 F5;8 (1978, A. 125).  4@C3>9 @01>B5 >= 1>;55 45B0;L=> @0728205B BC 65 <KA;L: 0 ?5@2KE ?>@0E @515=>: ?>4G8=O5BAO ?@8:07C <0B5@8; =0 ?>A;54CNI8E MB0?0E, :>340 @515=>: A0< =0G8=05B 2;045BL @5GLN, >= =0G8=05B 8A?>;L7>20BL A>1AB25==CN @5GL :0: A@54AB2>, 45B5@<8=8@CNI55 53> ?>2545=85 (1977, A. 74). > MB><C ?>2>4C . . !8<>=>2 (1987) @57>==> 70405B @O4 2>?@>A>2: ?>G5<C @515=>: ?>4G8=O5BAO ?@8:070< 27@>A;KE? 0G5< @515=>: =0G8=05B 2>A?@>872>48BL @5G52K5 8=AB@C:F88 (254L >= <>65B 8E 8 =5 2>A?@>872>48BL)? > 8<O G53>, 4020O 8=AB@C:F88 A0<><C A515, @515=>: ?>4G8=O5BAO 8<, =0G8=05B 2K?>;=OBL 8E (254L >= <>65B =5 ?>4G8=OBLAO 8 =5 2K?>;=OBL)? ?@>G5<, 70:;NG05B . . !8<>=>2, A B>G:8 7@5=8O B5>@88, 345 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@54H5AB2C5B ?>B@51=>AB8 8 A>7405B 55, ?>4>1=K5 2>?@>AK 8 =5 2>7=8:0NB. @8 MB>< >= ?@82>48B A;>20 . !. 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"0:8< >1@07><, <>B820F8O <>65B 8A?KBK20BL A8;L=>5 402;5=85 A> AB>@>=K 8 ?@8=8<0BL 2=5H=5>@30=87>20==K9 E0@0:B5@. 0: >B<5G05B X. %5:E0C75=, >?8A0=85 ?>2545=8O ?> ?@8=F8?C ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8O :0: <>B828@>20==>3> ;81> 87=CB@8 (8=B@8=A82=>), ;81> 872=5 (M:AB@8=A82=>) 8<55B B0:>9 65 AB06, :0: 8 A0<0 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O <>B820F88. !>>B25BAB25==> 8 :@8B8:0 B0:>3> 65AB:>3> ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8O 8<55B 402=NN B@048F8N, 5I5 A . C42>@BA0 (1918). @8B8:0 ?>;CG8;0 <0:A8<0;L=>5 2K@065=85 2 50-E 3>40E, :>340 @07;8G=K< 2KA>:>@0728BK< 682>B=K< (>B :@KA 4> >157LO=) 8AA;54>20B5;8 AB0;8 ?@8?8AK20BL @07;8G=K5 2=CB@5==85 2;5G5=8O (<0=8?C;OB82=K5, 8AA;54>20B5;LA:85 8 7@8B5;L=>3> >1A;54>20=8O), 2 ?@>B82>25A . %>;;C (D. Hall, 1961) 8 . !:8==5@C (. Skinner, 1954), >1JOA=O2H8< ?>2545=85 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 2=5H=8<8 ?>4:@5?;5=8O<8. 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MB8E A;CG0OE 1>;55 ;>38G=> 3>2>@8BL > 2=5H=5AB8<C;8@C5<>9, 8;8 2=5H=5>@30=87>20==>9, <>B820F88, ?>=8<0O ?@8 MB><, GB> >1AB>OB5;LAB20, CA;>28O, A8BC0F8O ?@8>1@5B0NB 7=0G5=85 4;O <>B820F88 B>;L:> B>340, :>340 AB0=>2OBAO 7=0G8<K<8 4;O G5;>25:0, 4;O C4>2;5B2>@5=8O ?>B@51=>AB8, 65;0=8O. >MB><C 2=5H=85 D0:B>@K 4>;6=K 2 ?@>F5AA5 <>B820F88 B@0=AD>@<8@>20BLAO 2> 2=CB@5==85. 4.3.  ",  " &", "& . . A552 (1976) AG8B05B, GB> 206=>9 >A>15==>ABLN <>B820F88 G5;>25:0 O2;O5BAO 42C<>40;L=>5, ?>;>68B5;L=>->B@8F0B5;L=>5 55 AB@>5=85. -B8 425 <>40;L=>AB8 ?>1C645=89 (2 2845 AB@5<;5=8O : G5<C-;81> 8 871530=8O, 2 2845 C4>2;5B2>@5=8O 8 AB@040=8O, 2 2845 42CE D>@< 2>7459AB28O =0 ;8G=>ABL  ?>>I@5=8O 8 =0:070=8O) ?@>O2;ONBAO 2> 2;5G5=8OE 8 =5?>A@54AB25==> @50;87C5<>9 ?>B@51=>AB8  A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 8 2 =5>1E>48<>AB8  A 4@C3>9. @8 MB>< >= AAK;05BAO =0 2KA:07K20=85 !. . 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Mowrer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B>@K5, 8<5O 702KH5==CN 8;8 70=865==CN A0<>>F5=:C, >1;040NB 8 =5045:20B=K< (702KH5==K< 8;8 70=865==K<) C@>2=5< ?@8BO70=89. "0:8< >1@07><, =0 B@5BL59 AB0488 D>@<8@>20=8O <>B820 2>7=8:05B =0<5@5=85 4>AB8GL F5;8, ?>1C645=85 2>;8, 2K@060NI55AO 2 A>7=0B5;L=>< ?@54=0<5@5==>< ?>1C645=88 : 459AB28N. <5==> MB> ?>1C645=85 ?@82>48B : 459AB28N G5;>25:0, 8 8<5==> A 53> 2>7=8:=>25=85< 70:0=G8205BAO D>@<8@>20=85 :>=:@5B=>3> <>B820. BAN40 284=>, ?>G5<C >H81>G=> ?@8=8<0BL ?>1C645=85 70 <>B82: >=> O2;O5BAO ;8HL G0ABLN (:><?>=5=B><) <>B820, C?>4>1;OOAL 28AOI59 :0?;5: >=0 C65 >1;0405B ?>B5=F80;L=>9 M=5@3859, 3>B>20 A>@20BLAO 2=87, => 2 B> 65 2@5<O A>AB02;O5B F5;>5 0 A >AB0;L=>9 684:>ABLN. 0: 284=> 87 87;>65==>3>, <>B82  MB> A8AB5<=>5 >1@07>20=85, 0 ?>1C645=85  MB> 53> M=5@35B8G5A:0O AB>@>=0, >?@545;5==>5 A>AB>O=85 3>B>2=>AB8 =0G0BL 459AB285 (=5A;CG09=> 6. >BB5@ [J. Rotter, 1954] >1>7=0G05B 53> :0: ?>B5=F8N 459AB28O, 0 . $5AB8=35@ [L. Festinger, 1957]  :0: <>B820F8>==>5 402;5=85). !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> =0<5@5=85 8 ?>1C645=85  =5 >4=> 8 B> 65.  A;>20@5 !. . 653>20 =0<5@5=85 B@0:BC5BAO :0: 70<KA5;, ?@54?>;>65=85 A45;0BL GB>-=81C4L. 0<5@5=85 <>65B 1KBL 8 157 ?>1C645=8O, =0?@8<5@ :>340 G5;>25: =0<5@5= GB>-B> =5 45;0BL (C . !. CH:8=0 2 8:>2>9 40<5 5@<0== 3>2>@8B: / =5 8<5N =0<5@5=8O 2@548BL 20<). @8 =0;8G88 =0<5@5=8O C G5;>25:0 <>65B =5 E20B8BL @5H8<>AB8 >ACI5AB28BL 704C<0==>5, B.5. >= =5 A<>65B ?@>O28BL A8;C 2>;8. 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BAN40 <>B820F8O  MB> ?@>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O <>B820, ?@>E>4OI89 G5@57 >?@545;5==K5 AB0488 8 MB0?K, 0 <>B82  MB> ?@>4C:B MB>3> ?@>F5AA0, B. 5. <>B820F88 (2 A2O78 A MB8< C<5AB=> 2A?><=8BL, GB> 5I5 . . #7=0475 ?>=8<0; <>B82 :0: A;>6=>5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 >1@07>20=85, 2>7=8:0NI55 2 @57C;LB0B5 <=>3>MB0?=>3> ?@>F5AA0 <>B820F88). 5>1E>48<>ABL 2> <=>38E A;CG0OE ?@><56CB>G=>3> 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> MB0?0 2 <>B820F88 A CG5B>< <=>38E D0:B>@>2, ;8G=>AB=KE 48A?>78F89 206=> ?>4G5@:=CBL 2 A2O78 A B5<, GB>, :0: >B<5G05B . . A552 (1976), 4;O <=>38E 70?04=KE ?A8E>;>3>2 E0@0:B5@=> >4=>AB>@>==55 ?>=8<0=85 <>B820F88: ;8HL :0: M=5@35B8G5A:>3> 8AB>G=8:0 0:B82=>AB8 G5;>25:0, =5 2:;NG0NI53> 2 A51O A>45@60B5;L=CN AB>@>=C, :>=:@5B=K5 <5E0=87<K @0A?@545;5=8O M=5@388, @53C;OF88 ?>2545=8O. "0:,  ?8H5B . . A552,  3. $@594 2A5 <>B820F8>==K5 70:>=><5@=>AB8 ?>=8<0; B>;L:> :0: 48=0<8G5A:8-M=5@35B8G5A:85; $@85@ AG8B05B, GB> <>B820F8O  MB> M=5@35B8G5A:89 0A?5:B >?KB0 8 @50:F89; @0C= 8 $>@15@ >?@545;ONB <>B820F8N :0: M=5@35B8G5A:CN, 48=0<8G5A:CN DC=:F8N, 2 >B;8G85 >B >1CG5=8O :0: 0AA>F80B82=>9, @53C;OB82=>9 DC=:F88. =>385 ?A8E>;>38, =5 D>@<C;8@CO AB>;L O2=> A2>59 ?>78F88, D0:B8G5A:8 ?@5C25;8G820NB, 01A>;NB878@CNB @>;L M=5@35B8G5A:8E <><5=B>2, 83=>@8@CO @>;L A>45@60B5;L=>9 AB>@>=K <>B820F88 (. 8;D>@4, . M@D8) (1976, A. 8-9). 564C B5< ?@8=OB85 A>F80;L=> 7@5;K< G5;>25:>< @5H5=8O : A>25@H5=8N B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?>ABC?:0, 459AB28O =0E>48BAO ?>4 ?>AB>O==K< 402;5=85< <>@0;L=KE, =@02AB25==KE<=>@< 8 ?@8=F8?>2 8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO A CG5B>< 53> 2>7<>6=>AB59 (7=0=89, C<5=89, :0G5AB2), A>AB>O=8O 2 40==K9 <><5=B, A8BC0F88. <5==> CG5B MB8E D0:B>@>2 2 >4=>< A;CG05 405B 2KE>4 ?>B@51=>AB=>9 M=5@388, 0 2 4@C3><  =5B, >?@545;O5B A?>A>1 55 8A?>;L7>20=8O 8 ?@8405B MB><C A<KA;. >B820F8O, >1CA;>2;5==0O 4>;65=AB2>20=85<. (. . 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Deci, 1972) AG8B0NB, GB> A8;0 AB@5<;5=89 7028A8B >B A>G5B0=8O 25@>OB=>AB8 4>AB865=8O ?@82;5:0B5;L=KE F5;59 2 7040==>9 A8BC0F88 8 >6840=8O B>3>, GB> ?@54?@8=OB>5 459AB285 2 A0<>< 45;5 ?@82545B : 4>AB865=8N ?>AB02;5==>9 F5;8. . !. 5@;8= (1971) 4;O 87<5@5=8O A8;K <>B820 ?@54;0305B 420 ?CB8: 87<5@5=85 AB5?5=8 =C64K 8 87<5@5=85 AB5?5=8 2;8O=8O <>B820 =0 MDD5:B82=>ABL 45OB5;L=>AB8. 5@2K9 ?>:070B5;L, ?> ACB8, 87<5@ONI89 A8;C ?>B@51=>AB8, =5>4=>:@0B=> 8A?>;L7>20;AO 2 >?KB0E =0 682>B=KE. @8B5@85< A;C68;0 A:>@>ABL, A :0:>9 682>B=>5 CAB@5<;O5BAO : ?8I5. 0?@8<5@, 2 >4=>< M:A?5@8<5=B5 682>B=KE ?@8CG0;8 =0E>48BL :>@<CH:C 2 A;>6=>< ;018@8=B5.  A;CG05, :>340 682>B=K5 3>;>40;8 42>5 ACB>:, A:>@>ABL ?>8A:0 (B. 5. ?@>156:8 : :>@<CH:5) 1K;0 1>;LH59, G5< ?@8 3>;>40=88 2 B5G5=85 >4=8E ACB>:. @C3>9 @07 2A5 682>B=K5 3>;>40;8 >48=0:>2>5 2@5<O. 1=0@C68;>AL, GB> A:>@>ABL ?@>156:8 C =8E C25;8G8205BAO ?> <5@5 ?@81;865=8O : F5;8. 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">@=409: (1935) 2KOA=O; 2;8O=85 >1>4@5=8O =0 ?>2B>@5=85 65;0B5;L=>9 @50:F88 8 =5>4>1@5=8O  =0 B>@<>65=85 =565;0B5;L=>9 @50:F88 8 ?@8H5; : 2K2>4C, GB> ?5@2>5 459AB2C5B A8;L=55, =565;8 2B>@>5 4=0:> 40;L=59H85 8AA;54>20=8O MB>3> 2>?@>A0 70 @C156>< 8 C =0A 2 AB@0=5 2KO28;8 ?@>B82>@5G82>ABL ?>;CG05<KE @57C;LB0B>21 >4=8 02B>@K CB25@640;8, GB> ?>E20;0 O2;O5BAO ?>1C48B5;5< 1>;LH59 A8;K, G5< ?>@8F0=85, 4@C385 65 CB25@640;8 >1@0B=>5, B@5BL8 4>:07K20;8 459AB25==>ABL 8 ?>E20;K 8 ?>@8F0=8O. 0?@8<5@, ?> 40==K< . . C@02;520 (1970), ?>A;5 ?>>I@5=8O C25;8G8;8 2>;52>5 CA8;85 94% CG0I8EAO, 0 ?>A;5 ?>@8F0=8O  81 % CG0I8EAO. !;01>5 ?>@8F0=85 C25;8G820;> 2>;52>5 CA8;85 5I5 G0I5 (C 92% CG0I8EAO) !8;L=K5 ?>@8F0=8O 8 ?>>I@5=8O ?@82>48;8 : >A;01;5=8N 2>;52>3> CA8;8O. . >3>;L !>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89  6-B8 B><0E, B 2   , 1952  ! 94 0 >A=>20=88 ?>4>1=KE 40==KE . "><A>= 8 ! 0==8:0BB (G Thomson, !. Hunnicutt, 1944) A45;0;8 70:;NG5=85, GB> :0: ?>E20;0, B0: 8 ?>@8F0=85 <>3CB 1KBL =5@07C<=> 8A?>;L7>20=K CG8B5;5< =0G0;L=>9 H:>;K, 5A;8 >= =5 1C45B CG8BK20BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 CG0I8EAO "0:, =0?@8<5@, ?@8 @0745;5=88 45B59 =0 3@C??K 8=B@>25@B=KE 8 M:AB@025@B=KE 1K;> 2KO2;5=>, GB> C ?5@2KE 1>;LH0O MDD5:B82=>ABL 70=OB89 1K;0 ?@8 ?>E20;5, 0 C 2B>@KE  ?@8 ?>@8F0=88 !0<8 02B>@K >17>@=>9 AB0BL8 =5 ?@8H;8 : :0:><C-B> >?@545;5==><C 2K2>4C, => >G5284=>, GB> @>;L ?>E20;K 8 ?>@8F0=8O 2 CA8;5=88 <>B820 7028A8B >B <=>38E 2=5H=8E 8 2=CB@5==8E D0:B>@>2. .  0@:5;>2 (1972), =0?@8<5@, CAB0=>28;, GB> 8 ?>E20;0 8 ?>@8F0=85 >:07K20NB AB8<C;8@CNI55 2>7459AB285 B>;L:> 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 ?>2B>@ONBAO ?>4@O4 =5 1>;LH5 G5BK@5E @07. ;8B5;L=> 8A?>;L7C5<>5 ?>@8F0=85 (2?@>G5<, :0: 8 ?>E20;0) ?@82>48B : =530B82=K< ?>A;54AB28O< :0: 4;O MDD5:B82=>AB8 B@C40, B0: 8 4;O @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8. 540@>< . >@L:89 :0:-B> A:070;, GB> 5A;8 3>2>@8BL G5;>25:C 2A5 2@5<O A28=LO, B0: >= 8 E@N:0BL =0G=5B. 0: ?>:070=> . . 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AB5AB25==>, >F5=:0 4>;6=0 1KBL, :0: ?@028;>, 045:20B=0 459AB28B5;L=K< 4>AB865=8O< G5;>25:0 4=0:> 2 @O45 A;CG052 4;O AB8<C;8@>20=8O 0:B82=>AB8 AB0@0B5;L=>3>, => =5 >G5=L A?>A>1=>3> 8;8 =5C25@5==>3> 2 A515 G5;>25:0 A;54C5B ?>E20;8BL 53> 8 70 =51>;LH85 8 4065 <=8<K5 CA?5E8 45AL <>6=> ?@825AB8 A;>20   QB5, :>B>@K9 ?8A0;, GB>, >1@0I0OAL A 1;86=8<8 B0:, :0: >=8 B>3> 70A;C6820NB, <K 45;05< 8E B>;L:> EC65 1@0I0OAL 65 A =8<8 B0:, 1C4B> >=8 ;CGH5 B>3>, GB> ?@54AB02;ONB 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, <K B5< A0<K< 70AB02;O5< 8E AB0=>28BLAO ;CGH5. !CI5AB25==K< <><5=B>< O2;O5BAO @53C;O@=>ABL 8 A2>52@5<5==>ABL >F5=:8 @57C;LB0B>2 45OB5;L=>AB8. ! MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O CG5B CA?5205<>AB8 2 2C70E B>;L:> =0 >A=>20=88 A40G8 M:70<5=>2 2 78<=NN 8 ;5B=NN A5AA88 =5;L7O ?@87=0BL C40G=K<, 8AE>4O 87 AB8<C;OF88 CG51=>9 0:B82=>AB8 ABC45=B>2. BACBAB285, :0: 2 H:>;5, ?>AB>O==KE >?@>A>2 A >B<5B:0<8 @0AA;01;O5B ABC45=B>2, =5 45;05B =5>1E>48<K<8 @53C;O@=K5 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K5 70=OB8O ?> CG51=8:0< 8 :>=A?5:B0< ;5:F89. 0B5@80;L=>5 ?>>I@5=85 (2>7=03@0645=85)  =0G0;5 XX 25:0 @>;L 45=56=>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O ?@87=020;0AL 254CI59 2 AB8<C;OF88 @01>B0NI53>, 2 A2O78 A G5< 2>7=8:;0 :>=F5?F8O M:>=><8G5A:>3> G5;>25:0. @C385 <>B820B>@K, CA8;820NI85 B@C4>2CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, ;81> 2>>1I5 =5 ?@87=020;8AL, ;81> 8E 2;8O=85 AG8B0;>AL =57=0G8B5;L=K<. 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Fitzpatrick, 1972) ?>:070;8, GB>, =0@O4C A ?>;>68B5;L=K< >B=>H5=85< : =8< (45=L38 :0: <5@8;> C40G;82>AB8 8 1;03>?>;CG8O, :0: A>F80;L=> ?@85<;5<K9 0B@81CB 1KB8O, :0: :>=A5@20B82=0O :><<5@G5A:0O F5==>ABL), C @O40 ;8F =01;N405BAO 8 >B@8F0B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 (45=L38 :0: <>@0;L=>5 7;>, :0: >1J5:B ?@57@5=8O). > 40==K< .$5=M<0 (A Furnham, 1984), >B=>H5=85 : 45=L30< >?@545;O5BAO ?>;><, A>F80;L=K< >:@C65=85<, M:>=><8G5A:8< AB0BCA><, ;8G=>AB=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 > 53> 65 40==K<, 65=I8=K 1>;LH5, G5< <C6G8=K, ?>425@65=K D0=B078O< 8 =02O7G82K< 845O< > 45=L30E, >=8 1>;LH5 25@OB, GB> 70@01>B>: 4>;65= 7028A5BL >B CA8;89 8 A?>A>1=>AB59 @01>B=8:0. > 40==K<  @8=A ( Prince, 1993), 65=I8=K 2K@060NB 1>;55 A8;L=CN D@CAB@0F8N ?> ?>2>4C >BACBAB28O 45=53 8 1>;LH5 70284CNB B5<, :B> 8E 8<55B. @0240, . 8== (R. Lyr.n, 1991) ?@8 >1A;54>20=88 ?@54AB028B5;59 A>@>:0 B@5E AB@0= 1K;> 2KO2;5=>, GB> 8 C <C6G8= 8<55BAO B5=45=F8O ?@84020BL 45=L30< ?>2KH5==CN F5==>ABL (8A:;NG5=85 A>AB028;8 ;8HL 425 AB@0=K).  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