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Cannon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in: W. . 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Cannon, 1927). ?KBK 0@0=>=0 >1@07CNB 5AB5AB25==K9 ?5@5E>4 : 40==K< :;8=8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89, B0: :0: >=8 =5?>A@54AB25==> AB0;:820NB =0A A G5;>25:><, 22>4OB 2 ?>;5 7@5=8O 8AA;54>20B5;O AC1J5:B82=K9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 ?;0= 8 45;0NB 4>ABC?=K< =5?>A@54AB25==K9 0=0;87 A>7=0=8O. "5< A0<K< MB8 >?KBK ?>72>;ONB =5 B>;L:> 3>2>@8BL =0 O7K:5 A0<8E 02B>@>2 B5>@88, => 8 ?>AB028BL =0 <5AB> C<>70:;NG5=89 >B=>A8B5;L=> ?A8E8G5A:8E A>AB>O=89, {123} A>>B25BAB2CNI8E B5< 8;8 8=K< B5;5A=K< ?@>O2;5=8O<, ?@O<>5 D0:B8G5A:>5 =01;N45=85 A0<8E A>AB>O=89.  ACI=>AB8 3>2>@O, MB8< ?CB5< H;8 8 ?5@2K5 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O, A2O70==K5 A ?@>25@:>9 B5>@88 65<A0. >2K< 2 >?KB0E 0@0=>=0 O2;O5BAO B>;L:> 2>7<>6=>ABL =5?>A@54AB25==>3> 8 3;C1>:>3> M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> 2;8O=8O, >:07K205<>3> G8AB> D878G5A:8< ?CB5<, =0 >@30=8G5A:85 87<5=5=8O, A>?CBAB2CNI85 M<>F8O<. 7 AB0@KE @01>B =0?><=8< 8AA;54>20=85 . 5<0=028 (A. Lehman, 1892), :>B>@K9, >A=>2K20OAL =0 A0<>=01;N45=88, CB25@640;, GB> C65 ?5@28G=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85, 2K7K20NI55 M<>F8N, >:07K205BAO >:@0H5==K< 2 GC2AB25==K9 B>= ?@5645, G5< >1@07CNBAO M<>F8>=0;L=> >:@0H5==K5 >@30=8G5A:85 >ICI5=8O. !;54>20B5;L=>, 70:;NG0; >=, M<>F8>=0;L=K9 B>= =5 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: AC<<0 >@30=8G5A:8E >ICI5=89.  >?KB0E 5<0=0 GC2AB25==K9 B>= 2>7=8:0; >4=>2@5<5==> 8;8 GCBL A?CABO ?>A;5 ?5@28G=>3> 2>A?@8OB8O. 0@CH5=8O F8@:C;OF88, =0?@>B82, =0ABC?0;8 B>;L:> G5@57 1 -2 A ?>A;5 @074@065=8O, A;54>20B5;L=>, ?>765, G5< 2>7=8:0;> GC2AB2>. 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CGH55 4>:070B5;LAB2>, - 3>2>@8B 65<A, - B><C, GB> =5?>A@54AB25==>9 ?@8G8=>9 M<>F89 O2;O5BAO D878G5A:>5 2>7459AB285 2=5H=8E @074@065=89 =0 =5@2K, ?@54AB02;ONB B5 ?0B>;>38G5A:85 A;CG08, :>340 4;O M<>F88 =5B A>>B25BAB2CNI53> >1J5:B0. 4=8< 87 3;02=KE ?@58<CI5AB2 <>59 B>G:8 7@5=8O =0 M<>F88 O2;O5BAO B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, GB> ?@8 ?><>I8 55 <K <>65< ?>425AB8 8 ?0B>;>38G5A:85, 8 =>@<0;L=K5 A;CG08 M<>F89 ?>4 >4=C >1ICN AE5<C (1902, A. 310). 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Brett, 1928, @. 392). . @5BB, B0:8< >1@07><, ?@8E>48B 2 ACI=>AB8 : B><C 65 2K2>4C, GB> 8 N<0, :0: 2 >B=>H5=88 ?@O<>9 A2O78, 8<5NI59AO <564C :0@B5780=A:8< 28=>< 8 ?>;CAB>;5B=8< >?LO=5=85< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 <KA;8 - 7=0<5=8BK< ?0@04>:A><, B0: 8 2 >B=>H5=88 B>3>, GB> ;568B 2 >A=>25 MB>9 A2O78: 3@0=48>7=>9 2A5>E20BK20NI59 8458 >1JOA=5=8O 2A53> ACI5AB2CNI53>, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 G5;>25G5A:8E AB@0AB59, A ?><>ILN <5E0=8G5A:8E 70:>=>2. @C3CN AB>@>=C 2K2>4>2 N<0 @072820NB 87 1>;55 AB0@KE 02B>@>2 5DD48=3, 87 A>2@5<5==KE - 5=;0?. 5@2K9 >A25I05B ?@58<CI5AB25==> ?@8=F8?80;L=CN AB>@>=C @0AE>645=8O AB0@>9 8 =>2>9 B5>@89, 5=;0? - 2KB5:0NI55 87 =55 D0:B8G5A:>5 8E @07=>3;0A85. . 5DD48=3 C:07K205B =0 >1@0B=>5 >B=>H5=85, ACI5AB2CNI55 <564C :0G5AB2>< GC2AB20 8 A8;>9 A>?@>2>640NI8E 53> >@30=8G5A:8E 87<5=5=89. @8 A8;L=>< 4CH52=>< 2>;=5=88 :0G5AB25==0O >A>15==>ABL GC2AB20 G0AB> >B?0405B 8 CABC?05B <5AB> >1I59 2>71C645==>AB8. !>AB>O=85, :>B>@>5 A=0G0;0 >1CA;>2;820;>AL 3;02=K< >1@07>< E0@0:B5@>< @074@065=8O, A>1KB8O 8;8 ?@54AB02;5=8O, B5?5@L 7028A8B 8A:;NG8B5;L=> >B >@30=8G5A:8E 2>7459AB289 =0 <>73. => =0G8=05BAO 8459=>, => :>=G05BAO GC2AB25==>. > <=>38E A;CG0OE ?@8 A0<>=01;N45=88 <>6=> @07;8G8BL 425 AB0488 2>7=8:=>25=8O GC2AB20: ?5@2CN, :>340 OA=> >1=0@C68205BAO 2;8O=85 ?>7=020B5;L=KE M;5<5=B>2 8 >BAN40 >A>15==>5 :0G5AB2> GC2AB20, 8 2B>@CN, A>>B25BAB2CNICN >@30=8G5A:><C 2>7459AB28N =0 3>;>2=>9 <>73. 564C B5< =5B >A=>20=8O, :0: 45;0;8 =5:>B>@K5 02B>@K A?8@8BC0;8AB8G5A:>3> ;035@O, @57:> @0745;OBL MB8 425 AB0488, ?@54?>;030O, GB> B>;L:> ?>A;54=OO, => =5 ?5@20O, A2O70=0 A D878>;>38G5A:8<8 A>AB>O=8O<8. "0:, 5:0@B 8 0;L1@0=H >?8AK20;8 MB>B :@C3>>1>@>B :0: 2708<>459AB285 4CH8 8 B5;0.  =>259H55 2@5<O, 2 ?>;=CN ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL A?8@8BC0;8AB8G5A:><C 273;O4C, CB25@640NB, GB> ?@8 2AO:>< 4CH52=>< 2>;=5=88 459AB28B5;L=> 40=K B>;L:> >ICI5=8O, A>>B25BAB2CNI85 2>7459AB28N >@30=>2 =0 3>;>2=>9 <>73 (. 5DD48=3, 1904, A. 227). . 5DD48=3 8<55B 2 284C ?@8 MB>< B5>@8N 65<A0-0=35, :>B>@CN >= AG8B05B =525@>OB=>9 =0 >A=>20=88 B>3>, GB> 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE =01;N405BAO @0728B85 GC2AB20 ?CB5< =5A:>;L:8E AB0489. = 2>7@0605B 8 ?@>B82 B>3> 4>2>40 0=35, GB> 4CH52=K5 2>;=5=8O <>3CB 2K7K20BLAO =5 B>;L:> ?@54AB02;5=8O<8, => 8 G8AB> D878G5A:8<8 A@54AB20<8. > 254L =5 2A5 @02=>, ?>;0305B 5DD48=3, A:07K20NBAO ;8 2 GC2AB25 :0:85-B> ?@54AB02;5=8O 8;8 =5B.  ?5@2>< A;CG05 GC2AB2> ?>;CG05B G5B:89 E0@0:B5@ 8 =0?@02;5=85, 2> 2B>@>< MB> B>;L:> =5>?@545;5==K9 ?@>F5AA @074@065=8O. ;O A0<>=01;N45=8O MB> @07;8G85 8<55B 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85, E>BO >=> =5 1@>A05BAO 2 3;070 ?>AB>@>==5<C G5;>25:C. "0:8< >1@07><, A0< 5DD48=3 8AE>48B 87 ?>;>65=8O, A:>@55 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> 38?>B575 65<A0-0=35, G5< AE>4=>3> A =59. {177}  B> 2@5<O :0: MB0 38?>B570 A2>48B 2A5 GC2AB2> : GC2AB25==K< >ICI5=8O<, 5DD48=3 CAB0=02;8205B <564C =8<8 >1@0B=>5 >B=>H5=85: ...G5< A8;L=55 M;5<5=B GC2AB20, B5< 1>;LH5 8AG5705B A>1AB25==> GC2AB25==> 2>A?@8=8<0NI89 8;8 ?>7=0NI89 M;5<5=B...  A2>8E A0<KE M;5<5=B0@=KE D>@<0E GC2AB2> >?@545;O5BAO 3;02=K< >1@07>< A8;>N @074@065=8O 8 AB5?5=LN, A :0:>9 >=> 2<5H8205BAO 2 E>4 >@30=8G5A:>9 687=8. "0: MB> 1K205B >A>15==> A @074@065=8O<8, 2K7K20NI8<8 8=AB8=:B82=K5 42865=8O. E :0G5AB25==0O >A>15==>ABL 70B<5205BAO GC2AB25==K< ?>1C645=85< 8 ?K;><, :>B>@K9 >=8 2>71C640NB. > 345 :0G5AB25==0O >A>15==>ABL >ICI5=8O <>65B ?@>O2;OBLAO 2 B0:>9 A8;5, :>B>@0O ?>4 AB0BL >@30=C GC2AB2, B0< GC2AB2> A>>B25BAB25==> >ICI5=8N ?>;CG05B >?@545;5==CN D>@<C 8 E0@0:B5@. 'B> >=> B5@O5B 2 A8;5, B> 2K83@K205B 2 1>30BAB25 8 @07=>>1@07=>9 =N0=A8@>2:5, 0 B0:65 2 =57028A8<>AB8 >B =5?>A@54AB25==>9 1>@L1K 70 ACI5AB2>20=85. "0 65 A0<0O AC<<0 M=5@388, :>B>@0O 2 GC2AB25 687=8 A>A@54>B>G8205BAO =0 55 548=>< 2>?@>A5 1KBL 8;8 =5 1KBL, =0 >@30=8G5A:>< 1;03>A>AB>O=88, @0A?@545;O5BAO :0G5AB25==K<8 GC2AB2>20=8O<8 8 @07=>A8BAO @07=K<8 B5G5=8O<8. >MB><C 2K83@KH 8 ?@>83@KH GC2AB2>20=8O >B :0G5AB25==>3> 48DD5@5=F8@>20=8O =0E>48BAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, @0AB5B ;8 M=5@38O 687=8 GC2AB2>20=89, 27OB0O 4 F5;><, 2<5AB5 A 55 :0G5AB25==>9 =N0=A8@>2:>9 (. 5DD48=3 1904, A. 196). >4G5@:820O ?A8E8G5A:8 ?>7=020B5;L=K9 <><5=B :0: 83@0NI89 3;02=CN @>;L 2 @0728B88 GC2AB2>20=89 >B M;5<5=B0@=KE D>@< : 2KAH8< 8 >B<5G0O C1K20=85 7=0G5=8O G8AB> >@30=8G5A:>3> <><5=B0, 5DD48=3 AB0; >4=8< 87 B5E, :B> A A0<>3> =0G0;0 70=O; 2 1>@L15 2>:@C3 =>2>9 B5>@88 >?@545;5==CN ?>78F8N 55 ?@>B82=8:0.  MB8< 53> A>>1@065=8O< =0< 5I5 ?@845BAO 25@=CBLAO 2 40;L=59H5<. <5AB5 A B5< 5DD48=3 =5 <>65B =5 :>=AB0B8@>20BL, GB> B5>@8O 65<A0-0=35 - ?>;=0O ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL A?8@8BC0;8AB8G5A:><C 273;O4C 5:0@B0 8 0;L1@0=H0, :>B>@K5 >?8AK20;8 :@C3>>1>@>B AB@0AB8 :0: 2708<>459AB285 4CH8 8 B5;0. 53:> 2845BL, GB> 5DD48=3 8<55B 2 284C B> 65 A0<>5 @0AE>645=85 >1>8E CG5=89, > :>B>@>< 3>2>@8; 8 N<0, ?>=8<02H89 =5>1E>48<>ABL CAB@0=8BL B5>;>38G5A:89 273;O4 =0 >B=>H5=85 <564C 4CH>9 8 B5;>< 4;O B>3>, GB>1K >B D>@<C;K 0;L1@0=H0 <>6=> 1K;> ?5@59B8 : D>@<C;5 0=35. "0:8< >1@07><, =0720= 2B>@>9, =0 MB>B @07 @0745;ONI89 >15 B5>@88, ?@8=F8? =0CG=>3> <8@>2>77@5=8O: A?8@8BC0;8AB8G5A:89 273;O4 =0 2708<>459AB285 4CH8 8 B5;0 2 <5E0=87<5 AB@0AB8, B5>;>38G5A:0O :>=F5?F8O ?A8E>D878G5A:>9 ?@>1;5<K M<>F89. <5AB5 A =0720==K< @0=LH5 <5E0=8AB8G5A:8< ?@8=F8?>< >= >1@07C5B 2A5 <5B>4>;>38G5A:>5 >A=>20=85 :0@B5780=A:>3> CG5=8O > AB@0ABOE. > B0: 65 B>G=>, :0: 87 >1I59 B5=45=F88 <5E0=8AB8G5A:>3> >1JOA=5=8O AB@0AB59 A =587156=>ABLN 2KB5:05B A>2?045=85 :0@B5780=A:>3> CG5=8O A >@30=8G5A:>9 B5>@859 2 D0:B8G5A:>< >?8A0=88 ?A8E>D878G5A:>3> <5E0=87<0 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 @50:F88, 87 8E ?@8=F8?80;L=>3> @0AE>645=8O 2> 273;O40E =0 ?A8E>D878G5A:CN {178} ?@8@>4C M<>F89 2KB5:05B :0: =5>1E>48<K9 @57C;LB0B @0AE>645=85 8 2 :>=:@5B=>< D0:B8G5A:>< >?8A0=88 AB@>5=8O 8 E>40 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0. ">;L:> GB> >?8A0==CN AB>@>=C 45;0 >A>15==> ?>4G5@:8205B 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O, :0: C65 A:070=>, 5=;0?, :>B>@K9 2848B 2 MB>< ACI5AB25==59H5< ?C=:B5 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL CG5=8O 5:0@B0 8 CG5=8O 65<A0 8 A:;>=5= >128=OBL =>2CN F5=B@0;L=CN B5>@8N M<>F89 2 2>72@0I5=88 : :0@B5780=A:>9 B>G:5 7@5=8O. 65<A 4C<0;, GB> . N=AB5@15@379 ?>:>=G8; A> AB0@>9, ?@54;>65==>9 5:0@B>< B5>@859, A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 0DD5@5=B=K5 B>:8 2>71C640NB 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK, 0 MDD5@5=B=K5 2K7K20NB AB@0AB8 4CH8. >-2848<><C, 65<A >H810;AO (. Danlap, 1928, @. 154). > <=5=8N 5=;0?0, AB0@0O B5>@8O 2>7@>6405BAO 2 =>2>< CG5=88, ?@>B82>?>AB02;ONI5< ?5@8D5@8G5A:>9 38?>B575 F5=B@0;L=CN 38?>B57C ?@>8AE>645=8O M<>F89. -B>B 2>?@>A, 3>2>@8B 5=;0?, 5ABL 2>4>@0745;, :>B>@K9 >B45;O5B :0@B5780=A:CN B5>@8N (?>;030NICN, GB> M<>F8O 2>7=8:05B 1;03>40@O ?@>F5AA0< @07@O40, 15@CI8< =0G0;> >B <>730, B. 5. 1;03>40@O 8==5@20F8>==K< >ICI5=8O< 2 AB0@>< A<KA;5), A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 8 B5>@8N 65<A0 - 9=35 (:>B>@0O @0AA<0B@8205B M<>F8N, B0: 65 :0: 8 2>A?@8OB85, 2 :0G5AB25 @57C;LB0B0 ?5@8D5@8G5A:8E >ICI5=89) - A 4@C3>9 (ibid., p. 159 -160). . 5=;0? ?@8=04;568B : G8A;C B5E ?>A;54>20B5;59 >@30=8G5A:>9 B5>@88, :>B>@K5 ?KB0NBAO ?@5>1@07>20BL 55, B0: GB>1K ?@825AB8 55 2 A>3;0A85 A =>2K<8 D0:B0<8. = ?>;0305B, GB> ?@8 ?@028;L=>< 8AB>;:>20=88 =>2KE D0:B>2, 2K428305<KE >1K:=>25==> 2 :0G5AB25 0@3C<5=B0 ?@>B82 MB>9 B5>@88, <K AC<55< 2 =8E 2845BL A:>@55 55 ?>4B25@645=85, G5< >?@>25@65=85. 5=;0? ?@87=05B, GB> 65<A =8:>340 =5 ?@8=8<0; 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 A>1AB25==>9 B5>@88 8 =5 B>;L:> ?@845@6820;AO ?A8E>D878G5A:>3> ?0@0;;5;87<0, => 8 A>E@0=8; =5<0;> 4CE>2=KE GC2AB2>20=89, :>B>@K5 >= =5 E>B5; ?>4G8=OBL 3@C1>9 B5;5A=>9 >1CA;>2;5==>AB8. 0: 8 4@C385 ?>A;54>20B5;8 >@30=8G5A:>9 B5>@88, 5=;0? A?@0254;82> ?>4G5@:8205B D0:B8G5A:>5 @0AE>645=85 :0@B5780=A:>9 8 ?5@8D5@8G5A:>9 B5>@89, 8 : =5<C ?>;=>ABLN >B=>A8BAO B>, GB> A:070=> '. !?8@<5=><80 ?> ?>2>4C 4@C3>9 ?>?KB:8 2>A:@5A8BL B5>@8N 65<A0 - ?> ?>2>4C B5>@88 0:-0C3>;;0. !?8@<5= =07K205B =5 B>;L:> =5?>A@54AB25==KE ?@54H5AB25==8:>2 MB>9 B5>@88 - #>@40, 65<A0 8 4@C38E, => 8 ?@O<>3> 55 @>4>=0G0;L=8:0 - 0;L1@0=H0 (!. . Spearman, 1928, @. 40). . 5=;0? 459AB28B5;L=> ?KB05BAO A>E@0=8BL B5>@8N 65<A0 - 0=35, @0AA<0B@820O M<>F8N :0: 48=0<8G5A:89 D>= 2A5E ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2. >?@>A >B=>A8B5;L=> 28AF5@0;L=KE 87<5=5=89 =5 :065BAO 5<C 206=K< 4;O ?A8E>;>388, ?>MB><C =>2CN B5>@8N >= A:;>=5= @0AA<0B@820BL :0: 40;L=59H55 0=0B><8G5A:>5 @0728B85 B5>@88 65<A0 - 0=35. 5=;0? AB028B A515 2 70A;C3C, GB> >= ?@54A:070; =0 >A=>25 MB>9 B5>@88 >B:@KB>5 2?>A;54AB288 ;01>@0B>@=K< ?CB5< 548=>>1@0785 28AF5@0;L=KE 87<5=5=89 ?@8 >?@545;5==KE M<>F8>=0;L=KE A>AB>O=8OE. 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{211} :0: 48DD5@5=F8@>20==K9 D0:B>@ 2KABC?8B B>;L:> 2 B>< <5AB5 MB>9 H:0;K @0728B8O, 345 <>6=> 1C45B CAB0=>28BL, GB> A8BC0F8O 8<55B :0:>9-;81> A<KA;, 5A;8 C?>B@518BL MB> A;>2> 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O ;N1>9 D>@<K A2O78 <564C 40==>9 A8BC0F859 8 4@C38<8 A8BC0F8O<8, 2A5 @02=> - 2A?><8=05<K<8 8;8 0=B8F8?8@C5<K<8. 0 2KAH5< C@>2=5, >?@545;5==>< 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 @0728B85< <>730, 4>;6=K 8<5BL <5AB> <>48D8F8@>20==K5 D>@<K ?@8<8B82=>9 @50:F88. 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'5;>25: 4>AB83 A>2@5<5==>3> A>AB>O=8O @0728B8O ?CB5< <54;5==>3> ?@>F5AA0 @>AB0 8 8=B53@0F88, 2 :>B>@KE <K 2848< >1JOA=5=85 A?5F80;L=KE ?>7=020B5;L=KE DC=:F89. 5B =8:0:8E >A=>20=89 >B@K20BL MB8 DC=:F88 >B >1I8E >@30=8G5A:8E A>AB>O=89, => =5B 8 =8:0:>3> A<KA;0 83=>@8@>20BL 2>7<>6=>ABL 25;8G09H8E @07;8G89, 7028AOI8E >B AB5?5=8 <>73>2>3> @0728B8O 8 8=B53@0F88. 45AL, ?>-2848<><C, 70:;NG05BAO 25@=K9 M;5<5=B B5>@88 65<A0, :>B>@K9 C;02;8205B @07;8G8O <564C 3@C1K<8 8 1>;55 B>=:8<8 M<>F8O<8. > 2 B0:>< 2845 MB> @07;8G85 =5 2?>;=5 >B25G05B 4CEC =0CG=>9 ?A8E>;>388. <5AB> B>3> GB>1K ?@>B82>?>AB02;OBL >48= :;0AA M<>F89 4@C3><C, A;54C5B 4>?CAB8BL, GB> :0640O M<>F8O <>65B 8<5BL @07;8G=K5 D>@<K, :0: @07;8G0NBAO, =0?@8<5@, O@>ABL 682>B=>3> 8 A?@0254;82>5 =53>4>20=85. "0: :0: >4=0 D>@<0 @0728205BAO 87 4@C3>9, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B >1I53> @0728B8O G5;>25:0 >=0 <>65B ;53:> A>E@0=8BL A2O7L A 1>;55 ?@8<8B82=K< B8?>< M<>F89 8;8 A 4@C38<8 A2O70==K<8 A =59 @50:F8O<8. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, >B=>H5=85 <564C M<>F859 8 55 2K@065=85< AB0=>28BAO <5=55 D8:A8@>20==K< 8 =5?>4286=K< ?> <5@5 B>3>, :0: >@30=87< @0728205BAO, C40;OOAL >B 8=AB8=:B82=KE 8 AB5@5>B8?=KE D>@< @50:F88. >;55 A;>6=K5 (B>=:85) M<>F88, =5 8<5NI85 A?5F8D8G5A:>9, A2O70==>9 A =8<8 @50:F88 (B8?8G=>9 4;O ?>2545=8O 682>B=>3>), 4>?CA:0NB @07;8G=K5 2K@065=8O, 8 M:A?@5AA8O B5@O5B =5?>A@54AB25==CN A2O7L A A>7=0B5;L=K< M;5<5=B>< M<>F88 ->1AB>OB5;LAB2>, :>B>@>5 <>65B ?><>GL B5>@88 2 >1JOA=5=88, ?>G5<C <K ?;0G5< >48=0:>2> :0: >B @04>AB8, B0: 8 >B 3>@O (D. S. Brett, 1928, @. 393 -396). K C<KH;5==> ?@825;8 =5A:>;L:> 70BO=C2H55AO 70:;NG5=85 8AB>@8G5A:>3> >G5@:0 @0728B8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8459 > ?@8@>45 M<>F89, GB>1K >?5@5BLAO =0 >1J5:B82=K5 A2845B5;LAB20 8AB>@8:0 =0C:8 ?> ?>2>4C A>AB>O=8O ?@>1;5<K @0728B8O 2 A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>;>388 M<>F89. @0B:89 A<KA; MB>3> 4;8==>3> 2KA:07K20=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> ?A8E>;>38O M<>F89 =5 @0A?>;0305B A59G0A 4065 A0<K<8 ?5@2>=0G0;L=K<8 70G0B:0<8 B5>@88 @0728B8O, GB> >=0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 70?CB0==CN :0@B8=C, 2 :>B>@>9 =5 {212} ?@>2545=> @07;8G5=8O 2KAH8E 8 =87H8E, 682>B=KE 8 G5;>25G5A:8E, 8=AB8=:B82=KE 8 A>7=0B5;L=KE M<>F89, :0@B8=C, :>B>@0O ?5@5=>A8B =0A, ?> 2K@065=8N @5BB0, 548=K< <0E>< 87 >4=>3> <8@0 2 4@C3>9. 7 ?5@2KE 8 @>1:8E ?>?KB>: 35=5B8G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O M<>F89 2 8E >=B>35=575 <K C7=05< =5GB> 1>;LH55, G5< ?@>AB>5 :>=AB0B8@>20=85 B>3> D0:B0, GB> AB0@0O B5>@8O 8A:;NG0;0 0?@8>@8 2>7<>6=>ABL M<>F8>=0;L=>3> @0728B8O. 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A;8 ACI=>ABL AB@0E0 70:;NG05BAO 2 >ICI5=8OE 4@>68 8 3CA8=>9 :>65, =5B >A=>20=89 4>?CA:0BL, GB> MB8 O2;5=8O 1C4CB ACI5AB25==> @07=K<8 C @515=:0 8 27@>A;>3>. 02=K< >1@07>< >B@8F0=85 A2O759 <564C M<>F8>=0;L=K<8 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K<8 A>AB>O=8O<8 8A:;NG0;> 70@0=55 2AO:>5 CG0AB85 M<>F89 2 >1I5< @0728B88 A>7=0=8O, 2 :>B>@>< 87<5=5=8O 8=B5;;5:B0 70=8<0NB F5=B@0;L=>5, 7=0G8B5;L=59H55 <5AB>. -B> >B@8F0=85 C65 70@0=55 ?@54?>;030;> B0:CN ?>AB0=>2:C 2>?@>A0 > ?@8@>45 M<>F88, :>B>@0O F5;8:>< 8 ?>;=>ABLN 8A:;NG0;0 A0<CN 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>1;5<K M<>F88 G5;>25:0 2 55 >B;8G88 >B M<>F88 682>B=>3>. 82>B=>5 8 G5;>25:, 682>B=>5 8 G5;>25G5A:>5 2 A0<>< G5;>25:5 >:070;8AL @07>@20==K<8, 3@C1K5 8 B>=:85 M<>F88 >:070;8AL ?@8=04;560I8<8, ?> 2K@065=8N @5BB0, 42C< @07;8G=K< <8@0< (ibid., p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{213}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