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Papert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ibid., p. 17 18).  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O G8A;> :@8B8:>2 A@548 CG8B5;59 7=0G8B5;L=> C<5=LH8;>AL, >A>15==> A@548 B5E, :B> C65 ?@8<5=O; :><?LNB5@ 2 CG51=>< ?@>F5AA5. 0: >B<5G05B . 5::5@ &. J. Becker, 1984), 95% >?@>H5==KE ?5403>3>2 2KA:070;8AL 70 B>, GB>1K H:>;K ?@8>1@5;8 ?> :@09=59 <5@5 >48= :><?LNB5@. =0G8B5;L=>5 G8A;> A:5?B8:>2 ?5@5H;> 2 >?B8<8ABK. > ?>-?@56=5<C =0 0?045 25;8:> G8A;> CG8B5;59, CA<0B@820NI8E  8A?>;L7>20=88 :><?LNB5@0 A>F80;L=CN >?0A=>ABL 2 ?;0=5 70<5=K 8E <5=55 :20;8D8F8@>20==K<8 A?5F80;8AB0<8.  G8A;> B0:8E 21 ?@>B82=8:>2 :><?LNB5@870F88 2E>4OB 8 :@C?=K5 A?5F80;8ABK 2 >1;0AB8 8=D>@<0B8:8, =0?@8<5@ ?@>D5AA>@ 0AA0GCA5BA:>3> B5E=>;>38G5A:>3> 8=AB8BCB0 6. 59F5=10C< (J. Weizenbaum, 1984), C:07K20NI89 =0 >?0A=>ABL >B@8F0B5;L=KE A>F80;L=KE ?>A;54AB289 :><?LNB5@870F88 >1CG5=8O. K=5H=55 A>AB>O=85 :><?LNB5@870F88 25AL<0 =0?><8=05B A8BC0F8N A ?@>3@0<<8@>20==K< >1CG5=85<. >7=8:=C2 2 =0G0;5 50-E 33. :0: =081>;55 <0AA>2>5 42865=85 70 @0F8>=0;870F8N >1CG5=8O, >=> C2;5:;> 2 A2>8 @O4K :0: @01>B=8:>2 A8AB5<K >1@07>20=8O, B0: 8 ;N459, 25AL<0 40;5:8E >B ?@>1;5< >1CG5=8O.  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Heinich et al., 1982), MB8 A8AB5<K, :@><5 PLATO 8 TICCIT*, A=0165=K =51>;LH8< G8A;>< >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<, <=>385 87 >B>@KE =5;L7O AG8B0BL MDD5:B82=K<8.  >A=>2=>< MB8 AFAB5<K >15A?5G820NB 2K?>;=5=85 A;54CNI8E DC=:F89. I. 545=85 107K 40==KE: 1) >1 >1CG05<>< (53> D0<8;8O, 0=:5B=K5 40==K5, 45<>3@0D8G5A:85 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8); 2) > H:>;5, ?5@8>45 >1CG5=8O 8 CG51=>< ?@54<5B5; 3) >1 CG51=>9 ?@>3@0<<5  B. 4. II. 1@01>B:0 40==KE >1CG5=8O: 1) 22>4 8E 2 A8AB5<C; 2) A8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 =0:>?;5=85 8=D>@<0F88; 3) 55 A>@B8@>2:0 8 >1@01>B:0 A ?><>ILN AB0B8AB8G5A:8E ?@>F54C@. III. K40G0 @57C;LB0B>2: 1) > ?>:070B5;OE :>=:@5B=KE >1CG05<KE; 2) > A@54=8E ?>:070B5;OE :;0AA0; 3) > @57C;LB0B0E ?@>E>645=8O >B45;L=KE @0745;>2 CG51=>3> :C@A0 8 B. 4. IV. K?>;=5=85 2A?><>30B5;L=KE DC:=F89, =0?@8<5@ :>?8@>- * PLATO  >4=0 87 =081>;55 @0728BKE A8AB5< :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O, 55 @07@01>B:0 =0G0;0AL 5I5 2 1960 3., 8 >80 >4=0 87 =5<=>38E A8AB5<, CF5;52H8E  =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8. TICCIT  480;>3>20O A8AB5<0 B8?0 PLATO, 8> A> 7=0G8B5;L=> <5=LH8< CG51=K< >15A?5G5=85<. 25 20=85 D09;>2 8;8 <>48D8:0F8O 107K 40==KE, GB> ACI5AB25==> 4;O 40;L=59H53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O A8AB5<K (W. P. Gorth, P. M. Nas-sif, 1984).  ?>A;54=85 3>4K AB0;8 @07@010BK20BLAO >1CG0NI85 ?@>3@0<<K :0: 2A?><>30B5;L=>5 A@54AB2> 3@C??>2>3> >1CG5=8O (. Burkhardt et al., 1982; . Nativa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ativa, 1984).  MB>9 A8AB5<5 :><?LNB5@ 8A?>;L7C5BAO =0@O4C A ;5:F8>==K<8 D>@<0<8 >1CG5=8O.  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Scandura, 1983) 2K45;O5B B@8 B8?0 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<: 1) 70:@5?;ONI85 (drill-and-prac-tice), 2) =0AB02=8G5A:85 (tutorial), ?> CA2>5=8N =>2KE 7=0=89, 3) 8<8B0F8>==K5, A ?5403>38G5A:8< <>45;8@>20=85<. 6. '5<15@A 8 6. (?@5E5@ (J. A. Chambers, J. W. Sprecher, 1983) @07;8G0NB ?OBL B8?>2 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< (>=8 =07K20NB 8E AB@0B538O<8 >1CG5=8O): 1) 70:@5?;ONI85 (drill) 2) B5AB8@CNI85 (test), 3) 8AA;54>20B5;LA:85, 70?@0H820NI85 (inquire)*, 4) A 8<8B0F8>==K< <>45;8@>20=85< (simulation), 5) =0AB02=8G5A:85 ?> >1CG5=8N 70:>=G5==><C D@03<5=BC CG51=>9 ?@>3@0<<K (tutorial). -B8 02B>@K =5 2K45;ONB 83@>2KE ?@>3@0<< 2 :0G5AB25 A0<>AB>OB5;L=KE, AG8B0O, GB> 83@>2K5 :><?>=5=BK <>3CB ?@8ACBAB2>20BL 2 ;N1>< B8?5 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<. =8 B0:65->B<5G0NB, GB> 8 2K45;5==K5 8<8 ?@>3@0<<K A>45@60B >1I85 M;5<5=BK. ". '(8 8 53> :>;;538 (". O'Shea et al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angert-Drowns et al., 1985) 2K45;ONB B@8 B8?0 ?@>3@0<<: CAI, CMI 8 CEI.  ?5@2>< >=8 @07;8G0NB A;54CNI85 284K: 0) ?@>3@0<<K A C?@06=5=8O<8 =0 70:@5?;5=85 (drill-and-practice exercises) 8 2) =0AB02=8G5A:85 A 87CG5=85< =>2>3> <0B5@80;0 (tutorial instruction). 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"0:, ?@8=F8?80;L=>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B =5 B>;L:> * 5GL 845B B>;L:> > B5E ?@>3@0<<0E, 345 :><?LNB5@ 8A?>;L7C5BAO :0: A@54AB2> >1CG5=8O, B 5 2K?>;=O5B 4840:B8G5A:85 DC=:F88 30 B8? ?@54JO2;5=8O CG51=>3> 7040=8O, => 8 53> E0@0:B5@8AB8:8, ?@5645 2A53> 53> C@>25=L ?@>1;5<=>AB8. 06=> B0:65 CG8BK20BL =5 ?@>AB> 8=48284C0;L=>ABL CG0I53>AO, 0 :>=:@5B=K5 >A>15==>AB8, CB>G=OO ?@8 MB><, >ACI5AB2;O5BAO B0:>9 CG5B :><?LNB5@>< 8;8 CG0I8<AO (2 ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 MB> >7=0G05B, GB> CG0I89AO A0< >?@545;O5B, :0:>9 B8? 87;>65=8O CG51=>3> <0B5@80;0 8;8 :0:>9 284 ?><>I8 >= ?@54?>G8B05B). 0:>=5F, 8<55B 7=0G5=85 =5 B>;L:> =0;8G85 480;>30, => 8 B>, 2 :0:>9 <5@5 2 =5< @50;87CNBAO ?5403>38G5A:85 DC=:F88. @8 @5H5=88 ?@>1;5<K MDD5:B82=>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O :><?LNB5@0 2 CG51=>< ?@>F5AA5 2>7=8:05B 2>?@>A > F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8 53> ?@8<5=5=8O 2 B5E 8;8 8=KE CG51=KE ?@54<5B0E 8 =0 B5E 8;8 8=KE MB0?0E >1CG5=8O. I5 A>2A5< =5402=> AG8B0;>AL, GB> AD5@0 ?@8<5=5=8O :><?LNB5@0 >3@0=8G8205BAO <0B5<0B8:>9, ?@>3@0<<8@>20=85<, D878:>9, E8<859, 0 2 3C<0=8B0@=>9 AD5@5 :><?LNB5@ <>65B 8A?>;L7>20BLAO :0: A@54AB2> CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, =0?@8-' <5@ :0: M;5:B@>==K9 10=: 40==KE, 0 2 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1CG5=8O  9@58<CI5AB25==> :0: A@54AB2> =03;O4=>AB8. "0:>3> @>40 <=5=85 >?@024K20;> A51O ;8HL =0 =0G0;L=>< MB0?5 :><?LNB5@870F88 |1CG5=8O. > <5@5 @0AH8@5=8O 2>7<>6=>AB59 :><?LNB5@0 8 =0:>?-$(5=8O >?KB0 @07@01>B:8 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< AD5@0 53> ?@8<5=5=8O 7=0G8B5;L=> @0AH8@8;0AL.  E>BO 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O >1CG0NI85 ?@>3@0<<K, ?@54=07=0G5==K5 4;O 87CG5=8O ?@54<5B>2 D878:>-<0B5<0B8G5A:>3> 8 5AB5AB25==>=0CG=>3> F8:;>2, 70=8<0NB 254CI55 <5AB>, B5< =5 <5=55 2A5 1>;LH55 G8A;> A?5F80;8AB>2 ?>;0305B, GB> :><?LNB5@ ?>72>;O5B =0 :0G5AB25==> =>2>< C@>2=5 87CG0BL 8 3C<0=8B0@=K5 CG51=K5 48AF8?;8=K, =0?@8<5@ 8AB>@8N 8 ;8B5@0BC@C. . ;5== 8 . 028G (A. Glenn, D. Rawitsch, 1984) 2K45;ONB !;54CNI85 DC=:F88 :><?LNB5@0 2 >1CG5=88 3C<0=8B0@=K< ?@54-5B0<: 4 1) ?@54JO2;5=85 CG51=>3> <0B5@80;0 (40==CN DC=:F8N 02B>@K B@0:BCNB 25AL<0 H8@>:>, 2:;NG0O <>45;8@>20=85, ?>3@C65=85 CG0I8EAO 2 8AB>@8:>-:C;LBC@=K9 :>=B5:AB, =0?@8<5@ 2 A>1KB8O &8=C2H8E 4=59); 2) =0:>?;5=85 8 0=0;87 8=D>@<0F88 ?> @07;8G=K< AB>@>=0< 12H7=8 >1I5AB20; 3) @0728B85 <KH;5=8O ?CB5< @5H5=8O >A>1>3> @>40 7040G (: G8A;C ?>A;54=8E 02B>@K >B=>AOB ?@5645 2A53> 7040G8 =0 <>45;8@>20=85 @07;8G=KE A8BC0F89); 4) 2A?><>30B5;L=0O, =0?@8<5@, 4;O A>AB02;5=8O >1CG0NI8< @07=>>1@07=KE CG51=KE 7040G 8;8 A>740=8O @07;8G=KE B5:AB>2 @8 ?><>I8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E A8AB5< >1@01>B:8. 0:85 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?@8 >1CG5=88 3C<0=8B0@=K< CG51=K< ?@54<5B0< 405B :><?LNB5@, ?>:065< =0 ?@8<5@5 83@>2>9 ?@>3@0<<K, >?8A0==>9 . ;5==>< 8 . 028G5<, 2 :>B>@>< <>45;8@C5BAO A8BC0F8O 35>3@0D8G5A:8E >B:@KB89. 31 #G0I89AO AB028BAO 2 ?>;>65=85 :0?8B0=0 :>@01;O M?>E8 5;8:8E 35>3@0D8G5A:8E >B:@KB89, >B?@02;ONI53>AO : <0;>87CG5==K< 75<;O<, ?> A;CE0< 1>30BK< 7>;>B><.  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I5 =5 87>1@5B5=K B>G=K5 =02830F8>==K5 ?@81>@K, 8 :0?8B0=, >A=>2K20OAL =0 =0?@02;5=88 25B@0, B5<?5@0BC@5 2>74CE0, 3;C18=5 ?>4 :8;5<, ?>;>65=88 72574 8 42865=88 A>;=F0, 4>;65= 4>AB83=CBL F5;8 8 =09B8 1>30BK5 7>;>B>< <5AB0; 5A;8 >= MB>3> 85 AC<55B A45;0BL, 53> :>@01;L <>65B >:070BLAO 2 3815;L=KE 4;O AC4>E>4AB20 <5AB0E 8;8, =5 4>AB83=C2 F5;8, AB>;:=CBLAO A C3@>7>9 3>;>4=>9 A<5@B8 87-70 =5E20B:8 70?0A>2 AJ5AB=>3>. #G0I85AO 2K@010BK20NB @5H5=85 >1 C?@02;5=88 :>@01;5< 3@C??0<8 ?> 4 5 G5;>25: A;8 CG0AB2CNB =5A:>;L:> :><0=4 >4=>2@5<5==>, ?>156405B B0, GB> 1KAB@55 25@=5BAO 4><>9 A 4>1KG59.  ?@>3@0<<5 @50;87CNBAO A;54CNI85 CG51=K5 F5;8: 1) CA2>5=85 B0:8E 35>3@0D8G5A:8E ?>=OB89, :0: 4>;3>B0, H8@>B0, ?0AA0B=K5 25B@K = =02830F8O; 2) >2;045=85 =02830F8>==K<8 =02K:0<8, 3) >A>7=0=85 B@C4=>AB59, A :>B>@K<8 AB0;:820;8AL <>@5?;020B5;8 XVI  XII 22 5 <5=LH85 2>7<>6=>AB8 C :><?LNB5@0 8 ?@8 87CG5=88 ;8B5@0BC@K. 725AB=K9 A>25BA:89 ;8B5@0BC@>254, 02B>@ :><<5=B0@8O : 235=8N =538=C, .. . >B<0= ?8H5B, =0?@8<5@: 8:B>  =5 B>;L:> 8AA;54>20B5;L 8;8 ?@5?>4020B5;L, => 8 ?@>AB>9 G8B0B5;L  =5 8<55B ?@020 ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 A:>;L-;81> ?>;=>5 ?>=8<0=85 ?@>872545=8O, 5A;8 >3@0=8G8;AO B>9 AB5?5=LN ?@>=8:=>25=8O 2 B5:AB, :>B>@0O >15A?5G8205BAO 7=0=85< @CAA:>3> O7K:0 8 74@02K< A<KA;><, 8 ?@5=51@53 @0AH8D@>2:>9 =0<5:0, >1=0@C65=85< A:@KBKE F8B0B 8 @5<8=8AF5=F89, 5A;8 =5 7=05B @50;89 1KB0, =5 GC2AB2C5B AB8;8AB8G5A:>9 83@K 02B>@0 (1983, A. 7). ;O ?>4;8==>3> ?>=8<0=8O B5:AB0 =5>1E>48<K, B0:8< >1@07><, 8AB>@8:>-;8B5@0BC@=K5, AB8;8AB8G5A:85, D8;>A>DA:85 8 4@C385 :><<5=B0@88. A5 MB> A59G0A =5 >G5=L 4>ABC?=> 8 4;O ABC45=B>2-D8;>;>3>2, >4=0:> A ?><>ILN :><?LNB5@0 ?>3@C78BLAO 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI89 8AB>@8:>-:C;LBC@=K9 :>=B5:AB A<>65B 4065 AB0@H5:;0AA=8:. 4=> 87 =0?@02;5=89 8A?>;L7>20=8O :><?LNB5@0, :>B>@>5 >A>15==> 8=B5=A82=> @07@010BK205BAO 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K, A2O70=> A A8AB5<0<8 >1@01>B:8 B5:AB>2. @>3@0<<0 02B><0B8G5A:>3> 8A?@02;5=8O A8=B0:A8G5A:8E, >@D>3@0D8G5A:8E 8 4065 AB8;8AB8G5A:8E >H81>: ?>72>;8;0 MDD5:B82=> 8A?>;L7>20BL :><?LNB5@K 2 >1CG5=88 @>4=><C O7K:C. #G0I85AO ?5@5AB0NB 1>OBLAO 4>?CAB8BL >H81:C 2 ?8AL<5==>< B5:AB5, ?>A:>;L:C B0 >1O70B5;L=> 1C45B >1=0@C65=0 :><?LNB5@><, 8 >A=>2=>5 2=8<0=85 C45;ONB A<KA;>2K< 0A?5:B0< 8 AB8;8AB8:5 A2>8E A>G8=5=89. @8 MB>< =5 B>;L:> ?>2KH0NBAO 3@0<>B=>ABL 8 2K@078B5;L=>ABL MB8E A>G8=5=89, => 8 CA8;8205BAO <>B820F8O CG5=8O. > MDD5:B82=>5 ?@8<5=5=85 A8AB5< >1@01>B:8 B5:AB>2 2 >1CG5=88 ?8AL<C B@51C5B @5H5=8O @O40 2>?@>A>2, >B=>AOI8EAO : 2708<>459AB28N CG0I8EAO A :><?LNB5@><, : @07@01>B:5 =>2KE <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O ?8AL<C 8 B. 4. (A<.. R. Shostak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lpert, D. L. Ditzer, 1970; . . Burns, W. !. Bozeman, 1981; G. M. Deig-nan, R. E. Duncan, 1978; R. Ferguson, 1970; J. I. Hirschbuhl, 1980). > 40==K5 > :0G5AB25 B0:>3> >1CG5=8O ?@>B82>@5G82K. A;8 2 >4=8E 8AA;54>20=8OE (G. M. Deignan, R. E. Duncan, 1978; J. Gershman, E. Sakamoto, 1981, J. I. Hirshbuhl, 1980; F. L. Sphttgerber, 19,9) 1K;> CAB0=>2;5=>, GB> ?@8<5=5=85 :><?LNB5@>2 405B =5 <5=55 E>@>H85 ?>:070B5;8, G5< 2 CA;>28OE B@048F8>==>3> >1CG5=8O, 0 2 =5:>B@KE A;CG0OE 4065 ;CGH85, B> 2 4@C38E (A<.: A. McDougall, 1975) 1K;> 70D8:A8@>20=> A=865=85 ?>:070B5;59. 081>;55 C1548B5;L=K5 4>:070B5;LAB20 MDD5:B82=>AB8 :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O ?@82545=K 2 42CE @01>B0E. 2B>@K ?5@2>9 @01>BK (R. L. Bangert-Drowns et al., 1985) ?>AB@>8;8 A2>9 0=0;87 MDD5:B82=>AB8 =0 A;54CNI8E ?@8=F8?0E: 0) A@02=820;8AL 40==K5 8AA;54>20=89, ?@>2>482H8EAO ?> >1J5:B82=K< 8 2>A?@>872>48<K< ?>:070B5;O<; 1) 2A5 8AA;54>20=8O :>48@>20;8AL 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 87CG02H8<8AO 2 =8E ?>:070B5;O<8; 2) 2A5 ?>:070B5;8 >F5=820;8AL ?> 548=>9 H:0;5: 3) ?@8 >F5=:5 40==KE 8A?>;L7>20;8AL AB0B8AB8G5A:85 <5B>4K. @8 @0AA<>B@5=88 42 8AA;54>20=89 ?> MDD5:B82=>AB8 :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O 2 A@54=8E :;0AA0E 1K;> 2K45;5=> 18 ?>:070B5;59, ?> :>B>@K< CG8BK20;8AL: B8? 8A?>;L7>20=8O :><?LNB5@0, A?>A>1 2708<>459AB28O A =8< CG0I8EAO, 4;8B5;L=>ABL 8 H8@>B0 53> ?@8<5=5=8O, CG51=K5 ?@54<5BK, C@>25=L ?>43>B>2:8 CG0I8EAO, 8E 2>7@0AB, 0 B0:65 2@5<O 0?@>10F88 ?@>3@0<<K  4> 1969 3., 2 1970 1974, 1975 1979, 1980 1984 33. 1I89 2K2>4, : :>B>@><C ?@8H;8 . M=465@B-@>C=A 8 53> :>;;538, B0:>2: >1CG5=85 A ?><>ILN :><?LNB5@0 C;CGH05B >B=>H5=85 CG0I8EAO : CG5=8N, =081>;55 MDD5:B82=K ?@>3@0<<K B8?0 CMI. 2   0H18F 33 > 2B>@>9 @01>B5 6. 0;8:>< 8 53> :>;;530<8 (J. A. Kulik et al., 1980) 1K;> ?@>0=0;878@>20=> 312 8AA;54>20=89.  MB>B 0=0;87 ?>:070;, GB> :><?LNB5@ 405B 2K83@KH 2 :0G5AB25 8 2@5<5=8 CA2>5=8O CG51=>3> <0B5@80;0. 0 2>?@>A > A>>B=>H5=88 MDD5:B82=>AB8 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< 8 A?>A>1=>AB59 CG0I8EAO, > B><, :0:85 CG0I85AO 2K83@K20NB >B ?@8<5=5=8O :><?LNB5@>2  A?>A>1=K5 8;8 <5=55 A?>A>1=K5, B0:65 5I5 =5B >4=>7=0G=>3> >B25B0.  70-5 33. AG8B0;>AL, GB> :><?LNB5@K 40NB 1>;LH89 MDD5:B ?@8 >1CG5=88 E>@>H> CA?520NI8E CG0I8EAO (D. Jaminson et al., 1974). 4=0:> 1>;55 ?>74=85 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8 =54>AB>25@=>ABL ?>4>1=KE 2K2>4>2. 0: 2KOA=8;>AL 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K, CG0I8<AO A =87:8< C@>2=5< A?>A>1=>AB59, 0 B0:65 C<AB25==> >BAB0;K< 8 A D878G5A:8<8 =54>AB0B:0<8 ?@8<5=5=85 :><?LNB5@0 7=0G8B5;L=> >1;53G05B CG5=85 8 @0AH8@O5B 2>7<>6=>AB8 8E >1CG5=8O (R. L. 0?-gert-Drowns et al., 1985). 07=>1>9 <=5=89 >1 MDD5:B82=>AB8 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< >1CA;>2;5= @O4>< ?@8G8=. >-?5@2KE, >BACBAB285< 8=D>@<0F88 >1 MDD5:B82=>AB8 :>=:@5B=KE ?@>3@0<<. =>385 8AA;54>20=8O ?@>2>48;8AL 157 :>=B@>;L=KE 3@C??. 5<0;>206=K< O2;O5BAO 8 B>, GB> A0<8 ?@>3@0<<K @07;8G0;8AL ?> :0G5AB2C, 8 MB> =5 <>3;> =5 A:070BLAO =0 @57C;LB0B0E >1CG5=8O. %>BO 70 ?>A;54=85 20 ;5B MDD5:B82=>ABL >1CG5=8O A ?><>ILN :><?LNB5@0 2>7@>A;0 (G. Kearsley et al., 1983), => ?>-?@56=5<C G8A;> =5MDD5:B82=KE >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< 25;8:>, 0 MB> =587156=> A:07K205BAO =0 AB0B8AB8G5A:8E 40==KE. >-2B>@KE, =5>4=>7=0G=>ABLN A0<8E <5B>4>2 8AA;54>20=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<. =8 ?>72>;ONB 2KOA=8BL =5 AB>;L:> MDD5:B82=>ABL :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O, A:>;L:> :0G5AB2> :>=:@5B=KE >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<.  2 MB>< A;CG05 AB0B8AB8:0 <0;> GB> 405B. A;8, =0?@8<5@, >4=0 >1CG0NI0O ?@>3@0<<0 87 45AOB8 7=0G8B5;L=> ?>2KH05B MDD5:B82=>ABL >1CG5=8O, 0 >AB0;L=K5 =8:0:>3> ?@58<CI5AB20 ?> A@02=5=8N A B@048F8>==K<8 D>@<0<8 >1CG5=8O =5 40NB, B> 87 MB>3> =5 A;54C5B, GB> >1CG0NI85 2>7<>6=>AB8 :><?LNB5@0 =525;8:8. ?>;=5 25@>OB=>, GB> 452OBL 87 45AOB8 ?@>3@0<< =5MDD5:B82=K ?> :0:8<-B> A2>8< ?@8G8=0<, =0?@8<5@ 87-70 =54>AB0B>G=>9 ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:>9 ?>43>B>2:8 8E @07@01>BG8:>2. >-2848<><C, <5B>4K 8AA;54>20=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O =C640NBAO 2 A>25@H5=AB2>20=88. >:0 GB> >=8 =5 ?>72>;ONB >B25B8BL =0 2>?@>A, 70 AG5B G53> C40;>AL 4>18BLAO 2KA>:>3> :0G5AB20 >1CG5=8O 8 :0:85 D0:B>@K >:07K20;8 >B@8F0B5;L=>5 2>7459AB285. @5645 G5< @5H0BL 2>?@>A >1 MDD5:B82=>AB8 >1CG5=8O A ?><>ILN :><?LNB5@>2, =5>1E>48<> 2KO28BL D0:B>@K, 2;8ONI85 =0 MBC MDD5:B82=>ABL. =0=85 B0:8E D0:B>@>2 ?>72>;8B =5 B>;L:> >F5=8BL :0G5AB2> C65 @07@01>B0==KE ?@>3@0<<, => 8 =0<5B8BL ?CB8 @07@01>B:8 MDD5:B82=KE >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<. 34 ;020 11 "5>@5B8G5A:85 >A=>2K :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O 1. "5>@88 >1CG5=8O 8 @07@01>B:0 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< -DD5:B82=>ABL ?@8<5=5=8O :><?LNB5@0 2 CG51=>< ?@>F5AA5 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 7028A8B >B :0G5AB20 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<. @8 2A5< @07=>>1@0788 ?@8<5=O5<KE A?>A>1>2 8 ?@85<>2 <>6=> 2K45;8BL 420 ?>4E>40 : 8E A>AB02;5=8N. ;O >4=>3> E0@0:B5@=0 >?>@0 =0 =0CG=CN B5>@8N, 4;O 4@C3>3>  =0 B0: =07K205<K9 74@02K9 A<KA;, B. 5. =0 8=BC8B82=K5, G0AB> =54>AB0B>G=> >A>7=0==K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O > ?@>F5AA5 >1CG5=8O 8 8=48284C0;L=K9 >?KB, ?@8>1@5B5==K9 @07@01>BG8:0<8 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@5?>4020B5;LA:>9 @01>BK. 5AL<0 70<0=G82K< 1K;> 1K A>548=8BL MB8 ?>4E>4K 2 >48=, :>B>@K9 >?8@0;AO 1K, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, =0 =0CG=> >1>A=>20==CN B5>@8N, 0 A 4@C3>9  ?@0:B8:C >1CG5=8O. > B0:>5 :><?@><8AA=>5 @5H5=85 2 3;>10;L=>< ?;0=5 =52>7<>6=>. 5;> 2 B><, GB> =0CG=K5 7=0=8O 8 8=48284C0;L=K9 >?KB ?@5?>4020=8O, :0: ?@028;>, =5A>2<5AB8<K <564C A>1>9. 0: A?@0254;82> ?>4G5@:8205B .. >75;5F:89, =0CG=K5 7=0=8O =5 O2;ONBAO ?@>4C:B>< 8=48284C0;L=>3> >?KB0 8 4065 G0AB> ?@>B82>@5G0B 5<C, 0 ?>MB><C <=>385 CG8B5;O >B=>AOBAO : =8< A =54>25@85<, >?0A0OAL, GB> AB@>8BL =0 =8E A2>5 ?>2545=85 1K;> 1K A;8H:>< @8A:>20==> (1979, A. 395 396). #:070==>5 >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, ?> <=5=8N .. >75;5F:>3>, O2;O5BAO ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< 10@L5@><, 70B@C4=ONI8< 8A?>;L7>20=85 @57C;LB0B>2 =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89. >?@>A > B><, ?>G5<C =0CG=K5 7=0=8O =5 8A?>;L7CNBAO CG8B5;O<8 2 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 25AL<0 A;>6=K9 8 B@51C5B A?5F80;L=>3> @0AA<>B@5=8O. K 65 >3@0=8G8<AO CB25@645=85<, GB> ?>4>1=>5 O2;5=85 ?>;CG8;> 1>;LH>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 8 A@548 @07@01>BG8:>2 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<, AB@5<OI8EAO AB@>8BL MB8 ?@>3@0<<K, >A=>2K20OAL =0 ;8G=>< >?KB5 >1CG5=8O. > :0: @07 >BACBAB285< C @07@01>BG8:>2 ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:>9 ?>43>B>2:8 2 >A=>2=>< >1JOA=O5BAO =54>AB0B>G=0O MDD5:B82=>ABL >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<.  5A;8 ?>4>1=0O B5=45=F8O A>E@0=8BAO, B> :><?LNB5@=>5 >1CG5=85 2@O4 ;8 >?@02405B 2>7;0305<K5 =0 =53> =04564K. 07C<55BAO, ACI5AB2CNB 25AL<0 MDD5:B82=K5 >1CG0NI85 ?@>3@0<<K, A>740==K5 =0 >A=>25 ;8G=>3> >?KB0 @07@01>BG8:>2. > >=8 A:>@55 8A:;NG5=85, 0 =5 ?@028;>. ><?LNB5@=>5 >1CG5=85 >7=0G05B A>740=85 =>2KE B5E=>;>389, 22545=85 :>B>@KE 2 <0AA>2>< ?>@O4:5 <>6=> >15A?5G8BL, B>;L:> AB@>O 8E =0 =0CG=>9 >A=>25. 5;L7O @0AAG8BK20BL =0 B>, GB> A8;0<8 CG8B5;59-M=BC780AB>2 C40ABAO @5H8BL 2A5 ?@>1;5<K, A2O70==K5 A A>740=85< MDD5:B82- 2* 35 =KE >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<. 07C<55BAO, CG0AB85 ?@0:B8G5A:8E @01>B=8:>2 2 MB>< ?@>F5AA5 A;54C5B B>;L:> ?@825BAB2>20BL, => @07@01>B:0 B5>@5B8G5A:8E >A=>2 :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O  MB> 45;> ?@5645 2A53> A?5F80;8AB>2 ?> ?5403>38G5A:8< =0C:0<, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. ! B0:>9 ?>AB0=>2:>9 A>3;0A=K <=>385 A?5F80;8ABK :0: C =0A, B0: 8 70 @C156><, AG8B0NI85, GB> =54>AB0B>G=0O @07@01>B:0 B5>@5B8G5A:8E >A=>2 O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 >A=>2=KE ?@8G8= =87:>9 MDD5:B82=>AB8 :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O. > ACB8, ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> A?5F80;8AB>2 AG8B0NB, GB> =8 >4=0 87 ACI5AB2CNI8E B5>@89 >1CG5=8O =5 <>65B 1KBL =5?>A@54AB25==> 8A?>;L7>20=0 4;O @07@01>B:8 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<, ?>A:>;L:C, :0: 1C45B ?>:070=> =865, ACI5AB2CNI85 ?>?KB:8 AB@>8BL :><?LNB5@=>5 >1CG5=85 2 A>>B25BAB288 A =8<8 >:07K20NBAO <0;>MDD5:B82=K<8. 4=0:>, :>340 3>2>@OB > @07@01>B:5 B5>@5B8G5A:8E >A=>2, 8<5NB 2 284C A>740=85 ;81> >1I59 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O, ;81> A?5F80;L=>9 B5>@88 :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O (. / O-C48A, . . "8E><8@>2, 1983;  Holmberg, 1985). K ?>;0305<, GB> @5GL 4>;6=0 84B8 > A>740=88 >1I59 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O, 2 :>B>@>9 >A>15==>AB8 :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O CG8BK20NBAO =0 C@>2=5 B5E=>;>388 >1CG5=8O. ?>;=5 70:>=><5@5= 2>?@>A: ?>G5<C A>2@5<5==0O ?5403>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O >:070;0AL, ?> ACB8, 85 ?>43>B>2;5==>9 : :><?LNB5@=><C >1CG5=8N, ?>G5<C 55 B5>@88 =5?@8<5=8<K? !;54C5B A:070BL, GB> @07@01>B:0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B5>@89 >1CG5=8O =0G0;0AL ;8HL 2 :>=F5 50-E 33. > MB>3> 2 <8@>2>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:5 3>A?>4AB2>20;0 B>G:0 7@5=8O, 1C4B> >1CG5=85 2>>1I5 =5 2E>48B 2 ?@54<5B ?A8E>;>388. 0: >B<5G05B . 5946 (N. L. Gage, 1963), ?> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O =5 1K;> =8 :=83, =8 CG51=KE :C@A>2, =8 4065 @0745;>2 2 254CI8E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 6C@=0;0E. BACBAB285 @01>B >1JOA=O;>AL B5<, GB> 2 B> 2@5<O >1I5?@8=OBK< 1K;> ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 >1CG5=88 :0: 75@:0;L=>< >B@065=88 CG5=8O 8 AG8B0;>AL, GB> 4065 @O4>2>9 CG8B5;L, >?8@0OAL =0 B5>@8N CG5=8O, <>65B @07@01>B0BL, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 4;O A51O, B5>@8N >1CG5=8O. 0G8=0O A 60-E 33. MB0 B>G:0 7@5=8O AB0;0 @57:> :@8B8:>20BLAO. 5 =5A>AB>OB5;L=>ABL E>@>H> @0A:@K; . 5946, ?@8153=C2 : A;54CNI59 0=0;>388: D5@<5@0< =C6=> 7=0BL, :0: @0ABCB @0AB5=8O 8 :0: =0 =8E 2;8O5B B0 8;8 8=0O ?>G20, 2>40, A>;=5G=K9 A25B, 0 CG8B5;O< =C6=> 7=0BL, :0: 45B8 CG0BAO 8 :0: =0 =8E 2;8O5B <>B820F8O, 3>B>2=>ABL : CG5=8N 8 ?>4:@5?;5=85. > D5@<5@0< B0:65 =C6=> 7=0BL, :0: 70=8<0BLAO A5;LA:8< E>7O9AB2><: :0: 2>745;K20BL ?>G2C, 70A520BL 55 A5<5=0<8, C=8GB>60BL A>@=O:8 8 =0A5:><KE-2@548B5;59, A>18@0BL C@>609 8 4>AB02;OBL 53> =0 @K=>:. 065 5A;8 MB0 0=0;>38O =5 A>2A5< B>G=0, CG8B5;O< B5< =5 <5=55 =C6=> 7=0BL, :0: >1CG0BL: :0: <>B828@>20BL 7L CG5=8:>2, >?@545;OBL AB5?5=L 8E 3>B>2=>AB8 : CG5=8N 8, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A MB8<, ?@8<5=OO B5 8;8 8=K5 <5B>4K, ?@54JO2;OBL <0B5@80;, ?>445@6820BL 48AF8?;8=C 8 D>@<8@>20BL :>3=8B82=K5 AB@C:BC@K.  A>60;5=8N, 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 ?5403>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O ?@54>AB02;O5B CG8B5;N A0<><C @5H0BL, :0: >1CG0BL, 8AE>4O 87 B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?>;>65=89, :0A0NI8EAO CG0I8EAO 8 CG5=8O (N. L. Gage, 1963).  MB8 65 3>4K =0G0;0 @0AA5820BLAO 8;;N78O, 1C4B> ;N1>9 CG8B5;L, 2;045NI89 B5>@859 CG5=8O, A<>65B 2K25AB8 87 =55 70:>=><5@=>ABL >1CG5=8O. -B> >:070;>AL =5 ?>4 A8;C =5 B>;L:> @O4>2><C CG8B5;N, => 8 :@C?=59H8< B5>@5B8:0< =0CG5=8O. "0:, ?>?KB:0 $. . (5DD8;40 (F. D. Sheffield, 1961) 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL 85@0@E8G5A:>5 =0CG5=85 A8AB5<0B878@>20==><C <0B5@80;C 2 B5@<8=0E 8=AB@C<5=B0;L=>3> >1CA;>2;820=8O ?>B5@?5;0 :@0E. !B>;L 65 157CA?5H=>9 1K;0 ?>?KB:0 . M=4;5@0 (G. Mandler, 1968) >1JOA=8BL >1CG5=85 2 :;0AA5 2 B5@<8=0E 70:>=0 0AA>F80F89. :070;>AL B0:65, GB> E>@>H> 8725AB=K5 8 =8:5< =5 >A?0@8205<K5 ?@8=F8?K CG5=8O, B0:85, :0: ?>4:@5?;5=85, @0A?@545;5=85 C?@06=5=89, >A<KA;5==>ABL CG5=8O, <0;> G5< ?><>30;8 ?@8 ?@>5:B8@>20=88 MDD5:B82=KE >1CG0NI8E A8BC0F89. #65 ?5@2K5 ?>?KB:8 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< 2KO28;8 =54>AB0B>G=>ABL 4;O MB>3> ?@8=F8?>2 B5>@88 CG5=8O. @8 @07@01>B:5 ?@>3@0<<8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O AB0;> OA=>, GB> @O4 ?>;>65=89, =0 :>B>@KE MB> >1CG5=85 AB@>8BAO, 2KE>48B 70 @0<:8 B5>@88 CG5=8O (. . 0H18F, . . >=40@>2A:0O, 1964), E>BO 55 A>740B5;L . !:8==5@ CB25@640;, GB> 8<5==> MB0 B5>@8O ;568B 2 >A=>25 :>=F5?F88 ?@>3@0<<8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O.  A>25BA:>9 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O B0:65 =5 C45;O;>AL 4>AB0B>G=>3> 2=8<0=8O. @8<5=O5<K9 2 ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:8E @01>B0E D>@<8@CNI89 M:A?5@8<5=B B@51C5B >B 8AA;54>20B5;O @5H5=8O <=>38E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5< >1CG5=8O, 5A;8 =5 =0 B5>@5B8G5A:><, B> E>BO 1K =0 ?@0:B8G5A:>< C@>2=5. >7<>6=>ABL 8E @5H5=8O 4;O A51O, 4;O 40==>3> A;CG0O =5@54:> ?>@>640;0 8;;N78N, 1C4B> B5>@8O CG5=8O (B>G=55, CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8) >E20BK205B 25AL :><?;5:A ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5< ?>AB@>5=8O MDD5:B82=>3> >1CG5=8O. 8 >4=0 87 >B5G5AB25==KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B5>@89 CG5=8O (=0?@8<5@, B5>@8O . /. 0;L?5@8=0 8 . $. "0;K78=>9, . . -;L:>=8=0 8 . . 02K4>20, . . 0BNH:8=0 8 ". . C4@O2F520, . . 5=-G8=A:>9 8 B. 4.) B0: 8 =5 AB0;0 >A=>2>9 4;O @07@01>B:8 :><?LNB5@=KE >1CG0NI8E A8AB5<, E>BO 2 =8E 8<5NBAO 25AL<0 ?;>4>B2>@=K5 8458. 4=0 87 ?@8G8= MB>3>  =52>7<>6=>ABL 8E B5E-=>;>3870F88, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, =0 =K=5H=5< C@>2=5 8E @07@01>B:8.  ?>A;54=85 45AOB8;5B8O 70 @C156>< ?>O28;>AL 4>AB0B>G=> <=>3> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B5>@89 >1CG5=8O (=5:>B>@K5 02B>@K =07K20NB 8E <>45;O<8). =>340 MB8 B5>@88 :;0AA8D8F8@CNB 2 7028- 37 A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, =0 :0:85 B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@54AB02;5=8O CG5=8O >=8 >?8@0NBAO.  MB>< A;CG05 @07;8G0NB 420 B8?0 B5>@89 >1CG5=8O: 1078@CNI85AO =0 18E528>@87<5 8 1078@CNI85AO =0 :>3=8B82=>9 ?A8E>;>388. @0240, 2 MBC AE5<C =5 C:;04K20NBAO <=>385 B5>@88, 2>7=8:H85 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K. 0?@8<5@, 2 :0G5AB25 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 =5@54:> 2K45;ONB B5>@8N 74@02>3> A<KA;0 (55 8=>340 =07K20NB 0@B8AB8G5A:>9), :>=AB0B8@CNICN 8=BC8B82=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O >1 >1CG5=88, 2K@010BK205<K5 =0 >A=>25 ;8G=>3> 8 :>;;5:B82=>3> >?KB0 ?@5?>4020B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (J. Carrol, 1976). >2>;L=> 1>;LH>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2 !( ?>;CG8;0 :;0AA8D8:0F8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E <>45;59, ?@54;>65==0O . 0BE>;;>< 8  !8C:>< (G. Nuthall, I. Snook, 1973). 5 02B>@K 2K45;ONB B@8 3@C??K: 0) <>45;8 C?@02;5=8O ?>2545=85< (behavioral control models); 1) <>45;8 CG5=8O G5@57 >B:@KB8O (discovery learning models) 8 2) @0F8>=0;L=K5 <>45;8 (rational models).  MBC :;0AA8D8:0F8N B0:65 2?8AK20NBAO 40;5:> =5 2A5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 B5>@88, >4=0:> =0 55 >A=>25 1K;0 >ACI5AB2;5=0 25AL<0 C40G=0O ?>?KB:0 ?@>0=0;878@>20BL B5>@5B8G5A:85 >A=>2K :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O (J. R. Hartley, 1980 0; ,). @825@65==>ABL 8AA;54>20B5;59 : <>45;O< ?5@2>9 3@C??K >1JOA=O5BAO B5<, GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 @57:CN :@8B8:C 18E528>@87<0 8 4065 =5A:>;L:> 8@>=8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 : ?>?KB:0< 8AB>;:>20BL ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O 2 53> 4CE5, <=>385 >1CG0NI85 A8AB5<K >A=>2K20NBAO =0 18E528>@8ABA:8E 845OE, ?>A:>;L:C B5 ;53:> ?>440NBAO B5E=>;>3870F88.  :0G5AB25 =081>;55 8725AB=>9 A8AB5<K, :>B>@0O >A=>2K205BAO =0 <>45;8 C?@02;5=8O ?>2545=85<, <>6=> =0720BL PLATO, @07@01>B0==CN 2 ;;8=>9A:>< C=825@A8B5B5.  @0<:0E G5BK@5E <>48D8:0F89 MB>9 A8AB5<K @07@01>B0=> <=>65AB2> >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< ?> @07=K< :C@A0<. >45;8 >1CG5=8O ?CB5< >B:@KB8O B0:65 4>AB0B>G=> @0A?@>AB@0=5=K. =8 1;87:8 : B><C, GB> C =0A =07K20NB ?@>1;5<=K< >1CG5=85<, 8 =5 >A=>2K20NBAO =0 :0:>9-B> >4=>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88, 0 >1J548=ONB 2 A515 8458 :>3=8B82=>9 ?A8E>;>388, ?A8E>;>388 B2>@G5AB20 8 @0728B8O @515=:0. !CI5AB2CNB @07;8G=K5 B>G:8 7@5=8O =0 8AB>@8G5A:85 ?@54?>AK;:8 MB>9 <>45;8. 4=8 02B>@K (R. Glaser, 1976) ?@>>1@07 55 284OB 2 8=4C:B82=>< <5B>45, 4@C385 (G. Hendrix, 1961; . Taba, 1963) AG8B0NB, GB> B0:>3> @>40 <>45;8 AB0;8 @07@010BK20BLAO ;8HL 2 :>=F5 ?@>H;>3> =0G0;5 =K=5H=>3> 25:0. "@5BL8 (J. S. Bruner, 1961; J. R. Suchman, 1964) @0AA<0B@820NB >1CG5=85 ?CB5< >B:@KB8O :0: 8==>20F8N, >1CA;>2;5==CN ?>B@51=>ABO<8 H:>;L=>9 A8AB5<K  ?5@5E>4>< >B <5E0=8G5A:>3> 70CG820=8O : <KA;8B5;L=K< 7040G0<. 73;O4K >B5G5AB25==KE ?A8E>;>3>2 8 4840:B>2 =0 ?@>1;5<=>5 >1CG5=85 =081>;55 ?>;=> ?@54AB02;5=K 2 @01>B0E . . 0-BNH:8=0 (1971), . . 0E<CB>20 (1975), ". . C4@O2F520 38 (1975), . . @CH;8=A:>3> (1983). %>BO B@0:B>2:8 ?@>1;5<=>3> >1CG5=8O >B5G5AB25==KE 8 70@C156=KE ?A8E>;>3>2 @07;8G0NBAO, B5< =5 <5=55 1>;LH8=AB2> 53> AB>@>==8:>2 A>3;0AOBAO A ?@82545==>9 =865 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9, :>B>@0O, :AB0B8, 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?@8 ?>AB@>5=88 A8AB5< :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O: 0) CG8B5;N =5 A;54C5B =02O7K20BL 7=0=8O, >= 4>;65= A>74020BL 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> ?@>AB> ?><>305B >1CG05<K< 2 @5H5=88 ?@>1;5<, 1) CG8B5;N =5 A;54C5B >1>1I0BL 87CG05<K9 <0B5@80;, ?@5645 G5< >1CG05<K5 =5 A45;0NB MB> A0<8; 2) CG8B5;N A;54C5B ?>701>B8BLAO > B><, GB>1K >1CG05<K5 =5 ?@8=8<0;8 53> 8459 =0 25@C; 3) 5A;8 >1CG05<K5 ?@8H;8 : ;>6=K< 70:;NG5=8O< 8;8 A45;0;8 =525@=>5 >1>1I5=85, CG8B5;N =5 A;54C5B C:07K20BL 8< =0 >H81:C, => >= 4>;65= ?@825AB8 ?@8<5@K, 87 :>B>@KE >H81>G=>ABL 70:;NG5=8O 8;8 >1>1I5=8O AB0=5B >G5284=>9 (R. Burton, I. S. Brown, 1976). @82;5:0B5;L=>ABL C:070==KE <>45;59 4;O A8AB5< :><?LNB5@5 =>3> >1CG5=8O >1CA;>2;5=0 ?@5645 2A53> B5<, GB> 2 @O45 A;CG052 ?5@5G8A;5==K5 >A>15==>AB8 =5?@O<>3> C?@02;5=8O ;53G5 @50;87>20BL, G5< 65AB:> 45B5@<8=8@>20==>5 C?@02;5=85. "0:, 5A;8 A8AB5<0 =5 <>65B B>G=> ;>:0;87>20BL >H81:C 8 2KOA=8BL 55 ?@8G8=C, B> 2?>;=5 >?@0240==>9 AB0=>28BAO ?><>IL 2 2845 >1I53> A>25B0, M2@8AB8G5A:8E C:070=89, @5:><5=40F89 8 B. 4. !B>@>==8:8 <>45;59 >1CG5=8O, >B=>A8<K5 :> 2B>@>9 3@C??5, ?KB0NBAO >1J548=8BL 8458 6. @C=5@0 A B5>@859 . 8065. 5A<>B@O =0 ?>?C;O@=>ABL MB8E <>45;59, 2 8E 04@5A @0740NBAO 8 :@8B8G5A:85 70<5G0=8O ?> ?>2>4C 8E =54>AB0B>G=>9 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 @07@01>B0==>AB8 (D. P. Ausubel, 1968). -B>B B8? <>45;59 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> 2 B0: =07K205<KE 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE >1CG0NI8E A8AB5<0E (A<. 3;. 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Leron, 1982), MB>B ?5@5A<>B@ >7=0G05B =5 2>72@0B : B@048F8>==>9 ?@0:B8:5 H:>;K, 0 >BE>4 >B =55. 5GL 845B > B0:>< ?5@5A<>B@5 B@048F8>==>3> >1CG5=8O, ?@8 :>B>@>< C405BAO =0<=>3> ?>;=55, G5< >1KG=>, 8A?>;L7>20BL 2>7<>6=>AB8 :><?LNB5@0 :0: >A>1>3> A@54AB20 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?>O2;ONBAO =>2K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 2 D>@<8@>20=88 C H:>;L=8:>2 @5D;5:A88 A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 B. 4. @0:B8G5A:89 8=B5@5A ?@54AB02;ONB 8 <>45;8 B@5BL59 3@C??K, =0720==K5 @0F8>=0;L=K<8. -B>B B8? <>45;59, 2 >B;8G85 >B ?5@2KE 42CE, >?8@05BAO =5 AB>;L:> =0 ?A8E>;>38N, A:>;L:> =0 D8;>A>D8N 8 1;87>: 45OB5;L=>AB=><C ?>4E>4C : >1CG5=8N. !>740B5;8 40==KE <>45;59 @0AA<0B@820NB >1CG5=85 :0: F5;5=0?@02;5==CN G5;>25G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, ?>4G5@:820O, GB> >=>, 5AB5AB25==>, =5 2A5340 <>65B 1KBL CA?5H=K< 8 25AB8 : =0CG5=8N. @8 MB>< 40;5:> =5 2AO:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, 254CI0O : =0CG5=8N, <>65B 1KBL =0720=0 >1CG5=85<. ">;L:> >A>7=0==CN 8 F5;5=0?@02;5==CN 45OB5;L=>ABL <>6=> :20;8D8F8@>20BL :0: >1CG5=85, :0: 2708<>459AB285 @07C<=KE ?0@B=5@>2. -B8< >1CG5=85 >B;8G05BAO >B B@5=8=30 8 >B ?@>F5AA0 >1@07>20=8O CA;>2=KE @5D;5:A>2 (>1CA;>2;820=8O). 1CG5=85 <>6=> AG8B0BL ?>;=>F5==K< B>;L:> 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 >1CG05<K9 <>65B >BAB>OBL A2>8 C15645=8O 8 >1>A=>20BL A2>8 459AB28O, 0 4;O B@5=8=30 4>AB0B>G=> CA?5H=>3> 8E 2K?>;=5=8O, >1CA;>2;820=85 65 70B@038205B ;8HL 2=5H=85 D>@<K ?>2545=8O G5;>25:0. A;8 1>;LH8=AB2> B@048F8>==KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B5>@89 ?KB0;8AL >1JOA=8BL ?>2545=85 2 B5@<8=0E ?@54H5AB2CNI53> >?KB0 8 A>AB>O=89 >@30=87<0, B> ?@8 40==>< ?>4E>45 ?>4G5@:8205BAO, GB> C=8:0;L=>ABL G5;>25G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >?@545;O5BAO 55 F5;5=0?@02;5==>ABLN, 0 7=0G8B, 045:20B=>5 55 >1JOA=5=85 A;54C5B 4020BL 2 B5@<8=0E F5;59, =0<5@5=89, 2;5G5=89 ;8G=>AB8.  @0F8>=0;L=KE <>45;OE >1CG5=8O <>B82K 45OB5;L=>AB8 83@0NB 254CICN @>;L. 0: >B<5G05B . 0CD<0= (A. Kaufman, 1967), >1CG5= G5;>25: 8;8 C =53> ?@>AB> >1@07>20;AO CA;>2=K9 @5D;5:A 45;0BL GB>-;81>, <>6=> >?@545;8BL ?> 53> <>B820<. >B82K 459AB289 A2O70=K A F5;O<8 G5;>25:0, A;54>20B5;L=>, >1CG5=85 =0?@02;5=> =0 87<5=5=85 2 A?>A>1=>ABOE CG0I8EAO >ACI5AB2;OBL A>>B25BAB2CNI85 459AB28O ?> A>1AB25==>9 8=8F80B825. "@5B89 B8? <>45;59 >1CG5=8O <5=55 @07@01>B0=, G5< ?5@2K5 420, 8 =0<=>3> @565 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2 A8AB5<0E :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O.  :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 :><?LNB5@=KE A8AB5<, @50;87CNI8E C:070==K5 <>45;8, <>6=> =0720BL PEGASUS 8 SOCIOGRIDS, 2 41 >A=>2C :>B>@KE ?>;>65=0 B5>@8O ;8G=>AB=KE :>=AB@C:B>2 5;;5@0 A ?>ABC;0B>< > B><, GB> ;8G=>AB=K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK ?@>B5:0NB ?> B5< 65 ?CBO<, ?> :>B>@K< 8=48284 >68405B A>1KB8O (L. G. Mildred, L. F. Shan, 1978; . 0@5, . Shaw, 1981). >42>4O 8B>38, <>6=> A:070BL, GB> @07@01>B0==K5 70 ?>A;54=85 20 ;5B B5>@88 >1CG5=8O, >1>7=0G05<K5 B0: 65, :0: <>45;8 8 :0: ?0@0483<K, ?> >1I5<C ?@87=0=8N, 40;5:8 >B 7025@H5==>AB8. 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A @07;8G=KE B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?>78F89), 4@C385 A<>B@OB 2 @07=K5 :><=0BK (B. 5. ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : @07=K< CG51=K< F5;O< >1CG5=8O). 0H0 7040G0, 70:;NG05B MB>B 02B>@, @0AA<0B@820BL @07;8G=K5 :><=0BK, B. 5. 0=0;878@>20BL >1CG5=85 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : @07=K< CG51=K< F5;O<, ?@8G5< @0AA<0B@820O 8E 87 <=>38E >:>=, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL :0: <>6=> 1>;55 ?>;=CN :0@B8=C. 0A:>;L:> =5 @07@01>B0=K >A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O, 284=> 87 0=0;870 B5E B@51>20=89, :>B>@K5 ?@54JO2;ONBAO : =59. -B8 B@51>20=8O 8=B5=A82=> >1AC640NBAO 2 !( =0G8=0O A 60-E 33., 8 2 8E >B1>@5 ?@>O28;8AL 425 B5=45=F88. @8 ?5@2>9 2K42830NBAO A;54CNI85 B@51>20=8O: 1. "5>@8O >1CG5=8O 4>;6=0 1KBL ;>38G=>9, =5 4>;6=0 ?@>B82>@5G8BL M<?8@8G5A:8< 40==K<; 55 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 >3@0=8G5=8O A;54C5B D>@<C;8@>20BL 2 O2=>< 2845 (MB8 B@51>20=8O 1K;8 2K428=CBK 2 1964 3. A?5F80;L=>9 :><8AA859 ?> B5>@88 >1CG5=8O, A>740==>9 AA>F80F859 ?> @07@01>B:5 <5B>48: 8 ?@>3@0<< >1CG5=8O). 2. =0 4>;6=0 1KBL M:>=><=>9 (MB> B@51>20=85 2K428=C;  !=5;15:5@; A<.: G. E. Snelbecker, 1974). 3. =0 4>;6=0 1KBL 2A5AB>@>==59, >?B8<0;L=>9, G5B:> D8:A8@>20BL AD5@C ?@8<5=5=8O (MB8 B@51>20=8O 2K428=C; . !=>C; A<.: R. E. Snow, 1977). 5B@C4=> C1548BLAO, GB> B0:85 B@51>20=8O ?@8<5=8<K : ;N1>9 B5>@88, 8 =5 >1O70B5;L=> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9. @8 2B>@>9 B5=45=F88 2=8<0=85 0:F5=B8@C5BAO =0 B@51>20=8OE, A?5F8D8G=KE 4;O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88. "0:, 6. @C=5@ (J. S. Bruner, 1966) AD>@<C;8@>20; A;54CNI85 B@51>20=8O : B5>@88 >1CG5=8O: 1. =0 4>;6=0 >?@545;OBL A@54AB20, ?>2KH0NI85 <>B820F8N CG0I8EAO : CG5=8N. 2. =0 4>;6=0 CAB0=02;820BL >?B8<0;L=CN AB@C:BC@C ?@54JO2;5=8O 8=D>@<0F88, 35=5@8@>20=8O =>2KE 8459, >?5@8@>20=8O <0AA82>< 7=0=89, A>>B=5A5=8O AB0BCA0 8 A?>A>1=>AB59 >1CG05<KE. 3. =0 4>;6=0 704020BL =081>;55 MDD5:B82=K5 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 ?@54JO2;5=8O 87CG05<>3> <0B5@80;0 4. =0 4>;6=0 4803=>AB8@>20BL ?@8@>4C 8 @568< ?>>I@5=89 (=0:070=89) @54?@8=8<0;8AL B0:65 ?>?KB:8 >1J548=8BL >1I85 8 A?5F8D8G5A:85 B@51>20=8O B5>@88 >1CG5=8O. "0:, . %>;<15@3 (. Holm-berg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h. M. Reigeluth, 1983). %>BO ?>4>1=0O ?>78F8O, =0 =0H 273;O4, =5 15AA?>@=0, >=0 B5< =5 <5=55 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> B@51>20=85 ?@5A:@8?B82=>AB8 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: 206=59H55.  A2O78 A MB8< =5157K=B5@5A=> =0?><=8BL, GB> 5I5 20 ;5B =0704 CB25@645=85 6. @C=5@0, ?@>2>73;0A82H53>, GB>, 2 >B;8G85 >B >?8A0B5;L=KE B5>@89 CG5=8O, B5>@88 >1CG5=8O 4>;6=K 1KBL ?@54?8AK20NI8<8, 2K7K20;> C A?5F80;8AB>2 @57:> >B@8F0B5;L=CN @50:F8N. 5:>B>@K5 >B:07K20;8 MB8< B5>@8O< 2 AB0BCA5 =0CG=KE =0 B>< >A=>20=88, GB> >=8, 2 >B;8G85 >B ?>4;8==>9 =0C:8, A;8H:>< AC1J5:B82=K 8 8<5NB H8@>:89 480?07>= ?@54?8A0=89  >B ?@545;L=> 02B>@8B0@=KE 4> :@09=5 45<>:@0B8G=KE. "0:>3> @>40 CB25@645=8O @0AA<0B@820;8AL :0: A5@L57=K9 4>2>4 ?@>B82 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 =5 ?>;CG8;0 @0728B8O A>2@5<5==0O :>=F5?F8O ?@>5:B8@>20=8O 8 ?>4 55 2;8O=85< 87<5=8;>AL >B=>H5=85 : @>;8 ?@54?8AK20NI8E B5>@89. AB0B8, A>2@5<5==0O :>=F5?F8O ?@>5:B8@>20=8O >:070;0 1>;LH>5 2;8O=85 8 =0 B@0:B>2:C B5>@88 CG5=8O  =5 B>;L:> :0: >?8A0B5;L=>9, => 8 ?@54?8AK20NI59. 50 <5AB5 A B5< A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> ?@5A:@8?B82=>ABL B5>@88 >1CG5=8O 8=>340 ?>=8<05BAO ?@03<0B8G5A:8 8 A2>48BAO : A8AB5<5 ?>;>65=89 > B><, :0:85 CA;>28O >1;53G0NB CG5=85 (. Holmberg, 1985). K ?>;0305<, GB> B@51>20=85 ?@5A:@8?B82=>AB8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O >B=N4L =5 >7=0G05B, GB> 40==0O B5>@8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ;8HL A8AB5<C ?@54?8A0=89. 5 AB@C:BC@0 =0<=>3> H8@5 8 2:;NG05B B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K, :>B>@K5, >1@07CO 55 :>=F5?BC0;L=K9 >AB>2, 7040NB =0?@02;5=85 ?@5A:@8?-B82=KE C:070=89. 5GL 845B 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L > ?@8=F8?0E, >?8AK20NI8E ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 <5E0=87<K >1CG5=8O. @0240, 8AA;54>20=8N MB8E <5E0=87<>2 C45;O5BAO <0;> 2=8<0=8O :0: C =0A, B0: 8 70 @C156><, <564C B5< 8E ?>=8<0=85 8AA;54>20B5;5< >:07K205B @5H0NI55 2;8O=85 =0 ?@8=8<05<CN A8AB5<C ?@5A:@8?B82=KE C:070=89.  :0G5AB25 >B;8G8B5;L=>3> ?@87=0:0 ?@5A:@8?B82=>9 B5>@88' >1CG5=8O =5@54:> 2K45;ONB =0;8G85 2 =59 CB25@645=89 B8?0: GB>1K 4>AB8GL F5;8 0 2 CA;>28OE 0, =5>1E>48<> >ACI5AB28BL . AE>4O 87 MB>3> 2 AB@C:BC@5 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O 8=>340 2K45;ONB B@8 :><?>=5=B0: <5B>4K, CA;>28O 8 @57C;LB0BK. 5B>4K  MB> ?CB8 4>AB865=8O @07=KE F5;59 (?@>4C:B>2 >1CG5=8O) ?@8 @07;8G=KE CA;>28OE >1CG5=8O. #A;>28O  MB> D0:B>@K, 2;8ONI85 =0 <5B>4K, >=8 20@8015;L=K 8, 2708<>459AB2CO A <5B>4><, >:07K20NB 2;8O=85 =0 53> >B=>A8B5;L=CN MDD5:B82=>ABL, 8<8 =5;L7O <0=8?C;8@>20BL, 8 A =8<8 =5>1E>48<> AG8B0BLAO @07@01>BG8:C >1CG5=8O. 57C;LB0BK 1K20NB D0:B8G5A:8<8 8 65;0B5;L=K<8. $0:B8G5A:85 ?>72>;ONB 87<5@8BL F5==>ABL 0;LB5@=0B82=KE <5B>4>2 ?@8 @07=KE CA;>28OE, 65;0B5;L=K5 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 F5;8, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B :>B>@KE 2K18@0NBAO <5B>4K >1CG5=8O (Ch. . Reigeluth, M. D. Merrill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laser, L. . Resnick, 1972). >, :0: ?>4G5@:8205B . CAN15;L (D. . Ausubel, 1968), B0:>5 ?>;>65=85 45; =5 O2;O5BAO 4;O B5>@88 =0CG5=8O =587156=K<. -B8 =54>AB0B:8, ?> 53> <=5=8N, E0@0:B5@=K 4;O ?@5>1;040NI53> 2 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O =0?@02;5=8O, ?@8 :>B>@>< 2>>1I5 =5 87CG0;>AL CG5=85 2 H:>;5, 0 A0<0 B5>@8O =0CG5=8O M:AB@0?>;8@>20;0AL =0 >A=>25 40==KE, ?>;CG5==KE 2 ;01>@0B>@=>< M:A?5@8<5=B5. >A;54=89 0@3C<5=B <>65B 1KBL ?@8=OB, B>;L:> 5A;8 @0AA<0B@820BL CG5=85 :0: AB8E89=>5, => B0:>5 CG5=85 ?@54<5B =5 ?5403>38G5A:>9, 0 >1I59 ?A8E>;>388. !;54C5B A:070BL, GB> 2 A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:5 ?>;>65=85 > ?>;=>9 =57028A8<>AB8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B5>@89 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 >1CG5=8O =5 =0H;> ?>445@6:8.  60-E 33. AB0;0 ?@5>1;040BL B>G:0 7@5=8O, =0H54H0O =081>;55 ?>;=>5 2K@065=85 2 ?>78F88 6. @C=5@0 (J. S. Bruner, 1966). >7@060O B5<, :B> ?KB0;AO 2K25AB8 B5>@8N >1CG5=8O =5?>A@54AB25==> 87 B5>@88 CG5=8O, >= ?>4G5@:820;, GB> 55 A>740=85 B@51C5B A?5F80;L=>9 D>@<K 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 07C<55BAO, ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O B5>@8O >1CG5=8O 4>;6=0 8AE>48BL 87 >?@545;5==>9 B5>@88 (8;8 B5>@89) CG5=8O 8 @0728B8O, => 5A;8 2>7=8:05B ?@>B82>@5G85 <564C ?>;>65=8O<8 B5>@89 >1CG5=8O 8 CG5=8O, B> 0?@8>@8 =5;L7O CAB0=>28BL, :0:>5 87 =8E >H81>G=>. =0;>38G=CN ?>78F8N 70=8<05B 8 . CAN15;L (D. P. 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"0;K78=0 (1975), 2 CG51=>< <0B5@80;5 2K45;ONBAO >A=>2=K5 8=D>@<0F8>==K5 548=8FK, >A=>2=K5 A?5F8D8G5A:85 M;5<5=BK, ?@54AB02;ONI85 A>1>9 :>=:@5B870F8N 40==>9 3@C??K 7=0=89. > 2B>@CN <>6=> >B=5AB8 A2545=8O, =0?@02;5==K5 =0 87<5=5=85 E0@0:B5@0 CA2>5=8O =5:>B>@KE ?>=OB89 CG51=>3> :C@A0. 0?@8<5@, ?@8 87CG5=88 ?>=OB8O G8A;0 40NBAO ?@8=F8?K ?>AB@>5=8O 45AOB8G=>9 A8AB5<K AG8A;5=8O, ?>=OB8O <5@K 8 B. 4. -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=> CAB0=>2;5=>, GB> ?@8 B0:>< ?>AB@>5=88 CG51=>3> ?@54<5B0 <;04H85 H:>;L=8:8 CA20820NB ?>=OB85 > G8A;5 CA?5H=55, G5< 2 CA;>28OE B@048F8>==>3> >1CG5=8O.  B@5BLN 3@C??C !>4-2 2E>4OB ?@54AB02;5=8O >1 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 55 AB@C:BC@5 (A<.: . . 0;;, ". . '<CB, 1982), > <5B>40E ?>7=0=8O (A<.: . /- >@8=0, 1978).  MB>9 65 3@C??5 <>6=> >B=5AB8 @07=K5 M2@8AB8G5A:85 ?@85<K, >1;53G0NI85, => =5 30@0=B8@CNI85 4>AB865=85 ?@028;L=>3> @57C;LB0B0 (.. . C-;NB:8=, 1970; . . @>:>;55=:>, 1973).  G5B25@B>9 3@C??5 >B=>AOBAO @07=>>1@07=K5 7=0:>2>-A8<2>-;8G5A:85 A@54AB20, ?@5645 2A53> AE5<K 8 ?@54<5B=K5, 3@0D8G5A:85 8;8 1C:25==K5 <>45;8, 7=0=85 :>B>@KE ACI5AB25==> >1;53G05B >1CG5=85 (. . 02K4>2, 1986; . . 0<57>, 1975; . . !0;<8=0, 1981). @8 ?@>5:B8@>20=88 @0745;5=85 A>45@60=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0 !>4-1 8 !>4-2 O2;O5BAO 206=59H8< CA;>285< MDD5:B82=>AB8 A8AB5< :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O. -B>3> CA;>28O, : A>60;5=8N, =5 A>1;N40NB 1>;LH8=AB2> @07@01>BG8:>2 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< 87-70 >BACBAB28O ?@8=F8?>2 2K1>@0 !>4-2 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B5<K CG51=>3> ?@54<5B0, CG51=KE F5;59 8 B. 4. #A2>5=85 7=0=89 ?@>8AE>48B 2 548=AB25 A CA2>5=85< A?>A>1>2 459AB28O A =8<8. !@548 206=KE >A>15==>AB59 >@30=870F88 @01>BK >1CG0NI53> . . -;L:>=8= (1963) =07K205B C<5=85 ?5403>30 =09B8 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 459AB28O 8 >1CG8BL 8<. . !. /:8<0=A:0O (1979) ?@54;0305B B0:85 459AB28O ?@54CA<0B@820BL 2 CG51=KE ?@>3@0<<0E 8 87;030BL 2 CG51=8:0E. > ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85 459AB289 7=0=8O< >B=>A8B5;L=>, ?>A:>;L:C 2AO:>5 >1CG5=85 >A=>20< =0C: >4=>2@5<5==> 5ABL >1CG5=85 A>>B25BAB2CNI8< C<AB25==K< 459AB28O< (. . 5>=BL52, 1957), 0 D>@<8@>20=85 C<AB25==>3> 459AB28O =52>7<>6=> 157 CA2>5=8O >?@545;5==KE 7=0=89. >2>@O > 7=0G8<>AB8 A>45@60B5;L=>9 AB>@>=K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, <K B5< A0<K< ?>4G5@:8205<, GB> >B=N4L =5 157@07;8G=>, =0 :0:>< CG51=>< <0B5@80;5 D>@<8@CNBAO C<AB25==K5 459AB28O. =>3>G8A;5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> CA2>5=85 C<AB25==KE 459AB289, 045:20B=KE 64 87CG05<><C A>45@60=8N, >15A?5G8205B H8@>:89 ?5@5=>A D>@<8@C5<KE C<5=89 8 ?@85<>2 CG51=>9 @01>BK. =>65AB2> AD>@<8@>20==KE C CG0I8EAO A?>A>1>2 459AB289 O2;O5BAO 206=K< ?>:070B5;5< C@>2=O @0728B8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. "5@<8= A?>A>1 459AB28O 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:5 B@0:BC5BAO ?>-@07=><C. "0:, . . 0BNH:8= >B=>A8B : A?>A>1C 459AB28O A8AB5<C >?5@0F89, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE >ACI5AB2;ONBAO ?@5>1@07>20=8O ?@54<5B0 459AB28O 4;O 4>AB865=8O F5;8... !?>A>1K 459AB28O >?@545;ONBAO >A>15==>ABO<8 ?@54<5B0, F5;59, >@C489 (A@54AB2) 8 CA;>289 459AB28O (1972, A. 15). . . -;L:>=8= (1961) 8 . . 02K4>2 (1961) ?>;030NB, GB> A?>A>1K 459AB28O MB> A8AB5<K >?5@0F89, 254CI85 : >B:@KB8N, >1=0@C65=8N B5E A2>9AB2 8 :0G5AB2 ?@54<5B0, 2 >B=>H5=88 :>B>@KE >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 53> ?@0:B8G5A:>5 ?@5>1@07>20=85. K ?>4@07C<5205< ?>4 A?>A>1>< 459AB28O A8AB5<C >?5@0F89, :>B>@0O >15A?5G8205B @5H5=85 CG51=KE 7040G >?@545;5==>3> B8?0. A;54 70 . /. 0;L?5@8=K< (1985) <K 2K45;O5< 2 A?>A>15 459AB28O 8A?>;=8B5;L=CN, >@85=B8@>2>G=CN, :>=B@>;L=CN G0AB8. A?>;=8B5;L=0O G0ABL =5?>A@54AB25==> >15A?5G8205B ?@5>1@07>20=85 >1J5:B0 (?5@52>4 53> 87 >4=>3> A>AB>O=8O 2 4@C3>5, 70<5I5=85 >4=>3> >1J5:B0 4@C38< 8 B. 4.). %0@0:B5@ MB>3> ?@5>1@07>20=8O 70405BAO B5< >B=>H5=85< <564C >1J5:B0<8, :>B>@>5 A>>B25BAB2C5B >?@545;5==><C 459AB28N. >A:>;L:C MB> >B=>H5=85 2A5340 ?@54<5B=>, A>45@60B5;L=>, B> @07;8G0NB <0B5<0B8G5A:85, 3@0<<0B8G5A:85, D878G5A:85 8 4@C385 >?5@0F88. @85=B8@>2>G=0O G0ABL A:;04K205BAO 87 42CE :><?>=5=B>2, :064K9 87 :>B>@KE O2;O5BAO A;>6=K< >1@07>20=85<. 5@2K9, A>1AB25==> >@85=B8@>2:0, >15A?5G8205B 2K45;5=85 B5E A2>9AB2 8 :0G5AB2, :>B>@K5 ACI5AB25==K 4;O ?@5>1@07>20=8O >1J5:B>2 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. >7=8:0NI85 2 ?@>F5AA5 >B@065=8O MB8E >1J5:B>2 >1@07K @07;8G=>9 AB5?5=8 >1>1I5==>AB8 83@0NB @>;L >@85=B8@>2, =0?@02;ONI8E CG51=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL. B>@>9, >@85=B8@>2:0 =0 8A?>;=8B5;L=CN G0ABL, 2K45;O5BAO =0<8, ?>A:>;L:C 4;O 2K?>;=5=8O 4065 >4=>3> 459AB28O =5>1E>48<>, 2K45;82 ?@5>1@07C5<K5 A2>9AB20 >1J5:B0, 2K@01>B0BL ?;0= 53> 2K?>;=5=8O, B. 5. @5H8BL, :0:85 M;5<5=B0@=K5 >?5@0F88 (?> >B=>H5=8N : 40==><C 459AB28N) 8 2 :0:>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 =5>1E>48<> 2K?>;=8BL.  :>=B@>;L=>9 G0AB8 A?>A>10 459AB28O >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?@>25@:0 ?@028;L=>AB8 ?@8<5=5==>9 ?@8 MB>< ?@>F54C@K 8 A>>B=5A5=85 ?@>4C:B0 459AB28O, :0: 2 ?@>F5AA5 53> ?>;CG5=8O, B0: 8 ?>A;5, A ?>AB02;5==>9 ?5@54 CG0I8<AO 7040G59. !@548 >?5@0F89, 2E>4OI8E 2 >@85=B8@>2>G=CN G0ABL A?>A>10 459AB28O, A;54C5B 2K45;8BL B0: =07K205<K5 >1I5;>38G5A:85 >?5@0F88: CAB0=>2;5=85 =5>1E>48<KE 8 4>AB0B>G=KE ?@87=0:>2 ?>=OB8O, ?>42545=85 >1J5:B0 ?>4 ?>=OB85, A8AB5<0B870F8O A2>9AB2 >1J5:B0 (A<.: . $. "0;K78=0, . . CB:8=, 1968).  G8A;C >?5@0F89, 2E>4OI8E 2 :>=B@>;L=CN G0ABL A?>A>10 459AB28O, ?@56- 3   0H1=F 65 45 2A53>, >B=>A8BAO >F5=:0 2K?>;=5==>9 >?5@0F88 8 55 ?@>4C:B0, B. 5. 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loom, 1956). !>3;0A=> MB>9 B0:A>=><88, 2K45;ONBAO 425 >1;0AB8 F5;59: :>3=8B82=0O 8 0DD5:B82=0O. >3=8B82=CN >1;0ABL A>AB02;ONB A;54CNI85 >1@07CNI85 85@0@E8G5A:CN AB@C:BC@C :0B53>@88: 1) 7=0=85, 2) ?>=8<0=85, 3) ?@8<5=5=85, 4) 0=0;87, 5) A8=B57, 6) >F5=:0. =K<8 A;>20<8, :0B53>@88 7040NB B0:>5 @0A?@545;5=85 F5;59 >1CG5=8O, ?@8 :>B>@>< A=0G0;0 >A208- 70 20NBAO 1>;55 ?@>ABK5, 0 70B5< 1>;55 A;>6=K5 7=0=8O 8 =02K:8 8 ?@>8AE>48B ?5@5E>4 >B :>=:@5B=KE : 01AB@0:B=K< ?>=OB8O<. "0:A>=><8O ;C<0 A>74020;0AL 4;O @07@01>B:8 :@8B5@852 :;0AA8D8:0F88 8 ?@>25@:8 B5AB>2KE 7040=89, 8 55 ;>38G5A:>5 >1>A=>20=85 A2O70=> =5 AB>;L:> A F5;O<8 >1CG5=8O, A:>;L:> A 8E >F5=:>9, :>340 >=8 C65 CAB0=>2;5=K. =B5@5A : :>=:@5B870F88 CG51=KE F5;59 7=0G8B5;L=> 2>7@>A 2 A2O78 A @0A?@>AB@0=5=85< 8459 ?@>3@0<<8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O. >A:>;L:C MB8 8458 70@>48;8AL 2 @0<:0E 18E528>@87<0, B> 8 >?8A0=85 F5;59 ?@>3@0<<8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O A25;>AL : C<5=8O<, :>B>@K<8 >1CG05<K9 4>;65= >2;045BL ?>A;5 7025@H5=8O =5:>B>@>3> >B@57:0 >1CG5=8O, 0 AB@C:BC@0 ?>7=020B5;L=KE ?@>F5AA>2, :>B>@0O 4>;6=0 1KBL AD>@<8@>20=0 C >1CG05<KE, >:070;0AL 2=5 0=0;870 (A<.: F. J. McDonald-Ross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ernabei, S. Leves, 1970; R. M. Gagne, L. L. Briggs, 1979; J. G. Greeno, 1976; R. J. Kibler et al., 1970; H. H. McAshan, 1970). @8 B0:>< >?8A0=88 :>=:@5B878@CNBAO =5 ?>2545=85, 254CI55 : CA?5H=><C 2K?>;=5=8N B5AB>2 4>AB865=8O, 0 ?A8E8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK 8 AB@C:BC@K, 254CI85 : 2>7=8:=>25=8N A>>B25BAB2CNI53> ?>2545=8O. >3=8B82=>5 >?8A0=85 >?8@05BAO =0 B0:85 :0B53>@88, :0: 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 C<5=8O, :>3=8B82=K5 AB@0B5388, 25@10;L=K5 7=0=8O, <>B>@=K5 =02K:8, >B=>H5=8O. -B8 :0B53>@88 C:07K20NB =0 >?@545;5==K5 A?>A>1=>AB8. "0:, :>3=8B82=K5 AB@0B5388 8=B5@?@5B8@CNBAO :0: A?>A>1=>AB8, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE ;8G=>ABL C?@02;O5B A2>8<8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K<8 ?@>F5AA0<8; 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 C<5=8O  :0: A?>A>1=>AB8, :>B>@K5 45;0NB G5;>25:0 :><?5B5=B=K<. 71  A>>B25BAB288 A :>=F5?F859 ?>MB0?=>3> D>@<8@>20=8O C<AB25==KE 459AB289 ?@8 >?8A0=88 CG51=KE F5;59 CG8BK20NBAO A;54CNI85 ?0@0<5B@K 459AB28O: D>@<0, >1>1I5==>ABL, @0725@=CB>ABL, >A2>5==>ABL. @><5 B>3>, 2K45;ONBAO A;54CNI85 2B>@8G=K5 A2>9AB20: @07C<=>ABL, A>7=0B5;L=>ABL 2K?>;=5=8O, 01AB@0:B=>ABL 8 ?@>G=>ABL 459AB28O (. /- 0;L?5@8=, 1965). %>BO D>@<8@>20=8N A?>A>1=>AB59 A@548 >B40;5==KE CG51=KE F5;59 ?@8=04;568B 254CI55 <5AB>, => F5;8 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >?@545;ONBAO >2;045=85< =5 B>;L:> M;5<5=B0<8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 :C;LBC@K, 0 8 >B=>H5=89, F5==>AB=KE >@85=B0F88, ?@8>1@5B5=85< A>F80;L=>3> >?KB0 8 B. 4.  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CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 F5;8 @50;87CNBAO 2 >?@545;5==KE ?@>4C:B0E, E0@0:B5@87CNI8E 87<5=5=8O 2 A0<>< AC1J5:B5. > MB8 ?@>4C:BK =5 A>2?040NB =8 A F5;O<8 45OB5;L=>AB8, =8 A F5;O<8 AC1J5:B0, MBC 45OB5;L=>ABL >ACI5AB2;ONI53>.  @07@K25 <564C F5;O<8 AC1J5:B0 8 @57C;LB0B0<8 53> 45OB5;L=>AB8 <=>3> ?8A0;8 8 ?8HCB D8;>A>DK, =0G8=0O A> 2@5<5= @8AB>B5;O 8 :>=G0O =0H8<8 4=O<8. 0AE>645=85 <564C F5;LN 8 4>AB83=CBK< @57C;LB0B>< 8<55B <5AB> 2 A0<KE @07=>>1@07=KE 2840E 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?>A:>;L:C :>=:@5B=K9 @57C;LB0B <>65B 25AB8 ;8HL : G0AB8G=><C 4>AB865=8N F5;8 8;8 65 A>45@60BL =5GB> B0:>5, GB> =5 ?@54?>;030;>AL =0<5G5==>9 F5;LN.  A2O78 A MB8< ?@54AB02;O5BAO F5;5A>>1@07=K< @07;8G0BL 2 D0:B8G5A:>< @57C;LB0B5 ?@O<>9 8 ?>1>G=K9 ?@>4C:BK 45OB5;L=>AB8. 5@2K9 A>>B25BAB2C5B >A>7=0==>9 F5;8 AC1J5:B0, @5H0NI53> 7040GC. 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Cohen, 1985). 57C;LB0BK 8AA;54>20=89 ?>4B25@640NB B0:65, GB> A 2>7@0AB>< 7=0G8<>ABL >1@0B=>9 A2O78 A=8605BAO, :@><5 B>3>, MB0 A2O7L 7=0G8B5;L=> 206=55 4;O CG0I8EAO A 70=865==>9 A0<>>F5=:>9, G5< C25@5==KE 2 A515, 0 G@57<5@=> G0AB0O >1@0B=0O A2O7L >B@8F0B5;L=> A:07K205BAO =0 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?>A:>;L:C =0@CH05B >?B8<0;L=K9 93 @8B< @01>BK CG0I8EAO, >A>15==> 5A;8 2K405BAO A 7045@6:>9 =0 30 40 A. >A;54=89 D0:B>@ >A>15==> 206=> CG8BK20BL 2 CA;>28OE :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O, :>340 4;O 0=0;870 >B25B>2 CG0I8EAO 8 2K40G8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E A>>1I5=89 B@51C5BAO >?@545;5==>5 2@5<O. . 59=>@ (P. Gaunor, 1981) 87CG0; 2;8O=85 >BA@>G5==>9 >1@0B=>9 A2O78 =0 ?>=8<0=85, :0G5AB2> CA2>5=8O 8 ?@8<5=5=8O 7=0=89 <0B@8G=>9 0;351@K 2 :C@A5 AB0B8AB8:8. 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Cohen, 1983).  @01>B0E A>25BA:8E ?A8E>;>3>2 >1@0B=0O A2O7L @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: <5E0=87< @53C;OF88 040?B82=KE 284>2 0:B82=>AB8, :>B>@K5 >15A?5G820NB D>@<8@>20=85 <=>3>G8A;5==KE AB5@5>B8?>2 ?>2545=8O, =02K:>2, ?@82KG5:, CAB0=>2>:, A>AB02;ONI8E >A=>2C AB0=40@B=KE D>@< ?>2545=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8... 081>;55 B8?8G=>9 D>@<>9 2 MB>< A;CG05 O2;O5BAO >1CG5=85 ?> >1@07FC (. . 0BNH:8=, 1982, A. 6). 4=0:> @>;L >1@0B=>9 A2O78 =5 A;54C5B ?5@5>F5=820BL. "0:85 <5E0=87<K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, :0: @5D;5:A8O CG0I8<8AO 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?5403>30 8 >A>7=0=85 A2>8E 459AB289 ?> @5H5=8N 7040G, 83@0NB =5 <5=LHCN @>;L 2 >1CG5=88. 07;8G0NBAO 420 B8?0 >1@0B=>9 A2O78, 8A?>;L7C5<>9 2 >1CG5=88: A>1AB25==> >1@0B=0O A2O7L (55 8=>340 =07K20NB 2=5H=59), B. 5. 8=D>@<0F8O >B >1CG05<>3> : >1CG0NI5<C, 8 8=D>@<8@>20=85 >1CG05<>3> > @57C;LB0B0E 53> 45OB5;L=>AB8. 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Cohen, 1984) > A@>:0E >ACI5AB2;5=8O >1@0B=>9 A2O78 2 CA;>28OE :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O. =D>@<0F8O > E>45 @5H5=8O, ?> 53> <=5=8N, 4>;6=0 4020BLAO G5@57 :064K5 15 20 <8=, 5A;8 65 MB>B 8=B5@20; ?@52KA8B 45 <8=, B> MDD5:B >1@0B=>9 A2O78 <>65B A25AB8AL : =C;N. !;54>20B5;L=>, 548=8FK >1CG0NI59 ?@>3@0<<K 4>;6=K 1KBL >@30=87>20=K B0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K CG0I89AO <>3 1KAB@> >?@545;8BL, :0:85 7040=8O 8< 1K;8 2K?>;=5=K >H81>G=>, 8 2K?>;=8BL 8E ?@028;L=>.  70:;NG5=85 >B<5B8<, GB> >A=>2=K5 2>?@>AK <5E0=87<0 >1@0B=>9 A2O78 2 CA;>28OE :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O 5I5 64CB A2>53> @5H5=8O. A>1CN 0:BC0;L=>ABL ?@8>1@5B0NB 8AA;54>20=8O <5E0=87<0 >1@0B=>9 A2O78 2 83@>2KE >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<0E, 0 B0:65 2 ?@>3@0<<0E =0 8<8B0F8N, 0=0;87 :>=:@5B=KE A8BC0F89 8 B. 4. 45AL, :0: ?@028;>, =5<54;5==0O >1@0B=0O A2O7L =52>7<>6=0, 0 >BA@>G5==0O A>2?0405B A @57C;LB0B>< 7025@H5=8O F8:;0 >1CG5=8O  ?>1540 2 83@5 8;8 @5H5=85 ?@>1;5<K. 5. 5B>4K 8 B8?K >1CG5=8O !<KA; ?>=OB8O <5B>4 >1CG5=8O 2> <=>3>< 7028A8B >B B@0:B>2:8 ?@>F5AA0 >1CG5=8O.  20-5 33., :>340 >A=>2=>9 F5;LN @01>BK ?5403>30 AG8B0;>AL ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 : 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG0I53>AO, <5B>4K >1CG5=8O >B>645AB2;O;8AL A <5B>40<8 CG5=8O, 8 A@548 =8E 2K45;O;8 B@C4>2K5, ?@0:B8G5A:85, ;01>@0B>@=K5, M2@8AB8G5A:85, 8AA;54>20B5;LA:85. > <5@5 AB0=>2;5=8O :>=F5?F88 >1CG5=8O :0: ?5@540G8 7=0=89 <5B>4K >1CG5=8O AB0;8 @07;8G0BLAO ?> 8AB>G=8:C ?>;CG5=8O 7=0=89: @0AA:07 CG8B5;O, ;5:F88, @01>B0 H:>;L=8:0 A :=83>9, =03;O4=K5 ?>A>18O 8 B. ?. -B0 :>=F5?F8O ?>;CG8;0 =081>;LH55 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2 50 60-5 33. (. . >@4- 95 :8?0=8475, 1967; . /. >;0=B, 1957).  MB8 3>4K, :0: >B<5G05B . /. 5@=5@ (1981), =0<5B8;8AL A;54CNI85 =0?@02;5=8O 2 @0AA<>B@5=88 <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O: 1) ?> D>@<0< 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 8AB>G=8:0< ?>7=0=8O (20@80=B  45;5=85 <5B>4>2 ?> AB5?5=8 2708<>459AB28O CG8B5;O 8 CG0I8EAO); 2) ?> ;>38G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@5 8 DC=:F8O<; 3) ?> E0@0:B5@C >@30=87C5<>9 CG8B5;5< ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG0I8EAO.  MB8 65 3>4K 2KA:07K20;>AL <=5=85 ( . . 5<15@3, 1958), GB> ?@8 0=0;875 8 :;0AA8D8:0F88 <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O =5;L7O >3@0=8G820BLAO >4=8< ?@87=0:><, 0 =C6=> CG8BK20BL 8E A8AB5<C, => >=> B0: 8 >AB0;>AL =5@50;87>20==K<.  60-5 33. ?>;CG8;0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 B>G:0 7@5=8O =0 >1CG5=85 :0: =0 A>2<5AB=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL CG8B5;O 8 CG0I8EAO (. . ;5:-AN:, 1973; . . 0=:>2, 1968; . . 25@52, 1975).  :>=F5 70-E  =0G0;5 80-E 33. 1K;0 ?@54?@8=OB0 ?>?KB:0 :;0AA8D8F8@>20BL <5B>4K >1CG5=8O =0 >A=>25 4840:B8G5A:8E :>=F5?F89 (. . ;5:-AN:, 1979; .. - 010=A:89, 1977).  @01>B5 .. - 010=A:>3> ?>;CG8;0 2>?;>I5=85 845O :><?;5:A=>3> ?>4E>40 : MB8< <5B>40<, ?@8 :>B>@>< >1J548=ONBAO ?5@F5?B82=K9, ;>38G5A:89, 3=>AB8G5A:89 8 :815@=5B8G5A:89 0A?5:BK >1CG5=8O.  MB8 3>4K >D>@<8;8AL >A=>2=K5 4840:B8G5A:85 :>=F5?F88 (. /. 5@=5@, 1981; . . 0E<CB>2, 1977; . . 25@52, 1977). <5AB5 A B5< ?@>1;5<0 <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O 40;5:0 >B @5H5=8O.  45;> =5 2 B><, GB> @07;8G=K5 :>=F5?F88 ?;>E> A>3;0ACNBAO 4@C3 A 4@C3><, 8 =5 2 >BACBAB288 >1I5?@8=OB>3> ?>4E>40 : <5B>40< >1CG5=8O. 081>;55 ACI5AB25==K<8 ?@54AB02;ONBAO =52>7<>6=>ABL B5E=>;>3870F88 MB8E <5B>4>2, =52>7<>6=>ABL >?@545;8BL 8E MDD5:B82=>ABL 8, GB> >A>15==> 206=>, @07@K2 <564C 4840:B8G5A:8< >1>A=>20=85< MB8E <5B>4>2 8 ?@54AB02;5=8O<8 A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8. 07@K2 <564C 4840:B8:>9 8 ?A8E>;>3859 ?KB0NBAO, ?@0240, AG8B0BL G5<-B> =587156=K<. "0:, . . @052A:89 ?8H5B:  ?A8E>;>388 A 55 >@85=B0F859 =0 8=48284C0;L=>3> AC1J5:B0 >1CG5=85 @0A?0405BAO =0 420 >B45;L=> ACI5AB2CNI8E :><?>=5=B0  459AB28O CG8B5;O 8 459AB28O CG5=8:0. BAN40 2KB5:05B 2>7<>6=>ABL =0 A0<>< 2KA>:>< B5>@5B8G5A:>< C@>2=5 2K45;8BL <5B>4K ?@5?>4020=8O 8 CG5=8O :0: >B45;L=K5 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, @072820BL >B45;L=K5 B5>@88: B5>@8N >1CG5=8O (:0: ?@5?>4020=8O) 8 B5>@8N CG5=8O, :>B>@K5 70B5< A>3;0A>2K20NBAO <564C A>1>9.  4840:B8:5 ?@5?>4020=85 8 CG5=85, 01AB@038@>20==>5 >B 8E 8=48284C0;L=KE 035=B>2, A A0<>3> =0G0;0, 2 8AE>4=>9 B>G:5 B5>@5B8G5A:>3> 0=0;870, ACI5AB2CNB 2 548=AB25, MB> 420 >A=>2=KE :><?>=5=B0 >1CG5=8O (1977, A. 108). K ?>;0305<, GB> 70 >A=>2C ?5403>38G5A:>9 (4840:B8G5A:>9) 8=B5@?@5B0F88 <5B>40 >1CG5=8O =5>1E>48<> 27OBL ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1CG5=8O. =>385 4840:BK 2 B@0:B>2:0E <5B>40 >1CG5=8O 8AE>4OB 87 ?>=8<0=8O >1CG5=8O :0: A>2<5AB=>9 (2708<>A2O70==>9, :>;;5:B82=>9) 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG8B5;O 8 CG5=8- 96 :>2. "0:>5 ?>=8<0=85 ?@02><5@=> ?@8 0=0;875 >1CG5=8O :0: F5;>AB=>3> A8AB5<=>3> >1@07>20=8O, => ?@8 >?8A0=88 <5B>40 >1CG5=8O C:070=85 =0 548=AB2> 45OB5;L=>AB59 =8G53> =5 ?@>OA=O5B. 54L >1CG0NI89 8 >1CG05<K5 >ACI5AB2;ONB @07;8G=K5 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0 7=0G8B, 8 <5B>4K 8E >ACI5AB2;5=8O @07;8G=K. 5A>AB>OB5;L=>9 ?@54AB02;O5BAO 8 B@0:B>2:0 <5B>40 >1CG5=8O :0: >4=>7=0G=> >?@545;ONI53> <5B>4 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. #G51=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL :0: F5;>AB=>ABL O2;O5BAO A0<>C?@02;O5<>9 A8AB5<>9. # =55 A2>8 F5;8 8 A2>O ;>38:0 @0728B8O.  E>BO 55 DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 ACI5AB25==> 7028A8B >B B>3>, 2 @0<:0E :0:>9 8<5==> >1CG0NI59 45OB5;L=>AB8 >=0 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO, :0:>2K <5B>4K >1CG5=8O, =5;L7O CB25@640BL, GB> ?>A;54=85 ?>;=>ABLN 55 >?@545;ONB. 5B>4 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 7028A8B =5 B>;L:> >B <5B>40 >1CG5=8O, >= >?>A@54C5BAO ;8G=>ABLN H:>;L=8:0  55 F5==>ABO<8, 8=B5@5A0<8, <>B820<8, A?>A>1=>ABO<8 8 4@. =K<8 A;>20<8, <5B>4 >1CG5=8O ;8HL 70405B, => =5 >?@545;O5B >4=>7=0G=> <5B>4 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. !CI5AB2C5B 4>2>;L=> 2KA>:0O 25@>OB=>ABL B>3>, GB> ?@8 >?@545;5==>< <5B>45 ?@5?>4020=8O 45OB5;L=>ABL CG0I8EAO 1C45B >ACI5AB2;OBLAO B5<8, 0 =5 8=K<8 <5B>40<8. -B8 <5B>4K =0E>4OB A2>5 2K@065=85 ?@5645 2A53> J B><, :0: CG0I85AO 4>>?@545;ONB >1CG0NI85 2>7459A128O, 0=0;878@CNB CA;>28O CG51=KE 7040G, 254CB ?>8A:8 A?>A>10 @5H5=8O, :>=B@>;8@CNB 53> ?@028;L=>ABL, :0: >=8 >F5=820NB A2>N 45OB5;L=>ABL. @5H8B >4=>AB>@>==>ABLN 8 CB25@645=85 > 65AB:>9 45B5@<8=0F88 <5B>4>2 ?@5?>4020=8O <5B>40<8 CG5=8O (. /. 5@=5@, 1981). >=5G=>, <5B>4K >1CG5=8O 4>;6=K A>>B=>A8BLAO A 70:>=><5@=>ABO<8 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, => ?>A;54=85 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 >?@545;ONBAO <5B>40<8 ?@5?>4020=8O. 064K9 87 MB8E <5B>4>2 70405B, B>G=55 ?@>5:B8@C5B, >?@545;5==K5 70:>=><5@=>AB8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. "0:, 2 B5>@88 D>@<8@>20=8O C<AB25==KE 459AB289 . /. 0;L?5@8=0 8 . . "0;K78=>9 ?@>5:B8@CNBAO 8=K5 <5B>4K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, G5< 2 B5>@88 . . 5=G8=A:>9 8 2 :>=F5?F88 ?@>1;5<=>3> >1CG5=8O . . 0-BNH:8=0 8 ". . C4@O2F520. =>3>G8A;5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> 70B@C4=5=8O, 2>7=8:0NI85 C CG0I8EAO ?@8 >4=8E <5B>40E >1CG5=8O, ;53:> ?@5>4>;520NBAO ?@8 4@C38E. 07;8G=>9 >:07K205BAO 8 48=0<8:0 D>@<8@>20=8O >A=>2=KE :><?>=5=B>2 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (. . 02K4>2, 1986). K18@0O B>B 8;8 8=>9 <5B>4 >1CG5=8O, <K, 2 ACI=>AB8, 70405< 70:>=><5@=>AB8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8 D>@<8@>20=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8.  =0H59 B@0:B>2:5 <5B>40 >1CG5=8O <K 8AE>48< 87 ?>;>65=8O . !. >ABN:0 > B><, GB> <5B>4 >1CG5=8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 >?@545;5==CN >@30=870F8N 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG0I8EAO A CG51=K< <0B5@80;><. 5B>4 >?@545;O5B, :0:85 A2>9AB20 8 >B=>H5=8O 2 MB>< <0B5@80;5 @0A:@K20NBAO, :0:85 >?5@0F88 8 :0: 8<5==> D>@<8@CNBAO C CG0I8EAO (1964, A. 27). 4   0H18F 97 5B>4 >1CG5=8O 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 @50;87C5BAO: 0) 2 A8AB5<5 >1CG0NI8E 2>7459AB289; 1) 2 A?>A>15 2:;NG5=8O CG0I8EAO 2 CG51=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL; 2) 2 4>?CAB8<KE >B:;>=5=8OE >B =>@<0B82=>3> A?>A>10 @5H5=8O CG51=KE 7040G, :>340 CG0I8<AO =5 >:07K205BAO ?><>IL 2 B0: =07K205<>< ?>;5 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8; 3) 2 >@30=870F8>==KE D>@<0E >1CG5=8O 8 <>40;L=>ABOE >1<5=0 8=D>@<0F859 <564C >1CG0NI8< 8 >1CG05<K<8. G5284=>, GB> <5B>4 >1CG5=8O >E20BK205B 7025@H5==K9 F8:;, 2 :>B>@>< <>6=> 2K45;8BL A;54CNI85 MB0?K: 0) >1JOA=5=85 =>2>3> <0B5@80;0 (2>A?@>872545=85 >1CG0NI8< D@03<5=B0 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8), 1) ?>AB0=>2:0 CG51=KE 7040G 8 2) C?@02;5=85 ?@>F5AA>< @5H5=8O 7040G. @8 >?8A0=88 <5B>40 >1CG5=8O 2 >1CG0NI59 ?@>3@0<<5 =5>1E>48<> 2:;NG0BL 2 =55 2A5 B8?K >1CG0NI8E 2>7459AB289, =0G8=0O >B 2>A?@>872>48<>3> D@03<5=B0 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 :>=G0O 2K1>@>< :>@@838@CNI8E 2>7459AB289 ?@8 2KE>45 CG0I8EAO 70 ?@545;K ?>;O A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8. 7 A:070==>3> 284=>, GB> <5B>4 >1CG5=8O <K @0AA<0B@8205< :0: A;>6=>5 <=>3><5@=>5 >1@07>20=85, 2 :>B>@>< 2K45;ONBAO 425 AB>@>=K  A>45@60B5;L=0O 8 D>@<0;L=0O. !>45@60B5;L=0O AB>@>=0 <5B>40 A:;04K205BAO 87 B0:8E :><?>=5=B>2, :0:: 1) B8? 2>A?@>872545=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; 2) A>45@60B5;L=K5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 >A=>2=KE 8 2A?><>30B5;L=KE >1CG0NI8E 2>7459AB289; 3) A>>B=>H5=85 ?@O<KE 8 ?>1>G=KE ?@>4C:B>2 >1CG5=8O. $>@<0;L=CN AB>@>=C <5B>40 >1CG5=8O >1@07CNB B@8 3@C??K :><?>=5=B>2: 1) >A=>2=K5 >1CG0NI85 2>7459AB28O (O2=0O 8;8 =5O2=0O ?>AB0=>2:0 7040G, @0A?>;>65=85 8E ?> AB5?5=8 B@C4=>AB8, G0AB>B0 2:;NG5=8O >1CG05<KE 2 2>A?@>872545=85 >1CG0NI8< D@03<5=B0 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8); 2) 2A?><>30B5;L=K5 2>7459AB28O (H8@>B0 ?>;O A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, <5@0 ?><>I8, >:07K205<0O CG0I8<AO); 3) D>@<K C?@02;5=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN 8 <>40;L=>AB8 >1<5=0 8=D>@<0F859 <564C >1CG0NI8< 8 >1CG05<K<8. "8? 2>A?@>872545=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 70405BAO B@5<O ?0@0<5B@0<8. 5@2K9 A>AB02;O5B C@>25=L 2>A?@>872545=8O  ?@54<5B=>-A>45@60B5;L=K9, ?@54<5B=>->?5@0F8>=0;L=K9 8 @5D;5:A82=K9. -B>B C@>25=L 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 >?@545;O5B, :0:85 8<5==> 7=0=8O 8 459AB28O O2;ONBAO ?@O<K< ?@>4C:B>< >1CG5=8O. B>@>9  MB> !>4-2. B=5A5=85 !>4-2 : <5B>4C >1CG5=8O >1CA;>2;5=> B5<, GB>, 2 >B;8G85 >B !>4-1, =5?>A@54AB25==> 7040205<>3> CG51=K<8 ?@>3@0<<0<8, 53> 2K1>@ 7028A8B >B A?>A>10 C?@02;5=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN.  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(0?>@8=A:89, 1981, A. 55). >:0 ?@O<K< ?@>4C:B>< 2KABC?05B 8A?>;=8B5;L=0O G0ABL A?>A>10 459AB28O, 0 >@85=B8@>- 104 2>G=0O G0ABL  B>;L:> ?>1>G=K<, ?5@5E>4 >B @5H5=8O >B45;L=>9 7040G8 : CA2>5=8N A?>A>10 @5H5=8O >:07K205BAO, ?> ACB8, =5C?@02;O5<K<: >A>7=0=85 8 CA2>5=85 A?>A>10 @5H5=8O ?@0:B8G5A:8 ?5@5:;04K205BAO =0 A0<8E CG0I8EAO. . !:8==5@ =07K205B B0:>5 >1CG5=85 ?@O<K<, =5?>A@54AB25==K<, CG0I89AO 2 MB>< A;CG05 2>A?@>872>48B B>, GB> 3>2>@8B CG8B5;L, 8;8 G8B05B B>, GB> =0?8A0=>, 8, ?>ABC?0O B0:8< >1@07><, >ACI5AB2;O5B 459AB28O, ?@82>4OI85 : @5H5=8N 7040G8. 4=0:> ?@8 B0:>< >1CG5=88 >B=N4L =5 >1O70B5;L=> ?>2KA8BAO 25@>OB=>ABL B>3>, GB> >= 1C45B 2K?>;=OBL CA2>5==K5 459AB28O 2 1C4CI5<, ?@8 @5H5=88 0=0;>38G=KE 7040G (. F. Skinner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E>BO A8AB5<0 >15A?5G820;0 A>AB02;5=85 0;3>@8B<>2 @5H5=8O 7040G, 55 ?@8H;>AL 701@0:>20BL, ?>A:>;L:C 480;>3 1K; ?>AB@>5= 157 CG5B0 >A=>2=KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B@51>20=89 : =5<C. 0:>=5F, ?@8 B@5BL5< C@>2=5 (53> <K =0720;8 ?5403>38G5A:8<) 480;>3 2545BAO =0 >A=>25 <>45;8 >1CG05<>3>, CG8BK20NI59 8AB>@8N 53> CG5=8O 8 F5;8 >1CG5=8O. #?@02;5=85 480;>3>< 2 MB>< A;CG05 A2O70=> A @5H5=85< @O40 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5<. 1CG0NI0O A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 =5 B>;L:> ?>=8<0BL A>>1I5=8O, => 8 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL 8E A ?>78F89 >ACI5AB2;5==>9 CG0I8<AO 45OB5;L=>AB8, =5 B>;L:> D8:A8@>20BL 70B@C4=5=8O, => 8 CAB0=02;820BL 122 8E ?@8G8=K. !;54C5B B0:65 CG8BK20BL, GB> CG0I89AO 2>2A5 =5 AB@5<8BAO, 0 G0AB> 8 =5 <>65B A =081>;LH59 ?>;=>B>9 @0A:@KBL A2>8 ?@>1;5<K, ?>9B8 =02AB@5GC >1CG0NI5<C. 45AL C<5AB=> =0?><=8BL A;>20 8725AB=>3> 0<5@8:0=A:>3> A?5F80;8AB0 ?> 8=65=5@=>9 ?A8E>;>388 . '0?0=8A0: 07>28B5, 5A;8 20< C3>4=>, G5;>25:0 <0H8=>9, => =5 =54>>F5=8209B5 53> :0: ?@54<5B 8AA;54>20=8O. = =5 ;8=59=0O <0H8=0, >=  <0H8=0-?@>3@0<<8AB, :>B>@CN 2K =5 <>65B5 C7=0BL, ?>A:>;L:C >=0 =5?@5@K2=> <5=O5B A2>N ?@>3@0<<C 8 =5 A>>1I05B 20< >1 MB><, >=0, ?>-2848<><C, >A>15==> ?>425@65=0 ?><5E0<, >=0 4C<05B, 8A?KBK205B M<>F88 8 :> 2A5<C >B=>A8BAO ?>-A2>5<C, >=0 <>65B 8A?KBK20BL 65;0=85 ?5@5E8B@8BL 20A 2 >B25B =0 20H8 ?>?KB:8 @07>1@0BLAO, :0: >=0 B8:05B (8 ?>A;54=55 59 C405BAO) (A. Chapanis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apert, 1980) 8 53> AB>@>==8:8 CA8;5==> ?@>?030=48@>20;8 845N >1CG5=8O 157 CG51=>9 ?@>3@0<<K, ?@8 :>B>@>< @5H0NI0O @>;L >B2>48;0AL CG0I8<AO. "5< =5 <5=55 ?>;CG5=K 25AL<0 C1548B5;L=K5 40==K5 ?@>B82 B0:>3> ?>4E>40 (R. D. Pea, D. M. Kurland, 1984). 065 87CG5=85 O7K:0 ?@>3@0<<8@>20=8O  =5 ?@>8AE>48;>, :0: ?@54?>;030; 53> A>740B5;L !. 59?5@B, AB8E89=>. B<5B8<, GB> 2>?@>A >1 C?@02;ONI8E 2>7459AB28OE A> AB>@>=K >1CG05<>3> AB>8B =0<=>3> H8@5, G5< @07@01>B:0 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> 8=B5@D59A0, ?>72>;ONI53> CG0I5<CAO 2 ?@82KG=>9 4;O =53> B5@<8=>;>388 AB028BL ?5@54 M:A?5@B=>9 A8AB5<>9 ?@54<5B=CN 7040GC ;81> 704020BL 2>?@>AK. "0:>9 8=B5@D59A 4>;65= =5 B>;L:> >ACI5AB2;OBL ?5@52>4 B5:AB>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 2 ?@>3@0<<C 4;O @5H5=8O'?>AB02;5==>9 7040G8, >= 4>;65= A>45@60BL ?@>3@0<<C, :0:>9 8<5==> >B25B 4>;6=0 4020BL A8AB5<0 =0 ?>4>1=K9 70?@>A >1CG05<>3>: @5H5=85 7040G8, C:070=85 =0 ?@8=F8? @5H5=8O, A>?>AB02;5=85 55 A @0=55 @5H02H59AO 8^B. 4. =K<8 123 A;>20<8, A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 <>45;8@>20BL =5 B>;L:> M:A?5@B0 2 40==>9 ?@54<5B=>9 >1;0AB8, => 8 ?5403>30. 48= 87 206=KE 2>?@>A>2, B@51CNI8E A2>53> @5H5=8O, <>6=> AD>@<C;8@>20BL B0:8< >1@07><: :>340 F5;5A>>1@07=> ?@5@20BL E>4 @0AAC645=8O CG0I53>AO, >:0702 2A?><>30B5;L=>5 2>7459AB285? B25B =0 MB>B 2>?@>A 2> <=>3>< >?@545;O5BAO ?>;5< A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, ?@54CA<>B@5==K< @07@01>BG8:0<8 >1CG0NI59 ?@>3@0<<K. ABL >A=>20=8O ?>;030BL, GB> ?0@0<5B@K MB>3> ?>;O 4>;6=K <5=OBLAO =0 @07=KE MB0?0E @5H5=8O 7040G8. 0?@8<5@, =565;0B5;L=0 65AB:0O @53;0<5=B0F8O 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG0I8EAO =0 MB0?5 2KO2;5=8O 7040G=>9 AB@C:BC@K. 80;>3, :>B>@K9 2545BAO =0 MB>< MB0?5, 4>;65= 2K7K20BL C >1CG0NI53>AO GC2AB2> ?>;=>F5==>AB8 A>1AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; >= 4>;65= GC2AB2>20BL A51O AC1J5:B>< A2>8E 459AB289, >ACI5AB2;OBL 45OB5;L=>ABL A ?@82KG=K< @07<0E>< 55 C?@5645=8O, B. 5. 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL 4>AB0B>G=> 40;5:> ?;0=8@>20BL A2>8 459AB28O 8 4>2>48BL 5A;8 =5 4> ;>38G5A:>3> :>=F0, B> E>BO 1K 4> =5:>B>@>3> :@8B8G5A:>3> ?C=:B0 A2>8 70<KA;K, @01>B0BL =0 ?@82KG=>< C@>2=5 A0<>>F5=:8 (. . =4@852A:0O, 1985). 4=0:> 5A;8 =5 A>>1I8BL A2>52@5<5==> CG0I5<CAO > B><, GB> 2KO2;5==0O 8< AB@C:BC@0 7040G8 >B;8G05BAO >B D0:B8G5A:>9, B> 25AL<0 25@>OB=>, GB> CG0I89AO ?5@5>?@545;8B CG51=CN 7040GC. !>2@5<5==K5 :><?LNB5@=K5 >1CG0NI85 A8AB5<K @0A?>;030NB A@54AB20<8 =03;O4=>9 45<>=AB@0F88 B>3>, : G5<C ?@8254CB =525@=K5 @0AAC645=8O CG5=8:0, 8 MB8 A@54AB20 =5>1E>48<> 2 40==>< A;CG05 8A?>;L7>20BL. "@51C5B A?5F80;L=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O ?@>1;5<0 2:;NG5=8O CG0I8EAO 2 ?@>F5AA 2>A?@>872545=8O D@03<5=B0 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 5>1E>48<> ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> MDD5:B82=>ABL B0:>3> 2:;NG5=8O >?@545;O5BAO >B=N4L =5 G8A;>< >B25B>2 CG0I8EAO 8 GB>, 2>>1I5, 8=B5@0:B82=>ABL A8AB5<K  MB> =5 A0<>F5;L, 0 A@54AB2> 4>AB865=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E F5;59 >1CG5=8O.  A8BC0F88 >1I5=8O A;54C5B @07;8G0BL 2=5H=NN ?0AA82=>ABL >1CG05<>3>, :>340 B>B >ACI5AB2;O5B @5D;5:A8N 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1CG0NI53>, 2ABC?0O A =8< 2> 2=CB@5==89 480;>3, 8 459AB28B5;L=CN ?0AA82=>ABL, :>340 >1CG05<K9, ?> ACB8, 2K:;NG5= 87 A8BC0F88 >1CG5=8O, 53> 0:B82=>ABL =0?@02;5=0 =0 8=>9 >1J5:B.  A2O78 A MB8< =0 ?>25AB:C 4=O 2AB05B 8AA;54>20=85 ?CB59 =5O2=>3> 2:;NG5=8O CG0I8EAO 2 ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O. ABL >A=>20=85 ?>;030BL, GB> >48= 87 MDD5:B82=KE ?CB59 B0:>3> 2:;NG5=8O  ?@54JO2;5=85 ?@>1;5<=KE B5:AB>2. "0:85 B5:ABK B@51CNB >B CG0I53>AO 2K?>;=5=8O 42CE 459AB289  >BKA:0=8O ?>4@07C<5205<>9 B5:AB>< ?@>1;5<K 8 ?>8A:0 >B25B0 =0 =55. ;03>40@O 2>7<>6=>ABO< :><?LNB5@0 2 ?@54JO2;5=88 8=D>@<0F88 CG0I8<AO <>3CB 4020BLAO =5 ?@>AB> ?@>1;5<=K5 B5:ABK, 0 ?@>1;5<=K5 A8BC0F88, :>B>@K5 AB8<C;8@CNB 2:;NG5=85 CG0I8EAO 2 ?@>F5AA @0AAC645=8O, 254CI53>AO =5 B>;L:> 2 A2O78 A CG51=>9 7040G59, 124 => 8 2 A2O78 A 45OB5;L=>ABLN >1CG0NI53>. 1AC48< ;8=328AB8G5A:85 0A?5:BK >1I5=8O. >;LH8=AB2> A?5F80;8AB>2, @01>B0NI8E A >1CG0NI8<8 A8AB5<0<8, AG8B0NB >4=8< 87 ACI5AB25==KE >3@0=8G5=89 =K=5H=8E >1CG0NI8E A8AB5< B>, GB> >=8 =5 4>?CA:0NB >1I5=8O =0 5AB5AB25==>< O7K:5. @8 MB>< >1KG=> >B<5G0NBAO A;54CNI85 ?@58<CI5AB20 B0:>3> >1I5=8O: >B?0405B =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 A?5F80;L=>< >1CG5=88, 8A?>;L7CNBAO ?@82KG=K5 3@0<<0B8G5A:85 :>=AB@C:F88, 4>?CAB8<K A8=>=8<K 8 B. 4. !0< B5@<8= 5AB5AB25==K9 8<55B 420 A<KA;0. = >7=0G05B @073>2>@=K9 O7K: 8 =081>;55 C4>1=K9 O7K:. "0:>5 A<5H5=85 A<KA;>2 2@O4 ;8 4>?CAB8<>. 0?><=8<, GB> D>@<0;87>20==K5 O7K:8 @07@010BK20;8AL :0: 1>;55 C4>1=K5 A@54AB20 >?8A0=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI53> D@03<5=B0 @50;L=>AB8. 0?><=8< 2 A2O78 A MB8< 2KA:07K20=85 . >@0 > B><, GB> O7K: <0B5<0B8:8 O2;O5BAO CA>25@H5=AB2>20=85< >1I53> O7K:0, >A=0I0NI8< 53> C4>1=K<8 A@54AB20<8 4;O >B>1@065=8O B0:8E 7028A8<>AB59, 4;O :>B>@KE >1KG=>5 A;>25A=>5 2K@065=85 >:070;>AL 1K =5B>G=K< 8;8 A;8H:>< A;>6=K< (1961, A. 151). "5=45=F8O A1;865=8O O7K:>2 ?@>3@0<<8@>20=8O 8 5AB5AB25==>3> =0 ?@0:B8:5 =5@54:> ?@82>48B : B><C, GB> ?@>3@0<<0, =0?8A0==0O =0 B0:>< O7K:5, E>BO 8 ?>=OB=0, => ?@5>1@07>20=85 >1J5:B>2 >:07K205BAO =5>4=>7=0G=K<. G5284=>, =081>;55 @0F8>=0;L=K< O2;O5BAO O7K: ?@>3@0<<8@>20=8O, A>G5B0NI89 2 A515 C4>1AB20 >1@0I5=8O 5AB5AB25==>3> O7K:0 8 B>G=>ABL >?8A0=8O O7K:0 D>@<0;87>20==>3>. 07C<55BAO, MB>B 2>?@>A 5I5 645B A2>53> @5H5=8O, >4=0:> @57C;LB0BK 8AA;54>20=89 ?>72>;ONB A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> =57=0G8B5;L=K5 >3@0=8G5=8O ;8=328AB8G5A:>9 5AB5AB25==>AB8 O7K:0 ?>;L7>20B5;O =5 >:07K20NB ACI5AB25==>3> 2;8O=8O =8 =0 45OB5;L=>ABL CG0I53>AO, =8 =0 >B=>H5=85 8E : :><?LNB5@C. 065 <;04H85 H:>;L=8:8 A@02=8B5;L=> ;53:> ?@8=8<0NB MB8 >3@0=8G5=8O, >B=>AOAL : =8< :0: : ?@028;0< 83@K, :>B>@K5 =5>1E>48<> A>1;N40BL. @8 @07@01>B:5 O7K:>2 >1I5=8O CG0I8EAO A - A;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> @5GL 845B > ?5403>38G5A:>< >1I5=88, :>B>@>5 4>;6=> 25AB8 : 4>AB865=8N F5;59 >1CG5=8O. 081>;55 ACI5AB25==K< ?@87=0:>< O7K:0 >1I5=8O <564C CG0I8<AO 8 -, :0: 8 ;N1>3> O7K:0, >@85=B8@>20==>3> =0 =5?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE ?>;L7>20B5;59 2KG8A;8B5;L=>9 B5E=8:8, <K AG8B05< 53> ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN 5AB5AB25==>ABL (A<.: 5H5=85 7040G..., 1978).  O7K:5 >1I5=8O, >1A;C6820NI5< CG51=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, A;54C5B @07;8G0BL 420 B8?0: 1) O7K: ?@54<5B=>9 >1;0AB8; 2) O7K: @5H5=8O CG51=KE 7040G. 0 ?5@2>< >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 8=D>@<0F8>==>5 >15A?5G5=85 CG51=>3> ?@>F5AA0 8 ?@54JO2;ONBAO =5>1E>48<K5 CG0I5<CAO A2545=8O, 2:;NG0NI85 :0: !>4-1, B0: 8 !>4-2 (B. 5. CG0I5<CAO A>>1I0NBAO =5 B>;L:> B5>@5<K, ?@028;0, >?@545;5=8O ?>=OB89 CG51=>3> :C@A0, => 8 ?@028;0 ;>38:8, 70:>=><5@=>AB8 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, @07;8G=K5 M2@8AB8G5A:85 ?@8- 125 5<K 8 B. 4.). B>@>9 O7K:, ?> ACB8, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?@>3@0<<C 70?@>A>2 : 107>2K< 40==K< 87CG05<>9 >1;0AB8 7=0=89. A=>2>9 O7K:0 2B>@>3> B8?0 <>65B AB0BL B5>@5B8G5A:0O <>45;L, @07@01>B0==0O 02B>@>< MB>9 :=838 A>2<5AB=> A ". 5@355< (". 5@359, . . 0H18F, 1973).  A>>B25BAB288 A MB>9 <>45;LN 2 O7K:5 2B>@>3> B8?0 4>;6=K 2K45;OBLAO A;54CNI85 1;>:8: 1) 1;>: >?8A0=8O 7040G=KE AB@C:BC@ (?@8<5@>< B0:>3> 1;>:0 <>65B 1KBL D@03<5=B O7K:0 /, >?8A0==K9 2: 5H5=85 7040G..., 1978); 2) 1;>: >?8A0=8O ?;0=>2 (>= >15A?5G8205B >?8A0=85 ?;0=>2, 4>?CA:0NI55 ?@>25@:C :><?LNB5@><, 8 ?>72>;O5B 2 C4>1=>9 4;O CG0I53>AO D>@<5 >ACI5AB2;OBL ?5@5E>4 >B >?8A0=8O : 0;3>@8B<C @5H5=8O); 3) 1;>: >?8A0=8O 0;3>@8B<0 (>15A?5G8205B >?8A0=85 CA;>289 @5H5=8O 7040G8 =0 C@>2=5 M;5<5=B0@=KE >?5@0F89). 1I5=85 CG0I53>AO A - D0:B8G5A:8 C?@02;O5BAO A8AB5<>9, ?@54=07=0G5==>9 4;O @5H5=8O 4840:B8G5A:8E 7040G. -B> C?@02;5=85 @50;87C5BAO A ?><>ILN O7K:0, 2KABC?0NI53> ?> >B=>H5=8N : O7K:C >1I5=8O CG0I53>AO A - :0: <5B0O7K:. 5B0O7K:, ?>4>1=> O7K:C >1I5=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2:;NG05B 420 B8?0 O7K:0: 0) O7K: >?8A0=8O =5>1E>48<KE 7=0=89 2 >1;0AB8 CG51=>9 8 >1CG0NI59 45OB5;L=>AB8, 1) O7K: @5H5=8O 4840:B8G5A:>9 7040G8.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 2 @07=KE AB@0=0E @07@010BK20NBAO O7K:8 ?@>3@0<<8@>20=8O, >@85=B8@>20==K5 =0 ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O, ?@8G5< 2545BAO @07@01>B:0 C=825@A0;L=>3> O7K:0 ?@>3@0<<8@>20=8O, O7K:>2, >@85=B8@>20==KE =0 >1CG5=85 2 :>=:@5B=>9 ?@54<5B=>9 >1;0AB8, 8 O7K:>2, >@85=B8@>20==KE =0 @07;8G=K5 MB0?K @5H5=8O CG51=KE 7040G  ?>AB0=>2:C, ?;0=8@>20=85, :>=B@>;L 70 ?@028;L=>ABLN @5H5=8O 8 B. 4. >A:>;L:C A>2@5<5==K5 O7K:8 ?@>3@0<<8@>20=8O 4>?CA:0NB =0@0I5=85 8<5NI8EAO >?5@0B>@>2 8 22545=85 =>2KE >?5@0B>@>2, B> MB> ?>72>;O5B 87 @07=KE O7K:>2 :>=AB@C8@>20BL O7K: >1I5=8O ?> B><C 8;8 8=><C CG51=><C :C@AC. 07C<55BAO, 2 MB8E O7K:0E =5>1E>48<> CG8BK20BL B@51>20=8O : >1I5=8N A :><?LNB5@><, >?@545;O5<K5, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, ?@>F5AA>< @5H5=8O 7040G (?>AB0=>2:0 7040G8, 2K42865=85 38?>B57K, ?>AB@>5=85 ?;0=0 @5H5=8O 8 B. 4.), 0 A 4@C3>9  ?@54<5B=K< A>45@60=85< CG51=KE 7040G. 5<0;>206=K< 0A?5:B>< ?@>1;5<K >1I5=8O A :><?LNB5@>< O2;O5BAO ?>=OB=>ABL ?@54JO2;O5<KE B5:AB>2. 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Cohen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ry, 1962). !@548 ?@58<CI5AB2 2K1>@>G=KE >B25B>2 =07K20;8AL >1KG=> A;54CNI85: 2 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 687=8 G0I5 2AB@5G0NBAO A8BC0F88, 345 @5H0NI55 7=0G5=85 8<55B 0;LB5@=0B82=K9 2K1>@; ?@>3@0<<C A B0:8<8 >B25B0<8 ;53G5 @50;87>20BL, >=0 C?@>I05B >@30=870F8N 040?B82=>3> >1CG5=8O (A. A. Lumsdaine, R. Glaser, 1960). @8 MB>< AB>@>==8:8 8 :>=AB@C8@C5<KE, 8 2K1>@>G=KE >B25B>2 AAK;0;8AL =0 40==K5 ?@>2545==KE M:A?5@8<5=B>2. !@02=82 MB8 40==K5, 3. !8;L15@<0= (. F. Silberman, 1962) ?>;CG8; A;54CNI85 @57C;LB0BK: ?OBL 87 A5<8 ?@>2545==KE 8AA;54>20=89 =5 ?>:070;8 @07;8G89 2 :0G5AB25 CA2>5=8O CG51=>3> <0B5@80;0 ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 2K1>@>G=KE >B25B>2 8;8 >B25B>2, :>=AB@C8@C5<KE CG0I8<8AO; 420 ?>:070;8 ?@58<CI5AB20 :>=AB@C8@C5<KE >B25B>2; 2 G5BK@5E 1K;> CAB0=>2;5=>, GB> 8A?>;L7>20=85 2K1>@>G=KE >B25B>2 2545B : <5=LH8< 2@5<5==K< 70B@0B0< =0 >1CG5=85, => 2 B@5E 8AA;54>20=8OE B0:8E @07;8G89 2> 2@5<5=8 >1CG5=8O 70D8:A8@>20=> =5 1K;>. 54>AB>25@=>ABL 8 ?@>B82>@5G82>ABL M<?8@8G5A:8E 40==KE >1JOA=ONBAO: 0) @0AE>645=85< 2 B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?@54?>AK;:0E >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<; 1) =54>AB0B>G=K< :>=B@>;5< 70 45OB5;L=>ABLN CG0I8EAO; 2) >BACBAB285< ?>:070B5;59 2;8O=8O A?>A>10 C?@02;5=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN; 3) =54>AB0B>G=K< >1J5<>< 7=0=89, 70459AB2>20==KE 2 =5:>B>@KE ?@>3@0<<0E; 4) @07=K<8 :@8B5@8O<8 >F5=:8 ?>:070B5;59.  ?>A;54=85 3>4K 2A5 1>;LH55 ?@87=0=85 ?>;CG05B 5I5 >48= B8? >B25B0 CG0I53>AO, A>G5B0NI89 2 A515 C4>1AB20 2K1>@>G=KE >B25B>2 A ?@58<CI5AB20<8 :>=AB@C8@C5<KE. 0 48A?;55 ?><5I0NBAO =5 3>B>2K5 >B25BK, 0 8E :><?>=5=BK. 1CG05<K9 :0: 1K A>18@05B A2>9 >B25B 87 3>B>2KE 1;>:>2.  ;52KE :>;>=:0E B01;8FK, ?><5I05<>9 =0 48A?;55, ?@82>48BAO 8=D>@<0F8O, =0?><8=0N- 127 I0O, :0:85 :><0=4K ?@8 MB>< 8A?>;L7CNBAO. =>340 2 B01;8F5 2<5AB> :><0=4K 405BAO A8<2>;, 8<5NI89AO =0 :;0280BC@5 :><?LNB5@0. -B>B ?@85< 7=0G8B5;L=> C?@>I05B B5E=8:C 22>40 >B25B0 8 ?>72>;O5B @50;87>20BL ACI5AB25==>5 B@51>20=85 : 480;>3C CG0I89AO  :><?LNB5@ <8=8<0;L=>ABL 2@5<5=8 4;O 22>40 >B25B0, 157 >2;045=8O A?5F80;L=K<8 C<5=8O<8 8 =02K:0<8 (". O'Shea et a!., 1984). >340 A8AB5<0 =5 ?>=8<05B >B25B0 CG0I53>AO, 8A?>;L7C5BAO <5B0480;>3, B. 5. 480;>3 > 480;>35, GB> ?>72>;O5B 7=0G8B5;L=> C25;8G8BL @07=>>1@0785 4>?CAB8<KE D>@< >B25B>2 CG0I8EAO. <5AB5 A B5< <5B0480;>3 <>65B 4020BL 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K9 MDD5:B. 5>1E>48<>ABL <=>3>:@0B=KE >B25B>2, :>B>@K5 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO CG0I8<AO :0: =5 >B=>AOI85AO : 45;C, =5@54:> 2K7K205B C =53> @074@065=85. 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F5;>< ?@8 A>25@H5=AB2>20=88 ?@>3@0<< 2 ?;0=5 4>ABC?=>AB8 :><?LNB5@C B5E 8;8 8=KE B8?>2 >B25B>2 CG0I8EAO A;54C5B ?@5645 2A53> CG8BK20BL >A>15==>AB8 8E 45OB5;L=>AB8, AB@5<8BLAO A25AB8 : <8=8<C<C CA8;8O, A2O70==K5 A B5E=8:>9 22>40 >B25B0, >A2>1>640O 8E >B @CB8==>9 @01>BK 8 70?><8=0=8O =5=C6=>9 8=D>@<0F88, B. 5. =5>1E>48<> B0: AB@>8BL 480;>3 A :><?LNB5@><, GB>1K >1CG05<K5 4C<0;8 > A2>5< >B25B5, 0 =5 > B><, :0: 225AB8 53> 2 :><?LNB5@. > <5@5 @0AH8@5=8O 2>7<>6=>AB59 :><?LNB5@0 :0: A@54AB20 >1CG5=8O AB0=>28;8AL 2A5 0:BC0;L=55 8AA;54>20=8O ?> @0A?>;>65=8N 8=D>@<0F88 =0 M:@0=5, ?> A>G5B0=8N @07;8G=KE D>@< ?@54JO2;5=8O 8=D>@<0F88. A>15==> >AB@> 2AB0;0 ?@>1;5<0 >?B8<0;L=>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O :><?LNB5@=>9 3@0D8:8. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 2 ACI5AB2CNI8E >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<0E 4>AB0B>G=> <=>3> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@>AG5B>2, 8 =540@>< . >@: (. >3:, 1984 0; ,) A?8A>: ?>3@5H=>AB59 2 MB8E ?@>3@0<<0E =0G8=05B A ?;>E>3> @0A?>;>65=8O B5:AB0 =0 M:@0=5 48A?;5O. ?B8<0;L=>5 70?>;=5=85 M:@0=0 8=D>@<0F859  >4=0 87 0:BC0;L=KE ?@>1;5< :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O. BACBAB285 >?KB0 8 A?5F80;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89 ?@825;> : B><C, GB> <=>385 @07@01>BG8:8 <5E0=8G5A:8 ?5@5=>AOB A?>A>1 @0A?>;>65=8O B5:AB0 2 :=835 =0 48A?;59, =5 CG8BK20O =8 >1J5<0 8=D>@<0F88, :>B>@K9 128 ?><5I05BAO =0 48A?;55, =8 B>3>, :0: B5:AB 2>A?@>872545BAO =0 M:@0=5: AB@>G:8 =5 ?><5I0NBAO =0 M:@0=5, D@07C 45;OB ?> AB@>G:0<, =5 CG8BK20O >A>15==>AB59 2>A?@8OB8O B5:AB0, 8 B. 4. 0@5:0=85 2K7K205B 8 B5<? A<5=K B5:AB>2 =0 M:@0=5. -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 40==K5 A2845B5;LAB2CNB 2>B > G5<: 5A;8 CG0I8<AO ?@54>AB02;5=0 2>7<>6=>ABL 2K18@0BL MB>B B5<?, >=8, :0: ?@028;>, 2K18@0NB 1>;55 <54;5==K9 ?> A@02=5=8N A ?@54CA<>B@5==K< 2 ?@>3@0<<5 (. >3:, 1984 0). 5@54:> @07@01>BG8:>2 22>4OB 2 A>1;07= 3@0D8G5A:85 2>7<>6=>AB8 A>2@5<5==KE :><?LNB5@>2. =8 AB@5<OBAO 8A?>;L7>20BL 8E A <0:A8<0;L=>9 ?>;=>B>9, >B2;5:0O 70G0ABCN 2=8<0=85 CG0I53>AO >B A>45@60B5;L=>9 AB>@>=K 87CG05<>3> ?@54<5B0. !:065<, ?@8 87CG5=88 AG5B0 ?@54JO2;ONBAO O@:> @0A:@0H5==K5 4><8:8, :>B>@K5 =0AB>;L:> ?@82;5:0NB 2=8<0=85 45B59, GB> >=8 701K20NB ?5@5AG8B0BL 8E. @><5 B>3>, F25B>20O 30<<0 3@0D8G5A:8E 87>1@065=89 =5@54:> 405BAO 157, CG5B0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 2>A?@8OB8O F25B0.  @57C;LB0B5 70B@C4=O5BAO 2K45;5=85 =081>;55 206=KE :><?>=5=B>2 MB8E 87>1@065=89 8;8 1KAB@> CB><;ONBAO 3;070 (. >3:, 1984 0; b; D. Dayton, 1981; J. Durrett, J. Trezona, 1982). 48= 87 D0:B>@>2, 2;8ONI8E =0 MDD5:B82=>ABL 2708<>459AB28O CG0I89AO  :><?LNB5@, MB> A?>A>1, :0:8< CG0I89AO 2KAB@08205B A2>9 480;>3 A :><?LNB5@><. ! MB>9 F5;LN <>6=> 8A?>;L7>20BL G5BK@5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O: 1) <KH:0 ?@8A?>A>1;5=85, ?5@542830NI55 :C@A>@ 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, :0: 428305BAO <KH:0 ?> AB>;C, =0 :>B>@>< @0A?>;>65= :><?LNB5@; 2) HBK@L ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 2 2845 @KG030, ?5@542830NI55 :C@A>@ 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B =0?@02;5=8O 42865=8O MB>3> @KG030; 3) ?>H03>2K5 :;NG8 4 :;NG0, =060B85 =0 >48= 87 :>B>@KE ?5@5428305B :C@A>@ =0 >48= 7=0: 2;52>, 2?@02>, 225@E, 2=87; 4) B5:AB>2K5 :;NG8 @07;8G=K5 :;NG8, =04?8A8 =0 :>B>@KE 3>2>@OB > B><, GB> =060B85 =0 =8E ?>72>;O5B ?5@5428=CBL :C@A>@ =0 >48= 7=0:, >4=C AB@>:C, >48= 0170F. 0: ?>:070;8 8AA;54>20=8O, 1KAB@55 2A53> CG0I85AO >A20820NB <KH:C. @>1;5<K A>45@60B5;L=>9 AB>@>=K 480;>30 =08<5=55 87CG5=K, GB> 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 >1CA;>2;5=> 8E =5@07@01>B0==>ABLN =0 C@>2=5 B5>@88 8 B5E=>;>388 >1CG5=8O. >:0 2 @5H5=88 MB8E ?@>1;5< @5H0NI55 A;>2> ?@8=04;568B >?KBC CG8B5;O, => @07@01>BG8: >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< 2K=C645= 70@0=55 ?@>5:B8@>20BL A>45@60=85 480;>30 8 A8BC0F8N, 2 :>B>@>9 >= 1C45B 25AB8AL, A2O7K20O 2A5 MB> A :>=B5:AB>< ?@54K4CI8E A8BC0F89 >1CG5=8O. >MB><C >= =5 <>65B 70:;04K20BL 2 ?@>3@0<<C 65AB:> @53;0<5=B8@>20==K5 C:070=8O B8?0 =0 B0:CN-B> >H81:C >B25B8BL B0:-B>, ?@8 B0:><-B> 2>?@>A5 A45;0BL B>-B>. = 4>;65= AD>@<C;8@>20BL ?@028;0 2K1>@0 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> >1CG0NI53> 2>7459AB28O, @C:>2>4AB2COAL ?@8=F8?0<8 C?@02;5=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN, 0 MB> 7=0G8B, GB> 480;>3 A;54C5B @0AA<0B@820BL 2 :>=B5:AB5 8<5==> MB>3> ?@>F5AA0. B   0H18F 129 B0:, >1I5=85 A :><?LNB5@><  MB> :0G5AB25==> =>2K9 284 >1I5=8O, 2>7<>6=>AB8 :>B>@>3> 40;5:> =5 @0A:@KBK. @8 @07@01>B:5 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< A;54C5B CG8BK20BL 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 ?>A;54AB28O MB>3> >1I5=8O. >-?5@2KE, >154=5=85 O7K:0, >1CA;>2;5==>5 B5<, GB> >B CG0I53>AO B@51CNBAO >4=>B8?=K5 >B25BK, C?@>I5==K5 :>=AB@C:F88 ?@54;>65=89, ?5@5=0AKI5==>ABL >1I5=8O <5B0480;>3><, >B2;5:0NI8< >B @5H5=8O CG51=KE 7040G, 8 B. 4. >-2B>@KE, 2>7=8:0NI55 C =5:>B>@KE >1CG05<KE AB@5<;5=85 A25AB8 2A5 D>@<K >1I5=8O A >:@C60NI8<8, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 A> A25@AB=8:0<8, : >1I5=8N A :><?LNB5@><.  A2O78 A MB8< AB0=>28BAO 0:BC0;L=K< >?@545;5=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E CA;>289, ?@8 :>B>@KE 2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 M;8<8=8@CNBAO >B@8F0B5;L=K5 ?>A;54AB28O >1I5=8O A :><?LNB5@>< 8 4>AB830NBAO :0: 1;8609H85, B0: 8 >B40;5==K5 CG51=K5 F5;8. 3. A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 8=48284C0;870F88 >1CG5=8O >;510=8O 2 >F5=:5 ?@>1;5<K 8=48284C0;L=KE @07;8G89 2 >1CG5=88 >?@545;ONBAO, :0: 8725AB=>, 8AE>4=K<8 <5B>4>;>38G5A:8<8 CAB0=>2:0<8 A?5F80;8AB>2. 081>;55 7=0G8<>9 55 AG8B0;8 B5 ?A8E>;>38, :>B>@K5 A2O7K20;8 >A=>2=K5 =54>G5BK 2 ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 H:>;L=8:>2 A 8E 8=48284C0;L=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8.  MB>< A;CG05 ?CBL ?>2KH5=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 >1CG5=8O CA<0B@820;8 2 CG5B5 MB8E >A>15==>AB59. !?5F80;8ABK, 28452H85 >A=>2=CN ?@8G8=C =54>AB0B>G=>9 MDD5:B82=>AB8 >1CG5=8O 2 53> A>45@60=88 8 <5B>40E, :0: ?@028;>, ?@>1;5<0< 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 >B2>48;8 =57=0G8B5;L=>5 <5AB>. ;02=>5, GB> 8E 8=B5@5A>20;>, MB> ?@>1;5<0 =0CG=>3> >1>A=>20=8O A>45@60=8O >1CG5=8O. "0:0O A>F80;L=0O F5;L, :0: 2A5>1I55 >1@07>20=85, C<5=LH8;0 7=0G8<>ABL MB>9 ?@>1;5<K, ?>A:>;L:C >A=>2=>5 2=8<0=85 8AA;54>20B5;59 1K;> =0?@02;5=> =0 @0F8>=0;870F8N A8AB5<K >1CG5=8O 2 F5;><.  ?>A;54=85 3>4K <=>385 ?A8E>;>38, :0: >B5G5AB25==K5, B0: 8 70@C156=K5, AB0;8 ?8A0BL > <5AB5 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 2 ?@>F5AA5 8 @57C;LB0B5 >1CG5=8O. "0:, . 975=: (. F. C-senck, 1982) ?>;0305B, GB> 8=48284C0;L=K5 @07;8G8O CG0I8EAO >:07K20NB =0 ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O 1>;LH55 2;8O=85, G5< <5B>4 >1CG5=8O. . !=>C (R. E. Snow, 1977) 2 ?@>1;5<5 8=48284C0;870F88 >1CG5=8O 2K45;O5B B@8 0A?5:B0: 1) 8=48284C0;L=K5 @07;8G8O :0: DC=40<5=B0;L=0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 G5;>25:0, 2) 2;8O=85 8=48284C0;L=KE @07;8G89 =0 ?@>4C:BK CG5=8O 8 CA;>28O >1CG5=8O; 3) CG5B 8=48284C0;L=KE @07;8G89 ?@8 ?@>5:B8@>20=88 >1CG5=8O A F5;LN C;CGH8BL >1CG5=85 :064>3>. -B8 0A?5:BK ?@>1;5<K 8=48284C0;870F88 >1CG5=8O >1AC640NBAO 8 2 A2O78 A :><?LNB5@=K< >1CG5=85<. 5@2><C 0A?5:BC ?>A2OI5=K <=>3>G8A;5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O :>3=8B82=>3> AB8;O, 130 ?>4 :>B>@K< ?>4@07C<520NBAO 8=48284C0;L=K5 >A>15==>AB8, >:07K20NI85 ACI5AB25==>5 2;8O=85 =0 ?>7=020B5;L=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL (L. J. Ausburn, F. . Ausburn, 1978; N. Entwistle, 1982; S. Messick, 1976). Co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oss, 1984). 5@2>5 8<55B 1>;55 H8@>:89 A?5:B@ ?@8<5=5=8O, ?>A:>;L:C 040?B0F8O <>65B >A=>2K20BLAO =0 8=D>@<0F88 :0: A>1@0==>9 A8AB5<>9, B0: 8 70?@>3@0<<8@>20==>9 70@0=55. 0?@8<5@, >1CG0NI0O ?@>3@0<<0, @50;87CNI0O >1CG5=85 ?> @0725B2;5==>9 ?@>3@0<<5, 345 70@0=55 C:07K205BAO, :0:>5 2A?><>30B5;L=>5 >1CG0NI55 2>7459AB285 2K405BAO CG0I5<CAO. "0:0O A8AB5<0 O2;O5BAO 040?B82=>9, => =5 8=48284C0;878@>20==>9, ?>A:>;L:C 2 MB>< A;CG05 C?@02;5=85 =5 >?8@05BAO =0 <>45;L >1CG05<>3>. 065 5A;8 CG0I5<CAO >:07K205BAO ?><>IL A CG5B>< A45;0==>9 8< >H81:8, 040?B82=>5 >1CG5=85 =5;L7O AG8B0BL 8=48284C0;878@>20==K<, ?>A:>;L:C 2 MB>< A;CG05 5' 131 CG8BK205BAO E0@0:B5@, => =5 ?@8G8=K >H81:8. 1CG5=85 AB0=>28BAO B0:>2K<, B>;L:> 5A;8 >?8@05BAO =0 <>45;L CG0I53>AO, 70;>65==CN 2 A8AB5<C 8;8 ?>AB@>5==CN 5N.  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 ACI5AB25==>5 7=0G5=85 ?@8>1@5B05B B0:>9 ?>:070B5;L, :0: <5@0 8=48284C0;870F88, 7040205<0O, 2>-?5@2KE, =01>@>< CG8BK205<KE 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 CG0I8EAO, 2>-2B>@KE, AB5?5=LN 045:20B=>AB8 ?>AB@>5==>9 <>45;8 :>=:@5B=><C >1CG0NI5<CAO. A;8 ?@>0=0;878@>20BL A>2@5<5==K5 >1CG0NI85 A8AB5<K, B> >:065BAO, GB> 2 ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 2 =8E CG8BK205BAO: 0) ?@028;L=>ABL  =5?@028;L=>ABL >B25B0; 1) B8? >H81:8; 2) 2@5<O 2K?>;=5=8O 7040=8O, 3) ?@5>1;040NI89 B8? >H81>: =0 =5:>B>@>< 2@5<5==>< 8=B5@20;5 >1CG5=8O. 8HL 2 =5<=>38E A8AB5<0E CG8BK205BAO <5@0 ?><>I8, :>B>@0O >:070;0AL 4>AB0B>G=>9, 8 B>;L:> 2 548=8G=KE A;CG0OE >H81:8 ?@8 2K?>;=5=88 7040=89 A>>B=>AOBAO A ?@8G8=0<8 70B@C4=5=89 (@5GL 845B =5 > ?@54<5B=>9 8=B5@?@5B0F88 70B@C4=5=89, =0?@8<5@: =5 7=05B B0:CN-B> B5>@5<C, =5 <>65B >B;8G8BL >1J5:B  >B  8 B. 4., 0 > ?@8G8=0E, >1CA;>2;5==KE =54>G5B0<8 2 ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG0I8EAO). 564C B5<, =5 7=0O ?@8G8= 70B@C4=5=89, =5;L7O ?>AB@>8BL >1CG5=85, :>B>@>5 1K CAB@0=O;> 8E A 4>AB0B>G=> 1>;LH>9 25@>OB=>ABLN. 59AB28B5;L=0O 8=48284C0;870F8O >1CG5=8O A ?><>ILN :><?LNB5@0 <>65B 1KBL 4>AB83=CB0 B>;L:> ?@8 @5D;5:A82=>< C?@02;5=88 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN. "0:>5 C?@02;5=85 =52>7<>6=> 157 <>45;8 CG0I53>AO. @82545< >A=>2=K5 B@51>20=8O, :>B>@K< 4>;6=0 C4>2;5B2>@OBL A8AB5<0 A 8=48284C0;878@>20==K< >1CG5=85<. 1) 0;84=>ABL. !8AB5<0 4>;6=0 CG8BK20BL B5 8=48284C0;L=K5 >A>15==>AB8 CG0I53>AO, :>B>@K5 ACI5AB25==K 4;O 4>AB865=8O =0<5G5==KE CG51=KE F5;59, ?@8G5< =5 B>;L:> 1;8609H8E, => 8 >B40;5==KE. 2) 45:20B=>ABL. !8AB5<0 4>;6=0 >15A?5G820BL A>>B25BAB285 <>45;8 :>=:@5B=><C >1CG05<><C, 4;O MB>3> >=0 4>;6=0 C<5BL @07;8G0BL CAB>9G82K5 8 A8BC0B82=K5 8=48284C0;L=K5 >A>15==>AB8. 3) 8=0<8G=>ABL. > <5@5 =0:>?;5=8O 40==KE >1 CG0I5<AO A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 CB>G=OBL 53> <>45;L, 0 B0:65 <>45;8, 70;>65==K5 2 =55, 0 ?@= =5>1E>48<>AB8 >ACI5AB2;OBL =E :;0AA8D8:0F8N. 07@01>B:0 B0:8E A8AB5< 7028A8B >B @5H5=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?@>1;5<K 2K1>@0 B5E >A>15==>AB59 CG0I8EAO, :>B>@K5 A;54C5B ?@8=8<0BL 2> 2=8<0=85. 081>;55 ?;>4>B2>@=K< ?CB5< @5H5=8O 40==>9 ?@>1;5<K <K AG8B05< ?>AB@>5=85 =>@<0B82=>9 <>45;8 B>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, :>B>@CN <K E>B8< A?@>5:B8@>20BL, 8 >?8A0=85 B5E ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2, A2>9AB2 8 :0G5AB2 ;8G=>AB8, :>B>@K5 2E>4OB 2 >B40;5==K5 CG51=K5 F5;8. >A;54=55, :0: =0< ?@54AB02;O5BAO, 8<55B ?@8=F8?80;L=>5 7=0G5=85, 5A;8 <K E>B8< A ?><>ILN :><?LNB5@0 >15A?5G8BL ?A8E8G5A:>5 @0728B85 CG0I8EAO. =48284C0;L=K5 >A>15==>AB8 <>6=> @0718BL =0 B@8 3@C??K. 132  ?5@2>9 >B=>AOBAO A8BC0B82=K5 >A>15==>AB8, 8, 2 ?@8=F8?5, 8E 2 <>45;L <>6=> =5 2:;NG0BL, E>BO >=8 8=>340 >:07K20NB 2;8O=85 =0 ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O, 70B@C4=OO ?>AB@>5=85 045:20B=>9 <>45;8 >1CG05<>3>.  ?@8<5@C, ?5@5>?@545;5=85 CG0I8<8AO CG51=>9 7040G8, >1CA;>2;5==>5 B5<, GB> 8< E>B5;>AL 2KOA=8BL, :0: ?@>@5038@C5B =0 8E 459AB28O :><?LNB5@. 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'B> :0A05BAO B>3>, :0: 70405BAO 8AE>4=0O <>45;L >1CG05<>3>, B> 745AL >BG5B;82> ?@>A;56820NBAO A;54CNI85 A?>A>1K: 1) :><?LNB5@ >B=>A8B >1CG05<>3> : =5:>B>@>9, CA;>2=> =07>25< 55 CA@54=5==>9, <>45;8, 0 ?> <5@5 =0:>?;5=8O 8 >1@01>B:8 40==KE >1 >A>15==>ABOE 53> 45OB5;L=>AB8 :>=:@5B878@C5B MBC <>45;L, 2) :><?LNB5@ 4> =0G0;0 >1CG5=8O ?@54JO2;O5B >1CG05<><C B5AB 8 80 >A=>25 2K?>;=5=8O MB>3> B5AB0 >B=>A8B >1CG05<>3> : B>9 8;8 8=>9 <>45;8, 3) CG0I89AO A0< 2K18@05B B>B 8;8 8=>9 ?CBL >1CG5=8O (>A>15==>AB8 =7;> 65=8O CG51=>3> <0B5@80;0, AB5?5=L A;>6=>AB8 @5H05<KE CG51=KE 7040G, <5@C ?><>I8 8 B 4 ) >?@>A > B><, :0: 8=48284C0;878@>20BL >1CG5=85, >B=N4L =5 ?@>AB>9, 4065 5A;8 @5GL 845B >1 >1CG5=88 A ?><>ILN CG8B5;O.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =0<5B8;8AL B@8 ?CB8 8=48284C0;870F88 >1CG5=8O. @8 ?5@2>< 2K1>@ >1CG0NI8E 2>7459AB289 ?>;=>ABLN >?@545;O5BAO :><?LNB5@><. @8 2B>@>< C?@02;5=85 >1CG5=85< ?5@5405BAO >1CG05<><C. @8 B@5BL5< >ACI5AB2;O5BAO A<5H0==>5 C?@02;5=85: CG0I5<CAO ?@54;0305BAO =0<5B8BL BC AB@0B538N >1CG5=8O, :>B>@CN >= AG8B05B =081>;55 ?@85<;5<>9. A;8 ?@8 MB>< 2>7=8:0NB A1>8, B. 5. CG0I89AO ?;>E> A?@02;O5BAO A CG51=K<8 7040=8O<8, C?@02;5=85 ?@>F5AA>< >1CG5=8O :><?LNB5@ 15@5B =0 A51O. 5@2K9 ?CBL  MB>, B0: A:070BL, B@048F8>==0O D>@<0 8=48284C0;870F88 >1CG5=8O. @8 2B>@>< =5A:>;L:> <5=ONBAO B@048F8>==K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O > @>;8 CG0I53>AO, 0 CG51=K9 ?@>F5AA ?@81;8605BAO : B><C, GB> =07K20NB A0<>>1CG5=85<. 081>;55 O@:8< ?@8<5@>< @50;870F88 C:070==>3> ?CB8 8=48284C0;870F88 >1CG5=8O O2;O5BAO A8AB5<0 TICCIT (A<.: . D. Merrill, 1980; . D. Merrill, L. E. Wood, 1984).  MB>9 A8AB5<5 CG0I5<CAO ?@54>AB02;5=0 7=0G8B5;L=0O A2>1>40 2K1>@0. <C 40NBAO, =0?@8<5@, :0@BK :C@A0, B5< 8 C@>:>2 A B>G=K< C:070=85< B>3>, GB> 4>;6=> 1KBL CA2>5=> 8 =0 :0:>< C@>2=5. >4C;8 ?@54JO2;5=8O 8=D>@<0F88 8 @5H5=8O 7040G @0718BK ?> B@5< B8?0< B@C4=>AB8, ?@8G5< >1CG05<K9 =0 ;N1>< MB0?5 >1CG5=8O <>65B 871@0BL >?@545;5==K9 C@>25=L B@C4=>AB8 ?@54JO2;O5<>3> CG51=>3> <0B5@80;0. #G0I89AO <>65B 70?@>A8BL ?><>IL 2 ?>4A8AB5<0E @028;>, @8<5@, 040G0, 0@B0, !>25B. @8 MB>< E0@0:B5@ ?><>I8, 2K40205<>9 CG0I5<CAO, >?@545;O5BAO =0 >A=>25 0=0;870 >A>15==>AB59 53> >1CG5=8O. 1I89 ?@8=F8? A8AB5<K: =8:0:>9 =>2K9 CG51=K9 <0B5@80; =5 2K405BAO CG0I5<CAO 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 B>B =5 70?@>A8; 53>.  1975 1978 33. A8AB5<0 TICCIT 0?@>18@>20;0AL ?@8 >1CG5=88 <0B5<0B8:5 5000 CG0I8EAO. E @57C;LB0BK A@02=820;8AL 134 A :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??>9, CG82H59AO B@048F8>==K< A?>A>1><, 8 2>B GB> >:070;>AL. ">;L:> 16 % CG0I8EAO 7025@H8;8 :C@A (2 :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??5  50%), <>B820F8O CG5=8O 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 3@C??5 A=878;0AL A8;L=55, G5< C CG0I8EAO :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??K. <5AB5 A B5< >1=0@C68;>AL, GB> CG0I85AO, 7025@H82H85 >1CG5=85 ?> B0:>9 ?@>3@0<<5, ?>:070;8 ;CGH85 @57C;LB0BK, G5< CG0I85AO, >1CG02H85AO B@048F8>==K< A?>A>1><. >:070B5;8 7025@H0NI53> B5AB0 C =8E =0 10 % 1K;8 2KH5. >;CG5==K5 @57C;LB0BK ?>4@>1=> 0=0;878@>20;8AL A?5F80;8AB0<8, 8 >=8 ?@8H;8 : @07=K< 2K2>40<. . 2=5@ 8 53> :>;;538 (A. Avner et al., 1980) AG8B0NB, GB8 ?@54>AB02;5=85 2>7<>6=>AB8 CG0I8<AO A0<>AB>OB5;L=> ?@8=8<0BL @5H5=85 > B><, ?5@5E>48BL ;8 8< : 87CG5=8N A;54CNI53> D@03<5=B0 >1CG0NI59 ?@>3@0<<K, ?>;>68B5;L=> A:07K205BAO =0 CA2>5=88 CG51=>3> <0B5@80;0. -. (B59=15@3 (. R. Steinberg, 1984) AG8B05B, GB> B0:>9 A?>A>1 >1CG5=8O ?>;>68B5;L=> 2;8O5B =0 <>B820F8N >1CG05<KE.  B0:><C 65 2K2>4C ?@8H;8 !. ;5AA8 8 !. "@>;;8? (S. M. Alessi,' S. R. "3>(@, 1985). . 5@@8;; (. D. Merrill, 1980) ?>:070;0, :0:85 B@C4=>AB8 2>7=8:0NB 2 MB>< A;CG05 8 G5< >=8 >1CA;>2;5=K: =5B>G=>ABLN ?@54AB02;5=89 CG0I8EAO > A0<8E A515, > A2>59 ?>43>B>2:5 8 > =081>;55 ?@83>4=>< 4;O =8E AB8;5 CG5=8O 8 B5<, GB> ?>A;54AB28O >H81>G=KE @5H5=89 CG0I8EAO =0 F5;OE >1CG5=8O, AB@0B5388 >1CG5=8O 8 B. 4. A:07K20NBAO =5 A@07C 8 =5 2A5340 ?@54284OBAO 8<8. . ;0@: (R. M. Clark, 1982) ?@8H5; : 2K2>4C, GB> CG0I85AO 70G0ABCN ?@54?>G8B0NB <5B>4 >1CG5=8O, B@51CNI89 >B =8E <5=LH8E CA8;89. > 40==K< . "5==8A>=0 (R. D. Tennyson, 1980), B0:>5 O2;5=85 >A>15==> CG0I05BAO A @>AB>< B@C4=>AB8 7040G 8 A;>6=>AB8 8E A>45@60=8O. $. 0B;5@ (F. G. Butler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"0;K78=>9 8 8E :>;;530<8 (. /. 0;L?5@8= 8 4@., 1966; . $. "0;K78=0, 1969). @= MB>< 1K;8 CB>G=5=K =5:>B>@K5 87 ?>;>65=89 > ?@>5:B8@>20=88 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1CG05<KE 8 >1CG0NI53>. 0@C156=K5 02B>@K ?@58<CI5AB25==> C45;O;8 2=8<0=85 @07@01>B:5 ?@85<>2 A>AB02;5=8O >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< (J. Beck, 1970; Evans et al., 1962; D. J. Klaus, 1962; L. M. Stolurow, 1965).  50 60-5 33. 2 70@C156=>9 B5E=>;>388 >1CG5=8O 3>A?>4AB2>20; 18E528>@87< 8 2=8<0=85 8AA;54>20B5;59 1K;> >1@0I5=> 3;02=K< >1@07>< =0 ?@>5:B8@>20=85 ?>2545=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 CG5=8O, =0 A?>A>1K ?>4:@5?;5=8O 65;0B5;L=KE D>@< ?>2545=8O.  A2O78 A MB8< 70=8<0;8AL B0:65 87CG5=85< F5;59 >1CG5=8O 8 A?>A>1>2 >F5=:8 C@>2=O 8E 4>AB865=8O. 0G8=0O A 70-E 33. @01>BK 2 >1;0AB8 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O >1CG5=8O 2 70@C156=>9 ?A8E>;>388 254CBAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> 2 @0<:0E :>3=8B82=>3> =0?@02;5=8O (L. J. Briggs, 1982; R. M. Gagne, L. L. Briggs, 1979; R. Glaser, 1976; L. . Resnick, et al., 1976; A. J. Romiszowski, 1979), ?@8G5< C65 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : :><?LNB5@=><C >1CG5=8N. @>5:B8@>20=85 :0: A@54AB2> =0CG=>3> >1>A=>20=8O >1CG5=8O 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 =081>;55 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> @07@010BK20;>AL . . @052A:8< 8 53> A>B@C4=8:0<8. @8 B0:>< ?>4E>45 : DC=:F8O< =0CG=>3> >1>A=>20=8O >B=>AOBAO =5 B>;L:> 8=B5@?@5B0F8O C65 8<5NI8EAO ?5403>38G5A:8E 8459, => 8 ?@>5:B8@>20=85 =>@<, @53C;8@CNI8E >1CG5=85. A=>2=0O DC=:F8O =0CG=>3> >1>A=>20=8O >1CG5=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 >?@545;5=88 ?CB59 A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O ?>A;54=53> A@54AB20<8 =0C:8, 53> @0F8>=0;870F88 A ?><>ILN =0CG=>3> >1>A=>20=8O ?@>5:B>2. >=OB85 ?@>5:B0 ?5403>38G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2:;NG05B 2AN A>2>:C?=>ABL =>@< 8 ?@>3@0<<, @53C- 140 ;8@CNI8E F5;5=0?@02;5==CN 45OB5;L=>ABL >1CG5=8O (. . @052-A:89, 1977). . . @052A:89 2K45;O5B B@8 C@>2=O ?@>5:B8@>20=8O >1CG5=8O. 0 ?5@2>< (02B>@ =07K205B 53> <>45;LN ?@>5:B0) D8:A8@CNBAO >1I55 A>45@60=85, ?@8=F8?K 8 <5B>4K >1CG5=8O, 0 B0:65 ?@8=F8?K, <5B>4K >1CG5=8O :>=:@5B=><C CG51=><C ?@54<5BC. 0 2B>@>< (>= =0720= ?@>5:B-<>45;L) ?@>5:B8@CNBAO CG51=K5 <0B5@80;K, ?@028;0 >1CG5=8O :>=:@5B=><C ?@54<5BC, 0 B0:65 405BAO =>@<0B82=>5 >?8A0=85 <0B5@80;L=KE 8 8450;L=KE A@54AB2 >1CG5=8O. 0 B@5BL5< (:>=5G=K9 ?@>5:B) >?8AK20NBAO A>2>:C?=>AB8 8450;L=KE 8 <0B5@80;L=KE A@54AB2 >1CG5=8O :>=:@5B=><C CG51=><C ?@54<5BC. >=5G=K5 ?@>5:BK 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1CG5=8O 2>?;>I0NB @57C;LB0BK 2A59 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 8 <5B>48G5A:>9 @01>BK. C@A >1CG5=8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A>2>:C?=>ABL A@54AB2 >1CG5=8O :>=:@5B=><C ?@54<5BC, >25I5AB2;5==CN 2: 0) <5B>48G5A:8E ?@54?8A0=8OE, >B=>AOI8EAO : ?@85<0< 8 D>@<0< >1CG5=8O :064><C 87 CG51=KE ?@54<5B>2 2 40==KE CA;>28OE, A :>=:@5B=>9 F5;LN; 1) CG51=8:0E, =03;O4=KE ?>A>18OE, B5E=8G5A:8E A@54AB20E >1CG5=8O. > B><C 65 ?@8=F8?C, A>3;0A=> . . @052A:><C, ?@>5:B8@C5BAO A>45@60=85 >1CG5=8O. 5@2K9 C@>25=L  MB> C@>25=L >1I5B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?@54AB02;5=89 > ?5@540205<>< ?>4@0AB0NI5<C ?>:>;5=8N A>F80;L=>< >?KB5 2 53> ?5403>38G5A:>9 8=B5@?@5B0F88. 0 2B>@>< C@>2=5  C@>2=5 CG51=>3> ?@54<5B0  @0A:@K20NBAO DC=:F88 >?@545;5==>9 G0AB8 A>45@60=8O >1@07>20=8O. 0 B@5BL5< C@>2=5  C@>2=5 CG51=>3> <0B5@80;0  >?8AK20NBAO 7=0=8O, A?>A>1K 45OB5;L=>AB8, >B=>AOI85AO : :C@AC >1CG5=8O >?@545;5==><C CG51=><C ?@54<5BC 8 70D8:A8@>20==K5 2 CG51=8:0E, CG51=KE ?>A>18OE 8 A1>@=8:0E 7040G. #:070==K5 C@>2=8 . /. 5@=5@ (1978) 4>?>;=O5B 5I5 42C<O. 0 G5B25@B>< C@>2=5 ?5403>38G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@>5:B8@C5BAO A>45@60=85 A>2<5AB=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> ?@5?>4020=8N 8 CG5=8N, B. 5. ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O. 0 ?OB>< C@>2=5 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 @50;870F88 ?@>5:B8@C5<>5 A>45@60=85 >1CG5=8O AB0=>28BAO 4>AB>O=85< :064>3> CG5=8:0.  MB><C =0?@02;5=8N ?@8<K:0NB @01>BK . !. 54=520 (1980) ?> 8AA;54>20=8N AB@C:BC@K A>45@60=8O >1I53> A@54=53> >1@07>20=8O :0: 8=20@80=B=>-;8G=>AB=>9 >@30=870F88.  @01>B0E 70@C156=KE 02B>@>2, 2K?>;=5==KE 2 @0<:0E ?5@2>3> 8 2B>@>3> =0?@02;5=89, >ACI5AB2;O;8AL-?>?KB:8 >?8A0=8O B5E=>;>388 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<<, => 02B>@K >3@0=8G820;8AL ?5@5G8A;5=85< >A=>2=KE MB0?>2 8 8E :@0B:>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9.  :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 ?@82545< ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL MB0?>2 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O, ?@54;>65==KE O?>=A:8< ?A8E>;>3>< ". !0:0<>B> (". Sakamoto, 1979) 2 53> <5B>45 COMET (child  @515=>:, object  F5;L, method  <5B>4, teacher  CG8B5;L). 141 1 =0;87 F5;8 1 1 !>45@60=85 0B@8F0 B@51C5<>3> ?>2545=8O 1 2 >2545=G5A:85 F5;8 1 3 @0D AB@C:BC@K ?@>F5AA0 CG5=8O 2 =0;87 CG51=KE <0B5@80;>2 2 1 @5420@8B5;L=K9 0=0;87 A>45@60=8O 2 2 >4@>1=K9 0=0;87 CG51=KE <0B5@80;>2 3 F5=:0 D@03<5=B>2 CG51=>3> <0B5@80;0 3 1 !>45@60B5;L=0O >F5=:0 D@03<5=B>2 3 2 $>@<0;L=0O >F5=:0 D@03<5=B>2 4 @>5:B8@>20=85 ?@>F5AA0 >1CG5=8O 4 1 #AB0=>2;5=85 M;5<5=B>2 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (=0?@8<5@, 548=8F 4;O 87CG5=8O 70:>=0 <0) 4 2 >=AB@C8@>20=85 =01>@0 M;5<5=B>2 4 3 @54AB02;5=85 70:>=G5==>9 B5<K 4 4 ;0= C@>:0 5 07@01>B:0 CG51=KE =3@-<>45;59 5 [ 07@01>B:0 CG51=>9 83@K 8 >?@545;5=85 ?>2545=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 CG5=8O  >1CG5=8O 5 2 0A?@545;5=85 @>;59 <564C >1CG0NI8< 8 CG0I8<8AO 6 :>=G0B5;L=0O 4>@01>B:0 ?@>5:B0 >1CG5=8O 6 1 !>25@H5=AB2>20=85 ?;0=0 C@>:0 6 2 >43>B>2:0 A@54AB2 >1>G5=8O 0 8AA;54>20B5;LA:CN @01>BC 2 >1;0AB8 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< 8 =0 ?@0:B8:C 8E @07@01>B:8 70 @C156>< 1>;LH>5 2;8O=85 >:070;0 B5E=>;>38O ?@>5:B8@>20=8O >1CG5=8O, @07@01>B0==0O . 0=L5 8 . @833A>< (R. M. Gagne, L. L. Briggs, 1979). 2B>@K 2K45;ONB B@8 C@>2=O ?@>5:B8@>20=8O  A8AB5<=K9, C@>2=8 CG51=>3> :C@A0 8 C@>:0, >E20BK20NI85 15 MB0?>2: >B CAB0=>2;5=8O ?>B@51=>AB59 2 >1CG5=88, 53> 'F5;59, ?@>4C:B>2, 8E @50;870F88 2 CG51=KE :C@A0E 8 :>=:@5B=KE C@>:0E 4> ?@>25@:8 8 CB>G=5=8O ?@>5:B0. =>385 ?A8E>;>38 CA<0B@820NB =0CG=K5 DC=:F88 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O 2 B><, GB> >=> >ACI5AB2;O5B ?5@5E>4 >B >1JOA=8B5;L=>9 =0C:8 : =>@<0B82=>9, ?@54?8AK20NI59. ! MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, 1>;LH8=AB2> 8AA;54>20B5;59 2 >1;0AB8 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 B0: 8;8 8=0G5 70=8<0;8AL ?@>5:B8@>20=85<, ?>A:>;L:C 0=0;87 >1CG5=8O A2O70= A:>@55 A ?@>1;5<0B8:>9 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O MDD5:B82=KE A8AB5< >1CG5=8O, G5< A @07@01>B:>9 B5>@88, :>B>@0O <>3;0 1K ?@>OA=8BL ?@8@>4C 8 A>45@60=85 >?KB0, =0:>?;5==>3> 2 CG51=KE 702545=8OE (R. Glaser, a; b 1976; D. R. Olson, 1976). >4>1=K5 273;O4K =>AOB O2=K9 >B?5G0B>: 8459 6. @C=5@0, ?@>B82>?>AB02;O2H53> ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN B5>@8N >1CG5=8O :0: ?@54?8AK20NICN ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88 CG5=8O :0: >1JOA=8B5;L=>9 B5>@88. B5G5AB25==K5 A?5F80;8ABK, 2 G0AB=>AB8 . . @052A:89, AG8B0NB ?@>5:B8@>20=85 >4=>9 87 >A=>2=KE DC=:F89 4840:B8:8. %>BO ?5@2>5 8 2B>@>5 87 @0AA<>B@5==KE =0?@02;5=89 ?@8=F8?80;L=> >B;8G0NBAO @O4>< ?0@0<5B@>2, 8E >1J548=O5B 206=K9 >1I89 ?@87=0:: 8 2 B>< 8 4@C3>< =0?@02;5=88 ?@>5:B8@>20=8N ?@8?8AK20NBAO B@048F8>==K5 DC=:F88 A@54AB20 @07@01>B:8 8;8 142 =>2KE A8AB5< >1CG5=8O, 8;8 >B45;L=KE 8E :><?>=5=B>2. @>5:B8@>20=85  MB> B>;L:> 725=>, A2O7CNI55 =0C:C 8 ?5403>38G5A:CN ?@0:B8:C. > . ;5975@C, . 0=L5 8 . @833AC, >=> A2O7K205B :>3=8B82=CN ?A8E>;>38N A ?@>1;5<0<8 >1CG5=8O; ?> . . @052A:><C, >=> A2O7K205B <5B>4>;>38G5A:85, DC=40<5=B0;L=K5 8 ?@8:;04=K5 4840:B8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O A ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN CG8B5;59. A5 ?5@5G8A;5==K5 02B>@K E0@0:B5@87CNB ?@>5:B :0: <>45;L=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 >1CG5=8O, :0:8< >=> 4>;6=> 1KBL, 0 ?@>5:B8@>20=85  :0: A@54AB2> @50;870F88 >?5@560NI59 DC=:F88 =0C:8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : ACI5AB2CNI59 ?@0:B8:5 >1CG5=8O. 564C B5< <5B>4>;>38G5A:85 DC=:F88 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O 40NB ?@02> 3>2>@8BL >1 >?5@565=88 8< =5 B>;L:> ACI5AB2CNI59 ?@0:B8:8 >1CG5=8O, => 8 =0;8G=>3> C@>2=O =0CG=KE 7=0=89. > B0:0O B@0:B>2:0 E0@0:B5@=0 4;O B@5BL53> =0?@02;5=8O, 2 :>B>@>< ?@>5:B8@>20=85 >1CG5=8O 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E F5;OE. !>3;0A=> :>=F5?F88 <=>3>C@>2=52>3> <5B>4>;>38G5A:>3> 7=0=8O (-. . .48=, 1978), ?@>5:B8@>20=85 >1CG5=8O >B=>A8BAO : :>=:@5B=>-=0CG=>9 <5B>4>;>388 (: B@5BL5<C C@>2=N <5B>4>;>38G5A:>3> 7=0=8O), : <5B>4>;>388 ?A8E>;>388 >1CG5=8O. @8<5=8B5;L=> : ?@>5:B8@>20=8N >1CG5=8O <K 8A?>;L7C5< B5@<8= <5B>4>;>38G5A:>5 A@54AB2>, GB>1K ?>4G5@:=CBL 53> >A>1>5 <5AB> 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88, 2 @0<:0E :>B>@>9 >=> 8A?>;L7C5BAO. 0BL 0=0;87 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O :0: <5B>4>;>38G5A:>3> A@54AB20  MB> 7=0G8B @0A:@KBL B5 CA;>28O, ?@8 :>B>@KE >=> ?@8>1@5B05B <5B>4>;>38G5A:CN DC=:F8N, 0 B0:65 >?@545;8BL 53> <5AB> A@548 4@C38E <5B>4>;>38G5A:8E A@54AB2. 0: <5B>4>;>38G5A:>5 A@54AB2> ?@>5:B8@>20=85 >1CG5=8O 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2 @0<:0E @07@01>B0==>3> . !. K3>BA:8< 8 53> ?>A;54>20B5;O<8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>-35=5B8G5A:>3> <5B>40, :>B>@K9 =0G8=0O A 50-E 33. CA?5H=> ?@8<5=O5BAO 2 8AA;54>20=88 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5< >1CG5=8O. -B>B <5B>4 ?>AB@>5= =0 ?@54?>AK;:5, GB> ?>4;8==K5 <5E0=87<K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O @515=:0 =5 <>3CB 1KBL 2KO2;5=K 2 E>45 :>=AB0B8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0, >ACI5AB2;O5<>3> 2 @0<:0E A;>682H59AO A8AB5<K >1CG5=8O. ;O MB>3> =5>1E>48<> A?@>5:B8@>20BL @0728BK5 D>@<K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 70B5< 8E AD>@<8@>20BL.  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"0:8< >1@07><, <5B>4>;>38G5A:85 DC=:F88 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O >1CG5=8O =5 ?@>O2;ONBAO, 5A;8 :>=AB0B8@CNI89 M:A?5@8<5=B AG8B05BAO 045:20B=K< A@54AB2>< 8AA;54>20=8O 70:>=><5@=>AB59 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, <5E0=87<>2 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O H:>;L=8:>2 8 4@C38E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5< >1CG5=8O, 0 D>@<8@CNI5<C M:A?5@8<5=BC ?@8?8AK20NBAO ;8HL :>@@838@CNI85 DC=:F88. A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O 2 :0G5AB25 <5B>4>;>38G5A:>3> A@54AB20 =5 >7=0G05B >B:070 >B :>=AB0B8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0, >4=0:> 5<C >B2>48BAO 2A?><>30B5;L=0O @>;L, =0?@8<5@ 2KOA=8BL, 2 G5< A>AB>8B @07@K2 <564C A;>682H59AO 8 7040205<>9 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN.  :0G5AB25 >A=>2=>3> ?@8 MB>< 2K428305BAO ?CBL 55 87CG5=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 D>@<8@>20=8O, =0 >A=>25 8 2 @0<:0E M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> >1CG5=8O (. /- 0;L?5@8=, 1965; . $. "0;K78=0, 1977; . . 02K4>2, 1986; . . -;L:>=8=, 1961). 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B<5B8<, <=>385 02B>@A:85 A8AB5<K E>BO 8 >1;53G0NB 45OB5;L=>ABL @07@01>BG8:>2 >1CG0NI59 ?@>3@0<<K, >4=0:> =0AB>;L:> >3@0=8G820NB ?@8<5=5=85 4840:B8G5A:8E A@54AB2, GB> <=>385 A?5F80;8ABK, =0?@8<5@ . >@: (A. Bork, 1985), 2>7@060NB ?@>B82 8E 8A?>;L7>20=8O. 152 3. @>5:B8@>20=85 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE >1CG0NI8E A8AB5<  ?>A;54=85 3>4K 2A5 1>;LHCN ?>?C;O@=>ABL ?@8>1@5B0NB 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 >1CG0NI85 A8AB5<K. !2>8< =0720=85< >=8 >1O70=K B><C, GB> ?@8 8E @07@01>B:5 8A?>;L7CNBAO 8458 A>740=8O 8A:CAAB25==>3> 8=B5;;5:B0. 1I59 E0@0:B5@8AB8:5 B0:8E A8AB5< 8 ?5@A?5:B820< 8E @0728B8O ?>A2OI5=> 4>AB0B>G=> @01>B (J. R. Carbonell, 1970; W. Clancey, 1982; J. Goldstein, B. Carr, 1977; J. R Hartley, D. Kolman, 1973; D. Sleeman, J. Brown, 1982).  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =5B G5B:8E :@8B5@852 >B=5A5=8O A8AB5<K : 40==><C B8?C 4=8 02B>@K 2 :0G5AB25 B0:8E :@8B5@852 =07K20NB 35=5@8@>20=85 >1CG0NI8E 2>7459AB289, 4@C385  CG5B =5 B>;L:> >B25B0, => 8 A?>A>10 @5H5=8O, B@5BL8  ?>AB@>5=85 <>45;8 >1CG05<KE 8 B. 4. 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B><C 65 02B>@K 0:F5=B8@CNB 2=8<0=85 =0 B5E 8;8 8=KE ?@87=0:0E 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B E0@0:B5@0 @07@010BK205<KE 8<8 =0CG=KE ?@>1;5<  F5;>< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 >1CG0NI85 A8AB5<K E0@0:B5@87CNB A;54CNI85 ?@87=0:8: 1 -B8 A8AB5<K <>3CB >ACI5AB2;OBL C?@02;5=85 =5 B>;L:> ?> @57C;LB0BC, => 8 ?> ?@>F5AAC, B 5 C?@02;OBL =0 2A5E MB0?0E @5H5=8O CG51=>9 7040G8, =0G8=0O >B 55 ?>AB0=>2:8 8 ?>8A:0 ?@8=F8?0 @5H5=8O 8 :>=G0O >F5=:>9 >?B8<0;L =>AB8 @5H5=8O, A CG5B>< >A>15==>AB59 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1CG05<KE 2 =8 >15A?5G820NB 480;>3>2>5 2708<>459AB285, :0: ?@028;>, 2 O7K:5, 1;87:>< : 5AB5AB25==><C" ?@8G5< 2 E>45 480;>30 <>3CB >1AC640BLAO =5 B>;L:> ?@028;L=>ABL B5E 8;8 8=KE 459AB289, => 8 AB@0B538O ?>8A:0 @5H5=8O, ?;0=8@>20=8O 459AB289, ?@85<K :>=B@>;O 8 B 4 3  =8E =0 >A=>25 <>45;8 >1CG05<>3> >ACI5AB2;O5BAO @5D;5:A82=>5 C?@02;5=85 >1CG5=8O @8G5< MB0 <>45;L >1CG05<>3> CB>G=O5BAO 2 E>45 >1CG5=8O 4 =8 4>?CA:0NB ?>AB0=>2:C CG0I8<AO CG51=KE 7040G 8 >ACI5AB2;ONB C?@02;5=85 ?@>F5AA>< @5H5=8O MB8E 7040G 8 7040G, ?@54JO2;O5<KE A8AB5<>9 A CG5B>< 4>AB865=8O CG51=KE F5;59 5 =>385 87 MB8E A8AB5< ?> <5@5 =0:>?;5=8O 40==KE <>3CB A>25@H5=AB2>20BL A2>N AB@0B538N >1CG5=8O 6 !8AB5<0 =5 A>45@68B >A=>2=KE 8 2A?><>30B5;L=KE >1CG0NI8E 2>7459AB289 2 3>B>2>< 2845, 0 35=5@8@C5B 8E @8 >F5=:5 4>AB>8=AB2 B0:8E A8AB5< A@02=820NB 8E 2>7<>6=>AB8 A 45OB5;L=>ABLN >?KB=>3> ?5403>30, >?8AK205<>9 A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 1) ?5403>3, >A=>2K20OAL =0 A>1AB25==KE ?@54AB02;5=8OE > ?>8A:5 @5H5=8O 7040G8, =0?@02;O5B ?>8A: CG0I8EAO, 2) >F5=8205B <5B>4K @5H5=8O 7040G8, ?@54;>65==K5 CG0I8<8AO, 8 2 40;L=59H5< 8A?>;L7C5B 8E, 5A;8 B5 >:070;8AL 1>;55 MDD5:B82=K<8, G5< 53> A>1AB25==K5, 3) ?>418@05B 4;O :064>3> CG0I53>AO A>>B25BAB2CNI85 ?@8<5@K 8 7040G8, 4) 5A;8 CG0I5<CAO B@51C5BAO ?><>IL, B> ?@54;0305B 5<C ?;0= @5H5=8O 8 ?>:07K205B ?@85<K @5H5=8O, 153 5) 8A?>;L7C5B ?@8<5@K, ?@54;>65==K5 CG0I8<8AO, 6) ?@8A?>A01;8205BAO : CG0I8<AO A @07;8G=>9 ?>43>B>2:>9, 7) C<55B >F5=8BL CA?5E8 >1CG05<>3>, 8) ?@8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?>2B>@O5B A CG0I8<8AO @0=55 ?@>945==K9 <0B5@80;, 9) >15A?5G8205B =5<54;5==CN >1@0B=CN A2O7L A CG5B>< 4>?CI5==>9 >H81:8, 10) ?>A;5 @5H5=8O CG0I8<AO 7040G8 <>65B ?>:070BL 1>;55 MDD5:B82=>5 @5H5=85 4=8< 87 ?5@2KE 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=CN A8AB5<C A>740; 6. 0@-1>=5;; (J. R. Carbonell, 1970). = =0720; A2>N A8AB5<C, ?@54=07=0G5==CN 4;O >1CG5=8O 35>3@0D88 2 480;>3>2>< @568<5, SCHOLAR.  A8AB5<C 2E>48;8: 1070 40==KE A> A2545=8O<8 > ?@><KH;5==>AB8, =0A5;5=88, AB>;8F0E AB@0= 8 B. 4.; 1;>: 22>40 >B25B>2 CG0I8EAO 8 8E 70?@>A>2 ?> 40==>9 B5<0B8:5, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 =5?@542845==KE; 1;>: 35=5@8@>20=8O 2 4>2>;L=> H8@>:>< 480?07>=5 >1CG0NI8E 2>7459AB28N 2 40==>9 ?@54<5B=>9 >1;0AB8. !;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> 4840:B8G5A:85 2>7<>6=>AB8 A8AB5<K 1K;8 25AL<0 >3@0=8G5==K. =0 >15A?5G820;0 CA2>5=85 >B=>A8B5;L=> =5A;>6=KE @0745;>2 35>3@0D88, => =5 A>45@60;0 A@54AB2 CAB@0=5=8O ?@>15;>2 2 7=0=8OE ?> @0=55 87CG02H8<AO B5<0< 8, ?> ACB8, =5 >15A?5G820;0 8=48284C0;870F88 >1CG5=8O. > >=0 ?>A;C68;0 B>;G:>< 4;O @07@01>B:8 A8AB5< ?> >1CG5=8N M;5:B@>=8:5 (I. S. Brown et al., 1973; 1975), D878:5 (D. Sleeman, J. Brown, 1982), <0B5<0B8:5 8 <0B5<0B8G5A:8< 83@0< (R. Burton, I. Brown, 1976; J. Goldstein, B. Carr, 1973; R. Kimball, 1982; ". ' Shea, 1982), 8=B53@8@>20=8N A8<2>;>2 (R. Kimball, 1982).  G8A;C =081>;55 8725AB=KE 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A8AB5< A;54C5B >B=5AB8 SOPHIE (sophisticated instructional environment). -B0 8<8B0F8>==0O ?@>3@0<<0, ?@54=07=0G5==0O 4;O >1CG5=8O ?>8A:C =58A?@02=>AB59 2 M;5:B@>==>9 F5?8, ?>72>;O5B A>740BL B0:CN >1CG0NICN A@54C, 2 @0<:0E :>B>@>9 >1CG05<K9 <>65B 8A?>;L7>20BL @07;8G=K5 AB@0B5388 @5H5=8O 7040G. !CI5AB2CNB B@8 20@80=B0 A8AB5<K, ?@8G5< 1>;55 ?>74=85 4>?CA:0NB @07;8G=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O ?@54<5B=>9 >1;0AB8. !8AB5<0 2 A;CG09=>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 35=5@8@C5B A8BC0F88 A @07;8G=K<8 ?>;><:0<8 2 M;5:B@>==>9 F5?8. 1CG05<><C ?@54>AB02;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL 70?@>A8BL C A8AB5<K 8=D>@<0F8N, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 B0:CN, :>B>@0O <>65B 1KBL ?>;CG5=0 ?>A;5 ?@>2545=8O >?@545;5==>3> B5AB0. ><?LNB5@ <>65B >1@0B8BLAO : >1CG05<><C A B5<, GB>1K B>B ?>45;8;AO A2>8<8 38?>B570<8, 8 CB>G=8BL, A>3;0ACNBAO ;8 >=8 A @0=55 ?>;CG5==>9 8=D>@<0F859.  SOPHIE-I >1CG05<><C ?@54>AB02;O5BAO ?>;=0O A2>1>40 2 87<5@5=88 ?0@0<5B@>2 A8AB5<K ?@8 ?>8A:5 =58A?@02=>AB59, => 5<C =5 405BAO C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=>3> >1JOA=5=8O ?> <=>38< 725=LO< E>40 @0AAC645=8O.  SOPHIE-II 8=8F80B820 >1CG05<>3> 25AL<0 >3@0=8G5==0, BCB 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?@>AB0O AB@0B538O 2K2>40, => >1CG05<><C 405BAO 25AL<0 >1AB>OB5;L=K9 0=0;87 E>40 53> 154 @0AAC645=89.  SOPHIE-III >1CG05<><C ?@54>AB02;O5BAO 4>AB0B>G=0O 8=8F80B820 8 >15A?5G8205BAO ?>4@>1=>5 B>;:>20=85 53> A?>A>10 @0AAC645=8O. ! ?><>ILN 480;>30 A8AB5<0 >?@545;O5B A?>A>1 53> @0AAC645=8O, :>=AB@C8@C5B <>45;L >1CG05<>3> 8 =0 >A=>25 MB>9 <>45;8 2K405B >1CG05<><C >1JOA=5=85 53> 459AB289 2 ?@82KG=KE 4;O =53> B5@<8=0E. !?5F80;8ABK, :>B>@K5 7=0:><8;8AL A ?@>B>:>;0<8 480;>30 <564C :><?LNB5@>< 8 >1CG05<K<, ?>4G5@:820NB, GB> C =8E A>7405BAO 2?5G0B;5=85, 1C4B> A >1CG05<K< @01>B05B >?KB=K9 ?@5?>4020B5;L. ?8A0=8N A8AB5<K SOPHIE ?>A2OI5=> =5<0;> ?C1;8:0F89, =081>;55 >1AB>OB5;L=> >=0 >?8A0=0 2 @01>B5 . @0C=0 8 53> :>;;53 (I. S. Brown et al., 1982). 4=>9 87 206=KE ?@54?>AK;>: CA?5H=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE >1CG0NI8E A8AB5< O2;O5BAO @0A?>7=020=85 8 4803=>7 >H81>: >1CG05<KE. > <=5=8N . !B525=A0 8 53> :>;;53 (A. Stevens et al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urton, 1982) >?8A0; 425 A8AB5<K, 0=0;878@CNI85 >H81:8 ?@8 2K?>;=5=88 0@8D<5B8G5A:8E 459AB289 8 35=5@8@CNI85 CG51=K5 7040G8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 4>?CI5==KE >H81>:.  A8AB5<5 DEBUGG >H81:8 CG0I8EAO 2 ?@>ABKE 0@8D<5B8G5A:8E >?5@0F8OE 4803=>AB8@CNBAO G5@57 A@02=5=85 8E >B25B>2 A <>45;LN, A>45@60I59 B8?K 2>7<>6=KE >H81>: 8 >?8A0=85 ?@8G8= B@C4=>AB59, A :>B>@K<8 AB0;:820NBAO CG0I85AO.  8=B5@0:B82=>9 A8AB5<5 IDEBUGG 4;O :064>3> CG0I53>AO ?>418@05BAO ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 7040G ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: ?>4B25@6405BAO >4=0 87 8<5NI8EAO 38?>B57 8 A8AB5<0 AB028B 4803=>7 > ?@8G8=0E 70B@C4=5=89/ 8 2K405B CG0I8<AO 7040G8 A CG5B>< 4>?CI5==KE >H81>: 8 ?@8G8= MB8E >H81>:. . 8<10;; (R. Kimball, 1982) ?>?KB0;AO @07@01>B0BL A0<>A>25@H5=AB2CNICNAO A8AB5<C ?> >1CG5=8N @5H5=8N 7040G. 2B>@ >?@545;O5B 55 :0: :><?LNB5@=CN ?@>3@0<<C, :>B>@0O: 1) =0?@02;O5B ?>8A: @5H5=8O 7040G; 2) 35=5@8@C5B A>>B25BAB2CNI85 >1JOA=ONI85 ?@8<5@K; 3) 0=0;878@C5B ?@8<5@K, ?@54;0305<K5 CG0I8<8AO; 4) C?@02;O5B CG0I8<8AO A> 7=0G8B5;L=K<8 @07;8G8O<8 2 ?>43>B>2:5; 5) 2 A>AB>O=88 CA20820BL ?@54;0305<K5 >1CG05<K<8 ;CGH85 ?>4E>4K : @5H5=8N 7040G. @8 @07@01>B:5 B0:>9 ?@>3@0<<K 02B>@ 8AE>48; 87 A;54CNI8E ?@54?>;>65=89: 155 M:A?5@B870 E>40 @5H5=8O 7040G  MB>, A:>@55, CB25@645=85, 2K2545==>5 87 >?KB0, G5< MDD5:B82=>5 ?@8<5=5=85 70@0=55 7040==KE ?@028;, AC645=85 >B=>A8B5;L=> @5H5=8O 7040G 7028A8B, A:>@55, >B 8=48284C0;L=>3> 2>A?@8OB8O ?@>AB@0=AB20 7040G8 8;8 55 D>@<K, G5< >B B>G=> ?@>3=>78@C5<>3> @0AG5B0 8 >F5=820=8O CA?5H=>AB8 B@0=AD>@<8@C5<KE @57C;LB0B>2, ;CGH89 A>25B >1CG0NI59 A8AB5<K =5 2A5340 ?@82>48B : @5H5=8N 7040G8 (MB> A;54C5B 87 ?5@2>3> ?@54?>;>65=8O), 5A;8 ;CGH89 A>25B, >:07K205BAO =5?@>4C:B82=K<, 2A5340 ACI5AB2C5B 5I5 >48= ;CGH89 A>25B 8 B 4 , <>65B 1KBL @07@01>B0=0 >4=0 8;8 1>;LH5 A8AB5< >F5=820=8O :0G5AB20 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 @5H5=8O 7040;8 8;8 @5H5=8O 2 F5;><, 7040G0 >1CG0NI59 A8AB5<K  AB8<C;8@>20BL CG0I8EAO : ?@>4CF8@>20=8N ;CGH8E @5H5=89, B 5 ?>@>640BL ;CGH85 AC645=8O 50;870F8O C:070==KE ?@54?>AK;>: ?@54JO2;O5B : >1CG0NI59 A8AB5<5 @O4 B@51>20=89: 4>ABC?=>ABL CG0I8<AO AC645=89 A8AB5<K > @5H5=88 B5<8 7040G, >1JOA=5=8O, 40205<K5 A8AB5<>9, 4>;6=K CA8;820BL C<5=8O CG0I8EAO, ?>72>;OBL 8< ?@>O28BL 8=8F80B82C, =5?@54CA<>B@5==K5 (=5>6840==K5) >B25BK CG0I8EAO 4>;6=K 0=0;878@>20BLAO A8AB5<>9, AB@0B5388 >1CG5=8O 4>;6=K <5=OBLAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 =5 B>;L:> >B @5H5=8O CG0I8<8AO 7040G8, => 8 >B C@>2=O 8E ?>43>B>2:8, A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 >A20820BL ;CGH85 ?>4E>4K : @5H5=8N 7040G8, 5A;8 B0:> 2K5 ?@54;030NBAO CG0I8<AO !0<>A>25@H5=AB2CNI0OAO >1CG0NI0O A8AB5<0 ?@54?>;0305B =0;8G85 ?> :@09=59 <5@5 42CE <>45;59  <>45;8 @5H5=8O 7040G 2 >?@545;5==>9 ?@54<5B=>9 >1;0AB8 8 <>45;8 >1CG05<>3>. 0: B>;L:> CG0I89AO ?@8ABC?05B : @01>B5, A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 >?@545;8BL, =5>1E>48<> ;8 2 40==>< :>=:@5B=>< A;CG05 CAB@0=8BL ?@>15;K 2 53> ?>43>B>2:5, :0:85 @5:><5=40F88 A;54C5B 2K4020BL, 0 :0:85  =5B, ?>A:>;L:C >1CG05<K9 =5 ?@>E>48; 5I5 A>>B25BAB2CNI89 CG51=K9 <0B5@80;. "0:0O A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 >15A?5G8BL CG0I5<CAO 2>7<>6=>ABL A0<><C D>@<C;8@>20BL 7040GC 8 @5H0BL 55 =5 EC65, G5< 7040GC, :>B>@0O ?@54JO2;O5BAO A8AB5<>9. K1>@ 7040G8 4;O >1CG05<>3> 4>;65= >?@545;OBLAO B5<, @5H0; ;8 >= B0:CN 7040GC @0=LH5 8 A>>B25BAB2C5B ;8 >=0 53> 2>7<>6=>ABO<. !8AB5<0 4>;6=0 ?> 70?@>AC CG0I53>AO C:070BL 1>;55 ?@>4C:B82=K9 ?>4E>4 : @5H5=8N 7040G8, >=0 4>;6=0 @0A?>7=020BL =5?@>4C<0==K5 8;8 <0;>?@024>?>4>1=K5 ?>4E>4K, ?@54;0305<K5 CG0I8<AO, 8 =5<54;5==> @5038@>20BL =0 =8E. <5AB5 A B5< CG0I5<CAO 4>;6=0 1KBL ?@54>AB02;5=0 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>4>;60BL @5H5=85 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 40==K< ?>4E>4><, 5A;8 >= B>3> E>G5B. @8 7025@H5=88 @5H5=8O 7040G8 A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 40BL >1ICN >F5=:C A8;L=KE 8 A;01KE AB>@>= 459AB28O CG0I8EAO. A;8 >:065BAO, GB> ?@>F5AA @5H5=8O 7040G8 CG0I8<AO 7=0G8B5;L=> >B:;>=O5BAO >B =>@<0B82=>3>, A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 ?>4>1@0BL 8 ?@54JO28BL A>>B25BAB2CNICN ?>47040GC 8 @5H0BL 55 2<5AB5 A CG0I8<AO. A;8 65 CG0I89AO @5H8; 7040GC ;CGH8<, G5< =>@<0- 156 B82=K9, A?>A>1><, B> A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 2=5AB8 MB> @5H5=85 2 A2>9 @5?5@BC0@. #:070==K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 1K;8 @50;87>20=K 02B>@>< ?@8 @07@01>B:5 >1CG0NI59 A8AB5<K ?> >1CG5=8N 8=B53@8@>20=8N A8<2>;>2. -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=0O 0?@>10F8O ?>4B25@48;0 7=0G8B5;L=CN MDD5:B82=>ABL 40==>9 A8AB5<K, 8 >4=8< 87 A0<KE 8=B5@5A=KE 8 =5>6840==KE @57C;LB0B>2 1K; B>B, GB> ?>4 2;8O=85< >B25B>2 CG0I8EAO >1CG0NI0O A8AB5<0 7=0G8B5;L=> CA>25@H5=AB2>20;0AL. =0;>38G=>9 ?@>1;5<>9 70=8<0;AO ". '(8 (". 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K;> ?@>2545=> ?OBL A5@89 M:A?5@8<5=B>2, 2> 2@5<O :>B>@KE A8AB5<0 02B><0B8G5A:8 2=>A8;0 87<5=5=8O 2 AB@0B538N >1CG5=8O. !>?>AB02;5=85 40==KE, ?>;CG5==KE A 8A?>;L7>20=85< A0<>A>25@H5=AB2CNI59AO >1CG0NI59 A8AB5<K 8 0=0;>38G=>9 A8AB5<K 157 1;>:0 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O, ?>:070;> 7=0G8B5;L=K5 ?@58<CI5AB20 ?5@2>9. @8 MB>< C4020;>AL 4>18BLAO C<5=LH5=8O 70B@0B <0H8==>3> 2@5<5=8 =0 23 %, 2@5<5=8 ABC45=B>2  =0 15 %, G8A;> >1CG05<KE, :>B>@K5 CA?5H=> A?@028;8AL A >1CG5=85<, C25;8G8;>AL =0 7 %, 0 ?>:070B5;8 702@5H0NI53> B5AB0  =0 1 %. !CI5AB25==>, GB> 8 2 MB>< A;CG05 C;CGH8;0AL AB@0B538O >1CG5=8O. 081>;55 ?>;=> B@51>20=8O : 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K< A8AB5<0< AD>@<C;8@>20=K 2 @01>B5 ". ' (8 8 53> :>;;53 (". 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ddis, 1982). !G8B05BAO, GB> B0:85 A8AB5<K O2;ONBAO 2>?;>I5=85< >?KB0 A?5F80;8AB>2 2 40==>9 >1;0AB8 8 <>3CB >ACI5AB28BL 2 02B><0B8G5A:>< 8;8 ?>;C02B><0B8G5A:>< @568<5 @5H5=85 7040G8, 0 B0:65 40BL >1>A=>20==K9 A>25B >B=>A8B5;L=> 55 @5H5=8O. 5:>B>@K5 87 B0:8E A8AB5< <>3CB >1JOA=8BL E>4 @5H5=8O 7040G8.  G8A;C >A=>2=KE 7040G, 4;O @5H5=8O :>B>@KE ?@82;5:0NB M:A?5@B>2 8 4;O :>B>@KE A>740NBAO M:A?5@B=K5 A8AB5<K, >B=>AOB 7040G8 =0 8=B5@?@5B0F8N, 4803=>AB8:C, :>=B@>;L, ?@54A:070=85, ?;0=8@>20=85 8 ?@>5:B8@>20=85. @8 MB>< ?@54?>;0305BAO, GB> @5H5=85 =5>1E>48<> ?@8=8<0BL 8 ?@8 =5=0456=KE 40==KE 8;8 =54>AB0NI8E 7=0=8OE, ?@8 >BACBAB288 A?>A>10 >F5=:8 G0AB8G=KE @5H5=89, 0 B0:65 ?@8 =0;8G88 <=>38E ;8=89 @0AAC645=89 8 =5A:>;L:8E 8AB>G=8:>2 A2545=89 (. !B5D0=8: 8 4@., 1985). >4@>1=K5 40==K5 >1 M:A?5@B=KE A8AB5<0E, @07@01>B0==KE 4> =0G0;0 80-E 33., ?@82545=K 2 @01>B5 6. !8<>=A0 (1985). 4=0 87 D>@< ?@54AB02;5=8O 7=0=89 2 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE >1CG0NI8E A8AB5<0E  MB> D@59<>20O >@30=870F8O 40==KE. 081>;55 ACI5AB25==0O >A>15==>ABL D@59<>2 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> 2 =8E, 2 >B;8G85 >B A>45@60=8O CG51=KE :C@A>2, ?@54AB02;5=0 =5 A8AB5<0 ?>=OB89, 0 <>45;8 7040G=KE A8BC0F89. @8 MB>< >?8AK20NBAO =5 B>;L:> A2O78 <564C >1J5:B0<8, :>B>@K5 2E>4OB 2 40==CN A8BC0F8N 2 :0G5AB25 8725AB=KE 8 =58725AB=KE, 0 B0:65 <=>65AB2> >?5@0B>@>2, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 42865=85 2 40==>9 7040G=>9 A8BC0F88. 0?@8<5@, CAB0=>2;5=85 7=0G5=8O =5:>B>@>9 25;8G8=K =0 >A=>25 7=0G5=89 25;8G8= 4@C38E >1J5:B>2. ;O :;0AA0 7040G AB@>8BAO A8AB5<0 D@59<>2, :>B>@0O >E20BK205B @5H5=85 2A53> :;0AA0. ! ?><>ILN D@59<0 <>6=> >?8A0BL A?>A>1 @5H5=8O B8?>2>9 7040G8, 0 A ?><>ILN A8AB5<K D@59<>2  >1>1I5==K9 A?>A>1 @5H5=8O 7040G =5:>B>@>3> :;0AA0.  <>45;8 @5H5=8O 7040G, @07@01>B0==>9 A>2<5AB=> A ". 5@35-5< 02B>@>< MB>9 :=838 (". 5@359, . . 0H18F, 1973), CA;>285 7040G8 =0 :064>< MB0?5 55 @5H5=8O ?@5>1@07C5BAO 2 7040G=CN AB@C:BC@C (!), 0 ?@>F5AA 55 @5H5=8O >?8AK205BAO :0: ?5@5E>4 >B >4=>9 AB@C:BC@K : 4@C3>9. #:070==0O <>45;L 4>?CA:05B D@59<>2>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 7=0=89, E>BO AB@>8;0AL 157>B=>A8B5;L=> 159 : MB8< 845O<.  55 >A=>2C 1K;8 ?>;>65=K ?@8=F8?K >1CG5=8O @5H5=8N 7040G =0 <>45;8 AB@C:BC@K 8E @5H5=8O (.. I. 0H-18FL, 1965). ">B D0:B, GB> 40==K9 ?>4E>4 2> <=>3>< >:070;AO A>72CG=K< ?@54AB02;5=8N 7=0=89 2 2845 D@59<>2, O2;O5BAO 8;;NAB@0F859 8725AB=>3> ?>;>65=8O, GB> : >4=8< 8 B5< 65 845O< ?@8E>4OB @07=K<8 ?CBO<8. ">, GB> >48= 87 MB8E ?>4E>4>2 >A=>2K205BAO =0 ?>=OB8OE 8=D>@<0B8:8, 0 4@C3>9  ?A8E>;>388 >1CG5=8O, ?>4B25@6405B 8E ?@>4C:B82=>ABL, ?>A:>;L:C @07@01>B0==K5 =0 8E >A=>25 <>45;8 F5;5A>>1@07=> ?@8<5=OBL 2 F5;OE >1CG5=8O, :@><5 B>3>, 8E <>6=> @50;87>20BL A ?><>ILN :><?LNB5@0. =0=8O 7040NBAO 2 2845 ?@028; B8?0 5A;8 ... B>. @8 MB>< <>65B 8A?>;L7>20BLAO 8 :>=JN=:F8O, 8 487JN=:F8O. 0?@8<5@: 5A;8 5ABL  8 ( 8;8 !), B> . 1KG=> 2 M:A?5@B=CN A8AB5<C 2:;NG0NBAO 7=0=8O (?@028;0) =5A:>;L:8E C@>2=59, ?@8 MB>< ?@028;0 1>;55 2KA>:>3> C@>2=O (<5B0?@028;0) C?@02;ONB ?@028;0<8 1>;55 =87:8E C@>2=59. 070 7=0=89 =5 >AB05BAO =587<5==>9. -:A?5@B=K5 A8AB5<K >1KG=> AB@>OBAO B0:, GB> ?> <5@5 =0:>?;5=8O >?KB0 =01>@ ?@028; @0AH8@O5BAO, ?@8 MB>< =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E ?5@5AB@0820NBAO. !;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> 1K;> ?@54?@8=OB> 4>2>;L=> <=>3> ?>?KB>: 8A?>;L7>20BL M:A?5@B=K5 A8AB5<K 4;O >1CG5=8O. A>15==> <=>3> B0:8E ?>?KB>: 1K;> A45;0=> A M:A?5@B=K<8 A8AB5<0<8 ?> <548F8=A:>9 4803=>AB8:5. > =5@54:> >A=>2=K5 ?@85<K 8E @01>BK <5E0=8G5A:8 ?5@5=>A8;8AL =0 ?@0:B8:C >1CG5=8O, E>BO, :0: =5>4=>:@0B=> ?>4G5@:820;8 A?5F80;8ABK (J. R. Hartley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B<5G0O 3;C1>:CN A2O7L <564C =8<8, <K =5 <>65< A>3;0A8BLAO A B5<8 02B>@0<8, :>B>@K5 AB02OB 7=0: @025=AB20 <564C ?@5A:@8?B82=>9 B5>@859 >1CG5=8O 8 53> ?@>5:B8@>20=85<. 07C<55BAO, >4=0 87 >A=>2=KE DC=:F89 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O (8 MB> >A>15==> >BG5B;82> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 ?@5A:@8?B82=KE B5>@8OE) A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K A?@>5:B8@>20BL MDD5:B82=>5 >1CG5=85. 4=0:> A;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C 420 <><5=B0. >-?5@2KE, ;N10O B5>@8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 B5>@88 >1CG5=8O, O2;O5BAO A;>6=K< >1@07>20=85< 8 =5 <>65B 1KBL A2545=0 : =01>@C ?@54?8A0=89. 0?@8<5@, ?@8=F8?K 8 B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@54AB02;5=8O > ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E <5E0=87<0E >1CG5=8O, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO A>AB02=K< :><?>=5=B>< B5>@88, =5 <>3CB 1KBL 2K@065=K 2 2845 ?@54?8A0=89. >-2B>@KE, ?@>5:B8@>20=85 :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 8<55B A>1AB25==CN <5B>4>;>38N, B5>@8N 8 B5E=>;>38N, ?@8G5< 8 <5B>4>;>38O, 8 B5>@8O ?@>5:B8@>20=8O >1CG5=8O =5 B>645AB25==K <5B>4>;>388 8 B5>@88 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, @02=> :0: 53> B5E=>;>38O =5 A>2?0405B A B5E=>;>3859 >1CG5=8O. !B@0B538O 8AA;54>20=8O 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 7028A8B >B =0H53> 2845=8O B5=45=F89 @0728B8O :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O. @8 ?>AB@>5=88 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< @07;8G=>3> B8?0 ?@8E>48BAO @5H0BL @07=K5 ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K, ?@8G5< ?> <5@5 C25;8G5=8O G8A;0 >1CG0NI8E DC=:F89, ?5@540205<KE :><?LNB5@C, 8 ?>2KH5=8O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 A8AB5<K @0AH8@O5BAO :@C3 ?@>1;5< 8 2>7@0AB0NB B@51>20=8O : C@>2=N 8E @5H5=8O. 0: ?>:070; 0=0;87, MB> >B=>A8BAO : C@>2=N @5H5=8O =5 B>;L:> A?5F8D8G5A:8E 4;O :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O ?@>1;5<, => 8 ?@>1;5<, B@048F8>==KE 4;O ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388.  >A=>2=K5 B@C4=>AB8 G0AB> A2O70=K :0: @07 A =54>AB0B>G=>9 87CG5==>ABLN B@048F8>==KE ?@>1;5<. "0:, 2 ?@>5:B8@>20=88 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2CNI8EAO 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A8AB5< <=>385 B@C4=>AB8 2 @07@01>B:5 ?@>4C:F8>==KE ?@028; 4;O 840:B0-1 8-2 A2O70=K A =54>AB0B>G=>9 87CG5==>ABLN ?@>1;5< >1CG5=8O, 0 A;>6=>AB8 2 @07@01>B:5 =0CG=> >1>A=>20==>9 48=0<8G5A:>9 <>45;8 >1CG05<>3>, A ?><>ILN :>B>@>9 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO @5D;5:A82=>5 C?@02;5=85, 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 >1CA;>2;5=K =54>AB0B>G=>9 87CG5==>ABLN ?@>1;5- 174 <K 8=48284C0;L=KE @07;8G89. '8A;> B0:8E ?@8<5@>2 <>6=> C<=>68BL. BAN40 A;54C5B, GB> 7040G0 ?>AB@>5=8O 8 @50;870F88 MDD5:B82=>9 AB@0B5388 8AA;54>20=8O ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5< :><?LNB5@870F88 =5 <>65B 1KBL ?>;=>ABLN @5H5=0 CA8;8O<8 B>;L:> B5E ?5403>38G5A:8E ?A8E>;>3>2, :>B>@K5 @01>B0NB =5?>A@54AB25==> 2 >1;0AB8 :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O, =5>1E>48<> CG0AB85 A?5F80;8AB>2 2 >1;0AB8 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. E 8AA;54>20=8O 8 A>AB02OB B5>@5B8G5A:CN >A=>2C @5H5=8O :0: >1I8E, B0: 8 A?5F8D8G5A:8E 4;O :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5<. <5AB5 A B5< @5H5=85< 4065 =081>;55 A?5F8D8G5A:8E 4;O 40==>3> >1CG5=8O ?@>1;5< <>65B 8 4>;6=> >1>30B8BL B5>@8N ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 F5;><. 8B5@0BC@0 0B5@80;K XXVII AJ5740 ><<C=8AB8G5A:>9 ?0@B88 !>25BA:>3> !>N70  >;8B8740B, 1986 422 A  @5D>@<5 >1I5>1@07>20B5;L=>9 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 H:>;K !1 4>:C<5=B>2 8 <0B5@80;>2 , 1984 >AB0=>2;5=85 & !! 8 !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 !!!   <5@0E ?> >15A?5G5=8N :><?LNB5@=>9 3@0<>B=>AB8 >B 23 <0@B0 1985 3 //@0240 1985 29 <0@B0 940@>20   A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K >1CG5=8O <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2 @CAA:><C O7K:C  , 1978 ;5:A552   >7=020B5;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@8 D>@<8@>20=88 >A>7=0= =>3> @5H5=8O 7040G8 2B>@5D 48A :0=4 ?A8E>; =0C: , 1975 ;5:A5520  I >B828 =02G0==O CG=H 8B, 1974 ;5:AN:   030;LH <5B>48 =02G0==O 2 H:>;! 8B, 1973 ;5:AN:   @>1;5<0 <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O 2 >1I5>1@07>20B5;L=>9 H:>;5 , 1979 <>=0H28;8 (  , 070@0H28;8    A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 CG51=>9 45OB5;L-=>AB8//-:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?> ?@>1;5<0< CA>25@H5=AB2>20=8O CG51=>-2>A?8B0B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 2 =0G0;L=KE :;0AA0E 8 ?>43>B>2:8 45B59 : H:>;5 0B5@80;K II A5A>N7=>3> A8<?>78C<0  3 G "18;8A8, 1974 ' 1 =4@852A:0O   5:>B>@K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> >15A?5G5=8O 480;>30 ?@8 @5H5=88 CG51=KE 7040G//A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O -  , 1985 =FKD5@>20   @8=F8? A2O78 ?A8E8:8 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 <5B>4>;>38O ?A8E>;>388//5B>4>;>38G5A:85 8 B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K ?A8E>;>388  , 1969 A552   >B820F8O ?>2545=8O 8 D>@<8@>20=85 ;8G=>AB8 , 1966 B:8=A>=  40?B82=K5 >1CG0NI85 A8AB5<K >?KB:8 >?B8<878@>20BL ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O//  B:8=A>= '5;>25G5A:0O ?0<OBL 8 ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O , 1980 010=A:89 .  ?B8<870F8O ?@>F5AA0 >1CG5=8O  , 1977 0;;  2>?@>AC > :>;8G5AB25==>9 >F5=:5 B@C4=>AB8 7040=89//0C:>-2545=85, ?@>3=>78@>20=85, 8=D>@<0B8:0 852, 1970 0 K? 2 0;;    ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< A>45@60=88 ?>=OB8O 7040G0//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1970 1 ! 6 0;;   8EI=! ?>=OBBO A?>A>18 @>7@>1:8 7030;L=>3 B5>@? @>72"O7C-20==O 7040G//$|;>A>DAL:0 4C<:0 1973 ! 3 0;;   A=>2K B8?>;>388 7040G 852 1979 0;;   , '<CB "  !8AB5<0 @>72820;L=KE 70240=L =0 107! <0B5<0B8G=8E 7040G//>G0B:>20 H:>;0 1982 ! 3 0;;   , >23O;;>   , 0H18F   "5>@5B8G5A:89 0=0;87 >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< !>>1I5=85 1//>2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?5403>38G5A:8E =0C:0E 1965 K? 4 0;;   8 dp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i ?>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 2>7@0AB=>9 8 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 =0 A>2@5<5==>< MK3= @0728B8O >1@07>20=8O//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1976 ! 4 02K4>2   11@825AB8 <5B>4K >1CG5=8O 2 A>>B25BAB285 A B@51>20=8O<8 687==//!>25BA:0O ?5403>38:0 1977 ! 7 02K4>2   @>1;5<K @072820NI53> >1CG5=8O ?KB B5>@5B8G5A:>3> 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O , 1986 6>=A 6 =65=5@=>5 8 EC4>65AB25==>5 :>=AB@C8@>20=85 !>2@5<5==K5 <5B>4K ?@>5:B=>3> 0=0;870  , 1976 >1;052   !<KA;>20O AB@C:BC@0 CG51=>3> B5:AB0 8 ?@>1;5<K 53> ?>=8<0=8O  , 1982 >@>E8=0  " @8G8=K B@0=AD>@<0F88 (?5@5>?@545;5=8O) CG51=>3> 7040=8O CG0I8<8AO 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1CG5=8O//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1980 ! 2 @8475 "  /7K: 8 A>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O , 1980 @H>2   @>3@0<<8@>20=85 2B>@0O 3@0<>B=>ABL//- 1982 ! 2 @H>2   '5;>25: 8 <0H8=0 , 1985 @H>2   0: CG8BL ?@>3@0<<8@>20=8N//8:@>?@>F5AA>@=K5 A@54AB20 8 A8AB5<K 1986 ! 1 0=:>2   840:B8:0 8 687=L  , 1968 25@52   5B>4K >1CG5=8O 2 A>2@5<5==>9 H:>;5//0@>4=>5 >1@07>20=85 1975 ! 3 25@52   @825AB8 <5B>4K 2 A>>B25BAB285 A B@51>20=8O<8 687=8//!>25B-A:0O ?5403>38:0 1977 ! 2 8=G5=:>   5?@>872>;L=>5 70?><8=0=85 , 1961 >@8=0  / 840:B8G5A:85 >A=>2K D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=>AB8 7=0=89 AB0@H5:;0AA=8:>2 , 1978 =D>@<0F8>==>5 ?8AL<> > ?@8<5=5=88 M;5:B@>==>-2KG8A;8B5;L=KE <0H8= 2 CG51=>< ?@>F5AA5 2C7>2 ., 1968 B5;LA>=   0B5<0B8G5A:85 8 :815@=5B8G5A:85 <5B>4K 2 ?5403>38:5 , 1964 B5;LA>=   5:F88 ?> ?@>1;5<0< A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>;>388 >1CG5=8O ;048<8@, 1972 010=>20-5;;5@   $>@<8@>20=85 ?@85<>2 C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 C<AB25==>5 @0728B85 CG0I8EAO  , 1968 0;<K:>20 3  @>4C:B82=>5 <KH;5=85 :0: >A=>20 >1CG05<>AB8  , 1981 81@8:  ?>AB@>5=8N ;8=328AB8G5A:>9 <>45;8 :><<C=8:0B82=>3> 2708<>459AB28O//#G5=K5 70?8A:8 "0@BCA:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 1983 K? 654 >75;5F:89 . A8E>;>38G5A:0O B5>@8O @5H5=89 , 1979 178 >?=8=   80;5:B8:0 :0: ;>38:0 8 B5>@8O ?>7=0=8O , 1973 >@:8=>2  ! , 20=>2   -@3>=><8G5A:85 B@51>20=8O 8 8=D>@<0B82=K5 7040G8 ?@8 :><?LNB5@870F88 >1CG5=8O//!38!35? in an Information Ade Tomorrow's Problem Today Preceedings of International Conference and Exhibition Varna, 6 10 May 1985 Varna, 1985 >ABN:  ! @> ?A8E>;>?G=! >A=>28 ?@>3@0<>20=>3> =02G0==O// 04O=AL:0 H:>;0 1964 ! 5 >ABN:  ! A8E>;>?O 8B, 1968 >ABN:  ! 0728B85 ;5=8=A:8E 8459 2 A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ;8G=>AB8// >?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1970 ! 3 >ABN:  !, 0;;   0B53>@8O 7040G8 8 55 7=0G5=8O 4;O ?A8E>;>3> ?5403>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1977 ! 3 @052A:89   @>1;5<K =0CG=>3> >1>A=>20=8O >1CG5=8O 5B>4>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 , , 1977 @052A:89   "5>@5B8G5A:89 ?>4E>4 : ?>AB@>5=8N B5>@88 A>45@60=8O >1I53> >1@07>20=8O//>2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?5403>38G5A:8E =0C:0E  , 1979 @052A:89   , 5@=5@  / 840:B8G5A:85 >A=>2K >?@545;5=8O A>45@60=8O CG51=8:0//@>1;5<K H:>;L=>3> CG51=8:0  , 1983 K? 8 @59F15@3  # &5;8 >1CG5=8O 8 87CG5=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG8B5;O//#G8B5;L 8 53> ?@>D5AA8O "0;;8=, 1977 @82>H555  $, =B8?>2  , >:>2=52   A=>2K 8=D>@<0B8:8  H:>;L=8:0<//!>25BA:0O ?5403>38:0 1985 ! 3 C4@O2F52 "  A8E>;>38O B5E=8G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O  , 1975 C7L<8=0   5B>4K 8AA;54>20=8O ?5403>38G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8  , 1970 C7L<8=0   0CG=>-?@0:B8G5A:85 <5B>4K 0=0;870 ?5403>38G5A:>9 A8BC0-F88//A8E>;>38O  ?@>872>4AB2C 8 2>A?8B0=8N  , 1977 C;NB:8= .  -2@8AB8G5A:85 <5B>4K 2 AB@C:BC@5 @5H5=89 , 1970 C;NB:8= .  A8E>;>38G5A:>5 7=0=85 8 CG8B5;L//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1983 ! 3 C;NB:8= . , !CE>1A:0O  ! AA;54>20=85 ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG0I8EAO 25G5@=59 H:>;K  , 1977 C;NB:8= . , !CE>1A:0O  ! >45;8@>20=85 ?5403>38G5A:8E A8BC0F89 , 1981 C<1A $  @878A >1@07>20=8O 2 A>2@5<5==>< <8@5 !8AB5<=K9 0=0;87 , 1970 CG8=A:89   80;>3 8 <KH;5=85 8=A:, 1983 02@>2 ! ! 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 2>?@>AK 480;>3>2KE A8AB5<//5AB=8: >A:>2A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 A8E>;>38O !5@8O 14 1984 ! 2 54=52  ! !>45@60=85 >1I53> A@54=53> >1@07>20=8O @>1;5<K AB@C:BC@K , 1980 5<15@3   5B>4 >1CG5=8O 2 H:>;5 ;<0-B0, 1958 5>=BL52   A8E>;>38O >1I5=8O "0@BC, 1974 5>=BL2   1I5=85 :0: >1J5:B ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O//5B>4>-;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388  , 1975 5>=BL52   5403>38G5A:>5 >1I5=85 , 1979 5>=BL52   ?KB M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O <KH;5=8O//>:;04K =0 A>25I0=88 ?> 2>?@>A0< ?A8E>;>388  , 1954 5>=BL52   1CG5=85 :0: ?@>1;5<0 ?A8E>;>388//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1957 ! 1 5>=BL52   5OB5;L=>ABL 8 A>7=0=85//>?@>AK D8;>A>D88 19720 ! 12 5>=BL52   @>1;5<K @0728B8O ?A8E8:8  , 19726 5>=BL52   5OB5;L=>ABL, A>7=0=85, ;8G=>ABL , 1975 5@=5@  / =0=8O 2 A>AB025 A>45@60=8O >1@07>20=8O 8 8E :0G5AB2>// 0G5AB2> 7=0=89 8 ?CB8 53> CA>25@H5=AB2>20=8O  , 19780 5@=5@  / !>AB02 A>45@60=8O >1@07>20=8O 8 ?CB8 53> 2>?;>I5=8O 2 CG51=8:5//@>1;5<K H:>;L=>3> CG51=8:0 , 19786 K? 6 5@=5@  / 840:B8G5A:85 >A=>2K <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O , 1981 ><>2  $ 1I5=85 :0: ?@>1;5<0 >1I59 ?A8E>;>3=8//5B>4>;>38G5A:85 179 ?@>1;5<K A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 , 1975 ><>2  $  ?@>1;5<5 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 ?A8E>;>388//A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0; 19810 " 2 ! 5 ><>2  $ @>1;5<0 >1I5=8O 2 ?A8E>;>388//@>1;5<0 >1I5=8O 2 ?A8E> ;>388 , 19816 ><>2  $ 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 8 B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K ?A8E>;>388  , 1984 ><>2  $ 0CG=>-B5E=8G5A:89 ?@>3@5AA 8 A@54AB20 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O G5;>25:0//A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0; 1985 ! 6 >@4:8?0=8475   @8=F8?K, >@30=870F8O 8 <5B>4 >1CG5=8O  , 1967 >B<0= .  ><0=  ! CH:8=0 235=89 =538= ><<5=B0@89 , 1983 >C;5@  , LO=3  , =8=3  ><?LNB5@K, 3@0<>B=>ABL, O7K:8//C@L5@ .! 1983 ?@5;L OC48A  / A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K :>=AB@C8@>20=8O 480;>3>2KE >1CG0NI8E ?@>3@0<< 2 A8BC0F88 :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5==O//A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:85 8 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K :><?LNB5@=>3> >1CG5=8O  , 1985 OC48A  / , "8E><8@>2   A8E>;>38O 8 ?@0:B8:0 02B><0B878@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1983 ! 6 0;8=>2A:89   A=>2K ?>=OB8O B5>@88 A8AB5<  A2O78 A ?@8<5=5=85< B5>@88 A8AB5< 2 18>;>388//!8AB5<=K5 8AA;54>20=8O 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 653>4=8:, 1979 , 1980 0@:>20   A8E>;>38G5A:85 :@8B5@88 MDD5:B82=>AB8 CG51=>3> ?@>F5AA0// >?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1977 ! 4 0@:>20   $>@<8@>20=85 <>B820F88 CG5=8O 2 H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5  , 1983 0BNH:8=   "5>@5B8G5A:85 2>?@>AK ?@>1;5<=>3> >1CG5=8O//!>25BA:0O ?5403>38:0 1971 ! 7 0BNH:8=   @>1;5<=K5 A8BC0F88 2 <KH;5=88 8 >1CG5=88  , 1972 0BNH:8=    ?@>1;5<5 ?>@>645=8O A8BC0B82=KE ?>7=020B5;L=KE ?> B@51=>AB59//A8E>;>38G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8  , 1979 0BNH:8=    ?@>1;5<5 H030 ?@>F5AA0 CA2>5=8O//>2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?5403>38G5A:8E =0C:0E 1986 ! 1(48) 0E<CB>2   @>1;5<=>5 >1CG5=85 , 1975 0E<CB>2   @30=870F8O ?@>1;5<=>3> >1CG5=8O 2 H:>;5 , 1977 0H18F   A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 CG51=>9 7040G8//!>25BA:0O ?5403>38 :0 1973 ! 2 0H18F    4>>?@545;5=88 CG51=KE 7040G//-:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?> ?@>1;5<0< CA>25@H5=AB2>20=8O CG51=>-2>A?8B0B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 2 =0G0;L=KE :;0AA0E 8 ?>43>B>2:0 45B59 : H:>;5 0B5@80;K II A5A>N7=>3> A8<?>78C<0  3 G "18;8A8 1974 ' 1 0H18F   A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K >1CG5=8O ?>;L7>20B5;59 - 852, 1976 0H18F   A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O :0: A?>A>10 C?@02;5=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN//1I54840:B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O , 1977 0H18F   A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K ?@>5:B8@>20=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L-=>AB8//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>38= 1979 ! 6 0H18F   1CG5=85 :0: C?@02;5=85 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN//@>3@0<-<8@>20==>5 >1CG5=85 852, 1980 0H18F   A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A=>2K C?@02;5=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN 852, 1987 0H18F  , >=40@>2A:0O   0@C156=K5 :>=F5?F88 ?@>3@0<<8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O 852, 1964 0H18FL . I @> D>@<C20==O 2 CG=B C<HL A0<>AH=> @07>2 O7C20B8 7040G//8B==O ?A8E>3? =02G0==O 8B, 1964 0H18FL . I >ABI65==O ?>@H=O=L=> MD5:B82=>A? :>=AB@CN2088E1 281D:>2KE 2I:>21AB59// 04O=AL:0 H:>;0 1965 ! 5 180 5=G8=A:0O   =B5;;5:BC0;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@8 @5H5=88 0@8D<5B8G5A :8E 7040G//725AB8O  !$!  1946 ! 3 8:C;8=0   A8E>;>38G5A:85 CA;>28O @5H5=8O CG51=KE 7040G//-:A?5@8-<5=B0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?> ?@>1;5<0< CA>25@H5=AB2>20=8O CG51=> 2>A?8B0B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 2 =0G0;L=KE :;0AA0E 8 ?>43>B>2:8 45B59 : H:>;5 0B5@80;K II A5A>N7=>3> A8<?>78C<0  3 G "18;8A8, 1974 ' 1 >=0E>2   A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K >15A?5G5=8O :><?LNB5@=>9 3@0<>B=>AB8 CG0I8EAO//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1985 ! 3 >=0E>2   , C7=5F>2   , (20@F1C@F !  15A?5G8BL :><?LNB5@ =CN 3@0<>B=>ABL H:>;L=8:>2//!>25BA:0O ?5403>38:0 1985 ! 1 C4@8:   8G=>ABL H:>;L=8:0 8 55 2>A?8B0=85 2 :>;;5:B825 , 1983 0M< 6 A8E>;>38O 8 ?A8E80B@8O 2 !(  , 1984 5?><=OI0O   A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 =0G0;L=KE MB0?>2 >1CG5=8O 2B>@5D 48A 4-@0 ?A8E>; =0C: , 1972 8:0=4@>2   !>2@5<5==0O 2KAH0O H:>;0 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0= A =>2=K5 2>?@>AK 4840:B8:8 , 1978 1CG0NI85 <0H8=K, A8AB5<K 8 :><?;5:AK/>4 @54  / !025;L520 852, 1988 :>=L  @>F5AA >1CG5=8O  , 1968 ?KB A8AB5<=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O ?A8E8:8 @515=:0/>4 @54   5?><=OI59. , 1975 A=>2K 4840:B8:8/>4 @54   A8?>20 , 1967 A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 0D@8:0=8AB8:8 , 1973 0@0G52   @30=870F8O ?>2545=8O//0C:>2545=85, ?@>3=>78@>20=85, 8=D>@<0B8:0 852, 1969 5403>38:0/>4 @54 .  010=A:>3> , 1983 5403>38:0/>4 @54   08@>20,   >=G0@>20,   A8?>20,   0=:>20 , 1956 5B@>2A:89    A>25@H5=AB2>20=88 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> >1@07>20=8O CG8-B5;O//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1978 ! 3 8065  71@0==K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 B@C4K  , 1969 8A:C=>2   #A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 >1I5?5403>38G5A:>9 ?>43>B>2:8 ABC45=B>2 ?5403>38G5A:8E 8=AB8BCB>2 8 C=825@A8B5B>2//!>25BA:0O ?5403>38:0 1975 ! 2 >=><0@52 /  A8E>;>38O B2>@G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O  , 1960 >=><0@52 /  $07K B2>@G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0//AA;54>20=85 ?@>1;5< ?A8E>;>388 B2>@G5AB20  , 1983 @8<5=5=85 - 2 CG51=>< ?@>F5AA5 !1>@=8: 4>:;04>2 =0CG=>-B5E=8G5A:>3> A5<8=0@0/>4 @54   5@30  , 1969 @>:><5=:>   A8E>;>?O 70A2>5=8O 3@0<0B8G8KE 7=0=L H4;33:0<8 H2, 1973 A8E>;>38G5A:85 <5E0=87<K F5;5>1@07>20=8O  , 1977 CH:8=   ?5@0B82=>5 <KH;5=85 2 1>;LH8E A8AB5<0E ,  , 1965 052   #?@02;5=85 C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0  , 1976 07C<>2A:89  - 8 H:>;0 0CG=>-?5403>38G5A:>5 >15A?5G5=85//!>25B 5:0O ?5403>38:0 1985 ! 9 5?:8=   A8E>;>38G5A:0O >@30=870F8O <0B5@80;0 8 CA?5H=>ABL >1CG5=8O 2B>@5D 48A :0=4 ?A8E>; =0C: , 1967 5?:8=    ?>=OB88 CG51=>9 45OB5;L8>AB8//5AB=8: %0@L:>2A:>3> C=8 25@A8B5B0 A8E>;>38O 19760 K? 9 ! 132 5?:8=   !B@>5=85 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8//5AB=8: %0@L:>2A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 A8E>;>38O 19766 K? 9 ! 132 5?:8=   $>@<8@>20=85 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 :0: ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O ?@>1 ;5<0//5AB=8: %0@L:>2A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 1977 K? 155 5?:8=   , >@>E8=0  " @>F5AA ?@8=OB8O 7040=8O 2 CG51=>9 45OB5;L =>AB8//"5>@8O 7040G 8 A?>A>1>2 8E @5H5=8O 852, 1973 5H5=85 7040G >1@01>B:8 40==KE A ?><>ILN -/>4 @54   ;CH:>20 8 4@ 852, 1978 >7>2   @>1;5<K M<?8@8G5A:>3> 0=0;870 =0CG=KE 7=0=89 >2>A818@A:, 181 1977 C18=HB59= !  A=>2K >1I59 ?A8E>;>388  , 1946 C18=HB59= !  @8=F8?K 8 ?CB8 @0728B8O ?A8E>;>388  , 1959 C18=HB59= !  @>1;5<K >1I59 ?A8E>;>388  , 1973 C1F>2   @30=870F8O 8 @0728B85 A>2<5AB=KE 459AB289 C 45B59 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1CG5=8O  , 1987 !07>=>2    >?@545;5=8N ?>=OB8O ?@>5:B8@>20=85//5B>4>;>38O 8AA;54>20=89 ?@>5:B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 , 1973 !0;<8=0   84K 8 DC=:F88 <0B5@80;870F88 2 >1CG5=88 , 1981 !5;L5  !B@5AA 157 48AB@5AA0 , 1979 !5<5=>2   ?KB 45OB5;L=>AB=>3> ?>4E>40 : M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>-?A8E> ;>38G5A:><C 8AA;54>20=8N <KH;5=8O =0 <0B5@80;5 @5H5=8O B2>@G5A:8E 7040G// 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 8AA;54>20=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8  , 1976 !5<5=>2   , !B5?0=>2 ! . @>1;5<0 ?@54<5B0 8 <5B>40 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 87CG5=8O @5D;5:A88//AA;54>20=85 ?@>1;5< ?A8E>;>388 B2>@G5AB20 , 1983 !8<>=5 6 - ?OB>3> ?>:>;5=8O ><?LNB5@K 90-E 3>4>2 , 19*85 !:0B:8=   0C:0 8 CG51=K9 ?@54<5B//!>25BA:0O ?5403>38:0 1965 ! 7 !:@8?G5=:>   A8E>;>?G=89 @>728B>: CG=B 8B, 1974 !<8@=>2   @>1;5<K ?A8E>;>388 ?0<OB8  , 1966 !?8@:8=   !>7=0=85//$8;>A>DA:0O M=F8:;>?548O  5 B , 1970 " 5 !B5D0=88  >u dp @30=870F8O M:A?5@B=KE A8AB5<//815@=5B8G5A:89 A1>@=8: >20O A5@8O , 1985 K? 22 !B@>=89   8 dp '5;>25:>-<0H8==0O A8AB5<0 @5H5=8O 7040G >1@01>B:8 40==KE, >@85=B8@>20==0O =0 =5?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE ?>;L7>20B5;59 -//;3> @8B<K 8 >@30=870F8O @5H5=8O M:>=><8G5A:8E 7040G , 1977 K? 9 !B@>=89   8 dp '5;>25:>-<0H8==0O A8AB5<0 >1@01>B:8 40==KE// ;3>@8B<K 8 >@30=870F8O @5H5=8O M:>=><8G5A:8E 7040G , 1980 K? 14 !CE>1A:0O  ! , 564C<>20   #G8B5;L  CG5=8: 2708<=>5 ?@>3=>78@>20=85 ?@>F5AA0 >1CG5=8O//5403>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 8 A?>A>1K 8E @5H5=8O CG8B5;5<  , 1979 "0;K78=0  $ "5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K ?@>3@0<<8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O , 1969 "0;K78=0  $ #?@02;5=85 ?@>F5AA>< CA2>5=8O 7=0=89  , 1975 "0;K78=0  $ "5E=>;>38O >1CG5=8O 8 55 <5AB> 2 ?5403>38G5A:>< ?@>F5AA5// !>2@5<5==0O 2KAH0O H:>;0 1977 " 1 (17) "0;K78=0  $ A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:85 >A=>2K 02B><0B870F88 CG51=>3> ?@>F5AA0//A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:85 8 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K :><?LN B5@=>3> >1CG5=8O  , 1985 "0;K78=0  $ , CB:8=   ?KB >1CG5=8O 35><5B@8G5A:><C 4>:070B5;LAB2C//>2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?5403>38G5A:8E =0C:0E 1968 ! 2 "0;K78=0  $ , 0109 "  CB8 8 2>7<>6=>AB8 02B><0B870F88 CG51=>3> ?@>F5AA0  , 1977 "5>@5B8G5A:85 >A=>2K A>45@60=8O >1I53> A@54=53> >1@07>20=8O/>4 @54   @052A:>3>,  / 5@=5@0 , 1983 "8E><8@>2   !B@C:BC@0 <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0 , 1969 "8E><8@>2   A8E>;>38G5A:0O AB@C:BC@0 480;>30 G5;>25:  -// 5AB=8: >A:>2A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 !5@8O 14 A8E>;>38O 1984 ! 2 $@84<0=    <5E0=87<0E @5H5=8O 0@8D<5B8G5A:8E 7040G//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1967 ! 2 $@84<0=   >38:> ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 H:>;L=KE CG51=KE 7040G , 1977 &5B;8=  ! 5:>B>@K5 >A>15==>AB8 2;8O=8O =0C:8 =0 A>45@60=85 CG51=KE ?@54<5B>2 A@54=59 H:>;K//>2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?5403>38G5A:8E =0C:0E 1978 ! 1 &5B;8=  ! @>1;5<K 2K45;5=8O 548=8F >1I53> >1@07>20=8O =0 @07=KE C@>2=OE 53> D>@<8@>20=8O//>?@>AK :>=AB@C8@>20=8O A>45@60=8O >1I53> A@54 =53> >1@07>20=8O  , 1980 (04@8:>2   A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 45OB5;L=>AB8 /@>A;02;L, 1979 (0<>20 " 2>?@>AC > <5B>40E >1CG5=8O//!>25BA:0O ?5403>38:0 182 1974 ! 1 (0?>@8=A:89 !  1CG5=85 8 =0CG=>5 ?>7=0=85  1981 (520@52    @>;8 0AA>F80F89 2 ?@>F5AA0E <KH;5=8O  , 1966 (@5945@ .   ?>AB@>5=8N O7K:0 >?8A0=8O A8AB5<//!8AB5<=K5 8AA;54>20 =8O 653>4=8: 1973 , 1973 (@5945@ .  >38:0 7=0:>2KE A8AB5< -;5<5=BK A5<8>B8:8 , 1974 (B>DD   @>1;5<K <5B>4>;>388 =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O  1978 )54@>28F:89    ?@8=F8?0E 0=0;870 AB@C:BC@K <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L =>AB8 =0 >A=>25 ?>=OB89 A>45@60B5;L=> 35=5B8G5A:>9 ;>38:8//>?@>AK ?A8E> ;>388 1964 ! 2 )54@>28F:89   0<5B:8 > AB@C:BC@5 A8BC0F88 CG5=85  >1CG5=85// -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?> ?@>1;5<0< CA>25@H5=AB2>20=8O CG51=> 2>5 ?8B0B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 2 =0G0;L=KE :;0AA0E 8 ?>43>B>2:8 45B59 : H:>;5 "18;8A8, 1971 )54@>28F:89   ><<C=8:0F8O, 45OB5;L=>ABL, @5D;5:A8O//A8E>;>38O AA;54>20=85 @5G5 <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ;<0 B0, 1974 K? 3 )54@>28F:89  , 045648=0   0728B85 45B59 8 ?@>1;5<K >@30=870F88 8@02AB258=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O//1CG5=85 8 @0728B85  , 1966 )5@10:>2    <5B>4>;>388 8 <5B>48:5 87CG5=8O ?A8E>;>388 B@C40 8 ;8G=>AB8 CG8B5;O  , 1976 K? 1 )C:8=0   @>1;5<0 ?>7=020B5;L=>3> 8=B5@5A0 2 ?5403>38:5 , 1971 -;L:>=8=   A8E>;>38G5A:85 2>?@>AK D>@<8@>20=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 <;04H5< H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5//8B0=8O ?A8E>;>38 =02G0=8O i 28E>20==O 852, 1961 -;L:>=8=    B5>@88 =0G0;L=>3> >1CG5=8O//0@>48>5 >1@07>20=85 1963 ! 4 -;L:>=8=    ?@>1;5<5 ?5@8>4870F88 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5//>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 1971 ! 4 -;L:>=8=   A8E>;>38O >1CG5=8O <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0  , 1974 -=35;L30@4B   =B53@0B87<  ?CBL >B ?@>AB>3> : A;>6=><C//>?@>AK D8;>A>D88 1970 ! 11 -A0C;>2  $ A8E>;>38O @5H5=8O 7040G  , 1972 .48= -  5OB5;L=>ABL :0: >1JOA=8B5;L=K9 ?@8=F8? 8 :0: ?@54<5B =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O//>?@>AK D8;>A>D88 1976 ! 5 .48= -  !8AB5<=K9 ?>4E>4 8 ?@8=F8? 45OB5;L=>AB8 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K A>2@5<5==>9 =0C:8  , 1978 /:8<0=A:0O  ! 072820NI55 >1CG5=8O , 1979 /:>1A>=   A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K <>B820F88 ?>2545=8O G5;>25:0 , 1969 /:>1A>= ! , )54@>28F:89   >38:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 A?>A>1>2 @5H5=8O ?@>ABKE 0@8D<5B8G5A:8E 7040G//"578AK 4>:;04>2 80 II AJ5745 1I5AB20 ?A8E>;>3>2  , 1963 Addis T R Expert systems An evoluation in information retneval//Informa tion Technology Research and Development 1982 N 1 Alesst S M, Trolkp S R Computer Based Instruction Methods and Development//Englewood Cliffs, N J , 1985 Alpert D A , Ditzer D L Advances in computer based education//Science 1970 V 167 N 3925 Anderson R E Innovative microcomputer games and simulations//Simulation and Game 1983 V 14 N 1 Andre T On Productive Knowledge and Level of Question Ames, IQ Iowa State University, 1977 ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 159211 Andrews D H , Goodson L A A comparative analysis of models of instructional design//Journal of Instructional Development 1980 V 3 (4) Archer L  Systematic Methodology for Designs L, 1965 Asinow M Introduction to Design N Y , 1962 Atkinson R G Computerized Instruction and the Learning Process//Amencan Psychologist 1968 V 23 183 Atkinson R ! 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1968 Gorth W P, Nasstf P M A Comparison microcomputer-based computer managed instruction (CMI) software programs (with an evaluation form)// Educational Technology 1984 N 1 Grahne G Adaptive features of a CAI system based on information retrieval// Computers and Education 1982 V 6 N 1 Greeno J G Cognitive objectives of instruction Theory of knowledge for solving problem and answering questions//D Klahr (ed ) Cognition and Instruction N Y , L , 1976 Hall  A Content structuring and question asking for computer based education//Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 1983 V 10 N 1 2 Habermas J Communication and the Evolution of Society Boston, 1979 Hartley J R The design and evaluation of an adaptive system//International Journal of Man Machine Studies 1973 V 5 N 2 Hartley J R Computer assisted learning//N T Smith, T R G Green (eds) Human Interactions with Computers L, N Y, 1980a Hartley 1 R Computer assisted learning and the National Development Programme//J L Moore, F H Thomas (eds ) Computer in Schools 1980 2 N 23 Hartley ] R , Kolman D Towards more intelligent teaching systems//Inter national Journal of Man-Machine Studies 1973 V 5 N 2 Hartley J R , Levell  The Psychological Principles Underlying the Design of Computer Based Instructional Systems//J Hartley, I Davies (eds ) Contributions to an Educational Technology 1978 V 2 Hartley J , Sleeman D , Wood P Controlling the learning of diagnostic task// International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 1972 V 4 N 3 Hebenstreit J Computers in education The French experience (1970 1984)// ABACUS 1984 Fall V 2 N 1 Heinich R, Molenda M, Russel J Instructional Media and New Technologies of Instruction N Y, 1982 Hendrix G Learning by discovery//The Mathematical Teacher 1961 V 5 Hirschbuhl ] I Hardware consideration for computer based education in the I980's//Journal of Research and Development in Education 1980 V 14 N 1 Hlynka D , Nelson  Educational technology as metaphor//Programmed Learning and Educational Technology 1985 N 1 Holmberg  Theoretical underpinnings of mediated teaching as self contained 187 instruction A suggested theory//Programmed Learning and Educational Technology 1985 V 22 N 1 Humanistic Perspectives on Computers in the Sqhools/Sv Harlow (ed ) N Y, 1985 Jatntnson D , Suppes P, Wells S The effectiveness of alternative instructional media A survey//Review of Educational Research 1974 V 44 Jay T The cognitive approach to computer courseware design and evaluation// Educational Technology 1983 N 1 Jenkins T M , Dankert E J Results of a three-month PLATO trial in terms of utilization and student attitudes//Educational Technology 1981 V 21 Jonassen D H Interactive lesson designs A taxonomy//Educational Technology 1985 N 6 Jonassen D The generic disc Realizing the potential of adaptive, interactive videodiscs//Educational Technology 1984 N 1 Kadesch R R Interactive video computer learning in physics//Journal of Educational Technology Systems 1980 81 V 9 N 4 Katona G Organizing and Memorizing N Y, 1940 Kaufman A On some philosophic grounds for understanding teaching//Studies in Philosophy and Education 1967 N 5 Kearsley G Authoring tools An introduction//Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 1984 V 11 N 3 Kearsley G , Hunter  , Seidel R Two decades of computer based instruction projects What have we learned>//Technological Horizons in Educational Journal 1983 February Kemp J E The Instructional Design Process N Y, 1985 Kibler R J , Barker L L , Miles D T Behavioral Objectives and Instruction Boston, 1970 Kimball R A self-improving tutor for symbolic integration//D Sleeman, J Brown (eds ) Intelligent Tutoring Systems N Y, 1982 Klahr D Designing a learner SQme questions//D Klahr (ed ) Cognition and Instruction Hillsdale, N F , 1976 Klaus D J The Art of Auto-Instructional Programming//W J Smith, W Moore (eds) Programmed Learning Theory and Research N Y, 1962 Klix F , Sydow H The organization of information processing in problem-solving behavior//F Klix (ed ) The Organization of Human Information Processing Berlin, 1967 Kolstad R K, Coker D R, Creiden R D The improvement of testing through cooperation between teachers and computer personnel//Educational Technology 1984 N 5 Kulhavy R W Feedback in written instruction//Review of Educational Research 1977 V 47 Kulik J A , Bengert R L , Williams G W Effect of computer-based teaching on secondary school students//Journal of Educational Psychology 1983 V 75 Kuhk J A , Kuhk ! 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V The Structure of subject matter content and its instructional design imp)ication//Instructional Science 1978 N 7 Resntck L  , Wang M G , Kaplan J Task analysis in curriculum design A hierarchically sequenced introductory mathematic curnculum//Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1976 N 6 Rogers W et al Computer-aided medical diagnosis Literature review// International Journal of Biomedical Computing 1979 N 10 Romiszowski A J Designing Instructional Systems N Y, 1979 Roper W J Feedback in computer assisted instruction//Programmed Learning and Educational Technology 1977 V 14 Ross S M Matching the lesson to the student Alternative adaptive designs for individualized learning systems//Journal of Computer Based Instruction 1984 N 2 Royer I M Theories of transfer of learnmg//Educational Psychologist 1979 V 14 Rudmck M F Now you can program the computer//Audiovisual Instruction 1979 V 24 Ryan E L Differentiated effects of levels of questioning on student achievement//Journal of Experimental Education 1973 V 41 N 3 Sakamoto T Instructional Design by COMET Method//Aspects of Educational Technology, XIII Educational Technology Twenty Years On L , 1979 Salomon G Computers in education Setting a research agenda//Educational Technology 1984 N 10 Sawyer T Human factors considerations in computer assisted instruction// Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 1985 N 1 Scandura J M Cognitive Instructional Psychology System Requirements and Research Methodology//Journal of Computer-Based Instruction 1984 V 11 N2 Scandura J M Three roles for computer in education//Educational Technology 1983 N 9 Schmidt W Educational technology in college teaching//Educational Technology 1982 V 22 N 9 Shavelson R J Teachers' desicion making//N Gage (ed ) Psychology of Teaching Methods Part I Chicago, 111, 1976 Shaw  S<jme Educational Uses of Computers in UK Schools//G Page, Q Withlock (eds ) Aspects of Educational Technology, XIII L, 1979 Sheffield F D Theoretical considerations in the learning of complex sequential task from demonstration and practice//A Lumsdaine (ed ) Student Response in Programmed In