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ion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artwright 8 A.Zander (1968): "@C??0  MB> >1J548=5=85 8=48284>2, ?>445@6820NI8E 2708<>>B=>H5=8O, :>B>@K5 45;0NB 8E 2708<>7028A8<K<8, 8 AB@5<OI8EAO : >1I59 F5;8". 01>B0 ;N1>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K >A=>2K205BAO =0 3@C??>2>9 48=0<8:5 :0: A>2>:C?=>AB8 A>1KB89 8 <56;8G=>AB=KE 2708<>459AB289 2 3@C??5. 06=59H8< ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< D0:B>@>< O2;ONBAO 2708<>>B=>H5=8O CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 8 8E 2708<>459AB285 A B5@0?52B>< 3@C??K. 5 C<0;OO 2:;040 :20;8D8F8@>20==>3> B5@0?52B0, E>B5;>AL 1K ?>4G5@:=CBL 7=0G5=85 A0<>9 3@C??K :0: <>I=>3> 8AB>G=8:0 B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 87<5=5=89 55 CG0AB=8:>2. A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 2>7459AB285 A0<>9 3@C??K =0 CG0AB=8:>2 >B;8G05B 3@C??>2CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N >B 8=48284C0;L=>9, >A=>2>9 :>B>@>9 O2;O5BAO :>=B0:B >4=>3> :;85=B0 A ?A8E>B5@0?52B>< (:>=AC;LB0=B><). >=5G=>, MB> =5 >7=0G05B, GB> 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >1J5:B>< ?><>I8 AB0=>28BAO A0<0 3@C??0. < 8 745AL >AB05BAO >B45;L=K9 G5;>25:. 0: >B<5G0NB S.H.Foulkes 8 E.J.Anthony (1971), ;N10O ?A8E>B5@0?8O ?@5645 2A53> O2;O5BAO ?><>ILN >B45;L=><C 8=48284C. 4=0:> 2 3@C??5 4;O 2>7459AB28O =0 ;8G=>ABL 8 ?>2545=85 CG0AB=8:0 8A?>;L7CNBAO =5 B>;L:> =02K:8 B5@0?52B0, => 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; >B45;L=KE CG0AB=8:>2 8 3@C??K 2 F5;><. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 3@C??>2>9 48=0<8:5 <>6=> 2K45;8BL B@8 C@>2=O: >B45;L=0O ;8G=>ABL 8 55 2=CB@8?A8E8G5A:0O 48=0<8:0; <56;8G=>AB=>5 2708<>459AB285 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K; A8BC0F8O 8 48=0<8:0 3@C??K :0: >4=>3> F5;>3>. -B8 B@8 C@>2=O ?@8ACBAB2CNB 2 ;N1>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5; 8E 48=0<8G=>5 2708<>459AB285 8 ?@028;L=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?><>30NB B5@0?52BC @50;87>20BL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; 3@C??K. 4=0:> 2 @07;8G=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E 8A?>;L7C5BAO :0:>9-;81> >48= 87 C@>2=59 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B5>@5B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88 B5@0?52B0 8 AB@C:BC@K ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K.  A>>B25BAB288 A MB8< 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =045;ONBAO (M.F.Ettin, 1992) B@8 >A=>2=KE =0?@02;5=8O.  ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E, >@85=B8@>20==KE =0 >B45;L=CN ;8G=>ABL, 1>;LH5 >1AC640NBAO ?@>1;5<K >B45;L=KE CG0AB=8:>2, B5@0?52B :>=F5=B@8@C5B A>1AB25==K5 CA8;8O 8 ?>4:;NG05B 3@C??C 4;O @01>BK A >B45;L=K< CG0AB=8:><.  B0:><C A?>A>1C @01>BK G0I5 2A53> BO3>B5NB >@B>4>:A0;L=> ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:85 (S.Slavson), :;0AA8G5A:85 35HB0;LB (F.Perls), :;0AA8G5A:85 ?A8E>4@0<0B8G5A:85 (J.Moreno) 8 ?>2545=G5A:85 (J.Wolpe, A.Lazaras) 3@C??K.  3@C??0E, >@85=B8@>20==KE =0 <56;8G=>AB=>5 2708<>459AB285 CG0AB=8:>2, 1>;LH5 0:F5=B8@CNBAO >B=>H5=8O <564C CG0AB=8:0<8, 0 B0:65 <564C =8<8 8 B5@0?52B><.  40==>< A;CG05 >1J5:B>< >1AC645=8O 1K20NB <56;8G=>AB=K5 2708<>459AB28O, 2>7=8:0NI85 "745AL 8 B5?5@L", B.5. <56;8G=>AB=K9 >?KB.  MB>9 >@85=B0F88 >B=>AOBAO <56;8G=>AB=0O 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O (I.D.Yalom), =5>D@5948ABA:>5 ?A8E>48=0<8G5A:>5 =0?@02;5=85 (S.Scheidlinger), B@0=A0:F8>==K9 0=0;87 (.5rne), 3@C??K =548@5:B82=>9 B5@0?88 (C.Rogers), "3@C??K 2AB@5G" (W.Schutz), "-3@C??K (J.Bradford. J.Gibb, K.Benne). @85=B0F8O =0 3@C??C :0: A>2>:C?=>ABL >7=0G05B, GB> F5=B@>< CA8;89 B5@0?52B0 O2;O5BAO =5 >B45;L=K9 CG0AB=8: 8;8 2708<>459AB285 <564C CG0AB=8:0<8, 0 3@C??0 :0: F5;>5. 45AL 1>;LH5 0:F5=B8@CNBAO 3@C??>2K5 459AB28O, :>;;5:B82=K5 8=8F80B82K.  MB><C =0?@02;5=8N >B=>AOBAO BM28AB>:A:85 3@C??K (W.Bion), 3@C??>2>9 0=0;87 (S.Foulkes), 3@C??K, >@85=B8@>20==K5 =0 :>=D;8:B (D.Whitaker, M.Lieberman). >=5G=>, B0:>5 @0745;5=85 A;54C5B ?@8=8<0BL A >?@545;5==K<8 >3>2>@:0<8, B0: :0: @50;L=0O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O 3@C??0 459AB2C5B, :0: C65 C?><8=0;>AL, =0 2A5E B@5E C@>2=OE.  =0H5 2@5<O G8AB>B0 :0:>9-;81> B5>@5B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, O2;O5BAO 1>;LH5 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 01AB@0:F859, G5< @50;L=>ABLN. 20;8D8F8@>20==K9 B5@0?52B 3@C??K 4>;65= E>@>H> >@85=B8@>20BLAO :0: 2 8=48284C0;L=>9, B0: 8 2 <56;8G=>AB=>9 48=0<8:5 3@C??K 8 2 70:>=><5@=>ABOE DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 3@C??K :0: F5;>3>. 1.2. ) & !%" "'!  #+ #G8BK20O 4>AB0B>G=> 1>;LH>5 @07=>>1@0785 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C?? (?> >@85=B0F88, B5>@5B8G5A:8< ?@8=F8?0< 8 B.?.), 8E F5;8 B>65 <>3CB 1KBL >G5=L @07=K<8. !?5F8D8G5A:85 F5;8 3@C?? @07=KE B8?>2 1C4CB @0AA<0B@820BLAO =865, 0 A59G0A <K ?>?KB05<AO >?@545;8BL 2>7<>6=K5 C=825@A0;L=K5 F5;8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??. I.D.Yalom (1985) 2K45;O5B A;54CNI85 =081>;55 >1I85 F5;8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. KOA=5=85 ?@>1;5< :064>3> CG0AB=8:0 3@C??K 8 ?><>IL 2 ?>=8<0=88 8 87<5=5=88 A2>53> A>AB>O=8O. >AB5?5==>5 C25;8G5=85 C@>2=O 045:20B=>9 A>F80;L=>9 040?B0F88. @54>AB02;5=85 8=D>@<0F88 > 70:>=><5@=>ABOE <56;8G=>AB=KE 8 3@C??>2KE ?@>F5AA>2 :0: >A=>25 MDD5:B82=>3> 8 30@<>=8G=>3> >1I5=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8. >445@6:0 ?@>F5AA0 "A>7@520=8O" ;8G=>AB8, ?@>O2;ONI53>AO 2 @0A:@KB88 55 4CE>2=>3> ?>B5=F80;0. H.Mullan 8 M.Rosenbaum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enster (1993) 8A?>;L7>20; B0: =07K205<>5 >:=> Johari (J.Luft, 1970) (@8A. 1). => 4>2>;L=> H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=> 2 >?8A0=8OE 459AB25==>AB8 3@C??>2KE ?@>F5AA>2.  B><, GB> >B45;L=K9 CG0AB=8: 3@C??K @0AA:07K205B > A515, 5ABL 25I8, :>B>@K5 >48=0:>2> E>@>H> 7=0NB 8 >= A0<, 8 4@C385 CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K. -B> "/ 8725AB=K9". ABL 25I8, :>B>@K5 >= 7=05B > A515, 0 4@C385  =5B. -B> "/ A:@KBK9". 4=0:> 1K20NB 25I8, :>B>@K5 > G5;>25:5 7=0NB 4@C385, 0 >= A0< =5 7=05B. -B> 53> "15;K5 ?OB=0". 0:>=5F, 5ABL 25I8, :>B>@KE > G5;>25:5 =5 7=0NB =8 >= A0<, =8 4@C385 CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K. -B> "/ =58725AB=K9". ">, GB> O 7=0N > A515 ">, GB> O =5 7=0N > A515   ">, GB> 4@C385 7=0NB >1> <=5 / 8725AB=K9 5;K5 ?OB=0 #  ">, GB> 4@C385 =5 7=0NB >1> <=5 / A:@KBK9 / =58725AB=K9    /   8A. 1. :=> Johari > A;>20< A.Fenster (1993), F5;L 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K @0AH8@8BL 3@0=8FK "725AB=>3> /" 70 AG5B >1;0AB59 "/ A:@KB>3>", "15;KE ?OB5=" 8 "/ =58725AB=>3>".  @0<:0E =0720==KE C=825@A0;L=KE F5;59 :064K9 B5@0?52B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K AB@5<8BAO AD>@<C;8@>20BL =081>;55 >1I85 F5;8 :>=:@5B=>9 3@C??K, ?@8=8<0O 2> 2=8<0=85 B0:65 :>=:@5B=K5 ;8G=K5 F5;8 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. 1.3.  #)!"   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A0<>9 3@C??5 70;>65=K C=8:0;L=K5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 2>7<>6=>AB8, :>B>@K5 >BACBAB2CNB 8;8 70=8<0NB >G5=L =57=0G8B5;L=>5 <5AB> 2 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. -B> ?@5645 2A53> <56;8G=>AB=>5 (A>F80;L=>5) >1CG5=85, ?>72>;ONI55 1>;55 3;C1>:> ?>7=0:><8BLAO A> AB8;5< A2>53> >1I5=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8, 0 B0:65 ?@8>1@5AB8 1>;55 MDD5:B82=K5 A>F80;L=K5 =02K:8. @C??0 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL 3;070<8 4@C38E ?>A<>B@5BL =0 A51O 8 A2>8 ?@>1;5<K, <>45;8@>20BL A2>5 ?>2545=85 "745AL 8 B5?5@L".  3@C??5 <>6=> ?>;CG8BL @07;8G=K5 @50:F88 4@C38E 55 CG0AB=8:>2 =0 A2>5 ?>2545=85, C2845BL A 8E ?><>ILN ?>A;54AB28O A2>53> ?>2545=8O =5 B>;L:> 2 3@C??5, => 8 2=5 55. @C??0 =5 B>;L:> ?>72>;O5B CG0AB=8:0< 2A5AB>@>==5 C2845BL A51O, => 8 >:07K205B ?>445@6:C ?@8 8A?@>1>20=88 =>2KE A?>A>1>2 ?>2545=8O. 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">340 G5;>25: =0G8=05B "68BL" 2 3@C??5, =8G53> =5 <5=OO 2 A2>59 @50;L=>9 687=8. ;O B0:8E CG0AB=8:>2 >:>=G0=85 @01>BK 3@C??K >1KG=> AB0=>28BAO :0B0AB@>D>9, 8 >=8 ;81> AB@5<OBAO ?@>4;8BL ACI5AB2>20=85 3@C??K 157 B5@0?52B0, ;81> 8ICB 4@C385 ?>4>1=K5 3@C??K. 1.4. !" '!  /  # !%" :  #!" @C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O : :>=FC =0H53> 25:0 4>AB83;0 H8@>:>9 ?>?C;O@=>AB8. 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I5 =5402=> 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O ?@8<5=O;0AL B>;L:> 2 @01>B5 A ;N4L<8, 8<5NI8<8 =52@>B8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20, ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 B@C4=>AB8. >;LH8=AB2> ?@0:B8:>2 AG8B0;8, GB> 8450;L=K<8 :;85=B0<8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 O2;ONBAO ;8F0 A =52@>B8G5A:8<8 A8<?B><0<8 8 ?@>1;5<0<8.  CA;>28OE 87<5=5=8O 2 B5G5=85 ?>A;54=8E 45AOB8;5B89 AB@0B5388 ;5G5=8O 1>;LH8=AB20 BO65;KE =0@CH5=89 ?A8E8:8 >:070;>AL, GB> 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O <>65B 1KBL MDD5:B82=>9 8 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8. A8E>B8G5A:85 ?0F85=BK B@048F8>==> AG8B0;8AL =51;03>?@8OB=K<8 :;85=B0<8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. > >4=>@>4=K5 3@C??K B0:8E ?0F85=B>2 ?@8 ?>AB0=>2:5 045:20B=KE F5;59 8 2K1>@5 A@54AB2 >:070;8AL ?>4E>4OI8<8 4;O @5H5=8O ;>:0;L=KE B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 7040G. ;O 1>;LH8=AB20 B0:8E ?0F85=B>2 >:@C60NI89 <8@ ?@54AB02;O5BAO B0OI8< 2 A515 C3@>7C <5AB><, 345 =52>7<>6=> GC2AB2>20BL A51O 2 157>?0A=>AB8. ;03>40@O A>740=8N 2 3@C??5 0B<>AD5@K 157>?0A=>AB8, B5@?8<>AB8, 345 =5 :@8B8:CNB 8 =5 >AC640NB, B0:85 ?0F85=BK =0E>4OB 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>78B82=>3> 2708<>459AB28O A 4@C38<8. 0: A2845B5;LAB2CNB @01>BK ?>A;54=8E ;5B (R.R.Dies, 1993; B.J.Buchele, 1994), 2 >@18BC 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?>?040NB H87>D@5=8O, 1C;8<8O, 45?@5AA8O, :;8=8G5A:8 2K@065==0O B@52>30, 0;:>3>;87<, A8=4@>< ?>ABB@02<0B8G5A:>3> AB@5AA0, B. 5. B5 A;CG08, :>B>@K5 5I5 =5402=> I.Yalom (1985) =07K20; 2 G8A;5 =51;03>?@8OB=KE 4;O 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. @C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO 8 2 A><0B8G5A:8E :;8=8:0E 2 @01>B5 A BO65;>1>;L=K<8 8 8E 1;87:8<8. @C??>2>9 <5B>4 AG8B05BAO >A>1> F5==K< ?@8 @5H5=88 ?@>1;5< 1>;L=KE, AB@040NI8E E@>=8G5A:8<8 A><0B8G5A:8<8 701>;520=8O<8 (@0AA5O==K< A:;5@>7><, 48015B><, 48AB@>D859 <KHF, @52<0B>84=K< 0@B@8B>< 8 4@. 1>;57=O<8). =8 =5@54:> GC2AB2CNB A51O 15A?><>I=K<8, 1@>H5==K<8 =0 ?@>872>; AC4L1K, >1865==K<8 =0 25AL >:@C60NI89 <8@ 87-70 A2>8E =54C3>2. !?5F80;L=K5 3@C??K B0:8E ;N459 <>3CB ?><>GL 8< 1>;55 @50;L=> >F5=8BL A2>5 ?>;>65=85, ACI5AB2CNI85 2>7<>6=>AB8, ?@8=OBL 2 687=8 B>, GB> =587156=>, 8 87<5=8BL B>, GB> 2>7<>6=>. > <=>38E AB@0=0E ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 3@C??K @01>B0NB 2 >=:>;>38G5A:8E :;8=8:0E 8 F5=B@0E (B.J.Buchele, 1994). "0:, 8AA;54>20=8O ?>A;54=8E ;5B (D.Spiegel A A>B@., 1989; P.J.Hitch A A>B@., 1994) ?>:070;8, GB> 65=I8=K A @0:>< 3@C48, ?@>H54H85 3@C??>2CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N, 68;8 4>;LH5 8 :0G5AB2> 8E 687=8 1K;> 2KH5. @0B:>2@5<5==0O 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O >:070;0AL MDD5:B82=>9 4;O 1>;L=KE !><, >A>15==> 2 ?@5>4>;5=88 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?>A;54AB289 ?>A;5 >7=0:><;5=8O A 4803=>7>< (B.J.Buchele, 1994). @C??>2CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N =0G0;8 ?@8<5=OBL 4;O ?@5>4>;5=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E :@878A>2, A2O70==KE A ?5@56820=85< CB@0BK (I.D.Yalom, S.Vinogradov, 1988). >68;K5 ;N48 G0AB> ?5@56820NB GC2AB2> 87>;OF88 87-70 ?>B5@8 <>18;L=>AB8, CB@0BK 1;87:8E. @C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O <>65B 40BL 8< 2>7<>6=>ABL 2K@078BL GC2AB20, A2O70==K5 A >48=>G5AB2><, CB@0B0<8. 5:>B>@K5 A>2@5<5==K5 8AA;54>20B5;8, =0?@8<5@, B.Friedan (1993), AG8B0NB, GB> @0A?@>AB@0=5==>5 <=5=85, 1C4B> 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 A8;K ?>68;KE ;N459 C1K20NB, <>65B 1KBL 2A53> ;8HL <8D><, B0: :0: 8 2 AB0@>AB8 ?@>4>;605BAO 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>5 @0728B85, 5A;8 >15A?5G5=> 4>AB0B>G=>5 AB8<C;8@>20=85 <KA;8B5;L=KE ?@>F5AA>2. 0: @07 B0:8< AB8<C;OB>@>< 4;O ?>68;KE ;N459 <>65B AB0BL >4=>@>4=0O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O 3@C??0, ?><>30NI0O C<5=LH8BL 87>;OF8N 8 ?@53@048BL ?CBL 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 0B@>D88. !?8A>: 2>7<>6=>AB59 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K <>6=> 1K;> 1K ?@>4>;68BL. "5< =5 <5=55 8 ?@82545==K5 ?@8<5@K ?>:07K20NB 2>7<>6=>AB8 55 @0728B8O 8 ?@8<5=5=8O. ;020 2   !%" "'!% # ><>GL ;CGH5 @07>1@0BLAO 2 @07=>>1@0788 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C?? <>65B B0 8;8 8=0O :;0AA8D8:0F8O 3@C??. >7<>6=K B@8 :@8B5@8O B0:>9 :;0AA8D8:0F88: (1) >A=>2=0O F5;L 3@C??K (A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 ;8G=>AB8, @0728B85 =02K:>2, @5H5=85 ;8G=>AB=KE 687=5==KE ?@>1;5<, ;5G5=85 @0AAB@>9AB2; (2) A?>A>1K @50;870F88 F5;59 3@C??K (A0<>?><>IL, >:070=85 ?>445@6:8, ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 ?@>A25I5=85, 0=0;87 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0, :;8=8G5A:0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O); (3) B5>@5B8G5A:>5 >A=>20=85 3@C??K (?A8E>0=0;87, 8=48284C0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O, ?A8E>4@0<0, M:78AB5=F80;L=0O B5@0?8O, :;85=B>F5=B@8@>20==0O B5@0?8O, 35HB0;LBB5@0?8O, B@0=A0:F8>==K9 0=0;87, ?>2545=G5A:0O B5@0?8O, @0F8>=0;L=>-M<>F8>=0;L=0O B5@0?8O).  MB>9 3;025 <K >1AC48< >A=>2=K5 ?@8=F8?K @01>BK @07;8G=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??. 2.1. !%" "'!  #+ !"' /& AE>4O 87 >A=>2=>9 F5;8, =0?@02;ONI59 @01>BC ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K, A@548 @07=>>1@078O ACI5AB2CNI8E 3@C??, <>6=> 2K45;8BL 3 B8?0 3@C??. @C??K A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 8 >1CG0NI85 3@C??K (CG0AB=8:8  74>@>2K5 ;N48). @C??K @5H5=8O ?@>1;5< (CG0AB=8:8  ;N48, 8<5NI85 687=5==K5 8 ;8G=>AB=K5 B@C4=>AB8). 5G51=K5 3@C??K (:;8=8G5A:0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O) (CG0AB=8:8  ;N48 A @07;8G=K<8 ?A8E8G5A:8<8 @0AAB@>9AB20<8, ?@>O2;ONI8<8AO 2 ?>2545=88 8 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 AD5@5). @C??K ?5@2>3> B8?0 ;CGH5 2A53> ?@54AB02;ONB B0: =07K205<K5 3@C??K 2AB@5G 8 "-3@C??K. @C??K 2AB@5G (encounter) -B> =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K9 B8? 3@C?? A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O ;8G=>AB8. E 5I5 =07K20NB 3@C??0<8 @>AB0 ;8G=>AB8. -B8 3@C??K 2>7=8:;8 8 4>AB83;8 ?8:0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8 ?>?C;O@=>AB8 2 60-70-E 3>40E =0H53> AB>;5B8O 8 1K;8 206=59H8< AB8<C;>< 42865=8O 3C<0=8AB8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, ?@87K20NI59 : @50;870F88 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0. -B> 42865=85 >A>1> ?>4G5@:820;> @0A:@KB85 ?>B5=F80;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 G5;>25:0, A?>=B0==>ABL 687=8, ?@5>4>;5=85 10@L5@>2, <5H0NI8E A0<>2K@065=8N 8 >B:@KB>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 2 >B=>H5=8OE A 4@C38<8, 8A:@5==>ABL 2 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=8OE. @C??K 2AB@5G 2>7=8:;8 2 !(, => ?>B>< ?>;CG8;8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2> 2A5< <8@5. -B8 3@C??K ?@54=07=0G5=K 4;O 74>@>2KE ;N459, AB@5<OI8EAO A ?><>ILN 3@C??>2>3> >?KB0 ;CGH5 ?>7=0BL A51O, 702O70BL 1>;55 B5A=K5 8 8A:@5==85 >B=>H5=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8, =09B8 8 CAB@0=8BL ?@5?OBAB28O, <5H0NI85 ?>;=55 @50;87>20BL A2>8 2>7<>6=>AB8 2 687=8.  @01>B5 3@C??K >A>15==> ?>4G5@:8205BAO A?>=B0==>ABL ?>2545=8O, 2K@065=85 2A5E GC2AB2, 0 B0:65 ?>>I@O5BAO :>=D@>=B0F8O <564C CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K. @>F5AA 3@C??K 2AB@5G @0728205BAO 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25 "745AL 8 B5?5@L", B.5. >1AC640NBAO ?>O2;ONI85AO 2 3@C??5 >B=>H5=8O, 2>7=8:0NI85 GC2AB20, =5?>A@54AB25==K9 >?KB. @>4>;68B5;L=>ABL 3@C?? 2AB@5G >1KG=> 1K205B >3@0=8G5=0 =5A:>;L:8<8 45AOB:0<8 G0A>2. @C??K 2AB@5G =5>4=>@>4=K  8E E0@0:B5@ @07;8G05BAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B5>@5B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88, CAB0=>2>:, F5==>AB8 B5@0?52B0. "0:, =0?@8<5@, ?> <=5=8N >4=>3> 87 A0<KE >A=>2=KE B5>@5B8:>2 8 ?@0:B8:>2 3@C?? 2AB@5G C.Rogers (1970), E>4 @01>BK, A>45@60=85 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0 4>;6=K >?@545;OBLAO A0<8<8 CG0AB=8:0<8. C4CG8 B5@0?52B>< 3@C??K, >= =5 C:07K20; =8:0:>3> =0?@02;5=8O 3@C??5, =5 >?@545;O; ?@028; @01>BK, 0 701>B8;AO ;8HL > A>740=88 0B<>AD5@K 2708<=>3> 4>25@8O 8 701>BK 4@C3 > 4@C35. C.Rogers =8:>340 =5 8A?>;L7>20; C?@06=5=89 8 B5E=8: 4;O ?>2KH5=8O 8=B5=A82=>AB8 687=8 3@C??K, ?>;030OAL =0 "<C4@>ABL" 3@C??K 8 A?>A>1=>ABL B2>@8BL 687=L 8 =0?@02;OBL 55 2 :>=AB@C:B82=>5 @CA;>. @C3>9 :;0AA8: 3@C?? 2AB@5G, W.Schutz (1971, 1973), =0>1>@>B, 1K; AB>@>==8:>< 1>;55 AB@>3>3> @C:>2>4AB20 3@C??>9. ;O 8=B5=A8D8:0F88 3@C??>2KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 ?>>I@5=8O 8=B5=A82=KE GC2AB2 8 AB>;:=>25=89 CG0AB=8:>2 <564C A>1>9 >= H8@>:> 8A?>;L7>20; @07;8G=K5 3@C??>2K5 83@K 8 ?@85<K. G.M.Gazda (1989) 2K@078; <=5=85, GB> >?KB 3@C?? 2AB@5G, A?>A>1K ?>2KH5=8O 8=B5=A82=>AB8 687=8 <>3CB CA?5H=> ?@8<5=OBLAO 8 2 B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E 4@C38E B8?>2. "-3@C??K -B> =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K9 20@80=B >1CG0NI8E 3@C??. E 5I5 =07K20NB B@5=8=3>2K<8 3@C??0<8, 3@C??0<8 B@5=8=30 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 (sensitivity training). @C??K B0:>3> B8?0 2>7=8:;8 ?>4 =5?>A@54AB25==K< 2;8O=85< B5>@88 3@C?? K.Levin'a.  MB8E 3@C??0E, :0: 8 2 3@C??0E 2AB@5G, B0:65 =5 AB02OBAO ;5G51=K5 F5;8. > 2 >B;8G85 >B 3@C?? 2AB@5G 2 "-3@C??0E 0:F5=B8@C5BAO =5 AB>;L:> A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 ;8G=>AB8 (E>BO MB> <>65B 1KBL >4=8< 87 @57C;LB0B>2 @01>BK 3@C??K), A:>;L:> 0=0;87 @0728B8O 3@C??K  GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 3@C??5, :>340 >=0 ?@>E>48B AB0488 A2>53> @0728B8O. A=>2=>9 F5;LN CG0AB=8:>2 "-3@C??K O2;O5BAO A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 =02K:>2 <56;8G=>AB=>3> >1I5=8O. =8 CG0BAO ?>=8<0BL, GB> A =8<8 ?@>8AE>48B 2 3@C??5, :0: DC=:F8>=8@C5B A0<0 3@C??0, :0: CG0AB=8:8 ?>AB5?5==> <>3CB ?@8=OBL =0 A51O @>;L 254CI53>.  :0G5AB25 >B40;5==>9 F5;8 "-3@C??K C:07K205BAO AB@5<;5=85 ?5@5=5AB8 ?@8>1@5B5==K5 7=0=8O > 48=0<8:5 3@C??K 8 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=8OE =5?>A@54AB25==> 2 A2>N 687=5==CN A@54C. R.T.Golembiewski 8 A.Blumberg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E CG0AB=8:0<8 AB0=>2OBAO ;N48, ?>?02H85 2 ?A8E80B@8G5A:CN :;8=8:C 2 @57C;LB0B5 @07;8G=KE >AB@KE 87<5=5=89 ?A8E8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O  ?>A;5 ?>?KB>: A0<>C189AB20, >:0702H85AO 2 A>AB>O=88 ?A8E>70, CB@0B82H85 :>=B@>;L =04 ?>2545=85<. @C??K E@>=8G5A:8E ?0F85=B>2. -B> >4=>@>4=K5 3@C??K, A>AB>OI85 87 1>;L=KE H87>D@5=859, M=4>35==>9 45?@5AA859. &5;L MB8E 3@C??  C;CGH5=85 :>=B0:B0 ?0F85=B>2 A >:@C60NI8< <8@><.  =8E >1AC640NBAO 2>?@>AK, :0A0NI85AO =02K:>2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8 8 A>F80;L=>3> ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O. 1I0O 3@C??0 ?5@A>=0;0 8 ?0F85=B>2. 5 A>AB02;ONB 2A5 ?0F85=BK >4=>9 ?0;0BK 8;8 >B45;5=8O A ;5G0I8< 8 >1A;C6820NI8< ?5@A>=0;><.  =59 >1AC640NBAO 2>?@>AK, :0A0NI85AO 687=8 ?0F85=B>2 2 >B45;5=88 8 8E A>B@C4=8G5AB20 A ?5@A>=0;><. @C??K ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 @5:>=AB@C:F88 ;8G=>AB8. E CG0AB=8:8  ?0F85=BK A @0AAB@>9AB20<8 ;8G=>AB8 ?>3@0=8G=>3> 8 =52@>B8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0. >;55 ?>4@>1=> A ?@8<5=5=85< 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2 ?A8E80B@8G5A:8E :;8=8:0E, 55 2>7<>6=>ABO<8, D>@<0<8 8 <5B>40<8 <>6=> ?>7=0:><8BLAO 2 :=830E I.D.Yalom (1983) 8 S.Vmogradov, I.D.Yalom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A;8 B5@0?52B 3@C??K O2;O5BAO >4=>2@5<5==> 8 8=48284C0;L=K< ?A8E>B5@0?52B>< =5:>B>@KE CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, <>3CB =0@CH8BLAO <56;8G=>AB=K5 >B=>H5=8O 2 3@C??5 87-70 >A>1>3> ?>;>65=8O =5:>B>@KE CG0AB=8:>2 8 2>7<>6=>AB8 <0=8?C;8@>20=8O B5@0?52B><.  A0< B5@0?52B <>65B =5A:>;L:> ?>-8=><C @5038@>20BL =0 CG0AB=8:>2, A :>B>@K<8 4>?>;=8B5;L=> 2AB@5G05BAO 8=48284C0;L=>. 0: 2 8=48284C0;L=>9, B0: 8 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 <>3CB 2>7=8:=CBL ?@>1;5<K, :>340 B5>@5B8G5A:0O >@85=B0F8O 2K?>;=ONI8E 55 A?5F80;8AB>2 7=0G8B5;L=> @07;8G05BAO. ">340 :;85=B <>65B 1KBL ?>AB02;5= 2 70B@C4=8B5;L=>5 ?>;>65=85, ?>;CG0O @07=>5 >1JOA=5=85 A2>8E ?@>1;5<. @><5 B>3>, 2 B0:>9 "42>9=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88" C :;85=B>2 ?>O2;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL >B18@0BL, GB> 3>2>@8BL 8=48284C0;L=><C ?A8E>B5@0?52BC, 0 GB>  3@C??5. 06=> ?><=8BL ?@> MB8 70<5G0=8O 2 A;CG05 A>G5B0=8O 3@C??>2>9 8 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 :0: 2 AB0F8>=0@=KE, B0: 8 2 0<1C;0B>@=KE CA;>28OE. 2.2. !%" "'!  #+ ! "'  / !! & & 07=>>1@0785 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C?? ?> A?>A>10< @50;870F88 F5;59 >B@065=> 2 B01;8F5 1, ?>43>B>2;5==>9 =0 >A=>25 ?@54;>65==>9 M.F.Ettin (1992) :;0AA8D8:0F88. M.A.Lieberman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A>15==> 206=> 2 3@C??0E A0<>?><>I8 B>, GB> >4=8 8 B5 65 ;N48 O2;ONBAO 8 ?><>I=8:0<8, 8 ?>;CG0B5;O<8 ?><>I8. ><>GL 4@C3><C  7=0G8B ?><>GL 8 A0<><C A515. 0?@8<5@, 0=>=8<=K5 0;:>3>;8:8 3>2>@OB, GB> >B 2>72@0B0 : ?@56=59 687=8 8E C45@68205B 8<5==> ?><>IL 4@C38<. 5:>B>@K5 M:A?5@BK ?@>3=>78@CNB, GB> 2 1;8609H5< 1C4CI5< 3@C??K A0<>?><>I8 AB0=CB >A=>2=K< A?>A>1>< ?>445@6:8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO (L.E.Tyler, 1980; J.D.Prochaska, J.C.Norcross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AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> MDD5:B82=>ABL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C?? =0 >A=>25 @07=KE B5>@5B8G5A:8E <>45;59 <0;> >B;8G05BAO, 5A;8 3@C??K 254CB :20;8D8F8@>20==K5 ?@>D5AA8>=0;K. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 3@C??K @07;8G=>9 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88 @0A?@>AB@0=5=K =5>48=0:>2>. 5A:>;L:> ;5B =0704 ?> 8=8F80B825 >A=>2=>3> 8740=8O ?> 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 "International Journal of Group Psychoterapy" 1K; ?@>872545= >?@>A G;5=>2 <5@8:0=A:>9 0AA>F80F88 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 (R.R.Dies, 1992), :>B>@K9 ?>:070;, GB> 2 ?5@2CN H5AB5@:C ?>?C;O@=59H8E <>45;59 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?>?040NB ?A8E>48=0<8G5A:0O/?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:0O 3@C??>20O B5@0?8O, AD>@<8@>202H0OAO =0 >A=>25 B5>@88 W.Bion "028AB>:A:0O H:>;0 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, <56;8G=>AB=0O 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O, ?@54AB02;5==0O I.D.Yalom, 35HB0;LBB5@0?8O, B@0=A0:F8>==K9 0=0;87 8 :>3=8B82=>-?>2545=G5A:0O 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O. =0G8B5;L=> <5=55 @0A?@>AB@0=5=K M:78AB5=F80;L=>-3C<0=8AB8G5A:85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 3@C??K, ?A8E>4@0<0, 3@C??>2>9 0=0;87, E>BO ?>A;54=89 70=8<05B 4>2>;L=> ?@>G=K5 ?>78F88 2 2@>?5 8 CA?5H=> @0AH8@O5B AD5@C A2>53> 2;8O=8O. 0 >A=>25 40==KE G.Corey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K?>;=ONB 4840:B8G5A:CN @>;L; CG0B CG0AB=8:>2 C7=020BL "83@K", 2 :>B>@K5 >=8 83@0NB, AB@5<OAL 871560BL 1;87>AB8, A>AB>O=8O Ego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orey, G.Corey, 1987).  ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E B5@0?52B ?@5645 2A53> ?>1C6405B CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K =0720BL A2>8 GC2AB20 8 2K@078BL 8E. -<>F8>=0;L=K9 :0B0@A8A A>AB02;O5B 206=CN G0ABL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O, => >= 2> <=>38E A;CG0OE =54>AB0B>G5=. 5 <5=55 206=> ?>=OBL A2>N 687=5==CN A8BC0F8N, A<KA; ?5@56820=89. B0:, CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K 4>;6=K 2K?>;=8BL 8 >?@545;5==CN :>3=8B82=CN @01>BC. 0:>=5F, 2 >?@545;5==K9 <><5=B 206=59H8< AB0=>28BAO @50;L=>5 459AB285, ?>2545=85, :>B>@>5 8 O2;O5BAO ?@>2>4=8:>< =0AB>OI8E B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 87<5=5=89. 1J548=5=85 GC2AB2 8 ?>=8<0=8O, @50;870F8O =>2>3> >?KB0 2 :>=:@5B=>< ?>2545=88 2 @50;L=KE 687=5==KE A8BC0F8OE 8 45;0NB 2>7<>6=K< 87<5=5=8O, :>B>@KE 4>18205BAO 3@C??>20O (8 =5 B>;L:>) ?A8E>B5@0?8O. 4=0:> B0:>5 ?>=8<0=85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O 3@C??K O2;O5BAO A;8H:>< >1I8<. !?5F8D8G5A:>5 2>7459AB285 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >1KG=> >?@545;O5BAO ?>A@54AB2>< :>=:@5B=KE B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 3@C??K. E.C.Crouch A A>B@. (1994) >?@545;O5B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 D0:B>@K :0: "M;5<5=BK 3@C??>2>9 B5@0?88, :>B>@K5 ?@54>?@545;ONB C;CGH5=85 A>AB>O=8O 8;8 A8BC0F88 ?0F85=B0; 8E 2>7459AB285 >1CA;>2;820NB 459AB28O B5@0?52B0, 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 8 A0<>3> ?0F85=B0". AB>@8O ?>?KB>: 2K45;5=8O MB8E D0:B>@>2 =0AG8BK205B ?>GB8 G5BK@5 45AOB8;5B8O. 5@20O ?>?KB:0 8E >1>1I5=8O 1K;0 ?@54?@8=OB0 2 1955 3. ?@54AB028B5;O<8 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> =0?@02;5=8O R.Corsini 8 B.Rosenberg (1992). =8 ?@>0=0;878@>20;8 300 AB0B59, ?>O282H8EAO 4> 1955 3., 2 :>B>@KE >1AC640;8AL D0:B>@K 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 8 2K45;8;8 175 B0:8E D0:B>@>2. 2B>@K 8E >1J548=8;8 2 9 206=59H8E :0B53>@89, :>B>@K5 AB0;8 >A=>2>9 1>;55 ?>74=8E ":0B0;>3>2" ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 3@C??K (2 A:>1:0E 40=> A@02=5=85 A ?@54;>65==>9 ?>74=55 I.D.Yalom (1985) :;0AA8D8:0F859 B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2). 708<>?>=8<0=85 (A?;>G5==>ABL) 3@C??K. #=825@A0;870F8O (C=825@A0;L=>ABL). AA;54>20=85 @50;L=>AB8 (>E20BK205B M;5<5=BK :>@@5:F88 >?KB0 ?5@28G=>9 A5<L8 8 <56;8G=>AB=>3> >1CG5=8O). ;LB@C87<. 5@5=>A (>E20BK205B M;5<5=BK <56;8G=>AB=>3> >1CG5=8O, A?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K 8 8<8B0F8>==>3> ?>2545=8O). "5@0?8O =01;N45=85< (8<8B0F8>==>5 ?>2545=85). 708<>459AB285 (>E20BK205B M;5<5=BK <56;8G=>AB=>3> >1CG5=8O 8 A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K). =B5;;5:BC0;870F8O (>E20BK205B M;5<5=BK 8=D>@<8@>20=8O). "@>25B@820=85" (:0B0@A8A). !?CABO B@8 45AOB8;5B8O I.D.Yalom (1985), >1>1I82 A2>8 A>1AB25==K5 8AA;54>20=8O 8 8AA;54>20=8O 4@C38E 02B>@>2, 2K45;8; 11 >A=>2=KE B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =0 MB>B ":0B0;>3" AAK;05BAO 1>;LH8=AB2> 8AA;54>20B5;59 8 ?@0:B8:>2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. >>I@5=85 =04564K. #=825@A0;L=>ABL. =D>@<8@>20=85. ;LB@C87<. >@@5:F8O >?KB0 ?5@28G=>9 A5<L8. !>25@H5=AB2>20=85 A>F80;L=KE =02K:>2. <8B0F8>==>5 ?>2545=85. 56;8G=>AB=>5 87CG5=85. !?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K. 0B0@A8A. -:78AB5=F80;L=K5 D0:B>@K. B.Bloch 8 .Crouch (1985), ?> ACI5AB2C A>3;0H0OAL A :;0AA8D8:0F859 I.Yalom, 2 A?8A>: ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 =5 2:;NG0NB D0:B>@K :>@@5:F88 >?KB0 ?5@28G=>9 A5<L8 8 M:78AB5=F80;L=K5 D0:B>@K, >4=0:> 4>?>;=8B5;L=> 2K45;ONB D0:B>@K 8=A09B0 8 @0A:@KB8O (> ?>A;54=5< 1>;55 ?>4@>1=> ?>3>2>@8< ?@8 >1AC645=88 >A>15==>AB59 ?@>4C:B82=>9 AB0488 3@C??K). 865 <K 1>;55 ?>4@>1=> >1AC48< :064K9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 D0:B>@ 3@C??K. 3.1. )  + -B> ACI5AB25==K9 D0:B>@ ;N1>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB>, G5< 1>;LH5 G5;>25: =0455BAO =0 ?><>IL, B5< ;CGH5 @57C;LB0BK ?A8E>B5@0?88 (A.P.Goldstein. 1962). 0 206=>ABL =04564K C:07K20NB 8 ?@>2>48<K5 2 <548F8=5 >?KBK A ?;0F51>, :>340 1>;L=K< 40NB ;5:0@AB20, 2=5H=5 =8G5< =5 >B;8G0NI85AO >B =0AB>OI8E, >4=0:> 873>B>2;5==K5 87 =59B@0;L=KE 25I5AB2. >4G5@:820=85 =>287=K 8 MDD5:B82=>AB8 MB8E ;5:0@AB2 405B B0:>9 65 MDD5:B, GB> 8 =0AB>OI55 ;5:0@AB2>. "0:8< >1@07><, =5@54:> 25@0 8 4>25@85 : ;5G5=8N 40NB 7=0G8B5;L=K5 @57C;LB0BK =5 B>;L:> 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88, => 8 2 <548F8=5 2>>1I5. 064K9 G5;>25: ?@8E>48B : ?A8E>B5@0?52BC 8;8 ?A8E>;>3C A> A2>59 687=5==>9 8AB>@859, :>B>@0O 70G0ABCN O2;O5BAO 8AB>@859 B@035489 8 ?>@065=89, ?>B5@L 8 ?5G0;8. -B> 70AB02;O5B 53> 8A?KBK20BL GC2AB20 157=0456=>AB8 8 15AA8;8O ?5@54 ;8F><, :070;>AL 1K, =5>B2@0B8<>9 AC4L1K. "5< =5 <5=55 2 3@C??5 G5;>25: AB0;:8205BAO A 687=5==K<8 8AB>@8O<8, >?KB><, A?>A>10<8 @5H5=8O ?@>1;5< 4@C38E ;N459. !@548 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K <>3CB 1KBL ;N48, 1>;55 CA?5H=> ?@5>4>;520NI85 A2>8 B@C4=>AB8.  MB> 2A5;O5B =04564C, GB> 459AB28B5;L=> <>6=> GB>-B> 87<5=8BL 2 A2>59 687=5==>9 A8BC0F88. ;O 1>;LH8=AB20 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K <>I=K< 8AB>G=8:>< =04564K O2;ONBAO B5@0?52B8G5A:85 87<5=5=8O 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 2 E>45 @01>BK ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K. B.Bloch 8 .!.Crouch (1985) >?@545;ONB ?>>I@5=85 =04564K 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 :0: >6840=8O CG0AB=8:>2, >A=>2K20NI85AO =0 B>< D0:B5, GB> CG0AB85 2 3@C??5 ?><>305B 4@C38<. >>I@5=85 =04564K CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K O2;O5BAO 206=>9 G0ABLN @01>BK B5@0?52B0, >A>15==> =0 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 @01>BK 3@C??K. @5645 2A53>, @07C<55BAO, A0< B5@0?52B 4>;65= 1KBL 4>AB0B>G=> C25@5==K< 2 A515 8 25@8BL 2 B>, GB> 45;05B, B.5. 2 MDD5:B82=>ABL 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. > A;>20< I.D.Yalom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utler 8 A.Fuhriman (1983), ?@>0=0;878@>202 <0B5@80;K 8AA;54>20=8O A5<8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??, ?@8H;8 : 2K2>4C, GB> C=825@A0;870F8O ?@>1;5< O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 A0<KE F5==KE D0:B>@>2 2 0<1C;0B>@=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E. #=825@A0;L=>ABL ?@>1;5< :0: ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 D0:B>@ ?>;CG8;0 =082KAHCN >F5=:C 8 2 B@5E 8AA;54>20==KE 3@C??0E 2708<>?><>I8 (M.A.Lieberman, 1983). W.H.Friedman (1989) ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> @0A:@KB85 C=825@A0;L=>AB8 2 3@C??5 ?>>I@O5B >B:@KB>ABL CG0AB=8:>2, 0 B5< A0<K< 8 @0728B85 A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K. 3.3. $   #'!"  #+ I.D.Yalom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urwitz, 1970; M.A.Lieberman, 1980; .Killil50, 1976) 8=D>@<8@>20=85 CG0AB=8:>2 :0: ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 D0:B>@ >B25@305BAO 2 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E, 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH5 F5=8BAO 2 :>3=8B82=>-?>2545=G5A:8E 3@C??0E, 8 53> 206=>ABL >A>15==> ?>4G5@:8205BAO 2 3@C??0E 2708<>?><>I8. >;LH8=AB2> B5>@5B8:>2 3@C?? 2708<>?><>I8 548=>3;0A=> ?>4G5@:8205B 206=>ABL 8=D>@<8@>20=8O CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K.  MB8E 3@C??0E CG0AB=8:>2 ?@87K20NB : >1<5=C 8=D>@<0F859, 2 @01>B5 3@C?? 8A?>;L7C5BAO A?5F80;L=0O ;8B5@0BC@0, =0 2AB@5G8 A CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K =5@54:> ?@83;0H0NBAO A?5F80;8ABK-M:A?5@BK >?@545;5==KE >1;0AB59.  A?5F80;878@>20==KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E (=0?@8<5@, 4;O ;8F A 87;8H=8< 25A><, E@>=8G5A:>9 1>;LN, 8015B>< 8 B.?.) B0:65 206=K< O2;O5BAO 8=D>@<8@>20=85 CG0AB=8:>2. 45AL CG0AB=8:>2 7=0:><OB A ?@8@>4>9 1>;57=8, @0AAB@>9AB20 8;8 ?@>1;5<K, >A>15==>ABO<8 87<5=82H59AO 687=5==>9 A8BC0F88, A?>A>10<8 @5H5=8O ?@>1;5< 8;8 ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O : =8<.  3@C??0E, >A=>2>9 2 @01>B5 :>B>@KE O2;O5BAO 8=B5=A82=>5 <56;8G=>AB=>5 2708<>459AB285, @>;L 8=D>@<8@>20=8O 7=0G8B5;L=> <5=LH0O, 0 =0 1>;55 ?>74=8E MB0?0E @01>BK  =565;0B5;L=0O. 4=0:> 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 8 B0:8E 3@C?? 8=D>@<8@>20=85 CG0AB=8:>2 <>65B >:070BLAO F5==K<, >A>15==> 2 A;54CNI8E A8BC0F8OE: > 2@5<O ?>43>B>2:8 : CG0AB8N 2 @01>B5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K 8;8 =0 ?5@2>< 70=OB88 CG0AB=8:>2 8=D>@<8@CNB > E0@0:B5@5 @01>BK 3@C??K, >1 >A=>2=KE ?@028;0E, 0 B0:65 > 65;0B5;L=>< ?>2545=88 CG0AB=8:>2, :>B>@>5 1K;> 1K ?@>4C:B82=K< 4;O =8E A0<8E 8 3@C??K 2 F5;><.  =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K B5@0?52B >1JOA=O5B CG0AB=8:0<, GB> >= 45;05B 8 70G5<.  ?@8<5@C, A?@0H820O CG0AB=8:0, GB> >=/>=0 GC2AB2C5B, B5@0?52B <>65B ?>OA=8BL, GB> 3@C??5 >G5=L 206=> 7=0BL, GB> GC2AB2CNB 8 :0: @5038@CNB CG0AB=8:8 =0 B>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 3@C??5. =>340 2 3@C??5 2>7=8:0NB :>=:@5B=K5 2>?@>AK, 4;O >B25B>2 =0 :>B>@K5 B@51CNBAO ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 7=0=8O (=0?@8<5@, :0: 1KBL C25@5==K< 2 A515, =5 1C4CG8 03@5AA82=K<, 8 B.?.). "5@0?52B 3@C??K <>65B ?>45;8BLAO A2>8<8 7=0=8O<8 A CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K. =>340 @01>B0 2 3@C??5 =0G8=05B AB>?>@8BLAO, 8 B5@0?52B, 7=0O, GB> =C6=> 45;0BL 2 B0:>9 A8BC0F88, <>65B ?>45;8BLAO A2>8<8 GC2AB20<8 8 ?@54;>68BL 3@C??5 2>7<>6=K5 20@80=BK 2KE>40 87 A8BC0F88. -B> >A>15==> 0:BC0;L=> =0 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 @01>BK 3@C??K, :>340 70G0ABCN CG0AB=8:8, =5 7=0O, GB> 45;0BL, A84OB 8 <>;G0B. >74=55 2>7=8:0NI85 ?>4>1=K5 A8BC0F88 4>;6=K @5H0BL A0<8 CG0AB=8:8, 8 B5@0?52B =5 4>;65= A?5H8BL "A?0A0BL" 3@C??C, 0 ;8HL :>=AB0B8@>20BL, GB>, ?> 53> <=5=8N, ?@>8AE>48B. 0: C?><8=0;>AL 2KH5, =0 1>;55 ?>74=8E MB0?0E @01>BK 3@C??K 8=D>@<8@>20=85 =565;0B5;L=>, B0: :0: MB> <>65B ?@825AB8 : @0728B8N 7028A8<>AB8 CG0AB=8:>2 >B B5@0?52B0, GB> A45@68205B @0A:@KB85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0 A0<>9 3@C??K.  A>25B0E, :0: D>@<5 8=D>@<8@>20=8O CG0AB=8:>2, <>6=> A:070BL ;8HL >4=>  ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 >=8 <0;>F5==K 8 8E A;54C5B 871530BL. AB5@530BLAO 4020BL A>25BK 4>;65= ?@5645 2A53> A0< B5@0?52B. 4=0:> 2708<=K5 A>25BK CG0AB=8:>2 4@C3 4@C3C =587156=K =0 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 @01>BK 3@C??K. =>385 CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K 1K20NB C15645=K 2 B><, GB> MB> 548=AB25==0O 8 =081>;55 MDD5:B82=0O D>@<0 ?><>I8 4@C3 4@C3C. I.D.Yalom (1985) 2A5-B0:8 >B<5G05B, GB> 2 >B45;L=KE A;CG0OE A>25BK CG0AB=8:>2 4@C3 4@C3C 206=K, ?@8G5< 2065= A0< ?@>F5AA A>25B>20=8O, 0 =5 A>45@60=85 A>25B0, ?>A:>;L:C >= >B@0605B 2>7=8:0NI89 2 3@C??5 8=B5@5A CG0AB=8:>2 4@C3 : 4@C3C 8 701>BC 4@C3 > 4@C35. >MB><C =5@54:> 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K CG0AB=8:8 >6840NB A>25B>2 8 ?@8=8<0NB 8E :0: 40@. 3.4. ," # E.C.Crouch A A>B@. (1994) C:07K205B, GB> 0;LB@C87< ?>O2;O5BAO 2 3@C??5 B>340, :>340 CG0AB=8:8 >:07K20NB ?>445@6:C, CB5H0NB 4@C3 4@C30, 45;OBAO A2>8<8 ?@>1;5<0<8, AB0@0NBAO 1KBL ?>;57=K<8 8 =C6=K<8 4@C3 4@C3C, 701K20NB > A515, 65@B2CNB A>1>9 @048 4@C38E. -B> C=8:0;L=K9, A2>9AB25==K9 B>;L:> 3@C??5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 D0:B>@. 5@54:> 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K CG0AB=8:8, CA;KH02 >B B5@0?52B0, GB> >=8 2> <=>3>< <>3CB ?><>GL 4@C3 4@C3C, 1K20NB C482;5=K 8 7040NB 2>?@>AK: G5< <=5 <>65B ?><>GL G5;>25:, C :>B>@>3> ?@>1;5< =5 <5=LH5, G5< C <5=O? 'B> <=5 <>65B 40BL G5;>25:, =5A?>A>1=K9 ?><>GL A0<><C A515? 0: A;5?>9 <>65B 25AB8 A;5?>3>? 0: O <>3C ?><>GL 4@C3><C, :>340 <=5 A0<><C BO65;>? >4>1=K5 2>?@>AK 8 A><=5=8O >B@060NB >@85=B0F8N CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 8A:;NG8B5;L=> =0 B5@0?52B0, :0: =0 ?@>D5AA8>=0;0, 0 B0:65 A2>9AB25==>5 CG0AB=8:0< =02O7G82>5 A0<>=01;N45=85, G@57<5@=>5 C3;C1;5=85 2 A2>8 ?@>1;5<K. "5< =5 <5=55 2 E>45 @01>BK 3@C??K CG0AB=8:, ?@8H54H89 2 3@C??C 45<>@0;87>20==K<, @0AB5@O==K<, =87:> >F5=820NI8< A51O, =5 A:@K205B C482;5=8O, :>340 :B>-;81> 2 3@C??5 ?@87=05B, GB> >= 5<C 7=0G8B5;L=> ?><>3, GB> 53> ?@8ACBAB285 2 3@C??5 1K;> 206=K< 8 ?>;57=K<. "0:85 =5>6840==K5 >B:@KB8O A?>A>1AB2CNB ?>O2;5=8N 8 ?>2KH5=8N A0<>C2065=8O 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E. >340 G5;>25: >ICI05B A51O =C6=K< :><C-;81> 4@C3><C, MB> ?><>305B 5<C 871028BLAO >B G@57<5@=>9 A>A@54>B>G5==>AB8 B>;L:> =0 A2>8E ?@>1;5<0E. >>I@5=85 0;LB@C87<0 2 3@C??5 O2;O5BAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 206=>9 7040G59 B5@0?52B0, B0: :0: MDD5:B 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 G0AB> 4>AB8305BAO =5 AB>;L:> A10;0=A8@>20==>9, B>G=> @0AAG8B0==>9 ">B40G59" CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 4@C3 4@C3C 8 "?>;CG5=85<" 4@C3 >B 4@C30 ("BK  <=5, O  B515"), A:>;L:> AB@5<;5=85< 15A:>@KAB=> ?><>GL 4@C3><C.  ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5, :0: 8 2 687=8, 1>;LH5 2A53> <>6=> ?>;CG8BL, >B4020O. -B> ?>;=>ABLN ?>4B25@6405B 70<5G0=85 8725AB=>3> 02AB@89A:>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 V.Frankl (1967), GB> A0<>0:BC0;870F8O G5;>25:0, A<KA; 687=8 @0A:@K20NBAO ;8HL B>340, :>340 G5;>25: ?5@5ABC?8B A>1AB25==>5 /, "701K20O > A515 2 A;8O=88 A 4CH>9 4@C3>3>".  ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5 CG0AB=8:8 459AB28B5;L=> <>3CB 40BL 4@C3 4@C3C >G5=L <=>3>5  ?>445@6:C, 2=CH5=85, CA?>:>5=85, ?>=8<0=85, GC2AB20. -B>B >1<5= ?><>ILN O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 206=59H8E 30@0=B89 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 87<5=5=89. >GB8 2A5340 2 :>=F5 CA?5H=>9 @01>BK ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K CG0AB=8:8 ?>4G5@:820NB =5 AB>;L:> @>;L 8;8 2:;04 B5@0?52B0, A:>;L:> ?>78B82=CN ?><>IL 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2. 3.5.   &/ +"  ' !, A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O 3@C??0 2> <=>38E >B=>H5=8OE ?>E>60 =0 A5<LN. -B> AE>4AB2> >A>15==> CA8;8205BAO, :>340 3@C??C 254CB <C6G8=0 8 65=I8=0. =>385 CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K @5038@CNB =0 B5@0?52B>2 :0: =0 @>48B5;59, 0 =0 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K  :0: =0 1@0BL52 8 A5AB5@, >A>15==> =0 1>;55 ?>74=8E AB048OE @01>BK 3@C??K. -B> 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL B5@0?52BC C2845BL AB5@5>B8?K ?>2545=8O CG0AB=8:>2, A;>682H85AO ?>4 2;8O=85< 2>A?8B0=8O 2 A5<L5. 5<0;> ;N459 ?@8E>48B 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 3@C??C A 8AB>@859 =530B82=>3> >?KB0, =0:>?;5==>3> 2 A0<>9 ?5@2>9 8 206=59H59 3@C??5  A5<L5.  MB> >B@0605BAO 2 A8BC0F8OE <56;8G=>AB=>3> 2708<>459AB28O 2 3@C??5  >4=8 CG0AB=8:8 45<>=AB@8@CNB ?>;=CN 7028A8<>ABL >B B5@0?52B>2, :>B>@KE >=8 "=045;ONB" =5@50;L=>9 A8;>9 8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8, 4@C385 CG0AB=8:8 ?>-?>4@>AB:>2><C 1C=BCNB ?@>B82 B5@0?52B>2, ?>;030O, GB> >=8 AB5A=ONB 8E A2>1>4C 8 AB@5<;5=85 : =57028A8<>AB8, ?KB0NBAO =09B8 A>N7=8:>2 A@548 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, A>74020BL :>0;8F88 ?@>B82 B5@0?52B>2; B@5BL8 ?KB0NBAO <0=8?C;8@>20BL B5@0?52B0<8, 2K720BL @07=>3;0A8O 8 :>=:C@5=F8N <564C =8<8, GB>1K 2 A;CG05 CA?5E0 <>6=> 1K;> 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO ?>O282H8<8AO 2 @57C;LB0B5 MB>3> 2>7<>6=>ABO<8; G5B25@BK5 65 :>=:C@8@CNB 8 :>=D;8:BCNB A 4@C38<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K 87-70 2=8<0=8O, >4>1@5=8O 8 ;N128 B5@0?52B>2. -B> 40;5:> =5 >:>=G0B5;L=K9 A?8A>: AB5@5>B8?>2, ?@8=>A8<KE 2 3@C??C 87 ?5@28G=>9 A5<L8. @8 0=0;875 ?>2545=8O B0:>3> @>40, ?@>1;5< 2708<=KE >B=>H5=89 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 8 8E >B=>H5=89 A B5@0?52B>< (8;8 B5@0?52B0<8), ?>?KB:5 ?@8=OBL 1>;55 @07=>>1@07=K5 @>;8 2 :>=:@5B=KE A8BC0F8OE 2 3@C??5, A ?><>ILN 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE 8=A09B>2 8 M<>F8>=0;L=KE ?5@56820=89, 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5 ?>O2;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL :>@@538@>20BL >?KB, ?@8=5A5==K9 87 ?5@28G=>9 A5<L8, 8 ?>2KH0BL 381:>ABL 8 >A>7=0==>ABL ?>2545=8O CG0AB=8:>2. 3.6. ! (!" !&,+% + -B>B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 D0:B>@ 3@C??K =5@0745;L=> A2O70= A <56;8G=>AB=K< =0CG5=85<, ?>MB><C A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 A>F80;L=KE =02K:>2 1>;55 H8@>:> 1C45B >1AC640BLAO 2 53> :>=B5:AB5. 45AL <K ;8HL >B<5B8<, GB> 2 ;N1>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5 2 @50;L=KE <56;8G=>AB=KE 2708<>459AB28OE ?@>8AE>48B >1CG5=85 8 A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 A>F80;L=KE =02K:>2. >;LH8=AB2> ;N459, ?>?040NI8E 2 3@C??>2CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N, 8A?KBK205B =54>AB0B>: >?KB0 1;87:8E, 8=B8<=KE >B=>H5=89, 8 8A:@5==85 GC2AB20, ?@>O2;O5<K5 ?> >B=>H5=8N : =8< 4@C38<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K, 40NB >B;8G=CN 2>7<>6=>ABL C2845BL, :0: 2>7=8:0NB, 702O7K20NBAO 1;87:85 >B=>H5=8O. 0728BK5 =02K:8 A>F80;L=>3> ?>2545=8O  C<5=85 30@<>=8G=> 2:;NG0BLAO 2 "A5BL" >1I5=8O, B5@?8<>ABL ?> >B=>H5=8N : 4@C38< ;N4O<, C<5=85 ?@>4C:B82=> ?@>B82>1>@AB2>20BL 8 @5H0BL <56;8G=>AB=K5 :>=D;8:BK, C<5=85 =5 >F5=820BL, 0 ;CGH5 GC2AB2>20BL, ?>=8<0BL, ?@8=8<0BL 8 C2060BL ?>B@51=>AB8 4@C38E  <>3CB 1KBL 8 G0I5 2A53> O2;ONBAO >4=8< 87 >A=>2=KE @57C;LB0B>2 MDD5:B82=>9 @01>BK ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K. 3.7. "&  > <=5=8N E.C.Crouch A A>B@. (1994), 8<8B0F8>==>5 ?>2545=85 :0: ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 D0:B>@ 3@C??K ?@>O2;O5BAO B>340, :>340 CG0AB=8: 3@C??K ?>;CG05B ?>;L7C >B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> >?KB0 4@C3>3> CG0AB=8:0 3@C??K 1;03>40@O 845=B8D8:0F88 A =8<; :>340 8<8B8@C5B >?@545;5==K5 ?>78B82=K5 0A?5:BK ?>2545=8O B5@0?52B0 8;8 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, CA<0B@820O 2 =8E ?>4E>4OICN <>45;L 4;O 87<5=5=8O A2>53> ?>2545=8O. <8B0F8>==>5 ?>2545=85 O2;O5BAO 2=CB@5==8< 459AB285< G5;>25:0, ?>MB><C B@C4=> :0:8<-;81> A?>A>1>< ?>1C640BL 53> A> AB>@>=K, 0 B0:65 >F5=820BL 53> 459AB28B5;L=CN MDD5:B82=>ABL. =0G5=85 8<8B0F8>==>3> ?>2545=8O 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =54>AB0B>G=> @0A:@KB>. >, 8AE>4O 87 A2>53> A>1AB25==>3> 687=5==>3> >?KB0, <>65< >B<5B8BL, GB> E>BO :>5-G5<C <>6=> =0CG8BLAO 8 254O =01;N45=8O, >4=0:> 3>@074> 1>;LH5<C <K <>65< =0CG8BLAO 459AB2CO. 8B09A:0O ?>A;>28F0 3;0A8B: "/ CA;KH0; 8 701K;, O C2845; 8 ?><=N, O 45;0; 8 ?>=O;". =0G5=85 8<8B0F8>==>3> ?>2545=8O 1>;55 H8@>:> 87CG0;>AL 2 8AA;54>20=8OE ?>2545=G5A:>-:>3=8B82=>9 B5@0?88.  ?@8<5@C, A.Bandura A A>B@. (1969) 70<5B8;8, GB> ?A8E>B5@0?52BK =54>AB0B>G=> >F5=820NB 206=>ABL 8<8B0F8>==>3> ?>2545=8O 4;O 87<5=5=8O ?>2545=8O, M<>F89 8 CAB0=>2>: G5;>25:0, E>BO <>45;8@>20=85 AB8<C;8@C5B 7=0G8<K5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 87<5=5=8O. 3.8.    #.) -&,+ +" " !! I.D.Yalom (1985) :>@@538@CNI89 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 >?KB 0=0;878@C5B 2 :>=B5:AB5 <56;8G=>AB=>3> >1CG5=8O, 0 :0B0@A8A 2K45;O5B :0: >B45;L=K9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 D0:B>@ 3@C??K. > 2 ;N1>< A;CG05 GC2AB20 8 8E 2K@065=85 O2;ONBAO A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89. K >1J548=8;8 MB8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 D0:B>@K 3@C??K, ?>;030O, GB> M<>F8>=0;L=K9 >?KB O2;O5BAO B5< :><?>=5=B>< 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0, 157 :>B>@>3> B@C4=> ?@54AB028BL A0<> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 2>7459AB285. >=OB85 :>@@538@CNI53> M<>F8>=0;L=>3> >?KB0 2 1946 3. 225; 8725AB=K9 ?A8E>0=0;8B8: Franz Alexander (F8B. ?> I.D.Yalom, 1985), >?8AK20O <5E0=87< ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> ;5G5=8O. = ?>4G5@:=C;, GB> :;85=B 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >1O70= ?>?0ABL 2 B5 B@C4=K5 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 A8BC0F88, A :>B>@K<8 =5 <>3 A?@028BLAO 2 ?@>H;><. ;O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O =54>AB0B>G=> >4=>3> 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> 8=A09B0, ?>=8<0=8O; =5>1E>48<> M<>F8>=0;L=>5 ?5@56820=85 8 "8AA;54>20=85" @50;L=>AB8 A ?><>ILN GC2AB2. (AB0B8, 4;O 4>AB865=8O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> MDD5:B0 =54>AB0B>G=> 8 B>;L:> M<>F8>=0;L=>3> ?5@56820=8O, >?KB0. 0: ?>:070;8 8AA;54>20=8O M.A.Lieberman A A>B@. (1973), 8=B5=A82=>ABL 8;8 :0G5AB2> M<>F8>=0;L=>3> >?KB0 =5 1K;> :@8B5@85<, :>B>@K9 @07;8G0; 1K MDD5:B82=K5 8 =5MDD5:B82=K5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 3@C??K; CG0AB=8:8, >F5=82H85 A2>9 3@C??>2>9 >?KB :0: CA?5H=K9 8 MDD5:B82=K9, 8A?KB0;8 :0: 3;C1>:85 8 A8;L=K5 GC2AB20, B0: 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 8=A09BK. =0G5 3>2>@O, 4;O 4>AB865=8O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> MDD5:B0 =5>1E>48< :0: M<>F8>=0;L=K9 >?KB, B0: 8 :>3=8B82=>5 =0CG5=85.)  :>@@538@CNI5< M<>F8>=0;L=>< >?KB5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K <>6=> 2K45;8BL =5A:>;L:> :><?>=5=B>2 (I.D.Yalom, 1985): #G0AB=8: 3@C??K 2K@0605B 8=B5=A82=K5 GC2AB20, A2O70==K5 A 4@C38<8 CG0AB=8:0<8. @C??0 >:07K205B 5<C ?>445@6:C, ?>72>;ONICN @8A:>20BL. @>8AE>48B 0=0;87 A8BC0F88, ?><>30NI89 CG0AB=8:C ?>=OBL, GB> ?@>87>H;>; 745AL >A>15==> 206=0 @50:F8O 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. #G0AB=8: ?@87=05B, GB> >H810;AO, 871530O 2K@065=8O A2>8E GC2AB2 ?5@54 4@C38<8. 57C;LB0B  A?>A>1=>ABL CG0AB=8:0 3@C??K 1>;55 3;C1>:> 8 8A:@5==5 >1I0BLAO A 4@C38<8. "0:0O ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL A>1KB89 2K7K205B =0?@O65=85, B0: :0: 45<>=AB@8@>20BL A2>8 GC2AB20 ?5@54 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8 @8A:>20==>. 4=0:> B0:>5 =0?@O65=85 <>65B 1KBL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 F5==K<, 5A;8 1;03>40@O CA8;8O< B5@0?52B0 8 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K >=> ?@52@0I05BAO 2 :>@@538@CNI89 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 >?KB. ;O MB>3> =5>1E>48<K 420 CA;>28O: CG0AB=8:8 4>;6=K GC2AB2>20BL A51O 2 3@C??5 4>AB0B>G=> 157>?0A=>; B5@0?52B 4>;65= >15A?5G8BL B0:85 CA;>28O, GB>1K CG0AB=8:8 ?>AB>O==> @5038@>20;8 4@C3 =0 4@C30 8A:@5==8< 2K@065=85< A2>8E GC2AB2 8 <KA;59. !CI5AB2CNB >?@545;5==K5 :@8B8G5A:85 B>G:8 2 M<>F8>=0;L=>< >?KB5 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K: !8;L=K5 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 GC2AB20 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 4@C3><C CG0AB=8:C 3@C??K. =>340 1K205B =5?>=OB=>, >B:C40 >=8 2>7=8:;8 8 :0: <>3;8 ?@>@20BLAO =0@C6C. 4=0:>, :>340 ?>A;5 MB>3> =5 ?@>8AE>48B =8:0:>9 :0B0AB@>DK =8 A =8< A0<8<, =8 A G5;>25:><, ?> >B=>H5=8N : :>B>@><C >= 2K@078; A2>8 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 M<>F88, AB0=>28BAO OA=K<, GB> 2K@065==K5 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 GC2AB20 =5@54:> <>3CB 1KBL =5045:20B=K<8 ?> A2>59 8=B5=A82=>AB8, 0 8=>340 8 2K1>@C >1J5:B0, => 5I5 >?0A=55 ?>402;OBL MB8 GC2AB20. 52K@065==K5 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 GC2AB20 O2;ONBAO 8AB>G=8:>< =5?@54A:07C5<KE @50:F89 2 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=8OE. #<5=85 045:20B=> 2K@060BL >B@8F0B5;L=K5 GC2AB20 ?><>305B ;53G5 >1I0BLAO A 4@C38<8. !8;L=K5 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 GC2AB20 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 4@C3><C CG0AB=8:C 3@C??K. E =5>6840==>5 @0A:@KB85 G0I5 2A53> B0:65 =5 8<55B =8:0:8E :0B0AB@>D8G5A:8E ?>A;54AB289. %>BO ?@>O28BL 3;C1>:85 8 8=B5=A82=K5 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 GC2AB20 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 4@C3><C G5;>25:C 7=0G8B5;L=> B@C4=55, G5< >B@8F0B5;L=K5, =>, ?KB0OAL MB> A45;0BL, CG0AB=8: 3@C??K @0A:@K205B 8 =>2CN, @0=55 =5 872540==CN G0ABL A2>59 A0<>AB8. -B> 2 A2>N >G5@54L ?><>305B ?>-=>2><C AB@>8BL >B=>H5=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8. 5>6840==>5 A0<>@0A:@KB85 ?5@54 4@C38<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K.  =5< =865 1C45< 3>2>@8BL 1>;55 ?>4@>1=>, >4=0:> 745AL E>B5;>AL 1K >B<5B8BL, GB> A0<>@0A:@KB85 ?5@54 4@C38<8 A0<> ?> A515 4>2>;L=> @8A:>20==>. > 5A;8 3@C??0 A?>A>1=0 >:070BL CG0AB=8:C ?>445@6:C, MB>B @8A: 1K205B >?@0240==K<, 8 3;C1>:>5, A?>=B0==>5 A0<>@0A:@KB85 ?><>305B 1>;55 3;C1>:> 8 8A:@5==5 >1I0BLAO A 4@C38<8. =B5=A82=>5 2K@065=85 @0=55 ?>402;O5<KE, A:@K205<KE GC2AB2 G0AB> >?@545;O5BAO ?>=OB85< :0B0@A8A0, :>B>@K9 AG8B05BAO 206=K< ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< D0:B>@>< 3@C??K. 0B0@A8A G0I5 2A53> ?5@568205BAO ?@8 2K@065=88 A2O70==KE A ?@>H;K< 8;8 =0AB>OI8< GC2AB2 3@CAB8, ;N128 8 3=520 (:0: CB25@6405B W.H.Friedman (1989), B0:>20 >G5@54=>ABL 8E ?@>O2;5=8O ?> G0AB>B5). =B5=A82=>5 ?@>O2;5=85 GC2AB2 =5@54:> A>?@>2>6405BAO ?>B5@59 A0<>:>=B@>;O, ?>MB><C 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E CG0AB=8:8 A:;>==K A45@6820BL A51O, ?>402;OBL GC2AB20, B0: :0: >?0A0NBAO ?>A;54AB289 2>7<>6=>9 CB@0BK A0<>:>=B@>;O. >MB><C 8=B5=A82=>ABL 8 G0AB>B0 :0B0@A8A0 7028A8B :0: >B AB5?5=8 ?>402;5=8O A2>8E GC2AB2 CG0AB=8:0<8, B0: 8 >B 0B<>AD5@K 157>?0A=>AB8 2 3@C??5. 1KG=> ?>A;5 ?5@56820=8O :0B0@A8A0 ?>O2;O5BAO GC2AB2> @0AA;01;5=8O, :>B>@>5 AG8B05BAO >1O70B5;L=K< M;5<5=B>< :0B0@A8A0. 'B>1K :0B0@A8A 8<5; ?@>4>;68B5;L=>5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 2>7459AB285, 0 =5 >AB0;AO ;8HL <><5=B=K< >A2>1>645=85< >B GC2AB2, >= 4>;65= 1KBL >F5=5= 2 :>=B5:AB5 :0: 3@C??K, B0: 8 687=8 CG0AB=8:0 2=5 3@C??K. >340 CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K 8A:@5==5 ?@8=8<0NB 3;C1>:>5 8 8=B5=A82=>5 @0A:@KB85 GC2AB2, MB> <>65B ?>1C48BL >B:@K2H53>AO CA><=8BLAO 2 B><, GB> >= =5;N18<, =5?@8OB5= 8 =5?@85<;5< 4;O 4@C38E, :0:8< >= AG8B0; A51O 4> A8E ?>@. B0:, >?KB 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 4>;65= 1KBL 8 M<>F8>=0;L=K9, 8 :>@@538@CNI89. #G0AB=8:8 3@C??K >1O70=K :0: <>6=> 8=B5=A82=55, 3;C165, A?>=B0==55 8 8A:@5==55 ?5@56820BL 687=L 4@C3 4@C30, 0 B0:65 >A>7=020BL 8 >F5=820BL MB>B >?KB. 8HL B>340 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 >?KB AB0=>28BAO ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 F5==K<. 3.9. '!" (!&,) #' I.D.Yalom (1985) CB25@6405B, GB> ?>GB8 2A5 A>2@5<5==K5 H:>;K 48=0<8G5A:>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 >A=>2K20NBAO =0 ?@87=0=88 8A:;NG8B5;L=>9 206=>AB8 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89. A>15==> 2K45;O5BAO B5>@8O A8AB5<=>9 <56;8G=>AB=>9 ?A8E80B@88 Hurry Stuck Sullivan (1953). > 53> CB25@645=8N, ;8G=>ABL O2;O5BAO ?@>4C:B>< 2708<>459AB28O A> 7=0G8B5;L=K<8 4;O =55 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8. >B@51=>ABL 2 B5A=KE 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8 O2;O5BAO B0:>9 65 107>2>9, :0: 8 ;N10O 18>;>38G5A:0O ?>B@51=>ABL 8, 8<5O 2 284C ?5@8>4 15AA8;L=>3> <;045=G5AB20, AB>;L 65 206=0 4;O 2K6820=8O. 515=>:, ?>4@0AB0O 8 AB@5<OAL : 157>?0A=>AB8, A:;>=5= @072820BL B5 0A?5:BK A0<>AB8, :>B>@K5 ?>;CG0NB >4>1@5=85 >:@C60NI8E, 8 ?>402;OBL B5 AB>@>=K ;8G=>AB8, :>B>@K5 >:@C60NI85 =5 >4>1@ONB. B0:, A A0<>3> =0G0;0 A2>9 >1@07 G5;>25: >A=>2K205B =0 >F5=:0E 4@C38E ;N459. >A:>;L:C <56;8G=>AB=K5 >B=>H5=8O A>AB02;ONB >A=>2C @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8, >=8 <>3CB 1KBL 8 ?@8G8=>9 @07=KE @0AAB@>9AB2. N48, ?@8E>4O 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 3@C??C, 40;5:> =5 2A5340 CA<0B@820NB A2O7L <564C A2>8<8 687=5==K<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 8 E0@0:B5@>< <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89. >MB><C >4=0 87 206=59H8E 7040G B5@0?52B0 3@C??K  ?><>GL "?5@525AB8" ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K CG0AB=8:0 =0 "<56;8G=>AB=K9 O7K:". 56;8G=>AB=>5 =0CG5=85 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 3;02=KE B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2, >1CA;>2;820NI8E ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 87<5=5=8O 2 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5. 0=LH5 8;8 ?>765 :064K9 CG0AB=8: 2 3@C??5 =0G8=05B ?@>O2;OBL A51O B0:8<, :0:>2 >= 5ABL 2 @50;L=>9 687=8  A 4@C38<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K >= >1I05BAO B0:, :0: A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8 70 ?@545;0<8 3@C??K. @>1;5<K :064>3> CG0AB=8:0 =0G8=0NB >B@060BLAO 2 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=8OE 2 3@C??5. -B> 8 AB0=>28BAO =0G0;>< "A?8@0;8" <56;8G=>AB=>3> 8;8 A>F80;L=>3> =0CG5=8O 2 3@C??5. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O S.Vinogradov 8 I.D.Yalom (1989), E>4 ?@>F5AA0 <56;8G=>AB=>3> =0CG5=8O <>6=> 1K;> 1K >?8A0BL A;54CNI8< >1@07><.  ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5 :064K9 CG0AB=8: @0A:@K205B AB8;L A2>53> <56;8G=>AB=>3> >1I5=8O. ! ?><>ILN @50:F89 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 8 A0<>=01;N45=8O :064K9 CG0AB=8: =0G8=05B @0A:@K20BL A8;L=K5 AB>@>=K, >3@0=8G5==>ABL A2>53> <56;8G=>AB=>3> ?>2545=8O, B>, GB> 2K7K205B =565;0B5;L=K5 @50:F88 4@C38E ;N459. <5AB5 A B5< 745AL CG0AB=8: <>65B >F5=8BL 2;8O=85 A2>53> ?>2545=8O =0 GC2AB20 4@C38E ;N459, =0 8E <=5=85 > =5< 8 =0 53> A>1AB25==>5 <=5=85 > A515. A5 MB> ?><>305B ?>=OBL, GB> :064K9 G5;>25: O2;O5BAO 02B>@>< 8 E>7O8=>< A2>53> <56;8G=>AB=>3> <8@0, B.5. >B25BAB25= 70 A2>5 ?>2545=85. ">;L:> ?@8 >A>7=0=88 >B25BAB25==>AB8 AB0=>28BAO 2>7<>6=K< 87<5=5=85 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89, B0: :0: <5=OBL GB>-;81> <>65B B>;L:> A0< B2>@5F. '5< @50;L=55 8 8=B5=A82=55 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 >?KB 2 3@C??5, B5< 2>7<>6=55 1>;55 7=0G8<K5 87<5=5=8O ?>2545=8O; 5A;8 >?KB A;8H:>< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K9, A>F80;L=>5 =0CG5=85 1K205B <5=55 MDD5:B82=K<. #7=020O 2A5 1>;LH5 > A515, CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K ?>AB5?5==> =0G8=0NB 25AB8 A51O 8=0G5, G5< @0=LH5. -DD5:B82=>ABL B0:8E ?>?KB>: >1KG=> 7028A8B >B: AB5?5=8 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 A2>8< ?>2545=85< 8 <>B820F88 87<5=5=8O; 8=B5=A82=>AB8 CG0AB8O 2 @01>B5 3@C??K; 381:>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 8 AB8;O >1I5=8O. >7=8:0NI85 87<5=5=8O ?>2545=8O 2;5:CB 70 A>1>9 4@C385 87<5=5=8O. @8 C<5=LH5=88 A>F80;L=>9 B@52>38 C25;8G8205BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL 702O70BL 8A:@5==85 >B=>H5=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8, 8E 4>1@>65;0B5;L=>ABL ?>2KH05B A0<>C2065=85 8 ?>1C6405B : 40;L=59H8< 87<5=5=8O<. 3.10. !'!",  #+ ".Krop 8 R.Yungman (1987), A;54CO 8725AB=><C D8;>A>DC-M:78AB5=F80;8ABC M.Buber, 3@C??>2CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N >?@545;ONB :0: 2708<>459AB285 <564C 8=B8<=>ABLN 8 48AB0=F859.  MB>< "<564C" <>3CB ?@5>1;040BL GC2AB2> ?CAB>BK, >BGC645==>ABL, 87>;OF8O 8 B@52>30, :>340 >1I5=85 ?@>8AE>48B ?>A@54AB2>< =5 A2O70==KE <564C A>1>9 <>=>;>3>2. 4=0:> 2 3@C??5 2>7<>65= 8 =0AB>OI89 480;>3, :>340 CG0AB=8:8 40@OB 4@C3 4@C3C M<?0B8N, 1;87>ABL, 8=B8<=>ABL. "0:>9 "480;>3" 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5 8 >?@545;O5B 55 A?;>G5==>ABL (cohesis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alom, 1985; D.Cartwright, 1968), 8 :0: ?@82;5:0B5;L=>AB8 3@C??K 4;O 55 G;5=>2 (J.D.Frank, 1957, 1992; G.Corey, 1990). M.Lakin (1976) A?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K >?@545;O5B :0: ":>;;5:B82=>5 2K@065=85 ;8G=>9 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 : 3@C??5". 4=> 87 =081>;55 =>2KE >?@545;5=89 A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K ?@82>48BAO S.H.Budman A A>B@. (1989): "!?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K  MB> 2708<>A2O70==>ABL CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, ?@>O2;ONI0OAO 2 >B:@KB>AB8 8 2708<=>< 4>25@88 4@C3 : 4@C3C, 2 >1I59 @01>B5 CG0AB=8:>2 ?> 4>AB865=8N AE>4=KE F5;59. > 1>;55 B>G=>5 ?>=8<0=85 A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K 5I5 B@51C5B 0=0;870 8 8AA;54>20=89. !?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K =5 2>7=8:05B 2=570?=>  >=0 =0G8=05B @072820BLAO 5I5 4> =0G0;0 @01>BK 3@C??K, =0 AB0488 55 >@30=870F88. L.I.Braaten (1991) ?@54;>68; <=>3>D0:B>@=CN <>45;L A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K. ! 53> B>G:8 7@5=8O, 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K =5>1E>48<K B@>O:85 CA;>28O: !2O70==K5 A >@30=870F859 3@C??K: ?@028;L=K9 >B1>@ CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K; ?@028;L=>5 A>AB02;5=85 3@C??K; MDD5:B82=0O ?>43>B>2:0 CG0AB=8:>2 : @01>B5 2 3@C??5. !2O70==K5 A @0==8< ?5@8>4>< 687=8 3@C??K: @5H5=85 :>=D;8:B>2; A>740=85 :>=AB@C:B82=KE 3@C??>2KE =>@<; C<5=LH5=85 70I8B=>3> ?>2545=8O. !2O70==K5 A> A?>A>10<8 @01>BK 2 3@C??5: 2708<=0O ?@82;5:0B5;L=>ABL CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 8 8E 2708<=K5 A2O78; >:070=85 ?>445@6:8 8 701>B0 4@C3 > 4@C35; A;CH0=85 8 M<?0B8O; A0<>@0A:@KB85 8 @5038@>20=85 4@C3 =0 4@C30. >2>;L=> ?>4@>1=> CA;>28O 2>7=8:=>25=8O A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K >E0@0:B5@87>20;8 M.S.Corey 8 G.Corey (1987): >B820F8O CG0AB8O 2 3@C??5 8 >?@545;5==K5 CA8;8O 2 AB@5<;5=88 ?>?0ABL 2 =55. '5B:> >?@545;5==K5 8=48284C0;L=K5 F5;8 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, 0 B0:65 OA=> AD>@<C;8@>20==0O >1I0O F5;L 3@C??K. >78B82=K5 >6840=8O 8 A>>B25BAB285 3@C??K ;8G=K< ?>B@51=>ABO< CG0AB=8:>2. @C65AB25==0O 8 B5?;0O 0B<>AD5@0. 708<=0O A8<?0B8O CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 4@C3 : 4@C3C. 708<>4>25@85 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, C2065=85 : GC2AB20< 8 <=5=8O< 4@C3 4@C30. :B82=>5 CG0AB85 2 @01>B5 3@C??K 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2. 0745;5=85 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 @01>BC 3@C??K <564C B5@0?52B>< 8 CG0AB=8:0<8. B:@KB>5 >1AC645=85 :>=D;8:B>2. !?5F80;L=> A>740205<0O >1AB0=>2:0 (C7:89 :@C3, A>740=85 8=B8<=>9 0B<>AD5@K 8 B.?.). 0: >G5=L A?5F8D8G=>5 8 =565;0B5;L=>5 CA;>285 A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K  ?@51K20=85 2 3@C??5 ":>7;0 >B?CI5=8O" 8;8 "15;>9 2>@>=K", >1J548=5=85 ?@>B82 :>B>@KE A?;0G8205B 3@C??C. "0:85 CA;>28O =5 <>3CB 2>7=8:=CBL A@07C. !?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K @0728205BAO 2 E>45 2A59 55 687=8 8 ?>-@07=><C ?@>O2;O5BAO =0 @07;8G=KE MB0?0E @01>BK 3@C??K. 0: >B<5G05B S.H.Budman A A>B@. (1933), =0 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 @01>BK 3@C??K A?;>G5==>ABL C25;8G8205BAO 1;03>40@O B><C, GB> CG0AB=8:8 45;OBAO ?@>1;5<0<8 ;8G=>9 687=8 2=5 3@C??K, 2 ?5@5E>4=>9 AB0488  : C25;8G5=8N A?;>G5==>AB8 4>102;O5BAO 8 >1<5= ?5@56820=8O<8, ?>O282H8<8AO 2 3@C??5, 0 =0 AB0488 ?@>4C:B82=>9 @01>BK =081>;LHCN A?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K >B@0605B >1<5= GC2AB20<8, ?5@568205<K<8 B>;L:> 2 3@C??5. 064K9 CG0AB=8: 3@C??K 4>;65= ?@>9B8 >?@545;5==K9 ?CBL 87<5=5=8O A51O, @5H5=8O A2>8E ?@>1;5<, GB>1K ?@8=8<0BL 8 ?>=8<0BL 4@C38E. >A?@8OB85 4@C38E =0?@O<CN A2O70=> A A0<>2>A?@8OB85<. 0: CB25@640; E.Fromm, B>;L:> ;N1O A51O, <>6=> ;N18BL 4@C38E. 5@>OB=>, =8:B> B0: ?>4@>1=>, :0: C.Rogers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akin, 1976). 0728B85, C:@5?;5=85 A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 3;02=KE 7040G B5@0?52B0 A A0<>9 ?5@2>9 2AB@5G8 3@C??K. 1KG=> MB><C A?>A>1AB2C5B C<5=LH5=85 B@52>38 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, >15A?5G5=85 =5:>B>@>9 AB@C:BC@8@>20==>AB8 @01>BK 3@C??K, >A>15==> 2 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488, 8 CAB0=>2:8 A0<>3> B5@0?52B0  C2065=85 CG0AB=8:>2, 8E 157>F5=>G=>5 ?@8=OB85, M<>F8>=0;L=0O B5?;>B0. 0: CAB0=>28; M.A.Lieberman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udman A A>B@., 1989). A>15==> 206=0 55 @>;L =0 ?@>4C:B82=>9 AB0488 @01>BK 3@C??K. 0: >B<5G05B J.C.Hansen A A>B@. (1980), ?>O2;5=85 A?;>G5==>AB8 2 3@C??5 >7=0G05B =0G0;> =0AB>OI59 @01>BK ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K. R.L.Bednar 8 T.J.Kaul (1978) >B<5G0NB, GB> A?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 B5E ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 (2>7<>6=>, 4065 8 A0<K< 3;02=K<), >B :>B>@KE =5?>A@54AB25==> 7028A8B CA?5E 8;8 =5CA?5E @01>BK ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K. H.Diskoffn 8 M.Lakin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ieberman A A>B@. (1973) 8AA;54>20;8 210 ;8F 87 18 3@C?? "2AB@5G" 8 CAB0=>28;8 ?@O<CN A2O7L <564C A?;>G5==>ABLN 3@C??K 8 55 MDD5:B82=>ABLN. ;O CG0AB=8:>2, :>B>@K5 =5 >ICI0;8 A2>59 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 : 3@C??5 8 A2>59 ?@82;5:0B5;L=>AB8 4;O =55, MDD5:B 3@C??K G0I5 2A53> 1K; =57=0G8B5;L=K<, 0 8=>340 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K<. 3.11. -!"&,+ $" + -B8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 D0:B>@K 3@C??K 2K45;O5B B>;L:> I.D.Yalom (1985). !>3;0A=> M:78AB5=F80;L=><C ?>=8<0=8N 687=5==KE ?@>1;5<, ;N48 ?>AB>O==> AB0;:820NBAO A >A=>2=K<8 M:78AB5=F80;L=K<8 40==>ABO<8: A<5@BLN, A2>1>4>9, 87>;OF859 8 15AA<KA;5==>ABLN (I.D.Yalom, 1980).  >?@545;5==KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E, =0?@8<5@, ?0F85=B>2, 1>;5NI8E @0:>< 8;8 4@C38<8 >?0A=K<8 4;O 687=8 1>;57=O<8, 0 B0:65 AB@040NI8E E@>=8G5A:8<8 701>;520=8O<8, 2 3@C??0E ;8F, 8A?KB02H8E CB@0BC 1;87:>3> G5;>25:0, 8;8 2 A?5F8D8G5A:8E 3@C??0E M:78AB5=F80;L=>3> >?KB0 (R.Koeiunas, 1991) MB8 M:78AB5=F80;L=K5 40==>AB8 AB0=>2OBAO >A=>2=K<8 B5<0<8 2 @01>B5 3@C??K. 4=0:> 8 2 >1KG=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E 8=>3> E0@0:B5@0 <>6=> 70B@03820BL M:78AB5=F80;L=K5 2>?@>AK, :>340 A0< B5@0?52B 4>AB0B>G=> 3>B>2 : MB><C. @54?>AK;:>9 @0A:@KB8O M:78AB5=F80;L=KE ?@>1;5< O2;O5BAO A0< E>4 @01>BK 2 3@C??5.  :064>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5 CG0AB=8:0< ?@8E>48BAO AB0;:820BLAO A B5<, GB> ?>445@6:0 A> AB>@>=K 4@C38E 8;8 >?5:0, :>B>@CN >6840NB >B B5@0?52B0, 2A5340 8<5NB 3@0=8FK, B.5. 2A5340 ACI5AB2C5B B>, GB> 2K?>;=8BL <>3CB B>;L:> >=8 A0<8, 5A;8 8718@0NB ?CBL 87<5=5=8O. 87=L 3@C??K ?>72>;O5B C2845BL, GB> >B25BAB25==K<8 70 =55 4>;6=K 1KBL A0<8 CG0AB=8:8, @02=> :0: 8 70 A2>N 687=L 70 ?@545;0<8 3@C??K.  3@C??5 <>6=> ?>GC2AB2>20BL, GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 1;87>ABL >B=>H5=89 A 4@C38<8, ACI5AB2C5B >48=>G5AB2>, :>B>@>3> =5;L7O 871560BL 8 :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO 206=K< 2 687=8 G5;>25:0. "5@0?52B 3@C??K, >1@0I0O 2=8<0=85 CG0AB=8:>2 =0 MB8 0A?5:BK 687=8 3@C??K, <>65B ?@54>AB028BL CG0AB=8:0< 1>;55 H8@>:89 :>=B5:AB @5H5=8O 8E ?@>1;5< 8 A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O ;8G=>AB8. 3.12. !" =A09B :0: ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 D0:B>@ 3@C??K >7=0G05B, GB> CG0AB=8: C7=05B GB>-B> =>2>5 8 206=>5 > A515 (I.D.Yalom, 1985; R.Bloch, E.Crouch, 1985).  ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5 8=A09B ?>>I@ONB @50:F88 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 4@C3 =0 4@C30, 0 B0:65 @50:F88 B5@0?52B0 =0 =8E 8 8=B5@?@5B0F8O GC2AB2, <KA;59 8 ?>ABC?:>2. B<5G05BAO (I.D.Yalom, 1985; E.C.Crouch A A>B@., 1994), GB> 8=A09B0 <>6=> 4>AB83=CBL :0: <8=8<C< =0 G5BK@5E C@>2=OE. #G0AB=8:8 1>;55 >1J5:B82=> 284OB A2>8 <56;8G=>AB=K5 >B=>H5=8O. -B> =0G8=05BAO A C7=020=8O B>3>, :0: B51O 284OB 8 >F5=820NB 4@C385 CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K. #G0AB=8:8 ?>=8<0NB A?>A>1K 8 AB5@5>B8?K A2>53> ?>2545=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8. #G0AB=8:8 C7=0NB, ?>G5<C >=8 254CB A51O B0:, :0: 254CB A51O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8 (<>B820F8>==K9 8=A09B). #G0AB=8:8 ?>=8<0NB, :0: >=8 AB0;8 B0:8<8, :0:>2K<8 O2;ONBAO. "5< A0<K< >BKA:820NBAO :>@=8 ACI5AB2CNI8E ?@>1;5< (?A8E>;>38G5A:89 8=A09B). %>BO 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>5 ?>=8<0=85 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =5@54:> F5=8BAO <5=LH5, G5< =5?>A@54AB25==K9 >?KB, M<>F8>=0;L=>5 ?5@56820=85, >4=0:> 206=>ABL 53> =5A><=5==0 (>1 MB>< C65 3>2>@8;>AL 2 3;025 3.8.). 3.13.   !" !%" "'!% $"   #+ !>25@H5==> >G5284=>, GB> ?@>AB>5 ?5@5G8A;5=85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 3@C??K 5ABL =5 1>;55 G5< AE5<0  =5 C=825@A0;L=0O, =5 >:>=G0B5;L=0O. 59AB285 8E 2A5E ?5@5?;5B5=> 2 3@C??>2>< ?@>F5AA5, 8 MB> 2708<>459AB285 >G5=L A;>6=>5.  7028A8<>AB8 >B @07;8G=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2 >B=>A8B5;L=K9 2:;04 :064>3> 87 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; 3@C??K 2 >B45;L=K5 ?5@8>4K 55 @01>BK =5>48=0:>2. > <=5=8N S.Vinogradov 8 I.D.Yalom (1989), 2;8O=85 >B45;L=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 3@C??K 7028A8B >B: B8?0 3@C??K; AB0488 3@C??K; 8=48284C0;L=KE @07;8G89 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 3@C??K @07;8G=>3> B8?0 0:F5=B8@CNB 8 8A?>;L7CNB ?>B5=F80; @07=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2. >340 8AA;54>20B5;8 704020;8 2>?@>A CG0AB=8:0< 4>;3>A@>G=KE 0<1C;0B>@=KE >A=>2K20NI8EAO =0 <56;8G=>AB=>< 2708<>459AB288 3@C??, GB> 1>;LH5 2A53> 2;8O;> =0 8E ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 87<5=5=8O 2 3@C??5, >=8 C:07K20;8 =0 B@8 D0:B>@0: <56;8G=>AB=>5 >1CG5=85, :0B0@A8A 8 ?>=8<0=85 A51O (I.D.Yalom, 1985). #G0AB=8:8 3@C?? ?A8E80B@8G5A:>3> AB0F8>=0@0 ?>4G5@:820;8 8=K5 D0:B>@K  ?>>I@5=85 =04564K 8 >48= 87 M:78AB5=F80;L=KE D0:B>@>2  >1CG5=85 >B25BAB25==>AB8 (I.D.Yalom, M.Leszsz A A>B@., 1985).  3@C??0E 2708<>?><>I8 (=0?@8<5@, 0=>=8<=KE 0;:>3>;8:>2) 8 2 A?5F80;878@>20==KE 3@C??0E ?>445@6:8 A0<K<8 MDD5:B82=K<8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8<8 D0:B>@0<8 O2;ONBAO C=825@A0;L=>ABL ?@>1;5<, 8=D>@<8@>20=85, 0;LB@C87< 8 A?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K (M.A.Lieberman, L.Borman, 1980). >A:>;L:C 2 E>45 @01>BK 3@C??K <5=ONBAO ?>B@51=>AB8 8 F5;8 55 CG0AB=8:>2, <5=O5BAO B0:65 8 C45;L=K9 25A ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2.  =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K, :>340 206=> CAB0=>28BL >?@545;5==K5 3@C??>2K5 =>@<K 8 A>740BL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 F5==CN 0B<>AD5@C, >A>15==> 206=K< O2;O5BAO ?>>I@5=85 =04564K, ?>4G5@:820=85 C=825@A0;L=>AB8 ?@>1;5< 8 8=D>@<8@>20=85. >74=55 C25;8G8205BAO ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O F5==>ABL 0;LB@C87<0 8 A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K. !?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K AB0=>28BAO >A=>2=K< ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< D0:B>@>< =0 ?@>4C:B82=>< MB0?5 @01>BK 3@C??K. 07=K5 CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B A2>53> ;8G=>3> AB8;O, E0@0:B5@0 ?@>1;5<, ?>B@51=>AB59 8 F5;59 B0: 65 ?>-@07=><C 8A?>;L7CNB A8;C >B45;L=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 3@C??K.  ?@8<5@C, 4;O ?A8E8G5A:8 1>;L=KE <56;8G=>AB=>5 =0CG5=85 <5=55 0:BC0;L=>, G5< 4;O ;8F, 8<5NI8E <56;8G=>AB=K5 ?@>1;5<K.  ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< D0:B>@0< 3@C??K <K 5I5 25@=5<AO ?@8 >1AC645=88 2>?@>A0, :0A0NI53>AO E>40 @01>BK 3@C??K. ;020 4 " "  #+: '!",,$&/, + 06=59H0O 7040G0 B5@0?52B0 3@C??K  A>740=85 CA;>289 4;O <0:A8<0;L=>3> @0A:@KB8O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 A8;K 3@C??K. = =5 4>;65= 701K20BL, GB> >A=>20 MDD5:B82=>AB8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K  MB> @01>B0 A0<8E CG0AB=8:>2, ?>MB><C B5@0?52B 8 4>;65= A>74020BL B0:CN 0B<>AD5@C, 2 :>B>@>9 2708<>459AB285 CG0AB=8:>2 1K;> 1K =081>;55 MDD5:B82=K<. I.D.Yalom (1985) F8B8@C5B >4=>3> 1K2H53> CG0AB=8:0 A2>59 3@C??K, 4607>2>3> ?80=8AB0, :>B>@K9 >G5=L B>G=> >?@545;8; =07=0G5=85 B5@0?52B0 3@C??K. = >B<5B8;, GB> 2 =0G0;5 A2>59 <C7K:0;L=>9 :0@L5@K >A>15==> 2>AE8I0;AO 25;8:8<8 28@BC>70<8-8=AB@C<5=B0;8AB0<8.  B>;L:> 7=0G8B5;L=> ?>765 ?>=O;, GB> =0AB>OI55 25;8G85 4607>2>3> <C7K:0=B0 A>AB>8B 2 C<5=88 2KO28BL 72CG0=85 4@C38E. "0:85 G5@BK <C4@>3> ;845@0 1K;8 8725AB=K 5I5 2 3;C1>:>9 4@52=>AB8. >B GB> A:070; >1 MB>< :8B09A:89 <C4@5F 0> &7K 2 "0> M &78=": C:>2>48B5;L O2;O5BAO ;CGH8<, >340 ;N48 5420 GC2AB2CNB 53> ACI5AB2>20=85, 5 B0:>9 E>@>H89, :>340 ;N48 ?>4G8=ONBAO 5<C 8 ?@>A;02;ONB 53>,  =08EC4H89, :>340 >=8 ?@578@0NB 53>. 54>AB0B>G=> C20609 ;N459,  >=8 1C4CB =54>AB0B>G=> C2060BL B51O; > ?@8 E>@>H5< @C:>2>48B5;5, :>B>@K9 <0;> 3>2>@8B, >340 53> @01>B0 2K?>;=5=0, F5;8 4>AB83=CBK, =8 2A5340 A:06CB: "K A0<8 A45;0;8 MB>".  G5< ACBL B0:>3> <C4@>3> @C:>2>4AB20?  B><, GB>1K B5@0?52B 3@C??K 1K; MDD5:B82=K< ?><>I=8:>< 4;O CG0AB=8:>2, 0 =5 @01>B0; 70 =8E, GB>1K ?><>3 8< A>25@H5=AB2>20BLAO, 0 =5 ?@82O7K20; : A515 C70<8 7028A8<>AB8  >= 4>;65= ?>AB>O==> A>25@H5=AB2>20BL A2>N ;8G=>ABL, 1KBL 4>AB0B>G=> :20;8D8F8@>20==K< 8 >1;040BL =5>1E>48<K<8 =02K:0<8 4;O @C:>2>4AB20 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??>9. 4.1. " /  '!"  # " " 0: >B<5G05B G.Corey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ordon (1972) >E0@0:B5@87>20; =5A:>;L:> B0:8E CAB0=>2>:. %>@>H5<C B5@0?52BC 3@C??0 =5>1E>48<0 4;O @50;870F88 F5;59 55 CG0AB=8:>2, 0 =5 4;O A0<>CB25@645=8O. B25BAB25==>ABL 70 >?@545;5=85 F5;59, 70 @5H5=8O, >:07K20NI85 2;8O=85 =0 CG0AB=8:>2, 70 ?@8=OB85 =>@< 8 ?@028;, @53C;8@CNI8E 687=L 3@C??K, 2>7;0305BAO =0 A0<C 3@C??C. "5@0?52B 4>;65= A:>@55 A;C68BL 3@C??5, 0 =5 C:07K20BL, GB> 59 45;0BL, 2 :0:>< =0?@02;5=88 84B8 8 G53> 4>AB830BL. "5@0?52B 3@C??K, 157CA;>2=>, C20605B :064>3> CG0AB=8:0. = A?>A>15= 2 :064>< C2845BL GB>-B> F5==>5, =57028A8<> >B E0@0:B5@0 ?@>1;5<, A>F80;L=>3> AB0BCA0, ?@>D5AA88, ;8G=>AB8, 2=5H=>AB8, 25@>8A?>2540=8O CG0AB=8:>2 8 ?@. 064K9 G5;>25: O2;O5BAO 7=0G8<K< 8 F5==K<, B0: :0: >= O2;O5BAO A;>6=K< 8 A>25@H5=AB2CNI8<AO >@30=87<><, 2>?;>I5=85< GC40 687=8. "5@0?52B 4>;65= 25@8BL, GB> :064K9 CG0AB=8: >1;0405B 4>AB0B>G=K<8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 4;O ?>78B82=>3>, :>=AB@C:B82=>3>, 7@5;>3> ?>2545=8O. @><5 <8@>2>77@5=G5A:8E CAB0=>2>: B5@0?52B0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K 2>7=8:05B 8 1>;55 :>=:@5B=K9 2>?@>A  :0:85 G5@BK ;8G=>AB8 ?A8E>;>30 8;8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 <>3;8 1K >15A?5G8BL CA?5H=CN, MDD5:B82=CN @01>BC A 3@C??0<8? >?KB>: A>740BL <>45;L B0:>3> MDD5:B82=>3> 254CI53> 3@C??K =5 B0: C6 <=>3>. R.L.Bednar 8 T.J.Kaul (1978) >B<5B8;8, GB> "E>BO ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5 A>3;0A=K, GB> G5@BK ;8G=>AB8 B5@0?52B0 >:07K20NB 1>;LH>5 2;8O=85 =0 ?@>F5AA @01>BK 3@C??K 8 >:>=G0B5;L=K9 @57C;LB0B, >4=0:> 2 ;8B5@0BC@5 =5 70<5G05< 1>;LH>3> M<?8@8G5A:>3> 8=B5@5A0 : MB>9 B5<5". "450;L=CN ;8G=>ABL 254CI53> 3@C??K" ?KB0;AO >?8A0BL I.L.Shapiro (1978). = 2K45;8; B0:85 G5@BK ;8G=>AB8: 8A:@5==>ABL, ;8G=>AB=CN 8=B53@8@>20==>ABL, B5@?5=85, A<5;>ABL, 381:>ABL, B5?;>BC, C<5=85 >@85=B8@>20BLAO 2> 2@5<5=8 8 A0<>?>7=0=85. 4=0:> L.J.Shapiro ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> E>BO MB8 A2>9AB20 8 >G5=L 206=K, => =54>AB0B>G=K. "5@0?52B 4>;65= 8<5BL A2>9 AB8;L 8 <5B>4K @01>BK, A>>B25BAB2CNI85 53> ;8G=>AB8. "5@0?52BC 3@C??K B0:65 =5>1E>48<> 7=0=85 B5>@88 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 48=0<8:8 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0 8 =02K:8 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> ?@8<5=5=8O MB8E 7=0=89 (>1 MB>< @5GL ?>945B =865). >AB0B>G=> ?>4@>1=> ?KB0;8AL >E0@0:B5@87>20BL ;8G=>ABL MDD5:B82=>3> B5@0?52B0 M.S.Corey 8 G.Corey (1987). 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"5@0?52B 3@C??K 4>;65=: ?><>30BL CG0AB=8:0< >1>1I8BL ?@8>1@5B5==K9 =0 >B45;L=>9 2AB@5G5 8;8 70 2A5 2@5<O @01>BK 3@C??K >?KB 8 MDD5:B82=> ?@8<5=OBL 53> 2 A2>59 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8; A?>A>1AB2>20BL ?@>4>;65=8N @01>BK CG0AB=8:>2 =04 A>1>9 2 ?5@8>4 <564C 3@C??>2K<8 2AB@5G0<8; ?>43>B>28BL CG0AB=8:>2 : 2>7<>6=K< ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< B@C4=>ABO<, A :>B>@K<8 >=8 <>3CB AB>;:=CBLAO ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O @01>BK 3@C??K; 8=D>@<8@>20BL CG0AB=8:>2, 345 >=8 <>3CB ?>;CG8BL 4>?>;=8B5;L=CN ?><>IL. @028;L=>5 2K@065=85 GC2AB2 "5@0?52BC 3@C??K >G5=L 206=> >A>7=020BL, 7=0BL, =07K20BL A2>8 GC2AB20, >4=0:> MB>3> =54>AB0B>G=>. = 4>;65= C<5BL ?@028;L=> 8 8A:@5==5 2K@060BL A2>8 GC2AB20. -B> =5 B0: ?@>AB>, ?>B><C GB>, ?@>O2;OO A2>8 GC2AB20, B5@0?52B AB0=>28BAO B0: 65 CO728<, :0: 8 CG0AB=8:8. KH5 C65 C?><8=0;>AL, GB> B5@0?52B 4>;65= 1KBL 8A:@5==8<, => 2K@060BL A2>8 GC2AB20 >14C<0==>. 3> GC2AB20, :0: 8 ;N1K5 4@C385 459AB28O, 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO 2 3@C??5 :0: 1>;55 7=0G8<K5, ?> A@02=5=8N A 459AB28O<8 4@C38E 55 CG0AB=8:>2. > B5@0?52B A0< 4>;65= ?>=8<0BL, GB>, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, :0: 53> GC2AB20 2>A?@8=8<0NB CG0AB=8:8, >1J5:B82=> >=8 =5 8<5NB 1>;LH53> 25A0, G5< GC2AB20 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. A>15==> >AB>@>6=> A;54C5B 2K@060BL 8=B5=A82=K5 GC2AB20  7;>ABL 8 A8<?0B8N ?> >B=>H5=8N : CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K, B0: :0: 8<5==> MB8 53> GC2AB20 2 3;070E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 8<5NB 1>;LH89 25A, G5< 0=0;>38G=K5 GC2AB20 CG0AB=8:>2. 45AL B5@0?52B AB0;:8205BAO A 48;5<<>9  :0: >4=>2@5<5==> 1KBL 8A:@5==8< 8 =5 ?@>2>F8@>20BL A2>8<8 GC2AB20<8 =5=C6=>5 =0?@O65=85 2 ?@>F5AA5 @01>BK 3@C??K. !>G5B0BL MB8 25I8 <>65B ?><>GL A>1;N45=85 >?@545;5==KE ?@028; (R.Naar, 1982). >-?5@2KE, B5@0?52B 4>;65= >1JOA=8BL A2>8 =530B82=K5 GC2AB20. >-2B>@KE, >1J5:B>< >B@8F0B5;L=KE GC2AB2 4>;6=> 1KBL ?>2545=85 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, 0 =5 ;8G=>AB8. "5@0?52BC B0:65 =5 A;54C5B 8A:0BL ?>445@6:8 A2>8< >B@8F0B5;L=K< GC2AB20< ?> >B=>H5=8N : :0:><C-;81> CG0AB=8:C 3@C??K A@548 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2. "5@0?52B 4>;65= >AB>@>6=> @0A:@K20BL 2 3@C??5 8 8=B5=A82=K5 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 GC2AB20. B@8F0B5;L=K< GC2AB20< <>6=> ?@>B82>459AB2>20BL, 8E <>6=> >B25@30BL, 0 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 GC2AB20 ">157>@C6820NB" 8 45;0NB 8E 04@5A0B0 1>;55 CO728<K<. >MB><C 8E 45<>=AB@0F8O =5 4>;6=0 1KBL A;8H:>< ?@O<>;8=59=>9, GB>1K =5 2K720BL C CG0AB=8:>2 B@52>3C, 70I8B=CN @50:F8N, 0 2 :@09=8E A;CG0OE 8 2@06451=>ABL. 02K:8 =525@10;L=>3> >1I5=8O #@>2=8 25@10;L=>3> 8 =525@10;L=>3> >1I5=8O ?>AB>O==> ?5@5?;5B0NBAO 8 >:07K20NB 2;8O=85 4@C3 =0 4@C30. 525@10;L=>5 ?>2545=85 <>65B 87<5=8BL A<KA; A;>2, >1>30B8BL A;>25A=>5 A>45@60=85, 8;;NAB@8@>20BL A;>20 8;8 4065 8E 70<5=8BL. >;030NB, GB> 87 MB8E 42CE :><?>=5=B>2 >1I5=8O =525@10;L=K9 O2;O5BAO 1>;55 206=K<. 0: >B<5G05B R.Birdwhistell (F8B. ?> G.M.Gazda, 1989), "A;>20, 8A?>;L7C5<K5 2 @5G8, 2:;NG0NB 2 A51O =5 1>;55 35% A>F80;L=KE A<KA;>2, 2KA:07K205<KE 2 >1I5=88". >MB><C >G5284=>, GB> B5@0?52BC >A>15==> 206=> >@85=B8@>20BLAO 2 B><, GB> 2 3@C??5 =5 2KA:07K205BAO A;>20<8, => 2K@0605BAO =525@10;L=>. 02K:8 =525@10;L=>3> ?>2545=8O ?@8>1@5B0NBAO 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8 (F.Davis, 1973). <8 ?>;L7C5<AO 8 "G8B05<" =525@10;L=>5 ?>2545=85 4@C38E ;N459 02B><0B8G5A:8, =5 >A>7=020O MB>3>. >MB><C, :0: 1K <K =8 E>B5;8 ?>@>9 A:@KBL 8AB8==K9 A<KA; B>3>, > G5< 3>2>@8<, =0A 2K40NB =525@10;L=K5 @50:F88, A:@KBK5 70 A;>20<8. >B ?>G5<C 3@C??>2><C B5@0?52BC 206=> =5 B>;L:> C<5BL C304K20BL A<KA; =525@10;L=KE A83=0;>2 CG0AB=8:>2, => 8 >@85=B8@>20BLAO 2 A2>8E =525@10;L=KE @50:F8OE, 0 ;CGH5 2A53> AB0@0BLAO, GB>1K A;>20 A>>B25BAB2>20;8 GC2AB20<. 5 A;54C5B 701K20BL, GB> CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K 2 >1I5=88 B0:65 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 CA?5H=> "G8B0NB" =525@10;L=K5 7=0:8. AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> 2 >1I5=88 1>;LH5 4>25@ONB =525@10;L=>9 8=D>@<0F88, G5< 25@10;L=>9. >340 70<5G05< ?@>B82>@5G8O <564C 25@10;L=K<8 8 =525@10;L=K<8 @50:F8O<8, 4065 =5 >A>7=020O ?>A;54=8E, <K 8< 4>25@O5< 1>;LH5 (A MB8< 1K20NB A2O70=K =0H8 A><=5=8O 2 2KA:07K20=8OE A>15A54=8:0  "GB>-B> =5 B0: 2 53> A;>20E"). 0: C:07K205B G.M.Gazda (1989), =525@10;L=K5 @50:F88 ?><>30NB @50;87>20BL =5<0;> 206=KE F5;59 2 >1I5=88. ><>30NB 2K@078BL GC2AB20. K?>;=5==K9 A.Mehrabian 8 S.R.Ferris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alters, 1980) 525@10;L=>5 ?>2545=85 52=8<0B5;L=>5 ?>2545=85 (45<>=AB@8@>20=85 =5:>B>@KE 87 =0720==KE 25I59 ?>402;O5B 15A54C 8;8 ?>1C6405B 70:>=G8BL 55) =8<0B5;L=>5 ?>2545=85 (?>>I@O5B 15A54C, B0: :0: 2K@0605B CAB0=>2:C ?@8=OB8O 8 C2065=8O A>15A54=8:0) =8<0=85  0AA5O==>5 >;=>ABLN A>A@54>B>G5= =0 A>15A54=8:5 @>AB@0=AB2> >;LH>5 @0AAB>O=85; 70<:=CB>ABL 0 @0AAB>O=88 2KBO=CB>9 @C:8 >70 !3>@1;5==0O; A:>20==0O; A845=85 >B:8=C2H8AL  0AA;01;5==0O, => 2=8<0B5;L=0O; A845=85 A:;>=82H8AL : A>15A54=8:C >=B0:B 3;07 BACBAB2C5B; 2K7K20NI89; =5@2=K9 >AB>O==K9 @5<O 0=8<05BAO B5<, G5< 8 4> 15A54K; A?5H:0 @5<O C45;O5BAO A>15A54=8:C 515;L A?>;L7C5BAO :0: 10@L5@ A?>;L7C5BAO 4;O A1;865=8O A>15A54=8:>2 K@065=85 ;8F0 52K@078B5;L=>5; <@0G=>5; ?CAB>9 273;O4 !>>B25BAB2C5B GC2AB20<; C;K1:0 5ABK @>B82>@5G82K5 #A8;820NI85 A;>20; A?>:>9=K5 >;>A; B>= !;8H:>< 3@><:89 8;8 A;8H:>< B8E89 /A=> A;KH8<K9 >;>A; B5<? G5=L <54;5==K9, =5@5H8B5;L=K9; =5B5@?5;82K9 !@54=89 8;8 =5A:>;L:> CA:>@5==K9 #@>25=L M=5@388 ?0B8O; A>=;82>ABL; =5@2>7=>ABL; 402;5=85 >4@>ABL 2> 2@5<O 2A59 15A54K @C??>2>9 B5@0?52B 4>;65= ?>AB>O==> A;548BL 70 =525@10;L=K< ?>2545=85< CG0AB=8:>2. -B> ?><>305B ;CGH5, B>G=55 ?>=OBL CG0AB=8:>2 8 8E 2708<>>B=>H5=8O, >1=0@C68BL A:@KBK5 CAB0=>2:8 8 <>B82K, 2;8ONI85 =0 8E ?>2545=85. 525@10;L=>5 ?>2545=85 A;54>20;> 1K >F5=820BL 2 :>=B5:AB5 A8BC0F88 687=8 3@C??K 8 =5 1KBL :0B53>@8G=K<, ?@8?8AK20O B5 8;8 8=K5 A<KA;K =525@10;L=K< @50:F8O< CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. 5?@028;L=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 =02K:>2 8 =081>;55 G0ABK5 >H81:8 5@54:> A;CG05BAO, GB> CA?5E8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K CG0AB=8:8 G0I5 2A53> ?@8?8AK20NB ?@>8AE>4OI5<C 2 3@C??5 2708<=><C >1I5=8N, 0 =5C40G8  B5@0?52BC (R.R.Dies, 1983). >MB><C >G5=L 206=> ?@028;L=> 8A?>;L7>20BL 8<5NI85AO =02K:8. >340 B5@0?52B A:;>=5= :><0=4>20BL, B@51>20BL, 70?@5I0BL, C:07K20BL, CG0AB=8:8 =0G8=0NB A51O GC2AB2>20BL =5157>?0A=>, AG8B0NB >1O70==K<8 45;0BL =5GB>, : G5<C =5 3>B>2K 8;8 G53> =5 E>BOB. >6=> =0720BL 8 4@C385 2>7<>6=K5 >H81:8 B5@0?52B0, A2O70==K5 A =5?@028;L=K< 8A?>;L7>20=85< 8<5NI8EAO =02K:>2 (G.Corey A A>B@., 1988): A;8H:>< 45B0;L=K5, 0 ?>@>9 4>AB0B>G=> BC<0==K5 8 A;>6=K5 >1JOA=5=8O; ?>A?5H=>ABL 2 ?@8<5=5=88 :0:8E-;81> <5B>4>2 157 CG5B0 B>3>, 3>B>2K ;8 CG0AB=8:8 8E ?@8=OBL; AB@5<;5=85 ?>4>3=0BL @57C;LB0BK 8A?>;L7C5<KE <5B>4>2 : >68405<K<, =5 ?@8=8<0O 2> 2=8<0=85 B>3>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8; 4;8B5;L=0O ?>43>B>2:0 : ?@8<5=5=8N :0:>3>-;81> <5B>40 2 3@C??5; ?@8 A;8H:>< 4>;3>< 8 ?>4@>1=>< @07JOA=5=88 C?CA:05BAO 4>@>3>5 2@5<O; ?>?KB:0 ?@8<5=8BL :0:>9-;81> <5B>4, C402H89AO 2 >4=>9 3@C??5, 157 >F5=:8 @07;8G89 2 A8BC0F8OE, ?>;030O, GB> <5B>4K "A@010BK20NB" A0<8 ?> A515; MB> A>7405B 8A:CAAB25==CN, =55AB5AB25==CN A8BC0F8N; =5C<5AB=K5 ?>?KB:8 HCB8BL, :>340 MB> =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B =0AB@>5=8N 3@C??K; CG0AB=8:0< <>65B ?>:070BLAO, GB> B5@0?52B A5@L57=K5 2>?@>AK E>G5B ?@52@0B8BL 2 HCB:C 8 MB8< 871560BL 8E >1AC645=8O; ?>A?5H=K5 8 G@57<5@=> 8=B5=A82=K5, =5?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 @50:F88 =0 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. 0: >B<5G05B R.R.Dies (1994), =0G8=0NI85 3@C??>2K5 B5@0?52BK 8<5NB A:;>==>ABL G0AB> ?>2B>@OBL >4=8 8 B5 65 >H81:8  7040NB A;8H:>< <=>3> 2>?@>A>2, C45;ONB A;8H:>< <=>3> 8;8 A;8H:>< <0;> 2@5<5=8 >1AC645=8N :0:>9-;81> ?@>1;5<K 3@C??K 8;8 CG0AB=8:0, =54>AB0B>G=> B>G=> ?@>3=>78@CNB 2>7459AB285 8 ?>A;54AB28O A2>8E 2KA:07K20=89 2 3@C??5, =5 4> :>=F0 >14C<K20NB ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL A2>8E 459AB289 8 87-70 MB>3> 1K20NB =5?>A;54>20B5;L=K<8 2 3@C??5, 1;>:8@CNB >1AC645=85 =5:>B>@KE ?>B5=F80;L=> ?@>4C:B82=KE 8 206=KE B5< AB@5<;5=85< ?>A:>@59 "@5H8BL ?@>1;5<C" 8;8 ?>A?5H=K<8 8=B5@?@5B0F8O<8. 01>B0 3@C??>2>3> B5@0?52B0 "745AL 8 B5?5@L": @0728B858>1JOA=5=85 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0 4=>9 87 206=59H8E >A>15==>AB59 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K O2;O5BAO 55 >@85=B0F8O =0 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O. -B> "745AL 8 B5?5@L" @072>@0G820NI89AO ?@>F5AA. "45AL 8 B5?5@L" >7=0G05B, GB> 2 F5=B@5 2=8<0=8O 3@C??K =0E>4OBAO =5 AB>;L:> 2>A?><8=0=8O > ?@>H;>< 8;8 ?;0=K =0 1C4CI55, A:>;L:> ?5@<0=5=B=> 8 =5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@5E>4OI55 2 1C4CI55 =0AB>OI55. 87=L 3@C??K "745AL 8 B5?5@L" A>AB02;O5B 3@C??>2>9 ?@>F5AA (R.Naar, 1982). -B> A?>A>1 >1I5=8O 2 3@C??5. !>45@60=85 @01>BK 3@C??K A>AB02;ONB CB25@645=8O, 459AB28O, GC2AB20 CG0AB=8:>2. !>45@60=85 <5=O5BAO, 0 ?@>F5AA O2;O5BAO =5?@5@K2=K<, 4065 :>340 2 3@C??5 2A5 <>;G0B, ?>B><C GB> 8 2 B8H8=5 GB>-B> ?@>8AE>48B.  3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2A5340 >@85=B8@CNBAO =0 ?@>F5AA, B.5. =5 AB>;L:> =0 A>45@60=85 2KA:07K20=89 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, A:>;L:> =0 B>, :0: 8 ?>G5<C ?@>87=>AOBAO A;>20, :0: >=8 >B@060NB 2708<>>B=>H5=8O CG0AB=8:>2. @8=F8? "745AL 8 B5?5@L" 2 3@C??5 8=>340 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 2 A;8H:>< C7:>< ?>=8<0=88, :>340 87 A>45@60=8O @01>BK 3@C??K CAB@0=O5BAO 2A5, GB> =5?>A@54AB25==> =5 A2O70=> A =0AB>OI8< 3@C??K. > 2 @50;L=>9 687=8 CG0AB=8:>2 ?@>8AE>4OB 206=K5 A>1KB8O, :>B>@K5 =5 <>3CB =5 >:07K20BL 2;8O=8O =0 B>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 3@C??5. >MB><C <K ?>;0305<, GB> 2 @01>B5 3@C??K =5;L7O 83=>@8@>20BL B>3>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B A 55 CG0AB=8:0<8 2 @50;L=>9 687=8, 2 @50;L=KE >B=>H5=8OE, 8E CA?5E8 8 =5C40G8. 57 MB>3> @01>B0 3@C??K 1K;0 1K 40;5:>9 >B @50;L=>AB8, ?>25@E=>AB=>9, ?>E>659 =0 "83@C 2 18A5@" (.5AA5). !>1KB8O, ?@>8AH54H85 2=5 3@C??K, ?@>H;K5 <>3CB 1KBL =5 <5=55 682K<8, G5< ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 3@C??5. 57025@H5==>ABL ?@>H;KE A8BC0F89 <>65B B>@<>78BL @5H5=85 ?@>1;5< CG0AB=8:>2 2 3@C??5. >340 ?@>8AE>482H85 2 ?@>H;>< 8;8 70 ?@545;0<8 3@C??K A>1KB8O A2O70=K A 3@C??>2K<8 A8BC0F8O<8, B> 8E >1AC645=85 2 3@C??5 =5 =0@CH05B ?@8=F8?0 "745AL 8 B5?5@L". ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 5A;8 CG0AB=8:8 2 3@C??5 45;OBAO B>;L:> ?@>H;K<8 2>A?><8=0=8O<8, B> MB> <>65B 1KBL ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 70I8B>9 >B =5?@8OB=KE, ?C30NI8E GC2AB2 8 A>1KB89 2 3@C??5. @8=OB85 B0:>3> ?>2545=8O CG0AB=8:>2 1K;> 1K >BABC?;5=85< >B 687=8 3@C??K 2 "745AL 8 B5?5@L". 'B>1K @01>B0 3@C??K "745AL 8 B5?5@L" 1K;0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 MDD5:B82=>9, 2 =59 >1O70B5;L=> 4>;6=K 1KBL 425 ABC?5=8  ?>>I@5=85 2K@065=8O GC2AB2 (@0728B85 ?@>F5AA0 "745AL 8 B5?5@L") 8 >1JOA=5=85 GC2AB2 (?@>F5AA0 "745AL 8 B5?5@L") (I.D.Yalom, 1985; S.Vinogradov, I.D.Yalom, 1989). 5@20O ABC?5=L  MB> 25AL A?5:B@ ?5@56820=89 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K: 8E GC2AB20 4@C3 : 4@C3C, : B5@0?52BC, : 3@C??5. > MB8 GC2AB20 ?@8>1@5B0NB ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 A<KA; B>;L:> B>340, :>340 >=8 ?>AB>O==> >1JOA=ONBAO (2B>@0O ABC?5=L). A;8 1K ACI5AB2>20;0 B>;L:> ?5@20O ABC?5=L  =5?>A@54AB25==K9 >?KB,  ?5@56820=8O CG0AB=8:>2 1K;8 1K 8=B5=A82=K<8, 4065 2=CH8B5;L=K<8, => 157 8E >1JOA=5=8O =5 ACI5AB2>20;> 1K =8:0:8E :>3=8B82=KE B>G5: >BAG5B0 4;O >1>1I5=8O, A>E@0=5=8O 8 ?@8<5=5=8O MB>3> >?KB0 2 @50;L=>9 687=8. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 5A;8 1K 2 3@C??5 ?@5>1;040; B>;L:> 45B0;L=K9 0=0;87 :064>3> A>1KB8O, 55 687=L ?>B5@O;0 1K 682>ABL 8 ?@52@0B8;0AL 1K 2 ACECN 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=CN 83@C. >MB><C ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 MDD5:B82=0O 687=L 3@C??K O2;O5BAO 42>O:>9  3@C??0 6825B "745AL 8 B5?5@L", 0 2<5AB5 A B5< ?@>8AE>48B 0=0;87 MB>9 687=8. ! MB8< A2O70=K 8 425 206=59H85 7040G8 B5@0?52B0- 25AB8 3@C??C 2 @0<:0E "745AL 8 B5?5@L", ?>>I@OBL ?@>F5AA M<>F8>=0;L=>3> ?5@56820=8O 8 @C:>2>48BL >1JOA=5=85<, 0=0;87>< 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0. A>15==> 206=>9 O2;O5BAO 2B>@0O 7040G0. "5?5@L 1>;55 ?>4@>1=> >1AC48< 7040G8 3@C??>2>3> B5@0?52B0 =0 :064>< MB0?5 ?@>F5AA0 "745AL 8 B5?5@L". 'B> <>65B ?><>GL B5@0?52BC @072820BL 3@C??>2>9 ?@>F5AA, 25AB8 3@C??C "745AL 8 B5?5@L"? @5645 2A53> 5<C A;54C5B <KA;8BL :0B53>@8O<8 "745AL 8 B5?5@L" 8 ?>AB>O==> A;548BL 8 0=0;878@>20BL E>4 @01>BK 3@C??K. G5=L 206=> 2 3@C??>2KE A8BC0F8OE =09B8 0=0;>38 0:BC0;L=KE ?@>1;5< 2 @50;L=>9 687=8 CG0AB=8:>2. 040G0 B5@0?52B0  ?>AB>O==> =0?@02;OBL 3@C??C >B 48A:CAA89 > 2=53@C??>2>< >?KB5 : >1AC645=8N 2708<>>B=>H5=89. 0 MB> >A>15==> <=>3> 2@5<5=8 ?@8E>48BAO B@0B8BL 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K. ! A0<KE ?5@2KE 2AB@5G B5@0?52B 4>;65= =0?@02;OBL CG0AB=8:>2 >B 01AB@0:B=KE ?@>1;5< : :>=:@5B=K<, >B >1I5G5;>25G5A:8E 2>?@>A>2  : ;8G=K<. 0?@8<5@, 5A;8 CG0AB=8: 3@C??K 3>2>@8B, GB> 5<C ;CGH5 ?><>;G0BL, ?>B><C GB> >= 2A5340 3>2>@8B 3;C?>AB8, B5@0?52B, >@85=B8@CO CG0AB=8:0 =0 "745AL 8 B5?5@L", <>65B A?@>A8BL, :0:85 3;C?>AB8 >= A:070; =0 A53>4=OH=5< 70=OB88 3@C??K. A;8 CG0AB=8F0 3>2>@8B, GB> >=0 AB5A=O5BAO 3>2>@8BL > =5:>B>@KE 25I0E 2 3@C??5, B5@0?52B <>65B A?@>A8BL, GB> A0<>5 C60A=>5 <>65B ?@>87>9B8, 5A;8 >=0 @5H8BAO @0AA:070BL >1 MB><. A;8 CG0AB=8: 3@C??K 2K@0605B >?0A5=85 ?> ?>2>4C B>3>, GB> 4@C385 1C4CB A<5OBLAO =04 =8<, B5@0?52B <>65B A?@>A8BL: "B> :>=:@5B=> 2 3@C??5 <>65B A<5OBLAO =04 B>1>9?" 8 B.4. @C??>2>9 ?@>F5AA @0728205B 8 B@51>20=85 : CG0AB=8:0< =5?>A@54AB25==> >1@0I0BLAO 4@C3 : 4@C3C, A<>B@5BL =0 A>15A54=8:0, 3>2>@8BL >B A2>53> 8<5=8, =0G8=0O "O...", 0 =5 "<K...". #A8;8O B5@0?52B0 ?> @0728B8N ?@>F5AA0 "745AL 8 B5?5@L" <>3CB 1KBL >1>1I5=K AD>@<C;8@>20==>9 I.D.Yalom (1985) 7040G59  ?><>GL CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K ?@52@0B8BL =0<5@5=85 2 @5H5=85, 0 @5H5=85  2 459AB285, >1>1I0BL 3@C??>2>9 >?KB 8 ?5@5=>A8BL 53> 2 @50;L=CN 687=L. 'B>1K ?><>GL CG0AB=8:0< @07>1@0BLAO 2 3@C??>2>< ?@>F5AA5, B5@0?52B A0< 4>;65= E>@>H> ?>=8<0BL 53>. ?KB=K9 B5@0?52B 45;05B MB> 5AB5AB25==> 8 157 CA8;89. 0: >B<5G05B M.F.Ettin (1992), B5@0?52B 3@C??K, =01;N40O, :0: CG0AB=8:8 >1I0NBAO, 1>@NBAO <564C A>1>9, A>AB02;O5B 2A5 1>;55 ?>;=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > :064>< CG0AB=8:5 8, >1J548=OO 2A5 MB8 M;5<5=BK 2 F5;>5, ?>;CG05B ":0@B8=C" 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0. "0:8< >1@07><, ?>=8<0=8N 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0 <>65B A?>A>1AB2>20BL =01;N45=85 <=>38E, ?>@>9 =570<5B=KE 45B0;59. B> 345 A048BAO, ?@8E>4O =0 70=OB85 3@C??K? B> ?>AB>O==> A048BAO @O4><? B> A048BAO 1;865 : B5@0?52BC, :B> 40;LH5 >B =53>? B> A048BAO 1;865 : 425@8? B> ?@8E>48B =0 70=OB85 @0=LH5 2@5<5=8, :B> 2>2@5<O, :B> ?>AB>O==> >?074K205B? B> =0 :>3> A<>B@8B, :>340 3>2>@8B? B> A<>B@8B =0 B5@0?52B0, :>340 :B>-;81> 3>2>@8B? B> ?>AB>O==> AC5B8BAO, ?>3;O4K205B =0 G0AK? B> 75205B 8;8 >B:@KB> A:CG05B? 'B> 3>2>@8BAO, 0 > G5< =5 3>2>@OB? B> =0 :>3> =5 >1@0I05B =8:0:>3> 2=8<0=8O 8 2545B A51O B0:, :0: 1C4B> >=/>=0 =5 ACI5AB2C5B? 0:85 B5<K >1E>4OB 2 3@C??5? B> :0: @5038@C5B =0 >B45;L=K5 B5<K? 0 :>3> =0?040NB G0I5, 0 =0 :>3> =8:>340 =5 =0?040NB? ><C ?><>30NB, 0 :B> =5 ?>;CG05B =8:0:>9 ?><>I8? 0: <5=O5BAO ?>2545=85 CG0AB=8:>2, :>340 :B>-;81> >BACBAB2C5B? B> ?> ?>2>4C MB>3> 2K@0605B >701>G5==>ABL, :B> AB0=>28BAO 1>;55 0:B82=K<, :B>  1>;55 ?0AA82=K<? 5A>>B25BAB285 <564C A;>20<8 8 =525@10;L=K< ?>2545=85<. 7-70 G53> G0I5 2A53> 2>7=8:05B =0?@O65==>ABL 2 3@C??5? >6=> 1K;> 1K =0720BL 8 4@C385 M;5<5=BK, 206=K5 4;O 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0. 4=0:> 8 C?><O=CBKE C65 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O ?>=8<0=8O B>3>, :0:8< 2=8<0B5;L=K< 8 =01;N40B5;L=K< 4>;65= 1KBL B5@0?52B, 5A;8 >= E>G5B ?>=OBL ?@>8AE>4OI55 2 3@C??5. @C38< 206=K< A@54AB2>< 4;O >@85=B0F88 2 3@C??>2>< ?@>F5AA5 =0@O4C A =01;N40B5;L=>ABLN O2;ONBAO A>1AB25==K5 GC2AB20 B5@0?52B0. 0: <5B:> 70<5B8; I.D.Yalom (1985), "4;O >?KB=>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 53> GC2AB20  A;>2=> <8:@>A:>? 4;O <8:@>18>;>30". >=8<0=85 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0  MB> ;8HL ?>;>28=0 @01>BK B5@0?52B0. @C30O ?>;>28=0  ?5@540G0 MB>3> ?>=8<0=8O CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K.  >B45;L=K5 <><5=BK 687=8 3@C??K (A8BC0F88 A>?@>B82;5=8O, BC?8:>2K5 A8BC0F88, 1>;57=5==K5 ?5@56820=8O, =5>6840==K5 @072O7:8 8 B.?.) B5@0?52B 4>;65= "2B>@3=CBLAO" 2 3@C??>2>9 ?@>F5AA, GB>1K ?>4=OBL 206=K5 2>?@>AK, ?><>30NI85 ?>=OBL ?@>F5AA (M.F.Ettin, 1992): 'B> A59G0A ?@>8AE>48B 2 3@C??5? 0: 2A5 MB> =0G0;>AL 8 ?>445@6820;>AL 8 :0: GC2AB2CNB A51O B5?5@L CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K?  :0:>< =0?@02;5=88 @0728205BAO 3@C??>2>9 ?@>F5AA 8 2 :0:>< =0?@02;5=88 3@C??0 8715305B 84B8? >G5<C 2A5 ?@>87>H;> B0:, :0: ?@>87>H;>, 8 ?>G5<C B@C4=> GB>-;81> 87<5=8BL? !B@5<;5=85 8A:0BL >B25BK =0 MB8 2>?@>AK 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>=OBL @07;8G=K5 A8BC0F88 2 687=8 3@C??K. 1JOA=OO 3@C??>2>9 ?@>F5AA, B5@0?52B 4>;65= A2O7K20BL >1JOA=5=85 A ?>2545=85< :>=:@5B=KE CG0AB=8:>2. >340 CG0AB=8:, A?>A>15= >A>7=0BL, GB> A =8< ?@>8AE>48B 2 3@C??5, B5@0?52B <>65B ?>4=OBL 206=K9, <K 1K A:070;8, M:78AB5=F80;L=K9 2>?@>A: ">2>;5= ;8 BK B5< A2>8< <8@><, :>B>@K9 A0< A>7405HL?" >B B0: BK 2545HL A51O A >:@C60NI8<8, B0: A>7405HL 8E <=5=85 > A515, 0 2 @57C;LB0B5 8 A2>5 <=5=85 > A0<>< A515,  "4>2>;5= ;8 BK B5<, GB> 45;05HL?" A5 MB8 459AB28O B5@0?52B0 3@C??K =0?@02;5=K =0 B>, GB>1K CG0AB=8:8 ?@8=O;8 @5H5=85 87<5=8BL A2>5 ?>2545=85, 687=L. =CB@5==59 8=AB0=F859 G5;>25:0, ?>1C640NI59 : 459AB28N, ?@52@0I0NI59 =0<5@5=85 2 @5H5=85, 0 ?>A;54=55 2 459AB285, O2;O5BAO 2>;O (:AB0B8, 55 7=0G5=85 ?@87=05B =5 B0: C6 8 <=>3> B5>@5B8:>2 ?A8E>B5@0?88  O.Rank, R.May, S.Arieti, L.Farber, I.Yalom). 1JOA=OO 3@C??>2>9 ?@>F5AA ?>A@54AB2>< ?>2545=8O :>=:@5B=KE CG0AB=8:>2, B5@0?52B "70?CA:05B" <5E0=87< 8E 2>;8. &5;L B5@0?52B0  ?@>2>48BL CG0AB=8:>2 4> B>9 B>G:8, 345 >=8 =0G8=0NB ?@8=8<0BL >4=>, =5A:>;L:> 8;8 2A5 MB8 107>2K5 @5H5=8O (I.D.Yalom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ullan 8 M.Rosenbaum (1978). A;8 701>;5205B B5@0?52B (0 2 ?@>4>;68B5;L=KE 0<1C;0B>@=KE 3@C??0E B0:0O A8BC0F8O 25@>OB=0), >= 4>;65= ;8G=> ?>72>=8BL 2A5< CG0AB=8:0< 8 ?@54C?@548BL 8E > ?5@5=>A5 2AB@5G8 (5A;8 =5B 4>3>2>@5==>AB8, GB> 2 >BACBAB285 B5@0?52B0 3@C??0 1C45B @01>B0BL A :>-B5@0?52B>< 8;8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>). A;8 > 1>;57=8 B5@0?52B0 CG0AB=8:>2 8=D>@<8@C5B :B>-;81> 4@C3>9, >= 4>;65= :>@>B:> 8 OA=> >1JOA=8BL 8<, GB> A;CG8;>AL, =0A:>;L:> MB> A5@L57=> 8 ?@81;878B5;L=> A:>;L:> 2@5<5=8 B5@0?52B 1C45B 1>;5BL. >;57=L 8 3>A?8B0;870F8O CG0AB=8:0 B0:65 2K7K205B >701>G5==>ABL 2 3@C??5, >A>15==> 2 A?;>G5==>9.  MB>9 A8BC0F88 B5@0?52B 4>;65= ?>ABC?8BL B0:, :0: ?>4A:07K20NB 5<C GC2AB20; >= <>65B, : ?@8<5@C, =025AB8BL CG0AB=8:0 2 1>;L=8F5, >4=0:> MB> =5 >1O70B5;L=> 8 BCB A;54C5B =5 ?5@5CA5@4AB2>20BL. A>15==> 8=B5=A82=K5 8 3;C1>:85 GC2AB20 2 3@C??5 <>65B 2K720BL BO65;0O 1>;57=L 8;8 A<5@BL 1;87:8E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. =>340 8A?KB02H89 MB> CG0AB=8: GC2AB2C5B A51O =0AB>;L:> ?>402;5==K<, GB> <>65B ?>:8=CBL 3@C??C.  MB>< A;CG05 B5@0?52B 4>;65= ?>?KB0BLAO C45@60BL 53> (55): "7-70 A2>53> 3>@O B515 =5 A;54C5B ?>:840BL =0A. "K <>65HL ?>45;8BLAO A2>8<8 GC2AB20<8 ?> ?>2>4C A<5@B8 (1>;57=8) A =0<8". =>340 =5AG0ABL5 <>65B A;CG8BLAO A B5@0?52B><, :>340 C<8@05B 1;87:89 8;8 206=K9 4;O =53> G5;>25:. 3> ?>2545=85 2 ?>4>1=>9 A8BC0F88 <>65B 1KBL 42>O:8<. "5@0?52B <>65B =0 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O (=0 A:>;L:> 5<C ?>B@51C5BAO) ?@5@20BL 70=OB8O 3@C??K 8;8 =5 45;0BL MB>3>, 0 ?>45;8BLAO 2 3@C??5 A CG0AB=8:0<8 A2>8< =5AG0ABL5< 8 GC2AB2>< CB@0BK. >A;54=89 A?>A>1, E>BO 8 =5 ?@>AB>9, 8<55B 1>;LH89 A<KA; :0: 4;O B5@0?52B0, B0: 8 4;O 3@C??K, B0: :0: B5@0?52B ?>:07K205B 3@C??5, GB> GC2AB2C5B A51O 55 G0AB8G:>9, 4>25@O5B 59. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, =5 A;54C5B 8A?>;L7>20BL 3@C??C 4;O ?>8A:>2 CB5H5=8O. 4.5. !", "+  # " " ! ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8<8 3@C??0<8 @01>B0NB @07=K5 B5@0?52BK. 07;8G8O 2 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88 8 ;8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 >1CA;>2;820NB A?>A>1K 8E ?>2545=8O 8 @01>BK 2 3@C??5. %>BO ?>GB8 2A5 B5>@5B8:8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?@87=0NB, GB> AB8;L @01>BK B5@0?52B0 O2;O5BAO 206=K< D0:B>@><, >?@545;ONI8< MDD5:B82=>ABL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 @01>BK, >4=0:> 8<55BAO <0;> M<?8@8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 AB8;59 @C:>2>4AB20 3@C??>9. @8 >17>@5 @07;8G=KE AB8;59 @01>BK 3@C??>2KE B5@0?52B>2 <K 1C45< >?8@0BLAO =0 8AA;54>20=85, 2K?>;=5==>5 I.D.Yalom 8 M.A.Lieberman (1971, 1992). =8 ?@>0=0;878@>20;8 @01>BC 18 ABC45=G5A:8E 3@C??, B5@0?52B0<8 :>B>@KE 1K;8 ?@54AB028B5;8 @07;8G=KE =0?@02;5=89: 35HB0;LBB5@0?88, ?A8E>4@0<K, ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88, B@0=A0:F8>==>3> 0=0;870, "-3@C??, <0@0D>=>2, 3@C?? "2AB@5G" 8 @>AB0 ;8G=>AB8. (!@548 8AA;54>20==KE 3@C?? 1K;8 8 3@C??K 157 @50;L=>3> B5@0?52B0, @01>B02H85 ?> 8=AB@C:F8O<, 70?8A0==K< =0 0C48>:0AA5BC,  8E <K =5 1C45< >1AC640BL.)  8AA;54>20=88 ?@8=O;8 CG0AB85 209 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??. 0 >A=>20=88 0=0;870 @01>BK 3@C?? 8 >?@>A0 CG0AB=8:>2 02B>@K 2K45;8;8 6 206=59H8E B8?>2 3@C??>2KE B5@0?52B>2. "3@5AA82=K9 ;845@". -B> B5@0?52B, =02O7K20NI89 A2>5 <=5=85, A:;>==K9 : :>=D@>=B0F88, B@51>20B5;L=K9, => 2 B> 65 2@5<O ?@>O2;ONI89 701>BC >1 CG0AB=8:0E 3@C??K. !2>8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 CA8;8O >= A>A@54>B>G8205B =0 @5H5=88 ?@>1;5< >B45;L=KE CG0AB=8:>2, 0 =5 3@C??K 2 F5;><. #G0AB=8:C ?@54>AB02;O5BAO >?@545;5==0O AE5<0 4;O ?>=8<0=8O A51O 8 <8@0. "5@0?52B MB>3> B8?0 O2;O5BAO 02B>@8B0@=K<, 548=>2;0AB=K< @C:>2>48B5;5< 3@C??K. <5AB5 A B5< >= =5 8715305B >B:@K20BLAO ?5@54 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K. -B> ;845@ E0@87<0B8G5A:>3> B8?0.  MB><C B8?C 1K;8 >B=5A5=K B5@0?52BK 3@C?? 35HB0;LBB5@0?88, ?A8E>4@0<K, @>AB0 ;8G=>AB8. "N1OI89 ;845@". -B> 701>B;82K9 B5@0?52B, ?@8=8<0NI89 2> 2=8<0=85 ?>B@51=>AB8 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. = 405B CG0AB=8:0< =5 B>;L:> A2>N ;N1>2L, => 8 =C6=CN 8=D>@<0F8N > B><, :0: 87<5=8BL A51O, @5H0BL A2>8 ?@>1;5<K. -B> "<C4@K9 8 701>B;82K9 >B5F".  MB><C B8?C 1K;8 >B=5A5=K B5@0?52BK "-3@C??, <0@0D>=>2, B@0=A0:F8>==>3> 0=0;870. "!>F80;L=K9 8=65=5@". = 1>;LH5 @C:>2>48B @01>B>9 3@C??K :0: F5;>3>. =48284C0;L=K5 ?>B@51=>AB8 CG0AB=8:>2, 8E <56;8G=>AB=K5 >B=>H5=8O C =53> =0 2B>@>< ?;0=5. "5@0?52B MB>3> B8?0 @54:> ?@>B82>AB>8B 3@C??5, =5 A;8H:>< B@51>20B5;5=; CG0AB=8:0<8 >F5=8205BAO :0: =502B>@8B0@=K9 ;845@.  MB>9 :0B53>@88 1K;8 >B=5A5=K B5@0?52BK "-3@C??, 3@C?? "2AB@5G" 8 ?A8E>4@0<K. "52<5H820NI89AO ;845@". = <0;>0:B825=, =8:>340 =5 1K205B 2 A>AB>O=88 :>=D@>=B0F88 A 3@C??>9, =8G53> =5 B@51C5B >B CG0AB=8:>2, =5 ?><>305B 8<, 2>>1I5 A:;>=5= 45@60BLAO =0 1>;LH>< @0AAB>O=88 >B CG0AB=8:>2. "5@0?52B MB>3> B8?0 CG0AB2C5B 2 459AB28OE 3@C??K =><8=0;L=>.  MB>9 :0B53>@88 1K;8 >B=5A5=K B5@0?52BK ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:8E 3@C?? 8 B@0=A0:F8>==>3> 0=0;870. "%>;>4=K9 8 03@5AA82=K9 ;845@". = <5=55 03@5AA825=, G5< B5@0?52B ?5@2>3> B8?0, 8 >B;8G05BAO >B =53> B5<, GB> AB0@05BAO =5 >:07K20BL 2;8O=8O =0 E>4 @01>BK 3@C??K, CG0AB=8:0< >:07K205B <8=8<0;L=CN ?><>IL.  F5=B@5 2=8<0=8O B5@0?52B0 MB>3> B8?0  3@C??>2>9 ?@>F5AA :0: F5;>5.  MB>9 :0B53>@88 1K;8 >B=5A5=K B5@0?52BK 3@C?? @>AB0 ;8G=>AB8. ""5E=8:". = ?@54;0305B 3@C??5 <=>65AB2> @07=>>1@07=KE 3@C??>2KE C?@06=5=89 8 83@, ?>AB>O==> :>=B@>;8@C5B E>4 @01>BK 3@C??K 8 O2;O5BAO 02B>@8B0@=K<.  MB>9 :0B53>@88 1K;8 >B=5A5=K B5@0?52BK 3@C?? @>AB0 ;8G=>AB8. @8 7=0:><AB25 A MB>9 B8?>;>3859 3@C??>2KE B5@0?52B>2 A@07C 1@>A05BAO 2 3;070 B>, GB> =5@54:> ?@54AB028B5;8 >4=>9 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88 >B=>AOBAO : @07=K< ?> AB8;N B8?0<. -B> C:07K205B =0 B>, GB> AB8;L @01>BK B5@0?52B0 E>BO 8 7028A8B >B ?@8=OBKE 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 H:>;5 ?@8=F8?>2 8 CAB0=>2>:, >4=0:> 1>;LH5 >1CA;>2;8205BAO >A>15==>ABO<8 53> ;8G=>AB8. "0:8< >1@07><, B5>@5B8G5A:85 273;O4K 87<5=8BL ;53G5, G5< AB8;L @01>BK, B0: :0: MB> >7=0G0;> 1K 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 87<5=5=85 A2>59 ;8G=>AB8. KH5C?><O=CB>5 8AA;54>20=85 B0:65 ?>:070;>, GB> B5@0?52BK 3@C?? @07;8G=>3> B8?0 =5>48=0:>2> >F5=820NBAO A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?>B5=F80;L=>9 2@54=>AB8 8E AB8;O 4;O CG0AB=8:>2. 081>;LH89 ?@>F5=B CG0AB=8:>2, >B@8F0B5;L=> >F5=82H8E A2>9 3@C??>2>9 >?KB, 1K; 2 3@C??0E, @C:>2>48<KE B5@0?52B0<8 ?5@2>3> B8?0  "03@5AA82=K<8 ;845@0<8". !0<K<8 "157>?0A=K<8" >:070;8AL ";N1OI85 ;845@K". -B8 2K2>4K ?>4B25@640NB 8 2K?>;=5==K5 ?>74=55 8AA;54>20=8O. > 40==K< R.R.Dies (1983), CG0AB=8:8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C?? 1>;LH5 ?>;L7K ?>;CG0NB >B ?>78B82=>3> AB8;O @C:>2>4AB20 3@C??>9, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 03@5AA82=K5, =530B82=> :>=D@>=B8@CNI85 B5@0?52BK <>3CB 1KBL =5 B>;L:> =5MDD5:B82=K<8, => 8 ?>B5=F80;L=> >?0A=K<8 4;O =5:>B>@KE CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??. 2B>@8B0@=K9 AB8;L @01>BK A 3@C??>9 >F5=820NB :0: <5=55 MDD5:B82=K9 8 CG0AB=8:8 B@5=8=3>2KE 3@C?? 4;O ?@>D5AA8>=0;>2, 8AA;54>20==K5 K.R.MacKenzie A A>B@. (1987). > 40==K< R.A.Neimeyer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orey, 1990). %>BO ?>=OB8O ?5@5=>A0 8 :>=B@?5@5=>A0 2>7=8:;8 2 ?A8E>0=0;875, >4=0:> 459AB285 MB8E D5=><5=>2 O2;O5BAO C=825@A0;L=K< 8 >1AC6405BAO 2> 2A5E =0?@02;5=8OE ?A8E>B5@0?88. 5@5=>A '5< 1>;55 =5>?@545;5==0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O A8BC0F8O, B5< 1>;LH5 2>7<>6=>ABL 2>7=8:=>25=8O ?5@5=>A0. !8BC0F8O 3@C??K :0: @07 8 O2;O5BAO B0:>9, >A>15==> 2 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 @01>BK, :>340 <=>3>5 =5OA=>, :>340 CG0AB=8:8 =5 7=0NB, :0: 25AB8 A51O 8 GB> 45;0BL.  =0G0;5 @01>BK ;N1>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K CG0AB=8:8 8A:065==> 2>A?@8=8<0NB B5@0?52B0, 8 >= 4>;65= 7=0BL, =0 :0:8E GC2AB20E 8 >6840=8OE CG0AB=8:8 AB@>OB A2>5 >B=>H5=85 : =5<C. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL 8 B>, GB> MB8 >6840=8O >G5=L G0AB> 1K20NB 40;5:8 >B @50;L=>AB8. 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'5< 1>;LH5 8 8A:@5==55 B5@0?52B @5038@C5B =0 CG0AB=8:>2, 3>2>@8B > A2>8E GC2AB20E 8 "CG0AB2C5B" 2 GC2AB20E CG0AB=8:>2, G5< 1>;LH5 C20605B 8E @50:F88 ?> >B=>H5=8N : =5<C, B5< <5=LH5 <5AB0 >AB05BAO <8AB8D8F8@>20==K< GC2AB20< 8 CAB0=>2:0< CG0AB=8:>2 ?> >B=>H5=8N : =5<C. >340 B5@0?52B >B:@KB> 8 ;8G=> "6825B" 2 3@C??5, CG0AB=8:0< 2A5 B@C4=55 1K205B A>E@0=8BL A2>8 AB5@5>B8?K 53> 2>A?@8OB8O. 1@0I0O 2=8<0=85 =0 @50;L=>ABL @50:F89 ?5@5=>A0 2 @01>B5 3@C??K, =5 A;54C5B ?@5C25;8G820BL 7=0G5=85 ?5@5=>A0 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5. 45AL =0H5 <=5=85 @57:> >B;8G05BAO >B <=5=8O ?@54AB028B5;59 B@048F8>==>9 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88, :>B>@K5 A:;>==K CA<0B@820BL "@C:C ?5@5=>A0" GCBL ;8 =5 2> 2A5E 2708<>459AB28OE CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. @8 B0:>9 >F5=:5 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0 =5@54:> 2=8<0=85 >B 2708<>459AB28O CG0AB=8:>2 ?5@5=>A8BAO =0 8=B5@?@5B0F8N 8 0=0;87 >B=>H5=89 CG0AB=8:>2 A B5@0?52B><. @8 MB>< 8=>340 4> A<5H=>3> ?@5C25;8G8205BAO @>;L B5@0?52B0 2 687=8 3@C??K. 0?@8<5@, ?@8 >1JOA=5=88 B>3>, GB> CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K, >:07K20NI85 ?><>IL 4@C3 4@C3C, 65;0NB CAB@0=8BL B5@0?52B0 8;8 E>BOB ?>:070BL, GB> <>3CB >1>9B8AL 8 157 =53> 8 B.?. A;8 2> 2A5< CA<0B@8205BAO ?5@5=>A, B5@O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>4;8==>3> >1I5=8O A CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K. >=B@?5@5=>A 50;L=> ?@54?>;0305BAO, GB> =5B G5;>25:0 157 "=52@>B8G5A:8E ?OB=KH5:". 0: 3>2>@8;0 F.Fromm-Reichman (F8B. ?> H.Mullan, 1969), "<K >B;8G05<AO >B A2>8E ?0F85=B>2 =5 E0@0:B5@>< [=0@CH5=89], 0 AB5?5=LN [2K@065==>AB8]". N1K5 ?@>1;5<K ?A8E>B5@0?52B0, :>=AC;LB0=B0 8;8 B5@0?52B0 3@C??K O2;ONBAO ?>B5=F80;L=K< ?@>AB@0=AB2>< 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O @50:F89 :>=B@?5@5=>A0. > A;>20< H.Mullan (1969), 5A;8 1K <K =0 <3=>25=85 701K;8, GB> B5E=8G5A:8 8 MB8G5A:8 65;0B5;L=> 2 @01>B5, >1=0@C68;8 1K <=>3> 42CA<KA;5==KE GC2AB2 ?> >B=>H5=8N : A2>8< :;85=B0<.  MB>< 8 :@>5BAO >?0A=>ABL :>=B@?5@5=>A0. 0: :@0B:> >E0@0:B5@87>20;8 55 H.B.Crasilneck 8 J.A.Hall (1985), MB> "8A:065=85 ?>=8<0=8O ?0F85=B0 2 3>;>25 :>=AC;LB0=B0". G.Corey A A>B@. 2K45;ONB 5 ?@>O2;5=89 :>=B@?5@5=>A0 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E. >B@51=>ABL 2 ?>AB>O==>9 ?>445@6:5 8 >4>1@5=88. 5:>B>@K5 ;N48 2K18@0NB ?@>D5AA8N ?A8E>B5@0?52B0, ?@54AB02;OO, GB> 1C4CB C20605<K 8 ;N18<K, GB> 4@C385 1C4CB 8A:0BL 8E ?><>I8 8 A>25B>2. @C??>2>9 B5@0?52B A ?>2KH5==>9 ?>B@51=>ABLN 2 >4>1@5=88 CG0AB=8:>2 1C45B 25AB8 A51O 2 3@C??5 B0:, GB>1K 4>18BLAO MB>3>. 0?@8<5@, >= <>65B 871530BL :>=D@>=B0F88 A CG0AB=8:0<8, >?0A0OAL, GB> 70 MB> 53> 1C4CB <5=LH5 ;N18BL. =K<8 A;>20<8, B5@0?52B 8A?>;L7C5B 3@C??C 4;O C4>2;5B2>@5=8O A2>8E ?>B@51=>AB59. 45=B8D8:0F8O A ?@>1;5<0<8 CG0AB=8:>2. -B> =5@54:0O ?@>1;5<0 =0G8=0NI8E. 5@56820O ?@>1;5<K CG0AB=8:>2, ;53:> ?>B5@OBL >1J5:B82=>ABL 8 2>7<>6=>ABL ?><>GL CG0AB=8:0< 2 @5H5=88 8E ?@>1;5<. ;O B5@0?52B0 >G5=L 206=> C<5BL >B;8G0BL A2>8 GC2AB20 >B GC2AB2 CG0AB=8:>2 8 C<5BL =5 "701;C48BLAO" =8 2 >4=8E, =8 2 4@C38E. ;N1;5==>ABL B5@0?52B0 8 A5:AC0;L=K5 GC2AB20 ?> >B=>H5=8N : CG0AB=8:0<. "!>1;07=8B5;L=>5" ?>2545=85 =5:>B>@KE CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, >A>15==> 5A;8 >=8 A8<?0B8G=K B5@0?52BC, <>65B AB0BL ?@8G8=>9 >B25B=KE GC2AB2 ?>A;54=53>. K;> 1K A;8H:>< :0B53>@8G=> CB25@640BL, GB> M@>B8G5A:85 GC2AB20 B5@0?52B0 2 3@C??5 >1O70B5;L=> O2;ONBAO 2K@065=85< :>=B@?5@5=>A0 8 <5H0NB MDD5:B82=>9 @01>B5. "@C4=>AB8 2>7=8:0NB, :>340 B5@0?52B =5 A?>A>15= >A>7=0BL MB8 GC2AB20, :>340 53> ?>B@51=>AB8 AB0=>2OBAO 4;O =53> 206=55, G5< ?>B@51=>AB8 CG0AB=8:>2, 8;8 :>340 53> A5:AC0;L=K5 GC2AB20 >:07K20NBAO 2 F5=B@5 53> >B=>H5=89 A CG0AB=8:0<8. 02O7K20=85 A>25B>2. >AB>O==>5 AB@5<;5=85 B5@0?52B0 4020BL A>25BK CG0AB=8:0< <>65B 1KBL 2K@065=85< =5@5H5==KE 2=CB@5==8E :>=D;8:B>2 8 >B@060BL 53> 65;0=85 :0: <>6=> A:>@55 =09B8 @5H5=85 ?@>1;5< CG0AB=8:>2. "0:>5 ?>2545=85 B5@0?52B0 >A>15==> ?>>I@ONB CG0AB=8:8, A:;>==K5 8A:0BL :>=:@5B=K5 8 1KAB@K5 >B25BK =0 2>?@>AK, :0A0NI85AO 8E 687=8 (MB> A2>9AB25==> 1>;LH8=AB2C :;85=B>2 ?A8E>B5@0?88). >7<>6=>ABL 40BL A>25B G0AB> AB028B B5@0?52B0 2KH5 :;85=B0 8 <>65B A>740BL 8;;N78N, GB> >= 459AB28B5;L=> 7=05B >B25BK =0 2A5 2>?@>AK CG0AB=8:>2. 5;0=85 ?>445@6820BL >B=>H5=8O A CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K 70 55 ?@545;0<8. -B> A>>B25BAB2C5B 65;0=8N =5:>B>@KE CG0AB=8:>2 8<5BL 1>;55 1;87:85 8 1>;55 ;8G=>AB=K5 >B=>H5=8O A B5@0?52B><. > >B=>H5=8O B0:>3> @>40 <>3CB 2K720BL 7028ABL 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 8 >B@078BLAO =0 48=0<8G5A:>< ?@>F5AA5 3@C??K. "5@0?52BC A;54C5B @07>1@0BLAO 2 A2>8E GC2AB20E 8 ?>B@51=>ABOE, GB>1K =5:>B>@K5 CG0AB=8:8 =5 AB0;8 >1J5:B>< M:A?;C0B0F88 A 53> AB>@>=K. @C??>2>9 B5@0?52B 4>;65= ?>AB>O==> A;548BL 70 A2>8<8 GC2AB20<8, GB>1K 2>2@5<O 70<5B8BL 2>7<>6=K5 @50:F88 :>=B@?5@5=>A0. -B><C <>3CB ?><>GL 2>?@>AK, =0 :>B>@K5 B5@0?52B 4>;65= 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 >B25G0BL A515 (.. Ohlsen A A>B@., 1988): 5 A;8H:>< ;8 =@028BAO (8;8 =5 =@028BAO) <=5 :B>-;81> 87 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K? 5 A;8H:>< ;8 O @5038@CN =0 GLN-B> 1>;L? 5;0N/871530N ;8 O 2AB@5G A :5<-;81> 87 CG0AB=8:>2? 01>GCAL ;8 O 8;8 <=>3> 4C<0N > :><-;81> <564C 2AB@5G0<8 3@C??K? "@C4=> ;8 <=5 A>A@54>B>G8BLAO, 4C<0O > :><-;81>? @>O2;ON ;8 O =5B5@?5;82>ABL 87-70 GL53>-;81> B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?@>3@5AA0? 5 A;8H:>< ;8 <=>3> 4C<0N > B><, :0: ?><>GL :><C-;81>? 5 >?5:0N ;8 O :>3>-;81> 87 CG0AB=8:>2? A;8 B5@0?52B >1=0@C68205B 2 A515 GC2AB20 :>=B@?5@5=>A0, >= 4>;65= >1AC48BL 8E A AC?5@287>@>< 8;8 2 3@C??5 ?@>D5AA8>=0;>2 (=> =5 2 A2>59 3@C??5!).  2 70:;NG5=85 =5A:>;L:> A>25B>2 B5@0?52B0< >B=>A8B5;L=> :>=B@?5@5=>A0, :>B>@K5 ?@54;030NB M.S.Corey 8 G.Corey (1987). 5 A;54C5B 1KBL ;53:>25@=K< 8 =5:@8B8G=> ?@8=8<0BL A:070==>5 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K. 5B@C4=> 845=B8D8F8@>20BLAO A @50:F8O<8 CG0AB=8:>2, :>340 >=8 3>2>@OB, GB> B5@0?52B <C4@K9, 701>B;82K9, ?><>30NI89, ?>=8<0NI89, 2A5 284OI89, A8<?0B8G=K9, A8;L=K9 8 B.?. 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">G=> B0: 65 >=8 <>3CB 8A:@5==5 A5@48BLAO =0 B5@0?52B0, 8 5<C =5 A;54C5B MB> 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL, A:065<, :0: ?5@5=>A 8 B.?. 5 2A5 GC2AB20 B5@0?52B0 O2;ONBAO @57C;LB0B>< :>=B@?5@5=>A0. 5?@028;L=> 1K;> 1K 4C<0BL, GB> B5@0?52B 2A5340 >1J5:B825= 8 >48=0:>2> 2848B 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. = 254L B>65 G5;>25: A> A2>8<8 CAB0=>2:0<8, A8<?0B8O<8 8 0=B8?0B8O<8, F5==>ABO<8, GC2AB20<8. >=B@?5@5=>A>< <>6=> AG8B0BL ?>2B>@ONI85AO GC2AB20 ?> >B=>H5=8N : @07;8G=K< CG0AB=8:0< 2 @07;8G=KE 3@C??0E. 4=8 CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K <>3CB =@028BLAO 1>;LH5, 4@C385  <5=LH5, =5:>B>@K5 2K7K20NB M@>B8G5A:85 D0=B0788  MB> =5 >1O70B5;L=> :>=B@?5@5=>A. 06=> >A>7=0BL MB8 GC2AB20 8 =5 ?>72>;8BL 8< 2>?;>B8BLAO 2 0=B8B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 459AB28OE. 4.7. ! ! +" " "   # A;8 A0<>@0A:@KB85 CG0AB=8:>2 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 206=59H8E ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 3@C??K, B> A0<>@0A:@KB85 B5@0?52B0 @0AA<0B@8205BAO =5>4=>7=0G=>. > MB><C 2>?@>AC ACI5AB2CNB >A>15==> 1>;LH85 @07;8G8O 2> <=5=8OE A@548 ?@54AB028B5;59 @07=KE B5>@5B8G5A:8E >@85=B0F88  >B >B@8F0=8O A0<>@0A:@KB8O B5@0?52B0 (?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:85 3@C??K) 4> 53> 01A>;NB870F88 (3@C??K "2AB@5G"). A;8 >B1@>A8BL :@09=>AB8, B> G0I5 2A53> ?>4=8<05BAO 2>?@>A  GB>, :>340 8 A:>;L:> B5@0?52BC @0AA:07K20BL > A515. >;LH8=AB2> A?5F80;8AB>2 ?> 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A>3;0H05BAO, GB> 3@C??>2>9 B5@0?52B 4>;65= 45;8BLAO A CG0AB=8:0<8 =5 A2>8<8 ?@>1;5<0<8, ;8G=K<8 8=B8<=K<8 ?5@56820=8O<8, 0 GC2AB20<8, 2>7=8:0NI8<8 2 A8BC0F8OE 2 ?@>F5AA5 3@C??>2>9 @01>BK.  ;N1>< A;CG05 206=K <>B82K  ?>G5<C B5@0?52B 3>2>@8B > A515? >MB><C A;54C5B A?@0H820BL A51O: ">G5<C <=5 E>G5BAO 3>2>@8BL > A515 2 3@C??5? ">;L:> ?>B><C, GB>1K =5 >B;8G0BLAO >B CG0AB=8:>2? ;8 65 <=5 E>G5BAO ?>:070BL ?@8<5@ CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K? 59AB28B5;L=> ;8 O E>GC 1KBL ;8G=K< A =8<8?" 5:>B>@K5 B5@0?52BK 3@C?? 871530NB ?@>O2;OBL 2 3@C??5 A2>8 ;8G=K5 @50:F88, ?@OG0AL 70 B08=AB25==K9 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K9 D0A04. '0ABK5 ?@8G8=K ?>4>1=>3> ?>2545=8O  AB@0E @8A:0, ?>B5@8 ?>78F88 M:A?5@B0 2 3@C??5, 1>O7=L ?>:070BLAO =5?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K< 8 ?>B5@OBL C2065=85 CG0AB=8:>2, 65;0=85 A>E@0=8BL 48AB0=F8N <564C A>1>9 8 CG0AB=8:0<8. -B8< A>E@0=O5BAO :;0AA8G5A:>5 <548F8=A:>5 >B=>H5=85 "2@0G0  ?0F85=B0". "0:0O ?>78F8O B5@0?52B0 2 53> 459AB28OE ?@>O2;O5BAO A:;>==>ABLN =5 @01>B0BL 2 3@C??5, 0 ">@30=87>2K20BL" 55 @01>BC, ?@54;030O 2A52>7<>6=K5 B5E=8:8, C?@06=5=8O, 83@K 8 B.?. #G0AB=8:8 3@C??K, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, =5@54:> ;N1OB A?@0H820BL B5@0?52B0 > 53> ;8G=>9 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 687=8. 0: A>25BC5B W.H.Friedman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alom (1985), A;8H:>< A2>1>4=K9, A?>=B0==K9 8 >B:@KBK9 B5@0?52B O2;O5BAO B0:8< 65 C7:8< 8 >3@0=8G5==K<, :0: 8 B@048F8>==K9 ?A8E>0=0;8B8: 2 @>;8 "15;>3> ;8AB0". @5645 G5< @0A:@K20BLAO, 3@C??>2>9 B5@0?52B 4>;65= >F5=8BL 3>B>2=>ABL CG0AB=8:>2 2KA;CH0BL, 2>7459AB285, :>B>@>5 <>65B >:070BL 53> A0<>@0A:@KB85 =0 CG0AB=8:>2, 8 =0A:>;L:> >=> A2O7K205BAO A ?@>F5AA>< "745AL 8 B5?5@L" 2 3@C??5. 01>B0 A 3@C??0<8 O2;O5BAO A;>6=K<, >B=8<0NI8< <=>3> 4CH52=KE A8; 70=OB85<, 8 55 <>6=> 5I5 1>;55 70B@C4=8BL, A<5H820O @>;8 B5@0?52B0 8 CG0AB=8:0. A8E>B5@0?52B 4>;65= 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL 68BL :0: A2>1>4=K9 G5;>25:, <>3CI89 A>E@0=8BL A2>N 687=L 4;O A51O 8 =5 ?@52@0I0BL 55 2 >1J5:B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E <0=8?C;OF89. B0:, A0<>@0A:@KB85 3@C??>2>3> B5@0?52B0 ?@5645 2A53> 4>;6=> A;C68BL F5;O< CG0AB=8:>2. => =5 4>;6=> =0?@02;OBL 2=8<0=8O >B CG0AB=8:>2 : ;8G=>AB8 B5@0?52B0. 081>;55 ?@>4C:B82=K< 2 3@C??5 O2;O5BAO 8A:@5==55 2K@065=85 GC2AB2 B5@0?52B>< ?> >B=>H5=8N : >B45;L=K< CG0AB=8:0< 8;8 : 3@C??>2><C ?@>F5AAC. 0?@8<5@, 5A;8 >= GC2AB2C5B, GB> CG0AB=8:8 A>?@>B82;ONBAO @01>B5, 871530NB 3>2>@8BL > A515, 2K@065=85 3@C??5 A2>59 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8, @074@065=8O <>65B 1KBL >G5=L F5==K<. > <=>38E 8AA;54>20=8OE ?>4G5@:8205BAO 7=0G5=85 ?@028;L=>3> A0<>@0A:@KB8O B5@0?52B0 4;O @01>BK 3@C??K. S.M.Jourard (1968, 1971), H8@>:> 8AA;54>202H89 A0<>@0A:@KB85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0, ?>4G5@:820;, GB> >=> A?>A>1AB2C5B 1>;LH5<C A0<>@0A:@KB8N CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. > 53> A;>20<, "254CI8< 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>< B0=F5 O2;O5BAO ?A8E>B5@0?52B, 0 :;85=B A;54C5B 70 =8<". ..Allan (1980; F8B. ?> I.D.Yalom. 1985), 8AA;54>202H89 2 B5G5=85 7 <5AOF52 @01>BC 3@C??K 8 2;8O=85 A0<>@0A:@KB8O B5@0?52B0, ?@8H5; : 2K2>4C, GB> >=> ?>1C6405B CG0AB=8:>2 : :>=AB@C:B82=><C 2708<>459AB28N 8 C25;8G8205B A?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K. R.R.Dies (1983) 8AA;54>20; <=5=85 CG0AB=8:>2 13 3@C?? @07;8G=>9 =0?@02;5==>AB8 > A0<>@0A:@KB88 B5@0?52B0 8 CAB0=>28;, GB> >=> 7028A8B >B B8?0 3@C??K, 2@5<5=8 8 A>45@60=8O A0<>@0A:@KB8O B5@0?52B0. #G0AB=8:8 3@C??K >B@8F0B5;L=> >F5=820NB 2K@065=85 GC2AB2, ?5@56820=89 8 :>=D;8:B>2 B5@0?52B0 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K 8 AG8B0NB MB> ?>;57=K< =0 1>;55 ?>74=8E MB0?0E @01>BK 3@C??K. "?KB=K5" CG0AB=8:8 (B.5. CG0AB2>202H85 2 =5A:>;L:8E 3@C??0E) =0<=>3> 1>;LH5 F5=OB A0<>@0A:@KB85 B5@0?52B0, G5< "=>28G:8" ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??. #G0AB=8:8 2KA>:> F5=OB 2K@065=85 ;8G=KE CAB@5<;5=89 B5@0?52B0 8 B0:8E GC2AB2, :0: >48=>G5AB2>, 3@CABL, 7;>ABL, >701>G5==>ABL, B@52>30, 8 >B@8F0B5;L=> >F5=820NB 2K@065=85 =530B82=KE M<>F89 B5@0?52B0 ?> >B=>H5=8N : >B45;L=K< CG0AB=8:0< 8;8 :> 2A59 3@C??5. !0<>@0A:@KB85 B5@0?52B0 <5=LH5 F5=8;>AL 2 3@C??0E, C CG0AB=8:>2 :>B>@KE 1K;8 7=0G8B5;L=K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K. 0:>=5F, :0: CG0AB=8:8, B0: 8 B5@0?52B 8AA;54>20==KE 3@C?? A>3;0A8;8AL, GB> A0<>@0A:@KB85 B5@0?52B0 1>;LH5 ?>4E>48B 3@C??0< "2AB@5G", G5< ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< 3@C??0< :>@@5:F8>==>-;5G51=>3> E0@0:B5@0. 4.8. -" / G5=L G0AB> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 3@C??K 254CB 420 B5@0?52B0.  3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 MB> =07K205BAO :>-B5@0?859. =0 >A>15==> F5==0 4;O =0G8=0NI8E B5@0?52B>2, 0 B0:65 2 @01>B5 ;5G51=KE B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??. 5AB8 3@C??K 2<5AB5 <>3CB B5@0?52BK, >1;040NI85 ?@8<5@=> >48=0:>2K< >?KB>< 8;8 >48= 87 =8E <>65B 1KBL =0G8=0NI8<. B=>A8B5;L=> ?>A;54=53> A;CG0O 254CBAO 48A:CAA88. 0?@8<5@, H.Mullan 8 M.Rosenbaum (1978) CB25@640NB, GB> 2<5AB5 25AB8 3@C??K <>3CB B>;L:> >?KB=K5 B5@0?52BK, B0: :0: CG0AB85 =0G8=0NI53> 2 @>;8 :>-B5@0?52B0 O2;O5BAO M:A?;C0B0F859 :;85=B>2 2 F5;OE >1CG5=8O 8 ?>MB><C =5MB8G=>. 4=0:> MB> <=5=85 =5 =0E>48B 2A5>1I53> >4>1@5=8O, B0: :0: :>-B5@0?8O O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 D>@< ?@8>1@5B5=8O ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >?KB0. A>15==> 206=K9 2>?@>A  <>B82K A>2<5AB=>9 @01>BK 42CE B5@0?52B>2 8 8E A>2<5AB8<>ABL. 0?@8<5@, 2 A;CG05 =54>AB0B>G=>9 C25@5==>AB8 2 @01>B5 A 3@C??0<8 <>6=> ?@83;0A8BL =0 @>;L :>-B5@0?52B0 1>;55 >?KB=>3> :>;;53C, => B@52>30 8 1>O7=L ?@83;0A82H53> ?>B5@OBL :>-B5@0?52B0 <>65B 1KBL ?><5E>9 4;O 2KA:07K20=8O 8< A2>53> <=5=8O, ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> <=5=8N :>;;538. ;8 8=>340 42C< :>;;530<, 2>7<>6=>, ?@>AB> E>G5BAO ?>1>;LH5 1K20BL 2<5AB5, 8 ?>MB><C >=8 =0G8=0NB A>2<5AB=> 25AB8 3@C??C.  B0:>< A;CG05 70 AG5B 3@C??K >=8 1C4CB C4>2;5B2>@OBL A2>8 ?>B@51=>AB8. "0: =0 :0:>9 >A=>25 420 B5@0?52B0 <>3CB @01>B0BL 2<5AB5? I.Haley (1963) >?8A0; 4>?>;=ONI89 8 A8<<5B@8G=K9 B8?K :>-B5@0?88. @8<5@>< 4>?>;=ONI53> B8?0 :>-B5@0?88 O2;O5BAO A>2<5AB=0O @01>B0 2 3@C??5 >?KB=>3> 8 =0G8=0NI53> B5@0?52B0, CG8B5;O 8 ABC45=B0.  :>-B5@0?88 A8<<5B@8G=>3> B8?0 >10 ?0@B=5@0 @02=K. > 2 ;N1>< A;CG05 A>2<5AB=0O @01>B0 42CE A?5F80;8AB>2 4>;6=0 >A=>2K20BLAO =0 AB@5<;5=88 A>3;0A>2K20BL A2>8 ;8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 =02K:8 4;O >1I59 F5;8. >MB><C @01>B0NI85 2<5AB5 4>;6=K F5=8BL G5;>25G5A:85 :0G5AB20 4@C3 4@C30, ?>=8<0BL 8A?>;L7C5<K5 8<8 <5B>4K 8 >@85=B8@>20BLAO =0 >1I85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 F5;8 3@C??K. ;02=>5  2708<=>5 C2065=85 8 4>25@85. 5 AB>;L 206=>, GB>1K B5@0?52BK 1K;8 E>@>H8<8 4@C7LO<8; =0<=>3> 206=55 =>@<0;L=K5 @01>G85 >B=>H5=8O, ?>72>;ONI85 ?>AB>O==> >1AC640BL ?@>1;5<K A>2<5AB=>9 @01>BK. A;8 5ABL 2708<=>5 C2065=85 8 ?>=8<0=85, 4065 B5@0?52BK @07;8G=KE AB8;59 <>3CB CA?5H=> @01>B0BL 2<5AB5. >-B5@0?8O ?>72>;O5B 8A?KB0BL C=8:0;L=K5 ?@58<CI5AB20 >1I59 @01>BK 2 3@C??5 <C6G8=K 8 65=I8=K. 01>B0NI0O A>2<5AB=> ?0@0 "2>AA>7405B" 2 3@C??5 AB@C:BC@C ?5@28G=>9 A5<L8, :>340 C 3@C??K 5ABL ">B5F" 8 "<0BL". ;O 1>;LH8=AB20 CG0AB=8:>2 MB> ?>2KH05B M<>F8>=0;L=K9 "70@O4" 3@C??K. !>2<5AB=0O @01>B0 <C6G8=K 8 65=I8=K 2 3@C??5 <>65B 1KBL =570<5=8<>9 <>45;LN @02=>?@02=>3> A>B@C4=8G5AB20 A >1>N4=K< C2065=85<, 157 M:A?;C0B0F88 8;8 A5:AC0;870F88 >B=>H5=89. =0 B0:65 @0AH8@O5B 2>7<>6=>AB8 >B>645AB2;5=8O CG0AB=8:>2. 0: >B<5G05B R.A.Schonbar (1973), CG0AB=8:8 A:;>==K >B>645AB2;OBLAO A B5@0?52B>< B>3> 65 ?>;0, => ?@>1;5<0<8 1>;55 >E>B=> 45;OBAO A B5@0?52B>< ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> ?>;0. > <=5=8N S.Vinogradov 8 I.D.Yalom (1989), C CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K =5@54:> 2>7=8:0NB @07=>>1@07=K5 D0=B0788 ?> >B=>H5=8N : ?0@5 B5@0?52B>2, =0?@., :0:>2> @0A?@545;5=85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 A8;K <564C B5@0?52B0<8, 8<5NB ;8 >=8 A5:AC0;L=K5 >B=>H5=8O 8 B.?.  7@5;>9 3@C??5 2>7<>6=> >B:@KB>5 >1AC645=85 MB8E D0=B0789, :>340 70B@038205BAO 2>?@>A A8;K 8 A5:A0 2 >B=>H5=8OE <C6G8=K 8 65=I8=K. 4=0:> W.H.Friedman (1989) C:07K205B, GB> A5:AC0;L=K5 A2O78 <564C B5@0?52B0<8 (:>=5G=>, 5A;8 >=8 =5 O2;ONBAO <C65< 8 65=>9) C<5=LH0NB 8E ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN MDD5:B82=>ABL 2 3@C??5. >7=8:05B 2>?@>A, <>3CB ;8 <C6 8 65=0 A>2<5AB=> 25AB8 3@C??C? "0:85 A;CG08 2AB@5G0NBAO, =>, ?> =01;N45=8O< 02B>@0, 8E MDD5:B82=>ABL 1K;0 A><=8B5;L=>9, B0: :0: 701>B0 4@C3 > 4@C35 8;8 ?@82=5A5==K5 87 A5<L8 ?@>1;5<K >:070;8 >B@8F0B5;L=>5 2>7459AB285 =0 @01>BC 3@C??K. !C?@C38 P.Low 8 M.Low (1975) >?8A0;8 A2>9 >?KB A>2<5AB=>3> 2545=8O 3@C?? AC?@C65A:8<8 ?0@0<8 8 >B<5B8;8, GB> 87-70 @07=8FK AB8;59 @01>BK 2 3@C??5 ?>O2;O;0AL =0?@O65==>ABL 2 A5<59=>9 687=8. 'B> 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 4>;6=K A45;0BL 420 G5;>25:0, @5H82H85 2<5AB5 25AB8 3@C??C? 0: >B<5G0NB M.S.Corey 8 G.Corey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inogradov 8 I.D.Yalom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orey A A>B@. (1988), ?@82545< =5A:>;L:> ?@0:B8G5A:8E A>25B>2 B5@0?52B0< 3@C??, :>B>@K5 <>3CB ?><>GL 8< ?@5>4>;5BL B@52>3C, 2>7=8:0NICN 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK A 3@C??0<8. A5340 8<59 2 284C ?5@25=AB2> ?>B@51=>AB59 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. A8E>B5@0?8O ?>E>60 =0 B0=5F  B> BK O2;O5HLAO 254CI8<, B> A;54C5HL 70 ?0@B=5@><, => 2 :064>< A;CG05 ?@8E>48BAO 4C<0BL, :0: 1>;55 30@<>=8G=> 42830BLAO >1>8<. 'C2AB28B5;L=>ABL 8 157CA;>2=>5 C2065=85 : CG0AB=8:0< O2;O5BAO >A=>2>9 ;N1>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2708<>459AB28O 2 3@C??5. 5 :><0=4C9 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K. @83;0A8 8E ?>?@>1>20BL 8 >AB02L 8< 2>7<>6=>ABL >B:070BLAO. >25@85 CG0AB=8:>2 <>6=> 702>520BL, ?@>O2;OO 4>1@CN 2>;N. !;548 70 =525@10;L=K< ?>2545=85<  :0: CG0AB=8:>2, B0: 8 A2>8<. C4L 3>B>2 : =5>6840==>ABO<. >340 GB>-;81> 3>2>@8HL 8;8 45;05HL 2 3@C??5, :065BAO, GB> 70@0=55 7=05HL, GB> 4>;6=> ?@>87>9B8, >4=0:> =5 2A5340 @57C;LB0B 1K205B B0:8<, :0:>3> >6840;. "0:>5 A;CG05BAO, :>340 =54>AB0B>G=> OA=> D>@<C;8@C5HL, G53> E>B5; 1K, 8 CG0AB=8:8 45;0NB =5 B>, GB> BK E>B5;. "0: A;CG05BAO 5I5 8 ?>B><C, GB> CG0AB=8:8 =0E>4OB =>2K5, =5?@542845==K5 @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<. 8:>340 =5 1C4L C25@5= 2 B><, GB>, ?@8<5=OO B5 65 A0<K5 <5B>4K, :064K9 @07 ?>;CG8HL B>B 65 @57C;LB0B. 8A:C9. 07=8F0 <564C >?KB=K< 8 =5>?KB=K< B5@0?52B0<8 A>AB>8B 2 =0AB>9G82>AB8 2 @50;870F88 F5;59 8 2 A?>A>1=>AB8 @8A:>20BL. 5 1>9AO HCB8BL, >4=0:> =5 HCB8 ?;>A:>. .<>@8AB8G5A:89 273;O4 =0 A8BC0F88 2 3@C??5 45;05B 8E 1>;55 OA=K<8 8 ?>=OB=K<8. > N<>@ =5 4>;65= 1KBL 10=0;L=K<, 2C;L30@=K<, C=860NI8< CG0AB=8:>2. 5 1C4L @01>< A2>8E ?@54?>AK;>:. 5 A;54C5B 4C<0BL, GB> 2 687=8 3@C??K 2A5 4>;6=> A>>B25BAB2>20BL B><C, GB> =0?8A0=> 2 :=830E 8;8 GB> ?@>8AE>48;> 2 @01>B5 4@C38E 3@C??. 5 701K209 > F5==>ABOE. =>3>5 2 687=8 3@C??K >?8@05BAO =0 F5==>AB8 B5@0?52B0 8 CG0AB=8:>2. 5 GC2AB2C9 A51O 548=AB25==> ?@02K< 8 7=0NI8<, GB> E>@>H> 8 GB> ?;>E>, 8 =5 =02O7K209 A2>8 F5==>AB8 3@C??5, => 8 =5 A:@K209 A2>8E 273;O4>2 >B CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. 5;8AL >B25BAB25==>ABLN. #A?5E 2 @01>B5 3@C??K 7028A8B =5 B>;L:> >B B5@0?52B0, => 8 >B CG0AB=8:>2. 5 4C<09, GB> 5A;8 687=L 3@C??K 8=B5=A82=0 8 ?@>4C:B82=0, B> MB> 1;03>40@O B515, 0 5A;8 =0>1>@>B  B> B>;L:> ?> B2>59 28=5. 5 ?KB09AO A;8H:>< ?@O<>;8=59=> 87<5=OBL ;N459. =>340 <>65B ?>:070BLAO, GB> CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K <5=ONBAO 1;03>40@O @01>B5 B5@0?52B0, => =5 4C<09, GB> 3@C??0  MB> 3;8=0, 87 :>B>@>9 <>6=> ;5?8BL 2A5, GB> C3>4=>. 87=L 8 87<5=5=8O, ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 ;N4OE, >G5=L A;>6=K. 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alom (1985), S.Vinogradov, I.D.Yalom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orey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ond 8 M.A.Lieberman (1978), >1>1I82 M<?8@8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O :@8B5@852 >B1>@0 CG0AB=8:>2 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 3@C??K, A2>9 >17>@ =0G0;8 A> A;>2: "N4O<, :>B>@K5 =045NBAO, GB> MB>B >17>@ ?><>65B 8< 2 >B1>@5 ?0F85=B>2 2 3@C??K, A>25BC5< 40;LH5 =5 G8B0BL".  2A5-B0:8, ?5@54 B5< :0: ?@8ABC?8BL : D>@<8@>20=8N ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K, B5@0?52B >1O70= 2K1@0BL B5 8;8 8=K5 :@8B5@88 >B1>@0 CG0AB=8:>2.  :=830E ?> 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?@54;030NBAO @07;8G=K5 :@8B5@88 >B1>@0. > <=5=8N I.D.Yalom (1985), 3;02=K< :@8B5@85< >B1>@0 2 0<1C;0B>@=CN ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 3@C??C, @01>B0 :>B>@>9 >A=>20=0 =0 <56;8G=>AB=>9 48=0<8:5, O2;O5BAO 65;0=85 A0<>3> ?@5B5=45=B0. #G0AB=8: 157 :>=:@5B=KE 65;0=89 A:;>=5= 2 ;N1>9 <><5=B ?@5@20BL ?A8E>B5@0?8N, 0 CG0AB85 2 3@C??5 ?@8=>A8B 5<C <5=LH5 ?>;L7K. @C3>9 206=K9 :@8B5@89  ?@>1;5<K <56;8G=>AB=>3> E0@0:B5@0, =0?@., >48=>G5AB2>, 87>;OF8O, 70AB5=G82>ABL, =5C<5=85 702O7K20BL 8 ?>445@6820BL 1;87:85 >B=>H5=8O, A:;>==>ABL : :>=:C@5=F88, 03@5AA82=>ABL, <=8B5;L=>ABL, B@C4=>AB8 2 >B=>H5=8OE A 02B>@8B5B0<8, M3>87<, =5C25@5==>ABL 2 A515, 7028A8<>ABL >B 4@C38E, 0 B0:65 M:78AB5=F80;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K  GC2AB2> 15AA<KA;5==>AB8 687=8, ?5@56820=85 CB@0BK, B@52>30, =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 687=LN, B@C4>3>;87< (=02O7G82>5 65;0=85 @01>B0BL), AB@0E A<5@B8 8 B.?. S.Vinogradova 8 I.D.Yalom (1989) 2K45;ONB =5A:>;L:> M;5<5=B0@=KE :@8B5@852 >B1>@0 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN B@C??C: !?>A>1=>ABL A?@02;OBLAO A 3@C??>2K<8 7040=8O<8. >B820F8O : ?A8E>B5@0?88. !>>B25BAB285 ;8G=KE ?@>1;5< F5;O< 3@C??K. >7<>6=>ABL ?>AB>O==> ?>A5I0BL 70=OB8O 8 @01>B0BL 2 3@C??5 4> 55 >:>=G0=8O. >E>685 :@8B5@88 ?@54;030NB W.H.Friedman (1989) 8 A.Fenster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alom (1985), 4;O B0:>9 3@C??K =5 ?>4E>4OB: N48 A ?>2@5645=8O<8 <>730. rf h F H L N L 񙲍tcMc*jhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph!hu5B*OJQJ\^Jph0jghuhuB*OJQJU^Jphhu0JOJQJ^J0jhuhuB*OJQJU^Jph$jhuB*OJQJU^Jph!hu6B*OJQJ]^Jphhu0JB*OJQJ^Jphhu5B* \phfhuB*OJQJ^JphrF J L 0&"#,-6 89:>>"?ABEgdu$a$gdugdu [$\$gdu [$\$gduF L N P , . 0 vxztvxοήήοήήvοήήZοήή6jhuhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph6jhuhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph6j huhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph!hu5B*OJQJ\^Jphhu0J5OJQJ\^J*jhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph6j>huhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph*,BD "0224BDln|~οήήοήήvοήήZοήή6jhuhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph6j$huhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph6jYhuhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph!hu5B*OJQJ\^Jphhu0J5OJQJ\^J*jhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph6jhuhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph@BDrtvFHJxz&οήήοήήvοήήZοήή6jK huhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph6jt huhu5B*OJQJU\^Jph6j 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"5@0?52B 3@C??K, @5H82H89 55 >@30=87>20BL, 4>;65= 4C<0BL =5 B>;L:> > B><, :0:85 :;85=BK ?@83>4=K 4;O 3@C??K, => 8 > B><, A :0:8<8 :;85=B0<8 >= =5 C<55B 8;8 =5 <>65B @01>B0BL, GC2AB2C5B A51O =5C25@5==>. 'B>1K 1KBL G5AB=K< A A0<8< A>1>9, A;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C 420 >H81>G=KE ?@54AB02;5=8O, 25AL<0 @0A?@>AB@0=5==KE A@548 3@C??>2KE B5@0?52B>2 (R.Naar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A5AB>@>==OO >F5=:0 :;85=B0 ?><>305B B5@0?52BC @5H8BL, =0A:>;L:> :;85=B A>>B25BAB2C5B E0@0:B5@C 8 F5;O< >@30=87C5<>9 3@C??K, ?>72>;O5B ?@>3=>78@>20BL 53> ?>2545=85 2 3@C??5, ?>445@6820BL >B=>H5=8O A 4@C38<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K. S.Vinogradova 8 I.Yalom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aretsky, 1977) 'B> B0:>5 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O? -B> B0:>9 284 ?A8E>B5@0?88, :>340 687=5==K<8 B@C4=>ABO<8 =C6=> 45;8BLAO =5 B>;L:> A ?A8E>B5@0?52B><, => 8 A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8 2 3@C??5, :>340 >B:@KB> >1AC6405BAO 2A5, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 3@C??5 <564C CG0AB=8:0<8. '0AB> >1AC640NBAO B0:85 B5<K, :0: >BGC645==>ABL, >48=>G5AB2>, 87>;OF8O, E0@0:B5@ >B=>H5=89 A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8, ?@>1;5<K 2 2K@065=88 GC2AB2, <>O ?>B@51=>ABL 2 4@C38E ;N4OE 8 ?>B@51=>ABL 4@C38E 2> <=5, B5@?8<>ABL 8 =5B5@?8<>ABL, 7;>10, >B@065=85 6H=5==KE ?@>1;5< 2 3@C??5 8 B.?. >G5<C 3@C??0? >340 =0 20H8 A;>20, GC2AB20, 459AB28O @5038@CNB =5A:>;L:> @07=KE ;N459, MB> >:07K205B =0<=>3> 1>;55 A8;L=>5 2>7459AB285, G5< @50:F8O >4=>3> G5;>25:0. -B> ?><>305B ;CGH5 ?>=OBL A51O 8 A2>8 >B=>H5=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8, @50;L=55 C2845BL ?>A;54AB28O >1I5=8O A =8<8. @C??0 O2;O5BAO 75@:0;><, 2 :>B>@>< <>6=> C2845BL A2>8 >B=>H5=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8 2 @50;L=>9 687=8.  G5<C AB@5<8BAO 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O? =0 AB0@05BAO ?>>I@OBL @>AB ;8G=>AB8, @50;8AB8G=>5 ?>=8<0=85 A51O 8 4@C38E, CG8B 8A:@5==8< >B=>H5=8O< A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8, @5H05B ;8G=>AB=K5 8 <56;8G=>AB=K5 ?@>1;5<K. 0: @01>B05B 3@C??0? #A?5E 55 @01>BK 7028A8B >B =5A:>;L:8E D0:B>@>2. A=>2=K5 87 =8E: 2708<>4>25@85 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, ?><>30NI55 8< 3>2>@8BL > A515; CG0AB85 2 =59 ;N459 A @07=K< 687=5==K< >?KB><; >1I85 F5;8 3@C??K, :>B>@K5 4>AB830NBAO A>2<5AB=K<8 CA8;8O<8; GC2AB2> >1I=>AB8, A?;>G5==>AB8 3@C??K; CG0AB85 :20;8D8F8@>20==>3> B5@0?52B0; 4>3>2>@5==>ABL 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2 ?@845@6820BLAO >?@545;5==KE ?@028;. B> B5@0?52B 3@C??K? -B> :20;8D8F8@>20==K9 ?A8E>;>3 8;8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B, 8<5NI89 A?5F80;L=CN ?>43>B>2:C 4;O @01>BK A 3@C??0<8. = O2;O5BAO CG0AB=8:>< 3@C??K, => 53> DC=:F88 A?5F8D8G=K. = =5 @5H05B 745AL A2>8E ;8G=KE ?@>1;5<, 0 AB@5<8BAO ?><>GL CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K ;CGH5 ?>=OBL, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 =8E A0<8E 8 2 3@C??5, >:07K205B ?><>IL 8 ?>445@68205B CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. A;8 B5@0?52B ?@8E>48B : 2K2>4C, GB> ?@5B5=45=B =5 ?>4E>48B 3@C??5, A;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL =5 AB>;L:> =5?@83>4=>ABL :;85=B0 4;O 3@C??K (E>BO 8=>340 2>7<>6=> 8 B0:>5 >1JOA=5=85), A:>;L:> =5?@83>4=>ABL MB>9 :>=:@5B=>9 3@C??K 4;O :;85=B0.  ;N1>< A;CG05 B@51C5BAO G5AB=>5 8 8A:@5==55 >1JOA=5=85 ?@8G8= >B:070, >AB02;ONI55 :;85=BC 2>7<>6=>ABL 8A?>;L7>20BL 4@C385 D>@<K ?A8E>B5@0?88. "5@0?52B 4>;65= >1AC48BL A :;85=B>< 2>7<>6=K5 20@80=BK 0;LB5@=0B82=>9 ?><>I8 (A?5F80;878@>20==0O 3@C??0, 8=48284C0;L=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O 8 4@.). -B> >1AC645=85 4>;6=> 1KBL :>=:@5B=K<, A;54C5B C:070BL, 345 <>6=> =09B8 ?><>IL. A;8 =5 ?@8=OBK< >:070;AO G5;>25:, :>B>@>3> =0?@028; 20H :>;;530, A;54C5B >1JOA=8BL A2>5 @5H5=85 ?>A;54=5<C. =>340 15A54K A ?@5B5=45=B0<8 =0 <5AB> 2 3@C??5 ?> @07=K< ?@8G8=0< A;>6=> >@30=87>20BL. ;LB5@=0B82>9 B0:><C >B1>@C <>65B 1KBL >1I55 A>1@0=85 ?@5B5=45=B>2, =0 :>B>@>< ?@8=8<05BAO @5H5=85 >1 8E 2>7<>6=>< CG0AB88.  3@C??5 70:0=G8205BAO 8 8=48284C0;L=K9 >B1>@  2> 2@5<O ?@5;8<8=0@=>9 2AB@5G8 3@C??K, :>340 CG0AB=8:8 ?@8=8<0NB >:>=G0B5;L=>5 @5H5=85. 5.3.  &+ !!"/ R.R.Dies (1993) B0:8< >1@07>< 2K@078; A>>B=>H5=85 >B1>@0 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 8 55 A>AB02;5=8O: ?@8 >B1>@5 CG0AB=8:>2 1>;LH5 2=8<0=8O A;54C5B C45;OBL 8E <>B820<, ?@>1;5<0<, F5;O<, >6840=8O<, =0G0;L=><C :>=B0:BC A ?A8E>B5@0?52B><, 0 ?@8 A>AB02;5=88 3@C??K  <56;8G=>AB=K< D0:B>@0<: 45<>3@0D8G5A:><C A>AB02C 3@C??K (?> 2>7@0ABC, ?>;C), ?>B5=F80;L=>9 A>2<5AB8<>AB8 CG0AB=8:>2, B.5. AB5?5=8 3><>35==>AB8 8 A<5H0==>AB8 (35B5@>35==>AB8) 3@C??K. A=>2=>9 2>?@>A ?@8 A>AB02;5=88 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K  2 :0:>9 AB5?5=8 8 ?> :0:8< ?@87=0:0< >=0 1C45B 3><>35==>9 8;8 A<5H0==>9. !G8B05BAO, GB> 3@C??K A 3><>35==K< A>AB02>< CG0AB=8:>2 1>;LH5 ?>4E>4OB 4;O @5H5=8O :>=:@5B=KE, A?5F8D8G5A:8E ?@>1;5<, 0 A<5H0==K5 3@C??K- 4;O @5H5=8O <56;8G=>AB=KE ?@>1;5<, @>AB0 ;8G=>AB8 (B.Levine, 1979). @0B:>A@>G=K5 3@C??K 1K20NB ?@>4C:B82=55, 5A;8 A>AB02;5=K ?> 3><>35==><C ?@87=0:C, B0: :0: AE>4AB2> ?@>1;5< A?>A>1AB2C5B 1>;55 1KAB@><C 2>7=8:=>25=8N 3@C??>2>9 A?;>G5==>AB8. > 2 3@C??0E, ?@54=07=0G5==KE 4;O 1>;55 3;C1>:>3> ?>=8<0=8O A51O 8 A2>8E >B=>H5=89, 4>;6=K CG0AB2>20BL @07=K5 ;N48. 07;8G8O <564C CG0AB=8:0<8 C25;8G820NB ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; 3@C??K. #65 C?><8=0;>AL, GB> 4;O ;N459 A> A?5F8D8G5A:8<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 8 ?>B@51=>ABO<8 1>;55 MDD5:B82=K<8 O2;ONBAO 3@C??K A 3><>35==K< A>AB02><. 0?@8<5@, ?>68;K5 ;N48, =0E>4OAL 2 >4=>9 3@C??5, <>3CB 1>;55 F5;5=0?@02;5==> >1AC48BL A2>8 A?5F8D8G5A:85, A2O70==K5 A 2>7@0AB>< ?@>1;5<K  >48=>G5AB2>, 87>;OF8O, ?>B5@O A<KA;0 687=8, @07=K5 =54><>30=8O 8 B.?. !E>4AB2> ?@>1;5< ?>72>;O5B 1>;55 >B:@KB> 8 3;C1>:> >1AC640BL 0:BC0;L=K5 B5<K. "> 65 A0<>5 <>6=> A:070BL 8 > ;N4OE, 8<5NI8E 2K@065==K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20, :>B>@K< =5 ?>4E>4OB 8=B5=A82=>ABL 8 B5<K @01>BK 3@C??, >?8@0NI8EAO =0 <56;8G=>AB=CN 48=0<8:C. >MB><C 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=ONBAO 3><>35==K5 3@C??K 4;O ;N459 A> A?5F8D8G5A:8<8 ?>B@51=>ABO<8.  ?>A;54=55 45AOB8;5B85 1K;8 >?8A0=K 3@C??K 4;O ;N459 A ?>ABB@02<0B8G5A:8< AB@5AA>< (M.Galloucis, M.E.Kaufman, 1988), 4;O ?5@56820NI8E CB@0BC (I.D.Yalom, S.Vinogradov, 1988; M.A.Lieberman, 1990), 1>;L=KE 1C;8<859 (J.R.Oesterhold 8 A>02B., 1987), 45?@5AA859 (P.M.Lewinsohn, G.N.Clarke, 1984), H87>D@5=859 (N.Kanas, 1986), 4;O AB0@KE ;N459 (M.Leszsz, 1990), 65=I8= (K.Huston, 1986), 4;O <5=ONI8E ?@>D5AA8N 2 A@54=5< 2>7@0AB5 (D.G.Zimpfer, J.J.Carr, 1989), 4;O ;N459 A @0AAB@>9AB20<8 7@5=8O (!.L.Johnson, 1989) 8 4@. "0:85 3@C??K <>3CB 1KBL :0: :@0B:>A@>G=K<8, B0: 8 4>;3>A@>G=K<8.  =8E 2KH5 C@>25=L A?;>G5==>AB8, CG0AB=8:8 1>;LH5 ?>445@6820NB 4@C3 4@C30, <5=LH5 :>=D;8:B>2, ;CGH5 ?>A5I05<>ABL 8 @57C;LB0B82=>ABL (J.Melnick, M.Woods, 1976; M.F.Ettin, 1989). ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 2 3><>35==KE 3@C??0E >1I5=85 1K205B 1>;55 ?>25@E=>AB=K<, 2 =8E @54:> 4>AB8305BAO 1>;55 3;C1>:>5 <56;8G=>AB=>5 =0CG5=85 (J.Melnick, M.Woods, 1976). ;C1>:85 87<5=5=8O ;8G=>AB8 2 =8E <5=55 25@>OB=K. ;8=8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88, >?8@0NI59AO =0 <56;8G=>AB=CN 48=0<8:C, 1>;55 MDD5:B82=K<8 O2;ONBAO A<5H0==K5 3@C??K. > A;>20< S.H.Foulkes 8 E.J.Anthony (1971), "G5< 1>;LH5 @07=8F0 <564C :@09=8<8 B8?0<8, B5< 1>;LH5 B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; 3@C??K". > =5 A;54C5B 701K20BL, GB> "3@C??0 <>65B 42830BLAO 2?5@54 =0 A:>@>AB8, :>B>@CN 48:BC5B A0<K9 =574>@>2K9 55 CG0AB=8:" (W.H.Friedman, 1989). !<5H0==0O 3@C??0 1>;LH5 A>>B25BAB2C5B >1KG=>9 687=5==>9 A@545 CG0AB=8:>2, ?>MB><C ?@8>1@5B5==K5 2 =59 =02K:8 <56;8G=>AB=>3> ?>2545=8O ;53G5 ?5@5=>A8BL 2 @50;L=CN 687=L. '5< @07=>>1@07=55 8=48284C0;L=K5 AB8;8 ?>2545=8O, <KH;5=8O, ?5@56820=8O 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5, B5< MDD5:B82=55 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2>7<>6=>AB8 ;8G=>AB=>3> 87<5=5=8O. 07;8G8O 2 2>7@0AB5 CG0AB=8:>2 ?>72>;ONB 273;O=CBL =0 ?@>1;5<K A ?>78F89 @07=>3> 2>7@0AB0. 0: >B<5G05B A.L.Kadis A A>B@. (1974), ?>B5=F80; ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K @0AH8@ONB CG0AB=8:8 A @07=K< >1@07>20=85< 8 @07=KE ?@>D5AA89, 8<5NI85 @07=K9 687=5==K9 >?KB. 4=0:> B0:>3> @07=>>1@078O CG0AB=8:>2 =5 A;54C5B 4>1820BLAO ;N1>9 F5=>9. "0:, =0?@8<5@, E>BO 2>7@0AB=K5 @07;8G8O 8 >1>30I0NB <56;8G=>AB=>5 >1I5=85 2 3@C??5, => 5A;8 A@548 <>;>4KE ;N459 1C45B =0E>48BLAO >48= H5AB845AOB8;5B=89, 5<C 1C45B 40;5: <8@ 1>;LH8=AB20 CG0AB=8:>2, 0 <>;>4K5 ;N48 A:;>==K : AB5@5>B8?=K< >F5=:0< ?>68;KE ;N459. "> 65 A0<>5 A;CG8BAO, 5A;8 2 3@C??5 27@>A;KE ;N459 1C45B >G5=L <>;>4>9 CG0AB=8: (16-17 ;5B)  5<C <>3CB 1KBL =5?>=OB=K >1AC6405<K5 ?@>1;5<K. > <=5=8N A.L.Kadis A A>B@. (1974), @07=8F0 2 2>7@0AB5 CG0AB=8:>2 =5 4>;6=0 ?@52KH0BL 20 ;5B. R.C.Ziller 8 R.V.Exlin (1958) >B<5B8;8, GB> 7=0G8B5;L=> >B;8G0NI85AO ?> 2>7@0ABC ;N48 A:;>==K 1>;LH5 A:@K20BL 2708<=K5 :>=D;8:BK, G5< ;N48 >4=>3> 2>7@0AB0. >A;54=85 1>;55 >B:@KB> 2K@060NB =530B82=K5 GC2AB20 ?> >B=>H5=8N 4@C3 : 4@C3C. -B> >G5=L 206=K9 D0:B>@ 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5. >340 @5GL 845B > A<5H0==>9 3@C??5, A;54C5B CG8BK20BL 8 A>2<5AB8<>ABL CG0AB=8:>2.  ?@8<5@C, CG0AB=8: A @0AAB@>9AB20<8 ?A8E>B8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0, 4065 1C4CG8 2 A>AB>O=88 @5<8AA88, =5 ?>4E>48B 3@C??5, 1>;LH8=AB2> :>B>@>9 A>AB02;ONB ;8F0 A =52@>B8G5A:8<8 @0AAB@>9AB20<8, B0: :0: 8=B5=A82=>ABL @01>BK, >1AC645=85 :>=D;8:B>2 <>3CB CEC4H8BL 53> A>AB>O=85. 565;0B5;L=> CG0AB85 2 >4=>9 3@C??5 ;8F, 8<5NI8E A;C651=K5 (2 >A>15==>AB8 @C:>2>4AB2>  ?>4G8=5=85) 8 8=K5 A2O78, ?>A:>;L:C >A>15==>AB8 8E <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 <>3CB >:070BL =530B82=>5 2;8O=85 =0 48=0<8:C ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K. @8 A>AB02;5=88 3@C??K =5 A;54C5B G@57<5@=> C?@>I0BL B@51>20=8O, B0: :0: 2 3@C??C <>3CB ?>?0ABL ;N48, @01>B0 A :>B>@K<8 1C45B ?CAB>9 B@0B>9 2@5<5=8 4;O =8E A0<8E 8 B5@0?52B0. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, =5;L7O ?@54JO2;OBL 8 A;8H:>< 2KA>:85 B@51>20=8O, >B25@30O B5E, :B> ?>B5=F80;L=> <>3 1K 872;5GL ?>;L7C >B CG0AB8O 2 3@C??5. > <=5=8N J.Melnick 8 .Woods (1976), ?@8 A>AB02;5=88 3@C??K A;54C5B ?@845@6820BLAO <>45;8 "?>445@6:0 ?;NA :>=D@>=B0F8O", A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 =5>1E>48<>: 871530BL 2:;NG5=8O 2 3@C??C CG0AB=8:>2, A8;L=> @07;8G0NI8EAO ?> 2>7@0ABC, B0: :0: >=8 <>3CB ?>:8=CBL 3@C??C 8;8 AB0BL ">B25@3=CBK<8"; ?>445@6820BL @02=>25A85 <564C :>=D;8:B=>ABLN 3@C??K 8 A?>A>1=>ABLN CG0AB=8:>2 : ?@8A?>A>1;5=8N; >B18@0BL 4>AB0B>G=> @07=KE ;N459, :>B>@K5 O2;O;8 1K ?@8<5@ @07=>>1@07=>3> ?>2545=8O 8 A?>A>1>2 @5H5=8O ;8G=KE ?@>1;5<. D.S.Whitaker 8 M.A.Lieberman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adis A A>B@. (1974) >1AC48;8 2>?@>A >1 >?B8<0;L=>< 2@5<5=8 3@C??>2KE 70=OB89, C:0702, :0:>5 2@5<O <5=LH5 2A53> ?>4E>48B 4;O @01>BK: =5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@54 >154><; =5?>A@54AB25==> ?>A;5 >1540; 25G5@  87-70 CAB0;>AB8 CG0AB=8:>2. =>340 2 @01>B5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K ?@8=8<05B CG0AB85 =01;N40B5;L (@565  =01;N40B5;8), :>B>@K9 ?> ?@>AL15 B5@0?52B0 70?8AK205B E>4 @01>BK 3@C??K.  ;N1>< A;CG05 =01;N40B5;L =5 <>65B 1KBL =8 @50;L=K<, =8 ?>B5=F80;L=K< CG0AB=8:>< 3@C??K.  ?>4>1=KE A;CG0OE B5@0?52B 4>;65= ?>;CG8BL A>3;0A85 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K =0 ?@8ACBAB285 =01;N40B5;O, >1JOA=8BL 8< F5;8 D8:A0F88 <56;8G=>AB=KE 2708<>459AB289, GB> 1C45B ?@>8AE>48BL A 70?8A0==K< <0B5@80;>< ?>A;5 70=OB89 3@C??K, :0:0O <>65B 1KBL ?>;L70 CG0AB=8:0< >B =01;N40B5;O 8 70?8A0==>3> <0B5@80;0. > 2@5<O ?5@2>9 2AB@5G8 3@C??K 65;0B5;L=> ?@54AB028BL 53> CG0AB=8:0<, >B25B8BL =0 8E 2>?@>AK; 2 3@C??5 B0:65 4>;6=K >1AC640BLAO GC2AB20 8 >B=>H5=85 CG0AB=8:>2 : ?@8ACBAB28N 2 3@C??5 ?>AB>@>==53> G5;>25:0. "5@0?52B 4>;65= 1KBL 3>B>2 8 : >1AC645=8N 53> >B=>H5=89 A =01;N40B5;5<, 5A;8 B0:>9 2>?@>A 2>7=8:=5B.  ;N1>< A;CG05, 4065 =0E>4OAL 70 :@C3>< 8 =5 CG0AB2CO 2 48A:CAA8OE, =01;N40B5;L >:07K205B 2;8O=85 =0 3@C??C, >= AB0=>28BAO >1J5:B>< ?5@5=>A=KE @50:F89 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. 5:>B>@K5 CG0AB=8:8 AG8B0NB 53> G5;>25:><, >F5=820NI8< 687=L 3@C??K, 8 MB> 2K7K205B C =8E B@52>3C 8 A>?@>B82;5=85. 01;N40B5;L =5 4>;65= ?>72>;OBL 2BO3820BL A51O 2 <56;8G=>AB=CN 48=0<8:C 3@C??K. 0 =53> B0:65 @0A?@>AB@0=ONBAO ?@028;0 3@C??K, 8 >A>15==>  ?@028;> :>=D845=F80;L=>AB8. A5 MB> :0A05BAO 8 B5E A;CG052, :>340 70 3@C??>9 2545BAO =01;N45=85 G5@57 75@:0;L=>5 AB5:;> ;81> ?@>872>48BAO 0C48>- 8;8 2845>70?8AL 55 @01>BK 2 F5;OE AC?5@28788 @01>BK B5@0?52B0. = 4>;65= ?>4@>1=> >1JOA=8BL CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K, 70G5< MB> 45;05BAO, :0: 1C45B 8A?>;L7>20BLAO <0B5@80;, 8 30@0=B8@>20BL A>E@0=5=85 :>=D845=F80;L=>AB8. 5.5. " +"/   +"/ !%" "'!/ #  >B:@KB>9 3@C??5 4>?CA:05BAO ?>AB>O==>5 87<5=5=85 A>AB020 CG0AB=8:>2  :>340 >4=8 CE>4OB, 8E <5AB> 70=8<0NB 4@C385. B:@KB0O 3@C??0 <>65B 459AB2>20BL =5>3@0=8G5==>5 2@5<O.  B5G5=85 55 @01>BK <>65B ?><5=OBLAO 4065 B5@0?52B, E>BO >@85=B0F8O 8 F5;8 3@C??K >AB0NBAO ?@56=8<8. M.Henry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orey, G.Corey, 1987). A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O 3@C??0 G0I5 2A53> A>AB>8B 87 5-10 CG0AB=8:>2. 1CG0NI0O 8 B@5=8=3>20O 3@C??0, 2 :>B>@>9 A>G5B0NBAO <56;8G=>AB=0O 48=0<8:0 8 F5;8 >1CG5=8O, <>65B 1KBL 1>;LH5  4> 15 CG0AB=8:>2. !>1@0=85 B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 >1I8=K >E20BK205B 15-40 CG0AB=8:>2, :0: ?@028;>, 2A5 >B45;5=8O A ?5@A>=0;><.  B0:>9 3@C??5 206=55 A>F80;L=K9 :>=B5:AB, G5< <56;8G=>AB=K5 >B=>H5=8O. 0: C65 C?><8=0;>AL, >?B8<0;L=0O 25;8G8=0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K  5-10 CG0AB=8:>2.  B0:>9 3@C??5 2>7<>6=> >?B8<0;L=>5 >1I5=85, B@C4=> A>E@0=OBL ?>78F8N =01;N40B5;O, <5=LH5 25@>OB=>ABL 2>7=8:=>25=8O ?>43@C??. G.F.Castore (1962) 2 55 AB0F8>=0@=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E, :>;8G5AB2> CG0AB=8:>2 2 :>B>@KE :>;510;>AL >B 5 4> 20, 8AA;54>20; :>;8G5AB2> <56;8G=>AB=KE 2708<>459AB289 (A:>;L:> @07 CG0AB=8:8 >1@0I0NBAO 4@C3 : 4@C3C) 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 25;8G8=K 3@C??K.  3@C??0E, A>AB>O2H8E 87 9 CG0AB=8:>2, @57:> A=8605BAO :>;8G5AB2> <56;8G=>AB=KE 2708<>459AB289. @C3>5 @57:>5 C<5=LH5=85 2708<>459AB289 =01;N40;>AL B>340, :>340 :>;8G5AB2> CG0AB=8:>2 2 3@C??5 ?@52KH0;> 17. 081>;55 8=B5=A82=K< <56;8G=>AB=>5 >1I5=85 1K;> 2 3@C??0E, A>AB>O2H8E 87 5-8 CG0AB=8:>2. >A:>;L:C =5:>B>@K5 CG0AB=8:8 <>3CB ?>:8=CBL 3@C??C (0 MB> A;CG05BAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 2 :064>9 4>;3>A@>G=>9 3@C??5), @01>BC <>6=> =0G8=0BL A =5A:>;L:> 1>;LH59 3@C??>9 (4> 12 CG0AB=8:>2). ?B8<0;L=0O 25;8G8=0 3@C??K 7028A8B 8 >B G0AB>BK 8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 2AB@5G. '5< 3@C??0 2AB@5G05BAO G0I5 8 =0 1>;55 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>5 2@5<O, B5< 55 25;8G8=0 <>65B 1KBL 1>;LH5.  ?@8<5@C, 2 <0@0D>=A:>9 3@C??5 <>65B 1KBL 14-16 CG0AB=8:>2. A;8 3@C??0 C<5=LH05BAO 4> 3-4 CG0AB=8:>2, >=0 ?@0:B8G5A:8 ?5@5AB05B 1KBL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??>9 8 2 =59 ?@>8AE>48B 8=48284C0;L=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O. C.Fulkerson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inogradov, I.D.Yalom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ach 2 1964 3., >?8A02H89 3@C??C =5>1KG=>9 AB@C:BC@K, ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 8 A>45@60=8O. 0@0D>=A:85 3@C??K O2;ONBAO 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 8=B5=A82=K< 20@80=B>< "3@C?? 2AB@5G". !>3;0A=> :;0AA8G5A:>9 ?@>F54C@5 <0@0D>=A:>9 3@C??K (G.Bach, 1969), :>B>@0O ?>74=55 ACI5AB25==> <5=O;0AL, @01>B0 2 =59 4;8BAO 24 G0A0 8 1>;55 157 ?5@5@K2>2 8, :0: ?@028;>, 157 A=0 8 >A=>2K205BAO =0 =5?@5@K2=>< 402;5=88 3@C??K =0 >B45;L=KE 55 CG0AB=8:>2. 45AL A>7405BAO 1>;LH>5 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 =0?@O65=85, A?>A>1AB2CNI55 A0<>@0A:@KB8N CG0AB=8:>2 8 8E ?A8E>;>38G5A:><C A1;865=8N. =>385 ;N48 ?> ?@>H5AB288 50 <8=. 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8;8 1,5 G0A>2 3@C??>2>9 2AB@5G8 B0: 8 >AB0NBAO A A>F80;L=K<8 "<0A:0<8". @>4>;68B5;L=>ABL 70=OB89 2 <0@0D>=A:>9 3@C??5 ?>72>;O5B CAB@0=8BL "A>F80;L=K9 A;>9" >1I5=8O. =>340 3>2>@OB: "#AB02H85 ;N48 1K20NB 8A:@5==8<8, B0: :0: C =8E =5B A8; 4;O 83@K". !CI5AB2C5B 10 >A=>2=KE ?@028; :;0AA8G5A:>9 <0@0D>=A:>9 3@C??K. A5 CG0AB=8:8 4>;6=K =0E>48BLAO 2 >4=>< ?><5I5=88 2> 2@5<O 2A59 @01>BK 3@C??K. KE>48BL 87 :><=0BK <>6=> =5=04>;3> 8 B>;L:> ?@8 >AB@>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8. 064K9 CG0AB=8: >1I05BAO A> 2A59 3@C??>9, 2A5 CG0AB=8:8 @5038@CNB 4@C3 =0 4@C30. >43@C??K 2 3@C??5 =5 4>?CA:0NBAO. @C??0 CAB0=02;8205B ?@028;0 A2>59 687=8. 1KG=> 54OB 2 B>9 65 :><=0B5 >B45;L=> 8;8 2A5 2<5AB5, =5 ?@5:@0I0O @01>BC. >6=> ?5@5A06820BLAO A >4=>3> <5AB0 =0 4@C3>5, ;560BL =0 ?>;C, A?0BL, A;>2><, 45;0BL B>, GB> E>G5BAO. 0?@5I05BAO C?>B@51;5=85 0;:>3>;O 8 <548:0<5=B>2. "5@0?52B ?>4G8=O5BAO B5< 65 ?@028;0<, GB> 8 CG0AB=8:8, 70 >4=8< 8A:;NG5=85<  5A;8 3@C??0 @01>B05B 1>;55 30 G0A>2, B> A?CABO 20 G0A>2 ?>A;5 =0G0;0 @01>BK >= 8<55B ?@02> >AB028BL 3@C??C =0 4 G0A0. @C??0 ?@>4>;605B @01>B0BL 157 =53>, 2A5 CG0AB=8:8 >B25BAB25==K 70 =5?@5@K2=>ABL @01>BK 3@C??K 8 A>1;N45=85 ?@028;. 0B53>@8G5A:8 70?@5I0NBAO ;N1>5 D878G5A:>5 =0A8;85 8 03@5AA82=K5 D878G5A:85 459AB28O. 5B =8:0:8E >3@0=8G5=89 A;>25A=><C ?>2545=8N. 565;0B5;L=> ?@8<5=5=85 :0:8E-;81> C?@06=5=89, B0: :0: >=8 @07@CH0NB >B:@KB>ABL, 8=B8<=>ABL 8 =5?>A@54AB25==>ABL 0B<>AD5@K 2 3@C??5.  <0@0D>=A:>9 3@C??5 =5 4>;6=> 1KBL =01;N40B5;59; 2A5 O2;ONBAO CG0AB=8:0<8. 565;0B5;L=K @0740G0 A>25B>2, 70I8B=>5 ?>2545=85  2A5 MB> 4>;6=> ?>425@30BLAO :@8B8:5. ><>30BL CG0AB=8:0< "GC2AB2>20BL A51O ;CGH5" =5 O2;O5BAO F5;LN <0@0D>=A:>9 3@C??K. A=>20 @01>BK 3@C??K  2>7=8:0NI85 "745AL 8 B5?5@L" GC2AB20 8 >1<5= 8<8. 565;0B5;L=> >1AC645=85 ?@>H;KE A>1KB89. "0:>2 BK 2 3@C??5, B0:8< O2;O5HLAO 8 2 687=8".  3@C??5 4>;6=K 2KO2;OBLAO 87<5=5=8O 2 ?>2545=88 CG0AB=8:>2, >A>15==> ?>78B82=K5. >A:>;L:C 2 <0@0D>=A:>9 3@C??5 "=5B =8G53> A2OB>3>", :0B53>@8G5A:8 B@51C5BAO A>1;N45=85 :>=D845=F80;L=>AB8. 8GB> =5 4>;6=> 1KBL 2K=5A5=> 70 ?@545;K 3@C??K. 0: >B<5G05B F.Strollers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aretsky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ellerman (1979, : ?@8<5@C, >?8A0; ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 3@C??C ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABLN 2 10 ;5B, 2 :>B>@>9 :064K5 420 3>40 ?>;=>ABLN <5=O;AO A>AB02 CG0AB=8:>2. @0B:>A@>G=0O 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O  ?>A;54=85 3>4K 2A5 ?>?C;O@=55 AB0=>2OBAO :@0B:>A@>G=K5 D>@<K ?A8E>B5@0?88, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. J.C.Norcross A A>B@. (1992) >?@>A8;8 75 M:A?5@B>2-?A8E>B5@0?52B>2, ?>?@>A82 8E >?@545;8BL B5=45=F88 @0728B8O ?A8E>B5@0?88. >;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E ?>4G5@:=C;> >A>1CN ?5@A?5:B82=>ABL :@0B:>A@>G=>9 8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. @>4>;68B5;L=>ABL :@0B:>A@>G=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??  15-25 2AB@5G (S.H.Budman, A.S.Gurman,1988; K.R.Mackenzie, 1990; S.H.Budman A A>B@., 1994). 0: >B<5G0NB <=>385 8AA;54>20B5;8, ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 3@C??K =5@54:> AB0=>2OBAO :@0B:>A@>G=K<8 ?@>B82 2>;8 B5@0?52B>2.  ?@8<5@C, W.N.Stone 8 J.Rutan (1984) =0 >A=>20=88 A2>53> >?KB0 CAB0=>28;8, GB> 40% ?0F85=B>2, =0G02H8E 3@C??>2CN B5@0?8N, 55 ?@5:@0I0NB 2 B5G5=85 3>40. R.Klein 8 R.A.Carroll (1986) >?@>A8;8 700 ?0F85=B>2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C?? 2 C=825@A8B5BA:>9 0<1C;0B>@=>9 :;8=8:5. -B8 3@C??K 1K;8 >B:@KBK<8 8 4>;3>A@>G=K<8. 57C;LB0BK ?>:070;8, GB> 40% ?0F85=B>2 ?>:840NB 3@C??C =0 ?@5420@8B5;L=>< MB0?5; 87 >AB02H8EAO 52,4% ?>A5B8;8 12 8 <5=55 70=OB89. ">;L:> 8% ?0F85=B>2 @01>B0;8 2 3@C??5 3>4 8 1>;55. "0:8< >1@07><, A0<0 @50;L=>ABL 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88  70 :@0B:>A@>G=K5 3@C??K. @0B:>A@>G=K5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 3@C??K O2;ONBAO A0<K<8 MDD5:B82=K<8 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 2 =8E AB02OBAO :>=:@5B=K5 8 4>AB868<K5 F5;8. R.Klein (1985) ?>4G5@:820;, GB> 2 :@0B:>A@>G=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E "2>7<>6=> CAB0=>28BL ?@>1;5<K 8 :>=D;8:BK CG0AB=8:>2 8 =0G0BL 0=0;87 8E <56;8G=>AB=>3> A>45@60=8O, => =5@50;L=> 4>1820BLAO @07@5H5=8O MB8E ?@>1;5< 8;8 3;C1>:8E 87<5=5=89 ;8G=>AB8". 1KG=> MDD5:B82=>ABL :@0B:>A@>G=KE 3@C?? ?>2KH05B 3><>35==>ABL A>AB020 CG0AB=8:>2 8 >@85=B0F8N =0 :>=:@5B=K5, 1;87:85 4;O 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2 B5<K (D.A.Goldberg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udman A A>B@., 1994). 1>1I0O 2KH5A:070==>5, E>B5;>AL 1K >B<5B8BL, GB> ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >?@545;O5B 8 55 F5;8.  4>;3>A@>G=KE 3@C??0E ?@>8AE>48B 1>;55 3;C1>:89 0=0;87 ;8G=>AB8 8 :>=D;8:B>2, ?>72>;ONI89 87<5=8BL ?>2545=85, 0 :@0B:>A@>G=K5 3@C??K 1>;LH5 >@85=B8@>20=K =0 C<5=LH5=85 ?@>1;5< 8 B@C4=>AB59, =0 ?@8>1@5B5=85 =02K:>2 @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<, =0 ?>=8<0=85 A51O 8 @50;L=>AB8. 5.9. " #'!"/ >A:>;L:C ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 CA;C38, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O, AB0=>2OBAO ?;0B=K<8, 2>7=8:05B 2>?@>A >?;0BK B@C40 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0. 0: 53> A;54C5B @5H0BL, =5 =0@CH0O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA? -B> A;>6=K9 2>?@>A, 8 C =0A =5B 2>7<>6=>AB8 70B@>=CBL 2A5 53> 0A?5:BK. >MB><C >1AC48< B>;L:> 2>7<>6=K5 20@80=BK >?;0BK CG0AB8O 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5. 5=L38 2A5 1>;LH5 AB0=>2OBAO G0ABLN ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0, 8 3@C??>2>9 B5@0?52B B>65 =5 <>65B A MB8< =5 AG8B0BLAO. ;O <=>38E ?A8E>;>3>2 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B>2 45=56=K9 @0AG5B A :;85=B0<8 O2;O5BAO A;>6=>9 ?@>1;5<>9, A>740NI59 2=CB@5==89 :>=D;8:B. '0AB> >= @5H05BAO >157;8G820=85< A0<>3> ?@>F5AA0 @0AG5B0, =0?@8<5@, ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 ?>A@54=8:>2 8 B.?. > 5A;8 =0 25I8 A<>B@5BL @50;L=>, @01>B0 B5@0?52B0 2 3@C??5 B@51C5B <=>3> ;8G=>AB=KE 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE CA8;89 8 >=0 4>;6=0 >?;0G820BLAO, :0: 8 ;N10O 4@C30O @01>B0. 0: >B<5G0NB A.K.Kadis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ano (1992), CG0AB=8: "?>:C?05B <5AB>" 2 3@C??5 =0 :0:>5-B> 2@5<O 8 ?;0B8B =57028A8<> >B :0: 8725AB=KE, B0: 8 =5?@542845==KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2, A?>A>1=KE 5<C ?><5H0BL ?@8ACBAB2>20BL =0 B>< 8;8 8=>< 70=OB88. "5@0?52BC =5 A;54C5B B0:65 701K20BL, GB> > D>@<5 8 25;8G8=5 >?;0BK >= >1O70= A>>1I8BL CG0AB=8:0< 5I5 2> 2@5<O ?5@2>9 15A54K. 5;8G8=0 >?;0BK 7028A8B >B <=>38E >1AB>OB5;LAB2 8 1>;55 2A53> >B >1I53> C@>2=O F5=, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 70 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 CA;C38, 8 ?;0B565A?>A>1=>AB8 :;85=B>2. @8=OB>, GB> CG0AB=8: 70 G0A @01>BK 2 3@C??5 4>;65= ?;0B8BL >B B@5B8 4> ?>;>28=K ?;0BK 70 G0A 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. > <=5=8N >4=8E B5@0?52B>2, 2A5 CG0AB=8:8 4>;6=K ?;0B8BL >48=0:>2>, 4@C385 ?@54;030NB 20@80=B, :>340 :064K9 CG0AB=8: ?;0B8B 8AE>4O 87 A2>8E 2>7<>6=>AB59.  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 8=48284C0;L=0O 25;8G8=0 >?;0BK >3>20@8205BAO A :064K< CG0AB=8:><. 'C2AB20 CG0AB=8:>2, 2K720==K5 2 A2O78 A >?;0B>9 CG0AB8O 2 3@C??5, 0 B0:65 A @07=8F59 2 25;8G8=5 >?;0BK, 4>;6=K >B:@KB> >1AC640BLAO 2 3@C??5. %>BO 8=>340 8 @5:><5=4CNB =5 >1AC640BL 2 3@C??5 2>?@>A ;L3>B=>9 >?;0BK, B0: :0: MB> :>=D845=F80;L=0O 8=D>@<0F8O, 2@O4 ;8 MB> 8<55B A<KA;, ?>A:>;L:C CG0AB=8:8 2A5 @02=> >1<5=820NBAO ?>4>1=>9 8=D>@<0F859. A;8 2>7=8:05B 2>?@>A 704>;65==>AB8 CG0AB=8:0, 55 ?@8G8=K ;CGH5 >1AC640BL 8=48284C0;L=> A =8<, => >1 MB>< <>6=> A:070BL 8 2 3@C??5, B0: :0: 704>;65==>ABL <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: =0@CH5=85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> :>=B@0:B0. 5.10.   ",/ !" ' -B0 2AB@5G0 =07K205BAO ?@5420@8B5;L=>9 ?>B><C, GB> 3;02=0O 55 7040G0  70@0=55 >7=0:><8BL CG0AB=8:>2 A 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?859 8 ?>43>B>28BL 8E : @01>B5 2 3@C??5, : @>;8 CG0AB=8:0 3@C??K. -B> ?><>305B D>@<8@>20BL @50;8AB8G=K5 >6840=8O CG0AB=8:>2, :>B>@K5 1K A?>A>1AB2>20;8 MDD5:B82=>9 @01>B5 3@C??K (T.J.Kaul, R.L.Bednar, 1994). > 2@5<O ?@5420@8B5;L=>9 2AB@5G8 B5@0?52B 7=0:><8B CG0AB=8:>2 A >A=>2=K<8 <><5=B0<8 @01>BK 3@C??K, >A>15==> ?>4G5@:820O >B25BAB25==>ABL A0<8E CG0AB=8:>2 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 2>7<>6=>AB59, ?@54>AB02;O5<KE 3@C??>9. 0 MB>9 2AB@5G5 CG0AB=8:8 2?5@2K5 A>18@0NBAO 2<5AB5 8 8<5NB 2>7<>6=>ABL >F5=8BL 3@C??C :0: F5;>5. -B> ?><>305B >:>=G0B5;L=> @5H8BL, CG0AB2>20BL 2 =59 8;8 =5B. -B>9 2AB@5G59 70:0=G8205BAO >@30=870F8>==K9 MB0? 3@C??K. A;8 ?>4>1=0O ?@5420@8B5;L=0O 2AB@5G0 =5 ?@>2>48BAO, 55 70<5=O5B ?5@20O 2AB@5G0 3@C??K. A=>2=K<8 7040G0<8 ?@5420@8B5;L=>9 2AB@5G8 O2;ONBAO: 1JOA=5=85 >A=>2=KE ?@8=F8?>2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. 1JOA=5=85 F5;59 3@C??K 8 >?@545;5=85 8=48284C0;L=KE F5;59 CG0AB=8:>2. =0:><AB2> CG0AB=8:>2 A <5B>40<8 @01>BK 8 A?>A>10<8 ?>2545=8O 2 3@C??5, 1;03>40@O :>B>@K< >=8 <>3;8 1K ?>;CG8BL <0:A8<0;L=CN ?>;L7C >B 70=OB89. =0:><AB2> CG0AB=8:>2 A 2>7<>6=K<8 =5?@8OB=K<8 AB>@>=0<8 @01>BK 2 3@C??5, 0 B0:65 A> A?>A>10<8 C<5=LH5=8O 8;8 CAB@0=5=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> @8A:0. =0:><AB2> CG0AB=8:>2 A >A=>2=K<8 ?@028;0<8 @01>BK 3@C??K. KOA=5=85 8 >1AC645=85 >6840=89, D0=B0789, =04564, AB@0E>2 CG0AB=8:>2, A2O70==KE A CG0AB85< 2 @01>B5 3@C??K. 5@20O >1O70==>ABL B5@0?52B0  >7=0:><8BL CG0AB=8:>2 A ?@>F5AA>< 3@C??>2>9 B5@0?88. > <=5=8N =5:>B>@KE ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:8 >@85=B8@>20==KE B5@0?52B>2, CG0AB=8:>2 =5 A;54C5B 70@0=55 7=0:><8BL A ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< ?@>F5AA><  A =8< >=8 4>;6=K ?>7=0:><8BLAO 2> 2@5<O @01>BK. @54?>;030NB, GB> >BACBAB285 7=0=8O 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K ?>2KH05B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 >?@0240==>5 =0?@O65=85. > CG0AB=8:8 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K AB0;:820NBAO A >G5=L 1>;LH8<8 B@C4=>ABO<8. 0?@8<5@, 8< B@C4=> A>2<5AB8BL ?@825BAB2C5<>5 2 3@C??5 >B:@KB>5, =5@54:> :>=D@>=B0F8>==>5 >1I5=85 8 65;0=85 C<5=LH8BL B@52>3C; CG0AB=8:8 G0AB> =5 ?>=8<0NB, GB> >1@0B=0O A2O7L <>65B ?><>GL 2 @5H5=88 8E :>=:@5B=KE ?@>1;5< 8 B.?. =>385 CG0AB=8:8 2>>1I5 =5 7=0NB, G5< >=8 4>;6=K 70=8<0BLAO 2 3@C??5. -B> 2K7K205B 7=0G8B5;L=>5 =0?@O65=85, :>B>@>5 8=>340 <>65B O28BLAO ?@8G8=>9 CE>40 87 3@C??K. =0:><AB2> A 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?859 >1;53G05B 2:;NG5=85 2 3@C??C. 'B> A>AB02;O5B =0G0;L=CN 8=D>@<0F8N > 3@C??>2>< ?@>F5AA5? @5645 2A53> 3@C??0 ?@54AB02;O5BAO :0: =5:0O A>F80;L=0O ;01>@0B>@8O, 2 :>B>@>9 ?>AB>O==> ?@>8AE>48B 8A:@5==55 8 >B:@KB>5 >1AC645=85 >B=>H5=89 A 4@C38<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K. -B> ?><>305B ;CGH5 ?>=OBL A51O 8 A2>8 >B=>H5=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8. "5@0?52B ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> 3>2>@8BL >1 >B=>H5=8OE A 4@C38<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 =5;53:>  MB> 2K7K205B B@52>3C 8 =0?@O65=85. > 871560BL MB>3> =52>7<>6=>, 5A;8 ?KB05HLAO =0;048BL :>=B0:B A =57=0:><K<8 4> MB>3> ;N4L<8. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, >?KB, ?@8>1@5B5==K9 2 3@C??5, <>6=> ?5@5=5AB8 2 ?>2A54=52=K5 687=5==K5 A8BC0F88. 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ICB8<KE 87<5=5=89 =5 A;54C5B >6840BL A;8H:>< A:>@>  4;O MB>3> B@51CNBAO <5AOFK. 0 ?@5420@8B5;L=>9 2AB@5G5 >1AC6405BAO 2@5<O, <5AB>, ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL, G0AB>B0 2AB@5G, 0 B0:65 >1I0O ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL @01>BK 3@C??K. "5@0?52B 4>;65= ?@54AB028BLAO CG0AB=8:0<, C:07K20O A2>5 >1@07>20=85, :20;8D8:0F8N. #G0AB=8:>2 B0:65 7=0:><OB A CA;>28O<8 8 25;8G8=>9 >?;0BK. 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orgers, L.W.Tyndaal, 1982; .. LeCluyse, 1983; E.J.Muller, T.B.Scott, 1984), C:@5?;O5BAO 8E 25@0 2 MDD5:B82=>ABL 3@C??K, >=8 ;CGH5 ?@54AB02;ONB A2>N @>;L 8 @>;L B5@0?52B0 2 3@C??5 8 @07=8FC <564C =8<8, A=8605BAO B@52>30, ?>2KH05BAO >B:@KB>ABL, CA8;8205BAO 65;0=85 @5038@>20BL 4@C3 =0 4@C30, 3>B>2=>ABL 3>2>@8BL > A515 (R.L.Bednar A A>B@., 1974; .. LeCluyse, 1983; I.D.Yalom, 1985). ;020 6  !+ -$$" #'!"/  !%" "'!  # 6.1. ! " "  #+   $ + !>?@>B82;5=85 O2;O5BAO =587156=K< A?CB=8:>< @01>BK ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K, A?>A>1=K< A5@L57=> =0@CH8BL 3@C??>2>9 ?@>F5AA. !>?@>B82;5=85 87<5=5=8O<, >B:07C >B ?@82KG=KE AB5@5>B8?>2 >1I5=8O O2;O5BAO 5AB5AB25==K<. >;LH8=AB2> :;85=B>2 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 4065 65;0O ?5@5<5=, =5 2A5340 7=0NB, G53> 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 E>BOB. @8G8=0 A>?@>B82;5=8O CG0AB=8:>2 @01>B5 3@C??K  8E B@52>30 8 AB@0E, 0 =5 A>7=0B5;L=>5 65;0=85 2@548BL B5@0?52BC. 0: CB25@6405B H.Schlesinger (1982), ?>=OB85 A>?@>B82;5=8O =5 AB>;L:> >F5=8205B ?>2545=85, A:>;L:> 53> >1JOA=O5B. 3> =5;L7O >F5=820BL =8 :0: E>@>H55, =8 :0: ?;>E>5, MB> ?@>AB> G0ABL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 87<5=5=89. "5@0?52B, =01;N40O 70 A>?@>B82;5=85< CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, <>65B =5<0;> C7=0BL >1 8E AB8;5 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> @5038@>20=8O. 1@0B82 =0 MB> 2=8<0=85 CG0AB=8:>2, >= <>65B OA=55 C2845BL, :0: >=8 @5038@CNB =0 2>7=8:0NI85 2 3@C??5 8, 2>7<>6=>, 2 687=8 ?@>1;5<K. 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G.Corey (1990) >B<5G05B, GB> ?@8G8=>9 A>?@>B82;5=8O CG0AB=8:>2 @01>B5 3@C??K <>3CB 1KBL 8 459AB28O B5@0?52B0 (=0?@8<5@, =54>AB0B>G=0O ?@5420@8B5;L=0O ?>43>B>2:0 CG0AB=8:>2 : @01>B5 2 3@C??5, =5:20;8D8F8@>20==>5 @C:>2>4AB2> 3@C??>9, :>=D;8:BK <564C :>-B5@0?52B0<8, 02B>@8B0@=K9 AB8;L @C:>2>4AB20 3@C??>9, >BACBAB285 4>25@8O : B5@0?52BC). 4=0:> G0I5 2A53> A>?@>B82;5=85 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 B0: =07K205<>< "?@>1;5<0B8G=>< ?>2545=88" 2 3@C??5 (I.D.Yalom, 1985; G.Corey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hlsen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orey, 1990). 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G5=L 206=> C7=0BL <=5=85 CB5H05<KE CG0AB=8:>2 > "A:>@>9 ?><>I8" 2 3@C??5. >;55 3;C1>:><C ?>=8<0=8N CB5H5=8O 2 3@C??5 <>3CB A?>A>1AB2>20BL =5:>B>@K5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 B5E=8:8 (G.Corey A A>B@., 1988). 0?@8<5@, ;N18B5;O >:07K20BL ?>A?5H=CN ?><>IL ?@>AOB: ">4>948 : :064><C CG0AB=8:C 8 A:068, G5< 1K BK E>B5; 5<C ?><>GL". 0B5< >1AC640NBAO =5>1E>48<>ABL ?><>I8 8 GC2AB20 CG0AB=8:>2. -B> ?><>305B CB5H0NI5<C >F5=8BL ?@83>4=>ABL 8;8 =5?@83>4=>ABL A2>8E CA8;89. 3> B0:65 <>6=> ?>?@>A8BL =0720BL 2A5 2>7<>6=K5 ?@8G8=K, ?> :>B>@K< 5<C B0: E>G5BAO ?><>GL 4@C38< (">G5<C 206=> ?><>GL :>=:@5B=><C G5;>25:C? 0: BK @5H8;AO ?@89B8 =0 ?><>IL?"). #G0AB=8:>2 A;54C5B ?>>I@OBL @5038@>20BL, :>340 8< ?><>30NB A;8H:>< =02O7G82>, =5 2>2@5<O. "0:65 A;54C5B >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 CB5H0NI53> =0 B>, =0A:>;L:> >= 7;>C?>B@51;O5B A2>59 O:>1K 4>1@>B>9 2 687=8. >=>?>;8AB8G5A:>5 ?>2545=85. "0:>9 CG0AB=8: AB@5<8BAO ?5@5:;NG8BL 2A5 2=8<0=85 3@C??K =0 A51O, <>=>?>;878@>20BL 0:B82=>ABL 2 3@C??5. KABC?;5=8O 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 40NB 5<C ?>2>4 <=>3> 8 H8@>:> 3>2>@8BL > A515, @0AA:07K20BL 15A:>=5G=K5 8AB>@88 87 A2>59 687=8. = =5?@5@K2=> 1>;B05B, B0: :0:, :>340 <>;G8B A0< 8;8 <>;G0B 2 3@C??5, =0G8=05B 8A?KBK20BL B@52>3C. >MB><C >= @5038@C5B =0 :064>5 2KA:07K20=85 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2, ?>AB>O==> ?>4G5@:820O, GB> B>, > G5< 3>2>@OB 4@C385, >G5=L 1;87:> 8 5<C, GB> C =53> B0:85 65 ?@>1;5<K, 8 2=>2L =0G8=05B 3>2>@8BL > A515. >=>?>;878@CNI89 3@C??>2>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2> CG0AB=8: 8<5==> B0: ?>=8<05B A0<>@0A:@KB85 2 B@C??5. 5@5A:07 A>1KB89 >1KG=> >7=0G05B C:;>=5=85 >B 2KA:07K20=8O A2>59 B>G:8 7@5=8O =0 MB8 A>1KB8O, 2K@065=8O A2>8E GC2AB2. >?KB:8 B5@0?52B0 1;>:8@>20BL B0:>5 ?>2545=85 =5@54:> 2K7K20NB A>?@>B82;5=85 "<>=>?>;8AB0"" >= CB25@6405B, GB>, @0A:@K20OAL, @8A:C5B, 2K@0605B >184C, GB> 53> =5 ?>=8<0NB, => A?CABO :>@>B:>5 2@5<O >= 2=>2L =0G8=05B 3>2>@8BL. %>BO 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K, :>340 1>;LH8=AB2> 8715305B 3>2>@8BL > A515, <=>385 CG0AB=8:8 ?@8=8<0NB 8 4065 ?@825BAB2CNB B0:CN 0:B82=>ABL, >4=0:> >G5=L A:>@> ?>4>1=>5 ?>2545=85 =0G8=05B @074@060BL. 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"5@0?52BC >G5=L 206=> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 MDD5:B82=> ?@5@20BL <>=>?>;8AB8G5A:>5 ?>2545=85. >65B 2>7=8:=CBL A>1;07= 70?@5B8BL =0 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O B0:><C CG0AB=8:C 3>2>@8BL, >4=0:> MB> =5 8<55B =8:0:>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> A<KA;0. -B> 2A53> ;8HL M<>F8>=0;L=0O @07@O4:0 A0<>3> B5@0?52B0. @><5 B>3>, 8 @57C;LB0B <>65B 1KBL =565;0B5;L=K<  CA8;8205BAO B@52>30 "<>=>?>;8AB0", B0:>5 ?>2545=85 B5@0?52B0 <>65B ?@54AB02;OBL C3@>7C 4;O 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. >6=> >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 A;8H:>< 0:B82=>3> CG0AB=8:0 =0 B>, : G5<C >= AB@5<8BAO 2 3@C??5: "'B> BK E>B5; 1K ?>;CG8BL >B 3@C??K ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: @0AA:065HL 2A5 MB>?", "'B> A2>8< @0AA:07>< BK E>B5; 40BL 4@C38< CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K?", "'B> BK E>B5; 1K ?>;CG8BL >B 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2?" "0:65 206=> ?>:070BL, GB> A2>8< ?>2545=85< >= <5H05B CG0AB=8:0< 702O70BL >A<KA;5==K5 <56;8G=>AB=K5 >B=>H5=8O A =8<. >A:>;L:C "<>=>?>;8AB" >1KG=> =5 >@85=B8@C5BAO, :0:>5 2?5G0B;5=85 ?@>872>48B 53> ?>2545=85 =0 4@C38E, 5<C <>3;8 1K ?><>GL 1>;55 G0ABK5 @50:F88 CG0AB=8:>2 =0 53> ?>2545=85. "5@0?52B 4>;65= ?>>I@OBL CG0AB=8:>2 2K@060BL A2>8 GC2AB20 (">340 BK 2545HL A51O B0:, O 8A?KBK20N GC2AB2>..."), 0 =5 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL ?>2545=85 "<>=>?>;8AB0" (""K B0: 2545HL A51O, ?>B><C GB>..."). -B8< >1@0I05BAO 2=8<0=85 =0 2;8O=85 53> ?>2545=8O =0 =0AB@>5=85 8 GC2AB20 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 (A:C:0, @074@065=85, 7;>10), 2>>1I5 =0 0B<>AD5@C 2 3@C??5. >6=> ?>?@>A8BL 8 A0<>3> "<>=>?>;8AB0" ?>45;8BLAO A2>8< <=5=85< > B><, GB> GC2AB2CNB 4@C385 CG0AB=8:8, :>340 >= 3>2>@8B (">A<>B@8 =0 CG0AB=8:>2 8 ?>?KB09AO A:070BL, GB> :064K9 87 =8E GC2AB2C5B"). #G0AB=8:8 3@C??K <>3CB ?@>:><<5=B8@>20BL CA;KH0==K5 >F5=:8. 5H8BL ?@>1;5<C <>=>?>;8AB8G5A:>3> ?>2545=8O <>3;0 1K ?><>GL 0:B82=>ABL 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2. 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I.D.Yalom (1985) >?8A0; MB> :0: A;CG09 "?>AB>O==> 60;CNI53>AO, => >B:;>=ONI53> ?><>IL" ?0F85=B0. = A:;>=5= 3>@48BLAO =5@07@5H8<>ABLN A2>8E ?@>1;5<. A;8 8 ?@>A8B ?><>I8, B> B>;L:> C B5@0?52B0, 0 ?>?KB:8 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 ?><>GL 5<C >B25@305B :0: =5:><?5B5=B=K5. >340 :B>-;81> 4@C3>9 ?KB05BAO 3>2>@8BL > A2>8E ?@>1;5<0E, MB>B CG0AB=8:, CA<0B@820O 2 =5< :>=:C@5=B0 2 1>@L15 70 2=8<0=85 B5@0?52B0, AB0@05BAO ?@8=878BL 53> ?@>1;5<C: "CAB0O B@0B0 2@5<5=8 87-70 B51O, B2>O ?@>1;5<0 >G5=L 10=0;L=0. >9 2>?@>A =0<=>3> A;>6=55, >= 687=5==> 2065= 4;O <5=O". %>BO B0:>9 CG0AB=8: 8 3>2>@8B ?>AB>O==> > A2>8E B@C4=>ABOE, 53> ?@>1;5<K B0: 8 >AB0NBAO =5OA=K<8 4;O 4@C38E 87-70 A;8H:>< BC<0==>9 8E D>@<C;8@>2:8. 065 5A;8 C405BAO 2K720BL A>GC2AB285 C 4@C38E 8 5<C ?KB0NBAO ?><>GL, ?@54;0305<K5 20@80=BK @5H5=8O ?@>1;5< ;81> A@07C >B25@30NBAO :0: =5?@85<;5<K5, ;81>, ?@8=8<0O =0 A;>20E, >= 83=>@8@C5B 8E 2 @50;L=>< ?>2545=88. "0:>5 ?>2545=85 @074@0605B 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2. 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'0I5 2A53> MB> ?>;=0O 7028A8<>ABL >B 4@C38E, >A>15==> >B B5@0?52B0, 8 >ICI5=85 15AA8;8O 8 =5?>;=>F5==>AB8. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, MB0 7028A8<>ABL A>?@>2>6405BAO =54>25@85< : 02B>@8B5B0<, 0 ?>@>9 8 2@06451=>ABLN ?> >B=>H5=8N : =8<. 7-70 MB>3> 2>7=8:05B "70:>;4>20==K9 :@C3", 2K9B8 87 :>B>@>3> B@C4=> :0: CG0AB=8:C, B0: 8 B5@0?52BC. =>340 <>6=> ?>?KB0BLAO ?><>GL B0:><C CG0AB=8:C ;CGH5 >A>7=0BL ?>A;54AB28O 53> 45AB@C:B82=>3> ?>2545=8O ?@5645 2A53> 4;O A0<>3> A51O. 3@C "40, =>" <>6=> ?@5:@0B8BL, ?@87=02, GB> ?@>1;5<0 CG0AB=8:0 459AB28B5;L=> =5@07@5H8<0. > 2 B0:>< A;CG05 >= <>65B ?>:8=CBL 3@C??C.  ;N1>< A;CG05 206=> ?5@5AB0BL ?>445@6820BL 15A?><>I=CN ?>78F8N CG0AB=8:0 8 ?>>I@OBL >1AC645=85 ?@>1;5<K 53> 7028A8<>AB8. 5<>=AB@0F8O <>@0;L=>3> ?@52>AE>4AB20. -B>B B8? "?@>1;5<0B8G=>3> ?>2545=8O" >?8A0; I.D.Yalom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orey A A>B@. (1987) ?@54;030NB CB@8@>20BL 704020=85 2>?@>A>2. "5@0?52B <>65B ?>?@>A8BL ;N18B5;O A?@0H820BL ?>4>9B8 : :064><C CG0AB=8:C 8 7040BL 5<C A2>9 2>?@>A (8;8 2>?@>AK). B25G0BL =0 =8E =5 >1O70B5;L=>. >B>< <>6=> >1AC48BL GC2AB20 "A?@0H820NI53>", 0 B0:65 2KOA=8BL, G53> 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >= E>G5B >B :064>3> CG0AB=8:0 3@C??K. =B5;;5:BC0;870F8O. -B> A>?@>B82;5=85 3@C??>2><C ?@>F5AAC ?>AB>O==K< 0=0;878@>20=85< 2A53> B>3>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 3@C??5, ?@8 MB>< 871530O 2K@065=8O GC2AB2. KH;5=85 O2;O5BAO 206=>9 G0ABLN ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0, >4=0:> >=> 4>;6=> 8=B53@8@>20BLAO 2 M<>F8>=0;L=CN 687=L 8 ?>2545=85 G5;>25:0.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 >=> O2;O5BAO 70<5=8B5;5< GC2AB2; @50;L=K9 >?KB, =587156=> A>?@>2>6405<K9 GC2AB20<8, 70<5=O5BAO 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 @5D;5:A859 MB>3> >?KB0. >340 4;O 2A53>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 3@C??5, ?KB0NBAO =09B8 01AB@0:B=K5, 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 ">1>;>G:8", 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 C65 =5G53> >1;5:0BL 2 ?>=OB8O 8 25AL ?@>F5AA ?@52@0I05BAO 2 "?5@5;820=85 87 ?CAB>3> 2 ?>@>6=55". A5 >?8A0==K5 745AL A?>A>1K ?>2545=8O <>6=> >E0@0:B5@87>20BL 8 :0: C:;>=5=85 >B CG0AB8O 2 3@C??>2>< ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>< ?@>F5AA5. => 2K@0605BAO (G.Corey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ouglas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arland 8 R.L.Kolodny (1966; F8B. ?> T.Douglas, 1991) ?@54;>68;8 12 2>7<>6=KE A?>A>1>2 87<5=5=8O A8BC0F88 ":>7;0 >B?CI5=8O" 2 3@C??5. 2B>@8B0@=>5 87<5=5=85 A8BC0F88, 8A?>;L7CO ?@02> B5@0?52B0 3@C??K. "I0B5;L=K9 >B1>@ CG0AB=8:>2, A B5< GB>1K 2 3@C??C =5 ?>?0;8 ?>B5=F80;L=K5 65@B2K. (10 A?>A>10 A><=8B5;L=K, 0 2B>@>9 8 =5@50;5=, ?>A:>;L:C 70@0=55 B@C4=> ?@54CA<>B@5BL B0:85 25I8.) 8A:CAA8O > ?@>8AE>4OI5< 2 3@C??5. 15@530=85 8 70I8B0 ?>B5=F80;L=>3> ":>7;0 >B?CI5=8O" (MB> =5>1E>48<> 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K, >4=0:> =5 3>48BAO :0: 4>;3>2@5<5==0O AB@0B538O). >?KB:0 =0?@028BL 2=8<0=85 3@C??K =0 4@C385 ?@>1;5<K. ;>:8@>20=85 >1I5=8O CG0AB=8:>2 A ?>B5=F80;L=>9 65@B2>9 (MB> 2@5<5==0O <5@0). ><>IL ":>7;C >B?CI5=8O"  ?><>GL 5<C ?>=OBL A2>5 ?>2545=85 8 459AB28O, :>B>@K5 "B>;:0NB" 53> =0 B0:>5 ?>;>65=85 2 3@C??5. 1JOA=5=85 ?@>F5AA0 ?>8A:0 ":>7;0 >B?CI5=8O" 2 3@C??5. -B> <>65B 1KBL 22545=85< 2 (9). !>A@54>B>G8BL 2=8<0=85 CG0AB=8:>2 =0 ?>8A:5 ":>7;0 >B?CI5=8O", 0 MB> <>3;> 1K ?><>GL #G0AB=8:0< 3@C??K :>=B@>;8@>20BL A2>5 ?>2545=85. (-B> 7=0G8B5;L=> <5=55 MDD5:B82=K9 A?>A>1, G5< ?>8A:8 4@C38E 0;LB5@=0B82.) >;52K5 83@K. -B> G0ABL ?@>F5AA0 >1JOA=5=8O, :>B>@0O <>65B ?><>GL =09B8 0;LB5@=0B82=K5 A?>A>1K C4>2;5B2>@5=8O B5E ?>B@51=>AB59 3@C??K, :>B>@K5 AB8<C;8@CNB ?>8A:8 ":>7;0 >B?CI5=8O". @54;>65=85 ":>7;C >B?CI5=8O" ?>:8=CBL 3@C??C 8;8 7025@H5=85 @01>BK 2A59 3@C??K. (5@2K9 20@80=B =5 @5:><5=4C5BAO, @0725 B>;L:> 2 :@09=8E A;CG0OE 2 F5;OE 70I8BK 65@B2K.) 6.2. + -$$" #'!"/   # >43>B>2:0 : CG0AB8N 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5 2:;NG05B >1JOA=5=85, :0:>5 ?>2545=85, :0:85 459AB28O 8 CAB0=>2:8 CG0AB=8:>2 O2;ONBAO =081>;55 ?@>4C:B82=K<8 4;O 4>AB865=8O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E F5;59 2 3@C??5. A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; 3@C??K @50;87C5BAO, :>340 CG0AB=8:8: 25@OB, GB> B5@0?52B >:065B 8< :><?5B5=B=CN ?><>IL 8 C25@5=K 2 A2>59 A?>A>1=>AB8 872;5GL ?>;L7C 87 @01>BK 2 3@C??5; 3>B>2K >B:@KB> >1AC640BL A2>8 ?@>1;5<K, CG8BLAO =>2K< A?>A>10< ?>2545=8O 8 ?><>30BL 4@C38< CG0AB=8:0< 2 4>AB865=88 A2>8E F5;59; C4>2;5B2>@5=K 3@C??>9  A>AB02>< 55 CG0AB=8:>2, =0?@02;5=85< @01>BK, F5;O<8 8 A?>A>10<8 8E 4>AB865=8O; ?@8=8<0NB >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 @5H5=85 A2>8E ?@>1;5<, 87<5=5=85, 70 ?><>IL 4@C38< CG0AB=8:0<, 70 ?>445@60=85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 0B<>AD5@K 2 3@C??5; GC2AB2CNB A51O 157>?0A=> 2 3@C??5; >B:@KB> 3>2>@OB > A515, ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 AB0@0NBAO @0A:@KBLAO 2 3@C??5; 8 <KA;O<8, 8 GC2AB20<8 @5038@CNB =0 ?>2545=85 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 (M.M.Ohlsen A A>B@., 1988). 'B>1K ?>2545=85 CG0AB=8:>2 2 3@C??5 1K;> :0: <>6=> 1;865 : B0:>9 <>45;8, 206=>, GB>1K >=8 >1;040;8 8 >?@545;5==K<8 =02K:0<8 ?@>4C:B82=>3> CG0AB8O 2 3@C??5, >A2>5=85 :>B>@KE B5@0?52B 4>;65= ?>>I@OBL A A0<>3> =0G0;0 @01>BK 3@C??K. #?><O=5< =081>;55 206=K5 87 =8E. =8<0B5;L=>ABL 8 @5038@>20=85. =8<0=85 : B><C, > G5< 3>2>@8B 4@C3>9 G5;>25:  A;>20<8 8 ?>2545=85<,  O2;O5BAO ?@54?>AK;:>9 ;N1KE MDD5:B82=KE >B=>H5=89. B=>H5=8O 2 3@C??5 =5 O2;ONBAO 8A:;NG5=85<  157 2=8<0=8O 4@C3 : 4@C3C =5B =0AB>OI53> A;CH0=8O, 0 157 2708<=>3> 2KA;CH820=8O =5 2>7=8:=CB 8A:@5==85 >B=>H5=8O <564C CG0AB=8:0<8. K >:07K205< 2=8<0=85 4@C3><C G5;>25:C, :>340 A<>B@8< =0 =53>, 5A;8 >= 3>2>@8B, :>340 >1@0I05< 2=8<0=85 =5 B>;L:> =0 B>, GB> 3>2>@8BAO, => 8 =0 B>, :0: 3>2>@8BAO, 8 ?@. -<?0B8O. -B> >4=> 87 206=59H8E :0G5AB2, =5>1E>48<KE 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O 2 3@C??5 8A:@5==53> :>=B0:B0 8 2708<=>3> 4>25@8O <564C CG0AB=8:0<8. >340 CG0AB=8:8 ?KB0NBAO ?@>=8:=CBL 2 GC2AB20 4@C3 4@C30  ?>=OBL 4@C3 4@C30 157 >F5=>:, ;53G5 AB0=>28BAO @0A:@K20BLAO, B0: :0: ?>O2;O5BAO C25@5==>ABL, GB> 2A5 1C45B ?@8=OB> 8 ?>=OB>. A:@5==>ABL. -B> >7=0G05B G5AB=>ABL, A?>=B0==>ABL, 4>1@>65;0B5;L=>ABL 2> 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE. =0 >15A?5G8205B >B:@KB>5 >1I5=85 2 3@C??5 157 A:@K20=8O 70 >1I8<8 D@070<8 8;8 8AB>@8O<8 87 ?@>H;>3>, 8=0G5 3>2>@O, A>7405B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 0B<>AD5@C 2 3@C??5. 708<>C2065=85. => ;CGH5 2A53> 2K@0605BAO 2 AB@5<;5=88 ?>=OBL 4@C3 4@C30. 45AL =0<=>3> 206=55 @50;L=K5 459AB28O, G5< A;>20 >1 C2065=88. 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orey, 1990). @5645 2A53> >=8 ?><>30NB 2K45;8BL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 D0:B>@K, :>B>@K5 =0 >?@545;5==KE MB0?0E @0728B8O 3@C??K <>3CB AB8<C;8@>20BL 8;8 ?>402;OBL ?@>4C:B82=CN @01>BC. =0=85 C?><O=CBKE 70:>=><5@=>AB59 ?>72>;O5B <0:A8<0;L=> ?><>GL CG0AB=8:0< 2 4>AB865=88 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E F5;59. =0O, :0:85 ?@>1;5<K 8 :@878AK <>3CB 2>7=8:=CBL =0 :>=:@5B=KE MB0?0E @0728B8O 3@C??K, B5@0?52B 1>;55 OA=> ?@54AB02;O5B, :>340 8 GB> 5<C 45;0BL. <5O ?@54AB02;5=85 > @0728B88 3@C??K, 70@0=55 <>6=> ?@542845BL, G53> <>6=> >6840BL >B 3@C??K, 8 ?>43>B>28BLAO : 87<5=5=8O<. 0:>=5F, ?@54AB02;5=85 > @0728B88 3@C??K 405B B5@0?52BC >?@545;5==CN ?5@A?5:B82C, ?>72>;ONICN ?@>42830BL @01>BC 3@C??K 2 :>=AB@C:B82=>< =0?@02;5=88 8, GB> 5I5 206=55, ?5@540BL MB> 2845=85 ?5@A?5:B82K CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K. >A:>;L:C ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 3@C??K =57028A8<> >B 8E E0@0:B5@0, :0: C65 C?><8=0;>AL, @072820NBAO ?> 4>2>;L=> C=825@A0;L=K< 70:>=><5@=>ABO<, 2K45;O5<K5 1>;LH8=AB2>< ?@54AB028B5;59 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 CA;>2=K5 MB0?K @0728B8O O2;ONBAO AE>68<8. 0G0ABCN @07;8G0NBAO ;8HL =0720=8O MB8E MB0?>2. C.A.Mahler (1969) 2K45;8; 5 AB0489 @0728B8O 3@C??K: D>@<8@>20=8O, 2>2;5G5=8O, ?5@5E>4=CN, @01>GCN 8 7025@H0NICN. C.Rogers (1970) 2K45;8; F5;KE 15 AB0489, >4=0:> 8E <>6=> A25AB8 : 4-5 =081>;55 206=K<. J.L.Shapiro (1978) 2K45;O5B 4 >A=>2=K5 D07K @01>BK ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K: ?>43>B>2:8, CA2>5=8O 206=59H8E ?@028;, B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O 8 7025@H5=8O. J.C.Hansen A A>B@. (1980) >?8A0; 5 AB0489: =0G0;0 3@C??K, :>=D;8:B>2 8 :>=D@>=B0F88, D>@<8@>20=8O A?;>G5==>AB8, ?@>4C:B82=>9 @01>BK 8 7025@H5=8O. I.D.Yalom (1985) 2K45;O5B 3 206=59H8E MB0?0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K  =0G0;L=0O AB048O, 2> 2@5<O :>B>@>9 CG0AB=8:8 AB@5<OBAO A>@85=B8@>20BLAO 2 3@C??5, =09B8 55 A<KA; 4;O A51O 8 =5@54:> 1K20NB A:;>==K : A>?@>B82;5=8N 55 @01>B5; 2B>@0O AB048O  :>=D;8:B>2 8 "1>@L1K 70 2;0ABL" 2 3@C??5 8 B@5BLO  MB> AB048O A?;>G5==>AB8, :>B>@>9 A2>9AB25==> 2708<=>5 4>25@85 8 @0A:@KB85 CG0AB=8:>2. 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A5 MB> >B@0605BAO 2 2>?@>A0E 8 A><=5=8OE CG0AB=8:>2: "'B> <K A>18@05<AO 745AL 45;0BL?", ">340 =0G=5BAO @01>B0?", "/ =5 7=0N, > G5< 4>;65= 3>2>@8BL?" 8 4@. %>BO @5GL 845B > @01>B5 3@C??K, >4=0:> =8:B> B>G=> =5 7=05B., GB> <>6=> =07K20BL "@01>B>9". !8BC0F8N 5I5 1>;LH5 <>65B >A;>6=8BL ?0AA82=>ABL B5@0?52B0. 5>?@545;5==>ABL A8BC0F88 45;05B >1I5=85 =0 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 @01>BK 3@C??K AB5@5>B8?=K<, CG0AB=8:8 A:;>==K 45<>=AB@8@>20BL A2>5 A>F80;L=>5 "/". 0: >B<5G05B I.D.Yalom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orey (1990), "?5@2K5 4=8 2 70@C156=>9 AB@0=5, O7K: :>B>@>9 =5 7=05HL, :>340 =5>1E>48<> A@>G=> 2KCG8BL <8=8<C< =C6=KE D@07, GB>1K <>6=> 1K;> 4>3>2>@8BLAO". 5@54 CG0AB=8:0<8 ?>AB>O==> 2AB0NB 2>?@>AK: ">3C ;8 O 3>2>@8BL 745AL > A2>8E ?@>1;5<0E? >AB0B>G=> ;8 157>?0A=> 745AL? >3C ;8 4>25@8BLAO MB8< ;N4O<? ><C O =@02;NAL, 0 :><C =5B? @8<CB <5=O 8;8 >B25@3=CB?" 8 B.4. >A:>;L:C =5B >?@545;5==KE >B25B>2 =0 MB8 2>?@>AK, 2>7=8:0NB @07=K5 >?0A5=8O  1>O7=L ?>:070BLAO 3;C?K<, 1KBL A;8H:>< >B:@KBK<, C7=0BL GB>-;81> =5?@8OB=>5 > A515, 1KBL >B25@3=CBK<, AB0BL >1J5:B>< =0?04>: 8 ?@. 5>?@545;5==>ABL 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K 2K7K205B =530B82=K5 GC2AB20 CG0AB=8:>2. 4=8E @074@0605B B>, GB> @01>B0 3@C??K E0>B8G=0, =5B OA=>3> =0?@02;5=8O, GB> =0?@0A=> B@0B8BAO 2@5<O, 4@C38E @074@060NB <=>3> 3>2>@OI85 8;8 <>;G0I85 CG0AB=8:8, 8=K5 A:CG0NB, B0: :0: 01AB@0:B=K5 @5G8 :06CBAO 8< =58=B5@5A=K<8 8 15AA<KA;5==K<8. "5@0?52B 2 MB>9 A8BC0F88 4>;65= ?>1C640BL CG0AB=8:>2 >B:@KB> 2K@060BL 2A5 MB8 GC2AB20, B0: :0: 2 3@C??5 <>65B AB0BL =>@<>9 2K@065=85 B>;L:> ?>;>68B5;L=KE M<>F89. KH5=0720==K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 <>3CB ?>4B>;:=CBL =5:>B>@KE CG0AB=8:>2 : CE>4C 87 3@C??K. '0I5 2A53> MB> A;CG05BAO <564C ?5@2>9 8 45AOB>9 2AB@5G0<8. A=>2=K5 0@3C<5=BK  "MB0 3@C??0 =5 4;O <5=O", "O =5 ?>4E>6C MB>9 3@C??5" 8;8 "3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O =5 ?>4E>48B <=5".  B0:8E A;CG0OE (0 MB> A;CG05BAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 2 :064>9 3@C??5) 2>7=8:H85 ?@>1;5<K A;54C5B >1AC48BL 2 3@C??5 8;8 8=>340 2> 2@5<O 8=48284C0;L=>9 2AB@5G8 B5@0?52B0 8 CG0AB=8:0. >;LH8=AB2> CG0AB=8:>2 A>7=0B5;L=> 8;8 =5>A>7=0==> >B25BK =0 A2>8 2>?@>AK =045NBAO ?>;CG8BL >B B5@0?52B0--B> E>@>H> 284=> =0 ?@54AB02;5==>9 B.Levine (1979) <>45;8 (@8A. 2). 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'B> ?>4C<0NB ;N48, ?@>GBO MBC :=83C >B =0G0;0 4> :>=F0?" -B> C?@06=5=85 <>6=> ?>2B>@8BL 2 :>=F5 @01>BK 3@C??K, A?@0H820O >1 87<5=5=8OE 2 :=835, =0G8=0O A =0720=8O 8 :>=G0O 4@C38<8 55 0A?5:B0<8. !>740=85 0B<>AD5@K 2708<>4>25@8O 0 =0G0;L=>< MB0?5 @01>BK 3@C??K C CG0AB=8:>2 >G5=L G0AB> ?>O2;ONBAO =5C25@5==>ABL 2 A515, =54>25@85 : 4@C38< CG0AB=8:0<, 0 B0:65 : B5@0?52BC. 5:>=AB@C:B82=>5 ?>2545=85 B5@0?52B0 (?>AB>O==0O :@8B8:0 8 =530B82=K5 >F5=:8, A;8H:>< 1>;LH>9 :>=B@>;L =04 ?@>F5AA>< 8 C:070=8O CG0AB=8:0<, GB> 8 :0: 45;0BL, ?0AA82=>ABL, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: CG0AB=8:8 =045NBAO =0 53> 0:B82=>ABL, 8 ?@.) <>65B 5I5 1>;LH5 CA8;8BL GC2AB2> B@52>38 C CG0AB=8:>2. >340 =5B 2708<=>3> 4>25@8O, >1I5=85 2 3@C??5 AB0=>28BAO ?>25@E=>AB=K<, A:@K20NBAO 7=0G8<K5 GC2AB20, C CG0AB=8:>2 ?@>?0405B 65;0=85 @5H0BL A2>8 ?@>1;5<K, ?0C7K <>;G0=8O AB0=>2OBAO 2A5 1>;55 G0ABK<8 8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=K<8. 4=0:> 1K;> 1K >H81>G=> 4C<0BL, GB> 70 0B<>AD5@C 4>25@8O 2 3@C??5 >B25G05B B>;L:> B5@0?52B. >25@85 : 3@C??5  MB> @5H5=85 A0<8E CG0AB=8:>2. 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B<>AD5@C =54>25@8O B0:65 A>740NB 8 =530B82=K5 GC2AB20 CG0AB=8:>2, ?@8G8=>9 :>B>@KE =0 =0G0;L=>< MB0?5 @01>BK 3@C??K G0I5 2A53> O2;O5BAO =5?@8OB=>5 ?>2545=85 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2, 2KH5C?><O=CBK5 =5:>=AB@C:B82=K5 459AB28O B5@0?52B0, =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 3@C??>9. #G0AB=8:>2 ?C30NB MB8 GC2AB20, ?>MB><C 206=> ?><>GL 8< ?>=OBL, GB> 8A?KBK20BL >B@8F0B5;L=K5 GC2AB20 2?>;=5 =>@<0;L=>, 0 5I5 206=55  2K@078BL 8 >1AC48BL 8E. %>BO 2:;04 CG0AB=8:>2 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA O2;O5BAO >G5=L 206=K<, >4=0:> =0 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 4;O A>740=8O 0B<>AD5@K 4>25@8O =5 <5=55 206=0 8 @>;L B5@0?52B0. = 4>;65= >:07K20BL 2>7459AB285 A2>8< ?@8<5@><, >B:@KB> 8 8A:@5==5 >1I0OAL, 2KA:07K20O A2>5 <=5=85, =5 A:@K20O A2>8E GC2AB2, ?>:07K20O MB8<, GB> 3@C??0 O2;O5BAO 4>AB0B>G=> 157>?0A=K< <5AB>< 4;O >B:@KB>3> >1I5=8O. A;8 B5@0?52B 25@8B 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA 8 2 A?>A>1=>ABL CG0AB=8:>2 : 87<5=5=8N, >=8 B>65 ;CGH5 284OB F5==>ABL 3@C??K 4;O @5H5=8O A2>8E ?@>1;5<. A;8 B5@0?52B 2=8<0B5;L=> 2KA;CH8205B CG0AB=8:>2, A C2065=85< >B=>AOAL : 8E AC1J5:B82=><C >?KBC, MB> 405B 8< 2>7<>6=>ABL 8A?KB0BL A8;C ?@028;L=>3> A;CH0=8O. A;8 >= >B:@KB> 8 G5AB=> 3>2>@8B > A2>8E GC2AB20E, 2>7=8:0NI8E 2 3@C??5, MB> ?>1C6405B CG0AB=8:>2 : 1>;LH59 >B:@>25==>AB8. A;8 >= ?@8=8<05B CG0AB=8:>2 B0:8<8, :0:85 >=8 5ABL, =5 =02O7K20O 8< A2>8 CAB0=>2:8 8 F5==>AB8, CG0AB=8:8 B>65 =0G8=0NB ?@87=020BL ?@02> 4@C38E 1KBL A0<8<8 A>1>9. A;8 >= A C2065=85< >B=>A8BAO : :>B5@0?52BC  MB> =0E>48B >B:;8: 8 2> 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. ;O A>740=8O 4>25@8B5;L=KE >B=>H5=89 2 3@C??5 >G5=L 206=> >1AC48BL, GB> <5H05B CG0AB=8:0< 4>25@OBL 4@C3 4@C3C, :0:>2K 8E ?@020, ?>AB>O==> ?>4G5@:820BL B@51>20=85 :>=D845=F80;L=>AB8. G.Corey A A>B@. (1988), M.S.Corey 8 G.Corey (1987) ?@54;030NB =5:>B>@K5 A?>A>1K ?>2KH5=8O 4>25@8O 2 3@C??5. #G0AB=8:>2 ?@>AOB 70:@KBL 3;070 8 ?@54AB028BL, GB> A0<>5 EC4H55 <>65B ?@>87>9B8 A =8<8 2 3@C??5. 0B5< >=8 45;OBAO A2>8<8 AB@0E0<8 8 GC2AB20<8. -B> 206=>, B0: :0: >1KG=> ?@>1;5<K 2K7K20NB =5 GC2AB20 A0<8 ?> A515, => =52K@065==K5 GC2AB20.  =51>;LH8E 3@C??0E (?> 2-3 CG0AB=8:0) <>6=> >1AC48BL, GB> :>=:@5B=> <5H05B 4>25@OBL 4@C3 4@C3C. 0B5< @57C;LB0BK A>>1I0NBAO 2 >1I5< :@C3C. I5 >48= A?>A>1 ?>2KH5=8O 4>25@8O  A0<>0=0;87 CG0AB=8:>2.  =0G0;5 @01>BK ?>A;5 =5A:>;L:8E 2AB@5G 3@C??K CG0AB=8:>2 ?@>AOB >B25B8BL 2 4=52=8:5 =0 =5A:>;L:> 2>?@>A>2: :0: O GC2AB2CN A51O 2 3@C??5? :0:8E ;N459 286C 2 3@C??5? :0:8< :06CAL A0<(0) A515? G53> 1>;LH5 2A53> 1>NAL? :0: A<>3(;0) 1K >1AC48BL 2 3@C??5 A2>8 AB@0E8? :0:85 <>8 459AB28O <5H0NB ?>;CG8BL >B 3@C??K AB>;L:>, A:>;L:> <>3(;0) 1K ?>;CG8BL? GB> <>3(;0) 1K 2 3@C??5 87<5=8BL 2 A2>5< ?>2545=88? :0: A>?@>B82;ONAL @01>B5 3@C??K? :0: C:;>=ONAL >B ?>;=>3> 2:;NG5=8O 2 =55? 8AL<5==> >B25B82 =0 MB8 2>?@>AK, ;53G5 3>2>@8BL > =8E 2 3@C??5; 745AL <>6=> >1AC48BL >B25BK CG0AB=8:>2. 0745;5=85 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 @01>BC 3@C??K ! A0<>3> =0G0;0 @01>BK 3@C??K B5@0?52B 4>;65= ?><>GL CG0AB=8:0< ?>=OBL 8 27OBL =0 A51O G0ABL >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 @01>BC 3@C??K 8 55 @57C;LB0BK. ">;L:> ?@8 @0745;5=88 >B25BAB25==>AB8 2>7<>6=0 ?@>4C:B82=0O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O 3@C??0. 45AL 2>7<>6=K 425 :@09=>AB8 (M.S.Corey, G.Corey, 1987). 4=0 87 =8E  B5@0?52B, ?>;=>ABLN "C7C@?8@>202H89" >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 =0?@02;5=85 @01>BK 3@C??K, 55 E>4 8 @57C;LB0BK. = ?>;0305B, GB> 157 53> @C:>2>4AB20 2 3@C??5 1C45B ?>;=0O =5@0715@8E0. "0:>9 B5@0?52B, ?@8=8<0O =0 A51O @>;L M:A?5@B0, 0:B82=> 8 48@5:B82=> 2545B 3@C??C B0:, :0:, =0 53> 273;O4, ;CGH5 2A53>. "0:>9 AB8;L @C:>2>4AB20 3@C??>9 =5 ?>72>;O5B CG0AB=8:0< 8A?>;L7>20BL ?@02> 1KBL >B25BAB25==K<8 70 A2>N 687=L 2 3@C??5. >340 B5@0?52B =5 4>25@O5B A?>A>1=>ABO< CG0AB=8:>2 ?>701>B8BLAO > A515, @57C;LB0B ?>AB5?5==> =0G8=05B A>>B25BAB2>20BL 53> >6840=8O<  ?>2545=85 CG0AB=8:>2 2 3@C??5 AB0=>28BAO 157>B25BAB25==K<. "0:>9 B5@0?52B, 15@O =0 A51O 2A5 1@5<O >B25BAB25==>AB8, CAB05B, 87-70 G53> C<5=LH05BAO MDD5:B82=>ABL 53> @01>BK. @C30O :@09=>ABL  B5@0?52B, :>B>@K9 <>65B 70O28BL CG0AB=8:0<: "/ >B25G0N 70 A51O, 0 2K  70 A51O. A;8 2K E>B8B5 70:>=G8BL MBC 3@C??C 157@57C;LB0B=>, B0: MB> 20H5 45;>. / =8G5< =5 <>3C ?><>GL 20<  2548B5 A51O B0:, :0: E>B8B5". >60;C9, A0<K< @048:0;L=K< ?@>?030=48AB>< B0:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 1K; >A=>2>?>;>6=8: 35HB0;LBB5@0?88 F.Perls. 064K9 B5@0?52B 4>;65= =09B8 10;0=A >B25BAB25==>AB8, ?@85<;5<K9 4;O A51O 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 4;O CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. 5>1E>48<> @C:>2>48BL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??>9, >4=0:> 206=> 4>25@OBL 8 CG0AB=8:0<, 8E A?>A>1=>AB8 ?>701>B8BLAO > @5H5=88 A2>8E ?@>1;5<. @5>4>;5=85 A>?@>B82;5=8O 0 =0G0;L=>< MB0?5 @01>BK 3@C??K A>?@>B82;5=85 O2;O5BAO 5AB5AB25==>9 @50:F859 CG0AB=8:>2 =0 =5>?@545;5==>ABL A8BC0F88 2 3@C??5, 2K7K20NI59 =0?@O65=85 8 B@52>3C. 1 MB>< C65 3>2>@8;>AL 2KH5. !>?@>B82;5=85 =5 O2;O5BAO ?@>ABK< =565;0=85< A>B@C4=8G0BL A B5@0?52B><. >MB><C 53> A;54C5B ?>=8<0BL :0: G0ABL 5AB5AB25==>3> 3@C??>2>3> ?@>F5AA0, 0 =5 >128=OBL CG0AB=8:>2 2 =54>AB0B:5 <>B820F88, ?0AA82=>AB8, =565;0=88 87<5=8BLAO 8 ?@.  =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K =5 A;54C5B B>@>?8BLAO :0: <>6=> 1KAB@55 ?@5>4>;5BL "?>;>AC" B@52>38 8 AB@0E0 CG0AB=8:>2. =0G8B5;L=> ?@>4C:B82=55 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>5 @0A:@KB85, 0=0;87 MB8E GC2AB2, 0 =5 ?>A?5H=>5 8E CAB@0=5=85. 5 A;54C5B B>@>?8BLAO 8 :0: <>6=> A:>@55 @5H0BL ?@>1;5<K CG0AB=8:>2. 0 =0G0;L=>< MB0?5 CG0AB=8:8 5I5 =5 3>B>2K 4>AB0B>G=> A5@L57=> 8 3;C1>:> >1AC640BL 8 @5H0BL 8E. >A?5H=0O 8 ?>25@E=>AB=0O ?><>IL <>65B ;8HL =02@548BL.  ?@8<5@C, C65 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K =5:>B>@K5 >A>15==> 15A?>:>9=K5 CG0AB=8:8 A:;>==K @0A:@K20BL A2>8 =081>;55 3;C1>:85 8 1>;57=5==K5 ?5@56820=8O, >4=0:> =5 A;54C5B BCB 65 A?5H8BL 8< =0 ?><>IL. ;02=>5  =5 ?>72>;OBL 4@C38< CG0AB=8:0< M:A?;C0B8@>20BL MB8 ?5@56820=8O. "0:>5 ?>A?5H=>5 C4>2;5B2>@5=85 "4@0<K 3>;>40" ?@8G8=8;> 1K 5I5 1>;LHCN 1>;L @0A:@K2H5<CAO 8 CA8;8;> 1K A>?@>B82;5=85 @01>B5 3@C??K. 08;CGH89 A?>A>1 ?@5>4>;5BL A>?@>B82;5=85 CG0AB=8:>2 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K  MB> 2K@065=85 B5@0?52B>< A2>8E GC2AB2 157 >128=5=8O CG0AB=8:>2. -B> ?>72>;O5B 1>;55 >B:@KB> 3>2>@8BL > ?@8G8=0E A>?@>B82;5=8O, B@52>35 8 >?0A5=8OE CG0AB=8:>2 8 ?><>305B >A;018BL MB8 GC2AB20. 48= 87 =081>;55 G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI8EAO "A8<?B><>2" A>?@>B82;5=8O @01>B5 3@C??K =0 =0G0;L=>< MB0?5  ?@>?CA:8 2AB@5G 8 >?>740=8O. -B> A5@L57=0O ?@>1;5<0, B0: :0: ?>AB>O==> >?074K20NI85 8 >A>15==> =5@53C;O@=> ?>A5I0NI85 70=OB8O CG0AB=8:8 45AB018;878@CNB @01>BC 3@C??K 8 B>@<>7OB 55 @0728B85. A;8 ?>AB>O==> >?074K20NB 8;8 ?@>?CA:0NB 2AB@5G8 =5A:>;L:> CG0AB=8:>2, A;54C5B 8A:0BL ?@8G8=K 3@C??>2>3> A>?@>B82;5=8O, E>BO G0I5 2A53> >=8 1K20NB 8=48284C0;L=K<8. > 2@5<O ?5@2KE 2AB@5G B5@0?52B 4>;65= 4>2>;L=> AB@>3> ?@54C?@548BL CG0AB=8:>2 >B=>A8B5;L=> >?>740=89 8 ?@>?CA:>2. "0:85 A;CG08 =04> >1AC640BL 2 3@C??5, => =5 @5:><5=4C5BAO A MB>3> =0G8=0BL @01>BC 3@C??K. #G0AB=8: GC2AB2C5B A2>N 28=C 8 A:;>=5= 70I8I0BLAO, ?>MB><C >1AC645=85 <>65B 1KBL =5?@>4C:B82=K<. -B> ;CGH5 45;0BL 2 4@C3>5 2@5<O, ?@8 >1AC645=88 4@C38E ?@>1;5< 3@C??K. !B@C:BC@8@>20=85 @01>BK 3@C??K >=OB85 AB@C:BC@K >7=0G05B >@30=870F8N 8 ?>@O4>:.  ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5 AB@C:BC@8@>20=85 >B@0605B CA8;8O B5@0?52B0 ?> A>740=8N ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 2>7<>6=>AB59 4;O CG0AB=8:>2, :>B>@K5 ?><>3;8 1K 8< 87<5=8BLAO (T.J.Kaul, RX.Bednar, 1994). =>3>G8A;5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 >1;0AB8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?>:070;8 7=0G5=85 AB@C:BC@8@>20=8O @01>BK 3@C??K =0 =0G0;L=>< MB0?5 4;O 40;L=59H59 MDD5:B82=>AB8. R.L.Bednar A A>B@. (1974) C:07K20NB, GB> >BACBAB285 AB@C:BC@K 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K CA8;8205B =0?@O65=85 CG0AB=8:>2 8 O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 ?@8G8= CE>40 87 3@C??K. B.N.Kinder 8 P.R.Kilman (1976) ?@8H;8 : 2K2>4C, GB> =081>;55 ?@>4C:B82=K<8 O2;ONBAO B5 3@C??K, :>B>@K5 A=0G0;0 1K20NB A8;L=> AB@C:BC@8@>20==K<8, 0 ?>74=55 AB@C:BC@0 >A;01;O5BAO. R.Stockton 8 D.K.Morran (1982) 2 A2>5< >17>@5 ?@8E>4OB : 2K2>4C, GB> AB@C:BC@8@>20=85 3@C??K 2> 2@5<O ?5@2KE 2AB@5G AB8<C;8@C5B 55 A?;>G5==>ABL 8 3>B>2=>ABL CG0AB=8:>2 @0A:@K20BLAO 8 1>;LH5 @5038@>20BL 4@C3 =0 4@C30. 5?>A@54AB25==K5 8=AB@C:F88 B5@0?52B0 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K AB8<C;8@CNB 55 @0728B85. =0;>38G=K5 @57C;LB0BK ?>;CG5=K 8 2 8AA;54>20=8OE R.B.Caple 8 P.L.Cox (1989), 0 B0:65 J.M.McGuire A A>B@. (1986). "0:8< >1@07><, 8AA;54>20=8O 3>2>@OB > 7=0G5=88 AB@C:BC@K 3@C??K, >4=0:> 2>?@>A 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, 2 :0:>9 AB5?5=8 B5@0?52B 4>;65= AB@C:BC@8@>20BL @01>BC 3@C??K: =54>AB0B>G=>5 AB@C:BC@8@>20=85 CA8;8205B B@52>3C CG0AB=8:>2 8 ?>402;O5B 8E A?>=B0==K5 @50:F88, <5H05B A?;>G5=8N 3@C??K, 0 A;8H:>< AB@>3>5 >?@545;5=85 @0<>: @01>BK 3@C??K C25;8G8205B 7028A8<>ABL CG0AB=8:>2 >B B5@0?52B0. >;LH8=AB2> 8AA;54>20B5;59 2KA:07K205BAO 70 1>;55 AB@>3CN AB@C:BC@C 2 =0G0;5 @01>BK 3@C??K. > 40==K< R.R.Dies (1993), A@02=8B5;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O AB@>3> AB@C:BC@8@>20==KE 8 =5AB@C:BC@8@>20==KE 3@C?? ?>:07K20NB, GB> ?5@2K5 ?@52>AE>4OB 2B>@K5 =0 85% :0: ?> :>=AB@C:B82=>AB8 ?@>F5AA0 @0728B8O 3@C??K, B0: 8 ?> >:>=G0B5;L=K< @57C;LB0B0< @01>BK. !B@C:BC@8@>20=85 @01>BK 3@C??K >?@545;O5BAO =5 AB>;L:> AB5?5=LN 0:B82=>AB8 B5@0?52B0, A:>;L:> >?@545;5==>ABLN 3@C??>2KE 7040=89 4;O CG0AB=8:>2 (R.R.Dies, 1983). M.A.Lieberman A A>B@. (1973) C:07K20NB, GB> B5@0?52BC >A>15==> 206=> >7=0:><8BL CG0AB=8:>2 A ?>=OB8O<8, @07JOA=ONI8<8 8E ?>2545=85 2 3@C??5. !>AB02;ONI0O G0ABL AB@C:BC@8@>20=8O @01>BK 3@C??K  ?@028;L=>5 55 =0G0;> 8 >:>=G0=85. =>340 2 =0G0;5 2AB@5G8 2=8<0=85 3@C??K A@07C >1@0I05BAO =0 CG0AB=8:0, :>B>@K9 ?5@2K< =0G8=05B 3>2>@8BL. A;8 B5@0?52B ?>445@68205B B0:CN B@048F8N, CG0AB=8:8 AB0@0NBAO =5 =0G8=0BL ?5@2K<8, =5 65;0O >:070BLAO 2 ?>;>65=88 "65@B2K". I5 >4=0 G0AB0O >H81:0  >BACBAB285 "<>AB8:0" >B ?@54K4CI59 2AB@5G8 4> =0AB>OI59.  MB>< A;CG05 CB@0G8205BAO GC2AB2> ?@55<AB25==>AB8 2 @01>B5 3@C??K. 0G8=0O >G5@54=CN 2AB@5GC 3@C??K, <>6=>: 0BL 2>7<>6=>ABL CG0AB=8:0< @0AA:070BL, :0: C405BAO 4>AB83=CBK5 2 3@C??5 @57C;LB0BK ?@8<5=8BL 2 A2>59 687=8. 1AC48BL >AB02H85AO A ?@>H;>9 2AB@5G8 ?@>1;5<K; >A>15==> 65;0B5;L=> 2KA:070BL 2A5 A>E@0=82H85 0:BC0;L=>ABL 8 8=B5=A82=>ABL GC2AB20 4@C3 : 4@C3C 8;8 : 3@C??5, B0: :0: MB> <>65B ?><5H0BL =0AB>OI59 @01>B5. KA:070BL B5@0?52BC <KA;8, 2>7=8:H85 <564C 2AB@5G0<8; MB> >A>15==> 206=>, :>340 2 @01>B5 3@C??K ACI5AB2CNB B@C4=>AB8. -B> ?><>305B 8 CG0AB=8:0< 1>;55 >B:@KB> 3>2>@8BL > B><, GB> C405BAO 8 GB> =5 C405BAO 2 3@C??5. @0B:> >1<5=OBLAO <=5=8O<8 > B><, G53> 64CB CG0AB=8:8 >B A53>4=OH=59 2AB@5G8 (:@0B:89 >?@>A ?> :@C3C). "5@0?52B <>65B ?>-@07=><C =0G8=0BL @01>BC 3@C??K: 0: A53>4=O GC2AB2C5B A51O :064K9 87 20A? ><>;G8< =5A:>;L:> <8=CB ?5@54 =0G0;>< 2AB@5G8, 2A?><8=0O ?@>H54HCN =545;N, 8 ?>4C<05<, > G5< E>B5;>AL 1K ?>3>2>@8BL A53>4=O. 5 65;05B ;8 :B>-=81C4L GB>-;81> A:070BL > =0H59 ?@>H;>9 2AB@5G5?  G5< 2K 4C<0;8 8 GB> GC2AB2>20;8 ?5@54 ?@8E>4>< =0 A53>4=OH=NN 2AB@5GC? 5@54 =0G0;>< MB>9 2AB@5G8 =5<=>3> ?>4C<09B5 8 A:068B5, > G5< E>B5;>AL A:070BL 2 :>=F5 MB>9 2AB@5G8? 8 B.4. 06=> =5 B>;L:> E>@>H> =0G0BL 2AB@5GC 3@C??K, => 8 7025@H8BL 55. 5>1E>48<> 2K45;8BL ?@8<5@=> 10 <8=CB 2 :>=F5 70=OB8O =0 B>, GB>1K CG0AB=8:8 <>3;8 2KA:070BL, GB> 8< ?>=@028;>AL 8;8 =5 ?>=@028;>AL =0 A53>4=OH=59 2AB@5G5, GB> E>B5;>AL 1K >1AC48BL 2 A;54CNI89 @07 8 B.?. 0:0=G820O 2AB@5GC, <>6=>: >?@>A8BL CG0AB=8:>2 :>@>B:> @0AA:070BL, > G5< >=8 C7=0;8 8;8 G5<C =0CG8;8AL 2> 2@5<O 2AB@5G8; >?@>A8BL CG0AB=8:>2 2KA:070BL GC2AB20, A :>B>@K<8 ?>:840NB 3@C??C ?>A;5 2AB@5G8; 5A;8 CG0AB=8:8 A:CG0;8 8;8 2 3@C??5 ?@5>1;040;8 4@C385 =530B82=K5 GC2AB20, B5@0?52B <>65B A?@>A8BL CG0AB=8:>2, GB>, ?> 8E <=5=8N, <>3;> 1K ?><>GL 871560BL B0:8E GC2AB2 2 A;54CNI89 @07. >@>B:> >?@>A8BL CG0AB=8:>2, :0:85 B5<K, 2>?@>AK 8;8 ?@>1;5<K E>B5;>AL 1K >1AC48BL 2 A;54CNI89 @07. 1>1I8BL B>, GB> ?@>8AE>48;> 2> 2@5<O MB>9 2AB@5G8. "5@0?52B <>65B 2K1@0BL @07=K5 20@80=BK 7025@H5=8O @01>BK: 'B> 20< ?>=@028;>AL 8 GB> =5 ?>=@028;>AL =0 A53>4=OH=59 2AB@5G5? 'B> E>B5;8 A45;0BL 2 @50;L=>9 687=8, GB>1K ?@>25@8BL B>, > G5< A53>4=O C7=0;8 8 G5<C =0CG8;8AL? >?@>1C9B5 :>@>B:> >E0@0:B5@87>20BL @01>BC =0H59 3@C??K. 'B> 2 =59 A;54C5B 87<5=8BL? @5645 G5< 70:>=G8BL A53>4=OH=NN 2AB@5GC, E>B5; 1K 2KA:070BL =5:>B>@K5 A2>8 =01;N45=8O. AB0;>AL ;8 A53>4=O GB>-;81>, > G5< <>3;8 1K ?@>4>;68BL 48A:CAA8N 2 A;54CNI89 @07? 8 B.4. 01>BC 3@C??K <>6=> 7025@H8BL 8 :@0B:8< ?8AL<5==K< >?@>A><, 8A?>;L7CO A?5F80;L=CN 0=:5BC, 2 :>B>@>9 >B25B =0 :064K9 2>?@>A >F5=8205BAO ?> 10-10;;L=>9 H:0;5 (B01;. 5). B25BK =0 2>?@>AK 0=:5BK <>3CB 40BL 206=K9 <0B5@80; 4;O 4@C3>9 2AB@5G8, 0 B0:65 ?><>GL CG0AB=8:0< >1>1I8BL A2>9 >?KB. "01;8F0 5. =:5B0 >F5=:8 2AB@5G8 3@C??K >?@>AK 0A:>;L:> GC2AB2C5HL A51O 2:;NG82H8<AO 2 MBC 2AB@5GC? '0AB> ;8 A53>4=O E>B5;>AL CG0AB2>20BL 2 @01>B5 3@C??K? 0A:>;L:> 0:B82=K< GC2AB2>20; A51O A53>4=O? 0: G0AB> E>B5; A53>4=O @8A:>20BL? 0A:>;L:> A53>4=O 4>25@O; CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K? 0A:>;L:> A53>4=O 4>25@O;: 0) B5@0?52BC? 1) :>-B5@0?52BC? 0A:>;L:> A53>4=OH=OO 2AB@5G0 ?>1C640;0 @5H0BL A2>8 ?@>1;5<K, =0AB>OICN 687=5==CN A8BC0F8N, =0E>48BL 2>7<>6=K5 A?>A>1K @5H5=8O? 0A:>;L:> A53>4=OH=OO 2AB@5G0 70B@>=C;0 B2>8 GC2AB20? =>3> ;8 BK A53>4=O 701>B8;AO > 4@C38E CG0AB=8:0E? %>B5;>AL ;8 A53>4=O 45;8BLAO A2>8<8 <KA;O<8 8 GC2AB20<8? 0A:>;L:> OA=K5 F5;8 1K;8 C B51O =0 A53>4=OH=59 2AB@5G5? %>B5;>AL 1K 2=>2L 2AB@5B8BLAO A 3@C??>9 ?>A;5 A53>4=OH=59 2AB@5G8? 0A:>;L:> F5;5A>>1@07=>9 8 687=5A?>A>1=>9 ?>:070;0AL B515 3@C??0? 0A:>;L:> A?;>G5==>9 :065BAO 3@C??0? 0A:>;L:> ?@>4C:B82=>9 1K;0 A53>4=OH=OO 2AB@5G0? A;8 : >:>=G0=8N 2AB@5G8 >AB05BAO =570:>=G5==K< GB>-;81> 206=>5, <>6=> ?@54;>68BL CG0AB=8:0< 2KA:070BL GC2AB20, 0 ?@>4>;65=85 ?5@5=5AB8 =0 A;54CNICN 2AB@5GC. "5@0?52BC A;54C5B >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 =0 2>7<>6=K5 <0=8?C;OF88 CG0AB=8:>2, :>340 2 ?>A;54=55 <3=>25=85 ?>4=8<05BAO =>20O ?@>1;5<0, GB>1K ?@>4>;68BL 2AB@5GC. #G0AB=8:8 70:0=G820NB 2AB@5GC A =5>48=0:>2K< GC2AB2>< 7025@H5==>AB8/=57025@H5==>AB8. 5;0B5;L=>, GB>1K ?@5>1;040;> GC2AB2> 7025@H5==>AB8, >4=0:> =5 2A5340 <>6=> 4>18BLAO MB>3>. 01>BC <>6=> 70:>=G8BL, >AB02;OO =5:>B>@K5 2>?@>AK 157 >B25B>2. K;> 1K >H81>G=> 4C<0BL, GB> :064K9 CG0AB=8: 4>;65= ?>:840BL 3@C??C A E>@>H8<8 8 ?@8OB=K<8 >ICI5=8O<8.  B0:>< A;CG05 =5 1K;> 1K ?@54;>30 4C<0BL > 3@C??5 <564C 2AB@5G0<8. "5?5@L 1>;55 ?>4@>1=> >1AC48< 420 >A=>2=KE M;5<5=B0 48=0<8:8 3@C??K =0 =0G0;L=>< MB0?5 55 @01>BK. -B> @5038@>20=85 4@C3 =0 4@C30 8 =>@<K 3@C??K. 5038@>20=85 4@C3 =0 4@C30 2 3@C??5 (>1@0B=0O A2O7L) >;LH8=AB2> ;N459 GC2AB2C5B A51O =5?@8OB=>, :>340 8E <=5=85 > A515, 4@C38E ;N4OE, > @07;8G=KE ?@>1;5<0E 83=>@8@C5BAO >:@C60NI8<8. 5038@>20=85 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 4@C3 =0 4@C30 :0: @07 8 ?><>305B 8< ;CGH5 GC2AB2>20BL A51O 8 4@C38E. >=OB85 ">1@0B=0O A2O7L" 2 A>@>:>2K5 3>4K =0H53> AB>;5B8O 2 ?A8E>;>38N 225; Kurt Lewin, >A=>2>?>;>6=8: 8AA;54>20=89 2 >1;0AB8 3@C??>2>9 48=0<8:8. =0 >7=0G05B ;N1CN @50:F8N CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K =0 ?>2545=85 4@C3 4@C30 (R.Naar, 1982). 0: C:07K205B T.Saretsky (1977), @5038@>20=85 4@C3 =0 4@C30 O2;O5BAO D>@<>9 2708<=>9 ?><>I8, B0: :0: ?><>305B G5;>25:C >F5=8BL, =0A:>;L:> 53> ?>2545=85 A>>B25BAB2C5B =0<5@5=8O<. 50:F88 4@C38E ;N459 B0:65 ?><>30NB CAB0=>28BL A2>N 845=B8G=>ABL, >B25B8BL =0 206=59H89 2>?@>A  ":B> O?" 5038@>20=85 4@C3 =0 4@C30 206=> =0 ?@>BO65=85 2A59 @01>BK 3@C??K, >4=0:> 2 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 B5@0?52B 4>;65= ?@8;030BL >A>15==> <=>3> CA8;89, GB>1K CG0AB=8:8 =0CG8;8AL 4>;6=K< >1@07>< @5038@>20BL 4@C3 =0 4@C30. !CI5AB2CNB @07;8G=K5 :;0AA8D8:0F88 D>@< >1@0B=>9 A2O78. R.L.Bednar 8 T.J.Kaul (1978) 2K45;ONB A;54CNI85: ?> 20;5=B=>AB8  ?>;>68B5;L=K5 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 @50:F88; ?> A>45@60=8N  E0@0:B5@87CNI85 ?>2545=85 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0 8 E0@0:B5@87CNI85 A2>8 GC2AB20 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 4@C3><C 8;8 : A8BC0F88; ?> 8AB>G=8:C  ?C1;8G=K5 8;8 0=>=8<=K5; ?> 2@5<5=8  @50:F88 "745AL 8 B5?5@L" 8;8 "B0< 8 B>340". R.Naar (1982) 2K45;O5B =5A:>;L:> 8=K5 D>@<K >1@0B=>9 A2O78: K@065=85 ?>;>68B5;L=KE GC2AB2, A8<?0B88. !>25BK. -B> =5 A0<0O ;CGH0O D>@<0 @5038@>20=8O, E>BO 8=>340 >=0 <>65B 8<5BL A<KA; :0: A?>A>1 ?>:070BL 4@C3><C G5;>25:C, GB> >= 2065= 8 > =5< 701>BOBAO. !>25B <>65B 1KBL 15A?>;57=K<, => 206=> 2=8<0=85. =B5@?@5B0F8O. "5@0?52B 4>;65= A;548BL, =0A:>;L:> 40205<K5 CG0AB=8:0<8 8=B5@?@5B0F88 A>>B25BAB2CNB @50;L=>AB8. >=D@>=B0F8O (2K@065=85 >B@8F0B5;L=KE GC2AB2). 0A:@KB85. -B> A0<0O ?@>4C:B82=0O D>@<0 @5038@>20=8O, E>BO 8 A0<0O @8A:>20==0O, B0OI0O 2 A515 <=>3> "?>42>4=KE :0<=59" (1>;55 ?>4@>1=> > @0A:@KB88 @5GL ?>945B =865). >6=> 2K45;8BL 8 >1I85 ?@028;0 @5038@>20=8O 4@C3 =0 4@C30 (T.Saretsky, 1977; B.Bloch, E.Crouch, 1985; D.M.Kivlighan, 1985). 1@0B=0O A2O7L 4>;6=0 1KBL: A5340, B.5. 405BAO ?>AB>O==> 8 2A5< CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K. >=:@5B=>9, B.5. A;54C5B 871530BL 3;>10;L=KE 8 >1>1I0NI8E @50:F89, B0: :0: >=8 =5?@>4C:B82=K; @50:F8O 4>;6=0 1KBL =0?@02;5=0 =0 :>=:@5B=K9 ?>ABC?>:, 0 =5 =0 ?>2545=85 2>>1I5. @O<>9, B.5. >=0 405BAO G5;>25:C ?@8 >1@0I5=88 : =5<C =0 "BK", 0 =5 =0<5:0<8, :0: : ?>AB>@>==5<C 8;8 3>2>@O "> =5:>B>@KE ;N4OE 2 3@C??5". AO:>9, B.5. 4>;6=> 1KBL 2KA:070=> B>, GB> =@028BAO, 8 B>, GB> =5 =@028BAO 2 ?>2545=88 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0. !>>B25BAB2CNI59 :0: A2>8< ?>B@51=>ABO<, B0: 8 ?>B@51=>ABO< 4@C3>3>, =0 :>3> =0?@02;5=0 @50:F8O. @0:B8G=>9, B.5. >=0 4>;6=0 1KBL =0?@02;5=0 =0 B>, GB> G5;>25: <>65B 87<5=8BLAO; @50:F8O =5C40G=0, 5A;8 >=0 =0?@02;5=0 =0 25I8, =5 :>=B@>;8@C5<K5 G5;>25:>< (=0?@8<5@, "B2>9 3>;>A :0:>9-B> 65=A:89"). !2>52@5<5==>9; @50:F8O O2;O5BAO =081>;55 F5==>9, :>340 A;54C5B A@07C 70 ?>ABC?:><, 2K7202H8< 55. /A=>9 8 ?>=OB=>9 G5;>25:C, =0 :>B>@>3> >=0 =0?@02;5=0; >=0 8<55B A<KA; 8 O2;O5BAO F5==>9, :>340 ?>=8<05BAO 4@C38< G5;>25:><. ">G=>9; =5 A;54C5B 701K20BL, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> ;N459 >4=8 8 B5 65 25I8 284OB 8 >F5=820NB ?>-@07=><C; <K G0I5 2A53> 2848< B>, GB> E>B8< 2845BL, ?>MB><C ;CGH5 2A53> @5038@>20BL B0:: "">, GB> BK A59G0A A:070;, 70B@>=C;> <5=O", 2<5AB>: ""K 2A5340 ?@>2>F8@C5HL".  @07;8G=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE 45;0;8AL ?>?KB:8 2A5AB>@>==5 >F5=8BL MDD5:B82=>ABL 2708<=>3> @5038@>20=8O 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??0E. 0: C:07K205B D.M.KivHghan (1985), B5, =0 :>B>@KE 4@C385 CG0AB=8:8 @5038@>20;8 ?>-@07=><C 8 :>B>@K5 A0<8 G0AB> 8 no-@07=><C @5038@>20;8 =0 4@C38E, 4>AB830;8 1>;55 7=0G8B5;L=KE @57C;LB0B>2 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5, G5< B5, :>B>@K5 A0<8 <0;> @5038@>20;8 =0 4@C38E 8 ?>;CG0;8 <0;> >B25B=KE @50:F89. > <=>38E 8AA;54>20=8OE 0=0;878@>20;8AL @07;8G8O <564C ?>;>68B5;L=K<8 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K<8 @50:F8O<8. 57C;LB0BK A2845B5;LAB2CNB, GB> ;N48 >B40NB ?@54?>GB5=85 ?>;>68B5;L=>9 >1@0B=>9 A2O78, AG8B0O 55 1>;55 MDD5:B82=>9 8 40NI59 1>;LH5 8<?C;LA>2 : 87<5=5=8N (D.K.Morran, R.Stockton, 1980; R.R.Dies, 1983; D.K.Morran A A>B@., 1985; D.M.Kivlighan, 1985; B.Bloch, E.Crouch, 1985). 0: C:07K20NB R.Stockton 8 D.K.Morran (1982), ?>;>68B5;L=K5 @50:F88 1>;55 ?@54?>GB8B5;L=K 2 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 @01>BK 3@C??K, ?>74=55 @07;8G8O <564C ?>;>68B5;L=K<8 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K<8 @50:F8O<8 C<5=LH0NBAO. 530B82=K5 @50:F88 AB0=>2OBAO 1>;55 459AB25==K<8 8 1>;LH5 F5=OBAO =0 1>;55 ?>74=8E MB0?0E @01>BK 3@C??K, 2 >A>15==>AB8 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 MB><C ?@54H5AB2>20;0 ?>;>68B5;L=0O @50:F8O (R.Stockton, D.K.Morran, 1981; D.M.Kivlighan, 1985; B.Bloch, E.Crouch, 1985). > 40==K< R.Stockton 8 D.K.Morran (1982), : >B@8F0B5;L=K< @50:F8O< 1>;55 GC2AB28B5;L=K CG0AB=8:8 A 1>;55 =87:>9 A0<>>F5=:>9, GB> 2?>;=5 ?>=OB=>. B0:, B5@0?52B 4>;65= ?><>GL CG0AB=8:0< =04;560I8< >1@07>< >F5=8BL >B@8F0B5;L=K5 @50:F88 8 C2845BL 8E ?>78B82=K5 AB>@>=K (254L 3>2>@8BAO, GB> ?@024C > A515 1>;LH5 H0=A>2 CA;KH0BL >B 2@030, ?>MB><C 8 A;54C5B >A>15==> 2A;CH820BLAO 2 53> A;>20). > 40==K< 8AA;54>20=89, CG0AB=8:8 3@C?? ;CGH5 ?>=8<0NB @50:F8N =0 A2>8 :>=:@5B=K5 ?>ABC?:8, G5< 8=B5@?@5B0F88, 40205<K5 4@C38<8 (R.Stockton, D.K.Morran, 1980). 50:F88, =0?@02;5==K5 =0 ?>2545=85, O2;ONBAO 1>;55 MDD5:B82=K<8, G5< 2KA:07K20=85 GC2AB2 >B=>A8B5;L=> ?>2545=8O. A;8 ?>;>68B5;L=0O @50:F8O =0 ?>2545=85 4>?>;=O5BAO 2KA:07K20=85< ?>;>68B5;L=KE GC2AB2, 55 2>7459AB285 CA8;8205BAO, >4=0:> 2KA:07K20=85 >B@8F0B5;L=KE GC2AB2 70B@C4=O5B ?>=8<0=85 >B@8F0B5;L=>9 @50:F88 =0 :>=:@5B=K5 ?>ABC?:8 (B.Bloch, E.Crouch, 1985). 50:F88 B5@0?52B0 >F5=820NBAO :0: 1>;55 25A><K5, G5< @50:F88 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2, => MB> =5 7=0G8B, GB> 8E ?>=8<0=85 O2;O5BAO =5A><=5==K< 8;8 1>;55 25@>OB=K< (D.K.Morran A A>B@., 1985). >@<K 3@C??K 01>B0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K =5 <>65B 1KBL MDD5:B82=>9, 5A;8 =5B 4>3>2>@5==>AB8 ?> 206=59H8< 2>?@>A0< 55 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O. >@<K 3@C??K :0: @07 8 O2;ONBAO B0:>9 4>3>2>@5==>ABLN, :>B>@0O ?>445@68205BAO 2A5<8 CG0AB=8:0<8,  GB> =C6=> 8 G53> =5;L7O 45;0BL 2> 2@5<O @01>BK 3@C??K. -B> >A=>20 :>=B@>;O 2 3@C??5. >340 CG0AB=8:8 284OB A<KA; MB8E ?@028; 2 687=8 3@C??K 8 =0G8=0NB, AG8B0BL 8E =>@<0<8 A2>53> ?>2545=8O, MB> AB0=>28BAO 206=K< ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< 8 A?;0G820NI8< 3@C??C D0:B>@><. >@<K 3@C??K D>@<8@CNBAO 2 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 55 @01>BK =0 >A=>20=88 >6840=89 CG0AB=8:>2 8 >F5=>: B5@0?52B0. "5@0?52B <>65B 42>O:> 2;8OBL =0 D>@<8@>20=85 =>@< 3@C??K: CAB0=02;820O ?@028;0 @01>BK 3@C??K 8 ?>445@6820O 8;8 ?>402;OO >?@545;5==>5 ?>2545=85 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K; A>1AB25==K< ?@8<5@><. !D>@<8@>202H85AO =0 =0G0;L=>< MB0?5 @01>BK =>@<K "=0:;04K20NB ?5G0BL" =0 40;L=59HCN 687=L 3@C??K, 8 ?>74=55 8E >G5=L B@C4=> 87<5=8BL. >MB><C >G5=L 206=> D>@<8@>20=85 B5@0?52B8G5A:8E =>@< 3@C??K A A0<>3> =0G0;0 55 @01>BK. >6=> 2K45;8BL A;54CNI85 >A=>2=K5 =>@<K ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K (I.D.Yalom, 1985; M.S.Corey, G.Corey, 1987): 53C;O@=>5 ?>A5I5=85 70=OB89 3@C??K 157 ?@>?CA:>2 8 >?>740=89. :B82=>5 CG0AB85 2 @01>B5 3@C??K, ?>AB>O==>5 @5038@>20=85 =0 CG0AB=8:>2. B40G0 ?@54?>GB5=8O GC2AB20< 8 8E @0A:@KB8N, 0 =5 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=><C >1AC645=8N ?@>1;5<. @85=B0F8O =0 >1AC645=85 ;8G=KE 8 <56;8G=>AB=KE ?@>1;5<, 2>7=8:0NI8E 2 ?@>F5AA5 @01>BK 3@C??K, =0 @07@5H5=85 :>=D;8:B>2, =0 =5?>A@54AB25==>5 @5038@>20=85 =0 ?>AB>O==> <5=ONI85AO A8BC0F88 2 3@C??5. :070=85 ?>AB>O==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?>445@6:8 4@C38< CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K. @8=OB85 =0 A51O >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 @01>BC 3@C??K. A;8 MB>3> =5B, CG0AB=8:8 1C4CB ?0AA82=K<8 8 7028A8<K<8 >B B5@0?52B0. 0: 3>2>@8B I.D.Yalom (1985), "<>O F5;L  ?><>GL CG0AB=8:0< ?>=OBL, GB> >=8 8 5ABL :8=>: 5A;8 >=8 =8G53> =5 45;0NB, M:@0= ?CAB". KA:07K20=8O > A515 8 >B A2>53> 8<5=8. -B> 01A>;NB=> =5>1E>48<0O G0ABL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0. 4=0:> @0A:@KB85 4>;6=> ?@>8AE>48BL =5 2 ?>@O4:5 >G5@548, 0 2 C4>1=>5 4;O :064>3> CG0AB=8:0 2@5<O (=> >=> >1O70B5;L=> 4>;6=> ?@>8AE>48BL). 0A:@KB85  MB> <56;8G=>AB=>5 459AB285. >MB><C >=> 206=> =5 A0<> ?> A515, 0 2 :>=B5:AB5 >B=>H5=89 A 4@C38<8. "5@0?52BC A;54C5B >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 8 =0 B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, GB> ?> B5< 8;8 8=K< ?@8G8=0< 2 3@C??5 <>3CB D>@<8@>20BLAO 8 0=B8B5@0?52B8G5A:85 =>@<K, : ?@8<5@C, A>:@KB85 8 ?>402;5=85 GC2AB2, 2>7=8:=>25=85 ?>43@C?? 8 M@>B8G5A:8E ?0@, 871530=85 >1AC645=8O =5:>B>@KE B5< (2@06451=>ABL : B5@0?52BC, A5:AC0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K, ?;0B0 70 CG0AB85 2 3@C??5 8 4@.). 06=> A A0<>3> =0G0;0 =5 ?>72>;OBL CB25@640BLAO B0:8< =>@<0<, 0 MB> <>6=> A45;0BL ;8HL 1;03>40@O =5<54;5==><C 2KO2;5=8N 8 >1AC645=8N 2 3@C??5 B5E 2>?@>A>2, :>B>@K5 <>3CB AB0BL 8AB>G=8:>< 0=B8B5@0?52B8G5A:8E =>@<. @85< =>2KE CG0AB=8:>2 2 @01>B0NICN ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 3@C??C @>1;5<0B8G=K<, => =5@54:8< A;CG05< =0 =0G0;L=>< MB0?5 @01>BK 3@C??K <>65B AB0BL ?@85< =>2KE CG0AB=8:>2. %>BO, ?> <=5=8N 1>;LH8=AB20 02B>@>2, =>2K5 CG0AB=8:8 =5 <>3CB ?@8=8<0BLAO 2 70:@KBCN 3@C??C, ?@8 CE>45 87 3@C??K =5:>B>@KE CG0AB=8:>2, :0: AG8B05B I.D.Yalom (1985), 2 @0<:0E ?5@2KE 12-20 2AB@5G 2>7<>6=> 55 ?>?>;=5=85 =>2K<8 G;5=0<8. #A?5E 2:;NG5=8O 2 3@C??C =>2KE CG0AB=8:>2 7028A8B >B B>3>, 2 :0:>5 2@5<O MB> ?@>8AE>48B. 51;03>?@8OB=>5 2@5<O  :>=D;8:B=0O A8BC0F8O 2 3@C??5.  B0:>< A;CG05 3@C??0 <>65B >B25@3=CBL =>2>3> CG0AB=8:0, =0?@0282 =0 =53> A2>N :>=D;8:B=CN M=5@38N. !0<>5 ?>4E>4OI55 2@5<O 4;O ?@8A>548=5=8O =>2>3> CG0AB=8:0  ?5@8>4 70AB>O 2 3@C??5. ">340 1>;LH8=AB2> CG0AB=8:>2 60645B =>2KE AB8<C;>2, 8 8< :0: @07 <>65B AB0BL =>2K9 CG0AB=8:. AB5AB25==>, GB> C65 @01>B0NI0O 3@C??0 70G0ABCN =0AB>@>65==> 2AB@5G05B =>2>3> CG0AB=8:0. = <5=O5B CAB0=>282HCNAO AB@C:BC@C 3@C??K, <>65B ?@54AB02;OBL >?0A=>ABL 4;O AB0BCA0 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2, 2 =5< <>3CB CA<>B@5BL :>=:C@5=B0 2 1>@L15 70 2=8<0=85 B5@0?52B0 8;8 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2. 5@54:> 2 3@C??5 2KA:07K205BAO >?0A5=85, GB> =>2K9 CG0AB=8: 1C45B 70<54;OBL @01>BC 3@C??K. 0: >B<5G05B I.D.Frank (1957, 1992), A>?@>B82;5=85 ?@85<C =>2>3> CG0AB=8:0 <>65B >B@060BL CA8;8O 3@C??K A>E@0=8BL A?;>G5==>ABL. =>2L ?@8H54H85 ;N48 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO :0: C3@>70 59. 040G0 B5@0?52B0  =5 B>;L:> ?>43>B>28BL =>28G:0 : @01>B5 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5, => 8 ?><>GL 5<C ;CGH5 2:;NG8BLAO 2 3@C??C. @8E>4 2 ;N1CN =>2CN A@54C CA8;8205B B@52>3C, ?>MB><C A;54C5B ?>72>;8BL 2=>2L ?@81K2H5<C CG0AB=8:C ?>AB5?5==> 2:;NG0BLAO 2 @01>BC 3@C??K, ?>1C640BL 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 >7=0:><8BL 53> A =>@<0<8 8 ?@028;0<8 @01>BK 3@C??K. "5@0?52B =5 4>;65= 4>?CA:0BL ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8O 2 3@C??5 "<K  >=(>=8)", "AB0@K5  =>2K5". A?>;L7>20=85 B0:8E 2K@065=89 >7=0G05B A>?@>B82;5=85 D0:BC ?>O2;5=8O =>2>3> CG0AB=8:0, 8 MB> 4>;6=> >B:@KB> >1AC640BLAO 2 3@C??5. CGH5 ?@8=OBL A@07C 42CE =>2KE CG0AB=8:>2.  MB>< A;CG05 3@C??0 A2>8 ?@5B5=788 8 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 4>;6=0 1C45B @0745;8BL <564C =8<8, 0 420 =>28G:0 A<>3CB 1>;LH5 ?>445@60BL 4@C3 4@C30. >7=8:05B 2>?@>A, <>6=> ;8 A0<>9 3@C??5 ?>72>;8BL @5H8BL, ?@8=8<0BL =>2KE CG0AB=8:>2 8;8 =5B. 0: >B<5G05B R.Naar (1982), =5@50;L=> ?@54>AB02;OBL 3@C??5 ?@02> 25B> ?@8 ?@85<5 =>2KE CG0AB=8:>2. -B> ?@02> 40;> 1K CG0AB=8:0< 2>7<>6=>ABL <0=8?C;8@>20BL :0: B5@0?52B><, ?@83;0A82H8< =>2>3> CG0AB=8:0, B0: 8 G5;>25:><, :>B>@>3> >=8 @0=LH5 4065 =5 2845;8. >MB><C @8A:>20==> ?>72>;8BL 3@C??5 @5H0BL 2>?@>A > ?@8=OB88 =>2>3> CG0AB=8:0, B0: :0: 2 A;CG05 >B:070 5<C <>65B 1KBL =0=5A5=0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O B@02<0. >;0305<, GB> @5H0BL, ?>72>;8BL 8;8 =5 ?>72>;8BL 3@C??5 CG0AB2>20BL 2 ?@8=OB88 =>2>3> CG0AB=8:0, 4>;65= A0< B5@0?52B. A;8 3@C??0 4>AB0B>G=> 7@5;0O, 55 0:B82=>5 CG0AB85 2 ?@>F54C@5 ?@85<0 =>2>3> CG0AB=8:0 <>65B 1KBL ?>;57=> >158< AB>@>=0<. >2K9 CG0AB=8:, ?5@5H03=C2 "10@L5@" 3@C??K, 1C45B 1>;LH5 F5=8BL 55. @C??0, CG0AB2CO 2 ?@8=OB88 @5H5=8O, >@30=87CO "@8BC0;" 2:;NG5=8O =>2>3> CG0AB=8:0 2 3@C??C, 15@5B =0 A51O >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 B>, GB>1K ?><>GL 5<C 2:;NG8BLAO 2 687=L 3@C??K. 7.2.  %/ !"/ A>15==>AB8 ?5@5E>4=>9 AB0488 @01>BK 3@C??K 8 7040G8 B5@0?52B0 -B0 AB048O >7=0G05B ?5@5E>4 3@C??K : 4>2>;L=> 1C@=><C MB0?C 687=8, :>B>@><C A2>9AB25==K :>=D;8:BK, =530B82=K5 ?5@56820=8O. 7-70 MB>3> <>3CB CA8;8BLAO B@52>30, AB@0E8, A>?@>B82;5=85 @01>B5. >=D;8:BK <>3CB 2>7=8:=CBL :0: <564C CG0AB=8:0<8, B0: 8 <564C =8<8 8 B5@0?52B><.  3@C??5 ?@>8AE>48B ?@>F5AA 85@0@E870F88, "1>@L10 70 2;0ABL", 45;5=85 CG0AB=8:>2 =0 0:B82=KE 8 ?0AA82=KE, 4><8=8@CNI8E 8 ?>4G8=ONI8EAO 8 4@.  A2O78 A MB8< ?>O2;O5BAO 1>;LH5 :@8B8G5A:8E 2KA:07K20=89, >B@8F0B5;L=KE >F5=>: 8 :><<5=B0@852. '0ABK B@51>20=8O CG0AB=8:>2 4@C3 : 4@C3C  "4>;65=", ">1O70=". <5==> =0 MB>< MB0?5 @01>BK 3@C??K 1K205B A0<K9 1>;LH>9 ">BA52" CG0AB=8:>2  87-70 CA8;82H53>AO =0?@O65=8O, :>=D;8:B>2 8 4@. 4=0:> 2 ?@>F5AA5 2KOA=5=8O 2708<>>B=>H5=89, :>=D;8:B>2 ?@>8AE>48B >1J548=5=85 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 ?>B5=F80;L=K9 A?;02, :>B>@K9 8 =07K205BAO 3@C??>9. -B> =587156=0O D070 687=8 3@C??K ?5@54 ?5@5E>4>< 2 7@5;CN AB048N @01>BK. 5 ?@5>4>;52 ?>;>AK :@878A0 8 :>=D;8:B>2 >B@>G5AB20, =5 AB0=>2OBAO 27@>A;K<8. INCLUDEPICTURE "../..//%20!'/kociu02/kociu02/000/img2.gif" \* MERGEFORMATINET  INCLUDEPICTURE "../..//%20!'/kociu02/kociu02/000/img3.gif" \* MERGEFORMATINET  "  B5@0?52B #  CG0AB=8: 8A. 3. B=>H5=8O <564C CG0AB=8:0<8 =0 ?5@5E>4=>9 AB0488 @01>BK B.Levine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oulkes 8 S.I.Anthony (1971) C:07K20NB 4 >A=>2=KE 8AB>G=8:0 :>=D;8:B>2. 8;5<<0 :>=D>@<87<0 8 02B>=><88 (AB@5<;5=85 ;028@>20BL <564C ?>4G8=5=85< =>@<0< 3@C??K 8 65;0=85< A>E@0=8BL 02B>=><=>ABL). !>?@>B82;5=85 02B>@8B5B0< (B5@0?52BC). @>B82>@5G85 <564C 65;0=85< 1KBL =57028A8<K< 8 =5A?>A>1=>ABLN 1KBL @50;L=> =57028A8<K<. !>?@>B82;5=85 87<5=5=8O< (?@>B82>@5G85 <564C 65;0=85< 87<5=8BLAO 8 2A5 >AB028BL B0:, :0: 5ABL). C.Rogers (1970) 70<5B8;, GB> ?5@2K< ?@>O2;5=85< 7=0G8<KE GC2AB2 2 3@C??5 G0I5 2A53> 1K20NB =530B82=K5 GC2AB20 : 4@C3><C CG0AB=8:C 8;8 B5@0?52BC. =8 8 A>AB02;ONB 702O7:C :>=D;8:B0 2 3@C??5. ! >B@8F0B5;L=K<8 GC2AB20<8 A2O70=0 8 ?>B5=F80;L=0O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O A8;0 B0:>3> :>=D;8:B0  2K@060O 8E, CG0AB=8: :0: 1K ?@>25@O5B, A:>;L:> 2 3@C??5 A2>1>4K 8 4>25@8O, 4>AB0B>G=> ;8 157>?0A=> 2>7@060BL, GC2AB2>20BL 8 2K@060BL ;N1K5 GC2AB20, :>=D;8:B>20BL. =K<8 A;>20<8 ?@>25@O5BAO, =0A:>;L:> <>65HL 1KBL ?>=OBK< 8 ?@8=OBK<, "=5 1C4CG8 ?@8OB=K<". 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"5@0?52B 4>;65= 701>B8BLAO 8 > =0?@02;5=88 @01>BK 3@C??K >B >4=>9 ABC?5=8 : 4@C3>9, >B ?5@56820=8O : ?>=8<0=8N. >=D;8:BK CG0AB=8:>2 A B5@0?52B>< >=D@>=B0F8O A B5@0?52B>< 2>7<>6=0 2 B5G5=85 2A59 @01>BK 3@C??K, => =0 ?5@5E>4=>< MB0?5 >=0 2>7=8:05B G0I5 2A53>. 0 =53> <>3CB =0?040BL :0: =0 ?@>D5AA8>=0;0 8 :0: =0 G5;>25:0. -B> B@C4=K5 8 =5?@8OB=K5 4;O =53> A8BC0F88, >4=0:> >=8 40NB 2>7<>6=>ABL B5@0?52BC ?>:070BL CG0AB=8:0<, GB> ?@>O2;5=85 03@5AA82=>AB8, 2@06451=>AB8 =5 >1O70B5;L=> ?03C1=>  03@5AA8O <>65B 1KBL ?>=OB0 8 ?@8=OB0. 5?>A@54AB25==0O, >B:@KB0O :>=D@>=B0F8O A B5@0?52B>< 8<55B 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 4;O @0728B8O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K. @0:B8G5A:8 2A5 B5>@5B8:8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C?? A>3;0A=K A B5<, GB> "1>@L10 A 2;0ABLN" O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 =081>;55 206=KE 8 ACI5AB25==KE 0A?5:B>2 @0728B8O 3@C??K. 0: >B<5G05B B.Levine (1979), @07@5H5=85 :@878A0 2;0AB8 O2;O5BAO 4;O CG0AB=8:>2 =0G0;>< >B45;5=8O >B B5@0?52B0 8 ?>72>;O5B ?>74=55 >B45;8BL A51O 8 >B 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. @028;L=>5 @5H5=85 :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F89 A B5@0?52B>< C3;C1;O5B GC2AB2> 02B>=><=>AB8 CG0AB=8:>2 8 A?>A>1AB2C5B @0728B8N 2708<>>B=>H5=89. #<5=LH5=85 7028A8<>AB8 >B B5@0?52B0 >7=0G05B, GB> CG0AB=8:8 ?5@5=8<0NB G0ABL :>=B@>;L=KE DC=:F89, 0 B5< A0<K< 8 G0ABL >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 @0728B85 3@C??K. -B> >A>15==> 206=K9 ?@87=0: 7@5;>AB8 3@C??K. >=D@>=B0F8O 8 :>=D;8:BK A B5@0?52B>< <>3CB 1KBL 2K720=K @07=K<8 ?@8G8=0<8. I.D.Yalom (1985) 8 G.Corey A A>B@. (1988) C:07K20NB =081>;55 G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI85AO. >7@>AH55 A>?@>B82;5=85 CG0AB=8:>2 : A0<>0=0;87C 8 A0<>@0A:@KB8N 2 ?5@5E>4=>9 AB0488 @01>BK 3@C??K. 58A?>;=82H85AO >6840=8O CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. >7=5AO B5@0?52B0 2 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488 @01>BK =0 ?L545AB0;, >=8 A59G0A =0G8=0NB ?>=8<0BL, GB> =8 >48= 87 =8E B0: 8 =5 AB0; 53> ;N18<K< 8 >?5:05<K< "@515=:><". #65 ?>A;5 8=48284C0;L=>9 15A54K 2> 2@5<O >B1>@0 1>;LH8=AB2> CG0AB=8:>2 ?@8E>48B 2 3@C??C A =04564>9, GB> B5@0?52B 1C45B 53> B5@0?52B><. 4=0:>, :>340 2 E>45 @01>BK 2KOA=O5BAO, GB> B5@0?52B >48=0:>2> >B=>A8BAO :> 2A5< CG0AB=8:0<, 2>7=8:05B @074@065=85, 4065 2@06451=>ABL, 65;0=85 A>?@>B82;OBLAO B><C, GB> >= 3>2>@8B 8 45;05B. 54>AB0B>G=>5 ;8G=>AB=>5 ?@>O2;5=85 B5@0?52B0, :>340 >= >AB05BAO 2 @0<:0E ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 @>;8. -B> <>65B AB0BL ?@8G8=>9 ?@5B5=789 A> AB>@>=K =5:>B>@KE CG0AB=8:>2. 4=0:> B5@0?52B <>65B 8 4>;65= >1JOA=8BL CG0AB=8:0<, GB> 2 >B;8G85 >B =8E C =53> =5B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E F5;59 2 3@C??5. 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evine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ouglas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ouglas (1991), CG0AB=8:8, 8<5NI85 2KA>:89 AB0BCA 2 3@C??5, >1KG=> 8 2=5 3@C??K 70=8<0NB 1>;55 2KA>:>5 ?>;>65=85; >=8 E>@>H> >@85=B8@CNBAO 2 3@C??>2>< ?@>F5AA5 8 0:B82=> CG0AB2CNB 2 =5<, ?>40NB 1>;LH5 =>2KE 8459 8, :@><5 B>3>, <>3CB >1;040BL G5@B0<8 E0@87<0B8G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8. >;LH8=AB2> B5>@5B8:>2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 (I.D. Yalom, 1985 8 4@.) ?>4G5@:820NB >B@8F0B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 ?>43@C?? =0 3@C??>2>9 ?@>F5AA, >A>15==> 2 ?5@5E>4=>9 8 ?@>4C:B82=>9 AB048OE @01>BK 3@C??K. '0I5 2A53> =045;ONBAO A;54CNI85 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 0A?5:BK ?>43@C??: CG0AB=8:8 ?>43@C?? 1K20NB A:;>==K : 4>?>;=8B5;L=><C >1I5=8N 2=5 3@C??K (?> B5;5D>=C 8;8 2AB@5G0OAL); ?>MB><C 1>;LH0O G0ABL <0B5@80;0 <56;8G=>AB=>3> >1I5=8O <>65B =5 ?>?0ABL 2 :@C3 >1AC6405<KE 2 3@C??5 ?@>1;5<; 2>7=8:05B >?@545;5==0O 8718@0B5;L=>ABL B5< 2 @01>B5 3@C??K  >4=8 87 =8E >1AC640NBAO 2 3@C??5, 4@C385  2 ?>43@C??0E; ?> MB>9 ?@8G8=5 G0ABL D0:B>@>2, >?@545;ONI8E @01>BC 3@C??K, AB0=>28BAO =5:>=B@>;8@C5<>9; =>@<K ?>43@C??K, B@51CNI85 ;>O;L=>AB8 : =59 8 A>E@0=5=8O 2 B09=5 >1AC6405<KE 2 =59 2>?@>A>2, ?@>B82>@5G0B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< =>@<0< 3@C??K, B@51CNI8< ?@02482>AB8, >B:@KB>AB8, 8A:@5==>AB8; CG0AB=8:8 ?>43@C??K @07@CH0NB A5BL <56;8G=>AB=>3> >1I5=8O  >=8 >?5:0NB 4@C3 4@C30, A>3;0H0NBAO A <=5=85< 4@C3 4@C30, > G5< 1K =8 H;0 @5GL, 871530NB 2708<=>9 :>=D@>=B0F88 8 ?@. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 ?>43@C??0E ?> ACI5AB2C 83=>@8@CNBAO ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 F5;8 CG0AB8O 2 3@C??5, >=0 8A?>;L7C5BAO =5 4;O @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<, 0, =0?@8<5@, 4;O ?>8A:0 4@C759. I5 1>;LH5, G5< =0;8G85 ?>43@C??, ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA 3@C??K @07@CH05B 70<0;G820=85 8E ACI5AB2>20=8O. >MB><C B5@0?52B 4>;65= 1KBL 8=8F80B>@>< >1AC645=8O 2 3@C??5 :>=B0:B>2, ACI5AB2CNI8E 70 ?@545;0<8 3@C??K. C6=> =5 :@8B8:>20BL 8 >128=OBL, 0 >1AC48BL ?@8G8=K 2>7=8:=>25=8O ?>43@C??. "5@0?52B 4>;65= 2KA:070BL A2>N B>G:C 7@5=8O 8 GC2AB20 ?> ?>2>4C ?>43@C??, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 =5@54:> 1K20NB =0?@02;5=K ?@>B82 B5@0?52B0 8 >B@060NB A>?@>B82;5=85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 @01>B5. B45;L=K< 20@80=B>< ?>43@C?? O2;ONBAO M@>B8G5A:85 8 A5:AC0;L=K5 ?0@K CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K.  MB>< A;CG05 420 G5;>25:0 2708<=K5 >B=>H5=8O AB02OB 2KH5, G5< @01>BC 2 3@C??5, 83=>@8@CO ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 F5;8 3@C??K, @07@CH0O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA. %>BO, :0: >B<5G05B G.Corey (1990), M@>B8G5A:85 GC2AB20 A;54C5B 2K@060BL 8 >1AC640BL, :0: 8 4@C385 GC2AB20, >4=0:> A;54C5B 871530BL @50;L=KE A5:AC0;L=KE A2O759 <564C CG0AB=8:0<8. !CI5AB2>20=85 A5:AC0;L=KE ?0@ A>7405B 2 3@C??5 =5:>B>@K9 ?>:@>2 B09=K  >AB0;L=K5 CG0AB=8:8, 4065 ?>4>7@520O, GB> ?0@C A2O7K205B GB>-B> 8=B8<=>5, 871530NB 3>2>@8BL >1 MB><, =5 65;0O 2<5H820BLAO 2 ;8G=CN 687=L 4@C38E. "0:, G0ABL >B=>H5=89 CG0AB=8:>2 >:07K205BAO 2=5 7>=K 3;0A=>AB8 8 @01>BK 3@C??K. %>BO ?@5>1;0405B <=5=85, GB> A5:AC0;L=K5 A2O78 <564C CG0AB=8:0<8 8A:060NB ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA 3@C??K, =5 2A5340 1K205B OA=>, GB> 4>;65= 45;0BL B5@0?52B 2 MB>9 A8BC0F88. @54AB028B5;8 ?A8E>48=0<8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88 :0B53>@8G5A:8 2KA:07K20NBAO 70 @0A:@KB85 8 >1AC645=85 B0:8E A;CG052 2 3@C??5 (H.Mullan, M.Rosenbaum, 1978; D.Flapan, G.H.Fenshel, 1983; S.Rutan, W.Stone, 1984); @5:><5=4C5BAO 4065 8A:;NG5=85 87 3@C??K, 5A;8 ?0@0 >B:07K205BAO 3>2>@8BL > A2>8E A2O7OE (S.Rutan, W.Stone, 1984). !CI5AB2CNB 8 1>;55 C<5@5==K5 <=5=8O.  ?@8<5@C, G.M.Gazda (1989) ?>;0305B, GB> 2<5H0B5;LAB2> B5@0?52B0 2 A5:AC0;L=CN 687=L CG0AB=8:>2 =5MB8G=>. G.Corey (1990) C:07K205B, GB> E>BO B5@0?52B 8 =5 4>;65= :>=B@>;8@>20BL 687=L CG0AB=8:>2 2=5 3@C??K, >4=0:> >1O70= 3>2>@8BL > =565;0B5;L=>AB8 A5:AC0;L=KE >B=>H5=89 <564C CG0AB=8:0<8 8 A>740205<KE 8<8 ?@>1;5< 2 3@C??5.  ;N1>< A;CG05 B5@0?52BC A;54C5B 871530BL <>@0;870F88 8 ?>CG5=89, B0: :0: @53C;8@>20=85 <>@0;L=>9 AD5@K 687=8 ;N459 =5 O2;O5BAO F5;LN ?A8E>B5@0?88.  ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E AB0F8>=0@0E ACI5AB2C5B AB@>3>5 ?@028;>, 70?@5I0NI55 A5:AC0;L=K5 A2O78 <564C ?0F85=B0<8; =0@CH82H85 MB>B 70?@5B 2K?8AK20NBAO 87 AB0F8>=0@0. 7.3.  #"/ !"/ A>15==>AB8 ?@>4C:B82=>9 AB0488 3@C??K 8 7040G8 B5@0?52B0 0 MB>9 AB0488 ?@>8AE>48B ?@>4C:B82=K9 0=0;87 ?@>1;5< CG0AB=8:>2 8 @50;L=>5 87<5=5=85 A51O 8 A2>53> ?>2545=8O, 8AE>4O 87 ?@54?>AK;:8, GB> =8:B> 8=>9, 0 B>;L:> A0< CG0AB=8: >B25G05B 70 A2>N 687=L. 0: >B<5G05B B.Levine (1979), 2 8450;L=>< A;CG05 =0 MB>9 AB0488 2A5 >1I0NBAO A> 2A5<8, 0 B5@0?52B B>;L:> 87@54:0 >:07K205B ?>445@6:C CG0AB=8:0<. 450;L=0O <>45;L B0:8E 2708<>>B=>H5=89 CG0AB=8:>2 =0 MB>< MB0?5 ?@54AB02;5=0 =0 @8A. 4 (B.Levine, 1979). -B> =5 7=0G8B, GB> 2 AB0488 ?@>4C:B82=>9 @01>BK 8AG5705B B@52>30, =5 2>7=8:0NB =530B82=K5 GC2AB20 8;8 :>=D;8:BK. 4=0:> CG0AB=8:8 =5 871530NB 8E, 0 >B:@KB> 2K@060NB 8 >1AC640NB 2>7=8:0NI85 2 3@C??5 ?@>1;5<K. INCLUDEPICTURE "../..//%20!'/kociu02/kociu02/000/img4.gif" \* MERGEFORMATINET  "  B5@0?52B #  CG0AB=8: 8A. 4. B=>H5=8O <564C CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K 2 AB0488 ?@>4C:B82=>9 @01>BK A=>2=K5 :><?>=5=BK @01>BK 3@C??K =0 MB>9 AB0488 <>6=> >E0@0:B5@87>20BL C:070=85< @07;8G89 <564C ?@>4C:B82=>9 8 =5?@>4C:B82=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??>9 (B01;. 6) (M.S.Corey, G.Corey, 1987). "01;8F0 6. 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B25B >B:@>25==>ABLN =0 >B:@>25==>ABL O2;O5BAO A0<>9 MDD5:B82=>9 @50:F859 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5. -B> ?>4B25@640NB 40==K5 8AA;54>20=89 (R.Stockton, D.K.Morran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riedman (1989), @57C;LB0B A0<>@0A:@KB8O 7028A8B >B @50:F88 4@C38E =0 =53>. A;8 CG0AB=8:0, ?>45;82H53>AO G5<-B> ;8G=K< A 4@C38<8, :@8B8:CNB, MB> ?>402;O5B 65;0=85 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 3>2>@8BL > A515. BACBAB285 :0:>9-;81> @50:F88 =0 A0<>@0A:@KB85 2>A?@8=8<05BAO :0: =530B82=0O @50:F8O. CGH0O @50:F8O  ?>445@6:0, >1>4@5=85, A0<>@0A:@KB85. !0<>@0A:@KB85 >:07K205B 2;8O=85 =0 >?B8<0;L=>5 A>F80;L=>5 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=85  :0: A;8H:>< <0;0O, B0: 8 A;8H:>< 1>;LH0O >B:@>25==>ABL <>65B 2K720BL A5@L57=K5 <56;8G=>AB=K5 ?@>1;5<K. 0: >B<5G05B G.Egan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ozby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ansen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R.R.Dies (1993), @0AA<>B@52 156 @01>B >1 MDD5:B5 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 2K?>;=5==KE 2 29 AB@0=0E, CAB0=>28;, GB> 4>2>;L=> <=>3> 3>2>@8BAO >1 87<5=5=88 A8<?B><>2, <5=LH5  > A>F80;L=>9 ?@8A?>A>1;5==>AB8 CG0AB=8:>2, 87<5=5=88 CAB0=>2>:, A0<>?>=8<0=8O 8 > =530B82=>< 2>7459AB288 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K =0 CG0AB=8:>2 8 >G5=L <0;>  > 2>7459AB288 3@C??K =0 8E ?>2A54=52=CN 687=L.  MB> :0: @07 8 O2;O5BAO 3;02=K<. >;LH8=AB2> ?@0:B8:>2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8715305B 70=8<0BLAO 8AA;54>20=8O<8, >?0A0OAL @07@CH5=8O "A5B8" <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 3@C??K. @>F54C@0 8AA;54>20=8O <5=O5B ?@>F5AA @01>BK 3@C??K, ?>MB><C B5@0?52B AB0;:8205BAO A 48;5<<>9  8AA;54>20=85 8;8 @01>B0? @><5 B>3>, ;N1>5 8AA;54>20=85 =>A8B >F5=>G=K9 E0@0:B5@, 8 MB> >:07K205B 2;8O=85 =0 ?>2545=85 B5@0?52B0 2 3@C??5. >65B 1KBL ?>MB><C B5@0?52BK @54:> A>G5B0NB @01>BC A ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8<8 3@C??0<8 A 8AA;54>20=85< A2>59 @01>BK. ;O >F5=:8 MDD5:B82=>AB8 @01>BK 3@C??K G0I5 2A53> 8A?>;L7CNBAO <5B>48:8 8=48284C0;L=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O ;8G=>AB8, >F5=820NI85 8=48284C0;L=K5 87<5=5=8O (Q-A>@B8@>2:0, <5B>4 @5H5B>: Kelly, @07;8G=K5 >?@>A=8:8 ;8G=>AB8 8 0=:5BK). 4=0:> 8E @57C;LB0BK 2K7K20NB A><=5=8O, B0: :0: 1>;LH8=AB2> <5B>48: 8AA;54>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 (2>7<>6=>, 70 8A:;NG5=85< =5A:>;L:8E ?@>5:F8>==KE B5AB>2) =825;8@CNB ;8G=>ABL, "A2>4OB" 55 2 1>;55 8;8 <5=55, >4=0:> 2A5340 >3@0=8G5==>5 :>;8G5AB2> 87<5@5=89, >154=ONB 55 @50;L=>5 1>30BAB2>. >MB><C 8A?>;L7C5<K5 2 ?A8E>;>388 B@048F8>==K5 M<?8@8G5A:85 ?@>F54C@K =5 >G5=L ?>4E>4OB 4;O 8AA;54>20=8O C=8:0;L=KE CAB0=>2>:, GC2AB2, 87<5=5=89 ?>2545=8O ;N459, 2>7=8:0NI8E 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5. K A:;>==K ?>;030BL, GB> 87<5=5=85 ;8G=>AB8 8 55 ?>2545=8O 7=0G8B5;L=> B>G=55 >B@060NB AC1J5:B82=K5 >F5=:8 A0<8E CG0AB=8:>2. 0: >B<5G05B C.Rogers (1970), ;8G=K5, AC1J5:B82=K5 >BG5BK CG0AB=8:>2 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 3;C1>:>5 >B@065=85 7=0G5=8O 8 A<KA;0 3@C??>2>3> >?KB0. $5=><5=>;>38G=>5 8AA;54>20=85 1>;LH5 2A53> A>>B25BAB2C5B ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 @50;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0, ?>72>;O5B 7=0G8B5;L=> 3;C165, G5< >1KG=>5 B5AB8@>20=85, ?>7=0BL ?@>F5AA @01>BK 3@C??K 8 >F5=8BL 53> MDD5:B82=>ABL. &5==K< A?>A>1>< >F5=:8 MDD5:B82=>AB8 3@C??K <>65B 1KBL 0=0;87 4=52=8:>2 55 CG0AB=8:>2, =0?8A0==KE 2> 2@5<O @01>BK 3@C??K. >A;5 >:>=G0=8O @01>BK 3@C??K <>6=> ?>?@>A8BL CG0AB=8:>2 4> :>=B@>;L=>9 2AB@5G8 =0 2-3 AB@0=8F0E >1>1I8BL A2>8 4=52=8:>2K5 70?8A8, >B<5G0O >A=>2=K5 ?@>87>H54H85 87<5=5=8O, C:070BL, A G5< >=8 8E A2O7K20NB. !0< ?@>F5AA B0:>3> >1>1I5=8O O2;O5BAO ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8<, B0: :0: ?><>305B CG0AB=8:C :>=A>;848@>20BL 3@C??>2>9 >?KB. > 2@5<O ?>A;54=59 8 :>=B@>;L=>9 2AB@5G <>6=> ?@54;>68BL CG0AB=8:0< A?5F80;L=> ?>43>B>2;5==K5 :>@>B:85 0=:5BK 4;O >F5=:8 MDD5:B82=>AB8 3@C??K. 1@075F 0=:5BK ?@54AB02;5= 2 B01;8F5 7. "01;8F0 7. =:5B0 >F5=:8 MDD5:B82=>AB8 3@C??K 0:>5 2;8O=85 =0 0HC 687=L >:070;0 @01>B0 2 3@C??5? 0:85 >A=>2=K5 <><5=BK @01>BK 3@C??K <>65B5 =0720BL? 'B> :>=:@5B=> C7=0;8 > A515 2 3@C??5: >1 >1@075 A2>59 687=8? > A2>8E >A=>2=KE 687=5==KE CAB0=>2:0E? > A2>8E >B=>H5=8OE A 4@C38<8? 0:85 87<5=5=8O 2 A2>59 687=8 E>BO 1K G0AB8G=> A2O7K205B5 A CG0AB85< 2 3@C??5? ! :0:8<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 AB>;:=C;8AL, :>340 ?KB0;8AL ?@8<5=8BL 2 687=8 @5H5=8O, =0945==K5 2 3@C??5? 0:85 2>?@>AK 70405B5 A515 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O @01>BK 3@C??K? 0:>5 2;8O=85 >:070;> 0H5 CG0AB85 2 3@C??5 =0 1;87:8E 8 7=0G8<KE 4;O 0A ;N459? 'B> E>B5;8 1K A:070BL > B5@0?52B5 3@C??K 8 53> AB8;5 @01>BK? 'B> 2 ?>2545=88 B5@0?52B0 ?><>30;> 0< ;CGH5 ?>=OBL A51O 8 8A:0BL @5H5=85 A2>8E ?@>1;5<? 'B> 2 ?>2545=88 B5@0?52B0 <5H0;> 0< 4>1820BLAO A2>8E F5;59 2 3@C??5? 0:85 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 ?>A;54AB28O K A2O7K205B5 A CG0AB85< 2 3@C??5? 0:>9 D@07>9 A<>3;8 1K 2KA:070BL B>, GB> 7=0G8B 4;O 0A 3@C??0?  ;020 8 #'  # !%"  A8E>B5@0?8O, :0: 8 ;N1>9 4@C3>9 A?>A>1 ?><>I8 G5;>25:C 2 A;>6=KE, B@C4=KE 687=5==KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E, =5 2A5340 1K205B @57C;LB0B82=>9. 5B 01A>;NB=> MDD5:B82=>3> B5@0?52B0 8 01A>;NB=> MDD5:B82=>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> <5B>40. >>1I5 =5;53:> >1J5:B82=> >F5=8BL 87<5=5=8O 2> 2=CB@5==5< <8@5 G5;>25:0. I.A.Kottler 8 D.S.Blan (1989) 2 =0G0;5 :=838 > =5C40G0E 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 3>2>@OB: "A;8 5@B@0= 0AA5; <>3 A:070BL, GB> <0B5<0B8:0, B>G=59H0O 87 =0C:, <>3;0 1KBL >?@545;5=0 :0: ?@54<5B, 345 <K =5 7=05<, > G5< 3>2>@8<, 8 O2;O5BAO ;8 ?@028;L=K< B>, > G5< 3>2>@8<, B> =0 GB> <K <>65< @0AAG8BK20BL, :>340 3>2>@8< > ?A8E>B5@0?88, =081>;55 =0CG=> ?@8<8B82=>9 87 2A5E ?@>D5AA89?" !;54>20B5;L=>, =5C40G8 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 O2;ONBAO ?5G0;L=>9 @50;L=>ABLN, E>BO > =8E =5 ;N1OB <=>3> 3>2>@8BL. >340 2 1986 3. 2 >A:25 2> 2@5<O ;5:F88 8725AB=>3> 02AB@89A:>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 V.Frankl A?@>A8;8, 1K20NB ;8 =5C40G=K5 A;CG08 ?@8<5=5=8O ;>3>B5@0?88, >= >B25B8;: "/ =0E>6CAL 745AL =5 4;O B>3>, GB>1K @0AA:07K20BL > =5C40G0E ;>3>B5@0?88, 0 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 3>2>@8BL > 2>7<>6=>ABOE 8 MDD5:B82=>AB8 55 ?@8<5=5=8O". 0: ?>=8<05BAO =5C40G0 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88? 0 MB>B 2>?@>A >B25G0NB ?>-@07=><C. H.H.Strupp 8 S.W.Hadly (1985), >?8@0OAL =0 >?@>A 75 8725AB=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B>2, =5C40G8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >E0@0:B5@87>20;8 :0: >1>AB@5=85 ?@>1;5<K 8;8 A8<?B><0, 4;O :>B>@KE E0@0:B5@=>: CA8;5=85 45?@5AA88, @0AB5@O==>AB8, A=865=85 A0<>>F5=:8, CA8;5=85 GC2AB20 28=K, A=865=85 :>=B@>;O 8<?C;LA>2, =0@CH5=85 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89, 153AB2> >B @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<, 7028A8<>ABL >B ?A8E>B5@0?52B0, @07>G0@>20=85 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?><>I8.  @01>B5 C.J.Deutsch (1984) 264 >?@>H5==KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 C:070;8 B0:85 ?@87=0:8 =081>;55 G0ABKE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E =5C40G: ?@5:@0I5=85 ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?>?KB:0 :;85=B0 : A0<>C189AB2C 8;8 A0<>C189AB2>, 2K@0605<>5 :;85=B>< =5C4>2;5B2>@5=85, >BACBAB285 70<5B=>3> C;CGH5=8O A>AB>O=8O, G0ABK5 ?@>?CA:8 2AB@5G A ?A8E>B5@0?52B><. 0: 2848<, 2>7<>6=KE ?@8G8= 8 ?@87=0:>2 =5C40G <>65B 1KBL <=>3>. -B> :0A05BAO :0: 8=48284C0;L=>9, B0: 8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. 5C40G8 ?>A;54=59 <K >1AC48<, 0=0;878@CO 420 20@80=B0. -B> ?@5:@0I5=85 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 =5>1E>48<>ABL 8A:;NG5=8O CG0AB=8:0 87 3@C??K. -B8 420 A;CG0O =03;O4=> C:07K20NB =0 =5C40GC, E>BO, ?>=OB=>, =5 >1O70B5;L=> 2A5 CG0AB=8:8, CA?5H=> 70:>=G82H85 3@C??C, GC2AB2CNB A51O ?>;CG82H8<8 2 =59 >48=0:>2CN ?>;L7C. 8.1.   )  # !%"  #G0AB=8: 2 ;N1>5 2@5<O <>65B ?@5@20BL 3@C??>2CN B5@0?8N, >4=0:> MB> G0I5 2A53> A;CG05BAO 2 =0G0;L=>9 8 ?5@5E>4=>9 AB048OE @01>BK 3@C??K, =0 D>=5 :>=D;8:B>2 8 =0?@O65=8O 2 3@C??5. #E>4 87 3@C??K O2;O5BAO B@C4=>9 8 =5?@8OB=>9 A8BC0F859 4;O ?>:840NI53> 55 CG0AB=8:0 (4;O =53> MB> 5I5 >4=0 687=5==0O =5C40G0), 4;O 2A59 3@C??K (?>O2;ONBAO A><=5=8O 2 CA?5H=>9 @01>B5) 8 B5@0?52B0 (2 >?@545;5==>< A<KA;5 MB> 8 53> =5C40G0). 4=0:> =5C40G8 2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 4>2>;L=> G0ABK. "0:, ?> 40==K< I.D.Yalom (1966,1985), 4>;3>A@>G=CN 0<1C;0B>@=CN ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 3@C??C 2 B5G5=85 ?5@2KE 12-20 2AB@5G ?>:8405B 10-35% CG0AB=8:>2. W.N.Stone 8 J.Rutan (1984) C:07K20NB 5I5 1>;LH89 ?@>F5=B (>B 20 4> 50) =5A2>52@5<5==>3> ?@5:@0I5=8O 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  2K?>;=5==>< G.Bostwick (1987) 8AA;54>20=88 21 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??K 2 A@54=5< @01>BC ?@5:@0I0;8 35% ?0F85=B>2. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@>F5=B =5C40G, :>340 CG0AB=8:8 CE>4OB 87 3@C??K @0=LH5 A@>:0, 4>2>;L=> 2KA>:, 8 MB> A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> MB0 D>@<0 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?>4E>48B =5 4;O 2A5E. 0: C65 C?><8=0;>AL, ?@5:@0I5=85 ?>A5I5=8O 3@C??K 8<55B =530B82=K5 ?>A;54AB28O 4;O 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2, 0 B0:65 8 4;O B5@0?52B0. 0: C:07K20NB W.N.Stone A A>B@. (1980), B0:85 A;CG08 A=860NB ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; 3@C??K, 2K7K20NB A><=5=85 CG0AB=8:>2 2 CA?5H=>AB8 @01>BK 3@C??K. 5@54:> 1K205B B0:, GB> 5A;8 3@C??C ?>:8405B >48=, B> 55 <>65B ?>:8=CBL 8 4@C3>9 8;8 =5A:>;L:> CG0AB=8:>2, B.5. CE>4 87 3@C??K ?@8=8<05B "M?845<8G5A:89" E0@0:B5@, 8 MB> 5I5 1>;LH5 >A;01;O5B 3@C??C. S.Vinogradova 8 I.D.Yalom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ernard (1989) 2K45;8; 4 206=59H85 :0B53>@88 ?@8G8=: A2O70==K5 A A0<8< CG0AB=8:><; A2O70==K5 A B5@0?52B><; A2O70==K5 A >B=>H5=8O<8 CG0AB=8:0 8 B5@0?52B0; A2O70==K5 A 3@C??>2K< ?@>F5AA><. ?8@0OAL =0 <0B5@80;K 8AA;54>20=89, <>6=> :>=:@5B878@>20BL ?@8G8=K ?@5:@0I5=8O ?A8E>B5@0?88 :064>9 87 MB8E :0B53>@89. 1. @8G8=K, 70 :>B>@K5 >B25BAB25=5= A0< CG0AB=8: 5A?>A>1=>ABL 2K45@60BL 402;5=85 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2, 8E =530B82=K5 @50:F88, :>340 CG0AB=8: >:07K205BAO 2 ?>;>65=88 "0CBA0945@0", ":>7;0 >B?CI5=8O" (I.D.Yalom, 1985; H.S.Bernard, 1989). !B@0E ?5@54 A0<>@0A:@KB85< 8 2>7=8:=>25=85< 1;87:8E >B=>H5=89 (E.R.Sethna, J.A.Harrington, 1971; F.Backeland, L.Lundwall, 1975; I.D.Yalom, 1985; H.S.Bernard, 1989), O@:> 2K@065==0O 8=B@>25@B=>ABL (R.R.MacNair, J.G.Corrazzini, 1994). >O7=L 2>7<>6=>3> =530B82=>3> 2>7459AB28O ?@>1;5< 8 =0@CH5=89 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 (I.D.Yalom, 1985; H.S.Bernard, 1989). 8384=K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 70I8BK, <5H0NI85 CG0AB2>20BL 2 @01>B5 3@C??K (G.Bostwick, 1987; H.S.Bernard, 1989). 5A>2<5AB8<>ABL ?>A5I5=8O 3@C??K A 4@C38<8 D>@<0<8 ?><>I8, G0I5 2A53> A 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?859 8;8 :>=AC;LB8@>20=85< (I.D.Yalom, 1985; H.S.Bernard, 1989). =B5=A82=K5 A><0B8G5A:85 (?A8E>A><0B8G5A:85) 60;>1K (I.D.Yalom, 1985; R.R.MacNair, J.G.Corrazzini, 1994). @8B8G5A:85 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 687=8 CG0AB=8:0 (:@878AK, @57:85 87<5=5=8O 2 687=8 8 4@.) (I.D.Yalom, 1985; H.S.Bernard, 1989). 5:>B>@K5 B5@0?52BK >3@0=8G820NBAO MB8<8 ?@8G8=0<8, 2AN 28=C 70 =5C40G8 A20;820O =0 :;85=B>2. 0?@8<5@, I.D.Yalom (1985) C:07K205B B>;L:> B0:>3> @>40 ?@8G8=K CE>40 87 3@C??K. E.F.Torrey (1986) >B<5G05B, GB> C 2A5E ?A8E>B5@0?52B>2 5ABL ?@5:@0A=>5 A@54AB2> A0<>70I8BK  2 =5C40G0E ?A8E>B5@0?88 >=8 <>3CB 28=8BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN 70I8BC :;85=B>2, 8E =5?@83>4=>ABL : ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 =565;0=85 GB>-;81> 87<5=8BL 2 A515 8;8 2 A2>59 687=8 8 B.4. 0: 3>2>@OB J.A.Kottler 8 D.S.Blan (1989), C ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 5ABL 2K1>@ >1JOA=5=89 :;85=BC ?@8G8= A2>59 =5C40G=>9 @01>BK  "2K =5 AB0@0;8AL 8 =8G53> =5 45;0;8", 8;8 "2K ?5@5AB0@0;8AL", 8;8 "20< B>;L:> :070;>AL, GB> AB0@05B5AL". 4=0:> ;8G=>ABL B5@0?52B0 3@C??K, :0: 8 2>>1I5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0, 53> AB8;L @01>BK, =0:>=5F, 53> ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 >H81:8 B0:65, =5A><=5==>, >:07K20NB 2;8O=85 =0 CA?5H=>ABL 8;8 =5CA?5H=>ABL ?A8E>B5@0?88. 2. @8G8=K, 70 :>B>@K5 >B25BAB25=5= B5@0?52B 5C40G=K9 >B1>@ CG0AB=8:>2 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 3@C??C 8 =54>AB0B>G=0O ?>43>B>2:0 55 : @01>B5 (H.S.Bernard, 1989). 5?@83>4=K9 AB8;L @C:>2>4AB20 3@C??>9, =0@CH5=85 ?@028;0 :>=D845=F80;L=>AB8, =5>1J5:B82=>ABL ?> >B=>H5=8N : CG0AB=8:0< 3@C??K (M.A.Lieberman, 1972, 1990; M.West, WJ.Livesley, 1986). !B@5<;5=85 ;N1>9 F5=>9 C3>48BL CG0AB=8:0<, 53> "=0@F8AAB8G5A:0O @0=8<>ABL", :0: MB> =07K205B M.F.Weiner (1983). 3. @8G8=K, A2O70==K5 A >B=>H5=8O<8 CG0AB=8:0 8 B5@0?52B0 5?@8O7=L B5@0?52B0 : CG0AB=8:C 8;8 CG0AB=8:0 : B5@0?52BC (I.D.Yalom, 1985; H.S.Bernard, 1989), =54>AB0B>G=K9 :>=B0:B (W.H.Friedman, 1989). !;8H:>< 03@5AA82=>5 <56;8G=>AB=>5 2708<>459AB285 <564C CG0AB=8:>< 8 B5@0?52B>< (H.S.Bernard. 1989). R.R.Dies 8 P.A.Teleska (1985) A@548 ?@8G8= ?@5:@0I5=8O 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >A>1> 2K45;ONB =5?@028;L=K5 >B=>H5=8O CG0AB=8:>2 8 B5@0?52B0. B25BAB25==>9 AB>@>=>9 745AL G0I5 2A53> AG8B05BAO B5@0?52B. >;0305<, GB> 2KH5C?><O=CBK5 ?@8G8=K ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E =5C40G <>6=> >B=5AB8 =0 AG5B B5@0?52B0. ;>E85 >B=>H5=8O <564C CG0AB=8:0<8 8 B5@0?52B>< A:;04K20NBAO B>340, :>340 ?>A;54=89 =5 ?@>O2;O5B C2065=8O : CG0AB=8:0<, >A>15==> ?@8 :>=D@>=B0F88, =5 >1@0I05B 2=8<0=8O =0 8E ?>B@51=>AB8 8 CO728<>ABL. 0 CG0AB=8:>2 =530B82=> 459AB2C5B 8 G@57<5@=0O M<>F8>=0;L=>ABL B5@0?52B0, :>340 >= A;8H:>< @0A:@K205BAO, AB0=>28BAO A;8H:>< AC1J5:B82=K<, A:;>=5= C4>2;5B2>@OBL A2>8 ?>B@51=>AB8 2 3@C??5. 4. @8G8=K, A2O70==K5 A 3@C??>2K< ?@>F5AA>< >O2;5=85 ?>43@C??, >A>15==> =0?@02;5==KE ?@>B82 :0:>3>-;81> CG0AB=8:0 (I.D.Yalom, 1985; H.S.Bernard, 1989). "@>2>:0B>@" 2 3@C??5, ?>AB>O==> 2K7K20NI89 B@52>3C C :>3>-;81> 87 CG0AB=8:>2, >A>15==> :>340 B5@0?52B B5@?8<> >B=>A8BAO : B0:><C ?>2545=8N (I.D.Yalom, 1985; H.S.Bernard, 1989). 57>@30=87CNI85 @01>BC 3@C??K =5@5H05<K5 :>=D;8:BK (H.S.Bernard, 1989; R.R.MacNair, J.G.Corrazzini, 1994). 0AA<>B@52 ?@8G8=K 2>7<>6=>3> ?@5:@0I5=8O 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?@8E>48BAO A>3;0A8BLAO A ?0@04>:A0;L=K< 2K2>4>< I.D.Yalom (1985), GB> 2 3@C??5 "1>30BK9 AB0=>28BAO 1>30G5, 0 154=K9  5I5 154=55, B.5. CG0AB=8:, 8<5NI89 <5=LH5 =02K:>2 4;O @01>BK 2 3@C??5, G0I5 2A53> B5@?8B =5C40GC". G5=L 206=>, :0: CG0AB=8: ?>:8405B 3@C??C. >7<>6=K B@8 20@80=B0. #G0AB=8: ?@>AB> ?5@5AB05B ?>A5I0BL 3@C??>2K5 2AB@5G8.  A2>5< @5H5=88 C9B8 87 3@C??K :;85=B 8=D>@<8@C5B B5@0?52B0 70 ?@545;0<8 3@C??K. #G0AB=8: A>>1I05B 3@C??5 > A2>5< @5H5=88. W.F.Friedman (1989) 0=0;878@C5B 2>7<>6=K5 459AB28O B5@0?52B0 2 :064>< A;CG05. A;8 CG0AB=8: :0:>5-B> 2@5<O =5 ?>O2;O5BAO =0 2AB@5G0E 3@C??K, A =8< A;54C5B A2O70BLAO (?>72>=8BL 8;8 :0:-B> 8=0G5), 2KOA=8BL, GB> A;CG8;>AL, 8 A?@>A8BL, =5 65;05B ;8 >= 5I5 @07 ?@89B8 2 3@C??C 8;8 E>BO 1K 2AB@5B8BLAO A B5@0?52B><. A;8 MB>3> CG0AB=8:0 2 3@C??C =0?@028; :>;;530, 53> A;54C5B 8=D>@<8@>20BL, GB> @5:><5=4>20==>5 8< ;8F> ?5@5AB0;> ?>A5I0BL 3@C??C. A;8 CG0AB=8: 8=D>@<8@C5B B5@0?52B0 2=5 3@C??K > A2>5< @5H5=88 ?@5:@0B8BL 55 ?>A5I5=85, 206=> ?>AB0@0BLAO ?@83;0A8BL 53> 5I5 =0 >4=C 2AB@5GC, B5< 1>;55 GB> >4=8< 87 ?@028; 3@C??K 1K;> >1JOA=5=85 ?@8G8= ?@56452@5<5==>3> CE>40. >:840NI89 3@C??C CG0AB=8: >B25G05B =5 B>;L:> ?5@54 A>1>9, => 8 ?5@54 2A5<8 CG0AB=8:0<8, ?>MB><C >= 4>;65= >1JOA=8BL 8< ?@8G8=K A2>53> @5H5=8O. -B> 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL :0: ?>:840NI5<C 3@C??C, B0: 8 4@C38< CG0AB=8:0< 2K@078BL 8 >1AC48BL A2>8 GC2AB20, A2O70==K5 A ?@>1;5<0<8 2 @01>B5 3@C??K, ?>72>;O5B 3;C165 8 045:20B=55 ?>=OBL, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 3@C??5, 8 4>;6=K< >1@07>< >F5=8BL <>B82K ?>:840NI53> 3@C??C CG0AB=8:0. =>340 MB> <>65B 87<5=8BL 53> @5H5=85, => B0:>5 A;CG05BAO @54:>.  ;N1>< A;CG05 =8 B5@0?52B, =8 3@C??0 =5 4>;6=K >:07K20BL 402;5=85 =0 CE>4OI53> CG0AB=8:0, AB@5<OAL ;N1>9 F5=>9 C45@60BL 53> 2 3@C??5. A;8 ?>:840NI89 3@C??C CG0AB=8: > A2>5< @5H5=88 E>G5B @0AA:070BL 2A59 3@C??5, 4;O MB>3> >1KG=> 2K18@05BAO >:>=G0=85 2AB@5G8, GB>1K 871560BL 1>;55 H8@>:>3> >1AC645=8O MB>3> 2>?@>A0.  MB>< A;CG05 B5@0?52B =5 4>;65= ?@>4;520BL 2@5<O 2AB@5G8, >4=0:> =5>1E>48<> =5<=>3> ?>3>2>@8BL A CG0AB=8:><, 2K@0782H8< 65;0=85 C9B8 87 3@C??K, ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 2AB@5G8. "5@0?52BC A;54C5B ?>?@>A8BL CG0AB=8:0 5I5 @07 ?@89B8 =0 2AB@5GC 3@C??K. A;8 ?@>AL10 >:065BAO 157CA?5H=>9, B5@0?52B 4>;65= 8=8F88@>20BL >1AC645=85 ?@>1;5< 8 GC2AB2, A2O70==KE A MB8< A>1KB85<. =>340 CG0AB=8:8 =5 65;0NB MB>3> 45;0BL, >1JOA=OO, GB> =5E>@>H> 3>2>@8BL > G5;>25:5 2 53> >BACBAB285. 4=0:> 2 MB>< A;CG05 @5GL 845B =5 >1 >BACBAB2CNI5<, 0 > GC2AB20E CG0AB=8:>2 ?> >B=>H5=8N : =5<C, 0 MB> @07=K5 25I8. %>BO ">BA52" 87 3@C??K =5871565= 2 E>45 @01>BK, >4=0:> B5@0?52BC A;54C5B CG8BK20BL >1AB>OB5;LAB20, :>B>@K5 <>3CB C<5=LH8BL B0:85 ?>B5@8. H.S.Bernard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alom, 1985). -B0 ?@>1;5<0 1>;55 :>=AB@C:B82=> @5H05BAO =0 8=48284C0;L=>9 2AB@5G5 A CG0AB=8:><, B0: :0: >1AC645=85 2 3@C??5 <>65B 1KBL =5?@>4C:B82=K< 87-70 70I8BK CG0AB=8:0 8;8 87-70 2>7<>6=KE =5:>=AB@C:B82=KE @50:F89 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2. A:;NG5=85 >4=>3> CG0AB=8:0 <>65B 2K720BL >AB@CN @50:F8N 3@C??K. "0:>5 @5H5=85 B5@0?52B0 CG0AB=8:8 <>3CB @0AF5=8BL :0: 2K@065=85 53> AC1J5:B82=>AB8, 0=B8?0B88 : C40;O5<><C CG0AB=8:C. >MB><C B5@0?52BC 206=> <>B828@>20==> >1JOA=8BL A2>8 459AB28O, ?>:070BL CG0AB=8:0<, GB> >= 701>B8BAO >1 8=B5@5A0E :0: 2A59 3@C??K, B0: 8 CE>4OI53> CG0AB=8:0 8 2K?>;=O5B A2>9 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K9 4>;3. #E>4OI5<C 87 3@C??K CG0AB=8:C =04> C:070BL 2>7<>6=K5 A?>A>1K 0;LB5@=0B82=>9 ?><>I8  5<C <>3CB 1KBL ?>;57=K 8=48284C0;L=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O (:>=AC;LB8@>20=85) 8;8 3@C??0 8=>3> E0@0:B5@0. "5@0?52B 4>;65= ?><>GL G5;>25:C ?>=OBL, GB> MB> =5 53> =5C40G0, ?@>AB> MB0 D>@<0 B5@0?88 =5 ?>4E>48B 4;O =53>.  8=48284C0;L=>9 15A545 2<5AB5 A =8< A;54C5B ?>4@>1=55 >1AC48BL 53> >?KB 2 3@C??5, GB>1K C<5=LH8;0AL 25@>OB=>ABL B>3>, GB> 53> CE>4, 87 3@C??K 1C45B =5?@028;L=> 8AB>;:>20=. ;020 9 !+  &+ -"   # !%"  # 1>;LH8=AB20 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE >@30=870F89, >1J548=ONI8E B5@0?52B>2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 3@C??, :>45:AK ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 MB8:8 AE>68 ?@5645 2A53> B5<, GB> ?5@5=OBK 87 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 (:>=AC;LB8@>20=85) 8 >B@060NB <>45;L >B=>H5=89 42CE ;N459. 4=0:> @01>B0 A =5A:>;L:8<8 ;N4L<8 (=0?@., A5<59=0O B5@0?8O) 8;8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??>9 O2;O5BAO 1>;55 A;>6=>9 8 2K7K205B A?5F8D8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K (M.Lakin, 1994).  MB>< @0745;5 =07>25< >A=>2=K5 MB8G5A:85 B@51>20=8O, ?@54JO2;O5<K5 : B5@0?52BC, 1>;55 ?>4@>1=> >1AC48< ?@>1;5<C =54>1@>2>;L=>3> CG0AB8O 2 3@C??5, 2>?@>AK :>=D845=F80;L=>AB8 8 8=D>@<8@>20=8O CG0AB=8:>2. 9.1. ) -"'! " /  ##" "# @C??>2>9 B5@0?52B >1O70=: <5BL @0728B>5 GC2AB2> ;8G=>9 845=B8G=>AB8, 7=0BL A2>8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?>B@51=>AB8 (=0?@., GB> 405B 5<C @01>B0 A 3@C??0<8), AB8;L ?>2545=8O, 8E 2;8O=85 =0 CG0AB=8:>2 8 @01>BC 2A59 3@C??K. /A=> ?>=8<0BL A2>8 @>;L 8 DC=:F88 2 3@C??5; >7=0:><8BL A MB8< CG0AB=8:>2. KBL 4>AB0B>G=> ?>43>B>2;5==K< : @01>B5 A 3@C??0<8 >?@545;5==>3> E0@0:B5@0, B.5. 8<5BL ?>43>B>2:C, A>>B25BAB2CNICN B@51>20=8O< ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 :20;8D8:0F88. =0BL 8 ?>=8<0BL B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K @01>BK A ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8<8 3@C??0<8. -B> >7=0G05B C<5=85 B5@0?52B0 >1JOA=8BL CG0AB=8:0< 8 :>;;530<, ?>G5<C >= B0: 8;8 8=0G5 2545B A51O 2 3@C??5, : :0:8< 87<5=5=8O< ?>1C6405B CG0AB=8:>2, :0: ?>=8<05B @01>BC 3@C??K 8 55 @57C;LB0BK. =0BL A8AB5<C A2>8E F5==>AB59 8 =5 =02O7K20BL 55 CG0AB=8:0<; C2060BL ?@02> CG0AB=8:>2 1KBL C=8:0;L=K<8, A0<>AB>OB5;L=> <KA;8BL. 7=0:><8BL CG0AB=8:>2 A F5;O<8 3@C??K 8 @07JOA=8BL 8E. !B@5<8BLAO : B><C, GB>1K 8A?>;L7C5<K5 <5B>4K @01>BK A>>B25BAB2>20;8 MB8< F5;O<. 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"5@0?52B >1O70= 70@0=55 ?@54C?@548BL CG0AB=8:>2 > 2K?>;=O5<KE 2 3@C??5 8AA;54>20=8OE, CG0AB88 =01;N40B5;59, > =01;N45=88 70 @01>B>9 3@C??K A ?><>ILN 75@:0;0 >4=>AB>@>==53> 2845=8O 8;8 70?8ALN @01>BK 3@C??K. @0=8FK :>=D845=F80;L=>AB8 (A<. 9.4). 4=>9 87 206=59H8E 25I59, > :>B>@>9 4>;6=K 7=0BL CG0AB=8:8, O2;O5BAO 2>7<>6=K9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 @8A:, A2O70==K9 A CG0AB85< 2 3@C??5, 8 A?>A>1K 53> A=865=8O.  3@C??5 459AB2CNB <>I=K5 A8;K. 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orey, G.Corey, 1987). >48B5;8 <>3CB 8=B5@5A>20BLAO, > G5< 8E 45B8 3>2>@OB 2 3@C??0E. "5@0?52B >B25G05B 70 A>E@0=5=85 :>=D845=F80;L=>AB8, => 2<5AB5 A B5< =5 <>65B =5 AG8B0BLAO A 65;0=85< @>48B5;59 7=0BL, GB> ?@>8AE>48B A 8E 45BL<8. >48B5;O< <>6=> @0AA:070BL > F5;OE 3@C??K, 0 B0:65 2 >1I8E G5@B0E > ?>2545=88 45B59 2 3@C??5, => =5 A;54C5B @0A:@K20BL, > G5< :>=:@5B=> 3>2>@OB 45B8. 5;0B5;L=>, GB>1K 2 @073>2>@5 > @515=:5 2 3@C??5 CG0AB2>20; 8 >= A0<. @8;>65=85 !",+ "+ "+  !%" "'!  # ;O AB8<C;8@>20=8O 2708<=>3> 4>25@8O 2 3@C??5, 1>;55 3;C1>:>3> A0<>?>7=0=8O, A0<>@0A:@KB8O, A?;>G5==>AB8, 4;O @0AH8@5=8O B5<0B8:8 48A:CAA89 8=>340 <>6=> 8A?>;L7>20BL A?5F80;L=K5 <5B>4K, =0?><8=0NI85 83@K. @54AB02;O5< =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E. >;55 H8@>:> A B0:8<8 <5B>40<8 <>6=> >7=0:><8BLAO 2 :=830E G.Corey A A>B@. (1988) H.T.Saretsky(1977). 2B>18>3@0D8O #G0AB=8:>2 ?@>AOB >?8A0BL A2>N 687=L  45BAB2>, >B@>G5AB2>, N=>ABL, 27@>A;K9 ?5@8>4  4> ?@8E>40 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 3@C??C. 1J5<  =5 1>;55 3-4 ;8AB>2.  02B>18>3@0D88 ?@54;0305BAO 2K45;8BL =081>;55 7=0G8B5;L=K5 A>1KB8O 687=8, B>G:8 AC4L1>=>A=KE ?>2>@>B>2, 206=59H85 <56;8G=>AB=K5 >B=>H5=8O, 2708<>A2O7L ?@>H;>3> A =0AB>OI59 687=LN. 0?8A0=85 02B>18>3@0D88 <>65B 1KBL 4><0H=8< 7040=85<. =8 70G8BK20NBAO =0 2AB@5G0E 3@C??K. #G0AB=8:8 <>3CB >1AC48BL 687=5==K5 8AB>@88 4@C3 4@C30. -E> 7040=85 <>65B ?><>GL CG0AB=8:0< 8=B53@8@>20BL D0:BK A2>59 687=8, >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 =0 8AB>:8 =0AB>OI8E ?@>1;5<. 0AA:07K20O A2>8 687=5==K5 8AB>@88, CG0AB=8:8 8<5NB 2>7<>6=>ABL 3;C165 ?>7=0BL 4@C3 4@C30; MB> ?>2KH05B 2708<=>5 4>25@85 8 A?;>G5==>ABL 3@C??K. 0AA:07 > A515 A5 CG0AB=8:8 @0AA:07K20NB > :0:><-;81> 206=>< >?KB5  > A0<>< <CG8B5;L=>< A>1KB88 45BAB20, A0<>< AG0AB;82>< 8 A0<>< =5?@8OB=>< <><5=B5 687=8, > ?5@56820=88 1>;LH>3> AB@0E0, B@52>38, 28=K 8 B.4. 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