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A=>2=0O G0ABL <0B5@80;0 4;O :=838 A>18@0;0AL 2 B5G5=85 1991 96 3>4>2 ?@8 ?><>I8 8 ?>445@6:5 A0<KE @07=KE BC@8AB8G5A:8E 8 ?@028B5;LAB25==KE >@30=870F89. >MB><C <K E>B5;8 1K 2K@078BL 8A:@5==NN ?@87=0B5;L=>ABL 70 ?><>IL 2 ?>43>B>2:5 =0AB>OI53> B5:AB0 A;54CNI8< >A>;LAB20<, "C@8AB8G5A:8< AA>F80F8O<, :><?0=8O< 8 >@30=870F8O<: Association of International Exhibition Centres with Professional Trade Show Organisations in the Netherlands; Association of Swiss Fairs; Austrian National Tourist Office; Belgian Tourist Office; Bern Official Travel and Congress Office; British Tourist Authority; Centre Francais du Commerce Exterieur; Confederation of German Trade Fair and Exhibition Industries; Copenhagen Tourist Information; Danish Convention Bureau; Danish Tourist Board; Deutsche Zentrale fur Tourismus / German National Tourist Office; Edinburgh Tourist Board; Exhibition Industry Federation; Gent Dienst Toerisme; Greater Montreal Convention & Tourism Bureau; Hamburg Tourist Board; Hilton Brussels; Hong Kong Government Industry Department; Hong Kong Government Trade Department; Hong Kong Tourist Association; Iris Hotels (Australia); Lucerne Tourist Promotion Board; Luxembourg National Tourist Office; Mexican Government Tourism Office; Official Tourist Office Zurich; Ontario Ministry of Tourism & Recreation; Paris Chamber of Commerce & Industry; Quebec Ministry of Tourism; Royal Danish Embassy in New York; Salzburg City Tourist Office & Congress Centre; Scottish Tourist Board; Singapore Tourist Promotion Board; South African Tourism Board; Swiss Hotel Association; Swiss National Tourist Office; Swiss Office for Trade Promotion; Taiwan Visitors Association; Tourism Bureau, Ministry of Communication & Transportation, Republic of China (Taiwan); Tourist Information Brussels; TransBrazil Airlines; Vienna Tourist Board ".. 8:>;05=:> .. 8:>;05=:> 25 023CAB0 1998 3>40  1. 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B>< 65 1884 3>4C CG0AB>: 75<;8 >:>;> >75@0 27O; 2 0@5=4C A@>:>< =0 30 ;5B 0@E8B5:B>@ 8 187=5A<5= .. 5@=0@4>FF8. 0G8=05BAO AB@>8B5;LAB2> :0<5==>9 ;5G51=8FK, 8 3@O75;5G5=85 2?5@2K5 AB028BAO =0 ?>B>:. (40=85 MB>9 ;5G51=8FK 8A?>;L7>20;>AL 2 B5G5=85 4>;3>3> 2@5<5=8 8 A>E@0=8;>AL 4> A8E ?>@.) AB>@8G5A:0O 40B0  25 <0O 1887 3>40: =>20O ;5G51=8F0 =0 >9=0:0E >B?CA:05B ?5@2CN ?@>F54C@C.  ?5@2K9 A57>= 1K;> >1A;C65=> 311 :;85=B>2. !@548 ;5G82H8EAO - 68B5;8 5B5@1C@30, >A:2K, 8520, %0@L:>20, !0<0@:0=40 8 0@H02K (@C115 .. -:A:C@A8O 2 >9=0:8. CB52>48B5;L. - !8<D5@>?>;L: "02@8O, 1989. - A. 21). A=>2=CN <0AAC ?0F85=B>2 A>AB02;O;8 AB@040NI85 1>;L=K<8 ACAB020<8.  A5@548=5 1890-E 3>4>2 >9=0:A:0O 3@O75;5G51=8F0 >B?CA:05B C65 >:>;> 8500 ?@>F54C@ 70 A57>=. ;O :>=AC;LB0F89 ?@83;0H0NBAO ?@>D5AA>@0 87 >A:2K. "0:, 2 1894 3>;C 1>;L=KE :>=AC;LB8@>20; ?@>D5AA>@ >A:>2A:>9 <548F8=A:>9 0:045<88 .. 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A>15==> 2>7@>A;0 @>;L <5AB=KE A>25B>2 2 D>@<8@>20=88 @5:@50F8>==>9 8=D@0AB@C:BC@K 8 ?@82;5G5=88 1>;LH53> G8A;0 BC@8AB>2 2 1980-5 3>4K. 5AB=K5 2;0AB8 A0<K< 0:B82=K< >1@07>< CG0AB2CNB 2 @5H5=88 <=>38E ?@>1;5< @0728B8O @5:@50F88. ;03>40@O MB><C 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K AB0;> C25;8G820BLAO :>;8G5AB2> BC@8AB8G5A:8E F5=B@>2, A2O70==KE =5 B>;L:> A <>@A:8<8 8;8 ;5G51=K<8 :C@>@B0<8. A5 1>;55 >?@545;5==> ?@>O2;O5BAO B5=45=F8O  >BE>40 @5:@50F88 >B <>@A:8E ?>15@5689 8 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ;5B=53> >B4KE0 (Charlton C., Essex S. The involvement of district councils in tourism in England and Wales // Geoforum.  1996.  27, 2. - p. 175  192). "C@87< AB0=>28BAO 2A5A57>==K<, 8 2AB@5G0BL >645AB2> 2 @8B0=88 B5?5@L =5 <5=55 ?>?C;O@=> 8 ?@5AB86=>, G5< ?@>2>48BL B0< ;5B=85 :0=8:C;K, A>25@H5=AB2CO A2>9 0=3;89A:89. 0728B8N MB8E B5=45=F89 A?>A>1AB2C5B 8 0:B82=0O ?>78F8O =0 <8@>2>< @K=:5 BC@8AB8G5A:8E CA;C3 :@C?=59H59 1@8B0=A:>9 0280:>@?>@0F88 British Airways  >4=>3> 87 A0<KE <>I=KE A>2@5<5==KE BC@->?5@0B>@>2. 0AB5B 8 ?>B>: 45;>2KE BC@8AB>2 2 AB@0=C: F5;LN <=>38E 2878B>2 O2;O5BAO CG0AB85 2 <564C=0@>4=KE B>@3>2>-?@><KH;5==KE 2KAB02:0E-O@<0@:0E, ?@>E>4OI8E :0: 2 >=4>=5, B0: 8 2 -48=1C@35 8 4@C38E 3>@>40E @8B0=88. 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A=>2=K5 284K 70=OB89 2> 2@5<O ?@51K20=8O 2 A5;LA:>9 <5AB=>AB8 - MB> ?5H5E>4=K5, 2>4=K5 8 :>==K5 ?@>3C;:8, @07=K5 D>@<K ?0AA82=>3> >B4KE0. 03@C7:0 =0 B5@@8B>@88 2 A5;LA:8E @09>=0E 2 13 @07 <5=LH5, G5< 2 3>@0E, 8 2 34 @070 <5=LH5, G5< =0 <>@A:8E ?>15@56LOE. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, A5;LA:0O <5AB=>ABL 70=8<05B 80 % ?;>I048 $@0=F88. ! @0728B85< A5;LA:>3> BC@87<0 70<5B=> >6828;0AL ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:0O 0:B82=>ABL 2 A5;LA:>9 <5AB=>AB8, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 2K@>A;> G8A;> 0:B>2 ?>:C?:8-?@>4068 =542868<>AB8 (Barbier B. Turystyka na obszarach wiejskich we Francji // Acta UL. Folia geogr.  1991.  N 14.  p. 21  31).  1987 3>4C 2 A5;LA:>9 <5AB=>AB8 >B4KE0;8 C65 9,2 <8;;8>=0 D@0=FC7>2 ?;NA 5,2 <8;;8>=0 8=>AB@0=F52 (87 =8E 27 % A>AB028;8 =5<FK, 25 % - 0=3;8G0=5, 25 % - 15;L389FK, 14 % - 3>;;0=4FK, 9 % - ?@54AB028B5;8 8=KE =0F89). @8 MB>< =5<FK ?@54?>G8B0NB ?@>28=F88 @>20=A, 0=354>:- CA8;L>=, -;L70A 8 >B0@8=38N; 0=3;8G0=5  :28B0=8N, 15;L389FK  C@3C=48N 8 >=0-;L?K, H259F0@FK  B0:65 >=0-;L?K. !5;LA:8< BC@87<>< >E20G5=> 85 % B5@@8B>@88 $@0=F88, E>BO 2 >1I5< 4>E>45 >B BC@87<0 >= 405B B>;L:> >:>;> 10 %. ?@>G5<, 2 1;8609H5< 1C4CI5< >68405BAO C25;8G5=85 4>E>4>2 8<5==> >B A5;LA:>3> BC@87<0 (Laurens Lucette. Les demarches de qualite en tourisme rural: un nouvel enjeu pour l avenir // Rev. Geogr. Alp.  1993.  81, 2.  p. 147  166). @>1;5<K A5;LA:>3> BC@87<0 @0AA<0B@8205BAO 2> $@0=F88 =5 B>;L:> 2 <0AHB015 2A59 AB@0=K, => 8 =0 C@>2=5 >B45;L=KE @09>=>2. "0:, 2 45?0@B0<5=B5 @Q7 8ICB =>2K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O 70=OB>AB8 A5;LA:>3> =0A5;5=8O. 4=0 87 =8E  A5;LA:89 BC@87< 2 ;5B=55 2@5<O. !0<K5 ?>?C;O@=K5 <5AB0 >B4KE0 2 45?0@B0<5=B5  15@530 5AB5AB25==KE 2>4>5<>2 (?@C4>2 8 >75@). 5AB=K5 2;0AB8 AB8<C;8@CNB 70AB@>9:C ?@81@56=KE 7>= ;53:8<8 4><8:0<8 8 A>740=85 8A:CAAB25==KE ?5AG0=KE ?;O659, 345 ;5B>< >@30=87CNB ?@074=8:8, :>=:C@AK @K10:>2, @07=>>1@07=K5 <5@>?@8OB8O 4;O 45B59. ?KB 45?0@B0<5=B0 87CG05BAO 2> $@0=F88 (Durand M.D. Tourisme et loisirs sur les bords des etangs Creusois // Norois.  1992.  39, 156.  p. 505  508). =0G8B5;L=> 2K@>A;> 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K :>;8G5AB2> BC@8ABA:8E <0@H@CB>2 2 >:@5AB=>ABOE B@048F8>==KE <>@A:8E :C@>@B>2. "0:, >A>15==>AB8 BC@87<0 =0 ?>15@56L5 0=458 70:;NG0NBAO 2 B><, GB> 2:;NG5=85 2  BC@8ABA:89 >1>@>B =>2KE ?@81@56=KE B5@@8B>@89 A?>A>1AB2>20;> 2>AAB0=>2;5=8N ?0<OB=8:>2 ?@8@>4K 8 :C;LBC@K 2 MB8E @09>=0E (Pibet C. Les espaces retro-littoraux, un novel enjen du developpement touristique: exemple du canton de Saint-Golles-Croix-de-Vie (Vendee) // Norois.  1996. - 43, 172. - p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e l ecologie des golfs // Environment Magazine. - 1992. - N 1508. - p. 31). 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A5 7028A8B >B  . >A;5 1997 3>40 B0920=LA:85 BC@8ABK =5 <>3CB ?>A5I0BL >=:>=3 ?> ?>;8B8G5A:8< <>B820<:   8 "0920=L =5 8<5NB 48?;><0B8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89 8 O2;ONBAO ?>;8B8G5A:8<8 ?@>B82=8:0<8 ! 1. B> 65 70<5=8B B5?5@L 2 >=:>=35 B0920=LA:8E BC@8AB>2?  >?@>A >AB05BAO >B:@KBK<& (Hobson J.S.P., Ko Goldwyn. Tourism and politics // Journal of Travel Researches.  1994.  32, 4.  p. 2  8) >=:>=3 =5 ?>@0605B ?CB5H5AB25==8:>2 >18;85< :C;LBC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:8E ?0<OB=8:>2 8 A>1@0=85< H5452@>2 <8@>2>3> 8A:CAAB20 2 A2>8E <C75OE 8 30;5@5OE. !0<>5 ?@82;5:0B5;L=>5 2 =5< - MB> <03078=K 8 ?>:C?:8, 8 5I5 @07 <03078=K, 8 5I5 @07 ?>:C?:8. >=:>=3 ?@545;L=> ?5@5=0A5;5= - MB>, 25@>OB=>, A0<>5 ?;>B=> 70A5;5==>5 <5AB> 2 <8@5.  A8;C :;8<0B8G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 <=>385 740=8O 745AL ?>G5@=5;8 >B ?;5A5=8 8 8<5NB 25AL<0 =5?@82;5:0B5;L=K9 284: 60@0 8 2;06=>ABL 45;0NB A2>5 45;>. 4=0:> <03078=K 8 ?>:C?:8 8A:C?0NB 2A5. &5=K ?@0:B8G5A:8 =0 2A5 B>20@K 2 >=:>=35 =865, G5< 345