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A>60;5=8N, =0E>4OAL 2 @K<C >G5=L B@C4=> A;548BL 70 2A5<8 ?C1;8:0F8O<8, ?>O2;ONI8<8AO 4065 2 >AA88 8 #:@08=5, =5 3>2>@O C65 > 70?04=KE AB@0=0E, ?>MB><C 02B>@ >B405B A515 >BG5B 2 =5?>;=>B5 53> 181;8>3@0D88. 0: <K C65 C:07K20;8, 2 =0G0;5 90-E 3>4>2 :@K<A:0O ?@>1;5<0 G0AB> AB0=>28;0AL ?@54<5B>< >?8A0=8O 8 0=0;870 8 C =0A 8 70 @C156><. !>1KB8O< 2 @K<C ?>A2OI5=K 45AOB:8 (5A;8 =5 A>B=8) AB0B59 2 3075B0E 8 6C@=0;0E, @0745;>2 2 <>=>3@0D8OE > @0A?045 !!! . !@548 70?04=KE ?5@8>48G5A:8E 8740=89 =5>1E>48<> >B<5B8BL, ?@5645 2A53>, 254CI89 A>25B>;>38G5A:89 8 ?>ABA>25B>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0; Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty// Research Report  345 2 B5G5=85 4 ;5B 4> 53> 70:@KB8O (B>G=55 4> ?5@5?@>D8;8@>20=8O: A 1995 3>40 MB>B 6C@=0; 2KE>48B :0: Transition, 87405BAO Open Media Research Institute) 1K;> >?C1;8:>20=> <=>65AB2> 8=B5@5A=KE AB0B59 > @K<5 B0:8E 02B>@>2 :0:: D.Clarce, A.Wilson, R.Solchanuk, B.Nahaijlo 8 4@. !B0BL8 > ?>;C>AB@>25 (8;8 1>;55 >1I85 @01>BK 2 :>B>@KE B@0:B>20;0AL A8BC0F8O @K<0) ?>O2;O;8AL 2 B0:8E :@C?=KE 70?04=KE 8740=8OE :0:: Europe-Asia Studies, Journal of Democratie, Nationalities Papers 8 4@C385. 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ilson 8 =5402=59 >1H8@=>9 :>;;5:B82=>9 <>=>3@0D88 :@K<A:8E 8AA;54>20B5;59 > ?@>1;5<0E 8=B53@0F88 @5?0B@80=B>2 2 :@K<A:>5 >1I5AB2>.  =K=5H=59 A8BC0F88 2>>1I5 4>AB0B>G=> B@C4=> ?@>25AB8 3@0=L <564C 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 0=0;8B8:>9 8 1>;55 8;8 <5=55  =0CG=K< 2K@065=85< :0:>9 ;81> >?@545;5==>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 B5=45=F88, B.5. <564C  ;8B5@0BC@>9 8  8AB>G=8:0<8 .  :0G5AB25 ?>A;54=8E <K 8A?>;L7>20;8 <=>3>G8A;5==K5 >D8F80;L=K5 4>:C<5=BK 3>AC40@AB25==KE >@30=>2, ?0@B89, >@30=870F89, 2KA:07K20=8O ?>;8B8G5A:8E 45OB5;59, <=>3>G8A;5==K5 <0B5@80;K, >?C1;8:>20==K5 2 ?@5AA5 >AA88, #:@08=K, @K<0, >B@060NI85 B5 8;8 8=K5 273;O4K CG0AB=8:>2 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0 =0 A8BC0F8N =0 ?>;C>AB@>25. 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A5 MB> A>740;> BC A8BC0F8N =0?@O65==>AB8, :>B>@0O 1K;0 2>A?@8=OB0, ?@5645 2A53> =0 0?045, :0: B5@@8B>@80;L=K9 A?>@ <564C >AA859 8 #:@08=>9. !D5@0 2>7<>6=KE @07=>3;0A89 #:@08=K 8 >AA88 >?@545;8;0AL C65 2 E>45 >1AC645=8O 5@E>2=K< !>25B>< >AA88 >3>2>@0 <564C !$!  8 #!! , ?>4?8A0==>3> .;LF8=K< 8 .@02GC:>< 19 =>O1@O 1990 3>40, :0: 1K 70 A?8=>9 B>340H=53> ?@57845=B0 !!!  .>@10G520. !B0BLO 6 MB>3> >3>2>@0 3;0A8;0: 2KA>:85 4>3>20@820NI85AO AB>@>=K ?@87=0NB 8 C2060NB B5@@8B>@80;L=CN F5;>AB=>ABL !$!  8 #!!  2 =K=5 ACI5AB2CNI8E 2 @0<:0E !!! , 3@0=8F0E. 0 ?>A;54=NN D>@<C;8@>2:C 1K;> >1@0I5=> >A>15==>5 2=8<0=85, :>340 2 E>45 >1AC645=8O 45?CB0BK :>A=C;8AL ?@>1;5<K @K<0 8 !520AB>?>;O. 8=8AB@ 8=>AB@0==KE 45; >AA88 .>7K@52 C:070; =0 B>, GB> @5GL 845B > A8BC0F88 ACI5AB2>20=8O !>25BA:>3> !>N70 8 40==0O D>@<C;8@>2:0 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL 1C4CI8E :>@@5:B8@>2>: 2 A;CG05 87<5=5=8O MB>3> ?>;>65=8O. 4=0:> ?>A;5 @0A?040 !>N70 =5 A<>B@O =0 @57:>5 70O2;5=85 ?@5AA-A5:@5B0@O .;LF8=0 .>I0=>20, >D8F80;L=0O >A:20 =5 2K428=C;0 :0:8E-;81> B5@@8B>@80;L=KE ?@5B5=789 : =57028A8<>9 #:@08=5. >4?8AK20O 4>:C<5=BK > A>740=88 !, >AA8O 8 #:@08=0 B0:65 ?@87=0;8 B>, GB> C =8E =5B B5@@8B>@80;L=KE ?@5B5=789 4@C3 : 4@C3C. 0?@O65==>ABL 2> 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE 42CE AB@0= 2>7=8:;0 ;8HL 2 =0G0;5 1992 3>40 2 A2O78 A =5@5H5==>ABLN ?@>1;5<K '5@=><>@A:>3> D;>B0 8 =0G02H8<AO 2 @K<C 42865=85< 70 87<5=5=85 AB0BCA0 ?>;C>AB@>20. %0@0:B5@=>, GB> 2 >4=>< 87 ?5@2KE 4>:C<5=B>2, ?>A2OI5==KE :@K<A:>9 B5<5 - ?8AL<5 3;02K :><8B5B0 2=5H=8E A=>H5=89 8 2=5H=5M:>=><8G5A:8E A2O759 .C:8=0 A?8:5@C 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 .%0A1C;0B>2C A>45@60BAO @5:><5=40F88 8A?>;L7>20BL :@K<A:CN ?@>1;5<C 2 :0G5AB25 bargaining chip 2 A?>@5 > ?@8=04;56=>AB8 '5@=><>@A:>3> D;>B0.  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A2>59 >1H8@=>9 ?C1;8:0F88 B0:65 2 57028A8<>9 075B5 2 <05 1996 3>40 . 0BC;8= @57:> :@8B8:>20; ?>78F8N >D8F80;L=KE :@C3>2 >AA88 ?> >B=>H5=8N : @K<C: 065, - ?8A0; >=, - :>340 :070;>AL, AC4L10 4020;0 H0=A >AA88 >?5@5BLAO =0 A>GC2AB285 A>N7C A =59 ?>;8B8G5A:>5, =0@>4=>5 42865=85 =0 #:@08=5, <K 87 A:@><=>AB8 ;8, 87 3>@4>AB8 GC@0;8AL A>B@C4=8G5AB20 A =8<. 5B ;CGH53> ?@8<5@0, G5< @K<. A?><=8<, =0 3@51=5 =87>2>3> =0@>4=>3> ?@>B5AB0 ?@57845=B>< @K<0 8718@05BAO ..5H:>2, :0=4840B 1;>:0 >AA8O... 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'5@=><>@A:89 D;>B O2;O;AO 25AL<0 :@C?=K< A>548=5=85< 2>>@C65==KE A8; 1K2H53> A>N70. !>3;0A=> 40==K<, ?@82>48<K< 2 :=835 !.>@10G520, 2 1990 3>4C '$ =0AG8BK20; 2 A2>5< A>AB025 833 :>@01;O 8 AC4=0, 2 B>< G8A;5 28 ?>42>4=KE ;>4>:, 2 ?@>B82>;>4>G=KE :@59A5@0, 6 @0:5B=KE :@59A5@>2 (), 20 MA<8=F52 8  (D@530B>2 # ), >:>;> 40 !  8 >:>;> 30 <0;KE @0:5B=KE :>@01;59 8 :0B5@>2, >:>;> 70 B@0;LI8:>2, >:>;> 50 45A0=B=KE :>@01;59 8 :0B5@>2, >:>;> 100 1>52KE 8 2A?><>30B5;L=KE :0B5@>2, 410 548=8F <>@A:>9 0280F88. '8A;5==>ABL ;8G=>3> A>AB020 - >:>;> 100 BKA. G5;>25:. 0: ?8A0; .;0@: - M:A?5@B ?> 2>5==K< 2>?@>A0< 6C@=0;0 RFE/RL Research Report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G5;>25: (40==K5 =0 01.01.94.). @>872>4AB25==0O AD5@0 ?@54AB02;5=0 215 ?@><KH;5==K<8 ?@54?@8OB8O<8. 7 =8E >:>;> 40 - :@C?=K5 ?@>872>4AB20  - <>@A:>9 702>4, :>=F5@= CAA>=, ?@81>@>AB@>8B5;L=K9 702>4 0@CA. !>3;0A=> =5:>B>@K< 8AB>G=8:0< 90% >1J5<>2 3>@>4A:>3> ?@>872>4AB20 ?@8E>48;>AL =0 ?@54?@8OB8O , 345 1K;> 70=OB> 60% @01>B0NI8E. 0F8>=0;L=K9 A>AB02 =0A5;5=8O 3>@>40 ?> 40==K< ?5@5?8A8 1989 3>40 2K3;O45; A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 87 393.015 BKA. G5;. @CAA:8E 1K;> 292.605 BKA. (74,5%), C:@08=F52 - 81.141 BKA. (20,6%), 87 =8E @CAA:89 O7K: AG8B0;8 @>4=K< 85,7% =0A5;5=8O. !>3;0A=> >AB0=>2;5=8O !>25B0 <8=8AB@>2 !!!  >B 25 >:BO1@O 1948 3>40 8 #:070 @57848C<0 ! !$!  >B 29 >:BO1@O 1948 3>40 3.!520AB>?>;L 1K; 2K45;5= 2 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K9 04<8=8AB@0B82=>-E>7O9AB25==K9 F5=B@ A> A2>8< >A>1K< 1N465B>< 8 >B=5A5= : :0B53>@88 3>@>4>2 @5A?C1;8:0=A:>3> ?>4G8=5=8O( !$! ). >@O4>: D8=0=A8@>20=8O 3>@>4A:>3> 1N465B0 >?@545;O;AO A>>B25BAB2CNI8< ?>AB0=>2;5=85< !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 !$!  !1082. >:C<5=BK > ?5@540G5 @K<0 87 A>AB020 >AA88 2 A>AB02 #:@08=K =5 C?><8=0NB > !520AB>?>;5, E>BO ?@54A540B5;L !520AB>?>;LA:>3> 3>@>4A:>3> !>25B0 ?@8ACBAB2>20; =0 F5@5<>=88 ?5@540G8 @K<0 =0@O4C A ?@54A540B5;5< :@K<A:>3> >1;0AB=>3> !>25B0. BACBAB285 4>;6=>9 G5B:>AB8 2 4>:C<5=B0E > ?5@540G5 @K<0 >AB02;O5B A><=5=8O 2 B><, ?5@54020;AO ;8 !520AB>?>;L 2<5AB5 A @K<>< #:@08=5 2 1954 3>4C.  B> 65 2@5<O 8725AB=>, GB> 5I5 4>;3>5 2@5<O ?>A;5 1954 3>40 !520AB>?>;L D8=0=A8@>20;AO 87 1N465B0 >AA89A:>9 D545@0F88 4> B>3> <><5=B0, :>340 25 0?@5;O 1968 3>40 !>25B 8=8AB@>2 !$!  ?@87=0; CB@0B82H8< A8;C >AB0=>2;5=85 !1082 (=> =5 #:07 @57848C<0 ! >B 29 >:BO1@O 1948 3.). <5==> ?>A;5 MB>3> #:07>< ! #!!  1968 3>40, 3. !520AB>?>;L >1JO2;O;AO 3>@>4>< @5A?C1;8:0=A:>3> ?>4G8=5=8O (#!! ).  >=AB8BCF88 #!!  1978 3>40 !520AB>?>;L 1K; >1>7=0G5= :0: A>AB02=0O G0ABL #:@08=A:>9 @5A?C1;8:8, 2 B> 65 2@5<O >=AB8BCF8O !$!  1978 3>40 > !520AB>?>;5 =5 C?><8=05B. 5?CB0BK >B 3>@>40 ?@54AB02;O;8 =0A5;5=85 !520AB>?>;O 2 5@E>2=>< !>25B5 #!! , => =5 !$! . @><5 70?CB0==>AB8 2>?@>A0 > ?5@540G5 3>@>40 >4=>9 @5A?C1;8:>9 4@C3>9, A8AB5<0 C?@02;5=8O 8< C65 ?>A;5 1968 3>40 1K;0 :@09=5 A;>6=>9. /2;OOAL 3>@>4>< @5A?C1;8:0=A:>3> ?>4G8=5=8O 8 70<K:0OAL =5?>A@54AB25==> =0 852, !520AB>?>;L, >4=>2@5<5==> 1K; 3;02=>9 107>9 '5@=><>@A:>3> D;>B0 8 ?> 2A5< 2>?@>A0<, :0A02H8<AO 53> :0: 3>@>40-107K, @5H5=8O ?> !520AB>?>;N ?@8=8<0;8AL 2 >A:25, >BAN40 65 H;> D8=0=A8@>20=85 F5;>3> @O40 AB0B59 3>@>4A:>3> 1N465B0. 4=>2@5<5==>, ?> @O4C 0A?5:B>2 3>@>4A:>9 687=8 !520AB>?>;L ?>4G8=O;AO @K<A:8< >1;0AB=K< 2;0ABO<, =0?@8<5@, <8;8F8O, 3>@>4A:>9 >B45; , ?@>:C@0BC@0, @09>==K5 AC4K, =0;>3>20O 8=A?5:F8O, B0<>6=O, @092>5=:><0BK, A;C610 AB0B8AB8:8, >@30=K A>F80;L=>3> >15A?5G5=8O 8 <=>385 4@C385 >@30=K 3>AC40@AB25==>3> C?@02;5=8O O2;O;8AL ?>4@0745;5=8O<8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E >1;0AB=KE AB@C:BC@. -B> 65 :0A05BAO 8 <5AB0 ?5@2>3> ;8F0 3>@>40 2 ?0@B89=>9 85@0@E88. @><5 MB>3>, 45?CB0BK >B !520AB>?>;O 8718@0;8AL B0:65 2 >1;0AB=>9 A>25B, 8 ;8HL 2 80-E 3>40E MB0 ?@0:B8:0 ?@5:@0B8;0AL. 53:> A515 ?@54AB028BL :0:CN 7040GC 704020; ?>;8B8:0< 8 2>5==K< !520AB>?>;L 2 CA;>28OE @0A?040 !!!  8 =0G8=02H53>AO ?@>F5AA0 2>AA>740=8O :@K<A:>9 02B>=><88. 20 O=20@O 1991 3>40 A520AB>?>;LFK, :0: 8 >AB0;L=K5 :@K<G0=5 ?@8=O;8 CG0AB85 2 @5D5@5=4C<5 > AB0BCA5 @K<0. 0: 8 2 F5;>< =0 ?>;C>AB@>25, 2 !520AB>?>;5 845O 2>AA>740=8O 02B>=><=>9 @5A?C1;8:8 2AB@5B8;0 ?>445@6:C 01A>;NB=>3> 1>;LH8=AB20 8718@0B5;59. @><5 MB>3> 2 !520AB>?>;5 >4=>2@5<5==> A >1I5:@K<A:8< ?@>H5; 8 3>@>4A:>9 @5D5@5=4C< ?> 2>?@>AC K 70 AB0BCA !520AB>?>;O :0: 3;02=>9 107K '5@=><>@A:>3> D;>B0 8 3>@>40 A>N7=>-@5A?C1;8:0=A:>3> ?>4G8=5=8O 70 GB> 2KA:070;>AL 93% A520AB>?>;LF52. "0:8< >1@07>< 1>;LH8=AB2> 3>@>60= 2KABC?0;> 70 42>9=>5 ?>4G8=5=85 3>@>40 >A:25 8 852C ?@8 A>E@0=5=88 53> 2 A>AB025 @K<0. >A;54=55 =0H;> ?>4B25@645=85 B0:65 2 :>>?B0F88 18 ?@54AB028B5;59 3>@>4A:>3> A>25B0 2 ! @K<A:>9 !!  2 1991 3>40. 5D5@5=4C< 17 <0@B0 19913. B0:65 :0: 8 2 F5;>< ?> @K<C ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20; 65;0=85 1>;LH8=AB20 ;N459 A>E@0=8BL A>N7=>5 3>AC40@AB2>. >2>@O >1 >1I5AB25==>9 0B<>AD5@5 2 3>@>45, A;54C5B 8<5BL 2284C B>, GB> >=0 8<5;0 @O4 >B;8G8B5;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 ?> A@02=5=8N A >1I5:@K<A:>9.  @K<C 2 F5;>< >1I5AB25==>5 42865=85 4> 1991 3>40 1K;> =57=0G8B5;L=K<, 2 !520AB>?>;5 65, :0: 2 2>5==>< 3>@>45, :>B>@K9 A 1984 3>40 O2;O;AO 70:@KBK< 4;O 2J5740, ?> ACI5AB2C, =5 1K;> 8 >A>1KE CA;>289 4;O 55 2>7=8:=>25=8O.  >1I5AB25==>9 687=8 3>@>40 4><8=8@>20;8 2>5==K5 :@C38 A 8E B@048F8>==K< :>=A5@20B87<><. -B8< :>=A5@20B87<>< 1K;0 ?@>=870=0 8 45OB5;L=>ABL >@30=>2 3>@>4A:>3> C?@02;5=8O. @CH5=85 ?@82KG=>3> ?>@O4:0 25I59, =0ABC?82H55 ?>A;5 023CAB0 91-3> 70AB0;> !520AB>?>;L 2@0A?;>E. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> :>;8G5AB2> @CAA:>3> =0A5;5=8O 745AL 1K;> 1>;LH8<, G5< 2 ;N1>< 4@C3>< 3>@>45 @K<0 (76 %), 2 !520AB>?>;5 ?5@2>=0G0;L=> =5 2>7=8:;> 2 >B;8G85 >B !8<D5@>?>;O :0:>3>-;81> ?@>@>AA89A:>3> 8;8 @5A?C1;8:0=A:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> 42865=8O. ;O 2>5==KE :@C3>2, ?@8H54H85 : 2;0AB8 2 >A:25 45<>:@0BK 1K;8 5I5 <5=55 ?@82;5:0B5;L=K, G5< C:@08=A:85 =0F8>=0;8ABK, B5< 1>;55, G5< 2?>;=5 A>25BA:89 852A:89 8AB51;8H<5=B. @><5 MB>3> C:@08=A:85 2;0AB8 2 >B;8G85 >B <>A:>2A:8E, A A0<>3> =0G0;0 ?@>O28;8 8725AB=>5 2=8<0=85 : D;>BC. #G8BK20O :@><5 MB>3>, GB> 4> 45:01@O 1991 >D8F80;L=K9 852 =5>4=>:@0B=> 2K@060; ?>445@6:C 8455 !, AB0=>28BAO ?>=OB=K<, ?>G5<C !520AB>?>;L 8 D;>B =0 @5D5@5=4C<5 1 45:01@O ?@>3>;>A>20;8 70 =57028A8<>ABL #:@08=K. 57C;LB0BK @5D5@5=4C<0 ?> !520AB>?>;N A2845B5;LAB2>20;8 > 1>;LH>9 =5>?@545;5==>AB8 2 C<>=0AB@>5=88 ;N459. "0:>9 65 =5>?@545;5==>ABLN >B;8G0;0AL 8 ?>;8B8:0 3>@>4A:8E 2;0AB59. :0702H8AL ?>A;5 @0A?040 !!!  2 4>AB0B>G=> A;>6=>< ?>;>65=88, 3>@>4A:85 2;0AB8 >1@0B8;8AL 70 ?><>ILN 2 852.  =0G0;5 1992 3>40 A520AB>?>;LA:0O 45;530F8O 2> 3;025 A ?@54A540B5;5< 3>@A>25B0 20=>< @<0:>2K< ?>1K20;0 2 AB>;8F5 #:@08=K, 345 1K;0 ?@8=OB0 ?@57845=B>< @02GC:><. ?@545;5==0O D8=0=A>20O ?><>IL 3>@>4C 1K;0 >:070=0, 0 11 <0@B0 ?>O28;AO C:07 ?@57845=B0 #:@08=K 1 >@30=0E 3>AC40@AB25==>9 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 3. !520AB>?>;O. -B8< C:07>< 2>-?5@2KE 2A5 3>@>4A:85 >@30=K 3>AC40@AB25==>9 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 3. !520AB>?>;O ?>4G8=O;8AL =5?>A@54AB25==> F5=B@0;L=K< >@30=0< 3>AC40@AB25==>9 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 #:@08=K, 2>-2B>@KE, CAB0=02;820;>AL, GB> :><?5B5=F8O 3>@>4A:8E 2;0AB59 >?@545;O5BAO 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 8E AB0BCA>< 3>AC40@AB25==KE >@30=>2 3>@>40 @5A?C1;8:0=A:>3> ?>4G8=5=8O. A:>@5, 20 <0@B0 1K; 22545= 2 459AB285 #:07 .@02GC:0  ?@54AB028B5;5 ?@57845=B0 #:@08=K 2 3. !520AB>?>;5, :>B>@K< .@<0:>2 1K; =07=0G5= ?@54AB028B5;5< .@02GC:0 2 3>@>45. -B> @5H5=85 >G5=L ?;>E> A>3;0A>2K20;>AL A B5<, GB> ;8HL 3>4 =0704 !520AB>?>;L AB0; G0ABLN D>@<8@CNI59AO ?>;8B8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K @K<0. >2K9 ?@54AB028B5;L @57845=B0 CB25@640;, GB> !520AB>?>;L 1K; 8 1C45B 2 5A?C1;8:5 @K<, >4=0:> :>=AB8BCF8O @K<0 =0 =53> @0A?@>AB@0=OBLAO =5 1C45B, MB> =5 ?><5H0;> 5<C, 2?@>G5<, 2 ?>A;54AB288 =5 B>;L:> CG0AB2>20BL 2 >1AC645=88 >=AB8BCF88 8 0:>=>2 @K<0, => 8 70=8<0BL ?>AB 70<5AB8B5;O ?@54A540B5;O 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 @K<0 8 4065 10;;>B8@>20BLAO =0 ?>AB ?@57845=B0 @K<0 2 1994 3>4C. 'B> :0A05BAO ?>4E>40 @5A?C1;8:0=A:>3> ?0@;0<5=B0 : !520AB>?>;N, B> 2 5:;0@0F88 > 3>AC40@AB25==>< AC25@5=8B5B5 @K<0 >B 4 A5=BO1@O 1991 3>40 70 !520AB>?>;5<, :0: 70 G0ABLN @K<0, 70:@5?;O;AO >A>1K9 AB0BCA, 0 2 >=AB8BCF88 @K<0 >B 6 <0O 1992 3>40 1K;> 70?8A0=>, GB> A>1K9 AB0BCA 3. !520AB>?>;O, :0: =5>BJ5<;5<>9 G0AB8 @K<0 >?@545;O5BAO A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 70:>=>40B5;L=K<8 0:B0<8 8 =5 <>65B 1KBL 87<5=5= 157 A>3;0A8O 53> 3@0640=. 45AL 65 C:07K20;>AL, GB> B=>H5=8O <564C ! 8 @028B5;LAB2>< @K<0 A !520AB>?>;LA:8< 3>@A>25B>< 8 04<8=8AB@0F859 AB@>OBAO =0 >A=>25 4>3>2>@0. 5>?@545;5==>ABL ?@02>2>3> 8 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> ?>;>65=8O 3>@>40, =5G5B:0O ?>;8B8:0 <5AB=>9 04<8=8AB@0F88 AB0;8 2?>A;54AB288 ACI5AB25==K<8 ?@8G8=0<8 53> >BB>@65=8O F5=B@0;L=K<8 C:@08=A:8<8 2;0ABO<8 >B 04<8=8AB@0B82=>9 A8AB5<K >AB0;L=>3> @K<0. >7=8:H55 2 1992 3>4C 3>@>4A:>5 >??>78F8>==>5 >1I5AB25==>5 42865=85 B0:65 1K;> 4>AB0B>G=> A?5F8D8G=K<. >I=K9 B>;G>: 53> @0728B8N 40;8 A>1KB8O, @0725@=C2H85AO 2>:@C3 '5@=><>@A:>3> D;>B0, 8 2 >A>15==>AB8 2878B 2 !520AB>?>;L 2 =0G0;5 <0@B0 1992 3>40 B0: =07K205<>3> ?>5740 @C61K A 1>528:0<8 M:AB@5<8ABA:>9 >@30=870F88 87 0?04=KE @538>=>2 #:@08=K #-#!.  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E>45 A?>@0 > AC4L15 '$ AB>@>=0< >G5=L A:>@> AB0;> OA=>, GB> :0<=5< ?@5B:=>25=8O O2;ONBAO =5 AB>;L:> :>@01;8, A:>;L:> 8=D@0AB@C:BC@0 D;>B0, 0 ?>A:>;L:C >=0 G@572KG09=> B5A=> A@>A;0AL A 3>@>4A:8< E>7O9AB2><, 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 2 F5=B@5 ?@>B82>@5G89 >:07K205BAO AC4L10 !520AB>?>;O. #65 . CF:>9 2> 2@5<O A2>53> 2878B0 2 3>@>4 2 0?@5;5 1992 3>40 2KA:070;AO 2 B>< A<KA;5, GB> !520AB>?>;L 4>;65= >AB0BLAO :@5?>ABLN >AA88 =0 15@530E '5@=>3> <>@O. 5B>< 1992 3>40 2 !520AB>?>;5 =0E>48;0AL 45;530F8O ! $ 2> 3;025 A . C4>2:8=K<,  A2>5< 8=B5@2LN .C4>2:8= A;54CNI8< >1@07>< AD>@<C;8@>20; 273;O4 @>AA89A:>9 AB>@>=K =0 ?@>1;5<C !520AB>?>;O: -B>B A;02=K9 3>@>4, 5ABL 8 1C45B 107>9 @>AA89A:>3> D;>B0. 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'B> :0A05BAO 1>;LH8=AB20 :@K<A:>3> =0A5;5=8O, B> >4=>7=0G=>5 >?@545;5=85 53> =0AB@>5=89 2 MB> 2@5<O 2K3;O48B 4>AB0B>G=> ?@>1;5<0B8G=K<. !>3;0A=> 40==K< >?C1;8:>20==K< 3075B>9 @K<A:0O @0240 - AB02H59 ?>A;5 023CAB0 1991 3;02=K< @C?>@>< 42865=8O 70 87<5=5=85 AB0BCA0 @K<0, 87 16 BKA. 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A;8 @K<A:><C C7;C AC645=> :>340-;81> 1KBL @072O70==K<, B>, >G5284=>, B>;L:> 1;87:8< : 2KH587;>65==><C >1@07><. C45B ;8 MB> >ACI5AB2;5=> 2 21 25:0, 8;8 >= 70BO=5BAO 5I5 BC65, A:070BL A53>4=O 4>2>;L=> B@C4=>. 5A><=5==K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO ;8HL B>, GB> CA8;8O 872=5 2@O4 ;8 ?@8254CB : :0:><C-;81> ?>;>68B5;L=><C @57C;LB0BC.  ?>4;8==>< A<KA;5 A;>20 MB>B :><?;5:A ?@>1;5< <>65B 1KBL @07@5H5= B>;L:> =0<8 A0<8<8&   PAGE 72 =4@59 0;L38=. @K<A:89 C75;  2545=85  PAGE 9  >AA8O, #:@08=0, @K< 8 '5@=><>@A:89 D;>B  PAGE 71   PAGE 88 =4@59 0;L38=. @K<A:89 C75;  @K<: >1@5B5=85 A51O PAGE 8989  @K<A:85 B0B0@K: =04564K, 8;;N788, @50;L=>ABL  PAGE 193  5@A?5:B82K %%I 25:0  PAGE 203  Taras Kuzio. Russia  Crimea  Ucraine. Triangl of conflict, L., 1994  >@10G52 !. !520AB>?>;L 2 B@5BL59 >1>@>=5. 1991-19.., G.1, !520AB>?>;L, 1995  ;0A5=:> !. =0B><8O =5>1JO2;5==>9 2>9=K. @K<, !520AB>?>;L, $;>B. 1991-199& , 852, 1997  D.R.Marples, D.F.Duce. Ukraine, Russia and the Question of Crimea, Nationalities Papers, V.23, 1995, p.271; Crimean Tatars: Repatriation and Conflict Prevention, OSI, New York, 1996; @8<AL:V B0B0@8: VAB>@VO V ACG0A=VABL, 0B5@V0;8 <V6=0@>4=>W =0C:>2>W :>=D5@5=FVW. 8W2, 1995; @K<A:>-B0B0@A:>9 ?@>1;5<5 ?>A2OI5= B0:65 ?5@8>48G5A:89 A1>@=8:, 2KE>4OI89 A 1998 3. 2 !8<D5@>?>;5  @8<AL:>B0B0@AL:5 ?8B0==O.  C1>3;> ., '5@2>==0O !. @K<A:>B0B0@A:>5 =0F8>=0;L=>5 42865=85, BB. 1-2, ., 1992; '5@2>==0O !. @K<A:>B0B0@A:>5 =0F8>=0;L=>5 42865=85, B. 3, ., 1995; '5@2>==0O !. @K<A:>B0B0@A:>5 =0F8>=0;L=>5 42865=85 (1994-1996), =AB8BCB MB=>;>388 8 0=B@>?>;>388 . AA;54>20=8O ?> ?@8:;04=>9 8 =5>B;>6=>9 MB=>;>388, ! 101, .,1997  A.Wilson. Crimean Tatars. A Situation Report on the Crimean Tatars for International Alert, Cambridge, 1994  01@85;O= ., D8<>2 !., 0@C18= ., 8A;K9 ., 0;L38= ., 8:8D>@>2 , 02;>2 ., 5B@>2 . @K<A:85 @5?0B@80=BK: 45?>@B0F8O 2>72@0I5=85 8 >1CAB@>9AB2>, !8<D5@>?>;L, 1998  !1>@=8:8 4>:C<5=B>2: >AA8O, @K< 8 3>@>4 @CAA:>9 A;02K !520AB>?>;L. >:C<5=BK 8 <0B5@80;K 1783-1996, ., 1996; 54><>AB8 ! @K<0, !8<D5@>?>;L, 1992-1994; 5AB=8: !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 @K<0 (70B5< 5AB=8: ?@028B5;LAB20 5A?C1;8:8 @K<), !8<D5@>?>;L 1992-94; !>1@0=85 0:>=>40B5;LAB20 5A?C1;8:8 @K< (70B5< ! 2B>=><=>9 @5A?C1;8:8 @K<), !8<D5@>?>;L, 1995-1998; !>1@0=85 =>@<0B82=>-?@02>2KE 0:B>2  , !8<D5@>?>;L, A 1998 3. 8 B.4.  03@>2 . @K<: 2@5<O =04564 8 B@52>3, (!8<D5@>?>;L, 1996)  !C?@C=N: . %@>=8:0 4@59DCNI53> ?>;C>AB@>20 8 8AB>@8O <>53> ?>E8I5=8O, !8<D5@>?>;L, 1998  5>=84 @0G: ?>;8B8G5A:89 ?>@B@5B =0 D>=5 A>1KB89, !8<D5@>?>;L, 1994  >3>2>@ <564C !$!  8 #!! , >AA8O, @K< 8 3>@>4 @CAA:>9 A;02K !520AB>?>;L. >:C<5=BK 8 <0B5@80;K 1783-1996. . 1996, A.8  K?8A:0 87 AB5=>3@0<<K 70A540=8O 2-9 A5AA88 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !$! , 42 A>2<5AB=>3> 70A540=8O !>25B0 5A?C1;8:8 8 !>25B0 0F8>=0;L=>AB59 22 =>O1@O 1990, B0< 65 A.89-90  Jaroslaw Martyniuk. Ukrainian Independence & Territorial Integrity, RFE/RL Research Report, V.1, N13, 27 March, 1992, p. 64.  &8B. >: R. Solchanyk. Ukrainian-Russian Confrontation over the Crimea, RFE/RL Research Report, 21 February, 1992, p. 27; !<. "0:65 R. Solchanyk. The Crimea Imbroglio: Kiev and Moscow, RFE/RL Research Report, V.1, ! 40, 9 October, 1992, p.7  Taras Kuzio. Russia-Crimea-Ukraine. Triangle of conflict. L. 1994, p.15  57028A8<0O 075B0, 7 0?@5;O 1992  "0< 65.  "0< 65  !<. >AB0=>2;5=85 ! $  ?@>4>;65=88 @01>BK ?> 87CG5=8N ?@02>2>9 >1>A=>20==>AB8 @5H5=89 @57848C<0 ! !!!  >B 19 D52@0;O 1954 3. 8 ! !!!  >B 26 0?@5;O 1954 3. > 2K2545=88 @K<A:>9 >1;0AB8 87 A>AB020 !$! , >AA8O, @K<... A. 97  57028A8<0O 075B0, 22 <0O 1992  57028A8<0O 075B0, 23 <0O 1992  57028A8<0O 075B0, 26 <0O 1992  57028A8<0O 075B0, 21 0?@5;O 1992  57028A8<0O 075B0, 13 8N;O 1993  "0< 65  "0< 65  !@.: K;> 1K =5 ?@028;L=> >B@8F0BL ?@8ACBAB285 2=CB@8 @>AA89A:>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> A?5:B@0 A8;, :>B>@K5 2KABC?0NB 70 =0A8;LAB25==CN @58=B53@0F8N #:@08=K A >AA859 8;8 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 !>25BA:>3> !>N70... => 4><8=8@CNI89 >1@07 <KH;5=8O 2=CB@8 @>AA89A:8E M;8B O2;O5BAO 01A>;NB=> 8=K<.  :0G5AB25 E0@0:B5@=>3> ?@8<5@0 <>6=> ?@>F8B8@>20BL ?0@03@0D 87 4>:C<5=B0, ?>43>B>2;5==>3> 2;8OB5;L=K< =5?@028B5;LAB25==K< A>25B>< ?> 2=5H=59 8 >1>@>==>9 ?>;8B8:5; 2 =5< 3>2>@8BAO, GB> A8BC0F8O =0 #:@08=5, => =5 A0<0 #:@08=0 ?@54AB02;O5B =081>;55 A5@L57=K9 2K7>2 157>?0A=>AB8 8 2=CB@5==59 AB018;L=>AB8 >AA88 (A<.: 57028A8<0O 075B0, 27 <0O 1994) >H5A . >=D;8:B=K9 ?>B5=F80; 2 @>AA89A:>-C:@08=A:8E >B=>H5=8OE. 73;O4 87 >AA88, -B=8G5A:85 8 @538>=0;L=K5 :>=D;8:BK 2 2@0788. .2. >AA8O, #:@08=0, 5;>@CAA8O, .,1997, A.27  57028A8<0O 075B0, 17 45:01@O 1993  ;5H0:>2 . C40 =0A B>;:0NB 3;C?FK-=0F8>=0;8ABK, >2>5 @5<O, !31, 1993  57028A8<0O 075B0, 14 <0O 1996  >H5A . >=D;8:B=K9 ?>B5=F80; 2 @>AA89A:>-C:@08=A:8E >B=>H5=8OE... A.29  57028A8<0O 075B0, <09 1996  CAA:89 35>?>;8B8G5A:89 !1>@=8:, 1996, !1  03@>2 . @K<: 2@5<O =04564 8 B@52>3 (!8<D5@>?>;L, 1996), A.105  -:A-:><0=4CNI89 ! #:@08=K .>68= ?8A0; 2 A2>59 AB0BL5 2 3075B5   #:@08=K >;>A #:@08=K: /@:8< ?@8<5@>< 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?OB>9 :>;>==K O2;O5BAO @K<. >A:20 =5 B>;L:> >15A?5G8205B :@K<A:89 A5?0@0B87<, => 8 2AOG5A:8 ?>>I@O5B 53>, ?KB05BAO A45;0BL B0< B0:CN ?OBCN :>;>==C, :>B>@0O =5 A=8;0AL 4065 8B;5@C (>68= . >=F5?F8O 5ABL, 157>?0A=>AB8 =5B, >;>A #:@08=K, 10 0?@5;O, 1997)  I5 @0=55 2 1995 3>4C, .;LF8= 2 8=B5@2LN 035=BAB2C " -"!! A:070;, GB> C >AA88 =0 ?>;C>AB@>25 7=0G8B5;L=K5 8=B5@5AK, ?>MB><C AC4L1K @K<0 4;O =0A =5157@07;8G=K... 'B> :0A05BAO :@C?=KE ?>;8B8G5A:8E 4>:C<5=B>2, B>, 4C<0N, 1C45B ?@028;L=> ?>4?8A0BL 8E B>340, :>340 C1548<AO, GB> 2708<>>B=>H5=8O <564C !8<D5@>?>;5< 8 852>< A:;04K20NBAO 157 CI5@10 4;O 8=B5@5A>2 :@K<G0= 8 >B25G0NB <564C=0@>4=>-?@87=0==K< AB0=40@B0< ?@02 G5;>25:0 (57028A8<0O 075B0, 21 =>O1@O 1995)  $8=0=A>20O #:@08=0, 29 >:BO1@O 1996  .5154L. !520AB>?>;L - @>AA89A:89 3>@>4, $;03 >48=K, 5 >:BO1@O, 1996  ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 7 45:01@O 1996  C6:>2 .. !520AB>?>;L - @>AA89A:89 3>@>4 =0 :@K<A:>< ?>;C>AB@>25.//725AB8O, 1 =>O1@O 1996  ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 21 45:01@O 1996.  A;CG05 A :@K<A:>9 ?>;8B8:>9 ..C6:>20 A;54C5B 8<5BL 2284C 5I5 >4=> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>: 2 90 3>4K >A:20 ?@52@0B8;0AL 2> 2?>;=5 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K9 8 <>I=K9 @538>= 2=CB@8 >AA88, @538>= ?@5B5=4CNI89 =0 A>1AB25==CN 2=CB@5==NN 8 2=5H=NN ?>;8B8:C =5 2?>;=5 B>645AB25==CN ?>;8B8:5 >1I53>AC40@AB25==>3> F5=B@0. :B82=>ABL <>A:>2A:>3> <M@0 2 :@K<A:>< 2>?@>A5, =5A><=5==>, O2;O5BAO ?@>O2;5=85< @538>=0;L=>9 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 >A:2K 8 2 8725AB=>< A<KA;5 845B 2@07@57 A ?>;8B8:>9 B>9 65 >A:2K, => :0: AB>;8FK >AA88.  57028A8<0O 075B0, 7 O=20@O 1992  >@10G52 !. !520AB>?>;L 2 B@5BL59 >1>@>=5. 1991-19... !520AB>?>;L, 1995  D.L.Clarck. The Saga of Black Sea Fleet, RFE/RL Research Report, 24 january, 1992, p. 45  >@10G52 !. #:07. A>G., A.72-83  57028A8<0O 075B0, 10 O=20@O 1992  "0< 65  >@10G52 !. #:07. A>G., A. 68  "0< 65  4<8@0; 0A0B>=>2 2 G0AB=>AB8 3>2>@8; 2 =>O1@5 1991 3>40: ;845@K (#:@08=K) 254CB A51O >G5=L B0:B8G=> 2 >B=>H5=88 D;>B0. !<.: D. Clarke. 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A>G., A. 262  !02G5=:> . #:07. A>G., A. 84-95  57028A8<0O 075B0, 4 023CAB0 1992  57028A8<0O 075B0, 14 0?@5;O 1993  57028A8<0O 075B0, 13 0?@5;O 1993  57028A8<0O 075B0, 14 0?@5;O 1993  57028A8<0O 075B0, 27 0?@5;O 1993  "0< 65.  57028A8<0O 075B0, 14 0?@5;O 1993  (52GC: . @8<: =CB@VH=V ?@>B8@VGG0 B0 @>AAV9AL:89 2?;82 (1989-1994) (@C:>?8AL), A.47  57028A8<0O 075B0, 14 0?@5;O 1993  !>>1I5=85 ?@5AA-F5=B@0 '$ (@5?@8=B)  57028A8<0O 075B0, 17 8N=O 1993  57028A8<0O 075B0, 19 8N=O 1993  @K<A:0O @0240, 16 8N=O 1993  57028A8<0O 075B0, 8N=L 1993  "0< 65.  03@>2 . #:07. A>G., A.301  Bohdan Hahajlo. The Massandra Summit & Ukraine, RFE/RL Research Report. V.2,N37, 17 September 1993  Op. cit.  Op. cit.  Op. cit.  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(>H5A . >=D;8:B=K9 ?>B5=F80; 2 @>AA89A:>-C:@08=A:8E >B=>H5=8OE..,A.29)  !<. !02G5=:> . #:07. A>G., A.142-150  57028A8<0O 075B0, 5 =>O1@O 1993  !<.: >A:>2A:85 >2>AB8, 31 45:01@O 1993  Ustina Markus. Black Sea fleet dispute apparently over, Transition, 28 July 1995, p.33  Op. cit., p.33. >4@>1=55 >1 8=F845=B5 A '5;5:5=>< A<.: !02G5=:> . #:07. A>G., A. 162-165  Op. cit.  ;5:A0=4@>20 "., ;5:A0=4@>2 . >;L !520AB>?>;O 8 '$ 2 >15A?5G5=88 157>?0A=>AB8 '5@=><>@A:>3> 10AA59=0 (@C:>?8AL, 11 AB@.)  %20B>2 .. 708<>>B=>H5=8O >AA88 8 #:@08=K 8 B5@@8B>@80;L=0O ?@>1;5<0. 73;O4 87 @K<0, >AA8O, @K< 8 3>@>4 @CAA:>9 A;02K !520AB>?>;L.., A.191  .@<0:>2. '59 BK, !520AB>?>;L?, 5G5@=89 !520AB>?>;L, 14 45:01@O 1996  > ?@>1;5<5 !520AB>?>;O >?C1;8:>20=> <=>3> @01>B, ?@58<CI5AB25==> 3075B=KE 8 6C@=0;L=KE AB0B59. !<.: !?0E>2 . 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A>G.  0O2;5=85 @57848C<0 ! #:@08=K, >AA8O, @K< 8 3>@>4 @CAA:>9 A;02K !520AB>?>;L.., A. 112  "0< 65, A. 113  57028A8<0O 075B0, 13 8N;O 1993  57028A8<0O 075B0, 14 45:01@O 1993  >;8B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88 <M@0 !520AB>?>;O 1K;8 ?>A2OI5=K <=>385 ?C1;8:0F88 3075BK 5G5@=89 !520AB>?>;L, :>B>@0O 2 G0AB=>AB8 CB25@640;0, GB> C .!5<5=>20 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O 1K;> 4065 425 ?5G0B8 - >4=0 A @>AA89A:8<, 4@C30O A C:@08=A:8< 35@1><. 0: A:070; .@<0:>2: !5<5=>2 =0=5A 3>@>4C 1>;LH>9 C@>= H0@0E0=L5< B> 2 >AA8N, B> 2 >1JOB8O #:@08=K, 87-70 G53> ?>B5@O; 02B>@8B5B 8 2 8525 8 2 >A:25, 725AB8O, 21 45:01@O 1995  !53>4=O, 23 023CAB0 1995  !53>4=O, 14 023CAB0 1995  ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 22 =>O1@O 1995  >@10G52 !. !520AB>?>;L 2 B@5BL59 >1>@>=5 1991-199... %@>=8:0., A.18  >AA89A:0O 075B0, 14 8N=O 1995  "0< 65.  725AB8O, 29 D52@0;O 1996  !53>4=O, 2 45:01@O 1995  "0< 65.  $;03 >48=K, 21 D52@0;O 1996  ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 27 A5=BO1@O 1995  538>=, 28 <0O 1996  ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 27 A5=BO1@O 1995  5@:0;> =545;8, 17 023CAB0 1996  "0< 65.  ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 21 =>O1@O 1995  ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 21 =>O1@O 1995  "0< 65.  3>=5:, 23 8N;O 1995  !<. =0?@8<5@: @0240, 20 45:01@O 1995  >=AB8BCF8O #:@08=K. @8=OB0 =0 ?OB>9 A5AA88 5@E>2=>9 @04K #:@08=K 28 8N=O 1996 3>40. 0745; XV. !B.14.  .0A0B>=>2 2 >4=>< 87 A2>8E 8=B5@2LN A:070;: !520AB>?>;L 1@0BL 2 0@5=4C =8:B> =5 A>18@05BAO, >AA89A:0O 1I8=0 !520AB>?>;O !9, 8N;L 1995  5154L . !520AB>?>;L - @>AA89A:89 3>@>4, $;03 >48=K, 5 >:BO1@O 1996; A<. B0:65 >AA89A:0O 1I8=0 !520AB>?>;O, !15, >:BO1@L 1996  "0< 65.  !<.: C6:>2 .. !520AB>?>;L - @>AA89A:89 3>@>4 =0 :@K<A:>< ?>;C>AB@>25, 725AB8O, 1 =>O1@O 1996  "0< 65.  CAA:0O KA;L, 12-18 45:01@O 1996  ><8AA8O ?>AB0=>28;0, GB> >AA8O 4>;6=0 ?@O<> 8 >B:@KB> 70O28BL > A2>8E 8AB>@8G5A:8E ?@020E =0 !520AB>?>;L 8 =5 A:@K20O 8<5NI8EAO @07=>3;0A89 A #:@08=>9, AB028BL 2>?@>A > F828;87>20==>< <564C=0@>4=>-?@02>2>< 70:@5?;5=88 AB0BCA0 MB>3> 3>@>40. ><8AA8O ?@54;>68;0 .;LF8=C 2K428=CBL 8=8F80B82C ?> 2K45;5=8N !520AB>?>;O 2 >B45;L=CN B5@@8B>@80;L=CN 548=8FC A> A?5F80;L=K< <564C=0@>4=K< AB0BCA><, 0 B0:65 @5H0BL ?@>1;5<C 3>@>40 ?CB5< A>740=8O 04<8=8AB@0B82=>3> C?@02;5=8O !520AB>?>;5< ?>4 N@8A48:F859 ! (!<.: !>>1I5=85 035=BAB20 =B5@D0:A, @K<A:85 725AB8O, 23 0?@5;O 1997).  >AA89A:0O >1I8=0 !520AB>?>;O, !19, 45:01@L 1996  ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 1 0?@5;O 1997  ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 20 <0@B0 1997  ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 1 0?@5;O 1997  5@5?5;8F0 . 048 4@C61K A >AA859 70 F5=>9 =5 ?>AB>8<, ><?0=L>= !16(40), 023CAB 1997, A.8  #@O4>289 C@ T@, 6 G5@2=O 1997  5@5?5;8F0 . #:07. A>G., A.9  5@:0;> 545;8, 31 <0O 1997  5@5?5;8F0 . "0< 65.  !<. >3>2V@ ?@> 4@C61C, A?V2@>1VB=8FB2> V ?0@B=5@AB2> <V6 #:@0W=>N B0 >AAV9AL:>N $545@0FVTN, #@O4>289 C@ T@, 3 G5@2=O 1997   :@8B8G5A:8E >B:;8:0E =0 @0745; D;>B0 >B<5G0;>AL, GB> 2 =K=5H=5< A>AB025 '$ =5 <>65B MDD5:B82=> ?@>B82>AB>OBL $ "C@F88, <>IL :>B>@>3> 2 A>>B=>H5=88 A '$ >F5=820;0AL :0: 4:1. (!<.: 0BC;8= ., ><0=5=:> . @K<A:0O &CA8<0, 57028A8<>5 >5==>5 >1>7@5=85 ! 47, 26 45:01@O 1997)  O;K9 .. 04:CAK20=85, 02B@0 !22 (183), 1997  5@5?5;8F0 . #:07. 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The Election in Crimea, p.18  >AB0=>2;5=85 ! @K<0  ?@>E>645=88 A@>G=>9 A;C61K 3@0640=0<8 @5A?C1;8:8 @K<, 54><>AB8 ! @K<0, !2, <09-8N=L 1994, 75  5>=84 @0G: ?>;8B8G5A:89 ?>@B@5B& A.66-67  0:>= 5A?C1;8:8 @K<  2>AAB0=>2;5=88 :>=AB8BCF8>==KE >A=>2 3>AC40@AB25==>AB8 5A?C1;8:8 @K<, 54><>AB8 ! @K<0 !2, <09-8N;L, 1994, 73; Ustina Marcus. Crimea restores 1992 Constitution, RFE/RL Research Report. V.3, 10 June, 1994, p. 9-12  5>=84 @0G: >;8B8G5A:89 ?>@B@5B... 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B0:65: @>3@0<<0 ?@>2545=8O M:>=><8G5A:8E @5D>@< 2 5A?C1;8:5 :@K< =0 1994-98 33., 54><>AB8 ! @K<0 !2 <09-8N;L 1994, A.138-151; =B5@2LN A !.8:>;LA:8<, @K<A:85 725AB8O, 4 023CAB0 1994  !<.: @K<A:0O 075B0, 15 0?@5;O 1994  @K<A:85 725AB8O, 21 0?@5;O 1994  5:, !38, 1994  @K<A:85 725AB8O, 30 8N=O 1994  =B5@2LN A !.8:C;8=K<, @K<A:85 725AB8O, 4 023CAB0 1994  @K<A:85 725AB8O, 30 8N=O 1994  @K<A:85 725AB8O, 28 8N=O 1994   >4=>< 87 A2>8E 8=B5@2LN .!01C@>2 3>2>@8;: @K<A:89 ?0@;0<5=B  MB> =5 @>AA89A:89 ?0@;0<5=B 8 4065 =5 C:@08=A:89. "0< >G5=L <=>3> ?@54AB028B5;59 10=4D>@<8@>20=89... (.!01C@>2: / M:>=><8AB, 0 =5 ?A8E80B@, CAA:0O KA;L, 22-28 A5=BO1@O 1994)  A;8 ?>4 A01C@>2A:8<8 >128=5=8O<8 1K;0 >?@545;5==0O >A=>20, B> 2KA:07K20=8O ;845@>2 - A;54C5B ?@87=0BL 3>;>A;>2=K<8.  .!01C@>2: A5, GB> A59G0A ?@>8AE>48B, 8<55B ?>4 A>1>9 G5B:CN M:>=><8G5A:CN ?>4>?;5:C.  @K<C 5ABL 4>AB0B>G=> AB@0==K5 AB@C:BC@K, :>B>@K5 8<5NB A2>9 8=B5@5A 2 ?@820B870F88. >@<0;L=CN >B:@KBCN ?@820B870F8N A CG0AB85< 2A53> =0A5;5=8O @K<0, A CG0AB85< >AA88, #:@08=K... >=8 =5 E>BOB. =8 E>BOB 2A5 ?>@570BL =0 :CA>G:8  =0 A2>8 :CA>G:8... A5 MB> 70B@C4=O5B ?@820B870F8N, 70B@C4=O5B ?@8E>4 8=25AB>@>2 8, 5AB5AB25==>, <K 2KABC?8;8 ?@>B82 MB>3>, =0AB0820O =0 ?>;=>9 ;530;870F88 ?@>F5AA0 ?@820B870F88. -B> 8 2K720;> B0:>5 65AB>:>5 A>?@>B82;5=85 A> AB>@>=K 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0. !<.: CAA:0O KA;L, 22-28 A5=BO1@O 1994  5>=84 @0G: >;8B8G5A:89 ?>@B@5B... A.77  "0< 65, A. 70-75  725AB8O, 18 =>O1@O 1994  /:0 A8BC0FVO 2 @8<C, #@O4>289 C@ T@, 21 15@57=O 1995  !<.: @57C;LB0BK >?@>A>2 & (.8A5;520, .%0=): @K<A:0O @0240, 17 O=20@O, 4 D52@0;O 1995; A;C61K @K<A>F8A (!.D8<>2, ..@>7>@>2): @K<A:0O @0240, 2 45:01@O, 15 45:01@O 1994  0==K5 @K<A>F8A: @K<A:0O @0240, 2 45:01@O 1994  >;55 ?>4@>1=> >1 MB>< A<.: Christyna Lapychak. Crackdown On Crimean Separatism, Transition, 26 may 1995, p. 2-4  57028A8<0O 075B0, <0@B 1995  >7>289 . @8<: ?@02>289 20@V0=B 28@VH5==O 35>?>;VB8G=>W ?@>1;5<8, !BC488 35>?>;VB8G=>3> F5=B@C 5=570 (L2V2), !2, 1995, A.108  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 2B>=><=C 5A?C1;V:C @8<, #@O4>289 C@ T@, 21 15@57=O 1995  /:0 A8BC0F8O C @8<C.  !<. ?C1;8:0F88 2 @K<A:>9 @0245 8 @K<A:>< @5<5=8 2 1995 3>4C.  Christyna Lapychak. Op. cit., p.5  !<.: @5GL .>;LHNBB5@0 2 ! @K<0, @K<A:85 725AB8O, 6 8N=O 1995  5;8BF5@ ., >4@C: . @K< :0: @538>= ?>B5=F80;L=>3> :>=D;8:B0, -B=8G5A:85 8 @538>=0;L=K5 :>=D;8:BK 2 2@0788. .2. >AA8O, #:@08=0, 5;>@CAA8O, .,1997, A.96  &8B. >: >@>1L520 . 5@<0=>-C:@08=A:85 >B=>H5=8O, #:@08=0: 25:B>@ ?5@5<5=. !1>@=8: !, ., 1997, A.129  ?>A;54AB288 ?>;=><>G8O @54AB028B5;O 1K;8 =5A:>;L:> >3@0=8G5=K.  "02@8G5A:85 54><>AB8, 15 <0@B0 1996  !53>4=O, 12 <0@B0 1996  !<.: >=AB8BCF8O #:@08=K&  >=AB8BCF8O   1 =>O1@O 1995, @K<A:85 725AB8O, 28 45:01@O 1995, AB.1  "0< 65 AB.6; >=AB8BCF8O >1JO2;O;0 !520AB>?>;L =5>BJ5<;5<>9 G0ABLN   (AB.7), 0 B0:65 ?>AB0=>2;O;0, GB> 2 1N465B @5A?C1;8:8 70G8A;ONBAO 2A5 284K A>18@05<KE =0 55 B5@@8B>@88 =0;>3>2.  >20O >=AB8BCF8O #:@08=K 8 ?>;8B8G5A:89 :;8<0B 2 @K<C. >:;04 @K<A:>3> ?@54AB028B5;LAB20 <8AA88 ! 2 #:@08=5. 5>D8F80;L=K9 ?5@52>4. 5?@8=B A.4-5  57028A8<0O 075B0; ><<5@A0=B-Daily, 25A=0 1997  @K<A:>5 @5<O, 29 O=20@O 1998  !<.: 1@0I5=85 ! @K<0 ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@C #:@08=K .0@GC:C, @K<A:85 8725AB8O, 9 D52@0;O 1996  070@8= . CAA:89 O7K: 873>=O5BAO 87 !8<D5@>?>;LA:>3> C=825@A8B5B0, @K<A:0O @0240, 2 8N;O 1996  !<. !C?@C=N: . %@>=8:0 4@59DCNI53> ?>;C>AB@>20 8 8AB>@8O <>53> ?>E8I5=8O, !8<D5@>?>;L, 1997  >;55 ?>4@>1=> >1 MB>< A<.: >=AB0=B8= '5@=5F>2. 0=48BA:89 @K<, !8<D5@>?>;L, 1998 8 0=48BA:89 @K<-2, !8<D5@>?>;L, 1998.  81>@8-98. >:C<5=B8, AB0B8AB8G=V 40=V, 0=0;V7, 8W2, 1998  >=AB8BCF8O 2B>=><=>9 5A?C1;8:8 @K< 21 >:BO1@O 1998 3>40, @K<A:85 725AB8O, 12 O=20@O 1999.  "0< 65 AB.2  "0< 65 AB.18  "0< 65 AB.18  "0< 65  "0< 65  "0< 65 AB.7  "0< 65 AB.10  "0< 65 ABB.11, 12, 13  0O2;5=85 C<K CAA:>9 >1I8=K @K<0 > >=AB8BCF88   2 @540:F88 >B 21 >:BO1@O 1998 3>40, CAA:89 8@, !1, 1999  "0< 65  !<.: <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?C1;8:0F88 2 3075B5 @K<A:>5 @5<O 2 :>=F5 1998  =0G0;5 1999 33.  5?CB0B-:><<C=8AB   #:@08=K >B 0?>@>6LO .0C;8= 2> 2@5<O >1AC645=8O :@K<A:>9 >=AB8BCF88 2 8525 70O28;: -B>B B@0:B0B =5 O2;O5BAO >=AB8BCF859 02B>=><88. -B> 2A53> ;8HL 4>3>2>@ <564C ?@8H54H59 2 MB>< 3>4C : 2;0AB8 2 @K<C M;8B>9 8 :852A:8<8 G8=>2=8:0<8& -B0 >=AB8BCF8O =5 B>;L:> ?>;=59H0O 453@040F8O 02B>=><88, => 8 55 =0A8;LAB25==0O 0AA8<8;OF8O& ( CAA:89 8@, !1, 1999).  0O2;5=85 >AC40@AB25==>9 C<K >AA88, CAA:89 8@, !1, 1999. !;54C5B A:070BL, GB> =0720=85 0O2;5=8O =5 2?>;=5 25@=> >B@0605B A8BC0F8N: >=AB8BCF8O @K<0 =5 CAB0=02;820;0 AB0BCA 3>AC40@AB25==>3> O7K:0.  @K<A:85 725AB8O, 18-19 8N=O 1999  "0< 65  > 8AB>@88 :@K<A:8E B0B0@ 8 :@K<A:>-B0B0@A:>9 ?@>1;5<5 ACI5AB2C5B >1H8@=0O ;8B5@0BC@0 87 :>B>@>9 >B<5B8<: 01@85;O= .,D8<>2 !. 8 4@. @K<A:85 @5?0B@80=BK: 45?>@B0F8O, 2>72@0I5=85 8 >1CAB@>9AB2>, !8<D5@>?>;L, 1998 (40;55  @K<A:85 @5?0B@80=BK); ;038= . 0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:85 8;;N788 :@K<A:8E B0B0@ 2 @52>;NF8>==K5 3>4K, 0125=8N =5 ?>4;568B (A1. AB.), 070=L, 1992, A.74-118; 0@C18= .,0@C18= . 57 ?>1548B5;59. 7 8AB>@88 3@0640=A:>9 2>9=K 2 @K<C, !8<D5@>?>;L, 1997; @K<A:>B0B0@A:>5 =0F8>=0;L=>5 42865=85 2 1917-21 33. A1. 4>:-B>2, A>AB .0@C18=, >?@>AK @0728B8O @K<0 !3, 1996; C1>3;> .'5@2>==0O !. @K<A:>B0B0@A:>5 =0F8>=0;L=>5 42865=85, ., 1992, BB. 1-2  @K<A:85 @5?0B@80=BK, A.  5<A:>2 .!?5F?>A5;5=FK 87 @K<0 (1944  195633.), @K<A:89 C759, !1, 1994, A.74-75; 5?@5427OBK9 ?>4E>4 ?>:07K205B, GB> F8D@C 2 46% ?>381H8E 2 <5AB0E 2KAK;:8, :>B>@CN 2K42830NB ?@54AB028B5;8 =0F8>=0;L=>3> 42865=8O, A;54C5B ?@87=0BL 2K<KH;5==>9.  :B828ABK :@K<A:>B0B0@A:>3> 42865=8O >A?0@820;8 MBC F8D@C, CB25@640O, GB> :@K<A:8E B0B0@ 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH5. "5< =5 <5=55, :0:8E-;81> C1548B5;L=KE ?>4B25@645=89 ?>A;54=8E 40==KE =5 ?@82>48BAO.  >;55 ?>4@>1=> >1 MB>< !<.: @K<A:85 @5?0B@80=BK&  C1>3;> ., '5@2>==0O !. @K<A:>B0B0@A:>5 =0F8>=0;L=>5 42865=85, B.1, A.171  "0< 65, B.2, A. 109-111  "0< 65, A. 110-111  "0< 65.  "0< 65, A.111  "0< 65, A.111  "0< 65, A.144-172  "0< 65, A.144  "0< 65, A.145  "0< 65.  "0< 65.  "0< 65, A.150  "0< 65, A.162  "0< 65, A.166  5GL 845B > ?>AB0=>2;5=88 ! @!!   AJ5745 (C@C;B05) ?@54AB028B5;59 :@K<A:8E B0B0@ >B 29 8N;O 19913..  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A>G., A.16  "0< 65, A. 17  ..048<>2. @K<A:0O 0=><0;8O, @8<AL:>B0B0@AL:5 ?8B0==O, !4, 1998, A.45   ?@>:C@0BC@5  , @8<AL:>B0B0@AL:5 ?8B0==O, !4, 1998, A.38-43  >AB0=>2;5=85 I A5AA88 III C@C;B0O > 45OB5;L=>AB8 546;8A0 :@K<A:>B0B0@A:>3> =0@>40 2 ?5@8>4 A 023CAB0 1993 ?> 8N=L 1996 3., 245B, !13, 8 8N;O 1996  1@0I5=85 :@K<A:>B0B0@A:>3> =0@>40  15A?@02=>< ?>;>65=88 :@K<A:>B0B0@A:>3> =0@>40 8 83=>@8@>20=88 53> 70:>==KE ?@02 8 8=B5@5A>2, 245B, 27 <0O 1996  >;>A @K<0, !15, 1995  1 MB>< A<.: .65<8;52:  ?5@2CN >G5@54L =C6=> @0AAG8BK20BL =0 A0<8E A51O, @8<AL:>B0B0@AL:5 ?8B0==O, !4, A.13  8AL<> 8=8AB5@AB20 =>AB@0==KE 5; >B 01.02.96 ! 20/21-77 (:A5@>:>?8O 2 @0A?>@O65=88 02B>@0)  8AL<> >A:><8B5B0 #:@08=K ?> 45;0< =0F8>=0;L=>AB59 8 <83@0F88 >B 20.09.96 ! 12-818/2 (:A5@>:>?8O 2 @0A?>@O65=88 02B>@0)  >@5==K<8 2 <564C=0@>4=>-?@02>2>< A<KA;5 AG8B0NBAO B>;L:> B5 =0@>4K, :>B>@K5 A>E@0=ONB B@048F8>==K5 D>@<K 687=5>15A?5G5=8O (0@E08G=>5 75<;545;85, >E>B0, @K1>;>2AB2>, >18@0B5;LAB2>, >;5=52>4AB2>), 0 B0:65 B@048F8>==K5 @>4>?;5<5==K5 8 D@0B@80;L=K5 AB@C:BC@K (A<. >AA89A:89 1N;;5B5=L ?> ?@020< G5;>25:0. K?.4, .,1994, A.157). @K<A:>-B0B0@A:89 65 =0@>4 =0E>48BAO =0 045:20B=>< :>=FC %% 25:0, 4>AB0B>G=> 2KA>:>9 ABC?5=8 @0728B8O, GB>, :>=5G=> =5 <5H05B 5<C 1KBL :>@5==K<, >4=0:> =5 2 ?@02>2><, 0 2 >1KG=>< A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20, GB> =5 <>65B 2;5GL 70 A>1>9 =8:0:8E ?@02>2KE ?>A;54AB289. >;55 ?>4@>1=> >1 MB>< A<.: D8<>2 !.0;L38= . > ?8B0==O ?@> ?>;8B8G=8 ?@020 :@8<AL:8E B0B0@, @020 ;N48=8 2 #:@0W=V. 8?.17, 8W2, 1996, A.43-50, 0 B0:65: >?CAB8<> ;8 8A?>;L7>20=85 B5@<8=0 :>@5==>9 =0@>4 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : B0B0@0< @K<0, CAA:89 <8@, !4(9), 1999  >=AB8BCF8O #:@08=K  >=AB8BCF8O #:@08=K,  14C@08<>2 . ;0ABL 8 <546;8A 45;0NB >4=> 45;>, @8<AL:>B0B0@AL:5 ?8B0==O, !4, 1998, A. 36-38  "02@8G5A:85 54><>AB8, !16, 1993  "0< 65.  >;>A @K<0, !37, 1994  "02@8G5A:85 54><>AB8, !16, 1993  245B, 19 <0O 1997  "0< 65.  @K<A:85 @5?0B@80=BK. A.174  @K<A:0O @0240, 6 8N=O 1995  D.R.Marples, D.F.Duse. Ucraine, Russia and the Question of Crimea, Nationalities Papers, V.23, 1995, p.271  .Wilson. 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