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"0:, ?@5>1;040=85 2 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@5 >1I5AB20 ;815@0;L=KE F5==>AB59 A?>A>1AB2C5B @>ABC AB018;L=>AB8 45<>:@0B8G5A:8E ?>;8B8G5A:8E 8=AB8BCB>2. 0?@>B82, 0=B845<>:@0B8G5A:85 CAB0=>2:8 A?>A>1=K ?@5?OBAB2>20BL ?>;8B8G5A:>9 ;815@0;870F88 (Almond and Verba, 1963; Dahl, 1989). !C4L10 @>AA89A:>9 45<>:@0B870F88 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 1C45B 7028A5BL >B AB5?5=8 ?>445@6:8 @>AA8O=0<8 ;815@0;L=KE =>@< 8 F5==>AB59 (046852 8 4@., 1994). >MB><C 8AA;54>20=85 @>AA89A:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K 8<55B =5 B>;L:> B5>@5B8G5A:CN, => 8 AC3C1> ?@0:B8G5A:CN 7=0G8<>ABL. -B0 AB0BLO AB028B F5;L >?8A0BL 8 A@02=8BL >A>15==>AB8 A>25BA:>9 8 ?>ABA>25BA:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:8E :C;LBC@, D>@<8@>202H8EAO 2 @07;8G=KE ?>;8B8:>-8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=KE :>=B5:AB0E. "0:>5 42>9=>5 A@02=5=85 ?><>65B 2KOA=8BL, A?>A>1AB2C5B ;8 ?>ABA>25BA:0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O :C;LBC@0 @0728B8N @>AA89A:>9 45<>:@0B88 8;8, =0?@>B82, ?@5?OBAB2C5B MB><C ?@>F5AAC. 0:>2K >B;8G8B5;L=K5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K 45<>:@0B8G5A:8E >1I5AB2? >7<>6=K9 >B25B =0 MB>B 2>?@>A A>45@68BAO 2 @01>B5 .;<>=40 8 !.5@1K  @0640=A:0O :C;LBC@0 (Almond and Verba, 1963). 7CG0O ?>;8B8G5A:CN :C;LBC@C 2 ;815@0;L=KE 45<>:@0B8OE, ;<>=4 8 5@10 >1=0@C68;8 E0@0:B5@=K9 B8?, ?@8ACI89 =081>;55 @0728BK< 87 =8E. #A;>2=> B0:0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O :C;LBC@0 1K;0 =0720=0  3@0640=A:>9 . AA;54>20B5;O<8 1K;> 2K45;5=> B@8  8450;L=KE  =5 2AB@5G0NI8EAO 2 @50;L=>AB8 2  G8AB>< 2845  B8?0 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K: ?@8E>4A:0O, ?>440=8G5A:0O 8 ?0@B8F8?0B>@=0O (CG0AB2CNI0O). 5@2K9 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO >BACBAB285< C ;N459 40==>3> >1I5AB20 8=B5@5A0 : ?>;8B8:5 8 ?@>8AE>4OI8< A>1KB8O<. B>@>9  :0: O2AB2C5B C65 87 53> =0720=8O  >7=0G05B ?>4G8=5==>5 ?>;>65=85 3@0640= ?> >B=>H5=8N : 2;0AB8: ;N48 <>3CB 8=B5@5A>20BLAO ?>;8B8:>9, ?@87=020BL 8;8 =5B ;538B8<=>ABL ACI5AB2CNI53> @568<0, => 0:B82=> 2 ?>;8B8:5 >=8 =5 70459AB2>20=K. 5@2K5 420 B8?0 A1;8605B ?@0:B8G5A:8 ?>;=>5 >BACBAB285 CG0AB8O 3@0640= 2 ?>;8B8G5A:>< ?@>F5AA5, 8 MB> A2>9AB2> >B;8G05B 8E >B B@5BL53> B8?0  ?0@B8F8?0B>@=>9 :C;LBC@K, :>340 3@0640=5 =5 B>;L:> 8=B5@5ACNBAO ?>;8B8:>9, => 8 >@85=B8@>20=K =0 0:B82=>5 CG0AB85 (Almond and Verba, 1963). !>G5B0=85 2A5E B@5E B8?>2, :>340 B@5B89 4><8=8@C5B =04 ?5@2K<8 42C<O, 8 A>7405B  3@0640=A:CN :C;LBC@C. >7<>6=>, B0:0O @0AAB0=>2:0 0:F5=B>2 AC605B ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@5 2 F5;><. 54L CG0AB85 >B@0605B B>;L:> BC 55 AB>@>=C, :>B>@0O 4>ABC?=0 D0:B8G5A:><C =01;N45=8N. > 2 MB>< 8 A>AB>8B 206=>5 ?@58<CI5AB2> ?>4E>40 ;<>=40 8 5@1K: =0 >A=>20=88 =01;N405<>3> ?>2545=8O <>6=> A@02=820BL @07;8G=K5 >1I5AB20. 0:>20 <5@0 A>>B25BAB28O A>25BA:>9 8 ?>ABA>25BA:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K >1@07FC  3@0640=A:>9 ? B25B =0 MB>B 2>?@>A ?><>65B ?@>OA=8BL 3@0=8FK ?@8<5=8<>AB8 ?>=OB8O  3@0640=A:0O :C;LBC@0 : 0=0;87C ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K >1I5AB20, ?5@56820NI53> ?@>F5AAK B@0=AD>@<0F88. >;8B8G5A:0O :C;LBC@0: =587<5==0O B@048F8O 8;8 @0F8>=0;L=0O 040?B0F8O? >;8B8G5A:0O :C;LBC@0 70G0ABCN @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: CAB>9G82K9 D5=><5=. $>@<8@>20=85 :C;LBC@K  4>;3>2@5<5==K9 ?@>F5AA, ?>MB><C B@C4=> >6840BL >B =>@< 8 F5==>AB59 1KAB@>9 87<5=G82>AB8 (Almond and Verba, 1963). > <=5=8N <=>38E 8AA;54>20B5;59, C=0A;54>20==K5 >B A>25BA:>3> ?@>H;>3> ?>;8B8:>-:C;LBC@=K5 F5==>AB8 7=0G8B5;L=> 2;8ONB =0 ?@>F5AAK ?>ABA>25BA:>3> @0728B8O (McAuley, 1997). 0:>2 65 E0@0:B5@ C=0A;54>20==>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K? !CI5AB2C5B 420 ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE >B25B0 =0 MB>B 2>?@>A. O4 8AA;54>20B5;59 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K >AA88 AG8B0;8, GB> 02B>:@0B87<, M30;8B0@87< 8 ?0B5@=0;87< 2A5340 4><8=8@>20;8 2 A>7=0=88 @CAA:8E (Friedrich and Brzezinski, 1956; Barghoorn, 1965; Keenan, 1986). =>385 A>25B>;>38 AE>48;8AL =0 B><, GB> A>25BA:0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O :C;LBC@0  2 55 7@5;>< 2845  2>A?@>8725;0 4>@52>;NF8>==K5 ?>;8B8G5A:85 CAB0=>2:8 8 F5==>AB8, 0 8<5==>,  A;01>ABL 8 =5MDD5:B82=>ABL ?@54AB028B5;LAB20, =87:89 C@>25=L ?>;8B8G5A:>3> CG0AB8O, 02B>@8B0@87< 8 1N@>:@0B87< (White, 1979: 64). O4 ?>ABA>25BA:8E 8AA;54>20=89 B0:65 A;54CNB MB>9 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 <>45;8 (Lloyd, 1993; Finifter and Mickiewicz, 1992). 0?@8<5@, . $8=8DB5@ ?>4G5@:8205B  02B>@8B0@=K9 E0@0:B5@ ?>ABA>25BA:8E ?>;8B8G5A:8E F5==>AB59:  87<5=8;8AL 8=AB8BCBK, => =5 =>@<K (Finifter, 1996: 149). 07>2K5 F5==>AB8 =5;53:> 87<5=8BL, ?>MB><C 45<>:@0B870F8O >1@5G5=0 =0 =5C40GC (Laqueur, 1989: 8). @C385 A>25B>;>38 CB25@640;8, GB> 8 2 A>25BA:89 ?5@8>4 ?>;8B8G5A:0O :C;LBC@0 1K;0 40;5:0 >B 65;0B5;L=>9 4;O @5?@5AA82=>9 A8AB5<K (Brown, 1984; Brown and Gray, 1977). "5>@5B8G5A:8< >A=>20=85< 4;O ?>4>1=KE AC645=89 AB0;0 B5>@8O <>45@=870F88 (Lipset, 1959; Inkeles and Smith, 1974). KA:07K20;>AL <=5=85, GB> ?>4 2;8O=85< A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:>3> ?@>3@5AA0 4065 :><<C=8AB8G5A:85 A8AB5<K ?>AB5?5==> 45<>:@0B878@CNBAO. !>3;0A=> MB>9 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 B@048F88, ?>A;5 A<5@B8 !B0;8=0 @>AA89A:0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O :C;LBC@0 ?>AB5?5==> AB0=>28;0AL ;815@0;L=>9 (Hough, 1972; Little, 1976; Lewin, 1988; Hahn, 1988). !;54CO MB>9 B@048F88, <=>385 ?>ABA>25BA:85 8AA;54>20=8O B0:65 >B<5G0NB 7=0G8B5;L=K9  C45;L=K9 25A 45<>:@0B8G5A:8E F5==>AB59 2 ?>;8B8G5A:>< A>7=0=88 @>AA8O= (Bahry and Silver, 1990; Hahn, 1993; Willerton and Sigelman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hitefield and Evans, 1994; Bahry and Way, 1994). G5284=>, :0640O 87 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E B@048F89 70A;C68205B >?@545;5==>9 4>;8 4>25@8O. !>25BA:0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O :C;LBC@0 2 @07=K5 ?5@8>4K 8 A B>G:8 7@5=8O @07;8G=KE 8AA;54>20B5;59 <>3;0 :070BLAO 8 ;>O;L=>9, 8 >??>78F8>==>9 02B>@8B0@=><C @568<C. C<05BAO, >A=>2=K< =54>AB0B:><  B>B0;8B0@=>9 <>45;8 A>25BA:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K O2;O5BAO B578A > =587<5==>AB8 8 CAB>9G82>AB8 ?>;8B8:>-:C;LBC@=KE F5==>AB59. #B25@645=85 > AB018;L=>AB8 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K >?@>25@305BAO <=>38<8 8AA;54>20=8O<8. !@548 D0:B>@>2, >B25BAB25==KE 70 ?>;8B8:>-:C;LBC@=K5 B@0=AD>@<0F88, CG5=K5 >B<5G0NB >A>1CN @>;L ?>;8B8G5A:8E 8=AB8BCB>2 (Almond and Verba, 1980; Eckstein, 1988; Inglehart, 1989). >6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> =>@<K ?>2545=8O, >?@545;O2H85 >1;8: A>25BA:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K, D>@<8@>20;8AL ?>4 402;5=85< 2=5H=8E >1AB>OB5;LAB2.  =5H=85 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 1K;8 7040=K ?>;8B8:>-8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=K< :>=B5:AB>< B>3> ?5@8>40. >6=> >6840BL, GB> ?>;8B8:>-:C;LBC@=K5 F5==>AB8 A?>A>1=K <5=OBLAO, 040?B8@COAL : 87<5=ONI8<AO CA;>28O<. >=5G=>, 8=AB8BCBK 2@O4 ;8 <>3CB B@0=AD>@<8@>20BL ?>;8B8G5A:CN :C;LBC@C DC=40<5=B0;L=>, => >=8 <>3CB 70AB02;OBL 3@0640= ?@8A?>A01;820BL 8E :C;LBC@=K5 =>@<K : B@51>20=8O< A8AB5<K.  5A;8 4>?CAB8BL, GB> 45<>=AB@8@C5<0O A>25BA:8<8 3@0640=0<8 ;>O;L=>ABL @568<C 1K;0 ;8HL A?>A>1>< 040?B0F88 : ACI5AB2>202H8< ?>;8B8G5A:8< CA;>28O<? @8 MB>< ?>4;8==K5 F5==>AB8 ;N459 <>3;8 1KBL 40;5:8 >B F5==>AB59 02B>@8B0@87<0. "5>@5B8G5A:>9 >A=>2>9 B0:>3> ?>4E>40 <>65B AB0BL B5>@8O @0F8>=0;L=>3> 2K1>@0, B>G=55, >4=0 87 55 25@A89, 2:;NG0NI0O 2 0=0;87 :C;LBC@=K5 F5==>AB8. -B>   :C;LBC@=0O @0F8>=0;L=>ABL (Lane, 1992).  @0<:0E MB>3> ?>4E>40 CB25@6405BAO, GB> ?>;8B8G5A:0O :C;LBC@0  =5 0;LB5@=0B820 @0F8>=0;L=><C ?>2545=8N, 0 A0<0  @0F8>=0;L=0O 040?B0F8O CAB0=>2>: : B@51>20=8O< 8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>9 A@54K. ABC?0O 2> 2708<>>B=>H5=8O A 2;0ABLN, ;N48 ?>AB5?5==> >A20820NB =081>;55 ?@54?>GB8B5;L=K5 AB@0B5388 ?>2545=8O (Wildavsky, 1987:3, 5, 18). @54AB02;O5BAO, GB> :>=F5?F8O :C;LBC@=>9 @0F8>=0;L=>AB8 >E20BK205B =5 B>;L:> :><?;5:A=>5 A>45@60=85 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K 40==>3> >1I5AB20, => 8 ?>;8B8G5A:CN :C;LBC@C >B45;L=KE 2>7@0AB=KE :>3>@B, A>F80;878@>202H8EAO 2 A?5F8D8G5A:8E ?>;8B8:>-8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=KE CA;>28OE.  C;LBC@=0O @0F8>=0;L=>ABL 8 AB0=5B B5< ?>4E>4><, :>B>@K9 ?><>65B ?@>OA=8BL ACI=>ABL A>25BA:>9 8 ?>ABA>25BA:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K. "0:8< >1@07><, :C;LBC@=0O @0F8>=0;L=>ABL ?@>O2;O5BAO 2> 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE 3@0640= 8 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K. > <=5=8N . 515@0, ;N10O 2;0ABL AB@5<8BAO : ?>445@60=8N A>1AB25==>9 ;538B8<=>AB8, C15640O >1I5AB2> 2 B><, GB> 459AB2CNI85 ?>;8B8G5A:85 8=AB8BCBK 8<5NB 70:>==>5 ?@02> =0 ACI5AB2>20=85 (515@, 1990).  4>;3>A@>G=>< ?;0=5, 7040G0 ;538B8<0F88 A8AB5<K =5 <>65B 1KBL @5H5=0, 5A;8 A8AB5<5 =5 C40;>AL AB0BL MDD5:B82=>9, B.5. A?>A>1=>9 C4>2;5B2>@OBL <0B5@80;L=K5 ?>B@51=>AB8 3@0640= (Lipset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B5?5@L B>65. @028B5;LAB2C 8 AC40< :>=5G=> =04> 4>25@OBL... 0, O 8 A0<0 8< 4>25@ON, E>BO B5, :B> B0< @01>B05B, <=5 =5 2A5340 A8<?0B8G=K. > >4=> 45;>  :B> B0< <5AB> 70=8<05B, 4@C3>5 45;>  A0<0 4>;6=>ABL. !59G0A A<>B@N =0 =5:>B>@KE ?> B5;5287>@C 8 4C<0N, =5 =0 A2>5< <5AB5 A848B, B>;L:> ?>7>@8B 3>AC40@AB25==K9 ?>AB&  >;CG5==K5 =0<8 40==K5 A>3;0ACNBAO A @57C;LB0B0<8 >?@>A>2 >1I5AB25==>3> <=5=8O, ?@>2>48<KE &. KO2;5=>, GB> 4>25@85 : ?>;8B8G5A:8< 8=AB8BCB0< E0@0:B5@=> 4;O ?@54AB028B5;59 AB0@H59 2>7@0AB=>9 :>3>@BK 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8, G5< 4;O @5A?>=45=B>2 A@54=53> 2>7@0AB0 (&, 19930). @8 MB>< ?>68;K5 ;N48 G0AB> 2KA:07K20;8AL ?@>B82 A>2@5<5==KE @5D>@<, ?@>2>48<KE ?@028B5;LAB2>< 8 ?@57845=B><. 4=0:> =530B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 2K7K20;8 =5 A0<8 8458 @5D>@<8@>20=8O, 0 <5B>4K, :>B>@K<8 @5D>@<K ?@>2>4OBAO. 8:>;09 !5@35528G, 61 3>4:  0 8 ?CABL 1K @5D>@<K, => 5A;8 MB8 @5D>@<K 4>2>4OB ;N459 4> =8I5BK  B> 8 =5 =04> 8E. B> 1K =5 A>3;0A8;AO A @5D>@<0<8, >B :>B>@KE =0< ?5=A8N C25;8G0B?  B0:  >1<0= >48= 8 =0@>4=K5 AB@040=8O. A;8 =5 7=0NB [?@02OI85 ?>;8B8:8  ..(.], :0: C;CGH8BL, B> 8 =5 1@0;8AL 1K&  B=>H5=85 : 459AB2CNI5<C ?@57845=BC, >B25BAB25==><C 70 @5D>@<K, 1K;> =5>4=>7=0G=K<. 5A?>=45=BK, ?@>6820NI85 2 A5;LA:8E @09>=0E 5=8=3@04A:>9 >1;0AB8, G0I5 A:;>==K >AC640BL ?@57845=B0, CB25@640BL, GB> >= 4>;65= C9B8 2 >BAB02:C. >4>1=K5 =0AB@>5=8O 2 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=K A@548 >?@>H5==KE, ?@>6820NI8E 2 5B5@1C@35. B<5G5==0O >A>15==>ABL A>3;0AC5BAO A 70:;NG5=8O<8 =5:>B>@KE 8AA;54>20B5;59 > B><, GB> ?@>@5D>@<0B>@A:85 A8;K ?>;L7CNBAO 1>;LH59 ?>445@6:>9 A@548 3>@>4A:>3> =0A5;5=8O, G5< A@548 A5;LA:>3> (5B@>2, 1996). 081>;LH55 =54>2>;LAB2> 2K7K20;8 @57C;LB0BK M:>=><8G5A:>9 ?>;8B8:8 ?@57845=B0. 4=0:> 4065 >AC640O 53>, 3@0640=5 @073@0=8G820;8 ;8G=K5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 3;02K 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@57845=B0 :0: ?>;8B8G5A:89 8=AB8BCB. =AB8BCB ?@57845=B0 2K7K20;, A:>@55, C2065=85 8 4>25@85.  A>7=0=88 <=>38E ?>68;KE ;N459 45<>:@0B8G5A:89 ?@57845=B AG8B0;AO 0=0;>3>< 35=5@0;L=K< A5:@5B0@O< A>25BA:>3> ?5@8>40. !@548 ?@54AB028B5;L=KE 8=AB8BCB>2 >A>1K< 4>25@85< C ?>68;KE 3@0640= ?>;L7C5BAO >AC40@AB25==0O C<0. 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A>2@5<5==K9 ?5@8>4 4>25@85 : =>2K< ?>;8B8G5A:8< 8=AB8BCB0< =5@54:> >:07K205BAO >1<0=CBK<: ?@82KG=K5 AB@0B5388 ?>2545=8O, 2 ?@>H;>< 0AA>F88@>202H85AO A CA?5E><, =5 ?@8=>AOB 65;05<KE @57C;LB0B>2. BAN40  >ICI5=85 @07>G0@>20=8O, >AB@> ?5@568205<>5 ?>68;K<8 3@0640=0<8. >MB><C, =5A<>B@O =0 B@048F8>==CN CAB0=>2:C ;>O;L=>AB8 2;0AB8, ?>68;K5 ;N48 70G0ABCN 8A?KBK20NB =54>2>;LAB2> A>2@5<5==>9 ?>;8B8:>-8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>9 A8AB5<>9. AE>4O 87 ?>;CG5==KE 40==KE, 1C45B ?@5C25;8G5=85< 3>2>@8BL > ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@5 AB0@H59 2>7@0AB=>9 :>3>@BK :0: > 2KA>:> 845>;>3878@>20==>9, A>45@60I59 O@:> 2K@065==K5 A>F80;8AB8G5A:85 F5==>AB8. 59AB28B5;L=>, 4;O AB0@H53> ?>:>;5=8O 1>;LH59 ?@82;5:0B5;L=>ABLN >1;0405B 2@5<O 4> ?5@5AB@>9:8. > <>B828@>20=K MB8 ?@54?>GB5=8O =5 845>;>38G5A:8<8 ?@8G8=0<8, 0 2?>;=5 <0B5@80;L=K<8 ?@58<CI5AB20<8 (=52KA>:85 AB018;L=K5 F5=K, C25@5==>ABL 2 702B@0H=5< 4=5). =K<8 A;>20<8,  :>;;5:B82=K5 AB8<C;K =5 >:07K20;8 >ICB8<>3> 2;8O=8O =0 :C;LBC@=K5 CAB0=>2:8 ?>68;KE 3@0640=. !>F80;870F8O 8 7=0G8B5;L=0O G0ABL 687=8 ?>68;KE ;N459 ?@8H;0AL =0 ?5@8>4, :>340 @C:>2>48B5;8 A>25BA:>9 A8AB5<K AB@5<8;8AL ?>445@6820BL ;>O;L=>ABL >1I5AB20 70 AG5B =5 AB>;L:> :>;;5:B82=KE, A:>;L:> A5;5:B82=KE AB8<C;>2. 59AB28B5;L=>, =0 @0==5< MB0?5 AB0=>2;5=8O A>25BA:>9 A8AB5<K (=0G0;> 1920-E 33.) D0:B>@><, A?>A>1=K< :>=A>;848@>20BL >1I5AB2>, 1K;0 845>;>38O ( :>;;5:B82=K9 AB8<C;). 4=0:> E0@0:B5@=>9 G5@B>9 1930-E  =0G0;0 1950-E 33. AB0;0 45<>=AB@0F8O ?>B@518B5;LA:8E 8=B5@5A>2 8 <0B5@80;L=KE 4>AB865=89  ?@>ABKE A>25BA:8E B@C65=8:>2 . @825@65==>ABL A>25BA:8< F5==>ABO< >:07K20;0AL 206=>9 ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C ;>O;L=>ABL 1K;0 MDD5:B82=K< A?>A>1>< 4>AB865=8O A5;5:B82=KE AB8<C;>2. !D>@<8@>202H85AO :C;LBC@=>-?>;8B8G5A:85 =>@<K O28;8AL @57C;LB0B>< 040?B0F88 : B@51>20=8O< A8AB5<K A ?><>ILN :C;LBC@=>9 @0F8>=0;L=>AB8. "0:8< >1@07><, <>6=> >6840BL, GB> 5A;8 =>2>9 ?>;8B8:>-8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>9 A8AB5<5 C40ABAO ?>2KA8BL A>1AB25==CN MDD5:B82=>ABL,  4>25@85 8 ;>O;L=>ABL ?>68;KE ;N459 @0A?@>AB@0=OBAO 8 =0 =>2K5 ?>;8B8G5A:85 8=AB8BCBK. 4=>9 87 >B;8G8B5;L=KE G5@B ?>;8B8:>-:C;LBC@=KE =>@< ?>68;KE ;N459 O2;O5BAO A:;>==>ABL : 0:B82=><C ?>;8B8G5A:><C CG0AB8N (A<. B0:65 Bahry and Way, 1994). !@548 2>7<>6=KE D>@< ?>;8B8G5A:>3> CG0AB8O 8AA;54>20B5;8 2K45;ONB :>=25=F8>=0;L=>5 CG0AB85 (3>;>A>20=85) 8 =5:>=25=F8>=0;L=>5 (<8B8=38, 45<>=AB@0F88, 0:F88 ?@>B5AB0) (Barnes and Kaase, 1979; Miller, 1979). 07;8G0NBAO B0:65 ?>2545=G5A:85 CAB0=>2:8 8 @50;L=>5 ?>;8B8G5A:>5 CG0AB85 (Verba, Nie and Kim, 1978). >;LH5 ?>;>28=K @5A?>=45=B>2 2K@078;8 <=5=85, GB> <8B8=38 8 0:F88 ?@>B5AB0 =5 O2;ONBAO MDD5:B82=K< A?>A>1>< 1>@L1K A M:>=><8G5A:8< :@878A>< (A<. B0:65 &, 19931). ==0 !5@3552=0, 64 3>40:  / =0 <8B8=38 =5 E>6C; 74>@>2L5 ?>42>48B, 40 8 =5 ?><>65HL BCB ?@>B5AB0<8. 01>B0BL =04>. 0 <8B8=38 MB8 :0:>3> B>;L:> =0@>40 =5 =018@05BAO, 8 :064K9 > A2>5< :@8G8B& 0 2K1>@K E>48;0 8 E>6C 2AN 687=L&  50;L=0O 2>2;5G5==>ABL 2 =5:>=25=F8>=0;L=K5 D>@<K ?>;8B8G5A:>3> CG0AB8O 5I5 <5=55 @0A?@>AB@0=5=0 (A<. B0:65 McAllister and White, 1994: 609). ">;L:> 3 G5;>25:0 87 >?@>H5==KE @53C;O@=> ?@8=8<0NB CG0AB85 2 <8B8=30E 8 0:F8OE ?@>B5AB0, ?@>2>48<KE 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K (2A5 >=8 68B5;8 5B5@1C@30). (5ABL @5A?>=45=B>2 1K;8 =0 <8B8=30E ?>A;54=8E ;5B ?> >4=><C @07C. AB0;L=K5 871530NB B0:8E D>@< CG0AB8O, AG8B0O 8E >?0A=K<8 8 <0;>MDD5:B82=K<8. @0:B8G5A:8 2A5 >?@>H5==K5 70O28;8 > A515 :0: >1 0:B82=KE 8718@0B5;OE. >;>A>20=85 O2;O5BAO G0ABLN 8E CAB>O2H53>AO 687=5==>3> C:;040, ?@82KG:>9, ?@828B>9 5I5 2 ?@>F5AA5 =0G0;L=>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 A>F80;870F88. > <=5=8N A>25B>;>3>2 . 0@8 8 . #MO, 3>;>A>20=85 G0I5 ?@82;5:05B B5E, :B> =5 >1;0405B @5AC@A0<8, =5>1E>48<K<8 4;O 1>;55  4>@>38E D>@< ?>;8B8G5A:>3> CG0AB8O, B0:8E :0: G;5=AB2> 2 ?>;8B8G5A:8E ?0@B8OE (Bahry and Way, 1994). 4=0:>, 5A;8 @0AAC640BL > 3>;>A>20=88 2 B5@<8=0E  70B@0B 8  ?>;57=>AB8 , B> =8GB>6=> <0;0O 2;8OB5;L=>ABL >B45;L=>3> 1N;;5B5=O =0 8AE>4 2K1>@>2 A2>48B : <8=8<C<C @0F8>=0;L=>ABL CG0AB8O 2 2K1>@0E (Dunleavy, 1991). C<05BAO, ?@8G8=K 2KA>:>3> C@>2=O <>18;870F88 ?>68;KE @>AA8O= A;54C5B 8A:0BL 2 A0<>< E0@0:B5@5 A>25BA:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K. 568< =C640;AO 2 ?>445@60=88 A2>59 ;538B8<=>AB8, GB> 8 4>AB830;>AL ?CB5< ?@82;5G5=8O H8@>:8E <0AA A>25BA:8E ;N459 : 45<>=AB@0F88 ?>445@6:8 2;0AB8. ;O @O4>2KE 3@0640= 0:B82=>5 ?>;8B8G5A:>5 CG0AB85 1K;> @0F8>=0;L=K< A?>A>1>< 4>AB865=8O <0B5@80;L=KE 1;03, A@54AB2>< ?>2KH5=8O A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:>3> AB0BCA0.  =5C4828B5;L=>: ?@8 ACI5AB2>202H8E ?>;8B8:>-8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=KE CA;>28OE 8<5==> B0:>9 B8? ?>2545=8O >4>1@O;AO 8 ?>>I@O;AO 2;0ABLN. >=AB0=B8= 5B@>28G, 65 ;5B:  0: 65 1K;> =5 ?>9B8 =0 2K1>@K& # =0A 2 >:@C35 2A5 1K;8 :0: =0 ;04>=8. 5 ?@845HL =0 2K1>@K @07-4@C3>9  2 ?0@B:><5 B>1>9 708=B5@5ACNBAO. @>I5 ?@89B8, ?@>3>;>A>20BL&  . . 0@8 8 . #M95< >B<5G5=>, GB> 2KA>:89 C@>25=L ?>;8B8G5A:>3> CG0AB8O >B<5G05BAO C ?>68;KE ;N459, 4065 5A;8 >=8 A;01> 25@OB 2 2>7<>6=>ABL @50;L=>3> 2;8O=8O =0 ?@8=OB85 @5H5=89 (Bahry and Way, 1994: 350). -B> C:07K205B =0 >A>15==>AB8 <>B820F88 CG0AB8O: 206=> A0<> 459AB285, 0 =5 53> A>45@60B5;L=0O AB>@>=0. -BC 65 B5=45=F8N ?>4B25@640NB 40==K5 3@C??K 8AA;54>20B5;59 2> 3;025 A . 8<0=>< (Wyman et al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nderson, 1995).  A>7=0=88 ?>68;KE 3@0640=  $ 0AA>F88@C5BAO A ?>;8B8G5A:>9 A8;>9, 2 ?5@8>4 ?@02;5=8O :>B>@>9 8E 687=L 1K;0 1>;55 AB018;L=>9 8 1;03>?>;CG=>9. 45>;>38G5A:85 <>B82K ?>445@6:8 :><<C=8AB>2 ?@8 MB>< =5@54:> >BE>4OB =0 2B>@>9 ?;0=.  F5;>< ?>;8B8G5A:85 CAB0=>2:8 ?>68;KE ;N459 =>AOB C<5@5==>-F5=B@8ABA:89 E0@0:B5@. :0B5@8=0 !5<5=>2=0, 62 3>40:  & 0 GB> B0< 845>;>38O! / 8 70 @5D>@<K 1C4C, 5A;8 <=5 40 8 2A59 AB@0=5 ;CGH5 1C45B. @8 :><<C=8AB0E B>65 A MB>9 845>;>3859 ?5@5381K 1K;8& / AG8B0N, 206=> A>E@0=8BL 2A5, GB> 1K;> E>@>H53> @0=LH5, =C 8 87<5=OBL AB0@>5 ?>=5<=>3C =04>. > O ?@>B82  @57:8E 42865=89 . 5?@028;L=> MB> . 5A:>;L:> @5A?>=45=B>2 (4 G5;>25:0) =0 4C<A:8E 2K1>@0E 1995 3>40 ?>445@60;8 ?@>?@028B5;LAB25==K9  0H 4><  >AA8O . > 40==K< &,  ?@02OI85 ?0@B88 ?>?C;O@=K A@548 ;8F ?>68;>3> 2>7@0AB0 ?> :@09=59 <5@5 2 B>9 65 AB5?5=8, :0: 8 A@548 4@C38E 2>7@0AB=KE :>3>@B.  1993 3>4C 15,1% ;N459 AB0@H53> ?>:>;5=8O ?@>3>;>A>20;> 70  K1>@ >AA88 (MB> 2KH5, G5< 2 4@C38E 2>7@0AB=KE :>3>@B0E).  1995 3>4C 70   ?@>3>;>A>20;> >:>;> 10% ?>68;KE 8718@0B5;59, GB> ?@81;878B5;L=> AB>;L:> 65, :0: 8 2 A@54=5< ?> 2K1>@:5 (&, 1996). 48= 87 ?@>3>;>A>202H8E 70   B0: >1JOA=8; A2>9 2K1>@: 20= >=AB0=B8=>28G, 62 3>40:  >B>@K5 87   1;865 : 2;0AB8  7=0G8B, 1>;LH5 A45;0BL A<>3CB. 0: 65 2;0ABL =5 ?>445@60BL& ><<C=8ABK-B> GB> A59G0A A45;0BL <>3CB? ">;L:> ?CAB>9 HC< ?>4=8<0NB. >B =0 ?@56=8E 2K1>@0E [1993 3>40  ..(.] <>9 A>A54 70 8@8=>2A:>3> 3>;>A>20;.  GB>, O 5<C 3>2>@N, B2>9 8@8=>2A:89 A45;0; 70 420 3>40?  '5@=><K@48= >1AB>OB5;L=K9, C<5@5==K9 8 ?@8 2;0AB8 . C<05BAO, 2K1>@ ?0@B89 2;0AB8 =0E>48BAO 2 @0<:0E >B<5G5==>9 B5=45=F88 C2065=8O 8 4>25@8O ?>;8B8G5A:8< 8=AB8BCB0<. "0:>5 3>;>A>20=85  ?@87=0: ;>O;L=>AB8 A8AB5<5, B@048F8>==>5 AB@5<;5=85 ?>445@60BL B5E, >B :>B>@KE 7028A8B @0A?@545;5=85  A5;5:B82=KE AB8<C;>2. "@5BL5 =0?@02;5=85 8AA;54>20=8O ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K ?>68;KE ;N459 70B@038205B >A>15==>AB8 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 8=D>@<8@>20==>AB8 8 8=B5@5A0 : ?>;8B8:5. @54AB028B5;8 AB0@H59 2>7@0AB=>9 :>3>@BK O2;ONBAO, :0: ?@028;>, ?>;8B8G5A:8 708=B5@5A>20==K<8. =>385 CB25@640;8, GB> >=8 >E>B=> 8 708=B5@5A>20==> >1AC640NB ?>;8B8G5A:85 A>1KB8O A G;5=0<8 A5<L8, 7=0:><K<8 8 A>A54O<8. >;LH8=AB2> ?>68;KE ;N459 @53C;O@=> G8B05B 3075BK, A;CH05B 8=D>@<0F8>==K5 ?5@540G8 ?> @048> 8 A<>B@8B =>2>AB8 ?> B5;52845=8N. 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XVI 8 >A>15==> 2 XVII AB>;5B88, A 2>F0@5=85< =0 ?@5AB>;5 48=0AB88 ><0=>2KE, 8E >D>@<;5=85 ?@8>1@5;> G5B:85, 7025@H5==K5 D>@<K, A>E@0=O2H85AO =587<5==K<8 2?;>BL 4> 5B@>2A:8E ?@5>1@07>20=89. &5@5<>=80;L=K5 ?@>F5AA88 XVIII AB>;5B8O =5 1K;8, 2>?@5:8 1KBCNI5<C <=5=8N, ?@>ABK< ?@>4>;65=85< ?@>F5AA89 F0@A:>3> 42>@0 XVII AB>;5B8O, ;8HL >1;5G5==KE 2 1>;55 ?KH=K5 D>@<K.  XVIII AB>;5B88 D>@<K ?>;8B8G5A:>9 @5?@575=B0F88 =587156=> 4>;6=K 1K;8 87<5=8BLAO 2 A>>B25BAB288 A D>@<8@>20=85< =>2>3> >1@070 2;0AB8  1@070 <?5@88. 0 A<5=C 1>3><>;L=K< ?>E>40< ?5@2KE ><0=>2KE ?@8E>4OB B@8C<DK, D595@25@:8, BC@=8@K 8 4@C385 B50B@0;87>20==K5 ?@842>@=K5 ?@074=5AB20. -2>;NF8O >1@070 2;0AB8 2K@078;0AL 2 M2>;NF88 F5@5<>=80;L=KE ?@>F5AA89 =0 ?@>BO65=88 XVIII AB>;5B8O.  '/ B@81CBK 2;0AB8 8 3>AC40@AB25==0O A8<2>;8:0. Schramm P.E. Die Staatsymbolik des Mittelalters. In: X Congresso Internazionale di Science storiche. Roma, 1955, v. VII. 57N<5, p. 200-201. >9F>2 .. !:@><=>5 >10O=85 2;0AB8.  48AA59 . . 1995. !.37-66. Rich. S. Wortman. Scenarios of Power. Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy. Vol. 1, from Peter the Great to the Death of Nicolas I. Princeton, 1994.  XVII, 469 p. "5<0 B@8C<D>2 2 ;8B5@0BC@5 8 8A:CAAB25 B0;88 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=K XIV 2. C;LBC@0 >7@>645=8O 2 A@54=85 25:0. >A:20. 1993. !. 162-165. 0B5@80;K :>=D5@5=F88 3>B>2OBAO : 8740=8N 2> $@0=F88 2 1999 3. >65@O=>2 .. 52A:89 ?@>A?5:B. C;LBC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:89 >G5@: 42CE25:>2>9 687=8 !.5B5@1C@30. 1703-1903. ".1-2. !.5B5@1C@3. 1902; K;O52 .. !B0@K9 5B5@1C@3. !.1. 1891; >= 65. !B0@>5 68BL5. !?1. 1892. >A:20 2 4=8 :>@>=0F89 .0B0;>3 2KAB02:8. ., , 1996. 2>@F>2K5 @07@O4K. ".1-4. !1., 1851-1855. >?>;=5=8O : 42>@F>2K< @07@O40<. 74. .. 015;8=. . ' . 1882. =.3. !B1.289-640 . $.396 (@C659=>9 ?0;0BK). ?.1. '.2. 4.E@. 1370, 1442, 1477, 1482, 1502, 1505, 1799, 1798, 2188, 2191; '.3. 4.E@. 2261, 2538, 2539, 2557, 2575, 2747, 2825, 2859, 2864, 2873, 2948, 3226; '.4. 4.E@. 3550, 3558, 3562, 3554, 3735, 3826, 4114, 4121, 4201, 4263; '.5. 4. 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". 2. B4. 2. !. 366. 2>@F>2K5 @07@O4K. ".4. !. 211-212, 214. #:07. !>G. !. 934-936. . $. 396. ?. 1. '. 15. . 24157; >?. 1. '. 17. . 27458, 27486, 27487. 2>@F>2K5 @07@O4K. ". 4. !. 559. !<. .. >@1. =52=8: ?CB5H5AB28O 2 >A:>28N (1698 8 1699. !?1., 1906. >;8:>2 .. 5O=8O 5B@0 5;8:>3>, <C4@>3> ?@5>1@07>20B5;O >AA88, A>1@0==K5 87 4>AB>25@=KE 8AB>G=8:>2 8 @0A?>;>65==K5 ?> 3>40<. ., 1837. !. 76. . $. 396. ?. 2. '. 2. 4. E@. 1021. . 4, 6, 10-11, 34. A.M. Hocart. Kingship. London, 1969. P 86-89. Arnold Van Gennep.The Rites of Passage . Chicago, 1960, p. 15-21. . ".7. !1. 1859. ! 84. 1696, =>O1@O 9. K?8A:0 > B>@65AB25==>< 2J5745 F.5B@0 ;5:A5528G0 2 >A:2C, ?> 702>520=88 3. 7>20. !.389. >;8:>2 .. #:07. !>G. ".1. ., 1837. !. 280-295. 5B@ 5;8:89 8 >A:20. 0B0;>3 2KAB02:8. >A:20. 1998. !. 139. >;8:>2 .. #:07. !>G. ". 11. ., 1839. .;L .. 0?8A:8 .AB0 .;O, 40BA:>3> ?>A;0==8:0 ?@8 5B@5 5;8:>< (1709-1711). . 1899. Richard S. Wortman. 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"0< 65, A.245.  515@. 71@0==>5. 1@07 >1I5AB20. ., 1994, A.68-69.  >ABA>25BA:0O &5=B@0;L=0O 78O, A.173.  >G0@>2 .. ;0ABL. "@048F88. #?@02;5=85, A.227. !?@0254;82>AB8 @048, A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 8 <K =540;5:> CH;8 >B 0D@8:0=A:8E >1KG052 A0:@0;870F88 2;0AB8.   3075B5  @0240 >B 25 O=20@O 19863. ?@82>48BAO 8=D>@<0F8O > ?5@2>< A5:@5B0@5 >4=>3> 87 @09:><>2 !! 2 035AB0=5 A<0=>25, :>B>@K9  4>H5; 4> B>3>, GB> 5<C =5 =@028;>AL, :>340 =07K20;8 53> ?> 8<5=8->BG5AB2C, 8 B@51>20;, GB>1K >1@0I0;8AL : =5<C '0EN@', GB> 2 ?5@52>45 >7=0G05B '20H5 25;8G5AB2>' .  4@5A0 @538>=0;L=KE 8=D>@<0F8>==KE A09B>2 <>6=> =09B8 G5@57 8=D>@<0F8>==CN A8AB5<C www.regions.ru 8;8 www.list.ru  "5@<8=  :>=F5?B 2 :>3=8B82=>9 =0C:5 8A?>;L7CNB 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O 548=8FK 7=0=8O; :>=F5?B  >B25G05B ?@54AB02;5=8N > B5E A<KA;0E, :>B>@K<8 >?5@8@C5B G5;>25: 2 ?@>F5AA5 <KH;5=8O . >4@>1=55 A<.: .!. C1@O:>20, .. 5<LO=:>2 8 4@. @0B:89 A;>20@L :>3=8B82=KE B5@<8=>2. ., 1996. !. 90.  %>BO 8 >G5284=>, GB> 8<5==> <0AA>2K5 AB5@5>B8?K >:07K20NBAO =081>;55 H8@>:> ?@54AB02;5=K =0 @538>=0;L=KE A09B0E. %0@0:B5@=K< ?@8<5@>< <>65B A;C68BL B0<1>2A:89 @538>=0;L=K9 A09B, 70AB02:>9 :>B>@>3> A;C68B 87>1@065=85 2>;:0, >G5284=> 2K7K20NI53> 0;;N788 =0 7=0<5=8B>3>  B0<1>2A:>3> 2>;:0 87 A>25BA:>3> :8=>D8;L<0 8 H8@>:> 8725AB=>9 ?>3>2>@:8.  17>@ <=5=89 ?> 40==>9 ?@>1;5<5 A>45@68BAO 2 @01>B5: @K;>2 .. >=OB85  @538>= 2 :C;LBC@=>< 8 8AB>@8G5A:>< ?@>AB@0=AB25 >AA88.  5>3@0D8O 8 @538>=0;L=0O ?>;8B8:0. 0B5@80;K <564C=0@>4=>9 =0CG=>9 :>=D5@5=F88 2 2-E G0ABOE. '0ABL 1. !<>;5=A:: 874-2> !#, 1997. !<. B0:65: 8@48=0 !.. >;8B8G5A:85 8=AB8BCBK @538>=0;L=>3> 2708<>459AB28O: ?@545;K B@0=AD>@<0F88 // 1I5AB25==K5 =0C:8 8 A>2@5<5==>ABL. 1998. !5.  !<. B@C4K . -;8045: -;8045 . >A<>A 8 8AB>@8O: 71@0==K5 @01>BK.  ., 1987.; -;8045 . !2OI5==>5 8 <8@A:>5.  ., 1994. 8 4@.  4=0 87 E0@0:B5@=KE >H81>: 2 >?@545;5=88 <5AB>?>;>65=8O 3>@>4>2, A2O70==KE A 8E <KA;5==>9  ?@82O7:>9 : HB0B0<, >?8A0=0 2: !>;A> .. >3=8B82=0O ?A8E>;>38O.  5@. A 0=3;.  ., 1996. !. 295.  @K;>2 .. #:. A>G.  !<.: "0< 65. !. 36.  "0< 65.  "0< 65. !. 34.  "0< 65. !. 35.  7 @01>B > 42865=88 :0@1>=0@852 MB0?=K<8 <>6=> AG8B0BL B@C4K .!?8BF5@0, .!02865, . 0=B5@> !0=G5A0, 6. 5@B8 (Spitzer Alan. Old Hatread and young hopes: the french carbonari against Bourbon restoration. Cam., Mass. 1971; Savigear P. Carbonarism and the French Army // History. 54. 1969. June. P.198-211; Sanchez Mantero R. Las conspiraciones Liberales en Francia (1815-1823) y su relacion con los pronunciamentos espanoles. Sevilla. 1972; Rath J. The carboneri: their origins, initiation,rites and aims // Amer. Hist. Review. 1964. ! 2. P.359-370; 5@B8 6. 5<>:@0BK 8 A>F80;8ABK 2 ?5@8>4 8AA>@468<5=B>. 5@. A 8B0;. ., 1965. !<. B0:65: KamiSYMBOL 241 \f "Times New Roman" \s 10Aski A. Polskie zwiazki mlodzieSYMBOL 159 \f "Times New Roman" \s 10_y. 1807-1831. Warsz., 1963. 5;L7O =5 C?><O=CBL 2 MB>9 A2O78 B@C4K >B5G5AB25==KE 02B>@>2: !84>@5=:> .. B0;LO=A:85 C3>;LI8:8 =0G0;0 %I% 2. !1., 1913; >20;LA:0O .. 2865=85 :0@1>=0@852 2 B0;88. ., 1971. A>1>5 <5AB> 2 MB>< @O4C 70=8<0NB @01>BK ..CB5=:>.3> <038AB5@A:0O 48AA5@B0F8O  815@0;L=0O ?0@B8O 2> $@0=F88 2 M?>EC @5AB02@0F88. !1.,1913.".1.  20-E 33. ..CB5=:> 3>B>28; <>=>3@0D8N, ?>A2OI5==CN CG0AB8N D@0=FC7A:8E ;815@0;>2 2 2>5==KE 703>2>@0E :>=F0 1810-E  =0G0;0 1820-E 33.  0@E825 !1. D8;80;0 =AB8BCB0 8AB>@88  A>E@0=8;8AL G5@=>28:8 MB>9 @01>BK, =5 C28452H59 A25B0 87-70 0@5AB0 8AB>@8:0. !<.: !1.$  . $. 276. ?.2. . 42 ("5B@. 1-8). >A=>2C 8AA;54>20=8O 1K;8 ?>;>65=K ?><8<> <5<C0@>2 8 ?5@8>48:8 035=BC@=K5 4>=5A5=8O >1 >?0A=KE >1I5AB20E 8 :;C10E, <0B5@80;K A;54AB28O 8 AC451=KE ?@>F5AA>2 =04 CG0AB=8:0<8 703>2>@>2, ?>G5@?=CBK5 2 0@E820E $@0=F88.  >B<0= ... 5:01@8AB 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8. (KB>2>5 ?>2545=85 :0: 8AB>@8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:0O :0B53>@8O) // 8B5@0BC@=>5 =0A;5485 45:01@8AB>2. ., 1975. !. 25-75.  . $. #. . 370.  "0< 65. . 708.  "0< 65. . 799.   $. $.109. ?. 1. . 2246. . 1-1>1.  . $.410. .30. ;. 9  15>1.(>?88 .$.C1@>28=0)  "0< 65. $.1.?.1. '. 20. . 3504. . 7 >1.  "0< 65. $. #. . 773; !<. B0:65: $. #. . 804:8AL<> 3@. 8BB0 8<?5@0B>@C ;5:A0=4@C I 13 %II.1824 3.  0B5@80;K A;54AB25==KE 45; >  B09=KE >1I5AB20E , 2 B>< G8A;5 B5E, :>B>@K5 1K;8 ?@87=0=K =5>?0A=K<8 8;8 =5 8<52H8<8 <5AB0 ( <=8<K<8 ), >B;>68;8AL 2 D>=40E !5:@5B=>3> 0@E820 III >B45;5=8O 8 !;54AB25==>9 :><8AA88 8 5@E>2=>3> C3>;>2=>3> AC40 =04 45:01@8AB0<8 (  $, $. 109, 48), A>15==>9 :0=F5;O@88 ( . $. 1165), D>=40E :0=F5;O@88 2>5==>3> <8=8AB5@AB20, :0=F5;O@88 =0G0;L=8:0 ;02=>3> HB010, 2>5==>-AC4=>3> :><8B5B0 ( . $. 1; 9; 36 8 4@.).  !<.: C=8= .!. 73;O4 =0 B09=>5 >1I5AB2> 2 >AA88... // C=8= .!. 8AL<0 87 !818@8. , 1987. !. 54-58.  @5A=O:>2 .. "09=K5 >1I5AB20 45:01@8AB>2... // 0B>@30 8 AAK;:0. 1925. ! 8 (21). !. 35-48.  @;8: .. 2@>?59A:0O 845O ;5:A0=4@0 I // >20O 8 =>259H0O 8AB>@8O. 1997. ! 4. !. 46-68  Duke of Wellington. Despatches, Correspondence and memoranda. Vol.3. L. 1860. P.152.  =5H=OO ?>;8B8:0 >AA88. >:C<5=BK 8 <0B5@80;K. ". %II., 1978.!.591; 0@B5=A $. !>1@0=85 B@0:B0B>2 8 :>=25=F89, 70:;NG5==KE >AA859 A 8=>AB@0==K<8 45@6020<8. !1., 1885. ". VII.!. 318-321.  @H .. @5G5A:89 2>?@>A 2> 2=5H=59 ?>;8B8:5 >AA88 (1814-1820 33.) // AB>@8O !!! . 1978. ! 3. !. 152.  564CF0@AB285 2 2>A?><8=0=8OE 8 70?8A:0E F0@A:>9 A5<L8. .-., 1926. !. 41.  @;8: ..2@>?59A:0O 845O... !.67.  >?88 45;0 > 703>2>@5 2 845@;0=40E: .  . $. 859. . 20. ! 7. . 1-2 >1.  5<8@>2A:89 .. 5;> .$. 052A:>3> 8 ?@028B5;LAB25==0O @50:F8O 1820-E 33. // !818@L 8 45:01@8ABK. K?.4. @:CBA:, 1985. !. 84-89.  (8;L45@ .. <?5@0B>@ 025; I. ., 1996. !. 353.  &8B. ?>: @04>2A:89 .. !>1@. A>G. ". 3. !1., 1899. !. 551-554.  CAA:0O AB0@8=0. 1870. /=20@L. !. 480-481.  0@552 .. AB>@8O 70?04=>9 2@>?K 2 =>2>5 2@5<O. ". 4. !1., 1899. !. 318-319.  !<.: . $. #. . 482.  @65E>2A:89 .. !0<>45@60285 ?@>B82 @52>;NF8>==>9 >AA88. 1826-1880. ., 1982. !. 12-16.  CAA:89 0@E82. 1872. !B;1. 1727.  !<.: . $. 1. ?. 1. . 3456. . 5-5 >1.  CB5=:> .. 815@0;L=0O ?0@B8O 2> $@0=F88 2 M?>EC @5AB02@0F88. ". 1. !1., 1913.  . $. 1. ?. 1. . 3453.  !-I.1822. ". 38. ! 29.151.  . $. 36. ?. 4. . 384. . 3-8 >1. '5@=>2 !..  ?>8A:0E A=>H5=89 45:01@8AB>2 A 0?04>< // 7 M?>E8 1>@L1K A F0@87<><. !1. 5. 852, 1926.!. 113  123.  . $. 36. ?. 4. . 384. . 1-1 >1.  "0< 65. . 96.  .$. 36. ?. 4. . 254; $. 36. ?.5. . 86; $. #. . 797.  "0< 65. $. #. . 719.  "0< 65. $.36. ?. 4. . 386.  0?8A:0 > !>N75 ;03>45=AB28O... // 5:01@8ABK. B@K2:8 87 8AB>G=8:>2. .-., 1926. !. 109-110.  @0A=K9 0@E82. 1925. ". 2 (9). !. 218.  !CE><;8=>2 .. AA;54>20=8O 8 AB0BL8 ?> @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 8 ?@>A25I5=8N. !1., 1862. ". 2. !. 4-11; . $. #. . 881.  0?8A:0 /..">;AB>3> > B09=>< >1I5AB25 // 0<OB8 45:01@8AB>2. K?. 2. .-., 1926. !. 174-181.  !<.: 0?8A:8 ..020;8H8=0. ., 1906. !. 123-124.  !1>@=8: <?5@0B>@A:>3> @CAA:>3> 8AB>@8G5A:>3> >1I5AB20. ". 73. !1., 1890. !.325.  &8B ?>: >B<0= ... ..<8B@852-0<>=>2  ?>MB, ?C1;8F8AB 8 >1I5AB25==K9 45OB5;L // >B<0= ... 71@. B@C4K. ". 2. "0;;8==, 1992. !. 294.   .  . $. 288. .124.  CAA:0O AB0@8=0. 1873. ". 18. !. 476-477.  . $. 410. . 29. .1-1 >1.  @0A=K9 0@E82. 1925. ". 3 (10). !. 275-276, 280.  "0< 65. !. 282.  . $. 1337. ?. 1. . 142. . 5. 7<5=5=8O ?>G5@:0, 284 1C<038, =0 :>B>@>9 ?8A0;AO 4=52=8: K:>H8=>9, 70AB02;ONB ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> >= ?>425@3AO ?>74=59H59 >1@01>B:5 8, B0: A:070BL, 1K; ?5@5?8A0= =015;> 2 1850-60-E 33. >7<>6=>, 8 ?@82545==0O D@070 4>?8A0=0 : B5:ABC, @>482H5<CAO 2 1820-5 3>4K.  5>=BL52 /.. !<>;5=A:85 2>;L=>4C<FK 1820-E 33 // A2>1>48B5;L=>5 42865=85 2 >AA88. K?. 11.!0@0B>2, 1991. !. 67-78.  . "0< 65. . 15.  !>1@0=85 1C<03 <C75O ..)C:8=0. ., 1899. '. V. !. 247.  !<.: CAA:0O AB0@8=0. 1873. ". 18. !. 476-477.  >;5<8:0, >B:@KB0O 2 =0G0;5 60-E 33. ..C30G52K< 8 !.!.0=4>9, > 2708<>A2O78 <564C D>@<0<8 45:01@8ABA:>9 :>=A?8@0F88 8 845>;>38G5A:>9 >D>@<;5==>ABLN 8 <>=>;8B=>ABLN 42865=8O =0 @07=KE 53> MB0?0E, =5 1K;0, =0 =0H 273;O4, ?;>4>B2>@=>9 2 A8;C 2>;L=>9 8;8 =52>;L=>9 7028A8<>AB8 >1>8E 02B>@>2 >B =0CG=>9 8 845>;>38G5A:>9 :>=JN=:BC@K B>3> 2@5<5=8. !<.: 0=40 !.!.  CE @52>;N-F8>==KE ?@5>1@07>20=89... ., 1975; C30G52 ..  A?5F8D8:5 45:01@8ABA:>9 @52>;NF8>==>AB8... // A2>1>48B5;L=>5 42865=85 2 >AA88. K?. 1 -2. !0@0B>2, 1971.  Spitzer A. Old Hatreds and Young Hopes. The French Carbonari against the Bourbon Restoration. Cambridge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"8E><8@>2 .. >=0@E8G5A:0O 3>AC40@AB25==>ABL. !1., 1992. !.566-567. >;55 ?>4@>1=> 2>?@>A 2K@01>B:8 ?>;8B8G5A:8<8 ?0@B8O<8 ?@02OI53> :;0AA0 @07>1@0= 2 :=835 . . "8E><8@>20  5<>:@0B8O ;815@0;L=0O 8 A>F80;L=0O .  "8E><8@>2 .. >=0@E8G5A:0O 3>AC40@AB25==>ABL. !1., 1992. !.403, 673.  "0< 65. !.277, 378, 557.  5@5?8A:0 20=0 @>7=>3> A =4@55< C@1A:8<. ., 1993. !.146.  "8E><8@>2 .. >=0@E8G5A:0O 3>AC40@AB25==>ABL. !1., 1992. !.671-672.  "8E><8@>2 .. >=0@E8G5A:0O 3>AC40@AB25==>ABL. !1., 1992., !.323.  "0< 65. !.321, 575.  "8E><8@>2 .. >=0@E8G5A:0O 3>AC40@AB25==>ABL. !1., 1992. !.434.  "8E><8@>2 .. >=0@E8G5A:0O 3>AC40@AB25==>ABL. !1., 1992. !.99, 329.  "0< 65. !.595.  "0< 65. !.665.  ;5:A552 .!. 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