ࡱ> ( *                ! " # $ % & ' 5@01bjbj22 XX 8888888PPPPtR n81@11881(881Vr@886 |XPY. n|0xyOp*y68888y868+]'yF]_ PPExercises in Modern English Grammar . !. !00:O= B 02B>@0 @54;0305<0O 0H5<C 2=8<0=8N :=830 "Exercises in Modern English Grammar" ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 CG51=>5 ?>A>185 ?> A8AB5<0B8G5A:><C :C@AC 3@0<<0B8:8 A>2@5<5==>3> 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0. 45O =0?8A0=8O :=838 2>7=8:;0 2 A2O78 A B5<8 =>AB0;L38G5A:8<8 GC2AB20<8, :>B>@K5 8A?KBK20NB <=>385 ?@5?>4020B5;8 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0 ?@8 C?><8=0=88 CG51=8:0 "Exercises in Modern English Grammar", 02B>@0<8 :>B>@>3> O2;O;8AL ... @CB8:>2, .!. C7L<8=0, %.. 018=>28G 8 =0 :>B>@>< 2K@>A;> =5 >4=> ?>:>;5=85 CG8B5;59 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0 2 >AA88. 0==>5 CG51=>5 ?>A>185 ?@54=07=0G5=> 4;O AB0@H5:;0AA=8:>2, 65;0NI8E ?>2B>@8BL, 70:@5?8BL 8 @0AH8@8BL B5 107>2K5 7=0=8O 2 0=3;89A:>9 3@0<<0B8:5, :>B>@K5 >=8 ?>;CG8;8 2 A@54=59 H:>;5. => <>65B 1KBL CA?5H=> 8A?>;L7>20=> ABC45=B0<8 2B>@>3> 8 B@5BL53> :C@A>2 D0:C;LB5B>2 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0. >;LHCN ?><>IL :=830 <>65B >:070BL B0:65 CG8B5;O< A@54=8E H:>;, 38<=0789 8 :>;;54659, @07;8G=KE ?>43>B>28B5;L=KE :C@A>2. 5 1C4CG8 C2O70==K< =8 A >4=8< CG51=8:><, ?>A>185 <>65B 381:> A>G5B0BLAO A ;N1K< 1078A=K< :C@A>< 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0, 8A?>;L7C5<K< 2 CG51=>< ?@>F5AA5. #G51=>5 ?>A>185 A>AB>8B 87 42CE @0745;>2  >@D>;>388 8 !8=B0:A8A0, 2:;NG0NI8E 2 A51O C?@06=5=8O 0=0;8B8G5A:>3>, B@5=8@>2>G=>3> 8 B2>@G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0. >;LH>5 G8A;> :><<C=8:0B82=> >@85=B8@>20==KE 7040=89 405B CG0I8<AO 2>7<>6=>ABL 2K25AB8 2 @5GL ?>;CG5==K5 7=0=8O 8 =02K:8. A>1>5 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO C?@06=5=8O< A>?>AB028B5;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0, ?>72>;ONI8< 2A:@KBL ACI5AB25==K5 @07;8G8O 2 C?>B@51;5=88 @O40 3@0<<0B8G5A:8E O2;5=89 2 0=3;89A:>< 8 @CAA:>< O7K:0E.  CG51=8:5 >B@065=K =>259H85 O2;5=8O 8 B5=45=F88, 2>7=8:H85 2 A8AB5<5 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0 =0 @C1565 BKAOG5;5B89. 064K9 @0745; 7025@H05BAO @O4>< B5AB>2KE 7040=89, 40NI8E 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>25@8BL C@>25=L 7=0=89.  ?>A>188 40=K :;NG8 : B5AB>2K< 7040=8O<, B0: :0: 8E =0;8G85 40QB 2>7<>6=>ABL >ACI5AB28BL A0<>:>=B@>;L 8 A0<> :>@@5:F8N ?>;CG5==KE 7=0=89. 0==>5 CG51=>5 ?>A>185 8<55B A>2@5<5==>5 72CG0=85, B0: :0: ?>AB@>5=> =0 >A=>25 D0:B8G5A:>3> <0B5@80;0, ?@54AB02;ONI53> A>1>9 ;8B5@0BC@=K9 8 @073>2>@=K9 O7K: 5;8:>1@8B0=88 8 !( :>=F0 XX 8 =0G0;0 XXI 25:0. 0455<AO, GB> @01>B0 ?> ?@54;0305<><C CG51=><C ?>A>18N 1C45B 4;O 0A ?>;57=>9 8 ?@8OB=>9. Who climbs the grammar tree distinctly knows Where noun and verb and participle grows. Dryden Parti MORPHOLOGY. PARTS OF SPEECH Chapter I. THE NOUN Classification of Nouns Ex. 1. State whether the nouns in bold type are proper or common. 1. The Imperial State Crown of the Queen of England is normally kept at the Tower. 2. This church has a tower attached to it. 3. The English Channel is the narrow area of water between England and France. 4. The main channels had been closed by enemy submarines. 5. You are like a Figaro. One minute here, another there. 6. I've bought a Kodak, but I don't know how it works. 7. In the art circles he was known as a Metsenat. 8. Wellington defeated Napoleon's army in the battle of Waterloo. 9. Wellingtons are rubber boots. Americans call them galoshes. 10. What had happened, became a Waterloo Bridge for him. 11. He is a real Paparatssi in everything that concerns making money. 12. Rita Brown writes like an American Evelyn Waugh. 13. He is thrilled at his new buy: a classic Mercedes Benz. 14. Antony Marshall lives outside the city. Every morning he drives to the City where he works as staff manager. 15. The Red-White-and-Blue Union Jack hung out of every window, fluttering in the breeze. 16. Degas and Monet were her husband's favourite artists, and both were well represented in their house. 17. He glanced at the list of her art collection. Sisleys, Monets, Manets, a Dali, Renoirs and a Degas. It was a fabulous collection. 18. Carl Faberge was Russia's Imperial Jeweller. 19. What a beautiful Easter egg! Yes,it's a Faberge. 20. The two friends bought a Johnny Walker to celebrate the event. 21. Kurt Vonnegut is writing with the half-embittered, half-amused voice of a later-day Mark Twain. 22. Tonight Samantha wore highly polished black Oxfords. Ex. 2. Explain the origin and the meaning of the following common nouns. Use them in sentences of your own. A Dracula, a Cartier, a Sony, a Camel, a Marlborough, a complete Shakespeare, a Reebok, a Mauzer, a Lovelace, a Webster, a Don Juan, a Dunhill, the White House, a Barbie, a Jillet, a Petroff, a Stradivarius, an Oscar, a Walkman, a hooligan, bermudas, a Xerox, a Newton. Ex. 3. Read and translate the following. Explain the use of the nouns in bold type. 1. The Uffizi in Florence have more perfect paintings than any other gallery on the planet not just Tintorettos and Botticellis, but the most arresting works by people like Gentile da Fabriano and Simone Martini. Some Caravaggios, "Bachus" among them, were found in an Uffizi store-room in 1916. 2. The Earl of Cardigan gave his name to one of the garments we wear. A cardigan is a knitted jacket that is fastened up the front with buttons or a zip. 3. Now, how about some Bellinis to celebrate the holiday? I've forgotten what a Bellini is. I know Bellini, the composer, of course. I mean, I know it's also champagne but what's in it besides that? Fresh peach juice. Now I remember! It's a fabulous drink. 4. Rumor has it that you're suffering from a terminal Don Juan complex. It's not such a bad reputation to have, when you think about it. After all no man can be a Don Juan unless women are interested in him. 5. Long ago in prerevolutionary France there lived one Etienne de Silhouette, a controller general for Louis XV. Because of his fanatical zeal for raising taxes and slashing expenses and pensions, he enraged royalty and citizens alike, who ran him out of office within eight months. At about the same time that Silhouette was sacked, the method of making cutouts of profiles by throwing the shadow of the subjects on the screen captured the fancy of the Paris public. Because the process was cheap, the man and the method became associated. Ever since, we have called shadow profiles silhouettes, with a small s. Ex. 4. Translate into English. I. 0:>9 ?>B@OA0NI89 G5;>25:! 0AB>OI89 >=B5:@8AB>! 2. =0 B0:0O @><0=B8G=0O! C ?@>AB> 0B0H0 >AB>20. 3.  / 286C, GB> B2>9 ?@8OB5;L  <0AB5@ =0 2A5 @C:8.  0, 8 =8G53> =5 45;05B B>;:><. 4. = =0AB>OI89 070:>20. >G5<C >=0 53> =5 >AB028B? 5.  0:85 2:CA=K5 :>=D5BK!  0, MB> >F0@B. 6.  'B> MB> 70 4CE8?  -B> 5=7>. 7. 0 MB>9 AB>O=:5 ?@8?0@:>20=> =5A:>;L:> <0H8=: 5@A545A, %>=40, 8=:>;L=, $>@4 8 AB0@5=L:89 >A:28G. 8.  "515 =@028BAO MB0 :0@B8=0?  -B> 8:0AA>. 9. 0 AB5=0E 53> :018=5B0 @0725H5=> >@C685: :>;LB, 28=G5AB5@, 1@0C=8=3, 0;0H=8:>2. 10. =3;8G0=8= 0B<0= 87>1@5; 1C<03C, :>B>@0O =07K205BAO 53> 8<5=5<. II. 8G0@4 '5<15@;5= :C?8; <0;5=L:89 >AB@>2 8 6825B =0 =5< :0: A>2@5<5==K9 >18=7>= @C7>. 12.  0:CN A830@C BK :C@8HL?  -B> >@>=0. 13.  MB>< 70;5 2KAB02;5=K B@8 5<1@0=4B0. 14. -B> 1K;0 A>2@5<5==0O A:07:0 > ?@8=F5 8 >;CH:5. 15.  0:>5 >G0@>20B5;L=>5 ?;0BL5!  5C4828B5;L=>, 254L MB> (0=5;L. Ex. 5. Match the six common words given below and the following descriptions. 1. Two-piece swimsuits are named after a Pacific atoll on which hydrogen bombs were detonated a truly explosive and figurative word. 2. The most popular of all humorous verse forms in English comes from a country in Ireland. One theory says that Irish mercenaries used to compose verses in that form about each other and then join in a chorus of "When we get back to town, 'twill be a glorious morning." 3. Nearly two-and-a-half millennia ago, a little band of ten thousand Persians were defeated at the battle of Pheidippides. A courageous runner brought the news of the glorious victory to Athens, and thus gave his name to a long-distance run. 4. A contraction of "St. Mary's of Bethlehem," a sixteenth century London hospital for the insane, has become a word for uproar or confusion. 5. The Pilgrims found in America a wild fowl somewhat similar in appearance to a fowl they had known back in England a bird that had acquired its name because it was first imported by way of a particular country. Because we perceive this bird as ugly in appearance and voice, we sometimes assign its name to people we don't care for. 6. The inhabitants of an ancient Greek city were noted for their ability to say a lot in a few words. During a siege of their capital, a Roman general sent a note to this city's commander warning that if the Romans captured the city, they would burn it to the ground. From within the city gates came back the terse reply: "If!" The city's name lives on in an adjective that describes spare speech. a marathon, a bedlam, a bikini, a limerick, a turkey, laconic Ex. 6. Explain the difference between the following pairs of words and use them in sentences of your own. 1. air an air 2. beauty a beauty 3. coffee a coffee 4. cloth a cloth 5. dinner a dinner 6. fire a fire 8 7. glass a glass 8. language a language 9. lemon a lemon 10. light a light 11. nature a nature 12. oak an oak 13. paper a paper 14. play a play 15. power a power 16. rubber a rubber 17. ice an ice 18. stone a stone 19. study a study 20. will a will Ex. 7. Make up exclamatory sentences according to the model. Model: competent advice What competent advice! good question What a good question! 1. original advice great idea 2. beautiful nature difficult character 3. fashionable furniture big refrigerator 4. modern equipment ancient fortress 5. unexpected money great fortune 6. wonderful music sentimental tune 7. hitting news strange call 8. good progress big success 9. heavy traffic busy line 10. miserable weather nasty day 11. deep knowledge excellent certificate 12. difficult work pleasant job 13. Russian linen linen towel 14. leafy foliage beautiful leaf Ex. 8. Comment on the nouns in bold type. 1. Harrods has so much to offer. Vintage wines and sparkling champagne, rustic country pates and silky smooth terrines, delicate scented teas and subtle infusions, buttery shortbread biscuits and rich fruity jams, robust pickles and tangy relishes, mature farmhouse cheddars and crumbly stiltons, hams and smoked salmon which melts in the mouth all presented in traditional wicker baskets or Harrods boxes. The only thing Harrods can't supply is the weather! 2. Good wines are the best buys before Christmas. 3.1 dropped in at the supermarket and bought a few cold meats, and I also made a salad. 4. Fruit juices are ideal in hot weather. 5. My Granny makes four jams every year. 6.1 used to eat toast with orange marmalade. 7. France has an excellent range of cheeses. 8. A set menu in this Chinese cafe consists of four soups. I prefer a Singaporean seafood soup. It tastes and smells terrific. 9. Herbal teas are my favourite. 10. This shop sells fine foods. 11. The finest rums come from Puerto Rico. 12.1 always have a beer while watching television. 13. Can I offer you something? Coffee, tea, a soda, perhaps? 14. Tea is our most social and sociable drink a part of our daily life for well over 300 years. Ex. 9. Choose the appropriate noun from the list below for each sentence. Add an article (a/an/the) or plural (s/es) where necessary. Affection, spirit, information, red, damage, paper, milk, wonder, left, glass, luggage, wood, cheese, wild, work, water, wool, salt. 1. Brie and Camembert are only two of the wide variety of ... produced in France. 2. Many Englishmen have explored ... of the Nile. 3. Woodworm can cause a lot of ... if it is not treated. 4. He never really loved her he just toyed with her ... . 5.1 need ... which will match the other shades of scarlet in the room. 6. "Hamlet" is one of Shakespeare's best known ... . 7.1 didn't know you were short-sighted. How long have you been wearing ... ? 8. He buys ... on the way home to check the race results. 9. Sorry, sir, you can't have whisky. Our licence doesn't allow us to serve ... , only wine or beer. 10. It's a very shy animal and lives in ... ; it's rarely seen in the open fields. 11. This plant is only found in ... of Alaska. 12. To get to the station, you should take ... just after the bridge. 13. The girl in the travel agent's was very helpful and gave me lots of ... about Turkey. 14. Sorry I'm late some of my ... went missing at the airport. 15. Our dairy produces five different ... . 16. British ... such as cashmere, mohair, lambswool, merino wool come mostly from the Shetlands. 17. ... occurs naturally in sea water. 18. Where are my bathing ... ? 19. The Great Pyramid of Cheops is one of the seven ... of the Ancient World; it's the only one that has survived and exists today. Ex. 10. Translate into English. 1. / EC4>6=8:, 8 O <>3C >F5=8BL :@0A>BC. 2. -B0 452CH:0  =0AB>OI0O :@0A028F0. 3. >< A45;0= 87 :0<=O. 4. =5 2 1>B8=>: ?>?0; :0<5H5:. 5. /7K: >1;0405B 25;8:>9 A8;>9. 6. /?>=A:89  >G5=L B@C4=K9 O7K:. 7. # =55 A?>A>1=>ABL 2845BL 1C4CI55. 8. 8<>= 1>30B 28B0<8=>< !. 9. C?8 ;8<>= : G0N. 10. # =53> =5 1K;> (to lack) 2>;8 : 687=8. 11. # MB>3> <0;LG8:0 >G5=L A8;L=0O 2>;O. 12. A;8 E>B8B5 A45;0BL 7025I0=85, >1@0B8B5AL : =>B0@8CAC. 13. @8@>4C =C6=> >E@0=OBL. 14. # -<8;8 >G5=L @><0=B8G=0O =0BC@0. 15. !25B =5>1E>48< 4;O 687=8. 16. 40;5:5 <K C2845;8 >3>=5:. 17. 0=8O, >;;0=48O, (259F0@8O A;02OBAO A2>8<8 AK@0<8. 18. $@C:B>2K5 8 >2>I=K5 A>:8 >G5=L ?>;57=K. 19. 0 702B@0: C <5=O >1KG=> B>ABK A AK@>< 8 0?5;LA8=>2K9 A>:. 20. B0;8O 8 $@0=F8O 7=0<5=8BK A2>8<8 28=0<8. 21. 23CAB. 0 !8F8;88 =0G0;AO A1>@ F8B@CA>2KE D@C:B>2. Ex. 11. Comment on the nouns in bold type. 1. According to modern standards my family isn't big. 2. My family are early birds. 3. The board consists of twelve people. 4.1 know what the board think of me. They regard me as the spoiled granddaughter of a rich and powerful woman. And the board are very aware of that. 5. This council is responsible for looking after roads. 6. The council have been promising to mend the fences, doors and windows for years. 7. The public stop and stare. 8. "You could join us," he suggested helpfully. "We're a jolly crowd." 9. The government has cut back on public expenditure. 10. Some people said darkly that the Government were behind it. 11. The staff are going to buy a leaving present for their boss. 12. His staff is very efficient. 13. This team plays for Spain. 14. The team are training hard for the coming match. 15. Statistics is the study of figures. 16. Statistics are often misleading. 17. Politics is a popular topic now. 18. What are his politics? 19. The jury were in disagreement. 20. The jury has announced its verdict. Ex. 12. Comment on the nouns in bold type. 1. The police are here and they are doing their best, sir. 2. The local police have closed this night club. 3. The police were assisted by private detectives. 4. The cattle are in the fields. 5. Where are the people? They've gone to the briefing. 6. Her poultry are the finest in the whole village. 7. The Roman Catholic clergy are stationed in Vatican. 8. Who are those people? They are tourists. 9. Dice are used in many board games. 10. The people at the interview were very helpful. 11. Hey, people, what are you doing? 12. How different are the beliefs of various peoples across the world! 13. This is a warlike people. 14. The peoples of the Commonwealth will have a new monetary unit. Ex. 13. Read and translate the sentences paying particular attention to the nouns in bold type. 1. These scales are not correct. 2. My glasses have become too weak for me. 3. The scissors are blunt. 4. My kid's pyjamas are made of cotton. 5. These tights were made in Italy. 6. Don't you think your trousers are too short? 7. What are your earrings made of? 8. The goods have arrived. 9. Give my best regards to your family. 10. The surroundings were unfamiliar to him. 11. The cleaner collected all the floor sweepings and potato peelings lying near the rubbish pipe. 12. My wages have risen considerably lately. 13. The outskirts of this town are shabby looking. 14. Her clothes are very trendy. 15. Clothes make the man: the old saying is rather to the point. 16. Clothes are no longer something one doesn't discuss. Clothes are part of the image. Ex. 14. Use the right form of the verb be. 1. The information about this company ... encouraging. 2. All the furniture in this office ... the latest design. 3. My knowledge of German ... very limited. 4. These shorts ... too long. 5. They ... a big family, with many branches. 6. This equipment ... for camping. 7. The scissors ... here a minute ago. 8. The Government ... of the opinion that money in the accounts ... siphoned out of the country. 9. These trousers ... too tight. 10. The weather ... fabulous in Italy in early autumn. 11. These stairs ... dangerous. 12. Where ... your clothes made? 13. The headphones on my new walkman ... great. 14. ... the scales over there electronic? 15. There ... a hair on my dinner plate. 16. Yesterday's homework ... rather difficult. 17. Her luggage ... on the scales already. 18. Your advice ... very timely. Thank you. 19. The news ... too good to be true. 20. The team ... no more than seven young men. 21. The hospital staff ... all very young. 22. Judging by the fact that Malfoy usually had the best of everything, his family ... rolling in gold. 23. She came from a large, close-knit, and loving clan who ... always there to protect and help each other. Ex. 15. Translate into English. 1. !2545=8O B>;L:> GB> ?>ABC?8;8, 8 A5:@5B0@H0 ?@>A<0B@8205B 8E. 2. @0G 40; =0< B0: <=>3> A>25B>2, GB> <K =5 7=05<, :0:8<8 87 =8E 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO. 3. #?>@=K9 B@C4  :;NG : CA?5EC. 4. -B> B2>@G5A:0O @01>B0, >4=0:> 7=0=8O 745AL B>65 >G5=L 206=K. 5. 0H8 CA?5E8 =0A @04CNB. 6. / 286C, GB> <>8 A>25BK B515 ?><>30NB, =5 ?@0240 ;8? 7.   GB> 4C<05B >1 MB>< ?>;8F8O?  =0 >15A:C@065=0 MB8< ?@5ABC?;5=85<. 8.  =5 =C6=K E>@>H85 =>2K5 468=AK.  %>@>H85 468=AK AB>OB 4>@>3>. 9. >O 70@?;0B0 =5 AB>;L 2KA>:0, GB>1K >1540BL 2 @5AB>@0=0E. 10. 5 >45640  MB> 2 >A=>2=>< 468=AK, A28B5@0 8 <09:8. 11. AB>@>6=55, ABC?5=8 >G5=L :@CBK5. 12. >;8F8O 2A5 5I5 8I5B C3>=I8:>2 A0<>;5B0, => ?>:0 =5 7045@60;0 8E. 13. 8;LO@4  53> ;N18<0O 83@0. 14. 3> A?5F80;L=>ABL  M:>=><8:0. 15.  GB> 3>2>@8B B2>O A5<LO? =0 A>3;0A=0 =0 B2>9 1@0: A 8:B>@><? 16. (B0B MB>9 D8@<K A>AB>8B 87 B@84F0B8 G5;>25:. 17. "@C??0 MB>3> B50B@0  MB> 2 >A=>2=>< 2K?CA:=8:8 "!0. 18. !53>4=O 25A5==OO ?>3>40. 19. 0:0O 25;8:>;5?=0O A53>4=O ?>3>40! 20. 1>60N 1@>48BL ?> ;5AC 2 3@81=CN ?>3>4C. 21. =0 @01>B05B 2 A2>5< A04C 2 ;N1CN ?>3>4C. Number Ex. 16. Give the plural of A. A pin, a hat, a fox, a baby, a day, potato, a volcano, a piano, a photo, a knife, a roof, a half, a leaf, a cliff, a chief, a life, a family, a queue, a bath, a berry, a valley, a century, a salmon, a taxi, a person, a penny, a watch, a virtuoso, a lily, a woodworm. 14 B. A man, a woman, a German, a foot, a tooth, a sheep, a ship, a fish, an ox, a fox, a child, a fireman, a mouse, a swine, a house, a louse, a goose, a mongoose, a deer, a means, a series, a species, an aircraft, an offspring, a Swiss, a Japanese, a Maltese, a Portuguese, a Chinese, a Milanese. C. A passer-by, a mother-in-law, a room-mate, a forget-me-not, a merry-go-round, a fellow-worker, a man-of-war, a school-inspector, a commander-in-chief, a boy-messenger, a personnel-manager, a woman-driver, a man-servant, a hanger-on, a face-lift, a spoonful, a cupful, a boyfriend, a grown-up, an office-block, a workmate. Ex. 17. Translate into English. 1. -B0 @5:;0<0 CB25@6405B, GB> 5A;8 ?>;L7>20BLAO ?0AB>9 ;5=40<54, B> C 20A 1C4CB :@0A82K5 15;K5 7C1K. 2. / A;04:>56:0. 3. "@>5 ?>;8F59A:8E ?>AB>O==> >E@0=ONB MB>B 10=:. 4. 8;8F8O C65 745AL. =0 45;05B 2A5, GB>1K =09B8 :><?@><8AA A 3@018B5;O<8. 5.  ?>420;5 4><0 5ABL <KH8. G5@0 CB@>< C 425@8 O C2845; <0;5=L:CN >G0@>20B5;L=CN <KH:C. 6. 0< ?@8H;>AL >AB0=>28BL <0H8=C, B0: :0: 420 >;5=O <54;5==> ?5@5E>48;8 4>@>3C. 7.  MB>< ?@C4C <=>3> @K1>:. 8. >;LH85 45B8  1>;LH85 701>BK. 9.  =0H59 H:>;5 @01>B05B 4204F0BL ?OBL 65=I8= 8 ?OBL <C6G8=. 10. K10:8 2 <>@5. !59G0A A57>= ;>2;8 @K1K. 11. ><0H=89 A:>B "><0 A>AB>8B 87 ;>H0459, :>@>2, 1K:>2, >25F, A28=59. 12. >O B5BO, :>B>@0O 6825B 2 45@52=5, 45@68B 4><0H=NN ?B8FC: :C@, CB>:, 3CA59, 8=455:. 13. / >G5=L ;N1;N D@C:BK. =8 ?@840NB <=5 A8;K (M=5@38N). 14. # =0A A53>4=O 3>AB8, <=>385 87 =8E D@C:B0@80=FK. !E>48 =0 @K=>: 8 :C?8 <=>3>-<=>3> @07=KE D@C:B>2. 15. !:>B ?@>40NB 8 ?>:C?0NB =0 MB>< @K=:5. 16. 8;0=FK 3>@4OBAO A2>8< >?5@=K< B50B@><. 17.  45 B2>8 =>2K5 G0AK?   A>60;5=8N, O 8E ?>B5@O;. 18. >2>@OB, GB> 65=I8=K-2>48B5;8 1>;55 0::C@0B=K, G5< <C6G8=K. 19. -B> AB@0==>5 O2;5=85 >7040G8205B 35>;>3>2. 20.  =0H5 2@5<O <KH8 8 :@KAK G0AB> @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: 4><0H=85 682>B=K5. Ex. 18. Consult the table and give the plural of the following foreign words. Ending Regular plural Latin/Greek plural a -us -uses -i b -a -as -ae A -um -urns -a d -ex -exes -ices e -ix -ixes -ices f -is -ises -es Q -on -ons -a a cactus, fungus, radius, stimulus, genius; b alga, formula (in science), vertebra, antenna; A bacterium, curriculum, datum, medium, memorandum, stratum, millennium; d index (in mathematics, in books); e appendix (in books, in medicine); f analysis, axis, basis, crisis, diagnosis, hypothesis, oasis, parenthesis, thesis; g criterion, phenomenon. Ex. 19. Translate into English. 1. !;>2> BKAOG5;5B85 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 ?@>8AE>48B >B ;0B8=A:>3> A;>20 "mille", :>B>@>5 >7=0G05B BKAOG0. 2. 0 ?>25@E=>AB8 MB>9 ?;0=5BK ?@>8AE>4OB AB@0==K5 O2;5=8O. 3. =>385 H:>;K 8<5NB @07=K5 ?@>3@0<<K. 4. 0:>2K :@8B5@88 >F5=:8 MB8E @01>B? 5. K ?>;CG8;8 =5A:>;L:> <5<>@0=4C<>2 A53>4=O CB@><. 6. 0:>2> A>45@60=85 MB>9 1CBK;:8? 7. 0:>2> >1KG=> A>45@60=85 A0E0@0 2 :@>28? 8. $C=40<5=B 4><0 A45;0= 87 :0<=O. 9. 5<;O 2@0I05BAO 2>:@C3 A2>59 >A8. 10. CB5H5AB25==8:8 ?@>42830;8AL ?> !0E0@5, 8 8< ?>AB>O==> <5@5I8;8AL >078AK. 11. 0:>2 >:>=G0B5;L=K9 4803=>7? 12. 0:BCAK @0ABCB 2 ?CABK=OE. 13. K 87 @07=KE A>F80;L=KE A;>52. 14. =>385 10:B5@88 2K7K20NB 1>;57=8. 15. -B> 459AB28B5;L=> C=8:0;L=>5 O2;5=85. 16. = >48= 87 35=852. 17.  MB>< :C2H8=5 4CE8 (468=K). 18. # <>59 101CH:8 A8;L=K5 1>;8 2 25@E=8E ?>72>=:0E. 19. -B8 40==K5 =0456=K. 20. =B5@5A=>, GB> <K C2848< 2 =>2><, 4204F0BL ?5@2>< 25:5? 21. @878AK 2 M:>=><8:5 >B@060NBAO =0 C@>2=5 687=8 ;N459. 22. !>45@60=85 MB>3> ?0:5B0 =58725AB=>. Ex. 20. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the words in bold type. 1. Money can't buy happiness, and it certainly can't buy health. Years ago Blackie told me that money was meant to be spent and he was correct. Whoever said that money doesn't buy happiness was misinformed, in my opinion. It buys a lot of happiness for a lot of people. And frankly, I'd rather be miserable with money than without it. 2. English money is not accepted here. 3. All Bess's money goes on clothes. 4. Her linen comes from Holland. 5. The money was sent by cheque. 6. The project received community monies. 7. Public money is like water, everyone helps himself to it. 8. We've got a fascinating piece of news for you. 9. News travels pretty fast. 10. I'm sorry to say that there are "friends" who delight in breaking bad news. 11. They want advice on how to do it. 12. We got an advice note from the firm. 13. The scout brought valuable information. It helped a lot. 14. Does this information interest you? 15. What hard work! But it's rewarding. 16.1 like all Chopin's works. 17. The works is closed today. 18. It's perfect weather for flying today. 19. She's wearing galoshes in all weathers. 20. If you think about money positively, it will come to you. 21. Borrow money from pessimists  they don't expect it back. 22. Money is the root of all wealth. Ex.21. Translate into English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x. 22. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the meaning of the words in bold type. l.The fishermen are out in all weathers. If you don't catch any fish, there's no pay. 2. My employer was an importer of rare tropical fish. 3. Try this fish. Everybody who tries it, likes it. Everybody who likes it, loves it. 4. They scraped a living by catching crab, lobster and crayfish. 5. Meredith peered down into the pond. "There really are fish in it," she said sounding surprised. 6. Forget him! There are many other fish in the sea. 7. He had a big collection of minerals, insects and fishes. 8. He studies the fishes of the Atlantic. 9. What an odd fish he is! 10. They've been fishing since dawn but so far haven't caught a single fish. 11. There are carp, trout, pike in this river. 12. Are you fishing out for a compliment? 13. A flying fish can project itself through the air at a speed of about thirty-five miles per hour. 14. The stars glittered in the sky like so many fish. 15. The largest of all fish is the Whale Shark. It may grow up to 15 metres long and may weigh over 14 tons, over twice as much as an average African elephant! Though it has three thousand teeth, it will never bite you. This sea giant is quite harmless. It eats only tiny shrimp and fish. Ex. 23. Translate into English. 1.  MB>9 @5:5 <=>3> @K1K. 2. K10 ?@>?;K205B 1>;LH85 @0AAB>O=8O. 3. -B0 452>G:0 ?;0205B :0: @K1:0. 4. A;8 1K C <5=O 1K;0 7>;>B0O @K1:0, B> O ?>?@>A8;0 1K 55 8A?>;=8BL B@8 65;0=8O. 5. 5 3@CAB8, A25B :;8=>< =0 =5< =5 A>H5;AO. 6.  0:0O AB@0==0O @K10! # =55 >48= 3;07.  -B> @57C;LB0B ?;>E>9 M:>;>388. 7. = AB@0==K9 B8?. 8. K10 1>;55 ?>;57=0, G5< <OA>. 9. >O ;N18<0O 540  @K10 A 60@5=K< :0@B>D5;5<. 10. "K >?OBL 2KC68205HL (to fish out for) C <5=O 8=D>@<0F8N? 11. K10:8 ?>9<0;8 ?>;4N68=K D>@5;59. 12.  'B> MB> 70 @K10?  -B> ;5B0NI0O @K10. 13. >A<>B@8, :0: :@0A82> ?;020NB @K1:8 2 ?@C4C! 14.  !:>;L:> @K1 BK ?>9<0; 2 2>A:@5A5=L5?  8 >4=>9, => O ?>;CG8; C4>2>;LAB285 >B @K10;:8. 15.  0:20@8C<5 C 8:>;0A0 1K;> A5<L @K1>:, => :>H:0 AJ5;0 42CE, B0: GB> >AB0;>AL ?OBL @K1>:. 16. B8G:8 ;5B0NB, @K1:8 ?;020NB. Ex. 24. Read and retell the following text in indirect speech. Flying Fish One day a sailor came from a voyage and said to his mother, "I have been on many voyages and have seen a lot of strange things. My companions and I once rowed for six days in an open boat and found ourselves in a sea of milk, in the middle of which was a mountain of sugar. I noticed too that the milk tasted quite fresh. On another occasion we came across an island of cheese and it tasted like Dutch cheese. But the greatest wonder of all the wonders I have ever seen are the flying fish of the Southern Pacific, which fly for quite a long time when they are pursued by their enemies." His mother thought, shook her head and replied, "I cannot believe that. Seas of milk and islands of cheese there may be, and I quite believe that they exist. But flying fish are out of the question. Nothing and nobody will make me believe it, unless I see those wonders with my own eyes!" Ex. 25. A. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the meanings of the word fruit. 1. Fruit is rich in mineral salts and vitamins. 2. Is fruit cheap this year? 3. What fruits do you cultivate here? 4. To make a fruit salad we shall need different fruits. 5. A fruitarian is a person who eats only fruit. 6. What an exotic fruit! 7. Very soon you'll enjoy the fruits of your hard work. 8. The fruits of nature belong to all mankind. 9. It was a Sunday and no one was in the mood for a lecture about fruit. 10. The strawberry is a beautiful and delicious fruit. B. Translate into English. 1. =3;8O 22>78B <=>3> D@C:B>2. E 4>AB02;ONB 87 $@0=F88, A?0=88, 7@08;O. 2. K<>9 D@C:BK 8 ?>;>68 8E 2 207C. 3. 0 !8F8;88 @0ABCB @07;8G=K5 F8B@CA>2K5 D@C:BK. 4. # @O18=K >G5=L :@0A82K5 ?;>4K. 5. C GB> 65, B5?5@L >= ?>68=05B ?;>4K A2>8E <0E8=0F89. 6. 3> CA?5E  MB> ?;>4 C?>@=>3> B@C40. 7. 1@8:>A  :>@>;L D@C:B>2. -B> >G5=L ?>;57=K9 D@C:B. 8. 0 B@5BL5 C =0A 1C4CB D@C:BK 8 <>@>65=>5. 9. ;O <=>38E ;N459 D@C:BK >G5=L 4>@>385, >=8 =5 <>3CB ?>72>;8BL 8E A515 :064K9 45=L. 10. 07;8G=K5 D@C:BK 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2 :>A<5B>;>388. 11. $@C:BK ?>;57=K, 2 =8E <=>3> 28B0<8=>2 8 <8=5@0;L=KE A>;59. 12. 0 =0H8E @K=:0E A59G0A ?@>405BAO <=>3> M:7>B8G5A:8E D@C:B>2. Case Ex. 26. Replace the of-phrase by the noun in the possessive case. 1. The friend of my mother. 2. The speech of the President. 3. The farm of old McDonald. 4. The novels by D. Steel. 5. The hobbies of the children. 6. The poems by Burns. 7. The duties of a man. 8. A conference of doctors. 9. The life of a bodyguard. 10. The policy of France. 11. The streets of London. 12. The bank of the river. 13. The rays of the sun. 14. The way of nature. 15. The teas of India. 16. The history of the world. 17. The difficulties of the companies. 18. The crew of a ship. 19. A holiday for a week. 20. A break for five minutes. Ex. 27. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the use of the possessive case. 1. 1. By anybody's standard this company was a good buy. 2. Douglas's voice trembled, "What I wouldn't give to be in his shoes." 3. She lay curled in a ball, staring into the fire's bright flames. 4. Derek's brother's name is Gregory. 5. She took a slice with a piece of last year's cheese on it. 6. In the evening I dined in the hotel's restaurant. 7. He reserved a seat on the following week's bus. 8.1 picked up a city map at the station's tourist office. 9. Fascinated, Harry thumbed through the rest of the envelope's contents. II. 1. We had to move everything out of Tommy and Max's room into Dennis's. 2. It's somebody else's idea, not mine. 3. Michael works at Bill and Susan's firm, who are partners. 4. You can't build happiness on somebody else's unhappiness, at least that's my opinion. 5. They got a fax from the Pakistani Prime Minister's office. 6. The Queen of England's palace is a quarter of an hour's ride from the centre of London. III. 1. Meredith linked her arm through Patsy's. 2. Now that we grew up, he intended to live by those standards, which were his father's. 3. Her eyes met her friend's. 4. Mrs. Pell's response was as warm as her daughter's. 5. She didn't have a mind like a woman's at all, more like a man's. IV. 1. She came to England from Odessa years ago. Could it be that she's a relative of theirs? 2. Ben was such a favourite of my father's. 3. Grinning, he said, "Aren't you going to introduce that new partner of Stephen's to us?" 4. He hoped he had managed to avert an awkward discussion about that imaginary husband of Emma's. 5. That little boy of our neighbour's is looking for trouble. 6. That was a favourite game of his grandfather's, pulling surprises out of his pockets. V. 1. "So where exactly is this party?" my dad asked. "It's at the Ferguson's." 2. Then he drove me to Alex's. 3. Her husband and all her kids are coming to Aunt Emily's. 4. We dropped in at the baker's for a French stick. 5. Occasionally I have a snack at McDonald's. 6. Sainsbury's is where teachers, vicars and suchlike do their food shopping. 7. Cadbury's make fine chocolate. watchmaker's, the optician's, the doctor's, the dentist's, the confectioner's, the (dry) cleaner's, the stationer's, the hairdresser's (the barber's) Ex. 28. Answer the following questions, using the phrases given below. Where do you go if you want to ... 1. get fast food? 2. buy some vegetables? 3. have your eyes examined? 4. buy some nails and a hammer? 5. get your hair cut? 6. have some clothes cleaned? 7. buy some cigars and cigarettes? 8. buy a wedding ring? 9. get pens, pencils, paper? 10. buy cakes and chocolate? 11. buy a lot of small different things? 12. have your teeth examined? 13. buy some medicine? 14. buy some meat? 15. buy some flowers? 16. get some information about travelling? 17. have your watch repaired? 18. buy the most expensive things in London? 19. have your pet examined? 20. have advice about your health? the florist's, the butcher's, the greengrocer's, the supermarket, the travelling agent's, McDonald's, the ironmonger's, the jeweller's, Harrods, the vet's, the chemist's (the drugstore), the tobacconist's, the in three (hours) time. 7. (Boys) clothes wear out very quickly. 8. How much does a (boy) jacket cost these days? 9. What's the name of (Charles) partner? 10. Are (policemen) uniforms comfortable? 11. Prague isn't more than a (day) journey from here. 12. Look at the roses in (Mrs. Jones) garden. 13. I'm trying to attract the (waitress) attention. 14. This church was twenty (years) work. 15. The oceans cover 70% of the (earth) surface. 16. Now comes the (journey) end. Ex;. 29. Add s/ 's/ s ' where necessary. 1. Student grades depend on their tests. 2. Charles met Helen at my parents house. 3. We all went to Charles wedding. 4. The Brown painted their cottage green. 5. The Brown cottage is shining like a new pin. 6. The juror gave a fair verdict. 7. The juror verdict was fair. 8. Tedd is driving someone else car today. 9. Let's drop in at "The Smith". 10. Women fashions change more frequently than men. 11. Their house stood on the water edge. 12. The sun rays give us light, warmth and energy. 13. Last night game was something. 14.1 need some children toys for my small nephew. 15. By going to the sale I hope to get my money worth. 16. His work was much better than many other student works. 17. Frederick was satisfied with his semester work. Ex. 30. Paraphrase the sentences using the possessive case where possible. 1. The beauty of Ireland is really breathtaking. 2. The coats of the children need cleaning. 3. The cover of the book is very bright. 4. The policy of the company is still not clear to me. 5. The construction of the new metro line has started. 6. The TV programmes of last night were very interesting. 7.1 was shocked by the opinion of Bess. 8. The children had a holiday for a week. 9. We need to paint the roof of the house. 10. The back of the chair was too low. 11. There was a lamp at the head of the bed. Ex. 31. Use the words in brackets in the possessive case 1. Last week was my (daughter) sixth birthday. 2. (Children) toys are very attractive these days. 3. Have you ever met (Denis) wife? 4. I'll see you in an (hour) time. 5. The house will be sold in two (week) time. 6. We'll be in Paris Ex. 32. Read the following phrases and find their Russian equivalents. Learn them by heart. To one's heart's content; at one's fingers' ends; at a hair's breadth; in the mind's eye; one's money's worth; out of harm's way; at arm's length (reach); for Heaven's sake; for Goodness' sake; for appearance's sake; at death's door; to be nobody's fool; to know someone for donkey's years; at razor's edge; (at) a stone's throw from...; to be at one's wit's end; at gun's point; a bird's eye view. Ex. 33. A. Read and translate the following sentences, paying attention to the phrases in bold type. 1. He held her at arm's length, scrutinizing her intently. 2. I've never grown to like him, not one iota, even though I've known him and his family for donkey's years. 3. What saved the situation was that Alan's office was only (at) a stone's throw from the club. 4. In his mind's eye, Maxim pictured the people who were important in his life. 5. My mother loves the house and the grounds and she can garden away to her heart's content. 6. We are at our wit's end how to solve the dilemma. 7. The guns were now hidden, out of harm's way. 8. She made a will at death's door. 9. Mind, we did it just for old times' sake. 10. From this tower you can get a bird's eye view of the city. B. Make up ten sentences of your own using the phrases given in exercise 32. Ex. 34. Translate into English. 1. 02B@0H=OO ?@>3@0<<0 >G5=L =0?@O65==0O. 2. -420@4 >48= 87 1;87:8E 4@C759 <>59 A5AB@K. 3. / >1KG=> 2AB@5G0NAL A> A2>8<8 @>4AB25==8:0<8 2 4><5 C 101CH:8 8 454CH:8. 4. -B0 452CH:0  >4=0 87 ABC45=B>: <>59 <0<K. 5. # =53> <0;5=L:85 =>38, :0: C 65=I8=K. 6. <C >G5=L =C6=0 1K;0 <0H8=0, 8 >= 2>A?>;L7>20;AO <0H8=>9 A2>53> 1>AA0. 7. -B> 70<5G0=85 $5;8:A0 1K;> A>2A5< =5:AB0B8. 8. >9 ?@>5:B >B:;>=8;8 B>G=> B0: 65, :0: 8 ?@>5:B 6>=0. 9. 0: 65 <=5 =5 =@028BAO MB>B =>2K9 4@C3 MAA! 10. -B> =5 <>8 CG51=8:8, >=8 0:A0. 11. -:70<5=K ?>7048, B5?5@L <K <>65< 22>;N @072;5:0BLAO. 12. 048 1>30, ?>9<8 65 =0:>=5F, GB> BK E>48HL ?> >AB@8N 1@8B2K. 13. -B> =5 709<5B <=>3> 2@5<5=8, 4> <>53> 4><0 @C:>9 ?>40BL. 14. 5 ?KB09AO >1<0=CBL <5=O, O 40;5:> =5 4C@0. 15. 0209 C945< >BAN40 >B 3@5E0 ?>40;LH5. 16. / AG8B0N, GB> ?@8;8G8O @048 =0< =C6=> A>3;0A8BLAO =0 8E ?@83;0H5=85. 17. ><0=K ;LD0 8 5B@>20 ?>?C;O@=K C <=>38E ?>:>;5=89 G8B0B5;59. 18.  B5G5=85 G5BK@5E ;5B BK 45@60;0 <5=O =0 ?@8;8G=>< @0AAB>O=88, 0 B5?5@L O, :065BAO, =5 <>3C 871028BLAO >B B51O. 19. 0H8=0 <8AB5@0 6>C=A0 ?>A;54=OO <>45;L 5@A545A0. 20. !C11>B=8< CB@>< ;N1>9 G5;>25: <>65B 2KABC?0BL A:>;L:> 53> 4CH5 C3>4=> 2 #3>;:5 @0B>@0 2 094-0@:5. Ex. 35. A. Read the following phrases and explain their meaning. I.Noah's ark 2. Pandora's box 3. Hobson's choice 4. Rubik's cube 5. Parkinson's disease 6. Aesop's fables 7. Achilles' heel 8. Aladdin's lamp 9. Murphy's law 10. Cleopatra's needle 11. Caesar's wife 12. Christie's 13. Tiffany's 14. Love's old sweet song 15. An old wife's tale. B. Fill in the titles of some works of literature. 1. ...'s Adventures in Wonderland 2. ...'s Cabin 3. ...'s Choice 4. ...'s Complaint 5. ...'s Lover 6. ...'s Travels 7. ...'s Way 8. ...'s Web 9. ...'s Pilgrimage 10. ...'s House 11. ...'s Baby. Gender Ex. 36. Give the nouns of the opposite sex. A. a boy, a husband, a brother, a father, a nephew, an uncle, a son, a king, a gentleman, a lad, a bridegroom, a monk, a headmaster, a bachelor, Mr., a cock, a bull, a man B. an actor, a count, a duke, an emperor, a mayor, a god, a host, a heir, a manager, a millionaire, a prince, a poet, a waiter, a widow, a lion, a tiger, a hero, a czar, a giant, a businessman. Ex. 37. Explain whether the nouns below denote male or female people. An agent, a client, a cousin, a doctor, a mermaid, a friend, a foreigner, a guest, a client, a lawyer, a neighbour, a parent, a journalist, a person, a scientist, a stranger, a student, a visitor, a teacher, a witch, a magician, a clown, a fairy, an amazon, a brunette, a sailor, a spy, a ballet dancer, a ballerina, an angel, a wizard. Ex. 38. Read and translate the sentences. Explain how gender of the nouns is expressed in them. 1. Ireland! She is our Motherland. 2. The. New Year brought more disastrous news for Britain and her allies. 3. Mine is a fine car. She has never let me down. 4. You can take a horse to the water but you can't make him drink. 5. What a fine yacht! Yes, and she cost me a fortune. 6.1 can't guarantee at all that this plane will get down on the field. She's just as likely to pan down or overshoot. We'll probably try to bring her in from the east. I want you to unlock the autopilot, it will hold her straight and level. 7.1 reached for my little dog and picked her up. 8. The novel is about Japan's major problems, the adoption of Western style 26 and the preservation of her own. 9. He called her "Beautiful Dreamer". She was one of the most magnificent oceangoing yachts ever designed by the best naval architects. 10. My cat Trixie was such a gay little animal; she always brought a smile to my face and made me laugh. Ex. 39. Read the text and retell it. Gender Benders Correct grammar beats political correctness, even in France. Each of the seven women in the French Government is in future to be addressed as Madame La Ministre according to the decree of the Prime Minister. But language laughs at legislators, for French grammar recognizes no governments other than its own rules. Ministre,like most titles and descriptions of professions in French, is of the masculine gender. The designation of a doctor, director or mayor is masculine, even when the holder of that post is a woman. Linguistic gender has no connection with sex or "natural" gender. Female sailors and farmers were rare in Ancient Rome. But their occupations are in the feminine gender in Latin, the mother of all the Romance languages. A spoon is masculine in German (der Loffel); a fork is feminine (die Gabel); and a knife is neuter (das Messer). Suspicious French feminists have recently published research suggesting that words of the feminine gender describe domestic items such as une casserole (a saucepan), while masculine words carry more prestige, like un livre (a book). Their evidence is gibberish. Even in languages such as English, where gender is mercifully vestigial and recalled only in pronouns, countries, ships and vehicles are called "she", as well as "it". Gender is not a matter of feminine stereotypes, for "she" can be used in anger. Guns, tanks and trucks that refuse to work are still cursed as feminine. This question of French gender is being debated with fit passion, as some people care more for political correctness than grammar. Language does evolve, but not for official circulars. So, why not go the whole way and have La Ministresse? If the French are starting to find gender odd, then it will fade away, as it has in English. Even French female masculine ministers have no right (or power) to alter French grammar. Ex. 40. Are you "politically correct"? Which of the following terms do you use? 1. a) Mrs b) Ms 2. a) a chairman b) a chairperson 3. a) a fireman b) a firefighter 4. a) a pensioner b) a senior citizen 5. a) the handicapped b) the disabled c) the differently abled 6. a) a Red Indian b) a Native American 7. a) ladies b) women 8. a) a congressman b) a member of Congress 9. a) a mailman b) a mail carrier 10. a) mankind b) humanity 11. a) a policeman(woman) b) a police officer Test Your Knowledge Ex. 41. Make up sentences with the following pairs of words to show the difference between them. Chicken a chicken, experience an experience, grammar a grammar, hair a hair, iron an iron, lace a lace, life a life, room a room, sight a sight, speech a speech, sport a sport, success a success, time a time, wood a wood, work a work, whisky a whisky, fish a fish, fruit a fruit. Ex. 42. Use the correct form of the verb. 1. The class (has/have) its final test on Friday. 2. The class (is/are) working on their individual projects today. 3. The crew (was/were) asleep in their bunks. 4. The committee (is/are) ready to make the programme public. 5. The family (is/are) fighting among themselves constantly. 6. The fish in the aquarium (is/are) waiting for their daily feeding. 7. The press (was/were) requested to show their credentials to the guard. 8. The Portuguese (is/are) fortunate to have such a beautiful coastline. 9. The criteria for promotion (is/are) clearly stated. 10. Supernatural phenomena (is/are) of great interest to many people. 11. My family (live/lives) in a private house. 12. My family (is/are) early birds. 13. The police (think/thinks) it's the Mafia's doing. 14. What (is/are) the contents of the note? 15. There (was/were) many fish in this river some twenty years ago. 16. The police (was/ were) thorough in their examination of the murder site. Ex. 43. Read the text and comment on the nouns in bold type. Emma's shop was heavily stocked, and she anticipated a brisk business in the next few days. This was her third Christmas in the shop, and she was convinced she would have a lot of customers, both her regulars and new ones. Emma gave the shop a final glance, her eyes critically seeking out the tiniest imperfection. Not one was visible. The innumerable shelves, running around the walls and soaring up to the ceiling, held tins of ham, pork, and game, great black-and-gold canisters of varied teas, French glazed fruits, marzipan fruits from Germany, and her own bottled fruits, vegetables, and jams. Ranged below were jars of candied peel, glazed cherries, mincemeat, and cranberry and apple sauces for the Christmas turkeys and geese. Three huge barrels, to the right of the side counter, were filled to overflowing with nuts, apples, and oranges for the children's traditional Christmas stockings, and the faint aroma of fruit wafted sweetly on the air to blend with the mingled scents of the pungent herbs and spices from the Indies, the fragrance of the newly baked confectionery, and the mouth-watering smells of cheeses and cooked meats. Oh, how she loved her shop! Here she was secure, far away from the Fairleys and protected from them. She thought, too, and with enormous pleasure, of the forthcoming sales and her spiralling profits, and her face immediately broke into a smile. (after B. Bradford) Ex. 44. Translate into English. I. KA;5==K< 273;O4>< -@8: 2=>2L C2845; @>48B5;LA:89 4><, :>B>@K9 AB>O; =0 15@53C @5:8. 2. $5@<0 AB0@>3> 0:4>=0;L40 1K;0 ?>4>1=0 @0N. K C2845;8 <=>3> @K1, ?;020NI8E 2 ?@C4C, :C4@O2KE >25G5:, ;560I8E ?>4 >3@><=K<8 4C10<8. 3.  0:85 25;8:>;5?=K5 G0AK!  0, MB> >;5:A. 4. !>@>: ?5=A>2  =5 B0:85 C6 1>;LH85 45=L38. 5. >65HL 22>;N =0A;0640BLAO 54>9 8 =0?8B:0<8. -B> =5 1C45B B515 AB>8BL 8 ?5==8. 6. / 7=0N 53> >G5=L, >G5=L 402=> 8 4>;6=0 A:070BL, GB> >= 40;5:> =5 4C@0:. 7. -B8 =>2>AB8 <5=O =5 C482;ONB. / >6840; 8E. 8. -B> D5=><5=, MB> A>25@H5==> =5>1JOA=8<0O 25IL! 9. 5@5AB0=LB5 A?>@8BL, E>BO 1K ?@8;8G8O @048. 10. N@8 1K;> =5 2 A>AB>O=88 2K=5AB8 @5H5=85. 11. #<0 =5 ?@8;>6C :0: 2K9B8 87 MB>9 A;>6=>9 A8BC0F88. 12. 0209 703;O=5< 2 :>=48B5@A:CN 8 ?5@5:CA8<. 13. B 4><0 09:;0 4> 3>A?8B0;O !2OB>3> "><0A0 @C:>9 ?>40BL. 14. 35=B 1K; =0 2>;>A>: >B ?@>20;0. 15. / 4>;6=0 ?@>A<>B@5BL 10=: 40==KE 8 2K25AB8 A2545=8O ?> MB><C 45;C. =8 =C6=K =0G0;L=8:C. 16. >;8F8O ?@>G5AK205B (to comb) 3>@>4 2 ?>8A:0E 3@018B5;59. 17. >G5<C ?>;8F8O =5 ?@8=8<05B MDD5:B82=KE <5@ ?@>B82 ?@5ABC?=>AB8? 18. C759 :C?8; ?>B@OA0NICN :0@B8=C =0 0C:F8>=5 !>B18A  530. 19. C759 (5@;>:0 %>;<A0 =0E>48BAO 2 >=4>=5 =0 59:5@-AB@8B. 20. = =0?8A0; :=83C > A53>4=OH=59 @8B0=88. Chapter II. THE ARTICLE Ex. 45. Use the necessary form of the indefinite article (a or an). ... academy, ... album, ... bright album, ... actor, ... great actress, ... arch, ... marble arch, ... chance, ... unlucky chance, ... dove, ... ear, ... elf, ... tiny elf, ... horse, ... hour, ... long hour, ... institute, ... lemon, ... mill, ... obelisk, ... opera, ... Italian opera, ... owl, ... paper, ... rabbit, ... quarter, ... train, ... wing, ... voyage, ... year. Ex. 46. Change the nouns in the following sentences into the plural and make all the necessary changes. 1. She is a truly good person. 2. I have a special treat for tea today, a strawberry cake. 3. Never trust a stranger! 4. It's a question of principle, of ethics. 5. She is a most dependable business partner. 6. The girl was wearing a sheepskin coat. 7. That's a sensation, sir. 8. There is a small difficulty, madam. 9. He is a tea-taster. 10. Robert is a loving family man. 11. What an exotic creature! 12. The city has a proud history. 13. You are a romantic fool. 14. It's a medieval saga. 15. This young man is such a virtuoso at playing the piano. Ex. 47. Change the nouns in the following sentences into the Singular and make all the necessary changes. 1. They are superb actresses. 2. What enchanting moments! 3. These are unusual stories, very moving. 4. They turned out to be fine illustrators. 5. They are tough guys. 6. Oh, what fantastic houses! 7. There are a few coffee-shops in this street. 8. These are recipes for customers to consider. 9. They seem to be rather thrilling prospects. 10. Teachers are educated people. 11. Buskers are street musicians who play outside cinemas or in the metro. 12. Accountants keep financial records. 13. Teenagers are people between thirteen and nineteen years of age. 14. These are very helpful rules, thank you. Ex. 48. Read and translate the following sentences. Comment on the meanings of the indefinite article 1. Jeeves! You are a marvel! Thank you, sir, but you've just called me an idiot. 2. A loved child usually grows up into a loving adult. 3. A fortune teller is a person who will tell you your future. 4. The party was a real bore. 5. What is man? What has he got if not himself? 6.1 expect a hotel to be "a home away from home". 7. Yesterday life was such an easy game to play. 8. Oh, what a lovely surprise! 9. I'm a real Londoner, though I wasn't born there. 10.1 have a mountain of work to do by tomorrow. 11. She took a step forward. 12. It was a lucky choice on my part, I think. 13. Catherine gave him a loving smile. 14. Robert had a very good education. 15. There is a secret in her life, I feel it. 16. It's a magical story to be enjoyed by folks of all ages. 17. Miss Honey gave the tiny child a big hug and a kiss. 18. She loved her son with an everlasting love. Ex. 49. Insert the article if necessary. I. Bill is ... workaholic. 2. It was ... long-term agreement. 3. He is ... eccentric. It's in his nature. 4. In my opinion you deserve ... medal. 5. Amanda had ... passion for ... order. 6. Marigold. It's such ... lovely name for ... child. 7. Lord, what... day! 8. Mum gave me ... list of things to do about the house which was ... mile long. 9. He is making ... film about Everest. 10. Saunas give ... good impression of how ... turkey must feel on Christmas Day. II. Keep ... cool head, stay calm, she cautioned herself. 12. ... penny for your thoughts! You can have them for nothing! 13. ... life is ... gift, ... life is for you to enjoy it. 14. Alex kissed him on the cheek and gave him ... bear hug. "I love you, ... daddy of mine!" "And I love you too, ... daughter!" 15. She took ... deep breath. 16. England had made ... lasting impression on her. 17. She made ... trip from Paris to New York to visit... client. 18. I'm Mrs. Stratton. You don't know me. I'm ... friend of ... friend. Ex. 50. Make up sentences of your own with the following phrases. 1. one thing at a time 2. to have a good head for something 3. to know a thing or two 4. to have a go 5. a hard nut to crack 6. not have a clue 7. to keep a level head 8. a man (woman) in a million 9. a black sheep in the family 10. to tell a white (black) lie 11. a big fish in a small pond 12. a storm in a teacup 13. a red-letter day 14. to make a man of... 15. to be at a loss 16. to be a hit with somebody Ex. 51. Read and translate the following sentences. Comment on th5 use of articles. 1. A nickel will get you on the subway, but garlic will get you a seat, (old New York proverb) 2. Italy is a never-ending voyage of discovery. 3. You should live in a different cultural climate. 4. Grammar isn't just a set of models. 5. Even a masterpiece may not last forever. 6. For as little as one pound you can buy a perfect gift for a loved one. 7. She made a face at the thought. 8. His heart missed a beat. 9. Come, Teddy dear, give me a good- night kiss and let's go to sleep. 10. It's a herculean task, so it may take a while. 11. A still tongue and a wise head. 12. A double bass is a musical instrument. It has deep sound. 13. He's a funny bird, I must admit. 14. This year my birthday fell on a Tuesday. 15. Taking a step forward, I gave her a quick hug. 16. A man walked into the kitchen, a man she had never seen before. 17. Stevie was a pragmatist at heart. 18.1 see that you have a problem on your mind. 19. He who buys a diamond, purchases a bit of eternity, runs an ancient Hindu saying. 20. Derek Raynes was now a living legend on the English stage. Ex. 52. Insert the article if necessary. 1. New York is ... most exciting city. 2. She could afford it, since she was ... millionairess in her own right. 3. Are you trying to be ... matchmaker? 4. She was ... good looking woman with ... great deal of personal style. 5. There was, after all, ... supersonic flight on the timetable. 6. The general register office is ... place of records, and it's ... mine of ... information. 7. You've won, and I'd like to drink ... toast to that. 8. Patrick O'Shea was ... tall man, well-built, with ... graying hair and ... pleasant manner. 9. If you have ... afternoon sleep, you'll have ... headache. 10. There is ... good progress in her studies, I'm sure. 11.... washing machine saves a lot of time and energy. 12. We brought... thermos of ... iced tea. 13. You are ... very special woman. I've never met anyone like you. 14. Richard had ... quick wit and ... good sense of humour. 15. "You are ... dark horse," he grinned. 16. She had ... enormous capacity for ... work. 17. She was not... troublemaker. 18. It was ... three-hour operation, but she came through it well. 19. She made ... mental note to cancel the flight. 20. This writer has ... sharp eye for detail. Ex. 53. Comment on the use of the definite article in the following sentences. 1. The arch of the sky was the darkest of blues. 2. She believed people like Wilf to be the salt of the earth. 3. Ah, it's the other side of the coin, so to speak. 4. The cycle of life is endless, and it never changes. 5. The following day I passed the morning making phone calls. 6. Like all the best ideas, it's a simple one. 7. This is the most modern shopping centre in the world. 8. That's the key question. 9. The house was quiet. The stuff had gone to bed. 10. She'll be the second to answer. 11. We live on the seventh floor. 12. The kitchen was equipped with all the latest appliances. 13.1 know this road like the back of my hand. 14. Don't forget that Monday is the deadline. 15. The story which you told me is very romantic. 16. Where are the children? They are in the garden. Ex. 54. Insert the right article. 1. ... most windows are made of glass. 2. ... glass of my watch is broken, and one of ... hands is missing. 3. ... first concern of any government should be ... education of ... people of ... country. 4.... stars are very bright tonight. 5. ... president said that he didn't want... trouble, but ... troubles of ... country had to be settled quickly. 6. ... trees in our garden bear a lot of fruit every year. 7. ... audience was stone silent. 8. ... girl is really ... great talker. 9. In America "neighbour" has ... friendly connotation, in England it is ... chilly word, nearly always ... stranger. 10. ... rain was still beating on the windows. 11. ... road snaked its way across ... hills. 12. Emma hoped ... baby would be ... girl. 13. ... Queen smiled. She had told ... black He. 14. In ... middle of ... year he made ... second trip to Fairley Hall. 15. I don't like ... policemen. Neither do I. But I do like ... English policemen. 16. ... village where my relatives live is such ... idyllic place. 17. ... bell rang ... third time to indicate ... beginning of ... class. 18. ... girl is ... born peacemaker. Ex. 55. Explain the use of articles with the nouns in bold type. 1. She gave the shop a final glance. 2. They want a big family, so they are so keen to have a third child. 3. He presented all this in a most diplomatic way. 4. Amelia was pregnant and she was in seventh heaven. 5. She gave the portrait a last glance and went out. 6. She poured a second glass. 7. Mine is a third generation computer. 8. There is always a first time. 9. A first love is never forgotten. 10. It was like a second honeymoon for them. 11. Please, Frank, think twice before you make a final decision. 12. They are installing a second bathroom upstairs. 13.1 do not like food which has been warmed up a second time. 14. I'm afraid we need a third mind to decide this. Ex. 56. Insert the right article. 1. Henry Rossiter had ... cool and refined mind. ... cultured man, he was ... art connoisseur,... collector of rare first editions, ... devotee of drama and music. ... product of ... rich and old family, he was today ... curious amalgam of ... upper-class English conservative principles and ... international sophistication. 2. As I sat in... library this morning, leafing through those books again, I could not help thinking that Lettice had been a lot like me, in many ways. ... homemaker, ... cook, ... gardener, ... painter, ... woman interested in furnishings and all those things which make ... home 35 beautiful. And she had been... devoted mother and ... adoring wife, just as I had. 3. Victor was ... gentle and reflective boy. And he had ... deep understanding of human frailties. He was ... thinker and ... dreamer, and he had ... soul of ... poet. Victor was happiest when he was reading or listening to ... music of Mahler and Beethoven. 4. ... sin includes such things as ... lying, ... lust, ... cheating, ... deceit, ... anger, ...evil thoughts, ...immoral behavior, and more. Most visible virtues in people are ... responsibility, ... energy, ... hard work, ... enthusiasm, and ... perseverance. Ex. 57. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the nouns in bold type. 1. Life is too short to learn more than one business well. 2. Lord, what a hectic life! 3. Time is a great healer. 4. Those were mysterious times. 5. Do one thing at a time. 6. I've always had a tough time with the critics. 7.1 enjoy walking in the forest in autumnal weather. 8. He sensed that the weather was going to change. 9. She would take the dog out for a run in all weathers. 10. What miserable weather! 11. Sensational news is hard to get, journalists know it well. 12. What wonderful news! It calls for a toast. 13. Success doesn't come easy. 14. This movie was a huge success. 15. We've had some successes in tennis lately. 16. Power corrupts people. 17. Words have a magic power. 18. She glanced down at my little dog, who was jumping against her legs, "I hope this dog isn't going to cover me with hairs". 19. There is a hair on your jacket. Let me brush it off. 20. Age is strictly a chronological thing. If you feel young, you're gonna be young. Ex. 58. Translate into English. 1. = ?@>68; 1573@5H=CN 687=L. 2. 87=L B0:>20, :0:>9 2K 55 45;05B5. 3. -B> =587156=>. -B> 2>?@>A 2@5<5=8. 4. -B> 1K;> >G5=L AG0AB;82>5 2@5<O. 5. #?>@=K9 B@C4 ?@8=5A5B 20< CA?5E. 6. =0 45;05B >G5=L :@0A82K5 ?>45;:8. 7. A;8 A 55 3>;>2K C?045B E>BL >48= 2>;>A>:, B> BK >1 MB>< >G5=L ?>60;55HL. 8. #A?5E8, :>B>@K5 A45;0; 0:A8<, @04CNB 53> @>48B5;59. 9. #A?5E C;CGH05B (to improve) E0@0:B5@. 10. /7K: 8<55B 1>;LHCN A8;C. 11. # <5=O =5B >?KB0 @01>BK A 45BL<8. 12. -B> 1K; >G5=L ?5G0;L=K9 >?KB. 13. # =53> 5ABL 2>;O 8 G5AB>;N185. 14. =0 >G5=L 2>;52>9 G5;>25:. 15. = 3>2>@8B, GB> E>G5B A>AB028BL 7025I0=85. 16. "0BLO=0 =0H;0 C A51O =5A:>;L:> A54KE 2>;>A:>2 8 >G5=L @0AAB@>8;0AL. 17. = =0G0; @01>B0BL 2 @0==5< 2>7@0AB5. 18. -B> :=830 4;O ;N459 2A5E 2>7@0AB>2. 19. !B> ;5B B51O =5 2845;0, :0: BK? 20. N128 2A5 2>7@0ABK ?>:>@=K. Ex. 59. Insert the right article. I. Not only did she love her eldest son, she admired him no end, and there was a lot to admire. He was ... clever, indeed ... brilliant young man with ... great deal of ... talent and ... good head on his shoulders. But he had ... flaw, and it was ... flaw that was fatal. He believed he knew better than anyone else, was convinced of ... Tightness of his ideas and beliefs, and he never took "no" for ... answer. He was far too stubborn and opinionated for his own good. It dismayed her that he could not compromise, that he was so rigid. II. When Meredith walked into Dr. Hilary Benson's private office, her first impression was of ... good-looking but stern woman. ... doctor had ... rather lovely face with ... high cheekbones, and ... palest of ... blue eyes that appeared almost transparent. But her mouth had ... severe set to it and her dark brown hair was pulled back in ... plain chignon that was singularly schoolmarmish. There was ... no-nonsense, businesslike air about her, and for ... split second Meredith was put off, thinking that she might be ... cold fish. Then she remembered that Jennifer, her physician, had told her that Hilary Benson was ... sympathetic person as well as ... brilliant psychiatrist. Ex. 60. Translate into English. 1. >A;54=85 =>2>AB8 <5=O @04CNB. 2. 'B> =>2>3>? 3. BACBAB285 =>2>AB59  E>@>H0O =>2>ABL. 4. >2>AB8, B0: 65 :0: 8 A?;5B=8, 8<5NB :@K;LO (1KAB@> @0A?@>AB@0=ONBAO). 5. 0:>9 A2>52@5<5==K9 A>25B! 6. !2545=8O 206=K5? B> 8E 4>AB028;? 7. >;LH8=AB2> A2545=89 ?>ABC?05B G5@57 =B5@=5B. 8.  0:0O A53>4=O ?>3>40?  >3>40 A>;=5G=0O, B0:0O ?>3>40 70AB02;O5B <5=O GC2AB2>20BL A51O AG0AB;82K<. 9. / @01>B0N 2 A04C 2 ;N1CN ?>3>4C. 10. =>385 ;N48 =0E>4OBAO ?>4 2;8O=85< ?>3>4K. 11. A;8 ?>3>40 ?><5=O5BAO 702B@0, C <5=O >?OBL 1C45B 1>;5BL 3>;>20. 12. / ;N1;N B5?;CN 25A5==NN ?>3>4C. 13. -B> C189AB25==0O @01>B0, => O 2K682C. 14. 5 <>3C ?>=OBL, :C40 CE>4OB <>8 45=L38. =8 :0: 2>40. 15. -B> >G5=L 1>;LH85 45=L38, => >=8 B2>8, 8 BK <>65HL 8A?>;L7>20BL 8E B0:, :0: E>G5HL. 16.   :0AA5 5ABL 45=L38?  5B, <K >B?@028;8 8E 2 10=: G0A =0704. Ex. 61. Read the sentences and comment on the nouns in bold type. 1. They ate supper together in the kitchen. It was a simple meal that Maggie had prepared quickly: scrambled eggs, English muffins, and coffee. 2. Supper is ready at last, everyone, sit to table! 3. They arrived at Sunlaws in time for lunch. 4.1 asked Matilde to make a fairly simple lunch. Vegetable soup, plain omelette, green salad, cheese, and fruit. 5. We'll be having a late lunch today. 6. Breakfast is served, sir. 7. And anyway, it's not often that you get a traditional English Sunday breakfast now, is it? 8. The breakfast was orange juice and cornflakes with milk. 9. He opens the mail immediately after breakfast. 10. We haven't had dinner yet. 11. They had a quiet dinner together. 12. After dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile. 13. They had a dinner for six. 14. We'll have to have an early dinner today. 15. Every now and then I would go to the kitchen to have a look at the dinner. 16. "I'm glad you've come for tea. I've made us a lovely tea, like you used to do when we were little. A nursery tea, you called it." "I remember our nursery teas," Meredith said taking a cucumber sandwich. "They were fun, weren't they?" 17. Patsy went on fussing with the teapot and the other things she needed for afternoon tea. 18. The tea she made was wonderful. 19. A set dinner (meal) is usually quite cheap, but you do not have much choice. 20. Brunch is a meal that you eat in the late morning. Ex. 62. Insert the article if necessary. Retell the text. I. ... farm itself was surrounded by green fields divided by ... old stone wall built... century ago. ... fields sloped down into ... valley below, where the River Nidd was ... shining like ... silver thread against the green in ... far distance. Chloe took ... quick look at her watch and saw that it was almost eight. Time for ... breakfast. She increased her pace and ... few seconds later she was pushing open ... oak door that led into ... small front porch. II. ... mingled aromas of ... coffee, .... warm bread, and ... bacon cooking assailed her as she stepped into ...kitchen. Chloe poured herself ... mug of coffee, added ... milk and ... sugar, and carried ... mug back to ... big wooden table in ... centre of... room. This was covered with ... green-and-white check cloth that matched ... , curtains at... windows; she remembered ... day her mother had brought them up to Yorkshire and hung them at... windows herself. Chloe sipped her coffee,glancing around ... spacious kitchen. She had always loved this room. It was there that they ate most of their meals, nless they had ... party and ... guests coming. In ... sense, ... kitchen was ... core of ... house. Ex 63 Read the text and comment on the words in bold type, retell it in indirect speech. "I want you to come to dinner tomorrow, Gideon, well, supper really. A Russian supper on Boxing Day. Doesn't that tempt you?" She eyed him, laughter bubbling inside her. "Ha! I knew you'd have to come up with a foreign meal this Christmas," Gideon teased, looking at her fondly. "Why not a bit of good old roast lamb and Yorkshire pud for a change? Instead of all this foreign mishmash." Tamara laughed and said, "Beluga caviar and Scottish smoked salmon a mishmash! Goodness me, Gideon." "How wonderful it sounds. And I'd love to come. What's the rest of the menu? Are you going to make that delicious horsch?" "If you like. With piroshki. And what about your favourite, chicken Kiev?" "That's great. But you're making me hungry. I love your cooking. I bet they didn't teach you how to make chicken Kiev at that snooty English boarding school you went to." "You know they didn't, Gid. It was my Russian grandmother who taught me everything I know about cooking." (after B. Bradford) Ex. 64. Translate into English. 1. -B> 1K; 3@0=48>7=K9 >154, 1K;8 ?@83;0H5=K <=>385 7=0<5=8B>AB8. 2. !:>;L:> <K 4>;6=K 70?;0B8BL 70 >154? 3. / 5I5 =5 @5H8;0, GB> ?@83>B>28BL =0 >154. >NAL, GB> C =0A 1C45B ?>74=89 >154 A53>4=O. 4. 154 3>B>2, ?>60;C9AB0, A048B5AL 2A5 : AB>;C. 5. >@=8G=0O ?>AB028;0 702B@0: =0 ?>4=>A 8 ?>=5A;0 53> 2 A?0;L=N 3>A?>68. 6. = >1AC6405B 2A5 206=K5 2>?@>AK ?>A;5 C68=0. 7. >NAL, C =0A A53>4=O 1C45B >G5=L ?@>AB>9 C68=. 8. =0 =5 702B@0:05B ?> CB@0<, 70B> CAB@08205B A515 >A=>20B5;L=K9 2B>@>9 702B@0:. 9. @5<O ;0=G0. 0209 703;O=5< 2 ;:8-0;:8 =0 "25@A:>9. 10. 5B8, 2K 2K<K;8 @C:8 ?5@54 >154><? 11. >A>;LAB2> 405B 720=K9 702B@0: 2 G5ABL ?@074=8:0. 12. #68= 2 :8B09A:>< @5AB>@0=5 1K; >G5=L >AB@K<. 13.  !:>;L:> 745AL AB>8B :><?;5:A=K9 >154?  G5=L 45H52>. 14. >74=89 702B@0:  MB> =5GB> A@54=55 <564C 702B@0:>< 8 ;0=G5<. 15. 0:>9 2:CA=K9 >154! K 70<5G0B5;L=K9 ?>20@. Ex. 65. Insert the article if necessary 1. It was ... fine afternoon. 2. ... morning was chilly. 3. It was ... sunless day. 4. ... dawn would break soon. 5. It was ... perfect summer evening on ... last day of August. 6. It was ... early morning. 7. ... twilight always makes me feel sad, I don't know why. 8. It was ... golden November day, ... Indian summer day. 9. ... days merged into ... nights, ... nights drifted into ... dawns. 10. Of the four seasons I like ... spring best. 11. We had ... slushy winter last year. 12. In ... late autumn we lock our cottage till... spring. 13. ... evening fell, but there was no sign of him. 14. Early in ... morning my dog licks me awake. 15. If you look ugly in ... early morning, sleep till ... noon. Ex. 66. Translate into English. 1. >GL. !:>@> =0ABC?8B @0AA25B. 2. >9 A>A54  D>B>3@0D. = >1KG=> ?@>O2;O5B ?;5=:8 ?> =>G0<. 3. K 2AB0;8 @0==8< CB@><, GB>1K C2845BL 2>AE>4 A>;=F0. 4. 5B8 >15I0;8 25@=CBLAO 4><>9 : 25G5@C. 5. 0 <>8E G0A0E ?>;=>GL. >B 8 70:>=G8;AO 45=L. 6. -B> ?@>87>H;> >A5=LN ?@>H;>3> 3>40. 7. >74=OO >A5=L  2@5<O, :>340 ?@8@>40 3>B>28BAO : 78<5. 8. K;0 <>@>7=0O O=20@A:0O =>GL. 9. K 2AB@5B8;8AL 2 >4=C 87 ?OB=8F. 10. 0:0O 2>;H51=0O =>GL! 11. = B@C48;AO 45=L 70 4=5<, :0: <C@0259. 12. >2>@OB, 1C45B @0==OO 25A=0. 13. >GL ?5@54 >645AB2><  A0<>5 GC45A=>5 2@5<O. 14. >A;5 70:0B0 2A5340 AB0=>28BAO E>;>4=55. 15. >;LH8=AB2> ;N459 ?@54?>G8B05B >B4KE0BL 2 ;5B=55 2@5<O. Ex. 67. Translate into English. 1. K;> CB@>. K;> @0==55 CB@>. K;> B5?;>5 ;5B=55 CB@>. = @>48;AO @0==8< CB@><. =5 B@C4=> 2AB020BL @0=> ?> CB@0<. #B@> 1K;> ?@>E;04=>5, => A>;=5G=>5. 0:>5 E>@>H55 CB@>! K 4>15@5<AO 4> AB0=F88 : CB@C. 2. 0ABC?8; 45=L. -B> 1K; BC<0==K9 45=L, 45=L =0H53> >BJ5740. 5=L 1K; 4>64;82K<. 'B> BK >1KG=> 45;05HL 2 B5G5=85 4=O? =F845=B ?@>87>H5; ?0A<C@=K< A5=BO1@LA:8< 4=5<. 3. K; ?>;45=L. >;45=L  MB> 12 G0A>2. ><>E>7O9:8 AB0@0NBAO A45;0BL 2A5 ?>:C?:8 4> ?>;C4=O. >A5B8B5;L ?>O28;AO ;8HL 2 ?>;45=L. 4. K;> ?>A;5?>;C45==>5 2@5<O. K ;N18;8 ?8BL G09 ?>A;5 ?>;C4=O. 0;5=L:85 45B8 >1KG=> A?OB 2 ?>A;5?>;C45==>5 2@5<O. K ?>A2OB8;8 ?>A;5?>;C45==>5 2@5<O GB5=8N. 5. K; 25G5@. K; <>@>7=K9 :@5I5=A:89 25G5@. 5G5@ 1K; B5?;K9. K; ?>74=89 25G5@. =5 2A5340 E>G5BAO A?0BL ?> 25G5@0<. "K ?>945HL =0 ?@>3C;:C 25G5@><? K 70:>=G8< 2A5 : 25G5@C. 6. 0ABC?8;0 =>GL. K;0 =>GL. K;0 B8E0O 72574=0O =>GL. / ;N1;N A<>B@5BL =0 72574K =>GLN. >GL 1K;0 B8E0. C@O ?@>4>;60;0AL 2AN =>GL. K >B?@028;8AL BC40 2 AC11>BC 25G5@>< (AC11>B=8< 25G5@><). # <5=O =>G=>5 456C@AB2> A53>4=O. 3> >E@0=ONB 45=L 8 =>GL. / F5;K9 <5AOF =5 ;>68;AO @0=> A?0BL. 7. >AE>4  MB> 2@5<O, :>340 2>AE>48B A>;=F5. K ?8;8, A<5O;8AL, 1>;B0;8 4> @0AA25B0. -B> >7=0G05B 70@N (=0G0;>) =>2>9 M@K. 8. 5A=0  MB> 2@5<O 3>40 <564C 78<>9 8 ;5B><. 5A=>9 AB0=>28BAO B5?;55. = C5E0; 25A=>9 1996 3>40. 0@86 ?@5:@0A5= 25A=>9. K;0 @0==OO 25A=0. A5=L  MB> ?>@0 A20451. >74=OO >A5=L. A5=L 1K;0 4>64;82>9. 0:0O :@0A820O >A5=L! Ex. 68. Insert the article if necessary 1. This is ... way of ... world. 2:Edwina lived in ... world entirely of her own making. 3. Isn't it... small world? 4. It was ... raw January day, and although ... sun was bright in ... clear sky, ... wind was sharp with ... frost and ... Atlantic rain. 5. ... moon cast ... dancing reflection onto ... river. 6. ... gentle wind whispered in ... trees. 7. ... third-quarter moon appeared in ... sky. 8. There are four cardinal points on ... earth ... south, ... north, ... east, ... west. 9. There are ten principal planets in our solar system which is called ... Milky Way. They are: ... Sun and ... Moon, ... Mercury, ... Venus, ... Mars, ... Jupiter, ... Saturn, ... Uranus, ... Neptune, ... Pluto. 10. ... horizon is the line at which ... earth (or ... sea) and ... sky seem to meet. 11. Do you feel in harmony with ... Universe? 12. The edge of ... brilliant red sun was now gleaming through the trees. 13. God, what ... world! 14. They are from ... absolutely different worlds! Ex. 69. A. Read the text and retell it The Northern Lights On my sixteenth day in Denmark, it happened. I was returning after my morning walk and in an empty piece of sky above the town there appeared a translucent cloud of many colours pinks and greens and blues and pale purples. It glimmered and seemed to swirl. Slowly it stretched across the sky. It had an oddly oily quality about it, like the rainbows you sometimes see in a pool of petrol. I stood transfixed. I knew from my reading that the Northern Lights are immensely high up in the atmosphere, something like 200 miles up, but this show seemed to be suspended just above the town. There are two kinds of Northern Lights the curtains of shimmering gossamer that everyone has seen in pictures, and the rather rarer gas clouds that I was gazing at now. They are never the same twice. Sometimes they shoot across the sky, like smoke in a wind tunnel, moving at enormous speed, and sometimes they hang like luminous drapes of glittering spears of light, and very occasionally perhaps once or twice in a lifetime they creep out from every point on the horizon and flow together overhead in a spectacular, silent explosion of light and colour. They are capable of the most weird and unsettling optical illusions. They can seem to come out of the sky and fly at you at enormous speeds, as if trying to kill you. Apparently it's terrifying. The eerie thing was how silent it was. Such activity seemed to demand at the very least an occasional low boom or a series of crackles, but there was none. All this immense energy was spent without a sound. It was very cold inside my boots I wore three pairs of socks but still my toes were numb and I began to worry about frostbite. But I stayed and watched for perhaps two hours, unable to pull myself away as it was the most beautiful thing I had ever seen. B. Say if you have ever witnessed any unusual natural phenomena. Discuss it in the group. Ex. 70. Read and translate the following sentences. Comment on the nouns in bold type. A. 1. The lion is the national emblem of Great Britain. 2. There is perfect freedom in the mountains, but still it belongs to the eagle, and the elk, the badger and the bear. 3. The eel is one of the few creatures in the world that can kill by electrocution. 4. The parrot is the cleverest of all the birds, some of them can learn 150 words, 5. A forget-me-not is a lovely flower. 6. The emu is the largest bird in the world. It resembles the ostrich. B. 1. The human mind is a strange and complex piece of machinery. It takes a lot of understanding. 2. The calendar was a very useful invention. 3. I need a calendar for the new year. 4. The radio was invented long before television. 5. The garden has always been a religious symbol starting from the Koran and the Bible. 6. The article is a small word that causes a lot of problems. 7.1 love the ballet, but I fall asleep in the opera. 8. Television is a highly competitive business. C. 1. To her that great house appeared to be the most beautiful one ever erected by mortal man. 2. He knew only too well the true nature of man. 3. Does man have no choice of action in the face of such circumstances? The experiences of life show that man does have a choice of action. Man can preserve spiritual freedom, independence of mind. An active life gives man the opportunity to realize values in creative work. 4. The ancient Greeks believed that man could not shape his own destiny as he was at the mercy of Zeus. Over time, man realized that he did have power over his destiny. Immanuel Kant said that it's the ability to choose that separates man from the beast. Man has always stood up against the forces of the universe to proclaim, "I AM MASTER OF MY FATE." Ex. 71- Insert the right article. 1. ... azalea is truly an adaptable shrub as it will grow in all climates. 2. ... rose is one of the oldest flowers in cultivation. 3. ... man is harsher than iron, harder than stone and more delicate than ... rose. 4. Nobody can decide which came first ... hen or ... egg. 5. ... circus makes people remember their childhood. 6. ... television was invented by the Scottish engineer John Baird in 1926. 7. ... postmark first appeared in England in 1840. 8. ... sea cow is not... cow at all. 9. ... dragon symbolized evil in fairy tales. 10. The apple tree and ... grape are the oldest trees on the Earth. 11. The primary speech organ, the birthplace of our words is ... human heart. 12. ... speaking watch will soon be on ... market. 13. ... apple is ... symbol of New York City. 14. ... pen is mightier that ... sword, and considerably easier to write with. Ex. 72. Translate into English 1. 5B=55 2@5<O 1K;> 2?5@2K5 22545=> 2 =3;88 2 1908 3>4C. '0AK ?5@525;8 =0 >48= G0A 2?5@54. 2. 5=3C@C 0AA>F88@C5BAO A 2AB@0;859. 3. 8B  <;5:>?8B0NI55, => >= 6825B 2 <>@5. 4. !;>= 6825B 2 =488 8 2 &5=B@0;L=>9 D@8:5. 5. > <=>38E AB@0=0E 5ABL ?0<OB=8:8 682>B=K<: 2 =0H59 AB@0=5  MB> ?0<OB=8: A>10:5, 2 =488  ?0<OB=8: A;>=C, 2 !>548=5==KE (B0B0E  ?0<OB=8: >157LO=5. 6. >340 8 :5< 1K; 87>1@5B5= B5;5D>=? 7. 5;>A8?54  ?@5:@0A=>5 B@0=A?>@B=>5 A@54AB2>. 8. 8B0@0 ?>O28;0AL 2 A?0=88 2 13 25:5. 9. 8:B> =5 7=05B, :>340 G5;>25: 87>1@5; :>;5A>. 10. >4;560I55 8 A:07C5<>5  3;02=K5 G;5=K ?@54;>65=8O. 11. 5B5:B82=K9 @><0= >48= 87 ;8B5@0BC@=KE 60=@>2. 12. 5B5:B82=K9 @><0= ?><>305B A:>@>B0BL 2@5<O 2 ?CB5H5AB28OE. 13. >@>20  A2OI5==>5 682>B=>5 2 =488. 14. "N;L?0=  >48= 87 A0<KE ?5@2KE 25A5==8E F25B>2. 15. >;;0@  45=56=0O 548=8F0 !>548=5==KE (B0B>2. 16. # <C@02LO H5ABL =>3. 17. >;K=:0 <C7K:0;L=K9 8=AB@C<5=B, =0 :>B>@>< 83@0NB H>B;0=4FK. 18. ><?LNB5@ 1K; 2?5@2K5 A>740= 2 8=65=5@=>9 H:>;5 2 5=A8;L20=88 2 1946 3>4C. 19. ?5;LA8=  A8<2>; HB0B0 $;>@840. 20. >3 A>740; <C6G8=C 8 65=I8=C. 21. >@>B:0 687=L G5;>25:0! 22. 5@>  1>;55 A8;L=>5 >@C685, G5< <5G. Ex. 73. Insert the right article. 1. He is ... local priest in ... Anglican church. 2. ... church has a wonderful porch at the front. 3. His parents go to ... church now and then. 4. Bruce was in ... town with his wife to promote the film. 5. The market is an exciting and colourful part of ... town, full of noise and bustle. 6. This is ... small town, everybody knows everybody. 7. She went to ... town where her aunt lived. 8. ... school was a very happy time. 9.1 left ... school exactly ten years ago. 10. We met every day after ... school. 11. This is ... school with more than one thousand pupils. 12. ... school was built in 1909. 13. Criminals are kept in ... prison. 14. ... prison was surrounded by a brick wall. 15. ... prison is not the answer to many social problems. 16. Ben was taken to ... hospital with appendicitis. 17. There is a well-equipped laboratory at ... hospital. 18. Melaniewent to ... bed but couldn't fall asleep. 19. Why do you always put your shoes under ... bed? 20. Doctors advise me to sleep on ... hard bed. 21. He went to ... University to get education. 22. There is ... university in this small town. 23. There is no place like ... home. Ex. 74. Translate into English. 1. 064K9 45=L ?>A;5 H:>;K 8;;8 E>48B 2 30@06 ?><>GL >BFC. 2. @C68=K :@>20B8 1K;8 A45;0=K 87 BO65;>3> <5B0;;0. 3. 515=>: 2K@>A, =C6=> :C?8BL 5<C =>2CN :@>20BL. 4. =0 @01>B05B 2 0=3;89A:>9 A?5F80;878@>20==>9 H:>;5. 5. 5 <>3C 4>640BLAO <><5=B0, :>340 70:>=GC H:>;C. 6. @0D >=B5:@8AB> ?@>25; 2 BN@L<5 <=>3> ;5B. 7. = ?@>@K; ?>475<=K9 E>4 ?>4 BN@L<>9 8 A1560;. 8. A5 4>;6=K ?>9B8 2 1>;L=8FC =0 >A<>B@ (a medical check-up). 9. 0 3>A?8B0;5< 5ABL =51>;LH>9 A04. 10. K A;CG09=> 2AB@5B8;8AL 2 3>@>45. 11. >9 AK= E>G5B ?>ABC?8BL 2 :>;;546. 12. >@>4>: AB0=>28BAO 1>;LH5, 8 ;N4O< =C6=0 =>20O F5@:>2L. 13. >O 101CH:0 E>48B 2 F5@:>2L ?> 2>A:@5A5=LO<. 14.  3>ABOE E>@>H>, 0 4><0 ;CGH5. 15. 0209 2AB@5B8<AO ?>A;5 70=OB89 2>7;5 H:>;K. 16. #G510 =0G8=05BAO G5@57 =545;N. 5B> B0: 1KAB@> ?@>;5B5;>! 17. =8 >125=G0;8AL 2 F5@:28. 18. &5@:>2L AB>O;0 =0 E>;<5. Ex. 75. Read the following proverbs and sayings and give their Russian equivalents. 1. A foul morning may turn to a fair day. 2. A clean fast (?>AB) is better than a dirty breakfast. 3. A nod from a lord is a breakfast for a fool. 4. After dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile. 5. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man wealthy, healthy and wise. 6. All are not saints that go to church. 7. An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening. 8. A misty morning does not signify a cloudy day. 9. Go to bed with the lamb and rise with the lark. 10. After dinner comes the reckoning. 11. If you laugh before breakfast you'll cry before supper. 12. Better to go to bed supperless than rise in debt. 13. Hope is a good breakfast but a bad supper. 14. Red sky at night, shepherd's delight. 15. He that goes to bed thirsty rises healthy. Ex. 76. Insert the right article. I.Maxim left ... Ritz Hotel after their dinner at ... Annabel's and walked home crossing ... Picadilly and heading through ... Half Moon Street into ... Mayfair. 2. ... Easter Island in ... Pacific Ocean was discovered in 1722. It is one of ... most mysterious spots on ... earth. 3.1 flew to ... UK on the Concorde. I had hardly had a chance to eat a snack, relax and read my book when we were landing at ... Heathrow. 4. ... Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current which flows from ... Gulf of Mexico, along ... south-east coast of ... United States, and north-eastwards in ... Atlantic Ocean. 5. The waters of ... Seine trembled in the hazy sunshine. 6. In the vicinity of the house were ... Rodin Museum, ... French Academy, and ... Hotel des Invalides, housing ... tomb of Napoleon I. T.George had planned ...cruise to ... Greek islands as ... surprise for his family. They would be sailing around ... Aegean Sea for about a fortnight. 8. The two young women had attended ... Sorbonne at the same time. Their fathers, as it turned out, had been at ... Oxford University. 9. The highest peak in ... North America is ... Mount McKinley. 10. ... Monterey Peninsula juts out into ... Pacific Ocean halfway up ... California coast. 11. The travellers saw an oasis in ... Gobi, but it was a mirage. 12. If you want to see ... Lake Victoria and ... Mount Kilimanjaro, go to ... Kenya. 13. There is a project to turn ... Baikal area into ... Russian Alps. Ex. 77. Which of the given below geographic names can be used with the definite article? A. Kilimanjaro, Jenisei, Bermuda, Elbrus, Hudson Bay, Laptev Sea, Urals, Kalahari, Volga, Carpathians, Indian Ocean, Madeira, Etna, English Channel, Palm Beach, Arctic Circle, Olympus, New Forest, South Pole, Bridge of Sighs, Jutland Peninsula, Suez Canal, Swallow Falls, Sicily, Tower Bridge, Kara-Kum, Lake Chad, Bermuda Triangle, Malay Archipelago, Aleutian Islands B. United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Far East, Brussels, Netherlands, Booker Prize, Hague, Art Theatre, Riviera, Northern Europe, St. James' Park, Peacock Inn, Baker Street, Russian Museum, Salisbury Cathedral, Wailing Wall, Middle East, Southern Africa, Roman Empire, Miami Airport, Nobel Prize, Republic of Ireland, Athens, Winter Palace, Republican Party, Eiffel Tower, National Association of Teachers, Hawaii, Village of Sosnovka, Hawaiian Islands Ex. 78. Insert the right article. I. The hunters got lost in ... Rocky Mountains. 2. ... Buckingham Palace, ... Trafalgar Square, ... Houses of Parliament, ... Tower of London, ... Tower Bridge, ... National Gallery are the usual sights in ... English capital. 3. The six island countries of ... West Indies are ... Bahamas,... Barbados,... Cuba, ... Dominican Republic, ... Haiti and ... Jamaica. 4. In the mornings she used to read ... "Vogue" and he usually read ... "Mirror". 5. ... Berlin she had been born in, and where she had grown up, no longer existed. 6. ... Low Countries include ... Netherlands, ... Belgium, and ... Luxembourg. 7. ... Colorado River flows through ... Grand Canyon. 8. The names of the following streets have the definite article: ... Mall, ... Strand, ... Wall Street, ... Unter den Linden. 9. ... England of the 21st century will be very different from ... England of our days. 10. This producer got ... Nika for this film. II. Chaucer would have had difficulty in recognizing ... London of Queen Elizabeth, just as Shakespeare would have been lost in ... brick-and-stone London of D.R. Johnson, while Dickens, well as he knew ... London, would have been bewildered by ... steel and concrete London of today. Ex. 79. Insert the right article. Ecuador* Located in ... Middle of ... World and ... American Subcontinent, ... Ecuador has always been known for its strategic geographical location. Fronting ... Pacific Ocean, it has access to ... major commercial centres of the world: ... United States, ... Canada, ... Japan, and due to its proximity to ... Panama Canal, it is within easy reach of ... Atlantic Ocean and ... Europe. To ... East, Ecuador is ... door to ... majestic headwaters of ... Amazon Basin. Many experts in economy and commerce now consider Ecuador as ... point of access to this market of unexploited opportunities that is now opening its doors to the world. Ecuador has become ... place to create ... wealth of ... future. ... Andes divide the country into three basic natural regions: ... coastal plains, ... mountainous highlands and ... humid tropical lowlands, or ... "Oriente" as the Ecuadorians call it. These fertile regions are ... refuge of numerous species of animals and plants that increase ... exportable potential of Ecuador to the world. In recent years there has also been ... rapid increase in ... production of flowers, vegetables, and exotic fruit for export. Ex. 80. Translate into English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ranslate into English. 1. !@548 4>AB>?@8<5G0B5;L=>AB59 >A:2K <>6=> =0720BL @0A=CN ?;>I04L, @5<;L, 0=56=CN ?;>I04L, "25@A:CN C;8FC, >;LH>9 B50B@ 8 <=>385 4@C385. 2. !0<K9 1>;LH>9 3>@>4 2 D@8:5  08@, AB>;8F0 38?B0. 3. 5G>@0 B5G5B =0 A525@ 8 2?0405B 2 0@5=F52> <>@5. 4. =>385 ;N48 2AB@5G0NBAO C ?0<OB=8:0 CH:8=C =0 CH:8=A:>9 ?;>I048. 5. C759 87>1@078B5;L=KE 8A:CAAB2 =0E>48BAO =0 >;E>=:5. 6. B> ?>;CG8; >15;52A:CN ?@5<8N 2 >1;0AB8 ;8B5@0BC@K 2 1958 3>4C? 7. !0<>;5B ?@875<;8;AO 2 0M@>?>@BC 090<8. 8. D8F80;L=0O AB>;8F0 :>@>;52AB20 845@;0=4>2  <AB5@40<. 0030  @57845=F8O 3>;;0=4A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 8 :>@>;52A:>3> 42>@0. 9. 0B8:0= O2;O5BAO @57845=F859 8<A:>9 :0B>;8G5A:>9 F5@:28. 10. 5@8=3>2 ?@>;82 @0745;O5B <5@8:C 8 78N. 11. = :>@@5A?>=45=B 8 @01>B05B 2 725AB8OE. 12. 064CN AC11>BC >=8 E>4OB 2 ?82=CN "@8 C10 =0 &25B>G=>9 C;8F5. Ex. 82. Geographic Test. 1. What are the most famous monuments in Moscow? 2. The longest river in Italy has the shortest name, consisting of only two letters. What is it? 3. What is the highest point on Earth? 4. What is the longest street in St. Petersburg? 5. When we think of this river, we picture Paris, the Eiffel Tower and everything that is French. Can you name it? 6. What is the oldest country in the world? 7. What river flows through a city that has a country inside it? 8. Do you know the name of the town where Shakespeare was born? What river does it stand on? Is there any world famous theatre there? 9. Can you say what is the oldest Zoo in the world? 10. Name the smallest country in the world, with the population of just 750 people. 11. What is the biggest ocean in the world? 12. Name the biggest sea on our planet. What is the smallest one? 13. "The Mother of Rivers" what river in Europe is called so? 14. There is a neutral country in Europe, which actually hasn't been in wars since 1515. What is it? 15. What is the longest river on the globe? Do you know what the second longest is? 16. What is the difference between a channel and a canal? Name the most famous ones. 17. Name the country in Central Europe with the highest population density. 18. What is the most mysterious spot on the Earth's surface? 19. There is a famous city, which is in danger of going under the water. What is it? 20. What are the oldest books in the history of mankind? 21. What are your favourite places in your city, country or in the world? Ex. 83. Comment on the nouns in bold type. 1."I'm looking for a Mr. Silver," she answered, jumping off her bike. "Well, you've found him," the man said, "I'm Mr. Silver." 2. Amelia told me she had made a will. "It's all for Catherine. She is a Silver. The last of the Silvers. And the land I'm leaving for her has belonged to the Silvers for almost two hundred years." 3. For her part, she had proved herself to be a Jar dine through and through. 4. Excuse me, you have a phone call, Meredith. It's a Mrs. Alexander. 5. Irina Troubetzkoy's mother had been born a Romanov and was a cousin of Czar Nicholas. 6. David was shocked. "You are painting a very strange picture. That's not the Emma I know." 7.1 am not the Claudia of whom you thought, but an unimaginable Claudia from whom you would recoil. 8. Dear old Marion! No words can tell how I miss you! 9. Now I do recognize the practical, sensible Trisch, the Woman Who Got Things Done. 10. ... Sergeant, can I ask you to help me? 11. She's as eccentric as hell! And whenever I think of her, I think of scarves. She's always worn masses of them, rain or shine, all kinds of weather. Gwenny's a regular Isadora Duncan, if you ask me. 12. You are a real Childe Harold!  And you are a Don Juan! 13. Would you recognize a Shagal from a Malevich? 14.  Is Father in?  Not yet, but Mother and Aunt have just come. Ex. 84. Translate into English. 1.  181;8>B5:5 =0H53> 8=AB8BCB0 5ABL ?>;=0O @8-B0=8:0. 2.  5C65;8 MB> 459AB28B5;L=> 0A=5F>2 2 4><5 C B2>53> @>4AB25==8:0?  0, MB> B0:. 3. 0A A?@0H8205B :0:>9-B> ><0=>2. 4. / C65 =5 B0 0B0H0 A :>B>@>9 BK E>48; 2 H:>;C, O 2K@>A;0. 5. 0 BK ?@>AB> 659<A >=4! 6. >@4 !M=428G 87>1@5; 1CB5@1@>4. 7.  O=O 4><0?  =0 3C;O5B 2 A04C A @515=:><. 8. =0 8AB8==0O 8G0@4A>=.  ?>4>1=> 2A5< 8G0@4A>=0< 2A5340 2A53> 4>18205BAO. 9. / A>18@0NAL :C?8BL =>2K9 A;>20@L  %>@=18 8;8 65 >;;8=7. 10. 0F8>=0;L=0O 30;5@5O :C?8;0 >35=0 =0 0C:F8>=5. 11. K A>2A5< =5 C7=05< 45;>2CN, ?@0:B8G=CN 0@8=C. 5@54 =0<8 A>25@H5==> 4@C30O 0@8=0. 12. !5@51@>2K  1>;LH85 :=83>;N1K. Ex. 85. Comment on the nouns in bold type. 1. The house drew her back like a magnet. 2. They train like fanatics. 3. The sea was like black oil. 4. There's no fool like an old fool. 5. They were like two peas in a pod. 6. The moon shone in the purple sky, like a coin tossed up and caught mid-game. 7. My wife looks like a complete knockout in this frock. 8. "You mustn't be embarrassed," he murmured in an understanding tone. 9. They danced in silence, cheek to cheek. 10. Why are you talking in a whisper? 11. Patsy had always been as solid as a rock, hardworking, dependable, devoted and loyal. 12. Gosh, I'm as happy as a pumpkin in a patch to see you! 13. "Your words are not flattering," she replied with a dry smile. 14. "I can never be yours," she said with pathos, and he accepted the words with a heavy heart. 15. If you had as little money as manners, you'd be the poorest of all the people. 16. They were as different as chalk and cheese. Ex. 86. Insert the article if necessary. 1. David grinned like ... Cheshire cat. 2. Life is funny, she mused, it's like ... circle. 3. Harris and Ben curled their lips like ... sullen teenagers. 4. Why make yourself miserable with ... jealousy? 5. Carl drove like ... maniac. He had to. 6.1 am as happy as ... clam in ... seaweed. 7. She said it in ... low, thoughtful voice. 8. The women looked like ... typical country matrons. 9. The moon shone like ... promise. 10. On this particular morning, she looked as bright and sparkling as ... brand-new penny. 11. "Another dead end," he said in ... miserable tone. 12.1 am quite breathless with ... admiration. 13. Her spirits were as light as ... air. 14.1 think you may go with ... easy mind. 15. He looks like ... hippie. 16. Why are you looking so gloomy, my love? You've got a face like ... wet weekend. Ex. 87. A. Match the given phrases with suitable words. Model: l.As easy as pie, ABC. 1. as easy as . 2. as fat as... 3. as cold as... 4. as dead as ... 5. as blind as... 6. as plump as .. 7. as quiet as ... 8. as silent as... 9. as tough as ... 10. as soft as... 11. as black as ... 12. as greedy as . 13. as free as ... 14. cunning as... the grave a lamb a bat a doornail a fox a bird pie, ABC a pig charity pitch a partridge leather butter soot  B. Complete the phrases with suitable words Give as many variants as possible. 1. She sings like... 2. She runs like ... 3. She swims like ... 4. She flies like ... 5. It was as light as ... 6. She was as happy as ... 7. She sleeps like ... 8. It was as safe as ... 9. She was as pretty as ... 10. He was as busy as ... 11. A change is as good as ... 12. It was as hard as ... 13. It was as heavy as ... 14. He was as ugly as ... 15. It was as black as... 16. She was as white as... 17. He is as slow as ... 18. He is as merry as ... 19. He is as brave as ... 20. He is as blind as ... 21. He is as limp as ... 22. He is as obstinate as ... 23. It's as old as ... 24. It's as safe as ... 25. He is as deaf as ... 26. He is as drunk as ... C. Use some of the given above phrases to describe the characters and habits of your friends, relatives, teachers, etc. Mind, that your criticism should be mild and friendly. Ex. 88. Translate into English. 1. 728=8B5, => O >G5=L B>@>?;NAL,  A:070;0 >=0 B8E>. 2. A;8 BK E>G5HL G53>-B> 4>18BLAO, B> 4>;65= :@CB8BLAO :0: 15;:0 2 :>;5A5. 3. =0 E>@>H0 :0: :0@B8=:0. 4. =0 <=5 :0: 2B>@0O <0BL. 5. !>A548 >B=5A;8AL : =0< A ?>=8<0=85< 8 A8<?0B859. 6. 8G0@4 >1@0I05BAO A =59 :0: A E@CAB0;L=>9 207>9. 7. M=A8 <>3;0 G8B0BL :064>3> 87 A2>8E 45B59 :0: @0A:@KBCN :=83C. 8. = ?>4>15= :>H:5, C :>B>@>9 452OBL 687=59  >= 2A5340 2KE>48B ACE8< 87 2>4K. 9. !;>20 >1@CH8;8AL =0 =55 A;>2=> M;5:B@8G5A:89 H>:. 10. 0725 BK =5 ?>=8<05HL, GB> 2545HL A51O 3;C?K< >1@07><? 11. "K =5 A>>1I8; <=5 =8G53> =>2>3>. AB>@8O AB0@0 :0: <8@. 12.  >E>65, 1C45B 4>64L.   <=5 :065BAO, GB> 1C45B A=53. 13. 51> 1K;> ?>E>65 =0 1574>==K9 :>;>45F. 14. / 2 >BG0O=88, 0 2K 2545B5 A51O :0: 157>B25BAB25==K5 ;N48. 15.  / ?>3>2>@N A =8<.  5B, =5B. -B> 1C45B A;>2=> :@0A=0O B@O?:0 4;O 1K:0. 16. '5AB=> 3>2>@O, 4;O <5=O <8@ ?>4>15= <K;L=>9 >?5@5. Ex. 89. Comment on the use of articles with nouns in bold type. I. Amanda always remembered her childhood with a feeling of bittersweet nostalgia. 2. He looks like a man of great heart. 3. Olivia Wainright was a woman of impeccable character, high principles, and down-to-earth common sense. 4. He did it in the flick of an eyelash. 5. The question was on the tip of her tongue. 6. We'll set off at the crack of dawn tomorrow. 7. She knows Yorkshire like the back of her hand. 8. He was a creature of habit. 9. She had a great sense of style. 10. We are right in the middle of Christmas preparations now. II. The face of a person shows what life he has lived. 12. Grammar isn't just a set of rules, is it? 13.1 think I could do with a quick cup of coffee. 14. A bar of fruit and nuts chocolate is a good snack. 15. Can you give me a piece of sensible advice? 16. They promise a spell of good weather at the end of the month. Ex. 90. Insert the article if necessary 1. ... beginning of ... detective story should be mysterious and gripping. 2. ... beginning of ... novel was boring but ... end was fantastic. 3. In big cities people have to live in ... blocks of ... flats. 4. Julia worked hard and soon was at ... top of ... class. 5. The snow lay thick on ... roof of ... house. 6. ... roof of ... private house needs regular care. 7. Chris had ... feeling of ... complete and ... utter love. 8. For her, the Union Jack was not merely ... national emblem of Great Britain, but ... symbol of ... justice, ... democracy and ... freedom. 9. ... piece of ... information we've just got is very timely. 10. They sat down on a bench under ... shade of ... weeping willow. 11. ... proof of ... pudding is in the eating. 12. Great treasures lie hidden in ... depths of ... World Ocean. 13. That's ... other side of ... coin, so to say. 14.1 know him like ... palm of my hand. Ex.91. Translate into English. 1. -B>B AKI8: ?KB05BAO 4>1@0BLAO 4> ACB8 45;0. 2. 0G8=0O A @0==59 25A=K, :@5ABLO=5 2AB0NB A ?5@2K< ?@>1;5A:>< 70@8. 3. >@0;L A59 10A=8 >G5=L ?>CG8B5;L=0. 4. !B0O 3>;C159 CAB@>8;0AL =0 :@KH5 A>1>@0. 5. # <>53> 4@C30 >1>AB@5==>5 GC2AB2> A?@0254;82>AB8. 6. 5C65;8 BK 25@8HL, GB> 2 B><, GB> >= 3>2>@8B, 5ABL E>BL A;>2> ?@024K? 7. (5:A?8@ 25@8; 2 :>;5A> D>@BC=K. 8. @C3>2>@>B 687=8 15A:>=5G5=, 8 >= =8:>340 =5 <5=O5BAO. 9. !C4L10 G5;>25:0 7028A8B >B >G5=L <=>38E 25I59. 10. KA>:> 2 =515 <K C2845;8 0@:C @04C38. 11. ! 25@H8=K E>;<0 <>6=> C2845BL ?0=>@0<C $;>@5=F88. 12. !5@4F5 65=I8=K =5?@54A:07C5<>. 13. @C??0 2B>@>:C@A=8:>2 87CG05B 8B0;LO=A:89 O7K:. 14. # <5=O A;><0;0AL <0H8=0, 8 B5?5@L <=5 =C6=0 :@C3;5=L:0O AC<<0 45=53, GB>1K >B@5<>=B8@>20BL 55. 15. 0 @>O;5 AB>O;0 D83C@:0 A>;40B0. 16. $83C@0 <0=5:5=I8FK 4>;6=0 A>>B25BAB2>20BL >?@545;5==K< B@51>20=8O<. Ex. 92. Comment on the use of articles with nouns in bold type. 1. Matilda, a sensitive and brilliant girl, was very quick to learn. 2. The dictionary, a Collins, is the most reliable source of information for me. 3. Ben and Andy, undisciplined boys, drove many teachers to despair. 4. Tatyana, a colleague of mine, invited us to her birthday party. 5. Pushkin, the great Russian poet, loved autumn very much. 6. Walt Disney, the famous film animator and producer, created Disneyland, a large pleasure park, which was opened in California in 1955. 7. The next day, a Tuesday, a telegram came. 8. We had some wine for dinner, a bottle of Italian white wine. 9. President Washington was an outstanding man. 10. Who is Prime Minister of the UK? 11. Was the meeting of the President and the Prime Minister unofficial? 12. The artist Stubbs painted mostly horses. 13. Colonel Baden-Powell, the founder of the Boy Scout movement, was an Englishman. 14. Mind, it won't work. As long as I'm head of this company, I will handle all of our top customers. 15. As long as I'm here, you'll respect Bruce. He's still chairman. 16. You see, Nigel, as managing director of Jardine's, I have the last word. 17. The Queen acts on the advice of the Prime Minister. 18. Peter the Great, Czar of all Russias, was an outstanding man. Ex. 93. Insert the article if necessary. I. Mr. Marshall is a well-known economist, ... expert in his field. 2. ... Princess Margaret is known for her charity work. 3. Helen Westwood, ... professor of philology, studies the slang of teenagers. 4. Tracey, ... monitoress of the group, kept the register. 5. ... Doctor Johnson will accept you in a minute, madam. 6. There lived once two brothers, ... good and unremarkable men. 7. Vladimir Nabokov, ... world-famous Russian writer, was a master of style. 8. Brian is ... personnel manager of our firm. 9. ... King Arthur is often compared with ... czar Peter the Great. 10. Many delegates spoke at the conference: ... chemist Malikov, ... ecologist Nesterova, ... biologist Dimov. II. ... academician Lichatchyov was a great authority in this country. 12. He is ... President, so he has the last word. 13. Will ... Prime Minister Blair discuss it with ... Queen? 14. We are looking forward to July, ... month of our graduation. 15. I went into the town, ... large village really, looking for a hotel. Ex. 94. Translate into English. 1. 09@>=, 25;8:89 0=3;89A:89 ?>MB, A@060;AO 70 A2>1>4C @5F88. 2. 0< >G5=L ?>=@028;AO 8E 4><, =51>;LH>5 42CEMB06=>5 AB@>5=85 =0 15@53C @5:8. 3. =  ?@57845=B <0;5=L:>9 N6=>0D@8:0=A:>9 @5A?C1;8:8. 4. # ?@57845=B0 1K;8 ?5@53>2>@K A ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@><. 5. 8<=89 42>@5F 1K; ?>AB@>5= 0@E8B5:B>@>< 0AB@5;;8. 6. A5 45B8 ;N1OB 8::8 0CA0, 7=0<5=8B>3> <C;LB8?;8:0F8>==>3> ?5@A>=060. 7. =4@59 "8E>=>2  3;020 =0H59 D8@<K. 8. @>D5AA>@ 8:>;052 1K; 871@0= 45:0=>< <0B5<0B8G5A:>3> D0:C;LB5B0. 9. !>10:0, >3@><=0O >2G0@:0, >E@0=O;0 4>< ?> =>G0<. 10. 5B8, >7>@=K5 ?>4@>AB:8, G0AB> ?@8E>48;8 : =0< ?>83@0BL 2 B5==8A. 11. 0 >645AB2> B5BCH:0 !>=O 8 4O4O =B>= ?@85760NB ?>2840BL =0A. 12. >9 4@C3  28F5-?@57845=B 1>;LH>9 :><?0=88. 13. 0@B8=0, =51>;LH>5 ?>;>B=>, AB>8;0 F5;>5 A>AB>O=85. 14. 828, B@>?8G5A:89 D@C:B, 1>30B 28B0<8=>< !. Ex. 95. Read and translate the following sentences, paying attention to the phrases in bold type 1. Step by step we are getting nearer to our goal. 2. They walked from room to room, admiring what they saw. 3. Day after day things are improving. 4. We've been working side by side for so many years. 5. She read the foreign text slowly, line by line. 6. We call each other from time to time. 7. The fellow kept grinning from ear to ear. 8. It was all a big lie from start to finish. 9.1 must tell you that from beginning to end you acted most foolishly. 10. He is a gentleman from head to toe. 11. During the war the family lived from hand to mouth. 12. He keeps all his bank accounts under lock and key. 13. Let me announce you now husband and wife. 14. Mother and child should be protected by State. 15. Time after time I've tried to walk away from you. 16. The moon was rolling slowly in the sky, from star to star. 17. Traffic stood nose to tail all the way down the Strand. Ex. 96. Complete the sentences with the phrases from the right column. 1. Do you prefer travelling ... or ... ? in mind 2. If they start ..., they will be ... for by mistake the train. in vain 3. I miss you so much! You are always by air, ... by ferry, 4. It was ... or ... that she was saved. by train 5. This Persian carpet is made .... -on time 6. Her son, a sailor, is most of the time at once, in time 7. I know him ..., but not personally. by hand 8. ... you have come! Where have you been on my mind 9. It's a reliable airline. Planes are always by chance or by good fortune 10. Is this book still ... ? No, it's out of print. by night or by day 11. We can't say ... what will come out of it. at sea 12. I must tell you ... that we've lost a by thumb on foot first-rate teacher in Jim 13. Are they still ... ? Yes, they by name. at last are going to get married on Sunday 14. My car is out of order again, I'll have on sale off-hand to go ... to the office. 15. We travelled to Britain first..., then and then ... . in private ..., in love 16. ... did the parents try to stop him. He wouldn't listen to them. 17. Sorry, I've taken your keys .... 18. It's most important! Keep it ..., will you? 19. Vadim travelled all over Europe ... . Ex. 97. Translate into English. 1. 5=L 70 4=5< >=0 <5GB0;0 > 2AB@5G5 A =8<. 2. =8 682CB 4CH0 2 4CHC. 3. :> 70 >:>, 7C1 70 7C1. 4. K ?@><>:;8 A 3>;>2K 4> =>3. 5. 0G0;AO HB>@<, 8 :0B5@ H2K@O;> 87 AB>@>=K 2 AB>@>=C. 6. =830 B0:0O 8=B5@5A=0O, GB> O 7=0N 55 >B :>@:8 4> :>@:8. 7. =8 2AB@5G0;8 2A5 B@C4=>AB8 ?;5G>< : ?;5GC. 8. =8 ?@8H;8 =0 2AB@5GC ?>4 @CG:C. 9. K :>340-=81C4L 2AB@5G0;8AL A =8< ;8F>< : ;8FC? 10. 0H8=0 8 2>48B5;L A;8;8AL 2 548=>5 F5;>5. 11. # >BF0 8 AK=0 4>;6=> 1KBL 2708<>?>=8<0=85. 12. %>7O8= 8 ?><>I=8: B@C48;8AL A CB@0 4> =>G8. 13. =8 =5@07;CG=K, A;>2=> @C:0 8 ?5@G0B:0. 14. =8 >G5=L 154=K 8 682CB 2?@>3>;>4L. 15. 0<0 2 :@0A=>< B0=FC5B A> <=>9 I5:0 : I5:5. 17. "@0=A?>@B AB>O; 2?;>B=CN =0 5=8=A:>< ?@>A?5:B5. Ex. 98. Read and translate the sentences. State what parts of speech are substantivized and explain the use of articles with them. I. He never stopped looking for the unexpected. 2. We reward the courageous and the wounded. 3. This meeting is for me like a jump into the unknown. 4. Now I am reading a book by I. Murdock "The Red and the Green". 5. It's still unclear when the officials are going to take decisive measures. 6. If there is one secret weapon that's possessed by the successful, it is that they are highly organized. 7. Ben often thought regretfully about the past. 8. Try to learn to sort the good from the bad. 9. The Greeks built a wooden horse that the Troyans took into the city. 10. Must I understand the answer as a negative? II. Don't feel jealous, it's a him, not a her I'm dining with tonight. 12.1 hope I'll get a five for the test. 13. We talked about what we wanted to do, in the war and after, if there was an after. 14. The play was still running, it was a sell-out at weekends. 15. And the sky now was a hard metallic blue. 16. The Downs are an area of low grassy hills in the South of England. 17. The poor man lived among the down-and-out in the city Liverpool. Ex. 99. Insert the right article. 1. This book is about the dazzling world of ... rich and ... powerful. 2. Come in, come in, out of ... cold. 3. Her coat was ... cast-off from her cousin. 4. Blackie's skin was dark, it was ... nut brown. 5. Things have taken a turn for ... worse. 6. Emma was relieved at last that it was out in ... open. 7. I felt claustrophobic all of ... sudden. 8. He felt just ... opposite. 9. She always tried to see ... best in people. 10. The prospect of a new business deal gave her ... high. 11. Her eyes were ... startling blue. 12. The village was deserted, and it looked as if ... locals had left it. 13. You've said you like the house, and yet there's ... but in your mind; I know you. 14.1 vaguely remember that the house became a home for ... elderly. 15. My father, an archaeologist, seems to prefer ... past to ... present. 16. The Governments of many countries are doing ... near impossible to stop terrorism. Ex. 100. Use the right article if necessary 1. ... English will endure any amount of ... humiliation and ... suffering if you can promise them ... nice cup of .. tea at ... end of it. 2. There is ... strong tradition of ... hard work and ... good manners in ... English Internet School. And ... terrific atmosphere! 3. At one end of ... town stood ... old church. Most of ... shops lay beyond ... church. 4. ... teddy bear has come out of the nursery and into ... auction room to fetch ... massive prices. ... bears are one of ... few collectables that touch ... heart. They are very loving. 5. ... cosmetic surgery was once ... extravagance of ... rich and famous, but nowadays more and more people are going under ... knife in ... pursuit of ... better body and face. 6. Two thousand years ago 20 000 people lived in ... Pompeii, ... city in ... southern Italy, off ... Bay of ... Naples. ... Pompeii was built at ... foot of ... Vesuvius, ... volcano 4,000 feet high. 7. ... most famous battle in ... English history was ... Battle of Hastings. 8. ... traffic warden is ... man or ... woman who controls car parking in towns. 9. Before ... driver has passed ... driving test, he must carry ... red and white L-plate on... back and on ... front of ... car. 10. ... head of ... Church of England is ... Archbishop of Canterbury. 11. ... emirate is ... country that is ruled by ... emir. ... emir is ... Muslim ruler, especially in ... South-West Asia and ... West Africa. 12. ... British Finance Minister is called ... Chancellor of ... Exchequer. 13. When ... woman agrees to marry ... man, he gives her ... engagement ring. 14. ... head of ... British university is called ... vice-Chancellor. 15. ... life is easier than you would think; all that is necessary is to accept ... impossible, do without ... indispensable, and bear ... intolerable. 16. ... Hawaii is ... state which is composed of many islands in ... middle of ... Pacific Ocean. 17. The people of ... Hawaiian Islands speak the Polynesian language. Ex. 101. Translate into English 1. !8=>?B8:8 A>>1I0NB, GB> ?>3>40 =0:>=5F-B> <5=O5BAO : ;CGH5<C. 2. >9 4@C3  =58A?@028<K9 @><0=B8:. = 25@8B 2> 2A5 ;CGH55 2 ;N4OE. 3. !59G0A O G8B0N @><0= $. >AB>52A:>3> #=865==K5 8 >A:>@1;5==K5. 4. '5< @0=LH5 BK ?@8<5HL @5H5=85, B5< ;CGH5. 5. 5 3>2>@8B5 ?;>E> >1 >BACBAB2CNI8E. 6. '5< A8;L=55 1C@O, B5< A:>@55 >=0 ?@>945B. 7. = 87 4@C3>3> <8@0, >= >48= 87 871@0==KE, 87 ?@828;538@>20==KE. 8.  / :>A<>?>;8B.   O :>=A5@20B>@. 9. 51> 1K;> 1;54=>-3>;C1>3> F25B0, 0 <>@5  B5<=>-75;5=>3>. 10. >O ?>4@C30 @01>B05B 2 H:>;5 4;O 3;CE>=5<KE. 11. / A<>B@N =>2K9 A5@80;  5@7:85 8 :@0A82K5. 12. A5 <K 8I5< 2 MB>9 687=8 8450;. 13. # <>;>4KE 8 C AB0@KE, C 154=KE 8 1>30BKE 5ABL A2>8 @04>AB8 8 A2>8 ?@>1;5<K. 14. >;>45F, BK 70A;C68205HL ?OB5@:C. Test Your Articles Ex. 102. Read the text and retell it. Comment on the nouns in bold type. Venice La Serenissima. For these two days Vanessa became Frank's and Bill's guide, showing them places in Venice. These were small, 63 unique art galleries, museums and churches off the beaten track, shops where the best bargains were to be had, popular eating places favoured by Venetians in the know. "Shall we take a gondola up the Grand Canal, Vanessa? It's still the most spectacular trip, isn't it?" Bill asked, feeling a sudden rush of happiness surging up in him. "Absolutely. And I'd love it. It's ages since I've done it myself, and I guess the Grand Canal personifies Venice, doesn't it? Besides, I find gondolas a very relaxing way to travel." They sat with their backs to the gondolier, who was in the prow. Now they were facing St. Mark's Basin, the vast expanse of water that rolled up to the quay. The gondola slid slowly up the Grand Canal, past the ancient palazzos, full of priceless treasures, works of art by the great masters. The houses were built on stilts, just as Venice itself was built on pilings pounded into the sand, silt, and rock centuries ago. Sinking, Vanessa thought, with a shudder, they say it's sinking. And it was, very slowly, even though some of the rot had been stopped. How terrible if it all sinks. What a tragedy that would be. Directly in front of them now were the island of San Giorgio, the Church of the Salute, and the Dogana, the three pearl buildings to the entrance of Venice, which were turning golden in the late afternoon sunlight. "The light of Turner," Bill said, "and the sky has gone a peculiar yellow, the yellow which Turner captured so perfectly on canvas. I've always loved the paintings he did of Venice." Fading sunlight caught the cupolas of the Basilica, giving the pink, terra-cotta, ocher, and powdery yellow a dusky, golden cast. All these colours of Venice blended in a delicate mix, with just the hint of green here and there. And everywhere the sense of blue ... blues bleeding into watery grays. Ex. 103. Use the article if necessary. I. Glancing up, Bill scanned ... sky. It was ... soft, cerulean blue, filled with ... white clouds. There were no ...warplanes in ... sight. ... armored Land Rover came down ... street and came to ... stop next to him. ... driver was ... British journalist, Geoffrey Jackson, ... old friend, who worked for ... Daily Mail. "... explosion came from over there," Jeoffrey said, "Want ... lift?" "Sure do, thanks," Bill replied and hopped into ... Land Rover. As they raced along ... street, Bill said aloud, "It was more than likely ... bomb was lobbed into ... Sarajevo by ... Serbs in ... hills, don't you think?" "Absolutely," Geoffrey agreed, "but we are supposed to leave ... town today. For ... week's relaxation and rest in Italy." II. ...light in ... piazza was silvery, ... sky leaden, ... faint mist was rising from ... lagoon and ... canals were in ... veil of ... grey on this cold winter's afternoon. Bill walked slowly across ... St. Mark's Square, not caring about ... weather in ... least. It was ... relief to be in ... Venice after ... battlefields of ... Bosnia. ... Venetians loved this city, La Serenissima they called it, this city of ... churches and ... palaces floating on ... water, brimming with ... treasures of ... art and ... architecture. Bill thought it was one of ... most intriguing and evocative places in ... world. Ex 104. Read the text and comment on the use or on the absence articles. Retell the text. Bill Fitzgerald, chief foreign correspondent for CHS, the American cable news network, was now a war correspondent, and it was his job to bring the news to the people. World news. American news. Business news. Bill Fitzgerald was a renowned newsman, the undoubted star at the Cable News Systems, noted for his measured, accurate but hard-hitting reports from the world's battlefields and troublespots, be it Iran, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Israel or Iraq. Whenever flare-ups happened, Bill and his crew were right in the thick of it. Feverishly filming, wanting to be graphic, moving, vivid, and hard-hitting. People trusted him, had confidence in him, and his newscasts had huge success on television. Bill always followed the old journalistic rule of thumb: WHO, WHEN, WHERE, WHAT, and HOW, which had been taught to him by his father, a respected newspaperman. As a newsman Bill could never become involved with the events he was covering. He had to be dispassionate, objective and balanced. Like a bystander, watching in a sense. But sometimes, he couldn't help getting involved. It got to him occasionally, ... the pain, the human suffering. And it was always the innocent who were the most hurt. Wars killed the soul, drained the spirit, and damaged the psyche. Bill's crew were his cameraman, Mike Williams, and Joe Alonzo, his soundman who had done telecasts to the States with him for many years now. They had met about ten years ago and had been fast friends ever since. And even when they were in different parts of the world, they still stayed in constant touch. They were exceptionally close, shared the same interests and understood each other perfectly, they were usually on the same wavelength. (after B. Bradford) Ex. 105. Insert the article if necessary 1.... teachers are like weather, one minute good, one minute bad. 2. Opening ... fridge door, Jake took out ... beer, opened it and drank ... cold beer from ... bottle, enjoying it; ... beer always tasted better from ... bottle. 3. She is on ... diet, so she ordered ... calorie-free dinner. 4. ... evidence of ... happy marriage is when ... husband and ... wife obviously enjoy each other's company. 5. We'd like to have ... wedding in ... fall, in ... early October, just as ... foliage begins to turn yellow. 6. Emma's eyes rested on ... memorandum again. Here was ... opportunity she had been waiting for and she seized it. 7. ... red suits her; she's got ... great style. It's ... special kind of chic only ... French seem to have. 8. ... plane now was climbing up through ... sky, so blue that its clarity hurt ... eyes. It's ... sky from ... Turner painting in ... National Gallery, Emma thought, ... Yorkshire sky on ... spring day when ... wind has driven ... fog from ... moors. 9. He is ... music man and makes ... constant travels from one end of ... globe to ... other. 10. After ... light supper she went to ... bed early. Almost immediately she fell into ... sound sleep, and it was ... dreamless sleep for most of ... night. Then just as ... dawn was breaking she awakened with ... start and sat bolt upright in ... bed. Ex. 106. Insert the article if necessary 1. My Grandmother was ... true original. Strong of character, she truly ruled our family with ... iron hand. In ... velvet glove, of course. 2. Maxim was at ... centre of her thoughts. He was her world ... sun, ... moon, ... stars. 3. He had ordered ... chilled white wine; it was ... young wine and it was ... perfect choice. 4. It was ... beautiful night, warm, balmy, gentle. ... ink-black sky was sprinkled with ... stars, and there was ... hazy full moon. 5. "Harrow! That's ... marvellous school! Winston Churchill, ... Prime Minister of England, went to Harrow." 6. I'm looking for ... Miss Rosie. I was told she was ... barmaid here. 7. "Yes," she said in ... soft whisper. "Why, you sound like ... scared little church mouse." 8. ... marmalade is usually made from ... oranges. It is usually eaten for ... breakfast with ... toast. 9. ... woman must be ... genius to create ... good husband. (Balzac) 10. "... Royals" is ... serial, which portraits ... life of ... members of ... Royal Family in ... United Kingdom. 11. It was ... cold Saturday morning at ... beginning of ... month. ... first snap of ... frost was in ... air, after ... mild October of ... Indian-summer weather. But nonetheless, it was ... sparkling day, sunny, with ... bright blue sky. Ex. 107. Insert the article if necessary I. It had rained earlier in day and as Maggie left house, she lifted her eyes to sky. Sun was coming out again, and quite suddenly rainbow trembled up there above trees, perfect arc of pink and blue, violet, and yellow. Maggie thought it was good omen. Her mother had been most positive person she had ever known, one who had always believed in pot of gold at end of rainbow, and bluebirds bringing happiness. Mom was eternal optimist, she thought. II. I lay in bed, staring at clock in dim light of room. I had awakened sooner than I usually did. Although I was early riser, and always had been, I generally slept until six. Sliding out of bed, I went to window, opened blind, and stood peering out. It was still dark, but soon it would be dawn. I let myself drift with my thoughts and felt rush of tears. Blinking them away, I took firm hold of myself and went to bathroom. After pinning up my hair under cap, I took quick shower. Few minutes later, as I toweled myself dry, I found myself glancing at corner of bathtub near taps. Chapter III. THE PRONOUN Personal and Possessive Pronouns Ex. 108. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the words in bold type. 1. Research shows that one of the most overused words in any language is the word for I. Changing I to me (or vice versa) brings greater variety to your speech and writing. 2. Just between you and me, this course is a disaster. 3. It takes two, me and you, to make a dream come true. 4. Hello! Is that me you are looking for? 5. The relationship between them was often strained. 6. Look at the fish. It is alive! 7. He wanted her to go to a movie with him. 8. Who is there? It is I (me). 9. Max loved ice-cream more than she (her). 10. The boss considered the best candidate to be her. 11. My name should come after yours if the list is alphabetical. 12. Will you share your life with mine? 13. Everything I have is yours. 14. The responsibility is hers. 15. You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours. 16. Jack and Amelia changed my life, just as I changed theirs. 17. "By the way, Catherine sends her love to you and Pete." Blanche smiled. "And give her ours."18. Theirs was a true love story. It was a perfect match. 19. I don't want any partners. I want this business to really be mine. 20. Like most people who keep diaries, Judy usually writes in hers each evening. 21. Is there any place for me in this heart of yours, Susan? 22. The future is yours, don't let them take it from you. Ex. 109. Supply pronouns and underline the words which they replace. 1. The fax has arrived. ... is on your table. 2. Who told him the news? Not ... . 3. Who's that? ... is my sister. She works here. 4. Helen has had a baby. Is ... a boy or a girl? 5.1 have a car, but I really don't need ... . 6. Let's you and ... do it together. 7. Please take these food scraps and give ... to the dog. 8. He was loyal to whoever trusted ... . 9. Everybody has a right to ... own opinion. 10. What a sweet child ... is; ... seems the image of your friend Jack. 11. Maggie has got into a mess again! I sure wouldn't want to be ... tonight. 12. William and I smiled at each other. ... smile was as affectionate as .... 13. She laughed gaily, in that special way of .... 14. The offer we made solved her problems as well as .... 15. They think that ... is the best team. 16. You are my destiny, Anastasia! Yes, and you are ... . 17. ... is an informational culture. We worship information. 18. My friend Pierre is as intelligent as ... . Ex 110. Translate into English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life story), 0 O A2>N. 12. 48= 87 20H8E ?0F85=B>2 B>;L:> GB> 72>=8;. 13. = 70:>=G8; ?8AL<> 8 ?>4?8A0;AO A:@5==5 0H >15@B. 14. "K =5 7=05HL, GB> MB> B0:>5  1KBL <=>9. Ex. 111. A. Read the dialogue and retell it in indirect speech. Comment on the pronouns in bold type. At the Office George: Whose flowers are these? Fred: They are mine. They are for my wife. It's our anniversary today. G: Oh, yes? Which one? F: The tenth. G: Ours is in July, on the 25th of July, to be precise, at 3.30 in the afternoon. F: So I've got these flowers for her. Does yours have flowers, too? G: Oh, yes. Mine always has flowers. They are always "With Love, From Me To You". F: "With love from me to you", eh? That's very romantic. Does your wife have chocolates, too? G: Oh, yes, she always has chocolates on her anniversary. She has a passion for them. F: Which sort? G: Milk chocolates with sweet centres. F: It's amazing, isn't it? Mine has milk chocolates too, and they always have sweet centres. G: Extraordinary! Women are funny creatures. F: Yes, they are. Theirs is a strange existence. On one day of the year they are romantic and have sweet centres, and for the rest of the year... 70 G: Well, Happy Anniversary, Fred! F: Thank you George, you are very kind. B. Discuss with a partner your birthday, your parents' or friends' anniversary and the gifts which you usually give them. Demonstrative Pronouns Ex. 112. Make the following sentences plural. 1. This is a new dictionary. 2. That is my file. 3. Is this your disk? 4. That was not my idea. 5. That man is a busker. 6. Give me that letter please. 7. That was a good time. 8. We'll never forget that year. 9. This computer is mine, and that one is my co-worker's. 10. They lived in that place for many years. 11. This incident is rather strange. 12. Can you see that man? 13. Who is that woman? 14. This child is being difficult today. 15. Was that an old or a new edition? 16. This information is top secret. 17. That year was a lucky one. 18. That fax r was for you. 19. This advice is very timely. 20. That money was for him, not for us. 21. Look at the pictures, my boy! This is a sheep and that is a deer. 22. This is a golden fish. Ex. 113. Use the right form of the pronouns this or that. I. ... gloves are of the best quality. 2. I'll sign all the papers ... morning. 3. We can meet at 10.30. ... will be fine. 4. ... was a really terrible air crash last week. 5. Think of all ... people who need our help. 6. ... particular ' students are extremely bright. 7. ... is something one has to consider. 8.1 don't think very much ... days. 9. "... way, sir." 10.1 am sorry to barge on you like ... . II. ... whole business worries me. 12. The prices ... days are absolutely astronomical. 13. ... was a wrong thing to do. 14. Any chance of you getting away ... summer? 15. ... was ages ago! 16. It's a difficult area to get jobs in! Yes, ... 's true. 17. ... dress we saw in the shop-window was from Paris. 18. They discussed ... events at the briefing. 19. Who was calling? ... was Freddie. 20. People were helpless against nature in ... ages. 21. These pictures remind me of you, especially ... one. Ex. 114. Translate into English 1. 0 MB>9 =545;5 C <5=O 1C45B >G5=L <=>3> 45;. 2. 0< E>B5;>AL 1K ?>1;03>40@8BL B5E ;N459, :>B>@K5 ?><>30;8 8 ?>445@6820;8 =0A. 3.  B> 1C45B >ACI5AB2;OBL 2A5 MB8 ?@>5:BK?  -B8 A?5F80;8ABK. 4.  4@02AB2C9B5, <>6=> : B5;5D>=C 0HC?  B> 55 A?@0H8205B?  -B> 8<0. 5. #25@5=0, GB> MB>B ?;0= A@01>B05B. 6. -B8 45B8 B>G=> A254CB <5=O A C<0. =8 >?OBL 45@CBAO. 7. >;>68 MB> O1;>:> 8 2>7L<8 ;CGH5 B>, >=> A;0I5. 8.  B> MB> 72>=8; B515?  -B> 1K;0 101CH:0. 9. "5 ;N48 >:>;> AB>9:8 10@0  ?>?C;O@=K5 ?52FK. 10. K G8B0;8 MB8 A2545=8O? 11. -B8 45=L38 ?@8=04;560B =4@5N. 12. -B0 >45640 >G5=L 4>@>30O. 13. >B>@0O B2>O 48A:5B0: MB0 8;8 B0? 14. -B0 <C7K:0 <5=O @0AA;01;O5B. 15.  0:85 BCD;8 BK 2A5-B0:8 2K15@5HL: B5 8;8 MB8?  C<0N, MB0 ?0@0 <=5 ?>4>945B. 16. "5 E@870=B5<K, :>B>@K5 2K ?>40@8;8 <=5, 1K;8 GC45A=K5. Reflexive Pronouns Ex. 115. Read and translate the sentences Say whether the self-pronoun is reflexive or emphatic State its function in the sentence 1. You're a maverick like me. Always be yourself, Mai, always be true to yourself. 2. But I've forced myself to keep going, to function. Being incredibly busy works wonders. I learned that myself a long time ago. 3. Jake knew deep within himself that they were from wholly different worlds. 4. In fact, he considered himself to be in command of the situation. 5. She felt herself choking up for a reason she couldn't explain. 6. The smile spreading itself across her face was one of pure radiance. 7. Myself I never read best-sellers on principle. It's a good rule of thumb. If the masses like it, then I'm sure that I won't. 8. The seals sunned themselves on the warm rocks. 9. We prefer living by ourselves. 10. His son always gets himself in trouble. 11. Every teenager looks forward to taking the car out by himself. 12. May you not burden yourself with a need to make sense out of everything! Ex.116. Fill in the blanks with suitable self-pronouns 1. They have only ... to blame. 2. Who knows better than Mark ... what he should do? 3. The mayor ... cut the ribbon to open the new city hospital. 4. That woman has put ... in a difficult position. 5. The governor ... will speak at the university. 6. One can easily injure ... while skiing. 7. You cannot expect a baby to take care of ... . 8. You may burn ... with matches. 9. After a busy day he likes to be .... 10. Bach dedicated ... to music. 11. We had to throw ... on the mercy of "Intourist". 12. The hunter accidentally shot ... in the foot. 13.1 had a good, proper look at ... in the mirror tonight. 14. I'm sorry that I didn't make ... clear. 15. It's hot, Mommy. Can I take my T-shirt off? I don't think you should, darling. I don't want you to expose ... to the sun. 16. People like to unburden ... to complete strangers. 17. He was beside ... with anger. 18. She allowed ... to be led from the room. Ex. 117. Translate into English 1. = C3@>60; C<>@8BL A51O 3>;>4><, 5A;8 >=8 =5 >?C1;8:CNB 53> AB8E8. 2.  !:>;L:> 65 MB> 1C45B?  !0< 2KAG8B09 (to work out). 3. !>15@8AL, BK 65 <C6G8=0! 4. =0 A;8H:>< <=>3> > A515 4C<05B. 5. > CB@0< O 3>B>2;N A515 G0H5G:C :>D5 8 1CB5@1@>4. 6. !0< @5H09 A2>8 ?@>1;5<K. 7. / :>H:0, :>B>@0O 3C;O5B A0<0 ?> A515. 8. =0 8728=8;0AL 8 2KH;0. 9. #AB@08209B5AL ?>C4>1=55 8 C3>I09B5AL D@C:B0<8. 10. / A0<0 >1 MB>< ?>701>GCAL. 11. =5 ?@8E>48BAO ?>AB>O==> =0?><8=0BL A515, GB> O 4>;6=0 1KBL 1>;55 B5@?8<>9. 12. / A0< GC2AB2CN, GB> 1K; =5?@02. 13. =8 1K;8 2=5 A51O >B 3=520. 14. = A0<> 1;03>@>4AB2>. 15. @54AB02LB5AL, ?>60;C9AB0, <>;>4K5 ;N48. 16. K >GCB8;8AL 2 A>25@H5==> =57=0:><>< <5AB5. 17. =0 ?>9<0;0 A51O =0 B><, GB> 4C<0;0, :0: BO65;0 687=L. 18. =8 A0<8 =5 >G5=L 2 MB>< C25@5=K. Ex. 118. Find the English equivalents for the following words. Make up sentences of your own with them 1. A0<>C25@5==K9 2. M3>F5=B@8G=K9 3. A0<>:>=B@>;L 4. A0<>70I8B0 5. A0<>48AF8?;8=0 6. A0<>C2065=85 7. A0<>C?@02;5=85 8. A0<>4>AB0B>G=K9 9. M3>8AB8G=K9 10. A0<>C4>2;5B2>@5=85 11. C25@5==K9 2 A515 Ex. 119. Translate into English 1. He >1>;LI09B5AL. A5 MB> =5 B0: ?@>AB>. 2. G5=L G0AB> 45B8 1K;8 ?@54>AB02;5=K A0<8 A515. 3. A;8 2K E>B8B5 2A5 87<5=8BL, B> =0G=8B5 A A51O. 4. >9<8, BK ;65HL A0<><C A515. 5. >G5<C O =5 <>3C A:070BL A0<><C A515, GB> O 459AB28B5;L=> AG0AB;82? 6. AB>@>6=>, =5 CH818AL! 7. =0 >GCB8;0AL ;8F>< : ;8FC A =57=0:><F5<. 8.  B5?5@L, 45B:0, C:;04K209AO A?0BL. 9. "K ?>72>;O5HL A515 E>BL 8=>340 @0AA;018BLAO? -B> 254L B0: 206=>! 10. >701>BLB5AL > A515! 11. =0 ?>A2OB8;0 A51O A2>59 A5<L5. 12. 5AOBL <0;5=L:8E =53@8BOB >B?@028;8AL >1540BL. 48= ?@>A?0;, 4@C3>9 ?>4028;AO, B@5B89 ?>25A8;AO... . 13. ;C1>:> 2=CB@8 A51O >= GC2AB2>20;, GB> =5?@02, => =5 <>3 70AB028BL A51O ?@87=0BLAO 2 MB><. 14. 8:B> =5 A45;05B MB> 70 B51O, B515 ?@845BAO A45;0BL MB> A0<><C. 15. 0AA:068B5 =0< > A515. 16. "K =0720; 1K A51O A=>1><? 17. >340 1K <K 53> =8 2AB@5B8;8, >= A0<0 256;82>ABL. 18. 1@07>20=85 2 MB>9 AB@0=5 4>;6=> ?>4=OBLAO 4> A>2@5<5==>3> C@>2=O, (bring up to date) 74 Indefinite Pronouns Ex 120. Insert some or any where necessary. 1. My teacher lives ... distance away from the school. 2. You should buy ... new clothes for the New Year, I think. 3. Ruth still has ... doubts about her marriage, but her boyfriend John hasn't got any. 4. Mum was sure we had ... honey left. At breakfast it turned out we didn't have ... . 5. Has there been ... discussion of the project? Yes, ... people are against it, I'm sorry to say. 6. There must be ... way to get in touch with them, but so far I haven't found .... 7. Is there ... reliable source of information you'll use in your investigation, inspector? I definitely have ..., though I am not going to reveal ... to you, sir. 8. ... people hate seafood. 9. Let's talk about it ... other time. 10. There aren't... markets on Monday. 11. There is ... dust on the furniture. Oh, I haven't got ... time for this. 12. Do you speak ... French? No, but I speak ... English. Ex.121. Comment on the use of some or any in the following sentences. 1. Could I get you some fresh orange juice? I have just made some. 2. Yesterday I left the house without any money. 3. The council refused to give the designer any financial help. 4. Can I offer you some wine? 5. Any of the staff could have helped you. 6. If you have any questions, call me. 7. Shall I send you some other files? 8. There was never any question that she would leave her job. 9. Jackie hardly ever has any doubts about her abilities. 10. Could you buy some cheese in town? 11. There is seldom any world news on this channel. 12. The detective failed to find any further evidence. 13. Is there any water in the jug? 14. Would you like some juice? Ex. 122. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative. 1. People usually have some free time on weekends. 2. Some of my friends also teach English. 3. There is some snow in the streets. 4. Wait, I'll make some coffee for us. 5. There's some soup left. 6.1 think I need some help. 7. She has some relatives in England. 8. Some people are so annoying! 9. We have some new contracts this year. 10.1 can get you some bread when I go shopping. Ex. 123. Insert some or any where necessary. 1. Irene's parents are ... doctors. 2. ... doctors, like dentists, frighten me. 3. Could you lend me ... money? 4. ... money is very important in this life. 5. ... cars parked in this area will be removed by the police. 6. If you have ... old books that you don't need any longer, could you bring them to our library. 7. This car hardly uses ... petrol. 8. Would you like ... brandy? 9. My mother bakes cakes with ... brandy in them. 10. Do you like ... olives? 11. Are there ... olives left? 12. Mushrooms should be gathered with care as ... can be very poisonous. 13. You'll like this new chocolate. Shall I save ... for you? 14. ... of his paintings would sell for big money today. 15. Do you ever read ... papers? 16. He hardly ever reads ... papers. 17. ... papers are really boring. Ex. 124. Translate into English. 1.  MB>< 3>4C "0BLO=0 ?>A048;0 C A51O =0 40G5 :>5-:0:85 F25BK, => =5 A060;0 =8:0:8E >2>I59. 2.  ABL ;8 A<KA; 2 B><, GB> >= 3>2>@8B?  >-<>5<C, =8:0:>3>. N1>9 MB> B515 A:065B. 3. / >1KG=> >B4KE0N A =5:>B>@K<8 87 A2>8E 4@C759. 4. # =53> =5B =8:0:8E ?@8G8= A5@48BLAO =0 =55. 5. @0G AG8B05B, GB> 2 A>AB>O=88 1>;L=>3> 5ABL =5:>B>@K5 C;CGH5=8O. 6. # =0A 2 4><5 @54:> 1K20NB 3>AB8. @83;0A8< :>3>-=81C4L? 7. # 20A 1K;8 :0:85-=81C4L ?@>1;5<K A =0;>30<8 2 ?@>H;>< 3>4C? / ?><=N, 2K 3>2>@8;8, GB> >=8 C 20A 1K;8. 8. =0 @54:> G8B05B 3075BK; 3>2>@8B, GB> =5:>B>@K5 =>2>AB8 55 ?@>AB> C1820NB. 9. N1>5 87 53> AB8E>B2>@5=89  H5452@. 10. 5 <>3;8 1K 2K ?@8=5AB8 =5<=>3> <5;0? 11. N1>9 ABC45=B 7=05B, :0: B@C45= ?CBL : 7=0=8O<, E>BO =5:>B>@K5 2A5 65 =045NBAO =0 C40GC. 12.  =5 =@028BAO =5:>B>@0O ?>?C;O@=0O <C7K:0.  <=5 =8:0:0O =5 =@028BAO. 13. %>G5HL ?>A;CH0BL :0:CN-=81C4L <C7K:C? 14. N1>9 2@0G A:065B 20<, GB> :C@5=85 2@54=>. 15.  %>G5HL >@5H:>2 A 87N<><?  0, >@5E8 A D@C:B0<8 >G5=L ?>;57=K. 16. / A>3;0A5= 2AB@5B8BLAO A 20<8 2 ;N1>5 2@5<O, 2 ;N1>< <5AB5. Ex. 125. Use some-, any-, every-, no- + one I body I thing I where. 1. Never trust... with such manners. 2. Let me see if there is ... we can do for you. 3. Is there ... at home? 4. If ... happens to the car, how shall I get to the country? 5. There should be ... behind all this. 6. Barbara was a teacher from ... near Newcastle. 7. Emily refuses to have ... to do with Jim. 8. Shall I bring you ... to drink? 9. Nobody can find out ... about that man. 10. Yesterday we couldn't find you ... . Where were you? 11. Hardly ... knew how to respond to this. 12. Many people think that the bad weather has ... to do with all the satellites in space. 13. You're wrong. There's ... strange about the man. He is a decent chap. 14. What's the matter? ... is the matter. 15. We looked for a policeman, but there was ... around. 16. Do you have any clue to this? ... whatsoever. 17.1 answered every single question. My opponent answered ... . 18. ... of us understood the play. 19. Mind, I'm having ... of that language here! 20. Don't be so nosy! It's ... of your business. 21. ... comes to those who hustle while he waits. (Thomas A.Edison) 22. ... should believe in ... . 23. Kindness, I've discovered, is ... . 24. Considering how dangerous ... is, ... is really very frightening. (Gertrude Stein) Ex. 126. Read the following just for fun. Everybody, Somebody, Anybody and Nobody This is the story about four people named Everybody, Somebody, Anybody and Nobody. There was an important job to be done and Everybody was sure that Somebody would do it. Anybody could have done it, but Nobody did it. Somebody got angry about 77 that because it was Everybody's job. Everybody thought Anybody could do it, but Nobody realized that Everybody wouldn't do it. It ended up that Everybody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what Anybody could have done. Ex. 127. Translate into English 1. 'B>-B> =5 B0:? / 286C, GB>-B> 15A?>:>8B B51O. 2. 8:B> =5 <>65B 1KBL 2 157>?0A=>AB8 2 MB>9 3>@OG59 B>G:5 (a trouble spot). A5 GB> C3>4=> <>65B A;CG8BLAO 2 ;N1>9 <><5=B. 3. 8GB> =5 <>65B 1KBL ;CGH5, G5< G0H5G:0 3>@OG53> G0O. 4. 9 01A>;NB=> =5:C40 ?>9B8. 8 A5<L8, =8 4@C759. 5. = 6825B 345-B> >:>;> "0<1>20. 6. >NAL, GB> MB> =8:C40 =0A =5 ?@82545B (to get). 7. / =5 ?@825@54;82, <=5 2A5 ?>4>945B. 8.  "515 5ABL 345 >AB0=>28BLAO?   A>60;5=8N, O =8:>3> 745AL =5 7=0N. 9.  A53>4=OH=59 ?@>3@0<<5 =5B =8G53> >A>15==>3>. 10. 8345 >= =5 1K; B0: AG0AB;82, :0: 2 :@C3C A5<L8. 11. 8 >48= 87 A>B@C4=8:>2 =5 3>2>@8; ?>-O?>=A:8. 12. 0< =C65= :B>-=81C4L, :B> 1K A45;0; MBC @01>BC. 13. =05HL, O GB>-B> 701K;0 27OBL, E>BO 8 =5 ?><=N GB>. 14. "515 A;54>20;> MB> C2845BL, MB> 1K;> =5GB>! 15. 2B>1CA ?>O28;AO 24@C3, A;>2=> 87 =8>B:C40. 16. A;8 ?>;8F8O 0@5ABC5B 20A, =8G53> =5 3>2>@8B5, ?>:0 =5 ?@8545B 20H 042>:0B. 17. 0: 2848HL, =8GB> =5 87<5=8;>AL. 18. 8GB> =5 =>2> ?>4 ;C=>9. Ex. 128. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the words in bold type I. Anybody can sing if they really want to. 2. Everybody is here, aren't they? 3. Nobody likes to be told what to do, do they? 4. Somebody has left his umbrella here, didn't they? 5. Nobody called, did they? 6. Every candidate said that they thought the interview was too long. 7. We greeted each guest as they entered. 8. Everybody had a most enjoyable time, didn't they? 9. Everyone is informed about it, aren't they? 10. Nobody agrees with him, do they? II. Everyone will be present at the meeting, won't they? Ex. 129. Read the text and say what you think about it What is the sexist pronoun war? Historically, the masculine pronoun has been used when the gender of the antecedent is unknown, or if both genders are represented. Many old proverbs illustrate it: "He laughs best who laughs last." "He who hesitates is lost." "He who plays the piper calls the tune." Some women see this as evidence of patriarchal domination. Others just don't like it. Often you can rewrite your sentence and avoid the problem altogether make the verb and pronoun plural, for example but sometimes rewriting isn't possible. Proposed alternatives include s/he and he or she, both of which interrupt the flow of the sentence and seem to be making a political point in the middle of whatever you are trying to say. Be aware that using the masculine pronoun may offend some people. Also be aware that the smooth flow of your sentence may be at stake. We solve the problem by alternating he and she ... it isn't a perfect solution, but it isn't a perfect world. The language may evolve, giving us a better option in the future. (from "Grammar Smart") Ex. 130. Read the following sentences and give their equivalents in Russian 1. For each man under the sun life is a game. 2. Every medal has two sides. 3. Every dog has his day. 4. Everything comes to him who waits. 5. Every man is the architect of his own fortune. 6. Everybody's business is nobody's business. 7. Every little helps. 8. Everything must have a beginning. 9. Everything has an end. 10. He was every inch a gentleman. 11. Every cloud has a silver lining. 12. This is America! Count every vote! Ex. 131. Insert every or each 1. ... morning my Mom left lists a mile long for ... of us, there was so much work to do about the house. 2. Opening my bag I took out two envelopes with Dad printed across their fronts in childlike letters. Handing them to Andrew, I said, "Lissa and Jamie have ... written you a card."3. She had a present for ... child. 4. We ... have our private views about it. 5.1 loved ... minute of it. 6. They were all just sitting there, ... of them thinking private thoughts. 7. Rosie changed the subject ... time it was raised. 8. She offered us a tin of biscuits and my sister and I had one ... . 9. The government changes ... five years. 10.1 had only two suitcases, but ... weighed over twenty kilos. 11. She has ... chance of success in the life she has chosen. 12. We only save enough money to take a real vacation ... other year. 13. We saw three young elephants, ... the size of a car. 14. ... of you should sign the register before you leave. 15. ... child should be educated. It's a must. 16. He inspected ... of the cars which were in the garage. 17. We have ... completed our work. Ex. 132. Translate into English 1.K 2AB@5G05<AO A 4@C7LO<8 :064K9 >2K9 3>4. 2. 064>3> ABC45=B0 M:70<5=CNB 420 @070 2 3>4. 3. 064>9 452CH:5 E>G5BAO 2K9B8 70<C6. # :064>9 A2>9 8450;. 4. =8 64CB 3>AB59 A <8=CBK =0 <8=CBC. 5. 064>3> A>;40B0 ?>E20;8;8 70 E@01@>ABL, 8 :064><C 40;8 <540;L. 6. 2>5 87 =8E =5 ?@8H;8 =0 2AB@5GC, C :064>3> 1K;0 A5@L57=0O ?@8G8=0. 7. 064K9 G;5= :><0=4K 4>;65= ?@>9B8 <548F8=A:89 >A<>B@ ?5@54 :064K< <0BG5<. 8. # :064>3> 87 =0A A2>8 ?@82KG:8. 9. 5 :0640O 65=I8=0 <>65B AB0BL AC4L59. 10.  MB>9 A5<L5 C :064>3> A2>O <0H8=0. 11. -B8 6C@=0;K AB>OB ?OBL45AOB @C1;59 :064K9. 12. = 4> <>730 :>AB59 ?>MB. 13. = 1@55BAO :064K9 B@5B89 45=L. 14. # =0A 425 :><=0BK, :0640O A 10;:>=><. 15. 0640O 87 :=83 1K;0 ?><5G5=0. 16. / >G5=L <=>3><C =0CG8;AO C :064>3> 87 20A. Ex. 133. Insert either or neither 1.1 was expecting you ... today or tomorrow. 2. He spoke ... English nor French. 3.  Which one do you want? I don't want... . 4. We can meet ... at six or at seven. 5. Nelly has two friends. ... is in town now. 6. The weather is ... cold nor warm today. 7. Doctor, you are not being ... frank or fair. 8. Which one do you want? I don't want ... . 9. There was no sound from ... of the flats. 10. She ... drinks, smokes, nor eats meat. 11. In ... case the answer is the same. 12. They may be ... here or there. Ex. 134. Translate into English. 1. =0<5=8B0O ?528F0 ?@85E0;0 =0 D5AB820;L A B5;>E@0=8B5;5< A :064>9 AB>@>=K. 2. 15 :=838 8=B5@5A=K5. >7L<8 ;N1CN. 3.  'B> BK 1C45HL ?8BL: G09 8;8 :>D5?  8 B>, =8 4@C3>5. / 1C4C ?8BL A>:. 4.  :064>< :>=F5 :>@84>@0 AB>O;0 ?0;L<0. 5. 8 >48= 87 <>8E 42CE AK=>259 =5 83@05B =0 <C7K:0;L=>< 8=AB@C<5=B5. 6. / B>65 =5 7=0N, 345 >= 6825B. 7. !45;09 MB> ;81> A53>4=O, ;81> 702B@0. 8. 0 :064>< 15@53C @5:8 AB>O;8 <0;5=L:85 45@52O==K5 4><8:8. 9.  / =5 ;N1;N ?82>.  >9 <C6 B>65. 10. >48B5;8 "0@0A0 =5 1C4CB A<>B@5BL D8;L< C60A>2 2 AC11>BC. "0@0A B>65 =5 1C45B 53> A<>B@5BL. Ex. 135. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the words in bold type. 1. She was now listening to whoever it was on the other end of the line. 2. And now let's go in and join the others. 3. However, there were other matters fpr us grown-ups to consider. 4. All European languages belong to the same family except for Finnish, Hungarian, Basque and one or two others. 5. Bees carry pollen from one plant to another. 6. The boxers went on hitting each other. 7. Some books are useful to read, others are just a waste of time. 8. He produced two films. One became a classic, the other passed unnoticed. 9. My Dad says he needs another car. 10. Some people are bitterly frustrated when this happens. Others are not. 11. One man's meat is another man's poison. 12. I've got another three books 81 to read. 13. On the one hand it is true, on the other not quite. 14. In 1900 the Uffizi gallery in Florence had 2,395 paintings on display. Today it shows just 500. The others are locked away, almost never seen. Ex. 136. Translate into English. 1. K 2AB@5G0;8AL =0 4=OE. K 402=> =5 2845;8 4@C3 4@C30. 2. -B>, B0: A:070BL, >1>@>B=0O AB>@>=0 <540;8. 3.  <>59 3@C??5 1K;> 425=04F0BL ABC45=B>2. '5B25@> 1K;8 8=>AB@0=FK, >AB0;L=K5 <>A:28G8. 4. # =8E 425 4>G5@8. 4=>9 A5<L ;5B, 4@C3>9 ?OBL. 5. 4=8 1;N40 ;53:> 3>B>28BL, 4@C385 =5B. 6. K =5?@028;L=> 4@C3 4@C30 ?>=O;8. 09B5 <=5 5I5 >48= H0=A. 7. # =0A 420 10;:>=0. 48= 2KE>48B =0 N3, 4@C3>9 =0 2>AB>:. 8. K 87CG05< <=>3> ?@54<5B>2. 4=8 =0< 8=B5@5A=K, 4@C385 =5B. 9. 0:@>9 >48= 3;07, ?>B>< 4@C3>9. 10. 52>G:0 H;0 2 H:>;C 2 ?5@2K9 @07 2 ?5@2K9 :;0AA.  >4=>9 @C:5 C =55 1K; ?>@BD5;L, 0 2 4@C3>9 1C:5B F25B>2. 11. 5:>B>@K5 ;N48 =@02OBAO =0<, 4@C385 =5B. 12.  # <5=O 420 7>=B8:0. 48= :@0A=K9, 0 4@C3>9 G5@=K9.  0, =5:>B>@K5 ;N48 ;N1OB O@:85 F25B0, 4@C385 B5<=K5. 13. N48 =5 @5H0;8AL A<>B@5BL 4@C3 =0 4@C30. 14. =5 =C6=> 5I5 @07 273;O=CBL =0 MBC :0@B8=C. 15. 0:85 5I5 A2545=8O 2K =0< ?@8=5A;8? 16. 5;> ?@>20;8;>AL, ?>B><C GB> ?0@B=5@K =5 4>25@O;8 4@C3 4@C3C. 17. N48 4>;6=K ?><>30BL 8 4>25@OBL 4@C3 4@C3C. 18. > 5A;8 <5=O >184OB, B> O =5 AB0=C ?>4AB02;OBL 4@C3CN I5:C. 19. 728=8, => =5 1K;> @C3>3> A?>A>10 A45;0BL MB>. 20. / ?>4>64C, ?>:0 25@=CBAO >AB0;L=K5. 21. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, MB> E>@>H89 H0=A, 0 A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, MB> >?0A=> . Ex. 137. Read and translate the sentences 1. All was quiet in the street. 2. They all live together in the same house. 3. We would all be disappointed if you cancelled the meeting. 4. He was all smiles. 5. Look, give me a chance. That's all I want. 6. Get back to the others and we'll forget the whole thing. 7. They're the 82 best in the whole world. 8. The whole of Europe is in crisis. 9.1 have never told this to anyone else in my whole life. 10. He ate a whole plate of porridge. 11.1 read the whole book in one evening. 12. All is well that ends well. Ex. 138. Read and translate the sentences. Say what part of speech the word one is in the sentence. 1. Ten minus one is nine. 2. If there was one thing Julie couldn't do without it was tea. 3. I'll have this one, thank you. 4. These trousers aren't as tight as the other ones. 5. We'll discuss it one day when you are feeling better. 6. Want a drink? I think I'll have one. 7. Come along now, little ones, off to bed. 8. One can get a free dinner here. 9. People were standing around in ones and twos. 10. It's nearly one o'clock. 11. Goodbye, dear one. 12. Hugh was not one to be easily fooled. 13. One will have to do it oneself then. 14. Which is your file? The one on the upper shelf. 15. Constant pain gets one down. 16. One can never tell, but to my mind he could make a fairly good husband. Ex. 139. Use one or ones instead of the nouns in bold type where |possible. 1. These oranges are tired. Have you got fresher oranges? 2. These gloves are a bit tight. Can you show bigger gloves? 3. This shirt is too bright. I need a darker shirt. 4.1 looked through the files and took the file which I hadn't seen before. 5.1 have had enough ice-cream. Give me no more ice-cream. 6. Which case is Fred's? The case with a tag. 7. The difference between a good doctor and a bad doctor lies in his competence. 8. This advice is more useful than the advice you gave me last week. 9. The new manager is much more competent than the manager we had last year. 10. Today's news is much more encouraging than the news we got yesterday. 11. I've lost my purse. I'm going to buy a new purse one of these days. 12. The weather this week is no better than the weather we had last week. Ex. 140. Read the proverbs and give their Russian equivalents. 1. One law for the rich and another for the poor. 2. One cannot be in two places at once. 3. One good turn deserves another. 4. One is never too old to learn. 5. One swallow does not make a summer. 6. They brag most who can do least. 7. You cannot have it both ways. 8. They also serve who only stand and wait. 9. You may lead a horse to the water, but you cannot make him drink. 10. You never know what you can do till you try. 11. You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours. 12. One learns by experience. Ex. 141. Read the dialogue and retell it in indirect speech. Two of Everything Mary, is it true, have you got two houses? Oh, yes. I've got one in London and one in the country. Oh, me got a very small flat. It's got two rooms, and a kitchen, and a bathroom. Poor you! And I've got two television-sets. One upstairs, one downstairs. Both colour of course. Marvellous! Our TV is very small. It's black and white. And I've got two cars. They both have stereo radios. Oh, my husband's car is very old. He's got a Mini. And I've got two villas. One in Spain, and one in France. Gosh, that's wonderful! You are very lucky. Well, yes, but I've also got a little problem. Pardon, you've got a problem?! Yes, it's very embarrassing. What is it? Well, I've also got two husbands. Ex. 142. Read the proverbs and give their Russian equivalents. 1. Little by little and bit by bit. 2. A little help is worth a great deal of pity. 3. A little learning is a dangerous thing. 4. Little things please little minds. 5. Little strokes fell great oaks. 6. Many are called but few are chosen. 7. You win a few, you lose a few. 8. More haste, less speed. 9. Least said, soonest mended. 10. Fewer clients, less money. Ex. 143. Insert (a) few, (a) little. 1. Wait, I'll pick ... roses for you from my garden. 2. ... people could resist such a temptation. 3. The patient has made ... progress in the last couple of weeks. 4. There is ... progress in the business. We must take some measures to improve it. 5. Could you give me ... information on the trip? There is ... I can tell you, sir. It's out of the list. 6. Paul put ... coins in the slot, thought ..., and then dialed the number. 7. Let's go to the market and buy ... fruit and ... carrots. 8. There is ... furniture in our country house. We need to buy ... more things. 9. I'm still hungry. I think I'll have ... more fish. 10. When I was a child, we kept ... pigeons in our back yard. 11. If I accept that job, I'll make ... more money. 12. There are ... cars on the road today. It's Sunday. 13. Many questions were asked, but ... were answered. 14. Wait ..., there are still ... things to attend to. 15. Even now there is ... we can do to improve the weather. Ex. 144. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the words in bold type. 1. The value of life lies not in the length of days, but in the use we make of them: a man may live long, yet get little from life. 2. She was a woman of great charisma, and few could resist the force of her compelling personality. 3. It is best to listen much, speak little, and not become angry. 4. Less is more. 5. Those fighter pilots, not much older than twenty, had defended England in the skies in 1940 and had been known as "The Few". 6. "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few," W. Churchill had said in his speech in the House of Commons. 7. She believed that the less people knew about you, the safer you were, for if they knew nothing, they could do you no harm. 8. But few things came as a surprise to Emma anymore. 9. Few doctors doubt now the importance of a diet. 10. If you are more careful, you will make fewer stupid mistakes. 11. She knew now that men like him were among the very few. 12. There are a few matters to attend to. 13. Try to persuade her to eat a little. Ex, 145. Translate into English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x. 146. Combine the following words with many or much. Spaghetti, sheep, a coin, support, traffic, a mug, housework, weather, a slice, knowledge, a notebook, furniture, a language, butter, equipment, a computer, deer, children, progress, scissors, means, linen, a fish, blankets, money, teachers, series, mail, sandwich, toast, make-up, light. Ex. 147. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative. 1. There is a lot of fruit this year. 2. There are a lot of apple trees in our garden. 3. There are a lot of slang words in his vocabulary. 4. There is a lot of interesting news in today's e-mail. 5. There are a lot of things which you still don't understand. 6. There is a lot of snow in winter in Siberia. 7. There are a lot of sights in every capital. 8. There is a lot of pollution in big cities. 9. We had a lot of fun at the party. 10. There is a lot of sunny weather in Italy. 11. Helen has a lot of good ideas. 12. My elder brother helps me a lot. 13. One should have a lot of patience to catch fish. 14. English people send a lot of cards on Christmas. 15. This journalist wrote a lot of books about famous people. Ex. 148. Insert a lot (of), lots of, plenty of, much, many, a great deal of. 1.1 wish you all ... good luck. 2. Is there ... oil in the Caspian sea? 3. We bought ... food for the barbecue. 4. Do you have ... homework to do for Saturday? 5. How ... exams did you have to take? Quite .... 6. My sister drinks too ... coffee. 7. He is so fat because he eats too ... sandwiches. 8. These days people get... information from (the) Internet. 9. Oh, Mother, I love him so .... I think you love him too ... . 10. ... and ... refugees came to Spain * and Italy. 11. There are ... daffodils in England in spring. ; 12. The earthquake caused ... damage to the country. 13. ... of the exhibition was devoted to his later works. 14. It was a big house with ... windows. 15. Feeling a bit better? ..., Doctor. ... better. 16. That's happened ... a time to me. 17. The information proved useful to ... people. 18. ... happy returns of the day! 19. Thank you very ... . 20. She doesn't talk about her life ... . 21. Now I feel ... more confident. 22. It is ... less likely. 23. We've got ... time. 25. There are always ... jobs to be done. 26. Take as ... money as you need. Ex. 149. Read the following proverbs and give their Russian equivalents. 1. Many a little makes a mickle. 2. Many hands make light work. 3. Many kiss the hand they wish to cut off. 4. Many would be cowards if they had courage enough. 5. More than enough is too much. 6. The more you have, the more you want. 7. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Ex. 150. Translate into English. 1. ><?0=8O B@0B8B <=>3> 45=53 =0 >1>@C4>20=85. 2. ABL ;8 1>;LH>9 A?@>A =0 2845>? 3.  MB>< 70;5 <=>3> A25B0 8 2>74CE0. 4. "K A;8H:>< <=>3> 4C<05HL > 1C4CI5<. 5.  AC11>BC <K A<>B@5;8 ?L5AC . (5:A?8@0 =>3> HC<0 87 =8G53>. 6. =>385 AG8B0NB, GB> >1@07>20=85  =08;CGH55 :0?8B0;>2;>65=85. 7. >NAL, GB> C <5=O A53>4=O =5 >G5=L <=>3> A2>1>4=>3> 2@5<5=8. 8. =>3>5 1K;> A45;0=>, GB>1K >A2>1>48BL 70;>6=8:>2. 9. # B51O AB>;L:> 65 H0=A>2, :0: 8 C :064>3> 87 =0A. 10. K; 60@:89 45=L. ">;?K ;N459 A?5H8;8 2 ?0@:. 11. 0A A;8H:>< <=>3>, 0 745AL =5 B0: C6 <=>3> <5AB0. 12.  # 20A <=>3> >?KB0 2 MB>9 @01>B5?  5AL<0. / <=>3> ;5B @01>B0; =0 !>=8. 13. -B> A;CG8;>AL <=>3>-<=>3> ;5B =0704. 14. 0 B5;52845=88 =5 B0: <=>3> E>@>H8E ?5@540G. G5=L <=>3> A?;5B5=, >G5=L <=>3> =87:>?@>1=KE D8;L<>2. G5=L <=>385 E>@>H85 D8;L<K ?>:07K20NB ?>74=> =>GLN. 15.  B5 B@C4=K5 2@5<5=0 B0: <=>3> 1K;> A45;0=> 4;O AB>;L <=>38E. Ex. 151. Use all (all of) or both (both of). 1. The defendants were proved guilty. 2. They were unnaturally silent. 3. They live together in the same house. 4. These are problems of no importance. 5. He and Edith agreed to come. 6. Nick and Nelly would be cross with you if you don't come. 7. The children in the senior group can look after themselves. 8. Father and me can understand your feelings, Martin. 9. We are Indo-Europeans. 10. Her parents are teachers. 11. He got angry with them. 12. We were young, Tom and me. 13. She is fond of you. 14. The prospects excited and worried me. Ex. 152. Translate into English 1. A5 ABC45=BK AG0AB;82K. A5 M:70<5=K ?>7048. 2. =0 >B40;0 45BO< 2A5, GB> <>3;0. 3. K >10 <>8 4@C7LO, O ;N1;N 20A >1>8E. 4. A5 ;N48 E>BOB 1KBL 74>@>2K<8 8 AG0AB;82K<8. 5. A5 ;N48 2 70;5 ?5;8 2<5AB5 A ?528F59. 6. K >10 4>;6=K A:070BL =0< ?@024C. 7. K 2A5 8=>340 ;65<. 8. / 701K;0 2A5 >1 MB><. 9. 09B5 =0< H0=A  MB> 2A5, GB> <K E>B8<. 10. A5 MB> >G5=L E>@>H>, => 2K >10 4>;6=K 1KBL >G5=L >AB>@>6=K. 11. =5 A>2A5< =5 =@028BAO MB>B @09>=. 12. 8B0 8 8=0, =5 <>3;8 1K 2K >15 >AB0BLAO ?>A;5 70=OB89 A53>4=O? 13. K C57605<, 2>B 8 2A5. 14. # =0A 5ABL 2A5 >A=>20=8O, GB>1K ?>445@60BL 20H5 ?@54;>65=85. 15.  10 3;02=KE 0:B5@0 1K;8 ?@>AB> 25;8:>;5?=K.  A5 0:B5@K E>@>H> 83@0;8. Ex. 153. Insert each other, one another. 1. They can't help themselves, they love ... . 2. The place is full of crazy people who talk to ... all the time and ignore everybody else. 3. They have known ... for years and years. 4. The members of this club meet regularly in ...'s homes. 5. She and John looked at... . 6. He began opening bottles, ... after ... . 7. We know ..."s minds very well. 8. All the children kept silent. They didn't dare to look at.... 9. She found ... excuse after ... to postpone the meeting. 10. We'll get there ... way or ... . 11. He ate ... sweet after... till the box was empty. 12. They hate being apart. They phone ... every day. 13. The business failed because the partners distrusted ... . Ex 154. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the pronouns in bold type. 1. What dress are you going to wear for the dance today? The one which I bought in Paris. 2. The old man who(m) you met in the park was my uncle. 3. I do not like people who talk about themselves all the time. 4. Is it the car that used to belong to your father? 5. She is the biggest liar that I know. 6.1 need a place where I can work undisturbed. 7. Where is the man who asked for me? 8. We always look forward to Mother's cake, which she makes the size of a wheel. 9. We can't believe that it's true. 10.1 don't know what you have promised to the children. 11. We didn't know that you had promised Mike a new bicycle. 12. Nora didn't buy anything because she didn't see what she wanted. 13. What day suits you best? 14. Pizza sounds like just what I want. Ex. 155. Insert that or what. 1.... shall we do next? ... is the question. 2. We all know ... you are! ... is no secret. 3. A shopaholic! ... is ... you are! 4. Is ......really occurred? 5. Don't you know ... he always does ... he wants? 6. You just don't realize ... you are talking about and ... is very sad. 7. ... embarrassed me is ... none of them ever thought of their mother. 8. Mother is absolutely sure ......you've chosen as your future career is not ... you really should do. 9. We greatly doubt......you say is true. 10. Is ......you really mean? 11. Money is ... I need. Everybody says ... they need it. 12. Nobody knows ... will happen in future. 13. Can anyone tell me ... his phone number is? 14.1 fully believe ... she is telling the truth. 15. Just tell me ... you want and I'll get it. Ex. 156. Insert the necessary pronouns. 1. ... actor must learn his words by heart. 2. ... actor has a different method of learning his lines. 3. Both books are good. You can have ... of them. 4. I've got a few friends but ... lives nearby. 5. There are shops on ... sides of the road. 6. ... professional musician has to practise regularly. 7. He painted several pictures in Italy but ... of them has been found. 8. The Headmistress spoke to ... child in the class individually. 9. Before you leave the coach, please make sure that you have ... your belongings with you. 10. ... my parents are still working. 11. ... of my parents has ever been abroad. 12.1 had the choice of two jobs but ... of them really suited me. 13. We looked in the library and in the canteen but there was no sign of Caroline in ... place. 14. Ben and Sharon looked at ...carefully. ... had changed a lot. 15. ... book on the shelf was a detective story. ... of the books was by Agatha Christie. I looked at them but ... appeared very interesting. 16. Christmas is a holiday that appeals to the child in ... of us. Ex. 157. Translate into English 1. N48 4>;6=K ?><>30BL 4@C3 4@C3C. 2. "0=O 8 0ABO  42>9=OH:8, 8 >=8 =5 <>3CB 68BL 4@C3 157 4@C30. 3.  / 3>;>45=.  / B>65. 4. 8:>340 =8G53> =5;L7O 7=0BL =025@=O:0. 5. #60A=>, :>340 BK =5 <>65HL 2A?><=8BL GL5-;81> 8<O. 6.  0:>9 0@1C7 E>B8B5 :C?8BL?  >;LH>9, ?>60;C9AB0. 7.  =5 =C6=0 ?0@0 BCD5;L.   :0: =0AG5B B5E, GB> BK :C?8;0 <5AOF =0704?  =8 C65 =5 <>8, <>O A5AB@5=:0 =>A8B 8E. 8. B:@>9B5 425@L, 45B8, MB> O, 20H0 =O=O. 9. =8 ?>AB@>8;8 4>< A0<8. 8:B> 8< =5 ?><>30;. 10. =8 4;O A51O ?>AB@>8;8 4><. 11. @87K 1K;8 2@CG5=K A0<8< ?@57845=B><. 12. A5 45B8 ;N1OB A:07:8. 13. A5< 45BO< >G5=L ?>=@028;0AL A:07:0. 14. # <C6G8=, :0: ?@028;>, <0;> B5@?5=8O. 15. 5<=>3> B5@?5=8O, 8 2A5 1C45B 2 ?>@O4:5. 16.  I5 =5<=>3> A0;0B0?  >;LH5 <=5 =5 =C6=>, A?0A81>. 17. =>385 ?KB0;8AL >B:@KBL MBC B09=C, <=>3>5 2A5 5I5 >AB05BAO =5OA=K<. 18. 8 >4=> 87 42CE ?@54;>65=89 <=5 =5 ?>4E>48B. =8 >10 =58=B5@5A=K. 19. 01CH:0 ?>F5;>20;0 <5=O A=0G0;0 2 >4=C I5G:C, ?>B>< 2 4@C3CN. Chapter IV. THE NUMERAL Ex. 158. Give the right form of the figures in brackets in letters. 1. My birthday is on ... of.... 2. They got flat (40) on (5) floor in house (123). 3. Find file (11) and correct (2) sentence. 4. Catherine (2) put a monument to Peter (1) in St. Petersburg. 5. What's the date today? It's ... of ... today. 6. Read (3) paragraph. 7. My son is (21) today. 8. They are celebrating their (15) anniversary on Saturday. 9. Take (1) turning to the right. 10. You'll find text (12) on (30) page. 11. We live on (6) floor. 12. Is (2) o'clock all right with you? 13. There are more than (200) languages spoken in Nigeria. 14. A (1000) is a (1000) years. 15. In the jungle we were attacked by (1 000 000) of mosquitoes. 16. If you need money badly, we can give you a loan of (200) dollars. 17. Will you give me (2) chance? 18. (2) song will certainly become a hit. 19. He was said to have salted away (4 000 000) dollars. 20. There are (300) kinds of macaroni in Italy. 21. Statistics say that more than (4 000 000) adults in Britain have trouble with reading and writing. Ex. 159. How do you say these numbers in English? Write your answers after each one 1. 462 2. 2 1/2 3. 2,345 4. 6.75 5. 0.25 6. 3 1/3 7. 1,250.000 8. 10,04 9. 47 % 10. 10 September 11. 3 July 12. 602 8477 (phone number) 13. -5 Centigrade 14. In 1903 15. In 2001 16. 0.7 Ex. 160. Insert the right article if necessary 1. Today in court we are listening to ... case 243. 2. ... second part of the book was much more interesting than ... first one. 3. ... participle one is used for building up progressive tenses. 4. ... second participle is used to build up Passive forms. 5. ... flight 579 starts at five sharp. 6. The planes came again for ... second attack. 7. Let's regard it as ... first step, just ... beginning. 8. It was ... first-night and the actors were nervous. 9. ... exercise 27 begins at ... page 44. 10. ... year passed, then ... second, and ... third, but there was still no news. 11. They agreed to meet on ... Fifth Avenue near ... building No. 112. 12. ... two years in Africa taught him a lot. 13. ... flat 55 is on ... fifth floor. 14. The room was at ... sixes and sevens. 15. This style was in fashion in ... eighties. 16. It was ... fifty-fifty deal. 17. She was ... third-year medical student. Ex. 161. Write answers to these problems 1. 23 and 36 is... . 2. 24 times 8 is ... . 3. 80 minus 20 is ... . 4. 65 divided by 13 is ... . 5. Add 10 and 6,multiply by 8, then subtract 40 and divide by 11. What have you got left?6. Divide 33 by 11,multiply by 7,and subtract 16. What number is left? Ex. 162. Answer these questions Write your answers in words 1. When were you born? 2. How much do you weigh? 3. What is the number of the flat or the house where you live? 4. Is that an odd or an even number? 5. What is the approximate population of your town? 6. What is the approximate population of your country? 7. What is the normal temperature of a healthy person? 8. How many kilometers are there in a mile? 9. How many years are there in a millennium? Ex. 163. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the words In bold type 1. She is a second cousin of Mark's father. 2. He was quite certain she had no need or desire to meet with him a second time. 3. Edvina returned to her book without giving her mother a second glance or a second thought. 4. It's said that everything goes in threes. 5. And then, to be a second wife was so much more difficult than to be a first. 6. I'm glad they've gone to Venice for a second honeymoon. 7. He was heavily defeated in a second round of local elections. 8. In the bookshop to his delight Maxim spotted a copy of "The Young Lions" by Irwin Shaw, his favourite writer. It was a first edition, published in 1948. 9. Over the years I have acquired a sixth sense about my mother's mood. 10. Is it possible to find a second job? 11. A third clerk left her desk and prepared to leave. 12. Without a second thought Blackie said urgently, "I have a solution, Emma! Marry me!" 13. The boy slopped through the ledge on all fours. 14.1 think it's better this way, that we go out in twos and threes less noticeable, for one thing. 15.1 was worried. Everything seemed to be at sixes and sevens. 16.1 began, as they say, to put two and two together. 17. A first class college offers you the highest standards of educating. 18. Elevenses is a light snack that you have in the middle of the morning. Ex. 164. Translate into English. 1. / @>48;AO 31 45:01@O, B0: GB> MB> 42>9=>9 ?@074=8: 4;O <5=O. 2. #< E>@>H>, 0 420 ;CGH5. 3. >=D5@5=F 70; =0E>48BAO =0 G5B25@B>< MB065. 4. (:>;0 !1236 =0E>48BAO =0 15-9 0@:>2>9 C;8F5. 5. 5;> =><5@ 587 A;CH05BAO 2 H5AB>9 :><=0B5. 6. !54L<0O G0ABL ?@81K;8 MB>9 D8@<K 845B =0 1;03>B2>@8B5;L=>ABL. 7.  0: =0AG5B 2B>@>9 G0H5G:8 :>D5?  !?0A81>, >4=>9 4>AB0B>G=>. 8. = A45;0; 2B>@CN, B@5BLN ?>?KB:C, 8 ;8HL G5B25@B0O C25=G0;0AL CA?5E><. 9. # =8E 1>;LH0O A5<LO. B>@0O <0H8=0 =5 ?><5H0;0 1K. 10.  30@065 425 <0H8=K. 4=0 ?0?8=0, 0 2B>@0O <>53> AB0@H53> 1@0B0. 11. ;5:A0=4@ 70:>=G8; H:>;C 2 2001 3>4C. 12. B> 3>2>@8B, GB> B@5B89 ;8H=89? 0>1>@>B, 1>3 B@>8FC ;N18B. 13. !59G0A O ?5@5G8BK20N "KAOGC 8 >4=C =>GL. 14. 0A5;5=85 MB>3> 3>@>40  A5<L <8;;8>=>2 G5;>25:. 15. 5@20O ;N1>2L =5 701K205BAO. 16. =8 2AB@5B8;8AL =0 ?@5<L5@5. 17. 0209 CAB@>8< G09 =0 42>8E, E>@>H>? 18. =830<8 . @8AB8 70G8BK20NBAO <8;;8>=K. 19. =>38< =@02OBAO D8;L<K H5AB845AOBKE. 20. <C 1K;> 345-B> 1;865 : ?OB845AOB8. 21. >8 4@C7LO 682CB =0 "@5BL59 C;8F5 !B@>8B5;59. 22. 5B8 ?@>1@0;8AL G5@57 873>@>4L =0 G5B25@5=L:0E. 23. >40 ?>:@K205B G5BK@5 ?OBKE 75<=>9 ?>25@E=>AB8. 24.  0B8:0=5 11 500 :><=0B. 25.  @5A?C1;8:5 !0=-0@8=> 6825B 2A53> 20 000 68B5;59. SUBSTANTIVIZED PARTS OF SPEECH Ex. 165. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the words in bold type. 1. Let me have my say! 2. May I have a think? 3. No ifs, no buts, no more cuts. 4. We are among the don't knows. I first heard it from someone who is in the know. 5. It was her duty to feed, punish, dress and bed down seven of the eight children. 6.1 hope you'll approve my plans and give me the go-ahead. 7. These stores specialize in seconds. 8. She believed her servants to be real finds. 9. A cup of hot lemon tea will do you a lot of good. 10. She had restored to alcohol as an anodyne for her ills only in the last year. 11. Emma had many imperatives but the first one was her child. 12. The cloth manufacturers were making khaki and navy and air force blue for Great Britain and her allies. 13. These pictures satisfy the European taste for the fantastical, the exotic and the sublime. 14. He is argumentative. He's had several run-ins with Gideon recently, and when Gideon was not in the least at fault. 15. This attractive book is a "must-have" for all lovers of fine food. 16.1 do sit-ups for ten minutes every morning. 17. We've been through thick and thin over the years. You are my very best friend. 18. They were opposites both in appearance and in character. 19. This Ranger defended the week against the powerful in the American Midwest. 20. We usually store our impressions in our subconscious. Sometimes what truly frightens a person can come to the fore in sleep, when the unconscious rises. 21. "What if they come after us?" said Mr. Bucket. "What if they capture us?" said Mrs. Bucket. "What if they shoot us?" said Grandma Georgina. "You'll never get anywhere if you go about what-iffing like that. Would Columbus have discovered America if he'd said 'What if I sink on the way over? What if I meet pirates? What if I never come back?' He wouldn't even have started. We want no what-iffers around here." Ex. 166. Read and translate the sentences. Find substantivized parts of speech and comment on them. 1. With the wisdom of the old she found a way out. 2. The uniform suits you. You should wear more blue. 3. She knew she had done me a terrible wrong. 4. After a most enjoyable Maths lesson I felt it was my duty as a monitoress to lecture the first years on the importance of having spotless finger nails. 5. The young are slaves to novelty, the old to custom. 6. The most learned are not the wisest. 7. The room was bursting with sofas and chairs and mahogany whatnots. 8. Fascinated, she walked slowly around the bedroom, which was decorated in a mixture of greyish pinks, smoky blues and greens. 9. "Why do you think you had this flashback all of a sudden?" Catherine asked curiously. 10. He was a German through and through. 11. It's a possible, but I must think about it. 12. Will you drop in at the shop and buy a bitter for me? 13. And then the unpredictable happened. 14. Why, one might say we're more English than the English. 15. Convention is the great enemy of human good. 16. The wise must endure fools. 17. After a storm comes a calm. 18. Matilda was losing her cool. 19. For their own good and for the good of society, they should be interned behind barbed wire. 20. Promptness in business is a must. 21. There are so many Englishes in the world. Ex. 167. Substantivize the following words and make up sentences of your own with them. Classic, essential, fundamental, extreme, romantic, negative, must, if, not, Roman, up, down, five, educated, Irish, radical, cold, official, remake, royal. Ex. 168. Translate into English. 1. 5;5=K5 ?@>B5ABCNB ?@>B82 AB@>8B5;LAB20 745AL E8<8G5A:>3> 702>40. 2. >O ;N18<0O ?>?C;O@=0O 3@C??0  5?@8:0A05<K5. 3. 8AB5@ 0@H0;  2A57=09:0. 4. ?5@2K5 >B5F 8 AK= @073>20@820;8 :0: @02=K5. 5. -B> <>8 ?@>872>4AB25==K5 B5E=>;>388 (C<5=8O), 8 O =8:><C 8E =5 40<. 6. >B5=F80; G5;>25:0  MB> =01>@ A?>A>1=>AB59 8 B0;0=B>2, A :>B>@K<8 >= @>48;AO. 7. = 2545B A51O :0: 48:0@L, E>BO 8 AG8B05B, GB> ?@8=04;568B : 871@0==K<. 8. 2CE=545;L=K9 >B?CA:, :>B>@K9 >=8 ?@>25;8 2 5=5F88, 1K; 4;O =8E 2B>@K< <54>2K< <5AOF5<. 9. 5B>< >= ?@54?@8=O; B@5BLN ?>574:C 2 8<0;08. 10. >9 4O4O  1>;LH>9 ;815@0;. 11. 0< =C6=K 8AB8==K5 ?@>D5AA8>=0;K, GB>1K 2K?>;=8BL MBC @01>BC. 12. -B> =0AB>OB5;L=0O =5>1E>48<>ABL, B0: GB> O =5 ?@8=8<0N =8:0:8E =5B. 13.  0:0O A;02=0O :>H5G:0!  -B> =5 >=0, 0 >=. 14. @>87>H;> =5GB> 87 @O40 2>= 2KE>4OI55. 15. # <=>38E CG8B5;59 1K20NB ;N18<G8:8. Chapter V. THE ADJECTIVE Ex. 169. A. Read and translate the sentences. Pay attention to the descriptions given in them. 1. Harry looked nothing like the rest of the family. Uncle Vernon was large and neckless, with an enormous black moustache; Aunt Petunia was horse-faced and bony; Dudley was blond, pink and porky. Harry, on the other hand, was small and skinny, with brilliant green eyes and jet-black hair that was always untidy. He wore round glasses, and on his forehead was a thin scar. 2. Mrs. Reynolds was a tall, striking woman in her late forties, with blond hair and a typical pink English complexion. She had a friendly smile and an assertive yet sympathetic way about her. 3. Tonight Samantha wore well-tailored blue jeans, a white cotton shirt, a black gabardine blazer, and highly polished black Oxfords with white socks. 4.1 shivered. It was a damp November night and quite cold, typical English winter weather. 5. It was a radiant day, the sky was a high blue and clear, and the sun was brilliant. 6. It was a blustery day. There was a high wind that blew the new green leaves off the trees. It was a chilly morning but the sky was a cerulean blue filled with puffy white clouds that raced across the great arc of the sky. (from "Harry Potter" by J.K. Rowling) B. Describe: a) the appearance of any person you like. b) the weather on the day you are reading this. Ex. 170. A. Read the following and say how the same qualities in men and women are often described by adjectives, say whose descriptions are generous, and whose are loaded with negative connotations. He is ambitious; she is pushy. He is tough-minded; she is ruthless. He is foresighted; she is calculating. He is firm; she is stubborn. He is self-respecting; she is egoistical. He is persistent; she is nagging. B. Write a letter of recommendation to your colleague or a friend. Make use of some of the words given below Efficient, diligent, helpful, creative, open-hearted, well-read, cultured, naive, thoughtful, slow, forgetful, choosy, demanding, bossy, cooperative, nosy, provocative, sophisticated, practical, businesslike, professional, well organized, decisive, flexible, resilient, reliable, broad-minded Ex. 171. State whether the following adjectives are qualitative or relative. Make up sentences of your own with them 1. stone, stony 2. silver, silvery 3. wax, waxen 4. snow, snowy 5. sun, sunny 6. silk, silken 7. gold, golden, gilded 8. wool, woolly, woollen 9. wood, wooden 10. brass, brazen Ex. 172. Choose the right word to fill in the blanks 1. a) The ... Age is the earliest known period of human history, b) The ground here had always been ... . c) There came... silence, (stone, stony) 2. a) He was born with a ... spoon in his mouth, b) There is a ...birch under my window, c) Meryl was wearing a long ... dress, d) From the hall there came the ...chime of the old clock, (silver, silvery) 3. a) We need some ... candles, b) Old Nancy had a ... complexion, (wax, waxen) 4. a) Let's built a ... man. b) We went to see him one ... day in London, (snow, snowy) 5. a) I worked ... - up to ... - down, b) You have a wonderful ... tan. c) It was a ... day. d) Bob has a ... disposition, (sun, sunny) 6. a) I think I'll bye this ... scarf, b) This girl has ... lashes, c) Her hair was very long and ... . (silk, silky, silken) 7. a) There are ... daisies in the grass, b) He won a ... medal, c) Sue wore a tiny ... cross, d) These are ... rules, e) The princess was a beautiful girl with ... hair, f) They stopped before the ...altar (gold, golden, gilded) 8. a) He was dressed in a good ... suit, b) My Granny knitted a pair of long ... socks for me. c) Betty had a ...cap on. (wool, woolly, woollen) 9. a) They have a ... house, b) He had a ... head, (wood, wooden) 10. a) There was a... jug on the table, b) She is tired of her husband's ... love affairs, (brass, brazen) Ex. 173. Give degrees of comparison of the following words if possible, I. angry, brave, bad, convenient, dry, dead, final, good, heavy, narrow, perfect, Persian, right (left), square, important, white, yellow, unique, little II. absent-minded, easy-going, fine-looking, good-natured, high-flown, high-heeled, kind-hearted, much-spoken, narrow-minded, old-fashioned, strong-willed, well-bred Ex. 174. Put the adjectives in the correct order. 1. Cycling is a(n)_________activity, (useful, outdoor, popular) 2. Now I'm reading a________novel, (depressing, long, boring) 3. He had a________alarm clock, (digital, new, useful) 4. Have you heard of this________invention? (Japanese, fantastic, new) 5. This family rents a________house, (furnished, large, old) 6. I've just bought a(n)________table, (beautiful, coffee, glass, oval) 7. Robert's is the_________car. (red, Italian, big) 8. Our students are using _________ dictionaries.(English, reliable, new, complete) 9. There was a _________ carpet on the floor, (soft, wonderful, woollen, Persian) 10. Andy gave Rosie a_________box. (jewellery, velvet, small, square) 11. Stratford is a_________town, (nice, small, quiet) 12. There are a lot of________pans in the shops, (frying, Tefal, non-stick, brand-new, French-made) Ex. 175. Translate into English. 1. / 682C 2 =>2>< 452OB8MB06=>< :8@?8G=>< 4><5. 2. !5:@5B0@L 2@CG8; 5<C B>;ABK9 :>@8G=52K9 1C<06=K9 :>=25@B. 3. K >1540;8 70 1>;LH8< =>2K< :@C3;K< 45@52O==K< AB>;><. 4. =0 =045;0 A2>9 ;CGH89 A8=89 H5@ABO=>9 :>ABN<. 5.  MB>9 D8@<5 @01>B05B <=>3> <>;>4KE A?>A>1=KE O?>=A:8E ?@>3@0<<8AB>2. 6. 870 :C?8;0 =>2CN <>4=CN :@0A=CN H5;:>2CN 1;C7:C. 7. !B0@K5 C7:85 B5<=K5 BC<0==K5 C;8FK >=4>=0 ?C30;8 55. 8. 0 :>21>5 1K;0 1>;LH0O O@:0O A>;><5==0O <5:A8:0=A:0O H;O?0. 9. -B> 1K; ?5@2K9 ?>-=0AB>OI5<C 206=K9 <564C=0@>4=K9 :>=3@5AA. 10. 0: <=5 =@028BAO MB0 25=5F80=A:0O 75;5=0O AB5:;O==0O 2070! 11. 5@54 =0<8 ;560;0 ?5AG0=0O @02=8=0. 12. !?0A81>, MB> 7>;>B>9 A>25B (<=5=85). 13. # A59D0 A28=F>20O 425@L. 14. 51> 1K;> A28=F>2>5, >=> =5 >15I0;> =8G53> E>@>H53>. 15. # GCG5;0 1K;8 AB5:;O==K5 3;070. 16. @0GC =5 ?>=@028;AO 53> AB5:;O==K9 273;O4. 17. =5 =04>5;8 B2>8 =03;K5 <0=5@K. Ex. 176. Choose the right words to fill in the blanks, 1. a) When Scott reached the ... Pole, he saw the Norwegian flag already there, b) Antarctica is in the ... Hemisphere, (south, southern) 2. a) This novel is based on a ... story. b) I think Linda is a ... person, (true, truthful) 3. a) It was a great, yes, it was a ... change for the country, b) They played their part in the ... process, (historic, historical) 4. a) He rents a flat in ... London, b) These cliffs and grounds are in the ... Hemisphere, (north, northern) 5. a) This fish is so bony! I find it ...! b) These beautiful fungi are ... . They are poisonous, (uneatable, inedible) 6. a) John is as ... as a girl. Yes, he is very touchy. b) On the other hand, he is a ... boy. Yes, I would say he is intelligent, (sensible, sensitive) 7. a) The country is having great ... difficulties, b) This car is very ... . It needs little petrol, (economic, economical) 8. a) This chronicle gives a ... presentation of events, b) The discovery of penicillin was a ... event, (historic, historical) 9. a) The handwriting was ..., but I recognized it as Mark's, b) It may be a good novel, but I find it... . (unreadable, illegible) 10. a) In our new flat we have an ... cooker, b) Accumulator gave off a sudden ... discharge, (electric, electrical) Ex. 177. Make compound adjectives form according to the model Mo del:-A programme which lasts half an hour is a half-hour programme. 1. a freeze (on bank accounts) for two months a________freeze 2. celebrations for three days _________celebrations 3. a ring road with five drives a_________ ring road 4. a drive which takes five hours a_________drive 5. a lorry which can carry 15 tons a_________lorry 6. a flight which lasts 3.5 hours a_________flight 7. the first film which lasted for three minutes a_________film 8. an engine with a capacity of 3.5 litres a_________engine 9. a child which is five years old a_________child 10. a man whose height is six feet a_________man 11. a walk which covers eight miles a_________walk 12. a tank with a capacity of 16 gallons a_________tank 13. a **** hotel a_________hotel 14. a castle built in the fourteenth century a_________castle 15. a student who is in his second year a ________student 16. a flat on the third floor a_________flat 17. a computer which is of the second generation a_________computer 18. a decision made at the last minute a_________decision 19. an excellent meal a_________-class meal 20. a very poor production a_________-rate production Ex 178. Complete the sentences using the comparative or the superlative form of the adjectives given in brackets. 1. Boris is certainly (clever) than his brother. Yes, and he is (attractive) than his brother Peter. In fact, he is (smart) boy I've ever taught. 2. Nothing could be (extravagant) than buying such an expensive car. You will have to be (careful) with your money in future. 3. Life is getting (hard) and (complicated) with every passing day. 4. It is (effective) method of all, but it is naturally costly. 5. Stephen is (intelligent) than any other boy in his group. 6. It has been (cold) day in Moscow for thirty years. 7. It's (little) I can do for you, I'm afraid. 8. That was (bad) than he had expected. 9. That was indeed (bad) experience in his career. 10. They naively think that things can only get (good). 11. This is (unbelievable) news I have ever heard. 12. He ate (few) French fries than you did at the picnic. 13. Angela is (little) organized than Mike. 14. If you ask me, Moscow is (beautiful) than any other city in the world. 15. They had (little) and (little) to talk about. 16. It is axiomatic that (great) the student's individual effort, (much) thorough will be his learning. 17. The (much) original a discovery, the (much) obvious it seems afterwards. Ex 179. Complete the following comparisons. 1 Barbara is nearly ... old ... her stepmother. 2. There are more ... two thousand books in my mother's library. 3. Bob talks just ... his father. 4. Would you be ... kind ... to close the door for me? 5. Do ... I tell you; don't do ... I do. 6. I am not ... naive ... to believe all he promises me. 7. After your heart attack you should walk ... slowly ... possible. 8. The Volga is not now ... wide ... it was. 9.1 have ... many working hours a week ... any other employee. 10. A shower uses less water ... a bath. 11. On Sundays we don't have to get up ... early ... usual. 12. This house is two times ... big ... the old one. 13. They use twice ... much electricity .. compressor machines. 14. In my opinion, it's worth more ... twice that figure. 15. He can lift a box thrice ... heavy. Ex. 180. Read and translate the following colourful and unusual comparisons. Make up sentences with them. 1. as different as chalk and cheese 2. as scarce as hen's teeth 3. as dark as inside of a wolf 4. as happy as a pumpkin in a sunny patch 5. as ugly as home-made soap 6. as black as two o'clock in the morning 7. as happy as a dog with two tails 8. as nervous as a brick wall 9. as brave as the first man who ate an oyster 10. as cold as an ex-wife's heart 11. as big as the little end of nothing 12. as noisy as two skeletons dancing on a tin roof Ex. 181. Give degrees of comparison of the following adjectives if possible. absohite able authentic helpful empty effective left mild middle medical vacant round pregnant Roman wooden immortal real late near old far few tough entire Ex 182. Complete the given phrases. 1. The sooner, ... . 2. The longer the day (is), ... . 3. The more we learn, .... 4. The more expensive the wedding, ... . 5. The later one goes to bed, .... 6. The better the idea, ... . 7. The sunnier the weather, ... . 8. The more knowledge you get.....9. The broader your outlook, ... . 10. The richer your vocabulary, ... . 11. The less chocolate you eat, ... . 12. The farther from home, ... . 13. The more kids you have, ... . 14. The smarter a person is, ... . 15. The longer we study English, ... Ex 183. Use the right degree of comparison of the adjectives in brackets. 1. He laughs (good), who laughs last. 2. He who laughs last, laughs (long). 3. Of two evils, choose the (little). 4. My aunt is the (old) of the four sisters. 5. Cats are (clean) than monkeys, but monkeys are (intelligent) than cats. 6. He is the (well-known) of that crew. 7. Put your (good) foot forward. 8. He had rarely listened to a (an) (absurd) proposal. 9. The kids had never eaten a sausage that was (big, red, hot). 10. Thank you, you are (kind) today than you were yesterday. 11. Socrates was (wise) Greek of all. 12. Get there first with (much) that is the fundamental principle of tactics. 13. Which lie seems (good)? 14. Christopher is (friendly) than Ted.15. Donald is (well-off) than either of his brothers. 16. Ben is (wealthy) of the three brothers. 17. Edwin was (nice) of the two sons. Ex. 184. Translate into English 1. 7 42CE ?@>5:B>2 2B>@>9 1>;55 ?5@A?5:B82=K9. 2. 7 ?OB5@KE ?@5B5=45=B>2 >=8 2K1@0;8 A0<>3> 7=0NI53>. 3. 0:>9 87 MB8E 42CE 0??0@0B>2 1>;55 =0456=K9? 4. -B> 1K; A0<K9 ?5G0;L=K9 >?KB 2 <>59 687=8. 5. ;O =55 =5B =8G53> 1>;55 206=>3>, G5< 55 :0@L5@0. 6. '5< A:>@55 >= ?5@5AB0=5B ?@><0BK20BL 45=L38, B5< ;CGH5. 7. ;O <5=O ACI5AB2CNB 420 A0<KE 70<5G0B5;L=KE 4=O 2 3>4C  <>9 45=L @>645=8O 8 >2K9 3>4. 8. '5< <5=LH5 BK 3>2>@8HL 8, D0:B8G5A:8, G5< <5=LH5 BK 7=05HL, B5< MB> 157>?0A=55 4;O <5=O 8 4;O <>8E 4@C759.  2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 4;O B51O B>65. 9. >40  A0<K9 A8;L=K9 =0?8B>:. =0 ?@82>48B 2 42865=85 (to drive) <5;L=8FK. 10. '5< >1@07>20==55 G5;>25:, B5< 1>;55 >= A:;>=5= AB@040BL >B 3>;>2=KE 1>;59. 11. !0<K5 ;CGH85 ?>20@0 <C6G8=K. 12. 728=8B5  A0<>5 B@C4=>5 A;>2>. 13. '5< 1>;LH5 O G8B0N > =0;>3>2>9 @5D>@<5, B5< <5=LH5 O 55 ?>=8<0N. Ex. 185. Read the sentences and translate them into Russian, paying special attention to the adjectives 1. Good better best. Never rest. Till "good" is "better" and "better" is "best". 2. A bad excuse is better than none. 3. A silent tongue and a true heart are the most admirable things on earth. 4. It is better to be the best of a low family than the worst of a noble one. 5. The symphony was a half-baked, splashy, cacophonous mess. 6. The film will be released in the first half of the following year at the earliest. 7. Broken hearts stain pillows with bitter tears. 8. Much to Mary's further surprise, her mother was nowhere to be seen. 9. He is going to buy the latest golfing accessories. 10. Whom we love best, to them we can say least. 11. Learning makes a good man better and a bad man worse. 12. Now let's have lunch and you can tell me about all your latest lady friends and the exciting parties you've been to. 13. Many famous artists died in the bitterest poverty. 14. The positive hotel experience is a smooth arrival, delightful service, a pleasant night's stay and a professional check-out. Ex. 186. Compare I. two different fruits 2. a cat and a dog 3. two flowers 4. rock music and classical music 5. two academic subjects 6. comedy and tragedy 7. reading and writing 8. being single and being married 9. two of your friends 10. your life now with what it was like ten years ago II. your physical appearance now with the way you looked as a child 12. two movie stars 13. two holidays 14. two of your teachers 15. children with parents. Ex. 187. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the adjective Mind the use of articles where necessary A. Late 1. These are ... books and current magazines. 2. Are you getting off at ... stop? 3. He turned up ... than he had promised. 4. Let's discuss ... news a little bit ..., shall we? 5. We have two managers at the office: Igor and Svetlana. ... is thirty, ...is twenty-eight. 6. Will you repeat ... sentence, please. 7. This illustrated magazine shows photographs of ... fashions. 8. Last week my students passed ... exam. 9. I am ..., but not ... . 10. We need ... telephone directory. B. Near 1. There's no one ... to me than you. 2. Excuse me, where is ... metro station? 3. ... time think before you speak. 4. Are you getting off at ...stop, sir? 5. Who lives ... to the school, children? 6. ...week you'll have to write ... essay according to our plan. 7. Who is going to be ... to do the talking? C. Old 1. My roommate is as ... as I. 2. Of the four children Tony is ... . 3. My ... brother is a loving family man.4. Who is ... here? Mr. Stone is, though he is the youngest man here. 5. Have you ... brother or sister? D. Far 1. She is one of those who will go .... 2. How ... is your native place from here? 3. Billy lived at ... end of the village. 4. She never went ... than school. 5. Do you think they will get any ... in this tricky matter? 6. A ... calculation shows that these figures are incorrect. 7.1 live .. from the city centre than you do, S. They are waiting for ... news from home. Ex. 188. Translate into English. 1. K <>O ?>A;54=OO =045640. 2. -B>3> O >B 20A <5=LH5 2A53> >6840;0. 3. =0 2K3;O48B AB0@H5 A2>8E ;5B. 4. 5=I8=5 AB>;L:> ;5B, =0 A:>;L:> >=0 2K3;O48B. 5. '5< 1;865 M:70<5=K, B5< 1>;LH5 O =5@2=8G0N. 6.  0 A:>;L:> ;5B 20H <C6 AB0@H5 20A?  K @>25A=8:8. 7.  A;54CNI89 2B>@=8: <K >1AC48< A;54CNI89 ?C=:B ?@>3@0<<K. 8. 0:>2K ?>A;54=85 4>AB865=8O 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8? 9. >A;54CNI85 45B0;8 1C4CB >1AC645=K =0 ?>A;54=5< 70A540=88 :;C10. 10. 0 MB>9 2KAB02:5 ?@54AB02;5=> ?>A;54=55 (=>259H55) >1>@C4>20=85 A> 2A53> <8@0. 11. A5 C2060NB 02840. = 745AL 3;02=K9. 12. 5B, 40;LH5 <K =5 ?>945<, B5<=55B. 13. A;8 59 ?><>GL, B> >=0 40;5:> ?>945B. 14. # <5=O 425 1;87:85 ?>4@C38: 0ABO 8 @8=0. 5@20O >G5=L A45@60=0, 2B>@0O >G5=L M<>F8>=0;L=0. 15. !O4L, ?>60;C9AB0, ?>40;LH5 >B B5;5287>@0. 16. =8 ?@8=O;8AL 70 @01>BC 157 40;L=59H8E :><<5=B0@852. 17. -B> ?>A;54=OO :0?;O. / MB>3> =5 <>3C 1>;LH5 2K=>A8BL. 18. / 682C 40;LH5 2A5E >B H:>;K. Ex. 189. Talk on the suggested topics. 1. Your proudest achievement. 2. Your most important decision. 3. Your biggest inspiration. 4. Your most memorable dream. 5. Your biggest business risk. 6. The best year of your life. 7. The thing that interests you most in people. 8. Your greatest regret or disappointment. 9. The worst job you've ever had. 10. The greatest help you ever received. 11. The strangest coincidence in your life.12. The three most important principles you follow. 13. The biggest crisis in your life. 14. Your strongest belief. Ex. 190. Read and translate the sentences. Say how degrees of comparison are intensified. 1. Are the profits that poor? 2. The weather is no better today than it was yesterday. 3. It's ever so interesting to meet new people. 4. It's most important you stay here. 5. This is a most rewarding job. 6. His is the finest car available on the market. 7. Thank you ever so much, you've been most helpful. 8. Your offer is much (a lot) better than any other's. 9. They give you the best chance imaginable. 10. He is no worse than any other boy of his age. 11. She was by far the camp's best swimmer. 12. He never ever wears a hat. 13. Mr. Parker is by far and away the biggest share holder. 14. It was the most awful film ever. 15. Where ever have you been? 16. Listen, I am dead serious about it. 17. This idea is pretty interesting. 18. Ron was having far worse problems. 19. He gave her a most loving smile. Ex. 191. Make up 8 sentences of your own according to the model. Model: l. The sky was a Wedgwood blue. 2. The walls were painted an antiseptic white. 3. The Queen Mother was dressed in forget-me-not blue for the opening ceremony. The Adjective The Noun-Intensifier 1. white ash, silver, snow, wax, lemon, magnolia, stone, chalk, powder, paper, china, antiseptic, milky 2. black raven, storm, jet, soot 3. brown earth, chocolate, rust, summer 4. green jade, emerald, bottle, grass, copper, apple, sea, pea, olive, lime 5. grey silver, iron, smoke, pearl, sea, seal 6. red gold, flower, blood, brick, rose, beet, coral, wine, turkey, rust 7. blue forget-me-not, baby, sapphire, Cezanne, pastel, Dresden, Wedgwood, ice, corn, midnight, china, sky, blue, turquoise, navy 8. yellow daisy, butter, acid, candy, lemon, creme  Ex. 192. Read the text and retell it Colourful English Colours colour our language and that is not just pigment of my imagination. Think of the words we use to describe how we feel. At various times we are green with envy, gray with exhaustion, red with embarrassment, or white with rage. We can fall into a black mood, a purple passion, or a blue funk; when things start looking up, we feel in the pink. Even the animal world gets painted by the colouring of human imagination. Have you ever owned a white elephant? Before you shake your head no, remember that nowadays the expression white elephant means an object of some worth that nobody else seems to want, like a huge out-of-style couch or a pedal-driven sewing machine. White elephant refers back to the albino elephants once considered sacred in Siam (now Thailand). These creatures were so rare that each one born became automatically the property of the king and was not permitted to work. When a subject incurred the king's displeasure, the angry monarch would bestow one of his white elephants on him as a gift. The enormous appetite and utter uselessness of the animal would soon plunge the "gifted" man into financial ruin. Can you explain the meaning of red herring"? The original red herrings were strong-smelling fish that the fox hunters of Old England dragged across the fox's trail to confuse the hounds and give the quarry a sporting chance. Today the meaning of red herring has been broadened to signify a misleading statement that diverts our attention from the real issues. Substantivized Adjectives Ex. 193. Read and translate the sentences Find and comment on the substantivized adjectives 1. Haven is where the police is British, the cooks are Italian, the mechanics are German, the lovers are French, and all is organized by the Swiss. Hell is where the cooks are British, the mechanics are French, the lovers are Swiss, the police is German and all is organized by the Italians. 2. Mr. Alexander is writing a book on fundamentals of English Grammar. 3. The prospect of a new business deal gave her a high. 4. His illustrated talk presented the highs and lows of his journey. 5. The place was deserted, all the locals had left with the summer residents. 6. The rest had done him good, he knew that. 7. Another thought struck Ursula all of a sudden. 8. Why do you ignore the obvious? 9. The navy was in the thick of the fighting. 10. She always tries to see the best in people. 11. The authorities are very much concerned with the number of the homeless on London streets. 12. He was a German through and through. 13. It's a pobbjble. I'll think about it later. 14. From the sublime to the ridiculous there is only one step. (Napoleon) 15. He is working like a black. 16. She admired the tints of Renoir's paintings. They were breath-taking: shell-pink and pearl, deep rose and gold, soft pastel blues and greens and the most glorious of yellows. 17. All my life, I've gotten nothing but A's, Even in Latin, which I found to be a difficult subject. 18. We must turn human wrongs into human rights, 19. This figurine is a pretty. I see you are fond of pretties. Ex. 194. Insert the right article. 1, It had not occurred to her before that ... rich could be daft in the head. She had always thought it was the prerogative of ... poor. 2. He was a man who lives his life to ... fullest. 3. She stepped back and viewed the fir-tree with a critical eye. It was a healthy young fir, ... rich dark green. 4. She tried to remember only ... good and ... best. 5.1 felt claustrophobic all of ... sudden. 6.Come in, don't stand outside in ... cold. 7. She laughed, and a slight flush tinted her face ... pretty pink. 8. It felt like flying into ... unknown. 9. Escape ... ordinary. 10. How clever of you to help ... helpless and ... homeless. 11. ... more a man knows, ... more he is inclined to be modest. 12. He is leaving the country for ... good. 13. They did it for ... good of their country. 14. There are some changes for ... better in her condition. 15. His eyes were of ... brown so dark that they were almost black. 16. Do you believe in ... supernatural? Ex. 195. Complete the table Mind the use of articles. 0720=85 AB@0=K @8;030B5;L=>5 8B5;L AB@0=K !>2>:C?=>ABL 68B5;59 0720=85 O7K:01. Russia     2. Britain British    3. China    4.  . the Americans  0720=85 AB@0=K @8;030B5;L=>5  8B5;L AB@0=K !>2>:C?=>ABL 68B5;59 0720=85 O7K:0 5.   the Hungarian people  6. Finland     7.   the Spanish  8. Turkey     9. Scotland     10. Holland     11. Denmark     12.  an Egyptian   13. Swedish    14. Israel     15.  a Belgian   16. Portugal     17.    English 18. Czech    19.   the Saudis  20. Polish    21. The Philippines      Ex. 196. Translate into English. 1. 5;8=A:89, 3>2>@O > O7K:5 CH:8=0,  @CAA:>< O7K:5, ?8A0;: = =565=, A;04>AB5=, <O3>: :0: @>?>B 2>;=K; BO3>: 8 3CAB :0: A<>;0; O@>: :0: <>;=8O; ?@>7@0G5= 8 G8AB :0: :@8AB0;;; 4CH8AB 8 1;03>2>=5= :0: 25A=0; :@5?>: 8 <>3CG :0: C40@ <5G0 2 @C:5 1>30BK@O. 2. 0 :>=D5@5=F88 ?@8ACBAB2>20;8 =5<FK, H254K, H259F0@FK. 3. ;O =53> 45<>:@0B8O  MB> 8450;. 4. >9=0 8 <8@ . ">;AB>3>  MB> :;0AA8:0 @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K.5. 5?@8:0A05<K5  <>O ;N18<0O ?>?C;O@=0O 3@C??0. 6. = @01>B05B :0: B@>O=5F. 7. >;55 4204F0B8 ?@>F5=B>2 H254>2 8<5NB 703>@>4=K5 4><0. 8. 0BG0=5  MB> ;N48, 682CI85 2 0=88. 9.  0: 2K =07K205B5 ;N459, 682CI8E 2 845@;0=40E?  -B> 3>;;0=4FK. 10. 0: 8AB8==K9 8A?0=5F, %>A5 >1>605B :>@@84C. 11. =4CAK 25@OB 2 2>7@>645=85 4CH8. 12. 8B5;8 7@08;O  87@08;LBO=5, 8 3>2>@OB >=8 =0 82@8B5. 13.  8;0=FK 3>@4OBAO A2>8< >?5@=K< B50B@><?  0, B0: 65 :0: 8 25=FK. 14. >340 O CG8;AO 2 H:>;5 . !2>=0 ?@8 >=4>=A:>< C=825@A8B5B5, 2 <>59 3@C??5 1K;> <=>3> 8=>5 B@0=F52: >48= B0920=5F, 420 ?>@BC30;LF0, B@8 0<5@8:0=F0, G5BK@5 D@0=FC70 8 >4=0 0=3;8G0=:0. 15. 8B5;59 >AB @>20 !0@48=8O =07K20NB A0@40<8. 16.  0=88 3>2>@OB =0 40BA:><, 2 >;;0=488 =0 3>;;0=4A:><, 2 >@25388 =0 =>@256A:><. 17. >8 ;N18<K5 :=838  B25@65==K5 . N3>, >2 ?@54:>2 6. >=4>=0, @0A=>5 8 G5@=>5 !B5=40;O. 18. $8;8??8=FK  68B5;8 $8;8??8=. 19. 8B5;8 5@C  ?5@C0=FK. Ex. 197. Read and translate the proverbs. Find their Russian equivalents. 1. Actions speak louder than words. 2. He who is absent is always in the wrong. 3. A bad excuse is better than none. 4. Better late then never. 5. It is better to be born lucky than rich. 6. A creaking door hangs longest. 7. The difficult is done at once; the impossible takes a little longer. 8. The best doctors are Dr. Diet, Dr. Quiet and Dr. Merryman. 9. Experience is the best teacher. 10. Fortune favours the brave. 11. One law for the rich and another for the poor. 12. A man is as old as he feels, and a woman as old as she looks. 13. The more you get, the more you want. 14. Nothing is certain but the foreseen. (The unexpected always happens.) 15. Prevention is better than cure. 16. The sharper the storm, the sooner it's over. 17. Never speak ill of the dead. 18. Two wrongs don't make a right. (Two blacks don't make a white.) 19. The weakest go to the wall. 20. A word to the wise is enough. Ex. 198. Translate into English. 1. -B>B <0AB5@ 3>2>@8B, GB> 2A5340 3>B>2 ?><>GL <>;>4K<. 2. 9 E>@>H> 7=0:><K 2A5 B5 A>1;07=K, :>B>@K5 8A:CH0NB 7=0<5=8B>AB59. 3. = AG8B05B, GB> G5< AB0@H5 >= AB0=>28BAO, B5< <5=LH5 >= 2 G5<-;81> C25@5=. 4. K B0: CAB0;8 >B 2A5E MB8E :@09=>AB59 2 ?>3>45! 5. =0 AB0@0;0AL =5 2K45;OBL ;N18<G8:>2 A@548 A2>8E 45B59. 6. KA;8 87K 1K;8 > ?@>H;><. >7<>6=>, MB> 1K;> ?>B><C, GB> >=0 =5 E>B5;0 4C<0BL > =0AB>OI5< 8 1C4CI5<. 7. / =8A:>;L:> (=8 2 <0;59H59 <5@5) =5 2>7@060N, 5A;8 BK =07K205HL <5=O ?@03<0B8:><. 0, O =5 @><0=B8:. 8. A;8 C 20A >4=064K ?>O28BAO ?@82KG:0, B> ?>B>< AB0=>28BAO 2A5 B@C4=55 8 B@C4=55 871028BLAO >B =55. 9. ! A0<>3> 45BAB20 >=8 1K;8 ?>;=K<8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABO<8 ?> E0@0:B5@C. 10. ! 1>30BK<8 ;N4L<8 >G5=L B@C4=> 8<5BL 45;>, >A>15==> :>340 45;> :0A05BAO 8E 45=53. 11. -B> ?>A;54=55, GB> <>3;> ?@89B8 <=5 2 3>;>2C. 12. 3> 3;070 1K;8 A25B;>3> A5@>-3>;C1>3> F25B0. 13. >G5<C 2K ?5@54C<0;8 =8 A B>3>, =8 A A53>? 14. A?0=FK 3>2>@OB, GB> :>D5 4>;65= 1KBL G5@=K< :0: 4LO2>;, 3>@OG8< :0: 04 8 A;04:8< :0: 3@5E. 15. '5< 1>;LH55 O C7=0N ;N459, B5< 1>;LH5 <=5 =@02OBAO A>10:8, (AB0@0O 0=3;89A:0O ?>A;>28F0) 16.>O =>20O :20@B8@0 1C45B 2 ?0AB5;L=KE B>=0E: 1;54=>-A5@KE 8 1;54=>-75;5=KE. 17.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O =0 M:@0=0E B5;5287>@>2 <K 2848< <=>3> A5@80;>2: 5@7:85 8 :@0A82K5, >30BK5 8 7=0<5=8BK5 , 5?@8:0A05<K5 . Ex. 199. Use the dictionary to help you with this exercise. A. Name the nationalities. 1. Antigone is from Greece. She is ... . 2. Gareth is from Wales. He is ... . 3. Johan is from Holland. He is ... . 4. Teng is from China. He is .... 5. Ali is from Iraq. He is .... 6. Beatrice is from Switzerland. She is ... . 7. Abdul is from Sudan. He is ... . 8. Jean is from Belgium. He is ... . 9. Kemal is from Turkey. He is ... . 10. Carmen is from Spain. She is .... 11. Nils is from Denmark. He is ... . 12. Philip is from the Philippines. He is ... . B. Name the languages l.What language is spoken in Argentina? 2. What language is spoken in Brazil? 3. What language is spoken in Libya? 4. What language is spoken in Switzerland? 5. What language is spoken in Cyprus? Chapter VI. THE ADVERB Ex. 200. Read the verse and learn it by heart Try to follow the given advice in your daily life The ABC of Happiness Aspire to reach your potential Believe in yourself Create a good life Dream about what you might become Exercise frequently Glorify the creative spirit Humour yourself and others Imagine great things Joyfully live each day Kindly help others Love one another Meditate daily Nurture the environment Organize for harmonious action Praise performance well done Regulate your behaviour Smile often Think rationally Understand yourself Value life Work for the common good X-ray and carefully examine problems Yearn to improve Zestfully pursue happiness. Ex.201. Read the sentences and translate them into Russian Pay special attention to the words in bold type 1.1 like living. I have sometimes been wildly, despairingly, acutely miserable, racked with sorrow, but through it all I still know quite certainly that just to be alive is a grand thing. (Agatha Christie) 2. There was a solution and it had come to Emma in a flash. The solution was planning. She suddenly knew that if the work was planned properly and systematically, in a sensible way, and distributed more intelligently it would be easier to manage. Of this she was absolutely confident, and the more she thought about it, the more convinced she had become. 3.1 fell blindly, madly, irrevocably in love with him. And he with me, as I was eventually to discover. He captivated me entirely. 4. He stood up when he saw her and smiled faintly, almost apologetically, but he made no move in her direction, as he would normally have done. 5. We were close friends and then we started to work together professionally, when suddenly, unexpectedly, we broke. 6. You are old enough to discuss this calmly and intelligently. In a reasonable manner. 7. Just as a newborn baby grows physically, so you will grow spiritually. 8. May you always laugh heartily, cry openly, sing loudly, dance wildly, love unashamedly! Ex. 202. Fill in the blanks with words from the right column 1. Mind, it is ... confidential. a. brightly 2. He'll have to limit his expenses.... b. well 3. It changes ..., like night and day. c. hopefully 4. We'll contact you ... . d. badly 5. They never took me ... . e. briefly 6. This morning they quarrelled ... . f automatically 7. In the grate a log fire burned ... . g- occasionally 8. This chap plays the piano so ... . h. regularly 9. He expresses his ideas ... . i- directly 10. They didn't think twice and came j- seriously ... . k. clearly 11. I go to the theatre .... 1- immediately 12. Her mind on her son, she cooked ... . m.severely 13. They considered the contract ... . n. normally 14. I ... get up at 8 o'clock. o. strictly 15. "Can we come in?" she asked ... . p. deeply 16. Always try to breathe ... . Ex. 203. Give the degrees of comparison of the following adverbs. Badly, briefly, carefully, clearly, distinctly, early, effectively, efficiently, far, fast, frankly, frequently, hard, heartily, honestly, late, little, much, often, patiently, soon, well, willingly. Ex. 204. Put the words in brackets into the right form. 1. Statistics say that women drive (carefully) than men, 2. Please talk a bit (quietly) and (little) aggressively. 3. There's nothing (annoying) than losing your door key, 4. Tom prefers to be alone. He is (sociable) person in the office. 5. This time he tried (hard) than last time. 6. A big car can be parked (easily) than a small one. 7. We walked (far) than we had planned. 8. Today David acted (generously) than ever before. 9. The final exam was (little) difficult of all. 10. This month Caroline worked (badly) of all, though actually she works (well) of all the pupils of her class. 11. You don't remember some details, You should study the papers (closely). 12. They can get here at 7 o'clock at (early). It's a long way from here. 13. Changes will become necessary by the autumn, at (late). 14. Really, Alex, you could work (efficiently)! Ex. 205. Translate into English. 1. =8 ?@>68;8 2<5AB5 <=>3> ;5B 2?>;=5 AG0AB;82>. 2. >2>@OB, BK >G5=L E>@>H> 2KABC?8; 2G5@0, ?>74@02;ON! 3. =A?5:B>@ =5<54;5==> ?@8=O; =5>1E>48<K5 <5@K. 4. >9 CG8B5;L 153;> 3>2>@8B =0 ?OB8 O7K:0E. 5. >A848B5 745AL B8E>=5G:>, 45B8, ?>:0 =5 ?@845B 20H0 <0<0. 6. >5<C 4@C3C =@02OBAO B>;L:> 1KAB@K5 <0 H8=K. 7. N48, :>B>@K5 >G5=L 1KAB@> 574OB, @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> ?>?040NB 2 020@88. 8. =0 =0AB>;L:> 65 3;C?0, A:>;L 8 :@0A820. 9. -B> ;53:89 2>?@>A. 515=>: ;53:> <>65B >B25B8BL =0 =53>. 10.  0< ?>=OB=> MB> ?@028;>?  0, 2K 53> B0: G5B:> >1JOA=8;8. 11. G5@0 : =0< A>25@H5==> =5>6840==> ?@85E0;8 3>AB8. 12. "K >?@545;5==> ?>=0?@0A=C B@0B8HL A2>5 2@5<O. 13. / ?@0:B8G5A:8 =8:>340 =5 ;>6CAL A?0BL 4> 11 G0A>2. 14. >8 4@C7LO ?>GB8 2A5340 >B4KE0NB ;5B><. 15.  >A=>2=>< MB> 1K;0 <>O 28=0. 16. / ?>;=>ABLN A 20<8 A>3;0A5=. 17. 0209 ?>45;8< ?>@>2=C 45=56=K9 ?@87. 18. >72>;L @0AA:070BL B515 2:@0BF5 2 G5< 45;>. 19.  MB>9 H:>;5 ?@8<5@=> 425AB8 CG5=8:>2. 20. >;65= A:070BL 20<, GB> 2K 25;8 A51O ?@>2>F8@CNI5. Ex. 206. Find adverbs in column  which suit the verbs in column A. In some cases there can be more than one verb.   1. argue a. deeply 2. behave b. thoroughly 3. sleep c. convincingly, forcefully 4. speak d. spontaneously 5. explain e. bravely 6. feel f. truly 7. investigate g. deeply, heavily 8. react h. distinctly 9. sing i. badly, stupidly 10. fight j. softly, quietly 11. rain k. concisely, briefly 12. remember 1. sweetly 13. love and respect m. continuously 14. get mad n. easily Ex. 207. Read and translate the sentences. Find adverbs-intensifiers. I.I definitely think she will win. 2. Olga is really competent. 3. Your garden is absolutely lovely. 4. Your English has greatly improved lately. 5. Mary hardly ever calls me. 6. This is very nice indeed. 7. What you suggest is simply ridiculous. 8. He particularly enjoyed the news. . - 9. Theodora was most certainly welcome to stay as long as she wished. 10. That's what my father said actually. 11. They almost never see each other. 12. This is an exceptionally good chance. 13. Happily, the show melted. 14. The roof leaks, unfortunately. 15. Specifically, what is bothering you? 16. Actually, I didn't come here to listen to all this .... 17. Personally, I have nothing to do with it. 18. Basically, it's a good idea. Ex. 208. A. Intensify the sentences by using the adverbials. 1. It was ... cold that night. very 2. He spoke ... fast. especially 3. This stamp is ... valuable. particularly 4. He spoke ... slowly. pretty 5. The food here is ... awful. rather 6. We get on ... well together. quite 7. Your work is ... poor. fairly 8. She left ... suddenly. not particularly 9. He speaks Dutch, but not ... well. extremely 10. The time passed ... fast. 11. It's a ... difficult test. 12. We are ... keen to go. B. Use the following adverbs in sentences of your own. Actually, officially, geographically, frankly, confidentially, between you and me, funnily enough, surprisingly, undoubtedly, basically, ironically, apparently, surely, mainly, generally, curiously. Ex. 209. Put the adverbs in the right places. 1. You are right, (absolutely) 2.1 got to bed at twelve, (always) 3. Do you go to parties? (ever) 4. You can be sure of anything, (never) But you can trust me. (certainly) 5. They meet every weekend, (usually) 6. My friends invite me to the theatre, (occasionally). 7.1 have had such a shock! (never) 8. They met again, (never) 9.1 remember meeting those people, (definitely). 10. Something is happening, (definitely) 11. Does he tell you the truth? (always) 12. He tries to do his best, (always) 13. He talks sensibly, (never) 14. He's late, (always) He was late for his own wedding, (even) 15. Can you be sincere? (ever) 16. Expensive remedies are useful (always), if not to the sick, then to the chemist. (Russian proverb) 17. We fans give up hope, (never) 18. Are you all right? (really) Ex.210. Paraphrase the sentences according to the models. Model: That was a perfect dance. They danced perfectly. She is a friendly girl. She behaves in a friendly way. 1. Mr. Gibson is a creative teacher. 2. Frederick is a regular reader of "The Times". 3. They got instant access to the data. 4. That was a cowardly thing to do. 5. Little Tim is a quick learner. 6. Andy was a hard worker. 7. Helen is a very poor student. 8. She is a bad cook. 9. That was a provocative act on the girl's part. 10. Bill is a wise investor. 11. She is a slow thinker. 12. I am a good eater. 13. He is a heavy drinker. 14. You can buy cheap things in this shop. 15. It was a heroic act. 16. We had an early lunch. 17. That was a silly thing to do. 18. She is a graceful dancer. 19. You did good work. 20. They had a late dinner. 2I.He is a fast driver. 22. That was a lively performance. 23. They gave a simultaneous reply. 24. Mr. Jones gave them precise instructions. 25. Susan was very competent at her work. Test Your Knowledge Ex. 211. Read the sentences and translate them. Comment on the Words in bold type. 1. Time deals gently with those who take it gently. (Anatole France) 2. "Dear Nobody" is a classic story which vividly portrays the feelings of teenagers and their parents when faced with the unknown. 3. It's difficult to grow old gracefully, 4. Act honestly and go boldly. 5. A full stomach studies unwillingly. 6. "The Wild Geese" is the most Japanese novel ever written. It was destined to become a classic. 7. She is as contemporary as the Greenwich time signal, as punctual as a tax demand , and as worldly as a punk. 8. The cheerful live longest in years. 9. If you want to live twice as long, eat half as much, sleep twice as much, drink water three times as much, and laugh four times as much. 10. Life is easier than you'd think: all that is necessary is to accept the impossible, do without the indispensable, and hear the intolerable. Ex. 212. Choose the right word 1. The chances are ... . This is a ... complex law. (high, highly) 2. He was a tall man with ... shoulders. The child yawned ... . (wide, widely) 3. We have a very ... opinion of you. The review is ... critical, (high, highly) 4. Her books sell ... . The gap between the poor and the rich is, very ... . (wide, widely) 5. They are ... educated people This is ... fashion, (high, highly) 6. She opened her 5C5s ... and stared. These books are ... known, (wide, widely) 7. The students spoke ... of the teacher. He lives to very ... standards, (high, highly) 8. She loved her husband ... . They dug ... down into the earth, (deep, deeply) 9. They are ... religious people. The river was three meters ... . (deep, deeply) 10. We had a ... talk. They stopped ... . Ho told me ... what to do next, (short, shortly) 11. The Marathon runner was breathing ... . We ... know each other, (hard, hardly) 12. The sun was ... above the trees. Her dress was cut ... in front, (low, lowly) 13. The crowd moved more ... around him. Nancy is a ... relative of Bess's, (close, closely) 14. Vladimir is a ... and able man Things should develop more ... . (dynamic, dynamically) 15. Turn the gas ... . I am in ... sprits today. The magazine ranked a ... 52nd among British publications, (low, lowly) Ex. 213. Translate into English 1. B:@>25==> 3>2>@O, BK =5 >G5=L A5@L57=> >B=>A8HLAO : A2>8< >1O70==>ABO<. 2. >>1I5-B> <=5 >G5=L =C6=0 B2>O ?><>IL. 3. / ;8HL G0AB8G=> A>3;0A5= A 20<8. 4. !:068 =0< G5AB=>, ?>G5<C BK 25; A51O B0: 3;C?>. 5. = A>25@H8; 4>1@K9 ?>ABC?>:, 8 >B MB>3> 5<C E>@>H>. 6. @>ABC40 ?@>H;0, 8 O E>@>H> A51O GC2AB2>20;. 7. G5@0 H5; A8;L=K9 4>64L, 0 A53>4=O A=53>?04. 8. #65 ?>GB8 2@5<O ;0=G0. 0209 >AB0=>28<AO >:>;> 1;8609H53> :0D5. 9. = C?>@=> AB0@05BAO ?@5CA?5BL. > >= 5420 ;8 7=05B, A G53> =0G0BL. 10. 0=> 8;8 ?>74=> ?@0240 2KE>48B =0@C6C. 11. A5 E>@>H>, GB> E>@>H> :>=G05BAO. 12. / >?@545;5==> AG8B0N, GB> <K 2A5 A45;0;8 ?@028;L=>. 13. CGH5 ?>74=>, G5< =8:>340. 14. !B0@09AO 87;030BL A2>8 <KA;8 ;>38G=>. 15. # =0A ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5B 4@C3>3> 2KE>40. 16. KA;CH09 <5=O 2=8<0B5;L=> 8 =0G8=09 459AB2>20BL =5<54;5==>. 17. >9 4@C3  ?>AB>O==K9 G8B0B5;L MB>3> 6C@=0;0. = @53C;O@=> 53> 2K?8AK205B. 18. 0=4H0DB 1K; =525@>OB=> :@0A82. 19. >9 1@0B  2KA>:>>1@07>20==K9 G5;>25:. 20. 8<0 6825B 40;LH5 2A5E. 21. B=>A8AL : MB><C ;53G5. Ex 214. Choose the right word 1. By nature all men are alike, but by education widely ... . Do you think ... about it? (different, differently) 2. My teacher taught me ... as he used the latest, most... methods of teaching, (effective, effectively) 3. Men talk ..., but live ... . Even ... men make ... mistakes, (wise, wisely, foolish, foolishly) 4. The children's presentation was very ... . The events developed ... . (dynamic, dynamically) 5. Life is too ... to learn more than one business well. They returned ... afterwards, (short, shortly) 6. Act ... and go ... . But I am neither ... nor ... . (honest, honestly, bold, boldly) 7. She is walking so ... . How ... this ballerina is! (graceful, gracefully) 8. We must have a ... talk. Is it so necessary to discuss all this ... ? (confidential, confidentially) 9. His name can be ... seen in many papers. What's the ... news? (current, currently) 10. Charles and Diana were very ... matched. Yes, it was a ... match from start to finish, (bad, badly) 11. Make haste ... . He is as ... as a snail, (slow, slowly) 12. Computers have ... made a difference in our lives. She is ... to arrive on time, (sure, surely) 13. On the new stereo, many of the records sounded ... . This time we shall do it ... . (different, differently) 14. The age difference between the brothers is really quite ... . Her husband was ... shorter than she was. (slight, slightly) 15. She paused ... . Landing on the moon was one of the most ... scientific adventures of the twentieth century, (dramatic, dramatically) Ex. 215. Translate into English 1. >>1I5-B> MB> =5 8<55B 7=0G5=8O. 2. =0 3>2>@8;0 ;53:>, => B25@4>. 3. #A?5E ?>H5; 5<C =0 ?>;L7C. 4. -B>B <03078= ?@>405B ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5. 5. =0 2>A?@8=8<05B >:@C60NI89 55 <8@ D8;>A>DA:8. 6. = 5420 ;8 2 A>AB>O=88 @01>B0BL A53>4=O. 7. -B0 452CH:0 =5>1KG09=> M3>8AB8G=0. 8. K C60A=> 4>1@K. 9. =8 A:070;8 MB> >4=>2@5<5==> 8 @0AA<5O;8AL. 10. 0;59H89 HC< ?C30; 53>. 11. 5 8<5N =8 <0;59H53> ?>=OB8O, > G5< 2K 3>2>@8B5. 12. 5;>5 28=> A;54C5B A;53:0 >E;0640BL. 13.  "K C25@5=, GB> 2A5 ?@028;L=> CA;KH0;?  1A>;NB=>. 14. =5 E>B5;>AL 1K 1KBL M:>=><8G5A:8 =57028A8<K<. 15. -B0 <0H8=0 >G5=L M:>=><8G=0. 16. =8 A;8H:>< ;53:> A>3;0A8;8AL =0 =0H5 ?@54;>65=85. 17. !53>4=O C =0A 1C45B =>@<0;L=0O (proper) 540. "K =8:>340 =5 5HL B>;:><. ">;L:> ?><=8 A;>20: >B>2L 1KAB@> 5HL <54;5==>. Chapter VIII. THE VERB I. The Present Tenses The Present Simple Ex. 216. Comment on the use of the Present Simple in the following sentences 1. Wisdom comes with age. 2. There is a reason for everything. Nothing falls from heaven. 3. Do you believe in miracles? I do. 4. Palermo is the capital of Sicily. 5. No one in this world is perfect. 6. Students buy a lot of books at the beginning of each term. 7.1 think that English Grammar is easy. 8. Frank has a good head for figures. 9. A cat purrs when it is pleased, but a dog waves its tail. 10. That's the way it usually happens. 11. The client is always right. 12.1 often sleep with the window open. 13. My mother doesn't like it when we play in the street. 14. The beauty of the Internet is that you can get virtually anything that your heart desires. 15. Every generation has its way. 16. I watch evening news every day. 17. Do you have a sweet tooth? Yes, several. Ex 217. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. This man (know) from his experience what it (mean). 2. Nothing (happen) by accident. 3. As man (grow) older, he (tend) to be more sceptical. 4. My mother often (tell) me that you not (leave) your problems behind you when you (go) to another place. Pain and heartache (travel) well. And indeed they (do). 5. Mrs. Osborne (own) this business, and she (run) it herself. 6. He (be) a complete mystery to me. 7. What he (do) for a living? 8. In Rome every building (tell) its own story. 9. When the weather (heat) up and you (need) to cool down, a lake, a river, a pool is what your body and soul (need). 10. My great-grandmother is very old, but she (hear, see and understand) everything quite well. 11. I (remember) that Margaret (own) a villa on the Adriatic. 12. "The Bible (say) that the heart of man is exceedingly wicked," the Pastor replied. Ex 218. Translate into English 1. "2>9 4@C3  MB> G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 7=05B > B515 2A5 8 B5< =5 <5=55 ;N18B B51O. 2. >A;5 ?5G0;8 ?@8E>48B @04>ABL. 3. = ;N18B ;560BL =0 4820=5 8 A<>B@5BL B5;5287>@. = ;5651>:0 (a couch potato). 4. A5 7028A8B >B B>3>, :0: >= 2848B A2>5 1C4CI55. 5.  515=>: E>@>H> A?8B ?> =>G0<, <0<0H0?  0, E>@>H>, >= ?@>AK?05BAO >48= 8;8 420 @070. 6. = 83=>@8@C5B =0H8 72>=:8, ?>B><C GB> =5 E>G5B 2K?>;=OBL MBC @0 1>BC. 7. ">B, :B> 3>2>@8B, GB> 45=L38 =5 <>3CB :C?8B}, AG0ABLO, ?@>AB> =5 7=05B, 345 45;0BL ?>:C?:8. 8. 5 2>;=C9B5AL, <K C65 745AL. 9. = 2848B 687=L B0:>9, :0: >=0 5ABL. 10. 5=L38 =5 @0ABCB =0 45@52LOE. E B@C4=> 4>1K20BL. 11. A5 C65 7=0NB MB8 =>2>AB8. 12. B> 7=05B, :0:0O A59G0A ?>3>40 2 >=4>=5? 13. / 701K;0, 345 >= 6825B. 14. K A;KH0;8, GB> >= GC2 AB2C5B A51O 3>@074> ;CGH5. 15. -B>B A;>20@L ?@54;0 305B B>G=CN 8 ?>4@>1=CN 8=D>@<0F8N >1 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5. 16.  # 20A <=>3> 4@C759?  5 >G5=L, 0 C 20A <=>3> 4@C759? 17.  "K 254L >1KG=> >15405HL 4><0, =5 B0: ;8?  -B> B0:. 18. >9 A>A54 >E>B8BAO =0 48:8E 3CA59 8 CB>:. 19. 064K9 45=L ?@8=>A8B =0< <0AAC =>2KE A2545=89. 20.  0;8D>@=88 =8:>340 =5 845B A=53, =5 B0: ;8? 21. =>340 2 >A:25 78<>9 845B 4>64L. Ex. 219. A. Read the following proverbs and sayings and give their Russian equivalents. 1. A stitch in time saves nine. 2. A liar is not believed when he speaks the truth. 3. A good wife makes a good husband. 4. A man is known by the company he keeps, 5. A lawyer never goes to law himself. 6. A civil question deserves a civil answer. 7. Time heals all wounds. 8. 11 takes three generations to make a gentleman. 9. He calls a goose a swan. 10. The more a man knows the mon1 modest he is. 11. An apple a day keeps wrinkles away. 12. Big fish eat little fish. 13. He laughs best who laughs last. 14. He who laughs last, laughs longest. B. Give the English equivalents for the following. 1.  GC6>9 <>=0ABK@L A> A2>8< CAB02>< =5 E>4OB. 2. 0A8;L=> <8; =5 1C45HL. 3. #< E>@>H>, 0 420 ;CG H5. 4. !25B :;8=>< =0 =5< =5 A>H5;AO. 5. ;85=B 2A5 340 ?@02. 6. 'B> ;53:> ?@8E>48B, B> ;53:> CE>48B. (0: ?@8H;>, B0: 8 CH;>.) 7. ! <8@C ?> =8B:5. 8. @09=>AB8 AE>4OBAO. 9. 0 4>1@> 4>1@>< ?;0BOB. 10. AB>@8O ?>2B>@O5BAO. 11. %>@>H> A<55BAO B>B, :B> A<55BAO ?>A;54=8<. 12. >@10B>3> <>38;0 8A?@028B. 13. 87=L =0G8=05BAO 2 A>@>: ;5B. 14. 5=L38 45;0NB 45=L38. 15. >20O <5B;0 ?>-=>2><C <5B5B. Ex. 220. Read the following just for fun and then retell it. A sure sign that a person is English is that he or she: 1. treats anybody foreign with suspicion. 2. never leaves home without an umbrella. 3. has little sense of rhythm. 4. understands the rules of cricket. 5. is still mentally at war with Germany, France, Scotland, the American colonies, the Danes, the Celts, the Vikings, the Romans. 6. thinks the weather is a more exciting topic of conversation than baseball. 7. doesn't expect any form of public transport to run on time. 8. thinks sarcasm is the highest form of wit. 9. thinks France begins and ends at the Calais hypermarket. 10. hasn't been to the Millennium Dome. 11. on holiday in Spain, searches for a bar that serves fish and chips. 12. has a proverb to cover any eventuality. Ex 221. Translate into English. 1. B> 3>2>@8B, GB> 687=L A:CG=0? ">;L:> =5 O! 2. 87=L ?@>4>;605BAO. 3. >340 <=5 ?;>E>, B> ;CGH55 ;5:0@AB2> 4;O <5=O  >F0@B 8;8 820;L48. 4. 'B> 1K =8 A;CG8;>AL, <>9 1>AA =8:>340 =5 B5@O5B E;04=>:@>28O (to lose one's cool). 5. = 2A5340 ?><>305B ;N4O< A>25B0<8 8 45=L30<8. 6.   <05 2 >A:25 8=>340 845B A=53.  0, ?>3>40 ?@5?>4=>A8B =0< AN@?@87K. 7. -B8 B5;52878>==K5 =>2>AB8 40NB B>G=K5 8 25@=K5 A2545=8O. 8. 5B@5=0O ?>3>40 A2>48B <5=O A C<0. 9.  B0:8E 25I0E ?@O<> =5 3>2>@OB. 127 10. >340 B5<?5@0BC@0 ?>4=8<05BAO, 2;06=>ABL >1KG=> ?0405B. 11. &5<5=B A>AB>8B 87 A<5A8 3;8=K 8 E8<8:0B>2. 12. =5 =@028BAO, :>340 BK =>A8HL MBC @> 7>2CN 1;C7:C. 13. A5, GB> BK 45;05HL, 7028A8B >B B51O. 14. = >G5=L <C4@: 2A5 A;KH8B, 2A5 2848B, 2A5 ?>=8<05B, 2A5340 405B E>@>H85 A>25BK. 15. 064>5 ;5B> ;53 5748B 2 M:A?548F8N 8 ?@82>78B <=>3> =0E>4>:. Ex. 222. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets I. Human relationships (be) never static. They (change) from day to day, because they are highly complex and also because people (be) changeable. And life (intrude). Problems (intrude) and (create) tensions. II. Whenever my mother (face) difficulties, she always (say) to me, "Vanny, life (take) care of itself and a lot of other things as well. And it usually (take) a turn for the best. So let things (work) themselves out in their own time." That (be) always her philosophy, I think. III. Power is the most potent of weapons, probably more so than money. Power, not money, (talk). Money (be) only important when you (be) truly poor, when you need it for a roof over your head, for food and clothes. Once you have those essentials and go beyond them, money (be) simply a tool to work with. And not ever (let) anyone persuade you that power (corrupt). It not always (do) so, only when those with power (do) anything to hold on to that power. Sometimes it can even be ennobling. Ex. 223. Read the following Agree or disagree with what is written Start with A person is (not) a computer nerd if You might be a computer nerd (swot) if: 1. your Web page is more popular than you. 2. you think Bill Gates is a "cool guy". 3. you wake at 3 a.m. to go to the bathroom and, on your way back to bed, you stop to check your e-mail. 4. you've never actually met any of your friends. 5. the optician looks deep into your eyes and sees a screen saver. 6. you'd prefer to buy Computer Weekly than Playboy. 7. you've read more books over the Internet than in real life. 8. your dog has its own home page. 9. you can't speak to your mother because she doesn't have a modem. 10. you name your daughter Dotcom. 11. you spend a plane trip with your laptop on your lap and your child in the overhead baggage compartment. 12. when someone yells out, "Where's Tommy?", you do a search for tommy.com. 13. you run back into your burning home to rescue your computer rather than your family. a nerd US si. a dull, uninteresting person a swot Br mfml. a person who works (too) hard at his studies Ex 224. A. Translate into English >9 45=L / >1KG=> ?@>AK?0NAL >:>;> H5AB8 G0A>2 CB@0 8 A@07C 2K18@0NAL 87 :@>20B8. > CB@0< O, :0: ?@028;>, ?@8=8<0N 4CH, 0 ?> 25G5@0< 20==C. / 3>B>2;N A515 >G5=L :@5?:89 :>D5 8 A06CAL =0 :CE=5 A 3075B0<8 8 6C@=0;0<8. / ;N1;N G8B0BL 8E, <=5 =@028BAO C7=020BL, GB> @04C5B ;N459 8 GB> 8E >3>@G05B, GB> 8E A5@48B 8 C482;O5B.  8.30 O =0G8=0N ?@82>48BL 4>< 2 ?>@O4>:, ?>B><C GB> M:>=><:0 ?@8E>48B 2 9 G0A>2, 0 O A;8H:>< 2>A?8B0=, GB>1K >AB02;OBL 4>< 2 15A?>@O4:5. / 70:0=G820N 2A5 4> B>3>, :0: >=0 ?@8E>48B. 0B5< O A06CAL 2 <0H8=C, 8 2 9.30 O C65 2 >D8A5. >O A5:@5B0@H0 -<<0 "><A>= B0:65 ?@8E>48B 2 MB> 2@5<O.  8<5==> B5?5@L =0G8=05BAO =0AB>OI0O 687=L. -<<0  >G0@>20B5;L=0O 65=I8=0, >G5=L M=5@38G=0O 8 4><8=0=B=0O ?> E0@0:B5@C. >O A5AB@0 AG8B05B, GB> 2 ?@>H;>9 687=8 -<<0 1K;0 A5@60=B><. =0 >1KG=> 3>2>@8B: 8AB5@ 0@B5@, K 4>;6=K ?>4?8A0BL MB>, A>3;0A8BLAO A MB8<, >B:070BLAO >B MB>3> 8 B0: 40;55.  5A;8 >=0 =0G8=05B A;8H:>< :><0=4>20BL (to get bossy), O 3>2>@N: -<<0, <K 2AB@5B8<AO G5@57 G0A. >9 @01>G89 45=L 70:0=G8205BAO 2 6 G0A>2 25G5@0. 5G5@>< O <>3C 45;0BL 2A5, GB> E>GC. =>340 O 25B@5 G0NAL A 4@C7LO<8, E>6C 2 B50B@, =025I0N @>48B5;59. =>340 ?@>2>6C A?>:>9=K9 25G5@ 4><0: A<>B@N B5;5287>@, G8B0N :=838. . Describe your working day or a day off. The Present Progressive Ex. 225. Read and translate the following sentences. Explain the use of the Present Progressive. 1. Family life is changing rapidly. 2. These days many people are complaining that life is too tough. 3.1 can'1 understand what he is talking about. 4. He is always coming up with new ideas. 5. Look here, Michael, I'm not being critical of you. 6. You're looking strange, Teddy. What's the matter? 7. You're looking so very healthy at the moment. 8. She scanned the scenery. "What I don't understand is why we're not seeing the river." 9. And so... Am I understanding this correctly? 10. I'm hoping I'll feel better by lunchtime. 11. Forgive me! I am being thoughtless. How is your son? 12. She is feeling dead guilty. Forgive her. 13. Maxim's jaw dropped, he was unable to absorb the things he was hearing. 14. Isn't he being just a little bit unfair? 15.1 am only agreeing to this ridiculous decision of yours because there is no other way out. Ex. 226. Use the right form of the verb in brackets 1. Oh, darling, pay no attention to Mr. Wonka! He (lie) to you. 2. "I (starve), and my feet (kill) me. I (want) to have a rest," complained Grandma. 3. "Watch the road!" cried the policeman. "Something (happen) there." 4. You (kid)? No, I not (joke), sir. I'm dead serious. 5. Now, children, we (go) to the most wonderful place in the world. 6. You (think) of selling this house? I not (think) it's the right time to do it. 7. We still can't understand what he (talk) about. 8. She (show) the latest collection of new designs tonight. 9. Today in this country we (face) a lot of problems. 10. Why you (cry), Nicky? Can't you see I (cut) onions? 11. Listen, you and Eric (come) for Sunday's barbecue? 12. You (feel) better, darling? Yes, I (do) fine, thank you. 13. Have you put the kettle on to boil? It (whistle) already. 14. All the talk tonight is about the house which he (renovate). 15. We not (get) younger. 16. Make the tea, Jess, the kettle (screech) its head off. 17. Now clear off, I (read). 18. Hello, is that me you (look for)? Ex. 227. Translate into English. 1. >340 O 240;8 >B 4><0, B> O A =5B5@?5=85< 64C (to long for) B>3> 4=O, :>340 25@=CAL >1@0B=>. 2. K >1AC6405< B51O 8;8 <5=O?  A?@>A8; >= A C;K1:>9. 3.   GB> 65 BK 45;05HL 2 5=525?  8HC ?L5AC. 4. >@074> 1>;LH5 45=53 2 B><, GB> 45;05HL BK, G5< 2 B><, G5< 70=8<0NAL O. 5. = ?>AB>O==> 3>2>@8B <=5 > A2>8E GC2AB20E! 6. #A?>:>9AO! "K 65 2A5E @074@0605HL! 7. = ?>4C<K205B > B><, GB>1K M<83@8@>20BL. 8. / 7=0N, GB> BK GC2AB2C5HL A59G0A, <K 2A5 GC2AB2C5< B> 65 A0<>5. 9.  =8 2AB@5G0NBAO (to see) A53>4=O 25G5@><.  >=8<0N. 10. >A<>B@8, 452CH:0 =0 M:@0=5 @5:;0<8@C5B =>2K9 H0<?C=L. 11.  A5 7028A8B >B B>3>, :0: >= 2848B A2>5 1C4CI55.  0, => >= =8G53> =5 ?;0=8@C5B. 12.  73;O=8, =0H A>A54 >?OBL 15305B ?> CB@0<.  >-<>5<C, >= CAB0=02;8205B =>2K9 @5:>@4. = 2K3;O48B 87<CG5==K<. 13. 0:85 MB> C B51O 4CE8 (to wear perfume)? =8 C4828B5;L=K5. 14. = ?@5:@0A=K9 G5;>25:. > A53>4=O >= ?@>AB> =52K=>A8<. 15.  "2>9 0=3;89A:89 AB0=>28BAO 2A5 ;CGH5 8 ;CGH5.  0, O 70=8<0NAL A CB@0 4> =>G8. Ex. 228. Use the right form of the verb in brackets. 1. My aunt often (talk) to herself. Look, Grandpa (talk) to himself. 2. I never (drink) anything with my meals. What you (drink)?  Tonic water. 3. The days (get) longer from January to June. The days (get) longer now. 4. We (go) out a lot in the summer. We (go) out on Saturday. 5. What's that terrible noise? My neighbour (drill) the wall. He (do) it every weekend. 6.1 wonder if Kate is on a diet. She (get) thinner and thinner. 7. My house plants (grow) very slowly. 8. She can't come to the phone right now. She (wash) her hair. She (wash) it twice a week. 9. Many people (go) to church on Sundays. Hey, people! Where you (go)? 10. Unemployment (rise) at an alarming rate. Prices (rise) after economic crises. 11. Don't disturb him, he (work). 12. Your husband ever (work) at the weekends? 13. Come in, I not (sleep). 14. He always (come) at the wrong moments. 15. She constantly (talk)! 16. Why you always (chew) something? Ex. 229. A. Translate into English 1. # =8E A59G0A 2B>@>9 702B@0:. # =8E 5ABL ?@>1;5<0. =8 >1AC640NB 55 A59G0A. 2.  0 6C;88 A53>4=O =>20O H;O?:0. =0 74>@>2> 2K3;O48B.  0, H;O?:0 <5=O5B 65=I8=C. 3. ;0@0 ?@>1C5B <>@>65=>5. >@>65=>5 2>AE8B8B5;L=> =0 2:CA. 4. =0 IC?05B 10@E0B. = B0:>9 <O3:89. =0 GC2AB2C5B A51O AG0AB;82>9. 5. / 4C<0N > B515. / AG8B0N, GB> BK GC4>, 452CH:0 <>59 <5GBK. 6. / ?@028;L=> 20A ?>=8<0N, GB> O ?@>H5; A>15A54>20=85? 7.  0: BK A51O GC2AB2C5HL A59G0A?  5 <>3C ?>60;>20BLAO. A;8 60;C5HLAO, B> =8:B> =5 A;CH05B B51O. 8. >O 101CH:0 ?>AB>O==> 45;05B <=5 ?>40@:8. 9. = @01>B05B :0: @01. -:70<5=K ?@81;860NBAO. 10. @NA =0AB>@>68;AO. >;>A, :>B>@K9 >= A;KH0;, 27K20; > ?><>I8. 11. >A<>B@8 =0 MBC D>B>3@0D8N. -B> <>O A5<LO. K >B4KE05< =0 <>@5. 52>G:0, :>B>@0O 45@68B A>10:C, <>O 4>GL, 235=8O. >O 65=0, C870, A848B A?@020. !;520 AB>8B <>9 AK=, 5=8A. 0;LG8:, :>B>@K9 AB>8B 2 F5=B@5, <>9 ?;5<O==8:. 40;5:5 284=0 OEB0, :>B>@0O ?;K25B ?> <>@N. 45AL 74>@>2>! . 1)Take any picture you like and describe it. Use the present Progressive and Present Simple. 2) Imagine you are in a nightclub watching what is going on around you. Write about what people around you are doing The Present Perfect Ex. 230. Read and translate the following sentences Explain the use of the Present Perfect. I. We live in the life that we have created. 2. Miss Lazy has hardly done any work this week. 3. I've said all I wanted to say on the matter. 4. Alan and Chloe are both down with the flu. Thank God I haven't caught it from them. 5.1 think you've made a good choice. 6. Rick, I've just told you that we don't have a future together. 7. The country has made enormous progress this year. The Prime Minister has done so much good. 8. I've studied the last i two faxes from Geneva and I've come to a decision. 9. You are my mother. I love you very much, and I thank you from the bottom of my heart for everything you have done for me. 10. Wait, you haven't read the details. II. You have become very dear to me, and in such a short time. I've fallen in love with you, Mary. 12. So the vendetta has finally ended. You have united the two families at last. 13. You've been generous beyond belief. Thank you. 14. Have you ever seen a ghost? 15. We've run out of sugar. Ask Mrs. Helpful to lend us some. 16. We have had some successes in tennis lately. Ex. 231. Translate into English. 1. 'B>-B> 3>@8B! , O >?OBL >AB028;0 :0AB@N;N =0 ?;8B5. 2. ABL :>5-GB>, G53> O B515 =5 A:070;0. 3.  "K A>18@05HLAO 70<C6 70 6>=0?  = =5 45;0; <=5 ?@54;>65=8O. 4. =0 2K3;O48B AB0@H5 A2>8E ;5B. -B> | =5C4828B5;L=> ?>A;5 2A53> B>3>, G5@57 GB> >=0 ?@>H;0 (to be through something). 5. 8AL<>, :>B>@>5 >=0 B>;L:> GB> ?@>G8B0;0, 15A?>:>8B 55. 6. !>B@8B5, ?>60;C9AB0 A;>20, :>B>@K5 2K =0?8A0;8 =0 4>A:5. 7. 0@8=0 >G5=L @0AAB@>5=0, ?>B><C GB> ?@>20;8;0 M:70<5=. 8. = >G5=L 87<5=8;AO, 53> B@C4=> C7=0BL. 9. >3C A:070BL, GB> O =0:>=5F-B> =0CG8;0AL ?@028;L=> @01>B0BL =0 :><?LNB5@5. 10.  / B0: ?>=8<0N, GB> 2K ?@8H;8 ?>?@>I0BLAO.  -B> B0:. 11. A5 C25@5=K, GB> >= AK3 @0; 3;02=CN @>;L (a key role) 2 CA?5E5 MB>9 :><?0=88. 12. 3> 273;O4K =5 >G5=L 87<5=8;8AL =0 ?@>BO65=88 @O40 ;5B. 13. >A<>B@8, GB> BK A45;0;! "K =5 <>3 1K 1KBL ?>>AB>@>6=55? 14. K =8:>340 =5 ?>;L7>20;8AL MB8< A5@287><, E>BO >= C =0A <=>3> ;5B. 15. / ?>2840; <8@ 8 E>GC, GB>1K 8 BK 53> C2845;. 16. "5?5@L, :>340 BK 4>AB83 A>25@H5==>;5B8O, BK 4>;65= A0< 2A5 @5H0BL. Ex. 232. Read and translate the following sentences. Comment on the use of tenses in them 1.1 have had a headache since I got up. 2. Things have been pretty tight lately. Many people have died as a result. 3.1 have often thought of changing my job. 4. That's something he's known all his life. 5.1 have been married to Andrew for ten years now. 6. You are a human dynamo, I've never seen you waste a minute. 7. They have been separated for donkey's years. 8. We've been friends since we were babies. Actually, you can say we've been inseparable since our prams. 9. "People haven't changed much over the centuries," he remarked. 10. I can see that my lessons over the past few weeks have served you well. 11. Have you ever had an experience of telepathy? 12. He's been my friend for forty-seven years. Loyal, devoted, staunch and wise. 13. That's what I've always wanted for you, my dear, a big white wedding with all the trimmings. 14. My motto has always been: Through thick and thick and thin and thin. 15. Cricket has for centuries been the most popular English national pastime. Ex. 233. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. They (be) political rivals for more than 30 years and still are. 2. New York house (be) his main home for the last forty years. 3. I (miss) you terribly! Where you (be) all this time? 4. It (be) a long way, I really feel tired. 5. I always (like) being near water, and for as long as I can remember. 6. Frank wants to fly. He (do) this so many times in his mind that he is beginning to think it really (happen). 7, Life (be) very kind to me. 8.1 not (see) fireflies since I (be) a kid. 9. I (notice) something strange in her lately. 10. We believe you (be) very busy since you (arrive) in New York. 11. Melanie (know) the Hills for donkey's years. 12. After all, Nigel always (be) a bit of a know-it-all. 13. It is quiet in the apartment now that everybody (leave) it. 14. It's strange that they are friends, they never (share) the same interests. 15. "I think you had better leave," he said icily. "Before I really lose my temper. I just (have) enough of you." 16.1 always (want) to look clever, but now at the age of twenty I have to admit that I look like a person who never even (hear) of Jung or Updike. 17. We (see) each other fairly steadily for the past year, and when David (ask) me to marry him, last week, there (seem) no reason to say "no". I (be) very lonely for a very long time. And so (have) David, ever since his wife (die) seven years ago. Ex. 234. A. Read the following text and retell it Fear has paralyzed me emotionally for a number of years. I am well aware of that, and so I have created a life for myself, a life alone; this has always seemed so much safer. Brick by brick I have erected a wall around myself, a wall built on the foundations of my business, my work, and my career. I have done this in order to protect myself, to insulate myself from life; work has been my strong citadel for such a long time now, and it has given me exactly what I have needed these few years. Once I had so much. I had everything a woman could possibly want. And I lost it all. For the past five years, since that fateful winter of 1988, I have lived with pain and heartache and grief on a continuing basis. I have lived with a sorrow that has been, and still is, unendurable. And yet I have endured. 1 have gone on; I have fought my way up of a terrible darkness and despair when I had hardly any strength left and when I had lost even the will to life. I have managed, somehow, to survive. (from "Everything to Gain" by B. Bradford } B. Now that you have read the text, say what life has taught you, and what it hasn't yet Ex. 235. Translate into English 1.  !:>;L:> 45=53 BK 8AB@0B8;0 =0 MB>9 =545;5?  / 5I5 =5 ?>4AG8B0;0. 2. @0G B>;L:> GB> ?>72>=8; 8 A:070;, GB> C 0AB8 @>48;AO @515=>:, <0;LG8: (a baby boy). 3.  B> MB> ?@8=8<05B 4CH 2 A5@548=5 4=O?  -B> 5B@, >= A53>4=O =5 ?>H5; =0 @01>BC. 4. $@54 =5 :C@8B C65 45AOBL ;5B. 5.  MB>< 3>4C <K A:>?8;8 =5 >G5=L <=>3> 45=53. 6.  -B> 1C45B 1>;LH0O 25G5@8=:0? !:>;L:> G5;>25: 2K ?@83;0A8;8?  K 5I5 =5 A>AB028;8 A?8A>:. 7. -B> 8<5==> B>, G53> O 2A5340 E>B5;0. 8. 5 C482;O9AO, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 >=0 2A5340 1K;0 A:@KB=>9. 9. >;;82C4 2A5340 1K; ?@8BO30B5;5= (to be a magnet) 4;O B0;0=B>2. 10. 8:>340 2 A2>59 687=8 =5 2845;0 B0:>3> 15A?>@O4:0! 11. K =8:>340 =5 701C45< B>3>, GB> 2K A45;0;8 4;O =0A. 12. / 3>2>@8; B515 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O :0: A8;L=> O ;N1;N B51O? 13. --0: 402=> 2K C65 2 =3;88 8 GB> 2K CA?5;8 ?>A<>B@5BL?  K B>;L:> GB> ?@85E0;8 8 2845;8 >=4>= 87 >:=0 02B>1CA0. 14. L5A0 . @8AB8 KH5;>2:0 845B C65 1>;55 ?OB845AOB8 ;5B. 15. 0 ?>A;54=85 =5A:>;L:> ;5B 8E >B=>H5=8O 7=0G8B5;L=> C;CGH8;8AL. Ex. 236. Fill in the gaps with since or for 1.1 haven't met my classmates ... five years. 2. Grandma has had a headache ... the weather changed. 3. They have been in this business ... twenty years. 4. It hasn't 136 rained ... a month. 5. Andrew has been very busy ... the conference began. 6. We've had the same director ... twelve years. 7. He hasn't spoken ... his dog died. 8. My relatives haven't visited me ... quite a long time. 9. Nothing special has happened ... yesterday. 10.I have passed all my exams ... the last six days. 11. They have been up ... early morning. 12. Margie has been unwell ... she came back from the North. 13. Nick has had a beard ... he was forty. 14. Mr. Stone has been our family doctor ... ages. Ex. 237. Answer the following questions. 1. Have you ever pretended to be ill to get off work or school? 2. Have you ever cheated in an exam? 3. Have you ever ridden a camel or an elephant? 4. Have you ever read your brother's, sister's or friend's letter which was lying around the house? 5. Have you ever hidden any of your earnings from the tax inspector? 6. Have you ever taken anything home with you from the hotel? 7. Have you ever travelled without a ticket on public transport? 8. Have you ever told lies and invented stories about yourself to impress other people? 9. Have you ever met any people who could speak Swahili? 10. Have you answered all the questions honestly? Ex. 238. Translate into English $8;>A>D8O 687=8 0@:89 ;5B=89 45=L 2 @52=5< 8<5. $8;>A>D ?5@5A5:05B "81@ 2 <0;5=L:>9 ;>4>G:5. > 2@5<O ?5@5?@02K >= A?@0H8205B C ;>4>G=8:0: "K :>340-=81C4L A;KH0; > D8;>A>D88? 5B,  >B25G05B ;>4>G=8:,  O =8:>340 >1 MB>< =5 A;KH0;. 'B> MB> B0:>5? =5 >G5=L B51O 60;L,  >B25G05B CG5=K9 G5;>25:,  BK ?>B5@O; G5B25@BL A2>59 687=8, ?>B><C GB> MB> >G5=L 8=B5@5A=0O =0C:0! =8 ?;K2CB C65 =5A:>;L:> <8=CB, :0: D8;>A>D >?OBL A?@0H8205B ;>4>G=8:0:  BK A;KH0; >1 0AB@>=><88, :>340 CG8;AO 2 H:>;5? 5B, O 70:>=G8; H:>;C <=>3> ;5B =0704 8 2A5 701K;. / =8G53> =5 ?><=N,  >B25G05B ;>4>G=8:. 0 MB> D8;>A>D >?OBL 3>2>@8B, GB> 5<C >G5=L 60;L ;>4>G=8:0, 8 GB> B>B ?>B5@O; 2B>@CN G5B25@BL A2>59 687=8. @>E>48B =5A:>;L:> <8=CB, 8 D8;>A>D >?OBL 70405B ;>4>G=8:C 2>?@>A:  A;KH0; ;8 BK :>340-=81C4L >1 0;351@5?  ;>4>G=8:C ?@8E>48BAO A>7=0BLAO, GB> >= =8:>340 =8G53> >1 MB>< =5 A;KH0;.  MB>< A;CG05 BK ?>B5@O; B@5BLN G5B25@BL A2>59 687=8,  3>2>@8B CG5=K9.  MB>B <><5=B ;>4:0 =0;5B05B =0 1>;LH>9 :0<5=L. >4>G=8: 2A:0:8205B 8 :@8G8B: "K :>340-=81C4L CG8;AO ?;020BL? 5B,  >B25G05B CG5=K9,  O =8:>340 =5 87CG0; ?;020=85. >4>G=8: 3@CAB=> >1JOA=O5B D8;>A>DC, GB> B>B ?>B5@O; 2AN A2>N 687=L, B0: :0: ;>4:0 B>=5B. >@0;L:  ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8 ?@0:B8G5A:85 C<5=8O 1K20NB 8=>340 1>;55 =5>1E>48<K, G5< 7=0=85 <=>38E =0C:. Ex. 239. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the use of tenses in them 1. As long as I've known you, which is a good ten years now, you've been a workaholic, to use a nasty word. 2. That's the most ridiculous thing I've heard you say in all the years I've known you. 3.1 have really tried to help her since I have been at Fairley. 4. Help me! I've been ever so worried while you've been away. 5. The baby hasn't cried at all since I've been home from St. Mary's Hospital. 6.1 must say, you've made my life easier since you've been in Town Street. I don't have to do so much cooking these days. 7. But since I've been back in London I haven't had time to come over to Jardine's. 8. My mother is complaining that she has seen nothing of me since I have been in London. 9. We have been friends for many years and we have always shared the same interests. Ex. 240. Read the following texts and discuss the two questions given below The words and phrases in bold type may help you. 1. I can't cope with Maxim's life, his business, his work schedule. He's not a nine-to-five man, and he never has been. He's ambitious, and brilliant at what he does. He is not normal when it comes to work. He is beyond a workaholic, Mother. They haven't invented a name for a person who works the way he does. Around the clock. 2. "Everything looks beautiful, darling," Meredith said as she walked into her daughter's flat. "You've added a few things since I was here last. You've given it a wonderful look, your many new touches have really worked. That painting over there, the lamp, the sculpture in the corner." "Thanks, Mom. Like mother like daughter. I guess I've taken after you. You know, I've become a real 'nester' just as you are." Questions: 1. Are you a workaholic? Describe your work schedule. 2. Are you a 'nester'? Have you changed anything in your room, flat, house lately? Describe those changes. Ex. 241. Translate into English. 1. 8:B> =8:>340 =5 ?>4020; <=5 =8G53> =0 1;N45G:5. AN 687=L <=5 ?@8H;>AL @01>B0BL :0: @01C 70 2A5, GB> C <5=O 5ABL. 2. =5 2A5340 =@028;>AL 3>B>28BL. 0<0 =0CG8;0 <5=O 45;0BL MB>. 3. / E>GC >B40BL B515 :>5-GB>. -B> 1K;> A> <=>9 <=>3> ;5B. 4. 5 @01>B0 8 55 45B8 AB0;8 55 F8B045;LN. 5.  ?>A;54=85 3>4K C =0A ; 1K;> <=>3> ?>B5@L, 8 2A5 MB> 2@5<O BK =0< >G5=L ?><>30;, '0@;L7 (to be helpful). 6. "5?5@L, :>340 2K 2A5 25@=C;8AL 4><>9, O AG0AB;820. 7. -B0 ?L5A0 =5 H;0 =0 @>4255 A 1990 3>40. 8. A5 MB8 3>4K, GB> O 7=0N B51O, BK 2A5340 1K; <>59 ?@02>9 @C:>9. 9. =8 ?>:0 5I5 =5 CAB0=>28;8 B>G=CN 40BC F5@5<>=88. 10. =0 A>18@05BAO 2 @;0=48N. =0 =8:>340 B0< =5 1K20;0. 11.  "K ?>AB028;0 :8?OB8BL G09=8:?  = C65 A28AB8B. 12. K 4@C7LO A B5E ?>@, :0: E>48;8 2<5AB5 2 H:>;C. 13. 9 =5 E20B05B 2@5<5=8, 2AN 687=L 53> =5 E20B0;>. 14. >@8A 2 1>;L=8F5 A B5E ?>@, :0: ?@>87>H;> =0?045=85 =0 =53>. 15. =8 65=0BK >G5=L 402=> 8 2A5 MB8 3>4K >G5=L AG0AB;82K. 16. / 25@N 20< 8 2A5340 25@8; A B>3> <><5=B0 :0: 2K <5=O A?0A;8, AM@. 17. 848O =5 =04520;0 MB> ?;0BL5 A B5E ?>@ :0: 1K;0 2 =5< =0 2K?CA:=>< 25G5@5. 18. / ?>AB>O==K9 G8B0B5;L MB>3> 6C@=0;0 C65 20 ;5B, 8 >= 2A5340 1K; >G5=L ?>;575= 4;O <5=O. 19. K =5 4@C7LO, => C =0A 2A5340 1K;8 E>@>H85 >B=>H5=8O. 20. =5 =5 =C6=> <>@>65=>3>. => <=5 =8:>340 =5 =@028;>AL. The Present Perfect Progressive Ex. 242. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the tenses in them 1. Can I let you in on a little secret? Why not? You've been telling me your secrets since you were eight. 2. There's something I've been meaning to ask you. 3. A fine rain has been falling steadily since six o'clock and there is a dark mist on the river. 4. "Are you thinking of selling off one of the hotels?" "I have been toying with the idea," Meredith admitted. 5. She is filling the case with the papers she has been working on all day. 6. Was it gout again? Has it been bothering you lately, Bruce? 7. Blair has been working for days to make this Christmas Day a very special one. 8. Is there someone you've been seeing? 9. For generations, Transamerica has been helping people plan for a comfortable career. 10. In my eyes you can see all the love that I've been feeling. \ 1. Let's talk about that fatigue, the attacks you've been having. When did the first one occur? 12. Her mind is still on her mother who has been seeing psychiatrist for the past few weeks. 13. British Rail has been wanting to close this line down for years on the grounds that it doesn't pay its way. 14. We've been hearing this warped reasoning for so long about so many things that it has become received wisdom. 15. What's been going on? Why haven't you been answering my letters? Ex, 243. Read the text and retell it Find the cases of the Present Perfect Progressive and comment on them In the evening Mrs. Dursley told her husband that she had had a nice, normal day. She told him over dinner all about Mrs. Next Door's problems with her daughter and how Dudley had learned a new word ("Won't!"). When Dudley had been put to bed, he went into the living room in time to catch the last report on the evening news: "And finally, bird-watchers everywhere have reported that the nation's owls have been behaving very unusually today. Although owls normally hunt at night and are hardly ever seen in daylight, there have been hundreds of sightings of these birds flying in every direction since sunshine. Experts are unable to explain why the owls have suddenly changed their sleeping pattern." The newscaster allowed himself a grin. "Most mysterious. And now, over to Jim McGuffin with the weather. Going to be any more showers of owls tonight, Jim?" "Well, Ted," said the weatherman, "I don't know about that, but it's not only the owls that have been acting oddly today. Viewers as far apart as Kent, Yorkshire, and Dundee have been phoning in to tell me that instead of the rain I promised yesterday, they've had a downpour of shooting stars! Perhaps people were celebrating Bonfire Night early it's not until next week, folks! But I can promise a wet night tonight." I Mr. Dursley sat frozen in his armchair. Shooting stars all over Britain? Mysterious people in cloaks all over the place? (from "Harry Potter" by J.K. Rowling) Ex. 244. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. Good gracious, Kit, whatever you (do)? You seem to have all the paint on yourself that there is in the world. 2. I (think) about you all day, Emma. 3. What you (do) since we last (meet)? 4. You look hot. Yes, I (play) tennis. 5. I (work) in a bookshop now. I (work) here for about six weeks. 6.1 (do) so for thirty years and I'm not going to change my ways. 7. She (have) toothache since she (get) up this morning. 8. How long you (know) Susan? 9. We (write) invitation cards all morning. We (write) eleven already. And we still not (finish) them all. 10. Mary (go out) with Steve for a year now, and they (plan) to get married soon. 11. I (keep) a watch on the road for the last few days, trying to catch a glimpse of you as you passed. 12. And now, gentlemen, I want to know what (go on) here and how long it (go on). 13. He (chase) this girl for half a year but she wouldn't even look at him. 14. They (think) a lot about this situation these past few days, since they (be) home. 15. There's something I (want) to ask you for the last couple of hours. Ex. 245. Translate into English 1. K A;CH0;8 B51O >G5=L 2=8<0B5;L=> ?>A;54=85 420 G0A0, 8 B5?5@L <K C25@5=K, GB> BK 3>2>@8HL ?@024C. 2. "K 2AB@5G05HLAO A :5<-=81C4L ?>A;54=55 2@5<O? 3. "K <>65HL 2A5 <=5 @0AA:070BL. "K 4>25@O;0 <=5 2A5 A2>8 A5:@5BK A B5E ?>@, :0: =0CG8;0AL 3>2>@8BL. 4. K 6825< @O4>< A ><0=>2K<8 4204F0BL G5BK@5 3>40.  <K 2A5340 1K;8 E>@>H8<8 A>A54O<8. 5. / E@0=8;0 MB> :>;LF> <=>3> ;5B 8 B5?5@L >B40N 53> B515,  A:070;0 <=5 101CH:0. 6. 5 <>3C ?5@540BL, GB> GC2AB2>20;8 B2>8 @>48B5;8 2A5 B> 2@5<O, ?>:0 B51O =5 1K;>. 7.  02=> <K =5 2AB@5G05< (to see) MBC 452CH:C.  0, <K =5 2845;8 (to meet) 55 A B5E ?>@, :0: 25@=C;8AL 87 0@860. 8. >9 AK= A>18@05B <0H8=:8 (toy cars) A B@5E ;5B. 9. / A CB@0 3>B>2;N, =045NAL, >154 2A5< ?>=@028BAO. 10. AN A2>N 687=L O @01>B0N :0: @01 4;O B>3>, GB>1K <>8 45B8 ?>;CG8;8 E>@>H55 >1@07>20=85. 11.  0: 402=> BK =>A8HL MB8 >G:8? - =8 C <5=O C65 420 3>40. 12. 'B> MB> 745AL ?@>8AE>48B, <0;LG8:8? K GB>, 4@0;8AL? 13. ABL =5GB>, > G5< O C65 402=> E>GC (to mean) A?@>A8BL B51O. 14. >A;54=85 =5A:>;L:> =545;L >=0 8;;NAB@8@C5B 45BA:CN :=86:C. 15.  0: 402=> 2K AB>8B5 2 >G5@548?  K 745AL A B5E ?>@, :0: :0AA0 >B:@K;0AL. 16. 0@;0<5=B 4510B8@C5B ?> MB><C 2>?@>AC C65 4204F0BL ;5B Ex 246. Complete the sentences by using the right tense of the hints 1. Why are your eyes red? a. celebrate something 2. The kitchen smells of fresh b. look for the passport fruit. c. eat a Mars bar 3. Why is the computer switched on? d. talk about me again? e. eat honey 4. You both look upset. f. bake a pie? 5. Ben, why are your jeans torn? g. my daughter, try on h. play football 6. My clothes are all on the bed. i. quarrel again 7. Your hands are in flour. j. look for the programme 8. Why have you all fallen k. make a fruit salad silent? l. watch television for hours 9. My fingers are sticky. 10. Little Nancy's face is in something brown. m. clean the snow off the doorstep 11. Why is your room in such a mess? 12. There are empty bottles and glasses and packets all over the place. 13. Mary, your hands are so cold! Ex 247. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets Tanya: Julia, what you (do)? It's already 2.00. Aren't we going shopping? Julia: I know, but everything takes twice as long to do as I expected. I (have) a lot of problems since I (move) into this apartment. T: How long you (paint) those (abiriets? J: I started at 8.00 this morning. T: You mean you (paint) for six hours! J: I really don't know what I (do). I never (paint) before. Besides, nothing (go) right today. The man from the phone company still not (corne). I (wait) for him all day. ": What's that strange noise I hear? J: Oh, that! That's the toilet. It (run) like that since last night. And the refrigerator not (work) properly since I moved in. T: Well, just call the superintendent to fix those things. J: I don't know. Maybe I (make) a mistake. I (think) things over lately. Maybe I shouldn't have moved into this apartment. It (need) too much work. T: It's not that bad. Your apartment will be great in a few weeks. J: Maybe. All I know is that I (have) nothing but headaches ever since I moved in. T: But don't forget that you (have) a lot of fun, too. Ex. 248. Answer the questions 1. Have you made any change in your life recently? What have you been doing since that change took place? 2. Choose a person that you know whose life-style has changed. What change took place in this person's life? What was his or her life like before? What has he or she been doing since the change took place? 3. Do you have a particular hobby? Have you ever had one? How long have you been interested in this? How did you become interested in it? Why do you enjoy it? Why are hobbies important to people? What are some typical hobbies that people in this country enjoy? Ex. 249. Translate into English. 1. >340 ?0405B 725740, =C6=> 703040BL 65;0=85. 2.  >A<>B@8, ?0405B 725740.  "K 703040;0 65;0=85?  0. 3. >40 2 =0H8 4=8 ?>AB>O==> <5=O5BAO. 4.  >9 4@C3 @01>B05B 2 :><?0=88, :>B>@0O ?@>872>48B :><?LNB5@K.  02=> >= B0< @01>B05B?  = @01>B05B A> 4=O >A=>20=8O MB>9 D8@<K. 5. @8H5; A5=BO1@L. => 385 ;N48 3>B>2OBAO : 78<5. 6.  =0H5 2@5<O 2A5 1>;LH5 65=I8= 2>4OB <0H8=K. 0, >1;8: 65=I8=K >G5=L 87<5=8;AO 70 ?>A;54=85 3>4K (over the years). 7. 0ABO >?OBL ?>AA>@8;0AL A> A2>8< ?0@=5<, ?>B><C GB> >= ?>AB>O==> =0720=8205B 59 ?>A;5 ?>;C=>G8. 8. # =0A 1K;0 =5 >G5=L-B> ?@>4C:B82=0O =545;O. K ?@0:B8G5A:8 =8G53> =5 A45;0;8. K ?>?CABC B@0B8< 2@5<O. 0:0O 4>A040! 9. >;8F8O @01>B05B, => >=0 ?>:0 =5 >1=0@C68;0 2>7<>6=>3> <>B820 4;O ?@5ABC?;5=8O. 10. / B0: CAB0;0 >B MB>3> HC<0! !>A548 C65 =545;N A25@;OB AB5=K. 11.   4><5 ?0E=5B :@0A:>9.  0, <K C65 <5AOF @5<>=B8@C5< 4><. K 70:>=G8;8 :><=0BK, => ?>:0 5I5 =5 =0G0;8 :@0A8BL :CE=N. 12. >8 @>4AB25==8:8 A>18@0NBAO :C?8BL 703>@>4=K9 4><. =8 ?;0=8@CNB 8 3>2>@OB >1 MB>< C65 420 3>40, => ?>:0 GB> =5 =0H;8 ?>4E>4OI89 20@80=B. 13. !:>;L:> O 55 7=0N, >=0 2A5340 1K;0 B0:>9 ?@825@54;82>9. 14.  #65 <=>3> ;5B <>9 454CH:0 2;0455B :CA>G:>< 75<;8 2 45@52=5. = 2A5340 C2;5:0;AO A04>2>4AB2>< 8 ?@52@0B8; A2>N 75<;N 2 GC45A=K9 A04. 15.  0: 402=> C B51O MB>B :><?LNB5@?  = ?@8=04;568B <=5 C65 ?OBL ;5B. 16. ! A0<>3> 45BAB20 >= >1;0405B B>=:8< GC2AB2>< N<>@0. 2. The Past Tenses The Past Simple Ex. 250. Give the Past Simple of the following verbs. Be, bear, begin, become, bring, buy, broadcast, cut, do, eat, fall, feel, find, found, give, go, have, read, rise, set, shine, sing, strike, stroke, swing, spring, throw, wear, win, write. Ex.251. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative. 1. We went for a stroll down "Alphabet Street" to Ginger Street. 2. In the 1950s, television cut deeply into the movie-going audience. 3. He did a tremendous amount of work. 4. They carried out a huge survey. 5. There were a lot of disasters in the 20th century. ^ 6. The actress gave a bravura performance in the Aldwych in London. 7. He failed to appear before the magistrate. 8. Hobbs was a founding partner in the Atlantic Financial Markets. 9. They couldn't get out of the place. 10. We had absolutely nothing to do last weekend. 11. When they saw me, they shut up. 12. She began the examination on time. 13. She had a problem on her mind. 14. My friend taught English for twenty-five years. 15. The old man used to take a long walk every morning. Ex. 252. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets. I. Hilary Benson let Melanie (weep). She handed her patient a box of tissues in silence. Then she (pour) a glass of water, and (bring) it to the crying woman. Meredith (take) it from her, (sip) the water, and (say) after a moment, "I'm sorry for my outburst." 2. "Listen, you two, before we have supper I want to show you my finds." "Finds? What you (mean)?" Andrew asked, smiling at me fondly. "I (poke) around in the library this afternoon, and I (find) a diary by one of your ancestors, Lettice Keswick, which she (write) in the seventeenth century." "Good Lord! So that's what you (do) all afternoon, digging amongst those old books," Diana (cut) in, "but you (say) finds, Mai, in the plural. What else you (discover)?" "Let me (go) and (get) them. Once you (see) the books, you (understand) what I (talk) about." Ex. 253. A. Read the dialogue between Jimmy and Nelly and retell it in indirect speech The Doctor - Hello, how are you? - I feel terrible. - Oh, dear! What's the matter? - Well, I went to the doctor's on Wednesday. - Was it serious? - Well, I felt fine on Tuesday, but now I feel dreadful. - Poor you. What happened? 146 - Yes, poor me. He looked into my eyes, then he shone a light down my throat. - Oh, dear! - And he felt my chest, and hit me on the knee with a little hammer. - Was it painful? - It was murder! And he poked my stomach with his fingers, and gave me an X-ray. - He gave you a thorough exam then. - Oh, yes. Then he gave me two bottles of pills and a bottle of medicine. And now I feel terrible. - Oh, dear! What a shame! - Yes, it was! After all I only went to make an appointment for my sister! B. Speak about your last visit to the doctor. Ex. 254. Read the joke and retell it. An absent-minded professor moved to a new house further along the same street. His wife knew that he was prone to forgetting things and so she wrote down the new address on a piece of paper before he went off to college. She handed him the paper and the key to the new house and reminded him not to go back to the old address. That morning, one of his students asked him a complex question and the professor wrote the answer down on the back of the slip of paper. The student asked whether he could keep the paper. Forgetting what was on the other side, the professor said, "Certainly." In the evening, he returned out of habit to the old house, tried the key and couldn't get in. Realizing his mistake, he searched in his pockets for the slip of paper with the new address, but of course there was no sign of it. So he wandered along the street and stopped the first reasonable-looking lad he saw. "Excuse me, I'm Professor Galbraith. You wouldn't happen to know where I live, would you?" "Sure, Dad," said the boy. Ex. 255. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. As Emma walked, she (do) a little window shopping. From time to time she (stop) arid (look) at the beautiful clothes in the chic boutiques. Milan (be) the fashion centre of the world and she (decide) to do some shopping later if she (have) time. 2. At nine Jack (stop) working, (shut) off the lights, (leave) the barn, and (go) back to the house. He (find) a cold beer in the refrigerator, (make) himself a cheese-and-tomato sandwich, and (take) his evening snack into the living-room. After turning on the television, he (sit) down in the chair, (eat) his sandwich, (drink) his beer, and channel (surf) absent-mindedly. 3. The days passed quietly, uneventfully. I (do) very little. I (read) occasionally, (watch) television, sometimes I (listen) to music, but for the most part I (sit) in the front of the fire, lost in my own world. I (have) no one and nothing I (can) live for. I simply (exist). 4. After dinner Molly (busy) herself at the sink. She (pull) apart several heads of lettuce, and (wash) the leaves scrupulously. Her thoughts (be) on her mother, but then they (take) an unexpected turn, and (zero) in on her father. Ex. 256. A. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. The office hours were over at last. Jake (head) in tl > direction of the district where he lived. He (think) what a glorious day it (be), the way you always hoped an April day would be. It was crisp and dry, with bright sunlight and a vivid blue sky. It was the kind of day that (make) him (feel) good (be alive). He (open) the window of the pickup and (take) a few deep breaths of the clean air. Jake was finally feeling better in spirits. The light was crystalline today. Perfect. 2. As he (get) into the cottage, Jake opened the fridge and took out a cold beer. After swallowing a few gulps, he (go) into the living room, (sit) down, (pick) up the remote control and (flick on) the television. He (drink) his beer, staring at the set. He wasn't paying much attention to the sitcom on one of the networks. Suddenly impatient with the television, he (flick off) the set and (lean) back in the chair, taking an occasional swallow of beer. 3. Half an hour later, as he (step) out of the shower, Jake (hear) the phone ringing. Maggie's voice (say) good-bye. The answering machine (click off); he (depress) the button and (play) the message back. Pulling the phone toward him, he (dial) Maggie's number. They (talk) for good twenty minutes and (decide) to meet the next day. B. Describe your after-work hours Use the words and phrases in bold type from the above text Ex. 257. Comment on the use of tenses 1.1 can't come to your party because I've broken my leg. 2. Some fool has let the cat in and now I can't catch it. 3. Who let that cat in? 4. Look what Victor has given me! 5. Who gave you that watch? 6. Why are you crying? Granny hit me. 7. That's a nice picture. Did you paint it yourself? 8. How did you get that scar? 9. Have you seen Irene this week? 10. We saw Jack this week, and he says he's leaving the city soon. 11. What did you do then? 12. You've done a lot for me, thank you. 13. My grandfather did a lot for me. 14. Where did you actually meet? At some party. 15. When did you leave the city? Last Tuesday. Ex. 258. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. "Don't worry! She'll book your flight and get you a ticket before you even (say) Jack Robinson." Catherine (begin) to laugh. "I not (hear) you use that expression for years, not since I (be) a kid. You (tell) me once where it (come) from, but now can't (remember). It (be) such an odd expression!" "Yet, it is. I (think) it (originate) in England and the Pommies (bring) it to Australia. Australians (start) to use it, and I guess it (become) part of our idiomatic speech. Sort of slang, really." 2. Maggie put the receiver in its cradle and (turn) around, (stand) leaning against the desk, staring at Samantha. "You not (be going) to believe it, but that snake in the grass just (have) the temerity to call me honey." 3. I looked at my mother and, and (see) the tears rising in her eyes. She (push) them back, and (take) a deep breath. "Mai, you (be) really all right? I (feel) that you (push) me away recently. You not (say) a word since 1 (be) here. You (feel) a bit better, darling? Tell me the truth." "Yes, I (do) fine," I (lie). A few days after that visit of my mother's, I (fall) into a deep depression. I (feel) listless, without energy. I (be) helpless, almost an invalid. Ex. 259. Translate into English. 1. -B> A;CG8;>AL <=>3> 25:>2 =0704. 2.  45 8 :>340 2K 2?5@2K5 2AB@5B8;8AL?  -B> 1K;> 2 ?@>H;>< 3>4C C >4=>3> 87 4@C759 5=8A0. 3. / 72>=8; 59 =0 4=OE, 8 2A5 1K;> E>@>H>. 4. ><>=>A>2 >A=>20; >A:>2A:89 C=825@A8B5B 2 1725 3>4C. 5. K ?>A048;8 MB8 O1;>=8 2 =0H5< A04C =5A:>;L:> ;5B =0704. 6. 8E08; 2K;5B5; 2 845@;0=4K 425 =545;8 =0704. 7. >9 1@0B @>48;AO 2 1995 3>4C. 8. >340 1K; 70?CI5= ?5@2K9 A?CB=8: 5<;8? 9. =8 2845;8 A2>N @>48=C ?>A;54=89 @07 452OBL ;5B =0704. 10.  "K 1K; 2G5@0 2 C=825@A8B5B5?  / =5 1K; B0< A B5E ?>@, :0: A40; ?>A;54=89 M:70<5=. 11.  @>H;K< ;5B>< G0AB> H5; 4>64L, =5 ?@0240 ;8?  0, => :0: ?@028;>, ;5B>< 745AL @54:> 845B 4>64L. 12. 0 ?@>H;>9 =545;5 H5; A8;L=K9 A=53, 8 <K =5 <>3;8 A@07C >B:@KBL 425@L 30@060. 13.  B> E>48; 2G5@0 70 ?>:C?:0<8?  0<0 A45;0;0 MB>. 14.  B> @0AA:070; B515 MB8 =>2>AB8?  8:B>. A5 C65 8E 7=0;8. 15. / 286C, GB> BK ?5@5AB028;0 <515;L, 8 B2>O :20@B8@0 A>25@H5==> ?@5>1@078;0AL. >340 BK MB> A45;0;0? B>-=81C4L B515 ?><>30;?  >8 AK=>2LO 2A5 A45;0;8 A0<8. The Past Simple and the Present Perfect ex. 260. Say if the given below words and phrases express finished or unfinished time. Make up sentences of your own with them to Illustrate the difference. Today, yesterday, this morning, ever, never, always, when I was nine, until I was nine, since I was nine, after I got up, since I got up, three years ago, for the last three years, this year, last year, for the last year, in 1998, since 1997, recently, lately, so far, just now, just, up till now. Ex.261. Use the Past Simple or the Present Perfect of the verbs in Brackets. 1. You (see) Jane today? Yes, I (see) her at about nine, but I not (see) her since then. 2. I always want to go to Scotland, but I never (manage) to get there. 3. Bob (want) to be a bodyguard until he (be) fifteen. 4. We not (see) much of Helen lately. You (see) her? 5.1 (be) ill a lot last year. 6.1 (be) ill for two weeks. 7. How's your new job? Everything (be) all right up to now. 8. Nelly (go) to America on holiday ten years ago, and she (live) there ever since. 9. He (climb) quite a lot of mountains, but he never (be) up Everest. 10. You ever (study) a musical instrument? 11. Alex (have) an enormous amount of work last week. 12. We (have) a very busy week. We need a break. 13. When you first (fall in love)? 14. How long ago you (meet)? 15. How long you (be) in your present job? Ex 262. Translate into English 1. / 2845;0 MB>B D8;L<, :>340 1K;0 ?>4@>AB:><. ! B5E ?>@ O 53> =5 2845;0. 2.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O >=0 =5 5AB =8G53> A;04:>3>. =0 EC455B. 3. =8 2AB@5B8;8AL <=>3> ;5B =0704. -B> 1K;0 8E 548=AB25==0O 2AB@5G0. =8 1>;LH5 =5 2AB@5G0;8AL. 4. G5@0 >= A>25@H8; 35@>8G5A:89 ?>ABC?>:. 5. >:0 GB> O =5 A>25@H8; =8G53> >A>15==>3>. 6.  02=> 2K ?@85E0;8?   <K 8 =5 C5760;8, <K 745AL =5A:>;L:> G0A>2. 7. =8 4>;3> 151 2AB@5G0;8AL, => 70B5< @0AAB0;8AL. 8. / B0: 402=> =5 2AB@5G0;0AL A 4@C7LO<8. 9. K 402=> 45;0;8 @5<>=B, ;5B 45AOBL =0704. 10. =8 B0: 402=> =5 @5<>=B8@>20;8 :20@B8@C. 11. >340-B>, >G5=L 402=> >= @0AA:070; <=5 MBC 8AB>@8N. 12. K B0: 402=> =5 @073>20@820;8 A B>1>9. 0: 687=L? 13. =8 ?@>1K;8 745AL >G5=L 4>;3> 8 C5E0;8 G0A =0704. 14. =8 B0: 402=> =5 =025I0;8 =0A. K A>A:CG8;8AL ?> =8<. 15. K 2AB@5G0;8AL =0 4=OE. # =8E 2A5 E>@>H>. 16. 0209 2AB@5B8<AO =0 4=OE, E>@>H>? 17. -B> A;CG8;>AL =0 4=OE, 420 8;8 B@8 4=O =0704. 18. 0 4=OE 2K ?>;CG8B5 =0H >:>=G0B5;L=K9 >B25B. Ex. 263. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets Nina: Guess what? I have wonderful news. Vladimir and I are engaged. Erika: What! You...engaged? It's all so sudden. N: I not (tell) anyone yet. This is the first time I (speak) about it. E: But are you sure you know what you (do)? I never (meet) Vladimir. Who is he? N: He's the most wonderful person I ever (know). E: Where you (meet) him? N: I (meet) him in History class last semester. E: Oh, he's a student. He (finish) college yet? N: He not (graduate), but he already (finish) most of his courses. E: How will you support yourselves? N: We already (discuss) that. I am going to work until he (finish) school. E: Nina, you never (be) on your own. Has he? He ever (work) before? He ever (live) alone? N: No, but that's not important. What matters is that we're in love. E: How you (know) you're really in love? You not (have) much experience with men. N: Yes, Vladimir is the first one I ever (fall in love with). But I feel as if I always (know) him. E: I know, I know. Love (make) the world go round. But so far you not (convince) me that you know what you're doing. Why you not (wait) for a while? Ex. 264. Read and retell the following stories. A Surprise Birthday A dear old lady often comes into our shop for her newspaper. A week ago she said excitedly, "It's my eightieth birthday today." I asked what she was doing to celebrate the event and she said, "Nothing." Her son wasn't visiting and she would be on her own. There were several customers waiting to be served and I told them it was this lady's birthday. We all started to sing Happy Birthday and then filled a bag with Crme Eggs and gave it to her. Her eyes were full of tears as she said, "I'm having a great day!" After she'd left, everyone paid their share towards her gift and then we all reached for our handkerchiefs. Wedding a la Mode The bus-stop I usually wait at when returning from shopping is right opposite a church. A few days ago I watched a very fashionable wedding there were horses and a carriage for the bride and groom, and all the guests wore formal clothes, with big hats for the ladies. This week, in contrast, I watched a biker's wedding. The groom arrived on a powerful motorbike, and I thought, "Oh, no, surely the bride won't do the same?" But she did and very happy she looked, too. I'd just like to wish both these lovely couples all the best in their very different lifestyles. The Past Progressive EX. 265. Comment on the use of the Past Progressive in the following sentences 1. When Arm turned on the television, the weatherman was giving the weekend forecast for Europe. 2. Diana and I were sitting in the library on Sunday morning, reading the newspapers. Or rather, she was reading, I was merely glancing through them. 3. To make conversation I asked him what he was doing at Oxford. 4. The noise was caused by a dog, which was chasing a cat through the garden. 5. Summer was slipping away, day by day. 6. The crisis over, Jake was finally feeling better in spirits. 7. Maxim's jaw dropped, he was unable to absorb the things he was hearing. 8. And I just knew it was my mother's face I was seeing in my mind. 9. Emma was generous of her time and money and she was understanding of heart. And she was being under standing now. And yet part of her was still disbelieving that it was true. 10. As usual, he was being selfish, thinking only about himself. 11. When she came back to the office, the secretary was still riffling through some papers. 12. She was being perfectly friendly again. 13. Nora thought she was being noisy. 14. When I entered a Pizza Hut, all around me people were eating pizzas the size of bus wheels. 15. He was liking the boy less and less every second. Ex. 266. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. On that special day Grandma was in her best clothes, she (wear) net gloves and a hat. 2. The child's eyes (shine) with excitement as he stared at the rows and rows of toys in this fantastic shop. 3. The scientists (work) around the clock, they (try) to raise funds for further research. 4. She looked out of the window and saw that the children (return) slowly from school. 5. When we (meet) for the first time, he (sell) newspapers on the streets. 6. At exactly this time yesterday they (have) a briefing. 7. What you (do) when I (call) you? You (sleep) or what? 8. We (have) a very lazy holiday. We (play) tennis, (visit) friends, the children (swim) and (sunbathe). 9. Gwenny still (leaf) through the magazines when I re turned to the parlour. 10. The middle-aged couple next to me (discuss) their plans for Christmas - who to invite out. 11. The police who (investigate) the crime at the moment, (can) find no clues at all. 12. I know that you thought that I (be stubborn) the other day. 13. The train (speed) past hills full of cows and sheep. Ex. 267. Translate into English 1. # =53> 0;818, 8=A?5:B>@.  ?@>H;CN AC11>BC 2 9 G0A>2 25G5@0 >= A845; 2 ?82=>9. =>385 ;N48 <>3CB ?>4B25@48BL MB>. 2. 728=8B5, => O =5 <>3 ?@8A>548=8BLAO : 20<, ?>B><C GB> A<>B@5; A2>9 ;N18<K9 D8;L<. 3.  '5< A59G0A 70=8<05BAO B2>9 AK=?  >B>28BAO : 2ABC?8B5;L=K< M:70<5=0< 2 C=825@A8B5B. 4. 5G5@>< <K ?>5E0;8 2 F5=B@ 3>@>40. =>65AB2> ;N459 A<>B@5;8 :>=F5@B =0 @0A=>9 ?;>I048, =5:>B>@K5 ?5;8, 4@C385 B0=F520;8. 5. =8 C65 >?074K20;8, => =5 <>3;8 2K9B8, ?>B><C GB> H5; A8;L=K9 4>64L. 6. B>-B> ABCG0; 2 425@L, => <K =8:>3> =5 640;8. 7. 8:B> =5 <>3 ?>=OBL, GB> ?@>8AE>48;>. 8. >340 <K ?@8H;8 2 >D8A, 2A5 >1AC640;8 ?>A;54=85 A>1KB8O. 9.  4><5 1K;> A?>:>9=>: B8:0;8 G0AK, :>H:0 83@0;0 A <OG8:><, A>10:0 A?0;0 C :0<8=0, 45B8 A>18@0;8 =>2CN 83@C. 10. A5 1K;8 >G5=L 70=OBK  >=8 3>B>28;8AL : >BJ574C. 11. G5@0 >= F5;K9 45=L ;560; =0 4820=5: G8B0;, A?0;, A<>B@5; B5;5287>@. 12. K 2845;8, GB> >= ?KB0;AO ?><>GL A2>8< 4@C7LO<. 13. 45O >A5=8;0 >@@8A0, :>340 >= =0A;0640;AO A830@>9. Ex. 268. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets It (snow) again. It (be) gorgeous. Just like a fairyland. All white. And the snow (glisten) in the sun. But the snow flakes (be) light, and as I (glance) out the window, I (notice) that they (melt) the moment they (hit) the pavement so it (can) not be the weather which (make) Andrew late getting home. "I think the traffic and the snow (hold) him up," Sarah said. "If it (snow) in Connecticut, it (can)(slow) Andrew down, and everyone else who (come) back to the city on Sunday night. There , (be) probably a backup of cars." "That's true, yes," I 155 (say), seizing on this possibility, wanting to ease worry. But the fact (be), Andrew was never late, and that was what (trouble) me now. Sarah (know) it as well as I (do), but neither of us (voice) this thought at the moment. Ex. 269. Translate into English. 1. !?5:B0:;L 4;8;AO =5A:>;L:> G0A>2. >340 <K 2KE>48;8 87 B50B@0, <K C2845;8 =5A:>;L:8E 7=0:><KE. 2. = 4C<0; =545;N 8 70B5< ?@8=O; @5H5=85. 3. = A<>B@5; =0 >3>=L 2 :0<8=5 8 > G5<-B> 4C<0;. 4.  ?@>H;>< A5<5AB@5 <K G0AB> ?>A5I0;8 ABC45=G5A:85 25G5@0. 5. >340 45B8 ?@8H;8 4><>9, B5B8 =5 1K;> 4><0. =0 =025I0;0 @>4AB25==8:>2. 6. >340 BK <=5 ?>72>=8;, O :0: @07 4C<0; > B515. 7.  !:>;L:> 2@5<5=8 BK =018@0; MB>B B5:AB =0 :><?LNB5@5?  / @01>B0; 420 G0A0. 8.  2>A:@5A5=L5 <K 4>;3> 3C;O;8 ?> ;5AC, 9.  0: 4>;3> BK CG8;0AL 2 H:>;5 C?@02;5=8O?  "@8 3>40. 10. =8 1K;8 ?0@B=5@0<8, => 70B5< @0AAB0;8AL, B0: :0: 1>;LH5 =5 4>25@O;8 4@C3 4@C3C. 11. =0 ?>;8AB0;0 6C@=0; <8=CB ?OB=04F0BL 8 ?>H;0 3>B>28BL C68=. 12.  0: 4>;3> BK 1K; 2 0@<88?  / B@8 3>40 A;C68; =0 D;>B5. 13. =0 =0?8A0;0 MB>B @><0= 70 =545;N. 14. ;5:A0=4@ 1K; >G5=L 70=OB. = ?8A0; AB0BLN 4;O 6C@=0;0. Ex. 270. Make the right choice. 1. Kate's hopes ... after her last interview. a. raised b. rose c. were raising 2. The landscape ... in silence, as if the world had stopped, a. lay b. laid c. was lying 3. The King's palace ... on the hill, overlooking the river, a. was standing b. stood c. stayed 4. A narrow path ... to the entrance to the secret garden, a. led b. was leading c. is leading 5. Meredith laughed and ... a perfectly shaped blonde brow. a. rose b. raised c. was raising 6. Instinctively she recognized that here her future ... . a. lay b. lied c. was lying 7. She ... suddenly and began to clear the kitchen table, a. raised b. was rising c. rose 8. I ... my hand in greeting. a. raised b. rose c. was raising 9. A little river ... through the grounds. a. flowed b. was flowing c. flew 10. Molly was walking along the lonely path that ... between the hills, a. ran b. was running c. runs 11. A thick fog ... in the air. a. hanged b. hung c. was hanging 12. Do you happen to know who ... this public fund? a. found b. founded c. finds 13. My parents can't offer me any financial help. I have to ... the money myself. a. raise b. rise c. rose 14. Now she knew that her happiness ... in his hands, a. was lying b. was laying c. lay 15. When I came into the room, my dog ... on the bed again. a. was laying b. lay c. was lying 16. The door ... open. a. stood b. was standing c. stood up 17. Last week he ... a new record. a. sat b. set c. was sitting 18. After the heavy rains the lake ... . a. rose b. raised c. risen Ex 271. Translate into English. 1. >@>;52A:89 42>@5F AB>O; 2 ?0@:5. 2. >;8F59A:89 AB>O; =0 ?5@5:@5AB:5 8 @53C;8@>20; 42865=85. 3. 5:0 ?@>B5:0;0 G5@57 ;5A. 4. 5@54 =0<8 ;560;0 ?@5:@0A=0O 4>;8=0. 5. 0;LG8: ;560; =0 ?>;C 8 A<>B@5; <C;LB8:8. 6. >@>30 25;0 : F5@:28. 7. !CA0=8= 25; ?>;O:>2 G5@57 ;5A, 2A5 40;LH5 8 40;LH5 >B >A:2K. 8. 5 1C4CI55 2 B2>8E @C:0E. 9. B> >A=>20; MB>B D>=4? 10. B> =0H5; <>N :0AA5BC? !?0A81>! 11. 25@L AB>O;0 >B:@KB>9. 12.  2>74CE5 28A5; 3CAB>9 BC<0=. 13. 09 <>;>B>:, <K 25H05< 10@><5B@. 14. !0<>;5B 27;5B5;, 8 G5@57 <8=CBC >3@><=K9 3>@>4 ;560; ?>4 =0<8. 15. -B0 ?L5A0 845B (to run) 2 =0H5< B50B@5. 16. >G5<C 2>40 B5G5B =0 :CE=5? 17. -B>B :>;>45F ?5@5AKE05B ;5B><. The Past Perfect Ex. 272. Comment on the use of the Past Perfect in the following sentences 1. The programmer had done the work by four o'clock. 2. The policeman asked if there had been any witnesses. 3. By the time we got to the shopping centre it had closed. 4. The students had written the test and were now checking them up. 5. Mike phoned Rosie, but she hadn'1 returned home yet. 6. We had discussed the news arid were now thinking about it. 7. She complained that she was penniless as she had spent all her money. 8. When I came back home, my family had already had dinner and were now watching the film. 9. It turned out that Dick was ill and he had been ill for a fortnight. 10. We learnt that they had been close friends for many years. 11. Hardly had I turned on the television, when I heard shocking news. 12. No sooner had he opened the door than the children rushed to meet him. 13. Scarcely had the inspector opened the envelope when he understood everything. 14. By next morning, the snow that had begun in the night had turned into a blizzard so thick that the last class of the term was cancelled. 15. She had a stock of excuses, as usual, when in fact she had overslept as usual. Ex. 273 Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. She (talk) about the party she (arrange) for the children who (attend) her Sunday-school classes- 2. Emma suspected he (arrive) at the truth years ago3. Jack and Amelia were the only family she ever (have). 4. She got dressed in the cotton shorts and top she (wear) the day before. 5. Mari glanced over at the clock. It (be) nearly nine. She recently (learn) to tell the time. 6. Her words had touched the core of me, and I realized with a small shock how badly I (behave), I (think) only of myself. 7. They (be) truly good friends again, closer that they ever (be). 8. It was lovely to hear her laugh again. He not (hear) her laugh in years. 9. The police cordoned off the street where the bomb (go off). 10. The suspect refused that he (assault) a policeman. 11. The prisoner (spend) almost a month digging a tunnel before the guards (discover) it. 12. He said he (be) awfully sorry for the things he (do). 13. She seated herself in the chair Bill (pull) out for her. 14. The tense, worried expression he invariably wore, (disappear). Now it (be) smooth, free of pain and concern. 15. Roger guessed that she just (make) a dreadful slip of the tongue. 16. Before the mid-nineteenth century, no dentist (use) anesthesia. Ex 274. Read and translate the sentences Pay special attention to use of the Past Perfect in the subordinate clauses of time 1. After they had shaken hands, Steve said, "Thank you." 2. Champagne was poured, and after they had all clinked glasses, Bill asked, "So are you here on business?" 3. Once she had applied a little make-up and sprayed on perfume, she ran downstairs to prepare lunch for David. 4. On Sunday morning, after she had drunk a quick cup of coffee, Vanessa dialed the Commodore Hotel. 5. After they had entered the church, they stood quietly for a moment, adjusting their eyes to the dim light. 6. After she had given the note to the front desk, her son led her outside. 7. Later that afternoon when Winston had left, she moved in the direction of the office. 8. When she had finished her cup, my mother put it down and started talking. 9. As soon as the last course had been served, the servants left the dining room. 10. After I had had my cup of tea, I went back to the library. 11. Once he had put everything away, Jake went back to the living room. 12. Once he had settled himself in the driver's seat, he said, "It's time to go home." 13. When they had eaten as many sandwiches as they could, they rose and left the pub. Ex. 275. Translate into English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to be power-ridden). > :>=5G=> 65 687=L A45;0;0 55 B0:>9. =4@59 7=0; MB>, B0: :0: ?>GB8 B@84F0BL ;5B 1K; 55 D8=0=A>2K< :>=AC;LB0=B><. 15. >A;5 B>3>, :0: >=0 A>25@H8;0 E@01@K9 ?>ABC?>:, >=0 AB0;0 35@>8=59 2 3;070E 2A5E. Ex. 276. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the use of tenses in past-time contexts 1. She sat staring at the page she had written last night in New York. How swiftly and drastically her life had changed since she had made that entry. 2. And for the first time in more than twenty years she had found herself living in the city where she had been born 3. They walked toward the house. It had been months since they had been there. They felt comforted by the charm of the house. It had always been a peaceful place. Ever since they had first set eyes on it, they had thought of it as a living thing. 4. It crossed her mind that she had not been able to go out much since she had arrived almost five weeks ago. 5. Scott was definitely worried by something. It had been a long time since I had seen him in such a difficult mood. 6. The children loved Mat. They had felt safe with him from the very first time they had met on the moors. 7. She remembered that once, long ago, her mother had said that Maxim was like a cat with nine lives. How many of his had he used up? Ex 277. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets. 1. The three of them became inseparable. A great deal of camaraderie (develop) between them in the short time they (know) each other. 2. He admitted that it (be) too long since he (see) them. 3. My life was hectic. And indeed it (be) a stormy life I (live) ever since. 4. Joe saw that Nel was worried. She (live) with a problem for the last few days, ever since the baby (be) born. 5. Mrs. Loveday liked Maggie. In the few weeks she (know) the girl she never (see) her ruffled. Nor she ever (hear) her raise her voice at the children. 6. He painted mostly in the red barn. It (become) a refuge for him since he (move) into the house. 7. She looked up at Charles. She (be) acutely conscious of him from the moment he (arrive). 8. The Berlin, she (be born) in, and where she (grow up), no longer existed. Ex 278. Translate into English 1. = 2K=C645= 1K; ?@87=0BL, GB> ?@>H;> <=>3> ;5B A B5E ?>@, :0: >= 1@0; >B?CA:. 2. =8 >1>60;8 MB>3> @515=:0. = 1K; 8E CB5H5=85< A B>3> <><5=B0, :0: @>48;AO. 3. 5 <KA;8 2A5 5I5 1K;8 > <0B5@8. =0 =5 2845;0 55 A B5E ?>@, :0: @8=0 C5E0;0 2 >=4>=. =0 =5 B>;L:> 40;0 59 8 55 1@0BC ;N1>2L 8 ?>445@6:C, => 8 2A5340 24>E=>2;O;0 8E =0 4>AB865=85 2A5E 65;0=89. =0 2A5340 1K;0 8< <0B5@LN 8 >BF><. 4. =0 ?>60;>20;0AL, GB> A:>;L:> >=0 7=0;0 A2>53> <C60, >= 2A5340 1K; B@C4>3>;8:><. 5. :A0=0 7=0;0 AB8E>B2>@5=85 =087CABL, B0: :0: <0BL =0CG8;0 55 <=>3> ;5B =0704.  2A5 MB> 2@5<O >=> 1K;> C =55 2 ?0<OB8 (to stay in the mind). 6. = >1JO28;, GB> 1K; 2;N1;5= 2 =55 A B5E ?>@, :0: 2?5@2K5 C2845; 55. 7. K;> OA=>, GB> C <0<K =5 1K;> =8 <8=CBK >B4KE0, A B5E ?>@ :0: <K 27O;8 42CE I5=:>2 8 :>H:C. 8. 9 1K;> >G5=L 60;L, GB> >=0 <=>3> ;5B =5 1K;0 2 3>@>45, 2 :>B>@>< @>48;0AL. 9. 3> 2;045=85 0=3;89A:8< 1K;> 157C:>@87=5==> (flawless). = 2>A?8BK20;AO 8 ?>;CG0; >1@07>20=85 2 =3;88 A B5E ?>@, :0: 53> A5<LO ?5@55E0;0 BC40. 10. = 2K3;O45; :0: G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 B>;L:> GB> ?>;CG8; <8;;8>= 4>;;0@>2. Ex. 279. A. Which of the following things have you done by your sixteenth birthday? Use the Past Perfect tense to answer. Model: By my sixteenth birthday, I had smoked cigarettes and decided that I was never going to smoke again. smoke a cigarette learn to drive go on my first date get drunk study calculus study physics fall in love have my first kiss learn how to support myself live apart from my parents learn everything there is to know about life be on an airplane learn to speak another language well get a job decide what I wanted to do for a living B. Now ask a classmate the same questions Model: By your sixteenth birthday, had you smoked cigarettes? The Past Perfect Progressive Ex. 280. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the use of the Past Perfect Progressive 1. Later that afternoon,Derek put down the script he had been reading. 2. That evening Diana called me from London, and I told her what I'd been doing all day. 3. Emma, who had been listening attentively, knew with absolute certainty that he was speaking the truth. 4. Ketti looked at Sue and knew that she had been weeping. 5. Catherine, who had been looking at her mother intently, now spoke in a concerned voice. 6. It just happened so that she knew what her son had been doing. He had been courting her personal clients in an effort to take them over himself. But it wouldn't work as long as she was head of the company. 7. Andrew, who is English, had been living in New York for seven years when we met. We had been seeing each other for only two months when he asked me to marry him. 8. I had been hearing and reading about the Vatican for so long that I was genuinely keen to see it. Ex. 281. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets When Nikita finally reached the club, his friends Olga and Oleg were already waiting for him near the entrance. Nikita said he was sorry he was late and asked how long they (be) there. They explained that they (wait) for about thirty minutes and in their turn asked him where he (be). Nikita said he (finish) a pot in his pottery class, and it (take) him a really long time to clean up. Olga was greatly surprised and asked how long he (take) a class in pottery, as he never (mention) it before. Nikita said he (register) some time before as he needed a breake from his classes. He never (try) to do anything creative before and he (have) a really good time. He admitted that since he (start) it, he (spend) all his free time in workshop. He also (run) around to antique stores, though he not (go out) much with his friends recently. His friends said they were sure it was just the beginning and soon things (get back) to normal. Ex. 282. Translate into English. 1. =0 ?>4>H;0 : 425@8, GB>1K ?>?@825BAB2>20BL A2>53> 042>:0B0, :>B>@>3> >=0 640;0 (to expect). 2. 0:>=5F-B> >= 2KA:070; 845N, :>B>@CN ?@>:@CG820; 2 3>;>25 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O. 3. >;>4>9 G5;>25: ?>4=O;AO A> ABC?5=5:, =0 :>B>@KE A845;, 8 2>H5; 2 4><. 4. %C4>6=8: 2=8<0B5;L=> @0AA<0B@820; :0@B8=C, :>B>@CN @8A>20; C65 =5A:>;L:> =545;L. 5. = 15A?>:>8;AO > A2>59 65=5.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O >=0 ?>A5I0;0 (to see) ?A8E>0=0;8B8:0, ?KB0OAL 2KOA=8BL ?@8G8=C A2>59 45?@5AA88. 6. A5 C2060;8 ?@57845=B0 D8@<K. = C?@02;O; (to run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x. 283. Explain the difference between the following pairs of sentences. 1. a. When I last went to London, they had renovated the National Portrait Gallery. b. When I last went to London, they had been renovating the National Portrait Gallery. 2. a. Although she tried to hide her face, we could see that Vicky was crying. b. Although she tried to apply some make-up, we could see that Vicky had been crying. 3. a. When they got to their dacha, they discovered that water was leaking through the roof, b. When they got to their dacha, they discovered that water had been leaking through the roof. There were pools on the floor. 4. a. By the smell in the room and his guilty expression I could tell that Stephen had been smoking, b. Yesterday he was caught red-handed. When I came in, he was smoking. 5. a. When Denny joined in the conversation, they were discussing the latest events in the Balkans, b. Everybody looked unhappy. They had been discussing the Concorde's crash. The Future Tenses The Future Simple Ex. 284. Fill in the blanks with shall(not) or will(not) 1. ... I phone for a taxi for you? 2. What ... you have to drink? 3. Who ... we pass the message to? 4.1 ... never let you go. 5. Where ... I place the books? 6. Let's not talk about it, ... we? 7. Keep your mouth shut, ... you? 8. Let's get started, ... we? 9. When I retire, I ... have more time for my hobbies and friends. 10. Drive carefully. Don't worry, I .... 11. The conference ...begin at 10.00 a.m. 12. ... I give you a lift to the school? 13. No matter what may happen; we ... always be by your side. 14. ... I be happy, ... I be rich? 15. Where and when ... I see you again? 16. I hope you ... like my present, darling. I'm sure I ... . 17. As long as I am head of this company, I ... handle all the business. Ex. 285. Match the following sentence parts 1. Advise him to stop before 2. You'd better stop before 3. I wonder if 4. My heart will be broken if 5. Don't touch anything before 6. You'll lose your looks if 7. You'll feed a man for a day if 8. You'll get rid of him at weekend if 9. I won't have anything to do with you unless 10. You'll have a beauty sleep if 11. You'll find the fill as soon as 12.1 will believe you after you 13. The secretary will remind in case 14. Ann's mother doesn't allow her to wear make-up till a. mother knows it. I b. the police come. c. you apologize. d. you go to bed early. e. you switch on the computer. f. you tell me the truth. g. he gets into trouble, h. you break my heart, i. I lose you. j. you forget about it. k. she is sixteen. 1. you don't mind your diet. m.you give him a fish. n. you teach him to fish. Ex. 286. Complete the following sentences 1. I'm going to eat without you if ... . 2. You'll get some fresh fruit after .... 3. I'll be able to afford a holiday in case .... 4. They'll be able to leave their kids when ... . 5. Your T-shirts won't shrink if... . 6. You'll tan more quickly after... . 7. Your roses will last longer if... . 8. Your house plants will die unless ... . 9. Take your umbrella in case ... . 10. You'll learn the results as soon as .... 11.1 must go to the shop before .... 12. She'll be pleased when ... . 13.1 wonder if ... . 14. Will you be upset if ... ? 15. The young specialist will lose his independence if ... . 16. Nobody knows when ... . 17. I'll buy some new clothes as soon as .... 18. We shall take some measures 166 before ... . 19. Mother doesn't know whether ... . 20.1 doubt whether anyone .... 21. We don't know either if Maxim... . Ex 287. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. If the car (be) out of order again, you (have to) call the service station, but I doubt if they (be able to) serve it very quickly. 2. Nobody (know) what (happen) in ten or twenty years if life (get) tougher and tougher. 3.1 wonder if they (turn) to us if any need (arise). 4. My little son (want) to know if there (be) some cartoons on TV on Saturday. If there (be) some, he certainly (watch) them. 5. Everybody (be interested) if the weather (change) for the better next week. 6.1 (leave) a message at the office in case the customer (phone). But it's difficult to say if he (do) it today. 7. He (wonder) if Caroline (change) her mind about going to the party. If that (happen), he'll be really glad. 8. Nobody can definitely tell us when he (come) back from London. But as soon as he (return), we (get in touch) with him. 9. If Linda (want) to learn Italian, she (have to) attend a special course. I wonder if it (cost) her a lot. 10. We (have) the meeting this week, provided no one (object). 11.1 (be) always by your side as long as you (promise) to listen to me. 12. Not (speak) to her unless she (speak) to you first. Ex 288. Translate into English 1. 9 8=B5@5A=>, 1C4CB ;8 MB8 F25BK E>@>H> @0AB8, 5A;8 >=0 ?>A048B 8E 2 B5=8AB>< <5AB5. 2. 8:B> =5 <>65B A:070BL <=5 B>G=>, 1C45B ;8 2@0G @01>B0BL A53>4=O. A;8 1C45B, B> <=5 ?@845BAO ?>9B8 =0 ?@85<. 3.  A;8 >@8A 1@>A8B :C@8BL 8 ?8BL, B> MB> ?>945B 5<C =0 ?>;L7C.  =B5@5A=>, A<>65B ;8 >= MB> A45;0BL. 4.  = =5 ?>;CG8B MBC @01>BC, 5A;8 =5 ?@54AB028B @5:><5=40F88.  %>B5;>AL 1K 7=0BL, A<>65B ;8 >= ?@54AB028BL 8E 2>2@5<O. 5. A;8 O A45;0N =525@=K9 H03, <=5 ?@845BAO >B25G0BL 70 MB>. 6.  =0 1C45B 2 O@>AB8, 5A;8 C7=05B ?@024C.  / A><=520NAL, C7=05B ;8 >=0 55. 7. A;8 O 1C4C 2 LN->@:5 2 <05, B> <K >1O70 B5;L=> 2AB@5B8<AO. > O =5 7=0N, ?>;CGC ;8 O 287C 2>2@5<O. 8. A5 5I5 =5OA=>, A>3;0A8BAO ;8 8H0 =0 MBC @01>BC. A;8 B>;L:> =5 =0945B GB>-B> ;CGH5. 9. A;8 :0:>9-=81C4L =>2K9 28@CA ?>?045B 2 =0H8 :><?LNB5@K, B> >= 701;>:8@C5B 2AN 8=D>@<0F8N. 10. 57 B2>59 C;K1:8 A>;=KH:> =5 1C45B A8OBL, 8 5A;8 A>;=F5 =5 1C45B A8OBL, ?B8FK =5 1C4CB ?5BL.  5A;8 ?B8FK =5 1C4CB ?5BL, ;N48 =5 1C4CB AG0AB;82K.  5A;8 G5;>25: =5 1C45B AG0AB;82, <8@ 1C45B A:CG=K< 8 157687=5==K<! Ex. 289. Comment on the use of the tenses in the following sentences 1. We'll do that once you've made your final decision. 2. Charles can take the luggage to the apartment, after he's dropped us off. 3. Once the waiter has disappeared, we'll discuss this problem. 4. Next week is a bit tough for me. I'm due in Paris soon, in case you've forgotten. 5. As soon as you have seen her, come and tell me. 6. I'll write to you after I have spoken to Frederick. 7. After Roger has written this book, he's having a holiday. 8. You can go when you've typed these letters. 9.1 won't take any decision before I have received the fax from the head office. Ex. 290. Translate into English 1. K ?>25@8< B515, 4>@>3>9, B>;L:> ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: BK @0AA:065HL ?@024C. 2. =8 A2O6CBAO A =0<8 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: ?>;CG0B ?>A;54=85 40==K5. 3. / @0AA:06C B515 2A5, ?>:0 :B>-B> 4@C3>9 =5 A45;0; MB>3>. 4. K <>65B5 A5ABL 70 AB>;, 45B8, B>;L:> ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: 2K<>5B5 @C:8.  2K A<>65B5 ?>3C;OBL B>;L:> ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: AJ548B5 :0HC. 5. K 2AB@5G05<AO 2 H5ABL G0A>2 C D>=B0=0, =0 B>B A;CG09, 5A;8 BK 701K;0. 6. !>>1I8 =0<, :0: B>;L:> C7=05HL @57C;LB0BK M:70<5=>2. 7. 0<0 2A5 ?>9<5B ?> B2>5<C ;8FC, ?@5645 G5< BK >B:@>5HL @>B. 8. =8 70:>=G0B @5<>=B, ?@5645 G5< =0ABC?8B 78<0. 9. K 4>;6=K =0:@KBL =0 AB>;, ?@5645 G5< ?@84CB 3>AB8. ex. 291. Translate into English 1. @5645 G5< 2K >A>7=05B5 MB>, 20H8 45B8 C65 2K@0ABCB. 2. @5645 G5< 2K AO45B5 70 AB>;, 4@C7LO, ?>72>;LB5 <=5 ?>:070BL 20< 4><. 3. 0< ;CGH5 =09B8 =0H8 <5AB0, ?@5645 G5< =0G=5BAO A?5:B0:;L. 4.  9 1C45B 4204F0BL B@8 3>40, :>340 >=0 70:>=G8B C=825@A8B5B.  !><=520NAL, A<>65B ;8 >=0 A45;0BL MB> 2>2@5<O, 5A;8 >=0 2K945B 70<C6, 8 C =55 ?>O28BAO @515=>:. 5. >65HL A<>B@5BL B5;5287>@ ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: C15@5HL A2>N :><=0BC. 6. >340 C2848HL !0HC, A:068 5<C, GB> >= 2A5 5I5 4>;65= <=5 45=L38. !:068 5<C B0:65, GB> O 8=B5@5ACNAL, :>340 65 >= <=5 8E 25@=5B. 7. 0: B>;L:> 45B5:B82 ?>;CG8B :><?@><5B8@CNI85 A2545=8O, >= A2O65BAO A 20<8, <8AB5@ 8G0@4A>=. > 5<C E>B5;>AL 1K B0:65 7=0BL, ?>;CG8B ;8 >= ?>;=CN A2>1>4C 2 A2>8E 459AB28OE. 8. 8:B> =5 <>65B ?@54A:070BL, 345 8 :>340 MB>B G5;>25: ?>O28BAO. > :0: B>;L:> >= ?>O2;O5BAO, 2A5 =0G8=0NB @01>B0BL A C42>5==>9 M=5@3859 (twice as hard). The Future Progressive Ex 292. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the use of the Future Progressive 1. You'll have to add another cup and saucer on the tray, Parky. A friend of Mrs. Keswick's has just arrived. She'll be having tea with us. 2. I'd better get you home, Theodora darling. Your aunt will be worrying and wondering where you are. 3. Goodbye. You won't be seeing me for a long time. 4. Why must I take a book and a packed lunch? You'll be sitting on the train for hours. 5. While you are slicing the cheese, I will be buttering the bread. 6. We'll be arriving at Miami airport at exactly this time tomorrow morning. 7. Next Sunday, the Prime Minister will be celebrating ten years in power. 8. Whenever I think of you, I will be remembering the shadow of your smile. 9. And you, Edwin, will be doing me a great service if you get me the smelling salts from my bedroom. 10. Will you be wearing your new earrings tonight? 11. Mind, I shall be keeping a very careful eye on you from now on! 12. She'll be soon coming round the mountains! (about the first train). 13. In the next few minutes we shall be crossing the Belgian border. Ex. 293. Translate into English. I.  A2>59 A;54CNI59 ;5:F88 CG5=K9 1C45B 3>2>@8BL > A25@EJ5AB5AB25==KE O2;5=8OE 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8. 2. 5 2>;=C9AO, =O 1C45B ?><>30BL =0< >@30=87>2K20BL 25G5@. 3.  5 ?@54AB02;ON, GB> 1C4CB 3>2>@8BL >1> <=5 ;N48 ?>A;5 MB>3> A;CG0O.  C4CB A?;5B=8G0BL, 0 ?>B>< =094CB =>2CN B5<C 4;O @073>2>@>2. 4. 0A =5 1C45B 2 >A:25 2 023CAB5. K 1C45< 3>AB8BL C @>4AB25==8:>2 2 5;8:>< >23>@>45. 5.  =B5@5A=>, :0: >=0 1C45B @5038@>20BL =0 MBC =>2>ABL: 1C45B ;8 >=0 A<5OBLAO 8;8 ?;0:0BL, 1C45B ;8 >=0 A5@48BLAO 8;8 65 @04>20BLAO.  >6825<, C2848<. 6. %>B5;0 1K O 7=0BL, G5< 1C45B 70=8<0BLAO <>9 1@0B, ?>:0 =0A =5 1C45B 4><0. >NAL, GB> F5;K<8 4=O<8 >= 1C45B ;560BL =0 4820=5 8 A<>B@5BL 1>528:8 ?> B5;5287>@C. 7. 5 2>;=C9AO, O =5 701C4C B51O. / 1C4C 4C<0BL > B515 45=L 8 =>GL.  BK 1C45HL 2A?><8=0BL <5=O? 8. @8=0 =5 A<>65B ?@8A>548=8BLAO : =0< A53>4=O 25G5@><. =0 1C45B A845BL A A>A54A:8<8 45BL<8. 9. "K 25AL 45=L 1C45HL ?>;L7>20BLAO :><?LNB5@><? = <=5 B>65 =C65=. 10. "K =5 1C45HL ?@>E>48BL <8<> 0?B5:8? =5 =C6=> ;5:0@AB2>. II. A;8 BK ?>:8=5HL <5=O, 2A5 @02=> O 1C4C =045OBLAO, O 1C4C E@0=8BL B51O (to hold) 2 A2>5< A5@4F5. Ex. 294. Read, translate and learn the song in bold type. Now, in the hall floated the familiar voice of Vera Lynn, singing one of the most popular and sentimental songs of the war years. The lights were very dim in the room, and on the dance floor the atmosphere was highly conducive to romance, and perfect for young lovers caught up in the fears and dangers and tensions of war. Mark took Teddy in his arms and they moved slowly around the room to the music, holding each other tightly, Teddy sang softly, in a low voice that only Mark could hear: " 'I'll be seeing you in all the old familiar places that my mind and heart embraces all day through. In that small cafe, the park across the way, the children's carousel, the chestnut trees, the wishing well. I'll be seeing you in every lovely summer's day, in everything that's light and gay, I'll always think of you that way, I'll find you in the morning sun, and when the night is new, I'll be looking at the moon, but I'll be seeing you.'" (after B. Bradford) Ex 295. Read the text and translate it. Comment on the ways of expressing future actions. It's struck me several times lately that perhaps I should write down my stories and draw pictures to illustrate them. Perhaps I will, but only for Jamie and Lissa. This idea suddenly took hold of me. What a wonderful surprise it would be for the twins if I created a picture book for each of them, and put the books in their Christmas stockings. I groaned inside; how ridiculous to be thinking of Christmas on this suffocatingly hot summer's day. But the summer will soon be drawing to an end; it always does disappear very quickly after July Fourth weekend. Then Thanksgiving will be upon us before I can blink, with Christmas not far behind. This year we are planning to spend Christmas in England. We will be staying with Diana at her house in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew and I are really looking forward to it, and the children are excited. They are hoping it will snow so that they can go sledging with their father. He's promised to take them on the runs he favored when he was a child; and he is planning to teach them to skate, providing Diana's pond has frozen solid. The Future Perfect Ex. 296. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the use of the Future Perfect. 1. By the time my parents get back home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. 2. The tourists hope that the tornado will have finished before they arrive in California. 3. Next month I will have known Rick for twenty years. 4. By the time you start writing your test I will have finished mine. 5. When you drop in at my place, I will have painted the door. 6. Will you have arranged everything by tomorrow? Ex. 297. Translate into English. 1. / =045NAL, GB> =0?8HC 48?;><=CN @01>BC : :>=FC CG51=>3> 3>40. 2. 5H8HL ;8 BK 2A5 A2>8 ?@>1;5<K 4> =0H59 A;54CNI59 2AB@5G8? 3.  :>=FC 3>40 F5=K =0 15=78= 2=>2L 2K@0ABCB. 4. # <5=O :>@>B:0O AB@86:0, => : ;5BC 2>;>AK 2K@0ABCB. 5. !04>2=8: ?>4AB@865B :CABK 8 45@52LO, @0AG8AB8B 4>@>6:8, A>665B >?02HCN ;8AB2C 4> =0ABC?;5=8O 78<K. 6. 5 15A?>:>9AO, ?;0BL5 A>HLNB : 2K?CA:=><C 25G5@C. 7.  B><C 2@5<5=8, :0: BK 4>15@5HLAO 4><>9, ?8FF0 1C45B ?@83>B>2;5=0. 8. @>3@0<<8AB 7025@H8B =>2CN ?@>3@0<<C 4> =07=0G5==>3> A@>:0. 9. #G8B5;L=8F0 >15I05B, GB> ?@>25@8B =0H8 :>=B@>;L=K5 @01>BK : A;54CNI5<C C@>:C. The Future Perfect Progressive Ex. 298. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the use of the Future Perfect Progressive. 1. Next year I will have been living in Moscow for thirty years. 2. Next month we shall have owned this house for ten years. 3. When he is forty, he will have been learning English for twenty five years. 4. By the time the manager turns up, the customers will have been waiting for him for several hours. 5. He complains that by May he will have been reading "War and Peace" for five months. 6.1 shall have been staying here just a year this July. Ex. 299. Translate into English. 1.  ?5@2><C A5=BO1@O MB>3> 3>40 O C65 45AOBL ;5B 1C4C @01>B0BL 2 MB>< C=825@A8B5B5. 2.  8N;5 1C45B 3>4, :0: >=8 65=0BK. 3.  B><C 2@5<5=8, :0: BK ?@>A=5HLAO 702B@0 CB@><, <K C65 B@8 G0A0 1C45< ;5B5BL =04 2@>?>9. 4.  <0N 1C45B ?OBL ;5B, :0: >= 2>48B MBC <0H8=C. 5. =8 1C4CB M:A?5@8<5=B8@>20BL 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 C65 <=>3> ;5B : :>=FC BKAOG5;5B8O. 6.  B><C 2@5<5=8, :0: ?@8545B ?>;8F8O, 45B5:B82 C65 420 G0A0 1C45B 87CG0BL <5AB> ?@>8AH5AB28O. E. 300. Read the sentences and comment on the ways future 'actions can be expressed. 1. Their plane arrives at two o'clock in the morning. 2. I'm away on holiday next week. 3. The sun rises at 5.30 tomorrow. 4. She's making a speech at the conference next week. 5. I'm going to town next week. 6.1 think it's going to rain. 7. Alison is going to enter the university this year. 8. This Saturday Nora will be celebrating her birthday. 9. We are to meet after lunch. 10. He is to be in court tomorrow morning. 11. Who is going to be the next to take the floor? 12. The new tax is to be introduced next week. Test Your Tenses Ex. 301. A TV correspondent is interviewing a famous woman author , Who is eighty-five years old. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets. C: I'd like to ask you some questions about the changes you (see) in your lifetime. What is the biggest change you (notice) in the way people live? A: That's a difficult question to answer. I guess it is the change in the younger generation. Young people (change) a lot recently. In my day, young people (be) very different. C: In what way they (change)? A: To my way of thinking, they (become) too casual and much too liberal in language, in dress, and in attitude in general. I guess I'm just old-fashioned. C: Would you give me an example of what you mean? A: Here's a small example. For the last fifteen years, since my youngest granddaughter (leave) high school, students (wear) blue jeans and T-shirts to school. Even some women-teachers (wear) pants in the classroom recently. In my day, they (kick) you out of school when you not (dress) properly. C: What you're saying is true. Even professors at the universities (lecture) in blue jeans nowadays. A: It also seems to me that young people (tend) to start dating at an earlier and earlier age. They start dating at thirteen, and, as you know, many couples (live) together without being married. That (be) unthinkable in my day. C: And what is the biggest change that you personally (experience)? A: I suppose getting married was the biggest change. C: How long ago you (get) married? A: I (get) married sixty years ago. My husband and I (live) happily together ever since. C: Congratulations. It's nice to meet someone who (be) married for so long and (be) still happy. Ex. 302. Make the right choice 1. George is on holiday. He ... to Barbados, a. is gone b. has gone c. has been 2. Everything is going well. We ... any problems so far. a. didn't have b. don't have c. haven't had 3. Nelly has lost her passport again. It's the second time this ... . a. has happened b. happens c. happened 4. You're out of breath. ... ? a. Are you running b. Have you run c. Have you been running 5. Where's the letter I gave you? What ... with it? a. have you done b. have you been doing c. are you doing 6. We're good friends. We ... each other for a long time, a. know b. have known c. knew 7. Sindy has been writing this programme... . a. for a month b. since six months c. six months ago 8. "... this week?" "No, he's on holiday." a. Is Bill working b. Does Bill work c. Does work Bill 9. John ... tennis once or twice a week. a. is playing usually b. is usually playing c. usually plays 10. How ... now? Better than before? a. you are feeling b. do you feel c. are you feeling 11. Tracey ... her hand when she was cooking dinner, a. burnt b. was burning c. has burnt Ex 303. A. Read, translate and retell the text I walked home from school with Beth Ann. Beth Ann Bartels is my best friend, I guess. We're very different, but we have been friends, with no fights, since the fourth grade. I tell her just about everything, and she tells me everything, even things I do not want to know, like what she ate for breakfast and what her father wears to bed and how much her new sweater costs. Sometimes things like that are just not interesting. I always stop at Beth Ann's house for a little while before I go home. We have this little routine. We go in and the house is so quiet, not at all like my house which is a complete zoo at any hour of day or night. Her house is also always immaculately clean, as if someone had just raced through with a duster and a vacuum cleaner or as if no one really lived there. Our house always has people's clothes lying all over; socks on the stereo, jackets on the kitchen table, everyone's papers and books clumped in piles on chairs and counters. So, I like to stop at Beth Ann's house before I go home. Beth Ann's parents both work and so does her elder sister Judy, so we have the house to ourselves. We always go into the kitchen and I sit at the table while Beth Ann takes out a bottle of Coca Cola and a bag of potato chips. In our house, stuff like that would disappear in about ten minutes. After about a half-hour she goes into her room and changes her clothes and hangs everything up. She has special hangers for her skirts so she can put six skirts on one hanger. Her closet is very, very neat. The closet that I share with Maggie is just a mad jumble of hangers and the clothes are always falling off and they are wedged in so tightly that you can't ever see anything and when you go to get something, things fall off other hangers and on the floor are piles of old shoes ad boots. I don't know why we are such slobs. The other day, I found m the bottom of my closet, back in the corner, a pair of shoes I had in the fifth grade! Lord. B. Do you tike or dislike to visit your friends' houses7 Is your closet neat? Does it relax you to put your things in order? Ex. 304. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1.1 found Mother at one of the counters in the kitchen. She (slice) the chilled boiled potatoes I (make) earlier. She (have) a cup of coffee next to her, and a cigarette (dangle) from her mouth. I hated her to smoke around us, and most especially when she (work) in the kitchen. "Mother, you (mind) not smoking when you (prepare) food?" "I not (drop) cigarette ash in the salad, if that's what you (get) at," she answered. "I know you're not. I just hate the smoke, Mom. Please, put it out. If not for your health or mine, at least for your grandchildren's sake. You know what they (say) about second-hand smoke." "But the kids live in Manhattan. Think of all the polluted air they (breathe) in there." "Only too true, Mother," I (snap), "but let's not add to the problem of air pollution out here, shall we?" II. "Why I not (go) into the kitchen and start on the potato salad?" my mother said. "Oh, but Diana's going to make that." "Good heavens, Mallory, what an Englishwoman (know) about making an ail-American potato salad for an all-American celebration like Independence Day? Independence from the British, I (may) add." "You not (have to) give me a history lesson." "I (make) the salad," she sniffed. "It always (be) one of my specialities, in case you (forget)." Ex 305. A. Read, translate and retell the text Ever since my childhood, I have loved nature and the wild creatures who inhabit the countryside, and I have encouraged Jamie and Lissa to respect all living things, to treasure the animals, birds, and insects that frequent Indian Meadows. Unconsciously, and very often without understanding what they are doing, some children can be terribly cruel, and it always makes me furious when I see them hurting small, defenseless animals, pulling wings off butterflies, grinding their heels into earthworms and snails, throwing stones at birds. I made up my mind long before the twins were born that no child of mine would ever inflict pain on any living thing. I am extremely partial to the old stonewall property, mostly because it is home for a number of small creatures. I know for a fact that two chipmunks live inside it, as well as a baby rabbit and a black snake. Although I know the chipmunks well and have spotted the bunny from time to time, I have never actually seen the snake. But our gardener, Anna, has, and so have the twins. At least, this is what they claim, most vociferously. To make nature more personal, to bring it closer to them, I invented stories about our little friends who inhabit the garden wall. I tell Jamie and Lissa tales about Algernon, the friendly black snake, who has a weakness 177 for chocolate-covered cherries and wishes he had a candy store; about Tabitha and Henry, the two chipmunks, married with no children, who want to adopt; and about Angelica, the baby bunny rabbit, who harbours an ambition to be in the Fifth Avenue Easter Parade. Jamie and Lissa have come to love these stories of mine; they can't get enough of them, in fact, and I have to repeat them constantly. In order to satisfy my children, I'm forever inventing new adventures, which entails quite a stretch of the imagination on my part. B. Speak about your attitude toward nature What are your childhood experiences with animals? Ex. 306. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets. It was gray and overcast as I (leave) the hotel and (head) towards Berkley Square. I glanced up at the sky. It was leaden and promised rain, which Andrew (predict) before he (go) to the office earlier. Instead of walking to Diana's, which I usually (like) to do, I (hail) a cab and (get) in. Just in time, too. It (begin) to drizzle as I (slam) the door and (give) the cabbie the address. English weather, I (think) glumly, staring out the taxi window. It always (rain). But one not (come) to England for the weather, there (be) other, more important reasons to be here. I always (love) England and the English, and London (be) my most favourite city in the entire world. I (love) it even more than my hometown, New York. Ex. 307. Translate into English. '5@=K9 BN;L?0= =>3> ;5B =0704 68; 2 845@;0=40E, =0 >:@08=5 0038, =8G5< =5 ?@8<5G0B5;L=K9 (unremarkable) G5;>25: ?> 8<5=8 0=A. = 1K; A0?>6=8:>< ?> ?@>D5AA88 8 : B><C 65 >G5=L E>@>H8<. >;;0=4FK, :0: 8725AB=>, >G5=L ;N1OB F25BK, >=8 2 >A>15==>AB8 A;02OBAO A2>8<8 BN;L?0=0<8.  0=A =5 1K; 8A:;NG5=85<.  B5G5=85 <=>38E ;5B >= 2K@0I820; @07;8G=K5 284K BN;L?0=>2, ?>:0 2 >48= ?@5:@0A=K9 45=L =5 C2845; 2 A2>5< A04C =5>1K:=>25==K9 BN;L?0=. = 1K; G5@=K9. 8:B> @0=LH5 =5 2K@0I820; G5@=K5 BN;L?0=K, 8 0=A >G5=L 3>@48;AO A2>8< C4828B5;L=K< F25B:><. >2>AB8, :0: 2K 7=05B5, @0A?@>AB@0=ONBAO >G5=L 1KAB@>.  =>2>ABL >1 C=8:0;L=>< F25B:5 AB0;0 8725AB=0 2> 2A59 AB@0=5. =>385 E>B5;8 :C?8BL ;C:>28FC G5@=>3> BN;L?0=0, => A0?>6=8:-A04>2=8: 8 A;CH0BL >1 MB>< =5 E>B5;, E>BO 8 >G5=L =C640;AO 2 45=L30E. 4=064K ?@85E0;8 : 0=AC ;N48, :>B>@K5 ?@54;>68;8 5<C AB>;L:> 45=53, A:>;L:> >= =5 70@01>B0; 70 2AN A2>N 687=L, E>BO >= 2A5340 1K; >G5=L 8A:CA=K< <0AB5@>< 8 B@C4>;N182K< G5;>25:><. 0=A 4C<0; =5A:>;L:> 4=59 8 A:070;, GB> ?@>40AB ;C:>28FC.  =5C4828B5;L=>! 54L 2 B> 2@5<O, 0 8<5==> 2 1670 3>4C, =0 MB8 45=L38 <>6=> 1K;> :C?8BL =5A:>;L:> 4><>2. ">;L:> ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: >= ?>;CG8; 45=L38 8 ?5@5AG8B0; 8E, >= >B40; MB8< ;N4O< A2>5 A>:@>28I5. 5 CA?5;8 =57=0:><FK ?>;CG8BL ;C:>28FC, :0: >=8 1@>A8;8 55 =0 75<;N 8 AB0;8 B>?B0BL, ?>:0 >B =55 =8G53> =5 >AB0;>AL. 'B> 2K 45;05B5? K GB>, A C<0 A>H;8?  70:@8G0; ?>B@OA5==K9 0=A.  / 2AN 687=L B@C48;AO, GB>1K 2K@0AB8BL MB> GC4>, 0 2K 53> C=8GB>68;8! ;C?5F,  >B25B8;8 5<C,  <K 1K;8 3>B>2K 70?;0B8BL B515 2 420 @070 1>;LH5. 5;> 2 B><, GB> <K B>65 2K@0AB8;8 G5@=K9 BN;L?0=, => <K =5 E>B8< =8:0:8E :>=:C@5=B>2 2 MB>9 AB@0=5! >340 0=A CA;KH0;, GB> >= C?CAB8; H0=A ?>;CG8BL 2 420 @070 1>;LH5 45=53, G5< B5, GB> 5<C 40;8, >= A>H5; A C<0. C, 0 G5@=K5 BN;L?0=K ?5@5AB0;8 A> 2@5<5=5< 1KBL @54:>ABLN. 081>;55 8725AB=K5 8E A>@B0 =07K20NBAO: >@>;520 =>G8, '5@=0O :@0A028F0, '5@=0O <038O, '5@=K9 35@>9. Ex 308. Use the right term of the verbs in brackets I. Harry (wake) early on Saturday morning and (lie) for a while thinking about the coming match. He (be) nervous since Monday, mainly at the thought of what Wood (say) if the team (lose). He never (want) to beat Slytherin so badly. He (get) up, (dress), and (go) down to breakfast early, where he (find) the rest of the team. They (sit) at the long, empty table. Nobody (talk). II. A week later, Harry, Snape and Ron (walk) across the Entrance Hall when they (see) a small knot of people who (gather) around the notice-board and (read) a piece of parchment that just (pin up). "They (start) a Duelling Club!", (say) Ron. "First meeting tonight! I not (mind) duelling lessons, they (may) come in handy one of these days. We (go)?" Harry and Snape (be) all for it, so at eight o'clock that evening they (hurry) back to the Great Hall. "I wonder who (teach) us? I hope it (be) Frederick," said Snape. REPORTED SPEECH. THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES Ex. 309. A. Change the sentences into reported speech according to the model Model. Miranda says, "I work for a small publishing house." Miranda says (that) she works for a small publishing house. 1. I'm going to work in England next year. 2. I'm their marketing manager. 3. The company has opened an office in London. 4. Up till now I've been very successful in my career. 5. I've been chosen to run the new office in London. 6. I'm studying English in the evenings. 7.1 don't have much time to enjoy myself. 8.1 haven't had lunch with a friend for ages. 9.1 hope my friends will come and visit me in London. 10.1 went there last week with my secretary. 11. We didn't have much time for sightseeing. 12.1 have to get back to work now. B. Tell your friend what Miranda said Ex 310. You are being interviewed for a job and are asked the owing questions When you come back home, tell your parents fiat questions you were asked 1. How old are you? 2. Where do you live? 3. What's your address? 4. What school did you go to? 5. When did you leave school? 6. Where are you working now? 7. Who are you working for? 8. How long have you been working? 9. Are you enjoying your present job? How big is your salary? 10. Why do you want to leave? Ex 311. Translate into English I. =B5@5A=>, :>B>@K9 A59G0A G0A. 2. B>-=81C4L <>65B A:070BL <=5, 2 G5< 45;>? 3. !59G0A C65 =8:B> =5 <>65B 2A?><=8BL, GLO MB> ^5K;0 845O. 4. >60;C9AB0, A:068B5 <=5, :C40 845B MB>B 02B>1CA. 5. =B5@5A=>, G5< >= 70@010BK205B =0 687=L. 6. K 4>;6=K A?@>A8BL :>3>-=81C4L, 345 =0E>48BAO 2>:70;. 7. "515 ?@845BAO A:070BL =0<, :0:>2K B2>8 1;8609H85 ?;0=K. 8. "K <>65HL >1JOA=8BL-<=5, GB> B515 =C6=>? 9.  45:0=0B5 20< A:06CB, :>340 70:0=G8205BAO A5<5AB@. 10. >;8F8O =5 7=05B, GLO MB> <0H8=0. =0 157 =><5@>2. II. !?@>A8 :>3>-=81C4L, :0:>9 A53>4=O 45=L. 12. K =5 ?>=8<05B5, :0: MB> A5@L57=>. Ex .312. Read the jokes and retell them in indirect speech 1. If an Englishman gets run down by a truck, he apologizes to the truck. 2. A foreign visitor to England is completely baffled by the language and struggles with the pronunciation of words such as "enough", "bough" and "though". He usually gives up altogether when he reads a local newspaper headline "Fete Pronounced Success". 3. An American tourist comes to London to stay at a top hotel. He picks up the phone one morning and asks for room service. He says, "I want three overdone fried eggs that are hard as a rock, toast that is burnt to a cinder and a cup of black coffee that tastes like mud." "I'm sorry, sir," replies room service, "we don't serve breakfast like that." "Well, you did yesterday!" 4. An old woman from the country is visiting the big city for the first time in her life. She checks in at a smart hotel and lets the bellboy take her bags. She follows him but as the door closes, her face falls. "Young man," she says angrily. "I may be old and straight from the hills, but I ain't stupid. I paid good money and this room won't do at all. It's short of what I expected. It's too small and there's no proper ventilation. Why, there's not even a bed!" "Ma'am," replies the bellboy, "this isn't your room. It's the elevator!" Ex. 313. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the use of the Future in the Past 1. He knew that their paths would cross again. 2. Emma hoped that the baby would be a girl. 3.1 promised Edwina I would help her to dress the tree. 4. I knew you would do the right thing. I trusted you. 5. Maggie was a kind of woman a man wouldn't look at twice. 6. And he often thought that if he was lucky he would meet another woman one day and fall in love. He would get married again. And hopefully there would be a wife, a home, a family, and his own business. 7. He knew that with Frank in Venice, for a few days he would be able to shake his depression, and recharge his batteries completely. 8. The knowledge that she would have to leave him was an agony. She prayed to God every night that Sigi would succeed in getting the child out of Germany. Ex. 314. Change the sentences into indirect speech Use the verbs in brackets 1. Smile, and say Cheese! (ask) 2. Now then, darling, don't cry! (beg) 3. Never trust a stranger! (advise) 4. Freeze! Dismiss! (command) 5. Never, never answer me back! (order) 6. Don't let's stand here in the middle of the road, (offer) 7. Open your mouth wide and say R! (ask) 182 8. Don't cheat like a crook, (warn) 9. Don't pull the cat's tail! He may scratch you. (order) 10. Make haste slowly, (advise) 11. Relax, it's not the end of the world, (recommend) 12. Now don't get me wrong, (warn) 13. Never say "never", (advise) 14. Welcome to Jurassic Park, (invite) Ex 315. Change the sentences into indirect speech 1.1 confess that I'm a shopaholic. 2. Let me tell you that every time I see you, I'm shining like a candle in the night. 3. He is terribly sorry for the things he has done. 4. It's a beautiful fish, we shall let it go. 5. I'm sorry to say that I don't believe you and I never will. 6. The inspector worked hard, but it didn't get him anywhere. 7. This film is a work of fiction. 8. Can you kiss me goodbye? 9. We are having a very lazy time. 10. David saw a flying saucer last summer. 11. I have a chronic headache. My organism needs a painkiller. Take this pill. It will have an immediate effect. Though it may have some side effects as well. Ex 316. Retell the following jokes in indirect speech 1. Dentist: Stop screaming! I haven't touched your tooth yet. Barry: I know, but you're standing on my foot. 2. What are two reasons why men don't mind their own business? 1. no mind 2. no business. 3. Bill: Why the glum look? Stan: I just don't understand today's world. My son wears an earring. My daughter has a tattoo. My wife makes twice what I do. Bill: So what are you going to do? Stan: I'm going home to my father. 4. When he found a six-year-old shoe-repair ticket in the pocket of an old suit, Brown called the shop to see if the shoes were still around. "Were they black wing tips needing half soles?" asked a clerk. "Yes," said Brown. "We'll have them ready in a week." 5. Mother to daughter: What kind of person is your new boyfriend? Is he respectable? Of course he is, Mom. He's thrifty, doesn't drink or smoke, has a very nice wife and three well-behaved children. (from "Stupid Men's Jokes") Ex. 317. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the sequence of tenses in them. 1. Our Geography teacher told us at the last lesson that there aren't any unknown islands left on the Earth. 2. My Grandmother used to say that tastes differ and that I shouldn't be so choosy. 3. Don't leave, Katya. Ann said that we'll be having tea soon. 4. Melanie said she hadn't met Eddie since she (had) left the town. 5.1 replied that she should not be so noisy. 6. Bruno remarked that when he came in, Sonya was crying. 7. She noticed that the child ought to be more well-behaved. 8. Grace explained that when she left school, Donald was already studying at University. 9. Susan said that she (had) learnt how to eat with chopsticks when she was in Hong Kong. 10. He said that he could meet us at the airport. 11. Bill declared that he had owned the firm ever since he (had) started it in 1990. Ex. 318. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets. Retell the texts 1. Two men were passengers on a four-engine plane. Suddenly, one engine (fail) and the pilot (announce) that the plane (be) now fifteen minutes late. A short time later another engine (go) out of order. The pilot (have to) announce they (be) thirty minutes late. Then the third engine (start) burning, and the stewardess announced that they (be) one hour late. At this point, one man (say) to his neighbour, "If the fourth engine (quit), we (can) (be) up here all day." 184 2. Sitting at home one afternoon, a retired doctor and his wife decided to call another couple to see what they (do). "Oh," (say) the other wife, "we just (drink) coffee and (talk)." The doctor's wife (hang) up the phone. "Why we not ever (do) that?" she (demand). And she (explain) that they just (drink) coffee and (talk). So, the doctor (tell) his wife to make them a pot of coffee. Soon they (sit) with their freshly brewed coffee, staring at each other. "Call them back," he (direct), "and find out what they (talk) about." Ex 319. Retell the following jokes in indirect speech. 1. A man walked into the emergency room with both of his ears badly burnt. The man explained, "The phone rang and I picked up the iron by mistake." The nurse asked, "How did you burn the other ear?" "I did that," said the man, "when I went to phone the ambulance." 2. A telephone man was trying to measure the telephone pole but couldn't figure out how to climb up the pole. He radioed the office and they suggested that he should lay the pole down on the ground and measure it. The phone man didn't like that idea. "That won't work. I need to measure how high it is, not how long." 3. Did you hear about the man who died from jumping out of an airplane? It seems he was watching the movie, forgot where he was and stepped out for some more popcorn. 4. "I have good news and bad news," the defence attorney told his client. "First, the bad news. The blood test came back, and your DNA is an exact match with that found at the crime scene." "Oh, no!" cried the client. "What's the good news?" "Your cholesterol has gone down to 140." (From "Stupid Men's Jokes") Ex 320. Translate into English. 1. "C@8ABK 1K;8 >G5=L C482;5=K. 8:>340 @0=LH5 >=8 =5 2845;8 B0:>3> :>;8G5AB20 ;N459. > 384 >1JOA=8; 8<, GB> MB> >1KG=>5 O2;5=85 2 094-0@:5 2 E>@>HCN ?>3>4C. 2. =8 =045O;8AL, GB> 5A;8 <0BL ?>3>2>@8B A =8<, B> >= 87<5=8B A2>5 @5H5=85. 3. = ?>72>=8; =0^ 8 A:070;, GB> 2AN =545;N 845B 4>64L, => A8=>?B8:8 >15I0NB E>@>HCN ?>3>4C 2 =0G0;5 A;54CNI59 =545;8. 4. B5F ?>A<>B@5; =0 <>8 1>B8=:8 8 A:070;, GB> MB> ?@>AB> ?>7>@, ?>B><C GB> O =5 G8AB8; 8E =545;O<8. 5. 0@>;8=0 A:070;0 =0<, GB> MB>B :@0A82K9 :><>4 1K; 2 55 A5<L5 1>;55 42CE 25:>2 8 GB> A59G0A >F >G5=L F5==K9. 6. 0;LG8: A:070;, GB> 8E ?CBL ;560; G5@57 ;5A. !=53 ?5@5AB0; 84B8, A8O;> A>;=F5. =8 =045O;8AL, GB> 2A:>@5 4>15@CBAO 4> AB0=F88. 7. / AB>;:=C;AO A =65;>9, :>340 ?@>E>48; <8<> 10=:0. K =5 2AB@5G0;8AL A B5E ?>@, :0: 70:>=G8;8 C=825@A8B5B. =0 @04>AB=> ?>74>@>20;0AL A> <=>9 8 A>>1I8;0, GB> B>;L:> GB> >B:@K;0 AG5B 2 MB>< 10=:5. 8. #G8B5;L=8F0 >1JOA=8;0 H5AB8;5B:0<, GB> 75<;O :@C3;0O 8 GB> >=0 2@0I05BAO. 4=0 452>G:0 >G5=L C4828;0AL 8 A>>1I8;0, GB> >=0 2A5340 AG8B0;0, GB> 75<;O ?;>A:0O. 9. # AB5=K AB>O; AB0@><>4=K9 H:0D, :>B>@K9 2845; ;CGH85 2@5<5=0 (4=8). %>7O9:0 >1JOA=8;0, GB> >= ?@8=04;560; 55 ?@0101CH:5. THE PASSIVE VOICE Ex.321. Change the sentences from active to passive 1. The teacher explains the new rule. 2. The teacher is explaining the new rule. 3. The teacher has explained the new rule. 4. The teacher explained the new rule. 5. The teacher was explaining the new rule. 6. The teacher had explained the new rule. 7. The teacher is going to explain the new rule. 8. The teacher will explain the new rule. 9. The teacher can explain the new rule. 10. The teacher should explain the new rule. 11. The teacher ought to explain the new rule. 12. The teacher must explain the new rule. 13. The teacher has to explain the new rule. 14. The teacher may explain the new rule. 15. The teacher might explain the new rule. Ex 322. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets. 1. This program (run) by very good managers. 2. These workers usually (pay) monthly. 3. The public not (allow) to drive on the park roads. 4. This city (bomb) heavily in the war. 5. The editorial staff (call) to the conference room. 6. Tim studies hard. He hopes he (give) the highest grades this semester. 7. The lost children just (find) in the park. 8. The new computer system (install) at the moment. 9.1 (teach) to play chess by the time I was four. 10. He was getting the best care and treatment in the hospital, and he (monitor) night and day. 11. If all the money in the world (collect) and (divide) equally among all the people living on the Earth, each of us (give) three million dollars. 12. Don't worry! By the time we meet again, all your problems (solve). 13. We (tell) that the exact days for the talks not (set) yet. 14. It (decide) last week that this novel (televise). 15. \^he Olympic torch (pass) from one runner to the next one. Ex 323. A. Read the following text and learn it by heart. When packages don't arrive on time things can't get done, people wait, clients leave, orders get backed up, jobs get lost, bosses get angry, people are disappointed, stores can't open, factories shut down, money gets lost, meetings are missed, conferences are cancelled, businesses can't open, blood pressure goes up, people can't work, promises are broken, trust is lost, opportunities are missed, deals aren't made, transactions never happen, ideas aren't shared, products don't get made, information is missed, and the person who used the shipping company that messed it up looks really really really bad. When packages do arrive on time the world works just fine. B. Say what happens to you if you are not on time. Ex. 324. Change the sentences from active to passive if possible 1. Doctors use this medicine widely. 2. They deliver milk before 8 a.m. 3. When I came to the service station, they were still repairing my car. 4. Jack walked to school yesterday. 5. Don't worry, our people will meet the group at the airport. 6. This man is installing a new xerox in the office. 7. We stayed in a three-star hotel. 8. The police arrested the wrong man mainly because they confused the names which the witness had given them. 9. They threw him into prison and deprived him of his property. 10. The leaves fell to the ground. 11. Have you received the message yet? 12. People are destroying large areas of forest every day. 13. Mary's cat ran away last week. 14.1 hope they will have completed the repairs by tomorrow. 15. Some people were using the tennis court, so we couldn't play. 16. No one has solved that problem yet. 17. Did someone invite you to the party? 18.1 agree with you, gentlemen. 19. This news surprised me. 20. Mr. Lee will teach this class. Ex. 325. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets. Nearly a quarter of a century has passed since this book first (publish). During this period several hundred thousand copies of the book (dispose) of, and it (sell) practically in every country in the world where English (teach) as a second language. Nevertheless, the twenty-fifth anniversary is so important an occasion that it (commemorate) with the publication of the new edition, which throughly (revise) and considerably (enlarge). Additional sections (include). Another innovation is that a list of irregular verbs in everyday use (introduce). These verbs intentionally (place) as endpapers for easy reference. Besides, the opportunity (take) of revising the book from cover to cover, bringing it up to date and introducing many little improvements here and there. Much care (give) to the preparation of the Index, which it (hope) will make the book a useful work of reference. The writer is of the opinion that the best results (achieve) if it (use) by the students both as a text book and as a book of reference. Ex 326. Change the sentences from active to passive. Remember ; only one passive construction is possible with these verbs 1. If you want, I'll dictate the address to you. 2. The customer repeated his request several times. 3. In his speech the lecturer mentioned some historic dates. 4. The council pointed out some shortcomings in the project. 5. The client explained his terms clearly. 6. Sally described all the details of the incident vividly. 7. The chief announced the good news to everybody's delight. 8. The lawyer suggested the new strategy. 9. She pointed out the mistake to us. 10. The, policeman repeated his orders several times. 11. You won't get lost. We'll describe all the directions thoroughly. 12. I'll point him out to you. Ex 327. Translate into English. 1. 0< >1JOA=8;8, :0: @01>B05B 0??0@0B. 2. 3> B0: E>@>H> >?8A0;8, GB> <K A@07C ?>=O;8, GB> MB> >=. 3. 8AL<> 1K;> ?@>48:B>20=> <=5 ?> B5;5D>=C. 4. 1 MB>< 70:>=5 D878:8 ;8HL C?><O=C;8, >= =5 1K; >1JOA=5= ABC45=B0<. 5. "515 :>340-=81C4L >1JOA=O;8 7=0G5=85 MB8E A;>2? 6. !>>1I5=85 ?>2B>@O;>AL :064K5 ?>;G0A0. 7. < C:070;8 =0 8E =54>AB>9=>5 ?>2545=85. 8. 0:07G8:0< ?@54;>68;8 =>2K5 CA;>28O :>=B@0:B0. 9. 0 4=OE 20< 1K;> C:070=> =0 MBC ?@>1;5<C. 10. AO 8=D>@<0F8O 1C45B 70?8A0=0 4;O =0A 02B>>B25BG8:><. Ex. 328. Read the dialogue, paying special attention to the forms of the verbs in bold type Answer the questions given after it Nina: What's wrong, Eugene? You look upset. Eugene: You know I was hired part-time at the office this semester. I just got my first paycheck. N: So why are you so down? You should be happy E: I was ... before. But when I looked at my paycheck and saw how much money was taken out in taxes, I couldn't believe it. N: I feel the same way. Taxes are already high, and the government wants to raise them next year. E: What! If taxes are raised any more, I won't have any salary left. Are they kidding? N: No, I guess they hope that a lot of problems will be solved by increasing taxes. E: But the cost of living is just too high. Why isn't something done about it? If my rent is raised again this year, I'll be forced to move. N: Everyone has the same problem. We are all asked to sacrifice a little. E: What's it like for you? When were you last given a raise? Are your raises determined by the cost of living? N: No, I don't think so. I guess our raises are based on merit. If the boss likes your work, you're given a raise. If he doesn't you may even be fired. Cheer up, Eugene. Life is still great! 1. Why does Eugene look upset? 2. How does he feel about the possibility that taxes will be raised next year? 3. Is Eugene having problems in making ends meet? 4. What will happen if this rent is raised again this year? Ex. 329. Change the sentences from active to passive 1. You can hear this hit everywhere. 2. One can't learn a foreign language in a few weeks. 3. You shouldn't put fruit into the fridge. 4. She is a rude child. Her mother must teach her good manners. 5.1 have to complete the letter today. 6. Clara is going to mail these letters tomorrow. 7. Someone must call the police. 8. We ought to invite them, too. 9. They may raise the price of gas. 10.1 am going to paint the walls white. 11. The customer has to pay this bill. 12. You shouldn't carry large sums of money with you. 13. Aluminum is a valuable metal. You can use it again and again. Because you can recycle this metal, nobody should throw away aluminum cans. 14. People must protect endangered wildlife from extinction. 15. They may easily fool you. Ex 330. Ask questions indicated in the brackets 1. Such equipment is sold in special shops, (in what shops?) 2. These files must be returned in two hours, (when?) 3. This picture gallery was destroyed by the fire. (how?) 4. This work can be done in two days, (in how many days?) 5. The money will be spent on medicine, (on what?) 6. Such questions are often asked by children, (by whom?) 7. The post will be delivered at 7 o'clock, (when?) 8. New roses have been planted in her garden, (what?) 9. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell, (who?) 10. Rice is grown in many countries, (where?) 11. A new house is being built on Elm Street, (what?) 12. This report must be signed by Mr. Hardy, (who?) 13. These data will have been collected by the end of the year, (by what time?) Ex 331. Change the sentences from active to passive 1. They offered me the vacancy. 2. The boss has given us all the instructions. 3. We showed the girls our buys. 4. Father promised Ted a new skateboard. 5. Somebody told him the truth. 6. The manager sent them the fax last night. 7. Ben offered the fellow a beer. 8. The expert recommended the client several solutions to the problem. 9. Grandmother gave me a wonderful cookery book. 10. Our partners promised us support and understanding. 11. The policemen showed us the way to the Tower. 12. They paid him a pretty sum of money. 13. They filled the glasses and made another toast. 14. They took these examples from literature. Ex. 332. Translate into English 1. :045<8O =0C: 1K;0 >A=>20=0 5B@>< 5;8:8< 2 1725 3>4C. 2. AO 206=0O 8=D>@<0F8O >1KG=> ?>AK;05BAO M;5:B@>==>9 ?>GB>9. 3. !;>2> 3@0<<0B8:0 ?8H5BAO A 42C<O <. 4. (5ABL <5AOF52 A?CABO >=8 >125=G0;8AL 2 <5AB=>9 F5@:28. 5. >340 2A5 :=838 1K;8 ?5@5AG8B0=K, B> >:070;>AL, GB> >4=>9 =5 E20B0;>. 6. @54?@8=8<0NBAO ?>?KB:8 >A2>1>48BL 70;>6=8:>2. 7. ">G=K5 F8D@K ?>:0 GB> =5 1K;8 >?C1;8:>20=K. 8. !;82:8 1K;8 E>@>H> 2718BK. 9. =5 A>>1I8;8 >1 MB>< ;8HL 2G5@0. 10. @018B5;8 >1=0@C68;8, GB> :>4 =0 A59D5 1K; 87<5=5=. 11. A;8 3;02>9 ?@54?@8OB8O 2K15@CB 53>, B> 2A5 1C4CB C482;5=K. 12. 25@L B2>59 <0H8=K C65 =545;N A;><0=0. "K A>18@05HLAO 55 @5<>=B8@>20BL? 13. K GC2AB2>20;8, GB> 70 =0<8 A;54OB. 14. =8 =045O;8AL, GB> 1C4CB ?@83;0H5=K =0 C68=. 15. A;8 GB>-B> 1C45B @0718B>, 20< ?@845BAO ?;0B8BL. Ex. 333. Match the words or phrases in the column A and the correct endings in column  in the following signs and labels A. 1. Rooms 2. Shoplifters 3. This wine 4. This dictionary 5. No goods 6. Applications 7. Bags 8. This building B. a. must not be removed from the library. b. should be addressed to the office. c. will be prosecuted. d. must not be left unattended. e. is protected by guard dogs. f. can be exchanged without a receipt. g. must be vacated by 12 p. m. h. is best served at room temperature. Ex 334. Change the sentences from active to passive 1. Philosophers very often refer to that quotation. 2. Have you sent for the doctor yet? 3. They spoke to me with great suspect. 4. Specialists regularly refer to this phenomena. 5. I'll try, but I don't think they will listen to me. 6. Don't put on this hat or people will laugh at you. 7. He lost sight of her in the crowd. 8. The examiner took no notice of her slip of the tongue. 9. Julia's boyfriend always waits for her after studies. 10. The surgeon is operation on the boy now. 11. People speak a lot about the latest events. 12. Don't worry. I'll look after your house plants properly while you're away. 13. They hoped their relations would take good care of the kids. Ex 335. Translate into English 1.  >;8F8N 2K720;8?  Q 2K720;8 45AOBL <8=CB =0704. 2. 'B> 70 AC<0AH54H0O 845O! ">;L:> =8:><C =5 3>2>@8, 0 B> =04 B>1>9 1C4CB A<5OBLAO. 3. 0 A;>20@L %>@=18 G0AB> AAK;0NBAO. 4. @>D5AA>@ 1K; C25@5=, GB> ;5:F8N > A;5=35 ?>4@>AB:>2 1C4CB 2=8<0B5;L=> A;CH0BL. 5.  ?>A;54=5< :8=>D5AB820;5 <=>3> 3>2>@OB. 6. %>@>H> ;8 70 <0;LG8:>< ?@8A<0B@820NB 2 45BA:>< A04C? 7. !04 1K; 25;8:>;5?=K<. <C 2A5340 C45;O;8 <=>3> 2=8<0=8O. 8. A;8 70 2@0G>< ?>A;0BL A59G0A 65, >= 1C45B 745AL =5 @0=LH5, G5< G5@57 G0A. 9. 04 53> HCB:0<8 2A5340 A<5NBAO. 10. ;NG 8ICB, => ?>:0 157CA?5H=>. 11. ! =8< ?>3>2>@8;8, 8 >= 2A5 ?>=O;. 12. = AB0@0;AO ?@>8725AB8 2?5G0B;5=85, => 53> ?@>AB> =5 70<5B8;8. Ex 336. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. The first self service groceries (open) in America in 1912. 2. Oh, no! My car (go)! 3. Taking photographs in the museum (forbid). 4. Children should (see) but not (hear). 5. Milk (sell) often in cartons. 6. Energy could (save) if people made more journeys by bicycle. 7. Our team only (beat) once so far this year. 8. This painting probably (paint) by Dali. 9. She's only crying because some soap went into her eye while her hair (wash). 10. A new guidebook to the U.K. (write) at the moment. 11. In s>me countries women still (deny) the right to vote. 12. This event not (forget) very quickly. 13. The votes (count) by midnight? 14. The guard noticed at once that the safe (break into). 15. He didn't know where he (take) at the moment. Ex. 337. Translate into English 1. 5B5:B82=K5 @><0=K E>@>H> ?@>40NBAO. 2. -B0 B:0=L E>@>H> AB8@05BAO. 3. <8B@89 ?5@525;AO 2 4@C3>9 C=825@A8B5B. 4. !CE85 ;8ABLO E>@>H> 3>@OB. 5. (C< AB8E (to calm down). 6. -B0 :=830 ;53:> G8B05BAO. 7. -B> 25I5AB2> E>@>H> 3>@8B. 8. 0D5;L ;53:> <>5BAO. 9. -B>B A28B5@ =5 A048BAO 8 =5 ;8=O5B. 10. -B8 1@N:8 A>25@H5==> =5 <=CBAO. 11. "5AB> E>@>H> ?>4=8<05BAO. 12. 8@>3 5I5 ?5G5BAO. 13. -B>B 48A: E>@>H> @0AE>48BAO. 14. -B> ;5:0@AB2> E>@>H> ?@>405BAO. 15. >;>B> ;53:> ?;028BAO. 16. -B>B <5B0;; 45D>@<8@C5BAO ?>4 402;5=85<. Ex. 338. Choose the correct form of the words in brackets 1. Many students are (interesting, interested) in the Internet. 2. Nigel's classes are always (interesting, interested). 3. Don't bother to read that book. It's (boring, bored). 4. I'm (boring, bored). How about going to a movie? 5. Most children are (fascinating, fascinated) by animals. 6. Young children think that animals are (fascinating, fascinated). 7.1 was very (embarrassing, embarrassed) by that question. 8. That was an (embarrassing, embarrassed) experience. 9. I read a (shocking, shocked) report yesterday. I was really (shocking, shocked). 10. The children went to a circus. For them, the circus was (exciting, excited). The (exciting, excited) children jumped up and down. Ex. 339. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets Many changes are happening in education today. In the traditional classroom, the teacher is in complete control. The teacher decides when the class will study which subject, and all students must work on the same subject at the same time. Nowadays developments in technology (use) in the classroom. Children (teach) Mathematics with calculators. Television (use) to teach basic Reading and Mathematics. The influence of general computerizing can't (overlook) either. In many schools computers (experiment) with in the classroom. They (use) to help teach English. In many elementary schools children (teach) how to read and write on computers. In some schools, a new method called "the open classroom" (apply) these days. More and more students (permit) to choose for themselves which subject they want to work on and for how long. Students can work by themselves or in groups. Children are usually enthusiastic about this new method, but some parents are beginning to have doubts. According to these concerned patterns, the children (give) too much freedom nowadays, not enough time (spend) on real work, and the children not (teach) the subjects that are most important. In some schools that experimented with the open classroom in the past, the traditional methods of teaching (reinstate). A number of years ago, universities also experimented with television in college lectures. Professors recorded their lectures on videotapes, which later (play) in class. The professors were not present in the classrooms. This new method (use) when studies came out showing that students were not learning. One professor received an unpleasant surprise when he entered his classroom. His lecture (show) on TV, but no students were in the room. Ex. 340. Translate into English 1. #GB8, 2 @0A?8A0=85 2=5A;8 =5:>B>@K5 87<5=5=8O. 2. !;>20@O<8 =5;L7O ?>;L7>20BLAO =0 M:70<5=0E. 3. 3> ?>AB>O==> :@8B8:CNB 70 ?;>E85 <0=5@K. 4.  0H8=0 A8O5B.  0, 55 B>;L:> GB> ?><K;8. 5. 09B5 =0< 7=0BL, 5A;8 E>B8B5, GB>1K 20A 2AB@5B8;8 2 0M@>?>@BC, 6. !8=B5B8G5A:85 B:0=8 E>@>H> AB8@0NBAO. 7. 5I8 A45;0==K5 87 ;L=0, A8;L=> <=CBAO. 8. 3> =5>1E>48<> >AB0=>28BL, ?>:0 =5 A;8H:>< ?>74=>. 9. 5 C:CA8;> AB@0==>5 =0A5:><>5. 10. 5B59 A;54C5B C2060BL B0: 65, :0: 8 27@>A;KE. 11. 01>@0B>@859 =5;L7O 1K;> ?>;L7>20BLAO 2G5@0, 2 =59 CAB0=02;820;8 =>2>5 >1>@C4>20=85. 12. A5 @01>BK 1C4CB 70:>=G5=K : :>=FC =545;8. 13.  "K ?>G5<C =5 2 =>2KE BCD;OE?  =8 2 @5<>=B5. 14. =A?5:B>@ 7025@8; =0A, GB> 2A5 =5>1E>48<K5 <5@K C65 1K;8 ?@8=OBK. 15. 0: B>;L:> 40==K5 1C4CB ?>;CG5=K, 20A ?@>8=D>@<8@CNB >1 MB><. 16. -9D5;520 10H=O 1K;0 A?@>5:B8@>20=0 ;5:A0=4@>< -9D5;5<. =0 1K;0 A>>@C65=0 2 1889 3>4C. 5 <>6=> 2845BL 87 ;N1>9 G0AB8 3>@>40. Ex. 341. Read the text and retell it The Founding of Wedgwood It was in 1759 that Josiah Wedgwood the "Father of English Pottery" founded the Wedgwood firm. By 1766, Wedgwood had prospered sufficiently to build himself a house and a splendid new factory which he named Etruria. During his lifetime (1730-95), J. Wedgwood invented and produced a wide range of table ware and ornamental wares. Wedgwood's greatest achievement and contribution to the British pottery industry was his development and production of cream coloured earthenware. Later it was known as Queen's Ware. Inexpensive and beautiful this new tableware was within reach of all people and its success was immediate and world-wide. The most famous commission of all was a dinner and dessert service for Empress Catherine II of Russia. The service consisted of 952 pieces which were decorated with paintings of 1244 different English scenes. Five bone china was first made by the firm in 1812-22 and has been made by the company ever since. Fine bone china is made from three main raw materials china stone, china clay and oxbone. It is the bone (reduced to a fine ash) that gives china its whiteness, translucency and above all its amazing strength. Test Your Knowledge Ex 342. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the use of tenses in them 1. It's not age that matter. It's the spirit. 2. And you, Henry? How's life treating you? You're looking well enough. I'm doing fine. I see you're keeping yourself busy. The old garden's looking as lovely as ever. 3. People are always blaming their circumstances for what they are. 4. Have you come to any definite conclusion yet? No, I'm still feeling my way. 5. What have you been up to all day while I've been away? 6.1 wish you would go, we've been getting on each other's nerves lately. 7. She felt that a little break like that was what she'd been needing all those years. 8. When did you actually arrive? 9. The rain was falling in sheets. 10.1 was perky again as if I'd just been given a booster shot of vitamins. 11.1 had to be in Bulgaria in six days or my visa would lapse. 12. He looked at me with the expression of a man who had just lost his job and had his car stolen and now had learned that his wife had run off with his best pal. 13. Irene said she had been reading a lot since she had been working in the library. 14. Will you be waiting for me while I am in the Army? Ex 343. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets 1. Now I (read) a short story about a young actor, who follows his heart (but not his head) to Paris in search of the secrets of life and love. 2. This book is for Bob, who (mean) all the world to me. 3. She just (crack) the shell of the hard-boiled egg and now (peel) it. 4. The old grandfather clock (stop) in 1990 and not (work) since. 5. What you (do) tonight? You (make up) your mind where to go? 6. You (look) so pale! What's the matter? You (see) a ghost? 7. Where you (get) that black eye? You (fight)? 8. They (move) to the country last year so that their children (grow up) away from the city traffic. 9. The road through the city centre (repair) at the moment so we (take) the longer way which seldom (use). 10. When you (listen) how he (speak), you (understand) what his brother (mean). He not (change) at all since we last (meet) him. 11. Much later, when we (finish) dinner and (drink) wine near the fireplace, Andrew (rise) to make a toast to everybody's health. 12. The snow (stop) falling by the time they (arrive) in New Milford, and the sun (shine) in the brilliantly blue sky. 13. The baby, due in January next year, (raise) in America. 14.He (beat) by his rival in the presidential elections. 15. You (use) your computer this afternoon? I not (decide) yet. 16. Henry's wife served the meat which (marinate) in wine and fresh herbs. Ex. 344. Retell the following jokes in indirect speech 1. Many years ago when the rivers were clean and our Earth was not polluted Old Joe was sitting on the river bank fishing. The catch was good, there was nobody around and Old Joe was very happy. "Nobody will see me fishing here," he said to himself. He was about to go home already when suddenly he heard a man's voice over his shoulder asking "Have you caught anything?" "Only forty trout," answered Joe. "I guess you don't know who I am," continued the voice. "I am the fishing inspector here, and you are breaking exactly six laws." But Joe was not at a loss. "I guess you don't know who I am either," he said. "I am the biggest liar in this country." 2. Harry came to his mother one morning while she was having her breakfast, and said to her, "No one at my school likes me, Mother. The teachers don't, and the children don't. Even the cleaners and the bus drivers hate me." "Well, Harry," his mother answered, "perhaps you aren't very nice to them. If a few people don't like a person, he or she may not be responsible for that; but if a lot of people don't, there's usually something wrong, and that person really needs to change." "I'm too old to change," Harry said. "I don't want to go to school." "Don't be silly, Harry," his mother said, going towards the garage to get the car out. "You have to go. You're quite well, and you still have a lot of things to learn. And besides that, you're the headmaster of the school." Ex. 345. Read the following just for fun I am a poet, though few know it. I have been writing poetry since I was eight years old. Here is some of it: 1. Teacher's a fool, down with skool! My form teacher was very cross with me only because I didn't know how to spell "school", of course! 2. Latin is a language as dead as dead can be; First it killed the Romans and now it's killing me! 3. When I die, bury me deep; bury my history book at my feet. Tell the teacher I've gone to rest and won't be back for the history test. 4. I eat my peas with honey; I've done it all my life. It makes the peas taste funny but it keeps them on the knife. Ex 346. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets Returned Hospitality A well-to-do young Cambridge University student took a year off to visit his relatives in Australia, who (deport) some two centuries earlier. They lived in humble circumstances in Melbourne but when the posh Pom arrived, he (treat) like a royalty. He (stay) for six months though he originally (say) it (be) "just a week or so", and during the entire period he never even (offer) to help with the household chores. They (take) him to all the sights, (go) to the opera and to the beach all for no gratitude whatsoever. Naturally, the family (be) intensely annoyed by this relative's manner, and when he announced the date when he (leave), they (can) not help feeling great relief. Before leaving, just for manners' sake, he suggested that the family (may) look him up and his rich widowed mother in their huge country house when they (visit) England later that year. So, when the Aussies mum, dad, and two young kids (arrive) at Heathrow, they immediately (ring) up the man who (stay) with them. His mother answered the phone and as soon as she (understand) who they (be), she (croon) that they really (must) come up for tea. To say the least, this was alarming to them they (expect) (put) up at least for a week after the hospitality they (extend) to her obnoxious son. However, they (decide) to travel to the mansion, deep in the Yorkshire dales, that very day. But the journey was a nightmare. The weather was horrid, wet and windy. Worse, their relatives' village (be) not on any map and they (have to) ask a dozen people in the locality before they (get) the right directions. Finally, just before 11 p.m., they (reach) the place and (be) thrilled in anticipation of what they (discover) about their forebears. The door (open) by a lady, who (tell) them to leave their bags in the car for the moment. She (lead) them by candlelight to a dim dusty study with a real fire which (glow) on one side, and explained how expensive electricity (become) in this day and age. The mother (disappear) and soon (come) back with a plate of ginger cake and a pot of tea and listened abstractedly to their description of the journey with a soppy fixed smile. Half an hour later, she (stand up), (clasp) her hands together, (say) "Well" and (begin) walking towards the door. The family looked at each other was she saying they (should) (go) and (get) their bags from the car now? But then their worst fears (confirm). The woman simply thanked them for coming and, without ceremony, (show) them through the door and out into the rain-drenched night. Ex 347. Read the story and retell it in indirect speech A Born Pessimist and an Eternal Optimist A mother had twin children Will and Jenny. The two had entirely different outlooks on life Will was a born pessimist while Jenny was an eternal optimist. These attitudes caused the mother a great deal of concern, particularly when it came to buying presents for them. So she decided to consult a child psychiatrist with regard to what she should buy them for Christmas. The psychiatrist told her to spend as much as she could on Will the pessimist but said that Jenny would probably be happy with anything. "Why not get a pile of manure* and wrap that up for Jenny?" he suggested. "I'm sure she'd be fine with that." The mother took his advice and spent 300 dollars on presents for Will and wrapped up a heap of manure for Jenny. Christmas morning came and the kids were opening their presents. "What has Santa Glaus brought you?" she asked Will. He answered gloomily, "A bike, but I'll probably get run over while riding it; football boots, but I'll probably break my leg while playing; and an electric train set, but I'll probably electrocute myself." Realizing this wasn't going as planned, she turned swiftly to Jenny. "And what has Santa Glaus brought you?" "I think I got a pony," said Jenny, up to her elbows in manure, "but I haven't been able to find it yet!" manure  =02>7 Ex 348. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets The very next day, the first Golden Ticket (find). The finder was a boy who (call) Augustus Gloop, and evening newspapers (carry) a large picture of him on the front page. The picture showed a nine-year-old boy who was so enormously fat that he looked as though he (blow) up with a powerful pump. The town in which Augustus lived, the newspapers (say), (go) wild with excitement over their hero. Flags (fly) from all the windows, children (give) a holiday from school, and a parade (organize) in honour of the famous boy. "I just knew Augustus (find) a Golden Ticket", his mother (tell) the newspapermen. "He (eat) so many bars of chocolate a day that it was almost impossible for him not to find one. Eating always (be) his hobby, you know. That's all that (interest) him. But still, that's better than being a hooligan, isn't that? And what I always (say) is, he not (eat) like he (do) unless he (need) vitamins, anyway." (after R. Dahl) Ex. 349. Read and retell the jokes in indirect speech 1. Three elderly women were discussing the problems of growing old. One said, "Sometimes I find myself in front of the refrigerator with a jar of mayonnaise and I can't remember if I am putting it away or making a sandwich." Another said, "And I can trip on the stairs and not remember if I was walking up or down." "Oh well, I don't have those sort of problems, touch wood," said the third, tapping her knuckles on the table, before adding, "That must be the door I'll get it." 2. Two burglars were robbing an apartment block when they heard the sound of police car sirens. "Quick! Jump!" said one. "But we are on the thirteenth floor," protested the other. The first burglar said, "This is no time to be superstitious." 3. A teenage boy with spiked hair, a nose ring and baggy combat trousers told his friend, "I don't really like dressing like this, but it stops my parents from dragging me everywhere with them." 4. I had a linguistic professor who said that it's man's ability to use language that makes him the dominant species on the planet. That may be, but I think there's one other thing that separates us from animals  we aren't afraid of vacuum cleaners. Ex 350. Translate into English 1. @8B0=FK 3>2>@OB, GB> 5A;8 :>H:0 ?5@5E>48B 20< 4>@>3C (to cross one's path), B> MB> ?@8=>A8B C40GC. 2.  MB>< <03078=G8:5 ?@>40NB 65=A:CN >4564C. 0 MB>9 =545;5 @0A?@>40NB ;5B=NN :>;;5:F8N. 3. G5@0 H5; 4>64L, 0 A53>4=O 845B A=53. 4.  / 7=0N, > G5< BK 4C<05HL.   > G5< 65 O 4C<0N?  / 4C<0N, BK >?OBL <5GB05HL > 1>;LH>9 :@C3;>9 ?8FF5. 5. =0 645B @515=:0. >;030N, 5B@ 7=05B >1 MB><. 6. 5G=> BK ?CA:05HL ?K;L 2 3;070 8 2KC68205HL :><?;8<5=BK! 7. G5@0 >= A:070;, GB> C =53> =8:>340 =5 1K;> 2@5<5=8 =0 @072;5G5=8O. 8. C GB> 65, 4>@>3>9 ?@>D5AA>@, K A45;0;8 87 <5=O ;548 8 2K83@0;8 A2>5 ?0@8. 9. B> AJ5; <>9 >154? 0 B0@5;:0E =8G53> =5 >AB0;>AL. 10. B> 5; <>9 >154? 0 B0@5;:0E >AB0;>AL <0;> 54K. 11. = ?>8=B5@5A>20;AO, :C40 2A5 CH;8. 12. = A?@>A8;, 345 <K 1K;8 2A5 MB> 2@5<O. 13. -B>B 2>?@>A 402=> 15A?>:>8B <5=O, 8 O 402=> E>GC 7040BL 53> 20<. 14. $5@<5@ A>>1I8; =0<, GB> 2?;>BL 4> MB>3> 4=O ?>3>40 1K;0 E>@>H0O. 15. -B> =5GB> >A>15==>5, 2>B C2848HL.  G5@57 <8=CBC BK 1C45HL <5=O 1;03>40@8BL. 16. / ?@>1CN AC?, GB>1K ?>=OBL, =5 =C6=> ;8 4>1028BL A>;8. 0 =5B, =0 2:CA >= >B;8G=K9. 17. A5 =045O;8AL, GB> CA?5E 53> ?>A;54=59 :=838 7=0G8B5;L=> C;CGH8B (to improve) 53> =0AB@>5=85. 18. =0 >1JOA=8;0 5<C, GB> 4>AB0B>G=> 4>;3> ?@>68;0 2 =3;88, GB>1K 7=0BL F5=C 45=L30< (1KBL 0::C@0B=>9 A 45=L30<8). MOOD Ex 351. Comment on the mood of the verbs in the following sentences 1. My children ask me too many questions. 2. Now, ask your question! Go ahead! 3. Steve was sure that his teacher would answer all his questions. 4.1 wouldn't ask you this question if I knew the answer. 5. Relax! There is no hurry. Take your time. 6. She looks as if she were miserable. 7.1 shall ask you for support if any need arises. 8.1 know that you will do it as soon as you can. 9.1 know that you would do it as soon as you could. 10. He promised he would go there if he had a chance. 11.1 should go if I had time. Time is money, you know. 12. You could do it if you tried. Shall I really make an effort? 13. You could have done it if you had tried. 14. It would have been most helpful if you had done the washing. 15. If the ancient Egyptians had not had slaves, they would not have been able to build the Pyramids. 16. But for our books we would be ignorant and unaware of so many things! 17.1 know you are a great man. But your greatness would be enhanced if you said "Sorry". 18. If it weren't for the last minute, a lot of things wouldn't get done. 19. If you gave him a penny for his thoughts, you would get some change. 20. If you want to be happy, be. (Leo Tolstoy) Ex. 352. Read the text and find the cases of the Imperative Mood Translate them into Russian It was Matilda's first day in Miss Honey's class. After the usual business of going through all the names of the children, Miss Honey said, "Now this is the very first day of school for each one of you. It is the beginning of at least eleven long years of schooling that all of you are going to have to go through. And six of those years will be spent right here at Crunchen! Hall where, as you know, your Headmistress is Miss Trunchbull. She insists upon strict discipline throughout the school,and if you take my advice you will do your very best to behave yourselves in her presence. Never argue with her. Never answer her back. Always do as she says. If you get on the wrong side of Miss Trunchbull she can liquidize you like a carrot in a kitchen blender. It's nothing to laugh about, Lavender. Take that grin off your face. All of you will be wise to remember that Miss Trunchbull deals very very severely with anyone who gets out of line in this school. Have you got the message?" "Yes, Miss Honey," chirruped eighteen eager little voices. (after R. Dahl) Ex 353. Translate into English I. B=>A8B5AL : MB><C ;53G5. 2. 0<@8! >;L=>! 3. #;K1=8B5AL 8 @0AA;01LB5AL! 4. 0209B5 =5 1C45< AA>@8BLAO! 5. N@>:@0BK! >65, A?0A8 <5=O >B =8E! 6. C4L A>1>9! 7. C, =C, 4>@>30O, =5 ?;0GL! 8. 8:>340 =5 4>25@O9B5 =57=0:><K< ;N4O<. 9. B:@>9B5 H8@>:> @>B 8 A:068B5 ! 10. 8:>340, =8:>340 =5 ?@5@5:09B5AL A> <=>9! II. >;>AC9B5 70 =0H53> :0=4840B0! 12. CABL 83@05B <C7K:0, ?CABL ?>NB 3>;>A0, (40209B5) 1C45< 2<5AB5 4> :>=F0! 13. 5 >1@0I09B5 2=8<0=8O =0 A>10G:C, >=0 ?@>AB> 83@05B. 14. 5 A<59B5 >?OBL 45;0BL GB>-B> G5@57 <>N 3>;>2C (to go over one's head). 15. 5@68AL >B <5=O ?>40;LH5! @>20;8209! 16. !>E@0=O9 A?>:>9AB285! (5 3>@OG8AL!) 17. 0A;06409AO 687=LN! 18. 5@538B5AL 2>@>2! 19. 0@:>2:8 =5B! 20. 45AL =5 :C@OB! 21. 5 2>;=C9AO! C4L AG0AB;82! Ex 354. Read and translate the sentences into Russian Pay attention to the mood of the verb 1. If no one were allowed to ignore the rules, language would stagnate. 2. If I lived in England, I wouldn't have any problems with my English. 3. If people trusted and respected each other, it would make life easier. 4. If I could read people's thoughts, it would be interesting to know all beforehand. 5. If you met her, you would fall in love with her at first sight. 6. If I were ill, I wouldn't eat anything. The best remedy would be to starve a day or two. 7. If Caroline didn't love roses, he wouldn't give them to her on her birthdays. 8. If Alison had bought the dress yesterday, she would have spent all her money. 9. Just imagine what chaos there would be if we lived in a society without laws! 10. If you had given us a hint, we would have guessed your secret then. 11. If Olga hadn't been so exhausted, she might have been suspicious of this. 205 12. It would have been helpful if someone had met me at the airport and had taken me to the hotel. 13. He says that if he could start his life anew, he wouldn't change anything. 14. If the babysitter had arrived at the appointed time, we would have met. 15. Your house plants wouldn't have died if you had watered them regularly. 16. If Bobbie were less curious, he wouldn't have asked us so many personal questions yesterday. 17. If Liz had tried harder at college, she would be more successful now. 18. Mary gave Joe a smile that would have melted half the ice in the Arctic Circle. 19. There are some subjects I wouldn't discuss with people I don't know quite well. Ex. 355. Read the following sentences and give their Russian equivalents 1. A blind man would be glad to see. 2. An unfortunate man would be drowned in a teacup. 3. The cat would eat fish and would not wet her paws. 4. If ifs and ands were pots and pans, there would be no work for tinker's hands. 5. If my aunt had been a man, she'd have been my uncle. 6. If there were no clouds, we would not enjoy the sun. 7. If only youth had the knowledge; if only age had the strength! 8. If youth knew what old age would crave, it would both get and save. 9. Life would be too smooth if it had no rubs in it. 10. If fools wore white caps, we would seem a flock of geese. 11. If there were no fools, there would be no wise men. 12. If riches were granted, even beggars would become rich. 13. If you had as little money as manners, you'd be the poorest of your kin. 14. If wishes were fishes, you'd need a whole ocean to hold all of mine' Happy Birthday! 15. If he were to fall into the pond, he would come out with a fish in his mouth. Ex. 356. Change the Indicative Mood of the verb into the Present Conditional 1.1 use my computer every day. 2. She cares for Jack, she loves him. 3. Fred reads newspapers regularly. 4. The friends play golf every weekend. 5. She is scared and 206 will lock the door. 6. Brian sometimes agrees with his father. 7.1 consult my family doctor now and then. 8. He is a reliable person and can help you. 9. We call them very often. 10. She is always easy to deal with. 11. He will do his best, but he has no chance. 12. The Parkers S can afford a big house. 13. The weather may change again. 14. We may never meet again. Ex 357. Complete the sentences by using the Past Conditional of . verbs in brackets 1. He didn't know anything about the party, or he (come). 2. The doctor told me nothing about the new treatment, or I (try) it. 3. Why didn't you consult your tutor? He (advise) you what to do. 4. We couldn't get in touch with each other, or we (avoid) a lot of trouble. 5. There were no computers in those times, or my father (learn) them. 6. He was pressed for time last week or he (visit) his in-laws. 7. Helen didn't buy the dress though it was just what she wanted. In her place I (buy) it. 8. Michael finally made up with his son or he (change) his will. 9. Why didn't you ask me? I (can) (give a lift) you to the fitness centre. 10. It really was hitting news or everybody (take) it easy. 11. You've got into a mess again! Really, you (can) (be) more careful! 12. Olga's mother did all the housework, or she (learn) how to cook. 13. She had an alibi or the police (arrest) her. 14. The new perfume was too sweet or I (buy) it. 15. The serial was too long otherwise I (watch) it to the end. 16. If it weren't for electricity, we all still (watch) television by candlelight. Ex 358. Make the sentences complete by using either the Present or Past Conditional 1. But for the strained circumstances ... . 2. But for my boss's recommendation.... 3. But for unfavourable weather ... . 4. But for Charles' profound knowledge .... 5. But for her intelligence and smartness ... . 6. But for the house being too big .... 7. But for the manager's competence ... . 8. But for the children being left all alone in the house ... . 9. But for the pizza being too spicy ... 10. But for Francis's dark suspicions ... . 11. But for this awkward misunderstanding .... 12. But for the girl being too sophisticated.... 13. But for English being So universally popular.... 14. But for the lovely and unexpected surprise ... . 15. But for the tiresome hurly. burly of the city .... Ex. 359. Translate into English 1. / 1K;0 1K >G5=L @040 2AB@5B8BLAO A 20<8 2=>2L. 2. A;8 1K =5 =52575=85, B> >= 1K 2K83@0; 2 ;>B5@5N. 3.   GB> 1K 2K A45;0;8 B>340 =0 <>5< <5AB5?  / 1K C5E0;0. 4. "0BLO=0 545B >B4KE0BL 2 .@<0;C.  O 1K ?>5E0;0 =0 8?@. 5. 0@8=0 =5 E>G5B <8@8BLAO A 0;5@85<. 0 55 <5AB5 O 1K ?><8@8;0AL A =8<. = A;02=K9 ?0@5=L. 6. 0BO >?OBL :C?8;0 =>2>5 ?;0BL5. / 1K ?>A>25B>20;0 59 =5 B@0B8BL B0: <=>3> 45=53. 7. 0:>9 A;04:89 465<! / =5 ?>;>68;0 1K B0: <=>3> A0E0@0. 8.  "K >?OBL 3C;O; ?>4 4>645<?  / =5 AB0;0 1K 45;0BL MB>3>. # B51O 254L ?@>ABC40. 9.  5 15A?>:>9B5AL, O ?>72>=N 20<.  K;0 1K >G5=L 20< ?@87=0B5;L=0. 10. 'B> 2K A:070;8? 5 <>3;8 1K 2K ?>2B>@8BL MB>? 11. 0:0O 60;>ABL, GB> 2K =5 G8B0;8 MBC :=83C! K <>3;8 1K =09B8 2 =59 <=>3> ?>;57=>9 8=D>@<0F88. 12.  / =045NAL ?>;CG8BL MBC @01>BC.  A;8 1K =5 =87:0O >?;0B0, ;N1>9 CE20B8;AO 1K 70 B0:>9 H0=A. 13.  30B0 3>B>20 ?@8=OBL ?@54;>65=85 >AA0.  A;8 1K =5 D8=0=A>2K5 B@C4=>AB8, MB> 1K;0 1K =5?;>E0O ?0@B8O. 14. >O 4>GL =5 E>G5B G8B0BL @><0=K 8::5=A0.  O 1K 8E ?5@5G8B0;0. 15.   2K 87<5=8;8 1K A2>5 @5H5=85 ?@8 4@C38E >1AB>OB5;LAB20E?  5B, O 1K AB>O; =0 A2>5<. 16. 0;L, ?>B><C GB> 87 =53> B>G=> ?>;CG8;AO 1K E>@>H89 0:B5@. Ex. 360. Transform the verb to be into the Present or Past Subjunctive, to express an unreal wish. Model: It's not sunny today.  If it were sunny today! It was foggy yesterday.  If it hadn't been foggy yesterday! 1. It's autumn now. 2. He isn't my friend. 3. She wasn't my teacher. 4. This dress isn't my size. 5. I'm not happy about it. 6. The bag was too expensive. 7.1 am a dreamer. 8. My holiday wasn't long. 9. This money isn't mine. 10. The party is very dull. 11. The secretary isn't efficient. 12. The car was out of order. 13. The boss is out. 14. We were scared. 15. English phonetics is so difficult! 16. Uncountable nouns are so misleading! Ex 361. Transform the sentences into unreal ones, paying particular intention to the use of the negative particle not where necessary Model: Simon smokes too much. If Simon didn't smoke so much! / She didn't learn the news. If she had learned the news! 1. Our neighbours visit us every weekend. 2. He didn't notice me. He ignored me. 3.1 don't often meet my school friends now. 4. The children don't obey their grandparents. 5. Emma had too much work to do last week. 6.1 have to work even on Sunday. 7. Theresa didn't help her mother about the house. 8. The dog eats too much meat. 9. Nobody knew his address or telephone number. 10.1 don't speak English fluently. 11. They have no chance to travel. 12. Ridge makes friends too easily. 13. Nelly went there too late. 14. She doesn't often go to the theatre. 15. My sister buys too many things. Ex 362. Make the following sentences with the modal verb can Model: You can't speak to the boss now, he is busy. If the boss were not busy, you could speak to him now. They couldn't join us, it was too late. They could have joined us if it hadn't been so late. 1. The children can't play this game in the house. They are so noisy! 2. You can't watch this film before going to bed. It's a horror film. 3. We couldn't listen to the pop-concert. It started too late. 4.1 can't sing at all I've lost my voice. 5. Angela couldn't dance with Nick. They had quarrelled. 6. They can't show you all the sights of the city. They are working all the week. 7. 0m can't afford this ring. She earns too little money. 8. We can't relax at the moment. There is some work to do. 9. Nobody in the office knows Turkish. We can't read the letter. 10. The child can't tell the truth. He is too scared. 11.1 can't help you out. I'm leaving the city. 12. My grandparents can't live in the country all the year round. There are no conveniences in the cottage. 13. My friends and I couldn't meet very often. Everybody was so busy! 14. I can't sit and watch the telly with you! I have to cook supper. 15. The police can't find the robbers. They didn't leave any traces. Ex. 363. Join the sentences making them unreal 1. He's getting fat. He doesn't take much exercise. 2. He smokes about 50 cigarettes a day. He is always coughing. 3. She goes to bed very late. She feels tired in the morning. 4. He is not a strong child. He never eats fruit. 5. Jack doesn't listen to the teacher very carefully. He makes a lot of mistakes. 6. Unfortunately I don't know his address. I can't write to him. 7. Marina went to the market too late. She couldn't buy any fresh strawberries. 8. You didn't sweep the room properly. It's dirty. 9. The play was boring. Some people didn't even watch it to the end. 10. Yuri didn't even try to do the job. It wasn't done. 11. Molly felt that the woman was deceiving her. So she didn't obey her. 12. My T-shirt shrank. I think I didn't dry it properly. 13. The flowers have died. You constantly forget to water them-14. The tourists didn't wear sensible shoes. Now they have blisters. 15. The store is not well located. It doesn't attract many customers. Ex 364. Complete the following sentences using the suitable mood of verb I. It snowed all day otherwise ... . 2. We would join you .... 3. If our building were better located, ... . 4. Henry, wouldn't have said that ... . 5. If Alison had found time, .... 6. But for the hint.... 7. If my father were there, ... . 8. The sea was stormy otherwise ... . 9. But for the dense fog .... 10. If there were no television, .... II. Life would be very dull... . 12. If you used your brains, .... 13. The boss would have raised my wages .... 14. But for the ecological situation .... 15. If you were not such a spendthrift, ... . 16. But for bad luck ... . Ex 365. Make up a story by combining the sentences and making unreal Model. If David hadn't got an invitation he wouldn't have gone to the party. If he .... I. 1. David got an invitation. 2. He went to the party. 3. David drank too much. 4. He got drunk. 5. David drove dangerously. 6. He had an accident. 7. David was seriously injured. 8. He had to be taken to hospital. II. 1. Lucy saw the advertisement. 2. She went for an interview. 3. Lucy got the job. 4. She met Alan. 5. He asked her out. 6. They fell in love with each other. 7. Alan proposed to her. 8. They got married. Ex 366. Complete the sentences 1. If you pay your money right now, .... 2. If I had known this was so difficult, ... . 3. If you did what your parents advise you, ... . 4. If it is fine weather tomorrow, ... . 5. If there were no oxygen in the air, .... 6. If the campers had put up the tents accurately, ... . 7. If Mary had not been idle all this time, now... . 8. If the child eats too much, .... 9. If you know what to do, .... 10. If I were King, .... 11. If he was late this morning again, ... . 12. Napoleon would have taken England, .... 13. A student soon forgets what he has learned, unless .... 14. Had I known how dangerous this journey was, .... 15. If this matter were not so costly, .... Ex. 367. Translate into English 1. "K C25@5=0 2 A2>5< 2K1>@5 <515;8? / 1K ?@54?>G;0 GB>-=81C4L 1>;55 A>2@5<5==>5. 2. =5 =5 =@02OBAO ?>@BL5@K =0 :CE=5. / 1K 8E A<5=8;0. 3. 5=0, BK =5 CAB0;0 >B MB>9 3@><:>9 <C7K:8? 0 B2>5< <5AB5 O 1K 402=> 2K:;NG8;0 @048>, E>BO 1K =0 2@5<O. 4. =0 2A5 5I5 ;N18B 53>, 0 B> 1K >=8 402=> @0AAB0;8AL. 5. "515 =5 :065BAO, GB> 28=> A;8H:>< B5@?:>5? / 1K ?@54?>G;0 ACE>5 28=>. 6. A;8 1K =5 E>;>4=K9 :;8<0B, B> <K =8:>340 1K =5 =>A8;8 25I8 87 =0BC@0;L=KE <5E>2. 7. A;8 >= 1C45B 1>;55 B5@?5;82 A> A2>8<8 45BL<8, B> 8E >B=>H5=8O 7=0G8B5;L=> C;CGH0BAO. 8. E, 5A;8 1K <=5 =5 ?@8E>48;>AL B0: @0=> 2AB020BL ?> CB@0<, GB>1K 2K25AB8 =0 ?@>3C;:C A>10:C! / <>3 1K ?>4>;LH5 ?>A?0BL. 9. !59G0A >=0 ?@5:@0A=> ?>=8<05B, GB> 5A;8 1K 2KH;0 70<C6 70 >@8A0, B> >=8 1K;8 1K =5AG0AB;82K. 10. / 1K =5 :C?8;0 MB> ?;0BL5, 5A;8 1K MB> =5 1K;0 ?>A;54=OO <>40. 11. 0:85 :@0A82K5 F25BK! A;8 1K O =5 4>B@>=C;0AL 4> =8E, B> =8:>340 1K =5 ?>4C<0;0, GB> >=8 8A:CAAB25==K5. 12. A;8 1K >;;8 ?>440;0AL A>1;07=C 8 27O;0 2>;H51=K9 1@0A;5B, B> MB0 8AB>@8O 8<5;0 1K A>25@H5==> 4@C3>9 :>=5F. 13. A;8 1K 45B8 =5 1K;8 2:>=5F 87<CG5=K, B> >=8 =5 CA=C;8 1K 2 A0<K9 @0730@ @>645AB25=A:8E ?@83>B>2;5=89. 14. A;8 1K =5 MB> 3;C?>5 70<5G0=85 09:;0, 659= =5 >1845;0AL 1K. 15. A;8 1K =0H :;8<0B 1K; 1>;55 AB018;L=K<, B> <=>385 ;N48 =5 AB@040;8 1K >B @57:8E ?5@5<5= ?>3>4K. Ex. 368. Make the following sentences conditional (real or unreal), starting with If 1. It's important to protect wildlife now or there will be nothing left for future generations. 2. He's not a millionaire. He won't buy you a house. 3. The schoolchildren sowed some seeds, but they forgot to water them, so the seeds didn't grow. 4. He hopes he will get rich one day and will see the world. 5. When they were young many people didn't realize that smoking was dangerous. Now they are having serious health problems. 6.1 couldn't stop the car. There was an accident. 7. They are leaving soon and it makes me unhappy. 8. He didn't enjoy school, so he didn't do very well. 9. Time flies! You can never think of your future. 10. The fax hasn't come yet. We can't act. 11. It was raining quite hard, but Mary went out wearing thin sandals, and her feet soon got wet. 12. He bought the house without consulting the agent. Now he realizes it wasn't a sensible thing to do. 13. Helen ate too much birthday cake. She was sick. 14. Heidi is going to eat the whole cake. She is sure to fall ill. Ex 369. Read or sing the following If You Were Me (duet Chris Rea with Elton John) If you were me And I was you, If you had to play my part out What would you do? Two crazy stories Two different views If you were me And I were you. If you were me And I was you, What kind of crazy things Would I have to do? Who likes to party Who stays at home If you were me And I was you. Never like strangers Though never the same Two circus side shows That laughed in the rain. You stayed with the full moon You searched for the stars Thank God in his heaven Here we both are. Ex. 370. Use the correct mood of the verbs in brackets. 1. It (be) nice if our lives (be) like VCRs! 2. If the storm not (rage) so furiously last night, many trees not (break). 3. I (go) and (live) in the tropics if only I (can). 4. What we (do) if television not (invent)? 5. If the laws of nature not (break), the situation (be) different. 6. Australia (be) a delightful country to live in if it not (be) so far. 7. He not (catch) a cold if he not (drink) so much cold beer in the pub yesterday. 8. If I (live) long enough, I (can) do so many great things! 9. If I not (pay) all my bills before leaving the hotel, I not (be) penniless now. 10. If the fellow not (leave) the city, the police (arrest) him. 11. If Mel not (be) so light-minded, Hilda not (leave) him! 12. If the case not (be) so interesting, the inspector not (take) it up. 13. If we (know) how dangerous the expedition was, we (refuse). 14. Ratchel (pass) the interview on Friday if she (know) a second foreign language. 15. She (wear) this frock tonight if she not (put on) so much weight lately. Ex. 371. Discuss the following topics 1. A scientist has discovered a drug which will cause you to forget everything that has happened to you. He has also discovered one which causes you to remember everything that has ever happened to you. You must choose one of these two drugs. Which will it be and why? 2. A machine has been invented which will make you invisible for 48 hours. How would you want to spend these two days? 3. You can be any living person in the world. Who will it be and why? 4. You have to make a decision about two jobs. One is exactly what you have wanted all your life; however, it doesn't pay a lot of money. The other job pays a very good salary but is not at all interesting to you. Which job will you choose and why? 5. Your car has broken down. You are in a jungle. You have not eaten for three days. Your foot is injured and it is difficult for you to walk. If you follow the road it will be at least two days before you reach civilization; if you take a shortcut through the jungle you will get to a village within less than a day. The jungle is full of wild animals. Would you stay on the road or go through the jungle? Ex 372. Translate into English. 1.  C4L >=0 <>59 A5AB@>9, O 1K =56=> 55 ;N18;0.  @0240? 2. A;8 1K >=0 C<5;0 E>@>H> 3>B>28BL, B> 55 <C6 1K; 1K AG0AB;82. 3. A;8 1K O 68; 2 D@8:5, B> 5; 1K >4=8 D@C:BK: 10=0=K, 0?5;LA8=K, :828. 4. C4L >= 1>;55 M=5@38G=K<, B> 402=> <>3 1K A45;0BL >B;8G=CN :0@L5@C. 5. K 1K;8 1K >G5=L ?@87=0B5;L=K, 5A;8 1K 2K 8728=8;8AL. 6. A;8 BK 1C45HL AB8@0BL A2>N <09:C 2 3>@OG59 2>45, B> >=0 AO45B 8 ?>;8=O5B. 7. >7K AB>O;8 1K 3>@074> 4>;LH5, 5A;8 1K BK 4>1028;0 2 2>4C 425 AB>;>2K5 ;>6:8 A0E0@0. 8. A;8 1K >=0 =>A8;0 :>@>B:85 N1:8, B> 2K3;O45;0 1K <>;>65. 9. A;8 1K 5<C 1K;8 =C6=K 45=L38, B> >= <>3 1K >1@0B8BLAO : =0<. 10. 5 1C4L 45;> B0:8< A5@L57=K<, 0284 =5 =0=O; 1K G0AB=>3> AKI8:0. 11. >340 >=0 C7=05B @57C;LB0B, B> =5 ?>25@8B, GB> 59 B0: ?>257;>. 12. A;8 1K =5 70?CB0==K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, 45B5:B82 AC<5; 1K =09B8 ?@5ABC?=8:0 =0<=>3> @0=LH5. 13. A;8 2A5 ?>945B =>@<0;L=>, B> <515;L 4>AB02OB A53>4=O. 14. A;8 1K >=8 =5 ?5@5?CB0;8 04@5A, B> <515;L 4>AB028;8 1K =545;N =0704. 15. A;8 1K =5 2=5H=>ABL 8 B0;0=B, >= =8:>340 1K =5 AB0; AC?5@72574>9 >;;82C40. 215 Ex. 373. Practise the Conditional and the Subjunctive Mood while discussing the following ideas. I. What if Christopher Columbus had been lost at sea on his first voyage to the New World? 2. What if the wheel had not been invented? 3. What if the ocean were filled with fresh water instead of salt water? 4. What if printing hadn't been invented? 5. What if the airplane hadn't been invented? 6. What if the electric light had not been invented? 7. What if man could control the weather all the time? 8. What if a new ice age should begin within the next five years? 9. What if everybody in the world spoke the same language? 10. What if signs of intelligent life were discovered on another planet? 11. What if science should discover a way to prolong life to 150 years? 12. What would you like to be: a sparrow or a snail? A hammer or a nail? A forest or a stream? 13. What animal or plant would you like to be and why? 14. If you had only one day to live, what would you do? Ex. 374. Translate into English. 1. A;8 1K =5 >=, B> O =5 AB0; 1K B5<, :B> O 5ABL A59G0A. 2. A;8 1K BK 2AB@5B8;AO A =59, B> 2;N18;AO 1K 2 =55. =0 ?@5;5ABL! 3. A;8 1K >=0 ?@8AB53=C;0 @5<5=L 157>?0A=>AB8, B> 8=A?5:B>@ =5 >HB@0D>20; 1K 55. 4. C4L C =8E 1>;LH5 >1I8E 8=B5@5A>2, B> 8E 687=L 1K;0 1K 8=B5@5A=55. 5. @8 4@C38E >1AB>OB5;LAB20E 20H5 ?@54;>65=85 1K;> 1K 25AL<0 70<0=G82>. 6. A;8 1K <K AC<5;8 A2O70BLAO A 48@5:B>@>< H:>;K, B> <K ?@83;0A8;8 1K 53> =0 :>=D5@5=F8N, :>B>@0O A>AB>O;0AL =0 ?@>H;>9 =545;5. 7. A;8 1K O 7=0;0, GB> 2AB@5GC 53>, B> O 1K ?>AB0@0;0AL 2K3;O45BL ;CGH5. 8. 8@ 1K; 1K =0<=>3> 74>@>255, 5A;8 1K 2A5 <03078=K, ?@>40NI85 E8<8:0BK 2 =3;88, 1K;8 70:@KBK. 9. A;8 1K =5 15A:>=5G=K5 ?@074=8:8, B> @01>B0 <>3;0 1K 1KBL 70:>=G5=0 5I5 2G5@0. 10.  8=0, GB> A:070;0 1K B2>O <0<0, 5A;8 1K C2845;0 B51O A59G0A?  =0 1K <5=O C18;0! 11. A;8 1K >= =5 1K; B0:8< A:@KB=K< 8 A<>3 >1JOA=8BL 2A5, B> B>340 =5 1K;> 1K =8:0:8E B@C4=>AB59. 12. =09 BK 55 B0:65 E>@>H> :0: <K, BK =5 4>-25@8;AO 1K 59 B>340. 13. =0 <>3;0 1K AB0BL <0=5:5= -I8F59, => @>48B5;8 >B3>2>@8;8 55. 14. A;8 1K =5 =52575=85, B> 1@078;LA:0O :><0=40 AC<5;0 1K 2K83-@0BL 2 G5<?8>=0B5. 15. A5 1K;> 1K A59G0A ?@5:@0A=>, 5A;8 1K O =5 ?@>20;8;0AL =0 ?>A;54=5< M:70<5=5. Ex 375. Make the condition more problematic according to the model. Model: If danger comes, we shall be prepared to meet it Should danger come, we shall be prepared to meet it. 1. 1 don't care if the whole village knows. If that happens, we shall have to send you away. 2. If you decide to sell your country house, my brother will be willing to buy it. 3. If there are many problems by chance, we are ready to help. 4. If you get lost in the area, ask a policeman. 5. If I get the job, I'll invite you to the restaurant. 6. If there is something urgent, call us. 7. If Maxim fails you again, forget that he has ever existed. 8. If something goes wrong, we'll hire a private detective. 9. If I lose my independence, I'll get a full-time job. 10. If Adrian turns up, inform him of the latest events. 11. If he insists, ask him to give all the reasons. 12. If the weather by chance turns out to be on the miserable side ... well, there are alternatives. Ex 376. Translate into English. 1. A;8 2K :>340-=81C4L 1C45B5 ?CB5H5AB2>20BL ?> B0;88, B> >1O70B5;L=> ?>57609B5 2 50?>;L, GB>1K C2845BL 57C289, ><?58 8 0?@8. 2. !;CG8AL 20< ?>1K20BL 2 B0;88, >1O70B5;L=> ?>A5B8B5 5=5F8N. 3. !53>4=O O 54C 2 :=86=K9 <03078=. A;8 C286C E>@>I89 A;>20@L, B> :C?;N 53>. 4. / 7=0N, GB> BK :=83>;N1 8 G0AB> 1K205HL 2 :=86=KE <03078=0E. 4@C3 BK C2848HL A;>20@L A;5=30, :C?8 <=5 53>, A:>;L:> 1K >= =8 AB>8;. 5. A;8 >= @5H8B @8A:=CBL, GB> 65, MB> 53> 2K1>@. 6. !;CG8AL, GB> >=8 2A5-B0:8 @8A:=CB, >=8 >?@545;5==> 2A5 ?>B5@ONB. 7. A;8 BK ?>;CG8HL MBC 8=D>@<0F8N ?> =B5@=5BC, 409 <=5 7=0BL. 8. "515 74>@>2> ?>2575B, 5A;8 24@C3 BK >1=0@C68HL MB8 40==K5 2 =B5@=5B5. 9. A;8 H5D 7045@68205BAO, B> >= 2A5340 72>=8B 8 ?@54C?@56405B >1 MB><. 10. !;CG8AL, GB> O 7045@6CAL, <>9 C?@02;ONI89 <>65B =0G0BL ?5@53>2>@K. 11. 4@C3 A0<>;5B 7045@68BAO, 2>B B515 6C@=0;LG8:, GB>1K A:>@>B0BL 2@5<O. 12. A;8 >= >?OBL ?>?0 45B 2 020@8N, B> ?>B5@O5B ?@020. 13. !;CG8AL 20< ?>?0ABL 2 5=8N, ?>57609B5 =0 A0D0@8. 14.  GB>, 5A;8 >=0 24@C3 2K945B 70<C6 70 MB>3> <0D8>78? 15. B:C40 <=5 7=0BL, G5< >= 70=8<05BAO?  ?>G5<C MB> B51O 8=B5@5AC5B? Ex. 377. Comment on the use of tenses in sentences after wish were with us now. 1. We wish she had been with us last night. would be with us next summer, always had time for him. 2. John wishes Sue had had more time last week. would have more time in future. were with us at the moment. 3. We wished she had been with us the night before. would be with us (the) next summer. could do it myself. 4. I wish (wished) I could have done it then. would be able to do it soon. always told her the truth. 5. Linda will wish he had told her the truth then. would tell her the truth one day Ex 378. Explain the relative use of tenses in the following sentences 1. Kate wished her boyfriend were more attentive to her. 2. Now she wishes she had agreed to marry him, 3. We wish it would rain. It's too hot. 4. I wish you wouldn't talk about that, Dad. 5. She wishes she were in love again. 6. I wish you would stop contradicting me! 7. We wished the police were more efficient and hadn't just turned everything upside down in the house. 8. Oh, I'm so miserable! I wish I were dead! 9.1 wish I could make him change his mind! I wish he would give up that silly idea. 10. Sometimes I wish I were thousands of miles away from civilization. 11. How I wish it were so for ages and nothing would ever change! 12. Many people wish life were not so hectic. 13. They wish you were less bossy and were not ordering people about. 14. How I wish I could fly in the blue sky, over the roofs, over this town! 15. What is love? I wish I knew the answer. 16.1 just wish I had your kind of spirit, Maggie. Ex 379. Express a wish by using the given hints Model / wish my friend were (had been) more optimistic. to be 1. more helpful 2. less curious 3. not so choosy 4. a child again 5. healthy and wealthy to have 6. more experience 7. less duties 8. a different job 9. a better love-life 10. a big flat 11. a better life to know 12. five foreign languages 13. what to do to live 14. in another district 15. in the nineteenth century can (may) 16. help them 17. take part in the research come 18. to visit us 19. in time for supper speak 20. about his impressions Ex. 380. Express regrets about the following (starting with if or wish) and add four more regrets of your own. 1. My students are not always in time for class. 2.1 didn't work hard when I was at school. 3. Our climate is so changeable! 4. Nelly is sorry that she didn't save enough money when she was still working. 5. What a pity we have ever met! 6.1 didn't stay at home late at night and got involved into an accident. 7. My neighbours are very noisy people. 8. Helen didn't buy the dress and is very sorry about it. 9. My director is too bossy and demanding. 10. Victor can't get on well with his relatives. 11. My father couldn't fix our new VCR yesterday. 12.1 still don't know who you really are. Ex. 381. Translate into English. 1. 0;L, GB> O A59G0A =5 A 20<8. -B> 1K;> 1K 74>@>2>! 2. @O O 745AL A59G0A A 20<8. ><0 B0: <=>3> 45;! 3. 0?@0A=> 2K =5 ?>4?8A0;8 1C<038 2>2@5<O. 4. >A04=>, GB> 2K ?>4?8A0;8 1C<038 B>340. 5. 0;L, GB> 687=L B0:0O :>@>B:0O 8 65AB>:0O. 6. %>B5;>AL 1K, GB>1K 687=L 1K;0 1>;55 AG0AB;82>9. 7. 0;L, GB> 5=8A =5 2;N18;AO 2 MBC ?@5:@0A=CN 452CH:C. =0 1K A45;0;0 53> AG0AB;82K<. 8. 0?@0A=> 3>@L 2;N18;AO 2 MBC :0?@87=CN 452CH:C. =0 A45;05B 53> 687=L =52K=>A8<>9. 9. 0;L, GB> <K 6825< B0: 40;5:> 4@C3 >B 4@C30. K <>3;8 1K AB0BL 1;87:8<8 4@C7LO<8. 10. K <>3;8 1K AB0BL 1;87:8<8 4@C7LO<8, => =5 AB0;8. 0;L, GB> MB> B0:! 11. 0;L, GB> C <5=O 2G5@0 1>;5;> 3>@;>, 8 O =5 A<>3;0 ?>9B8 =0 48A:>B5:C. 12. >A04=>, GB> <K 701;C48;8AL 8<5==> 2 F5=B@5 0@860. 13. 0;L, GB> <K =5 3>2>@8< ?>-D@0=FC7A:8 8 =5 27O;8 :0@BC 3>@>40. 14. @O O ?>AB8@0;0 220 15;CN <09:C A G5@=K<8 468=A0<8. "5?5@L >=0 AB0;0 <>4=>3> A5@>3> F25B0. 15. 0;L, GB> <>8 45B8 =5 A> <=>9, 8 GB> >=8 ?>:8=C;8 <5=O, :0: B>;L:> 70:>=G8;8 H:>;C. 382. Read the following verse and compose a similar one, expressing a wish of your own. The Horse March I wish I had a horse. I wish I had a horse of my own. And if I had a horse of my own, That horse would never be lonely. If I had a horse of my own, He would stay every day By my window. If I had a horse of my own, He would never be alone. If I had a horse of my own, I only know that The horse and I Would not be lonely in this big and wide world! Ex 383. Express an unreal wish according to the model. Model: / have too much work. I wish I didn't have so much work. Amanda didn't study Spanish. Amanda wishes she had studied Spanish. 1. It isn't Sunday today. 2. Brendon has to study so hard! 3. Lucy has too many friends. 4.1 don't have a computer. 5. My cousin can't find a good job. 6. They live far from the station. 7. She doesn't know Ted's address. 8. Billy leaves for work too early. 9. The child didn't tell us the truth. 10. Helen didn't finish high school. 11.1 didn't call my parents yesterday. 12. We spent all our money at the sale. 13. My neighbour bought a used car. 14. Paul went to bed too late last night. 15. The weather was miserable last week. Ex. 384. Read the verse and learn it. Comment on the moods of the verbs. If I Were King I often wish I were a King And then I could do anything. If only I were King of Spain, I'd take my hat off in the rain. If only I were King of France, I wouldn't brush my hair for months. I think, if I were King of Greece, I'd push things off the mantelpiece. If I were King of Norroway, I'd ask the elephant to stay. If I were king of Babylon, I'd leave my button glove undone. If I were King of Timbuctoo, I'd think of lovely things to do. If I were King of anything, I'd tell the soldiers "I'm the King!" (A. Milne) Ex. 385. Use the right forms of the verbs in brackets. 1.1 have never seen your kids. I wish you (have) a picture of them with you. 2. The police wish they (be) better equipped to work more efficiently. 3. They wished their daughter (be) more careful in choosing friends. 4. Susan wishes she (go) to college instead of leaving school and getting a job. 5.1 wish we (buy) a house of our own long ago and not (live) with our grandparents all these years. 6. Melanie wished she not (say) she was going to the party. 7. He wished his mother still (live) nearby. 8. The Dixons wish their son not (marry) that punk girl. 9. We wish you (can wait) to see him. 10.1 wish I (be) nicer to my parents when I was a teenager. 11. Ted wishes he (follow) his tutor's advice. 12. How I wish I (can play) some musical instrument! 13.1 wish people (be) more honest. 14. People wish the government (do) something about unemployment. 15. I wish I (start) learning English much earlier. Ex 386. Paraphrase the following so as to use the Subjunctive Mood in object clauses after the verb wish. 1. What a pity that I have grown up and that I am not a child any longer! 2. The patient is sorry that he lost control of himself and spoke to the doctor rudely. 3. What a shame that you can't believe us! 4. Mike's parents regret not having listened to what their son wanted to do in life. 5. My brother is a born worrier, I'm sorry to say. 6.1 am awfully sorry I disturbed you in the middle of the night, but the matter was urgent. 7. It's a pity she couldn't find accommodation in the city. 8. What a spendthrift you are! But today you really spent too much! 9. It's so annoying but we have to go. 10. We're upset that our plan failed. 11. Marina was sorry that she hadn't invited her classmates to her party. 12. What a shame! I forgot to call Robert again. 13. The whole family was disappointed that they couldn't buy the house. 14.1 must say she's an extremely tough woman. 15. Unfortunately, you will not receive the job you've applied for. Ex 387. Translate into English. I. %>B5;>AL 1K, GB>1K ;N48 1K;8 1>;55 4@C65;N1=K<8. 2. 0;L, GB> ;N48 B0: =0?@O65=K. 3. %>@>H> 1K >= ?>72>=8; <=5 25G5@><. 4. 0?@0A=> O ?>72>=8;0 5<C ?5@2>9. 5. 0;L, GB> 5B@ =5 C<55B @01>B0BL A :><?LNB5@><. 6. @O O =0CG8;0AL @01>B0BL =0 :><?LNB5@5. -B> :0: =0@:>B8:. 7. %>B5;>AL 1K, GB>1K MB>B ?A8E>;>3 =5 8A?KBK20; A2>8 <5B>4K =0 <>5< @515=:5. 8. %>@>H> 1K MB>B ?A8E80B@ 8A?>;L7>20; 1>;55 A>2@5<5==K5 <5B>4K ;5G5=8O. 9. 0?@0A=> O =5 ?@8=O; MB> ;5:0@AB2> >B 3>;>2=>9 1>;8. 10. @O O 2K?8;0 MBC B01;5B:C >B 7C1=>9 1>;8. "5?5@L E>G5BAO A?0BL. II. 0;L, GB> 8=0 =5 2A5340 8A:@5==0 A> <=>9. 12. >A04=>, GB> BK G0AB> >B:@>25==8G05HL A <>8<8 4@C7LO<8. 13. 0?@0A=> 2K 1K;8 B0: >B:@>25==K. 54L >= =0H :>=:C@5=B. 14. 0: 60;L, GB> >=0 =5 C<55B =8 ?5BL, =8 83@0BL =0 <C7K:0;L=>< 8=AB@C<5=B5. 15. 0;L, GB> =0H H5D =5 A<>3 ?@54C?@548BL =0A, GB> 45;> >G5=L @8A:>20==>5. 16. / 1K E>B5;0, GB>1K <>9 45=L @>645. =8O 4;8;AO 8 4;8;AO, 8 GB>1K O 2A5340 1K;0 B0: 65 AG0AB;820! Ex. 388. Comment on the use of the Subjunctive Mood in subject clauses after the expression It's (high, about) time. 1. Your car is absolutely filthy! It's high time you had it washed. 2. Well, well, young man, it's time you settled down, had a wife and nice kids! 3. It's time we turned over a new leaf in our life, my darling. 4. Isn't it time we should put an end to this horrible war? 5. It's high time you should forgive me. 6. Well, it's high time you should realize that times have changed. 7. Sergeant, it's high time you reported to the captain. 8. Isn't it time the children switched off TV and went to bed? 9. It was high time she got used to his strange ways. 10. Don't you think it's high time you changed your manner of dressing? 11. I'm sure it's high time you told it to her face. 12. It's time you earned your own living. Ex. 389. Paraphrase the sentences using It's time. 1. Marina should think of her future. 2. Oleg must consult a specialist. 3. The family ought to have a holiday. 4. The house needs to be given a new coat of paint. 5. We need to call an electrician. 6.1 must become independent from my parents. 7. The children should go to bed and switch off the light. 8. You ought to feel responsible for your family. 9. Will you stop asking me provocative questions about my personal life? 10. Why should you live throwing your parents' money around? 11. I'm sorry, I have to say goodbye and leave. 12. How can you watch that boring programme? 13. You are a modern woman. Don't you want to learn to drive a car? 14. Your parents need your support. Why don't you help them? 15. Will you get down to business, all of you! Ex 390. Translate into English. 1. A5< 402=> ?>@0 ?>=OBL, GB> =0704 ?CB8 =5B. 2. 0:>9 ABK4, B515 402=> ?>@0 2KCG8BL 0=3;89A:89 0;D028B! 3. (5ABL G0A>2.  =5 ?>@0 ;8 ?@83;0A8BL 3>AB59 : AB>;C? 4.  5 ?>@0 ;8 B515 A<5=8BL <09:C 8 468=AK?   =5 ?>@0 ;8 B515 ?5@5AB0BL 45;0BL <=5 70<5G0=8O? 5. >-<>5<C, B515 402=> ?>@0 ?5@5:;NG8BL B5;5287>@ =0 4@C3CN ?@>3@0<<C. 6. >@0 B515 ?5@5AB0BL A?;5B=8G0BL > 4@C7LOE 8 :>;;530E. 0725 B515 =5G5< 70=OBLAO? 7.  =5 ?>@0 ;8 =0< 2KB0I8BL B>@B 87 ?5G:8? = <>65B ?>43>@5BL. 8. "K =5 4C<05HL, GB> B515 ?>@0 >B@5<>=B8@>20BL :CE=N? 9. 5 ?>@0 ;8 CAB0=>28BL >E@0=C 2 B2>5< >D8A5? 10. / AG8B0N, GB> =0< 402=> ?>@0 ?5@5AB0BL 2AB@5G0BLAO, E>BO 1K =0 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O. 11. "515 402=> ?>@0 ?><5=OBL A2>5 >B=>H5=85 : 1@0:C. 12. -B> ?;>E0O 845O! "515 ?>@0 ?>=OBL, GB> O =5 ?@8<C 55. 13. 42>:0BC 402=> ?>@0 ?@54JO28BL 3;02=K9 :>7K@L 2 MB>< 45;5. 14. 02=> ?>@0 B515 A:070BL 59, GB> BK 4C<05HL > =59. 15.  =5 ?>@0 ;8 20<, 45B:8, 84B8 2 H:>;C? Ex 391. Comment on the Subjunctive Mood in predicative and comparative clauses introduced by as if, as though. 1. Erik looks as if he were at peace with himself and the universe. 2. Samantha looks as if she had fallen in love. 3. Sindy felt as if she had lived a long, long time. 4. He looks as though butter wouldn't melt in his mouth. 5. Adrian felt as if he were suddenly transported into a different world. 6. The children now felt as if their father had never been away on that terrible war in the Persian Gulf. 7. The girl looked happy as though she had been waiting for that moment all her life. 8. Daniel felt as if he were being reprimanded, as if he had let his friends down. 9. Molly dropped the bracelet instantly, as if it were red-hot coals. 10. Bill behaves as if he had got into a pretty good mess. 11. We began talking as though we were old friends, as if we had known each other for many years. 12. For a second she hesitated as if she were taking the last chance to refuse. 13. The Stones behaved as though we were the bitterest of enemies and hadn't been living next door to each other for twenty-four years. 14. Glan pushed his father's chair closer to the table and tucked a serviette under his father's chin, as if he were a baby in a high chair. 15. Don't act as if you cared nothing for my feelings. 16. They were looking as though someone had died. Ex. 392. Complete the following sentences 1. The situation was as if ... . 2. The weather looked as though .... 3. The policeman nodded as if .... 4. They feel as if.... 5. She always looks smart as though .... 6. Dan always interrupts people as if .... 7. The sheriff spoke firmly as if .... 8. Why is Nell looking at Ted as if ... ? 9. The child was scared as though .... 10. Why are you crying as if ... ? 11. She looked nervous as if .... 12. They met again as if .... 13.1 know London so well as if .... 14. You are asking so many questions as if ....15. Margaret did the job as if.... 16. The inspector behaved as though ... . 17. She felt his pain as acutely as if... . Ex. 393. Open the brackets using the right form of the Subjunctive Mood 1. When you watch all those soaps on television, you feel as if people in them (think) only of love and (not have) any problems. 2. She walked as if she (be) a Queen, as if the world (belong) to her. 3. He felt fresh and rested as if he (not work) for twelve hours non-stop. 4. In that small dress Miranda looked as if she (be) a teenager. 5. What a fuss and what a mess! It looks as if the last preparations for Christmas (make). 6. He was holding the baby as if it (be) something very fragile. 7. Sometimes it seems to me as though the world (come) to an 226 end! 8. It appears now as if Cora never (love) Martin, as if it (be) a bad dream. 9. While reading the novel I felt as if I also (live) in those times and actually (take) part in the events. 10. When you are looking at the Vesuvius you feel as if it (can erupt) at any minute. 11. Nigel is searching for something. It looks as though he (lose) the key. 12. The agent felt as if he (watch) by somebody. 13. She put on her sunglasses as if she (try) to hide the expression of her eyes. 14. Surprisingly, there were no people in the streets. It looked as if they (stay) at home or (leave) for their country houses. 15. Adrian looked at Pamela so tenderly as if he (forgive) her and (be) in love with her again. 16. She looked as though her mouth (be) full of lemon juice. 17. He kept gazing at her as if she (be) some sort of goddess or something. 18. Snape looked as though Christmas (cancel). 19. In so many ways he felt as though he (know) nothing, (learn) nothing, though he was sixty-eight years old. 20. She looked to him as if she (need) a good meal. Ex 394. Translate into English 1. 87=L ?@>B5:0;0 3;04:>, A;>2=> =8:>340 =8G53> =5 ?@>8AE>48;>. 2. C4L O =0 B2>5< <5AB5, O 1K ?>?KB0;AO 25AB8 A51O B0:, A;>2=> =8G53> =5 A;CG8;>AL. 3. =0 GC2AB2>20;0, A;>2=> GB>-B> =5>1KG=>5 4>;6=> 1K;> A;CG8BLAO A =59. 4. >G5<C BK 2545HL A51O B0:, A;>2=> GB>-B> A:@K205HL >B =0A 8;8 A;>2=> A>25@H8; GB>-B> ?;>E>5? 5. K =5 >1@0B8;8 2=8<0=8O =0 A;>20 '0@;L70, A;>2=> >=8 =5 1K;8 206=K, A;>2=> =8:B> 8E 8 =5 A;KH0;. 6. = ?>=8<0NI5 C;K1=C;AO, A;>2=> ?@>G8B0; <>8 <KA;8 8 7=0; >1> 2A5<. 7. / C65 27@>A;K9. >G5<C BK 2A5 5I5 >1@0I05HLAO A> <=>9 B0:, A;>2=> O @515=>:? 8. =0 2K3;O45;0 B0:, A;>2=> 1K;0 2?>;=5 4>2>;L=0 A2>59 687=LN 8 =5 ?5@5=5A;0 B0:>3> AB@0H=>3> H>:0. 9. A5 MB> 2K3;O48B B0:, A;>2=> 8:>;09 2AN 687=L CG8B 0=3;89A:89 O7K:; 8 2A5-B0:8 =5 <>65B =0 =5< 3>2>@8BL. 10. 5:B>@ =0G0; 3>2>@8BL <54;5==> 8 :@0A=>@5G82>, A;>2=> AB0@0;AO A A0<>3> =0G0;0 702>520BL 2=8<0=85 0C48B>@88. 11.  :><=0B5 1K; B0:>9 0@><0B, A;>2=> 2 =59 1K; <8;;8>= @>7. 12. 8@>3 1K; B0:8< =5>1KG=K< =0 2:CA, A;>2=> 2 =53> ?>;>68;8 2A5 ?@O=>AB8 >AB>:0. 13. $8;L< ?@>8725; =0 <5=O B0:>5 A8;L=>5 2?5G0B;5=85 ?>B><C, GB> :070;>AL, A;>2=> >= > <>59 A>1AB25==>9 687=8. 14. A5 2K3;O48B B0:, A;>2=> >=8 C7=0;8 > <>5< @5H5=88 8 A59G0A ?KB0NBAO 70AB028BL <5=O 87<5=8BL 53>. 15.  / GC2AB2CN A51O B0:, A;>2=> O 01A>;NB=> AG0AB;82.  !;>2=> MB> 2>7<>6=>! 16. -<<0 273;O=C;0 =0 =53> 8 C;K1=C;0AL B0:, A;>2 => >?OBL ?@>G8B0;0 53> <KA;8. Ex. 395. Comment on the use of the Subjunctive Mood 1. It's absolutely necessary that I should see them before you do. 2. It's vitally important that the child should have all the care he needs. 3. It was contrary to the traditions of the school that one of the lower masters be chosen. 4. It is requested that each member contribute ten dollars. 5. It was necessary that somebody should sit up with the child for a couple of hours. 6. Doreen would have adored to live in the country. Besides, it was vitally necessary that she should look after the estate. 7. It was suggested that the students consider the shifty nature of the mood. 8. It is most strange that she should have chosen such a profession. 9. Is it possible that he should have been so rude? 10. It is recommended that everybody have a thorough medical check-up every year. 11. It is time she should be back. 12. It was most important that no one should see them entering the secret garden. Ex. 396. Complete the phrases, using the Subjunctive Mood in subject clauses 1. It's ironic.... 2.1s it advisable...? 3. It was un believable.... 4. It is so unusual.... 5. It was doubtful... . 6. Isn't it strange ... ? 7. It's high time ... 8. Wasn't it recommended...? 9. It's rather odd...10. It's quite natural ... . 11. Isn't it amazing ... ? 12. It's so disappointing ... . 13. It's surprising ... . 14. Isn't it high time...? 15. It's discouraging.... 16. Isn't it shocking ... ? 17. It was imperative ... . Ex 397. Translate into English 1.  MB>< <8@5 A>25@H5==> =5>1E>48<>, GB>1K <K ?><>30;8 4@C3 4@C3C. 2. 0: 2K 4C<05B5, =5>1E>48<> ;8, GB>1K ?0F85=B 7=0;, GB> =0?8A0=> 2 53> <548F8=A:>9 :0@B5 (a medical record)? 3. 5>1E>48<>, GB>1K B@51>20=8O H0EB5@>2 1K;8 C4>2;5B2>@5=K. =8 A?@0254;82K. 4. ?>;=5 5AB5AB25==>, GB> >= 1>8BAO >?5@0F88. !;CG09 A5@L57=K9. 5. G5=L AB@0==>, GB> >=0 >B:07K205BAO >B B0:>9 @01>BK. 6. @8:07 1K;, GB>1K >B@O4 ?5@5?@028;AO G5@57 @5:C 4> @0AA25B0. 7. >7<>6=> ;8, GB> >= ?5@54C<05B 8 ?@8A>548=8BAO : =0<? 8.  =5 ?>@0 ;8 B515 @0AA:070BL =0< 2A5 B2>8 A5:@5BK, 4>@>30O? 9. K;> >G5=L 206=>, GB>1K A2545=8O 45@60;8AL 2 A5:@5B5. 10. 5;0B5;L=>, GB>1K <K >1AC48;8 2A5 A20451=K5 ?@83>B>2;5=8O 2 A5<59=>< :@C3C. 11. >7<>6=> ;8, GB> >=0 =0:>=5F A>3;0A8;0AL 8740BL A2>8 <5<C0@K? 12. !B@0==>, GB> @515=>: >?OBL 70A=C;. 54L >= ?@>A=C;AO 2A53> ;8HL ?>;G0A0 =0704. 13. !><=8B5;L=>, GB>1K >= 55 :@8B8:>20;. = 65 A C<0 ?> =59 AE>48B. 14. 5;0B5;L=>, GB>1K 2A5 ?5@5>4520;8 >1C2L, ?@5645 G5< 2>9B8 2 >B45;5=85. 15. #4828B5;L=>, GB> >=8 @5H8;8 ?>65=8BLAO. =8 7=0:><K 2A53> B@8 4=O. Ex 398. Comment on the mood of the verb in the subordinate object and predicative clauses 1. The job demands that the employee be in good physical condition. 2. We are anxious that you should take part in the debates. 3. Then the innkeeper suggested everybody should go to bed. 4. Every single person suggested he should join in the search. 5. When we insisted he should tell the truth he said he was in no mood for it. 6. The chairman proposed that every speaker have five minutes. 7. They arranged that all the preparations stay secret. 8. The children feared lest the dog should run away. 9. All the time she fears lest she should be rejected by the committee. 10. Everybody fears lest the weather should suddenly change for the worse. 11. The general suggestion was that there should be no hurry. 12. My friendly advice is that you take it easy. 13. The strikers' demands were that they be paid their money immediately. 14. My ambition has always been that I should become a writer. 15. Nigel's father insisted he become head of the company. 16. It was imperative that he detain her at all costs. Ex. 399. Complete the given phrases using the Subjunctive Mood in predicative and object clauses I.We advise.... 2. They insist.... 3. The speaker demanded .... 4. His proposal is ... .5. The president ordered ... . 6. The headmistress's advice was ... . 7. The doctor's demand was .... 8. The councillor strongly advised .... 9. The women requested .... 10. The kids feared lest.... 11. The manager was determined.... 12. The order was .... 13. The objective has always been.... 14. He thinks it is reasonable.... 15.1 suggest... . Ex. 400. Translate into English 1. >G5<C BK =0AB08205HL =0 B><, GB> BK 4>;65= A4020BL M:70<5= 4>A@>G=>? 2. 5 7025B=0O <5GB0 > B><, GB> :>340-=81C4L >=0 AB0=5B 8725AB=>9 0:B@8A>9. 3. >9 A>25B B0:>2, GB> 20< =C6=> 1@>A8BL :C@8BL. 4. 8<>9 >=8 >?0A0;8AL, :0: 1K 8E 40GC =5 >3@018;8. 5. >@O4>: B0:>2, GB> 2K ?@5645 2A53> 4>;6=K 70@538AB@8@>20BLAO. 6. 5B5@ 1K; =0AB>;L:> A8;L=K<, GB> ?CB=8:8 >?0A0;8AL, GB> AB0@0O E868=0 @0720;8BAO. 7. A5 >?0A0;8AL, GB> A ?>E8I5==K<8 45BL<8 1C4CB ?;>E> >1@0I0BLAO. 8. 5:><5=40F8O 2@0G0 70:;NG0;0AL 2 B><, GB>1K <=5 ?5@59B8 =0 485BC. 9. 0:;NG5==K5 >?0A0;8AL, GB> AB@06=8: 2K40AB 8E. 10. / ?@54;030N, GB>1K <K >@30=87>20;8 ?8:=8: 2 2>A:@5A5=L5. 11. AO AB@0=0 >?0A0;0AL, GB> ?@57845=B >?OBL <>65B A>;30BL. 12. K A>3;0A=K, GB>1K <K @01>B0;8 2<5AB5? 13. / ?@54;030N, GB>1K <K ?@>4>;68;8 ?5- @53>2>@K. 14. 0@B=5@K =0AB0820;8, GB>1K $@M=: >@30=87>20; MBC 2AB@5GC. Ex 401. Make the sentences complete by using the Subjunctive Mood in adverbial clauses of purpose, introduced either by so that or lest. 1. Stay away from those people ... . 2. Cut your expenses .... 3. The children hid in the barn .... 4. Let's make a stop .... 5. Control what your kids watch ... . 6. Change your shoes .... 7. Switch off the gas ... . 8. You'd better tell the truth ... . 9. Stay calm .... 10. Don't display your feelings .... 11. Eat more fruit and vegetables .... 12. Follow me attentively... . 13. Close the window ... . 14. Put a cactus near the computer .... Ex 402. Translate into English 1. ;L30 >?0A0;0AL, GB> >= <>65B ?@>G8B0BL 55 <KA;8. 2. =0 =5@2=8G0;0, GB> 2A5 <>65B ?>9B8 =5 B0:, :0: =C6=>. 3. ==0 =045;0 ?0@8: 8 B5<=K5 >G:8, GB>1K =8:B> =5 C7=0; 55. 4. = A<5@B5;L=> 1>O;AO, :0: 1K :B>-=81C4L =5 2>H5; 8 =5 C2845; 53>. 5. >48B5;L 3=0; <0H8=C =0 ?@545;L=>9 A:>@>AB8 87 1>O7=8, GB> <>65B >?>740BL : A0<>;5BC. 6. / ?@83;0A8; 2A5E A2>8E @>4AB25==8:>2 =0 N18;59, GB>1K =8:B> =5 >1845;AO. 7. 0?8H8B5 <>9 =><5@ B5;5D>=0, GB>1K =5 701KBL 53>. 8. @8E>48 2>2@5<O, GB>1K =5 ?@>?CAB8BL =0G0;> <0BG0. 9. !:>=F5=B@8@C9B5AL, GB>1K =5 =045;0BL >H81>: 2 B5AB5. 10. >72>=8 8< 5I5 @07, GB>1K >=8 =5 701K;8 > =0H5< 70:075. 11. >AB02L A83=0;870F8N, GB>1K <0H8=C =5 C3=0;8. 12. / >1JOA=N MB> 5I5 @07, GB>1K =5 1K;> =54>?>=8<0=89. 13. 35=B >?0A0;AO, GB> 53> <>3CB @07>1;0G8BL. 14. 5BO, ?@845@68 ?0=0<C @C:>9, GB>1K 55 =5 A4C;> 25B@><! 15. #15@8B5 ?>40;LH5 45=L38, GB>1K >=8 =5 ?@>?0;8. Ex. 403. Open the brackets using the right mood of the verb in brackets 1.  Fiona (get) the job if she (know) computers.  What a shame! 2. If they (be) more careful and (lock) her flat the burglars (break in). 3. If the head master (be) here he (tell) us what to do. 4. If I (have) enough money next year I (go) to Cyprus. 5. Do you think it (be) a good idea if we (phone) the police? 6. Well, honey, what you (say) if I (ask) you to marry me? 7. We (go) and see the Lovedays tomorrow if we (know) the address. 8. If we (have) time next Sunday we (go hiking). 9. If Mason not (be) so shortsighted he (notice) the change in the figures at once. 10. We not (be) in such a tough situation now if you (make) all the arrangements beforehand. 11. If you (be) a stamp collector at the beginning of the 1840s, you (have) no problem in getting an example of every different stamp in the world. After all, there were only two! For 1840 was the year the postage stamp was invented. 12. Her daughter-in-law was coming toward her; she looked as if she (walk) on air, so graceful was she. As if she not (have) two kids. 13. I'm sure Gideon not (make) the announcement if he not (be) deeply in love with Lenore. I just wish the situation (be) a little less complicated. 14. This (be) a headache years ago; now all the programs are computer-aided. 15. If you (have) 30 children and (be asked) which is your favourite you (have) to say that the youngest, because they are the ones who still need you the most. Ex. 404. Comment on the Subjunctive in the following sentences Translate them into Russian 1. Far be it from me to marry a woman for her money! 2. Be that as it may, but I know nothing about it. 3. Peace be with you! Success attend you! 4. Blessed be the day of his birth! 5. If it means that one day I will face execution for my presumption, then so be it. 6. Blessed be he who expects nothing, for he shall never be disappointed. 7. Manners be hanged! 8.1 suggest he do the job. 9. The miners demand they be paid at once. 10. Be yours a lucky choice! Ex 405. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the use of mood 1. It was best he remain out of it altogether. 2. It was vital that he get help immediately if he was to save Sir Maxim. 3. You should have insisted that he stay here tonight. 4. So it's much better that he spend the night at the Queens Hotel in Leeds, and travel home comfortably tomorrow. 5. She was fully aware that it was imperative that she know everything there was to know. 6. If she is going to make you happy, then so be it! 7. It was imperative that he be fresh tomorrow morning when he would make a final decision about his latest business proposition. 8. I'll suggest we all have lunch after our Friday morning meeting. 9. She was eager that they buy that house. 10. We're a bit short of staff quarters, if the truth be known. Ex 406. Translate into English 1.  G5@BC MBC 0=3;89A:CN >@D>3@0D8N! 2. 0 1C45B 1;03>A;>25==0 75<;O, :>B>@0O 405B <8@C B0:8E AK=>2! 3. B> 1K >= =8 1K;, <=5 4> MB>3> =5B 45;0. 4. C GB> 65, O A40NAL. 0 1C45B B0:! 5. = 25;5;, GB>1K 2A5 ?@8ACBAB2>20;8. 6. 5>1E>48<>, GB>1K C 20A 1K;8 2A5 40==K5. 7. CABL 20< A>?CBAB2C5B C40G0! 8. 5;0B5;L=>, GB>1K 2K ?>445@60;8 53>. 9. 0 1;03>A;>28B 20A >3! 10. A<5;NAL 70<5B8BL, AM@, GB> 2K =5 ?@02K. 11. C4L GB> 1C45B, 0 O 2A5-B0:8 @8A:=C. Ex. 407. Open the brackets using the right tense, voice and mood of verb. A Night Accident One night I (wake up) by a slight noise. I felt as if someone (stand) outside my bedroom door. I wished now I (lock) it before going to bed. As I hurried (lock) it, I called "Who's there?" There was a strange sound, then I heard someone (run) upstairs. My curiosity made me (open) the door, and I found the corridor full of smoke (come) from Mr. Rochester's room. It looked as someone (set fire) to the house. I completely forgot all my fears and ran into Mr. Rochester's room. He (sleep). Everything around him (surround) by flames and smoke. I threw some water (wake) him up and (put) out the flames. I explained what I (see). He thought for a few seconds. "Jane, I have been watching you all this time, and I can't help admiring you!" "I wish you (be) more reasonable, sir. If we not (hurry) it (be) too late. We have no time for small talk now. I not (be) so quiet if I (be) in your place. I (call) the servants, sir?" I asked. "No, not (do) it," he answered. "It is necessary nobody (know) it." I realized that he feared lest anyone (learn) about the accident. And then he added, "If Adele (wake) up in the middle of the night, she (frighten). I am glad you are the only person who (know) about it. And thank you! But for you I (burn) alive! And now, I think, it's time you (go) to bed and (have) a good sleep." (after Charlotte Bronte) Ex. 408. Translate into English and retell the jokes I. # ?8A0B5;O 1K; <0;LG8:-A;C30, :>B>@K9 1K; >G5=L 3;C?K<. 8A0B5;N >G5=L E>B5;>AL, GB>1K <0;LG8: 1K; 1>;55 A>>1@078B5;L=K<, => 2A5 53> CA8;8O 1K;8 15A?>;57=K. 4=064K, :>340 ?8A0B5;L A845; 8 ?8A0; =>2CN :=83C, 2 :><=0BC 2>@20;AO A;C30. = 2K3;O45; B0:, A;>2=> 1K; =0?C30= 4> A<5@B8, A;>2=> =0ABC?8; :>=5F A25B0. >60@! >60@! CE=O 3>@8B! 8A0B5;L :8=C;AO 2A;54 70 A;C3>9 =0 :CE=N. 3>=L ?>;KE0; @O4>< A ?5GLN, B0: :0: A;C30 >AB028; B0< ?>;5=>, :>B>@>5 B5?5@L 3>@5;>. > =0 ?5G8 AB>O; 1>;LH>9 :>B5; A 2>4>9. "K, 3;C?K9 <0;LG8H:0!  70:@8G0; ?8A0B5;L.  0725 BK =5 <>3 2K;8BL 2>4C =0 3>@OI55 45@52>? 0;LG8: A8;L=> C4828;AO, A;>2=> CA;KH0; GB>-B> >G5=L AB@0==>5 8 70B5< >1JOA=8; E>7O8=C, GB> MB> 1K;> 1K 01A>;NB=> 15A?>;57=>, B0: :0: MB> 1K;0 3>@OG0O 2>40. II. <5@8:0=5F ?@85E0; 2 /?>=8N. = A>2A5< =5 C<5; 3>2>@8BL ?>-O?>=A:8. = >?0A0;AO, GB> C =53> <>3CB 1KBL =54>@07C<5=8O 87-70 =57=0=8O O7K:0, 8 =0=O; A;C3C-O?>=F0. /?>=5F 1K; >G5=L 256;82. = >1A;C6820; 0<5@8:0=F0 B0:, A;>2=> B>B 1K; 8<?5@0B>@><. 4=064K 0<5@8:0=5F ?>?@>A8; A;C3C @071C48BL 53> ?>@0=LH5 =0 A;54CNI55 CB@>. = >1JOA=8;, GB> 1K;> =5>1E>48<>, GB>1K >= 2AB@5B8; A0<>;5B @0=> CB@><.  H5ABL G0A>2 CB@0 A;C30 B8E>=L:> 2>H5; 2 :><=0BC 0<5@8:0=F0, C2845;, GB> B>B :@5?:> A?8B, 27O; ;8AB 1C<038, GB>-B> =0?8A0; =0 =5< 8 B0: 65 B8E> C40;8;AO. <5@8:0=5F ?@>A=C;AO 2 >48==04F0BL G0A>2 CB@0, 273;O=C; =0 G0AK, C2845; @O4>< A A>1>9 70?8A:C 8 ?@>G8B0; A;54CNI55: >@>3>9 AM@, H5ABL G0A>2. >@0 2AB020BL. Test Your Knowledge Ex 409. Answer the questions. 1. What would you do if you had a chance to choose your profession a second time? 2. Which aspect of the language would you prefer to teach: Phonetics, Lexics or Grammar? Explain your choice. 3. A friend of yours would like to learn English as quickly as possible. What would you advise him to do? 4. Just imagine that you were born a member of the opposite sex. What would have happened to you? How would your life have been different so far? 5. How would you act if you found yourself on an uninhabited island? Would you become a new Robinson Crusoe? 6. What would you think of if you wanted to give your mother something special on her birthday? 7. How would things change if there were no advertising? 8. If you met a space invader, what questions would you ask him? 9. How would you act if you'd been born with an ability to see the future? 10. What would you do if you were the teacher of this class? 11. What do you wish were different about the world we live in? Ex 410. Complete the sentences. 1. The popular music industry would disappear .... 2. We would learn a lot about this planet... . 3. The people would be happy ... . 4. The city wouldn't be so polluted ... . 5. There would be fewer accidents .... 6. Children would have better health ... . 7. The roads would be less crowded ... . 8. People wouldn't eat a lot of "fast food" .... 9. People would read more .... 10. Pam would have got the job .... 11. Money wouldn't be so important... . 12. Life would have changed radically ... . Ex. 411. Translate into English 1. A;8 1K BK ;N18; <5=O, B> 2K?>;=O; 1K 2A5 <>8 65;0=8O. 2. A;8 1K <K 7=0;8 GB> 45;0BL, B> 459AB2>20;8 1K @5H8B5;L=>. 3. / 7=0N, GB> BK A45;05HL MB>, :0: B>;L:> A<>65HL. 4. K C25@5=K, GB> 2K A45;0;8 1K MB>, :0: B>;L:> A<>3;8 1K. 5. C4L >= 745AL A59G0A, >= 1K =0A 70I8B8;. 6. 0 B2>5< <5AB5 O 1K; 1K 1>;55 >AB>@>65= ?> ?>2>4C B>3>, GB> 3>2>@N. 7. A;8 1K BK =5 15745;L=8G0; 2AN A2>N 687=L, B> 1K; 1K 1>30B A59G0A. 8. A;8 1K 2 2>74CE5 =5 1K;> :8A;>@>40, <K =5 <>3;8 1K 68BL. 9. C4L O :>@>;5<, O 1K ?@028; A?@0254;82>. 10. A;8 1K >=0 >?OBL =5 ?>B5@O;0 2G5@0 >G:8, B> A<>3;0 1K ?@>25@8BL =0H8 @01>BK. 11. !BC45=BK 701K20;8 1K >G5=L <=>3>5, 5A;8 1K 8< =5 ?@8E>48;>AL 2@5<O > 3 2@5<5=8 A4020BL M:70<5=K. 12. C4L O 1>30B, O 1K; 1K >G5=L I54@ 8 45;0; 1K <=>3> 4>1@0. 13. A;8 1K 2K ?@83;0A8;8 E>@>H53> 2@0G0, :>340 701>;5;8, B> 2K =8:>340 =5 ?>?0;8 1K 2 1>;L=8FC. 14.  ?>G5<C BK =5 845HL =0 25G5@? 0 B2>5< <5AB5 O ?>H5; 1K. C45B 74>@>2>! 15. A5 1K;> 1K E>@>H>, 5A;8 1K =5 =5>6840==K9 ?@8574 @5287>@0. Ex. 412. Open the brackets using the right tense, voice and mood of the verb Retell the story Open the Box! In Stevenage one evening, a woman whose phone was out of order, strolled a few blocks from her home (use) a public phone as she long (want) to chat with her twin sister. Just as she (pick up) the receiver, an excited young 236 man (tap) on the window. His face was flushed as if he (run) for a long time and (need) the phone urgently. But the woman ignored him completely, she (feel) that as she (get) there first, now she (can) talk to her heart's content. She lined up all her 50p, 20p and .@ pieces on top of the box and turned her back in a smirk. Ignoring her frosty attitude, the bloke opened the door and (beg) for the use of the phone as if it really (be) a question of death and life. The huffy woman (carry) on discussing the weather with her sibling. Finally, after she (talk) for ten minutes, the furious bloke (can) (stand) it no more! "Isn't it high time you (stop) chattering?" he shouted. He opened the door, pulled the woman out, tossed her change on to the pavement, and picked up the receiver, swearing furiously as if he (go) mad. The woman (give) the rude man a piece of her mind, then (go) back home. As she turned the corner of her road, the world (fall) before her eyes: her house (burn) to the ground! And the young man (try) to call the emergency fire brigade all that time. How she wished now she not (be) so unfriendly and (let) the young man (use) the telephone! Ex 413. Translate into English 1. =3;8G0=5 3>2>@OB, GB> ?>4:>2C =C6=> 25H0BL :>=F0<8 225@E, GB>1K C40G0 =5 2K20;8;0AL. 2. 0AB53=8B5 ?0;LB>, GB>1K =5 ?@>ABC48BLAO. 0< A;54C5B 1>;LH5 701>B8BLAO > A2>5< 74>@>2L5. 3. =8 2K=C645=K 1K;8 3>2>@8BL H5?>B><, GB>1K =8:B> 8E =5 CA;KH0;. 4. =0 A45;0;0 284, 1C4B> 8I5B GB>-B> 2 :0@<0=0E, GB>1K =8:B> =5 70<5B8; 55 2>;=5=8O. 5. 0209B5 AO45< 8 ?>3>2>@8<, GB>1K =5 1K;> =54>@07C<5=89. 6. 0209 2>7L<5< B0:A8, GB>1K =5 ?@>?CAB8BL ?>574. 7. 0BL 70:@K;0 10;:>=, GB>1K HC< =5 @071C48; @515=:0. 8. = =0428=C; H;O?C =0 3;070, GB>1K 53> =5 C7=0;8. 9.  24@C3 5<C AB0;> 4CH=>, 8 >= CE20B8;AO 70 A?8=:C ABC;0, GB>1K =5 C?0ABL. 10. 'B>-B> <5=O :;>=8B 2 A>=. 0209 2K?L5< ?> G0H5G:5 :>D5, GB>1K =5 70A=CBL. 11. 07254G8:0< ?@8H;>AL 42830BLAO >G5=L >AB>@>6=>, GB>1K 2@03 =5 CA;KH0; 8E. 12. 5B8 1K;8 272>;=>20=K, >=8 >?0A0;8AL, :0: 1K :B>-=81C4L 87 AB0@H8E =5 2>H5; 4> B>3>, :0: >=8 C?0:CNB @>645AB25=A:85 ?>40@:8. 13. #15@8B5 :=838 2 H:0D, GB>1K >=8 =5 70?K;8;8AL. 14. =5 =C6=> ?@>ACH8BL 25I8, GB>1K 8E =5 8A?>@B8;0 <>;L. 15. 0:@>9 BN18: :;5O, GB>1K >= =5 70A>E. 16. 0:@>9 >:=>, ?@5645 G5< 2:;NG8BL A25B, GB>1K =5 =0;5B5;8 :><0@K. 17. !<>9 :>A<5B8:C ?5@54 A=><, GB>1K =5 1K;> 0;;5@388. Ex. 414. Read the following jokes and retell them in indirect speech 1. Tom: What would you do if you were in my shoes? Tim: I should polish them. 2. Teacher: What's wrong in the sentence "Ann didn't go to the library yesterday as she had had a birthday"? Student: If the sentence which had "had had" had had "had", it would have been correct. 3. A nervous passenger approached the captain timidly. "What would happen," she asked, "if we struck a large iceberg?" "The iceberg would pass on as if nothing had happened," replied the captain. The old lady was very much relieved. 4. Wife: Darling, where would you go for a holiday if you could afford it? Husband: I would go somewhere I've never been to. Wife: Well, how about the kitchen? 5. Roger: Why do you think your marriage has lasted so well? Jeff: My wife and I always have dinner out on Saturdays. Roger: How very romantic! I wish Laura and I had done so too, maybe we wouldn't have parted. Where do you go? Jeff: Well, I go for a Chinese. I haven't the foggiest idea where she goes. Roger: Well, well, sometimes two is a crowd, too. Ex. 415. Translate into English 1. 0;L, GB> 2K B0: @0=> C5E0;8. K 1K GC45A=> ?@>25;8 2@5<O =0 25G5@5. 2. A;8 1K C <5=O 1K;8 B2>8 A?>A>1=>AB8! / 1K A<>3 AB>;L <=>3>3> 4>AB8GL 2 687=8! 3.  A;8 2A5 ?>945B E>@>H>, B> <K AB0=5< :><?0=L>=0<8.  %>B5;>AL 1K, GB>1K MB> 1K;> B0:! 4. A;8 1K 0=3;8G0=8= C:@0; =5A:>;L:> ?5=A>2 425AB8 ;5B =0704, B> 53> 1K ?>25A8;8. 5.  0< ?>2575B, 5A;8 2K =0945B5 ?>4:>2C.  0, 5A;8 1K O =0H;0 ?>4:>2C, B> ?>25A8;0 1K 55 =0 AG0ABL5. 6. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> <8=CB <K ?@875<;8<AO 2 0M@>?>@BC (5@5<5BL52>. %>@>H> 1K :B>-=81C4L =0A 2AB@5B8; 8 ?@>2>48; 4> 3>AB8=8FK !02>9! 7.  A;8 1K O =5 2K:@0A8;0 2>;>AK 2 B0:>9 O@:89 F25B, B> 4@C7LO =5 ?>4HCG820;8 1K =04> <=>9.   <=5 =@028BAO. 0;L, GB> O =5 ?>:@0A8;0 A2>8 2<5AB5 A B>1>9! 8.  / @0AA5@6CAL, 5A;8 2K >B:065B5AL ?>5E0BL A =0<8.  0;L, GB> O =5 <>3C A45;0BL MB>3>, MB> 1K;> 1K =5?;>E>. 9.  K 1K =5 ?>?0;8 2 AB>;L A;>6=CN A8BC0F8N, 5A;8 1K ?@>25@8;8 2A5 8E 459AB28O.  0?@0A=> <K B0: A;5?> 4>25@O;8 8< 2A5 MB8 3>4K! 10.  A;8 C <5=O 1C45B <=>3> 45=53, O 1C4C ?CB5H5AB2>20BL 8 ?><>30BL ;N4O<.  "515 402=> ?>@0 ?5@5AB0BL <5GB0BL 8 =0G0BL @01>B0BL! 11. A;8 1K C <5=O 1K;> <=>3> 45=53, B> O ?><>3 1K 2A5< A2>8< 4@C7LO<. 12. A;8 1K C <5=O 1K;> <=>3> 45=53 2G5@0, B> <K ?>H;8 1K A B>1>9 2 @5AB>@0=, 0 =5 2 0:4>=0;4A. 13.  K 1K ;CGH5 A?0;8 ?@>H;>9 =>GLN, 5A;8 1K AK= <>8E A>A5459 >?OBL =5 CAB@>8; 25G5@8=:C.   =5 ?>@0 ;8 ?>3>2>@8BL A =8< >1 MB><? 14. / =5 4C<0N, GB> >= 345-B> 2 AB@0=5, 8=0G5 :B>-=81C4L C65 C2845; 1K 53>, 8 A;CE > =5< @0A?@>AB@0=8;AO 1K A@548 =0A. 15. !;CG8AL, GB> BK ?5@54C<05HL, 409 =0< 7=0BL. 5>1E>48<>, GB>1K <K =0H;8 B515 70<5=C. Ex. 416. Translate into English. 0;5=L:89 4>< 8 25@=K5 4@C7LO 4=064K <C6G8=0 ?>AB@>8; 4><. = 7=0;, GB> 4>;3 :064>3> G5;>25:0  ?>AB@>8BL 4><, ?>A048BL 45@52> 8 2K@0AB8BL @515=:0. >A:>;L:C C =53> =5 1K;> A5<L8, >= @5H8;, GB> ?>@0 5<C 8<5BL E>BO 1K :@KHC =04 3>;>2>9. >< 1K; <0;5=L:89, C4>1=K9 8 <8;K9. %>7O8= ?>4C<0;, GB> 5A;8 >= ?@83;0A8B 2A5E A2>8E 4@C759, B> >=8 A<>3CB 2<5AB5 >B<5B8BL =>2>A5;L5. @C7LO ?@85E0;8, >A<>B@5;8 4><, 8 :064K9 A:070; GB>-B> A2>5. 48= 87 =8E >B<5B8;, GB> 4>< <>3 1K 1KBL ?>1>;LH5, 4@C3>9 70O28;, GB> >= A>60;55B, GB> ?>B>;:8 B0:85 =87:85. "@5BL5<C 1K;> 60;L, GB> :@5A;0 B0:85 =5C4>1=K5. >=5G=>, E>7O8=C 4><0 2A5 MB> =5 ?>=@028;>AL, => >= 8 2840 =5 ?>:070;. = 2K3;O45; B0:, A;>2=> =8A:>;L:> =5 2>7@060; ?@>B82 MB>9 3>@L:>9 ?@024K, A;>2=> >= 8 A0< 7=0; 2A5 MB> A A0<>3> =0G0;0. = 7=0;, GB> =5>1E>48<>, GB>1K 2A5 ?@8;8G8O 1K;8 A>1;N45=K. = >?0A0;AO, GB> 53> 4@C7LO, :>B>@KE >= 7=0; <=>3> ;5B, >184OBAO. 4=0:> :>340 3>AB8 ?>:840;8 53> <0;5=L:89, => 3>AB5?@88<=K9 4><, >= A:070;: 0, <>9 4>< 459AB28B5;L=> >G5=L <0;5=L:89, => :0: 1K O E>B5; 70?>;=8BL MB>B 4>< E>@>H8<8 8 25@=K<8 4@C7LO<8! MODAL VERBS Must Ex. 417. Comment on the meanings of the modal verb must. 1. Who says A must say B. 2. Knowledge must be gained by ourselves. 3. What everybody says must be true. 4. What can't be cured must be endured. 5.1 felt sure it must be a ghost, a visitor from another world. 6,1 think we must rely only on ourselves. 7. We must not look for a golden life in an iron age. 8. Caesar's wife must be above suspicion. And so should Caesar. 9. Well, I must have looked an ass. 10. My matches must have fallen out. I believe I must have dropped them somewhere just by the bridge. 11. At work today, my boss told me that I must stop sleeping. 12. He realized he must do it. 13. Henry must be still sleeping. 14. Must I send the fax and write the contract today? You needn't send the fax, but you certainly must write the contract. 15. Phil must have been looking for the right girl all his life. 16. There must be a legal loophole, a way out of this ridiculous marriage. 17. After all, if you are a teacher, you must, by nature, be an original and creative person. Ex. 418. Open the brackets using the right form of the infinitive after verb must. 1. He looks intelligent. He must (be) a good chess player. 2. They must still (play chess), they really must (make) a break. 3. Ted looks upset. He must (lose) the game again. 4. The friends must (play) chess non-stop the whole day. 5. "Something must (keep) the children," said Aunt Molly. "They must still (look) for the dog." 6. She went red in the face. She must (offend). 7. He must (know) about her state of mind long before, but finally he came to say that they must (do) something about it. 8.1 realized that it must (be) a wrong word to use in a lady's presence, and that now I must (apologize). 9. He must never (be) poor. How should he know what poverty is? 10. The Browns must (fail) to get in touch with us. 11. The children must never (suffer), however difficult the situation may be. 12. Janice's number is still engaged. She must (be) on the phone all morning. 13. The Dean must (misunderstand) me. I didn't really mean that. 14. "Oh, you mustn't (go) yet." he protested. "You must (come) and see my new kitchen." "Oh, it must (cost) you a fortune with all those new prices!" 15. She must really (make) your life unbearable all these years. Ex 419. Make sentences according to the model. Model: All the shops are closed. It must be Sunday. Nell is crying. She must be having some problems. The girl turned pale. She must have been frightened. 1. He lives in a cell. 2. They're shouting at each other. 3. I don't think he is telling the truth. 4. I can't find my purse anywhere. 5. The dress is gorgeous. 6. The leaves on the trees are golden. 7. The two sisters look alike. 8. The little girl is blowing out the candles on the cake. 9.1 phoned you last night but I got no answer. 10. He was shining like a new penny. 11. Everybody is congratulating the producer. 12. The patient is in the maternity ward of the hospital. 13. The creature is green and has an antenna on its head. 14. The audience is shouting for more. 15. The hotel had no vacancies. Ex. 420. Make the following sentences opposite in meaning using the words given below. 1. He must be very competent in economics. 2. Brian must have been very experienced in mountaineering. 3. They must have realized the danger. 4. The lawyer must have found the clue to the crime. 5. The committee must have been informed of the coming changes. 6. Everybody must have done the wrong thing. 7. This young man must have had any chance to succeed. 8. The fax must have reached him at last. 9. The doctor must have read my mind. 10. The detective must have understood the policeman's words. 11. The poor thing must have been aware of it all the time. 12. The parents must have been quite conscious of the child's strange ways. 13. The landlady must have been very careful in choosing the tenants. 14. She must have loved him all her life. 15. He must have done something about it, I can see some changes in the design. to fail, to misinform, to be incompetent, no, to misunderstand, to be inexperienced, to be unaware, to be unconscious, to be careless, to dislike Ex. 421. Translate into English. 1. K 4>;6=K A;54>20BL 8=AB@C:F88 8 =8 2 :>5< A;CG05 =5 4>;6=K =068<0BL =0 MBC :=>?:C. 2. 'B>1K ?@5?>4020BL 3@0<<0B8:C, 2K 4>;6=K ?>=OBL, GB> O7K:  MB> A8AB5<0. 3. 'B>1K ?@83>B>28BL E>@>H89 B>@B, =C6=> A=0G0;0 E>@>H5=L:> 2718BL O9F0. 4. =, 4>;6=> 1KBL, >G5=L A8;5=. >A<>B@8B5 =0 53> 18F5?AK. =, ?> 2A59 2848<>AB8, B@5=8@C5BAO C65 <=>3> ;5B. 5. "K =5 4>;6=0 ?@8E>48BL 4><>9 B0: ?>74=>. "K, 4>;6=> 1KBL, =5 <>65HL ?>=OBL, GB> MB> >?0A=>. 6. =, 4>;6=> 1KBL, =5 C7=0; 55. 87=L, 25@>OB=>, 1K;0 AC@>20 : =59. 7. 8:B>@, 4>;6=> 1KBL, =5?@028;L=> ?@>87=5A MB> B@C4=>5 O?>=A:>5 8<O. 8. C870, 4>;6=> 1KBL, >?OBL 2;N18;0AL. >AB0B>G=> ?@>AB> ?>A<>B@5BL =0 =55. 9. 0=5=K9, 4>;6=> 1KBL, 1K; 157 A>7=0=8O =5A:>;L:> 4=59, ?@5645 G5< >E>B=8:8 =0H;8 53>. 10. ><0, =025@=>5, >?OBL =8:>3> =5B. 848<>, 2A5 CH;8 =0 :>=F5@B. 11. 728=8B5, => 2K, 4>;6=> 1KBL, ;81> =5?@028;L=> CA;KH0;8, 8;8 65 =5?@028;L=> 8AB>;:>20;8 <>8 A;>20. 12.  0@8=0, ?> 2A59 2848<>AB8, 645B =0A C :;C10.  0, 8 645B, 4>;6=> 1KBL, A H5AB8 G0A>2. 13.  C6=> ;8 A2O70BLAO A 035=BAB2>< A53>4=O 65?  5B, =5 =C6=>. > =C6=> A45;0BL MB> 702B@0. 14. 0< =C6=> CE>48BL. K, 4>;6=> 1KBL, CAB0;8. 15. =, 4>;6=> 1KBL, 2 ?>;=>< =52545=88, GB> A8BC0F8O :0@48=0;L=> ?5@5<5=8;0AL. 16. -B>, 4>;6=> 1KBL, 1K;0 ;N1>2L. Ex 422. Analyse the meanings of the modal verb have (to). 1. Everybody had a really enjoyable experience last night. 2. James had a farm on which he raised sheep. 3. Does he really have eight children? 4. Have a seat, please. I have to make a call before we leave. 5. You've just broken the law and you shall have to answer for it. 6. Norris had to learn a couple of hard lessons on his road to the top. 7. We'll have to label all the goods which we have to sell. 8. When will you actually have to report? I have no idea. 9.1 think I'll have a snack, then I'll have look at the paper, maybe I'll have a nap before I return to my studies. 10. Dad has something to tell you, Nick, and he has to say it right now. 11.1 have been living here for a couple of weeks and I have already fallen in love with the place. 12. Do I have to have another checkup, doctor? 13. Teachers have to be performers. Ex. 423. Translate the sentences into Russian, paying attention to the meaning of the verb have (to) 1. He had to raise his voice to be heard through the rising gale. 2. You don't have to cheer up if you don't want to! 3. Jane has to get up early to catch the coach. 4. You'll have to say it to his face. 5.1 had to run for my life! But for my feet I would have long been dead! 6. Just think of the arrangements that have to be made. And the people we have to fetch. 7. You'll have to be very cautious, it wouldn't do for you to get caught. 8. He had to submit to his fate. He had no choice. 9. From now on, my son, you'll have to earn your own living. 10. Mary had to invent a story to escape from the house. 11.1 understand, darling. Work has to come first. 12. It was something she had to put up with. 13. It was the cross he had to bear in life. Ex. 424. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative 1. Mr. Bucket has to support his elderly parents. 2. We'll have to admit that she is right. 3. They had to turn to a private detective. 4. Michael has to read a lot for tomorrow's exam. 5. These contracts have to be filed. 6. Whether they like it or not they will have to do it. 7. Everybody has to be very careful with this device. 8. She had to study hard last semester. 9.1 shall have to go out and greet the guests. 10. Again I have to have tinned food for dinner! Ex. 425. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb have (to) 1. The car broke down so I ... go by bus. 2. We arrived too early so we ... wait. 3. Nobody likes it when he ... get up early in the morning. 4. The building ... be demolished. It's not safe. 5. My passport was out of date so I... renew it. 6. If weather conditions get any worse, the climbers .. give up. 7. The manager told me I... reduce my lunch breaks. 8. If you broke it, you ... pay for it. 9. The old man told me he ... work very hard when he was my age. 10. If business hadn't improved, they ... close down. 11.1... learn Spanish at the moment because I need it for my job. 12. If I hadn't passed the exam, I... take it again. 13. It... be ready by the end of the week or you won't get paid. 14.1 regret to ... inform you of the sad news. 15. ... the Queen ... tell a black lie? Ex, 426. Translate into English 1. !53>4=O ;5:A0=4@C =5>1E>48<> ?>5E0BL 2 F5=B@ 3>@>40, ?>B><C GB> C =53> B0< 45;>20O 2AB@5G0. 2. 0:>=5F-B> >=0 :C?8;0 A515 <0H8=C, 8 B5?5@L 59 =5 ?@8E>48BAO ?>;L7>20BLAO 02B>1CA><. 3. A;8 2K E>B8B5 ?>;CG8BL E>@>H55 >1@07>20=85, B> =C6=> <=>3> 70=8<0BLAO. 4. / =5 <>3C ?>9B8 A 20<8 =0 25G5@, <=5 ?@845BAO ?>A845BL A <;04H59 A5AB@5=:>9. 5. A;8 >= E>G5B 1KBL 74>@>2K<, 5<C ?@845BAO A;54>20BL A>25B0< 2@0G0. 6. G5@0 <K E>B5;8 ?>5E0BL =0 ?8:=8:, => =5 A<>3;8, ?>B><C GB> 2<5AB> MB>3> =0< ?@8H;>AL ?@8=8<0BL =5>6840==KE 3>AB59. 7. 8AB5@ 8G >G5=L 1>30B. <C =5 ?@8E>48BAO 70@010BK20BL =0 687=L. 8. >;LH8=AB2> >2>I59 <>6=> 5ABL AK@K<8, 8E =5 ?@8E>48BAO 3>B>28BL. 9. > AC11>B0< <>8< 45BO< =5 ?@8E>48BAO :0: >1KG=> ;>68BLAO A?0BL 2 2>A5<L G0A>2, >=8 <>3CB =5 A?0BL 4> 452OB8 G0A>2. 10. !53>4=O <=5 =5 =C6=> 3>B>28BL 4><0H=55 7040=85, O 2A5 A45;0;0 2G5@0. 11.  0< =8:>340 =5 ?@8E>48BAO 5748BL 2 :><0=48@>2:8, =5 B0: ;8?  K205B 8=>340. 12. A8E>;>3C ?@8E>48BAO ?><>30BL ;N4O< ?@5>4>;520BL B@C4=>AB8, =5 B0: ;8? 13. M@8 ?@8H;>AL 2=8<0B5;L=> A;CH0BL, GB>1K ?>=OBL 53>. 14. 9 ?@8H;>AL ?>:>@8BLAO 53> 2>;5. 15. "2>5<C 1>AAC =8:>340 =5 ?@8E>48BAO 1@0BL :@548B 2 10=:5, =5 B0: ;8? 16. 9 ?@8E>48BAO 4C<0BL > A515, 70I8I0BL A51O. To Be (to) Ex. 427. Comment on the form and meaning of the modal verb to be (to) 1. We are to decide it right now. 2. It was the first and the last ceremony I was to see. 3. Who is to do the talking today? 4. What am I to tell my parents? 5. The Government was to have reduced inflation. 6. When he found what his fate was to be, he got very enraged, he wouldn't submit to it. 7.1 thought she was my love forever but it was never to be. 8. She couldn't make up her mind whether the letter was to be answered or not. 9. There was a fair in our little town and we put on red silk robes and painted our faces red. I was to tell people's fortunes. 10. "You are not to blame. How were you to know that they could have drugged me?" 11. Who was to have done the shopping? 12. A fortuneteller told me that I should be rich one day. I should soon be married, and after that I was to have a severe illness, from which I was to recover. My next adventure would be to cross the water, after which I was to return to my country. 13. Whatever will be will be! You are to discover very soon that it can't be helped. 14. How was I to know all this was going to happen this summer? I just thought it was going to be a great lazy summer. How was I to know Carl Ray would come to town and turn everything into an odyssey? 15. Some months later she was to remember his words and wonder. 16. This was the way it was meant to be. 17. The new tax was to have been introduced last year, but the Duma boycotted it. Ex. 428. Translate into English 1. 'B> 65 <=5 45;0BL, AM@? >;65= ;8 O C5E0BL? 2. K CA;>28;8AL 2AB@5B8BLAO 702B@0. 3. 5B5:B82 >1O70= ?@>25AB8 @0AA;54>20=85. 4. 5B5:B82 4>;65= 1K; ?@>25AB8 @0AA;54>20=85, => >1AB>OB5;LAB20 87<5=8;8AL. 5. @5<L5@-<8=8AB@ 4>;65= 2K;5B5BL 2 @0: G5@57 =545;N-6. 5=5@0; 4>;65= 1K; 2K;5B5BL =0 0;:0=K, => A8BC0F8O 87<5=8;0AL, 8 ?8;>BC ?@8H;>AL ?>25@=CBL A0<>;5B >1@0B=>. 7. 8=0 4>;6=0 1K;0 A45;0BL <0AAC 25I59, => 701K;0 > =8E. 8. / 7=0;0, GB> MB><C AC645=> 1K;> A;CG8BLAO. 9. = 4>;65= 1K; 2KABC?8BL =0 :>=D5@5=F88, => =5>6840==> 701>;5;. 10. 0:>9 15A?>@O4>:! B> 4>;65= 1K; 45;0BL C1>@:C A53>4=O? 11. 8 2 :>5< A;CG05 2K =8:><C =5 4>;6=K 3>2>@8BL >1 MB><! 12. =8 A>18@0;8AL ?>65=8BLAO, => MB><C =5 AC645=> 1K;> A;CG8BLAO. 13.  >B:C40 <=5 1K;> 7=0BL, GB> MB> AC4L10?  GB> 5<C AC645=> 1K;> AB0BL <>8< <C65<? 14. "K =5 AJ5HL =8 >4=>9 :>=D5B:8 ?5@54 >154><, 0 B> O >G5=L, >G5=L @0AA5@6CAL =0 B51O! 15. =8 =0?@028;8AL 2 70;, 345 4>;65= 1K; A>AB>OBLAO 0C:F8>=. Ex. 429. Comment on the form and meaning of the verb need 1. You need to take more care of your kids. 2. Do you really need my help? You needn't worry, I'm fine. 3. You needn't finish the work if you are to leave, it can wait. 4.1 need nobody to keep me occupied. 5. My cousin needed a new suit for his graduation ceremony so I took him to Marks and Spencer's. 6.1 didn't need a coffee break, I needed a break from coffee. 7. You just need someone to love. 8. We needn't have taken so much food for the picnic. 9. We didn't need to go shopping. The fridge was full. 10. His followers are ready to help him when he needs them. 11. Need I tell you that you needn't have taken so much trouble? 12. He doesn't really need to go. 13. You needn't have done the shopping. We are dining out tonight. 14. What the boy needs is a good whipping. 15. Where have you been?! need you badly. 16.1 think everybody needs a hero. Young or old, you need someone you can look up to. Ex 430. Make sentences according to the model. Model. He wore a hat. It wasn't necessary. He needn't have worn a hat. He didn't wear a hat. It wasn't necessary. He didn't need to wear a hat. 1. She invited him. It wasn't necessary. 2. They didn't arrive early. It wasn't necessary. 3. They arrived early. It wasn't necessary. 4. She didn't invite them. It wasn't necessary. 5. He took the exam. It wasn't necessary. 6. She went to the bank. It wasn't necessary. 7. The teacher didn't help him. It wasn't necessary. 8. The teacher helped him. It wasn't necessary. 9. He didn't take the exam. It wasn't necessary. 10. She didn't go to the bank. It wasn't necessary. 11. She went to the doctor. It wasn't necessary. 12. He didn't go to a language school. It wasn't necessary. 13. He went to a language school. It wasn't necessary. 14. She didn't go to the doctor. It wasn't necessary. Ex. 431. Complete the sentences with mustn't, needn't, don't (doesn't) have (to). I. You ...pay. It's free. 2. You ... forget to call me. 3. You ... shout. I'm not deaf. 4. You ... hurry. There's plenty of time. 5. You ... drop it. It's very fragile. 6. You ... accept a lift from a stranger. 7. Service is included. You ... leave a tip. 8. You ... stroke the dog because it bites. 9. Tomorrow's Sunday so she ... get up early. 10. The old man retired so he ... work anymore. 11. You ... read in the dark. You'll strain your eyes. 12. You ... worry. All is going to be fine. 13. When you're driving you ... take your eyes off the road. 14. You ... cheat or you'll be disqualified. Ex. 432. Use must (not) or need (not) to complete the sentences. 1. You ... go to school this morning unless you wish to do so. 2. You ... go to school because you may give your cold to your classmates. 3. Your father is very busy so you ... disturb him. 4. This is so easy that you ... ask your father to help you: you can manage it by yourself. 5. Debra ... have asked the teacher but she did. 6. Nicholas ... have failed to understand or he wouldn't have asked the teacher to explain the point again. 7. You ... have told him to go in such a rude way 8. There... be a misunderstanding, she looks hurt. 9. You ... go or I shall be lost without you. 10.1 am sure you ... go just yet, even though you have said you .... 11. You ... pay tax on most things that you buy abroad. 12. If you are Russian, you ... have a visa to get to Britain, but you ... any if you go to Turkey. Ex 433. Translate into English. 1. "515 2 A0<>< 45;5 =C65= MB>B A;>20@L? > 254L >= B0:>9 4>@>3>9! "K <>65HL ?>;L7>20BLAO <>8<. 2. A;8 B515 =5 E>G5BAO, B> =570G5< 5E0BL A =0<8. 3. 8 : G5<C B>@>?8BLAO. # =0A 5I5 <0AA0 2@5<5=8. 4. 5>1O70B5;L=> A4020BL ?;0I 2 G8AB:C. = G8ABK9. 5. 0?@0A=> O 1@0;0 A53>4=O 7>=B8:. >64O B0: 8 =5 1K;>. 6. 0- G5< BK 2K<K;0 >:=0? =8 65 G8ABK5. 5 =C6=> 1K;> 45;0BL MB>3>. 7. %>;>48;L=8: ?>;>=. "515 =570G5< 84B8 70 ?@>4C:B0<8. 8. 5 =C6=> 1K;> ?>:C?0BL H>:>;04! 5 <=>3> ;8 BK 53> 5HL? 9. =5 2G5@0 =5 ?@8H;>AL @0=> 2AB020BL, 8 ?>MB><C O >B>A?0;AO. 10. K A>25@H5==> =0?@0A=> B0: @0=> ?>4=O;8AL A53>4=O! 54L A53>4=O 2>A:@5A5=L5, 8;8 2K 701K;8? 11. K =C6405B5AL 2 >B4KE5, =5 =C6=> >B@8F0BL, GB> 2K ?5@5@01>B0;8. 12. 8 : G5<C 1K;> 1@0BL B0:A8. B AB0=F88 4> <>53> 4><0 @C:>9 ?>40BL. 13.  =5 =C6=K 25@=K5 4@C7LO.   :><C 65 >=8 =5 =C6=K? 14. / =57028A8<, 8 <=5 =8 : G5<C ?@>A8BL 45=53 C @>48B5;59. 15. ">;L:> =5 @0AA:07K209 <=5, GB> BK >?OBL 701K; > =0H59 2AB@5G5. 5 =C6=> <=5 1K;> 2>;=>20BLAO 8 B>@>?8BLAO. 16.  < A@>G=> =C6=0 B2>O ?><>IL!   A0<>< 45;5? 17. =5 =C65= 1K; >B4KE >B 2A59 MB>9 AC<0AH54H59 687=8, 8 O C5E0;0 2 !>G8. 18. "515 =C6=> A=OBL @>7>2K5 >G:8 8 @50;L=> 273;O=CBL =0 687=L. Ex 434. Read, translate and comment on the form and meaning of modal verb can. 1. On a clear day, you can see the shores of Haiti and Cuba from the summit of Blue Mountain Peak. 2.1 know you can do it because you have the courage. 3. Bungalows are for old people who can't manage the stairs. 4. She gave Mary the names of several friends, whom she could trust. 5. We wish we could rely on him! 6. If I could, I would get the moon for you! 7.1 can't wait to get back into the swing of things. 8. Warm thoughts can fill the day with sunshine. 9.1 can't stop talking! I just can't help it! 10. Can I keep your CD till Sunday? You could if it were mine. 11. Can this young girl really be my boss? 12. Oh, no! You can't have failed the exam again! 13. Can the child have been watching the telly all day long? 14. Ben can't be still sleeping! It's time he went to college. 15. Who could have expected him to become a politician? 16. You can't use your own name in a novel. 17. Even the best memory can let you down. 18. My God, what those walls could tell us if they could talk! Ex. 435. Read and translate the following sentences Find their Russian equivalents 1. One Englishman can beat three Frenchmen. 2. You can't please all of the people all of the time. 3. Life cannot be one endless round of pleasures. 4. Good advice can be given, good name cannot be given. 5. You can't put new wine in old bottles. 6. A man can do no more than he can. 7. You never know what you can do until you try. 8. God could not be everywhere, therefore he made mothers. 9. You can take a horse to the water, but you can't make him drink. 10. Where nothing is, nothing can be had there. 11. Love can neither be bought or sold; its only price is love. 12. One cannot love and be wise. 13. You cannot get blood from a stone. 14. You cannot make bricks without straw. 15. Man cannot live by bread alone. 16. You can't change the number of hours in a day. But you can take control of your schedule. You can increase efficiency. Ex. 436. Comment on the form and meaning of the modal verb can in the following pairs of sentences 1. Can I have a banana? Could I have a look at the papers? 2. Can you travel anywhere you like without a visa? Could you travel to England without a visa? 3. Can you drive? Could you drive us to the school? 4. Sorry we can't join you on Sunday. Sorry we couldn't visit you last Sunday. 5. Can you lend me your bike? Could you lend me a pound, please? 6.1 could speak better English when I was at school. You could speak good English if you tried. 7. Can we cross the street here? There was no traffic and we could cross the street quietly. 8. What a perfect morning! Who could feel sad at heart on a day like this? He began to doubt whether the old man could smile. Ex 437. Insert can (not), could (not), be able to In some cases there can be more than one answer 1. ... you tell me the time, please? 2. No more for me thanks. I... eat another thing. 3. Who is that outside? It... be the policeman he has already been here. 4.1... open the drawer in my desk as it was stuck. 5. You ... make an omelette without breaking eggs. 6. We loved the cake. ... you give us the recipe for it? 7. Mr. Marshall is busy this week, but he ... see you next week. 8. It... be 12 o'clock already! 9. We told him he ... leave whenever he wanted to. 10. I'll get a car of my own as soon as I... drive. 11. Interpreters ... translate without thinking. 12. It would help if you ... give me friendly advice. 13. Sometimes gossiping ... be a real pleasure. 14. He promises he ... inform us of the turn of events in future. 15. Angela ... speak French when she was four, she ... do it now and she ... speak it perfectly in some years. 16. He ... sell his car unless he reduces the price. 17. My aunt... tell fortunes from tea leaves. Ex 438. Make the sentences negative and interrogative to express Doubt or disbelief Model He is lying. Can he be lying? He can't be lying. 1. The night before the exam I went to a party. 2. She's drinking her tea from a saucer. 3. The bride is dressed in black. 4. The kid is drinking wine. 5. I left the gas on. 6. Angela threw the receipt away. 7. Brian is always late for work. 8. The judge sent an innocent man to prison. 9. It's late but the children are still watching the telly. 10. He has been in love with her all those years. 11. Her name is also "0<0@0. 12. Violet has been so rude to her friends. 13. I'm afraid we've missed our stop. 14. What a shame! We've run out of salt again! 15. We don't believe them. It's not like her to behave so! Ex. 439. Read the text and translate it Comment on the verbs in bold type "Mai, you are still so very young, and I simply won't allow you to become a mere vegetable, a blob sitting around doing nothing except mourning and feeling sorry for yourself. It's vital that you mourn, yes. We must do that, we must get the grief out. But I can't, I won't permit you to throw your future away." "Do I have a future, Diana?" "Oh, yes, you do. That's another thing you have to gain. Your future. But you must reach out, grab life with both hands and start all over again. It will be the hardest thing you've ever had to do, but it will be worth it." "How would I begin again?" I asked, my mind starting to work in a more positive way. "First, I think you have to get yourself completely fit physically. You're far too thin, for one thing. You must start eating properly, and walking and exercising, so that you regain your strength, that vigor and energy of yours which I've always admired. And then you must think of the kind of job you'd like to find. You must work, not only because you need to earn money, but because you must keep yourself busy." I bit my lip and shook my head. "I realize I have to begin to support myself, and very quickly. I can't let my Mother and Dad go on helping me. But I don't have any idea what I could do. Or what I'm capable of doing, for that matter." (after B. Bradford) Ex 440. Translate into English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x 441. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the form meaning of the modal verb may 1. Mum, may I have another sweet? 2.1 told him that he might go home. 3. At least you might phone your parents more often. 4. He seemed to read my mind. "Yes, you're right. I have plenty of faults. But I might have been very different, I might have been as good as you, and 253 perhaps wiser." 5.1 must check my diary. I may have a prior engagement. 6. He who falls today may rise tomorrow. 7. Fashions may be changing, but style remains. 8. A fool may give a wise man counsel. 9. Fortune may very well smile upon you one day. 10. May each day bring you closer to better health! 11. May this fresh bouquet of flowers brighten up your day! 12. Don't throw it away, it may come in useful, you never know. 13. When the ship is sunk everyone knows she might have been saved. 14. We knew that it might be tough to ask the necessary question. 15. Might I trouble you, madam? You might have knocked! 16. Very simply, he was afraid he might say the wrong thing. 17. A stumble may prevent a fall. 18. They toasted the baby with the ruby port. "May she be healthy, wealthy and wise." Ex. 442. Read the following and learn it A Happy New Year to You May the New Year bring your way Nice, unexpected things each day New joys, new dreams, new plans to make. Worthwhile things to undertake... And may it bring you peace of mind. Success the real and lasting kind. The gift of health, the joy of friends And happiness that never ends! Ex. 443. Use the required form of the infinitive in brackets after the verb may (might) 1. "I will go in first, shall I?" he said. "There's no light in the passage, and you may (fall) over something." 2. For all I hear he may still (live) in that old house of his. 3. Don't reject me, I might (do) a thing or two. 4.1 thought you might (discover) it accidentally during your last visit. 5. You might (get) the soldiers into no end of trouble if they had been convoys. 6. "All right this time," he said. "But you be careful in future, young man, it might (be) a very serious matter." 7. After all, Timothy might (make) a mistake, and the magician might (hide) in the village; it would never do to pass it by. 8. Who knows what may (happen) tomorrow? 9. But for your help it might (turn out) to be hopeless. 10. What a fuss! You really might (spare) me all this! 11. It appeared much better than it might (expect). 12. How did the boy manage the task? Not bad, it might (be) worse. Ex 444. Translate into English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x 445. Fill in the blanks with can or may in the correct form 1. David ... do the work. He is competent enough. 2. You ... take the last copy if nobody needs it. 3. ... I ask you to look after the child? 4. ... you tell us of the final diagnosis? 5. You ... never tell what... come to her mind. 6. A fool ... ask more questions than a wise man ... answer. 7. You ... trust me, and who knows, you ... need me one day. 8. Helen ... grasp the idea, She ... have been thinking of something else. 9.1 never thought that they ... get lost in the area. 10. Alexei .. sometimes forget things, but he ... always admit his fault, 11. ...I smoke here?No doubt you ..., but you certainly ... not! 12. ... you lend me your bicycle for today? 13. You ... read this paper, it's not secret. 14. -, Why ... she agree to join our party? She ... be busy or unwell. 15. ... you please open the door? ... I ask you for such a small service? 16. You ... never go back to your past; you have got to move on. Ex. 446. Paraphrase the following, using can or may in the necessary form. 1.1 wish you would mind your speech. 2. We are upset that he didn't apologize. 3. Daniel wished you had warned him. 4. Nancy's mother wishes her daughter were not so messy. 5. I'm annoyed she didn't offer to help. 6. He wished she would remember to write down his address. 7.1 think it was wrong of them not to invite us. 8. Nobody believes that he built the house all by himself. 9. Would you mind my using your fax? 10.1 don't believe that he is so sensitive. 11. Is it in your authority to cancel the flight? 12. It's irritating the way he treats his wife. 13. Dick thinks it was wrong of her not to consult him. 14.1 think you would remember to send Christmas cards. 15. Evidently they didn't notice us, or they would have greeted us. 16. Is it possible that he should have been so tough? 17. She is crying, perhaps the boss was rude to her. 18. Nobody believes that they have left the country for good. Ex. 447. Read and translate the following sentences with concessive clauses. 1. However rich you may be, you cannot be sure of happiness. 2.1 will not believe it, though an angel may come and say it. 3. However kind he may be, we cannot count on it. 4. However badly he may work, we must give him a chance. 5. However wise she may be, she won't cope with the task. 6. However powerful a king may be, he cannot buy happiness. 7. Though he may live to be a hundred, he will never learn to be patient. 8. However little money I may have, I'll survive. 9. However much he may try, I still don't believe him. 10. Whatever may happen, life will still go on. 11. Accidents will happen, however undesirable they may be. 12. He is suffering, however hard he may try to hide it. 13. However badly he may have behaved to you in the past, he still remains your brother. 14.1 would gratify all your wishes, however unreasonable they may be. Ex.448. Complete the following sentences. 1.1 shall buy it, however ... . 2.1 am determined to go, whatever ... . 3. However powerful a king ... , he cannot force his subjects to love him. 4. Although Louis XIV ... powerful, his later days were unfortunate for France. 5. Though he... live to be an old man, he will never change. 6. Although he ... fifteen years old, ....7. Although an elephant ... a powerful animal, ... . 8. Although he ... a thief, ... . 9. Though it... , I will help you to escape. 10. However wise ... , he cannot answer this question. 11. He will never understand, though .... 12. Though you... in China, you will never master the Chinese language. 13. Although Belgium ... , yet it has a very large population. 14. Though you ... a millionaire, you cannot buy health. 15. The ships reached the harbour safely, although .... Ex 449. Read the text and translate it. Comment on the words in bold type. Then it hit me. I had a moment of truth I wanted to go home. I missed it. I was homesick. I needed to be there in order to get on with my life. Everybody had been telling me I must do that, but I hadn't been able to make a move. But now I must move on immediately. I must go home, I must live in that old house Andrew and I had so lovingly made ours. I needed to be in its lovely cool rooms, to be close to my old apple tree and my barns. But if I were to keep my Connecticut homestead, I had to earn a living. I could open my own shop. I could call it Indian Meadows. There could be a cafe as well, serving coffee, tea, cold drinks, soups, small snacks. Nora and Anna could help me run it. They'd enjoy it, certainly they'd enjoy making the extra money. I experienced such a rush of excitement I could hardly contain myself. All kinds of ideas were rushing into my head. There might even be a catalogue one day. (after B. Bradford) Ex. 450. Translate into English 1. 0209B5 A>E@0=8< =0H5 <C65AB2>, :0: 1K B@C4=> MB> =8 1K;>. 2. = =5 <>65B 2A?><=8BL H8D@, :0: 1K C?>@=> >= =8 ?KB0;AO MB> A45;0BL. 3. %>BO O 8 <>3C ?>B5@OBL 2A5 A2>8 45=L38, => : =5<C >1@0I0BLAO =5 AB0=C. 4. @878A =5871565=, :0: 1K C?>@=> <K =8 ?KB0;8AL 53> ?@54>B2@0B8BL. 5. %>BL O 8 <>3 ?>:070BLAO A:C?K<, => O 40; B>, GB> <>3 ?>72>;8BL. 6. = =5 ?>1;03>40@8; 55, E>BO <>3 1K 8 A45;0BL MB>. 7. %>BO :@878A 8 1C45B >ICB8<K<, :><?0=8O >?@028BAO >B 53> ?>A;54AB289. 8. 0: 1K <=>3> >= 2 ?@>H;>< =8 65@B2>20; =0 1;03>B2>@8B5;L=>ABL, >= 8 A59G0A >AB05BAO 1>30BK< G5;>25:><. 9. 0: 1K ?;>E> >=0 =8 2>48;0 <0H8=C, 2 >B;8G85 >B B51O >=0 =8 @07C =5 ?>?040;0 2 4>@>6=>5 ?@>8AH5AB285. 10. 'B> 1K =8 A;CG8;>AL, @5:0 2A?OBL =5 ?>B5G5B. 11. 1@07>20=85 <>65B 1KBL 1>;LH8< ?@58<CI5AB2><, E>BO ?CBL : =5<C B5@=8AB. 12. 'B> 1K 2K =8 4C<0;8, => B0:85 25I8 =587156=K. 13. >340 1K 2K =8 ?@8H;8, 20< 2A5340 @04K. 14. 5< 1K =8 1K; MB>B G5;>25:, 53> =C6=> AC48BL ?> 70:>=C. 15. 0:8< 1K =8GB>6=K< =8 1K; MB>B H0=A, <K 4>;6=K 8< 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO-16. %>BO 25B5@ <>65B 1KBL 8 >G5=L A8;L=K<, =0H0 ?0;0B:0 53> 2K45@68B. Ex 451. Read the following wishes and try to realize them in your What I Wish for You Inspiration May you dream magnificent dreams and awaken to make them come true. Sanctuary May your home always be a place of warmth, caring,friendship and sharing. Friendship May you have many wonderful friends who love you just the way you are, yet challenge you to be all that you can be. Work May you find creative work that nourishes your spirit with joy and fills your pocketbook with green. Well-Being May you honor the needs of the body and spirit so as to experience good health always. Wisdom May you let your intuitive self become the supreme authority in your life, and may you always trust what you know from that self. Humor May you cultivate the ability to laugh at yourself and eliminate the habit of feeling sorry for yourself. Freedom May you live each moment free of worry about the future and regret about the past. Recognition May you realize what an incredible Being you are. Romance May you join with mate and together share as much love and affection as anyone could ever want. Joy And last, but not least, may you live with outrageous joyfulness in all your years. Ex 452. Translate into English 1. K, 2>7<>6=>, ?@02K, => O 2A5-B0:8 =5 <>3C A>3;0A8BLAO A 20<8. 2. >7<>6=>, >= ?>;CG8B ?5@2CN ?@5<8N. 3. =5, 2>7<>6=>, ?>=@028BAO MB>B D8;L<, E>BG <=5 =5 =@02OBAO 1>528:8. 4. =0, 2>7<>6=>, AC<55B A40BL 8AB>@8N 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0 A ?5@2>3> @070. 5. =0, 2>7, <>6=>, A<>3;0 1K ?@>9B8 8=B5@2LN, 5A;8 1K ?>AB0@0. ;0AL. 6.  >3C O 273;O=CBL =0 D>B>?  0, :>=5G=>, 7. 5 <>3;0 1K O ?@>9B8 A53>4=O 2 10=: 157 ?@>?CA:0? 8. K, 2>7<>6=>, =5?@028;L=> 8AB>;:>20;8 <>8 A;>20. 9. >340 2@0G A:070;, GB> O <>3C ?>:8=CBL 1>;L=8FC, B> O ?@>AB> =5 <>3 ?>25@8BL 2 MB>. 10. 0:0O 60;>ABL, GB> @515=>: =5 C<55B ?;020BL! -B> <>65B 5<C >G5=L ?>=04>18BLAO 2 687=8. 11. 0:8< 1K 206=K< MB> 45;> =8 1K;>, O =5 <>3C A59G0A 8< 70=OBLAO. 12. B> 1K >= =8 1K;, >= 4>;65= 83@0BL ?> ?@028;0<. 13. 45 1K 2K =8 1K;8, <K 2A5340 2A?><8=05< 20A A ;N1>2LN. 14. 0: 1K 2K =8 AB0@0;8AL, => O =5 CABC?;N. 15. A5, GB> 1K >= =8 A:070; 8;8 A45;0;, 2A5340 C<8;O5B 55. 16. #60A=>, :>340 BK =5 <>65HL 2A?><=8BL GL5-B> 8<O. Should Ex. 453. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the form and meaning of the verb should. 1. When we say, "Oh, you really shouldn't have", we don't really mean it. 2. You should call us to keep up with the latest IBM security solutions. 3. The report says the country should think twice before joining the European market. 4. A gentleman should be honest in his actions and refined in his language. 5. Children should be seen and not heard. 6. Law makers should not be law breakers. 7. We should consult three things in all our actions: justice, honesty and utility. 8. People should reflect how tender is the Earth's environment. 9. We assured her that we should soon come back. 10. Is it vitally important that I should say "yes"? 11. Had it not been for miserable weather, we should have gone out for a stroll. 12. Well-you should be working now instead of relaxing. In fact you should have finished everything by now. 13.You shouldn't remember the clothes but the feeling they give you. 14. The Admiral's order was that every man should do his duty. 15. How should I know about their arrival? But should I hear something, I'll let you know. 16. But why should I let you in my life? 17. You should always follow your star, me dear, and never listen to anyone! Ex 454. Read the letter of a teenager carefully and discuss it in 5. Do you agree or disagree strongly with anything that is said? Should I Lie to My Parents? Can you help me? I've fallen in love with a really nice boy I know at college. I'm 16, but I don't have a lot of freedom I'm Asian, and my family have very strict attitudes because of their religion. So I'm not allowed to go out in the evenings, and even if I did go out with this boy during college hours I couldn't tell my parents, because they'd be really upset if they knew I was going out with a white boy. I feel bad about the situation, because I love my parents and they trust me, but this relationship is really important to me. What do you advise? I understand your problem, but I really don't think you should go out with him. It's all right for the two of you to be friends, but you mustn't get yourself into a situation where you have to lie to your parents. Their religious beliefs are an important part of your family life, and it would be a mistake to go against the rules that they have made for you. If you did go out with the boy you would eventually get found out, and then the trust between you and your parents would be destroyed. If you need to talk it over, you could get in touch with a group that gives advice to young Asian women like yourself who are caught between two cultures. Their help is free and confidential. Ex 455. A. Use the modal verb should to express: 1) inequalities Model: Why should some people be rich while others are poor? 1. eat well / starve 2. happy / miserable 3. in palaces / slums 4. succeed / fail 5. have everything / nothing 6. educated / ignorant 2) surprise Model' / was sitting in the park when who (what) should I see but my teacher (a flying saucer), 1.1 was standing in the queue .... 2.1 was digging in the garden ... . 3.1 was on my way to work ... . 4.1 was looking for something ... . 5.1 was waiting for a bus .... 6.1 was walking along the street ... . B. Speak about the four things you should have done, and about the four things you shouldn't have done Ex. 456. Read another letter of a teenager and discuss it in your group Should I Ask Her Out? I'm 16, and I really fancy a girl at my school. For the last few weeks I've been getting more and more attracted to her, and it's turning into a very serious relationship. The trouble is that she is Asian, and I know my parents would object if I asked her out. They are Catholics, and they would be shocked and angry if I got involved with a Muslim girl. I respect their beliefs, and I don't want to go behind their backs, but I have to think of myself. What should I do? The first thing is to make absolutely sure of your own feelings. You haven't been seeing this girl for very long, and there's no point in upsetting your whole family for a relationship that might not last. But if you're convinced that this is the real thing, then you must make sure what your parents' attitude is. Do you really know they wouldn't let you go out with the girl? Maybe they will. Talk the situation over with them-calmly and openly that you can be certain what they feel instead of just guessing. If they really do object, you will have to make a decision' You can either respect their beliefs and live the way they want, or you can do what you think is right. If you tell your parents firmly that you're going to go out with the girl, then you won't be going behind their backs, and you will be showing them that you have a right to follow your own opinions, even if these are very different from theirs. Ex 457. Translate into English 1. A;8 2K E>B8B5 ?@5CA?5BL, B> 20< A;54C5B =01@0BLAO 7=0=89, >?KB0 8 B5@?5=8O. 2. "515 A;54C5B ?@>:>=AC;LB8@>20BLAO C ?@>D5AA8>=0;0, ?@5645 G5< ?@8=8<0BL :0:85-;81> @5H5=8O. 3.  =5 A;54C5B ;8 <=5 =0G0BL 1@0BL C@>:8 2>645=8O? 4. 48=>:@>2=KE 45B59 =5 A;5- 4C5B @07;CG0BL. 5. "515 =5 A;54C5B 5ABL B0: <=>3> :>=- D5B! -B> 65 ?;>E> 4;O B51O. 6. 0<>@>65==K5 ?@>4C:BK A;54C5B @07<>@>78BL, ?@5645 G5< 3>B>28BL 8E. 7. / C15645=0, GB> B515 A;54C5B >1@0B8BLAO : 2@0GC ?> ?>2>-' 4C A5@45G=>9 1>;8. 8.  1>;LH8E 3>@>40E 682>B=KE A;54C5B 45@60BL ?>4 :>=B@>;5<. 9. 82>B=KE =5 A;54C5B 70?8@0BL 2 :;5B:8, 8< A;54C5B 68BL 2 5AB5AB25==KE CA;>28OE. 10. 0: =0AB>OI5<C 4@C3C B515 =5 A;54>20;> 1K A:@K20BL ?@024C, B515 A;54>20;> 2A5 <=5 @0AA:070BL 8<5==> 2 B>B :@8B8G5A:89 <><5=B. 11. 5 A;54C5B B515 B0: <=>3> 4C<0BL > =5<. !25B :;8=>< =0 =5< =5 A>H5;AO. 12. 0=LH5 =C6=> 1K;> 4C<0BL >1 MB><, <>O 4>@>30O! > 45;0BL =5G53>, 40209 ?>A<>B@8<, GB> <>6=> A45;0BL. 13. 0< A;54>20;> 402=K<-402=> 1@>A8BL ?8BL 8 :C@8BL. C6=> 1K;> 4C<0BL > A2>5< 74>@>2L5 A<>;>4C. 14.  C >B:C40 65 <=5 7=0BL, :0: >=0 ?>68205B?  0: 1;87:><C @>4AB25==8:C B515 A;54>20;> 1K 7=0BL MB>. 15. "515 =5 A;54>20;> 1@0BL A =55 ?@8<5@ 2A5 MB8 3>4K! ">, GB> E>@>H> 4;O =55, =5 <>65B 1KBL E>@>H> 4;O B51O. K 01A>;NB=> @07=K5 ;N48. 16. 0< A;54>20;> 2KA048BL ;C:>28FK >A5=LN, 5A;8 2K E>B5;8, GB>1K F25BK ?>O28;8AL 25A=>9. Ex 458. Give advice in the following using the verb should (have) 1. My eyes are tired. 2. They quarrelled last night. 3. My life is hectic. 4. Bess' boyfriend is too young. 5. What a horrible film! 6. Jack thinks his girl is light-minded. 7. Mr. Snow has gone bankrupt. 8. The roses have faded. 9. I caught a cold last week. 10. Now I'm coughing and sneezing. 11. The police are helpless in this case. 12.1 have developed a splitting headache. 13.1 haven't been getting enough sleep lately. 14. She's been eating only one meal a day. 15. This is my sixth cup of coffee this evening. Ex. 459. Practise the modal verb should to express reproach in "A Long Sentence Game" Begin the game by saying: You shouldn't have ...interfered in her affairs. Explain that the first player has to repeat his sentence and to add a new criticism. e.g. You shouldn't have interfered in her affairs and made a mess of everything. The game continues with each player in turn trying to remember what the last player said, and then adding a new item to the sentence. Players are out of the game if they: (a) make a memory mistake, or (b) hesitate too long. The players should not be eliminated for grammar mistakes just correct the mistake and let the player continue. An example round with a group of 6 players. Player 1: You shouldn't have interfered in her affairs. Player 2: You shouldn't have interfered in her affairs and made a mess of everything. Player 3: You shouldn't have interfered in her affairs and made a mess of everything and persisted in going there. Player 4: You shouldn't have interfered in her affairs, made a mess of everything ... (This player makes a memory mistake and so is out.) Player 5: (beginning again) You shouldn't have lost your (temper). Player 6: You shouldn't have lost your temper and reported him to the Dean. And so on, with everybody, apart from Player 4, still in the game. Set a time limit depending on a number of students in your group and on how long your list of verbs is. The last player left is the winner. Hints: You could play further rounds with different starters, for example: You should have asked more questions. You should have asked more questions and worked harder. You should have asked more questions, worked harder and read more books. (A list of verbs is to be composed by the teacher in advance.) Ex 460. Translate into English 1. ! :0:>9 AB0B8 <=5 =5 4>25@OBL 8<? 2. 525@>OB=>, GB> >= <>65B 25@8BL 2 B0:CN GCHL. 3. 'B> 65, <=5 ;30BL ;8HL @048 ?@8;8G89? 4.  45 45B8?  45 65 8< 5I5 1KBL, :0: =5 2 ?>AB5;8? #65 11 G0A>2 25G5@0. 5. #60A=>, GB> BK B0: ?@578@05HL ;N459 154=55 B51O. 6. 5 286C ?@8G8=, ?>G5<C 2K 4>;6=K @0AAB0BLAO. 7. K;> AB@0==>, GB> B0:0O <>;>45=L:0O 452CH:0 >4520;0AL :0: AB0@CH:0. 8.  G53> MB> >= 24@C3 ?>72>=8; <=5? 9. !B@0==>, GB> >=0 2;N18;0AL 2 MB>3> ;>25;0A0. 10.  5 A;54>20;> B515 2<5H820BLAO.  B:C40 <=5 1K;> 7=0BL, GB> 2A5 B0: A5@L57=>? 11. 0102=>, GB> >=0 2K3;O48B B0:>9 206=>9. 12. C 345 65 <=5 5I5 1KBL, :0: =5 745AL? 13. ABL =5GB>, GB> <=5 A;54>20;> A:070BL B515 2G5@0. / A>18@0;AO =5A:>;L:> @07, => <C65AB2> ?>:8=C;> <5=O. 14. 5 A;54>20;> B515 =0AB0820BL. "515 A;54>20;> A@07C ?>=OBL, GB> A;CG09 157=0456=K9. Ex 461. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the form meaning of the verb would 1. He had a wound that wouldn't heal. 2. The boy said he wouldn't eat up his porridge. 3. Jessica cried that she wouldn't go to bed without her teddy bear. 4. He would say over and over again that he wouldn't leave his father till he was better. He wouldn't agree to leave him to the care of the nurses. 5. If you would be happy for a week, take a wife; if you would be happy for a month kill a pig; but if you would be happy all your life, plant a garden. 6. Tired though she was, sleep wouldn't come to her. 7. He knew that one day he would win the world. 8. The monks would rise at four and pray and pray and pray. 9. She would often lie awake for a long time after she had gone to bed, thinking and planning. 10. Sometimes Bessie would come up to my lonely bedroom, bringing a piece of cake, sometimes she would tell me a story, and sometimes she would kiss me goodnight. 11. Someone's knocking at the door. That would be the Pest Control man. 12. Not for love or money would he do it! 13. Would you help me? I would be delighted to do it! 14. Why she has to go I don't know, for she wouldn't say. 15. Once again, fate would intervene and change Norris's course. 16. It would be such an honour if you would attend our party. 17. They used to be our regular customers. 18. She didn't use to be like that. 19. Did you use to have long hair? Ex. 462. Use would to express: 1) a wish Model: You are impolite. / wish you would be polite. 1. Ted is lazy. 2. Betty is so stubborn. 3. Monica isn't my friend. 4 He isn't trustworthy. 5. Nelly isn't hardworking. 6. She doesn't agree with me. 2) surprise Model: They aren't here yet. You would think that they've got lost. 1. She's blushing. 2. He's out -of breath. 3. They are scared. 4. The sky is black. 5. She's trembling like a leaf-6. He's complaining all the time. 3) an assumption Model' Someone's coming to paint the ceiling. That would be the decorator. 1. Someone's coming to clean the windows. 2. Someone's coming to repair the car. 3 Someone's coming to collect the rent. 4. Someone's coming to mend the television. 5. Someone's coming to unblock the sink. 6. Someone's coming to read the meter. Ex 463. Read the text and translate it. If you've ever had any experience of the same kind, speak about it The Way to Florence I went on the world's slowest train to Florence. It limped across the landscape like a runner with a pulled muscle, and it had no buffet. At first it was crowded, but as afternoon gave way to evening and evening merged into the inkiness of night, there were fewer and fewer of us left, until eventually it was a businessman buried in paperwork and me. Every two or three miles the train stopped at some darkened station where no train had stopped for weeks, where grass grew on the platforms and where no one got on and no one got off. Sometimes the train would come to a halt in the middle of nowhere, in the black countryside, and just sit. It would sit for so long that you began to wonder if the driver had gone off into the surrounding fields for a pee and fallen down a well. After a time the train would roll backwards for perhaps thirty yards, then stop and sit again. Then suddenly, with a mightly whoomp that made the carriage rock and the windows sound as if they were about to implode, a train on the parallel line would fly past. Bright lights would flash by you could see people in there dining and playing cards, having a wonderful time, moving across Europe at the speed of a laser and then all would be silent again and we would sit for another eternity before our train gathered the energy to creep onwards to the next desolate station. It was well after eleven when we reached Florence. (after B. Bryson) Ex. 464. A. Insert used to or would. 1. When we were young we ... spend every summer on the beach. We ... swim, sunbathe, catch crabs. 2. We ... live in this street. 3.1 ... meet her and she ... say, "Can't stop. I must get home." 4. Mr. Dobson ... be very generous to his servants. 5. She ... often hear him grumbling to himself. 6. What an agreeable town this ... be! 7. On Sundays he ... sleep late. 8. My English friends ... send me cards at Christmas time. 9. Whenever I went on hikes with my friends, we ... make a wood fire, bake potatoes, play the guitar and sing songs. 10. The museum ... be in the city centre. 11. Oh, I've become so absent-minded! But you ... be very punctual. 12. Does Denny smoke? He ... , but I think he has given it up. 13. Julia never ... be aggressive. 14. Every Saturday evening, Father ... take out his old accordion and start to play old songs. Mother ... look at us severely if we laughed or made a noise. Sometimes Father ... go on for hours. 15. My Grandfather ... smoke like a chimney. 16. The Romans ... enjoy gladiatorial shows. B. Discuss with other students what you used to do and what you didn't use to do when you were a child (a teenager). Ex. 465. Translate into English. 1. / 1K >G5=L E>B5;0, GB>1K BK =5 3>2>@8;0 >1 MB><, <0<0. 2. K 645< C65 ?>;G0A0, 0 ?>5740 2A5 =5B. 3. 0209 >AB0=>28<AO! 5 3>48BAO ?>@B8BL =0H8 E>@>H85 >B=>H5=8O. 4. 848HL ;8, MB> 2K3;O45;> 1K AB@0==>, 5A;8 1K BK ?>H5; BC40. 5. K C3>20@8205< 55 C9B8 =0 ?5=A8N, => >=0 8 A;CH0BL =5 E>G5B. 6. = ?>>15I0;, GB> 2A:>@5 =025AB8B 8E. 7. 'B>-B> A;CG8;>AL A 70<:><, 8 G5<>40= =8:0: =5 >B:@K20;AO-8. 8:B> =5 ?@54?>;030;, GB> D@0=FC7K 2K83@0NB :C1>:. 9. >6=> ?>4C<0BL, GB> <8@ >AB0=>28;AO 1K 157 =55. 10. K;> 1K 8=B5@5A=> C2845BL 53> @50:F8N =0 MBC =>2>ABL. 11. 8AB5@ @0=B, 1K20;>, ?@>2>48; G0AK 2 :018=5B5, @8ACO D0<8;L=>5 4@52>. 12. 0: >=0 =8 AB0@0;0AL, A>= =5 H5; : =59. 13. %>B5;>AL 1K, GB>1K 2K =5 :C@8;8 745AL. 14.  / A;KHC 72>= 1CBK;>: =0 ?>@>35.  -B> B>G=> <>;>G=8:. 15. A5 C;8:8 1K;8 ?@>B82 =53>, => >= C?>@=> =5 ?@87=020; A2>59 28=K. 16. = ?KB0;AO GB>-B> A:070BL, => A;>20 =5 H;8. 17. = 8<5; >1K:=>25=85 @0AA:07K20BL =0< > A2>5< 45BAB25. 18. # =53> 1K;> >1K:=>25=85 ?@8=8<0BL B01;5B:8 ?5@54 A=><? 19. # =55 =5 1K;> ?@82KG:8 A?0BL ?>A;5 >1540. 20. # <5=O =8:>340 =5 1K;> >1K:=>25=8O B0: 3>2>@8BL. Ex 466. Fill in the spaces with should (have), would (have). 1. He ... do as he is told or it ... be the worse for him. 2. He ... know better if he were a little older. 3. ... the guests arrive before the time, show them into the drawing-room. 4. He has been misled by people who ... have known better. 5.1... be ashamed to acknowledge my cowardice, if I were in your place. 6. Most savages ... run away if they heard a gun for the first time. 7.1... learn music if I only had the time. 8. God promised Noah after the flood that day and night, summer and winter ... not cease, and that there ... never come another flood upon the earth. 9. One ... see and hear much, and speak little, and one ... only believe the half of what he hears. 10. Those who live in glass houses ... not throw stones. 11.1 made up my mind that he ... pay what he owed me. 12. He was so miserly that he ... not give anything to the poor. 13. It seemed so incredible that I... not believe it at first. 14. People who ... hear good of themselves, ... not listen behind doors. 15. The donkey ... not go any faster even when he was beaten. 16.1 said you were wrong, but you were so obstinate that you ... listen to it. 17. ... misfortune overtake us, we must trust in Providence. 18. You ... not be so easily cast down by a small misfortune. 19. He ...have written better, if he had had more time. 20.1... have arrived on time, if I had not lost my watch. Ex. 467. Insert the verbs can, could, may, might, should, would 1. It is very curious that you ... take that view. 2. It is disappointing that he ... know so little. 3. If the enterprise ... succeed, he will be a rich man. 4.1 hope I... be famous some day. 5.1... not despair even though I... lose all my money. 6. He declared he ... not believe it, even though he ... see it with his own eyes. 7. It ...be so, though I doubt it. 8. He ... perhaps succeed, if he changed his way of living. 9. If there were less ice it... be easy to reach the Pole. 10.1... come and see you next summer, but my plans are not fixed. 11. If the matter were less involved, I... possibly be able to help you. 12. However poor a man ... be, he has always something to be thankful for. 13. If it... turn out wet, we must seek shelter where we can. 14.1 am grieved that you ... be so overworked. 15. If disaster... come upon us, we will cling to our leader. 16. Pigs ... fly, but they ... be strange birds. 17. If that... happen, we could only say it was contrary to our experience. 18. Yet we trust that the sun ... continue to rise as before, and that we ... be alive to enjoy its warmth. Shall Ex. 468. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the meanings of the verb shall 1. That's against the law! I shall complain to the council. 2. Well, what shall we do next? 3. Shall I tell you the real reason, sir? 4. Let's go there, shall we? 5. It is a clever piece of work and useful as you shall see. 6. "You shall retain your human forms in the Impossible World," said Old Nancy to the spies. "You shall become a hassock. You shall never, never return." 7. Seek and you shall find. All right, I shall try. 8. As a man lives so shall he die. Yes, as you sow, so shall you reap. 9. Come live with me and you shall know me. 10. Even as the 270 father was so shall the son be. 11. He is your enemy and you shall meet him everywhere. 12. He that has no money, shall need no purse. 13. He that commands well, shall be obeyed well. 14. Fragile articles, money, jewellery, business documents shall not be accepted as checked baggage. 15. Blessed be he who expects nothing, for he shall never be disappointed. Ex 469. Translate into English 1. 0< >AB0BLAO 4><0 8;8 65 ?>9B8 A 20<8?  -B> 20< @5H0BL. 2.  =5 >B25B8BL =0 B5;5D>==K9 72>=>:?  0, ?>60;C9AB0. 3. A;8 =5 ?>A;54C5B5 <>8< ?@8:070<, B> 2K <5=O 5I5 2A?><=8B5. 4. 0: ?>A55HL, B0: 8 ?>6=5HL. 5. 5 2>;=C9AO, 4>@>30O, BK ?>;CG8HL MB> :>;LF>. 6. C4L A?>:>5=, BK ?>;CG8HL ?> 70A;C30<. 7. =8 1C4CB A;54>20BL 70 20<8 ?>2AN4C, :0: B5=8. 8. A;8 ?>A;CH05HL MB>3> 48;5@0, B> B>G=> ?>B5@O5HL 2A5 A2>8 45=L38. 9. =0 1>8BAO, GB> 59 ?@845BAO >B25G0BL 70 A2>8 3@5E8. 10. C4L C25@5=, >=8 >15A?5G0B B2>N ?>;=CN 157>?0A=>ABL. 11. A;8 2A5 1C45B 2 ?>@O4:5, O ?>72>=N B515. 12. 5 7=0N, :C40 <K ?>545< >B4KE0BL A;54CNI8< ;5B><. 13. #GB8, =8GB> =5 >AB0=5BAO 157=0:070==K<. 14. #25@ON 20A, =8G53> ?>4>1=>3> 1>;LH5 =5 ?@>87>945B. 15. 'B> 65 <=5 B515 ?>A>25B>20BL? Ex . 470. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the meanings of the verb will I. And I want you to help me, sir, if you will. 2. People will gossip, it's in their nature. 3.1 will wait for you for a thousand summers till you are back beside me! 4. Now, miss, if you will be so good, listen to me! 5. "I will lead you home if you will trust me," she said. 6. Whatever will be, will be! 7. Keep your mouth shut, will you? 8. Will you invite them for the weekend? No, they will be away. 9.1 will take no more "I love you" from you. 10. A wise man changes his mind, a fool never will. 11. There's none so blind as those who will not see 12. Boys will be boys. Sometimes girls will be boys 13. We'd like her to retire but she won't listen. 14. mma has a strong character: she will not do what she is told to do. 15. Friends will be friends right to the end. 16. "Bad accidents", he said, "will happen." 17. Well, I'll leave you now if you will excuse me. 18. If you think that a language is hard, it will be hard. 19. He will chair the meeting. Always. Ex. 471. Look at the following examples and: 1. decide which of them express purely the future. 2 find a way of paraphrasing any examples which don't express futurity, but carry some modal meaning. 1. Will you have another drink? 2. Will you marry me? 3. Do you think the President will win the next election? 4. He will speak with his mouth full. 5. Trespassers will be prosecuted. 6. Opening the door will trigger off the alarm. 7. That will be the postman. 8. Oil will float on water. 9.1 shall do it. I will certainly profit by it. 10. Will you shut up! Truth will out all the same! 11. She will always have it her own way. 12. Will I be happy, will I be rich? 13. The bird will always fly away before the cat can jump on it. 14. If you will wait for me, I'll be right back. 15. He will not accept that some of us are born to rule, and others need to be ruled. Ex. 472. Translate into English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windscreen wipers). EE. 473. Complete the following with the verbs shall (not) or will Jenny: Dad, ... we use cars twenty years from now? Mr. Bell: I think we ... , but they ... use petrol. They ... be electric. Jenny: ... we still have pollution? Mr. Bell: I hope we ... , but I'm afraid we .... Jenny: And what... I be like? Mr. Bell: You ... be older. Jenny: But... I be different? Mr. Bell: You ... be taller. Jenny: But... I turn green and drive a spaceship? Mr. Bell: Don't worry, Jenny. You... look like a Martian. 2. ... it rain tomorrow? If it does, I... take an umbrella. 3. How old ... you be next birthday? I... be thirteen. 4. ... I do the shopping today, Mum? Dad ... do it. 5. There ... be many interesting people in your life. 6.1 have eaten three pizzas. I hope I... be ill. 7. You ... be a successful man one day. Ex 474. Comment on the use of the verbs shall and will. 1. You can go back to the old life if you want to, but I shall stay with my poetry and my flute and my new life. 2. "Drive carefully, Nigel," Tamara cautioned. "Don't worry, I will. See you later, darling." 3. It's absolutely monstrous! I shall complain to the Dean! 4. "Go back to Paris and leave me alone, Alex." "I will go if you will come with me, yes," he said. 5. But you'd better not try cheating in this school, young lady. I shall be keeping a very careful eye on you from now on! 6. Happy birthday, Mother! Congratulations! And your present is being delivered later. I hope you will like it. I'm sure I will darling. 7. Miss Honey turned and walked out of the study feeling depressed but by no means defeated. I am going to do something about this child, she told herself. I don't know what it will be, but I shall find a way to help her in the end. 8. "I don't really want to go beyond that price," she said, "but I will if I have to." 9. When you are ready to leave, I shall take you to dinner at the Ritz. 10.1 will never forget tonight as long as I live. Ought to Ex 475. Comment on the meaning of the modal verb ought to Translate the sentences into Russian 1. Kings ought to be kings in all things. 2. A liar ought to have a good memory. 3. We ought to weigh well what we can only once decide. 4. We pass our lives in doing what we ought not, and leaving undone what we ought to. 5. He ought to have been more tactful and would have been but for the stress of the moment. 6. Everybody thinks that I ought not to complain. 7. Molly hesitated. Ought she to accept this present from a stranger? 8. The child is delicate, she ought to have a change of air. 9.1 suppose we really ought not to be laughing at her, but I just can't help it. 10. But Jack, I've got a feeling that we ought to go on, if only we could ... . 11. Before the children could wonder what they ought to do, the King spoke. 12. You ought to remember the rule, it has been explained so many times before. 13. He ought to have done what I told him. Ought I to speak to him? 14. You oughtn't to have tried to escape from prison. It made things worse. 15.1 really ought to find something to take my mind off my troubles. Ex. 476. Translate into English 1. / GC2AB2CN, GB> <=5 A;54C5B ?@>2>48BL 1>;LH5 2@5 <5=8 A> A2>8<8 45BL<8. 2. / AG8B0N, GB> <=5 A;54C5B >B:070BLAO >B MB>9 8458. 3@0 =5 AB>8B A25G. 3. =5 A;54>20;> :C?8BL G53>-=81C4L : G0N, ?5G5=LO 8;8 :>=D5B. 4. "515 A;54>20;> MB> ?@542845BL. 5. !;54C5B A45;0BL 2A5 2>7<>6=>5, GB>1K ?><>GL 8<. 6. 0< A;54C5B ABK48BLAO A0<>3> A51O. 7. #G8B5;N A;54C5B 7=0BL ?A8E>;>38N @515=:0. 8. "515 A;54C5B A?0BL, 0 =5 A<>B@5BL A5@80;. 9. @8=5 A;54C5B 1KBL 1>;55 @5H8B5;L=>9. 10. 'B> <=5 A;54C5B A45;0BL, GB>1K BK 1K;0 AG0AB;820? 11. 0@8=5 A;54C5B ?5@5A<>B@5BL A2>8 273;O4K. 12. !;54C5B ;8 <=5 1KBL >B:@>25==>9 A =8<? 13. <C A;54>20;> 1K ?><=8BL ?@028;0 8 5E0BL ?> ;52>9 AB>@>=5. 14. "515 A;54C5B A;548BL 70 A2>8< 25A><. Dare (to) Ex . 477. Read, translate and comment on the use of the verb dare (to) 1. Molly dare not think about that. 2. Neither of them dared to speak of what he might do when he came. 3. "They dare not touch it either, even if they do know where it is," replied Old Nancy. 4. How do you dare deceive me? You are fired! 5.1 daresay, young man, it's time you settled down. 6. Still, I daresay we could reach the camp before dusk if we don't have to make too many stops. 7. She doesn't dare to go dancing. 8. Children didn't dare to misbehave. 9. Sergei dared not disobey the teacher. 10. How did you dare play truant? 11. He longed to know more about her, yet he did not dare ask her anything. Ex 478. Translate into English 1. He B@>309 :>H:C, >=0 <>65B >F0@0?0BL B51O. 2. !>10:0 <>65B 1KBL >G5=L ?@8OB=>9 :><?0=859 2> 2@5<O 4>;38E 703>@>4=KE ?@>3C;>:. 3. 5 <>3C C45@60BLAO, GB>1K =5 A:070BL B515, GB> BK =5 4>;65= ?@8E>48BL, :>340 B515 274C<05BAO. 4. !8BC0F8N <>6=> 1K;> A?0AB8 >4=8< 548=AB25==K< A;>2><, 8 MB> 2A5 5I5 <>6=> A45;0BL. 5.  "2>O D>B>:0<5@0, 4>;6=> 1KBL, >G5=L 4>@>30O.  >=OB8O =5 8<5N, A:>;L:> >=0 <>65B AB>8BL. -B> ?>40@>:. 6. 8 : G5<C B515 1@0BL A A>1>9 2A5 MB8 275 ?0:5BK. "K <>65HL >AB028BL 8E 2 <0H8=5. 7.  5 =C6=> 1K;> 20< 5E0BL BC40 ?>574><. K <>3;8 >B257B8 20A =0 <0H8=5.  K =5 >A<5;8;8AL >1@0B8BLAO : 20<. 8. 0< =5 ?@8H;>AL ;5B5BL BC40 A0<>;5B><, >=8 >B257;8 =0A =0 <0H8=5. 9. =, 4>;6=> 1KBL, 87CG05B D878:C, :0: 8 53> >B5F. 10.  01CH:5 <>65B =5 ?>=@028BLAO B0:>9 ?>40@>:.  C, A =59 BK =5 <>65HL 1KBL ?>;=>ABLN C25@5=.  0: BK >A<5;8205HLAO B0: 3>2>@8BL > =59! 11. 6>= =5 <>3 ?>B5@OBL =>2K5 G0AK, >=, 25@>OB=>, :C40-B> 8E ?5@5;>68;. 12. =0 ?>=O;0, GB> 8 59 AC645=> 1K;> 8A?KB0BL 2AN 3>@5GL ?@540B5;LAB20. 13.  >7@065=85 A;54C5B 2KA:070BL A59G0A 65.  / =5 >A<5;820NAL A45;0BL MB>. 14. "K <>3 1K A?@028BLAO A MB8< 5I5 B>340. A<5;8HLAO ;8 BK @8A:=CBL A59G0A? 15. =, 1K20;>, =025I0; 8E 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8, => C?>@=> =5 E>B5; ?8A0BL ?8A5<. 16. "515 ;CGH5 =5 =>A8BL 59 1>;LH5 H>:>;04, ?>:0 >=0 ;568B 2 1>;L=8F5. 17. >60;C9, O A53>4=O =045=C GB>-=81C4L O@:>5. # <5=O 45?@5AA8O. 18. =0 =8:>340 =5 >A<5;8205BAO 2>7@060BL A2>5<C 1>AAC. Had Better, Would Rather Ex. 479. Read and translate the following sentences I. I'd rather go for a walk in the rain than do nothing at all. 2. You'd better not say what makes you think so. 3. I'd rather be told the truth. 4. You'd rather not lie to me. 5. You had better do some revision work. 6. It would be better not to interfere. 7. I'd rather wear a sweater than a jacket. 8. I'd rather you didn't smoke in here. 9. We'd prefer you not to smoke, if you don't mind. 10. We'd rather you didn't say anything about it. II. You'd better get out your calculator and tot it up. Ex. 480. Give advice according to the model Model: I've lost my passport. You'd better get a new one. I'm feeling very tired. I'd rather go to bed. 1. I've got an awful toothache. 2. Your record-player is too loud. 3. It's too hot in here, too stuffy. 4. I'm putting on too much weight. 5. Please, don't speak about it! 6.1 received the bill over a month ago. 7. She wants a job in Spain but she can't speak Spanish. 8. Please don't interrupt me when I'm speaking to you. 9. They should book early if they want tickets for the concert. 10. My parents enjoy their jobs and don't want to retire. 11.1 don't want an orange, can I have an apple, please? 12. My brother prefers to live in an apartment than in a house. 13. It's freezing, I think I'll put on a coat and a cap. 14. Will you have a cup of coffee or a cup of tea right now? 15. You shouldn't spread that news! It's top secret. Ex 481. Add correct question tags to the following statements 1. All the family took to him at once, ... ? 2. Don't interrupt and read your magazine, ... ? 3. There is no way to solve this problem, ... ? 4. Nothing nasty happened, ... ? 5. He delights in teasing her, ... ? 6. Just try to remake her herself, ... ? 7. They are on Christian terms, ... ? 8. You're coming, ... ? 9. He doesn't like jazz, ... ? 10. You won't tell anyone, ... ? 11. She didn't mean that, ... ? 12. Maxim hadn't been to a casino before,... ? 13. You've got some time to spare, ... ? 14. Shut the door, ... ? 15. Don't be late, ... ? 16. I'm right, ... ? 17. Nobody called me, ... ? 18. Everyone was very excited, ... ? 19.1 don't imagine he will turn into an ideal husband overnight, ... ? 20. She seems a bit nervy and unable to get out of her old habits, ... ? 21. But let us look on the optimistic side of things, ... ? Ex. 482. Add correct question tags to the following statements with modal verbs 1. My parents must have guessed something, ... ? 2. They had to ask for your permission first, ... ? 3. You'd rather keep it a secret,... ? 4. She'd better end with him once and for all,... ? 5. Weddings in the old days used to be more showy,... ? 6. They might get along well,... ? 7. You should be in bed by now, ... ? 8. You can't speak Swahili, ... ? 9. You'd better answer the telephone, ... ? 10. You could always borrow the money, ... ? 11. Nothing could be better,... ? 12. It was to happen,... ? 13. You'd rather be staying at home,... ? 14. You shouldn't have made such a fuss, ... ? 15. My boss needs a new car, ... ? 16. We need to go at once, ... ? 17. England needed a strong king in that particular period, ... ? 18.1 may call you by your first name, ... ? 19. You shouldn't be able to help me out, ... ? 20. She used to read a story to her son before bedtime,... ? Ex. 483. Read the texts, translate them and comment on the meanings of the modal verbs in bold type I. The next morning everybody was waiting for Charlie to start opening his present. Charlie looked down at the bar of chocolate lovingly. How he wished there could be a Golden Ticket inside it! Then his mother said gently, "You mustn't be too disappointed, if you don't find what you're looking for, my dear. You really can't expect to be as lucky as all that." But the grown-ups knew that however small the chance might be of striking lucky, the chance was there. The chance had to be there. Very slowly Charlie's fingers began to tear the wrapper, but when he did it there was no sign of a Golden Ticket. II. "Did you love my Chocolate Factory, Charlie?" Mr. Wonka asked the boy. "Oh, yes, it's the most wonderful place in the world. I couldn't believe my eyes when I saw it. Can it be really yours? It must have been a dream!". "I am very pleased to hear you say that", said Mr. Wonka, looking more serious than ever. "I have decided to make you a present of the factory. I have no children of my own, no family at all. Someone has to keep it going, I don't want a grown-up person at all. He wouldn't listen to me, he wouldn't learn. So I have to have a child, I want a good sensible boy, one whom I can tell all my most precious sweet-making secrets while I am still alive. We must go at once and fetch the rest of your family. They can all live in the factory from now on! They can all help to run it until you are old enough to do it by yourself!" III. Matilda knew she had to tell somebody about what had happened with the glass. She couldn't possibly keep the gigantic secret like that bottled up inside her. What she needed was just one person, wise and sympathetic, who could help her to understand the meaning of this extraordinary happening. She knew her parents almost certainly would fail to realize what an astonishing event had taken place that afternoon. So, the one person she would like to confide in was Miss Honey. Matilda said, "Please may I talk to you for a moment?" "Of course you may. What's troubling you?" "I made the glass tip over, and I did it with my eyes." Miss Honey did not think Matilda was meaning to tell a lie. "Could you do it again?" she asked, not unkindly. "I don't know," Matilda said, "but I think I might be able to." Miss Honey moved the now empty glass to the middle of the table. "Should I put water in it?" she asked, smiling a little. "I don't think it matters, but it may take some time." "Take all the time you want, I'm in no hurry." Miss Honey replied, smiling a little. "I have to stare at it very, very hard, and then I can feel it happening behind my eyes," the little girl explained. (after R. Dahl) Test Your Knowledge Ex. 484. Use the given hints to make dialogues with your partner How Honest Are You? 1. You really need something but you haven't got enough money. Would you ever do any shoplifting? 2. Would you ever tell lies about yourself to impress other people? 3. There is some fine stationery in the place where you work. Is it all right to take some? Would you ever do so? 4, You are going to sell your car. Someone offers you a good price, and you agree to sell the car. Before you sign the necessary papers, someone else offers you a much higher price. Would you stay with the first buyer or sell to the second? 5. Would you hide some of your earnings from the tax inspector? 6. In an American school it's quite a normal situation when a pupil tells the teacher about his classmate cheating during the test. Would you think it normal? 7. You are staying in a hotel, and you see that they have very nice towels. Would you take any home with you? 8. You find a wallet containing a big sum of money and a ticket for a flight to Geneva with the person's name and address. What would your actions be? 9. What do you think about travelling without a ticket on public transport? Would you ever do so? 10. You have just had an expensive meal in a restaurant. When you check the bill, you see that the waiter has forgotten to charge you for the drinks. Would you tell him or keep quiet? 11. You find out, by chance, that your sister is adopted but she doesn't know. Should you tell her? 12. You find out that your sister's husband is having an affair. Should you tell her? Ex. 485. Combine the following sentences making them unreal. Start with If. 1.1. It was a rush hour. 2. Something happened. 3. He turned up late. 4. His girlfriend was furious. 5. They had a row. 6. He made her cry. 7. He felt guilty. 8. He apologized. 9. She forgave him. 10. They are happy now. II. 1.1 won a pretty sum of money. 2.1 bought a big car. 3.1 drove too fast. 4. There was an accident. 5. The ambulance took me to hospital. 6.1 fell in love with a nurse. 7. We got married. 8. We were happy at the beginning. 9. But then I met somebody else. 10. And we parted forever. Ex. 486. Complete the sentences 1. If he becomes Prime Minister, .... If he became Prime Minister, .... 2. If it rains tomorrow, .... If it rained tomorrow, .... 3. If she learns to speak Spanish, .... If she learnt to speak Spanish, ... . 4. If wars stop, ... . If wars stopped, ... . 5. If he succeeds in life, ... . If he succeeded in life, .... 6. If they support the child, .... If they supported the child, .... 7. If I buy a cottage in the wood, .... If I bought a cottage in the wood, .... 8. If Annie marries Stephen, ... . If Annie married Stephen, .... 9. If Nicholas studies harder, ... . If Nicholas studied harder, ... . 10. If Simon goes to University, ... . If Simon went to University, .... Ex, 487. Comment on the meanings of the modal verbs in bold type. 1. My mother said I never should play with the Gypsies in the wood. If I did so, she would say, "Naughty Girl, if you disobey your hair won't curl, your shoes won't shine. Naughty Girl, you won't be mine." 2. Supposing she had to return home to Mother without Jack. She couldn't. She wouldn't, she vowed to herself. She would stay in this country and search until the Black Leaf was found, even if she had to wait for years ... and here her tears began to flow again. 3. "You'll have to be very cautious, missie, if you go back to the wood," said Farmer Rose. "It wouldn't do for you to get caught, too." "But I mustn't be afraid of anything now." 4. "Let's stop! It wouldn't do for us to run on him like this. It might look as if we were oh, well, it would look funny, you know." 5. You must try to get a good rest tonight, and then you can start off fresh in the morning and you mustn't cry anymore or you'll make yourself ill. 6. What ought she to do, she wondered. Should she open the envelope? What was she to do with it? 7.1 don't feel I dare go out again. I will wait here. I can trust no one. 8. He, who spends more that he should, shall not have to spare when he would. 9. You can't make me let him do what he ought not to do. 10. You needn't explain, Fred. But I want to. I have to. We must improve the situation. 11. "I must have this mink coat! I can't bear somebody else wearing it," she said to her husband. "Very well, my dear, you shall have the coat!" 12. The past can't be helped! It's the future we can help, and it's the future we should give our thought to. 13.1 daresay, I can't make him change the way he dresses. He needs a new style, he really does. 14. Little birds that can sing and won't sing must be made to sing. Ex. 488. Fill in the spaces with should (have), would (have) 1. I'll remind you of the rules frequently lest you... (forget) them. 2. You ... (pay) more attention to the subject, when you had the opportunity. Then this ... not (happen). 3. If you had not been there to help me, I do not know what I... (do). 4.1... (come) to your party, had your invitation reached me sooner. 5. ... you (be) so kind as to tell me the way to the gardens? 6. He ... (benefit) his native town greatly, if the authorities had not opposed his plans so bitterly. 7. If I were to find myself homeless, I do not know where I... (go). 8. What... (be) the use of schools and teachers, if the scholars were not willing to learn? 9.1 hoped that you... (help) me in that serious matter. 10. Those who are not without faults themselves, ... (avoid) blaming others. 11.1 pointed out to him that some people I knew were so obstinate that they... (not listen) to any reasons. 12. He was not deaf, but he was so obstinate that he ... (not follow) my advice. 13. He ... (listen), however, if you had approached him tactfully. 14. He was so disguised that I... never (know) him, but for his beard. 15. What do you think we ... (do) in the circumstances in which we have found ourselves? Ex 489. Insert the verbs can, could, may, might, should, would 1. ... you be prosperous and happy! 2.1 trust that your fears ... not be realized. 3. In my perplexity I appealed to my guide to know what I... do. 4. A good general makes every preparation against defeat, ... such a contingency arise. 5. It makes my blood boil to think that such cruelties ... go on around us. 6. ... such circumstances arise, I shall take steps to deal with them. 7. Whatever ... have happened, the result is the same. 8. Who can say what... have happened, had not the accident been averted? 9. Some of these rocks ... perhaps have been deposited by passing icebergs. 10. He was so indifferent to public opinion that he did not care what the papers ... say. 11.1... support your enterprise, but I am not yet convinced that it deserves it. 12. With a little encouragement, he ... do wonders. 13.1 am not likely to be moved by anything you ... say; I judge by results. 14. Let him show what he has done; then we ... perhaps believe his words. 15. We hope that Your Majesty ... long rule over us, and that your reign ... be as glorious as those of your predecessors. Ex 490. Translate into English 1. =0 3;048;0 15;L5 8 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 2K3;O4K20;0 2 >:=>. 2. =8, 2>7<>6=>, 1K;8 A;8H:>< AB@>38 : A2>5<C AK=C. 3. =>340 >= ?@>AB> =52K=>A8<, 2A5 @02=> 1C45B 2A5 45;0BL ?>-A2>5<C. 4. 0?@0A=> BK C18@0;0 :20@B8@C, C1>@I8F0 ?@845B 702B@0. 5. 9 =5 ?@8H;>AL C18@0BL :20@B8@C. 5B8 C65 A45;0;8 MB>. 6. 5 =C6=> 1KBL 35=85<, GB>1K ?>=OBL MB>. 7. / ;N1;N B51O 3>@074> 1>;LH5, G5< <=5 A;54>20;> 1K. 8.  "515 2 A0<>< 45;5 =C65= :><?LNB5@?  / =5 <>3C >1>9B8AL 157 =53>. 9. ! :0:>9 AB0B8 <=5 2?CA:0BL B51O 2 <>N 687=L? 10. = =8:0: =5 E>B5; ?>25@8BL 2 <>N ?5G0;L=CN 8AB>@8N. 11. >@0 B515 >B=>A8BLAO : 687=8 A5@L57=55! 12. "515 A;54>20;> 2845BL, :0: 59284 3>B>28; >154! "K >G5=L <=>3> ?>B5@O;0! 13.  5;L7O ?>;030BLAO =0 A;CG09. C6=> GB>-B> 45;0BL. 14. #GB8, BK >B25B8HL 70 MB>! "515 ?@845BAO A>7=0BLAO 2> 2A5<. 15. 5 <>65B 1KBL, GB>1K BK >B:070;AO >B MB>9 @01>BK. "515 A;54>20;> ?>A>25B>20BLAO A> <=>9. Ex. 491. Read the text and comment on the forms in bold type Retell the text in indirect speech The Secret Diary of Margaret Roberts Aged 14 1/4 Everybody is being perfectly horrid to me at school. I've been to the headmistress to complain, but even she was unsympathetic. She said, "You're overworking, Roberts. I wish you were less enthusiastic and took a few days off." I protested that the school couldn't function without me. The head snapped, "Go home, Roberts, and give this note to your parents." Dear Mr. and Mrs. Roberts, Margaret's behavior has been giving me great cause for concern. At all times she is neat, clean and controlled. She works hard. She is top of every subject. She is highly competitive on the sports field, is an excellent needlewoman and always wears highly polished shoes. Indeed she is the type of girl one ought to be proud of; I wish some girls were like her in these respects. But Margaret is wearing out my staff with her constant requests for more work. She is always ink, milk and register monitor. Class, sports and house captain. She works in the greenhouse during her playtimes, this morning I came into school early and found her mopping out the lavatories. All very well, you may think, but her mania for work is making her very unpopular with the other girls. Can there be any problems at home? Can she be compensating for some lack of affection or attention on your part? Maybe, I shouldn't have worried you with all this but she must learn to tolerate these of us who are rather more fallible. Headmistress Kesteven, Grantham Girls School. Father's hand trembled as he put down the note. He said "Geniuses are never recognized in their own land." (after S. Townsend) Ex. 492. Translate into English 1.  !;CG8AL B0:, GB> B515 1C4CB =C6=K 45=L38, >1@0B8AL : C?@02;ONI5<C.  %>B5;>AL 1K, GB>1K <=5 =5 ?@8H;>AL MB>3> 45;0BL. 2.  >;CG8 >= B>340 =0A;54AB2>, >= =5 68; 1K 2A5 MB8 3>4K 2 B0:>9 =8I5B5.  0, =8:>340 =5 7=05HL, GB> <>65B A;CG8BLAO 2 687=8. 3. 02=> ?>@0 20< 2KCG8BL 35>3@0D8N! A;8 1K O >B25G0; =0 C@>:5 2G5@0, B> O 1K =5 A:070;, GB> 8AA8A8?8 =0E>48BAO 2 D@8:5. 4.  !B@0==>, GB> C =53> =5B =8:0:8E A><=5=89 ?> ?>2>4C A2>8E A?>A>1=>AB59.  0, E>B5; 1K O B>65 1KBL B0:8< C25@5==K< 2 A515! 5.  !;CG8AL B0:, GB> BK ?5@54C<05HL, 409 =0< 7=0BL, <K E>B5;8 1K 7=0BL > B2>5< >:>=G0B5;L=>< @5H5=88.  1O70B5;L=> A>>1IC. 6.  A;8 1K ?>;8F8O =5 ?@81K;0 2 A0<K9 ?>A;54=89 <><5=B, B> 3@018B5;8 A1560;8 1K. 7. @8A<>B@8 70 =8<, 8 A;CG8AL, GB> >= >?OBL 1C45B 4@0BLAO A <;04H8< 1@0B><, 409 <=5 7=0BL. = 1C45B =0:070=. 8. , E>@>H> 1K 2K CH;8! A;8 1K O 7=0;0, GB> 2K :>@@5A?>=45=BK 3075BK, B> =8 70 GB> =5 2?CAB8;0 1K 20A. 9. 0<0 1K;0 1K C60A=> @040, 5A;8 1K 2K AC<5;8 =09B8 =5<=>3> 2@5<5=8 4;O =55. 10. C<0N, GB> <=5 A;54>20;> @0AA:070BL @>48B5;O< > ?@>1;5<0E 2 H:>;5, => =5 E>B5;>AL 8E 15A?>:>8BL. 'B> 1C45B, B> 8 1C45B! 11.  !8<?0B8G=K9 <>;>4>9 G5;>25: ?@8E>48; ?>2840BL 20A.  , MB>, 4>;6=> 1KBL, <>9 42>N@>4=K9 1@0B =4@59. 5C65;8 A;CG8;>AL GB>-B> =5>6840==>5?  0, => >= <>3 1K 8 ?>72>=8BL. 12. =0 CG8B MB>B MBN4, 4>;6=> 1KBL, C65 F5;K9 <5AOF. / ?@>AB> A;KH0BL 53> =5 <>3C! =0, 4>;6=> 1KBL, =5A?>A>1=0 : <C7K:5. 13. / 1K;0 >G5=L C482;5=0 B5<, GB> .;O C65 CH;0. =0 4>;6=0 1K;0 =0?5G0B0BL 25AL B5:AB, => >:070;>AL, GB> >=0 A45;0;0 B>;L:> ?>;>28=C @01>BK. >;6=> 1KBL, >=0 ?;>E> A51O GC2AB2>20;0. T NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB (VERBALS) The Infinitive Ex 493. Comment on the forms of the Infinitives. 1. When I go on holiday, I ask Mum to look after my houseplants. 2. In the morning Mr. Dulton was nowhere to be seen. 3. He seemed to be reading my mind. 4. You have your own life to consider. 5. The agent must have misunderstood the chief. 6. He was witty and clever and he made me laugh. 7. But what kind of rules might be required? 8. They seem to have been fighting all their lives. 9. The manuscript appears to have been written in Greek. 10. This is a date still to be agreed. 11. Brian can still be watching the western. 12. They believed the soldier to have taken unofficial leave. 13. Don't you understand that all the personal sentiments ought to have been put aside? 14. At times, lightning decisions had to be made. 15. It was vital for her presence to be felt in New York from time to time. Ex. 494. Give all the possible forms of the following Infinitives To do, to study, to live, to sit, to lie, to raise, to set, to sell, to leave, to go, to inform, to like, to write, to run, to make. Ex. 495. Comment on the cases of the Split Infinitive Translate the sentences into Russian 1.1 think the time has come for you to totally decide your future. 2. In 1992 Maxim decided to legally change his name. 3. Then Dad yelled at everybody to just shut up. 4. That was too horrible to even think about. 5.1 want to tenderly hold you, my dear child! 6. She fell into a chair, clapped one hand over her mouth once more, to again stifle the scream of pain and outrage rising in her throat. 7. When you are in Italy, remember to always add the area code to the number you want to call. 8. Obviously she'd said what he wanted to hear; it appeared to both excite and relax him. 9. When you travel by the train, don't push and shove with might and main! Let those who wish to first alight, then pass on quickly left and right. 10. The detectives needed special equipment to thoroughly and accurately investigate the mystery. 11. Jack was the first person to ever show me any affection in my life. 12. The mayors met in order to fully explore and discuss the problems of managing large cities. 13. Most companies will have to severely limit their dumping of pollutants. 14. They say they would like to eventually expand the business. 15. My advice to you is to initially receive a thorough examination a good therapist. 16. To fully appreciate the splendour of Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel, you need to visit the Vatican. Ex 496. Use to before the Infinitives where possible 1. We did everything we could ... make him ... join us. 2. You can't... make me ... do what I don't want .... 3. Are you sure you can ... afford ... waste another year? 4. You need ... take more care of yourself. 5. It would be very foolish ... let the child ... have his way. 6. Let the next student... come in now. 7. We'd rather ... take a train than ... fly. 8. Why not... go with us? Let's ... have fun! 9. You'd better ... stay in bed not... make your cold ... get worse. 10.1 need a car ... get to my country-house. 11. We heard the postman ... come up to the front door and then we saw him ... sli p a thick envelope into the box. 12. He can't but... admire her beauty and talent. 13. You ought... have told me all this before. 14. We got them ... rebuild the house. 15. He was seen ... enter the house through the back door. 16. What made you ... terrorize me? I was made ... do it. 17. Will you be able ... let your son ... decide his future? Ex. 497. Answer the questions 1. What are you learning to do, and why do you do it? 2. What can't students afford to do? 3. If someone works hard, why does he do it? 4. What do students aim to do? 5. What is a quick-tempered person inclined to do? 6. What are troublemakers apt to do? 7. If workers are dissatisfied, what can they threaten to do? 8. What do absent-minded people tend to do? 9. What do you have to get ready to do on a Monday morning? 10. What do stubborn people refuse to do? 11. What are generous people willing to do? 12. When the man proposes, what does a woman agree to do? 13. When two people get engaged, what have they resolved to do? 14. When people get married, what do they promise to do? 15. What are you planning to do in future? Ex. 498. Complete the sentences by using suitable Infinitives. 1.1 learned ... when I was around six or seven. 2. We've decided... a new washing-machine. 3. Hugh promised not... late for his own wedding. 4. My boyfriend and I would love ... Venice. 5. You seem ... in a good mood tonight. 6. Felicia appeared ... asleep, but she wasn't. 7. The Martins can't afford ... a house. 8. Try ... to class on time every day. 9.1 can't wait... my family again! It's been a long time. 10. She is very sorry. She didn't mean ... you. 11. My friend offered ... me a little money. 12. Erik is only five, but he intends ... a doctor when he grows up. 13. What time do you expect... the Hague? 14.1 forgot... some cheese when I went to the grocery store. 15. They are planning ... to the Canaries after they get married. Ex. 499. Read and translate the sentences Pay attention to the Split Infinitives. 1. At the time, it seemed wiser for me to simply disappear, quickly and quietly. 2.1 placed the tray in the middle of the kitchen table and began to methodically chop an egg. 3. She wondered how to effectively explain this to the kids without resorting to a pack of lies. 4. The offer came from out of the blue and she did not want to even discuss it. 5. It was hard to truly estimate how rich she was. 6. Henry had known Emma for almost forty years, long enough to fully understand her. 7. They had come to bitterly accept the fact. 8. Nelly paused, uncertain of how to correctly explain her behaviour. 9. The boy licked the pencil and began to carefully print Mrs. Daniel's address. 10. He did not appear to physically favour either of his parents. 11. She had never ceased to secretly worship her elder brother. 12. Melanie began to selectively tick off the goods, she could readily dispose of in her store. 13. She had to hear it from Julia's own mouth to truly believe it. 14. Something of his good humour seemed to mysteriously transfer itself to everybody in the room. 15. She had to occasionally neglect on some of her chores to make time for reading. Ex 500. Use the verbs in brackets in the required form 1.1 like (give) presents to friends, but even more I like (give) gifts. 2. She is so lucky (have) such a good family, (see) all love and care since childhood. 3. The dictionary seems (belong) to my great-grandfather. It appears (publish) ages ago. 4. The young man seemed (study) Marion, and she gave him a cold stare. 5. The key to the grandfather clock was believed (lose) some twenty years before. 6. One more window remained (wash). 7. The child is so pale! She ought (have) a change of food and air. 8. Well, sir, I want (take) my words back. I'm sorry (call) you names. 9. The case was urgent. The man had (operate on). 10. He was sorry (not notice) the fax on the secretary's table. 11. But what kind of rules might (require)? 12. The rules (leave) to the Government to decide. 13. Everybody is going (give) a rise. 14. Parenthood, someone once said, is the only 24-hour-a-day job for which you (not pay) overtime. 15. The country is considered (make) enormous progress this year. 16. English people don't like (tell) what to do. Ex.501. Translate into English 1.AG0AB;820 ?@83;0A8BL 20A =0 25G5@. 2. / AG0AB;820, GB> <5=O G0AB> ?@83;0H0NB =0 ?@5<L5@K. 3. / AG0AB;820, GB> <5=O ?@83;0A8;8 =0 =>2K9 A?5:B0:;L 2 "!0B8@8:>=". 4. %>GC @0AA:070BL 20< ?>A;54=85 =>2>AB8. 5. %>GC, GB>1K <=5 @0AA:070;8 MBC 8AB>@8N. 6. / @040, GB> <=5 @0AA:070;8 >1 MB><. 7. >15@B =5 A>18@05BAO >128=OBL 20A. 8. = =5 ?@54?>;030;, GB> 53> >128=OB. 9. =5 60;L, GB> O ?@8G8=ON 20< AB>;L:> E;>?>B. 10. =5 60;L, GB> ?>15A?>:>8;0 20A. 11. 5B8 ;N1OB 2K4C<K20BL @07=K5 8AB>@88. 12. 5B8 >1>60NB, :>340 8< @0AA:07K20NB AB@0H=K5 8AB>@88. 13. =, :065BAO, 7=05B 2A5E 2 3>@>45. 14. "54, :065BAO, G8B05B GB>-B> A<5H=>5. = 2A5 2@5<O C;K105BAO. 15. =, :0 65BAO, 2K?>;=O5B MBC @01>BC C65 <=>3> ;5B. Ex. 502. Comment on the form and function of the Infinitives Translate the sentences into Russian 1. To read books means to enlarge one's horizons. 2. He read a lot to broaden his mind. 3. To part from friends is to die a little. 4. To win friends and influence people, one must employ guile and fraud, some politicians believe. 5. A friend is someone special to laugh with, to reminisce with, to dream with, to shape with, to bitch with ... 6. He had no idea whom he was to meet. 7. What he really wanted was to be alone, entirely alone. 8. She could not afford to panic, not under any circumstances. 9. You always make me feel better. Do I? 10. She didn't love Willy enough to marry him. 11. Gradually, she came to understand how wrong she had been. 12. To begin my story I must go back in time, to 1990. 13. He was far too bright a boy to be deceived. He would probe and probe. 14. To tell the truth, a cigar gives me a chance to relax and to meditate. 15. Maxim flew to New York only to discover that his daughter was on the Coast. 16. She began to realize that her husband was a difficult man, not easy to know, or live with, and secretive. 17. In Greece people often shake their heads from side to side to say "Yes". With us it means "No". 18. They need nobody to protect them. 19. To recover completely, he must begin to work, but it mustn't be hard work. 20. It makes everybody so happy to see you again! 21. It takes a long time to become a personality. 22. It gives me great comfort to think of you. Ex. 503. A. Read and translate the sentences Define the function of the Infinitives 1. To make the world better has always been his aim 2. To lie or not to lie that's the dilemma. 3. It's unusual to see you at home in the middle of the day. 4. To go out alone in the middle of the night is risky. 5. To fulfil all your wishes is all I want. 6. It is awful to be so stubborn. 7. It's unwise to refuse. B. Complete the following sentences 1. ... that is the question. 2. ... is to believe. 3. ... is my aim in life. 4. ... would be madness. 5. It makes me feel good ... . 6. It would never do .... 7. It was unnatural....8. It annoyed them .... 9. ... is everybody's wish. Ex. 504. A. Read and translate the sentences Define the function of Infinitives 1. To agree to this offer is to lose self-respect. 2. Gold and love affairs are hard to hide. 3. A witty limerick is very difficult to write. 4. That sort of thing is easy to do. 5. My friends are very interesting to talk to. 6. This musical instrument is easy to learn. 7. My main chore in the house is to vacuum and dust the rooms. 8. The only sensible thing to do when you are attacked is, as Napoleon once said, to counter-attack. 9. Some girls are catty and difficult to live with. 10. Bad habits are easy to acquire and hard to break. 11. This is something that is hard to describe. 12. She was not going to be easy to deal with. 13. Office affairs are easy to begin and difficult to finish. 14. The toilets were few and hard to find. B. Complete the following sentences 1. The idea was ... . 2. What I want is ... . 3. The main point is .... 4. To travel means ... . 5. The only thing to do was ... . 6. To tell a white lie is ... . 7. To live is ... . 8. To be up to date means .... 9. My telephone number is ... . 10. This girl is .... 11. The secret of life is ... . 12. Money is .... 13. This code is ... . Ex 505. Read and translate the sentences 1. Miss Honey removed her spectacles and began to polish the lenses with a piece of tissue. 2.1 told my parents they ought to take some vitamins. 3. Her heart began to pound in a most unreasonable and unfamiliar way. 4. Television started to resemble radio. One station provides news another soft rock; a third is all-sports. 5. She could J longer bear to keep the secret of her past from him 6. Catherine took out various items from the refrigerator and started to make a selection of small tea sandwiches 7. The boy broke off, unable to voice his fears about his parents. 8. She needed to find him, immediately. 9. As time passed she began to function like her old self. 10. 0ula started to extend her family business. Ex. 506. Translate into English 1. -BC 0@:5@>2A:CN @CG:C >G5=L C4>1=> 45@60BL 8 ?>;L7>20BLAO 5N  =0AB>OI55 C4>2>;LAB285. 2. >40BL 2 >BAB02:C (to quit) 7=0G8B ?@>83@0BL 83@C. 3. "@N: 2 B><, GB>1K 7=0BL, :0: ?>;L7>20BLAO MB8< :;NG><. 4. -B8 40==K5 B@C4=> @074>1KBL. 5. 0 MB8< AB>;>< ?@8OB=> @01>B0BL. 6. N18BL 7=0G8B 65@B2>20BL. 7. >O 7040G0  CG8BL 20A. 8. K=C645= ?@87=0BLAO, GB> 2K ?@02K. 9. >340 BK =0G=5HL 4C<0BL > 1C4CI5<, AK=>:? 10. -BC <0H8=C >G5=L ;53:> CAB0=>28BL. 11. 0 =55 ?@8OB=> A<>B@5BL, 8 >G5=L ;53:> 8<5BL A =59 45;>. 12. <C A;54>20;> CABC?8BL. 13. 0< A;54C5B A5ABL =0 485BC. 14. -B8< F8D@0< B@C4=> ?>25@8BL. 15. !;>20 MB>9 ?5A=8 ;53:> 70?><=8BL. 16. '0AB> 0@8N 1K;> B@C4=> :>=B@>;8@>20BL. 17. %>@>H53> C?@02;ONI53>, :0: 2K, B@C4=> =09B8. 18. @8G8=C 8E >B:070 ;53:> C3040BL. Ex. 507. A. Read and translate the sentences Define the function of the Infinitives 1. A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. 2. He is rather unbearable at times; he wants to have everything his own way. 3. He failed to appear before a Milan magistrate to answer accusations of a tax fraud. 4. She used to enjoy the village life. 5. My parents have taught me to see the best in people. 6. She pretended not to care for that man. 7. They plan to marry next week. . Complete the following sentences l.The students would like.... 2. Many people don't want.... 3. The friends agreed never.... 4. Never forget... 5. The scout pretended .... 6. The hunters were dead lucky .... 7. We intended .... 8. Be careful.... 9. Will you teach me ... ? Ex. 508. A. Read and translate the sentences Define the function of , Infinitives 1. Biologically, there is only one quality which distinguishes us from animals: the ability to laugh. 2. An active life gives man the opportunity to realize values in creative work. 3. There is a time to fish and a time to dry nets. 4. There are no more copies of this book to be had. 5. TV-viewers now have the choice and freedom to select from various programmes and enjoy them when it suits them best. 6. The best way to see Rome is either on foot or on a bus. 7. This is a popular place to see and be seen. 8. You give me reason to live, my dear. 9. He who has a why to live can bear with almost any how. 10. The Rolex company were the first to develop the idea of a modern watch. 11. Don't worry about Tracey! She's got Keith to protect her. 12.1 have absolutely nothing to do this weekend. Though there is business to attend to in Manhattan. 13. He has a talent to make the best of any bad situation. 14.1 think there is something special in you ... a will to endure, to succeed no matter what. 15. She immediately made a desperate effort to still her nerves. 16. Internet gives everyone the power to contribute. The power to share information and ideas. The power to move your business forward. B. Complete the following sentences 1.1 have hitting news .... 2. These are the rules ... . 3. She'll always say something ... . 4. The situation leaves much .... 5. They had nothing ... at the Customs. 6. There was nothing ... all day, and no one ... . 7. We've always admired the old man's will ... . 8. The shops before 293 Christmas are full of things .... 9.1 had a vital date ... 10. The guests have left, and now I have a pile of dishes ... Ex. 509. Complete the sentences with the phrases from the right column. 1. There are always choices 2. You give me reason 3. They have the power 4. Now there's an easier way 5. Whenever economic hardship breaks children are the first 6. In Egypt you've got plenty of geological wonders 7. Everybody has the right 8. A food mixer is a very useful gadget 9. In those days I had a baby 10. There are four ways 11. Mr. Killingworth is the right man 12. She had no desire 13. Bill says he needs a wife 14. She has always had the ability 15. This was a wonderful chance 16. This fashion magazine shows you 17. I went back to work with this thought a. to suffer. b. to marvel at. c. to dream his little dream. d. to have in the kitchen, e. to veto any project. f. to mix with others. g. to do the talking, h. to make. i. to chew on. j. to give your child a world of knowledge, k. to do this sum. 1. to amuse everybody, m.to take care of him. n. to talk about it. o. to look after, p. to live, q. the most successful ways to dress. Ex. 510. Read and translate the text. Comment on the Infinitives I Want A Wife A Feminist Classic from the Early '70s By Judy Syfers I belong to that classification of people known as wives-I am A Wife. And, not altogether incidentally, I am a mother. Not too long ago a male friend of mine appeared on the scene fresh from a recent divorce. He had one child, who is, of course, with his ex-wife. He is obviously looking for another wife. As I thought about him while I was ironing one evening, it suddenly occurred to me that I, too, would like to have a wife. Why do I want a wife? I would like to go back to school. And I want a wife who will work and send me to school. And while I am going to school, I want a wife to take care of the children. I want a wife to make sure my children eat properly and are kept clean. I want a wife who will wash the children's clothes and keep them mended, who arranges for their schooling, takes them to the park, the zoo, et cetera. I want a wife who takes care of the children when they are sick, a wife who arranges to be around when the children need special care, because, of course, I cannot miss classes at school. Needless to say, my wife must arrange to lose time at work and not lose the job. It may mean a small cut in my wife's income from time to time, but I guess I can tolerate that. I want a wife to take care of my physical needs. I want a wife who will keep my house clean. A wife who will pick up after me. I want a wife who will keep my clothes clean, ironed, mended, replaced when need be. I want a wife who is a good cook. I want a wife to plan the menus, do the necessary shopping, prepare the meals, serve them pleasantly, and then do the cleaning up while I do my studying. I want a wife who will care of me when I am sick and sympathize with my pain and loss of time from school. I want a wife who will not bother me with rambling complaints about a wife's duties. But I want a wife who will listen to me when I feel the need to explain a rather difficult point I have come across in my course of studies. And I want a wife who will type my papers for me when I have written them. And I want a wife who knows that sometimes I need a night out by myself. But I want a wife who understands that my sexual needs may entail more than strict adherence to monogamy. I must, after all, be able to relate to people as fully as possible. If I happen to find another person more suitable as a wife than the wife I already have, I want the liberty to replace my present wife with another one. Naturally, as I expect a fresh, new life, my wife will have to take the children and be solely responsible for them so that I am left free. When I am through with school and have a job, I want my wife to quit working and remain at home so that my wife can more fully and completely take care of a wife's duties. My God, who wouldn't want a wife? Ex. 511. Read the poem and learn it Comment on the Infinitives What Is This Life? What is this life if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare? No time to stand beneath the boughs And stare as long as sheep or cows; No time to see, when woods we pass, Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass; No time to see, in broad daylight, Streams full of stars, like skies at night; No time to turn at Beauty's glance, And watch her feet, how they can dance; No time to wait till her mouth can Enrich that smile her eyes began? A poor life is this if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare. W. H. Davies Ex. 512. Translate into English 1. >B ?@>3@0<<0, :>B>@CN =C6=> CB25@48BL. 2. -B> :=830, :>B>@CN =C6=> ?@>G8B0BL. 3. # =53> ?>B@OA0 NI0O =>2>ABL, :>B>@CN >= @0AA:065B 20<. 4. >25@L B5, 20< =5G53> 1>OBLAO. 5. =5 > AB>;L <=>3>< =C6=> ?>4C<0BL. 6. 5;L7O B5@OBL 2@5<O. C6=> ?@8=OBL @5H5=85. 7. ABL =5A:>;L:> D0:A>2, =0 :>B>@K5 =5>1E>48<> >B25B8BL A59G0A 65. 8. -B>  ?;0BL5, :>B>@>5 ;N1CN 65=I8=C A45;05B :@0A82>9. 9. M284 =5 B>B G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 <>65B >AG0AB;828BL 65=I8=C. 10. # =0A 4>;30O 687=L, :>B>@>9 =C6=> =0A;0640BLAO. 11. 0209 ?>8I5< <5AB>, 345 <K <>3;8 1K ?5@5:CA8BL. 12. # =53> B@8 AK=0, :>B>@KE =C6=> 2K@0AB8BL. 13. = ?5@2K9 C3040; 8E =0<5@5=8O. 14. >G5<C MB> O 2A5340 2A5 C7=0N ?>A;54=8<? 15. = =5 B>B G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 <>65B 20A ?>425AB8. 16. < ?@54AB>O; 4>;389 ?CBL. 17. # =8E =5 1K;> 65;0=8O A?>@8BL. 18. <5;8O GC2AB2>20;0 ?>B@51=>ABL 2KA:070BLAO. 19. =0 A45;0;0 >BG0O==CN ?>?KB:C >A2>1>48BLAO. 20.  "K 1C45HL 2KABC?0BL A;54CNI8<?  5B, O 1C4C 2KABC?0BL ?>A;54=8<. Ex 513. A. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the form function of the Infinitives 1. To get daily updated news,to be in the know just slip through the net and you are on the Internet. 2. Aunt Louise whirled around to greet me. 3. We didn't tell him the whole truth not to discourage him. 4.1 ran back to my room to collect my belongings. 5. Tony's father died of pneumonia when he was nine. His mother, a seamstress, struggled to raise three children on her own. 6. Unable to make such a decision alone I asked my brother for help. 7. The clock buzzes to tell you when to get up. 8. Most Islanders have at least two jobs to earn enough to cope with the sky-high prices. 9. You don't have to be a genius to understand it. 10. When in Paris we went to a wonderful restaurant to enjoy an open-air meal. 11. To overcome the problems that face each one of us and no life is problem-free it is crucial to have a plan to live by. 12. He opened his mouth to say something, but then changed his mind. 13. They had come to attend the party. 14. So sensational was the news that the entire class jumped out of their seats to have a really good look. 15. He remained silent for a few moments to allow her to compose herself. 16. If the state borrows heavily to rebuild the economy, the Central Bank will keep monetary policy tight. 17.1 popped into the snack bar to buy a soda. B. Complete the following sentences. 1. This car is designed ... . 2. The mayor cut the ribbon ... 3. It took all her strength .... 4. The young man works hard .... 5. You don't have to be a genius ... 6. She has only to say "yes" ... . 7. Keep your mouth shut.... 8. She spoke more slowly ... . 9. She sipped her tea ... . Ex. 514. Complete the sentences using to or for. I.She opened the file ... look for the necessary information. 2. She scanned the text... the needed data. 3. The family went to Paris ... a short visit. 4. The Parkers went to Bath... visit the distant relatives. 5. Every evening she takes long walks ... relax. 6. It's good to take long walks ... relaxation. 7. I'm going to University ... a good education. 8. I'm going to University ... get knowledge. 9. My kids aren't going to school just... have fun. 10. Charlie has done it just... fun. 11.1 went to the store ... some bread and cheese. 12. Mum has gone to the store ... get some milk. 13.1 turned on the radio ... listen to the news. 14.1 listened to the radio ... news about the weather. 15. In this country we wear fur coats in the winter ... keep us warm. 16.1 have put on this sheepskin coat... warmth. 17.1 had a long stroll ... boom my appetite. Ex. 515. A. Read and translate the sentences. Define the function of the Infinitives. 1. The day is too hot for us to be out on the beach. 2. The cigarettes are expensive enough to be good. 3. The tea is too sweet to be refreshing. 4. She is clever enough to be at the top of the class. 5. The wine is too harsh to be tasty. 6. The dress is cut well enough to be elegant. 7. The oranges are too tired to buy them. 8. The weather is frosty enough to be enjoyable. 9. The colours are too loud to be good. 10. Wilfred was far too bewildered even to speak. 11. Life is too short to continue hating anyone for a long time. 12. My relatives never visit us. They have too many kids to fit in the car. 13. Catherine had never judged Meredith and Jack. She was far too intelligent to do that and mature enough to realize that no one else ever knew exactly what went on between two people. 14. But in the end the burden had got too big to carry. 15. The man was too big to be allowed. B. Complete the following sentences. 1. She is old enough .... 2. He was too stressed and busy ... . 3. You are too pessimistic ... . 4. They know him well enough ... . 5. You are mature enough .... 6.1 became brave enough ... . 7. Life is too tough .... 8. She was too much of a lady ... . Ex 516. A. Read and translate the sentences. Define the function of Infinitives. 1.1 woke up to find the doctor lifting me very carefully into my own bed. 2. They went to their friends' country house to find all the doors locked and nobody in sight. 3. Michael returned to his native village never to leave it again. 4. Helen came to the University to be told that all the lectures had been cancelled. 5. She awoke one morning to find herself famous. 6. She walked into the back room to see her mother crying over the broken China vase. 7. He came into the garage to discover that his car was gone. 8. In a month I returned home to learn that my son needed a surgery. B. Complete the following sentences. 1.1 took a mouthful of juice.... 2. David opened the cellar ... . 3. Marion went to the East... . 4. She switched on the TV-set... . 5. The woman opened her bag ... . 6. One morning I came into the room .... 7. In the morning I awoke ... . Ex. 517. Give the English equivalents for the following phrases Make up sentences with them > ?@0245 3>2>@O, GB>1K 1KBL 01A>;NB=> >B:@>25==K<, 2 4>25@H5=85 2A53>, 4;O =0G0;0, <O3:> 3>2>@O, =5 3>2>@O 1>;LH5, =5B =C64K 3>2>@8BL, GB>1K 1KBL 1>;55 B>G =K<, :>@>G5 3>2>@O, :0: =8 AB@0==> MB> 72CG8B. Ex. 518. Translate into English 1. 87=L A;8H:>< :>@>B:0, GB>1K ?>=0?@0A=C B@0B8BL 2@5<O. 2. 8AA "5<? ; ?>4=O;0AL @0=>, GB>1K CA?5BL =0 ?5@2K9 02B>1CA. 3. !:070BL ?@024C 1K;> =52>7<>6=> 4;O =55, 8 ?>MB><C 59 ?@8H;>AL ?@84C<0BL 8AB>@8N, 4. >2>ABL 1K;0 A;8H:>< E>@>H0, GB>1K ?>25@8BL 2 =55. 5. B> 3>2>@8B, GB> 687=L A:CG=0? 54L 5ABL :=838, :>B>@K5 <>6=> G8B0BL, :0@B8=K, :>B>@K<8 <>6=> 2>AE8I0BLAO, <C7K:0, :>B>@0O <>65B A>>B25BAB2>20BL 20H5<C =0AB@>5=8N (to meet your mood). 6. = =54>AB0B>G=> 65AB>:, GB>1K A:070BL 59 MB> 2 ;8F>. 7. 5 2>;=C9AO, <K 2AB@5B8<AO, GB>1K ?>3>2>@8BL 70 @N<:>9 :>=LO:0 8 @5H8BL 2A5 ?@>1;5<K G5;>25G5AB20. 8. / @5H8; ?@>3C;OBLAO, => ?>H5; <5;:89 4>64L, 8 <=5 ?@8H;>AL 25@=CBLAO 4><>9. 9. 5BA8 8<5;0 >1K:=>25=85 ?>4=8<0BLAO 2 <>N :><=0BC, GB>1K @0AA:070BL <=5 8AB>@8N ?5@54 A=>< (a bedtime story). 10. 5B8 =0G0;8 A<5OBLAO 2A5 A@07C, GB>1K G5@57 <8=CBC ?>=OBL, :0: 65AB>:0 1K;0 HCB:0. 11. %8;L40 >15@B5 4>AB0B>G=> C<=0, GB>1K 1KBL A0<>9 ;CGH59 CG5=8F59 2 :;0AA5. 12. @0B>@ 2K45@60; 7=0G8B5;L=CN ?0C7C 2 =0G0;5 @5G8, GB>1K ?@82;5GL 2=8<0=85 (to win the attention of) 0C48B>@88. 13. > ?@0245 3>2>@O, BK 4>AB0B>G=> 27@>A;K9, GB>1K @5H8BL, GB> E>@>H> 4;O B51O. 14. !8=48 ?;0=8@C5B @01>B0BL 2A5 ;5B>, GB>1K 70@01>B0BL 45=L38 =0 N@848G5A:CN H:>;C. 15.  B5?5@L O ;CGH5 >AB0=>2;NAL, GB>1K =5 2K720BL =>2KE ?@>1;5<, <O3:> 3>2>@O. 16. # =55 2;0ABL C?@02;OBL ;N4L<8.  :0: 65 B@C4=> 8<5BL A =59 45;>! 17. =8 ?>=8<0;8, GB> C =8E =54>AB0B>G=> 0:F89, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL :>=B@>;L =04 :><?0=859. 18. "K A;8H:>< <>;>4, GB>1K C9B8 2 >BAB02:C. Ex 519. Read and translate the sentences Define the function of the lives 1.1 don't expect you to understand. You wouldn't listen to me in 1994 and you won't listen to me now. But I want you to take some precautions. Would you like me to help you? 2. If you don't want anyone to know your business, keep your mouth shut. 3. What made you decide to enter that competition? 4. They wanted her to relax and sent the children to their aunt's. 5. They know him to be a responsible person. 6. Sunglasses make you look mysterious. 7. They consider him to be a real professional. 8. The desire for fame makes men work hard and does not let them rest till the goal is gained. 9. She regards him as a superman. 10. The big breakfast made me feel drowsy and I let the book fall to the floor. 11. Let me take you to the Milky Way on your holiday! 12. It makes my mouth water just to think about all those tasty things. 13. Let the music play, let the voices sing, let's stay together to the end! 14. It takes two to make a dream come true. 15.1 don't let my children watch TV shows that are violent. 16. Let the wind always blow in your back and the road always go downhill for you! 17. Don't let that fool you! 18. These articles will make your hair stand on end. 19.1 make myself exercise and do sit-ups for ten minutes every other morning. 20. Since I didn't want that to happen, I took Andre's advice. Ex 520. Read the text and retell it "Do you remember, Maxim, what I told you about the standards I want you to have when you are a big boy, and when you are a man?" "Yes, Papa. You said a gentleman never tells a lie." "That's correct, but now I'm afraid I must amend that statement. I wish you to revise what I said to you last week. I have to change my opinion... I believe it to be perfectly all right for a gentleman to tell a lie if it is a matter of life and death... if it is to save his life. Or the lives of others, of course. I want you to remember that a man must have valour, honour and nobility if he is to be of great character, I want you to remember that when you grow up." "Yes, Papa, I will." (after B. Bradford) Ex. 521. Translate into English. 1. 0H =0G0;L=8: 2A5340 ?@54?>;0305B, GB> 2K 1C45B5 2A5 45;0BL 2>2@5<O. 2. =8 ?@54?>;030;8, GB> 2K 2AB0=5B5 =0 8E AB>@>=C. 3. =0 7=05B, :0: 70AB028BL ;N459 45;0BL 8<5==> B>, GB> =C6=> 59. 4. K 70<5B8;8, GB> :0:85-B> <0;LG8H:8 701@0;8AL 2 A>A54A:89 A04, 5. >340 <K 25@=C;8AL 4><>9, B> >1=0@C68;8, GB> =03 >6840NB >3@><=K5 AG5B0. 6. %>G5HL, GB>1K O ?>:070;0 B515 A2>8E @K1>:? 7. A5 E>B5;8, GB>1K >= AB0; @C:>2>48B5;5< ?0@B88. 8. =>385 ;N48 AG8B0NB 1KB>2K5 E8<8:0BK M:>;>38G5A:8 2@54=K<8. 9. 8:B> =5 ?@54?>;030;, GB> ?>A;54AB28O 1C4CB AB>;L >ICB8<K <8. 10. >G5<C 2K 70AB028;8 =0A B0: 4>;3> 640BL? 11. 5B8 ?>4A;CH0;8, :0: :0:>9-B> =57=0:><5F C3@>60; 8E >BFC. 12. K A;KH0;8, GB> >=0 =0H;0 =>2CN @01>BC. 13. / ?>GC2AB2>20;, GB> MB> ?@0240, 8 ?>GC2AB2>20;, :0: C <5=O 70:>;>B8;>AL A5@4F5. 14. =8 ?>72>;8;8 <=5 ?>;L7>20BLAO 8E <0H8=>9, ?>:0 >=8 >B4KE0;8. 15. >340 O ?>?040N =0 @10B, B> >G5=L ;N1;N =01;N40BL, :0: @8ACNB EC4>6=8:8. Ex. 522. Make the sentences passive. Model: They saw him do it. He was seen to do it. 1. Everybody heard her say that. 2. The neighbours noticed the burglar get into the house. 3. The policeman saw the car disappear in the tunnel. 4. The public made the poet read some more of his poetry. 5. Don't worn' We'll let you go to the match. 6. Tom's father made his son apologize. 7. They made the customer accept then" terms. 8. They consider him to be an expert in his sphere 9. She regards her father a perfect example to follow 10. Everybody knows that this theatre was built by a famous architect. 11. They suspect that the teenager helped them. 12. We expect that they have learnt the truth. 13. It was announced that the pop-group had arrived. 14. It is understood that the partners have come to an agreement. 15. It was reported that the verdict was announced. Ex. 523. Translate into English. 1. BABC?8BL (to quit) 7=0G8B ?@>83@0BL. 2. CGH89 A?>A>1 ?>B5@OBL 25A  87<5=8BL ?@82KG:8 2 545 (eating habits). 3. ABL B@8 A?>A>10 A45;0BL MB>. 4. A;8 O ?5@54C<0N, B> BK ?5@2K9 C7=05HL >1 MB><. 5. =0 =8:>340 =5 <>65B ?@89B8 : D8=8HC ?5@2>9. 6. / 2 MB> 2@5<O A;CG09=> >:070;AO 2 3>A?8B0;5. 7. = >B?@028;AO =0 :CE=N, GB>1K ?@83>B>28BL 1CB5@1@>4K. 8. # <5=O 5ABL ?@87=0=85, :>B>@>5 O 4>;65= A45;0BL. 9. =>340 >= =52K=>A8<. = E>G5B 2A5 45;0BL ?>-A2>5<C. 10.  5I5 GB>-=81C4L =C6=> A45;0BL? 11. 5AA8 2>@20;0AL 2 :><=0BC, GB>1K A>>1I8BL, GB> <5=O 645B ?>A5B8B5;L. 12. <C ?@8H;>AL ?>2KA8BL 3>;>A, GB>1K 1KBL CA;KH0==K<. 13. >340 O H5; 4><>9, O >AB0=>28;AO, GB>1K :C?8BL 3075BC. 14. 'B>1K 2K83@0BL A>@52=>20=85, >;C =C6=0 C40G0. 15 ;O =55 :C@8BL  MB> ?>4=8<0BL A0<>C2065=85. 16. =0 ;N18B, :>340 5N 2>AE8I0NBAO, D>B>3@0D8@CNB, ?8HCB > =59 2 3075B0E. 17. @54?>;030NB, GB> >= A45;0; MB> 87 @52=>AB8. 18. 725AB=>, GB> >= 3;020 D8@<K 2 B5G5=85 ?>A;54=8E 45AOB8 ;5B. Ex 524. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the forms [the Infinitives after the verbs seem, appear, happen, chance, turn u prove. 1. The old woman seemed to read my mind. 2. They proved to be old friends. 3. David happened to witness the incident. 4. But his advice didn't prove to be sound. 5. It turned out to be their last meeting. 6. They chanced to find a treasure under the house. 7.1 always seem to be waiting for things. 8. Mr. Smith appeared to be thinking aloud. 9. Vesta happened to be playing in the corner of the room. 10. He might turn out to be another Newton. 11. The child seemed on a sudden to have entered a magic world. 12. Dinny seemed to have lost already all her doubts. 13. Herbert would appear to be involved in it. 14. We seemed to be surrounded by shouting policemen. 15. The patient seemed to have been improving lately. 16. It proved to be true in the end. Ex. 525. Make sentences according to the model Model. I was in the bank. Two robbers broke in. I happened to be in the bank, when two robbers broke in. We were waiting at a bus-stop. Our friend drove past. We happened (chanced) to be waiting at a bus-stop when our friend drove past. 1. You were there. The incident took place. 2. She was in the bath. The telephone rang. 3. You were watching television. There came a knock on the door. 4. He was sitting in a restaurant. A friend walked in. 5. You were passing by. A passer-by stopped you. 6. They were there. The flying saucer appeared. 7. The sheriff was in the club. A fight started. 8. You were talking about her. She came into the room. 9. An old man was walking past a hospital. He had a heart attack. 10. You were standing outside a hotel. A Rolls-Royce drove up. Ex. 526. Change the sentences according to the model Model' She appeared not to hear him. She didn't appear to hear him. 1. She seemed not to know real life. 2. This man seemed not to care for rules. 3. He was busy with the car and appeared not to see the policeman. 4. John seemed not to enjoy playing cards but he had to. 5. The boss never seemed to pay any attention to our needs. 6. The boy 304 seems not to be healthy and happy. 7. Andrew appeared not to notice her. 8. The waiter seemed not to notice our anger. 9. Christine seemed not to take in what he meant. 10. He appeared not to have learnt the results of the investigation. 11. The women seemed not to like the work they were doing. 12. Simon seemed to see and hear nothing. 13. You seem not to have forgiven me, Denny, which is very, very sad. 14.1 seemed to have no feeling left in me at all. 15. His heart appeared not to be beating any longer. Ex 527. Open the brackets and use the required form of the Infinitives 1. So far she appeared (do) Henry nothing but harm. 2. He appeared (see) the light and decided to drop in. 3. Here, in a small village, the world seems (construct) on a smaller scale. 4. Yes, they seem (appreciate) my picture a whole lot last night. 5. The children seem (eat) ever since they arrived, as if they had been starved before. 6. It may turn out (be) interesting. 7. She appeared (cross- question) me. 8. Everyone seemed (talk) for hours. 9. The idea of escape seemed (become) less fantastic. 10. Possibly it might prove (be) dead good luck. 11. Twenty years seem (pass) so quickly! 12. Verena seemed (let) the matter (die). 13. The sound of the phone ringing seemed (wake) every nerve in my body. 14. Scarlett seemed (pay) little attention to what they said. 15. Her legs seemed (lose) power to move, and now she appeared (break). Ex. 528. Translate into English 1. 6C48 459AB28B5;L=> >:070;0AL 72574>9. 2. :070;>AL, GB> >=8 8 2 A0<>< 45;5 1@0BLO. 3. =, :070;>AL, ?>;CG0; C4>2>;LAB285 >B 83@K A 45BL<8. =8 1K;8 B0:85 70102=K5. 4. 0<0, :065BAO, C7=0;0 ?@024C 8 2K3;O48B >G5=L A5@48B>9. 5. =8, :065BAO, =5 4>25@ONB 4@C3 4@C3C. 6. -:70<5=, :065BAO, ?>4E>48B : :>=FC. 7. @54;>65=85 :065BAO <=>3>>15I0NI8<. 8. =8, :065BAO, =5 ?>445@60;8 =>2K9 ?@>5:B. 9. =, :070;>AL, 2AN 687=L <5GB0; >1 MB>9 ?>574:5. 10. / A;CG09=> CA;KH0; MBC =>2>ABL. 11. @54GC2AB28O 0:A0 >:070. ;8AL 25@=K<8. 12. 065BAO, GB> 45;0BL =5G53>, :@><5 :0: >B?@028BLAO A?0BL. 13. >GL >:070;0AL E>;>4=55 G5< <K ?@54?>;030;8. 14. K A;CG09=> =5 7=05B5 =>' <5@ 53> D0:A0? 15. 65:, :065BAO, CG8B =5<5F:89 2AN A2>N 687=L. Ex. 529. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the functions of the for-phrases with an Infinitive 1. For him to act so is rather unusual. 2. It was difficult for Bill to keep such a big family. 3. All she wanted was for her mother to come to terms with her past, gain peace of mind, as well as a bit of happiness for once. 4. The best thing is for you to leave at once. 5. Teddy put the kettle on, stood near the stove waiting for the water to boil. 6. He stopped the car for the kids to get in. 7. That is for the boss to decide, isn't it? 8. Steve was a suitable candidate for them to hire. 9.1 am still waiting for the mail to come. 10. Emma was a suitable child for them to adopt. 11. I've bought a tin of pastries for you to enjoy them. 12. After all, we have known the man long enough for Steve to trust him. Ex. 530. Transform the sentences according to the model using the words necessary, important, possible, impossible, difficult, traditional hard, easy, customary hostess begins to eat. 10. The bride usually feeds the groom the first piece of wedding cake. 11. Mary should start thinking about her future. 12. Animals can't talk or think or plan something. 13.1 can understand my teacher most of the time. 14. A writer should be imaginative. 15. My parents are anxious I should enter the University. Ex.531. Transform the sentences so as to use the for-to-infinitive construction 1. The most important thing is that we should stay cool. 2. Let us wait till the fax arrives. 3. This is the day which they shall remember for a long time. 4. He is the expert whom you should have consulted. 5.1 shall leave some money so that they may spend it. 6. Martin sent his family to his parents' so that they could be safe there. 7. The days have become too short, so we can't walk as much as in the summertime. 8. The new manager must be very competent as the director has entrusted him with a most difficult task. 9. It is quite natural that she should have refused his proposal. 10. What I want is that you should understand me. 11. There is no need that we should stay here any longer. 12. It's unbelievable that he should have really meant it. 13. Phone the office and someone will meet us. 14. When I became a vegetarian, I had to wait for some period of time until my organism got used to it. 15. It is impossible that he didn't believe you even after you showed him the file. 16. He waited in the reception. The secretary hadn't turned up yet. 17. Mr. Marshall's suggestion was that the contract should be signed without any delay. Ex 532. Read and translate the following Comment on the form and function of the Infinitives 1. My sister Maggie is cooking up a plan to get Dad to let her go to that party on Saturday. 2. I've been trying to find a way to convince them to let me stay home, and they had finally to give in, which made me feel a lot better. 3. To tell the truth, I work alone, I have no partner to worry about. 4. To live is to suffer, to survive is to find meaning in the suffering. 5. To develop the strength and tone of your voice you have to practise voice exercises daily. I was too self-conscious to find a teacher and have singing lessons, but it wasn't an ordeal to record yourself singing and send the tape off to be assessed. And then I received my tape back from my tutor to improve it further. 6. Patsy drove on in silence, too tired to speak, but after a while she said, "I'm not too sure about parking in Leeds. I think the best thing to do is to go to the Queens Hotel to park there." 7. There were certain matters at the London office to attend to and she and Patsy had to make a trip to Ripon where they had some work to complete. 8. Now Maxim, it would be wiser to let the subject rest for the moment. Anastasia is far too intelligent a person to expect you to do such a thing to get rid of your business empire. 9. "Ever since I first arrived to take up my post in London, I have sought an opportunity to show something of the rich cultural links that Brazil has had with Europe over many centuries," says the Brazilian Ambassador in London. The Gerund Ex. 533. A. Write the Gerunds of the following verbs 1. spend 2. shop 3. play 4. clean 5. read 6. travel 7. collect 8. use 9. swim 10. save 11. watch 12. listen 13. see 14. do 15.be B. Now put the Gerunds in the sentences 1. ... coins is an interesting hobby. 2. ... waste glass and paper again is called "recycling". 3. ... is a healthy sport. 4. ... money has become a mania with her. 5.... too much television gives me a headache. 6. ... to such loud music is bad for your ears. 7. ... time with your kids is the best thing you can do for them. 8. ... is my life! As well 308 as gardening! 9. ... tennis has become fashionable lately. 10. ... my rooms is so boring. 11. ... authentic literature improves my English. 12. ... broadens your horizons. Ex. 534. Complete the sentences Add the necessary preposition 1. He's very punctual. You can count... . 2. I'm tired. I don't feel.... 3. The people criticize the government.... 4. The prisoner was accused... . 5. Lifeguards rescue people... . 6.1 am out of work. I'm anxious ... . 7. The workers threatened the boss ... . 8. This programmer is an expert... . 9. A gourmet gets pleasure .... 10. If you run out of money, you would have difficulty ... . 11. In a tight situation you have to find a way ... . 12. Teenagers I spend a lot of money .... 13. The police charged the motorist... . 14. A journalist can be sued ... . 15. Tactless people make a habit... . 16. Misers are despised ... . 17. If you live in a foreign country, you have the opportunity .... 18. Students are preoccupied ... . 19. You are a Jack-of-all-trades. Why not try your hand ... ? 20. To keep fit you have to refrain .... Ex 535. Use the right form of the Gerund of the verbs in brackets. 1. We insist on (do) the work right now. The customers insist on the work (do) at once. 2.1 enjoy (go) to her parties. But I dislike (take) there by my boyfriend. 3. Stop (talk) about it. The incident isn't worth (mention). 4. Have you finished (correct) the composition? No, it still needs (brush up). 5. Sue admitted (tell) a lie. And she didn't mind (reprimand) for it. 6.1 am used to (remind) by my mother that life is great and I should keep (smiling), 7. Ted couldn't imagine (abuse) anyone, or (abuse) by anyone. 8. He is very secretive. He avoids (ask) any personal questions or (ask) any even by his closest friends. 9.1 remember (beat) once by my elder brother for cheating. 10. They suspected the inspector of (get) some more evidence and were afraid of (call) to the police station. 11. He wasn't used to (ignore). Ex. 536. Complete the sentences. Add the necessary preposition. 1. Doctors dedicate themselves.... 2. Pessimists are always complaining... . 3. We should give industrious people credit... . 4. Why didn't you take the trouble ... ? 5. Vegetarians are opposed ... . 6. Shoplifters are arrested .... 7. Terrorists are capable .... 8. A musical person takes pleasure .... 9. The president of the company is optimistic .... 10.1 have a monotonous job, I'm fed up .... 11. The police try to stop motorists ... . 12. There is no chance .... 13. Is there any point... ? 14. I'm feeling tired. I am not in the mood... . 15. Why do you persist... ? We do insist .... 16. If an EFL student speaks his own language all the time, it interferes .... 17.1 am a decisive person, so I'll have no hesitation .... 18. Has anyone succeeded...? 19. You must take precautions .... 20. Why didn't you even apologize ... ? Ex. 537. Use the right form of the Gerund instead of the verbs in brackets. Add the preposition if necessary. 1. The art (weave) has been known for many thousands of years. 2. After (destroy) by the eruption of Vesuvius Pompeii has never been rebuilt. 3. He was very much annoyed (refuse) the visa. 4. The sun is too strong today to go out (protect) your eyes. 5.1 dislike (sit) at a small table at meals. 6. Allow us to congratulate you (graduate) from King's College. 7. An impulsive man should keep himself (fly) into fits of rage. 8. She cannot forgive him (betray) their friendship. 9. If you insist (thwarting) my plan, I can go (work) at it (consult) you. 10. She prayed to God every night (see) her son soon. 11. Ursula tried to warm the girl's hands (rub) them with her own. 12. (Enter) the Internet, you enter a world of information. Ex. 538. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the functions of the Gerunds. 1. Taking a picnic in the heart of the English countryside is one of life's most treasured experiences. 2. Swimming every day keeps me in shape. 3. Rooming with Fred was like sharing a telephone booth with a hippopotamus. 4. Skateboarding is both exciting and dangerous. 5. Learning to meditate was a very enlightening experience for me. 6. Trying to do it has proved to be a Herculean labour. 7. It's no good talking about it. 8. Exercising in a pool is a great way of building up strength and endurance. 9. Smoking cigarettes can be as dangerous as playing Russian roulette. 10. There was no mistaking what they wanted of me. 11. Hearing him is a must for every beat fan. 12. Reading Russian classics calmed her. 13. Your knowing a thing is nothing unless another knows that you know it. 14. Working with Bruce was like going to several universities. 15. Doing this movie is wonderful. 16. You know, thinking about you makes me feel good. 17. It's been wonderful sharing this time here with you. 18. But we were all wrong. Now I don't think there is any turning back. This is the end, for me, anyway. 19. Once this happens, there's no going back. Not for me. 20. There's no improving on nature. Ex. 539. A. Read and translate the sentences. State the functions of Gerunds. 1. Giving presents is one of the most possessive things we do, did you realize that? It's the way we keep a hold on other people. 2. Watching movies on my VCR late at night has become an important way for me to relax. 3. Cora was in the kitchen making sandwiches. Making sandwiches took her thoughts off her problems. 4. "There's no knowing where they're going," cried Mr. Wonka, hooting with laughter. "You can imagine that I'm not overpleased, but there's no escaping it in the long run." 5. Answering the seemingly simple question is very difficult. 6. You had better not count on her. There's no predicting her mood. 7. Driving a car and talking on the car phone at the same time demand care. 8. Smoking when pregnant harms your baby. 9. Having a child has been a turning point for me. 10. There was no talking to Celeste once she got her back up. The less she said, the better. 11. Being so emotional herself, forever telling him that she loved him and often having to drag a response from him, frustrated her. 12. Loving a man who did not love her was a waste of time. 13. Having coffee together has become a daily ritual with the two of them. 14. It's a well-known fact that black makes you look slimmer, but wearing it top to toe can be very ageing, and choosing to wear it all the time is boring. 15. Remembering that particular day, so long ago now, still affected her deeply. 16. Papermaking began in China and from there spread to North Africa and Europe. 17. Banking was in his blood. Centuries of it, passed down from father to son. B. Speak about your hobbies, likes and dislikes, your everyday activities. What is a must for you and what is not? Ex. 540. Translate into English. 1. 7CG5=85 8=>AB@0==>3> O7K:0  B@C4=0O, => 8=B5@5A=0O @01>B0. 2. BACBAB285 ?@>3@5AA0  MB> @53@5AA. 3. K1>@ ?@>D5AA88  206=59H89 H03 2 687=8 :064>3> G5;>25:0. 4. !2O70BLAO A =8<8 157>B;030B5;L=>  2>?@>A 687=8 8 A<5@B8. 5. 0=8<0BLAO ?5@5AC40<8  ;N18<>5 70=OB85 =5 B>;L:> 65=I8=, => 8 <C6G8=. 6. 5=O =5 ?@>2545HL. 065 =5 ?KB09AO A45;0BL MB>. 7. K@0I820=85 :;C1=8:8 AB0;> 55 AB@0ABLN. 8. = 1K; B0: C?@O<.  C1548BL 53> 1K;> =52>7<>6=>. 9. C?0=85 2 ;54O=>9 2>45 GCBL =5 C18;> <5=O. 10. !A>@8BLAO 8 <8@8BLAO  ;N18<>5 70=OB85 <>8E A>A5459-<>;>4>65=>2. 11. >1@0BLAO 4> ACB8 45;0  MB> 1K;> 2A5, G53> >= E>B5;.  >AB0=>28BL 53> C65 1K;> =52>7<>6=>. 12. 02>48BL @><0=K  MB> =5 ?> <>59 G0AB8. 13. @5?>4020=85  =5 >G5=L 1;03>40@=0O @01>B0.  >B@8F0BL MB>3> =5;L7O. 14. @54020BLAO 2>A?><8=0=8O< > ?@>H;><  ?CAB0O B@0B0 2@5<5=8. 54L =0704 4>@>38 =5B. 15. 8:>340 =5 A:065HL, GB> >=0 <>65B 2K:8=CBL 2 A;54CNI89 <><5=B. 16. O70=85, :0: 3>2>@OB ?A8E80B@K, CA?>:08205B =5@2K. Ex 541. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the motions of the verbals. 1. His hobby is collecting mushrooms. 2. The key in life is setting goals. 3. The best part of Tacitus is reading between the lines. 4. What he loves best in the world is meeting old friends. 5. "Hedonism," says the dictionary, "means seeking pleasure as a way of life." 6. Her favourite pastime is daydreaming. 7. My only hope is winning the lottery. 8. What teachers usually dislike most is cheating. 9. The most difficult thing in this life is choosing. 10. My first job was delivering flowers to people. You've never seen so many smiles on so many faces. 11. My dentist said, "The secret to a good life is being happy with what you have." But he got married five times, the last time to one of his patients. The people who know keep silent, and those who don't keep giving advice. 12. Sometimes the hardest part of writing is getting started. Looking at a sheet of blank white paper is like looking at a snow-covered car on an icy winter morning and wondering if the engine will turn over. Ex 542. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the ctions of the Gerunds. 1. Stop spreading the news, will you? 2. She keeps saying she has got out of practice, but as a matter of fact she had nothing to get out of. 3.1 can not stop believing in you! 4. Sandy kept trying to get in touch with them until there was no hope left. 5. After that we stopped exchanging letters. 6. He kept begging me for money for a new bicycle and in the end I had to give in. 7. Make her stop screaming, doctor. 8. My English teacher keeps on saying that I need to expand my vocabulary. 9. "And Teddy dear, there's Maxim to think of, the boy needs so much. If you don't stop worrying, you'll drive yourself mad." 10. Whenever you are ready to start talking again, I am here to listen. 11. It would save them money in the long run; they wouldn't have to keep replacing staff all the time. 12. She couldn't help wishing that things were somewhat different. 13. You must stop smoking here, right now, Ted! Ex. 543. Translate into English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x. 544. Read and translate the sentences. State the functions of the Gerunds. 1. Celeste enjoyed winning more than losing. 2.1 hate being left alone on weekends. 3. Would you mind wiping your feet before entering? 4. We feel like celebrating today. 5.1 wouldn't mind rearranging the furniture, after all, but papering, that's the limit! 6. My boss hates being pushed into doing things. 7. Omar's guests don't feel like eating his over-spiced oriental dishes. 8. I like interpreting at conferences but I don't like sitting up too late after them. 9.1 don't understand why people enjoy reading about disasters at the breakfast table Surely I'm not one of them. 10.1 distinctly remember telling you that I needed you here with me. 11.1 companionship. I don't really like being alone or comming home to an empty house. 12. My nerves don't need calming. 13. "The Cat and Fiddle" is an English pub, only worth visiting if the weather's good. 14. My piano needs tuning and polishing. 15. Do you think Bob's trouser leg still worth invisible mending? 16. The water in this area requires filtering. Ex 545. Insert the necessary prepositions 1. There's no point ... contradicting women, is there? 2. Think twice ... selling the house, will you? 3. Don't be frightened ... making decisions and ... taking initiative. 4. Excuse me ... rushing you around like that. 5. He is addicted ... drinking. 6. It's really rather late ... ringing people up. 7. I'm terribly keen ... watching fashion shows. 8. She is mad ... cooking. Imagine the amount of time she loses ... cooking. 9.1 am far ... exaggerating, I'm just stating facts. 10. He blamed himself ... not having seen the spot before, and still more ... having lit the fire himself. 11. I am used ... eating salads and drinking juices. 12. Stars are getting huge money ... acting and producing. 13. She is thinking ... hiring someone to clean her apartment. 14. You should have seen her face ... being caught red-handed. 15. Score one for the Brits! ... creating a most unique vehicle ... combining refined elegance and brute strength The Range Rover. Ex 546. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the Gerunds. 1. He hates the very thought of cleaning. 2. Her husband seems to have a somewhat false impression of her art of cooking. 3. He feels the need of pouring out his heart. 4.1 trained with a small firm, where I was able to learn the nitty-gritty of running a small business. 5. Next comes the question of fulfilling the plan. 6. In the past few years technology has changed our ways of working. 7. Persuasion is the art of getting other people to do something or to believe something without being compelled to do so. 8. Companies generally welcome the idea of job-sharing. 9. Fanny asked me to keep an eye on her things with the idea of showing that she trusted me. 10. She has a nasty habit of guessing, and the trouble is, she's often right. 11. They had a million-to-one chance of making it. 12. There is little hope of receiving a message from them soon. 13. At 60, Norris is comfortable with the idea of growing older. 14. Believe me, I have no intention of giving up my business. 15. He wanted a wife. He didn't relish the idea of living alone for the rest of his life. 16. The actor was stunned not only by the noise of booing but also by the sight of flying tomatoes. 17. Once more he scotched the idea of opening a store in New York. Ex. 547. Complete the following sentences 1. Shall I ever have the chance ... ? 2. The quickest way .... 3. Is there any hope ... ? 4.1 always marvel at his art ... . 5. Melanie had a talent .... 6. The fear ... paralyzed him. 7. They couldn't get used to the perspective ... . 8. The dealers seized the opportunity ... . 9. You mast certainly give up the habit ... . 10.1 haven't the slightest intention ... . 11. Nobody appreciated the idea ... . 12. Why didn't you even take the trouble ... ? 13. At the party we had the pleasure ... . 14. What are the latest methods ... ? 15. Will you take the risk ... ? Ex. 548. Translate into English 1. 0< A;54C5B >B:070BLAO >B <KA;8 ?>5E0BL =0 N3 ;5B><. 2, / C25@5=0, GB> C <5=O 5ABL H0=A 2K83@0BL 2 MB>9 ;>B5@55. 3. # H:>;L=8:>2 5ABL ?;>E0O ?@82KG:0 @8A>20BL GB>-B> =0 AB>;0E. 4. # <>59 101CH:8 E>@>H0O ?@82KG:0 2K?8BL G0H:C :5D8@0 ?5@54 A=><-5. !53>4=O C <5=O ?>B@51=>ABL 2KA:070BLAO, 87;8BL 4CHC. 6. 0HL ;8 BK <=5 H0=A :>340-;81> C2845BL B51O 2=>2L? 7. 8A: 1KBL ?>9<0==K< A ?>;8G=K< AB@0H8; 53>. 8. 5@A?5:B820 >AB020BLAO 2A5 ;5B> 2 4CH=>< 3>@>45 =5 @04C5B <5=O. 9. 0HL ;8 BK <=5 H0=A 4>:070BL B515, GB> O =5 28=>20B? 10. # 65=I8= B0;0=B 24>E- =>2;OBL <C6G8= =0 25;8:85 ?>42838. 11. !0<K9 ?@>AB>9 A?>A>1 @0728B8O :0:>9-;81> <KA;8  MB> 42830BLAO >B >1I53> : G0AB=><C. 12. # $@540 8A:CAAB2> C15640BL ;N459. 13. # =53> =5 1K;> =0<5@5=8O >1AC640BL A2>N ;8G=CN 687=L A :5< 1K B> =8 1K;>. 14. # <5=O 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> <5=O >1<0=K20NB. 15. 0;> =04564K, GB> :;8<0B 87<5=8BAO : ;CGH5<C. Ex. 549. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the functions of the Gerunds. I. Many Eastern people have a habit of using up the nervous energy that concentrates in the fingers and hands by fingering worry beads. 2. Daniel hesitated before making his final decision. 3. One learns by failing. 4. Drink nothing without seeing it, sign nothing without reading it. 5. They preferred to scrape a living by catching crab, lobster and crayfish. 6.1 roasted some chickenpieces without allowing them to get brown. 7. After closing the folder, the doctor went on briskly. "All right, then, let's start by getting the tests done." 8. The family expected Maxim to do the right thing by marrying the right kind of woman one day. 9. After searching the entire house I happened to find the key in the coat pocket. 10. Peace and happiness begin, gastronomically speaking, where garlic is used in cooking. II. Generally speaking, the idea is worth considering. 12. Instead of stopping, the storm raged for two more days. 13. Before approaching the rope, I suddenly fell into the icy pond. 14. In writing the test she made too many mistakes. 15. On hearing the sad news she burst into tears. 16. In spite of being busy, the headmaster spoke to us. Ex. 550. Use a Gerund instead of the subordinate clause 1. He wrote that he would come back at the end of the war. 2.1 remember that I met her at the concert. 3. After I bought the book I left the shop. 4.1 am sorry that I kept you waiting. 5. They have given up all hope that they will ever see their native land again. 6 They stood for a moment. They didn't say a word 7 Everybody shook hands and got down to business. 8. When the child entered the room, he happily smiled at his parents. 9 Andrew feels all right now. He was operated on a month ago. 10. He remembered that he had seen the girl several times at the entrance exams. 11. She didn t feel as if she would ever forgive him. 12. You will get nothmg from him if you reproach him all the time. 13. Brian kept silent for fear that he might be misunderstood 14 Once he decides something, it is impossible to talk him out of it. 15. It was good luck that I was there and then 16 He came into the room very angry and didn't even greet us. 17. Barbara felt much better after she had given him a piece of her mind. 18. She escaped danger as she listened to intuition. Ex. 551. Read and translate the sentences Find complexes with the Gerund and define their functions 1 I wouldn't mind his running around with girls, if he were doing well at school. 2. And what about our changing roles for once? 3. There is no danger of me telling our secret to friends- I have jo friends 41 insist on your showing me your work today 5. My having failed merely made me try again. 6. Your advertising yourself continually is vulgar 7. There is no doubt of his having mastered English thoroughly. 8 His friends' betraying him filled him with bitterness. 9' Her only regret was that she would miss all those years of her son's growing up, the wonderful years. 10. Apart from my putting my seat belt around my neck, the flight was uneventful. 11. The fear of their taking advantage of him never crossed his mind. 12. After his breaking our engagement I have nothing to do with him. 13. The quietness of the house was broken by the children driving their toy cars on the floor 14 I don't want to run the risk of my house being robbed. 15. Is it wortn while my calling them? Ex 552. Insert a pronoun where necessary 1. I object to ... interfering in their family life. It's none of my business. 2. I object to ... interfering in my personal life. They are just neighbours. 3. They were keen on ... winning the match. We deserved it. 4. We are keen on ... winning the game. They are a nice team. 5. Simon never mentioned ... letting him down. He just forgave them. 6. Daniel once mentioned ... letting them down. He still felt guilty. 7. Excuse me for ... calling you so late. But I need you badly. 8. Excuse ... calling you in the middle of the night. They needed you urgently. 9.1 remember ... meeting her once. 10. I can't remember ... ever meeting each other. They live in different countries. 11. Everybody blamed the fellow for ... abusing his children. 12. We are against ... being ordered about. We are not slaves. 13. Mary and Henry are against ... children being vaccinated this year. 14. My friends forgot ... promising to call on me. I had a lonely evening. 15. She completely forgot ... promising to drop in and went for a walk. They came but there was no one at home. Ex 553. Use a complex with a Gerund instead of the subordinate clauses. 1.1 remember that the children looked through the album last Sunday. 2. Mum suggested that we should make up. 3. Nancy insists that her father should allow her to keep a monkey as a pet. 4. My sister is very displeased that I have broken her favourite cup. 5.1 insist that you should tell us what the real reason is. 6. Helen was confused that we were watching her. 7. There is a chance that my family will move to another city. 8. Do you mind if they join us? 9. The police have no objection that the man should be set free. 10. Do you remember that they promised to call us? 11. It may upset you to know that Rita is leaving soon. 12. Fancy how Boris appeared here all of a sudden! 13. I'm trying to tell you I have no objection if you see Jim. 319 Ex. 554. Translate into English 1. K ?>;0305<AO =0 B>, GB> 2A5 ?@84CB 2>2@5<O. 2. / @0AAG8BK20N =0 B>, GB> D0:A >B?@02OB A59G0A 65. 3. =0 >B25G05B 70 B>, GB>1K 2A5 ?0?:8 1K;8 2 ?>@O4:5. 4. > 48B5;8 1K;8 ?@>B82 B>3>, GB>1K 45B8 CAB@0820;8 HC<. =CN 25G5@8=:C. 5. / A>2A5< =5 2>7@060N, GB>1K 2K ?>;L7>20;8AL <>8< ?@8=B5@><. 6. / =5 2K=>HC, :>3-40 ;N48 ?;>E> 3>2>@OB > 4@C38E 70 8E A?8=>9. 7. 8:B> =5 B@51C5B, GB>1K 2K ?@8=8<0;8 CG0AB85 2 ?5@53>2>@0E. 8. 5 >B@8F09B5, GB> '0@;L7 2<5H0;AO 2 MB> 45;>. 9. A5 =0AB0820;8 =0 B><, GB> ?@>5:B 4>;65= 1KBL D8=0=A8@>20= :><8B5B><. 10. / =54>2>;L=0, GB> BK >?OBL A45;0;0 MBC >H81:C. 11. @0G =0AB08205B, GB> 1>;L=><C =C6=> ?@>1KBL 2 1>;L=8F5 5I5 =545;N. 12. =8 A>3;0A8;8AL, GB> ?>;8F59A:85 1K;8 >G5=L >?5@0B82=K. 13. / ?><=N, :0: M@>; >4=064K A:070;0, GB> >=0 ?8H5B @><0=K. 14. =0 =5 <>3;0 2K=5AB8 <KA;L, GB> :B>-B> <>65B C:@0ABL 55 AG0ABL5. 15. A5 <>5 1C4CI55 7028A5;> >B B>3>, ?>445@60B ;8 <5=O 1;87:85. Ex. 555. Read and translate the texts Comment on the form and function of the Gerunds 1.1 loved working on the fishing boat, with long periods of doing nothing, and then the hurly-burly of putting in the nets. 2. All over the world, Microsoft Office is helping drive businesses forward by making it easier for anyone to get their job done, no matter what that job might be. By bringing together top applications Office gives people the ability to find the best, most productive way to work. 3. Mrs. Cracklin accused Father of selling diseased cheese and rotten eggs. Father got rid of her by threatening to inform the authorities that she kept lodgers. 4. There was no stopping the boy now. "See you later, alligator!" he shouted. "I'm going to be the first person in the world to be sent by television." 5. Eating is his hobby, you know. That's all he's interested in. But still that's better than being a hooligan, isn't it? And what I always say is, he wouldn't go on eating like he does unless he needed nourishment, would he? 6. She had a knack of twisting her husband around her little finger, getting her way with him. But she had come to understand that there was no letting him down in any way. 7. Well, that's a matter of opinion. One calls it killing time, another relaxation. What's your way of looking at it? And is it worth while living that way? Ex 556. Translate into English 1. 5 @>48B5;8 ?@>B82 B>3>, GB>1K >=0 A>>1I0;0 A59G0A 2A5< > A2>59 ?><>;2:5. 2. / ?><=N, GB> <0<0 G0AB> C?@5:0;0 <5=O 2 45BAB25 70 B>, GB> O 1K;0 =50::C@0B=0. 3.  01>B0O A <03=8B>D>=><, 2K <>65B5 C;CGH8BL A2>5 ?@>87=>H5=85.  !0<> A>1>9 @07C<55BAO, GB> MB> 25@=>. 4. 0:>9 65 BK ;5=BO9! "K 4065 =5 ?>B@C48;AO 2K<KBL 70 A>1>9 G0H:C! 5. >G5<C 2K 8715305B5 C?>B@51;OBL =5;8G=K5 D>@<K 3;03>;0 2 @5G8? 6. 'B> ?><5H0;> 20< ?>9B8 BC40 A0<><C? 7. #A;KH02 @04>AB=CN =>2>ABL, 452CH:0 =5 <>3;0 C45@60BLAO, GB>1K =5 @0A?;0:0BLAO. 8. 5B>4K B5AB8@>20=8O 7=0=89 ABC45=B>2 =5 2A5340 MDD5:B82=K. 9. 8:>340 =5 >?@545;8HL, 2 :0:>< >=0 =0AB@>5=88. 10. A5340 =5?@8OB=>, :>340 G5;>25: @073>20@8205B, =5 3;O4O 20< 2 3;070. 11.  'B>-B> <=5 =5 E>G5BAO A53>4=O 70=8<0BLAO. 0: BK AG8B05HL, AB>8B ;8 84B8 2 AC11>BC =0 ;5:F8N?  -B> B515 @5H0BL. 12. K ?>1;03>40@8;8 53> 70 B>, GB> >= =0< ?><>3. Ex 557. Translate into English 1. 5 <>3C =5 2>AE8I0BLAO @01>B0<8 MB>3> EC4>6=8:0. ! =5B5@?5=85< 1C4C 640BL 53> =>2KE @01>B! 2. =5 =@028BAO <KA;L ?@>25AB8 ?0@C =545;L =0 !5;835@5.  <K @0AAG8BK205< =0 B>, GB> 2K ?@8A>548=8B5AL : =0<. 3.  0:>9 A0<K9 MDD5:B82=K9 ?CBL >2;045=8O 8=>AB@0==K< O7K:><?  K <>65B5 ?>;CG8BL E>@>H85 7=0=8O, @01>B0O =04 =8< @53C;O@=>, 45=L 40 4=5<. 4. / =5 ?@82K:;0 @0=> 2AB020BL ?> CB@0< 0==89 ?>4J5< 70AB02;O5B <5=O GC2AB2>20BL A51O @0718B>9. 5. 5@54 =8< >B:@K20;>AL 1;5ABOI55 1C4CI55. = =5 <>3 =5 C;K1=CBLAO ?@8 <KA;8 > ?@54. AB>OI59 ?>574:5 2 0H8=3B>=. 6. 5@5AB0=LB5 45;0BL =5=C6=K5 >AB0=>2:8, :>340 2K G8B05B5. 0H5 GB5=85 >AB02;O5B 65;0BL ;CGH53>. 7. K ?5@5AB0;8 @01>B0BL 8 2KH;8 =0 C;8FC. > 4>@>35 4><>9 <K >AB0=>28;8AL, GB>1K ?@>G8B0BL =5A:>;L:> A<5H=KE >1JO2;5=89. 8.   AB>8B ;8 2>>1I5 ?;KBL ?> "5<75 2 B0:CN 4>64;82CN ?>3>4C?  0, E>B5;>AL 1K, GB>1K ?>3>40 1K;0 ;CGH5, => ?>3>4C =5 ?><5=O5HL. 9. =0 ?>;=>ABLN >2;045;0 8A:CAAB2>< =8G53> =5 45;0BL. =0 68;0, A;>2=> C =55 =5 1K;> 701>B, A;>2=> >=0 2AN 687=L :C?0;0AL 2 @>A:>H8. 10. >94O 2 4><, >=0 ?>4C<0;0, GB> 5A;8 1K 1K;0 1>30B0, B> >1AB028;0 1K 53> A>25@H5==> ?>-4@C3><C. The Infinitive and the Gerund Ex. 558. Comment on the difference between the following pairs of sentences. 1. I like cooking for my family. I'd like to cook something delicious today. 2. The manager stopped speaking on the phone. The manager stopped to pick up the file. 3. He'll never forget meeting Mary for the first time. Don't forget to meet the children after school. 4. They went on talking all night. After college, Andrew went on to study law. 5. If you want to improve your French, you can try watching French films. I am trying to give up smoking. 6. The piano needs tuning. She needs to be very, very careful-7. When I was a kid, I used to play with my neigh' hours' children. When I was a student, I had to get used to reading a lot. Ex. 559. Answer the questions. 1. What do you like doing in your spare time? 2. What would you like to do tonight? 3. If you want to lose weight, what must you stop doing? 4. What can you remember doing when you were a child? 5. What must you remember to do each day? 6. What do you regret doing in the past? 7. What did the doctor regret to inform the patient's wife about? 8. What did the guests go on doing all night at the party? 9. When you left school, what did you go on to do? 10. What can you try doing if you want to improve your English? 11. If money burns a hole in your pocket, what must you try not to do? 12. If your room is in a mess, what does it need? 13. What does the government need to do to reduce inflation? 14. If you lived in Italy, what would you have to get used to eating? Ex 560. Make sentences from the given words using either an infinitive or a Gerund. Model: like, visit I like to visit my friends. enjoy, speak on the phone She enjoys speaking on the phone. 1. plan, go 2. consider, study 3. enjoy, look 4. intend, get up 5. seem, be 6. put off, pay 7. forget, call 8. can't afford, lose 9. try, learn 10. need, think 11. would love, meet 12. finish, learn 13. would mind, support 14. hope, go 15. think about, go 16. quit, drink 17. stop, eat 18. postpone, go 19. continue, think 20. keep, try, improve. 561. Answer the questions 1. What do you practise in conversation lessons? 2. When the bell goes at the end of a lesson, what do you finish? 3. What are students busy doing before exams? 4. What do you resume doing after a tea-break? 5. If a person is homesick, who does he miss being with? 6. What is difficult for a shopaholic to resist? 7. Where do you feel like going for your holiday? 8. If your hair is too long,what does it need? 9. If you're tired when you wake up in the morning, what can't you face? 10. What do lazy people waste time doing? 11. What do lazybones resent being forced to do? 12. What does being a guide mean? 13. What does a store detective try to catch people doing? 14. What does a numismatist spend his time doing? 15. What do careless people keep doing? Ex. 562. Complete the sentences with the Infinitive or Gerund of the verbs in brackets. In some cases both variants are possible. 1. Students need (buy) a lot of books. 2.1 like (give) parties to my friends. 3. It started (snow) in early morning. 4. We'd like (celebrate) our wedding anniversary at the restaurant this year. 5. The tourists finished (pack) at about ten. 6. Are you planning (go) on a holiday this year? 7. I've just begun (read) a novel by B. Bradford. 8. Please stop (crack) nuts! 9. We stopped (buy) a packet of nuts. 10. Did you remember (feed) the fish this morning? 11.1 remember (see) this writer at some conference. 12. Don't worry! I promise (be) on time. 13. What time do you expect (arrive) in Newcastle? 14.1 forgot (lock) the door of my apartment this morning. 15. He forgot (tell) these jokes many times before. Ex. 563. Change the sentences, using the words in brackets according to the model. Model: The doctor advised going to bed. (the patient) The doctor advised the patient to go to bed. 1. The Lovedays don't permit watching television, (their children) 2. The travel agent recommends going to Italy. (the holiday makers) 3. The law forbids stealing, (people) 4. The guide recommends visiting the Tate Gallery, (the tourists) 5. They don't permit the feeding of animals, (people) 6. The doctor advised going on a diet, (the patient) 7. They don't allow parking there, (motorists) 8. The teacher advised using an English-Russian dictionary, (the students) 9. They forbid the wearing of make-up, (their daughter) 10. The attendants don't permit the taking of photographs, (visitors) 11. They advised going to a language school, (the 08-pair girl) 12. The hijacker intends flying to South America, (the pilot) 13. They forbid smoking, (their children) 14. The lawyer advised pleading quietly, (his client) 15. They don't allow dancing, (people) Ex. 564. Complete the sentences with the Infinitive or Gerund of the verbs in brackets. 1. Maxim seems (want) (go) hiking this weekend. 2. The Carters can't afford (go) on such an expensive tour. 3.1 can't stand (wait) in lines for a long time. 4. She hates (go) (shop) on Saturday. 5. My boss refused (give) me a raise, so I stop (work) for him. 6. Tom's tomato crop always failed. Finally he quit (try) (grow) tomatoes in his garden. 7. Would you like (go) (dance) tonight? 8. Jeff expects (go) (fish) this weekend. 9. Alan likes (go) to my presentations. 10. Would you like (go) to my parents' house next Saturday? 11.1 enjoy (teach). Yes, I really enjoy (be) a teacher. 12. The children promised (stop) (make) so much noise. 13.1 need (stay) at home and (study) tonight. 14. Tracey's car needs (wash) and (oil). 15. Don't forget (unplug) the coffee pot, (turn off) all the lights, and (lock) the door before you leave for work. Ex. 565. Use either the Infinitive or Gerund of the verbs in brackets. 1.1 have always tried (do) my best. 2. My bolognese sauce always seems tasteless. Have you ever tried (add) a little sugar to it? 3. Where did you get that money from? I don't remember (give) it to you. 4. Did you remember (post) that letter I gave you? 5. Passengers are forbidden (talk) to the driver. 6. I'd love (meet) you when I am next in Athens. 7. There is a regulation which forbids (smoke) in hospitals. 8. Wouldn't you prefer (stay) in this evening? 9.1 shall never forget (meet) you in Florence when you were with Alan. 10. Don't forget (give) me a ring as soon as you get back. 11. I cannot help (wonder) why she never goes out anywhere. 12. There was a lot to do. Fortunately, Janet agreed to help (prepare) the food. 13.1 don't want to go if it means (change) trains 14. I'm sorry, I didn't mean (interrupt) you. 15. , Won't you stay? There's a good match on TV. no, thanks. I hate (watch) football. 16. Whenever John comes round, I like (cook) something special for him 17. What do you like best about wintertime? Well, if it has snowed during the night, I like (get up) early and (go) for a walk in the fresh snow. 18.  Do C>u really like (meet) people?  Not really. I'm rather a shy person. Ex. 566. Use either Infinitive or the Gerund of the verbs in brackets 1. You must remember (call) at the baker's on your way home because we need (buy) some bread and biscuits. 2. Could you stop (talk) for a moment? I need (concentrate) on this letter. 3.1 hope you haven't forgotten (telephone) the garage because the car badly needs (service). 4. We could try (make) a dash for the car if it would only stop (rain) for a moment. 5. I'm sure you won't regret (buy) the car, even though it needs (paint) and (oil). 6.1 regret (say) that he's clean forgotten ever (promise) me a job. 7.1 don't remember (take) my wallet out of my bag, but I must have done it when I stopped (buy) a paper. 8. As I told you, he's rather deaf, so don't forget (try) (shout) if he doesn't answer the door at first. 9. I've considered (ask) him (raise) my salary but I don't think he can afford (do) it. 10. If the machine happens (stop) (work), just telephone and arrange for the service engineer (call). 11.1 can't help (think) that we shouldn't have agreed (lend) him our car. 12. If you've finished (use) the typewriter, I'd like (borrow) it for a while, so that I can get used to (type) on that machine. Ex. 567. Translate into English. 1. = 701K;, GB> 72>=8; <=5, 8 ?>72>=8; 2> 2B>@>9 @07 8 2 :>=F5 @073>2>@0 A:070;: 5 701C4L ?>72>=8BL <=5 25G5@><. 2. ><=N, :0: <K <5GB0;8 > ABC45=G5A:>9 687=8. / 2A5340 ?><=N, GB> =C6=> ?>72>=8BL <>8< 4@C7LO< ?> >A>1K< 40B0<. 3. >O 4>GL ;N18B 3>B>28BL. !53>4=O >=0 E>B5;0 1K ?@83>B>28BL ?8FFC A 3@810<8. 4. =>385 ;N48 ?@54?>G8B0NB >AB020BLAO 70 3>@>4>< 2 60@:85 4=8.  O 1K ?@54?>G;0 A59G0A C5E0BL : <>@N. 5. 01CH:0 70?@5I05B :C@8BL 2 4><5. =0 @07@5H05B 2=C:0< :C@8BL =0 10;:>=5. 6. = =8:>340 =5 701C45B, :0: 2?5@2K5 2AB@5B8; 55. 7. 5@5AB0=L C:>@OBL <5=O. 54L <K >AB0=>28;8AL, GB>1K ?>3>2>@8BL. 8. !>60;5N, GB> A:070;0 20< MB>. ! A>60;5=85< A>>1I0N 20<, GB> A0<>;5B >?074K205B =0 420 G0A0. 9. =8 ?@>4>;60;8 B0=F520BL 2AN =>GL. = ?@>4>;68; CG8BLAO, GB>1K AB0BL N@8AB><. 10. A;8 2K E>B8B5 CA>25@H5=AB2>20BL A2>9 0=3;89A:89, 2K <>65B5 ?>?KB0BLAO A<>B@5BL D8;L<K. / ?KB0NAL 1@>A8BL ?8BL :>D5. 11. >340 O 1K; @515=:><, O 8<5; >1K:=>25=85 ;><0BL <=>385 83@CH:8. >340 O 1K;0 ABC45=B:>9, <=5 ?@8H;>AL ?@82K:0BL : B><C, GB>1K <=>3> G8B0BL. 12. >;K =C6=> =0B5@5BL, :>2@K ?@>?K;5A>A8BL, 0 >:=0 ?><KBL. Participle I Ex. 568. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the function Participle I. 1.1 saw you dancing, and I'll never be the same again! 2. This novel explores the healing power of love. 3.1 will always be here waiting for you! 4. Her mother was always there for her and for John, advising them when they asked, rooting for them, cheering them on. Meredith had always been mother and father for them both. 5. My days are spent taking books off shelves and putting them back on the shelves. 6. The clock told him it was almost twelve thirty. Throwing down the pencil, he stood up, stretching his long legs. 7. The balloons rose, slowly, big, red and round, hobbling and weaving toward the fluffy white clouds. 8. There was such a freezing cold wind, and such heavy rain, that we all stayed indoor. 9. Sliding down off the tall stool, she lifted her arrnj above her head, did a few stretching exercises, and then walked across her studio, heading for the kitchen 10. They sat down, continuing to look at her with curiosity. 11. Not giving him an opportunity to start the ball rolling, Meredith jumped in with both feet. 12. Being an architect and a designer, he was an extremely visual man and so it was her looks that had initially attracted him to her. 13.1 spent the evening chatting to a visiting Russian priest. 14. Louise followed two steps behind her sister, mouth rattling non-stop. 15.1 love to watch my city waking up. Ex. 569. Replace the subordinate clauses by participial phrases 1. As I didn't know Chinese, I had to turn to the guide for help. 2. When it came out of the blue as it did, the question startled her. 3. The boy sat back in his chair, and bit his lower lip, and fought the sudden rush of emotions which filled his throat. 4. He ignored her question and went on reading. 5. Amelia sat quietly and waited for the conversation to come to an end. 6. Dennis got up and left abruptly his breakfast half eaten. 7. The leaves which were falling covered the earth which was waiting for the winter to come. 8. After she took a deep breath, she banged the door open and stood back to wait. 9. Nancy walked over to one of the French windows, stopped there, looked out at the garden, and thought how arresting it looked. 10. He went and threw money around. 11. The old man sat and waited, and watched, and never got tired of his self-appointed task of keeping track of all who passed. 12.1 pulled my tie off and flung it onto the sofa, and stretched out to read the paper, and listened to the crickets chirp, and then I felt the tensions of the workday disappear. 13. We were frustrated, for we had been interpreting since early morning. 14. They watched the sun which was setting and admired the sight. Ex 570. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the function participle I. 1. Keeping in mind the terrain, the weather, and the length of the hike, decide what you need to take. 2. You shouldn't waste time dwelling on that old situation. 3. Glancing at her, Patsy decided to say no more for the moment. 4. On the way back to Ripon she talked about other things, wanting to take Meredith's mind off her mother. 5. You know, I racked my brains last night, trying to remember the name of the man Kate married. 6. She noticed a handsome grandfather clock standing in a corner. 7. He sat for a long time wandering in a world of dream and memory. 8. Reaching for the kettle, she filled it and put it on the cooktop to boil. 9. At that point, the mother came in carrying a large tray on which were the four suppers. 10.1 lay awake all night, trembling with fear, and eyes wide open in horror, imagining ghosts in every corner. 11. Madagascar is a living zoo. 12. Let sleeping dogs lie. 13. The cat lay sleeping on the floor. 14. People ran in and out of the house, shouting and crying. 15. Sally spends all her time going to parties. 16. Maxim gave the photographs a last lingering glance before running to the door. Picking up his suitcase, he took a deep breath and went out. Ex 571. Open the brackets using the Infinitive or Participle I. 1. He was silent, staring at her, and she could almost hear his mind (work). 2. Clare found herself (giggle) with him out of sheer nervousness. 3. When they saw me (come), they sprang apart. 4.1 failed to see the guests (leave). 5. I looked out of the window and saw the rain (pour) down on the leafless garden. 6. They heard a key (turn) in a lock and then, suddenly, a light appeared in a light corner; a trap-door was being opened, letting in the light. They could see a strong hand (push) it up, and Dick raised his crossbow, waiting for somebody (appear). 7. After an hour's rest I felt the tensions of the workday (disappear). 8. She glanced back and saw the stranger (follow) her slowly. 9. I saw the cup (slip) from her hand and (fall) to the floor. 10. We felt it (come) for a long time. 11. Helen returned to the hostel from the University to find her roommates (have) a surprise party. 12. The police saw the agent (stop) and (take) a few shots. 13. The parents watched their kids (laugh, talk and enjoy) themselves on the green lawn. 14.1 saw the unhappy young man (sit) with a miserable expression. 15. We noticed him (give) a start and (turn) pale. 16.1 felt as if I could feel her heart (beat). And then, all of a sudden, I heard her heart (stop) (beat). 17.1 walked happily through the streets (watch) the town come to life. Ex. 572. Translate into English 1 / 2845;, :0: BK B0=FC5HL, 8 O =8:>340 MB>3> =5 701C4C. 2. / A;KH0;, GB> BK ?@5:@0A=> B0=FC5HL. 3. K A;KH0;8, GB> >=0 ?@5:@0A=> AB0=F520;0 2> 2G5@0H=5< A?5:B0:;5 )5;:C=G8:. 4. %>7O9:0 =01;N40;0, :0: 55 3>AB8 C?0:>2K20;8 G5<>40=K 8 2845;0, GB> 8< 1K;> >G5=L 60;L C5760BL. 5. / GC2AB2CN, GB> BK =5 A>3;0A5= A> <=>9, 8 MB> <5=O >3>@G05B. 6. / GC2AB2>20;, GB> GB>-B> 42830;>AL 2 :><=0B5, 8 C2845; 1>;LHCN 101>G:C, ;5B02HCN ?>4 ;NAB@>9. 7. = ?>GC2AB2>20;, :0: :B>-B> HC<=> 4KH8B 70 53> A?8=>9. 8. K ?>GC2AB2>20;8, GB> C =53> 5ABL GC2AB2> N<>@0. 9. =0 GC2AB2>20;0, GB> ?>4E>48B 4;O MB>9 @01>BK (to be fit for). 10. @8ACBAB285 <>;>4>9 452CH:8 70AB02;O;> 53> GC2AB2>20BL A51O <>;>4K<. 11. / 25@N, GB> MB> 206=>. 12. K =0G0;8 @0AA:07K20BL HCB:8, 8 MB> ?>72>;8;> =0< A:>@>B0BL 2@5<O. 13. '5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O >= 70<5B8;, GB> 53> ?@5A;54C5B ?>;8F59A:0O <0H8=0. = ?>GC2AB2>20;, :0: C =53> 70:>;>B8;>AL A5@4F5. 14. / ?>GC2AB2>20;0, :0: C <5=O :0<5=L A20;8;AO A 4CH8. 15. K A;KH0;8, GB> >=8 C5E0;8 2 >=4>=. >B 1K 8 =0< A =8<8! 16. K :>340-=81C4L A;KH0;8 :>3>-;81> 3>2> @OI8< ?>-:@5>;LA:8? 17. / AG8B0N 53> M:A?5@B>< 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8. 18. K ?>GC2AB2>20;8, :0: :>D5 70:9 ?05B, 8 ?>A?5H8;8 =0 :CE=N. 19. 5@=C2H8AL 4><>9, >= >1=0@C68;, GB> 45B8 ;5G8;8 A>10G:C. 20. =8 CA;KH0;8, :0: A@01>B0;0 =>G=0O A83=0;870F8O, 8 C2845;8 42CE >E@0==8:>2, 15602H8E :> 2E>4C 2 10=:. 21. =0 ?>9<0;0 A51O =0 B><, GB> >?OBL 4C<0;0 > =5<. Ex, 573. Read and translate the sentences Point out the verbal 1. At the core of Internet is a sharing of information. 2. It's the getting of the American visas, Theodora. Very difficult it is. 3. Thanks to Fred we no longer had the difficult financing. 4. The committee pretends to ignore all the kidding. 5. Something tells me that these young men should have a talking to. 6. You know that our parents will kill you if you ruin the new wall-to-wall carpeting. 7. The barking and howling of the dog kept me awake. 8. The man's shouting scared me to death. 9. A born flunky,Fernando loved gossip and the telling of it. 10. Blanche interrupted her musings. 11. The insistent ringing of the telephone awakened Meredith with a sudden start. 12. Then the clapping grew louder and the singing became more enthusiastic. 13. This story is not about the suffering of great heroes, or the sufferings of the mighty. 14. The sobbing of the two women slowly began to subside. 15. She was seized by a terrible weeping. 16. "I'm the one who's been doing most of the talking," she said with an apologetic smile. 17. And the bickering. How did you close your eyes to that? 18. We have a chance for a gathering today. 19. The monotonous ticking of the clock told Dina she had little time to waste. 20. In two or three years with the proper coaching she could be brought up to university standard. Ex. 574. Read and translate the sentences 1.1 must say that nobody seems to really listen anymore. Except you. You're the best listener I've ever known. But if you are the one doing all the talking then you don't learn anything. 2. One of the things that had given him the most satisfaction in the past nine months since the shooting was the healing of the rift between his daughter and himself. 3. Alison began singing. While the singing was under way, Teddy sat in a chair near the fire. 4. Waiting was all she could do now. But there were times, like this morning, when she could hardly bear the waiting. 5. Anybody watching the comings and goings at the house would have thought it was a hotel! The detective observed the suspicious comings and goings of the men with interest. 6. Neither spoke for a moment, then he said, "Congratulations again on winning the Oscar for Best Actress. I did drop you a note in April, I hope you received it." "Yes, thank you," Camilla replied, smiling, and then she began telling him about the making of the movie for which she had won the Oscar. 7. There's a pounding on Matthew's door, and Amanda flings the door open, her heart beating violently. 8. He had survived the shooting by the skin of his teeth, and when he began recovering from the shock, he made a promise to himself to change his life completely. 9. Looking through the accounts, Emma realized that Meredith would be doing all the decorating. 10. The people around began applauding. The roar of the crowd and the cheering were deafening. 11. The decision making was on a much more personal level and people were excited about making exciting programmes. 12. "She's very creative, especially when it comes to marketing the inns." "True. And I'm usually stuck with the plumbing." "And the decorating. Let's not forget that, Meredith. You know you love designing the inns, remodeling them, putting your own personal stamp on them." 13. While burglary is the stealing of property from a place, robbery is the stealing of property from a person. Ex. 575. Read and translate the sentences. Define the verbals and their functions. 1. Not wanting to stir up bad memories, he said carefully> "I got the impression you didn't have a very good child' hood." 2. The cause of your tiredness is an emotional problem. Or you could be depressed without knowing it. 3. Closing her eyes, she tried to push the fear away, not understanding why she was so frightened. 4. It's easy to get injured in a football match without knowing how it happened. 5. Since I live in the land of political correctness, my car is the only place where I can smoke without getting dirty looks. 6. Not willing to take "no" for an answer, Norris came up with a plan. 7. Not knowing quite how to begin, she started in a roundabout way. 8. The boy made it home without running into more trouble. 9. Without ever having been told, he knew intuitively that Irina would be closely tied to the movement. 10. Maxim glanced at the first page and put the paper down, not being in the mood to read it. 11. Not a day went by without her thinking of them. 12. One day, as she was scolding me, I suddenly threw a question at her. The words just came out without my planning to say them. 13. Not giving him a chance to say another word, Meredith walked rapidly to the elevator. 14. Forgive me for bursting in on you like this without warning. 15. After hanging up the coat in the hall closet, Teddy crept gingerly up the stairs, having no wish to disturb her aunt. 16. On the doorstep, Harry Potter rolled over inside his blankets without waking up. The boy slept on, not knowing he was special, not knowing he was famous, not knowing he would be woken in a few hours' time by Mrs.'s scream as she opened the front door to put out the milk bottles. Ex 576. Translate into English. 1. 8:>340 =5 ?>4?8AK209B5 1C<038, ?@5420@8B5;L=> =5 ?@>G8B02 8E. 2. 5 7=0O =8 8<5=8, =8 04@5A0 452CH:8, >= 1>O;AO, GB> =8:>340 55 =5 =0945B. 3. 3> =0?@028;8 2 ?>;8F59A:89 CG0AB>: 157 ?@54JO2;5=8O :0:8E-;81> >128=5=89. 4. 515=>: @0718@0; =>2CN 83@CH:C, =5 A:@K20O A2>53> ;N1>?KBAB20. 5. 5;L7O :C?8BL MBC :0@B8=C, ?@5645 G5< >=0 1C45B 2KAB02;5=0 =0 25@=8A065. 6. =0 =8:>340 =5 <>65B 2K<KBL ?>AC4C, GB>1K G53>-=81C4L =5 @0718BL. 7. ">, GB> C <5=O =5 1K;> 4@C759, >A;>6=8;> A8BC0F8N. 0 <5=O =5:><C 1K;> ?>@CG8BLAO. 8, ;L?8=8ABK 42830;8AL : 25@H8=5, =5 >1@0I0O 2=8<0=8O =8 =0 ?0;OI55 A>;=F5, =8 =0 A=56=K5 ;028=K. 9. 5 65;0O ?@82;5:0BL GL53>-;81> 2=8<0=8O, 035=B 70B5@O;AO 2 B>;?5. 10. 5 C7=02 <5=O, >=0 ?@>H;0 <8<>. 11. =8 27O;8AL 70 45;>, =5 >A>7=020O, : G5<C MB> <>65B ?@825AB8. 12. 5 >6840O 40;L=59H8E C:070=89, ?>;8F59A:85 1@>A8;8AL : A0<>;5BC. 13. =8 =5 ?>4E>4OB 4@C3 4@C3C. =8 8 ?OB8 <8=CB =5 <>3CB ?@>25AB8 2<5AB5, GB>1K =5 ?>AA>@8BLAO. 14. >64L 845B C65 F5;CN =545;N 8, :065BAO, =5 A>18@05BAO >AB0=>28BLAO. 15. =8 2>H;8, =5 ?>ABCG02, 8 >AB0=>28;8AL :0: 2:>?0==K5, =5 25@O A2>8< 3;070<. Ex. 577, Read and translate the sentences. Find Nominative Absolute Constructions and state their functions 1. Eyes bright, Peg shot up her head. 2. Nose in the air, she walked right past me. 3. Head down, the bull charged straight at the man. 4. Chin on his chest, Finch dozed. 5. My fears laid to rest, I climbed into the plane for my first solo flight. 6.1 stood on the deck,the wind whipping my hair. 7. His voice breaking with emotion, Ed thanked us for the award. 8. The naughty boy was carried upstairs, arms waving and legs kicking. 9. Arms linked, the two women walked over to the sofa, and sat down. 10. Now she stood at the front door, her hand on the brass knocker. 11. Pulling open the door leading into the hall, Maxim suddenly stopped dead, one foot poised on the step. 12. "Don't tell me he's proposed to you already!" Ketti cried, sitting up in the bed, her eyes flashing and flying open in surprise and alarm. 13. My knuckles white, my hair standing on end, my stomach heaving, I gripped the wheel of the skidding car. 14. Horns honking, truck drivers yelling, policemen whistling, the traffic inched along. 15. Forehead wrinkled, mouth pursed, watch ticking, Reese studied the board. 16. Shoulders hunched, hair streaming in the wind, toes curled over the edge of the board, Jackie rode the big wave. 17. Catherine sat studying the illustration on her drawing board, her head held on one side, her eyes narrowed slightly as she assessed her work. Ex, 578. Make up sentences or situations, using the following ases as Nominative Absolute Constructions The weather being unusually hot, the situation being urgent, the experiment proving fruitless, there being no witnesses, the inspection revealing new details, the circumstances being favourable, it being rather frosty, this done, introductions over, such being the state of things, there being no way out, the reception over, her mind turning again to business, no one in sight. Ex. 579. Comment on the participles in the following extracts. 1. She sat waiting patiently, watching Kate moving with swiftness, bringing plates of sandwiches and scones to the table, turning off the whistling kettle, pouring hot water onto the tea leaves in the brown teapot, which, as Kate always said, made the tea taste all that much better.2. All through that weekend, as Teddy watched them enjoying so many different things together, talking about football, cricket, flying, sport cars, she came to understand how much Maxim must have missed a masculine influence in his life at home, with only her and Aunt Ketti to keep him company. 3. Walking to school in the mornings, Charlie could see great stabs of chocolate piled up high in the shop windows, and he would stop and stare and press his nose against the glass, his mouth watering like mad. Many times a day, he would see other children taking bars of creamy chocolate out of their pockets and munching them greedily, and that, of course, was pure torture. 4. The child nodded her understanding and reached for a sausage roll, eating it slowly but with great relish. Once she had finished, she sat eyeing the plates of sandwiches hungrily. There were various kinds cucumber, polony, tomato and egg salad. Mari's mouth watered, but because her mother had taught her manner had told her never to grab for food greedily, she waited for a second or two,sipped the glass of milk her mather had placed next to her plate. Presently, when she thought enough time had elapsed, she reached for cucumber sandwich and bit into it, savouring its moist crispiness. 5. Meredith walked over to the window, stood looking out at the garden, her mind on her mother. Turning around, she gave Eunice a penetrating look and asked, "Did you ever run into my mother in the ensuing years?" 6. Charlie's grandparents were over ninety. All days long they lay huddled in their one bed, dozing the time away with nothing to do. But as soon as they heard the door opening, and heard Charlie's voice, saying, "Good evening", all of them would suddenly sit up, and their faces would light up with smiles of pleasure and the talking would begin. For they loved this little boy. Often, Charlie's mother and father would come in as well, and stand by the door, listening to the stories that the old people told, and this room would become a happy place, and the whole family would forget that they were hungry and poor. Ex. 580. Translate into English 1. 0@B8=K, 28AOI85 2 MB>< 70;5, ?@8=04;560B :8AB8 528B0=0, >;5=>20, >@>28=0. 2. 0@B8=K, 28A52H85 2 70;5 =><5@ ?OBL, A59G0A @5AB02@8@CNBAO. 3. ;0BL5, 2KAB02;5==>5 2 28B@8=5 <03078=0, AB>8B F5;>5 A>AB>O=85. 4. ;0BL5, 28A52H55 2 28B@8=5 <03078=0' 8AG57;>. 5. 52>G:0, :0G0NI0OAO =0 :0G5;OE,  <>O 2=CG:0. 6. 0;LG8:, :0B02H89AO 745AL =0 25;>A8?5 45, C1560; :C?0BLAO =0 @5G:C. 7. G5@0 1K;0 >B:@K' B0 =>20O ;8=8O <5B@>, A>548=ONI0O MB>B @09>= A F5= B@>< 3>@>40. 8. 0=0<A:89 :0=0;, A>548=ONI89 "8 E89 >:50= A B;0=B8G5A:8< >:50=><, 1K; >D8F80;L=> >B:@KB 2 1920 3>4C. 9. 5@B>;5B, ;5BOI89 =04 H>AA5, ?@5A;54C5B G5@=K9 468?. 10. !0<>;5B, ;5B52H89 2 @078;8N, 8AG57 87 ?>;O 7@5=8O G0A =0704. 11. !BC45=BK-<548:8 =5 <>3;8 =5 2>AE8I0BLAO E8@C@3><, ?@>2>482H8< MBC C=8:0;L=CN >?5@0F8N. 12. %8@C@3, A45;02H89 MBC >?5@0F8N, >15I0; ?0F85=BC 1KAB@>5 2K74>@>2;5=85. 13. 3> 2=8<0=85 ?@82;5:;0 452CH:0, A8452H0O =0?@>B82 =53> 2 <5B@>. 14. 52CH:0, A8452H0O =0?@>B82 =53> 2 203>=5, 24@C3 2AB0;0 8 2KH;0. 15. '5@57 >B:@KBCN 425@L <K <>3;8 A;KH0BL ABC45=B>2, @5?5B8@>202H8E =>2>3>4=89 :>=F5@B. 16. !BC45=BK, 3>B>282H85AO : D>=5B8G5A:><C :>=:C@AC, C65 CH;8. Ex. 581. Read the text, find the verbals and comment on them. "I just knew I had to find the will to continue living somehow."  Stevie let out a long sigh, wishing she knew of a way to help her son. It was a heavy burden to carry. Without thinking twice, or weighing the odds, and speaking from the heart, Stevie went on. "I hope I'm far too big a woman to hold a grudge against you. Grudges are petty. They're the tools of the weak and the small-minded in this world." "Mother, I don't know how to redeem myself in your eyes," Nigel said, searching her face. "By doing a good job at the store, my son. By looking after your children and loving them well. By loving your brothers and sister. By standing tall, Nigel, and being the man I know you can be." "I will try. Now I will do it. I will." She touched his cheek gently. "Love is so important in all of our lives ... and I mean all kinds of love, not just the romantic kind. Love has such tremendous healing powers." She knew now that he had a good chance of getting back on his feet. Work was a great antidote to sorrow; she had discovered that for herself. And his children, too, would give him a reason to live. (after B. Bradford) Ex. 582. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the difference in the functions of the verbals 1. Being short-sighted, she wears contact lenses. Being short-sighted can cause problems. 2. Reaching the crest of the hill, we stopped to admire the view. Reaching the crest of the hill will take all my strength. 3. Being rather absent-minded, he tends to forget things. Being absent-minded can cause serious troubles. 4. Having no money, they decided to stay at home. Having no money can't stop them from marrying. 5. Not having a work permit, he couldn't get a job. Not having a work permit can be the reason for being refused. 6. Fastening their seat belts, they prepared to land. Fastening your seat belt is a must when the plane takes off and lands. 7. Feeling tired, I decided to go to bed. Feeling tired is no excuse for being rude to your children. 8. Being ambitious, he hopes to get promotion. Being ambitious is the driving force to success. Ex. 583 Paraphrase the sentences so as to use the right form of Participle I 1. She blushed because she was embarrassed. 2.1 left the party early because I felt out of place. 3. The little boy tore his trousers when he climbed up the tree. 4. The students were bored so they started to fidget. 5.1 was caught unawares and I was at a loss for words. 6. She was unable to sleep so she took a couple of sleeping pills. 7. The police couldn't make an arrest as they didn't have enough evidence. 8. The children had to go back to school because the holidays were over. 9. As I'd already eaten, I wasn't hungry. 10. After the Prime Minister had lost the election, he resigned. 11. As I'd enjoyed the book, I decided to see the film. 12. He had to climb through the window because he had lost the key. 13.1 don't know whether I like it or not because I haven't tried it before. 14. Now that the student has passed First Certificate, she's hoping to take the Proficiency. 15. As she has been late for work every day, she's in danger of losing her job. 584. Change the sentences according to the model. Model: The weather was bad so they decided to stay at home. The weather being bad, they decided to stay at home. The demand for cars has fallen because petrol has gone up in price. Petrol having gone up in price, the demand for cars has fallen. 1. There was a queue so they had to wait. 2. It was late so they decided to go home. 3. After the programme had finished, they went to bed. 4. As the boss was out, the secretary took the message. 5. All the shops were closed because it was Sunday. 6. After the film started, everyone stopped talking. 7. Her husband committed adultery so she decided to get a divorce. 8. There was no coffee left so they had tea instead. 9. The castle was haunted so nobody wanted to live there. 10. After the operation had been completed, the patient was wheeled back to the ward. 11. It was the height of the season so all the hotels were full. 12. A lot of people have given up smoking because cigarettes have gone up in price. 13. The student forgot the meaning of the word so he had to look it up in the dictionary. 14. As I didn't want the responsibility of deciding, I tossed a coin. 15. As the driver was caught exceeding the speed limit, he had to pay a fine. Participle II Ex. 585. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the functions of Participle II 1. The clipped, dark green hedges of the garden were covered with a light frosting of snow. 2. There was a collection of blue and white porcelain effectively arranged on an oak console table. 3. Raised in Wyoming, David sometimes writes songs about sad cowboys. 4. The wounded were transported in a jam-packed lorry. 5. Where are you? I am totally lost without you. 6. Where have you been? What have you seen? 7. Lost in the world 339 of imagination, I forgot my sad, lonely existence f0r ft while. 8. He was tired of sitting, and he felt cramped after the drive from Paris. 9. The figure outlined against the sky seemed unable to move. 10. The mouse, frightened, darted off into a hole. 11. Shocked into silence, they kept their gaze fixed on the odd creature. 12. Left behind at the office, Dolores wept over the scattered papers. 13. The socks lost in the dryer were her favourites. 14. The girl sat silently as if transported into another world. 15. He forgets everything. He must have his head tested. The sooner the better. 16. We took care to have the gate washed. 17. My dentist advises me to have my teeth cupped. 18. "Gone with the Wind" is a fascinating and unforgettable book. 19. She arrived at her father-in-law's office unannounced. 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The child sat on a rock perched high up on the river's bank. Elbows on knees, chin cupped in hands, she sat perfectly still, her eyes turned on the family of ducks circling around on the surface of the dark water, listening to the splashes of water rushing down the dappled stones of the river's bed. 21. "Money shared makes love grow stronger, money given kills it dead," Celeste held it firm. Ex. 586. Complete the sentences with the expressions from the list below. 1. I'm starving! The only thing I ... in at the moment is food. 2. The students ... in many extracurricular activities. 3. Adam ... to his childhood sweetheart. 4. The committee ... to the new tax plan. 5. My earrings ... of gold. 6. Where is my purse? It...! Oh no, not again! 7. What's the matter, boys? ... you ... ? 8. The day before Christmas, the stores ... with last-minute shoppers. 9. George isn't doing well in school this semester. He ... about his grades. 10. My T-shirt ... of cotton. 11. Unfortunately I ... not -for that job. 12. Richard loves his family very much. He ... to them. 13. Water ... of hydrogen and oxygen 14. Vietnam ... in Southeast Asia. 15. What a hectic life! I ... . be crowded, be made, be lost, be worried, be made, be interested, be involved,, be gone, be qualified, be devoted, be composed, be engaged, be opposed, be exhausted, be located Ex.587. Change the sentences so as to use Participle II 1. The events and the characters which are described in this book are purely fictional. 2. The house, which was built two hundred years ago, stood in a long green valley. 3. He applied for a job. It was advertised in the paper. 4. The bride walked down the aisle. She was accompanied by her father. 5. The millionaire bought a picture. It was painted by Picasso. 6. They were driven from the country by persecution. They had to emigrate. 7. He was disowned by his parents. He was forced to stand on his own feet. 8. They were disappointed with the meal. They complained to the manager. 9. The tourist was arrested for shoplifting. She had to pay a fine. 10. The suspect was arrested by the police. He turned out to be the wrong man. 11. The church was built in the fifteenth century. It's in need of repair. 12. The old painting was found in a dustbin. It turned out to be worth a fortune. 13. You borrowed the books from the library. They're now overdue. 14. Napoleon was born in 1769. He was Emperor of France. 15. The girl went to the party. Her boyfriend accompanied her. 16. His words had the effect which he desired. Ex,588. Comment on the function of Participle II 1.I slaved all my life to have my sons educated. 2. The king had the conspirators shot. 3. If you leave the door open, you will have your house robbed. 4. He is so slow that he never gets his work done. 5.1 had my foot caught in the door and couldn't get it free. 6. It took four men to have the piano removed to the upper floor. 7. This book will soon get finished. 8. What's the time? Isn't it time you had your watch repaired? 9. The shop had the labels made for the new collection. 10. She had Gerald cornered and he had to tell her everything. 11. "he family has come to the church to have the Easter cake and the eggs hallowed. 12. If you can't beat them, arrange to have them beaten. Ex. 589. Read the dialogue and comment on the phrases in bold type (Helen and Igor are watching TV, but the TV set is not working very well, so the picture on the screen is not very clear.) Igor: This stupid TV! I just had it fixed a couple of days ago. Helen: What did you have done to it? I: I had a new picture tube installed. It cost a lot of money. Not only that, they made me wait for two weeks. H: Who did you have to fix it? I won't go to them next time my TV breaks. I: The repair shop around the corner. H: I bet you went crazy without your TV. I: Yeah, I did. I guess I'm a TV addict. H: How can I get you to turn this thing off? There's nothing but garbage on TV now anyway. Let's go out. I: You're right. Look at that commercial. Stupid commercials like that one make me want to throw this set out of the window. H: That commercial may be stupid, but it's very persuasive. Even simple-minded commercials get people to buy things that they don't really need. I : Yeah, there are too many ads on TV. I think the government should make the networks reduce the number of commercials. H: And here's another problem. Most parents let their kids watch too much TV. When I was a kid, my parents only let me watch one programme a night. They made me turn it off after an hour. I: I know watching TV is really a waste of time. I should have the garbage collectors come and take this TV away. H: Oh, come on, Igor. You'll never give up watching TV. Ex, 590. A. Complete the following sentences using the verbs get or something done. 1.1 must get to the optician's to ... . 2. She went to the dentist to .... 3. This coat is too long. I will... . 4. The piano is out of tune. You must ... . 5. Teresa will have to run to the chemist's to ... . 6. Hard work is the best way to ... . 7. As Bill couldn't find a suit to fit him, he had to ... . 8. This article is too long, I shall never ... . 9. If someone touched a hot iron, he ... . 10. The work of a lazy man never ... . 11. Let us ... this business ... as soon as possible. 12. You will ruin your reputation if .... 13.1 must take my dog Patrick to the vet's to ... . 14. Peter's wife can't stand his beard. So he is going to the barber's to .... 15. We need a special cake for the wedding. We must go to the confectioner's to ... . B. Speak about the things you have done this week What other things have to be done? Ex,591. Read and translate the text. Comment on the words in bold "You are a vile, repulsive, repellent, malicious little brute!" the Trunchbull was shouting. "You are not fit to be in this school! You ought to be behind bars, that's where you ought to be! I shall have you drummed out of this establishment in utter disgrace! I shall have the prefects chase you down the corridor and out of the front-door with hockey-sticks! I shall have the staff escort you home under armed guard! And then I shall make absolutely sure you are sent to a reformatory for delinquent girls for the minimum of forty years!" The Trunchbull was in such a rage that her face had taken on a boiled colour and little flecks of froth were gathering at the corners of her mouth. But she was not the only one who was losing her cool. Matilda was also beginning to see red. She didn't in the least mind being accused of having done something she had actually done. She could see the justice of that. It was, however, a totally new experience for her to be accused of a crime that she definitely had not committed. She had had absolutely nothing to do with that beastly creature in the glass. By golly, she thought, that rotten Trunchbull isn't going to pin this one on me! "/ did not do it!" she screamed. (after R Dahl) Ex. 592. Translate into English I. 0640O 65=I8=0 7=05B, GB> 5A;8 C =55 ?;>E>5 =0AB@>5=85, B> >=0 4>;6=0 :C?8BL GB>-B> =>2>5 8;8 65 A45;0BL ?@8G5A:C. 2. =5 ?>40@8;8 =>2K5 A5@L38. C6=> ?@>:>;>BL CH8. 3. =5 >?OBL @0718;8 >:=> 2 <0H8=5. C6=> A@>G=> CAB0=>28BL A83=0;870F8N. 4. "@8 <5AOF0 =0704 <K ?>40;8 70O2:C =0 CAB0=>2:C =>2>3> B5;5D>=0. K 2A5 5I5 645<. 5. C6=> ?@>9B8 B5E>A<>B@. > ?5@54 MB8< =C6=> A<5=8BL ?>:@KH:8, 70@O48BL 0::C<C;OB>@, 70;8BL 10:. 6. # =53> >B>1@0;8 ?@020 70 B>, GB> >= =0@CH8; ?@028;0 42865=8O. 7. !<>B@8, GB>1K B515 =5 ?@8I5<8;> ?0;LFK 425@LN. 8. # <>59 101CH:8 G0ABK5 3>;>2=K5 1>;8. 9 =C6=> ?@>25@8BL A>AC4K. 9.  5:;0<0 3>2>@8B, GB> 5A;8 E>G5HL 8<5BL >A;5?8B5;L=CN C;K1:C, =C6 => >B15;8BL 7C1K. =5 =C6=> 8E A=0G0;0 70?;>< 18@>20BL. 10. A;8 BK =5 E>G5HL, GB>1K C B51O >?OBL C3=0;8 <0H8=C, 45@68 55 2 30@065, 0 =5 =0 C;8F5 II. =5 =C6=> A45;0BL 2AB@>5==K5 H:0DK 2 :20@B8 @5 (to recabinet). 12. =8 A>18@0NBAO >:@5AB8BL A2>5 3> @515=:0 2 A;54CNI55 2>A:@5A5=L5. 13. 0< =C6=> ?>4?8A0BL 2A5 1C<038, ?@5645 G5< 84B8 : N@8ABC. 14. >:0 =5 ?@8H;0 78<0, <=5 =C6=> A40BL 2 G8AB:C 2A5 78<=85 25I8. 15. # =53> A4C;> 25B@>< H;O?C 8 C=5A;> 40;5:> 2 <>@5. C6=> ?>:C?0BL =>2CN. 16. / ?@>O28;0 ?;5=:8 8 70?;0B8;0 F5;>5 A>AB>O=85 70 MB>. 17. =5 =0H;8 :><=0BC. 18. < 4>AB028;8 ?8FFC 2 :><=0BC. 19. < 4>;6=K CAB0=>28BL =>2CN :>?8@>20;L=CN <0H8=C 2 G5B25@3. 20. $5@<5@ A>1@0; C@>609 2 :>=F5 023CAB0. Ex 593. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets Use prepositions if necessary 1. Do you remember (say) it a few months ago? 2. We are tired (push around). 3. Who is responsible (clean) the rooms? 4. The whole house needs (redecorate). 5. She loved (sing) at the top of her voice. 6. Congratulations on (pass) your driving test! 7.1 am not afraid (misunderstand). 8. Have you finished (talk) yet? 9. Nobody wants Laura (hurt). 10. "Money should (make) to work," she announced. 11. As a financial man you should know that money is a tool (use) to make more money. 12. The candidates waited for the questions (distribute). 13. Are you afraid (punish)? 14. We all enjoyed (swim) in the cool lake. 15. She knew what (do) to preserve it all. 16. Justice should (do). It must (do) in the name of those millions who died. 17. What can't (cure), must (endure). Ex 594. Translate into English 1. = AB>O;, A;>2=> 3@><>< ?>@065==K9. 5?@542845==K9 ?>2>@>B A>1KB89 70AB028; 53> ?>GC2AB2>20BL A51O ?>15645==K<. 2.  / A59G0A G8B0N #=865==K5 8 >A:>@1;5==K5 $. >AB>52A:>3>.   O G8B0N B25@65==K5 8:B>@0 N3>. 3. @54AB02LB5 A515, A:>;L <=>3>3> <K 5I5 =5 7=05<., A:>;L <=>3>5 >AB05BAO A:@KBK< >B =0A. 4. 0AB83=CBK9 2@0A?;>E, <0;LG8: A?@OB0; @C:8 70 A?8=C. 5. K F5=8< 2A5 CA8;8O, A45;0==K5 20<8. 6. >AB8 @07J5E0;8AL ?> 4><0<, 25AL<0 708=B@83>20==K5. 7. %;51, 2K?5:05<K9 2 MB>9 ?5:0@=5, >A>15==> 2:CA5=. 8. 0209B5 1C45< AG8B0BL MB> 45;> @5H5==K<. 9. =0 2K3;O45;0 3;C1>:> >1865==>9. 10. 515=>: @K40; =04 @0718B>9 83@CH:>9. 11. >94O 2 AB>;>2CN, <K C2845;8 (>1=0@C68;8), GB> AB>; C65 =0:@KB. 12. 5B>4K, 8A?>;L7C5<K5 4;O B5AB8@>20=8O 7=0=89 ABC45=B>2, =5 2A5340 MDD5:B82=K. 13. 02=> 701KBK5 <5GBK >68;8 2 53> 4CH5. 14. 15I0=85, 40==>5 5N 2 ?>A;54=89 <><5=B, BO3>B8;> 55. 15. >340 MB>B @><0= 1K; M:@0=878@>20=, >= 8<5; <3=>25==K9 CA?5E. 16. 570<5G5==K9, >= 2=8<0B5;L=> =01;N40; 70 2A5< 8 2A5<8. 17. #2O4H0O @>70 A8<2>; 402=> 701KB>9 ;N128. 18. 0=>2> >B@5<>=B8@>20==K9, 4>< 2K3;O45; =>2K<, :0: A 83>;>G:8. 19. @54>AB02;5==K9 A0<><C A515, <0;LG8: AB0; @0718@0BL =>2CN 83@CH:C. 20. !:>=AB@C8@>20==K9 ?> ?>A;54=5<C A;>2C B5E=8:8, 02B><>18;L 2K720; 2A5>1I55 2>AE8I5=85. Test the Verbals Ex. 595. Read the texts, translate them and comment on the verbals 1. Meredith cleared her throat, and went on, "I never had any sense of identity when I was young. Not knowing who you are and where you come from is very frightening. It's almost like being a non-person. Since I didn't have an identity, I invented myself. But now getting my birth certificate means a great deal to me." 2. Always, in the past, Meredith had used work to subjugate heartache, bring it to heal. Working hard until she dropped had enabled her to keep her mind off her troubles, to function properly. 3. Left alone, Meredith and Eunice looked at each other carefully without speaking. It was Eunice who finally said at last, "You've grown up to be a wonderful-looking woman, and you've certainly made a go of it, you really have. Living in America, owning all these inns." 4. Reed Jamison was speechless. In all of his forty-one years he had never been discarded by a woman. He had always been the one to end affairs or start them controlling, manipulating, pulling the puppet's strings and getting his own way. He continued to stare at Meredith. She was the only woman who had ever bested him, and a terrible rage began to fulminate in him. He leapt to his feet, glaring at her. "I'm glad I found out what kind of woman you really are! Before I made the terrible mistake of marrying you!" he shouted. 5. After that she managed to put the matter out of her mind; she had always had the ability to pigeonhole problems until it was the appropriate time to deal with them. And so she managed to get through the next few days without dwelling too much on her health or mental state. 6. After this sleepless night I was eager to see Mr. Rochester in the morning, but there was no sign of him. He had obviously told the servants that he had accidentally set fire to his room by knocking over a lighted candle. As I passed his bedroom, I saw Grace sitting inside, calmly mending the curtains. She certainly did not look mad enough to have tried to murder her master. But I decided to investigate. Ex, 596. Open the brackets to make the story complete Retell it Finding Shelter After (travel) for two days in the coach, I was put down at a crossroads on the moor, with no money or possessions, as I realized now that I had left my parcel inside the coach. I was glad (see) there were no towns around as I did not want people (question) me or pity me. After (search) for quite a long time, I found a dry place (sleep), there (be) no rain and it (be) a warm night. In the morning I happened (find) a small village. I needed all my courage (knock) on some of the doors, (ask) if there was any (pay) work I could do, only (refuse) politely. And I could not (bring) myself (beg) for food, although by now I felt weak and faint. All I ate that day was a piece of bread, which I still had to beg from a farmer (eat) his supper. The next day I spent (walk) from house to house, (look) in vain for work. By the end of the day j began (wonder) why I should struggle (stay) alive, when I not (want) (live). The wind and the rain (beat) down on me, I finally arrived at a long, low house, (stand) (isolate) in the middle of the moor. (Hide) near the door, I could (see) into the kitchen through a small (uncurtain) window. I saw an elderly woman (mend) clothes, and two young ladies, who seemed (learn) a language with dictionaries. The ladies looked so kind and sensible, that I dared (knock) at the door. The elderly woman opened it, but she (must) (think) I was a thief or a beggar, because she refused (let) me (speak) to the young ladies. The door closed firmly, (shut) me out from the warmth inside. I dropped on to the wet doorstep, (prepare) (die). There the young ladies' brother found me, (return) home a few minutes later, and he insisted (bring) me into the house. They gave me bread and milk, and asked my name. "Jane Elliot," I replied. I did not want anyone (know) who I was and where I had come from. (See) that I was too tired (speak), they helped me upstairs to a bedroom. For three days and nights I lay in bed (exhaust) by my experiences. When I felt strong enough (go) downstairs, the sisters looked after me very kindly, and made me (feel) welcome in their pleasant home. They were sensitive enough (avoid) (ask) questions which would hurt me. I told them only that, after (leave) Lowood school, I became a governess in a wealthy family, where an unfortunate event made me (run) away. I offered them (do) any kind of work, (teach), (sew), (clean), so that I (can) (become) independent again. (after Charlotte Bronte) Ex. 597. A. Read the text and translate it Sing Your Stress Away! When was the last time you really sang your heart out? For most of us, the answer is likely to be at school and that's a real shame, because singing can do a lot more for us than just creating entertainment. It's terrific for our emotional and even our physical health. If your reaction is "Not me I can't sing a note" or "I'm tone deaf", then think again. According to the experts, if you can speak, you can sing you may never do it in the Bolshoi or in the Albert Hall but if you enjoy doing it and feel better for it, who cares? What Singing Can Do for You 1. Drive away stress. Singing for pleasure can mean getting in touch with emotions that you've tried to bury. Singing unlocks a feeling that you've had inside for ages allowing you to feel refreshed and renewed. 2. Give you more confidence. You may not believe it, but singing can become addictive! Many singers are hooked: they say it (singing) gives them more confidence. Maybe you've enjoyed singing in the bath or in the car, but haven't had the confidence to sing in other situations. Very often you start off in a whisper but, by the end of the weekend, you're singing your heart out. 3. Boost your energy. Singing has clear physical benefits as well. Specialists say that singing is a very physical activity. The key to doing it well is being able to breathe properly. Most people get into bad habits and breathe shallowly from the chest. But this is the least efficient way to get oxygen surging through the body because it doesn't put enough air into the lower lungs. If you breathe fully through your nose, expanding the lower lungs exhaling fully, not only will you see an amazing transformation in your singing, but you'll also find that you have more energy and feel healthier in general. Singing tones up the diaphragm and all the muscles around the ribs and back. It also tones up the face muscles, which is why so many singers tend to look much younger than their actual age. And if you can't bear the thought of doing aerobic exercise, then this may be just the hobby for you! 4. Make you happier. Singing enables you to express yourself, it involves a sense of emotional release. It creates a chemical reaction in the body involving the pleasure-producing networks which are part of the brain and the nervous system. As a result, there's an increased release of the body's natural pleasure-giving and pain-killing chemicals. So, now you know what singing can do to you and if you are tempted, there are lots of different ways of going about it: you can either find a singing teacher, take a correspondence course or join a singing group. Many people are shy at first but they're soon singing with gusto and loving every minute of it. Now it's up to you! B. Say how good you are at singing Discuss your ways of driving away stress, boosting your energy, making yourself feel happier Ex. 598. Translate into English 1. He 7=0O ?@028; 83@K, >=8 CH;8, =5 ?@8=O2 2 =59 CG0AB8O. 2. #A;KH02 =>2>AB8, :>B>@K5 1K;8 ?>B@OA0NI8<8, >=0 =5 <>3;0 =5 @0A?;0:0BLAO >B AG0ABLO. 3. 5 =0AB08209B5, GB>1K O 2KABC?8;0. / ?@8H;0, GB>1K @0AA;018BLAO. / A B0:8< =5B5@?5=85< 640;0 MB>3> A>1KB8O. 4. 0H8 ?0@B=5@K, @01>B02H85 2 845@;0=40E, A59G0A @01>B0NB 2 5;L388. 5. 0< =C6=> 5I5 B0: <=>3> A45;0BL, ?@5645 G5< <K C545<: ?>G8AB8BL 78<=85 25I8, ?>4AB@8GLAO, ?@>9B8 B5E>A <>B@. 6. 0;KH ?5@5AB0; ?;0:0BL, B>;L:> ;8HL koi 40 <0BL >AB0=>28;0AL, GB>1K :C?8BL 5<C H>:>;04:C. 7. K <>65B5 871560BL A;>6=KE A8BC0F89 B5<, GB> 1C45B5 1>;55 B5@?5;82K, A45@60==K 8 =0E>4G82K. 8. A5340 =5?@8OB=>, :>340 G5;>25: @073>20@8205B, =5 3;O4O 20< 2 3;070. 9.  'B>-B> <=5 =5 E>G5BAO A5 3>4=O @01>B0BL. !B>8B ;8 2>>1I5 84B8 2 >D8A?  -B> B515 @5H0BL. 10. K ?>1;03>40@8;8 53> 70 B>, GB> >= ?><>3 =0<. 11. = >?@545;5==> A:>@> ?@845B. = 4>A B0B>G=> C<5=, GB>1K ?>=OBL, GB> <K B5 ;N48, :>B>@K5 5<C ?><>3CB. 12. 5 <0=5@0 >4520BLAO @074@0605B <5=O. EE. 599. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the verbals 1. When I was your age I didn't have time to worry about failing anyone. I had to succeed to survive. 2. After lunch Diana drove off to do some errands. I preferred to stay at home with Andrew, only to discover I was alone. 3. "You don't have to be sarcastic, Mai, and look, there are ways to make unusual situations work. Many ways." 4. Paul was domineering, bossy, he often felt the need to assert himself forcefully. He had made it clear who wore the trousers in their household. Emma had learned to let him have his way in most things, and he in turn, was wise enough never to interfere in her business. 5. As she continued to sew, she thought of her future. She had to work at the mill to earn a living and there was no one available to care for the child during the day. 6. And she knew that she could only rely on herself now to accomplish the tasks which would preserve her empire and her dynasty. To do that she had to live. And she thought to herself: The will to live is the strongest force in the world. 7. Without giving the landlady another glance, Emma mounted the stairs, her heart lifting. She certainly wasn't going to give Mrs. Daniel the satisfaction of seeing her reading a note from a man who was obviously not her husband. TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Ex 600. Read the texts, translate them and comment on the verbals 1. Ernie told me that his job was community policing. I asked him what this involved. He explained, "You have your own special area which you have to patrol. It really means being on the beat: walking round, keeping your eyes open, making sure you know what's going on, chatting to people, basically trying to prevent crime." 2. She sounded fine and friendly, and Mary began to feel better and soon stopped crying. Martha went on talking as she finished her cleaning, but Mary looked out of the window in a bored way, and pretended not to listen. 3. Now the impulse to dream surged up again and I hungered for books, new ways of looking and seeing, it was not a matter of believing or disbelieving what I read, but of feeling something new, of being affected by something that made the world look different. 4. And to answer your question, I don't know what's going to happen. Being in love is one thing, getting married another. And there's so much to consider. 5. Being a single parent all those years had been a strain on her nerves at times, Meredith was the first to admit it. 6. She gripped the frame of her handbag tightly to stop her hands from shaking. But she could not afford to panic, not under any circumstances. So she immediately made a desperate effort to put it aside, to still her nerves. 7. "Time," he mused. "I didn't spend enough time with Adriana to get to know her properly. Marry in haste, repent at leisure," he recalled Teddy's words after his wedding. But his dearest Teddy loved and respected him far too much to interfere in his life, tell him what to do. Ex. 601. Read the text and retell it paying attention to the use of moods, modal verbs, non-finite forms of the verbs The Wheel of Fortune I wish this summer could go on and on and on and I wish I could always be this happy. It seems that whenever you are sad or just normal, you're always wishing you were happy, but when you're happy, you start worrying about when all this happiness is going to end. At least that's the way I am. Already, I'm worrying that I'm too happy, and I'm either going to have to pay for this or it's all going to end real soon. It reminds me of the wheel of fortune that Mrs. Zollar, our teacher, talked about. She said that Shakespeare and all his buddies believed in the wheel of fortune, that your luck kind of went round and round, and when you (or your luck) were at the top, everything would go right. But that it was inevitable that the wheel had to keep spinning, and sooner or later, you'd be at the bottom of the wheel, when everything would go badly. The only thing that kept people from jumping off cliffs when they were at the bottom of the wheel was knowing that sooner or later they would be at the top again. I feel as if the gods were going to spin my wheel any minute. Oh, please, let me stay where I am for a while! I also wish everyone's wheel were at the top at the same time. Beth Ann, for instance, is at the bottom of her wheel and she's driving me crazy. She must have called me ten times today to tell me about Derek. First she said that he was a complete creep and she never wanted to see him again and she cried. Then she called back and said that she loved him so much and maybe she could call him and tell him how much she missed him, and she cried. Get the picture? Ex. 602. Open the brackets to make the story complete Retell it Deciding the Future Now Mr. Rochester was becoming angry, and he looked as if he (be) about (lose) control. But I knew I still had the power (calm) him. So I took his hand and stroked it, (say), "I do love you, but there is only one thing for me (do). I must (leave) you. If I (live) with you like that, I (be) your mistress." "Jane, I want you (listen) to my story. My father loved money very much and he hated the idea (divide) the family property, so he left it all to my elder brother. I (have to) marry a rich girl. Very soon I (discover) that my bride's mother was mad and that it ran in the family. We lived for four years. She was course and stupid, and her madness also made her violent. Well, in moments of despair I intended (shoot) myself, but in the end I decided (bring) the mad woman here. Once she nearly burnt me in my bed, and the second time she visited you. She must (remind) of her own wedding day at (see) your wedding dress. I travelled all over Europe, Jane, (look) for an ideal, for a woman (love). Finally, bitter and disappointed, I returned to Thornfield on a frosty winter afternoon. And when my horse slippeed and fell on the ice, a little figure appeared and insisted (help) me. Soon I began (depend) on you for my happiness." "Don't talk any more of the past, sir," I said, (wipe) a secret tear from my eye. "No, Jane, it was stupid of me (marry) you like that without (explain). I should (confess) everything as I do now. I promise (love) you for ever." "No, sir, it (be) wicked to do what you want. You can only (trust) in God and yourself. Live without (do) wrong, and die (hope) to go to heaven." "But you have no family (offend) (live) with me!" He was beginning (sound) desperate. I knew that what he said was true. However, in my heart I also knew I had the right (leave). He seemed (read) my thoughts. (Rush) furiously across the room, he stared fiercely into my eyes. I stared firmly back at him. He (can) (break) me in two with one hand, but he (can) not (break) my spirit. "Goodbye, my dear master!" I said. "May God (protect) you!" That night I only slept a little, (dream) of the red room at Gateshead. The moonlight shone into my bedroom, and suddenly I saw a white figure on the ceiling (look) down at me. It seemed (whisper) to my spirit, "Daughter, leave now before you are tempted (stay)." "Mother, I will," I answered. I woke up (find) that it was still night. I wrapped up some clothes in a parcel, and crept downstairs, (fear) lest Mr. Rochester (hear) me (leave) his house. While (go) down, I (can) (hear) my master (walk) up and down and (sigh). I could (find) heaven in this room if I (want). But I stopped (reproach) myself and went miserably out of the house. (Walk) along on the road, I could not (help) (think) of Mr. Rochester's despair at (find) himself abandoned. I hated myself for (wound) him. I wanted desperately (be) with him, (comfort) him, but somehow I made myself (keep) (walk). When I heard a coach (pass) by, I arranged (travel) on it as far as my money (allow). Inside the coach I cried the bitterest tears of my life. (after Charlotte Bronte) Ex. 603. Read and translate the sentences Find and comment on moods, modals and verbals in them 1.1 am not used to using used cars. 2. It would please me enormously to have you as my guests. 3. Only an Englishman could have asked that question. 4. He could hear the phone ringing inside, but by the time he managed to get the door opened it had stopped. "Could it have been Maggie phoning from Scotland?" he wondered. 5. "You mustn't be negative, Amy," he replied gently , but firmly. "And you must keep your strength up. Not eating is the worst thing you can do. Why don't you let me make you something? I bought all sorts of special things you've always liked. I must make sure things keep running smoothly. I can't let anything slip,not now." 6. Jake was doing everything he could to help Amy, but she had to help herself. Her doctor had told him that a positive attitude could work wonders. He wished he could make Amy understand how important it was for her to look on the bright side of things to get better. 7. She looks as if butter wouldn't melt in her mouth, doesn't she? 8. He laughed and slapped his thigh, as if it were a huge joke. 9. He looked at me as if I had invited him to a funeral. His own. 10. Miss Trunchbull looked at Miss Honey. Miss Homey met her gaze without flinching. "I am telling you the truth," she said. "You must have knocked it over without knowing it. That sort of thing is easy to do." Ex. 604. A. Read and translate the text Comment on the use of verbals Green Peace The scent of cigar smoke and freshly clipped grass are forever in my memory. I can't smell one without thinking of the other. Together, they always suggest Saturday mornings to me. That was when my father embarked on his weekly ritual mowing the lawn, striding behind the ">3> with a white Owl firmly clamped in his mouth. My cigar odyssey began more than twelve years ago, when as a young man of fifteen I would steal my father's cigars. For many years I watched the great men in my life celebrate their triumphs, and relax with a cigar. Consequently, I began to consider cigars as a symbol of success. Every evening I sit with a cigar in my hand and go over the day's activities in my mind. What I did do, and what I didn't do, and what I should have accomplished. A cigar gives me a chance to relax and think. Smoking a hand-rolled Cuban cigar is one of life's last great pleasures for me. My favourite setting for a smoke is after dinner with friends, sitting outside on the porch at a restaurant on Long Island, accompanied by a strong Colombian coffee. Occasionally, I share a smoke with my wife as I know I look good with a cigar. I should as well admit that my wife looks like a complete knockout with a cigar. Yes, a good aged cigar is absolutely fantastic. I reserve some when I want to give myself a treat. B. What's your attitude toward smoking? Discuss it in your group. Ex. 605. A. Read the text and comment on the verbals. Gardening If you would be happy for a week, take a wife; if you would be happy for a month, kill a pig; but if you would be happy all your life, plant a garden. Every generation finds itself gravitating toward the ground as it grows older. Earlier in our lives we're focusing on our careers, our relationships and our kids. But as we grow older we find we've got more time to pursue interests that simply make us feel good. And gardening offers almost instant gratification. At the same time, it allows us to enhance the value of our single biggest investment: our home. It's only after we reach a certain age that we're ready for the emotional lift, the sense of security and accomplishment that gardening brings. Every generation reaches that point, but every generation does it differently. Gardens have always been the mirror of the times. From the walled pleasure gardens of ancient Persia to the formal gardens of Versailles to the colonial kitchen gardens of Williamsburg, if you want to know where the nation is what is held dear in taste and style look in the backyards. Today, gardens, like cigars, have made a comeback. Gardens have changed a lot since then, but still more and more people are discovering that they are perfect places to enjoy a leisurely smoke. Gardens today are more like outdoor rooms. We don't want to spend a lot of time working in the garden. We've earned the right to enjoy it, so today's gardens are easier to maintain. The garden should reflect your style and taste. Gardens are never done. Gardening is not like architecture you're allowed to change your mind, to pull something out and move it around. A garden gives you a feeling that you are in your own private world. That, after all, is the real reason for a garden, the true meaning of it is a refuge. That's what gardens were in their earliest incarnations. B. Have you heard the old English saying "She has green fingers"? To put it simply, the person is good at growing things, everything she plants comes popping out of the ground, and soon becomes the envy of the neighbourhood. Do you have green fingers? Exchange your ideas on gardening. Ex. 606. Translate into English. 1.  C4L O 2@0G><, O 1K =0H5; ;5:0@AB2> >B AB0 1>;57=59.   A0<>< 45;5? 5@5AB0=L 3>2>@8BL G5?CEC. >6=> ?>4C<0BL, GB> =8:B> =8:>340 =5 ?KB0;AO MB> A45;0BL 2. K, :065BAO, ?@8=O;8 <5=O 70 <>53> 1@0B0-1;87=5F0. =0G5 2K 1K <5=O =5 >AB0=>28;8. 3. %>7O8= =0G0; ?@54AB02;OBL 3>AB59 4@C3 4@C3C, A;>2=> >=8 =8:>340 @0=LH5 =5 2AB@5G0;8AL. 4.  5 <>3C ?@>B82>AB>OBL 8A:CH5=8N 7040BL 20< >G5=L ;8G=K9 2>?@>A. >6=>?  0< A;54>20;> 402=> MB> A45;0BL. # <5=O =5B A5:@5B>2, :>B>@K5 O <>3 1K A:@K20BL. 5. K AB>O;8 =0 ?CABK==>9 C;8F5, =5 7=0O, GB> 45;0BL. C6=> 1K;> =09B8 <5AB>, GB>1K ?@>25AB8 =>GL. 6. K B>;L:> ?>A<>B@8B5! 5:0@AB2>, 2K?8A0==>5 2@0G><, A>25@H8;> GC4>. 0;KH 2K3;O48B B0:, A;>2=> >= 01A>;NB=> 74>@>2, A;>2=> >= =5 1K; 1>;5= F5;CN =545;N. 7. >@0 B515 ?5@5AB0BL ?>4HCG820BL =04 <;04H59 A5AB@5=:>9! 0 B2>5< <5AB5 O 1K 59 ?><>3;0 2G5@0 @5H8BL 7040GC, 8 A59G0A >=0 =5 ?;0:0;0 1K =04 42>9:>9. 8.  "5@?5BL =5 <>3C >?074K20BL =0 70=OB8O.  %>@>H> 1K 2A5 B0: >B=>A8;8AL : CG515. 9. 0< B@C4=> C3>48BL, <040<.  >B@8F0BL MB>3> =5;L7O. 10. !>2@5<5==K5 3>@>40 AB0;8 A;8H:>< 1>;LH8<8, GB>1K 8E <>6=> 1K;> :>=B@>;8@>20BL.  =0< ?@8E>48BAO >G5=L 4>@>3> ?;0B8BL 70 ?@828;538N 68BL 2 1>;LH>< 3>@>45. 11.  5C65;8 BK 2 A0<>< 45;5 =5 ?@>H;0 A>15A54>20=85? "K, 4>;6=> 1KBL, >G5=L =5@2=8G0;0. C6=> 1K;> <=5 ?>9B8 A B>1>9.  0 =5B, 60;L, => O =5 ?>43>B>28;0AL :0: A;54C5B. 12. K 1K;8 AG0AB;82K, GB> =0< 2@CG8;8 48?;><K. 8G53> =5 A:065HL, <K 8E 70A;C68;8. 13. =8 >10 B0:85 70<5G0B5;L=K5 ;N48, => =8:0: =5 <>3CB =09B8 >1I89 O7K:. 14. >:-:>=F5@B 4>;65= 1K; A>AB>OBLAO =0 AB048>=5, =>, ?>A:>;L:C =0G0;AO ;825=L, 53> ?5@5=5A;8 =0 70:@KBCN 0@5=C. 15. %>B5; 1K O 1KBL A04>2=8:>< 8 ?@52@0I0BL =0HC 75<;N 2 >3@><=K9 F25BCI89 A04! Ex. 607. A. Read and translate the text How to Date (A Guide to Modern Living) Dating is something that we just don't do. Not between adults. Dating people is for Americans. Which, if you think about it for a moment, is a bit unfair. Why should they have all the fun? So out for a little romance in your life: ask that person, whom in normal circumstances you'd go a long way to avoid, out for a date. Before you do, though, establish, what exactly is a date? Well, it doesn't involve sex you're not feeling that desperate. Don't involve your friends; they'll only start treating your date as your partner (just to irritate you) and you don't want to encourage crazy ideas like that. Avoid dinner, for obvious reasons: a) expense; b) the awkward silences; c) your date might think it's "serious". Go to the cinema. Cheap, in the dark (no one can see you with your date) and it solves the conversation problem. On how many occasions can you date someone before they become your de facto boyfriend or girlfriend? The answer is three. Any more than that and they'll start developing unreasonable expectations of, for example, your talking to them. The golden rule is to never kiss. A peck is acceptable, but only as you are about to dash in the opposite direction for the sanctuary of your home. One of the main advantages of having a date is that you might be able to discourage other potential dates all those dates you don't give a fig about from asking you out on a date. "I'm sorry, I've got a date," is such a convenient and effortless way of giving the brush off to no-hopers. So don't be dated, make a date with a date, and start enjoying life again! B. Do you do any dating'? Who with and how often do you date Ex. 608. A. See how verbals work to give you advice on how to stay calm and happy Stride For Your Life 1. Walking is one of life's attitudes to stress. Its simple, requires no special training and is pleasurable. Its effect begins within the first 200 metres. Walk every day -_ not because you have to, but because it may be the most relaxing way to get from A to B. Select Your Company Well 2. As harsh as it may sound, mixing with highly stressed people will make you feel stressed. On the other hand, mixing with calm people even for the briefest period will leave you feeling calm. Sleep Like a Baby 3. Anything that interferes with your sleep coffee, cola, alcohol interferes with your ability to become calm. Do whatever is necessary to get as much sleep as you feel you need. Wear Sensible Shoes 4. Any reflexologist will tell you that true relaxation begins at the feet. Wearing comfortable shoes is nearly as relaxing as wearing no shoes at all. Ignore the Phone Once 5. You only have to leave a phone ringing once or twice in your life to understand that important calls always ring back. One less pressure in your life. Go From A to  6. While vitamin A foods enhance your ability to feel calm, it is the vitamin  foods that are known to have the most dynamic effect. Include beans, lentils, peas, nuts, seeds, wheatgerm, wholegrains, dairy foods in your diet. Prune Pressure Phrases 7. Pressure phrases like "I have to", "I must", "I should", "I don't have the time", provoke feelings of stress. Replace them in your thoughts and speech with more relaxed phrases "I may", "I choose to", "I will make the time". Think Before You Buy 8. To avoid the stresses of debt, think about what you can afford to spend long before you think about what you'd like to buy. B. Discuss in the group your ways of relaxing and staying calm Ex. 609. Read the following and say what are your values and laws of life. The world operates on spiritual principles,just as it does on the laws of physics and gravity. Following the laws of life will give you a greater chance of succeeding at anything you attempt to do. 1. Enthusiasm is a law of life. To be a success you must work with your whole heart. Work is the true elixir of life. The busiest man is the happiest man. Idleness warps the mind. 2. Energy is a law of life. Successful, deeply fulfilled people are constantly trying new things, searching for ways to improve what they are doing. 3. Humility is a law of life. The teacher is in school to help students; students should be humble enough to realize that the teacher knows more than they do. They should learn at an early age to profit from the knowledge of parents and teachers. 4. Pleasing others is a law of life. Now, of course, it's impossible to please everyone, but we will be more productive and successful if we try. That means pleasing your colleagues, pleasing your clients and customers. 5. Giving is a law of life. Successful people give and give still more; their giving is returned to them in full measure as it leads to success, both in worldly terms and spiritually. Every act of helping is a way of saying Yes to life. The best way to help yourself is to help others. Remember the concept that as you sow, so shall you reap. 6. Learning from others is a law of life. You can learn to assimilate the wisdom of many lives. It is possible to learn to avoid mistakes, and to put new virtues into practice. It is important to learn something new each day. Learning is a lifetime process. Don't end up like people who, upon graduating from high school, never read another book. We must continue to read, to learn, to experience new feelings and ideas. To show the initiative at an early age. To observe others. To listen carefully to others. 7. Altruism is a law of life. The altruistic person tries to make our world a better place to live in his individual way. 8. Value time. Time is the only one thing that can never be retrieved. One may lose and regain a friend; one may lose and regain money; opportunity once lost may come again; but the hours that are lost in idleness can never be brought back to be used. 9. One of the laws of life states that by expressing love, you attract love. To succeed in your career you must love yourself. All successful people radiate self-love as well as love for others. 10. We live in a world and a time of spiralling progress. We are better educated, better fed, and better housed than any other people at any other time in the history of ttie world. One of the greatest secrets of success and progress is to understand our good fortune, and to continually use new methods, new ways of thinking. Whatever field you have chosen as a career, it is vital that you study hard, and try to become the most knowledgeable person in your field. Part II SYNTAX Chapter VIII. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE T PRINCIPAL MEMBERS OF THE SENTENCE The Subject Ex 610. Find the subjects in the sentences and say what they are expressed by Translate the sentences 1. Life is full of compensations. 2. Nancy is my close friend. 3. She found this hard to believe. 4. Everything that lay before us was new and mysterious. 5. Yours was a clever choice. 6. Reading is a way of learning things. 7. What I mean is that we should compromise. 8. To accept this offer is to radically change your life. 9. Thirteen is a tricky number: with some nations it means good luck, with others bad luck. 10. The rich and the powerful rule this country. 11. There are fashions in language learning. 12. Your constant perhapses and might-have-beens irritate me. 13. It was a pleasant surprise. 14. Shopping is my life. 15. To have been hit under the belt by your closest friend must have been a shock for you, Andrew. Ex. 611. Analyse the pronoun it used as the subject in the following sentences 1. It doesn't matter. 2. It was very pleasant on the river's bank. 3. It's raining here at the moment. 4. Who was that you were speaking to? It was only the postman. 5. It took Stephen some time to work out what she meant. 6. It is impossible to make any decision. 7. He gave her an engagement ring. It was beautiful, very expensive, too. 8. The strike went on for over a year. Finally it was settled. 9. It seemed like a good idea. 10. The punishment wasn't severe. It was a three-month stay in prison. 11. We've just got urgent information. It can explain everything. 12. It's unexplainable, don't even try to do it. 13. It's vitally important that you give up smoking. It has become too bad for your lungs. 14. It's hard to believe that you are leaving us for such a long stretch of time. 15. It's an antique vase. It's very, very old. Ex. 612. Insert there or it 1. ... are about forty of us, sir. 2. ... is a big group, of about twenty. 3. ... was a new cushion on one of the settees. 4. ... was a cute cushion embroidered by my grandmother. 5. ... was not a tree in sight. 6. ... was a lonely place. 7. ... is a reason for everything. 8. ... is a very sound reason, Paul, you may leave now. 9. ... is a very sound excuse for my being late, Mary. Do forgive me! 10. ... is nothing new under the moon. 11. ... is as old as the world. 12. ... was raining cats and dogs on Monday but ... was still so much work to do in town. 13. ... never rains, but ... pours. Yes, one unhappy event is followed by another unfortunate event. 14. Is ... snowing outside? ... a lot of snow in the streets. 15. ... is something you are hiding from me, I feel it. ... is purely your fantasy, ... is nothing to hide, especially from you. 16. ... was an ordinary house, but in that ordinary house ... lived an extraordinary wizard*. 17. According to modern standards ... is a big family-... are four children in it. 18. ... are 450.000 words in the English language. ... is the richest language in the world. * a wizard a magician, a person of extraordinary powers. Ex. 613. Make sentences with emphatic it according to the model There can be more than one variant Model She told me the truth (only) many years later. It was to me that she told the truth many years later. It was only many years later that she told me the truth. 1. Undoubtedly, he did it. 2. Mr. Nickolson himself offered me the vacancy. 3. Brian wants a new bicycle. 4. Victor met Victoria m the year two thousand. 5.1 don't like meat, I like fish. 6. Susan isn't studying languages, she's studying law. 7. We need your help badly. 8. Daniel particularly liked Nabokov's works. 9. She escaped danger by listening to intuition. 10. Andy's quick reaction saved the mountaineers. 11. Jane remembered her childhood years with nostalgic feelings. 12.1 met Christopher on my way to the publisher's. The Predicate Ex. 614. Read and translate the sentences State the types of predicates in them I. It takes a long time to learn a language. 2. My niece has been taking music lessons for a year already. 3. The storm started all of a sudden. 4. They started to work enthusiastically. 5. They stopped talking when the teacher entered the classroom. 6. He can't stop loving her. 7. Every year he met with his classmates. They would sit to table, have a special supper and remember the good old times. 8. When I was a schoolgirl, my mother used to give me a lift to the school. 9. Sue, dear, this young man must have been waiting for you outside for two hours already. 10. Bob looks like a punk. II. This novel was a bestseller last year. 12. Jessica looks elegant in the new suit. 13. She turned pale, the news was too bitter. 14. The strawberries look beautiful and taste delicious. I adore them. 15. Nora gave me an odd look. 16. Now we are having a very lazy time. 17. If I make a mistake, correct me. 18. He gave Henry a hearty wink and strode off. Ex. 615. Say what parts of speech the predicatives are expressed by in the following sentences 1. This is a "cheer up" book. 2. The Renoirs in this museum are priceless. 3. Mrs. Norris is a great cat-lover. 4. This film was awfully funny. 5. You look great today! 6. The new manager is about thirty. 7. Chris became a computer whizz. 8. Your task is to find the right man to do the job. 9. I am scared, I really am. 10. It was them who did it. 11. The biggest problem in life is choosing. 12. It's getting cold. 13. He felt lonely. 14. This perfume smells fantastic! 15. Harry's mouth fell open as the full impact of what he was seeing hit him. 16. It's up to you. 17. My French is very rusty. Ex. 616. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the difference between the words in bold type 1.1 feel good. I feel well. 2. The train arrived early. The train was early. 3. You look good in that hat. You look well as usual. 4. Yesterday was rainy. We met yesterday. 5. Home was a welcome sight. Do you want to go home? 6. Downtown is covered with smoke. She drives downtown every day. 7. Those were hard times. They do try hard. He was so weak, he could hardly walk. 8. We took a fast train. News travels pretty fast. 9. His is a fast car. How fast can you do it? 10. The exam was extremely hard. Think hard about what I'm offering. She had hardly any money. 11. He gave me a friendly smile. Ho smiled at me in a friendly way. 12. Richard has a high social status. That is a highly difficult sum. 13. The Volga is a deep river. We are deeply touched by your kindness. 14. No problem, I can do it easily. It's not an easy question. Ex. 617. Comment on the types of predicates in the following sentences. l.The show was entertaining. 2. The clown wa^ entertaining the children. 3. Who broke this news to you 4. He is completely broken today. 5. God knows I want to be free. 6. You can talk freely, we are all friends. 7. Let's get out of here, I'm freezing. 8. This pond usually freezes in winter. 9. The gardener explained that the stream had run dry some ten years before and the garden had run wild too. 10. They were shouting and fighting wildly. 11. The door stood open. 12. The book stood the test of time. 13. She feels uncertain about it. 14. We are still feeling our way. 15. Truant children run wild. 16. He runs his own business perfectly. 17. The question remains open. Ex,618. Fill in the blanks with one of the following link-verbs 1. In the middle of the talk the line ... dead. 2. She counted to one hundred to ... cool. 3. The detective ... motionless behind the door. 4. Carl Ray's mouth sort of ... open. 5. That dog ... me crazy. 6. It ... reasonable to me. 7. The music ... too loud. 8. His words ... true. 9. The words, unfortunately, ... unspoken. 10. She ... icy cold. 11. I think your memory ... deeply buried, repressed. 12. It ... a capital idea. 13. They ... impatient. 14. To everybody's surprise, he ... a feminist. 15. The book ... open at the end. 16. The sounds ... sharp and clear in the quiet of the evening. 17. Dad ... frantic. 18. The North Sea oil revenues .. dry. 19. But today, nothing was going to ... wrong. 20. His face ... from red to green like a set of traffic lights. was going, became, grew, fell, went, stayed, felt, go, rang, sounded, seems, drives, run, stood, dropped, stay, went, remained, appears, rang Ex. 619. Translate into English 1. = 1K; B25@4 2 A2>5< @5H5=88. 2. >?@>A >AB05BAO >B:@KBK<. 3. >< >AB020;AO ?CABK< 2 B5G5=85 4204F0B8 ;5B. 4. 8F> 0:A0 AB0;> :8@?8G=>-:@0A=K<. 5. >9<8, B2>5 ?>2545=85 A2>48B A C<0 B2>8E @>48B5;59. 6. = 2K3;O45; ?>154>=>A=>. 7. 0;LG8: B>@65AB2CNI5 ?>A<>B@5; =0 2A5E. 8. #H8 >=0 AB0;8 ?C=F>2K<8. 9. 5B0;; >AB020;AO B25@4K< (solid). 10. # 0@@8 >=5<5;> 2A5 B5;>. 11. 25@L <><5=B0;L=> @0A?0E=C;0AL. 12. # <5=O 24@C3 ?5@5A>E;> 2> @BC. 13. >4>H;0 >D8F80=B:0, 8 >15 65=I8=K C<>;:;8. 14.  G5< 45;>? "K 24@C3 B0: ?>1;54=5;0. 15. = @07>@8;AO. 16. 515=>: 701>;5; =0 ?@>H;>9 =545;5. 17. /1;>:> :8A;>5 =0 2:CA. 18. -B>B @CG59 ?5@5AKE05B ;5B><. 19. !04 ?@8H5; 2 70?CAB5=85. 20. =>340 A;>20 <>3CB 72CG0BL B0: E>;>4=>. 21. -B8 O3>4K B0: E>@>H> ?0E=CB. Ex. 620. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the predicates in them 1. Take it easy! 2. In the morning we discovered that the river had frozen solid during the night. 3. It serves him right. 4. They painted the door green. 5. Mrs. Weasley seemed to go on crying for so long that she had shouted herself hoarse. 6. If you enter deep into my world, you'll sink low. 7.1 thought I was going to faint dead away right there. 8. He was frozen stiff and he was hungry. 9. The girl slapped her book shut and rose. 10. She climbed out of the tub and toweled herself dry. 11. He was buried alive. 12. The police caught the robbers red-handed. 13. Now, don't get me wrong. 14. The pizza was served hot. 15. Love me tender, love me sweet! 16.1 like my coffee white. 17. Why does he write so good? 18. Dig deep into the heart of English. 19. He drank the bottle dry. 20. You'll have to judge it cold. 21. He kept it fresh in everyone's mind by constantly talking about it. 22. Caught by surprise, the boy fell hard on the concrete floor. 23. Dudley had laughed himself silly at Harry. 24. He woke early the next morning, but for some time kept his eyes shut tight. 25. The bank promises to keep my money safe. Ex. 621. Make sentences with double predicates out of the following gntences. I. The sun shone. It was bright and warm. 2. The strawberries arrived. They were fresh and delicious. 3. She went away when she was quite a child; she returned when she was a grown-up person. 4. She flushed. Her face was crimson. 5. Around the house the leaves fell. They were thick. 6. The trees showed against the sky. They were sharp. 7. The sunlight sifted through the pines. It was golden and heavy. 8. The sun sank into the sea. It was huge and crimson. 9. The clouds flew across the sky. They were quick and fluffy. 10. The words came. They were sharp and quick. II. They painted the door. It was white. 12. The lasagna was served. It was hot. 13. The snow lay under the trees. It was thick. 14. Take it and stay (be) easy. 14. Love me and be tender. 15.1 want to go into this matter. I want to be deep in it. 16. Uncle Vernon slammed the door and it was shut. 18. Nicholas sat, and he was bolt upright. 19. The boy sat on the sofa. He was frozen with fear. 20. He stopped. He looked as if he were dead. 21. People gazed at the sky. They were open-mouthed. Ex. 622. Read the sentences and give their Russian equivalents. 1. Still waters run deep. 2. The new broom sweeps clean. 3. Take it easy. 4. Go slow, go easy, look before you leap. 5. The words cut deep into her very soul. 6. The detective is trying to dig deep into the matter. 7. Raising teenagers right is not an easy thing. 8.1 like my coffee black. 9. There are some things that sit so heavy on my conscience. Ex 623. Translate into English 1. B=>A8B5AL : MB><C ;53G5! 2. !=53 ;560; B>;ABK< A;>5< ?>4 45@52LO<8. 3. / E>GC 2K@20BLAO 87 B2>59 687=8 (break free). 4. !>;=F5 ?>3@C78;>AL 2 <>@5, >3 @><=>5 8 ?C=F>2>5. 5. 5 >B5F C<5@ 154=K< G5;>25:><, 8 ?>A;5 MB>3> A5<LO @0A?0;0AL. 6. "CB 8 B0< >:=0 A25B8;8AL 65;BK< A25B>< 2 B5<=>B5. 7. >@01;L 1K; >B?@02;5= =0;53:5 70 3@C7>< B010:0. 8.  BC =>GL 0@. @8 4>;3> ;560; 157 A=0. 9. =838 ;560;8 701KBK<8 =0 AB>;5. 10. 0: ?@028;>, 45@68B5 ;5:0@AB20 2 ?@>. E;04=>< <5AB5. 11. !;>20 =5 84CB ;53:>. 12. 3> =0H;8 157 A>7=0=8O =0 ?>;C. 13. 0BL -@8:0 C<5@;0 <>;>4>9, 8 <0;LG8: 4065 =5 ?><=8; 55 ;8F0. 14. E AK= 25@=C;AO 87 M:A?548F88 27@>A;K< <C6G8=>9. 15. 7>H;0 ;C=0, >3@><=0O 8 O@:0O. 16. = AB>O;, =8:5< =5 70<5G5==K9, 2 C3;C :><=0BK. 17. C@=0; ;560; >B:@KBK< =0 AB>;5. 18. =0 ;560;0 A>25@H5==> 70:>G5=52H0O. 19. >A;5 GC45A=>3> >1540 O >B?@028;AO A?0BL AG0AB;82K< G5;>25:><. 20. A;8 <=5 =5 87<5=O5B ?0<OBL, A0<>;5B 2K;5B05B 2> 2B>@=8: CB@><. 21. >20O <5B;0 ?>-=>2><C <5B5B. 22. 3@><=K5 1>30BAB20 ;560B A:@KBK<8 =0 4=5 >:50=0. Ex. 624. Choose the right word. 1. The child feels ... and behaves ... . (bad, badly) 2. The girl spoke ... . Hey, that's really ... . (cool, coolly) 3. It's ... money, you can lose it... . (easy, easily) 4. Marion had ... any money left. She works ... at keeping herself fit. He is a ... nut to crack, (hard, hardly) 5. All people are ... the same. What is your ... aim in life? (basic, basically) 6. It's a ... truth. It was ... true, (universal, universally) 7. They were kissing ... . She burst out into ... sobbing, (passionate, passionately) 8.1 feel ... in such cases. They stared ... at the wounded man. (helpless, helplessly) 9. The kids looked ... after a month in the country. We enjoyed the ... squeezed orange juice, (fresh, freshly) 10. For the next few days the weather remained ... . We could hear the voices quite ... . (clear, clearly) 11. His words had an ... effect. I have to call my lawyer ... . (immediate, immediately) 12. He was a ... sick person. This doctor treats ... patients. I must make a ... note not to forget to book tickets, (mental, mentally) Ex, 625. Correct the sentences. I. Nobody knows where is he. 2. This diagram shows us how is it done. 3.1 am not sure when is he coming. 4. Mel isn't certain why has he done it. 5. We can't understand what is he saying. 6.1 haven't the slightest idea what is his job. 7. They don't know what is the reason. 8. Can anyone tell me where does he live? 9.1 wonder what does she do for a living. 10. Nobody knows what is the date. II. I can't understand what is the matter. 12. Does anyone know what is his address? 13. I'm sorry, but I still don't know who are you. WORD ORDER. INVERSION Ex 626. Read and translate the sentences. Find and comment on cases of inversion or stylistic emphasis. 1. Little did the children guess what a weird and mysterious end to the day was now approaching. 2. Had Aunt Phoebe known when she bought this present what it really was, she would have preferred to buy something different. 3. No sooner had his head touched the pillow than he was as good as asleep, and no sooner had he opened his eyes in the morning than he was out of bed and hunting for his socks. 4. Never before in her short life had Molly dressed so quickly. 5. "Get up, Jack, quickly! Only do be quick, quick!" 6. But remember she did, and found herself explaining it to her brother. 7. "I don't know, " said old Nancy, with a puzzled frown. "Never before have I missed doing the spell at sunset." 8. On, on the Grey Pumpkin rolled, down the hill from the City. 9. "He does do dreadful things," said Grace. 10. Oh, I do hope and trust you will be successful, my dears. 11. Sit you down, dearies, and rest yourselves and we'll have things ready in no time for you. 12. "Poor 371 old father," said Glan, compassionately, "it does upset him so." 13. Evening came and no sign of the Black Leaf had they found. 14. And not until Molly had emptied a big bowl of hot bread and milk would she let her say a word of thanks or explanation. 15. Of course, it does rain sometimes in Jamaica that's why the jewel island is so green. Ex. 627. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the cases of inversion. 1. Never in her wildest dreams had she thought she would ever be married to him. 2. Under no circumstances are you going to make any changes in this apartment as it suits me very well! 3. You imagined it, Reed. Never in a million years would I lead you to believe such a thing. 4. Little does he know of the hard fight for existence which rages among the prisoners. 5. Only in business was she prepared to gamble. 6. But she would not let this defeat her. She would find a way to make money, lots of it, for only then would they be safe. 7. And in this dun-coloured valley stood Fairley Hall. 8. She decided she would think about the baby the day it was born and not before. Then, and only then, would she decide what her next step would be. 9. No sooner had he pronounced a few words than everybody understood that he was a foreigner. 10. In vain did the family try to discover the truth. Ex. 628. Translate into English. 1. ">;L:> ;8HL 4><0 O <>3C ?>;=>ABLN @0AA;018BLAO. 2. 8 ?@8 :0:8E >1AB>OB5;LAB20E 2K =5 4>;6=K >B:@K20BL 425@L =57=0:><K< ;N4O<. 3. 8 70 GB> =0 A25B5 O 745AL =5 >AB0=CAL! 4. "I5B=> :>H:0 ?KB0;0AL ?>9<0BL <KH:C, B0 >:070;0AL ?@>2>@=55. 5. 8HL 2 ?>A;54=89 45=L >= ?@87=0;AO 59 2 ;N128. 6. ">;L:> ;8HL 2 A0<>;5B5 >= ?>GC2AB2>20; A51O 2 157>?0A=>AB8. 7. 8:>340 70 2AN A2>N 687=L O =5 A;KH0;0 =5G53> ?>4>1=>3>. 8. = CB25@640;, GB> B>;L:> ;8HL 2 372 AC45 2A5 @0AA:065B. 9. 420 ;8HL >=0 CA;KH0;0 MBC =>2>ABL, :0: ?>1560;0 @0AA:070BL 55 A2>8< ?>4@C6:0<. 10. 0;> 65 BK 7=05HL, GB> B0:>5 G5;>25:! 11. 5;8:> 1K;> 53> =53>4>20=85, :>340 >= C2845;, GB> 53> <0H8=0 8AG57;0. 12. 065 A> A2>8< ;CGH8< 4@C3>< O =5 <>3 3>2>@8BL >1 MB><. 13.  <0;5=L:>< 3>@>4:5 =0 A525@5 =3;88 68; <0;5=L:89 2>;H51=8:. 0@@8 >BB5@ 1K;> 53> 8<O. Ex. 629. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the type of the subordinate clause in which inversion is used. 1. Try though she did, Teddy discovered that she was unable to look away. 2. Typical ten-year-olds that they were, they made ugly faces to her and she began to laugh, enjoying them. 3. Snow-white though her hair was, her face was plump, pink-complexioned and almost without a wrinkle. 4. Heavily bundled up though they were, they nevertheless moved in a relatively brisk pace, since there was an icy, cutting wind. 5. Popular and successful novelist though he had become over the years, he could no more abandon journalism than he could stop breathing. 6. Reluctant though she was to leave her mother, Mari now realized that this was exactly what she must do. 7. Calculating of brain though she was, Emily could be impulsive of heart. Ex. 630. Use inversion in the subordinate clauses. 1. Though she was tired, Emma unpacked her suitcase and put her clothes neatly away in the closet. 2. Though she was suspicious, cautious, and wary with everyone, she sometimes found herself admiring of Olivia, much against her will. 3. I was thinking of her, thinking that though she might be vain and foolish, she was not a bad person. 4. And at that moment something was settled between them, and they both understood this, though it was unspoken. 5. For a moment or two she racked her brain, but though she tried, she could not remember. 6. Amelia gets so tired at times. Though I have tried, I've not been able to find anyone to assist her. 7. Though she was good-looking, it was her winning natural charm that captivated most people. 8. Willy accelerated his speed to the maximum, though it was dangerous, and shot ahead to escape the scene of violent destruction. 9. The present narrative, though it is brief, is artfully constructed and gripping. Ex. 631. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the cases of inversion and emphasis 1. Well, I have to admit that we did get an interesting bit of news today! 2. So I had to stay and get Dougbie to help me move the bed. A lot of help he was. He has these skinny little arms and is about as strong as a pigeon. 3. Well, that does happen sometimes. And it does seem a little funny! 4. Carl Ray magically appeared at dinner time again. Just as we were putting the food on the table, in he comes and sits right down in my Dad's "special" seat. 5. Dad had to call Carl a thousand times this morning to get him out of bed for his first day of work, but he finally did get up. 6. But I did pretend to be interested. 7. Ale said he had to go or he would be late, so off he went. 8. In came a tall lady, with dark hair and eyes, and a large, pale forehead. 9. And do what I can, I cannot shake him out of the gloom into which he has fallen. 10. Hard as she tried, she still couldn't understand the question. 12. Only after buying the cottage, did we discover that it was infested with mice. 13. Work I must, and for money. 14. That I couldn't tell you. Ex. 632. Read the verse and learn it Find cases of inversion in it There Was an Old Woman (English folk song] There was an old woman as I've heard tell Who went to the market her