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B5G5=85 7>;>B>3> 25:0 Me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dgar Wind, Pagan Mysteries in the Renaissance (W.W. Norton. New York, 1968); 8 Jean Seznec, La survivance des dieux antiques. Flammarion. 1980.  B5E 65 O2;5=8OE 2 5@<0=88: Jacques Rid, L image du Germain dans la pense et la littrature allemandes, de la redcouverte de Tacite a la fin du XVIe siecle. Contribution a l'etude de la genese d'un mythe (3 vol.. Honor Champion. 1977).  =0G0;5 452OB=04F0B>3> AB>;5B8O 4CE 0=B8G=>AB8 >A>15==> ?>G8B0NB 8 2>7@>640NB =5<5F:85 @><0=B8:8. @52=OO @5F8O ?@54AB02;O5BAO 8< =0AB>OI8< >1@07F>< 30@<>=8G=>9 687=8.  A2>Q< >1@07F>2>< ?@>H;><, ?@8@02=820O $0CAB0 : @><5B5N, >=8 284OB >1@07 B>3>, GB> <>65B 1KBL 8E A>1AB25==K< 1C4CI8<, 8 ?>4GQ@:820NB 3;C1>:>5 AE>4AB2> <564C M;;8=A:8< 4CE>< 8 4CE>< A2>53> A>1AB25==>3> =0@>40. A;8 1>65AB25==>5 ACI5AB2>20;>, 3>2>@8B 5;L45@;8=, B>340 >=> 25@=QBAO, ?>B><C GB> >=> 25G=>. >20;8A 8 $@84@8E (;535;L 2K@060NB B0:85 65 GC2AB20. 5=@8E D>= ;59AB, A> A2>59 AB>@>=K, A;028B ?0<OBL @<8=8O (5@<0=0), :>B>@K9 2 9 3>4C =0H59 M@K >1J548=8; 35@<0=A:85 ?;5<5=0 8 @073@><8; ;538>=K 0@0 2 "52B>1C@3A:>< ;5AC. 5A:>;L:8<8 45AOB8;5B8O<8 ?>765 2> $@0=F88 ?@8 ?>445@6:5 0@E5>;>388 8 O7K:>7=0=8O 2>7=8:05B :>;>AA0;L=0O ;8B5@0BC@=0O <>40 =0 O7KG5AB2>, C2;Q:H0O :0: A8<2>;8AB>2, B0: 8 ?0@=0AF52, :0: @><0=B8:>2, B0: 8 =5>:;0AA8F8AB>2.  B> 2@5<O :0: 8:B>@ N3>, ?@82;5GQ==K9 ?0=B587<><, >?@545;O5B >30 :0: !>2>:C?=>ABL (>;=>B0 4;O A51O 8 15A:>=5G=>5 4;O <8@0, 5;8388 8 @5;838O), "5>D8;L >BL5 ?@>A;02;O5B 2 M;;8=87<5 4CHC =0H59 ?>M788. 5:>=B 45 8;L ?5G0B05B A2>8 =B8G=K5 AB8E>B2>@5=8O (1842 3.) 8 0@20@A:85 AB8E>B2>@5=8O (1862 3.), "5>4>@ 45 0=28;L A2>8E 0@80B84 (1842 3.), %>A5 0@8O 45 -@5480 A2>8 "@>D58, N;L5B 40< @><0= ?>4 =0720=85< /7KG=8F0 (1883 3.), L5@ C8 D@>48BC 8 :@09=5 0?>:@8D8G5A:85 5A=8 8;8B8A. =0B>;L $@0=A ?;5B5B 25=:8 52:>=>5 8 5B5 F8;88, C8 5=0@ 2>A?5205B 4>AB>8=AB20 M;;8=A:>3> <8AB8F87<0. "M= ?@>A;02;O5B 2 D8=0E ?5@2CN @>48=C ?@5:@0A=>3>.  AB>@>=5 =5 >AB0NBAO ;L15@ !0<5=, 0= >@50A, =@8 45 5=L5, 0D>@3, 5@;5=, -4C0@ (N@5, !N;;8 @N4><, -4C0@ N60@45=, $@0=AC0 >??5, <040< 45 >09, =5 3>2>@O C65 > 0BC;;5 5=45A5, G59 1=06Q==K9 G5;>25: 1K; >B=>A8B5;L=> =5402=> ?5@58740= (874. Libres-Hallier, 1980).  1848 3. C8 5=0@ 2848B 2 <=>3>1>688 >A=>20=85 @5A?C1;8:0=A:>3> 8450;0: C2065=85 : <=>65AB25==>AB8 <=5=89 8 :@8B8:C <>=0@E88. "0:>20 65 B>G:0 7@5=8O 0110B0 . ><0, D0=0B8G=>3> ?@>B82=8:0 O7KG5AB20, :>B>@K9 >B>645AB2;O5B 53> A 45<>:@0B859 8 A>F80;87<>< 8, =5 :>;51;OAL, ?8H5B: 5=5AA0=A 1K; 2>7@>645=85<, :C;LB><, D0=0B8G=K< ?@>A;02;5=85<, O7KG5AB20 A> 2A5<8 53> ;8B5@0BC@=K<8, EC4>65AB25==K<8, D8;>A>DA:8<8, <>@0;L=K<8 8 @5;838>7=K<8 84>;0<8; 5=5AA0=A ?>@>48; 5D>@<0F8N, 5D>@<0F8O ?>@>48;0 2>;LB5@>2A:>5 1571>685, 2>;LB5@>2A:>5 1571>685 ?>@>48;> $@0=FC7A:CN @52>;NF8N, $@0=FC7A:0O @52>;NF8O 1K;0 A0<K< C60A=K< <>@0;L=K< :0B0:;87<>< 2 8AB>@88 (8AL<0 >=A5=L5@C N?5=;C, 5?8A:>?C @;50=A:><C, > O7KG5AB25 2 >1@07>20=88). &5@:>2L =53>4C5B ?> ?>2>4C B>3>, GB> 2>>1@065=8N 8;8 87CG5=8N <>;>4Q68 ?@54;030NBAO ?@8<5@K $5<8AB>:;0, 0B>=0, !>;>=0, !F8?8>=0 8 &8=F8==0B0. > 5Q <=5=8N, =5;L7O ?@5?>4020BL =8 >@0F8O, =8 "8B0 828O. -B> >B>645AB2;5=85 O7KG5A:8E F5==>AB59 A F5==>ABO<8 =0@>640NI59AO ;52>9 A>>B25BAB2C5B >1I5<C <=5=8N.  B> 2@5<O 4@C385 02B>@K AB@5<OBAO =0?@028BL O7KG5AB2> 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>< =0?@02;5=88. >340 O C2845; :@>?>;L,  ?8H5B 5=0=,  <=5 >B:@K;>AL 1>65AB25==>5 (>A?><8=0=8O > 45BAB25 8 N=>AB8). >@@0A, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, A>25@H05B ?CB5H5AB285 2 D8=K, 0@@5A  2 !?0@BC. .=K9 >@@0A, GL5 3;C1>:> ?5@568B>5 O7KG5AB2> ?>4GQ@:8205B, A@548 ?@>G8E NAB02 "81>= (Maurras poete, in Itinraires, avril 1968, p. 145), 2>A:;8F05B: B682H5<C A2>Q 0@D5=>=C =8:B> =5 =C65=. 0@D5=>= =C65= =0<, GB>1K @072820BL =0HC 687=L.  GB>1K ?>=>A8BL 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:89 >1A:C@0=B87< 8 Magnificat'>3. @8B8:0 E@8AB80=AB20 1C45B O2;OBLAO $@0=F88 8 70 3@0=8F59 E0@0:B5@=>9 G5@B>9 B>3>, GB> A;54C5B 8<5=>20BL ?@02>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 <KA;LN, >B !>@5;O 8 @C4>=0, #30 515;O 8 L5@0 0A5@0, 4'==C=F8>, 0@5B>, (?5=3;5@0, 5;;5@0 20= 45= @C:0 8 .=35@0 4> @L5 ;O >H5;O, !5;8=0, 4065 @0789O:0, :>B>@K9 ?@>A;02;O5B =082=>5 O7KG5AB2> 0==K 4'@: (@>F5AA 0==K 4'@:), 8 40;55 4> .;8CA0 -2>;K, C8 C6L5, @<8=0 5;5@0, C8 >25;O 8 0=0 0C. 3)  O7KG5AB25 <>;>4>3> >@@0A0 A<.: Patrice Sicard, Maurras ou Maurras, GRECE, 1974.  A>2@5<5==>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 O7KG5AB2> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 A>G8=5=8OE B0:8E 02B>@>2, :0: .. >C@5=A (A<., ?@5645 2A53>, 53> ?>:0;8?A8A), >;5BB, 68>=>, =CB 0<AC=, !B5D0= 5>@35, 8;L:5 8 B.4. >=B5@;0=, 45;0NI89 87 0=B8G=>3> <8@0 ?0;5AB@C, 345 ?@02OB 5@<5A 8 8=5@20, ?@>A;02;O5B 4>AB>8=AB20 O7KG5AB20 8 =5 ?5@5AB0QB 3>2>@8BL > B>< <5AB5, :>B>@>5 70=8<05B 2 53> B2>@G5AB25 res romana. @>B82>?>AB02;OO @8<A:89 "81@ 2>AB>G=><C @>=BC, >= 40QB A;54CNI89 A>25B: AO:89 @07, :>340 =0H 4CE :>;51;5BAO, >1@0I0BLAO : 3@5:>-@8<A:>9 <KA;8 @0=55 2B>@>3> AB>;5B8O (Va jouer avec cette poussiere, Gallimard, 1966)4. 7 1>;55 A>2@5<5==KE 02B>@>2 =5>1E>48<> C?><O=CBL 0@35@8B .@A5=0@, 0=0 0@:0-;O, /=0 @5:8;L5=0, 6. . . ">;:85=0, 0B@8:0 @5=28;O... 4)  <5AB5 0=B8G=>AB8 2 B2>@G5AB25 8 <KA;8 >=B5@;0=0 A<.: Pierre Duroisin. (Montherlant et l Antiquit, these de doctoral, universit de Liege, 1979). > 2@5<O 845>;>38G5A:>3> ?>4JQ<0 >2>9 @02>9 8 :>=B@=0ABC?;5=8O .-. 528 (Le testament de Dieu, Grasset, 1979) 8 53> 4@C759 A?>@K <564C AB>@>==8:0<8 <>=>B587<0 8 AB>@>==8:0<8 ?>;8B587<0  <>=>?>;8O ?0@86A:8E A0;>=>2  2>H;8 2 <>4C. @>2>73;0H0O 0=0D5<C 2A59 3@5G5A:>9 G0AB8 =0H53> =0A;548O, 528 2=570?=> 2A?><8=05B @50:F8>==K5, 0=B845<>:@0B8G5A:85 0@3C<5=BK, ?@54;>65==K5 0110B>< ><><, >4=>2@5<5==> CA20820O E>@>H> 8725AB=K9 0D>@87<: @>:;OB B>B, :B> CG8B A2>53> AK=0 =0C:5 3@5:>2 ("0;<C4, 010 0<<0, D>;. 82-83; B@0:B0B !>B0, D>;. 49). C8 >25;L, =0?@>B82, 70O2;O5B: !CI5AB2C5B B09=0O 2@>?0, :>B>@CN =5>1E>48<> 2=>2L >B:@KBL. / 25@N 2 2>72@0I5=85 : 4CE>2=><C O7KG5AB2C (8=B5@2LN, 40==>5 0=C 85AC, J'ai dialogu avec des chercheurs de vrit, Retz, 1979). 5:A8:0=A:89 ?8A0B5;L :B028> 0A, ?@>2>73;0H0NI89 A51O ?>;8B58AB>< 8 45<>:@0B><, >?8AK205B 548=>1>685 :0: >4=C 87 25;8:8E :0B0AB@>D G5;>25G5AB20 (Les Nouvelles littraires, 14 juin 1979). 5@=0@ #45= >AC6405B 548=>1>685 :0: 8AB>G=8: B>B0;8B0@87<0 (La foi qui tue, Laffont, 1980). 59<>= N5@ 70:0=G8205B >4=> 87 A2>8E ?>A;54=8E A>G8=5=89 5H8B5;L=K9 A:5?B8: (Laffont, 1979) >1@0I5=85< : 52AC. ;5= 0=85;C 2848B 2 <>=>B58AB8G5A:>9 8;;N788 >B:;>=5=85 A B>G:8 7@5=8O 4CE>2=>3> >?KB0 (Shiva et Dionysos, Fayard, 1979). $8;8?? !>;;5@A 3>2>@8B > L5@5 0>;> 07>;8=8, GB> B>B 1K; >4=>2@5<5==> O7KG=8:>< 8 8C45>-E@8AB80=8=>< (Pasolini, Sade, saint Matthieu, in Maria Antonietta Macciocchi, d., Pasolini, Grasset, 1980). $>;L:;>@8ABK 8 CGQ=K5, 70=8<0NI85AO 8AB>@859 8459, 8AA;54CO ?>2A54=52=CN 687=L =0@>40, =5 ?5@5AB0NB AB0;:820BLAO A ?@>1;5<>9 O7KG5A:8E ?5@568B:>2 2 B><, GB> 0@;> 8=F1C@3 8<5=C5B :@5ABLO=A:>9 @5;83859 (Les batailles nocturnes, Verdier, Lagrasse, 1980). 0@38=0;L=K5 ?@>O2;5=8O O7KG5AB20 >1=0@C6820NBAO 2?;>BL 4> >1I5AB25==KE O2;5=89, ?@54AB02;ONI8EAO =0 273;O4 <=>38E G@572KG09=> A?>@=K<8, B0:8E :0: <>40 =0 >?@545;Q==>3> @>40 M7>B5@87< 8;8 M:>;>38G5A:0O <>40 (2>72@0I5=85 : ?@8@>45, :>B>@0O AG8B05BAO ;8:>< >30, A?>@ A E@8AB80=AB2>< A B>G:8 7@5=8O 4CE>2=>AB8 8 >::C;LB87<0 8 B.4.). @8<5@K <>6=> 1K;> 1K C<=>68BL. 0:>=5F, A>2@5<5==>5 BO3>B5=85 : ?;N@0;87<C 8 C:>@5=Q==>AB8 A>45@68B 2 A515, E>BO 1K 4065 8 =5O2=>, >B25@65=85 >3@0=8G820NI53> C=825@A0;87<0 8 E@8AB80=A:>3> M30;8B0@87<0. >6=> A>3;0A8BLAO A 4> 0@:20@4>< (Lob des Polytheismus. Ueber Monomythie und Polymythie, in Hans Poser, Hrsg., Philosophie und Mythos. Ein Kolloquium, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 1979, pp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e nouveau polythisme, Imago, 1979) 8 659<A0 %8;;<0==0 (Pan et le cauchernare, Imago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a cit et les divisions du royaume, in Eranos)5, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 8H5;L 0DD5A>;8, B0:65 ?@845@6820NI89AO ?>;8B587<0 F5==>AB59, > :>B>@>< 3>2>@8B 0:A 515@ (Le savant et la politique, UGE-10/18, 1971), >?@545;O5B O7KG5AB2> :0: B>, GB>, ?@87=020O ?>;8B587< 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, CG8BAO =5 3=CBL A?8=C ?5@54 "A8;>9 8AB>@88" 8;8 5Q @07;8G=K<8 2>?;>I5=8O<8 8 70<5=0<8 (La violence totalitaire, PUF, 1979, p. 68). 5) !<. B0:65 4@C385 A>G8=5=8O 8;L15@0 N@0=0: Science de l homme et tradition. Le nouvel esprit anthropologique, Berg international, 1979; 8 Figures mythiques et visages de l oeuvre. Berg international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ire, avril 1980). => =5 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 65;0=8O 25@=CBLAO 2 :0:>9-;81> ?>B5@O==K9 @09 (MB> A:>@55 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:0O B5<0), 0 B5< 1>;55, 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL B><C, GB> 157>A=>20B5;L=> CB25@6405B 0B@8= (0;L5 (Les nouveaux cahiers, t 1979), : G8AB><C 8AB>:C. > 2@5<5=0, :>340 15A?@5@K2=> 3>2>@OB > :>@=OE 8 :>;;5:B82=>9 ?0<OB8, C?@Q: 2 ?0AA587<5 >B?0405B A0< A>1>9. 064K9 G5;>25: @>6405BAO ?@5645 2A53> :0: =0A;54=8:; =5 <>65B 1KBL =8:0:>9 A0<>1KB=>AB8 >B45;L=KE ;N459 8;8 =0@>4>2 157 CGQB0 708=B5@5A>20==K<8 ;8F0<8 B>3>, GB> 8E ?>@>48;>, 8AB>G=8:0, 87 :>B>@>3> >=8 ?@>8AE>4OB. 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'5;>25:  2A53> ;8HL =01@>A>:. !0<> 53> A>7=0=85 5ABL =01@>A>:. !CI5AB2>20BL  7=0G8B ex-sister5, =01@0AK20BL A0<>3> A51O. <5==> MBC >A>1CN ?>4286=>ABL ?@>BO6Q==>AB8 %0945335@ 8<5=C5B A>1KB85< (Geschehen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ouvel Observateur, 5 <0O 1980 3.). ">G=> B0: 65 @5GL 84QB >1 >1@0I5=88 : ?0<OB8 O7KG5AB20 =5 2 E@>=>;>38G5A:>< A<KA;5, GB>1K 25@=CBLAO : ?@54K4CI5<C, 0 2 A<KA;5 <8D>;>38G5A:><, GB>1K =09B8 B>, GB> A:2>7L 2@5<O ?@5>4>;5205B 2@5<O 8 >1@0I05BAO : =0< 8 A53>4=O. 5GL 84QB > A>548=5=88 A =5?@5>4>;8<K<, 0 =5 A ?@Q>4>;Q==K<. B0:, A;>20 =0G0;> 8 :>=5F 1>;55 =5 8<5NB B>3> A<KA;0, :>B>@K9 8< ?@840QB 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:0O ?@>1;5<0B8:0. C O7KG5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O ?@>H;>5 2A5340 O2;O5BAO 1C4CI8< (B5<, GB> 1C45B). Herkunft aber bleibt stets Zukunft  ?8H5B! %0945335@: To, GB> =0E>48BAO C 8AB>:>2, 2A5340 >AB0QBAO 1C4CI8<, 2A5340 >AB0QBAO 2> 2;0AB8 B>3>, GB> 1C45B.  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"0:8< >1@07><, @5GL 84QB =5 > 2>72@0I5=88, 0 >1 >1@0I5=88 : O7KG5AB2C. ;8 65, 5A;8 C3>4=>, @5GL 84QB =5 > 2>72@0I5=88 : O7KG5AB2C, 0 > 2>72@0I5=88 O7KG5AB20 : B><C, GB> %0945335@ =0 >4=>9 A2>59 206=>9 8 OA=>9 AB@0=8F5 =07K205B =>2K< =0G0;><. 52>7<>6=> =8G53> A45;0BL 4;O 8;8 ?@>B82 A2>59 35=50;>388, 8 2A5340 =0ABC?05B <><5=B, :>340 :064K9 4>;65= ?>=OBL, =5 2>7>1=>2;OO, ?@>OA=8BL, =5 >B@8F0O, GB>1K 2?>A;54AB288 A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 2K1@0BL B>, GB> A1;8605B 53> A 53> :>@=O<8 8;8 C40;O5B >B =8E,  ?8H5B ;0=48= 0@@5-@835;L, =07K20NI0O A51O 8C45>-E@8AB80=:>9 (Le Matin, 10 septembre 1980). =0 4>102;O5B: >340 ?@54?@8OB8O ?@54K4CI8E ?>:>;5=89 B5@?OB =5C40GC, 5AB5AB25==K< 42865=85< O2;O5BAO =>2>5 >B?@02;5=85 A MB>9 AB>@>=K @0728;:8, @0ABO65=85 4;8B5;L=>AB8, @0AH8@5=85 ?@>AB@0=AB20 (B0< 65). 5GL 84QB 8<5==> >1 MB><: 2=>2L >B?@028BLAO A MB>9 AB>@>=K @0728;:8, GB>1K =0G0BL 2=>2L. > 2 3;070E <=>38E ?>4>1=K9 ?@>5:B, 157 A><=5=8O, 1C45B 2K3;O45BL 1>3>EC;LAB2><. 0 52@59A:>< O7K:5 A;>2> =0G0;> 8<55B B0:65 7=0G5=85 >A:25@=5=85: =0G8=0BL, :0: <K C2848< 40;55, 7=0G8B A>?5@=8G0BL A >3><. B@K2>: 87 AE>40, 2 :>B>@>< 3>2>@8BAO, GB>, :>340 C !8D0 @>48;AO AK= =>A, B>340 =0G0;8 ?@87K20BL 8<O >A?>40 (4, 26), 2 1>3>A;>288 8C4087<0 8AB>;:>2K205BAO :0: >7=0G0NI89 =5 =0G0;> 548=>1>68O, 0 =0G0;> O7KG5AB20 (">340 ?>;>68;8 =0G0;>. -B>B 3;03>; >7=0G05B ">A:25@=OBL". 0G0;8 4020BL ;N4O< 8 AB0BCO< 8<O !2OB>3>-;03>A;>25==>3> 8 =07K20BL 84>;K 1>30<8  :><<5=B0@89 0H8 : AE., 4, 26). !> 2@5<Q= (8<5>=0 0@ >E08 4> =0H8E 4=59 O7KG5A:0O :C;LBC@0 =5 ?5@5AB020;0 1KBL >1J5:B>< :@8B8:8 8 >128=5=896. A;8 1K 1K;0 =5>1E>48<>ABL, MB>3> 548=AB25==>3> D0:B0 E20B8;> 1K, GB>1K ?>:070BL, =0A:>;L:> ?@>H;>5 >?@545;Q==>3> @>40 A>2@5<5==> 4065 4;O =5:>B>@KE ;N459, :>B>@K5 53> >AC640NB. !>25@H5==> =5A;CG09=> B>, - ?8H5B 01@8M;L 0F=5DD, - GB> =0H5 4204F0B>5 AB>;5B85, D0=0B8G=>5, 7;>1=>5, 4>:B@8=5@A:>5, =5 C?CA:05B A;CG0O 87>1@078BL 2 :;525B=8G5A:>< 8 :0@8:0BC@=>< 2845 4@52=8E @8<;O=: >=> 8=AB8=:B82=> =5=02848B B>, GB> 2KH5 =53> (Le Monde, 26 avril 1980). 6) !<.: Franois Fontaine. 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KBL A2>1>4=K< B0:65 7=0G8B 1KBL A2O70==K< A 4@C38<8 ?>A@54AB2>< >1I59 4CE>2=>AB8. 7) "5< =5 <5=55, MB>B 3>@>4 =5 O2;O5BAO B5>:@0B859. !C25@5==0O, ?>;8B8G5A:0O DC=:F8O A>E@0=O5B A2>N A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, =5 3@04 ;N4A:>9 C?@02;O5BAO 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?@028;0<8 3@040 >6L53>, 0 A:>@55 <8@ 1>3>2 ?@54AB02;O5BAO :0: 8450;L=>5 >B>1@065=85 <8@0 ;N459. >340 .-. 528 CB25@6405B, GB> 548=>1>685 O2;O5BAO =5 D>@<>9 A2OI5==>3>, D>@<>9 4CE>2=>3>, 0, =0?@>B82, =5=028ABLN : A2OI5==><C :0: B0:>2><C (L'Express, 21 avril 1979), 53> A;>20 O2;ONBAO ?0@04>:A0;L=K<8 B>;L:> =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4. !2OI5==>5 5ABL 157CA;>2=>5 C2065=85 : G5<C-B>, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 548=>1>685 2K2>48B ?>4>1=>5 C2065=85 2 A>1AB25==>< A<KA;5 70 @0<:8 0:>=0. ;O %0945335@0 A2OI5==>5 (das Heilige) >?@545;Q==> >B;8G=> >B :;0AA8G5A:>9 <5B0D878:8 8 4065 A0<>9 8458 >30. @8=8<0O 0=B8=><8N, 4>@>3CN A5@4FC -<<0=CM;O 528=0A0, A:065<, GB> A2OI5==>5 ?>3@C65=> 2 MB>B <8@ :0: B08=AB2>, GB> >=> >A=>2K205BAO =0 1;87>AB8 <564C G5;>25:>< 8 <8@><, 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL A2OB>AB8, :>B>@0O A2O70=0 A B@0=AF5=45=F859 !>25@H5==> @C3>3>. /7KG5AB2> 2>72KH05B MB>B <8@ A2OI5==>ABLN, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>5 548=>1>685 A> A2>59 A2OB>ABLN 1568B 87 MB>3> <8@0. /7KG5AB2> >A=>2K205BAO =0 8455 A2OI5==>3>. 4  GQ< 65 70:;NG0NBAO >A=>2=K5 @07;8G8O <564C 52@>?59A:8< O7KG5AB2>< 8 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB2><? @8 >B25B5 =0 MB>B 2>?@>A =5>1E>48<0 >?@545;Q==0O >AB>@>6=>ABL. ><8<> B>3>, GB> 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ?@>B82>AB>O=85 =8:>340 =5 1K205B B0:8< GQB:8<, :0:8< >=> 1K205B A =587156=>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 0=0;8B8G5A:8E CA;>2=>AB59, =0< ?@54AB02;O5BAO 206=K< ?@5645 2A53> 871560BL =5>14C<0==>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?>=OB8O 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB2>, :>B>@>5, 1C4CG8 A?>@=K< :0: C E@8AB80=, B0: 8 C 52@552, =5 ;8H5=> 42CA<KA;5==>AB8. !B@>3> 3>2>@O, ?>4>1=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@54AB02;O5BAO =0< 4>?CAB8<K< 2 42CE A>25@H5==> >?@545;Q==KE A;CG0OE. @5645 2A53>, A 8AB>@8G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O: 2 AB@>3>< A<KA;5 A;>20 8C45>-E@8AB80=5  MB> ?5@2K5 E@8AB80=5 52@59A:>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O, G;5=K =070@5BA:8E ?0;5AB8=A:8E >1I8=, 1K2H85 ?@54<5B>< B0:8E @074>@>2 <564C 8C4087<>< 8 ?0C;8=8ABA:8< E@8AB80=AB2><. (725AB=>, GB> CA?5E 02;0 ?>;>68; :>=5F MB><C 8AB>@8G5A:><C 8C45>E@8AB80=AB2C)8. >-2B>@KE, A 845>;>38G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O ?>=OB85 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB2> >7=0G05B B>, GB> <>65B 1KBL >1I53> <564C 8C4087<>< 8 E@8AB80=AB2>< 2 AD5@5 D8;>A>D88 8 1>3>A;>28O. C4087< 8 E@8AB80=AB2> >1J548=ONBAO 1>3>A;>285<  70<5G05B ;>4 "@5<>=B0= (Les problemes de l athisme, Seuil, 1972, p. 439). >4>1=>3> 65 <=5=8O ?@845@6820;AO 0= 0=85;C, >4=0 87 :=83 :>B>@>3> =>A8B 703>;>2>: "5>;>38O 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB20 (Descle, 1958). %@8AB80=AB2>, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 2>A?@8=O;> 2A5 =>@<0B82=K5 B@51>20=8O 2A5;5=A:>3> 7=0G5=8O, :>B>@K5 8<5NBAO 2 ">@5. "0:8< >1@07><, ?>=OB85 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB2> >7=0G05B 2A53> ;8HL <>=>B58AB8G5A:>5 @>4AB2>. 8) 1 MB>9 &5@:28 >1@570=8O A<.: P. Gaultier Briand. Nazareth judo-chrtienne, Franciscan Printing Press. Jerusalem. 1971. @8 ?@87=0=88 40==>3> @>4AB20 8=>340 >G5=L A8;L=> =54>>F5=820NBAO 8<5NI85AO @07;8G8O <564C E@8AB80=AB2>< 8 8C4087<><. 0 ?@0:B8:5 MB> 70G0ABCN ?@82>48B : ?@8?8AK20=8N O7KG5AB2C G5@B, O:>1K :>@5==K< >1@07>< >B;8G0NI8E 53> >B 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB20, :>B>@K5 =0 A0<>< 45;5 >B;8G0NB 53> B>;L:> >B 8C4087<0 8;8  3>@074> G0I5  B>;L:> >B E@8AB80=AB20.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE @07;8G8O O2;ONBAO 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 8;;N7>@=K<8 8;8 :0A0NBAO B>;L:> ;8HL 2K@065=8O >?@545;Q==KE O2;5=89, 0 =5 A0<8E O2;5=89. 0?@8<5@, 70G0ABCN CB25@640;>AL, GB> 3@5G5A:0O <KA;L 1K;0 48=0<8G=>9, :>=:@5B=>9 8 A8=B5B8G5A:>9 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL 52@59A:>9 <KA;8, ?> ACB8 A2>59 AB0B8G=>9, 01AB@0:B=>9 8 0=0;8B8G5A:>9.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 2AQ A:>@55 :0: @07 =0>1>@>B, :0: ?>:07K205B 659<A 0@@ (Smantique du language biblique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imperium'a, C 8=4>8@0=F52 2 CG5=88 >1 8<?5@88, 2>A?@8=8<05<>9 :0: B5;> 1>30 A25B0, 2A5>1I55 C25=G8205B A>1>9 >1I5AB25==>5 ?@54?@8OB85, 2:;NGQ==>5 2 ACI5AB2>20=85 <8@0, 0 B0:65 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 2>?;>I5=85 53> ?@8=F8?0; 53> =5;L7O ?CB0BL =8 A 1>3>A;>2A:8< 8;8 D8;>A>DA:8< C=825@A0;87<><, C?@074=ONI8< @07;8G8O, =8 A MB=>F5=B@87<><. 0:>=5F, @07<KH;5=85 >1 C:>@5=5=88 E@8AB80=AB20 2 2@>?5 =5 <>65B >1>9B8AL 157 8AA;54>20=8O ?@8G8=  =5 B>;L:> 2=5H=8E, => 8 2=CB@5==8E,  MB>3> C:>@5=5=8O. ('B> 2 52@>?59A:>< A>7=0=88 A?>A>1AB2>20;> 53> >1@0I5=8N?) K B0:65 =5 4>;6=K 701K20BL > B><, GB> E@8AB80=AB2> A0<> 7=0G8B5;L=> <5=O;>AL, 8 GB> A B>G:8 7@5=8O 8AB>@88 8 A>F8>;>388 ACI5AB2C5B =5 >4=>, 0 =5A:>;L:> E@8AB80=AB2. 'B> :0A05BAO =0A, B> <K ?@5:@0A=> >A>7=05< @07=8FC <564C M30;8B0@=K< 8 ?>4@K2=K< E@8AB80=AB2>< ?5@2KE 25:>2 8 (>B=>A8B5;L=>) :>=AB@C:B82=K< E@8AB80=AB2>< !@54=8E 25:>2, 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 >:@0H5==K< O7KG5A:>9 >@30=8G=>ABLN. G5284=>, GB> E@8AB80=AB2> G5B2Q@B>3> AB>;5B8O C65 =5 O2;O5BAO B5< E@8AB80=AB2><, :>B>@>5 ?@>1C640;> O@>ABL &5;LA010. K B0:65 ?@87=0Q<, GB>, :0: 3>2>@8B %0945335@, E@8AB80=AB2> 8 687=L E@8AB80= 520=35;LA:>9 25@K  MB> =5 >4=> 8 B> 65 (Martin Heidegger, Chemins qui ne menent nulle part, Gallimard, 1962, p. 181). K B0:65 ?><=8< > <=>3>7=0G=>AB8 A8<2>;>2, :>B>@>9 70=8<05BAO 35@<5=52B8:0, 0 B0:65 > 15A:>=5G=KE 87<5=5=8OE 2 :>@?CA5 A2OI5==>3> ?8A0=8O 8 1>3>A;>2A:8E A8AB5<0B870F8OE. 10) !<. 53> @02482>5 A;>2> ?@>B82 E@8AB80=, 0 B0:65: Louis Rougier, Celse centre les chrtiens. La raction paienne sous Pempire remain. Copernic. 1977. 5>1E>48<> >B<5B8BL, GB> ?>4>1=>5 @07;8G85 O2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> 480E@>=8G5A:8<: 425 @07=>284=>AB8 2A5340 A>ACI5AB2>20;8  2 >G5284=> @07;8G=KE A>>B=>H5=8OE  2 8AB>@88 E@8AB80=AB20: 2 >?@545;Q==>9 AB5?5=8 >=8 A>>B25BAB2CNB 42>9=><C ;8:C 8ACA0 2 ?0C;8=8ABA:>9 E@8AB>;>388: AB@040NI53> 8 C=865==>3> 8 A;02=>3> 8 B>@65AB2CNI53> (A<.: Louis Rougier, La genese des dogmes chrtiens. Albin Michel. 1972. pp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es problemes de 1'athisme, op. cit., p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(<5==> ?>4>1=0O A:;>==>ABL ?@8254QB D8;>A>D>2 : <KA;8 > B><, GB> MB8:0 <>65B 1KBL 2K2545=0 @07C<>< 87 ?@8@>4K 25I59 8 ?@8@>4K G5;>25:0; ?>4>1=CN 65 A:;>==>ABL <K ?0@04>:A0;L=K< >1@07>< >1=0@C68205< C ?>78B828AB>2, 2K2>4OI8E 8<?;8F8B=> 8<?5@0B82 87 8=48:0B820)12. C4087< 871560; MB8E 0=B8=><89. @>254O 548=>64K >G5284=> DC=40<5=B0;L=>5 @07;8G85 <564C B20@=K< ACI5AB2>< 8 1>65AB25==K< ACI5AB2><, >= ?@>O28; A51O 3>@074> 1>;55 C=8B0@8ABA:8<, G5< :;0AA8G5A:>5 E@8AB80=AB2>.  8C459A:>< 1>3>A;>288 <8@ =5 <>65B 1KBL @0745;5=, ?>B><C GB> C =53> 548=AB25==K9 A>740B5;L. A;54AB285 MB>3> 53> CG5=85 > 687=8 ?>A;5 A<5@B8, 2>A:@5A5=88 8 ;8G=>< 2>740O=88 2 4@C3>< <8@5 O2;O5BAO 1>;55 @0A?;K2G0BK<13. 12)  A>2@5<5==>< E@8AB80=A:>< 1>3>A;>288 <>6=> 70<5B8BL 4>2>;L=> A;01> 2K@065==CN A:;>==>ABL 1>;55 =5 ?@8=8<0BL MB8 2B>@8G=K5 0=B8=><88 AB>;L A5@LQ7=>, => >G5284=>, GB> ?@>H;>3> >?KB0 MB> =5 >B<5=O5B. 13) >:070B5;L=>, =0?@8<5@, GB> 2>?@>A > B><, 8<5NBAO ;8 2 52@59A:>9 81;88 A;54K 25@K 2 703@>1=K9 <8@, 4> A8E ?>@ O2;O5BAO ?@54<5B>< >1AC645=8O (A<. =0 MB>B AGQB AB0BLN -AE0B>;>38O 2 Encyclopedia Judaica, Keter, Jrusalem, 1974, vol. 6. col. 34-39; 8: Abraham Cohen, Les routes divergentes, Minuit, 1956, pp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ssai sur la pense hbraique, Cerf, 1962). >4>1=>5 CB25@645=85 A>45@68BAO 2 A0<>< =0G0;5 81;88:  =0G0;5 A>B2>@8; >3 =51> 8 75<;N (KB. 1,1). 0:8< >1@07>< >ACI5AB28;>AL B2>@5=85? => >ACI5AB28;>AL ex nihilo, 87 =8G53>. >3 A>740; <8@ =5 87 157>1@07=>9, =5CAB@>5==>9 <0B5@88, =5 87 E0>A0, :>B>@K9 1K 5<C, ?@54ACI5AB2>20; 8 1K; 1K 8< ?@5>1@07>20=,  2 B0:>< A;CG05 >= 1K; 1K ?@>ABK< CAB@>8B5;5<-45<8C@3>< 8 ACI5AB2>20;8 1K 420 =5B20@=KE 01A>;NB0: >3 8 <0B5@8O. 52>7<>6=> 4065 A:070BL, GB> 4> >30 1K;> =8GB>, ?>B><C GB> A 1>3>A;>2A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O C =8GB> =5B =8 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, =8 :0G5AB2. 0=LH5 <8@0 ACI5AB2>20; B>;L:> >3. ( :0110;8AB8G5A:>9 B@048F88 ?5@20O 3;020 =838 KB8O ?>=8<05BAO :0: >?8A0=85 A>740=8O 87 ?@54ACI5AB2CNI59 1>65AB25==>9 2A5;5==>9; A<.: Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi, La Cabbale, tradition de la conaissance cache, Seuil, 1980, pp. 9-10). "0:8< >1@07><, >3 872;Q: <8@ 87 A51O14. "5< =5 <5=55 <8@ =5 O2;O5BAO G0ABLN >30, ?>B><C GB> B>340 >= B>65 1K; 1K 1>65AB25==K<. >3 B0:65 =5 ?>@>48; <8@, ?>B><C GB> <8@ =5 O2;O5BAO 548=>ACI=K< 5<C (B>;L:> ;8HL @>64Q==K9 8 =5A>B2>@5==K9 ;>3>A 548=>ACI5= >3C). = A>B2>@8; 53>. >MB><C 53> A2O7L A G5;>25:>< O2;O5BAO >4=>2@5<5==> ?@8G8==>9 (>3 5ABL ?5@2>?@8G8=0 2A5E A>740=89) 8 <>@0;L=>9 (G5;>25: 4>;65= ?>4G8=OBLAO >3C :0: A2>5<C A>740B5;N). . 14) 6>78 975=15@3 8 @<0= 15:0AA8 (A Bible ouverte. Albin Michel. 1978. p. 32): C:07K20NB, GB> 52@59A:8< 3;03>; bara, :>@5=L :>B>@>3> <K =0E>48< 2 A;>25 bereshit (=0G0;>), A2O70= A =0@5G85< bar (2=5). 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"0:8< >1@07><, ?> A;>20< 8FH5, =0AB>OI89 <8@ 2 :>=5G=>< AGQB5 AB0; 2K<KA;><. O4 A>2@5<5==KE 845>;>389 2>A?@8=O; MBC 4C0;8AB8G5A:CN B5>@8N 2 5Q A25BA:>< 8;8 =5?@>O2;5==>< 2845. ;O $@5940, =0?@8<5@, 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 O2;O5BAO 7;><: F828;870F8O CB25@6405BAO 70 AGQB AC1;8<0F88 8=AB8=:B>2. (">;L:> =5:>B>@K5 87 53> CG5=8:>2, ?>4>1=> 8;L35;L<C 09EC, ?5@5>@85=B8@CNB ?A8E>0=0;87 A AC1;8<0F88 =0 0=0@E8G5A:>5 >A2>1>645=85 8=AB8=:B>2). 8;L15@ N@0= ?8H5B: 065BAO, 4065 C $@5940, GLO A8AB5<0, :0: 70G0ABCN AG8B05BAO, >A2>1>48;0 4CHC >B >4=><5@=>3> 8 ;8=59=>3> 8AB>;:>20=8O, 2A5340 <>6=> >1=0@C68BL 7=0<5=8B>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5, ?0B>;>38G5A:8 ?@51K20NI55 A=87C, ?>4 74@02K< A>7=0=85<. IQ >4=> ?>4B25@645=85 B>3>, A:>;L A;01> 3>48BAO 42>8G=>ABJ 4;O <>45;8@>20=8O <=>65AB25==>AB8 (L'ametigre, Denol-Gonthier, 1980, p. 179). > G0I5 4C0;87<, 2K@>640OAL, O2;OO A2>Q A>1AB25==>5 ;8F>, ?@52@0I05BAO 2 A2>N >B=>A8B5;L=CN ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL, 0 8<5==> 2 G8ABCN >4=><5@=>ABL. @>8AE>48B ?5@5E>4 >B >4=>9 :@09=>AB8 : 4@C3>9: 1>;57=L >?>H;5==>3> 48=AB25==>3> A>25@H5==> 5AB5AB25==> A<5=O5B =54C3 @07>@20==>3> A>7=0=8O. 15) !<.: Robert Guedluy. I.a cration. Descle. Tournai, 1963. p. 51. 'B> :0A05BAO O7KG5A:>9 <KA;8, B> C 5Q 8AB>:>2 <K =0E>48<, =0?@>B82, ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> 2A5;5==0O >4CH52;5=0, 0 4CH0 <8@0 1>65AB25==0. AB>G=8:0<8 "2>@5=8O O2;ONBAO B>;L:> ;8HL ?@8@>40 8 <8@. A5;5==0O O2;O5BAO 548=AB25==K< 1KB85<, =8:0:>3> 4@C3>3> 1KBL =5 <>65B. 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A5=>D0= 87 >;>D>=0 (VI 2. 4> =.M.) >?@545;O5B >30 :0: 4CHC <8@0. -B>B :>A<>A, >48= 8 B>B 65 4;O 2A5E, =5 A>740; =8:B> 87 1>3>2, =8:B> 87 ;N459, => >= 2A5340 1K;, 5ABL 8 1C45B 25G=> 682>9 >3>=L, <5@=> 2>73>@0NI89AO, <5@=> C30A0NI89,  ?8H5B 5@0:;8B. ;O 0@<5=840, :>B>@K9 2848B 2 <8@5 =5?>4286=>5 8 A>25@H5==>5 ACI5AB2>, 2A5;5==0O B0:65 =5@>64Q==0, 15AA<5@B=0 8 =5B20@=0. @8=F8? 2A5>1I53> ?>AB>O=AB20 (=8GB> =5 A>740QBAO, =8GB> =5 8AG5705B) 8>=89FK ?@52@0I0NB 2 ?@8=F8? ?>7=0205<>AB8 <8@0. K =0E>48< ?>4>1=K5 <KA;8 C -<?54>:;0, =0:A03>@0, 5;8AA0, =0:A8<0=4@0 8 4@C38E. 065 8 2?>A;54AB288, :0: ?8H5B C8 C6L5, 2 1>;LH8=AB25 H:>; ?8D03>@59FK, ?;0B>=8:8, ?5@8?0B5B8:8, AB>8:8, =5>?;0B>=8:8 2>AE8I0NBAO 25G=K< 2>72@0I5=85< 2A53>, 8A:;NG0NI8< 2>7<>6=>ABL 87=0G0;L=>3> 2>7=8:=>25=8O 2@5<5=8, ?5@2>3> G5;>25:0 8 :>=5G=>9 MAE0B>;>388, 2A;54 70 :>B>@>9 =5 ?>A;54>20;> 1K =8:0:>3> =>2>3> =0G0;0 (La Scolastique et le thomisme, Gauthier-Villars, 1925, p. 44). !0< @8AB>B5;L 2 G5B2Q@B>< AB>;5B88 ?8H5B > B><, GB> <8@ 1>65AB25=5=: ?>A:>;L:C >3 =5 E@0=8B 2 A2>Q< A>7=0=88 :0: >1@07F>2K5 ?@8G8=K >B45;L=K5 8458 2A5E 25I59, >= 7=05B B>;L:> ;8HL A0<>3> A51O, => =5 B2>@5=85. 'B> :0A05BAO ;0B>=0, GLO D8;>A>D8O 2 A>G5B0=88 A E@8AB80=A:>9 4>3<>9 ?>@>48;0 023CAB8=87<, 5A;8 >=, :0: :065BAO, 8 CG8B 2 "8<55, GB> <8@ 1K; A>740= 8 C =53> 1K;> =0G0;>,  natum et factum, :0: A:065B A2. 23CAB8= ( @045 >6L5< 8, 11), B> 8<55B 2 284C A:>@55 =5 A0<> ?@>8AE>645=85 <8@0, 0 >B=>H5=85, :>B>@>5 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL <564C GC2AB25==K< 8 A25@EGC2AB25==K< <8@>< 8 :>B>@>5 >= AB@5<8BAO >1JOA=8BL; 4@C38<8 A;>20<8, >= ?@8E>48B : <=5=8N > B><, GB> <8@ 1K; A>B2>@5=, GB>1K >1JOA=8BL MB> >B=>H5=85, 0 =5 GB>1K 2K25AB8 MB> ?>A;54=55 AC645=85 87 ?5@2>3>.  @57C;LB0B5 ?>;CG0NBAO 420 A>25@H5==> @07=KE 273;O40 =0 G5;>25:0: 2 81;88 G5;>25: >ACI5AB2;O5B A51O :>;;5:B82=> ?CBQ< 2>72@0I5=8O : A>AB>O=8N =528==>AB8, ?@54H5AB2>202H5<C 3@5E>?045=8N, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: C ;0B>=0 G5;>25: >ACI5AB2;O5B A51O ?CBQ< CA2>5=8O :0: <>6=> 1>;LH53> :>;8G5AB20 25G=KE 8459. 5G=>ABL C ;0B>=0 5ABL 2A53> ;8HL >1@07 687=8 <8@0, :>B>@><C ?@8=04;568B 8 >3. 7=0G0;L=0O 8=489A:0O <KA;L A2845B5;LAB2C5B > ?>4>1=>< 65 ?@54AB02;5=88 A2>8<8 845O<8 >A<8G5A:>3> ACI5AB20, A5>1I59 4CH8 (B<0=) 8 !>7=0B5;L=>9 15A:>=5G=>AB8 (@0E<0=). 0: C:07K205B ;5= 0=85;C, 745AL B0:65 =5B =5?@8<8@8<>3> 4C0;87<0, ?>4;8==>9 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8 2 83@5 ?@>B82>@5G89, 2=CB@8 :>B>@>9 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =0H5 2>A?@8OB85. 4QB ;8 @5GL > 4CE5 8 <0B5@88, A>7=0B5;L=>< 8 15AA>7=0B5;L=><, =5?>4286=>< 8 682><, 4=5 8 =>G8, 15;>< 8 GQ@=><, 4>1@5 8 7;5, 15745OB5;L=>< 8 45OB5;L=><, 2A5340 8<5NBAO 2 284C 2708<>4>?>;=ONI85 8 2708<>7028A8<K5 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8, :>B>@K5 <>3CB ACI5AB2>20BL B>;L:> ?> >B=>H5=8N 4@C3 : 4@C3C (Les quatre sens de la vie, Buchet-Chastel, 1976, p. 77). @54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> >3 F5;8:>< O2;O5B A51O G5@57 <8@, GB> <8@ ?>;=>ABLN ?@54AB02;O5B 53> ;8:, =5<KA;8<> 2 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB25. 5<;O, >15B>20==0O G5;>25:C, =8:>340 =5 1C45B 4>ABC?=0 >3C  70<5G05B 0@: 0B@8: %545@<0= (De I'interdiction a 1'coute, in Richard Kearney et Joseph Stephen O'Leary, d., Heidegger et la question de Dieu, Grasset, 1980, p. 288). 528=0A 5IQ 1>;55 @5H8B5;5=: >B 2 GQ< 70:;NG05BAO 25G=K9 A>1;07= O7KG5AB20, 8A:;NG0O @51OG5A:>5 84>;>?>:;>=AB2>! !2OI5==>5, ?@>=87K20NI55 <8@,  2>7<>6=>, 8C4087< 5ABL 2A53> ;8HL >B@8F0=85 MB>3> (Difficile libert, Albin Michel, 1963, p. 257).  O7KG5AB25 >3 =5 <>65B 1KBL ?>;=>ABLN >B45;Q= >B <8@0; B0:8< >1@07><, >= A2O70= A <8@>< =5 :0: 53> 01A>;NB=0O ?5@2>?@8G8=0, 0 ;N48 O2;ONBAO =5 A;CG09=K<8 A>740=8O<8, ?>@>64Q==K<8 8< ex nihilo. /7KG5AB2> >B25@305B ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 01A>;NB=>< ?5@2>B2>@5=88, F5=B@0;L=>5 4;O 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>3> 548=>1>68O17, :0: >=> >B25@305B 8 ;N1CN <5E0=8AB8G5A:CN M?8AB5<>;>38N, :0: >=> >B25@305B 8 ;N1>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?>;=>< :>=F5 8AB>@88, :0: >=> A:;>==>, ?> A;>20< (?5=3;5@0, 70<5=OBL ?@8=F8? ?@8G8==>AB8 (Kausalitaetsprinzip) 84559 AC4L1K (Schicksalsidee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causa sui18. 17) C459A:0O B@048F8O 40B8@C5B A>1KB8O >B A>B2>@5=8O <8@0. -B>B A?>A>1 40B8@>2:8 2>AE>48B : !@54=525:>2LN, 0 ?>;CG5==0O F8D@0  5741 3. A>>B25BAB2C5B 1980-1981 33.  1K;0 2K2545=0 87 181;59A:>9 E@>=>;>388. !53>4=O MB0 40B8@>2:0 8AB>;:>2K205BAO 2 A8<2>;8G5A:>< A<KA;5; 2 ;N1>< A;CG05, >=0 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > =565;0=88 ?@87=0BL A>2?045=85 =0G0;0 2@5<5= A G8AB> G5;>25G5A:8< A>1KB85<. 18) 0B>;8G5A:0O M:7535B8:0 2 ;8F5, 2 G0AB=>AB8, "@5<>=B0=0 (A<.: Problemes du Christianisme, op. cit., pp. 47-49) AG8B05B 4>:070==K<, GB> C <8@0 1K;> =0G0;>, 8 @07C<=K<, GB> >= 1K; A>740=. 5@2>5 87 MB8E AC645=89, A2O70==>5 A M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 =0C:>9, 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O >?8@05BAO =0 A?>@K > 1>;LH>< E;>?:5  2>7=8:=>25=88 2A5;5==>9 B@8=04F0BL 8;8 G5BK@=04F0BL <8;;80@4>2 ;5B =0704. AQ 2> 2A5;5==>9 8 2 ?@8@>45 =0E>48BAO 2 A>AB>O=88 @>645=8O  ?8H5B "@5<>=B0= (France catholique-Ecclesia, 21 mars 1980). >4>1=>5 <=5=85 25AL<0 A?>@=>, :0: 8 ;N10O B5>@8O, :>B>@0O AB@5<8BAO ?>4:@5?8BL 25@C @07C<>< 8;8 4>:070BL 25G=K5 25@>20=8O ?@8 ?><>I8 =0CG=KE D0:B>2, ?> ?@8@>45 A2>59 ?>425@65==KE 87<5=5=8O< 8 ?@5E>4OI8E. 0: ?8H5B 8;LA >@, F5;L D878:8 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K A:070BL =5 B>, GB> 5ABL ?@8@>40, 0 B>, GB> <K <>65< A:070BL > ?@8@>45. 5@>OB=>, A B5>@859 1>;LH>3> E;>?:0 A;CG8BAO B> 65 A0<>5, GB> 8 A> 2A5<8 4@C38<8 B5>@8O<8: 2 >48= ?@5:@0A=K9 45=L >=0 1C45B 70<5=5=0 8;8 4>?>;=5=0 4@C3>9 B5>@859. (=0 O2;O5BAO =0CG=>9 8<5==> ?> ?@8G8=5 A2>59 ?@02>2>9 =5?>;=>BK).  1976 3. =0 ?0@86A:>< :>=3@5AA5 564C=0@>4=>3> 0AB@>=><8G5A:>3> A>N70 >=0 C65 >A?0@820;0AL =0 >A=>20=88 =>2>3> 8AB>;:>20=8O C@02=5=8O %011;0. A;8 4065 A>3;0A8BLAO A B5<, GB> ?>4>1=>5 =0G0;> 459AB28B5;L=> 8<5;> <5AB>, =5 1C45B =8:0:8E >A=>20=89 CB25@640BL, GB> MB> =0G0;> 1K;> 01A>;NB=K<, 0 =5 =0G0;>< =>2>3> F8:;0. A5;5==0O 2 A>AB>O=88 ?>AB>O==>3> ?@5>1@07>20=8O =5 >1O70B5;L=> O2;O5BAO 2A5;5==>9, 8<5NI59 01A>;NB=CN ?5@2>?@8G8=C. @><5 B>3>, 5A;8 <K ?@8=8<05< B5>@8N 1>;LH>3> E;>?:0, 2?5@2K5 ?@54AB02;5==CN :0=>=8:>< >@65< 5<5B@>< (L'hypothese de Pautome primitif, Le Griffon, Neuchtel, et Dunod. 1946), 4>;6=K ;8 <K ?>;030BL, GB> @0AH8@5=85 2A5;5==>9 =8:>340 =5 ?@5:@0B8BAO (>B:@KB0O <>45;L) 8;8 65, =0>1>@>B, ?@5:@0B8BAO?  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 70<5B=> ?@5>1;040=85 A:>@55 >B:@KB>9 <>45;8 (A<.: The Fate of the Universe, in New Scientist, 27 November 1980. 582-584). =5=85 "@5<>=B0=0. A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C <=>65AB2> :0: B0:>2>5 =5 <>65B ?@>8725AB8 B2>@5=85 2=CB@8 A0<>3> A51O, O2;O5BAO A>D87<><, 8<?;8F8B=K5 ?>ABC;0BK :>B>@>3> >A=>2K20NBAO =0 >1O70B5;L=> =5?>;=>< 7=0=88. 0C:0 ?> A0<>9 A2>59 ?@8@>45 2A5340 1C45B C<0;G820BL > ?5@2>?@8G8=0E. 59AB28B5;L=K9 <8@ A>>B25BAB2C5B 3@5G5A:><C ?>=OB8N: >= 548=AB25=5=, >48= 2 A2>Q< @>45, 157 42>9=8:0 8;8 >B@065=8O, 157 75@:0;0, 157 ?@8102;5==>9 : =5<C (?A524>) F5==>AB8, :0:>2>9 1K; 1K 703@>1=K9 <8@. !0<0 ?> A515, 2=5 G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O 8;8 ?@54AB02;5=8O 2A5;5==0O =59B@0;L=0, E0>B8G=0, ;8H5=0 A<KA;0. 0: 3>2>@8B ;5<0= >AA5, 548=AB25==0O B09=0 <8@0 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> C =53> =5B =8:0:8E B09=. 'B>1K @0A:@KBLAO, 5<C 4>AB0B>G=> A0<>3> A51O. !<KA; 2 =Q< ?>O2;O5BAO B>;L:> :0: A;54AB285 ?@54AB02;5=89 8;8 8AB>;:>20=89, :>B>@K5 <>65B 5<C ?@840BL G5;>25:. ABL B09=0 <8@0, => =5B B09=K 2 <8@5, 5ABL B09=0 25I59, => =5B B09=K 2 25I0E. 5 ACI5AB2C5B C=825@A0;L=>3> :;NG0 : C=825@A0;L=><C, :0: 8 : A<KA;C 8AB>@88. 0: ?8H5B >AA5, G@572KG09=> AB@0==>, GB> AB>;L <=>3> A8; 1K;> ?>B@0G5=> =0 B>, GB>1K ?@>=8:=CBL 2 A<KA; AB0=>2;5=8O 8 8AB>@88, B> 5ABL 2 A<KA; B>3>, GB> =5 8<55B A<KA;0 (Le rel et son double. Essai sur l illusion, Gallimard, 1976)19. ">G=> B0: 65 2> 2A5;5==>9 =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8:0:>9 >1J5:B82=>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8 2 B2>@G5AB25. ?@>G5<, =5>1E>48<>ABL 5ABL 2A53> ;8HL 4@C3>5 8<O A;CG09=>AB8  B> 65 A0<>5, => C2845==>5 ?>4 4@C38< C3;><. AQ, GB> ACI5AB2C5B, ACI5AB2C5B =5>1E>48<> B>;L:> ;8HL ?>B><C, GB> =8GB> =5 <>65B 87153=CBL =5>1E>48<>AB8 G5<-B> 1KBL  1KBL :0:-B> B0: 8;8 8=0G5 (0;L:>;L< >C@8). "5< =5 <5=55 MB> =5 7=0G8B, GB> 2A5;5==0O >1@5G5=0 =0 01AC@4=>ABL. 5 ACI5AB2C5B 0?@8>@=>3> A<KA;0, => G5;>25: <>65B A>74020BL A<KA; 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> A2>8<8 65;0=8O<8 8 ?@54AB02;5=8O<8. -B0 2;0ABL 2708<>A2O70=0 A 53> A2>1>4>9, ?>B><C GB> >BACBAB285 ?@54>?@545;Q==>3> 7=0G8<>3> >1@070 @02=>F5==> 4;O =53> 2>7<>6=>AB8 ;N1KE >1@07>2, >BACBAB285 >4=>7=0G=>3> >G5@B0=8O  2>7<>6=>AB8 ;N1KE 459AB289. 19) !<. B0:65: Climent Rosset. Le rel. Trait de 1'idiotie. Minuit. 1977: 8 L'objet singulier. Minuit. 1980. 7 A:070==>3> 2KH5 <>6=> 70:;NG8BL, GB> 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>5 548=>1>685 1>;55 2A53> >B;8G05B =5 B>;L:> 25@0 2 548=AB25==>3> 1>30, => B0:65, 8 >A>15==>, ?@825@65==>ABL 4C0;8AB8G5A:><C 273;O4C =0 <8@. @8<5@ 3@5G5A:>9 D8;>A>D88 ?>:07K205B, GB> =0 A0<>< 45;5 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL =54C0;8AB8G5A:>5 548=>1>685, >B>645AB2;ONI55 01A>;NB=>5 1KB85 8 <8@, :>B>@>5, :0: <K C2848< 40;55, =5 O2;O5BAO :>@5==K< ?@>B82>@5G85< <=>3>1>68N, ?>A:>;L:C @07;8G=K5 1>38 <>3CB 2 =Q< A>>B25BAB2>20BL @07;8G=K< >1@070<, 2 :>B>@KE O2;O5B A51O >65AB2>.  MB>9 A2O78 =52>7<>6=> >1>9B8 <>;G0=85< B>B D0:B, GB> 2 25AL<0 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 A>2@5<5==>5 =0CG=>5 42865=85, 2KABC?05B ?@>B82 4C0;8AB8G5A:>3> @07@K20 <8@0 2 B>9 AB5?5=8, 2 :0:>9 >=> 2=>2L 22>48B G5;>25:0 2 <8@, >B25@305B ?@54AB02;5=85 > G5;>25:5 :0: A@54=59 AB0488 <564C >3><-B2>@F>< 8 ?@8@>4>9-<0H8=>9 8 @07@010BK205B, :0: 3>2>@OB ;LO @83>68= 8 7015;L (B5=35@A, 1>;55 F5;>AB=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > <8@5 (La nouvelle alliance, Gallimard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a B0:65 ;>6=K5 0;LB5@=0B82K (B5;> - 4CE, 4CH0 - <0B5@8O), ?>@>64Q==K5 4C0;8AB8G5A:>9 <KA;LN, >=8 >B:@K20NBAO 4;O =5>3=>AB8G5A:>9 <KA;8 8 @07@010BK20NB ?@54AB02;5=85 > <8@5, >4=>2@5<5==> 1>;55 548=>< 8 1>;55 A;>6=><, :>B>@>5 ?>4GQ@:8205B >A>15==>AB8, =5 C?@074=OO 8E, 8 ?5@5AB0QB 45;0BL 87 G5;>25:0 ?@8H5;LF0 2 MB>< <8@5, =5 A2>4O 53> ?@8 MB>< : 8=><C, G5< >= A0<.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8,  ?8H5B 0@: 0931545@,  =0C:8  >A>15==> <8:@>D878:0 8 =59@>D878>;>38O  ?@8E>4OB : ?0@0483<0< 8;8 =0<5:0< =0 ?0@0483<K, :>B>@K5 1;865 : ?>MB8G5A:><C 2>>1@065=8N, : 273;O40< 4>A>:@0B8:>2 8 =5>?;0B>=8:>2, : 3=>AB8G5A:8< 8 <8AB8G5A:8< B@048F8O<..., G5< : 273;O40< >A=>20B5;59 =0C:8 XVII 8 XVIII 25:>2, =5 3>2>@O C65 > ?>78B828AB0E XIX 25:0 (La gouteille a la mer, dcembre 1980). @>B82>@5G85 <564C 8C459A:8< 548=>1>685<, 52@59A:8< 8 E@8AB80=A:8<, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K 8 0B587<><20 A 4@C3>9,  70<5G05B ;>4 "@5<>=B0=,  2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL B><C, 2 GQ< =0A ?KB0;8AL C1548BL, >B=N4L =5 O2;O5BAO ?@>B82>@5G85< <564C 1>3>A;>285< 8 =0C:>9, <564C "25@>9" 8 "@07C<><".  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >=> O2;O5BAO (...) :>@5==K< ?@>B82>@5G85<, =5?@8<8@8<>9 2>9=>9 <564C 42C<O 1>3>A;>28O<8: 8C459A:8< 1>3>A;>285< A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, :>B>@>5 ?@>?>254C5B, GB> 01A>;NB=>5 ACI5AB2> >B;8G=> >B <8@0, 8 1>3>A;>285< ?@8@>4K, :0:>2K< O2;O5BAO 4@52=59H55 M;;8=A:>5 1>3>A;>285, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K; >=> ?@>?>254C5B, GB> 1>65AB25==>9 O2;O5BAO ?@8@>40 (Les problemes de l atheisme, op. cit., p. 437). 20) 0?><=8<, GB> "@5<>=B0= CA;>28;AO =07K20BL 0B587<>< O7KG5AB2>, ?@87=020O ?@8 MB><, GB> 40==>5 >?@545;5=85, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 745AL, =5?@02><>G=> (ibid., p. 15). 5>1E>48<> >B<5B8BL, GB> 8C4087< ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 ?@>2>48B @07;8G8O <564C B5<, :B> >B@8F05B ACI5AB2>20=85 >30, 8 B5<, :B> ?@87=020O MB> ACI5AB2>20=85, >B@8F05B, GB> >3 83@05B 459AB25==CN @>;L 2 MB>< <8@5 (A<.: Hayim Halevy Donin, To Be A Jew, A Guide to Jewish Observance in Contemporary Life, Basic Books, New York, 1972, pp. 24 ff.). "0:8< >1@07><, O7KG5AB2> ?>4@07C<5205B >B:07 >B MB>9 DC=40<5=B0;L=>9 ?@5@K28AB>AB8, >B MB>3> @07@K20, >B MB>9 4K@K, :0:>2>9 O2;O5BAO 4C0;8AB8G5A:0O D8:F8O, > :>B>@>9 8FH5 ?8H5B, GB> >=0 ?@52@0B8;0 >30 2> 2@030 687=8, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >= 5ABL ?@>A;02;5=85 8 >4>1@5=85 687=8 (=B8E@8AB). AF5;8BL <8@ >B <>=>B58AB8G5A:>3> @07@K20 7=0G8B 25@=CBLAO : 548=><C ?@>O2;5=8N 1KB8O, ?@5>4>;5BL >=B>;>38G5A:CN ?@>?0ABL, >B45;ONICN >30 >B 53> B2>@5=89, 25@=CBL 687=8 ?@>B82>@5G82>5 @07=>>1@0785 5Q A<KA;>2. >3 =5 A>74020; <8@, >= ?@>O2;O5B A51O 2 <8@5 8 G5@57 <8@. = =5 >3@0=8G8205B A51O B5<, GB> ?@8ACBAB2C5B 25745 2 <8@5, :0: MB> 70?@>AB> CB25@6405B ?0=B587<; >= A:>@55 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 87<5@5=85 <8@0, ?@840NI55 5<C <5AB=K9 8;8 2A5>1I89 A<KA; 2 A>>B25BAB288 A B5<, GB> <K 2 =Q< 45;05<. >3 A2O70= A 1KB85< <8@0, 8 65;0BL ?@81;878BLAO : =5<C ?> ?CB8 @07C<0 5ABL G8ABK9 01AC@4: !:>;L 3;C? B>B, :B> 45=L 8 =>GL AB@5<8BAO B51O ?@54AB028BL! (0;LB5@ D>= 45@ $>35;L25945). , B5< =5 <5=55, 8AA;54>20BL <8@  7=0G8B ?>7=020BL >30, ?>=8<0O, GB> MB> 7=0=85 =8:>340 =5 1C45B ?>;=K<, =5:>340 =5 1C45B A>25@H5==K<. "0: ?@8<8@ONBAO 25@0 8 =0C:0  =5 =0 <0=5@ AE>;0AB8:8, :>B>@0O AB@5<8BAO 4>:070BL 459AB28B5;L=>ABL A2>8E 4>3<0B8G5A:8E AC645=89 ?@8 ?><>I8 C=825@A0;L=>3> @07C<0, 0 ?>A@54AB2>< CB25@645=8O >1I53> 548=AB20 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, =5 8<5NI59 =8:0:8E 42>9=8:>2 8;8 >B@065=89. 6 %@8AB80=A:85 02B>@K =5 701K20;8 ?>4GQ@:820BL, GB> 2 3;070E /E25 A>B2>@Q==K9 <8@ E>@>H. ;>4 "@5<>=B0=, =0?@8<5@, ?>;0305B, GB> 181;59A:0O B@048F8O :0B53>@8G5A:8 70O2;O5B 25;8:>;5?85 @50;L=>AB8, GC2AB25==>3> <8@0 8 A>740=89! (Essai sur la pense hbraique, op. cit.). -B> =5 <5H05B MB><C 25;8:>;5?8N 1KBL ;8HL A;54AB285<, ;8HL >B@065=85< B2>@G5A:>3> 45O=8O >30. >340 3>2>@8BAO, GB> =0 H5AB>9 45=L  C2845; >3 2AQ, GB> = A>740;, 8 2>B, E>@>H> 25AL<0 (KB. 1,1 31), MB> >7=0G05B ?@5645 2A53>, GB> >3 ?>;>68B5;L=> >F5=8205B A2>Q A>1AB25==>5 45;>. >A:>;L:C <8@ A>740= >3><, >= =5 <>65B ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 1>65AB25==>5 A>25@H5=AB2>. 81;8O CB25@6405B, GB> 75<;O 8 =515A0 8A?>;L7CNBAO :0: @870 (A0;>< 102, 27); >3 65 =5 8A?>;L7C5B A0<>3> A51O. # <8@0 =5B A2>53> A>1AB25==>3> ACI5AB20, 0 5ABL ;8HL ACI5AB2>20=85, :>B>@>5 40QB 5<C >3. = ;8HL <5;LG09H55 ACI5AB2>, 8. 4065 5A;8 ;8 8 E>@>H, 2 A8;C MB>3> =587156=> >15AF5=5=. <5==> =0 MB>< >15AF5=820=88 1C45B >A=>2K20BLAO 7=0G8B5;L=0O G0ABL E@8AB80=A:>9 D8;>A>D88, 284OI0O 2 <8@5 ;8HL N4>;L ?;0G0. %@8AB80=A:>5 ?@57@5=85 : <8@C (5A;8 =5 >B25@65=85 <8@0) 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 ?@>8AB5:05B 87 ?0C;8=87<0. %@8AB80=A:0O ?>78F8O, A>3;0A=> A;>20< A0<>3> A2. 02;0 ((0C;O), 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K ?>G8B0BL 2AQ BI5B>N @048 ?@52>AE>4AB20 ?>7=0=8O %@8AB0 8ACA0, AG8B0BL 2AQ 70 A>@, GB>1K ?@8>1@5ABL %@8AB0 8 =09B8AL 2 Q< ($8;. 3, 8-9). <5O 2 284C 8<5==> 0A:5B8G5A:CN <>@0;L, ?>@>64Q==CN @5D>@<>9 02;0, 8FH5 8AB>;:>2K205B E@8AB80=AB2> 2 53> >A=>25 :0: =5B 687=8, :0: =5B, ?>@>64Q==>5 =5A?>A>1=>ABLN ?@8=8<0BL @07=8FC, CB25@640BL 2=CH0NI55 >?0A5=85 >B;8G85, ?@8=8<0BL ?@>?0ABL. <5==> MB> ?>1C48;> 53> 40BL A;54CNI55 >?@545;5=85 O7KG5AB20: /7KG=8:8  MB> 2A5 B5 87 >B=>AOI8EAO : 687=8 ?>;>68B5;L=>, 4;O :>B>@KE >3 A;C68B 2K@065=85< 25;8:>3> 0 ?> >B=>H5=8N :> 2A5< 25I0< (=B8E@8AB). 725AB=> 87@5G5=85 "5@BC;;80=0: Nobis curiositate opus ?>? est post Christum Iesum (>A;5 8ACA0 %@8AB0 <K =5 8A?KBK205< 1>;LH5 ;N1>?KBAB20, De praescr. haer.). 59AB28B5;L=>, ?@57@5=85 : <8@C 2;5GQB 70 A>1>9 ?@57@5=85 : 7=0=8N, :0A0NI5<CAO MB>3> <8@0. > 2@5<5=0 "5@BC;;80=0 MB>B =0AB@>9 1K; ?>2A5<5AB=> @0A?@>AB@0=5= A@548 E@8AB80= (>BAN40 C?@5:8 @8<A:8E 02B>@>2, >128=ONI8E E@8AB80=AB2> 2 B><, GB> >=> >1@0I05BAO B>;L:> : =53@0<>B=K<). @835= B0:65 ?@87=0QB, GB> ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> 53> A>2@5<5==8:>2-E@8AB80=  ?@>ABK5 8 =5>1@07>20==K5 ;N48 (Contra Celsum I, 27). A;8 8 25@=>, GB> ?@57@5=85 : <8@C 4>AB0B>G=> E0@0:B5@=> 4;O 2A5E =0?@02;5=89 <KA;8 2> 2B>@>< 25:5, =081>;55 O@:> 2K@065=> >=> C E@8AB80=, 0 B0:65, :>=5G=>, C 3=>AB8:>2. (5AL <8@ ;568B 2> 7;5  3>2>@8B 02B>@ ?5@2>3> ?>A;0=8O A2. >0==0). AB0B8 3>2>@O, @835= A>E@0=O5B <=>385 G5@BK 3=>AB8F87<0. = AG8B05B @>645=85 B0:8< =5AG0ABL5<, GB> ;N48, ?> 53> <=5=8N, =5 B>;L:> =5 4>;6=K >B<5G0BL A2>9 45=L @>645=8O, => 8 >1O70=K =5=02845BL MB>B 45=L (In Levit. horn. 8, 3). = 4>E>48B 4> B>3>, GB> ?@8?8AK205B B2>@5=85 459AB28N >?@545;Q==KE B5;5A=KE 4CE>2, :>B>@K5, :>340 8< 1K;> ?>72>;5=> A>75@F0BL >30, >1@0B8;8AL : =87H5<C (Princ. 2, 8, 3). 0: ?8H5B .%. @<AB@>=3, 4;O @835=0 2AQ <0B5@80;L=>5 B2>@5=85 O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< 3@5E0, 53> F5;L  A;C68BL 2 :0G5AB25 G8AB8;8I0, 8 ;CGH5 1K;> 1K, 5A;8 1K 2 =Q< 2>>1I5 =5 1K;> =5>1E>48<>AB8 (An Introduction to Ancient Philosophy, London, 1947, p. 173).  B5G5=85 4>;3>3> 2@5<5=8 E@8AB80=5 ?@54?>G8B0;8 =5 AB0;:820BLAO A O7KG=8:0<8 =0 ?>G25 D8;>A>DA:>9 <KA;8: B>;L:> ?>74=55 : , =081>;55 M;5<5=B0@=>9 8 70G0ABCN =081>;55 =8GB>6=>9 25@5, ?@>AB>9 4>25@G82>AB8, >=8 @8A:=C;8 ?@81028BL , C1564Q==>ABL, >A=>20==CN =0 1>;55 A;>6=>< @0AAC645=88. >4>1=>5 >B=>H5=85 >AB028;> <=>3>G8A;5==K5 A;54K 2 E@8AB80=A:>< A>7=0=88. IQ A2. 23CAB8= 70O2;O5B, GB> MB0 687=L  ;8HL :><548O G5;>25G5A:>3> @>40 (Enarr. in Ps., 127). >6=> =01;N40BL 2>7@>645=85 ?>4>1=KE 273;O4>2 2 :2078<0=8E59A:8E D>@<0E 2 A>2@5<5==CN M?>EC: 8@ 3=QBAO ?>4 70:>=>< ;0, 8 ;>, B0:8< >1@07><,  MB> 4@C3>5 =0720=85 <8@0 (B.H. Levy, Le testament de Dieu, Grasset, 1979, p. 238). (!@. B0:65 A;>20 0@5:0 %0;LB5@0: 8:B> =5 CE>48B 157=0:070==K< 87 MB>3> <8@0, 345 2AQ 254QB : C3=5B5=8N 8 A<5@B8  :0: 157C<85, B0: 8 =045640!). ;O O7KG5A:>9 <KA;8, =0?@>B82, G5;>25G5A:>5 A>7=0=85 ?@8=04;568B <8@C 8 2 A8;C MB>3> =5 O2;O5BAO @048:0;L=> >B;8G=K< >B 1>65AB25==>9 ACI=>AB8. > >B=>H5=8N : !C4L15 () G5;>25: O2;O5BAO 70:>=>< <8@0 (    ) 8 <5@>9 2A5E 25I59; >4=>2@5<5==> A ?>;=>B>9 <8@0 >= O2;O5B ;8: A0<>3> >30. -B> 8=BC8B82=>5 >ICI5=85 B>3>, GB> A>7=0=85 8 4CE G5;>25:0 A2O70=K A <8@><, 8<5;> <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?@>4>;65=8O 2 A>2@5<5==>9 D8;>A>D88 8 M?8AB5<>;>388, >B <>=04 591=8F0 4> G0AB8F "59O@021.  O7KG5AB25 <8@, =5 1C4CG8 =5->3><, AB>;L 65 A>25@H5=5=, A:>;L 8 >3, =0>1>@>B, >3 AB>;L 65 =5A>25@H5=5=, A:>;L 8 <8@; >48= 87 25;8:8E C@>:>2 ;804K 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> 1>38 A@060NBAO A ;N4L<8 8 <564C A>1>9... 21) !<. 2 1>;LH8=AB25 87 C?><O=CBKE 2KH5 8AA;54>20=89 38?>B57K A>2@5<5==K5 =5>3=>AB8:>2 (Raymond Ruyer. La gnose de Princeton. Des savants a la recherche d'unej religion, Fayard. 1974). 38?>B57K 0=0 (0@>=0 > ?A8E><0B5@88 8;8 A>7=0B5;L=>9 <0B5@88, :>B>@>9 A>>B25BAB2CNB M;5:B@>=K (Le monde ternel des ons. Stock. 1980). ; B0:65 B@C4K >@4>2A:>3> :>;;>:28C<0 (Science et conscience. Seuil. 1980). 0 ;8<?5, 3>2>@8B 5@0:;8B, 15AA<5@B=K5 A<5@B=K, A<5@B=K5 15AA<5@B=K, [>4=8] 682CB 70 AGQB A<5@B8 4@C38E, 70 AGQB 687=8 4@C38E C<8@0NB (D@03<. 62). 52>7<>6=> ;CGH5 2K@078BL B>, GB> <564C ;N4L<8 8 1>30<8 5ABL @07=8F0 C@>2=5, => =5B :>@5==>9 @07=8FK 2 ?@8@>45. >38 A>740=K ?> >1@07C ;N459, 2>72KH5==>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 :>B>@KE >=8 O2;ONB; ;N48, ?@5>4>;520O A0<8E A51O, <>3CB, ?> :@09=59 <5@8 G0AB8G=>, ?@8>1I8BLAO : ?@8@>45 1>3>2.  0=B8G=>AB8 >1@07F>20O D83C@0 35@>O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ABC?5=L <564C 42C<O C@>2=O<8. 5@>9 O2;O5BAO ?>;C1>3><  845O, :0702H0OAO A>25@H5==> 5AB5AB25==>9 4@52=8< 3@5:0< 8 @8<;O=0< 8 =587156=> O2;ONI0OAO ?>;=K< 1>3>EC;LAB2>< 4;O 81;88. >340 C 3@5:>2 8;8 @8<;O= G5;>25: ?@8G8A;O;AO : 35@>O<, MB> 2AB@5G0;>AL A 2>AB>@3><.  81;88 65, :>340 7<59 ?@54;0305B 25 1KBL :0: 1>38 (KB85 3, 5), MB> @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: <5@7>ABL. >74=55 -@8E $@><< ?>:070;, =0A:>;L:> ?@>B82>?>;>6=K 4@C3 4@C3C D83C@K 35@>O 8 E@8AB80=A:>3> <CG5=8:0: CG5=8: ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?>;=CN ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL O7KG5A:><C 35@>N, >;8F5B2>@5==><C 3@5G5A:8<8 8 35@<0=A:8<8 35@>O<8 (...); 4;O O7KG5A:>3> 35@>O F5==>ABL G5;>25:0 70:;NG05BAO 2 E@01@>AB8, :>B>@0O ?>72>;O5B 5<C 4>18BLAO 2;0AB8 8 C45@6820BL 5Q, 8 >= @04>AB=> C<8@05B =0 ?>;5 18B2K 2 A0<K9 <83 A2>59 ?>154K (<5BL 8;8 1KBL?). N10O 845O > A>AB>O=88 8;8 ACI5AB25, ?@><56CB>G=>< <564C G5;>25:>< 8 >3><, G5;>25:>-1>35 8;8 1>35, ?@8=O2H5< G5;>25G5A:89 >1;8:, GC640 81;88 A A0<KE 5Q 8AB>:>2. ( 2 MB>9 A2O78 8AB>;:>20=85 8ACA0 2 E@8AB80=AB25 :0: ?>4;8==>3> >30 8 ?>4;8==>3> G5;>25:0 C65 A2845B5;LAB2C5B >1 >?@545;Q==>< :><?@><8AA5 A O7KG5A:8< 4CE><: 8C4087< =5 B>;L:> =5 ?@87=0QB 8ACA0 5AA859, >15I0==K< 2 8A0=88, => 4;O =53>, :@><5 B>3>, 1K;> 1K =52>7<>6=> ?@8=OBL 53> 548=>ACI=>ABL /E25). >3 81;88, 2 >B;8G85 >B 1>;LH8=AB20 1>65AB2, =5 >B@0605B ?>;>65=8O G5;>25:0  70<5G05B 8@G0 -;8045. # =53> =5B A5<L8, 0 5ABL ;8HL =515A=K9 42>@. /E25 >48=>: (Histoire des croyances et des ides religieuses, vol. 1, Payot, 1976, p. 194). -B> >48=>G5AB2> /E25 O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< 53> A>1AB25==>9 ?@8@>4K. /E25 =5 8<55B ?@>8AE>645=8O, >= =5 O2;O5BAO @57C;LB0B>< M2>;NF88, ?@>F5AA0 8;8 AB0=>2;5=8O. =  25G=>ABL, >= =0E>48BAO 70 ?@545;0<8 ;N1KE >1>7=0G5=89. = ;8HL 3>2>@8B: /  ACI89 ('ehyeh 'aser 'ehyeh). 81;8O =5 40QB =8:0:>3> >1JOA=5=8O, GB>1K ?>4B25@48BL MB> CB25@645=85, =5 ?@82>48B =8:0:>3> @0AAC645=8O, =8:0:>9 D8;>A>DA:>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8. =0 ?@>AB> 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> 5ABL, 1K;> 2A5340 8 1C45B 2A5340. !CI=>ABL >30 B0:8< >1@07>< ?><5I05BAO 2 >=B>;>38G5A:CN 1574=C, 2AQ 1>;55 8 1>;55 3;C1>:CN 8 2AQ 1>;55 8 1>;55 >B45;Q==CN >B <8@0. -B> B>, > GQ< A2845B5;LAB2C5B 8AG57=>25=85 A0<>3> 53> 8<5=8, :>B>@>5 ?>AB5?5==> 70<5=O5BAO ;8G=K< <5AB>8<5=85< >= (hu'), GB>1K 2 :>=5G=>< AGQB5 AB0BL A>25@H5==> =5?@>87=>A8<K<  4065 =52K@078<K< (E>BO 1K 8 CA;>2=>) 72C:>< 3>;>A0. /E25  >?@545;Q==> 548=AB25==>5 O 2A5;5==>9, >AB0;L=K5 O2;ONBAO O ;8HL :>A25==>. /E25 O2;O5B A51O :0: :>@5==>5 >B;8G85 (@07C<55BAO, >1@07F>2>5 4;O B5E, :B> 53> ?>G8B05B). = =5 B>;L:> @C3>9, => 8 !>25@H5==> @C3>9, ganz andere, > :>B>@>< 3>2>@8B C4>;LD BB>. >4>1=K< >1@07>< ?@>8AE>48B >15AF5=820=85 G5;>25:0. 57CA;>2=>, >= <>65B 1KBL 871@0= 8;8 C4>AB>8BLAO ;03>40B8. <C B0:65 ?@54>AB02;O5BAO 2K1>@  A?0AB8AL, A>548=82H8AL ;8G=> A /E25, 8;8 ?>381=CBL =025G=>. > MB>B 2K1>@ :0A05BAO B>;L:> ;8HL AC1J5:B0. 8GB> =5 <>65B A45;0BL G5;>25:0 @02=K< /E25 (>AB>G=0O F5@:>2L 3>2>@8B >1 >1>65=88 ;N459; G5;>25: 25AL AB0=>28BAO ?> ?@8G0AB8N, B5<, G5< >3 O2;O5BAO ?> ACI=>AB8, B.5. =5B20@=K<, =5>?8AC5<K< 8 ?@.). !0<> A>1>9 @07C<55BAO, GB> C /E25 =5B D878G5A:8E E0@0:B5@8AB8:. /E25 =52>7<>6=> >?@545;8BL, >ICB8BL, >?8A0BL22. '0ABK5 C?><8=0=8O 2 81;88 > 53> ;8:5, ?@5AB>;5, 4;0=8, >:5 8 B.4. 8<5NB G8AB> A8<2>;8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85: >=8 >1JOA=ONBAO B5<, GB>, A>3;0A=> 8725AB=>9 D>@<C;5, 81;8O 3>2>@8B =0 G5;>25G5A:>< O7K:5. "0:85 2K@065=8O :0: >3-B5F 8;8 45B8 >6L8 B>G=> B0: 65, AB@>3> 3>2>@O, O2;ONBAO =5 1>;55 G5< 0=B@>?><>@D87<0<8, :>B>@K5 =52>7<>6=> ?@8=8<0BL 1C:20;L=>. /E25 =5 ?>@>640; G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>B><AB20. !;>2> 1>38=O A0<> ?> A515, :0: ?8H5B 5=0=, O2;O;>AL 1K =0 52@59A:>< O7K:5 C60A=59H8< 20@20@87<>< (1I0O 8AB>@8O 8 A@02=8B5;L=0O A8AB5<0 A5<8BA:8E O7K:>2). 8:B> 87 ;N459 =5 O2;O5BAO AK=>< /E25 2 A>1AB25==><) A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20. (065 2 E@8AB80=A:>9 ?5@A?5:B825, ?>A:>;L:C 8ACA 548=>ACI5= BFC, /E25 O2;O5BAO ;8HL >BF>< A0<>3> A51O). 22) !<. >1 MB>< ?@54AB02;5=88 > =5>?8AC5<>AB8: Henri Frankfort. Kingship and Gods. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 1948. Pp. 342 sq. "5< =5 <5=55, ?>4>1=K9 0=B@>?><>@D87< >BF>2AB20/AK=>2AB20 70A;C68205B B>3>, GB>1K =0 =Q< >AB0=>28BLAO.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8, >= =0AB>9G82> ?>2B>@O5BAO ?@8 @073>2>@5 > 025B5. /E25 5IQ @0=LH5, G5< 1KBL 1>3>< ?@8G8==>AB8, O2;O5BAO 1>3>< 025B0. = 3>2>@8B A G5;>25:><, >= 40QB 5<C A2>8 70?>2548, >= 45;05B 53> A>?@8G0AB=K< A2>59 2>;5. = 8718@05B A2>9 =0@>4:  1C4C E>48BL A@548 20A, 8 1C4C 20H8< >3><, 0 2K 1C45B5 >8< =0@>4>< (528B 26, 12). ;0AA8G5A:0O D>@<C;8@>2:0 025B0:  ?@8<C 20A !515 2 =0@>4 8 1C4C 20< >3><, 8 2K C7=05B5, GB> / >A?>4L, >3 20H (AE. 6, 7). -B>B 7025B A /E25, 5@8B-/E25, ?>AB>O==> 8AB>;:>2K205BAO :0: 4>3>2>@ A >BF><  D>@<0 >B=>H5=89, A25BA:85 2K@065=8O :>B>@>9 >1=0@C6820NBAO C CAA> 8 $@5940 (2 >B;8G85, =0?@8<5@, >B 0:8025;;8, >=B5A:L5, ">:28;O 8;8 8FH5).  B> 65 2@5<O, :0: 1K;> 70<5G5=> 528=0A><, >B45;L=>5 8 A>B2>@5==>5 ACI5AB2> =5 B>;L:> =5 ?@>8AE>48B >B >BF0, => 8 ?>;=>ABLN >B =53> >B;8G=>. >2B>@8<, GB>, 1C4CG8 >BF><, /E25 =8:>3> =5 @>6405B. A;54AB285 MB>3> 8A:;NG05BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL B>3>, GB> >4=064K 53> 45B8 A<5=OB 53>, :0: A<5=O5B >BF0 AK=, 8=>340 A> A;>6=>ABO<8, =>, 2 F5;><, 5AB5AB25==K< >1@07><.  548=>1>688, ?@>4>;605B 528=0A, A0<> AK=>2AB2> <>65B ?@54AB02;OBLAO ACI5AB25==K< 4;O <>59 AC4L1K B>;L:> 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 A>E@0=O5BAO ?0<OBL > B2>@5=88 ex nihilo, 157 :>B>@>3> AK= =5 O2;O5BAO ?>-=0AB>OI5<C 4@C38<. 0:0= 2 1964 3. 70O28;, GB> =8:0:>5 A>7=0B5;L=>5 ACI5AB2> =5 O2;O5BAO >BF>< ?@>AB> ?>B><C, GB> >=> O2;O5BAO >BF><. 5@0@ .15@ 4>102;O5B, GB> A0<>AB0=>2;5=85 AK=0 2 >BF5 ?@54AB02;O5B AB0=>2;5=85 >BF0 2 >BF5, 0 B0:65, GB> >3 O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< @0728B8O ?@54AB02;5=8O > A>7=0B5;L=>< >BF5, => MB> @0728B85  <>=>B58AB8G5A:>5  >B=>A8BAO : @07@O4C 15AA>7=0B5;L=KE 8459 (Moise et la question de l'extriorit, in Cahiers Confrontation, printemps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e dissidence freudienne, Grasset, 1978), :0: B5>;>38O :0AB@0F88. !B@0E, :>B>@K9 G5;>25: 4>;65= ?@>O2;OBL ?> >B=>H5=8N : /E25, =5>1E>48<K9 AB@0E, 7=0: :>B>@>3> >= 4>;65= =>A8BL =0 A2>59 ?;>B8 8 A8<2>;8G5A:8< ?>4>185< :>B>@>3> O2;O5BAO >1@570=85, O2;O5BAO AB@0E>< 1>;55 ACI5AB25==>9 :0AB@0F88, 4>;6=>9 ?><5H0BL AK=C C=0A;54>20BL 2;0ABL A2>53> >BF0. BAN40 :><?5=A0B>@=K9 D0=B07< C189AB20 >BF0 A>1@0=85< AK=>259, @0745;ONI8E 53> 2;0ABL =0 M30;8B0@=>9 >A=>25, D0=B07<, ?@>O2;ONI89AO A ?>;=>9 A>7=0B5;J=>ABJN 2 A0<>< F5=B@5 D@594>2A:>3> 48A:C@A0. 48=AB25==K9 A?>A>1 A<5=8BL >BF0, <5AB> :>B>@>3> =52>7<>6=> 70=OBL,  C18BL 53>.  B> 65 2@5<O A8AB5<0 70?@5I05B ?>4>1=>5 C189AB2>; 2>A?><8=0=85 B2>@5=8O ex nihilo, =0@CH0NI55 =>@<0;L=K5 >B=>H5=8O >BF>2AB20/AK=>2AB20, ?>4@07C<5205B >1@07>20=85 ?>402;5==>3> 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> 8 ?@5:@0I5=85 ?>402;5=8O (Grard Huber, art. cit.).  @57C;LB0B5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 2K=C6405BAO ?>AB>O==> :>;510BLAO <564C >B>645AB2;ONI8< ?>4G8=5=85< >BFC 8 15A:>=5G=> ?>402;O5<K< 65;0=85< >A2>1>640NI53> >BF5C189AB20. (>4>1=>5 :>;510=85, 2>7<>6=>, 8<55B >?@545;Q==>5 >B=>H5=85 : @0728B8N Selbsthass  =5=028AB8 : A515). 5@8B-/E25  >A;01;5==>5 2>?;>I5=85 @8BC0;L=>9 :0AB@0F88  C4208205B @>645=85: @>48BLAO ?>-=0AB>OI5<C, B> 5ABL 157 >BF0, <5AB> :>B>@>3> <>6=> 1K 1K;> 70=OBL, 2>7<>6=> B>;L:> 2 025B5. $@594 ?>GC2AB2>20; @50;L=>ABL MB>9 A;>6=>9 A8AB5<K, ?> ?>AB0@0;AO >B25AB8 ?>4>7@5=85. @0BLO =5 C18;8 >BF0  => >=8 =8:>340 =5 ?5@5AB020;8 65;0BL 53> C18BL, 8 8<5==> MB> 65;0=85, 2K@060NI55AO B>;L:> 2 A0<>9 3;C18=5 8E O, ;568B 2.>A=>25 8E GC2AB20 28=K. "5>@8O C189AB20 >BF0, :0: 8 B5>@8O >1 -48?5, 25@>OB=>, 8<55B A2>8< ?>4;8==K< 8AB>G=8:>< 81;8N  8AB>G=8:><, A>7=0B5;L=> CB0Q==K< $@594>< A F5;LN ?5@525AB8 2=8<0=85 =0 3@5G5A:89 8AB>G=8: :0: 1>;55 ?>4E>4OI89 4;O 53> ?@>5:B>2. AB0B8 3>2>@O, 2 A2>Q< A>G8=5=88 '5;>25:  AB0BCO<. $@594 8 A:@KB0O 28=0 >BF0 (Grasset, 1979) 0@8 0;L<0@8 ?@54AB02;O5B, 0=0;878@CO A> AB@>3>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O D@5948ABA:>9 >@B>4>:A88, <0B5@80;K, :>B>@K5 ?>72>;ONB C1548B5;L=K< >1@07>< 8AB>;:>20BL B5>@8N -48?0 :0: @57C;LB0B ?>402;5=8O AK=>< ?@5ABC?;5=8O, A>25@H5==>3> >BF><. 45AL 8A?>;L7C5BAO <5E0=87< ?5@540G8: :><?;5:A -48?0 2>7;0305B 28=C =0 AK=0 B>;L:> ;8HL 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ;CGH5 >?@0240BL >BF0.  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(>6=> 2845BL, =0A:>;L:> MB0 ?@>1;5<0B8:0 87<5=8;0AL 2 E@8AB80=AB25 A 53> 84559 AK=0, 548=>ACI=>3> >BFC, ?@8=8<0NI53> =0 A51O ?>A@54AB2>< 2>?;>I5=8O ?5@2>@>4=K9 3@5E, GB>1K A?0AB8 B0:8< >1@07>< G5;>25G5AB2>). @O<>5 A;54AB285 AAK;:8 =0 548=AB25==>3> >BF0: 1@0BAB2> AK=>259 @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =0 2AN 2A5;5==CN. N48  55 1@0BLO (A<.: Franklin Rausky, L'homme et l'autre dans tradition hbraique, in Lon Poliakov, Ni Juif ni Grec. Entretier sur le racisme, Mouton, La Hague, 1978, pp. 35-46). > 2 B> A0<>5 2@5<O ?>4>1=>5 1@0BAB2> AB0=>28BAO =5>ACI5AB28<K<. '5;>25G5A:85 A>>1I5AB20 ?>@>640NB ?>4;8==>5 1@0BAB2> B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 >=> =0E>48B A2>Q >?@0240=85 2 >A=>2>?>;030NI5< <8D5 >1I53> ?@>8AE>645=8O; B0:65 =5>1E>48<>, GB> 1K MB> ?@>8AE>645=85 1K;> >3@0=8G5=>, B0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K >B;8G0BL ?@8=04;560I8E : >4=>9 A5<L5 >B ?@8=04;560I8E : 4@C3>9. @0BAB2>, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 >B=>A8B5;L=>5, <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL B>;L:> A alter ego: ;N4L<8 >4=>3> 3>@>40, >4=>3> 3>AC40@AB20, >4=>3> =0@>40, >4=>9 :C;LBC@K.  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G5284=>, GB> 8<5==> MB8< 81;8O >1>A=>2K205B ?@>8AE>645=85 70?@5B0 =0 :@>2>A<5H5=85, 2 A2O78 A B5< ?@54AB02;5=85<, GB> ;N1>2L <564C <C6G8=>9 8 65=I8=>9 2>7<>6=0 B>;L:> 2 A;CG05 ?@5>4>;5=8O :@>2>A<5A8B5;L=>9 ?@82O70==>AB8.  ?>4 :@>2>A<5A8B5;L=>9 ?@82O70==>ABLN -@8E $@><< ?>4@07C<5205B 8<5==> ?@82O70==>ABL : <8@C, : :@>28 8 ?>G25, 0 B0:65 A2O7L A ?@>H;K< (Vous serez comme des dieux, Complexe, Bruxelles, 1975, p. 68-70).  ?>402;5==><C 65;0=8N C18BL >BF0, >ACI5AB2;5=85 :>B>@>3> $@594 8AB>;:>2K205B :0: 7=0: @>645=8O F828;870F88 (>BF5C189AB2>, 2K7K20NI55 ?5@5E>4 >B >@4K : >1I5AB2C), 4>102;O5BAO, B0:8< >1@07><, 84>;>?>:;>=A:89 A>1;07= 2>72@0B0 : <0B5@8, : <0B5@8-75<;5, A>1;07=, :>B>@K9 81;8O @8BC0;878@C5B, ?><5I0O 53> 2 A2OI5==CN ?5@A?5:B82C, 2 B0:8E M?87>40E :0: >1<0= 0:>2>< ?@8 A>459AB288 A2>59 <0B5@8 525::8 A2>53> >BF0 A00:0 4;O 4>1@>3> 45;0 (KB. 27, 5-17). >7<>6=>, =0 MB>< 65 >A=>20=88 =5>1E>48<> ?>-=>2><C 8AB>;:>20BL 1@0G=CN A8<2>;8:C, G0AB> 8A?>;L7CNICNAO 2 81;88 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 7@08;N. -B0 A8<2>;8:0 45;05B 87 7@08;O >15B>20==CN AC?@C3C 8;8 =525ABC /E25. 4=0:> =04;560I8< >1@07>< ?@54?>;>68BL 1@0G=CN A5:AC0;L=>ABL <>6=> B>;L:> 2 A;CG05 ?@5>4>;5=8O, @07@5H5=8O ;N1KE A2O759 A @>48B5;LA:>9 A5:AC0;L=>ABLN. 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A Bible ouverte II, Albin Michel, 1979, p. 161). <5==> 2 MB>< A<KA;5 8C408ABA:0O B@048F8O A:;>==0 8AB>;:>2K20BL AB@>DC KB8O, A;54CNICN A@07C 65 70 @0AA:07>< > A>B2>@5=88 2K: >B><C >AB028B G5;>25: >BF0 A2>53> 8 <0BL A2>N, 8 ?@8;5?8BAO : 65=5 A2>59; 8 1C4CB >4=0 ?;>BL (2, 24). >4>1=K9 A8<2>;87<, :>B>@K9, ?> A;>20< 8@G8 -;8045, ?0@04>:A0;L=K< >1@07><, 7028A8B >B E0=00=A:8E :C;LB>2 ?;>4>@>48O (Histoire des croyances et des ides religieuses, vol. 1, op. cit., p. 361), 70<5=O5B ?>402;5==CN ?@8@>4=CN <0BL <0B5@LN >B2;5GQ==>9, =5 A2O70==>9 A GC2AB25==K< <8@><. -B> ?>4G5@:8205B =0BC@0;8AB8G5A:89 E0@0:B5@ B>3>, GB> 81;8O >AC6405B :0: 84>;>?>:;>=AB2> 8 >G5=L ;>38G=> 8AB>;:>2K205B ?@8 ?><>I8 ?>=OB89 AC?@C65A:>9 =525@=>AB8: !C48B5AL A 20H5N <0B5@LN, AC48B5AL; 81> >=0 =5 65=0 >O, 8 / =5 <C6 5Q; ?CABL >=0 C40;8B 1;C4 >B ;8F0 A2>53> 8 ?@5;N1>45O=85 >B 3@C459 A2>8E (A8O 2, 2). 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'B> 65 =0 A0<>< 45;5 >7=0G0NB A;>20 >1@07 (tselem) 8 ?>4>185 (demuth)? 0:>9 A<KA; 8<55B 2K@065=85 tselem 'elohim  D878G5A:89 8;8 4CE>2=K9? >2>@8B ;8 >=> =0< =5GB> > B><, G5<C ?>4>15= /E25, 8;8 >=> A2845B5;LAB2C5B B>;L:> ;8HL > B><, 2 :0:>< 2845 >= ?@54AB0QB G5;>25:C (2 2>AB>G=>9 F5@:28 ?>4 >1@07>< ?>=8<05BAO A>B2>@5=88 15AA<5@B=>9 8 A2>1>4=>9 4CH8, 0 ?>4>185 B@0:BC5BAO :0: 7040=85 AB0BL 1>3>< ?> ?@8G0AB8N)? >;L <15@ (Etudes sur le rcit du paradis et de la chute dans la Genese, Universit de Neuchtel, Neuchtel, 1940) ?@840QB :>=:@5B=>5 7=0G5=85 MB8< 42C< B5@<8=0<, => OA=>, GB> @5GL 745AL =5 <>65B 84B8 >1 0=B@>?><>@D=>< A@02=5=88. 564C 42C<O A;>20<8 B0:65 ACI5AB2C5B B>=:>5 @07;8G85: tselem >7=0G05B >G5=L 1;87:CN : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 :>?8N, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: demuth ?5@540QB 845N 0=0;>388, 1>;55 ?@8<5@=>3> AE>4AB20. >=OB85 >1@07, :>B>@>5 AB>8B 745AL =0 ?5@2>< <5AB5, 2 >B;8G85 >B B>3>, GB> 3>2>@8B =830 KB8O >1 40<5 8 53> AK=5 (40< 68; AB> B@84F0BL ;5B, 8 @>48; AK=0 ?> ?>4>18N A2>5<C, ?> >1@07C A2>5<C, 8 =0@Q: 5<C 8<O: !8D, 5, 3), =5<54;5==> A<O3G05BAO, B0:8< >1@07><, ?>=OB85< ?>4>185. @><5 B>3>, G0AB> 8A?>;L7CNI55AO A@02=5=85 A GC2AB2><, :>B>@>5 <>65B 8A?KBK20BL >B5F, C7=020O A2>9 >1@07 2 AK=5, 745AL >A>15==> ?><>GL =5 <>65B: :0: <K 7=05<, /E25 =5 O2;O5BAO >BF>< ;N459 2 35=5B8G5A:>< A<KA;5 A;>20. !>3;0A=> 4@C38< 02B>@0<, AE>4AB2> >1JOA=O5BAO B5<, GB> G5;>25: A>740= 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 3>A?>4AB2>20BL =04 D878G5A:8< <8@>< B0: 65, :0: =04 =8< A0<8< 3>A?>4AB2C5B /E25. > :065BAO, GB> MB> ?@>B82>@5G8B =835 KB8O, :>B>@0O >1JO2;O5B 3>A?>4AB2> G5;>25:0 =04 682>B=K<8 A;54AB285< 2B>@>AB5?5==>3> 1;03>A;>25=8O. 23) -B> <=>65AB25==>5 G8A;> (!>B2>@8< G5;>25:0...) 8=B@83C5B. @54AB02;O5BAO, GB> @5GL =5 84QB > <=>65AB25==>< 25;8G8O. 5:>B>@K5 :><<5=B0B>@K ?>;030NB. GB> /E25 >1@0I05BAO 745AL : =515A=K< ACI5AB20<, ?@5645 2A53> : 0=35;0< (2 2>AB>G=>9 F5@:28 MB> <5AB> AG8B05BAO C:070=85< =0 B@>8G5A:CN B09=C, A0< "@>8FC). 0 A0<>< 45;5 MB0 AAK;:0 =0 >1@07 /E25, :>B>@K9 >1=0@C68205BAO 2 G5;>25:5, ?>4GQ@:8205B 2A53> ;8HL >B@060NI89 E0@0:B5@ G5;>25G5AB20. =0 O2;O5BAO =0?><8=0=85< > B><, GB> G5;>25: >AB0QBAO A>740==K< ?@54<5B><, GB> >= >1;0405B ?>;>68B5;L=>9 F5==>ABLN B>;L:> 2 A8;C B>3>, GB> 2KE>48B 87 @C: A2>53> A>740B5;O, 0 B0:65, ?> A;>20< >0==0 02;0 II, GB> G5;>25: 1>;LH5 ?>E>6 =0 >30, G5< =0 ?@8@>4C (?C1;8G=>5 2KABC?;5=85 6 45:01@O 1978 3.). ">G=> B0: 65, :0: A>3;0A=> 4C0;8AB8G5A:><C ?@54AB02;5=8N > <8@5 D878G5A:0O 2A5;5==0O 2>A?@8=8<05BAO B>;L:> ;8HL :0: 75@:0;>, G5;>25: 4>:07K205B A2>Q ACI5AB2>20=85, >BAK;0O : >1@07C >30. @C38<8 A;>20<8, >1@0I5=85 : G5;>25:C :0: : AC1J5:BC <>65B 8AE>48BL B>;L:> ;8HL >B 8<5=8 48=AB25==>3> 8 1A>;NB=>3> !C1J5:B0. 45AL <>6=> A>A;0BLAO =0 A;>20 C8 ;LBNAA5@0, :>B>@K9 3>2>@8B ?> ?>2>4C ;N1>9 845>;>388, GB> >=0 >@30=87>20=0 2>:@C3 F5=B@0, GB> 01A>;NB=K9 !C1J5:B 70=8<05B 2 =59 F5=B@0;L=>5 <5AB> 8 >@30=87>2K205B 2>:@C3 A51O 15A:>=5G=>5 :>;8G5AB2> 8=48284CC<>2, ?>B><C GB> >=0 ?>4G8=O5B AC1J5:BK !C1J5:BC, ?@54>AB02;OO 8< 2 !C1J5:B5, 2 :>B>@>< :064K9 AC1J5:B <>65B A>75@F0BL A2>9 A>1AB25==K9 >1@07 (=0AB>OI89 8 1C4CI89), 30@0=B8N B>3>, GB> @5GL 84QB 8<5==> > =8E 8 > =Q<, 0 B0:65 B>3>, GB>, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 O2;ONBAO A5<L59, >3 C7=05B 2 =8E A2>8E, B> 5ABL GB> B>B, :B> C7=05B >30 8 1C45B C7=0= 2 =Q<, 1C45B A?0AQ= (Positions, Ed. sociales, 1976, pp. 119-120). 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(KB. 4, 9). >4@07C<5205BAO: MB> BK, /E25, 4>;65= 53> AB>@>68BL.  @57C;LB0B5 75<;545;5F 08= >1@5:05BAO =0 A:8B0;LG5AB2>: >= >B?@02;O5BAO :>G520BL - >B?@02;O5BAO : ?@8@>45 2 =0:070=85 70 A2>Q 65;0=85 4>AB8GL A25@E-?@8@>4K. 40< B0:65 1K; >AC64Q= 70 B>, GB> 2>72KA8;AO =04 0:>=><.  :064>< 87 A;CG052 @5GL 84QB > 458450;878@>20==>9, C=8G865==>9 ?@8@>45: 2 A;CG05 A 40<><, :>340 >= AB0=>28BAO ?>-=0AB>OI5<C G5;>25:><, ?@8@>40 AB0=>28BAO 46C=3;O<8, 2 A;CG05 A 08=>< :>G52=8G5AB2> ?@52@0I05BAO 2 873=0=85. ">340 08= 70O2;O5B: 0:070=85 <>Q 1>;LH5, =565;8 A=5AB8 <>6=> (KB. 4, 13). > >= 8<55B ?@8 MB>< 2 284C ;8HL B>, GB> 53> =0:070=85 G@57<5@=>. =>2L 3>@4K=O. 26) !<KA; C189AB20, A>25@HQ==>3> 0==><, ?>@>48; @07;8G=K5 8AB>;:>20=8O, :>B>@K5 <K =5 1C45< 745AL @0AA<0B@820BL. !<.. ?@5645 2A53>: Josy Eisenberg et Armand Abecassis, Moi. le gardien de mon frere?  Bible ouverte III, Albin Michel. 1980. pp. 133-175.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 08= O2;O5BAO ?> ?@58<CI5AB2C :C;LBC@=K< 35@>5<. 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IQ >4=><C ?>B><:C 08=0, 8<@>4C, 725@>;>2C (B> 5ABL 702>520B5;N), AK=C %CH0, =830 KB8O A8<2>;8G5A:8 ?@8?8AK205B AB@>8B5;LAB2> 028;>=0, 8=5288, ::040, 5E>2>D-8@0, 0;0E0, 5A5=0 8 4@C38E 3>@>4>2 (10, 8-12). -B> >B=N4L =5 A;CG09=>. 0: -;;N;L 2 A2>59 ?@>=8F0B5;L=>9 :=835 (Sans feu ni lieu. Signification biblique de la grande ville, Gallimard, 1976) @0AA:07K205B > B><, GB> >1=0@C68; 2 81;88 ?>4;8==>5 ?@>:;OB85 3>@>4C, ?>B><C GB> MB> <5AB>, 2 :>B>@>< G5;>25: =081>;55 A:;>=5= A0<>2;0AB=> CB25@640BL A2>1>4C A2>59 AC4L1K. >@>4. - 70<5G05B 0: -;;N;L, - O2;O5BAO ?@O<K< A;54AB285< C189AB20 25;O 8 >B:070 08=0 ?@8=OBL 70I8BC >B >30 (...) 0: 8AB>@8O =0G8=05BAO A C189AB20 25;O, B0: 8 F828;870F8O =0G8=05BAO A 3>@>40 8 2A53> B>3>, GB> >= ?@54AB02;O5B. IQ @07 ?>2B>@8<, GB> 3>@>4 ?@54AB02;O5B C:>@5=5=85, B5@@8B>@8N, 3@0=8FC, 2;0ABL  2AQ, GB> ?>72>;O5B G5;>25:C A45;0BL A515 8<O.  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"0:8< >1@07><, G5;>25: O2;O5BAO 3>;5<>< >30. !B0@0O  D@0=:5=HB59=>2A:0O!  8AB>@8O A>740=8O, 2>AAB02H53> ?@>B82 A2>53> A>740B5;O.  :>=F5 ?5@2>9 G0AB8 =838 KB8O 15A?>:>9AB2> /E25 ?> ?>2>4C B>3>, :0:8< >1@07>< G5;>25: 8A?>;L7C5B A2>N A2>1>4C, 53> @52=>ABL 8 53> 3=52 B0:>2K, GB> >= @5H05B ?>?@>ABC >ACI5AB28BL 35=>F84 G5;>25G5AB20:  @0A:0O;AO >A?>4L, GB> A>740; G5;>25:0 =0 75<;5, 8 2>AA:>@15; 2 A5@4F5 A2>Q<.  A:070; >A?>4L: 8AB@51;N A ;8F0 75<;8 G5;>25:>2, :>B>@KE / A>B2>@8; (KB. 6, 6-7). -B> @0AA:07 > >B>?5, 2 :>B>@>< 87 2A53> G5;>25G5AB20 A?0A0NBAO B>;L:> >9 8 53> @>4AB25==8:8. -B8 A>1KB8O ?@82>4OB : =>2><C =0G0;C, :>340 /E25 70:;NG05B A2>9 7025B A >5<. >, : =5AG0ABLN 4;O /E25, G5;>25: 2=>2L >:07K205BAO =5 @0A?>;>65==K< : ?>4G8=5=8N. IQ >48= H03 =0 ?CB8 F828;870F88 45;05BAO AB@>8B5;LAB2>< 028;>=A:>3> AB>;?0. 28=C2H8AL A 2>AB>:0, ;N48 2>A:;8F0NB: >AB@>8< A515 3>@>4 10H=N, 2KA>B>N 4> =515A; 8 A45;05< A515 8<O, ?@5645 =565;8 @0AA55<AO ?> ;8FC 2A59 75<;8 (KB. 11, 4). /E25 =5<54;5==> ?@>O2;O5B O@>ABL ?> >B=>H5=8N : MB><C =>2><C ?@>O2;5=88 3>@4K=8. = 70O2;O5B: 5 >BAB0=CB >=8 >B B>3>, GB> 704C<0;8 45;0BL. !>94Q< 65, 8 A<5H05< B0< O7K: 8E, B0: GB>1K >48= =5 ?>=8<0; @5G8 4@C3>3> (KB. 11, 6-7). @8@>40 3@5E0, A>25@HQ==>3> AB@>8B5;O<8 AB>;?0, >G5284=0: >=0 2AQ B0 65.  028;>=A:>< AB@>8B5;LAB25 >3 C304K205B A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL G5;>25:0, 53> B2>@G5A:CN, ?@><5B552A:CN A8;C,  ?8H5B =4@5 55@ (L'exil et la parole, Seuil 1970, p. 116). 45O MB>3> ?@54?@8OB8O, CB>G=O5B -@=AB ;>E =0?><8=05B > A>25B5 7<5O AB@5<;5=85< B2>@8BL :0: >3 B> 5ABL AB@5<;5=85< AB0BL 8 1KBL ?>4>1=K<8 >3C (L'athisme dans le christianisme, Gallimard, 1978, p. 109). @C385 02B>@K B>65 2845;8 2 028;>=A:>< AB>;?5 >1@075F 8AB>@88 0?040. 45AL B0:65 8=B5@5A=> B>, GB> @0A?04 G5;>25G5AB20 =0 =0@>4K A @07=K<8 O7K:0<8 8 :C;LBC@0<8 ?@54AB02;5= :0: =0:070=85 /E25 70 G5;>25G5A:CN 45@7>ABL. A=>2=>5 1;03>, :0:>2K< O2;O5BAO :C;LBC@=>5 @07=>>1@0785, AG8B05BAO A;54AB285< 3@5E0 B0: 65, :0: 2ABC?;5=85 2 8AB>@8N O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< 3@5E0 40<0. 53;0A=> ?>4@07C<5205BAO, GB> O7KG5AB2> ?>O2;O5BAO >4=>2@5<5==> A >1@07>20=85< =0@>4>2,  70<5G05B 0EC< . !0@=0 (Understanding Genesis. The Heritage Biblical Israel, Shocken Books, New York, 1970, p. 68). "0:8< >1@07><, 028;>=A:89 AB>;? 4>;65= AG8B0BLAO ?5@2K< 84>;><, 0 ?>25AB2>20=85 > 53> AB@>8B5;LAB25  ?@>4>;65=85< 0=B8O7KG5A:>9 ?>;5<8:8, A>45@60I59AO 2 ?@54H5AB2CNI8E ?>25AB2>20=8OE > B2>@5=88 8 >B>?5 (ibid., p. 76). /E28AB 8A?KBK205B A2>53> @>40 =5=028ABL : F828;870F88,  ?8H5B -@=5AB 5=0=.  064K9 H03 2?5@Q4 ?> ?CB8 B>3>, GB> <K 8<5=C5< ?@>3@5AA><, O2;O5BAO 2 53> 3;070E. ?@5ABC?;5=85<, 70 :>B>@K<  A;54C5B =5<54;5==>5 =0:070=85<. 0:070=85 70 F828;870F8N  MB> B@C4 8 @0745;5=85 G5;>25G5AB20. 028;>=A:0O ?>?KB:0 A>740=8O <8@A:>9, A25BA:>9, <>=C<5=B0;L=>9 EC4>65AB25==>9 :C;LBC@K O2;O5BAO ?@5ABC?;5=85< ?> ?@58<CI5AB2C (Histoire du people d'Isral, vol. \\ 1886). ! B>G:8 7@5=8O 81;88, 2AQ ?@>8AE>48B B0:8< >1@07><, :0: 5A;8 1K :064>5 CA8;85 G5;>25:0 2>72KA8BLAO 8<5;> A2>8< A;54AB285< ?@8=865=85 /E25. 0: <K ?><=8<, G5;>25: 8<55B ?@02> 45;0BL, => =5 8<55B ?@020 B2>@8BL: 064K9 H03 ?> ?CB8 G5;>25G5A:>3> B2>@G5AB20 O2;O5BAO ?@>D0=0F859: >= <>65B >ACI5AB28BLAO B>;L:> ?CBQ< C40;5=8O >B >30 (Andr Neher, L'exil et la parole, op. cit., p. 117). > A@02=5=8N A 25;5<, 2@00<>< 8 0:>2>< 40<, 08=, =>E, 8<@>4, A02 8 4@C385 2KABC?0NB :0: F828;870B>@K. /E25 65 8A?KBK205B >4=C ;8HL =5=028ABL ?> >B=>H5=8N : >16830B5;O< :8@?8G59, ?> >B=>H5=8N : G5;>25G5AB2C, 2A5340 A:;>==><C 70O28BL: !45;05< A515 8<O (Na'asse lanou shem). <5==> A F5;LN ?@>O28BL MBC =5=028ABL 8 225AB8 5Q 2 459AB285 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>5 548=>1>685 CB25@6405B A51O :0: A8AB5<C. AB>@8G5A:0O @>;L 2@00<0, :>G52=8:0, CH54H53> 87 3>@>40 #@, 70:;NG05BAO 2 >AC645=88 87=CB@8 A0<>3> <8@0 F828;870F88, ?>@>64Q==>9 =5>;8B8G5A:>9 @52>;NF859 2A;54AB285 @O40 2>AAB0=89 ?@>B82 /E25. 5@2K< 459AB285<, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@>3> 2@00< AB0=>28BAO >BF>< =0@>40,  :>=AB0B8@C5B 535;L,  O2;O5BAO @07@K2 A2O759 >1I59 687=8 8 ;N128, 0 B0:65 2A5E >B=>H5=89, 2 :>B>@KE >= =0E>48;AO 4> B>3> <><5=B0 A ;N4L<8 8 ?@8@>4>9; MB8 ?@5:@0A=K5 >B=>H5=8O A2>59 N=>AB8 >= @5H8B5;L=> ?>@K205B (CE E@8AB80=AB20 8 53> AC4L10).  MB>< A<KA;5 B>@65AB25==>5 40, :>B>@>5 2@00< 3>2>@8B /E25 (KB. 22, 1 8 11), O2;O5BAO ?@5645 2A53> =5B, A:070==K< G5;>25G5A:>9 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, =5B, A:070==K< 8AB>@88, =5B, ?@8720==K< ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 ewige nein, > :>B>@>< 3>2>@8B QB5. 07@K2, :>B>@K9 A8<2>;878@C5B 2@00<, O2;O5BAO @07@K2>< A 8AB>@8G5A:8< AB0=>2;5=85< G5;>25G5AB20, 2=570?=> AB02H53> A25@EG5;>25G5AB2><; >= >7=0G05B, GB> 2 :>=F5 2@5<Q= =0@>4K 8 3>AC40@AB20 ?@8A>548=OBAO : MB><C >B:07C 8 >B25@3=CB A2>N A>1AB25==CN AC4L1C. >A;5 2@00<0 MB> >1O70B5;LAB2> ?>2B>@O5BAO >8A55<. 0: =0@>4 7@08;O A<>3 2K9B8 87 ?;5=0 38?5BA:>3>, B0: 8 2AQ G5;>25G5AB2> ?@87K205BAO 2K9B8 87 ?;5=0 8AB>@88. 0:>= /E25, >1JO2;5==K9 =0 !8=05, ?@54AB02;O5BAO :0: A@54AB2> =02A5340 >B<5=8BL 3@5E 40<0 8 2K. >B 2 GQ< 70:;NG05BAO F5;L 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>3> 548=>1>68O: @5H8B5;L=> 70?@5B8BL G5;>25:C ;N1>5 =0AB>OI55, G@520B>5 1C4CI8<, :>B>@>5 1K 2 15A:>=5G=>9 ?5@A?5:B825 7028A5;> 1K B>;L:> >B =53>. 8FH5 2845; C 8AB>:>2 548=>1>68O ?@87=0: 4@52=53> 8A:065=8O ;8G=>AB8: ?@87=0: 2>7<5IQ==>3> 15AA8;8O. 'B>1K =5 ?>B5@OBL ;8F>, B>B, :B> =5 <>65B, ?@8B2>@O5BAO, GB> >= =5 E>G5B  8;8 GB> E>B5BL 1K;> 1K 4C@=>. "> 65 A0<>5 2 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB25:  B>9 AB5?5=8, 2 :0:>9 2AQ 25;8:>5 8 A8;L=>5 2>A?@8=8<0;>AL G5;>25:>< :0: A25@EG5;>25G5A:>5, :0: GC64>5 5<C, G5;>25: ?@8=860;AO; >= 45;8; <564C 42C<O AD5@0<8 MB8 425 AB>@>=K - 60;:CN 8 A;01CN 8 A8;L=CN 8 C4828B5;L=CN; ?5@2CN AD5@C >= =07K20; G5;>25:><, 2B>@CN  >3>< (Friedrich Nietzsche, La volont de puissance, vol. 1, Gallimard, 1942, p. 154). 450; 2A5340 >A>7=0QBAO, => >= >A>7=0QBAO :0: =54>AB868<K9 8 2A;54AB285 MB>3> 8< =045;O5BAO AB>;L 65 =54>AB868<K9 >3. "0:8< ?CBQ< 87>1@5B5=85 01A>;NB=>3> ?@52>AE>4AB20 >?@024K205B >B=>A8B5;L=CN =5?>;=>F5==>ABL. AQ, GB> 25@CNI89 2:;04K205B 2 845N >30, 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >B=OB> C A0<>3> G5;>25:0 :0: 1K 2 A>>B25BAB288 A A8AB5<>9 A>>1I0NI8EAO A>AC4>2 (...) 5;> >1AB>8B B0:, :0: 5A;8 1K 25;8G85 >30 1K;> 1K B5<, GB> ?>402;5=> 70:><?;5:A>20==K< G5;>25:>< (Yves Ledure, Nietzsche contre l'humilit, in Christus, octobre 1979). ! MB>3> <><5=B0 A8AB5<0 8 5Q 48A:C@A ?>4G8=ONBAO A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 ;>38:5. '5;>25:, :>B>@K9 >BGC6405B A2>N A2>1>4C, ?>B><C GB> =5 8<55B 2>7<>6=>AB8 5Q ?>;=>ABLN 8A?>;L7>20BL, 8 87 65;0=8O 2>7<5I5=8O ?5@540QB 5Q 548=AB25==><C >3C, :>@5==K< >1@07>< >B;8G0NI5<CAO >B =53> A0<>3>, 70@0=55 ?@8=8<05B ?@8=F8? A2>59 CI5@1=>AB8. <5==> ?> ?@8G8=5 A2>59 ?>4G8=Q==>AB8 >= =0<5@5==> ?@5>1@07C5B A2>Q ?>4G8=5=85 2 @01AB2> ?>A@54AB2>< 7025B0 A 3>A?>48=><, >1;040NI8< 2;0ABLN, :>B>@>9 C =535 =5B. A;54AB285 MB>3> >= >AC6405B A51O =0 25G=K5 AB@040=8O, => 45;05B 87 MB8E AB@040=89 >?@0240=85 A2>53> ACI5AB2>20=8O  8 A2>53> :@8B8G5A:>3> >B=>H5=8O : <8@C. (>4>1=0O 65 AE5<0 >1=0@C68205BAO C 0@:A0 A 53> B5<>9 A>F80;L=>3> >BGC645=8O, :>B>@>5 A0<> ?>@>6405B A>7=0=85, ?@8720==>5 ?>;>68BL 5<C :>=5F.  >1>8E A;CG0OE >A2>1>645=85 7028A8B >B A?>A>1=>AB8 G5;>25:0 AB@040BL 8 ?5@58AB>;:>2K20BL A2>Q AB@040=85). 0:>=5F, >= A:@K205B  4>2>;L=> 8A:CA=> - AC1J5:B82=>ABL ?>4>1=>3> E>40 <KA;8 ?@8 ?><>I8 >G5284=> =081>;55 >1J5:B82=>3> 87 2>7<>6=KE CB25@645=89, 0 8<5==> CB25@645=8O 01A>;NB=>3> ACI5AB20, B2>@F0 <8@0. >B@51>20;>AL 4>640BLAO 8FH5, GB>1K 1K;8 7040=K ACI5AB25==K5 2>?@>AK: B> 3>2>@8B? ! :0:8< =0<5@5=85<? 0:>2K A;54AB28O MB8E A;>2? 07C<55BAO, GB> 2 O7KG5AB25 =8:B> =5 B@51C5B >B 1>3>2 >1<5=0 @01AB20 =5:>B>@KE =0 30@0=B8N @01AB20 2A5E. >38 O7KG5AB20 :0: 1K =5 @0AA<0B@820NB ;N459 2 :0G5AB25 A2>8E A>?5@=8:>2. 5;8:85 45O=8O ;N459 2>72KH0NB =5 B>;L:> ;N459, => 8 1>3>2. '5;>25G5A:85 ?@54?@8OB8O =5 ?>:CH0NBAO =0 1>65AB25==K5 :0G5AB20, 0 =0>1>@>B A2845B5;LAB2CNB >1 MB8E :0G5AB20E. N4O< =5 70?@5I05BAO 45;0BL A515 8<O  =0>1>@>B, 8<5==> ?>4>1=K< A?>A>1>< >=8 >?@024K20NB A2>Q ACI5AB2>20=85 8 ?@8>1I0NBAO : 25G=>AB8. <5==> MB> ?@>2>73;0H05BAO 2 >4=>< 87 =081>;55 7=0<5=8BKE 87@5G5=89 -44K: 81=CB AB040, @>4=O C<8@05B, 8 A<5@B5= BK A0<; => 7=0N >4=>, GB> 25G=> 15AA<5@B=>: C<5@H53> A;020 (Havamal).  B> 2@5<O :0: 81;8O ?@>O2;O5B AB@5<;5=85 >3@0=8G8BL A0<>2;0AB85 G5;>25:0 ?>A@54AB2>< @O40 70?@5B>2 (?@5425I0NI8E A>2@5<5==CN B5>@8N ?@>B82>25A>2), @5;8388 4@52=59 2@>?K 35@>878@CNB G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 ?@5>4>;5205B A51O 8 B0:8< >1@07>< ?@8>1I05BAO : >65AB2C.  B> 2@5<O :0: 8A0=85 A<>B@8B =0 687=L 273;O4><, ?>;=K< 15A?>:>9AB20 8 =54>25@8O, O7KG5AB2> 2>?;>I05B 2 A2>8E 25@>20=8OE 2AN =0?@O65==>ABL, 2AN A8;C, 2AQ 185=85 687=8. <5AB> B>3>, GB>1K ?@87K20BL G5;>25:0 : ?@5>4>;5=8N A51O, 181;59A:>5 548=>1>685 @0AB>G05B 53> 687=5==CN A8;C. 5>1E>48<> >A:C45BL, C=878BLAO, GB>1K =045;8BL ACI5AB2>< >30. >65AB2> AB0=>28BAO A2>53> @>40 :@>2>B5G5=85< G5;>25G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K.  >35 ?@>8AE>48B ?5@5;820=85 2A5E B2>@G5A:8E M=5@389 G5;>25:0 (Yves Ledure, art. cit.).  ;CGH5< A;CG05, A8;0 O2;O5BAO :@09=8< A@54AB2><. 8@, :0:8< <K 53> 7=05<, O2;O5BAO :@09=8< A@54AB2><. AB>@8O O2;O5BAO :@09=8< A@54AB2><. !0< G5;>25: O2;O5BAO :@09=8< A@54AB2><. ! 53> A>1AB25==>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, 5<C 2>>1I5 =5 AB>8;> 1K ACI5AB2>20BL. !>3;0A=> "0;<C4C, 2 B5G5=85 B@QE ;5B H:>;0 8;;5;O 8 H:>;0 %0<0O >1AC640;8 2>?@>A > B><, GB> 1K;> 1K ;CGH5 4;O G5;>25:0: 1KBL A>B2>@5==K< 8;8 =5 1KBL A>B2>@5==K<. !>3;0A=> 1>;LH8=AB2C 3>;>A>2, ;CGH5 1K;> 1K 4;O =53> ;CGH5 =5 ACI5AB2>20BL. > @07 >= 2AQ-B0:8 1K; A>740=, 5<C =5>1E>48<> BI0B5;L=> A;548BL 70 A2>8<8 459AB28O<8 (F8B. ?>: Josy Eisenberg et Armand Abecassis, A Bible ouverte, op. cit., p. 97). -B>B >B@8F0B5;L=K9 E0@0:B5@ 548=>1>68O 2=>2L ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 :@09=5< 2845 2 B5>@88 tsimtsum (F8<-FC<, A>A@54>B>G5=8O), A>740==>9 2 H5AB=04F0B>< 25:0 :0110;8AB>< FE0:>< C@859, A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 <8@ 2>7=8: 2 ?>;=>9 ?CAB>B5, :>340 /E25 CABC?8; 5<C <5AB>. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@8G8=0 ACI5AB2>20=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> >3 ?>65;0; C2845BL >30: 1A>;NB=>5 AQ, C40;82H8AL 8 A>:@0B82H8AL, ?>72>;8;> ?>O28BLAO ?CAB>B5, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@>O28;>AL 75@:0;> ACI5AB2>20=8O. -B> 7=0G8B, GB> B2>@5=85 2 53> F5;>AB=>AB8, >1J5:B82878@>20==>5, >B45;Q==>5 >B 8@0 M<0=0F88, ?>@>6405BAO 2 @57C;LB0B5 70G0B8O >B@8F0=8O. ("@0=AF5=45=B=K9 >3 8<5=C5BAO Ain  8GB>). >254Q==>5 4> :@09=>AB8, ?@54AB02;5=85 B0:>3> @>40 ?>@>6405B <=5=85 .-. 528, A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C 8AB>@8O =0@>40 >6L53> 2A5340 1K;0 ;8HL C?>@=K< AB@5<;5=85< 3>2>@8BL "=5B" (Le testament de Dieu, op. cit., p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ouis Rougier, La Scolastique et le thomisme, op. cit., p. 45). # :5;LB>2 8 35@<0=F52 ;N48 8 1>38 8<5NB >1I55 ?@>8AE>645=85.  =0G0;> B5:CI53> <8@>2>3> F8:;0 8=4>52@>?59A:0O :>A<>3>=8O ?><5I05B :>A<8G5A:>3> G5;>25:0: 8=489A:0O 832540 40QB 5<C 8<O C@CH0, 2 -445 >= 7>2QBAO <8@><. # 2548G5A:8E 8=489F52 C@CH0  48=>5, G5@57 :>B>@>5 (2=>2L) 2>7=8:05B 2A5;5==0O. = 5ABL MB>B <8@, B>, GB> 1K;>, B>, GB> 1C45B. ">G=> B0: 65, <8@ O2;O5BAO =545;8<K< 48=K<, 8 8<5==> G5@57 =53> ?@>8AE>48B ?5@2>5 CAB@>5=85 <8@0. !0< >= ?>O28;AO =0 A25B 2A;54AB285 2AB@5G8 ;L40 8 >3=O: >340 6 ?>2AB@5G0;8AL 8=59 8 BQ?;K9 2>74CE, B0: GB> B>B 8=59 AB0; B0OBL 8 AB5:0BL 2=87, :0?;8 >68;8 >B B5?;>B2>@=>9 A8;K 8 ?@8=O;8 >1@07 G5;>25:0, 8 1K; B>B G5;>25: <8@ (Gylfaginning, 4). > <8@0 1K;0 B>;L:> 78ONI0O 1574=0 (Ginnungagap), :>B>@0O, 2 >B;8G85 >B 1574=K, > :>B>@>9 3>2>@8BAO 2 =0G0;5 =838 KB8O (1, 1), O2;ONI59AO C65 ?;>4>< 45OB5;L=>AB8 /E25, ACI5AB2>20;0 2A5340.  2 B> 2@5<O :0: /E25 B2>@8; ex nihilo, <8@ ?>@>48; 2A5;5==CN, @0AG;5=OO A51O: <8@0 ?;>BL AB0;0 75<;Q9, :@>2L 53>  <>@5<, :>AB8  3>@0<8, G5@5? 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"0:8< >1@07><, C@CH0 O2;O5BAO >BF>< 2A5E A>740=89  @0460?0B8. <5==> 53> @0AG;5=5=85 2A?><8=05BAO 8 >B<5G05BAO 2> 2@5<O 65@B2>?@8=>H5=8O, 83@0NI53> >A=>2>?>;030NICN @>;L 2 2548G5A:>< :C;LB528. 8@ =5 >1O70= A2>8< ACI5AB2>20=85< G5<C-B> >B;8G=><C >B A51O. = ?>@>64Q= ACI5AB2>< :>A<8G5A:>3> G5;>25:0, 53> B5;><, 273;O4><, A;>2><, A>7=0=85<. !CI5AB2C5B =5 ?@>B82>AB>O=85 <564C 42C<O <8@0<8, <564C B20@=K< 8 =5B20@=K< ACI5AB2><, =>, =0?@>B82, ?>AB>O==>5 >1@0I5=85, 548=>ACI=>ABL ACI5AB2 8 25I59, 75<;8 8 =510, ;N459 8 1>3>2. 28) !<. >1 MB><: Giorgio Locchi, Le mythe cosmogonique indo-europen, in Nouvelle cole, 19, juillet-aout 1972, 87-95.  ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL /E25, :>B>@K9 5ABL ;8HL ACI5AB2> (/ ACI89), :>A<8G5A:89 G5;>25: O2;O5BAO >4=>2@5<5==> ACI5AB2>< 8 =5ACI5AB2><. = 5ABL <5AB>, 345 2AB@5G0NBAO, A;820NBAO 8 ?@5>4>;520NBAO 2A5 >B=>A8B5;L=K5 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8; >= O2;O5BAO <5AB>< ?@8<8@5=8O ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59 ?> ?@58<CI5AB2C.  <><5=B CAB@>5=8O <8@0 87 =53> 8AE>4OB 2A5 4>?>;=ONI85 4@C3 4@C30 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8, B0: 65, :0: ?@>B82>?>;>6=K5 <8D5<K 8AE>4OB 87 >1I53> >A=>2>?>;030NI53> <8D0. 0:;04K20O =0G0;>, :>A<8G5A:89 G5;>25: ?>@>6405B ?>;>2K5 ?@8=F8?K. <O <8@0 @>4AB25==> A0=A:@8BA:><C A;>2C C0B0, >7=0G0NI5<C 42C?>;K9, 35@<0D@>48B. <5==> >B =53> ?@>8AE>4OB 420 25;8:0=0  C@@ 8 5AB;0, AB0=>2OI85AO ?5@2>=0G0;L=>9 ?0@>9. C@@ 8 5AB;0 70B5< @>640NB B@>8E AK=>259  ?5@2KE 0A>2 8;8 25@E>2=KE 1>3>2 48=0, 8;8 8 BQ (Gylfaginning, 5). =8, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?>@>640NB ?5@2KE ;N459 8;8 :C;LBC@=KE 35@>52  A:0 8 -<1;C, 8 >B =8E ?@>87>HQ; ;N4A:>9 @>4, :>B>@K9 <>3 68BL 8 >18B0BL 2 8430@45.  832545 C@CH0 B0:65 ?>@>6405B ?@54AB028B5;59 DC=:F8>=0;L=KE :;0AA>2: >B (C@CH8) AB0; 1@0E<0=><, :H0B@89 ?@>87>HQ; >B 53> @C:, >B 1545@  209HLO, 87 53> =>3 @>48;AO HC4@0. KA;L > ?@>8AE>645=88 75<;8 8 =510 >B G0AB59 B5;0 ?5@2>1KB=>3> 25;8:0=0, A2>53> @>40 ;535=40@=K9 0@E5B8?, O2;O5BAO 4@52=59 8 8=4>52@>?59A:>9,  CB>G=O5B 568 C095.  "> 65 A0<>5 :0A05BAO ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8: ?5@2>=0G0;L=>5 ACI5AB2>, A>740=85 25;8:0=>2, 1>3>2, =0:>=5F, ;N459 (Les religions de l'Europe du Nord, op. cit., p. 370).  F5;>< @O45 ;535=4 8 A8<2>;>2 8=4>52@>?59A:89 <8D =5 ?5@5AB0QB ?@>A;02;OBL 1573@0=8G=CN B2>@G5A:CN A?>A>1=>ABL G5;>25:0. >340 >= >?8AK205B 1>3>2 :0: B2>@F>2 A2>53> A>1AB25==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O, B> ?@5A;54C5B F5;L =5 ?@>B82>?>AB028BL 8E G5;>25G5A:8< A>740=8O<, 0 ?@54;>68BL ?>A;54=8< 8450;L=K9 >1@075F, A :>B>@K< >=8 4>;6=K AB@5<8BLAO A@02=8BLAO. <5==> 2 A515 G5;>25:, 8=48284C0;L=> 8;8 :>;;5:B82=>, <>65B, :0: 8 1>38, =09B8 A@54AB2> 1KBL 1>;55 G5< A0<8< A>1>9. 8@ A0<>4>AB0B>G5=, 1>38 A0<>4>AB0B>G=K, ;N48 A0<>4>AB0B>G=K, 25;8:85 :C;LBC@K A0<>4>AB0B>G=K, GB> =5 >?@024K205B =8:0:>3> 8A:;NG5=8O 8 =5 ?@5?OBAB2C5B =8:0:><C >1<5=C.  2548G5A:8E B5:AB0E C@CH0 @0AG;5=O5B A51O A0<; 2 -445 0AK, AK=>2LO C@@0, ?><5I0NB <8@0 2 F5=B@ 1574=K 8==C=3030? 8 A>740NB 87 53> B5;0 @07=K5 G0AB8 <8@0.  35@<0=A:>9 @5;8388 48=->B0=, A>740B5;L =>2>3> <8@0, ?@8=>A8B A51O 2 65@B2C A0<><C A515, GB>1K ?@8>1@5AB8 7=0=85 8 <038N: =0N, 28A5; O 2 25B2OE =0 25B@C 452OBL 4>;38E =>G59, ?@>=7Q==K9 :>?LQ<, ?>A2OIQ==K9 48=C, 2 65@B2C A515 6529 (Havamal, 138).  8=489A:>9 ?>M<5 0;840AK C<0@0A0<1E020 A:070=>: !0<8< A>1>9 BK ?>7=05HL A2>Q A>1AB25==>5 ACI5AB2>. "K A>740QHL A0< A51O.  40;55: C4L ?@>A;02;5=, >A?>4L 2 B@QE >1@070E, 1K2H89 ?>;=K< 548=AB2>< 4> A>740=8O <8@0 (...) "K 548=AB25==K9 ?@8=F8? A>740=8O MB>3> <8@0, 0 B0:65 ?@8G8=0 B>3>, GB> 5IQ ACI5AB2C5B 8 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 >1@CH8BAO. B B51O, @0745;82H53> A2>Q A>1AB25==>5 B5;>, GB>1K 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>@>645=8O, ?@>8AE>4OB <C6G8=0 8 65=I8=0 :0: G0AB8 B51O A0<>3> (...) "K >B5F 1>3>2, 1>3 1>3>2. "K 2KH5 A0<>3> 2KA>:>3>. "K 40@ =0 65@B2>?@8=>H5=88 8 3>A?>48= 65@B2>?@8=>H5=8O. "K 65@B20 8 BK 6@5F.  528-0E0B<LO <8@>?@028B5;L=8F0 1>38=O 84@0 2>A?5205BAO A;54CNI8<8 A;>20<8: > 2@5<O B2>@5=8O BK ?@8=8<05HL >1@07 A>740B5;L=8FK, :>340 =C6=> A>E@0=OBL <8@, B2>9 >1@07 - >1@07 687=8, :>340 =0ABC?05B :>=5F, BK 2K3;O48HL @07@CH8B5;L=8F59, ?@8 MB>< BK B>645AB25==0 2A5;5==>9! 0C:0, <038O, <C4@>ABL 8 B@048F8O, BK B0:65 ?><5H0B5;LAB2>, >4=>2@5<5==> 1>38=O 8 45<>=! "K, ?@8@>40, :>B>@>9 C?>@O4>G820NBAO AB8E88! 29) -B> 45@52>  25;8:89 OA5=L 3B4@0A8;L, >AL 8 >?>@0 <8@0, :>@=8 :>B>@>3> 4>AB830NB <8@>2 1>3>2, 25;8:0=>2 8 ;N459. <5==> C OA5=O 334@0A8;L (...) 2AO:89 45=L 25@H0B 1>38 A2>9 AC4 (Gylfaginning, 14). >4 >4=8< 87 53> :>@=59 =0E>48BAO 8AB>G=8: 8<8@0, 70:;NG0NI89 2 A515 7=0=85 8 <C4@>ABL. 10 @0<<0B8:0 8C45>E@8AB80=A:>3> 548=>1>68O O2;O5BAO ?@5645 2A53> =5 @5;838>7=>9, 0 <>@0;L=>9. 81;8O O2;O5BAO ?@5645 2A53> <>@0;L=>9 :=83>9, 0 B0:65 :=83>9, 2 :>B>@>9 2K@0605BAO >?@545;Q==0O <>@0;L, :=83>9, :>B>@CN >B;8G05B 38?5@<>@0;87<, >AC640NI89AO @=>;L4>< 5;5=>< (Moral und Hypermoral. Erne pluralistische Ethik, Athenaeum, Frankfurk/M.-Bonn, 1969). 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">, GB> 4>;6=> ?@>87>9B8, ?@>87>94QB, B>, G5<C G5;>25: 4>;65= ?>4G8=8BLAO, >ACI5AB28BAO. >;LH5 =5B <5AB0 4;O A;CG09=>3> ?>A;54AB28O 459AB289 ;N459; 2 :>=5G=>< AGQB5 8AB>@8O =587156=> 70:>=G8BAO B>@65AB2>< <>@0;8. %@8AB80=AB2>, 3>2>@8B 8FH5, 5ABL A0<>5 =5>1C740==>5 ?@>2545=85 <>@0;L=>9 B5<K 2 @07;8G=KE D83C@0F8OE, :0:>5 B>;L:> 40=> 1K;> 4> A8E ?>@ CA;KH0BL G5;>25G5AB2C ( >645=85 B@035488). 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B0:65: Va jouer avec cette pousierre, Gallimard, 1966, p. 193). 0:>=5F, (8;;5@ CB25@6405B: '5;>25: AB0=>28BAO 2?>;=5 G5;>25:>< B>;L:> B>340, :>340 >= 83@05B. <5==> ?>MB><C @51Q=>: 1;865 2A53> : A25@EG5;>25:C. A;8 ?5@5D@078@>20BL >=B5@;0=0, <8@ A25@EG5;>25:0  MB> <8@, 2 :>B>@>< F0@L  @51Q=>: (<>6=> 2A?><=8BL, 5@0:;8B0 -D5AA:>3>, 3>2>@82H53>, GB> 2@5<O  MB> <;045=5F 83@0NI89 =0 B@>=5). -B> <8@, CB25@64Q==K9 ?> BC AB>@>=C 4>1@0 8 7;0, <8@, 2 :>B>@>< <>@0;L=K9 A<KA; 459AB28O 157@07;8G5= ?> >B=>H5=8N : A0<><C 459AB28N: 5;0BL A 157@07;8G85< - A0<0O ACBL 83@K,  3>2>@8B >=B5@;0=. Aedificabo ad destrueram. 81;59A:0O <>@0;L 2A5340 8<55B 7=0G5=85 >=B>;>38G5A:>3> >A=>20=8O.  8C4087<5 3;02=0O @>;L >B2>48BAO 0:>=C  ">@5. <5==> A 5Q ?><>ILN <>65B 1KBL 8A?@02;5= ?5@2>@>4=K9 3@5E, 0 A =8< 8 ?>@>482H0O 53> C@=0O A:;>==>ABL ("0;<C4, 844CE8< 30b).  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Moi. le gardien de moil frere? op. cit., p. 291). 5B =8G53> C4828B5;L=>3>, B0:8< >1@07><, 2 B><, GB> =5:>B>@K5 D@594><0@:A8ABK 8AB>;:>2K20;8 ?>AB>O==K9 H0110B, :>B>@K< AB0=5B >1I5AB2> ?>A;5 :>=F0 2@5<5=, :0: C1548B5;L=K9 A8<2>; >ACI5AB28<>9 CB>?88. (0110B ?@54AB02;O5B ?@>>1@07 2@5<5=, :>340 1>;55 =5 1C45B 1>@L1K :;0AA>2,  ?8HCB 6>78 975=15@3 8 @<0= 15:0AA8 (A Bible ouverte, op. cit., p. 188). $@><< 65 4>E>48B 4> B>3>, GB> ?@54;0305B CAB0=>28BL H0110B :0: 2A5>1I89 45=L <8@0 8 30@<>=88, :0: G5;>25G5A:89 45=L, ?@5425I0NI89 G5;>25G5A:>5 1C4CI55 (<5BL 8;8 1KBL?). B0:, H0110B 2>A?@8=8<05BAO :0: 7=0: B>3>, GB> =52>7<>6=> >ACI5AB28BL A53>4=O, => GB> >1O70B5;L=> 2>7=8:=5B >4=064K: <8@0, 2 :>B>@>< 1>;LH5 =5 1C45B =5A?@0254;82>AB59, AB>;:=>25=89, >?@545;5=89, ?@8G8=. C4CI55 ?>25;8B5;L=>5 =0:;>=5=85 2=CB@8 =0H53> =0AB>OI53> 87JO28B5;L=>3>. !>1;07= >B25@3=CBL 8AB>@8N 8A?KBK20NB F828;870F88, ?>@>64Q==K5 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB2><,  ?@87=0QB L5@ (>=N (Histoire et foi, France-Empire, 1980).  52@59A:>< O7K:5 4065 =5 ACI5AB2C5B A;>20 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O 8AB>@88. 081>;55 G0AB> 8A?>;L7CNI55AO A;>2>, toledot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KB. 2.4) 8 :>340 2 =835 CDL 3>2>@8BAO > ?@>8AE>645=88 02840, ?@54:0 5AA88. 12 5AA8O  MB> 52@59A:>5 A;>2> (<0H80E), >7=0G0NI55 ?><070==K9. 0 3@5G5A:89 MB> A;>2> 1K;> ?5@52545=> :0: , %@8AB>A, ?@8 MB>< =5 >1>H;>AL 157 ;Q3:>3> 87<5=5=8O A<KA;0 (2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 @5GL 84QB >1 8AB>@8G5A:>< B5@<8=5, 0 =5 8<5=8 A>1AB25==>< 8;8 A>1AB25==> 1>3>A;>2A:>< >?@545;5=88). ! B>G:8 7@5=8O 81;88 5AA8O 2 F5;>< AG8B05BAO G5;>25:><, GLQ ?@8H5AB285 4>;6=> >7=0<5=>20BL =0G0;> <5AA80=A:8E 2@5<5=. @8 MB>< 8=>340 ?>4>1=>5 :0G5AB2> ?@8?8AK205BAO 2A5<C =0@>4C 7@08;O. -B> 2B>@>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 B@048F8>==> >45@68205B ?>154C =04 ?5@2K< 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 =5>1E>48<> >?@>25@3=CBL <5AA80=87< >1<0=I8:0, (=0?@8<5@, A B>G:8 7@5=8O 8C4087<0, 8ACA0; A<. >1 MB>< C 528=0A0). ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, >@B>4>:A0;L=K9 8C4087< A:;>=5=, :0: ?@028;>, A2O7K20BL <5AA80=A:CN M@C A ?@8H5AB285< <5AA88-G5;>25:0, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: @5D>@<0B>@A:89 8C4087< ?@840QB 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85 =0ABC?;5=8N A0<8E <5AA80=A:8E 2@5<Q=. 725AB=>, A:>;L:> CA8;89 ?@8;>68;> E@8AB80=AB2> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?>:070BL, GB> <5AA80=A:85 ?@>@>G5AB20 >B=>A8;8AL : 8ACAC. BFK &5@:28 ?@>O28;8 >A>1>5 @25=85 2 MB>< 45;5, ?@>4>;65==>< $><>9 :28=A:8< 8 >AA5. 5;8G09H8< 87 4>:070B5;LAB2 8ACA0 %@8AB0, - 3>2>@8B 0A:0;L, - O2;ONBAO ?@>@>G5AB20. (>4>1=K5 B@C4K 1K;8 A =>2>9 A8;>9 2>7>1=>2;5=K 2 ?@>H;>< 25:5 2 >B25B =0 @0F8>=0;87< 8 =5<5F:89 8450;87<).  :>=F5 A2>53> 20=35;8O >0== CB>G=O5B, GB> >= =0?8A0; 53> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ;N48 25@8;8, GB> 8ACA 5ABL %@8AB>A (20, 31), B> 5ABL 5AA8O. @8 2AQ< ?@8 B><, :>340 <K >1@0I05<AO : A0<8< 20=35;8O<, B> 2848<, GB> 70 8A:;NG5=85< >B@K2:0 2 A0<>< ?>74=5< 87 =8E, 0 8<5==> 2 20=35;88 >B >0==0 (4, 25-26), 8ACA ?>GB8 =8:>340 A0< =5 =07K205B A51O %@8AB>< 8;8 5AA859. 0: 70<5G05B '0@;L7 0@>;L4 >44 (Le fondateur du christianisme, Seuil, 1980, p. 106), A>740QBAO 4065 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> >= ?@>B82>459AB2C5B ?>?KB:0< ?@8A2>8BL 5<C MB> 8<O. A53> ;8HL 420 M?87>40, 2 :>B>@KE >=, :0: :065BAO, A>3;0H05BAO A MB8< 8<5=5<,  2 @073>2>@5 A> A2>8<8 CG5=8:0<8 (Map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sral dans le temps et dans l'espace, Payot, 1980), B>B D0:B, GB> G5BK@5 M;5<5=B0 8C4087<0  /E25, ">@0, -@5F A@>M;L 8 =0@>4 7@08;O  <>3CB 8=>340 480;5:B8G5A:8 ?>=8<0BLAO :0: 2708<>70<5=O5<K5. 40) 725AB=>, GB> 8AB>@8G5A:85 40==K5, :0A0NI85AO >8A5O, 0 B0:65 01AB20 538?5BA:>3> 8 AE>40, 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 >BACBAB2CNB,  2 B>< G8A;5, GB> =081>;55 C4828B5;L=>, 2 538?5BA:8E 0==0;0E (A<.: P. de Vaulx, Histoire ancienne d'Isral, Gabalda, 1971). >25AB2>20=85 > <;045=F5 >8A55, 53> 2KAB02;5=88 =0 15@53 8;0 8 GC45A=>< A?0A5=88 87 2>4K ?@54AB02;O5BAO B5< 1>;55 ?>4>7@8B5;L=K<, GB> ?>E>65, GB> >=> ?>AB@>5=> ?> <8D>;>38G5A:><C >1@07FC, 4;O :>B>@>3> <K 8<55< 8 8=K5 ?@8<5@K (2 G0AB=>AB8. 535=4C > E0;459A:>< F0@5 !0@3>=5). 725AB=0 B0:65 B>G:0 7@5=8O  G0AB> :@8B8:>202H0OAO  2KA:070==0O $@594>< 2 >8A55 8 548=>1>688 (Gallimard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utour d'un fratricide, in L'Arche, aout 1980). > 40==><C 2>?@>AC A<. B0:65 8=B5@5A=>5 8AA;54>20=85: Emile Gillabert, Moise et le monothismc judo-chitien. Mtanoia. Montlimar. 1976. >A@54AB2>< A2>53> ?><070=8O 8 ?>A@54AB2>< 025B0 /E25 2K18@05B =5:>B>@KE 87 ;N459. = 40QB 8< <5AA80=A:>5 ?>@CG5=85: 2<5H820BLAO 2 8AB>@8N, GB>1K ?@81;860BL 5Q : 7025@H5=8N 87=CB@8, GB> O2;O5BAO 548=AB25==K< A@54AB2>< 87102;OBL ?>AB5?5==> ;N459... >B ;N4A:>9 3@5E>2=>AB8 (Josy Eisenberg et Armand Abecassis, Moi, le gardien de mon frere? A Bible ouverte, III, op. cit., p. 255). A;54AB285 MB>3> =0@>4, : :>B>@><C ?@8=04;560B MB8 ;N48, =045;O5BAO >?@545;Q==>9 >B25BAB25==>ABLN ?> >B=>H5=8N : <8@C 2 F5;><. = GC2AB2C5B A51O, >= C7=0QB A51O, >= 682QB B0:, :0: 1C4B> 1K >= A0< O2;O;AO <5AA859 4;O <8@0, B> 5ABL ?><070==K< =0@>4><, >B45;L=K< =0@>4><, ?@8720==K< CAB0=>28BL >689 ?>@O4>: =0 75<;5 (Jacques Ellul, Messie et messianisme, in Sens, Janvier 1979). /E25 70O2;O5B: K 1C45B5 C 5=O F0@AB2>< A2OI5==8:>2 8 =0@>4>< A2OBK< (AE. 19, 6). A;8 =0@>4 7@08;O A>3;0H05BAO B0:8< >1@07>< A @8A:>< AG8B0BLAO =0@>4><-?0@859 (Max Weber, Die Entstehung des juedischen Pariavolkes, in Gesammelte Aufsaetze zur Religionssoziologie, vol. 3, pp, 370-400; 8 Le judaisme antique, Plon, 1970), 5A;8 >= A>3;0H05BAO AB0BL A>3;0A=> 2>;5 >30 85@>MB=>A><, B> 45;05B MB> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K A>E@0=8BL A2>Q 871@0=85 =0@>4><-A2OI5==8:>< (Lon Rosen, Les Nouveaux Cahiers, printemps 1979).  BKAOG5;5B=59 <>;8B25 (<0 A@>M;L CB25@645=85 !;CH09, 7@08;L: >A?>4L, >3 =0H ?@54H5AB2C5B <>=>B58AB8G5A:><C CB25@645=8N >A?>4L 548= 5ABL. >4>1=K< >1@07>< 8C459A:89 =0F8>=0;87< ?>;CG05B 01A>;NB=>5 CB25@645=85. > MB>B =0F8>=0;87< >B;8G5= >B 2A5E 8=KE =0F8>=0;87<>2. = 4065 ?@>B82>AB>8B MB8< 8=K< =0F8>=0;87<0<, ?>B><C GB> C =53> 8=0O ?@8@>40. %@8AB80=A:89 =0F8>=0;87<, - ?8H5B 0;5=B8= 8:8?@>25F:89, - O2;O5BAO ?@5E>4OI59 @50;L=>ABLN, D0:B8G5A:8<, 0 =5 N@848G5A:8< O2;5=85<, >B@8F0B5;L=K< >B:;>=5=85< 2 B>< A<KA;5, 2 :0:>< >= ?@>B82>@5G8B E@8AB80=A:><C CG5=8N 8 >B@0605B ?@5645 2A53> >?@545;Q==CN G5;>25G5A:CN A;01>ABL. 2@59A:89 65 =0F8>=0;87<, =0?@>B82, A B>G:8 7@5=8O @5;8388 7@08;O O2;O5BAO ?>;>68B5;L=>9 8 >A=>2>?>;030NI59 40==>ABLN. -B> 845O, >B :>B>@>9 =8:>340 =5 >B:07K20;AO =8:B> 87 ?@>@>:>2 - 4065 =081>;55 AC@>2K5 8 ?5AA8<8AB8G5A:85 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 7@08;N. 48=AB25==K9 >3 8 >3-B2>@5F, >B5F 2A5E ;N459, 3>A?>48= 8<?5@89, 548=AB25==K9 8AB>G=8: 4>1@0 8 7;0, /E25 ?@8 MB>< >AB0QBAO >3>< 548=AB25==>3> =0@>40 (Le monothisme thique et la spcificit d'Isral, in Valentin Nikiprowetzky, d., De l'antijudaisme antique a l'antismitisme contemporain, Presses universitaires de Lille, Villeneuve-d'Ascq, 1979, p. 45). "0 65 A0<0O A:;>==>ABL ?@82>48B : 273;O4C =0 5@CA0;8< :0:  =0 =5 B>;L:> ?@>AB@0=AB25==K9, => 8, 2 >A>15==>AB8, 2@5<5==>9: 5@CA0;8<, >4=>2@5<5==> F5=B@ 8 7025@H5=85 52@59A:>9 8 G5;>25G5A:>9 8AB>@88 (1N;;5B5=L 2@59A:>3> B5;53@0D=>3> 035=BAB20, 9-10 45:01@O 1978 3.). %@0< !>;><>=0 AB0=>28BAO, B0:8< >1@07><, F5=B@>< 75<;8 7@08;O, :>B>@0O A0<0 O2;O5BAO F5=B@>< (8AB>@88) <8@042. 42) 4=0:> @5GL 84QB >1 >B40;5==>9 ?5@A?5:B825, 8 CA:>@5=85 5Q ?@81;865=8O  =5 >1O70B5;L=> 1;03>. "0:>9 8AA;54>20B5;L, :0: 5@H>< (>;5<, :>B>@><C <K >1O70=K 206=K<8 8AA;54>20=8O<8 ?> 52@59A:>9 <8AB8:5, ?>;0305B, GB> <5AA80=A:85 C2;5G5=8O ?>GB8 2A5340 >:07K20;8AL D0B0;L=K<8 4;O 52@59A:>3> =0@>40: 064K9 @07, :>340 <5AA80=87< 2<5H8205BAO 2 ?>;8B8:C, >= AB0=>28BAO >G5=L >?0A=K< 45;><. = <>65B ?@825AB8 B>;L:> : =5AG0ABLN (8=B5@2LN 0284C O;C 2 The New York Review of Books, 14 023CAB0 1980 3.).  :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 A>2@5<5==>3> <5AA80=87<0 (>;5< ?@82>48B 845>;>38N 87@08;LA:>9 3@C??K CH -<C=8<, :>B>@CN >= A@02=8205B A 42865=85< !0110B0O &28 2 A5<=04F0B>< 25:5. 0@:A87<, :>B>@K9, :0: 2A5< 8725AB=>, CAB@0=8; @5;838N B>;L:> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K C4>1=55 AB0BL 5Q =0A;54=8:><, 2>A?@8=O; MBC <5AA80=A:CN :>=F5?F8N. !AK;0OAL =0 5@<0=0 >35=0 8 -@=AB0 ;>E0, -@8E $@><<, :0: 8 <=>385 4@C385, >?8AK205B A>F80;87< :0: A25BA:>5 2K@065=85 ?@>@>G5A:>3> <5AA80=87<0 (<5BL 8;8 1KBL?). !0< ;>E 2848B 2 <5AA80=87<5 :@0A=>5 B08=AB2> =0AB>OI53> Aufklaerung'a, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO @52>;NF8>==K< 8 AB@5<8BAO : ?>;=>B5 (L'athisme dans le christianisme, op. cit., p. 299). ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, ?@>;5B0@80B 2 <0@:A87<5, 1C4CG8 871@0==K< :;0AA><, AG8B05BAO 30@0=B>< CA;>289 2A5>1I53> >A2>1>645=8O, A2O70==>3> A 53> A>1AB25==K< >A2>1>645=85<43. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, :0: 70<5G05B $@><<, 3535;52A:>-<0@:A8ABA:>5 ?>=OB85 >BGC645=8O ?>O2;O5BAO 2?5@2K5, E>BO 8 2 8=>< 2845, :0: 181;59A:>5 ?>=OB85 84>;>?>:;>=AB20 (Vous serez comme des dieux, op. cit., p. 44), GB>, :AB0B8 3>2>@O, ?>1C6405B $@><<0 70O28BL, GB> 84>;K A>2@5<5==>AB8 8<5=CNBAO G5ABL, 7=0<O, >AC40@AB2>, <0BL 8;8 A5<LO (ibid., p. 48). <5==> G5@57 <5AA80=87< =5:>B>@K5 =5><0@:A8ABK A2>4OB 2<5AB5 0@:A0 8 81;8N : B><C, GB> ;>E 8<5=C5B >=B>;>3859 B>3>, G53> 5IQ =5B. >4>1=K< >1@07>< ?@>8AE>48B >1<8@I5=85 >6840=8O: 81;8O, ?>402;5==K9 B5:AB, 8<55B 1C4CI55, ?>B><C GB> G5@57 MB> 1C4CI55 >=0 <>65B B@0=AF5=48@>20BL 157 B@0=AF5=45=F88.  >B;8G85 >B E@8AB80=AB20, 8C4087< 2KABC?05B :0: A25BA:>5 CG5=85, AB@5<OI55AO ?@5B2>@8BL 2 687=L, hie et ?8?A, 8450;L=>5 >1I5AB2>, >1>7=0G5==>5 2 8A0=88 (Francinej Kaufmann, Les Juifs et le Royaume, in Sillages, Jrusalem, septembre 1979). ?@0240=85 MB>3> 8450;0 >BG0AB8 >A=>2K205BAO =0 B><, GB> 2 8C4087<5 1KBC5B 4>AB0B>G=> ;815@0;L=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?5@2>@>4=>< 3@5E5, ?@54AB02;5=85, A>3;0A85 :>B>@><C =8 ACI=>ABL, =8 ?@8@>40 G5;>25:0 =5 1K;8 2 >A=>25 A2>59 8A?>@G5=K 3@5E>< 40<0, 2A;54AB285 G53> CAB0=>2;5=85; 75<=>3> @0O ?CBQ< ?>AB5?5==>3> @0728B8O G5;>25G5AB20 2 <>@0;L=>< >B=>H5=88 =5 :065BAO =52>7<>6=K<. "0 65 A0<0O B5>;>38O hie et ?8?A >1JOA=O5B, ?>G5<C 8C4087< =8:>340 =5 @0745;O; >B@8F0B5;L=>3> <=5=8O, :>B>@>3> 70G0ABCN ?@845@6820;>AL E@8AB80=AB2> 2 >B=>H5=88 MB>3> <8@0, 8 =5 ?@>O2;O; =8G53>, ?>4>1=>3> >B=>A8B5;L=><C 157@07;8G8N E@8AB80=A:8E 02B>@8B5B>2 : 2>?@>A0<, ?@5645 2A53> >1I5AB25==K<, A2O70==K< A :>=5G=K< ?@5>1@065=85< =5?>A@54AB25==> =0< 40==>3>44. =0 B0:65 >1JOA=O5B, ?>G5<C <0@:A87< 157 B@C40 2K25; 87 <5AA80=A:>3> 8AB>G=8:0 >6840=85 1C4CI53>  70<5=8; 8=>9 <8@ MB8<. 43) O4 02B>@>2, =0?@8<5@, . >=L5= (Initiation a Karl Marx, Cerf, 1970, pp. 44-46), 8AB>;:>2K205B @>;L, :>B>@CN >B2>48B ?@>;5B0@80BC 0@:A, =0 >A=>20=88 ?@><5B552A:>3> <8D0. %>BO, ?> 2A59 2848<>AB8, ;8G=>ABL @><5B5O 8 >:070;0 2>7459AB285 =0 0@:A0, <K =5 @0745;O5< 40==>3> <=5=8O. ?@>G5<, 8 A0< <8D 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 O2;O5BAO 42CA<KA;5==K<.  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ob et l'exces de mal, Grasset, 1978, p. 218). !>2@5<5==>5 1>3>A;>285 >?@545;Q==>3> @>40 ?@8A>548=O5BAO : ?>4>1=>9 B>G:5 7@5=8O, :>340 CB25@6405B, GB>, :>340 >3 ?@5>1@0605BAO 2 E@0=8B5;O ?>@O4:0, 0B587< AB0=>28BAO CA;>285< >1I5AB25==KE ?@5>1@07>20=89 (Vincent Cosmao, Changer le monde, Cerf, 1979). B0:, CB>?8O B0:65 O2;O5BAO <8@A:8< 1>3>A;>285<, >A=>20==K< =0 873=0=88 8 >BACBAB288. 13 @50F8>=87< C45;O5B >A=>2=>5 2=8<0=85 2@5<5=8, 0 =5 ?@>AB@0=AB2C: ?>25AB2>20=85 =838 KB8O @072>@0G8205BAO B>;L:> ;8HL 2> 2@5<5=8 8 2K2>48B =0 AF5=C 8AB>@8N, :>B>@CN 3@5:8, =0?@8<5@, 8AB>;:>20;8 1K A:>@55 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25==>< A<KA;5. @><5 B>3>, 5A;8 181;59A:>5 CG5=85 > ;8G=>< 2>740O=88 ?@54AB02;O5BAO =5>?@545;Q==K<, B> MB> ?@>8AE>48B ?> B>9 ?@8G8=5, GB> @09 2 =59 A<5H8205BAO A 01A>;NB=K< ?@>H;K< (-45<A:89 A04) 8;8 01A>;NB=K< 1C4CI8< (<5AA80=A:0O M@0), 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 :;0AA8G5A:>9 O7KG5A:>9 B@048F88 @09  MB> ?@5645 2A53> <5AB> (0;L30;;0, ;8A59A:85 ?>;O 8;8 65 4065 B;0=B840 8;8 "@8452OB>5 F0@AB2>) 8, GB> 5IQ 1>;55 206=>, <5AB>, =5 >B;8G0NI55AO :>@5==K< >1@07>< >B 459AB28B5;L=>3> <8@0. <5==> ?> MB>9 ?@8G8=5 >1I5?@8=OB> <=5=85, 2KA:07K202H55AO -@=AB>< D>= >1HNBF5< A 1902 3., A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C 2 8C459A:>9 <KA;8 2@5<O 83@05B BC @>;L >1@07F>2>3> A>AC40, :>B>@CN 2 4@52=59 52@>?59A:>9 <KA;8 83@05B ?@>AB@0=AB2>. A;54AB285 MB>3>, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 3@5:8 C45;ONB 2=8<0=85 ?@5645 2A53> A2>5>1@078N M;5<5=B>2 GC2AB25==>3> <8@0, 8C458 C45;ONB 2=8<0=85 ?@5645 2A53> A>1KB8O<, :>B>@K5 2 =Q< @072>@0G820NBAO, B0:8< >1@07><, GB> 2 81;88 2@5<O 2 :>=5G=>< AGQB5 >B>645AB2;O5BAO A> A2>8< A>45@68<K<, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 O7KG5AB25 <8@ A>AB02;O5B ?@>AB@0=AB2>, :>B>@>5 A:;>==> >B>645AB2;OBLAO A> 2A5<8 ACI5AB20<8, :>B>@K5 >=> 2<5I05B. C459A:89 G5;>25:,  70O2;O5B =4@5 (C@0:8,  >18B05B 2 A;>25A=>< <8@5, 345 ?>=OB85 2@5<5=8 3;025=AB2C5B =04 ?>=OB85< ?@>AB@0=AB20 8;8 65 =5 ACI5AB2C5B... @07;8B <564C 2@5<5=5< 8 25G=>ABLN (8=B5@2LN 2 Question =>O1@L-45:01@L 1980 3.). 45AL <K AB0;:8205<AO A >G5=L A2>5>1@07=K< ?@54AB02;5=85< > 2@5<5=8, :>B>@>5 ?@O<> A2O70=> A ?@54AB02;5=85< >1 8AB>@88. @5<O 2 81;88 =5 87<5@O5BAO G5;>25G5A:>9 <5@>9. @5<O ?@8=04;568B >4=><C ;8HL /E25. !;>2>, :>B>@>5 A;C68B 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O 2@5<5=8 2 52@59A:>< O7K:5, olam, =5 >B;8G05BAO >B A;>20, >7=0G0NI53> 25G=>ABL (!5<L45AOB B>;:>2=8:>2 ?5@525;8 olam :0: 25G=>ABL, A>740;8 B0:8< >1@07>< @07;8G85 <564C 2@5<5=5< 8 25G=>ABLN, :>B>@>3> =5 ACI5AB2C5B 2 52@59A:>< O7K:5.  ?5@52>45 (C@0:8 ?>;L7>20=> 1>;55 B>G=>5 A;>2> prennit). ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K 2 52@59A:>< O7K:5 =5 ACI5AB2C5B =0AB>OI53> 2@5<5=8: C 3;03>;0 5ABL B>;L:> 420 >A=>2=KE 2@5<5=8  A>25@H5==>5 8 =5A>25@H5==>5.  OB8:=8688 A;>2> kadosh, A2OB>9, ?>O2;O5BAO ?5@2K9 @07 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O A54L<>3> 4=O, :>B>@K9 >3 2K1@0; A2>8< 4=Q<, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 5AOB8 70?>254OE 548=AB25==K5 425 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 70?>2548 B0:65 >B=>AOBAO :> 2@5<5=8: ><=8 45=L AC11>B=89, GB>1K A2OB8BL 53> (=545;L=K9 @8B<), >G8B09 >BF0 B2>53> 8 <0BL B2>N, GB>1K ?@>4;8;8AL 4=8 B2>8 (@8B< ?>:>;5=89). "0:8< >1@07><, A2OB>ABL 2> 2@5<5=8 3;025=AB2C5B =04 2A5<8 4@C38<8: A2OB>ABL 2 ?@>AB@0=AB2 ?>O2;O5BAO B>;L:> 2 B>B <><5=B, :>340 52@58 ?>;CG0NB C:070=85 ?>AB@>8BL A:8=8N, :>B>@0O 1C45B >A2OI5=0 >8A55< ('8A;. 7, 1).  :;0AA8G5A:>9 52@>?59A:>9 B@048F88, =0?@>B82, ?@>AB@0=AB2> O2;O5BAO =0AB>;L:> 206=K<, GB> <K 70G0ABCN 2>A?@8=8<05< ?@>AB@0=AB25==> 4065 2@5<O (A<. ?KB > =5?>A@54AB25==KE 40==KE A>7=0=8O 5@3A>=0). 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B0:, <K A:;>==K >?@>AB@0=AB2;820BL A2>Q ?@54AB02;5=85 > 25G=>AB8, ?@54AB02;OBL 5Q :0: =5GB> 15A:>=5G=> >3@><=>5.  ?>72>;8< A515 =0?><=8BL G8B0B5;N > AB@5<;5=88 ?>:>@5=8N ?@>AB@0=AB20, :>B>@>5 <K =5 ?5@5AB020;8 8A?KBK20BL A> 2@5<Q= 25;8:8E >B:@KB89 4> 2@5<Q= 72Q74=KE 2>9=. <5==> MB0 A:;>==>ABL : >?@>AB@0=AB2;820=8N 2@5<5=8 ?@825;0 2@>?C ?>A;5 5Q E@8AB80=870F88 : ?5@58AB>;:>20=8N ?>=OB8O ;8=59=>9 4;8B5;L=>AB8 2 A<KA;5 O2=>3>, ?>GB8 GB> >AO705<>3> @07;8G5=8O =0AB>OI53>, ?@>H;>3> 8 1C4CI53>, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 52@59A:89 3;03>;, @07;8G0NI89 B>;L:> ;8HL ?>;=>BC 8 =5?>;=>BC, ?>AB>O==> AB@5<8BAO  5A;8 <K A>3;0A=K A 0:A>< N;;5@>< 2 B><, GB> O7K: O2;O5BAO ?@>O2;5=85< =5O2=>9 D8;>A>D88,  >3@0=8G8BL 2@5<O, => =5 A B>G:8 7@5=8O G5;>25:0, 0 A B>G:8 7@5=8O >30, :>B>@>3> 53> ?@8@>40 =587156=> AB028B 2KH5 8AB>@8G5A:>3> 2@5<5=8. B0:, 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB2> ?>;=>ABLN ?5@52>@0G8205B O7KG5A:CN ?@>1;5<0B8:C.  B> 2@5<O :0: O7KG5AB2> A:;>==> ?@54AB02;OBL A515 <8@ 25G=K<, 0 1>3>2, :0: 8 ;N459, A<5@B=K<8, 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>5 548=>1>685 CB25@6405B, GB> >3 25G5=, 0 <8@ 8<5; =0G0;> 8 1C45B 8<5BL :>=5F. -B> @07;8G85 2 >ICI5=8OE >1JOA=O5BAO 8AB>:0<8. 0: 70<5G05B, :><<5=B8@CO (?5=3;5@0, 8;L15@ N@0=, >B=N4L =5 1C4CG8 0?@8>@=>9 D>@<>9 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8, :0:>2>9 O2;O5BAO ?@>AB@0=AB2>, 2@5<O O2;O5BAO 0=B8=><859 ?@>AB@0=AB20. >4;8==>9 8=BC8F859 2@5<5=8 ?@54AB02;O5BAO 8=BC8F8O =0?@02;5=8O, A<KA;0 (Science de l'homme et tradition. Le nouvel esprit anthropologique, Berg international, 1979, p. 179).  ?@>AB@0=AB25 65, =0>1>@>B, =8:0:85 A>740NI85AO >1@07K 70@0=55 =5 >?@545;5=K. AQ 1>;55 =5?>A@54AB25==> 7028A8B >B G5;>25:0. #B25@645=85 3;025=AB20 ?@>AB@0=AB20 2=>2L O2;O5BAO :>A25==K< ?@>A;02;5=85< <>I8 G5;>25:0. #B25@645=85 3;025=AB20 2@5<5=8 8 8AB>;:>20=85 53> 2 :0G5AB25 A8=>=8<0 25G=>AB8  MB> CB25@645=85 /E25 :0: 548=AB25==>3> 3>A?>48=0. 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'5;>25: O7KG5AB20 >ICI05B <5AB>, 2 :>B>@>< @>48;AO, G5@57 >B=>H5=85 AK=>2AB20. # =53> 5ABL @>48=0-<0BL.  181;59A:>< 548=>1>688, =0?@>B82, =5 ACI5AB2C5B @>4=>9 75<;8, 0 5ABL B>;L:> :>=5G=0O 75<;O, =07=0G5==0O 75<;O, A2O70==0O =5 A :0:8<-;81> >A=>2>?>;030NI8< <8D><, 0 A :>=5G=>ABLN 8, 2 >A>15==>AB8, :>=5G=>ABLN A:>@55 2@5<5==>9, G5< ?@>AB@0=AB25==>9, ?>B><C GB> 5Q ?@8>1@5B5=85 O2;O5BAO =5>1E>48<K< CA;>285< ?@8E>40 <5AA80=A:8E 2@5<Q=. 5<;O 7@08;O >15I0=0 420 @070: A=0G0;0 /E25 >8A5N (AE. 6, 8; 23, 20-33), :>340 >=0 5IQ ?@8=04;568B E5BB5O<, 0<>@@5O< 8 E0=0=5O<, 0 ?>B>< 2 M?>EC ?@>@>:>2 (/ 2>7L<C AK=>2 7@08;52KE 87 A@54K =0@>4>2, <564C :>B>@K<8 >=8 =0E>4OBAO, 8 A>15@C 8E >B>2AN4C, 8 ?@8254C 8E 2 75<;N 8E. 0 MB>9 75<;5, =0 3>@0E 7@08;O / A45;0N 8E >4=8< =0@>4><, 57. 37, 21-22). =0 >15I0=0 2 B>< A<KA;5, 2 :0:>< =5:>340 =07K20;8 >15I0==>9 =525ABC. -@5F A@>M;L  MB> =525AB0, 1C4CI0O AC?@C30 52@552. 81;8O =5>4=>:@0B=> 8A?>;L7C5B MBC A20451=CN A8<2>;8:C. 5=L !8=09A:>3> >B:@>25=8O >?8AK205BAO :0: 45=L 1@0:0 A /E25; 70:>=, 40==K9 =0 !8=05, O2;O5BAO :5BC1>9, 1@0G=K< 4>3>2>@><45. 0@>4 7@08;O =5 O2;O5BAO AK=>< 75<;8: >= O2;O5BAO AK=>< B>;L:> ;8HL /E25 ?>A@54AB2>< >B=>H5=89 AK=>2AB20, 2AN 42CA<KA;5==>ABL :>B>@KE <K ?>AB0@0;8AL ?>:070BL 2KH5. = 2>7=8:05B =5 =0 75<;5 7@08;O 2A;54AB285 @>645=8O 8 =0A;54>20=8O, 0 2 38?B5 8 ?CABK=5, 2A;54AB285 <>@0;L=>3> 8 @5;838>7=>3> 459AB28O. -@5F A@>M;L  MB> =525AB0, AC?@C30, :>B>@0O =5 <>65B AB0BL <0B5@LN  <0B5@LN-75<;Q9 =0?>4>185 B5E, :>B>@K5 ?>G8B0NB O7KG=8:8. -B> 75<;O, :>B>@0O AB0=>28BAO @>4=>9 B>;L:> ?> 4>25@5==>AB8, 2A;54AB285 4>3>2>@5==>AB8; MB> @>4=0O 75<;O, :>B>@0O =5 8<55B =8:0:>3> >B=>H5=8O : @>645=8N (Emmanuel Lvinas, Noms propres, Fata Morgana, 1976, p. 64). >B >B:C40 1>3>A;>285 873=0=8O 8 2>72@0I5=8O (2 C:070==>< =0<8 A<KA;5), A2O70==>5 A 1>3>A;>285< <>;G0=8O 8 A;>20. BAN40 65, 2>7<>6=>, 8, 2 =5A:>;L:> 8=>9 >1;0AB8, C65 >1AC6405B5 D@594>2A:0O B5>@8O -48?0, :>B>@0O 45;05B 87 ?>402;5=8O @07@5H82H59AO ?@82O70==>AB8 : <0B5@8 8AB>G=8: =52@>7 :0: ?@>@>:8 45;0NB 87 AB>9:>9 ?@82O70==>AB8 : <0B5@8-75<;5 8AB>G=8: 84>;>?>:;>=AB20. 45) 0: >;L4AB09= B0:65 CB25@6405B, GB> 2 >?@545;Q==>< A<KA;5 >1@570=85 45;05B 87 @51Q=:0 =525ABC /E25. = ?8H5B: 1I=>ABL ?@>8AE>645=8O B0:8E A;>2, :0: 0@01. hatana, "A>25@H0BL >1@570=85", 8 hitan, ">1@570=85", 0 B0:65 52@. haten, "B5ABL, A2Q:>@", 8 haian, "7OBL", >?@545;Q==> 3>2>@8B > A2O78 <564C >1@570=85< 8 1@0:>< (Les valeurs de la Loi. La Thora. lumiere sur la route, Beauchesne. 1980. p. 135). ?@>G5<, MB> AE>645=85 <>65B 8AB>;:>2K20BLAO ?>-@07=><C.  =838 KB8O >4=>9 87 >A>15==KE G5@B 08=0 O2;O5BAO 53> 65;0=85 CAB0=02;820BL 3@0=8FK. = E>G5B <0B5@80;87>20BL A2>N ?@8=04;56=>ABL. !>3;0A=> >4=><C <84@0HC, 08= C18; 25;O 70 B>, GB> B>B =5 65;0; C2060BL @0745;, > :>B>@>< CA;>28;8AL 1@0BLO. !>3;0A=> 4>3>2>@5==>AB8, 08= ?>;CG8; MB>B <8@, 0 25;L 1C4CI89 <8@. > ?>A;5 MB>3> 25;L AGQ;, GB> >= 8<55B ?@02> B0:65 8 =0 MB>B <8@, ?>B><C GB>, 5A;8 C <8@0 5ABL ;8HL >48= B2>@5F, >= =5 <>65B 1KBL @0745;5=. (=52 08=0 AB0=>28BAO, ?> =0H5<C <=5=8N, 2?>;=5 ?>=OB=K<!) AC64Q==K9 =0 873=0=85 8 ?>A5;82H89AO 2 75<;5 >4 (KB. 4, 16), 08= 2A;54 70 MB8< 45;05B G8AB> O7KG5A:89 2K1>@ A8;K 2 CI5@1 4;8B5;L=>AB8 8 ?@>AB@0=AB20 2 CI5@1 2@5<5=8-25G=>AB8. 0: <K 2845;8, AB@>O 3>@>4, >= >G5284=K< @07>< AB@5<8BAO 70;>68BL >A=>2K :=O65AB20 8;8 F0@AB20  8<5==> 2 MB>< 70:;NG05BAO 53> 3>@4K=O. = ?@5>1@07C9 :0: A?@0254;82> 70<5G0NB 6>78 975=15@3 8 @<0= 15:0AA8, A2>9 2@5<5==>9 2>?@>A 2 2>?@>A ?@>AB@0=AB25==K9 (Moi, le gardien de mon frere?, op. cit., p. 303). B0:, >B=>H5=85 81;88 : C:>@5=5=8N O2;O5BAO :@09=5 42CA<KA;5==K<. A54;>ABL, 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL :>G52=8G5AB2C, =045;O5BAO 2 =59 >B@8F0B5;L=K< A<KA;><. 975=15@3 15:0AA8 4065 284OB 2 MB>< >AC645=85 ?0B@8>B87<0, O7KG5A:>3> GC2AB20, >A=>20==>3> =0 ?;>BA:>< >B=>H5=88 G5;>25:0 : 75<;5, B>645AB25==>< AK=>2=5<C >B=>H5=8N, ?@8 :>B>@>< @51Q=>: >?@545;O5BAO 35=5B8G5A:8 (ibid., p. 172). !2>1>40 ?> >B=>H5=8N : >A54;><C >1@07C ACI5AB2>20=8O O2;O5BAO, 2>7<>6=>, G5;>25G5A:8< >1@07>< ACI5AB2>20=8O 2 <8@5,  CB25@6405B A> A2>59 AB>@>=K 528=0A (Difficile liber op. cit., p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essence du prophtisme, Calmann-Lvy, 1972). "0:8< >1@07><, 2A5;5==0O 2 81;88 2>A?@8=8<05BAO :0: <8@ 157 ?@>AB@0=AB25==KE 3@0=8F, => >3@0=8G5==K9 2> 2@5<5=8, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 O7KG5AB25 >=0 2>A?@8=8<05BAO :0: <8@, :>B>@K9 1573@0=8G5= 2> 2@5<5=8, => 2 :>B>@>< G5;>25:>< ?@>2>4OBAO ?@>AB@0=AB25==K5 3@0=8FK. @0=8FK 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25 45;0NB G5;>25:0 3>A?>48=>< <5AB0, :>B>@>5 >= 70=8<05B. @0=8FK 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25, 01A>;NB=K5 F57C@K, C:07K20NB B>;L:> ;8HL =0 B>, GB> >B;8G05B G5;>25:0 >B >30.  >4=>< A;CG05 G5;>25: >1;0405B C:>@5=5=85< 8 >A>15==>ABLN, 2 4@C3><  ?@8720=85< : 2A5>1I=>AB8 8 45B5@@8B>@80;870F88. A540=85 345-;81>, ?@82O70==>ABL : <5ABC, 157 :>B>@>3> <8@ AB0; 1K 15AA<KA;5==K< 8 2@O4 ;8 2>>1I5 ACI5AB2>20; 1K,  ?8H5B B0:65 528=0A,  MB> 8 5ABL @0745;5=85 G5;>25G5AB20 =0 02B>EB>=>2 8 GC60:>2 (Difficile libert, op. cit., p. 301). "5< =5 <5=55, MB> @0745;5=85 =5 ?@54?>;0305B 2 ?@8=F8?5 >B:070 8;8 ?@5=51@565=8O. => A:>@55 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?5@2>5 CA;>285 A>E@0=5=8O 8 C2065=8O :>;;5:B82=KE @07;8G89. B=N4L =5 >G5284=>, GB> B> 65 A0<>5 <>6=> A:070BL >1 8450;5 C?@074=5=8O 3@0=8F, 2 :>B>@>< ">@;59D >@<0= (Dg hebraeische Denken im Vergleich mit dem Griechischen, Vandenhoek u. 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e guide des gars, G.P. Maisonneuve Larose, 1856-1866, vol. 1, p. 242). -B> CG5=85 >1 >B@8F0B5;L=KE >?@545;5=8OE C65 ?@5425I05B :@8B8G5A:CN B5>@8N $@0=:DC@BA:>9 H:>;K... ( @02>A;0288 MB> 8<5=C5BAO 0?>D0B8G5A:8< 1>3>A;>285<, :>B>@>5 8725AB=> =5 B>;L:> 02@00<8G5A:8< @5;838O<, => 540=B5 8 0>A0<). 7>1@060BLAO =5 4>;65= =5 B>;L:> /E25, => 8 ;N1K5 ?@54<5BK MB>3> <8@0 =0G8=0O, 5AB5AB25==>, A G5;>25:0, ?>B><C GB> >= A>740= ?> >1@07C >68N. -B> ?@54?8A0=85 8:>=>1>@G5AB20, >1JO2;5==>5 2?5@2K5 2 =835 AE>40: 5 45;09 A515 :C<8@0 8 =8:0:>3> 87>1@065=8O B>3>, GB> =0 =515 225@EC, GB> =0 75<;5 2=87C, 8 GB> 2 2>45 =865 75<;8 (20, 4), 0 ?>B>< 2> B>@>70:>=88: 01K 2K =5 @072@0B8;8AL 8 =5 A45;0;8 A515 8720O=89, 87>1@065=89 :0:>3>-;81> :C<8@0, ?@54AB02;ONI8E <C6G8=C 8;8 65=I8=C, 87>1@065=8O :0:>3>-;81> A:>B0, :>B>@K9 =0 75<;5, 87>1@065=8O :0:>9-;81> ?B8FK :@K;0B>9, :>B>@0O ;5B05B ?>4 =515A0<8, 87>1@065=8O :0:>3>-;81> 3040, ?>;70NI53> ?> 75<;5, 87>1@065=8O :0:>9-;81> @K1K, :>B>@0O 2 2>40E =865 75<;8 (4, 16-18). "@C4=> A:070BL, : :0:><C 8<5==> 2@5<5=8 2>AE>4OB MB8 70?@5BK. @54AB02;O5BAO, GB> ?5@2>=0G0;L=> >=8 8<5;8 2 284C B>;L:> 87>1@065=8O >65AB20, 0 2?>A;54AB288 @0A?@>AB@0=8;8AL =0 2A5 >1@07=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O.  B5G5=85 25:>2 >=8 ?@8=8<0;8AL 8 8AB>;:>2K20;8AL 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 AB@>38< >1@07><. "0;<C48G5A:>5 >1AC645=85 0==>3> 2>?@>A0 ((C;E0= @CE, >H 0H0=0, 24 0-b; >@5 50 141, 7) :0A05BAO 2 >A>15==>AB8 A;>20 87>1@065=85.  F5;><, A53>4=O AG8B05BAO, GB> B>;L:> ?>;=>5 87>1@065=85, B> 5ABL, =0?@8<5@, 87>1@065=85 2A53> G5;>25G5A:>3> B5;0 2 B@QE 87<5@5=8OE, ?>4?0405B ?>4 70?@5B. !B0BC8 2 ?>;=K9 @>AB 70?@5I5=K; 1NABK, ?>@B@5BK, D>B>3@0D88  =5B (A<. Jewish Chronicle, September 2, 1977). 5:>B>@K5 02B>@K, 2 >A>15==>AB8 <8AB8:8, ?@>O2;O;8 1>;LH89 @048:0;87<. 0: 1K B0< =8 1K;>, =5B@C4=> C2845BL 2 181;59A:>< 8:>=>1>@G5AB25 >G5284=CN 0=B8MAB5B8G5A:CN ?@5427OB>ABL.  KB88 A5AB@0 :C7=5F0 "C20;:08=0 >5<0 =>A8B 8<O, :>B>@>5 >7=0G05B :@0A>B0.  B@048F8>==>< 8C4087<5 8A:CAAB2> 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 >3@0=8G8BAO ;8BC@38G5A:>9 >1;0ABLN; 2=8<0=85 1C45B >1@0I5=> =5 =0 >30, => =0 53> 2<5H0B5;LAB2> 2 8AB>@8N: 5;8:85 ;N48 @5;8388 5BE>3> 025B0,  ?8H5B ">@;59D >@<0=,  87>1@060NBAO =5 ?> ?@8G8=5 A2>53> 1;03>G5AB8O 8;8 A2>53> 35@>87<0, 0 ?> ?@8G8=5 B>3>, GB> G5@57 =8E 459AB2>20; >3 8;8, 459AB2CO, 3>2>@8; A =8<8, 8;8 65, :0: 74@0, ?>B><C GB> >= G8B0; A;>20 >30 (op. cit.). ! MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O E@8AB80=A:>5 8A:CAAB2>, :>B>@><C <K >1O70=K AB>;L:8<8 25;8:>;5?=K<8 ?@>872545=8O<8, ?>O28;>AL =0 A25B :0: 5@5AL. C4CG8 ?5@5=5A5=> : =0@>40<, ;N1OI8< 8A:CAAB2>, E@8AB80=AB2> AB0;> =0AB>;L:> EC4>65AB25==K<, =0A:>;L:> =5EC4>65AB25==K< >=> 1K;> 1K, >AB02H8AL 2 @C:0E 8C45>-E@8AB80= (-@=5AB 5=0=, 0@: 2@5;89, 1881 3.). > MB> 1K;> @57C;LB0B>< 4>;3>9 M2>;NF88. # E@8AB80= ?5@2KE 25:>2 ?@028;>< 1K;> 8:>=>1>@G5AB2>; <>8A552 70?@5B =0 87>1@065=8O AB@>3> A>1;N40;AO (8 B5< =5 <5=55 A>3;0A=> A2OI5==><C ?@540=8N ?5@2CN 8:>=C =0@8A>20; 520=35;8AB C:0). @><5 B>3>, 4>2>;L=> @0A?@>AB@0=5==K< 1K;> ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 C@>4AB25 8ACA0 (A<. C "5@BC;;80=0, @835=0 8 ;8<5=B0 ;5:A0=4@89A:>3>). 2A5289 5A0@89A:89 2 A2>Q< ?8AL<5 >=AB0=F88 >B25@305B :0: A>25@H5==> =5G5AB82CN <KA;L >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 ?>@B@5B>2 %@8AB0. 5@2>E@8AB80=AB2> A>A@54>B>G8;> A2>Q >B25@65=85 >1@07>2 2 ?@57@5=88 : O7KG5A:8< 84>;0<: ?5@2K5 E@8AB80=5 =5 <>3CB 3>2>@8BL > AB0BCOE 1>3>2 157 A0@:07<0. 0 2>?@>A C6=> ;8 A>74020BL AB0BC8 8 87>1@065=8O >30? 2A5 >=8 >B25G0NB >B@8F0B5;L=> (A<.: Louis Rougier, Le culte des images et les premiers chrtiens, in Le conflit du christianisme primitif et de ]a civilisation antique, Copernic, 1977, pp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ohamed Aziza, L'Islam et l'image, Albin Michel, 1978),  :0: ?>:070; =@8 >@15=, 8:>=>3@0D8G5A:>5 24>E=>25=85 G0I5 2A53> ?5@5=>A8BAO =0 2>>1@0605<>5. B@8F0B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : >1@070< 2K@0605BAO >A>15==> 2 E048B0E, :0: ?@028;> 2 D>@<5 ?@>:;OB89: A>740B5;8 >1@07>2 2 ?>A;54=85 4=8 1C4CB =0:070=K >3><, :>B>@K9 40AB 8< =52K?>;=8<CN 7040GC >6828BL 8E B2>@5=8O! 48= B>;L:> >3 (Asma Allah al-Husna) O2;O5BAO al-Moussawwir'oM, B> 5ABL B2>@F>< D>@<. "0:8< >1@07><, @5GL 2=>2L 84QB > =52>7<>6=>AB8 A =8< A>?5@=8G0BL 2 >B254Q==>9 8< A515 >1;0AB8. >;L (0@=5 2?>;=5 A?@0254;82> >?8AK205B 8A;0< :0: 01AB@0:B=CN @5;838N, >B25@30NICN, 2A;54AB285 >B:070 >B 84>;>?>:;>=AB20, 0=B@>?><>@D=K5, 7>><>@D=K5 8 4065 ?@>AB> MAB5B8G5A:85 87>1@065=8O 8 A8<2>;K (Sociologie religieuse de l'Islam, Sindbad, 1977-1978, p. 19). 81;59A:89 >B:07 >B >1@070 <>65B ?@>G8BK20BLAO =0 =5A:>;L:8E C@>2=OE. 3> ?5@20O DC=:F8O A2O70=0 A 1>@L1>9 ?@>B82 84>;>?>:;>=AB20.  A>1AB25==>< A<KA;5 A;>20 84>;, , MB> B>, GB> <>6=> C2845BL, B>, GB> >1@5B05B ACI5AB2>20=85 ?>A@54AB2>< A2>53> 7@8B5;L=>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O. @54AB02;5=85 >30 2 >?@545;Q==>< >1@075, :0:8< 1K >= =8 1K;, =587156=> >7=0G05B 53> ?@54AB02;5=85 8<5==> 2 MB>< >1@075.  B> 65 2@5<O >3, A>7402H89 2A5 >1@07K, =5 <>65B A2>48BLAO : >4=><C >A>1><C >1@07C. 3@0=8G5=85 53> >4=8< 40==K< >1@07>< >7=0G05B A2545=85 >1I53> : G0AB=><C, 273;O4 =0 ACI5AB2>20=85 :0: =0 ACI5AB2>: =5<KA;8<0O, 1>3>EC;L=0O <KA;L 2 181;59A:>9 ?5@A?5:B825. 7 D83C@0B82=>3> 8 01AB@0:B=>3> 8A:CAAB20 B>;L:> 2B>@>5 459AB28B5;L=> A>>B25BAB2C5B <>8A552C ?@54?8A0=8N, :>B>@>5 ?>@>6405B >?@545;Q==CN =54>@0728B>ABL GC2AB20 D>@<K (A<.: Raphael Petal, The Jewish Mind, Charles Scribner's, New York, 1977, p. 358). /0:>2 30< 4>E>48B 4> CB25@645=8O: $83C@0B82=>5 8A:CAAB2> =5 B>;L:> =5 <>65B 1KBL 52@59A:8<, >=> O2;O5BAO ?> ?@58<CI5AB2C 0=B852@59A:8<, 70?@5IQ==K< 81;859 (8=B5@2LN 2 L'Arche, A5=BO1@L->:BO1@L 1978).  @><0=5 %08<0 >B>:0 5=O 7>2CB H5@ 52 (Buchet-Chastel, 1973) @0AA:07K205BAO > @51Q=:5, =0@CH0NI5< 181;59A:89 70?@5B ?@54AB02;OBL >1@07K. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, C?@074=5=85 87>1@065=8O G5;>25:0 A>?@>2>6405BAO C?@074=5=85< >A>15==>AB59 8 A2>5>1@078O ;N459  2<5AB5 A C?@074=5=85< G5;>25G5A:8E =>@< ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 2K@060NB MB8 >A>15==>AB8 8 MB> A2>5>1@0785, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 A0<8 O2;ONBAO 8E >1@070<8. >AB0B>G=> ?>A<>B@5BL A MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O =0 E@8AB80=A:>5 8A:CAAB2>: EC4>6=8:8 A>25@H5==> 5AB5AB25==> ?@54AB02;O;8 >30, =045;OO 53> 7=0:><K<8 8< G5@B0<8: >=8 =045;O;8 53> 8450;L=K< D878G5A:8< >1@07><, ?>4@07C<5202H8<AO 8E A>1AB25==K< =0A;5485< 8 8E A>1AB25==>9 ?@8=04;56=>ABLN, =0AB>;L:>, =5<KA;8<> 1K;> 4;O =8E, GB> >3 <>65B 8<5BL 284 !>25@H5==> @C3>3>. N1>5 87>1@065=85 >BAK;05B : G0AB=><C, >B@0605B G0AB=>5; ;N1>5 87>1@065=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 75@:0;>, 2 :>B>@>< 8 ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@>3> 2>AE20;O5BAO 8 2>72KH05BAO >?@545;Q==K9 B8?. ">;L:> >BACBAB285 87>1@065=8O <>65B >B@060BL =52848<>5 8 =587@5GQ==>5. ">;L:> =8GB> <>65B >BAK;0BL : =8GB>. <5==> ?>MB><C 2 181;59A:>9 ?5@A?5:B825, :>B>@0O 8AB>;:>2K205B MB> =8GB>, MBC 01A>;NB=CN ?CAB>BC :0: 01A>;NB=CN ?>;=>BC, B>;L:> >BACBAB285 >1@070 <>65B 2K@060BL ?@8ACBAB285 2A5E >1@07>2  B0: 65, :0: B>;L:> <>;G0=85 G5;>25:0 <>65B 2K@060BL A;>2> >30. -B> 8450; ?CAB>3> E@0<0. 450;, :>B>@K9 ?@5425I05B <5AA80=A:85 2@5<5=0, :>340 @07;8G8O 8 >A>15==>AB8 1C4CB C?@074=5=K, :>340 2A5 ;N48 AB0=CB @02=K 4@C3 4@C3C, :>340 =8G53> =5;L7O 1C45B =8 A G5< A@02=8BL. 5AA80=A:89 <8@,  CB>G=O5BAO 2 >E0@5,  1C45B <8@>< 157 >1@07>2, 2 :>B>@>< 1>;55 =5 1C45B 2>7<>6=> A@02=5=85 <564C >1@07>< 8 B5<, GB> >= ?@54AB02;O5B. "0:8< >1@07><, =5@5?@575=B0B82=>ABL ?@82>48B : ?;>A:>9 @0F8>=0;L=>AB8. 59AB28B5;L=>ABL 1>;LH5 =5 2>A?@8=8<05BAO, =5 >ICI05BAO 8 =5 ?@54AB02;O5BAO :0: B0:>20O. =0 B5?5@L 7028A8B =5 >B GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 8 MAB5B8:8, 0 >B G8AB>3> 8=B5;;5:B0 8 G8AB>9 <>@0;8,  >B 8=B5;;5:B0, :>B>@K9 A0< 8AE>48B 87 01AB@0:F88, 2 :>B>@>9 7=0:8 >7=0G0NB =5 459AB28B5;L=>ABL, 0 4@C3 4@C30. 59AB28B5;L=>ABL 4>;6=0 =5 2845BLAO 8 AB@>8BLAO =0 >A=>20=88 B>3>, :0: <K 5Q 2>A?@8=8<05<, >=0 4>;6=0 ?>=8<0BLAO. 0G0ABCN ?@54?@8=8<0;8AL ?>?KB:8 =09B8 ?@>4>;65=8O 8 B>G:8 A>2?045=8O A <>8A552K< 70?@5B>< =0 87>1@065=85 2 A>2@5<5==CN M?>EC, =0?@8<5@, 2 01AB@0:B=>< 8A:CAAB25, @>645=85 8 @0728B85 :>B>@>3> A>2?040NB <5B0D>@8G5A:8 A @>645=85< 8 @0728B85< AB@C:BC@=>9 ;8=328AB8:8 8 :>=:@5B=> ?5@568B>3> 8=B5@=0F8>=0;8ABA:>3> 8450;0 AB8@0=8O 3@0=8F.  A2>Q< A>G8=5=88 >1 :>=>1>@F0E (Seuil, 1978) 0=->75D C 7040QB 2>?@>A: 5 O2;O5BAO ;8 ?@8G8=>9 A:;>==>AB8 0@:A0 8 $@5940  MB8E =525@=KE => =5A><=5==KE AK=>259 8C4087<0  : 2>A?@8OB8N ;N1>3> 87>1@065=8O :0: 2>>1@065=8O, 0 ;N1>3> 2>>1@065=8O :0: =57=0=8O, 8E =0A;54AB25==0O 1;87>ABL : 8:>=>1>@G5A:><C 7025BC? 5B A><=5=8O,  4>102;O5B >=,  GB> 8<5==> 2 MB>< 70:;NG05BAO ?>4;8==>5 >A=>20=85 8C459AB20 0@:A0 8 $@5940, :>B>@>5 4> A8E ?>@ ?@8=8<0;>AL 2 @0AGQB B>;L:> ;8HL 0=5:4>B8G5A:8< >1@07><.  2K2>4: B=N4L =5 A;CG09=>ABLN, => A;54AB285< 2>745;K20=8O >4=>9 ?>G2K O2;O5BAO B>, GB> A53>4=O <K 2AB@5G05< - 2 01AB@0:B=>9 682>?8A8, CB>?88, D5B8H87<5, AB0=40@B0E, @07;8G88 ?>;>2  B5<C E@0<0 157 >1@07>2. "0:8< >1@07><, >?@545;Q==K5 845>;>38G5A:85 O2;5=8O, B0:85 :0: 01AB@0:B=0O 682>?8AL, D@59487< 8;8 <0@:A87<, <>3CB 8AB>;:>2K20BLAO :0: 2>7@>645=8O G@572KG09=> 4@52=53> >1@070 <KA;59, ?>AB>O==> 4286CI53>AO >B 2A5>1I53> : G0AB=><C, >B 548=AB20 0:>=0 : @07=>>1@078N 7=0:>2: A5 AB>@>=K 687=8 A>2@5<5==>3> 0?040,  ?8H5B 0=->75D C,  A>72CG=K AB0@><C 8:>=>1>@G5A:><C 7025BC, ;5602H5<C 2 >A=>25 4@52=53> >B:;>=5=8O, A <><5=B0 :>B>@>3> <KA;8B5;8 8C459A:>9 B@048F88 0:B82=> 2<5H820;8AL, 70:;04K20O >A=>2K, MB>9 A>2@5<5==>9 687=8, =0<5G0O 5Q >G5@B0=8O, =5 ?@>B82>AB>O 59, 0 A:>@55 ?@5425I0O 5Q (op. cit., p. 145). KBL 52@55<,  3>2>@8B 6>78 975=15@3,  7=0G8B..., ?@5645 2A53> @0A?>;030BL @O4>< 2KA:07K20=89 >30 8 > >35, GB>1K 7=0BL =52848<>3>, 15AB5;5A=>3>, =5>AO705<>3> >30. -B> 7=0G8B 8A:0BL >30 G5@57 O7K:, ?> >B=>H5=8N : :>B>@><C 2AO 8AB>@8O 7@08;O 5ABL =5 1>;55 G5< 72CG=K9 >B3>;>A>: (Le Monde, 9 decerabre 1978).  B0:65: >6=> 1K;> 1K ;53:> >?@545;8BL 52@59A:CN 25@C B5@<8=0<8, :>B>@K5 0:0= C?>B@51;O; ?@8 @073>2>@5 > 15AA>7=0B5;L=><, 8 A:070BL, GB> >=0 AB@C:BC@8@>20=0 :0: O7K:. -B>B O7K:, 2?@>G5<, A2O70= A 15AA>7=0B5;L=K<, ?>B><C GB> 2AO 52@59A:0O M:7535B8:0 A>AB>8B 2 ?>8A:0E  70 ?@545;0<8 A:070==>3>  B>3>, GB> =5 A:070=> 2 181;59A:>< B5:AB5 (ibid.). 0< ?@54AB02;O5BAO, GB> MB8 A;>20 >G5=L B>G=> A>2?040NB A B5<, GB> 3>2>@8B 0=->75D C. >340 D83C@0B82=>5 87>1@065=85 ?>;=>ABLN 70<5=O5BAO ;>3>A><, :>B>@K9 5<C 01A>;NB=> ?@54ACI5AB2C5B, ;>3>A >:07K205BAO =5 :><<5=B0@85< : 87>1@065=8N, => 53> 70<5=>9. > MB>9 ?@8G8=5 =5B =8G53> C4828B5;L=>3> 2 B><, GB> 2 A>2@5<5==>9 845>;>38G5A:>9 @5G8, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@>8AE>48B >A0645=85 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:8E F5==>AB59 2 8E A25BA:>< 2845, ?@>F25B0NB B5<K =5@5?@575=B0B82=>AB8 8 ?>8A:>2 =5A:070==>3>, M?8D5=><5=0<8 :>B>@KE O2;ONBAO AB@C:BC@=0O ;8=328AB8:0, =5A>1KB89=0O 8AB>@8O, 01AB@0:B=>5 8A:CAAB2> 8 BKAOG0 B5>@89 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>.  :064>< 87 MB8E A;CG052 @5GL 84QB >1 >?8A0=88 157 87>1@065=8O, >1 >?@545;Q==>< 273;O45 =0 <8@ :0: =0 =5GB> 70H8D@>20==>5, :;NG : :>B>@><C =0E>48BAO 70 ?@545;0<8 2848<KE O2;5=89, > 273;O45 =0 <8@ =5 :0: =0 <5AB>, 345 A>740NBAO >1@07K, 0 :0: =0 B@51CNICN 8AB>;:>20=8O B09=C, :0: =0 B@51CNICN @07@5H5=8O 3>;>2>;><:C, :0: =0 <5AB>, 2 :>B>@>< G5;>25:, 2>A?@8=8<0NI89AO =5 :0: A>740B5;L, 0 :0: ?>A@54=8:, 4>;65= >B:@KBL A:@KBK9 A<KA;, =587156=> 548=AB25==K9 A<KA;, 2A5>1I89 8 ?@54ACI5AB2CNI89 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 53> A>1AB25==><C ACI5AB2>20=8N. @54AB02;5=85 > <8@5 :0: :@8?B>3@0<<5 8 ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 01A>;NB=>< A83=8D8:0=B5, ?>72>;ONI5< 53> @0AH8D@>20BL (:>B>@K< <>65B 1KBL /E25 8;8 65, 70?@>AB>, 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 8;8 1>@L10 :;0AA>2), 459AB2CNB, B0:8< >1@07><, :0: 480AB>;0 8 A8AB>;0.  B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 <8@ 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 O2;O5BAO =5 B5<, G5< >= O2;O5BAO, 4>;65= ACI5AB2>20BL C=825@A0;L=K9 :;NG, 157 :>B>@>3> =52>7<>6=> >1>9B8AL, :>B>@K9 ?>72>;O5B C7=0BL, GB> 5ABL B0:>5 2 ACI5AB2>20=88, GB> =5 5ABL ACI5AB2>20=85. '5;>25: 1>;LH5 =5 459AB2C5B  459AB2CNB 8< :0: @0AH8D@>2I8:>< 85@>3;8D>2. 0: $@594 7040;AO F5;LN >1=0@C68BL A<KA; 2 A=0E, :>B>@K5, :0: <K 7=05<, >= A@02=8205B A 85@>3;8D0<8, B0: 8 0@:A, A> A2>59 AB>@>=K, A>3;0A=> 53> A>1AB25==K< A;>20<, ?>AB028; A2>59 7040G59 @0AH8D@>2:C 85@>3;8D0 AB>8<>AB8 (Jean-Joseph Goux, op. cit., p. 15). <5==> ?> MB>9 ?@8G8=5 $@594 ?@8 8AB>;:>20=88 A=>2 >G5=L B>G=> A;54C5B ?@8<5@C >A8D0 ?5@54 $0@0>=>< (KB. 41, 1-43) 8;8 0=88;0 ?5@54 02CE>4>=>A>@>< (0=. 4, 16-24). @>2>73;0H0O >1I89 C=825@A0;L=K9 70:>=, =0E>4OI89AO 70 ?@545;0<8 G0AB=KE A>1KB89 8 459AB289, 0@:A 8 $@594 2KE>4OB 87 38?B0 85@>3;8D>2  85@>3;8D0 A=0 8 85@>3;8D0 B>20@0  2KE>4OB 87 GC6>9, O7KG5A:>9 75<;8 G0AB=KE A83=8D8:0F89 8 ?>A@54AB2>< 548=AB25==>3> >?5@0F8>==>3> 7=0:0 A2>4OB 8E : B0:><C 65 548=AB25==><C A83=8D8:0=BC. @8<5G0B5;L=K<8 2 MB>< A<KA;5 O2;ONBAO MAB5B8G5A:85 ?>=OB0 $@5940, 87CG5==K5 0=><->75D>< C. $@594 =0G8=05B 70O2;5=8O > B><, GB> ACI=>ABL ?@>872545=8O 8A:CAAB20 53> ?@82;5:05B 1>;LH5, G5< :0G5AB20 53> D>@<K 8 B5E=8:8. -B0 B>, GB> ?>@>6405B 2 =Q< GC2AB2>, MB> =0<5@5=85 EC4>6=8:0. = GC2AB2C5B B>;L:> B>, GB> ?>=8<05B. = AB@5<8BAO ?5@525AB8 =0<5@5=85 EC4>6=8:0 2 A;>20, >= =0A;06405BAO =5 D>@<>9, 0 ACI=>ABLN, =5 <0B5@80;><, 0 A<KA;><. = 8A?KBK205B =0A;0645=85 B>;L:> 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 70459AB2>20= 53> 8=B5;;5:B. <5==> ?>MB><C >= =5 ;N18B <C7K:C (...) 5 >AB0=02;820OAL =0 B><, =0 GB> C:07K205B ?@>872545=85 8A:CAAB20, 8 =5 ?@8=8<0O 2A5@LQ7 53> >ICB8<CN 70304:C, >= 2848B ;8HL ?>2>4 8AB>;:>20BL A<KA;, CE20B8BL ACI=>ABL, :>B>@CN ?>A@54AB2>< A2>53> ?@>872545=8O ?5@540QB EC4>6=8:. 3> 8=B5@5ACNB ;8HL ?5@540NI85AO <KA;8, >1>7=0G0NI85AO =0<5@5=8O (Les iconoclastes, op. cit., p. 10). @8<5G0B5;L=K9 >B@K2>:, 2 :>B>@>< <K =0E>48< 2K@065=89 1>;LH8=AB20 AD>@<C;8@>20==KE =0<8 A0<8<8 >??>78F89 <564C >ICI05<K< 8 ?>=8<05<K<, 4CH>9 8 4CE><, D>@<>9 8 55 45@60=85<, >1@07>< 8 ?>=OB85<, AB8;5< 8 A<KA;><. 725AB=>, A:>;L ?@82;5:0B5;L=K< 4;O $@5940 1K; >1@07 >8A5O.  254L 8<5==> >8A59 ?@8=QA A !8=0O A:@860;8 0:>=0 8 2<5AB5 A =8<8 8:>=>1>@G5A:89 7025B (?@8 MB>< 87>1@065=8O E5@C28<>2 ?@8ACBAB2>20;8 =0 :>2G535 025B0 2 A:8=88).  >8A55 8 548=>1>688 (Gallimard, 1948) $@594 3>2>@8B A0<, GB> 70?@5B 87>1@065=85 ?>4@07C<5205B ?@54?>GB5=85 01AB@0:B=>9 8458 GC2AB25==><C 2>A?@8OB8N, ?>154C 8=B5;;5:B0 =04 GC2AB2>< >B@5G5=85 >B AB@0AB59. ">G=> B0: 65 C 528-!B@>AA0 B578A > 70?@5B5 =0 :@>2>A<5H5=85 :0: 2A5>1I5< O2;5=88, E0@0:B5@5= 4;O G5;>25G5A:>3> @>40,  B578A, =0?@O<CN A2O70==K9 A D@594>2A:>9 B5>@859 -48?0, ?> >B=>H5=8N : :>B>@>9 >= O2;O5BAO A2>53> @>40 MB=>3@0D8G5A:8< 8 @0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:8< ?5@58AB>;:>20=85<,  A2>48BAO, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, >?OBL-B0:8 : ?>8A:0< >1I53> 70:>=0, ACI5AB2CNI53> 70 ?@545;0<8 ;N1KE G0AB=>AB59, 8, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K 8 2 >A>15==>AB8, : 8AB>;:>20=88 MB>3> >1I53> 70:>=0 :0: @07@K20 A 5AB5AB25==K< <8@>< 2 B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 70?@5B =0 :@>2>A<5H5=85, :>B>@K9 =0 45;5 O2;O5BAO ?@5645 2A53> 70?@5B>< =0 :@>2>A<5H5=85 A <0B5@LN, ?>4B25@6405B 4@52=89 0=B8-84>;>?>:;>?A:89 70?@5B, =0?@02;5==K9 ?@>B82 AK=>2=8E >B=>H5=89 <564C G5;>25:>< 8 <0B5@LN-75<;Q9. ( 181;59A:>9 B5<0B8:5 84>;>?>:;>=AB2> 5ABL 1;C4, 0 B>G=55 :@>2>A<5A8B5;L=K9 1;C4, ?>B><C GB> 2 O7KG5AB25 G5;>25: ?>@>64Q= ACI5AB2>< <8@0, 0 2 81;88 >= A>740= /E25). <5==> ?>MB><C, @0AA<0B@820O MB8 40==K5 2 F5;><, 0=->75D C 70:;NG05B: 0< ?@54AB02;O5BAO, GB> 70?@5B =0 87>1@065=85 1>65AB20 O2;O5BAO @048:0;L=>9 D>@<>9 70?@5B0 =0 :@>2>A<5H5=85, 53> 8C408ABA:>9 D>@<>9, 8 GB> 3=52 >8A5O ?> >B=>H5=8N : 84>;>?>:;>==8:0< >7=0G05B C3@>7C :0AB@0F88, :>B>@0O A>?@>2>6405B 70?@5B=CN ;N1>2L : <0B5@8 (op. cit., pp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mwertung'a, 70:;59<Q==>3> 8FH5... 07;8G85 A O7KG5AB2>< ?>@078B5;L=>.  81;88 :@0A82>5 =5 >1O70B5;L=> E>@>H>, 0 157>1@07=>5 =5 >1O70B5;L=> ?;>E>. >7<>6=> 4065  8 8<5==> 2 MB>< A>AB>8B Umwertung,  GB> E>@>H55 E>@>H> ?> ?@8G8=5 A0<>3> A2>53> 157>1@078O (B>G=> B0: 65, :0: 3>@4K=O A;010 =0AB>;L:>, =0A:>;L:> >=0 A8;L=0), 0 ?;>E>5 :@0A82> 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> >=> ?;>E>. %>@>H> 8725AB=>, GB> NF8D5@  1;8AB0B5;L=K9 0=35;. 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AO 52@>?59A:0O 4CE>2=>ABL >A=>2K205BAO =0 87>1@065=88 :0: ?>A@54=8G5AB25 <564C 2848<K< 8 =52848<K<, =0 87>1@065=88 ?>A@54AB2>< D83C@0B82=KE >1@07>2 8 7=0:>2, :>B>@K5 2K@060NB A<KA;, B5A=> A2O70==K9 A 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN, =0AB>OI5< 70;>35 MB>3> 15A:>=5G=>3> 8 2708<=>3> >1@0I5=8O 7=0:0 8 A8<2>;0. @0A>B0  MB> 2848<K9 7=0: B>3>, GB> E>@>H>; 157>1@0785  2848<K9 7=0: B>3>, GB> =5 B>;L:> C@>4;82> 8;8 8A?>@G5= => 8 ?;>E>46. 0: ?>:070; 0@; 5@5=L8 (Die Antike Religk Pantheon, Amsterdam, 1940), 4;O 4@52=8E 3@5:>2 B>@65AB25==>ABL =5>B45;8<0 >B 7@8B5;L=>3>, 2>A?@8=8<05<>3> 87>1@065=8O: @5;838>7=>5 GC2AB2> 4>AB8305B A2>59 25@H8=K ?>A@54AB2>< A>548=5=8O MAB5B8G5A:>3> 8 A2OI5==>3>. # 3@5:>2,  3>2>@8B 535;L,  8A:CAAB2> 1K;> =081>;55 2KA>:>9 D>@<>9, 2 :>B>@>9 ;N48 ?@54AB02;O;8 A515 1>3>2 8 >A>7=020;8 ?@024C (-AB5B8:0). !CI5AB20  ;N48 8 1>38  ?@>O2;ONB A51O >ICB8<K< >1@07><, ?>A@54AB2>< A2>8E 459AB289. 065 ;0B>= >?8AK205B 8<?5@8N B;0=B84K 8;8 8450;L=K9 3>@>4 A2>53> >AC40@AB20 B5<8 65 A;>20<8, :>B>@K5 8A?>;L7C5B ><5@ ?@8 @073>2>@5 > 42>@F5 #;8AA0 =0 B0:5 8;8 > AB5=0E "@>8. 46)  =5<5F:>< O7K:5 ?>=OB85 C@>4;82>5 ?5@540QBAO A;>2>< haesslich, B>B 65 :>@5=L, GB> 8 A;>2> Mass - =5=028ABL. 7 MB>3> .<>6=> 70:;NG8BL, GB> C@>4<0 2> 4>AB>9=> =5=028AB8. $@0=FC7A:>5 A;>2> /H# (C@>4;82>5) ?@>8AE>48B >B 35@<0| A:>3> :>@=O leid- =5?@8OB=>5, >B2@0B8B5;L=>5 (A>2@5<5==K5 =5<5F:85 A;>20 Le - 7;>. Leiden - AB@040=85). 0: 8 03=5@, 8FH5 ?@840QB 206=59H55 7=0G5=85 MAB5B8:5, CB25@640O, GB> 4@0<0B8G5A:>5 ?@>872545=85 8A:CAAB20 A?>A>1=> 70<5=8BL @5;838N. = ?@8102;O5B: ;O 459AB28B5;L=>3> B2>@F0 MB>3> <8@0 <K C65  >1@07K 8 EC4>65AB25==0 ?@>5:F88 (...) 2 MB>< 7=0G5=88 EC4>65AB25==KE ?@>872545=89 ;568B =0H5 2KAH55 4>AB>8=AB2>, 81> B>;L:> :0: MAB5B8G5A:89 D5=><5= 1KB85 8 <8@ >?@0240=K 2 25G=>AB8 ( >645=85 B@035488). <5==> >A=>2K20OAL =0 MB>< :@8B5@88 8FH5, 8AB>;:>2K20O E@8AB80=A:>5 8A:CAAB2> :0: 15AA>7=0B5;L=CN 5@5AL 2=CB@8 A0<>3> E@8AB80=AB20, >AC6405B E@8AB80=A:>5 CG5=85, :>B>@>5 8 5ABL, 8 E>G5B 1KBL ;8HL <>@0;L=K<, 8 A2>8<8 01A>;NB=K<8 <5@:0<8, E>BO 1K, =0?@8<5@, C65 A2>59 ?@02482>ABLN >30, >BB0;:8205B 8A:CAAB2>, 2AO:>5 8A:CAAB2> 2 >1;0ABL ;68,  B.5. >B@8F05B, ?@>:;8=05B, >AC6405B 53>. 0 ?>4>1=K<8 >1@07>< <KA;8 8 A?>A>1>< >F5=:8, :>B>@K5 ?> =5>1E>48<>AB8 2@06451=K 8A:CAAB2C, @07 >=8 E>BL A:>;L:>-=81C4L ?>4;8==K,  O 8A:>=8 >ICI0; 8 2@06451=>ABL : 687=8, A28@5?>5 <AB8B5;L=>5 >B2@0I5=85 : =59 (B0< 65). 0;LB5@ $. BB> 40QB >?@545;5=85 <8DC >1 8AB8==>< A;>25, B> 5ABL A;>25, :>B>@>5 >BAK;05B : 8AB8=5 <8@0. =@8 >@15= >?@545;O5B 53> :0: O7K: >1@07>2, ?>B><C GB> 2>>1@0605<>5 AB@>8BAO 87 >1@07>2.  O7KG5AB25 >A=>2>?>;030NI89 <8D, 0@E5B8? A>25@H5==> 5AB5AB25==> ?@>B82>AB>8B 0:>=C. 8D ?@>B82 ;>3>A0.  O7KG5AB25 A2OI5==>5 A2O70=> A 2848<>9, >ICI05<>9 @50;L=>ABLN, 4065 8 >A>15==> :>340 >=> 2>72KH05B 5Q 4> 8450;0. 5@52>, E>;<, 2>4=K9 ?>B>: <>3CB 1KBL A2OI5==K<8, >=8 O2;ONBAO A2OI5==K<8. 8D  MB> =5 ?>1>G=K9 ?@>4C:B ;8=59=>9 8AB>@88, 38?>AB078@>20==K9 <>@0;87<><. 8D B2>@8B 8AB>@8N; :0: ?8H5B 8;L15@ N@0=, 8<5==> >= 84QB 2?5@548 8AB>@88, A2845B5;LAB2C5B > =59 8 C70:>=8205B 5Q B0:, GB> 157 <8D>;>38G5A:8E ?>AB@>5=89 =52>7<>6=> 7=0=85 >1 8AB>@88 (Figures mythiques et visages de 1'oeuvre, Berg international, 1979, p. 31). <5==> ?>MB><C A>2@5<5==K5 B5>@5B8:8 ?A8E>;>388 3;C18=, 2 >A>15==>AB8 .=3 8 53> ?>A;54>20B5;8, :>340 >=8 @0AA<0B@820NB ?5@2>=0G0;L=K5 >1@07K 8 0@E5B8?K  2A5 B5 ?>=OB8O, :>B>@K5 8;; %5@15@E E0@0:B5@87C5B :0: >B2@0B8B5;L=K5 8 1;87:85 : O7KG5A:>9 <5@7>AB8 %0=00=0 (Judaism and Modern Man. An Interpretation of Jewish Religion, Atheneum, New York, 1977, p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mo'ab, 0 >B45;JB <>028BO=8=, mo'abhi, O2;O5BAO 53> 2>?;>I5=85< (op. cit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e savant et le politique, UGE/10-18, 1971, p. 83). @><5 B>3>, <KA;L, =0?@02;5==0O >B >1I53> : G0AB=><C, >B:@K205B 2 25I0E 70@0=55 70;>65==K9 2 =8E A<KA;, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: <KA;L, =0?@02;5==0O >B G0AB=>3> : >1I5<C, ?@840QB 8< MB>B A<KA;. -B> 7=0G8B, GB> B>;L:> ?>A@54AB2>< 5Q G5;>25: <>65B ?>-=0AB>OI5<C CB25@48BL A51O 2 :0G5AB25 A>740B5;O A<KA;0. <5==> ?>MB><C 8FH5 3>2>@8B, GB> 2AO:89 =0@>4  :0:, 2?@>G5<, 8 2AO:89 G5;>25:  ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>N F5==>ABL @>2=> ;8HL ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C >= A?>A>15= =0;>68BL =0 A2>8 ?5@56820=8O :;59<> 25G=>AB8 ( >645=85 B@035488). 2@59A:89 O7K:, :>B>@K9 =5 2A5340 ?@>2>48B GQB:85 3@0=8FK <564C :;0AA0<8 A;>2, >B@0605B MBC B5=45=F8N A2>8< >18;85< :>;;5:B82=KE A;>2. 0?@8<5@, 'adham >7=0G05B G5;>25: 8 G5;>25G5AB2>, 'ish  <C6G8=0 8 <C6G8=K, resheb  ?>2>7:0 8 ?>2>7:8. >@5=L mlk, ?5@540NI89 ?@54AB02;5=85 > F0@A:>9 2;0AB8, <>65B >7=0G0BL F0@L, F0@AB2>, ?@028B5;L 2 @0=35 F0@O 8 B.4. 'Ets,  4>102;O5B ">@;59D >@<0=,  ?5@540QB =5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > "45@525", 0 A:>@55, ?>4>1=> ?;0B>=>2A:>9 455 45@520, 2K@0605B 2A5 459AB28B5;L=K5 25I8, >1;040NI85 A2>9AB20<8 45@520 (...) 'Ets  MB> =0AB>OI55 40==>5, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 45@52O==K5 25I8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 ;8HL 53> :>=:@5B870F88 (op. cit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omo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lex, 3@5G5A:89 , :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO 2> 2A5E >B=>H5=8OE 45;>< @C: G5;>25G5A:8E, ?>425@65==K< 87<5=5=8N 8;8 >B<5=5 (Jean-Louis Tristani, Le stade du respir, Minuit, 1978, p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lex 8;8 , =0?@>B82, 2A5340 <>3CB 2>A?@8=8<0BLAO 2 :>=B5:AB5 CA;>289, 2 :>B>@KE >=8 ;8 >1JO2;5=K. -B> ?@54AB02;5=85 > 70:>=5 O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< 8=>3> 1>3>A;>28O  8=4>52@>?59A:>3> (ibid.). 81;59A:89 >1@07 <KA;8 8<55B 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88 A>>B25BAB28O 2 2@>?5. 4=8< 87 ?5@2KE ?>4>1=KE A>>B25BAB289 O2;O5BAO A>:@0B87< 8;8 ?;0B>=87<: ?;0B>=>2A:0O 45O B0:65 42865BAO >B >1I53> : G0AB=><C. !53>4=O ?>4>1=K9 >1@07 <KA;59 >1=0@C68205BAO 2 <0@:A87<5, @C:>2>4AB2CNI5<AO 01AB@0:B=K<8 ?>=OB8O<8, ?@5645 2A53> ?>=OB85< :;0AA0, 87 :>B>@KE 2?>A;54AB288 2K2>4OBAO G0AB=K5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8. # 0@:A0 =5 :0G5AB20 ;N459 >?@545;ONB :;0AA, 0 :;0AA >?@545;O5B :0G5AB20 ;N459: G5;>25: O2;O5BAO B0:8<, :0:8< >= O2;O5BAO, 2 A8;C A2>59 ?@8=04;56=>ABLN : :;0AAC, 2 A8;C B>3>, GB> :;0AA 2>7459AB2C5B =0 =53>. (K 2=>2L 2848<, GB> G5;>25: >?@545;O5BAO G5<-B> 2=5H=8<).  >A=>20=85 <0@:A87<0,  ?8H5B $@0=AC0 >@6,  70;>65=0 <KA;L > B><, GB> ?@>;5B0@80B ACI5AB2C5B 2=5 ?@>;5B0@852 8 2 F5;>< =57028A8<> >B =8E, ?>4>1=> ACI=>AB8 (Souvenir de la maison Marx, Christian Bourgeois, 1980, p. 343).  B@048F8>==>9 52@>?59A:>9 <KA;8 45;> >1AB>8B ?>-4@C3><C.  MB>< >4=0 87 ?@8G8= B>3>, ?>G5<C 2=CB@8 E@8AB80=AB20 ?>;L7>20;AO B0:>9 ?>?C;O@=>ABLN :C;LB A2OBKE A 53> 2=5H=5 ?>;8B58AB8G5A:8< E0@0:B5@><. >2>@O >1 >B=>A8B5;L=> ?>74=59 M?>E5 @540:F88 A:0=48=02A:8E A03, 568 C095 ?8H5B: @54AB02;5=85 >1 01AB@0:B=>< 8 2=5;8G=>AB=>< 1>35 =5 <>3;> =5 1KBL GC64K< 4;O ;N459, AB>;L A8;L=> >701>G5==KE <56;8G=>AB=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8 (Les sagas islandaises, Payot, 1978, p. 216). 16 81;59A:>5 548=>1>685 O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< @07@K20: >=> ?>@>645=> >B45;5=85< 8 >B:07>< >B >:@C60NI59 F828;870F88, ?@>87>H54H8<8 >:>;> 2>A5<=04F0B>3> AB>;5B8O 4> =0H59 M@K 2 #@5, 2 HC<5@A:>9 75<;5, 2 A@545 :>G52KE ?;5<5=, 2> 3;025 :>B>@KE CAB=0O B@048F8O AB028B 2@00<0. <5==> A <><5=B0 MB>3> >B45;5=8O, MB>3> =5A>3;0A8O =0G8=05B @072820BLAO =>2>5 CB25@645=85, 8<5NI55 ?@8@>4C @5H8B5;L=>3> @07@K20: <>=>B58AB8G5A:>5 4C0;8AB8G5A:>5 CB25@645=85. -B> CB25@645=85 =0G8=05B >B;8G0BL 7@08;L >B 2A5E 4@C38E =0@>4>2 <8@0. 0: ?>:07K205B 2>9=0, :>B>@CN 52@58 15A?@5AB0==> 25;8 ?@>B82 E0=00=59A:8E 8 <>028BA:8E :C;LB>2, 4C0;8AB8G5A:>5 548=>1>685 O2;O5BAO 8E 70:>==>9 A>1AB25==>ABLN.  ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL CB25@645=8N 5=0=0 (@028O 2A5340 1K;0 <>=>B58AB8G5A:>9 75<;Q9), ;86=89 >AB>: 2B>@>3> BKAOG5;5B8O 4> =0H59 M@K >B=N4L =5 ?@>O2;O; >1I59 A:;>==>AB8 : 548=>1>68N: 5Q =52>7<>6=> =09B8 =8 C HC<5@>2, =8 C 0AA8@89F52, =8 C E0=00=552, =8 C 4>8A;0<A:8E 0@01>2, =8 C A8@89F52. 065 5;838O B>=0, 538?5BA:>3> A>;=5G=>3> 48A:0, <=5=8O > :>B>@>9 (>A>15==> $@5940) E>@>H> 8725AB=K, O2;O5BAO =5 4C0;8AB8G5A:8< 548=>1>685<, 0 A:>@55 7025@H5=85< ?@>F5AA0, =0G02H53>AO 2 ?@02;5=85 "CB<>A0 IV, :>B>@K9 ?>72>;8; D0@0>=C 871028BLAO >B >?5:8 D820=A:>3> 6@5G5AB20. 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lohim 8<O /deus, :>B>@>5 4> B>3> <><5=B0 ?@8<5=O;>AL B>;L:> : O7KG5A:8< 1>30<. 47) @54AB02;5=85 > ?5@2>1KB=>< 548=>1>688 ?@>4>;605B ?>445@6820BLAO A53>4=O 4=O =5:>B>@K<8 045?B0<8 "@048F88. !<. =0 MB>B AGQB: Occhiali. Monothisme paganisme, in Totalit, novembre-dcembre 1979, pp. 12-19. @8 2A59 A2>59 ?>;=>9 >@838=0;L=>AB8 181;59A:>5 548=>1>685 2>7=8:;> =5 2 >48= 45=L. C078 ?8H5B: /E25 AB0=>28BAO 1>3>< 7@08;O B>;L:> ?>A;5 8, 5A;8 C3>4=>, 2A;54AB285 AE>40 (La religion d'Isral, chez 1'auteur, Ceffonds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k'ruvim - A;>2>, ?@>8AE>4OI55 >B 0::04A:>3> karibu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op. cit., p. 39). =0<5=8BK9 AB8E B>@>70:>=8O !;CH09, 7@08;L: >A?>4L, >3 =0H, >A?>4L 548= 5ABL (6, 4), :>B>@K9 8 A53>4=O >AB05BAO =0G0;>< AE5<K, 8AB>;:>2K205BAO =5:>B>@K<8 :0: !;CH09, 7@08;L: >A?>4L =0 5ABL >3, >48= >A?>4L. @C38<8 A;>20<8 MB0 D>@<C;0 =5 >B@8F05B @5H8B5;L=K< >1@07>< ACI5AB2>20=8O 4@C38E 1>3>2. =0 >3@0=8G8205BAO 70?@5B>< 8E :C;LB0. =0 =5 2KE>48B 70 @0<:8 5@2>9 70?>2548. 0: 8 MB0 70?>254L, >=0 @0BC5B =5 70 <>=>B587<, 0 70 <>=>;0B@8N (Valentin Nikiprowetzky, Le monothisme thique et le specifit d Isral, in V. Nikiprowetzky, d., De l antijudaisme antique a l antisemitisme contemporain, Presses universitaires de Lille, Villeneuve-Ascq, 1979, p. 31). C078 B0:65 ?>445@68205B MBC B>G:C 7@5=8O 8 4065 2848B 2 <>=>;0B@88 H03 =0704 ?> >B=>H5=8N : ?>;8B587<C, A2O70==K9 A 38?5@B@>D859 GC2AB20 =0F8>=0;L=>3> BI5A;028O 8 @5;838>7=>3> D0=0B87<0 (op. cit.). !8=09A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> =5 ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2A5< =0@>40<, >=> O2;O5BAO ?>:0 B>;L:> ;8HL 4>3>2>@>< 025B0, 70:;NG5==K< <564C /E25 8 53> ;N4L<8. 065 A0< /E25 =5 >B@8F05B ACI5AB2>20=85 4@C38E 1>3>2: >= 4>2>;LAB2C5BAO ?@>:;OB8O<8 2 8E 04@5A. 0 8 2>>1I5, :0:8< >1@07>< >= <>3 1K @52=>20BL : B><C, G53> =5 ACI5AB2C5B? 5 O2;O5BAO ;8 A0<0 53> @52=>ABL 4>:070B5;LAB2>< ACI5AB2>20=8O 4@C38E 1>3>2? 2B>@ B>@>70:>=8O ?@>2>73;0H05B: >A?>4L, >3 20H, 5ABL >3 1>3>2 8 ;04K:0 2;04K: (10, 17). >4>1=K5 CB25@645=8O 2AB@5G0NBAO 8 2 1>;55 ?>74=8E G0ABOE 81;88: 5;8: >3 =0H, 2KH5 2A5E 1>3>2 (A 94, 3), /E25 AB@0H5= ?0G5 2A5E 1>3>2 (A. 95, 4), >= ?@52>7=5A5= =04 2A5<8 1>30<8 (A. 96, 9), >= 8AB@518B 2A5E 1>3>2 75<;8 (!>D. 2, 11) 8 B.4. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 M?>EC >8A5O A;54C5B 3>2>@8BL =5 > ?>4;8==>< <>=>B587<5, 0 > <>=>;0B@88 8 35=>B587<5, B> 5ABL A8AB5<5, ?@8 :>B>@>9 G5;>25: AG8B05B 2A5<>3CI8< B>;L:> ;8HL B>3> >30, : :>B>@><C >1@0I05B A2>8 <>;8B2K. ">;L:> C B>@>- 8 52B>@>-A098 (40-55) 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>5 548=>1>685 >1@5B05B A2>N 70:>=G5==CN D>@<C. 48= ;8HL /E25 O2;O5BAO >3><: @5645 5=O =5 1K;> >30, 8 ?>A;5 <5=O =5 1C45B. /, / >A?>4L, 8 =5B !?0A8B5;O :@><5 <5=O (43, 10-11), 5B :@><5 5=O; / >A?>4L, 8 =5B 8=>3> (45, 6). @>G85 1>65AB20 ACBL G8AB>5 =51KB85: K  =8GB>, 8 45;> 20H5 =8GB>6=>; <5@7>ABL B>B, :B> 8718@05B 20A (41, 24), >B, 2A5 >=8  =8GB>, =8GB>6=K 8 45;0 8E; 25B5@ 8 ?CAB>B0  8ABC:0=K 8E (41, 29). /E25  548=AB25==K9 1>3 (A:>@55 G5< >48= 1>3: >48= ?>4@07C<5205B :>=5G=>ABL, 0 /E25 15A:>=5G5=).  MB>B <><5=B 42865=85 4>AB8305B A2>53> :>=F0, 8 2>7<>6=>, GB> MB> ?>;=>5 CB25@645=85 ?>1C48;> @540:B>@>2 81;88 @5B@>A?5:B82=K< >1@07>< ?5@5A<>B@5BL A2>N 8AB>@8N 2 A<KA;5 548=AB25==>AB8. -B0 8AB>@8O,  ?8H5B 0=-C8 "@8AB0=8,  A;8H:>< E>@>H> >B25G05B B@51>20=8O< <>=>B58AB8G5A:>9 M?>?58, GB>1K 1KBL G5AB=>9. 45B ;8 @5GL >1 8AE>45 2@00<0 87 #@0 %0;459A:>3> 8;8 8AE>40 52@552 87 @01AB20 ?>4 ?@542>48B5;LAB2>< >8A5O, MB8 ?>25AB2>20=8O H8BK =8B:0<8 >B:@>25==>9 <>=>B58AB8G5A:>9 G5@=>BK: 548=AB25==K9 >B5F G5;>25G5A:>3> @>40  40< (<>=>35=87<), 0 ?>B>< >9, 548=AB25==K9 >A=>20B5;L 52@59A:>3> =0@>40  2@00<, 548=AB25==K9 70:>=>40B5;L  >8A59, 548=AB25==K9 >3  /E25 (op. cit., p. 101). >A;5 A<5@B8 74@K C45O >:07K205BAO 2 ?>4G8=5=88 2;0AB8 ?5@A>2. @>8AE>48B >?@545;5==>5 @0728B85 8C459A:>9 @5;8388 ?>4 2;8O=85< 7>@>0AB@89A:>3> 4C0;87<0 8 <=>65AB20 =>2KE 1>3>2. C0;87< 81;88 >:07K205BAO @57:> ?>4G5@:=CBK<. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 2 MBC M?>EC =081>;55 >AB@> AB028BAO 2>?@>A > 7;5: =830 >20, AB@5<OI0OAO =0 =53> >B25B8BL, 1K;0 >B@540:B8@>20=0, ?>-2848<><C, <564C 300 8 250 33. 4> =.M. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> ACI5AB2CNB 45<>=K, 7;K5 4CE8. >;55 B>G=K5 >G5@B0=8O ?@840NBAO 52@59A:>9 0=35;>;>388 8 45<>=>;>388. -B8 45<>=K 2=>2L 2>7=8:=CB 2 4>@0228=8AB8G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5, 0 ?>74=55 0 33045 (A<.: David Goldstein, Jewish Folklore and Legend, Hamlyn, London, 1980).  "0@3C<5  0@0<59A:>< ?5@52>45 81;88  A;>20 :>75; 8 A0B8@ ?5@52545=K :0: shedim, 45<>=K.  8@:5 2>B, <>@0;8AB8G5A:>< B@0:B0B5, 2:;NG5==>< 2 8H=C, A@548 45AOB8 ?@54<5B>2, A>740==KE =0:0=C=5 ?5@2>3> H0110B0, C?><8=0NBAO mazzikin 8;8 2@54>=>A=K5 4CE8. (725AB=>, GB> 4C0;8AB8G5A:0O :>=F5?F8O >:070;0AL 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 CA8;5==>9 2 E@8AB80=AB25, :>B>@>5, =0?@>B82, ?@>O2;O;> >B=>A8B5;L=> C:>@5=5==>5 1;03>G5AB85 ?> >B=>H5=8N : <5AB=K< :C;LB0<). 48=AB25==>ABL /E25 8A:;NG05B ;N1>5 A@02=5=85, ;N1>5 A>?5@=8G5AB2>, ?@8BO3820O ?>A@54AB2>< B@>?87<0 2A5 AB>@>=K G5;>25G5A:>9 687=8. @87=0=85 MB>9 548=AB25==>AB8 >7=0G05B ?@87=0=85 B>3>, GB> =8GB> =5 <>65B 1KBL A@02=5=> A /E25 8;8 C?>4>1;5=> 5<C, 0 7=0G8B =8GB> =5 <>65B 1KBL 8 ?@54<5B>< :C;LB0. C45>-E@8AB80=A:>5 548=>1>685 CB25@6405B A51O @5;838N 157 <8D>2, B> 5ABL :0: @5;838N, ;8HQ==CN B>3>, 4> A53> <><5=B0 >?@545;O;> @5;838N. (BAN40, 2>7<>6=>, >128=5=85 2 0B587<5, 2K428302H55AO @8<;O=0<8 ?@>B82 52@552). 8DK >BAK;0NB : <8@C, >=8 >A2OI0NB <8@. > <8@ A>3;0A=> 81;88 4>;65= 1KBL 45A0:@0;87>20=. @8@>40 1>;55 =5 4>;6=0 1KBL >4CH52;5=0: 1>38 4>;6=K ?5@5AB0BL 2 >18B0BL 8 4020BL 2 =59 G5;>25:C ?@5>1@06Q==K9 >1@07 53> A0<>3>. C45>-E@8AB80=A:><C 548=>1>68N 1>;55 2A53> ?@>B82=0 ?@83;CHQ==0O :>A<8G5A:0O @5;838>7=>ABL, ?@83;CHQ==0O @5;838>7=>ABL 2A5;5==>9. <5==> ?>MB><C 81;8O A B0:>9 AB@>3>ABLN >AC6405B ?@8@>4=CN <038N  BC A0<CN <038N, :>B>@CN, :0: <K 2845;8, 48= 8A?>;L7C5B =0 ?>A;54=5< MB0?5 >A=>2>?>;030NI59 2>9=K 8 2>7@>645=8O :>B>@>9 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>5 548=>1>685 =5 ?5@5AB0QB >AC640BL 2?;>BL 4> 2@5<5=8 ?@>F5AA>2 =04 254L<0<8 =0@O4C A B0:8< <=>65AB2>< 4LO2>;LA:8E ?@>O2;5=8948. C4087< =5 >1;03>@>48; 84>;>2  ?8H5B -<<0=CM;L 528=0A,  >= ?>B@51>20; 8E @07@CH5=8O. >4>1=> B5E=8:5, >= 45<8AB8D8F8@>20; 2A5;5==CN (Difficile libert, op. cit., pp. 302-303), >= @0A:>;4>20; <8@ (ibid., p. 29). 5@5E>4 >B <8D0  <8D0, :>B>@K9 =5 8<55B =5>1E>48<>AB8 A>7=020BL A51O :0: <8D,  : ;>3>AC, :0: 70<5G05B 0=-L5@ !8@>==>, C65 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?5@2CN ABC?5=L @07;>65=8O <8D0 ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C >= =5AQB 2 A515 @0F8>=0;870F8N 8 8AB>@870F8N (...) <5==> B>340 <8D =0G8=05B ?5@56820BLAO :0: 2K4C<:0, :>=5G=> 65, :@0A820O 8AB>@8O, => ;6820O 8AB>@8O. B=K=5 >= O2;O5BAO =5 A?>A>1>< ?>7=0=8O, 0 ?@54<5B>< ?>7=0=8O (Retour du my the et jmaginaire socio-politique, inJ.-P. Sironneau, F. Bonardel, P.O. Sansonetti et al., Le retour du mythe, Presses universitaires de Grenoble, 1980, p. 28). "0: =0G8=05BAO ?@>F5AA 45A0:@0;870F88, @0A:>;4>2K20=8O (Entzauberung) <8@0, :>B>@K9 G5@57 =5A:>;L:> AB>;5B89, ?>A;5 >1<8@I5=8O @5;838>7=KE 845>;>389, 2A:>@<8B G8ABK9 @0F8>=0;87<, 2>A?@8OB85 <8@0 2 2845 G8AB>3> >1J5:B0, G8AB>9 <5E0=8:8, G8AB>9 <0B5@88 157 4CH8 8 157 1>3>2, :>B>@CN CGQ=K5, ?>AB5?5==> C<5@B2OB A2>8< 0=0;87><, A>AB>OI8< 87 A>:@0I5=89 8 @0745;5=89. Entzauberung =5 >AB0=>28;AO =0 ?>;?CB8. ! MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O @0F8>=0;87< 5:0 ?@>A25I5=8O O2;O5BAO =5 0=B8B57>9 181;59A:>3> 548=>1>68O, 0 A:>@55 53> A25BA:>9 D>@<>9 8 =587156=K< @57C;LB0B><. 0: 70<5B8; "5>4>@ . 4>@=> (Sur la logique des sciences sociales, in T.W. Adorno, Karl R. Popper, Rolf Dahrendorf et al., De Vienne a Francfort. La querelle allemande des sciences sociales, Complexe, Bruxelles, 1979, p. 105), 7=0G8B5;L=0O  1>;LH0O  G0ABL A>F80;L=KE =0C: ?>A;54>20;0 ?> MB><C ?CB8 @0728B8O, =0 :>B>@>< 8< ?@54H5AB2>20; 52@>?59A:89 Aufklaerung.  B0: 2?;>BL 4> A>2@5<5==KE 1>3>A;>2>2 A 8E =0<5@5==K< @07@K2>< A E@8AB80=A:8< 2>;H51AB2>< !@54=8E 25:>2  2>;H51AB2><, 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 24>E=>2;5==K< O7KG5AB2><, 8 A 8E Entmythologisierung'o<, 45<8D>;>3870F859, > :>B>@>9 0= @5= 70O28;, GB> >=0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 2A53> ;8HL D5B8H870F8N 1C:2K, ?@5B5=4CNICN =0 872;5G5=85 G8AB>3> A<KA;0 B5:AB0 (Les nouveaux paganismes, in Communio, juillet-aout 1980). 48)  8C459A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 <>6=> =09B8 <=>65AB2> B5:AB>2, ?>A2OIQ==KE B><C, :0:8< >1@07>< =5>1E>48<> @07;8G0BL @5;838N 8 <038N (A<.: Jos Faut, Magic and] Monotheism, in Midstream, August-September, 1980, pp. 54-57). 725AB=> B0:65, GB> =5:>B>@K5 B0;<C48G5A:85 B5:ABK (!0=E54@8= 43b) >A?0@820NB <5AA80=87< 8ACA0, 87>1@060O 53> <03><. -B0 B>G:0 7@5=8O 1K;0 @0728B0 2 =5402=55 2@5<O A 8A?>;L7>20=85< =5157K=B5@5A=KE 0@3C<5=B>2 >@B>=>< !<8B>< (Jesus the Maeician. Harper & Row, New York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a dialectique de la raisoi\| Gallimard, 1974, p. 195). 5AB> 3@5E0 B0:8< >1@07>< A>E@0=82 ;>AL, => A0< 3@5E 1K; ?>402;5=. 0@0;;5;L=> @540:B>@K 81;88 ?@8H;8 : =5>1E>48<>AB8 AD>@<C;8@>20BL A2>Q CG5=85 > 65@B25. 45AL B0:65 <>6=> 70<5B8BL 206=CN M2>;NF8N. 81;8O >?8AK205B <=>65AB2> 65@B2>?@8=>H5=89. > @5GL =5 84QB > B><, GB>1K 2845BL 2 =8E B>, GB> 2845;8 4@52=85: ?> ACB8 A2>59 @04>AB=K9 ?>2>4 ?@54;>68BL 1>30< ?@54<5BK, :>B>@K5, 1C4CG8 ?> MB><C ?>2>4C 872;5GQ==K<8 87 <8@A:>9 >1;0AB8, AB0=>2OBAO sacra, A2OI5==K<8 ?@54<5B0<8.  ?5@2>< 25:5 =0H59 M@K !0;;NAB89 ?8H5B: N1>5 ACI5AB2> AG0AB;82> B>;L:> B>340, :>340 4>AB8305B A2>53> A>25@H5=AB20.  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"0: ?>AB5?5==> CB25@6405BAO ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> /E25 ?@578@05B 5AB5AB25==K5 ?@074=8:8 8 F5@5<>=88. >A<8G5A:0O @5;838>7=>ABL C60A05B 53>, ?>B><C GB> >=0 =5AQB 2 A515 ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> 687=L =8:>340 =5 C<8@05B, GB> >=0 15A:>=5G=> >1=>2;O5BAO, GB> 8AB>@8O <>65B 2>7@>640BLAO, GB> ACI5AB2C5B 25G=0O 480;5:B8G5A:0O 2708<>7028A8<>ABL 687=8 8 A<5@B8, <564C =0G0;>< 8 :>=F><, <564C G5;>25:>< 8 1>30<8. @8=5A5=8N 2 65@B2C 25I59 /E25 ?@54?>G8B05B ?@52>7=5A5=85 2A5>1I8E >B2;5GQ==KE ?>=OB89: <8@0, ?@02>AC48O 8 70:>=0. @8B8:0 65@B2>?@8=>H5=89 >A>15==> @07@01>B0=0 C ?@>@>:>2, :>B>@K5 =0?@O<CN AB0;:820NBAO A @50;L=>ABLN O7KG5AB20:  G5<C =5 <=>65AB2> 65@B2 20H8E? 3>2>@8B >A?>4L. / ?@5AKI5= 2A5A>665=8O<8 >2=>2 8 BC:>< >B:>@<;5==>3> A:>B0 (A. 1, 11), / <8;>AB8 E>GC, 0 =5 65@B2K, 8 >3>2545=8O 1>;55, =565;8 2A5A>665=88 (A. 6, 6), 5=0286C, >B25@30N ?@074=8:8 20H8 8 =5 >1>=ON 65@B2 2> 2@5<O B>@65AB25==KE A>1@0=89 20H8E. A;8 2>7=5AQB5 =5 2A5A>665=85 8 E;51=>5 ?@8=>H5=85, / =5 ?@8<C 8E 8 =5 ?@87@N =0 1;03>40@AB25==CN 65@B2C 87 BCG=KE B5;LF>2 20H8E. #40;8 >B 5=O HC< ?5A=59 B2>8E, 81> 72C:>2 3CA;59 B2>8E / =5 1C4C A;CH0BL (<. 5, 21-23). "0:8< >1@07><, :C;LB 548=AB25==>3> 1>30, :0:>2K< O2;O5BAO /E25, 2;5GQB 70 A>1>9 >B@8F0=85 :C;LB0, ?>B><C GB> G5@57 A;C65=85 A2>8< 1>30< ;N48 8A?KBK20NB A>1;07= A;C65=8O A0<8< A515. @>GB8 2A5 ?@>@>:8 A =5>1K:=>25==>9 O@>ABLN >1@CH820NBAO =0 O7KG5A:85 :C;LBK.  ;N1KE D>@<0E @5;838>7=>AB8 <8@0 >=8 >AC640NB 84>;>?>:;>=AB2>. 8:0:>5 >?@545;5=85 =5 O2;O5BAO 4>AB0B>G=> A8;L=K<, GB>1K 70:;59<8BL =5G8AB>BC GC64KE =@02>2, 2 >A>15==>AB8 B>B 284 A<5H0==>3> 1@0:0 =0 @5;838>7=>< C@>2=5, :>B>@K< O2;O5BAO A8=:@5B87<. 0: 025B <564C /E25 8 53> =0@>4>< =5AQB 2 A515 A8<2>;8:C 1@0:0, B0: 8 @5;838>7=0O =525@=>ABL, :><?@><8AA <564C 2=5H=8<8 25@>20=8O ?>AB>O==> C?>4>1;ONBAO 87<5=5 8 1;C4C. #65 2 =835 AE>40 <K G8B05<, GB> 4@C385 =0@>4K, ?>G8B0O 8=KE 1>3>2, 1;C4>459AB2CNB (34, 15). "K >A:25@=8;0 75<;N 1;C4>< B2>8< 8 ;C:02AB2>< B2>8<,  2>A:;8F05B 5@5<8O (3, 2). # A098 4065 5@CA0;8<, 25@=0O AB>;8F0, AB0=>28BAO 1;C4=8F5N (1, 21). "> 65 2K@065=85 2AB@5G05BAO C A88 2<5AB5 A <5B0D>@>9 45B8 1;C40 (2, 4), 0 B0:65 C 575:88;O. >4>1=K5 A;>20 8A?>;L7CNBAO =5 A;CG09=>. A;8 <K ?@8<5< ?@54?>;>65=85, 2KA:070==>5, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 0H8, A>AB>OI55 2 @0A?>;>65=88 42C<O @O40<8 5AOB8 70?>25459, B> 70?>254L 5 A>B2>@8 A515 :C<8@0 >:07K205BAO =0?@>B82 70?>2548 5 ?@5;N1K A>B2>@8. &5;LN @8BC0;L=KE ?@54?8A0=89 OB8:=868O 2> 2A59 8E <=>65AB25==>AB8 8 >1AB>OB5;L=>AB8 O2;O5BAO A>E@0=8BL 25@=KE /E25 ?>4 70I8B>9 >B E0=00=59A:8E 2;8O=89, CAB0=>28BL @07;8G85, @0745;5=85 <564C =8<8 8 O7KG=8:0<8. 0: @5;838O =5 4>;6=0 1KBL 70@065=0 >:@C60NI8<8 :C;LB0<8, B0: 8 B5, :>3> >=0 >1J548=O5B, 4>;6=K 871560BL 2=5H=53> 70@065=8O. !;54AB285< MB>9 >701>G5==>AB8 O2;O5BAO 70<K:0=85 2=CB@8 70:>=0. !>3;0A=> A;>20< ;0=48= 0@@5-@835;L, 52@59A:89 =0@>4 A>E@0=O5B A2>N A0<>1KB=>ABL B>;L:> ?>A@54AB2>< AB@>3>AB8 70:>=0 (L'Etat et les esclaves. Reflexions pour l'histoire des Etats, Calmann-Lvy, 1979, p. 85). -B>B ?CBL B0:65 ?>72>;O5B ?@5A5GL 0AA8<8;OF8N  2>A?@5?OBAB2>20BL B><C, GB> ?>74=55 ?>;CG8B =0720=85 shukat hagoy, ?>4@060=85 O7KG=8:0< (goyim). 81;8O >B=>A8BAO A A>25@H5==> >A>1K< >B2@0I5=85< : A<5H820=8N. !2OB> B>, GB> >B45;L=>; A<5H0==>5  =5G8AB> (A<.1 55<. 13, 30). 0?@5I5=> AB028BL @O4>< A:>B @07=KE ?>@>4, A<5H820BL A5<5=0 2> 2@5<O A5O=8O, B:0BL, A<5H820O H5@ABL ;5=, >4520BL >4564C 4@C3>3> ?>;0. >-2848<><C, <=>65AB2> ?8I52KE 70?@5B>2 ?@>48:B>20=K B>9 65 >701>G5==>ABLN. 5GL 84QB > A>1;N45=88 @0745;5=8O, ?@>87254Q==>3> /E25; @5GL 84QB 2 >A>15==>AB8, 2 >B=>H5=88 G5;>25:0, > B><, GB>1K =5 A>548=OBL 8 =5 ?@5>4>;520BL >B=>A8B5;L=K5 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8, =5 ?@8A20820BL A515 A?>A>1=>ABL ?@5>4>;5=8O 8 >1J548=5=8O, :>B>@0O ?@8=04;568B >4=><C ;8HL /E25. "0:8< >1@07><, >AC640NBAO ;N1K5 381@84K. "0:65 A 8A:;NG8B5;L=>9 @5H8B5;L=>ABLN >AC640NBAO A<5H0==K5 1@0:8, AG8B0NI85AO ?@54>AC48B5;L=K<8 2 A>>B25BAB288 A B5<, GB> 5>= >;O:>2 8<5=C5B AB@>38<8 @0A?>@O65=8O<8 >8A5520 70:>=0, =0?@02;5==K<8 ?@>B82 381@84870F88 8 A<5H820=8O (De la Bible l'thnologie, in Critique, aout-septembre 1978). !<5H0==K9 1@0: B0:65 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 :><?@><8AA, A8=5@38N 8 2A;54AB285 MB>3> 87<5=C 8;8 65, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, =525@=>ABL, 5ABL 1;C4.  =835 KB8O 8<5==> 2A;54AB285 =0@CH5=8O ?>4>1=>3> 70?@5B0  A>N70 AK=>2 >688E A 4>G5@O<8 G5;>25G5A:8<8 (6, 1-4)  /E25 @0A:08205BAO 2 B><, GB> A>B2>@8; G5;>25G5AB2> 8 @5H05B C=8GB>68BL 53> ?>A@54AB2>< >B>?0. 7 MB>3> 70:>=0 1K;8 <=>3>G8A;5==K5 8A:;NG5=8O, ?@8G5< 25AL<0 7=0G8B5;L=K5 (>8A59, 15602H89 2 GC6CN 75<;N, 65=8BAO =0 4>G5@8 A2OI5==8:0 0480<A:>3>, 0284 O2;O5BAO ?>B><:>< <>028BO=:8 CD8), => >= =8:>340 =5 ?5@5AB0QB ?>4B25@640BLAO; 53> =081>;55 O@>AB=K<8 70I8B=8:0<8 AB0=CB ?@>@>:8. 0;0E8O 2848B 2 <5@7>AB8 A<5H0==KE 1@0:>2 ?@8G8=C 3=520 /E25 (2, 10-12).  ?5@8>4 ?@5>1@07>20=89 74@K A<5H0==K9 1@0: AB0=>28BAO ?>GB8 GB> ?@5ABC?;5=85<, 87<5=>9 /E25; 8<5=0 28=>2=KE >1JO2;ONBAO 2> 2A5CA;KH0=85 (74@. 10, 18-44), 0 8E 1@0:8 @0AB>@30NBAO (9, 1-12). 5@20O G0ABL 8AB>@8G5A:8E :=83 81;88 70:0=G8205BAO >?8A0=85< 55<859 MB>3> ?;0G52=>3> A<5H5=8O: IQ 2 B5 4=8 O 2845; C4552, :>B>@K5 27O;8 A515 6Q= 87 7>BO=>:, <<>=8BO=>: 8 >028BO=>:; 8 >BB>3> AK=>2LO 8E 2 ?>;>28=C 3>2>@OB ?>-07>BA:8, 8;8 O7K:>< 4@C38E =0@>4>2, 8 =5 C<5NB 3>2>@8BL ?>-8C459A:8. / A45;0; 70 MB> 2K3>2>@, 8 ?@>:;8=0; 8E, 8 =5:>B>@KE 87 <C659 18;, @20; C =8E 2>;>A0, 8 70:;8=0; 8E >3><, GB>1K >=8 =5 >B4020;8 4>G5@59 A2>8E 70 AK=>259 8E, 8 =5 1@0;8 4>G5@59 8E 70 AK=>259 A2>8E 8 70 A51O. 5 87-70 =8E ;8, 3>2>@8; O, 3@5H8; !>;><>=, F0@L 7@08;52? (...)  <>6=> ;8 =0< A;KH0BL > 20A, GB> 2K 45;05B5 2AQ A85 25;8:>5 7;>, 3@5H8B5 ?@54 >3>< =0H8<, ?@8=8<0O 2 A>68B5;LAB2> GC6575<=KE 6Q=? (13, 23-27). "0:8< >1@07><, 1>@L10 ?@>B82 84>;>?>:;>=AB20 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 F5=B@0;L=KE ?C=:B>2 181;59A:>9 <KA;8. B OB8:=868O 8 4> A098 8 5@5<88 >=0, 2>7<>6=>, ?@54AB02;O5B G0I5 2A53> ?>2B>@O5<CN B5<C. 4>;>?>:;>=AB2> O2;O5BAO A0<8< 8AB>G=8:>< 2A53> 7;0 8 ;N1>3> <>@0;L=> ?>@>G=>3> ?>2545=8O (A<.: .. Wolfson, Philo, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1947, vol. 1, p. 16). <5==> ?>MB><C B@048F8O ?><5I05B 70?@5B =0 =53> =0 B0:CN 65 2KA>BC, GB> 8 :C;LB A0<>3> /E25, - 8=>340, 2>7<>6=>, 4065 2KH5. "0: GB> 65 B0:>5 84>;>?>:;>=AB2>? -B> >B?@02;5=85 :><C-=81C4L, G5;>25:C 8;8 1>3C, :C;LB0, 4>;6=>3> >4=><C B>;L:> /E25. @C38<8 A;>20<8, MB> ?@8=OB85 2 :0G5AB25 01A>;NB0 B>3>, GB> A>3;0A=> 81;88 8<55B ;8HL >B=>A8B5;L=CN ?@8@>4C, 8;8 =0>1>@>B, GB> 5IQ @07 ?>4B25@6405B, GB> 4;O G5;>25:0 84>;>?>:;>=AB2> 70:;NG05BAO ?> ?@58<CI5AB2C 2 CB25@645=88 A51O 2 :0G5AB25 A>740B5;O A<KA;0, A2>1>4=>3> A>74020BL A0<>3> A51O, A0<>AB>OB5;L=>3> ?> >B=>H5=8N :> 2A5<C 2=5H=5<C. BAN40 15A:>=5G=K5 E@8AB80=A:85 ?@>:;OB8O 2 04@5A G5;>25G5A:>3> BI5A;028O  8 ?@87K2K : A<8@5=8N. '5;>25: 4>;65= 70=8<0BL A2>Q <5AB>, => =8G53> 1>;55; 5<C 70?@5I5=> ?@5>4>;520BL A51O.  ?>4>1=KE CA;>28OE 84>;>?>:;>=AB2> ?>2AN4C: 8<O 84>;0< ;538>=. >340 025; ?@857605B 2 D8=K, GB>1K ?>?KB0BLAO >B2@0B8BL 8E =0@>4 >B 25@>20=89 ?@54:>2, >= >?8AK205B MB>B 3>@>4 :0: ?>;=K9 84>;>2 (5O=. 17, 16), A@548 MB8E 84>;>2 AB0BC8 1>65AB2 (17, 29), => B0:65 8 M?8:C@59A:85 8 AB>8G5A:85 D8;>A>DK (17, 18). AQ MB> =5 <5H05B 02;C 70O28BL: D8=O=5! ?> 2A5<C 286C O, GB> 2K :0: 1K >A>15==> =01>6=K (17, 22)50. 50)  >?@545;Q==KE C;LB@0>@B>4>:A0;L=KE 52@59A:8E :@C30E =552@59A:89 3>ABL =5 8<55B ?@020 2> 2@5<O ?@8Q<0 >B:@KBL 1CBK;:C 28=0. -B>B >1KG09 (:>B>@><C =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B =8:0:>5 @8BC0;L=>5 ?@54?8A0=85) >1JOA=ONB B5<, GB> 2 4@52=>AB8 ACI5AB2>20; O7KG5A:89 >1KG09 A>25@H0BL 2>7;8O=8O 28=0 1>30<, 2A;54AB285 G53>, A F5;LN 871560BL ;N1>9 =5G8AB>BK, C?>B@51;5=85 28=0, : :>B>@><C ?@8:0A0;AO O7KG=8:, 1K;> 70?@5I5=> (A<.: Jewish Chronicle, August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ous serez comme des dieu? Une interprtation radicale de l'Ancien Testament et de tradition, Complexe, Bruxelles, 1975, pp. 51-52). >4>1=>5 <=5=85 <>6=> =09B8 C -@=AB0 ;>E0 8 =5A:>;L:8E 1>;55 ?>7 =8E 045?B>2 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB20 157 >30. >340 84>;>?>:;>=AB2> ?>;=>ABLN 8AG57=5B, 25@0 2 /E25 AB0=5B 87;8H=59. &5;L 1C45B 4>AB83=CB0. 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e Nouvel Observateur, 20 octobre 1980).  GQ< ?@8G8=0 MB>9 O@>AB8?  @52=>AB8 /E25? 5A><=5==>. > A0<0 MB0 @52=>ABL O2;O5BAO ;8HL 7=0:><. 0: <K C65 A:070;8, /E25 548=AB25=5= =5 B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> >= >48=, => ?>B><C, GB> >= O2;O5BAO @048:0;L=> 4@C38<. /7KG=8:, A;C60I89 >4=><C-548=AB25==><C 84>;C, =5 AB0=>28BAO <5=LH8< 84>;>?>:;>==8:><. /E25 =5 ?@>I05B 84>;0< B>3>, GB> >=8 O2;ONBAO ?>A@54=8:0<8 <564C G5;>25:>< 8 <8@><, C?@074=O2 @0AAB>O=85 <564C G5;>25:>< 8 ACI=>ABLN <8@0 8;8 65, :@09=59 <5@5, ?@>2>73;0H0NB, GB> MB> @0AAB>O=85 =5 O2;O5BAO =5?@5>4>;8<K<. !2O7L, :>B>@CN E>G5B ?>@20BL /E25, MB> A2O7L <564C G5;>25:>< 8 >3>< 2=CB@8 ACI=>AB8, GL8<8 ACI5AB20 >=8 >10 O2;ONBAO, A2O7L, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@>9 G5;>25: <>65B ?@8 ?>;=>9 A2>1>45 ?>4=OBLAO : B><C, GB> 2KH5 =53>. 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D8=0E 1K; 4065 65@B25==8: =5254><><C 1>3C! -B0 A2>1>40 <KA;8, >1CA;>2;5==0O >BACBAB285< ;N1KE @5;838>7=KE 4>3< (Louis Rougier, Le gnie de l'Occident, Laffont-Bourgine, 1969, p. 60), A>25@H5==> 5AB5AB25==K< >1@07>< ?5@5=>A8;0AL 2 ?>;8B8G5A:CN ?;>A:>ABL: 8<A:0O 8<?5@8O 2 B5G5=85 AB>;5B89 C2060;0 >1KG08 8 CG@5645=8O 2A5E ?>:>@5==KE =0@>4>2, >=0 C<=>60;0 ?@>28=F80;L=K5 3>@>40 8 CAB@0820;0 8E A2>1>4K, >=0 C<5;0 A45;0BL =0@>4K A>N7=8:0<8, =5 ?>@01>I0O 8E. /7KG5A:0O B5@?8<>ABL, :>B>@0O 2?>A;54AB288 2 >?@545;Q==KE A;CG0OE 4>;6=0 1K;0 ?>4K3@K20BL E@8AB80=A:>9 ?@>?030=45, 2K@065=0 2 A;>20E !8<<0E0: 064><C A2>8 >1KG08, :064><C A2>8 >1@O4K. >65AB25==K9 4CE 40; 3>@>40< >?@545;Q==KE ?>:@>28B5;59. 0: :064K9 A<5@B=K9 ?@8 @>645=88 ?>;CG05B 4CHC, B0: 8 :064K9 =0@>4 ?>;CG05B A2>8E 35=852-E@0=8B5;59. 51) N1>?KB=>, GB> MB> <=5=85 1;87:> : <=5=8N N=>3> 0@:A0, 2=CHQ==><C 5<C =5 87153H8< 53> 8450;87<><: ">, GB> O 459AB28B5;L=> A515 ?@54AB02;ON, O2;O5BAO 4;O <5=O 459AB28B5;L=K< ?@54AB02;5=85< 8 459AB2C5B =0 <5=O.  MB>< A<KA;5 2A5 1>38, :0: E@8AB80=A:85, B0: 8 O7KG5A:85, 459AB28B5;L=> ACI5AB2>20;8 (Werke. Schriften. Briefe, H.J. Lieber u. P. Furth. Stuttgart. 1962, s. 75). 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(B>@. 12, 29),  2 3>@>40E A8E =0@>4>2, :>B>@KE >A?>4L, >3 B2>9, 40QB B515 2> 2;045=85, =5 >AB02;O9 2 682KE =8 >4=>9 4CH8 (B>@. 20, 16). /E25 A0< ?>40; ?@8<5@ 35=>F840, CAB@>82 ?>B>? A F5;LN C=8GB>68BL =5 CAB@>82H55 53> G5;>25G5AB2>. > 2@5<O A2>53> ?@51K20=8O C D8;8AB8<A:>3> F0@O =ECA0 0284 B0:65 >ACI5AB2;O5B 35=>F84 (1 &0@. 27, 9). >8A59 CAB@08205B 8AB@51;5=85 <0480=8BO= ('8A;. 31, 7). 8ACA 028= 8AB@51;O5B 68B5;59 A>@0 8 5=0:8<>2: (A>@ 65 ?@5645 1K; 3;02>N 2A5E F0@AB2 8E).  ?>18;8 2AQ 4KHCI55, GB> 1K;> 2 =Q<, <5G5<, ?@5402 70:;OB8N; =5 >AB0;>AL =8 >4=>9 4CH8 (8A. 11, 10-11, A<. B6. 11, 20-21). &0@L-?><070==8:, 2>A?5205<K9 !>;><>=><, B0:65 CAB0=>28B @568< B5@@>@0. 5=028ABLN : O7KG=8:0< ?>;=K :=838 -AD8@L 8 .48DL 8 B.4. 8:0:0O 4@52=OO @5;838O, :@><5 8C459A:>9, =5 7=0;0 ?>4>1=>9 =5B5@?8<>AB8,  70<5G05B -<8;L 8;;O15@ (Moise et le phnomene judo-chretien, Metanoia, Montlimar, 1976, p. 59). -B> B>, GB> C65 CB25@640;>AL 5=0=><: 5B5@?8<>ABL A5<8BA:8E =0@>4>2 O2;O5BAO =587156=K< A;54AB285< 8E 548=>1>68O. =4>52@>?59A:85 =0@>4K, 4> A2>53> >1@0I5=8O 2 A5<8BA:CN 845>;>38N AG8B02H85 A2>N @5;838N =5 01A>;NB=>9 8AB8=>9, 0 A2>53> @>40 A5<59=K< 8;8 :0AB>2K< =0A;54AB2><, >AB020;8AL GC64K<8 =5B5@?8<>AB8 8 ?@>75;8B87<C: 8<5==> ?>MB><C B>;L:> C MB8E =0@>4>2 <>6=> =09B8 A2>1>4C <KA;8 8 4CE ;8G=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O (1I0O 8AB>@8O 8 A@02=8B5;L=0O A8AB5<0 A5<8BA:8E O7K:>2). 5GL =5 84QB > B><, GB>1K 87>1@078BL 2AQ 2 GQ@=>< F25B5 8;8 ?@>B82>?>AB028BL >4=C E@><CN 8AB8=C 4@C3>9 E@><>9 8AB8=5. A5340 8 25745 8<5;8 <5AB> 1>9=8 8 8AB@51;5=8O. > BI5B=> 1K;> 1K 8A:0BL 2 A2OI5==KE 8;8 A25BA:8E B5:AB0E O7KG5AB20 GB>-;81> @02=>F5==>5 B><C, GB> <K >1=0@C68205< AB>;L G0AB> 2 81;88: ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> ?>4>1=K5 1>9=8 <>3CB 1KBL <>@0;L=> >?@0240==K<8, ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> >=8 <>3CB 1KBL >B:@>25==> 4>72>;5=K 8 65;05<K 1>3><,  ?@5402 8E 70:;OB8N, :0: ?>25;5; >8A59, @01 >A?>45=L (8A. 11, 12),  B0: GB> C A>25@H0NI8E 8E ;N459 A>25ABL A?>:>9=0 =5 =5A<>B@O =0 MB8 :@>2>?@>;8B8O, 0 :0: @07 1;03>40@O 8<. ! =0G0;0 =0H59 M@K MB0 B@048F8O =5B5@?8<>AB8 A =>2>9 A8;>9 1K;0 2>A?@8=OB0 E@8AB80=AB2><. !;>20 8ACA0, ?5@540==K5 C:>9 (A;8 :B> ?@8E>48B :> =5, 8 =5 2>7=5=02848B >BF0 A2>53> 8 <0B5@8, 8 65=K 8 45B59, 8 1@0BL52 8 A5ABQ@, 0 ?@8B>< 8 A0<>9 687=8 A2>59, B>B =5 <>65B 1KBL >8< CG5=8:>< (14, 26)), 2K720;8 <=>65AB2> :><<5=B0@852. 5:>B>@K5 284OB 2 A;>25 2>7=5=02845BL 351@087< 8 ?>;030NB, GB> 8<55BAO 2 284C, GB> 8ACA ?@>AB> E>G5B, GB>1K 53> ?@54?>G8B0;8 ;N1K< ;N4O<. @C385 284OB 2 MB>9 D@075 A;54 70@065=8O 3=>AB8F87<><, A2O70==K< A >B@5G5=85<, >B:07>< >B 8<CI5AB20 8 =565;0=85< @07<=>60BLAO: >1O70B5;LAB2> =5=02845BL A2>8E @>48B5;59 A>>B=>A8BAO A >1O70B5;LAB2>< =5 8<5BL 45B59. G5284=>, GB> ?>4>1=K5 8AB>;:>20=8O >AB0NBAO G8AB> A?5:C;OB82=K<8. ?@545;Q==> B>, GB> E@8AB80=A:0O =5B5@?8<>ABL ?@>O2;O;0AL 4>AB0B>G=> G0AB>.  B5G5=85 AB>;5B89 >=0 >1@0I0;0AL :0: =0 =525@=KE, B0: 8 =0 O7KG=8:>2, 8C4552 8 5@5B8:>2. !=0G0;0 MB> 1K;> C<5@B2;5=85 0=B8G=>9 :C;LBC@K, C189AB2> .;80=0 8 8?0B88, 70?@5B O7KG5A:8E :C;LB>2, @07@CH5=85 E@0<>2 8 AB0BC9, >B<5=0 ;8<?89A:8E 83@, A>665=85 !5@0?5C<0 2 ;5:A0=4@88 ?@8 ?>4AB@5:0B5;LAB25 5?8A:>?0 $5>D8;0 2 389 3. (:>B>@>5 ?>2;5:;> 70 A>1>9 @073@01;5=85 >3@><=>9 181;8>B5:8 2 700000 B><>2, A>1@0==>9 B>;5<5O<8)53. 0B5< ?>A;54>20;8 =0A8;LAB25==K5 >1@0I5=8O  compelle intrare..., 8AG57=>25=85 ?>78B82=>9 =0C:8, ?@5A;54>20=8O, 1>9=8. #65 <<80= 0@F5;;8= 3>2>@8B: 8:85 725@8 =5 O2;ONBAO 1>;LH8<8 2@030<8 ;N459, G5< E@8AB80=5 4@C3 4@C3C. !C;L?8F89 !525@, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, A>>1I05B:  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 2AQ =0E>48BAO 2 15A?>@O4:5 ?> ?@8G8=5 2@064K 5?8A:>?>2. >2AN4C =5=028ABL 8 D02>@8B87<, AB@0E, 7028ABL, 2;0AB>;N185, @072@0B, 604=>ABL, 2KA>:><5@85, ;5=>ABL: MB> 2A5>1I55 @07;>65=85. 53) !<. =0H5 ?@548A;>285 : :=835: Louis Rougier, Le conflit du christianisme primitif et de la civilisation antique, Copernic, 1977. pp. 7-35. !<. B6.: Bouch-Leclercc], I.'intolerance religieuse et la politique, Flammarion, 1911: Henri F. Secrtan, La propagande chrtienne et les perscutions. Payot, 1915; 8 Charles Guignebert. Le christianisme antique. Flammarion. 1921. "5>:@0B8O 2 A>1AB25==>< A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20 @>6405BAO >4=>2@5<5==> A> A2545=85< ?>;8B8G5A:>3> G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>@O4:0 : <>@0;L=K< ?@54?8A0=8O<, C?@02;ONI8< @04>< >6L8<. =0 B0:65 5ABL 2>72@0B : 548=AB25==><C. 5=0= C65 70<5B8;, GB> 2 181;59A:>< 548=>1>688 C?@02;5=85 2A5;5==>9 AB0=>28BAO 01A>;NB=>9 <>=0@E859. >@6 0B0D (Encyclopdie de la mystique juive, Berg international, 1978) >?@545;O5B B5>:@0B8G5A:89 8450; ?@8 ?><>I8 D>@<C;K 0=0@E8O ?;NA >3. -B>B 8450;, >A=>20==K9 =0 8;;N788 5AB5AB25==>3> ?>@O4:0, 2>A?@8=8<05B, 7=0G8B5;L=> 53> 87<5=OO, ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85 =57K1;5<>3> 70:>=0 (">@0) 70:>=0<, :>B>@K5 CAB0=02;820NB A515 ;N48 (lex). >6=> 2KA:070BL 38?>B57C > B><,  ?8H5B 0=-C8 "@8AB0=8,  GB> ?0@0 ">@0 ?@54AB02;O5B ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85, :>B>@>5 ?>72>;O5B ?@5645 2A53> @0A?>;>68BL @07;8G=K5 :C;LBC@K ?> >A8, 84CI59 >B @01AB20 : A2>1>45. >8A5520 @5;838O ?@54AB02;O5B A2>53> @>40 =C;52CN AB5?5=L A2>1>4K, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 3@5G5A:89 A>740QB CA;>28O 4;O 5Q ?>O2;5=8O (op. cit., pp. 152-153). B=K=5 ;N1K5 284K 8A:;NG5=8O 1C4CB 8<5BL ?@87=0: odium theologicum. /7KG=8: <>65B >H810BLAO, => =5 <>65B C?@O<8BLAO, perseverare diabolicum; B0:8< >1@07><, 65;0=85 >AB020BLAO 25@=K< A2>59 ?@8@>45 AB0=>28BAO 4LO2>;LA:8<. 5@=>ABL (25@5 ?@54:>2) AB0=>28BAO ?@54>AC48B5;L=>9, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: >B@5G5=85, 8<5=C5<>5 >1@0I5=85<, AB028BAO 2 ?@8<5@. >340 >1@0I5=85 =5 O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< C15645=8O 8;8 8=B5@5A0, >=> <>65B 1KBL =0A8;LAB25==K<: MB> 8A?KB0NB =0 A515 A0:AK, AB548=38 8 :0B0@K. #70:>=820O @57=N ad majorem Dei gloriam, E@8AB80=AB2> ?@>4>;68B ?>445@6820BL >ICI5=85 A?>:>9=>9 A>25AB8 C ;N459, :>B>@K5 5Q >ACI5AB2;ONB. ! B5G5=85< 25:>2 AB@5<;5=85 : ?>402;5=8N @C3>3> =5 ?5@5AB0=5B ?>@>640BLAO 2> 2AQ 1>;55 8 1>;55 H8@>:8E :@C30E >B:@>25=85<  2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL B:@>25=8N,  :0:>2K< O2;O5BAO >A>7=0=85 ACI5AB2>20=8O @C3>3>, C25@5==>3> 2 A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 ?>;=>B5. 0: 70<5G05B 0= >4@890@, 2 =0G0;5 :>;>=870F88 1K; <><5=B 87C<;5=8O 8 >AB>;15=5=8O ?5@54 ;8F>< A0<>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 B>3>, GB> :B>-B> <>3 871560BL 2A5>1I53> 70:>=0 20=35;8O.  A2O78 A MB8< 2>7=8:;0 48;5<<0: ;81> ?@87=0BL, GB> MB>B 0:>= =5 1K; 2A5>1I8<, ;81> 8AB@518BL 8=459F52, GB>1K C=8GB>68BL 4>:070B5;LAB20.  F5;><, @5H5=> 1K;> C4>2;5B2>@8BLAO 8E >1@0I5=85< 8;8 65 ?@>AB> >B:@KB85<, G53> 1K;> 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O 8E <54;5==>3> 8AB@51;5=8O (La fin de la modernit ou l'ere de la simulation, in Encyclopaedia Universalis, Supplment/organum, 1980, pp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ules Isaac, Genesc de l'antismitisme, Calmann-Lvy. 1956: Charles Y, Olock et Rodney Stark, Christian Beliefs and Anti-Semitism, Harper & Row. New York, 1969: F. Losvky (d.), L'antismitisme chretien, Ccrf, 1970; 8 Rosemary Ruether. Faith and Fratricide. The Theological Roots of Anti-Semitisme, Seabury Press. New York. 1974. 0: =0< ?@54AB02;O5BAO, ;CGH5 2A53> ?@8G8=C E@8AB80=A:>3> 0=B8A5<8B87<0 >1JOA=O5B 1;87>ABL 52@59A:>9 25@K : 25@5 E@8AB80=. 0: ?8H5B 0: !>;5, ?@5A;54CNB B>;L:> A2>8E, 1;86=8E (Les mythes chrtiens, de la Renaissance aux Lumieres, Albin Michel, 1979, p. 35). 8HL <0;>5 @0AAB>O=85 >B45;O5B 52@552 >B E@8AB80=, =>, :0: 3>2>@8B 8FH5, 8<5==> <0;>5 @0AAB>O=85 B@C4=55 2A53> ?@5>4>;5BL. A;8 B>G=55, 2 ?5@2K5 25:0 =0H59 M@K 0=B8A5<8B87< ?>@>6405BAO E@8AB80=A:8< AB@5<;5=85< 7025@H8BL 8C4087<, 70:>=G8BL 53>, ?@840BL 5<C ?>4;8==K9 A<KA;. ;O E@8AB80= A?0A5=85 [?@8E>48B] >B C4552 (>0=. 4, 22), => verus Israel  MB> E@8AB80=AB2>. (BAN40 2K@065=85 perfidi, 8A?>;L7>202H55AO 4> =5402=53>, 2@5<5=8 &5@:>2LN 2 <>;8B20E !B@0AB=>9 OB=8FK 2 >B=>H5=88 52@552, 2K@065=85, C?>B@51;O2H55AO =5 2 A>2@5<5==><; A<KA;5 25@>;><=K5, 0 2 ?5@2>=0G0;L=>< A<KA;5 15725@=K5). -B0 ?@5B5=78O 2?5@2K5 2K@0605BAO A =081>;LH59 A8;>9 C A2. 02;0. !B02O ;03>40BL =0 <5AB> 0:>=0, 025; @07;8G05B 7@08;L >A?>40 8 7@08;L 2> ?;>B8 (1 >@. 10, 18), GB> ?@82>48B 53> : ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8N 4CE>2=>3> >1@570=8O ?@>AB> >1@570=8N: 1> =5 B>B C459, :B> B0:>2 =0@C6=>AB8, 8 =5 B> >1@570=85, :>B>@>5 =0@C6=>, =0 ?;>B8;, => B>B C459, :B> 2=CB@5==5 B0:>2, 8 B> >1@570=85, :>B>@>5 2 A5@4F5, ?> 4CEC, 0 =5 ?> 1C:25: 5<C 8 ?>E20;0 =5 >B ;N459, => >B >30 ( 8<. 2, 28-29). K2>4: 1@570=85  <K ($8;. 3, 3). ! E@8AB80=A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O ?>4>1=K5 @0AAC645=8O >1;040NB >?@545;Q==>9 A2O7=>ABLN. A;8, :0: 3>2>@8B ;>4 "@5<>=B0=, ?>A;54=89 87 87@08;LA:8E =018 @0228= 5HC0 87 070@5B0, B> 5ABL 8ACA, 459AB28B5;L=> O2;O5BAO <5AA859, B>340 ?@8720=85 7@08;O AB0BL A25B>< <8@C 4>;6=> F5;8:>< >ACI5AB28BLAO 8 C=825@A0;87<, ?>4@07C<5205<K9 MB8< ?@8720=85<, 4>;65= 1KBL ?>;=>ABLN @50;87>20=. 0: 0:>=, 4>AB83=C2 2 %@8AB5 A2>59 F5;8 (2 42CE A<KA;0E MB>3> A;>20), AB0; 15AA<KA;5==K<, B0: 8 @07;8G8O <564C 7@08;5< 8 4@C38<8 =0@>40<8 CB@0B8;8 A8;C: B5?5@L =5B C65 C45O, =8 O7KG=8:0 (0;. 3, 28).  verus Israel B5?5@L  MB> 2A5<8@=>5 E@8AB80=AB2>. # MB>3> 42865=8O, =0G0B>3> ?0C;8=8ABA:8<8 ?@5>1@07>20=8O<8, 1K;> 420 A;54AB28O. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, >=> ?@825;> : ?@5A;54>20=8O< 52@552, 87>1@0605<KE EC4H8<8 2@030<8 E@8AB80=AB20 ?> ?@8G8=5 8E 35=50;>38G5A:>9 1;87>AB8 8 8E >B:070 >1@0B8BLAO, B> 5ABL ?@87=0BL E@8AB80=AB2> ?>4;8==K< 7@08;5<. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, :0: 70<5B8; (<CM;L "@830=>, 2KABC?0O 2 @>;8 =>2>3> 7@08;O, 2@>?0 ?@87=0;0 5A;8 =5 N@848G5A:CN, B> D0:B8G5A:CN N@8A48:F8N 8C4087<0 =04 A>1>9 (La nouvelle question juive. L'avenir d'un espoir, Gallimard, 1979, p. 63). -B> 5IQ @07 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> 2@>?0 AB0;0 7@08;5< 2 A8;C B>3>, GB> 70?@5B8;0 52@5O< >AB020BLAO 8<. A;54AB285 MB>3> A0<> ?>=OB85 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB2> O2;O5BAO 42>9=>9 B5<=8F59, 70:;NG0NI59 :0: E@8AB80=A:CN 2@>?C, :>B>@0O ?> A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 2>;5 ?5@5H;0 2 GC6CN N@8A48:F8N 8 A MB>9 F5;LN >:070;0AL 2K=C645==>9 >B:070BL 2 =59 B5<, :><C >=0 ?@8=04;560;0 ?> ?@02C, B0: 8 A0<8E 52@552, :>B>@K5 =5>6840==> >1=0@C68;8 A51O ?@8:>20==K<8 : ?@54?>;0305<><C <5ABC A2>53> A25@H5=8O 4@C3>9 @5;83859.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8, ?8H5B B0:65 "@830=>, 5A;8 8C45>-E@8AB80=AB2> >A=>20;> 2@>?C, B>340 <5AB>=0E>645=85< 7@08;O O2;O5BAO 2@>?0 (ibid., p. 64). A;54AB285 MB>3> CA;>285< 52@>?5870F88 AB0=>28BAO 0AA8<8;OF8O 8 =>@<0;870F8O, CB@0B0 A>1AB25==>9 ;8G=>AB8. @878A 52@59A:>9 =>@<K O2;O5BAO :@878A>< 52@>?5870F88 52@59AB20 (...) #9B8 A 0?040 4;O 52@552 7=0G8B >B25@=CBLAO >B A2>59 "=>@<0;L=>AB8", ?@8=OBL A2>Q >B;8G85 (Shmuel Trigano, ibid., pp. 57-71). <5==> MB> O2;O5BAO ?@8G8=>9, ?> :>B>@>9 52@59A:85 >1I8=K 4> A8E ?>@ <>3CB CG0AB2>20BL 2 :@8B8:5 70?04=>9 <>45;8 B>;L:> 70=8<0O ?> >B=>H5=8N : A2>59 8AB>@88 ?>;C-0<=5789=CN, ?>;C-:@8B8G5A:CN ?>78F8N57. 57) "5< =5 <5=55 <>6=> >B<5B8BL 2AQ 1>;55 8 1>;55 70<5B=CN A:;>==>ABL :><<5=B0B>@>2 81;88 >B:07K20BLAO >B ?>AB>O==>3> >1@0I5=8O A2>8E 27>@>2 2 =0?@02;5=88 A>2?045=8O 7=0<5=8BKE "25G=KE F5==>AB59" 8C4087<0 A C=825@A0;L=>9 <>@0;LN 70?04=>3> 3C<0=87<0 ?> ?@8<5@C =5:>B>@KE CAB0@52H8E 2;045B5;59 C<>2 @07102;5==>3> 7@08;O 452OB=04F0B>3> AB>;5B8O (Arnold Mandel, Autour d'un fratricide, in L'Arche. aout 1980). "0:8< >1@07><, E@8AB80=A:89 0=B8A5<8B87< <>65B 1KBL 70:>==> >?8A0= :0: =52@>7. >MB><C, :0: ?8H5B 0= ;>, 2@>?0 >1O70=0 A2>59 =5A?>A>1=>ABLN :>340-;81> >ACI5AB28BL A51O, 25@=CBLAO : A515 >A=>2>?>;030NI5<C >BGC645=8N (L'Arche, dcembre 1979), 8 8<5==> 2 MB>< 8AB>G=8: 0=B8A5<8BA:>3> =52@>70. =B8A5<8B87< ?>72>;O5B 0=B8A5<8BC A?@>5F8@>20BL A2>9 =52@>7 =0 52@5O. = =07K205B 52@5O GC68<, ?>B><C GB> GC2AB2C5B B0:8< A51O, 2>@><, <>3CI5AB25==K<, 2KA:>G:>9, ?>B><C GB> A0< O2;O5BAO B0:>2K<, >4=8< A;>2><, >= =07K205B 53> 52@55<, ?>B><C GB> A0< O2;O5BAO MB8< 52@55< 2 3;C18=5 A2>59 4CH8, @5H8B5;L=> 701;C640NI8<AO, ACI5AB25==> >BGC64Q==K<, GC64K< A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 @5;8388, A2>5<C >3C, :>B>@>3> >= 2>?;>I05B (ibid.). 1<5=O2 A2>9 >A=>2>?>;030NI89 <8D =0 181;59A:>5 548=>1>685, 2@>?0 A45;0;0 87 8C4087<0 A2>Q A25@E-O. ! MB>3> <><5=B0 >=0 =5 <>3;0 =5 >1@0B8BLAO ?@>B82 52@59A:>3> =0@>40, >128=5==>3> =5 B>;L:> 2 B><, GB> >= =5 ?>A;54>20; ?CBQ< >1@0I5=8O ?> ;>38G5A:><C ?CB8, 254CI5<C >B !8=0O : E@8AB80=AB2C, => 8 2 B><, GB> ?>?KB0;AO ?@8 ?><>I8 ?@54?>;0305<>3> 1>3>C189AB20 2>A?@5?OBAB2>20BL MB><C ?CB8. 1@0I5=85 2@>?K A>?@>2>640;>AL >128=5=85< 52@59A:>3> =0@>40 2 =5>1@0I5=88. 5@=C2H8AL : ?@54?>;>65=8N, :>B>@>5 <K 2KA:070;8 @0=55, <K <>65< A:070BL, GB> 2@>?0 AB0;0 0=B8A5<8BA:>9 2 B>9 AB5?5=8, 2 :0:>9 >=0 E>B5;0 AB0BL 7@08;5<. =0 ?5@5AB0=5B 1KBL 0=B8A5<8BA:>9, 8710282H8AL >B MB>3> =52@>70, 25@=C2H8AL : A2>5<C >A=>2>?>;030NI5<C <8DC, ?5@5AB02 65;0BL 1KBL B5<, G5< >=0 =5 O2;O5BAO, GB>1K ?>72>;8BL @C3><C ?@>4>;60BL 1KBL B5<, G5< >= O2;O5BAO. =>385 4> A8E ?>@ 4C<0NB, GB> 5A;8 52@58 >B:06CBAO >B A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 A0<>1KB=>AB8, 52@59A:89 2>?@>A A@07C 65 @5H8BAO. -B> 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 =082=>5 ?@54?>;>65=85, :>B>@>5 2 EC4H5< A;CG05 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > A>7=0B5;L=>< 8;8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>< 0=B8A5<8B87<5. @54?>;>65=85, :>B>@>5 2 >A>15==>AB8 =0?@O<CN A2O70=> A @0A87<>< 0AA8<8;OF88 8;8 >B@8F0=8O A0<>1KB=>AB8, > :>B>@>< <K 3>2>@8;8 @0=55 8 :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO >1@0B=>9 AB>@>=>9 @0A87<0 8A:;NG5=8O 8;8 ?@5A;54>20=8O.  2@>?5, =0?><8=05B (<CM;L "@830=>, 5A;8 52@58 8 =5 ?>425@30;8AL ?@5A;54>20=8O<, B> 2AQ 65 ?@87=020;8AL 52@5O<8 B>;L:> ?@8 CA;>288, GB> >=8 8<8 =5 O2;ONBAO (op. cit.). @C38<8 A;>20<8, GB>1K 1KBL ?@8=OBK<8, 8< 1K;> =5>1E>48<> 1>;55 =5 ?@8=8<0BL A0<8E A51O, =5 1KBL @C38<8, GB>1K 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL 1KBL A254Q==K<8 : "0:8< 65. 0A87< 2B>@>3> 2840 ?@87=0QB 52@552, => >B@8F05B 8E, ?5@2>3>  ?@8=8<05B 8E, => =5 ?@87=0QB. &5@:>2L ?>AB028;0 52@552 ?5@54 2K1>@>< <564C 8A:;NG5=85< (8;8 D878G5A:>9 A<5@BLN) 8 =5?@8OB85< (8AB>@8G5A:>9 8 4CE>2=>9 A<5@BLN); >1@0I0OAL, >=8 AB0=>28;8AL E@8AB80=0<8 :0: 2A5. 52>;NF8O 40;0 52@5O< ;8G=CN A2>1>4C, => >1@5:;0 8E =0 8AG57=>25=85 2 :0G5AB25 =0F88; 745AL B0:65 AB0;> =5>1E>48<>, GB>1K >=8 ?@52@0B8;8AL 2 3@0640= :0: 2A5. 0@:A87< ?@5B5=4>20; =0 >A2>1>645=85 52@59A:>3> =0@>40 ?@8 CA;>288 =02O7K20=8O 5<C :;0AA>2>3> @07@K20, =587156=K< A;54AB285< :>B>@>3> 4>;65= 1K; AB0BL @07@K2 2=CB@8 =53>. 0: :>=5F 0=B8A5<8B87<C <>65B 1KBL ?>;>65= >B:07>< 0?040 >B ?@8BO70=89 =0 ?>;>65=85 verus Israel, B0: 8 @07@5H5=85  ?>;>68B5;L=>5  52@59A:>3> 2>?@>A0 <>65B 1KBL 4>AB83=CB> ?>A@54AB2>< ?@87=0=8O A0<>1KB=>AB8 52@59A:>3> =0@>40 8 53> ?@020 =0 >B;8G85 157 A2545=8O 53> : ?>;>65=8N ?>;=>ABLN @C3>3> 8;8 "0:>3> 65. @8 @0AA<>B@5=88 25;8:8E A>2@5<5==KE B>B0;8B0@=KE @568<>2 =5B@C4=> >1=0@C68BL ?>4 A25BA:>9 >1>;>G:>9 B5 65 A0<K5 :>@5==K5 ?@8G8=K =5B5@?8<>AB8, GL8 @5;838>7=K5 :>@=8 1K;8 =0<8 8AA;54>20=K, 0 8<5==> AB@C:BC@C A2545=8O ;N1>3> @07;8G8O, ;N1>3> >B=>A8B5;L=>3> @C3>3> : 548=AB25==><C 01A>;NBC, >B>645AB2;O5<><C A :;0AA><, @0A>9, 3>AC40@AB2><, 2>645<, ?0@B859 8 B.4. !>2@5<5==K5 B>B0;8B0@=K5 @568<K A5:C;O@878@>20;8, ?@5>1@078;8 2 A25BA:CN B5>48F5N A8AB5<C 548=AB25==>9 ?@024K, 548=AB25==>3> >1@07F0, : :>B>@><C 4>;6=> 1KBL A2545=> ;N1>5 @07;8G85, >4=>2@5<5==> :>?8@CO 2 A2>59 >@30=870F88 >@30=870F8N &5@:28 8 M:A?;C0B8@CO <0AA>2CN B5<0B8:C, ?@8ACICN A>2@5<5==>9 45<>:@0B88. >4>1=0O A5:C;O@870F8O A8AB5<K A45;0;0 5Q 5IQ 1>;55 >?0A=>9  =57028A8<> >B B>3> D0:B0, GB> @5;838>7=0O =5B5@?8<>ABL G0AB> 2K7K20;0 2 :0G5AB25 @50:F88 AB>;L 65 @07@CH8B5;L=CN @52>;NF8>==CN =5B5@?8<>ABL, M=0=B8>4@><8N, 5A;8 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO B5@<8=5 .=30. ">B0;8B0@87<,  ?8H5B 8;L15@ N@0=,  5IQ 1>;55 C:@5?8;AO 2 A8;C B>3>, GB> <>IL <>=>B58AB8G5A:>3> 1>3>A;>28O, :>B>@0O 2AQ 65 >AB02;O;0 =5?@8:>A=>25==>9 83@C B@0=AF5=45=F88, ?5@5H;0 : G5;>25G5A:><C CG@5645=8N, 5;8:><C 8=:2878B>@C (L'me tigr, op. cit., p. ISO)58. 58) !<. B6. :=83C: Lucien Sfez, L'enferet le paradis (PUF, 1978), :>B>@0O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 >128=8B5;L=CN @5GL, 70G0ABCN G@57<5@=CN 8 =082=CN, ?@>B82 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 B5>;>388, B> 5ABL ?>4:@5?;5=8O ?>;8B8:8 ?@8 ?><>I8 B5>;>38G5A:>3> <0=8E59AB20, 8 2 :>B>@>9 2 G0AB=>AB8 8AA;54C5BAO B>, :0:8< >1@07>< <>65B 1KBL A5:C;O@87>20=> <5B0D878G5A:>5 ?@>B82>AB>O=85 01A>;NB>2 4>1@0 8 7;0. To 65 :0A05BAO <=>3>G8A;5==KE CB>?8G5A:8E 845>;>3>2 :>B>@K5 B0:65 AB>;L G0AB> 2K;820;8AL 2 B>B0;8B0@87<. 5H5 >;0:>2A:89 ?>:070;, GB> C CB>?8G5A:>9 <KA;8 5ABL B@8 >A=>2=K5 G5@BK: 5@0 2 B>, GB> 1C4CI55 =5:8< <8AB8G5A:8 >1@07>< C65 =0ABC?8;> 8 GB> <K <>65< 2 >?@545;Q==>9 AB5?5=8 53> ?>=OBL (0 =5 ?@>AB> ?@542845BL =5>?@545;Q==K< >1@07><). "0:65 ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> <K @0A?>;0305< B>G=K< <5B>4>< <KA;8 8 459AB28O, :>B>@K9 <>65B ?@825AB8 =0A : >1I5AB2C, A2>1>4=><C >B =54>AB0B:>2, AB>;:=>25=89 8 =5C4>2>;LAB289. (0:>=5F), 25@0 2 B>, GB> <K 7=05<, G5< G5;>25: O2;O5BAO =0 A0<>< 45;5, 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 2 >B;8G85 >B B>3>, G5< >= O2;O5BAO M<?8@8G5A:8 8 G5< >= AG8B05B A51O A0< (A<.: L'esprit rvolutionnaire, suivi de Utopie i anti-utopie, Complexe, Bruxelles, 1978)59. 5B@C4=> C2845BL 2 MB8E B@QE A>AB02=KE G0ABOE CB>?88 ?@>ABK5 A;54AB28O ?@54AB02;5=8O >1 >4=>;8=59=>< 8 =5>1@0B8<>< 2@5<5=8, >1JOA=8B5;L=>3> @54C:F8>=87<0, A2>9AB25==>3> B5>@88 48=AB25==>3>, 8 :0B53>@89=>9 0=B@>?>;>388, >A=>20==>9 =0 01AB@0:B=KE C=825@A0;8OE. 59)  MB>< :=835 >;0:>2A:89 >B25G05B B5< ;N4O<, :>B>@K5 70>4=> A 0@B8=>< C15@>< 2KABC?0NB 70 A>F80;87< 2>;=, A2>1>4=K9 >B 87JO=>2 A>F80;87<0 =5>1E>48<>AB8. 1 >B=>H5=8OE <564C CB>?859 8 @5;83859 A<. B6.: Henri Desroches. Les died revs. Thisme et athisme en utopie. Descle, 1972: Thomas Molnar, L'utopie, lernelle hrsi? Beauchesne, 1973: Jean Lyon, Les utopies et le Royaume. Centurion. 1973: 8 Gabriel Vahanian. Dieu et l'utopie. Cerf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a conquete du prsent. Pour une sociologie de la vie quotidienne, PUF, 1979, p. 29). ">;L:> B>340, :>340 ?>;8B587< F5==>AB59 1>;LH5 =5 @01>B05B, <K 8<55< 45;> A B>B0;8B0@87<>< (Michel Maffesoli, La violence totalitaire, PUF, 1979, p. 252). 18 /7KG5A:0O <KA;L, 2 >A=>25 A2>59 ?@540==0O C:>@5=5=8N 8 <5ABC :0: ?@54?>GB8B5;L=><C F5=B@C :@8AB0;;870F88 ;8G=>AB8, =5 <>65B =5 >B25@30BL ;N1K5 284K @5;838>7=>3> 8 D8;>A>DA:>3> C=825@A0;87<0. >A;54=89 65, =0?@>B82, =0E>48B A2>Q >A=>20=85 2 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>< 548=>1>688. 45O G5;>25:0 O2;O5BAO 181;59A:>9,  CB25@6405B ;0=48= 0@@5-@835;L (op. cit., p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ex oriente lux 8 >B C15645=8O B><, GB> 4@52=59H0O 8AB>@8O G5;>25G5AB20 ?8A0;0AL 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ?>-52@59A:8 (A<.: Jacques Sol, Le mythe de l unit l'humanit, in Les mythes chretiens, de la Renaissance aua Lumieres, op. cit., pp. 115-173). 60) > >B=>A8B5;L=> =5402=53> 2@5<5=8 &5@:>2L, ?@845@6820OAL DC=40<5=B0;87<0, >B:07K20;0AL 8AB>;:>2K20BL 8AB>@8N 40<0 2 0;;53>@8G5A:>< 8;8 A8<2>;8G5A:>< A<KA;5 (A<.: Abb Male, Les prophties messianiques de l'Ancien Testament, in Annale de philosophic chrtienne, 1857, 292-308). ?@>G5<, ?>4>1=>5 8AB>;:>20=85 ?>4@K205B <=5=85 A2. 02;0, A@02=820NI53> 40<0 A 8ACA>< %@8AB><: >A5<C, :0: >4=8< G5;>25:>< 3@5E 2>HQ; 2 <8@, B0: 8 <8@ 1C45B A?0AQ= ?> 1;03>40B8 >4=>3> '5;>25:0, 8ACA0 %@8AB0 ( 8<. 5, 12-15). >;55 @50;8AB8G5A:89 "0;<C4 70O2;O95B: >3 A>740; 40<0 548=AB25==K<, GB>1K <K 2845;8, GB> B>B, :B> A?0A05B 548=AB25==>3> G5;>25:0, A?0A05B F5;K9 <8@ (!0=E54@8= 4, 5). -B> C=825@A0;8ABA:>5 CB25@645=85 548=AB20 G5;>25:0 :0: B0:>2>3> >G5284=> ;8H5=> 2AO:>3> >A=>20=8O. ;O 4@52=8E G5;>25: =5 ACI5AB2C5B. !CI5AB2CNB B>;L:> ;N48: 3@5:8, @8<;O=5, 20@20@K, A8@89FK 8 B.4.  2>A5<=04F0B>< AB>;5 MB0 =><8=0;8ABA:0O 845O 1K;0 2>A?@8=OB0 >75D>< 45 5AB@><:  <8@5 =5 ACI5AB2C5B G5;>25:0.  A2>59 687=8 O 2845; D@0=FC7>2, 8B0;LO=F52, @CAA:8E 8 B.4. ;03>40@O >=B5A:L5 O 4065 7=0N, GB> <>6=> 1KBL ?5@A><, => GB> :0A05BAO G5;>25:0, O 70O2;ON, GB> A2>59 687=8 O 53> =5 2AB@5G0; (Considrations sur & France, 1791, ch. VI). ?@545;Q==>, GB> 2 >18E>45 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > G5;>25:5  2 548=AB25==>< G8A;5. > MB> 2A53> ;8HL O7K:>20O CA;>2=>ABL, 01AB@0:F8O, >A=>20==0O 2 :>=5G=>< AGQB5 =0 2>A?@8OB88 >?@545;Q==>3> :>;8G5AB20 >B45;L=KE ;N459. 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"5< =5 <5=55 =0H excursus ?> ?>2>4C 18>;>38G5A:>3> G5;>25G5AB20 =5 1K; 15A?>;57=K<. = ?>72>;O5B ?>=OBL B>, :0: /E25 ?@8=8<05B =0 A2>9 AGQB, 2>72KH0O 53>, D0:B, :>B>@K9 >1KG=> >A=>2K205BAO =0 G8AB>9 ?@8@>4=>AB8, :0: C?@074=5=85 @07;8G89 !>25@H5==> @C38< ?@8 87<5=5=88 >4=>3> ;8HL C@>2=O >:07K205BAO @02=>F5==K< 8E C?@074=5=8N =872545=85<, :0:, =0:>=5F, :>@5==>5 ?@5>4>;5=85 G5;>25G5A:>3> @07=>>1@078O >3>< 871KB>G=> 2>7<5I05B A0< D0:B MB>3> @07=>>1@078O, 1;03>40@O :>B>@><C G5;>25: :0: B0:>2>9 CB25@6405B A51O, ?>4=8<0OAL >G5284=> >B=>A8B5;L=K< >1@07>< =04 A2>59 G8AB>9 ?@8@>4=>ABK>. 57028A8<> >B B>3>, 2>A?@8=8<05BAO ;8 548=AB2> G5;>25:0 =0 ?@8@>4=>< 8;8 1>3>A;>2A:>< C@>2=5, 2 >1>8E A;CG0OE A;54AB285 >48=0:>2>: >B@8F05BAO C@>25=L A>1AB25==> G5;>25G5A:89, =0 :>B>@>< G5;>25: >?@545;O5BAO =5 :0: 548=AB2>, 0 :0: <=>65AB25==>ABL, =0 :>B>@>< >= A0< A>740QB A51O ?>AB>O==> @07=>>1@07=K<8 A?>A>10<8 CB25@6405BAO 2 :0G5AB25 A>740B5;O A0<>3> A51O. 5H8B5;L=>5 ?@5>4>;5=85 MB>3> G5;>25G5A:>3> C@>2=O @02=>F5==> 2>72@0I5=8N : ?@54H5AB2CNI5<C 5<C A>AB>O=8N, 0 8<5==> : A>AB>O=8N 40<0 8 2K 2 <><5=B 8E A>B2>@5=8O.  >?@545;5=89 G5;>25:C 2 :0G5AB25 7040G8 >ACI5AB2;5=8O MB>3> ?@8?8AK205<>3> 5<C 548=AB20 O2;O5BAO >?OBL-B0:8 ?>1C645=85< 53> : >B:07C >B A>1AB25==>9 8AB>@88, 8AB>@88, 2>A?@8=8<0NI59AO ACB8 :0: >B@8F0B5;L=K9 ?@><56CB>: <564C 01A>;NB=K< ?@>H;K< 8 01A>;NB=K< <5AA80=A:8< 1C4CI8<. @54AB02;5=85 > @>4>2>< G5;>25:5, >1 C=825@A0;L=>< 01AB@0:B=>< G5;>25:5 B0:65 =5 ?@5<8=C;> A5:C;O@87>20BLAO A>2@5<5==KE 845>;>38OE. 0: <K C65 3>2>@8;8, >=> A>AB02;O5B >A=>2C 845>;>388 ?@02 G5;>25:061. => B0:65 ?@8ACBAB2C5B C 0@:A0, :>B>@K9 2 8725AB=>< >B@K2:5 >?@545;O5B :><<C=87< :0: ?>4;8==>5 ?@8A2>5=85 G5;>25G5A:>9 ACI=>AB8 G5;525:>< 8 4;O G5;>25:0. >6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 8<5==> AB8E89=0O ?@825@65==>ABL 0@:A0 : A8AB5<0B8G5A:><C 2K2545=8N G0AB=>3> 87 >1I53> =0 2A5< ?@>BO65=88 53> ?CB8 ?@82>48;0 53> : ?@5C<5=LH5=8N 206=>AB8 @07;8G89 <564C ;N4L<8. -B> 284=> C65 ?> 53>, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, 42CA<KA;5==><C ?>4E>4C : =0F8>=0;L=><C 2>?@>AC, 0 B0:65 ?> 53> A?>@0< A 0=0@E8AB0<8 8 =5:>B>@K<8 @52>;NF8>==K<8 A8=48:0;8AB0<8. 0@:A8ABA:0O DCBC@>;>38O ?@>2>73;0H05B, GB> 15A:;0AA>2>5 >1I5AB2> 1C45B ?>;=>ABLN >4=>@>4=K< 8 548=>>1@07=K<, =Q< ?>;=>ABLN >ACI5AB28BAO G5;>25: :0: @>4>2>5 ?>=OB85. !?>@O A 0:C=8=K<, 0@:A >B25@305B @07;8G85, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO 4;O =53> A8=>=8<>< @0AAB>O=8O. = =5 >1@0I05B 2=8<0=8O 8;8 ?@54?>G8B05B =5 >1@0I0BL 2=8<0=8O =0 ?>=OB85 ?;N@0;87<0: 2 A2>59 @5A?C1;8:5 >= C?@074=O5B ;N6>5 @0AA;>5=85, ;N1>5 @07=>>1@0785, GB>1K 70<5=8BL AC1>@48=0F8N :>>@48=0F859 (Andr Rezler, Marx et la pense prospective, in Karl Marx devant le tribunal rvolutionnaire, numro spcial des Cahiers du fedralisme, septembre 1978). @54AB02;5=85 > @>4>2>< G5;>25:5 ?@8ACBAB2C5B :0: C -=35;LA0, B0: 8 C >@30=0, 528-!B@>AA0 8 $@5940. 61) !<. :@8B8:C ?@54?>;>65=89 8 >A=>2 MB>9 845>;>388 2: Alain de Benoisl el Guillaume Faye. La religion des drolls de l'homme, in Elments. Janvier-mars 1981. 5-22). 708<>459AB285 ?0@B8:C;O@8ABA:>3> 8 C=825@A0;8ABA:>3> M;5<5=B>2 2 181;59A:>9 <KA;8 ?>@>48;> <=>65AB2> :><<5=B0@852. 5@2>=0G0;L=> >=> CB25@6405BAO 2 :0G5AB25 A@54AB20 ?@8<8@8BL >B:07 >B ?@>75;8B87<0, :>B>@K9 1K; A2>9AB25=5= 8C4087<C 2 B5G5=85 1>;LH59 G0AB8 53> 8AB>@88 (A @O4>< ?@8<5G0B5;L=KE 8A:;NG5=89), A <5AA80=A:8< C15645=85<, ?>4@07C<520NI8< :>=5G=>5 >1J548=5=85 <8@0, 7025@H5=85 2A5>1I59 8AB>@88 8 A?0A5=85 2A5E ?@0254=KE. !CBL 52@59A:>3> ?0@B8:C;O@87<0 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K 1KBL C=825@A0;87<><,  ?8H5B ;0=48= 0@@5-@835;L (Le Matin, 10 septembre 1980). 0 A0<>< 45;5 871@0=85 =5 ?@>B82>@5G8B C=825@A0;87<C. -B> 871@0=85, A>AB>OI55 =5 87 ?@828;5389, 0 87 >1O70==>AB59 (528=0A), O2;O5BAO ?@5645 2A53> <>@0;L=>9 40==>ABLN. 0: B0:>2>5 >=> ?>4@07C<5205B ?0@B8:C;O@87<, ?@8720==K9 >4=064K C?@074=8BL A51O, ?0@B8:C;O@87<, ?@54AB02;ONI89 A>1>9 >1@07F>2>5 ?@542>AE8I5=85 8 A0<>5 CA;>285 C=825@A0;L=>AB8. <5==> ?@8 ?><>I8 0:>=0, 4>25@5==>3> 8< A2>5<C =0@>4C, /E25 65;05B >?@545;8BL AC4L1C 2A53> G5;>25G5AB20. 2@58 >1@07CNB =0@>4 A2OI5==8:>2 (AE. 19, 6). "0:8< >1@07><, 7@08;L 1C45B A2OI5==8:><, GL59 ?0AB2>9 1C45B 2AQ G5;>25G5AB2>,  :><<5=B8@C5B 0: >;4AB09= (op. cit., p. 80).  MB>< A<KA;5 871@0=85 O2;O5BAO 7=0:>< ?@8720=8O 2A5E: 48= O2;O5BAO 7=0:>< 2A5E, :0: 5A;8 1K 2A5 1K;8 ?@8720=K C7=0BL A51O 2 >4=><, A>3;0A=> D>@<C;5 >;O 0;04L5 (Jsus Christ ou Dionysos. La foi chertienne en confrontation avec Nietzsche, Descle, 1979, p. 137). 81;59A:89 C=825@A0;87< A >A>15==>9 A8;>9 CB25@6405BAO B>@>8A0959, >4=>2@5<5==> A =081>;55 @5H8B5;L=K< CB25@645=85< /E25 A2>59 548=AB25==>AB8. 45AL <8AA8O 7@08;O ?>;CG05B ?>;=>5 >?@545;5=85: 0;> B>3>, GB> "K 1C45HL @01>< >8< 4;O 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O :>;5= 0:>2;52KE 8 4;O 2>72@0I5=8O >AB0B:>2 7@08;O; => / A45;0N "51O A25B>< =0@>4>2, GB>1K A?0A5=85 >Q ?@>AB5@;>AL 4> :>=F>2 75<;8 (A. 49, 6). ! MB8E ?>@ ?@0254=8:8 87 2A5E =0@>4>2 A>?@8G0AB=K 1C4CI5<C <8@C:  !8>=5 65 1C4CB 3>2>@8BL: "B0:>9-B> 8 B0:>9-B> <C6 @>48;AO 2 =Q<" (A. 86, 5).  45=L >A?>45=L 2A5 =0@>4K 1C4CB AC48BLAO 70 7@08;O (>8;. 3, 1-17).  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C459, @07<KH;OO > ?5@2KE 2@5<5=0E ACI5AB2>20=8O G5;>25G5AB20,  ?8HCB 6>78 975=15@3 8 @<0= 15:0AA8,  =5 :>;51;OAL ?><5I05B 2 53> =0G0;> 548=AB25==>3> ?@54:0. >G5<C? >B><C GB> 2 :>=B5:AB5 CAB0=>2;5==KE 4;O =53> 4CE>2=KE F5==>AB59 >= 65;05B A> 2A59 2K@078B5;L=>ABLN ?>4G5@:=CBL @025=AB2> ;N459 8 70O2;O5B 548=AB2> 8E ?@>8AE>645=8O (...) 48=AB2> G5;>25:0, => B0:65 8 548=AB2> G5;>25G5A:>3> @>40... 0H8 @0228=K 3>2>@OB: >3 ?@>872Q; G5;>25G5AB2> >B 548=AB25==>3> G5;>25:0, GB>1K =8:B> =5 <>3 A:070BL: <>9 ?@54>: @>48;AO @0=LH5 B2>53> (A Bible ouverte, op. cit., p. 110).  >=8 4>102;ONB: A5 ;N48 @02=K, ?>B><C GB> >=8 A>740=K >4=8< >3>< 8 548=AB25==K< >3>< (...) >3 A>740; 548=AB25==>3> G5;>25:0, GB>1K =8:B> =5 <>3 ?>4C<0BL, GB> 1>3>2 <=>3> (ibid., pp. 112-113). @C38<8 A;>20<8, ?5@54 /E25 2A5 ;N48 A>25@H5==> @02=K, ?>B><C GB> >=8 8<5NB >1I55 ?@>8AE>645=85. A5 ;N48 ?@>8AE>4OB 87 548=>3> 8AB>G=8:0, ?>B><C GB> /E25  548=AB25==K9 >3, 8, =0>1>@>B, >3 548=AB25=5=, ?>B><C GB> 2A5 ;N48 8<5NB >4=> ?@>8AE>645=85. 07;8G8O <564C ;N4L<8 O2;ONBAO 2B>@8G=K<8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 8E >1I59 845=B8G=>AB8 ?5@54 ;8F>< /E25; >=8 7=0G0B >G5=L <0;> ?> >B=>H5=8N : =5<C B0: 65, :0: @C3>9 7=0G8B >G5=L <0;> ?> >B=>H5=8N : !>25@H5==> @C3><C. A5 ;N48 @02=K ?> ACB8, 2A5 ;N48 @0A?>;>65=K =0 @02=>< @0AAB>O=88 >B /E25. !>25@H5==> >G5284=> 0=B@>?>;>38G5A:>5 >A=>20=85 181;59A:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 B5>@88. 81;8O =5 ?@87=0QB A2>5>1@078O ?>;8B8:8.  CAB0=02;8205<>9 5N ?5@A?5:B825 ?>;8B8:0 ?>AB>O==> A2>48BAO : <>@0;8, 0 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL A2>48BAO : 0:>=C. !0<>AB>OB5;L=0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O 2;0ABL ;N459 =5 <>65B 8<5BL =8:0:8E 1>65AB25==KE G5@B: >48= ;8HL /E25 A0<>AB>OB5;5=. A;54AB285 MB>3> A?@0254;82>ABL ?>;=>ABLN >B;8G=0 >B 2;0AB8. <5==> : =59 A2>48BAO AG0ABL5: ;N48 1C4CB AG0AB;82K, :>340 CAB0=>28BAO A?@0254;82>ABL /E25. >;8B8G5A:89 8450; 81;88 ?@54AB02;ONB AC4L8 8 <C4@5FK. >7<>6=>ABL ACI5AB2>20=8O >1I5AB20 >15A?5G8205BAO =5 >AC40@AB2><,  ?>;030NB 975=15@3 8 15:0AA8.  48=AB25==>9 =5>1E>48<>9 2;0ABLN O2;O5BAO AC451=0O 2;0ABL (Et Dieu era Eve, op. cit., p. 108).  OB8:=8688 ?>AB02;5=85 AC459 =5?>A@54AB25==> ?@54H5AB2C5B >B:@>25=8N =0 !8=05. AO 845>;>38O <>8A5520 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 >A2OI05B ?@52>AE>4AB2> AC4L8 =04 F0@Q< 8 <>@0;8 8 AC451=>9 2;0AB8 =04 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 8 2>5==>9 2;0ABLN. >A;5 ?@81KB8O 52@552 2 %0=00= AB@0=0 ?@52@0I05BAO 2 :>=D545@0F8N, 345 :064>5 ?;5<O ?>4G8=O5BAO AC451=>9 2;0AB8. !B0@59H8=0 >B?@02;O5B ?@02>AC485 2 ?;5<5=8, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: AC4LO O2;O5BAO 25@E>2=K< @C:>2>48B5;5< 2> 2@5<O 2>9=K 8 2>73;02;O5B 8A?>;=8B5;L=CN 2;0ABL 2 <8@=>5 2@5<O. ?>A;54AB288 AC4LN =07K20;8 4065 A;>2>< -;>E8< (A. 81, 6). >A;5 CG@5645=8O F0@A:>9 2;0AB8 F0@L >AB0QBAO AB@>3> ?>4G8=Q==K< 0:>=C. # 52@552 F0@L >1O70= 87CG0BL ">@C 8 4>1820BLAO 5Q ?@8<5=5=8O: 27>94O =0 B@>=, >= 4>;65= 8<5BL ?>4 @C:>9 8A0=85 8 ?>AB>O==> : =5<C >1@0I0BLAO. @0640=A:0O 2;0ABL =57028A8<0 >B A2OI5==8G5A:>9, => >=0 4>;6=0 >AB020BLAO 2 AB@>3>9 7028A8<>AB8 >B 0:>=0. 5;8:89 F0@L =5 O2;O5BAO =8 AB@>8B5;5<, =8 702>520B5;5<. 5;8:89 F0@L ?@028B A>3;0A=> 81;88 8 ?>A2OI05B A51O ?@5B2>@5=8N 2 687=L <>@0;L=>3> 8450;0 ">@K; 53> A;020 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K B2>@8BL 4>1@> ?@54 >G0<8 5G=>3>. "0:8< >1@07><, 87 181;59A:>3> >1@07F0 2KB5:05B ?@8=F8? >3@0=8G5=8O 2;0AB8, ?@8=F8? ?>4G8=5=8O ?>;8B8G5A:>9 2;0AB8 AC451=>9 2;0AB8, ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> ?>;8B8G5A:85 A;>6=>AB8 2 A2>59 >A=>25 8<5NB <>@0;L=CN ?@8@>4C 8 <>3CB F5;>AB=> @07@5H0BLAO N@848G5A:8< A?>A>1><.  =0H5 2@5<O MB0 A8AB5<0 =0H;0 A2>Q ;>38G5A:>5 ?@>4>;65=85 2 0<5@8:0=A:>9 =><>:@0B88  MB>9 @5A?C1;8:5 AC459, >A=>20==>9 =0 181;59A:>< 4CE5, 2 :>B>@>9 5@E>2=K9 AC4 83@05B ?@828;538@>20==CN @>;L. 5;L7O =5 ?>@078BLAO 480;5:B8G5A:><C @>4AB2C <564C 0<5@8:0=A:8< :>=AB8BCF8>==K< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< 8 <>8A552K< :>45:A><,  ?8H5B >;L 0AB5;L (Le Monde, 4 juillet 1979) 8 4>102;O5B: !>25@H5==> =5A;CG09=>, GB> ACI5AB2C5B B0:>5 AE>4AB2> <564C 0<5@8:0=A:>9 45<>:@0B859 8 ?5@2K< ?@028B5;LAB2>< 52@552, 254L BFK->A=>20B5;8 ?@5:@0A=> 7=0;8 81;8N, =0AB>;L:> E>@>H>, GB> <=>385 <>3;8 G8B0BL 5Q ?>-52@59A:862. 62) !<. 206=>5 A>G8=5=85 =0 MBC B5<C: Milton R. Konvitz, Judaism and the American Idea. Shocken Books. New York, 1980 (>A>15==> 2B>@CN 3;02C: The Rule of Law: Torah and Constitution, pp. 53-68). ">;L:> ?@>B82 A2>53> 65;0=8O, 5A;8 <>6=> B0: A:070BL, /E25 2K?>;=O5B ?@>AL1C 52@552 40@>20BL 8< F0@O. &0@A:0O 2;0ABL  :0: 8 1@0: C A2. 02;0  O2;O5BAO ;8HL :@09=8< A@54AB2><: >340 BK (...) A:065HL: "?>AB02;N O =04 A>1>N F0@O, ?>4>1=> ?@>G8< =0@>40<, :>B>@K5 2>:@C3 <5=O": B> ?>AB02L =04 A>1>N F0@O, :>B>@>3> 8715@QB >A?>4L, >3 B2>9 (B>@. 17, 14-15). -B> 65;0=85 52@552 O2;O5BAO G0ABLN 8E A:;>==>AB8 : 3@5EC: MB> A>1;07= (A<.: Francine Kaufmann, Les Juifs et le Royaume, in Sillages, Jerusalem, septembre 1979). C459A:0O B@048F8O >B:@KB> A2O7K205B 845N F0@AB20 8 F0@A:>9 2;0AB8 A> 7<55<, :>B>@K9 A>1;07=O5B 2C 2 A04C -45<0 (A<.: Josy Eisenberg et Armand Abecassis, Et Dieu era Eve, op. cit., pp. 205-207).  >4=>< 87 42CE 20@80=B>2 5@2>9 :=838 F0@AB2 ?>O2;5=85 <>=0@E88 ?@54AB02;O5BAO :0: :>IC=AB2>: !0<C8; A>>1I05B /E25 65;0=85 =0@>40, 8 /E25 >B25G05B: 5 B51O >=8 >B25@3;8, => >B25@3;8 5=O, GB>1 / =5 F0@AB2>20; =04 =8<8 (1 &0@. 8, 7). (G5284=>, GB> MB>B >B@K2>: ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 :>@@5:B8@>2:C <>=0@E8G5A:>9 25@A88, ?@8254Q==>9 2 1 &0@. 9, 1-16).  7@08;5 F0@A:0O 2;0ABL A0<0 ?> A515 ?>@>G=0 8 A><=8B5;L=0,  ?8H5B ;5:A -65B.  5 ?@8102;O5B ;8 >=0 : 01A>;NB=>9 F0@A:>9 2;0AB8 >30 (8;8 =5 ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5B ;8 >=0 59) 4@C3CN 2;0ABL? (Contre la raison d'Etat, in Tribune Juive, 12 dcembre 1980).  MB>< 8 70:;NG05BAO ?@8G8=0 2@06451=>AB8 81;88 : F0@A:>9 2;0AB8: MB0 2;0ABL O2;O5BAO G5;>25G5A:>9 2;0ABLN, >=0 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 A@54AB2, ?@8 ?><>I8 :>B>@KE G5;>25: CB25@6405B A2>N =57028A8<>ABL 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL.  81;88 F0@A:0O 2;0ABL >AC6405BAO 70 B>, GB> >=0 ?@54AB02;O5B 8;8 A:;>==0 ?@54AB02;OBL >B:07 >B =><>:@0B88. @09=5 ?@8<5G0B5;L=> B>, GB> =0G8=0O A !>;><>=0 2A5 F0@8 7@08;O @07;8G=K< >1@07>< =0@CH0;8 0:>=. 48=AB25==>5 8A:;NG5=85  >A8D, :>B>@K9, 1C4CG8 ?>AB02;5= D0@0>=>< =04 2A59 75<;Q9 38?5BA:>9, ?@028B =04 =59 ?>GB8 A0<>2;0AB=> 8 70A;C68205B 8<5=8 F048:  A?@0254;82K9  8<5==> ?> B>9 ?@8G8=5, GB> ?@54?>G8B05B A?@0254;82>ABL A0<>2;0AB8N. AB>@8O F0@A:>9 2;0AB8 >?@024K205B 2?>A;54AB288 A0<K5 <@0G=K5 ?@54A:070=8O. >A;5 ?;5=0 8 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O %@0<0, 2> 2@5<5=0 @5D>@< 74@K, 52@58 2>72@0I0NBAO >B =5Q : AB@>3>9 =><>:@0B88, 8 >1JOA=O5BAO, GB> ?@8G8=>9 2A5E 8E =5=0AB89 1K;> 70125=85 8;8 =0@CH5=85 0:>=0. "0:8< >1@07><, <KH;5=85, >A=>20==>5 8A:;NG8B5;L=> =0 81;88, =5 <>65B ?>@>48BL =8:0:>9 02B>=><=>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 B5>@88, ?>A:>;L:C ?> A0<>9 A2>59 ?@8@>45 >=> A2>48B 2A5 G5;>25G5A:85 45O=8O : <>@0;8. (<CM;L "@830=> 4>E>48B 4> 70O2;5=8O > B><, GB> 4065 5A;8 <>3;0 1K ACI5AB2>20BL 52@59A:0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O B5>@8O, =5 <>3;> 1K ACI5AB2>20BL 52@59A:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 B5>@88, :>B>@0O AB@5<8;0AL 1K 40BL 52@59AB2C ?>;8B8G5A:>5 >A=>20=85, ?>B><C GB> A0<0 ACBL ?>;8B8:8 O2;O5BAO >B@8F0=85< 52@59AB20 (La nouvelle [uestion juive, op. cit. p. 19)63. 63) 725AB=>, GB> 4;O =5:>B>@KE C;LB@0>@B>4>:A>2 A>740=85 >AC40@AB20 7@08;L 2 =5<5AA80=A:85 2@5<5=0 C65 O2;O5BAO 84>;>?>:;>=AB2><: ?@>ABK< 8 >B:@>25==K< 84>;>?>:;>=AB2><, :0: 3>2>@8B 8H090= 591>28F (The World and the Jews, in Forum, pintemps 1959. 83-90). (!<. B0:65: Dan V. Segre. A Crisis of Identity. Israel and Zionism. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 1980, pp. 51-73). >;8B8G5A:0O A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL >B25@305BAO, ?>B><C GB> >=0 O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 ?@828;538@>20==KE D>@< 1>;55 H8@>:>9 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8: A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0 2 F5;><.  B> 65 2@5<O >4=> 87 >A=>2=KE >B=>H5=89, :>B>@K5 ?>4@07C<5205B ACI=>ABL ?>;8B8:8,  >B=>H5=85 2;0AB8. !CI5AB2C5B ;>38G5A:0O A2O7L <564C >A?0@820=85< 2;0AB8 G5;>25:0 =04 G5;>25:>< 8 CB25@645=85< 2;0AB8 /E25 =04 G5;>25G5A:8< @>4>< 2 F5;><. ;0ABL G5;>25:0 =04 G5;>25:>< AB028BAO ?>4 A><=5=85, ?>B><C GB> >=0 O2;O5BAO ?>?KB:>9 C7C@?0F88 2;0AB8 >30. /E25  01A>;NB=K9 ;04K:0, 0 G5;>25:  53> A;C30, 8 2AQ, GB> MB> ?>4@07C<5205B, :0: 3>2>@8B #8;; 5@15@3 (Judaism and Modern Man. An Interpretation of Jewish Religion, Athheneum, New York, 1977, p. 65).  =835 528B 3>2>@8BAO: !K=K 7@08;52K  >8 @01K (25, 55). "0;<C4 4>102;O5B: -B> 7=0G8B, GB> >=8 =5 O2;ONBAO @010<8 4@C38E @01>2 (010 0<<0, 116b). '5;>25: 81;88 B5< 1>;55 >?@0240= 2 A2>Q< >B:075 ?@87=020BL G5;>25G5A:CN 2;0ABL :0: ?>;=>ABLN A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN, GB> >= >1O70= 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L ?>;=K< ?>4G8=5=85< !>25@H5==> @C3><C, >1@07C 157 >1@070 01A>;NB=>3> ;04K:8. >4G8=5=85 >3C 5ABL B0:65 >B@8F0=85 ?>4G8=5=8O G5;>25:C,  70<5G05B -@8E $@><< (Vous serez comme des dieux, op. cit., p. 71). "0:85 65 4>2>4K <K >1=0@C68205< C ;0=48= 0@@5-@835;L, :>340 >=0 CB25@6405B, GB> G5;>25G5A:89 70:>= 70:>=5= B>;L:> 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 >= >AB0QBAO ?>4G8=Q==K<, 7028A8<K<, 2B>@8G=K<, 5A;8 >= =5 A>740QBAO A tabula rasa, AK@>9 3;8=K, G8AB>3> ;8AB0, (5A;8) >= =5 A>?5@=8G05B A >3>< (L'Etat et les esclaves, op. cit., p. 100). >4>1=K9 70:>= =5 CAB0=02;8205B @01AB20 ?@8 CA;>288, GB> >= A0< 22>48BAO @010<8: 5 1C4CG8 2;0ABLN =04 GC6>9 A>1AB25==>ABLN, 1C4CG8 >3@0=8G5==K< ?@020<8 G5;>25:0, >= =5 O2;O5BAO @01AB2>< (ibid.). B:07 >B 2;0AB8, 4>254Q==K9 4> :@09=59 2>7<>6=>9 AB5?5=8, O2;O5BAO >B25@65=85< =>@<0;L=>3> ?>;>65=85, ?@8 :>B>@>< A>F80;L=0O G5;>25G5A:0O AC1AB0=F8O @074208205BAO  2A5340 <=>65AB25==K<, A?>@=K< 8 <=>3>AB>@>==8<, =8:>340 =5 70:@5?;5==K< >1@07><  =0 >1J5:BK 8 AC1J5:BK, >B25@65=85< ?>;>65=8O, :>B>@>5 2;5GQB 1>;LH55 <>3CI5AB2> 8 7=0G5=85 G5;>25:0. 5GL 2A5340 84QB >1 >?@545;5=88 AG0ABLO 8 A?@0254;82>AB8 :0: ?@>B82=8:>2 2;0AB8, F0@AB20 A2>1>4K :0: G53>-B> =5A>2<5AB8<>3> A F0@AB2>< =5>1E>48<>AB8, 0 MB>3> ?>A;54=53> F0@AB20 :0: <5AB0, 345 2;0ABL G5;>25:0  2A5340 >B=>A8B5;L=0O  C?@074=O5BAO 2> 8<O 01A>;NB=>9 2;0AB8 /E25. <5==> 2 81;88, ?8H5B -@=AB ;>E, <K >1=0@C68205< =081>;55 AB@0AB=>5 ?@>B82>459AB285 2KA>:>?>AB02;5==K<, 8 8E :C;LBC, B>;L:> 2 81;88 A>45@68BAO ?@87K2 2>AAB020BL ?@>B82 =8E (L'athisme dans le christianisme, Gallimard, 1978, p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es origines du communisme, Payot, 1931). 5AAGQB=>5 :>;8G5AB2> @07 81;8O >AC6405B :0: =5A><=5==>5 7;> 8<?5@A:85 ?@54?@8OB8O, 3>@>40 8 <>I=K5 3>AC40@AB20. =0 C<=>605B 0=0D5<K ?@>B82 3>@4KE, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO 8 ?@>:;OBK<8 (A. 119, 21). =0 ?@87K205B : =8A?@>25@65=8N :@0A>BK, A8;K 8 3>@4K=8. ;N@0;87<C F828;870F89 8 8E 4>AB865=89, ?>@>64Q==KE B2>@G5A:>9 2>;59 G5;>25:0, >=0 ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5B =8I5BC 548=>1>68O, ?CABK=N 01A>;NB=>3>, @025=AB2> 2 =5B20@=>< ACI5AB25. =0 C70:>=8205B A;01>ABL 8 >1JO2;O5B =570:>==>9 A8;C. @84QB 45=L, :>340 A;01K5, >=8 65 A?@0254;82K5, 2>AB>@65AB2CNB, :>340 A8;L=K5 1C4CB =8725@3=CBK A> A2>8E B@>=>2, :>340 G5;>25G5A:85 ?@8BO70=8O >1@CH0BAO ?@54 ;8:>< /E25. -B> 1C45B 45=L >A?>40 !020>D0 =0 2AQ 3>@4>5 8 2KA>:><5@=>5 8 =0 2AQ ?@52>7=5AQ==>5,  8 >=> 1C45B C=865=> 1 (A. 2, 12); 8 ?04QB 25;8G85 G5;>25G5A:>5, 8 2KA>:>5 ;N4A:>5 C=878BAO; 8 >48= >A?>4L 1C45B 2KA>: 2 B>B 45=L (2, 17), ?>B><C GB> /E25 A8;Q= A<8@8BL E>4OI8E 3>@4> (0=. 4, 34). -B> ?@54AB02;5=85 > A>F80;L=>9 A?@0254;82>AB8, >A=>20==>5 =0 4CE5 <5AB8 8 >184K, ?@5425I05B 2A5 ?>A;54CNI85 A>F80;8AB8G5A:85 845>;>388.  81;88 A2O7L A >3>< A>2?0405B A A>F80;L=>9 A?@0254;82>ABLN (Emmanuel Levinas, Difficile libert, op. cit., p. 36). > ?>4>1=>5 CB25@645=85 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 O2;O5BAO ;8HL A@54AB2>< >A?>@8BL 2 5Q ?@8=F8?5 (0 =5 2 :0:8E-B> :>=:@5B=KE A;CG0OE 5Q ?@8<5=5=8O) G5;>25G5A:CN 2;0ABL. <5==> ?>MB><C ?@>@>:8, ?@>B82>AB>OI85 A> 2A59 @5H8B5;L=>ABLN 2;04K:0< A53> <8@0, <>3CB ?@54AB02;OBLAO >BF0<8 A>F80;87<0 >A2>1>645=8O, ?5@2K<8 B5>@5B8:0<8 A>?@>B82;5=8O 2;0AB8 8;8, :0: 3>2>@8B >65 0@>48, ?8>=5@0<8 1>@L1K ?@>B82 >BGC645=8O. /E25, ?8H5B 0= 0:@C0, :><<5=B8@CO -@=AB0 ;>E0, 254QB ?>4@K2=CN ?@>?>254L A>F80;L=>3> 0?>:0;8?A8A0 (Le Monde, 3 avril 1979). = 1>@5BAO A G5;>25G5A:8< >BGC645=85<. > ?@8 MB>< >= 70<5=O5B 53> 4@C38< >BGC645=85<, ?@>B82 :>B>@>3> C65 =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8:0:8E A@54AB2. <5==> 2 ?>4>1=>< A<KA;5, :0: ?@54AB02;O5BAO, =5>1E>48<> 8AB>;:>2K20BL 2 181;59A:8E A5<59=KE ?>25AB2>20=8OE ?>AB>O==>5 ?@54?>GB5=85 <;04H8E 45B59, B> 5ABL 2B>@KE.  =838 KB8O 25;L  <;04H89 1@0B 08=0. >8A59 B0:65 <;04H89 1@0B 0@>=0. A00:C  2B>@><C AK=C 2@00<0  >B40QBAO ?@54?>GB5=85 ?5@54 7<08;><, 53> A2>4=K< AB0@H8< 1@0B><. -B> ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85 >A>15==> >G5284=> 2 A;CG05 1;87=5F>2 A020 8 0:>20. A02 @>6405BAO ?5@2K< (KB. 25, 25), 8 81;8O CB>G=O5B, GB> 5<C B0: E>B5;>AL 1KBL ?5@2K<, GB> >= 1>@>;AO A> A2>8< 1@0B>< 2 CB@>15 525::8. 0:>2 8 A02 A>>B25BAB2CNB A8<2>;8G5A:8< B8?0<, B0:8< 65, :0: 25;L 8 08=. A02 :@0A5= (adorn) 8 :>A<0B (sair), >= B0:65 725@>;>2. = 15@QB A515 2 6Q=K 4>G5@59 E5BB59A:8E (KB. 26, 34) 8 @>6405B -4><0, B0:65 8<5=C5<>3> !58@><, :>B>@K9 AB0=5B 2@03>< 7@08;O64. 0:>2 65, =0>1>@>B, >AB0;AO :>G52=8:><, >= AB0; G5;>25:>< :@>B:8<, 682CI8< 2 H0B@0E (KB. 25, 27). !>3;0A=> 8C459A:>9 B@048F88, A02 >B:07K205BAO >B >1@570=8O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 0:>2 >1@570= A@07C 65 ?>A;5 @>645=8O (%040@ 5=8:8< =0 KB. 25, 25). 0@0;;5;L A 25;5< 8 08=>< ?>@078B5;L=0, => MB> ?5@525@=CB0O ?0@0;;5;L: 5A;8 25;O C18205B 08=, B> 0:>2 C18205B A020 :0: ?5@2>3>, ?>:C?0O C =53> 53> ?@02> ?5@2>@>4AB20 (KB. 27, 29-34), 0 2?>A;54AB288, 2K402 A51O 70 =53>, ?>;CG05B 1;03>A;>25=85 A00:0 (KB. 27, 6-29).  GB> B0:>5 ?@02> ?5@2>@>4AB20, 5A;8 =5 @>645=85 ?5@2K< 5AB5AB25==K< >1@07><, A>3;0A=> ?>@O4:C MB>3> <8@0? -B>9 5AB5AB25==>9 85@0@E88 81;8O ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5B 4@C3CN: 85@0@E8N A>3;0A=> /E25, ?5@52>@0G820NICN 5Q =0>1>@>B. @54?>GB5=85 <;04H53> AB0@H5<C 5ABL ;8HL <5B0D>@0 ?@54?>GB5=8O 2B>@>3> (?>A;54=53>) ?5@2><C, A;01>3> A8;L=><C, :@>B:>3> (8 7=0G8B 1;03>A;>25==>3> /E25) 3>@4><C (8 7=0G8B O7KG=8:C). 1I89 A<KA; MB>9 <5B0D>@K >1JOA=O5BAO C65 2 A0<>< 181;59A:>< B5:AB5, :>340 /E25 3>2>@8B 525::5, 15@5<5==>9 0:>2>< 8 A02><: 20 ?;5<5=8 2> G@525 B2>Q<, 8 420 @07;8G=KE =0@>40 ?@>87>94CB 87 CB@>1K B2>59; >48= =0@>4 A45;05BAO A8;L=55 4@C3>3>, 8 1>;LH89 1C45B A;C68BL <5=LH5<C (KB. 25, 23). -B> C65 ?@5425AB85 2K1>@0. 64) ?>A;54AB288 8<O -4><0 1K;> A8<2>;8G5A:8 ?5@5=5A5=> =0 8<A:CN 8<?5@8N, 0 ?>A;5 :>=AB0=B8=>2A:>3> :><?@><8AA0  =0 E@8AB80=A:CN F5@:>2L (A<.: David Goldstein. Jewish Folklore and Legend, op. cit.. pp. 72-72). K;> 1K ?>=OB=>, 5A;8 1K /E25 8A?@02;O; :0:CN-B> :>=:@5B=CN =5A?@0254;82>ABL, 5A;8 1K >= ?@>B82>459AB2>20; =5?@028;L=><C 8A?>;L7>20=8N 2;0AB8, :>B>@>5 2>7<>6=> 2A5340. > @5GL 84QB A>2A5< > 4@C3><. /E25 >AC6405B =5 7;>C?>B@51;5=85 2;0ABLN, 0 A0<C 2;0ABL. ;O 181;59A:>9 <KA;8 G5;>25G5A:0O 2;0ABL, CB25@640NI0O A2>N A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL, ?;>E0 ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45, ?> A2>59 ACB8. !?@0254;82K9 O2;O5BAO =5 A?@0254;82K< 8 A;01K<. = A?@0254;82, ?>B><C GB> >= A;01, ?> ?@8G8=5 A0<>9 A2>59 A;01>AB8, B0: 65 :0: A8;L=K9 ?;>E ?> ?@8G8=5 A0<>9 A2>59 A8;K. >MB><C 81;8O ?@>A;02;O5B =5 AB>;L:> A;01>3>, A:>;L:> A0<C A;01>ABL. @>GB5< A0;>< 118.  =Q< 02B>@ ?@>2>48B ;>38G5A:CN ?0@0;;5;L <564C A?@0254;82K< G5;>25:><, E@0=OI8< 70?>2548 /E25, 8 AB@0==8:>< =0 75<;5 (AB8E 19), ?@5A;54C5<K<, C=8605<K<, ?@578@05<K<. -B> A>AB>O=85, 2 :>B>@>< =0E>48BAO 02B>@ ?A0;<0, O2;O5BAO 4;O =53> 1;03>40BLN.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 >=> 1K;> 1K =5>1JOA=8<>. >3 =5 <>65B >H810BLAO, 8, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, A;01>ABL =5 <>65B 1KBL 7;><. >MB><C =587156=> A;54C5B, GB> A8;L=K9 B>@65AB2C5B B>;L:> 2=5H=5.  :0:0O 2=5H=>ABL <>65B 1KBL ;CGH5, G5< 53> A>1AB25==0O A8;0? 45AL <K 2848< 2 F5;>< 2K2>@0G820=85 ?@8G8==>-A;54AB25==>9 A2O78, ?@8ACI55 MB>9 ;8B5@0BC@5: 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> ?A0;<>?525F GC2AB2C5B A51O AB@0==8:><, C=865==K<, ?@5A;54C5<K<, >= ?@5>1@07C5B A2>Q 15AG5AB85 2 1;03>40BL, 8A?>;L7CO 548=AB25==>5 4>ABC?=>5 5<C A@54AB2>  2845BL 2 MB>< A;54AB285 2KAH59 2>;8 /E25.  B0: 65, :0: ?>AB830NI55 53> =5AG0ABL5 O2;O5BAO =081>;55 25@=K< ?@87=0:>< 53> 871@0=8O, B>@65AB2> A8;L=KE O2;O5BAO =5 <5=55 25@=K< ?@87=0:>< 8E ?>@>G=>AB8 8 ?@5425AB85< 8E =0:070=8O. >4>1=>5 8AB>;:>20=85 @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO 8 =0 ?@>H;K5 A>1KB8O. >8A59, 871@0==K9 /E25 4;O ?>;CG5=8O B:@>25=8O =0 !8=05, <>3 1KBL B>;L:> ;8HL 25;8:8< C=865==K<, 25;8:8< >1574>;5==K<, :@>BG09H8< 87 2A5E ;N459 =0 75<;5 ('8A;. 12, 3)  8 8<5==> ?> ?@8G8=5 MB>9 :@>B>AB8 ;N48 A>E@0=8;8 ?0<OBL > =Q<. !>3;0A=> 2>;5 /E25, ?>A;54=85 2A5340 1C4CB ?5@2K<8.  MB>< A<KA;5 /E25 157CA;>2=> O2;O5BAO 1>3>< <I5=8O. = >ACI5AB28B 2 8AB>@8G5A:>< 01A>;NB5 B>, GB> 53> A>740=8O =8:>340 =5 <>3;8 1K >ACI5AB28BL 2 8E A>1AB25==>9 8AB>@8G5A:>9 >B=>A8B5;L=>AB8 (A<. =83C ?@>@>:0 5@5<88). 5B0D878:0 <I5=8O, 845>;>38O >184K :0: 8AB>G=8: ?5@5>F5=:8 2A5E F5==>AB59, :0: 8AB>G=8: 70<5=K ?>;>68B5;L=>3> >B@8F0B5;L=K<, =0E>4OB 2 MB>9 A8AB5<5 A2>Q =081>;55 ?@>G=>5 >A=>20=85. AB8B5;L=>ABL ?>@>6405B =5A?>:>9=CN A>25ABL, :>B>@0O ?>4@07C<5205B 845N 3@5E0. 02O7K20=85 GC2AB20 28=K  ;8HL A@54AB2>, 548=AB25==>5 A@54AB2>, :>B>@K< @0A?>;0305B B>B, :B> A0< GC2AB2C5B A51O 65@B2>9 =5A?@0254;82>9 2;0AB8, GB>1K C1548BL A51O 2 ?>;=>< 2>7<5I5=88 70 A2>Q A>AB>O=85 8, >4=>2@5<5==> A MB8<, GB>1K >A;018BL A8;L=>3>, 70@0782 53> A><=5=85< 2 ?@8G8=0E A2>59 A8;K. %>BO, 2 :>=5G=>< AGQB5, 181;59A:0O <KA;L > B><, GB> A?@0254;82>, ?> ACB8 A?@0254;82>, GB>1K ?5@2K5 1K;8 ?>A;54=8<8, 0 ?>A;54=85 ?5@2K<8, AB@5<8BAO >?5@5BLAO =0 ?>=OB85 ;N128, MB0 ;N1>2L ?>AB>O==> >3@0=8G8205BAO =5B5@?8<>ABLN, :>B>@0O O2;O5BAO 5Q >B=>A8B5;L=>9 0=B8B57>9 8 G59 >G5=L A>2@5<5==K9 A25BA:89 20@80=B ?@54AB02;O5B 8725AB=>5 2KA:07K20=85 > A2>1>45, :>B>@0O =5 4>;6=0 @0A?@>AB@0=OBLAO =0 2@03>2 A2>1>4K.  E@8AB80=AB25 :>=5G=K< 2K@065=85< MB>9 8458 O2;ONBAO 70?>2548 1;065=AB20 (0B. 5, 3-12; C:. 6, 20-26)  =0AB>OI0O ?@>3@0<<0 ?5@5>F5=:8 2A5E F5==>AB59 8, ?@5645 2A53>, ?5@5>F5=:8 :;0AA8G5A:>3> C@02=5=8O O7KG5AB20: E>@>H89 = 7=0B=K9 = <>3CI5AB25==K9 = ?@5:@0A=K9 = AG0AB;82K9 = 1>3>-2>7;N1;5==K9 (8FH5,  35=50;>388 <>@0;8): ">;L:> >4=8 >B25@65==K5 O2;ONBAO E>@>H8<8; B>;L:> 154=K5, 15AA8;L=K5, =57=0B=K5 O2;ONBAO E>@>H8<8; B>;L:> AB@064CI85, B5@?OI85 ;8H5=8O, 1>;L=K5, C@>4;82K5 ACBL 548=AB25==> 1;03>G5AB82K5, 548=AB25==> =01>6=K5, 8< B>;L:> 8 ?@8=04;568B 1;065=AB2>,  2K 65, 7=0B=K5 8 <>3CI5AB25==K5, 2K, =0 25:8 25G=K5 7;K5, 65AB>:85, ?>E>B;82K5, =5=0AKB=K5, 1571>6=K5, 8 2K 4> A:>=G0=8O 2@5<Q= 1C45B5 7;>AG0AB=K<8, ?@>:;OBK<8 8 >AC64Q==K<8! (B0< 65). 0:A 515@, :0: 8 8FH5, C2845; 2 03>@=>9 ?@>?>2548 =01@>A>: 845>;>388 2>AAB0=8O @01>2. >2K9 025B A B>=:>ABLN @07@010BK205B A2O70==K5 A =59 B5<K, B0:85 :0: ?@>:;OB85 1>30BK<, 157=@02AB25==>ABL <0B5@80;L=KE ?@8>1@5B5=89 8 B.4. !2>8< CG5=8:0< 8ACA 70O2;O5B: K 7=05B5, GB> ?>G8B0NI85AO :=O7LO<8 =0@>4>2 3>A?>4AB2CNB =04 =8<8, 8 25;L<>68 8E 2;0AB2CNB 8<8; => <564C 20<8 40 =5 1C45B B0:: 0 :B> E>G5B 1KBL 1>;LH8< <564C 20<8, 40 1C45B 20< A;C3>N; 8 :B> E>G5B 1KBL ?5@2K< <564C 20<8, 40 1C45B 2A5< @01>< (Map. 10, 42-44). -B0 B5<0 2>7=8:05B =5A:>;L:> @07, >A>15==> C 0BD5O (20, 25-27). K >1=0@C68205< >B3>;>A>: MB>9 A>F80;L=>9 <>@0;8 C BF>2 &5@:28  8 40;55, 4> B5>@88 F5==>AB8 $><K :28=A:>3>, :>B>@0O C65 ?@5425I05B 8:0@4> 8 0@;0 0@:A0. 725AB=>, GB> 2 ?5@2K5 25:0 A2>53> ACI5AB2>20=8O E@8AB80=AB2> >1@0I0;>AL : 45:;0AA8@>20==K< 8 =52565AB25==K< M;5<5=B0<: > 2B>@>< 8 4065 B@5BL5< 25:5 E@8AB80=A:0O F5@:>2L 1K;0 5IQ 2 F5;>< (E>BO 8 A> <=>38<8 8A:;NG5=8O<8) 0@<859 >1574>;5==KE (E.R. Dodds, Paiens et chretiens dans un age d'angoisse, Pense sauvage, Claix, 1979, 151). -B0 G5@B0, 2?@>G5<, A?>A>1AB2>20;0 5Q CA?5EC, ?>B><C GB> ?>72>;O;0 59 8A?>;L7>20BL 4;O A2>59 2K3>4K AB@5<;5=85 : A>F80;L=>9 @52>;NF88: %@8AB80=AB2> ?@54;030;> >1574>;5==K< >15I0=85 ;CGH59 4>;8 2 703@>1=>< <8@5. =>385 87 A>?5@=8G02H8E O7KG5A:8E @5;8389 45;0;8 B> 65 A0<>5. > E@8AB80=AB2> @0A?>;030;> 1>;55 :@C?=K< :CA:>< E;510 8 1>;55 A>G=>9 <>@:>2:>9 (ibid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aint Paul et le mystere Christ, Seuil, 1956, p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B5G5=85 AB>;5B89 381@84=0O <>45;L B0: 8 =5 871028;0AL >B A2>59 42CA<KA;5==>AB8, :>B>@0O 2>7459AB2>20;0 =0 2A5 284K 8 8450;K E@8AB80=A:>3> 3>AC40@AB20 8;8 E@8AB80=A:>9 ?>;8B8:8. 5>1E>48<> 2845BL,  ?8H5B B0:65 .;8CA -2>;0,  0=B8B57C, :>B>@0O ACI5AB2C5B <564C G8AB>9 E@8AB80=A:>9 <>@0;LN ;N128, ?@>I5=8O, :@>B>AB8, <8AB8G5A:>9 G5;>25G=>AB8 8 MB8:>-?>;8B8G5A:8<8 F5==>ABO<8 A?@0254;82>AB8, G5AB8, @07;8G8O, 4CE>2=>AB8, :>B>@K5 =5 >B25@30NB A8;C, 0, =0?@>B82, >1;040NB 5N 2 :0G5AB25 A2>59 >1KG=>9 ?@8=04;56=>AB8. %@8AB80=A:><C ?@54?8A0=8N 2>74020BL 4>1@>< 70 7;> ?@>B82>AB>8B ?@54?8A0=85 1>@>BLAO A =5A?@0254;82>ABLN, :>=5G=> 65, ?@>I0O 8 1C4CG8 25;8:>4CH=K<, => ?> >B=>H5=8N : 2@03C ?>1564Q==><C, 0 =5 ?>15640NI5<C, A8;L=><C A2>59 =5A?@0254;82>ABLN.  <C65AB25==>< >@30=87<5, :0:>2K< ?@54?>;0305BAO 8450; =0AB>OI53> >AC40@AB20, =5<=>3> <5AB0 4;O ;N128, :>B>@0O @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =0 B5E, :B> > =59 =5 ?@>A8B 8;8 5Q =54>AB>8=. >=5G=> 65, <>6=> ?@54AB028BL A515 @02=K5 >B=>H5=8O, 157 :0:8E-;81> :><<C=8AB8G5A:>-A>F80;8AB8G5A:8E 8;8 D@0B5@=0;8ABA:8E >BB5=:>2, >A=>20==K5 =0 2708<=>9 25@=>AB8, ?@87=0=88 8 C2065=88, ?@8 :>B>@KE :064K9 G5;>25: A>E@0=O5B A2>Q 4>AB>8=AB2> 8 >?@545;Q==>5 GC2AB2> 48AB0=F88. > =5B =8:0:>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?5@5G8A;OBL 745AL ?>;8B8G5A:85 ?>A;54AB28O, :>B>@K5 ?>2;5:;> 1K 70 A>1>9 1C:20;L=>5 8AB>;:>20=85 520=35;LA:8E 70?>25459, : :>B>@K< >BAK;05B, =0?@8<5@, ?@8BG0 > ?>;52KE ;8;8OE 8 ?B8F0E =515A=KE, 0 B0:65 B0:>5 <=>65AB2> 4@C38E 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 =838;8AB8G5A:8E ?@8BG, >A=>20==KE =0 ?5@5>F5=:5 75<=KE F5==>AB59 8 <KA;8 > =587156=>< ?@8H5AB288 &0@AB20 (N48 8 @C8=K).  MB8E CA;>28OE 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO B>, GB> E@8AB80=AB2>, :@8B8G5A:8 >14C<K20NI55 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O A2>N 8AB>@8N, >B40;O5BAO >B ?@8=F8?>2, :>B>@K5 ?>72>;8;8 5<C CB25@48BLAO 2 :0G5AB25 A8;K. !B>;L G0AB> ?@>2>73;0H0NI89AO 2>72@0B : 20=35;8N, ?@5>1;040=85 ?0ABK@AB20 =04 4>3<0B8:>9 :;04CB :>=5F 42CA<KA;5==><C ?>;>65=8N, :>B>@>5, <K ?>;=>ABLN A>3;0A=K, ACI5AB2>20;> A;8H:>< 4>;3>5 2@5<O. $0CAB>2A:0O A8;0 8 E@8AB80=A:89 4CE @07@K20NB A>N7, :>B>@K9 =8:>340 =5 1K; ?>-=0AB>OI5<C ?>;=K<, 8 ?>=OB85 E@8AB80=A:0O ?>;8B8:0 2AQ 1>;55 ?>425@305BAO A><=5=8N 4065 2 A0<>9 F5@:>2=>9 A@545. >;55 B>3>, 4065 A0<> ?>=OB85 ?>;8B8:8 ?>425@305BAO >128=5=8O< 2 87=0G0;L=>< 181;59A:>< 4CE5. 0: -;;N;L @5H8B5;L=> ?@>2>73;0H05B: 0:>?;5=85 7>;, @>AB >?0A=>AB59  2AQ MB> ?>;8B8:0, 8 8<5==> >=0 8E ?>@>6405B. =0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A>2@5<5==K9 >1@07 01A>;NB=>3> ;0. =0  A0B0=87<, 4LO2>;87<, A0<K9 F5=B@ 45<>=87<0 (La foi aux prix du doute, Hachette, 1980, p. I 279). >B82 2A5340 40QBAO >48= 8 B>B 65: >;8B8:0 =02O7K205B A51O 2 :0G5AB25 C=825@A0;88 8 A25@305B >30 (ibid., p. 289). j C6=> ;8 C482;OBLAO, 5A;8 ?>4>1=>5 >128=5=85 72CG8B A59G0A A> 2A5E AB>@>=? >AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 A>2@5<5==KE 845>;>389 ;8HL ?@>O2;O5B 2 A25BA:>< 2845 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:85 F5==>AB8, ?@52@0I5=85 8450;0 =><>:@0B88, >15AF5=820=8O A0<>9 8458 2;0AB8, ;8H5=8O ?>;8B8:8 70:>==>3> AB0BCA0 2 B5>@5B8G5A:85 ;>7C=38 1K;> =587156=K<.  A2>59 :=835 0@20@AB2> A G5;>25G5A:8< ;8F>< (Grasset, 1977) .-. 528 CB25@6405B, GB> 2;0ABL 5ABL 7;>.  025B5 >30 (Grasset, 1979) >= >1JO2;O5B > A2>Q< 65;0=88 >3@0=8G8BL ?>;8B8:C, GB>1K >A2>1>48BL <5AB> 4;O MB8:8 8 A25AB8 ?>;8B8:C : 5Q ?@>AB59H5<C 2K@065=8N, 8 4>102;O5B: >9 8450; >AC40@AB20  MB> >AC40@AB2> 157 8450;>2 (@. 49)65. 8H5;L 5 @8 2>A:;8F05B: / 704C<0; =0?8A0BL :>=5F ?>;8B8:8. (<CM;L "@830=> 2KABC?05B 70 ?@5>4>;5=85 >B=>H5=89 3>A?>4AB20, 87>1@5B5=85 G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 =5 1K; 1K =8 3>A?>48=><, =8 @01>< (op. cit., p. 77). 5B =C64K C<=>60BL ?@8<5@K: MB> =0AB>OI89 E>@. 1I89 7=0<5=0B5;L 2A5E MB8E <=5=89 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> ?>;8B8:0 O2;O5BAO :@8B5@85< 2;0AB8 G5;>25:0 =04 G5;>25:>< 8 GB> 3>A?>4AB2> ?>@>6405BAO B5<, GB> ?> A0<>9 A2>59 ?@8@>45 G5;>25G5A:0O 2;0ABL A:;>==0 2KE>48BL 70 A2>8 A>1AB25==K5 @0<:8 ?> ?@8G8=5 AB@5<;5=8O : :@09=>ABO<, ?>4>1=>3> B><C, :>B>@>5 >?8A0; ;0C7528F. >?CB=> <>6=> 70<5B8BL AE>4AB2> MB>3> ?>;>65=8O A ?>;>65=85<, :>B>@>5 ?@54AB02;O5B 0@:A, 2K2>4OI89 ?>;8B8:C 2 B>< 2845, 2 :0:>< <K 5Q 7=05<, 87 >BGC645=8O (M:>=><8G5A:>3>), :>B>@>5, a contrario, >B=N4L =5 GC64> 8 ;815@0;L=>9 <KA;8 >?@545;Q==>3> @>40, ?@5645 2A53> 0<5@8:0=A:>9, >A=>20==>9 =0 3;025=AB25 M:>=><8:8 8 N@848G5A:>3> <>@0;87<066. B A2. 23CAB8=0, 284OI53> 2 8AB>@88 8<0 8AB>@8N 10=4K @071>9=8:>2, 4> -@8E0 $@><<0, >AC640NI53> 2 52@>?59A:>< 35@>87<5 8AB>@8N 702>520=89, 3>@4K=8 8 0;G=>AB8, =0?@02;5=85 2A5340 >AB0QBAO >4=8< 8 B5< 65: @5GL 2A5340 84QB > ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=88 >3@0=8G820NI53> !>25@H5==> @C3>3> ?@5>4>;5=8N A0<>3> A51O, =5?>4286=>AB8 2A5>1I53> <8@0 ?@>O2;5=8N 687=5==KE ?@>B82>@5G89 8 >3@0=8G5=89 M30;8B0@87<0  ?@54;>30 4;O 7;>1K (8FH5, =B8E@8AB)  15A:>=5G=><C ?>@K2C A2>1>4=>9 2>;8. 65) 8HL G8AB> CA;>2=> <K 70AB028;8 A51O ?@8=8<0BL 745AL 2A5@LQ7 02B>@0, 4;O :>B>@>3> @048:0;L=K9 :>A<>?>;8B87< 4>;65= 1KBL 87>1@5B5= ?@>B82 ;N1KE >1I8==KE 8;;N789 (Le testament de Dieu, op. cit., p. 162), :>B>@K9 A =0AB>9G82>ABLN 70O2;O5B > DC=40<5=B0;L=>< ?@025 :064>3>... =0 87<5=C, =570:>==> >B>645AB2;OO A>?@>B82;5=85, >B:07 >B ?@8=04;56=>AB8 8 87<5=C, :>B>@K9 ?@8?8AK205B 35=8N 8C4087<0 845N >30, B2>@OI53> ;> (ibid., p. 237), >BACBAB2CNI53> >30, :>B>@K9 ?>:8=C; A2>Q B2>@5=85, ?>:8=C; 53> =02A5340 (ibid., p. 247), :>B>@K9, =5 :>;51;OAL, 45;05B 87 ;5=0, 2 :>B>@>< 2AO 8C459A:0O B@048F8O 2848B =0:070=85, 8A?KB0=85 2 A>1AB25==>< A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20, =081>;55 ?@8<5@=K9 >1@075F 2A5E A>AB>O=89 8 B.4. "CB C6 =8G53> =5 A:065HL  1C<030 AB5@?8B 2A5. 66) 0@; (<8BB ?8H5B: G5=L G0AB> ;815@0;L=0O <KA;L =5 70<5G05B >AC40@AB2> 8 ?>;8B8:C 8;8 8715305B 8E, ?@54?>G8B0O 8< E0@0:B5@=CN 8 ?>AB>O==> 2>7>1=>2;O5<CN ?>;O@=>ABL <564C 42C<O @07=>@>4=K<8 >1;0ABO<8: <>@0;LN 8 M:>=><8:>9, 4CE>< 8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2>< (...) A5 MB8 459AB28O ?> ?>4<5=5 8<5NB A2>59 >G5284=>9 F5;LN ?>4G8=5=85 >AC40@AB20 8 ?>;8B8:8 8=48284C0;8AB8G5A:>9 <>@0;8 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, G0AB=><C ?@02C A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 0 A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K  M:>=><8G5A:8< :0B53>@8O<, 0 B0:65 ;8H5=85 >AC40@AB20 8 ?>;8B8:8 8E A>1AB25==>3> A<KA;0 (>=OB85 ?>;8B8G5A:>3>). -B> AB@5<;5=85 : C?@074=5=8N ?>;8B8:8 O2;O5BAO >G5284=>9  8 G@572KG09=> >?0A=>9  CB>?859. '5;>25: 682QB 2 >1I5AB25, 0 =5 ACI5AB2C5B >1I5AB20, :>B>@>5 <>3;> 1K 68BL 157 ?>;8B8:8. 0: 284 45OB5;L=>AB8, 8<5NI89 @07=K5 D>@<K, => 2A5340 >4=C ACBL, A;C60I89 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 >@30=870F88 8 A?;>G5=8N >1I5AB20, ?>;8B8:0 ?>@>6405BAO M;5<5=B0@=>9 >1I8B5;L=>ABLN G5;>25:0. >;8B8:0,  ?8H5B N;L5= $@>9=4,  =5 ?>4G8=O5BAO 65;0=8O< 8 D0=B078O< G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 =5 <>65B 45;0BL B>3>, G53> >= =5 <>65B 45;0BL, 8;8 1KBL B5<, G5< >= =5 <>65B 1KBL. '5;>25: <>65B ?>4028BL ?>;8B8:C B>;L:> 70 AGQB ?>402;5=8O A0<>3> A51O (...) >;8B8:0 O2;O5BAO ACBLN 2 42CE A<KA;0E  A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, :0: >4=0 87 >A=>2=KE :0B53>@89, ?>AB>O==KE 8 =58A:>@5=8<KE 87 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K 8 ACI5AB2>20=8O, 0 A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, :0: 459AB28B5;L=>ABL, :>B>@0O >AB0QBAO B>645AB25==>9 A0<>9 A515, =5A<>B@O =0 87<5=5=8O, ?@>8AE>4OI85 =0 75<=>9 ?>25@E=>AB8. @C38<8 A;>20<8, G5;>25: =5 87>1@5B0; ?>;8B8:C 8;8 >1I5AB2> 8, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ?>;8B8:0 2A5340 >AB0=5BAO B5<, G5< >=0 2A5340 1K;0 (L'essence di politique, Sirey, 1965, pp. 44-45). !CBL ?>;8B8:8 2:;NG05B B@8 ?@54?>AK;:8: >B=>H5=85 ?@8:070 8 ?>4G8=5=8O, >?@545;ONI55 ?>@O4>:, >B=>H5=85 G0AB=>3> 8 >1I5AB25==>3>, >?@545;ONI55 <=5=85, >B=>H5=85 4@C30 8 2@030, >?@545;ONI55 1>@L1C. <5==> ?>B><C, GB> ACBL ?>;8B8:8 <>18;87C5B MB8 ?@54?>AK;:8, >A>15==> ?5@2CN 8 B@5BLN, >=0 2K7K205B @57:CN 2@06451=>ABL B5E ;N459, :>B>@K5 >B:07K20NBAO ?@87=020BL, GB> >B=>H5=8O 2;0AB8  =5 >1O70B5;L=> 45A?>B8G5A:>9!  =587156=> ?>@>640NBAO G5;>25G5A:8< @07=>>1@0785<, B0: GB> 4065 0:BK A>?@>B82;5=8O 8 >B:070 <>3CB 8<5BL A<KA; B>;L:> ?> >B=>H5=8N : D0:B8G5A:8< 40==K< ?>4G8=5=8O 8 ?@8:070. 1I5AB2> 157 ?>;8B8:8 1K;> 1K >1I5AB2>< 157 ?>@O4:0 (0=0@E859, ?>@>640NI59 A25@E:><?5=A0F8N 2 2845 48:B0BC@K), <=5=89 (=081>;55 ?>;=K< >BACBAB285< A2>1>4K) 8 1>@L1K (A<5@BLN). BAN40 :;0AA8G5A:>5 >?@545;5=85 N;L5=>< $@>9=4>< ?>;8B8:8 :0: >1I5AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, CB25@640NI59 A51O A8;>9, 2 F5;>< >A=>20==>9, =0 ?@025, 2=5H=59 157>?0A=>AB8 8 2=CB@5==5< A>3;0A88 >?@545;Q==>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 548=AB20, >15A?5G820NI59 ?>@O4>: 2 1>@L15, O2;ONI59AO A;54AB285< @07=>>1@078O 8 @0AE>645=8O <=5=89 8 8=B5@5A>2 (op. cit., p. 751). 1KG=>9 8=AB0=F859 ?>;8B8:8 O2;O5BAO >AC40@AB2>67. 3> >A=>2=K5 7040G8: 2=5H=OO  >?@545;OBL 2@030 (=0AB>OI53> 8;8 ?>B5=F80;L=>3>), 2=CB@5==OO  A;548BL 70 B5<, GB>1K, G0AB=K5 AB>;:=>25=8O =5 2K;8;8AL 2 3@0640=A:CN 2>9=C; 0:8025;;8 2848B 2 >AC40@AB25 ?@5645 2A53> =081>;55 ?>4E>4OI55 A@54AB2> ?>;>68BL :>=5F 2>9=0< <564C >B45;L=K<8 8B0;LO=A:8<8 3>AC40@O<8. "0:8< >1@07><, A>25@H5==> 5AB5AB25==>, GB> >AC40@AB2> ?@815305B : B0:><C >A>15==><C ?>;8B8G5A:><C A@54AB2C, :0: A8;0 (A<.: Julien Freund, op. cit., ch. X, Le moyen spcifique du politique, pp. 704-751). <5==> A MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O =5>1E>48<> @0AA<0B@820BL 2>?@>A > raison d'etat, :>B>@K9 =5 ?5@5AB020; 70=8<0BL <KA;8 ?>;8B>;>3>2 A A5<=04F0B>3> AB>;5B8O. &5;L raison d'etat  >1I85 8=B5@5AK, >= A2>53> @>40 >1I5AB25==>5 A?0A5=85. = =5 O2;O5BAO ?@02>< >AC40@AB20 45;0BL 2AQ, GB> 5<C 701;03>@0AAC48BAO, ?>4 B5< ?@54;>3><, GB>, 1C4CG8 E@0=8B5;5< 8 30@0=B>< AC25@5==>9 2;0AB8, >=> =5 >1O70=> A0<> 59 ?>4G8=OBLAO. = A:>@55 ?@>8AB5:05B 87 ?@8=F8?0 0=B8@54C:F8>=87<0: >1I5AB2> 2 F5;>< 8<55B ?@020, :>B>@KE =5 <>3CB 8<5BL 53> A>AB02=K5 G0AB8 ?> >B45;L=>AB8, 8 MB8 ?@020 8A?>;L7CNBAO >AC40@AB2><. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@8=F8? raison d'etat :>=F5?BC0;L=> =5>B45;8< >B 3>AC40@AB25==>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> @C:>2>4AB20. >AC40@AB2> =5 B>;L:> =5 A<>3;> 1K 2>7=8:=CBL 157 MB>3> ?@8=F8?0, >=> =5 A<>3;> 1K 157 =53> 8 2K68BL, B0: GB> 4065 A B>G:8 7@5=8O <>@0;8 ?>;8B8:0 ?@8720=0 =5 >B@8F0BL 8;8 C?@074=OBL 53>, 0 =0E>48BL CA;>28O ?@02>AC48O, A?>A>1=K5 A<O3G8BL AB@>3>ABL 53> ?@8<5=5=8O (...) ?@545;Q==>, GB> ACI5AB2C5B ?>AB>O==K9 @8A: 2K@>645=8O raison d'etat 2 ?@>AB>9 8=AB@C<5=B ?>;8B8G5A:>9 E8B@>AB8 8;8 >?@0240=85 B8@0=8G5A:>9 ?>;8B8:8, => MB> =5 <5H05B 5<C 1KBL ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45 @07C<><, <5@>9 8 <C4@>ABLN, B> 5ABL A;C68BL ?>8A:0< =081>;55 459AB25==>3> @5H5=8O, :>B>@>5 A2>48;> 1K : <8=8<C<C ;8G=K5 8 >1I5AB25==K5 ?@54@0AAC4:8 2 8=B5@5A0E M:>=><8:8 >1I5AB20 2 F5;>< (...) 4=8< A;>2><, 25@8BL 2 C?@074=5=85 raison d'etat 7=0G8B ?>;030BL, GB> 1>;LH5 =8:>340 =5 1C45B 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE A8BC0F89, 0 B0:65 >B@8F0BL B@0=AF5=45=F8N >AC40@AB20 8 A2>48BL 53> ;8HL : >4=><C 87 <=>65AB20 >1J548=5=89 (Jules Freund, op. cit., p. 564). 67) A;8 >AC40@AB2> =5 <>65B (8;8 =5 E>G5B) CB25@48BL A51O :0: >1KG=CN ?>;8B8G5A:CN 8=AB0=F8N, ?>;8B8:0 =587156=> =0E>48B 4;O A51O 8=K5 8=AB0=F88. ">340 <>6=> A:070BL, GB> ?>;8B8:0 ?>4G8=O5B 2AQ A515.  7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 MB> 8<5==> B>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B A59G0A. 'B> :0A05BAO AB0@>3> A?>@0, 24>E=>2;5==>3> 81;859, > ?@>B82>AB>O=88 A8;K 8 ?@020, >= AB0=>28BAO 15AA<KA;5==K<, :>340 <K >A>7=05<, GB> ?@02> =5 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL, 5A;8 =5 ACI5AB2C5B A@54AB2 4;O 53> ?@8<5=5=8O. @02> =5 <>65B ?@8<5=8BL A51O A0<>, ?@8=C645=85 =5 O2;O5BAO ?@8ACI59 5<C ?> ?@8@>45 G5@B>9. 0: >?OBL-B0:8 ?8H5B N;L5= $@>9=4, ?@02> O2;O5BAO >1@07F>< 8 ?@54?8A0=85<, => >=> =5 >1;0405B A0<> ?> A515 A?>A>1=>ABLN =02O70BL 8;8 70AB028BL C2060BL B>, GB> >=> ?@54?8AK205B. @8=C645=85 ?@8E>48B 872=5: 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B >1AB>OB5;LAB2, 8< <>65B 1KBL ?>;8B8:0 8;8 85@0@E8O (Le droit d'aujourd'hui, PUF, 1972, p. 9). A priori ?@02> 8A:;NG05B =5 A8;C, 0 =0A8;85.  ?@02>2>< 3>AC40@AB25, 345 ?@028; 1K >48= 70:>=,  4>102;O5B $@>9=4,  =5 B>;L:> ?@02> 1K;> 1K 15AA8;L=K<, => 8 ?>;8B8:0 1K;0 1K ?0@0;87>20=0 (...) 8@ 5ABL A>AB>O=85 ?@5645 2A53> ?>;8B8G5A:>5, 0 =5 N@848G5A:>5. ">;L:> B>340, :>340 ?>;8B8:0 4>AB0B>G=> A8;L=0, GB>1K CAB@0=8BL =0A8;85 2=CB@8 8 2=5 3>AC40@AB20, >=0 <>65B =02O70BL @5H5=85 2>?@>A>2 ?@02>2K< ?CBQ< (ibid., p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itra-Varuna. Essai sur deux reprsentations indo-europennes de la souverainet, PUF, 1940; 8 Gallimard, 1948; Les dieux souverains des Indo-Europens, Gallimard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ranois George, Souvenirs de la maison Marx, Christian Bourgeois, 1980, p. 303). -B>B 8450; 2A5>1I53> <8@0 O2;O5BAO 8450;>< >BACBAB28O ?@>B82>@5G89, ;>38G5A:8 ?>4@07C<520NI8< 8AG57=>25=85 @07;8G89, 0 ?>:0 >=8 5IQ =5 8AG57;8  8E B5>@5B8G5A:>5 >15AF5=820=85, ?>B><C GB> 8<5==> MB8 @07;8G8O ?>@>640NB ?@>B82>@5G8O. @>B82>@5G85 5ABL 42830B5;L 687=8; 65;0=85 CAB@0=8BL 53> 5ABL 65;0=85 A<5@B8. 68) !2. 23CAB8= 3>2>@8B, GB> aitdacia >B45;O5B 4CHC >B >30 (De moribus I, 20). -B8< A;>2>< audacia ?5@52>48BAO 745AL 3@5G5A:>5 A;>2>, :>B>@K< ?8D03>@59FK >1>7=0G0;8 804C, B> 5ABL ?@8=F8? ?@>B82>1>@AB20, 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL 48=AB25==><C. !>2A5< ?>-4@C3><C >1AB>8B 45;> 2 O7KG5AB25, 345 AB>;:=>25=85 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59 8 53> @07@5H5=85 2 ACI5AB25 <8@0 8 53> ?>A@54AB2>< >A2OI05B 1>@L1C :0: ?>;>68B5;L=CN 8 >A=>2=CN @50;L=>ABL. >@L10 =5 A>740QB ?>@O4:0, => >=0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 :0@:0A, =0 :>B>@>< 45@68BAO 2A5;5==0O. >4@07C<520O >4=>2@5<5==> A>E@0=5=85 8 ?@5>1@065=85, ?@>B82>@5G85  =5 <5E0=8AB8G5A:>5, =5 =5?@5>4>;8<>5, 0 480;5:B8G5A:>5,  >15A?5G8205B A2>Q A>1AB25==>5 ?@5>4>;5=85 (Aufhebung). 0 M<?8@8G5A:>9 8 4>?>=OB89=>9 AB0488 <K >1=0@C68205< OA=>5 ?>=8<0=85 MB>3> A A0<>9 @0==59 0=B8G=>AB8, ?@5645 2A53> C 5@0:;8B0: >;6=> 7=0BL, GB> 2>9=0 >1I5?@8=OB0, GB> 2@0640  >1KG=K9 ?>@O4>: 25I59, 8 GB> 2AQ 2>7=8:05B G5@57 2@064C 8 708<>>1@07=> (D@03<. 80). !B0=>2;5=85 ?>@>6405BAO AB>;:=>25=85< ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59,  ?8H5B 8FH5 ?> ?>2>4C 5@0:;8B0,  >?@545;Q==K5 :0G5AB20, :>B>@K5 :06CBAO =0< CAB>9G82K<8, 2K@060NB B>;L:> ;8HL <3=>25==>5 ?@58<CI5AB2> >4=>3> 87 1>@F>2, => =5 ?@5:@0I0NB 2>9=K; 1>@L10 ?@>4>;605BAO 25G=>ABL. -B0 1>@L10 A;C68B >1@07F>< 4;O 2A53> 8 O2;O5B A>1>9 25G=CN A?@0254;82>ABL... -B> 2>AE8B8B5;L=0O <KA;L, ?>G5@?=CB0O 87 G8AB59H53> M;;8=A:>3> 8AB>G=8:0, :>B>@0O 2848B 2 1>@L15 =5?@5@K2=>5 459AB285 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>9 8 AC@>2>9 A?@0254;82>AB8, >1@0IQ==>5 : 25G=K< F5;O< (...) -B> 4>1@0O -@840 5A8>40, 2>7254Q==0O 2> 2A5>1I89 ?@8=F8?, MB> <KA;L 03>=0 3@5:>2 8 3@5G5A:>3> ?>;8A0, 38<=0A852 8 ?0;5AB@, 1>@L1K ?>;8B8G5A:8E ?0@B89 8 ?>;8A>2 <564C A>1>9, => >1>1I5==0O 4> 15A:>=5G=>AB8, B0: GB> 4065 <5E0=87< :>A<>A0 ?>4G8=O5BAO 59 (La naissance de la philosophic a l'poque de la tragdie grecque, Gallimard, 1938, p. 60).  B5G5=85 2A59 52@>?59A:>9 8AB>@88 MB0 ?>4@07C<5205<0O D8;>A>D8O 1C45B ?@54AB02;OBL >A=>2=>5 >?@0240=85 ?@>A;02;5=8O F5==>AB59 1>@L1K. !0:A>= @0<<0B8: 2:;04K205B 2 CAB0 LO@5O A;54CNI85 A;>20: >9=0 ?>@>6405BAO 2KA>:>@>4=K<8 ;N4L<8; ;N48, 254CI85 2>9=C, 8<5NB 2KA>:>5 ?@>8AE>645=85. ?0A=K5 459AB28O 2>6459 =5 O2;ONBAO C45;>< ?@>ABKE ;N459 (Gesta Danorum, 2, 65).  8<5==> 845O 2A5>1I59 1>@L1K, 0 =5 <8@0, =0E>48B A2>Q 2K@065=85 2 ?@5:@0A=>9 3@02N@5 70304>G=>3> 5B@0@:0-<09AB5@0 Der Kampf in der Natur (1520).  B> 2@5<O, :0: 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>5 548=>1>685, =>A8B5;L >45@68<>AB8 48=K< 8 >4=>@>4=K<, B@51C5B CAB@0=5=8O ?@>B82>@5G89 (8;8 AG8B05B, GB> >?@024K205B A51O, B@51CO MB>3>), =5 ?>=8<0O, GB> ?@>B82>@5G82>ABL 70;>65=0 2 A0<>9 ?@8@>45 687=8 8 5Q CAB@0=5=85 >7=0G05B M=B@>?8N 8 A<5@BL, 52@>?59A:>5 O7KG5AB2> >A=>2K205BAO =0 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:>< ?;N@0;87<5 F5==>AB59.  A2>8E =081>;55 =5?>A@54AB25==KE ?@>O2;5=8OE <=>3>1>685 O2;O5BAO 2K@065=85< MB>3> 0=B03>=87<0, :>B>@>5 =8:>340 =5 ?@82>48B : =5>1@0B8<K< ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABO<, : @048:0;L=><C 4C0;87<C, => :>B>@>5 5AB5AB25==K< >1@07>< @07@5H05BAO 2 30@<>=8G5A:>< 548=AB25. /7KG5A:85 1>38 1>@NBAO <564C A>1>9, => MB0 1>@L10 =5 ?>4@K205B B@QEG0AB=>3> ?>AB@>5=8O (B@8 :0ABK), AB02H53> A;54AB285< >A=>2>?>;030NI59 2>9=K69. !>3;0H0OAL A 0=><-C8 "@8AB0=8, 8H5;L 0DD5A>;8 ?>4GQ@:8205B, GB> B@QEG0AB=>5 45;5=85, :>B>@>5 >1=0@C68205B C 8=4>52@>?59F52 >@6 N<578;J, A?>A>1AB2C5B ?@87=0=8N >1I5AB25==>3> @07=>>1@078O; ACI5AB2CNB @07;8G=K5 @>;8, :>B>@K5 ?@8=8<0NBAO, 8A?>;=ONBAO, ?@>B82>1>@AB2CNB, <>65B 1KBL, 4065 AB0;:820NBAO, => ?@8 MB>< ?@87=0NBAO :0: B0:>2K5, 8, 4065 5A;8 ACI5AB2C5B 3535<>=8O :0:>3>-B> B8?0, >=0 ;8HL <3=>25==0, =5CAB>9G820 8 2A5340 ?>425@305BAO A><=5=8N (La violence totalitaire, op. cit., p. 184). 69) > ?>2>4C ?>=OB89 B@QEG0AB=>3> ?>AB@>5=8O 8 >A=>2>?>;030NI59 2>9=K <K >BAK;05< G8B0B5;O : @07;8G=K< A>G8=5=8O< >@60 N<578;O. !<. B0:65 A2>4:C MB8E 8AA;54>20=89 2 :=835: Jean-Claude Riviere (d.). Georges Dumzil. A la dcouverte des Indo-Europens. Copernic, 1979. <5==> ?>B><C, GB>, :0: 3>2>@8B 0:A 515@ (#GQ=K9 8 ?>;8B8:0), 1>38 A@060NBAO, B0:65 A@060NBAO 8 AB0;:820NBAO 2 25G=>< >A=>2>?>;030NI5< ?@54AB02;5=88 2A5340 <=>65AB25==K5 ?@>B82>1>@AB2CNI85 A8;K, =8 >4=0 87 :>B>@KE 70@0=55 =5 >1;0405B 2 01A>;NB5 ?@58<CI5AB20<8. ;O O7KG5A:>3> 4CE0 4065 >1I5AB25==K9 2@03 (hostis 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL inimicus) =5 <>65B ?@54AB02;OBL 7;0 2 A515. = 2A5340 >AB0QBAO >B=>A8B5;L=K< ?@>B82=8:><. >;55 B>3>, 87 AB>;:=>25=8O <>65B @>48BLAO 2708<=>5 C2065=85. @030, A :>B>@K< ?@54AB>8B AB>;:=CBLAO, =5 B>;L:> =5 B@51C5BAO ?@8=860BL (GB> =587156=> 4;O ?0F8D8ABA:>9 A8AB5<K)  8<5==> 2A;54AB285 AB>;:=>25=8O 8 1>@L1K A =8< 53> <>6=> ?@87=0BL @02=K< A515. BAN40 2 >A=>25 A2>59 O7KG5A:89 ?@87K2 : 1@0BAB2C 2 1>@L15  ?@87K2, 70<5B8<, @54:> ?@8=8<05<K9 A53>4=O,  :>B>@K9 ?@54AB02;O5B ?>;=CN ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL ?@>I5=8N ?@5ABC?;5=89 8 ;52>9 I5:8, ?>4AB02;O5<>9 ?>A;5 C40@0 ?> ?@02>9. BAN40 B0:65 8 4@52=89 >1KG09 ?>548=:0, O2;ONI89AO O@G09H8< 2K@065=85< ?>4>1=>3> >1@070 <KA;59 (:>B>@K9, :0: <K 7=05<, A>E@0=O;AO AB>;L 4>;3>5 2@5<O, =57028A8<> 4065 >B B5E=8G5A:>3> @0728B8O A@54AB2 1>@L1K)70.  O7KG5AB25 2>9=0 @5;8389 (2>9=0 :0B53>@89 25@K) 8A:;NG05BAO B0: 65, :0: 8 2>9=0 :;0AA>2 (2>9=0 :0B53>@89 >1I5AB20), ?> ?@8G8=5 A0<>9 8E =5?@5>4>;8<>9 ?@8@>4K. @03, 4@C3>9 2>A?@8=8<05BAO =5 :0: ?@5ABC?=8:, 0 :0: >1@07 B5:CI53> 2>?@>A0; ACI5AB2>20=85 4@C3>3> 8;8 53> >B;8G85 =5 >B@8F0NBAO, 0 AG8B0NBAO <5@>9 >1I5AB25==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O, :>B>@>3> =5 <>65B 1KBL 157 1>@L1K (Michel Maffesoli, La violence totalitaire, op. cit., pp. 61-62). 70) <5==> ?>4>1=K9 B8?8G=> 03>=0;L=K9 A?>A>1 ?>548=:0 ?@54;0305B 2 81;88 D8;8AB8<;O=8= >;80D: K15@8B5 C A51O G5;>25:0, 8 ?CABL A>94QB :> <=5. A;8 >= <>65B A@078BLAO A> <=>N 8 C1L5B <5=O, B> <K 1C45< 20H8<8 @010<8; 5A;8 65 O >4>;5N 53> 8 C1LN 53>, B> 2K 1C45B5 =0H8<8 @010<8, 8 1C45B5 A;C68BL =0< (...) !53>4=O O ?>A@0<;N ?>;:8 7@08;LA:85; 409B5 <=5 G5;>25:0, 8 <K A@078<AO 242>5< (1 &0@. 17, 8-10). 0: 8725AB=>, MB> ?@54;>65=85 1K;> >B25@3=CB>. 0284 C18205B >;80D0 ?@540B5;LA:8< A?>A>1><, =5 ?@81;860OAL : =5<C 2 =0@CH5=85 CA;>289 ?>548=:0: "0: >4>;5; 0284 $8;8AB8<;O=8=0 ?@0I5N 8 :0<=5<, 8 ?>@078; $8;8AB8<;O=8=0 8 C18; 53>; <5G0 65 =5 1K;> 2 @C:0E 02840 (I &0@. 17, 50). "5<0 1@0BL52-2@03>2, :>B>@0O 2 8=4>52@>?59A:>9 B@048F88, :0: ?@54AB02;O5BAO, :>A25==> A2O70=0 A B5<>9 1>65AB25==KE; 1;87=5F>271, ?@5:@0A=> A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, :0: O7KG5A:0O <KA;L ?><5I05B ?@>B82>@5G8O 8 AB>;:=>25=8O ?> BC AB>@>=C 4>1@0 8 7;0. 'B>1K ?>=OBL MB>, 4>AB0B>G=> A@02=8BL A >4=>9 AB>@>=K ?@>B82>AB>O=85 25;O 8 08=0 8;8 0:>20 8 A020, 0 A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K  -B5>:;0 8 >;8=8:0 8;8 -?8<5B5O 8 @><5B5O (4065 ><C;0 8 5<0). @8<5G0B5;L=> B0:65 B>, :0: D0CAB>2A:0O 4CH0, >A>15==> 2 M?>EC C@8 8 =0B8A:0 (2 5AA8=A:>9 =525AB5 (8;;5@0 8 0=4>@5 QB5), ?@5>1@07C5B 181;59A:89 <8D >1 25;5 8 08=5. 81> 8AG5705B ?@54?>GB5=85 B8?0 25;O, ;81> >B:@KB> ?@54?>G8B05BAO B8? 08=0, ;81> 65 >10 B8?0 @0AA<0B@820NBAO 70 ?@545;0<8 8E ?@>B82>1>@AB20 :0: 2708<>4>?>;=ONI85. =8 AB0=>2OBAO <5B0D>@0<8 sapientia 8 fortitude: G5< 1K;0 1K <C4@>ABL 157 A8;K?  8<5==> 2>AA>548=5=85< MB8E 42CE B8?>2 A>740QBAO 30@<>=8O. 0: @07 =0 MB>< >A=>20=> 259<0@A:>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > Wiedervereinigung der Gegensaetze. 71) # 8=4>52@>?59F52 1;87=5FK (H28=K 2 2548G5A:>9 =488, 0AB>@ 8 >;8452: (8>A:C@K) 2 @5F88, 2>7<>6=>, L5@4 8 $@59@ C 35@<0=F52) :0: A8<2>; 87>18;8O A2O70=K A B@5BL59  ?@>872>48B5;L=>9  DC=:F859. !<. =0 MBC B5<C: Donald Ward, The Divine Twins. An Indo-European Mythological Theme in Germanic Tradition, in George Cardona, Henry M Hoenigswald et Alfred Senn (d.). Indo-European and Indo-Europeans,j University of Pennsylvania Press. Philadelphia. 1970. pp. 405-420.  AD5@5 ?>;8B>;>388 MB0 D8;>A>D8O ?>;=>ABLN A>>B25BAB2C5B Freund-Feind Theorie 0@;0 (<8BB0, >7=0:><;5=8N $@0=F88 A :>B>@>9 <K >1O70=K N;L5=C $@>9=4C 8 59<>=4C @>=C.  >=OB88 ?>;8B8G5A:>3>, A>G8=5=88, :>B>@>5 A <><5=B0 A2>53> ?>O2;5=8O =5 ?5@5AB0QB 2>;=>20BL C<K =5<5F:8E ?>;8B>;>3>2, 0@; (<8BB ?>:07K205B, GB> @07;8G85 <564C 4@C3>< 8 2@03><, >B=>H5=85 (8, A;54>20B5;L=>, A2O7L) <564C 4@C3>< (Freund) 8 2@03>< (Feind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K =01;N405< =5 70<5I5=85 ?>;8B8:8 ?@02>AC485<, 0 ?0@>48N =0 ?@02>AC485 8 ?>;8B8:C (Julien Freund, ibid., p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o6@07>< >?@545;Q==>9 ?@>1;5<0B8:8, 8 <K A<>65< 2A5340 C2060BL 2 =Q< >A>15==>3> G5;>25:0. A;8 =0H5 >B=>H5=85 : @C3><C =0E>48BAO ?> BC AB>@>=C 4>1@0 8 7;0, >= <>65B 1KBL >4=>2@5<5==> <>8< 2@03>< 8 <>8< 1@0B><. 72) .-. 528 =5 O2;O5BAO 8A:;NG5=85< 87 MB>3> ?@028;0. ;O E@8AB80=AB20, ?8H5B >=, 4@C3>9 G5;>25: 4>@>3 ?@>AB> ?>B><C, GB> >= O2;O5BAO G5;>25:><; 4;O 8C4087<0  ?>B><C, GB> >= O2;O5BAO =0AB>OI8< G5;>25:>< 8 ?>AB>O==> 4>:07K205B MB> A2>59 B25@4>9 25@=>ABLN 0:>=C (Le Testament de Dieu. op. cit., p. 253). -B> 5IQ @07 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> B>B, :B> =5 25@5= 70:>=C 81;88, =5 <>65B 4>:070BL, GB> >= O2;O5BAO G5;>25:><, GB> >= ?>-=0AB>OI5<C G5;>25:, 0 =5 A2>53> @>40 =54>G5;>25:. >=OB=>, ?>G5<C 2> $@0=FC7A:>9 845>;>388 (Grasset, 1981) B>B 65 02B>@ ?@87K205B : @5018;8B0F88 A5:B0=AB20 (pp. 252-253). 81;59A:0O <KA;L >B25@305B ?>;8B8:C B0:65 8 ?> ?@8G8=5 A2>53> C=825@A0;87<0. >;8B8:0 8<55B ?0@B8:C;O@8ABA:89, 0 =5 C=825@A0;8ABA:89 E0@0:B5@ (...) "0:8< >1@07><, 5A;8 8=B5;;5:BC0;K AB@5<OBAO 2KABC?0BL 2 @>;8 A;C68B5;59 C=825@A0;L=>3>, >=8 =5 <>3CB =5 1KBL 2@030<8 ?>;8B8:8 (Julien Freund, L'essence du politique, op. cit., p. 478). /E25 ?5@52>48B A2>9 273;O4 A 01A>;NB0 G5;>25G5AB20 B>;L:> ;8HL =0 01A>;NB >B45;L=>3> G5;>25:0. ;O MB>3> 273;O40 >B45;L=K5 =0F88, 8<?5@88 8 :C;LBC@K O2;ONBAO 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 ;8HL A;CG09=K<8 A>1KB8O<8, 2@5<5==K<8 =0@>AB0<8 =0 G5;>25G5A:>9 8AB>@88, 0 2 EC4H5< A;CG05  ?@>O2;5=8O<8 ?>AB>O==> 2>7@>640NI59AO 3>@4K=8. /7KG5A:><C ?@8=F8?C F5;>AB=>AB8, A2O70==>9 A <8@><, 2:;NG0NI59 2A5 :>;;5:B82=K5 >A>15==>AB8, 81;8O ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5B =5?@>B82>@5G82>5 @0745;5=85 548=>>1@07=>3> G5;>25G5AB20 8 ;8G=>AB8, ;8HQ==>9 A2>8E A2O759. 5GL 84QB > B><, GB>1K 70<5=8BL 845N F5;>AB=>AB8, 2 :>B>@>9 >=B>;>38G5A:0O D8;>A>D8O >1J548=O5B 8;8 2 :>B>@CN >=0 2:;NG05B <=>65AB2>, 84559 @0745;5=8O, =5 ?>425@65==>3> A8=B57C,  ?8H5B 528=0A. !>25@H5==> 5AB5AB25==>, GB> O7KG5AB2> C70:>=8205B ?>;8B8:C 2 B>9 65 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 >=> >A2OI05B <=>65AB25==>ABL A0<>1KB=>AB59 8 4065 ?@54?>G8B05B G5;>25G5AB2C 8 ;8G=>AB8 ?@><56CB>G=>5 87<5@5=85 >A>1>9 :C;LBC@K, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@>9 G5;>25: ?@5>1@0605B 8 AB@>8B A51O. 48=AB25==K9 >3,  ?8H5B B0:65 N;L5= $@>9=4,  =5 O2;O5BAO ?>;8B8G5A:8< ACI5AB2><. 8HL ?>;8B587< ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?>;8B8G5A:89 273;O4 =0 ?>BCAB>@>==89 <8@. ">G=> B0: 65 2A5<8@=>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 >1I5AB2>, ?>;=>ABLN ?@8<8@5==>5 A A>1>9, :0:8< 53> >?8AK205B <0@:A87<, 1>;55 =5 <>65B 1KBL ?>;8B8G5A:8< (L'essence du politique, op. cit., p. 478). ! ?>;8B8G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 2A5<8@=>5 3>AC40@AB2> O2;O5BAO ?@>B82>@5G85< 2 B5@<8=0E: >;8B8G5A:89 <8@ O2;O5BAO =5 C=825@AC<><, 0, 5A;8 <>6=> B0: A:070BL, ?;N@825@AC<><. 7 MB>3> A;54C5B, GB> ;N10O ?>;8B8G5A:0O B5>@8O O2;O5BAO ?;N@0;8AB8G5A:>9 (0@; (<8BB, F8B. A>G.). >;8B8G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O <>6=> ?>445@6820BL B>;L:> A @C38<; >B;8G85 O2;O5BAO A0<8< CA;>285< ?>;8B8:8. <5==> ?>MB><C >B@8F0=85 8;8 >15AF5=820=85 @C3>3> 2> 8<O !>25@H5==> @C3>3> A>?@>2>6405BAO >B@8F0=85< 8;8 >15AF5=820=85< ?>;8B8:8. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O MB8<>;>388 ?>;8B8:0 O2;O5BAO 70=OB85< ?>;8A0, 3>@>40, 0 ;8HL O7KG5AB2> <>65B ?@87=020BL @07=KE 1>3>2 @07=KE 3>@>4>2. A5 A;01K5 AB@5<OBAO A18BLAO 2 AB04>. < :065BAO, GB> :>;8G5AB2> 2>7<5I05B B>, G53> 8< =5 E20B05B; 5A;8 >=8 AB@040NB 2<5AB5, 8< ?@54AB02;O5BAO, GB> >=8 AB@040NB <5=LH5. N48, ?@>2>73;0H0NI85 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:85 F5==>AB8, 70G0ABCN =045;ONB A8;L=KE 65;0=8O<8, :>B>@K5 8A?KBK20;8 1K >=8 A0<8 =0 8E <5AB5, =5 ?>=8<0O, GB> =0AB>OI0O A8;0 O2;O5BAO A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 F5;LN, GB> 5A;8 >=0 O2;O5BAO A?>:>9=>9, >=0 =5 AB@5<8BAO =8 : :0:>9 ?>;57=>AB8, GB> 2>;O : 2>;5 >B@8F05B ;N1CN F5;L 2 A515 8 ?@87=0QB F5;L B>;L:> 2 :0G5AB25 A@54AB20, GB>1K >45@60BL @5H8B5;L=CN ?>154C =0< A0<>9 A>1>9 2 83@5, CAB@>8BL ?@>AB@0=AB2> 4;O MB>9 83@K (Martin Heidegger, Essais et confrences, Gallimard, 1980, p. 103). ;O O7KG5AB20 AG0ABL5 =8:>340 =5 ?@>B82>@5G8B A8;5. > >=> B0:65 =8:>340 =5 ?@>B82>@5G8B 8 A?@0254;82>AB8. 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"0:8< >1@07><, @5GL 84QB =5 > ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=88 A8;L=KE A;01K<  A53>4=O :0: @07 O7KG5AB2> O2;O5BAO A;01K<, 0 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>5 548=>1>685 A8;L=K<,  0 > ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=88 ?@8=F8?0 AB0BL A8;L=K< ?@8=F8?C >AB0BLAO A;01K<. 5GL 84QB > B><, GB>1K A45;0BL 87 <8@0 =5 N4>;L ?;0G0, =5 B50B@ B5=59, =5 AF5=C, =0 :>B>@>9 G5;>25: A 15A?@8G8==>9 @04>ABLN @07K3@K205B A2>Q A?0A5=85, 0 5AB5AB25==>5 ?>;5 4;O @0728B8O A51O, 345 A?>A>1=K9 G5;>25:, 70I8I0O A2>N A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL, <>3 1K CB25@640BL A51O :0: A2>9 A>1AB25==K9 =01@>A>:. 20 CABK=O <>=>B58AB8G=0  D>@<C;0 5=0=0, ?@8?8A0==0O 2 @C:>?8A8 ?>A;5 5Q ?5@5G8BK20=8O 8 AB02H0O A@07C 65 7=0<5=8B>9. =0 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 2 1I59 8AB>@88 8 A@02=8B5;L=>9 A8AB5<5 A5<8BA:8E O7K:>2:  A5<8BA:8E @5;838OE ?@8@>40 70=8<05B <0;> <5AB0: ?CABK=O <>=>B58AB8G=0; 2>72KH5==0O 2 A2>Q< >3@><=>< 548=>>1@0788, >=0 >B:@K;0 G5;>25:C ?@5645 2A53> 845N 15A:>=5G=>3>, => =5 GC2AB2> 15A:>=5G=> B2>@G5A:>9 687=8, :>B>@>5 1>;55 ?;>4>@>4=0O ?@8@>40 24>E=>28;0 2 4@C38E =0@>40E. !53>4=O MB0 D>@<C;0 C65 =5 AB>;L ?>?C;O@=0  =57028A8<> >B B>3>, GB> ?CABK=O =5 <>=>B>==0 8 =5 AB>;L 2@06451=0 ;N1><C @07=>>1@078N, :0: =0< ?@54AB02;O5BAO. "5< =5 <5=55, 2>7<>6=>, GB> 2 =59 8<55BAO ?@02482>5 O4@>. 0?@8<5@, -@8E $@><<, =5 284O 2 ?CABK=5 8AB>G=8:0 548=>1>68O, 2AQ 65 ?@87=0QB 2>7<>6=>ABL 2;8O=8O 687=5==>9 A@54K =0 >1I55 ?@54AB02;5=85 > <8@5. >2>@O > 7=0G5=88 ?CABK=8 :0: A8<2>;0 687=8 157 ?@53@04, 157 8<CI5AB20, >= @0AA<0B@8205B 5Q :0: A8<2>;8G5A:89 :;NG : 8AE>4C 87 38?B0: CABK=O  MB> =5 4><, 2 =59 =5B 3>@>4>2, =5B 1>30BAB2, MB> >1;0ABL :>G52=8:>2, :>B>@K5 2;045NB B>;L:> B5<, 2 GQ< =C640NBAO, B> 5ABL 25I0<8, =5>1E>48<K<8 4;O 687=8, 0 =5 1>30BAB20<8. >G52=8G5A:85 B@048F88 8AB>@8G5A:8 ?@8ACBAB2CNB 2 ?>25AB2>20=88 >1 AE>45, 8 2?>;=5 2>7<>6=>, GB> MB8 :>G52=8G5A:85 B@048F88 >?@545;8;8 A:;>==>ABL : >B25@65=8N ;N1>9 =5DC=:F8>=0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 8 2K1>@C 687=8 2 ?CABK=5 :0: ?>43>B>2:8 : A2>1>4=>9 687=8 (<5BL 8;8 1KBL?). "0:8< >1@07><, =5 1K;> ;8 =5>1E>48<>, GB>1K ">@0 1K;0 40=0 G5;>25:C 8<5==> 2 ?CABK=5, 2 MB>< >:@C65=88, :>B>@>5 >A2>1>6405B 4CHC >B 2A5E 2848<KE 25I59 8 ?>3@C605B 5Q 2 ?@>?0ABL 5Q A>1AB25==>9 =>G8? 0ABCH5A:0O 687=L, >48=>G5AB2> 8 =8G5< =5 70<CB=Q==>5 2@5<O >1;53G0NB >B:@>25=85, :>B>@>5, :0: <K 7=05<, 40QBAO 2 ?CABK=5,  ?8HCB 6>78 975=15@3 8 @<0= 15:0AA8. >A?>4L 2K1@0; =0@>4 :>G52=8:>2, 0 =5 >A54;KE 68B5;59, 8 AD>@<8@>20; 53> 2 ?CABK=5, ?@5645 G5< 40BL 5<C 5<;N >15B>20==CN, GB>1K >= =5 ?@8:@5?;O;AO : MB>9 75<;5, 0 >AB020;AO 25@=K< A2>5<C ?@8720=8N (Moi, le gardien de mon frere? op. cit., p. 75). "0:0O 65 <KA;L 1K;0 2K@065=0 2 XVI 25:5 0E0@0;>< 87 @038: >A:>;L:C ">@0 1>65AB25==0, ?>A:>;L:C >=0 O2;O5BAO 01A>;NB=K< 8=B5;;5:B><, 0 =5 A1>@=8:>< >1KG052, >=0 1K;0 40=0 2 ?CABK=5, ?>B><C GB> ?CABK=O @>4AB25==0 >3C 8 8=B5;;5:BC (A<.: Th. 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'5;>25:  548=AB25==K9 A>740B5;L 1>3>2, ?>B><C GB> >= 548=AB25==K9 A>740B5;L A<KA;0. 0 ;8<?5 8;8 2 0;L30;;5 1>38 83@0NB DC=:F8>=0;L=CN >1I5AB25==CN @>;L 2 A>>B25BAB288 A <>45;LN B@QEG0AB=>9 845>;>388, :>B>@0O 8<55B A2>9 M:2820;5=B 2 3>@>45 ;N459  @50;L=> 8;8 845>;>38G5A:8 (2 4N<578;52A:>< A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20). 0=B5>= =5 ?@>B82>AB>8B MB><C <8@C ;N459, 0 >15A?5G8205B 5<C =081>;55 A8;L=>5 8 ?@>G=>5 87 >?@0240=89. = O2;O5BAO 53> ?@>A;02;5=85<. !0<8 1>38 ?@>O2;ONB ;N4A:85 G5@BK 8 A2845B5;LAB2CNB > B0:>< 65 @07=>>1@0788 AB@5<;5=89. >340 2 ;8045 52A E>G5B A?0AB8 !0@?54>=0 >B <5G0 0B@>:;0, 5@0 3>2>@8B 5<C: >;N B2>@8, => =5 2A5 >;8<?89FK 5Q <K >4>1@8< (3;. XVI). ">G=> B0: 65, :>340 @N=E8;L40 =0@CH05B ?@8:070=85 48=0 2 M?87>45, >?8A0==>< 2 -445 2 ?>A;54=8E AB@>D0E Fafnirsmal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dhaman: >4=>2@5<5==> A2>53> "AB0BCA0" 8 "?>;>65=8O", B> 5ABL A2>53> <5AB0 =0 85@0@E8G5A:>9 ;5AB=8F5 ACI5AB2 (Les Indo-Europens, in Dictionnaire des mythologies, Flammarion, 1980, p. 45). -B0 ?@55<AB25==>ABL, :>B>@0O A2O7K205B 1>65AB25==CN AD5@C A> AD5@>9 ;N459, 0 A2OI5==>5 A <8@A:8<, ?@54AB02;O5BAO =0<, 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL 4C0;87<C, ?@8ACI5<C <8@C 81;88, >4=>9 87 A0<KE E0@0:B5@=KE G5@B O7KG5AB20.  4>E@8AB80=A:>9 4@52=>AB8 @5;838O =5 1K;0 87>;8@>20=0 >B >1I5AB25==>9 687=8  =5 ?>4G8=OO A51O 59, CB@0G820O A2>8 A>1AB25==K5 =>@<K, 0, =0?@>B82, >A2OI0O 5Q. ;O @8<;O= pietas 1K;0 ?@5645 2A53> >1I5AB25==>9 4>1@>45B5;LN.  8<5 @5;838O >A2OI0;0 >@30=8G5A:85 :>;;5:B82K  >B A5<L8 4> AB@0=K, >B:C40 206=>ABL 4><0H=8E :C;LB>2 8, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 3@0640=A:>3> :C;LB0, ?>74=55 @0AH8@5==>3> 4> :C;LB0 8<?5@0B>@A:>3>. =0 ?>1C640;0 C2060BL >1I5AB25==K5 =>@<K 8 5AB5AB25==K5 >B=>H5=8O <564C ;N4L<8. =0 CA8;820;0 >1I5AB25==CN 48AF8?;8=C 8 ?>445@6820;0 85@0@E8N.  MB>< A<KA;5 >=0 >A=>2K20;0AL 1>;55 =0 CG0AB88 2 >1@O40E, G5< =0 <>@0;8 8;8 4065 25@5: ?@0:B8:>20BL :C;LB >7=0G0;> 1KBL E>@>H8< 3@0640=8=><, ?>4B25@640BL A2>N A>;840@=>ABL A AC4L1>9 3>@>40. # 35@<0=F52 :C;LB 1K; >A=>20=85< A2OI5==>3>, :>B>@>5, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 1K;> >A=>20=85< ?@020. 5;838O =5>B45;8<0 >B heidinn sidr  O7KG5A:8E >1KG052. -B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2> ACI5AB25==>,  ?8H5B 568 C095,  ?>B><C GB> >=> ?>72>;O5B =0< A45;0BL 70:;NG5=85 > B><, GB> 35@<0=A:0O @5;838O ACI5AB2C5B B>;L:> :0: =01>@ :C;LBC@=KE 459AB289 (...) 5@<0=5F ?@8>1I05BAO : @5;8388 ?>A@54AB2>< >1@O4>2, :>340 >= ?@8ACBAB2C5B ?@8 8E >ACI5AB2;5=88 8;8 CG0AB2C5B 2 =8E (Les religions de l'Europe du Nord, op. cit., pp. 43-45). To 65 A0<>5 <>6=> A:070BL >1 8@0=F0E, 2548G5A:8E 8=4CA0E 8 :5;LB0E.  ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL B><C, GB> 70G0ABCN CB25@640;>AL, 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>5 548=>1>685 A>740QB A:>@55 CA;>28O =5 4;O C2065=8O ;8G=>AB8, 0 4;O 53> 8A:065=8O 2 2845 8=48284C0;87<0, B> 5ABL 845>;>388, :>B>@0O, 1C4CG8 ?5@5=5AQ==>9 2 A25BA:CN 687=L, >?@024K205B 2> 8<O >B2;5GQ==>9 2A5>1I59 ?@024K @07@K2 A>;840@=>AB8 <564C >B45;L=>9 ;8G=>ABLN 8 3>@>4><. "0:8< >1@07><, >B=>H5=8O A 1>65AB2>< O2;ONBAO G8AB> ;8G=K<8: G5;>25: A?0A05BAO A0<. (0: <K C65 2845;8, MB0 G5@B0 >A>15==> ?>4GQ@:=CB0 2 E@8AB80=AB25, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 8C4087<5 >=0 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 C@02=>25H8205BAO ?@54AB02;5=85< >1 871@0=88 F5;>3> =0@>40). /7KG5A:0O @5;838O AB@5<8BAO @53C;8@>20BL ?@5645 2A53> A8BC0F88, 8<5NI85 :>;;5:B82=K9 8=B5@5A, >=0 >B2>48B 7=0G8B5;L=CN @>;L ;8G=>AB8 (A:>@55 G5< 8=48284CC<C), => ?@8=8<05B ?@8 MB>< 2 @0AGQB 5Q ?@8=04;56=>ABL, =5>1E>48<CN 4;O 5Q ?>=8<0=8O. 0=-L5@ 5@=0= 70<5G05B, GB> @5: C20605B 8;8 1>8BAO 1>30 =5 :0: 8=48284CC<, 0 :0: 3;020 A5<L8, G;5= 35=>A0, D@0B@88, 45<0, ?>;8A0 (loc. cit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par-dela, =0 A0=A:@8B5 para-desha, ?>-8@0=A:8 pairi-daza, >B:C40 A;>2> ?0@0487), => >= 1K; ?5@5<5I5=85< MB>3> <8@0. 5 ?@54AB02;OO A>1>9 0=B8B57K 459AB28B5;L=><C ACI5AB2>20=8N, 4065 =5 ?>402;OO 1>@L1K, A>AB02;ONI59 >A=>2C 2A5;5==>9, >= ?5@5=>A8; 8E =0 1>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L.  0;L30;;5 ?@>4>;605BAO 18B20.  25G5@>< :064>3> 4=O <Q@B2K5 ?>4=8<0NBAO, 8AF5;5==K5 >B A2>8E A<5@B5;L=KE @0= (Rgis >C53, Les religions de 1'Europe du Nord, op. Cit., p. 32). IQ 4> ?>O2;5=8O ?@54AB02;5=8O > 0;L30;;5, 2 :>B>@>< =5:>B>@K5 02B>@K 284OB >B=>A8B5;L=> ?>74=55 A>740=85, A:0=48=02A:0O ?@540==>ABL 4CH0< C<5@H8E =0AB>;L:> A8;L=0, GB>, A>3;0A=> ?>25@LO<, >=8 =0 A0<>< 45;5 =5 ?>:840NB MB>B <8@, 0 C40;ONBAO 2 :0:CN-B> >1;0ABL =0 75<;5 8;8 =0 =515, 682CB 2 >?@545;Q==>< <5AB5 =5?>40;Q:C >B A2>53> 1K2H53> 4><0 8 B.4. A5 :><<5=B0B>@K, =0?@8<5@, 548=>4CH=> 284OB 2 25@5 2 landvaettir (4CH8 C<5@H8E) ACI5AB25==CN G5@BC 8A;0=4A:>3> O7KG5AB20. (-B8 4CH8 8=>340 ?@52@0I0NBAO 2 M;LD>2, :>B>@KE E@8AB80=AB2> >1JO28B 45<>=0<8). # 3@5:>2 ;8A59A:85 ?>;O B0:65 O2;ONBAO ;8HL 2>72KH5==K< >B>1@065=85< MB>3> <8@0. # :5;LB>2 A84, @07<5I0NI89AO 70 <>@5<, =0 4=5 >7Q@, 2 3>@0E 8;8 ?>4 E>;<0<8, O2;O5BAO <8@><, ?0@0;;5;L=K< =0H5<C <8@C, :>B>@K9, 1C4CG8 >B;8G=K< >B =0H53> <8@0 8;8 40;Q:8< >B =53>, 2AQ 65 =0;0305BAO =0 =53> 8;8 53> ><K205B (Franoise Le Roux et Christian J. Guyonvarc'h, La civilisation celtique, Ogam, Rennes, 1979, p. 122).  B>< 2845, 2 :0:>< >= =0< ?@54AB02;O5BAO, MB>B :5;LBA:89 @09 =5 8<55B ?>GB8 =8G53> >1I53> A E@8AB80=A:8< @05<, => >G5=L 1;87>: : 35@<0=A:><C ?@54AB02;5=8N > 0;L30;;5 8 8A;0<A:><C @0N. 3> >18B0B5;8 254CB 687=L, ?>;=CN @04>AB59 8 =0A;0645=89: >=8 2:CH0NB 87KA:0==K5 8 >18;L=K5 OAB20, 8E ;N1OB 65=I8=K 8A:;NG8B5;L=>9 :@0A>BK, 8 C 2A5E C =8E 2KA>:>5 >1I5AB25==>5 ?>;>65=85. < 1>;LH5 =5 8725AB5= =8 3@5E (E@8AB80=A:>5 ?>=OB85), =8 ?@5ABC?;5=85 (4>E@8AB80=A:>5 ?>=OB85) (ibid, p. 123)73. !> A2>59 AB>@>=K, H254 !B83 8:0=45@ CAB0=>28;, GB> ?@54AB02;5=85 > F0@AB25 =515A=>< 8<55B 8=4>52@>?59A:>5 ?@>8AE>645=85 (Histoire des Ouranides, in Cahiers du Sud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e bello gallico 6, 14). C:0=, !B@01>= 8 8>4>@ !8F8;89A:89 2KA:07K20NB B>645AB25==K5 <=5=8O. "5< =5 <5=55 A>2@5<5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> 25@0 2 ?5@5A5;5=85 4CH 2 AB@>3>< A<KA;5 ?@0:B8G5A:8 >BACBAB2C5B 2 :5;LBA:>< <8@5 (A<.. Franoise Le Roux et Christian J. 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"@5=BA:89 A>1>@ 2 A2>Q< 45AOB>< :0=>=5 ?>4B25@48;, 2 ?8:C @5D>@<0B>@0<, 0=0D5<C B><C, :B> 3>2>@8B, GB> 1@0: 2KH5 452AB25==>AB8 8;8 1571@0G8O 8;8 GB> ;CGH5 8 ?>E20;L=55 2ABC?0BL 2 1@0:, G5< ?@51K20BL 2 A>AB>O=88 452AB25==>AB8 8;8 1571@0G8O. @5G5A:89 ?8A0B5;L 87 ;5:A0=4@88, 8725AB=K9 ?>4 8<5=5< $8;>=0 C459A:>3>, GLO D8;>A>D8O >:070;0 2;8O=85 =0 E@8AB80=A:CN <KA;L, ?8A0;: >3 157 2AO:8E ?@8G8= =0 B> 8A?KBK20; =5=028ABL : C4>2>;LAB28N 8 B5;C. !2. =B>=89 3>2>@8;, GB> :@0A=55B 2AO:89 @07, :>340 2K=C645= 5ABL 8;8 >B?@02;OBL 5AB5AB25==K5 ?>B@51=>AB8. !2. 5@>=8< 4>E>48; 4> B>3>, GB> 70O2;O;, GB> G8AB>B0 B5;0 8 53> >45O=89 >7=0G05B =5G8AB>BC 4CH8 (F8B. ?>: Havelock Ellis, La selection sexuelle chez l'homme, Mercure de France, 1925, p. 58). !2. @838BB0 2>A:;8F0;0: >3 =5 <>65B >18B0BL 2 74>@>2>< B5;5. 7=0G0;L=>5 E@8AB80=AB2> 2>AE20;O;> =5G8AB>?;>B=>ABL: &5@:>2L =0G0;0 A 1>@L1K ?@>B82 10=L. 76) 54>25@85 : A5:AC0;L=>AB8 =5 O2;O5BAO G0ABLN 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>9 B@048F88,  ?8H5B L5@ (>=N.  5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> 2 :>=5G=>< AGQB5 >=> 2 =5Q 2>H;>, >=> O2;O5BAO 4>?>;=8B5;L=K< ?> >B=>H5=8N : =59. 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OB=04F0BL-4204F0BL ;5B =0704 1K;> 5IQ =5<KA;8<>, GB>1K "0;<C4 ?@5?>4020;AO 2 >@B>4>:A0;L=KE >1I8=0E 452>G:0<. IQ F8B8@>20;>AL 87@5G5=85 nashim daatan kala (65=I8=K 8<5NB A;01K9 4CE) 8 A;54CNI89 >B@K2>: 87 "0;<C40: ">B, :B> CG8B A2>N 4>GL ">@5, CG8B 5Q A;04>AB@0AB8N (!>B0, 200, @0118 -;8M75@). -B>B 70?@5B, :>B>@K9 ?>445@6820;AO, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 09<>=84><, 8AB>;:>2K205BAO A53>4=O A:>@55 :0: =5>1O70B5;L=>ABL ?>4>1=>3> >1CG5=8O. "5< =5 <5=55 2>?@>A ?@>4>;605B >1AC640BLAO (A<.: Peut-on enseigner aux femmes la Bible, la Michna et le Talmud?, in Hamore, juillet 1980). >42>4O ?@5420@8B5;L=K9 8B>3, 8;;8 (5@@ 70:;NG05B, GB> 2 8C4087<5 >B;8G85 G0I5 2A53> 2K@0605BAO @0745;5=85< 8 >BAB@0=5=85< (La femme juive comme autre, in Lon Poliakov, d.. Ni Juifni Grec. Entretiens surle racisme, op. cit.. pp. 149-160). >40==><C 2>?@>AC 2 F5;>< A<. B0:65: Jean-Claude Bardet. 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B> 2@5<O :0: 81;8O 3>2>@8;0: /  >3, 0 =5 G5;>25: (A. 11, 9), E@8AB80=AB2> ?@54;030;> 2=5H=5 7=0:><K9 >1;8: 2>?;>IQ==>3> !K=0, >4=>2@5<5==> 548=>ACI=>3> 25G=><C BFC. "0: A>74020;8AL >?@545;Q==K5 CA;>28O 2>7<>6=>9 0::;8<0B870F88. 2@>?59A:85 :@5ABLO=5,  ?>;0305B 8@G0 -;8045,  <>3;8 ?@8>1I8BLAO : E@8AB80=A:><C 1>3>A;>28N, B>;L:> ?@5>1@0782 %@8AB0 2 1>@>40B>3> 1>30, 682CI53> 8 B@C4OI53>AO ?>4>1=> 8< A0<8< (8=B5@2LN 2 Le Monde-Dimanche, 14 A5=BO1@O 1980 3.). >4>1=K5 70O2;5=8O 45;0;8AL >G5=L G0AB>  :0: A C4>2;5B2>@5=85<, B0: 8 A A>60;5=85<. 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Albin Michel. 1970). -B> ?>A;54=55 O7KG5AB2> >AB0QBAO 25@=K< ?@8=F8?C B5@?8<>AB8. ;O :C;LBC@=KE O7KG=8:>2 2A5 1>38 >48=0:>2> C20605<K 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> >=8 ?@54AB02;ONB @07=K5 ;8:8 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 >65AB20, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: E@8AB80=5 =8:>340 =5 ?5@5AB020;8 A<>B@5BL =0 1>3>2 O7KG=8:>2 :0: =0 84>;>2, 45<>=>2 8 4065, :0: ?8H5B 0@B8= @0:0@A:89, >1>65AB2;5==KE 45OB5;59 ?@>H;>3>, 4C@=KE ;N459, 7;>4552. 0@04>:A0;L=K< >1@07><, C:07K205B -. . >44A (Paiens et chrtiens dans un ge d'angoisse, Pense sauvage, Claix, 1979, p. 133), 87 A?>@0 @835=0 A &5;LA>< <>6=> 70:;NG8BL, GB> &5;LA O2;O5BAO 1>;55 ?>A;54>20B5;L=K< <>=>B58AB><, G5< @835=, ?>B><C GB> >= AG8B05B 1>3>EC;L=K< B>, :0: E@8AB80=5 ?><5I0NB 4@C3>3> 1>30 =0 >48= C@>25=L A 25@E>2=K< >3>< (@835=, @>B82 &5;LA0, VIII, 12, 14).  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Franoise Le Roux 8 Christian J. Guyonvarc'h, =0?@8<5@, C:07K20NB =0 B5=45=F8N :5;LBA:>9 @5;8388 : 548=>1>68N (La civilisation celtique, Ogam, Rennes, 1979, p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iorgio Locchi, La perspective wagnrienne sur la musique europenne, in Nouvelle cole, 30, automne-hiver 1978. 12-28. !83@84 %C=:5  >4=0 87 =5<=>38E 8AA;54>20B5;59, A8AB5<0B8G5A:8 8AA;54CNI8E 40==K9 ?@54<5B84,  ?>:070;0 7=0G8B5;L=K5 AE>645=8O <564C 25;8:8<8 2>7@065=8O<8, 2K428302H8<8AO 2 B5G5=85 AB>;5B89 ?@>B82 3>A?>4AB2CNI59 845>;>388, ?@54AB02;5==>9 >D8F80;L=>9 25@>9.  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Die Einheit europaeischer Religion und Naturwissenschaft, Econ, Duesseldorf, 1979. # 1>;LH8=AB20 87 MB8E 02B>@>2 <K >1=0@C68205< =0 1>;55 2KA>:>< C@>2=5 =5:>B>@K5 87 >A=>2=KE B5< O7KG5A:>9 <KA;8, :>B>@K5 <K ?>AB0@0;8AL >?@545;8BL 2KH5: ?@5645 2A53>, B@0=AF5=45=B0;L=>5 548=AB2> :>A<>A0, ?@55<AB25==>ABL <564C >3>< (8;8 1>30<8) 8 <8@><  8;8 65 <8@, GLQ ACI5AB2> O2;O5BAO A>25@H5==K<, => =5 =5?>4286=K<, :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO <5AB>< ?>AB>O==>3> AB0=>2;5=8O 2> 2A5E =0?@02;5=8OE, >3, :>B>@K9 45;05B 4065 :>=5G=>5 15A:>=5G=K<, :>B>@K9 ?>72>;O5B ?@54AB02;OBL ?@>AB@0=AB2> 8 2@5<O 15A:>=5G=K<8. !:>BB -@8C35=0, >B;CGQ==K9 >B F5@:28 ?>A;5 A2>59 A<5@B8 2 IX 2., ?8A0;: AQ 5ABL >3, 8 >3 5ABL 2AQ, 8 2AQ ?@>8AE>48B B>;L:> >B 53>, ?>B><C GB> 2AQ ?>@>6405BAO <, G5@57 53> 8 2 Q<. !<>B@5BL =0 25I8,  4>102;O5B >=,  7=0G8B A>75@F0BL ;03>;. >4 MB8< >= 8<55B 2 284C =5 B>, GB> 25I8 B>;L:> ;8HL >BAK;0NB : 1>65AB25==><C ;>3>AC, :>B>@K9 8E A>740;, 0 B>, GB> ACI5AB2C5B B>645AB25==>ABL 8;8, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, 548=>ACI=>ABL <564C 25I0<8 8 1>65AB25==K< ;03>;><. 8:>;09 C70=A:89 (8:>;0CA @51A), :>B>@K9 =5 1K; 5@5B8:><, => 273;O4K :>B>@>3> A>2?040NB A> <=>38<8 5@5B8G5A:8<8 2>77@5=8O<8, ?@54;0305B A;54CNICN D>@<C;C: 'B> 5ABL >3, 5A;8 =5 =52848<>ABL 2848<>3>?, GB> A>>B25BAB2C5B B>9 65 A0<>9 8455. 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AQ ?@>8AE>48B G5@57 @0A?@N (5@0:;8B, D@03<. 8)89. ( A>2A5< =5 A;CG09=> B>, GB>, :>340 @07 2 3>4 ?>;;>= >B?@02;O5BAO 2 AB@0=C 38?5@1>@552, 5;LD89A:8< >@0:C;>< ?@028B 8>=8A).  >48= 87 ?@8=F8?>2 H8208BA:>9 D8;>A>D88, 2:;NGQ==>9 2 0@89A:89 8=4C87<, A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> 1>65AB25==K< O2;O5BAO B>, 2 GQ< A>ACI5AB2CNB ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8. 89) >=B5@;0=, 4;O :>B>@>3> ?@>B82>@5G85 5ABL >A=>20=85 687=8 4CE0 (Un voyageur solitaire est un diable, Gallimard, 1961. p. 204), C:07K205B =0 >3@><=>5 2;8O=85, :>B>@>5 >:070; =0 =53> 5@0:;8B: ?5@2K9 87 <>8E >BF>2  ?8H5B >= 2 Tout feux teints (Gallimard, 1975. p. 103). @>F8B8@C5< B0:65 @85 0 >H5;O: A;8 MB> ?@>B82>@5G82>, =5 206=>: ?@>B82>@5G85 @07@5H05BAO 2 548=AB25 D0:B0 (La comdie de Charleroi. Gallimard. 1934. p. 170). -B>B 273;O4 B0:65 A>>B25BAB2C5B 0;E8<8G5A:><C ?@8=F8?C solve et coagula, :>B>@K9 A>G5B05B, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, @0745;5=85 8 @0AB2>@5=85, 0 A 4@C3>9  2>AA>548=5=85 8 A2Q@BK20=85,  B>G=> B0: 65, :0: 8 <8D, :>B>@K9 ?@8 A2>Q< @>645=88 2KA2>1>6405B ?@>B82>@5G82K5 <8D5<K, 4>;6=K5 2 :>=5G=>< AGQB5 1KBL ?>3;>IQ==K<8 2=>2L >1@5B5==K< 548=AB2><. 5@>OB=>, 2 A>2@5<5==CN M?>EC A =081>;LH59 B>=:>ABLN ?@>0=0;878@>20; B>, :0: 0;E8<8O AB@5<8;0AL A>G5B0BL ?@>B82>?>;>6=K5 D0:B>@K 2 548=>9 :>=JN=:F88, 0@; . .=3 (A<. 53>: Mysterium conjunctionis. AA;54>20=85 @0745;5=8O 8 2>AA>548=5=8O ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59 2 0;E8<88). !AK;0OAL =0 8:>;0O C70=A:>3>, .=3 ?8H5B, GB> =0AB>OI85 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8 =5 O2;ONBAO =5A>87<5@8<K<8 25;8G8=0<8, 8=0G5 >=8 =5 <>3;8 1K >1J548=OBLAO, 2 B> 2@5<O :0:, =5A<>B@O =0 2AN A2>N ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL, >=8 2A5340 ?@>O2;ONB A:;>==>ABL : ?>4>1=><C >1J548=5=8N. $>@<C;0 coincidentia oppositorum ?>4B25@6405B, B0:8< >1@07><, A2845B5;LAB20 ?A8E>;>388 3;C18=, 0 B0:65 A>F8>;>388 3;C18= (A<. ?@8=F8? ;>38G5A:>9 =542>9AB25==>AB8 2 @01>B0E 8;L15@0 N@0=0, C65 =0<5G5==K9 2 ?>=OB88 tertium datum, ?@><56CB>G=>9 <0B5@88, ?>72>;ONI59 >1J548=8BL 2 >4=>< O2;5=88 0=B03>=87<K 8 ?@>B82>@5G8O, :>B>@K5 >1=0@C68205B 2 =59 0=0;87) 8 4065 <8:@>D878:8 (<KA;8 !B5D0=0 C?0A:> >1 C@02=>25H820NI8E AB@C:BC@0E B@QE <0B5@89) 8 ;>38:8 ?@>B82>@5G89. 07=K<8 4>@>30<8 <K A;54C5< ?> ;8=8O< A8;K >4=>9 8 B>9 65 83@K. 8HL 2 B515, >A?>48, >=8 AE>4OBAO (!5=B--:7N?5@8, &8B045;L). 0: 548=AB2> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59 >3 =587156=> >:07K205BAO ?> BC AB>@>=C 4>1@0 8 7;0. G5284=>, GB> ?>4>1=0O B>G:0 7@5=8O A>25@H5==> 8A:;NG5=0 2 8C45>-E@8AB80=A:>< 548=>1>688. A;8 >3 2A5<>3CI 8 15A:>=5G=> 4>1@, ?>G5<C >= B5@?8B 7;>, :0:8< >1@07>< 2>7<>6=> 7;>? 0B>;8G5A:>5 1>3>A;>285, :>340 >=> =5 >BABC?05B ?5@54 MB>9 B09=>9, >B25G05B >1KG=> =0 B0:>9 2>?@>A, >1@0I0OAL : ?>=OB8N A2>1>4K 2>;8 8 CB25@640O, GB> G5;>25: 4>;65= 70A;C68BL A2>Q A?0A5=85 (B> 5ABL ?@>AB> >1E>48B ?@>1;5<C).  ;N1>< A;CG05, >B25BAB25==>ABL <>65B ;560BL B>;L:> =0 G5;>25:5, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, 8AE>48B ;8 7;> >B >30 8;8 >B G5;>25:0. >A:>;L:C >3 O2;O5BAO 01A>;NB=K< A>25@H5=AB2><, >B =53> =5 <>65B 8AE>48BL =8GB> =5A>25@H5==>5 8;8 7;>5. >A;5 C189AB20 25;O, :>340 /E25 A?@0H8205B 08=0 > AC4L15 53> 1@0B0, B>B =0?@0A=> AB@5<8BAO ?5@5;>68BL 28=C =0 A2>53> A>15A54=8:0. (08= A:070;: 53> C18; O, => MB> BK A>740; 2> <=5 C@=CN A:;>==>ABL, 84@0H 87 "0=3C<0 =0 KB. 1, 9). 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A;8 A8@89FK =0?0;8 =0 0;5AB8=C, B> MB> 7=0: <5AB8 /E25 70 @5;838>7=CN =525@=>ABL 7@08;O. 525@=>ABL =0@>40 =5 <>65B ?>2;5GL 70 A>1>9 =525@=>ABL >30. >3  =5 G5;>25:, GB>1K A>60;5BL,  3>2>@8B ">@0. A5 =5AG0ABLO 4@52=53> 7@08;O  70 2>7<>6=K< 8A:;NG5=85< =5:>B>@KE ?@5A;54>20=89, B0:8E :0: ?@5A;54>20=8O E0A<>=59A:>3> ?5@8>40,  8AB>;:>2K20NBAO :0: >B@8F0B5;L=K5 1>3>O2;5=8O, GB> A>25@H5==> ;>38G=> ?@8 273;O45 =0 8AB>@8N :0: =0 1>3>O2;5=85. 0B0AB@>DK =587156=> O2;ONBAO :0@0<8. 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(5@. 12, 1). >G5<C, :0: :065BAO, 4>1@>45B5;L 8=>340 =0:07K205BAO, 0 ?>@>: 2>7=03@06405BAO. -B>B 2>?@>A >1@07C5B :0@:0A =838 >20; 8<5==> 87 =53> ?@>8AB5:05B A>1;07=. A5340, :>340 >2 2>7@0605B ?@>B82 871KB:0 7;0, >1@CH820NI53>AO =0 =53>, ?@8G8=0 53> 60;>1 70:;NG05BAO 2 =52>7<>6=>AB8 ?>=OBL A2>N 28=C. '5;>25: =5 <>65B AC48BL >30, 4065 :>340 5<C :065BAO, GB> >= ?@02 (>2 9, 2). >2 7=05B, GB> >= =528=5=, 8 70O2;O5B >1 MB><, => 2 B> 65 A0<>5 2@5<O >= CB25@6405B, GB> /E25 =5 <>65B >H810BLAO. %>BO /E25 8 O2;O5BAO B2>@F>< 2A53>, 5<C =52>7<>6=> ?@8?8A0BL >BF>2AB2> 2848<>3> 7;0. >2, 2 :>=5G=>< AGQB5, A40QBAO. = 70O2;O5B > A2>59 ?>:>@=>AB8, A>60;55B > B><, GB> AG8B0; A51O =528==K<, >B:07K205BAO >B A2>8E A;>2 8 @0A:08205BAO. >A;5 MB>3> /E25 2>72@0I05B 53> 2 ?@56=55 A>AB>O=85. #@>: ?>25AB2>20=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> G5;>25G5A:89 4CE =5 4>;65= AB0@0BLAO ?>=OBL 3;C1>:85 ?@8G8=K B09=K. >38:0 =5 4>;6=0 2K7K20BL C G5;>25:0 A><=5=89, ?>B><C GB> MB0 ;>38:0 <0;> 7=0G8B ?> >B=>H5=8N : ;>38:5 /E25. !B@040=85 A?@0254;82>3> 8 B>@65AB2> 7;>3> ACBL ;8HL 2@5<5==K5 O2;5=8O. 5=L 2>740O=8O >1O70B5;L=> ?@84QB, 8 :064K9 ?>;CG8B B>, G53> 70A;C68205B (Abraham Cohen, Les routes divergentes, Minuit, 1956, p. 30). B:07K20OAL >AC640BL <>;G0=85 >30, 2 :>B>@>< >= ?@8 MB>< 70<5G05B =5GB> 45<>=8G5A:>5 ( 5=0= >?@545;O; A>45@60=85 =838 >20 :0: 2>72KH5==>5 1>3>EC;LAB2>), >2 O2;O5B A>1>9 >1@07F>2CN D83C@C, ?@>B82>?>AB02;ONICNAO D83C@5 08=0: >= ?@8=8<05B A2>N AC4L1C, =5 ?>=8<0O 5Q, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 08=, B0:65 =5 ?>=8<0O 5Q, 2>AAB0QB ?@>B82 >G5284=>9 =5A?@0254;82>AB8 /E25. %0@0:B5@=0O 0?>;>38O @01AB20 8, >?OBL 65, >AC645=85 G5;>25G5A:>9 3>@4K=890. 90)  A2>59 :=835 >2 8;8 871KB>: 7;0 (Grasset, 1978) $8;8?? 5<> CB25@6405B. GB> 871KB>: 7;0 2>7<5I05BAO 871KB:>< 40@>2, GB> ?> >?@545;5=8N 2AQ, 2KE>4OI55 70 ?@545;K <8@0, @02=> >3C  :0: 871KB>: 4>1@0, B0: 8 871KB>: 7;0, 0 B0:65 GB> 7;> 4>:07K205B ACI5AB2>20=85 >30. >4>1=0O B>G:0 7@5=8O C4>2;5B2>@8B B>;L:> B5E. :B> >G5=L A8;L=> 65;05B 5Q ?@8=OBL. K A:>@55 A:;>==K >1@0B8BLAO : >B25BC >2C, :>B>@K9 40QB 0@; . .=3 2 A2>59 :=835 A8E>;>38O 8 @5;838O, >A>15==> : B><C, :0: >3 02@00<8G5A:>3> 548=>1>68O, 2>A?@8=8<05<K9 :0: 2KA>G09H0O 8 25;8G09H0O F5==>ABL, O2;O5B A51O G5;>25:C 2> <=>65AB25==KE 8 @07;8G=KE >1@070E. %@8AB80=AB2> 2>A?@8=O;> MBC B5<C, ?@5>1@0782 5Q =5 B>;L:> ?> ?@8G8=5 A2>59 B5>;>388 ?5@2>@>4=>3> 3@5E0, A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 :064K9 G5;>25:, @>482H89AO 2 MB>< <8@5, 4>;65= @0A?;0G820BLAO 2A;54AB285 A0<>3> A2>53> @>645=8O 70 3@5E 40<0, => B0:65 8 ?> B>9 ?@8G8=5, GB> 1573@5H=K9 ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45 8ACA 157 :>;510=89 2>?;>I05BAO 8 AB@0405B 70 3@5E8 <8@0, :>B>@KE >= =5 A>25@H0;, B0: GB>, ?> A;>20< >75D0 45 5AB@0, 2AQ E@8AB80=AB2> >A=>2K205BAO =0 4>3<5... =528==>AB8, @0A?;0G820NI59AO 70 28=>20BKE ( 07<KH;5=8O > $@0=F88, 3;. III). 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(@54AB02;5=85, :>B>@>5 =0E>48B A2>Q ?@>4>;65=85 2 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 ?;>A:>AB8: ?@028B5;O =5>1E>48<> C2060BL, => 5A;8 >= 254QB A51O =5 B0:, :0: ?>;0305BAO 25AB8 A51O ?@028B5;N, >= <>65B 1KBL 70:>==K< >1@07>< A<5I5=). !83C@4C@ >@40;L ?8H5B > 1>30E 4@52=8E 8A;0=4F52: A;8 >=8 =5 ?><>30;8 ;N4O<, ;N48 A?>@8;8 A =8<8. =8 B@51>20;8 >B =8E A?@0254;82>AB8, :0: >B ;N459, 8A?>;L7CO 40@K 8 2>7<5I5=8O (Islenzk menning I, Reykjavik, 1942, p. 167).  >4=>9 87 A03 <K 4065 G8B05< A;54CNI85 3>@4K5 A;>20: A;8 ">@ =5 1C45B <5=O 1>;LH5 70I8I0BL, O >B:06CAL >B =53> 8 2K15@C A515 4@C3>3> 70I8B=8:0.  <>65B 1KBL 8 =5 2K15@C =8:0:>3>! 5@0:;8B0 B>65 2>;=C5B 2>?@>A, 7040NI89AO 5@5<859, => >B25G05B >= =0 =53> ?>-4@C3><C. >A;CH05< 8FH5: -B>B <8@ ?>;>= 3@5E>2, =5A?@0254;82>AB59, ?@>B82>@5G89? 0, 2>A:;8F05B 5@0:;8B, => B>;L:> 4;O G5;>25:0 >3@0=8G5==>3>, =5 284OI53> 70 >B45;L=K<8 25I0<8 F5;>AB=>AB8, 0 =5 4;O A>75@F0NI53> 1>30. ;O MB>3> 1>30 2A5 G0AB=>AB8 A;820NBAO 2 30@<>=88, E>BO 8 =52848<>9 4;O >1KG=>3> G5;>25G5A:>3> 27>@0, => ?>=OB=>9 4;O B>3>, :B>, :0: 5@0:;8B, ?>4>15= A>75@F0NI5<C 1>3C (La naissance de la philosophie a l'poque de la tragedie grecque, op. cit., p. 66). %@8AB80=A:>5 1>3>A;>285 CB25@6405B, GB> =8:0:>5 7;> =5 ACI5AB2C5B ?> A0<>9 ?@8@>45. ;> =5 O2;O5BAO =8 ACI5AB2><, =8 25I5AB2><. => B0:65 =5 O2;O5BAO 8 =5B20@=K< ?@8=F8?>< A>-ACI5AB2CNI8< A >3><, :0: ?>;030;8 <0=8E58. ;> 5ABL @07@CH5=85 ACI5AB20. 3> 8AB>G=8:>< O2;O5BAO B>;L:> ;8HL G5;>25: 8 =5?@028;L=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 8< A2>59 A2>1>4K. A;54AB285 MB>3> 7;>< B0:65 O2;O5BAO 2AQ, GB> ?@>B82>@5G8B :>=5G=>9 ?5@A?5:B825 A>740=8O, 2AQ, GB> ?@>B82>AB>8B A<KA;C 8AB>@88, ?@84C<0==><C /E25.  8C459A:>9, 0 2?>A;54AB288 E@8AB80=A:>9 <KA;8 ?@8G8=0 7;0 >1=0@C68205BAO 2 G5;>25G5A:>9 8AB>@88: ?@8G8=>9 7;0 O2;O5BAO A>B2>@Q==0O A2>1>40, 8 >=0 65 >4=0 70 =53> >B25BAB25==0 (Claude Tresmontant, Probleines du christianisme, op. cit., p. 163). @C38<8 A;>20<8, G5;>25: =5?@028;L=> 8A?>;L7C5B A2>N A2>1>4C, :>340 >= ?>;L7C5BAO 5N =5 B0:, :0: B>3> 65;05B /E25. (87=L 8 A<5@BL ?@54;>68; O B515, 1;03>A;>25=85 8 ?@>:;OB85. 715@8 687=L, 401K 68; BK 8 ?>B><AB2> B2>Q, ;N18; >A?>40, >30 B2>53>, A;CH0; 3;0A 3> 8 ?@8;5?;O;AO : 5<C, B>@. 30, 19-20). > 2 GQ< F5==>ABL A2>1>4K, :>B>@CN <>6=> 8A?>;L7>20BL >4=8<-548=AB25==K< A?>A>1><? >;55 B>3>, 2 GQ< F5==>ABL A2>1>4K, 8A?>;L7>20=85 :>B>@>9 ?>@>6405B 7;>? ?@>G5<, A?0A5=85 G5;>25:0 >15A?5G8205BAO 4065 8 =5 B5<, :0: >= 8A?>;L7C5B A2>N A2>1>4C. !?0A5=85 5ABL 40@ >30; >48= ;8HL >3 5ABL 8AB>G=8: A?0A5=8O. '5;>25: <>65B A45;0BL B>;L:> ;8HL >B@8F0B5;L=K9 2K1>@: >= A2>1>45= B>;L:> ;8HL ?>381=CBL. =B>;>38G5A:8< 459AB285< G5;>25:0 O2;O5BAO 2K1>@ A<5@B8 (Pierre Chaunu, Eglise, culture et socit, CDU-SEDES, 1981, p. 194). >;55 B>3>, 5A;8 ?@8G8=>9 7;0 O2;O5BAO =5?@028;L=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 G5;>25:>< A2>59 A2>1>4K, B>340 ?5@2>?@8G8=>9 7;0 O2;O5BAO >3, :>B>@K9 =045;8; G5;>25:0 ?>4>1=>9 A2>1>4>9. ! :0:>9 AB>@>=K : =59 =8 ?>4E>48, ?@>1;5<0 >AB0QBAO =5@07@5H8<>9. 028;>=A:89 <8D 2 F5;>< 1>;55 C1548B5;L=> >1JOA=O; A?>A>1=>ABL G5;>25:0 B2>@8BL 7;> B5<, GB> 2 <><5=B 53> A>740=8O 1>38 ?@8<5H0;8 : <0B5@80;C, 87 :>B>@>3> 1K;8 A45;0=K ?5@2K5 ;N48, :@>2L C18B>3> 8<8 7;>3> 1>65AB20.  8C45>-E@8AB80=AB25 8, 2 >A>15==>AB8, 2 E@8AB80=AB25 >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 7;> ?@8?8AK205BAO >4=><C ;8HL G5;>25:C (2 B>65 2@5<O 2>AB>G=0O F5@:>2L =07K205B 4LO2>;0 ?@8G8=>9 7;0, @0AA<0B@820NI55AO :0: 1>;57=L, :>B>@CN 4>;6=> 87;5G8BL). '5;>25: 28=>25=. A;8 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO A;>20<8 .;88 @8AB52>9 (Pouvoirs de l'horreur. Essai sur 1'abjection, Seuil, 1980), >ACI5AB2;O5BAO @048:0;L=0O 8=B5@8>@870F8O =87>AB8.  MB> 4>E>48B 4> =52@>70. 1@0I0OAL : >3C, A2. 23CAB8= 70O2;O5B: AQ, GB> 5ABL 2> <=5 E>@>H53>, MB> B2>Q B2>@5=85 8 B2>O 1;03>40BL, 2AQ, GB> 5ABL 2> <=5 ?;>E>3>, MB> <>O 28=0 8 B2>Q =0:070=8591. 91) > :@09=59 <5@5, 2 8C4087<5 ?@87=0QBAO, GB> G5;>25: =8:>340 =5 <>65B ?>;=>ABLN C=8GB>68BL 2 A515 C@=CN A:;>==>ABL. @0254=8: (F048:)  MB> =5 G5;>25:, B2>@OI89 >4=> B>;L:> 4>1@>, 0 G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 B2>@8B 1>;LH5 4>1@0, G5< 7;0. ;O O7KG5AB20 =5 ACI5AB2C5B >1J5:B82=>3> >?@545;5=8O 7;0. ;> =5 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 2 <0B5@88, :0: CB25@640NB, A@548 ?@>G8E, =5>?;0B>=8:8, >=> =5 C:>@5=5=> 2 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?@8@>45, :0: 3;0A8B ?0C;8=8ABA:0O :>=F5?F8O. ;> =5 ?@54AB02;O5B >A>15==>9 ?@>1;5<K, ?>B><C GB> >=> A0<> =5 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: 01A>;NB; >=> 8AE>48B =5 >B ACI5AB2>20=8O, 0 >B ACI5AB20. => @07;8G05BAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B F5==>AB59 8 MB8G5A:8E ?@028; >B45;L=KE ;N459 8 =0@>4>2. A;8 3>2>@8BL B>G=55, B> A =0H59 B>G:8 7@5=8O 7;> 5ABL B>, GB> <5H05B =0< 4>AB8GL =0H53> ?@54AB02;5=8O > A0<8E A515, B>, GB> 70AB02;O5B =0A ?0ABL =865 A0<8E A51O, GB> <5H05B =0< ?@527>9B8 A0<8E A51O 8 C=8605B =0A. 'B> E>@>H>?  AQ, GB> ?>2KH05B 2 G5;>25:5 GC2AB2> 2;0AB8, 2>;N : 2;0AB8, A0<CN 2;0ABL. 'B> 4C@=>?  AQ, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 87 A;01>AB8. 'B> 5ABL AG0ABL5?  'C2AB2> @0ABCI59 2;0AB8, GC2AB2> ?@5>4>;5205<>3> ?@>B82>459AB28O (8FH5, =B8E@8AB). @8=8<0O 2> 2=8<0=85 @07=>>1@0785 >B45;L=KE ;N459 8 =0@>4>2, :0: <>65B 1KBL 7;> >48=0:>2K< 4;O 2A5E? 1A>;NB0 =5 ACI5AB2C5B, ACI5AB2C5B ;8HL >B=>A8B5;L=0O ?@0240 >?@545;Q==>9 M?>E8 8 >?@545;Q==>3> <5AB0. -B> >B=N4L =5 >7=0G05B, GB> 2AQ 4>72>;5=>: :0: ?>:07K205B CAA5@;L, ACI=>ABL O2;5=8O =5 O2;O5BAO ?@>B82>@5G82>9 4;O @07=KE O 2=CB@8 >4=>9 8 B>9 65 :C;LBC@K, GB> >15A?5G8205B 8=B5@AC1J5:B82=>ABL. -B> B0:65 >7=0G05B =5 B>, GB> MB8:0 4>;6=0 1KBL CB8;8B0@=>9, 0 2A53> ;8HL B>, GB> >=0 =587156=> A2O70=0 A ?@54AB02;5=85< > <8@5, :>B>@>5 A;C68B 59 >?>@>9 8 :>B>@>5 A0<> C:>@5=5=> 2 :>;;5:B82=>< AC1AB@0B5. ;> =5 O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< 0?@8>@=>3> 3@5E0 8;8 28=K. 3> >?@545;5=85 7028A8B >B 8<?5@0B82>2, ?>4@07C<520NI8EAO =0H59 ?@8=04;56=>ABLN 8 =0H8< 2K1>@><.  O7KG5AB25 MB8:0 O2;O5BAO >A=>2>?>;030NI59 40==>ABLN, => 2 =Q< >BACBAB2C5B 2A5>1I55 <>@0;870B>@AB2>. >2B>@8< 5IQ @07, GB> 2 <8@5 ACI5AB2CNB B>;L:> B5 F5==>AB8, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO A;54AB285< =0H8E 8=8F80B82 8 =0H8E 8AB>;:>20=89. 5B 2>2A5 <>@0;L=KE D5=><5=>2, 5ABL B>;L:> <>@0;L=>5 8AB>;:>20=85 D5=><5=>2 (8FH5, > BC AB>@>=C 4>1@0 8 7;0)92. 92) 1 >B=>H5=8OE <564C <>@0;LN, :C;LBC@>9 8 B5>@859 F5==>AB59 A<.: Arnold Gehlen, Moral und Hypermoral. Eine Pluralistische Ethik. Athenaeum, Frankfurt/M.-Bonn. 1969; 8 Helmut Kron, Ethos und Ethik. Der Pluralismus der Kulturen und das Problem de.s ethischen Relativismus, Athenaeum. Frankfurt/M.-Bonn. 1960. 87=L 8 A<5@BL ?>AB>O==> ?5@5E>4OB 4@C3 2 4@C30 8 =5>1E>48<K 4@C3 4@C3C; B> 65 <>6=> A:070BL 8 > 4>1@5 8 7;5  8 B>;L:> A;01K5 4CE>< =0 MB>< >A=>20=88 A>GBCB, GB> E>@>H55 AB>8B =5 1>;LH5 ?;>E>3> 8;8 B> 8 4@C3>5 8<55B >48=0:>2CN F5==>ABL.  4>1@> 8 7;> 5@0:;8B ?>;0305B >4=8< 8 B5< 65 (D@03<. 58), => ?@8 MB>< >=8 =5 AB>OB 4@C3 4@C30. =8 ACBL >4=> 8 B> 65, =5 A>2?040O ?@8 MB>< 4@C3 A 4@C3><. =8 >4=> 8 B> 65 ?>B><C, GB> ?@>8AE>4OB 87 >4=>3> 8AB>G=8:0. 4=> @>6405BAO 87 4@C3>3>,  CB25@6405B /:>1 5<5. ">, GB> <K =07K205< 7;><, 5ABL ;8HL 4@C30O 3@0=L 4>1@0,  ?8H5B QB5. >1@> <>65B AB0BL 7;>< 8 =0>1>@>B, B0: 65 :0: E>;>4=>5 =03@5205BAO, 3>@OG55 >E;06405BAO, 2;06=>5 A>E=5B, 8AA>EH55 >@>H05BAO (5@0:;8B, D@03<. 126). @8 B><, GB> ACI5AB2C5B @07=8F0 <564C 60@>9 8 E>;>4><, >4=> O2;O5BAO AB0=>2;5=85< 4@C3>3>. %>@>H55 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL, ?>B><C GB> ACI5AB2C5B ?;>E>5. N1>5 ?>=OB85 B@51C5B A2>59 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8. 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C45< 65 A@060BLAO A BB8;>9, => ?>=8<0O 53> 2KAHCN ?>;57=>ABL, 1C45< A@060BLAO A =8< A 3;C1>:8< C4>2>;LAB285< 8, 3>2>@O A ?>;=>9 >B:@>25==>ABLN, 1C45< A@060BLAO A =8<, ;N1O 53> (Aux fontaines du dsir, Grasset, 1927, p. 29). 1JO2;OO 4>1@> 8 7;> 01A>;NB0<8, B> 5ABL 70<5=OO ?>4;8==K9 <8@ B5>@5B8G5A:8< <8@><, E@8AB80=AB2>, 2A;54 70 ;0B>=>< 8 !>:@0B><, 2KABC?8;> ?@>B82 48>=8A8G5A:>3> ?>@K20, :>B>@K9 ?>1C6405B G5;>25G5A:CN 4CHC CB25@48BL A51O :0: 40 687=8. >@0;L =5 O2;O5BAO 3@0<<0B8:>9 8;8 ?@024>9 687=8, 2=5H=59 ?> >B=>H5=8N : =59 8 59 ?>4G8=Q==>9; <>@0;L <>65B 1KBL 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 B>;L:> ;8HL >?8A0=85< 8 >?@545;5=85<.  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