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C=052 ?>43>B>28; A?@02:C, :>B>@CN C<5AB=> 745AL ?@825AB8: Ћ;O 2KOA=5=8O 1>3>A;>2A:>9 8 D8;>;>38G5A:>9 7=0G8<>AB8 0@3C<5=B0 >?B8=A:>3> AB0@F0, AAK;0NI53>AO =0 "@51=8: 2 4>:070B5;LAB2> ACI5AB2>20=8O  ?>@G8 8 2;8O=8O 55 =0 E@8AB80=, =5>1E>48<> >1@0B8BLAO : >@838=0;L=><C 3@5G5A:><C B5:ABC. = 3;0A8B:  ... kaˆ бfqalmюn baskan& aj . !;>2> baskan& a 8<55B 420 7=0G5=8O: ?5@2>5    2>;H51AB2> , 2B>@>5   7028ABL (A Greek-English Lexicon, compiled by H.G.Liddell and R.Scott, revised... by H.S.Jones... with a Supplement. 1968, Oxford, impression 1994, s.v., p.310), :>B>@K5 1K;8 B5A=> A2O70=K <564C A>1>9. 0?@8<5@, 2 B@5BL59 :=835 @><0=0 5;8>4>@0 Ћ-D8>?8:0Л A3;07 >1JOA=O5BAO ?5@540G59 7028AB8 ?> 2>74CEC.  A;>20@5 G.W.H.Lampe 0 (A Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford, 1961, impression 1995, s.v., p.293)  A0<>< 02B>@8B5B=>< ;5:A8:>=5 4;O ?5@52>40 3@5G5A:8E >BF>2  70A2845B5;LAB2>20=K MB8 65 7=0G5=8O, B>;L:>  A3;07 ,  2>;H51AB2> (evil eye, bewitchment) 2AB@5G05BAO 3>@074> @565  ?@82545= ;8HL >48= ?@8<5@ (C 2A528O ;5:A0=4@89A:>3>, 7-O 3><8;8O, PG 86, col. 356 B). >6=> 4065 A:070BL, GB> 7=0G5=85  2>;H51AB2> , 70A2845B5;LAB2>20==>5 C 2A528O (40 8 B> =04> 5I5 ?>A<>B@5BL, 2 :0:>< :>=B5:AB5), G@572KG09=> @54:> C A2OBKE >BF>2 (8, 7=0G8B, 2>>1I5 =5 2AB@5G05BAO 2 B>< A<KA;5, :>B>@K9 ?>72>;O; 1K 3>2>@8BL > :0:><-B> A3;075 ?@>B82 E@8AB80=). @>A<>B@52 <=>65AB2> A2OB>>B5G5A:8E B5:AB>2 (>:>;> AB0 ?OB845AOB8  2<5AB5 A :>=B5:AB0<8!) ?> :><?LNB5@=>9 25@A88 Thesaurus linguae graecae (1993, CD ROM), O =5 =0H5; =8 >4=>3> ?@8<5@0 C?>B@51;5=8O MB>3> A;>20 E@8AB80=A:8<8 02B>@0<8 2 A<KA;5  2>;H51AB2> (70 8A:;NG5=85< ?@82545==>3> =865). # 2A5E A2OBKE >BF>2 A;>2> baskan& a 2AB@5G05BAO 2 ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 2<5AB5 A> A;>2>< fqвnoj (7028ABL) 8 B.?., O2;OOAL 53> ?>GB8 ?>;=K< A8=>=8<>< (C 3=0B8O >3>=>AF0, ?8D0=8O 8?@A:>3>, 0A8;8O 5;8:>3>, >0==0 ;0B>CAB0, 0;;048O, ><0=0 !;04:>?52F0, >0==0 0<0A:8=0 8 B.4.), >4=0:> 157 4>102;5=8O  >G5A . 48=AB25==K9 ?@8<5@, ?@82;5:H89 <>5 2=8<0=85,  =043@>1=0O @5GL A2. @83>@8O 8AA:>3> =0 :>=G8=C 5?8A:>?0 5;5B8O (Oratio funebris in Meletium episcopum, ed. A.Spira, Gregorii Nysseni opera, vol. 9.1. Leiden: Brill, 1967, pag. 447): "!leю se, № "!kklhs& a: prеj s lagw, tОn 'Antiвcou pвlin: "!leю se tСj Ђqrвaj taкthj metabolСj. pюj ЂpekosmЛqh tе kЃlloj; pюj ЂpesulЛqh а kвsmoj; pюj "!xa& fnhj Ђperrкh tе Ѕnqoj; дntwj 'ExhrЃnqh а cвrtoj kaˆ tе Ѕnqoj "!xapesen. t& j бfqalmеj ponhrвj, t& j baskan& a kakО katІ tСj "!kklhs& aj "!ke& nhj "!kшmasen; oRa Ђnq' o wn КllЃxato. "!xalipen Й phgЛ. "!xhrЃnqh а potamвj. 5@52>6C:  0;L <=5 B51O, F5@:>2L!  B515 >1@0I0NAL O, =B8>E8O [1C:2. 3@04 =B8>E0]. 0;5N O > B2>59 AB>;L 2=570?=>9 ?5@5<5=5. 0:> >157>1@078;0AL :@0A>B0? 0:> C:@045=> C:@0H5=85? 0:> 2=570?=> >?0; F25B>:? >8AB8=5  87AH5 B@020 8 F25B >B?045 (A. 40,7). 0:>9 3;07 ;C:02K9, :0:0O 7028ABL 7;0O [8;8: :0:>9 4C@=>9 3;07, :0:>5 7;>5 2>;H51AB2>] ?@>8725;8 =0H5AB285 [3;03>; kwmЃzw 7=0G8B  ?@8=8<0BL CG0AB85 2 A2OI5==>9 ?@>F5AA88 (> 20:E8G5A:8E 8;8 538?5BA:8E <8AB5@8OE), >B:C40 1>;55 >1I85 7=0G5=8O] =0 BC F5@:>2L? 0: 2A5 87<5=8;>AL! 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"0: GB> =5 2AO:CN 4@52=>ABL 8 =5 2AO:CN  =0@>4=CN B@048F8N AB>8B 2>7@>640BL.  =5 :064><C G5;>25:C, C25@ONI5<C, GB> >= A0<K9 GB> =8 =0 5ABL ?@02>A;02=K9, AB>8B 25@8BL. P.S. > 7025@H5=88 1997 3>40 C @5@8E>2F52 >AB0;>AL 420 A?>A>10 ?>2545=8O. 5@2K9: >1JO28BL !>1>;520 8 53>  5@8E>2A:CN :045<8N A0<>720=F0<8. B>@>9: 2>>1I5 83=>@8@>20BL ?@>8AH54H55 8 45;0BL 284, GB> 2A5 2 ?>@O4:5. 5@2K9 ?CBL 1K; 1K :>@@5:B=55,   5A;8 1K B>;L:> @5@8E>2FK 2AB0;8 =0 =53> @0=LH5 8 =5 4>6840;8AL <>8E 2KABC?;5=89 ?> ?>2>4C A>1>;52A:8E 1@54=59, => A0<8 1K 2KABC?8;8 A >?@>25@65=85< 53> D0=B0789. > ?>:0 4065 ?>O282H85AO 3075B=K5 ?C1;8:0F88 > A>1>;52A:8E ?@>@>G5AB20E =5 ?>1C640NB &  : 48AB0=F88@>20=8N >B !>1>;520. B>@>9 65 ?CBL 1>;55 25@>OB5=. = C65 8A?>;L7>20;AO @5@8E>2F0<8. !>1>;52 254L =5 >A=>20B5;L B@048F88 @5@8E>2A:8E ;65?@>@>G5AB2, 0 2A53> ;8HL 55 M?83>=. 7 3>40 2 3>4 @5@8E>2FK AB@0I0NB ;N459 :0B0AB@>D0<8. "0:, 2 0?@5;5 1996 3. B><A:0O @5@8E>2A:0O 3075B0  =0<O <8@0 2>725I0;0:  1996 3>4   3>4 25;8:8E ?5@5<5= 8 ?>B@OA5=89. !>3;0A=> 0AB@>;>388, >= 7=0<5=0B5;5= B5<, GB> ?;0=5B0 #@0=, ?;0=5B0 @52>;NF8>==>AB8 8 M:AF5=B@8G=>AB8, =>20B>@A:8E 8459 8 ?5@5<5=, 2E>48B 2 A>7257485 >4>;5O. A?><=8< 25;8:>3> >AB@040<CA0:  ! 1984 ?> 1997 3>4 B@5BL =0A5;5=8O C<@5B >B 1>;57=59. 0;55 @>AB ;N459 1C45B C<5=LH0BLAO, >=8 AB0=CB >@0=652K<8.  1996 3.   @0AF25B A0B0=87<0 2 <8@5. @>87>945B 75<;5B@OA5=85 >3@><=>9 @07@CH8B5;L=>9 A8;K 2 70?04=>9 2@>?5. >A;54=85 3>4K %% 25:0   3>4K 70B>?;5=8O >;;0=488, =3;88 8 A525@=>9 G0AB8 >;LH8 . 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Forestville, 1987, A. 70).  $8;0B>2 !., )8?:>2 . #@0;. @5;LI5=85 <>=5B0@87<>< // @C610 =0@>4>2.  ., 1996, ! 12, A. 142. 075B0, C?><O=CB0O MB8<8 02B>@0<8, 459AB28B5;L=> =5 157 AB@0==>AB59.  =59 <>6=> 2AB@5B8BL 8 ?5@5?5G0B:C, ?@O<> A:065<, =5 >G5=L F5@:>2=>3> 0?>:@8D0 5>=840 =4@5520  C40 A:0@8>B (1992, !3), 8 @C1@8:C  !B0@8==0O @CAA:0O <548F8=0 A A>25B0<8 2@>45:  @5ABLO=5 ?@8 @52<0B87<5 8=>340 :;04CB @C:8 8;8 =>38 2 @07@KBCN =02>7=CN :CGC, >B :>B>@>9 845B ?0@, 8 2 B0:>9 20==5 >AB02;ONB 8E =0 G5B25@BL 8;8 ?>;G0A0 (1994, !8 9, A.15). @5C<8;L=K B0:65 A>25BK <>;8BLAO >B 3>;>2=KE 1>;59 A2. >0==C @5AB8B5;N (>G5284=>, @07 A2. >0==C >B@C18;8 3>;>2C  >= ;CGH5 7=05B, :0: 55 ;5G8BL) 8  >B 65=A:8E 1>;57=59 ?@5?>4>1=><C 0284C 0@54689A:><C (1995, !7 8).  2 B>9 AB0BL5, :>B>@0O 708<AB2>20=0 87 A095=B>;>38G5A:>9 1@>HN@:8, 5ABL A>25BK =5 <5=55 70<5G0B5;L=K5, G5< B5, GB> ?@825;8 02B>@K 87  @C61K =0@>4>2 . 0?@8<5@:  ;O B>3>, GB>1K ?>;N18BL A51O, =C6=> 87<5=8BL =530B82=>5 <KH;5=85 > A515 =0 ?>;>68B5;L=>5: 2A5 =530B82=K5 <KA;8 >B1@>A8BL 8 ?>2B>@OBL ?>;>68B5;L=K5 CB25@645=8O, A<KA; :>B>@KE 2 B><, GB> 2K 70<5G0B5;L=K9 G5;>25: 8 4>AB>9=K AG0ABLO 8 2A5E 1;03 . 48=AB25==>5, GB> A<CI05B ?@8 A>?>AB02;5=88 AB0BL8 2 G5;O18=A:>9 3075B5 A 55 ?5@5A:07>< 2  @C615 =0@>4>2 ,  B0: MB> B>, GB> !. $8;0B>2 8 53> A>02B>@ ?@8?8AK20NB A515 :0:CN-B> >A>1CN ?@>7>@;82>ABL 8 >A254><;5==>ABL: <>;, ?@8 2=8<0B5;L=>< 87CG5=88 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?@>2545==>3> =0<8 @0AA;54>20=8O C40;>AL CAB0=>28BL, GB> MB> 2A5 A>25BK 87 A095=B>;>38G5A:8E :=865:. 0 A0<>< 45;5 3075B0  > 8<O %@8AB0 =5 ?>AB5A=O;0AL ?@O<> 8 A0<0 >1 MB>< A:070BL. >4 ?>;>A>9, >703;02;5==>9:  >6=> ;8 87<5=8BL AC4L1C? , AB>8B ?>4?8AL 8 C:070=85 8AB>G=8:0, 87 :>B>@>3> 708<AB2>20=K MB8 AB@0==K5 A>25BK:  .. . 20=>2. 80=5B8:0 8 4CE>2=>5 F5;8B5;LAB2> . "0: GB> =5 <>65B 1KBL 8 @5G8 > B><, GB> =5:89 :>@@5A?>=45=B-:><?8;OB>@ >1<0=C; @540:F8N ?@02>A;02=>9 3075BK. 5B, 8AB>G=8: 708<AB2>20=8O 1K; 8725AB5= 2A5<, 2:;NG0O 3;02=>3> @540:B>@0. 0?><=N, GB> 480=5B8:0  MB> CG5=85 >=0 %0110@40, C?><8=02H55AO 2 ?@545;5=88 !>1>@0 :0: O2=> 0=B8E@8AB80=A:>5. > 83C<5= >0==, >G5284=>, ?@8CG8; A2>N G5;O18=A:CN ?0AB2C H8@>:> A<>B@5BL =0 25I8.  '0ABL B5:AB>2, 2>H54H8E 2 MBC :=83C, =0?8A0=0 A?5F80;L=> 4;O MB>3> A1>@=8:0. @C30O G0ABL 1K;0 >?C1;8:>20=0 ?@5645: Ћ&5@:>2=0O =03@040  >::C;LB8AB0<Л  04>=56.  ., 1997, ! 3; ЋI5 @07 > F5@:>2=KE >@45=0E 8 >::C;LB8AB0EЛ  04>=56.  ., 1997, ! 4; ЋA;8 F5@:>2=K5 >@45=0 40NB >::C;LB8AB0<, GB> >AB05BAO ?@02>A;02=K<?Л  04>=56.  ., 1997, ! 6; Ћ;5:A0=4@ 5=L: ?>B5@O2H89AO <8AA8>=5@Л  04>=56.  ., 1997, !! 7 8 8; Ћ>A<8G5A:0O 85@0@E8OЛ... =0 3>A1N465B5. 5@8E>2FK ?@54A:07K20NB :>=5F A25B0 2 1997 3>4CЛ  "@C4.  ., 30 <0O 1997; ЋB45; @5;838>7=>3> >1@07>20=8O @5:><5=4C5B 70=OBLAO <03859Л  04>=56,  ., 1997, ! 12; Ћ5@>>BABC?=8G5AB2> :0: G0AB=>5 45;> E@8AB80=8=0Л  04>=56,  ., 1997, !14; Ћ >6840=88 <5@K ?@5A5G5=8O...Л  04>=56,  ., 1997, ! 15.  !2B. @83>@89 >3>A;>2. !;>2> 21 // "2>@5=8O.  "@>8F5-!5@38520 ;02@0, 1994, B. 1, AA. 318-319.  . . /=H8=. @825BAB25==>5 A;>2> //  0I8B8< :C;LBC@C . 0B5@80;K <564C=0@>4=>9 >1I5AB25==>-=0CG=>9 :>=D5@5=F88, ?>A2OI5==>9 60-;5B8N ?0:B0 5@8E0.  ., 1996, A. 20.  0B5@80;K : A5<8=0@C  5@A?5:B82K G5;>25G5AB20 =0 ?>@>35 =>2>3> BKAOG5;5B8O .  >2>A818@A:, :045<3>@>4>:, 28 0?@.  2 <0O 1993, A. 61.  >4@>1=55 >1 MB>< 2 3;020E  ::C;LB=K9 :><<C=87< 8  ::C;LB=K9 @0A87< 2 <>59 :=835  !0B0=87< 4;O 8=B5;;835=F88 (., 1997).  !<.: . ;5:A552. . @83>@L52. 5;838O =B8E@8AB0.  >2>A818@A:, 1994, A. 132. =5 >A>15==> ABK4=>, GB> >1 >::C;LB=KE A8<?0B8OE 5ABC6520-04K =0?8A0;8 MB8 02B>@K-?@>B5AB0=BK, 0 ?@02>A;02=K5 :0: =8 2 G5< =5 1K20;> =03@048;8 53> F5@:>2=K< >@45=><. N1K5 83@K A O7KG5AB2>< 2K7K20NB 1C@=>5 =5?@8OB85 C ?@>B5AB0=B>2.  A@548 ?>A;54AB289, :>B>@K5 1C45B 8<5BL =03@0645=85 3-4 /=H8=0 8 5ABC6520-04K, C2848< 8 CA8;5=85 0=B8?0B88 @CAA:8E ?@>B5AB0=B>2 : CAA:>9 @02>A;02=>9 &5@:28.  40==>< A;CG05, C2K, >B=N4L =5 157>A=>20B5;L=>5 CA8;5=85...  !. 0;K38=. 07C<=K9 A>N7 A ?@8@>4>9 // 0H A>2@5<5==8:.  ., 1987, !1, A. 119.  '8ABK9 <8@. 65<5AOG=0O 3075B0 > 2>A?8B0=88 4CH8.  8=A:, 1996, ! 4 (7).  5@2K9 2K?CA: A>AB>O;AO >A5=LN 1997 3. - @8<5G0=85 1998 3>40.  Q7>2 !. >2K9 025B 8 >;>:0CAB // :BC0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K A>2@5<5==>9 70@C156=>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 =0C:8.  . , , 1991, 2K?CA: 3. %@8AB80=AB2> 8 ?>;8B8:0, A. 153.  "0< 65, A. 174.  "0< 65, A. 163.  "0< 65, A. 159.  Q7>2 !. %@8AB80=AB2> ?>A;5 A25=F8<0 // :BC0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K A>2@5<5==>9... !A. 185-186.  "0< 65, A. 196.   A>1K9 @073>2>@  > =5:>B>@KE CG51=KE 702545=8OE, 2 B>< G8A;5 > 2KAH8E, :>B>@K5 =>AOB =0720=85 ?@02>A;02=KE, => 345 =5 B>;L:> 4>?CA:0NBAO, 0 ?>@>9 4065 3>A?>4AB2CNB =5?@02>A;02=K5 273;O4K. 0: 1K 2K >B=5A;8AL : B><C, GB> 5BE89 025B :><<5=B8@C5BAO =5 ?> A2OBK< >BF0<, 0 ?> "0;<C4C, 0110;5, >@0=C; GB> > >65AB25==>< >3>A5 3>2>@8BAO, 1C4B> ?@8 B2>@5=88 <8@0 = =5 B>;L:> A0<>>3@0=8G8; !51O, => 8 1K; Ћ@0AG;5=5=(; :>340 5AA8O =8 @07C =5 =0720= >3><, 0 B>;L:> >65AB25==K< ?>A;0==8:>< 8 >A@54=8:>< <564C >3>< 8 G5;>25:><; :>340 2> 2A5< 5BE>< 025B5 =5 =0E>4OB =8 >4=>3> C:070=8O > !2OB>9 "@>8F5? "0:>9 ?>4E>4 <>65B 1KBL >1JOA=8< 4;O A25BA:8E CG51=KE 702545=89 ЋB5>;>38G5A:8E( D0:C;LB5B>2 =5E@8AB80=A:8E C=825@A8B5B>2, => A>25@H5==> =5?@85<;5< 4;O ?@02>A;02=>9 B@048F88. 3@K C<0 =5 40NB ?@02>A;02=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 8 F5@:>2=>AB8. C<0N, GB> @C:>2>48B5;O< ?@02>A;02=KE CG51=KE 702545=89, 345 4>?CA:0NBAO ?>4>1=K5 ;5:F88, CG51=K5 ?>A>18O 8 :=838, 5ABL =04 G5< ?>@07<KA;8BL, =5>1E>48<> A45;0BL 2K2>4K 8 2K1>@ .  1@0I5=85 !2OB59H53> 0B@80@E0 >A:>2A:>3> 8 2A5O CA8 ;5:A8O II : :;8@C, ?@54AB028B5;O< AB02@>?8380;L=KE <>=0ABK@59 8 ?@8E>4A:8< A>25B0< E@0<>2 3. >A:2K =0 5?0@E80;L=>< A>1@0=88 12 45:01@O 1996 3>40.  ., 1997, AA. 23-24. (@8<5G0=85 1998 3.).  )54@>28F:89 . 2545=85 2 5BE89 025B.  ., 1994, G. 1. =830 KB8O, !. 60.  "0< 65, A. 52.  070@5BO= . >E>@>=K 1>3>2. 81> >=8 A>AB>OBAO, ;81> F828;870F8O ?>381=5B // 3>=5:.  ., 1995, ! 27.  >;G5=:> . . @8OB85 "2>@F0 A>2@5<5==>9 =0C:>9 // !>7=0=85 8 D878G5A:0O @50;L=>ABL.  .,1997, B. 2, !1, A. 3.  > :>=F0 1997 3. ?>O28;>AL 5I5 G5BK@5 :=838: "@02>A;0285 8 ?@02>", "A;8 >3 5ABL ;N1>2L", "0A;5485 %@8AB0", "K7>2 M:C<5=87<0".  @8<5G0=85 1998 3.  5@8E>2FK C65 >A2>8;8 MB>B 0@3C<5=B:  0: 8725AB=>, 548=AB20 2 F5@:>2=KE :@C30E =5B: ?@545;5=85 @E85@59A:>3> A>1>@0 1994 3>40 =5 1K;> ?>4?8A0=> <8B@>?>;8B>< 8B8@8<><, >4=8< 87 =081>;55 7=0NI8E 8 ?@>3@5AA82=KE ?@54AB028B5;59 ?@02>A;028O, 0 A>2A5< =0402=> G;5= @02;5=8O 564C=0@>4=>3> &5=B@0 5@8E>2, 0:045<8: . . /=H8= =03@0645= F5@:>2=K< >@45=>< !2OB>3> 0=88;0 - ==5=:> .  5 45;0BL B>3>, GB> ABK4=>... // 10:0=. 1997, !149-150, 8 8N;O. (@8<5G0=85 1998 3.).  #2K, 8 =0 >645AB25=A:8E GB5=8OE 1998 3. 1K;8 4>:;04K 8 /=H8=0, 8 5ABC6520-04K.  @8<5G0=85 1998 3.  >4<>A:>2L5.  ., 22.4.95.   1998 3. 57>2 C65 25; 70=OB8O ?> >2><C 025BC. - @8<5G0=85 1998 3.  @>B. >0== !28@84>2. 5F8482  ?@>28=F80;L=>3> :>=D5AA8>=0;87<0 // &5@:>2=>->1I5AB25==K9 25AB=8: ! 7 (@8;>65=85 :  CAA:>9 <KA;8 >B 16.1.97).  >8A552 . 0@04>:AK 480;>30. !>2@5<5==K9 M:C<5=87< 8 8AB>@8O &5@:28 // !25B 20=35;8O.  ., 25 8N=O 1995. AB0B8 4;O A@02=5=8O:  I5 5?8A:>? 8;8 ?@5A28B5@ 8;8 480:>= ?@8 A>25@H5=88 ?@8=>H5=8O =5 ?@8G0AB8BAO: 40 ?@54AB028B ?@8G8=C, 8 0I5 ACBL 1;03>A;>25==0, 40 1C45B 8728=5=. I5 65 =5 ?@54AB028B: 40 1C45B >B;CG5= >B >1I5=8O F5@:>2=03>, O:> A>45;02H89AO 28=>N 2@540 =0@>4C, 8 =0 A>25@H02H53> ?@8=>H5=85 =0254H89 ?>4>7@5=85, O:> 1K =5?@028;L=> A>25@H0; (>AL<>5 0?>AB>;LA:>5 ?@028;>) // @028;0 A2OBKE 0?>AB>;, A2OBKE !>1>@>2 8 A2OBKE >B5F A B>;:>20=8O<8.  ., 1876, A. 13.  8B@. =B>=89 (%@0?>28F:89). @02AB25==>5 CG5=85 @02>A;02=>9 &5@:28.  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CB8 @CAA:>3> 1>3>A;>28O.  0@86, 1983, AA. 3 4.  '5@57 3>4 >= A=>20 ?@85E0; 2 8=2>4K A B5I59, ?><070; <0A;>< 87 ;0<?04K 1>;L=K5 3;070 B5I8 8 70AK?0; 8E 75<;59 A <>38;:8 AB0@F0, A2OB> 25@CO, GB> MB> ?@8=5A5B 59 8AF5;5=85. (;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E  85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, A. 167).  -B>B @0AA:07 >AB>52A:>3> 2>AE>48B :  8B8N A2. 5B@0, 1K2H53> <KB0@5< (?0<OBL 22 A5=BO1@O). 5B@ 2 A2>5< 4>?>:0O==>< 68B88 >4=064K A >7;>1;5=85< <5B=C; E;51 2 =8I53>... ?@>G5<, M?87>4 A 2KBO3820=85< 87 >3=5==>3> >75@0 2 F5@:>2=>< 8B88 >BACBAB2C5B.   45:01@5 1997 3. 2 <>A:>2A:>< E@0<5 !2. "@>8FK GB> =0 >@>1L52KE 3>@0E C A25G=>3> OI8:0 ?@>87>H;0 25AL<0 ?>:070B5;L=0O 15A540. 0H54H0O AB0@CH:0 A?@>A8;0 E>7O9:C A25G=>3> OI8:0, :0: =04> >B<5G0BL A>@>:>2>9 45=L.  >B25B 65 CA;KH0;0:  04> ?>AB028BL E;51 8 2>4C. 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K@065=85, :0:, 2?@>G5<, ?>GB8 2A5 2 687=8 F5@:28, =5 =>2>5. > 2>B @0=55 >=> 1K;> A:>@55 ;8B5@0BC@=K< ?@85<><, :0:, =0?@8<5@, C . . ;NG52A:>3>, ?8A02H53> >1 >4=>< A2>5< :@8B8:5:  <C ?>4>105B 1KBL 70 ?>@>3>< ?@02>A;028O, 2 ?@8B2>@5 :0NI8EAO 8 >3;0H5==KE, 2 8=B5@5A5 4CE>2=>9 38385=K ?@02>A;02=>3> >1I5AB20, >A2>1>48BLAO >B B>9 1>;57=8 C<0, :>B>@CN >48= @CAA:89 ?8A0B5;L XVIII 25:0, 3>2>@O > @0A:>;5, =0720; 101A:>9 1>3>A;>2859 (;NG52A:89 . . ;;8;C9O 8 >. 0D=CB89 // B7K2K 8 >B25BK. "@5B89 A1>@=8: AB0B59.  ., 1914, A. 214).  0@70=>20 ". > GB> 25@OB ?@8E>60=5? 5;838>7=>5 A>7=0=85 A>2@5<5==KE 25@CNI8E // CAA:0O KA;L.  0@86, 4.9.97.  8G53> =5>1KG=>3> 2 B0:>3> @>40 ?@54;>65=88 =5B. 0?@8<5@, 2 <>=0H5A:>9 ?@0:B8:5 ?@8=OB> >A06820BL =>28G:0, G8=8BL ?@5?OBAB28O B><C, :B> 65;05B ?@8=OBL <>=0H5AB2>. 'B>1K 2KOA=8BL <>B82K G5;>25:0 8 B25@4>ABL 53> =0<5@5=8O, :@5?>ABL 53> 25@K, C <>=0ABK@A:>3> ?>@>30 A:>@55 >B3>@06820NBAO >B ?@8H54H53>, G5< 707K20NB 53>.  A;8 C2848HL N=>HC ?> A2>59 2>;5 2>AE>4OI53> =0 =51>, C45@68 53> 70 =>3C 8 A1@>AL 53> >BBC40: 81> 5<C MB> ?>;57=> (@52=89 0B5@8:.  ., 1899, A. 202).  $0@@0@ $. 5@2K5 4=8 E@8AB80=AB20.  !1., 1892, A. 710.  =5 8725AB=0 ;8HL >4=0 ?>?KB:0 >B@5728BL ?>:;>=5=85 <>4=K< AB0@F0< A 8E 70G0ABCN 25AL<0 =>2>9 8 H>:8@CNI59  4CE>2=>ABLN . -B>  AB0BLO A2OI5==8:0 "8<>D5O !5;LA:>3>  !B0@G5A:0O =5<>IL =>2>=0G0;L=KE ( CAA:89 ?0ABK@L.  6>@40=28;;L, 1996, !25; ?5@5?5G0B:0 2 :=835:  3C<5= 8:>= (>@>1L52). 0< >AB02;5=> ?>:0O=85. 8AL<0 . [ ., 1997].), A>45@60I0O :@8B8G5A:89 0=0;87 :=838  5@>AE8<>=0E !0<?A>= (!825@A). 87=5>?8A0=85, 15A54K 8 ?>CG5=8O, ?8AL<0 .  87=L 5G=0O.  ., 1996, !17, D52@0;L.  -B>B @5:;0<=K9 A;>30= <=5 4>25;>AL A;KH0BL 2 5@1=>5 2>A:@5A5=L5 1998 3. =0 ?@02>A;02=>9 2KAB02:5 2 <>A:>2A:>< :8=>B50B@5  :BO1@L .  0 >1;>6:5 MB>3> F8B8@C5<>3> =0<8 =><5@0 3075BK  87=L 5G=0O ?><5I5=0 D>B>3@0D8O @83>@8O 0A?CB8=0 A =04?8A0=85<:  @83>@89  G5;>25: >689 , 0 70B5< A;54C5B 0?>;>35B8G5A:0O AB0BLO > =5< :0: >1 8AB8==>< AB0@F5. 0A?CB8=, :>=5G=>, =5 1K; B5< GC4>28I5<, :0:8< @8A>20;8 53> ;815@0;L=K5 3075BK ?@54@52>;NF8>==>9 ?>@K. > 8 2 A2OB>>B5G5A:89 @O4 AB028BL 53> 2A5 65 =5B @57>=0. > <>5<C >ICI5=8N MB> 1K; 10=0;L=K9  M:AB@0A5=A . >, GB>1K =5 2?040BL 87 >4=>9 :@09=>AB8 (=5C<5@5==> >AC48B5;L=>9) 2 4@C3CN (157C45@6=> 2>AE20;8B5;L=CN), AB>8B 45@60BL 2 ?0<OB8 E>BO 1K >4=> 2KA:07K20=85 MB>3> @5;838>7=>3> 45OB5;O:  AO:0O 25@0 >B >A?>40, :@8B8:>20BL =8:0:CN 25@C =5;L7O (70?8A:0 [<0@B 1915 3.] ?C1;.: ;0B>=>2 . 87=L 70 &0@O. @0240 > @83>@88 0A?CB8=5.  !1., 1996, A. 279). A;8 C6 3>A?>40 87  87=8 5G=>9 27O;8 =0 A51O ?>4283 1>@L1K A M:C<5=87<><  B> :0: 65 8E =5 :>@>18B >B B0:>3> AC?5@M:C<5=8G5A:>3> 2KA:07K20=8O?  MB>9 65 :=835 ?@82545=> =5<0;> ?@8<5@>2 ;>6=KE ?@>@>G5AB2  AB0@F0 @83>@8O (A<. AA. 297-299), GB> ?>G5<C-B> =8:0: =5 ?>2;8O;> =0 A25@E0?>;>35B8G5A:CN ?>78F8N A0<>3> 02B>@0.  =530B82=>9 F5@:>2=>9 >F5=:5 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ;8G=>AB8 @83>@8O 0A?CB8=0 8 > <>B820E B0:>9 >F5=:8 A<. 8AA;54>20=85 !8=>40;L=>9 :><8AA88 ?> :0=>=870F88 A2OBKE:  &0@A:0O A5<LO 8 . . 0A?CB8= (0B5@80;K, A2O70==K5 A 2>?@>A>< :0=>=870F88 &0@A:>9 A5<L8.  ., 1997, AA. 51 54).  !5AB@0 =B>=8=0. '8AB>G5B25@3>20O 2>40 // @5>1@065=85. 075B0 !?0A>-@5>1@065=A:>3> E@0<0 3. 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'5< 4;O <8AB8G5A:8 =0AB@>5==>9 F0@8FK 1K; 0A?CB8=, B5< B5?5@L AB0; 4;O 25;8:>3> :=O7O :0?8B0= 1 @0=30 . . !25G8=.  40==>5 2@5<O (=>O1@L 1918 3.) >= =0E>48;AO ?>4 >10O=85< :0:>9-B> @0AA;01;5==>9, ;5602H59 2 /;B5 <0BCH:8 235=88, 2A5 2@5<O ?@>@>G5AB2>202H59. !25G8= AC<5; 70G0@>20BL 25;8:>3> :=O7O ?@>@>G5AB20<8 <0BCH:8 235=88, 25I02H59 > 1;87:> >6840NI59 25;8:>3> :=O7O @>;8 A?0A8B5;O >AA88 8 2 M:AB075 GCBL ;8 =5 28452H59 53> C65 A 25=F>< =0 3>;>25... 5;8:89 :=O7L A M:70;LB0F859 =0G0; <=5 @0AA:07K20BL, :0: >A?>4L G5@57 482=CN <0BCH:C 235=8N >B:@K205B > =5< !2>N 2>;N, :>59 >= 4>;65= ?>4G8=8BLAO, @07 >=0 C7=05BAO 87 B0:>3> 2KA>:>3> 8AB>G=8:0, :0: >1;040NI0O 40@>< ?@>7@5=8O <0BCH:0. / A;CH0; MB>B 1@54, AB8A=C2 7C1K, => ?> 2@5<5=0< =5 2K45@6820; 8 >E;0640; C2;5:H8EAO, A>25BCO =5 8A:CH0BL >A?>40, =5 B@51>20BL 7=0<5=89 8 GC45A, =5 25@8BL A;5?> :064><C ?@>@>G5AB2C, 81> >=> <>65B 1KBL >B G5;>25:0, 0 =5 >B >30. >8 70<5G0=8O =5 ?>=@028;8AL A>15A54=8:0<. !25G8= =0 4@C3>9 45=L >1<>;28;AO, GB> O 1>;55 ?>E>6 =0 ?@>B5AB0=BA:>3> ?0AB>@0, G5< =0 ?@02>A;02=>3> A2OI5==8:0 (?@>B>?@5A28B5@ 5>@389 (025;LA:89. >A?><8=0=8O ?>A;54=53> ?@>B>?@5A28B5@0 CAA:>9 @<88 8 D;>B0.  ., 1996, B. 2, AA. 317 318).  5@><>=0E >0== (>30=). B5F "8E>=, ?>A;54=89 25;8:89 @CAA:89 AB0@5F =0 D>=5.  "@>8F5-!5@38520 ;02@0, 1997, AA. 36 37.  C@0A>2 . . >3>< 40==0O.  !1., 1995, A. 86.  "0< 65, AA. 59-60.  ;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E  85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, A. 56.  !:070=85 > 68B88 1;065==>9 AB0@8FK 0B@>=K. !>AB028;0 8 70?8A0;0 40=>20 . .  !2OB>-"@>8F:89 >2>->;CB28= <>=0ABK@L, 1993, A. 26.  . . . >A?><8=0=8O > 5;0388 O70=A:>9 // 87=L 5G=0O.  ., 1997, !33.  5GL 745AL 845B =5 > 45O=8OE A5;5=A:8E !>1>@>2, 0 > ?><5AB=KE A>1>@0E 2@>45 !B>3;020, :>B>@K5 1K;8 02B>@8B5B=K 2 3;070E @0A:>;L=8:>2 459AB28B5;L=> =5 <5=55, G5< 20=35;85, 8 ?@8 MB>< A>45@60;8 2 A515 CB25@645=8O AB>;L 65 :0B53>@8G=K5, A:>;L 8 =52565AB25==K5:  65 :B> =5 7=0<5=05BAO 425<O ?5@ABK, O:>65 8 %@8AB>A, 40 5ABL ?@>:;OB (!B>3;02.  .,1863, A.131).  &8B. ?>:"0@552 . . %@8AB80=A:0O D8;>A>D8O.  ., 1917, G. 1. >2>5 1>3>A;>285, AA. 75 76. 5@20O ?C1;8:0F8O @57>;NF88 <8B@. ;0B>=0: 8;O@>2-;0B>=>2 .. !>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89. 740=85 . . >154>=>AF520.  ., 1900, B. 2, AA. 282-283.  $54>B>2 . . !2OBK5 @52=59 CA8.  LN->@:, 1959, A. 217. >4@>1=55 > D>;L:;>@=KE AN65B0E 8 45B0;OE 2 68B89=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 A<.: ;NE0=>20 . . !N65BK 8 A8<2>;K >A:>2A:>3> &0@AB20.  !1., 1995.  CE>2=K9 53;0<5=B, BI0=85< 8 ?>25;5=85< A5?@5A25B;59H53>, 5@602=59H53> >AC40@O 5B@0 5@2>3>, <?5@0B>@0 8 !0<>45@6F0 A5@>AA89A:>3>, ?> A>872>;5=8N 8 ?@83>2>@C A5@>AA89A:>3> CE>2=>3> '8=0 8 @028B5;LAB2CNI53> !5=0B0 2 F0@AB2CNI5< !0=:B-5B5@1C@35, 2 ;5B> >B >645AB20 %@8AB>20 1721, A>G8=5==K9.  ., 1883, A. 17.  >B>28;>2 . . 8AL<0 8 4>:;04=K5 70?8A:8 // !5@0D8<>2> ?>A;CH0=85. 87=L 8 B@C4K . . >B>28;>20. !>AB. . . !B@8652.  ., 1996, A. 99.  @8;>65=85 :  5;8:>9 82552A:>9 B09=5 . 7 A5<59=>3> 0@E820 $;>@5=A:8E // 8B5@0BC@=0O CG510. 1991, ! 1, AA. 133 134.  ::C;LB=K9 E0@0:B5@ <=>38E ?>AB@>5=89 $;>@5=A:>3> 1K; >G52845= =5 B>;L:> ?@02>A;02=K<; 53> ?@87=020;8 A0<8 >::C;LB8ABK. >A;5 2KE>40 >4=>9 87 ?5@2KE :=83 . $;>@5=A:>3> - "1I5G5;>25G5A:85 :>@=8 8450;87<0" - >4=0 87 @C:>2>48B5;L=8F "5>A>DA:>3> >1I5AB20, ;5=0 8A0@520 25AL<0 ?>;>68B5;L=> >B>720;0AL > =59, >1JOA=82 ?@8G8=C A2>59 A8<?0B88 : MB>9 1@>HN@5 B0:: "# =53> AB>;L:> 3;C1>:> M7>B5@8G5A:>3>, B0:0O A25B;0O AB@CO B5>A>D8G5A:8E 8459... $;>@5=A:89 405B A>25@H5==> >::C;LB=>5 @0AA;54>20=85 <>3CI5AB20 A;>20" (. . 1I5G5;>25G5A:85 :>@=8 8450;87<0 // 5AB=8: B5>A>D88. 1910, !11, AA. 73 8 83). 'B> 65 :0A05BAO D0;LA8D8:0B>@AB20 - B> 8< >B405B 8AB>@8O A 2K2545==K< $;>@5=A:8< =0 0@5=C ?C1;8F8AB8:8 0@E8<0=4@8B>< !5@0?8>=>< 0H:8=K<. 5 A0<><C ;8 $;>@5=A:><C ?@8=04;560B B5 8458, :>B>@K5 >= >?C1;8:>20; ?>4 8<5=5< 0@E8<0=4@8B0?  MB8E B5:AB0E ?>@078B5;5= :>=B@0AB <564C 2KA>:8< 4CE>2=K< A0=>< B>3>, :B> ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2 :0G5AB25 02B>@0 8 CAB>9G82> 0=B8F5@:>2=K< 8E A>45@60=85<. ;O ?@8<5@0: "0A>=K AB0@0NBAO 2>?;>B8BL =0 75<;5 F0@AB2> A?@0254;82>AB8. >MB><C 4;O 2AO:>3> G5AB=>3> G5;>25:0 45OB5;L=>ABL <0A>=>2 4>;6=0 O28BLAO 4>1@><" (0@E8<. !5@0?8>= (0H:8=). 8<>;5B=K5 @0AAC645=8O > 857C8B87<5, H?8>=AB25, H01;>==>9 <>@0;8 8 <0A>=AB25 // CBL : >AB>:C. 8AB8:>-D8;>A>DA:89 0;L<0=0E. K?. 1. "><A:, 1996, A. 37). ">=0E>< 1KBL - MB> A2O70BL A51O ?> @C:0< 8 =>30< =5;5?K<8 ?@028;0<8, ?@84C<0==K<8 =0@>G=> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K A2O7K20BL 8<8 =081>;55 >?0A=KE 4C@=><C ?@028B5;LAB2C ;N459 - @5;838>7=KE 8450;8AB>2" (0@E8<. !5@0?8>= (0H:8=). 8AL<> . $;>@5=A:><C // CBL : >AB>:C. A. 29). =0O B0:>5 =0G0;> - AB>8B ;8 C482;OBLAO :>=FC? >A;54=55 ?8AL<>, =0?8A0==>5 >. 02;>< 2 !>;>2:0E <5=5 253> ?>E>65 =0 7025I0=85 ?@02>A;02=>3> A2OI5==8:0-8A?>254=8:0: " O4>< A> <=>N 2 :0<5@5 :20@B8@C5B >48B B8D;8AA:89 0@<O=8=, C65 ?>68;>9, B0: GB> =0E>48BAO C <5=O A =8< =5<0;> >1I8E 7=0:><KE 8 <K 25G5@0<8 8=>340 2A?><8=05< "8D;8A. !>;>25F:85 2?5G0B;5=8O <>8 B5?5@L >3@0=8G820NBAO ;N4L<8, B> 5ABL <=5 =08<5=55 8=B5@5A=K<. 8A>20BL 2>4>@>A;8 C65 402=> =5 ?@8E>48BAO 70 >BACBAB285< <8:@>A:>?0, <5AB0 8 :@0A>:" (8AL<> >B 19.6.1937. // A2OI. 025; $;>@5=A:89. !>G8=5=8O. B.4. 8AL<0 A 0;L=53> >AB>:0 8 !>;>2:>2. ., 1998, A. 717). !2OI5==8:C A ;N4L<8 =58=B5@5A=> - 2>4>@>A;8 206=55...  >4286=8:8 1;03>G5AB8O %% AB>;5B8O. >42838 8 GC45A0.  ., 1994, B. 1, AA. 211 212.   5@CA0;8<A:89 10BNH:0  85@>AE8<>=0E $5>4>A89.  ., 1994, A.165.  AB5AB25==>, GB> 2 MB>< 0?>:@8D5 =5 >1>H;>AL 157 >::C;LB=>-<038G5A:8E M;5<5=B>2:  B5F $5>4>A89 8AF5;8; <>N A5AB@C 5@C >B BO6:>3> =54C30  15A=>20B>AB8. >59 <0<5 >B5F $5>4>A89 A:070;: (>7L<8 A2>N 4>GL, => A<>B@8, =5 8A?>;=O9 55 65;0=8O, 5A;8 >=0 1C45B ?@>A8BL 15;>5 ?;0BL5 8 15;K5 BCD;8(.  >2>@>AA89A:5, 2K94O 87 203>=0, <0<0 ?>A?5H8;0 ?>:>@<8BL <5=O  H5AB8<5AOG=>3> <;045=F0, 0 5@C ?>@CG8;0 A>?@>2>640BL <>59 AB0@H59 A5AB@5. 5@0 ?> 4>@>35 ?>?@>A8;0 :C?8BL 59 15;K5 BCD;8 8 15;>5 ?;0BL5. !5AB@0 >B @04>AB8, GB> 5@0 ?>?@028;0AL, =5 CAB>O;0, :C?8;0 59 15;>5 ?;0BL5 8 15;K5 BCD;8. 5@5 A@07C AB0;> ?;>E>. =0 C?0;0 8 1>;57=L 2>7>1=>28;0AL. =0 60;>20;0AL 8 ?>AB>O==> ?>2B>@O;0: (0<0 ?>60;5;0 <0;5=L:CN !>=5G:C, 0 <5=O >AB028;0 =0 25G=>5 <CG5=85( (B0< 65, AA. 156 157.  B>< 65: ;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E  85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, AA. 54 55).  A;8 MB>3> =5 7=0BL, B> <>6=> 2?0ABL 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 701;C645=85: <>6=> =5 B>;L:> ?@8=OBL ?>4 8<5=5< A2OB>>B5G5A:>3> =0A;548O B>, GB> B0:>2K< 2>2A5 =5 O2;O5BAO. I5 <>6=> ?@>9B8 <8<> 8AB8==>3> A25B8;L=8:0 F5@:28, ?>B><C GB> >= >:065BAO A;8H:>< 70A;>=5= 53> =5C<=>-=5C<5@5==K<8 GB8B5;O<8. "0:, 2 CG51=8:5 ?> A5:B>2545=8N (diakon Petru David. Indrumar missionar), ?> :>B>@><C ?@5?>4020;8 2 @02>A;02=>< 1>3>A;>2A:>< 8=AB8BCB5 2 CE0@5AB5 2 80-5 3>4K, 1K;0 F5;0O 3;020 >  AB@0H=>9 @CAA:>9 A5:B5 8>0==8B>2, ;845@>< 8 >A=>20B5;5< :>B>@>9 1K; =5:89 A2OI5==8: >0== @>=H04BA:89. @5?>4020B5;L A5:B>2545=8O 4>;3> =5 <>3 ?>25@8BL, :>340 O 5<C ?>OA=8;, GB> B>B, :>3> >= AG8B05B 5@5A80@E><, C65 ?@>A;02;5= :0: A2OB>9 2 CAA:>9 &5@:28.   "@>8F:>< !>1>@5 "@>8F5-!5@3852>9 02@K =0 D@5A:5 A 87>1@065=85< !B@0H=>3> !C40 5ABL <KB0@AB2> A =04?8A0=85<:  52565AB2> . -B>3> <KB0@AB20, 1>NAL, =5 <8=>20BL B5<, :B> 2A5@L57 1C45B 2>A?@8=8<0BL B>, GB> ?8H5BAO  87=LN 5G=>9 .  "8?8:>= A8 5ABL #AB02.  !1., 1992, A. 853.  ">;:>20=85 MB>3> ?@028;0 A<.: @028;0 @02>A;02=>9 &5@:28 A B>;:>20=8O<8 8:>48<0, 5?8A:>?0 0;<0B8=>-AB@89A:>3>. "@>8F5-!5@38520 02@0, 1996, B.2, A. 106.  @52=5E@8AB80=A:89 ?8A0B5;L 8=CF89 $5;8:A 1K; 8=>3> <=5=8O:  K =5 1>8<AO =8:0:>3> CI5@10 ?@8 ;N1>< A?>A>15 ?>3@515=8O, => ?@845@68205<AO AB0@>3> 8 ;CGH53> >1KG0O ?@54020BL B5;> 75<;5 (8=CF89 $5;8:A. :B0289 // >3>A;>2A:85 B@C4K.  ., 1981, !1>@=8: 22, A. 161). >A?>4L 2>;5= 2>A:@5A8BL ;N1>5 B5;>, 8 87 ;N1>9 AB8E88 = A?>A>15= 25@=CBL 53> : 687=8. @C3>5 45;>, GB> ?>3@515=85 2 75<;5 1>;55 G5;>25G=>, 1>;55 =0AKI5==> 181;59A:>9 A8<2>;8:>9 8 2>>1I5 1>;55 =07840B5;L=> 8 CB5H8B5;L=> 4;O 1;87:8E. &5@:>2L @5:><5=4C5B C:;>=OBLAO >B :@5<0F88 B5; =5 87-70 >?0A5=8O, 1C4B> :@5<0F8O A:065BAO =0 CG0AB8 CA>?H53>, 0 87-70 B>3>, GB> >=0 >AB02;O5B H@0<K 2 4CH5 B5E, :B> ?@>2>605B G5;>25:0 2 53> ?>A;54=NN 75<=CN >18B5;L...  5@7=C A:070BL A;>2> 2 70I8BC A>10:. !;>2> >685 3>2>@8B, GB> A>10:8 8 >68O 1;03>40BL =5 B0: C6 =5A>2<5AB8<K, :0: :065BAO 5;0355. >340 =35; 0D08; A>?CBAB2>20; ">288, H;0  8 A>10:0 N=>H8 A =8<8 (">2. 5,17).  =35;0 MB> =5 >B3>=O;> 8 =5 A<CI0;>.  #3>4=8F0 >68O 5;035O O70=A:0O. >A?><8=0=8O @010 >68O 5B@0 70?8A0; 8 A>AB028; . . . // 87=L 5G=0O.  ., 1996, ! 18, <0@B. !?5F80;L=> 70<5GC, GB> C25@5=8O @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;59 3075BK  87=L 5G=0O 2 B><, GB> 8E 3075B0 2KE>48B ?> 1;03>A;>25=8N AB0@F0 8@8;;0  ;>6L. 0BNH:C ;8HL >4=064K A?@>A8;8,  AB>8B ;8 874020BL ?@02>A;02=CN 3075BC, 8 >=, :>=5G=>, 1;03>A;>28; MB> 1;03>5 45;> 8 4065 ?@54;>68; =0720=85 4;O =55. > ?> 53> A>1AB25==K< A;>20<, >= =5 G8B0; =8 >4=>3> =><5@0 8 =5 1;03>A;>2;O; : ?C1;8:0F88 =8 >4=C AB0BLN 4;O MB>9 3075BK. "0: GB> =5 AB>8B 4C<0BL, GB> ?>78F8O @540:F88 8 55 02B>@>2  MB> ?>78F8O >. 8@8;;0. 075B0  87=L 5G=0O 87405BAO 3@C??>9 ;N459, =0AB@>5==KE @57:> 0=B8F5@:>2=>,  3@C??>9  5<I8=0 , :>B>@CN ?>?@>A8; 2K9B8 87 A2>8E @O4>2 4065 !>N7 @02>A;02=KE @0BAB2. 5;8H=8< AG8B0N 70<5B8BL, GB> 548=AB25==0O A5:B0, >B :>B>@>9 O A;KH0; C3@>7K D878G5A:>9 @0A?@02K,  MB> @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;8  87=8 5G=>9 .   @5B8G5A:85 CG5=8O, =5 A>3;0A=K5 A ?@8=OBK< =0<8, 4>;6=> ?@>:;8=0BL 8 =5G5AB82K5 4>3<0BK >1;8G0BL, => ;N459 =C6=> 2AOG5A:8 I048BL 8 <>;8BLAO >1 8E A?0A5=88 (A2B. >0== ;0B>CAB. !;>2> > ?@>:;OB88, 4).   A2>59 <>;8B25 AB0@09AO =5 ?@87K20BL ?@>:;OB89 =0 3>;>2C :0:>3>-;81> G5;>25:0, 401K =5 @07@CH8BL B>3>, GB> AB@>8HL, 8 =5 A45;0BL <5@7:>9 <>;8B2C A2>N (203@89. !;>2> > <>;8B25, 103).   >B;8G85 >B O7KG5AB20 8 @5;8388 25BE>7025B=>3> 7@08;O >BFK &5@:28 AB@>3> 70?@5I0;8 B0:>3> @>40 ?@87K20=85 ?@>:;OB89 (1C:2.   <>;8BLAO ?@>B82 :>3>-=81C4L ), 4065 =0 3>;>2K 2@03>2  2 <>;8B25 70 4@C38E <>6=> ?@>A8BL B>;L:> B>3>,GB> ?@>A8HL 4;O A51O, B.5. ?@58<CI5AB25==> 1;03 =515A=KE 8 4CE>2=KE ,  ?>OA=O5B ?0B@>;>3 . . !84>@>2 ("2>@5=8O 022K 203@8O.  ., 1994, A. 192).  8B85 >?B8=A:>3> AB0@F0 85@>AE8<>=0E0 >A8D0.  ?B8=0 ?CABK=L, 1993, AA. 47-48.  . . . >A?><8=0=8O > 5;0388 O70=A:>9 // 87=L 5G=0O. !33, 1997.  !<., =0?@8<5@, :=838 "@>B5AB0=B0< > @02>A;0288" 8 "0A;5485 %@8AB0".  !0<0@8= .. @548A;>285 // %><O:>2 . !. >3>A;>2A:85 8 F5@:>2=>-?C1;8F8AB8G5A:85 AB0BL8.  3., 1. 3., A. 30.  !:070=85 > 68B88 1;065==>9 AB0@8FK 0B@>=K. !>AB028;0 8 70?8A0;0 40=>20 . .  !2OB>-"@>8F:89 >2>->;CB28= <>=0ABK@L, 1993, A. 116.  "0< 65, A. 97.  "0< 65, AA. 119 120.   1 MB>< 1;065==0O 0B@>=0 @0A:07K20;0 . . 40=>2>9  ;065==0O 0B@>=0. @0B:>5 687=5>?8A0=85 //  687=8 8 GC45A0E 1;065==>9 0B@>=K.  ., 0=8;>2A:89 1;03>25AB=8:, A. 12.  !>1@0=85 ?8A5< >?B8=A:>3> AB0@F0 85@>AE8<>=0E0 0:0@8O.  ., 1862, A. 368.  !:070=85 > 68B88 1;065==>9 AB0@8FK 0B@>=K. !>AB028;0 8 70?8A0;0 40=>20 . . !2OB>-"@>8F:89 >2>->;CB28= <>=0ABK@L, 1993, A. 104.  "0< 65, A. 100.  "0< 65, A. 107.  >AB><0@>2 . . G5@: 4><0H=59 687=8 8 =@02>2 25;8:>@CAA:>3> =0@>40 2 XVI 8 XVII 22. // >AB><0@>2 . . 015;8= . .  687=8, 1KB5 8 =@020E @CAA:>3> =0@>40. ., 1996, AA. 157-160.  D0=0AL52 . . >MB8G5A:85 2>77@5=8O A;02O= =0 ?@8@>4C. ?KB A@02=8B5;L=>3> 87CG5=8O A;02O=A:8E ?@540=89 8 25@>20=89 2 A2O78 A <8D8G5A:8<8 A:070=8O<8 4@C38E @>4AB25==KE =0@>4>2. ., 1995, B. 3, A. 305.  D0=0AL52 . . >MB8G5A:85 2>77@5=8O A;02O= =0 ?@8@>4C. ?KB A@02=8B5;L=>3> 87CG5=8O A;02O=A:8E ?@540=89 8 25@>20=89 2 A2O78 A <8D8G5A:8<8 A:070=8O<8 4@C38E @>4AB25==KE =0@>4>2.  ., 1995, B. 3, A. 36.  @08=A:89 . . >@G0, :;8:CH8 8 15A=>20BK5 :0: O2;5=8O @CAA:>9 =0@>4=>9 687=8.  >23>@>4, 1900, A. 163.  0;L .  ?>25@LOE, AC525@8OE 8 ?@54@07AC4:0E @CAA:>3> =0@>40.  !1., 1880, A. 5.  &8B. ?>: D0=0AL52 . . >MB8G5A:85 2>77@5=8O A;02O= =0 ?@8@>4C. ?KB A@02=8B5;L=>3> 87CG5=8O A;02O=A:8E ?@540=89 8 25@>20=89 2 A2O78 A <8D8G5A:8<8 A:070=8O<8 4@C38E @>4AB25==KE =0@>4>2.  ., 1995, B. 3, A. 304-305.  D0=0AL52 . . >MB8G5A:85 2>77@5=8O A;02O= =0 ?@8@>4C. ?KB A@02=8B5;L=>3> 87CG5=8O A;02O=A:8E ?@540=89 8 25@>20=89 2 A2O78 A <8D8G5A:8<8 A:070=8O<8 4@C38E @>4AB25==KE =0@>4>2.  ., 1995, B. 3, A. 304.  @;>2 . . AB>@8O A=>H5=89 G5;>25:0 A 4LO2>;>< // <D8B50B@>2 . . LO2>;. @;>2 . . AB>@8O A=>H5=89 G5;>25:0 A 4LO2>;><.  ., 1992, AA. 656-657. @8<5@K ?>4>1=KE 5?8B8<89 A<. D0=0AL52 . . >MB8G5A:85 2>77@5=8O A;02O= =0 ?@8@>4C. ?KB A@02=8B5;L=>3> 87CG5=8O A;02O=A:8E ?@540=89 8 25@>20=89 2 A2O78 A <8D8G5A:8<8 A:070=8O<8 4@C38E @>4AB25==KE =0@>4>2.  ., 1995, B. 3, AA. 295-296.  D0=0AL52 . . >MB8G5A:85 2>77@5=8O A;02O= =0 ?@8@>4C. ?KB A@02=8B5;L=>3> 87CG5=8O A;02O=A:8E ?@540=89 8 25@>20=89 2 A2O78 A <8D8G5A:8<8 A:070=8O<8 4@C38E @>4AB25==KE =0@>4>2.  ., 1995, B. 3, A. 296.  CE>2=K9 53;0<5=B, BI0=85< 8 ?>25;5=85< A5?@5A25B;59H53>, 5@602=59H53> >AC40@O 5B@0 5@2>3>, <?5@0B>@0 8 !0<>45@6F0 A5@>AA89A:>3> ?> A>872>;5=8N 8 ?@83>2>@C A5@>AA89A:>3> CE>2=>3> '8=0 8 @028B5;LAB2CNI53> !5=0B0 2 F0@AB2CNI5< !0=:B-5B5@1C@35, 2 ;5B> >B >645AB20 %@8AB>20 1721, A>G8=5==K9.  ., 1883, A. 40.  >;=>5 A>1@0=85 70:>=>2 >AA89A:>9 8<?5@88, B.10, 7450. &8B. ?>: @08=A:89 . . >@G0, :;8:CH8 8 15A=>20BK5 :0: O2;5=8O @CAA:>9 =0@>4=>9 687=8.  >23>@>4, 1900, A.46.  &8B. ?>: @08=A:89 . . >@G0, :;8:CH8 8 15A=>20BK5 :0: O2;5=8O @CAA:>9 =0@>4=>9 687=8.  >23>@>4, 1900, A. 48.  &8B. ?>: @08=A:89 . . >@G0, :;8:CH8 8 15A=>20BK5 :0: O2;5=8O @CAA:>9 =0@>4=>9 687=8.  >23>@>4, 1900, A. 110.  !<.: @08=A:89 . . >@G0, :;8:CH8 8 15A=>20BK5 :0: O2;5=8O @CAA:>9 =0@>4=>9 687=8.  >23>@>4, 1900, A.48.  "@51=8:.  !1., 1876, G.1, A. 232.  !<.: ;<07>2 . . !2OBK5 ?>:@>28B5;8 A5;LA:>-E>7O9AB25==KE 70=OB89.  45AA0, 1904; C:>2>4AB2> 4;O A5;LA:8E ?0ABK@59. @8;>65=85. 81;59A:89 ;8AB>:. 1904, 2K?.8-9. >E>65, GB> MB> 0?>:@8D8G5A:>5 70:;8=0=85, ?@8?8A0==>5 A2. "@8D>=C, 2>AE>48B : 4@C3><C 0?>:@8DC - 68B89=><C ?>25AB2>20=8N > ?@>@>:5 5@5<88:  0 3>@5, =0 :>B>@>9 C<5@ >8A59, 5@5<8O =0H5; ?5I5@C, 2=5A 2 =55 :82>B 7025B0; 2E>4 2 MBC ?5I5@C 703>@>48; 1>;LH8< :0<=5<.  :0<5=L MB>B :0: 1K 70?5G0B0; 5@5<8O, =0G5@B02 =0 =5< A2>8< ?5@AB>< 8<O >685, - ?@8 G5< =0?8A0=85 B> 1K;> ?>4>1=> =0?8A0=8N 65;57=K< >AB@85<, 81> B25@4K9 :0<5=L ?>4 ?8HCI8< ?0;LF5< ?@>@>:0 1K; <O3>: :0: 2>A:, 0 ?>A;5 >B25@45; ?> A2>9AB2C A2>59 ?@8@>4K...  45=L 65 2A5>1I53> 2>A:@5A5=8O :>2G53 7025B0 2K=5A5= 1C45B 87-?>4 70?5G0B0==>3> 8<5=5< >688< :0<=O 8 ?>AB02;5= =0 !8>=A:>9 3>@5, 8 2A5 A2OBK5 A>15@CBAO : =5<C 2 >6840=88 ?@8H5AB28O >A?>40, >B>@K9 871028B 8E >B AB@0H=>3> 2@030 - 0=B8E@8AB0, 8ICI53> 8E A<5@B8 ('5B88 8=58. 1 <0O. 8B85 ?@>@>:0 5@5<88 // 8B8O A2OBKE, 87;>65==K5 ?> @C:>2>4AB2C A2B. 8<8B@8O >AB>2A:>3>.  ., 1908, :=. 9, A. 33).  !<.: CBC7>2 . &5@:>2=0O @5D>@<0 XVII 25:0, 55 8AB8==K5 ?@8G8=K 8 F5;8.  830, 1992, A. 36. . CBC7>2 ?>;0305B, GB> C?><8=0=85  8<5=8, :>B>@>3> =5 <>65B =>A8B :0<5=L 708<AB2>20=> 87 68B8O A2B. !8;L25AB@0, ?0?K 8<A:>3> ('5B88 8=58, 2 O=20@O), ?>25AB2CNI53> > ?@5=88 MB>3> A2OB>3> A 2>;E2>< 0<2@85<.  >;E2 0<2@89 C18; 2>;0, ?@>H5?B02 5<C =0 CE>  25;8:>5 8<O , :>B>@>5  =8 :>60, =8 E0@B8O, =8 4@52>, =8 :0<5=L, =865 :0:0O-;81> 8=0O 25IL <>65B 8<O B> =0?8A0==>5 =0 A515, A>45@60B8 . >340 65 A2B. !8;L25AB@, 65;0O ?>:070BL A8;C ACA0 %@8AB0, >1@0B8;AO : 5<C A <>;8B2>N > B><, GB>1K = 2>A:@5A8; MB>3> 2>;0,  53> 65 0<2@89 ?@87K20=85< 15A>2A:8< A>B2>@8 <5@B20 , B> 2>; =5<54;5==> >68;. B0:, 8<O, :>B>@>5 =5 <>65B =>A8B :0<5=L, 5ABL 8<O 15A>2A:>5? =0G8B, =8:>=>2K ?@02I8:8, ?><5AB82 MB> 70:;8=0=85 2 "@51=8:5, ?@8?8A0;8 8<5=8 15A>2A:><C 1>;LHCN A8;C, G5< 8<5=8 >68N (A. 36). =B5@?@5B0F8O AB0@>>1@O4G5A:>3> 0?>;>35B0 2A5 65 A;8H:>< B5=45=F8>7=0.  !:>@55 2A53>, 708<AB2>20==KE :852A:8< <8B@>?>;8B>< 87 :0B>;8G5A:8E 8AB>G=8:>2: 2A?><=8<, GB> 8<5==> 2 2@>?5 XVI-XVII 25:>2 A8;L=55 2A53> 1K;8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 8 :>;4>2AB2>, 8 C60A ?5@54 =8<, 8 >E>B0 =0 254L<.  !2OI. . !8;LG5=:>2. @0:B8G5A:>5 @C:>2>4AB2> ?@8 A>25@H5=88 ?@8E>4A:8E B@51. >@>=56, 1888; !1>@=8: @5H5=89 =54>C<5==KE 2>?@>A>2 87 ?0ABK@A:>9 ?@0:B8:8. K?. 1-2, 852, 1903; C;30:>2 !. . 0AB>;L=0O :=830 4;O A2OI5==>-F5@:>2=>-A;C68B5;59. !1>@=8: A2545=89, :0A0NI8EAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >B5G5AB25==>3> 4CE>25=AB20. ., 1913; A2OI. ". !. "8E><8@>2. 0 ?@8E>45. !2OI5==8G5A:0O M=F8:;>?548O ?> 2A5< AB>@>=0< ?0ABK@A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A 22>4=K<8 AB0BLO<8 B5>@5B8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0.  ., 1916, B. 2.  !2OI. ". !. "8E><8@>2. 0 ?@8E>45. !2OI5==8G5A:0O M=F8:;>?548O ?> 2A5< AB>@>=0< ?0ABK@A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A 22>4=K<8 AB0BLO<8 B5>@5B8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0.  ., 1916, B. 2, A. 203.  !<., =0?@8<5@: 515452 . !.  1>@L15 4CE>2=>9 2;0AB8 2 1K2H59 5?0@E88 15;3>@>4A:>9 A AC525@8O<8 // 852A:0O AB0@8=0.  ., 1890, !1.   687=8 8 GC45A0E 1;065==>9 0B@>=K.  ., 0=8;>2A:89 1;03>25AB=8:, A. 61.  @>B. @83>@89 LOG5=:>. >;=K9 F5@:>2=>A;02O=A:89 A;>20@L.  ., 1993, A. 460.  ">;:>20O 81;8O. 740=85 ?@55<=8:>2 . . >?CE8=0.  !?1., 1913, B.11, A. 592.  !2B. $5>D0= 0B2>@=8:. ">;:>20=8O ?>A;0=89 0?>AB>;0 02;0. 0ABK@A:85 ?>A;0=8O. A:>2>-5G5@A:89 <>=0ABK@L, 1995, A. 602.  >74=55 8 A2B. >0== ;0B>CAB MB> @07@5H5=85 ?@8:0A0BLAO : ?8I5, 70:>=>< 70?@5I5==>9, =07K20;  B09=>9 25;8:>9 (5A54K =0 5@2>5 ?>A;0=85 : "8<>D5N, 12, 1).  5I5 ?@8<5@ B0:>3> @>40 ?0ABK@A:>9 480;5:B8:8:  5<>I=K5 =5 4>;6=K 2:CH0BL ?8IC A 5@5B8:0<8, :0: 8 ?@028;0 ?>25;520NB. !8;L=K5 65, 5A;8 =525@=K5 ?@87K20NB 8E 4;O ?>7=0=8O ?@02>A;02=>9 25@K, 8 >=8 E>BOB 84B8, ?CABL 84CB 2 ?@8;8G=>5 2@5<O 2> A;02C >A?>40 (?@?. >0== 5AB28G=8:. 5AB28F0. !5@3852 >A04, 1908, A. 277). @8254C 5I5 87JOA=5=85 MB>3> 2>?@>A0 A2B. $5>D0=>< 0B2>@=8:><:  >;55 A>25@H5==K5 E@8AB80=5 AG8B0;8 84>;>2 70 =8GB> 8 84>;>65@B25==>5 AG8B0;8 G8AB>N ?8I59. @C385, <5=55 A>25@H5==K5, =5 <>3;8 5I5 >B@5H8BLAO >B ?@56=53>, O7KG5A:>3> A2>53> 273;O40 =0 84>;>2 :0: 1>3>2 8 =0 65@B2K 8< :0: 459AB28B5;L=K< A:25@=K< 1>30<. @8 B0:8E <KA;OE 2:CH5=85 84>;>65@B25==>3> AG8B0;8 ?@>B82=K< A2>59 E@8AB80=A:>9 A>25AB8, :>B>@0O 5I5 1K;0 =5<>I=0  15AA8;L=0, GB>1K AG8B0BL 84>;>2 70 =8GB>. >, C2;5:05<K5 ?@8<5@>< 1>;55 A>25@H5==KE, ?@8=8<0NB CG0AB85 2 84>;LA:8E B@0?570E, 54OB 84>;>65@B25==>5 :0: 84>;>65@B25==>5, 8 B5< A:25@=OB A2>N =5<>I=CN A>25ABL. @8G8=>9 65 A>1;07=0 =5<>I=KE A;C68B B>, GB> A0<> ?> A515 =5 8<55B =8:0:>9 F5=K ?@54 >3><: 548< ;8 84>;>65@B25==>5  <K =8G53> =5 ?@8>1@5B05<, =5 548< ;8 53>  =8G53> =5 B5@O5< ?5@54 >3>< (87=L 8 B@C4K A2OB>3> 0?>AB>;0 02;0. >A;54>20B5;L=K9 :><<5=B0@89 0?>AB>;LA:8E ?>A;0=89, A>AB02;5==K9 ?> B@C40< 5?8A:>?0 $5>D0=0 0B2>@=8:0.  !?1., 1912, AA. 128 129). "0: GB> =04> @07;8G0BL >=B>;>38N (8;8 1>3>A;>285) 8 ?5403>38:C. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O 1KB89=>9, @50;L=>-ACI59, 84>; 5ABL =8GB> 8 84>;>65@B25==>5 =5 2@548B G5;>25:C. ! B>G:8 65 7@5=8O ?5403>38G5A:>9  ?@5645 G5< A0<><C ?>;L7>20BLAO MB8< A2>8< 7=0=85<, =04> ?>4C<0BL: =5 ?>2@548B ;8 MB> B><C G5;>25:C, C :>B>@>3> B0:>3> 7=0=8O 5I5 =5B, =5 ?>=C48B ;8 MB> 8 53> ?@8:>A=CBLAO : ?8I5, :>B>@CN >= 65 A0< 5I5 AG8B05B =5G8AB>9 8 =5 A<CB8B ;8 MB> B5< A0<K< 53> A>25ABL.  >ABC?0O B0:, >= >A:>@18B A2>N A>25ABL 8 A>3@5H8B ?5@54 >3><; 81> ?@>B82 A>25AB8 =8 2 :0:>< A;CG05 =5 4>;6=> ?>ABC?0BL (B0< 65). B0:, =5 84>; 2@548B G5;>25:C, 0 G5;>25: A0< 2@548B A515, 5A;8 ?@8405B :0:>5-B> 7=0G5=85 84>;>65@B25==>9 ?8I5.  !2OI. ;048<8@ <5;8G52. 45@68<K5. 73=0=85 7;KE 4CE>2.  ., 0;><=8:,1996, A. 98 99. !?5F80;L=> >1@0I0N 2 40==>< A;CG05 2=8<0=85 =0 =0720=85 8740B5;LAB20. CE>2=8:0 MB>3> 8740B5;LAB20 O ?@>A8; 1K >1@0B8; 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, GB> 8<5==> 2  0;><=8:5 ;N1OB 3>2>@8BL >  ?>@G5 8 2=CH0BL ;N4O< 25@C 2 @50;L=>ABL 8 <>3CI5AB2> O7KG5A:>9 <8AB8:8.  MB>< 8740B5;LAB25 =5 <>3CB 4065 >B;8G8BL F5@:>2=>9 <>;8B2K >B 703>2>@0. <5==> 703>2>@>< O2;O5BAO >?C1;8:>20==0O 8<8  >;8B20 4;O 70I8BK >B =5G8AB>9 A8;K :  71028 <O >B 2A5E =025B 2@0688E, >B 2AO:>3> :>;4>2AB20, 2>;H51AB20, G0@>459AB20 8 >B ;C:02KE G5;>25:, 40 =5 2>7<>3CB >=8 ?@8G8=8BL <=5 =8:0:>3> 7;0... B> 4C<0; 8 45;0;  25@=8 8E 7;> >1@0B=> 2 ?@58A?>4=NN (B25B A2OI5==8:0 65=I8=5, 45@68<>9 15A0<8.  ., 0;><=8:, 1996, A. 61; MB0 <>;8B>2:0 - =5C40G=>5 4>102;5=85, ?@8;>65==>5 8740B5;LAB2>< : 459AB28B5;L=> E>@>H59 :=835).  >B ?@8<5@ 87 ?@0:B8:8 2@0G0, :>B>@K9 =5 A:;>=5= 25@8BL 2 @5;838>7=K5 D5=><5=K:  ;8:CH0 157>H81>G=> @07;8G0;0 A2OBCN 2>4C >B ?@>AB>9, :0: A:@KB> <K 55 =8 4020;8. 064K9 @07, :>340 59 ?>4=>A8;8 AB0:0= A> A2OB>9 2>4>9, >=0 2?040;0 2 ?@8?04>:, G0AB> ?@5645, G5< ?>?@>1C5B 55 =0 2:CA. >40 1K;0 A2560O, :@5I5=A:0O (8AA;54>20=85 1K;> ?@>872545=> 2 A@548=5 O=20@O). 0;820;8AL >15 ?@>1K 2 >48=0:>2K5 AB0:0=K 2 4@C3>9 :><=0B5 8 O ?>4=>A8; 59 C65 3>B>2K5 ?@>1K. >A;5 B>3>, :0: <=>3> @07 ?>2B>@5==K5 >?KBK 40;8 B>B 65 ?>;>68B5;L=K9 @57C;LB0B, O A<5H0; >15 ?@>1K 2>4K 2<5AB5, ?@>ABCN 8 A2OBCN, 8 =0;8; 8E ?>@>2=C 2 >10 AB0:0=0. ">340 :;8:CH0 AB0;0 @5038@>20BL =0 >15 ?@>1K ?@8?04:0<8. 8 >4=>3> @070 >=0 =5 >H81;0AL 2 MB>< @0A?>7=>20=88 A2OB>9 2>4K (@08=A:89 . . >@G0, :;8:CH8 8 15A=>20BK5 :0: O2;5=8O @CAA:>9 =0@>4=>9 687=8.  >23>@>4, 1900, A. 186).  (010=>20 !. "09=0 15@5<5==>AB8 0@8AK ;5<5=BL52>9 // 530?>;8A-M:A?@5AA.  ., 1995, ! 22, 8N=L.  !2. >0== ;0B>CAB. ">;:>20=85 =0 A2OB>3> 0BD5O 20=35;8AB0.  ., 1993, :=. 1, A. 320-321.   =03@0645=88 ?> 8=8F80B825 83C<5=0 >0==0 (-:>=><F520) F5@:>2=K< >@45=>< A2. :=O7O 0=88;0 10=:8@0 >B0=8=0 (:>B>@K9, :>=5G=>, ?><>305B A>45@60=8N >AA89A:>3> ?@02>A;02=>3> C=825@A8B5B0, => ?@8 MB>< A>45@68B 8 ?C1;8G=K5 4><0 4;O 3>AG8=>2=8:>2) 1K;0 :@09=5 =5?@8OB=0O 4;O &5@:28 AB0BLO 2 6C@=0;5  N48 (., 1998, ! 3).  @?. >0== 0<0A:8=.  4@0:>=0E 8 ?@82845=8OE // "2>@5=8O. %@8AB>;>38G5A:85 8 ?>;5<8G5A:85 B@0:B0BK. !;>20 =0 >3>@>48G=K5 ?@074=8:8.  ., 1997, A. 224.  !2. >0== ;0B>CAB. ">;:>20=85 =0 A2OB>3> 0BD5O 20=35;8AB0.  ., 1993, :=. 1, A. 318.  ;L8=A:0O . 0BCH:8 75<;8 >AA89A:>9.  ., 1994, A. 188.  "0< 65, A. 126.  48=AB25==K9 4@52=5E@8AB80=A:89 02B>@, ?@87=0NI89 @50;L=>ABL <0388,  MB> @835= (> 53> >B=>H5=88 : <0388 A<. 3;02C  038O 8 M:7>@F87<K 2 :=835: M. Fedou. Christianisme 5t religion paiennes dans le Contre Celse d'Origene.  Paris,1988). > 8 >= =0AB08205B:  K CB25@6405< A> 2A5N A8;>N 8 >?KB=> 7=05<, GB> B5, :B>, A;54CO 2KAH5<C CG5=8N, A;C60B >3C AOG5A:8E G@57 8ACA0, 8 682CB ?> 3> 20=35;8N, ?>AB>O==> 8A?>;=OO ?@54?8A0==K5 <>;8B2K, =5 >1>;LI05<K =8 45<>=0<8, =8 <03859, :0: =0< 8 3>2>@8B 8A0=85:  =35; >A?>45=L >?>;G05BAO 2>:@C3 1>OI8EAO 3> 8 87102;O5B 8E (A. 33, 8) >B 2AO:>3> 7;0 (@>B82 &5;LA0 VI, 41).  !2B. >0== ;0B>CAB. 12-O 5A540 =0 >A;0=85 : D5AO=0<, 3 (92-94). // "2>@5=8O,  !1., 1905, B. 11, :=.1, A. 108.  !2B. !5@0?8>=, <8B@. ;048<8@A:89. >CG5=85 // 0<OB=8:8 ;8B5@0BC@K @52=59 CA8. XIII 2.  ., 1981, A. 451.  @02>A;02=K9 :0;5=40@L 4;O A5<59=>3> GB5=8O. 1997 3.  !1., !0B8A, 1996, A. 98.  8B85 8 ?>CG5=8O >?B8=A:>3> AB0@F0 =0B>;8O (5@F0;>20).  ?B8=0 ?CABK=L, 1994, AA. 260-261.   AC525@8OE.  ., !@5B5=A:89 <>=0ABK@L, 1995, AA. 37 38.  !>G8=5=8O ?@5>A2OI5==>3> "8E>=0, 5?8A:>?0 >@>=56A:>3> 8 ;5F:03>.  ., 1837, B. 14, AA. 121-123.  @02>A;02=K9 :0;5=40@L 4;O A5<59=>3> GB5=8O. 1997 3.  !1., !0B8A, 1996, A. 174.  "0BLO=0 >@8G520. 7KA:0=85 ?>381H8E // >3>A.  @NAA5;L >A:20. 1984. ! 41-44, A.78.  !2OI. 5>@389 0E@><552. @C685 =0 4802>;0 8;8 :0: 70I8B8BLAO >B G0@>4552. ., 1998, AA. 55-56.  @E8<. >0== (@5ABLO=:8=). ?KB ?>AB@>5=8O 8A?>2548.  A:>2>-5G5@A:89 <>=0ABK@L, 1993, A. 107.  =830 "CE>2=0O 1@0=L". &8B. ?>: @02>A;02=K9 :0;5=40@L 4;O A5<59=>3> GB5=8O 1997 3. !?1., !0B8A, 1996, A. 100. 0 AB@. 173 2 MB>< 65 :0;5=40@5 =0?8A0=>: "0@>4=>5 ?>25@85, 1C4B> :>;4C=K ?>@BOB ;N459, B.5. ?>A5;ONB 4LO2>;0 2 :0:8E 8< C3>4=> ;N459,  =5;5?>5 8 A>25@H5==> =5>A=>20B5;L=>5. 5 A;54C5B ?>MB><C ?@8?8AK20BL 8< :0:>9-B> >A>15==>9 A8;K 8 1>OBLAO 8E".  8B85 ?@5?>4>1=>3> 85@>AE8<>=0E0 ;;0@8>=0 ?B8=A:>3>.  ?B8=0 ?CABK=L, 1993, AA. 187 188. =0;>38G=K9 A>25B 2 :=835 "CE>2=0O 1@0=L" ?@82>48BAO A> AAK;:>9 =0 >. !8<5>=0 (8 B0: >= F8B8@C5BAO 2 "@02>A;02=>< :0;5=40@5 4;O A5<59=>3> GB5=8O =0 1997 3"  !?1., !0B8A, 1996 3., A. 175).  !:070=85 > 68B88 1;065==>9 AB0@8FK 0B@>=K. !>AB028;0 8 70?8A0;0 40=>20 . .  !2OB>-"@>8F:89 >2>->;CB28= <>=0ABK@L, 1993, A. 50.  "0< 65, A. 55.  "0< 65, AA. 99-100.  !>1@0=85 ?8A5< >?B8=A:>3> AB0@F0 85@>AE8<>=0E0 <2@>A8O : <>=0H5AB2CNI8<.  !5@3852 >A04, 1909, 2K?. 2, A. 127.  CH5?>;57=K5 ?>CG5=8O ?@5?>4>1=>3> 0:0@8O ?B8=A:>3>.  ?B8=0 ?CABK=L, 1997, AA. 249-250.  !<.: !B0@5F 0@A>=>D89 ?B8=A:89. 5;59=K5 70?8A:8. 1892 1896 33.  ., 1991, A. 22.   -B8 420 <>;>:0=F0 A<5O;8AL, GB> 8E 45;> A>25@H8;>AL. >A;5 MB>3> 2 20H59 A5<L5 =0G0;0AL A<CB0. =8 ?>;>68;8 20< ?>4 ?>@>3 A?8G5G=CN :>@>1:C A 83>;:0<8 (;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E  85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, A. 49).  04H8< 4CE0< =5 <>3CB 1KBL ?>4 A8;C GC45A0, B2>@8<K5 >3>< 2 &5@:28. ">;L:> >685 !;>2> A<>3;> AB0BL ?;>BLN. ">;L:> >689 CE <>65B ?5@5ABC?0BL 3@0=L <564C 4CE>< 8 <0B5@859 8 8A?>;=OBL !>1>N 1>3>740==CN B20@L. # 15A>2 =5B B0:>9 2;0AB8 =04 >3>A>740==K< 25I5AB2><.  ?>B><C >685 2A5A8;85 =5 =04> ?@8?8AK20BL 45<>=0<.  ?@02>A;02=>< ?>=8<0=88 GC45A=>9 8 GC4>B2>@=>9 A2O78 >3>A>740==>9 <0B5@88 8 55 1;03>40B=>9 >A2OI5==>AB8 "2>@F>< A<. 2 AB0BL5  @02>A;0285 8 ?@>B5AB0=B87<: A?>@ > <0B5@8 8 M=5@388 2 <>59 :=835  0A;5485 %@8AB0 ( ., 1997).   5G0BL 65 53> =0 G5;5 8 =0 ?@02>9 @C:5, 25@>OB=>, 8<55B =0?8A0=85  >B@5:0NAL . "0:>2> 1C45B =04?8A0=85 8 ?5G0BL 2> 2@5<5=0 MB>3> =5=028AB=8:0 4>1@0 - B0 ?5G0BL, :>B>@0O 1C45B 3;0A8B:  B@5:0NAL >B "2>@F0 =510 8 75<;8; >B@5:0NAL >B :@5I5=8O; >B@5:0NAL >B A;C65=8O <>53> >3C 8 ?@8A>548=ONAL : B515 8 2 B51O 25@CN (!2B. ??>;8B 8<A:89. !;>2> > :>=G8=5 <8@0 8 >1 0=B8E@8AB5 8 > 2B>@>< ?@8H5AB288 >A?>40 =0H53> 8ACA0 %@8AB0, 28 8 29 // "2>@5=8O.  "@>8F5-!5@38520 02@0, 1997, G. 2, A. 75).   A;8 ?5G0BL 1C45B 4020BLAO A ?>=C645=85< : >B:@KB><C 8 O2=><C >B@5G5=8N >B %@8AB0, B>340 <=>385 =5 ?@8<CB 55. A;8 65 >B:@KB> 8 O2=> =5 1C4CB ?@8=C6405<K >B@5GLAO >B A2>59 25@K, B>340 25AL <8@ ;53:> ?@8<5B 55 (>A=C;AO ;8 20A =><5@? // >;>A A>25AB8. 0@B 1994. @8;>65=85 : 3075B5  >=A:>9 :070: . B25BAB25==K9 70 2K?CA: =0AB>OB5;L !2OB>-8:>;LA:>3> E@0<0 AB0=8FK ;0=A:>9 >B5F 0;5@89). -B> ?5@5?5G0B:0 87 3@5G5A:>9 @0A:>;L=8G5A:>9 3075B:8  @B>4>:A>A B8?>A >B 13 8N=O 1986 3. > 5A;8 O =5 A>18@0NAL >B@5:0BLAO >B %@8AB0, 8 <5=O : MB><C =5 ?@>2>F8@CNB, B> :0:>5 65 @5;838>7=>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B >1KG=0O ?@>F54C@0 ?>:C?:8?    AB@0H=>3> 4;O =0A =8G53> =5B, :@><5 >4=>3>  C1>OBLAO G53>-;81> ?0G5 >30 (!2B. @83>@89 >3>A;>2. "2>@5=8O.  "@>8F5-!5@38520 ;02@0, 1994, B. 1, A. 248).  >4G8=OBL AB@0EC 4CHC, :>B>@0O A>45;0;0AL 2KH5 2A53> MB>3>, A2>9AB25==> =5G8ABK< ?@028;0< ,  3>2>@8; A2B. >0== ;0B>CAB ?@8 8AB>;:>20=88 ?@87K20 0?. 02;0  >B2@0I0BLAO >B 101L8E 10A5= (5A54K =0 5@2>5 ?>A;0=85 : "8<>D5N, 12, 2).  C@0A>2 . . >3>< 40==0O.  !1., 1995, A. 59.  "0< 65, A. 115.  "0< 65, A. 98.  "0< 65, A. 115.   >OA:8 A 90-< ?A0;<>< 5ABL >G5284=0O @5?;8:0 A 8C459A:8E D8;0:B5@852   ?@54>E@0=8;8I A 2K?8A:0<8 87 8A0=8O.  GB> > =8E 3>2>@8B A>1AB25==> F5@:>2=>5 ?@540=85 - A<. 2 36-A ?@028;5 0>48:89A:>3> A>1>@0.  5EB5@52 . . @548A;>285 // @08=A:89 . . >@G0, :;8:CH8 8 15A=>20BK5 :0: O2;5=8O @CAA:>9 =0@>4=>9 687=8.  >23>@>4, 1900, A.IV.  . . . >A?><8=0=8O > 5;0388 O70=A:>9 // 87=L 5G=0O. 1997, ! 34-35, A. 5.  ;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E "85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8"  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, A. 121.  "0< 65.  @E8?>2 .  5@CH8<0O !B5=0 . ?KB 8AA;54>20=8O A0:@0;L=>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20 >AA88 // 87=L 5G=0O. 1997, ! 34-35, A. 13.   8;0  3@K60, ?>4:>6=K9 ?@>;>< 2 1@NH=KE ?>:@>20E 8 2KE>4 G@52. 8;C, ?> >1I5<C ?>25@LN =0@>40, ?@825H820NB 7=0E0@8 ,  0;L . . ">;:>2K9 A;>20@L 682>3> 25;8:>@CAA:>3> O7K:0.  !1., 1881, B. 2., A. 108.   687=8 8 GC45A0E 1;065==>9 0B@>=K.  ., 0=8;>2A:89 1;03>25AB=8:, AA. 49-50.  > MB><C ?>2>4C =5 =04> >A>15==> =54>C<520BL 8 2>7<CI0BLAO.  F5@:>2=>9 687=8 ?>4>1=>5 A;CG05BAO =5@54:>. K 2A5 7=05< 8 =5 >AC6405< 2?>;=5 F5@:>2=KE ;N459, :>B>@K5 G5AB=> ?@87=0NBAO:   2>B 2 MB>B E@0< O 2A5 65 =5 ?>94C... CABL 4@C385 E>4OB, O =8:>3> =5 1C4C >AB0=02;820BL. / ?@87=0N, GB> MB> B0:>9 65 ?@02>A;02=K9 E@0< :0: 8 4@C385... > C <5=O A =8<, : A>60;5=8N, =5@07@K2=> A2O70=> >4=> 3>@L:>5 2>A?><8=0=85. 45AL <5=O >4=064K >A:>@18; A2OI5==8:. / =5 E>GC, GB>1K 2 <>5< A5@4F5 2=>2L ?@>A=C;8AL B5 2>A?><8=0=8O 8 ?5@56820=8O, 8 ?>B><C >1E>6C MB>B E@0< AB>@>=>9 . C B0: 8 745AL: :=86:0 40=>2>9 A>45@68B A;8H:>< <=>3> >A:>@18B5;L=KE 4;O E@8AB80=A:>3> A;CE0 2KA:07K20=89, :>B>@K5 72CG0B >B 8<5=8 0B@>=K.  ?>:0 =5 4>:070=>, GB> A0<0 0B@>=0 MB8E A;>2 =5 3>2>@8;0  O 1C4C ?@>E>48BL <8<> 55 8:>=. A;8 0B@>=0 459AB28B5;L=> A2OB0O  >=0 =0 <5=O =5 >1848BAO, 81>, 2>-?5@2KE, A2OBK5 2>>1I5 =5 >1860NBAO, 0 2>-2B>@KE, >=0 1C45B 7=0BL <>B82K <>53> ?@>E;04=>3> >B=>H5=8O : =59.  2>>1I5, =54>@07C<5=8O 1K20;8 4065 2 >B=>H5=8OE <564C A0<8<8 A2OBK<8. 5:>B>@K5 3>2>@OB, 1C4B> ?5@54 A0<K< >B?;KB85< ?8D0=89 B0: A:070; >0==C: (045NAL, GB> BK =5 C<@5HL 5?8A:>?><(, =0 GB> >0== >B25G0;: (045NAL, GB> BK =5 4>AB83=5HL >B5G5AB20( (!>:@0B. &5@:>2=0O 8AB>@8O. 6, 14). 564C ?@>G8<, ?@02K >:070;8AL >10 A2OB8B5;O: A2B. ?8D0=89 8?@A:89 (?@81K2H89 2 >=AB0=B8=>?>;L, GB>1K >@30=87>20BL AC4 =04 ;0B>CAB><) C<5@ =5 4>?;K2 4> 8?@0, 0 A2B. >0== C<5@ D>@<0;L=> ;8H5==K9 A0=0 F5@:>2=K< A>1>@><. >340 65 2 417 3. B5;> ;0B>CAB0 A ?>G5B>< 1K;> ?@82575=> 2 >=AB0=B8=>?>;L, A2B. 8@8;; ;5:A0=4@89A:89 =53>4CNI5 A:070;: (A;8 >0== 5?8A:>?, B> ?>G5<C C40 =5 0?>AB>;?( (&8B. ?>: @>B. >0== 595=4>@D. 2545=85 2 A2OB>>B5G5A:>5 1>3>A;>285. 8;L=NA >A:20, 1992, A. 257).   A5=BO1@5 1997 3. !8=>40;L=0O :><8AA8O ?> :0=>=870F88 A2OBKE >B:;>=8;0 :=86:C . 40=>2>9 2 :0G5AB25 8AB>G=8:0 4;O :0=>=870F88 0B@>=K. > @0AA<>B@5;0 8=>5 55 68B85, A>AB02;5==>5 1>3>A;>2A:8 3@0<>B=> (A CG0AB85< ?@5?>4020B5;59 >A:>2A:>9 4CE>2=>9 A5<8=0@88), 8, 5AB5AB25==>, 2 =>2>< B5:AB5 =5 =0H;0 >A=>20=89 4;O >B:070 2 :0=>=870F88. @8 MB>< :><8AA8O, >4=0:>, =5 @0AA<0B@820;0 2>?@>A > B><, 459AB28B5;L=> ;8 ?>25AB2C5<>5 . 40=>2>9 > 0B@>=5 5ABL 4><KA5;, 8;8 65 0B@>=0 8 2 A0<>< 45;5 3>2>@8;0 8 459AB2>20;0 B0:, :0: ?>2540;0 ?8A0B5;L=8F0.  A;CG05 A :0=>=870F859 &0@A:>9 A5<L8 :><8AA8O BI0B5;L=> @0AA<>B@5;0 2A5 4>2>4K ?@>B82 ?@>A;02;5=8O &0@O, >B=5A;0AL : =8< A5@L57=> 8 A>G;0 =5>1E>48<K< 40BL A2>9 >B25B =0 =8E. >G5<C 65 A2845B5;LAB20 . 40=>2>9 > 0B@>=5 (0 >=8 >4=>7=0G=> 1K;8 >F5=5=K :0: =5F5@:>2=K5) 1K;8 ?@>AB> >B:;>=5=K? ><8AA8O =5 AB028;0 2>?@>A > B><, GL8 65 25@>20=8O 1K;8 =5F5@:>2=>-D>;L:;>@=K: B>;L:> ;8 40=>2>9 8;8 65 8 55 =0AB02=8FK  A0<>9 0B@>=K.  !:070=85 > 68B88 1;065==>9 AB0@8FK 0B@>=K. !>AB028;0 8 70?8A0;0 40=>20 . .  !2OB>-"@>8F:89 >2>->;CB28= <>=0ABK@L, 1993, A. 123.  !<.: !. . $C45;L. # AB5= &5@:28. 5H<0.1997, A. 82.  B 8740B5;LAB20 //  687=8 8 GC45A0E 1;065==>9 0B@>=K.  ., 0=8;>2A:89 1;03>25AB=8:, AA. 4-5.  "0< 65, A. 12.  "0< 65, A. 15  AB0B8 70<5B8BL, GB> =5A?>A>1=>ABL @07;8G0BL <8DK >B @02>A;028O C . 40=>2>9 =0A;54AB25==0O. 5 >B5F =5<0;> ;5B >B40; "5>A>DA:><C >1I5AB2C (40=>20 .  687=8 8 GC45A0E 1;065==>9 0B@>=K. ., 0=8;>2A:89 1;03>25AB=8:, 1997, A. 27).  C@0A>2 . . >3>< 40==0O.  !1., 1995, AA. 51 52.  "0< 65, A. 48.  "0< 65, AA. 90-91.   >GLN ?@8H;0 >68O 0B5@L 8 A?@>A8;0 <5=O, :0: O AE>48;0 : @>4=8:C 8 =5 CAB0;0 ;8. / >B25B8;0: (5B. / H;0, => ?5@54> <=>9 2A5 <5;L:0;> B0: 1KAB@>, 1C4B> O 5E0;0 =0 <0H8=5(. @51;03>A;>25==0O A:070;0: ( MB> / B51O =0 !2>5< 25;>A8?545 257;0(.  ?>:070;0 <=5 65;BK9 ?@>7@0G=K9 25;>A8?54 8 A:070;0: (8;>5 <>5 48BO(. >3;048;0 <5=O 8 CH;0 (@E8?>2 .  5@CH8<0O !B5=0 . ?KB 8AA;54>20=8O A0:@0;L=>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20 >AA88 // 87=L 5G=0O. 1997, ! 34-35, A. 14).  "0< 65, A. 96.  "0< 65, A. 97.  "0< 65, A. 102.  "0< 65, A. 107.  5@8E . . 3=5==K9 >?KB // 5@8E . . # ?>@>30 =>2>3> <8@0.  ., 1993, AA. 104 105.  "0< 65, A. 93.  C@0A>2 . . >3>< 40==0O.  !?1., 1995, A. 98.  "0< 65, A. 73.  "0< 65, A. 74.  CAL 5@602=0O. 1996, !. 1 (24)  ;L8=A:0O . 0BCH:8 75<;8 >AA89A:>9.  ., 1994, A. 147.  !<., =0?@8<5@: ;6. 23CAB8=.  @045 >685<. =. 20, 3;. 8.  ;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E  85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, A. 221.  564C ?@>G8<, A B>G:8 7@5=8O ;L8=A:>9, =5 B>;L:> >A:20 B>645AB25==0 8<C, => 8 5@CA0;8< B5?5@L =0E>48BAO 2 8=5@0;L=KE >40E.  >@>4 =0H,  2>7@078;0 <0BCH:0 N4<8;0,  =5 ?><>9=0O O<0, 0 =>2K9 5@CA0;8<. B5F $5>4>A89 60 ;5B A;C68; C @>10 >A?>4=O 2 5@CA0;8<5, 0 :0: 1K;> 3>=5=85, B> 454CH:0 2AN A2OBK=N 701@0; 8 ?@8257 2 3>@>4 8=2>4K, ?>B><C >= AB0; =>2K9 5@CA0;8< (;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E  85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, AA. 107 108). "0: GB> 2 5@CA0;8<5 1;03>40B8 ?>A;5 >BJ5740 >. $5>4>A8O =5 >AB0;>AL. = 27O; 2A5, A>1@0; 8 C257. ;03>40BL-B>, >:07K205BAO, =5 >B >30 ?>405BAO, => 5N AB0@FK @0A?>@O60NBAO.  &8B. ?>: ?@>B. 5>@389 $;>@>2A:89. CB8 @CAA:>3> 1>3>A;>28O.  0@86, 1983, A. 10.  5 <>65B >1@07>20==K9 G5;>25: ?8A0BL D0=B07<K B8?0:  !CI=>ABL @02>A;028O =5 2 @8BC0;5, :0: C ?@>B5AB0=B>2, 8 =5 2 2>A?><8=0=88 > A2OBK=5, :0: C :0B>;8:>2... (;L8=A:0O . 0BCH:8 75<;8 >AA89A:>9.  ., 1994, A. 185). -B> C ?@>B5AB0=B>2-B> ACI=>ABL 8E 25@K 2 @8BC0;5? -B> > :0B>;8:0E A 8E 1C9=>9 <8AB8:>9 8 25@>9 2 682>3> =0<5AB=8:0 %@8AB0 =0 75<;5 <>6=> A:070BL, GB> >=8 682CB  2>A?><8=0=8O<8 > A2OBK=5 ? C :0: G5;>25:, E>BL >4=064K ?@>G8B02H89  0B5E878A , <>65B CB25@640BL, GB>  5?8B@0E8;LN @07@5H0NBAO =0H8 3@5E8, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?5@2>@>4=K5 (;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E  85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, A. 134)? @0@>48B5;52 3@5E ?>B><C 8 =07K205BAO  ?5@2>@>4=K< , GB> >= 1K; ?5@2K<, 0 ?>B><C 548=AB25==K<. =>65AB25==>5 G8A;> 745AL ?@>AB> =5<KA;8<>.  'C4> >65AB25==>3> 2K1>@0 // @02>A;02=0O 15A540.  ., 1996, ! 4, A. 1.   :AB0B8, >?OBL 745AL B0 65 AC65==>ABL F5@:>2=>-8AB>@8G5A:>3> :@C3>7>@0, 2>A?>;=O5<0O >G5284=>9 =5B@572>ABLN. =>3> ;8 ?@>@>G5AB2 <>6=> =09B8 2 B2>@5=8OE @0==8E >BF>2 &5@:28? =>3> ;8 ?@>@>G5AB2 <>6=> 2KG8B0BL 87 B2>@5=89 >BF>2 M?>E8 A5;5=A:8E !>1>@>2? !53>4=OH=89 A?@>A =0 ?@>@>G5AB20 5ABL, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 70125=85 520=35;LA:8E A;>2:  A5 ?@>@>:8 8 70:>= ?@>@5:;8 4> >0==0 (D. 11, 13), A 4@C3>9  8C459A:>5 B@51>20=85  GC40 .  M?>E8 :@878A>2 5AB5AB25==> @>6405BAO >1I5AB25==K9 A?@>A =0 ?@>@>G5AB20 (?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 CB5H8B5;L=K5). =>3> B0:8E  ?@>@>G5AB2 E>48;> 8 2 870=B88 2 ?5@8>4 55 <=>3>25:>2>9 3>AC40@AB25==>9 03>=88 (>B 0@01A:>3> =0H5AB28O 4> ?045=8O >=AB0=B8=>?>;O).   8B88 N@>482>3> =4@5O >=AB0=B8=>?>;LA:>3>, =0?8A0==>< 2 % 25:5,  ;N1>?KB5= @O4 ?@>@>G5AB2 > 3@O4CI59 AC4L15 8<?5@88, >:@0H5==KE G8AB> =0@>4=K<8 C?>20=8O<8 =0 ;CGH55 2@5<O, =0 A2>53> @>40  7>;>B>9 25: ?5@54 ?>A;54=8< :>=F>< ( C40:>2 . . G5@:8 2870=B89A:>9 :C;LBC@K ?> 40==K< 3@5G5A:>9 038>3@0D88.  !?1., 1997, A. 219). -B>B  0?>:0;8?A8A 2>H5; 2 3@5G5A:CN 25@A8N 8B8O A2. =4@5O (PG, CXI). > >= 2?>;=5 1;03>@07C<=> >?CI5= 2 '5BL8E 8=5OE A2B. 8<8B@8O >AB>2A:>3>. 1 0?>:@8D8G5A:8E  0?>:0;8?A8A0E 8 ?@>@>G5AB20E, A;0302H8EAO 8 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=O2H8EAO 2 C:070==CN ?>@C 2870=B89A:>9 8AB>@88, A<.: @0=45A . 870=B89A:0O 0?>:0;8?B8G5A:0O ;8B5@0BC@0 :0: 8AB>G=8: 87CG5=8O =5:>B>@KE 0A?5:B>2 A>F80;L=>9 8AB>@88 (870=B89A:89 2@5<5==8:. ". 50.  ., 1989) 8  ?>:@8DK @52=59 CA8. "5:ABK 8 8AA;54>20=8O (., 1997).  ;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E  85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, A. 121.  >A?><8=0=8O B>20@8I0 >15@-?@>:C@>@0 !2. !8=>40 :=O7O . . 520E>20.  ., 1993, B. 2, A. 119.  "0< 65, A. 201.  "0< 65, A. 316.  "0< 65, AA. 252 253.  "0< 65, A. 268.  "0< 65, A. 236.  "0< 65, A. 317.  "0< 65, AA. 200 203.  "0< 65, A. 268.  ;L8=A:0O . 0BCH:8 75<;8 >AA89A:>9.  ., 1994, A. 145.  CAA:89 ?0;><=8:.  !8B:0, 1997, !15.  =B8E@8AB: <0B5@80;870F8O <8AB8:8 2 87<5@5=85 2@5<5=8. 0<5B:8 ?> ?>2>4C...  8B><8@, 1996, A. 14.  ;L8=A:0O . 0BCH:8 75<;8 >AA89A:>9.  ., 1994, A. 145.  "0< 65, AA. 229 230.  "0< 65, AA. 134 137 8 139.  ;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E  85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, A. 149.  "0< 65, A. 130.  "0< 65, AA. 125 8 184.   5 >48=0:>2> =04>1=> 25AB8 A;>2> 8 A 2@0G><, 8 A ?5@2K< 2AB@5G=K<, A =0G0;L=8:>< 8 A G5;>25:>< G0AB=K<; => 4>;6=> C?>B@51;OBL AB0@0=85, GB>1K 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO G5<-;81> 4;O A51O >B 8A:CAAB20 ?5@2>3> 8 >B 2;0AB8 4@C3>3> (A2B. 0A8;89 5;8:89. 8AL<0. // "2>@5=8O.  !5@3852 >A04, 1892, G. 6, A.184). !<. B0:65 53> >B25B =0 2>?@>A  !>3;0A=> ;8 A F5;8N 1;03>G5AB8O ?>;L7>20BLAO 2@0G51=K<8 ?>A>18O<8? (@028;0, ?@>AB@0==> 87;>65==K5 2 2>?@>A0E 8 >B25B0E, 55. // "2>@5=8O.  !1., 1911, B. 2, AA. 387 391), >A=>2=0O <KA;L :>B>@>3> B0:>20:  !:>BA:>5 1K;> 1K =54><KA;85 =045OBLAO 74>@>2LO 548=AB25==> >B @C: 2@0G0. > 8 B> 1C45B C?>@AB2><, 5A;8 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05 871530BL ?>;L7>20=8O 2@0G51=K< 8A:CAAB2><... >MB><C, :0: =5 4>;6=> 2>2A5 1530BL 2@0G51=>3> 8A:CAAB20, B0: =5 A>>1@07=> ?>;030BL 2 =5< 2AN A2>N =04564C. > :0: ?>;L7C5<AO 8A:CAAB2>< 75<;545;8O, 0 ?;>4>2 ?@>A8< C >30, B0:, 22>4O : A515 2@0G0, =5 >BABC?05<AO >B C?>20=8O =0 >30 (AA. 389 8 391).  06=> >B<5B8BL, GB> A2B. >0== ;0B>CAB, @57:> =5 A>25BCO >1@0I0BLAO : 2@0G0<-8C45O<, ?@8 MB>< =5 ?@82>48B 0@3C<5=B 2 AB8;5: <>;, ?>945HL : 2@030< %@8AB>2K< 8 >=8 A2>59 <03859 =0254CB =0 B51O ?>@GC. 3> <KA;L 4@C30O:  @8B>< 8C458, E>BO 1K ?> 2848<>AB8 8 ?@5:@0I0;8 3>@OG:C 2 B5;5 A2>8<8 G0@0<8,  =0 A0<><-B> 45;5 >=8 =5 ?@5:@0I0NB  70B> 22>4OB 2 A>25ABL 4@C3CN 65AB>G09HCN 3>@OG:C, B0: :0: <KA;L :064K9 45=L 1C45B CO72;OBL B51O, A>25ABL  <CG8BL 8 3>2>@8BL:  "K ?>ABC?8; =5G5AB82>, A>25@H8; 15770:>=85, =0@CH8; 7025B A %@8AB><, 87-70 ;53:>3> =54C30 87<5=8; 1;03>G5AB8N. 0: >B25B8HL %@8ABC? 0: ?@87>25HL 3> 2 <>;8B20E? ! :0:>N A>25ABLN, =0:>=5F, 2>945HL 2 F5@:>2L? 0:8<8 3;070<8 1C45HL A<>B@5BL =0 A2OI5==8:0? 0:>N @C:>N ?@8:>A=5HLAO : !2OI5==>9 "@0?575? 0:8<8 CH0<8 AB0=5HL A;CH0BL G8B05<>5 B0< 8A0=85? . >B GB> 1C45B 5654=52=> 3>2>@8BL B515 B5@70NI0O <KA;L 8 <CG0I0O A>25ABL. 0:>5 65 MB> 74>@>2L5, :>340 2=CB@8 C =0A AB>;L:> >128=8B5;59? (!;>2> ?@>B82 8C4552. 8, 6 7).  ;L8=A:0O . "09=0 AB0@F0 $5>4>A8O. !:070=85 > 68B88 8 GC45A0E "85@CA0;8<A:>3> 10BNH:8"  ?@5?>4>1=>3> $5>4>A8O 02:07A:>3>.  ., 0;><=8:, 1997, A. 97.  1@0I5=85 !2OB59H53> 0B@80@E0 >A:>2A:>3> 8 2A5O CA8 ;5:A8O II : :;8@C 8 ?@8E>4A:8< A>25B0< E@0<>2 3. >A:2K =0 ?0@E80;L=>< A>1@0=88 16 45:01@O 1997 3.  ., 1998, AA. 22 23. / 7=0N, GB> MB8 A;>20 0B@80@E0 2K720;8 =54>C<5=85 C =5:>B>@KE A2OI5==8:>2, :>B>@K5 ?> ?@82KG:5 =0G0;8 H5?B0BLAO >  <>45@=87<5 8  =8:>48<>2I8=5 . 4=0:> ?>78F8O 0B@80@E0 ;5:A8O 2?>;=5 B@048F8>==0. I5 2 1729 3. !8=>4 8<5; AC645=85 ?> MB><C 2>?@>AC:  !2OB59H89 @028B5;LAB2CNI89 !8=>4, A;CH02 ?@8A;0==>9 A &0@8FK=A:>9 70AB02K :>?88 A 4>=>H5=8O >1@5B0NI53>AO ?@8 :0;<KF:>< 2;045;LF5 5B@5 "09H8=5 85@><>=0E0 8:>48<0 8=:528G0 > ?@85<;NI8E !2OB>5 @5I5=85 :0;<K:0E, :>B>@KE-45 A 727 8 2 ?@>H;>< 728 3>4C :818B>: A>@>:, 2A5 A 65=0<8 8 45BL<8, 0 ?> @55AB@C 8<5=0<8 <C6A:0 8 65=A:0 ?>;0 176 G5;>25:, 2 !2OB>< @5I5=88 A>25@H8;8AO. "> =04;568B ;8-45 25=G0BL ?>A;5 :@5I5=8O B5E, :>B>@K5 AC?@C65AB2> 8<5;8 4> :@5I5=8O, GB>1K @57>;NF8N CG8=8BL. @8:070;8: :>B>@K5 :0;<K:8 AC?@C65AB2> 8<5;8 4> 2>A?@8OB8O !2OB>3> @5I5=8O 8 =K=5, :0: <C68, B0: 8 65=K 8E, :@5I5=85 ?@8=O;8, B5< 1@0:>A>G5B0205<>3> 25=G0=8O =5 G8=8BL, => 25;5BL 8< 68BL 2 B>< AC?@C65AB25 =52>71@0==> (>;=>5 A>1@0=85 ?>AB0=>2;5=89 8 @0A?>@O65=89 ?> 254><AB2C ?@02>A;02=>3> 8A?>2540=8O. ". 6, ! 2214, A. 315).  ;L8=A:0O . !B0@5F-CB5H8B5;L ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8 (A:>2>-5G5@A:89 AE883C<5= !0220) // 8B5@0BC@=0O CG510.  ., 1997, :=. 5 6, A. 127. >>1I5 >. !0225 =5 ?>257;> A 4CE>2=K<8 G040<8. I5 ?@8 53> 687=8 >=8 A>AB028;8 5<C 0:0D8AB. >A;5 65 53> :>=G8=K, :>340 B5;> 10BNH:8 1K;> ?>3@515=> 2 ?5I5@0E, :C40 =5 1K;> A2>1>4=>3> 4>ABC?0, 53> ?>G8B0B5;L=8FK CAB@>8;8 D0;LA8D8F8@>20==CN <>38;C >. !022K =0 3>@>4A:>< :;0418I5, ?>AB028;8 :@5AB, ?><5AB8;8 D>B>3@0D8N 8 A>>B25BAB2CNICN =04?8AL.  MB>9 <>38;5 >=8 E>4OB 8A?>254>20BLAO. 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A;8 <K  8A:C?;5=K %@8AB><, B> =0 =0A ?@8=F8?80;L=> =5B 3@5E0, 8 =04> A<5;> 84B8 : A25BC >1>65=8O, 0 =5 ?>4AG8BK20BL A:@C?C;57=> A2>8 ?@53@5H5=8O. >E>@>=K <5@B25F>2  70=OB85 <5@B2KE. 0=OB85 682KE  4CE>2=0O @52>;NF8O, 1@>A>: 225@E, : =5B20@=K< M=5@38O< (C38= . &5;8 8 7040G8 0H59 52>;NF88.  ., 1995, A. 10).  0: =04> ?>=8<0BL 4LO:>=0 C@0520 // 8<>=:0.  ., !78, =>O1@L 1997.  "0: GB> O B5?5@L 7=0N, GB> <5=O 645B, 5A;8 O =5 ?@8<C  ?;0<5==>-@52>;NF8>==>3> @02>A;028O ?>-4C38=A:8: >??>=5=BK  >2>3> !>F80;87<0  1C4CB @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: M;5<5=B, 2@06451=K9 =>2>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 A8AB5<5.  8E >B=>H5=88 1C4CB ?@54?@8=OBK 65AB:85 =0A8;LAB25==K5 <5@K, ;81> @5?@5AA82=>3>, ;81> ?@8=C48B5;L=>-B@C4>2>3> E0@0:B5@0. A;8 :B>-B> =5 70E>G5B 4>1@>2>;L=> B@C48BLAO =0 >2K9 >@O4>:, 8E 70AB02OB MB> 45;0BL =0A8;LAB25==K< ?CB5< (C38= . &5;8 8 7040G8 0H59 52>;NF88.  ., 1995, AA. 27 28). 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"0: :0: > 0A8;88 @0A?@>AB@0=O;8AL 2A52>7<>6=K5 A;CE8 8 10A=8, B> ?0;0G8 >?0A0;8AL, :0: 1K ?>:@>28B5;LAB2CNI85 0A8;8N 15AK A >6L53> 4>72>;5=8O =5 A>25@H8;8 :0:>3>-=81C4L =5>1KG=>3> GC40. =8 1>O;8AL, GB> MB>B =53>4O9, 2K94O =52@548<K< 87 >3=O, O28BAO 2 <=>3>;N4=>5 <5AB> 8 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?@>87>945B =>2K9 >1<0=, 5I5 EC65 ?@54K4CI53>... 0;0G8 ?>4=O;8 0A8;8O 8 1@>A8;8 53> 2 A5@548=C :>AB@0. ;0<O F5;8:>< A>6@0;> =5G5AB82F0... !B>O2H89 :@C3>< =0@>4 A =5B5@?5=85< 640; 8 B@51>20;, GB>1K 1@>A8;8 2 >3>=L 8 2A5E >AB0;L=KE ?@8G0AB=KE : 3815;L=>9 5@5A8 0A8;8O (==0 ><=8=0. ;5:A8040.  !1., 1996, AA. 423 425).   5;L7O 65 ?@02>A;02=><C E@8AB80=8=C >B@8F0BL B>3> D0:B0, GB> %@8AB>A 2 20=35;88 =5>4=>:@0B=> 3>2>@8; !2>8< CG5=8:0<: (0A 1C4CB 3=0BL 70 8<O >5(, => =8 @07C =5 A:070;: (K 1C45B5 3=0BL 4@C38E 2> 8<O >5( (. !. !>;>2L52. 8AL<> <?5@0B>@C 8:>;0N B>@><C // >3>A.  @NAA5;L N=E5= >A:20, 1995, !. 50, A. 342).  >3 =5 B@51C5B =8 :@>28, =8 3>=5=89 70 25@C: <5G>< =5 4>:07K20NB 8AB8=K. >3 A;>20 ?>:>@O5B A;>2>< (%><O:>2 . !. 5A:>;L:> A;>2 > D8;>A>D8G5A:>< ?8AL<5 // !>G8=5=8O.  ., 1994, B. 2, A. 455).  $;>@5=A:89 .  AC525@88 // $8;>A>DA:85 =0C:8, 1991, !5, A. 107.  ?@>B. 0A8;89 02;>2. 0<0A:8@>20==K5 A5:B0=BK, 8;8 G5<C CG8B "1;065==0O" 5;035O // ;03>25AB=8:. >;>3>4A:0O 5?0@E80;L=0O 3075B0. ! 3-4 (24-25) 1997.  ?@>B. 0A8;89 02;>2. B25BAB25==>ABL 70 A;>2> // ;03>25AB=8:. >;>3>4A:0O 5?0@E80;L=0O 3075B0. ! 3 (35) 1998.  !>B@C4=8:8 4CE>2=>-MB8G5A:>3> :;C10  >70 <8@0 3. >2>:C7=5F:0. B:@KB>5 ?8AL<>  >BFC =4@5N C@052C. // =0<O <8@0.  "><A:, 1998, ! 2 (60).  !>1>;52 . @>@>:8 8 OA=>284FK > 1997 3>45 // Atlantida.  '5;O18=A:, 1997, !6. >4?8A0=> 2 ?5G0BL 3 <0@B0 1997 3.  5@8E . . 8AL<0 // 5@8E . . # ?>@>30 =>2>3> <8@0.  , 1996, A. 147.  "0< 65, A. 163.  >AC40@AB25==0O C<0 $545@0;L=>3> A>1@0=8O >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. N;;5B5=L ! 164 (306).  ., 1998, A. 9.  C7=5F>20 ". A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 A:07>: 4;O #G8B5;59 8 ?A8E>;>3>2 B2>@G5AB20. // A8E>;>38O A5<L8 8;8 8A:CAAB2> AB0BL 8 1KBL G5;>25:><.   1993, 157 C:070=8O <5AB0 8740=8O. !A.41 42.  !<.: 0= 02M@. A:CAAB2> AB0BL 8 1KBL G5;>25:><. =830 4;O CG8B5;O  ., 1994, !2, AA. 65 66.  $8;0B>2 !. !>2@5<5==0O >AA8O 8 A5:BK // =>AB@0==0O ;8B5@0BC@0.  ., 1996, ! 8, A. 218.  $@M75@ 6. >;>B0O 25B2L.  ., 1980, A. 676.  B><, :0: O7KG5A:>5 @5;838>7=>5 <KH;5=85 ?@>1>20;> C9B8 >B =5?>A@54AB25==>->B25BAB25==>3> CG0AB8O 2 @8BC0;5 G5;>25G5A:8E 65@B2>?@8=>H5=89 A<. B0:65: 5;8=A:89. $. $. @52=53@5G5A:0O @5;838O.  852, 1993, A. 77.   !;8B0O 2 <8A:C >3C !>;=F0 ;N4A:0O :@>2L C:@5?;O5B 2 ?>A;54=5< <KHFC ,  87;0305BAO MB>B B578A O7KG5A:>3> 1>3>A;>28O 2  5:A8:0=A:>< 4825@B8A<5=B5 >A8D0 @>4A:>3>.  ?@>G5<, 2 45:01@LA:>< =><5@5 B><A:>9 @5@8E>2A:>9 3075BK  =0<O <8@0 ?>O28;AO  B25B =0 AB0BLN 480:>=0 . C@0520 :  !;54C5B >B40BL 4>;6=>5 480:>=C, 8A?>;L7CO AB0BLN !>1>;520, >= >1@CH8205BAO =5 B>;L:> =0 42865=85, => 8 =0  82CN -B8:C . @8 MB>< 4;O C@0520 1K;> =5 A5:@5B, GB> <=5=85 B0:>3> G5;>25:0 :0: !>1>;52 5I5 =8 > G5< =5 3>2>@8B. 1> :0: B>;L:> ?>O28;>AL 2KABC?;5=85  ?@57845=B0 0:045<88 (?), : ?@8<5@C, 2 B><A:>9 ?5G0B8 A@07C 65 ?>O28;AO >B25B =0 53>  B2>@G5AB2> A> AB>@>=K @5@8E>2F52 "><A:0, :>B>@KE ?>445@60;8 >AB0;L=K5. -B>B >B25B 1K; =0?5G0B0= 2 >4=>9 87 3075B 42865=8O, 2>B 2K45@6:8 87 =53>:  @8E20B82 :>5-:0:85 A2545=8O 87 3=8 >38... AO:85 M:AB@0A5=AK, :>=B0:B5@K, OA=>284OI85  2A5 >=8 459AB2CNB, ?@8:@K20OAL #G5=85< 3=8 >38, B5< A0<K< 1@>A0O 3@O7L 2 =53>, 4020O ?>2>4 ?@O<K< 2@030< #G5=8O ?@>87=>A8BL EC;C =0 #G5=85 !25B0.  B0:>5 65 A><=8B5;L=>5 ?@54?@8OB85 >B2068;AO ?CAB8BLAO 3>A?>48= ?@57845=B 0:045<88.  A0<>5 AB@0H=>5 2>B GB>: B0:85 87<KH;5=8O, ?>40205<K5 >?OBL >B 8<5=8 #G5=8O 3=O, 8<5=8 5@8E>2, C40@OB ?> A25B;K< 845O< #G5=8O, ?> 2A5<C =0H5<C 42865=8N 8 2 >G5@54=>9 @07 404CB @07;8G=K< B5<=K< 8 A5@K< >1K20B5;O< ?>874520BLAO =04 !?0A8B5;L=K< #G5=85< (=0<O <8@0, ! 6(53), 1997) . >-?5@2KE, =5 AB>8B A5B>20BL =0 <>A:28G0 70 B>, GB> >= =5 2 :C@A5 2KABC?;5=89  B><A:>9 ?5G0B8 . >-2B>@KE, ?C1;8:0F8O 2 8N=LA:>< (H5AB><) 2K?CA:5  =0<5=8 <8@0 ?>A;54>20;0 2A5 65 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: 2 <05 <>O AB0BLO > !>1>;525 ?>O28;0AL 2  "@C45 (30.5.97) . -B@5BL8E, A0<8 B><A:85 @5@8E>2FK 2 3;070E &  =5 1>;55 G5< @0A:>;L=8:8.  09:0;LA:0O 0AA>F80F8O 18>;>:0F88, -:>;>3>-4CE>2=K9 F5=B@  C@0 . 'B> 3>4 3@O4CI89 =0< 3>B>28B? // =0<O <8@0, 1996, ! 4 (40), 0?@5;L.  >;>B>2 . . 5:F88 ?> 8AB>@88 4@52=59 &5@:28. ., 1994, B. 2, AA. 367 8 170.  1;552 !. 5254><>5 CG5=85 %@8AB0. 5:>B>@K5 <KA;8 > F5@:>2=>< E@8AB80=AB25. // 8@ >3=5==K9.  830, 1995, N 2 (7) A. 60.  8@ >3=5==K9.  830, 1996, !3 (11), A.8.  (0?>H=8:>20 . >2>5 ?;0=5B0@=>5 <KH;5=85 8 >AA8O // 8@ >3=5==K9.  830,1996, !3 (11), A. 26.  8@ >3=5==K9.  830, 1996, !3 (11), A. 99.  &5@:>2L 8 :C;LBC@0. 7 2KABC?;5=8O . (0?>H=8:>2>9 // 8@ >3=5==K9.  830, 1997, ! 1 (12), A. 125.  (0?>H=8:>20 . >2>5 ?;0=5B0@=>5 <KH;5=85 8 >AA8O // 8@ >3=5==K9.  830, 1996, !3 (11), A. 26.  &5@:>2L 8 :C;LBC@0. 7 2KABC?;5=8O . (0?>H=8:>2>9 // 8@ >3=5==K9.  830, 1997, ! 1 (12), A. 125.  '5G5E8=0 . 51548=0O ?5A=L 4LO:>=0 C@0520 // 8@ 3=5==K9.  830, 1997, ! 4 (15). !0<>E8=0 . >1@> A :>3BO<8 // "0< 65.  "!>B@C4=8:8 564C=0@>4=>3> &5=B@0 5@8E>2, A :>B>@K<8 <=5 4>25;>AL 15A54>20BL, @0AA<0B@820NB 2KE>4 42CEB><=8:0 :0: @50:F8N B>B0;8B0@=>3> A>7=0=8O (0 =0 ?>G25 &5@:28 -8=:2878F8>==>3>) =0 87<5=5=8O 2 4CE>2=>< ?@>AB@0=AB25 >AA88. 82CN -B8:C, D8A;>DA:>5 C5G=85, 8A:060NB 8 ?5@5:@0820NB, 87<5=ONB 8 ?@8?8AK20NB B>, G53> >=0 =5 =5A5B. &  =5 AB028B A2559 7040G59 >B25G0BL =0 :064K5 1>3>A;>2A:85 2K?04K, C3>20@820BL 480:>=0 8;8 0B@80@E8N =5 45;0BL B>3>, GB> ABK4=>" - ==5=:> . 5 45;0BL B>3>, GB> ABK4=> // 10:0= ! 149-150, 8 8N;O 1997.  ">=5F CE>4OI53> 3>40 4;O =0A, 010:0=F52, 1K; >B<5G5= <=>38<8 A>1KB8O<8, 2B@5G0<8, =5 ?>1>8<AO MB>3> A;>20, >B:@>25=8O<8.  G8A;C ?>A;54=8E <>6=> >B=5AB8 2AB@5G8 8 15A54K ?>A5B82H53> =0H 3>@>4 8725AB=>3> 45OB5;O CAA:>9 @02>A;02=>9 &5@:28 480:>=0 =4@5O C@0520..." - >;560520 . B:@>25=85 480:>=0 =4@5O // 10:0=. ! 1-2, 1 O=20@O 1998.  !>:>;>2 . >2K9 >?KB E@8AB80=A:>9 0?>;>35B8:8 // CAA:89 B5;53@0D. ! 33 (105), >A:20, 26.2.1998.  20= E;>1KAB8=: / 8 2 7@5;>< 2>7@0AB5 H0;C= 1K; 5I5 B>B! // >A:>2A:89 :><A><>;5F.  ., 1.3.1998.  (52G5=:> . "09=0, :>B>@>9 =5 1K;>.  2KE>4C :=838 480:>=0 =4@5O C@0520 // Ex-libris . =86=>5 >1>7@5=85. @8;>65=85 :  57028A8<>9 3075B5 .  ., 1997, ! 21, 45:01@L.  >;>A>2A:0O !. I5 @07 >  !0B0=87<5 4;O 8=B5;;835=F88 // "25@A:0O. 13. ., 1998, ! 17.  "5>1E>48<> 2K428=CBL ?@5B2>@5=85 1C4487<0 2 ;5=8=87<" (=52=8: . 5@8E. 0?8AL >B 5.7.1926. C1;8:0F8O: "/ 286C :0: =5A;KE0==> ?K;05B >AB>:". ;B09A:85 70?8A8 . 5@8E. // 5@8E>2A:89 25AB=8:. C1;8:0F88-A>>1I5=8O-8AA;54>20=8O. 2K?. 4. 1991, !?1., - ., - 720@0 - 0@=0C; - >@=>-;B09A:. A. 40).  ?@>G5<, GC4>28I=K9 AB8;L  MB> 2>>1I5 2 B@048F88 B5>A>D88.  -B>B CAB@0H0NI89 2>?@>A =04> >A25I0BL <=>3>AB>@>==5, 8=0G5 15;L5 G5;>25G5A:>5 >G5=L 3@O7=>... @028B5;LAB20, ?>;030NI85 ?@8:@KBL =8I5BC ?><KA;0 <0A:>N C40G8 >1KG=>AB8, ?@8=8<0NB =0 A51O B@C4 <>38;LI8:>2... '5;>25G5AB2> CAB0=>28;> O2;5=85 =0@CH5=8O (3=8 >30, 52; 158. 5@0@E8O, 2).  113184, >A:20, C;. >2>:C7=5F:0O, 4. 23-1, !2OB>-"8E>=>2A:89 ?@02>A;02=K9 >3>A;>2A:89 8=AB8BCB.  8AL<0 ;5=K 5@8E 1932-1955, A. 447.  8AL<0 ;5=K 5@8E 1932-1955, A. 285.  8AL<0 ;5=K 5@8E 1932-1955, A. 306.  8AL<0 ;5=K 5@8E 1929-1938, B. 1, A. 402.  'B>1K MB0 AB@>:0 1K;0 ?>=OB=0, =04> ?>OA=8BL, GB> B0:>5 :>H:0 2 @5@8E>2A:>< <8@>2>77@5=88.  8:0:85 682>B=K5 =5 4>?CA:0NBAO 2 68;K5 :><=0BK. 065 ?B8FK =5 <>3CB =0E>48BLAO 2 A?0;L=5. A5 =87H55 ?@82;5:05B =87H55. >H:8 2>>1I5 @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: ACI=>AB8, >?@545;5==> ?@8=04;560I85 : B5<=K< 3@C??8@>2:0< (8AL<0 ;5=K 5@8E 1929 1938, B. 2, A. 72). 5;> 2 B><, GB> >=8 <5H0NB A;KH0BL :>A<8G5A:85 3>;>A0.  !0<0 2848HL, :0: 4065 ?B8FK >:07K20NBAO <5H0NI8<8 ( 5@8E . . 3=5==K9 >?KB // 5@8E . . # ?>@>30 =>2>3> <8@0.  ., 1993, A. 74).  5 701K209 :>H0G89 :>=F5@B. "O=CBAO 2>=NG85 =8B8 : 20<, 2@5<5==> =0?@02;5=> <=>3> AB@5;. =8 :0: 1K >15AF25G820NB ?@>AB@0=AB2>... ?KB 4>;65= ?@5>4>;5BL @07=K5 CA;>28O. !:>@> 8 ?B8FK, 8 :>H:8 =5 >:06CB 2;8O=8O... >340 C40ABAO 2K3=0BL 2A5E :>H5: 87 20H53> 4><0? (B0< 65, AA. 77-78). ?@>G5<, @04 CA?>:>8BL @5@8E>2F52: 2 <>5< 4><5 =5B =8:0:>9 682=>AB8. "0: GB> 4065 ?@8 2A5< 65;0=88 =5 A<>3 1K O "2 >1=8<:C A?0BL A> AB0@>9 :>H:>9". 0, ?> ?@0245 3>2>@O, 8 65;0=8O B0:>3> =5B: ?> 4CH5 O A>10G=8:, 0 =5 :>H0B=8:.  : :>H:0< AB0; >B=>A8BLAO ?>;CGH5 B>;L:> ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: C7=0; > <=5=88 ;5=K 5@8E ?@> =8E.  C2845; 2 :>H:0E A2>8E 1>52KE 4@C759. %@8AB80=5-B> B>65, ?> <=5=8N . 5@8E >B=>AOBAO : "B5<=K< 3@C??8@>2:0<". >B><C-B> 8 ?CA:0NB :>H5: 2 A2>8 E@0<K 8 4065 0;B0@8.  B @540:F88. 0: 4LO:>= C@052 2 "=0<O 8@0" E>48; // =0<O 8@0. ! 2 (60). "><A:, 1998.  4=064K ?@>D5AA>@ 8 8=A?5:B>@ >A:>2A:>9 CE>2=>9 :045<88 0@E8<. 2;0<?89 =0 M:70<5=5 ?@54;>68; ABC45=BC ?5@525AB8 B5@<8= "?>;5<8G5A:>5 1>3>A;>285" :0: "2>8B5;L=>5" 1>3>A;>285. @8ACBAB2>202H89 =0 M:70<5=5 A2. $8;0@5B, <8B@>?>;8B >A:>2A:89, BCB 65 70<5B8;: "BG53> 65 =5 =0720BL 53> A>;40BA:8< 1>3>A;>285<?" (;NG52A:89 . . B7K2 > :=835 !. !<8@=>20 "AB>@8O >A:>2A:>9 CE>2=>9 :045<88 4> 55 ?@5>1@07>20=8O" // ;NG52A:89 . . B7K2K 8 >B25BK. "@5B89 A1>@=8: AB0B59.  ., 1914, A. 342).  0;8<>2 . . @8B8:0 8AB>@8G5A:>9 M?>E8: =587156=>ABL A<5=K :C;LBC@K 2 XXI 25:5 // >?@>AK D8;>A>D88. 1996, !11, AA. 73-73. AB0B8, <>O :=830 "!>1;07= =5>O7KG5AB20" . 0;8<>2C ?>:070;0AL ?>;=>9 "2K7K20NI8E 2KA:07K20=89" (B0< 65, A. 67).  ;C1>:>2A:89 . 5@0 8 1>3>A;>285. .18;59=>5 8A?>2540=85 // !>AC4 871@0==K9. AB>@8O >AA89A:8E 4CE>2=KE H:>; 2 @0=55 =5 ?C1;8:>202H8EAO B@C40E, ?8AL<0E 45OB5;59 CAA:>9 @02>A;02=>9 &5@:28, 0 B0:65 2 A5:@5B=KE 4>:C<5=B0E @C:>2>48B5;59 A>25BA:>3> 3>AC40@AB20. 1888 1932. !>AB. . !:;O@>20.  !?1., 1994, A. 94.  0B0AB@>DK. >G5<C? // @3C<5=BK 8 D0:BK.  ., 1997, ! 51.  ABL 5I5 8 B>G:0 7@5=8O F5@:>2=>-?>;8B8G5A:0O: 4020O B0:>3> @>40 8=B5@2LN A25BA:>9 3075B5 =04> 1K;> ?>4C<0BL =04 B5<, :0: 1C45B MB> 70O2;5=85 2K3;O45BL A B>G:8 7@5=8O 55 =5F5@:>2=KE G8B0B5;59. "0: 2>B, "@3C<5=BK 8 D0:BK" A>G;8 MB> 70O2;5=85 =0AB>;L:> 15AB0:B=K<, GB> A @04>ABLN ?><5AB8;8 53> =0 ?5@2CN ?>;>AC. =B8F5@:>2=K9 =0AB@>9 MB>9 3075BK 2?>;=5 A>7=0B5;L=K9.  BCB >=8 ?@>AB> >1@04>20;8AL B><C, GB> A2OI5==8: "?>4AB028;AO", 2KA:070; <KA;L =0AB>;L:> AB@0==CN, GB> 8 157 :><<5=B0@852 <>6=> 1K;> ?@54>AB028BL G8B0B5;O< "8$" A0<8< AC48BL > <5@5 "15AG5;>25G=>AB8" >A:>2A:>9 0B@80@E88...  " :@C3C ?5@5CG5=KE CA8;8205BAO <=5=85, GB> A>2A5< 8 15A>2 =5B" (?@5?. <2@>A89 ?B8=A:89. !>1@0=85 ?8A5< : <8@A:8< >A>10<. G. 1. !5@3852 >A04, 1908, A. 211).  #65 C?><O=CBK9 2KH5 CG5=8: . 5=O 6C@=0;8AB . 54@>2 A>1AB25==>5 1>3>A;>2A:>5 =52565AB2> >?@024K205B B5<, GB> >=, <>;, 2>7=5AAO 2KH5 2A5E 1>3>A;>2A:8E B>=:>AB59:  AB028< 2 AB>@>=5 1>3>A;>2A:85 A?>@K > B><, O2;O5BAO ;8 8ACA AK=>< >688< 8 4065 A0<8< >3><, 8;8 MB> >48= 87 25;8G09H8E CG8B5;59 G5;>25G5AB20... 06=> B>, G5<C >= CG8;.  G5< =>287=0 53> CG5=8O? 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