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(! - 5<:>ABL :>=45=A0B>@0); 3) - 8AB>G=8: -! E ( - -! 8AB>G=8:0); 4)  8AB>G=8: B>:0 J (J  B>: 8AB>G=8:0)  8AC=>: 1.2  #A;>2=K5 3@0D8G5A:85 87>1@065=8O M;5<5=B>2 -! @8<5G0=85  !B@5;:8 =0 87>1@065=8OE 8AB>G=8:>2 -! 8 B>:0 C:07K20NB ?>;>68B5;L=>5 =0?@02;5=85 -! 8 B>:0. 1.3 $878G5A:85 >A=>2K ?@>F5AA>2 2 M;5:B@8G5A:8E F5?OE 0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, 2> <=>38E A;CG0OE ?@>F5AAK, ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 M;5:B@>B5E=8G5A:8E CAB@>9AB20E, C405BAO >?8A0BL 2 A;54CNI8E B5@<8=0E M;5:B@>4286CI59 A8;K  EMBED Equation.3 , (1.1) M;5:B@8G5A:>3> =0?@O65=8O  EMBED Equation.3 , (1.2) M;5:B@8G5A:>3> B>:0  EMBED Equation.3 , (1.3) M;5:B@8G5A:>3> 70@O40  EMBED Equation.3  (1.4) 8 <03=8B=>3> ?>B>:0  EMBED Equation.3 . (1.5) @8 MB>< =5 @0AA<0B@8205BAO @0A?@545;5=85 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25 8 87<5=5=85 2> 2@5<5=8 25;8G8=  EMBED Equation.3 , :>B>@K5 E0@0:B5@87CNB M;5:B@><03=8B=>5 ?>;5 2> 2A5E 53> B>G:0E. -B> 2>7<>6=>ABL A2O70=0 A> A2>9AB20<8 ?@8<5=O5<KE 4;O ?@>B5:0=8O B>:0 ?@>2>4=8:>2 (=51>;LH>5 ?>?5@5G=>5 A5G5=85, 2KA>:0O ?@>2>48<>ABL, ?@8<5=5=85 87>;OF88) 8 M;5:B@>B5E=8G5A:8E CAB@>9AB2, @07<5@K :>B>@KE >3@0=8G5=K. @8<5G0=85   D>@<C;0E (1.1)  (1.5) ?@8<5=5=K A;54CNI85 >1>7=0G5=8O:  EMBED Equation.3 - =0?@O65==>ABL M;5:B@8G5A:>3> ?>;O AB>@>==8E A8; 8AB>G=8:0;  EMBED Equation.3  - =0?@O65==>ABL 8=4C:B8@>20==>3> M;5:B@8G5A:>3> ?>;O;  EMBED Equation.3 ,  EMBED Equation.3  - =0?@O65==>AB8 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> 8 <03=8B=>3> ?>;59 A>>B25BAB25==>;  EMBED Equation.3  - 25:B>@ M;5:B@8G5A:>9 8=4C:F88 8;8 M;5:B@8G5A:>5 A<5I5=85;  EMBED Equation.3  - ?;>B=>ABL M;5:B@8G5A:>3> B>:0;  EMBED Equation.3  - 25:B>@ <03=8B=>9 8=4C:F88. 1.3.1 -;5:B@8G5A:89 B>: 07;8G0NB A;54CNI85 >A=>2=K5 284K M;5:B@8G5A:>3> B>:0: B>: ?@>2>48<>AB8, B>: ?5@5=>A0 8 B>: M;5:B@8G5A:>3> A<5I5=8O. ">: ?@>2>48<>AB8  C?>@O4>G5==>5 42865=85 70@O65==KE G0AB8F 2=CB@8 ?@>2>4=8:0 ?>4 459AB285< M;5:B@8G5A:>3> ?>;O. 0?@8<5@, B>:8 2 <5B0;;0E 8 M;5:B@>;8B0E >B=>AOBAO : B>:0< ?@>2>48<>AB8. "5@<8= M;5:B@8G5A:89 B>: ?@8<5=ONB =5 B>;L:> 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O ?@>F5AA0 ?5@5<5I5=8O 70@O65==KE G0AB8F, => 8 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O 8=B5=A82=>AB8 MB>3> ?@>F5AA0 2 :0G5AB25 A8=>=8<0 B5@<8=0 A8;0 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> B>:0.  MB>< A<KA;5 M;5:B@8G5A:89 B>: O2;O5BAO D878G5A:>9 25;8G8=>9 8 53> <>6=> >?@545;8BL A;54CNI8< >1@07><: M;5:B@8G5A:89 B>: (A8;0 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> B>:0) i A:2>7L =5:>B>@CN ?>25@E=>ABL s @025= ?@545;C >B=>H5=8O M;5:B@8G5A:>3> 70@O40 (q, ?5@5=>A8<>3> 70@O65==K<8 G0AB8F0<8 A:2>7L MBC ?>25@E=>ABL 2 B5G5=85 ?@><56CB:0 2@5<5=8 (t, : 25;8G8=5 MB>3> ?@><56CB:0, :>340 ?>A;54=89 AB@5<8BAO : =C;N  EMBED Equation.3 . (1.6) 7 D>@<C;K (1.6) A;54C5B, GB> M;5:B@8G5A:89 B>:  25;8G8=0 A:0;O@=0O. 5:B>@=0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> B>:0 - ?;>B=>ABL B>:0. ;>B=>ABL B>:0 @02=0 ?@545;C >B=>H5=8O B>:0 (i A:2>7L M;5<5=B ?>25@E=>AB8 (s, =>@<0;L=K9 : =0?@02;5=8N 42865=8O 70@O65==KE G0AB8F, : MB><C M;5<5=BC, :>340 ?>A;54=89 AB@5<8BAO : =C;N:  EMBED Equation.3  EMBED Equation.3 . (1.7) 0?@02;5=85 ?;>B=>AB8 B>:0 A>2?0405B A =0?@02;5=85< 42865=8O ?>;>68B5;L=> 70@O65==KE G0AB8F.  548=8F59 B>:0 O2;O5BAO 0<?5@ (1 ), 0 548=8F59 ?;>B=>AB8 B>:0 0<?5@ =0 :204@0B=K9 <5B@ (1 /<2). B;8G8B5;L=>9 >A>15==>ABLN B>:0 ?@>2>48<>AB8 ?> A@02=5=8N A 4@C38<8 2840<8 B>:>2 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> ?;>B=>ABL B>:0 ?@>2>48<>AB8 ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=0 =0?@O65==>AB8 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> ?>;O (?@8 ?>AB>O==>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 ?@>2>4=8:0)  EMBED Equation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quation.3  =5 ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=0 A:>@>AB8, 0 ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=0 CA:>@5=8N G0AB8F (B0: :0: A8;0, 459AB2CNI0O =0 G0AB8FC A 70@O4>< q @02=0  EMBED Equation.3 ). >MB><C 42865=85 70@O65==>9 G0AB8FK 2 A2>1>4=>< ?@>AB@0=AB25 1C45B @02=>CA:>@5==K<, B0: :0: >BACBAB2C5B A>?@>B82;5=85 A@54K. @8<5@K B>:0 ?5@5=>A0 - 42865=85 2 ?CAB>B5 70@O65==KE M;5<5=B0@=KE G0AB8F 8;8 M;5:B@8G5A:89 B>: 2 3070E. @8<5G0=85 - >4 ?CAB>B>9 ?>=8<05BAO >1;0ABL ?@>AB@0=AB20, 2 :>B>@>9 >BACBAB2CNB :0:85-;81> <0B5@80;L=K5 G0AB8FK 8 :>B>@0O O2;O5BAO D>@<>9 ACI5AB2>20=8O <0B5@88 2 2845 ?>;O. ">: A<5I5=8O. ! =8< ?@8E>48BAO AG8B0BLAO ?@8 ?5@5<5==>< M;5:B@8G5A:>< ?>;5 2 48M;5:B@8:5. <55B 425 A>AB02;ONI85  M;5:B@8G5A:89 B>: ?>;O@870F88 8 M;5:B@8G5A:89 B>: A<5I5=8O 2 ?CAB>B5. 0;8G85 ?5@2>9 A>AB02;ONI59 B>:0 A<5I5=8O A2O70=> A B5<, GB> ?@8 87<5=5=88 2> 2@5<5=8 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> ?>;O 87<5=O5BAO ?>;O@87>20==>ABL  EMBED Equation.3  48M;5:B@8:0. @8 MB>< 2 25I5AB25 48M;5:B@8:0 4286CBAO 70@O65==K5 M;5<5=B0@=K5 G0AB8FK, 2E>4OI85 2 A>AB02 0B><>2 8 <>;5:C; 25I5AB20. >MB><C ?;>B=>ABL B>:0 A<5I5=8O 4;O ?5@2>9 A>AB02;ONI59 @02=0 ?@>872>4=>9 25:B>@0 ?>;O@87>20==>AB8 25I5AB20 ?> 2@5<5=8. B>@0O A>AB02;ONI0O B>:0 A<5I5=8O E0@0:B5@87C5B D878G5A:89 ?@>F5AA 2 A0<>< M;5:B@8G5A:>< ?>;5 2> 2@5<5=8. "0:8< >1@07><, 25:B>@ ?;>B=>AB8 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> B>:0 A<5I5=8O 2 48M;5:B@8:5 @025=  EMBED Equation.3  (1.9) 345  EMBED Equation.3  ( EMBED Equation.3  - 48M;5:B@8G5A:0O ?>AB>O==0O). ! 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B>@0O G0ABL  : B>:C A<5I5=8O 2 ?CAB>B5. @8=F8? =5?@5@K2=>AB8 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> B>:0 >;=K9 M;5:B@8G5A:89 B>: A:2>7L 27OBCN 2 ;N1>9 A@545 70<:=CBCN ?>25@E=>ABL @025= =C;N. @8 MB>< 2KE>4OI89 87 ?>25@E=>AB8 B>: AG8B05BAO ?>;>68B5;L=K<, 0 2E>4OI89  >B@8F0B5;L=K<. 1.3.2 0?@O65=85  0AA<>B@8< @8AC=>: 2.1, 345 87>1@065=0 G0AB8F0 A 70@O4>< q, :>B>@0O ?5@5=>A8BAO 24>;L =5:>B>@>3> ?CB8 2 M;5:B@8G5A:>< ?>;5  EMBED Equation.3 . 0AA<0B@8205<K9 ?CBL <>65B =0E>48BLAO 2 ;N1>9 A@545: 2 ?@>2>4=8:5, 2 48M;5:B@8:5, G0AB8G=> 2 ?@>2>4=8:5 8 G0AB8G=> 2 48M;5:B@8:5. @8 MB>< 459AB2CNI0O =0 G0AB8FC A8;0  EMBED Equation.3  A>25@H05B @01>BC. B=>H5=85 MB>9 @01>BK : 25;8G8=5 ?5@5=>A8<>3> 70@O40, =07K205BAO M;5:B@8G5A:8< =0?@O65=85< 8 >?@545;O5BAO ?> D>@<C;5 (1.2). "0: :0: A>25@H05<0O @01>B0 @02=0 8AC=>: 2.1 @07=>AB8 ?>B5=F80;L=KE M=5@389 2 B>G:0E 0 8 b ?>;O, 0 ?>B5=F80;L=0O M=5@38O 548=8G=>3> 70@O40 @02=0 M;5:B@8G5A:><C ?>B5=F80;C ( 2 40==>9 B>G:5 ?>;O, B> =0?@O65=85  EMBED Equation.3  B0:65 <>6=> >?@545;OBL :0: @07=>ABL ?>B5=F80;>2 <564C B>G:0<8 0 8 b:  EMBED Equation.3  (1.10) -;5:B@8G5A:>5 =0?@O65=85 - D878G5A:0O 25;8G8=0, E0@0:B5@87CNI0O M;5:B@8G5A:>5 ?>;5 24>;L @0AA<0B@8205<>3> ?CB8 8 @02=0O @07=>AB8 ?>B5=F80;>2 <564C =0G0;L=>9 8 :>=5G=>9 B>G:0<8 MB>3> ?CB8. 48=8F59 =0?@O65=8O O2;O5BAO 2>;LB (1 ). @8<5G0=8O 1 >B5=F80; 2 40==>9 B>G:5  EMBED Equation.3  7028A8B >B 2K1>@0 =C;O ?>B5=F80;0. 0: 8 2 A;CG05 ?>B5=F80;L=>9 M=5@388, =C;52>9 C@>25=L <>65B 2K18@0BLAO ?@>872>;L=>, ?>A:>;L:C 87<5@8BL <>6=> ;8HL 87<5=5=85 ?>B5=F80;L=>9 M=5@388 (@07=>ABL ?>B5=F80;>2). 1KG=> 70 =C;52>9 ?>B5=F80; ?@8=8<0NB ?>B5=F80; 75<;8, 8;8 ?@>2>4=8:0, A>548=5==>3> A 75<;59, 0 >AB0;L=K5 7=0G5=8O ?>B5=F80;>2 >BAG8BK20NB >B=>A8B5;L=> 75<;8. 2 $>@<C;0 (1.10) A?@0254;820 4;O >4=>@>4=>3> (?>B5=F80;L=>3>) ?>;O.  A;CG05 ?5@5<5==>3> <03=8B=>3> ?>;O =0?@O65=85 <564C B>G:0<8 a 8 b F5?8 7028A8B >B 2K1>@0 ?CB8 >B B>G:8 0 : B>G:5 b, B0: :0: 4;O ?5@5<5==>3> ?>;O  EMBED Equation.3 . (1.11) "> 5ABL, 5A;8 B>: 2 ?@>2>40E F5?8 AB0=5B 87<5=OBLAO 2> 2@5<5=8, B> D878G5A:8 MB> ?@82545B : 87<5=5=8N M;5:B@><03=8B=>3> ?>;O 2>7;5 ?@>2>4>2, 0 2 MB>< ?5@5<5==>< ?>;5 =0?@O65=85 <564C B>G:0<8 0 8 b 2 :064K9 <><5=B 2@5<5=8 7028A8B >B 2K1>@0 ?CB8 <564C B>G:0<8 0 8 b).  0AA<>B@8< CG0AB>: F5?8 157 -!, 87>1@065==K9 =0 @8AC=:5 1.3. 0 CG0AB:5 F5?8 B>: B5G5B >B 1>;55 2KA>:>3> ?>B5=F80;0 : 1>;55 =87:><C. >MB><C ?>B5=F80; B>G:8 a ((a) 2KH5 ?>B5=F80;0 B>G:8 b ( EMBED Equation.3 ) =0 25;8G8=C, @02=CN ?@>872545=8N B>:0 I =0 A>?@>B82;5=85 R:  EMBED Equation.3 .  A>>B25BAB288 A (1.10) Uab = IR. (1.12) 8AC=>: 1.3 !;54>20B5;L=>, =0?@O65=85 =0 A>?@>B82;5=88 @02=> ?@>87- 2545=8N B>:0, ?@>B5:0NI53> ?> A>?@>B82;5=8N, =0 25;8G8=C MB>3> A>?@>B82;5=8O. K@065=85 (1.12)  70:>= <0 4;O CG0AB:0 F5?8 157 -!, @0AA<>B@5==>3> =0 @8AC=:5 1.3.  M;5:B@>B5E=8:5 @07=>ABL ?>B5=F80;>2 =0 :>=F0E A>?@>B82;5=8O 8=0G5 =07K20NB ?045=85< =0?@O65=8O (8;8 =0?@O65=85<). 1.3.3 -! -;5:B@>4286CI0O A8;0 M;5<5=B0 (8AB>G=8:0) @02=0 @07=>AB8 ?>B5=F80;>2 (8;8 =0?@O65=8N) =0 53> 7068<0E ?@8 @07><:=CB>9 2=5H=59 F5?8 (?@8 >BACBAB288 B>:0 2 F5?8). @8 MB>< 2=CB@8 8AB>G=8:0 -! 459AB2C5B B0: =07K205<>9 AB>@>==55 M;5:B@8G5A:>5 ?>;5, :>B>@>5 8<55B =5M;5:B@>AB0B8G5A:>5 ?@>8AE>645=85. 0?@O65==>ABL AB>@>==53> ?>;O >1>7=0G0NB  EMBED Equation.3 . 1.4 -=5@38O (<>I=>ABL) 2 M;5<5=B0E M;5:B@8G5A:>9 F5?8 1.4.1 >I=>ABL, @0AA58205<0O 2 ?@>2>4=8:5 >I=>ABL, >?@545;ONI0O :>;8G5AB2> M=5@388, 2K45;O5<>9 2 ?@>2>4=8:5 2 2845 B5?;0 2 548=8FC 2@5<5=8, 2KG8A;ONB 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 70:>=>< 6>C;O  5=F0:  EMBED Equation.3 , (1.13) 345  - @01>B0; U - ?045=85 =0?@O65=85 =0 ?@>2>4=8:5; q - 70@O4; I - B>:; t - 2@5<O. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ?>4 <>I=>ABLN M;5:B@8G5A:>3> B>:0 ?>=8<0NB @01>BC , :>B>@CN B>: A>25@H05B 70 548=8FC 2@5<5=8. 1.4.2 -=5@38O 70@O65==>3> :>=45=A0B>@0 -=5@38O 70@O65==>3> :>=45=A0B>@0  EMBED Equation.3  >?@545;O5BAO ?> D>@<C;5  EMBED Equation.3 , (1.14) 345 u  @07=>ABL ?>B5=F80;>2 >1:;04>: :>=45=A0B>@0; !  5<:>ABL :>=45=A0B>@0. @8<5G0=85 - >=45=A0B>@  MB> CAB@>9AB2> 4;O =0:>?;5=8O M;5:B@8G5A:>3> 70@O40; >= A>AB>8B 87 42CE ?@>2>4=8:>2 (>1:;04>:), @0A?>;>65==KE 1;87:> 4@C3 : 4@C3C, => =5 A>?@8:0A0NI8EAO. 1.4.3 -=5@38O <03=8B=>3> ?>;O :>=BC@0 A B>:>< -=5@38O <03=8B=>3> ?>;O :>=BC@0 A B>:><  EMBED Equation.3  >?@545;O5BAO ?> D>@<C;5  EMBED Equation.3  (1.15) 345 i  B>:, ?@>B5:0NI89 G5@57 :>=BC@; L  8=4C:B82=>ABL :>=BC@0. 1.5 A=>2=K5 C@02=5=8O M;5:B@><03=8B=>3> ?>;O 1.5.1 >ABC;0B 0:A25;;0 K@065=85 (1.4)  ?>ABC;0B 0:A25;;0 (D>@<C;8@C5BAO =0 >A=>20=88 70:>=0 C;>=0 8 B5>@5<K 0CAA0), A2O7K20NI89 M;5:B@8G5A:>5 ?>;5 A M;5:B@8G5A:8<8 70@O40<8 G0AB8F 8;8 B5;. 1.5.2 @8=F8? =5?@5@K2=>AB8 <03=8B=>3> ?>B>:0 @8=F8? =5?@5@K2=>AB8 <03=8B=>3> ?>B>:0 <>65B 1KBL 70?8A0= A;54CNI8< >1@07><  EMBED Equation.3  (1.16) 7 (1.16) A;54C5B, GB> <03=8B=KE <0AA, :0: 8AB>G=8:>2 ;8=89 <03=8B=>3> ?>;O, 0=0;>38G=KE M;5:B@8G5A:8< 70@O40< G0AB8F 8;8 B5;, O2;ONI8EAO 8AB>G=8:0<8 ;8=89 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> ?>;O, 2 ?@8@>45 =5 ACI5AB2C5B. 1.5.3 0:>= M;5:B@><03=8B=>9 8=4C:F88 0:>= M;5:B@><03=8B=>9 8=4C:F88 (1.11) A2O7K205B 87<5=ONI55AO <03=8B=>5 ?>;5 A 2>7=8:0NI8< ?@8 MB>< M;5:B@8G5A:8< ?>;5<. 8=88 B0:>3> M;5:B@8G5A:>3> ?>;O O2;ONBAO =5?@5@K2=K<8, B> 5ABL 70<:=CBK<8. 1.5.4 0:>= ?>;=>3> B>:0 K@065=85 (1.3)  70:>= ?>;=>3> B>:0. -B>B 70:>= >1>1I5= =0 2A5 284K M;5:B@8G5A:>3> B>:0, 2:;NG0O 8 B>:8 A<5I5=8O. 7 =53> A;54C5B, GB> ?@8 2AO:>< 87<5=5=88 2> 2@5<5=8 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> ?>;O 2 B>< 65 ?@>AB@0=AB25 2>7=8:05B 8 <03=8B=>5 ?>;5, :>B>@>5 B5A=K< >1@07>< A2O70=> A M;5:B@8G5A:8< ?>;5< 8 53> 87<5=5=8O<8. > ACB8 - MB> 548=>5 M;5:B@><03=8B=>5 ?>;5. 1.6 ;0AA8D8:0F8O M;5:B@8G5A:8E F5?59 8 8E M;5<5=B>2 -;5:B@8G5A:85 F5?8 8 8E M;5<5=BK @07;8G0NB ?> A;54CNI8< ?@87=0:0< 0)- ?> B8?C M;5<5=B>2, A>AB02;ONI8E -&: - @578AB82=K5, 8=4C:B82=K5, 5<:>AB=K5, M;5:B@>==K5; 1) - ?> :>;8G5AB2C ?>;NA>2 -&: - 42CE-, B@5E-, G5BK@5E- 8 <=>3>?>;NA=K5; 2) - ?> >B=>H5=8N : 8AB>G=8:0< M=5@388 @07;8G0NB 0:B82=K5 8 ?0AA82=K5 -&; 3) - AB0B8G5A:85 8 48=0<8G5A:85; 4) - ;8=59=K5 8 =5;8=59=K5. 0AA<>B@8< ?>4@>1=55 =5:>B>@K5 87 ?5@5G8A;5==KE B8?>2 -&. 2CE-, B@5E-, G5BK@5E- 8 <=>3>?>;NA=K5 -& >=OB85 <=>3>?>;NA=8:0 H8@>:> 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?@8 0=0;875 M;5:B@8G5A:8E F5?59 (?>;NA  B> 65, GB> 8 7068< 8;8 2=5H=89 2K2>4 F5?8, B> 5ABL B>G:0 F5?8, : :>B>@>9 ?@8A>548=O5BAO 2=5H=89 M;5<5=B F5?8). 0?@8<5@, ?@8 DC=:F8>=0;L=>< 0=0;875 8AA;54C5<CN AE5<C @0AA<0B@820NB :0: G5@=K9 OI8:, 2=CB@5==OO AB@C:BC@0 :>B>@>3> =58725AB=0 (5AB5AB25==>, GB> B0:>9 ?>4E>4 ?@8<5=O5BAO ?@8 0=0;875 4>AB0B>G=> A;>6=KE AE5<, =0?@8<5@, M;5:B@>==KE, :>B>@K5 =0@O4C A 8725AB=K<8 M;5<5=B0<8, <>3CB A>45@60BL M;5<5=BK A =58725AB=K<8 ?0@<5B@0<8: ?0@078B=K5 5<:>AB8, 8=4C:B82=>AB8 8 B.4.). '0I5 2A53> B0:>9 G5@=K9 OI8: 8<55B 425 ?0@K ?>;NA>2: 2E>4=CN 8 2KE>4=CN. ">340 : 2E>4=K< ?>;NA0< <>6=> ?@8A>548=8BL 35=5@0B>@ A 8725AB=K<8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8, 0 : 2KE>4=K< - 8=48:0B>@=K9 ?@81>@, =0?@8<5@ >AF8;;>3@0D. @8 8725AB=>< 2E>4=>< 2>7459AB288 <>6=> >?@545;8BL >B:;8: 8AA;54C5<>9 F5?8 8 =0 >A=>20=88 MB>9 8=D>@<0F88 >?@545;8BL ?5@540B>G=CN DC=:F8N F5?8. > 284C ?5@540B>G=>9 DC=:F88 <>6=> >?@545;8BL ?@8<5@=CN AB@C:BC@C -& 8 CG5ABL 2;8O=85 ?0@078B=KE M;5<5=B>2 F5?8 B0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K >B:;8: F5?8, ?>;CG5==K9 2 @57C;LB0B5 87<5@5=89, :0: <>6=> <5=LH5 >B;8G0;AO 1K >B @0AG5B=>3>. :B82=K5 8 ?0AA82=K5 -& :B82=>9 F5?LN (0:B82=>9 G0ABLN F5?8) =07K20NB G0ABL -&, 2 :>B>@>9 459AB2CNB 8AB>G=8:8 M;5:B@><03=8B=>9 M=5@388. '0ABL -&, 2 :>B>@>9 =5B 8AB>G=8:>2 M;5:B@><03=8B=>9 M=5@388, =07K20NB ?0AA82=>9 F5?LN. !B0B8G5A:85 8 48=0<8G5A:85 -&  AB0B8G5A:8< <>6=> >B=5AB8 -&, 0=0;87 :>B>@KE 2>7<>65= A 8A?>;L7>20=85< AB0B8G5A:8E <>45;59. =0;87 AB0B8G5A:8E -& <>65B ?@>2>48BLAO 2 @568<5 ?>AB>O==>3> B>:0, 0 B0:65 2 @568<5 ?5@8>48G5A:8E A8=CA>840;L=KE 8 =5A8=CA>840;L=KE A83=0;>2. 8=0<8G5A:85 -&  MB> B0:85 F5?8, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL ?@>0=0;878@>20=K A ?@8<5=5=85< 48=0<8G5A:8E <>45;59. 8=0<8G5A:85 <>45;8 8A?>;L7CNBAO ?@8 0=0;875 ?5@5E>4=KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 >A=>20=K =0 ?@54AB02;5=88 >1J5:B0 0=0;870 A8AB5<>9 48DD5@5=F80;L=KE C@02=5=89. !>2@5<5==K5 <5B>4K G8A;5==>3> 0=0;870 B@51CNB ?@54AB02;5=8O 48DD5@5=F80;L=KE C@02=5=89 2 D>@<5 >H8. 8=59=K5 8 =5;8=59=K5 F5?8 8 M;5<5=BK 0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, >A=>2=K<8 M;5<5=B0<8 -& O2;ONBAO A>?@>B82;5=85 R, 5<:>ABL ! 8 8=4C:B82=>ABL L. > <=>38E A;CG0OE ?0@0<5B@K R, C 8 L =5 7028AOB >B B>:0 8 =0?@O65=8O. >MB><C =0 4803@0<<0E E0@0:B5@8AB8:8  EMBED Equation.3  (2>;LB0<?5@=0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0),  EMBED Equation.3  (2>;LBD0@04=0O) 8  EMBED Equation.3  (2515@0<?5@=0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 - 7028A8<>ABL ?>B>:>AF5?;5=8O >B B>:0 i 2 :0BCH:5) 87>1@060NBAO ?@O<K<8 ;8=8O<8 (@8AC=>: 1.4). >MB><C B0:85 M;5<5=BK =07K20NBAO ;8=59=K<8. 8AC=>: 1.4 -&, A>45@60I85 B>;L:> ;8=59=K5 M;5<5=BK, =07K20NBAO ;8=59=K<8 F5?O<8. @>F5AAK, ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 ;8=59=KE F5?OE ?@8 ?>AB>O==KE B>:0E, >?8AK20NBAO ;8=59=K<8 0;351@08G5A:8<8 C@02=5=8O<8, 0 ?@8 87<5=ONI8EAO 2> 2@5<5=8 B>:0E  ;8=59=K<8 0;351@08G5A:8<8 8 48DD5@5=F80;L=K<8 C@02=5=8O<8. 5;8=59=K5 M;5<5=BK -&  B0:85 M;5<5=BK, ?0@0<5B@K :>B>@KE ACI5AB25==> 7028AOB >B B>:0 8;8 =0?@O65=8O, 0 8E E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 =0 4803@0<<0E 8<5NB :@82>;8=59=K9 E0@0:B5@. 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