ࡱ> ITbjbj!D*]hhhhhhh||||8<||.hT " k4R-T-T-T-T-T-T-$.0x-hExx-#hh gh###h h R-||hhhhR-##&+DhhR- l@Z||!f,-& MACROBUTTON MTEditEquationSection2 Equation Chapter 1 Section 1 SEQ MTEqn \r \h \* MERGEFORMAT  SEQ MTSec \r 1 \h \* MERGEFORMAT  SEQ MTChap \r 1 \h \* MERGEFORMAT !0=:B-5B5@1C@3A:89 >AC40@AB25==K9 >@A:>9 "5E=8G5A:89 #=825@A8B5B 0D54@0 AC4>2KE 42830B5;59 2=CB@5==53> A3>@0=8O 8 4875;L=KE CAB0=>2>: $ " 0AGQB G0AB>B A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 42830B5;O 12'26/26 K?>;=8;: !BC45=B 3@C??K 252 !B5?0=>2 .. @>25@8;: >F5=B 8=0AO= .. A5==89 A5<5AB@ 2001/2002 CG. 3>4 !>45@60=85  TOC \o "1-3" 1. A=>2=K5 A2545=8O > 42830B5;5  PAGEREF _Toc532487456 \h 3 2. ?@545;5=85 E0@0:B5@8AB8: :@82>H8?=>-H0BC==>3> <5E0=87<0  PAGEREF _Toc532487457 \h 3 3. ?@545;5=85 ?0@0<5B@>2 @0AGQB=>9 <>45;8  PAGEREF _Toc532487458 \h 4 4. ?@545;5=85 G0AB>B A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0  PAGEREF _Toc532487459 \h 6 !?8A>: 8A?>;L7>20==KE 8AB>G=8:>2  PAGEREF _Toc532487460 \h 9  A=>2=K5 A2545=8O > 42830B5;5 A=>2=K<8 A2545=8O<8 > 42830B5;5, 4;O :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 :>B>@>3> >?@545;O5BAO G0AB>B0 A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89, O2;ONBAO: <0@:0: 12'26/26; B8?: V->1@07=K9, A @O4>< AB>OI8<8 H0BC=0<8; =07=0G5=85: B5?;>2>7=K9 4875;L-35=5@0B>@; <>I=>ABL: Ne = 3180 :B; <0B5@80; :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0: AB0;L 40%. ?@545;5=85 E0@0:B5@8AB8: :@82>H8?=>-H0BC==>3> <5E0=87<0  E0@0:B5@8AB8:0< :@82>H8?=>-H0BC==>3> <5E0=87<0 >B=>AOB 53> <><5=B 8=5@F88 8 :@CB8;L=CN ?>40B;82>ABL :>;5=0 20;0. @CB8;L=0O ?>40B;82>ABL :>;5=0 20;0 >?@545;O5BAO ?> D>@<C;5 8<0=5=:> (A<. D>@<C;C (37) [1]):  EMBED Equation.DSMT4 , 345 (2.1) G  <>4C;L A42830 <0B5@80;0 20;0. > @5:><5=40F8O< [2] 4;O AB0;8 G = 8,1*1010 /<2; l1 = 0,15 <  4;8=0 :>@5==>9 H59:8 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 A CGQB>< 30;B5;59; h = 0,08 <  B>;I8=0 I5:8; d1 = 0,24 <  480<5B@ :>@5==>9 H59:8 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0; 1 = 0 <  480<5B@ >B25@AB8O 2 :>@5==>9 H59:5 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0; l2 = 0,27 <  4;8=0 H0BC==>9 H59:8 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 A CGQB>< 30;B5;59; b = 0,3 <  H8@8=0 I5:8; R = 0,13 <  @048CA :@82>H8?0 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0; d2 = 0,24 <  480<5B@ H0BC==>9 H59:8 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0; 2 = 0,06 <  480<5B@ >B25@AB8O 2 H0BC==>9 H59:5 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0. @54AB02;5==K5 2KH5 @07<5@K :>;5=0 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 42830B5;O 15@CBAO A MA:870 :>;5=0 20;0 (A<. @8A. 1 ?@8;>65=8O). >4AB02;OO 8E 2 D>@<C;C (2.1), ?>;CG8<:  EMBED Equation.DSMT4  ><5=B 8=5@F88 :@82>H8?=>-H0BC==>3> <5E0=87<0 >?@545;O5BAO ?> D>@<C;5 "5@A:8E (A<. D>@<C;C (2.3) [2]):  EMBED Equation.DSMT4 , 345 (2.2) V = 2  G8A;> F8;8=4@>2 42830B5;O, @01>B0NI8E =0 >4=C H59:C :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0; L = 0,58 <  4;8=0 H0BC=0;  = 0,52 <  @0AAB>O=85 <564C F8;8=4@0<8; d = (d1+d2)/2 = (0,24+0,24)/2 = 0,24 <  A@54=89 480<5B@ H55: :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0. ;8=0 H0BC=0 8 @0AAB>O=85 <564C F8;8=4@0<8 42830B5;O >?@545;ONBAO 2 @01>B5 [3]. >4AB02;OO C:070==K5 2KH5 @07<5@K 2 D>@<C;C (2.2), ?>;CG8<:  EMBED Equation.DSMT4  ?@545;5=85 ?0@0<5B@>2 @0AGQB=>9 <>45;8 @8 @0AGQB5 :>;5=G0BK9 20; 70<5=O5BAO ?@>AB>9 45AOB8<0AA>2>9 <>45;LN, ?@54AB02;5==>9 =0 @8A. 2 ?@8;>65=8O. 0AAK <>45;8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 A;54CNI85 G0AB8 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 42830B5;O: 1  H5AB5@=O ?@82>40 =0A>A>2; 2 7  F8;8=4@K 42830B5;O; 8  H5AB5@=O ?@82>40 @0A?@545;8B5;L=>3> 20;0; 9  20;>?>2>@>B=>5 CAB@>9AB2>; 10  @>B>@ 35=5@0B>@0. ><5=BK 8=5@F88 8 :@CB8;L=K5 ?>40B;82>AB8 C:070==KE <0AA ?@54AB02;5=K 2 B01;8F5 3.1: "01;8F0 3.1. ><5=BK 8=5@F88 8 :@CB8;L=K5 ?>40B;82>AB8 <0AA @0AGQB=>9 <>45;8 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 ><5@l, <d, <, <m, :35, -1*<-1, :3*<20AAK-;5<5=B0110,0610,1570,0851,38E-080,02620,030,3140,1574,14E-100,2091,42E-080,23522,66E-084,0632,66E-084,0642,66E-084,0652,66E-084,0662,66E-084,0672,66E-084,0680,0430,4560,161,27E-101,40290,0871,1420,4356,57E-12110,927100,70,85031001,69E-10559,9375 @8 2KG8A;5=88 <><5=B>2 8=5@F88 8 :@CB8;L=KE ?>40B;82>AB59 ?@54AB02;5==KE 2 B01;. 3.1 <0AA ?>A;54=85 70<5=ONBAO ?>;K<8 F8;8=4@8G5A:8<8 20;0<8, 8<5NI8<8 A;54CNI85 35><5B@8G5A:85 @07<5@K: 4;8=C l; =0@C6=K9 480<5B@ d; 2=CB@5==89 480<5B@ .  MB>< A;CG05 7=0G5=8O 5 8  <>3CB 1KBL >?@545;5=K ?> D>@<C;0< (35) 8 (33) [1]:  EMBED Equation.DSMT4  (3.1)  EMBED Equation.DSMT4 , 345   ?;>B=>ABL <0B5@80;0 20;0. > 40==K< [2] 4;O AB0;8  = 7800 :3/<3. ;O >?@545;5=8O <><5=B0 8=5@F88 @>B>@0 35=5@0B>@0 8A?>;L7C5BAO 8725AB=0O 87 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 <5E0=8:8 D>@<C;0:  = m*(d/2)2 (3.2) =0;>38G=> >?@545;ONBAO <><5=BK 8=5@F88 8 :@CB8;L=K5 ?>40B;82>AB8 A>548=5=89 @0AGQB=>9 <>45;8 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0, ?@54AB02;5==K5 2 B01;8F5 3.2: "01;8F0 3.2 ><5=BK 8=5@F88 8 :@CB8;L=K5 ?>40B;82>AB8 A>548=5=89 @0AGQB=>9 <>45;8 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 ><5@l, <d, <, <b, <5, -1<-1, :3*<2#G0AB:0-;5<5=B01-210,0480,0790,0120,0498,72E-070,00120,2060,0540,0123,05E-060,00130,0610,0790,0120,0617E-070,00240,10,240,1284,12E-090,23450,050,3550,1524,1E-100,58860,140,240,1285,77E-090,3274,64E-061,1537-810,060,240,1282,47E-090,1420,0540,3550,164,46E-100,632,92E-090,778-910,1450,260,1554,57E-090,44320,2050,240,1529,26E-090,43730,0520,3670,1363,67E-100,7091,42E-081,5899-1010,50,2401,9E-081,271,9E-081,27  B01;. 3.2 M;5<5=BK 1 8 3 CG0AB:0 1-2 @0AGQB=>9 <>45;8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 7C1G0BK5 ?5@540G8, :@CB8;L=0O ?>40B;82>ABL :>B>@KE >?@545;O5BAO ?> D>@<C;5 [1]:  EMBED Equation.DSMT4 , 345 (3.3) k = 375*107 /<2; b  H8@8=0 7C1G0B>3> 25=F0. > 40==K< B01;. 3.1 8 3.2 >?@545;ONBAO ?0@0<5B@K @0AGQB=>9 <>45;8 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 42830B5;O, ?@54AB02;5==K5 2 B01;8F5 3.3: "01;8F0 3.3 0@0<5B@K @0AGQB=>9 <>45;8 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 42830B5;O ><5@ <0AAK><5@ CG0AB:05, -1*<-1, :3*<210,8120,21-24,64E-06174,324,6371,12-32,66E-08134,0613-42,66E-08144,0614-52,66E-08154,0615-62,66E-08164,0616-72,66E-08174,4451,17-82,92E-090,182,5820,68-91,42E-080,59112,356527,79-101,9E-080,710560,573138,1  B01;. 3.3 =0@O4C A C?><O=CBK<8 2KH5 8A?>;L7>20=K A;54CNI85 >1>7=0G5=8O:   157@07<5@=0O ?>40B;82>ABL A>548=5=8O;   157@07<5@=K9 <><5=B 8=5@F88 <0AAK. @8 >?@545;5=88  8  2 :0G5AB25 ?>AB>O==KE 157@07<5@=>9 A8AB5<K ?@8=OBK <><5=B 8=5@F88 8 :@CB8;L=0O ?>40B;82>ABL :@82>H8?=>-H0BC==>3> <5E0=87<0. ?@545;5=85 G0AB>B A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 '0AB>BK A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 >?@545;O5BAO ?> <5B>4C ">;;5, 87;>65==><C 2 [4]. 0AGQB G0AB>B A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 ?@>872>48BAO 2 B01;8G=>9 D>@<5 8 8<55B 8B5@0F8>==K9 E0@0:B5@. "0:, 4;O >?@545;5=8O G0AB>BK A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 2 ?5@2>< ?@81;865=88 @0AGQB=0O 45AOB8<0AA>20O <>45;L ?@82>48BAO : 42CE<0AA>2>9, 8<5NI59 A;54CNI85 157@07<5@=K5 ?0@0<5B@K: 1,2 = 4,3; 1 = 34,7; 2 = 138,1.  MB>< A;CG05 157@07<5@=0O G0AB>B0 A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 42CE<0AA>2>9 <>45;8 >?@545;O5BAO ?> D>@<C;5 (6.8) [4]:  EMBED Equation.DSMT4  (4.1) 0AGQB 4;O ?>;CG5==>3> 7=0G5=8O ` ?@54AB02;5= 2 B01;8F5 4.1: "01;8F0 4.1 ?@545;5=85 157@07<5@=>9 G0AB>BK A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 42CE<0AA>2>9 <>45;8 yyyHEy,y+1y,y+1y,y+11110,2-0,001677-0,001682-0,29233174,3-0,001681-2320,707671,1-0,009225-0,006534-0,008211-0,008212-3530,699461-0,008386-0,005876-0,014071-0,014073-4740,685391-0,008386-0,005758-0,019821-0,019824-5950,665571-0,008386-0,0055810-0,02541-0,02545-61160,640171-0,008386-0,0053712-0,030771-0,030776-71370,60941,1-0,009225-0,0056214-0,003640,1-0,036397-81580,605760,6-0,005032-0,0030516-0,019720,5-0,039448-91790,5860527,7-0,232291-0,1361318-0,12290,7-0,175579-1019100,46315138,1-1,158099-0,53637-;0AB8G5A:89 <><5=BR``-0,71194>3@5H=>ABL 2KG8A;5=89 (%)405,501 G5284=>, GB> ?>3@5H=>ABL 2KG8A;5=8O A;8H:>< 25;8:0 4;O ?@87=0=8O @57C;LB0B>2 @0AGQB0 :>@@5:B=K<8, ?>MB><C @0AGQB ?>2B>@O5BAO. >2>5 7=0G5=85 157@07<5@=>9 G0AB>BK A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 `` ?@8=8<05< @02=K< 0,02683. 57C;LB0BK @0AGQB0 ?@54AB02;5=K 2 B01;8F5 4.2: "01;8F0 4.2 ?@545;5=85 157@07<5@=>9 G0AB>BK A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 45AOB8<0AA>2>9 <>45;8 yyyHEy,y+1y,y+1y,y+11110,2-0,00537-0,005372-0,93529174,3-0,005371-2320,064711,1-0,02951-0,001914-0,007281-0,007282-3530,057431-0,02683-0,001546-0,008821-0,008823-4740,048611-0,02683-0,00138-0,010121-0,010124-5950,038491-0,02683-0,0010310-0,011151-0,011155-61160,027341-0,02683-0,0007312-0,011891-0,011896-71370,015451,1-0,02951-0,0004614-0,001230,1-0,012347-81580,014220,6-0,0161-0,0002316-0,006290,5-0,012578-91790,0079327,7-0,74319-0,005918-0,012930,7-0,018479-101910-0,00499138,1-3,705220,01851-;0AB8G5A:89 <><5=BR``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quation.DSMT4  (4.2)  EMBED Equation.DSMT4  "0:8< >1@07><, G0AB>BK A2>1>4=KE :>;510=89 :>;5=G0B>3> 20;0 42830B5;O 12 '26/26 @02=K 79,3; 101,8; 148; 359,2; 549; 700; 835,4; 933,4 8 2576,5 F. !?8A>: 8A?>;L7>20==KE 8AB>G=8:>2 .. C<1. A=>2K ?@>5:B8@>20=8O 8 @0AGQB0 AC4>2>3> 20;>?@>2>40. #G51=>5 ?>A>185. !1.: 874. &5=B@ !1"#, 1996. .. AB><8=, .. C<1. 0AGQB :>;510=89 AC4>2KE 20;>?@>2>4>2. 5B>4. C:070=8O : :C@A>2><C 8 48?;><=><C ?@>5:B8@>20=8N  .:, 1984. .. !B5?0=>2. 0AGQB ?@>G=>AB8 45B0;59 42830B5;O 12'26/26. C@A>2>9 ?@>5:B. !1"#, 2001. .. 8=0AO=. '8A;5==K5 <5B>4K @0AGQB0 ?@>G=>AB8 !. >=A?5:B ;5:F89. !1"#, 2001. PAGE  PAGE 3 J VZr,B`b~ z |   F H J L N   H J ~ $ B F fCJH*CJmH 5CJOJQJjCJUjwCJUjCJUj}CJUCJmHjCJUCJ 0JCJ jCJUBprtvxz|~*,.02468:<>$prtvxz|~*,.02468:<>@BV$H^` P  c>@BV 9r $$H^` P   %  % $ $ $ &  8 dfF4TH|tlif     9  R        +  r          ,  X   j   ' $ &  8 dfF4TH$ & F$ & F & Ffpt|~HJ68VX"$(*`b  bd|ǾB*CJhnHNHjCJEHUjҰ? UVj CJEHUj? UVjCJEHUjJ? UVCJH*CJH*jqCJEHUj!? UV jCJUCJNHCJ5CJOJQJ8bdH|ž}xsnid_ZUP                      )            X       ; gbdH|$$$$ & F & F & F     XZ$$34֞ !!5&``````$$   Z \ !*!,!V!X!!!!!!!$"&"t"v"""T%V%%%%%%%%%%%v&x&('*'x'z'@(B()))))))))))* **NHH* jEHUjX? CJUV jEHUj8? CJUV jUB*CJNHhnHB*OJQJhnHB*CJhnHB*CJH*hnHD        " . : < N Z \ ^ b l x {vqmhc^Y  2  3  5  67  =  F  G  M  S  X  Z  [\  b  k  l  r  x  ~                        "    " . : < N Z $$e$$4ִS !!5&       Z \ ^ b l x \$$d$$DִS !!5& !!!! ! !! !*!,!0!2!4!6!8!:!L!V!X!\!^!Ŀ{vqlgc^Y                                                       &  /  0  1" !!!! ! !!XXd$$DִS !!5&$$! !*!,!0!2!4!6!8!:!L!V!X!\!^!`!b!XX$$d$$DִS !!5&$$^!`!b!d!f!x!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"""$"&"Ŀ{vqlgb]Yw  }                                                          "b!d!f!x!!!!!!!!!!!!!!XXd$$DִS !!5&$$$$!!!!!!!!!!!!"""$"&"*"d$$DִS !!5&$$&"*","8"D"P"R"d"t"v"|"~"""""""""B$T$|$$N%%%~&\''(((Ŀ}xslgb]XS)*J  5K  _   h &'(  1  :  ?  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