ࡱ> @ B ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? 5@fbjbj22XXqX< K/J1J1J1J1J1J1JbLRN1J5t=t=t=1JfKAAAt=/JAt=/JAAADE `N\AEF|K0KE@OlA@O E@OE}XA "1J1JA"!! !# !"+ # !"" 8<. .. ! . '! $#,"" 0 ?@020E @C:>?8A8 '#!/ :0B5@8=0 -4C0@4>2=0  + !"+   ",! /",!"  " $ !?5F80;L=>ABL 12.00.03 - 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>; A5<59=>5 ?@02>; 3@0640=A:89 ?@>F5AA; <564C=0@>4=>5 G0AB=>5 ?@02> 8AA5@B0F8O =0 A>8A:0=85 CG5=>9 AB5?5=8 :0=4840B0 N@848G5A:8E =0C: 0CG=K9 @C:>2>48B5;L -:0=4840B N@848G5A:8E =0C: 4>F5=B .. 0E=> ! 1999 2 2545=85 ;020 1. @02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 >B=>H5=89 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 10 1, 5B>4>;>38G5A:85, B5>@5B8G5A:85 8 8AB>@8G5A:85 >A=>2K ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 10 2. A>15==>AB8 8 B5=45=F88 @0728B8O 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 > :8=5<0B>3@0D88 22 ;020 2. @54?@8=8<0B5;LA:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 8 55 !C1J5:BK 60 1. 84K ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0 AB0488 ?@>872>4AB20 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8 8E ?@02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 62 2. @02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0 AB0488 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 88 ;020 3. C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 :0: @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>9 8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 109 1. C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 :0: @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 109 2. C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 :0: @57C;LB0B ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ....134 ;020 4. >3>2>@=K5 >B=>H5=8O 8 70I8B0 8=B5@5A>2 2 AD5@5 8=5<0B>3@0D88 147 1. >;L 8 >A>15==>AB8 4>3>2>@0 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 147 2. 0I8B0 ?@02 8 8=B5@5A>2 AC1J5:B>2 >B=>H5=89 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 172 0:;NG5=85 189 81;8>3@0D8G5A:89 A?8A>: 191 3 2545=85. 1>A=>20=85 ?@>1;5<K 8AA;54>20=8O 8 55 0:BC0;L=>ABL. 0728B85 @K=>G=>9 M:>=><8:8 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 70B@>=C;> 2A5 AD5@K 687=8 >1I5AB20. 5@5AB@>9:5 ?>425@3;8AL =5 B>;L:> E>7O9AB25==K5 >B=>H5=8O, => 8 >B=>H5=8O, B@048F8>==> =0?@O<CN =5 >B=>AOI85AO, E>BO 8 1;87:85 : ?@>872>4AB25==K< AD5@0<. -B> 70AB02;O5B ?>-8=><C 273;O=CBL =0 45OB5;L=>ABL, A2O70==CN A A>E@0=5=85< 8 @0728B85< :C;LBC@=KE F5==>AB59. !;>682H85AO 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O M:>=><8G5A:85 CA;>28O 2=5A;8 :>@@5:B82K 2 ?@02>2>9 AB0BCA ;8F, A>740NI8E 8 8A?>;L7CNI8E ?@>872545=8O ;8B5@0BC@K, =0C:8 8 8A:CAAB20, 8 2 <5E0=87<K 8E 2708<>459AB28O. 8=5<0B>3@0D, :0: A?;02 ?@>872>4AB25==>9 8 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2A5340 ?@87=020;AO 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 ?@8>@8B5B=>9 >B@0A;LN, "206=59H8< 87 8A:CAAB2". ! 22545=85< @K=>G=KE CA;>289 E>7O9AB2>20=8O, ?@820B870F88 A>1AB25==>AB8 2 A8AB5<5 ?@>872>4AB20 8 ?@>:0B0 D8;L<>2, >1J5< 8 :0G5AB2> A>740205<KE 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 AB0;8 :0B0AB@>D8G5A:8 A=860BLAO. 8 02B>@K D8;L<>2, =8 >@30=870F88 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, =0 A;>20E ?@87K20NI85 @01>B0BL ?>-=>2><C, =5 A<>3;8 A@07C 040?B8@>20BLAO 2 A:;04K20NI59AO A8BC0F88. -B> ?@825;> : E0>B8G5A:><C @0728B8N >B@0A;8, : B><C, GB> 459AB28O >B45;L=KE :8=>?@54?@8=8<0B5;59 =5 A>3;0A>2K20;8AL =8 A 8=B5@5A0<8 :>;;53 8 ?0@B=5@>2, =8 A 70?@>A0<8 7@8B5;59.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 3>AC40@AB2> 2 @O45 70:>=>40B5;L=KE 8 8=KE =>@<0B82=KE ?@02>2KE 0:B>21 2K@01>B0;> >A=>2=K5 ?@8=F8?K 8 =0?@02;5=8O A2>59 ?>;8B8:8 2 >1;0AB8 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 A B5<, GB>1K ?>445@60BL ?@>872>4AB2> 8 ?@>:0B >B5G5AB25==KE D8;L<>2, ?>2KA8BL :>=:C@5=B>A?>A>1=>ABL @>AA89A:>9 :8=>?@>4C:F88 =0 <564C=0@>4=>9 0@5=5, >15A?5G8BL G5B:85 A2O78 =0 2A5E C@>2=OE ?@>872>4AB20 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8 <56C@>2=52K5 A2O78 8 B5< A0<K< A>740BL CA;>28O 4;O A0<>>:C?05<>AB8 D8;L<>?@>872>4AB20 8 :8=>?@>:0B0. @8G8=K 154AB25==>3> A>AB>O=8O @>AA89A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0 @07=>>1@07=K: MB> 8 >1I55 CEC4H5=85 >1AB0=>2:8 2 AB@0=5, 2 G0AB=>AB8 :@8<8=>35==>9 (2 1 $545@0;L=K9 0:>= " >AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:5 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 $" >B 22 023CAB0 1996 3. ! 126-$; #:07 @57845=B0 $ " 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>;8B8:5 2 >1;0AB8 >E@0=K 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 8 A<56=KE ?@02" >B 7 >:BO1@O 1993 3. ! 1607; #:07 @57845=B0 $ " 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE <5@0E 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:8 :C;LBC@K 8 8A:CAAB20 2 $" >B 12 =>O1@O 1993 3. ! 1904; #:07 @57845=B0 $ " ?@>B5:F8>=8ABA:>9 ?>;8B8:5 $ 2 >1;0AB8 >B5G5AB25==>9 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 8 <5@>?@8OB8OE, A2O70==KE A> 100-;5B85< <8@>2>3> 8 @>AA89A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0" >B 15 0?@5;O 1994 3. ! 785 8 4@. 4 :8=>B50B@0E ?>?@>ABC AB0;> =5157>?0A=>), 8 @>AB F5= =0 CA;C38 2 ?5@8>4 ?@>872>4AB20 8 B8@068@>20=8O D8;L<0, 8 C4>@>60=85 2E>4=KE 18;5B>2 2 :8=>B50B@, 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 1KB>2>9 B5;5- 8 2845>B5E=8:8. 5@K, =5>1E>48<K5 4;O 2>7@>645=8O >B5G5AB25==>3> :8=>, 4>;6=K =>A8BL :><?;5:A=K9 E0@0:B5@ 8 84B8 ?> <=>38< =0?@02;5=8O<: @0728B85 M:>=><8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89, D>@<8@>20=85 A?5F80;878@>20==KE 8=D@0AB@C:BC@ =0 :064>< MB0?5 A>740=8O 8 ?@>42865=8O D8;L<>2, A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O 8 @07@01>B:0 =0CG=>-B5>@5B8G5A:>9 107K 4;O <>45;8@>20=8O 8 CAB0=>2;5=8O >B=>H5=89 <564C 2A5<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 :8=>?@>F5AA0, "2>A?8B0=85" 7@8B5;O, D>@<8@>20=85 A?@>A0 =0 >A=>25 <0AHB01=KE <0@:5B8=3>2KE 8AA;54>20=89 7@8B5;LA:>9 0C48B>@88. 5@2>>G5@54=>9 A2>59 7040G59 3>AC40@AB2> 2848B ?>445@6:C >B5G5AB25==>9 M:@0==>9 :C;LBC@K. =54@5=85 >AA88 2 H8@>:CN <564C=0@>4=CN A8AB5<C >E@0=K 02B>@A:8E ?@02 2 A2O78 A 55 ?@8A>548=5=85< 2 =0G0;5 1995 3. : :@C?=59H8< :>=25=F8O< 2 >1;0AB8 02B>@A:8E 8 A<56=KE ?@02 =0:;04K205B =0 =0A AB@>385 >1O70B5;LAB20 ?5@54 8=>AB@0==K<8 ?@>872>48B5;O<8 8 8=K<8 >1;040B5;O<8 ?@02 =0 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O. >4?8A0=85 5=52A:>9 :>=25=F88 2 @540:F88 1971 3. 8 AB0@59H53> A>3;0H5=8O 2 >1;0AB8 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 - 5@=A:>9 :>=25=F88 >1 >E@0=5 ;8B5@0BC@=KE 8 EC4>65AB25==KE ?@>872545=89 - AB0;> 2>7<>6=K< ?>A;5 A5@L57=>3> ?5@5A<>B@0 =0F8>=0;L=>3> @>AA89A:>3> 02B>@A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20. > A53>4=O 4>AB865=85 B0:>3>, :070;>AL 1K @52>;NF8>==>3> C@>2=O 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 C65 =5 2?>;=5 C4>2;5B2>@O5B :0: A0<8E B2>@F>2, B0: 8 ?>;L7>20B5;59 ?@>872545=89. >MB><C 0:B82=> 254CBAO @01>BK ?> ?5@5A<>B@C 459AB2CNI8E =>@< 2 A2O78 A @07@01>B:>9 III G0AB8 @0640=A:>3> :>45:A0 $. &5;L 8 7040G8 8AA;54>20=8O. &5;LN 40==>9 @01>BK O2;ONBAO: 0=0;87 ?@8@>4K 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O :0: @57C;LB0B0 B2>@G5A:>9 8 ?@>872>4AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; 87CG5=85 53> @568<0, >B@065==>3> 2 =>@<0E @07;8G=KE 70:>=>40B5;L=KE 8 =>@<0B82=KE 0:B>2; CAB0=>2;5=85 AB0BCA0 CG0AB=8:>2 ?@>F5AA0 A>740=8O 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O ?@>872545=8O 8 8AA;54>20=85 ?@02>2KE >A=>2 >B=>H5=89 <564C =8<8; 0=0;87 70@C156=>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> ?@02>2>3> >?KB0 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5; @07@01>B:0 ?@54;>65=89 ?> A>25@H5=AB2>20=8N 8 @0728B8N 70:>=>40B5;L=>9 8 =>@<0B82=>9 107K 2 40==>9 AD5@5. 5 @54<5B 8AA;54>20=8O A>AB02;ONB ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>-?@02>2K5 8 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K5 >B=>H5=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. 5B>4>;>38G5A:>9 107>9 48AA5@B0F88 O2;ONBAO >1I89 480;5:B8G5A:89, A8AB5<=>-DC=:F8>=0;L=K9, AB0B8AB8G5A:89, A@02=8B5;L=>-?@02>2>9 8 8AB>@8G5A:89 <5B>4K =0CG=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O. "5>@5B8G5A:>9 >A=>2>9 48AA5@B0F8>==>3> 8AA;54>20=8O ?>A;C68;8 B@C4K @>AA89A:8E CG5=KE-?@02>254>2 - .. >3CA;02A:>3>, .. K:>20, -.. 02@8;>20, .. 0;5=A:>9, .. >7>@F520, .. C7=5F>20, .. !025;L52>9, .. !5@35520, .. "C@:8=0, !.. '5@=KH52>9 8 4@.  48AA5@B0F88 B0:65 8A?>;L7>20;8AL 8AA;54>20=8O 70@C156=KE N@8AB>2 - . >;><15, . >@@50, . 51C0, .-. >:, . 5@525@0, . 07C95, . $@0=A>=0, . 8C, . @5DD0 8 $. @5DD0, . 8;L6>5=, . 8 ..-. C:0 8 4@. @0:B8G5A:CN >A=>2C 8AA;54>20=8O A>AB028;8: =>@<0B82=K5 ?@02>2K5 0:BK >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88, 1K2H53> !>N70 !! , ?>A2OI5==K5 2>?@>A0< @53C;8@>20=8O ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>-?@02>2KE 8 02B>@A:>-?@02>2KE >B=>H5=89 2 :C;LBC@5 2>>1I5 8 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 2 G0AB=>AB8; <0B5@80;K >A:8=>, >=D545@0F88 !>N7>2 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 8 !>N70 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 >AA88; ?@>5:B III G0AB8  $; ?@02>?@8<5=8B5;L=0O ?@0:B8:0; @50;L=K5 ?@02>>B=>H5=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5; AC451=0O ?@0:B8:0; <0B5@80;K ?5@8>48G5A:>9 ?5G0B8. 0CG=0O =>287=0 48AA5@B0F88 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> >=0 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 ?5@2KE A?5F80;L=KE <>=>3@0D8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88.  @01>B5 ?>AB02;5=K 8 ?@>0=0;878@>20=K 2>?@>AK > ACI=>AB8 8 >A>15==>ABOE ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB20, > ?@02>2>< AB0BCA5 CG0AB=8:>2 ?@>F5AA0 A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 :0: AC1J5:B>2 @K=>G=KE >B=>H5=89, > <5E0=87<5 ?5@5E>40 02B>@A:8E ?@02 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 2 F5;><, 0 B0:65 =0 @57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2>H54H85 2 =53>.  @>AA89A:>9 =0CG=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 MB8 2>?@>AK >B45;L=> =5 8AA;54>20;8AL A 1984 3.1, E>BO A B>3> 2@5<5=8 25AL ?@02>2>9 <0AA82 8 <5B>4>;>38O @53C;8@>20=8O >B=>H5=89 87<5=8;8AL :>@5==K< >1@07><. >MB><C =0AB>OI0O @01>B0 ?@5A;54C5B F5;L E>BO 1K G0AB8G=> 70?>;=8BL >1@07>202HCNAO =8HC. 1 !..'5@=KH520. @02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 02B>@A:8E >B=>H5=89 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 8 =0 B5;52845=88. ., 0C:0. 1984. 1 0 70I8BC 2K=>AOBAO A;54CNI85 ?>;>65=8O 8 2K2>4K: B=>H5=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 ?>4@0745;ONBAO =0 >B=>H5=8O ?> ?>2>4C A>740=8O, @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, GB> >1CA;>2;8205B 8E @07;8G=K9 ?@02>2>9 @568<.  ?5@2>9 3@C??5 >B=>H5=89 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2> =0?@02;5=> =0 >15A?5G5=85 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 =081>;55 1;03>?@8OB=KE 4;O B2>@G5AB20 CA;>289, 157 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2 A0< ?@>F5AA A>740=8O ?@>872545=8O :0: >1J5:B0 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. > 2B>@>9 8 B@5BL59 3@C??0E ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:85 >B=>H5=8O ?@520;8@CNB, 0 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> A;C68B ;8HL "A45@6820NI8<" M;5<5=B><. !>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 (:@><5 ;N18B5;LA:8E D8;L<>2), 2 >B;8G85 >B 4@C38E >1J5:B>2 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, B@51C5B A>2<5AB=KE CA8;89 1>;LH>3> G8A;0 ;8F, 0 B0:65 :@C?=KE :0?8B0;>2;>65=89 8 >15A?5G5=8O 4>AB0B>G=> A;>6=KE B5E=>;>38G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2. >MB><C ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2> 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 ?@54AB02;O5B 87 A51O A?;02 E>7O9AB25==>9 8 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. !D5@K 459AB28O 42CE :@C?=59H8E 70:>=>2, @53C;8@CNI8E >B=>H5=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 - 0:>=0 $ "1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E"1 8 $545@0;L=>3> 70:>=0 " 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:5 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88"2 ?5@5A5:0NBAO, 8 @07;8G8O 2 A>45@60=88 8A?>;L7C5<KE 2 =8E ?>=OB89 <>3CB 8<5BL A5@L57=K5 ?@02>2K5 ?>A;54AB28O.  A2O78 A MB8< =5>1E>48<> 8 2>7<>6=> A>>B=5A5=85 B5@<8=>2 MB8E ?@02>2KE 0:B>2, => B@51C5BAO CAB0=>28BL ?@545;K 4>?CAB8<>3> >B>645AB2;5=8O ?>=OB89 "D8;L<", ":8=>?@>4C:F8O" 8 "0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85", 873>B>28B5;L 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O" 8 "?@>4NA5@ D8;L<0". 5OB5;L=>ABL ?> A>740=8N 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A?;02 B2>@G5AB20 8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB20, 2A;54AB285 G53> D8;L< :0: @57C;LB0B MB>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8<55B 42>9AB25==K9 ?@02>2>9 E0@0:B5@. "0:8< >1@07><, 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 O2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, => 8 B>20@>< >A>1>3> @>40. 2>9AB25==K9 E0@0:B5@ 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O ?@54>?@545;O5B 53> A;>6=K9 ?@02>2>9 @568<. KO2;5=>, GB> @07;8G=K5 CG0AB=8:8 1 0:>= $ "1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E" >B 9 8N;O 1993 3. ! 5351-1 (A 87<5=5=8O<8 >B 19 8N;O 1995 3. ! 110-$) // " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 3 023CAB0 1993 3. 2 $545@0;L=K9 0:>= " >AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:5 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 $" >B 22 023CAB0 1996 3. ! 126-$// " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 29 023CAB0 1996 3. 7 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 <>3CB >1;040BL ?@020<8 @07;8G=>9 ?@8@>4K, 2>7=8:0NI8<8 2 A2O78 A 8E 2:;040<8 2 ?@>F5AA A>740=8O 8;8 8A?>;L7>20=8O D8;L<0, ?@8G5< MB8 ?@020 <>3CB @0A?@>AB@0=OBLAO :0: =0 >1J5:B 2 F5;><, B0: 8 =0 53> M;5<5=BK. 2B>@>< A45;0= 2K2>4 > A>>B=>H5=88 02B>@A:8E ?@02 8 ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : @07;8G=K< CG0AB=8:0< :8=>?@>F5AA0 8 @07;8G=K< 53> M;5<5=B0<. @>2545=> :><?;5:A=>5 8AA;54>20=85 ?@02>2>3> AB0BCA0 2A5E :0B53>@89 CG0AB=8:>2 A>740=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O: 02B>@>2 D8;L<0 2 F5;>< 8 02B>@>2 >B45;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 2>H54H8E 2 =53> A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN, A>740==KE :0: @0=55, B0: 8 2 ?@>F5AA5 @01>BK =04 D8;L<><; =>A8B5;59 A<56=KE ?@02, @57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 :>B>@KE 8A?>;L7CNBAO ?@8 A>740=88 D8;L<0; 873>B>28B5;O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O :0: ?@54?@8=8<0B5;O, >15A?5G820NI53> B2>@G5A:89 8 B5E=>;>38G5A:89 ?@>F5AAK; 8=25AB>@>2 8 :@548B>@>2 :0: 8AB>G=8:>2 D8=0=A8@>20=8O ?@>F5AA0 A>740=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. A5 MB> ?>72>;O5B A45;0BL 2K2>4 > 8E 2708<>A2O78 8 2708<>2;8O=88 B=>H5=8O, 2>7=8:0NI85 =0 @07=KE AB048OE ?@>42865=8O D8;L<0 >B 02B>@>2 : 7@8B5;N, 8<5NB @07;8G=CN ?@02>2CN ?@8@>4C, GB> =0E>48B >B@065=85 2 70:@5?;ONI8E 8E 4>3>2>@0E. 5@28G=K<8 O2;ONBAO 02B>@A:85 8 B@C4>2K5 (2 A;CG05 A>740=8O A;C651=KE ?@>872545=89) 4>3>2>@K, >?@545;ONI85 =5 B>;L:> ?>@O4>: A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, => 8 >1J5< ?@02><>G89 F5=B@0;L=>9 D83C@K :8=>?@>872>4AB20 - ?@>4NA5@0. >3>2>@K, A2O7K20NI85 >AB0;L=KE CG0AB=8:>2 ?@>F5AA0 A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O D8;L<0, =57028A8<> >B 8E 2840, >1O70B5;L=> =5ACB 2 A515 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>9 M;5<5=B 8 2 ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 ?5@5CABC?:C G0AB8 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02. 01>B0 A>45@68B B0:65 =5:>B>@K5 @5:><5=40F88 ?> A>25@H5=AB2>20=8N 459AB2CNI53> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20: 1)  ?>AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " <8=8<0;L=KE AB02:0E 2>7=03@0645=8O 02B>@0< :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E ?@>872545=89, ?@>872>4AB2> (AJ5<:0) :>B>@KE >ACI5AB2;5=> 4> 3 023CAB0 1992 3." >B 29 <0O 1998 3. ! 5241 =5>1E>48<> 2=5AB8 C:070=85 > B><, GB> ?;0B5;LI8:0<8 2>7=03@0645=8O O2;ONBAO ?>;L7>20B5;8 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89; 1 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. 1998. - ! 22. - AB. 2476. 8 >AB0=>2;5=85< @028B5;LAB20 $ 8 @072820NI8<8 53> 254><AB25==K<8 =>@<0B82=K<8 ?@02>2K<8 0:B0<8 A;54>20;> 1K CAB0=>28BL :@C3 ?;0B5;LI8:>2, @07<5@ >BG8A;5=89 8 ?>@O4>: 8E A1>@0, 0 B0:65 A8AB5<C CG5B0 8 ?5@5@0A?@545;5=8O 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85, ?@54CA<>B@5==>3> AB. 26 0:>=0 $ "1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E";  A;CG05 2=54@5=8O 42CE 2KH5C:070==KE ?>@O4:>2, C:07>< @57845=B0 $ F5;5A>>1@07=> >?@545;8BL @0728B85 :>;;5:B82=>3> C?@02;5=8O 8<CI5AB25==K<8 ?@020<8 02B>@>2 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 :0: >4=>3> 87 =0?@02;5=89 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>;8B8:8 2 >1;0AB8 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 8 >4=>9 87 D>@< 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:8, 0 B0:65 CA8;8BL @>;L >AA89A:>3> >1I5AB20 ?@02>>1;040B5;59 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 ?>4>1=> B><C, :0: MB> A45;0=> 2 >B=>H5=88 >AA89A:>3> 02B>@A:>3> >1I5AB20 #:07>< @57845=B0 $ " 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>;8B8:5 2 >1;0AB8 >E@0=K 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 8 A<56=KE ?@02" >B 7 >:BO1@O 1993 3. ! 16071; 59AB2CNI55 @>AA89A:>5 02B>@A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> ?>;=>ABLN >B25G05B B@51>20=8O< <564C=0@>4=KE :>=25=F89 8 <8@>2><C >?KBC, 65;0B5;L=> 2=5AB8 2 =53> =5:>B>@K5 ?>;>65=8O, 4>?CA:0NI85 1>;55 381:89 ?>4E>4 : CAB0=>2;5=8N >B=>H5=89 ?@8 A>740=88 >B45;L=KE 284>2 8 60=@>2 D8;L<>2, GB> ACI5AB25==> @0AH8@8;> 8 C:@5?8;> 1K ?@02>2>9 AB0BCA ?@54AB028B5;59 A?5F8D8G5A:8E :8=>?@>D5AA89, =5 >B=>AOI8EAO : :0B53>@88 02B>@>2 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;><, => 83@0NI8E 1>;LHCN @>;L 2 53> A>740=88; 5>1E>48<K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO ?@8=OB85 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE ?@02>2KE 0:B>2, ?>72>;ONI8E 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 ?@8<5=OBL CAB0=>2;5==K5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< <5@K >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 =0@CH5=85 02B>@A:>3> 8 A<56=KE ?@02. @><5 B>3>, A;54>20;> 1K 2=54@8BL =>2K5 284K AB@0E>20=8O =0 A;CG09 ?8@0BAB20 8;8 :>A25==KE C1KB:>2 >B =0@CH5=8O 02B>@A:8E ?@02 B@5BL8E ;8F, ?>A:>;L:C B0:>9 "=5B@048F8>==K9" <5B>4 ?>72>;8B C<5=LH8BL CI5@1, =0=>A8<K9 =54>1@>A>25AB=K<8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;O<8. @0:B8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 @01>BK 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> =0CG=K5 2K2>4K, 8458 8 ?>;>65=8O <>3CB ?@54AB02;OBL 8=B5@5A 8 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=K: 1) :0: 8AE>4=K9 <0B5@80; 4;O 40;L=59H53> @0728B8O =0CG=KE ?@>1;5< ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:8E >B=>H5=89 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88; 2) 2 ?@02>B2>@G5A:>9 1 !>1@0=85 0:B>2 @57845=B0 8 @028B5;LAB20 $. - 1993. - ! 41. - AB. 3920. 9 45OB5;L=>AB8 70:>=>40B5;L=KE 8 8A?>;=8B5;L=KE >@30=>2 (2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L >A:8=> 8 8=KE >@30=>2 C?@02;5=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5); 3) 2 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;O<8 8 02B>@0<8 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@K; 4) 2 CG51=>< ?@>F5AA5 ?@5?>4020B5;O<8 8 ABC45=B0<8 N@848G5A:8E 8 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E 2C7>2. ?@>10F8O @57C;LB0B>2 8AA;54>20=8O. 8AA5@B0F8O 2K?>;=5=0 8 >1AC645=0 =0 :0D54@5 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>3> ?@020 N@848G5A:>3> D0:C;LB5B0 # 8<. .. ><>=>A>20. 57C;LB0BK 8AA;54>20=8O 1K;8 8A?>;L7>20=K 02B>@><: ?@8 CG0AB88 2 @07@01>B:0E ">45;59 ?@>4NA5@A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0 2 $" 8 ">=F5?F88 @073>AC40@AB2;5=8O A8AB5<K :8=>?@>:0B0 8 :8=>D8:0F88" (2 A>AB025 :>;;5:B820 02B>@>2 >AA89A:>3> 8=AB8BCB0 :C;LBC@>;>388  8 8=8AB5@AB20 :C;LBC@K $), ?@8 >@30=870F88 8 ?@>2545=88 =0CG=>-?@0:B8G5A:8E :>=D5@5=F89 ?> 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K< ?@>1;5<0< 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 2 @0<:0E ?@>3@0<<K TACIS 2 >A:25 8 !0=:B-5B5@1C@35, ?@8 ?>43>B>2:5 4>:;040 =0 :>=D5@5=F88, ?>A2OI5==>9 ?@02C A>1AB25==>AB8, >@30=87>20==>9 24-25 8N=O 1998 3.  .  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O >=8 8A?>;L7CNBAO 02B>@>< 2 ?5403>38G5A:>9 @01>B5 ?@8 A>AB02;5=88 CG51=KE ?@>3@0<< 8 GB5=88 :C@A>2 ;5:F89 "2B>@A:>5 ?@02>" 8 "@02>2>5 >15A?5G5=85 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88" 2> A5@>AA89A:>< 3>AC40@AB25==>< 8=AB8BCB5 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 8<. !..5@0A8<>20. "0< 65 02B>@>< ?>43>B>2;5=> CG51=>5 ?>A>185 "C48>287C0;L=K9 187=5A. >3>2>@=>5 @53C;8@>20=85" (.: >A:>=AC;LB, 1999. - 331 A.) 8 3;020 CG51=8:0 :0D54@K M:>=><8:8 8 >@30=870F88 ?@>872>4AB20 8 ?@>:0B0 D8;L<>2, ?>A2OI5==0O 2>?@>A0< ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O :8=>?@>F5AA0. 1J5< 8 AB@C:BC@0 @01>BK. >AB02;5==K5 02B>@>< 7040G8 >1CA;>28;8 AB@C:BC@C 48AA5@B0F88, :>B>@0O A>AB>8B 87 22545=8O, G5BK@5E 3;02, >1J548=ONI8E 8 ?0@03@0D>2, 70:;NG5=8O 8 181;8>3@0D8G5A:>3> A?8A:0 8A?>;L7>20==>9 ;8B5@0BC@K 8 ?5@5G=O 70:>=>40B5;L=KE 8 8=KE =>@<0B82=KE 0:B>2. 10 ;020 1. @02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 >B=>H5=89 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 1. 5B>4>;>38G5A:85, B5>@5B8G5A:85 8 8AB>@8G5A:85 >A=>2K ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 ) "5>@8O 8 <5B>4>;>38O ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O 2 AD5@5 :C;LBC@K, C;LBC@0 (>B ;0B. cultura - 2>745;K20=85, 2>A?8B0=85, >1@07>20=85, @0728B85, ?>G8B0=85) - 8AB>@8G5A:8 >?@545;5==K9 C@>25=L @0728B8O >1I5AB20, B2>@G5A:8E A8; 8 A?>A>1=>AB59 G5;>25:0, 2K@065==K9 2 B8?0E 8 D>@<0E >@30=870F88 687=8 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 ;N459, 2 8E 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE, 0 B0:65 2 A>740205<KE 8<8 <0B5@80;L=KE 8 4CE>2=KE F5==>ABOE1.  1>;55 C7:>< A<KA;5 - AD5@0 4CE>2=>9 687=8 ;N459, :>B>@0O 2:;NG05B 2 A51O ?@54<5B=K5 @57C;LB0BK 8E 45OB5;L=>AB8 (<0H8=K, A>>@C65=8O, @57C;LB0BK ?>7=0=8O, ?@>872545=8O 8A:CAAB20, =>@<K <>@0;8 8 ?@020 8 B. 4.), 0 B0:65 G5;>25G5A:85 A8;K 8 A?>A>1=>AB8, @50;87C5<K5 2 ?@>F5AA5 45OB5;L=>AB8 (7=0=8O, C<5=8O, =02K:8, C@>25=L 8=B5;;5:B0, =@02AB25==>5 8 MAB5B8G5A:>5 @0728B85, <8@>2>77@5=85, A?>A>1K 8 D>@<K >1I5=8O ;N459). 0B5@80;L=0O 8 4CE>2=0O :C;LBC@K =0E>4OBAO 2 >@30=8G5A:>< 548=AB25.  40==>9 @01>B5 @5GL 845B > G0AB8 :C;LBC@K, A2O70==>9 A A>740=85< 8 8A?>;L7>20=85< ?@>872545=89 8A:CAAB20, 0 B>G=55 >4=>9 87 53> >B@0A;59 - :8=5<0B>3@0D88. 8=5<0B>3@0D8O (>B 3@5G5A:>3> kinematos (@>48B5;L=K9 ?0456 kinema -42865=85) 8 grapho - ?8HC) - >B@0A;L :C;LBC@K 8 ?@><KH;5==>AB8, >ACI5AB2;ONI0O ?@>872>4AB2> D8;L<>2 8 ?>:07 8E 7@8B5;N; =081>;55 <0AA>2K9 284 8A:CAAB20, 206=>5 A@54AB2> ?>;8B8G5A:>9 8 =0CG=>9 ?@>?030=4K2.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O O7K: 4286CI8EAO 87>1@065=89 8A?>;L7CNB =5 B>;L:> ?>@>482H89 53> :8=5<0B>3@0D, => 8 8=K5 >B@0A;8 8A:CAAB20 8 <0AA>2>9 :><<C=8:0F88: B5;52845=85, :><?LNB5@ 8 B.4. >MB><C 2 >18E>4 2>H;> ?>=OB85, >E20BK20NI55 2A5 MB8 >B@0A;8 - "0C48>287C0;L=0O AD5@0" (>B ;0B. audio - A;KHC 8 visualis -7@8B5;L=K9, B. 5. >A=>20==K9 =0 >4=>2@5<5==>< 2>A?@8OB88 A;CE>< 8 7@5=85<).  40==>9 @01>B5 ?>=OB8O ":8=5<0B>3@0D8O" 8 "0C48>287C0;L=0O AD5@0" 2 >A=>2=>< 8A?>;L7CNBAO :0: A8=>=8<K, E>BO =5A><=5==>, GB> >=8 A>>B=>AOBAO :0: G0ABL 8 F5;>5, 8 GB> =5 2A5 ?@>1;5<K, 2>7=8:0NI85 2 ?@02>2>< @53C;8@>20=88 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@K, E0@0:B5@=K 4;O A>2@5<5==>3> >B5G5AB25==>3> 1 >;LH>9 M=F8:;>?548G5A:89 A;>20@L. ., 1993. A. 669. 2 "0< 65. A. 576. 11 :8=5<0B>3@0D0. > 02B>@ ?>72>;8; A515 B0:>5 4>?CI5=85, ?>A:>;L:C 8 459AB2CNI55 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> A>45@68B <=>65AB2> =>@<, 548=>>1@07=> @53C;8@CNI8E >B=>H5=8O :0: 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, B0: 8 2 8=KE 1;87:8E 59 >1;0ABOE, 8 A>2@5<5==0O <8@>20O =0CG=0O ;8B5@0BC@0 8A?>;L7C5B 548=K5 B5@<8=K "0C48>287C0;L=0O AD5@0" 8 "A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 :><<C=8:0F88 (mass-media, multimedia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aecenas) (<564C 74 8 64 - 8 33. 4> =.M.) 1K; ?@81;865==K< 8<?5@0B>@0 23CAB0, 2KA>:8< 3>AC40@AB25==K< G8=>2=8:><, => 2 8AB>@8N >= 2>H5;, 8 4065 8<O 53> AB0;> =0@8F0B5;L=K<, 1;03>40@O B><C, GB> >= ?>:@>28B5;LAB2>20; ?>MB0<, 4020; 8< :@>2 8 A@54AB20 : ACI5AB2>20=8N, =8G53> =5 B@51CO 270<5=. 8:B> =5 704C<K20;AO, :><C ?@8=04;560B ?@020 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 A>740205<KE ?@>872545=89, ?>A:>;L:C <=>385 ?>A;54>20B5;8 5F5=0B0 459AB2>20;8 "87 ;N128 : 8A:CAAB2C", 70=8<0;8AL 1;03>B2>@8B5;L=>ABLN 2 A0<>< 1C:20;L=>< A<KA;5 - B2>@8;8 1;03>5 45;>.  B><C 65, 70:>=>40B5;8 B>3> 2@5<5=8 =5 AG8B0;8 =5>1E>48<K< 2<5H820BLAO 2 >B=>H5=8O ?> ?>2>4C A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O :C;LBC@=KE F5==>AB59. 18 4=>9 87 ?@8G8= CAB0=>2;5=8O ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O 2 AD5@5 :C;LBC@K O28;AO =0CG=>-B5E=8G5A:89 ?@>3@5AA. 0?@8<5@, ?5@2K5 8725AB=K5 =>@<0B82=K5 0:BK 2 >1;0AB8 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 - ?@828;5388, ?@54>AB02;O5<K5 :>@>;52A:>9 2;0ABLN =0 8740=85 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?@>872545=8O - ?>O28;8AL B>;L:> ?>A;5 87>1@5B5=8O >30==>< CB5=15@3>< ?5G0B=>3> AB0=:0. N1>?KB5= B>B D0:B, GB> ?5@2>5 2@5<O ?@828;5388 2K4020;8AL =5 02B>@0<, 0 2;045;LF0< ?5G0B=>3> AB0=:0. -B> <>6=> AG8B0BL ?@>O2;5=85< ?@54?@88<G82>AB8 ?>A;54=8E, 65;0=85< >157>?0A8BL A51O >B :>=:C@5=F88 4065 ?@8 B>340H=5< A;01> @0728B>< @K=:5. ">;L:> 2 1777 3. D@0=FC7A:89 :>@>;L 2K405B ?5@2CN "02B>@A:CN" ?@828;538N 2=CG:0< 0D>=B5=0 =0 8740=85 ?@>872545=89 8E 4540, 0 2A;54 70 MB8< 87405B H5ABL >@4>=0=A>2, @53C;8@CNI8E >1I85 =0G0;0 >E@0=K 8=B5@5A>2 B2>@F>2.  1777 3., =5A<>B@O =0 =5@0728B>ABL 70:>=>40B5;L=>3> 70:@5?;5=8O ?@02, 02B>@K 2> <=>3>< >A>7=0;8 A2>8 8=B5@5AK, 2KA:07K20;8 8E 2A5<8 4>ABC?=K<8 8< A@54AB20<81 8 4065 >1J548=O;8AL 4;O A>2<5AB=KE 459AB289 ?> 8E 70I8B5.  B>< 65 1777 3>4C ><0@H5 A>7405B ?5@2>5 2 <8@5 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>5 >1I5AB2> SACD (Societe des auteurs et compositeurs dramatiques) - >1I5AB2> 4@0<0B8G5A:8E 02B>@>2 8 :><?>78B>@>2, :>B>@>5 459AB2C5B 4> A8E ?>@ 8 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =0 :>;;5:B82=>9 >A=>25 C?@02;O5B ?@020<8 =5 B>;L:> B50B@0;L=KE 02B>@>2, => 8 B2>@F>2 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. >;55 25:0 ?@>>1@07K 02B>@A:>-?@02>2KE >B=>H5=89 @53C;8@>20;8AL 8=48284C0;L=K<8 =>@<0B82=K<8 0:B0<8. > 2 1710 3, ?>O2;O5BAO ?5@2K9 70:>= 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 - "!B0BCB >@>;52K ==K". ">, GB> @8B0=8O, AB@0=0 0=3;>A0:A>=A:8E ?@02>2KE B@048F89, ?@8=8<05B 70:>= > 70I8B5 B2>@F>2 8 8E ?@>872545=89, 3>2>@8B > A5@L57=>AB8 ?>4E>40 2;0AB8 : MB><C 2>?@>AC, > =5>1E>48<>AB8 2A5>1I53> >E20B0 8 C=8D8:0F88 >B=>H5=89. 0B5< ?>O2;ONBAO >@4>=0=AK D@0=FC7A:>3> :>@>;O, >B<5=5==K5 5;8:>9 D@0=FC7A:>9 1C@6C07=>9 @52>;NF859 1789 3., 2<5AB> =8E =>20O 2;0ABL ?@8=8<05B 45:@5BK 1791 8 1793 33. (459AB2>202H85, :AB0B8, 2?;>BL 4> ?@8=OB8O 70:>=0 > ;8B5@0BC@=>9 8 EC4>65AB25==>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 1957 3.); ?>765 0=0;>38G=K5 70:>=>40B5;L=K5 0:BK ?>O2;ONBAO 8 2 4@C38E AB@0=0E. 064>5 3>AC40@AB2> A>7405B 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB5?5=8 @0728BCN A8AB5<C >E@0=K A2>8E 45OB5;59 =0C:8, ;8B5@0BC@K 8 8A:CAAB20. > >?@545;5==>3> 2@5<5=8 MB8 2=CB@5==85 70:>=K 3>AC40@AB2 2?>;=5 >B25G0NB 70?@>A0< 8E 3@0640= 8 ?>440==KE. > A 1 .-. >;L5@, =0?@8<5@, 2 ?@548A;>288 : "!<5H=K< 65<0==8F0<" >AC640O =0@CH5=85 02B>@A:8E 8=B5@5A>2, ?8A0;, GB> ";N1CN 4@C3CN =5A?@0254;82>ABL ?@>AB8; 1K ;53G5 MB>3>". &8B. ?> :=. .-!. Dock Etude sur le droit d'auteur. Pans. 1961. p. 70. 19 CA>25@H5=AB2>20=85< ?>;83@0D8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0, A @0728B85< B@0=A?>@B0, B>@3>2KE >B=>H5=89 <564C AB@0=0<8 B5@@8B>@80;L=K9 E0@0:B5@ ?@02, ?@>2>73;0H5==KE 8 >E@0=O5<KE :064K< 3>AC40@AB2>< 2 >B45;L=>AB8, ?5@5AB0; C4>2;5B2>@OBL 8 02B>@>2, 8 B5E, :B> >15A?5G820; 8E 45OB5;L=>ABL 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 55 @57C;LB0B>2. <5==> 2 MB> 2@5<O ?>O2;O5BAO =>2K9 284 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :C;LBC@=>9 8;8 >:>;>:C;LBC@=>9 A@545 - ?@>D5AA8O ;8B5@0BC@=>3> 035=B0. 35=B ?@54AB02;O; A>1>9 ?@><56CB>G=>5 725=> <564C 02B>@>< 8 B8?>3@0D859. 8B5@0BC@=K5 035=BK 1K;8 ?> ACB8 ?5@2K<8 =0AB>OI8<8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;O<8, >1J5:B0<8 45OB5;L=>AB8 :>B>@KE O2;O;8AL @57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 4@C38E ;8F. 35=B>< <>3 1KBL 8740B5;L, :>B>@K9 =5 B>;L:> 70:;NG0; A 02B>@>< 4>3>2>@ =0 8740=85 C65 3>B>2>3> ?@>872545=8O 8;8 4>3>2>@ 70:070, => 8 B@51>20; >B ?8A0B5;O ?>4?8A0BL >1O70B5;LAB2> 2A5 1C4CI85 ?@>872545=8O, :>B>@K5 :>340-=81C4L 1C4CB =0?8A0=K, 874020BL B>;L:> C =53>. @>H;> =5<0;> 2@5<5=8, ?>:0 02B>@K A<>3;8 70:>=>40B5;L=> 4>18;8AL >B<5=K B0:>9 "@01A:>9" 7028A8<>AB8 >B 8740B5;59. =>385 A>2@5<5==K5 70:>=K >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 A>45@60B A?5F80;L=>5 C:070=85, GB> 4>3>2>@, 70:;NG5==K9 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=89, :>B>@K5 1C4CB =0?8A0=K 02B>@>< 2 1C4CI5<, @02=> :0: 8 ?>;>65=8O, >3@0=8G820NI85 2A5 ?>A;54CNI55 B2>@G5AB2> 02B>@0, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 70?@5I0NI85 A>74020BL ?@>872545=8O =0 >?@545;5==CN B5<C, ?@87=0NBAO =5459AB28B5;L=K<8 (A<., =0?@8<5@, G. 5 8 1 AB. 31 >).  E>BO ?>4 MB8 =>@<K =5 ?>4?040NB A>1AB25==> 035=BA:85 A>3;0H5=8O, 2A5 65 >=8 =>@<K >B25G0NB A0<><C ?@8=F8?C A2>1>4K B2>@G5AB20, 70:@5?;5==><C 2 1>;LH8=AB25 :>=AB8BCF89 75<=>3> H0@0, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 G. 1 AB. 44 >=AB8BCF88 $. > B>, GB> =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4 :065BAO >G5284=K<, =5 2A5340 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL 157 G5B:>3> C:070=8O 70:>=0. 3@0=8G5=85 A2>1>4K B2>@G5AB20 M2>;NF8>=8@>20;> >B 20@20@A:>3> 2K:0;K20=8O 3;07 ?> ?@8:07C 20=0 @>7=>3> 7>4G8< 0@<5 8 >AB=8:C, ?>AB@>82H8< 2 1555-1561 33. %@0< 0A8;8O ;065==>3>, GB>1K ?@5:@0A=K9 A>1>@ >AB0;AO =5?>2B>@5==K< 8 =5?@527>945==K<, 4> BI0B5;L=> @0AAB02;5==KE "?>42>4=KE :0<=59" 2 4>3>2>@5 70:070 8;8 035=BA:>< A>3;0H5=88. ! @0728B85< B5E=8:8 2>7=8:0;8 =>2K5 A?>A>1K 8A?>;L7>20=8O @57C;LB0B>2 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 =>2K5 284K ?@>872545=89. $@0=FC7A:89 EC4>6=8: ... 035@ (1787 - 1851 33.) 87>1@5B05B A?>A>1 ?>;CG5=8O 2848<>3> 87>1@065=8O >1J5:B>2 =0 A25B>GC2AB28B5;L=KE (D>B>3@0D8G5A:8E) <0B5@80;0E. 8 45:01@O 1895 3. 1@0BLO N<L5@ 2> $@0=F88 ?5@2K9 @07 45<>=AB@8@CNB 4286CI85AO 2848<K5 87>1@065=8O - ?@81KB85 ?>5740 =0 8>=A:89 2>:70; - 8 40@OB <8@C :8=5<0B>3@0D. G5=L 1KAB@> 87 70102=>9 B5E=8G5A:>9 HCB:8 :8=> ?@52@0I05BAO 2 D>@<C 20 8A:CAAB20. @><5 B>3>, MB>B =>2K9 >1J5:B ?>@>6405B =>2>3> AC1J5:B0 -:8=>?@54?@8=8<0B5;O. #4828B5;L=>, GB> 2 >AA88 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2> 2 :8=>AD5@5 ?>O28;>AL <8=8<C< =0 10 ;5B @0=LH5 A>1AB25==>3> :8=>?@>872>4AB20. 48= 87 ?5@2>?@>E>4F52 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 - :@C?=59H89 @>AA89A:89 :8=>?@54?@8=8<0B5;L .. %0=6>=:>2 >?8AK20; A8BC0F8N B0:: " =0G0;5 XX AB>;5B8O 2 @07;8G=KE <5AB0E >AA88 AB0;8 2>7=8:0BL "1@>4OG85" :8=5<0B>3@0DK. @54?@88<G82K5 45;LFK, ?>7=0:><82H8AL 70 3@0=8F59 A GC45A0<8 >682H59 D>B>3@0D88, ?>:C?0;8 B0< :0@B8=K 8 ?@>5:F8>==K5 0??0@0BK 4;O 30AB@>;59 ?> >AA88... !>1@02 "40=L" A =0<5G5==KE 3>@>4>2 8;8 @09>=>2, ?@54?@8=8<0B5;8-30AB@>;5@K A ?@81K;LN ?@>4020;8 =5A:>;L:> 87=>H5==CN 0??0@0BC@C 8 4>AB0B>G=> ?>B@5?0==K5 :0@B8=K, GB>1K >?OBL >B?@028BLAO 70 3@0=8FC 8 70:C?8BL B0< 2A5 =>2>5"1. AB>@8O A>1AB25==> @>AA89A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0 =0G0;0AL 2 1908 3. A D8;L<0 "!B5=L:0 078=" @568AA5@0 ><0H:>20, A>740==>3> =0 D01@8:5 @0=:>20, 0 C65 2 1913 3. 2 >AA88 1K;> ?@>872545=> 129 D8;L<>2 (?@0240, 2 >A=>2=>< :>@>B:><5B@06=KE), 2 1914 3. - 232 (>A=>2=0O <0AA0 - ?>;=><5B@06=K5 :0@B8=K), 2 1915 3. - 370, 0 2 1916 3. - 4992. 0728B85 >B5G5AB25==>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0 H;> 3830=BA:8<8 B5<?0<8, =5A<>B@O 4065 =0 CG0AB85 >AA88 2 ?5@2>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=5. -B> >1JOA=O;>AL , 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, B5<, GB> 2 >B;8G85 >B :=83>8740=8O, :>B>@>5 A> 2@5<5= ?5@2>?5G0B=8:0 20=0 $54>@>20 8 2?;>BL 4> 1771 3., 0 D0:B8G5A:8 4> 1783 3.3 1K;> 3>AC40@AB25==>9 <>=>?>;859, :8=> A@07C 65 ?>?0;> 2 A5:B>@ G0AB=>3> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB20 8 ;8HL :>A25==> 7028A5;> >B 3>AC40@AB25==KE ?@>1;5< 8 <8@>2KE ?5@8?5B894. @0240, 8:>;09 II, =54>;N1;8202H89 :8=5<0B>3@0D, =0G8=0O A O=20@O 1916 3. 2KA:07K20; <KA;8 >1 CAB0=>2;5=88 3>AC40@AB25==>9 <>=>?>;88 2 MB>9 AD5@5, => 2 A8;C 8725AB=KE A>1KB89 @50;87>20BL 8E B0: 8 =5 A<>3. 8=>?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2> 4> @52>;NF88 @072820;>AL AB8E89=>, 157 :0:>3>-;81> A?5F80;L=>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 A> AB>@>=K 3>AC40@AB20. @0240, 2 <05 1913 3. 82 45?CB0B0 IV >AC40@AB25==>9 4C<K >1@0B8;8AL A 70:>=>40B5;L=K< ?@54?>;>65=85< "1 CAB0=>2;5=88 >A>1>3> =0;>30 =0 22>78<K5 87-70 3@0=8FK 8 2K45;K205<K5 2 >AA88 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:85 ;5=BK"5, => 4>:C<5=B >:>;> ?>;C3>40 @0AA<0B@820;AO 1N@>:@0B8G5A:8<8 8=AB0=F8O<8, 0 2 >:BO1@5 !>25B 8=8AB@>2 >B:;>=8; 53> 2<5AB5 .. %0=6>=:>2. 5@2K5 3>4K @CAA:>9 :8=5<0B>3@0D88. - .-., "A:CAAB2>", 1937. A. 11. 2 !. 8=71C@3. 8=5<0B>3@0D8O 4>@52>;NF8>==>9 >AA88. - ., A:CAAB2>. 1963. A. 157. 3 A<. >1 MB><: .. !5@3552. 2B>@A:>5 ?@02> >AA88. !1., 74-2> !-5B5@1C@3A:>3> C=-B0, 1994 , A. 9.4 "0:, =0?@8<5@, 8 <0O 1915 3. @028B5;LAB2> 70?@5B8;> 22>7 2 >AA8N 35@<0=A:8E :8=>;5=B. !<. >1 MB>< !. 8=71C@3. #:07.A>G., A.34. 5 .. 72>;>2. CAA:0O 7>;>B0O A5@8O. "8=>254G5A:85 70?8A:8". 1993. ! 18. A. 61 - 64. 21 A 4@C38< ?@54;>65=85< C<K - >1 CAB0=>2;5=88 F5= =0 18;5BK >@30=0<8 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O. N1>?KB=K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO >1>A=>20=85 22545=8O A?5F80;L=>3> =0;>3>>1;>65=8O :8=>,  >1JOA=8B5;L=>9 70?8A:5 : ?@54?>;>65=8N 3>2>@8;>AL, GB> ?>A:>;L:C =0;>38 2A5 1>;55 BO6:8< 1@5<5=5< ;>60BAO =0 =5A>AB>OB5;L=K5 A;>8 =0A5;5=8O, B> MB> :;045B =5:89 ?@545; ?@>4065 :075==>3> 28=0 - >4=><C 87 3;02=KE 8AB>G=8:>2 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 4>E>40. 564C B5< :8=5<0B>3@0D, =51;03>B2>@=> 2;8ONI89 =0 =0@>4=CN =@02AB25==>ABL, ?@8=>A8B G0AB=K< :8=>45;LF0< :>;>AA0;L=CN ?@81K;L. 284C MB>3>, 0 B0:65 B>3>, GB> ?>A5I5=85 :8=5<0B>3@0D0 O2;O5BAO 45;>< 8725AB=>9 @>A:>H8, 70:>=>40B5;8 AG8B0;8 2?>;=5 A2>52@5<5==K< CAB0=>2;5=85 >A>1>3> =0;>30, @07<5@ :>B>@>3> >?@545;O;AO 1K G5BK@L<O :>?59:0<8 A :064>3> 0@H8=0 ?;5=:81.  ?5@2>5 2@5<O ?>A;5 :BO1@LA:>9 @52>;NF88 0B5;L5 8 :8=>D01@8:8 >AB020;8AL 2 G0AB=KE @C:0E. ! O=20@O 1918 3. =0G0;0AL AB8E89=0O @5:2878F8O :8=>B50B@>2, GB> ?@825;> : ?>AB5?5==><C C30A0=8N :8=>@K=:0.  27 023CAB0 1919 3. 1K; ?>4?8A0= 5:@5B > =0F8>=0;870F88 :8=>2 8 ?5@52>45 >B@0A;8 2 2545=85 0@:><?@>A0. -B> ?>;>68;> =0G0;> =>2><C MB0?C 2 @0728B88 @>AA89A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0 - ?>O28;>AL A>25BA:>5 :8=>. 0F8>=0;878@>20==K< :8=5<0B>3@0D >AB020;AO 2?;>BL 4> :>=F0 80-E 3>4>2.  MB>B 65 ?5@8>4 2>7=8:05B 8 A>25@H5=AB2C5BAO <564C=0@>4=>5 @53C;8@>20=85 :C;LBC@=>9 AD5@K, 8 2 G0AB=>AB8 0C48>287C0;L=>9, GB> ?>72>;O5B 2A5< CG0AB=8:0< A>740=8O, @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=89 =0C:8, ;8B5@0BC@K 8 8A:CAAB20 >E@0=OBL A2>8 8=B5@5AK =5 278@0O =0 3@0=8FK.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O >AA8O 8=B53@8@>20=0 2 <564C=0@>4=CN A8AB5<C >E@0=K 02B>@A:8E ?@02, >G5@G5==CN 42C<O A0<K<8 :@C?=K<8 :>=25=F8O<8 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 - 5@=A:>9 (A 13 <0@B0 1995 3.) 8 5=52A:>9 (2 @540:F88 1952 3. - A 27 <0O 1973 3., 2 @540:F88 1971 3. - A 13 <0@B0 1995 3.).3 ><8<> 02B>@A:8E :>=25=F89 >AA8O ?>4?8A0;0 <=>3> 4@C38E <564C=0@>4=KE A>3;0H5=89 2 >1;0AB8 :C;LBC@K, ?@O<> 8;8 :>A25==> @53C;8@CNI8E >B=>H5=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5: 003A:CN :>=25=F8N > 70I8B5 :C;LBC@=KE F5==>AB59 2 A;CG05 2>>@C65==>3> :>=D;8:B0 >B 14 <0O 1954 3. 8 A?>;=8B5;L=K9 @53;0<5=B : =59, >=25=F8N > <5@0E, =0?@02;5==KE =0 1 B0< 65. 2 A<. >1 MB><: !.. '5@=KH520. &8B.A>G., A. 5. 3 >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " ?@8A>548=5=88 $ : 5@=A:>9 :>=25=F88 >1 >E@0=5 ;8B5@0BC@=KE 8 EC4>65AB25==KE ?@>872545=89 2 @540:F88 1971 3., A5<8@=>9 :>=25=F88 >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 2 @540:F88 1971 3.  >?>;=8B5;L=K< ?@>B>:>;0< 1 8 2, >=25=F88 1971 3. 1 >E@0=5 8=B5@5A>2 ?@>872>48B5;59 D>=>3@0<< >B =570:>==>3> 2>A?@>872>4AB20 8E D>=>3@0<<" >B 3 =>O1@O 1994 3. ! 1224 // ! $. - 1994. - ! 29. - AB. 3046. 22 70?@5I5=85 8 ?@54C?@5645=85 =570:>==>3> 22>70, 2K2>70 8 ?5@540G8 ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 :C;LBC@=K5 F5==>AB8 >B 14 =>O1@O 1970 3., >=25=F8N >1 >E@0=5 2A5<8@=>3> :C;LBC@=>3> 8 ?@8@>4=>3> =0A;548O >B 16 =>O1@O 1972 3.1 8 ?@. >A;54=55 2@5<O >AA89A:0O $545@0F8O ?@54?@8=8<05B 0:B82=K5 H038 4;O 2ABC?;5=8O 2 "" (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade - 5=5@0;L=>5 A>3;0H5=85 ?> B0@8D0< 8 B>@3>2;5) - >A=>2=>5 <564C=0@>4=>5 A>3;0H5=85 2 >1;0AB8 <564C=0@>4=>9 B>@3>2;8, =07K205<>5 B0:65 ">=AB8BCF859 <8@>2>9 B>@3>2;8".  1994 3. 1K;0 A>740=0 A5<8@=0O B>@3>20O >@30=870F8O ("), :0: A>AB02;ONI0O G0ABL "", 2 @0<:0E :>B>@>9 >A>1K9 8=B5@5A 4;O =0A ?@54AB02;O5B >4=> A>3;0H5=85 - " ! (Trade-Related Aspects on Intellectual Property including Trade in Counterfeit Goods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status quo 2 A8AB5<5 =0;>3>>1;>65=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, =>, : A>60;5=8N, =5 2 ?>;=>< >1J5<5. 5 2A5 45:;0@8@>20==K5 0:>=>< > 3>A?>445@6:5 ;L3>BK ?@54CA<>B@5=K 87<5=5==K<8 =0;>3>2K<8 70:>=0<8. @><5 B>3>, 2=5A5==K5 4>?>;=5=8O "A:>@@5:B8@>20;8" =0?@02;5=85 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>;8B8:8 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88. KH5 C65 @0AA<0B@820;AO 2>?@>A > B><, :0: @072820;AO ?@>B5:F8>=87<: >B ?>445@6:8 3>AC40@AB25==KE ABC489 G5@57 CAB0=>2;5=85 ;L3>B D8;L<0<, 04@5A>20==K< 45BO< 8 N=>H5AB2C, 2?;>BL 4> 2A5>1J5<;NI59 ?>445@6:8 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 2 $. "5?5@L 65 3>AC40@AB2>, 2848<>, ?>B><C, GB> =5 2 A>AB>O=88 ?>445@6820BL 2A5E 8 2AO, 2 70:>=5 >B 1 O=20@O 1999 3. CAB0=02;8205B A8AB5<C ;L3>B=>3> =0;>3>>1;>65=8O B>;L:> 4;O ":8=>?@>4C:F88, ?>;CG82H59 C4>AB>25@5=85 =0F8>=0;L=>3> D8;L<0" (?>;>65=85 > :>B>@><, :0: MB> 1K;> A:070=> 2KH5, 4> A8E ?>@ =5 ?@8=OB> 2 CAB0=>2;5==>< ?>@O4:5). B0:, >B =0;>30 =0 4>102;5==CN AB>8<>ABL >B=K=5 >A2>1>640NBAO @01>BK 8 CA;C38 ?> ?@>872>4AB2C, B8@068@>20=8N 8 ?@>:0BC (2:;NG0O @50;870F8N ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85) B0:>9 :8=>?@>4C:F88, 0 B0:65 ?@81K;L >@30=870F89 =57028A8<> >B >@30=870F8>==>-?@02>2KE D>@< 8 D>@< A>1AB25==>AB8, =0?@02;O5<0O =0 ?@>872>4AB2> 8 B8@068@>20=85 MB>9 :8=>?@>4C:F88. =B5@5A=>, GB> 5I5 >4=>9 =0;>3>2>9 ;L3>B>9 AB0;0 =>@<0 >1 C<5=LH5=88 =0;>3>>1;0305<>9 ?@81K;8 =0 AC<<K, =0?@02;5==K5 >@30=870F8O<8 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 =0 D8=0=A8@>20=85 AB@>8B5;LAB20 :8=>70;>2 (2 B>< G8A;5 2 ?>@O4:5 4>;52>3> CG0AB8O), 0 B0:65 =0 ?>30H5=85 :@548B>2 10=:>2 , ?>;CG5==KE 8 8A?>;L7>20==KE =0 MB8 F5;8, 2:;NG0O ?@>F5=BK ?> :@548B0<. -B> A2845B5;LAB2C5B > A5@L57=KE =0<5@5=8OE 3>AC40@AB20 2>7@>48BL A8AB5<C :8=>?@>:0B0. 1 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1991. - ! 46. - AB. 1543. 2 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1999. - ! 2. - AB. 237. 46 A5 70O2;5==K5 0:>=>< > 3>A?>445@6:5, 0 B0:65 22545==K5 70:>=>< >B 1 O=20@O 1999 3. ;L3>BK 459AB2CNB 4> 31 45:01@O 2001 3. 8 CB@0G820NB A8;C A 1 O=20@O 2002 3. "0:8< >1@07><, 2@5<5=8 =0 :>=:@5B=K5 459AB28O, 2 B>< G8A;5 =0 ?@82545=85 2A59 =>@<0B82=>9 107K 2 A>>B25BAB285 A 45:;0@0F8O<8 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5, >AB0;>AL A>2A5< =5 <=>3>. ><8<> =0;>3>2KE ?>A;01;5=89, 0:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5 CAB0=02;8205B 5I5 F5;K9 @O4 ;L3>B. !B0BL59 13 ?@54CA<>B@5=> >A2>1>645=85 >B B0<>65==KE ?>H;8= 8 M:A?>@B=>-8<?>@B=KE A1>@>2 :8=>?@>4C:F88, :8=><0B5@80;>2 8 :8=>>1>@C4>20=8O, 22>78<KE =0 B0<>65==CN B5@@8B>@8N $ 8 2K2>78<K5 A MB>9 B5@@8B>@88. 0=55 2 A>>B25BAB288 A #:07>< @57845=B0 $ " 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE <5@0E 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:8 :C;LBC@K 8 8A:CAAB20 2 $" >B 23 >:BO1@O 1993 3. (N 1904) 8 ?@8=OB>3> 2 53> @0728B85 #:070=8O " $ >B 18 <0@B0 1994 3. ? 01-12/180 >B B0<>65==KE ?>H;8= >A2>1>640;8AL ?@>872545=8O, ?@8>1@5B5==K5 70 AG5B A@54AB2 @5A?C1;8:0=A:>3> 1N465B0 $ 8;8 ?>;CG5==K5 2 40@, 0 B0:65 <0B5@80;K 8 B5E=>;>38G5A:>5 >1>@C4>20=85 (:@><5 ?>40:F87=KE B>20@>2), 70:C?05<K5 70 AG5B A@54AB2 @5A?C1;8:0=A:>3> 1N465B0 $ 8;8 70 AG5B A@54AB2, ?>;CG5==KE 2 ?>@O4:5 :><?5=A0F88 70 ?@>2545=85 :C;LBC@=KE <5@>?@8OB89 3>AC40@AB25==K<8 (D545@0;L=K<8) CG@5645=8O<8 :C;LBC@K 8 8A:CAAB20, :8=5<0B>3@0D88 8 0@E82=>9 A;C61K $, ?@82545==K<8 2 ?@8;>65=88 : #:070=8N.  40==>< ?@8;>65=88 7=0G8;0AL 51 >@30=870F8O :8=5<0B>3@0D88, 87 =8E 2 0@E820, 9 >1@07>20B5;L=KE CG@5645=89 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 8 40 :8=>ABC489. 0:>= 65 ?@54>AB02;O5B 40==CN ;L3>BC 2A5< >@30=870F8O< :8=5<0B>3@0D88.  AB. 14 CAB0=02;8205BAO ;L3>B=>5 20;NB=>5 @53C;8@>20=85 2K@CG:8 >@30=870F89 :8=5<0B>3@0D88. 0=55 >B >1O70B5;L=>9 ?@>4068 G0AB8 20;NB=>9 2K@CG:8 >A2>1>640;8AL D545@0;L=K5 >@30=870F88 8 CG@5645=8O :8=5<0B>3@0D88 8 0@E82=>9 A;C61K 2 A>>B25BAB288 A #:07>< @57845=B0 $ " 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE <5@0E 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:8 :C;LBC@K 8 8A:CAAB20 2 $" >B 23 >:BO1@O 1993 3. 8 ?@8=OBK< 2 53> 8A?>;=5=85 #:07>< ?@57845=B0 $ "1 >A2>1>645=88 D545@0;L=KE CG@5645=89 8 >@30=870F89 :C;LBC@K 8 8A:CAAB20, :8=5<0B>3@0D88, 0@E82=>9 A;C61K, F8@:>2KE ?@54?@8OB89 8 >@30=870F89 >B >1O70B5;L=>9 ?@>4068 G0AB8 20;NB=>9 2K@CG:8" >B 27 8N=O 1994 3. N 13371. ;O B0:>3> >A2>1>645=8O AB028;>AL 420 CA;>28O: 2K@CG:0 4>;6=0 1KBL ?>;CG5=0 2 @57C;LB0B5 B2>@G5A:>-?@>872>4AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 MB8E CG@5645=89 8 >@30=870F89 8 =0?@02;OBLAO =0 1 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. 1994. ! 10. A. 1114. 47 @0728B85 8 C:@5?;5=85 8E <0B5@80;L=>-B5E=8G5A:>9 107K. > =>@<5 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5 >B >1O70B5;L=>9 ?@>4068 20;NB=>9 2K@CG:8 >A2>1>640NBAO =5 B>;L:> 3>AC40@AB25==K5, => 8 2A5 >@30=870F88 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, 0 CA;>285 >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 =5?@>40==>9 2K@CG:8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 A>E@0=5=>. @8<5G0B5;L=>, GB> =5 >A2>1>6405BAO >B >1O70B5;L=>9 ?@>4068 20;NB=0O 2K@CG:0, :>B>@0O <>65B 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=0 =0 ?@8>1@5B5=85 ?@02 ?>:070 =0 B5@@8B>@88 $ 8=>AB@0==KE D8;L<>2, B.5. ?@>:0B=K5 8 48AB@81LNB5@A:85 >@30=870F88 =5 <>3CB 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO MB>9 ;L3>B>9 ?@8 >ACI5AB2;5=88 A2>59 >A=>2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8.  A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 15 >@30=870F88 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 ?>;L7CNBAO :><<C=0;L=K<8 CA;C30<8, CA;C30<8 >@30=870F89 ?>GB>2>9, B5;53@0D=>9 8 B5;5D>==>9 A2O78 ?> B0@8D0<, ?@54CA<>B@5==K< 4;O 1N465B=KE >@30=870F89 (B.5. ?> A0<K< =87:8< 2 $ @0AF5=:0<). 0;55 AB. 15 CAB0=02;8205B, GB> >@30=870F88 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 >A2>1>640NBAO >B 0@5=4=>9 ?;0BK 70 75<;N. < @07@5H05BAO 2:;NG0BL 2 A515AB>8<>ABL :8=>?@>4C:F88 AC<<C 70B@0B =0 AB@0E>20=85 ?@>872>4AB20 D8;L<0 8 ?>;CG5=85 D8=0=A>2KE 30@0=B89 7025@H5=8O ?@>872>4AB20 D8;L<0 2 @07<5@5 4> 9% A<5B=>9 AB>8<>AB8 D8;L<0. ;O A@02=5=8O >B<5B8<, GB> 25AL AB@0E>2>9 27=>A 70 25AL ?0:5B AB@0E>2KE CA;C3, ?@54;0305<KE ?>:0 GCBL ;8 =5 548=AB25==>9 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 AB@0E>2>9 :><?0=859 " $!, =5 ?@52KH05B 3-4% >B 1N465B0. @548BK ?@54>AB02;ONBAO >@30=870F8O< :8=5<0B>3@0D88 =0 ?@>872>4AB2>, B8@068@>20=85 8 ?@>:0B =0F8>=0;L=>3> D8;L<0 =0 ;L3>B=KE CA;>28OE ?> AB02:5 4> 5% 3>4>2KE A@>:>< 4> 42CE ;5B; =5 OA=> B>;L:>, :5< MB8 :@548BK ?@54>AB02;ONBAO. 0:>=5F, 0:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5 >?@545;O5B ?>@O4>: ?@820B870F88 >@30=870F89 :8=5<0B>3@0D88. @8=F8?K ?@820B870F8>==>9 ?>;8B8:8, 70:@5?;5==>9 2 70:>=5, A>>B25BAB2CNB @0=55 @07@01>B0==K< 2 ?@54H5AB2CNI8E =>@<0B82=KE 0:B0E. "0:, >1O70B5;L=K< CA;>285< O2;O5BAO A>E@0=5=85 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :0G5AB25 >A=>2=>3> 2840 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@820B878@C5<>9 >@30=870F88 :8=5<0B>3@0D88. -B>B ?@8=F8? AD>@<8@>20;AO =0 >?KB5 >H81>:. >A;5 =0G0;0 ?>20;L=>9 ?@820B870F88 >@30=K <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 2 A2>8E 0:B0E =5 ?@54CA<0B@820;8 CA;>285 A>E@0=5=8O ?@>D8;O, 8 @>A:>H=K5 740=8O :8=>B50B@>2 AB0;8 ?@52@0I0BLAO 2 :078=> 8 02B><>18;L=K5 A0;>=K.  AG0ABLN, =0 ?5@2>< MB0?5 ?@820B878@>20=> 1K;> =5 B0: C6 <=>3> :8=>B50B@>2, 2 >A:25, =0?@8<5@, @07@5H0;>AL ?@820B878@>20BL B>;L:> 70;K <5=55 G5< =0 1000 <5AB. >A;54CNI85 0:BK C65 A>45@60;8 B@51>20=85 > A>E@0=5=88 >A=>2=>3> 2840 45OB5;L=>AB8. KH5; ?5@5G5=L >A>1> F5==KE >1J5:B>2, =5 48 ?>4;560I8E ?@820B870F88: : =8<, =0?@8<5@, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A #:07>< @57845=B0 " 2:;NG5=88 >B45;L=KE >1J5:B>2 2 >AC40@AB25==K9 A2>4 >A>1> F5==KE >1J5:B>2 :C;LBC@=>3> =0A;548O =0@>4>2 $" >B 1 =>O1@O 1993 3. N 18471 >B=>A8BAO >AD8;L<>D>=4.  A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 17 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5 =5 ?>4;560B ?@820B870F88 >@30=870F88 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, A?5F80;878@CNI85AO =0 ?>:075 D8;L<>2 4;O 45B59, 0 B0:65 >@30=870F8O, >ACI5AB2;ONI0O ?>:07 D8;L<>2 8 O2;ONI0OAO 548=AB25==>9 >@30=870F859 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 2 40==>< =0A5;5==>< ?C=:B5. !B0BL8 19 8 20 >?@545;ONB >A>15==>AB8 8 ?>@O4>: ?@820B870F88 >@30=870F89 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, >B=>AOI8EAO : >1J5:B0< D545@0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8. "0:8E >@30=870F89 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O - 49, =5 AG8B0O >AD8;L<>D>=40, :>B>@K9 =5 ?>4;568B ?@820B870F88. 5H5=85 >1 8E ?@820B870F88 ?@8=8<05B @028B5;LAB2> $. @820B878@>20BL =0E>4OI85AO 2 3>AC40@AB25==>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 >@30=870F88 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 2>7<>6=> B>;L:> ?CB5< 8E ?@5>1@07>20=8O 2 >B:@KBK5 8;8 70:@KBK5 0:F8>=5@=K5 >1I5AB20. :F88 @0A?@545;ONBAO 2 A;54CNI5< ?>@O4:5: =0 4 3>40 2 D545@0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 70:@5?;ONBAO 25,5% >1K:=>25==KE 0:F89 8;8 "7>;>B0O 0:F8O"; 04<8=8AB@0F88 ?@820B878@C5<>9 >@30=870F88 548=>2@5<5==> =0 1572>7<574=>9 >A=>25 ?5@5405BAO 5% >1K:=>25==KE 0:F89; =5HB0B=><C B2>@G5A:><C A>AB02C 548=>2@5<5==> =0 1572>7<574=>9 >A=>25 ?5@5405BAO 3% >1K:=>25==KE 0:F89; 5I5 43% >1K:=>25==KE 0:F89 548=>2@5<5==> =0 1572>7<574=>9 >A=>25 @0A?@545;ONBAO <564C HB0B=K< B2>@G5A:8< A>AB02>< 8 HB0B=K< ?@>872>4AB25==K< A>AB02><. AB0;L=K5 ?5@540NBAO 4;O ?@>4068 ;N1K< 8=25AB>@0< ?@8 CA;>288 A>E@0=5=8O 8<8 >A=>2=>3> 2840 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@820B878@C5<>9 >@30=870F88 :8=5<0B>3@0D88. K7K205B A><=5=85 C:070=85 =5HB0B=>3> B2>@G5A:>3> A>AB020 ?@8 @0A?@545;5=88 0:F89: 8<5NBAO ;8 2 284C B>;L:> B5 :8=5<0B>3@0D8ABK, :>B>@K5 2 <><5=B ?@820B870F88 @01>B0;8 =0 ABC488, 8;8 MB> 2A5 02B>@K ;81> 8E =0A;54=8:8, :>B>@K5 =0E>48;8AL 8 =0E>4OBAO 2 4>3>2>@=KE >B=>H5=8OE A ?@820B878@C5<>9 >@30=870F859 (254L 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G. 2 AB. 13 > 02B>@A:89 4>3>2>@ =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 70:;NG05BAO =0 25AL A@>: 459AB28O 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 =0 D8;L<, B.5. =0 2AN 687=L A0<>3> 02B>@0 8 53> A>02B>@>2 ?;NA 50 ;5B A <><5=B0 A<5@B8 ?>A;54=53> 87 =8E)? 82845=4K ?> 0:F8O<, 70:@5?;5==K< 2 D545@0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8, :0?8B0;878@CNBAO 8 =0?@02;ONBAO =0 B5E=8G5A:>5 ?5@52>>@C65=85, @5:>=AB@C:F8N " >AA89A:0O 3075B0 " >B 16 =>O1@O 1993 3. 49 8 @0AH8@5=85 ?@>872>4AB25==KE <>I=>AB59 ?@820B878@C5<KE >@30=870F89 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, B.5. MB8 A@54AB20 B0:65 ?CA:0NBAO =0 >ACI5AB2;5=85 ?@>B5:F8>=8ABA:>9 ?>;8B8:8, GB> O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 D>@< 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:8. > 70:>= =5 >?@545;O5B, =0 :0:8E CA;>28OE MB0 ?>445@6:0 ?@8=8<05BAO A0<>9 ?@820B878@C5<>9 >@30=870F859, 0 B0:65 =5 @53C;8@C5B 2>?@>A > AC4L15 3>AC40@AB25==KE 0:F89 G5@57 4 3>40 ?>A;5 >D>@<;5=8O ?@820B870F88. @820B870F8O >@30=870F89 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, =0E>4OI8EAO 2 A>1AB25==>AB8 AC1J5:B>2 $ >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 2 A>>B25BAB288 A @538>=0;L=K<8 ?@>3@0<<0<8 ?@820B870F88.  @0728B85 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5 18 45:01@O 1997 3. @028B5;LAB2>< $ 1K;0 ?@8=OB0 >=F5?F8O @0728B8O :8=5<0B>3@0D88 $ 4> 2005 3.1 >A:>;L:C MB>B ?@02>2>9 0:B =5 A>45@68B =>@< ?@O<>3> 459AB28O, B> 2 40==>< @0745;5 @0AA<0B@820BL 53> ?>;>65=8O ?>4@>1=> =5 ?@54AB02;O5BAO F5;5A>>1@07=K<. > <=>385 70:;NG5==K5 2 =5< 2K2>4K 8 ?@54;>65=8O ?@54AB02;ONB =5A><=5==K9 8=B5@5A 8 1C4CB >A25I5=K 2 A;54CNI8E 3;020E. ) 8F5=78@>20=85 >B45;L=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 06=K<8 =>@<0B82=K<8 0:B0<8, @53C;8@CNI8<8 >B=>H5=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, O2;ONBAO ?>AB0=>2;5=8O @028B5;LAB20 > ;8F5=78@>20=88 >B45;L=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8.  $ ACI5AB25==> @0AH8@O5B ?@02>A?>A>1=>ABL ?@>872>4AB25==KE :>>?5@0B82>2, E>7O9AB25==KE B>20@8I5AB2 8 >1I5AB2, =045;OO 8E 2>7<>6=>ABLN >ACI5AB2;OBL =5 B>;L:> B5 284K 45OB5;L=>AB8, :>B>@K5 =5?>A@54AB25==> C:070=K 2 8E CG@548B5;L=KE 4>:C<5=B0E (B0:>9 ?>@O4>: A>E@0=5= B>;L:> 4;O =5:><<5@G5A:8E >@30=870F89 8 C=8B0@=KE ?@54?@8OB89), => 8 2A5 4@C385 =5 70?@5I5==K5 70:>=>< 284K 45OB5;L=>AB8. -B> ?>72>;O5B 8< @0AH8@OBL 8 87<5=OBL =0?@02;5=8O @01>BK ?> A2>5<C CA<>B@5=8N. <5AB5 A B5< G. 2 AB. 49  $ CAB0=02;8205B, GB> 4;O >ACI5AB2;5=8O =5:>B>@KE 284>2 =5 70?@5I5==>9 70:>=>< 45OB5;L=>AB8 =5>1E>48<> ?>;CG8BL A?5F80;L=>5 @07@5H5=85 C C?>;=><>G5==KE >@30=>2. 7=0G0;L=> ?5@5G5=L ?>4;560I8E ;8F5=78@>20=8N 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0 B0:65 ?>@O4>: @0AA<>B@5=8O 8 2K40G8 ;8F5=789, A>45@60;AO :0: 2 >B45;L=KE 70:>=0E (=0?@8<5@, ;8F5=78@>20=85 B5;52878>==>3> 25I0=8O), B0: 8 2 0:B0E >@30=>2 AC1J5:B>2 $ !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1997. - ! 51. - AB. 5813. 50 (=0?@8<5@, ?@>:0B=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 :8=>- 8 2845>?@>4C:F88, B8@068@>20=85 8 B. ?.), ?@8=OBKE 2 @0728B85 >AB0=>2;5=8O @028B5;LAB20 $ " ?>;=><>G8OE >@30=>2 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 :@052, >1;0AB59, 02B>=><=KE >1@07>20=89, 3>@>4>2 D545@0;L=>3> 7=0G5=8O ?> ;8F5=78@>20=8N >B45;L=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8" >B 27 <0O 1993 3.1. @028B5;LAB2> @07@01>B0;> @8<5@=K9 ?>@O4>: ;8F5=78@>20=8O 8 ?5@5G5=L 284>2 ;8F5=78@C5<>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, => 1>;LH0O A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL ?@54>AB02;O;0AL 8 A0<8< AC1J5:B0<. "0:0O A8AB5<0 =5 2> 2A5< 1K;0 C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=0. '0AB> ?@8 ;8F5=78@>20=88 >4=8E 8 B5E 65 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 CA;>28O, ?@8=OBK5 2 @07=KE AC1J5:B0E >B;8G0;8AL 4@C3 >B 4@C30, G0I5 2A53> G@57<5@=> CA;>6=OO B@51>20=8O : A>8A:0B5;N ;8F5=788 8 ?@>F54C@C 55 2K40G8. ;O C=8D8:0F88 ;8F5=78>==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 1K;> ?@8=OB> >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " ;8F5=78@>20=88 >B45;L=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8" >B 24 45:01@O 1994 3. ! 14182, A>45@60I55 ?5@5G5=L ?>4;560I8E ;8F5=78@>20=8N 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 , >1I89 ?>@O4>: 8 :><?5B5=F8N >B45;L=KE >@30=>2 ?@8 2K40G5 ;8F5=789. >=:@5B=0O ?@>F54C@0 8 ?@028;0 2K40G8 ;8F5=789 CAB0=02;820;8AL =>@<0B82=K<8 0:B0<8, ?@8=OBK<8 2 @0728B85 MB>3> ?>AB0=>2;5=8O. 0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L B0:8E 0:B>2 =0AG8BK205BAO 1>;55 150. $545@0;L=K9 70:>= " ;8F5=78@>20=88 >B45;L=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8" >B 25 A5=BO1@O 1998 3. ! 158-$3 87<5=8; ?5@5G5=L ;8F5=78@C5<KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8. B=K=5 ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5 A?>A>1K @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 0 8<5==> B5;52878>==>5 25I0=85, ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, >ACI5AB2;O5<KE 2 :8=>70;5, @0A?@>AB@0=5=85, 70 8A:;NG5=85< @>7=8G=>9 B>@3>2;8, M:75<?;O@>2 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 =0 ;N1KE 2840E =>A8B5;59 8 2>A?@>872545=85 (873>B>2;5=85 M:75<?;O@>2) 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 =0 ;N1KE 2840E =>A8B5;59, O2;ONBAO ;8F5=78>==>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN. 0 =0AB>OI89 65 <><5=B =0 D545@0;L=>< C@>2=5 ?@8=OBK ?>AB0=>2;5=8O, CAB0=02;820NI85 ?>@O4>: ;8F5=78@>20=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8, A2O70==>9 A ?C1;8G=K< ?>:07>< :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 8 B5;52878>==K< 25I0=85<, 0 B0:65 0@E82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 >=0 >B=>A8BAO : @01>B5 >AD8;L<>D>=40, $ 8 @568<0 ?@>872545=89, =0E>4OI8EAO 2 MB8E CG@5645=8OE. >A:>2A:85 2;0AB8, 2>A?>;L7>202H8AL 2>7<>6=>ABO<8, ?@54>AB02;5==K<8 #:07>< @57845=B0 $ " 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE ?>;=><>G8OE >@30=>2 C?@02;5=8O 3. >A:2K =0 ?5@8>4 ?@>2545=8O 1 !>1@0=85 0:B>2 @57845=B0 8 @028B5;LAB20 $. - 1993. - ! 22. - AB. 2033. 2 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 1. - AB. 69. 3 " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 3 >:BO1@O 1998 3. 51 @048:0;L=>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 @5D>@<K" >B 29 45:01@O 1991 3. ! 334, 225;8 =0 B5@@8B>@88 >A:2K ;8F5=78@>20=85 8 4>?>;=8B5;L=K9 :>=B@>;L 70 ?@>872>4AB2>< 8 @>7=8G=>9 ?@>40659 2845>=>A8B5;59 0A?>@O65=85< M@0 " ;8F5=78@>20=88 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> ?@>872>4AB2C (B8@068@>20=8N), >?B>2>9 8 @>7=8G=>9 @50;870F88 2845>?@>4C:F88 =0 B5@@8B>@88 3. >A:2K" >B 18 <0@B0 1998 3. ! 237-  8 CB25@645==K< ><8B5B>< ?> B5;5:><<C=8:0F8O< 8 A@54AB20< <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 ?@8 @028B5;LAB25 >A:2K A>2<5AB=> A # 3. >A:2K 2 @0728B85 C:070==>3> 0A?>@O65=8O ">@O4:0 2K40G8 @07@5H5=89 =0 @50;870F8N 2845>-, 0C48>?@>4C:F88, :><?LNB5@=KE 8=D>@<0F8>==KE =>A8B5;59, M;5<5=B>2 8E >D>@<;5=8O 8 845=B8D8:0F88" >B 12 <0O 1998 3.  >AB0;L=KE AC1J5:B0E $545@0F88 ?>@O4>: ;8F5=78@>20=8O 873>B>2;5=8O 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 2845>=>A8B5;59 ?>:0 =5 >?@545;5=. >;>65=85 > ;8F5=78@>20=88 45OB5;L=>AB8, A2O70==>9 A ?C1;8G=K< ?>:07>< :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2, CB25@645=> ?>AB0=>2;5=85< @028B5;LAB20 $ >B 19 A5=BO1@O 1995 3. N 9411. K40G0 ;8F5=789 ?>@CG5=0 >@30=0< 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 AC1J5:B>2 $, 0 ?>;CG0B5;O<8 55 <>3CB 1KBL N@848G5A:85 ;8F0 =57028A8<> >B 8E >@30=870F8>==>-?@02>2>9 D>@<K, 0 B0:65 D878G5A:85 ;8F0, O2;ONI85AO AC1J5:B0<8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 157 >1@07>20=8O N@848G5A:>3> ;8F0, >ACI5AB2;ONI85 45OB5;L=>ABL, A2O70==CN A ?C1;8G=K< ?>:07>< :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 =0 :8=>- 8 B5;5M:@0=5 ;81> A ?><>ILN 8=KE B5E=8G5A:8E A@54AB2 (?, 1 >;>65=8O). "0:>5 >?@545;5=85 45OB5;L=>AB8 AC78;> 55 :@C3, @0=55 @53C;8@>202H89AO >B45;L=K<8 0:B0<8 AC1J5:B>2 $, 2K254O =5:>B>@K5 284K 45OB5;L=>AB8, =0?@8<5@, B8@068@>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 70 @0<:8 ;8F5=789 8, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A =>@<0<8  A45;02 55 2>7<>6=>9 4;O >ACI5AB2;5=8O ;N1K<8 E>7O9AB25==K<8 B>20@8I5AB20<8, >1I5AB20<8 8 ?@>872>4AB25==K<8 :>>?5@0B820<8. @><5 B>3>, 87 B0:>3> >?@545;5=8O AC1J5:B>2 ?>;CG5=8O ;8F5=788 =5OA=>: ?@87=05B ;8 3>AC40@AB2> ;N1CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, A2O70==CN A ?C1;8G=K< ?>:07>< :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9, 8;8 65 >=0, 5A;8 D878G5A:>5 ;8F> @5H8B >@30=87>20BL GB>-B> 2@>45 :;C10 ;N18B5;59 :8=> 8;8 ?>4>1=K9 ?@>A<>B@ A 15A?;0B=K< 2E>4>< 4;O =5>?@545;5==>3> :@C30 ;8F, =5 ?>4?0405B ?>4 459AB285 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O, ?>A:>;L:C =5 O2;O5BAO ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 8 =5 ?@5A;54C5B F5;8 872;5G5=8O ?@81K;8. >7<>6=>, B0:>9 A?>A>1 ?C1;8G=>3> ?>:070 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8 =5 O2;O5BAO >G5=L " >AA89A:0O 3075B0". - 1995. - ! 178. 52 ?>?C;O@=K< 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K<, => 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> =5 45;05B @07;8G8O <564C :><<5@G5A:8< 8 =5:><<5@G5A:8< 8A?>;L7>20=85<, :@><5 CAB0=>2;5=8O @07=>3> ?@>F5=B0 4;O ?;0B=>3> 8 15A?;0B=>3> 2E>40 2 ?>AB0=>2;5=88 @028B5;LAB20 $ " <8=8<0;L=KE AB02:0E 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 =5:>B>@K5 284K 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=89 ;8B5@0BC@K 8 8A:CAAB20" >B 21 <0@B0 1994 3. ! 2181. >A:>;L:C 4;O 2545=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 2KH5C?><O=CB>9 A8BC0F88 =5 B@51C5BAO ?>;CG5=8O ;8F5=788, 0 B0:65 D878G5A:85 ;8F0 =5 2=>AOBAO 2 55AB@ (A<. ?.  2 =0AB>OI59 3;02K), B> 25AL B0:>9 @K=>: 2K?0405B 87-?>4 :>=B@>;O A> AB>@>=K :0: 3>AC40@AB20, B0: 8 02B>@>2 8 8E ?@02>?@55<=8:>2. >A:8=>, :>B>@K9 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?. 7 >;>65=8O >:07K205B <5B>4>;>38G5A:CN 8 :>=AC;LB0B82=CN ?><>IL 2 >@30=870F88 8 ?@>2545=88 ;8F5=78>==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, @5:><5=4C5B 2>7;>68BL @01>BC ?> ;8F5=78@>20=8N 45OB5;L=>AB8, A2O70==>9 A ?C1;8G=K< ?>:07>< :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2, =0 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K5 ;8F5=78>==K5 :><8AA88, 459AB2CNI85 ?@8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E ;8F5=78>==KE A;C610E, 8;8 8=K5 >@30=K, A0<>AB>OB5;L=> >?@545;O5<K5 :064K< AC1J5:B>< $545@0F88, B0: :0: 40==K9 284 45OB5;L=>AB8 A?5F8D8G5= 8 B@51C5B ?@82;5G5=8O @07;8G=KE A?5F80;8AB>2. >;>65=85 CAB0=02;8205B :@C3 ?@02 8 >1O70==>AB59 :0: 70O28B5;O, 0 2?>A;54AB285 45@60B5;O ;8F5=788, B0: 8 >@30=>2 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8, 2K40NI8E ;8F5=788, ><8B5B0 $ ?> :8=5<0B>3@0D88, 0 B0:65 8=KE >@30=>2, C?>;=><>G5==KE 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 >ACI5AB2;OBL :>=B@>;L 70 ;8F5=78>==K<8 2840<8 45OB5;L=>AB8. 5@60B5;L =5 8<55B ?@020 ?5@54020BL ?>;CG5==CN ;8F5=78N :0:><C 1K B> =8 1K;> B@5BL5<C ;8FC =0 :0:>< 1K B> =8 1K;> >A=>20=88, ?>A:>;L:C 55 459AB285 =5 @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =0 4@C38E ;8F, 4065 >ACI5AB2;ONI8E 45OB5;L=>ABL A>2<5AB=> A 45@60B5;5< ;8F5=788, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 ?> 4>3>2>@C > A>B@C4=8G5AB25, M B0:65 =0 N@848G5A:8E ;8F, CG@548B5;5< 8;8 >4=8< 87 CG@548B5;59 :>B>@KE O2;O5BAO 45@60B5;L ;8F5=788 (?. 4).  ?. 14 "1" C:070=K 4>:C<5=BK, :>B>@K5 =5>1E>48<> 8<5BL 45@60B5;N ;8F5=788 =0 :064K9 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<, ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07 :>B>@>3> >= >ACI5AB2;O5B: 4>3>2>@ > ?@8>1@5B5=88 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 45<>=AB@8@C5<>3> 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8 =>B0@80;L=> 7025@5==CN 8;8 C4>AB>25@5==CN 3>AC40@AB25==K< @538AB@>< :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 >A:8=> :>?8N ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O, ?@54AB02;O5<CN 2;045;LF5< :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<0, A>45@60ICN A2545=8O > 2>7@0AB=KE >3@0=8G5=8OE 8 A?>A>10E 53> @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O. 1 !>1@0=85 0:B>2 @5I845=B0 8 @028B5;LAB20 $. - 1994. - ! 13. 53 -B> B@51>20=85 2E>48B 2 F5;K9 :><?;5:A <5@ ?> 1>@L15 A B0: =07K205<K< ?8@0BAB2><. >A:>;L:C >BACBAB285 B@51C5<KE 4>:C<5=B>2 <>65B ?>2;5GL 70 A>1>9 ?@8>AB0=>2;5=85 8 4065 0==C;8@>20=85 ;8F5=788, B> G5@57 C65 2 A:>@>< 2@5<5=8 ?>A;5 ?@8=OB8O A=0G0;0 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 - @028B5;LAB20 $ " @538AB@0F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 8 @53C;8@>20=88 8E ?C1;8G=>9 45<>=AB@0F88" >B 28 0?@5;O 1993 3. N 3911, 0 70B5< ?>AB0=>2;5=8O > ;8F5=78@>20=88 :>=AB0B8@>20;>AL ?@0:B8G5A:>5 8AG57=>25=85 8<5==> :8=>?8@0BAB20 2 AD5@5 ?C1;8G=>3> ?>:070. 04> >B<5B8BL, GB> B@51>20=85 > =0;8G88 4>3>2>@0 4>AB0B>G=> ;53:> A>1;N405BAO, ?>B><C GB> A53>4=O, :>340 4>3>2>@ AB0; >A=>2=K< A@54AB2>< CAB0=>2;5=8O E>7O9AB25==KE A2O759, =0945BAO =5<=>3> ?@>:0BG8:>2, ?>;CG82H8E :>?8N 4;O 45<>=AB@0F88 ?@>AB> "?>4 G5AB=>5 A;>2>". >A;5 22545=8O 2 459AB285 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O > ;8F5=78@>20=88 AB@>3> B@51>20;>AL 2 >BG5B=KE 4>:C<5=B0E 8<5BL =>B0@80;L=> C4>AB>25@5==CN :>?8N ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O, 8 MB> B@51>20=85 =5 2A5340 1K;> 2>7<>6=> 2K?>;=8BL. @8 ?@8>1@5B5=88 ?@02 C ?@02>>1;040B5;O, =0E>4OI53>AO =0 B5@@8B>@88 $, ?>A;54=89 >1O70= 2K40BL B@51C5<CN 2 40==>< ?C=:B5 =>B0@80;L=> C4>AB>25@5==CN :>?8N, > 5A;8 ?@020 ?@8>1@5B5=K =0 D8;L<, :>B>@K9 1C45B 2?5@2K5 ?>:070= =0 B5@@8B>@88 $ 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, ?>:0 =5 8<55B ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O, B> G0I5 2A53> A0< ?@>:0BG8:, 5A;8 4>3>2>@>< =5 CAB0=>2;5=> 8=>5, 4>;65= ?>;CG8BL 53> 2 >A:8=>. =0;>38G=0O A8BC0F8O 2>7=8:05B, 5A;8 ?@>:0BG8: A>18@05BAO ?C1;8G=> ?>:07K20BL 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, :>B>@>5 E>BO 8 8<55B ?@02>>1;040B5;O =0 B5@@8B>@88 $, => 2 A2O78 A 53> ?@54K4CI8<8 A?>A>10<8 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?>;CG5=85 ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O =5 B@51>20;>AL (=0?@8<5@, ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07 2 2845>A0;>=5 B5;52878>==>3> A5@80;0). 0:>=5F, A @0728B85< =0 ?@>:0B=>< @K=:5 B0:8E CA;C3, :>340 48AB@81LNB5@A:0O >@30=870F8O ?@8>1@5B05B ?@020 =0 ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07 D8;L<0, 0 70B5< A405B 53> :>?88 2 ?@>:0B >@30=870F8O<, =5?>A@54AB25==> 70=8<0NI8<AO ?C1;8G=>9 45<>=AB@0F859, B.5. 45@60B5;O< ;8F5=789, ?@>:0BG8: 8<5; C A51O :>?8N ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O B>;L:> 2 ?5@8>4 =5?>A@54AB25==>3> ?>:070 D8;L<0 8 >B4020; 53> >1@0B=> 2<5AB5 A :>?859 D8;L<0 48AB@81LNB5@C.  B0:>< A;CG05 >A:8=> @5:><5=4>20; ?@>:0BG8:0< >AB02;OBL 2 A2>8E >BG5B=KE 4>:C<5=B0E =5 A0<C :>?8N ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O, 0 B>;L:> D8:A8@>20BL 40==K5 0 =5<. >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " 2=5A5=88 87<5=5=89 8 4>?>;=5=89 2 >;>65=85 > ;8F5=78@>20=88 45OB5;L=>AB8, A2O70==>9 A ?C1;8G=K< ?>:07>< :8=>- 1 !>1@0=85 0:B>2 @57845=B0 8 @028B5;LAB20 $. - 1993. - ! 18. - AB. 1607. 54 8 2845>D8;L<>2" >B 13 A5=BO1@O 1996 3. N 10911 70:@5?8;> C?@>I5==K9 ?>@O4>: >BG5B=>AB8, @5:><5=4>20==K9 >A:8=>. B=K=5 ??. "1" ?. 14 B@51>20; 2=5A5=8O 2 4>3>2>@ > ?@8>1@5B5=88 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0 A2545=89 > =0;8G88 ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O ( A C:070=85< 53> @538AB@0F8>==>3> =><5@0 8 40BK 2K40G8, 2>7@0AB=KE >3@0=8G5=89 8 A?>A>1>2 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O D8;L<0). 0:@5?;5==K9 2 >;>65=88 ?>@O4>: @0AA<>B@5=8O 70O2;5=8O, 2K40G8 ;8F5=788, 55 ?@8>AB0=>2;5=8O, 2>7>1=>2;5=8O 8 0==C;8@>20=8O >B25G05B ?@028;0<, ?@54CA<>B@5==K< ?>AB0=>2;5=85< @028B5;LAB20 $ " ;8F5=78@>20=88 >B45;L=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8". 8F5=78@>20=8N ?>4;568B 45OB5;L=>ABL, A2O70==0O A 4@C38< A?>A>1>< ?C1;8G=>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 - 4>2545=85 4> 2A5>1I53> A2545=8O ?CB5< A>>1I5=8O 2 MD8@ 8;8 ?5@540G8 ?> :015;N.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 459AB2C5B ?>AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " ;8F5=78@>20=88 B5;52878>==>3> 25I0=8O, @048>25I0=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> A2O78 2 >1;0AB8 B5;52878>==>3> 8 @048>25I0=8O 2 $" >B 7 45:01@O 1994 3. N 13592. => ?@8=OB> 2 A>>B25BAB288 A #:07>< @57845=B0 $ " A>25@H5=AB2>20=88 3>AC40@AB25==>3> C?@02;5=8O 2 AD5@5 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88" >B 22 45:01@O 1993 3. ! 22553, ?5@5402H8< $545@0;L=>9 A;C615 >AA88 ?> B5;52845=8N 8 @048>25I0=8N DC=:F88 8=8AB5@AB20 ?5G0B8 8 8=D>@<0F88 $, A2O70==K5 A >ACI5AB2;5=85< 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>;8B8:8 2 AD5@5 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1I5@>AA89A:8E 8 @538>=0;L=KE 3>AC40@AB25==KE B5;5@048>25I0B5;L=KE >@30=870F89, 0 B0:65 A @538AB@0F859 8 ;8F5=78@>20=85< 3>AC40@AB25==KE 8 =53>AC40@AB25==KE B5;5@048>25I0B5;L=KE >@30=870F89. >@O4>: ;8F5=78@>20=8O B5;525I0B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 3>@074> 1>;55 AB@>3, G5< ?>;CG5=85 ;8F5=788 =0 ?C1;8G=K9 :8=>- 8 2845>?>:07. ! 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O >10 2840 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 - 8 2 :8=>70;0E 8;8 2845>A0;>=0E, 8 ?> :015;L=><C 8;8 MD8@=><C B5;52845=8N -01A>;NB=> @02=K, => 3>AC40@AB2> 2 A8;C A2>8E 8=B5@5A>2 ?>4E>48B : =8< ?>-@07=><C.  >B;8G85 >B ?C1;8G=>3> ?>:070 ;8F5=78@>20=85 B5;525I0B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =5 >@30=0<8 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 AC1J5:B>2 $545@0F88, 0 D545@0;L=K<8 >@30=0<8 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 - $545@0;L=>9 A;C61>9 >AA88 ?> B5;52845=8N 8 @048>25I0=8N ($!" ) 8 8=8AB5@AB2>< A2O78 $. 8F5=78@>20=8N ?>4;568B 45OB5;L=>ABL, >ACI5AB2;O5<0O =0 B5@@8B>@88 1 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1996. - ! 38. - AB. 4440. 2 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1994. - ! 34. - AB. 3604, 3 " >AA89A:85 25AB8" >B 24 45:01@O 1993 3. 55 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 A F5;LN >15A?5G5=8O =0A5;5=8O B5;52878>==K<8 8 @048>?@>3@0<<0<8, @0AAG8B0==K<8 =0 >1I5@>AA89A:CN, @538>=0;L=CN 8 <5AB=CN 0C48B>@88, 0 B0:65 =0 >ACI5AB2;5=85 70@C156=>3> B5;5- 8 @048>25I0=8O. !>8A:0B5;O<8 ;8F5=788 <>3CB 1KBL B>;L:> N@848G5A:85 ;8F0, 70@538AB@8@>20==K5 2 CAB0=>2;5==>< ?>@O4:5 =0 B5@@8B>@88 $ (:AB0B8 2 >;>65=88 > ;8F5=78@>20=88 ?C1;8G=>3> ?>:070 =5 C:07K205BAO, GB> B>;L:> ;8 @>AA89A:85 N@848G5A:85 ;8F0 8 3@0640=5 <>3CB ?>;CG8BL ;8F5=78N) 8, 1>;55 B>3>, CB>G=O5BAO, GB> =5 ;N1K5 N@848G5A:85 ;8F0, 0 ;8HL 70@538AB@8@>20==K5 2 :0G5AB25 A@54AB2 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 2 ?>@O4:5, CAB0=>2;5==>< AB. 8 - 13 0:>=0 $ " A@54AB20E <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88" >B 27 45:01@O 1991 3. ! 2124-1 1).  A>>B25BAB288 A ?. 3 >;>65=8O =5 B@51C5BAO ?>;CG5=85 ;8F5=788, 5A;8 :015;L=0O A5BL B5;525I0=8O 8 ?@>2>4=0O A5BL >3@0=8G5=K ?><5I5=8O<8 8 B5@@8B>@859 >4=>3> CG@5645=8O, CG51=>3> 702545=8O 8;8 ?@><KH;5==>3> ?@54?@8OB8O, ;81> 5A;8 >1I55 G8A;> 01>=5=B>2 =5 ?@52KH05B 10 (2 A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 12 0:>=0 > A@54AB20E <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 =5 B@51C5BAO @538AB@0F8O B5;5- 8 @048>?@>3@0<<, @0A?@>AB@0=O5<KE ?> B0:8< :015;L=K< A5BO<, ?@0240, B0< @5GL 845B > 3>AC40@AB25==KE, 0 =5 ;N1KE CG@5645=8OE). -B0 D>@<C;8@>2:0 ?>72>;O5B A45;0BL =5A:>;L:> ?@0:B8G5A:8E 2K2>4>2: 2A5 >@30=870F88 MD8@=>3> B5;525I0=8O 4>;6=K ?>;CG8BL ;8F5=78N; C:070==K5 :0B53>@88 N@848G5A:8E ;8F <>3CB ?@8 65;0=88 >1@0B8BLAO 70 ;8F5=7859; ?@8 A;>682H5<AO @K=:5 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 ?> ;>:0;L=K< :015;L=K< A5BO<, 206=>, GB> >A=>2=K5 ?>;L7>20B5;8 - 3>AB8=8FK, 0M@>?>@BK 8 ?@. =5 2>H;8 2 :@C3 ;8F, >A2>1>645==KE >;>65=85< >B =5>1E>48<>AB8 ;8F5=78@>20BL A2>N 45OB5;L=>ABL, B0: :0: >A=>2=K< :@8B5@85< 2K1@0=> =5 >3@0=8G5==>5 G8A;> 01>=5=B>2, 0 ?@>D8;L >@30=870F88. 0: 8 2 AD5@5 ?C1;8G=>3> ?>:070, ;8F5=78O =5 @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =0 ?@02>?@55<=8:>2, 0 B0:65 4@C38E N@848G5A:8E ;8F, CG@5645==KE ;8F5=780B><, 8 =5 <>65B 1KBL ?5@540=0 4@C3><C N@848G5A:><C ;8FC 8;8 3@0640=8=C (?. 14). !?5F8D8G5A:8< A?>A>1>< ?@54>AB02;5=8O ;8F5=788, 70:@5?;5==K< ?. 8 >;>65=8O, O2;O5BAO :>=:C@A, >1JO2;O5<K9 $!" . 3> CA;>28O 8 A@>:8 ?@>2545=8O 4>;6=K 1KBL >?C1;8:>20=K 2 A@54AB20E <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88.  B5:AB5 >;>65=8O, :@><5 :0: 2 ?. 8, =5 C?><8=05BAO > B0:>< :>=:C@A5, > ;L3>B0E 8 ?@58<CI5AB20E ?>1548B5;O B0:>3> :>=:C@A0 2 ?>;CG5=88 ;8F5=788 ?> A@02=5=8N A >@30=870F8O<8, ?>40NI8<8 70O2;5=85 =0 >1I8E >A=>20=8OE.  >AB0;L=>< ?>@O4>: 1 (A 87<5=5=8O<8 8 4>?>;=5=8O<8 >B 13 O=20@O, 1 8N=O, 19 8N;O 8 27 45:01@O 1995 3.) // 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1992. - ! 7, - AB. 300. 56 @0AA<>B@5=8O 70O2;5=89, 2K40G8, ?>@O4>: 8 >A=>20=8O ?@8>AB0=>2;5=8O, 2>7>1=>2;5=8O 8 0==C;8@>20=8O ;8F5=788, A@>: 55 459AB28O, :0: 8 ?>;=><>G8O >@30=0, 2K40NI53> ;8F5=78N, 8 :>=B@>;L=KE >@30=>2 (A@548 :>B>@KE :>=:@5B=> =07K205BAO >AC40@AB25==0O B5E=8G5A:0O 8=A?5:F8O ?> B5;5@048>25I0=8N (?. 16)) 2 >1>8E >;>65=8OE ?> ACB8 AE>4=K9, E>BO 8 5ABL =5:>B>@K5 @07;8G8O 8 =5A>2?045=8O 2 D>@<C;8@>2:0E. >;>65=85 > ;8F5=78@>20=88 25I0B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 1>;55 AB@>3> >B=>A8BAO : 459AB28O< A0<>3> ;8F5=780B0 ?> ?>;CG5=8N ;8F5=788 8 55 45@60=8N, =0?@8<5@ ;8F5=78O 0==C;8@C5BAO, 5A;8 >=0 ?>;CG5=0 >1<0==K< ?CB5< 8;8 5A;8 CAB0=>2;5= D0:B A:@KB>9 CABC?:8 ;8F5=788 (017. 1 8 3 G. 1 ?. 17) - A0<8 D@07K :0: 1C4B> 708<AB2>20=K 87 #3>;>2=>3> :>45:A0, 8 <5=55 AB@>3> =5?>A@54AB25==> : 53> 45OB5;L=>AB8 - =0?@8<5@, ;8F5=78O 0==C;8@C5BAO 2 A;CG05 A8AB5<0B8G5A:>3> @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O B5;5- 8 @048>?@>3@0<< A =0@CH5=85< 459AB2CNI53> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E. >7<>6=>, B0:>5 >B=>H5=85 : A>1;N45=8N 02B>@A:>-?@02>2KE =>@< >1JOA=O5BAO B5<, GB> ;8F>, >ACI5AB2;ONI55 ?C1;8G=K9 :8=>?>:07, 2 >?@545;5==K9 ?@><56CB>: 2@5<5=8 8<55B >3@0=8G5==K9 @5?5@BC0@, 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, =5A:>;L:> A50=A>2 2 45=L >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 D8;L<0, :>?8O :>B>@>3> ?>;CG5=0 ?@>:0BG8:>< 157 A>1;N45=8O ?@02 ?@02>>1;040B5;O 8;8 B@51>20=89 >, <>3CB AG8B0BLAO M?87>40<8 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 ?@02>=0@CH5=8O, B>340 :0: 2 B>B 65 ?@><56CB>: 2@5<5=8 25I0B5;L=0O >@30=870F8O 8A?>;L7C5B =5A@02=8<> 1>;LH55 G8A;> >1J5:B>2 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, 8 548=8G=K9 A;CG09 =0@CH5=8O <>65B >1JOA=OBLAO ?@>AB>9 >?;>H=>ABLN 8;8 AB5G5=85< >1AB>OB5;LAB2. -B> 2>2A5 =5 >7=0G05B, GB> >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 B0:>5 =0@CH5=85 ?> > =5 4>;6=0 =0ABC?0BL, => 0==C;8@>20=85 ;8F5=788 2 B0:>< A;CG05 - A;8H:>< A5@L57=>5 =0:070=85. @><5 B>3>, >BACBAB285 2 ?>AB0=>2;5=88 > ;8F5=78@>20=88 25I0B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 B@51>20=8O, 0=0;>38G=>3> A>45@60I5<CAO 2 ?>AB0=>2;5=88 > ;8F5=78@>20=88 ?C1;8G=>3> ?>:070, > =5>1E>48<>AB8 8<5BL =0 :064>5 8A?>;L7C5<>5 ?@>872545=85 ?>4B25@640NI85 ?@020 4>:C<5=BK (4>3>2>@ > ?@8>1@5B5=88 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 45<>=AB@8@C5<>3> 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8 =>B0@80;L=> 7025@5==CN 8;8 C4>AB>25@5==CN 3>AC40@AB25==K< @538AB@>< :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 >A:8=> :>?8N ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O) >1JOA=O5BAO, 2>-?5@2KE, B5<, GB> 4;O 8A?>;L7>20=8O D8;L<0 ?CB5< ?5@540G8 ?> MD8@=><C B5;52845=8N =5 =04> ?>;CG0BL ?@>:0B=>5 C4>AB>25@5=85, 0 2>-2B>@KE, B5<, GB> <=>385 ?5@540G8 ?>4?040NB ?>4 459AB285 AB. 19 >, 2 G0AB=>AB8 ?. 2, @07@5H0NI53> 8A?>;L7>20=85 57 ?@02><5@=> >1=0@>4>20==KE ?@>872545=89 2 :0G5AB25 8;;NAB@0F89 2 B5;5?5@540G0E CG51=>3> E0@0:B5@0. 13 A5=BO1@O 1996 3. @028B5;LAB2> $ ?@8=O;> ?>AB0=>2;5=85 " 2=5A5=88 87<5=5=89 8 4>?>;=5=89 2 >;>65=85 > ;8F5=78@>20=88 45OB5;L=>AB8, A2O70==>9 A ?C1;8G=K< ?>:07>< :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2" ! 1091. C=:B 1 87;0305BAO 2 A;54CNI59 @540:F88: "0AB>OI55 >;>65=85 CAB0=02;8205B ?@028;0 ;8F5=78@>20=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8, A2O70==>9 A ?C1;8G=K< ?>:07>< ?>4;560I8E @538AB@0F88 2 ?>@O4:5, CAB0=>2;5==>< ?>AB0=>2;5=85< !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 -@028B5;LAB20 $ >B 28 0?@5;O 1993 3. N 396 " @538AB@0F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 8 @53C;8@>20=88 8E ?C1;8G=>9 45<>=AB@0F88", :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 =0 :8=>- 8 B5;5M:@0=5 ;81> A ?><>ILN 8=KE B5E=8G5A:8E A@54AB2 8 >ACI5AB2;O5<>9 N@848G5A:8<8 ;8F0<8 (2 B>< G8A;5 B5;5@048>25I0B5;L=K<8 >@30=870F8O<8) =57028A8<> >B 8E >@30=870F8>==>-?@02>2>9 D>@<K, 0 B0:65 D878G5A:8<8 ;8F0<8, 70=8<0NI8<8AO ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN 157 >1@07>20=8O N@848G5A:>3> ;8F0". >A:>;L:C @538AB@0F8N 4>;6=K ?@>E>48BL 2A5 >B5G5AB25==K5, 70@C156=K5 8 A>2<5AB=K5 D8;L<K, :@><5 B5E, :>B>@K5 A>740=K 8 ?@54=07=0G5=K 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 4;O MD8@=>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O, B>, =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4, >B=K=5 ?>;CG0BL ;8F5=78N =0 ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07 4>;6=K 2A5 :015;L=K5 ABC488 B5;52845=8O. > ?>A:>;L:C >@30=870F88 MD8@=>3> 25I0=8O B0:65 8A?>;L7CNB ?>4;560I85 @538AB@0F88 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O, =0?@8<5@ ?>:07K20NB ?@>H54H85 2 70;0E 8;8 B8@068@>20==K5 =0 2845>=>A8B5;OE D8;L<K, B> 8 >=8 4>;6=K ?>;CG8BL ;8F5=78N. @0:B8G5A:8 B0:>9 ?>@O4>: 4C1;8@C5B ?@>F54C@C, >ACI5AB2;O5<CN $!"  2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?>AB0=>2;5=85< @028B5;LAB20 $ >B 7 45:01@O 1994 3. N 1359. !>3;0A=> 87<5=5=8O<, ?@54CA<>B@5==K< 2 ?. 9, B5;525I0B5;L=K5 >@30=870F88 4>;6=K, ?><8<> ?5@5G8A;5==KE 4>:C<5=B>2 ?@54>AB028BL :>?8N ;8F5=788 =0 25I0=85, ?>;CG5==CN 2 $!" . "0:8< >1@07><, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L =5>1E>48<> >D>@<8BL AB0BCA A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 8 @07@5H5=85 =0 >ACI5AB2;5=85 25I0B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0 C6 70B5< ?>;CG8BL @07@5H5=85 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?>4;560I8E @538AB@0F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O ?>O28;>AL =5A:>;L:> :0=0;>2 B5;52845=8O, A?5F80;878@CNI8EAO =0 B>9 8;8 8=>9 B5<5, B>9 8;8 8=>9 8=D>@<0F88. "0:>2K<8, =0?@8<5@, O2;ONBAO B@5B89 8 G5B25@BK9 :0=0; A8AB5<K A?CB=8:>2>3> B5;52845=8O ""+". G5284=>, >=8 =5 4>;6=K ?>;CG0BL ;8F5=788 =0 ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07, ?>A:>;L:C @0A?@>AB@0=O5<K5 8<8 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O =5 ?>4;560B 58 @538AB@0F88. %>BO 5A;8 8AE>48BL 87 ?@8=F8?0 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 > @02=>9 >E@0=5 :0: A0<>3> ?@>872545=8O, B0: 8 53> G0AB8, B> 8A?>;L7>20=85 B0:8<8 :0=0;0<8 2 A2>8E ?5@540G0E >B@K2:>2 8;8 F8B0B 87 ?>4;560I8E @538AB@0F88 D8;L<>2 <>65B A;C68BL >A=>20=85< 4;O B@51>20=8O ?>;CG8BL ;8F5=78N. 5 A>2A5< ?>=OB=K 4>?>;=5=8O, A>45@60I85AO 2 ?. 16: ""5;5@048>25I0B5;L=K5 >@30=870F88, 25I0NI85 =0 B5@@8B>@8N 1>;55 >4=>3> AC1J5:B0 $ 8 >ACI5AB2;ONI85 ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2, ?>;CG0NB A>>B25BAB2CNICN ;8F5=78N 2 !" ". -B8 >@30=870F88 8 B0: ?>;CG0NB B0:CN ;8F5=78N, 2 :>B>@>9 C:07K205BAO B5@@8B>@8O >E20B0. 04> ;8 AG8B0BL MB>B ?C=:B @07@5H5=85< =5 @538AB@8@>20BL A2>N ;8F5=78N =0 ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07, ?>;CG5==CN 2 >@30=5 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 AC1J5:B0 $, 2 :>B>@>< =0E>48BAO HB01-:20@B8@0, N@848G5A:89 04@5A 8;8 B@0=A;OB>@ 25I0B5;L=>9 >@30=870F88, 2 >@30=0E 4@C38E AC1J5:B>2 $, B5@@8B>@8O :>B>@KE 2E>48B 2 7>=C 25I0=8O? 7<5=5=8O 8 4>?>;=5=8O =8:0: =5 :>A=C;8AL 2>?@>A0, :0:>20 AC4L10 ;8F5=788 =0 ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07 ?@8 ?@8>AB0=>2;5=88 8;8 0==C;8@>20=88 ;8F5=788 =0 25I0=85. 5402=> 22545==>5 =0 B5@@8B>@88 >A:2K ;8F5=78@>20=85 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> 873>B>2;5=8N 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8N 2845>=>A8B5;59 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 :0G5AB25==> =>2K9 MB0? 1>@L1K A 2845>?8@0BAB2><, 2A5 5I5 ?@5>1;040NI8< =0 A>2@5<5==>< >B5G5AB25==>< 2845>@K=:5, =5A<>B@O =0 ?@8=OB85 @O40 A5@L57=KE ?@02>2KE <5@. 5A><=5==>, =5>1E>48<>ABL 2:;NG5=8O 873>B>2;5=8O 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 2845>=>A8B5;59 2 ?5@5G5=L ;8F5=78@C5<KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 (AB. 17 0:>=0 > ;8F5=78@>20=88) =07@5;0 402=>. @8=OB85 2 3. >A:25 0A?>@O65=89 M@0 >B 18 <0@B0 1998 3.1 8 >B 23 <0@B0 1998 3.2 8 CB25@645==>3> ><8B5B>< ?> B5;5:><<C=8:0F8O< 8 ! ?@8 @028B5;LAB25 >A:2K 8 # 3. >A:2K 12 <0O 1998 3, ">@O4:0 2K40G8 @07@5H5=89 =0 @50;870F8N 2845>-, 0C48>?@>4C:F88, :><?LNB5@=KE 8=D>@<0F8>==KE =>A8B5;59, M;5<5=B>2 8E >D>@<;5=8O 8 845=B8D8:0F88", =5;L7O 4065 =0720BL A2>52@5<5==K<8, B0: 402=> A;54>20;> 225AB8 :>=B@>;L. > CAB0=>2;5==0O 2KH5C:070==K<8 =>@<0B82=K<8 0:B0<8 A8AB5<0 2K7K205B <=>65AB2> 2>?@>A>2, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L C ;530;L=KE 873>B>28B5;59 8 @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;59 2845>:0AA5B. 0A?>@O65=85 M@0 >A:2K >B 18 <0@B0 1998 3. N 237-  " ;8F5=78@>20=88 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> ?@>872>4AB2C (B8@068@>20=8N), >?B>2>9 8 @>7=8G=>9 @50;870F88 2845>?@>4C:F88 =0 B5@@8B>@88 3>@>40 >A:2K"// "5AB=8: <M@88 >A:2K", N 13, 8N;L 1998 3. 2 0A?>@O65=85 M@0 >A:2K >B 23 <0@B0 1998 3. N 265-  " =>2>< ?>@O4:5 @50;870F88 2845>- 8 0C48>:0AA5B, :><?LNB5@=KE 8=D>@<0F8>==KE =>A8B5;59, ;075@=KE 8 :><?0:B-48A:>2 2 3. >A:25" (A 87<. 8 4>?. >B 26 8N=O 1998 3.) // "5AB=8: <M@88 >A:2K", N 14, 8N;L 1998 3. 59 >-?5@2KE, 22545= 42>9=>9 <5E0=87< :>=B@>;O. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?.1.2. 0A?>@O65=8O >B 18 <0@B0 1998 3. 45OB5;L=>ABL ?> ?@>872>4AB2C (B8@068@>20=8N), >?B>2>9 8 @>7=8G=>9 @50;870F88 (:C@A82 <>9 -.'.) 2845>?@>4C:F88 =0 B5@@8B>@88 3. >A:2K >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =0 >A=>20=88 ;8F5=788, 2K40205<>9 >A:>2A:>9 ;8F5=78>==>9 ?0;0B>9, ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?. 1.2. >@O4:0 45OB5;L=>ABL ?> @50;870F88 (:C@A82 <>9 -.'.) 2845>-, 0C48>?@>4C:F88, :><?LNB5@=KE 8=D>@<0F8>==KE =>A8B5;59, M;5<5=B>2 8E >D>@<;5=8O 8 845=B8D8:0F88 =0 B5@@8B>@88 3. >A:2K >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =0 >A=>20=88 07@5H5=8O, 2K40205<>3> ><8B5B>< ?> B5;5:><<C=8:0F8O< 8 ! ?@8 @028B5;LAB25 >A:2K. >-2B>@KE, 4065 5A;8 70:@KBL 3;070 =0 =5F5;5A>>1@07=>ABL 22545=8O 4C1;8@CNI8E 4@C3 4@C30 A8AB5< :>=B@>;O, C482;O5B, GB> 4>:C<5=BK 2K40NBAO =0 @07=K9 A@>:: 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?. 2.14 >@O4:0 @07@5H5=85 - =0 1 :0;5=40@=K9 3>4, 0 ?> ?. 2.13 0A?>@O65=8O >B 18 <0@B0 1998 3. ;8F5=78O - =0 3 3>40. A;8 8 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> @07@5H5=85 2K405BAO =5 AB>;L:> 4;O :>=B@>;O 70 45OB5;L=>ABLN, A:>;L:> 4;O :>=B@>;O 70 A>45@60=85< @50;87C5<>9 ?@>4C:F88, GB> :>A25==> ?>4B25@6405B B@51>20=85 ?. 2.1.8. >@O4:0 > ?@54>AB02;5=88 45:;0@0F88 > =0E>4OI59AO =0 @50;870F88 C 70O28B5;O 2845>- 8 0C48>?@>4C:F88, B> 254L 70 3>4 459AB28O @07@5H5=8O 70O28B5;L <>65B C25;8G8BL A2>9 "0AA>@B8<5=B", ?@8G5< =8345 2 >@O4:5 =5 ?@54CA<>B@5=0 >1O70==>ABL ?@54>AB02;5=8O 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE A2545=89 2 B5G5=85 A@>:0 459AB28O @07@5H5=8O. &5;8 22545=8O 2A5E MB8E 0:B>2 2 >A=>2=>< A>2?040NB: C?>@O4>G5=85 40==>3> 2840 45OB5;L=>AB8, 70I8B0 ?@02 ?>B@518B5;59, ?@54>B2@0I5=8O =0@CH5=89 02B>@A:8E ?@02. @0240, 2 >@O4:5 2 :0G5AB25 F5;8 C:07K205BAO ?@54>B2@0I5=85 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O ?@>4C:F88 =87:>3> =@02AB25==>-MB8G5A:>3> A>45@60=8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?@>?030=48@CNI59 =0A8;85 8 ?>@=>3@0D8N, B> 5ABL 22545=85 >?@545;5==>3> @>40 F5=7C@K 8 4C1;8@>20=85 DC=:F89 ?> 2K40G5 ?@>:0B=KE C4>AB>25@5=89.  A2O78 A 22545=85< 2 459AB285 0:>=0 > ;8F5=78@>20=88 A;54C5B >6840BL 2=5A5=8O 87<5=5=89 2 ACI5AB2CNI89 A53>4=O ?>@O4>: ;8F5=78@>20=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8, A2O70==>9 A 8A?>;L7>20=85< 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. 60 ;020 2. @54?@8=8<0B5;LA:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 8 55 AC1J5:BK 57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 2 >B;8G85 >B <=>38E 284>2 8A:CAAB20 ?@>45;K205B >B A2>8E 02B>@>2 : 7@8B5;N 4>;389 8 A;>6=K9 ?CBL. @>F5AA A>740=8O D8;L<0 70=8<05B =5<0;>5 2@5<O, B@51C5B CG0AB8O >3@><=>3> G8A;0 :0: B2>@G5A:8E, B0: 8 B5E=8G5A:8E 8 04<8=8AB@0B82=KE @01>B=8:>2, 2;>65=8O 7=0G8B5;L=KE A@54AB2.  B>;L:> B>340 >= AB0=>28BAO A0<8< D8;L<>< - 70:>=G5==K< ?@>872545=85<, >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, 3>B>2K< 4;O 2>A?@8OB8O 53> 7@8B5;5<. > 8 ?@>F5AA ?@>E>645=8O 70:>=G5==>3> D8;L<0 : :>=5G=><C "?>B@518B5;N" B0:65 B@51C5B 2;>65=89, 3@0<>B=>9 >@30=870F88 ?@>:0B0, ?>:070, 8 ?>B><C 0:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5 ?@54CA<0B@8205B 4>B0F88 =5 B>;L:> ?@>872>4AB25==K<, => 8 ?@>:0B=K< ?@>5:B0<.  4065 :>340 2A5 CA;>28O 4;O :>=5G=>3> "?>B@51;5=8O" A>740=K, MB8 CA8;8O <>3CB >:070BLAO =0?@0A=K<8, 5A;8 D8;L< =5 ?>=@028BAO =8 7@8B5;N, =8 ?>A@54=8:0< (48AB@81LNB5@0<, ?@>:0BG8:0<, B5;5:0=0;0<). > 5A;8 @5F5?B :><<5@G5A:>3> 8 7@8B5;LA:>3> CA?5E0 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 70@0=55 =58725AB5= 4065 A0<K< :@C?=K< <0AB5@0<, B> 25AL ?CBL D8;L<0 >B 70<KA;0 4> B8@060 :>?89 ?>4405BAO 45B0;L=><C >?8A0=8N, 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, ?@>3=>78@>20=8N. -B>B ?CBL <>6=> ?@54AB028BL A515 2 2845 AE5<K. !E5<0 ! 1 CBL ?@>E>645=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O >B 02B>@A:>3> 70<KA;0 : 7@8B5;N:  61 0 AE5<5 C:070=K 2A5 CG0AB=8:8 ?@>F5AA0 ?@>42865=8O D8;L<0 >B 02B>@>2 : 7@8B5;N, => =5 :064K9 87 =8E, 459AB2CO 2 @0<:0E >1I53> A;065==>3> <5E0=87<0, >ACI5AB2;O5B 8<5==> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL. ;O 02B>@>2 D8;L<0, G;5=>2 B2>@G5A:>9 3@C??K 8 0:B5@>2 MB>B ?@>F5AA O2;O5BAO @50;870F859 8E B2>@G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0, 4;O B5E=8G5A:8E @01>B=8:>2 - 8A?>;=5=85 B@C4>2KE >1O70==>AB59. 5OB5;L=>ABL 65 2A5E >AB0;L=KE CG0AB=8:>2 D0:B8G5A:8 O2;O5BAO ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9, B.5. 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 2  $ "A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9, >ACI5AB2;O5<>9 =0 A2>9 @8A:, =0?@02;5==>9 =0 A8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 ?>;CG5=85 ?@81K;8...". A>15==>ABL MB>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 2>>1I5 ?@54>?@545;O5BAO A?5F8D8:>9 ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O 55 >1J5:B0 - D8;L<0 :0: @57C;LB0B0 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, >E@0=O5<>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025. @54?@8=8<0B5;LA:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =0 2A5E AB048OE A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 8 745AL <>6=> 2K45;8BL 62 =5A:>;L:> AC1J5:B>2. 0 MB0?5 ?@>872>4AB20 D8;L<0 ?><8<> "F5=B@0;L=>9" ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 D83C@K ?@>4NA5@0 AC1J5:B0<8 B0:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 O2;ONBAO >@30=870F88 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, >15A?5G820NI85 >B45;L=K5 CG0AB:8 ?@>872>4AB20 D8;L<0, :><?0=88, =5 O2;ONI85AO A?5F80;L=K<8 :8=>>@30=870F8O<8, => >:07K20NI85 687=5==> 206=K5 4;O A>740=8O D8;L<0 CA;C38 - 8=25AB8@>20=85 8 :@548B>20=85, AB@0E>20=85 ?@>5:B0, ?>41>@ B2>@G5A:8E :04@>2, N@848G5A:CN ?>445@6:C 8 @07@01>B:C 4>3>2>@=>9 8 8=>9 4>:C<5=B0F88. >A;5 7025@H5=8O D8;L<0, B.5. =0 AB0488 53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O, D0:B8G5A:>3> 4>2545=8O 4> 2A5>1I53> A2545=8O, =0 ?5@2K9 ?;0= 2KE>4OB AC1J5:BK ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, A?5F80;878@CNI85AO =0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. -B> 48AB@81LNB5@K, ?@>:0BG8:8 8 ?>:07G8:8, 25I0B5;L=K5 >@30=870F88, 873>B>28B5;8 8 @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;8 2845>=>A8B5;59 A 70?8ALN D8;L<0. @><5 B>3>, A>740==K9 D8;L< ?>?0405B 2 @C:8 >@30=870F89, >A=>2=>9 F5;LN 45OB5;L=>AB8 :>B>@KE =5 O2;O5BAO 872;5G5=85 ?@81K;8 87 53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O. > =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E, E>BO 8 =5 O2;ONBAO 2 ?@O<>< A<KA;5 A;>20 AC1J5:B0<8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 1C4CB @0AA<>B@5=K 2 40==>9 3;025, ?>A:>;L:C 8E @01>B0 =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L 2K7K205B <=>65AB2> 2>?@>A>2. "0:8< >1@07><, AC1J5:B0<8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 O2;ONBAO ;8F0, :>B>@K5 =0 @07=KE AB048OE ?@>E>645=8O D8;L<0 >B 02B>@>2 : 7@8B5;N ?@O<> (?@>4NA5@K, 48AB@81LNB5@K 8 ?@.) 8;8 :>A25==> (AB@0E>20B5;8, 8=25AB>@K 8 B.?.) 8A?>;L7CNB A0<> 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 8;8 53> M;5<5=BK, ?@020 =0 53> 8A?>;L7>20=85 8;8 M:75<?;O@K MB>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 :0G5AB25 >1J5:B0 A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8, =0?@02;5==>9 =0 ?>;CG5=85 ?@81K;8.  ?@8=F8?5, A >?@545;5==>9 4>;59 CA;>2=>AB8, <>6=> A:070BL, GB> 8 02B>@K D8;L<0, >ACI5AB2;OO A2>N B2>@G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 8 CABC?0O ?@>4NA5@C =0 >A=>20=88 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 ?@020 =0 53> 8A?>;L7>20=85, B0:65 ?@5A;54CNB F5;L ?>;CG5=8O ?5@8>48G5A:>3> 4>E>40 2 2845 ?@>F5=B=KE >BG8A;5=89, => 2 40==>9 3;025 @5GL ?>945B > AC1J5:B0E 8<5==> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0 8=B5@5AK 8 ?@02>2>5 ?>;>65=85 02B>@>2 1C4CB @0AA<>B@5=K 2 A;54CNI59 3;025. 1. 84K ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0 AB0488 ?@>872>4AB20 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8 8E ?@02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 ) @>4NA8@>20=85 5 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL >4=>7=0G=>3> <=5=8O, :B> O2;O5BAO A0<>9 3;02=>9 D83C@>9 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>740=8O D8;L<0. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 D8;L< - MB> 63 @57C;LB0B A>2<5AB=>9 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 53> 02B>@>2: 02B>@0 AF5=0@8O, @568AA5@0 8 :><?>78B>@0, >ACI5AB2;O5<>9 ?@8 0:B82=>< CG0AB88 02B>@>2 >B45;L=KE 2:;04>2 2 D8;L<. 7 2A5E A>02B>@>2 D8;L<0 >A>1> 2K45;ONB D83C@C @568AA5@0 - =540@>< 2> 2A5E @5:;0<=KE >1JO2;5=8OE 3>2>@8BAO "D8;L< @568AA5@0 B0:>3>-B>"; 3;02=K9 ?@87 0==A:>3> D5AB820;O - "0;L<>20O 25B2L" 70 ;CGH89 D8;L< 3>40 2@CG05BAO 8<5==> @568AA5@C; ?@8 >?@545;5=88, :0:0O AB@0=0 ?@8 A>2<5AB=>< 52@>?59A:>< ?@>872>4AB25 1C45B ?@54AB02;OBL D8;L<, 2K18@05BAO 3>AC40@AB2>, 3@0640=AB2> :>B>@>3> 8<55B @568AA5@. > B0:>9 ?>4E>4 E0@0:B5@5= 4;O AB@0= :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 A8AB5<K ?@020. =3;>A0:A>=A:85 AB@0=K 2 7=0: ?@87=0=8O @>;8 ?@>4NA5@0 ?@8 A>740=88 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8<5==> 53> =045;ONB ?@020<8 =0 D8;L< ?> 70:>=C.  =0G0;5 90-E 3>4>2 2 >AA88 B>65 @07@010BK20;0AL <>45;L ?@>4NA5@A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0, :0: =081>;55 >?B8<0;L=>3> ?CB8 @0728B8O :8=> 2 =>2KE M:>=><8G5A:8E CA;>28OE. @>4NA5@ 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D5 2K?>;=O5B A;>6=CN 8 <=>3>7=0G=CN @>;L. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, MB> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;L, >@30=87CNI89 2AN D8=0=A>2CN 8 B5E=8G5A:CN AB>@>=C ?@>872>4AB20 D8;L<0 8 15@CI89 =0 A51O 8=8F80B82C =0G0;0 8 '>B25BAB25==>ABL 70 1;03>?>;CG=>5 >:>=G0=85 AJ5<>:. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 8<5==> ?@>4NA5@ 2K18@05B 8;8, 2 :@09=5< A;CG05, CB25@6405B 02B>@0 AF5=0@8O, @568AA5@0, :><?>78B>@0, G;5=>2 8A?>;=8B5;LA:>9 3@C??K, 70:;NG05B A =8<8 4>3>2>@K =0 A>740=85 8E 2:;04>2 2 D8;L< 8 CABC?:C ?@02 =0 8E 8A?>;L7>20=85 2 0C48>287C0;L=>< ?@>872545=88 8, B0:8< >1@07><, O2;O5BAO ?@02>>1;040B5;5<, =>A8B5;5< 02B>@A:8E 8 8A?>;=8B5;LA:8E ?@02. 5E0=87< ?5@5E>40 ?@02 >B ?5@28G=>3> 8E >1;040B5;O 8 2 >A=>2=>< >1J5< ?@02 8 ?>;=><>G89, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL ?5@540=K B2>@F>< ?@>4NA5@C, 2K7K20NB 1C@=K5 A?>@K :0: C A0<8E 45OB5;59 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, B0: 8 C N@8AB>2. 540@>< =081>;55 G0AB> C?>B@51;O5<>5 A@02=5=85, :>340 @5GL 845B >1 CG0AB=8:0E A>740=8O :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>3> ?@>872545=8O - "2>;:8 8 >2FK", ?@8G5< :064K9 87 G;5=>2 AJ5<>G=>9 3@C??K AG8B05B A51O >2F>9, @>4NA5@ =5 48:B0B>@, >= =5 <>65B =5?>A@54AB25==> 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 B2>@G5A:89 ?@>F5AA AF5=0@8AB0, @568AA5@0, :><?>78B>@0, 0:B5@>2, :>B>@KE >= ?@83;0A8;, >1KG=> 2 4>3>2>@5 C:07K20NBAO ?@545;K, 2 :>B>@KE ?@>4NA5@ <>65B ?@54;030BL (0 =5 B@51>20BL) 2=5A5=8O 87<5=5=89 2 A>740205<K9 02B>@>< 2:;04 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 5A;8 @0AE>645=8O ?@54?@8=8<0B5;O 8 B2>@F0 ?@8=8<0NB =5?@8<8@8<K9 E0@0:B5@, ?@>4NA5@ <>65B @0AB>@3=CBL 4>3>2>@ 8 =09B8 1>;55 1;87:>3> 02B>@0 ;81> 1>;55 A3>2>@G82>3>. :B5@ 4>;65= ?>4G8=OBLAO B@51>20=8O< @568AA5@0, => 5A;8 =0 @>;L 64 ?@83;0A8;8 "72574C", B> >=0 AG8B05B A51O 2?@025 48:B>20BL A2>8 =5 B>;L:> D8=0=A>2K5, => 8 EC4>65AB25==K5 CA;>28O 8 @568AA5@C, 8 AF5=0@8ABC. 065 B5 :8=5<0B>3@0D8ABK, :>B>@K5 =8 2 >4=>9 AB@0=5 <8@0 =5 ?@87=0NBAO 02B>@0<8 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;><, 2 :@09=5< A;CG05, "02B>@0<8 A2>53> 2:;040 2 ?@>872545=85", :>B>@K9 ?>4G0A =52>7<>6=> 2KG;5=8BL 87 >1I53> 0C48>287C0;L=>3> @O40, D>@<8@CNB 8 >BAB0820NB A2>5 2845=85 70:>=G5==>3> F5;>3> 8;8 G0AB8 D8;L<0. >>1I5, 2A5 ?@>D5AA88 2 :8=> B5A=> 2708<>A2O70=K, >3@><=0O 3@C??0 B2>@G5A:8E 8 B5E=8G5A:8E @01>B=8:>2 A>740NB 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85. @><5 B>3>, :8=> - MB> =5 B>;L:> @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:8E CA8;89 02B>@>2, ?@>4NA5@0 8 B2>@G5A:>-B5E=8G5A:>9 3@C??K; => 8 >B@0A;L ?@><KH;5==>AB8, ?> @0A?@>AB@0=5==>9 3>;82C4A:>9 D>@<C;8@>2:5 - "8=4CAB@8O 3@57". 540@>< 2@>?59A:>5 !>>1I5AB2> 2 @0<:0E TACIS (Technical Assistance for Communaty of Independent States) @07@010BK205B ?@>3@0<<C ?><>I8 8 @0728B8O 2 AD5@5 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8, =5?>A@54AB25==> A2O70==>9 A ?@>872>4AB2><, 8 2K45;O5B ?@8 MB>< 420 =0?@02;5=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8: ?><>IL 2 AD5@5 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 :><?LNB5@=>5 >15A?5G5=85 8 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D5. @>4NA5@ 70=8<05BAO =5?>A@54AB25==> ?@>872>4AB2>< :0: E>7O9AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN, 8I5B 8AB>G=8:8 D8=0=A8@>20=8O ?@>5:B0, ?>B>< >15A?5G8205B (: A>60;5=8N, =5 2A5340 CA?5H=>) 2>72@0B ?>;CG5==KE A@54AB2, >@30=87CO <0:A8<0;L=> 2K3>4=CN @50;870F8N 3>B>2>3> 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. ;O B>3>, GB>1K A2>1>4=> 459AB2>20BL, 5<C =5>1E>48<> >1;040BL ?@020<8 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 A>740==>3> ?@8 53> =5?>A@54AB25==>< CG0AB88 D8;L<0. AB>@8O @0728B8O >B5G5AB25==>3> 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 =0 :8=>D8;L<K =03;O4=> 45<>=AB@8@C5B, GB> E>BO !>25BA:89 !>N7, 0 70B5< >AA8O 8 ?@845@6820NBAO :>=B8=5=B0;L=KE ?@02>2KE B@048F89, 8=B5@5AK ;8F, >@30=87CNI8E A>740=85 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 2A5340 A>1;N40;8AL. 7<5=8;AO ;8HL :@C3 ;8F, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 70=8<0BLAO :8=>?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2><.  A>>B25BAB288 A  !$!  1964 3. 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> =0 :8=>D8;L< ?@8=04;560;> ?@54?@8OB8N, >ACI5AB282H5<C 53> AJ5<:C (G. 1 AB. 486), B.5., ?@>872>48B5;5< :8=>D8;L<0 <>3;> 1KBL B>;L:> N@848G5A:>5 ;8F>, :>B>@>5 >@30=87>2K20;> :8=>?@>F5AA. @><5 B>3>, =0 ?@0:B8:5 2A5 ABC488 1K;8 3>AC40@AB25==K<8 ?@54?@8OB8O<8. A:;NG5=85 45;0;>AL 4;O ;N18B5;LA:8E D8;L<>2, => >=8 2 ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 8 =5 2E>48;8 8 =5 2E>4OB 2 A8AB5<C :8=>187=5A0, 0 A;54>20B5;L=>, 8 =5 O2;ONBAO ?@54<5B>< =0AB>OI53> 8AA;54>20=8O. 65  CA;>28OE ?;0=>2>9 3>AC40@AB25==>9 M:>=><8:8 8=0O A8BC0F8O 1K;0 =52>7<>6=0. > A @0728B85< @K=:0 3>AC40@AB2> CB@0B8;> =5>1JO2;5==CN <>=>?>;8N =0 :8=>?@>872>4AB2> 8 =0 AF5=C 2KH;8 G0AB=K5 ?@54?@8OB8O, 70=8<0NI85AO ?@>872>4AB2>< M:@0==>9 ?@>4C:F88. =>3>G8A;5==K5 <0;K5 ?@54?@8OB8O, :>>?5@0B82K, 0 70B5< B>20@8I5AB20 A >3@0=8G5==>9 >B25BAB25==>ABLN 8 0:F8>=5@=K5 >1I5AB20 ?@>1>20;8 A2>8 A8;K 2 :8=>187=5A5. !0<>5 >3@><=>5 3>AC40@AB25==>5 :8=>?@54?@8OB85 1K;> @5>@30=87>20=> 2 :8=>:>=F5@= ">AD8;L<". 0@O4C A N@848G5A:8<8 ;8F0<8 2 :8=>187=5A5 ?>O28;8AL 8 8=48284C0;L=K5 ?@54?@8OB8O.  !>N75 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 >AA88 1K;0 A>740=0 8;L48O >@30=870B>@>2 :8=>?@>872>4AB20. A=>2K 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 !>N70 !!  8 @5A?C1;8: > 31 <0O 1991 3. 225;8 ?>=OB85 "873>B>28B5;L :8=>-, B5;5- 8 2845>D8;L<0"1, =5 C:07K20O, :0: MB> 1K;> A45;0=> 2  !$! , =0 >@30=870F8>==>-?@02>2CN D>@<C. @54?>;030;>AL, GB> 873>B>28B5;5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O <>65B 1KBL ;N1>9 AC1J5:B 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. 0:>= $ "1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E" >B 9 8N;O 1993 3. @0A:@K205B B5@<8= "873>B>28B5;L 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O" :0: "D878G5A:>5 8;8 N@848G5A:>5 ;8F>, 27O2H55 =0 A51O 8=8F80B82C 8 >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 873>B>2;5=85 B0:>3> ?@>872545=8O" (AB. 4). 0?><=8<, GB> 45OB5;L=>ABL ?> ?@>872>4AB2C 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 =5 O2;O5BAO ;8F5=78@C5<>9, 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, ;N1>9 <>65B 27OBL =0 A51O 8=8F80B82C ?> A>740=8N D8;L<0. > ?>2>4C 2B>@>9 G0AB8 D>@<C;8@>2:8 2>7=8:05B A?@0254;82K9 2>?@>A, :0:>3> @>40 >B25BAB25==>ABL 2>7=8:05B C 873>B>28B5;O 2 A2O78 A ?@8=OB85< @5H5=8O > =0G0;5 AJ5<>:? 04> A:070BL, GB> 0=0;>38G=K5 =>@<K 2 70:>=>40B5;LAB20E 4@C38E AB@0= AD>@<C;8@>20=K =5 1>;55 :>@@5:B=>.  70:>=>40B5;LAB25 $@0=F88, =0?@8<5@, 3>2>@8BAO > ;8F5, 27O2H5< =0 A51O 8=8F80B82C 8 30@0=B8@CNI5< 7025@H5=85 AJ5<>:. 0:>=5F, ?@8=OBK9 22 023CAB0 1996 3. 0:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5 22>48B ?>=OB85 "?@>4NA5@0 D8;L<0". -B> A;04:>5 A;>2> "?@>4NA5@" =5 AE>48B A CAB A>25BA:8E, 0 B5?5@L @>AA89A:8E :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 C65 4>1@K9 45AOB>: ;5B. >340 <>=>?>;8O 3>AC40@AB20 2 :8=>?@>872>4AB25, 0 3;02=>5 2> 2=5H=59 B>@3>2;5 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, 2 :8=>?@>:0B5 1K;0 ?>:>;51;5=0, :8=5<0B>3@0D8ABK AB0;8 8A:0BL =>2K5 D>@<K :8=>?@>872>4AB20. 0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:89 8=AB8BCB :C;LBC@K @07@010BK20; 1 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 !!!  8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !!! . 1991. ! 26. AB. 733. 66 <>45;8 @073>AC40@AB2;5=8O :8=>?>:070 8 :8=>?@>:0B0, 0 B0:65 A>740=8O A8AB5<K ?@>4NA5@A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0. >O28;8AL <>=>3@0D88 "8=> :0: 187=5A" .. >:0@5201, ">=B@0:B=0O A8AB5<0 :8=>187=5A0" .. "5=59H28;82 8 4@. !BC488 >1JO2;O;8 A51O :>;;5:B82=K<8 ?@>4NA5@0<8, 8E @C:>2>48B5;8 8=48284C0;L=K<8, 70 MB> 720=85 1>@>;8AL 48@5:B>@0 :0@B8=... > 2 B>B <><5=B ?>=OB8O "?@>4NA5@" =5 ACI5AB2>20;> =8 2 B5:AB0E B@C4>2>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20, =8 2 02B>@A:>-?@02>2KE 4>:C<5=B0E, =8 2 :0:8E-;81> 8=KE =>@<0B82=KE 0:B0E. 5A=>9 1996 3. 8;L48O >@30=870B>@>2 :8=>?@>872>4AB20 !>N70 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 >AA88 >?C1;8:>20;0 "5:;0@0F8N ?@>4NA5@0" ?>4>1=> "0=8D5AB0<" 7838 5@B>20.  =0:>=5F MB>B B5@<8= 1K; 22545= 2 B5:AB 70:>=0.  AB. 3 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5 ?@>4NA5@>< =07K205BAO "D878G5A:>5 8;8 N@848G5A:>5 ;8F>, 27O2H55 =0 A51O >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 D8=0=A8@>20=85, ?@>872>4AB2> 8 ?@>:0B D8;L<0".  A>2@5<5==>< 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 <>6=> =09B8 =5<0;> ?@8<5@>2 =5A>2?045=89 B5@<8=>2, :>B>@K5 ?> A<KA;C 4>;6=K >1>7=0G0BL >4=> 8 B> 65 ?>=OB85: =0?@8<5@, "A@54AB20 8=48284C0;870F88 N@848G5A:>3> ;8F0" (A<. =0?@8<5@, AB. 10 0:>=0 !$!  " :>=:C@5=F88 8 >3@0=8G5=88 <>=>?>;8AB8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0 B>20@=KE @K=:0E" >B 22 <0@B0 1991 3. ! 88-$3) 8 "A@54AB20 287C0;L=>9 845=B8D8:0F88" (G. 6 AB. 2 $545@0;L=>3> 0:>=0 "1 0:F8>=5@=KE >1I5AB20E" >B 26 45:01@O 1995 3. ! 208-$4). >?@>1C5< A@02=8BL 420 >?@545;5=8O: 873>B>28B5;L 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 87 > 8 ?@>4NA5@ D8;L<0 87 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5.  A0<>< ?>=OB88 40=K 420 @07;8G=KE B5@<8=0: "D8;L<" 8 "0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85". "C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85" 2 A>>B25BAB288 2 AB. 4 > MB> -"?@>872545=85, A>AB>OI55 87 70D8:A8@>20==>9 A5@88 A2O70==KE <564C A>1>9 :04@>2 (A A>?@>2>645=85< 8;8 157 A>?@>2>645=8O 72C:><), ?@54=07=0G5==KE 4;O 7@8B5;L=>3> 8 A;CE>2>3> (2 A;CG05 A>?@>2>645=8O 72C:><) 2>A?@8OB8O A ?><>ILN A>>B25BAB2CNI8E B5E=8G5A:8E CAB@>9AB2; 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O 2:;NG0NB :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:85 ?@>872545=8O 8 2A5 ?@>872545=8O, 2K@065==K5 A@54AB20<8, 0=0;>38G=K<8 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8< (B5;5- 8 2845>D8;L<K, 480D8;L<K 8 A?094D8;L<K 8 B><C ?>4>1=K5 ?@>872545=8O), =57028A8<> >B A?>A>10 8E 1 .. >:0@52. 8=> :0: 187=5A. - 8=A:: 045<5:C<, 1990. - 288 A. 2 .. "5=59H28;8. >=B@0:B=0O A8AB5<0 :8=>187=5A0. 07<KH;5=8O > :8=>@5:;0<5. - .: , 1995. - 160 A. 3 (A 87<5=5=8O<8 >B 24 8N=O 1992 3. 8 25 <0O 1995 3.) // 54><>AB8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !$! . - 1991. - ! 16. - AB. 499; " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 30 <0O 1995 3. 4 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1996. - ! 1. - AB. 1. 67 ?5@2>=0G0;L=>9 8;8 ?>A;54CNI59 D8:A0F88". "$8;L<" 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 3 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5 MB> - "0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, A>740==>5 2 EC4>65AB25==>9, E@>=8:0;L=>-4>:C<5=B0;L=>9, =0CG=>-?>?C;O@=>9, CG51=>9, 0=8<0F8>==>9, B5;52878>==>9 8;8 8=>9 D>@<5 =0 >A=>25 B2>@G5A:>3> 70<KA;0, A>AB>OI55 87 87>1@065=8O 70D8:A8@>20==KE =0 :8=>?;5=:5 8;8 =0 8=KE 2840E =>A8B5;59 8 A>548=5==KE 2 B5<0B8G5A:>5 F5;>5 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> A2O70==KE <564C A>1>9 :04@>2 8 ?@54=07=0G5==>5 4;O 2>A?@8OB8O ?@8 ?><>I8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E B5E=8G5A:8E CAB@>9AB2". 5A<>B@O =0 @07;8G=K5 0:F5=BK, A>45@60I85AO 2 MB8E 42CE >?@545;5=8OE, <K 2?>;=5 <>65< 4>?CAB8BL, GB> D8;L< 8 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 A>>B=>AOBAO :0: G0ABL 8 F5;>5, 0 7=0G8B 8E ?@02>2>9 @568< 2> <=>3>< >48=0:>2. 10 70:>=0 4>?CA:0NB, GB> 8 873>B>28B5;5<, 8 ?@>4NA5@>< <>3CB 1KBL :0: D878G5A:85, B0: 8 N@848G5A:85 ;8F0. > ?>2>4C N@848G5A:8E ;8F =8:0:8E A><=5=89 =5 2>7=8:05B E>BO 1K ?>B><C, GB>  !$!  =045;O5B ?@020<8 "?@54?@8OB85 (B.5. N@848G5A:>5 ;8F> (:C@A82 <>9. - .'.)), >ACI5AB282H55 AJ5<:C" (AB. 486). > 2 A2O78 A ?>O2;5=85< 2>7<>6=>AB8 C D878G5A:8E ;8F AB0=>28BLAO 873>B>28B5;O<8 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8 B5< A0<K< >ACI5AB2;OBL ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 2AB05B 2>?@>A, AG8B0; ;8 70:>=>40B5;L A0<8< A>1>9 @07C<5NI8<AO, GB> ?>4 B5@<8=>< "D878G5A:>5 ;8F>" 8<55BAO 2 284C 8=48284C0;L=K9 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;L, ?>A:>;L:C B>;L:> B0:>5 D878G5A:>5 ;8F> ?> 70:>=C <>65B >ACI5AB2;OBL ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, ;81> 65 @5GL 845B > 3@0640=8=5, =0=OB>< =0 @01>BC A>>B25BAB2CNI8< N@848G5A:8< ;8F><, :>B>@>5 D0:B8G5A:8 >15A?5G8205B ?@>872>4AB2> D8;L<0? > :0: B>340 ?>=8<0BL ?@02>2>9 AB0BCA B0:>3> ;8F0 2 A2O78 A >?@545;5=85< 2 70:>=0E :@C30 53> ?>;=><>G89 8 >1O70B5;LAB2, A2O70==KE, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, A >A=>2=>9 G0ABLN >?@545;5=8O? 54L 8 ?@>4NA5@ 8 873>B>28B5;L ?> >?@545;5=8N >1>8E 70:>=>2 15@CB =0 A51O 8=8F80B82C 8 >B25BAB25==>ABL, => ?5@2K9 - "70 D8=0=A8@>20=85, ?@>872>4AB2> 8 ?@>:0B", 0 2B>@>9 - "70 873>B>2;5=85" ?@>872545=8O. 1A>;NB=> ;8 A>2?040NB MB8 G0AB8 >?@545;5=89? A;8 D>@<0;L=> ?>4>9B8 : 2>?@>AC 8 703;O=CBL 2 B>;:>2K9 A;>20@L !. . 653>201, B> 3;03>; "873>B>28BL" >7=0G05B "A45;0BL, 2K@01>B0BL", GB> ?>GB8 B>G=> A>>B25BAB2C5B B>;:>20=8N " A;>20 "?@>8725AB8" - "873>B>28BL, 2K@01>B0BL". 081>;55 G0AB> =0 ?@0:B8:5 2AB@5G0NBAO A;CG08, :>340 2 A>740=88 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O CG0AB2CNB =5 >48=, 0 =5A:>;L:> ?@>4NA5@>2 A !.. 653>2. ">;:>2K9 A;>20@L A>2@5<5==>3> @CAA:>3> O7K:0. ., 1990. 68 G5B:8< @073@0=8G5=85< DC=:F89. 48= >B25G05B 70 ?@82;5G5=85 D8=0=A>2KE A@54AB2 (A<. "D8=0=A8@>20=85" 2 >?@545;5=88 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5), 2B>@>9 70=8<05BAO ?>41>@>< B2>@G5A:>3> 8 B5E=8G5A:>3> A>AB020 AJ5<>G=>9 3@C??K, 0 B0:65 :>;;5:B820 8A?>;=8B5;59 @>;59 (2> <=>38E AB@0=0E 8<5==> >= =07K205BAO 8A?>;=8B5;L=K< ?@>4NA5@><), B@5B89 >15A?5G8205B 2AN E>7O9AB25==CN AB>@>=C :8=>?@>F5AA0 - 70:C?05B ?;5=:C, 0@5=4C5B ?028;L>=K, AJ5<>G=>5 8 >A25B8B5;L=>5 >1>@C4>20=85, 4>3>20@8205BAO A ;01>@0B>@8O<8 ?> >1@01>B:5 ?;5=:8. 5 ;N1>5 D878G5A:>5 ;8F> <>65B 70=8<0BLAO C:070==>9 2 ?5@2>< 8 B@5BL5< A;CG05 45OB5;L=>ABLN, ?>A:>;L:C 8<5==> >=0 O2;O5BAO ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9, B>340 :0: 70:;NG0BL 02B>@A:85 4>3>2>@K 8 ?@8=8<0BL 02B>@A:85 ?@020 <>65B ;N1>9 AC1J5:B 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05 02B>@A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> =5 CAB0=02;8205B =8:0:8E >3@0=8G5=89 2 MB>< A<KA;5. "0:8< >1@07><, 8<5==> >?@545;5=85, 40==>5 2 0:>=5 > 3>A?>445@6:5, =5:>@@5:B=> 2 >B=>H5=88 D878G5A:8E ;8F. !2O7L <564C ?@>4NA5@0<8 =5 >@30=870F8>==0O, 0 4>3>2>@=0O. $>@<0;L=> A;54CO >?@545;5=8N >, <>6=> 70:;NG8BL, GB> =5 ;N1>9 ?@>4NA5@ <>65B AG8B0BLAO 873>B>28B5;5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. -B> <>65B 8<5BL 4>AB0B>G=> A5@L57=K5 ?>A;54AB28O. 58725AB=>, A;CG09=> 8;8 ?@54=0<5@5==>, > =5 >B=>A8B : AC1J5:B0< A<56=KE ?@02 873>B>28B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, E>BO ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> 70@C156=KE 3>AC40@AB2 =045;O5B 8E MB8<8 ?@020<8. 59AB2CNI55 @>AA89A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> AG8B05B =>A8B5;O<8 A<56=KE ?@02 0@B8AB>2-8A?>;=8B5;59, 873>B>28B5;59 D>=>3@0<< (:>B>@K5 2 B5:AB5 70:>=0 G0AB> =07K20NBAO ?@>872>48B5;O<8) 8 >@30=870F88 MD8@=>3> 8 :015;L=>3> 25I0=8O. 73>B>28B5;L 65 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G. 2 AB. 13 > ?>;CG05B =0 MB> ?@>872545=85 02B>@A:85 8<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020, 5A;8 8=>5 =5 ?@54CA<>B@5=> 4>3>2>@><, >B 53> A>740B5;59 - 02B>@0 AF5=0@8O, @568AA5@0 8 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE >B :><?>78B>@0. @8>1@5B0O 8<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020, 873>B>28B5;L 8<55B 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>;CG0BL 4>E>4 >B 8E 8A?>;L7>20=8O. -B8 4>E>4K, ?>;CG05<K5 ?@>4NA5@><, >B25G0NI8< 70 ?@>872>4AB2> D8;L<0, B.5. B5<, :B> ?>4?0405B ?>4 >?@545;5=85 873>B>28B5;O, @0A?@545;ONBAO <564C 2A5<8 B@5<O B>;L:> 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 B0:>5 @0A?@545;5=85 ?@54CA<>B@5=> 4>3>2>@><. I5 A;>6=55 A B0: =07K205<K<8 "02B><0B8G5A:8<8" 2K?;0B0<8 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O, A :>B>@K<8 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 873>B>28B5;8 45;0 =5 8<5NB, => 02B>@A:>-?@02>20O ?@0:B8:0 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 1KAB@> 845B : MB><C. 0:>=, >B:0702 873>B>28B5;N 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 A<56=KE ?@020E, 2KG5@:=C; 53> 69 B5< A0<K< 87 G8A;0 ?@5B5=45=B>2 =0 ?>;CG5=85 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85.  A>>B25BAB288 A> 0. 26 >, ?@8 >BACBAB288 A>3;0H5=8O >1 8=><, 2>7=03@0645=85 70 2>A?@>872545=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8;8 72C:>70?8A8 ?@>872545=8O 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 2 ;8G=KE F5;OE @0A?@545;O5BAO <564C 02B>@0<8 (40%), 8A?>;=8B5;O<8 (30%) 8 ?@>872>48B5;O<8 D>=>3@0<<K (30%). "0:>5 83=>@8@>20=85 873>B>28B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 =5 A<>65B ?@>4>;60BLAO 4>;3>; =5A><=5==>, A?@0254;82>9 ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2K?;0B0 B@5B8 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85 =0 2845>=>A8B5;8 873>B>28B5;O< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O (:0: ?@>872>48B5;O< D>=>3@0<<K 70 :>?8@>20=85 =0 0C48>:0AA5B0E).  5A;8 >4=>2@5<5==> A 2=5A5=85< 87<5=5=89 8;8 4>?>;=5=89 2 AB. 26 > 2> 2A5< 70:>=5 B5@<8= "873>B>28B5;L" =5 1C45B 70<5=5= =0 B5@<8= "?@>4NA5@", B> 2>7=03@0645=85 70 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85 1C4CB ?>;CG0BL G5@57 >1I5AB20 ?> :>;;5:B82=><C C?@02;5=8N ?@020<8 B>;L:> B5 ?@>4NA5@K, :>B>@K5 <>3CB AG8B0BLAO 873>B>28B5;O<8; 4@C385 65, ?CABL 4065 >15A?5G82H85 ;L28=CN 4>;N :8=>?@>87>4AB20, >AB0=CBAO =8 A G5<. AB05BAO =045OBLAO, GB> =5A>2?045=85 B5@<8=>2 "?@>4NA5@" 8 "873>B>28B5;L" 2 42CE >A=>2=KE 70:>=0E, @53C;8@CNI8E >B=>H5=8O 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D5, =5 1C45B <5H0BL 8E >B>645AB2;5=8N =0 ?@0:B8:5. @>4NA5@ 4;O @>AA89A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0 O2;O5BAO =>2>9 D83C@>9, 53> AB0BCA ?@>4>;605B D>@<8@>20BLAO, ?>MB><C >A=>2=K<8 ?@>872>48B5;O<8 M:@0==>9 ?@>4C:F88, ?@54AB02;ONI8<8 55 ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88, >AB0NBAO ABC488, 0 ?@>4NA5@0<8 =07K20NB 8E @C:>2>48B5;59. -B> 8 AB0@K5 ABC488, A>740==K5 5I5 2 A>25BA:>5 2@5<O, 8 4065 4> @52>;NF88, 8 =>2K5 - ?>O282H85AO 2 ?@>F5AA5 D>@<8@>20=8O @K=>G=>9, 8 8=48284C0;L=K5 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;8. !@548 ?5@2KE >A>1> >B<5B8< :8=>:>=F5@= ">AD8;L<". !0<0O 1>;LH0O =0 B5@@8B>@88 1K2H53> !!! , >4=0 87 :@C?=59H8E 2 <8@5 :8=>ABC48O ">AD8;L<" 1K;0 >@30=87>20=0 =0 1075 5@2>9 8 "@5BL59 :8=>D01@8: ">A:8=>" ?@8 0@:><?@>A5 !!!  2 1924 3. :0: C=825@A0;L=>5 ?@54?@8OB85, >1;040NI55 2A5< =5>1E>48<K< 4;O ?>;=>3> B5E=>;>38G5A:>3> F8:;0 D8;L<>?@>872>4AB20. C4CG8 :@C?=59H59 :8=>>@30=870F859, ">AD8;L<" =5 <>3 =5 >B:;8:=CBLAO =0 @5D>@<K @>AA89A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0, =0G02H85AO >A5=LN 1988 3., 8 >4=8< 87 ?5@2KE A@548 "AB0@KE" A>25BA:8E :8=>ABC489 A<5=8; AB0BCA. 19 >:BO1@O 1990 3. !>25B 8=8AB@>2 !!!  ?@8=O; ?>AB0=>2;5=85 " A>740=88 :8=>:>=F5@=0 ">AD8;L<" N 1064. -B0 @5>@30=870F8O 1K;0 >ACI5AB2;5=0 2 F5;OE @07C:@C?=5=8O "2KA>:><>=>?>;878@>20==KE :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E >@30=870F8>==KE AB@C:BC@", 0 70 B0:65 2 @0<:0E <5@ ?> ?5@5AB@>9:5 B2>@G5A:>9, >@30=870F8>==>9 8 M:>=><8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 A>25BA:>9 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, >1JO2;5=>9 >4=>8<5==K< ?>AB0=>2;5=85 !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 !!!  >B 18 =>O1@O 1989 3. N 1003. ">340 2 :8=>:>=F5@= 2>H;8 >AC40@AB25==>5 ?@>872>4AB25==>-B2>@G5A:>5 >1J548=5=85 ">AD8;L<" (B.5. A>1AB25==> :8=>ABC48O), >AC40@AB25==K9 A8<D>=8G5A:89 >@:5AB@ :8=5<0B>3@0D88, "50B@ :8=>0:B5@0, :><18=0B ?8B0=8O ">AD8;L<0", >A:>2A:0O :8=>:>?8@>20;L=0O D01@8:0, >A:>2A:89 8==>20F8>==K9 :><<5@G5A:89 10=:. A5 MB8 ?@54?@8OB8O 2K2>48;8AL 87 ?>4G8=5=8O >AC40@AB25==>3> :><8B5B0 !!!  ?> :8=5<0B>3@0D88 A A>E@0=5=85< 2A5E ?@02 8 >1O70B5;LAB2 ?> 4>3>2>@0<, ?@8=OBK< 4> 8E 2ABC?;5=8O 2 :8=>:>=F5@= (?. 4 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O). 0 :8=>:>=F5@=>< 70:@5?;O;8AL =0 ?@025 ?>;=>3> E>7O9AB25==>3> 2545=8O 2A5 >A=>2=K5 D>=4K, 8=K5 <0B5@80;L=K5 F5==>AB8 8 D8=0=A>2K5 @5AC@AK " ">AD8;L<" A B5<, GB>1K 40;L=59H55 @0728B85 <0B5@80;L=>-B5E=8G5A:>9 107K 25;>AL C65 70 AG5B A>1AB25==KE A@54AB2 :8=>:>=F5@=0 (?. 1). 8=>:>=F5@= 1K; >1JO2;5= ?@02>?@55<=8:>< 8<CI5AB25==KE 8 4@C38E (G8B09, 02B>@A:8E) ?@02 8 >1O70==>AB59 " ">AD8;L<" (?. 5). @><5 B>3>, >B45;L=> 2 ?.6 :8=>:>=F5@=C ?5@54020;>AL 8A:;NG8B5;L=>5 ?@02> ?@>:0B0 8 45<>=AB@0F88 =0 B5@@8B>@88 !!! , 0 B0:65 M:A?>@B0 ?@8=04;560I59 =0 ?@020E A>1AB25==>AB8 3>AC40@AB2C :8=>?@>4C:F88, A>740==>9 :8=>ABC4859 ">AD8;L<" 8 @0=55 ACI5AB2>202H8<8 >@30=870F8O<8, ?@02>?@55<=8:>< :>B>@KE >=0 O2;O;0AL. -B> ?@54?8A0=85 2> <=>3>< 2K7K20;> =54>C<5=85. 54L ?@020 8A?>;L7>20=8O A>740==KE 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8 B0: ?@8=04;560;8 ">AD8;L<C" =5 ?> @5H5=8N !>2<8=0, 0 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G. 1 AB. 486  !$! . -:A?>@B>< >B5G5AB25==KE D8;L<>2 2 A>25BA:89 ?5@8>4 70=8<0;0AL A?5F80;L=> A>740==0O 2 @0<:0E <>=>?>;88 3>AC40@AB20 =0 2=5H=NN B>@3>2;N >@30=870F8O "!>2M:A?>@BD8;L<".  1990 3. MB0 >@30=870F8O ?@>4>;60;0 ACI5AB2>20BL, E>BO :@C3 55 45OB5;L=>AB8 7=0G8B5;L=> AC78;AO, 8 >7=0G0;0 ;8 D>@<C;8@>2:0 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O, GB> "!>2M:A?>@BD8;L<" B5@O5B A2>8 ?>;=><>G8O ?> ?@54AB02;5=8N <>AD8;L<>2A:>9 ?@>4C:F88 70 @C156><?  GB> 2>>1I5 >7=0G05B M:A?>@B 2 40==>< :>=B5:AB5? ">AD8;L<" ACI5AB2>20; 2 =587<5==>< >@30=870F8>==>< 2845 A 1936 3., B> 5ABL ?@02>?@55<=8:>< >= <>3 1KBL B>;L:> 5I5 @0=55 ACI5AB2>202H8E >@30=870F89 ("56@01?><@CAL", "!>2:8=>", "!>N7:8=>" 8 ?@.) 0 1990 3, A@>: >E@0=K 8<CI5AB25==KE 02B>@A:8E ?@02 =0 :8=>D8;L<K, B.5. ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85, A>AB02;O; 25 ;5B A <><5=B0 2KE>40 2 A25B. "0:8< >1@07><, 2A5 D8;L<K, A>740==K5 4> 1964 3., 2>>1I5 ?>?040;8 2 AD5@C >1I5AB25==>3> 4>AB>O=8O. =0G8B, 2 71 ?>AB0=>2;5=88 8<5;0AL 2 284C =5 CABC?:0 02B>@A:8E ?@02 70 3@0=8FC, 0 =5?>A@54AB25==> M:A?>@B =>A8B5;59, ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 :>B>@K5 8<5;>, :0: 8 ?>4G5@:820;>AL 2 A0<>< ?>AB0=>2;5=88, 3>AC40@AB2>, ?>A:>;L:C 2A5 D8;L<K A>74020;8AL 70 AG5B 1N465B=KE A@54AB2. >AB0=>2;5=85 ?@54CA<0B@820;> 4;O :8=>:>=F5@=0 @O4 ;L3>B 2 F5;OE A:>@59H53> ?5@5E>40 =0 A0<>>:C?05<>ABL 8 A0<>D8=0=A8@>20=85.  D52@0;5 1996 3. ">AD8;L<", 2 A2O78 A ?@8=OB85< =>2>3>  $, :>B>@K9 =5 A>45@60; B0:>9 >@30=870F8>==>-?@02>2>9 D>@<K, :0: :>=F5@=, @5H8; @5>@30=87>20BLAO 2 =5:><<5@G5A:CN >@30=870F8N. -B><C ?@5?OBAB2>20; ><8B5B ?> C?@02;5=8N 3>AC40@AB25==K< 8<CI5AB2><, => :><?@><8AA 1K; =0945= ?CB5< 70:;NG5=8O 10 45:01@O 1997 3. 5=5@0;L=>3> A>3;0H5=8O ! 1/396 <564C @028B5;LAB2>< >A:2K 8 ">AD8;L<><" " :>=F5?F88 8 >A>15==>ABOE ?@820B870F88 8<CI5AB20 ">AD8;L<0" A ?@82;5G5=85< @028B5;LAB20 >A:2K 2 :0G5AB25 >:C?0B5;O 8 =25AB>@0", 8 ">AD8;L<" =5 1K; ?@5>1@07>20=, 1K;8 ;8HL 2=5A5=K 87<5=5=8O 2 53> CG@548B5;L=K5 4>:C<5=BK 8 =0720=85. "5?5@L MB> >3@><=>5 ?@54?@8OB85, 2 A>AB02 :>B>@>3> 2E>4OB 15 A?5F80;878@>20==KE ?>4@0745;5=89, =07K205BAO =5:><<5@G5A:>9 0AA>F80F859 ">AD8;L<". A:>@5 5<C ?@54AB>OB >G5@54=K5 >@30=870F8>==K5 ?@5>1@07>20=8O, ?>A:>;L:C ?> 0A?>@O65=8N M@0 >A:2K >B 16 0?@5;O 1998 3. ! 375-  " ?>445@6:5 >B5G5AB25==>3> :8=>?@>872>4AB20 8 :8=>?@>:0B0" ><8B5BC @028B5;LAB20 >A:2K ?> B5;5:><<C=8:0F8O< 8 ! 8 >A:>< 8<CI5AB2C ?>@CG5=> >:070BL >@30=870F8>==>5 A>459AB285 2 ?@5>1@07>20=88 ">AD8;L<0" 2 >B:@KB>5 0:F8>=5@=>5 >1I5AB2>, 0 >A:><8<CI5AB2C - ?>43>B>28BL 8 70:;NG8BL 4>3>2>@ =0 ?>:C?:C 49 % 0:F89  ">AD8;L<". > =0 ?>;>65=85 45; MB8 87<5=5=8O =8:0:>3> 2;8O=8O =5 >:07K20NB: A53>4=O ">AD8;L<" =0E>48BAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 2 154AB25==>< ?>;>65=88. @C?=59H0O :8=>ABC48O, ?>;L7>202H0OAO 8 D>@<0;L=> ?>;L7CNI0OAO 4> A8E ?>@ =525@>OB=K<8 3>AC40@AB25==K<8 ?@828;538O<8, 2K?CA:02H0O 2 A>25BA:CN M?>EC 70 D8;L<>2 2 3>4, 0 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K <5=LH5 45AOB:0 ?>;=><5B@06=KE D8;L<>2, 2 =K=5H=8E CA;>28OE ACI5AB2C5B 70 AG5B A40G8 2 0@5=4C ?028;L>=>2 (2 B>< G8A;5 8 ?>4 >D8AK A>25@H5==> ?>AB>@>==8< >@30=870F8O<, =5 8<5NI8< : :8=5<0B>3@0D88 4065 >B40;5==>3> >B=>H5=8O) 8 B5E=8:8, ?@54>AB02;5=8O CA;C3 4@C38< D8;L<>?@>872>4OI8< >@30=870F8O<. #65 1>;LH5 3>40 2 ?@5AA5 ?>O2;ONBAO AB0BL8 > =>2>9 2>7<>6=>9 ?5@5<5=5 AB0BCA0 ">AD8;L<0". =>385 D8=0=A>2K5 AB@C:BC@K ?@54;030NB 0:F8>=8@>20BL :@C?=59H55 @>AA89A:>5 D8;L<>?@>872>4OI55 72 ?@54?@8OB85. > ?>:0 =8:0:8E :>=:@5B=KE H03>2, B5< 1>;55 >B<5=K 459AB2CNI53> =>@<0B82=>3> 0:B0 8;8 >?C1;8:>20=8O E>BO 1K ?@>5:B>2 =>2KE 4>:C<5=B>2, A45;0=> =5 1K;>. >;55 <>18;L=K<8 8 1>;55 C40G;82K<8 >:070;8AL =5:@C?=K5 ABC488, A>740==K5 =0 2>;=5 ?5@5AB@>9:8 2 :>=F5 1980-E - =0G0;5 1990-E 33. 4=>9 87 B0:8E O2;O5BAO "$>@0-D8;L<". =0 1K;0 >1@07>20=0 2 1987 3. :0: =57028A8<0O ABC48O -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> B2>@G5A:>3> F5=B@0 ?@8 >A3>@8A?>;:><5, 2 1992 3. @5>@30=87>20=0 2 70:@KB>5 0:F8>=5@=>5 >1I5AB2> 8 2 B0:>9 >@30=870F8>==>-?@02>2>9 D>@<5 ACI5AB2C5B 4> A8E ?>@.  1996 3. MB0 <0;5=L:0O ABC48O 2K?CAB8;0 3 ?>;=><5B@06=KE EC4>65AB25==KE D8;L<0 (AB>;L:> 65, A:>;L:> 8 ">AD8;L<"), E>BO A0<8 @C:>2>48B5;8 ABC488 - . 07C<>2A:89 8 .. ><0=5=:> AG8B0NB B0:>5 ?>;>65=85 45; ?>GB8 :0B0AB@>D8G5A:8<, <5GB0O 25@=CBL >1J5< ?@>872>4AB20 =0 C@>25=L 1991 3>40, :>340 2 3>4 1K;> 2K?CI5=> 8 CA?5H=> "?@>:0B0=>" 8 D8;L<>2. > ?0@0;;5;L=> A A>740=85< :8=>D8;L<>2 >@30=87>20=> =5A:>;L:> B5;52878>==KE ?@>5:B>2, 0 B0:65 ?@>2>48BAO @01>B0 =04 A>740=85< A>1AB25==>9 ?@>:0B=>9 A5B8. "$>@0-D8;L<" >@30=87C5B A2>N @01>BC, G5B:> @0745;OO 8 ?0@0;;5;L=> @072820O @0AE>4=CN 8 4>E>4=CN G0AB8 45OB5;L=>AB8. 0AE>4=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN ?@8 =K=5H=5< A>AB>O=88 ?@>:0B0 15AA?>@=> O2;O5BAO ?@>872>4AB2> :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E ?@>872545=89, 4065 A>2<5AB=K5 ?>AB0=>2:8 A $@0=F859, 070EAB0=>< 8 4@C38<8 AB@0=0<8 1;86=53> 8 40;L=53> 70@C156LO. >E>4=0O ?><8<> B5;52878>==KE ?5@540G ?@54AB02;5=0 G8AB> ?@>:0B=K<8 ?@>5:B0<8; =0?@8<5@, A>2<5AB=0O >@30=870F8O ?>:070 =0 B5@@8B>@88 AB@0= ! 8 >=3>;88 D8;L<>2, ?>;L7CNI8EAO C =0A 2 AB@0=5 1>;LH>9 ?>?C;O@=>ABLN - "%8@>A8<0 - ;N1>2L <>O" 8 "<?5@8O GC2AB2" ?@020 =0 :>B>@K5 ?@8>1@5B5=K 48AB@81LNB5@A:>9 :><?0=859 "&5=B@ !" C D@0=FC7A:>3> =57028A8<>3> ?@>4NA5@0 =0B>;O ><0=0, 2;045;LF0 <0;5=L:>9 ABC488 "@3>A-D8;L<". @><5 B>3>, "$>@0-D8;L<" 8<55B ;8F5=78N =0 8740B5;LA:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 8 =0G8=0O A 1991 3. 2K?CA:05B :=838 ?> ?>?C;O@=K< 0 >AA88 A5@80;0< -"<K;L=K< >?5@0<" - "8=0AB8O", ">30BK5 B>65 ?;0GCB" 8 B. ?. @8 MB>< >=0 ?@8>1@5B05B ?@020 =0 8740=85 =5?>A@54AB25==> C 8=>AB@0==KE ?@02>>1;040B5;59 8 A0<0 >@30=87C5B ?5@52>4 <>=B06=KE ;8AB>2 8 ;8B5@0BC@=CN >1@01>B:C. >=5G=>, =5 2A5 =51>;LH85 =53>AC40@AB25==K5 ABC488 B0: C40G=> @01>B0NB 2 =K=5H=8E CA;>28OE. ><8<> "$>@K", MB> ABC48O "!", B2>@G5A:>-?@>872>4AB25==0O D8@<0 " CAL". E CA?5E 2> <=>3>< >?@545;O5BAO B0;0=B><, M=5@3859 8 7=0=8O<8 @C:>2>48B5;59. 064K9 3>4 2>7=8:05B 8 8AG5705B <=>65AB2> 73 ABC489-">4=>:0@B8=>:". =>385 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;8 ?KB0NBAO 459AB2>20BL 2 >48=>G:C, :0:, =0?@8<5@, ' ". !=59 ABC48O", => A5@L57=>3> 2;8O=8O =0 A8BC0F8N 2 :8=> >=8 =5 >:07K20NB. "0:8< >1@07><, @>AA89A:89 ?@>4NA5@ A53>4=O - MB> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;L, GLO 45OB5;L=>ABL A>AB>8B 2 >@30=870F88 B2>@G5A:>3> 8 ?@>872>4AB25==>3> ?@>F5AA>2 A>740=8O D8;L<0 8 53> 40;L=59H53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O.  A>>B25BAB288 A 459AB2CNI8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< ?@>4NA5@>< <>65B 1KBL :0: D878G5A:>5, B0: 8 N@848G5A:>5 ;8F>, =57028A8<> >B >@30=870F8>==>-?@02>2>9 D>@<K, :>B>@>5 2>7L<5B =0 A51O 8=8F80B82C 8 >B25BAB25==>ABL 2 MB>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. @30=870F8O B2>@G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0 D8;L<>?@>872>4AB20 4;O ?@>4NA5@0 A>AB>8B 2 ?@83;0H5=88 02B>@>2 1C4CI53> D8;L<0, ?@8>1@5B5=88 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 @57C;LB0B>2 8E B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 A>740=88 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 0 B0:65 ?>;CG5=88 ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 =081>;LH53> >1J5<0 ?@02 =0 =53>, 2 ?>41>@5 B2>@G5A:>3> 8 B5E=8G5A:>3> A>AB020 AJ5<>G=>9 3@C??K, ?@83;0H5=88 0:B5@>2, >15A?5G5=88 <0:A8<0;L=> 1;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>289 4;O 8E @01>BK. A5 ?5@5G8A;5==K5 ;8F0 A2O70=K A ?@>4NA5@>< 4>3>2>@=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8 @07=>3> @>40 (> G5< ?>945B @5GL 2 4 3;025), 8 D0:B8G5A:8 2708<>459AB285 CG0AB=8:>2 ?@>F5AA0 AJ5<>: 845B B>;L:> G5@57 ?@>4NA5@0, 2 ?@545;0E, 70:@5?;5==KE 2 A>3;0H5=8OE <564C =8< 8 :064K< ?@54AB028B5;5< :8=>?@>D5AA89.  MB>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@>4NA5@ G0AB> >1@0I05BAO : CA;C30< 0:B5@A:8E 8 8=KE 035=BAB2. 5OB5;L=>ABL 65 ?> ?@82;5G5=8N B2>@G5A:>3> A>AB020, >A>15==> CAB0=>2;5=85 4>3>2>@=KE >B=>H5=89 A 02B>@0<8 1C4CI53> D8;L<0, 4>;6=0 >ACI5AB2;OBLAO 2 B5A=>< :>=B0:B5 A >@30=870F8O<8, ?@54AB02;ONI8<8 8<CI5AB25==K5 8=B5@5AK B2>@F>2 8 C?@02;ONI8<8 8<8 =0 :>;;5:B82=>9 >A=>25. 0?@8<5@, 2> D@0=FC7A:>< B8?>2>< 02B>@A:>< 4>3>2>@5 5ABL A?5F80;L=0O >3>2>@:0 (clause de reserve), 70?@5I0NI0O ?>4 AB@0E>< 8A:;NG5=8O 87 G;5=>2 02B>@0< 70:;NG0BL A>3;0H5=8O A ?@>4NA5@0<8 157 287K B0:>3> >1I5AB20, :>B>@>5 A;548B 70 A>1;N45=85< 8=B5@5A>2 02B>@>2 8 70 2:;NG5=85< 2 4>3>2>@ =>@<, ?>72>;ONI8E >1I5AB20< A>18@0BL 02B>@A:>5 2>7=03@0645=85 70 2B>@8G=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85. @30=870F8O ?@>872>4AB25==>3> ?@>F5AA0, B.5. D0:B8G5A:0O ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@>4NA5@0, A>AB>8B 2 D8=0=A>2>< 8 B5E=>;>38G5A:>< >15A?5G5=88 AJ5<>:. 48= ?@>4NA5@ =5 2 A>AB>O=88 A0<>AB>OB5;L=> A>740BL <0B5@80;L=CN 107C D8;L<0 =8 2 G0AB8 D8=0=A8@>20=8O (=0?@8<5@, A<5B0 "!818@A:>3> F8@N;L=8:0" - ?>A;54=53> D8;L<0 . 8E0;:>20 - 74 A>AB028;0 >:>;> 35 <;=. 4>;;. !(1), =8 2 ?>;=>< >15A?5G5=88 2A5E MB0?>2 ?@>872>4AB20. @>4NA5@ ?@82;5:05B =0 >A=>25 70:;NG05<KE 4>3>2>@>2 8=25AB>@>2, :@548B>@>2, ?>@>9 5I5 4> >:>=G0=8O AJ5<>: CABC?05B ?@020 =0 D8;L< 1C4CI8< ?>;L7>20B5;O< (G0I5 2A53> ?@0:B8:C5BAO ?@54?@>4060 ?@02 =0 ?5@540GC D8;L<0 2 MD8@ 8;8 ?> :015;N B5;52878>==K< >@30=870F8O<). @><5 B>3>, >= A2O7K205BAO A @07;8G=K<8 A?5F80;878@>20==K<8 >@30=870F8O<8, >:07K20NI8<8 CA;C38 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, >1@0I05BAO : AB@0E>2K< :><?0=8O<. ) 07;8G=K5 284K CA;C3 @>F5AA A>740=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 8=8F80B82C :>B>@>3> 15@5B =0 A51O ?@>4NA5@, B@51C5B >15A?5G5=8O <=>65AB20 >B45;L=KE CG0AB:>2.  BCB =0 ?><>IL ?@>4NA5@C ?@8E>4OB >@30=870F88, >:07K20NI85 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 @01>BK 8 CA;C38, :0: =5?>A@54AB25==> A2O70==K5 A B5E=>;>3859 ?@>872>4AB20 (?>AB02:0 ?;5=:8, 0@5=40 8;8 ?@>4060 AJ5<>G=>3> >1>@C4>20=8O, 873>B>2;5=85 45:>@0F89 ?> MA:870< EC4>6=8:0, ?>H82 :>ABN<>2 8 ?@.), B0: 8 >15A?5G820NI85 ?>445@6:C ?@>4NA5@0 2 @07;8G=KE AD5@0E, B@048F8>==> A2O70==KE A ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN (>:070=85 D8=0=A>2KE 8 :@548B=KE CA;C3, AB@0E>20=85 8 B.?.). 5 8<5O A>1AB25==KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 4;O ?>;=>3> >ACI5AB2;5=8O B5E=>;>38G5A:>3> D8;L<>?@>872>4AB25==>3> F8:;0, <=>385 873>B>28B5;8 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 >1@0I0NBAO 70 2K?>;=5=85< >B45;L=KE @01>B 8 CA;C3 : A?5F80;878@>20==K< >@30=870F8O<.  A>>B25BAB288 A 0:>=>< > 3>A?>445@6:5 MB8 >@30=870F88 2 :0G5AB25 >A=>2=>3> 2840 45OB5;L=>AB8 70=8<0NBAO ?@>:0B>< :8=>>1>@C4>20=8O, 0@5=4>9 ?028;L>=>2, :8=>:><?;5:A>2, ?>H82>< :>ABN<>2, AB@>8B5;LAB2>< 45:>@0F89, 873>B>2;5=85< 3@8<0, ?0AB865@A:8E 8745;89, @5:2878B0, 83@>2>9 B5E=8:8, A?5F80;L=KE MDD5:B>2. 0 ?>AB?@>872>4AB25==>9 AB0488 ?@>872>48B5;8 =C640NBAO 2 CA;C30E ?> >1@01>B:5 ?;5=:8, 72C:>2><C >D>@<;5=8N D8;L<0 8 ?@. @><5 B>3>, @K=>: CA;C3 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 @0AH8@8;AO 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 2 A2O78 A A>740=85 0:B5@A:8E 035=BAB2, A?5F80;L=KE AB@0E>2KE >@30=870F89 8 B. ?.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O ?> 40==K< 8=D>@<0F8>==>-0=0;8B8G5A:>9 D8@<K "C1;L-" =0 @>AA89A:>< @K=:5 459AB2CNB 3 A?5F80;878@>20==KE 0:B5@A:8E 035=BAB20, >4=0 >@30=870F8O 70=8<05BAO AB@0E>20=85< :8=>?@>5:B>2, 2 1 >@30=870F8OE <>6=> ?>;CG8BL :20;8D8F8@>20==CN N@848G5A:CN ?><>IL, 23 1 "8=>?0@:". 1997. ! 6. 75 D8@<K >:07K20NB CA;C38 2 ?@>872>4AB25 (87 =8E 11 2 A>AB025 :8=>:>=F5@=0 ">AD8;L<"). 5OB5;L=>ABL >@30=870F89, >:07K20NI8E ABC48O< B@048F8>==K5 4;O :8=5<0B>3@0D88 CA;C38 2 ?>43>B>28B5;L=K9, ?@>872>4AB25==K9 8 <>=B06=>-B>=8@>2>G=K9 ?5@8>4, 2 ?@02>2>< A<KA;5 =5 >B;8G05BAO >B >1KG=>9 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, :@><5 >4=>3> - GB> 70:>= 2:;NG05B B0:85 >@30=870F88 2 ?5@5G5=L 2>7<>6=KE ?>;CG0B5;59 >?@545;5==KE ;L3>B (A<. ?. "1" 2 3;02K 1 48AA5@B0F88). B45;L=> >B<5B8< B0:85 284K CA;C3, :0: AB@0E>20=85 :8=>?@>5:B>2, @01>B0 0:B5@A:>3> 035=BAB20 8 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>3> >1I5AB20. K=>: ?@8=5A 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 8 B0:>5 =>2H5AB2>, :0: AB@0E>20=85. !>1AB25==> 3>2>@O, =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L AB@0E>20=85 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, 70 =5:>B>@K< 8A:;NG5=85<, =5 8<55B A?5F8D8G5A:8E G5@B. @0:B8G5A:8 MB> >1KG=>5 ;8G=>5 AB@0E>20=85 8;8 AB@0E>20=85 8<CI5AB20 8;8 4>3>2>@0, 8 2A5 >B;8G85 70:;NG05BAO B>;L:> 2 B><, GB> AB@0ECNBAO 687=L, 74>@>2L5 8;8 @01>B>A?>A>1=>ABL CG0AB=8:>2 AJ5<>G=>9 3@C??K: 8A?>;=8B5;59 3;02=KE 8 2B>@>AB5?5==KE @>;59 (2 @54:8E A;CG0OE M?87>48G5A:8E), @568AA5@0-?>AB0=>2I8:0, 3>@074> @565 02B>@0 AF5=0@8O 8;8 02B>@0 <C7K:8, 254CI8E B2>@G5A:>-B5E=8G5A:8E @01>B=8:>2 (>?5@0B>@0, 72C:>@568AA5@0, EC4>6=8:0) 8 2 =5<=>38E A;CG0OE B5E=8G5A:>3> A>AB020. @><5 B>3>, 2AB@5G0NBAO A;CG08 AB@0E>20=8O =0 A;CG09 1>;57=8 8;8 A<5@B8 B0: =07K205<>9 "4CH8 ?@>5:B0", :>B>@K9 0::C<C;8@C5B 8 24>E=>2;O5B 2AN 45OB5;L=>ABL :>;;5:B820, @01>B0NI53> =04 A>740=85< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O (=5 2A5340 B0:8< G5;>25:>< O2;O5BAO ?@>4NA5@, "4CH>9 ?@>5:B0" <>65B 1KBL G5;>25:, =5 2;>682H89 2 D8;L< =8 :>?59:8 8 =5 ?@82=5AH89 =8:0:>3> B2>@G5A:>3> 2:;040 2 53> A>740=85). AB5AB25==>, AB@0E>20O ?@5<8O 2K?;0G8205BAO ?@8 B0:>< AB@0E>20=88 =5 A0<><C 70AB@0E>20==><C 8;8 53> A5<L5, 0 ABC488 8;8 ?@>4NA5@C, >ACI5AB2;ONI5<C AJ5<:C. 'B> :0A05BAO 8<CI5AB25==>3> AB@0E>20=8O, B> 70AB@0E>2K205BAO 8<CI5AB2> :8=>ABC488 8;8 8<CI5AB2>, 27OB>5 =0?@>:0B; ;81> AB@0EC5BAO 4>3>2>@ =0 D8=0=A8@>20=85 ?@54?@>872>4AB25==>3>, ?@>872>4AB25==>3> 8;8 <>=B06=>-B>=8@>2>G=>3> ?5@8>40. 0: 8 2 ;N1>9 4@C3>9 >1;0AB8, AB@0E>20=85 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO B>;L:> =0 A;CG09 2>7=8:=>25=8O =565;0B5;L=KE =530B82=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2. > 70AB@0E>20BL :><<5@G5A:89 CA?5E D8;L<0 =5;L7O. @0:B8:8 2 AD5@5 AB@0E>20=8O 2 :8=> CB25@640NB, GB> ?@8 ?><>I8 AB@0E>20=8O <>6=> >15A?5G8BL A515 157C1KB>G=>5 CG0AB85 2 ;N1>9 87 AB0489 A>740=8O 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O D8;L<0. "0:>5 70O2;5=85 <>6=> ?>AB028BL ?>4 A><=5=85, ?>A:>;L:C G0AB> ?>=OB85< "CA?5E" D8;L<0 ?>=8<05BAO 2A53> ;8HL :0: 53> 76 >:C?05<>ABL; AG8B05BAO A :><<5@G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O D8;L< A>AB>O;AO, 5A;8 C40;>AL 25@=CBL 70B@0G5==K5 =0 53> A>740=85 A@54AB20, 2K?>;=8BL 2A5 CA;>28O 4>3>2>@>2 =0 ?@82;5G5=85 A@54AB2 AB>@>==8E 8=25AB>@>2 8 B5< A0<K< >15A?5G8BL A515 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@54?@8=8<0BL >?@545;5==K5 H038 ?> ?>8A:C 45=53 =0 A;54CNI89 D8;L<. 5@>OB=>, AB@0E>20=85 2 40==>< A;CG05 O2;O5BAO >?@545;5==>9 30@0=B859, => (:0: 5I5 1C45B A:070=> =865) MB> =5 548=AB25==K9 A?>A>1 >B=>A8B5;L=> 157>?0A=>3> 2;>65=8O 45=53 2 :8=>: ?@8<5@>< <>65B A;C68BL 4>3>2>@ A 30@0=B8@>20==K< <8=8<C<><, H8@>:> 8A?>;L7C5<K9 2 AB@0=0E 0?04=>9 2@>?K 8 =0G8=0NI89 ?>;CG0BL @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2 >B5G5AB25==>< :8=5<0B>3@0D5.  A>60;5=8N, 2 =0AB>OI89 <><5=B ;8HL =51>;LH>5 G8A;> @>AA89A:8E AB@0E>2KE :><?0=89 8 2A53> >4=0 A?5F80;878@>20==0O D8@<0 " $!" 3>B>2K ?@54>AB02;OBL A2>8 CA;C38 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. >O2;ONBAO :>=B>@K, 8<5NI85 AB0BCA AB@0E>2KE 1@>:5@>2, :>B>@K5 2K=>AOB =0 @>AA89A:89 AB@0E>2>9 @K=>: ?@54;>65=8O 8=>AB@0==KE AB@0E>2KE :><?0=89. 5>1E>48<>ABL C25;8G5=8O @K=:0 AB@0E>20=8O 2 AD5@5 :8=> ?@>48:B>20=0 B5<, GB> ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5 8=>AB@0==K5 A>?@>4NA5@K 8;8 8=>AB@0==K5 8=25AB>@K AB02OB AB@0E>20=85 ?@>5:B0 ' ?> A>2<5AB=><C A>740=8N 8;8 D8=0=A8@>20=8N 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 >4=8< 87 >A=>2=KE CA;>289 53> >ACI5AB2;5=8O. !>2<5AB=K5 D8;L<K 8 O2;ONBAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 548=AB25==K<8 AB@0EC5<K<8 0C48>287C0;L=K<8 ?@>872545=8O<8 2 =0H59 AB@0=5, ?>A:>;L:C @>AA89A:85 :8=>?@54?@8=8<0B5;8 5I5 =5 >A>7=0;8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 AB@0E>20=8O; :@><5 B>3>, G0I5 2A53> 4>1K20=85 A@54AB2 =0 ?@>872>4AB2> D8;L<0 A2O70=0 A B0:8<8 =58<>25@=K<8 A;>6=>ABO<8, GB> @0AAB0BLAO A 3-4% >B A<5BK D8;L<0 (0 8<5==> B0:>2 A53>4=O A@54=89 AB@0E>2>9 27=>A 70 25AL ?0:5B AB@0E>2KE CA;C3) G8AB> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 G@572KG09=> A;>6=>. %>BO 2K3>4K AB@0E>20=8O 01A>;NB=> >G5284=K, @>AA89A:85 :8=5<0B>3@0D8ABK, B>G=55 :064K9 87 =8E, 65;0NB CG8BLAO =0 A2>8E A>1AB25==KE >H81:0E. K =8:>340 =5 C2848< ?>A;54=89 D8;L< 70<5G0B5;L=>3> 0:B5@0 8 02B>@0 . $8;0B>20 , ?>B><C GB>, >BA=O2 =0<5G5==K5 AF5=K 2 0@865 8 A?@0254;82> @0AAC482, GB> =0 @>48=5 >1@01>B:0 ?;5=:8 >1>945BAO 45H52;5, >= >B?@028; =530B82 10306>< 2 >A:2C. ;5=:0 4> >A:2K 4>5E0;0, 2>B B>;L:> =530B82>< D8;L<0 >=0 ?5@5AB0;0 1KBL 2 ?0@86A:>< 0M@>?>@BC C0AA8-(0@;L-45->;L, 345 ;N1>?KB=K9 B0<>65==8: 703;O=C; 2 :>@>1:8... >>1I5, AB@0E>20=85 =530B820 - MB> GCBL ;8 =5 548=AB25==K9 A?5F8D8G5A:89 284 AB@0E>20=8O 2 AD5@5 :8=>, GB> >1JOA=O5BAO 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L B5E=8G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 E@0=5=8O, 8A?>;L7>20=8O 8 >1@01>B:8 :8=>?;5=:8, 0 :0: ?>:07K205B B>;L:> GB> C?><O=CBK9 :07CA - 8 55 B@0=A?>@B8@>2:8. 77 >AB0B>G=> ?5@A?5:B82=K< =0?@02;5=85< ?@54AB02;O5BAO @0A?@>AB@0=5==>5 70 @C156>< AB@0E>20=85 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 (2 G8A;> >1J5:B>2 :>B>@>9 2E>4OB 8 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O) >B :>=B@0D0:F88, 0 8A?>;L7CO 1>;55 ?@82KG=CN B5@<8=>;>38N (:AB0B8, 22545==CN 2 ?@>5:B III G0AB8  $) - >B ?8@0BAB20 (1>;55 ?>4@>1=> A<. 4 3;02C 48AA5@B0F88). I5 >4=8< 8=B5@5A=K< 284>< AB@0E>20=8O <>65B 1KBL 8 >G5=L ?>E>689 =0 ?@54K4CI89, => 8<5NI89 >48= 206=K9 =N0=A: 2 2KH5C?><O=CB>< A;CG05 @5GL 845B > AB@0E>20=88 >B ?8@0BAB20 2 ?>;L7C 2;045;LF0 ?@02; 2 @>AA89A:>9 65 ?@0:B8:5 G0ABK A;CG08, :>340 C1KB:8 >B ?8@0BA:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O =5A5B >@30=870F8O, ?@02 =0 B0:>5 ?@02><5@=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 =5 8<5NI0O. >2>;L=> @0A?@>AB@0=5=K, =0?@8<5@, A;CG08, ?>4>1=K5 ?@>8AH54H5<C ;5B>< 1994 3>40 2 @E0=35;LA:5. @C?=59H89 0@E0=35;LA:89 :8=>B50B@ " >48=0" ?@8>1@5; C <>A:>2A:>9 D8@<K "AB-5AB" ?@020 =0 :8=>?>:07 0<5@8:0=A:>3> D8;L<0 "5BE>25=" =0 B5@@8B>@88 @E0=35;LA:>9 >1;0AB8. 8=>B50B@ >@30=87>20; @5:;0<C MB>3> D8;L<0, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 =0 :015;L=>< B5;52845=88, 1K;8 >B?5G0B0=K 8 @0A:;55=K ?> 3>@>4C 0D8H8, 70 <5AOF 1K; >1JO2;5= 45=L ?@5<L5@K. > 70 =545;N 4> ?@5<L5@=>3> ?>:070 MB>B D8;L< 1K; 2:;NG5= 2 >?C1;8:>20==CN 2 <5AB=>9 3075B5 ?@>3@0<<C :015;L=>3> B5;52845=8O, ?>:@K20NI53> ?@0:B8G5A:8 25AL @E0=35;LA: 8 4065 ?@8;530NI85 @09>=K >1;0AB8.  40==>< A;CG05 > =0@CH5=88 ?@02 :8=>B50B@0 :0: >1;040B5;O ?@02 =0 D8;L<, =5 <>65B 1KBL 8 @5G8, ?>A:>;L:C 8< ?@8>1@5B5=> ?@02> =0 ?@>:0B :0@B8=K 2 70;0E, 0 =5 ?@02> =0 B5;52878>==>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 D8;L<0. > A>25@H5==> >G5284=>, GB> ?>4>1=K9 ?>:07, =5A><=5==> ?8@0BA:89, ?>A:>;L:C :015;L=>5 B5;52845=85 =5 ?>;CG8;> C 48AB@81LNB5@0 ?@02 =0 B0:>9 284 8A?>;L7>20=8O D8;L<0, =0=>A8B CI5@1 :8=>B50B@C; 254L 2@O4 ;8 :B>-=81C4L ?@>A<>B@52 "5BE>25=0" ?> :015;L=><C B5;52845=8N, ?>945B 2 :8=>B50B@. "0:>5 <>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, 5A;8 @5GL 845B > 284>2>9 :0@B8=5, > =5>1K:=>25==KE A?5FMDD5:B0E 8;8 72C:5.  40==>< A;CG05 =5;L7O =5 C?><O=CBL =0E>4G82>ABL 48AB@81LNB5@0 D8;L<0 "!:0;>;07", >@30=87>202H53> =0 F5=B@0;L=>< B5;52845=88 @5:;0<=CN :0<?0=8N :8=>B50B@0;L=>3> ?@>:0B0 D8;L<0, :;NG520O 845O :>B>@>9 70:;NG0;0AL 2 A;54CNI5<: D8;L< B0: E>@>H 8 ?>?C;O@5=, GB> 2A5 =5A><=5==> 2845;8 53> =0 2845>:0AA5B5; => B>;L:> ?@>A<>B@ :0@B8=K 2 70;5 40AB 2>7<>6=>ABL >F5=8BL EC4>65AB25==>5 4>AB>8=AB2>, ?>B@OA0NICN @01>BC >?5@0B>@0, :@0A>BC ?@8@>4K 8 ?@5:@0A=CN @01>BC !8;L25AB@0 !B0;;>=5 - 8A?>;=8B5;O 3;02=>9 @>;8. 'B> 65 :0A05BAO D8;L<0 "5BE>25=" - MB> A5<59=0O :0@B8=0, 2 :>B>@>9 7@8B5;O 2 ?5@2CN 78 >G5@54L 8=B5@5AC5B AN65B, 0 C6 70B5< 2845>@O4, 8 @0AAG8BK20BL =0 B>, GB> =5<=>3>G8A;5==K5 F5=8B5;8 ?@>A<>B@0 =0 1>;LH>< M:@0=5 E>BL 2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 >:C?OB 70B@0BK =0 ?@8>1@5B5=85 ?@02, =5 ?@8E>48;>AL.  @E0=35;LA:5 C40;>AL 4>AB83=CBL 1;03>?@8OB=>3> 4;O :8=>B50B@0 @57C;LB0B0 ?CB5< ?5@53>2>@>2, 0 A:>;L:> 8725AB=> A;CG052, :>340 =5 C4020;>AL =8 @07@5H8BL ?>4>1=CN A8BC0F8N "<8@=K< ?CB5<", =8 ?>;CG8BL 2>7<5I5=85 ?@8G8=5==>3> MB8<8 459AB28O<8 CI5@10 G5@57 AC451=K5 8=AB0=F88. >MB><C ?@54AB02;O5BAO 8=B5@5A=K< AB@0E>20=85 =0 A;CG09 2>7=8:=>25=8O B0:8E :>A25==KE C1KB:>2, E>BO 53> @07@01>B:0 - 25AL<0 A;>6=>5 8 :@>?>B;82>5 45;>.  2A5 65 4065 ACI5AB2CNI85 =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L 284K AB@0E>20=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 <>3CB ACI5AB25==> >1;53G8BL ?>;>65=85 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 2 A;CG05 2>7=8:=>25=8O =5?@542845==KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2. 8:B> =5 <>65B ?>AB028BL ?>4 A><=5=85 F5;5A>>1@07=>ABL AB@0E>20=8O AJ5<>G=>3> >1>@C4>20=8O, B5< 1>;55 GB> 2 =0AB>OI89 <><5=B 40;5:> =5 2A5 :8=>?@>872>4OI85 >@30=870F88 <>3CB A515 ?>72>;8BL ?@8>1@5AB8 4>@>3>AB>OI85 8 1KAB@> <>@0;L=> CAB0@520NI85 B5E=8G5A:85 A@54AB20.  MB8E CA;>28OE >1@07>20;8AL A?5F80;L=K5 AB@C:BC@K, ?@8>1@5B0NI85 0??0@0BC@C 8 A40NI85 55 2 0@5=4C D8;L<>?@>872>4OI8< >@30=870F8O<. '0I5 2A53> >=8 B@51CNB AB@0E>20=8O ?5@540205<>3> 8<CI5AB20 :0: CA;>28O 70:;NG5=8O 4>3>2>@0 0@5=4K, 40 8 A0<8 =0=8<0B5;8 ?>=8<0NB =5>1E>48<>ABL MB>3>. 54>AB0B>G=> @0728B> 8 N@848G5A:>5 >1A;C6820=85 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. 081>;55 MDD5:B82=>9 2 MB>< A<KA;5 O2;O5BAO @01>B0 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>3> >1I5AB20, :>B>@>5 =0@O4C A :>=AC;LB0F8>==>9 8 4>3>2>@=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN 70=8<05BAO :>;;5:B82=K< C?@02;5=85< ?@020<8 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 - :0: A0<8E 02B>@>2, B0: 8 8=KE ?@02>>1;040B5;59. "0:85 >@30=870F88 ACI5AB2CNB ?@0:B8G5A:8 2> 2A5E AB@0=0E <8@0: SACD 2> $@0=F88, SUISSIMAGE 2 (259F0@88, VG WORT 8 BILDKUNST 2 5@<0=88 8 B. 4. =8 A>740NBAO 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 459AB2CNI8< =0F8>=0;L=K< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< (2 >AA88, =0?@8<5@, MB> 4>;6=0 1KBL A>740==0O A0<8<8 02B>@0<8 =5:><<5@G5A:0O 8;8 >1I5AB25==0O >@30=870F8O (AB. 45 >)). 8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:85 02B>@K, 0 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE 8 ?@>4NA5@K (=0?@8<5@, 2> D@0=FC7A:>< >1I5AB25 PROCIREP) ?5@540NB B0:>9 >@30=870F88 ?>;=><>G8O ?> >BA;56820=8N 8 A1>@C 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 8E 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89.  1>;LH8=AB25 AB@0= >1I5AB20 C?@02;ONB ?@020<8, 8=48284C0;L=K9 :>=B@>;L 70 :>B>@K<8 70B@C4=5= (=0?@8<5@, B0: =07K205<K9 2B>@8G=K9 @K=>: 8A?>;L7>20=8O - B5;52845=85 (>A>15==> =51>;LH85 :015;L=K5 A5B8), :0AA5BK, 79 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85 8 ?@.). > 2 =5:>B>@KE AB@0=0E, =0?@8<5@ 2 A?0=88, :>;;5:B82=>5 C?@02;5=85 >@30=87>20=> 8 =0 ?5@28G=>< @K=:5 - ?@8 ?>:075 D8;L<>2 2 70;0E. @02>>1;040B5;8 ?5@540NB ?@020 =0 2A5 A2>8 ?@>872545=8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 B5, :>B>@K5 1C4CB A>740=K 8<8 2 1C4CI5<. A5 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 A>45@60B C:070=85 =0 B>, GB> 4>3>2>@ <564C 02B>@>< 8 ?>4>1=K< >1I5AB2>< =5 02B>@A:89, 0 A:>@55 035=BA:89, 8 =5 ?>4?0405B ?>4 B@048F8>==K5 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K5 =>@<K > 4>3>2>@5.  @>AA89A:>< 70:>=5 A?5F80;L=> A:070=>, GB> >1I5AB20 =5 2?@025 >ACI5AB2;OBL 8A?>;L7>20=85 >1J5:B>2 02B>@A:8E 8 A<56=KE ?@02, ?>;CG5==KE 4;O C?@02;5=8O =0 :>;;5:B82=>9 >A=>25 (G. 2 AB. 45 >). A;8 ?@>4NA5@K =5 CG0AB2CNB 2 B0:>< >1I5AB25, B> 5I5 =0 MB0?5 70:;NG5=8O 4>3>2>@0 =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 02B>@K ?@54C?@5640NB 873>B>28B5;O > A2>5< G;5=AB25, 8 4>3>2>@ A>AB02;O5BAO A> A?5F80;L=K<8 >3>2>@:0<8 > :>;;5:B82=>< C?@02;5=88, ?>4?8AK205BAO 2 ?@8ACBAB288 ?@54AB028B5;O 02B>@A:>3> >1I5AB20, 2 >1I5AB2> 45?>=8@C5BAO >48= 87 >@838=0;>2 4>3>2>@0. A5 ?@>872545=8O, =0 :>B>@K5 B0:8< >1@07>< ?5@540=K ?@020, A>AB02;ONB @5?5@BC0@ >1I5AB20. @><5 B>3>, >=> ?@54AB02;O5B 2A5 ?@>872545=8O 87 @5?5@BC0@0 8=>AB@0==KE >1I5AB2, A :>B>@K<8 70:;NG5=K 4>3>2>@K > 2708<=>< ?@54AB028B5;LAB25 8=B5@5A>2. 0B5< >1I5AB2> 70:;NG05B ;8F5=78>==K5 A>3;0H5=8O A ?>;L7>20B5;O<8 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 (2 40==>< A<KA;5 B5;52878>==K<8 :0=0;0<8, 2845>A0;>=0<8 8 ?@.), =0 >A=>25 :>B>@KE @07@5H05BAO 8A?>;L7>20=85 2A5E ?@>872545=89 @5?5@BC0@0. >AA89A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> ?>72>;O5B MB8< >1I5AB20< 459AB2>20BL >B 8<5=8 =5 B>;L:> A2>8E G;5=>2, => 8=KE >1;040B5;59 02B>@A:8E 8 A<56=KE ?@02, :>B>@K5 =5 ?5@540;8 >1I5AB2C B0:8E ?>;=><>G89 (017. 2 G. 3 AB. 45 >). 0==0O =>@<0 ?>O28;0AL 2 70:>=5 ?>B><C, GB> 4> 1993 3, =0 B5@@8B>@88 >AA88 459AB2>20;> B>;L:> >4=> ?>4>1=>5 >1I5AB2> -?@02>?@55<=8: A>740==>3> 2 1973 3. 2 A2O78 A 2ABC?;5=85< !!!  2> A5<8@=CN (5=52A:CN) :>=25=F8N >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 A5A>N7=>3> 035=BAB20 ?> 02B>@A:8< ?@020<.  ?5@5AB@>5G=K9 ?5@8>4 MB0 >@30=870F8O =5A:>;L:> @07 B@0=AD>@<8@>20;0AL - 87 >1I5AB25==>9 >@30=870F88  AB0; >AC40@AB25==K< 035=BAB2>< ?> 02B>@A:8< 8 A<56=K< ?@020< (!), 70B5< >AA89A:8< 035=BAB2>< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 ( !) 8, =0:>=5F, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A B@51>20=8O<8 > - >AA89A:8< 02B>@A:8< >1I5AB2>< ( ). 0 20 ;5B @01>BK  A>740; CAB>9G82K5 A2O78 A 0=0;>38G=K<8 70@C156=K<8 >1I5AB20<8, =0@01>B0;> A8AB5<C :>;;5:B82=>3> A1>@0 8 @0A?@545;5=8O 3>=>@0@0 70 =5:>B>@K5 284K 8A?>;L7>20=8O.  =>2K5 B@51>20=8O, :0A0NI85AO 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L >D>@<;5=8O 8=48284C0;L=>3> 80 G;5=AB20, <>3;8 1K 70B>@<>78BL @01>BC =0 <=>385 3>4K. >MB><C 8 @07@5H5=> 1K;> ?@54AB02;OBL 8=B5@5AK 8 B5E 02B>@>2, :>B>@K5 =5 B>@>?8;8AL >D>@<8BL A2>8 >B=>H5=8O A . ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, B0:0O =>@<0 8<5;0 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K9 MDD5:B.  ?@54AB02;O; 8=B5@5AK 2A5E 02B>@>2, =57028A8<> >B AD5@K ;8B5@0BC@K, =0C:8 8 8A:CAAB20, 2 :>B>@>9 >=8 B2>@8;8.  @57C;LB0B5 ?>A;54CNI8E @5>@30=870F89 87 7>=K 53> 2=8<0=8O 2K?0;8 02B>@K 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 (:@><5 :><?>78B>@>2). > ?> B@048F88  2>A?@8=8<0;0AL :0: 548=AB25==0O >@30=870F8O, A?>A>1=0O ?>=OBL =C64K 02B>@>2 8 ?><>GL 2 A?>@=>9 A8BC0F88. 0 8 A0< > 4020;  2 MB>< A<KA;5 =5>3@0=8G5==K5 2>7<>6=>AB8, CAB0=02;820O, GB> 4>?CA:05BAO A>740=85 ;81> >B45;L=KE >@30=870F89 ?> @07;8G=K< ?@020< 8 @07;8G=K< :0B53>@8O< >1;040B5;59 ?@02, ;81> >@30=870F89, C?@02;ONI8E @07=K<8 ?@020<8 2 8=B5@5A0E @07=KE :0B53>@89 >1;040B5;59 ?@02, ;81> >4=>9 >@30=870F88, >4=>2@5<5==> C?@02;ONI59 02B>@A:8<8 8 A<56=K<8 ?@020<8 (G. 2 AB. 44 >), => ?@8 MB>< : 45OB5;L=>AB8 B0:8E >@30=870F89 =5 ?@8<5=ONBAO >3@0=8G5=8O, ?@54CA<>B@5==K5 0=B8<>=>?>;L=K< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< (017. 2 G. 1 AB. 45 >). 04> A:070BL, GB> ?@>5:B II! G0AB8  $, E>BO 8 =5 A>45@68B A?5F80;L=>3> @0745;0, ?>A2OI5==>3> :>;;5:B82=><C C?@02;5=8N 8<CI5AB25==K<8 02B>@A:8<8 8 A<56=K<8 ?@020<8, => CAB0=02;8205B @568< 4;O >@30=870F89, >ACI5AB2;ONI8E ?@020 A A>3;0A8O ?@02>>1;040B5;O 8 =0 >A=>25 ?>;CG5==KE >B =53> ?>;=><>G89 (AB. 1143 8 1154). > <=>3>< MB8 =>@<K A>>B25BAB2CNB 459AB2CNI5<C 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C, =0?@8<5@ 2 B><, GB> ?> >@30=870F8>==>-?@02>2>9 D>@<5 MB> 4>;6=K 1KBL =5:><<5@G5A:85 >@30=870F88, =5 8<5NI85 ?@020 8A?>;L7>20BL ?@>872545=8O, ?@020 =0 :>B>@K5 8< 4>25@5=K 2 C?@02;5=85. > A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ?@>5:B B@51C5B ;8F5=78@>20=8O ?>4>1=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (017. 2 G. 2 AB. 1143), GB> =5 B>;L:> 45;05B 55 @568< 1>;55 AB@>38< 8 B5< A0<K< AC605B :@C3 2>7<>6=KE >@30=870F89, => 8 2K7K205B =5>1E>48<>ABL ?5@5A<>B@0 459AB2CNI53> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20. 04> A:070BL, GB> 8 157 B>3>, ?@>F5AA A>740=8O B0:>3> @>40 >1I5AB2 - 45;> 4>;3>5 8 E;>?>B=>5, >4=0:> A53>4=O =0@O4C A  ?>O2;ONBAO =>2K5 >@30=870F88, ?@54AB02;ONI85 8=B5@5AK @07=KE :0B53>@89 02B>@>2. "0:, 2 1994 3. ?> 8=8F80B825 @O40 254CI8E @>AA89A:8E :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 1K;> A>740=> >AA89A:>5 >1I5AB2> ?@02>>1;040B5;59 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 ( !). => 4>;6=> >15A?5G8BL N@848G5A:CN 70I8BC 8 :>;;5:B82=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 8=B5@5A>2 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8< 02B>@0< 8 ?@02>>1;040B5;O<. > ?>:0 CA?5E8 MB>3> >1I5AB20 =525;8:8, ?>A:>;L:C 2 :064>< 87 ?@8>@8B5B=KE 81 =0?@02;5=89 A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 >=> AB0;:8205BAO A >?@545;5==K<8 B@C4=>ABO<8, A2O70==K<8 A ?@>15;0<8 2 70:>=>40B5;L=>9 8 =>@<0B82=>9 1075, A =565;0=85< ?>;L7>20B5;59 ?@8=8<0BL =>2CN D>@<C 2K?;0BK 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O, A >BACBAB285< 2>7<>6=>AB8 >ACI5AB2;OBL :>;;5:B82=>5 C?@02;5=85 2 :>=:@5B=KE 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@0E, 70:;NG5==KE =0 A>740=85 D8;L<>2 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: ?5@5AB0;8 ?@8<5=OBLAO B8?>2K5 D>@<K. > ?5@A?5:B82K 2A5 65 ACI5AB2CNB: ! ?>;L7C5BAO ?>445@6:>9 2@>?59A:>3> !>>1I5AB20 8 2:;NG5= 2 C65 C?><O=CBCN ?@>3@0<<C TACIS, =5:>B>@K5 0=0;>38G=K5 52@>?59A:85 >1I5AB20 (=0?@8<5@, SACD 8 VG WORT) ?5@5G8A;8;8 A>1@0==>5 8<8 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 A>25BA:8E 8 @>AA89A:8E D8;L<>2 =0 A2>59 B5@@8B>@88 2>7=03@0645=85 2 >4=>AB>@>==5< ?>@O4:5, B.5. ?>:0 =5 AB02O CA;>28O >1 >B25B=KE 2K?;0B0E. ! A>2<5AB=> A , !>N7>< :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 >AA88 8 >A:8=> CG0AB2C5B 2 @07@01>B:5 =>@<0B82=KE 0:B>2 > 2K?;0B5 2>7=03@0645=8O 02B>@0< 70 D8;L<K, A>740==K5 4> ?@8=OB8O =>2>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025, 0 B0:65 2 @01>B5 1;03>B2>@8B5;L=>3> D>=40 " >AA89A:0O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=0O A>1AB25==>ABL". @><5 B>3>, =5>1E>48<>ABL A>740=8O A?5F80;L=KE >1I5AB2 ?> :>;;5:B82=><C C?@02;5=8N 8<CI5AB25==K<8 ?@020<8 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 ?@>48:B>20=0 A0<8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2><. "0:, AB. 26 > ?@54CA<0B@8205B A1>@ 8 @0A?@545;5=85 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 ?@>872545=8O, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL 70?8A0=K =0 8<5NI8EAO 2 ?@>4065 G8ABKE 2845>:0AA5B0E ?@8 ?><>I8 2845>>1>@C4>20=8O (2845><03=8B>D>=>2 8 ?@.). 73>B>28B5;8 8 8<?>@B5@K 2845>=>A8B5;59 8 >1>@C4>20=8O 4>;6=K ?;0B8BL >?@545;5==K9 A1>@, :>B>@K9 ?>B>< 2K?;0G8205BAO 2 :0G5AB25 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85 02B>@0<, 873>B>28B5;O< 8 8A?>;=8B5;O< 3;02=KE @>;59 B5E 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL 70?8A0=K G0AB=K< ?>@O4:>< =0 MB8E =>A8B5;OE A ?><>ILN B0:>3> >1>@C4>20=8O. @0240, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G. 3 AB. 26 > ?>4>1=K< A1>@0< =5 ?>4;568B >1>@C4>20=85, ?@54=07=0G5==>5 4;O ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, => CAB0=>2;5=85 ?>@O4:0 278<0=8O C:070==>3> A1>@0 E>BO 1K A 2845>=>A8B5;59 (?>A:>;L:C : =8< :@8B5@89 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O =>@<0<8 > =5 CAB0=02;8205BAO) 1K;> 1K A5@L57=K< 8AB>G=8:>< 2>72@0B0 70B@0G5==KE =0 ?@>872>4AB2> D8;L<0 A@54AB2 4;O 873>B>28B5;59 8 8AB>G=8:>< 4>E>40 4;O 02B>@>2. > ?@5B2>@5=85 40==>9 =>@<K > AB>;:=C;>AL A =5?@5>4>;8<K<8 ?@5?OBAB28O<8. >@O4>: :>=:@5B=>3> 2>?;>I5=8O ?>4>1=KE =>@< 4>;65= 1KBL 45B0;L=> @07@01>B0= 8 22545= ?>470:>==K<8 0:B0<8. # =0A 65 =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L 5ABL B>;L:> #:07 @57845=B0 $ " <5@0E ?> @50;870F88 ?@02 02B>@>2 82 ?@>872545=89, 8A?>;=8B5;59 8 ?@>872>48B5;59 D>=>3@0<< =0 2>7=03@0645=85 70 2>A?@>872545=85 2 ;8G=KE F5;OE 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8;8 72C:>70?8A8 ?@>872545=8O" >B 5 45:01@O 1998 3. ! 14711, :>B>@K9 =5 A>45@68B =8 >4=>9 =>@<K ?@O<>3> 459AB28O, 0 B>;L:> 405B ?>@CG5=8O @07;8G=K< >@30=0< 3>AC40@AB25==>9 2;0AB8 8 C?@02;5=8O @07@01>B0BL 8 ?@8=OBL A>>B25BAB2CNI85 =>@<0B82=K5 ?@02>2K5 0:BK. > 2A5< <8@5 2>7=03@0645=85 70 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85 O2;O5BAO 25AL<0 ACI5AB25==>9 G0ABLN 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. A5 ?@>872>48B5;8 8 8<?>@B5@K >1>@C4>20=8O 8 G8ABKE =>A8B5;59 ?5@5G8A;ONB A?5F80;L=> A>740==K< 4;O MB>3> (=0?@8<5@, Copie France 2> $@0=F88) 8;8 >B@0A;52K< (VG Wort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irgin Megastore".  MB8E <03078=0E @0740NBAO 0=>=8<=K5 >?@>A=K5 ;8ABK, 2 :>B>@KE =04> C:070BL =5A:>;L:> D8;L<>2, :>B>@K5 @5A?>=45=B 70?8A0; =0 G8ABK9 =>A8B5;L 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O. 064><C, :B> 70?>;=8; 8 A40; 3 B0:8E ;8AB0 70 >?@545;5==K9 >B@57>: 2@5<5=8, 2K405BAO :0:>9-=81C4L ?>40@>:: <09:0, :@C6:0 8;8 :0AA5B0. > 40==K< 0=:5B 45;05BAO @59B8=3, 8 ?5@2K< =5A:>;L:8< 02B>@0< (8E G8A;> 7028A8B >B >1I59 A>1@0==>9 C ?@>872>48B5;59 8 8<?>@B5@>2 AC<<K) 2K?;0G8205BAO 2>7=03@0645=85 70 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85.  5@<0=88 CG5B 2545BAO ?>-4@C3><C. 5<FK 8AE>4OB 87 B>3>, GB> @54:> 70?8AL =0 G8ABCN :0AA5BC >ACI5AB2;O5BAO A >4=>3> 2845><03=8B>D>=0 =0 4@C3>9. !:>@55 2A53> 2;045;5F <03=8B>D>=0 70?8H5B A 53> ?><>ILN =0 G8ABCN :0AA5BC 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, :>B>@>5 ?>:070=> ?> B5;52845=8N, => >= ?> :0:8<-;81> ?@8G8=0< =5 <>65B 53> ?>A<>B@5BL 2 B> 2@5<O, 2 :>B>@>5 D8;L< @07<5I5= 2 A5B:5 ?@>3@0<<. 081>;55 G0AB0O ?@8G8=0 - ?>:07 D8;L<>2 2 @01>G55 2@5<O. =0G8B, 2;045;5F 2845><03=8B>D>=0 70?@>3@0<<8@C5B 53> 8 70?8H5B ?>:070==K9 2 =5C4>1=>5 2@5<O D8;L< A B5<, GB>1K =0 4>AC35 53> ?@>A<>B@5BL. !;54>20B5;L=>, 1 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1998. - ! 49. - AB. 6016. 83 =081>;LH0O 25@>OB=>ABL G0AB=>3> :>?8@>20=8O - 70?8AL ?>:07K205<KE 4=5< ?> :0=0;0< B5;52845=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89.  5@<0=88 A>1@0==K5 AC<<K @0A?@545;ONBAO <564C 2A5<8 02B>@0<8, D8;L<K :>B>@KE 1K;8 ?>:070=K ?> B5;52845=8N 2 >BG5B=K9 ?5@8>4. >MDD8F85=B 4;O ?>4AG5B0 2>7=03@0645=8O 02B>@0< :064>3> :>=:@5B=>3> ?@>872545=8O 70;>65= 2 B01;8FC, 8 MB8 :>MDD8F85=BK ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 75@:0;L=>5 >B>1@065=85 :>MDD8F85=B>2 AB>8<>AB8 B5;52878>==>9 @5:;0<K.  B0: =07K205<K9 "?@09<-B09<" =081>;55 4>@>30O @5:;0<0, 70B> =081>;LH0O 25@>OB=>ABL, GB> D8;L< 1C45B ?@>A<>B@5= 2> 2@5<O 53> ?5@540G8 2 MD8@, 8 =08<5=LH0O 25@>OB=>ABL, GB> >= 1C45B 70?8A0=, B.5. =081>;55 =87:89 :>MDD8F85=B 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85.  =0>1>@>B, 2 4=52=K5 G0AK =081>;55 45H52>5 @5:;0<=>5 2@5<O, 0 7=0G8B =081>;55 2KA>:>5 2>7=03@0645=85 70 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85. @8<5B ;8 >AA8O >4=C 87 MB8E <>45;59 8;8 @07@01>B05B A>1AB25==K9 A?>A>1 ?>4AG5B0 2>7=03@0645=8O 4;O 53> @0A?@545;5=8O, ?>:065B 2@5<O. >:0 ?5@2>>G5@54=>9 7040G59 (:0: 3>2>@8;>AL 2 ?5@2>9 3;025 48AA5@B0F88) O2;O5BAO CAB0=>2;5=85 A8AB5<K A1>@0 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85,  MB> 7040G0 02B>@A:>-?@02>2KE >1I5AB2 (ACI5AB2CNI8E 8;8 B5E, :>B>@K5 B>;L:> 1C4CB A>740=K), ?>A:>;L:C 02B>@K =5 2 A>AB>O=88 A0<>AB>OB5;L=> >@30=87>20BL A1>@ 8 @0A?@545;5=85 B0:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O, GB> >B45;L=> ?>4G5@:8205BAO 2 017. 2 G. 2 AB. 26 >: "!1>@ 8 @0A?@545;5=85 MB>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O >ACI5AB2;ONBAO >4=>9 87 >@30=870F89, C?@02;ONI8E 8<CI5AB25==K<8 ?@020<8 02B>@>2, ?@>872>48B5;59 D>=>3@0<< 8 8A?>;=8B5;59 =0 :>;;5:B82=>9 >A=>25...". !53>4=O D0:B8G5A:8 A;>68;8AL M:>=><8G5A:85 ?@54?>AK;:8 8 ?@02>20O 1070 4;O CA?5H=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O !0 8;8 0=0;>38G=>3> 5<C >1I5AB20, ?>A:>;L:C ?@8=F8?80;L=> @5H5=0 >4=0 87 206=59H8E ?@>1;5< >B5G5AB25==>9 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 - 2K?;0B0 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 D8;L<K, A>740==K5 4> 1992 3. 284C B>3>, GB> 4> 22545=8O 2 459AB285 A=>2 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 !>N70 !!  8 @5A?C1;8: 02B>@K 2K=C645=K 1K;8 70:;NG0BL 4>3>2>@K =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 =0 >A=>25 2E>4OI8E 2 AB0@CN A8AB5<C 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 "8?>2KE 4>3>2>@>2, CB25@645==KE ?@8:07>< >A:8=> !!! , 0 2>7=03@0645=85 2K?;0G820;>AL 2 A>>B25BAB288 A CB25@645==K<8 !>25B>< 8=8AB@>2 !!!  AB02:0<8, B> A 87<5=5=85< 02B>@A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 8 ?5@5E>4>< : @K=>G=>9 A8AB5<5 :8=>?@>872>4AB20 8 :8=>?@>:0B0 02B>@K "AB0@KE" D8;L<>2 >:070;8AL ;8H5==K<8 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?>;CG0BL 2>7=03@0645=85 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 A2>8E ?@>872545=89, 0 2A5 45=L38 ?>;CG0;0 ABC48O, =0 :>B>@>9 MB8 84 ?@>872545=8O 1K;8 A=OBK :0: >1;040B5;L ?@02 =0 =8E. "0:>5 ?>;>65=85 25I59 =5;L7O 1K;> ?@87=0BL A?@0254;82K<, ?>MB><C 29 <0O 1998 3. @028B5;LAB2> $ ?@8=O;> ?>AB0=>2;5=85 " <8=8<0;L=KE AB02:0E 2>7=03@0645=8O 02B>@0< :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E ?@>872545=89, ?@>872>4AB2> (AJ5<:0) :>B>@KE >ACI5AB2;5=> 4> 3 023CAB0 1992 3." ! 5241. -B> ?>AB0=>2;5=85 ?@8<5G0B5;L=> =5 B>;L:> B5<, GB> 2 =5< ?@54?@8=OB0 ?>?KB:0 2>AAB0=>28BL A?@0254;82>ABL ?> >B=>H5=8N : 02B>@0<, G59 B0;0=B 1;8AB0; 2 A>25BA:>5 2@5<O 8 :>B>@K5, ?> @07=K< ?@8G8=0< >:0702H8AL =52>AB@51>20==K<8 2 A>2@5<5==>< :8=>, 4> ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8 =5 8<5;8 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?>;CG0BL <0B5@80;L=K5 "?;>4K" 70 A2>5 ?@56=55 B2>@G5AB2>. => O2;O5BAO GCBL ;8 =5 548=AB25==K< =>@<0B82=K< 0:B><, 48DD5@5=F8@>20==> ?>4E>4OI8< : @07;8G=K< 2840< 8 60=@0< 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, CAB0=02;820O @07=K5 AB02:8 2>7=03@0645=8O 02B>@0< <C7K:0;L=KE, <C;LB8?;8:0F8>==KE 8 ?@>G8E D8;L<>2, B5< A0<K< ?>4G5@:820O @>;L B5E 8;8 8=KE 02B>@>2 2 A>740=88 B0:8E ?@>872545=89. >, : A>60;5=8N, =5;L7O =5 >B<5B8BL 8 =54>AB0B>: MB>3> =>@<0B82=>3> 0:B0, D0:B8G5A:8 A2>4OI89 =0 =5B 2A5 53> 4>AB>8=AB20. 5;> 2 B><, GB> 53> @07@01>BG8:8 701K;8 C:070BL, :B> O2;O5BAO ?;0B5;LI8:>< CAB0=>2;5==>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O, 8 ?>MB><C A53>4=O 40==>5 ?>AB0=>2;5=85 =5 @01>B05B. ! ?>O2;5=85< =0 @>AA89A:>< :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>< @K=:5 0:B5@A:8E 035=BAB2, 87<5=8;AO ?>@O4>: ?>41>@0 8A?>;=8B5;59. :B5@A:85 035=BAB20 AB0;8 >@30=87>2K20BLAO 2 =0G0;5 90-E 3>4>2 A=0G0;0 :0: 10=:8 40==KE, 0 A 22545=85< 2 1992 3. 2 459AB285 A=>2 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 !>N70 !!  8 @5A?C1;8:, ?@>2>73;0A82H8E A<56=K5 ?@020 0@B8AB>2-8A?>;=8B5;59, >=8 27O;8 =0 A51O DC=:F88 8 N@848G5A:8E :>=B>@ ?> 70I8B5 ?@02 0:B5@>2, 8 >1I5AB2 ?> C?@02;5=8N A<56=K<8 ?@020<8. 0?@8<5@, 0:B5@A:>5 035=BAB2> "!" ?@54AB02;O5B 8=B5@5AK >:>;> 250 @>AA89A:8E 0:B5@>2.  1994 3. : =8< >1@0B8;8AL ?> ?>2>4C ?>41>@0 0:B5@>2 4;O 42 @>AA89A:8E 8 8=>AB@0==KE D8;L<>2 (=0?@8<5@, 4;O :0=04A:>-0=3;89A:>3> A5@80;0 "0@@8 0;<5@", A=8<02H53>AO 2 !0=:B-5B5@1C@35). 35=BAB2> ACI5AB2C5B =0 ?@>F5=B=K5 >BG8A;5=8O >B 0:B5@A:8E 3>=>@0@>2 ?> 4>3>2>@0<, 70:;NG5==K< G5@57 =53>, 8;8 >B 8AB@51>20==KE 2 AC451=>< ?>@O4:5 AC<< (2 B>< G8A;5 8 ?@8 ?@54AB02;5=88 8=B5@5A>2 8A?>;=8B5;59 ?> 45;0< > 70I8B5 G5AB8 8 4>AB>8=AB20), =0 ?;0BC 70 CA;C38 ?> ?@54>AB02;5=8N @568AA5@0< 8 ?@>4NA5@0< 8=D>@<0F88 8 <0B5@80;>2 >1 0:B5@0E 87 A2>53> 10=:0 40==KE. 35=BAB2> 1 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. 1998. - ! 22. - AB. 2476. 85 70=8<05BAO "@0A:@CB:>9" <>;>4KE 0:B5@>2, => : A>60;5=8N, :0: 8 2 ;N1>9 4@C3>9 AD5@5 H>C-187=5A0, =5 <>65B 30@0=B8@>20BL 2>AB@51>20==>ABL 8 CA?5E, 0 ?@>AB> ?KB05BAO A>740BL <0:A8<0;L=> C4>1=K5 4;O 0:B5@0 CA;>28O @01>BK. @54AB028B5;8 035=BAB20 A0<8 2K5760NB =0 AJ5<>G=CN ?;>I04:C 2 A;CG05 2>7=8:=>25=8O :>=D;8:B>2, =57028A8<> >B 8E E0@0:B5@0, A;54OB 70 >B=>H5=8O<8 0:B5@>2 A ?@5AA>9, A>AB02;ONB 8 ?@8ACBAB2CNB ?@8 70:;NG5=88 4>3>2>@>2 =0 CG0AB85 0:B5@>2 2 D8;L<5. ><8<> 0:B5@A:8E 035=BAB2 A53>4=O A>740=K 420 >1I5AB20, ?KB0NI8EAO ?@54AB02;OBL 8=B5@5AK 8A?>;=8B5;59 =0 :>;;5:B82=>9 >A=>25. -B> >AA89A:>5 >1I5AB2> ?> A<56=K< ?@020< ( !), 8 >AA89A:>5 >1I5AB2> ?> C?@02;5=8N ?@020<8 8A?>;=8B5;59 ( #), >, : A>60;5=8N, :8=>0:B5@K =5 2E>4OB 2 :@C3 ?>B5=F80;L=KE G;5=>2 MB8E >1I5AB2. ) =25AB8@>20=85 0 @>AA89A:>< @K=:5 CA;C3 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 ?>:0 =5 AD>@<8@>20;0AL >B45;L=0O D83C@0 :8=>8=25AB>@0, E>BO ?@02>2K5 >A=>20=8O 4;O >ACI5AB2;5=8O B0:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2>7=8:;8 C65 ?>A;5 ?@8=OB8O 26 8N=O 1991 3. 0:>=0 !$!  "1 8=25AB8F8>==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 !$! ",  =5< 8=25AB>@ >?@545;5= :0: AC1J5:B 8=25AB8F8>==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, >ACI5AB2;ONI89 2;>65=85 A>1AB25==KE, 705<=KE 8;8 ?@82;5G5==KE A@54AB2 2 D>@<5 8=25AB8F89, B.5. 2:;04>2 2 >1J5:BK ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 8 4@C38E 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 F5;OE ?>;CG5=8O ?@81K;8 (4>E>40) 8 4>AB865=8O ?>;>68B5;L=>3> A>F80;L=>3> MDD5:B0 8 >15A?5G820NI89 8E F5;52>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 (G. 3 AB. 2 8 G. 1 AB. 1).  :0G5AB25 8=25AB>@>2 <>3CB 2KABC?0BL :0: D878G5A:85, N@848G5A:85 ;8F0, ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:85 >1J548=5=8O, ?@8G5< 8 @>AA89A:85, 8 8=>AB@0==K5, B0: 8 3>AC40@AB20, 8E >@30=K, C?>;=><>G5==K5 C?@02;OBL 3>AC40@AB25==K< 8 <C=8F8?0;L=K< 8<CI5AB2>< 8;8 8<CI5AB25==K<8 ?@020<8. 0:>= 70:@5?;O; =5A:>;L:> <>45;59 2708<>>B=>H5=89 8=25AB8F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0: 8=25AB>@ <>3 2KABC?0BL 2 @>;8 2:;04G8:0, 70:07G8:0, :@548B>@0, ?>:C?0B5;O 8 ?@. AB5AB25==>, ?@8 B0:>< <=>3>>1@0788 <>6=> 1K;> ?@54?>;030BL, GB> 8=25AB8F88 2 0C48>287C0;L=CN AD5@C ?>;LNBAO @5:>9. > D0:B8G5A:8 ?@54>AB02;O5<K<8 70:>=>< ?@58<CI5AB20<8 2>A?>;L7>20;8AL =5<=>385, 8 A0<K9 :@C?=K9 8=25AB>@ @>AA89A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0 =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L - CMC (Centre national du cinema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ocietes de financement de la creation audiovisuelle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tv  v 8 : v x  . b ݟthtt\tPhDh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph!h*5@B*CJ"\aJph!h*5@B*CJ"\aJphh*B*CJaJphh*h*6@B*CJ]phh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphv  : r t v x  $-DM `a$gd*gd*$-DM `a$gd*f 0 4 6    8:PTV~.0ﶪyj[O襁h*@B*CJphh*5@B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\phh*5B*CJ\phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*5@B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\ph h*CJh*B*CJph 6  :V08$ #-DM `a$gd*$ ]#-DM `a$gd*$ X#-DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*$ $-DM `a$gd*0.068ſ}o`TH>h*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*5@B*CJ\phh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*5@B*CJ\phh*5B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\phHNPfln,Rz2Ʒ}tfZNZBh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJphh*5CJ\h*5@B*CJ\phh*5B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphPn`#$:)<)B)*/2~6 ;;;$-DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*$ #-DM `a$gd*$ #-DM `a$gd*^`v,RD ` b f!!"####X$$$$`(")8)<)ɽՋseYh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJph<)@)B))X***X++--0..D///0V11223D44t5686>6|6~6ǻ뻁ui]i]M]h*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*B*CJRHuaJph~667788F99f:: ;;;;:;;;;$<|<=R=T=~==|>?¸t”fZZfZNh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJph;;T=AELLLLLLLLZMQ8U>Z\B^_``$ }-DM `a$gd*$ & F -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*??F@@AA:AA8BBlCCCDDEE>EE"FFNGGHII2JxJzJJfKKLLǻ}o}}}磻a}Uh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*>*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph!L LLLLLL2MXMZMMN4OOzPQQQQR4SSTU6U8UԬڢ~rfZZ~NBh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJphh*B*CJRHDaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*ph8UJVLVRVVVVW6XX|YZZZt[ \\\\]@^B^F^___ϵymϑamUIC h*CJh*B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJph__B`````vb ccddxfggvhiii8jjnklXmmnbodooo$p&p̜ܐxj\h*>*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJH*ph``dido&pr$s&s(s*s,s.s0s4su*{L\$ & F -DM `a$gd*$ & F  -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*&pp(qqqZrrrr"s&s2s4ssJttuuuTvvTxyyz${}sg[}}OgCh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJph${&{({*{{H||r}~~JLd:L>҄Z\^¶Ϊ’Άzl`TN@h*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*ph^&*^`<h(ƎZz˿ˍueYMYMh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJph h*CJh*B*CJaJph`v2 0$-DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*ztv402 –*—\ǻՕ}}qaqSE7h*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJmH phsH h*B*CJaJphh*5CJ\h*5B*CJ\aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph(*z@p .0l~Ξڞ6ʟJLhŹӫwewWGWh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJaJph#h*@B*CJaJmH phsH h*@B*CJaJph#h*@B*CJaJmH phsH h*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJaJphzvޣv~@z巩}}ocWK}h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJH*ph h*CJh*@B*CJaJphh*@ B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJph#h*@ B*CJaJmH phsH h*@ B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphVj$ $-DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*$ -DM `a$gd*zȨʨԨبTVZzέЭ8J|سh2̶dŹݭš{o{ѹ{{{ch*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJph#Bֺd0ľJ<`¶wk_SGGƒh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJph`dhj*bRT$FVXnTX˿˙˙seYeKh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphVX^t0 "$*$ }-DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*$ s-DM `a$gd*X\^6Hv 2rtNVǻӗ߻ssǻgYgh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph"V.04(*x۽۷|l`۷TH<h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJRHuaJphh*@B*CJaJph h*6B*CJH*]aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph,^$RvLTx2Rſݳћ󃿳wkуя]h*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph$,j "* H#)))$-DM `a$gd*R :^j*,hj.\(T"(*ɽ՛էՏՏՃɛۃ۽۽sh*@B*CJRHGaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph-Tx&  X  x     @  dDFHhù󭡕}wkwkww_h*B*CJH*phh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph 6 f|dF  h!!ƺԬԠ|p|pdpXpLXh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6B*CJ]ph!"&####B$R$$%&&L''()))),**V++|,--0..b//0˿q˿eY݋Mh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJph))))))):4;===*N6R8R:RRDR>`cd,egg$ -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*011.1,24282F2H2N2P2^2`2d2f2~22223,484:44R55.77P889::N;ٹwkw_wh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJph!N;;;;J=N=P=T========T>>h? @@4AAHBϽϽymaUaI=h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJRHtaJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJmH phsH #h*@B*CJaJmH phsH h*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJphHBBDDBEEtFGG>HHJJTKKM(N*NNFOOPQQ4R8RBRDRRVSѡѕݏ݃wi[Mh*@ B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphVSSjTTTTUVVDWWXX YY6ZZ[[p[ \D]յoaSCSSh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJph#h*@B*CJaJmH phsH h*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphD]R]T]]z^^^^^_<`>``la~aabbbb8cccddŵţӝŏseUeGA h*CJh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJmH phsH h*B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJ#h*@B*CJaJmH phsH h*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJaJphddd,e0eeeefggggggRhhijj8kkVllдЮ vlv`THv<h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJaJph!h*6@B*CJ]aJph h*6B*CJH*]aJphgggmqxxx8|:|@|}LjlrX$-DM `a$gd*$ s-DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*$ -DM `a$gd*lmmmmm\nnooo$ppDqqqrr>ssrt uuuuZvvrwxxǻ󻭻ǡӕ}绡ocWKh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphxxxxxxxxy{{6|:|>|@||l}}}}}~~~~~~~~~~~~~ʉ}qaqaqaqaqaqaqh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph!h*5@B*CJ\aJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJH*ph h*CJ"6΀jƁȁ́΁  68B*8n*ćLވŵŵŵŵŵŵŵťui]h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@ B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJph$ވ`"JLʍlhoaPA5h*B*CJaJphh*6B*CJ]aJph h*6B*CJH*]aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*5CJ\h*5@B*CJ\ph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphhlpr"P"@ʖh2ĜZǻӁui]QuiEh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*5@B*CJ\ph h*CJZJԠ`$£VZhj"ئڦb 0÷rۛfZLh*>*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphXZ`bdjڦ68>L~6$$ -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*0>ʪPܫbrFްh$H48ĸЬڠ|pdXRpFRh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJph8<>ַFHt&ĺJLػj"LڿDFzдvj܂`RFh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJ!h*5@B*CJ\aJph(^8Tp|~4ϻۯϣq`RAR!h*6@B*CJ]aJphh*@B*CJaJph h*6B*CJH*]aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph46:4bd"$Bh&DbƺҔ|pdƺX|Lh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJb"V"V"rtx NPR÷}qeWQ h*CJh*>*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphtPR^jv$$-DIfM a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*$ -DM `a$gd* RZ^fjrv~ "Z^bfjnrvzwkh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJRHlaJphh*@B*CJRHlaJphh*@B*CJRHlaJph h*CJh*@B*CJph%C....$$-DIfM a$gd*kd$$If(*r3 3 j 24 (a(p2.kd8$$If(r3 3 j 24 (a(p2$$-DIfM a$gd* "^f.kdp$$If(r3 3 j 24 (a(p2$$-DIfM a$gd*fnv~.kd$$If(r3 3 j 24 (a(p2$$-DIfM a$gd* BNRXdhlpv*ٿ٣ٿwg[UEh*>*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJRHlaJphh*@B*CJRHlaJphh*@ B*CJRHlaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJRHlaJphh*@B*CJRHlaJphh*B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJRHlaJphh*@B*CJRHlaJph .kd$$If(Er3 3 j 24 (a(p2$$-DIfM a$gd*Rhp$$-DIfM a$gd*,pC///$-DM `a$gd*kd$$If(r3 3 j 24 (a(p2*,nprz~48<@DHJrvz~xh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJRHlaJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph h*CJ/pr~fkdP$$If(F'S     4 (a(p$$-DIfM `a$gd*fff$$-DIfM `a$gd*kd0$$If(F'S     4 (a(p8@Hfff$$-DIfM `a$gd*kd $$If(F'S     4 (a(pHJv~fff$$-DIfM `a$gd*kd $$If(F'S     4 (a(pfff$$-DIfM `a$gd*kd $$If(F'S     4 (a(p (fff$$-DIfM `a$gd*kd $$If(F'S     4 (a(p $(*8\*LBDN| 4ĸymaܸܸUĬh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*5@B*CJ\phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*B*CJaJph h*CJ(*D"kkkkkkkkk$-DM `a$gd*kd $$If(F'S     4 (a(p  ">b"N\@B@bɽ՛ugu[Ɂ[Mh*B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphJLPd*>.JJ`(  봨znbVJzh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*6B*CJH*]aJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJphLF| J#Z$$$$$ -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*$ -DM `a$gd*$ -DM `a$gd* J  r   0  "@$*ŹŭŏrfXfJh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]phh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphL| h0DFfH z |  !!""""H#J#L#緫å竍uuk_kuϥQh*B*CJH*aJphh*B*CJH*phh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphL####X$Z$^$$$$$$%%>&&n''())**󻭟ymaUI=h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph!h*6@B*CJ]aJph$h*6@B*CJH*]aJphh*B*CJaJph$%@,F--~7777999::*:$$-DIfM a$gd*$-DM `a$gd****D++>,@,D-F---6..N//~011<22\345>66^7|777788099˿ݛwk_ѧh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJph 9999999::::&:,:0:4:::::::::::::V;Z;b;f;n;r;x;;ٿٱ٥ًٙ}q٥e}ٿWh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJph"*:,:4::::C....$$-DIfM a$gd*kdp $$If(rLI!Lp 2!4 (a(p2::::::.kd$$If(rLI!Lp 2!4 (a(p2$$-DIfM a$gd*:::::Z;.kd$$If(rLI!Lp 2!4 (a(p2$$-DIfM a$gd*Z;f;r;|;~;;.kd4$$If(rLI!Lp 2!4 (a(p2$$-DIfM a$gd*;;;;;<<< <&<*<0<8<~<<==6>>R??t@ AAHBB}qe}eYMh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJph;;;;;;.kdz$$If(rLI!Lp 2!4 (a(p2$$-DIfM a$gd*;;< <*<4<$$-DIfM a$gd*4<6<8<<<<C....$$-DIfM a$gd*kd$$If(rLI!Lp 2!4 (a(p2<<<.kd$$If(rLI!Lp 2!4 (a(p2$$-DIfM a$gd*BnCD8EEFrGvGGGH\H^HHlIJ.KKZLLvMMN.OOPQQQRRý۽sg[Oh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph<tGvGxGzG|G~GGG^HQ|YZZZannnnnoswH|ڀ>@$-DM `a$gd*R&SSPTTnUVV2WRWTWWJXXzY|Y~Y:ZZZZZ:[t\]<^ݹ݁sgYKݭh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJph<^^\__` aaa(bbTcctd>ffTggxhi>jjxkll8mmdnnnnoo÷󙥍Ϸwk÷_Qh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJpho4ppVqqr,ssstt@uuuu^vvwww@BH̤2JLRH>@BH $ }-DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*ȋT،rxDؐf“ē6:FH~.@B÷ۓse۷YKY÷h*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph8̙LN*œZtԠZ8ʤ̤Ф026÷ÇÓseWIh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphn*HJLPR$@ޮv,..Z˺ˮ˖th\tNtBhh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph!h*5@B*CJ\aJph h*CJ h*CJh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphZ޲v,ZFHp"H޼<@F÷۫ہwgYK?h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphFHܾ &N|~ d0dt:\@JNʾʲքx֨l`xh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJ$ ~LNTnjlr b@BH8$  -DM `a$gd*$ -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*NRT`NBRz8rBǽߥߍӁui[uOuh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJphlnr4bhlrõqcRA!h*5@B*CJ\aJph h*6B*CJH*]aJphh*@B*CJaJph!h*6@B*CJ]aJphh*@B*CJaJph!h*6@B*CJ]aJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphr@  0t P$VxN 󽯽ɗqeYh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph":`bf ~>BFHV68@ɻתrfZNBh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJph h*6B*CJH*]aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@ B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJph@n 8`b@l  F f   .  D^&Xp4ɿ۳ɛճwkh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph)8bDN""""(b.666666;IRJJJJ$ -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*\ >@BDl >f  2!!L"N"P"ϻsg]Mh*@B*CJH*aJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphP"""""<##f$%%<&&(((H))t* ++0,,H--`.b..p/0011*22V3Źŭ롕ѕ}qeYqh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJRHtph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph"V33455666666^77~89H::::v;;;T<<<<<<<<=÷qۋ۱qaaUh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph=>> ??B@vABBFCCrD EE$FFHGGvHIIIIPJRJϷ}qk]Okh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphRJVJJJJJZKLLMjMlMMN,OO\PPPPQRRۿۏwk[kQE9h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJRHuaJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph h*6B*CJH*]aJphJlMVV]]]]]]]]\bjqDq$s$-DM `a$gd*R>SS^TTUVVVV~WX8YY^ZZ[[[$\\T]V]X]]ϷåuiYKh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph]]]]]]b^^_``DaZb\bdccd(eeFffg hh"iijjjڐxl`xT`h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph!h*6@B*CJ]aJphjkkll>mm^nnopp:q>qBqDqqxrrrs"s$ssLttruv÷ÓsesYMh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphvww4xxXyyz{{||B}}T~~F۷瓇{{uubRuh*@B*CJRHUaJph%h*5@B*CJRHU\aJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph 8̆Pڇh2ƊT<܌vǻߋ끻sg[[Oh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph "(؞nzڨܨިF6bb$ }-DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*.Ďb6ȑbz"&(ZFҙt<÷矓χseWh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph<XZV֞؞hH֢lnNxz~ѽѱݍˁѱuѱgYh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*ph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJH*phh*B*CJphبިx<ʫLr0DFԯbͿ۱ۥuii]ۍiOiCh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph h*6B*CJH*]aJph"Fj.Tn46(LֽrŹŭ݉udXŹJh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJph!h*5@B*CJ\aJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphH8Vn&V`b(v4`bdxɽ󥍙ᥙɱqcR!h*5@B*CJ\aJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph ~Jj2.0nBNRŹ{ocŹoWHh*6@B*CJ]phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph0@&B$ -DM `a$gd*$ }-DM `a$gd*$ -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*R@x@j >@D:<x6<r2ŹۭۧŹۧ}ocWh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph"2d$02.\$&>j<۵珛}qe}[e[Oh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJH*phh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph@BF:`,ZͿޣޗpdZNdBh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJph h*6B*CJH*]aJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJphV X ^ %.00$-DM `a$gd*$ -DM `a$gd*DV*\v(`0^ȼȘtjԤ^ȰNh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@ B*CJphh*@ B*CJH*phT X \ ^  ~   :  b<`b:V ǻsg[OCh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph &Ld.Fz  !!6"">#÷۫ۍui]QEh*@ B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph>####d$$%%%P&&'((*))L*v+,(--...$//J0000022:3¼Θ،؀tfZh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]phh*@B*CJph!0089hADCVEXE^ENTUUUVW>l? @@*AfAhABBCDC÷畃wiwiwσ]ϡh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph DCFCHCDTEXE\E^EEFFF GDHHHHXIIxJKĶĪwhw\PD8h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]phh*@B*CJphh*6@ B*CJ]phh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]ph h*6@B*CJH*]phKK@LLzMNNTOOP*QQZRTLTNTvTzTT^UUUUUVVV"WW÷÷۷ϫϥ|m^UϷh*5CJ\h*5@B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\phh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]ph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphWWWLXXrY Z:Z*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJph$h*5>*@B*CJ\aJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJph`````ʍbǻǟugYKE h*CJh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@ B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@ B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@ B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJph0\x“ΕЕ ,0RFHhDŹѡ݅ym݅h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJRHtaJph(D֜^`ޞrFJNPt ҧ˿ׁui]QC]h*@B*CJH*phh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJph .Lܬr@үbpr*,ın´ɽեեwgYIh*@B*CJRHJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJph,´Z`&^$ -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*´\fh2̸h& <ֽNPRTXZ^`N۫󥙍sgYgۥh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph!N$&*2PvBɽɢɽ~ɽpdZ~NNh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6B*CJH*]phh*@B*CJphh*B*CJH*ph h*CJh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph`$>l^>l b"$0\^ɽ~Ֆ~rdսVh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph!r6N$X#))))$-DM `a$gd*L|4p :Xpr J:^ǻߣ뗯ssg[Qh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph2^:X$L46^>Pvɽϱui]]S]ρh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph vLNn|R"$@d.^   "  X  ɽճ՛჏wk_ՃSh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJph | VX X6d"ɽՙɍui]QQh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph<Ft$  .!!F""f###>$$`%%&&''.((^)))÷ϫÃëwk_SGh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph))))<+::=<=B=>JMOOOOOOPS TXhaaaa.fqtu$-DM `a$gd*)))**+:+<++^,,-..D/r011B22t344"55F6688499ᥙᱍui]Sh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJph9R:::;<8=<=@=B==z>>>?D@H@`@@ABBClDDE&FFZGɽ᥽ՖՊ~th\Ph*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphZGGH"IIJJKKK KKjKLL,MHMJMMBNNXOOOOPBPDPP.Q\RR~SSSTóóó󭡕}ۭsgs[h*@B*CJphh*B*CJH*phh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph#T TTHUUxVW&XXXXZYYtZZ[(\\Z]]^ _R``fahajaaaxl`Rh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJaaa2bbVccjd ee,f.fZggh"iPjjlkl"mmRno(ppZqqq&rrLssɽ륙ɽu᱙iձɍ]h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph s\ttruzuuuvTwwxyy0zzz6{{V||} ~~:zvս籥ՙuui]uQh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphtuvuxuzu|u~uuuzfNPRTVX^Dİư̰ظ$-DM `a$gd*>Ԇ^>؊lҋ؋df~0ďN÷ueuYMAYuh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphN~:p8ԖdFڙd LV\^X BϷσwk]wwQh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphBDȢ@ڣj626ĩX"*DXtxzLʾʾrrrrbh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJ t0°ưʰ̰\<ʴ`6Zָظd׿}qeYM׹Mh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH 4ļ`¿Z8 >^`xN緫۟Ùui]Qßh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJph`4jlnprx24: $-DM `a$gd*p8`flJpŹ󭡕}sg[Mh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJph(HPRVZ\d<24Rzx8ۿ翙{ocWKh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphR|:FhpvxFj~rdXL@h*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*6@B*CJ]ph".&(:b6V*Z ǻǻǻǻǻ瑅yyoah*B*CJH*aJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph#048:\Vzj&L        ǻǯӻsgsg[Oh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*B*CJaJph *  D`(F>tv|JŹśŁui[筡Oh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph% &&&6,Z, 7 77777777 7H8z<P?$-DM `a$gd*JX r0X  !""#%%%% &&&&&J''Ϸۍ灥ååug[Mہh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph'p())8**Z++4,6,X,Z,,d--. //V00x11233*44L55j66ù秛珃w󹛭kk_Sh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph6666666667777 77B8D8F8H88^99`::;"<x<z<<<==&>>N?P?÷ݷymyݝ_yh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH #P??z@AAAAABBBCXCCDEE FFFFFFZGHH HɽחsesYKh*B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJphh*>*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*>*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphP?ABEFFHHHIIIIJ[]]$  #-DM a$gd*$ -DM `a$gd*$ & F -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*$ -DM `a$gd* HFHHHLHHIIIIIIIIJJJJKLMN릚xl`TH<h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJph h*6B*CJH*]aJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJphNNOXPPzQRR6SSUU@VVrWXXll\m^mmdnfnnooopp ppϵϗypdϗVJ<h*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*5CJ\h*5@B*CJ\phh*5@B*CJ\ph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphppHqqlr ssss>ttTuu,ww*xx^yzz|{||6}}j~Hh÷wk_kSh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h .ĆRn"68:<Ћfl󻯣ui[iǗOih*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphdfd.’Rܓޓ$(,.•\JɽəqcYYMh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphޓ&(.|(*,.028Vt \^d(>@BDFLn$-DM `a$gd*Jؙh6œZ$&Vz|>ԡ\Fҥh&0Źۭϋsgs[sh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph 068ܨz&TVDĮrtD  \@غɽᥙՁձձեui_h*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJph!غZ^bdDھlLv(Z$ &ɽui]u]əiiQQh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJph&(V<DJL|Fh<l.Z@tʾ֌tj^־֘tRjh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJ tln$\8pN4HJp.սՍsgձYh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph"n "(djN      $ -DM `a$gd*$-DM `a$gd*TjvXt,&(P÷ϧϱñtfZNh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*6B*CJH*]phh*@B*CJphh*B*CJH*phh*@ B*CJphh*B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphP~bd`Dxhj| .X~ս籗ui]Qh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph~L N            ,  `|D~άὥwk]QEh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph~hz0^ 2BDZɽwi[OwCh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph D !&+...24v4=?@@@@@@@$-DM `a$gd*Zr"  ! !!$""D##x$ %%8&&b''())*$+&++F,,|-..÷åwwÍk_Íwñh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph ....H//n011.22\330424t4v445X77899:ǻui]QuEh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph::B::n;;<==>N????@@@@BAAVBBCCCμΤ|pdXL@h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJphh*B*CJaJphh*B*CJH*aJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*ph@CFZORSSSTV]         J " # ' ' ' \+ B: < $-DM `a$gd*CD0EEZFFF^GGH IIHJJ^KKLMM:NNTOVOXOZOO|PQQRRR˿ݿݛui]h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJH*phh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJph h*CJh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphRSSSSFTTTUURVTVVWXXFYYZ[\ \&\\]]n^_H``bŻ뗯scsW룯Kh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJmH phsH h*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*B*CJphh*@ B*CJphh*@B*CJphh*@B*CJaJph h*CJh*@B*CJaJph0: 8<CI5AB25==>5 ?@02>. !:>@55,- @5GL 845B > ?@025 =0 ?>;CG5=85 2>7=03@0645=8O 2 2845 ?@>F5=B0 >B ?>;CG5==>9 0@5=4>40B5;5< 2K3>4K. -.. 02@8;>2 A>25BC5B 2=>A8BL A>>B25BAB2CNI85 ?>;>65=8O 2 4>3>2>@K =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=891. #G8BK20O, GB> 2> 2A5< <8@5 A1>@>< 8 @0A?@545;5=85< 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 A40GC M:75<?;O@>2 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 2 ?@>:0B 70=8<0NBAO 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K5 >1I5AB20, F5;5A>>1@07=> 1K;> 1K 225AB8 C@53C;8@>20=85 MB>3> 2840 8A?>;L7>20=8O =0 :>;;5:B82=>9 >A=>25, 0=0;>38G=> B><C, :0: @07@5H05BAO 2>?@>A A1>@0 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 ?C1;8G=>5 8A?>;=5=85 ?@>872545=89 (A<. @0745; >1 1 "0< 65. A. 92. 102 02B>@A:8E >1I5AB20E), 0 =5 70:;NG0BL 4>3>2>@K <564C :064K< ?@02>>1;040B5;5< 8 :064K< ?C=:B>< ?@>:0B0 2845>:0AA5B ?> ?>2>4C :064>3> :>=:@5B=>3> ?@>872545=8O. ) 5:><<5@G5A:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0 G0I5 2A53> >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 2 @0<:0E ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, B.5. ?>;L7>20B5;L @0AAG8BK205B =0 ?>;CG5=85 4>E>4>2 >B @50;870F88 0C48>287C0;L=>9 ?@>4C:F88. AB5AB25==>, ?@>:0B 0C48>287C0;L=>3> D8;L<0 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 206=59H8E 725=L52 :8=>187=5A0, >A=>2>9 <5E0=87<0 2>72@0B0 70B@0G5==KE =0 ?@>872>4AB2> D8;L<0 A@54AB2. !0<0 45OB5;L=>ABL, A2O70==0O A @0A?@>AB@0=5=85< 0C48>287C0;L=>9 ?@>4C:F88, :0: 1K;> A:070=> 2 ?5@2>9 3;025, E>BO 8 8<55B ;8F5=78>==K9 @568<, => 2 F5;>< @53C;8@C5BAO ?>4>1=> ;N1>9 8=>9 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1I8<8 =>@<0<8 E>7O9AB25==>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20. > ?>A:>;L:C D8;L<, 2>A?@8=8<05<K9 ?@>4NA5@0<8 8 ?@>:0BG8:0<8 :0: B>20@ 8;8 A@54AB2> ?>;CG5=8O 4>E>4>2, O2;O5BAO A?5F8D8G=K< >1J5:B>< 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020 8 >A>1K< ?@54<5B>< ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, B> 53> @568< >1@5<5=5= A?5F80;L=K<8 =>@<0<8, GB> 2;8O5B =0 53> ?@>42865=85 >B A>740B5;59 : :>=5G=K< ?>B@518B5;O<. !CI5AB2C5B =5A:>;L:> A8BC0F89, ?@8 :>B>@KE A>>1I5=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O =5>?@545;5==><C :@C3C 7@8B5;59 =5 2;5G5B 70 A>1>9 ?>;CG5=85 4>E>4>2 =8 ?@>872>48B5;5< D8;L<0, =8 @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;5<. !D5@0 =5:><<5@G5A:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 7=0G8B5;L=> C65, G5< :><<5@G5A:0O. !@548 B0:8E A;CG052 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 <>6=> 2K45;8BL :;C1=K9 ?>:07, ?>:07 D8;L<>2 2 @0<:0E :8=>- 8 B5;5D5AB820;59, 8A?>;L7>20=85 A>1AB25==> CG51=KE D8;L<>2 8 "=>@<0;L=KE" 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8;8 8E D@03<5=B>2 2 >1@07>20B5;L=KE F5;OE, 0 B0:65 @01>BC :8=>0@E82>2 8 D8;L<>D>=4>2. 081>;LH89 8=B5@5A A ?@02>2>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O ?@54AB02;ONB 420 ?>A;54=8E A?>A>10 =5:><<5@G5A:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O. 0:>= >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E =5 45;05B @07;8G8O <564C :><<5@G5A:8< 8 =5:><<5@G5A:8< 8A?>;L7>20=85< ?@>872545=89. @0240, 2 ?>AB0=>2;5=88 @028B5;LAB20 $ " <8=8<0;L=KE AB02:0E 2>7=03@0645=8O 02B>@0< :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E ?@>872545=89, ?@>872>4AB2> (AJ5<:0) :>B>@KE >ACI5AB2;5=> 4> 3 023CAB0 1993 3." ?@54CA<>B@5=> @07=>5 2>7=03@0645=85 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=89 2 <5AB0E A ?;0B=K< 8 15A?;0B=K< 4;O 7@8B5;59 2E>4><. > MB> B>;L:> =N0=AK 2 @07<5@5 2>7=03@0645=8O, A0< 65 ?@8=F8? >1O70B5;L=>AB8 103 A>1;N45=8O 8<CI5AB25==KE 8=B5@5A>2 ?@02>>1;040B5;O >AB05BAO =587<5==K< =57028A8<> >B B>3>, ?>;CG05B ?>;L7>20B5;L 4>E>4 >B 8A?>;L7>20=8O 8;8 =5B. AB0B8 >B<5B8<, GB> 2 B5E 65 AB02:0E ?@54CA<0B@8205BAO >BG8A;5=85 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=89 2 <5AB0E A ?;0B=K< 2E>4>< B>;L:> >B ?@O<KE 4>E>4>2 - ?@>F5=B >B 20;>2>3> 4>E>40, ?>ABC?82H53> >B ?@>4068 2E>4=KE 18;5B>2, => =5 70B@03820NBAO 8=K5 4>E>4K ?>;L7>20B5;O: >B A?>=A>@>2, @5:;0<>40B5;59 8 B. ?. A?>;L7>20=85 ?@02><5@=> >1=0@>4>20==KE ?@>872545=89 2 >1@07>20B5;L=>< ?@>F5AA5 ?>4?0405B ?>4 459AB285 G. 2 AB. 19 >. > D>@<C;8@>2:0 MB>9 =>@<K, :>B>@0O, :AB0B8, 4>A;>2=> ?>2B>@O5B B5:AB G. 2 AB. 10 5@=A:>9 :>=25=F88 >1 >E@0=5 ;8B5@0BC@=KE 8 EC4>65AB25==KE ?@>872545=891, 2K7K205B @O4 2>?@>A>2.  =59 @5GL 845B >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 ?@>872545=89 8;8 >B@K2:>2 87 =8E 157 A>3;0A8O 02B>@0 (?@02>>1;040B5;O) 8 157 2K?;0BK 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O "2 :0G5AB25 8;;NAB@0F89 2 8740=8OE, @048>- 8 B5;5?5@540G0E, 72C:>- 8 2845>70?8AOE CG51=>3> E0@0:B5@0". "0:8< >1@07><, A>740B5;8 CG51=>3> ?>A>18O 2 2845 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O <>3CB 157 @07@5H5=8O 02B>@0, => A >1O70B5;L=K< C:070=85< 53> 8<5=8, 157 2K?;0BK 2>7=03@0645=8O, => A >1O70B5;L=K< C:070=85< 8AB>G=8:0 708<AB2>20=8O, 2:;NG0BL 2 A2>9 D8;L< 8;8 ?5@540GC GC685 >1=0@>4>20==K5 >1J5:BK 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 8;8 >B@K2:8 87 =8E. 1J5< 8A?>;L7C5<>3> 4>;65= 1KBL >?@0240= ?>AB02;5==>9 ?@8 A>740=88 ?>A>18O F5;LN. "> 5ABL, @53C;8@CNBAO >B=>H5=8O ?> A>740=8N CG51=KE 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. > 70:>= C<0;G8205B > B><, :0:85 ;L3>BK 8 ?>;=><>G8O 8<5NB 2 40==>< A;CG05 :>=5G=K5 ?>;L7>20B5;8 - =5?>A@54AB25==K5 CG0AB=8:8 >1@07>20B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L ?@5?>4020B5;8.  G. 2 AB, 19 > CAB0=02;8205BAO A2>1>4=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 (G0I5 2A53> F8B8@>20=85) 2 "8740=8OE, @048>- 8 B5;5?5@540G0E, 72C:>- 8 2845>70?8AOE CG51=>3> E0@0:B5@0", B.5. 2 <0AA>2> @0A?@>AB@0=O5<KE >1J5:B0E 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. 54L 8740=85 8;8 CG51=K9 D8;L<, :0:8<8 1K C7:>A?5F80;L=K<8 >=8 =5 1K;8, 2A5 65 8<5NB B8@06, E>BL 8 =57=0G8B5;L=K9. > :0: 4>;65= 1KBL C@53C;8@>20= 2>?@>A, 5A;8 GC685 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O 8;8 >B@K2:8 87 =8E 8A?>;L7CNBAO, =0?@8<5@, 2 ;5:F8OE ?> 8AB>@88 :8=> 2> A5@>AA89A:>< 3>AC40@AB25==>< 8=AB8BCB5 :8=5<0B>3@0D88? 5:F88 15AA?>@=> O2;ONBAO >1J5:B0<8 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. > =5 2K45;O5B 8E 2 >B45;L=K9 284 ?@>872545=89, >G5284=>, >B=>AO MB>B @57C;LB0B 1 5@=A:0O :>=25=F8O >1 >E@0=5 ;8B5@0BC@=KE 8 EC4>65AB25==KE ?@>872545=89 >B 9 A5=BO1@O 1886 3. (4>?>;=5==0O 2 0@865 4 <0O 1896 3., ?5@5A<>B@5==0O 2 5@;8=5 13 =>O1@O 1908 3., 4>?>;=5==0O 2 5@=5 20 <0@B0 1914 3. 8 ?5@5A<>B@5==0O 2 @NAA5;5 26 8N=O 1948 3., 2 !B>:3>;L<5 14 8N;O 1967 3.  2 0@865 24 8N;O 1971 3., 87<5=5==0O 2 >:BO1@O 1979 3.) 104 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 : @C1@8:5 "4@C385 ?@>872545=8O" (?>A;54=89 0170F G. 1 AB. 7), => ?@8 MB>< 2 G. 2 0. 1 =07K205B ?C1;8G=>5 ?@>87=5A5=85 2 @O4C >1J5:B82=KE D>@< ACI5AB2>20=8O ?@>872545=89. 5@=A:0O :>=25=F8O ?@O<> 2:;NG05B ";5:F88, >1@0I5=8O, ?@>?>2548 8 4@C385 ?>4>1=>3> @>40 ?@>872545=8O" 2 :@C3 >E@0=O5<KE >1J5:B>2 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 (AB. 2), ?@8 MB>< 4>?CA:0O CAB0=>2;5=85 =0F8>=0;L=K< 70:>=>40B5;5< >A>1>3> @568<0 8E 8A?>;L7>20=8O (AB. 2 bis).  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =0 ?@0:B8:5 =5 2>7=8:0;> ?@>1;5< A 8A?>;L7>20=85< 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E 8 8=KE B2>@G5A:8E 2C7>2. 1KG=> 02B>@0< ;5AB=>, GB> 8E D8;L< 1C45B ?>:070= ABC45=B0< 2 :0G5AB25 ?>A>18O 8;8 4065 MB0;>=0, 0 ABC488 84CB =02AB@5GC A2>8< ":C7=8F0< :04@>2", ?@54>AB02;OO :>?88 D8;L<>2, ?@020 =0 :>B>@K5 8< ?@8=04;560B. > B0:85 >B=>H5=8O =5 <>3CB AG8B0BLAO ?@02>2K<8, 8 2 A>2@5<5==KE CA;>28OE B>B0;L=>9 :><<5@F80;870F88 <>65B 2>7=8:=CBL >AB@0O =5>1E>48<>ABL =>@<0B82=>3> @53C;8@>20=8O B0:>3> @>40 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. 0;> 2=8<0=8O 70:>=>40B5;L C45;O5B 8 2>?@>AC >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 A?5F80;L=KE CG51=KE D8;L<>2. 48=AB25==K9 ACI5AB2CNI89 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 =>@<0B82=K9 0:B - ?@8:07 8=8AB5@AB20 >1@07>20=8O $ "1 CB25@645=88 >;>65=8O > @5A?C1;8:0=A:>9 2 A>AB025 $, :@052>9, >1;0AB=>9, 3>@>4A:>9 (>A:20, !0=:B-5B5@1C@3) D8;L<>B5:5" >B 24 0?@5;O 1992 3. ! 1111.  >;>65=88 >?@545;O5BAO AB0BCA D8;L<>B5:8 :0: CG51=>-<5B>48G5A:>3> CG@5645=8O A8AB5<K >1@07>20=8O 8 8=D>@<0F8>==>-?@>:0B=>3> F5=B@0 (?. 1.1.), CAB0=02;820NBAO >A=>2=K5 7040G8 8 =0?@02;5=8O 55 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@8G5< 4>?CA:0NBAO >ACI5AB2;5=85 5N ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 @0AH8@5=85 ?5@5G=O ?;0B=KE CA;C3 (?. 3.13.), >1@8A>2K205BAO AB@C:BC@C D8;L<>B5:8 8 B.?. AB0B8, 3>AC40@AB25==K9 1N465B =07K205BAO >A=>2=K< 8AB>G=8:>< D8=0=A8@>20=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8 D8;L<>B5:8. >=5G=>, =5 A;54C5B >6840BL >B =51>;LH>3> 254><AB25==>3> =>@<0B82=>3> 0:B0 >B25B0 =0 3;>10;L=K5 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K5 2>?@>AK, => :065BAO AB@0==K<, GB> 2 >;>65=88 =8 A;>20 =5 A:070=> =8 > ?@8=F8?0E, =0 :>B>@KE AB@>OBAO 2708<>>B=>H5=8O D8;L<>B5:8 :0: D>=40 0C48>287C0;L=KE 8 8=B5@0:B82=KE A@54AB2 >1CG5=8O =8 A ?@>872>48B5;O<8, =8 A ?>;L7>20B5;O<8 MB8E A@54AB2. @><5 B>3>, 65;0B5;L=> 2=5AB8 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 4>?>;=5=8O 2 >. 1 1I55 A@54=55 >1@07>20=85 2 >AA88: !1>@=8: =>@<0B82=KE 4>:C<5=B>2. 1992-1993.  2-E :=. =, 1. ., 1993. 105 @C3>9 AD5@>9 =5:><<5@G5A:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 70A;C6820NI59 >A>1>3> @0AA<>B@5=8O, O2;O5BAO 45OB5;L=>ABL 0@E82>2 8 D8;L<>D>=4>2. > 40==K< 8=D>@<0F8>==>-0=0;8B8G5A:>9 D8@<K "C1;L-", 2 >AA88 A53>4=O 459AB2CNB 4 B0:8E >@30=870F88: >AC40@AB25==K9 D>=4 :8=>D8;L<>2 $ (>AD8;L<>D>=4 >AA88), 2=5A5==K9 #:07>< @57845=B0 $ >B 1 =>O1@O 1993 3. ! 1847 2 >AC40@AB25==K9 A2>4 >A>1> F5==KE >1J5:B>2 :C;LBC@=>3> =0A;548O =0@>4>2 $1; >AA89A:89 3>AC40@AB25==K9 0@E82 :8=>D>B><0B5@80;>2; >AC40@AB25==K9 D>=4 B5;52878>==KE 8 @048>?@>3@0<< 8 "5;5@048>D>=4 !0=:B-5B5@1C@30, 0 B0:65 G0AB8G=> 2K?>;=ONI89 DC=:F88 D8;L<>E@0=8;8I0 C759 :8=>. A5 MB8 >@30=870F88 O2;ONBAO =0CG=K<8 8 0@E82=K<8 CG@5645=8O<8. !>>B25BAB25==>, 8E 45OB5;L=>ABL ?>4?0405B ?>4 >1H8@=>5 @>AA89A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> >1 0@E820E. @><5 B>3>, > :@C?=59H5< D8;L<>E@0=8;8I5 >AA88 ?@8=OB> ?>AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " >AC40@AB25==>< D>=45 :8=>D8;L<>2 $" >B 30 45:01@O 1994 3. ! 14572.  A>>B25BAB288 A G. 2 ?. 4 MB>3> ?>AB0=>2;5=8O, >BAK;0NI53> : A=>20< 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $ >1 @E82=>< D>=45 $ 8 0@E820E :>;;5:F8O >AD8;L<>D>=40 >AA88 >1JO2;5=0 D545@0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>ABLN 8 >B=>A8BAO : 3>AC40@AB25==>9 G0AB8 @E82=>3> D>=40 >AA88 (A<. B0:65 @0745; 1 >;>65=8O >1 @E82=>< D>=45 $, CB25@645==>3> #:07>< @57845=B0 $ >B 17 <0@B0 1994 3. ! 5523). A=>2=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN :8=>D>=4>2, :0: 8 ;N1KE 8=KE 0@E82>2, 2E>4OI8E 2 @E82=K9 D>=4 $ 4>;6=> 1KBL >15A?5G5=85 A>E@0==>AB8, F5;>AB=>AB8 8 =5>BGC6405<>AB8 E@0=OI59AO :>;;5:F88, 55 ?>?>;=5=85, 0 B0:65 A>?@O65==0O A >A=>2=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN :C;LBC@=>-?@>A25B8B5;LA:0O, >1@07>20B5;L=0O, <5B>48G5A:0O 8 8=D>@<0F8>==0O. @><5 B>3>, @>AA89A:>5 0@E82=>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> 4>?CA:05B >ACI5AB2;5=85 0@E82=K<8 CG@5645=8O<8 ?@>872>4AB25==>9 8 8=>9 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 2845 >:070=8O ?;0B=KE @01>B 8 CA;C3, ?@>4068 :>?89 D8;L<>2, ?@>2545=8O B>20@>>1<5==KE >?5@0F89 , A2O70==KE A B5E=8G5A:8< >A=0I5=85< >AD8;L<>D>=40 (40;55 - $$), 0 B0:65 ?@54>AB02;O5B 5<C ?@02> A0<>AB>OB5;L=> @0A?>@O60BLAO 4>E>40<8 >B A>1AB25==>9 B2>@G5A:>-?@>872>4AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (A<., =0?@8<5@, ?. 12 >AB0=>2;5=8O > $$). 1 " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 16 =>O1@O 1993 3. 2 " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 17 O=20@O 1995 3. !>1@0=85 0:B>2 @57845=B0 8 @028B5;LAB20 $. - 1994. - ! 12. - AB. 878. 106 !B. 20 A=>2 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $ >1 @E82=>< D>=45 $ 8 0@E820E1 45:;0@8@C5B 4>ABC? 2A5E N@848G5A:8E 8 D878G5A:8E ;8F : 3>AC40@AB25==>9 G0AB8 0@E82>2. >@O4>: 8A?>;L7>20=8O E@0=OI8EAO <0B5@80;>2 >?@545;O5BAO >AC40@AB25==>9 0@E82=>9 A;C61>9 >AA88.  A;CG05 8A?>;L7>20=8O D8;L<>2 8 8=KE :8=><0B5@80;>2 87 :>;;5:F88 $$, CA;>28O @07@010BK20NBAO A>2<5AB=> @C:>2>4AB2>< $$, ><8B5B>< $ ?> :8=5<0B>3@0D88 8 >AC40@AB25==>9 0@E82=>9 A;C61>9 (?. 4 >AB0=>2;5=8O > $$). A=>2K 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 >1 0@E820E ?@54>AB02;ONB ?@02> 0@E820< CAB0=02;820BL CA;>28O 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2 :><<5@G5A:8E F5;OE E@0=OI8EAO C =8E 4>:C<5=B>2 ?CB5< @07@01>B:8 A>2<5AB=> A 2KAH8<8 8A?>;=8B5;L=K<8 >@30=0<8 $ 8 70:;NG5=8O A 708=B5@5A>20==K<8 ;8F0<8 ;8F5=78>==KE 4>3>2>@>2 (G. 5 AB. 20 A=>2). -B>, =5A><=5==>, A?@0254;82>5 ?@028;>, >15A?5G8205B 2>7<>6=>ABL 0@E820< ?>;CG0BL 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 A@54AB20 4;O 2545=8O A2>59 >A=>2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. "0:, ?. 19 >AB0=>2;5=8O > $$ >AA88 ?@54CA<0B@8205B 8A?>;L7>20=85 8<CI5AB20, A@54AB2 8 4>E>4>2 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 4;O 4>AB865=8O F5;59, >?@545;5==KE 2 CB25@645==>< 8< >;>65=88, > >1I85 =>@<K, CAB0=>2;5==K5 0@E82=K< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2><, =5 2A5340 MDD5:B82=K, :>340 @5GL 845B > B0:>< A?5F8D8G5A:>< >1J5:B5 E@0=5=8O, :0: =>A8B5;L, A>45@60I89 @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. >AD8;L<>D>=4 O2;O5BAO "3>AC40@AB25==K< E@0=8B5;5< :>;;5:F88 D8;L<>2" (G. 1 >;>65=8O), B.5. D545@0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8, 8 A>1AB25==8: - 3>AC40@AB2> A2>8<8 70:>=>40B5;L=K<8 8 8=K<8 =>@<0B82=K<8 0:B0<8 @07@5H05B 5<C >?@545;5==K< >1@07>< A MB>9 A>1AB25==>ABLN >1@0I0BLAO. > :>;;5:F8O D8;L<>2, =0E>4OI0OAO 2 $$, - MB> A>1@0=85 8AE>4=KE <0B5@80;>2 8 :>?89 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, B.5. <0B5@80;L=KE =>A8B5;59, 1>18= :8=>?;5=:8, 2845>:0AA5B 8 B. ?. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 MB8 =>A8B5;8 ?@8=04;568B 3>AC40@AB2C: 1>;55 B>3>, :>;;5:F8O MB8E =>A8B5;59 >1JO2;5=0 >A>1> F5==K< >1J5:B>< :C;LBC@=>3> =0A;548O =0@>4>2 $ (E>BO 2 $$ E@0=OBAO =5 B>;L:> D8;L<K, A>740==K5 =0@>40<8 $ 8 1K2H8E 1@0BA:8E @5A?C1;8:). 5:>B>@K5 =>A8B5;8, A>AB02;ONI85 A>AB02;ONB 0@E82=K9 D>=4, ?@54AB02;ONB F5==>ABL A0<8 ?> A515, ?>A:>;L:C O2;ONBAO AB0@8==K<8 >1@07F0<8 ?5@2KE ?@>872>48<KE :8=>?;5=>:, 4@C385 8<5;8 1K =5 1>;LHCN F5==>ABL, G5< =5A:>;L:> <5B@>2 F5;;C;>840, 5A;8 1K =5 =5A;8 2 A515 8=>9 >1J5:B - 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85. <5==> MB>B >1J5:B 2 ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 8 8<55B >3@><=CN, BC A0<CN ">A>1CN" F5==>ABL, 8 53> 1 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1993. - N 33, - AB. 1311. 107 ?@02>2>9 @568< >B;8G05BAO >B @568<0 E@0=8<>3> 2 >AD8;L<>D>=45 =>A8B5;O. !0<>5 3;02=>5 >B;8G85 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> A>1AB25==8: =>A8B5;O - 3>AC40@AB2> =5 O2;O5BAO >1;040B5;5< 02B>@A:8E ?@02 =0 70?8A0==>5 =0 =>A8B5;5 ?@>872545=85 (A<. B0:65 ?. 3 @074. 3 3;. 3 48AA5@B0F88). A5 E@0=OI85AO 2 >AD8;L<>D>=45 >1J5:BK >1@5<5=5=K 02B>@A:8<8 ?@020<8, E>BO A@>: 459AB28O 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 =0 =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E C65 8AB5:, =0?@8<5@ A>25BA:85 D8;L<K, A>740==K5 4> 1947 3., 8;8 8=>AB@0==K5 D8;L<K, 2K?CI5==K5 2 A25B 4> 1973 3. (=5A:>;L:> 8=0O A8BC0F8O 2 >AA89A:>< 3>AC40@AB25==>< 0@E825 :8=>D>B>4>:C<5=B>2 ( $), 345 =5 2A5 E@0=OI85AO >1J5:BK ?>4?040NB ?>4 459AB285 >). A=>2=K5 284K 45OB5;L=>AB8 $$, ?5@5G8A;5==K5 2 ?. 10 >;>65=8O, =5 =0@CH0NB 02B>@A:8E ?@02, MB> - E@0=5=85 :>;;5:F88, >ACI5AB2;5=85 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 8 A>18@0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, >ACI5AB2;5=85 =0CG=>9 >1@01>B:8 D8;L<>2 8 8=KE :8=><0B5@80;>2, 8=D>@<0F8>==0O 8 8740B5;LA:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, A>B@C4=8G5AB2> A :8=>>@30=870F8O<8 >AA88 8 @01>B0 2 @0<:0E 564C=0@>4=>9 D545@0F88 :8=>0@E82>2, =5 =0@CH0NB 02B>@A:8E ?@02. A?>;L7>20=85 :>;;5:F88 3@0640=0<8 8 N@848G5A:8<8 ;8F0<8 $ 8 4@C38E 3>AC40@AB2 2 =0CG=KE, :C;LBC@=KE, >1@07>20B5;L=KE 8 ?@>A25B8B5;LA:8E F5;OE (?. 8 >;>65=8O), B>65 A >?@545;5==K<8 4>?CI5=8O<8 (A<. 2KH5) A>2<5AB8<> A =>@<0<8 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, E>BO =5 A>2A5< ?>=OB=>, :0:>5 7=0G5=85 2;>68; 70:>=>40B5;L 2 B5@<8= ":C;LBC@=K5 F5;8". > =5:>B>@K5 284K 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0 B0:65 ?>;=><>G8O $$, ?@54>AB02;5==K5 ??. 11 8 12 >;>65=8O, 2K7K20NB @O4 A5@L57=KE ?@>1;5<. "0:, $$ "2 F5;OE 2K?>;=5=8O ?>AB02;5==KE ?5@54 =8< 7040G ... 873>B02;8205B :>?88 ... ?> 70O2:0< 4@C38E >@30=870F89" (017. 1 ?. 11) 8;8 "8<55B ?@02> ... >@30=87>2K20BL :8=>?>:07K D8;L<>2 8 4@C38E :8=><0B5@80;>2 2> 2@5<O ?@>2545=8O D5AB820;59, :8=>=545;L, A5<8=0@>2 8 4@C38E :C;LBC@=KE <5@>?@8OB89" (017. 5 ?. 12). "0:8< >1@07><, A @07@5H5=8O 3>AC40@AB20, >= 872;5:05B 4>E>4 87 >1J5:B>2, =0 :>B>@K5 5<C ?5@540=0 ;8HL G0ABL ?@02 (?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8), =0@CH0O ?@8 MB>< 8=B5@5AK >1;040B5;59 4@C3>9, 3>@074> 1>;55 206=>9 G0AB8 ?@02 - ?@02 =0 @57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. ?5@8@CO E@0=OI8<8AO C =53> D8;L<0<8 :0: B>20@><, $$ G0AB> 2KABC?05B 2 :0G5AB25 <>=>?>;8AB0, ?>A:>;L:C =5@54:8 A;CG08, :>340 C =53> =0E>48BAO ;81> 548=AB25==0O :>?8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, ;81> <0B5@80;K, 8450;L=K5 4;O B8@068@>20=8O, 8, A>>B25BAB25==> @C:>2>4AB2COAL @K=>G=K< 70:>=>< :>;510=8O F5=K 2>:@C3 AB>8<>AB8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B A>>B=>H5=8O A?@>A0 8 ?@54;>65=8O, "CAB0=02;8205B" 0AB@>=><8G5A:85 "F5=K 70 ?;0B=K5 @01>BK 8 CA;C38" (017. 1 ?. 12 >;>65=8O). @8 MB>< >1;040B5;L 02B>@A:8E 108 ?@02 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, :>?8O :>B>@>3> 1K;0 873>B>2;5=0 2 :0G5AB25 CA;C38 $$, 8;8 :>B>@>5 1K;> ?>:070=> 2 @0<:0E ":C;LBC@=>3> <5@>?@8OB8O", =5 ?>;CG05B =8G53>. @><5 B>3>, 87 ;>38G5A:>3> ?>AB@>5=8O B5:AB0 >;>65=8O =5>4=>7=0G=> A;54C5B, GB> ?;0B=K5 @01>BK 8 CA;C38 O2;ONBAO A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN B2>@G5A:>-?@>872>4AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 $$ (D8=0=A8@C5<>9 2 >A=>2=>< 87 D545@0;L=>3> 1N465B0), 4>E>4K >B :>B>@>9 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?. 19 >1O70B5;L=> 4>;6=K =0?@02;OBLAO =0 4>AB865=85 70:@5?;5==KE >;>65=85< F5;59, GB> B0:65 2K7K205B =54>2>;LAB2> :0: ?@02>>1;040B5;59, B0: 8 ?>;L7>20B5;59, 2K=C645==KE >1@0I0BLAO : CA;C30< $$. "0:0O A8BC0F8O =5 <>65B AG8B0BLAO =>@<0;L=>9, 8 2KE>4>< 87 =55 <>3CB 1KBL =5 B>;L:> 2=5A5=85 1>;55 G5B:8E D>@<C;8@>2>: 2 >;>65=85 8 G5B:>5 @53C;8@>20=85 2 =5< 2>?@>A>2 A>>B=>H5=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8 $$ A 8=B5@5A0<8 ?@02>>1;040B5;59, => 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K5 459AB28O $$ A>2<5AB=> A >A:8=> 8 @07;8G=K<8 :8=>>@30=870F8O<8: !>N7>< :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 >AA88, AA>F80F88 ?@>4NA5@>2, >AA89A:>9 :8=>2845>0AA>F80F859 8 B. 4. 0?@8<5@, $$ <>65B 225AB8 ?@028;>, GB> =5 1C45B 873>B02;820BL A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 8;8 @07@5H0BL 45;0BL :>?88 >E@0=O5<KE 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 157 ?@54>AB02;5=8O >1@0B82H8<AO ;8F>< A>>B25BAB2CNI53> ?8AL<5==>3> 4>3>2>@0 A ?@02>>1;040B5;5<, @07@5H0NI8< B0:><C ;8FC B>B 8;8 8=>9 284 8A?>;L7>20=8O.' 0 <>9 273;O4, B0:>9 ?>@O4>: =5 1C45B ?@>B82>@5G8BL AB. 20 A=>2 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 >1 0@E820E, ?>A:>;L:C @5GL 845B =5 >1 >3@0=8G5=88 4>ABC?0, 0 > ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E <5@0E ?>B5=F80;L=>3> =5A0=:F8>=8@>20==>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O. @C38< ?CB5< 2KE>40 87 A8BC0F88 <>65B AB0BL ?@0:B8:0 70:;NG5=8O ;8F5=78>==KE A>3;0H5=89 A ?@02>>1;040B5;O<8, ?>4>1=> 4>3>2>@0<, 70:;NG05<K< >AA89A:8< 02B>@A:8< >1I5AB2>< A> A2>8<8 G;5=0<8. "0:85 4>3>2>@K <>3CB A>45@60BL CABC?:C ?@02>>1;040B5;5< ?@020 =0 873>B>2;5=85 548=8G=KE :>?89 ?@>872545=8O 8;8 53> D@03<5=B>2 4;O >?@545;5==KE 284>2 8A?>;L7>20=8O. 5A><=5==>, ?>4>1=0O C=8D8:0F8O =5 A0<K9 C40G=K9 2KE>4 87 ?>;>65=8O, => $$ <>3 1K =0 >A=>25 >1>1I5=8O A2>59 ?@0:B8:8 @07@01>B0BL ?@8<5@=K5 D>@<K A>3;0H5=89 4;O =081>;55 B8?8G=KE A;CG052.  B>340 <=>385 ABC488 ?>H;8 1K =0 B0:>5 A>B@C4=8G5AB2>, B5< 1>;55 GB> ?>?>;=5=85 :>;;5:F88 $$ D8;L<0<8, ?>;CG0NI8<8 ?@>:0B=K5 C4>AB>25@5=8O (A<. ?. "2" @074. 2 3;. 1 48AA5@B0F88), 8 B0: 2K=C6405B ?@02>>1;040B5;59 2ABC?0BL 2 :>=B0:B A $$, ?>MB><C 8 =04> ?@840BL MB8< ?>:0 <0;>?@8OB=K< >B=>H5=8O< 2708<>8=B5@5A=K9 E0@0:B5@. 109 ;020 3. C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 :0: @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>9 8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 1. C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 :0: @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ) C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 - >1J5:B 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 > 2A5< <8@5 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 ?@87=05BAO >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. $8;L< >B25G05B B@51>20=8O< G. 1 8 2 AB. 1 >, >?@545;ONI59, :0:85 8<5==> @57C;LB0BK 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 O2;ONBAO >1J5:B0<8 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. > =5 A>45@68B B>G=>9 45D8=8F88, GB> AG8B05BAO >E@0=>A?>A>1=K< >1J5:B><, 0 CAB0=02;8205B B>;L:> 420 :@8B5@8O, A>>B25BAB285 :>B>@K< 8 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL AG8B0BL B> 8;8 8=>5 :C;LBC@=>5 O2;5=85 >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. "@8<5@OO" 40==K5 CA;>28O ?@0:B8G5A:8 : ;N1><C 0C48>287C0;L=><C ?@>872545=8N <K <>65< CB25@640BL, GB> ?>402;ONI55 8E G8A;> ?>4?040NB ?>4 459AB285 02B>@A:>-?@02>2KE =>@<. @0:B8G5A:8 2A5 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O O2;ONBAO @57C;LB0B>< B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (8A:;NG5=8O <>3CB A>AB02;OBL 2 >?@545;5==KE A;CG0OE :8=>;5B>?8AL 8 2845>@5?>@B068 > B5:CI8E A>1KB8OE - >1 MB>< A<. =865), 8 01A>;NB=> 2A5 >=8 2K@065=K 2 >1J5:B82=>9 D>@<5 - 2 2845 2845>70?8A8. C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O C:070=K 2 ?@8<5@=>< =58AG5@?K20NI5< ?5@5G=5 >1J5:B>2 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, 40==>< 2 AB. 7 >.  AB. 3 405BAO >?@545;5=85 ?>=OB8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O: "...@>872545=85, A>AB>OI55 87 70D8:A8@>20==>9 A5@88 A2O70==KE <564C A>1>9 :04@>2 (A A>?@>2>645=85< 8;8 157 A>?@>2>645=8O 72C:><), ?@54=07=0G5==KE 4;O 7@8B5;L=>3> 8 A;CE>2>3> (2 A;CG05 A>?@>2>645=8O 72C:><) 2>A?@8OB8O A ?><>ILN A>>B25BAB2CNI8E B5E=8G5A:8E CAB@>9AB2; 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O 2:;NG0NB 2 A51O :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:85 ?@>872545=8O 8 2A5 ?@>872545=8O, 2K@065==K5 A@54AB20<8, 0=0;>38G=K<8 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8< (B5;5- 8 2845>D8;L<K, 480D8;L<K 8 A;094D8;L<K 8 B><C ?>4>1=K5 ?@>872545=8O), =57028A8<> >B A?>A>10 8E ?5@2>=0G0;L=>9 8;8 ?>A;54CNI59 D8:A0F88". -. . 02@8;>2 A?@0254;82> C:07K205B =0 =5:>@@5:B=>ABL D>@<C;8@>2:8 >, ?>A:>;L:C ?@8 =5:>B>@KE A?>A>10E D8:A0F88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 =0 =>A8B5;OE =5 >1@07>2K20NBAO :04@K, =0?@8<5@, =0 2845>?;5=:5 8;8 2845>48A:51. -.. 02@8;>2. &8B. A>G., A. 22. 110 KH5 C65 >B<5G0;>AL, GB> A>740=85 D8;L<0 B@51C5B A>3;0A>20==>9 @07=>?;0=>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 <=>38E AC1J5:B>2. > 4065 >4=0 B>;L:> B2>@G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL; =0?@02;5==0O =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, =5>4=>@>4=0, B@51C5B @07;8G=KE A?5F80;L=KE 7=0=89 8 =02K:>2, 0 7=0G8B, 8 CG0AB8O 2 =59 <=>65AB20 ;8F - ?@54AB028B5;59 @07=KE :8=>?@>D5AA89. $8;L< O2;O5BAO @57C;LB0B>< B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 <=>65AB20 ;8F, ?>MB><C 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, :0: ?@028;>, A>7405BAO 2 A>02B>@AB25; 8A:;NG5=85 <>3CB A>AB02;OBL B>;L:> ;N18B5;LA:85 D8;L<K. AB0B8, 8<5==> B0:>5 @07;8G85 2 ?@02>2>< @568<5 "?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE" 8 ;N18B5;LA:8E D8;L<>2 @>2>48;> @0=55 459AB2>202H55 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> (@0745; IV  !$! ). >A8B5;5< 02B>@A:8E ?@02 =0 ?5@2K5 O2;O;>AL ?@54?@8OB85, >ACI5AB282H55 AJ5<:C (G. 1 AB. 486  !$! ), 02B>@>< 2B>@KE ?@87=020;>AL D878G5A:>5 ;8F>, A=O2H55 D8;L<, - 02B>@ 8;8 A>02B>@K (G. 2 B>9 65 AB0BL8). >2K9 02B>@A:89 70:>= =5 45;05B B0:>3> @07;8G8O ?> =5A:>;L:8< ?@8G8=0<: 2>-?5@2KE, 02B>@>< >B=K=5 <>65B 1KBL ?@87=0=> B>;L:> D878G5A:>5 ;8F>, GL8< B2>@G5A:8< B@C4>< ?@>872545=85 A>740=>; 2>-2B>@KE, 25AL >1J5< 02B>@A:8E ?@02 2>7=8:05B =57028A8<> >B =07=0G5=8O 8 4>AB>8=AB20 ?@>872545=8O; 2-B@5BL8E, =8 02B>@A:89 , =8 :0:>9 1K B> =8 1K;> 4@C3>9 70:>= =5 A>45@60B :20;8D8:0F8>==>3> :@8B5@8O 4;O >?@545;5=8O @568AA5@0 8;8 AF5=0@8AB0, 8 B5< 1>;55 4;O CAB0=>2;5=8O @07=>3> ?@02>2>3> @568<0 @57C;LB0B>2 8E B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B >1@07>20=8O 8 C<5=8O. "0:>9 ?>@O4>: 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 >B@0605B @K=>G=K9 ?>4E>4 : @53C;8@>20=8N 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=89, :>340 548=AB25==K< :@8B5@85<, >?@545;ONI8< CA?5E D8;L<0, O2;O5BAO 53> 4>AB>8=AB2> 8;8 :>=:C@5=B=>A?>A>1=>ABL, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, :B> 8 70 G59 AG5B A>740; ?@>872545=85. N18B5;LA:85 D8;L<K =0E>4OB 7@8B5;O =0@O4C A ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K<8, ?CABL =5 2 B>< 65 >1J5<5, =0?@8<5@ 2 ?5@540G5 >AA89A:>3> B5;52845=8O "!0< A515 @568AA5@". !B0@>5 45;5=85 =0 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 8 ;N18B5;LA:85 D8;L<K 1K;> E0@0:B5@=> 4;O ?;0=>2>9 M:>=><8:8, ?>A:>;L:C ?@8 >BACBAB288 :20;8D8:0F8>==>3> :@8B5@8O 4;O B2>@F>2 D8;L<0, @07;8G85 A>AB>O;> B>;L:> 2 B><, O2;O5BAO D8;L< @57C;LB0B>< =5 B>;L:> B2>@G5A:>9, => 8 ?@>872>4AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (0 2> 2@5<5=0 459AB28O  !$!  :8=>?@>872>4AB2> 1K;> F5;8:>< 2 3>AC40@AB25==>< A5:B>@5), 8;8 MB> ?;>4 8A:;NG8B5;L=> B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >B45;L=>3> ;8F0 ;81> 3@C??K ;8F, :>B>@K5 >ACI5AB2;ONB A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 25AL :8=>?@>872>4AB25==K9 F8:;. 1111111111 >A:>;L:C A>740=85 ;N18B5;LA:8E D8;L<>2 2 ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 G8AB> B2>@G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, ;8H5==CN M;5<5=B>2 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB20, 2 40==>9 3;025 1>;55 ?>4@>1=> @0AA<0B@820NBAO 8<5==> ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O.  A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 13 > <>6=> 87>1@078BL 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 2 2845 "?8@>30", 2 :>B>@K9 :064K9 87 B2>@G5A:8E CG0AB=8:>2 :8=>?@>F5AA0 ?@8=5A A2>9 ":CA>:". !E5<0 ! 2.  59AB2CNI55 @>AA89A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> =5 45;05B AB@>3>3> @07;8G8O <564C B8?0<8 A>02B>@AB20, CAB0=02;820O 4;O 2A5E B0:8E ?@>872545=89 548=K9 @568< A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?>4AG5B0 A@>:0 459AB28O 8<CI5AB25==KE 02B>@A:8E ?@02, ?@8=04;56=>AB8 ?>;=><>G89 ?> 8A?>;L7>20=8N ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;><.  G. 1 AB. 10 > 3>2>@8BAO, GB> 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> =0 ?@>872545=85, A>740==>5 A>2<5AB=K< B2>@G5A:8< B@C4>< 42CE 8;8 1>;55 ;8F, ?@8=04;568B A>02B>@0< A>2<5AB=>, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, >1@07C5B ;8 B0:>5 ?@>872545=85 >4=> =5@07@K2=>5 F5;>5 8;8 A>AB>8B 87 G0AB59, :0640O 87 :>B>@KE 8<55B A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 7=0G5=85. @8 G5< AB. 10 A>45@68B >3>2>@:8, A?5F80;L=> >B=>AOI85AO : 42C< MB8< B8?0< A>02B>@AB20.  G0AB=>AB8, 5A;8 G0ABL ?@>872545=8O <>65B 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=0 >B45;L=>, B> 55 02B>@ - >48= 87 A>02B>@>2 2?@025 8A?>;L7>20BL MBC G0ABL ?> A2>5<C CA<>B@5=8N. "0:0O >3>2>@:0 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 >B=>A8BAO 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L : AF5=0@8AB0< 8 :><?>78B>@0< >B=>A8B5;L=> 8E 2:;040 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85. @C3>5 ?>;>65=85, 70:@5?;5==>5 2 ?>A;54=5< 0170F5 G. 2 AB. 10 >, >3@0=8G8205B 112 ?>;=><>G8O A>02B>@>2 =5@07@K2=>3> ?@>872545=8O: =8 >48= 87 =8E =5 2?@025 157 4>AB0B>G=KE : B><C >A=>20=89 70?@5B8BL 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;><. "0:8< >1@07>< >3@0=8G8205BAO 8 70:@5?;5==>5 2 AB. 15 >4=> 87 =58<CI5AB25==KE 02B>@A:8E ?@02 - ?@02> =0 >B7K2 >1=0@>4>20==>3> ?@>872545=8O. >A:>;L:C 70:>= =5 @073@0=8G8205B 284K A>02B>@AB20, B> 2 53> B5:AB5 =5 ?@82>48BAO ?5@5G5=L ?@>872545=89, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=K B>;L:> F5;8:>< 8;8 8<5NB A0<>AB>OB5;L=K5 A>AB02=K5 G0AB8, A>740==K5 @07=K<8 A>02B>@0<8. > <>6=> CB25@640BL, GB> 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 O2;O5BAO =5@07@K2=K< F5;K<. -B> =0:;04K205B >?@545;5==K9 >B?5G0B>: =0 ?@02>2>5 ?>;>65=85 53> A>740B5;59, =0?@8<5@ C65 C?><8=02H55AO >3@0=8G5=85 2>7<>6=>AB8 :064>3> 87 A>02B>@>2 157 4>AB0B>G=KE >A=>20=89 70?@5I0BL 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. 0 ?@0:B8:5 MB> >3@0=8G5=85 =5 8<55B A5@L57=>3> 7=0G5=8O, ?>A:>;L:C, ?@020 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0 ?5@540NBAO 53> 873>B>28B5;N 5I5 4> 53> A>740=8O, 8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 548=AB25==K< A?>A>1>< 70?@5B8BL @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O O2;O5BAO 2=5A5=85 A?5F80;L=KE >3>2>@>: ?@8 70:;NG5=88 4>3>2>@0 > 53> A>740=88 (A<. >1 MB>< =865). 04>, >4=0:> 70<5B8BL, GB> A>45@60I0OAO 2 70:>=5 D>@<C;8@>2:0 "4>AB0B>G=K5 : B><C >A=>20=8O" A;8H:>< @0A?;K2G0B0. 0:>=K <=>38E AB@0= @073@0=8G820NB @568< A>2<5AB=KE 8 A>AB02=KE ?@>872545=89, A>740==KE 2 A>02B>@AB25 (=0?@8<5@, AB. 9 D@0=FC7A:>3> 70:>=0) ?@>2>4O @07;8G85 <564C i-buvres collectives (B.5. :>;;5:B82=K<8 ?@>872545=8O<8) 8 hbuvres de collaboration (A>2<5AB=> A>740==K<8 ?@>872545=8O<8). !C1J5:B0<8 >E@0=K A>2<5AB=>3> ?@>872545=8O O2;ONBAO A0<8 A>02B>@K, =>A8B5;5< 65 02B>@A:8E ?@02 =0 :>;;5:B82=>5 ?@>872545=85 - D878G5A:>5 8;8 N@848G5A:>5 ;8F>, ?>4 8<5=5< :>B>@>3> B0:>5 ?@>872545=85 >1=0@>4>20=>. C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O A?5F80;L=>9 =>@<>9 AB. 14 >B=5A5=K 70:>=>< : A>2<5AB=K<, 0 =5 :>;;5:B82=K< ?@>872545=8O<, 8 02B>@AB2> =0 =8E ?@8=04;568B D878G5A:><C ;8FC 8;8 ;8F0<, :>B>@K5 A>740NB 53> B2>@G5A:8.1 =0;>38G=K9 ?>4E>4 ?@>O28;AO 2 ?@>5:B5 III G0AB8  $, :>B>@K9 22>48B =>2>5 ?>=OB85 - ":>;;5:B82=0O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL" 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, CAB0=02;8205B A?5F80;L=K9 @568< 55 @57C;LB0B0 (AB. 1120). @>5:B =5 A>45@68B >B25B0 =0 2>?@>A, >B=>AOBAO ;8 2A5 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O : MB>9 :0B53>@88, 8;8 B>;L:> C:070==K5 -2 G. 1 AB, 1120 B5;52878>==K5 ?5@540G8, ?>A:>;L:C >1O70B5;L=K< CA;>285< ?@87=0=8O ?@>872545=8O :>;;5:B82=K< O2;O5BAO 53> 1 @0640=A:>5, B>@3>2>5 8 A5<59=>5 ?@02> :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0=. !1>@=8: =>@<0B82=KE 0:B>2. =. IV "2B>@A:>5 ?@02>" - .: 874-2> #, 1988. - A. 84, 85. 113 A>740=85 2 =54@0E N@848G5A:>3> ;8F0, 0 459AB2CNI55 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> (AB. 4 >) 4>?CA:05B, GB> 873>B>28B5;5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O <>65B O2;OBLAO =5 B>;L:> N@848G5A:>5, => 8 D878G5A:>5 ;8F>. >A:>;L:C 2 ?@>5:B5 =5 405BAO G5B:>3> @073@0=8G5=8O ?>=OB89 :>;;5:B82=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8 ?@>872545=8O, A>740==>3> 2 A>02B>@AB25, B> <>6=> 4>?CAB8BL, GB> 2A5 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O 1C4CB ?@87=0=K :>;;5:B82=K<8.  MB>< A;CG05 =5 2?>;=5 ?>=OB=0 F5;5A>>1@07=>ABL B0:>3> @568<0, ?>A:>;L:C 873>B>28B5;L 8 B0: ?>;CG05B ?@020 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O, => =5 2 A8;C =>@<K 70:>=0, 0 =0 >A=>20=88 4>3>2>@>2 A =5?>A@54AB25==K<8 A>02B>@0<8. C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 O2;O5BAO >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 A0<> ?> A515, 8 :@><5 B>3> 2:;NG05B 2 A51O >B45;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O - @57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 B2>@G5A:8E CG0AB=8:>2 :8=>?@>F5AA0. "@C4=> A:070BL, =0A:>;L:> ?@02><5@=> =07K20BL @57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 :064>3> 87 CG0AB=8:>2 :8=>?@>F5AA0 ?@>872545=8O<8, :0: MB> 45;05BAO 2 G. 4 AB. 13 >. > 2AO:>< A;CG05 =5 :064K9 87 2:;04>2 >B45;L=KE ?@54AB028B5;59 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E ?@>D5AA89 <>65B 8A?>;L7>20BLAO A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 4065 8A:;NG8B5;L=> :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8<8 A@54AB20<8, =0?@8<5@ @01>B0 >?5@0B>@0 8;8 72C:>@568AA5@0, 2 >B;8G85 >B 2:;040 AF5=0@8AB0, EC4>6=8:0 8;8 :><?>78B>@0. ) 2B>@A:85 8 A<56=K5 ?@020 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5  A>>B25BAB288 A 3@0640=A:8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2><, :>B>@>5 @53C;8@>20;> 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K5 >B=>H5=8O 4> 1992 3., 02B>@>< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;>< AG8B0;0AL ABC48O, >ACI5AB282H0O 53> AJ5<:C (017. 1 AB. 486  !$! ). 0 D878G5A:8<8 65 ;8F0<8, @50;L=K<8 02B>@0<8 D8;L<0 70:>= ?@87=020; ?@02> =0 8E 2:;04 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 :0: :>;;5:B82=>5 ?@>872545=85, A>740==>5 B@C4>< <=>38E ;8F. @C3 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E ?@>D5AA89, :>B>@K5 <>3;8 ?> 70:>=C ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 02B>@A:85 ?@020 :064K9 =0 A2>5 ?@>872545=85, 2>H54H55 A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN 2 D8;L<, 1K; >1@8A>20= 017. 3 AB. 486  !$!  8 A>AB>O; 87 02B>@0 AF5=0@8O, :><?>78B>@0, @568AA5@0-?>AB0=>2I8:0, 3;02=>3> >?5@0B>@0, EC4>6=8:0-?>AB0=>2I8:0 8 4@C38E 02B>@>2. A=>2K 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 !>N70 !!  8 @5A?C1;8: >B 31 <0O 1991 3. 2=5A;8 :>@5==>5 87<5=5=85 2 A>25BA:>5, 0 70B5< @>AA89A:>5 02B>@A:>5 ?@02>: >B=K=5 70:>= ?@87=020;, GB> 87=0G0;L=> 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> =0 ?@>872545=85 =0C:8, ;8B5@0BC@K 8 8A:CAAB20 <>65B 2>7=8:0BL B>;L:> C 3@0640=8=0, B2>@G5A:8< B@C4>< :>B>@>3> >=> A>740=> (G. 1 AB. 135), B.5. B>;L:> C D878G5A:>3> ;8F0. @87=0=85 114 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 =0 D8;L< 70 D878G5A:8<8 ;8F0<8 O2;O5BAO E0@0:B5@=K< 4;O :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 A8AB5<K ?@020. AB5AB25==>, GB> 8A?>;L7>20=85 B0:>3> :>;;5:B82=>3> ?@>872545=8O, :0: :8=>- 8;8 B5;5D8;L<, :>340 :064K9 87 ?@54AB028B5;59 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E ?@>D5AA89, :>B>@K9 2=5A A2>N B2>@G5A:CN ;5?BC 2 53> A>740=85 8;8, 2K@060OAL O7K:>< 70:>=0, "GL8< B2>@G5A:8< B@C4>< MB> ?@>872545=85 A>740=>", ?>;CG05B 25AL :><?;5:A ?@02 =0 =53>, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?@02> @07@5H0BL 8;8 70?@5I0BL ;N1>5 53> 8A?>;L7>20=85 ;N1K< A?>A>1><, <>65B 1KBL 25AL<0 70B@C4=5=>, B5< 1>;55 GB> A=>2K =5 4020;8 4065 =58AG5@?K20NI53> ?5@5G=O ;8F, :>B>@K5 <>3CB ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 02B>@AB2> 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. >MB><C 70:>=>40B5;L 2 @5H5=88 2>?@>A0 >1 C?@02;5=88 0C48>287C0;L=K< ?@>872545=85< @C:>2>4AB2>20;AO >A=>2>?>;030NI8< ?@8=F8?>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 > 10;0=A5 <564C 8=B5@5A0<8 02B>@0 8 :C;LBC@=K<8 70?@>A0<8 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20 8 225; ?@028;> > ?5@540G5 ?@020 =0 8A?>;L7>20=8O D8;L<0 02B>@0<8 53> 873>B>28B5;N (G. 5 AB. 135 A=>2). "0:8< >1@07><, :>=5G=K9 @57C;LB0B >AB020;AO B5< 65: ?@02> @0A?>@O60BLAO D8;L<>< ?@8=04;560;> ?@54?@8OB8N, >ACI5AB282H5<C 53> AJ5<:C. > MB> ?@02> 2>7=8:0;> C ABC488 =5 2 A8;C 70:>=0, 0 1K;> :0: 1K 2B>@8G=K<, ?5@54020;>AL 02B>@0<8 ?> 4>3>2>@C 8 >3@0=8G820;>AL ?@545;0<8, 2 MB>< 4>3>2>@5 ?@54CA<>B@5==K<8. 0:>= >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E ?@845@6820;AO B>3> 65 ?@028;0, => 1>;55 ?>4@>1=> C@53C;8@>20; >B=>H5=8O ?> A>740=8N 8 8A?>;L7>20=8N 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. !0< B5@<8= "0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85" 1K; 22545= >, @0=LH5 B0:85 ?@>872545=8O =07K20;8AL :8=>D8;L<0<8, B5;52878>==K<8 D8;L<0<8 (?;NA 2845>D8;L<K 2 A=>20E) 8 B5;52878>==K<8 ?5@540G0<8. >?@>A >1 02B>@AB25 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 2 >, =0 <>9 273;O4, =0E>48B >?B8<0;L=>5 @5H5=85, 7>;>BCN A5@548=C <564C ?>;>65=8O<8  !$!  1964 3. 8 A=>2 1991 3. !B0BLO 13 > CAB0=02;8205B 425 :0B53>@88 A>02B>@>2 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O.  G.1 405BAO 8AG5@?K20NI89 ?5@5G5=L B5E :8=>?@>D5AA89, C :>B>@KE ?><8<> ?@02 =0 A2>9 =5?>A@54AB25==K9 2:;04 2 A>740NI89AO D8;L< 2>7=8:0NB ?@020 =0 2A5 ?@>872545=85 2 F5;><. -B> 02B>@ AF5=0@8O, @568AA5@-?>AB0=>2I8: 8 02B>@ <C7K:0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 5A;8 >=> A>740=> A?5F80;L=> 4;O MB>3> 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. 2B>@ AF5=0@8O, B.5. 02B>@ ;8B5@0BC@=>9 >A=>2K A>740205<>3> D8;L<0, 157CA;>2=>, O2;O5BAO :;NG52>9 D83C@>9 :8=>?@>F5AA0. @8<5G0B5;L=>, GB> 2 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 <=>38E AB@0= :@C3 02B>@>2 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O " 115 @0AH8@O5BAO 8<5==> 70 AG5B A>02B>@>2 AF5=0@8O: AB. 14 D@0=FC7A:>3> 70:>=0 ?5@5G8A;O5B 02B>@0 8458, 02B>@0 040?B0F88 8 02B>@0 480;>3>2. >AA89A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> =5 ?@>2>48B B0:>3> @07;8G8O, 2 A2O78 A G5< =0 ?@0:B8:5 2>7=8:0NB >?@545;5==K5 2>?@>AK. !;CG05BAO, GB> >4=>3> 87 A>02B>@>2 AF5=0@8O (=0?@8<5@, D8;L< ">4 A>10:8") ?@83;0H0NB B>340, :>340 AF5=0@89 C65 A>740=, => =0?8A0==K5 480;>38 =5 CAB@0820NB =8 @568AA5@0, =8 8A?>;=8B5;59 3;02=KE @>;59. 2B>@ 480;>3>2 ?> <=5=8N ?5@2KE A>02B>@>2 =5 <>65B ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 ?@020 =0 8E >@838=0;L=K9 AF5=0@89, 8 2 =0G0;5 D8;L<0 ?>O2;O5BAO =5 2?>;=5 ?>=OB=K9 B8B@ "2B>@K AF5=0@8O . 8 . ?@8 CG0AB88 .". >65B ;8 . AG8B0BLAO 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G. 1 AB. 13 > 02B>@>< 2A53> ">40 A>10:8", 8;8 >= ?@>AB> ?>CG0AB2>20; 8 A?0A81>?  4>3>2>@5 . =5 ?@54CA<0B@820;>AL ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=>5 2>7=03@0645=85 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0, => 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O, =5A<>B@O =0 B@51>20=85 70:>=0 (G. 3 AB. 31 >} 4>3>2>@K =0 B0:8E CA;>28OE 70:;NG0NBAO ?>@>9 4065 B>340, :>340 C 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2A53> >48= 02B>@ - >4=>2@5<5==> 8 02B>@ AF5=0@8O 8 @568AA5@. 0: 1K B> =8 1K;>, AF5=0@8AB, ?><8<> ?@02 =0 D8;L<, >1;0405B ?@020<8 =5?>A@54AB25==> =0 AF5=0@89 8, 2 >B;8G85 >B 1>;LH8=AB20 :8=>?@>D5AA89, 8<55B 2>7<>6=>ABL 8E @50;87>20BL. 0:;NG0O 4>3>2>@ =0 A>740=85 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 02B>@ CABC?05B 873>B>28B5;N D8;L<0 B>;L:> B5 ?@020, :>B>@K5 =5?>A@54AB25==> >B=>AOBAO : :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:><C 8A?>;L7>20=8N AF5=0@8O. @020 =0 >AB0;L=K5 284K 8A?>;L7>20=8O, :0: B>: 8740=85 :=83>9 8;8 >?C1;8:>20=85 2 0;L<0=0E5 "8=>AF5=0@88" ;81> 2 ;N1>< 4@C3>< 6C@=0;5, ?5@545;:0 2 B50B@0;L=CN ?L5AC, ?C1;8G=>5 ?@>GB5=85 ?> @048> 8 B.?., >AB0NBAO 70 02B>@>< AF5=0@8O, 5A;8 2 53> 4>3>2>@5 A 873>B>28B5;5< A?5F80;L=> =5 1C45B CAB0=>2;5=> 8=>5. -B0 >A>15==>ABL AF5=0@8AB0 :0: 02B>@0 >4=>2@5<5==> 42CE ?@>872545=89, 8 >A>15==>ABL AF5=0@8O :0: ?@>872545=8O, 8<5NI53> 1>;LH>9 :@C3 2>7<>6=>AB59 8A?>;L7>20=8O, AB028B >48= A;>6=>@07@5H8<K9 2>?@>A: <>6=> ;8 AG8B0BL >1=0@>4>20==K< AF5=0@89 ?@8 >1=0@>4>20=88 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. >?CAB8<, GB> D0:B 70:;NG5=8O 4>3>2>@0 =0 A>740=85 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, ?@54CA<>B@5==>3> G. 2 AB. 13 >, O2;O5BAO 2K@065=85< 2>;8 02B>@0 @50;87>20BL =58<CI5AB25==>5 ?@02> =0 >1=0@>4>20=85 MB>3> ?@>872545=8O. > 2 0C48>287C0;L=>< ?@>872545=88 ;8B5@0BC@=K9 AF5=0@89 4>2>48BAO 4> A2545=8O ?C1;8:8 2 87<5=5==>< 2845, 2 2845 M:@0=870F88, B>340 :0: B2>@G5A:0O @01>B0 @568AA5@0-?>AB0=>2I8:0, :><?>78B>@0 8 4@. ?@54AB05B ?5@54 7@8B5;O<8 2 >@838=0;L=>< 2845.  >@838=0;L=>< 65 2845 116 4>2>4OBAO 4> A2545=8O 7@8B5;59 8 480;>38, >4=0:> @>AA89A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> =5 2K45;O5B 02B>@0 480;>3>2 2 >B45;L=CN :0B53>@8N A>02B>@>2 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 0 ;8B5@0BC@=K9 AF5=0@89 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5 >4=8 480;>38, 0 ?@8@02=5= : 4@0<0B8G5A:8< ?@>872545=8O< (?. 2 G. 1 AB. 7 >). !>>B25BAB25==> 70:;NG5=85 4>3>2>@0 =0 A>740=85 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O =5 >7=0G05B, GB> 02B>@ A>3;0H05BAO >1=0@>4>20BL A0<>'AF5=0@=>5 ?@>872545=85, :0: MB> 1K;> 1K ?@8 70:;NG5=88 4>3>2>@0 >1 8740=88 AF5=0@8O. >A:>;L:C D0:B >1=0@>4>20=8O ?@>872545=8O 2;5G5B 70 A>1>9 >?@545;5==K5 N@848G5A:85 ?>A;54AB28O, 8 ?@5645 2A53> ?@8<5=5=85 AB. 18 8 19 >, A>45@60I8E 87JOB8O 87 8<CI5AB25==KE 02B>@A:8E ?@02, B> 2>7<>6=> ;8 A2>1>4=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 AF5=0@8O, =0?@8<5@, 2 >1@07>20B5;L=KE F5;OE, 5A;8 AF5=0@89 MB>B =5 1K; 2K?CI5= 2 A25B, B.5. =5 @0A?@>AB@0=O;AO 2 2845 M:75<?;O@>2, 0 B>;L:> 1K; ;8HL M:@0=878@>20=? >340 <K 3>2>@8< "02B>@A:>5 :8=>", B> 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L ?>4 A;>2>< "02B>@" ?>4@07C<5205< @568AA5@0. 5A><=5==>, >= >:07K205B =081>;LH55 2;8O=85 =0 D8;L<, <K C7=05< "?>G5@:" B>3> 8;8 8=>3> @568AA5@0. > ?@020 8<5==> @568AA5@0 =0 D8;L< =0E>4OBAO ?>4 1>;LH8< A><=5=85< A B>G:8 7@5=8O 459AB2CNI53> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20. 0:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5 :0: 1K 2>72@0I05B =0A 2 ?@>H;>5 A2>59 =>@<>9 > HB0B=KE @568AA5@0E ?@8 :064>9 :8=>ABC488. 59AB28B5;L=>, A8AB5<0 70:>=>40B5;LAB20, ACI5AB2>202H0O 4> 1992 3., ?@54?>;030;0, GB>, 2 >B;8G85 >B AF5=0@8AB0 8 :><?>78B>@0, @568AA5@ O2;O5BAO ?> ACB8 =05<=K< @01>B=8:>< :8=>ABC488, A>AB>O A =59 2 B@C4>2KE, 0 =5 02B>@A:8E >B=>H5=8OE.  A8AB5<5 B8?>2KE 4>3>2>@>2, 459AB2>202H8E 4> 1993 3., =5 1K;> 4>3>2>@0 A @568AA5@><, B>340 :0: ACI5AB2>20;8 CB25@645==K5 ?@8:07>< >A:8=> !!!  B8?>2>9 AF5=0@=K9 4>3>2>@1 8 B8?>2>9 4>3>2>@ =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 <C7K:8 2 D8;L<52. >?@>A >1 02B>@A:>-B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=8OE 87CG0;AO 2.A>25BA:>9 N@848G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@53, => =5 8<5; 2 CA;>28OE 459AB28O ?@56=53> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 B0:>9 0:BC0;L=>AB8, :0: A59G0A. ! 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 22545=85 @568AA5@>2 2 HB0B >7=0G05B ?@87=0=85 D8;L<0 53> A;C651=K< ?@>872545=85<,' B.5. A>740==K< 2 53> @01>G55 2@5<O (?@54CA<>B@5==>5 :0;5=40@=>-?>AB0=>2>G=K< ?;0=><) 8 70 70@01>B=CN ?;0BC. 1 "8?>2>9 AF5=0@=K9 4>3>2>@ 4;O EC4>65AB25==KE :8=>D8;L<>2. #B25@645= ?@8:07>< >A:8=> !!!  >B 21 D52@0;O 1978 3. ! 70 2 @54. ?@8:070 >A:8=> !!!  >B 26 O=20@O 1979 3. ! 29. 2 "8?>2>9 4>3>2>@ > =0?8A0=88 >@838=0;L=>9 <C7K:8 : EC4>65AB25==><C :8=>D8;L<C. #B25@645= ?@8:07>< >A:8=> !!!  >B 14 8N;O 1978 3. ! 270 2 @54. @8:070 >A:8=> !!!  >B 17 8N=O 1981 3. ! 274. 3 A<. >1 MB><: .!. =B8<>=>2, .. $;59H8F. 2B>@AB2> 8 B@C4>2>5 ?@02>>B=>H5=85.  !>25BA:>5 3>AC40@AB2> 8 ?@02>, 1956, ! 5, A. 54; !.. '5@=KH520.' /@02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 02B>@A:8E >B=>H5=89 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 8 =0 B5;52845=88. ., 1984. A. 116 " 136. 117 "0:8< >1@07><, @568< MB>3> ?@>872545=8O 4;O @568AA5@0 1C45B >?@545;OBLAO =5 AB. 13, 0 AB. 14 >.  A;54>20B5;L=>, =8:0:8E 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 C @568AA5@0 =0 53> 45B8I5 =5 2>7=8:05B, 2 A2O78 A G5< 2AB0NB ?@>1;5<K, =0?@8<5@, ?@8 CAB0=>2;5=88 A8AB5<K :>;;5:B82=>3> C?@02;5=8O ?@020<8 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. @><5 B>3>, >1J5< ;8G=KE =58<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 B0:65 A>:@0I05BAO (G. 2 AB. 15 >). %>BO 4;O A0<8E ' @568AA5@>2 B0:>5 ?@02>2>5 ?>;>65=85 8<55B >?@545;5==K5 ?@58<CI5AB20. 59AB28B5;L=>, B@C4>2K5 >B=>H5=8O @568AA5@0 A> ABC4859 ?@54?>;030NB 2K?;0BC 70@01>B=>9 ?;0BK =57028A8<> >B B>3>, =0E>48BAO 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O @568AA5@ "2 70?CA:5" 8;8 "2 ?@>AB>5". =>385 @568AA5@K ?@54?>G8B0NB B0:>5 AB018;L=>5, E>BO 8 =5 >G5=L 45=56=>5, ?>;>65=85 >6840=8N ?@>F5=B>2 >B 4>E>4>2 ABC488, :>B>@>3> <>65B 8 =5 1KBL, 5A;8 D8;L< =5 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2>>1I5 8;8 =5 8<55B CA?5E0.  ?@>5:B5 III G0AB8  $ CAB0=02;8205B =>2K9 (8;8 E>@>H> 701KBK9 A> 2@5<5= A=>2 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 1991 3. AB0@K9) @568< A;C651=KE ?@>872545=89 (AB. 1131), GB> <>65B 2K720BL @O4 ?@>1;5< 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 >B=>A8B5;L=> ?@>872545=89, :>B>@K5 ?>A;5 ?@8=OB8O ?@>5:B0 1C4CB A>740=K HB0B=K<8 @568AA5@0<8.  G. 4 .AB. 1131 C:07K205BAO, GB> =57028A8<> >B CA;>289 4>3>2>@0 (>G5284=>, B@C4>2>3>) ?> 8AB5G5=85 5 ;5B (2 A=>20E - 3 3>40) A <><5=B0 ?@54>AB02;5=8O ?@>872545=8O @01>B>40B5;N, 0 ?@8 A>3;0A88 @01>B>40B5;O - 8 @0=55 ?@020 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O 8 ?>;CG5=85 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O ?@8=04;560B 02B>@C 2 ?>;=>< >1J5<5. 0: 65 2>7<>6=> ?> 8AB5G5=88 5 ;5B 8A?>;L7>20BL D8;L< 157 2:;040 @568AA5@0, ?@020 =0 :>B>@K9 5<C 25@=C;8AL, 5A;8 >= =5 E>G5B 40;55 8E @50;87>2K20BL =8 =0 :0:8E CA;>28OE? >A;54=8<8 87 02B>@>2 D8;L<0 > =07K205B 02B>@>2 <C7K:0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 2>H54H53> A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN 2 D8;L< 8 A?5F80;L=> 4;O =53> =0?8A0==>3>. 1KG=> 02B>@0<8 <C7K:0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O O2;ONBAO 02B>@ <C7K:8, B.5. :><?>78B>@, 8 02B>@ B5:AB0, 5A;8 B0:>2>9 8<55BAO.  G. 1 AB. 13 > 02B>@>< <C7K:0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, A>740==>3> A?5F80;L=> 4;O D8;L<0, ?@87=05BAO B>;L:> :><?>78B>@. -B>B ?>4E>4 1K; E0@0:B5@5= 4;O ?@56=53> 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 - 2 AB. 486  !$!  @5GL H;0 B>;L:> > :><?>78B>@5 D8;L<0, 0 >1 02B>@5 A;>2 4;O <C7K:0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 4065 =5 C?><8=0;>AL. =0;>38G=K5 =>@<K A>45@60BAO 8 2 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 1>;LH8=AB20 8=>AB@0==KE 3>AC40@AB2, 345 ?5@2>=0G0;L=>5 02B>@AB2> =0 D8;L< ?@87=05BAO 70 D878G5A:8<8 ;8F0<8 - 53> 118 A>740B5;O<8, =0?@8<5@ ??. 4 017. 2 AB. 14 D@0=FC7A:>3> 70:>=01, E>BO AB. 45A 02B>@A:>3> 70:>=0 845@;0=4>22 ?@8@02=8205B 2 ?@020E 02B>@0 <C7K:8 : 02B>@C B5:AB0 4;O =55. ><?>78B>@0, 0 >A>15==> :8=>:><?>78B>@0, <>6=> A<5;> =0720BL ;N18<G8:>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. '0ABL 3 AB. 13 405B 5<C A5@L57=K5 ?@58<CI5AB20 ?> A@02=5=8N A 02B>@>< AF5=0@8O 8 @568AA5@><.  A>>B25BAB288 A MB>9 =>@<>9 :><?>78B>@ A>E@0=O5B 70 A>1>9 ?@02> =0 ?>;CG5=85 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 ?C1;8G=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 A2>53> ?@>872545=8O =57028A8<> >B B>3>, GB> >= ?5@540; ?> 4>3>2>@C 873>B>28B5;N 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O ?> G. 2 B>9 65 AB0BL8. "0:8< >1@07><, :><?>78B>@C =5 =04> 704C<K20BLAO ?@8 70:;NG5=88 C?><O=CB>3> 4>3>2>@0; A2>5 2>7=03@0645=85 70 ?C1;8G=>5 8A?>;=5=85 <C7K:8 ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 D8;L<0 2 70;0E 8'?> B5;52845=8N >= ?>;CG8B 2A5340 =0 >A=>20=88 ?@O<>3> C:070=8O 70:>=0 (G. 3 AB. 13). "> 5ABL ?@8 A>AB02;5=88 3@0<>B=>3> 4>3>2>@0 =0 A>740=85 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O :><?>78B>@ 70 :064K9 A;CG09 8A?>;L7>20=8O D8;L<0 <>65B @0AAG8BK20BL =0 ?>;CG5=85 2>7=03@0645=8O 42064K: >B A0<>3> 873>B>28B5;O 2 2845 ?@>F5=B>2 >B 4>E>40 ?>A;54=53> 8 >B 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>3> >1I5AB20 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> AB02:0<8, ?@8=OBK<8 2 A8AB5<5 :>;;5:B82=>3> C?@02;5=8O 02B>@A:8<8 ?@020<8 (A<. ?>4@>1=55 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI5< ?0@03@0D5).  E>BO 70:>= ?@O<> =5 C:07K205B =0 MB>, A>25@H5==> >G5284=>, GB> :064K9 02B>@, 2E>4OI89 2 40==CN :0B53>@8N, 8<55B 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> 8 =0 B> A2>5 ?@>872545=85, :>B>@>5 2>H;> A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN 2 D8;L<: ;8B5@0BC@=K9 AF5=0@89, @568AA5@A:89 ?@>5:B 8 <C7K:0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 A B5:AB>< 8;8 157 B5:AB0. 04> A:070BL, GB> A=>2K 2 MB>< A<KA;5 A>45@60;8 1>;55 G5B:CN 8 ?@82;5:0B5;L=CN 4;O 02B>@>2 D>@<C;8@>2:C: "2B>@K ?@>872545=89, 8A?>;L7>20==KE 2 D8;L<5, A>E@0=ONB 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> :064K9 =0 A2>5 ?@>872545=85, ?5@540NB 873>B>28B5;N ?@02> =0 53> 8A?>;L7>20=85 2 D8;L<5 8 <>3CB 8A?>;L7>20BL ?@>872545=85 =57028A8<> >B D8;L<0 2 F5;><" (017. 2 G. 5 AB. 135). "5?5@L 65, 2 284C >BACBAB28O ?@O<>3> C:070=8O =0 MB> 2 70:>=5, =5>1E>48<> 22>48BL B0:CN D>@<C;8@>2:C 2 02B>@A:85 4>3>2>@K, GB>1K 871560BL =54>?>=8<0=8O 02B>@0<8 A2>8E ?@02, 0 ?@>4NA5@0<8 - ?@545;>2 A2>8E ?>;=><>G89. 1 @0640=A:>5, B>@3>2>5 8 A5<59=>5 ?@02> :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0=, !1. =>@<, 0:B>2. =. IV "2B>@A:>5 ?@02>" - .: 874-2> #, 1988. - A. 85. 2 B0< 65. A. 148. 119 B>@0O :0B53>@8O :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E 02B>@>2, =5 ?@5B5=4CNI8E =0 ?@020 =0 D8;L< 2 F5;><, ?5@5G8A;5=0 2 G. 4 AB. 13 >. =0 ?>4@0745;O5BAO =0 425 3@C??K: 02B>@K ?@>872545=89, ACI5AB2>202H8E @0=55, 4> A>740=8O D8;L<0, 8 ?@>872545=89, A>740205<KE 2 ?@>F5AA5 @01>BK =04 0C48>287C0;L=K< ?@>872545=85<.  ?5@2>9 3@C??5 >B=>AOBAO: 02B>@ ;8B5@0BC@=>3> ?@>872545=8O, ;53H53> 2 >A=>2C AF5=0@8O, 02B>@ "=5>@838=0;L=>9" <C7K:8, B.5. <C7K:0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, =5 A?5F80;L=> =0?8A0==>3> 4;O 0C48>287C0;L=>3>, =>, >G5284=>, =5 >1O70B5;L=> @0=55 >1=0@>4>20==>3> 8 4@C385. > 2B>@>9 - 2A5 A?5F8D8G5A:85 :8=>B2>@FK: >?5@0B>@- ?>AB0=>2I8:, EC4>6=8:-?>AB0=>2I8: 8 4@C385. @54AB02;O5BAO, GB> MB8 02B>@K =5 <>3CB AG8B0BLAO A>02B>@0<8 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 ?>;=>< A<KA;5 A;>20, ?>A:>;L:C =5 2K?>;=O5BAO CA;>285 G. 1 AB. 10 >, B.5. MB8 02B>@K =5 >1;040NB ?@020<8 =0 ?@>872545=85, =04 A>740=85< :>B>@>3> >=8 @01>B0;8 8 2 :>B>@>5 2;>68;8 @57C;LB0B A2>59 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. !B0BCA MB>9 :0B53>@88 02B>@>2 4>;65= 1KBL ?>4@>1=> ?@>?8A0= 2 4>3>2>@5 A ?@>4NA5@>< 2 :064>< :>=:@5B=>< A;CG05. @0:B8G5A:8 2A5 8=>AB@0==K5 70:>=K B0:65 =5 A>45@60B G5B:>3> >?@545;5=8O ?@02><>G89 02B>@>2 2:;04>2, E>BO 8E ?@02>2>9 AB0BCA >1@8A>20= 1>;55 45B0;L=>. '@572KG09=> 206=>9, A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?@>4NA5@>2, =>@<>9 <=>38E 70@C156=KE 70:>=>2 (=0?@8<5@, AB. 15 D@0=FC7A:>3> 70:>=0, AB. 45, =845@;0=4A:>3> 70:>=0) O2;O5BAO ?>;>65=85 > B><, GB> 5A;8 >48= 87 CG0AB=8:>2 :8=>?@>F5AA0 >B:07K205BAO >B 7025@H5=8O A2>59 G0AB8 @01>BK 8;8 =5 <>65B 70:>=G8BL 55 ?> =57028AOI8< >B =53> ?@8G8=0<, B> >= =5 <>65B 2>A?@5?OBAB2>20BL 8A?>;L7>20=8N C65 2K?>;=5==>9 8< G0AB8 @01>BK 4;O 7025@H5=8O ?@>872545=8O. $@0=FC7A:89 70:>= CAB0=02;8205B MB> ?@028;> 4;O 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2 :8=>?@>F5AA0, 2:;NG0O 8 "?>;=>F5==KE" A>02B>@>2. 0 <>9 273;O4, >BACBAB285 B0:>9 =>@<K 2 @>AA89A:>< 70:>=5 AB028B 873>B>28B5;O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 G@57<5@=> 7028A8<>5 ?>;>65=85 >B :064>3> ?@54AB028B5;O B2>@G5A:>3> A>AB020 AJ5<>G=>9 3@C??K. %>BO F5;5A>>1@07=55 1K;> 1K 225AB8 55 B>;L:> 4;O 02B>@>2 2B>@>9 :0B53>@88, ?5@5G8A;5==KE 2 G. 4 AB. 13 >. 06=CN @>;L 2 A>740=88 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 83@05B 02B>@ @><0=0 8;8 8=>3> ;8B5@0BC@=>3> ?@>872545=8O, ?>;>65==>3> 2 >A=>2C ;8B5@0BC@=>3> AF5=0@8O. >?@>A > AB0BCA5 MB>3> 02B>@0 2 70:>=>40B5;LAB20E @07=KE AB@0= @5H05BAO ?>-@07=><C.  =5:>B>@KE AB@0=0E 53> ?>;>65=85 AE>4=> A B5<, :>B>@>5 CAB0=02;8205B @>AA89A:89 70:>=.  4@C38E, =0?@8<5@ 2 C?><O=CB>9 D@0=FC7A:>9 =>@<5, 02B>@ ;8B5@0BC@=>3> ?@>872545=8O AG8B05BAO A>02B>@>< AF5=0@8O 8 A>>B25BAB25==> 02B>@>< 2A53> D8;L<0 2 F5;><. @8 70:;NG5=88 120 4>3>2>@0 =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 02B>@ ;8B5@0BC@=>3> ?@>872545=8O @50;87C5B A2>5 8<CI5AB25==>5 ?@02> =0 ?5@545;:C ?@>872545=8O, => 2 4>3>2>@5 <>65B 70@575@28@>20BL 4;O A51O ?>;=><>G8O CG0AB2>20BL 8;8 2 ?@>F5AA5 =0?8A0=8O AF5=0@8O (B>340 >= 02B><0B8G5A:8 AB0=>28BAO A>02B>@>< AF5=0@8O 8 ?5@5E>48B 2 3@C??C 02B>@>2, C:070==KE 2 G. 1 AB. 13 >), 8;8 2 >1AC645=88 A>740==>3> 4@C38< ;8F>< AF5=0@8O 8 2>7<>6=>ABL B@51>20BL 2=5A5=8O 87<5=5=89 8 ?5@545;>: 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> A2>8< 2845=85< A>1AB25==>3> ?@>872545=8O. ?8A0==K5 20@80=BK 4>AB0B>G=> >G5284=K 8 ?@85<;5<K ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 ?@>872545=8O 682CI53> 02B>@0, => 2K7K20NB >?@545;5==K5 A><=5=8O ?@8 2>7=8:=>25=88 0=0;>38G=KE ?@8BO70=89 A> AB>@>=K =0A;54=8:>2 C<5@H8E 02B>@>2 >E@0=O5<KE ?@>872545=89. "0:, 2 8N;5 1995 3. :8=>ABC48O "5=D8;L<" 70:;NG8;0 02B>@A:89 4>3>2>@ A !., 02B>@>< @><0=0 "0@0", =0 ?5@545;:C 53> @><0=0 2 AF5=0@89 ?>;=><5B@06=>3> EC4>65AB25==>3> D8;L<0 8 =0 CG0AB85 A0<>3> 02B>@0 2 A>740=88 AF5=0@8O. >3>2>@ A>45@60; 2 A515 M;5<5=BK 4>3>2>@0 70:070 AF5=0@8O 8 ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> 4>3>2>@0 =0 ?5@540GC ?@02 =0 MB>B AF5=0@89 4;O A>740=8O ?> =5<C D8;L<0. A=>2=>9 4>3>2>@ =0 A>740=85 D8;L<0 4>;65= 1K; 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 4>3>2>@>< 1KBL 70:;NG5= =5 ?>74=55 1 O=20@O 1996 3.  =0G0;5 45:01@O !. C<8@05B, 0 =0 ABC48N >1@0I05BAO 53> 24>20 A B@51>20=85< 4>?CAB8BL 55 : CG0AB8N 2 A>740=88 AF5=0@8O 8 D8;L<0 2 F5;><.  ?@>B82=>< 65 A;CG05 >=0 =5 ?>4?8H5B >A=>2=>9 4>3>2>@ 8 :0: =0A;54=8F0 =5 @07@5H8B 8A?>;L7>20BL ?@>872545=85 ?>:>9=>3> <C60 2 A>740NI5<AO D8;L<5. -B0 A8BC0F8O 4> A8E ?>@ =5 @07@5H5=0, 8 ?@>872>4AB2> D8;L<0 ?@8>AB0=>2;5=>, ?>A:>;L:C =8 70:;NG5==K9 4>3>2>@, =8 70:>= =5 40NB G5B:>3> @07JOA=5=8O ?> ?>2>4C ?>;=><>G89 =0A;54=8:>2 02B>@A:8E ?@02. 5@5G5=L >158E 3@C?? 2B>@>9 :0B53>@88 02B>@>2 =5 O2;O5BAO 8AG5@?K20NI8<.  2 BC, 8 2 4@C3CN <>3CB 2E>48BL 2A5, :B> A>GB5B A2>9 2:;04 2 D8;L< @57C;LB0B>< B2>@G5A:>9, 0 =5 G8AB> <5E0=8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. @8G5< 4;O 2:;NG5=8O 2 ?5@2CN 3@C??C 02B>@>2 ACI5AB2CNI55 ?@>872545=85 4>;6=> C65 1KBL ?@87=0=> 2 :0G5AB25 >1J5:B0 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. ;O 2:;NG5=8O 2> 2B>@CN =5>1E>48<>, GB>1K =5 B>;L:> 02B>@ AG8B0;, GB> 2 ?@>F5AA5 @01>BK =04 D8;L<>< >= A>740AB ?@>872545=85, :>B>@>5 ?>4?0405B ?>4 459AB285 >, => 8 ?@>4NA5@, ?@83;0H0NI89 53> 4;O 2K?>;=5=8O >?@545;5==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@87=0; 55 @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:8< 2:;04>< 8 A>>B25BAB25==> >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. 0:>=>40B5;LAB2> =5:>B>@KE AB@0= >B=>A8B >?5@0B>@0 : ?5@2>9 :0B53>@88 02B>@>2, GB>, =0 <>9 273;O4, =5 ;8H5=> A<KA;0.  A0<>< >?@545;5=88 121 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O ?>4G5@:8205BAO =5>1E>48<>ABL 53> D8:A0F88 4;O ?>A;54CNI53> 2>A?@8OB8O A ?><>ILN A>>B25BAB2CNI8E B5E=8G5A:8E CAB@>9AB2, B.5. 87 2A53> ?5@5G=O >1J5:B82=KE D>@< ACI5AB2>20=8O >E@0=O5<KE ?@>872545=89 C:07K205BAO 548=AB25==> =0 2845>70?8AL (<5E0=8G5A:CN, <03=8B=CN, F8D@>2CN, >?B8G5A:CN 8 B. ?.) (??. 3 G. 2 AB. 1 >).  8<5==> >?5@0B>@ >ACI5AB2;O5B ?5@2>=0G0;L=CN D8:A0F8N @57C;LB0B0 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 42CE >A=>2=KE 02B>@>2 D8;L<0 - AF5=0@8AB0 8 @568AA5@0. 54L 2?>;=5 <>6=> ?@54AB028BL A8BC0F8N, GB> 25AL B2>@G5A:89, 40 8 B5E=8G5A:89 :>;;5:B82 D8;L<0 (=0?@8<5@, >A25B8B5;8) <>65B =0 >A=>25 AF5=0@8O 02B>@0 ?@8 CG0AB88 B>3> 65 @568AA5@0-?>AB0=>2I8:0 A>740BL "682>9 D8;L<", "682CN :0@B8=C", :>B>@0O =8G5< =5 1C45B >B;8G0BLAO >B 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O A B>G:8 7@5=8O @57C;LB0B0 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, => =5 1C45B ?@87=0=0 B0:>2K<, 5A;8 =5 1C45B 70D8:A8@>20=0 =0 ?;5=:5 >?5@0B>@><. >6=> 4065 A:070BL, GB> 8<5==> CG0AB85 >?5@0B>@0 >15A?5G8205B @568AA5@C ?@87=0=85 8<5==> 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 =0 53> B2>@G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, ?>A:>;L:C @568AA5@ "682>3>" A?5:B0:;O =07K205BAO 70:>=>< 2 G8A;5 >1;040B5;59 A<56=KE ?@02, B.5. ?@8@02=8205BAO : 48@865@C >@:5AB@0 8;8 @C:>2>48B5;N 0=A0<1;O 8A?>;=8B5;59. > E>BO @>AA89A:89 70:>= =5 ?@54CA<0B@8205B 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> >?5@0B>@0 =0 D8;L< 2 F5;><, =8:B> =5 <5H05B ?@>4NA5@0< 2 4>3>2>@5 A >?5@0B>@>< ?@8@02=OBL ?>A;54=53> : ?5@2>9 :0B53>@88 02B>@>2 E>BO 1K 2 B><, GB> :0A05BAO ?@8=F8?0 @0AG5B0 2>7=03@0645=8O, B.5. 2 2845 ?@>F5=B>2 >B 4>E>40 70 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;><.  =5:>B>@K5 ABC488, =0?@8<5@ B2>@G5A:>-?@>872>4AB25==0O D8@<0 " CAL", ?@87=0NI85 >3@><=K9 2:;04 >?5@0B>@0 2 A>740=85 D8;L<0, 70:;NG0NB 4>3>2>@K 8<5==> =0 B0:8E CA;>28OE. !?@0254;82>ABL 45;5=8O 02B>@>2 =0 C:070==K5 :0B53>@88 2K7K205B A><=5=8O C :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 2840 D8;L<0. "0:, =52:;NG5=85 2 :@C3 02B>@>2 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O EC4>6=8:0 <C;LB8?;8:0F8>==>3> D8;L<0 ?@82>48B : 2?>;=5 >1>A=>20==K< ?@5B5=78O< A> AB>@>=K ?@54AB028B5;59 MB>9 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>9 ?@>D5AA88 : 459AB2CNI5<C 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C. @8<8@8BL <C;LB8?;8:0B>@>2 A AC@>2>9 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>9 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN <>3;8 1K ?@8=OBK5 @028B5;LAB2>< <8=8<0;L=K5 AB02:8 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 A>740=85 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, :>B>@K5, O2;OOAL A?5F80;L=K< =>@<0B82=K< 0:B><, <>3;8 1K 1>;55 381:> 8 1>;55 ?>4@>1=> C@53C;8@>20BL 8 A8AB5<0B878@>20BL 8<CI5AB25==K5 >B=>H5=8O 2 AD5@5 :8=5<0B>3@0D88. AB05BAO =045OBLAO =0 4>1@CN 2>;N 873>B>28B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, :>B>@K5 122 2 4>3>2>@5 A 02B>@0<8 2B>@>9 :0B53>@88 2>7404CB 4>;6=>5 8E 2:;04C 2 D8;L<, 0 B0:65 =0 45OB5;L=>ABL A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 38;L489 !>N70 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2, :>B>@K5, O2;OOAL ?> ACB8 ?@>DA>N7=K<8 >@30=870F8O<8 02B>@>2, A<>3CB 4>18BLAO >?@545;5==>3> <8=8<0;L=>3> C@>2=O A>1;N45=8O 8=B5@5A>2 A2>8E G;5=>2, @07@01>B02 =5A:>;L:> ?@8<5@=KE, @5:><5=40B5;L=KE 4>3>2>@>2 ?> @07=K< :0B53>@8O< 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. '"0:0O ?@0:B8:0 ?>72>;8B CG8BK20BL E>BO 1K <8=8<C< 8=B5@5A>2 ?@54AB028B5;59 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E ?@>D5AA89 8 1>;55 48DD5@5=F8@>20==> ?>4>9B8 : :064><C :>=:@5B=><C A;CG0N. $>@<C;8@>2:0 2 G. 4 AB. 13 > > "?@>872545=8OE" 8450;L=> ?>4E>48B 4;O ?5@2>9 3@C??K 02B>@>2 - C65 ACI5AB2CNI8E 8;8 @0=55 A>740==KE ?@>872545=89.  4;O 2B>@>9 3@C??K >=0 =5 2A5340 :>@@5:B=0. >6=> 3>2>@8BL > ?@>872545=88 EC4>6=8:0, 2>H54H5< A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN 2 D8;L<. > AG8B0BL 2:;04 >?5@0B>@0 8;8 @568AA5@0 <>=B060 >B45;L=K<8 ?@>872545=8O<8, 0 =5 > G0ABO<8 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, =0 <>9 273;O4, =5 A>2A5< ?@028;L=>. @>872545=85< 4>;65= =07K20BLAO @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, :>B>@K9 <>65B 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20= >B45;L=>. KG;5=8BL @01>BC >?5@0B>@0 87 D8;L<0 8 8A?>;L7>20BL 55 >B45;L=> =5;L7O, E>BO, ?@>A<>B@52 D8;L<, <>6=> AC48BL > <0AB5@AB25 >?5@0B>@0, > 53> 2:;045 8 B. ?. !2845B5;LAB2> B><C ?@8A2>5=85 ?@87>2 =0 <564C=0@>4=KE D5AB820;OE 8 8=KE :>=:C@A0E ("8:0", "A:0@") 70 ;CGHCN >?5@0B>@A:CN @01>BC. >6=> >?8A0BL B2>@G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, 4;O :>B>@>9 ?@83;0H05BAO >?5@0B>@ 2 4>3>2>@5, => >?@545;8BL, GB> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?@>872545=85 >?5@0B>@0, 2KG;5=8BL 53> 2:;04 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, =5;53:>. -B> 8<55B 4>AB0B>G=> 206=>5 7=0G5=85 ?@8 70I8B5 02B>@A:8E ?@02 >?5@0B>@0. "0:, 2 <0@B5 1995 3. >AA89A:>5 B5;52845=85 ?>:070;> 2 >4=>9 87 A2>8E @C1@8: EC4>65AB25==K9 D8;L<, >?5@0B>@><-?>AB0=>2I8:>< 1K; .. A?>;L7>20==0O B5;52845=85< :>?8O 1K;0 >G5=L =87:>3> :0G5AB20: A B0: =07K205<K< "4>645<" - 15;K<8 25@B8:0;L=K<8 ?>;>A0<8 G5@57 25AL M:@0=, F25B 8 A25B "?@K30;8" >B G0AB8 : G0AB8... ?5@0B>@ =5 B>;L:> ?5@56820; 70 C65 A>740==K9 D8;L<, => 8 >?0A0;AO, GB> ?>B5=F80;L=K5 @01>B>40B5;8, :>B>@K5 2 MB> 2@5<O <>3;8 1KBL C B5;5287>@0, C284O 53> "B2>@G5AB2>", =5 ?@83;0AOB 53> =0 A;54CNI89 D8;L<. !>N7 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 ?>445@60; ?@5B5=788 >?5@0B>@0 8 ?>A>25B>20; >1@0B8BLAO : @C:>2>4AB2C >AA89A:>3> B5;52845=8O A B@51>20=85< 2>AAB0=>28BL 53> =0@CH5==K5 ?@020, ?@5420@82 A;54CNI89 D8;L< 87 MB>9 @C1@8:8 B8B@>< A 8728=5=8O<8 ?5@54 B2>@F>< 8 >1JOA=5=8O<8 ?> ?>2>4C ?;>E>3> :0G5AB20 8A?>;L7>20==>9 :>?88. 123 ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K D>@<C;8@>2:0 G. 4 =5>1E>48<0 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 02B>@K >B45;L=KE 2:;04>2 =5 <>3;8 ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 ?@020 =0 D8;L< 2 F5;>< :0: A>02B>@K, GB> =0 ?@0:B8:5 G0I5 2A53> >7=0G05B =5?>;CG5=85 8<8 ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O >B 4>E>4>2 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, :C40 A>AB02=K<8 G0ABO<8 2>H;8 8E A>1AB25==K5 "?@>872545=8O".  A>60;5=8N, ?@>5:B III G0AB8  $ =5 A>45@68B A?5F80;L=>9 =>@<K, >B@060NI59 2AN A?5F8D8:C 02B>@A:8E 2708<>>B=>H5=89 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. 57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =5:>B>@KE CG0AB=8:>2 :8=>?@>F5AAM >E@0=ONBAO =>@<0<8 =5 02B>@A:>3>, 0 A<56=KE ?@02. !<56=K5 ?@020 2?5@2K5 1K;8 CAB0=>2;5=K A=>20<8 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 2 1991 3., :>B>@K5 22>48;8 >E@0=C 4;O G5BK@5E :0B53>@89 AC1J5:B>2: 0@B8AB>2-8A?>;=8B5;59, A>740B5;59 72C:>70?8A59, A>740B5;59 2845>70?8A59 8 >@30=870F89 MD8@=>3> 25I0=8O(AB. 141). >A:>;L:C ?@8 A>740=88 A=>2 70:>=>40B5;L ?@54?>;030;, GB> 8E ?>;>65=8O 1C4CB @0728BK 2  @5A?C1;8:, A<56=K5 ?@020 1K;8 B>;L:> 45:;0@8@>20=K, 0 =5 C@53C;8@>20=K ?>4@>1=>. A=>2K =5 @0AH8D@>2K20;8 :;NG52K5 ?>=OB8O, ?@82545==K5 2 B5:AB5. >;55 ?>4@>1=> @568< A<56=KE ?@02 1K; 70:@5?;5= > (@0745; G5B25@BK9).  =5<, :0: 8 2 A=>20E CAB0=02;8205BAO >E@0=0 G5BK@5E :0B53>@89 A<56=KE ?@02, => 8E ?5@5G5=L 2' > A5@L57=> >B;8G05BAO >B 22545==>3> A=>20<8. 10 ?@02>2KE 0:B0 ?@54CA<0B@820NB >E@0=C A<56=KE ?@02 0@B8AB>2-8A?>;=8B5;59 8 >@30=870F89 MD8@=>3> 25I0=8O. AB0;L=K5 65 :0B53>@88 1K;8 87<5=5=K. A=>2K CAB0=02;820;8 >E@0=C 4;O @57C;LB0B>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 A>740B5;59 72C:>- 8 2845>70?8A59, 2 > 65 @5GL 845B B>;L:> >1 873>B>28B5;5 D>=>3@0<<K. >=OB8O "D>=>3@0<<0" 8 "72C:>70?8AL" 01A>;NB=> 845=B8G=K.  AB. 4 > 405BAO >?@545;5=85 873>B>28B5;O D>=>3@0<<K: MB> D878G5A:>5 8;8 N@848G5A:>5 ;8F>, 27O2H55 =0 A51O 8=8F80B82C 8 >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 ?5@2CN 72C:>2CN 70?8AL 8A?>;=5=8O 8;8 8=KE 72C:>2. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> A<56=K5 ?@020 2>7=8:0NB =5 C B>3> ;8F0, :>B>@>5 =5?>A@54AB25==> 70?8AK205B 72C:, 0 C >@30=870B>@0 B0:>9 70?8A8. !@07C ?>A;5 22545=8O 2 459AB285 A=>2 3 023CAB0 1992 3. 72C:>@568AA5@K >1J548=8;8AL 2 1I5AB25==CN B2>@G5A:CN >@30=870F8N AA>F80F8N 72C:>@568AA5@>2 ( ) 2 =045645 A>2<5AB=K<8 CA8;8O<8 4>18BLAO ?@87=0=8O ?@02 =0 @57C;LB0BK A2>59 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?>A:>;L:C D>@<C;8@>2:0 A=>2 > A>740B5;OE, ?>72>;O;0 72C:>@568AA5@0< ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 >E@0=C. > =5 ?@54>AB02;O5B 72C:>@568AA5@0< 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>;CG5=8O 02B>=><=>9 >E@0=K A<56=KE ?@02, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 E>BO =5?>A@54AB25==> 8 873>B02;820NB 124 D>=>3@0<<C, => =5 15@CB =0 A51O 8=8F80B82C 8 >B25BAB25==>ABL, 0 @01>B0NB ?> 4>3>2>@C A B5< 8;8 8=K< 0C48>;@>4NA5@><.  0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 873>B>28B5;5< 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, >1;040B5;5< A<56=KE ?@02 =0 sound track (72C:>2CN 4>@>6:C) D8;L<0 AG8B05BAO ?@>4NA5@ 8;8 873>B>28B5;L D8;L<0, 8;8 >@30=870F8O, A :>B>@>9 >= 70:;NG8; 4>3>2>@ =0 70?8AL 72C:0.  B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 2 D8;L<5 8A?>;L7C5BAO 3>B>20O D>=>3@0<<0 <C7K:0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 2>?@>A >1 CABC?:5 ?@02 =0 =55 8;8 =5:>B>@K5 284K 55 8A?>;L7>20=8O B0:65 @5H0NBAO 4>3>2>@>< <564C ?@>4NA5@>< D8;L<0 8 873>B>28B5;5< 8A?>;L7C5<>9 D>=>3@0<<K. > ?> A@02=5=8N A A=>20<8 8A:;NG05B 87 :@C30 AC1J5:B>2 A<56=KE ?@02 A>740B5;O 2845>70?8A8 8;8, 8A?>;L7CO 0=0;>38G=CN D>@<C;8@>2:C, - 873>B>28B5;O 2845>3@0<<K. 0 B>B 3>4, :>340 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K5 >B=>H5=8O @53C;8@>20;8AL @0745;>< IV A=>2, A 3 023CAB0 1992 3. ?> 3 023CAB0 1993 3.(:>340 >=8 1K;8 >B<5=5=K ?. 10 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $ " ?>@O4:5 22545=8O 2 459AB285 0:>=0 $ >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E" >B 9 8N;O 1993 3. ! 5352-11), ?@>4NA5@K =5 CA?5;8 "70:@5?8BLAO" 2 :0G5AB25 >1;040B5;59 A<56=KE ?@02. 5 B0:8<8 0:B82=K<8, :0: 72C:>@568AA5@K, >:070;8AL 8 >?5@0B>@K: >=8 <>3;8 1K ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 A<56=K5 ?@020 =0 @57C;LB0BK A2>59 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> B5< 65 >A=>20=8O<, GB> 8 72C:>@568AA5@K, ?>A:>;L:C A=>2K ?@54>AB02;O;8 >E@0=C A>740B5;O< 2845>70?8A59, > =>2><C 0:>=C >?5@0B>@K 2E>4OB 2 :@C3 02B>@>2 ?@>872545=89, 2>H54H8E A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, >=8 ?@O<> C:070=K 2 G. 4 AB. 13 >; 0 72C:>@568AA5@K 745AL =5 ?5@5G8A;5=K, ?>MB><C 8< =5>1E>48<> 1>;55 AB@>3> A;548BL 70 D>@<C;8@>2:0<8 4>3>2>@0, ?> :>B>@><C >=8 ?@83;0H0NBAO 4;O 70?8A8 72C:>2>9 4>@>6:8 D8;L<0. %>BO ?5@5G5=L G. 4 AB. 13 > =58AG5@?K20NI89, >BACBAB285 ?@O<>3> C:070=8O 2 70:>=5 <>65B ?>2;5GL @07;8G=K5 B@0:B>2:8 ?@02>2>3> ?>;>65=8O 72C:>@568AA5@0 2 :064>< :>=:@5B=>< A;CG05. 73>B>28B5;8 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 2> <=>38E AB@0=0E ?@87=0NBAO B8BC;O@=K<8 =>A8B5;O<8 A<56=KE ?@02 =0 2845>3@0<<C. @>5:B III G0AB8  $ B0:65 B@51C5B ?@87=0=8O 70 873>B>28B5;O<8 2845>70?8A8 A<56=KE ?@02 =0 =55 (AB. 1113, 1146 8 3 3;. 63), => =>@<K MB8 =>AOB >1I89 E0@0:B5@, 8 ?@8 >BACBAB288 2 ?@>5:B5 A?5F80;L=>9 AB0BL8 >1 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=8OE 8 @0AH8D@>2:8 B5@<8=>2, C?>B@51;O5<KE 2 MB>< 0:B5, 2@O4';8 A@07C ?>A;5 ?@8=OB8O ?@>5:B0 1 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1993. - ! 32. - AB. 1244. 125 87<5=8BAO ACI5AB2CNI55 ?>;>65=85 45;. > 459AB2CNI5<C @>AA89A:><C 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C (G. 2 AB. 13 >) ?@>4NA5@ ?>;CG05B >B 02B>@>2 D8;L<0 ?>GB8 ?>;=K9 >1J5< 8<CI5AB25==KE 02B>@A:8E ?@02 =0 D8;L< (70 8A:;NG5=85< ?@020 =0 ?5@545;:C). @><5 B>3>, 873>B>28B5;L 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O O2;O5BAO >1;040B5;5< A<56=KE ?@02 =0 72C:>2CN 4>@>6:C D8;L<0. "0:>5 ?>;>65=85 2?>;=5 4>;6=> C4>2;5B2>@OBL @>AA89A:8E ?@>4NA5@>2: 8E 8=B5@5AK <>3CB 1KBL CI5<;5=K B>;L:> 2 A;CG05, :>340 4>3>2>@0<8 =5 ?@54CA<>B@5= ?5@5E>4 ?@02 >B 02B>@>2 : 873>B>28B5;N 0:>=5F, > 22>48B >B45;L=>9 :0B53>@859 AC1J5:B>2 A<56=KE ?@02 >@30=870F88 :015;L=>3> 25I0=8O. E ?@020 845=B8G=K ?@020< >@30=870F89 :015;L=>3> 25I0=8O, B>;L:> 2 D>@<C;8@>2:0E =>@< B5@<8= "MD8@" 70<5=5= =0 ":015;L" 8 =0>1>@>B. !<56=K5 ?@020 (2> D@0=FC7A:>< 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 droits voisins - "A>A54=85" ?@020) B5A=> A2O70=K A 02B>@A:8< 8 2 A8AB5<5 =>@< 8<5NB ?> >B=>H5=8N : ?>A;54=5<C ?>4G8=5==>5 ?>;>65=85.  G. 2 8 3 AB. 36 > C:07K205BAO, GB> 2A5 >1;040B5;8 A<56=KE ?@02 >ACI5AB2;ONB A2>8 ?>;=><>G8O 2 ?@545;0E ?@02, ?>;CG5==KE ?> 4>3>2>@C A 02B>@0<8 ?@>872545=8O, :>B>@>5 8A?>;=O5BAO, 70?8AK205BAO 8;8 ?5@5405BAO 2 MD8@ 8;8 ?> :015;N. 1J5:B A<56=KE ?@02 -8A?>;=5=85, D>=>3@0<<0 - O2;ONBAO 2B>@8G=K<8 ?> A@02=5=8N A 8A?>;=O5<K< 8;8 70?8AK205<K< ?@>872545=85< - >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. =CB@8 <0AAK A<56=KE ?@02 ACI5AB2C5B A2>O 3@040F8O, :>B>@CN <>6=> ?@54AB028BL 2 2845 AE5<K: !E5<0 ! 3  A=>2=K<8 =>A8B5;O<8 A<56=KE ?@02 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 O2;ONBAO 0@B8ABK-8A?>;=8B5;8. > ?@87=0=8O 70 0@B8AB0<8 A<56=KE ?@02 2 A=>20E @040F8O ?@02 =0 @57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 126 8A?>;=8B5;8 ?@83;0H0;8AL =0 AJ5<:8 D8;L<0 =0 >A=>20=88 B@C4>2KE 4>3>2>@>2, 0 8E 45OB5;L=>ABL =5 ?@87=020;0AL B2>@G5A:>9, 0 ?@8@02=820;0AL : ?@>AB><C 8A?>;=5=8N B@C4>2KE >1O70==>AB59. > ?>=8<05B ?>4 B5@<8=>< "0@B8AB-8A?>;=8B5;L" 0:B5@0, ?52F0, <C7K:0=B0, B0=F>@0 8;8 8=>5 ;8F>, :>B>@>5 83@05B @>;L, G8B05B, 45:;0<8@C5B, ?>5B, 83@05B =0 <C7K:0;L=>< 8=AB@C<5=B5 8;8 8=K< >1@07>< 8A?>;=O5B ?@>872545=85 ;8B5@0BC@K 8;8 8A:CAAB20 (2 B>< G8A;5 MAB@04=K9, F8@:>2>9 8;8 :C:>;L=K9 =><5@), 0 B0:65 @568AA5@0-?>AB0=>2I8:0 A?5:B0:;O 8 48@865@0. "0:8< >1@07><, 2>7=8:=>25=85 8A?>;=8B5;LA:8E ?@02 2>7<>6=> B>;L:> C D878G5A:>3> ;8F0, :>B>@>5 >ACI5AB2;O5B >?@545;5==CN B2>@G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL. @8<5G0B5;L=>, GB> 70:>= =5 22>48B :20;8D8:0F8>==>3> :@8B5@8O AC1J5:B0 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O ?@02 =0 8A?>;=5=85, B.5. A<56=K5 ?@020 <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL =57028A8<> >B C@>2=O >1@07>20=8O 8;8 <0AB5@AB20 8A?>;=8B5;O, >B B>3>, O2;O5BAO ;8 MB0 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 8;8 ;N18B5;LA:>9, >A=>2=>9 8;8 @07>2>9.  A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 37 > C 0@B8AB0-8A?>;=8B5;O 2>7=8:0NB 425 3@C??K ?@02 =0 @57C;LB0B 53> B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0=0;>38G=> 2>7=8:0NI8< C 02B>@0 ?@020< =0 @57C;LB0B A2>59 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8: 3@C??0 8<CI5AB25==KE 8 ;8G=KE =58<CI5AB25==KE ?@02. 1J5< 8 B5E 8 4@C38E 7=0G8B5;L=> C65 0=0;>38G=KE 02B>@A:8E ?@02, => ?@8<5G0B5;L=>, GB> 2 >B;8G85 >B 02B>@A:8E 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 (AB. 16 >) >B45;L=> 2K45;5=> ?@02> =0 ?>;CG5=85 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 :064K9 284 8A?>;L7>20=8O 8A?>;=5=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4 87 70:>=0 A;54C5B, GB> 2A5 >B=>H5=8O ?> ?>2>4C 8A?>;L7>20=8O 8A?>;=5=89 8 ?>AB0=>2>: 4>;6=K AB@>8BLAO =0 2>7<574=>9 >A=>25. > 2>-?5@2KE, 70:>= >1JO2;O5B ?@02> =0 2>7=03@0645=85 70 :064K9 284, 0 =5 A;CG09 8A?>;=5=8O; 2>-2B>@KE, ?>A;5 >1I59 D@07K 2 G. 1 AB. 37 > @0AH8D@>2K205BAO, GB> 8<5==> ?@87=05BAO 70:>=>< 8A?>;L7>20=85< 8A?>;=5=8O, 0 MB> AC605B :@C3 2>7<>6=KE A8BC0F89, :>340 8A?>;=8B5;L <>65B ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 2>7=03@0645=85 (G. 2 AB. 37, AB. 42); 2-B@5BL8E, G. 3 AB. 37 CAB0=02;8205B 87JOB8O 87 ?@028;0 > ?>;CG5=88 2>7=03@0645=8O, 0 G. 1 22>48B A?5F80;L=>5 ?@028;> 4;O 8A?>;=8B5;59 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, :>B>@>5 A2>48B =0 =5B 2A5 8E 8<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020. > G. 2 AB. 37 > 8A:;NG8B5;L=>5 ?@02> =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 8A?>;=5=8O >7=0G05B ?@02> >ACI5AB2;OBL 8;8 @07@5H0BL >ACI5AB2;OBL A;54CNI85 459AB28O: ?5@54020BL 2 MD8@ 8 A>>1I0BL 4;O 2A5>1I53> A2545=8O ?> :015;N 8A?>;=5=85, 5A;8 8A?>;L7C5<>5 4;O B0:>9 ?5@540G8 8A?>;=5=85 =5 1K;> @0=55 ?5@540=> 2 MD8@ 8;8 =5 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO A 8A?>;L7>20=85< 70?8A8; 70?8AK20BL @0=55 =5 70?8A0==>5 8A?>;=5=85; 2>A?@>872>48BL 70?8AL 8A?>;=5=8O; ?5@54020BL 2 MD8@ 8;8 ?> :015;N 127 70?8AL 8A?>;=5=8O, 5A;8 ?5@2>=0G0;L=> MB0 70?8AL 1K;0 ?@>872545=0 =5 4;O :><<5@G5A:8E F5;59; A4020BL 2 ?@>:0B >?C1;8:>20==CN 2 :><<5@G5A:8E F5;OE D>=>3@0<<C, =0 :>B>@>9 70?8A0=> 8A?>;=5=85. -B> ?@02> ?@8 70:;NG5=88 4>3>2>@0 =0 70?8AL 8A?>;=5=8O =0 D>=>3@0<<C ?5@5E>48B : ?@>872>48B5;N D>=>3@0<<K, ?@8 MB>< 8A?>;=8B5;L A>E@0=O5B ?@02> =0 2>7=03@0645=85 70 A40GC 2 ?@>:0B M:75<?;O@>2 B0:>9 D>=>3@0<<K.  G. 1 AB. 37, ?>4>1=> G. 2 AB. 13, @53C;8@C5BAO ?5@5E>4 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 : ?@>4NA5@C: 70:;NG5=85 4>3>2>@0 <564C 8A?>;=8B5;5< 8 873>B>28B5;5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2;5G5B 70 A>1>9 ?@54>AB02;5=85 8A?>;=8B5;5< ?@02, C:070==KE 2 ?. 1 - 4 G. 2, B.5. 2A5E 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02, :@><5 ?@020 =0 A40GC 2 ?@>:0B, :>B>@>5 ?@>4NA5@ ?>;CG05B :0: 873>B>28B5;L D>=>3@0<<K, B.5. 72C:>2>9 4>@>6:8 D8;L<0, ?>A:>;L:C > A40G5 2 ?@>:0B 2845>3@0<<, (2 40==>< A;CG05 M:75<?;O@>2 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O =0 2845>=>A8B5;OE) 2 40==>9 AB0BL5 @5GL =5 845B.  >B;8G85 >B =>@<K G. 2 AB. 13, A>45@60I59 @5:><5=40F88 ?> 70:;NG5=8N 4>3>2>@0 <564C ?@>4NA5@>< 8 02B>@0<8 8 4>?CA:0NI59 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>AB@>5=8O >B=>H5=89 =0 4@C38E CA;>28OE ("5A;8 2 4>3>2>@5 =5 ?@54CA<>B@5=> 8=>5"), ?@028;> G. 1 AB. 37 O2;O5BAO 8<?5@0B82><, =5 4>?CA:0NI8< >BABC?;5=8O >B 70:@5?;5==>3> 70:>=>< ?>@O4:0 CAB0=>2;5=8O >B=>H5=89 <564C 0:B5@0<8 8 873>B>28B5;5<. > <=5=8N -. . 02@8;>20, 4>3>2>@ <564C ?@>4NA5@>< 8 8A?>;=8B5;5< <>65B 1KBL ;N1K<: B@C4>2K< 8;8 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2K<1. 0 <>9 273;O4, MB>B 4>3>2>@ 4>;65= ?@54AB02;OBL A>1>9 :>=3;><5@0B 87 =>@<, >B=>AOI8EAO : 3@0640=A:><C, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 A<56=><C, 8 B@C4>2><C ?@02C. A;8 4>3>2>@>< =5 ?@54CA<>B@5=> 8=>5, ?5@540G0 ?@02 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 017. 1 G. 1 B. 37 =5 2:;NG05B ?@02 =0 >B45;L=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 72C:0 8;8 87>1@065=8O, 70D8:A8@>20==KE 2 0C48>287C0;L=>< ?@>872545=88. ACI5AB2;5=85 MB8E ?@02 >3@0=8G5=> =>@<0<8 G. 3 AB. 37 8 AB. 42, => 2A5 65 0@B8ABK <>3CB @53C;8@>20BL 8A?>;L7>20=85 8 ?>;CG0BL 2>7=03@0645=85 70 8740=85 :0;5=40@59 8;8 8=>9 ?>;83@0D8G5A:>9 ?@>4C:F88 A :04@0<8 87 D8;L<0 A 8E CG0AB85<, 70 =0=5A5=85 B0:8E 87>1@065=89 =0 ?@54<5BK >4564K 8 1KB0, 2:;NG5=85 2 @5:;0<=CN ?@>4C:F8N 8 B. ?. -B> 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL 0@B8AB0< @50;87>20BL =5 2:;NG5==>5 2 ?5@5G5=L =5<0B5@80;L=KE 1;03 2 AB. 150  $ ?@02> =0 87>1@065=85.  =0AB>OI89 <><5=B B0:>5 206=>5 4;O 0@B8AB>2 ?@02> C?><8=05BAO B>;L:> 2 A=>20E 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 > :C;LBC@5, 2 :>B>@KE A=>2 CAB0=02;8205BAO, 1 -.. 02@8;>2. &8B. A>G., A. 173. 128 GB> "?@54?@8OB8O, CG@5645=8O 8 >@30=870F88 <>3CB 873>B02;820BL 8 @50;87>2K20BL ?@>4C:F8N (2 B>< G8A;5 @5:;0<=CN) A 87>1@065=85< (2@A?@>872545=85<) >1J5:B>2 :C;LBC@K 8 :C;LBC@=>3> 4>AB>O=8O, 45OB5;59 :C;LBC@K ?@8 =0;8G88 >D8F80;L=>3> @07@5H5=8O 2;045;LF52 8 87>1@0605<KE ;8F" (017. 2 AB. 53). A=>2K =5 40NB >?@545;5=8O B5@<8=0 "45OB5;L :C;LBC@K", => 4065 5A;8 ?@8@02=OBL 53> : @0AH8D@>20==><C 2 AB. 3 ?>=OB8N "B2>@G5A:89 @01>B=8:", B> >G5284=>, GB> 2A5 0@B8ABK-8A?>;=8B5;8 ?>?040NB 2 MB>B :@C3. "0:8< >1@07><, :8=>0@B8ABK ?>;CG8;8 ?> =>2><C 70:>=C B>;L:> =58<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020 8 ?@020 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 8A?>;=5=8O 2=5 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL >3@0=8G5=K 4>3>2>@>< A ?@>4NA5@><.  >AB0;L=>< 65 @568< 8E 8A?>;=5=89 =8G5< =5 >B;8G05BAO >B AB0@>9 A8AB5<K. ) 84K 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. . B=>H5=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 @53C;8@CNBAO =5A:>;L:8<8 70:>=>40B5;L=K<8 8 8=K<8 =>@<0B82=K<8 0:B0<8, >B=>AOI8<8AO : @07;8G=K< >B@0A;O< ?@020.  =5 2> 2A5E MB8E 0:B0E 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 >?@545;O5BAO :0: ?@>872545=85 8A:CAAB20, 0 =5 ?@>AB> @57C;LB0B 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8: 2 1>;LH8=AB25 87 =8E =5 ?@54CA<0B@820NBAO @07;8G=>5 @53C;8@>20=85 4;O @07=KE 284>2 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89.  > 70:@5?;O5BAO C=8D8F8@>20==K9 ?>4E>4 :> 2A5< 0C48>287C0;L=K< ?@>872545=8O< =57028A8<> >B 60=@0, =07=0G5=8O 8;8 :0:8E-;81> 8=KE ?@87=0:>2. @56=55 65 02B>@A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> (@0745; IV  !$! ) CAB0=02;820;> @07;8G=K9 ?>4E>4 =5 B>;L:> : ;N18B5;LA:8< 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K< D8;L<0< (> G5< 3>2>@8;>AL 2KH5), => 8 @0745;O;> @53C;8@>20=85 :8=>- 8 B5;5D8;L<>2 8 B5;52878>==KE ?5@540G (AB. 486  !$! ). @020<8 =0 ?5@2K5 >1;040;> ?@54?@8OB85, >ACI5AB282H55 AJ5<:8 D8;L<0, ?@020 =0 B5;52878>==CN ?5@540GC ?@8=04;560;8 ?5@540NI8< @048>- 8 B5;52878>==K< >@30=870F8O<, B.5. >A=>2=K< :@8B5@85< 1K;> =5 A>740=85, 0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 ?5@540G8. A=>2K 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 C65 =5 45;0;8 @07;8G8O <564C B5;52878>==K<8 D8;L<0<8 8 B5;52878>==K<8 ?5@540G0<8. >2>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> B0:65 =5 ?@>2>48B B0:>3> 45;5=8O, => 8<5==> =0 B5;52878>==K5 ?5@540G8, A>1AB25==K5 8;8 A>740==K5 ?> 70:07C, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 40 - 41 > C 25I0B5;L=>9 >@30=870F88 2>7=8:0NB A<56=K5 ?@020. 129  A>>B25BAB288 A @>AA89A:8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< B5;52878>==K5 ?5@540G8 8 8=K5 B5;5?@>872545=8O, 2 >B;8G85 >B >AB0;L=KE 0C48>287C0;L=KE, >1@5<5=5=K 8 02B>@A:8<, 8 A<56=K<8 ?@020<8, ?>MB><C @53C;8@>20=85 >B=>H5=89 ?> ?>2>4C 8E A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O O2;O5BAO 1>;55 A;>6=K<. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, B5;52878>==0O ?5@540G0 - MB> ?>;=>F5==>5 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>9 @568< =0 :>B>@>5 CAB0=>2;5= AB. 13 > =57028A8<> >B A?>A>10 ?5@2>=0G0;L=>9 8 ?>A;54CNI59 D8:A0F88. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ?5@540G0 - MB> >1J5:B A<56=KE ?@02, 8 8E @50;870F8O 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O O2;O5BAO =5<0;K< 8AB>G=8:>< 4>E>4>2 4;O >1;040B5;O - 25I0B5;L=>9 >@30=870F88. A;8 @0=LH5 B5;52878>==K5 ?@>3@0<<K, 2 >B;8G85 >B >AB0;L=KE 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 8<5;8 C7:CN AD5@C 8A?>;L7>20=8O, G0I5 2A53> >3@0=8G5==CN B>;L:> ?5@540G59 2 MD8@. 5@5<>=B06 B@5EA5@89=>3> B5;52878>==>3> D8;L<0 @568AA5@0 . $. >70:0 "65: >AL<5@:8= - 0<5@8:0=5F" (1986 3.) 2 42CEA5@89=K9 D8;L< 4;O ?>:070 2 :8=>B50B@0E 1K; A:>@55 8A:;NG5=85<, G5< ?@8=OB>9 ?@0:B8:>9. !53>4=O B5;52878>==K5 ?5@540G8 2K?CA:0NBAO =0 2845>=>A8B5;OE ("!0< A515 @568AA5@" "0A:8-H>C", "C:;K" 8 B.4.), CG0AB2CNB 2 <=>3>G8A;5==KE B5;52878>==KE D5AB820;OE 8 :>=:C@A0E. @><5 B>3>, 5A;8 AB0@>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> CAB0=02;820;> :@8B5@89 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O, B> =>2>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> B0:>3> CA;>28O =5 A>45@68B. !<56=K5 ?@020 2>7=8:0NB 2 A8;C A>740=8O 8;8 70:070 ?5@540G8 >@30=870F859 MD8@=>3> ;81> :015;L=>3> 25I0=8O, 0 =5 ?>A;5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8;8 2 A2O78 A @0A?@>AB@0=5=85< B0:>9 ?5@540G8. 0 <>9 273;O4, =5>1E>48<> 1K;> 1K 225AB8 2 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> 1>;55 B>G=>5 >?@545;5=85 B5;52878>==>9 ?5@540G8 A B>G:8 7@5=8O 55 >B;8G8O >B 8=KE B5;52878>==KE 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, =0?@8<5@, B5;5D8;L<>2, =5 B>;L:> ?>B><C GB> ;8HL =0 B5;5?5@540G8 C >@30=870F88 25I0=8O 2>7=8:0NB A<56=K5 ?@020. "0:>5 @073@0=8G5=85 <>65B 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=> ?@8 >?@545;5=88 AD5@K 459AB28O 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 > 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:5. 0:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 22>48B 2 :@C3 @53C;8@>20=8O B5;52878>==K5 D8;L<K, B>340 :0: B5;5?5@540G8 A:>@55 ?>4?040NB ?>4 459AB285 0:>=0 $ " 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:5 A@54AB2 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 8 :=83>8740=8O >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88" >B 1 45:01@O 1995 3. ! 191-$1.  2 4@C38E AB@0=0E 02B>@A:85 70:>=K >1KG=> =5 45;0NB @07;8G8O 2 @53C;8@>20=88 @07=KE 284>2 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89.  !(, =0?@8<5@, 70:>= 2K45;O5B 87 >1I59 <0AAK 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 49. - AB. 4698. 130 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:85, B.5. B5, 2 :>B>@KE ?>A;54>20B5;L=K9 ?@>A<>B@ 70D8:A8@>20==KE 87>1@065=89 A>7405B MDD5:B 42865=8O (2 >B;8G85 >B A;094D8;L<>2, 480D8;L<>2 8 B. ?.). @8B5@89 8A?>;L7>20=8O B5E=8G5A:8E A@54AB2 4;O 2>A?@8OB8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE, ?@>872545=89 - 3@0D8G5A:85 @0AA:07K 2 >B;8G85 >B 480D8;L<>2 O2;ONBAO =5 0C48>287C0;L=K<8, 0 ?@>872545=8O<8 87>1@078B5;L=>3> 8A:CAAB20.  2 <5@8:5 :><8:AK O2;ONBAO >4=>9 87 A5<8 AB0489 =0?8A0=8O AF5=0@8O 4;O =5:>B>@KE 60=@>2 D8;L<>2. 0:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5 :0: 0:B, =5 2E>4OI89 AB@>3> 2 02B>@A:>-?@02>2CN >B@0A;L, ?@8 >?@545;5=88 >A=>2=KE ?>=OB89 (AB. 3) =07K205B @07;8G=K5 284K 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 45;0O C?>@ =0 @073@0=8G5=85 <564C D8;L<>< 8 :8=>;5B>?8ALN. >=OB85 D8;L<0 ?@0:B8G5A:8 A>2?0405B A >?@545;5=85<, 40==K< > 0C48>287C0;L=><C ?@>872545=8N, => >A=>2=>9 0:F5=B 45;05BAO =5 =0 B8?K 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 A B>G:8 7@5=8O B5E=8G5A:>3> 8A?>;=5=8O 8;8 D8:A0F88 =0 B>< 8;8 8=>< =>A8B5;5 (GB>, ?> <=5=8N :@C?=59H53> :8=>:@8B8:0 . -. 07;>3>20, <>6=> =0720BL "B5E=8G5A:8<8 @07=>284=>ABO<8 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89"), 0 =0 284K 8;8, :0: 3>2>@8BAO 2 0:>=5 > 3>A?>445@6:5, "D>@<K" D8;L<>2: EC4>65AB25==K5, E@>=8:0;L=>-4>:C<5=B0;L=K5, =0CG=>-?>?C;O@=K5, CG51=K5, 0=8<0F8>==K5 8 B. ?, >38G5A:8 =5>1>A=>20==K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2:;NG5=85 2 MB>B 65 @O4 B5;52878>==KE D8;L<>2, E>BO >G5284=>, GB> >=8 <>3CB 1KBL 8 EC4>65AB25==K<8, 8 E@>=8:0;L=>-4>:C<5=B0;L=K<8, 8 =0CG=>-?>?C;O@=K<8 8 B. 4. @><5 B>3>, 2 >?@545;5=88 D8;L<0 45;05BAO @07;8G85 <564C ?>;=><5B@06=K< 8 :>@>B:><5B@06=K< D8;L<><: ?>;=><5B@06=K< AG8B05BAO D8;L< ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABLN 1>;55 52 <8=CB, :>@>B:><5B@06=K< - <5=55 52 <8=CB. @><5 @073@0=8G5=8O 2 A0<>< ?>=OB88, =8345 40;55 2 B5:AB5 0:>=0 =5 >B<5G5=> @07;8G8O @568<0 4;O @07=KE 284>2 D8;L<>2 8;8 ?>;=><5B@06=KE 8 :>@>B:><5B@06=KE D8;L<>2. > 22545=85 B0:>3> G8AB> =><8=0;L=>3> @073@0=8G5=8O >?@0240=> B5<, GB> 0:>= > 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:5 ?@8720= AB0BL ?@02>2>9 107>9 4;O F5;>9 A8AB5<K 70:>=>40B5;L=KE 8 =>@<0B82=KE 0:B>2 2 AD5@5 @53C;8@>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@K, ?@54CA<>B@5==>9 AB. 2 8 6, :>B>@K5 A<>3CB >?8@0BLAO =0 53> B5@<8=>;>38N 8 45B0;878@>20BL ;8HL 45:;0@8@>20==K5 2 =5< ?>;>65=8O. 8=>;5B>?8AL >?@545;O5BAO 2 MB>< 70:>=5 :0: "@53C;O@=K5 AJ5<:8 4>:C<5=B0;L=KE AN65B>2, >B@060NI8E E0@0:B5@=K5 (?@58<CI5AB25==> CE>4OI85) >A>15==>AB8 2@5<5=8, <5AB0, >1AB>OB5;LAB2 8 @0AAG8B0==KE 2 ?5@A?5:B825 =0 ?@>872>4AB2> D8;L<0". >=OB85 :8=>;5B>?8A8 22>48BAO 2 @>AA89A:>5 131 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> 2?5@2K5, 8 2 A2O78 A 53> AB0BCA>< 8 >1J5<>< ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O 2>7=8:05B <=>3> 2>?@>A>2. 8=>;5B>?8AL ?>4?0405B ?>4 D>@<0;L=>5 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>5 >?@545;5=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, ?>A:>;L:C ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 70D8:A8@>20==CN =0 ' <0B5@80;L=>< =>A8B5;5 A5@8N 87>1@065=89. > A B>G:8 7@5=8O 8A?>;L7>20=8O :8=>;5B>?8A8 55 =5;L7O AG8B0BL 70:>=G5==K< 0C48>287C0;L=K< ?@>872545=85<, =0 GB> C:07K205BAO 8 2 55 >?@545;5=85 2 0:>=5 > 3>A?>445@6:5: >=0 A>7405BAO A @0AG5B>< 2 ?5@A?5:B825 2:;NG8BL 55 2 D8;L<. "0:8< >1@07><, :8=>;5B>?8AL <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL :0: 2:;04 2 1C4CI55 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, ?>4>1=> ;8B5@0BC@=><C AF5=0@8N, @57C;LB0BC B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 EC4>6=8:0-?>AB0=>2I8:0 8 B. ?.  A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 13 > 2A5 MB8 2:;04K O2;ONBAO A0<>AB>OB5;L=K<8 ?@>872545=8O<8, G0ABL 87 =8E A>7405BAO 4> =0G0;0 AJ5<>: D8;L<0 (:8=>;5B>?8AL 8 O2;O5BAO B0:8< ?@>872545=85<), G0ABL - >4=>2@5<5==> A A>740=85< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. 45AL 2AB05B 2>?@>A > B><, :B> <>65B AG8B0BLAO 02B>@>< :8=>;5B>?8A8 :0: >1J5:B0 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 8;8 >1;040B5;5< ?@02 =0 =55. >7<>6=>, MB> B>;L:> >?5@0B>@, :>B>@K9 =5?>A@54AB25==> D8:A8@C5B =0 :8=>- 8;8 2845>?;5=:5 CE>4OI85 A>1KB8O 8;8 >A>15==>AB8 2@5<5=8, <5AB0 8;8 >1AB>OB5;LAB2. >65B 1KBL >?5@0B>@ =5 A0<>AB>OB5;5= 2 A2>5< B2>@G5AB25 8 @01>B05B A>2<5AB=> A @568AA5@><: 8;8 A 1C4CI8< @568AA5@>< D8;L<0, 2 :>B>@>< 2 ?5@A?5:B825 1C45B 8A?>;L7>20=0 :8=>;5B>?8AL, 8;8 A> A?5F80;L=K< @568AA5@><-";5B>?8AF5<"; 8;8 65 A>740=85 :8=>;5B>?8A8 2545BAO ?> 8=8F80B825 8;8 ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< ;8F0, :>B>@>3> <>6=> =0720BL ?@>4NA5@><. >A;5 A>740=8O D8;L<0 A 8A?>;L7>20=85< :8=>;5B>?8A8 <>6=> >E@0=OBL 55 8 :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, 8 :0: G0ABL 0C48>287C0;L=>3>. >:0 65 D8;L<0 =5B, :8=>;5B>?8AL ?>;CG05B >E@0=C B>;L:> :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 ?@>872545=85. B>@>9 2>?@>A 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>3> E0@0:B5@0, :>B>@K9 2>7=8:05B 87 >?@545;5=8O :8=>;5B>?8A8, MB> ?@>1;5<0 >E@0=>A?>A>1=>AB8 :>=:@5B=KE AN65B>2. ">, GB> 70:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5 >?@545;O5B 8E :0: @53C;O@=K5 8 >B@060NI85 E0@0:B5@=K5, G0I5 2A53> CE>4OI85 >A>15==>AB8 2@5<5=8, <5AB0 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB2, 1;87:> ?>42>48B :8=>;5B>?8AL : :0B53>@88 A>>1I5=89 > A>1KB8OE 8 D0:B0E, =>AOI8E 8=D>@<0F8>==K9 E0@0:B5@ (?>A;54=89 0170F AB. 8 >). "0:85 ?@>872545=8O E>BO 8 >B25G0NB 2A5< B@51>20=8O< >, =5 O2;ONBAO >1J5:B0<8 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. -B0 =>@<0 1K;0 22545=0 2 > 2 A>>B25BAB288 A B@51>20=85< 5@=A:>9 >=25=F88. > >?@545;5=85 >=25=F88 AD>@<C;8@>20=> =5A:>;L:> 8=0G5: =5 ?@54>AB02;O5BAO >E@0=0 "A>>1I5=8O< > =>2>ABOE 4=O 8;8 A>>1I5=8O< > 132 @07;8G=KE A>1KB8OE, 8<5NI8< E0@0:B5@ ?@>AB>9 ?@5AA-8=D>@<0F88" (?. 8 AB. 2).  MB>< >?@545;5=88 G5B:> C:070=> =0 E0@0:B5@ 8A?>;L7>20=8O B0:8E ?@>872545=89 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 2 A@54AB20E <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 4;O >A25I5=8O B5:CI8E A>1KB89. $>@<C;8@>2:0 > =5 405B >4=>7=0G=>3> >B25B0, AG8B0BL ';8 =5>E@0=O5<K<8 B>;L:> A>>1I5=8O, @0A?@>AB@0=O5<K5 2 A@54AB20E <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88, 8;8 2 MBC :0B53>@8N ?>?040NB 2A5 E@>=8:0;L=K5 0C48>287C0;L=K5 4>:C<5=BK, D8:A8@CNI85 B5:CI85 A>1KB8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 :8=>;5B>?8AL? -B>B 2>?@>A 2AB05B 8 ?@8 >?@545;5=88 ?@02 >?5@0B>@0, @01>B0NI53> 4;O B5;52878>==>9 8=D>@<0F8>==>9 ?@>3@0<<K. 07;8G=>5 @53C;8@>20=85 4;O >B45;L=KE 284>2 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 A>45@68BAO 2 ?>AB0=>2;5=88 @028B5;LAB20 $ " ?5@2>>G5@54=KE <5@0E ?> @50;870F88 ?@>B5:F8>=8ABA:>9 ?>;8B8:8 $ 2 >1;0AB8 >B5G5AB25==>9 :8=5<0B>3@0D88" >B 30 8N;O 1994 3.  =5<, :0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL 2KH5, 3>AC40@AB2> CAB0=02;8205B @07=K5 >1J5<K 4;O D8=0=A8@>20=8O >B45;L=KE 284>2 :8=>?@>872545=89: 2 3>4 87 1N465B0 1K;> >15I0=> 2K45;OBL A@54AB20 =5 <5=55 G5< 50 ?@>5:B0< EC4>65AB25==KE D8;L<>2, 0 C@>25=L ?@>872>4AB20 4>:C<5=B0;L=KE 8 <C;LB8?;8:0F8>==KE ?>4=OBL 4> C@>2=O 1992 3. =0;>38G=K9 ?>4E>4 E0@0:B5@5= 8 4;O >=F5?F88 @0728B8O :8=5<0B>3@0D88 2 $, 48DD5@5=F8@>20==> CAB0=02;820O =>@<0B82 5653>4=>3> ?@>872>4AB20 >B5G5AB25==KE D8;L<>2 =0 ?5@8>4 4> 2005 3.: =5 <5=55 100 83@>2KE D8;L<>2, ?@54=07=0G5==KE 4;O :8=> 8 B5;52845=8O, 24 0=8<0F88 (2 B>< G8A;5 A5@80;>2), 150 G0A>2 4>:C<5=B0;L=KE, =0CG=>-?>?C;O@=KE D8;L<>2 8 :8=>;5B>?8A59. 0:>=5F, 48DD5@5=F8@>20==K9 ?>4E>4 8<55B <5AB> 8 2 >AB0=>2;5=88 @028B5;LAB20 $ " <8=8<0;L=KE AB02:0E 2>7=03@0645=8O 02B>@0< :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E ?@>872545=89, ?@>872>4AB2> (AJ5<:0) :>B>@KE >ACI5AB2;5=> 4> 3 023CAB0 1992 3." >B 29 <0O 1998 3. ! 524\ :>B>@>5, :0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL 2> 2B>@>9 3;025 CAB0=02;8205B @07=K5 AB02:8 2>7=03@0645=8O 02B>@0< <C7K:0;L=KE, <C;LB8?;8:0F8>==KE 8 ?@>G8E D8;L<>2, B5< A0<K< ?>4G5@:820O @>;L B5E 8;8 8=KE 02B>@>2 2 A>740=88 B0:8E ?@>872545=89. N0=AK 2 >E@0=5 @07=KE 284>2 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8<5NB 206=>5 7=0G5=85 4;O <C7K:0;L=KE D8;L<>2 A =5>@838=0;L=>9 <C7K:>9 8 <C7K:0;L=KE :;8?>2, 4;O <C;LB8?;8:0F8>==KE 8 =5:>B>@KE =0CG=KE. !CI5AB2CNB =5:>B>@K5 284K 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, :>B>@K5 >B;8G0NBAO ?> A>740=8N 1 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. 1998. - ! 22. - AB. 2476. 133 8 8A?>;L7>20=8N >B >1I59 <0AAK, =0?@8<5@, @5:;0<=K5 @>;8:8, 2845>83@K, ?@>3@0<<K 8=B5@0:B82=>3> B5;52845=8O. 5:;0<=K9 @>;8: O2;O5BAO ?>;=>F5==K< 0C48>287C0;L=K< ?@>872545=85<, >4=0:>, 5A;8 2 ?@>F5AA5 53> A>740=8O <5E0=87< ?5@540G8 ?@02 >B 02B>@>2 : ?@>872>48B5;N @>;8:0 8 ?>@O4>: 2K?;0BK 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 A>740=85 B0:>3> ?@>872545=8O 2?>;=5 A>>B25BAB2CNB >1I5?@8=OBK< 4;O B0:>9 :0B53>@88 ?@>872545=89, B> 8A?>;L7>20=85 @5:;0<=>3> @>;8:0 AB028B >?@545;5==K9 :@C3 2>?@>A>2, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L :0A0NI8EAO 3>=>@0@0 02B>@0 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 53> ?@>872545=8O. 8 2 70:>=5, =8 =0 ?@0:B8:5 MB>B 2>?@>A =5 B>;L:> =5 @5H5=, => 8 =5 ?>4=8<0;AO. A5 45;> 2 B><, GB> 8A?>;L7>20=85 @5:;0<=>3> @>;8:0 =5 2;5G5B 70 A>1>9 =8:0:8E ?@81K;59 4;O >1;040B5;O ?@02 =0 =53>, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05 ?@O<KE. #65 745AL =5>1E>48<> 2KOA=8BL, :B> >1;0405B ?@020<8 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 @>;8:0: @5:;0<=>5 035=BAB2> 8;8 8=0O >@30=870F8O, >ACI5AB282H0O AJ5<:8 @>;8:0, 8;8 A0< @5:;0<>40B5;L, D8@<0, 70:0702H0O 035=BAB2C @>;8:.  ?5@2>< A;CG05 =5 A>2A5< 25@=> 3>2>@8BL > ?>;=>< >BACBAB288 4>E>40 ?@02>>1;040B5;O >B 8A?>;L7>20=8O MB>3> ?@>872545=8O, ?>A:>;L:C >1KG=> @5:;0<=K5 035=BAB20, @07<5I0NI85 @>;8:8 =0 B5;52845=88 8;8 2 :8=>B50B@0E, 8<5NB A:84:C >:>;> 25% (8=>340 4>E>4OICN 4> 40%), GB> <>6=> AG8B0BL 4>E>40<8 035=BAB20 >B @07<5I5=8O @>;8:0, B.5. >B 53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O. A;8 65 >1;040B5;5< ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 @>;8:0 O2;O5BAO D8@<0, 70:0702H0O 53> AJ5<:C 8 @5:;0<8@CNI0O 2 =5< A2>N ?@>4C:F8N, B>20@=K9 7=0:, B>@3>2CN <0@:C 8 B.?., B> <>6=> ;8 AG8B0BL 4>E>40<8 >B 8A?>;L7>20=8O @>;8:0 ?@81K;L >B >1J5<0 ?@>406 8;8 8=KE C;CGH5=89 ?>;>65=8O D8@<K, ?@>87>H54H8E ?>A;5 ?@>2545=8O, 0 3;02=>5 2 @57C;LB0B5 @5:;0<=>9 :0<?0=88, 2 :>B>@>9 1K; 8A?>;L7>20= @>;8:?  ;N1>< A;CG05, 2>?@>A, 8<55B ;8 02B>@ ?@02> =0 G0ABL MB8E ?@81K;59 8;8 4>E>4>2 4>;65= 1KBL C@53C;8@>20= =5 B>;L:> 4>3>2>@><, 70:;NG05<K< <564C 02B>@0<8 @>;8:0 8 53> ?@>872>48B5;5<, =>, 65;0B5;L=>, 8 =0 70:>=>40B5;L=>< 8;8 =>@<0B82=>< C@>2=5, ?>A:>;L:C 2 =0AB>OI89 <><5=B @5:;0<=>5 45;> ?>;CG8;> 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 1C@=>5 8 AB@5<8B5;L=>5 @0728B85. >=5G=>, =0 ?@0:B8:5 ?@8 ?><>I8 22545=8O A?5F80;L=KE ?>;>65=89 2 4>3>2>@K <>6=> CAB0=02;820BL @07;8G=K5 20@80=BK >1J5<0 ?@02 >B45;L=KE A>02B>@>2 8 02B>@>2 2:;04>2, => =58725AB=>, :0: 2 A;CG05 A?>@0 AC4>< 1C45B 8AB>;:>20=> @0AH8@5=85 ?@02,- ?> A@02=5=8N A 70:>=><. @0640=A:89 :>45:A 4>?CA:05B, GB> >B=>H5=8O <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL 87 4>3>2>@>2, =5 ?@54CA<>B@5==KE 70:>=>40B5;LAB2><, => =5 ?@>B82>@5G0I8E 5<C, 5 1C45B ;8 AG8B0BLAO ?@>B82>@5G85< 70:>=C @0AH8@5=85 ?@02, =0?@8<5@, 02B>@0 ?5A=8, ?> :>B>@>9 A=OB 134 <C7K:0;L=K9 :;8?, 8 22545=85 53> 2 @0=3 02B>@>2 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O ?> G.1 AB, 13 >, 0 =5 G. 4. C7K:0;L=K9 :;8? - MB> 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, :>B>@>5 A>7405BAO =0 >A=>25 ?5A=8. C7K:0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 O2;O5BAO AB5@6=5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3>, >?@545;O5B AN65B, AB8;8AB8:C, 287C0;L=K5 A@54AB20 8 B. ?. > ?>A:>;L:C ?5A=O A>7405BAO @0=LH5 :;8?0 8 =5 A?5F80;L=> 4;O =53>, 0 :;8? - MB> >4=0 87 D>@< 55 ACI5AB2>20=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O, B> A ?@02>2>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 02B>@K <C7K:0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O =5 O2;ONBAO 02B>@0<8 :;8?0 :0: 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. !?5F8D8G5A:8<8, A B>G:8 '7@5=8O ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O, O2;ONBAO B0:65 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O, A>740205<K5 ?@8 ?><>I8 :><?LNB5@>2. 48= 87 B0:8E 284>2 - :><?LNB5@=0O 0=8<0F8O (2 /?>=88, =0?@8<5@, A>740;8 4065 28@BC0;L=CN ?528FC). A>15==K5 ?@>1;5<K 2 MB>< A;CG05 ?@54AB02;ONB 2>AA>740=85 :><?LNB5@=KE >1@07>2 C<5@H8E 72574 4;O 40;L=59H53> 22545=8O 2 A>740205<K5 D8;L<K (>?OBL 65 ?@02> =0 87>1@065=85 8 ?@>1;5<K <>@0;L=>-MB8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0), 0 B0:65 A?>@K > "@0AF25G820=88" AB0@KE G5@=>-15;KE ;5=B. @C3>9 284 - :><?LNB5@=K5 83@K, B.5. ?@>872545=8O, D>@<0;L=> ?>4?040NI85 ?>4 ?>=OB85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O (A5@8O 70D8:A8@>20==KE :04@>2 A A>?@>2>645=85< 72C:><, 2>A?@8=8<05<0O B>;L:> ?@8 ?><>I8 A?5F80;L=KE B5E=8G5A:8E CAB@>9AB2 (2 40==>< A;CG05 :><?LNB5@0)), => ?@>F5AA 8E A>740=8O >B;8G05BAO >B ?@>872>4AB20 B@048F8>==KE 284>2 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 0 @568< 70:@5?;O5BAO 2 A?5F80;L=KE =>@<0E > ?@>3@0<<0E 4;O -. 2. C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 :0: @57C;LB0B ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ) !>>B=>H5=85 02B>@A:8E ?@02 8 ?@02 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 4=8< 87 >A=>2>?>;030NI8E ?@8=F8?>2 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, 70:@5?;5==KE 2 G. 5 AB. 1 >, O2;O5BAO ?>;>65=85 > B><, GB> ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 <0B5@80;L=K9 =>A8B5;L, 2 :>B>@>< 2K@065=> ?@>872545=85 =0C:8, ;8B5@0BC@K 8 8A:CAAB20, =5 A2O70=> A 02B>@A:8<8 ?@020<8 =0 MB>B @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 59AB28B5;L=>, EC4>6=8:, ?@>4020O A2>N :0@B8=C 2 <C759 8;8 G0AB=CN :>;;5:F8N, =5 CB@0G8205B A2>8E 02B>@A:8E ?@02, E>BO ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 A0< :CA>: E>;AB0 8 ?5@5H;> 4@C3><C ;8FC. AB5AB25==>, 2>7=8:05B F5;K9 @O4 =5 C@53C;8@>20==KE 135 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< 2>?@>A>2, :0:, =0?@8<5@: ?>;=>F5==>5 ;8 ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8 2>7=8:05B C ?>:C?0B5;O ?>;>B=0; <>65B ;8 >= :0: ?>;=>?@02=K9 A>1AB25==8: >ACI5AB28BL B0:>9 G0AB=K9 A;CG09 ?@020 @0A?>@O65=8O :0: C=8GB>65=85 :0@B8=K; :0:>2K ?>;=><>G8O B2>@F0 2 MB>9 A8BC0F88? >A:>;L:C >4=8< 87 :@8B5@852 ?@54>AB02;5=8O 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>9 >E@0=K (G. 2 AB. 1 >) O2;O5BAO ?@840=85 @57C;LB0BC B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1J5:B82=>9 D>@<K, B> 2 ;N1>< A;CG05 ?@8E>48BAO 8<5BL 45;> A M:75<?;O@>< 8;8 M:75<?;O@0<8 ?@>872545=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, :064K9 >1J5:B 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 O2;O5BAO 8 >1J5:B>< ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8. > =5 2A5340 AC1J5:B 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 A>2?0405B A AC1J5:B>< ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 M:75<?;O@ ?@>872545=8O.  2 MB>9 A2O78 2>?@>A > ?@8=04;56=>AB8 ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =>A8B5;N 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 @5H05BAO A CG5B>< <8=8<C< B@5E :@8B5@852: =0A:>;L:> 206=0 @>;L >@838=0;0, A>7405BAO ;8 ?@>872545=85 ?> 70:07C 8 <>65B ;8 02B>@ A0< D8=0=A>2> 8 B5E=8G5A:8 >15A?5G8BL ?@>F5AA A>740=8O ?@>872545=8O. : 1KG=> B>B M:75<?;O@, :>B>@K9 =5?>A@54AB25==> A>740NB 02B>@ 8;8 A>02B>@K, AG8B05BAO >@838=0;><, 0 2-?@>F5AA5 2>A?@>872545=8O (B8@068@>20=8O) B5< 8;8 8=K< A?>A>1>< ?>O2;ONBAO :>?88 8;8 M:75<?;O@K ?@>872545=8O. ;O @07;8G=KE :0B53>@89 >1J5:B>2 02B>@A:8E ?@02 @>;L >@838=0;0 8 :>?89 @07;8G=0. 0?@8<5@, 4;O 682>?8A=>3> ?@>872545=8O F5==>ABL ?@54AB02;O5B B>;L:> >@838=0;, 0 B0: =07K205<K5 "A?8A:8" 8 C6 B5< 1>;55 @5?@>4C:F88 <>3CB 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=K B>;L:> 4;O >?@545;5==KE F5;59 (8;;NAB@0F88, 1KB>2>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 8 B.?.) 8 =8:>340 =5 708=B5@5ACNB :>;;5:F8>=5@0 8;8 <C759. "5E=>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 A>740=8O 4@C38E ?@>872545=89, =0?@8<5@ ;8B>3@0D89, 45;0NB 2>7<>6=K< <=>3>:@0B=>5 2>A?@>872545=85 01A>;NB=> 845=B8G=KE M:75<?;O@>2, ?>MB><C 8=>340 ?>=OB85 >@838=0;0 22>4OB 8A:CAAB25==> (=0?@8<5@, ?@8 ?@>4065 >D>@B>2 8;8 ;8B>3@0D89 >@838=0;0<8 AG8B0NBAO =5A:>;L:> =><5@=KE M:75<?;O@>2, ?5@2K<8 >BB8A=CBKE <0AB5@>< A>1AB25==>@CG=>).  A2O78 A MB8< 2 >B=>H5=88 =5:>B>@KE :0B53>@89 ?@>872545=89 ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 >@838=0; 8<55B :0: 4;O A>1AB25==8:0, B0: 8 4;O 02B>@0 206=>5 7=0G5=85. 0?@8<5@, ?5@28G=K9 ?5@5E>4 ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 682>?8A=>5 ?>;>B=> A;C68B >A=>20=85< 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O C EC4>6=8:0 ?@020 A;54>20=8O 8 ?@020 4>ABC?0 (AB. 17 >). > 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C =5:>B>@KE AB@0= ?@02> A;54>20=8O 2>7=8:05B 8 ?@8 ?5@5?@>4065 >@838=0;>2 @C:>?8A59 ;8B5@0BC@=KE ?@>872545=89. 5=LH5 2A53> 2>?@>A>2 > ?@025 A>1AB25==>AB8 2>7=8:05B ?@8 A>740=88 70:07=>3> ?@>872545=8O.  G. 1 AB. 33 > CAB0=02;8205BAO, GB> ?> 02B>@A:><C 136 4>3>2>@C 70:070 02B>@ >1O7C5BAO A>740BL ?@>872545=85 8 ?5@540BL 53> 70:07G8:C, B.5. ?@54>AB028BL <0B5@80;L=K9 =>A8B5;L, =0 :>B>@>< 2K@065= 70:070==K9 @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>3> B@C40. "0:8< >1@07><, 70:07G8: >?;0G8205B =5 B>;L:> A>740=85 ?@>872545=8O, => 8 ?@8>1@5B05B C 02B>@0 53> M:75<?;O@, @8 70:075 682>?8A=>3> ?>@B@5B0 ?@54?>;0305BAO, GB> 02B>@ ?5@5405B >@838=0; ?@>872545=8O. > ?@8 70:075 ;8B5@0BC@=>3> ?@>872545=8O, =0?@8<5@ AF5=0@8O, @C:>?8AL (>@838=0;) <>65B 1KBL 8 2>72@0I5=0 02B>@C, ?>A:>;L:C 55 8A?>;L7>20=85 =5 A2O70=> =5?>A@54AB25==> A 2>A?@>872545=85< A0<>9 @C:>?8A8, 8, B0:8< >1@07><, A0<K< 206=K< O2;O5BAO =5 70:07 AF5=0@8O, 0 ?0@0;;5;L=>5 ?@8>1@5B5=85 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 =0 =53>. "0 65 A8BC0F8O A:;04K205BAO ?@8 >@30=870F88 B2>@G5A:8E :>=:C@A>2: A>740=85 ?@>872545=89 2 @0<:0E B0:8E :>=:C@A>2 =5 ?@54?>;0305B 02B><0B8G5A:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 53> >@30=870B>@0<8 ?>15482H53> ?@>872545=8O, 0 2>?@>A > ?@8=04;56=>AB8 <0B5@80;L=>3> =>A8B5;O =5 B0: >G52845=, :0: ?@8 4>3>2>@5 70:070, 8 4>;65= 1KBL >1O70B5;L=> >3>2>@5= 2 CA;>28OE :>=:C@A0. 0:>=5F, 2>7=8:05B ?@>1;5<0, A2O70==0O A ?@02>< A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 @C:>?8AL, ?@8 CAB0=>2;5=88 >B=>H5=89 <564C 02B>@>< 8 @540:F8O<8 ?5@8>48G5A:8E 8740=89. >402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> 3075B 8 6C@=0;>2 A>>1I0NB ?>B5=F80;L=K< 02B>@0<, GB> @C:>?8A8 =5 @5F5=78@CNBAO 8 =5 2>72@0I0NBAO. "0:8< >1@07><, 02B>@, =0?@02;OO 2 @540:F8N A2>N AB0BLN, 02B><0B8G5A:8 40@8B 55 8740B5;LAB2C, :>B>@>5 =5 70:07K20;> 55 8, 2>7<>6=>, =5 A>18@05BAO 8A?>;L7>20BL. !53>4=O MB0 ?@>1;5<0 =5 AB>8B B0: >AB@> A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?@02 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 M:75<?;O@, ?>A:>;L:C ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> 02B>@>2 @01>B0NB =0 :><?LNB5@5 8 A>1AB25==> > @C:>?8A8, :0: MB> 1K;> @0=LH5, @5GL =5 845B, E>BO <5E0=87< ?5@5E>40 ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 ?@8 =0?@02;5=88 M:75<?;O@0 2 @540:F8N 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< =5 >?@545;5=. @C3>5 45;>, GB> 02B>@ B5@O5B :>=B@>;L =04 2?>;=5 ?@83>4=K< 4;O <><5=B0;L=>3> 2>A?@>872545=8O =>A8B5;5<. C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O, :0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL 2KH5, O2;ONBAO >A>1K< >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. >-?5@2KE, ?>B><C, GB> 2 ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 4;O 53> A>740=8O =54>AB0B>G=> ;8HL 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE CA8;89 A0<>3> 02B>@0, 8A:;NG5=85 2 40==>< A;CG05 <>3CB A>AB02;OBL ;8HL ;N18B5;LA:85 D8;L<K. > 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 O2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> ?;>4>< A>2<5AB=>9 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@54AB028B5;59 <=>38E :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8E ?@>D5AA89, => 8 @57C;LB0B>< ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?>A:>;L:C 53> A>740=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 D8=0=A>2>- 8 B5E=>;>38G5A:8 5<:89 ?@>F5AA. 0 A>2<5I5=85 137 B2>@G5A:8E 8 E>7O9AB25==KE DC=:F89 157 CI5@10 4;O :064>9 87 =8E A?>A>1=> :@09=5 =51>;LH>5 G8A;> 02B>@>2. >MB><C >A>15==>AB8 A>740=8O D8;L<0 :0: @57C;LB0B0 42C548=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ?>@>48;8 "A?5F80;L=>3>" AC1J5:B0 B0:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 - ?@>4NA5@0, :>B>@K9 8 15@5B =0 A51O .D8=0=A>2>5 8 B5E=8G5A:>5 >15A?5G5=85 AJ5<>:. >-2B>@KE, 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 ?@>E>48B 4>;389 8 A;>6=K9 ?CBL >B 02B>@A:>3> 70<KA;0 4> 2>A?@8OB8O :>=5G=K< "?>B@518B5;5<" - 7@8B5;5<.  =0 @07=KE AB048OE MB>3> ?@>E>645=8O @07=K5 ;8F0, B0: 8;8 8=0G5 8<5NI85 >B=>H5=85 : D8=0=A8@>20=8N, 873>B>2;5=8N 8;8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8N D8;L<0, ?>-@07=><C >B=>AOBAO : =5<C. >?@>A > ?@025 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, 2>7=8:0NI89 5I5 =0 AB0488 ?@>872>4AB20 D8;L<0, AB028B >A>1K5 ?@>1;5<K 87-70 A;>6=>AB8 >?@545;5=8O A0<>3> >1J5:B0 B0:>3> ' ?@020. C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 O2;O5BAO @57C;LB0B>< B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >A>1>3> @>40 E>BO 1K ?>B><C, GB> 25AL<0 CA;>2=> <>6=> >?@545;8BL, GB> AG8B05BAO >@838=0;><. 54L 4065 5A;8 4>?CAB8BL, GB> >@838=0;>< O2;O5BAO MB0;>==0O ("=C;520O", ?5@20O) :>?8O D8;L<0, B> <K =5 <>65< =5 A>3;0A8BLAO A B5<, GB> ?@8 =04;560I5< C@>2=5 ?5@570?8A8 2A5 ?>A;54CNI85 :>?88 =8G5< =5 1C4CB >B;8G0BLAO >B >@838=0;0. >=5G=>, A ?>E>68<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 AB0;:820NBAO 8 ?@8 >?@545;5=88, GB> O2;O5BAO >@838=0;>< :=838. > 2A5 65 ;8F>, 8<5NI55 >48= M:75<?;O@ :=838 8 65;0NI55 53> B8@068@>20BL, 4>;6=> 2K?>;=8BL >?@545;5==K5 459AB28O: =01@0BL B5:AB =0 B8?>3@0DA:>9 B5E=8:5, ?5@5?;5AB8 8 B. ?. ">;L:> B0: <>6=> ?>;CG8BL 01A>;NB=> 845=B8G=K5 M:75<?;O@K, ?@8 ?><>I8 :A5@>:>?88, =0?@8<5@, B>G=CN :>?8N ?>;CG8BL =5;L7O.  ;8FC, 8<5NI5<C :0AA5BC A 70?8ALN 2845>D8;L<0 (B.5. 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, =5 ACI5AB2CNI53> =0 :8=>?;5=:5) 4>AB0B>G=> 8<5BL 420 2845><03=8B>D>=0, GB>1K B8@068@>20BL 845=B8G=K5 M:75<?;O@K 2 ;N1>< :>;8G5AB25.  B0:>9 A8BC0F88 :064K9 :C?82H89 2845>:0AA5BC <>65B AG8B0BLAO ?>B5=F80;L=K< "?8@0B><". 73>B>28B5;8 2845>=>A8B5;59, =0 70:>==KE >A=>20=8OE ?>;CG82H85 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 ?@020 C 873>B>28B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, >A>7=0NB MB> 8 =0 :064>< M:75<?;O@5 D8;L<0 8 =0 >1;>6:0E 2845>:0AA5B ?@54C?@5640NB >1 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 =570:>==>5 B8@068@>20=85 8 B><C ?>4>1=K5 =0@CH5=8O ?@02 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 459AB2CNI8< 02B>@A:8<, C3>;>2=K< 8 04<8=8AB@0B82=K< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2><. 5@>OB=>, F5;5A>>1@07=> AG8B0BL >@838=0;>< 8 CAB0=02;820BL @568< A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K D8;L<0, :>B>@K<8 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 3 138 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5 AG8B0NBAO =530B82, :>=B@0B9?, :>=B@>;L=0O :>?8O D8;L<0, >@838=0; <03=8B=KE D>=>3@0<< ?5@570?8A8 <C7K:8, HC<>2 2845>D>=>3@0<<0 -<0AB5@, :><?0:B-48A: 8 8=K5 <0B5@80;K, =5>1E>48<K5 4;O B8@068@>20=8O D8;L<0 2 ;N1>9 <0B5@80;L=>9 D>@<5. @0240, =5 2A5 87 ?5@5G8A;5==KE 8AE>4=KE <0B5@80;>2 <>3CB, 4065 ?@8 ?><>I8 A?5F80;L=KE B5E=8G5A:8E A@54AB2, 8A?>;L7>20BLAO 4;O 2>A?@8OB8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O (=0?@8<5@, =530B82). > 4065 5A;8 =5 ?@87=020BL 2A5 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K >@838=0;>< D8;L<0, @5H5=85 2>?@>A0 > A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 =8E G@572KG09=> 206=>, ?>A:>;L:C MB8 <0B5@80;K 8A?>;L7CNBAO 4;O ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> 2>A?@>872545=8O, B> 5ABL 873>B>2;5=8O M:75<?;O@>2 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. @><5 B>3>, 2>?@>A > A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K 8;8 =5:>B>@K5 M:75<?;O@K 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2>7=8:05B ?@8 ?@8<5=5=88 $545@0;L=>3> 70:>=0 "1 >1O70B5;L=>< M:75<?;O@5 4>:C<5=B>2" >B 29 45:01@O 1994 3. ! 77-$, 0 B0:65 =>@< 0@E82=>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 8 2 >?@545;5==>9 AB5?5=8 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 $ " @538AB@0F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 8 @53C;8@>20=88 8E ?C1;8G=>9 45<>=AB@0F88" >B 28 0?@5;O 1993 3. ! 396. A5 MB8 0:BK >B=>AOBAO : >B@0A;O< ?C1;8G=>3> ?@020 8 >1O7K20NB 873>B>28B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 ?@54>AB02;OBL 2 A>1AB25==>ABL >?@545;5==KE >@30=870F89 ;81> B>;L:> =5A:>;L:> M:75<?;O@>2 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O ;81> B0:65 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K D8;L<0 (2 A;CG05 1N465B=>3> D8=0=A8@>20=8O 53> ?@>872>4AB20).  ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G0AB> ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 D8;L< >B>645AB2;O5BAO A >1;040=85< 02B>@A:8<8 ?@020<8. -B> 01A>;NB=> A?@0254;82> 4;O ;N18B5;LA:8E D8;L<>2, 81> 2 B0:>< A;CG05 2A5 DC=:F88 A>2<5I05B >48= G5;>25: - >= O2;O5BAO 8 02B>@><, 8 873>B>28B5;5<, 8 A>1AB25==8:>< =>A8B5;O. >4B25@645=85 B><C <>6=> =09B8 8 2 G. 1 AB. 218  $, CAB0=02;820NI59, GB> ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 =>2CN 25IL, 873>B>2;5==CN 8;8 A>740==CN ;8F>< 4;O A51O A A>1;N45=85< 70:>=0 8;8 8=KE ?@02>2KE 0:B>2, ?@8>1@5B05BAO MB8< ;8F><, E>BO <>6=> A?>@8BL, ?>O2;O5BAO ;8 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>740=8O ;N18B5;LA:>3> D8;L<0 =>20O 25IL (:0: <0B5@80;L=K9 >1J5:B 2=5H=53> <8@0) 8;8 :0G5AB25==> ?5@5@010BK205BAO ACI5AB2CNI0O - =0 G8ABCN :0AA5BC 70?8AK205BAO 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85.  ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>< :8=5<0B>3@0D5 B0:>9 ?>4E>4, =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4, B0:65 8<55B >A=>20=85, ?>A:>;L:C 873>B>28B5;L 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 O2;O5BAO 8 A>1AB25==8:>< 8AE>4=KE 8 =>A8B5;5< 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85. >, 2>-?5@2KE, A>1AB25==8:>< 8AE>4=KE 139 <>65B 1KBL 8=25AB>@ (MB> >3>20@8205BAO 2 4>3>2>@5) 8;8 3>AC40@AB2>, 5A;8 D8;L< A>740= B>;L:> =0 A@54AB20 87 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 1N465B0. >-2B>@KE, 2 ?@>F5AA5 8A?>;L7>20=8O D8;L<0 <0AA0 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 =0 =53>, ?>;CG5==0O 873>B>28B5;5< ?> 4>3>2>@C A 02B>@0<8 D8;L<0, 4@>18BAO 8 G0AB8G=> 2@5<5==> CABC?05BAO =5?>A@54AB25==K< ?>;L7>20B5;O<: ?@>:0BG8:0< 8 ?>:07G8:0<, B5;5:0=0;0<. A;8 B0:0O ?5@540G0 ?@02 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =0 8A:;NG8B5;L=>9 >A=>25, B> 873>B>28B5;L, -4065 O2;OOAL A>1AB25==8:>< 8AE>4=KE, 2@5<5==> (=0 A@>: 459AB28O A>>B25BAB2CNI53> 4>3>2>@0 A ?>;L7>20B5;5<) CB@0G8205B >?@545;5==CN G0ABL ?@02 =0 >?@545;5==CN B5@@8B>@8N. >>1I5, 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> =5 405B G5B:>3> >B25B0, =0A:>;L:> ?>;=>F5==K< A>1AB25==8:>< ?@54AB02;O5BAO ;8F>, :>B>@>5 =5 O2;O5BAO 02B>@>< ?@>872545=8O, 0 ?@8>1@5B05B ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 =53> ?> :0:><C-;81> >A=>20=8N, B.5. =0A:>;L:> ?>;=> >=> <>65B @50;87>20BL ?@020 ?>;L7>20=8O, 2;045=8O 8 @0A?>@O65=8O.  @5GL BCB 845B =5 B>;L:> > ?@54>AB02;5=88 02B>@C >?@545;5==KE ?@02, =0?@8<5@ ?@020 4>ABC?0, <>3CI53> CI5<8BL 8=B5@5AK A>1AB25==8:0, => 8 > @07@5H5=88 8=KE A8BC0F89, =0?@8<5@: <>65B ;8 >1;040B5;L :0@B8=K :0: ?>;=>?@02=K9 A>1AB25==8: >ACI5AB28BL B0:>9 G0AB=K9 A;CG09 ?@020 @0A?>@O65=8O, :0: C=8GB>65=85 :0@B8=K, :0:>2K ?>;=><>G8O B2>@F0 2 MB>9 A8BC0F88?  ;8F>, ?@8>1@5BH55 =0 >A=>20=88 4>3>2>@0 :C?;8-?@>4068 2845>:0AA5BC A 70?8ALN D8;L<0 8 O2;ONI55AO A B>G:8 7@5=8O 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020 55 A>1AB25==8:><, >3@0=8G5=> AB. 18 > 2 >ACI5AB2;5=88 ?@020 ?>;L7>20=8O 5N. >7<>6=>, ?@0:B8:8 8<5NB 2 284C ?>4 B5@<8=>< "A>1AB25==>ABL =0 D8;L<" 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=CN A>1AB25==>ABL, => MB> ?>=OB85 E>BO 8 A>45@68BAO 2 =5:>B>@KE 70:>=>40B5;L=KE 8 =>@<0B82=KE 0:B0E $ (=0?@8<5@, G. 1 AB. 44 >=AB8BCF88 $, G. 1 AB. 2  $,) , 2 >A=>2=KE 02B>@A:>-?@02>2KE 4>:C<5=B0E @0728B8O =5 ?>;CG8;>.  AB. 138  $ 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>ABLN =07K20NBAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=K5 ?@020 =0 @57C;LB0BK 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. >=OB85 02B>@A:8E 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 =5 A>2?0405B A ?@8=OBK< 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025 B5@<8=>< 8<CI5AB25==KE 8;8 25I=KE ?@02, ?>A:>;L:C @57C;LB0B 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =5 ?@8@02=5= : 25I0<, 0 2K=5A5= >B45;L=K< >1J5:B>< 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2KE >B=>H5=89 (AB. 128 8 138  $). @020 =0 D8;L< =5 ?>4@0745;ONBAO ?> > =0 B@048F8>==K5 4;O ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 M;5<5=BK: 2;045=85, ?>;L7>20=85 8 @0A?>@O65=85. >6=> 25AB8 @5GL > ?@025 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 =>A8B5;L, =0 :>B>@>< 70D8:A8@>20= >1J5:B 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, =0 M:75<?;O@K 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, => =5 =0 A0< @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 2>A?@8=8<05BAO 140 53> ?@>4NA5@>< =5 B>;L:> :0: >1J5:B 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, ?@>872545=85, => 8 :0: B>20@, @50;870F8O :>B>@>3> ?@8=>A8B 4>E>4K. >>1I5 ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 M:75<?;O@K 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B A8BC0F88 A2O70=> A 2>7<>6=>ABLN @50;870F88 02B>@A:8E ?@02 =0 =53>. "0:, ?5@540G0 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE ?@02 =0 B>B 8;8 8=>9 284 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O ;8H05B A>1AB25==8:0 8AE>4=KE 8;8 MB0;>==>9 :>?88 >ACI5AB2;OBL 2 B5G5=85 2A53> A@>:0 459AB28O 4>3>2>@0 0=0;>38G=K5 ?5@540==K< 02B>@A:85 ?@020, 0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 ?@02><5@=> 873>B>2;5==>3> B8@060 M:75<?;O@>2 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O =0 2845>=>A8B5;OE =5 405B ?@8>1@5BH5<C B0:>9 M:75<?;O@ ;8FC, B.5. A>1AB25==8:C =>A8B5;O, ?@020 8A?>;L7>20BL 53> ?> A2>5<C CA<>B@5=8N, =0?@8<5@ 4;O B8@068@>20=8O 8;8 A40G8 2 ?@>:0B. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 2845>=>A8B5;L, :0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL 2KH5, =5 O2;O5BAO ?>;=K<. 48=AB25==K< A;CG05<, :>340 ?@8=04;56=>ABL ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 M:75<?;O@K 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O D0:B8G5A:8 157@07;8G=0 4;O 02B>@0 2 @50;870F88 53> ?@02, O2;O5BAO ?@028;> 017. 2 G. 3 AB. 16 > > B><, GB> ?@02> =0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 M:75<?;O@>2 ?@>872545=8O ?CB5< A40G8 2 ?@>:0B ?@8=04;568B 02B>@C =57028A8<> >B ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 MB8 M:75<?;O@K; 1>;55 B>3>, ?> A<KA;C AB, 16 <>6=> A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> MB> ?@02> =5 >BGC6405BAO 02B>@><, ?>4>1=> >AB0;L=K< 8<CI5AB25==K< ?@020<, 0 <>65B 1KBL ?5@540=> 2 C?@02;5=85 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K< 8;8 ?>4>1=K< >@30=870F8O<. >E>60O A8BC0F8O 2>7=8:05B ?@8 @50;870F88 AB. 26 >, CAB0=02;820NI59 @568< A1>@0 8 @0A?@545;5=8O 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 "G0AB=>5 :>?8@>20=85", :>B>@K9 A2O7K205B @50;870F8N ?@020 =0 2>7=03@0645=85 02B>@>2 8 AC1J5:B>2 A<56=KE ?@02 =5 B>;L:> A 8A?>;L7>20=85< ?@>872545=89, => 8 A ?@8>1@5B5=85< 2 A>1AB25==>ABL 0C48>- 8 2845>>1>@C4>20=8O 8 <0B5@80;L=KE =>A8B5;59, ?>A:>;L:C, =5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> ?;0B5;LI8:0<8 B0:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O ?> 70:>=C 4>;6=K 1KBL 873>B>28B5;8 8 8<?>@B5@K =0720==KE >1J5:B>2 A>1AB25==>AB8, D0:B8G5A:8 2>7=03@0645=85 1C45B 2K?;0G820BLAO 87 :0@<0=0 ?>B@518B5;O, B0: :0: 1C45B 70;>65=> 2 AB>8<>ABL C:070==>3> 8<CI5AB20. @8 CAB0=>2;5=88 >B=>H5=89 <564C 02B>@0<8 D8;L<0 8 53> 873>B>28B5;5< 8;8 ?@>4NA5@>< 2>?@>A > ?@8=04;56=>AB8 ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 G0I5 2A53> =5 2>7=8:05B, :@><5 A?5F80;L=> >3>2>@5==>3> :>;8G5AB20 15A?;0B=KE M:75<?;O@>2 (2 >A=>2=>< =0 2845>=>A8B5;OE), ?@8G8B0NI8EAO :064><C 87 02B>@>2 8 873>B02;8205<KE ;81> 70 AG5B ?@>4NA5@0, ;81> 70 A>1AB25==K9 AG5B 02B>@0. 4=0:> ?@8 70:;NG5=88 4>3>2>@0 =0 141 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O <564C ?@>4NA5@>< :0: >1;040B5;5< 8<CI5AB25==KE 02B>@A:8E ?@02 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8< ?>;L7>20B5;5< >3>20@820NBAO =5 B>;L:> >1J5< ?5@540205<KE ?@02, => 8 2>?@>AK, A2O70==K5 A ?@54>AB02;5=85< M:75<?;O@0 =04;560I53> :0G5AB20 4;O 8A?>;L7>20=8O 8;8 B8@068@>20=8O. >A:>;L:C 873>B>2;5=85 =5>1E>48<KE :>?89 AB>8B 4>@>3>, B> @5H5=85 > B><, 70 G59 AG5B 1C4CB ?@>872545=K =5>1E>48<K5 4;O 8A?>;L7>20=8O <0B5@80;K, <>65B ACI5AB25==> ?>2;8OBL =0 @07<5@ 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 ?5@540GC 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02. =>340 AB>8<>ABL :>?88 8;8 ?@54>AB02;5=8O 8AE>4=KE =0AB>;L:> 25;8:0, GB> 48AB@81LNB5@K ?@54?>G8B0NB 4>3>20@820BLAO B>;L:> > ?@8>1@5B5=88 02B>@A:8E ?@02, 0 ?>8A:>< :>?88 70=8<0NBAO A0<>AB>OB5;L=>. >MB><C =5@54:8 A;CG08, :>340 =0 ";8F5=78>==>9" 2845>:0AA5B5 87>1@065=85 :@09=5 =87:>3> :0G5AB20, => 254L ;8F>, B8@068@CNI55 B0:85 :0AA5BK, C@53C;8@>20;> >B=>H5=8O A 2;045;LF5< 02B>@A:8E ?@02, 0 =87:89 C@>25=L 70?8A8 <>65B A;C68BL >A=>20=85< 4;O ?@5B5=789 B>;L:> A B>G:8 7@5=8O 70I8BK ?@02 ?>B@518B5;59 (>1 MB>< ?>4@>1=55 2 3;. 4). A>1>5 2=8<0=85 A;54C5B C45;OBL AC4L15 ?@54>AB02;5==KE ?@>4NA5@>< 8;8 873>B>2;5==KE ?>;L7>20B5;5< :>?89 ?> 8AB5G5=88 A@>:0 459AB28O 4>3>2>@0. 065 5A;8 ?>;L7>20B5;L 873>B>28; :>?88 70 A2>9 AG5B 8 B5< A0<K< <>65B AG8B0BLAO 8E A>1AB25==8:><, B> ?>A;5 ?@5:@0I5=8O 4>3>2>@0 > ?5@540G5 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0 >= =5 <>65B >ACI5AB2;OBL A2>8 ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 <0B5@80;K 8 4>;65= ?@54>AB028BL 2;045;LFC 02B>@A:8E ?@02 ;81> 0:B >1 C=8GB>65=88 :>?89, ;81> 0:B > ?@8=OB88 8E =0 >B25BAB25==>5 E@0=5=85, ;81> 70 >?@545;5==CN ?;0BC ?5@540BL 8E 873>B>28B5;N.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 2 ?@0:B8:5 48AB@81LNB5@A:8E >B=>H5=89 2A5 G0I5 :>?88 =5 873>B02;820NBAO 4;O :064>3> :>=:@5B=>3> ?>:07G8:0, 0 A40NBAO 5<C 2 0@5=4C =0 A@>: 459AB28O 4>3>2>@0 > ?5@540G5 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0. 0:>=5F, 206=>9 ?@>1;5<>9 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 O2;O5BAO 2>?@>A > ?>;=><>G8OE A>1AB25==8:0 M:75<?;O@>2 8;8 8AE>4=KE <0B5@80;>2, =5 >E@0=O5<KE A B>G:8 7@5=8O 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 D8;L<>2, ?@8G5< @5GL 845B =5 B>;L:> 2 A2O78 A 8A?>;L7>20=85< B0:8E ?@>872545=89, GB> G0AB8G=> C@53C;8@>20=> 459AB2CNI8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< (=0?@8<5@, AB. 28 >), => 8 > @01>B5 :8=>0@E82>2 8 D8;L<>D>=4>2. !53>4=O 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 87-70 >BACBAB28O 4>AB0B>G=KE A@54AB2 4;O ?>;=>F5==>9 @01>BK MB8E >@30=870F89 2>7=8:05B C3@>70 CB@0BK 8;8 4065 C=8GB>65=8O 8AE>4=KE =5>E@0=O5<KE 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8;8 C=8:0;L=KE, @54:8E M:75<?;O@>2 D8;L<>2, 4=>2@5<5==> @>AA89A:85 :8=>0@E82K 142 ?>;CG0NB <=>65AB2> ?@54;>65=89 >B 0=0;>38G=KE 8=>AB@0==KE CG@5645=89 > ?@>4065 8;8 ?5@540G5 =0 E@0=5=85 MB8E ?@54AB02;ONI8E >3@><=K9 8=B5@5A <0B5@80;>2. @><5 B>3>, A A5@548=K 80-E 3>4>2 @0728B85 B5E=8:8 ?>72>;O5B =>2K<8 A?>A>10<8 8A?>;L7>20BL AB0@K5 D8;L<K. (8@>:>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 ?>;CG8;> "@0AF25G820=85" AB0@KE G5@=>-15;KE ;5=B, ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 84CB @073>2>@K > A>740=88 =>2KE D8;L<>2 A CG0AB85< 28@BC0;L=KE :>?89 C65 C<5@H8E 0:B5@>2 (=0?@8<5@, =5402=> 2 ?@5AA5 >1AC640;AO ?@>5:B ABC488 ".=825@A0;" > A>740=88 "=>2KE" D8;L<>2 5@8;8= >=@>). ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, B0:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 AB0@KE D8;L<>2 8;8 ?5@A>=0659 87 =8E <>3;> 1K 40BL 8< 2B>@CN ?@>:0B=CN 687=L, ?>445@60BL 8=B5@5A H8@>:>9 ?C1;8:8 : 8AB>@88 :8=>8A:CAAB20. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, B0:0O ?@0:B8:0 2AB@5G05B =530B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 A> AB>@>=K :8=>254>2 8 :8=>:@8B8:>2, 0 B0:65 =0A;54=8:>2 02B>@>2 8 8A?>;=8B5;59 8 =5:>B>@KE 02B>@A:>-?@02>2KE 8 4065 3>AC40@AB25==KE >@30=870F89, 70=8<0NI8EAO 2>?@>A0<8 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@K. 54L @0AF25G820=85 D8;L<>2, =0?@8<5@, >7=0G05B 2=5A5=85 2 =53> 157 A>3;0A8O 02B>@>2 A5@L57=KE 87<5=5=89, GB> >B=>A8BAO =5 : A@>G=K< 8<CI5AB25==K< ?@020<, 0 : <>@0;L=K< 8;8 ;8G=K< =58<CI5AB25==K< (AB. 15 >), >E@0=O5<K< 25G=>. > ?>A:>;L:C <0B5@80;K 4;O B0:>9 ?5@5@01>B:8 =0E>4OBAO 2 A>1AB25==>AB8 :8=>0@E82>2 ;81> 2 3>AC40@AB25==>9 A>1AB25==>AB8, ?5@540==>9 D8;L<>E@0=8;8I0< 2 C?@02;5=85, B> 2AB05B 2>?@>A >1 8E ?>;=><>G8OE ?@8 ?5@5@01>B:5 AB0@KE D8;L<>2. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 AB028B 1>;LH5 2>?@>A>2, G5< 459AB2CNI55 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> <>65B 40BL >B25B>2. AB05BAO =045OBLAO, GB> 2>7=8:0NI85 A?>@=K5 A8BC0F88 1C4CB C@53C;8@>20=K =0 ?@0:B8:5, 0 =5 >AB0=CBAO =5@07@5H8<K<8 ?@>1;5<0<8. '0I5 2A53> 2>?@>A > A>>B=>H5=88 02B>@A:8E ?@02 8 ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O 2AB05B ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, ?>A:>;L:C 8<5==> =0 MB>9 AB0488 ?@>42865=8O D8;L<0 >B 02B>@0 : 7@8B5;N AC1J5:BK ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 "701K20NB" > 53> B2>@G5A:>< ?@>8AE>645=88 8 284OB 2 =5< B>;L:> B>20@. ) C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 :0: B>20@ ">20@ - :0B53>@8O M:>=><8G5A:0O, 0 =5 ?@02>20O. ">20@>< ?@87=05BAO ?@>4C:B, ?@>872545==K9 4;O >1<5=0 8;8 ?@>40681. > ?>A:>;L:C M:>=><8G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O, 1 >;LH>9 M=F8:;>?548G5A:89 A;>20@L. ., 1993 3., A, 1207. 143 2 B>< G8A;5 8 ?> ?>2>4C B>20@>2, @53C;8@CNBAO ?@02>2K<8 =>@<0<8, 2> <=>38E 70:>=>40B5;L=KE 0:B0E CAB0=>2;5= ?@02>2>9 @568< B>20@0, =0?@8<5@ 2  $, 2 0:>=5 $ " 70I8B5 ?@02 ?>B@518B5;59" >B 7 D52@0;O 1992 3. 2 @540:F88 70:>=0 >B 9 O=20@O 1996 3. ! 2-$1 8 B.4.. 4=0:> 2 :064>< 87 =8E B5@<8= "B>20@" =0?>;=5= B0:8< A>45@60=85<, :>B>@>5 <>65B 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=> B>;L:> 2 F5;OE 40==>3> ?@02>2>3> 0:B0. 0?@8<5@, 0:>= $ " B>20@=KE 18@60E 8 18@652>9 B>@3>2;5" >B 20 D52@0;O 1992 3. A?5F80;L=> 8A:;NG05B 87 ?5@5G=O 18@652KE B>20@>2 >1J5:BK 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 (AB. 1)2. > <=5=8N .. !CE0=>20 2 @0728B>< B>20@=>< >1>@>B5 "D>@<C B>20@0 ?>;CG0NB :0: <0B5@80;L=K5, B0: 8 =5<0B5@80;L=K5 @57C;LB0BK @01>B 8 CA;C3, =5<0B5@80;L=K5 @57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0 B0:65 >B45;L=K5 ?@020 8 4065 A@54AB20 8=48284C0;870F88 B>20@>2 (B>20@=K5 7=0:8, D8@<5==K5 =08<5=>20=8O 8 B.?.)3. 59AB28B5;L=>, G. 4 AB. 454  $ 4>?CA:05B ?@8<5=5=85 >1I8E ?>;>65=89 > :C?;5-?@>4065 : ?@>4065 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02, 5A;8 8=>5 =5 2KB5:05B 87 A>45@60=8O 8;8 E0@0:B5@0 MB8E ?@02, > =0A:>;L:> ?@02><5@=> B0:>5 4>?CI5=85 2 >B=>H5=88 ?@02 =0 @57C;LB0BK 8<5==> B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8? >-?5@2KE, =>@<K 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 =5 A>45@60B B5@<8=0 "?@>4060" ?@02, 0 B>;L:>: "?5@540G0" 8;8 "CABC?:0", GB> ?>4G5@:8205B 2@5<5==K9 E0@0:B5@ ?5@5E>40 ?@02, E>BO 4>3>2>@K <>3CB 70:;NG0BLAO 8 =0 25AL A@>: 459AB28O 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 =0 ?@>872545=85. @0240, 2 >18E>45 G0AB> <>6=> CA;KH0BL @073>2>@-> ?>:C?:5 8;8 ?@>4065 >B ?@0:B8G5A:8E AC1J5:B>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> @50;870F88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. > MB> 8<5==> 1KB>20O, 0 =5 ?@02>20O B5@<8=>;>38O, 8A?>;L7C5<0O =0 :8=>@K=:0E. AB0B8, 8 A0< B5@<8= ":8=>@K=>:" 2K7K205B <KA;8 > B>@3>2;5 2 B@048F8>==>< ?>=8<0=88. >-2B>@KE, =>@<K > :0G5AB25, :>;8G5AB25, 8E 30@0=B8OE 8 ?@>25@:0E, =5 3>2>@O C65 > B0@5, C?0:>2:5, A@>:5 3>4=>AB8 8 ?@., :>B>@K5 A>45@60BAO 2 1 3;. 30  $ >1 >1I8E ?>;>65=8OE > :C?;5-?@>4065, =5 <>3CB 1KBL ?@8<5=5=K : 8<CI5AB25==K< ?@020<, 40 8 : 0C48>287C0;L=><C ?@>872545=8N :0: >1J5:BC 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. !CI5AB2C5B 70:@5?;5==K9 2 AB. 44 >=AB8BCF88 ?@8=F8? A2>1>4K B2>@G5AB20, 8 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G. 1 AB. 1 > 2A5 ?@>872545=8O @02=K A B>G:8 7@5=8O 70:>=0, =57028A8<> >B 8E 4>AB>8=AB20 8 =07=0G5=8O (B.5. :0G5AB20, ?@8<5=OO "B>20@=CN" B5@<8=>;>38N). 8345 2 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 =5 B>;L:> 1 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1992. - ! 15. - AB. 766; " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" ! 8 >B 16 O=20@O 1996 3. 2 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1992. - ! 18. - AB. 961. 3 @0640=A:>5 ?@02>. #G51=8: ?>4 @54. .. !CE0=>20. ".1. - ., , 1998 3., A. 480. 144 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88, => 8 =8 >4=>9 AB@0=K <8@0 =5 CAB0=02;8205BAO 2708<>A2O7L <564C >1J5<>< (B.5. :>;8G5AB2><) 8 >E@0=>A?>A>1=>ABLN ?@>872545=8O.  2A5 65 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 2>A?@8=8<05BAO <=>38<8 AC1J5:B0<8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, A2O70==>9 A ?@>872>4AB2>< 8 ?>A;54CNI8< 8A?>;L7>20=85< D8;L<>2, 8<5==> :0: B>20@, :0: ?@>4C:B ?@>F5AA0 B@C40, :0: A@54AB2> 4;O 872;5G5=8O 2K3>4K. @><5 B>3>, "B>20@=K9" ?>4E>4 : >1J5:B0< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 >1=0@C68;> <564C=0@>4=>5 A>>1I5AB2>, @07@01>B02 8 ?@8=O2 ?> 7025@H5=8N #@C3209A:>3> @0C=40 5=5@0;L=>3> A>3;0H5=8O ?> B0@8D0< 8 B>@3>2;5 ("") ?@8=F8?80;L=> =>2K9 <564C=0@>4=K9 4>3>2>@ -!>3;0H5=85 ?> B>@3>2K< 0A?5:B0< ?@02 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8, 2:;NG0O B>@3>2;N ?>445;L=K<8 B>20@0<8 - " ! (> G5< C?><8=0;>AL 2 ?5@2>9 3;025). >A:>;L:C >AA89A:0O $545@0F8O =0<5@5205BAO 2ABC?8BL 2 "", =5>1E>48<> 8AA;54>20BL MB> =0?@02;5=85 2 2>?@>A5 >1 >B=>H5=88 : @57C;LB0B0< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8, 2 G0AB=>AB8, : 0C48>287C0;L=K< ?@>872545=8O<. > =0 <>9 273;O4, =081>;55 B>G=>, : M:>=><8G5A:><C ?>=OB8N "B>20@" ?>4E>48B ?@02>2>9 0=0;>3 ">1>@>B>A?>A>1=0O 25IL" 2 B>9 D>@<C;8@>2:5, 2 :0:>9, =0?@8<5@, 2 AB. 455  $ >?@545;O5BAO B>20@ ?> 4>3>2>@C :C?;8-?@>4068 (A CG5B>< 2KH5A:070==>3>). .. !CE0=>2 ?8H5B: "5I0<8 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025 ?@87=0NBAO <0B5@80;L=K5, D878G5A:8 >AO705<K5 >1J5:BK, 8<5NI85 M:>=><8G5A:CN D>@<C B>20@01".  >B=>H5=88 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O B5@<8= "B>20@" <>6=> ?@8<5=OBL 25AL<0 CA;>2=>, ?>A:>;L:C 2 :0:>< 1K :0G5AB25 8 2 :0:8E 1K >B=>H5=8OE =8 2KABC?0; D8;L<, >= 1K; 8 >AB05BAO @57C;LB0B>< B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, B.5. 4065 5A;8 A>3;0A8BLAO, GB> 2 =5:>B>@KE A8BC0F8OE 5<C ?@8ACI8 G5@BK B>20@0, B> MB> B>20@ >A>1>3> @>40, >1@5<5=5==K9 02B>@A:8<8 ?@020<8, G0ABL :>B>@KE - ;8G=K5 =58<CI5AB25==K5 - 1C4CB >E@0=OBLAO 15AA@>G=>.  G. 1 AB. 455 ?@54CA<>B@5=> CA;>285 >1>@>B>A?>A>1=>AB8 B>20@0, B.5. 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G. 1 AB. 129  $ B>20@ <>65B A2>1>4=> >BGC640BLAO 8 ?5@5E>48BL >B >4=>3> ;8F0 : 4@C3><C. "0:>5 CA;>285 =5?@8<5=8<> : D8;L<C :0: >1J5:BC 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, ?>A:>;L:C 4065 2 >B=>H5=8OE <564C 02B>@0<8 8 ?@>4NA5@>< =5 <>65B 1KBL ?>;=>3> >BGC645=8O ?@02: 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 15 > ;8G=K5 =58<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020 =0 D8;L<, 2>7=8:0NI85 C 02B>@>2 2 <><5=B 53> A>740=8O, ?@8=04;560B 8< =57028A8<> >B 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 8 A>E@0=ONBAO 70 =8<8 2 A;CG05 CABC?:8 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O. @><5 B>3>, 1 B0< 65, A.300. 145 =5:>B>@K5 87 ;8G=KE =58<CI5AB25==KE ?@02, 0 8<5==> ?@02> 02B>@AB20, ?@02> =0 8<O 8, GB> >A>15==> 206=>, ?@02> =0 70I8BC @5?CB0F88 02B>@0, >E@0=ONBAO 15AA@>G=> (017. 2 G. 1 AB. 27 >). 45AL A;54C5B 70<5B8BL, GB> C?><O=CB>5 A>3;0H5=85 " ! =5 2:;NG8;> ?>;>65=85 > ;8G=KE =58<CI5AB25==KE ?@020E, => A45;0=> MB> 1K;> =5 4;O C<0;5=8O 8E 7=0G5=8O, 0 ?> A?5F80;L=>9 ?@>AL15 !(, >4=>3> 87 :@C?=59H8E CG0AB=8:>2 "", ?>A:>;L:C 2 0<5@8:0=A:>< 02B>@A:>< 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 B0:85 ?@020 >BACBAB2CNB. 0:>= >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 - =5 548=AB25==K9 ?@02>2>9 0:B, CAB0=02;820NI89 @568< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 8 25@>OB=>, 8<5==> 2 >B=>H5=88 : D8;L<C :0: : B>20@C 53> ?>;>65=8O 4>;6=K >B>9B8 =0 2B>@>9 ?;0= ?> A@02=5=8N A 4@C38<8 CAB0=>2;5=8O<8, E>BO 8 701K20BL > =8E B>65 =5;L7O. 0:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5 =0@O4C A ?>=OB85< "D8;L<" 22>48B 1>;55 ?>4E>4OI55 2 MB>< A;CG05 ?>=OB85 ":8=>?@>4C:F8O", A>>B=>AOI85AO :0: G0ABL 8 F5;>5, ?>A:>;L:C ?>4 B5@<8=>< ":8=>?@>4C:F8O" 2 A<KA;5 C:070==>3> 70:>=0 ?>=8<05BAO D8;L<, 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K D8;L<0, :8=>;5B>?8AL, 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K :8=>;5B>?8A8, B8@06 D8;L<0 8;8 G0ABL B8@060 D8;L<0.  ?@54K4CI5< ?0@03@0D5 C65 3>2>@8;>AL, GB> 87 ?5@5G=O >1J5:B>2, A>AB02;ONI8E :8=>?@>4C:F8N, <0B5@80;L=CN, 25I5AB25==CN D>@<C 8<5NB 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K D8;L<0 8;8 :8=>;5B>?8A8, B8@06 8;8 53> G0ABL. !;54>20B5;L=>, 8<5==> >=8 ?>4E>4OB ?>4 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2>5 ?>=OB85 25I8 -"?@54<5B0 2=5H=53> <8@0, =0E>4OI53>AO 2 5AB5AB25==>< A>AB>O=88 2 ?@8@>45 8;8 A>740==>3> B@C4>< G5;>25:0"1. >A:>;L:C D8;L< =5 O2;O5BAO 5AB5AB25==>?@8@>4=K< >1J5:B><, 0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 @57C;LB0B 45OB5;L=>AB8 1>;LH>3> G8A;0 ;N459, B>, 25@>OB=>, 8<5==> :@8B5@89 @C:>B2>@=>AB8, A>740==>AB8 1C45B >?@545;OBL 53> ?>;>65=85 2 :0G5AB25 B>20@0. "0:><C ?>4E>4C <>6=> =09B8 5I5 >4=> >1>A=>20=85: 2 G. 2 AB. 455  $ >?@545;O5BAO, GB> ?@54<5B>< 4>3>2>@0 :C?;8-?@>4068 <>65B 1KBL :0: B>20@, 8<5NI89AO 2 =0;8G88 C ?@>402F0 =0 <><5=B 70:;NG5=8O 4>3>2>@0, B0: 8 B>20@, :>B>@K9 1C45B A>740= 8;8 ?@8>1@5B5= ?@>402F>< 2 1C4CI5<. A;8 A>?>AB028BL 40==CN =>@<C A ?>;>65=8O<8 02B>@A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20, <>6=> A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> A>740B5;59 B0:>3> B>20@0 =5A:>;L:>. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, :0: 8 ;N1>9 4@C3>9 >1J5:B 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, A>7405BAO B2>@G5A:8< B@C4>< 53> 02B>@>2. 4=0:> ?@54<5B>< MB>3> ?@>F5AA0 B@C40 O2;O5BAO >1J5:B =5 25I=KE, 0 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE ?@02. > 45OB5;L=>ABL ?> A>740=8N D8;L<0 8<55B 8 1 .@848G5A:89 M=F8:;>?548G5A:89 A;>20@L. ., 1996 3., A. 38. 146 2B>@>9 :><?>=5=B - E>7O9AB25==K9, :>B>@K9 >@30=87C5BAO 873>B>28B5;5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. @54<5B>< ?@>F5AA0 B0:>3> B@C40 8 @57C;LB0B>< ?@>872>4AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 O2;O5BAO 25IL, <0B5@80;L=K9 >1J5:B 2=5H=53> <8@0, =>A8B5;L, 2 :>B>@>< 2K@065= @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>3> B@C40 - 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K D8;L<0. ">20@>< <>3CB 2KABC?0BL :0: A0<8 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K, B0: 8 873>B>2;5==K5 A =8E :>?88 'D8;L<0, B8@06, B.5. B5 M;5<5=BK, 2E>4OI85 2 ?>=OB85 :8=>?@>4C:F88, :>B>@K5 8<5NB <0B5@80;L=CN D>@<C.8 A>>B25BAB25==> <>3CB 1KBL >1J5:B>< 25I=KE ?@02. @8 22545=88 MB8E >1J5:B>2 2 3@0640=A:89 >1>@>B A;54C5B ?><=8BL, GB> >=8 O2;ONBAO B>20@>< >A>1>3> @>40, 2 >B=>H5=88 :>B>@>3> =5 <>65B 2>7=8:0BL ?>;=>F5==>3> ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8, ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 ;8HL ">1>;>G:C" @57C;LB0B0 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 - >1J5:B0 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE, >BG0AB8 =5>BGC6405<KE, ?@02. 147 ;020 4. >3>2>@=K5 >B=>H5=8O 8 70I8B0 8=B5@5A>2 2 AD5@5 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 1. >;L 8 >A>15==>AB8 4>3>2>@0 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 ) 2B>@A:85 4>3>2>@K A=>2=K< A?>A>1>< ?5@540G8 8;8 CABC?:8 8<CI5AB25==KE 02B>@A:8E ?@02 O2;O5BAO 02B>@A:89 4>3>2>@. 0=55 A>25BA:>5 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> @07;8G0;> 420 2840 4>3>2>@>2: 02B>@A:89 4>3>2>@ 70:070 8 02B>@A:89 ;8F5=78>==K9 4>3>2>@. A=>2K 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20, 22545==K5 2 459AB285 2 1992 3., B0:>3> 45;5=8O 4>3>2>@>2 =5 ?@>2>4OB. >, 2K45;OO 2 >B45;L=CN AB0BLN 02B>@A:89 4>3>2>@ 70:070, =5 405B ?>=OB8O 02B>@A:>3> ;8F5=78>==>3> 4>3>2>@0, 0 3>2>@8B >1 >1I59 <0AA5 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@>2. @>5:B III G0AB8  $ 2=>2L CAB0=02;8205B 45;5=85 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@>2, 22>4O 5I5 1>;55 A;>6=CN :;0AA8D8:0F8N (AB, 1122, 1138). >-?5@2KE, 2 >4=>< 87 20@80=B>2 ?@>5:B0 B0:0O 3@040F8O >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?> AC1J5:B=><C A>AB02C, 02B>@A:85 4>3>2>@K ?>4@0745;ONBAO =0 B2>@G5A:85 (A 02B>@0<8 8;8 =0A;54=8:0<8) 8 :><<5@G5A:85 (A 8=K<8 ?@02>?@55<=8:0<8). >-2B>@KE, 4>3>2>@K 45;OBAO ?> >1J5<C CABC?05<KE ?@02 =0 4>3>2>@K > ?5@540G5 ?@020 8 ;8F5=78>==K5 4>3>2>@K, 87 :>B>@KE 2 A2>N >G5@54L 2K45;ONBAO 2K40G0 ?@>AB>9 (=58A:;NG8B5;L=>9) ;8F5=788, 2K40G0 8A:;NG8B5;L=>9 ;8F5=788 8,' =0:>=5F, 2K40G0 ?>;=>9 ;8F5=788. 2545=85 B0:8E =>@< :065BAO =5F5;5A>>1@07=K<, ?>A:>;L:C >1I89 4;O 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020 8 2A5E 53> ?>4>B@0A;59 (:0:>2>9 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> 8 O2;O5BAO) ?@8=F8? A2>1>4K 4>3>2>@0 >7=0G05B ?@02> AC1J5:B>2 A2>1>4=> CAB0=02;820BL ?@020 8 >1O70==>AB8 =0 >A=>25 4>3>2>@0 8 >?@545;OBL ;N1K5 =5 ?@>B82>@5G0I85 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C 4>3>2>@=K5 CA;>28O (AB. 1  $). 0G5< 65 2B8A:820BL >B=>H5=8O <564C CG0AB=8:0<8 ?@>F5AA0 A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE, 40 8 8=KE ?@>872545=89, 2 1>;55 AB@>385 8 1>;55 C7:85 @0<:8, G5< MB> 45;05BAO 459AB2CNI8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2><? A;8 @0=LH5 2A5 4>3>2>@K 70:;NG0;8AL =0 >A=>25 B8?>2KE 4>3>2>@>2, @07@01>B0==KE 8 CB25@645==KE 708=B5@5A>20==K<8 254><AB20<8 (>A:><8740B, >A:8=> 8 B. ?.), E>BO 70:>= 8 ?@54?>;030; >B:;>=5=8O >B B8?>2>9 D>@<K 4>3>2>@0 A >3>2>@:>9, GB> CA;>28O "=5AB0=40@B=>3>" 4>3>2>@0 =5' 1C4CB CEC4H0BL ?>;>65=8O 02B>@0 ?> A@02=5=8N A B8?>2K<8, B> A @0728B85< 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 @K=>G=KE 148 >B=>H5=89 02B>@K 8 ?>;L7>20B5;8 2A5 G0I5 >BE>4OB >B B8?>2KE D>@<.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O B@C4=> =09B8 420 >48=0:>2KE 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@0.  A>60;5=8N, 2 MB>9 157C45@6=>9 @50;870F88 "A2>1>4K" 4>3>2>@>2 1>;LH5 =530B82=KE AB>@>=, G5< ?>78B82=KE. 8:B> =5 AB028B ?>4 A><=5=85, GB> AB0@K9 B8?>2>9 4>3>2>@ =5 >B25G05B =8 =>2K< M:>=><8G5A:8< CA;>28O<, =8 =>2><C 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C 2 >1;0AB8 02B>@A:8E ?@02. > =52>7<>6=> AB@>8BL 4>3>2>@ B>;L:> ?> ?@8=F8?C >B@8F0=8O -"B>;L:> 1K =5 ?>E>689 =0 B8?>2>9"! @09=>ABO<8 <>6=> AG8B0BL 4>3>2>@K, ?@54;0302H85AO 0'2B>@0< D8@<>9 "!5@28AA;094" (2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O C65 ;8:2848@>20==>9), 70:;NG02H59 =0 AJ5<:8 D8;L<0 4>3>2>@ ?>4@O40, 0 B0:65 45AOB:>AB@0=8G=K5 4>3>2>@K, A>740==K5 ?>4 2;8O=85< ?5@2>9 :=838 > :8=5<0B>3@0D5 2 CA;>28OE @K=:0, 2KH54H59 C =0A 2 AB@0=5 - "8=> :0: 187=5A" .. >:0@520, 2 :>B>@>9 02B>@ 87CG05B 8 >1>1I05B >?KB (2 B>< G8A;5 4>3>2>@=K9) >;;82C40 8 ?@82>48B ?@8<5@K 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@>2 2 0=3;>A0:A>=A:>9 A8AB5<51. 2B>@A:89 4>3>2>@ ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 >4=C 87 @07=>284=>AB59 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2>3> 4>3>2>@0, 8 : =5<C <>65B ?@8<5=OBLAO ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> B@51>20=89, ?@54CA<>B@5==KE 3@0640=A:8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< 2 >B=>H5=88 D>@<K, A>45@60=8O, ?>@O4:0 70:;NG5=8O, 87<5=5=8O 8 @0AB>@65=8O 4>3>2>@>2. @>2>73;0H0O ?@8=F8? A2>1>4K 4>3>2>@0 8 >1JO2;OO 4>3>2>@ >A=>2=K< A?>A>1>< CAB0=>2;5=8O 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2KE 8 E>7O9AB25==KE A2O759,  $ >15A?5G8205B 53> AB018;L=>ABL 8 2>7<>6=>AB8 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20==K< 2 :0G5AB25 ?>;=>F5==>3> 8AB>G=8:0 ?@02>2KE =>@<. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?@8=F8?>< =>2>3> @>AA89A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 "2A5, GB> =5 70?@5I5=>, B> @07@5H5=>" 70:>= ;8HL >1@8A>2K205B @0<:8, 40;LH5 :>B>@KE 2 CAB0=>2;5=88 :>=:@5B=KE ?@02>>B=>H5=89 2KE>48BL =5;L7O, >3@0=8G820O B5< A0<K< >3@><=>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2> 4;O 2K1>@0 2 :064>< >B45;L=>< A;CG05 A2>8E ?@028;. > G.1 AB. 432  $ 4>3>2>@ AG8B05BAO 70:;NG5==K<, 5A;8 <564C AB>@>=0<8 2 B@51C5<>9 2 ?>4;560I8E A;CG0OE D>@<5 4>AB83=CB> A>3;0H5=85 ?> 2A5< ACI5AB25==K< CA;>28O< 4>3>2>@0.  MB>9 >1I59 =>@<5 =0720=> B>;L:> >4=> CA;>285, > :>B>@>< AB>@>=K 4>;6=K >1O70B5;L=> 4>3>2>@8BLAO 2 A>3;0H5=88 -?@54<5B 4>3>2>@0. AB0;L=K5 65 ACI5AB25==K5 CA;>28O 8;8 ?@O<> C:070=K 2 A?5F80;L=KE =>@<0E , @53C;8@CNI8E >B45;L=K5 3@C??K 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2KE 4>3>2>@>2, 8;8 ?@87=0=K B0:>2K<8 ?> CA<>B@5=8N AB>@>=. 1 ..>:0@52. &8B. A>G. A. 173-288. 149  G. 1 AB. 31 > ?@O<> C:07K205BAO, GB> =5>1E>48<> >3>2>@8BL ?@8 70:;NG5=88 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0. 2B>@A:89 4>3>2>@ 4>;65= ?@54CA<0B@820BL: A?>A>1K 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=8O (:>=:@5B=K5 ?@020, ?5@540205<K5 ?> 40==><C 4>3>2>@C); A@>: 8 B5@@8B>@8N, =0 :>B>@K5 ?5@5405BAO ?@02>; @07<5@ 2>7=03@0645=8O 8 (8;8) ?>@O4>: >?@545;5=8O 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 :064K9 A?>A>1 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=8O, ?>@O4>: 8 A@>:8 53> 2K?;0BK, 0 B0:65 4@C385 CA;>28O, :>B>@K5 AB>@>=K A>GBCB ACI5AB25==K<8 4;O 40==>3> 4>3>2>@0. 5 2A5 87 ?5@5G8A;5==KE CA;>289 <>6=> AG8B0BL ACI5AB25==K<8 2 A<KA;5 AB. 432  $, ?>A:>;L:C > 4>?CA:05B 70:;NG5=85 4>3>2>@0 2 >BACBAB285 A>3;0H5=8O > A@>:5 8 B5@@8B>@88, "?>4AB@0E>2K20O" AB>@>=K =>@<0<8 017. 2 8 3 G. 1 AB. 31. !>3;0H5=85 > 2>7=03@0645=88 B0:65 =5;L7O AG8B0BL ACI5AB25==K< CA;>285< 4;O 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@>2 2 F5;><, ?>A:>;L:C >BACBAB285 2 ?5@5G=5 8<CI5AB25==KE 02B>@A:8E ?@02 ?@020 =0 2>7=03@0645=85 ?>72>;O5B A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> =5 2A5 A>3;0H5=8O >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 >1J5:B>2 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 4>;6=K 1KBL 2>7<574=K<8; 2?>;=5 <>65B 1KBL 8 1572>7<574=0O CABC?:0 02B>@A:8E ?@02. > 4;O 4>3>2>@>2, ?@54CA<0B@820NI8E 2K?;0BC 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 A>740=85 8;8 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=89 (0 B0:8E 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@>2 ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2>), A>3;0H5=85 > @07<5@5 8 ?>@O4:5 2K?;0BK 2>7=03@0645=8O =5A><=5==> O2;O5BAO ACI5AB25==K< CA;>285<. !@548 B5>@5B8:>2 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 =5B 548=>9 ?>78F88 ?> 2>?@>AC > B><, GB> 65 O2;O5BAO ?@54<5B>< 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 - A0<> ?@>872545=85 8;8 02B>@A:85 ?@020 =0 =53>1.  AB. 33 > C:07K205BAO, GB> ?> 02B>@A:><C 4>3>2>@C 70:070 02B>@ 4>;65= A>740BL ?@>872545=85 8 ?5@540BL 53> 70:07G8:C; B.5. ?@54<5B>< MB>3> 4>3>2>@0 O2;O5BAO A0<> ?@>872545=85 8 4065 =5 AB>;L:> :0: >1J5:B 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, A:>;L:> :0: 25IL (@07 @5GL 845B > 53> ?5@540G5). -B> <>65B 1KBL ?5@540G0 B@5E M:75<?;O@>2 AF5=0@8O, B.5. AB>?:8 1C<038, 70:070==>3> ?>@B@5B0, B.5. @07@8A>20==>3> :@0A:0<8 E>;AB0, 2 >1I5< =>A8B5;O, =0 :>B>@>< 2K@065=> ?@>872545=85. ;O =5:>B>@KE :0B53>@89 ?@>872545=89 A;>6=> @0745;8BL >@838=0; 8 :>?88, 8 5A;8 2 A0<>< 4>3>2>@5 MB> A?5F80;L=> =5 >3>2>@5=>, ?@54<5B>< 4>3>2>@0 70:070 =5 2A5340 4>;65= 1KBL >@838=0; ?@>872545=8O, 8< <>65B 1KBL ;N1>9 87 M:75<?;O@>2. @>5:B III G0AB8  $ CAB@0=O5B MBC >H81:C, ?@O<> ?@54CA<0B@820O 2 G. 3 AB. 1138, GB> ?@54<5B>< 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 70:070 O2;ONBAO 1 A<. >1 MB><: B.C. =B8<>=>2, .. $;59H8F. 2B>@A:>5 ?@02>. ., 1957. A. 59; -.. 02@8;>2. !>25BA:>5 02B>@A:>5 ?@02>. ., 1984. A. 196. !.. '5@=KH520. 2B>@A:89 4>3>2>@ 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025 >AA88. ., 1996. A. 28. 150 ' A>740=85 ?@>872545=8O 8 ?5@540G0 ?@02 =0 53> 8A?>;L7>20=85 =0 CA;>28OE, ?@54CA<>B@5==KE B0:8< 4>3>2>@><.  >B;8G85 >B @0A?;K2G0B>9 D>@<C;8@>2:8 459AB2CNI59 =>@<K > 70:075 ?@>872545=8O, 2 G. 1 AB. 31 > A@548 ACI5AB25==KE CA;>289 =07K20NBAO A?>A>1K 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=8O. >A:>;L:C >A=>2=K< ACI5AB25==K< CA;>285< 4;O 2A5E 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2KE 4>3>2>@>2 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 432  $ O2;O5BAO A>3;0H5=85 > ?@54<5B5 4>3>2>@0, B> <>6=> A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> ?@54<5B>< 4>3>2>@0 =0 A>740=85 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O O2;O5BAO A@>G=K9 ?5@5E>4 G0AB8 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02. 0:>=>40B5;L 45;8B 02B>@A:85 ?@020, 2>7=8:0NI85 C A>740B5;O ?@>872545=8O, =0 8<CI5AB25==K5 (AB. 16 >) 8 ;8G=K5 =58<CI5AB25==K5 (<>@0;L=K5) ?@020 (AB. 15 >). >4 8<CI5AB25==K<8 02B>@A:8<8 ?@020<8 ?>=8<0NBAO ?@02> @07@5H0BL 8;8 70?@5I0BL ;N1>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O ;N1K< A?>A>1><, B.5. ?@02> =0 C?@02;5=85 8;8 :>=B@>;L 70 8A?>;L7>20=85< ?@>872545=8O (:@><5 >A>1> >3>2>@5==KE 70:>=>< A;CG052, =0?@8<5@ AB. 19, 22, 23 >), 8 ?@02> ?>;CG0BL 70 MB> >?@545;5==>5 2>7=03@0645=85. >@0;L=K5 65 ?@020 2>>1I5 =5 >BGC6405<K, @54AB02;O5BAO, GB> ?@02> =0 ?>;CG5=85 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O B0:65 =5 <>65B ?5@54020BLAO ?> 4>3>2>@C, 0 548=AB25==K< A;CG05< >BGC645=8O MB>3> ?@020 1C45B 53> ?5@5E>4 ?> =0A;54AB2C. >=5G=>, 2AB@5G0NBAO A;CG08, :>340 02B>@ ?5@5405B 70 >4=>:@0B=> 2K?;0G5==CN B25@4> 70D8:A8@>20==CN AC<<C 2A5 8<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020 =0 ?@>872545=85 =0 25AL A@>: 459AB28O 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 =0 =53> (B0:0O ?@0:B8:0 E0@0:B5@=0 4;O D8@<K """, ?@8>1@5B0NI59 ?@020 =0 AF5=0@88 =0G8=0NI8E 02B>@>2 8 2KABC?0NI59 ?>B>< 2 >B=>H5=8OE A> ABC48O<8, 65;0NI8<8 A=OBL ?> MB8< AF5=0@8O< D8;L<K, 2 :0G5AB25 2;045;LF0 02B>@A:8E ?@02). > B0:CN A8BC0F8N =5;L7O AG8B0BL =>@<0;L=>9.  70:>=5 3>2>@8BAO, GB> 2>7=03@0645=85 02B>@0< 70 CABC?:C ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O 4>;6=> 1KBL 2K@065=> 2 2845 ?@>F5=B>2 >B 4>E>40 ?>;L7>20B5;O, ?>;CG5==>3> 70 B0:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85. =>385 02B>@K ?@54?>G8B0NB ?>;CG8BL D8:A8@>20==CN AC<<C 8 >B:070BLAO >B ?>A;54CNI8E ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=KE ?;0B5659 ?> B@5< ?@8G8=0<. >-?5@2KE, 1>;LH8=AB2> 02B>@>2, 682CI8E B>;L:> A2>8< B2>@G5A:8< B@C4><, >AB@> =C640NBAO 2 45=L30E. @8 =K=5H=5< >1J5<5 :8=>?@>872>4AB20 =52>AB@51>20==>ABL A@548 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2, 4065 A0<KE ;N18<KE 8 B0;0=B;82KE, :>;>AA0;L=0, 8 :>=5G=> 65, B5 87 =8E, C :>3> 2 B0:>9 >AB@>9 151 :>=:C@5=B=>9 1>@L15 ?>O28;0AL 2>7<>6=>ABL 70@01>B0BL, 70E>BOB ?>;CG8BL 45=L38 A@07C, 0 =5 @0AAG8BK20BL =0 ?>;CG5=85 ?@>F5=B>2 2 1C4CI5<. >-2B>@KE, <=>385 02B>@K =54>25@G82> >B=>AOBAO : ?@>4NA5@0< 8 ?@54?>G8B0NB ?>;CG8BL 2>7=03@0645=85 2 D8:A8@>2.0==>9 AC<<5, G5< ?>B>< 640BL ?@>F5=BK >B 4>E>4>2 ?@>4NA5@0, =5 8<5O 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?@>:>=B@>;8@>20BL MB8 4>E>4K 8 ?>AB>O==> ?>4>7@520O ?@>4NA5@0 2 8E A>:@KB88. N1>?KB=>, GB> B0 65 ;>38:0 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 8 2 >B=>H5=8OE <564C ?@>4NA5@>< 8 ?@>:0BG8:><. >340 =0 :8=>@K=:5 70:;NG0NBAO 4>3>2>@K =0 CABC?:C ?@02 ?@>:0B0 D8;L<0 =0 BC 8;8 8=CN B5@@8B>@8N, 1>;LH8=AB2> ABC489 ?@54?>G8B0NB ?>;CG8BL >B @538>=0;L=KE ?@>:0BG8:>2 8;8 48AB@81LNB5@>2 D8:A8@>20==CN AC<<C 70 ?5@540GC ?@02 =0 >?@545;5==K9 A@>:. 065 2 1992 3., :>340 A8AB5<0 CG5B0 2E>4=KE :8=>B50B@0;L=KE 18;5B>2 1K;0 4>AB0B>G=> AB@>3>9, 48AB@81LNB5@A:0O D8@<0 "&5=B@ !", ?@8>1@5BH0O C D@0=FC7A:>3> ?@>4NA5@0 =0B>;O ><0=0 ?@020 =0 ?@>:0B 8 ?>:07 53> D8;L<>2, B0:8E :0: "<?5@8O GC2AB2", "C6A:>5, 65=A:>5", "<>@0;L=K5 A:07:8" 8 B. ?., =0 B5@@8B>@88 1K2H53> !!! , ?>;CG0;0 2 @538>=0;L=KE :8=>2845>>1J548=5=8OE 01A>;NB=> >D8F80;L=K5 A?@02:8 CAB0=>2;5==>3> >1@07F0, GB> =0 :064>< A50=A5 ?>1K20;> 7 7@8B5;59 0 A>>B25BAB25==>, F5=0 7 2E>4=KE 18;5B>2 8 A>AB028;0 25AL 4>E>4 :8=>B50B@0 70 A50=A. ">340 :0: D8;L<K ><0=0 ?>;L7>20;8AL 2 >AA88 >3@><=>9 ?>?C;O@=>ABLN, 40 8 ?@54AB028B5;8 "&5=B@0 !", ?@8ACBAB2>202H85 =0 A50=A0E 2 :8=>B50B@5 ">;8759" 2 5=8=3@045, 2845;8 70?>;=5==K9 4> >B:070 70;. -B@5BL8E, <=>385 02B>@K ?@54?>G8B0NB D8:A8@>20==CN AC<<C 2>7=03@0645=8O ?@>F5=B0< >B 4>E>40 ?@>4NA5@0, ?>=8<0O >A>15==>AB8 :8=5<0B>3@0D0 :0: ?@>872>4AB20. >?C;O@=>ABL D8;L<0 8 53> :><<5@G5A:89 CA?5E =5 B>;L:> C =0A 2 AB@0=5, => 8 2. ;N1>< 4@C3>< 3>AC40@AB25 ?@>AG8B0BL =52>7<>6=>. 5;L7O 1KBL C25@5==K<, GB> 5A;8 2K1@0BL "3>@OGCN" 8;8 =0>1>@>B 8725G=CN B5<C, ?@83;0A8BL A0<>3> <>4=>3> @568AA5@0, A0<>3> ?>?C;O@=>3> :><?>78B>@0, =01@0BL 72574 ?5@2>9 25;8G8=K, B> D8;L<C 30@0=B8@>20= CA?5E. 0>1>@>B, :8=5<0B>3@0D A B>G:8 7@5=8O 2;>65=8O 45=53 G@572KG09=> @8A:>20==>5 ?@54?@8OB85. >MB><C <=>385 02B>@K ?@54?>G8B0NB ?>;CG8BL D8:A8@>20==CN 8, B0:8< >1@07><, 30@0=B8@>20==CN AC<<C, G5< ?CABL 4065 2KA>:89 ?@>F5=B >B 4>E>40, :>B>@>3> <>65B 8 =5 1KBL. >=5G=>, 5A;8 D8;L< ?>;CG8B 7@8B5;LA:>5 ?@87=0=85, B0:0O ?>78F8O <>65B >:070BLAO ?@>83@KH=>9 ?> A@02=5=8N A ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=K< 2>7=03@0645=85<. > <=>385 02B>@K, CG8BK20O A>AB>O=85 ?@>:0B0, ?@54?>G8B0NB =5 @8A:>20BL. 152 0:>= 4>?CA:05B 2K?;0BC 2>7=03@0645=8O 2 2845 D8:A8@>20==>9 AC<<K, => 017. 3 ?. 3 AB. 31 > A>45@68B ?@028;>, GB> ?@8 B0:>< E0@0:B5@5 @0AG5B>2 A 2;045;LF5< 02B>@A:8E ?@02 4>;65= 1KBL CAB0=>2;5= <0:A8<0;L=K9 B8@06 ?@>872545=8O, MB0 =>@<0 >B=>A8BAO ?@5645 2A53> : 8A?>;L7>20=8N ?@>872545=89 ;8B5@0BC@K 8 D>B>3@0D88, => 8 ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 <>65B 8 4>;6=0 ?@8<5=OBLAO 2 >B=>H5=8OE <564C ?@>4NA5@>< 8 48AB@81LNB5@0<8 (>3>2>@5==>5 G8A;> ?@>40205<KE :>?89 D8;L<0), >@30=870F8O<8 MD8@=>3> 8 :015;L=>3> B5;52845=8O (D8:A8@>20==>5 G8A;> ?>:07>2) 8 2845>48AB@81LNB5@0<8 (>?@545;5==K9 B8@06 ?@>40205<KE 2845>=>A8B5;59), "0:8< >1@07><, 5A;8 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 70:>=>< (017. 1 ?. 3 AB. 31 >) ?@87=0BL =>@<0;L=>9 ?@0:B8:C ?>;CG5=8O 02B>@>< 2>7=03@0645=8O 2 2845 ?@>F5=B0 >B 4>E>40 70 A>>B25BAB2CNI89 A?>A>1 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=8O, B> 2?>;=5 <>6=> A45;0BL 2K2>4 > =5>BGC6405<>AB8 8<CI5AB25==>3> 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 =0 2>7=03@0645=85. @><5 B>3>, 70:>= 2 @O45 A;CG052 ?@O<> C:07K205B =0 A>E@0=5=85 70 02B>@>< =5:>B>@KE 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02. -B>, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, G. 3 AB. 13 >, CAB0=02;820NI0O, GB> :><?>78B>@ A>E@0=O5B 70 A>1>9 ?@02> =0 2>7=03@0645=85 70 ?C1;8G=>5 8A?>;=5=85 A2>53> ?@>872545=8O, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, 1K;> MB> ?C1;8G=>5 8A?>;=5=85 ?@8 ?>:075 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8;8 =5B. 59AB28B5;L=>, 5A;8 2 4>3>2>@5 <564C 02B>@>< >@838=0;L=>9 <C7K:8 8 873>B>28B5;5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O ?@54CA<>B@5=> ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=>5 2>7=03@0645=85, B> :><?>78B>@ 70 :064K9 A;CG09 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O ?>;CG05B 2>7=03@0645=85 42064K. 48= @07 ?> 4>3>2>@C =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O >B ?@>4NA5@0 2 2845 ?@>F5=B0 >B 53> 4>E>40. B>@>9 @07 70 B>B 65 ?>:07 >B 02B>@A:>3> >1I5AB20, 70=8<0NI53>AO C?@02;5=85< 8<CI5AB25==K<8 ?@020<8 02B>@>2 =0 :>;;5:B82=>9 >A=>25, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 4>3>2>@>< <564C B0:8< >1I5AB2>< 8 ?>;L7>20B5;O<8, :>B>@K<8 O2;ONBAO >@30=870F88 MD8@=>3> 8 :015;L=>3> 25I0=8O, :8=>B50B@K 8 B. ?. 2 2845 G0AB8 >B ?@>F5=B0 4>E>40 ?>;L7>20B5;O, =0?@02;O5<>3> 8< 2 >1I5AB2>. <5==> 87-70 MB>3> ">A>15==>3>" 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>3> ?>;>65=8O :><?>78B>@0 2 4>3>2>@=>9 ?@0:B8:5 2 >B=>H5=8OE <564C ?@>4NA5@>< 8 02B>@0<8 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O (AF5=0@8AB><, @568AA5@>< 8 :><?>78B>@><) CB25@48;AO ?>@O4>:, :>340 ?>A;54=5<C 2K?;0G8205BAO 242>5 <5=LH89 ?@>F5=B 2>7=03@0645=8O, G5< 42C< ?5@2K< 02B>@0<. A=>2=>9 =>@<>9, @53C;8@CNI59 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K5 >B=>H5=8O ?@8 A>740=88 8 8A?>;L7>20=88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 O2;O5BAO AB. 13 >. ><8<> ?5@5G8A;5=8O @07;8G=KE :0B53>@89 02B>@>2 D8;L<0, 2 =59 A>45@60BAO 153 A?5F80;L=K5 B@51>20=8O : 02B>@A:><C 4>3>2>@C 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 (G. 2). G5284=>, ?>;>65=8O MB>9 =>@<K G0AB8G=> >B<5=ONB 4;O @0AA<0B@8205<>3> 2840 8A:CAAB20 1>;55 >1I85 =>@<K AB. 31 - 34 > >1 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@0E. '0ABL 2 AB. 13 ?@54CA<0B@8205B ?@57C<?F8N ?5@540G8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5E 8<CI5AB25==KE 02B>@A:8E ?@02 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 >B 02B>@>2 : 53> 873>B>28B5;N. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O 1>;LH8=AB20 >@30=870B>@>2 ?@>872>4AB20 22545=85 MB>9 =>2>9 =>@<K ?@0:B8G5A:8 =8G53> =5 <5=O5B ?> A@02=5=8N A ?>;>65=85<, ACI5AB2>202H8< 4> ?@8=OB8O A=>2, :>B>@K5 2?5@2K5 225;8 ?@8=F8? 2>7=8:=>25=8O 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 B>;L:> C D878G5A:>3> ;8F0, B@C4>< :>B>@>3> ?@>872545=85 A>740=> (G. 1 AB. 135). 59AB28B5;L=>, 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 ?@8=04;568B 53> 873>B>28B5;N: @0=LH5 2 A8;C 70:>=0 (G. 1 AB. 486  !$! ), ?> =>2><C 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?@57C<?F859 ?5@540G8 ?@02 ?@8 70:;NG5=88 4>3>2>@0 =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O (G. 2 AB. 13 >). "> 5ABL @57C;LB0B >AB0;AO B5< 65, 87<5=8;AO ;8HL ?@02>2>9 <5E0=87< ?>;CG5=8O ?@02 873>B>28B5;5<. >, 2>-?5@2KE, 2 G. 2 A>45@68BAO >3>2>@:0 "5A;8 8=>5 =5 ?@54CA<>B@5=> 4>3>2>@><". "0:85 4>3>2>@K :@09=5 @54:>, => 2AB@5G0NBAO =0 ?@0:B8:5, >1KG=> :>340 8=8F80B82C AJ5<>: 15@5B =0 A51O ;8F>, 40;5:>5 >B :8=5<0B>3@0D0, AG8B0NI55, GB> 02B>@K ;CGH5 '=53> <>3CB >15A?5G8BL ?@>:0B=CN AC4L1C ?@>872545=8O. >-2B>@KE, 5A;8 @57C;LB0B 8 :065BAO 01A>;NB=> >48=0:>2K< ?@8 =>@<0;L=>< B5G5=88 45;, B> >A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K, A2O70==K5 A =>2K< ?>4E>4>< : 2>7=8:=>25=8N 8 ?5@540G5 ?@02 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, 2>7=8:=CB ?@8 @0AB>@65=88 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. 0AB>@65=85 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0, >A>15==> 2 =>2KE @K=>G=KE CA;>28OE, 2AB@5G05BAO =5 B0: C6 @54:>. A;8 02B>@ <C7K:0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, A>740==>3> 4;O D8;L<0, 8 873>B>28B5;L 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O >1KG=> ?>A;5 70:;NG5=8O 4>3>2>@0 8 ?@8=OB8O ?@>872545=8O 873>B>28B5;5< =5 8<5NB 2708<=KE ?@5B5=789 8;8 ?>2>4>2 ?@5:@0B8BL >B=>H5=8O, B> 02B>@ ;8B5@0BC@=>3> AF5=0@8O, 8 >A>15==> @568AA5@ 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>740=8O D8;L<0 G0AB> >:07K20NBAO =0 3@0=8 @07@K20 >B=>H5=89. 2B>@ AF5=0@8O <>65B 1KBL =5C4>2;5B2>@5= B@0:B>2:>9 >1@07>2 8;8 >B45;L=KE AF5=, ?@5?OBAB2>20BL 2=5A5=8N 87<5=5=89 2 AF5=0@89 ?>A;5 53> CB25@645=8O, ?@>48:B>20==KE =5>1E>48<>ABLN A>:@0B8BL M:@0==>5 2@5<O 8;8 ?5@5=5AB8 0:F5=BK 2 <0B5@80;5. # @568AA5@0 65 ?><8<> :>=D;8:B>2 B2>@G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0 <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL ?@>1;5<K G8AB> B@C4>2>3> ?;0=0, A2O70==K5 A 53> @01>B>9 =0 ?;>I04:5, =0@CH5=8O<8 :0;5=40@=>:?>AB0=>2>G=>3> ?;0=0 8 B. ?. 154 2B>@A:>5 A>3;0H5=85, :0: 8 ;N1>9 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2>9 '4>3>2>@, <>65B 1KBL @0AB>@3=CB> =5 8=0G5, :0: ?> >1>N4=><C 65;0=8N 8;8 A>3;0H5=8N AB>@>=, :@><5 A;CG052, ?@O<> ?@54CA<>B@5==KE 2 70:>=5.  02B>@A:>< ?@025 >A=>2=K< B0:8< A;CG05< O2;O5BAO @0AB>@65=85 4>3>2>@0 :0: @50;870F8O 02B>@>< A2>53> =58<CI5AB25==>3> ?@020 =0 >B7K2 ?@>872545=8O (AB. 15 >).  0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, ?>A:>;L:C ?@>872545=85 O2;O5BAO =5@0745;L=K<, =0 2>7<>6=>ABL 70?@5I5=8O A>02B>@>< 8A?>;L7>20BL @57C;LB0B A>2<5AB=>9 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0:;04K20NBAO >?@545;5==K5 >3@0=8G5=8O. @0240, D>@<C;8@>2:0 017. 3 G. 2 AB. 10 >AB02;O5B >3@><=>5 ?>;5 4;O B>;:>20=89: "=8 >48= 87 A>02B>@>2 =5 2?@025 157 4>AB0B>G=KE : B><C >A=>20=89 70?@5B8BL 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O". 'B> AG8B0BL 4>AB0B>G=K<8 >A=>20=8O<8 2 40==>< A;CG05. @O4 ;8 :B>-=81C4L 87 02B>@>2 <>65B 157 459AB28B5;L=> A5@L57=KE <>B82>2 ?>72>;8BL A515 @>A:>HL >B>720BL ?@>872545=85, ?>A:>;L:C ?@54CA<>B@5==>5 G. 2 AB. 15 2>7<5I5=85 2A5E C1KB:>2, 2:;NG0O C?CI5==CN 2K3>4C, ?@8G8=5==KE @5H5=85< >1 >B7K25, =5?>A8;L=> 4;O 02B>@>2 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, :>B>@0O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A?;02 B2>@G5A:>9 8 ?@>872>4AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 8 ?@54?>;0305B 2;>65=85 (0 7=0G8B, 8 2>7<5I5=85) =5<0;KE 45=56=KE A@54AB2. =>385 A8BC0F88, ?@8 :>B>@KE AB>@>=K A>3;0A=K @0AB>@3=CBL 02B>@A:85? >B=>H5=8O, <>3CB 1KBL A<>45;8@>20=K 2 4>3>2>@5 ?@8 53> @07@01>B:5 8 70:;NG5=88. 1KG=> B0:8<8 A;CG0O<8 O2;ONBAO: ?@87=0=85 AC4>< =54>1@>A>25AB=>AB8 02B>@0 ?@8 A>740=88 A2>53> 2:;040 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, B.5., =0?@8<5@ ?;0380B ?@8 =0?8A0=88 ;8B5@0BC@=>3> AF5=0@8O; A8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 =0@CH5=85 02B>@>< :0;5=40@=>-?>AB0=>2>G=>3> ?;0=0; >B:07 02B>@0 2=5AB8 >3>2>@5==K5 2 4>3>2>@5 87<5=5=8O 2 A2>9 2:;04 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85; 2>7=8:=>25=85 2 AJ5<>G=>9 3@C??5 @07=>3;0A89 B2>@G5A:>3> 8;8 ;8G=>AB=>3> E0@0:B5@0, 8 B. ?. > 5A;8 2> <=>38E 4>3>2>@0E 45B0;L=> >?8AK20NBAO A0<8 ?>2>4K 4;O @0AB>@65=8O >B=>H5=89, @53C;8@CNBAO 2708<>@0AG5BK ?@8 @07;8G=KE A;CG0OE 8E @0A?040, B> :@09=5 @54:> AB>@>=K ?@54AB02;ONB A515 ?@02>2K5 ?>A;54AB28O 8 =5 ?KB0NBAO A?@>3=>78@>20BL, :0:8< 8<5==> >1@07>< <>6=> 871560BL 8;8 E>BO 1K C<5=LH8BL CI5@1, =587156=> ?@8G8=O5<K9 @0AB>@65=85< 4>3>2>@0. 0AB>@65=85 4>3>2>@0, 'B.5. ?@5:@0I5=85 ?5@540==KE 02B>@>< 873>B>28B5;N ?>;=><>G89 ?> 8A?>;L7>20=8N 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8 2>72@0B 2A5E ?@02 =0 @57C;LB0B B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ;8FC, GL8< B@C4>< >= A>740=, AB028B ?>4 2>?@>A A0<> ?>O2;5=85 D8;L<0. @54AB028< A8BC0F8N, :>340 2 A0<>< @0730@5 155 AJ5<>G=>3> ?5@8>40 =0ABC?05B <><5=B, :>B>@K9 2 4>3>2>@5 <564C 02B>@>< ;8B5@0BC@=>3> AF5=0@8O 8 873>B>28B5;5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O ?@54CA<>B@5= :0: ?>@>640NI89 @0AB>@65=85 4>3>2>@0, 8 02B>@ AF5=0@8O CE>48B A :0@B8=K, ?>;CG82 >1@0B=> 2A5 A2>8 ?@020, 873>B>28B5;L =5 <>65B =8 @01>B0BL A C65 >BA=OBK< <0B5@80;><, ?>A:>;L:C >B=K=5 ?@02 =0 53> 8A?>;L7>20=85 C =53> =5B, =8 ?@>4>;60BL ?@>872>4AB2> D8;L<0 =0 >A=>25 AF5=0@8O, ?>A:>;L:C ?@020 =0 AF5=0@89 25@=C;8AL 53> B2>@FC. 5>1E>48<> ?>=OBL, :0:8< >1@07>< 2 40==>9 A8BC0F88 <>65B ?@8<5=OBLAO G. 4 AB. 453"  $? 'B> AG8B0BL 8A?>;=5=85<? G5284=>, 2 A0<>< 4>3>2>@5 AB>@>=K =5 <>3CB ?@54CA<>B@5BL @53C;8@>20=85 >B=>H5=89, =0ABC?0NI8E ?>A;5 53> @0AB>@65=8O, B0: :0: 4>3>2>@ ?5@5AB05B 459AB2>20BL 4;O =8E A <><5=B0 70:;NG5=8O A>3;0H5=8O > @0AB>@65=88 (G. 3) 8;8 A <><5=B0, ?@54CA<>B@5==>3> 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI5< @0745;5 4>3>2>@0. !;54>20B5;L=>, 2>7<>6=> ;8HL AD>@<C;8@>20BL 4>3>2>@=K5 >1O70B5;LAB20 B0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K ?5@540G0 ?@02 AG8B0;0AL >1O70==>ABLN 4;O 8A?>;=5=8O 2 A0<>< =0G0;5 459AB28O 4>3>2>@0 8 =5 <>3;0 1KBL 2>72@0I5=0 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G. 4? ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 02B>@A:85 ?@020 O2;ONBAO ?> ACB8 A2>59 ;8G=K<8, ^=5>B45;8<K<8 >B ;8G=>AB8 B2>@F0, G5;>25:0, 2;>682H53> 2 A2>5 ?@>872545=85 A8;K, 4CHC, B0;0=B. > A0<><C 4CEC MB8 ?@020 =5 <>3CB 1KBL ?@54<5B>< =0A8;LAB25==>3> C45@60=8O. > CAB0=02;8205B ?>@O4>:, ?@54?>;030NI89, GB> 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O 8=K<8, G5< 53> A>740B5;L, ;8F0<8 2>7<>6=>, 70 =5:>B>@K<8 8A:;NG5=8O<8 (AB. 18 - 26 >) B>;L:> =0 >A=>25 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0. 5A:>;L:> 8=0O A8BC0F8O 2>7=8:05B, :>340 02B>@ 8 873>B>28B5;L 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O A>AB>OB =5 2 02B>@A:>-?@02>2KE, 0 B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=8OE. 568< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8;8 2:;040 2 =53> (4;O 02B>@>2 87 G. 4 AB. 13 >), 8<5NI8E AB0BCA A;C651=>3> ?@>872545=8O, AB028B <=>3> 2>?@>A>2. 0AA<>B@8< A;CG08, :>340 2 B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=8OE A 873>B>28B5;5< A>AB>OB A>02B>@K D8;L<0 - 02B>@ AF5=0@8O, @568AA5@ 8;8 02B>@ <C7K:0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, A>740==>3> A?5F80;L=> 4;O D8;L<0. 04> A:070BL, GB> AF5=0@8ABK 8 :><?>78B>@K @54:> A>AB>OB 2 HB0B5 :8=>ABC489 8;8 8=KE 873>B>28B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89.  2>B HB0B=K5 @568AA5@K - =5 @54:>ABL. >;55 B>3>, >BACBAB285 2 AB0@>9 A8AB5<5 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 B8?>2>3> @568AA5@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 ?@8 =0;8G88 8 B8?>2>3> AF5=0@=>3> 8 B8?>2>3> 4>3>2>@0 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 <C7K:8 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> ?>402;ONI55 G8A;> @568AA5@>2 A>AB>O;8 2 B@C4>2KE, 0 =5 02B>@A:8E, >B=>H5=8OE A> ABC48O<8 8 8E >B=>H5=8O 156 @53C;8@>20;8AL =>@<0<8 B@C4>2>3>, 0 =5 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20. > ?@8 AB0@>9 A8AB5<5 B0:>9 ?@02>2>9 AB0BCA @568AA5@>2 8<5; B>;L:> ?;NAK, B0: :0: 02B>@A:85 ?@020 =0 D8;L< 2 F5;>< 2A5 @02=> 2>7=8:0;8 C ABC488, 8 A>>B25BAB25==> ?@>1;5<K 2 >B=>H5=8OE <564C ABC4859 8 @568AA5@>< =5 <>3;8 >:070BL =8:0:>3> 2;8O=8O =0 AC4L1C 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 0 ?@58<CI5AB2> B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=89 A>AB>O;> 2 B><, GB> ABC48O 2K?;0G820;0 70@01>B=CN ?;0BC @568AA5@C =57028A8<> >B B>3>, A=8<0; >= D8;L< 8;8 =0E>48;AO "2 ?@>AB>5".  :>=F5 80-E - =0G0;5 90-E 3>4>2 1>;LH8=AB2> @568AA5@>2 1K;8 2K2545=K 70 HB0B :8=>?@>872>4OI8E >@30=870F89, ?>A:>;L:C >1J5< ?@>872>4AB20 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L :8=>D8;L<>2 A>:@0B8;AO, 8 ABC48O< 1K;> :@09=5 =52K3>4=>, 0 ?>765 ?@>AB> =52>7<>6=> 565<5AOG=> 2K?;0G820BL 70@01>B=CN ?;0BC =8G53> =5 A=8<0NI8< @568AA5@0<. @8 70?CA:5 D8;L<0 @568AA5@ ?@83;0H0;AO =0 >A=>25 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0. "0:8< >1@07><, 1>;LH0O G0ABL A>740==KE 2 B>B ?5@8>4 D8;L<>2 =5 O2;O;0AL A;C651=K<8 ?@>872545=8O<8 @568AA5@>2, => MB> 2;8O;> =5 =0 ?>;=><>G8O ?>A;54=8E ?> >B=>H5=8N : @57C;LB0BC A2>59 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0 =0 C@>25=L 1;03>A>AB>O=8O 87-70 >BACBAB28O 30@0=B8@>20==>9 ?><5AOG=>9 70@01>B=>9 ?;0BK. A=>2K, ?@>2>73;0A82H85 ?@8=F8? 2>7=8:=>25=8O 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 B>;L:> C D878G5A:>3> ;8F0 - B2>@F0, CAB0=>28;8 4>2>;L=> ;N1>?KB=K9 @568< A;C651=KE ?@>872545=89.  A>>B25BAB288 -A> AB. 140 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> =0 ?@>872545=85 , A>740==>5 2 ?>@O4:5 2K?>;=5=8O A;C651=>3> 7040=8O ?@8=04;560;> 53> 02B>@C, B>G=> B0: 65, :0: 8 ?> G. 1 AB. 483  !$! . >4 "02B>@A:8< ?@02><" 2 MB8E =>@<0E 2 >A=>2=>< ?>=8<0;AO 25AL :><?;5:A =58<CI5AB25==KE ?@02, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, ?@02> 02B>@AB20 8 ?@02> =0 8<O. '0ABL 2 AB. 140 A=>2 1>;55 ?>4@>1=>, ?> A@02=5=8N A >BAK;>G=>9 G. 2 AB. 483  !$!  @53C;8@>20;0 8<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020 =0 A;C651=>5 ?@>872545=85. "0:, ?@02> 8A?>;L7>20=8O A?>A>10<8, >1CA;>2;5==K<8 F5;LN 7040=8O, ?@8=04;560;> >@30=870F88 - @01>B>40B5;N. > =>25;;0 A>AB>O;0 2 B><, GB> 8<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020 ?@8=04;560;8 @01>B>40B5;N =5 15AA@>G=>, 0 2 B5G5=85 2A53> ;8HL 3 ;5B A <><5=B0 ?@54>AB02;5=8O @01>B=8:>< ?@>872545=8O, 0 A A>3;0A8O @01>B>40B5;O - 8 B>3> <5=LH5. >A;5 8AB5G5=8O C:070==>3> A@>:0 8<CI5AB25==K5 02B>@A:85 ?@020 2>7=8:0;8 C A0<>3> B2>@F0, 8 4;O MB>3> "?@52@0I5=8O" =5 B@51>20;>AL =8:0:8E 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE 0:B>2. 0: 8 2  !$! , 2 A=>20E =5 1K;> >B25B0 =0 2>?@>A, :><C 1C4CB ?@8=04;560BL 8<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020 =0 A;C651=>5 ?@>872545=85 2 A;CG05 ?@5:@0I5=8O B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=89, =0?@8<5@ 4> 8AB5G5=8O C?><O=CB>3> B@5E;5B=53> A@>:0. @><5 B>3>, A=>2K >3@0=8G820;8 157 ?@8=04;560I85 @01>B>40B5;N 8<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O =5 B>;L:> 2> 2@5<5=8, => 8 ?> >1J5<C. !>3;0A=> G. 4 AB 140 2A5 284K 8A?>;L7>20=8O A;C651=>3> ?@>872545=8O, =5 >1CA;>2;5==K5 F5;LN 7040=8O, ?@8=04;560;8 A0<><C 02B>@C. > A>E@0=8; =>@<C > A;C651=KE ?@>872545=8OE (AB. 14), => 55 B@0:B>2:0 @568<0 A;C651=KE ?@>872545=89 >B;8G05BAO >B ?@54;>65==>3> 2 A=>20E.  > =5 ?@54CA<>B@5= 70:>==K9 ?5@5E>4 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 ?> 8AB5G5=88 >?@545;5==>3> A@>:0 >B @01>B>40B5;O : A0<><C 02B>@C. 0B> 2 G. 2 CAB0=02;8205BAO =5 01A>;NB=>5 ?@028;> 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 C @01>B>40B5;O, 0 0=0;>38G=0O G. 2 AB. 13 ?@57C<?F8O ?5@540G8 ?@02 8 C:07K205BAO, GB> 4>3>2>@>< (>G5284=>, B@C4>2K<) <>65B 1KBL 22545= 8=>9 ?>@O4>: @50;870F88 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02. -B> 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL CAB0=>28BL ;N1>9 @568< 8A?>;L7>20=8O A;C651=>3> ?@>872545=8O :0: 2> 2@5<5=8, B0: 8 ?> >1J5<C ?>;=><>G89. 0:>=5F, 2?5@2K5 2 @>AA89A:>< 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 2 G. 3 AB. 14 22>48BAO 2 >B=>H5=88 @01>B>40B5;O =5:>5 ?>4>185 <>@0;L=KE ?@02, 0 8<5==> ?@02> C:07K20BL A2>5 =08<5=>20=85 ?@8 ;N1>< 8A?>;L7>20=88 ?@>872545=8O. -B> ?@02><>G85 B0:65 0=0;>38G=> ?@02C 873>B>28B5;O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 70:@5?;5==><C 2 017. 2 G. 2 AB. 13 >. >A;5 2ABC?;5=8O 2 A8;C 2 1993 3, > ?@0:B8G5A:8 =8:B> 87 :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 =5 704020;AO 2>?@>A>< > ?>A;54AB28OE ?@87=0=8O D8;L<0 A;C651=K< ?@>872545=85<, ?>A:>;L:C ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> @568AA5@>2 1K;8 2K2545=K 70 HB0B :8=>?@>872>4OI8E >@30=870F89 8 ?>MB><C ?@83;0H0;8AL =0 AJ5<:8 =0 >A=>20=88 4>3>2>@>2, :>B>@K5 =5 1K;8 AB@>3> B@C4>2K<8. =8 A>45@60;8 M;5<5=BK 8 02B>@A:>3>, 8 B@C4>2>3> 8 8=KE 284>2 4>3>2>@>2. > A ?@8=OB85< 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5 MB>B 2>?@>A 2>7=8:. C4CG8 <=>3>>B@0A;52K< 0:B>< 8 8<5O F5;LN 2 B>< G8A;5 CA>25@H5=AB2>20=85 8 A>F80;L=KE 8 B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=89 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, 0:>= 2 AB. 3 ;8HL 2A:>;L7L C?><8=05B > HB0B=>< B2>@G5A:>< A>AB025 >@30=870F89 :8=5<0B>3@0D88. -B> C?><8=0=85 <>65B 4;O @568AA5@>2, >?5@0B>@>2, EC4>6=8:>2, 72C:>@568AA5@>2 8 ?@., @C:>2>4AB2>< : 459AB28N ?>A:>;L:C 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 B@C4>2>9 ?@8@>4K >B=>H5=89 40AB 8< 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>;CG5=8O 30@0=B8@>20==>3> 565<5AOG=>3> 4>E>40, =57028A8<> >B B2>@G5A:8E ?@>65:B>2. 04> A:070BL, GB> 0:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5 22>48B 2 :@C3 HB0B=KE @01>B=8:>2 8<5==> A?5F8D8G5A:8 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:85 ?@>D5AA88, ?>A:>;L:C B5 B2>@FK, :>B>@K5 ?5@5G8A;5=K 2 B>9 65 AB0BL5 :0: =5HB0B=K5 B2>@G5A:85 @01>B=8:8, 8<5NB 2>7<>6=>ABL 8A?>;L7>20BL @57C;LB0BK A2>59 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 2=5 :8=>: 02B>@K AF5=0@8O =0 B@048F8>==> 158 ;8B5@0BC@=>< ?>?@8I5, :><?>78B>@K - =5 2:;NG0O A2>8 ?@>872545=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=CN A@54C, 0:B5@K 8 0:B@8AK - 2 B50B@5 8 B. ?. BACBAB285 2 >, ?> A@02=5=8N A A=>20<8, :@8B5@8O F5;8 7040=8O ?@8 >?@545;5=88 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O 70AB02;O5B >A>15==> BI0B5;L=> ?>4E>48BL : A>AB02;5=8N B@C4>2KE 8 8=KE A>3;0H5=89. 0?@8<5@, >G5284=>, GB> B@C4>2>9 4>3>2>@ <564C 873>B>28B5;5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8 EC4>6=8:><-<C;LB8?;8:0B>@>< <>65B ?@54CA<0B@820BL @575@28@>20=85 EC4>6=8:>< ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?5@A>=0659 2=5 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>3> ?@>872545=8O. =K<8 A;>20<8, 70 EC4>6=8:>< >AB0NBAO ?@020 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 A>740==KE 8< 87>1@065=89 =0 ?@54<5B0E 1KB0, ?;0:0B0E, ?@8 ?@>872>4AB25 83@CH5: 8 B. ?. @><5 B>3>, 8<5==> ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 ?5@A>=0659 4;O A>740=8O ?@54<5B>2 45:>@0B82=>-?@8:;04=>3> 8A:CAAB20, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL 70@538AB@8@>20=K :0: ?@><KH;5==K9 >1@075F, 2AB05B 2>?@>A, ?@02><>G5= A0< B2>@5F A45;0BL MB> 8;8 =5B, 8 :0:>2K ?>A;54AB28O 4;O 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, >A>15==> 5A;8 MB> ?@>872545=85 :C:>;L=>9 <C;LB8?;8:0F88. -B> G@572KG09=> 206=>, ?>A:>;L:C > >B:070;AO >B 22545==>3> A=>20<8 :@8B5@8O F5;8. A>15==> BI0B5;L=> 4>;65= 1KBL C@53C;8@>20= 2 4>3>2>@5 <><5=B, :>340 B0:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 A2O70=> A @5:;0<8@>20=85< 8;8 ?@>42865=85< A0<>3> 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. AB05B B0:65 2>?@>A, ?@8<5=8<0 ;8 2 40==>9 A8BC0F88 =>@<0 017. 1 G. 2 AB. 31 >, CAB0=02;820NI0O, GB> 2A5 ?@O<> =5 ?5@540==K5 ?> 4>3>2>@C ?@020 AG8B0NBAO =5 ?5@540==K<8. >A:>;L:C @5GL 2 AB. 31 845B 8<5==> >1 02B>@A:>< 4>3>2>@5, B> 1C45B ;8 >=0 459AB2>20BL 2 A;CG05 B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=89 <564C AB>@>=0<8? 0 ?@0:B8:5 G0AB> 2>7=8:05B 5I5 >4=0 ?@>1;5<0, B@51CNI0O <0:A8<0;L=> OA=>3> ?>=8<0=8O. "0:, =0 !25@4;>2A:>9 :8=>ABC488 @01>B05B . 2 4>;6=>AB8 48@5:B>@0 :0@B8=K. =0 A>AB>8B 2 HB0B5 :8=>ABC488. 8=>ABC48O A0<>AB>OB5;L=> CAB0=02;8205B ?@8<5@=K5 AB02:8 2>7=03@0645=8O, ?@8G5< MB8 AB02:8, 8;8 B0: =07K205<K5 "?>AB0=>2>G=K5", @07;8G0NBAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, HB0B=K9 @01>B=8: CG0AB2C5B 2 A>740=88 D8;L<0 8;8 ?@83;0H5==K9. !B02:8 4;O >?;0BK B2>@G5A:>3> B@C40 HB0B=KE @01>B=8:>2 <5=LH5, G5< ?@83;0H5==KE, 8 2 MB>< 5ABL A2>O ;>38:0, ?>A:>;L:C HB0B=K< @01>B=8:0< :8=>ABC48O ?><8<> ?>AB0=>2>G=KE 2K?;0G8205B 70@01>B=CN ?;0BC, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 2 ?5@8>4 ?@>AB>O. 01>B0O =0 :8=>ABC488, . >4=>2@5<5==> CG8BAO =0 70>G=>< >B45;5=88 AF5=0@=>-:8=>254G5A:>3> D0:C;LB5B0 . > >4=>9 87 55 @01>B :8=>ABC48O @5H8;0 A>740BL :>@>B:><5B@06=K9 D8;L<, 159 => 4>3>2>@ A =59 =5 70:;NG8;0, 01 ?>AB0=>2>G=>5 2>7=03@0645=85 2K?;0B8;0 ?> AB02:0< 4;O HB0B=KE @01>B=8:>2, >1JOA=OO MB> B5<, GB> . A>AB>8B A :8=>ABC4859 2 B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=8OE. 45AL =5>1E>48<> G5B:> ?>=8<0BL, GB> A0<> ?> A515 =0;8G85 B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=89 <564C 02B>@>< 8 ?>B5=F80;L=K< ?>;L7>20B5;5< =5 2;5G5B ?@840=8O @57C;LB0BC B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 AB0BCA0 A;C651=>3> ?@>872545=8O. A=>2=K< :@8B5@85< BCB A;54C5B AG8B0BL A>740=85 ?@>872545=8O 2 :0G5AB25 A;C651=>3> 7040=8O 8;8 A0<C' B2>@G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL :0: A>AB02;ONICN A;C651=CN >1O70==>ABL.  A;CG05 A . A>740=85 ;8B5@0BC@=>3> AF5=0@8O =5 O2;O5BAO 55 A;C651=>9 >1O70==>ABLN :0: HB0B=>3> 48@5:B>@0 :0@B8=K, A;54>20B5;L=> A =59 :0: A> AF5=0@8AB>< 4>;65= 1KBL 70:;NG5= >B45;L=K9 4>3>2>@, 15AA?>@=>, 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>3> E0@0:B5@0.  A2O78 A @0AA<>B@5=85< B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=89 ?@8 A>740=88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 2>7=8:05B 2>?@>A > 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?@8<5=5=8O =>@<K > A;C651=KE ?@>872545=8OE, :>340 ?@>4NA5@>< 8;8 873>B>28B5;5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O O2;O5BAO D878G5A:>5 ;8F>.  A>>B25BAB288 A $545@0;L=K< 70:>=>< " 2=5A5=88 87<5=5=89 2 AB0BLN 15 >45:A0 70:>=>2 > B@C45 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88" >B 1 <0O 1998 3. N 69-$1 @01>B>40B5;O<8 <>3CB O2;OBLAO =5 B>;L:> ?@54?@8OB85, CG@5645=85 8;8 >@30=870F8O (B.5. N@848G5A:>5 ;8F>), :0: MB> 1K;> @0=LH5, => 8 D878G5A:85 ;8F0. -B> 87<5=5=85 1K;> 22545=> A:>@55 2A53> 4;O A;CG052, :>340 =0 @01>BC ?@83;0H0NBAO 4><@01>B=8FK, =O=8 8 B.?., >1A;C6820NI85 =0=8<0NI53> 8E 3@0640=8=0 8 53> A5<LN. 568AA5@ 65 ?@83;0H05BAO =0 @01>BC =5 4;O C4>2;5B2>@5=8O ;8G=KE 1KB>2KE ?>B@51=>AB59 ?@>4NA5@0 :0: D878G5A:>3> ;8F0, 0 2 A2O78 A >ACI5AB2;5=85< ?>A;54=8< ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 - AJ5<>: D8;L<0.  > A>45@60BAO 425 3@C??K =>@<, @53C;8@CNI8E 02B>@A:89 4>3>2>@: AB. 30-34 CAB0=02;820NB >1I85 B@51>20=8O : D>@<5 8 A>45@60=8N 4>3>2>@0 8 <>3CB AG8B0BLAO lex generale; G. 2 AB. 13 O2;O5BAO lex speciale 4;O 4>3>2>@>2 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. > ?>;>65=8O G. 2 AB. 13 >B=>AOBAO : 4>3>2>@C =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;><. 0 45;5 65 AF5=0@8AB, =0?@8<5@, O2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> 02B>@>< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, => 8 - 4065 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L - 02B>@>< ;8B5@0BC@=>3> AF5=0@8O, A>25@H5==> >1>A>1;5==>3> ?@>872545=8O, :>B>@>5 <>65B 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=> 8 =5:8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8<8 A@54AB20<8. !B0BLO 13 =5 405B >B25B0 =0 2>?@>A, ?@8<5=8<K ;8 =>@<K 55 G. 2 : ' !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1998. - ! 19. - AB. 2065. 160 @53C;8@>20=8N >B=>H5=89'?> A>740=8N 8 8A?>;L7>20=8N AF5=0@8O, 2:;040 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, 0 =5 A0<>3> 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. A;8 ?@54AB028BL A515, GB> =0 ABC488 ?>O2;O5BAO 02B>@, ?>:0 =5 8<5NI89 3>B>2>3> AF5=0@8O, 8 ABC48O 70:;NG05B A =8< A>3;0H5=85, @53C;8@CNI55 8E >B=>H5=8O A <><5=B0 ?@8E>40 AF5=0@8AB0 4> 8A?>;L7>20=8O B>3> D8;L<0, :>B>@K9 2 @57C;LB0B5 MB>3> A>B@C4=8G5AB20 1C45B A>740=, B> B0:>9 4>3>2>@ 1C45B ?> ACB8 45;0 2:;NG0BL 2 A51O F5;K9 :><?;5:A =>@<, 01A>;NB=> @07;8G=KE :0: 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B MB0?0 2708<>>B=>H5=89, B0: 8 ?> ?@54<5BC 4>3>2>@0.  =5:>59 8450;L=> A<>45;8@>20==>9 A8BC0F88 B0:>5 A>3;0H5=85 1C45B A>45@60BL, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, M;5<5=BK 4>3>2>@0 70:070.  > 2 >B=>H5=88 4>3>2>@ 70:070 ?@54CA<0B@820NBAO >?@545;5==K5 B@51>20=8O. >-?5@2KE, G. 5 AB. 31 70?@5I05B ?5@54020BL ?@020 =0 ?@>872545=8O, :>B>@K5 02B>@ <>65B A>740BL 2 1C4CI5<.  >?@545;5==>< A<KA;5 MB> >B=>A8BAO 8 : 2KH5>?8A0==>9 A8BC0F88. 59AB28B5;L=>, 70:;NG0O A 02B>@>< 4>3>2>@ =0 ?>:0 =5 ACI5AB2CNI55 ?@>872545=85, ?@>4NA5@ 4>;65= B>G=> >?8A0BL, :0:>9 8<5==> >1J5:B 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 >= E>B5; 1K ?>;CG8BL, 53> 60=@, A>45@60=85, >1J5< 8 B. ?. "5< A0<K< ?@5>4>;5205BAO 70?@5B G. 5 AB. 31: 4>3>2>@ 70:;NG05BAO =5 =0 01AB@0:B=K9 @57C;LB0B 1C4CI59 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 02B>@0, 0 =0 2?>;=5 :>=:@5B=>5 ?@>872545=85, 8=B5@5ACNI55 ?@>4NA5@0. >-2B>@KE, 2 > ACI5AB2C5B A?5F80;L=0O AB. 33 > 4>3>2>@0E 70:070, D>@<C;8@>2:0 :>B>@>9 ?>@>6405B G0ABK5 =54>@07C<5=8O =0 ?@0:B8:5.  A>>B25BAB288 A G. 1 MB>9 AB0BL8, 02B>@ >1O7C5BAO A>740BL ?@>872545=85 8 ?5@540BL 53> 70:07G8:C. "> 5ABL 745AL @5GL 845B > ?5@540G5 ?@>872545=8O :0: 25I8 (B@5E M:75<?;O@>2 @C:>?8A8 AF5=0@8O, =0?@8<5@), 0 2>2A5 =5 > ?5@540G5 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 =0 ?@>872545=85. "0:8< >1@07><, 70:07G8:, 70:;NG82 B>;L:> 4>3>2>@ 70:070 8 2K?;0B82 02B>@C 2>7=03@0645=85, 02B><0B8G5A:8 =5 ?>;CG05B ?@020 8A?>;L7>20BL 70:070==>5 8 >?;0G5==>5 ?@>872545=85. -B> 4>;6=K A>25@H5==> OA=> ?>=8<0BL ;8F0, 70:07K20NI85 ?@>872545=85. =0;>38G=0O ?CB0=8F0 ?@>8AE>48B ?@8 >@30=870F88 :>=:C@A>2 B2>@G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0, 2> <=>3>< =0?><8=0NI8E 70:07 ?@>872545=89. 0?@8<5@, @5:;0<=>5 035=BAB2>, >1A;C6820NI55 :><?0=8N "@>:B5@ M=4 5<1;" 2 >AA88, >1JO28;> :>=:C@A =0 =>2K9 ?5@A>=06 4;O @5:;0<=>3> B5;52878>==>3> @>;8:0 AB8@0;L=>3> ?>@>H:0 "8D-C=825@A0;". @87=0=85 >4=>3> 87 :>=:C@A0=B>2 ?>1548B5;5< 02B><0B8G5A:8 =5 405B >@30=870B>@0< ?@020 8A?>;L7>20BL ?5@A>=06 2 @5:;0<5. 1 MB>< 4>;65= 1KBL 70:;NG5= 02B>@A:89 4>3>2>@, 0 2>7=03@0645=85, >1JO2;5==>5 ?>1548B5;N 2 161 CA;>28OE :>=:C@A0, =5 <>65B AG8B0BLAO 2>7=03@0645=85< 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?5@A>=060. >72@0I0OAL : A<>45;8@>20==>9 A8BC0F88, ?@54?>;>68<, GB> 02B>@ 2 A>>B25BAB288 A >?8A0==K<8 2 4>3>2>@5 70:070 ?>65;0=8O<8 ?@>4NA5@0 A>740; AF5=0@89, 0 C ?@>4NA5@0 =5B 4>AB0B>G=KE D8=0=A>2KE 8;8 B5E=8G5A:8E 2>7<>6=>AB59, GB>1K =5<54;5==> ?@8ABC?8BL : AJ5<:0<, 8 2>>1I5 =5B C25@5==>AB8, GB> 70?CA: D8;L<0 1C45B >ACI5AB2;5=. ">340 AB>@>=K 8<5NB 2>7<>6=>ABL 70:;NG8BL B0: =07K205<K9 4>3>2>@->?F8>=, 8;8 ?@5420@8B5;L=K9 4>3>2>@, H8@>:> ?@8<5=O5<K9 70 @C156><, => 4> ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8 =5 8725AB=K9 @>AA89A:>9 ?@0:B8:5.  A>>B25BAB288 A MB8< 4>3>2>@>< 02B>@ >1O7C5BAO 70 >?@545;5==CN ?;0BC "?>?@845@60BL" AF5=0@89 4;O ?@>4NA5@0 2 B5G5=85 =5:>B>@>3>, >?@545;5==>3> 4>3>2>@>< 2@5<5=8, 8 =5 ?@54;030BL 53> B@5BL8< ;8F0<. A;8 70 MB> 2@5<O ?@>4NA5@ =0945B 45=L38, 02B>@ >1O7C5BAO 70:;NG8BL A =8< 4>3>2>@ > ?5@540G5 ?@02 =0 AF5=0@89 8 1C4CI89 D8;L<, 0 2>7=03@0645=85 ?> >?F8>=C 2>945B 2 >1I89 02B>@A:89 3>=>@0@; 5A;8 65 =5B, B> 02B>@ 2>;5= @0A?>@O60BLAO ?@>872545=85< ?> A2>5<C CA<>B@5=8N, 0 2K?;0G5==K5 ?> >?F8>=C AC<<K >AB0NBAO C =53>.  4>3>2>@C->?F8>=C ?@8<5=8<K =>@<K AB. 427  $, CAB0=02;820NI59 >1I85 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2K5 B@51>20=8O : ?@5420@8B5;L=><C 4>3>2>@C. >=OB85 ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> 4>3>2>@0 8 53> ?@02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 2?5@2K5 ?>O2;ONBAO 2 A=>20E (AB. 60). @5420@8B5;L=K9 4>3>2>@ 4>;65= >?8AK20BL CA;>28O, =0 :>B>@KE 1C45B 2?>A;54AB285 70:;NG5= >A=>2=>9 4>3>2>@, A>45@60BL >?8A0=85 53> ?@54<5B0 8 ACI5AB25==KE CA;>289.  ?@5420@8B5;L=>< 4>3>2>@5 4>;65= 1KBL C:070= A@>:, ?> 8AB5G5=88 :>B>@>3> AB>@>=K >1O7CNBAO 70:;NG8BL >A=>2=>9 4>3>2>@. A;8 MB>B A@>: =5 >?@545;5=, AB>@>=K 4>;6=K 70:;NG8BL >A=>2=>9 4>3>2>@ 2 B5G5=85 3>40 A <><5=B0 70:;NG5=8O ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> 4>3>2>@0. $>@<0 ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> 4>3>2>@0 7028A8B >B B@51>20=8O 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 : D>@<5 >A=>2=>3> 4>3>2>@0, 0 ?@8 >BACBAB288 B0:>3> C:070=8O ?@5420@8B5;L=K9 4>3>2>@ 4>;65= 1KBL 70:;NG5= >1O70B5;L=> 2 ?8AL<5==>9 D>@<5 (A=>2K 65 B@51>20;8 ?8AL<5==>9 D>@<K ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> 4>3>2>@0 =57028A8<> >B D>@<K >A=>2=>3>). 5A>1;N45=85 D>@<K ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> 4>3>2>@0 2;5G5B 53> =8GB>6=>ABL.  G.1 AB. 429  $ CAB0=02;8205BAO =>@<0 > ?@5:@0I5=88 ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> 4>3>2>@0. @0:B8G5A:8 ?@54CA<0B@820NBAO 425 A8BC0F88: ?@5:@0I5=85 ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> 4>3>2>@0 8A?>;=5=85< (B.5. 2 A2O78 A 70:;NG5=85< >A=>2=>3> 4>3>2>@0) 8 2 A2O78 A 8AB5G5=85< A@>:0. AB05BAO =5?>=OB=K<, <>65B ;8 1KBL ?@5420@8B5;L=K9 4>3>2>@ ?@5:@0I5= ?> 8=K< >A=>20=8O<,.87;>65==K< 2 3;. 26  $? 162 0:>=5F, 2K7K205B A><=5=85 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@8<5=5=8O ?>;>65=8O G. 5 AB. 429  $, >BAK;0NI59 2 ?. 4 AB. 445  $ : 02B>@A:8< 4>3>2>@0<->?F8>=0<. 0==0O =>@<0 ?>2B>@O5B G. 2 AB. 60 A=>2, ?@54CA<0B@820NICN 8A: > ?>=C645=88 C:;>=ONI59AO AB>@>=K 70:;NG8BL >A=>2=>9 4>3>2>@, 0 B0:65 >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 MB>. B>@>9 0170F ?@0:B8G5A:8 A>>B25BAB2C5B AB. 34 > >1 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 =0@CH5=85 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0.  >158E =>@<0E @5GL 845B > 2>7<5I5=88 C1KB:>2 C:;>=ONI59AO AB>@>=>9.  MB>9 G0AB8 =>@<K G. 5 AB, 429  $, ?@87=020O >?F8>= >4=>9 87 @07=>284=>AB59-02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0, 2?>;=5 ?@8<5=8<K : 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K< >B=>H5=8O<, B>340 :0: ?5@2K9 0170F 8 G. 2 AB. 60 A=>2, 8 G. 4 AB. 445  $, ?@54CA<0B@820NI89 8A: > ?>=C645=88 70:;NG8BL >A=>2=>9 4>3>2>@, 2@O4 ;8 ?@8<5=8< : B5< A;CG0O<, :>340 02B>@ 8;8 ?>B5=F80;L=K9 ?>;L7>20B5;L >B:07K20NBAO 70:;NG8BL A>3;0H5=85 >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 ?@>872545=8O.  E>7O9AB25==>9 ?@0:B8:5 ?@5420@8B5;L=K5 4>3>2>@K 70:;NG0NBAO, :0: ?@028;>, ?@8 =0;8G88 CA;>289 4;O 70:;NG5=8O >A=>2=>3> 4>3>2>@0 8 A;C60B ;8HL ">BA@>G:>9" 4;O >A=>2=KE ?@02>>B=>H5=89.  >1;0AB8 8A:CAAB20, >A>15==> 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, A;8H:>< <=>3> D0:B>@>2 2;8ONB =0 ?@8=OB85 @5H5=8O > 2K?CA:5 ?@>872545=8O 2 A25B 8;8 8=>< 53> 8A?>;L7>20=88.  1>;LH8=AB2> MB8E D0:B>@>2 ;560B 2=5 AD5@K, :>B>@0O <>65B 1KBL C@53C;8@>20=0 ?@02>2K<8 A@54AB20<8. !>>B25BAB25==>, 2@O4 ;8 @07C<=> ?>=C640BL 02B>@>2 : 2ABC?;5=8N 2 ?@02>>B=>H5=8O, 4065 2 B5, :>B>@K5 02B>@K ?@825BAB2>20;8 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O =0704. ;O CAB0=>2;5=8O =5:>53> ?>4>18O A?@0254;82>AB8, A;54C5B A>3;0A8BLAO A B5<, GB> =5;L7O ?>=C640BL 8 ?>;L7>20B5;59 2ABC?0BL 2 >B=>H5=8O, :>B>@K5 ?>G5<C-;81> 8E 1>;LH5 =5 CAB@0820NB. @8 MB>< >1O70==>ABL 2>7<5I5=8O C1KB:>2 >AB05BAO, => 2@O4 ;8 >=8 <>3CB 1KBL A:>;L-=81C4L 7=0G8B5;L=K<8. A;8 02B>@ >B:07K205BAO 70:;NG8BL >A=>2=>9 4>3>2>@, B> C1KB:8 ?>;L7>20B5;O, ?@8G8=5==K5 MB8< @5H5=85<, =5 <>3CB 1KBL A2O70=K A ?@>872>4AB2>< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O (?>A:>;L:C 8A?>;L7>20=85 AF5=0@8O 2>7<>6=> B>;L:> =0 >A=>25 4>3>2>@0 > ?5@540G5 ?@02, 0 8<5==> >B 53> 70:;NG5=8O 8 >B:07K205BAO 02B>@, 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, 4065 5A;8 ?>;L7>20B5;L-?@>4NA5@ ?@54?@8=8<0; :0:85-;81> ?>?KB:8, 2A5 >=8 =5 1K;8 70:>==K<8), 0 B0:65 A 8A?>;L7>20=85< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, ?>A:>;L:C B0:>2>5 ?>:0 =5 ACI5AB2C5B. A;8 65 ?@>4NA5@ >B:07K205BAO 70:;NG8BL >A=>2=>9 4>3>2>@, B> 02B>@ =5 <>65B B@51>20BL C =53> 2K?;0BK =5?>;CG5==>3> 3>=>@0@0 70 2>7<>6=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 AF5=0@8O, ?>A:>;L:C A0< 4>1@>2>;L=> A>3;0A8;AO ?> >?F8>=C ?>?@845@60BL AF5=0@89 =0 A2>9 AB@0E 8 @8A:. 163 >3>2>@->?F8>= 70:;NG05BAO >1KG=> =0 =5?@>4>;68B5;L=K9 A@>:, GB> A2O70=> =5 B>;L:> A C:070=85< 70:>=>40B5;LAB20, => 8 A B5<, GB> AF5=0@89 -"?@>4C:B A:>@>?>@BOI89AO." >7=03@0645=85 ?> B0:><C 4>3>2>@C 2A5340 2K@0605BAO 2 D8:A8@>20==>9 AC<<5. "5@@8B>@8N, =0 :>B>@CN @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO 459AB285 4>3>2>@0, F5;5A>>1@07=> >?8A0BL :0: ?>B5=F80;L=K9 0@50; "A1KB0" 1C4CI59 0C48>287C0;L=>9 ?@>4C:F88, ;CGH5 C:070BL 2AN B5@@8B>@8N 75<=>3> H0@0.  >?8A0=88 CA;>289 >A=>2=>3> 4>3>2>@0 4>AB0B>G=K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO 70O28BL > =0<5@5=88 ?@>4NA5@0 A>740BL 2 1C4CI5< 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 =0 >A=>25 AF5=0@8O, O2;ONI53>AO >1J5:B>< >?F8>=0, 8 A>A;0BLAO =0 G. 2 AB. 13 >, 5A;8 1C4CI85 >B=>H5=8O ?> ?>2>4C 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O =5 1C4CB 2KE>48BL 70 @5:><5=4>20==K5 70:>=>< @0<:8. !;54CNI8< MB0?>< 8;8 A;54CNI59 A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN A<>45;8@>20==>3> 2KH5 4>3>2>@0 1C45B A>3;0H5=85 > ?5@540G5 ?@02 =5?>A@54AB25==> =0 ACI5AB2CNI89 AF5=0@89. A=>2=>9 2>?@>A, 2>7=8:0NI89 ?@8 @0AA<>B@5=88 MB>9 G0A38 4>3>2>@0, A>AB>8B 2 B><, O2;O5BAO 40==>5 A>3;0H5=85 4>3>2>@>< =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8;8 =5B? "> 5ABL ?>4?0405B ;8 >= ?>4 @53C;8@>20=85, 70:@5?;5==>5 2 G. 2 AB. 13 >, 8;8 1>;55 ?>4E>48B ?>4 lex generale B@84F0BKE AB0B59? ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, ?5@540G0 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 AF5=0@8O :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:8<8 8;8 0=0;>38G=K<8 A@54AB20<8 =5A><=5==> =0?@O<CN >B=>A8BAO : A>740=8N 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O. !F5=0@89 8 5ABL 2:;04 53> 02B>@0 2 >1I55 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, AB. 13 > ?@O<> C:07K205B =0 >1J5:B ?@02>>B=>H5=89 - 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, GB> >B;8G05BAO >B >1J5:B0 4>3>2>@0 > ?5@540G5 ?@02 =0 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 AF5=0@8O. A;8 AG8B0BL, GB> 40==K9 4>3>2>@ =5 ?>4?0405B ?>4 459AB285 G. 2 AB. 13 >, B> AC4L10 AF5=0@8O 2 =5< <>65B 1KBL >B45;5=0 >B AC4L1K D8;L<0, A>740==>3> =0 53> >A=>25. 0?@8<5@, ?@8 70:;NG5=88 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@>2 >4=8< 87 206=59H8E CA;>289 O2;O5BAO A>3;0H5=85 > A@>:5, =0 :>B>@K9 ?5@540NBAO 02B>@A:85 ?@020. B=>A8B5;L=> ?5@540G8 ?@02 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 2 F5;>< A@>: CABC?:8 ?@020 >?@545;5= 70:>=>< 8 @025= A@>:C 459AB28O 02B>@A:8E ?@02 =0 MB> ?@>872545=85. >3>2>@ 65. =0 CABC?:C ?@02 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O AF5=0@8O <>65B 8<5BL 8=K5 A@>:8 459AB28O, B.5. 4>3>2>@>< <>65B 1KBL >?@545;5= 3>@074> <5=LH89 A@>:, 2 B5G5=85 :>B>@>3> ABC48O <>65B A>740BL =0 >A=>25 AF5=0@8O 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, 8;8 ?@8 C<>;G0=88, =0 <>9 273;O4. 164 2?>;=5 4>?CAB8<> ?@8<5=5=85 =>@<K 017. 2 G. 1 AB. 31 >. 0 ?@0:B8:5 B0:0O A8BC0F8O A:;04K205BAO, :>340 A>740NBAO B0: =07K205<K5 "@8<59:8", B.5. @07;8G=K5 D8;L<K ?> >4=><C 8 B><C 65 AF5=0@8N, =0?@8<5@, D8;L< ">9 >B5F - <>9 35@>9", A=OBK9 2 1991 3. 2> $@0=F88, 0 2 1994 3. 2 !(, 345 845=B8G=K<8 1K;8 4065 480;>38, 0 2 3;02=>9 @>;8 2 >158E 25@A8OE 2KABC?8; 5@0@ 5?0@4L5; 8;8 ""@>5 <C6G8= 8 <;045=5F" - $@0=F8O 1985 3., !( 1987 3. ! ?>4?8A0=85< 4>3>2>@0 > :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>< 8A?>;L7>20=88 AF5=0@8O, 70:;NG5==>3> =0 >?@545;5==K9 =5?@>4>;68B5;L=K9 A@>: (=0?@8<5@, 5 ;5B), 2>7=8:05B <=>3> 2>?@>A>2, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL @07@5H5=K ?>-@07=><C, 2 ?>;L7C :064>9 87 AB>@>=. >-?5@2KE, ?@8 53> 70:;NG5=88 =5>1E>48<> CG5ABL 2A5 D>@<C;8@>2:8 AB. 31 > >1 8A:;NG8B5;L=>AB8 ?@02, B5@@8B>@88 8 B.?. AB5AB25==>, 2 8=B5@5A0E ?@>4NA5@0, ?>;CG8BL 8A:;NG8B5;L=K5 ?@020 =0 2AN B5@@8B>@8N 75<=>3> H0@0 8 =0 :0: <>6=> 1>;55 4>;389 A@>:. @><5 B>3>, =5>1E>48<> 2 4>3>2>@5 G5B:> >?8A0BL ?>A;54AB28O ?@5:@0I5=8O >B=>H5=89 2 A2O78 A 8AB5G5=85< A@>:0, G5B:> @073@0=8G8BL AF5=0@89 8 ?@>872545=85, A>740==>5 =0 53> >A=>25, ?@8=OBL 2A5 <5@K : B><C, 'GB>1K 87 4>3>2>@0 1K;> ?@545;L=> OA=>, GB> 8AB5G5=85 A@>:0 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O AF5=0@8O =5 >7=0G05B, GB> AF5=0@8AB <>65B 70?@5B8BL 8A?>;L7>20BL D8;L<; >= 8<55B ;8HL ?@02> ?@54;030BL A2>9 AF5=0@89 B@5BL8< ;8F0< 157 A>3;0A8O ?@>4NA5@0. >-2B>@KE, 02B>@ 4>;65= =0AB0820BL, GB> ?>4>1=K9 4>3>2>@ :0A05BAO ;8HL >4=>3> 2840 8A?>;L7>20=8O AF5=0@8O - A>740=8O =0 53> >A=>25 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 8 GB> 2A5 >AB0;L=K5 284K 8A?>;L7>20=8O - 8740=85, B50B@0;L=0O ?>AB0=>2:0 8 B.?. >AB0NBAO C 02B>@0. A;8 ?@>4NA5@ AG8B05B, GB> >4=>2@5<5==0O ?5@540G0 8=KE ?@02 =0 AF5=0@89 B@5BL8< ;8F0< <>65B =0=5AB8 CI5@1 53> 8=B5@5A0<, B> >= <>65B 4>3>2>@8BLAO A 02B>@>< > ?5@540G5 1>;LH53> >1J5<0 ?@02 =0 >?@545;5==K9 A@>:. > 2 MB>< A;CG05 2>7=8:05B 8=>9 2>?@>A: <>65B ;8 1KBL 70:;NG5= 02B>@A:89 4>3>2>@ A ;8F><, :>B>@>5 =5 <>65B >15A?5G8BL @50;870F8N ?>;CG5==KE ?@02 8;8, :0: 2 2KH5C:070==>< A;CG05, 8 =5 A>18@05BAO 8E 8A?>;L7>20BL, 0 8<55B 548=AB25==CN F5;L - ?><5H0BL 2A5< >AB0;L=K< 2 8A?>;L7>20=88 >?@545;5==K< A?>A>1><? 2B>@A:89 4>3>2>@ O2;O5BAO A>3;0H5=85< <564C 02B>@>< :0: A>740B5;5< ?@>872545=8O 8 ?>;L7>20B5;5<. "@048F8>==>, 02B>@A:85 4>3>2>@K A>45@60;8 A0=:F88, =0ABC?0NI85 4;O ?>;L7>20B5;O 2 A;CG05, 5A;8 2 CAB0=>2;5==K9 4>3>2>@>< A@>: >= =5 @50;87>20; ?>;CG5==K5 ?> 4>3>2>@C ?@020 (A<. =0?@8<5@ 017. 3 ?. 7 165 "8?>2>3> 4>3>2>@0 >1 CABC?:5 ?@020 M:@0=870F88 (?5@545;:8) ?@>872545=8O1, 017. 3 ?. 5 "8?>2>3> 4>3>2>@0 >1 CABC?:5 ?@020 ?5@545;:8 ?@>872545=8O 2 AF5=0@89 B5;52878>==>3> D8;L<0 (>1 CABC?:5 ?@020 M:@0=870F88)2). A;8 65 AB>@>=0 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 =8 @50;L=K<, =8 ?>B5=F80;L=K< ?>;L7>20B5;5< =5 O2;O5BAO, B> ?@8<5=8<0 ;8 2 40==>< A;CG05 =>@<0 AB. 170  $ > <=8<KE 8 ?@8B2>@=KE A45;:0E? !;54CNI8< MB0?>< >B=>H5=89 <564C ?@>4NA5@>< 8 AF5=0@8AB>< O2;O5BAO 4>3>2>@ > ?5@540G5 ?@02 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, A>740==>5 =0 >A=>25 AF5=0@8O. >45;L, ?> :>B>@>9 4>;6=K AB@>8BLAO MB8 >B=>H5=8O, >?8A0=0 2 G. 2 AB. 13 >. =0O AB@C:BC@0 >B=>H5=89 2>7=8:05B C ?@>4NA5@0 A 02B>@0<8 ?@>872545=89, 2>H54H8E A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 (A<. @074. 1 3;. 3 48AA5@B0F88). =B5@5A=K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO 45;5=85 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@>2 ?> >1J5<C >1O70==>AB59 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B A?5F8D8:8 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>9 ?@>D5AA88. A5 CG0AB=8:8 :8=>?@>F5AA0, 2=>AO A2>9 2:;04 2 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 2K?>;=ONB @07;8G=K5 DC=:F88; 5:>B>@K5 87 =8E A>740NB A2>9 2:;04 =57028A8<> >B 4@C38E (=0?@8<5@, AF5=0@8ABK, :><?>78B>@K, >BG0AB8 EC4>6=8:8), =5:>B>@K5 >ACI5AB2;ONB A2>N B2>@G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL =5?>A@54AB25==> 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I59 @01>BK (=0?@8<5@, @568AA5@K, >?5@0B>@K, 72C:>@568AA5@K). !>>B25BAB25==>, MB8 >A>15==>AB8 @01>BK :064>3> 4>;6=K 1KBL >B@065=K 2 4>3>2>@0E, =0 >A=>20=88 :>B>@KE >=8 CG0AB2CNB 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>740=8O D8;L<0. 0?@8<5@, A B>G:8 7@5=8O 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, AB0BCA @568AA5@0 8 AF5=0@8AB0 01A>;NB=> >48=0:>2: >10 O2;ONBAO =5 B>;L:> 02B>@0<8 A2>53> 2:;040 2 D8;L< -;8B5@0BC@=>3> 8 @568AA5@A:>3> AF5=0@8O, => 8 02B>@0<8 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;><. > A B>G:8 7@5=8O =5?>A@54AB25==>3> CG0AB8O 2 AJ5<:0E, 8E >1O70==>AB8 @07;8G=K. A;8 ?@>4NA5@C 2A5 @02=>, 2 :0:>5 8<5==> 2@5<O AF5=0@8AB ?8H5B 70:070==K9 5<C AF5=0@89, ?> A:>;L:> G0A>2 2 45=L >= @01>B05B, ;8HL 1K AF5=0@89 1K; A40= 2 ?@54CA<>B@5==K9 8E A>3;0H5=85< A@>:, B> B2>@G5A:0O @01>B0 @568AA5@0 =0 AJ5<>G=>9 ?;>I04:5 4>;6=0 2?8AK20BLAO 2 :0;5=40@=>-?>AB0=>2>G=K9 ?;0= 8 =5?>A@54AB25==K9 3@0D8: @01>B. !>>B25BAB25==>, >B=>H5=8O ?@>4NA5@0 A ?5@2>9 3@C??>9 =>AOB 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 02B>@A:>-?@02>2>9 E0@0:B5@, 0 A> 2B>@>9 - ?><8<> 02B>@A:8E, 8<5NB >BB5=>: B@C4>2KE, ?>A:>;L:C ?@>4NA5@C 1 CB25@645= @8:07>< >A:8=> !!!  >B 17 8N;O 1978 3. ! 273. 2 CB25@645= @8:07>< >AB5;5@048> !!!  >B 4 8N;O 1975 3. ! 255. . 166. =5>1E>48<> A>1;N45=85 @568AA5@><, >?5@0B>@0< 8 ?@. @0A?>@O4:0 @01>G53> 4=O, B@C4>2>9 48AF8?;8=K. "0:8< >1@07><, 4>3>2>@ 4>;65= ?@54AB02;OBL A>1>9 =5:89 :>=3;><5@0B 87 =>@< 02B>@A:>3> 8 B@C4>2>3> ?@020, =5 ?>@>640O ?@8 MB>< 2 8=B5@5A0E B2>@F0 4;O @57C;LB0B0 53> 45OB5;L=>AB8 @568<0 A;C651=>3> ?@>872545=8O. 57028A8<> >B CA;>289 4>3>2>@0 A 02B>@0<8 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;>< 8;8 A 02B>@0<8 >B45;L=KE 2:;04>2 2 =53>, B0:>5 A>3;0H5=85 4>;6=> A>45@60BL CA;>285 > 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?5@5CABC?:8 ?@>4NA5@>< A2>8E ?@02 4;O =08;CGH53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O D8;L<0 8 B5< A0<K< 4020BL 5<C 2>7<>6=>ABL 70:;NG0BL 4>3>2>@K A 48AB@81LNB5@0<8 8 45<>=AB@0B>@0<8, >@30=870F8O<8 25I0=8O 8 873>B>28B5;O<8 2845>=>A8B5;59. 0@O4C A CA;>285< >1 CABC?:5, 4>3>2>@ 4>;65= ?@54CA<0B@820BL 4;O 873>B>28B5;O 30@0=B8N A>1;N45=8O 2A5E ?@02 02B>@0, :0: 8<CI5AB25==KE, B0: 8 ;8G=KE =58<CI5AB25==KE, ?@8 70:;NG5=88 ?>A;54CNI8E 4>3>2>@>2 =0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O.  4>3>2>@5 =5>1E>48<> @073@0=8G8BL ?5@5CABC?:C ?@02 =0 A>740=85 D8;L<0 8 ?@02 =0 53> 8A?>;L7>20=85.  ?5@2>< A;CG05 ?5@5CABC?:0 4>;6=0 ?@>E>48BL ?>4 :>=B@>;5< 02B>@0, =0?@8<5@ A 53> ?8AL<5==>3> A>3;0A8O 8 B.?. 5@5CABC?:0 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0 A?5F80;878@>20==K< @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;O< >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 873>B>28B5;5< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;OE =081>;55 CA?5H=>9 8 2K3>4=>9 @50;870F88 A2>59 ?@>4C:F88, 8 1K;> 1K ?@>I5, 5A;8 1K ?> 4>3>2>@C =5 B@51>20;>AL @07@5H5=8O 8;8 A>3;0A8O 02B>@0, 0 4>AB0B>G=> 1K;> 1K ;8HL ?5@8>48G5A:>3> C254><;5=8O > ?@>:0B=>9 AC4L15 D8;L<0, =0?@8<5@ >4=>2@5<5==> A ?5@5G8A;5=85< ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=>3> 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O A >BG5B>< >1 8AG8A;5=88 ?>4;560I8E 2K?;0B5 AC<<. ) >3>2>@K =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 (?5@5CABC?:0 ?@02) 0A?@>AB@0=5=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 =0 2A5E AB048OE 8 2A5<8 A?>A>10<8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO . =0 >A=>20=88 4>3>2>@>2 <564C ?@>4NA5@>< 8 =5?>A@54AB25==K<8 ?>;L7>20B5;O<8.  B0:8E 4>3>2>@0E ?><8<> ?>;>65=89, @53C;8@CNI8E 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K5 >B=>H5=8O <564C ?@>4NA5@>< :0: =>A8B5;5< 02B>@A:8E ?@02, ?>;CG5==KE =0 >A=>20=88 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 4>3>2>@>2 A ?5@2>=0G0;L=K<8 >1;040B5;O<8 ?@02 =0 D8;L< (AF5=0@8AB><, @568AA5@>< 8 :><?>78B>@><), 8 @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;5< :0: ?>;L7>20B5;5< >3>20@820NBAO G8AB> 167 E>7O9AB25==K5 <><5=BK: 873>B>2;5=85, B@0=A?>@B8@>2:0, AB@0E>20=85 :>?89 D8;L<0, 8E AC4L10 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 459AB28O 4>3>2>@0. >3>2>@K =0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 15AA?>@=> O2;ONBAO 02B>@A:8<8, ?>A:>;L:C 8E ?@54<5B A>AB02;O5B ?5@540G0 8;8 CABC?:0 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0 >?@545;5==K<8 A?>A>10<8 - ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07, @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 M:75<?;O@>2, ?5@540G0 4;O 2A5>1I53> A2545=8O 2 MD8@ 8;8 ?> :015;N, B>, A>>B25BAB25==>, : =8< ?@8<5=ONBAO 2A5 B@51>20=8O AB. 30 - 34 >.  7028A8<>AB8 >B A?>A>10 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 4>3>2>@K 8<5NB >?@545;5==K5 >A>15==>AB8. =8 70:;NG0NBAO =0 :8=>- 8 B5;5@K=:0E, ?@8 >@30=870F88 @5B@>A?5:B82 D8;L<>2 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> 02B>@0 8;8 ABC488, B5<0B8G5A:8E ?>:07>2 8 B. ?., =57028A8<> >B B>3>, 1C45B MB> :><<5@G5A:0O 0:F8O ;81> ?>:07 2 2845>:;C15 8;8 <C755 :8=>, :C40 2E>4 15A?;0B=K9. %>BO =5 ACI5AB2C5B B8?>2>3> 4>3>2>@0 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, >1KG=> :0640O 87 48AB@81LNB5@A:8E 8;8 ?@>:0B=KE D8@< 8<55B ?@8<5@=CN D>@<C B0:>3> A>3;0H5=8O.  > @07;8G0NBAO 420 2840 02B>@A:8E 4>3>2>@>2: > ?5@540G5 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE ?@02 8 > ?5@540G5 =58A:;NG8B5;L=KE ?@02 (017. 2 G. 1 AB. 30). A:;NG8B5;L=K5 ?@020 G0I5 2A53> ?@8>1@5B0NBAO >@30=870F8O<8 B5;52878>==>3> 25I0=8O, 873>B>28B5;O<8 2845>=>A8B5;59, 0 B0:65 48AB@81LNB5@A:8<8 D8@<0<8 ?@8 70:;NG5=88 4>3>2>@0 =0 ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07 8=>AB@0==>3> D8;L<0 =0 2A59 B5@@8B>@88 >AA88, 8;8 =0 2=CB@5==8E :8=>@K=:0E =0 >3@0=8G5==CN B5@@8B>@8N, :0: ?@028;> =51>;LHCN. @020 =0 ?C1;8G=K9 ?@>:0B 8 ?>:07 2 :8=>B50B@0E 8;8 :8=>CAB0=>2:0E >1KG=> ?5@540NBAO =0 =58A:;NG8B5;L=>9 >A=>25.  3;. 2 48AA5@B0F88 >B<5G0;>AL, GB> =0 AB0488 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 459AB2CNB =5 B>;L:> =5?>A@54AB25==K5 45<>=AB@0B>@K, => 8 1>;55 :@C?=K5 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;8 - 48AB@81LNB5@K, A2>53> @>40 ?>A@54=8:8 <564C 873>B>28B5;5< 8 :>=5G=K< ?>;L7>20B5;5< (5A;8 =5 AG8B0BL B0:>2K< 7@8B5;O). 8AB@81LNB5@K ?@8>1@5B0NB C 873>B>28B5;O 8;8 53> ?@54AB028B5;O 1>;LH>9 >1J5< 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE ?@02 A B5<, GB>1K ?@54AB02;OBL 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 =0 >?@545;5==>9 B5@@8B>@88.  B0:>9 @>;8 G0AB> 2KABC?0NB 8 :@C?=K5 B5;5:><?0=88 8;8 8E 4>G5@=85 ?@54?@8OB8O: " "-2845>" 8;8 ""-@>D8B", =0?@8<5@. -B8 4>3>2>@K A>45@60B CA;>285 > 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?5@5CABC?:8 ?>;CG5==KE ?@02, 48AB@81LNB5@K 4@>1OB ?>;CG5==CN <0AAC ?@02 A B>G:8 7@5=8O A@>:0, B5@@8B>@88, A?>A>1>2 8A?>;L7>20=8O 8 ?5@540NB 8E =5?>A@54AB25==K< @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;O<. >A:>;L:C 4>3>2>@K =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 168 O2;ONBAO 02B>@A:8<8, B> >4=> ACI5AB25==KE CA;>289 A>AB02;O5B A>3;0H5=85 > A?>A>10E 8A?>;L7>20=8O (G. 1 AB. 31 >). 1KG=> =0 <564C=0@>4=KE @K=:0E ?@8>1@5B05BAO 1>;LH89 >1J5< ?@02, B.5. 1>;LH55 :>;8G5AB2> 2>7<>6=KE A?>A>1>2 8A?>;L7>20=8O (=07>25< 8E 4>3>2>@0<8 ?5@2>3> B8?0), 0 =0 2=CB@5==8E 70:;NG0NBAO 4>3>2>@K =0 :>=:@5B=K9 A?>A>1 8A?>;L7>20=8O (4>3>2>@K 2B>@>3> B8?0).  48AB@81LNB5@A:>< 4>3>2>@5 (4>3>2>@5 ?5@2>3> B8?0), =0?><8=0NI5< 1>;LH5 035=BA:>5, G5< 02B>@A:>5 A>3;0H5=85, AB>@>=>9, ?>;CG0NI59 ?@020, <>65B 1KBL ;N1>5 ;8F>. @><5 B>3>, : 4>3>2>@0< ?5@2>3> B8?0 <>6=> >B=5AB8 8 4>3>2>@K =0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 M:75<?;O@>2 ?@>872545=8O =0 2845>=>A8B5;OE. >3>2>@ A =5?>A@54AB25==K< @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;5<- (4>3>2>@ 2B>@>3> B8?0) ?@54?>;0305B =0;8G85 A?5F80;L=>3> AC1J5:B0, ?>A:>;L:C 2AO 45OB5;L=>ABL ?> @0A?@>AB@0=5=8N 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 O2;O5BAO ;8F5=78>==>9 (?>4@>1=55 A<. 2 "2" @0745;0 2 3;. 1 48AA5@B0F88), E>BO 70:>= ?@O<> B0:>3> CA;>28O 8 =5 AB028B. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 70:;NG5=85 4>3>2>@0, =5 ?@54CA<0B@820NI53> ?5@5CABC?:8, > ?5@540G5 2 MD8@, =0?@8<5@ A ;8F><, =5 8<5NI8< ;8F5=788, <>6=> @0AF5=820BL :0: A>25@H5=85 <=8<>9 A45;:8, ?>A:>;L:C AB>@>=0 70254><> =5 <>65B 8A?>;=8BL 27OBKE =0 A51O ?> 4>3>2>@C >1O70B5;LAB2 ?> @0A?@>AB@0=5=8N ?@>872545=8O. @><5 A?>A>1>2 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2 G. 1 AB. 31 > =07K20NBAO ACI5AB25==K<8 CA;>28O<8 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 A>3;0H5=8O > B5@@8B>@88, A@>:5 8 @07<5@5 2>7=03@0645=8O. "5@@8B>@8O 2 4>3>2>@0E > @0A?@>AB@0=5=88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 >?@545;O5BAO @07;8G=K<8 A?>A>10<8.  4>3>2>@0E ?5@2>3> B8?0 48AB@81LNB5@ AB0@05BAO ?>;CG8BL ?@020 =0 <0:A8<0;L=CN B5@@8B>@8N: =0?@8<5@ 2 >B=>H5=8OE A D@0=FC7A:8< ?@>4NA5@>< . ><0=>< "&5=B@-!" ?>;CG8; ?@020 =0 B5@@8B>@8N !, AB@0= @810;B8:8 8 >=3>;8N; <8=8<0;L=>9 B5@@8B>@859 4;O MB>3> B8?0 4>3>2>@>2 O2;O5BAO B5@@8B>@8O >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88, :AB0B8, ?>;CG05<0O 8 ?> C<>;G0=8N 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G. 1 AB, 31 >.  4>3>2>@0E 2B>@>3> B8?0 B5@@8B>@8O >1KG=> >?@545;O5BAO A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 4;O 48AB@81LNB5@0 2=CB@5==53> @K=:0 - ?> @538>=C, >1KG=> A>2?040NI5<C A B5@@8B>@859 >4=>3> 8;8 1>;55 AC1J5:B>2 D545@0F88; 4;O :8=>B50B@0 - C:070=85< 3>@>40, 2 :>B>@>< >= =0E>48BAO, => 5A;8 2 3>@>45, :0: MB> G0AB> 1K205B, 5ABL =5A:>;L:> :8=>B50B@>2, B> 4>3>2>@ <>65B ?@54?>;030BL ;81> =58A:;NG8B5;L=K5 ?@020 =0 B5@@8B>@8N 40==>3> 3>@>40 (5A;8 8 4@C385 :8=>B50B@K B>65 ?@8>1@5B0NB 0=0;>38G=K5 ?@020), ;81> 8A:;NG8B5;L=K5 ?@020 =0 3>@>4 (A 70?@5I5=85< CABC?0BL 0=0;>38G=K5 ?@020 4@C38< 3>@>4A:8< :8=>B50B@0<); 4;O :8=>CAB0=>2:8 - ?> <5AB=>AB8; 4;O 873>B>28B5;59 8 @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;59 2845>=>A8B5;59 - 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B .169 8A:;NG8B5;L=>AB8 ?@02; 4;O >@30=870F89 :015;L=>3> B5;52845=8O - ?> >E20BC 0C48B>@88; 4;O >@30=870F89 MD8@=>3> 25I0=8O '- :0: ?> >E20BC, B0: 8 ?> =0E>645=8N B@0=A;OB>@0 8 @5B@0=A;OB>@>2. !@>: CABC?:8 ?@02 2 4>3>2>@5 <>65B 1KBL >?8A0= 2@5<5==K< >B@57:>< 8;8 :>;8G5AB2>< A;CG052 8A?>;L7>20=8O (4;O 45<>=AB@0B>@>2 8 25I0B5;L=KE >@30=870F89) 8 G8A;>< 873>B>2;5==KE =>A8B5;59 (4;O @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;59 =0 2845>); 2B>@>5 >A>15==> C4>1=> ?@8 @0AG5B0E 2 D8:A8@>20==>9 AC<<5, ?>B><C GB> B>G=> 2K?>;=O5BAO B@51>20=85 017. 3 G. 3 AB. 31 > > <0:A8<0;L=>< B8@065. >3>2>@K > @0A?@>AB@0=5=88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, >A>15==> B5, :>B>@K5 :0A0NBAO ?C1;8G=>3> ?>:070, ?><8<> 02B>@A:>-?@02>2KE =>@< A>45@60B 8 B0: =07K205<CN "E>7O9AB25==CN G0ABL". -B8 ?>;>65=8O 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L >B=>AOBAO : :>?8O<, B.5. : M:75<?;O@0< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, ?@54=07=0G5==K< 4;O @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O ?> 40==><C 4>3>2>@C. !B>@>=0<8 4>;6=K 1KBL C@53C;8@>20=K =5A:>;L:> 2>?@>A>2: :B> 873>B02;8205B :>?88, =0 :0:8E CA;>28OE 8 2 :0:>< ?>@O4:5 ?@54>AB02;ONBAO 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K 4;O 873>B>2;5=8O :>?89, :B> O2;O5BAO A>1AB25==8:>< 873>B>2;5==KE :>?89, <>65B ;8 8 :0:8< >1@07>< ?>;L7>20B5;L @0A?>@O60BLAO :>?8O<8, =0?@8<5@ A4020BL 8E 2 0@5=4C, :0:>20 AC4L10 :>?89 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 459AB28O 4>3>2>@0? 1KG=> 2 4>3>2>@0E ?5@2>3> B8?0 873>B>28B5;5< :>?88 O2;O5BAO A0< 48AB@81LNB5@, ?>A:>;L:C =5>1E>48<> ?5@525AB8 B5:AB 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O =0 O7K: B5@@8B>@88, =0 :>B>@CN ?5@540NBAO ?@020, 4C1;8@>202 8;8 AC1B8B@8@>202 D8;L<.  AC<<C, 2K?;0G8205<CN 48AB@81LNB5@>< ?> 4>3>2>@C, :0: ?@028;> 2E>48B AB>8<>ABL ?@54>AB02;5=8O 8AE>4=KE <0B5@80;>2 4;O ?5G0B0=8O :>?89. -B8 8AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K ?@54>AB02;ONBAO =0 2@5<O 8 4>;6=K 1KBL 2>72@0I5=K ?@>4NA5@C 8;8 53> ?@54AB028B5;N 2 4>AB0B>G=> :>@>B:89 A@>:.  4>3>2>@5 4>;6=> 1KBL ?@54CA<>B@5=>, 70 G59 AG5B >ACI5AB2;O5BAO B@0=A?>@B8@>2:0 8AE>4=KE, :B> =5A5B @8A: A;CG09=>9 3815;8, :B> 4>;65= ?@54?@8=OBL <5@K ?> 53> CAB@0=5=8N 8;8 ?@54C?@5645=8N, =0?@8<5@, 70AB@0E>20BL 8AE>4=K5 8;8 >15A?5G8BL 8< A>?@>2>645=85. =>340 2 4>3>2>@0E ?5@2>3> B8?0 ?@54CA<0B@8205BAO G8A;> :>?89, :>B>@>5 <>65B 1KBL 873>B>2;5=> 4;O 8A?>;=5=8O MB>3> 4>3>2>@0. > ?>A:>;L:C AB>8<>ABL :>?89 A53>4=O 4>AB0B>G=> 2KA>:0, AB>@>=K G0I5 2A53> >?CA:0NB MB> CA;>285, ?>=8<0O, GB> 2@O4 ;8 48AB@81LNB5@ =0?5G0B05B 1>;LH5 :>?89, G5< =5>1E>48<>, ?>A:>;L:C MB> C25;8G8B A515AB>8<>ABL, 0 5A;8 8 1C45B C25;8G820BL B8@06, B> ;8HL 87-70 0<>@B870F88 :>?89. 170 !>1AB25==8:>< :>?89 2 B0:>9 A8BC0F88 O2;O5BAO 48AB@81LNB5@, => M:75<?;O@K ?@>872545=8O - MB> B>20@ >A>1>3> @>40, >1@5<5=5==K9 ?@020<8 B@5BL8E ;8F, 8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 02B>@A:8<8 ?@020<8. >MB><C E>BO 48AB@81LNB5@ O2;O5BAO A>1AB25==8:>< :>?89, >= =5 <>65B 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 @0A?>@O60BLAO 8<8. >-?5@2KE, 48AB@81LNB5@ 2A5340 405B 30@0=B8N ?@>4NA5@C (E>BO MB> 8 2 53> A>1AB25==KE 8=B5@5A0E) 2 B><, GB> >= ?@8<5B 2A5 <5@K >B =570:>==>3> :>?8@>20=8O 8 ?@.1, GB> :>?88 1C4CB 8A?>;L7>20=K B>;L:> 2 @0<:0E 459AB289, ?@54CA<>B@5==KE 4>3>2>@><. 0:>=5F, ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 459AB28O 4>3>2>@0 48AB@81LNB5@ ?> 2K1>@C ?5@5405B :>?88 ?@>4NA5@C (B>340 >= 8<55B ?@02> =0 :><?5=A0F8N @0AE>4>2 ?> 873>B>2;5=8N :>?89 A CG5B>< 0<>@B870F88 ?;5=:8), C=8GB>605B 8E 70 A2>9 AG5B 8;8 15@5B =0 >B25BAB25==>5 E@0=5=85. > 4>3>2>@0< 2B>@>3> B8?0 >1KG=> :>?88 873>B02;8205B AB>@>=0, ?5@540NI0O ?@020, >=0 65 O2;O5BAO 8E A>1AB25==8:>< 8 =0 2@5<O ?@54>AB02;O5B 8E =5?>A@54AB25==K< @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;O<. >A;54=85 ?>;L7CNBAO ?@54>AB02;5==K<8 :>?8O<8 2 @0<:0E 4>3>2>@0, 0 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 53> 459AB28O ;81> 2>72@0I0NB :>?88 48AB@81LNB5@C A B5<, GB>1K >= ?5@540; 8E A;54CNI8< @0A?@>AB@0=8B5;O<, ;81> C=8GB>60NB, 5A;8 :>?8O 0<>@B878@>20;0AL 8 =5?@83>4=0 4;O 40;L=59H53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O. B25BAB25==>ABL 70 CB@0BC :>?88 45<>=AB@0B>@ =5A5B =0 >1I8E >A=>20=8OE, 5A;8 8=>5 =5 ?@54CA<>B@5=> 4>3>2>@><. >3>2>@K =0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 :0: ?5@2>3>, B0: 8 2B>@>3> B8?0 O2;ONBAO 2 >?@545;5==>9 <5@5 2B>@8G=K<8 ?> A@02=5=8N A 4>3>2>@0<8 =0 A>740=85 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 (A<. ?>4@>1=55 2 ?@54K4CI5< @0745;5). !>>B25BAB25==> >A=>2=>5 CA;>285 MB8E 4>3>2>@>2 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K 53> =>@<K =5 =0@CH0;8 ?@02 8 70:>==KE 8=B5@5A>2 ?5@2>=0G0;L=KE >1;040B5;59 ?@02 =0 D8;L< =8 2 =58<CI5AB25==><, =8 2 8<CI5AB25==>< A<KA;5. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ACI5AB2C5B 8=0O A2O7L <564C ?5@28G=K<8 8 2B>@8G=K<8 4>3>2>@0<8; ?@>4NA5@ >1O70= ?@54C?@548BL A2>8E :>=B@035=B>2 =0 2A5E C@>2=OE >1 >A>15==>ABOE 4>3>2>@>2 =0 A>740=85 8 8A?>;L7>20=85, 70:;NG5==KE A =5?>A@54AB25==K<8 02B>@0<8. A;8, =0?@8<5@, 2 4>3>2>@5 A> AF5=0@8AB><, >3@0=8G5=0 B5@@8B>@8O, =0 :>B>@CN ?5@540NBAO ?@020 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, 8;8 ;8<8B8@>20=K A?>A>1K 8A?>;L7>20=8O (B0:CN 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@54>AB02;O5B G. 2 AB. 13 >), ?@>4NA5@ 4>;65= =5 B>;L:> A0< A>1;N40BL MB8 CA;>28O, =5 4>3>20@820OAL > @0A?@>AB@0=5=88 D8;L<0 =5@07@5H5==K<8 A?>A>10<8 8;8 =0 =5>E20G5==>9 1 A<. =0?@8<5@, ? VI 4>3>2>@0 > ?@>4065 ;8F5=788 =0 ?>:07 EC4>65AB25==KE D8;L<>2.  :=.: A=>2=K5 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2K5 4>:C<5=BK: >1@07FK. ., . 1997. A. 337. 171 ?5@28G=K< 4>3>2>@>< B5@@8B>@88, => 8 G5B:> 2> 2B>@8G=KE 4>3>2>@0E >1JO28BL > 2A5E ;8<8B0E 8 ?@>A;548BL 8;8 B@51>20BL 30@0=B88, GB>1K ?@8 ?@>42865=88 D8;L<0 : :>=5G=K< ?>;L7>20B5;O< 2A5 MB8 >3@0=8G5=8O A>1;N40;8AL. !>1;N45=85 8<CI5AB25==KE 8=B5@5A>2 02B>@>2 >15A?5G8205B A0< 873>B>28B5;L 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O.  ?5@2CN >G5@54L MB> @53C;O@=0O 2K?;0B0 ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 :064K9 A;CG09 8A?>;L7>20=8O, 8;8, 5A;8 B0:>9 ?>@O4>: ?@54CA<>B@5= 4>3>2>@><, ?5@5G8A;5=85 D8:A8@>20==>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 :064K9 A?>A>1 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=8O ;81> :064K9 @07 ?@8 ?@52KH5=88 CAB0=>2;5==>3> "B8@060".  A>1;N45=88 ;8G=KE =58<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 02B>@>2 4>;6=K 15A?>:>8BLAO =5 B>;L:> A0< 873>B>28B5;L, => 8 ?>;L7>20B5;8 ?@>872545=8O =0 2A5E C@>2=OE.  ?5@2CN >G5@54L MB> - >15A?5G5=85 ?@020 02B>@AB20 8 ?@020 =0 8<O, 70:@5?;5==KE AB. 15 >. 5<>=AB@0B>@K, >@30=870F88 25I0=8O 8 873>B>28B5;8 2845>=>A8B5;59 4>;6=K C:07K20BL 8<5=0 A>7402H8E D8;L< ;8F =5 B>;L:> ?@8 =5?>A@54AB25==>< 8A?>;L7>20=88, => 8 ?@8 @5:;0<8@>20=88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. 1KG=> A?>A>1 C:070=8O 8<5=8 >3>20@8205BAO 2 ?5@28G=>< 4>3>2>@5 2 A?5F80;L=>< ?C=:B5 > B8B@0E. A;8 65 A?>A>1 8A?>;L7>20=8O =5 ?>72>;O5B ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL B8B@K, B> 8<O 02B>@>2 4>;6=> 1KBL C:070=> 4@C38< A?>A>1>< (=0?@8<5@, 153CI0O AB@>:0 2 ?5@540G5 "!?>:>9=>9 =>G8, <0;KH8" =0  "). !>1;N45=85 ?@020 02B>@AB20 8 ?@020 =0 8<O @54:> 2K7K205B :>=D;8:BK ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 8;8 @5:;0<8@>20=88 ?@>872545=89. @C3>5 65 ;8G=>5 =58<CI5AB25==>5 ?@02>, D>@<C;8@C5<>5 459AB2CNI8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< :0: ?@02> =0 70I8BC @5?CB0F88 02B>@0 8 A>AB02;ONI55 =0 45;5 ?@02> =0 =5?@8:>A=>25==>ABL1, 2K7K205B <=>3> 2>?@>A>2 8 A?>@>2 (A<. ?>4@>1=55 1 3;. 3 48AA5@B0F88). >6=> ;8 AG8B0BL =0@CH5=85< ;8G=KE =58<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 02B>@0 8A?>;L7>20=85 =5=04;560I53> :0G5AB20 :>?88 ?@8 ?C1;8G=>< ?>:075 D8;L<0 2 :8=>B50B@5 8;8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2845>=>A8B5;59 A ?;>E>9 70?8ALN? /2;O5BAO ;8 CI5<;5=85< 70:>==KE 8=B5@5A>2 02B>@0 =0=5A5=85 ;>3>B8?0 B5;52878>==>3> :0=0;0 ?@8 ?>:075 D8;L<0 ?> B5;52845=8N? 0@CH05B ;8 ?@020 02B>@0 ?@5@K20=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O @5:;0<=K<8 1;>:0<8? '0ABL 1 AB. 13 $545@0;L=>3> 70:>=0 " @5:;0<5" >B 24 =>O1@O 1995 3. ! 177-$2 70?@5I05B ?@5@K20BL 45<>=AB@0F8N D8;L<>2 2 :8=>- 8 2845>>1A;C6820=88, 70 8A:;NG5=85< ?5@5@K2>2 <564C A5@8O<8. %>BO 70:>= >1 MB>< 8 C<0;G8205B, => ;>38G=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> =5 1 AB0B8, ?@>5:B III G0AB8  $ 2>72@0I05BAO : MB>9 B5@<8=>;>388 (G. 1 AB. 1133). 2 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 30. - AB. 2864, 172 AG8B05BAO =0@CH5=85< 45<>=AB@0F8O @5:;0<K ?5@54 =0G0;>< 8 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O A50=A0. @><5 B>3>, >G5284=>, 70?@5I5=85, A>45@60I55AO 2 G. 1 AB. 13, >B=>A8BAO :> 2A5< 2840< @5:;0<K, 2 B>< G8A;5 : 0=>=A0< =>2KE D8;L<>2. AB02:0 @5:;0<=KE 1;>:>2 ?@8 ?5@540G5 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 MD8@ 8;8 ?> :015;N @53C;8@C5BAO 459AB2CNI8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< =5 B0: G5B:> A B>G:8 7@5=8O A>1;N45=8O 02B>@A:8E ?@02. '0ABL 1 AB. 11 0:>=0 > @5:;0<5 =5 4>?CA:05B ?@5@K20=8O @5:;0<>9 EC4>65AB25==KE D8;L<>2 157 A>3;0A8O ?@02>>1;040B5;O. > :0:>2K ?@020 873>B>28B5;O :0: ?@02>>1;040B5;O 2 40==>< A;CG05, 8 :0:>2K ?>;=><>G8O 02B>@0 2 B@51>20=88 CAB@0=8BL B0:>5 =0@CH5=85 =5 2?>;=5 OA=>. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, D>@<C;8@>2:0 > > ?@025 =0 "70I8BC @5?CB0F88 02B>@0" ;8H05B 02B>@0 2>7<>6=>AB8 3>2>@8BL > =0@CH5=88 <>@0;L=KE ?@02, ?>A:>;L:C =5?@>AB> 4>:070BL, GB> ?@5@K20=85 D8;L<0 @5:;0<=K<8 1;>:0<8 =0=>A8B CI5@1 53> G5AB8 8 4>AB>8=AB2C (AB. 15 >). ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 2>7<>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> =0@CH0NBAO =5 <>@0;L=K5, 0 8<CI5AB25==K5 8=B5@5AK 02B>@0.  ?5@5G=5 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 (G. 2 AB. 16 >) 5ABL ?@02> 02B>@0 =0 ?5@5@01>B:C, B.5. ?@02> @07@5H0BL ?5@545;K20BL, 0@0=68@>20BL 8 4@C38< A?>A>1>< ?5@5@010BK20BL ?@>872545=85.  ?. 2 AB. 13 > ?@54CA<>B@5=> CA;>285 > ?5@540G5 ;8HL G0AB8 ?@020 =0 ?5@5@01>B:C, 0 8<5==> ?@020 AC1B8B@8@>20BL 8 4C1;8@>20BL D8;L<. !;54>20B5;L=>, ?@02> =0 ;N1>5 4@C3>5 87<5=5=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O >AB05BAO C 02B>@0, 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, B>;L:> A 53> @07@5H5=8O, 0 =5 ?> A>3;0A>20=8N A 873>B>28B5;5<, :0: MB> C:070=> 2 0:>=5 > @5:;0<5, ?>;L7>20B5;8 <>3CB 2=>A8BL 2 B:0=L D8;L<0 :0:85-;81> 87<5=5=8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 2AB02:C @5:;0<K. > GB> <>65B B@51>20BL 02B>@ 2 B0:>9 A8BC0F88? G5284=>, GB> ?@020 53> CI5<;5=K, => CI5<;5=K >=8 4>1@>A>25AB=K<8 459AB28O<8 B5;52878>==>9 >@30=870F88, >?8@0NI59AO 2 A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0 G. 1 AB. 11 0:>=0 > @5:;0<5 8 ?>;CG82H59 A>3;0A85 873>B>28B5;O. > >1I8< ?@028;0< 3@0640=A:0O >B25BAB25==>ABL =0ABC?05B ?@8 =0;8G88 C =0@CH8B5;O ?@02 28=K, => > :0:>9 28=5 2 40==>< A;CG05 <>65B 84B8 @5GL? 8HL > 28=5 70:>=>40B5;O, =5 C2O702H53> <564C A>1>9 420 @02=>F5==KE 459AB2CNI8E ?@02>2KE 0:B0 - 0:>=0 >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E 8 0:>=0 > @5:;0<5. 2. 0I8B0 ?@02 8 8=B5@5A>2 AC1J5:B>2 >B=>H5=89 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 ) >@L10 A ?8@0BAB2>< >?@>A >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 =0@CH5=85 ?@02 8 70:>==KE 8=B5@5A>2 CG0AB=8:>2 ?@>F5AA0 A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 =0AB>;L:> >1J5<5=, GB> <>65B A;C68BL ?@54<5B>< =5 >4=>3> =0CG=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O. 173, 5OB5;L=>ABL 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 <=>3>?;0=>20 8 =5>4=>@>4=0, 20@80=B>2 =0@CH5=8O ?@02, 0 B5< 1>;55 A?>A>1>2 8E 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O 8 70I8BK, <>65B 1KBL B0: <=>3>, GB> 4065 ?@>AB>5 <>45;8@>20=85 8 >?8A0=85 =081>;55 B8?8G=KE 8;8 G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI8EAO A8BC0F89 70=O;> 1K =5>?@0240==> (4;O F5;59 40==>3> 8AA;54>20=8O) <=>3> <5AB0. ">;L:> 70 =0@CH5=85 ?@02 =0 @57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, B.5. >4=>3> 87 :><?>=5=B>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, ?@54CA<>B@5=K :0: 3@0640=A:0O (AB. 34 8 @0745; V >), B0: 8 04<8=8AB@0B82=0O (AB. 150-4 >45:A0 !$!  >1 04<8=8AB@0B82=KE ?@02>=0@CH5=8OE) 8 4065 C3>;>2=0O >B25BAB25==>ABL (AB. 146 # $).  40==>9 @01>B5 @5GL >1 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70H;0 ;8HL ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C CAB0=>2;5=85 2 ?@02>2KE 0:B0E A0=:F89 70 =0@CH5=85 ?@02 8 70:>==KE 8=B5@5A>2 O2;O5BAO >4=8< (=> =5 548=AB25==K<) :><?>=5=B>< 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>;8B8:8 ?> 1>@L15 A ?8@0BAB2>< :0: O2;5=85<, =0=>AOI8< =081>;LH89 CI5@1 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. =B5;;5:BC0;L=>5 ?8@0BAB2> ?0@078B8@C5B =0 ;N1KE @57C;LB0B0E C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0. > 8<5==> 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 ?8@0BAB2> 2>A?@8=8<05BAO :0: AB8E89=>5 154AB285 87-70 C65 =5 @07 C?><O=CBKE 2KH5 >A>15==>AB59 :0: >1J5:B0, B0: 8 2A59 45OB5;L=>AB8: D0:B8G5A:>5 >BACBAB285 @07;8G8O <564C >@838=0;>< 8 :>?859, 4>ABC?=>ABL =5:>B>@KE A?>A>1>2 2>A?@>872545=8O, D8=0=A>20O 5<:>ABL ?@>F5AA0 A>740=8O 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O. 8@0BAB2> 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 ACI5AB2C5B 2 ;N1>9 AB@0=5 <8@0, 81> =8 >4=> 3>AC40@AB2> =5 <>65B >15A?5G8BL 4>1@>A>25AB=>ABL 2A5E A2>8E AC1J5:B>2 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 0A:>;L:> 1;03>?>;CG=0 A8BC0F8O, <>6=> AC48BL ?> A>>B=>H5=8N ";530;L=>3>" 8 "G5@=>3>" @K=:0. A=>2=K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 ?@>2>48;8AL 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 >D8F80;L=K<8 8 >1I5AB25==K<8 >@30=870F8O<8, 254L 8<5==> 0<5@8:0=A:85 ?@>872>48B5;8 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 =5ACB =081>;LH85 ?>B5@8 87-70 ?8@0B>2.  !( B0: =07K205<K5 "8=4CAB@88 02B>@A:>3> ?@020" 2=>AOB 2 =0F8>=0;L=CN M:>=><8:C 1>;LH5, G5< ;N1>9 >B45;L=K9 A5:B>@ ?@><KH;5==>AB8, 0 ?> >1J5<C M:A?>@B0 CABC?:0 ?@02 =0 ?@>872545=8O ;8B5@0BC@K, =0C:8 8 8A:CAAB20 AB>8B =0 B@5BL5< <5AB5, ?>A;5 0280F8>==>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==>3> A5:B>@0. > <=5=8N <5@8:0=A:>9 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:>9 0AA>F80F88, 2 3@C??5 AB@0=, : :>B>@K< >=0 >B=>A8B >AA89A:CN $545@0F8N, =>@<0;L=K< <>6=> AG8B0BL ?>;>65=85, ?@8 :>B>@>< "?8@0BA:0O" 4>;O 2845>@K=:0, =0?@8<5@, A>AB02;O5B 60%. 174 0: 1K MB> =8 ?>:070;>AL AB@0==K<, => 1C@=>5 @0728B85, 0 D0:B8G5A:8 8 2>7=8:=>25=85 ?8@0BAB20 2 >AA88 A2O70=> =5 A M:>=><8G5A:8<8 8;8 A>F80;L=K<8, 0 ?>;8B8G5A:8<8 ?@54?>AK;:0<8.  4>?5@5AB@>5G=K9 ?5@8>4 G0AB=>5 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2> ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 ACI5AB2>20;>, 0 45OB5;L=>ABL 3>AC40@AB25==KE >@30=870F89, 70=8<02H8EAO 873>B>2;5=85< 8 B8@068@>20=85< 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 1K;0 AB@>3> 70@53;0<5=B8@>20=0 8 =0E>48;0AL ?>4 65AB:8< :>=B@>;5<. @><5 B>3>, 70<:=CB>ABL M:>=><8:8 8 =5@0728B>ABL ?@>872>4AB20 2845>>1>@C4>20=8O 45;0;8 ?8@0BAB2> 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 :@09=5 @54:8< O2;5=85<. ! =0G0;>< 206=KE ?>;8B8G5A:8E ?5@5<5= 8 2>7=8:=>25=85< G0AB=>3> 187=5A0 ?>;>65=85 :>@5==K< >1@07>< 87<5=8;>AL.  CA;>28OE 2=570?=> 2>7=8:H59 A2>1>4K 8 2>7<>6=>AB8 1KAB@> @071>30B5BL <=>385 =>2>8A?5G5==K5 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;8 . =5 >A>15==> >1@0I0;8 2=8<0=85 =0 A>3;0A>20==>ABL A2>8E 459AB289 A CAB0=>2;5=8O<8 70:>=>2, 40 8 02B>@A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> 2?>;=5 >15A?5G820;> ?;0=>2K5 CA;>28O E>7O9AB2>20=8O, => =8:0: =5 1K;> ?@8A?>A>1;5=> : =0E;K=C2H5<C @K=:C. @8 >BACBAB288 G5B:>3> 70:>=>40B5;L=>3> @53C;8@>20=8O 8 AB@>38E A0=:F89, 0 B0:65 2 A2O78 A ?@>AB>B>9 873>B>2;5=8O 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O =570:>==KE :>?89 8<5==> ?8@0BAB2> 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 AB0;> =081>;55 ?@82;5:0B5;L=K< 4;O =54>1@>A>25AB=KE 187=5A<5=>2. 4=8< 87 ?5@2KE =>@<0B82=KE 0:B>2; =0?@02;5==KE =0 1>@L1C A ?8@0BAB2><, AB0;> ?>AB0=>2;5=85 !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 $ " @538AB@0F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 8 @53C;8@>20=88 8E ?C1;8G=>9 45<>=AB@0F88" >B 28 0?@5;O 1993 3. ! 391\ @>:0B=>5 C4>AB>25@5=85 O28;>AL <>I=K< >@C685< ?@>B82 ":8=>?8@0B>2", ?@5:@0B8;0AL ?@0:B8:0 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?8@0BA:8E :>?89, 0 70B5< 8 8E 873>B>2;5=8O. 54L 2 >B;8G85 >B 2845>8A?>;L7>20=8O, :>?8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 4;O ?C1;8G=>3> ?>:070 =5 <>65B 1KBL 873>B>2;5=0 ;N1K< ;8F><. @8 >BACBAB288 :>=B@>;O 70 A>1;N45=85< ?@02 B0:85 :>?88 873>B02;820;8AL =0 :8=>:>?8@>20;L=KE (0 ?> <5B:><C 2K@065=8N :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB>2 ":>?8@>2>@>20;L=KE") D01@8:0E. 0 ?5@2K9 273;O4, >AB0=>2;5=85 ?;>E> 2?8AK20;>AL 2 A8AB5<C 70:>=>40B5;L=KE 8 =>@<0B82=KE 0:B>2, @53C;8@CNI8E >B=>H5=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. >-?5@2KE, 22545=85 ?>@O4:0, ?@8 :>B>@>< 2A5 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O, 8A?>;L7C5<K5 =0 B5@@8B>@88 >AA88, >BA<0B@820NBAO C?>;=><>G5==K< =0 MB> 3>AC40@AB2>< >@30=>< (2 40==>< A;CG05 >A:8=>), :>B>@K9 405B @5:><5=40F88 ?> ' !>1@0=85 0:B>2 @57845=B0 8 @028B5;LAB20 $. - 1993. - ! 18. - AB. 1607. 175 2>7@0AB=><C >3@0=8G5=8N 7@8B5;LA:>9 0C48B>@88, =0?><8=05B A >4=>9 AB>@>=K 3>A?@85<:C 70AB>9=KE 2@5<5=, :>340 :8=>D8;L<C ?@8A20820;8 :0B53>@8N 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 53> ">1I5AB25==>-?>;8B8G5A:>3> 72CG0=8O", 0 A 4@C3>9 - F5=7C@C, :>B>@0O 2 A>>B25BAB288 A >=AB8BCF859 $ 70?@5I5=0 (G. 5 AB. 29 >=AB8BCF88 8 AB. 3 0:>=0 $ " A@54AB20E <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88" >B 27 45:01@O 1991 3. ! 2124-11). >-2B>@KE, @538AB@0F8O :0: >1O70B5;L=>5 CA;>285 "@50;870F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 ...2 F5;OE ?C1;8G=>9 45<>=AB@0F88, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?> :015;L=><C B5;52845=8N, B8@068@>20=8O 2 F5;OE ?@>4068 8;8 ?@>:0B0 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O G5@57 2845>B5:8 8 ?@>:0B=K5 ?C=:BK" 2E>48B 2 =5:>B>@>5 ?@>B82>@5G85 2 ?@8=F8?0<8 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, ?@>2>73;0H0NI8<8 @02=K5 ?@020 =0 @57C;LB0BK B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, =57028A8<> >B 8E 4>AB>8=AB20 8 =07=0G5=8O (G. 1 AB. 1 >). !0< B5@<8= "@538AB@0F8O" A;54C5B >B;8G0BL >B ?@8=OB>3> 2 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 =5:>B>@KE AB@0= 0=3;>A0:A>=A:>9 A8AB5<K ?@020 >1>7=0G5=8O >4=>9 87 B@51C5<KE 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O >E@0=>A?>A>1=>AB8 ?@>872545=8O D>@<0;L=>AB59. 538AB@0F8O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O 2 >A:8=> =8:0: =5 2;8O5B =0 2>7=8:=>25=85 8;8 =0 >1J5< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, B0: :0: 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G, 1 AB, 9 > 02B>@A:>5 ?@02> 2>7=8:05B 2 A8;C D0:B0 A>740=8O ?@>872545=8O, 4;O 53> 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8 >ACI5AB2;5=8O =5 B@51C5BAO @538AB@0F88 ?@>872545=8O, 8=>3> A?5F80;L=>3> >D>@<;5=8O ?@>872545=8O 8;8 A>1;N45=8O :0:8E-;81> D>@<0;L=>AB59. >4>1=0O @538AB@0F8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 =5 O2;O5BAO A?5F8D8G5A:8 @>AA89A:8< O2;5=85<, >=0 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=0 2 <8@>2>9 ?@0:B8:5. ><8<> B>3>, GB> :064>5 3>AC40@AB2> CAB0=02;8205B 4;O A51O A2>8 ?@028;0, A 1989 3. 2545BAO @538AB@0F8O =0 <564C=0@>4=>< C@>2=5 ?@8 A5<8@=>9 @30=870F88 =B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 !>1AB25==>AB82. &5;O<8 >ACI5AB2;5=8O B0:>9 F5=B@0;870F88 8=D>@<0F88 ?CB5< 2545=8O <564C=0@>4=>3> @55AB@0 AG8B0NBAO CA8;5=85 ?@02>2>9 70I8BK ?@02>>1;040B5;59 8 1>@L10 A 0C48>287C0;L=K< ?8@0BAB2><. 0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L 8=D>@<0F8N ?@54>AB02;ONB 11 AB@0=.  A>>B25BAB288 A ?. 1 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 $ >B 28 0?@5;O 1993 3. @538AB@0F88 ?>4;560B 2A5 EC4>65AB25==K5, 4>:C<5=B0;L=K5; =0CG=>-?>?C;O@=K5, CG51=K5, <C;LB8?;8:0F8>==K5 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<K @>AA89A:>3>, 70@C156=>3> 8 A>2<5AB=>3> ?@>872>4AB20, ?@54=07=0G5==K5 4;O ?C1;8G=>9 :><<5@G5A:>9 8 1 A 87<5=5=8O<8 8 4>?>;=5=8O<8 >B 13 O=20@O, 6 8N=O, 19 8N;O 8 27 45:01@O 1995 3. // 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1992. - ! 7. - AB. 300. 2 Le Guide CNC. - Paris: CMC, 1997. -p. 235. 176 =5:><<5@G5A:>9 45<>=AB@0F88 =0 :8=>CAB0=>2:0E, 2 :8=>2845>B50B@0E, 2845>A0;>=0E 8 4@C38E 70;0E =57028A8<> >B D>@< A>1AB25==>AB8, 4;O B8@068@>20=8O 2 F5;OE ?@>4068, A40G8 2 ?@>:0B 8 0@5=4C, @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O G5@57 2845>B5:8 8 ?@>:0B=K5 ?C=:BK, 0 B0:65 4;O B@0=A;OF88 ?> :015;L=><C B5;52845=8N. "0:8< >1@07>< >B @538AB@0F88 >A2>1>645=K B>;L:> 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O, ?@54=07=0G5==K5 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 4;O 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?CB5< ?5@540G8 2 MD8@, 8;8 D8;L<K, =0 :>B>@K5 =0 B5@@8B>@8N $ ?@8>1@5B5=K B>;L:> B5;52878>==K5 MD8@=K5 ?@020.  A>>B25BAB288 A 017. 3 ?. 1 >AB0=>2;5=8O =5 ?>4;560B @538AB@0F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<K, A>740==K5 B5;52878>==K<8 :><?0=8O<8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 8;8 A>2<5AB=> A :><?0=8O<8 8 D8@<0<8 4@C38E AB@0= 4;O 45<>=AB@0F88 ?> B5;52845=8N, ?@8>1@5B5==K5 8<8 2 B5E 65 F5;OE C >B5G5AB25==KE 8 70@C156=KE 2;045;LF52, 0 B0:65 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<K, ?>ABC?0NI85 87-70 @C1560 4;O ?>:070 2 @0<:0E <564C=0@>4=KE B5;5-, :8=>D5AB820;59. >AB0=>2;5=85< CB25@645=K >;>65=85 > @538AB@0F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 8 @028;0 >D>@<;5=8O 8 2K40G8 ?@>:0B=KE C4>AB>25@5=89 =0 :8=>-8 2845>D8;L<K.  A>>B25BAB288 A ?. 2 >;>65=8O @538AB@0F8O :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 2>7;0305BAO =0 >A:8=>. ;O @538AB@0F88 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O =5>1E>48<> ?@54AB028BL 70O2;5=85; 4>:C<5=BK, ?>4B25@640NI85 ?@02> 70O28B5;O =0 :8=>2845>?@>4C:F8N 8;8 =0 55 8A?>;L7>20=85 (: 4>:C<5=B0< =0 8=>AB@0==>< O7K:5 4>;6=0 1KBL ?@8;>65=0 =>B0@80;L=> C4>AB>25@5==0O :>?8O =0 @CAA:>< O7K:5); :>?8N 3@C7>2>9 B0<>65==>9 45:;0@0F88, ?>4B25@640NI59 70:>==>ABL 22>70 =0 B5@@8B>@8N $ 70@C156=>9 :8=>2845>?@>4C:F88; A>>B25BAB2CNICN B5E=8G5A:8< B@51>20=8O< :>?8N :8=>D8;L<0 8;8 :0AA5BC A 70?8ALN ?@>872545=8O 8 @5:;0<=>3> :8=>2845>@>;8:0; A2545=8O > ?@>872545=8OE, 8A?>;L7C5<KE 2 :8=>2845>D8;L<0E >B5G5AB25==>3> 8;8 A>2<5AB=>3> ?@>872>4AB20; B@8 M:75<?;O@0 7025@5==KE ?5G0BLN 70O28B5;O <>=B06=KE (480;>3>2KE) ;8AB>2 A ?@8;>65=85< :@0B:>9 0==>B0F88 :8=>2845>?@>872545=8O.  E>BO >;>65=85 A>45@68B ?>4@>1=K9 ?5@5G5=L B@51C5<KE 4;O @538AB@0F88 4>:C<5=B>2, =0 ?@0:B8:5 >= =5 O2;O5BAO 8AG5@?K20NI8<.  459AB28B5;L=>, 5A;8 C?><O=CBK5 2 ?5@2>9 3;025 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O > ;8F5=78@>20=88 A>45@60B A?5F80;L=>5 70?@5I5=85 B@51>20BL >B 70O28B5;O :0:8E-;81> 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE A2545=89 (G. 2 ?. 10), B> 2 40==KE @028;0E B0:>3> C:070=8O =5B.  =0 ?@0:B8:5 ABC488 ?@8 >1@0I5=88 2 >A:8=> AB0;:820NBAO A B5<, GB> A?8A>: ?@54>AB02;O5<KE 4>:C<5=B>2 2A5 2@5<O @0AH8@O5BAO. 0?@8<5@, C ABC488 "0<A" ?>B@51>20;8 ?@54AB028BL A?@02:C > A40G5 42CE :>?89 D8;L<0 177 ">:BN@= 4;O 10@010=0 8 <>B>F8:;0" 2 >AD8;L<>D>=4. "0:>5 B@51>20=85 =5;L7O AG8B0BL =5?@02><5@=K<, ?>A:>;L:C $545@0;L=K9 70:>= "1 >1O70B5;L=>< M:75<?;O@5 4>:C<5=B>2" 2 017. 3 G. 1 AB 12 CAB0=02;8205B B0:>5 ?@028;>. > 4;O 873>B>28B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 MB> 2;5G5B 1>;LH85 @0AE>4K ?> >?;0B5 873>B>2;5=8O 42CE :>?89, >B :>B>@KE =5 1C45B ":><<5@G5A:>9 >B40G8", 8 >?;0B5 CA;C3, ?>A:>;L:C >AD8;L<>D>=4 CAB0=>28; ?;0B=>5 E@0=5=85 4;O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, :@><5 A>740==KE 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 70 AG5B 1N465B=KE A@54AB2. @><5 B>3>, 2 A2O78 A B@51>20=85< > ?@54>AB02;5=88 4>:C<5=B0, ?>4B25@640NI53> ?@02> 70O28B5;O =0 ?@>4C:F8N 8;8 =0 55 8A?>;L7>20=85, =5>1E>48<> CAB0=>28BL, :0:>9 8<5==> 4>:C<5=B <>65B C4>2;5B2>@8BL 2 40==>< A;CG05 >A:8=>. >A:>;L:C 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 O2;O5BAO >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>3> ?@020, B> 25AL -:><?;5:A 70:@5?;5==KE 2 > ?@02 2>7=8:05B 8 459AB2C5B =57028A8<> >B A>1;N45=8O :0:8E-;81> D>@<0;L=>AB59, 8 .0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 :0: >1J5:B 02B>@A:>3> ?@020 =5 ?>425@305BAO '@538AB@0F88 8;8 8=>9'?>4>1=>9 ?@>F54C@5. !>>B25BAB25==>, =5 ACI5AB2C5B :0:>3>-?;81> 4>:C<5=B0 548=>3> CAB0=>2;5==>3> >1@07F0,. ?>4B25@640NI53> >E@0=>A?>A>1=>ABL D8;L<0 8 CAB0=02;820NI53> :@C3 ;8F, :>B>@K5 <>3CB >ACI5AB2;OBL ?@020 =0 D8;L<. G5284=>, 5A;8 70O28B5;5< O2;O5BAO 873>B>28B5;L 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, :0: 53> ?>=8<05B >, B> 4>:C<5=B0<8, ?>4B25@640NI8<8 53> ?>;=><>G8O ?> >B=>H5=8N : D8;L<C, 1C4CB 4>3>2>@K =0 A>740=85 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, 70:;NG5==K5 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?@028;0<8 G. 2 AB. 13 > A 02B>@0<8 D8;L<0 (G. 1 AB. 13 >) - B8BC;O@=K<8 >1;040B5;O<8 ?@02 =0 =53>.  >B;8G85 >B A>1;N45=8O D>@<0;L=>AB59, > B@51C5B >1O70B5;L=>3> 70:;NG5=8O ?8AL<5==>3> 4>3>2>@0 :0: CA;>28O 2>7=8:=>25=8O >B=>H5=89 ?> ?>2>4C A>740=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O D8;L<0 (G. 1 AB. 32). >A;54AB28O =5A>1;N45=8O ?8AL<5==>9 D>@<K 4>3>2>@0 2 40==>< A;CG05 4>;6=K @0AA<0B@820BLAO 2 A>>B25BAB288 A G. 1, 0 =5 G. 2 AB. 162  $, ?>A:>;L:C >, CAB0=02;820O ?@028;> > ?8AL<5==>9 D>@<5 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0, =8G53> =5 3>2>@8B > ?>A;54AB28OE 55 =5A>1;N45=8O, 0 B5< 1>;55 > ?@87=0=88 CAB=>3> A>3;0H5=8O >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 ?@>872545=8O =5459AB28B5;L=K<. 0: 2 B0:>9 A8BC0F88 @07@5H8BL 2>?@>A > 4>:C<5=B5, 5A;8 873>B>28B5;L AAK;05BAO B>;L:> =0 CAB=K5 4>3>2>@5==>AB8 > ?5@540G5 5<C ?@02, >?8@0OAL =5 =0 A2845B5;LA:85 ?>:070=8O (MB> 70?@5I5=> G. 1 AB. 178 162  $), 0 ?@82>4O ?8AL<5==K5 8 4@C385 4>:070B5;LAB20 (=0?@8<5@, ?5@5?8A:C A 02B>@0<8 8;8 B@5BL8<8 ;8F0<8)? >7<>6=0 8 8=0O A8BC0F8O: G. 2 AB. 13 > ?@54?>;0305B ?5@5E>4 ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5E 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 =0 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 >B 02B>@>2 : 873>B>28B5;N, 5A;8 2 4>3>2>@5 =5 ?@54CA<>B@5=> 8=>5. !;54>20B5;L=>, 4065 ?@8 =0;8G88 ?8AL<5==KE 4>3>2>@>2 <564C B8BC;O@=K<8 >1;040B5;O<8 ?@02 - 02B>@0<8 8 873>B>28B5;5<, 70:;NG5==KE =0 8=KE CA;>28OE, B0:85 4>3>2>@K =5 ?>4B25@640NB ?@02 873>B>28B5;O =0 D8;L< 8 ?>MB><C =5 <>3CB C4>2;5B2>@8BL B@51>20=8N @028; > 4>:C<5=B0E. -B> 7=0G8B, GB> 70O28B5;O<8 2 40==>< A;CG05 <>3CB 1KBL B>;L:> A0<8 02B>@K D8;L<0 - 02B>@ AF5=0@8O, @568AA5@-?>AB0=>2I8: 8 :><?>78B>@.  :B> 65 1C45B ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 ?@020, :>340 G0ABL 02B>@>2 ?5@540;0 A2>8 ?@020 873>B>28B5;N, 0 4@C30O G0ABL =5B? A;8 70O28B5;5< O2;O5BAO =5 A0< 873>B>28B5;L, 0 B@5BL5 ;8F>, 70:;NG82H55 A =8< 4>3>2>@ > ?5@540G5 G0AB8 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0, B> ?>4B25@640NI8< ?>;=><>G8O 70O28B5;O =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0 1C45B AG8B0BLAO 2KH5C:070==K9 4>3>2>@, >?@545;ONI89 >1J5< ?>;CG5==KE ?@02 :0: ?> 2840< 8A?>;L7>20=8O (?>:07 2 70;0E, 8A?>;L7>20=85 =0 2845>=>A8B5;OE ?CB5< B8@068@>20=8O, ?@>4068, ?@>:0B0 8 B. ?., A>>1I5=85 ?> :015;N), B0: 8 ?> B5@@8B>@88, =0 :>B>@CN @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO CABC?:0 ?@02, 8 A@>:C, 2 B5G5=85 :>B>@>3> 40==>5 ;8F> <>65B >ACI5AB2;OBL 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>872545=8O.  >B=>H5=88 @>AA89A:8E D8;L<>2, 70 8A:;NG5=85< A;CG052 B8@068@>20=8O =0 2845>=>A8B5;OE 8;8 ?>:070 ?> :015;L=><C B5;52845=8N 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8;8 873>B>2;5==KE >@30=870F8O<8 B5;52878>==>3> MD8@=>3> 25I0=8O 8;8 87=0G0;L=> ?@54=07=0G5==KE 4;O B5;52878>==>3> MD8@=>3> 25I0=8O, 1K;> 1K ;>38G=K< ?@87=0BL, GB> ?>;CG0BL ?@>:0B=>5 C4>AB>25@5=85 4>;6=K A0<8 873>B>28B5;8 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. > 4;O 70@C156=KE D8;L<>2 70O28B5;5< A:>@55 2A53> 1C45B 48AB@81LNB5@, ?@8>1@5BH89 ?@020 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0 =0 B5@@8B>@88 >AA88 C 8=>AB@0==>3> ?@>4NA5@0 8;8 8=>AB@0==>3> 48AB@81LNB5@0, E>BO >AB0=>2;5=85 =5 A>45@68B B@51>20=8O > 3@0640=AB25 70O28B5;O, 0 A;54>20B5;L=>, =8GB> =5 <5H05B 8=>AB@0==><C ?@>4NA5@C A0<>AB>OB5;L=> ?>;CG8BL ?@>:0B=>5 C4>AB>25@5=85 =0 A2>9 D8;L<, :>B>@K9 ?@54?>;0305BAO 45<>=AB@8@>20BL 2 >AA88. >3>2>@K >1 CABC?:5 ?@02 =0 D8;L<, 2 B>< G8A;5 70:;NG05<K5 =0 <564C=0@>4=KE :8=>@K=:0E, O2;ONBAO A@>G=K<8. > 2 >AB0=>2;5=88 =5B =8:0:>3> C:070=8O =0 A@>: 459AB28O ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O.  A2O78 A MB8< 2>7=8:0NB 420 2>?@>A0. >-?5@2KE, GB> 45;0BL, 5A;8 A@>: CABC?:8 ?@02 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 . 179 ' 70@C156=>3> D8;L<0 =0 B5@@8B>@88 >AA88 8AB5:? A;8 >B7K2 ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O 4;O B0:>3> A;CG0O =5 ?@54CA<>B@5= 8 =5 2A5340 ;8F>, >ACI5AB2;ONI55 ?C1;8G=K9 ?>:07, 4>;6=> 8<5BL 2 A2>8E >BG5B=KE 4>:C<5=B0E =>B0@80;L=> C4>AB>25@5==CN :>?8N ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O, 0 4>AB0B>G=> A2545=89 > =5<, B> AB028BAO ?>4 A><=5=85 MDD5:B82=>ABL 1>@L1K A ?8@0BAB2>< :0: >A=>2=>9 F5;8 22545=8O ?>@O4:0 @538AB@0F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2. >-2B>@KE, 5A;8 @538AB@0F8O >B=>A8BAO : A0<8< D8;L<0<, 0 =5 : 2;045;LF0< ?@02 =0 =8E 8 =5 >3@0=8G5=0 A@>:><, B> =C6=> ;8 70=>2> >D>@<;OBL ?@>:0B=>5 C4>AB>25@5=85, 5A;8 A@>: ?@02 >4=>3> ?@>:0BG8:0 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 70@C156=>3> D8;L<0 =0 B5@@8B>@88 >AA88 8AB5:, 0 G5@57 =5:>B>@>5 " 2@5<O 0=0;>38G=K5 ?@020 C 8=>AB@0==>3> ?@>4NA5@0 ?@8>1@5;0 4@C30O @>AA89A:0O >@30=870F8O? 'B> 45;0BL 2 A;CG05 ?@O<>3> ?@02>?@55<AB20, >?8A0=> 2 >AB0=>2;5=88: ?@8 ;N1>9 ?5@540G5 ?@02 B@51C5BAO 2 B@5E4=52=K9 A@>: A> 4=O A>25@H5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI59 A45;:8 ?8AL<5==> C254><8BL >1 MB>< >A:8=> (?. 5). G5284=>, B>B 65 ?>@O4>: 4>;65= 1KBL ?@8 @5>@30=870F88 8;8 ;8:2840F88 2;045;LF0 ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O, E>BO 2 >AB0=>2;5=88 B0:0O A8BC0F8O ?@O<> =5 C?><8=05BAO. 7 B5:AB0 >AB0=>2;5=8O B0:65 =5OA=>, :0: ?>ABC?8BL, 5A;8 ?@020 =0 D8;L< ?5@5H;8 ;8FC =5 >B 2;045;LF0 ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O, 0 >B 8=>AB@0==>3> ?@02>>1;040B5;O. A5 2KH587;>65==>5 ?@54AB02;O5BAO A?@0254;82K< ?@8 @0AA<>B@5=88 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O :0: >1J5:B0 02B>@A:8E ?@02. > 2 :0:>< :0G5AB25 @0AA<0B@8205BAO D8;L< 2 >AB0=>2;5=88, ?>=OBL A;>6=>. >;LHCN ?CB0=8FC 2=>AOB A0<8 B5@<8=K 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O :0: ?@54<5B0 (B> :8=>2845>?@>4C:F8O - B>20@, =0 :>B>@K9 ACI5AB2C5B ?@02> A>1AB25==>AB8, B> ?@>872545=85 - >1J5:B 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9, 15AB5;5A=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8, 2K@060NI59AO 2 ?@025 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85, B.5. 8<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020), B0: 8 ;8F, ?@5B5=4CNI8E =0 C?@02;5=85 AC4L1>9 D8;L<0 (A>1AB25==8: 8;8 2;045;5F ?@02 =0 D8;L<K, 2 >B;8G85 >B 8=KE ?@8=OBKE 2 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 ?>=OB89 ?>;L7>20B5;O 8 873>B>28B5;O (>), ?@>4NA5@0 (0:>= > 3>A?>445@6:5)), 0 B0:65 2840 ?@02 =0 D8;L< - 2;045=8O, ?>;L7>20=8O 8 @0A?>@O65=8O :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>< (?. 5 >;>65=8O). @>1;5<0 A>>B=>H5=8O 02B>@A:8E ?@02 8 ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 C65 1K;0 70B@>=CB0 2 3;. 3 =0AB>OI59 @01>BK, ?>MB><C 2 40==>< A;CG05 4>?CAB8<, GB> A>1AB25==8:>< D8;L<0 2 A<KA;5 >AB0=>2;5=8O > @538AB@0F88 AG8B05BAO ;8F>, >1;040NI55 2A5< >1J5<>< 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 =0 D8;L<. "0:>2K< <>65B O2;OBLAO B>;L:> 873>B>28B5;L 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, :>B>@K9 2 B>G=>< A>>B25BAB288 A G. 2 AB. 13 ?>;CG8; MB8 ?@020 >B 02B>@>2 D8;L<0 =0 >A=>25 ?8AL<5==KE 4>3>2>@>2. 180 ;045;LF0<8 ?@02, >G5284=>, A;54C5B AG8B0BL B5E ;8F, :><C ?> 4>3>2>@C A 873>B>28B5;5< ?5@5H;8 ?@020 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL >3@0=8G5=K ?> 2840< 8A?>;L7>20=8O, ?> B5@@8B>@88 8 ?> A@>:C. 0 D8;L<K, ?@>H54H85 @538AB@0F8N, .2K405BAO ?@>:0B=>5 C4>AB>25@5=85 548=>3> >1@07F0, 2 :>B>@>5 2=>AOBAO @5:><5=40F88 ?> 2>7@0AB=><C >3@0=8G5=8N 7@8B5;LA:>9 0C48B>@88. !2545=8O > 2A5E D8;L<0E, ?>;CG82H8E ?@>:0B=>5 C4>AB>25@5=85, 0 B0:65 > ?5@5E>45 G0AB8G=>9 CABC?:8 ?@02 =0 8E 8A?>;L7>20=85 =0 B5@@8B>@88 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 ?CB5< B8@068@>20=8O 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O, A40G8 2 ?@>:0B 8 0@5=4C, ?C1;8G=>9 :><<5@G5A:>9 8 =5:><<5@G5A:>9 45<>=AB@0F88 8 B@0=A;OF88 ?> :015;L=><C B5;52845=8N 2=>AOBAO >A:8=> 2 >AC40@AB25==K9 @55AB@ :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 (?. 2 >;>65=8O).  ??. "2" ?. 3 >AB0=>2;5=8O 1K;> 40=> ?>@CG5=85 >A:8=> A>2<5AB=> A 8=8AB5@AB2>< NAB8F88 $, ! 8 B2>@G5A:8<8 A>N70<8 @07@01>B0BL ?@54;>65=8O ?> CAB0=>2;5=8N >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 8A?>;L7>20=85 8 45<>=AB@0F8N :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2, =5 ?@>H54H8E @538AB@0F8N. > >=> =5 1K;> 2K?>;=5=> 2 A2O78 A ?@8=OB85< G5@57 B@8 <5AOF0 >, 2:;NG82H53> 2 A51O F5;K9 @0745;, CAB0=02;820NI89 >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 =0@CH5=85 02B>@A:8E ?@02, E>BO 8A?>;L7>20=85 D8;L<0 157 ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O =5 2A5340 O2;O5BAO ?8@0BA:8<, B.5. =0@CH0NI8< =>@<K 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. ! ?@8=OB85< >AB0=>2;5=8O > @538AB@0F88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 0 B0:65 A 2:;NG5=85< 2 >AB0=>2;5=8O > ;8F5=78@>20=88 ?C1;8G=>3> ?>:070 8 25I0B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 CA;>28O >1 0==C;8@>20=88 ;8F5=788 ?@8 =0@CH5=88 02B>@A:8E ?@02 :8=>- 8 B5;5?8@0BAB2> 1K;> D0:B8G5A:8 8768B>. > 8 2> 2A5< <8@5 MB8 284K =0@CH5=89 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 =5 8<5NB A5@L57=>3> @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O. AB8==K< 18G>< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> 187=5A0 1K;> 8 >AB05BAO 2845>?8@0BAB2>. A5 <5@K, ?@8<5=O5<K5 3>AC40@AB2>< 4;O 53> 8A:>@5=5=8O: C65AB>G5=85 =0:070=891, 2:;NG5=85 873>B>2;5=8O 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 2845>=>A8B5;59 2 ?5@5G5=L ;8F5=78@C5<KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 A=0G0;0 =0 C@>2=5 AC1J5:B>2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F882, 0 70B5< 8 =0 D545@0;L=>< C@>2=53, ?>:0 =5 ?@8=5A;8 4>;6=>3> 1 =0?@8<5@, ?CB5< 2:;NG5=8O AB. 150-4 2 > !$!  8 CA8;5=8O =0:070=8O 2 AB. 146 # $ ?> A@02=5=8N A @0=55 459AB2>202H59 AB. 141 # !$! . 2 0A?>@O65=85 M@0 >A:2K >B 18 <0@B0 1998 3. N 237-  " ;8F5=78@>20=88 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> ?@>872>4AB2C (B8@068@>20=8N), >?B>2>9 8 @>7=8G=>9 @50;870F88 2845>?@>4C:F88 =0 B5@@8B>@88 3>@>40 >A:2K". 3 $545@0;L=K9 70:>= " ;8F5=78@>20=88 >B45;L=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8" >B 25 A5=BO1@O 1998 3. ! 158-$. 181 @57C;LB0B0. =>3>G8A;5==K5 70@C156=K5 8AA;54>20=8O >?@545;ONB AB@0B538N 1>@L1K A MB8< O2;5=85< ?> F5;><C @O4C =0?@02;5=89, >A=>2=CN @>;L ?@8 >B2>4O C3>;>2=><C ?@5A;54>20=8N =0@CH8B5;59. >, 2>-?5@2KE :@8<8=>;>38 CB25@640NB, GB> A0<> ?> A515 22545=85 8;8 C65AB>G5=85 A0=:F89 2 ?@02>2>9 =>@<5 =5 O2;O5BAO A45@6820NI8< D0:B>@>< 4;O ?@02>=0@CH8B5;59, ?>A:>;L:C ?@0:B8G5A:8 :064K9 A>25@H0NI89 ?@>B82>?@02=>5 459AB285 @0AAG8BK205B 871560BL =0:070=8O. >-2B>@KE, 4065 5A;8 ?@5ABC?=8: 1C45B >AC645=, ?>B5@?52H5<C C1KB:8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;N >AB05BAO B>;L:> " <>@0;L=>5 C4>2;5B2>@5=85, ?>A:>;L:C 2A5 45=56=K5 AC<<K, 27KA:8205<K5 A ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O 2 2845 HB@0D0 :0: C3>;>2=>3> =0:070=8O, >1@0I0NBAO 2 4>E>4 3>AC40@AB20, 0 =5 :><?5=A8@CNB ?>=5A5==K9 CI5@1 ?>B5@?52H53>. >MB><C C3>;>2=K5 <5@K >B=>A8B5;L=> E>@>H8 4;O 1>@L1K A ?8@0BAB2>< :0: A>F80;L=K< O2;5=85<, => =8 2 :>59 <5@5 =5 2>AAB0=02;820NB status quo 2 A0<>< :8=>187=5A5. !B0BLO 49 > 22>48B A5@L57=K5 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2K5 <5@K 8<CI5AB25==>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8, >1@0I05<K5 2 ?>;L7C ;8F0, GL8 ?@020 1K;8 =0@CH5=K, 8 ?> 53> 2K1>@C: 27KA:0=85 4>E>40, ?>;CG5==>3> =0@CH8B5;5< 2A;54AB285 =0@CH5=8O ?@02, ;81> 2>7<5I5=85 C1KB:>2, 2:;NG0O C?CI5==CN 2K3>4C, ;81> 2K?;0B0 :><?5=A0F88 2 AC<<5 >B 10 4> 50 000 <8=8<0;L=KE @07<5@>2 >?;0BK B@C40, CAB0=02;8205<KE 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< $. > 28;:0 @07<5@0 :><?5=A0F88 8 >BACBAB285 ?>470:>==KE =>@<0B82=KE 0:B>2, ?>OA=ONI8E <5E0=87< ?>4AG5B0 :>MDD8F85=B0 :><?5=A0F88 (=0?@8<5@, ?>AB0=>2;5=8O ;5=C<0 5@E>2=>3> !C40 8;8 KAH53> @18B@06=>3> !C40 $), =5 ?>72>;ONB 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 8A?>;L7>20BL ?@54>AB02;5==CN 70:>=>< 2>7<>6=>ABL C4>2;5B2>@5=8O 8=B5@5A>2 ?>AB@0402H8E.  ?@>5:B5 III G0AB8  $ ?@54;0305BAO CAB0=>28BL =>2K5 8 >B<5=8BL =5:>B>@K5 70:@5?;5==K5 459AB2CNI8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< 284K >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 =0@CH5=85 02B>@A:8E 8 A<56=KE ?@02 (AB. 1124, 1144 8 1147). 0?@8<5@, 2<5AB> 2K7K20NI59 <=>3> ?@0:B8G5A:8E ?@>1;5< :><?5=A0F88 22>48BAO C?;0B0 A25@E 2>7<5I5=8O C1KB:>2 =5CAB>9:8 2 @07<5@5 4> 50 <8=8<0;L=KE @07<5@>2 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 40==K9 284 8A?>;L7>20=8O. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, >B<5=0 :><?5=A0F88 2?>;=5 A>>B25BAB2C5B >1I8< =0G0;0< 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020, :>B>@K< :><?5=A0F8O 70 =0@CH5=85 8<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 :0: A?>A>1 70I8BK 3@0640=A:8E ?@02 =58725AB=0 (0. 12  $), B>340 :0: =5CAB>9:0 :0: 284 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8 87402=0 ?@8<5=O5BAO. > AAK;:0 =0 <8=8<0;L=K9 @07<5@ 2>7=03@0645=8O ?@8 ?>4AG5B5 =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L =5?>=OB=0. >-?5@2KE, 459AB2CNI85 AB02:8 >E20BK20NB =5 2A5 284K 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=89, 0 182 A;54>20B5;L=>, =5>1E>48<> 4>?>;=8BL ?>470:>==K5 0:BK. >-2B>@KE, 2 >B;8G85 >B ?@56=8E AB02>:1, 459AB2CNI85 =5 8AG8A;ONBAO 2 B25@4>9 AC<<5, 0 CAB0=02;820NBAO 2 2845 ?@>F5=B>2 >B AC<< 20;>2>3> A1>@0, ?>ABC?0NI53> >B ?@>4068 18;5B>2, 8;8 >B A40G8 M:75<?;O@>2 ?@>872545=8O 2 ?@>:0B2, 0 MB> 45;05B 70B@C4=8B5;L=K< 8E ?@8<5=5=85 ?@8 ?>4AG5B5 @07<5@0 =5CAB>9:8. @><5 B>3>, =58725AB=>, =0A:>;L:> :>MDD8F85=B "4> 50 <8=8<0;L=KE @07<5@>2 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O" >:065BAO ;53G5 2 ?@8<5=5=88, G5< "10 - 50 000 <8=8<0;L=KE @07<5@>2 >?;0BK B@C40"? >MB><C >4=8< 87 ?5@A?5:B82=KE =0?@02;5=89 5A;8 =5 1>@L1K A ?8@0BAB2>< 2 F5;><, B> ?> :@09=59 <5@5 <8=8<870F88 C1KB:>2 >B =53>, O28;>AL 1K AB@0E>20=85 >B ?8@0BAB20, > G5< C65 C?><8=0;>AL 2 3;. 2 48AA5@B0F88. >AA89A:85 AB@0E>2K5 :><?0=88 8 ?@54AB028B5;8 8=>AB@0==KE AB@0E>2KE 035=BAB2 ?>:0 2 >AA88 B0:8E CA;C3 =5 ?@54>AB02;ONB, >1JOA=OO MB> ?@5645 2A53> B5<, GB> ?>8A:, 0 3;02=>5 - =0E>645=85 @5F5AA82=>3> >B25BG8:0 G@572KG09=> A;>6=K. 59AB28B5;L=>, 2 A;CG05 2845>?8@0BAB20 MB> B@C4=>5, E>BO 8 =5 01A>;NB=> =5>ACI5AB28<>5 45;>, 254L =0@CH8B5;5< <>65B AB0BL ;N1>9, 8<5NI89 420 2845><03=8B>D>=0. > 2845>?8@0BAB2> 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 A2O70=> 8 A B5;52878>==K< ?8@0BAB2>< A> AB>@>=K <0;5=L:8E >@30=870F89 :015;L=>3> 25I0=8O, G0AB> >E20BK20NI8E >48= <8:@>@09>= 8;8 =51>;LH>9 =0A5;5==K9 ?C=:B, :>B>@K5 ?>:07K20NB ?> A2>5<C :0=0;C ?8@0BA:85 :>?88.  >B;8G85 >B 2845>?8@0B0, 2A5 B5;52878>==K5 ABC488 70@538AB@8@>20=K 2 $!" , B.5. 8E <5AB>=0E>645=85 8 @C:>2>4OI85 @01>B=8:8 8725AB=K. @><5 B>3>, A8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 =0@CH5=85 02B>@A:8E ?@02 <>65B ?>2;5GL 0==C;8@>20=85 ;8F5=788 =0 25I0=85 (A<. >1 MB>< 2 3;. 1 48AA5@B0F88). A=>2=0O A;>6=>ABL 2> 2=54@5=88 B0:>3> 2840 AB@0E>20=8O A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> G@572KG09=> B@C4=> ?>4AG8B0BL AB@0E>2CN ?@5<8N B0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K >=0, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 708=B5@5A>20;0 2;045;LF52 ?@02, 0 A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 1K;0 @50;L=0 A B>G:8 7@5=8O 27KA:0=8O 55 A ?8@0B0, ?>A:>;L:C 1>;LH8=AB2C 87 =8E ?@>I5 8 45H52;5 ;8:2848@>20BLAO, G5< 70?;0B8BL 70 =0@CH5=85 ?@02. ) 0I8B0 ?@02 8 8=B5@5A>2 ?>B@518B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 KH5 1K;8 @0AA<>B@5=K ?@02>2K5 0A?5:BK ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> ?@>872>4AB2C 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8N 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. 0 AE5<5 ! 1 (A<. 3;. 2) C:070= >48= M;5<5=B, 0 B>G=55 4065 C@>25=L, :>B>@K9 =5 1 >AB0=>2;5=8O !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 !!!  " AB02:0E 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 ?C1;8G=>5 8A?>;=5=85 ?@>872545=89 ;8B5@0BC@K 8 8A:CAAB20" >B 19 45:01@O 1988 3, ! 531 8 "  AB02:0E 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 8740=85 ?@>872545=89 ;8B5@0BC@K, =0C:8 8 8A:CAAB20" >B 19 45:01@O 1988 3. ! 532// !>1@0=85 ?>AB0=>2;5=89 @028B5;LAB20 !$! . 1989. - ! 4. - AB. 21; ! 5. - AB. 23. 2 >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " <8=8<0;L=KE AB02:0E 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 =5:>B>@K5 284K 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=89 ;8B5@0BC@K 8 8A:CAAB20" >B 21 <0@B0 1994 3. ! 218// " >AA89A:85 25AB8" >B 30 <0@B0 1994 3. 183 CG0AB2C5B 2 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 8;8 :0:>9-;81> 8=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, => 53> @>;L G@572KG09=> 206=0, ?>A:>;L:C 8<5==> 4;O =53> 8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 2AO >?8A0==0O 2 40==>9 @01>B5 45OB5;L=>ABL. -B> 7@8B5;L. 59AB2CNI55 @>AA89A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> =5 >?@545;O5B AB0BCA0 7@8B5;O, E>BO 2 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 4>?5@5AB@>5G=KE 2@5<5= 7@8B5;N >B2>48;0AL >?@545;5==0O @>;L 2 >B=>H5=8OE 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. 0?@8<5@, G8A;> 7@8B5;59, ?>A5B82H8E 2 ?@>:0B5 B>B 8;8 8=>9 D8;L<, 8 7@8B5;LA:>5 ?@87=0=85 2;8O;8 =0 @07<5@ ?>;CG05<>3> :8=>02B>@0<8 4>?>;=8B5;L=>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O1. >A;5 22545=8O >, CAB0=>282H53>, GB> @07<5@ 2>7=03@0645=8O 8 ?>@O4>: 53> 2K?;0BK O2;ONBAO @57C;LB0B>< ?5@53>2>@>2 AB>@>= 02B>@A:>3> 4>3>2>@0, MB0 A2O7L 02B>@0 8 7@8B5;O ?@5@20;0AL. 5;L7O A:070BL, GB> 459AB2CNI55 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> 83=>@8@C5B 7@8B5;O. > A53>4=O >= D83C@8@C5B A>2A5< 2 4@C3>< ?;0=5.  ?@>5:B5 III G0AB8  $ B>G=> >?@545;O5BAO 53> AB0BCA: A:070=>, GB> ;8F>, 4;O =5?>A@54AB25==>3> 2>A?@8OB8O :>B>@>3> ?@54=07=0G5=> ?@>872545=85, =5 O2;O5BAO ?>;L7>20B5;5<, 0 AG8B05BAO ?>B@518B5;5< (G. 6 AB, 1134). %>BO 2 459AB2CNI5< 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 B0:>9 G5B:>9 D>@<C;8@>2:8 =5B, => 0=0;87 <=>38E ?@02>2KE 0:B>2, ?@O<> 8;8 :>A25==> >B=>AOI8EAO : 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, ?>72>;O5B A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> 8<5==> 2 B0:>< :0G5AB25 8 2KABC?05B 7@8B5;L. 0:>= 70I8I05B 8=B5@5AK 7@8B5;O :0: ?>B@518B5;O 0C48>287C0;L=>9 ?@>4C:F88 8;8 CA;C3 ?> 55 ?>:07C. -B0 70I8B0 845B ?> =5A:>;L:8< =0?@02;5=8O<. 4=8< 87 A0<KE ?>4@>1=KE ?@02>2KE 0:B>2 2 40==>9 >1;0AB8 O2;ONBAO @028;0 :8=>2845>>1A;C6820=8O =0A5;5=8O, CB25@645==K5 ?>AB0=>2;5=85< @028B5;LAB20 $ >B 17 0?@5;O 1994 3. ! 12642.  ?@50<1C;5 C:07K205BAO <5AB> MB>3> =>@<0B82=>3> ?@02>2>3> 0:B0 2 A8AB5<5 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 > 70I8B5 ?@02 ?>B@518B5;O, E>BO 2 >A=>2C ?@8 53> @07@01>B:5 ;53;8 8 A=>2K 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $ > :C;LBC@5, 8 0:>= !$!  " ?@54?@8OB8OE 8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8"3. 0==K5 @028;0 @53C;8@CNB >B=>H5=8O <564C :8=>2845>7@5;8I=K<8 ?@54?@8OB8O<8, B.5. ?@54?@8OB8O<8, >@30=870F8O<8, CG@5645=8O<8 8 3@0640=0<8-?@54?@8=8<0B5;O<8, >:07K20NI8<8 CA;C38 ?> :8=>2845>>1A;C6820=8N, 8 ?>B@518B5;O<8 MB8E CA;C3 - 7@8B5;O<8. A=>2>9 B0:8E >B=>H5=89 O2;O5BAO 4>3>2>@. 1 !<., =0?@8<5@, ?>AB0=>2;5=85 !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 !!!  " ?>@O4:5 2K?;0BK 4>?>;=8B5;L=>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O" >B 23 8N=O 1982 3. ! 268, 2 !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. -1994. - ! 31. - AB. 3282. 3 ! 87<5=5=8O<8 8 4>?>;=5=8O<8 >B 24 8N=O 1992 3.// "54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $", - 1990. - ! 30. - AB. 418; 1992. - ! 34. - AB. 1966 (CB@0B8; A8;C 2 A2O78 A ?@8=OB85<  $). 184 >A:>;L:C @028;0 1K;8 22545=K =5704>;3> 4> ?@8=OB8O I G0AB8  $, 0 459AB2>202H85 2 B> 2@5<O A=>2K 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 !>N70 !!  8 @5A?C1;8: =5 7=0;8 ?>=OB8O "?C1;8G=K9 4>3>2>@", B> A0< B8? 4>3>2>@0 2 @028;0E =5 >?@545;5=, E>BO > ?@020E 7@8B5;59 A:070=>, GB> 2A5 8<5NB ?@02> =0 A2>1>4=>5 ?>;L7>20=85 CA;C30<8 =0 2A5 284K :8=>2845>>1A;C6820=8O (?. 24). "0:>9 4>3>2>@ AG8B05BAO 70:;NG5==K< A <><5=B0 ?@>4068 18;5B0, 2 :>B>@>< 4>;6=K 1KBL C:070=K =08<5=>20=85 :8=>2845>7@5;8I=>3> ?@54?@8OB8O, ?>A04>G=>5 <5AB>, 40B0 8 2@5<O =0G0;0 A50=A0, F5=0 (?. 7 @028;).  A>>B25BAB288 A ?. 15 @028; F5=K =0 18;5BK >?@545;ONBAO :8=>2845>7@5;8I=K<8 ?@54?@8OB8O<8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>, => >@30=K <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O <>3CB 22>48BL ?>@O4>: A=865=8O F5= =0 18;5BK =0 =5:>B>@K5 A?5F80;L=K5 :8=>A50=AK, =0?@8<5@ A50=AK 4;O 45B59. 7@>A;K5 7@8B5;8, ?>A5I0NI85 MB8 A50=AK, ;L3>B0<8 =5 ?>;L7CNBAO 8 >1O70=K ?@8>1@5AB8 18;5B 70 ?>;=CN AB>8<>ABL. @028;0 CAB0=02;820NB ?@020 8 >1O70==>AB8 CG0AB=8:>2 >B=>H5=89. @8<5G0B5;L=>, GB> 2 A0<>< B5:AB5 >B45;L=> 2K45;5=K B>;L:> >1O70==>AB8 :8=>2845>7@5;8I=>3> ?@54?@8OB8O, 0 53> ?@020 "@071@>A0=K" ?> B5:ABC, B>340 :0: 8 ?@020, 8 >1O70==>AB8 7@8B5;59 2K45;5=K 2 >B45;L=K9 @0745;. !@548 <=>3>G8A;5==KE >1O70==>AB59 :8=>2845>7@5;8I=>3> ?@54?@8OB8O >B<5B8< >15A?5G5=85 :0G5AB25==>3> ?>:070 :8=>2845>D8;L<>2 8 ?>445@60=85 =5>1E>48<>3> :0G5AB25==>3> C@>2=O >A=0I5==>AB8, :><D>@B=>AB8, 157>?0A=>AB8 (GB> CAB0=02;8205BAO 254><AB25==K<8 0:B0<8 >A:8=>). AB0;L=K5 65 B@51>20=8O ?@0:B8G5A:8 =8G5< =5 >B;8G0NBAO >B 0=0;>38G=KE >1O70==>AB59 ;N1>9 >@30=870F88, >:07K20NI59 CA;C38 =0A5;5=8N, 1C4L B> <03078= 8;8 :><18=0B 1KB>2>3> >1A;C6820=8O. > ACI5AB2CNB 8 A?5F8D8G5A:85 >1O70==>AB8. 0?@8<5@, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?. 22 >1JO2;5==K9 :8=>2845>D8;L< 4>;65= 1KBL ?>:070= =57028A8<> >B G8A;0 ?@8ACBAB2CNI8E =0 A50=A5 7@8B5;59. 0<5=0 >1JO2;5==>3> D8;L<0 =0 4@C3>9 4>?CA:05BAO B>;L:> 2 A;CG05 ?>@G8 8;8 CB5@8 :8=>2845>D8;L<0. 5OA=>, >4=0:>, ?>G5<C @028;0, 2> <=>3>< 4C1;8@CNI85 8=K5 =>@<0B82=K5 0:BK (=0?@8<5@, 2 ?. 5 70?@5I05BAO ?C1;8G=0O 45<>=AB@0F8O :8=>2845>D8;L<>2 157 ;8F5=788 8 ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O), =5 CAB0=>28;8 745AL, GB> D8;L<, ?>:070==K9 =0 70<5=C, 4>;65= 8<5BL B5 65 2>7@0AB=K5 >3@0=8G5=8O 7@8B5;LA:>9 0C48B>@88 8;8 1>;55 =87:85. !>45@60I0OAO 2 ?. 13 @028; 8=D>@<0F8O =5 A>2A5< A>2?0405B A ?@8=F8?0<8 02B>@A:>3> ?@020: :8=>2845>7@5;8I=K5 ?@54?@8OB8O 4>;6=K C:07K20BL 3>4 2K?CA:0 D8;L<0, 8A?>;=8B5;59 3;02=KE @>;59 8 2>7@0AB=K5 185 >3@0=8G5=8O, => =5 C?><O=CBK 8<5=0 02B>@>2 D8;L<0 - @568AA5@0-?>AB0=>2I8:0, 02B>@0 AF5=0@8O 8 :><?>78B>@0 (G.' 1 AB. 13 8 G. 1 AB. 15 >), 8 873>B>28B5;O 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O (017. 2 G. 2 AB 13 >) -B> 5I5 @07 4>:07K205B ?@8=04;56=>ABL @028; : 70:>=>40B5;L=>9 >B@0A;8 > 70I8B5 ?@02 ?>B@518B5;O, ?>A:>;L:C 8<5==> 3>4 2K?CA:0 8 8A?>;=8B5;8 3;02=KE @>;59 1>;LH5 2A53> 8=B5@5ACNB 7@8B5;O. 73>B>28B5;L 8 02B>@K 2?>;=5 <>3CB B@51>20BL >B :8=>2845>7@5;8I=KE ?@54?@8OB89 8E C:070=8O 2 A<KA;5 A>1;N45=8O 8E 02B>@A:8E ;8G=KE =58<CI5AB25==KE ?@02, 2 G0AB=>AB8 ?@020 02B>@AB20. @><5 B>3>, 8=B5@5ACNI89AO 7@8B5;L 2?@025 B@51>20BL ?@54JO2;5=8O ?@>:0B=>3> C4>AB>25@5=8O =0 D8;L<, 345 A>45@60BAO 2A5 MB8 40==K5. @C38< =0?@02;5=85< 70I8BK' ?@02 ?>B@518B5;59 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 O2;O5BAO 701>B0 > =@02AB25==>AB8.  70:>=>40B5;L=K5 >@30=K =5 @07 ?>ABC?0;8 ?@>5:BK ?@02>2KE 4>:C<5=B>2, ?>A2OI5==KE MB><C 2>?@>AC, => ?>:0 =8 >48= 87 =8E =5 1K; ?@8=OB. <5AB5 A B5< <=>385 70:>=>40B5;L=K5 8 =>@<0B82=K5 0:BK @07=KE C@>2=59 A>45@60B >B45;L=K5 ?>;>65=8O, :>B>@K5 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L >15A?5G820NB 8=B5@5AK 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 ?@8 ?C1;8G=>< ?>:075 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=88 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. 0?@8<5@, AB. 37 0:>=0 > A@54AB20E <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 @07@5H05B @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2K?CA:>2 A?5F80;L=KE B5;5?@>3@0<< M@>B8G5A:>3> A>45@60=8O 157 :>48@>20=8O A83=0;0 B>;L:> A 23 G0A>2 4> 4 G0A>2 ?> <5AB=><C 2@5<5=8, 5A;8 8=>5 =5 CAB0=>2;5=> <5AB=>9 04<8=8AB@0F859. AB0B8, =0 B5 65 ?@>3@0<<K =5 @0A?@>AB@0=ONBAO =0;>3>2K5 ;L3>BK, CAB0=>2;5==K5 4;O A@54AB2 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 ??. "M" ?.1 AB. 5 0:>=0 >1 ! 8 017. 8 ?. 1 AB. 6 0:>=0 > =0;>35 =0 ?@81K;L.  B5E 65 F5;OE 2 A>>B25BAB288 A >;>65=85< > @538AB@0F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 2 ?@>:0B=>5 C4>AB>25@5=85, 2K40205<>5 =0 ?@>H54H85 @538AB@0F8N 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O, 4>;6=K 1KBL 2=5A5=K @5:><5=40F88 ?> 2>7@0AB=><C >3@0=8G5=8N 7@8B5;LA:>9 0C48B>@88, :>B>@K5 CB>G=ONBAO >@30=0<8. 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 AC1J5:B>2 $, 8AE>4O 87 B@048F89, >1KG052 8 =0F8>=0;L=>3> A>AB020 @538>=0. @54AB02;O5BAO, GB> 8<5==> CAB0=>2;5=85 2>7@0AB=>3> F5=70 8 O2;O5BAO A53>4=O >A=>2=>9 F5;LN @538AB@0F88 D8;L<>2 8 2K40G8 ?@>:0B=KE C4>AB>25@5=89, GB> ?>4B25@6405BAO ?>;>65=85< AB. 5 0:>=0 > 3>A?>445@6:5, 2 :>B>@>9 F5;O<8 @538AB@0F88 D8;L<>2 =07K20NBAO @53C;8@>20=85 ?@>:0B0 8 ?>:070 D8;L<>2 =0 B5@@8B>@88 $, 70I8B0 >1;040B5;59 ?@02 =0 D8;L<, >?@545;5=85 2>7@0AB=>9 :0B53>@88 7@8B5;LA:>9 0C48B>@88. 0I8B5 ?>B@518B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 ?>A2OI5=K >B45;L=K5 ?>;>65=8O 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 > @5:;0<5. -B> 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> <>65B ?@8<5=OBLAO : 186 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 A 42CE B>G5: 7@5=8O: '2>-?5@2KE, >4=8< 87 284>2 @5:;0<K O2;O5BAO @5:;0<=K9 @>;8:, :>B>@K9 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 (A<. >1 MB>< 3;. 3 48AA5@B0F88); 2>-2B>@KE, =5<0;>206=>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B 2=54@5=85 @5:;0<K 2 0C48>287C0;L=K5 ?@>872545=8O. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, ACI5AB2C5B F5;K9 :><?;5:A =>@<, :0A0NI8EAO A>45@60=8O @5:;0<K 8 ?@8=OBKE 2 @0728B85 AB. 8 - 10 0:>=0 $ " 70I8B5 ?@02 ?>B@518B5;59" (?@02> ?>B@518B5;O =0 8=D>@<0F8N >1 873>B>28B5;5 (8A?>;=8B5;5, ?@>402F5) 8 > B>20@0E (@01>B0E, CA;C30E). -B> =>@<K AB. 5-9 $545@0;L=>3> 70:>=0 " @5:;0<5", B@51CNI85 >?@545;5==>3> A>45@60=8O @5:;0<=KE A>>1I5=89, 0 B0:65 ?>;>65=8O #:07>2 @57845=B0 $ " 70I8B5 ?>B@518B5;59 >B =54>1@>A>25AB=>9 @5:;0<K" >B 10 8N=O 1994 3. ! 1183, " 30@0=B8OE ?@020 3@0640= =0 >E@0=C 74>@>2LO ?@8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=88 @5:;0<K" >B 17 D52@0;O 1995 3, ! 161 8 4@. > 2 MB8E =>@<0E =5B =8G53> A?5F8D8G5A:>3>, >B=>AOI53>AO 8<5==> : 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. >;55 206=K<8 ?@54AB02;ONBAO 4@C385 ?@>O2;5=8O 70I8BK 8=B5@5A>2 ?>B@518B5;59 ?@8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=88 @5:;0<K 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. 0?@8<5@, AB. 10 0:>=0 > @5:;0<5 70?@5I05B 8A?>;L7>20BL 2 @048>-, B5;5-, 2845>-, 0C48>- 8 :8=>?@>4C:F88 MDD5:BK, :>B>@K5 >:07K20NB =5 >A>7=0205<>5 ?>B@518B5;5< 2>7459AB285 =0 53> 2>A?@8OB85, @8<5@>< <>65B A;C68BL ?@5F545=B, :>340 ?@8 45<>=AB@0F88 D8;L<0 2 :8=>B50B@0E @5:;0<0 (87>1@065=85 ?0G:8 ?5G5=LO) 1K;0 2AB02;5=0 25-K< :04@>< (=>@<0;L=0O A:>@>ABL - 24 :04@0 2 A5:C=4C). @8B5;8 "=5 2845;8" MB>3> 87>1@065=8O, => ?>A;5 A50=A0 ?> =5?>=OB=K< 4;O A51O ?@8G8=0< CAB@5<;O;8AL : ?@8;02:C 8 A:C?0;8 >3@><=>5 :>;8G5AB2> ?5G5=LO. "0:>5 "7><18@>20=85" 7@8B5;59 O28;>AL ?>2>4>< 4;O C3>;>2=>3> AC451=>3> @0718@0B5;LAB201. @C38< ?@8<5@>< A:@KB>3> 2>7459AB28O O2;O5BAO 42>9=0O 72C:>70?8AL. "0:>5 2>7459AB285 <>65B ?03C1=> >B@060BLAO =0 D878G5A:>< 8 ?A8E8G5A:>< 74>@>2L5 7@8B5;59. > 8 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE, 01A>;NB=> =5 >B@060NI8EAO =0 A0<>GC2AB288 ?>B@518B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, 70:>= > @5:;0<5 70I8I05B 8E 8=B5@5AK. >?@>A > A>1;N45=88 ?@02 02B>@>2 (2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L =58<CI5AB25==KE) ?@8 ?@5@K20=88 45<>=AB@0F88 D8;L<0 @5:;0<=K<8 1;>:0<8 <>6=> @0AA<>B@5BL 8 ?>4 4@C38< C3;>< 7@5=8O: =5 CI5<;O5B ;8 2AB02:0 @5:;0<K 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 8=B5@5A>2 7@8B5;59, :>B>@K5 =0<5@5=K A<>B@5BL 70O2;5==K9 2 B5;52878>==>9 ?@>3@0<<5 8;8 2 0D8H5 :8=>B50B@0 D8;L<, 0 =5 <0AAC <0;5=L:8E 1 P. Greffe, F. Greffe. La publidte & la loi. Pans, LITEC, 1995. p. 305. 187 =02O7G82KE 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 - @5:;0<=KE @>;8:>2?  MB>< 2>?@>A5 0:>= > @5:;0<5 ?>-@07=><C ?>4E>48B : 42C< A?>A>10< 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89: ?C1;8G=><C :8=>- 8 2845>?>:07C 8 A>>1I5=8N 4;O 2A5>1I53> A2545=8O ?CB5< ?5@540G8 2 MD8@ 8;8 ?> :015;N. > AB. 11 0:>=0 > @5:;0<5 70?@5I5=> ?@5@K20BL @5:;0<=K<8 1;>:0<8 45BA:85 8 @5;838>7=K5 ?5@540G8, >1@07>20B5;L=K5 ?5@540G8 - 1>;55 G5< >48= @07 2 15 <8=CB =0 ?5@8>4, =5 ?@52KH0NI89 45 A5:C=4 (MB> 5I5 >4=> ?@>O2;5=85 >E@0=K 8=B5@5A>2 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2); EC4>65AB25==K5 D8;L<K 157 A>3;0A8O ?@02>>1;040B5;59 - (?>4@>1=55 >1 MB>< 2 ?@54K4CI5< ?0@03@0D5); ?5@540G8, ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABLN <5=55 15 <8=CB, 8 =5:>B>@K5 4@C385 B@0=A;OF88.  A>>B25BAB288 A> AB. 12 0:>=0 > @5:;0<5 2 :8=>B50B@0E 8 2845>A0;>=0E 2>>1I5 70?@5I5=> ?@5@K20BL 45<>=AB@0F8N @5:;0<=K<8 2AB02:0<8, :@><5 ?5@5@K2>2 <564C A5@8O<8. "0:0O @07=8F0 2 ?@028;0E <>65B 1KBL >1JOA=5=0 B5<, GB> B5;57@8B5;L 8<55B 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@8 ?@5@K20=88 D8;L<0 @5:;0<=K< 1;>:>< ?5@5:;NG8BLAO =0 4@C3>9 :0=0;, GB> >A>15==> ?@>AB> A45;0BL =0 B5;5287>@5 A 48AB0=F8>==K< C?@02;5=85<, 0 :8=>7@8B5;L 2K=C645= A<>B@5BL ?@54;0305<>5 87>1@065=85. 4=> 87 206=KE, =0 <>9 273;O4, =0?@02;5=89 70I8BK ?@02 ?>B@518B5;59 ?>:0 =5 ?>;CG8;> @0728B8O 2 @>AA89A:>9 ?@0:B8:5. > 2A5E 2KH5C?><O=CBKE A;CG0OE =>@<0<8 @53C;8@CNBAO ;81> A>45@60=85 D8;L<0, ;81> CA;>28O 53> ?>:070 :0: 2840 CA;C38.  2>B D8;L<C :0: ?@54<5BC ?>B@51;5=8O, :0G5AB2C 87>1@065=8O 8 72C:0, B> 5ABL :0G5AB2C <0B5@80;L=>3> =>A8B5;O, =0 :>B>@>< >= 70D8:A8@>20=, >1KG=> C45;O5BAO <0;> 2=8<0=8O. "@51>20=8O : :0G5AB2C :8=>:>?88 CAB0=>2;5=K 254><AB25==K<8 0:B0<8 >A:8=>, ACI5AB2CNB !"K 8 A?5F80;L=K5 0:BK "5;52878>==>3> "5E=8G5A:>3> &5=B@0 ?> :0G5AB2C <0B5@80;>2, ?@>E>4OI8E 2 MD8@. >MB><C 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 40==0O A8BC0F8O >B=>A8BAO : :0G5AB2C 2845>=>A8B5;59 A 70?8ALN 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. >1@>A>25AB=K5 ?@>4NA5@K ?@5645 2A53> 15A?>:>OBAO > "G8AB>B5" 02B>@A:8E ?@02, 0 =5?@8BO70B5;L=K9 @>AA89A:89 2845>7@8B5;L, 2K@>AH89 =0 ?8@0BA:8E :>?8OE, 8 =5 >1@0I05B 2=8<0=8O, :>340 2 >4=>< C3;C M:@0=0 <5;L:05B A5:C=4><5@, 2=87C ?5@8>48G5A:8 2>7=8:0NB =04?8A8 A C:070=85< ?@8=04;56=>AB8 02B>@A:8E ?@02 8 A0<>9 :>?88 8;8 153CI0O AB@>:0, A ?@>AL1>9 A>>1I8BL, 5A;8 :>?8O 1K;0 :C?;5=0 8;8 27OB0 =0?@>:0B. 0 A0<>< 45;5 >E@0=0 8=B5@5A>2 ?>B@518B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 8 55 @50;870F8O 2 A>2>:C?=>AB8 A ?@8<5=5=85< 4@C38E =>@< <>3CB 40BL 8=B5@5A=K5 @57C;LB0BK. 0?@8<5@, 0<5@8:0=A:0O :8=>ABC48O, C :>B>@>9 ?5@5<0=8;8 AF5=0@8AB0, A:>@55 2>71C48B 8A: > =54>1@>A>25AB=>9 :>=:C@5=F88, G5< 188 > =0@CH5=88 ?>;CG5==KE 5N 02B>@A:8E ?@02 =0 AF5=0@89.  D@0=FC7A:85 :8=5<0B>3@0D8G5A:85 02B>@K, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L @568AA5@K 8 >?5@0B>@K, ?@8 ?>445@6:5 :>=5G=KE ?>B@518B5;59 @57C;LB0B>2 8E B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 -B5;57@8B5;59 4>18;8AL B>3>, GB> ?@8 ?>:075 ?> B5;52845=8N ;N1KE 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89, :@><5 A>1AB25==KE ?5@540G B5;525I0B5;L=>9 >@30=870F88, A M:@0=0 C18@05BAO ;>3>B8? B5;5:0=0;0, 401K, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, =5 2=>A8BL =5A0=:F8>=8@>20==KE 87<5=5=89 2 2845>@O4, 0 A 4@C3>9 - =5 <5H0BL 7@8B5;O< A<>B@5BL D8;L<.  @>AA89A:>9 65 ?@0:B8:5 2 :0G5AB25 0=B8?@8<5@0 <>6=> ?@825AB8 ?>:07 ?> B5;52845=8N 8=>AB@0==KE D8;L<>2, ?@020 =0 :>B>@K5 70:C?;5=K :><?0=859 " CAA:>5 2845>", :>B>@0O @07<5I05B 2 ;52>< =86=5< C3;C M:@0=0 A2>9 B>20@=K9 7=0: - =5:>5 >@=8B>;>38G5A:>5 GC4>, @07<5@>< @>2=> 2 G5B25@BL B5;5287>@0. 0A:>;L:> MDD5:B82=59 <>6=> 1K;> 1K @07@5H8BL A8BC0F8N, C?><O=CBCN 2 1 3;. 3 48AA5@B0F88 > 70I8B5 ;8G=KE =58<CI5AB25==KE ?@02 >?5@0B>@0 =0 53> 2:;04 2 0C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85, 5A;8 1K : 4>?CAB82H5<C =0@CH5=85 ?>;L7>20B5;N ?@5B5=788 ?@54JO28;8 =5 B>;L:> 02B>@K, => 8 B5;57@8B5;8. "0:0O ?@0:B8:0 <>3;0 1K 8<5BL 8 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85. AB05BAO =045OBLAO, GB> A> 2@5<5=5< @>AA89A:85 ?>B@518B5;8 1C4CB >1@0I0BL 2=8<0=85 =5 B>;L:> =0 A>45@60=85, => 8 =0 :0G5AB2> :>?89 ?@54;0305<KE 8< 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. >?@>A > :0G5AB25 =>A8B5;59, :AB0B8, >B=>A8BAO =5 B>;L:> : ?@>1;5<5 70I8BK ?@02 ?>B@518B5;59, => 8, 2K@060OAL 02B>@A:>-?@02>2K< O7K:><, : 70I8B5 ?@02 873>B>28B5;59 8 ?>;L7>20B5;59 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. 5>4=>:@0B=> :8=5<0B>3@0D8AB0<8 2KA:07K20;0AL <KA;L, GB> GCBL ;8 =5 >A=>2=>9 ?@8G8=>9 =565;0=8O 8=>AB@0==KE 48AB@81LNB5@>2 ?@8>1@5B0BL ?@020 =0 @>AA89A:85 D8;L<K O2;O5BAO 8E =87:>5 :0G5AB2>, => =5 A B2>@G5A:>9, 0 8<5==> A B5E=>;>38G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O. >MB><C 2 F5;OE ?>;=>F5==>3> 2=54@5=8O >AA88 =0 <8@>2>9 :8=>@K=>: A;54>20;> 1K ?5@5A<>B@5BL 8 4>@01>B0BL =>@<K ?@020 8 2 40==>9 >1;0AB8. 189 0:;NG5=85 !53>4=O 3>AC40@AB2> ?@>2>48B ?@>B5:F8>=8ABA:CN ?>;8B8:C 2 >B=>H5=88 @>AA89A:>9 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 8 A ?@8=OB85< $545@0;L=>3> 70:>=0 " 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:5 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88" CAB0=>28;> 2 :0G5AB25 55 >A=>2=KE =0?@02;5=89: @8=OB85 70:>=>2 8 8=KE =>@<0B82=KE 0:B>2 2 >1;0AB8 :8=5<0B>3@0D88; G0AB8G=>5 3>AC40@AB25==>5 D8=0=A8@>20=85 ?@>872>4AB20, B8@068@>20=8O, ?@>:0B0 8 ?>:070 =0F8>=0;L=KE D8;L<>2; ;L3>B=>5 =0;>3>2>5, B0<>65==>5, 20;NB=>5 8 8=>5 D8=0=A>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 45OB5;L=>AB8 >@30=870F89 :8=5<0B>3@0D88  =5< ?>4G5@:8205BAO, GB> 2A5 >@30=870F88 :8=5<0B>3@0D88, =57028A8<> >B >@30=870F8>==>-?@02>2KE D>@< 8 D>@< A>1AB25==>AB8, 8<5NB ?@02> =0 ?>;CG5=85 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:8. @02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 >B=>H5=89 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 845B ?> B@5< =0?@02;5=8O<: ?> ?>2>4C A>740=8O, @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89. 0:>=>40B5;LAB2> CAB0=02;8205B H8@>:85 @0<:8 4;O @50;870F88 ?@02 8 8=B5@5A>2 AC1J5:B>2 =0 2A5E AB048OE ?@>E>645=8O D8;L<0 >B 02B>@>2 : 7@8B5;O<. 5OB5;L=>ABL ?> A>740=8N,- @0A?@>AB@0=5=8N 8 8A?>;L7>20=8N 0C48>287C0;L=KE ?@>872545=89 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A?;02 B2>@G5AB20 8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB20, GB> >1CA;>2;5=> >A>1>9 ?@02>2>9 ?@8@>4>9 ?@54<5B0 45OB5;L=>AB8 - @57C;LB0B0 A>2<5AB=>3> B2>@G5AB20, A>740=85 :>B>@>3> B@51C5B 7=0G8B5;L=KE D8=0=A>2KE 70B@0B. C48>287C0;L=>5 ?@>872545=85 :0: ?@54<5B 8 ?@>4C:B ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2>A?@8=8<05BAO @07=K<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 :8=>?@>F5AA0 ?>-@07=><C. 4=8 284OB 2 =5< ?;>4 A2>53> B2>@G5A:>3> B@C40, 4@C385 - @57C;LB0B A2>59 >@30=870F8>==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, B@5BL8 - B>20@ 8;8 A@54AB2>, <>3CI55 ?@8=5AB8 ACI5AB25==K5 4>E>4K. 568< 0C48>287C0;L=>3> ?@>872545=8O, :0: 8 AB0BCA ;8F, CG0AB2CNI8E 2 53> A>740=88, @0A?@>AB@0=5=88 8 8A?>;L7>20=88, CAB0=02;820NBAO =>@<0<8 @07;8G=KE >B@0A;59 ?@020, ?>MB><C @5GL <>65B 84B8 > :><?;5:A=>< ?@02>2>< @53C;8@>20=88 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D5. &5=B@0;L=>9 D83C@>9 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 O2;O5BAO =>2K9 4;O @>AA89A:>3> :8=5<0B>3@0D0 AC1J5:B - ?@>4NA5@. A>15==>ABL 53> ?@02>2>3> AB0BCA0 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> 70:>= =5 ?@54>AB02;O5B 5<C =8:0:8E ?@02 =0 @57C;LB0B 53> 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 :@C3 ?@02><>G89 ?@>4NA5@0 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 0C48>287C0;L=><C ?@>872545=8N >?@545;O5BAO >1J5<>< ?@02, 190 ?5@540205<KE 5<C 02B>@0<8 D8;L<0. >MB><C 206=CN @>;L 2 @53C;8@>20=88 >B=>H5=89 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5 83@0NB 4>3>2>@K, ?@87=0==K5 A>2@5<5==K< @>AA89A:8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< >A=>2=K< A@54AB2>< CAB0=>2;5=8O 3@0640=A:>-?@02>2KE 8 E>7O9AB25==KE A2O759. >2K5 M:>=><8G5A:85 CA;>28O >:070;8 =0 @0728B85 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@K =5>4=>7=0G=>5 2;8O=85. B<5=0 D0:B8G5A:>9 3>AC40@AB25==>9 <>=>?>;88 =0 :8=>?@>872>4AB2> 8 :8=>?@>:0B 2> 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=5 80-E 3>4>2 A=0G0;0 2K720;0 2A?;5A: G0AB=>3> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB20, => ?@8 >BACBAB288 548=>9 ?@>3@0<<K ?@825;> : AB8E89=K< ?@>F5AA0< 8, 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5, : @0720;C A8AB5<K ?@>:0B0, A=865=8N :0G5AB25==KE 8 :>;8G5AB25==KE ?>:070B5;59 8 8=K< =530B82=K< @57C;LB0B0<. !53>4=O 4;O 2>7@>645=8O >B@0A;8, ?><8<> 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:8 :8=>?@>872>4AB20 8 :8=>?@>:0B0, =5>1E>48<> ?@8=OB85 (=0@O4C A ACI5AB2CNI8<8) A5@L57=KE <5@ ?> 1>@L15 A ?8@0BAB2>< 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5. -B> >A>15==> 206=> 2 A2O78 A =0<5@5=85< >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 2ABC?8BL 2 ""/", G0ABLN :>B>@>3> A 1 O=20@O 1995 3. O2;O5BAO !>3;0H5=85 ?> B>@3>2K< 0A?5:B0< ?@02 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8, 2:;NG0O B>@3>2;N ?>445;L=K<8 B>20@0<8 (" !). %>BO @>AA89A:>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>, @53C;8@CNI55 >B=>H5=8O 2 0C48>287C0;L=>9 AD5@5, D>@<0;L=> A>45@68B 2A5 =5>1E>48<K5 4;O DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O >B@0A;8 8 >15A?5G5=8O A2>1>4=>3> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB20 =>@<K, ?@54AB>8B 5I5 1>;LH0O @01>B0 ?> 53> A>25@H5=AB2>20=8N, 2=54@5=8N >B45;L=KE ?>;>65=89 2 687=L, CAB0=>2;5=8N =>@<0;L=>9 ?@02>?@8<5=8B5;L=>9 ?@0:B8:8. 191 81;8>3@0D8G5A:89 A?8A>: 1. D8F80;L=>-4>:C<5=B0;L=K5 <0B5@80;K >=AB8BCF8O (A=>2=>9 0:>=) >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 : @8=OB0 2A5=0@>4=K< 3>;>A>20=85< 12 45:01@O 1993 3. // " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 25 45:01@O 1993 3. #3>;>2=>-?@>F5AAC0;L=K9 :>45:A !$!  >B 27 >:BO1@O 1960 3. A ?>A;54CNI8<8 87<5=5=8O<8 8 4>?>;=5=8O<8 // 54><>AB8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !$! . - 1960. - ! 40. - AB. 592. @0640=A:89 :>45:A !$!  >B 11 8N=O 1964. 3. A ?>A;54CNI8<8 87<5=5=8O<8 8 4>?>;=5=8O<8 // 54><>AB8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !$! . - 1966. - ! 32. - AB. 771; 1969. - ! 23. - AB. 783; 1970. - ! 26. - AB. 511; 1973. - ! 51. - AB. 1114; 1974. - ! 10, -AB. 286; ! 51. - AB. 1346; 1976. - ! 42. - AB. 1270; 1977. ! 6. - AB. 129; ! 24. - AB. 586; 1985. - ! 9. - AB 305; 1986. - ! 23. - AB. 638; 1987. - ! 9. - AB. 250; 1988. - ! 1. - AB. 1; ! 16. - AB. 476; 1990. - ! 3 AB. 78; 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 !$!  8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !$! . - 1991. - ! 15. - AB. 494; 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1992. - ! 29. - AB. 1689; ! 34. -AB. 1966; 1993. - ! 4. - AB. 119. >45:A 70:>=>2 > B@C45 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 (A 87<5=5=8O<8 >B 22 45:01@O 1992 3., 27 O=20@O, 15 D52@0;O, 18 8N;O, 24 023CAB0, 24 =>O1@O 1995 3., 24 =>O1@O 1996 3., 17 <0@B0 1997 3., 1 <0O, 24, 31 8N;O 1998 3.)// 54><>AB8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !$! . 1971. - ! 50. - AB. 1007; 1973. - ! 39. - AB. 825; 1974. - ! 30. - AB. 806; 1977. - ! 1. AB. 1; 1980. - ! 34, - AB. 1063; 1982. - ! 47. - AB. 1725; 1983. - ! 51. - AB. 1782; 1985. - ! 4. - AB. 117; 1986 - ! 23. - AB. 636; 1987. - ! 29. - AB. 1060; 1988. - ! 6. - AB. 168, ! 14. - ! 395; 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1992. - ! 14. - AB. 712, ! 41. - AB. 2254; !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. 1995. - ! 8. - AB. 599, ! 30. - AB. 2865, ! 35. - AB. 3504, - ! 48. - AB. 4564; 1996. ! 49. - AB. 5490; 1997. - ! 12. - AB. 1382; 1998. - ! 19. - AB. 2065; " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 5 023CAB0 1998 3. >45:A !$!  >1 04<8=8AB@0B82=KE ?@02>=0@CH5=8OE (A ?>A;54CNI8<8 87<5=5=8O<8) // 54><>AB8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !$! . - 1984. - ! 27. - AB. 910; 1985. - ! 40. - AB. 1398; 1986. - ! 23. - AB. 638; 1987. - ! 23. - AB. 800; 1988. - ! 31. - AB. 1005; 1989. - ! 10. - AB. 246; ! 50. - AB. 1477; 1990. - ! 10. - AB. 287; 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 !$!  8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !$! . - 1991. - ! 15. - AB. 494; 54><>AB8 AJ5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1992. - ! 16. - AB. 838; ! 17. - AB. 894; ! 34. - AB. 1970; 1993. - ! 3. - AB. 97; ! 32. - AB. 1231; !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 1. - AB. 453; ! 18. - AB. 1596; ! 30. - AB. 2866. 0:>= !$!  " :>=:C@5=F88 8 >3@0=8G5=88 <>=>?>;8AB8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0 B>20@=KE @K=:0E" >B 22 <0@B0 1991 3. ! 88-$ (A 87<5=5=8O<8 >B 24 8N=O 1992 3. 8 25 <0O 1995 3.) // 54><>AB8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !$! . - 1991. - ! 16. - AB. 499; " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 30 <0O 1995 3. A=>2K 3@0640=A:>3> 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 !>N70 !!  8 @5A?C1;8: >B 31 <0O 1991 3. // 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 !!!  8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !!! . - 1991. - ! 26. - AB. 733. 0:>= $ " A@54AB20E <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88" >B 27 45:01@O 1991 3. ! 2124-1 (A 87<5=5=8O<8 8 4>?>;=5=8O<8 >B 13 O=20@O, 1 8N=O, 19 8N;O 8 27 45:01@O 1995 3.) // 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1992. - ! 7. - AB. 300. 0:>= $ " 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>H;8=5" (A 87<5=5=8O<8 >B 31 45:01@O 1995 3.) // 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $". - 1992. - ! 11. - AB. 521; ! 24. - AB. 1292; ! 34. - AB. 1966, 1976; 1993. - ! 10. - AB. 359; ! 14. - AB. 486; N 32. - AB. 1236; !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 1. - AB. 3; ! 35. -AB. 3053; 1996. - ! 3 . - AB. 21. 0:>= $ " 70I8B5 ?@02 ?>B@518B5;59" >B 7 D52@0;O 1992 3, 2 @540:F88 >B 9 O=20@O 1996 3.// 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1992. - ! 15. - AB. 766; " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 16 O=20@O 1996 3. A=>2K 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $ > :C;LBC@5 >B 9 >:BO1@O 1992 3. ! 3612-1 // 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $. - 1992. - ! 46. - AB. 2615. A=>2K 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $ >1 @E82=>< D>=45 $ 8 0@E820E >B 7 8N;O 1993 3. ! 5341-1 // 54><>AB8 !J5740 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 $ 8 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 $, 1993, N 33, AB. 1311. 0:>= $ "1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E" >B 9 8N;O 1993 3. ! 5351-1 (A 87<5=5=8O<8 >B 19 8N;O 1995 3. ! 110-$) // " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 3 023CAB0 1993 3. @0640=A:89 :>45:A $: G0ABL ?5@20O >B 30 =>O1@O 1994 3.// !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1994. - ! 32. - AB. 3301; G0ABL 2B>@0O >B 22 45:01@O 1995 3. // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1996. - ! 5. - AB. 410. $545@0;L=K9 70:>= " 22545=88 2 459AB285 G0AB8 ?5@2>9 @0640=A:>3> :>45:A0 $" >B 30 =>O1@O 1994 3. ! 52-$ //.!>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 32. - AB. 3302 $545@0;L=K9 70:>= "1 >1O70B5;L=>< M:75<?;O@5 4>:C<5=B>2" >B 29 45:01@O 1994 3. ! 77-$// !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 1. - AB. 1. $545@0;L=K9 70:>= "1 >1I5AB25==KE >1J548=5=8OE" >B 19 <0O 1995 3. ! 82-$ // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 21. - AB. 1930; 1998. - ! 30. - AB. 3608. $545@0;L=K9 70:>= " 2=5A5=88 87<5=5=89 8 4>?>;=5=89 2 #3>;>2=>-?@>F5AAC0;L=K9 :>45:A !$! , >45:A !$!  >1 04<8=8AB@0B82=KE ?@02>=0@CH5=8OE 8 0:>= >1 02B>@A:>< ?@025 8 A<56=KE ?@020E" >B 19 8N;O 1995 3. ! 110-$ // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 30. - AB. 2866. $545@0;L=K9 70:>= " 1;03>B2>@8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 1;03>B2>@8B5;L=KE >@30=870F8OE" >B 17 023CAB0 1995 3. ! 135-$ // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. -1995. - ! 33. - AB. 3334. $545@0;L=K9 0:>= $ " @5:;0<5" >B 24 =>O1@O 1995 3. ! 177-$ // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 30. - AB. 2864. $545@0;L=K9 70:>= "1 0:F8>=5@=KE >1I5AB20E" >B 26 45:01@O 1995 3. ! 208-$ // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1996. - ! 1. - AB. 1. $545@0;L=K9 70:>= " =5:><<5@G5A:8E >@30=870F8OE" >B 12 O=20@O 1996 3. ! 7-$ // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1996. - ! 3. - AB. 145. #3>;>2=K9 :>45:A $ >B 13 8N=O 1996 3. ! 63-$ // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1996. - ! 25. - AB. 2954. $545@0;L=K9 0:>= " 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?>445@6:5 :8=5<0B>3@0D88 $" >B 22 023CAB0 1996 3. ! 126-$ // " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 29 023CAB0 1996 3. $545@0;L=K9 70:>= " 2=5A5=88 87<5=5=89 2 >45:A 70:>=>2 > B@C45" >B 1 <0O 1998 3. ! 69-$ // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1998. - ! 19. - AB. 2065. $545@0;L=K9 0:>= " ;8F5=78@>20=88 >B45;L=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8" >B 25 A5=BO1@O 1998 3. ! 158-$// " >AA89A:0O 3075B0" >B 3 >:BO1@O 1998 3, >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ "1 CB25@645=88 >;>65=8O > ><8B5B5 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 ?> :8=5<0B>3@0D88" >B 1 O=20@O 1993 3. N 9 //!>1@0=85 0:B>2 @57845=B0 8 @028B5;LAB20 $. - 1993. -" ! 2. - AB. 108 . >AB0=>2;5=85 !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 - @028B5;LAB20 $ ">?@>AK ><8B5B0 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 ?> :8=5<0B>3@0D88" >B 12 D52@0;O 1993 3. N 119// !>1@0=85 0:B>2 @57845=B0 8 @028B5;LAB20 $. - 1993: - ! 7. - AB. 608. >AB0=>2;5=85 !>25B0 8=8AB@>2 $ " @538AB@0F88 :8=>- 8 2845>D8;L<>2 8 @53C;8@>20=88 8E ?C1;8G=>9 45<>=AB@0F88" >B 28 0?@5;O 1993 3. ! 396 // !>1@0=85 0:B>2 @57845=B0 8 @028B5;LAB20 $. - 1993. - ! 18. - AB. 1607. >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " ?>;=><>G8OE >@30=>2 8A?>;=8B5;L=>9 2;0AB8 :@052, >1;0AB59, 02B>=><=KE >1@07>20=89, 3>@>4>2 D545@0;L=>3> 7=0G5=8O ?> ;8F5=78@>20=8N >B45;L=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8" !->B 27 <0O 1993 3. // !>1@0=85 0:B>2 @57845=B0 8 @028B5;LAB20 $. - 1993. - ! 22. - AB. 2033. >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " ?>4?8A0=88 2@>?59A:>9 :>=25=F89 > A>2<5AB=>< :8=>?@>872>4AB25" >B 24 O=20@O 1994 3. ! 26 //"5:AB ?>AB0=>2;5=8O >D8F80;L=> >?C1;8:>20= =5 1K; >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " <8=8<0;L=KE AB02:0E 02B>@A:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O 70 =5:>B>@K5 284K 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@>872545=89 ;8B5@0BC@K 8 8A:CAAB20" >B 21 <0@B0 1994 3. ! 218 // " >AA89A:85 25AB8" >B 30 <0@B0 1994 3. >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ "1 CB25@645=88 >;>65=8O > ;8F5=78@>20=88 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 >1;0AB8 A2O78 2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88" >B 5 8N=O 1994 3. ! 642 // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1994. - ! 7. - !B. 772. >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " ?5@2>>G5@54=KE <5@0E ?> @50;870F88 ?@>B5:F8>=8ABA:>9 ?>;8B8:8 $ 2 >1;0AB8 >B5G5AB25==>9 :8=5<0B>3@0D88" >B 30 8N;O 1994 3. N 895 // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1994. - ! 15. - AB. 1794. >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " ;8F5=78@>20=88 >B45;L=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8" >B 24 45:01@O 1994 3. ! 1418 (A 87<5=5=8O<8 8 4>?>;=5=8O<8, 2=5A5==K<8 >AB0=>2;5=85< @028B5;LAB20 $ >B 7 023CAB0 1995 3. ! 796)// !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1995. - ! 1. - AB, 69. >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " ?@8A>548=5=88 $ : 5@=A:>9 :>=25=F88 >1 >E@0=5 ;8B5@0BC@=KE 8 EC4>65AB25==KE ?@>872545=89 2 @540:F88 1971 3., A5<8@=>9 :>=25=F88 >1 02B>@A:>< '@025- 2 @540:F88 1971 3. 8 >?>;=8B5;L=K< ?@>B>:>;0< 1 8 2, >=25=F88 1971 3. 1 >E@0=5 8=B5@5A>2 ?@>872>48B5;59 D>=>3@0<< >B =570:>==>3> 2>A?@>872>4AB20 8E D>=>3@0<<" >B 3 =>O1@O 1994 3. ! 1224 //!>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1994. - ! 29. - AB. 3046. >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ "1 CB25@645=88 @028; :8=>2845>>1A;C6820=8O =0A5;5=8O" >B 17 =>O1@O 1994 3. ! 1264 // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 $. - 1994. - ! 31. - AB. 3282. >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 $ " ;8F5=78@>20=88 B5;52878>==>3> 25I0=8O, @048>25I0=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> A2O78 2 >1;0AB8 B5;52878>==>3> 8 @048>25I0=8O 2 $" >B 7 45:01@O 1994 3. ! 1359 // !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20