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" , "/ /:V B@8 >A=>2=V 5B0?8 ?@>9H;> C:@0W=AL:5 =0FV>=0;L=5 2V4@>465==O C %%  =0 ?>G0B:C %% AB.? /:V B8?8 =02G0;L=8E 70:;04V2 VA=C20;8 2 #:@0W=V ?VA;O 7030;L=>@>AV9AL:>W >A2VB=L>W @5D>@<8 1803 @.? 5 9 :>;8 70A=C202AO ?5@H89 C=V25@A8B5B =0 C:@0W=AL:8E 75<;OE, I> 2E>48;8 4> A:;04C >AV9AL:>W V<?5@VW? /:5 =0C:>25 B>20@8AB2> 2V4V3@020;> @>;L #:@0W=AL:>W 0:045<VW =0C: =0?@8:V=FV %%  =0 ?>G0B:C %% AB.? 5 9 :>;8 2>=> 1C;> 70A=>20=5? 072VBL C:@0W=AL:8E ?8AL<5==8:V2, ?@54AB02=8:V2  25;8:>3> @50;V7<C 2 C:@0W=AL:V9 ;VB5@0BC@V. 072VBL 02B>@0 ?5@H>W C:@0W=AL:>W >?5@8. /: 2>=0 =07820TBLAO? 072VBL ?@>2V4=V 0@EVB5:BC@=V AB8;V #:@0W=8 %%  ?>G0B:C %% AB. C ?>A;V4>2=>ABV WE ?>H8@5==O. )> B0:5 5:;5:B87<? 072VBL V< O =09287=0G=VH>3> C:@0W=AL:>3> A:C;L?B>@0 ?>G0B:C %% AB., ?>40;LH0 B2>@GVABL O:>3> A?@028;0 25;8:89 2?;82 =0 ACG0A=5 A:C;L?BC@=5 <8AB5FB2>. 0 O:89 284 >1@07>B2>@G>3> <8AB5FB20 ".(52G5=:> >B@8<02 720==O 0:045<V:0? "/ # !, #,"#  5B0: @>7:@8B8 H;OE8 @>728B:C C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8 C @>:8 =0FV>=0;L=>-2872>;L=8E 7<030=L B0 C @04O=AL:89 ?5@V>4; 7 OAC20B8 ACBL ?>;VB8:8 C:@0W=V70FVW; ?>:070B8 ?@>F5A 45@602=>-?0@BV9=>3> :5@V2=8FB20 :C;LBC@>N, V45>;>3V70FVN :C;LBC@=>3> ?@>F5AC B0 WW =0A;V4:8; 28A2VB;8B8 ?8B0==O ?@> AB0;V=AL:V @5?@5AVW I>4> C:@0W=AL:8E :C;LBC@=8E 4VOGV2; 7 OAC20B8 2B@0B8 C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8 C @>:8 @C3>W A2VB>W 2V9=8; >7=09><8B8 ABC45=BV2 7 ?VA;O2>T==>N AB0;V=AL:>N :C;LBC@=>N ?>;VB8:>N 2 #:@0W=V; 287=0G8B8 H;OE8 @>728B:C :C;LBC@8 @04O=AL:>W #:@0W=8 C @>:8  2V4;838 V  70AB>N ; @>7:@8B8 ?@8G8=8 :@87>28E O28I C :C;LBC@V 70-80-E @@. %% AB.; 28A2VB;8B8 ?8B0==O ?@> 48A845=BAL:89 @CE C ! !  V # !  B0 9>3> 2?;82 =0 :C;LBC@=89 @>728B>:; ?>:070B8 AB0=>28I5 C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8 C @>:8 ?5@51C4>28; 287=0G8B8 >A=>2=V =0?@O<8 :C;LBC@=>W ?>;VB8:8 C =570;56=V9 #:@0W=V.  5@V>4870FVO =>2VB=L>W VAB>@VW :C;LBC@8 #:@0W=8. #:@0W=AL:0 :C;LBC@0 C 1917  1920 @@. 04O=AL:0 ?>;VB8:0  C:@0W=V70FVW B0 WW 2?;82 =0 @>728B>: :C;LBC@8 #:@0W=8 C 20-E  =0 ?>G0B:C 30-E @@.  >7AB@V;O=5 2V4@>465==O 2 C:@0W=AL:V9 :C;LBC@V. >728B>: C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8 C @>:8 @C3>W A2VB>2>W 2V9=8 B0 C ?5@H5 ?>2>T==5 45AOB8@VGGO. #:@0W=AL:0 :C;LBC@0 C @>:8 E@CI>2AL:>W  2V4;838 .  (VAB45AOB=8:8 C :C;LBC@V. @87>2V O28I0 C :C;LBC@V 70-E  80-E @@. 8A845=BAL:89 @CE 2 #:@0W=V B0 9>3> 2?;82 =0 :C;LBC@=89 @>728B>:. C;LBC@0 # !  C 1985-1991 @@. !CG0A=0 :C;LBC@0 #:@0W=8. " "# : D0=0ALT2 .. #:@0W=AL:5 @04O=AL:5 <8AB5FB2> 1960-1980 @@.  ., 1984. >:0=L .. #:@0W=AL:0 3@0DV:0. 1960-1970 @@.  ., 1997. 8=>3@04>20 .". #:@0W=AL:5 @04O=AL:5 <8AB5FB2> 1918  1920 @@.  ., 1980-1984. >;C15=:> . #:@0W=0 V >AVO C A2VB;V :C;LBC@=8E 270T<8=.  ., 1993. 7N10 . =B5@=0FV>=0;V7< G8 @CA8DV:0FVO? // VBG87=0.  1990. - ! 5-8. C;8=AL:89 . 7 701CBBO  2 157A<5@BO.  ., 1990. AB>@VO C:@0W=AL:>3> <8AB5FB20: #6-B8 B><0E.- ., 1967.  ".5, 6. AB>@VO C:@0W=AL:>W <C78:8:  6 B.  ., 1988.  ".5, 6. 0@8A8 7 VAB>@VW C:@0W=AL:>3> <8AB5FB20.  ., 1980-1984. 0@8A8 VAB>@VW C:@0W=AL:>W V=B5;V35=FVW: # 3-E BB.  ., 1994. 5@545@V9 .. > ?8B0==O I>4> @>71C4>28 C:@0W=AL:>3> H:V;L=8FB20 =0 >;B02I8=V (15@575=L 1917  :2VB5=L 1918 @@.) // 53V>=0;L=V ?5@A?5:B828. 0C:>2>-?@0:B8G=89 6C@=0;.  1999. - ! 2-3 (5-6).  !.43-46. !5<G8H8= . "8AOG0 @>:V2 C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8.  ., 1993. !B5?>28: . #:@0W=AL:5 <8AB5FB2> ?5@H>W ?>;>28=8 %% AB.  ., 1982. 5@V>4870FVO =>2VB=L>W VAB>@VW :C;LBC@8 #:@0W=8. #:@0W=AL:0 :C;LBC@0 C 1917  1920 @@.  1917 @>:C C:@0W=AL:0 :C;LBC@0 ?@>9H;0 A:;04=89 V 40;5:> =5>4=>7=0G=89 H;OE: >4=>G0A=> OA:@0289 V B@03VG=89. %% AB., O: =VO:5 V=H5, 4C65 =0A8G5=5 @V7=><0=VB=8<8 VAB>@8G=8<8 ?>4VO<8, ?>2 O70=8<8 7V 7<V=>N ?>;VB8G=8E @568<V2, A>FV0;L=>-5:>=><VG=>W A8BC0FVW. &59 =>2VB=V9 ?5@V>4 @>728B:C C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8 C<>2=> <>6=0 @>74V;8B8 =0 45:V;L:0 5B0?V2: :>@>B:0 4>10 2V4=>2;5==O C:@0W=AL:>W 45@602=>ABV (1917  1920 @@.), :>;8 1C;> AB2>@5=> ?@8=F8?>2> =>2V C<>28 4;O @>728B:C C:@0W=AL:>W =0FV>=0;L=>W :C;LBC@8, 0;5 WW ?>ABC? 2V41C202AO 2 ?5@V>4 3>AB@>3> 2V9AL:>2>-?>;VB8G=>3> ?@>B8AB>O==O, 3@><04O=AL:>W 2V9=8 B0 V=>75<=>W 2V9AL:>2>W V=B5@25=FVW; @04O=AL:89 5B0? (1921  1991 @@.), O:89 2:;NG0T 2 A515 V 4>1C 7;5BC 2 20-E @@. ?>:>;V==O  @>7AB@V;O=>3> 2V4@>465==O , O:5 265 2 30-BV @@. 707=0;> B>B0;L=8E @5?@5AV9 =5 BV;L:8 ?@>B8 <8BFV2, ?@0FV2=8:V2 :C;LBC@8, 0;5 9 728G09=8E WW =>AVW2, V 4>1C  2V4;838 7 @CE>< B0: 720=8E  HVAB45AOB=8:V2 , V ?5@V>4 ?>4V;LH>W @CA8DV:0FVW B0 CB8A:V2 C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8; 5B0? @>71C4>28 =570;56=>W #:@0W=8 V 2V4@>465==O =0FV>=0;L=>W :C;LBC@8, O:89 B@820T 4>AV 9 7=0<5=CT ?>G0B>: WW =>2>3> ?>ABC?C. 5@5<>30 NB=52>W @52>;NFVW 1917 @. 2 >AVW 2V4:@8;0 ?52=V @50;L=V <>6;82>ABV 4;O 2V4@>465==O C:@0W=AL:>W <>28 9 H:>;8. >;VB8:0 "8<G0A>2>3> C@O4C 2 30;C7V =0@>4=>W >A2VB8 1C;0 1V;LH 45<>:@0B8G=>N, =V6 F0@AL:>3> C@O4C, V B><C 265 2 15@57=V 1917 @. 1C;8 2840=V @>7?>@O465==O ?@> =02G0==O C:@0W=AL:>N <>2>N C ?>G0B:>28E H:>;0E V 40=> 4>72V; =0 2V4:@8BBO 42>E 45@602=8E C:@0W=AL:8E 3V<=07V9 B0 G>B8@L>E :0D54@ C:@0W=>7=02AB20 2 C=V25@A8B5B0E. 4=0: FV >1<565=V 70E>48 =02@O4 G8 <>3;8 704>2>;L=8B8 C:@0W=AL:89 =0@>4. !?@026=V< 28@07=8:>< V=B5@5AV2 C:@0W=AL:>3> 3@><04O=AB20 9 CG8B5;LAB20 C A?@02V >A2VB8 AB0;0 &5=B@0;L=0 040  ?@54AB02=8FL:89 >@30= C:@0W=AL:>3> =0@>4C, AB2>@5=89 7 15@57=O 1917 @., >G>;5=89 2840B=8< C:@0W=AL:8< VAB>@8:>< V ?>;VB8G=8< 4VOG5< .@CH52AL:8<. >=0 2V4@07C 6 ?@>3>;>A8;0 3>;>2=8< 70240==O< >A2VB=L>W ?>;VB8:8 2V4@>465==O C:@0W=AL:>W <>28 V H:>;8. 4=0: @50;L=C A?@02C @>71C4>28 C:@0W=AL:>W A8AB5<8 >A2VB8 74V9A=N20;8 @V7=><0=VB=V 3@><04AL:V >@30=V70FVW (">20@8AB2> (:V;L=>W A2VB8, CG8B5;LAL:V A?V;:8, B>20@8AB20  @>A2VB0 , :>>?5@0B828, :C;LBC@=>-?@>A2VB=V >1 T4=0==O B>I>) B0 >@30=8 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O. "><C ?5@HV C:@0W=AL:V H:>;8 2V4:@820;8AO 28:;NG=> =0 3@><04AL:V 9 =0@>4=V 3@>HV. 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F5=B@>< @>728B:C EC4>6=L>W :C;LBC@8 AB0T 0;8G8=0, 45 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO 7=0G=> 1V;LH0 A?04:>T<=VABL V7 ?>?5@54=V<8 ?5@V>40<8 2 VAB>@VW C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8 ?@8 1V;LH 157?>A5@54=VE :>=B0:B0E V7 70EV4=>T2@>?59AL:8<8 :C;LBC@=8<8 ?@>F5A0<8. AB>B=89 2=5A>: C @>728B>: C:@0W=AL:>3> >1@07>B2>@G>3> <8AB5FB20 7@>18;8 EC4>6=8:8 V A:C;L?B>@8 20= "@CH, =BV= >=0AB8@AL:89, ;5:A0 >20:V2AL:89 B0 =87:0 9>3> 28E>20=FV2, A5@54 O:8E =09B0;0=>28BVH8< 1C2 !2OB>A;02 >@48=AL:89. 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"5?5@ D>@<CTBLAO >A>1;8289 0@EVB5:BC@=89 :0=>= @04O=AL:>3> 1C4V2=8FB20, O:89 <>6=0 =07820B8 ?>-@V7=><C, 0;5 AL>3>4=V =09G0ABVH5 :>@8ABCNBLAO B5@<V=><  @04O=AL:89 ?A524>:;0A8F87< . &5 1C2 1030B> 2 G><C 5:;5:B8G=89 AB8;L ?5@5206=> >DVFV9=8E CAB0=>2, 72545=8E V7 28:>@8AB0==O< 1030BL>E 0@EVB5:BC@=8E B@048FV9 <8=C;>3> 7 0:B82=8< 70AB>AC20==O< @04O=AL:>W A8<2>;V:8 C 7>2=VH=L><C B0 2=CB@VH=L><C >D>@<;5==V. 4=VTN 7 ?5@H8E V =091V;LH ?>:07>28E C FL><C @O4C A?>@C4 T 1C48=>: ACG0A=>W 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8, 72545=89 ?@>BO3>< 1935-1936 @@. "0:8< G8=><, C 30-BV @@. A8AB5<0 45@602=8E V459  >@30=V70FV9=8E, V45>;>3VG=>-?@>?030=48ABAL:8E  AO3=C;0 1060=>3> 5D5:BC: :C;LBC@=5 68BBO 7 ?@>AB>@C 2V;L=>3> 4CE>B2>@5==O 282>48;>AO =0 2B>@>20=C :>;VN :C;LB82C20==O =>2VB=VE >DVFV9=8E V45>;>35<, =>2VB=L>3> <VD>B2>@5==O. 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(VAB45AOB=8:8 AB0;8 V=B5;5:BC0;L=>-4CE>2=8< ?V4@C=BO< ?>40;LH>3> @CEC >?>@C 2 @5A?C1;VFV, ?5@54B5G5N V ?5@H8<8 ?@54AB02=8:0<8 ?@02>70E8A=>3> @CEC 2 #:@0W=V  48A845=BAB20. # 4@C3V9 ?>;>28=V 50-E  60-E @@. ?>62028;>AO B50B@0;L=5 68BBO. %>G0 :V;L:VABL B50B@V2 2 #:@0W=V 7<5=H8;0AO 7 80 C 1958 @. 4> 61 C 1965 @., :V;L:VABL 3;O40GV2 7@>A;0. @>2V4=8<8 B50B@0<8 1C;8 V<. .$@0=:0 2 8T2V, V<. ".(52G5=:0 2 %0@:>2V, V<. .0=L:>25FL:>W C L2>2V, V<. 5AV #:@0W=:8 C 8T2V, 8W2AL:89 B50B@ >?5@8 B0 10;5BC. 5;8:C ?>?C;O@=VABL 74>1C;0 ? TA0 .>;><V9FO  $0@0>=8 , ?;V4=> ?@0FN20;8 4@0<0BC@38 .0@C4=89, .8=:>. @>F5A @>728B:C C:@0W=AL:>W <C78:8 2 50-60-BV @@. E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO C4>A:>=0;5==O< CAVE WW 60=@V2, AB2>@5==O< =>28E >?5@, >?5@5B, 10;5BV2, A8<D>=V9 B0 ?VA5=L.  #:@0W=V 7 O2;OTBLAO 1;8A:CG5 AC7V@ O GC4>28E >?5@=8E A?V20:V2 V A?V20G>:: .=0BN:, .!>;>2 O=5=:>, .V@>H=VG5=:>, .>:@5=:>, .5B@8=5=:>. #:@0W=AL:0 =0FV>=0;L=0 <C78:0 <0T 7=0G=V 4>AO3=5==O 9 C 30;C7V <0A>2>W ?VA5==>W B2>@G>ABV. >?C;O@=8<8 2 =0@>4V AB0;8  VA=O ?@> @CH=8: =0 2V@HV .0;8H:0,  ?0;8 @>A8 =0 ?>:>A8 ,  20 :>;L>@8 =0 A;>20 .02;8G:0,  0@VG:0 .":0G0,  '>@=>1@82FV .!8=30W2AL:>3>, <5;>4VW .091>@>48, .V;0H0. 4>1CB:8 <0;> V :V=><8AB5FB2> #:@0W=8. > A5@548=8 50-E @@. DV;L<8 ?> 1-2 =0 @V: 28?CA:0;0 ;8H5 8W2AL:0 :V=>ABC4VO. # G0A8  2V4;838 ABC4VO I>@VG=> 28?CA:0;0 1;87L:> 20 :0@B8=. >?C;O@=VABL 74>1C;8 DV;L<8  04N:0 .2G5=:0, :V=>:><54VO  >@>;520 15=7>:>;>=:8 ,  ;NGV 2V4 =510 . 09287=0G=VH8< 4>AO3=5==O< C:@0W=AL:>3> :V=> AB02 DV;L< !.0@0460=>20  "V=V 701CB8E ?@54:V2 , ?>AB02;5=89 70 ?>2VABN .>FN18=AL:>3>, O:89 2@0602 =04728G09=>N A8;>N EC4>6=L>-?>5B8G=>3> ?@>=8:=5==O 2 3;818=8 =0@>4=>3> 68BBO, 9>3> 4@0<0B8G=V 9 B@03VG=V 0A?5:B8. 87=0G=8< O28I5< C:@0W=AL:>3> :V=> AB0;0 B2>@GVABL ..;;T=:0, .A8:8, .C@0B>2>W, .8:>20, .$V0;:0, .!02G5=:0. !:0@1=8FN C:@0W=AL:>3> :V=> ?>?>2=8;8 B0:V 2840B=V AB@VG:8, O:  0<V==89 E@5AB ,  5GV@ =0 20=0 C?0;0 ,  V;89 ?B0E 7 G>@=>N >7=0:>N ,  @8=8FO 4;O A?@03;8E ,  !>;><VO @CH5;L=8FL:0 ,  5;0=E>;V9=89 20;LA ,  >7?04 ,   1V9 V4CBL BV;L:8 AB0@8:8 B0 V=. @> 7@>AB0==O <V6=0@>4=>3> 02B>@8B5BC C:@0W=AL:>3> :V=> A2V4G8BL B>9 D0:B, I> 2 1965 @. DV;L<8  "V=V 701CB8E ?@54:V2 B0  V;89 ?B0E 7 G>@=>N >7=0:>N >45@60;8 ?@878 =0 <V6=0@>4=8E D5AB820;OE, I> CB25@48;> 28A>:89 ?@>D5AV9=89 V <8AB5FL:89 @V25=L C:@0W=AL:>3> :V=5<0B>3@0DC. A=>2=>N B5<>N >1@07>B2>@G>3> <8AB5FB20 C F59 G0A 1C2 35@>W7<, ?>42838 2>W=V2, B@C4V2=8:V2 B8;C 2 ?5@V>4 5;8:>W VBG87=O=>W 2V9=8. !5@54 =8E :0@B8=8 !.5AT4V=0  872>;5==O 8T20 , .>AB5FL:>3>  >25@=5==O . 5;8:>W ?>?C;O@=>ABV =01C;0 :0@B8=0 "./1;>=AL:>W  %;V1 , 45 ?>:070=> 68BBT2V >1@078 B@C4V2=8:V2 ?>2>T==>3> A5;0. >?@8 ?5@538=8  :C:C@C47O=>W 5?>?5W , ?52=V >7=0:8 ?@>1C465==O :C;LBC@=>3> 68BBO 2V41C20NBLAO =0 A5;V.  O2;OTBLAO FV:0289 D5=><5= 6V=>:-EC4>6=8FL 7 =0@>4C, B2>@GVABL O:8E A?@02;O;0 25;8:5 2@065==O V =0 D0EV2FV2-<8AB5FB2>7=02FV2. )>?@0240, F59 @CE B0: V =5 AB02 A?@024V H8@>:8<, O: =0<030;8AO ?@54AB028B8 9>3> C A2>WE @5F5=7VOE V 72VB0E ?@> :C;LBC@=C @>1>BC =0 A5;V <VAF52V DC=:FV>=5@8 2V4 :C;LBC@8. ;5 B2>@8 EC4>6=8FL-?@8<VB82VAB>: (.V;>:C@, .@8<0G5=:>, .02;5=:>, .!>10G:>-(>AB0:) A?@024V O2;ONBL A>1>N FV:0289 D5=><5= =0@>4=>3> <8AB5FB20. !8BC0FVO C AD5@V :C;LBC@8 @V7:> 7<V=8;0AO 7 2V4AB02:>N .%@CI>20 V ?@8E>4>< 4> 2;048 2 ! !  .@56=T20 (1964). >G02AO ?>2>@>B 4> =5>AB0;V=V7<C, I> AC?@>2>46C202AO @5?@5AVO<8, CB8A:0<8 B0 ?5@5A;V4C20==O<8 1030BL>E 2840B=8E <09AB@V2 :C;LBC@8. =B5=A8DV:C202AO ?@>F5A @CA8DV:0FVW, I> >1@C=BC20;>AO B5>@VTN  71;865==O =0FV9 V ?5@5B2>@5==O WE =0 =>2C VAB>@8G=C A?V;L=VABL  @04O=AL:89 =0@>4. !?;5A: @5?@5AV9 C 1965  1966 @@. AC?@>2>46C202AO 4>A8BL <0AHB01=8< V45>;>3VG=8< ?>2>@>B><. 075B8 70@OA=V;8 AB0BBO<8, A?@O<>20=8<8 ?@>B8  1C@6C07=>W V45>;>3VW B0  C:@0W=AL:>3> 1C@6C07=>3> =0FV>=0;V7<C . >6>@AB:VH0;0 F5=7C@0. & # CE20;82 @O4  70:@8B8E ?>AB0=>2, I> AB>AC20;8AO 28?@02;5==O<  V45>;>3VG=8E ?><8;>: C @>1>BV 45O:8E 6C@=0;V2 ( VBG87=0 ,  >2B5=L B0 V=.), :V=>ABC4VW V<. .>265=:0. "@820;0 ?@8E>20=0 V45>;>3VG=0 G8AB:0 @540:FV9 3075B, 6C@=0;V2, 28402=8FB2, V=AB8BCBV2 3C<0=VB0@=>3> ?@>DV;N  # ! . #A5 F5 =0304C20;> AB0;V=AL:V V45>;>3VG=V G8AB:8 40-50-E @@., E>G0, 7@>7C<V;>, =5 <>3;> 7@V2=OB8AO 7 =8<8 70 <0AHB010<8 B0 V=B5=A82=VABN. 4=0: C ACA?V;L=><C 68BBV I5 2V41C20;8AO ?@>F5A8, O:V <>6=0 22060B8 V=5@FVTN  2V4;838 . 5?@5AVW =5 1C;8 7CAB@V=CBV  7030;L=>=0@>4=8< AE20;5==O< ,. O: C ?>?5@54=V @>:8, 1V;LH5 B>3>, A0<5 7 :>;0 HVAB45AOB=8:V2 ?>G0;8AO ?@>B5AB8. 4 25@5A=O 1965 @. C :8W2AL:><C :V=>B50B@V  #:@0W=0 ?V4 G0A ?@5< T@=>3> ?>:07C :V=>AB@VG:8 !.0@0460=>20  "V=V 701CB8E ?@54:V2 .7N10, .!BCA, .'>@=>2V; B0 V=. >@30=V7C20;8 I>AL =0 7@07>: 45<>=AB@0FVW ?@>B5ABC ?@>B8 0@5HBV2. 025A=V 1966 @. ?V4 G0A AC4>2>3> ?@>F5AC =04 4VOG0<8 A0<28402C C L2>2V 2V41C20;8AO 265 A?@026=V 45<>=AB@0FVW 1V;O 1C48=:C AC4C =0 ?V4B@8<:C ?V4AC4=8E. > & #, ?@>:C@0BC@8, , &  ! 2V4?@02;O;8AO :>;5:B82=V B0 V=482V4C0;L=V ?5B8FVW =0 70E8AB @5?@5A>20=8E, ?V4?8A0=V 7451V;LH>3> ?@54AB02=8:0<8 V=B5;V35=FVW. !5@54 WE 02B>@V2 =5@V4:> 1C;8 2V4><V 2G5=V, <8BFV, ?8AL<5==8:8. &V ;8AB8 ?@>B5ABC @>7?>2AN46C20;8AL C A0<28402V, ?>B@0?;O;8 70 :>@4>=. 0@BV9=0 25@EV2:0 #:@0W=8, 157C<>2=>, ?V4B@8<CNG8 ;V=VN >A:28, 2 B>9 65 G0A =0<030;0AL 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 =0AB@>W 3@><04AL:>ABV C 2;0A=8E V=B5@5A0E, C 1>@>BL1V 7 F5=B@>< 70 1V;LH89 >1AO3 2;048 C @5A?C1;VFV. V@:0 ?V;N;O 1965  1966 @@. 1C;0 ?V4A>;>65=0 70E>40<8, A?@O<>20=8<8 =0 ?V428I5==O AB0BCAC C:@0W=AL:>W <>28. 8IV =02G0;L=V 70:;048 >B@8<0;8 48@5:B82C I>4> H8@H>3> 2?@>20465==O C:@0W=AL:>W <>28 C 28:;040==O. /2=> 7 4>72>;C  25@EV2 =0 V 7 W74V ?8AL<5==8:V2 #:@0W=8 (;8AB>?04 1966) 1C;> ?V4=OB> <>2=5 ?8B0==O, V 9>3> >13>2>@5==O AB0;> A?@026=L>N ?>4VTN 2 3@><04AL:>-:C;LBC@=><C 68BBV @5A?C1;V:8. ?>35T< FVTW  <0;>W 2V4;838 AB02 28EV4 1969 @. :=838 .(5;5AB0  #:@0W=> =0H0 @04O=AL:0 , O:0 28:;8:0;0 =5704>2>;5==O >A:28 A2>W<8 =0FV>=0;L=8<8 <>B820<8. &59 4>A8BL ?@8<VB82=89 V45>;>3VG=>-?C1;VF8AB8G=89 B@0D0@5B =5 BV;L:8 AB02 45<>=AB@0FVTN C2038 ?0@BV9=>3> :5@V2=8FB20 @5A?C1;V:8 4> WW A?5F8DVG=8E V=B5@5AV2, 0 9 2V4V3@02 @>;L 2VE8, O:0 2:07C20;0 V=B5;V35=FVW <56V <>6;82>3> C 28A2VB;5==V =0FV>=0;L=>3> ?8B0==O. "0 ?5@V>4 703@020=L 7 V=B5;V35=FVTN 70:V=G82AO 1968 @. # :2VB=V FL>3> @>:C 4> .@56=T20 (35=A5:0 &  !), .>A83V=0 (>;>28 048 <V=VAB@V2 ! ! ) B0 .V43>@=>3> (3>;>28 ?@5784VW 5@E>2=>W 048 ! ! ) =04V9H>2 ;8AB-?5B8FVO 7 #:@0W=8, A?@O<>20=89 ?@>B8 ?>@CH5==O  =>@< A>FV0;VAB8G=>W 45<>:@0BVW (9H;>AO ?@> 0@5HB8 V=0:>4C<FV2 2 #:@0W=V B0 >A:2V). 8AB0 ?V4?8A0;8 139 >AV1, A5@54 =8E G;5=8-:>@5A?>=45=B8  # ! , 4>:B>@8 V :0=4840B8 =0C:, 2V4><V <8BFV, ;VB5@0B>@8. %>G0 ;8AB <02 FV;:>< ?@>@04O=AL:89 7<VAB V A?@O<>20=VABL, 9>3> 02B>@V2 ?>G0;8 ?5@5A;V4C20B8: WE 72V;L=O;8 7 @>1>B8, 28:;NG0;8 7 ?0@BVW,  ?@>@>1;O;8 =0 71>@0E :>;5:B82V2 B>I>. 50:FVO 2;048 1C;0 =5045:20B=> 6>@AB>:>N. >;8 2;VB:C 1968 @. 2V9AL:0 :@0W= 0@H02AL:>3> 4>3>2>@C =0 G>;V 7 ! !  2B>@3;8AO C '5E>A;>20GG8=C, I>1 ?@84CH8B8 B0< ?@>F5A 45<>:@0B870FVW, AB0;> 7@>7C<V;8<: @04O=AL:5 :5@V2=8FB2> >AB0B>G=> ?5@59H;> =0 @59:8 =5>AB0;V=V7<C. # 15@57=V 1969 @. & # CE20;82 ?>AB0=>2C  @> ?V428I5==O 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV :5@V2=8:V2 >@30=V2 ?@5A8, @04V>, B5;510G5==O, :V=5<0B>3@0DVW, CAB0=>2 :C;LBC@8 V <8AB5FB20 70 V459=>-?>;VB8G=89 @V25=L <0B5@V0;V2, I> 4@C:CNBLAO, B0 @5?5@BC0@ . >=0 2AB0=>2;N20;0 ?5@A>=0;L=C 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL :5@V2=8:V2 CAVE AB@C:BC@ V45>;>3VG=>3> F8:;C 70 V459=>-?>;VB8G=89 7<VAB 4VO;L=>ABV, 7>1>2 O7C20;0 WE 28ABC?0B8 C ?5@HC G5@3C ?@>B8 1C4L-O:8E ?@>O2V2  1C@6C07=>W V45>;>3VW V, 7@>7C<V;>,  =0FV>=0;V7<C . ">4V 6 1C;0 CE20;5=0 ?>4V1=0 ?>AB0=>20, I> AB>AC20;0AO :V=5<0B>3@0DC.  FL>3> G0AC V45>;>3VG=89 :>=B@>;L 70 4VO;L=VABN V=B5;V35=FVW AB02 <0965 B>B0;L=8<. 8AL<5==8:V2, <8BFV2, CG5=8E :0@B0;8 2 ?@5AV V =0 71>@0E B2>@G8E A?V;>: 70  0?>;VB8G=VABL ,  V459=C =57@V;VABL ,  D>@<0;V7< ,  =0FV>=0;V7< B>I>. 6. @87>2V O28I0 C :C;LBC@V 70-E  80-E @@. 8A845=BAL:89 @CE 2 #:@0W=V B0 9>3> 2?;82 =0 :C;LBC@=89 @>728B>:. A>1;82> =5>AB0;V=VABAL:V ?@>F5A8 ?>A8;8;8AO, :>;8 :5@V2=8:>< @5A?C1;V:8 AB02 .)5@18FL:89 (1972  1989 @@.). C;8 ?@89=OBV A?5FV0;L=V ?>AB0=>28 C@O4C ! !  (1978 V 1983 @@.), 45 2G8B5;O< @>AV9AL:>W <>28 2 #:@0W=V 2AB0=>2;N20;>AL 15% =04102:8 4> AB02>:; :;0A8, C O:8E 1C;> ?>=04 25 4VB59, =0 C@>:0E @>AV9AL:>W <>28 ?>4V;O;8AO =0 3@C?8. 82G5==O @>AV9AL:>W <>28 AB0;> >1>2 O7:>28<, 0 C:@0W=AL:0 282G0;0AO 70 1060==O<. V7:> 7<5=H8;0AO :V;L:VABL ;VB5@0BC@8, I> 284020;0AO C:@0W=AL:>N <>2>N. # 1970 @. 70 =0720<8 :V;L:VABL :=86>:, 1@>HC@, 2840=8E C:@0W=AL:>N <>2>N, A:;0;0 ;8H5 38,2 %. 5?5@BC0@ :V=>B50B@V2 =0 99% 1C2 @>AV9AL:><>2=89. 5A?@0254;82V9 6>@AB:V9 :@8B8FV 1C2 ?V440=89 V :;0A8: C:@0W=AL:>W ;VB5@0BC@8 .>=G0@ 70 @><0=  !>1>@ (1968), O:89 ?@8A2OGC202AO B5<V 715@565==O =0FV>=0;L=>W 4CE>2=>W A?04I8=8 V 4> ?>G0B:C ?5@51C4>2G8E ?@>F5AV2 1C2 25;CG5=89 7 ;VB5@0BC@=>3> ?@>F5AC. V4AB02>N 4;O FL>3> 1C;0 ?@024820 :0@B8=0 :C;LBC@=>3> 7C1>6V==O V 45D>@<0FV9 4CE>2=>3> 68BBO 70 @04O=AL:>W 4>18. 2B>@ 28:@82 ?>@>G=C ?@0:B8:C 20@20@AL:>3> AB02;5==O 4> :C;LBC@8 V ?@8@>4=>3> A5@54>28I0 2 ACG0A=V9 9><C #:@0W=V. V425@B> 7<0;L>20=> ?@8G8=8 V =0A;V4:8 <0A>2>3> 28W74C <>;>4V 7 AV;, 5:>;>3VG=V =0A;V4:8 CB2>@5==O HBCG=8E  <>@V2 , 70A8;;O 1574C<=>3> :0@ T@87<C B0 2>;N=B0@87<C. 5@54>20 G0AB8=0 C:@0W=AL:>W V=B5;V35=FVW ?@>4>26C20;0 G8=8B8 >?V@ ?0=CNGV9 @04O=AL:V9 V45>;>3VW. # A0<28402V F8@:C;N20;8 45AOB:8 =525;8:8E ?>;VB8:>-?C1;VF8AB8G=8E @>72V4>:, ;8ABV2 ?@>B5ABC, ;VB5@0BC@=>-EC4>6=VE B2>@V2. !0<28402 28:>=C202 DC=:FVN =5 BV;L:8 ?0@0;5;L=>3> 4CE>2=>3> ?@>AB>@C, =04 O:8< 1C;8 =52;04=V >DVFV9=V AB@C:BC@8. V= >4=>G0A=> AB02 >@30=V70FV9=>N V=D@0AB@C:BC@>N 9 =093>;>2=VH8< ?@>O2>< 48A845=BAL:>3> @CEC."5@<V=  48A845=B 1C2 70=5A5=89 V7 0E>4C V 268202AO 4;O 287=0G5==O V=0:>4C<FV2, O:V 2 BV9 G8 V=HV9 D>@<V 2V4:@8B> 28A;>2;N20;8 A2>W ?>3;O48, I> =5 71V30;8AO 7 >DVFV9=>N ?>;VB8:>N. >;>2=8<8 F5=B@0<8 48A845=BAB20 1C;8 8W2 V L2V2. V4:@8BV ?@>O28 V=0:><8A;5==O A?>AB5@V30;8AO B0:>6 C =V?@>?5B@>2AL:C, CFL:C, 20=>-$@0=:V2AL:C, 45AV, "5@=>?>;V B0 V=H8E <VAB0E. 1970 @. C L2>2V ?>G02 28E>48B8 A0<28402G89 6C@=0;  #:@0W=AL:89 2VA=8: , :>B@89 4@C:C202 701>@>=5=V >DVFV>7>< B2>@8, ?>40202 V=D>@<0FVN ?@> ?>4VW ACA?V;L=>-?>;VB8G=>3> 68BBO, I> 70<>2GC20;8AO >DVFV9=>N ?@5A>N, =02>482 E@>=V:C @5?@5AV9 ?@>B8 48A845=BV2. >;>2=8< @540:B>@>< 2840==O 1C2 .'>@=>2V;, 9><C 4>?><030;8 /.5=47L>@, .>AV2, .=B>=V2 B0 V=. # 1970-1972 @@. 289H;8 HVABL =><5@V2  #:@0W=AL:>3> 2VA=8:0 . >O20 6C@=0;C 1C;0 206;82>N ?>4VTN 4;O 48A845=BAL:>3> @CEC, >A:V;L:8 A?@8O;0 9>3> >@30=V70FV9=V9 :>=A>;V40FVW. # AVG=V 1972 @. 2 8T2V, L2>2V B0 45O:8E V=H8E <VAB0E #:@0W=8 1C;> 700@5HB>20=> 1;87L:> 42>E 45AOB:V2 G>;>2V:, =090:B82=VH8E 48A845=BV2: .'>@=>2>;0, .!2VB;8G=>3>, .!25@ABN:0, .5;O B0 V=. 025A=V 1972 @. 1C;0 ?@>2545=0 =>20 A5@VO 0@5HBV2 A5@54 48A845=BV2. # A;V4G8E V7>;OB>@0E, 70 @V7=8<8 ?V4@0EC=:0<8, =0 F59 G0A ?5@51C20;> 2V4 70 4> 122 G>;., O:8E 728=C20GC20;8 70 ?>;VB8G=8<8 AB0BBO<8. @5HB8 AC?@>2>46C20;8AO ?>20;L=8<8 >1HC:0<8, 4>?8B0<8 A>B5=L A2V4:V2, ?5@5A;V4C20==O< @>48= V=0:>4C<FV2 B0 WE 4@C7V2. 5:>3> 7 0@5HB>20=8E ?@8<CA8;8 ?@8;N4=> ?>:0OB8AO 2  0=B8@04O=I8=V V AB2>@8B8 B0:8< G8=>< C:@09 =530B82=89 >1@07 V=0:>4C<FV2. # @57C;LB0BV FL>3> ?>3@><C <0965 ?>2=VABN 1C2 ?0@0;V7>20=89 A0<28402. @8?8=8;>AO 2840==O  #:@0W=AL:>3> 2VA=8:0 . V;LHVABL 0:B82=8E 48A845=BV2 >?8=8;0AO C B01>@0E 4;O ?>;VB8G=8E 2 O7=V2. 0@0;5;L=> @>73>@=C;0AO H0;5=0 V45>;>3VG=0 1>@>BL10 7  C:@0W=AL:8< 1C@6C07=8< =0FV>=0;V7<>< , O:C >G>;82 =>289 A5:@5B0@ & # 7 ?8B0=L V45>;>3VW .0;0=GC:. 0 728G=8< AF5=0@VT< ?>G0;8AO ?5@5A;V4C20==O V=B5;V35=FVW, 28==>W C =0720=8E  3@VE0E . 25@B0B8AO 4> =0FV>=0;L=>W ?@>1;5<0B8:8 C B2>@G>ABV V =0CFV AB0;> ?@>AB> =5157?5G=>, 2VB0;>AO BV;L:8 @>7@>1;5==O B5<, ?@8A2OG5=8E 4@C61V =0@>4V2 V 1;03>B2>@=><C 2?;82C @>AV9AL:>3> =0@>4C =0 V=HV =0FVW ! ! .  B5<0B8G=8E ?;0=V2 28402=8FB2 ?>G0B:C 70-E @@. 1C;> 7=OB> 157 =072 :=86>:, 45 V45>;>3VG=V :C@0B>@8 7=09H;8 E>G0 1 =0BO: =0  =0FV>=0;V7< B0 V=HV 2V4E8;5==O 2V4 ?0@BV9=>W ;V=VW. 09=0>G=VH5 @50:FV9=VABL 2=CB@VH=L>?>;VB8G=>3> :C@AC ?@>O28;0AL C ?5@5A;V4C20==V V=0:><8A;5==O. # 1975 @. =0 0@04V 7 ?8B0=L 157?5:8 V A?V2?@0FV 2 2@>?V, I> 2V41C;0AO C 5;LAV=:V, ! !  7>1>2 O702AO 4>B@8<C20B8AO 3C<0=VB0@=8E AB0B59 70:;NG=>3> 0:B0 0@048, O:V, 7>:@5<0, ?5@5410G0;8 =5?@8?CAB8<VABL ?5@5A;V4C20==O 3@><04O= 70 WE ?5@5:>=0==O. # ;8AB>?04V 1976 @. 2 #:@0W=V CB2>@8;0AO 3@><04AL:0 3@C?0 A?@8O==O 28:>=0==N 35;LAV=AL:8E C3>4. > =5W 22V9H;8 2V4><89 ?8AL<5==8: . C45=:> (:5@V2=8: 3@C?8), ?8AL<5==8:-D0=B0AB .5@4=8:, ?@02>70E8A=8:8 B0 :>;8H=V ?>;VB8G=V 2 O7=V .5H:>, .C: O=5=:>, .0=4810 B0 V=.  2AL>3> 10 G>;. &5 1C;0 ?5@H0 2 @5A?C1;VFV ?>70>DVFV9=0 3@C?0, O:0 ?@03=C;0 4VOB8 BV;L:8 ;530;L=> V ?V4:@5A;N20;0, I> =5 ?5@5A;V4CT ?>;VB8G=8E FV;59. !2>W< 70240==O< G;5=8 3@C?8 22060;8 V=D>@<C20==O C@O4V2 :@0W=  CG0A=8FL 5;LAV=AL:>W =0@048 ?@> 4>B@8<0==O C@O4>< ! !  V 2V4?>2V4=8<8 @5A?C1;V:0=AL:8<8 AB@C:BC@0<8 >1VFO=>: C 30;C7V ?@02 ;N48=8. #, O:0 4VO;0 FV;:>< C @0<:0E @04O=AL:>W :>=AB8BCFVW B0 ?V4?8A0=8E ! !  <V6=0@>4=8E C3>4, AB0;0 >1 T:B>< 60E;828E ?5@5A;V4C20=L V @5?@5AV9.  B@84FOB8 A5<8 G;5=V2 3@C?8 ?@>BO3>< 1977  1985 @@. 23 1C;8 70AC465=V 70 ?>;VB8G=8<8 V :@8<V=0;L=8<8 AB0BBO<8 (702648 70 AD0;LA8DV:>20=8<8 728=C20G5==O<8) B0 2V4?@02;5=V 2 B01>@8 V =0 70A;0==O, H5AB5@> ?>7102;5=V @04O=AL:>3> 3@><04O=AB20. "@8 G;5=8 3@C?8  .!BCA, ."8E89 B0 ..8B28=  7038=C;8 C B01>@0E. 45>;>3V7C20;8AO CAV 2848 <8AB5FB20. 8BFV2 ?@82G0;8 <8A;8B8 =5 ABV;L:8 EC4>6=V<8 >1@070<8, A:V;L:8 ?>;VB8G=8<8 :0B53>@VO<8. '5@57 =5A?@89=OBBO 4>3<0B8G=>3> <8A;5==O C 1980 @. 2402AO 4> A0<>3C1AB20 B0;0=>28B89 ?8AL<5==8: @83>@V9 "NBN==8:, C 1981 @.  .;87=5FL. 7 A?V;:8 ?8AL<5==8:V2 #:@0W=8 ?V4 G0A G8AB:8 1C;> 28:;NG5=> .7N1C, .'8G8101V=0, 28A;0=> 70 :>@4>= .5:@0A>20. >-20@20@AL:8 1C;> 7=8I5=> H5AB8<5B@>289 2VB@06 @>1>B8 .>@AL:>W, .!5<8:V=>W, .0;820E8 C 8W2AL:><C C=V25@A8B5BV. .>@AL:0 7038=C;0 70 =52V4><8E >1AB028=.  4>@>1:C EC4>6=8FV-:5@0<VAB0 .!52@C: 1C;8 B2>@8, I> =0;560;8 4>  >70FL:>3> F8:;C , 0;5 2 ?5@V>4 70AB>N FO B5<0 28O28;0AL 701>@>=5=>N, V B0;0=>28B>3> <8BFO 28:;NG8;8 7V !?V;:8 EC4>6=8:V2 #:@0W=8, WW B2>@GVABL FV;:>< V3=>@C20;0AL. # 1984 @. 1C;0 74V9A=5=0 A?@>10 @5D>@<C20B8 >A2VBC. >A8;N20;0AO V45>;>3V70FVO H:>;8, 70?@>2046C20;>AO =02G0==O 7 6 @>:V2, 8-@VG=V H:>;8 @5>@30=V7C20;8AO C 9-@VG=V, A5@54=V 2 11-@VG=V. %0@0:B5@=8<8 @8A0<8 >A2VB8 2 #:@0W=V 1C;8 C=VDV:0FVO, V45>;>3V70FVO, 6>@AB:89 ?0@BV9=89 :>=B@>;L, 70>@30=V7>20=VABL =02G0;L=>-28E>2=>3> ?@>F5AC, V3=>@C20==O =0FV>=0;L=>3> D0:B>@0. 0 ?>G0B:C 80-E @@. AB0;> ?><VB=>, I> @V25=L ?V43>B>2:8 D0EV2FV2 2V4AB0T 2V4 A2VB>2>3>. # =0C:>2V9 AD5@V ?@>O2;OTBLAO 70ABV9, <0;8 <VAF5 C?CI5=V <>6;82>ABV, =0:>?8G8;>AO G8<0;> =528@VH5=8E ?@>1;5<, =54>;V:V2, O:V ?@872>48;8 4> C?>2V;L=5==O DC=40<5=B0;L=8E @>7@>1>:, 2B@0B8 ?5@54>28E ?>78FV9 C A2VB>2V9 =0CFV. 4=0: 1C;8 9 ?52=V 4>AO3=5==O. =0G=89 V<?C;LA C A2>T<C @>728B:C >45@60;8 0B><=0 5=5@35B8:0, =0C:8 ?@> 5<;N. CA8;;O<8 2G5=8E C A:;04V  # !  AB2>@5=> =091V;LH89 C A2VBV F5=B@ =0C:>28E 4>A;V465=L C 30;C7V 720@N20==O <5B0;V2, 720@=8E :>=AB@C:FV9 V =>28E <5B0;C@3V9=8E <5B>4V2 4>1C20==O 28A>:>O:VA=8E B0 >A>1;82> G8AB8E <5B0;V2 V A?;02V2. ><VB=8< 2=5A:>< C @>728B>: =0C:8 AB0;8 4>A;V465==O C:@0W=AL:8E CG5=8E C 30;C7V ;820@=>3> 28@>1=8FB20, <0B5@V0;>7=02AB20, DV78:>-EV<VG=>W <5E0=V:8, <0B5@V0;V2 B0 =04B25@48E <0B5@V0;V2. @8A:>@5==N B5E=>;>3VG=>3> 2?@>20465==O =09?5@A?5:B82=VH8E @57C;LB0BV2 DC=40<5=B0;L=8E 4>A;V465=L A?@8O;8 =0C:>2>-B5E=VG=V :><?;5:A8 B0 V=65=5@=V F5=B@8, AB2>@5=V 2  # !  C A5@548=V 80-E @@. 09?>BC6=VH8<8 A5@54 :><?;5:AV2 1C;8 <V630;C752V "  =AB8BCB 5;5:B@>720@N20==O V<. .0B>=0 ,  =AB8BCB ?@>1;5< <0B5@V0;>7=02AB20 ,  =AB8BCB :V15@=5B8:8 V<. .;CH:>20 ,  =AB8BCB =04B25@48E <0B5@V0;V2 . @>BO3>< 1970-1985 @@. ?>=04 13 B8A. =0C:>28E @>7@>1>: CG5=8E :045<VW =0C: # !  1C;> 70?@>20465=> C 28@>1=8FB2>. 4=>G0A=> C?@02;V==O =0C:>N 2A5 1V;LH5 <>=>?>;V7C20;>AO =525;8:>N 3@C?>N 2G5=8E-04<V=VAB@0B>@V2 V7 >A:28 B0 5=V=3@040, O:V, 7V<:=C2H8AL V7 2;04=8<8 AB@C:BC@0<8, <0;8 28@VH0;L=89 2?;82 2 :045<VW =0C: ! ! . # @C:0E >AB0==L>W 7>A5@546C20;0AO >A=>2=0 =0C:>2>-28@>1=8G0 B0 28402=8G0 1070, V=D>@<0FV9=V :0=0;8 B0 D>@<C20==O =0C:>28E =0?@O<V2. 0 B0:8E C<>2 =02VBL =57=0G=V ?@>O28 >?>78FV9=>ABV 2 A5@54>28IV =0C:>2FV2 6>@AB>:> :0@0;8AO. "0:, C 70-BV @@. 2 @57C;LB0BV G5@3>2>W V45>;>3VG=>W G8AB:8 70 =52G8=5=V 7;>G8=8 1C;> ?>7102;5=> @>1>B8 @O4 ?@0FV2=8:V2 V=AB8BCBV2 EV<VW ?>;V<5@V2, B5>@5B8G=>W DV78:8, 0@E5>;>3VW, VAB>@VW, ;VB5@0BC@8, D>;L:;>@C B0 5B=>3@0DVW, ?A8E>;>3VW, =0DB8 V 307C B0 V=. 5<0;> =0C:>28E C:@0W=><>2=8E 6C@=0;V2, I> ?>G0;8 284020B8AO ?V4 G0A  2V4;838 , 265 28E>48;8 @>AV9AL:>N <>2>N. #AV FV =530B82=V O28I0 2 ACA?V;L=><C 68BBV :0<CD;N20;8AO ?V4 OA:@028<8 ?;0:0B0<8 7 30A;0<8 ?@>  @>7C<, G5ABL V A>2VABL B>I>, A2OB:>28<8 45<>=AB@0FVO<8, 2V9AL:>28<8 ?0@040<8 B0 1CB0D>@=8<8 B50B@0;V7>20=8<8 28AB020<8 =0 :H0;B ?><?57=>3> A2OB:C20==O =V18B> 1500-@VGGO 8T20. 0?@>B8203C 70ABV9=8< O28I0< >@83V=0;L=VABL, =0FV>=0;L=89 :>;>@8B @5;LTD=> 28O28;8AL C <C78G=>-?VA5==V9 B2>@G>ABV :><?>78B>@0 .20AN:0, 0=A0<1;N  !<5@VG:0 , A?V20:V2 .V=:528G0, ./@5<GC:0. 5;8G57=C ?>?C;O@=VABL 74>1C;0 C 70-80-BV @@. A?V20G:0 !>DVO >B0@C. # 70-80-BV @@. C:@0W=AL:0 ;VB5@0BC@0 ?>?>2=NTBLAO B2>@0<8 >4=>3> 7 =0BE=5==8:V2 HVAB45AOB=8FB20, 2V4><>3> ?8AL<5==8:0 .>=G0@0 ( &8:;>= ,  "2>O 7>@O ,  5@53 ;N1>2V ,  '>@=89 O@ ), @><0=0<8 V ?>2VABO<8 .!B5;L<0E0 ( '>B8@8 1@>48 ,  C<0 ?@> B515 ), .03@515;L=>3> ( >73V= ,  >:A>;0=0 ), .@>740 ( 0B0AB@>D0 ), .5<;O:0 ( 51548=0 73@0O ). =B5@5A 3@><04AL:>ABV 28:;8:0;0 B2>@GVABL @><0=VABV2 VAB>@8G=>3> A?@O<C20==O .20=8GC:0, ..CH:5B8:0, .$54>@V20, .20=G5=:>. #:@0W=AL:C ?>57VN 71030B8;8 =>20B>@AL:V B2>@8 .@0G0, .02;8G:0, .>;>1>@>4L:0, .>AB5=:>, .0;8H:0. 8AL<5==8:8 #:@0W=8 ?>?@8 2AV B@C4=>IV, ?5@5A;V4C20==O V @5?@5AVW ?@>4>26C20;8 ?@0FN20B8 =04 VAB>@8G=>N B0 ACG0A=>N B5<0B8:>N. .!=T3V@L>2 ?V43>BC202 C 70-BV @@. ?>2VABL  5=L:> <>O, =5=L:> ?@> ?@>F5A  !# , O:0 289H;0 70 :>@4>=><. !?@026=V< H5452@>< 1C2 284@C:C20=89 1980 @. 2V@H>20=89 @><0= V=8 >AB5=:>  0@CAO 'C@09 , I> 2 OA:@028E >1@070E 7<0;L>2CT 5?>EC .%<5;L=8FL:>3>.  F5=B@V B2>@C  =0@>4=0 ?>5B5A0 V A?V20G:0 ?>;B02:0 0@CAO 'C@09, 02B>@:0 1030BL>E ?VA5=L, I> 74>1C;8 25;8:C ?>?C;O@=VABL A5@54 ;N459. ;5 2 VA=CNGV9 B>4V A8AB5<V FV==>AB59 WE B2>@GVABL =5@>7@82=> ?>2 O7C20;0AO 7V  74>1CB:0<8 @04O=AL:>W A>FV0;VAB8G=>W :C;LBC@8 . 1V7=0=VABL 65 7V A?@026=V< :@87>28< AB0=>< A?@02 C 2AVE AD5@0E 68BBO @04O=AL:>3> ACA?V;LAB20 1C;0 4;O 1V;LH>ABV ;N459 =54>AO6=>N. 7. C;LBC@0 # !  C 1985-1991 @@. 5@51C4>20 @04O=AL:>3> ACA?V;LAB20 2 >AB0==V @>:8 DC=:FV>=C20==O ! !  =5 AB0;0 ?@8:;04>< 4> 7<V= 2 #:@0W=V. "CB ?@>4>26C20;0AO ?>;VB8:0 ?>?5@54=VE @>:V2 ?@02;V==O 70 <>45;;N .@56=T20 V .!CA;>20, O:0 ?5@5410G0;0 45=0FV>=0;V70FVN V 4CE>2=5 A?CAB>H5==O. &N ?>;VB8:C ?V4B@8<C202 ?5@H89 A5:@5B0@ & # .)5@18FL:89.  #:@0W=V 0:B82=> ?>H8@N20;0AO @CA8DV:0FVO, :0B0AB@>DVG=> 7<5=HC20;0AO :V;L:VABL H:V; 7 C:@0W=AL:>N <>2>N =02G0==O, C 2C70E C:@0W=AL:>N <>2>N G8B0;>AO 1;87L:> 5% ;5:FV9. 0 1988/89 =02G0;L=89 @V: =5 70;8H8;>AO 6>4=>W C:@0W=AL:>W H:>;8 2 >=5FL:C, '5@=V3>2V, %0@:>2V, C30=AL:C, 45AV, 8:>;0T2V. #:@0W=AL:V B50B@8 ?5@59H;8 =0 B0: 720=89 42><>2=89 @568<. '0AB:0 C:@0W=FV2 7<5=H8;0AO 7 76,8% C 1959 @. 4> 72,6% C 1989 @., B>4V O: G0AB:0 @>AVO= 71V;LH8;0AO 7 16,9 4> 22%. #:@0W=AL:0 <>20 28BVA=O;0AO 7 CAVE AD5@ ACA?V;L=>3> 68BBO, 4CE>2=5 68BBO 70=5?040;>. >71C482 #:@0W=C '>@=>18;L. A5, I> @>18;>AO 2 4=V ?VA;O 020@VW =0 '! :5@V2=8FB2>< F5=B@0;L=8E >@30=V2 ! !  V #:@0W=8, 1C;> 7;>G8=>< ?5@54 ;N4AB2>< V 7>:@5<0 ?5@54 C:@0W=AL:8< =0@>4><. 5@H8<8, EB> ?>402 3>;>A =0 70E8AB 715@565==O C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8, =02:>;8H=L>3> A5@54>28I0, 2V4@>465==O ?@02482>W VAB>@VW #:@0W=8, 1C;8 ?8AL<5==8:8. (8@>:89 @57>=0=A C ACA?V;LAB2V <0;8 28ABC?8 .>=G0@0, .7N18, .@0G0, .@>740, ./2>@V2AL:>3>, ..)5@10:0, .;V9=8:0 V 1030BL>E V=. @C=B>2=89 0=0;V7 70=5?04C C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8 7@>182 .>=G0@ =0 A5A>N7=V9 B2>@GV9 :>=D5@5=FVW C 5=V=3@04V 1 6>2B=O 1987 @. 0 2A5A>N7=C B@81C=C 1C;> 28=5A5=> ?@>1;5<C 70A8;;O 0B><=8E AB0=FV9 2 #:@0W=V, 28A;>2;5=> ?@>B5AB ?@>B8 ?;0=>2>3> 1C4V2=8FB20 ! ?>1;87C '838@8=0 V 2 @8<C, 2:070=> =0 703@>7C 5:>;>3VW 2V4 @50;V70FVW ?@>5:BC :0=0;C C=09  =V?@>, O:89 <02 ?5@53>@>48B8 C25AL =V?@>2AL:>-C7L:89 ;8<0=, 2V4 G>3> 38@;> =V?@0 ?5@5B2>@8;>AO 1 =0 25;8G57=5 A<5@4NG5 1>;>B>. .>=G0@ 28A;>282 4C<:C, I> ;VB5@0BC@0 V =0C:0 ?>28==V A?V;L=> 7 3C<0=VAB8G=8E ?>78FV9 B@C48B8AO 2 V< O ;N48=8. =0G=>N ?>4VTN FL>3> ?5@V>4C 1C;> ?@>2545==O C 25@5A=V 1986 @. C L2>2V <V6=0@>4=>3> A8<?>7VC<C  .$@0=:> V A2VB>20 :C;LBC@0 , ?@8A2OG5=>3> 130-9 @VG=8FV 2V4 4=O =0@>465==O ?8AL<5==8:0 B0 28E>4C 2 A2VB 50-3> 2840==O 9>3> B2>@V2. # =L><C 27O;8 CG0ABL ?@>2V4=V A;02VAB8, ?8AL<5==8:8 V ?5@5:;040GV 7 :@0W= 0EV4=>W 2@>?8 V !(.  3@C4=V FL>3> 6 @>:C =0 L2V2I8=V 2V47=0G0;8AO 175-@VGGO 2V4 4=O =0@>465==O 0@:VO=0 (0H:528G0 V 150-@VGGO 28E>4C 2 A2VB 0;L<0=0EC  CA0;:0 =VAB@>20 . # 1987 @. 70 V=VFV0B82>N .! 2 CAL><C A2VBV A2OB:C202AO AB>@VG=89 N2V;59 2V4 4=O =0@>465==O >4=>3> 7 287=0G=8E C:@0W=AL:8E 0:B>@V2 V @568A5@V2 5AO C@10A0. > FVTW 40B8 2 A. !:0;0 =0 "5@=>?V;LI8=V, 45 C@10A ?@>2V2 48BOGV @>:8, 1C;> 2V4:@8B> <C759, >@30=V7>20=> =0C:>2V :>=D5@5=FVW C L2>2V, "5@=>?>;V, %0@:>2V, 45AV, 2V4:@8B> <5<>@V0;L=V 4>H:8 C L2>2V V 8T2V. !0<5 2 F59 G0A =0 ?;5=C<V !?V;:8 ?8AL<5==8:V2 #:@0W=8 2?5@H5 1C;> >?@8;N4=5=> V=D>@<0FVN ?@> 3>;>4><>@ 1932-1933 @@., O:0 70<>2GC20;0AO 2?@>4>26 45AOB:V2 @>:V2. # G5@2=V 1989 @. ?V4 50?>;5< 70 CG0ABN ?@>2V4=8E C:@0W=AL:8E CG5=8E 7 4V0A?>@8 B0 #:@0W=8, 2V4><8E A;02VABV2 2@>?8 1C;> 70A=>20=> <V6=0@>4=C 0A>FV0FVN C:@0W=VABV2 (#), ?@57845=B>< O:>W AB02 2V4><89 ;VB5@0BC@=89 :@8B8: .7N10.  G5@57 :V;L:0 4=V2 C L2>2V 2V4=>28;> A2>N 4VO;L=VABL 0C:>25 B>20@8AB2> V<. ".(52G5=:0. =0<5==>N ?>4VTN 7030;L=>:C;LBC@=>3> 7=0G5==O AB0;> 2840==O C:@0W=AL:>N <>2>N 7 25A=8 1990 @. 6C@=0;C  C@ T@ .! . # =0ABC?=V @>:8 1C;> 1030B> 7@>1;5=> 4;O 2V4@>465==O VAB>@8G=>W ?0< OBV, ?>25@=5==O =0@>4>2V :C;LBC@=>W A?04I8=8 ?>?5@54=VE ?>:>;V=L. # 1990-1991 @@. >:@5<8<8 2840==O<8 ?>10G8;8 A2VB ?@0FV .>AB><0@>20, ./2>@=8FL:>3>, .D8<5=:>, .@CH52AL:>3>, .@8? O:528G0, .>@>H5=:0, .>=F>20 B0 V=. 89H>2 71V@=8: ?VA5=L C:@0W=AL:8E AVG>28E AB@V;LFV2, <0B5@V0;8 4> VAB>@VW 2872>;L=8E 7<030=L 20-50-E @@. %% AB. 840=> 1030B> <5<C0@=>W ;VB5@0BC@8. 0 5:@0=0E 7 O2;ONBLAO DV;L<8 !.0@0460=>20, ..;;T=:0, .C@0B>2>W. # 1989 @. 5@E>2=0 040 ?@89=O;0  0:>= ?@> <>28 2 #:@0W=AL:V9 !  , O:8< C:@0W=AL:0 <>20 >3>;>HC20;0AO 45@602=>N. @8 FL><C @50;V70FVO 0:>=C =0HB>2E=C;0AO =0 CA:;04=5==O, ?>2 O70=V 7 =51060==O< 7<V=N20B8 <>2C 4V;>2>3> A?V;:C20==O 1V;LHVABN CAB0=>2. #:@0W=AL:0 <>20 70 V=5@FVTN A?@89<0;0AO I5 O: ?@>2V=FV9=0 B0 A5;O=AL:0, A;01:> @>728=5=0 V 27030;V =5?@5AB86=0. >;L 020=30@4C 2 @>728B:C C:@0W=AL:>W :C;LBC@8, ;V:2V40FVW  1V;8E ?;O< VAB>@VW 2V4V3@0;0 !?V;:0 ?8AL<5==8:V2 #:@0W=8 B0 WW F5=B@0;L=89 >@30=  3075B0  VB5@0BC@=0 #:@0W=0 . C1;VF8AB8:0 709=O;0 ?@>2V4=V ?>78FVW. >G0;8 4@C:C20B8AO 701>@>=5=V @0=VH5 B2>@8 .8==8G5=:0, .@CH52AL:>3>, .5@>20, .%28;L>2>3>, .;L68G0, V=H8E @5?@5A>20=8E ?>5BV2 V ?8AL<5==8:V2, ?@54AB02=8:V2 C:@0W=AL:>W 4V0A?>@8. >ABC?>2> 7<V=8;8AO 0:F5=B8 2 ?8B0==OE 2V@>287=0==O, ?@>3>;>H5=> 70157?5G5==O ?@020 A2>1>48 A>2VABV. >G0;0AO 2V41C4>20 1030BL>E 70?CABV;8E, 28:>@8AB>2C20=8E O: 3>A?>40@AL:V A?>@C48 V ?@>AB> =54>@C9=>20=8E ?@>BO3>< 20-80-E @@. F5@:>2=8E ?@8<VI5=L, ;530;V7C20;8 A2>N 4VO;L=VABL C:@0W=AL:V 3@5:>-:0B>;8:8, 2V4=>282AO @CE A5@54 ?@02>A;02=8E I>4> 2V4=>2;5==O =570;56=>ABV C:@0W=AL:>W ?@02>A;02=>W F5@:28 2V4 >A:>2AL:>3> ?0B@V0@E0BC. # 30;C7V >A2VB8 1C;> 27OB> :C@A =0 WW 3C<0=V70FVN, 70A2>T==O CG=O<8 9 ABC45=B0<8 7030;L=>;N4AL:8E FV==>AB59. @>B5 DV=0=AC20==O FVTW AD5@8 1C;> =54>AB0B=V<. !CBBT2V 7@CH5==O 2V41C;8AO 2 VAB>@8G=V9 =0CFV. >-=>2><C 1C;> @>73;O=CB> V 4>A;V465=> ?>4VW 872>;L=>W 2V9=8 C:@0W=AL:>3> =0@>4C A5@548=8 %V AB., 4VO;L=VABL .075?8, .@CH52AL:>3>, .8==8G5=:0, !.5B;N@8 B0 V=H8E 2840B=8E 3@><04AL:>-?>;VB8G=8E 4VOGV2 #:@0W=8. @>4>26C20;0 7@>AB0B8 :V;L:VABL =0C:>2FV2. E G8A;> 4>AO3;> C 1989 @. 220 B8A. G>;. (7 =8E 6,8 B8A. 4>:B>@8 =0C: V 73,7 B8A.  :0=4840B8 =0C:). 5@52030 =04020;0AL ?@8:;04=8< 4>A;V465==O< 70 @0EC=>: DC=40<5=B0;L=8E. @8 FL><C 90% B5E=>;>3VG=8E @>7@>1>: =5 2?@>2046C20;8AL C 28@>1=8FB2>. =0G=>N ?>4VTN 2 :C;LBC@=><C 68BBV #:@0W=8 AB0;> ?@>2545==O 5@H>3> D5AB820;N  '5@2>=0 @CB0 ('5@=V2FV, 1989 @.), O:89 2V4182 70FV:02;5=VABL 7=0G=>W G0AB8=8 C:@0W=AL:>W <>;>4V 2 ?@>F5A0E 2V4@>465==O V A0<>1CB=L>3> @>728B:C C:@0W=AL:>W ?>?C;O@=>W <C78:8. 7. !CG0A=0 :C;LBC@0 #:@0W=8. @>3>;>H5==O =570;56=>ABV #:@0W=8 (24 A5@?=O 1991 @.) V @>71C4>20 A0<>ABV9=>W 45@6028 #:@0W=0 AB2>@8;8 ?@8=F8?>2> =>2V, D>@<0;L=> FV;:>< A?@8OB;82V C<>28 4;O @>728B:C :C;LBC@8. 19 ;NB>3> 1992 @. 5@E>2=0 040 #:@0W=8 CE20;8;0  A=>28 70:>=>402AB20 ?@> :C;LBC@C , O:8< ?5@5410G5=V 70E>48 I>4> ?>40;LH>3> @>728B:C C:@0W=AL:>W =0FV>=0;L=>W :C;LBC@8. ">3> 6 @>:C 1C;0 @>7@>1;5=0 5@602=0 =0FV>=0;L=0 ?@>3@0<0  #:@0W=AL:0 >A2VB0 2 %% AB. , 0 5@E>2=>N 04>N ?@89=OB>  0:>= ?@> >A2VBC .  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V4:@8B> 7=0G=C :V;L:VABL ?@820B=8E 3V<=07V9, ;VF5W2, =02VBL . 4=0: 206:> AC48B8 ?@> B5, =0A:V;L:8 2 FV;><C ?>;V?H8;0AO O:VABL >B@8<C20=>W 2 #:@0W=V >A2VB8, 0 O:VA=V ?>:07=8:8 7=0G=> 206;82VHV 2V4 :V;L:VA=8E. 50;L=0 ?5@5>FV=:0 70AB0@V;8E FV==>AB59 @04O=AL:>W 4>18 2 H8@>:8E :>;0E C:@0W=AL:>3> ACA?V;LAB20 157?>A5@54=L> 70;568BL 2V4 O:VA=>W ?5@5>@VT=B0FVW >A2VB=VE ?@>F5AV2, C?@>20465==O 2V4?>2V4=8E ACG0A=8< ?>B@510< <5B>48: V B5E=>;>3V9. # FL><C =0?@O<V 2 7030;L=>=0FV>=0;L=8E <0AHB010E 265 7@>1;5=> G8<0;>, >4=0: I5 1V;LH5 =0;568BL 7@>18B8 C =091;86G><C <091CB=L><C. )5 C 1992 @. 1C;> 2V4=>2;5=> 4VO;L=VABL 8T2>->38;O=AL:>W 0:045<VW  =02G0;L=>3> 70:;04C =>2>3> B8?C, 45 28:;040==O V =02G0==O 2545BLAO C:@0W=AL:>N B0 0=3;V9AL:>N <>20<8. 4V9A=NTBLAO ?5@5EV4 =0 B@8ABC?5=52C ?V43>B>2:C: 10:0;02@, A?5FV0;VAB, <03VAB@.  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