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oberts, 1966; 0BCAO28GCA 8 4@., 1984; 4C<, 1986; 0C;8:A, (0@:C=0A, 1986; White et. al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ematodes (=0?@8<5@, Rhabditidae) (>35;L, 1962; 8;LA>=, 1969; 5:;5<8H52, 1970). .. !N@8= (1983), .!. (C;LF (1964), 2 8AA;54>20=8OE > ?@>8AE>645=88 ?0@078B87<0, CB25@640;8, GB> @07;8G=K5 284K 8 @07;8G=K5 >A>18 @07;8G=> >B=>AOBAO : ?@51K20=8N 2 :8H5G=8:5 A;CG09=>3> E>7O8=0: >4=8 ?@>AB> ?5@520@820NBAO 8;8 65 B>;L:> >B<8@0NB 8 2K1@0AK20NBAO 2 2845 >AB0B:>2 A D5:0;8O<8 E>7O8=0 =0@C6C, 4@C385 ?@>E>4OB G5@57 :8H5G=8: E>7O8=0 682K<8, => =5 7045@6820NBAO 2 =5<, B@5BL8 65 2K6820NB 8 7045@6820NBAO 2 :8H5G=8:5 =0 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>5 2@5<O. -B8 ?>A;54=85 >A>18 ;81> =5<=>3> @072820;8AL 40;LH5, => 4> 4>AB865=8O ?>;>2>9 7@5;>AB8 CE>48;8 =0@C6C A D5:0;8O<8 E>7O8=0, 4@C385 65 4>AB830;8 ?>;>2>9 7@5;>AB8 8 ?@>872>48;8 ?>B><AB2> 8;8 2 2845 O8F 8;8 2 2845 ;8G8=>:, A<>B@O ?> B><C, : :0:><C 284C >=8 ?@8=04;560;8. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 E>45 M2>;NF88 A>25@H5==> 5AB5AB25==K< ?CB5< ?@>8AE>48;> B>, GB> ?@58<CI5AB25==> ?5@54 4@C38<8 2K6820;8 8 @0A?@>AB@0=O;8AL ;8HL B0:85 ?0@078B8G5A:85 D>@<K >A>159, ;8G8=:8 :>B>@KE 8;8 =5A:>;L:> @072820;8AL 8 87<5=O;8AL =0 A2>1>45, 8;8 65 B0:85, ;8G8=:8 :>B>@KE A>25@H5==> =5 2K;C?;O;8AL =0 A2>1>45, 0 O9F520O >1>;>G:0 ?@8>1@5B0;0 A> 2@5<5=5< 2A5 1>;LHCN ?@>G=>ABL 8 M;0AB8G=>ABL (">;C70@>20, 1983; "@0G, 1986). -:>;>38G5A:85 CA;>28O O2;ONBAO >?@545;ONI8< D0:B>@>< ?>O2;5=8O 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 1>;57=59 682>B=KE 8 G5;>25:0. -B> >B=>A8BAO 8 : 35;L<8=B>70<, 687=5==K5 F8:;K 2>71C48B5;59 :>B>@KE 2 >A=>2=>< 7028AOB >B M:>D0:B>@>2 8 >1@07CNB B5A=K5 M:>;>38G5A:85 A2O78 A 45D8=8B82=K<8, ?@><56CB>G=K<8 8 @575@2C0@=K<8 E>7O520<8 (Avery, 1969; 5==548, 1978; Zolsman, Hertkorn, 1981; >@>=>20, 1988; 0E0@>2, 1988; 595@0, 1989; C=0:>2, 015;8=, 1990; 0==8:>2, 1996). ;02=>5 2=8<0=85 2 M:>;>388 >B2>48BAO ?>?C;OF8>==>9 M:>;>388, 81> 2A5 682K5 >@30=87<K >1J548=5=K 2 ?>?C;OF88, :0: D>@<K ACI5AB2>20=8O 2840. >?C;OF8>==0O M:>;>38O ?0@078B>2  A@02=8B5;L=> <>;>4>5 =0?@02;5=85 18>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8 ((8;>2, 1977; 07C@<>28G, 1978; (52F>2 8 4@., 1979; C4<M=A8 8 4@., 1987; >A:>B 8 4@., 1988; @>=A:89, 1996). 5;L<8=BK, ;>:0;87CNI85AO 2 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>< B@0:B5 682>B=KE, 83@0NB 25AL<0 ACI5AB25==CN @>;L 2 8E ?0B>;>388 8 =0=>AOB ACI5AB25==K9 CI5@1 682>B=>2>4AB2C (&25B0520, 1963, 1984). 7CG5=85< 35;L<8=B>7=>9 A8BC0F88 2 682>B=>2>4G5A:8E E>7O9AB20E 70=8<0;8AL <=>385 8AA;54>20B5;8 =0 ?@>BO65=88 <=>38E ;5B (8;LA>=, 1968; 0=0AN:, 1969; >30G52, 1978; Morris et. al., 1984; 0@:528G, 1985; Chroustova, Raszyk, 1986; >:B>@>2 8 4@., 1989). =0;87 ;8B5@0BC@=KE 40==KE 405B ?>=OBL, =0A:>;L:> H8@>: 8 @07=>>1@075= 284>2>9 A?5:B@ 35;L<8=B>2, ?0@078B8@CNI8E 2 >@30=87<5 2KAH8E 682>B=KE. 081>;55 H8@>:> ?@54AB02;5=0 35;L<8=B>D0C=0 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 (0;K38=, 1957; Harris, Crrofton, 1957; Harris, Crofton, 1958; !B5D0=A:89, 1973; Barth, Preston, 1985; Kennedi et.al., 1988; >@HC=>2, 1995; C4:>20 2004) .. 0C;8:0A (1986) >B<5G0; 2 A2>8E @01>B0E, GB> =5A:>;L:> 284>2 35;L<8=B>2, ?@51K20NI8E >4=>2@5<5==> 2 >4=>< >@30=87<5, A2O70=K >?@545;5==K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8 =5 B>;L:> A E>7O8=><, 4@C3 A 4@C3><, => 8 A 4@C38<8 2840<8 ?0@078B>2, =0A5;ONI8E MB>3> E>7O8=0. .. 0@:528G (1975, 1985) ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> ?0@078B>F5=>7 2E>48B 2 A>AB02 G@572KG09=> A;>6=>9 8 A?5F8D8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K, :><?>=5=BK :>B>@>9 >18B0NB :0: 2 >@30=87<5 E>7O8=0, B0: 8 2> 2=5H=59 A@545. > <=5=8N ..0=0AN:0 (1984), ?0@078B>F5=>7  MB> >B:@KB0O, ?>AB>O==> <5=ONI0OAO 2> 2@5<5=8 @02=>25A=0O A8AB5<0 M:>;>38G5A:8 A2O70==KE ?0@078B8G5A:8E >@30=87<>2 8 A8<18>=B>2 =0 @07=KE AB048OE @0728B8O, ?@8=04;560I8E : @07=K< B0:A>=0< 8 ;>:0;87CNI8EAO :0: 2=CB@8, B0: 8 =0 ?>:@>20E >4=>3> 87 =8E, 8<5=C5<KE E>7O8=><. 07@010BK20O AE5<K 4535;L<8=B870F88 =5>1E>48<> CG8BK20BL, :0:85 35;L<8=BK ?0@078B8@CNB C 682>B=>3> :>=:@5B=> 2 B>< 8;8 8=>< E>7O9AB25, 8 2 :0:>9 AB5?5=8 70@065=K 8<8 682>B=K5, 25AB8 CG5B 284>2 35;L<8=B>2, 2AB@5G05<KE ?@8 ;01>@0B>@=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE, 2 B>< G8A;5 C18BKE =0 <OA> 8 ?02H8E 682>B=KE (Ackert, 1942; Lewellyn, 1956; Smith, Grabb, 1961). !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 35;L<8=B>D0C=0 A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==KE 682>B=KE <5=O5BAO 1;03>40@O 2>7459AB28N 0=B@>?>35==>3> D0:B>@0 (>1O70==>3> A2>8< ?@>8AE>645=85< 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0). > 40==K< C.J. Weinmann (1970) 2 >B;8G85 >B ;8G8=>: 1>;LH8=AB20, ?0@078B8@CNI8E C <;5:>?8B0NI8E F5AB>4, :>B>@K5 A?>A>1=K 2K7K20BL C E>7O8=0 A8;L=CN 8 MDD5:B82=CN 8<<C==CN @50:F8N, 27@>A;K5 F5AB>4K 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 B0:>9 @50:F88 =5 2K7K20NB. =>340 F5AB>4K A?>A>1=K 2K720BL >1@07>20=85 C E>7O52 0=B8B5;, => MB8 0=B8B5;0 =5 MDD5:B82=K ?@>B82 =8E. "0:, G.D. Moos (1971) 2 A2>8E 8AA;54>20=8OE C:070; =0 B>, GB> Hymenolepis microstoma <>65B 8=4CF8@>20BL 2K@01>B:C 0=B8B5; C A2>53> >1KG=>3> E>7O8=0 - <KH8, => >=8 =5 >:07K20NB =8:0:>3> 2;8O=8O =0 ?0@078B0. 4=0:> 0=B8B5;0, >1@07CNI85AO 2 >B25B =0 2=54@5=85 MB>9 65 A0<>9 F5AB>4K 2 >@30=87< :@KAK, ?@5?OBAB2CNB @>ABC 8 @07<=>65=8N ?0@078B0. AA;54>20=8O, ?@>2545==K5 $.$. !>?@C=>2K< (1987) =0 ?@54AB028B5;OE >B@O4>2 Cariophyllidae, Pseudophyllidae, Proteocephallidae, Cyclophyllidae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tone, 1964; 8;LA>=, 1968). @>1;5<>9 AB@>=38;>84>70 2 ?@><KH;5==>< A:>B>2>4AB25 70=8<0;AO .. 8:8H>2 (1994). #AB0=>2;5=>, GB> AB@>=38;>84>7 1>;55 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5= 8 8<55B 1>;LHCN M?87>>B>;>38G5A:CN 7=0G8<>ABL 2 CA;>28OE 1>;LH>9 :>=F5=B@0F88 =0 2;06=KE ?>;OE, 345 G0I5 2>7<>65= :>=B0:B A 8=2078@>20==K< =0G0;><, G5< 2 CA;>28OE ?0AB18I (Lelend, 1966; Ames, 1973). #AB>9G82>ABL E>7O52 : 8=20788 8<55B @07;8G=K5 ?@>O2;5=8O, ?@8G5< 2 :064>9 >B45;L=>9 A8AB5<5 E>7O8=-?0@078B <>3CB =01;N40BLAO >4=> 8;8 =5A:>;L:> 87 =8E. A;8 =01;N405BAO =5A:>;L:> B0:8E ?@>O2;5=89, B> >=8 <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL 2 8725AB=>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 2 7028A8<>AB8, ;81> >B ?>2KH5=8O 8=B5=A82=>AB8 8=20788, ;81> >B 2@5<5=8 3>40 (8;LA>=, 1968; Varga, 1982; (52F>2 8 4@., 1983; Stewart, Chesson, 1987; 0E0@>2, 1988). 5@54:> CAB>9G82>ABL 2>>1I5 =0G8=05B E>BL :0: B> ?@>O2;OBLAO ;8HL ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: 8=B5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 ?@52KA8B =5:>B>@K9 ?>@>3>2K9 C@>25=L; ?@8 2B>@8G=>9 8 ?@8 ?>A;54CNI8E 8=2078OE MB>B ?>@>3 <>65B ?>=878BLAO. "0:8< >1@07><, =0 ?0@078B>2 >:07K205B 2>7459AB285 H8@>:89 480?07>= @50:F89 E>7O8=0 8 D878G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 A@54K, ?@8G5< 2A5 >=8 87<5=ONBAO >B >4=>3> : 4@C3><C. <<C==K5 @50:F88 E>7O8=0 8=>340 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 548=AB25==K9 D0:B>@, @53C;8@CNI89 G8A;5==>ABL ?0@078B>2, >4=0:> =5@54:> =0 ?0@078B>2 459AB2CNB 8 4@C385 =57028A8<K5 @53C;OB>@K, 2 B>< G8A;5 :>=:C@5=F8O.  >A=>25 ?>GB8 2A5E MB8E @53C;OB>@=KE 2>7459AB289 ;568B ?@8=F8? >B@8F0B5;L=>9 >1@0B=>9 A2O78, 8 2A5 >=8 AB@5<OBAO AB018;878@>20BL A8AB5<C (Willingale, Briggs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ong, 1967). A5 MB8 <5E0=87<K CAB@0=ONB B>;L:> 871KB>G=CN G0ABL ?>?C;OF88 8 ?>445@6820NB 8=B5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 =0 B0:>< C@>2=5, ?@8 :>B>@>< >=0 =5 ?@8G8=O5B E>7O8=C ACI5AB25==>3> 2@540. -B> >15A?5G8205B 2K6820=85 ?>?C;OF88 ?0@078B>2 8 =5?@5@K2=>5 ACI5AB2>20=85 A8AB5<K E>7O8=-?0@078B (>4:>?052, 1964; Hantz, Kradel, 1971; Smyth, 1976; 095@0, 1989; 0CG=0O :>=D5@5=F8O& , 1991). "0:8< >1@07><, ?0@0;;5;L=> 3><5>AB07C, E0@0:B5@=><C 4;O >@30=87<0 A0<8E <;5:>?8B0NI8E, 4>AB8305BAO 2KA>:0O 3><5>AB0B8G=>ABL A8AB5< E>7O8=-?0@078B, 2 A>AB02 :>B>@KE >=8 2E>4OB. 1.3. $>@<8@>20=85 ?0@078B>F5=>70 :8H5G=8:0 2545==>5 2 ?0@078B>;>38N . . 02;>2A:8< (1965) ?>=OB85 ?0@078B>F5=>70 O28;>AL 206=K< MB0?>< 2 @0728B88 M:>;>38G5A:>3> 0A?5:B0 O2;5=8O ?0@078B87<0.  ?@>F5AA5 M2>;NF88 2 B:0=OE 8 >@30=0E C A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==KE 682>B=KE ?@8A?>A>18;8AL : ?0@078B8@>20=8N @07=>>1@07=K5 2 284>2>< >B=>H5=88 >@30=87<K - 28@CAK, 10:B5@88, ?@>AB59H85, 35;L<8=BK, G;5=8AB>=>385, D>@<8@CO ?0@078B>F5=>7, 2K7K20O 0AA>F80B82=K5 701>;520=8O ('0E020, 1986). ">G=>5 >?@545;5=85 ?0@078B87<0 >A;>6=O5BAO B@C4=>ABO<8 2 CAB0=>2;5=88 G5B:8E 3@0=8F 2708<>>B=>H5=89 ?0@078B0 8 E>7O8=0, ?>A:>;L:C MB8 >B=>H5=8O =5 >1>A>1;5=K, 0 B5A=> ?5@5?;5B0NBAO A 4@C38<8 <56284>2K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8. 081>;55 206=0O 87 =8E - MB> B>, GB> ?0@078B87< ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 2708<>>B=>H5=8O <564C ?>?C;OF8O<8, ?@8=04;560I8<8 : 42C< 8 1>;55 @07;8G=K< 2840<. A=>2=K5 G5@BK MB8E 2708<>>B=>H5=89 AD>@<C;8@>20; .. 0@:528G (1974): ?0@078B D878>;>38G5A:8 7028A8B >B A2>53> E>7O8=0; @5?@>4C:B82=K9 ?>B5=F80; C ?0@078B0 2KH5, G5< C E>7O8=0; ?@8 8=B5=A82=>< 70@065=88 ?0@078B, 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5, A?>A>15= C18BL E>7O8=0; ?@>F5AA 70@065=8O >1KG=> ?@82>48B : B0: =07K205<><C ?5@5@0AA5O==><C @0A?@545;5=8N ?0@078B>2 2 ?>?C;OF88 E>7O8=0. >4 MB8< ?>=8<0NB B0:CN A8BC0F8N, :>340 ?0@078B @0A?@545;O5BAO 2 ?>?C;OF88 E>7O8=0 =5 A;CG09=K< >1@07><, 0 B0:, GB> 1>;LH0O G0ABL ?0@078B>2 A>A@54>B>G5=0 2 >B=>A8B5;L=> =51>;LH>< G8A;5 >A>159 E>7O8=0. 07;8G=K5 D0:B>@K, ?@5?OBAB2CNI85 70@065=8N E>7O8=0, <>3CB 1KBL @0745;5=K =0 425 3@C??K: =5A?5F8D8G5A:85, 459AB2CNI85 ?@>B82 @07;8G=KE ?0@078B>2, 8 A?5F8D8G5A:85, >A=>20==K5 =0 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>< >B25B5 ?> >B=>H5=8N : A?5F8D8G5A:8< 2>71C48B5;O<. 064K9 A>G;5= ?0@078B>F5=>70 459AB2C5B =0 >@30=87< E>7O8=0 ?0B>35==>. .. 02;>2A:89 (1966), ..$. 5B@>2 (1988) C:07K20NB, GB> 2 ?@>F5AA5 D>@<8@>20=8O ?0@078B>F5=>70 2 >@30=87<5 E>7O8=0 <564C 53> A>G;5=0<8 2>7=8:0NB 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:85 8;8 A8=5@38G5A:85 2708<>>B=>H5=8O (=B870@>2, 1986; 0C;8:0A, 1990). @8 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:>< 2708<>>B=>H5=88 @0728B85 >4=8E 284>2 35;L<8=B>2 A45@68205BAO, >=8 2KB5A=ONBAO 87 18>;>38G5A:>9 =8H8 8;8 >AB0NBAO 2 548=8G=KE M:75<?;O@0E, B>340 :0: 4@C385 284K 8=B5=A82=> @072820NBAO 8 AB0=>2OBAO 4><8=8@CNI8<8. @8 A8=5@38G5A:8E 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE 2A5 G;5=K ?0@078B>F5=>70 A>740NB 4@C3 4;O 4@C30 >?B8<0;L=K5 CA;>28O 8 8=B5=A82=> @072820NBAO (Adedeji et.al., 1989; Mercy, 1989). > =5 B>;L:> 35;L<8=BK A?>A>1=K D>@<8@>20BL A>>1I5AB2>, 53> D>@<8@CNB B0:65 28@CAK, 10:B5@88, 3@81K, ?@>AB59H85 8 G;5=8AB>=>385. .. 0=0AN: (1984, 1986) AG8B05B, GB> ?0@078B>F5=>7 - MB> >B:@KB0O, ?>AB>O==> <5=ONI0OAO 2> 2@5<5=8 @02=>25A=0O A8AB5<0 M:>;>38G5A:8 A2O70==KE ?0@078B8G5A:8E >@30=87<>2 8 A8<18>=B>2 =0 @07=KE AB048OE A2>53> @0728B8O ?@8=04;560I8E : @07=K< B0:A>=0<, 8 ;>:0;87CNI8EAO :0: 2=CB@8, B0: 8 =0 ?>:@>20E >4=>3> 87 =8E, 8<5=C5<>3> E>7O8=><. @8 ?0@078B>F5=>75 A>7405BAO 2@5<5==0O @02=>25A=0O >B:@KB0O 4;O 2=54@5=8O 4@C38E B8?>2 18>;>38G5A:0O A8AB5<0. > <=5=8N 02B>@0, 1>;57=L 5ABL @57C;LB0B 2708<>459AB28O A>G;5=>2 ?0@078B>F5=>70 4@C3 A 4@C3>< - A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 8 A >@30=87<>< E>7O8=0 - A 4@C3>9.  7028A8<>AB8 >B E0@0:B5@0 MB>3> 2708<>459AB28O 2 >:@C60NI59 A@545, :>B>@0O <>65B 1KBL 1;03>?@8OB=>9 4;O >@30=87<0 E>7O8=0, 1>;57=L <>65B 8 =5 @072820BLAO, 8;8 >=0 ?@>B5:0BL 2 ;53:>9, 01>@B82=>9 D>@<5. @8 =51;03>?@8OB=>< E0@0:B5@5 2708<>>B=>H5=89 4;O >@30=87<0 E>7O8=0, 1>;57=L ?@>B5:05B 2 BO65;>9 D>@<5, =5@54:> A ;5B0;L=K< 8AE>4><. > :>;8G5AB2C A>G;5=>2 ?0@078B>F5=>7K 1K20NB: 42CEG;5==K5, A>AB>OI85 87 42CE 284>2 ?0@078B>2, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, : :0:><C 284C >=8 ?@8=04;560B - 682>B=><C 8 @0AB8B5;L=><C; B@5EG;5==K5, A>AB>OI85 8E B@5E ?0@078B>2, >B=>AOI85AO : @07;8G=K< B0:A>=0<; <=>3>G;5==K5, A>AB>OI85 87 G5BK@5E 8 1>;55 ?0@078B>2 (!N@8=, 1984). A>15==>AB8 ?0@078B>F5=>70 :0: A?5F8D8G5A:>9 D>@<K ACI5AB2>20=8O 682KE ACI5AB2 2 A2>5>1@07=>9 A@545 >18B0=8O, >B;8G8O 53> ?@>AB@0=AB25==>9 AB@C:BC@K 8 4@C385 A?5F8D8G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8, B@51CNI85 ?@8<5=5=8O >A>1KE <5B>4>2 8AA;54>20=8O (8<<C=>;>38G5A:8E, ?0B>D878>;>38G5A:8E, 0;;5@3>;>38G5A:8E 8 B.?.) 40NB 2A5 >A=>20=8O 4;O 2K45;5=8O MB>9 =04>@30=87<5==>9 A8AB5<K 2 :0G5AB25 A2>5>1@07=>3> <8:@>18>F5=>70 (Dineen, 1963; Duguid, 1980; 0C;N:0A, 1990). >A:>;L:C 8=48DD5@5=B=K5 ?> >B=>H5=8N : E>7O8=C 8 <CBC0;8AB8G5A:85 D>@<K A>AB02;ONB >1O70B5;L=K9 :><?>=5=B F5=>70, 1>;55 A>>B25BAB2CNI8< 4;O =53> O2;O5BAO =0720=85 "A8<18>F5=>7" (>35;L, 1962; Pest, 1962; 5==548, 1978; 048>=>2, 1980; >=B@8<028GNA, 1982; !?@02>G=8:& , 1988). 4=0:>, ?@8=8<0O 2> 2=8<0=85, GB> "?0@078B>F5=>7" 2 C7:>< ?>=8<0=88 O2;O5BAO, 2 ?@0:B8G5A:>< >B=>H5=88, 254CI8< 725=>< A8<18>F5=>70, 8<5NI8< 3;C1>:85 :>@=8 2 ?@0:B8:5, <K AG8B05< 2>7<>6=K< ?>;L7>20BLAO B5@<8=>< ?0@078B>F5=>7. 5>1E>48<>, ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> ?0@078B>F5=>7 2E>48B 2 A>AB02 G@572KG09=> A;>6=>9 8, A?5F8D8G5A:>9 A8<18>?0@078B>F5=>B8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K (?0B>18>F5=>7, M:>?0@078B0@=0O A8AB5<0), :><?>=5=BK :>B>@>9 >18B0NB :0: 2 >@30=87<5 E>7O8=0, B0: 8 2> 2=5H=59 A@545. >4 MB>9 A8AB5<>9 A;54C5B ?>=8<0BL A>2>:C?=>ABL 8=B53@8@>20==KE <=>3>284>2KE :><?;5:A>2 ?0@078B>2 8 A8<18>=B>2, 2E>4OI8E 2 A>AB02 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> 18>35>F5=>70 =0 @07=KE AB048OE 8E @0728B8O 2<5AB5 A >:>=G0B5;L=K<8 8 ?@><56CB>G=K<8 E>7O520<8 8 ?5@5=>AG8:0<8, CG0AB2CNI8<8 2 ?5@540G5 ?0@078B>2 >B 70@065==>3> >@30=87<0 : 70@060NI5<CAO (Weinmann, 1966; Papa, 1968; Crofton, 1971; Chroustova et.al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einecke, 1962). 5:>B>@K5 AB0BL8 >A25I0NB 2708<>>B=>H5=8O :@>25?0@078B=KE ?@>AB59H8E A ?5@5=>AG8:0<8 8 B5?;>:@>2=K<8 682>B=K<8 (Zajicek, 1969; Crompton, 1973). 7 2KH587;>65==KE <0B5@80;>2 2KB5:05B, GB> E0@0:B5@ ?0@078B>-E>7O8==KE >B=>H5=89 7028A8B, ?@5645 2A53>, >B 284>2>3> A>AB020 A8<18>F5=>70 8 :>;8G5AB25==KE A>>B=>H5=89 53> :><?>=5=B>2, >B CA;>289 2=5H=59 A@54K.  A2O78 A B5<, GB> E0@0:B5@ MB8E >B=>H5=89 <>65B 87<5=OBLAO 87<5=O5BAO 8 AB5?5=L ?0B>35==>AB8 ?0@078B>2 (28@C;5=B=>ABL), 0 2 A2O78 A MB8< 20@L8@C5B 8 @57C;LB0B 2>7459AB28O ?0@078B0 =0 E>7O8=0 - >B BO65;>3> 701>;520=8O 4> 15AA8<?B><=>9 8=20788 8;8 ?@>AB> =>A8B5;LAB20 (Holmes, 1961; Roberts, 1961).  >4=8E A;CG0OE =>A8B5;LAB2> =01;N405BAO ?>A;5 ?5@5=5A5=8O 8=D5:F8>==>9 8;8 8=2078>==>9 1>;57=8.  4@C38E - 8=D5:F8>==K9 ?@>F5AA =5 4>AB8305B :;8=8G5A:>9 2K@065==>AB8, 8 B5G5=85 1>;57=8 =>A8B 15AA8<?B><=K9 (8=0??0@0B=K9) E0@0:B5@. .. A:0:>2 (1989) 2K?>;=8; A5@8N 8=B5@5A=KE 8AA;54>20=89, 2KOA=ONI8E =0 38AB>;>38G5A:>< C@>2=5 2708<>>B=>H5=8O <564C ;8G8=:0<8 <=>38E 284>2 B@5<0B>4, F5AB>4 8 =5<0B>4 (;>:0;87CNI8EAO 2 B:0=OE) 8 ?>72>=>G=K<8, ?@><56CB>G=K<8 8 @575@2C0@=K<8 E>7O520<8 (>B @K1 - 4> <;5:>?8B0NI8E). @8 MB>< 1K;8 ?>:070=K A?>A>1K ?@5>4>;5=8O B:0=52K<8 ?0@078B0<8 70I8B=KE @50:F89 E>7O8=0, 2?5@2K5 CAB0=>2;5= >48= 87 254CI8E <5E0=87<>2 2>7459AB28O =0 E>7O8=0 (C3=5B5=85 ;59:>F8B0@=>9 @50:F88 E>7O8=0 8 8=48F8@>20=85 A?5F8D8G5A:>9 :0?AC;K), >15A?5G820NI8E ACI5AB2>20=85 35;L<8=B>2 2 B:0=OE. 1I85 0A?5:BK ?@>1;5<K 2708<>>B=>H5=89 A>G;5=>2 ?0@078B>F5=>70 8 8E 2708<>459AB28O A E>7O8=>< >A25I0;8 ..!. >:B>@>2 (1989), .. <0=C8;>2 (1959), . 5==548 (1978), .!.(C;LF (1964) 8 4@. 7CG0O A>AB02 ?0@078B>D0C=K C B5;OB 2 E>7O9AB20E @07;8G=>3> B8?0, (07C@<>28G, 1978; >;O=A:89, 1978; 5B@>2, 1986) CAB0=>2;5=>, GB> 27@>A;>5 ?>3>;>2L5 2 78<=55 2@5<O ?>@0605BAO ?0@078B0<8 =0 46,4 - 58,5. 2 25A5==55 =0 32,5 - 44,3, 2 ;5B=55 =0 13,2 - 17,0 8 2 >A5==55 - =0 7,1 - 10,2%. 081>;55 G0ABK<8 A>G5B0=8O<8 1K;8 B>=:>H59=K5 F8AB8F5@:8 A ?@>B>AB@>=38;840<8 8 AB@>=38;>840<8. 01;N45=8O 40;8 >A=>20=85 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> >B45;L=K5 ?0@078BK, A=860O 70I8B=K5 A8;K >@30=87<0 E>7O8=0, A>740NB CA;>28O 4;O @0728B8O 4@C38E 284>2 ?0@078B>2, A?>A>1AB2CNB D>@<8@>20=8N ?>;88=20789. /3=OB0 1K;8 ?>@065=K :>:F848O<8 8 35;L<8=B0<8. 8>B8G5A:85 2708<>>B=>H5=8O 2 ?0@078B0@=>9 A8AB5<5 @>1;5<>9 87CG5=8O 35;L<8=B>D0C=K 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 70=8<0;8AL <=>385 >B5G5AB25==K5 CG5=K5 2 @07;8G=KE @538>=0E AB@0=K, 0 B0:65 70@C156=K5 8AA;54>20B5;8. 7 ;8B5@0BC@=KE 40==KE 8725AB=>, GB> :@C?=K9 @>30BK9 A:>B 8=B5=A82=> 70@065= 35;L<8=B0<8, ?@5>1;040NI55 <5AB> A@548 =8E 70<8=0NB =5<0B>4K. @8 87CG5=88 35;L<8=B>D0C=K :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:0B0 .. 5B5H52K< (1988) >1=0@C65= 21 284 35;L<8=B>2, 13 284>2 87 :>B>@KE A>AB028;8 =5<0B>4K. AA;54>20=8O<8 ?> 87CG5=8N @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O ?0@078B>2 :8H5G=8:0 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 70=8<0;AO .. 8;LA>= (1968). < 70@538AB@8@>20=K A;54CNI85 284K 35;L<8=B>2: AB@>=38;>84K (87 1400 ?@>1 O9F0 Strongyloides papillosus >1=0@C65=K C 887), B@8E>F5D0;K (87 1400 ?@>1 O9F0 =0945=K 2 327 A;CG0OE), =5>0A:0@8AK (8=2078@>20=> 221 682>B=>5 (2A5E 2>7@0AB>2). 708<>459AB28O A8<18>=B>2 2 CA;>28OE ?0@078B>F5=>70 >B;8G0NBAO 1>;LH>9 A;>6=>ABLN 8 <=>3>>1@0785<, >=8 <>3CB 1KBL 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:8<8, 8=48DD5@5=B=K<8 8 A8=5@38G5A:8<8 (!<8@=>2, 1968, 1980; Abdel-Salam, Sanousi, 1990). =B03>=87< E0@0:B5@87C5B B0:65 >B=>H5=8O ?0@078B>2 A E>7O520<8, ?0@078B87< >?@545;O5BAO :0: "0=B03>=8AB8G5A:89 A8<18>7" 42CE @07=>8<5==KE >@30=87<>2 (>?0=, 1988; !0D8C;;8=, 1991). 725AB=>, GB> 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:>5 2>7459AB285 ?@54AB028B5;59 =>@<0;L=>9 <8:@>D;>@K =0 @>AB 8 @0728B85 1>;57=5B2>@=KE 2>71C48B5;59 ?@82>48B : C3=5B5=8N ?>A;54=8E, : 8E M;8<8=0F88 8;8 15AA8<?B><=><C =>A8B5;LAB2C. =B5@5A=> >B<5B8BL, GB> 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O <>3CB ?@>O2;OBLAO 8 <564C ?>?C;OF8O<8 >4=>3> 2840.  :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 <>6=> C:070BL, GB> =5:>B>@K5 HB0<<K @57:> 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:8E :8H5G=KE ?0;>G5: ?>402;ONB @0728B85 8 C=8GB>60NB A;01> 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:85 D>@<K . coli (Ewing et.al., 1954; Westphal, 1970; Orskov, 1984; Old, 1985; ;03>2, 1991; Novak, 1992). !CI5AB2C5B 1>30B0O ;8B5@0BC@0 >1 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:8E >B=>H5=8OE <564C @07;8G=K<8 2840<8 A8<18>=B>2, 2E>4OI8E 2 A>AB02 ?0@078B>F5=>7>2. 0;55 MB>9 ?@>1;5<>9 70=8<0;8AL >B5G5AB25==K5 CG5=K5 (02@C:, 1965; 0=0AN:, 1984; ><0=>2, 1986; 0==0?>20, 1998).  :0G5AB25 D0:B>@>2, ;560I8E 2 >A=>25 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89 <564C A>G;5=0<8 ?0@078B>F5=>70, C:07K20NBAO A;54CNI85 >A>15==>AB8 284>2>3> A>AB020 ?0@078B>F5=>70: =5?>A@54AB25==>5 2>7459AB285 A8<18>=B>2 4@C3 =0 4@C30, 8A?>;L7>20=85 >4=8E D>@< 4@C38<8 2 :0G5AB25 >1J5:B0 ?8B0=8O, <56284>20O :>=:C@5=F8O 70 ?8I52K5 @5AC@AK 8 ?@>AB@0=AB2>, 0<5=A0;87<, 2K45;5=85 25I5AB2, 2@54=> 459AB2CNI8E =0 :>=:C@8@CNICN <8:@>?>?C;OF8N, 87<5=5=85 G8A;5==>AB8 <8:@>?>?C;OF89 8 ?@., 0 ?>A@54AB2>20==>5 2>7459AB285, >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?CB5< 2;8O=8O =0 E>7O8=0 8;8 A8<18>=B>2, >B25B=KE @50:F89 :>B>@K5 ?@82>4OB : A>740=8N CA;>289, =51;03>?@8OB=KE 4;O >4=>3> 87 :>=:C@8@CNI8E 284>2, 2>7@0AB=K5 8 4@C385 D878>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 E>7O8=0, ?> - @07=><C 2;8ONI85 =0 2708<>459AB285 A@54K, 53> @568< ?8B0=8O, 35>3@0D8G5A:89 D0:B>@ 8 B.?. /2;5=8O A8=5@387<0 >A25I0;8AL 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 ?>GB8 B0: 65 H8@>:>, :0: 8 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O A8<18>=B>2. =8 ?@>O2;ONBAO 2 A>G5B0==>< 459AB288 ?0@078B>2, ?@8 :>B>@>< 8E 2;8O=85 =0 >@30=87< E>7O8=0 >1KG=> 7=0G8B5;L=> CA8;8205BAO, 0 B5G5=85 1>;57=8 7=0G8B5;L=> CA;>6=O5BAO.  ?@>F5AA5 D>@<8@>20=8O ?0@078B>F5=>7>2 2 >@30=87<5 E>7O8=0 <564C 53> A>G;5=0<8 2>7=8:0NB 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:85 8 A8=5@35B8G5A:85 2708<>>B=>H5=8O. @8 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:>< 2708<>>B=>H5=88 @0728B85 >4=8E 284>2 A45@68205BAO, >=8 2KB5A=ONBAO 87 18>;>38G5A:>9 =8H8 8;8 >AB0NBAO 745AL 2 548=8G=KE M:75<?;O@0E, B>340 :0: 4@C385 284K 8=B5=A82=> @072820NBAO 8 AB0=>2OBAO 4><8=8@CNI8<8. @8 A8=5@35B8G5A:8E 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE 2A5 A>G;5=K ?0@078B>F5=>7>2 A>740NB 4@C3 4;O 4@C30 >?B8<0;L=K5 CA;>28O, >=8 8=B5=A82=> @072820NBAO. @8 >F5=:5 E0@0:B5@0 2708<>459AB28O A>G;5=>2 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?0@078B>F5=>70 <K =5 <>65< >3@0=8G820BLAO B>;L:> =01;N45=85< 8 0=0;87>< AB0B8AB8G5A:8E 40==KE, >A=>20==KE =0 G0AB>B5 A>2<5AB=>9 2AB@5G05<>AB8 2 B5;5 E>7O8=0 B5E 8;8 8=KE A8<18>=B>2, :0: MB> 8<55B <5AB> 2> <=>38E @01>B0E, ?>A2OI5==KE MB><C 2>?@>AC. ;O ?>;CG5=8O >1J5:B82=KE 40==KE > E0@0:B5@5 2708<>459AB28O A8<18>=B>2 (2:;NG0O ?0@078B>2) =5>1E>48<> >?8@0BLAO =0 3;C1>:85 3=>B>18>B8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O A CG5B>< 284>2>3> A>AB020 <8:@>?>?C;OF89. 5;L<8=BK 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 87<5=ONB D878>;>38G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85 <0:@>>@30=87<0 8, 2K45;OO ?@>4C:BK 687=545OB5;L=>AB8, A>740NB ?@8ACICN 8< A@54C >18B0=8O 2 D878G5A:>< 8 E8<8G5A:>< >B=>H5=88, GB> <>65B A?>A>1AB2>20BL C<5=LH5=8N A>AB020 A>G;5=>2 18>F5=>70 2 :8H5G=8:5 682>B=KE (Nemeth. 1963; /=3C70@>20, C@E0<5B>2, 1976; /BCA528G, 8:C;8=, 1983; $8;8??>2, 1984; Letkova, Hovorka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ill, Kentworthy, 1970; (838=, 1986; 004, 1987; >:0@652A:89 8 4@., 1992; @>1;5<K& , 1992; :1052 8 4@., 1995). .". 0==0?>20 (1999), .. 0BCAO28GNA (1983) >?8A0;8 11 284>2 :>::>2, 13 284>2 ?0;>G5:, 3 2840 A5;5=>10:B5@89, 2 2840 A?8@>E5B, =0A5;ONI8E ?8I520@8B5;L=K9 B@0:B 620G=KE ((0?>20;>2, 1973; (0@:C=0A, 1986). 08<5=LH55 G8A;> 10:B5@89 C :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 >1=0@C68205BAO 2 AKGC35 8 425=04F0B8?5@AB=>9 :8H:5 (:8A;0O A@540 8 65;GL =5 1;03>?@8OBAB2CNB @0728B8N 10:B5@89). =B5=A82=>5 @07<=>65=85 <8:@>1>2 =0G8=05BAO 2 B>I59 :8H:5, 8 :>;8G5AB2> 8E 2>7@0AB05B A ?@>42865=85< : B>;AB><C >B45;C. >4>1=0O AE5<0 @0728B8O 10:B5@80;L=>9 ?>?C;OF88 A2>9AB25==0 2A5< 3@C??0<, => =081>;55 E0@0:B5@=0 ;0:B>10F8;;0<, 18D84>10:B5@8O<, AB@5?B>:>::0<, MH5@8E8O<. 'B> :0A05BAO 10:B5@>84>2, 2=0G0;5 >=8 >1=0@C6820NBAO 2 =51>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25 2 B>I59 :8H:5, 0 2 B>;AB>< :8H5G=8:5 8E G8A;> 4>AB8305B <0:A8<C<0 (0CD<0=, 1959; 0@>70, 1971; Englund, 1974; >;>F:89 8 4@., 1974; >;8:0@?>2, 1987). AA;54>20B5;8 <8:@>D;>@C 682>B=KE 45;OB =0 425 3@C??K: E0@0:B5@=CN 4;O 40==>3> 2840 - =>@<0;L=CN (8=4835==CN >1;830B=CN), : :>B>@K< >B=>AOBAO ;0:B>10F8;;K, 18D84>10:B5@88, 10:B5@>84K, :>::>2K5 D>@<K, =5?0B>35==K5 :8H5G=K5 ?0;>G:8, 8 A;CG09=CN - D0:C;LB0B82=CN, 2@5<5==CN, B@0=78B=CN (?0B>35==K5 scherichia A>li, AB0D8;>:>::8, AB@5?B>:>::8, :;>AB@8488, ?@>B59, 3@81K) (Leitgeb, 1961; Hill, Kentworthy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arson, Hill, 1955; 0=0AN:, 1969; Jones, Rutter, 1972; >;C1520, 8A5;520, 1985; :1052, 1995). 1;830B=0O <8:@>D;>@0 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 <;5:>?8B0NI8E, 2K45;OO 10:B5@8F84=K5 25I5AB20, ?@5?OBAB2C5B @07<=>65=8N ?0B>35==KE 8 CA;>2=>?0B>35==KE 10:B5@89 (Smith, 1965; Stewart, Hale, 1988; Snoeyn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uderitz et.al., 1966; Pellerdy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herwood, Snodgross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nglund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uderitz et.al., 1966; Pierre, 1976; %0;8:>2, 1979; 5:@0A>20, 04G5=:>, 1991). 0:B5@88 2 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>< B@0:B5 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 A8=B578@CNB 3;CB0<8=>2CN :8A;>BC, 0;0=8=, 20;8=, B8@>78=, ;878=, ;59F8=, 87>;59F8=. # 620G=KE 682>B=KE A8=B57 28B0<8=>2 3@C??K  ?@>8AE>48B 10:B5@8O<8 2 @C1F5, B>=:>< 8 B>;AB>< >B45;0E :8H5G=8:0.  40;L=59H5<, ?@8 @07@CH5=88 10:B5@89, MB8 28B0<8=K 2A0AK20NBAO, >15A?5G820O ?>B@51=>ABL >@30=87<0 2 =8E (Luderitz et.al., 1966; Pierre, 1976; %0;8:>2, 1979; 5:@0A>20, 04G5=:>, 1991). A>1>5 <5AB> 2 A>AB025 :8H5G=>3> 18>F5=>70 70=8<0NB ;0:B>10F8;;K, 18D84>10:B5@88 8 AB@5?B>:>::8, 70A5;ONI85 @07;8G=K5 >B45;K 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0. !>2>:C?=>ABL 18>E8<8G5A:8E, D878>;>38G5A:8E A2>9AB2 =>@<>D;>@K >?@545;O5B 55 70I8B=K5 8 @53C;OB>@=K5 DC=:F88, =0?@02;5=0 =0 AB8<C;OF8N <5AB=>3> 8<<C=8B5B0 =0 A;878ABKE >1>;>G:0E 8 =0 >ACI5AB2;5=85 =5A?5F8D8G5A:>3> :>=B@>;O 70 AB018;L=>ABLN :8H5G=>3> 18>F5=>70 (Horvath et.al., 1958; 0;8=0, 1972; Sakasaki et.al., 1974; >;C1520, 8A5;520, 1985; :1052, 1995).  :8H5G=KE 18>F5=>70E 682>B=KE ?5@2KE 2-3 4=59 687=8 ?@5>1;040NB 10:B5@88 3@C??K :8H5G=>9 ?0;>G:8. =8 ?>425@65=K 1KAB@><C @07<=>65=8N 8 A?>A>1=K 2K@010BK20BL M=4>B>:A8=K, ?>402;ONI85 0:B82=>ABL <0:@>D03>2 8 ?>72>;ONI85 ?>?C;OF88 :8H5G=KE 10:B5@89 ?@8>1@5B0BL B>;5@0=B=>ABL : @07;8G=K< E8<8>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< ?@5?0@0B0< 8 CA8;820BL 8E 28@C;5=B=K5 A2>9AB20 (Reisinger, 1915; Sakasaki et.al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akasaki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li, :>B>@K9 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5= 2> 2=5H=59 A@545 8 ?8I520@8B5;L=>< B@0:B5 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0. -H5@8E88 >1;040NB 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:8<8 A2>9AB20<8 2 >B=>H5=88 4875=B5@89=KE 8 BC15@:C;57=KE 10:B5@89, 2C;L30@=>3> ?@>B5O, :>::>2KE 8 4@C38E <8:@>>@30=87<>2 (CH:8=, 1986; Hall et. al., 1988; 0==0?>20, 0=8=, 1999). > =0AB>OI53> 2@5<5=8 18D84>10:B5@88 >AB0NBAO <0;>87CG5==K<8, =5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> 2?5@2K5 8E >1=0@C68; .. 0=0AN: (1984) 2 A>45@68<>< :8H5G=8:0 45B59, 2A:0@<;8205<KE <0B5@8=A:8< <>;>:><.  40;L=59H5< @O4 8AA;54>20B5;59 B0:65 >B<5G0;8 @07=>>1@0785 D>@< 18D84>10:B5@89 (Reisinger, 1915; Larson, Hill, 1955; Sakasaki et.al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einmann, 1966; Papa, 1968; Chroustova et.al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einmann, 1966; 8HC@=>20, 8@6052, 1993; :1052 8 4@., 1995). .. 0BCAO28GCA (1983) CAB0=>28;8, GB> ?@8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>< M7>D03>AB><>75 A28=59 2 A>45@68<>< B>=:8E 8 B>;ABKE :8H>: C<5=LH05BAO :>;8G5AB2> 18D84>10:B5@89. > 40==K< . .. 0C;8:0A0 (1986) 2 A>AB02 =>@<0;L=>9 <8:@>D;>@K, 25@E=8E 4KE0B5;L=KE ?CB59, <>G5?>;>2>9 A8AB5<K, @>B>2>9 ?>;>AB8 8 :8H5G=8:0 2E>4OB 10:B5@>84K. =8 <>3CB 1KBL 2>71C48B5;O<8 M=B5@8B>2, =5:@>B8G5A:8E 35?0B8B>2, 1@>=E>?=52<>=89, ?5@8B>=8B>2, 2=CB@5==8E 01AF5AA>2, <5=8=38B>2, A5?B8F5<88 8 2>A?0;8B5;L=KE ?@>F5AA>2 <>G5?>;>2>9 A8AB5<K.  @57C;LB0B5 >?@545;5=8O ?0B>35==>AB8 10:B5@>84>2 CAB0=>2;5= A8=5@387< <8:@>>@30=87<>2 ?@8 0=0M@>1=>9 8=D5:F88. 0:B5@>84K 2 CA;>28OE :8A;>9 A@54K ?@>O2;ONB 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:CN 0:B82=>ABL ?> >B=>H5=8N : A0;L<>=5;;0< 8 =5:>B>@K< MH5@8E8O<, GB>, ?>-2848<><C, 83@05B ACI5AB25==CN @>;L 2 CAB>9G82>AB8 >@30=87<0 : 8=D5:F8O< (Papa, 1968; Chroustova et.al., 1986). >;L :;>AB@8489 2 687=545OB5;L=>AB8 <0:@>>@30=87<0 87CG5=0 =54>AB0B>G=>. 8B5@0BC@=K5 40==K5 A2845B5;LAB2CNB > B><, GB> :;>AB@8488 A8=B578@CNB =8:>B8=>2CN, D>;852CN, ?0=B>B5=>2CN :8A;>BK 8 @81>D;028=. =8 B0: 65 CG0AB2CNB 2 ?>445@60=88 =5A?5F8D8G5A:>9 @578AB5=B=>AB8 A2>53> E>7O8=0. .. 0BCAO28GCA (1984) CAB0=>28; 2 :8H5G=8:5 8=2078@>20==KE :;>AB@848O<8 A28=59, 7=0G8B5;L=>5 :>;8G5AB2> M>78=>D8;>2. > 40==K< .. "8<>H:> (1990) ?> 2A5<C 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=><C B@0:BC ?>GB8 @02=><5@=> @0A?@545;ONBAO ;0:B>10:B5@88. #AB0=>2;5=>, GB> ?@8 ?>=>A0E ;0:B>10:B5@88 2K45;ONBAO B>;L:> C 16,6% 1>;L=KE B5;OB (0;8=0, 1972; 5:@0A>20, 04G5=:>, 1991; :1052 8 4@., 1995). =>385 02B>@K C:07K20NB =0 ?>;57=>ABL ;0:B>10:B5@89 4;O >@30=87<0 E>7O8=0. >;>G=>:8A;K5 10:B5@88, :0: ?>AB>O==K5 >18B0B5;8, ?@8=8<0NB 0:B82=>5 CG0AB85 2 ?@>F5AA0E, ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>< B@0:B5. :B82=> CG0AB2CNB 2 D5@<5=B0F88 1>;LH>3> :>;8G5AB20 C3;52>4>2 8 A?8@B>2, =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E 384@>;87CNB :@0E<0; 8 A8=B578@CNB 18>;>38G5A:8 0:B82=K5 25I5AB20, 2 B>< G8A;5 15;>: (>;>F:89 8 4@., 1974; Sherwood, Snodgross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apa, 1968; Chroustova et.al., 1986). !B0D8;>:>::8 ?@>4CF8@CNB =5A:>;L:> 284>2 B>:A8=>2, >1;040NI8E @07=>AB>@>==8< ?0B>35==K< 459AB285<. =8 2K45;ONB ;5B0;L=K9, 45@<>=5:@>B8G5A:89, 35<>;8B8G5A:89 B>:A8=K, M=B5@>B>:A8= 8 ;59:>F848=. @><5 B>:A8=>2 AB0D8;>:>::8 ?@>4CF8@CNB 380;C@>=8407C, ?@8 ?><>I8 :>B>@>9 >=8 ?@>=8:0NB 2 B:0=8 E>7O8=0; :>03C;07C, ?>4 459AB285< :>B>@>9 ?@>8AE>48B :>03C;OF8O ?;07<K :@>28 8 D81@8=>;878= - D5@<5=B, @0AB2>@ONI89 D81@8=. > 40==K< ... 0C;8:0A0. (1990) M=B5@8BK 8 M=B5@>:>;8BK AB0D8;>:>::>2>9 MB8>;>388 @072820NBAO 2A;54AB285 48A10:B5@8>70 =0 D>=5 ?@85<0 0=B818>B8:>2 8 ?0@078B0@=>9 8=20788.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 4;O 687=545OB5;L=>AB8 >@30=87<0 4>:070=0 ?>;>68B5;L=0O @>;L MH5@8E89. "0:, 5I5 .. >4:>?052 (1964) CAB0=>28;, GB> 2 @57C;LB0B5 687=545OB5;L=>AB8 :8H5G=>9 ?0;>G:8 2 ?8B0B5;L=>9 A@545 =0:0?;820NBAO 10:B5@8F84=K5 25I5AB20, ?@5?OBAB2CNI85 @>ABC 4@C38E <8:@>>@30=87<>2.  2. " +  "+ !!. AA;54>20=8O 284>2>3> <=>3>>1@078O ?0@078B>D0C=K, <8:@>D;>@K :8H5G=8:0 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0, =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==KE ?0@078B>F5=>7>2, 8E A57>==>9 8 2>7@0AB=>9 48=0<8:8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 2 ?>?C;OF8OE Bos taurus, ?@>2>48;8AL 2 E>7O9AB20E #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 2 2004-2007 33. C 682>B=KE @07=KE 2>7@0AB=KE 3@C??. 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rematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda (B01;. 1). 5;L<8=B>D0C=0 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 =0 B5@@8B>@88 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 2:;NG0;0 ?@54AB028B5;59 7 A5<59AB2 ?0@078B0@=KE 35;L<8=B>2 (Fasciolidae, Dicrocoeliidae, Anoplocephalidae, Dictyocaulidae, Trichocephalidae, Strongylidae, Trichonematidae), 2:;NG02H8E 2 A51O 9 284>2 35;L<8=B>2. 8=0<8:0 70@065==>AB8 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 35;L<8=B0<8 =0 B5@@8B>@88 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 70 ?5@8>4 A 1997 ?> 2006 3>4 ?@54AB02;5=0 =0 @8AC=:5 2. "01;8F0 1 84>2>5 <=>3>>1@0785 35;L<8=B>D0C=K :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 84>2>5 =0720=85 35;L<8=B0TREMATODA (Rudolphi, 1808) Fasciola hepatica, L., 1758 Dicrocoelium lanceatum, Stiles et Hassall, 1896 Paramfistomum cervi, Zeder, 1790CESTODA (Rudolphi, 1808) Moniezia expansa, Rudolphi, 1891 Moniezia benedeni, Moniez, 1879NEMATODA (Rudolphi, 1808) Strongyloides papillosus, Wedl, 1856 Trichocephalus ovis, Abildgaard, 1795 Neoascaris vitulorum, Gorze, 1782 Chabertia ovina, Fabricius, 1788 "@5<0B>4>7K. 081>;55 2KA>:0O M:AB5=A82=>ABL B@5<0B>4>7>2 1K;0 2K720=0 H8@>:8< @0A?@>AB@0=5=85< 2>71C48B5;O - Fasciola hepatica. $0AF8>;57 O2;O;AO =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==>9 B@5<0B>4=>9 8=207859, :>B>@0O ?>AB>O==> @538AB@8@>20;0AL =0 B5@@8B>@88 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8. 0 ?>A;54=85 10 ;5B C@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 D0AF8>;57>< A>AB02;O; 15-20%. #@>25=L 70@065==>AB8 48:@>F5;8>7>< 8 ?0@0<D8AB><>7>< (Dicrocoelium lanceatum 8 Paramfistomum cervi) 2 ?5@8>4 A 1997 ?> 2006 33. 2 A@54=5< A>AB02;O; 12,7% 8 6,5% A>>B25BAB25==>. >AB>25@=>9 B5=45=F88 @>AB0 B@5<0B>4>7>2 70 8AB5:H55 45AOB8;5B85 2KO2;5=> =5 1K;>. G5284=>, GB> #;LO=>2A:0O >1;0ABL, <>65B 1KBL >B=5A5=0 : B5@@8B>@8O<, E0@0:B5@87CNI8<AO AB>9:>9 F8@:C;OF859 B@5<0B>4>7=>9 8=20788 2 ?>?C;OF8OE :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0. ;O ?@54AB028B5;59 :;0AA0 Cestoda, C@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 2 A@54=5< A>AB02;O;: 4;O 2840 Moniezia expansa  10,1%, 4;O M. benedeni  11,9%. 0 ?>A;54=55 45AOB8;5B85 2A?KH5: 8 B5=45=F89 @>AB0 8=20788 B0:65 =5 1K;> 2KO2;5=>, >4=0:> =01;N40;0AL ?>AB>O==0O F8@:C;OF8O 8=20788. #@>25=L 70@065==>AB8 A:>B0, =5A<>B@O =0 ?@>2>482H85AO ;5G51=>-?@>D8;0:B8G5A:85 <5@>?@8OB8O, =0 B5@@8B>@88 >1;0AB8 =5 A=860;AO. !;54>20B5;L=>, B5@@8B>@88 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 E0@0:B5@87CNBAO AB>9:8<8 >G030<8 F5AB>4>7>2. 0@078B8G5A:85 G5@28 :;0AA0 Nematoda 1K;8 ?@54AB02;5=K 2 A:>B>2>4AB25 >1;0AB8 2840<8 S. papillosus, Trichocephalus ovis, Neoascaris vitulorum 8 Chabertia ovina. ;0AA =5<0B>4, CG8BK20O ?>:070B5;8 M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788, O2;O;AO 4><8=8@CNI8< :;0AA>< 35;L<8=B>2 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 =0 A:>B>2>4G5A:8E :><?;5:A0E #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8. #@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 =5>0A:0@8>7>< 8 E015@B8>7>< 1K; >B=>A8B5;L=> =52KA>:8<. @>F5=B 682>B=KE, 70@065==KE 35;L<8=B0<8 2840 N. vitulorum, 2 A@54=5< A>AB02;O; 14,2%. 0 ?>A;54=55 45AOB8;5B85 M:AB5=A82=>ABL =5>0A:0@8>7=>9 8=20788 ACI5AB25==> =5 87<5=O;0AL. -:AB5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 Ch. ovina 1K;0 <5=55 2K@065==>9 8 A>AB02;O;0 2 A@54=5< 7,3%. K; 2KO2;5= 2KA>:89 C@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 B@8E>F5D0;57>< (T. ovis). >AB>25@=K9 @>AB 8=20788 >B<5G0;AO A 1997 ?> 2003 3>4. 0 MB> 2@5<O ?>:070B5;L M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 2K@>A 1>;55 G5< =0 20% 8 A>AB028; 41,4%.  ?>A;54CNI85 3>4K >B<5G0;>AL A=865=85 M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788. 0 ?>A;54=85 B@8 3>40 4>AB>25@=>9 B5=45=F88 @>AB0 8=2078@>20==>AB8 ?>3>;>2LO =5 =01;N40;>AL. 081>;55 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5==K< 701>;520=85< C :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 =0 B5@@8B>@88 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 O2;O;AO AB@>=38;>84>7. >71C48B5;5< 701>;520=8O O2;O;8AL G5@28 2840 S. papillosus, >B=>AOI53>AO : :;0AAC =5<0B>4. !B@>=38;>84>7 70 8AB5:H55 45AOB8;5B85 ?>AB>O==> @538AB@8@>20;AO C :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 2 E>7O9AB20E 2A5E @09>=>2 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8. > @57C;LB0B0< ?@>2545==KE 8AA;54>20=89, 1K;0 2KO2;5=0 O@:> 2K@065==0O B5=45=F8O : @>ABC 701>;5205<>AB8 AB@>=38;>84>7>< 2 ?>?C;OF8OE :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 2> 2A5E 03@>:;8<0B8G5A:8E @09>=0E. 0 ?>A;54=55 45AOB8;5B85 M:AB5=A82=>ABL AB@>=38;>84>70 =0 B5@@8B>@88 >1;0AB8 2K@>A;0 ?>GB8 =0 50% (@8A. 2). A?KH:0 701>;5205<>AB8 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 AB@>=38;>84>7>< 1K;0 >B<5G5=0 2 ?5@8>4 A 2000 ?> 2002 3>4, :>340 :>;8G5AB2> 8=2078@>20==KE 682>B=KE A:0G:>>1@07=> 87<5=O;>AL 1>;55 G5< =0 25%.  ?>A;54CNI85 3>4K A>E@0=O;0AL B5=45=F8O =0@0AB0=8O M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 2 A@54=5< =0 5% 2 3>4.  2006 3>4C M:AB5=A82=>ABL AB@>=38;>84=>9 8=20788 ?5@5H03=C;0 70% @C156.  8A. 2. 8=0<8:0 >A=>2=KE 35;L<8=B>7>2 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 (1997  2006 33.)  E>45 @01>BK =0<8 1K;8 2KO2;5=K @09>=K A 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< 701>;5205<>AB8 AB@>=38;>84>7><, : 8E G8A;C <>6=> >B=5AB8 0@KHA:89, !C@A:89, "5@5=L3C;LA:89, &8;L=8=A:89 8 '5@40:;8=A:89. 081>;55 1;03>?@8OB=0O >1AB0=>2:0 =01;N40;0AL 2 N6=KE @09>=0E >1;0AB8. -:AB5=A82=>ABL AB@>=38;>84>7=>9 8=20788 2 A@54=5< 70 ?5@8>4 A 1997 ?> 2006 3>4 =5 ?@52KH0;0 30%. 0 70?045 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 <0:A8<0;L=0O M:AB5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 >B<5G0;0AL 2 E>7O9AB20E !C@A:>3> @09>=0. 0 ?5@8>4 A 1997 ?> 2006 3>4 4>;O 8=2078@>20==KE 682>B=KE AB018;L=> 2>7@0AB0;0 2 A@54=5< =0 6% 5653>4=> 8 2 2006 3>4 A>AB028;0 1>;55 90%.  702>;6A:8E @09>=0E C@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 AB@>=38;>84>7>< B0:65 1K; 2KA>:8<, >A>15==> 2 '5@40:;8=A:>< @09>=5, 345 M:AB5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 2 2006 3>4C A>AB02;O;0 94,5%. 081>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 ?>3>;>2LO :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 >B<5G0;AO 2 F5=B@0;L=KE @09>=0E >1;0AB8.  #;LO=>2A:>< @09>=5 ?>:070B5;L M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 S .papillosus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ematoda (@8A. 3). A53> 2 7>=5 =0H53> ?>AB>O==>3> =01;N45=8O 2 CG51=>< E>7O9AB25 #;LO=>2A:>9 !% =0E>48;>AL A2KH5 600 3>;>2 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0, C :>B>@KE 565<5AOG=> 8AA;54>20;8AL D5:0;88.  @57C;LB0B5 =5?@5@K2=KE B@5E;5B=8E =01;N45=89, ?@>2>48<KE =0 1075 :0D54@K 18>;>388, 25B5@8=0@=>9 35=5B8:8, ?0@078B>;>388 8 M:>;>388, =0<8 1K;> 2KO2;5=>, GB> =081>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 1K; E0@0:B5@5= 4;O 35;L<8=B>2 G5BK@5E 284>2 (B01;. 2). 5;L<8=B>:>?@>;>38G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O 2KO28;8, GB> =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K< 2>71C48B5;5< 8=20788 O2;O;8AL ?@54AB028B5;8 2840 S. papillosus. "01;8F0 2 0A?@>AB@0=5==>ABL >A=>2=KE 8=20789 2 AB045 CG51=>3> E>7O9AB20 #!% (n=600 3>;>2) 08<5=>20=85 2840 35;L<8=B05@8>4K 8AA;54>20=89200420052006S.papillosus T. ovis N. vitulorum C. ovina407,616,89 194,79,15 79,45,02 57,53,66446,218,42 238,111,12 107,16,04 45,43,37510,624,46 222,610,78 109,86,11 69,83,82  2006 3>4C AB@>=38;>84>7 1K; 2KO2;5= 1>;55 G5< C 500 682>B=KE 87 600 >1A;54>20==KE. >AB M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 4>AB830; 2 A@54=5< 9% 2 3>4 8 2 2005 3>4C A>AB028; 84,4%. 8A. 3. 8=0<8:0 M:AB5=A82=>AB8 =5<0B>4>7=KE 8=20789 2 2004- 2006 33. C :>@>2 CG51=>3> E>7O9AB20 #!% ;O B@8E>F5D0;Q70, 2>71C48B5;5< :>B>@>3> O2;O5BAO T. ovis, M:AB5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 2 2004-2006 33. 20@L8@>20;0 2 ?@545;0E 32-40%. >AB>25@=>9 B5=45=F88 @>AB0 8=2078@>20==>AB8 =5 =01;N40;>AL. =2078O N. vitulorum 87 600 >1A;54>20==KE 682>B=KE 1K;0 2KO2;5=0 2 A@54=5< C 109 >A>159. -:AB5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 1K;0 =0 C@>2=5 18,2%. %015@B8>7 (2>71C48B5;L Ch. ovina) 1K; 2KO2;5= C 69 682>B=KE 87 600 >1A;54>20==KE. -:AB5=A82=>ABL 40==>9 8=20788 A>AB02;O;0 11,5%. KO2;5==K5 =0<8 B5=45=F88 A>2?040NB A @0=55 >?C1;8:>20==K<8 @57C;LB0B0<8 8AA;54>20=89 =0H59 :0D54@K ?> 4@C38< 2840< A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==KE 682>B=KE (0<0;5B48=>20, 1999, 2002; 515@45520, 2006). 57C;LB0BK A>1AB25==KE 8AA;54>20=89 8 AB0B8AB8G5A:89 0=0;87 0@E82=KE 40==KE ?>72>;8;8 CAB0=>28BL, GB> 284 S. papillosus O2;O5BAO =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K< 2>71C48B5;5< =5<0B>4>7>2 C :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 =0 B5@@8B>@88 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8. !B@>=38;>84>7 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 =0 ?@>BO65=88 @O40 ;5B =587<5==> E0@0:B5@87C5BAO 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< 8=20788 2 E>7O9AB20E #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8. 0 ?@>BO65=88 ?>A;54=8E ;5B ?@>A;56820;0AL B5=45=F8O ACI5AB25==>3> @>AB0 701>;5205<>AB8. 7CG5=85 ?0@078B>D0C=K 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 ?>:070;>, GB> 70G0ABCN ?0@078B0@=K5 35;L<8=BK D>@<8@CNB 2 >@30=87<5 E>7O8=0 A;>6=K5 ?0@078B0@=K5 <=>3>:><?>=5=B=K5 A8AB5<K 87 35;L<8=B>2 @07=>9 284>2>9 ?@8=04;56=>AB8. >MB><C =0 A;54CNI5< MB0?5 @01>BK 87CG0;0AL AB@C:BC@0 <=>3>:><?>=5=B=KE ?0@078B>F5=>7>2. 3.2. !<5H0==K5 8 0AA>F80B82=K5 8=20788 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 725AB=>, GB> ?0@078B0@=K5 701>;520=8O =5@54:> 2K7K20NBAO =5 >4=8<, 0 =5A:>;L:8<8 2>71C48B5;O<8. "0:85 8=20788 =07K20NB A<5H0==K<8 8;8 0AA>F80B82=K<8. @>2545==K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> =081>;55 G0AB> C 682>B=KE 2 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 2KO2;ONBAO <>=>8=20788, @565  42CE, B@5E, 8 G5BK@5EG;5==K5 35;L<8=B>D0C=8AB8G5A:85 :><?;5:AK. !B@C:BC@0 ?0@078B>F5=>7>2, ?> @57C;LB0B0< =0H8E 8AA;54>20=89, 1K;0 35B5@>35==>9 8 1K;0 ?@54AB02;5=0 @07;8G=K<8 284>2K<8 A>G5B0=8O<8. G5284=>, MB> >1CA;>2;5=> E0@0:B5@>< 18>B8G5A:8E 2708<>>B=>H5=89 <564C >B45;L=K<8 A>G;5=0<8 ?0@078B>F5=>70 8 A>AB>O=85< >@30=87<0 E>7O8=0 2 F5;><. > @57C;LB0B0< =0H8E 8AA;54>20=89, =0 <0AA825 87 600 :>@>2 CG51=>3> E>7O9AB20 AB@>=38;>84>7 2 2845 <>=>8=20788 1K; 70@538AB@8@>20= C 54,7% ?>3>;>2LO, A<5H0==0O 8=2078O, >A=>2=K< :><?>=5=B>< 2 :>B>@>9 O2;O;AO 284 S. papillosus, 1K;0 70@538AB@8@>20=0 C 182 682>B=KE (@8A. 4).  112 A;CG0OE =0<8 1K; 2KO2;5= 42CEG;5==K9 ?0@078B>F5=>7, A>AB>OI89 87 AB@>=38;>84 8 B@8E>F5D0;, >= 1K; 2KO2;5= C 18,7% 682>B=KE. -B0 @07=>284=>ABL ?0@078B>F5=>70 2AB@5G0;0AL =081>;55 G0AB>. '0AB>B0 2AB@5G05<>AB8 ?0@078B>F5=>7>2, 2:;NG02H8E 284K S. papillosus 8 N. vitulorum, 8 S. papillosus 8 Ch. ovina, A>AB02;O;0 5,5% (n=33) 8 3% (n=18) A>>B25BAB25==> (B01;. 3). "01;8F0 3 %0@0:B5@8AB8:0 AB@C:BC@K M=4>?0@078B>F5=>7>2 (n=600) 84>2>9 A>AB02@8ACBAB285 2 >@30=87<5 E>7O8=0S. papillosus++++++++T. ovis++++N. vitulorum++++C. ovina.++++>;-2> ?>;>68B5;L=> @5038@CNI8E 682>B=KE32811233189064-:AB5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 %54,718,75,531,5010,7 E>45 8AA;54>20=89 B0:65 1K;8 2KO2;5=K ?0@078B>F5=>7K, AD>@<8@>20==K5 B@5<O 2840<8: S. papillosus, T. ovis 8 N. vitulorum (n=9, -=1,5%), S. papillosus, N. vitulorum 8 Ch. ovina (n=6, -=1%). 0@078B>F5=>7, 2:;NG02H89 2A5 G5BK@5 2840 :;0AA0 =5<0B>4, 1K; >B<5G5= C 0,7 % 682>B=KE. >42>4O 8B>3 MB><C MB0?C 8AA;54>20=89, =5>1E>48<> >B<5B8BL, GB> ?>;88=20788 1K;8 70@538AB@8@>20=K C 30,4% 682>B=KE, <>=>8=2078O 1K;0 70@538AB@8@>20=0 C 54,7 % 682>B=KE 87 600 >1A;54>20==KE. ">;L:> 90 >A>159 1K;8 A2>1>4=K >B 35;L<8=B>2. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 2 >A=>25 D>@<8@>20=8O ?0@078B>F5=>7>2 ;568B A;>6=K9 :><?;5:A ?0@078B>E>7O8==KE 2708<>>B=>H5=89, :>B>@K9 A2O70= A 18>;>38G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 :064>3> 87 53> A>G;5=>2 8 >1CA;>2;5= ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABLN ?@>=8:=>25=8O, >A>15==>ABO<8 18>;>38G5A:8E F8:;>2 8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABLN @0728B8O ?0@078B0 2 >@30=87<5 E>7O8=0.  8A. 4. !>>B=>H5=85 <>=>- 8 ?>;88=20789 C 682>B=KE CG51=>3> E>7O9AB20 (n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O8F, 0 2 3@C??5 :>@>2 417,2414,02 (@8A. 6).  8A. 6. =B5=A82=>ABL AB@>=38;>84=>9 8=20788 2 @07=KE ?>;>2>7@0AB=KE 3@C??0E "0:>9 2KA>:89 C@>25=L 8=B5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 >1CA;>2;5=, >G5284=>, ?5@8>48G5A:8<8 @58=2078O<8 8;8 8A?>;L7>20=85< =54>AB0B>G=>9 MDD5:B82=KE 0=B35;L<8=B8:>2. !B>8B >B<5B8BL, GB> <0:A8<0;L=0O 8=B5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 @50;87>2K20;0AL =0 D>=5 <0:A8<0;L=>9 M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8 2 B5E 65 A0<KE 2>7@0AB=KE 3@C??0E. > @57C;LB0B0< =0H8E 8AA;54>20=89, ACI5AB25==0O @07=8F0 2 C@>2=5 8=2078@>20==>AB8 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 S. papillosus >B<5G0;0AL 2 @07=K5 A57>=K =01;N45=89. !57>==CN 48=0<8:C 70@065==>AB8 AB@>=38;>840<8 CAB0=02;820;8 ?> 40==K< 565<5AOG=KE :>?@>>2>A:>?8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 (@8A. 7, 8).  3@C??0E <>;>4=O:0, =0E>482H53>AO =0 AB>9;>2>< A>45@60=88, =01;N40;AO 2KA>:89 C@>25=L 70@065==>AB8 S. papillosus 2 25A5==85 8 >A5==85 <5AOFK. -B> <>65B 1KBL >1CA;>2;5=> 1;03>?@8OB=K<8 CA;>28O<8 >:@C60NI59 A@54K (>?B8<0;L=K5 B5<?5@0BC@0 8 2;06=>ABL), :>B>@K5 A>740NBAO 2 ?><5I5=8OE 8 >15A?5G820NB @0728B85 =5<0B>4>D0C=K. 8: 8=2078@>20==>AB8 ?@8E>48;AO =0 0?@5;L (-=94,6%) 8 >:BO1@L (-=87,6%). 8<>9 =01;N40;>AL A=865=85 8=20788 (51-56%). 8A. 7. !57>==0O 48=0<8:0 8=2078@>20==>AB8 <>;>4=O:0 AB@>=38;>84>7><  3@C??0E ?>;>2>7@5;KE 682>B=KE ?8: M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 @538AB@8@>20;AO 2 ;5B=5->A5==89 ?5@8>4 (@8A. 8).  MB> 2@5<O 682>B=K5 =0E>48;8AL =0 ?0AB18I=>< A>45@60=88. >AB 701>;5205<>AB8 AB@>=38;>84>7>< 2 MB>B ?5@8>4 >1JOA=O;AO B5<, GB> ?>O2;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL @50;870F88 70@065=8O 2A5<8 B@5<O ?CBO<8: 0;8<5=B0@=K<, ?5@:CB0=B=K< 8 2=CB@8CB@>1=K<. 8: 701>;5205<>AB8 ?@8E>48;AO =0 023CAB (-=74,1%). ! 45:01@O ?> 0?@5;L M:AB5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 =5 ?@5B5@?520;0 @57:8E :>;510=89 8 A>AB02;O;0 28-36%. 8A. 8. !57>==0O 48=0<8:0 8=2078@>20==>AB8 27@>A;>3> ?>3>;>2LO AB@>=38;>84>7>< "0:8< >1@07><, ?@>2545==K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> ACI5AB2CNB G5B:0O A57>==0O 8 2>7@0AB=0O 48=0<8:0 70@065==>AB8 S. papillosus, 0 B0:65 :@C3;>3>48G=0O F8@:C;OF8O 8=20788 2 ?>?C;OF8OE :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0. 57C;LB0BK A2845B5;LAB2CNB > 2KA>:>< C@>2=5 70@065==>AB8 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 2> 2A5 A57>=K 3>40 =57028A8<> >B 2>7@0AB0 682>B=>3>. >;CG5==K5 @57C;LB0BK 2?>;=5 <>6=> >1JOA=8BL 18>;>38G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 2>71C48B5;O, :>B>@K5 ?><>30NB 5<C CA?5H=> 2K6820BL 8 2 ?><5I5=88, 8 2> 2=5H=59 A@545, 0 B0:65 1;03>?@8OB=K<8 A@54>2K<8 D0:B>@0<8, >BACBAB285< :>=B@>;O 70 MDD5:B82=>ABLN 0=B35;L<8=B=KE >1@01>B>: 8 >BACBAB285< =0456=KE <5B>4>2 1>@L1K, :>B>@K5 <>3;8 1K :>=B@>;8@>20BL F8@:C;OF8N 2>71C48B5;O. #G8BK20O 2KH587;>65==>5, 206=> 1K;> 2KO28BL 18>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 2>71C48B5;O, :>B>@K5 <>6=> 8A?>;L7>20BL 2 1>@L15 A F8@:C;OF859 8=20788. >MB><C =0 A;54CNI8E MB0?0E 8AA;54>20=8O >A=>2=>5 2=8<0=85 C45;O;>AL 2KO2;5=8N D0:B>@>2 @>AB0 8 @0728B8O, >A=>2K20OAL =0 :>B>@KE <>6=> :>=B@>;8@>20BL 8=20788. 3.4. $0:B>@K @>AB0 8 @0728B8O AB@>=38;>84 (in vitro 8 in vivo) ;O 8AA;54>20=8O D0:B>@>2 @>AB0 8 @0728B8O S. papillosus >B O9F0 4> 8=2078>==>9 ;8G8:8 ?@>2>48;8 :C;LB828@>20=85 2>71C48B5;O 2 ;01>@0B>@=KE CA;>28OE (in vitro) 8 2 ?@8@>4=KE CA;>28OE (in vivo). 0@L8@CO B5<?5@0BC@=K<8 @568<0<8, 70?CA:0;8 8;8 ?@O<>9 F8:; @0728B8O 8;8 =5?@O<>9 (35B5@>3>=8N). @8 35B5@>3>=88 @0148B>284=K5 ;8G8=:8 G5@57 A5@8N ;8=5: @072820;8AL 2 A0<F>2 8 A0<>: A2>1>4=>682CI59 35=5@0F88. !0<:8 2> 2=5H=59 A@545 >B:;04K20;8 O9F0, 87 :>B>@KE 2KE>48;8 ;8G8=:8. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> ;8=5: ;8G8=:8 ?@52@0I0;8AL 2 D8;O@5284=K5, A?>A>1=K5 : 70@065=8N, ;81> 4020;8 =0G0;> =>2>9 A2>1>4=> 682CI59 35=5@0F88 A0<F>2 8 A0<>:. @8 :C;LB828@>20=88 ;8G8=:8 ?@52@0I0;8AL 2 ?>;>2>7@5;KE A0<F>2 8 A0<>: =0 3-4-5 ACB:8. K 8AA;54>20;8 A;54CNI85 B5<?5@0BC@=K5 @568<K :C;LB828@>20=8O: 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 400!. ;O :C;LB828@>20=8O >B18@0;8 A25685 D5:0;88, >F5=820;8 8E 35;L<8=B>>1A5<5=5==>ABL, ?><5I0;8 2 G0H:8 5B@8, :>B>@K5 @07<5I0;8 2 B5@<>AB0B5 8 704020;8 >?@545;5==K9 B5<?5@0BC@=K9 @568< :C;LB828@>20=8O. 0728B85 =0 :064>9 AB0488 >F5=820;>AL ?> <>@D>;>38G5A:8< >A>15==>ABO< ;8G8=>: ?>4 <8:@>A:>?>< (B01;. 4, 5). @8 B5<?5@0BC@5 :C;LB828@>20=8O 80! ?@87=0:>2 @0728B8O O9F0 S. papillosus, A>45@602H85 2 A515 AD>@<8@>202H8EAO ;8G8=>:, =5 >1=0@C6820;8 =8 G5@57 12, =8 G5@57 24, =8 G5@57 36 G0A>2 :C;LB828@>20=8O. @8 MB>< B5<?5@0BC@=>< @568<5 ;8G8=:8 B0: 8 =5 ?>:8=C;8 O9F52KE >1>;>G5:. 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K 8AA;54>20;8 5AB5AB25==CN 2K68205<>ABL ;8G8=>: S. papillosus =0 70@065==KE ?0AB18I0E. 725AB=>, GB> 70@065==>ABL :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 AB@>=38;>840<8 =0E>48BAO 2 ?@O<>9 7028A8<>AB8 >B :>;8G5AB20 8=2078>==>3> =0G0;0 =0 ?0AB18I5 (@<>;>20, 1975; !<8@=>2, 1980; A:0:>2, 1989). @8 =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>28OE, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 ?@8 =87:8E B5<?5@0BC@0E 2 78<=89 ?5@8>4, ;8G8=:8 S. papillosus 2?040NB 2 0=018>7. ;O >?@545;5=8O 48=0<8:8 =0:>?;5=8O 8=2078>==KE ;8G8=>: AB@>=38;>84 ?@>2>48;8AL 565<5AOG=K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>G2K =0 ?0AB18I0E. ?KB ?@>2>48;AO A> 2 A5=BO1@O 2004 ?> 4 <0O 2005 3>40 =0 ?0AB18I0E CG51=>3> E>7O9AB20 #!% '5@40:;8=A:>3> @09>=0. $5:0;88, A>45@602H85 =5 <5=55 5000 8=2078>==KE ;8G8=>: S. papillosu, 2 A5=BO1@O 2004 3>40 @07<5AB8;8 2 @07=KE <5AB0E =0 B5@@8B>@8OE ?0AB18I, <5AB0 70:;04:8 >B<5B8;8 :@0A=K<8 D;06:0<8. 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KA>:89 C@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 ?@54AB028B5;59 B. taurus 8<5; B0:65 284 T. ovis. >AB>25@=K9 @>AB 8=20788 >B<5G0;AO 2 ?5@8>4 A 1997 ?> 2003 3>4, :>340 ?>:070B5;L M:AB5=A82=>AB8 2K@>A 1>;55 G5< =0 20% 8 A>AB02;O; 41,4%. 0;55 >B<5G0;>AL =51>;LH>5 A=865=85 C@>2=O 8=20788 8 2 ?>A;54=85 B@8 3>40 4>AB>25@=>9 B5=45=F88 @>AB0 =5 =01;N40;>AL. @><5 B>3>, =01;N40;0AL 70@065==>ABL :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 2 E>7O9AB20E >1;0AB8 2840<8 N. vitulorum 8 Ch. ovina, => 8E 2AB@5G05<>ABL 1K;0 =57=0G8B5;L=>9. 5=LH0O 2AB@5G05<>ABL E0@0:B5@=0 4;O :;0AA0 Trematoda. 081>;LH89 C@>25=L 8=2078@>20==>AB8 >B<5G0;AO 4;O ?@54AB028B5;O 40==>3> :;0AA0 - F. hepatica. 0 ?>A;54=85 10 ;5B C@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 =0E>48;AO 2 ?@545;0E 15-20%. #@>25=L 70@065==>AB8 2840 D. lanceatum 8 P. cervi 2 ?5@8>4 A 1997 ?> 2006 33. 2 A@54=5< A>AB02;O; 12,7% 8 6,5% A>>B25BAB25==>. >AB>25@=>9 B5=45=F88 @>AB0 C ?@54AB028B5;59 :;0AA0 Trematoda =5 =01;N40;>AL. !0<K< <0;>G8A;5==K< 1K; :;0AA Cestoda. #@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 2 A@54=5< A>AB02;O;: 4;O 2840 M. expansa  10,1%, 4;O M. benedeni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c:8E @09>=0E C@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 AB@>=38;>84>7>< 2 F5;>< 1K; B0:65 2KA>:8<, >A>15==> 2 '5@40:;8=A:>< @09>=5, 345 M:AB5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 =0 2006 3>4 A>AB028;0 94,5%. 081>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L 701>;5205<>AB8 ?>3>;>2LO :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 >B<5G0;AO 2 F5=B@0;L=KE @09>=0E >1;0AB8. 725AB=>, GB> ?0@078B0@=K5 701>;520=8O =5@54:> ?@>B5:0NB 2 A<5H0==>9 8 0AA>F80B82=>9 D>@<5. @8 >1@01>B:5 ?@>1 D5:0;89 1K;> >B<5G5=>, GB> =081>;55 G0AB> C 682>B=KE 2 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 <>=>8=20788, @565  42CE, B@5E, 8 G5BK@5EG;5==K5 35;L<8=B>D0C=8AB8G5A:85 :><?;5:AK 2 >@30=87<5 >4=>3> 682>B=>3>-E>7O8=0. @>2545==K5 8AA;54>20=8O M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8 8=B5=A82=>AB8 8=20789 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 2>7@0AB0 682>B=KE 2 @07;8G=K5 A57>=K 3>40 ?>:070;8, GB> CA;>28O 2=5H=59 A@54K >:07K20NB 2K@065==>5 2;8O=85 =0 M:AB5=A82=>ABL 8=20788. > 40==K< ;8B5@0BC@=KE 8AB>G=8:>2 8<<C==K5 @50:F88 >@30=87<0 E>7O8=0 @53C;8@CNB 8=B5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 8 A?>A>1AB2CNB AB018;870F88 A8AB5<K E>7O8=-?0@078B (Looss, 1904; Dineen et.al., 1965; 09F52, 1973; (C;L<0=, 1979; ;5E=>28G, 1990; 59<5@A, 1996). 7CG5=85 M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8 8=B5=A82=>AB8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O AB@>=38;>84>70, 0 B0:65 A57>==>9 8 2>7@0AB=>9 48=0<8:8 =5<0B>4>70 ?@>2>48;>AL 2 E>7O9AB20E @07;8G=>3> B5E=>;>38G5A:>3> F8:;0 C 682>B=KE @07=KE 2>7@0AB=KE 3@C??.  F5;><, ?>:070B5;L M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 A 2>7@0AB>< 8<55B 70:>=><5@=CN B5=45=F8N : A=865=8N, GB> >1CA;>2;5=> @0728B85< 2>7@0AB=>3> 8<<C=8B5B0. =B5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 B0:65 O2;O5BAO 206=K< ?>:070B5;5< @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O =5<0B>4>7>2. 0 ?>:070B5;8 8=B5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 >:07K20NB 2;8O=85 CA;>28O A>45@60=8O 682>B=KE: B5E=>;>38O A>45@60=8O 8 :>@<;5=8O, >@30=870F8O ;5G51=>-?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E 8 >74>@>28B5;L=KE <5@>?@8OB89. @>2545==K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> ACI5AB2C5B G5B:0O A57>==0O 8 2>7@0AB=0O 48=0<8:0 70@065==>AB8 S. papillosus.  3@C??0E <>;>4=O:0, =0E>482H53>AO =0 AB>9;>2>< A>45@60=88, =01;N40;AO 2KA>:89 C@>25=L 70@065==>AB8 AB@>=38;>84>7>< 2 25A5==85 8 >A5==85 <5AOFK. 2CE25@H8==K9 E0@0:B5@ :@82>9 A2845B5;LAB2>20; 2 ?>;L7C @58=20788, :>B>@0O <>65B 1KBL >1CA;>2;5=0 ?>AB>O==>9 F8@:C;OF859 8=2078>==>3> =0G0;0 2> 2=5H=59 A@545. @8 MB>< D0:B>@0<8, ?>445@68202H8<8 F8@:C;OF8N 8=20788, O2;O;8AL =5 B>;L:> 2KA>:0O B5<?5@0BC@0 8 2;06=>ABL, => 8 >BACBAB285 <5@>?@8OB89, =0?@02;5==KE =0 >15770@06820=85 ?><5I5=89 4;O A>45@60=8O <>;>4=O:0. 5@2K9 ?8: M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 >B<5G0;AO 2 0?@5;5, A ?@8E>4>< ?5@2>3> B5?;0, :>340 35B5@>3>=8O C AB@>=38;>84 A<5=8;0AL ?@O<K< F8:;>< @0728B8O. B>@>9 ?8: ?@8E>48;AO =0 >:BO1@L. 0G8=0O A =>O1@O 8 ?> <0@B, A ?5@5E>4>< =0 35B5@>3>=8N, M:AB5=A82=>ABL 8=20788 4>AB>25@=> A=860;0AL, E>BO 2 F5;>< 4;O MB>9 2>7@0AB=>9 3@C??K >=0 1K;0 ?>AB>O==> 2KA>:>9. # 27@>A;>3> ?>3>;>2LO ?8: M:AB5=A82=>AB8 8=20788 ?@8E>48;AO =0 :>=5F ;5B0 (023CAB), :>340 682>B=K5 =0E>48;8AL =0 ?0AB18I0E.  CA;>28OE ?0AB18I 2>7<>6=>ABL 70@065=8O C420820;0AL, B.:. >=0 @50;87>2K20;0AL 8 0;8<5=B0@=K<, 8 ?5@:CB0==K< ?CBO<8. KA>:89 C@>25=L 70@065==>AB8 682>B=KE >1CA;>2;5= 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< 8 =5?@5@K2=>9 F8@:C;OF859 8=2078>==>3> =0G0;0 2 >:@C60NI59 A@545. 57C;LB0BK A2845B5;LAB2CNB > 70@065==>AB8 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 2> 2A5 A57>=K 3>40 =57028A8<> >B 2>7@0AB0 682>B=>3>. -B> <>6=> >1JOA=8BL =5@53C;O@=K< ?@>2545=85< 4535;L<8=B870F89, >BACBAB285< :>=B@>;O 8E MDD5:B82=>AB8 8 ?>2B>@=KE >1@01>B>: =5>A2>1>482H8EAO >B 35;L<8=B>2 682>B=KE. >;LH>5 7=0G5=85 4;O 25B5@8=0@=>9 A;C61K ?@8 ?@>2545=88 ;5G51=>-?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89 ?> 4535;L<8=B870F88 ?>3>;>2LO :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 8<55B B>, GB> ;8G8=>G=K5 AB0488 >=B>35=570 S. papillosus >1;040NB 2KA>:>9 687=5A?>A>1=>ABLN 8 <>3CB ?>;CG8BL 8<?C;LA : @0728B8N =0 D>=5 4>AB0B>G=> =87:8E B5<?5@0BC@, =0G8=0O A 12!, >=8 A?>A>1=K ?>;=>ABLN @50;87>2K20BL A2>9 F8:; @0728B8O. C;LB828@>20=85 O8F 8 ;8G8=>: 2 ;01>@0B>@=KE CA;>28OE 8 2> 2=5H=59 A@545 ?>4B25@48;> 2KA>:89 C@>25=L 040?B0F8>==>9 ?;0AB8G=>AB8 2840 =0 2A5E AB048OE >=B>35=570 8 53> 687=5AB>9:>ABL. 4=8< 87 @5H0NI8E D0:B>@>2, >?@545;ONI8E A@>:8 @0728B8O, 0=018>70, 3815;8 8 4;8B5;L=>AB8 A>E@0=5=8O O8F 8 ;8G8=>: 35;L<8=B>2, O2;O5BAO B5<?5@0BC@0, :>B>@0O >?@545;O5B A:>@>ABL @0728B8O :064>9 87 AB0489. (@<>;>20, 1975; 20=G5=:>, 1975; 0E0@>2, 1990). 8=8<0;L=0O B5<?5@0BC@0, =5>1E>48<0O 4;O @0728B8O ;8G8=>:, A>AB02;O;0 120!. ?B8<0;L=K9 B5<?5@0BC@=K9 8=B5@20; =0E>48;AO 2 ?@545;0E +24-+280!. 0G8=0O A 320!, >B<5G0;>AL B>@<>65=85 @0728B8O, ?@8 400! @57:> =0@0AB0; ?@>F5=B 3815;8 ;8G8=>:. ><?;5:A ?@8@>4=KE CA;>289 #;LO=>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 >15A?5G8205B =5>1E>48<K9 4;O @0728B8O ;8G8=>: B5<?5@0BC@=K9 >?B8<C< ?@0:B8G5A:8 2 B5G5=85 2A53> ;5B=53> ?5@8>40. <5==> MB> O2;O5BAO ?CA:>2K< 725=>< <5E0=87<0 H8@>:>3> @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8=20788 =0 55 B5@@8B>@88.  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(8<:CA // Acl0parasitologia Lituanica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AA>F80B82=K5 ?0@078B>7K 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 B5;OB 2 5;>@CAA88 / .. ;5E=>28G. - 5;0O F5@:>2L, 1990. - !.18-22. @30=870F8O 25B5@8=0@=>3> 45;0 / >4. @54. .. 8:8B8=0.  .: >;>A, 1998.  !. 122-147. 02;>2A:89 ..  ?0@078B8G5A:>< 87CG5=88 18>F5=>7>2. 0@078BK 8 ?0@078B>7K G5;>25:0 8 682>B=KE / .. 02;>2A:89 // 852: 0C:>20 4C<:0, 1965. - 37 A. 02;>2A:89 .. @>1;5<0 ?0@078B>F5=>7>2, 2=CB@8284>2K5 8 <56284>2K5 A>>B=>H5=8O 8E A >@30=87<>< E>7O52 / .. 02;>2A:89 // 725AB8O  !!! . !5@. 18>;.  1966. - N3. - !. 25-32. 0=0AN: .. 5;L<8=BK :0: @575@2C0@=K5 E>7O520 8 8=>:C;OB>@K 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F8>==KE 8 8=2078>==KE 701>;520=89 G5;>25:0 8 682>B=KE / .. 0=0AN:, !.. 0=0AN: // 0B5@. =0CG. :>=D. .  1986. - K?. 36. - !. 212-215. 0=0AN: .. 0:>=><5@=>AB8 2708<>>B=>H5=89 A>G;5=>2 ?0@078B>F5=>70 / . 0=0AN: // 0@078B>F5=>7K 8 0AA>F80B82=K5 1>;57=8. - .: >;>A, 1984. - !. 27-45. 0=0AN: .. 0@078B>F5=>7 35;L<8=B>2, ?@>AB59H8E 8 <8:@>1>2, 53> 7=0G5=85 2 25B5@8=0@88 / .. 0=0AN: // >AB865=8O =0C:8 - 2 ?@0:B8:C 682>B=>2>4AB20. - #;LO=>2A:, 1969. - !. 77-81. 0=0AN: .. @>1;5<K 0AA>F80F88 35;L<8=B>2, ?0B>35==KE ?@>AB59H8E 8 <8:@>D;>@K ?@8 8=B5=A82=>< 2545=88 682>B=>2>4AB20 / .. 0=0AN:, .. $8;8??>2, .. 048>=>2 // 17>@. =D>@<0F8O. - ., 1978.  52 A. 0=0AN: .. !28=0O 0A:0@840 - =>A8B5;L <8:@>D;>@K / .. 0=0AN:, .. 0A8;L52, ./. 0=NH:8= // 5B5@8=0@8O. - 1969. - ! 12. - !. 42-44. 0=D5@>2 .. 1 M:>;>38G5A:>< ?0A?>@B5 A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==>3> ?@54?@8OB8O / .. 0=D5@>2 // -:>;>38G5A:89 25AB=8: >AA88. - 1991. - !1. - !. 43-77. 0@078B>F5=>7K 48:8E 8 4><0H=8E <;5:>?8B0NI8E 5;>@CAA88 // 0B5@80;K 4>:;04>2 5A?C1;8:0=A:>9 :>=D5@5=F88 ?> ?0@078B>F5=>70< 48:8E 8 4><0H=8E <;5:>?8B0NI8E.  8=A:: #@>609, 1984. - !.67-70. 0@078B>F5=>7K 8 0AA>F80B82=K5 1>;57=8: A1>@=8: AB0B59 !%. - .: >;>A, 1984. - !.17-21. 0@078BK 8 ?0@078B>7K 682>B=KE 8 G5;>25:0 // 852: 0C:>20 C<:0, 1975. - !. 392-397. 0C;8:0A .- ... 0@078B>F5=>7K 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 / .-... 0C;8:0A. - .:  3@>?@><8740B, 1990.- !. 65-78. 0C;8:0A .-. .. 708<>>B=>H5=85 <564C M=B5@>?0@078B0<8 :@C?=>3> @>30B>3> A:>B0 / .-. .. 0C;8:0A, .. (0@:C=0A // "578AK 4>:;04>2 IX AJ5740 . - ., 1986.- !. 116-123. 5B5H52 .. 0@078B>E>7O8==K5 >B=>H5=8O ?@8 A<5H0==KE 8=D5:F8OE / .. 5B5H52 // @>D8;0:B8:0 8 ;5G5=85 8=D5:F8>==KE 8 8=2078>==KE 701>;520=89 A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==KE 682>B=KE 2 5G5@=>75<L5. - >@L:89, 1988. - !. 40-49. 5B@>2 ..$. 0@078B>F5=>7K 8 0AA>F80B82=K5 1>;57=8 A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==KE 682>B=KE / ..$. 5B@>2. - .:  3@>?@><8740B, 1988. - !.114-121. 5B@>2 ..$. $>@<8@>20=85 ?0@078B>F5=>7>2 2 :8H5G=8:5 >25F 2 A?5F80;878@>20==KE E>7O9AB20E &5=B@0;L=>3> 5G5@=>75<LO !$!  / ..$. 5B@>2, .. >?0B:8=0 // "578AK 4>:;04>2 IX AJ5740 . - ., 1986. - !. 120-125. >4:>?052 .. 7CG5=85 :8H5G=>9 <8:@>D;>@K B5;OB 8 ?>@>AOB, ;5G5=85 48A?5?A88 8 >1>A=>20=85 ?@>D8;0:B8:8 / .. >4:>?052 // 0B5@. 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