ࡱ> =?:;<KyrbjbjAb{{    8E,q k5LL" iiiiiii$lqo@iijbbbfibibbihi^BD=#liij0k|io`o ioi(biiNbdko ? : 1V@=8: V=482V4C0;L=8E 4><0H=VE 70240=L 4;O A;CE0GV2 ?V43>B>2G>3> 2V44V;5==O. '. 1  5>@30=VG=0 EV<VO .  >;B020: >;B"#, 2004.  32 A. #:;040G: . . C7L, 0A8AB5=B V4?>2V40;L=89 70 28?CA:: 702V4C20G :0D54@8 EV<VW . . !B>@>65=:>, :0=4840B EV<VG=8E =0C:, 4>F5=B 0B25@465=> =0 70AV40==V =0C:>2>-<5B>48G=>W @048 C=V25@A8B5BC ?@>B>:>; ! 1 2V4 27.01.2005@. 540:B>@ /. . >2VG:>20 >@5:B>@ . . /=:528G !"# ;O >2>;>4V==O B5>@5B8G=8< <0B5@V0;>< V7 EV<VW =5>1EV4=> 2<VB8 28@VHC20B8 7040GV, I> =0;560BL 4> 2AVE @>74V;V2 EV<VW. &5 2<V==O @>72 O7C20B8 7040GV 40T <>6;82VABL 3;81H5 282G8B8 V 7@>7C<VB8 1030B> EV<VG=8E ?@>F5AV2 B0 70:>=><V@=>AB59. # 1V;LH>ABV ?>AV1=8:V2 V7 EV<VW 4;O 2ABC?=8:V2 4>  @>72 O7C20==O 7040G @>73;O40TBLAO O: 4@C3>@O4=5 ?8B0==O, =5 0:F5=BCTBLAO C2030 =0 >A>1;82>ABOE 7040G @V7=8E B8?V2. "8< G0A>< V7 FL>3> ?8B0==O 01VBC@VT=B8 28O2;ONBL =091V;LH A;01:C ?V43>B>2:C. 5B0 40=>3> =02G0;L=>-<5B>48G=>3> 2840==O  >@30=V7C20B8 A0<>ABV9=C @>1>BC A;CE0GV2 ?V43>B>2G>3> 2V44V;5==O ?@8 282G5==V :C@AC  %V<VO . 2B>@ 71V@=8:0 AB028BL ?5@54 A>1>N 70240==O 725@=CB8 C203C A;CE0GV2 ?V43>B>2G>3> 2V44V;5==O =0 =5>1EV4=VABL =02G8B8AO 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 >45@60=V B5>@5B8G=V 7=0==O 4;O 28@VH5==O :>=:@5B=8E ?@0:B8G=8E 7040G. ;O FL>3> C 71V@=8:C 70?@>?>=>20=> @O4 V=482V4C0;L=8E 4><0H=VE 70240=L V7 :>6=>3> @>74V;C ?@>3@0<8 7 EV<VW 4;O ?V43>B>2G>3> 2V44V;5==O. &5 40T 7<>3C :>6=><C A;CE0G52V ?5@52V@8B8 A2>W 74V1=>ABV C @>72 O7C20==V 7040G, ?5@5:>=0B8AO, I> 2V= ?>2=VABN 70A2>W2 B5>@5B8G=89 <0B5@V0; V =040;V 7<>65 28:>=0B8 :>=B@>;L=C @>1>BC. 1. !  '% !#  ! 1 1. 0720B8 B0 @>7?>4V;8B8 70 :;0A0<8 @5G>28=8, D>@<C;8 O:8E =02545=V =86G5: !0(HSO4)2; Na2CO3; CuO; N2O5; Fe(OH)3; HBr; K2Cr2O7; HCl; . 2. 0?8A0B8 D>@<C;8 >:A84V2 0@35=BC<C, 10@VN, AC;LDC@C (lV), E@><C (lll), 20=04VN (V), ?;N<1C<C (ll), :0;VN, A8;VFVN (lV). >7?>4V;8B8 WE =0 >A=>2=V, :8A;>B=V 9 0<D>B5@=V. 3. /:V A>;V <>6=0 >45@60B8, 7<V=NNG8 C<>28 ?@8 270T<>4VW 3V4@>:A84C <03=VN V7 AC;LD0B=>N :8A;>B>N? 025AB8 AB@C:BC@=V D>@<C;8 2AVE A>;59.  ! 2 1. 0720B8 B0 @>7?>4V;8B8 70 :;0A0<8 @5G>28=8, D>@<C;8 :>B@8E ?>40=V =86G5: Cl2O3; CsOH; SiO2; (CuOH)NO2; H2SO4; CaO; Fe(OH)3; ZnCO3; Na2O. 2. 0?8A0B8 D>@<C;8 >:A84V2 D>AD>@C (V), :0;LFVN, F8=:C, :0@1>=C (lV), D5@C<C (lll), =VB@>35=C (lll). 025AB8 2V4?>2V4=V W< 3V4@>:A848. 3. /:V A>;V <>6=0 >45@60B8, 7<V=NNG8 C<>28 ?@8 270T<>4VW 3V4@>:A84C 0;N<V=VN 7 E;>@84=>N :8A;>B>N? 025AB8 AB@C:BC@=V D>@<C;8 2AVE A>;59.  ! 3 1. 0720B8 B0 @>7?>4V;8B8 70 :;0A0<8 @5G>28=8, D>@<C;8 O:8E =02545=V =86G5: Cl2O; Sn(OH)2; K2SiO3; FeOH(NO2)2; B2O3; SrO; RbOH; H3PO4; SiO2. 2. >25AB8 0<D>B5@=VABL >:A84C ?;N<1C<C (ll) V 3V4@>:A84C AB0=C<C (lV). 3. 0?8A0B8 D>@<C;8 A>;59: AC;LD0BC :0;VN, 3V4@>:A>D>AD0BC 10@VN, 3V4@>A8;V:0BC :0;LFVN, =VB@0BC D5@C<C (ll). 025AB8 AB@C:BC@=V D>@<C;8 2AVE A>;59.  ! 4 1. 0720B8 B0 @>7?>4V;8B8 70 :;0A0<8 @5G>28=8, D>@<C;8 :>B@8E ?>40=V =86G5: K2SO3; Al2O3; LiOH; HNO3; CO2; Cu(OH)2; P2O5; MgOHCl; NaOH. 2.  O:8<8 7 =02545=8E A?>;C: @503CT >:A84 AC;LDC@C (Vl): 3V4@>:A84 :0;LFVN; >:A84 <03=VN; E;>@84 :0;VN; >:A84 :0@1>=C (ll); 3V4@>:A84 =0B@VN; E;>@84=0 :8A;>B0; >:A84 F57VN; >:A84 =VB@>35=C (l)? 3. 0?8A0B8 D>@<C;8 A>;59: AC;LDVBC F8=:C, 1VE@><0BC :0;VN, 3V4@>:A>E;>@84C =V:5;N, 3V4@>D>AD0BC D5@C<C (ll). 025AB8 AB@C:BC@=V D>@<C;8 2AVE A>;59.  ! 5 1. 0720B8 V @>7?>4V;8B8 70 :;0A0<8 @5G>28=8, D>@<C;8 O:8E =02545=V =86G5: Cu(OH)2; BaO; HCl; KAlO; NaMnO4; Ca(OH)2; N2O ; H2SO3; CaOHNO3. 2.  O:8<8 7 =02545=8E A?>;C: @503CT 3V4@>:A84 =0B@VN: >:A84 AC;LDC@C (lV), 3V4@>:A84 :>10;LBC, =VB@0B=0 :8A;>B0, >:A84 0;N<V=VN, :0@1>=0B=0 :8A;>B0, 3V4@>:A84 10@VN, >:A84 ;VBVN? 3. 0?8A0B8 D>@<C;8 A>;59: 3V4@>AC;LDV4C :0;LFVN, 3V4@>:A>AC;LD0BC :C?@C<C (ll), E@><0BC :0;VN, E;>@84C 0;N<V=VN. 025AB8 AB@C:BC@=V D>@<C;8 2AVE A>;59.  ! 6 1. 0720B8 B0 @>7?>4V;8B8 70 :;0A0<8 @5G>28=8, D>@<C;8 :>B@8E =02545=V =86G5: LiOH; SO3; H3PO4; KHS; ZnOHCl; HNO2; Cr(OH)3; NO2 ; H2SO4. 2. 025AB8 D>@<C;8 3V4@>:A84V2 =0B@VN, ?;N<1C<C (ll), @C1V4VN, AB0=C<C (lV), AB@>=FVN, D5@C<C (ll), <03=VN, 0@35=BC<C. 84V;8B8 ;C38 9 0<D>B5@=V 3V4@>:A848. 3. 0?8A0B8 @50:FVW ?5@5E>4C 3V4@>:A>=VB@0BC 1VA<CBC B0 3V4@>:0@1>=0BC :0;LFVN C A5@54=V A>;V. 025AB8 AB@C:BC@=V D>@<C;8 2AVE A>;59.  ! 7 1. 0?8A0B8 D>@<C;8 A?>;C:: 3V4@>AC;LDV4C F8=:C, >:A84C :0@1>=C (ll), AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8, 3V4@>:A84C ?;N<1C<C (ll), >:A84C =0B@VN, D>AD0BC :0;LFVN, >:A84C AC;LDC@C (Vl), =VB@8B=>W :8A;>B8. 2. 87=0G8B8 A5@54 >:A84V2 =VB@>35=C (ll), ;VBVN, F8=:C, <0=30=C (ll), E@><C (lll), :C?@C<C, 20=04VN (V), <03=VN >A=>2=V B0 4>25AB8 WE >A=>2=89 E0@0:B5@. 3. 0?8A0B8 @50:FVW ?5@5E>4C: 3V4@>:A>AC;LD0BC D5@C<C (lll) C AC;LD0B D5@C<C; 3V4@>AC;LDVBC =0B@VN C AC;LDVB =0B@VN. 025AB8 AB@C:BC@=V D>@<C;8 2AVE A>;59.  ! 8 1. 0720B8 B0 @>7?>4V;8B8 70 :;0A0<8 @5G>28=8, D>@<C;8 :>B@8E =02545=V =86G5: Sb2O5; Cr(OH)3; H2SiO3; NaHS; Cu(OH)2; Al2(SO4)3; K2O; HNO2; Pb(OH)2. 2. 025AB8 2AV <>6;82V @50:FVW <V6 A?>;C:0<8: >:A84>< =0B@VN, 3V4@>:A84>< F8=:C, >:A84>< AC;LDC@C (lV), >:A84>< 0@35=BC<C. 3. 0?8A0B8 D>@<C;8 A>;59: 3V4@>AC;LDVBC 0;N<V=VN; 3V4@>:A>E;>@84C <0=30=C (ll); D>AD0BC :0;VN; E;>@0BC :0;LFVN. 025AB8 AB@C:BC@=V D>@<C;8 2AVE A>;59. 2. " "' ! % 2.1. A=>2=V 70:>=8 B0 ?>=OBBO EV<VW  ! 1 1. 87=0G8B8 :V;L:VABL @5G>28=8, I> <VAB8BLAO 2 >:A84V =VB@>35=C N2O5 <0A>N 17 3. 2. !:V;L:8 3@0<V2 2>4=N =5>1EV4=> 4;O ?>2=>3> 2V4=>2;5==O: 0) 0,3 <>;L >:A84C :C?@C<C (ll); 1) 20 3 >:A84C :C?@C<C (ll)? 3. 87=0G8B8 <>;O@=C <0AC 307>?>4V1=>W @5G>28=8, O:I> WW 3CAB8=0 70 ?>2VB@O< AB0=>28BL 1,517.  ! 2 1. 87=0G8B8 <0AC E;>@>2>4=N, :V;L:VABL @5G>28=8 O:>3> 2 <>;L. 2. 87=0G8B8 2V4=>A=C 3CAB8=C 70 2>4=5< >:A84C AC;LDC@C (Vl). 3. /:0 :V;L:VABL AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 =5>1EV4=0 4;O =59B@0;V70FVW AC<VHV 20 3 3V4@>:A84C =0B@VN V 14 3 3V4@>:A84C :0;VN?  ! 3 1. 87=0G8B8 <0AC AV@:>2>4=N, :V;L:VABL @5G>28=8 O:>3> 5 <>;L. 2. /:0 3CAB8=0 ?>2VB@O 70 2>4=5< V 3CAB8=0 2>4=N 70 ?>2VB@O<? 3. 87=0G8B8 <0AC AC;LD0BC 10@VN, :>B@0 CB2>@8;0AO ?@8 4VW AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 =0 @>7G8=, I> <VAB8BL E;>@84 10@VN <0A>N 10,4 3.  ! 4 1. 87=0G8B8 :V;L:VABL @5G>28=8, O:0 <VAB8BLAO C E;>@V <0A>N 22 3. 2. CAB8=0 45O:>3> 307C 70 2>4=5< AB0=>28BL 2. 87=0G8B8 9>3> 3CAB8=C 70 ?>2VB@O<. 3. 50:FVO <V6 70;V7>< B0 AC;LD0B>< :C?@C<C 28@060TBLAO @V2=O==O< Fe + CuSO4 = Cu + FeSO4. !:V;L:8 3@0<V2 <V4V <>65 1CB8 28BVA=5=> ?@8 4VW =0 =04;8H>: @>7G8=C AC;LD0BC :C?@C<C 14 3 70;V70?  ! 5 1. /:89 >1'T< 70 =>@<0;L=8E C<>2 709<0T :8A5=L <0A>N 10 3? 2. 87=0G8B8 3CAB8=C 70 :8A=5< 307V2: 0) E;>@>2>4=N; 1) 1@><>2>4=N. 3. 1G8A;8B8 <0AC 9>4C, O:C <>6=0 >B@8<0B8 ?@8 ?@>?CA:0==V E;>@C G5@57 @>7G8=, I> <VAB8BL 10,2 3 9>484C :0;VN.  ! 6 1. 87=0G8B8 <0AC 2>4=N, I> 709<0T 70 =>@<0;L=8E C<>2 >1'T< 280 ;. 2. CAB8=0 307C 70 ?>2VB@O< AB0=>28BL 2. 87=0G8B8 <>;5:C;O@=C <0AC 307C. 3. !:V;L:8 3@0<V2 AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 ?>28==> ?@>270T<>4VOB8 7 0,5 <>;L F8=:C, I>1 CB2>@8;0AO A5@54=O AV;L, V A:V;L:8 3@0<V2 2>4=N ?@8 FL><C 284V;8BLAO?  ! 7 87=0G8B8 :V;L:VABL @5G>28=8, O:0 <VAB8BLAO 2 >:A84V AC;LDC@C SO2 <0A>N 8 3. 2. >7@0EC20B8 3CAB8=C 0@3>=C: 0) 70 2>4=5<; 1) 70 ?>2VB@O<. 3. 87=0G8B8 <0AC >A04C, I> CB2>@82AO ?@8 ?@>?CA:0==V 1@><>2>4=N >1'T<>< 6,72 ; (=.C.) G5@57 @>7G8=, :>B@89 <VAB8BL =04;8H>: =VB@0BC 0@35=BC<C.  ! 8 1. 1G8A;8B8 <0AC 1@><>2>4=N, O:I> :V;L:VABL FVTW @5G>28=8 0,2 <>;L. 2. CAB8=0 307C 70 35;VT< AB0=>28BL 0,5. 87=0G8B8 <>;5:C;O@=C <0AC 307C. 3. >7@0EC20B8, G8 28AB0G8BL @>7G8=C, I> <VAB8BL 110 3 AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8, I>1 ?5@5B2>@8B8 56 3 70;V70 =0 2V4?>2V4=C AV;L. 2.2. :2V20;5=B. 0:>= 5:2V20;5=BV2  ! 1 1. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B 2>48 ?@8 @50:FVW WW 7: 0) :0;VT<; 1) >:A84>< :0;VN. 2. 1G8A;8B8 5:2V20;5=B=V <0A8 A?>;C:: >:A84C 10@VN, 1>@0B=>W :8A;>B8, 3V4@>:A84C 0;N<V=VN, <0=30=0BC =0B@VN. 3. !?>;C:0 45O:>3> 5;5<5=B0 % V7 >:A835=>< <VAB8BL 65,22 % FL>3> 5;5<5=B0. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B=C <0AC 5;5<5=B0.  ! 2 1. >7@0EC20B8 5:2V20;5=B 5;5<5=BV2 C A?>;C:0E: H2S, NH3, HBr. 2. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B=V <0A8 A?>;C:: >:A84C D>AD>@C (V), E;>@84=>W :8A;>B8, 3V4@>:A84C :0;LFVN, :0@1>=0BC D5@C<C (ll). 3. 1G8A;8B8 5:2V20;5=B=C <0AC <5B0;C, 1 3 O:>3> 28BVA=OT 7 :8A;>B8 560 <; 2>4=N (=.C.).  ! 3 1. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B D>AD0B=>W :8A;>B8 C @50:FVOE: H3PO4 + NaOH = NaH2PO4 + H2O; H3PO4 + 2NaOH = Na2HPO4 + 2H2O. 2. 1G8A;8B8 5:2V20;5=B=V <0A8 A?>;C:: >:A84C E@><C (lll), ?5@E;>@0B=>W :8A;>B8, 3V4@>:A84C :>10;LBC, AC;LDVBC 0;N<V=VN. 3. >7@0EC20B8 5:2V20;5=B=C <0AC <5B0;C, 7,1 3 >:A84C O:>3> 40T 15,1 3 AC;LD0BC FL>3> <5B0;C.  ! 4 1. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B 5;5<5=BV2 C A?>;C:0E: H2O, SiH4, HI. 2. 1G8A;8B8 5:2V20;5=B=V <0A8 A?>;C:: >:A84C E;>@C (Vll), AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8, 3V4@>:A84C 0@35=BC<C, =VB@0BC F8=:C. 3. @><V4 <5B0;C <VAB8BL 89,88 % 1@><C. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B=C <0AC <5B0;C, O:I> 5:2V20;5=B=0 <0A0 1@><C 79,9 3/<>;L.  ! 5 1. 04;8H:>< E;>@84=>W :8A;>B8 ?>4VO;8 =0 @>7G8=8: 0) 3V4@>:0@1>=0BC <03=VN; 1) 3V4@>:A>E;>@84C F8=:C. 0?8A0B8 @V2=O==O 2V4?>2V4=8E @50:FV9 B0 287=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B8 @5G>28=. 2. >7@0EC20B8 5:2V20;5=B=V <0A8 A?>;C:: >:A84C :0;VN, 0;N<V=0B=>W :8A;>B8, 3V4@>:A84C AB@>=FVN, D>AD0BC <03=VN. 3. 7 5,7 3 AC;LD0BC <5B0;C >45@60;8 2,6 3 9>3> 3V4@>:A84C. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B=C <0AC FL>3> <5B0;C.  ! 6 1. 1G8A;8B8 5:2V20;5=B 3V4@>:A84C 0;N<V=VN C @V2=O==OE: Al(OH)3 + 2HCl = AlOHCl2 + 2H2O; Al(OH)3 + 3HNO3 = Al(NO3)3 + 3H2O. 2. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B=V <0A8 A?>;C:: >:A84C F8=:C, :0@1>=0B=>W :8A;>B8, 3V4@>:A84C <0=30=C (lV), AC;LDV4C :0;VN. 3. :A84 B@820;5=B=>3> 5;5<5=B0 <VAB8BL 17,29 % >:A835=C. >7@0EC20B8 0B><=C <0AC 5;5<5=B0.  ! 7 1. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B 5;5<5=BV2 C A?>;C:0E: PH3, HCl, CaH2. 2. 1G8A;8B8 5:2V20;5=B=V <0A8 A?>;C:: >:A84C D5@C<C (lll), A8;V:0B=>W :8A;>B8, 3V4@>:A84C =0B@VN, 1VE@><0BC :0;VN. 3. >7@0EC20B8 20;5=B=VABL <5B0;C, 0B><=0 <0A0 O:>3> 4>@V2=NT 40, 0 1@><V4 <VAB8BL 80 % 1@><C.  ! 8 1. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B :8A;>B C @50:FVOE: H2SO4 + KOH = KHSO4 + H2O; H3PO4 + 3NaOH = Na3PO4 + 3H2O. 2. 1G8A;8B8 5:2V20;5=B=V <0A8 A?>;C:: >:A84C =V:5;N, E@><0B=>W :8A;>B8, 3V4@>:A84C ;VBVN, ?5@<0=30=0BC :0;LFVN. 3. ;O @>7G8=5==O 16,8 3 <5B0;C 28:>@8AB0;8 14,7 3 AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8. 87=0G8B8 5:2V20;5=B=C <0AC <5B0;C B0 >1 T< 2>4=N, I> 284V;82AO (=.C.). 3. # "  ! 1 1. 0?8A0B8 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8 0B><V2 5;5<5=BV2 V7 ?>@O4:>28<8 =><5@0<8 12 V 34. 0B8 3@0DVG=V 7>1@065==O D>@<C;. 2. /:V 7 5;5:B@>==8E D>@<C;, :>B@V 2V4>1@06CNBL 1C4>2C =571C465=>3> 0B><0 45O:>3> 5;5<5=B0, =5?@028;L=V: 1s2 2s2 2p5 3s2; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2? '><C? B><0< O:8E 5;5<5=BV2 2V4?>2V40NBL ?@028;L=> A:;045=V 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8?  ! 2 1. 0?8A0B8 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8 0B><V2 5;5<5=BV2 V7 ?>@O4:>28<8 =><5@0<8 20 V 30. 0B8 3@0DVG=V 7>1@065==O D>@<C;. 2. /:V 7 5;5:B@>==8E D>@<C;, I> 2V4>1@06CNBL 1C4>2C =571C465=>3> 0B><0 45O:>3> 5;5<5=B0, =5?@028;L=V: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3d4; 1s2 2s2 2p5 3s2 3p6 4s2; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p5? '><C? B><0< O:8E 5;5<5=BV2 2V4?>2V40NBL ?@028;L=> A:;045=V 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8?  ! 3 1. 0?8A0B8 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8 0B><0 5;5<5=B0 V7 ?>@O4:>28< =><5@>< 26 B0 V>=0 +3 FL>3> 0B><0. 0B8 3@0DVG=V 7>1@065==O D>@<C;. 2. /:V 7 5;5:B@>==8E D>@<C;, I> 2V4>1@06CNBL 1C4>2C =571C465=>3> 0B><0 45O:>3> 5;5<5=B0, =5?@028;L=V: 1s2 2s2 2p5; 1s2 2s1 2p6 3s2; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p6 5s2? '><C? B><0< O:8E 5;5<5=BV2 2V4?>2V40NBL ?@028;L=> A:;045=V 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8?  ! 4 1. 0?8A0B8 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8 0B><V2 5;5<5=BV2 V7 ?>@O4:>28<8 =><5@0<8 53 B0 16. 0B8 3@0DVG=V 7>1@065==O D>@<C;. 2. /:V 7 5;5:B@>==8E D>@<C;, I> 2V4>1@06CNBL 1C4>2C =571C465=>3> 0B><0 45O:>3> 5;5<5=B0, =5?@028;L=V: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p6 4d8 5s2; 1s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p6 4d2? '><C? B><0< O:8E 5;5<5=BV2 2V4?>2V40NBL ?@028;L=> A:;045=V 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8?  ! 5 1. 0?8A0B8 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8 0B><0 5;5<5=B0 V7 ?>@O4:>28< =><5@>< 35 B0 V>=0  1 FL>3> 0B><0. 0B8 3@0DVG=V 7>1@065==O D>@<C;. 2. /:V 7 5;5:B@>==8E D>@<C;, I> 2V4>1@06CNBL 1C4>2C =571C465=>3> 0B><0 45O:>3> 5;5<5=B0, =5?@028;L=V: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 4s2 4p6 5s2; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3p6 4s2 4p6 4d5 5s2? '><C? B><0< O:8E 5;5<5=BV2 2V4?>2V40NBL ?@028;L=> A:;045=V 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8?  ! 6 1. 0?8A0B8 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8 0B><V2 5;5<5=BV2 V7 ?>@O4:>28<8 =><5@0<8 28 B0 17. 0B8 3@0DVG=V 7>1@065==O D>@<C;. 2. /:V 7 5;5:B@>==8E D>@<C;, I> 2V4>1@06CNBL 1C4>2C =571C465=>3> 0B><0 45O:>3> 5;5<5=B0, =5?@028;L=V: 1s2 2s2 2p6 2d4; 1s2 2s3 2p6; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6? '><C? B><0< O:8E 5;5<5=BV2 2V4?>2V40NBL ?@028;L=> A:;045=V 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8?  ! 7 1. 0?8A0B8 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8 0B><0 5;5<5=B0 7 ?>@O4:>28< =><5@>< 14 C =>@<0;L=><C B0 71C465=><C AB0=V. 0B8 3@0DVG=V 7>1@065==O D>@<C;. 2. /:V 7 5;5:B@>==8E D>@<C;, I> 2V4>1@06CNBL 1C4>2C =571C465=>3> 0B><0 45O:>3> 5;5<5=B0, =5?@028;L=V: 1s2 2p6 3s2 3p4; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p2; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p6 4p6 4d3 5s2? '><C? B><0< O:8E 5;5<5=BV2 2V4?>2V40NBL ?@028;L=> A:;045=V 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8?  ! 8 1. 0?8A0B8 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8 0B><0 5;5<5=B0 7 ?>@O4:>28< =><5@>< 50 B0 V>=0 +2 FL>3> 0B><0. 0B8 3@0DVG=V 7>1@065==O D>@<C;. 2. /:V 7 5;5:B@>==8E D>@<C;, I> 2V4>1@06CNBL 1C4>2C =571C465=>3> 0B><0 45O:>3> 5;5<5=B0, =5?@028;L=V: 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 4s2; 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1? '><C? B><0< O:8E 5;5<5=BV2 2V4?>2V40NBL ?@028;L=> A:;045=V 5;5:B@>==V D>@<C;8? 4. %' "  ! 1 1. # A:V;L:8 @07V2 7@>AB5 H284:VABL @50:FVW ?@8 ?V428I5==V B5<?5@0BC@8 2V4 80( 4> 100(, O:I> B5<?5@0BC@=89 :>5DVFVT=B @50:FVW AB0=>28BL 4? 2. /: 7<V=8BLAO H284:VABL @50:FVW 2 +  ( 2, O:I> :>=F5=B@0FVN @5G>28=8  71V;LH8B8 2 2 @078, 0 :>=F5=B@0FVN @5G>28=8  7<5=H8B8 2 2 @078? 3. =09B8 :>=AB0=BC @V2=>2038 A8AB5<8 4!l + O2 ( 2H2O + 2Cl2, O:I> 2 <><5=B @V2=>2038 [H2O] = [Cl2] = 0,14 <>;L/;; [HCl] = 0,2 <>;L/;; [O2] = 0,32 <>;L/;. /: 2?;8=5 ?V428I5==O B8A:C =0 @V2=>203C 40=>W 72>@>B=>W @50:FVW?  ! 2 1. /: 7<V=8BLAO @V2=>2030 C A8AB5<0E: 2NaHCO3 = Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O  Q, 2NO + O2 = 2NO2 + Q ?@8 7=865==V B5<?5@0BC@8? 2. '><C 4>@V2=NT B5<?5@0BC@=89 :>5DVFVT=B H284:>ABV @50:FVW, O:I> ?@8 71V;LH5==V B5<?5@0BC@8 =0 40( H284:VABL @50:FVW 71V;LH8;0AL C 81 @07? 3. >=AB0=B0 @V2=>2038 3><>35==>W A8AB5<8 (3) + (3) = !(3) + (3) AB0=>28BL 1. 87=0G8B8 :>=F5=B@0FVW 2AVE @5G>28= ?@8 @V2=>207V, O:I> 28EV4=V :>=F5=B@0FVW [A] = 3 <>;L/;; [B] = 2 <>;L/;.  ! 3 1. 0?8A0B8 :>=AB0=BC @V2=>2038 4;O 35B5@>35==>W A8AB5<8 !(B2) + 2(3) ( !(3) + 2(3). /: A;V4 7<V=8B8 :>=F5=B@0FVN B0 B8A:, I>1 7<VAB8B8 @V2=>203C 2 1V: 72>@>B=>W @50:FVW  CB2>@5==O 2>4O=8E ?0@V2? 2. /: 7<V=8BLAO H284:VABL @50:FVW, I> ?@>BV:0T 2 307>2V9 D07V, ?@8 ?V428I5==V B5<?5@0BC@8 =0 60(!, O:I> B5<?5@0BC@=89 :>5DVFVT=B H284:>ABV 40=>W @50:FVW AB0=>28BL 2? 3. 87=0G8B8 :>=AB0=BC @V2=>2038 4;O A8AB5<8 2 + 2 ( 2, O:I> @V2=>206=V :>=F5=B@0FVW AB0=>2;OBL [A2] = 0,2 <>;L/;; [B2] = 0,3<>;L/;; [AB] = 0,25 <>;L/;.  ! 4 1. # A:V;L:8 @07V2 71V;LH8BLAO H284:VABL ?@O<>W @50:FVW 2 A8AB5<V 2! + 2 ( 2!2, O:I> B8A: 71V;LH8B8 C 3 @078?  O:89 1V: 7<VAB8BLAO EV<VG=0 @V2=>2030? 2. "5<?5@0BC@=89 :>5DVFVT=B 45O:>W @50:FVW AB0=>28BL 2. # A:V;L:8 @07V2 71V;LH8BLAO H284:VABL FVTW @50:FVW, O:I> ?V428I8B8 B5<?5@0BC@C =0 20(!? 3. <V=>N O:8E ?0@0<5B@V2 <>6=0 7<VAB8B8 @V2=>203C 2 A8AB5<V H2(3) + Br2(3) = 2HBr(3) + 68,2:6 C 1V: CB2>@5==O HBr?  ! 5 1. /: 7<V=8BLAO H284:VABL ?@O<>W B0 72>@>B=>W @50:FVW 2 A8AB5<V 2SO2(3) + O2(3) ( 2SO3(3), O:I> >1 T< 307>2>W AC<VHV 7<5=H8B8 2 B@8 @078? # O:89 1V: 7<VAB8BLAO @V2=>2030 A8AB5<8? 2. # A:V;L:8 @07V2 7<5=H8BLAO H284:VABL @50:FVW, I> ?@>BV:0T 2 307>2V9 D07V, ?@8 7=865==V B5<?5@0BC@8 2V4 120 4> 80(!? "5<?5@0BC@=89 :>5DVFVT=B H284:>ABV @50:FVW AB0=>28BL 3. 3 87=0G8B8 :>=AB0=BC @V2=>2038 A8AB5<8 !(3) + 2(3) ( !2(3) + 2(3), O:I> @V2=>206=V :>=F5=B@0FVW @503CNG8E @5G>28= [CO] = 0,02 <>;L/;; [H2O] = 0,32 <>;L/;; [CO2] = [H2] = 0,08 <>;L/;.  ! 6 1. 0?@>?>=C9B5 <5B>48 71V;LH5==O 28E>4C ?@>4C:BV2 C A8AB5<V Cl2(3) + 2HI(3) = I2(:) + 2HCl(3) + Q. 2. /: 7<V=8BLAO H284:VABL 3><>35==>W @50:FVW ?@8 7<V=V B5<?5@0BC@8 2V4 250 4> 180(!? "5<?5@0BC@=89 :>5DVFVT=B H284:>ABV @50:FVW AB0=>28BL 2. 3. 87=0G8B8 :>=AB0=BC @V2=>2038 4;O A8AB5<8 NO + NO2 ( N2O3, O:I> @V2=>206=V :>=F5=B@0FVW AB0=>2;OBL [NO] = 0,028 <>;L/;; [NO2] = 0,032 <>;L/;; [N2O3] = 0,018 <>;L/;.  ! 7 1. # A8AB5<V ! + !l2 = COCl2 :>=F5=B@0FVN ! 71V;LH8;8 2V4 0,3 4> 1,2 <>;L/;, 0 :>=F5=B@0FVN E;>@C  2V4 0,2 4> 0,6 <>;L/;. # A:V;L:8 @07V2 7@>A;0 H284:VABL ?@O<>W @50:FVW? 2. '><C 4>@V2=NT B5<?5@0BC@=89 :>5DVFVT=B H284:>ABV @50:FVW, O:I> ?@8 71V;LH5==V B5<?5@0BC@8 =0 20( H284:VABL @50:FVW 7@>A;0 C 16 @07V2? 3. # A8AB5<V 2N2 + O2 ( 2N2O @V2=>206=V :>=F5=B@0FVW AB0=>2;OBL: [N2] = 0,72 <>;L/;; [O2] = 1,12 <>;L/;; [N2O] = 0,84 <>;L/;. 87=0G8B8 :>=AB0=BC @V2=>2038.  ! 8 1. 50:FVO ?@>BV:0T 70 @V2=O==O< H2 + I2 = 2HI. >=AB0=B0 H284:>ABV FVTW @50:FVW AB0=>28BL 0,16. 8EV4=V :>=F5=B@0FVW @503CNG8E @5G>28= [H2] = 0,04 <>;L/;; [I2] = 0,05 <>;L/;. 87=0G8B8 ?>G0B:>2C H284:VABL @50:FVW B0 WW H284:VABL, :>;8 ?@>@503C20;> 50 % 2>4=N. 2. /: =5>1EV4=> 7<V=8B8 B8A: V B5<?5@0BC@C 2 A8AB5<V 2 = 2 + 2  Q, I>1 7<VAB8B8 @V2=>203C 2 1V: ?@>BV:0==O ?@O<>W @50:FVW? 3. 87=0G8B8 B5<?5@0BC@=89 :>5DVFVT=B H284:>ABV @50:FVW, I> ?@>BV:0T C 307>2V9 D07V, O:I> ?@8 71V;LH5==V B5<?5@0BC@8 =0 40(! H284:VABL @50:FVW 7@>A;0 C 16 @07V2. 5. ' 5.1. !?>A>18 28@065==O :>=F5=B@0FVW @>7G8=C  ! 1 1. !:V;L:8 <V;V3@0<V2 20 %->3> @>7G8=C AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 (3CAB8=0 1,14 3/A<3) =5>1EV4=> 4;O ?@83>BC20==O 2 ; 0,2 =. @>7G8=C? 2. 0 =59B@0;V70FVN 25 A<3 E;>@84=>W :8A;>B8 28B@0G5=> 30 A<3 0,1 =. @>7G8=C 3V4@>:A84C =0B@VN. >7@0EC20B8 =>@<0;L=C :>=F5=B@0FVN B0 B8B@ :8A;>B8. 3. # 200 3 2>48 @>7G8=8;8 25 3 A>;V. /:0 2V4A>B:>20 :>=F5=B@0FVO >45@60=>3> @>7G8=C?  ! 2 1. > 100 <; 80 %->3> @>7G8=C =VB@0B=>W :8A;>B8 (3CAB8=0 1,46 3/A<3) 4>40;8 400 <; 2>48. 45@60;8 @>7G8= V7 3CAB8=>N 1,0923/A<3. >7@0EC9B5 <0A>2C G0AB:C V =>@<0;L=C :>=F5=B@0FVN >45@60=>3> @>7G8=C. 2. 0 =59B@0;V70FVN 10 A<3 @>7G8=C 3V4@>:A84C =0B@VN ?VH;> 6 A<3 0,5 =. @>7G8=C E;>@84=>W :8A;>B8. >7@0EC9B5 =>@<0;L=C :>=F5=B@0FVN B0 B8B@ @>7G8=C ;C3C. 3. 87=0G8B8 B8B@ 0,2 =. @>7G8=C =VB@0B=>W :8A;>B8.  ! 3 1. > @>7G8=C AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 >1 T<>< 400 A<3 (3CAB8=0 1,1 3/A<3) V :>=F5=B@0FVTN 15 % 4>40;8 60 3 2>48. 87=0GB5 <0A>2C G0AB:C B0 <>;O@=C :>=F5=B@0FVN >45@60=>3> @>7G8=C AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8. 2. 0 =59B@0;V70FVN 50 <; @>7G8=C 3V4@>:A84C :0;VN 28B@0G5=> 100 <; 6 %->3> @>7G8=C E;>@84=>W :8A;>B8 7 3CAB8=>N 1,028 3/A<3. 87=0G8B8 =>@<0;L=C :>=F5=B@0FVN B0 B8B@ @>7G8=C 3V4@>:A84C :0;VN. 3. !:V;L:8 =5>1EV4=> A>;V 9 2>48 4;O >45@60==O 253 3 12 %->3> @>7G8=C?  ! 4 1. /:89 >1 T< 10 %->3> @>7G8=C :0@1>=0BC =0B@VN (3CAB8=0 1,105 3/A<3) ?>B@V1=89 4;O ?@83>BC20==O 5 ; 2 %->3> @>7G8=C 7 3CAB8=>N 1,02 3/A<3. 2. 87=0G8B8 =>@<0;L=C :>=F5=B@0FVN V B8B@ =VB@0B=>W :8A;>B8, O:I> =0 =59B@0;V70FVN 20 <; WW @>7G8=C 28B@0G5=> 50 <; 0,5 =. @>7G8=C 3V4@>:A84C =0B@VN. 3. =09B8 B8B@ 0,2 =. @>7G8=C E;>@84C D5@C<C (lll).  ! 5 1. <VH0;8 10 <; 10 %->3> @>7G8=C =VB@0B=>W :8A;>B8 (3CAB8=0 1,056 3/A<3) V 190 <; 30 %->3> @>7G8=C =VB@0B=>W :8A;>B8 (3CAB8=0 1,184 3/A<3). >7@0EC20B8 <0A>2C G0AB:C =VB@0B=>W :8A;>B8 2 >45@60=><C @>7G8=V. 2. /:0 :V;L:VABL AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 <VAB8BLAO C @>7G8=V, =0 =59B@0;V70FVN O:>3> 28B@0G5=> 35 <; 0,4 =. @>7G8=C 3V4@>:A84C =0B@VN? 87=0G8B8 B8B@ @>7G8=C 3V4@>:A84C =0B@VN. 3. 87=0GB5 <>;O@=C :>=F5=B@0FVN @>7G8=C, C 200 <; :>B@>3> <VAB8BLAO 1,4 3 E;>@84C 10@VN.  ! 6 1. 87=0G8B8 <>;O;L=VABL @>7G8=C, >45@60=>3> ?@8 @>7G8=5==V 14,7 3 AC;LD0BC :0;VN C 670 3 2>48. 2. >7@0EC20B8 =>@<0;L=C :>=F5=B@0FVN @>7G8=C E;>@84=>W :8A;>B8 (3CAB8=0 1,18 3/A<3) V7 :>=F5=B@0FVTN 36,5 %. 3. /:89 >1 T< 96 %->W AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 (3CAB8=0 1,84 3/A<3) V O:C <0AC 2>48 =5>1EV4=> 27OB8 4;O ?@83>BC20==O 100 <; 15 %->3> @>7G8=C (3CAB8=0 1,13/A<3).  ! 7 1. 87=0G8B8 <>;O@=VABL @>7G8=C, >45@60=>3> C @57C;LB0BV @>7G8=5==O 18 3 E;>@84C :0;VN C 345 3 2>48. CAB8=0 >B@8<0=>3> @>7G8=C 1,105 3/A<3. 2. 0 =59B@0;V70FVN 40 <; 0,1 =. @>7G8=C 3V4@>:A84C :0;LFVN 28:>@8AB0;8 28 <; AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8. 87=0G8B8 =>@<0;L=VABL B0 B8B@ :8A;>B8. 3. /:C <0AC 2>48 =5>1EV4=> 4>40B8 4> 200 <; 30 %->3> @>7G8=C 3V4@>:A84C =0B@VN (3CAB8=0 1,33 3/A<3), I>1 ?@83>BC20B8 10 %-89 @>7G8= ;C3C?  ! 8 1. 87=0G8B8 =>@<0;L=C :>=F5=B@0FVN @>7G8=C, 2 1 ; O:>3> <VAB8BLAO 2,78 3 =VB@0BC 0@35=BC<C. 2. ;O =59B@0;V70FVW 42 <; AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 =5>1EV4=> 14 <; 0,3 =. ;C3C. 87=0G8B8 <>;O@=VABL :8A;>B8. 3. >7@0EC20B8 <0A>2C G0AB:C @5G>28=8 C @>7G8=V, >45@60=><C ?@8 7<VHC20==V 300 3 25 %->3> V 400 3 40 %->3> @>7G8=V2 FVTW @5G>28=8. 5.2. ;5:B@>;VB8G=0 48A>FV0FVO. >==V @V2=O==O  ! 1 1. 025AB8 AE5<8 48A>FV0FVW B0 28@078 :>=AB0=B 48A>FV0FVW 5;5:B@>;VBV2: D>AD0B=>W :8A;>B8, 3V4@>:A>AC;LD0BC D5@C<C (lll). 2. 87=0G8B8 A5@54>28I5, :>=F5=B@0FVN V>=V2 2>4=N B0 -3@C?, O:I> @ = 8. 3. !:;0AB8 <>;5:C;O@=V B0 V>==>-<>;5:C;O@=V @V2=O==O: CaCl2 + AgNO3 = ; HCl + KOH = .  ! 2 1. 025AB8 AE5<8 48A>FV0FVW B0 28@078 :>=AB0=B 48A>FV0FVW 5;5:B@>;VBV2: 3V4@>:A84C :0;LFVN, 3V4@>:0@1>=0BC <03=VN. 2. 87=0G8B8 @ V A5@54>28I5 @>7G8=C, O:I> [  ] = 10  9 <>;L/;. 3. !:;0AB8 <>;5:C;O@=V B0 V>==>-<>;5:C;O@=V @V2=O==O: FeCl2 + H2SO3 = ; CaO + HCl = .  ! 3 1. 025AB8 AE5<8 48A>FV0FVW B0 28@078 :>=AB0=B 48A>FV0FVW 5;5:B@>;VBV2: 3V4@>:A84C ?;N<1C<C (lV), AC;LDV4C 10@VN. 2. 87=0G8B8 :>=F5=B@0FVN   V @ @>7G8=C, [H +] = 10  2 <>;L/;. 3. !:;0AB8 <>;5:C;O@=V B0 V>==>-<>;5:C;O@=V @V2=O==O: Na2SiO3 + HCl = ; CuSO4 + NaOH = .  ! 4 1. 025AB8 AE5<8 48A>FV0FVW B0 28@078 :>=AB0=B 48A>FV0FVW 5;5:B@>;VBV2: 3V4@>A8;V:0BC =0B@VN, 3V4@>:A84C E@><C (lll). 2. 87=0G8B8 [OH  ] C @>7G8=V ;C3C, @ O:>3> AB0=>28BL 12. 3. !:;0AB8 <>;5:C;O@=V B0 V>==>-<>;5:C;O@=V @V2=O==O: Ba(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 = ; Al(OH)3 + H2SO4 = .  ! 5 1. 025AB8 AE5<8 48A>FV0FVW B0 28@078 :>=AB0=B 48A>FV0FVW 5;5:B@>;VBV2: 3V4@>:A>=VB@0BC F8=:C, AC;LDVB=>W :8A;>B8. 2. 87=0G8B8 @ @>7G8=C :8A;>B8, 2 O:><C [H+] = 10  2 <>;L/;. 3. !:;0AB8 <>;5:C;O@=V B0 V>==>-<>;5:C;O@=V @V2=O==O: CH3COONa + HCl = ; Na2SO4 + CaCl2 = .  ! 6 1. 025AB8 AE5<8 48A>FV0FVW B0 28@078 :>=AB0=B 48A>FV0FVW 5;5:B@>;VBV2: 3V4@>:A84C 0;N<V=VN, AC;LDVB=>W :8A;>B8. 2. 87=0G8B8 @ @>7G8=C, 2 O:><C [H+] = 10-5 <>;L/;. 3. !:;0AB8 <>;5:C;O@=V B0 V>==>-<>;5:C;O@=V @V2=O==O: KHCO3 + H2SO4 = ; Zn (OH)2 + NaOH = .  ! 7 1. 025AB8 AE5<8 48A>FV0FVW B0 28@078 :>=AB0=B 48A>FV0FVW 5;5:B@>;VBV2: 3V4@>:A84C F8=:C, AC;LDV4=>W :8A;>B8. 2. 87=0G8B8 @ @>7G8=C, 2 O:><C [H  ] = 10  8 <>;L/;. 3. !:;0AB8 <>;5:C;O@=V B0 V>==>-<>;5:C;O@=V @V2=O==O: CuSO4 + H2S = ; BaCO3 + HNO3 = .  ! 8 1. 025AB8 AE5<8 48A>FV0FVW B0 28@078 :>=AB0=B 48A>FV0FVW 5;5:B@>;VBV2: 3V4@>:A>=VB@0BC F8=:C, AC;LDVB=>W :8A;>B8. 2. 87=0G8B8 @ V A5@54>28I5 @>7G8=C, O:I> [OH  ] = 10  7 <>;L/;. 3. !:;0AB8 <>;5:C;O@=V B0 V>==>-<>;5:C;O@=V @V2=O==O: NaHCO3 + NaOH = ; FeCl3 + KOH = . 5.3. V4@>;V7 A>;59  ! 1 1. /:V 7 ?5@5;VG5=8E =86G5 A?>;C: 1C4CBL 3V4@>;V7C20B8AO: :0@1>=0B F8=:C, =VB@0B :0;VN, E;>@84 10@VN, AC;LD0B :C?@C<C (ll)? 2. 0?8A0B8 C <>;5:C;O@=V9 B0 V>==V9 D>@<0E @V2=O==O 3V4@>;V7C AC;LDVBC <03=VN, =VB@0BC E@><C, D>AD0BC :0;VN. 3. 0?8A0B8 2 <>;5:C;O@=V9 B0 V>==V9 D>@<0E @V2=O==O @50:FVW: AlCl3 + Na2S + H2O ( .  ! 2 1. >7G8=8 O:8E =02545=8E =86G5 A>;59 <0NBL @ = 7: =VB@0BC @C1V4VN, AC;LDV4C 0<>=VN, E;>@84C =0B@VN, AC;LDV4C :0;VN? 2. 0?8A0B8 C <>;5:C;O@=V9 B0 V>==V9 D>@<0E @V2=O==O 3V4@>;V7C =VB@0BC D5@C<C (ll), AC;LDVBC ;VBVN, =VB@8BC E@><C (lll). 3. !:;0AB8 @V2=O==O @50:FVW, I> 2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 7<VHC20==V 2>4=8E @>7G8=V2 AC;LD0BC 0;N<V=VN V AC;LDV4C F57VN.  ! 3 1. /:V 7 ?5@5;VG5=8E =86G5 A?>;C: 1C4CBL 3V4@>;V7C20B8AO: E;>@84 E@><C (lll), :0@1>=0B =0B@VN, AC;LD0B :0;VN, AC;LDV4 0;N<V=VN? 2. 0?8A0B8 C <>;5:C;O@=V9 B0 V>==V9 D>@<0E @V2=O==O 3V4@>;V7C =VB@0BC ?;N<1C<C (ll), :0@1>=0BC =0B@VN, AC;LDV4C <03=VN. 3. !:;0AB8 @V2=O==O @50:FVW, I> 2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 7<VHC20==V 2>4=8E @>7G8=V2 E;>@84C E@><C (lll) V AC;LDV4C :0;VN.  ! 4 1. >7G8=8 O:8E =02545=8E =86G5 A>;59 <0NBL @ ( 7: E;>@84C AB0=C<C (ll), =VB@0BC E@><C (ll), AC;LDV4C :0;VN, AC;LD0BC :C?@C<C (ll)? 2. 0?8A0B8 2 <>;5:C;O@=V9 B0 V>==V9 D>@<0E @V2=O==O 3V4@>;V7C E;>@84C E@><C (lll), :0@1>=0BC :0;LFVN, AC;LDVBC F8=:C. 3. !:;0AB8 @V2=O==O @50:FVW, I> 2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 7<VHC20==V 2>4=8E @>7G8=V2 A8;V:0BC ;VBVN 9 E;>@84C 0<>=VN.  ! 5 1. /:V 7 ?5@5;VG5=8E =86G5 A?>;C: 1C4CBL 3V4@>;V7C20B8AO: :0@1>=0B :0;VN, =VB@0B F8=:C, FV0=V4 =0B@VN, AC;LD0B 0;N<V=VN? 2. 0?8A0B8 2 <>;5:C;O@=V9 B0 V>==V9 D>@<0E @V2=O==O 3V4@>;V7C =VB@0BC AB0=C<C (ll), AC;LDV4C 10@VN, :0@1>=0BC E@><C (lll). 3. !:;04VBL @V2=O==O @50:FVW, I> 2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 7<VHC20==V 2>4=8E @>7G8=V2 AC;LD0BC :C?@C<C (ll) V :0@1>=0BC :0;VN.  ! 6 1. >7G8=8 O:8E =02545=8E =86G5 A>;59 <0NBL @ (7: D>AD0B 0<>=VN, AC;LDV4 :0;VN, 3V4@>:0@1>=0B =0B@VN, E;>@84 1VA<CBC? 2. 0?8A0B8 2 <>;5:C;O@=V9 B0 V>==V9 D>@<0E @V2=O==O 3V4@>;V7C @>7G8=V2: =VB@0BC :C?@C<C, AC;LDVBC =0B@VN, AC;LDV4C <03=VN. 3. @8 7<VHC20==V @>7G8=V2 E;>@84C E@><C 9 AC;LDVBC =0B@VN CB2>@NTBLAO >A04 3V4@>:A84C E@><C (lll). >OA=VBL 9>3> CB2>@5==O V =0254VBL @V2=O==O @50:FV9.  ! 7 1. /:V 7 ?5@5;VG5=8E =86G5 A?>;C: 1C4CBL 3V4@>;V7C20B8AO: AC;LDV4 0;N<V=VN, E;>@84 :0;LFVN, E;>@84 0<>=VN, =VB@8B =0B@VN? 2. 0?8A0B8 2 <>;5:C;O@=V9 B0 V>==V9 D>@<0E @V2=O==O 3V4@>;V7C @>7G8=V2: =VB@0BC 0<>=VN, E;>@84C <03=VN, D>AD0BC :0;VN. 3. 0?8A0B8 2 <>;5:C;O@=V9 B0 V>==V9 D>@<0E @V2=O==O @50:FVW: 2!3 + Fe2SO4 + H2O ( .  ! 8 1. >7G8=8 O:8E =02545=8E =86G5 A>;59 <0NBL @ ( 7: AC;LD0BC F8=:C, D>AD0BC :0;VN, E;>@84C D5@C<C (lll), 0F5B0BC ?;N<1C<C (ll)? 2. 0?8A0B8 2 <>;5:C;O@=V9 B0 V>==V9 D>@<0E @V2=O==O 3V4@>;V7C @>7G8=V2: E;>@84C 10@VN, 0F5B0BC :0;VN, AC;LDVBC :0;LFVN. 3. @8 4VW =0 @>7G8= E;>@84C 0;N<V=VN :0@1>=0B>< :0;VN 28?040T 2 >A04 3V4@>:A84 0;N<V=VN. /: F5 ?>OA=8B8? 0254VBL 2V4?>2V4=V @V2=O==O @50:FV9. 6. !- & ( )  ! 1 1. 87=0G8B8 ABC?5=V >:8A=5==O 5;5<5=BV2 C A?>;C:0E: CaSO4, HNO3, BaO, K2HPO4. 2. !:;0AB8 5;5:B@>==V @V2=O==O B0 2:070B8, O:89 ?@>F5A  >:8A=5==O G8 2V4=>2;5==O  2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 =0ABC?=8E ?5@5B2>@5==OE: Cu+ ! 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C+4; Mn+7 ! Mn+4. 3. 0 >A=>2V 5;5:B@>==8E @V2=O=L @>7AB028B8 :>5DVFVT=B8 2 @V2=O==OE @50:FV9, I> ?@>E>4OBL 70 AE5<0<8: =VB@8B=0 :8A;>B0 + ?5@<0=30=0B :0;VN + AC;LD0B=0 :8A;>B0 ( =VB@0B=0 :8A;>B0 + MnSO4 + AC;LD0B :0;VN + 2>40.  ! 3 1. 87=0G8B8 ABC?5=V >:8A=5==O 5;5<5=BV2 C A?>;C:0E: H2CO3, ZnCl2, N2O5, Fe2(SO4)3. 2. !:;0AB8 5;5:B@>==V @V2=O==O B0 2:070B8, O:89 ?@>F5A  >:8A=5==O G8 2V4=>2;5==O  2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 =0ABC?=8E ?5@5B2>@5==OE: I+ ! I  ; Cr+3 ! Cr+6. 3. 0 >A=>2V 5;5:B@>==8E @V2=O=L @>7AB028B8 :>5DVFVT=B8 2 @V2=O==OE @50:FV9, I> ?@>E>4OBL 70 AE5<0<8: 1VE@><0B :0;VN + 9>484 ;VBVN + AC;LD0B=0 :8A;>B0 ( 9>4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + AC;LD0B :0;VN + AC;LD0B ;VBVN + 2>40.  ! 4 1. 87=0G8B8 ABC?5=V >:8A=5==O 5;5<5=BV2 C A?>;C:0E: HNO2, KClO3, P2O3, MgSiO3. 2. !:;0AB8 5;5:B@>==V @V2=O==O B0 2:070B8, O:89 ?@>F5A  >:8A=5==O G8 2V4=>2;5==O  2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 B0:8E ?5@5B2>@5==OE: Zn0 ! Zn+2; S+6 ! S  2 . 3. 0 >A=>2V 5;5:B@>==8E @V2=O=L @>7AB028B8 :>5DVFVT=B8 2 @V2=O==OE @50:FV9, I> ?@>E>4OBL 70 AE5<0<8: >:A84 1@><C (ll) + E;>@84 <0=30=C (ll) + 3V4@>:A84 :0;VN ( 1@><V4 :0;VN + >:A84 <0=30=C (lV) + E;>@84 :0;VN + 2>40.  ! 5 1. 87=0G8B8 ABC?5=V >:8A=5==O 5;5<5=BV2 C A?>;C:0E: H2S, Ca(IO)2, Cu2O, ZnCO3. 2. !:;0AB8 5;5:B@>==V @V2=O==O B0 2:070B8, O:89 ?@>F5A  >:8A=5==O G8 2V4=>2;5==O  2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 =0ABC?=8E ?5@5B2>@5==OE: P+3 ! P+5; Mn+7 ! Mn+2. 3. 0 >A=>2V 5;5:B@>==8E @V2=O=L @>7AB028B8 :>5DVFVT=B8 2 @V2=O==OE @50:FV9, I> ?@>E>4OBL 70 AE5<0<8: 1VE@><0B :0;VN + E;>@84=0 :8A;>B0 + E;>@84 AB0=C<C (ll) ( E;>@84 :0;VN + E;>@84 E@><C (lll) + E;>@84 AB0=C<C (lV) + 2>40.  ! 6 1. 87=0G8B8 ABC?5=V >:8A=5==O 5;5<5=BV2 C A?>;C:0E: H2SO3, Ba3(PO4)2, Na2O, Cr(NO3)2. 2. !:;0AB8 5;5:B@>==V @V2=O==O B0 2:070B8, O:89 ?@>F5A  >:8A=5==O G8 2V4=>2;5==O  2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 B0:8E ?5@5B2>@5==OE: N+3 ! N  3; S  2 ! S0. 3. 0 >A=>2V 5;5:B@>==8E @V2=O=L @>7AB028B8 :>5DVFVT=B8 2 @V2=O==OE @50:FV9, I> ?@>E>4OBL 70 AE5<0<8: AC;LDV4 :0;LFVN + E;>@84=0 :8A;>B0 + =VB@0B=0 :8A;>B0 ( E;>@84 :0;LFVN + AV@:0 + >:A84 =VB@>35=C (ll) + 2>40.  ! 7 1. 87=0G8B8 ABC?5=V >:8A=5==O 5;5<5=BV2 C A?>;C:0E: HClO, Mg(HCO3)2, SO, Sn(NO2)4. 2. !:;0AB8 5;5:B@>==V @V2=O==O B0 2:070B8, O:89 ?@>F5A  >:8A=5==O G8 2V4=>2;5==O  2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 =0ABC?=8E ?5@5B2>@5==OE: N  3 ! N+5; Cl+5 ! Cl  . 3. 0 >A=>2V 5;5:B@>==8E @V2=O=L @>7AB028B8 :>5DVFVT=B8 2 @V2=O==OE @50:FV9, I> ?@>E>4OBL 70 AE5<0<8: E@><VB =0B@VN + E;>@ + 3V4@>:A84 =0B@VN ( E@><0B =0B@VN + E;>@84 =0B@VN + 2>40.  ! 8 1. 87=0G8B8 ABC?5=V >:8A=5==O 5;5<5=BV2 C A?>;C:0E: H2CrO4, AlOHSO4, SrO, KMnO4. 2. !:;0AB8 5;5:B@>==V @V2=O==O B0 2:070B8, O:89 ?@>F5A  >:8A=5==O G8 2V4=>2;5==O  2V41C20TBLAO ?@8 =0ABC?=8E ?5@5B2>@5==OE: Mn+6 ! Mn+2; As  3 ! As+5. 3. 0 >A=>2V 5;5:B@>==8E @V2=O=L @>7AB028B8 :>5DVFVT=B8 2 @V2=O==OE @50:FV9, I> ?@>E>4OBL 70 AE5<0<8: AC;LDV4 =0B@VN + AC;LDVB =0B@VN + E;>@84=0 :8A;>B0 ( E;>@84 =0B@VN + AV@:0 + 2>40. 7.    !. .  !  #  ! 1 1. 87=0G8B8 <0AC F8=:C, O:89 =5>1EV4=> @>7G8=8B8 C E;>@84=V9 :8A;>BV, I>1 >45@60=8< 2>4=5< <>6=0 1C;> 2V4=>28B8 >:A84 :C?@C<C (ll) <0A>N 32 3. 2. 0:V=G8B8 @V2=O==O @50:FV9: H2S + H2O2 ! ; KI + H2O2 + H2SO4 ! ; Hg(NO3)2 + H2O2 + NaOH ! Hg + ; AgNO3 + H2O2 + NaOH ! .  ! 2 1. # 70:@8BV9 ?>AC48=V 281CE=C;> 75 <; AC<VHV :8A=N 9 2>4=N. VA;O ?@82545==O 307C 4> ?>G0B:>28E C<>2 9>3> >1'T< AB0=>282 30 <;. 07, I> 70;8H82AO, 3>@8BL. 87=0G8B8 2V4A>B:>289 A:;04 28EV4=>W AC<VHV. 2. ;O =0?>2=5==O 05@>AB0BV2 C ?>;L>28E C<>20E V=>4V :>@8ABCNBLAO 270T<>4VTN 3V4@84C :0;LFVN 7 2>4>N. !:V;L:8 !02 ?>B@V1=> 28:>@8AB0B8 4;O =0?>2=5==O 05@>AB0B0 >1 T<>< 500 <3? !:V;L:8 =5>1EV4=> 4;O FL>3> F8=:C B0 AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8?  ! 3 1. >45=L A?0;8;8 C =04;8H:C :8A=N. 1'T< 307>2>W AC<VHV 7<5=H82AO =0 240 <;. 87=0G8B8 2V4A>B>: 2>4=N C 28EV4=V9 AC<VHV. 2. > 150 3 @>7G8=C ?5@>:A84C 3V4@>35=C 4>40;8 >:A84 <0=30=C (lV). 45@60;8 :8A5=L >1 T<>< 1 ;. 87=0G8B8 2<VAB ?5@>:A84C 2 @>7G8=V.  ! 4 1. # ?>AC48=C ?><VAB8;8 ?> 5,6 <; 2>4=N B0 :8A=N. !C<VH 307V2 ?V4V@20;8. /:C <0AC 2>48 >45@60;8 C @57C;LB0BV @50:FVW? 2. @8 =03@V20==V 15@B>;5B>2>W A>;V G0AB8=0 WW @>7:;0;0AO 7 284V;5==O< :8A=N, 0 G0AB8=0  7 CB2>@5==O< ?5@E;>@0BC V E;>@84C :0;VN. 87=0G8B8 <0AC B0 A:;04 70;8H:C, O:I> ?@8 =03@V20==V 44,1 3 15@B>;5B>2>W A>;V 284V;8;>AO 6,72 ; :8A=N (=.C.).  ! 5 1. 5B0;5289 =0B@V9 <0A>N 55,2 3 >:8A=8;8 4> ?5@>:A84C =0B@VN, 0 ?>BV< @>7:;0;8 2>4>N. /:89 >1'T< :8A=N ?@8 FL><C >45@60;8? 2. @8 =03@V20==V 126,4 3 ?5@<0=30=0BC :0;VN CB2>@8;>AO 6,72 ; :8A=N. 87=0G8B8 ABC?V=L @>7:;040==O ?5@<0=30=0BC.  ! 6 1. @8 @>7:;040==V 15@B>;5B>2>W A>;V >45@60;8 :8A5=L >1'T<>< 6,72 ;. 87=0G8B8 <0AC 28EV4=>W @5G>28=8, O:I> 2>=0 <VAB8BL 4 % 4><VH>:. 2. >@V==O ?@>?0=C 2V41C20TBLAO 70 @50:FVTN: !38 + 52 = 3!2 + 42. 87=0G8B8, A:V;L:8 ?@>?0=C <>6=0 A?0;8B8 7 10 ; :8A=N, I> <VAB8BL 12 % >7>=C.  ! 7 1. ;O A?0;5==O 68 3 AC<VHV 2>4=N B0 >:A84C :0@1>=C (ll) 28:>@8AB0;8 89,6 ; :8A=N (=.C.). 87=0G8B8 2V4A>B:>289 A:;04 28EV4=>W AC<VHV. 2. 0:V=G8B8 @V2=O==O @50:FV9: H2O2 + Ag2O ! ; KMnO4 + H2O2 + H2SO4 ! ; CrCl3 + H2O2 + KOH ! ; H2O2 + HIO3 ! .  ! 8 1. @8 @>7:;040==V 273,4 3 AC<VHV 15@B>;5B>2>W A>;V B0 ?5@<0=30=0BC :0;VN CB2>@8;>AO 49,28 ; :8A=N (=.C.). 87=0G8B8 A:;04 28EV4=>W AC<VHV. 2. 1G8A;8B8 >1 T< ?>2VB@O, =5>1EV4=89 4;O A?0;5==O 2 :3 AC;LDV4C F8=:C. 8.   ! 1 1. 0,200 3 30;>35=V4C :0;LFVN ?@8 270T<>4VW 7 @>7G8=>< =VB@0BC 0@35=BC<C CB2>@8;8 0,376 3 30;>35=V4C 0@35=BC<C. 87=0G8B8, O:C AV;L :0;LFVN 27O;8 4;O 0=0;V7C. 2. %;>@>2>45=L, >45@60=89 ?@8 4VW =04;8H:C AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 =0 58,5 3 E;>@84C =0B@VN, @>7G8=8;8 C 146 3 2>48. /:89 C<VAB C 2V4A>B:0E E;>@>2>4=N 2 >45@60=V9 E;>@84=V9 :8A;>BV?  ! 2 1. 100 <; 307>2>W AC<VHV 4;O A8=B57C E;>@>2>4=N 1C;> ?@>?CI5=> G5@57 @>7G8= 9>484C :0;VN. @8 FL><C 284V;8;>AO 0,508 3 9>4C. =09B8 A:;04 C7OB>W AC<VHV (C 2V4A>B:0E 70 >1'T<><). 2. # 2>4V @>7G8=8;8 1 <>;L E;>@>2>4=N V 4> >45@60=>3> @>7G8=C 4>40;8 300 3 10 %->3> @>7G8=C 3V4@>:A84C =0B@VN. /:C @50:FVN  :8A;C, =59B@0;L=C G8 ;C6=C  <0B8<5 >45@60=89 @>7G8=? V4?>2V4L ?V4B25@48B8 @>7@0EC=:><.  ! 3 1. @8 ?@>?CA:0==V 307C, I> <VAB8BL E;>@, G5@57 @>7G8= 9>484C :0;VN 284V;8;>AO 1,27 3 9>4C. 1'T< 307C, O:89 70;8H82AO, AB0=>28BL 4,888 ;. 87=0G8B8 2<VAB E;>@C 2 307V (C 2V4A>B:0E 70 >1'T<><). 2. %;>@>2>45=L, O:89 CB2>@82AO ?@8 4VW AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 =0 19 3 1572>4=>3> E;>@84C <03=VN, ?@>?CAB8;8 G5@57 @>7G8=, I> <VAB8BL 10 3 3V4@>:A84C :0;VN. >7G8= 28?0@8;8. /:C @5G>28=C B0 C O:V9 :V;L:>ABV ?@8 FL><C >45@60;8?  ! 4 1. '5@57 A:;O=:C 7 @>7G8=>< 9>484C :0;VN 1C;> ?@>?CI5=> 2 ; ?>2VB@O, I> <VAB8BL E;>@. @8 FL><C 284V;8;>AO 91,6 <3 9>4C. !:V;L:8 <V;V3@0<V2 E;>@C <VAB8BLAO C ;VB@V ?>2VB@O? 2. > @>7G8=C, O:89 <VAB8BL 0,585 3 E;>@84C =0B@VN, 4>40;8 @>7G8=, I> <VAB8BL 3,58 3 =VB@0BC 0@35=BC<C. A04 2V4DV;LB@C20;8. 87=0G8B8 <0AC >A04C.  ! 5 1. @8 28@>1=8FB2V 1@><C 7 ?@8@>4=8E 1@><V4V2 =0 1 :3 1@><C 28B@0G0TBLAO 0,6 :3 E;>@C. 0A:V;L:8 28B@0B8 E;>@C ?5@528ICNBL B5>@5B8G=> =5>1EV4=C :V;L:VABL (C 2V4A>B:0E)? 2. > 100 3 14 %->W E;>@84=>W :8A;>B8 4>40;8 14 3 3V4@>:A84C :0;VN. 45@60=89 @>7G8= 28?0@8;8, 70;8H>: 28ACH8;8. /:89 A:;04 B0 <0A0 70;8H:C?  ! 6 1. !:V;L:8 3@0<V2 E;>@C ?@>@503C20;> 7 9>484>< =0B@VN, O:I> ?@8 FL><C >45@60;8 25,4 3 9>4C? 2. @8 4VW AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 =0 E;>@84 =0B@VN CB2>@8;>AO 73 3 E;>@>2>4=N. @8 FL><C 2 :>;1V, 45 ?@>E>48;0 @50:FVO, :@V< ?@>4C:BV2 @50:FVW 70;8H8;>AO 33 3 E;>@84C =0B@VN. !:V;L:8 (C 2V4A>B:0E) E;>@84C =0B@VN ?@>@503C20;>?  ! 7 1. VTN =04;8H:C =VB@0BC 0@35=BC<C =0 @>7G8= 1@><V4C =0B@VN 1C;> >45@60=> 0,251 3 >A04C. 87=0G8B8, A:V;L:8 1@><V4C =0B@VN 1C;> C @>7G8=V. 2. CE>==0 AV;L <VAB8BL 97 % E;>@84C =0B@VN, 0,18 % E;>@84C <03=VN, 0,19 % E;>@84C :0;LFVN, 1,10 % AC;LD0BC :0;LFVN, 1,49 % 2>48 B0 V=H8E 4><VH>:, I> =5 <VABOBL E;>@. 87=0G8B8, O:C :V;L:VABL 36 %->W E;>@84=>W :8A;>B8 <>6=0 >45@60B8 7 1 :3 FVTW A>;V.  ! 8 1. !:V;L:8 DB>@84C :0;LFVN =5>1EV4=> 4;O >45@60==O 2,5 :3 40 %->3> @>7G8=C ?;028:>2>W :8A;>B8, O:I> 22060B8, I> C @50:FVW DB>@84 :0;LFVN 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO =0 80 %? 2. /:89 >1'T< E;>@>2>4=N >45@60;8 2 @57C;LB0BV 281CEC 1 ; AC<VHV, I> <VAB8BL 60 % E;>@C B0 40 % 2>4=N (70 >1'T<><)? 9. !#,$#  "  !#  ! 1 1. !:V;L:8 AV@:8 ?>B@V1=> 27OB8 =0 :>6=89 3@0< <5B0;C 4;O >45@60==O: 0) AC;LDV4C <03=VN; 1) AC;LDV4C 0;N<V=VN. 2. 7 320 B AV@G0=>3> :>;G540=C, I> <VAB8BL 45 % AC;LDC@C, 1C;> >45@60=> 405 B AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 (C ?5@5@0EC=:C =0 100-2V4A>B:>2C). 87=0G8B8 28EV4 :8A;>B8.  ! 2 1. /:V @5G>28=8 B0 C O:V9 :V;L:>ABV >45@68<> ?VA;O B>3>, O: 70:V=G8BLAO @50:FVO <V6 15 3 F8=:C V 6,4 3 AV@:8? 2. >=F5=B@>20=0 AC;LD0B=0 :8A;>B0 (3CAB8=0  1,84 3/<;) <VAB8BL 2 % 2>48. !:V;L:8 <>;59 H2SO4 <VAB8BLAO C 1 ; B0:>W :8A;>B8?  ! 3 1. # @57C;LB0BV ?@>?CA:0==O =04;8H:C AV@:>2>4=N G5@57 @>7G8= =VB@0BC ?;N<1C<C CB2>@8;>AO 4,78 3 >A04C. !:V;L:8 3@0<V2 =VB@0BC ?;N<1C<C <VAB8;>AO C @>7G8=V? 2. > @>7G8=C, I> <VAB8BL 26,1 3 =VB@0BC 10@VN, 4>40;8 @>7G8=, O:89 <VAB8BL 0,25 <>;L AC;LD0BC =0B@VN. A04 2V4DV;LB@C20;8. 87=0G8B8 <0AC >A04C.  ! 4 1. !:V;L:8 <>;59 AV@:>2>4=N ?>28==> 1CB8 ?>3;8=CB> @>7G8=><, I> <VAB8BL 20 3 3V4@>:A84C =0B@VN, I>1 CB2>@8;0AO A5@54=O AV;L? 2. @8 >1@>1;5==V 1,844 3 AC<VHV E;>@84C :0;VN B0 AC;LD0BC :0;VN :>=F5=B@>20=>N AC;LD0B=>N :8A;>B>N 1C;> >45@60=> 1,923 3 G8AB>3> AC;LD0BC :0;VN. !:V;L:8 <VAB8;>AO C AC<VHV :>6=>W 7 @5G>28=?  ! 5 1. !C;LDV4 D5@C<C, I> =04E>48BL C ?@>406, ?>28=5= <VAB8B8 =5 <5=H5 =V6 57 % FeS. /:89 >1'T< AV@:>2>4=N <>6=0 >45@60B8 7 1 :3 B0:>3> @50:B82C (=.C.)? 2. @8 28@>1=8FB2V AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 =0 :>6=C WW B>==C (2 ?5@5@0EC=:C =0 100-2V4A>B:>2C) 28B@0G0TBLAO 0,854 B AV@G0=>3> :>;G540=C, I> <VAB8BL 45 % AC;LDC@C. 87=0G8B8 28EV4 AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 (C 2V4A>B:0E).  ! 6 1. !:V;L:8 AC;LDV4C =0B@VN ?>28==> 2ABC?8B8 C @50:FVN 7 E;>@84=>N :8A;>B>N, I>1 >45@60;8 16 3 AV@G8AB>3> 307C? 2. !:V;L:8 F8=:C B0 AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 B5>@5B8G=> <>6;82> >45@60B8 7 1 B @C48, I> <VAB8BL 30 % AC;LDV4C F8=:C?  ! 7 1. !:V;L:8 <>;59 AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 <>6=0 >45@60B8 ?@8 @>7G8=5==V 320 3 >:A84C AC;LDC@C (Vl) C =04;8H:C 2>48? 2. !:V;L:8 AV@G8AB>3> 307C ?>28==> CB2>@8B8AO ?@8 28?0;N20==V 1 B :>;G540=C, I> <VAB8BL 48 % AC;LDC@C, O:I> ?@8 FL><C 2 =54>30@:C 70;8H0TBLAO 1 % AC;LDC@C?  ! 8 1. ;O 3070FVW ?@8<VI5=L 75@=>AE>28I V7 <5B>N 28=8IC20==O :><0E G0AB> A?0;NNBL AV@:C, 28E>4OG8 7 =>@<8 24 3 =0 1 <3 ?@8<VI5==O. 87=0G8B8, A:V;L:8 >:A84C AC;LDC@C (lV) CB2>@8BLAO ?@8 3070FVW ?@8<VI5==O :C10BC@>N 100 <3. 2. 0T<> @>7G8=, C O:><C =0 <>;L AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 ?@8?040T <>;L 2>48. /:89 C<VAB (C 2V4A>B:0E) AC;LD0B=>W :8A;>B8 C FL><C @>7G8=V? 10. 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