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ohnson-Laird & K. Oatley The Language of Emotions: an Analysis of Semantic Field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K 1C45< AG8B0BL, GB> D@075>;>387< =><8=8@C5B :>=:@5B=CN M<>F8N, 5A;8 =07K205<K5 8< >BB5=:8 ?@8=04;560B : >4=>9 107>2>9 3@C??5. 1. $@075>;>387<K, =><8=8@CNI85 ?>78B82=K5 M<>F88  ?>78B82=K< M<>F8O< >B=>AOBAO: C4>2>;LAB285, @04>ABL, 1;065=AB2>, 2>AB>@3, ;8:>20=85, 2>AE8I5=85, A8<?0B8O (?@8O7=L), =56=>ABL, 2;N1;5==>ABL, ;N1>2L (?@82O70==>ABL), ;N1>2L (?>;>20O), >1>60=85, C<8;5=85, 1;03>40@=>ABL, 3>@4>ABL, A0<>4>2>;LAB2>, C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL A>1>N, C25@5==>ABL, 4>25@85, C2065=85, A?>:>9=0O A>25ABL, GC2AB2> >1;53G5=8O, GC2AB2> 157>?0A=>AB8, ?@542:CH5=85, 7;>@04AB2>, GC2AB2> C4>2;5B2>@5==>9 <5AB8 (C: 1982, 24; /@0=F52 1997, 45). !@548 =><8=8@CNI8E ?>;>68B5;L=K5 M<>F88 D@075>;>387<>2 ?@5>1;040NB 548=8FK A> 7=0G5=85< 1KB89=>AB8 (>B<5G05BAO =0;8G85 M<>F88: G5;>25: =0E>48BAO 2 :0:><-;81> M<>F8>=0;L=>< A>AB>O=88 8;8 8A?KBK205B :0:>5-;81> M<>F8>=0;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : G5<C-;81>/:><C-;81>) (A<. =0?@. 0A8;L52 1981, 77). @04>ABL, 1;065=AB2>, AG0ABL5. 04>ABL  25A5;>5 GC2AB2>, >ICI5=85 1>;LH>3> 4CH52=>3> C4>2;5B2>@5=8O (653>2, (254>20 1997). =5 A;KH0BL 75<;8 ?>4 A>1>9 (?>4 =>30<8); =5 A;KH0BL (=5 GCOBL, =5 GC2AB2>20BL) =>3 ?>4 A>1>9. A?KBK20BL A8;L=CN @04>ABL, 1KBL 2?@8?>4=OB><, 2>AB>@65==>< =0AB@>5=88 (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997). 8E08;, 2A5 ;04=>, A:>@> 65=8BAO. 05G:0 15305B  =>3 ?>4 A>1>9 =5 GC5B. C 40 G53> 4828BLAO? 0 B0:>3> ?0@=O 2KE>48B& (1@0<>2, @OA;8=K, 764). 1KBL (GC2AB2>20BL A51O) =0 A54L<>< =515. A?KBK20BL 1>;LHCN @04>ABL, 1KBL AG0AB;82K< (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997).  :>340 O ?@54;>68; :><18=0F8N, ?@8 :>B>@>9 3>AC40@AB2> =5 B>;L:> >B405B =0< D;875;8=, => 5I5 8 70@?;0BC ?>41@0AK205B, B0: 1K;8 =0 A54L<>< =515, B>;L:> B>@3>20;8AL 70 :064CN :>?59:C& (57K<O==K9, 11 12). KBL (GC2AB2>20BL A51O) =0 25@EC 1;065=AB20. =86=. A?KBK20BL 1>;LHCN @04>ABL, 1KBL AG0AB;82K< (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997). KBL 2 B5;OGL5< 2>AB>@35. @>=. @>O2;OBL A;8H:>< 1C@=K9 8;8 15A?@8G8==K9, 15AA<KA;5==K9 2>AB>@3 (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997). @K30BL (A:0:0BL) >B @04>AB8; ?@K30BL 4> ?>B>;:0. C@=> 2K@060BL @04>ABL (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997). & 87:0 1K;0 =5 >4=0. A;54 70 87:>9 2 871C 2E>48;0 05G:0. 3>@H0 >B @04>AB8 ?>4?@K3=C; GCBL ;8 =5 4> ?>B>;:0  ;N18; :><?0=59A:CN 687=L (1@0<>2, @OA;8=K, 685). !<>B@5BL (3;O45BL) 8<5=8==8:><. <5BL @04>AB=K9, 4>2>;L=K9 284. !8OBL :0: <BC;LA:89 (<54=K9, =0G8I5==K9)> A0<>20@. @>=. A5< A2>8< 284>< 2K@060BL @04>ABL, ;8:>20=85, AG0ABL5 (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997). >B8@0BL @C:8. K@060BL @04>ABL ?> ?>2>4C C40G=>9 A45;:8, CA?5E0 2 :0:><-;81> (G0AB> =51;03>?@8OB=><) 45;5 (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997). 0640O 68;:0 83@05B. #AB0@.  E>@>H5< A0<>GC2AB288, =0AB@>5=88 ($54>@>2 1995). CH0 (A5@4F5) @04C5BAO.  ?@8?>4=OB>< =0AB@>5=88, >ICI5=88 @04>AB8, AG0ABLO ($54>@>2 1995).  0H5 5=8=A:>5 CG8;8I5 845B!  A:070;0 AB0@CE0.  0: 84CB-B>, 4CH0 @04C5BAO! (!8<>=>2, B.2, 408). CH0 =0 =515 C :>3>. B>-;81> 8A?KBK205B GC2AB2> 25;8G09H59 @04>AB8 ($54>@>2 1995). 8E08; C65 A:>;L:> @07 A53>4=O ?@>E>48; <8<> MB8E 2>@>B, 0 2>B ?>4>H5; : =8< A59G0A, 8 >?OBL 4CH0 =0 =515. 'C4>-2>@>B0! (1@0<>2, ><, 16) 0 @04>ABOE (@04>AB8). > A;CG0N :0:>9-;81> C40G8, :0:>3>-;81> @04>AB=>3> A>1KB8O; >B @04>AB8 (>;>B:>2 1987). "5BO N10, A<8@5==> 8 ?>GB8B5;L=> 4> 2>@>B ?@>2>602H0O AC?@C30 =0 A;C61C, 25@=C;0AL, ?;N=C;0, <K =0 @04>ABOE E20B0=C;8 A =5N ?> 420 AB>?0@O 2>4:8& (AB0DL52, >25AB8, 371). ;065=AB2>  ?>;=>5 8 =52>7<CB8<>5 AG0ABL5, =0A;0645=85 (653>2, (254>20 1997). KBL (GC2AB2>20BL A51O) =0 25@EC 1;065=AB20. =86=.; 1KBL (GC2AB2>20BL A51O) =0 A54L<>< =515. A?KBK20BL GC2AB2> 1573@0=8G=>3> AG0ABLO, 3;C1>:>3> C4>2;5B2>@5=8O. >28BL :09D. 0@3. 0A;0640BLAO G5<-;81>, 1;065=AB2>20BL (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997). !G0ABL5  GC2AB2> 8 A>AB>O=85 ?>;=>3>, 2KAH53> C4>2;5B2>@5=8O (653>2, (254>20 1997). KBL (GC2AB2>20BL A51O) =0 25@EC 1;065=AB20. =86=.; 1KBL (GC2AB2>20BL A51O) =0 A54L<>< =515. A?KBK20BL GC2AB2> 1573@0=8G=>3> AG0ABLO, 3;C1>:>3> C4>2;5B2>@5=8O. ">G=> 70=>2> <=0 A25B> @>48;AO.  A>AB>O=88 AG0ABLO, C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 (>1KG=> =0ABC?82H5< ?>A;5 =5?@8OB=KE >ICI5=89) (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997). >AE8I5=85, 2>AB>@3. >AE8I5=85  2KAH55 C4>2;5B2>@5=85, 2>AB>@3. >AB>@3  ?>4J5< @04>AB=KE GC2AB2, 2>AE8I5=85 (653>2, (254>20 1997). KBL 157 C<0 >B :>3>, G53>; 1KBL 157 ?0<OB8 >B :>3>, G53>; 1KBL 157 4CH8. #AB0@. KBL 2 ?>;=>< 2>AB>@35, 2>AE8I5=88 >B :>3>-;81>, G53>-;81> (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997). # =53> 2 MB>9 4K@:5 <>3 ?><5AB8BLAO 5I5 >48= 7C1, 8 <K 1K;8 157 C<0 >B MB>9 !0=L:8=>9 4K@:8. 0: >= 2 =55 F8@:0; A;N=>9 (AB0DL52, >A;54=89 ?>:;>=, 59). 0@8A0, :>=5G=>, 1K;0 157 C<0 >B >A:2K, ?> =59 B0<>H=OO 687=L, 8, =04> ?>;030BL, BC40 A> 2@5<5=5< 8 C15@5BAO (1@0<>2, ><, 112). A C<0 A>9B8! @>AB. -:A?@5A. K@065=85 :@09=53> C482;5=8O 8;8 2>AE8I5=8O G5<-;81>; 8@>=8G=>3> >B=>H5=8O : :><C-;81> 8;8 : G5<C-;81>; ($54>@>2 1995).  >B@OA0NI5!  ! C<0 A>9B8!  ;8=0, BK  35=89! & A5 55 ?>74@02;ONB, 4C<0O, GB> >=0 35=80;L=> AK3@0;0 8A?C3& (0@8=8=0, >A<5@B=K9 >1@07, 213). !8<?0B8O, ;N1>2L. !8<?0B8O 8 ;N1>2L 1K20NB :>=:@5B=K<8 (: >?@545;5==><C G5;>25:C 8;8 ?@54<5BC) 8 >1>1I5==K<8 (: 45BO<, : <C7K:5). !8<?0B8O  2;5G5=85, 2=CB@5==55 @0A?>;>65=85 : :><C-;81>, G5<C-;81> (653>2, (254>20 1997). KBL ?> 4CH5; 1KBL ?> A5@4FC; 1KBL ?> 2:CAC; 1KBL ?> =@02C; 1KBL ?> =CB@C @>AB. :><C. @028BLAO, A>>B25BAB2>20BL 2:CAC, 273;O40< :>3>-;81> (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997).  <=5 1>;LH5 ?> 4CH5 45@525=A:0O 10=O.  3>@>4A:>9 10=5 2 @O=A:5 <=5 =5?>=@028;>AL (>@G0:>2, 330). C, 4>@>3>9 <>9, =5 2A5< F0@AB2> 5935@0 ?> 2:CAC, :0: B515! (!B@C30F:85, 275). @845BAO, ?0@5=L, ?@825B8BL B51O, C3>AB8BL. > =4@02C BK <=5 (ND0=>2, 287). @89B8AL ?> 4CH5 (?> A5@4FC); ?@89B8AL ?> 2:CAC; ?@89B8AL ?> =@02C; ?@89B8AL ?> =CB@C @>AB. :><C. >=@028BLAO, ?>;N18BLAO, ?@83;O=CBLAO :><C-;81> (8@8E, >:85=:>, !B5?0=>20 1997). 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E, B>20@8I ;59B5=0=B! 5 >4=0 482G8=0 ?>B5@O5B 3>;>2C 87-70 20A! (AB0DL52, 0ABCE 8 ?0ABCH:0, 413). !5<0 :0C70B82=>AB8 4><8=8@C5B 2 -$ A> 7=0G5=85< 2;N18BL 2 A51O: !2>48BL A C<0 :>3>. K7K20BL GC2AB2> 2>AB>@30, A8;L=> C2;5:0BL, >G0@>2K20BL (C:>2 1980).  O B51O 4025G0 B>6 =5 A@07C C7=0;0. >= 254L BK :0:>9 ;5H0: AB0;, 101-B> 2A5E AC<0, =025@=>, A25; (1@0<>2, @OA;8=K, 691). ;045BL A5@4F5< GL8<. #AB0@. =CH0BL :><C-;81> GC2AB2> ;N128, >1>60=8O ($54>@>2 1995).  GB> 8;8< >=A 157>B:07=> 2;045; 55 A5@4F5<, <>6=> 1K;> AC48BL ?> B><C, :0:>5 =5>1K:=>25==>5 7=0G5=85 8<5; >= ?@8 42>@5 (ND0=>2, 5;8:>5 A845=85, 405). ?>:>@8BL (02>520BL) A5@4F5 GL5, :>3>. =86=. =CH0BL, 2K7K20BL ;N1>2L : A515 ($54>@>2 1995). C6 :@5AB=>9 & 1;03>40@O C<C, AB0@0=8O< 8 4>1@59H5<C E0@0:B5@C ?>:>@O; 2KA>BK =0C: ?> ?CB8 2 8=65=5@K, ?>:>@8; 5I5 8 A5@4F5 @071>@G82>9 4528FK, 402H59 >B;C? 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[!K= 25@=C;AO A 2>9=K].  82>9! !;020 1>3C, 682>9!  ?> ;8FC @>48B5;O :0B8;8AL A;01K5, G0ABK5 A;57K (AB0DL52, >25AB8, 604). @>2>482 53> [B.5. >BF0] A@07C ?>25A5;52H8< 273;O4><, ;5:A59 >1;53G5==> ?5@5:@5AB8;AO: A;020 1>3C, C545B 8 1>;LH5 =5 AB0=5B 4>=8<0BL (ND0=>2, 377). A;020 B515 (B5) 3>A?>48. 073. K@065=85 GC2AB20 @04>AB8, >1;53G5=8O, C4>2;5B2>@5=8O 8B.?. ($54>@>2 1995). [!8=F>2] ?@8:070; ?@>25@8BL, =5B ;8 >BAB02H8E, 8 A @04>ABLN C7=0;, GB> =0:>=5F ?@8H;8  A;020 B515 3>A?>48!  AB0@H8=K A B5@<>A0<8 (!8<>=>2, B. 2, 337). [!>25BA:85 45A0=B=8:8, A?@OB02H8AL 2 ;5AC, =01;N40NB 70 AB@>52>9 ?>43>B>2:>9 =5<F52]. ">3> 8 3;O48, MB>B 3>@;0ABK9 ?@CAA:89 ;5H89 >1JO28B ?5@5:C@, 8 A>;40B=O ?>BO=5BAO 2 ;5A ?> <0;>9 8 1>;LH>9 =C645& > D5;L4D515;L (!;020 B5 3>A?>48!  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'B>1 59 ?@>?0ABL! (0CAB>2A:89, 167). 5>=84 G:0A>2 A5; 70 @C;L, E@OA=C; 2 A5@4F0E 425@F59 8 BO65;> 274>E=C; (57K<O==K9, 7). ! A5@4F5<. @>AB.  3=525, A5@48B> (A:070BL 8;8 A45;0BL GB>-;81>). ($54>@>2 1995).  >4C, 2>4C 8I8,  A:070; =4@59.  48 BK A> A2>59 2>4>9!  A:070; 7O A A5@4F5< (!B@C30F:85, 332). !:2>7L 7C1K. !5@48B>, 3=52=>, A> 7;>ABLN 3>2>@8BL, F548BL, 2>@G0BL 8 B.?. (C:>2 1980).  -B0 A2>;>GL 8745205BAO =04 A;54AB285<,  A:070; =4@59 A:2>7L 7C1K, AB0@0OAL C=OBL 4@>6L 2> 2A5< B5;5 (!B@C30F:85, 143). >4 3>@OGCN @C:C. 073. 1.  A>AB>O=88 2>71C645=8O, @074@065=8O, 3=520, 7;>AB8 8B.?. (45;0BL GB>-;81>). 2.  B> 2@5<O, :>340 :B>-;81> =0E>48BAO 2 A>AB>O=88 2>71C645=8O, @074@065=8O (?>?0ABL(AO), ?>?040BL(AO) B><C, :B> =0E>48BAO 2 B0:>< A>AB>O=88) (/@0=F52 1981). -E, 3>;>20, 3>;>20 =0H0 :><0=48@A:0O!  ?>4C<0; !8=F>2.  !:>;L:> @07 ?>4 3>@OGCN @C:C >15I0;8 8 A=OBL 55 8 >B>@20BL, 0 =8G53>, 2A5 5I5 45@68BAO =0 ?;5G0E! 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h~56 h~6 h~;h~ h~NHOHHHIIrIIJ^JxJKKKKL"L,L.LLL\MMMMN@NBNLNjNNNVOXOOOP,PPPFQHQQQQQ"R8RhR|RRRSJSLShS~SSTTU U0U2UUUUUPVRVVVVWWWWW4X6XX h~5NHh~56NH h~56 h~;NH h~5 h~NHh~ h~6 h~;ODLL\MPPpQfRhRSSFUUVVW6X8X&ZZ [[[\\]]^__a%"XXYY^ZZ[[^\\\\D]F]R^T^_4_<_>__`````aaa,b\b^bbbcrctcccdfdhdddddePfRf\fhffg0g2gJg^g`ggg@brt`x4XZދFHt،ڌ h~6NH h~6 h~; h~NHh~ h~5XJtv.08:d Џҏrtbd6HΒԓ\ Ȗ̖Ζ  ^*J|~02țʛRTڜܜ8:ڞܞ 4JXlnp~.0 h~5 h|yh|yhA h|yhv(' h~56 h~6NH h~6 h~;NH h~;h~ h~NHKИ4\np06*.ޯBDJ6`HطR%""gd|yģΣ@BV(*>@ "¨Ĩ.prԩJLFH "ڭ.v.0<ȯʯvxڰDz46dfTfht 8:`h~56NH h~56 h~;NH h~; h~NH h~5h~ h~6 h~6NHO`ȵԵ~02Hʷ̷طdҸԸ$^@Bp$&2T FHZrprxzTjH "VX h~@NHaJh~@aJ h~56 h~NHh~ h~6 h~;S$:4TH:v:<l40l$n%" *vvx<rtlFH0Z\f\lNZn`v0@<>VlBDh~56NH h~NH h~6 h~;h~ h~56Wn`VBxnF4dVXNnb"gd+gd+%Dnhj0F&FHb~Xd "xz.0 .:DBTdptv.0VHJtvӼӼӼӼӼӼӼ h+56 h+NH h+6 h+;h+ h~5 h~NH h~6 h~;h~56NH h~56h~J (*.0X@BDLNb .bdf~0 <LNPbn0>@Zfh h~6;h~56; h~;NHh~56NH h~; h~NH h~5 h~56h~ h~6L*,>|zvL~ F ,     d:%"h,.68NPNPRT^`2Xv |~Zt02L>@  lnNP h~;NH h~56 h~6NH h~NHh~ h~6 h~;TP      , |     L      > z | T V     vx46J|~"8<>Z68^`J`bxdf h~;NH h~6 h~;h~56NH h~NH h~56h~T:XZzl vv ""#H%(&D)*L,`/0r12244"gd'T%gd1ogd+gdR=K"%PR(T , lnv.V.Z \ v     " """P"j"""""B$D$$%.%0%H%f%%%%(&&&&' '(()8):)B)D)) hR=K6NH hR=K6 hR=KNHhR=K h~; h~56 h~NHh~ h~6 h~6NHN))Z*******++++++&,(,F,H,L,p,z,|,,,,,,,2-<->-l-v-x----- ..(.H../0/\/^///0000 22&2022233334پٹٹٴٹٹٹٴٹپ٩پ٢پ٢٢پ٢پ h~56h'T h~;NH h~6 h~; h~NH h+h+ h+NHh+hh~ h$e-hR=KhR=KhR=K5NHhR=KhR=K5hR=K hR=KNH?444N5j56(6^6`666X7Z7\7$8>8d8f888 999999::<:P:R:^:::b;d;;;*<,<<<\=x=<>X>F?zvh$! h$!;hFhF6hFhF6;hFhF; h~NH h;Ph~ h~56h~h!h;Ph1oh;P; h;Ph;P h1o56 h1oh'Th'Th'T6h'Th'T; h'ThF hF56hFh'Th1o.44n5^6`6Z7\777d8f89<::L<<>?p@>AAABxCD"gd$!gd1ogd;P"gd;P%gd1o"gd1ogd'T"gd'T%gdFF?H???@@ @(@p@v@@@@@@@A^AAAAAB`BbBBBCvCxCCC(DBDJDLDDDEEEEEEEzFFF*G6G8GJG^G`GZH`HzHHHHHH¾럲h~56; h~aJ h~6 h~; hFhFhF hF; h~NHhS hS; h$!;h~56NH h~56h~ hFh$!h$! h$!NH>DDEF2F^FFZHIKKLRNTNOP6RSlTUjWWWZY[\^``"gd%"HLINIIIII6J8JJJKKLMMMTNNNN@OBO>P@PfPPP QQ6QXQZQQQ6RRRRSSLTNTlTTTTTTTUbUUUVVVWFWHWWWWWPXRXXX6Y8YYYXZZZb[d[[[[[[\^\`\ hhhh9 h~6 h~; h~56 h~5; h~NHh~R`\\]].]]]P^R^__Z`\`````bb`cbcddddeeeeff$fH>, 2A5 E>@>H>& 0: ?0?0? [0<0 >B25B8;0, GB> ?0?0 C<5@.] >340? E& >65 <>9! (!8<>=>2, B. 2, 223). =>340 MB>B D@075>;>387< =5 2K@0605B :>=:@5B=CN M<>F8N, 0 2K?>;=O5B M:A?@5AA82=CN DC=:F8N:  "K 5I5 =5 ?@82K: :> <=5. C<05HL, O 1010?  O C65 402=> AB0;0 A>;40B><&  A:070;0 >=0 8 ?>4C<0;0: >65 <>9, :0: 2A5-B0:8 2A5 MB> B@C4=>! (!8<>=>2, B. 2, 621). >65 <>9, :0: >=0 ;N18;0 AB@04C =0 MB8E 0@L8=KE ;C30E! @0H5-B> ?@074=8:0 4;O =55 =5 1K;> (1@0<>2, @OA;8=K ,157). >B MB> 40! K@065=85 2>AE8I5=8O, 2>AB>@30; C482;5=8O, 87C<;5=8O. >AE8I5=85, 2>AB>@3: [20=>2] 4>;3> A 2>AB>@3>< A<>B@5; =0 7=0<O, :>B>@>5 45@60; 2 @C:0E AB0@H8=0 >20;LGC:.  >B MB> 40! @>6L 15@5B! (!8<>=>2, B. 1, 175 176). #482;5=85, 87C<;5=85: 0;03C@>2 70G0@>20==> @073;O4K20; 48:>28==CN 4>1KGC 8 ?@8G<>:820; ?>;=K<8 3C10<8:  >B MB> 40-0!  3>2>@OB, GC45A =0 A25B5 =5 1K205B (C:>2, 19). ;:8-?0;:8. @>AB. K@065=85 4>A04K, 2>AE8I5=8O, =54>C<5=8O 8 B.?. (>;>B:>2 1987). >7<CI5=85: 54L B0< 65 2>4K =5B, Q;:8-?0;:8! & 'B> 65 ?@8:065B5, 2>4C A A>1>9 B0I8BL? 0 BKAOGC :8;><5B@>2? (!B@C30F:85, 228). 54>C<5=85: ;:8-?0;:8, 40 GB> BCB B0:>3>? C, AB0BC8, =C, E>4OB& (!B@C30F:85, 303). <0<>G:0 <>O!; <0<>G:8 <>8!; <0<0 (<0<>G:0) @>4=0O! 8 ?>4. K@065=85 87C<;5=8O, 8A?C30, @04>AB8 8 B.?. <5AB> B>3> GB>1K 5ABL, 5H:0, ?@8B>?=C2 2>A:;8:=C;:  / ?5BL E>GC! ;OA0BL E>GC!  0<>G:0 <>O!  ?>A;KH0;>AL A=>20 8740;5:0.  0 A G53> ?;OA0BL-B>? (AB0DL52, @>:;OBK 8 C18BK, B. 1, 233). A?C3 (A >BB5=:>< A0<>8@>=88): "CB A5AB@CE0-2>AB@CE0 E;>?=C;0 A51O ?> ;O6:5 8 3>2>@8B: '8AB> :><0@K 705;8!  8 ?>:C;L O A>>1@060;  :0:85 :><0@K 2 >:BO1@5?  >=0 >B =0A E20BL 2 3>@C 8 1K;0 B0:>20! 0<>G:8 <>8! >A;54=89 AB@06=8: A153! 48= =0 >48= O A 452:>9 >AB0;AO, 8 >=0 >4=0 =0 >4=C A> <=>N (AB0DL52, ?>25AB8, 565). 0<>G:8 @4=K5! "0: BK >@8G52? 0: 65 O A@07C =5 4>3040;0AL? (K<>2, 330). 0<>G:0 @>48<0O! -B> :0: 65 >= A M:8<-B> E0@0:B5@>< A@548 ;N459 68BL 1C45B? (AB0DL52, >A;54=89 ?>:;>=, 293). <0B5@L 1>68O! #60A: [!B0AL 2848B B@C?K =0 A20;:5].  0B5@L 1>68O,  A:070; !B0AL OA=K< 3>;>A><.  0 70G5< 65 >=8 MB> 45;0NB? -B> :B> 65 B0:>5 ?@8:070;? (!B@C30F:85, 174). 0BL G5AB=O! @>AB. >A:;8F0=85, 2K@060NI55 871KB>: :0:8E-;81> GC2AB2: 87C<;5=8O, 8A?C30, @04>AB8 8 B.?. (>;>B:>2 1987). >A040: 07><:=C; >= 70A?0==K5 25:8, 0 70 >:>H:>< C65 @07284=5;>AL. @>A?0;, <0BL G5AB=0O! (ND0=>2, 480). = B515! 073. -:A?@5A. 1.K@065=85 C482;5=8O, =54>C<5=8O :0: @57C;LB0B =5>?@0240==>3> >6840=8O G53>-;81>. 2.K@065=85 4>A04K, =54>2>;LAB20 ($54>@>2 1995). 0-:> B515. #482;5=85: & =8 2 5@EC@L52>, =8 2 >1K;8=> :;C10 =5 25;>AL. 3@8I0 A>18@0;8AL 2 >B:C?;5==KE 8710E.  BCB =0-:> B515! 57 E;>?>B, 157 701>B - 15A?;0B=>5 <5AB> A1>@0 >1@07>20;>AL, 40 5I5 8 3@0<>B5 CG8;8 B0: 65 (AB0DL52, @>:;OBK 8 C18BK, 371). 54>2>;LAB2>, 4>A040:  0@>G=> 2 0;5AL5 7045@60;8AL,  A >BG0O=85< 2 3>;>A5 A:070; :0?8B0=,  GB>1K ?@>A:>G8BL MB>B ?@>:;OBK9 ?5@5:0B 70A25B;>.  2>B  =0 B515! @>A:>G8;8! (0CAB>2A:89, 60). =8G53> A515. 073. 1. !=>A=>, 4>2>;L=> E>@>H> (45;0BL GB>-;81>). 2. >2>;L=> E>@>H89, =5?;>E>9. 3. 8G53> A515! >73;0A, 2K@060NI89 =53>4>20=85, 2>7<CI5=85, =5>4>1@5=85 8 B.?. ?> ?>2>4C G53>-;81> =565;0B5;L=>3> ($54>@>2 1995). ["6. 2K@065=85 87C<;5=8O]. 7C<;5=85:  8G53> A515!  2K4>E=C; !B0A>2.  "0: MB>, 2KE>48B, BK >@O38=0 ?>9<0;0? (0@8=8=0, >A<5@B=K9 >1@07, 132). <> ?>48 6 BK. @>AB. K@065=85 87C<;5=8O, 2>AE8I5=8O, =54>C<5=8O 8 B. ?. ($54>@>2 1995). #482;5=85: !25@E 2A53> MB>3> 5@:0  3>@=K9 154=O: CG0AB2>20; 2 EC4>65AB25==>9 A0<>45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :0G5AB25 :>=D5@0=AL5 8 A>;8AB0. 828;8AL HC@KH:0@FK =0 @07=>AB>@>==55 @0728B85 G5;>25:0  ?> >4=>9 75<;5 E>48B, 2 >4=>9 AB>;>2:5 5AB, 4065 45@52O==K9 BC0;5B, =0:@5=82H89AO =04 1LN, >48= 8 B>B 65 ?>A5I05B, => 2>B ?>48 6 BK! (AB0DL52, @>:;OBK 8 C18BK, B. 1, 220). A =0<8 :@5AB=0O A8;0! #AB0@. >A:;8F0=85 ?@8 8A?C35, 87C<;5=88 8 B. ?. (>;>B:>2 1987). 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GQ@B <5=O (B51O, 53>, 5Q, =0A, 20A, 8E) 2>7L<8 (45@8, ?>15@8, ?>45@8)! @>AB. >A:;8F0=85 2>7<CI5=8O, =53>4>20=8O, 4>A04K 8;8 C482;5=8O, 2>AE8I5=8O 8 B.?. :5<-;81> 8;8 G5<-;81>. GQ@B 1K <5=O (B51O, 53>, 5Q, =0A, 20A, 8E) 1@0; (4@0;, ?>1@0;). (>;>B:>2 1987). 'Q@B 2>7L<8 :>3>, GB>. @>AB. K@065=85 =53>4>20=8O, 2>7<CI5=8O, C482;5=8O, 2>AE8I5=8O 8 B.?. :5<-;81> 8;8 G5<-;81>. ($54>@>2 1995). 'Q@B 1K 27O; :>3>. @C1>-?@>AB. K@065=85 2>7<CI5=8O, 4>A04K, =53>4>20=8O 8 B.?. ?@>B82 :>3>-;81>. ($54>@>2 1995). =52:  0 :0: 65 BK, G5@B B51O 45@8, 157 4>?>;=8B5;L=>3> 70@O40 <8=C AC=C;? 45 B2>O 10H:0 1K;0 2 BC <8=CBC?  :@8:=C; !5@?8;8= (!8<>=>2, B 3, 328). >A040: >4 CB@> >= 2KH5; =0 2B>@>5 <5AB>. > C=O@:0  G5@B8 1K 55 704@0;8!  >1A:0:0;0 53> =0 F5;KE ?OBL 2>7>2 (1@0<>2, @OA;8=K, 24). ' " " '" <">! @>AB. K@065=85 2>7<CI5=8O, =53>4>20=8O, :@09=53> =54>C<5=8O ?> ?>2>4C G53>-;81>. (>;>B:>2 1987). 0ACE8 1K;8 65AB>:85. !CE>258. %;510 A>E;8 =0 :>@=N. & 2>4K 3C45;8 =04 :064>9 ;>H045=:>9 8 :>@>2>9 BCG0<8. 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G;5=8; MB>B ?@54C3040==K9 273;O4 =0 D07K. 5=O; D07K <5AB0<8. #A8;820;. 0A8;. !:;5820; <8<8:C @07=KE, ?>@>9 =5A>2<5AB8<KE 0:B5@>2. >:0 =5 4>1820;AO B0:>3>, >B G53> C A0<>3> E>;>4=>3> 7@8B5;O <C@0H:8 1560;8 ?> A?8=5 (K<>2, 278). 2.2. -$ A :><?>=5=B0<8 4CH0, A5@4F5. 45AL B0:65 2>7<>6=>, => =5>1O70B5;L=> =0;8G85 D878G5A:8E >ICI5=89 (1>;L 2 A5@4F5, =5?@8OB=K5 >ICI5=8O 2 >1;0AB8 A5@4F0). 5@2CN ?>43@C??C 745AL >1@07CNB -$, 7=0G5=85 :>B>@KE <>6=> ?@54AB028BL >1>1I5==> A;54CNI8< >1@07><: >B@8F0B5;L=K5 M<>F88, A>?@>2>6405<K5 =5?@8OB=K<8 >ICI5=8O<8. CH0 (A5@4F5) 1>;8B. 1.:>3>, GLO, C :>3>. B>-;81> 8A?KBK205B B@52>3C, 15A?>:>9AB2>, 4CH52=K5 AB@040=8O. 2.70 :>3>, 70 GB>. B>-;81> 15A?>:>8BAO, AB@0405B, ?5@568205B 8B.?. 70 :>3>-;81>, 8A?KBK205B B@52>3C 70 GB>-;81> (>;>B:>2 1987). & B0: =5 B@5?8B5AL =0 B0:85 B5<K, >B :>B>@KE 8 157 20A B@8 3>40 4CH0 1>;8B.  1C45B 1>;5BL 4> ?>A;54=53> 4=O 2>9=K (!8<>=>2, B. 3, 44 45). >:0B8;AO !0H:0 >B25A=> 2=87, 40;LH5 8 40;LH5, 06 A5@4F5 701>;5;> C>;L:8, GB> C?CAB8; >= 1@0B0 8 B5?5@L >= @C:8-=>38 ?>;><05B 8 A0< @07>1L5BAO 24@515738 (@8AB02:8=, 209). !5@4F5 A68<05BAO. !5@4F5 A60;>AL. 073. -:A?@5A. # :>3>-;81> AB0=>28BAO >G5=L BO65;>, 3>@L:>, 3@CAB=> =0 4CH5 ($54>@>2 1995). !>AB@040=85, 60;>ABL: # =4@5O A60;>AL A5@4F5  =8:>340 >= =5 2845; 0AB02=8:0 2 B0:>< ?>402;5==>< A>AB>O=88 (!B@C30F:85, 179).  O 640;, GB> >= ?>;575B 4@0BLAO 8;8 1@>A8B 2 <5=O :>@>2L59 ;5?5E>9. & > !0=L:0 ;8HL A:>;L7=C; ?> <=5 273;O4><, 8 A5@4F5 <>5 A60;>AL  2 3;070E 53> @0A?0O;8AL A;57K& (AB0DL52, >A;54=89 ?>:;>=, 241 242). "@52>30:  5I5 ?>G5<C-B> A5@4F5 A68<0;>AL >B AB@0E0 70 0AN, :0: 1C4B> 5<C 3@>78;0 :0:0O-B> 1540& (1@0<>2, @OA;8=K, 728). >;=5=85, 3@CABL: @>68B, A68<05BAO A5@4F5 >B ?5A=8& / C >:>H5G:0 A845;0, 1>65 <>9, 0 4>648: :0?0; =0 <5=O (AB0DL52, >A;54=89 ?>:;>=, 52). !5@4F5 I5<8B. !5@4F5 70I5<8;>. @>AB. -:A?@5A. B>-;81> 8A?KBK205B GC2AB2> 3=5BCI59 B>A:8. ($54>@>2 1995). 5A<>B@O =0 ;53:CN =>G=CN ?>154C, >B MB>3> A>A54AB20 A ?5?5;8I5< 8 70682> A3>@52H8<8 ;N4L<8 C 2A5E, C :>3> <5=LH5, C :>3> 1>;LH5, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B =0BC@K, 0 2A5-B0:8 I5<8;> 4CHC (!8<>=>2, B. 1, 379). !;>2=> 20A=5F>2A:0O ;5=CH:0 A848B =O =0 <H8AB>< 15@56:C, ?>4602 =>38, 7O1:> ?>4>1@02 ?;5G8 8, A C;K1:>9 3;O4O =0 A2>5 >B@065=85 2 75@:0;L=>9 702>48=:5, <54;5==>, A :0:>9-B> ;5=82>9 3@0F859 @0AG5AK205B & <>:@K5 B5<=>-@CAK5 2>;>AK. & [5;L=8:>2] A<>B@8B =0 ;5=CH:C A ?8AB>;5B=>9 :>1C@>9 =0 1>:C 8 =5 ?>=8<05B, ?>G5<C I5<8B C =53> A5@4F5. , ?>40282 274>E, >= 15AHC<=> CE>48B, ?>402;5==K9, 2>AE8I5==K9, @0AB@>30==K9. 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