ࡱ>  q`bjbjqPqP1R::nnnnnnnxxx8x~y4zz(zzzzzz4666666$ChVZnzzzzzZnnzzGTTTznznz4Tz4TTnnzz x)" ]0&DnzzTzzzzzZZ>zzzzzzzpwwnnnnnn 3;02;5=85 2545=85& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ...4 ;0201. 0B53>@8O 8@>=88 8 ?CB8 55 87CG5=8O& & & & & & & & & & & & & ..9 1. 5AB> 8@>=88 2=CB@8 :0B53>@88 :><8G5A:>3>& & & & & & & & & & .12 2. A>15==>AB8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O ?>=OB8O 8@>=8O 2 @07=K5 8AB>@8G5A:85 M?>E8 & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ..18 3. $C=:F8>=8@>20=85 8@>=88 2 O7K:5 EC4>65AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@K 8 ?CB8 55 87CG5=8O 2 ;8=328AB8:5& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 20 4. 0728B85 ?@03<0B8G5A:>3> 0A?5:B0 87CG5=8O 8@>=88 2 A>2@5<5==>< O7K:>7=0=88& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ...35 5. @>=8O 2 848>AB8;5 .. '5E>20& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ..40 ;020 2. >=B5:ABC0;L=0O 8@>=8O 2 848>AB8;5 .. '5E>20& & & & & & & .44 1. !@54AB20 @50;870F88 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B2>@G5AB25 .. '5E>20& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 47 1. 5:A8:>-A5<0=B8G5A:85 A@54AB20 @50;870F88& & & & & & & & & .& .48 1.1. =B8D@078A& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ...48 1.2. 0;0<1C@& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ...52 1.3. !5<0=B8G5A:85 :>=B@0ABK& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ...53 !B@C:BC@=K5 A@54AB20 @50;870F88& & & & & & & & & & & & & & ...56 3. !B8;8AB8G5A:85 A@54AB20 @50;870F88& & & & & & & & & & & & & ...60 4. =B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 2:;NG5=8O& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & .63 5<0@:8& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ...65 2. $C=:F88 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88 2 B2>@G5AB25 ..'5E>20& & & & & .67 3. >=B5:ABC0;L=0O 8@>=8O 2 M?8AB>;O@=>< B2>@G5AB25 .. '5E>20& & & ..77 !@54AB20 @50;870F88& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ..78 1.1. !5<0=B8G5A:85 ?@>B82>@5G8O& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & .78 1.2. !B8;8AB8G5A:85 =5A>>B25BAB28O & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 79 1.3. 5:A8:>-A5<0=B8G5A:85 A@54AB20& & & & & & & & & & & & & & ...80 1.4. =B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 2:;NG5=8O& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & .83 1.5. !B@C:BC@=K5 A@54AB20& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 84 $C=:F88 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88 2 M?8AB>;O@88& & & & & & & & .87 2.1. !0<>8@>=8O& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ..87 2.2. >1@>65;0B5;L=0O =0A<5H:0& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ..90 2.3. B@8F0B5;L=0O >BF5=:0& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ...92 K2>4K& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ...94 ;020 3. "5:AB>>1@07CNI0O 8@>=8O 2 848>AB8;5 .. '5E>20& & & & & & .98 1. $C=:F8>=8@>20=85 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88 2 ?@>75 .. '5E>20& & ..100 1.1. 5:A8:>-?>78F8>==K9 ?>2B>@& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ..102 1.2. !B@C:BC@=K9 ?>2B>@& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ..106 1.3. !8BC0B82=K9 ?>2B>@& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ..110 2.1. 5A>1AB25==>-?@O<0O @5GL& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & ....115 3.1. =B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 2:;NG5=8O& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 118 4.1. !>G5B0=85 A@54AB2 @50;870F88& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & .128 2. $C=:F8>=8@>20=85 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88 2 4@0<0BC@388.. '5E>20& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & 136 K2>4K& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & .152 0:;NG5=85& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & .& .155 81;8>3@0D8O& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & .& 163 2545=85 4=>9 87 >A=>2=KE B5=45=F89 A>2@5<5==>9 ;8=328AB8:8 O2;O5BAO, 157CA;>2=>, C3;C1;5==>5 87CG5=85 A<KA;>2>9 AB>@>=K O7K:>2KE O2;5=89. -B> ?@>O2;O5BAO 8 2 B0:>9 >1;0AB8 O7K:>7=0=8O, :0: ;8=328AB8:0 B5:AB0, GB> 2K720=> =5>1E>48<>ABLN @0AA<>B@5=8O A@54AB2 :><<C=8:0F88 A CG5B>< ;8=328AB8G5A:8E, A>F80;L=KE, ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E D0:B>@>2. 8=59=K9 E0@0:B5@ O7K:0 8 <=>3><5@=>ABL >1J5:B82=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 A?>A>1AB2CNB @0728B8N ?>;8DC=:F8>=0;L=>AB8 O7K:>2KE 548=8F, >1CA;>2;820NB 2>7<>6=>ABL @50;870F89 <=>3>>1@07=KE A5<0=B8G5A:8E DC=:F89 =5 B>;L:> M:A?;8F8B=K<8, => 8 8<?;8F8B=K<8 A@54AB20<8.  8AA;54>20=8OE ?>A;54=8E ;5B, ?>A2OI5==KE 0=0;87C A>45@60B5;L=>9 AB>@>=K B5:AB>2, >1=0@C68205BAO ?>2>@>B >B 87CG5=8O M:A?;8F8B=>3> A>45@60=8O : 87CG5=8N 53> 8<?;8F8B=KE :><?>=5=B>2, 0 B0:65 : 0=0;87C A>>B=>H5=8O 8 2708<>459AB28O M:A?;8F8B=KE 8 8<?;8F8B=KE :><?>=5=B>2 A>45@60=8O :0: >B45;L=>3> 2KA:07K20=8O, B0: 8 F5;>3> B5:AB0 [.. @=>;L4, ..>;8=8=, ".. !8;L<0=, .. CE0@5=:> 8 4@.]. A>1CN 7=0G8<>ABL ?@8>1@5B05B 87CG5=85 8<?;8F8B=>3> A<KA;0 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5, ?>A:>;L:C >4=>9 87 =5>BJ5<;5<KE >A>15==>AB59 ?>4;8==> EC4>65AB25==>3> ?@>872545=8O O2;O5BAO 53> A<KA;>20O =5>4=>7=0G=>ABL 8 <=>3>?;0=>2>ABL. 4=8< 87 206=59H8E 2>7<>6=KE ?@>O2;5=89 8<?;8F8B=>3> A<KA;0 AB0=>28BAO 8@>=8O, :>B>@0O 8 O2;O5BAO >1J5:B>< =0H53> 8AA;54>20=8O. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> 8@>=8O =5>4=>:@0B=> ?@82;5:0;0 2=8<0=85 :0: >1J5:B 8AA;54>20=8O 2 @07;8G=KE >1;0ABOE ;8=328AB8G5A:>9 =0C:8 [..!0;8E>20, .. 5@1A, !.. >E>4=O, .. 030=>2A:0O, ..!B5;L<0HC:, .. $><8G520, .. !5@385=:>], 2 =0CG=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 =5 ACI5AB2C5B 4>AB0B>G=> ?>;=>3> >?8A0=8O O7K:>2KE A@54AB2, :>B>@K5 A;C60B @50;870F88 A<KA;>2>9 =5>4=>7=0G=>AB8 B5:AB0 A 8@>=8G5A:>9 =0?@02;5==>ABLN, =5B G5B:>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O > ;8=328AB8G5A:>9 ACI=>AB8 8@>=88 8 A5<0=B8G5A:>< <5E0=87<5 @50;870F88 8<?;8F8B=>3> A<KA;0 2KA:07K20=8O. G5=L G0AB> 2 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E @01>B0E 8@>=8O ?>=8<05BAO B>;L:> :0: ?@>B82>@5G85 <564C 1C:20;L=K< A<KA;>< 8 A:@KBK<, :>=B5:ABC0;L=K<, @50;87CNI8<AO =0 ;5:A8G5A:>< C@>2=5 [..!0;8E>20, .. 5@1A, .. 8<, ./. '5@=O52>9]. 4=0:> 2 @O45 @01>B AB028BAO 2>?@>A > 206=>AB8 @0AA<>B@5=8O 8@>=88 :0: :>=F5?BC0;L=>9 :0B53>@88, A2O70==>9 A ?@>1;5<>9 F5;>AB=>AB8 87CG5=8O B5:AB0 [!.. >E>4=O, .. 030=>2A:0O, .. !B5;L<0HC:, ..$><8G520, ..!5@385=:>]. 0H5 8AA;54>20=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 40;L=59H55 @0728B85 40==>3> :><?;5:A=>3> 87CG5=8O 8@>=88 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5. 7CG5=85 8@>=88 =0 <0B5@80;5 EC4>65AB25==KE B5:AB>2 >1CA;>2;8205B =5>1E>48<>ABL CG5B0 A?5F8D8:8 AB@C:BC@K EC4>65AB25==>3> B5:AB0. !<KA;>20O =5>4=>@>4=>ABL B5:AB0 A 8@>=8G5A:>9 =0?@02;5==>ABLN 8<55B BC >A>15==>ABL, GB> >=0 A>7405BAO 02B>@>< ?@54=0<5@5==>, A F5;LN 2K720BL >?@545;5==K9 AB8;8AB8G5A:89 MDD5:B. @><5 B>3>, O2;OOAL D>@<>9 >F5=>G=>3>, :@8B8G5A:>3>, M<>F8>=0;L=>3> >A2>5=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 8@>=8O >1=0@C68205B B5A=59HCN A2O7L A B2>@G5A:>9 ?>78F859 02B>@0, 53> <8@>2>77@5=85<.  =0H59 @01>B5 ?@54?@8=8<05BAO ?>?KB:0 ?>:070BL A2O7L 8459=>-EC4>65AB25==>3> A2>5>1@078O ?8A0B5;O 8 >A>15==>AB59 53> O7K:>2>3> <0AB5@AB20, >1>7=0G8BL <5AB> 8@>=88 2 848>AB8;52>9 A8AB5<5 ?8A0B5;O. ?@545;5=85 ;8=328AB8G5A:>9 ACI=>AB8 8@>=88, O7K:>2>3> <5E0=87<0 @50;870F88 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0, A?5F8D8:0 ?@>O2;5=8O MB8E <5E0=87<>2 2=CB@8 ?8A0B5;LA:>3> 848>AB8;O  2A5 MB> >1CA;>2;8205B 0:BC0;L=>ABL 8 B5>@5B8G5A:CN 7=0G8<>ABL 2K1@0==>9 B5<K. &5;LN @01>BK O2;O5BAO @0AA<>B@5=85 >A>15==>AB59 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8@>=88 8 2KO2;5=8O A@54AB2 55 0:BC0;870F88 2 848>AB8;5 .. '5E>20, 345 8@>=8O O2;O5BAO >?@545;ONI8<, E0@0:B5@87CNI8< 8 ACI5AB25==K< :><?>=5=B><. 0B5@80;>< 8AA;54>20=8O ?>A;C68;> EC4>65AB25==>5 B2>@G5AB2> .. '5E>20  @0AA:07K, ?>25AB8, 4@0<0BC@38G5A:85 ?@>872545=8O, 0 B0:65 53> M?8AB>;O@=>5 =0A;5485. !D>@<C;8@>20==0O 2KH5 F5;L 8AA;54>20=8O >1CA;>2;8205B ?>AB0=>2:C A;54CNI8E 7040G: 2KO28BL A?5F8D8:C DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 42CE B8?>2 8@>=88  :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8 B5:AB>1@07CNI59  2 EC4>65AB25==>9 A8AB5<5 .. '5E>20 8 53> M?8AB>;O@=>< =0A;5488, 8AA;54>20BL A?5:B@ O7K:>2KE A@54AB2, @50;87CNI8E 8@>=8G5A:89 A<KA;, >?@545;8BL DC=:F88, 2K?>;=O5<K5 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=859 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5 8 M?8AB>;O@88, 2KO28BL >A>15==>AB8 O7K:>2>9 ;8G=>AB8 '5E>20, 0:BC0;878@C5<K5 ?>A@54AB2>< 8A?>;L7>20=8O 8@>=88 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5 8 ?8AL<0E, >1>7=0G8BL 60=@>2>5 A2>5>1@0785 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88 2 B2>@G5AB25 .. '5E>20. 5B>4K 8AA;54>20=8O ?>4G8=5=K @5H5=8N ?>AB02;5==KE 7040G 8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 A>G5B0=85 A5<0=B8:>-AB8;8AB8G5A:>3>, :><?>=5=B=>3> 8 :>=B5:AB>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0;870. >287=0 @01>BK 70:;NG05BAO 2 40;L=59H5< 87CG5=88 O7K:>2KE <5E0=87<>2 0:BC0;870F88 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0 2 AB@C:BC@5 EC4>65AB25==>3> B5:AB0; 2KO2;5=88 A?5F8D8:8 8A?>;L7>20=8O O7K:>2KE A@54AB2 @50;870F88 42CE B8?>2 8@>=88 2 848>AB8;O ?8A0B5;O. >287=0 @01>BK B0:65 70:;NG05BAO 2 >?8A0=88 DC=:F89, 2K?>;=O5<KE 8@>=859 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5 8 M?8AB>;O@88 8 8E 7028A8<>ABL >B EC4>65AB25==KE 7040G, ?>AB02;5==KE ?5@54 A>1>9 ?8A0B5;5<, 0 B0:65 >A>15==>AB59 53> O7K:>2>9 ;8G=>AB8; >1CA;>2;5==>ABL 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0 E0@0:B5@>< 2708<>A2O78 04@5A0B0 8 04@5A0=B0, AC1J5:B0 8 >1J5:B0 8@>=88. @0:B8G5A:0O 7=0G8<>ABL @01>BK A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> <0B5@80;K 48AA5@B0F88, 0 B0:65 ?>;CG5==K5 2 E>45 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 @01>BK 2K2>4K <>3CB 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=K 2 2C7>2A:8E :C@A0E ?@5?>4020=8O AB8;8AB8:8 EC4>65AB25==>9 @5G8, ;8=328AB8G5A:>3> 0=0;870 B5:AB0, B5>@88 B5:AB0, A?5F:C@A0E ?> O7K:C 8 AB8;N ?8A0B5;O. 0 70I8BC 2K=>AOBAO A;54CNI85 ?>;>65=8O: >?@545;5=85 8@>=88 :0: ?>;=>?@02=>9 D>@<K :><8G5A:>3>, =0@O4C A N<>@>< 8 A0B8@>9, CB25@645=85 55 :0: :><?>=5=B0 <8@>2>77@5=8O, 2;5G5B 70 A>1>9 @0AA<>B@5=85 8@>=88 :0: >A>1>9 :0B53>@88 B5:AB0, A>740205<>9 @07=>>1@07=K<8 O7K:>2K<8 A@54AB20<8, 8@>=8O :0: >4=0 87 D>@< @50;870F88 8<?;8F8B=>3> A<KA;0 =5 8<55B A>1AB25==KE D>@<0;L=KE A@54AB2 2K@065=8O, => 4;O 55 0:BC0;870F88 8A?>;L7CNBAO A@54AB20 @07;8G=KE C@>2=59 O7K:>2>9 A8AB5<K, 8@>=8O 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL 2 D>@<5 42CE @07=>284=>AB59, @50;87COAL 2 :0G5AB25 AB8;8AB8G5A:>3> ?@85<0 8;8 ?@>O2;OOAL =0 B5:AB>2>< C@>2=5, >10 B8?0 8@>=88 8<5NB A2>8 A@54AB20 @50;870F88 8 2K?>;=ONB 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5 >?@545;5==K5 DC=:F88, 8@>=8O >B@0605B >A>15==>AB8 <8@>2>77@5=8O .. '5E>20 8 O2;O5BAO 206=K< :><?>=5=B>< 53> 848>AB8;O. ?@>10F8O @01>BK. A=>2=K5 ?>;>65=8O 48AA5@B0F8>==>3> 8AA;54>20=8O >1AC640;8AL =0 =0CG=KE :>=D5@5=F8OE <>;>4KE CG5=KE D8;>;>38G5A:>3> D0:C;LB5B0 !# (1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001). A=>2=>5 A>45@60=85 @01>BK >B@065=> 2 G5BK@5E ?5G0B=KE 8 42CE M;5:B@>==KE AB0BLOE. !B@C:BC@0 48AA5@B0F88 >B25G05B F5;O<, 7040G0< 8 >1J5:BC 8AA;54>20=8O 8 2:;NG05B 2 A51O 22545=85, B5>@5B8G5A:CN 3;02C, 425 3;02K, ?>A2OI5==K5 8AA;54>20=8N <5E0=87<0 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8@>=88 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B2>@G5AB25 .. '5E>20 8 53> M?8AB>;O@88, 70:;NG5=85 8 181;8>3@0D8N. ;020 1. 0B53>@8O 8@>=88 8 ?CB8 55 87CG5=8O  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 8@>=8O O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 0:BC0;L=KE >1J5:B>2 8AA;54>20=8O @07;8G=KE >1;0AB59 =0C:8: D8;>A>D88, :C;LBC@>;>388, MAB5B8:8, ;8=328AB8:8 8 ;8B5@0BC@>2545=8O.  ?>A;54=85 3>4K ?>O28;AO 4065 B5@<8= 8@>=>;>38O, 0:B82=> 8A?>;L7CNI89AO 70@C156=K<8 8AA;54>20B5;O<8. 4=0:>, =5A<>B@O =0 AB>;L 1>;LH>5 2=8<0=85 A> AB>@>=K @07;8G=KE =0CG=KE 48AF8?;8=, 4> A8E ?>@ =5 ACI5AB2C5B 548=>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O =0 8@>=8N, =5B 2A5<8 ?@87=0==>3> 55 >?@545;5=8O. 5@2>=0G0;L=> 8@>=8O 2 >B5G5AB25==>< O7K:>7=0=88 8, H8@5, 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 D8;>;>388 2>A?@8=8<0;0AL :0: B@>?. ?@545;5=85 MB> 2>AE>48B : .. ><>=>A>2C: @>=8O A>AB>8B 8=>340 2 >4=>< A;>25, :>340 <0;>3> G5;>25:0 B;0=B>< 8;8 3830=B><, 15AA8;L=>3> !0<A>=><, A:0@54=>3> 25AA0;><>< 8;8 >A8D>< =07K205<, 8 ?>A5<C =04;568B >=0 4> B@>?>2 @5G5=89 [><>=>A>2, 1952. !.256]. -B> ?>=8<0=85 8@>=88 :0: >4=>3> 87 284>2 B@>?>2 =0H;> >B@065=85 2> 2A5E ;8=328AB8G5A:8E 8 B>;:>2KE A;>20@OE. 0?@8<5@: 1. "@>?, A>AB>OI89 2 C?>B@51;5=88 A;>20 2 A<KA;5, >1@0B=>< 1C:20;L=><C, A F5;LN B>=:>9 8;8 A:@KB>9 =0A<5H:8. 0A<5H:0, =0@>G8B> >1;5G5==0O 2 D>@<C ?>;>68B5;L=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 8;8 2>AE20;5=8O [E<0=>20, 1966. !. 185]. 2. @>=8O  =0A<5H;82>5 C?>B@51;5=85 A;>20 2 A<KA;5, ?@>B82>?>;>6=>< 1C:20;L=><C. B=>A8BAO : B@>?0< [8:8B8=0, 0A8;L520, 1996. !.81]. 3. @>=8O  1) B>=:0O =0A<5H:0, A:@KB0O D>@<>9 2K@065=8O 2) AB8;8AB8G5A:89 ?@85<, A>AB>OI89 2 C?>B@51;5=88 A;>20 8;8 2K@065=8O 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>< 8E 7=0G5=88 A F5;LN =0A<5H:8 [!, 1956. !.430]. 4=0:> MB> B@048F8>==>5 B>;:>20=85 8@>=88 =5A:>;L:> C?@>I5==> 8 A2>48BAO, A:>@55, : C@>2=N >1K45==>3> >1I5=8O, D5=><5=C 8@>=88 2 682>9 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8, 2 =5< =5 C45;O5BAO 2=8<0=8O >A>15==>ABO< DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8@>=88 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5. 564C B5<, E>BO 8@>=8O 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5 <>65B ?@>O2;OBLAO 2 2845 B@>?0, 8A?>;L7>20BLAO 2 :0G5AB25 AB8;8AB8G5A:>3> ?@85<0, 70G0ABCN @>;L 55 2 B5:AB5 3>@074> 7=0G8B5;L=55. >6=> 3>2>@8BL > 42CE B8?0E 8@>=88, 42CE >A=>2=KE ?>4E>40E : 55 87CG5=8N, GB> >B@0605BAO 2 D8;>A>DA:8E, ;8B5@0BC@>254G5A:8E 8 =5:>B>@KE M=F8:;>?548G5A:8E A;>20@OE, ACI5AB25==> @0AH8@ONI8E ?>=OB85 8@>=88: $>@<0 2K@065=8O <KA;8, :>340 A;>2> 8;8 2KA:07K20=85 >1@5B0NB 2 :>=B5:AB5 @5G8 7=0G5=85, ?@>B>2>?>;>6=>5 1C:20;L=><C A<KA;C 8;8 >B@8F0NI55 53>. @>=8O >1KG=> O2;O5BAO 2K@065=85< =0A<5H:8 ?>A@54AB2>< 8=>A:070=8O. 1KG=> 8@>=8N >B=>AOB : B@>?0<, @565  : D83C@0< AB8;8AB8G5A:8<. @>AB59H89 284 8@>=88  0=B8D@07. -AB5B8G5A:0O :0B53>@8O 8;8 8459=>-M<>F8>=0;L=0O >F5=:0, ?@54?>;030NI0O :@8B8G5A:8-=0A<5H;82>5 >B=>H5=85 : 87>1@0605<><C ?>4 <0A:>9 A5@L57=>AB8 8;8 ?>E20;K [8B5@0BC@=0O M=F8:;>?548O]. >;55 @0725@=CB>5, 8, =0 =0H 273;O4, 1>;55 G5B:> >B@060NI55 ACI=>ABL 8@>=88 >?@545;5=85 A>45@68BAO 2 !-: 2 AB8;8AB8:5  2K@060NI55 =0A<5H:C 8;8 ;C:02AB2> 8=>A:070=85, :>340 A;>2> 8;8 2KA:07K20=85 >1@5B0NB 2 :>=B5:AB5 @5G8 7=0G5=85, ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 1C:20;L=><C A<KA;C, 8;8 >B@8F0NI55 53>, AB02OI55 ?>4 A><=5=85. @>=8O 5ABL ?>=>H5=85 8 ?@>B82>@5G85 ?>4 <0A:>9 >4>1@5=8O 8 A>3;0A8O; O2;5=8N C<KH;5==> ?@8?8AK205BAO A2>9AB2>, :>B>@>3> 2 =5< =5B, => :>B>@>5 =04> 1K;> >6840BL. (& ) 0<5: =0 ?@8B2>@AB2>, :;NG : 8@>=88 A>45@68BAO >1KG=> =5 2 A0<>< 2K@065=88, 0 2 :>=B5:AB5 8;8 2 8=B>=0F88, 0 8=>340  ;8HL 2 A8BC0F88 2KA:07K20=8O. @>=8O  >4=> 87 206=59H8E AB8;8AB8G5A:8E A@54AB2 N<>@0, A0B8@K, 3@>B5A:0. >340 8@>=8G5A:0O =0A<5H:0 AB0=>28BAO 7;>9, 54:>9 87452:>9, 55 =07K20NB A0@:07<><.  MAB5B8:5  284 :><8G5A:>3>, 8459=>-M<>F8>=0;L=0O >F5=:0, M;5<5=B0@=>9 <>45;LN 8;8 ?@>>1@07>< :>B>@>9 A;C68B AB@C:BC@=>-M:A?@5AA82=K9 ?@8=F8? @5G52>9, AB8;8AB8G5A:>9 8@>=88. @>=8G=>5 >B=>H5=85 ?@54?>;0305B ?@52>AE>4AB2> 8;8 A=8AE>645=85, A:5?B8F87< 8;8 =0A<5H:C, =0@>G8B> A?@OB0==K5, => >?@545;ONI85 A>1>9 AB8;L EC4>65AB25==>3> 8;8 ?C1;8F8AB8G5A:>3> ?@>872545=8O 8;8 >@30=870F8N >1@07=>AB8 (E0@0:B5@0, AN65B0). !:@KB=>ABL =0A<5H:8, <0A:0 A5@L57=>AB8 >B;8G0NB 8@>=8N >B N<>@0 8, >A>15==>, >B A0B8@K.  MB>< >?@545;5=88 2 ?>=8<0=88 8@>=88 :0: AB8;8AB8G5A:>3> ?@85<0 A?@0254;82> C45;5=> 1>;LH>5 2=8<0=85 :>=B5:ABC, 157 :>B>@>3> =52>7<>6=0 @50;870F8O 8 45:>48@>20=85 8@>=88, 0 B0:65 >1>7=0G5=>, AB8;8AB8G5A:8< ?@85<>< G53> 8<5==> <>65B 2KABC?0BL 8@>=8O  N<>@, A0B8@0, 3@>B5A:.  >?@545;5=88 8@>=88 :0: MAB5B8G5A:>9 :0B53>@88 ?5@5G8A;5=K @07;8G=K5 DC=:F88 8@>=88, @50;87CNI59AO 2 A8AB5<5 F5;>3> B5:AB0, 0 B0:65 ?>:070=0 >G5=L 206=0O A2O7L MB>3> B8?0 8@>=88 A> AB8;5< ?@>872545=8O, A?>A>1>< A>740=8O >?@545;5==>3> E0@0:B5@0 8;8 AB@C:BC@8@>20=85< AN65B0, :><?>78F88 ?@>872545=8O. "0:>5 @073@0=8G5=85 8@>=88 =0 420 >A=>2=KE B8?0 1K;> ?@54?@8=OB> 5I5 2 :>=F5 452OB=04F0B>3> 25:0 D@0=FC7A:8< 8AA;54>20B5;5< . 0;M. B<5G0O =5>4=>?;0=>2>ABL 40==>3> O2;5=8O, 02B>@ C:07K205B =0 =5>1E>48<>ABL @07;8G0BL :;0AA8G5A:CN 8@>=8N :0: B@048F8>==CN @8B>@8G5A:CN D83C@C 8 A?5F80;L=K9 ?@85<, :>B>@K9 ?8A0B5;L 8A?>;L7C5B 4;O ?5@540G8 @07=>>1@07=KE >BB5=:>2 A2>59 <KA;8:  8@>=88 B0:>5 @07=>>1@0785 @07<5@0, B5<1@0, 2K@065=8O, GB> 55 B@C4=> >?@545;8BL. "> >=0 >AB>@>6=> >A;01;O5B A2>9 O4, 3>2>@8B <5=LH5, GB>1K A:070BL 1>;LH5, ?@815305B : >:>;8G=>ABO<, C25@B:0<, =0<5:0< 8 C<>;G0=8O<, ;5B05B >:>;> <KA;8, GCBL 704520O 55 A2>8< :@K;><, 8=>340 8@>=8O A>AB02;O5B B08=AB25==CN ?@5;5ABL ?@>872545=8O [0;M, 1890. !.4]. 1. 5AB> 8@>=88 2=CB@8 :0B53>@88 :><8G5A:>3>. KO2;5=85 >A>15==>AB59 D5=><5=0 8@>=88 =52>7<>6=> 157 2KOA=5=8O ?>;>65=8O 8@>=88 2 1>;55 >1I59 :0B53>@88 :><8G5A:>3>.  B5G5=85 4>;3>3> 2@5<5=8 2 MAB5B8:5, ;8B5@0BC@>2545=88 8 ;8=328AB8:5 3>A?>4AB2>20; ?>4E>4 : 8@>=88 :0: A?>A>1C A>740=8O :><8G5A:>3>, 8A?>;L7C5<><C A0B8@>9 8 N<>@><. @54AB02;5=85 >1 8@>=88 :0: B5E=8:5 A>740=8O :><8G5A:>3> ?@>G=> CB25@48;>AL 2 A8AB5<5 87>1@078B5;L=KE A@54AB2 O7K:0. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> 8@>=8O 70=8<05B AB>;L ACI5AB25==>5 <5AB> 2 ?0@0483<5 :><8G5A:>3>, 2 8AB>@88 MAB5B8:>-D8;>A>DA:>9 <KA;8 G5;>25G5AB20, 8@>=8O 4> =5402=53> 2@5<5=8 @54:> AB0=>28;0AL ?@54<5B>< A?5F80;L=>3> 87CG5=8O D8;>;>38G5A:8<8 48AF8?;8=0<8. AA;54>20=85< :0B53>@859 :><8G5A:>3> 8 53> 284>2 70=8<0;>AL 2 >A=>2=>< ;8B5@0BC@>2545=85, 0:F5=B8@CO A2>5 2=8<0=85 =0 A>>B=>H5=88 :><8G5A:>3> 8 B@038G5A:>3>, 8E 2708<>459AB288 8 ?@>B82>459AB288 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : EC4>65AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@5. 7CG5=8N >1I8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59 :><8G5A:>3> ?>A2OI5=K @01>BK . 70<54>:0, .. >@520, . @>??0, ". N18<>2>9  2A5 >=8 >B2>4OB 8@>=88 @>;L O7K:>2>3> A@54AB20 :><87<0 [./. @>??, 1976] 8;8 ?@><56CB>G=>5 <5AB> <564C N<>@>< 8 A0B8@>9. "8?8G=K< O2;O;>AL, =0?@8<5@, B0:>5 @0AAC645=85:  B> 2@5<O :0: B5@<8=K N<>@ 8 A0B8@0 >1>7=0G0NB >?@545;5==K9 ?>4E>4 : O2;5=8O<, GB> ?>4@07C<5205B, :>=5G=>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L >?@545;5==K5 M;5<5=BK <8@>2>77@5=8O, 8 =0E>48B A2>5 2K@065=85 2 >?@545;5==>< B8?5 B2>@G5AB20, 8@>=8O >AB05BAO, ?> ACI5AB2C, >4=8< 87 284>2 B5E=8:8 :><8G5A:>3>, 8A?>;L7C5<K9 :0: A0B8@>9, B0: 8 N<>@8AB8:>9. =0 >AB05BAO 70<0A:8@>20==>9 =0A<5H:>9, 345 A:@KBK9 A<KA; O2;O5BAO >B@8F0=85< 1C:20;L=>3> [75<84>:, 1974. !. 102]. . !B>;>28G 2 A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 >?@545;O5B B>;L:> 425 >A=>2=K5 D>@<K :><8G5A:>3>  :><87< A0B8@8G5A:89 8 :><87< N<>@8AB8G5A:89 [!B>;>28G, 1954]. @>8AE>4OI89 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O ?>2>@>B 2 B@0:B>2:5 8@>=88 2 ;8B5@0BC@>2545=88 8 ;8=328AB8:5, ?>4E>4 : =59 :0: : A?>A>1C <8@>2>A?@8OB8O, D>@<5 >A<KA;5=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, A2O70= A ?5@5A<>B@>< :>=F5?F88 8@>=88 2 MAB5B8:5. @>=8O =0G8=05B @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: A;>6=>5 O2;5=85 :C;LBC@K, D8;>A>DA:>-MAB5B8G5A:0O :0B53>@8O, @0A:@K20NI0O F5==>AB=K9 A<KA; ?@54<5B>2 8 O2;5=89 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8 8A:CAAB20 ?>A@54AB2>< :@8B8:8->A<5O=8O.  MAB5B8G5A:8E >G5@:0E .$. >A520 8 .. (5AB0:>20 8@>=8O @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: :><?>=5=B >1I59 :0B53>@88 :><8G5A:>3> =0@O4C A N<>@><, A0B8@>9, A0@:07<><: @>=8O  >4=0 87 A;>6=KE MAB5B8G5A:8E :0B53>@89, >B=>AOI8EAO : B0: =07K205<K< MAB5B8G5A:8< <>48D8:0F8O<. (& ) AO:0O 8@>=8O 70:;NG05B 2 A515 :0:>9-B> M;5<5=B 8=>A:070=8O, E8B@>AB8 8;8 >1<0=0. >340 > :0:><-;81> G5;>25:5 3>2>@OB, GB> >= 8@>=878@C5B, B> B5< A0<K< ?>4@07C<520NB, GB> >= 3>2>@8B =5 G8ABCN ?@024C, 0 2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 >1<0=K205B, 22>48B 2 701;C645=85 A2>8E A;CH0B5;59. > A>25@H5==> >G5284=>, GB> =8:0:>9 >1<0= A0< ?> A515 =5 O2;O5BAO 5I5 8@>=859. @>=8O, 2 >B;8G85 >B >1<0=0, =5 ?@>AB> A:@K205B 8AB8=C, => 8 2K@0605B 55, B>;L:> >A>1K<, 8=>A:070B5;L=K< >1@07>< [>A52, (5AB0:>2, 1965. !.326]. 0==K9 ?>4E>4 ?@54?>;0305B 87CG5=85 8@>=88 :0: ?>;=>?@02=>9 D>@<K, 2840 :><8G5A:>3> =0@O4C A N<>@>< 8 A0B8@>9. A5 :0B53>@88 :><8G5A:>3> A2O70=K A @5D;5:B8@CNI59 A?>A>1=>ABLN ;8G=>AB8 >A<KA;OBL O2;5=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8 2K@060BL A2>5 >B=>H5=85 : =8<. !?5F8D8:0 8@>=88 :0: 2840 :><8G5A:>3>, D>@<K ?>7=0=8O 8 >B@065=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >1CA;>2;5=0 55 AC1J5:B82=>9 ?@8@>4>9. @>=8O >B@0605B ?>GB8 ?>AB>O==>5 =5A>>B25BAB285 AC1J5:B82=>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O 8 >1J5:B82=>3> ?>;>65=8O 25I59. @>=8O, >A=>2K20NI0OAO =0 >B=>H5=88 AC1J5:B0, 2 >B;8G85 >B 4@C38E :0B53>@89 :><8G5A:>3> =5 >1;0405B A>1AB25==K< ?@54<5B><, => A?>A>1=0 2K18@0BL ;N1>9 ?@54<5B 8 O2;5=85. "0:8< >1@07><, >A=>2>9 8@>=88 O2;O5BAO @5D;5:B8@CNI55 A>7=0=85 ;8G=>AB8, 1;03>40@O G5<C ;N1>5 O2;5=85 <>65B 1KBL ?>AB02;5=> ?>4 A><=5=85, >A<KA;5=> A ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE AB>@>= 8 >F5=5=> AC1J5:B>< 8@>=88. !;>6=>ABL O2;5=8O 8@>=88 8 A?5F8D8:0 55 ?@>O2;5=8O 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8 B5:AB5 EC4>65AB25==>3> ?@>872545=8O >?@545;ONB A2>5>1@0785 ?>;>65=8O 8@>=88 2 AB@C:BC@5 :><8G5A:>3>. !>3;0A=> A>2@5<5==K< ?@54AB02;5=8O<, ACI5AB2CNI8< 2 MAB5B8:5, 8@>=8O :0: A?>A>1 2K@065=8O 1>;55 >1I59 :0B53>@88 :><8G5A:>3> 70=8<05B 2 53> AB@C:BC@5 <5AB> 2 @O4C B0:8E A@54AB2 2K@065=8O, :0: ?0@>48O, 3@>B5A:, 1C@;5A:, >4=0:>, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 8@>=8O 2KABC?05B :0: MAB5B8G5A:0O :0B53>@8O, 284 M<>F8>=0;L=>-F5==>AB=>3> >B=>H5=8O 02B>@0 : B5< 8;8 8=K< O2;5=8O< 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, >B>1@065=8O <8@>2>A?@8OB8O ?8A0B5;O 2 B5:AB5 EC4>65AB25==>3> ?@>872545=8O.  MB>< A;CG05 8@>=8O A>>B=>A8<0 A N<>@>< 8 A0B8@>9 :0: ?>;=>?@02=0O D>@<0 :><8G5A:>3>.  A2O78 A MB8< 2>7=8:05B =5>1E>48<>ABL >B3@0=8G5=8O 8@>=88 >B A0B8@K 8 N<>@0. .<>@ ?@54?>;0305B, GB> 70 A<5H=K<, 70 2K7K20NI8< A<5E =54>AB0B:0<8 GC2AB2C5BAO A8<?0B8O N<>@8AB0 : >1J5:BC >A<5O=8O. .<>@ AB@5<8BAO =5 : C=8GB>65=8N O2;5=8O, 0 : 53> A>25@H5=AB2>20=8N. 065 >A<5820O B>B 8;8 8=>9 ?@54<5B, N<>@8AB >AB05BAO : =5<C 1;03>A:;>==K< 8 4>1@>4CH=K<. .<>@, 2KA<5820O, >AB02;O5B 70 >1J5:B>< :@8B8:8 53> ?@82;5:0B5;L=>ABL (. 0EB8=, ..>@52, .. C403>2).  >B;8G85 >B N<>@0, :>B>@K9 3>2>@8B > O2;5=88, :0: 1K =872>4O 53>, @0A:@K20O <=8<>ABL B>3>, =0 GB> >= ?@5B5=4C5B, 8@>=8O ?@8?8AK205B O2;5=8N B>, G53> 5<C =54>AB05B, :0: 1K ?>4=8<05B 53>, => ;8HL 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?>4G5@:=CBL >BACBAB285 ?@8?8AK205<KE O2;5=8N A2>9AB2.  8@>=88 A<5H=>5 A:@K205BAO ?>4 <0A:>9 A5@L57=>AB8 A ?@5>1;040=85< >B@8F0B5;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O : ?@54<5BC,  N<>@5  A<5H=>5 ?>4 <0A:>9 A5@L57=>3> A ?@5>1;040=85< ?>;>68B5;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O.  N<>@5 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 <><5=BK ?@520;8@CNB =04 >B@8F0B5;L=K<8 2 >F5=:5 O2;5=8O.  8@>=88 4><8=8@C5B >B@8F0B5;L=0O >F5=:0, A8;L=> ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85 8450;0 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 2>72KH5==>3> A<5H=><C, ?@5:@0A=>3> 157>1@07=><C. !0B8@0  C=8GB>60NI55 >A<5O=85 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, :>B>@0O =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B A2>59 ?@8@>45 8;8 =07=0G5=8N. !0B8@0 ?>;=>ABLN >B@8F05B 87>1@0605<K5 O2;5=8O, ?@>B82>?>AB02;OO 8< >?@545;5==K9 8450;. =0 ?>4G8=5=0 @5D>@<0B>@A:8< 8 <>@0;870B>@A:8< F5;O<. 040G0 A0B8@K 2 B><, GB>1K 2K720BL C G8B0B5;O @5H8B5;L=>5 =5?@8OB85 8 >AC645=85 >A<58205<KE O2;5=89.  >B;8G85 >B A0B8@K, 8@>=8O 2 2K@065=88 A2>53> =5?@8OB8O B5E 8;8 8=KE O2;5=89 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 1>;55 E>;>4=0 8 A?>:>9=0, 1>;55 C<5@5==0 ?> B>=C 8 1>;55 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=0. !0B8@0 >?@545;5==> C:07K205B =0 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 O2;5=8O, 8@>=8O AB0@05BAO ?@>1C48BL A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL <KH;5=8O G8B0B5;O, 0 A ?><>ILN 8@>=88 02B>@C 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 C405BAO 702C0;8@>20BL 2 B5:AB5 A2>N ?>78F8N. > <=>38E @01>B0E, ?>A2OI5==KE @0AA<>B@5=8N 8@>=88 :0: MAB5B8G5A:>9 :0B53>@88, A?@0254;82> C:07K205BAO =0 B>, GB> 8@>=8O =5 2E>48B F5;8:>< 2 ?0@0483<C :><8G5A:>3>, => ?5@5A5:05BAO A 4@C38<8 MAB5B8G5A:8<8 :0B53>@8O<8, 2ABC?0O A =8<8 2 >B=>H5=8O A2>5>1@07=>9 M:28?>;5=B=>9 >??>78F88. 081>;55 G0ABK< 4;O 8@>=88 O2;O5BAO A:@5I5=85 :><8G5A:>3> 8 B@038G5A:>3> =0G0;: 0A<5H:0, A>45@60I0OAO 2 8@>=88, :0: 55 >1O70B5;L=0O >?@545;5==>ABL, =5 70?>;=O5B F5;8:>< 55 A>45@60=8O. !5@L57=>ABL O2;O5BAO ACI=>ABLN 8@>=88, 8 <><5=B 2>A?@8OB8O 25I59 :0: A5@L57=KE 8;8 B@038G5A:8E 8<55B 745AL >B=>A8B5;L=> 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85, G5< 2> <=>38E 4@C38E D>@<0E A<5H=>3> [0A8, 1976. !. 123].  70?04=>< ;8B5@0BC@>2545=88 8 :C;LBC@>;>388 =0 ?@>BO65=88 ?>A;54=8E 45AOB8;5B89 =01;N405BAO >3@><=K9 8=B5@5A : 87CG5=8N D5=><5=0 8@>=88 2 AB@C:BC@5 EC4>65AB25==>3> B5:AB0, ACI5AB2C5B <=>65AB2> :>=F5?F89 8@>=88. "0:, . =>:A, 8AE>4O 87 >?@545;5=8O 8@>=88 :0: ?@>B82>@5G8O <564C 2848<>ABLN 8 @50;L=>ABLN, 2K45;O5B ?OBL 284>2 8@>=88: A0B8@8G5A:CN, :><8G5A:CN, B@038G5A:CN, =838;8AB8G5A:CN 8 ?0@04>:A0;L=CN. = @0AA<0B@8205B MB8 284K 8@>=88 :0: <>48D8:0F88 :>=D;8:B0 <564C F5==>ABO<8 G5;>25:0 8 F5==>ABO<8 B>3> <8@0, 2 :>B>@>< >= 6825B. !0B8@8G5A:0O 8@>=8O >?@545;O5BAO :0: ?>@065=85 35@>O 2A;54AB285 B>3>, GB> >= ?5@5ABC?05B 4>;6=K5 70:>=K C=825@AC<0. A;8 65 35@>9 2A;54AB285 ?>4>1=KE 459AB289 ?@8E>48B : B@8C<DC, B> MB> >?@545;O5BAO :0: :><8G5A:0O 8@>=8O. 0@CH5=85 70:>=>2 =54>;6=>3> C=825@AC<0 8 ?>@065=85 35@>O B@0:BC5BAO :0: B@038G5A:0O 8@>=8O, 0 >B@8F0=85 MB8E 70:>=>2 :0: =838;8AB8G5A:0O. 0@04>:A0;L=0O 8@>=8O 2848BAO 2 B><, GB> <8@ =5 2@064515= 8 =54@C65;N15= ?> >B=>H5=8N : 35@>N, 8 745AL B@038G5A:0O 8@>=8O C@02=>25H8205BAO :><8G5A:>9. ?@545;OO AB@C:BC@C 8@>=88 :0: ACI5AB2>20=85 B@5E AB@>3> 70:@5?;5==KE @>;59  65@B2K, 0C48B>@88 8 02B>@0  . =>:A ?@8E>48B : B><C, GB> 65@B2>9 @07;8G=KE 284>2 8@>=88 AB0=>28BAO 35@>9 8;8 >:@C60NI89 53> <8@. . N::5, B0:65 A>3;0H0OAL A >?@545;5=85< 8@>=88 :0: ?@>B82>@5G8O <564C 2848<>ABLN 8 @50;L=>ABLN, @0745;O5B 55 =0 8=AB@C<5=B0;L=CN, :>340 :B>-B> 8@>=8G5= ?>4 <0A:>9 ?@8B2>@=>9 =082=>AB8 8 =01;N40NICN, :>340 <K 8<55< ?5@54 A>1>9 E20ABC=0, =5 >A>7=0NI53> A2>53> E20AB>2AB20, 8=K<8 A;>20<8, 65@B2C 8@>=88. !>3;0H0OAL A :;0AA8D8:0F859 . =>:A0, . N::5 =07K205B ?5@2K5 G5BK@5 2840 8@>=88 70:@KB>9 8@>=859, ?>A:>;L:C 745AL :0640O B>G:0 @50;L=>AB8 @07>1;0G05B 2848<>ABL. 0@04>:A0;L=CN 65 8@>=8N >= =07K205B >B:@KB>9, B0: :0:, A 53> B>G:8 7@5=8O, MB> 273;O4 =0 <8@ :0: 87=0G0;L=> ?@>B82>@5G82K9, 345 35@>8 ?@>B82>AB>OB 4@C3 4@C3C 2 25G=>AB8.  A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 . N::5 ?@54AB028; A2>5>1@07=CN :;0AA8D8:0F8N D>@< @50;870F88 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0: ?@8B2>@=0O ?>E20;0, ?@8B2>@=>5 >128=5=85, ?@8B2>@=>5 A>3;0A85, 8@>=8G5A:>5 4>:070B5;LAB2>, 8@>=8G5A:>5 A><=5=85, 8@>=8G5A:89 A>25B, 8@>=8G5A:>5 C?>B@51;5=85 @8B>@8G5A:>3> 2>?@>A0 [N::5, 1969]. '. ;8:A15@3 2 A2>59 @01>B5, ?@845@6820OAL B>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, GB> 8@>=8O O2;O5BAO 3;C1>:> AC1J5:B82=K< O2;5=85<, 2K45;O5B 284K 8@>=88 =0 >A=>25 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 <8@>2>A?@8OB8O ?8A0B5;59 8 D8;>A>D>2, 8 3>2>@8B > B@038G5A:>9 8@>=88 !>D>:;0 8 2@8?840, 8@>=88 @><0=B8:>2, 8@>=88 ?5AA8<87<0 (>?5=30CM@0, =838;8AB8G5A:>9 8@>=88 8FH5, @5;838>7=>9 8@>=88 L5@:53>@0, 8@@0F8>=0;L=>9 8@>=88 >AB>52A:>3>, <5B0D878G5A:>9 8@>=88 .">;AB>3>, :>A<8G5A:>9 8@>=88 0@48 8 $@0=A0, =0BC@0;8AB8G5A:>9 8@>=88 . '5E>20, M?8G5A:>9 8@>=88 ". 0==0, 8@>=88 01AC@40 5::5B0 8 >=5A:>, 0 B0:65 >1 8@>=88 C "25=0, 840, 5AA5, 0D:8, $>;:=5@0. 2. A>15==>AB8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O ?>=OB8O 8@>=8O 2 @07=K5 8AB>@8G5A:85 M?>E8 "@0:B>2:8 8@>=88 :0: D8;>A>DA:>-MAB5B8G5A:>9 :0B53>@88 2 @07=K5 8AB>@8G5A:85 M?>E8 >B;8G0NBAO, 8=>340 4>E>4O 4> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> ?>=8<0=8O ACI=>AB8 8 A?5F8D8:8 8@>=88. =B8G=>AB8, =0?@8<5@, 1K;0 A2>9AB25==0 A>:@0B>2A:0O 8@>=8O, 2K@0602H0O D8;>A>DA:89 ?@8=F8? A><=5=8O 8 >4=>2@5<5==> A?>A>1 >1=0@C65=8O 8AB8=K. !>:@0B ?@8B2>@O;AO 548=><KH;5==8:>< >??>=5=B0, A>3;0H0;AO A =8< 8 =570<5B=> 4>2>48; 53> 273;O4 4> 01AC@40, >1=0@C6820O >3@0=8G5==>ABL :0: 1C4B> 1K >G5284=KE 4;O 74@02>3> A<KA;0 8AB8=.  0=B8G=>< B50B@5 2AB@5G05BAO 8 B0: =07K205<0O B@038G5A:0O 8@>=8O (8@>=8O AC4L1K), B5>@5B8G5A:8 >A>7=0==0O 2 =>2>5 2@5<O: 35@>9 C25@5= 2 A515, 8 =5 2848B, 2 >B;8G85 >B 7@8B5;O, GB> 8<5==> 53> ?>ABC?:8 ?>43>B02;820NB 53> A>1AB25==CN 3815;L. "0:CN 8@>=8N AC4L1K =5@54:> =07K20NB >1J5:B82=>9 8@>=859, 0 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : A0<>9 @50;L=>AB8 8@>=859 8AB>@88 (?> B5@<8=>;>388 535;O). 0725@=CB>5 B5>@5B8G5A:>5 >1>A=>20=85 8 @07=>>1@07=>5 EC4>65AB25==>5 2>?;>I5=85 8@>=8O ?>;CG8;0 2 ?>MB8:5 @><0=B87<0, 2 B@C40E $. (;535;O, .. $. >;L35@0, ?@>872545=8OE . "8:0, -."..>D<0=0, 6. 09@>=0, . NAA5. ;O =5<5F:8E @><0=B8:>2 8@>=8O AB0=>28BAO >4=8< 87 >A=>2=KE <><5=B>2 B2>@G5AB20, ?>A:>;L:C ?> ?@8@>45 A2>59 :0: =5;L7O ;CGH5 A>>B25BAB2>20;0 @><0=B8G5A:><C 42>5<8@8N, AB@5<;5=8N : AC1J5:B82=>AB8 B2>@G5AB20. ><0=B8G5A:0O 8@>=8O ?>4G5@:8205B >B=>A8B5;L=>ABL 2AO:8E >3@0=8G8B5;L=KE ?> A<KA;C 8 7=0G5=8N AB>@>= 687=8  1KB>2>9 :>A=>AB8, A>A;>2=>9 C7>AB8, @07;8G=>3> @>40 CA;>2=>AB59. ><0=B8G5A:0O 8@>=8O ?> <5@5 A2>53> @0728B8O ?@5B5@?5205B M2>;NF8N: 2=0G0;5 MB> 8@>=8O A2>1>4K, =0A<5E0NI0OAO =04 2A5<8, :B> ?KB05BAO ?@840BL 59 ?>AB>O==K5 D>@<K. >B>< 2>7=8:05B A0@:07< =5>1E>48<>AB8: A8;K :>A=>AB8 8 3=5B0 >4>;520NB A2>1>4=K5 A8;K 687=8, ?>MB 70=>A8BAO 2KA>:>, => 53> >45@3820NB, 54:> 8 3@C1> 874520OAL =04 =8<. ><0=B8G5A:0O 8@>=8O >1=068;0 @07;04 <5GBK (8450;0) 8 @50;L=>9 687=8, >B=>A8B5;L=>ABL 8 ?5@5<5=G82>ABL 75<=KE F5==>AB59, ?>4G0A ?>425@30O A><=5=8N 8E :0:CN-;81> >1J5:B82=>ABL, ?>4G8=OO 8A:CAAB2> F5;O< MAB5B8G5A:>9 83@K. 0BA:89 <KA;8B5;L !. L5@:53>@ @0AH8@O5B 8@>=8N 4> 687=5==>3> ?@8=F8?0  :0: C=825@A0;L=>3> A@54AB20 2=CB@5==53> >A2>1>645=8O AC1J5:B0 >B =5>1E>48<>AB8 8 A2O70==>AB8, 2 :>B>@>9 53> 45@68B ?>A;54>20B5;L=0O F5?L 687=5==KE A8BC0F89. L5@:53>@ 2KABC?05B A @57:>9 :@8B8:>9 @><0=B87<0, ?>A:>;L:C AG8B05B @><0=B8G5A:CN 8@>=8N 8A:065=85< (AC1J5:B82870F859) A>:@0B>2A:>3> ?@8=F8?0 >1J5:B82=>AB8, ?@8 :>B>@>< >B@8F0=85 40==>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 1K;> =>2K<, ?>78B82=K< <><5=B><, B>340 :0: 8@>=8O @><0=B8:>2, ?> 53> <=5=8N, ?>4<5=O5B @50;L=>ABL AC1J5:B82=K< >1@07>< [094C:>20, 1976]. !2>5>1@07=CN :>=F5?F8N M?8G5A:>9 8@>=88 :0: >4=>3> 87 ?@8=F8?>2 A>2@5<5==>3> @50;87<0 >1>A=>20; 2 A2>8E B@C40E ". 0==, 4;O :>B>@>3> 8@>=8O O28;0AL ?@8=F8?>< =5708=B5@5A>20==>-0=0;8B8G5A:>3> >B=>H5=8O : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. BB0;:820OAL >B C=825@A0;L=>AB8 @><0=B8G5A:>9 8@>=88, >= ?>4G5@:820;, GB> 8@>=8O =5>1E>48<0 4;O M?8G5A:>3> 8A:CAAB20 :0: 273;O4 A 2KA>BK A2>1>4K, ?>:>O 8 >1J5:B82=>AB8, =5 ><@0G5==K9 =8:0:8< <>@0;870B>@AB2><. !2>5>1@07=0O 8@>=8G5A:0O 480;5:B8:0 >B@078;0AL 2 B50B@0;L=>< <5B>45 >BGC645=8O . @5EB0. A>1>5 <5AB> 70=8<05B 8@>=8O 2 ?>MB8:5 ?>AB<>45@=87<0, 345 ?>;CG05B >A>1>5 8<5=>20=85 ?0AB8H. 0AB8H B@0:BC5BAO ;81> A?5F80;L=0O D>@<0 ?0@>488, ;81> :0: A0<>?0@>48O. <5@8:0=A:89 B5>@5B8: $. 659<A>= 40; =081>;55 02B>@8B5B=>5 >?@545;5=85 ?>=OB8O ?0AB8H, >E0@0:B5@87>202 53> :0: >A=>2=>9 <>4CA ?>AB<>45@=8ABA:>3> 8A:CAAB20: >4=>2@5<5==> 8 87=0H820=85 AB8;8AB8G5A:>9 <0A:8 (B> 5ABL B@048F8>==0O D>@<0 ?0@>488) 8 =59B@0;L=0O ?@0:B8:0 AB8;8AB8G5A:>9 <8<8:@88 157 A:@KB>3> <>B820 ?0@>488, 157 B>3>, =5 C30AH53> >:>=G0B5;L=> GC2AB20, GB> 5I5 ACI5AB2C5B 345-B> =>@<0;L=>5 ?> A@02=5=8N A B5<, GB> 87>1@0605BAO 2 :><8G5A:>< A25B5 [&8B. ?>: ;L8=, 1999. !. 242-244]. =>385 ?>AB<>45@=8ABA:85 ?@>872545=8O >B;8G0NBAO A>7=0B5;L=>9 CAB0=>2:>9 =0 8@>=8G5A:>5 A>?>AB02;5=85 @07;8G=KE AB8;59, 60=@>2KE D>@< 8 EC4>65AB25==KE B5G5=89. !?5F8D8G5A:89 E0@0:B5@ 8@>=8G5A:>3> <>4CA0 8;8 ?0AB8H0 ?@>872545=89 ?>AB<>45@=87<0 >?@545;O5BAO 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L =530B82=K< ?0D>A><, =0?@02;5==K< ?@>B82 8;;N78>=87<0 <0AA-<5480 8 B5A=> A2O70==>3> A =8< D5=><5=0 <0AA>2>9 :C;LBC@K. 3. $C=:F8>=8@>20=85 8@>=88 2 O7K:5 EC4>65AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@K 8 ?CB8 55 87CG5=8O 2 ;8=328AB8:5 3.1.  A>2@5<5==>9 ;8=328AB8:5 25;8: 8=B5@5A : 87CG5=8N 8=D>@<0F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@K A;>20, E0@0:B5@0 8 A?>A>1>2 ?5@540G8 8=D>@<0F88 8 <5E0=87<0 A>740=8O @07;8G=KE 284>2 ?>4@07C<520=8O. !<KA;>20O <=>3>?;0=>2>ABL ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A?5F80;L=>5 A2>9AB2> EC4>65AB25==>3> B5:AB0, :>B>@>5 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> B5:AB 3>2>@8B 3>@074> 1>;LH5, G5< MB> 2K@065=> 2 ?@O<KE 8 ?5@5=>A=KE 7=0G5=8OE A;>2 8 A;>2>A>G5B0=89 8;8 1>;55 >1J5<=KE A8=B0:A8G5A:8E ?>AB@>5=8OE. !>45@60=85 O7K:>2KE D>@< O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< A2>5>1@07=KE ?@>B82>@5G82KE >B=>H5=89, :>B>@K5 2>7=8:0NB 2 O7K:5 <564C ?;0=>< A>45@60=8O 8 ?;0=>< 2K@065=8O. 708<>7028A<>ABL M;5<5=B>2 O7K:>2>3> 7=0:0 =5?>;=0O, >=0 4>?CA:05B 8725AB=CN 02B>=><=>ABL D>@< 8 7=0G5=89. 0: >B<5G0; .. >B51=O, 72C:>2KE 7=0<5=0B5;L=KE A>G5B0=89 2 O7K:5 =5A@02=8<> <5=55, G5< ?@54AB02;5==KE 8<8 7=0G5=89, B0: :0: =0 >4=> B0:>5 A>G5B0=85 ?@8E>48BAO A?;>HL 8 @O4>< =5A:>;L:> 7=0G5=89. @C38<8 A;>20<8, 87<5=G82>ABL 8 ?>4286=>ABL <KA;8 2 O7K:5 3>@074> 1>;55 87<5=G82>AB8 72C:>2 [>B51=O, 1888. !.21-22]. 5:>=3@CM=B=>ABL 42CE ?;0=>2 O7K:0 (DC=:F8>=0;L=>3> 8 A>45@60B5;L=>3>) 40;0 !.. 0@F52A:><C >A=>20=85 3>2>@8BL >1 0A8<<5B@8G5A:>< 4C0;87<5 ;8=328AB8G5A:>3> 7=0:0 [0@F52A:89, 1965. !.90]. -B> O2;5=85 @07@010BK20;>AL B0:65 2 @01>B0E (. 0;;8, .. >B51=8, $. !>AAN@0. !>2@5<5==0O 8=B5@?@5B0F8O MB>3> O2;5=8O ?@>4>;65=0 2 8AA;54>20=8OE !.. 0F=5;LA>=0, .. #D8<F52>9, -.!.7=0C@>2>9, :>B>@K5 >B<5G0NB, GB> ?>;8DC=:F8>=0;L=>ABL ?;0=0 2K@065=8O 8 ><>=8<8O 548=8F ?;0=0 A>45@60=8O >A=>2K205BAO =0 >BACBAB288 A>>B25BAB28O <564C 1>;55 5<:8< 8 <=>3>G8A;5==K< ?> AB@C:BC@=>9 >@30=870F88 ?;0=>< A>45@60=8O 8 1>;55 ?@>ABK< 8 <5=LH8< ?> G8A;C 548=8F ?;0=>< 2K@065=8O [7=0C@>20, 1977. !.89]. !CI=>ABL 0A8<<5B@88 O7K:>2>3> 7=0:0 :0: 2 A8AB5<5, B0: 8 ?@8 53> DC=:F8>=8@>20=88 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> ?@8 2E>645=88 7=0:0 2 ?0@0483<0B8G5A:89 @O4 8;8 ?@8 A>G5B0=88 A;>25A=KE 7=0:>2 2 ?0@0483<0B8G5A:>< @O4C A<KA;>2>5 A>45@60=85 7=0:0 A:;04K205BAO 87 A>1AB25==> =><8=0B82=>3> 7=0G5=8O 7=0:0, :>B>@>5 >?@545;O5BAO 2 ?0@0483<0B8:5, 8 =5:>53> =>2>3> A<KA;0, >?@545;5==>3> O7K:>2>3> ?@8@0I5=8O, 2>7=8:0NI53> 2 A8=B03<0B8:5 2 @57C;LB0B5 ;5:A8G5A:>9 A>G5B05<>AB8 A;>2. $>@<K 0A8<<5B@88 A;>20@=>3> 7=0:0 <=>3>>1@07=K. =8 >1=0@C6820NB A51O :0: 2 AB@C:BC@5 A0<>3> ;8=328AB8G5A:>3> 7=0:0, 2 A0<>9 A8AB5<5 O7K:0, B0: 8 2 ?@>F5AA0E, ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2 O7K:5 8 @5G8. A8<<5B@8G=K9 4C0;87< A;>25A=>3> 7=0:0 A2O70= B0:65 A> AD5@>9 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O O7K:>2>9 A8AB5<K 8 ?>=OB85< ;8B5@0BC@=>9 =>@<K, B0: :0: 2>A?@8=OB0O :>;;5:B82>< O7K:>20O A8AB5<0 >A>7=05BAO :0: >?@545;5==0O =>@<0, >BABC?;5=8O >B :>B>@>9 <>3CB 1KBL AB8;8AB8G5A:8 7=0G8<K 2 >?@545;5==KE O7K:>2KE A8BC0F8OE. 4=>9 87 D>@< ?@>O2;5=8O 0A8<<5B@88 A;>25A=>3> 7=0:0, @50;87CNI59 O7K:>2CN ?@8@>4C 40==>3> O2;5=8O, A;C68B 284 ?>4@07C<520=8O, 0 8<5==> 8<?;8:0F8O. 1I8< 4;O 2A5E A>2@5<5==KE 8AA;54>20B5;59 O2;O5BAO ?>=8<0=85 8@>=88 :0: >4=>9 87 D>@< 8<?;8:0F88. 1KG=> 8<?;8:0F8O @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: >B@065=85 0A8<<5B@88 <564C D>@<>9 8 A>45@60=85<, B> 5ABL :0: 2AO:89 A;CG09 =5?>:@KB8O ?>;=>ABLN ?;0=0 A>45@60=8O ?;0=>< 2K@065=8O. <?;8:0F8O 2 B5:AB5 =5 8<55B ?>;=>9 A;>25A=>9 @50;870F88 8;8 @50;87C5BAO ;8HL G0AB8G=>. 4=0:> ?@0:B8G5A:8 2 ;N1>< B5:AB5 8<?;8:0F8N <>6=> @0725@=CBL, B> 5ABL 2K@078BL M:A?;8F8B=>, ?>A:>;L:C ACI5AB2>20=85 8<?;8:0F88 AB>;L 65 @50;L=>, :0: 8 M:A?;8:0F8O. <?;8F8B=K< O2;O5BAO B>, GB> =5 8<55B A;>25A=>3> 2>?;>I5=8O, => ?>4@07C<5205BAO 8 ?>AB8305BAO 04@5A0B>< ?@8 ?><>I8 M:A?;8F8B=>3>, 0 B0:65 :>=B5:AB0 8 4@C38E D0:B>@>2.  M:A?;8F8B=>5, 8 8<?;8F8B=>5 8<5NB A2>5 O7K:>2>5 2K@065=85, => B>;L:> @07=>3> @>40: ?@O<>5, =5?>A@54AB25==>5 8 =5?@O<>5, >?>A@54>20==>5 [.%. 0340A0@O=, 1983].  A?>A>1=>AB8 A;>2 ?>;CG0BL 2 ?@>F5AA5 1KB>20=8O 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5 A2>5>1@07=K5 A<KA;>2K5 ?@8@0I5=8O ?8A0;>AL 402=>, :>340 5I5 B5@<8= 8<?;8:0F8O 8AA;54>20B5;O<8 =5 C?>B@51;O;AO: .8=>3@04>2 3>2>@8; > ?>B5=F80;L=>9 A5<0=B8:5 B5:AB0 [8=>3@04>2, 1959. !.48], .. 0@8= 2>7<>6=>ABL O7K:>2KJE 7=0:>2 ?>@>640BL 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 A<KA;K =07K20; >15@B>=0<8 A<KA;0 [0@8=, 1974]. .. $54>@>2 >?@545;O; MBC ?>B5=F8N A;>25A=>3> 7=0:0 B5@<8=>< 5<:>ABL A;>20, :>B>@0O 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> G0AB> EC4>65AB25==K9 B5:AB 3>2>@8B 1>;LH5, G5< A:070=> 2 =5< ?@O<>, ?>42>48B G8B0B5;O : AC645=8O< 8 2K2>40<, :>B>@K5 2 =5< =5 2K@065=K =5?>A@54AB25==> A;>20<8 [$54>@>2, 1963. !.108]. >;LH8=AB2> 8AA;54>20B5;59 @0AA<0B@820NB 8<?;8:0F8N :0: 284 ?>4@07C<520=8O [.. @=>;L4, 1982; .. CE0@5=:>, 1974; ..@<0:>20, 1996]. <?;8:0F8O ?5@5405B M<>F8>=0;L=CN AB>@>=C 2KA:07K20=8O, ACI5AB2CNICN 2 =5< >4=>2@5<5==> A M:A?;8F8B=> 2K@065==K< ?>B>:>< A>1KB89. <?;8:0F8O 2A5340 ?@8ACI0 EC4>65AB25==><C B5:ABC, >=0 A>7405B >A=>2C 55 EC4>65AB25==>9 7=0G8<>AB8, O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 :@8B5@852 EC4>65AB25==>AB8. <?;8:0F8O 2 EC4>65AB25==>< ?@>872545=88 =5 8<55B A2>59 7040G59 M:>=><8N O7K:>2KE A@54AB2, 55 >A=>2=>5 ?@54=07=0G5=85  A>740=85 C G8B0B5;O MDD5:B0 ?@8ACBAB28O 2 =57028A8<>AB8 >F5=:8 ?@>G8B0==>3> [.. CE0@5=:>, 1976]. 57CA;>2=>, MB0 =57028A8<>ABL O2;O5BAO ;>6=>9, ?>A:>;L:C 02B>@A:0O ?>78F8O 2 B5:AB5 2A5340 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB5?5=8, 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 O2=> 2K@065=0. @8 ?><>I8 8<?;8F8@CNI59 45B0;8 [.. CE0@5=:>, 1976] 02B>@ 8<55B 2>7<>6=>ABL 40BL A:@KBCN, 702C0;8@>20==CN >F5=:C, E0@0:B5@8AB8:C O2;5=8N 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8;8 >1J5:BC ?>25AB2>20=8O. <5==> MB0 DC=:F8O A:@KB>9 AC1J5:B82=>9 >F5=:8, :0: ?@028;>, >B@8F0B5;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0, O2;O5BAO >A=>2=>9 DC=:F859 8@>=88 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5. 3.2. A5 8AA;54>20B5;8 A?@0254;82> C:07K20NB =0 B>, GB> 8@>=8G5A:8 C?>B@51;5==>5 A;>2> @50;87C5BAO =5?@5<5==> 2 :>=B5:AB5, 8 GB> 8<5==> :>=B5:AB ?>72>;O5B @0A?>7=0BL 8 45:>48@>20BL 8@>=8N, @50;87CNICNAO 2 @0<:0E ?@54;>65=8O, 0170F0, F5;>3> B5:AB0. >4 :>=B5:AB>< <K, 2A;54 70 .. >;H0=A:8<, ?>=8<05< A>2>:C?=>ABL D>@<0;L=> D8:A8@>20==KE CA;>289, ?@8 :>B>@KE >4=>7=0G=> 2KO2;O5BAO A>45@60=85 :0:>9-;81> O7K:>2>9 548=8FK (;5:A8G5A:>9, 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 8 B.4.); ?@8 MB>< ?>4 >4=>7=0G=>ABLN A;54C5B ?>=8<0BL ?@>O2;5=85 2 7040==KE CA;>28OE B>;L:> >4=>3> :>=:@5B=>3> A>45@60=8O O7K:>2>9 D>@<K (=0?@8<5@, >4=>3> 7=0G5=8O A;>20, >4=>3> 7=0G5=8O 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 D>@<K 8 B.4.) [>;H0=A:89,1959. !.47]. > :;0AA8D8:0F88 >;H0=A:>3> 2K45;O5BAO B@8 B8?0 :>=B5:AB>2  <8:@>:>=B5:AB (>3@0=8G5==K9 @0<:0<8 ?@54;>65=8O 8;8 2KA:07K20=8O), <0:@>:>=B5:AB (2:;NG0NI89 >1J5< 0170F0 8;8 480;>38G5A:>3> 548=AB20) 8 <530:>=B5:AB  B5:AB>2K9, B5<0B8G5A:89 :>=B5:AB, :>B>@K9 <>65B A>2?040BL A >1J5<>< 2A53> ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;><. 57CA;>2=>, 4;O 8@>=88 :0: AB8;8AB8G5A:>3> ?@85<0 =081>;LH55 7=0G5=85 8<55B <8:@>:>=B5:AB, 8;8 :>=B5:AB 2 C7:><, B@048F8>==>< A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20: ;8=328AB8G5A:>5 >:@C65=85 40==>9 548=8FK; CA;>28O, >A>15==>AB8 C?>B@51;5=8O 40==>3> M;5<5=B0 2 @5G8; 70:>=G5==K9 2 A<KA;>2>< >B=>H5=88 >B@57>: ?8AL<5==>9 @5G8, ?>72>;ONI89 CAB0=>28BL 7=0G5=85 2E>4OI53> 2 =53> A;>20 8;8 D@07K [E<0=>20, 1966. !.206]. 50;870F8O 8@>=88 :0: :><?>=5=B0 <8@>2>77@5=8O ?8A0B5;O, 8@>=88, A2O70==>9 A >A=>2=>9 84559 ?@>872545=8O 8 AB@C:BC@8@CNI59 MB> ?@>872545=85, ?@>8AE>48B 2 @0<:0E <530:>=B5:AB0. 06=>ABL :>=B5:AB0 B@C4=> ?5@5>F5=8BL 4;O 2A5E B8?>2 ;5:A8G5A:8E 7=0G5=89, ?>A:>;L:C A2>9AB20 A;>20 >1=0@C6820NBAO 2 53> @07=>>1@07=KE 8 <=>3>0A?5:B=KE >B=>H5=8OE A 4@C38<8 A;>20<8. @8 MB>< @0725B2;5==0O A8AB5<0 7=0G5=89 45;05B 53> 2708<>>B=>H5=8O A EC4>65AB25==K< :>=B5:AB>< =5>1KG09=> A;>6=K<8. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, >= 2K?>;=O5B A2>N >A=>2=CN DC=:F8N  >BA5:05B 2A5 ?@>G85 A>AB02;ONI85 A5<0=B8G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@K A;>20, :@><5 !, :>B>@K9 8 @50;87C5BAO 2 8<5NI5<AO >:@C65=88. '5< >1H8@=55 A5<0=B8G5A:0O AB@C:BC@0, G5< 1;865 A;>2> : @07@O4C A;>2 H8@>:>9 A5<0=B8:8, B5< 2KH5 :>=:@5B878@CNI0O, 8718@0B5;L=0O @>;L :>=B5:AB0. >=B5:AB, :>B>@K9 =5 A=8<05B ?>;8A5<88, ?>;=>ABLN 8;8 G0AB8G=> AB@>8BAO 87 =5>4=>7=0G=> @50;87C5<KE 548=8F. A5 A;CG08 83@K A;>2, 7523<K, =5?0@0;;5;L=>AB8 A<KA;>2KE A>G5B0=89 ?>AB@>5=K =0 2>7<>6=>AB8 40;L=59H53> @0725@BK20=8O A5<0=B8:8 A;>20, 4>102;OO =5A2>9AB25==K5 5<C 7=0G5=8O, 87<5=OO 8<5NI85AO. !<KA;>20O >A;>6=5==>ABL A;>20 2 :>=B5:AB5 EC4>65AB25==>3> ?@>872545=8O  >4=> 87 >A=>2=KE ?>;>65=89 AB8;8AB8:8 EC4>65AB25==>9 @5G8  1K;> 2K428=CB> 8 >1>A=>20=> .. 0@8=K<. !>3;0A=> 0@8=C, EC4>65AB25==>5 ?@>872545=85 >1;0405B >A>1>9 >@30=870F859 O7K:>2KE M;5<5=B>2, 8 =8 2 :0:>9 <><5=B @01>BK 2 >1;0AB8 AB8;8AB8:8 =5;L7O C?CA:0BL 87 284C 2708<>459AB28O M;5<5=B>2 F5;L=>AB8 EC4>65AB25==>3> B5:AB0 [0@8=, 1974. !.31]. 064>5 A;>2> 2 AB@C:BC@5 EC4>65AB25==>3> ?@>872545=8O >1;0405B MAB5B8G5A:>9 8;8 EC4>65AB25==>9 7=0G8<>ABLN, B0: :0: CG0AB2C5B 2 @0A:@KB88 70<KA;0 EC4>6=8:0. >MB><C 2 :>=B5:AB5 EC4>65AB25==>3> ?@>872545=8O >=> ?@8>1@5B05B =5:85 A<KA;>2K5 M;5<5=BK, :>B>@K5 =0<8 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO, => =5 8<5NB A2>8E 7=0:>2 2 @5G8, 0 >1@07CNBAO 87 2708<>459AB25==>9 A>2>:C?=>AB8 A;>2 [0@8=, 1974. !.36]. -B8 A<KA;>2K5 M;5<5=BK 0@8= =07K205B A<KA;>2K<8 >BB5=:0<8, :><18=0B>@=K<8 ?@8@0I5=8O<8, A5<0=B8G5A:8<8 >15@B>=0<8. !;>2> 2 EC4>65AB25==>< :>=B5:AB5 AB0=>28BAO =5@02=K< A0<><C A515 :0: M;5<5=BC O7K:>2>9 A8AB5<K, A;54>20B5;L=>, ?> <=5=8N 0@8=0, <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > D>@<8@>20=88 =>2>3> B8?0 7=0G5=8O A;>20  EC4>65AB25==>3> 7=0G5=8O. K428=CB0O .. 0@8=K< B5>@8O EC4>65AB25==>3> 7=0G5=8O A;>20 0:B82=> @07@010BK205BAO 2 2 A>2@5<5==>9 AB8;8AB8:5: %C4>65AB25==>5 7=0G5=85 A;>20, - ?8H5B .. >F5?=O, @50;87C5BAO 2 :>=:@5B=>9 MAB5B8G5A:>9 A8AB5<5 8 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 @0A:@K205BAO ;8HL ?@8 A>>B=5A5=88 A;>20 A 8459 ?@>872545=8O, A >1@070<8 ?5@A>=0659 8;8 4@C38<8 <8:@>>1@070<8 02B>@A:>9 A8AB5<K. -B8< >?@545;O5BAO 8=48284C0;L=>ABL EC4>65AB25==>3> 7=0G5=8O [>F5?=O, 1997. !.105-106]. AA;54>20B5;8 2K45;ONB A;54CNI85 B8?K EC4>65AB25==>3> 7=0G5=8O: ?@O<>5 =><8=0B82=>5 (157>1@07=>5) C?>B@51;5=85; >1@07=0O @50;870F8O A;>20; MAB5B8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 A;>20 :0: 2KAH55 ?@>O2;5=85 EC4>65AB25==KE A2>9AB2 A;>20. -AB5B8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 :0: >A>1K9 B8? 7=0G5=8O A;>20 1K; 2K45;5= .. 0@8=K< 2 53> @01>B5  @07=>284=>ABOE EC4>65AB25==>9 @5G8.  :0G5AB25 >A=>2=KE ?@87=0:>2 2KABC?0NB A;54CNI85: >A>10O 5<:>ABL B0:>3> A;>20 (>=> (& ) A;C68B =0<5:>< 2:;NG5==KE <KA;59, M<>F89, 2>;=5=89); A5<0=B8G5A:0O =5>4=>7=0G=>ABL, A<KA;>20O <=>3>?;0=>2>ABL A;>20 (=5 40=0 A?>;=0 A<KA;>20O F5==>ABL A;>2, 0 B>;L:> >1>7=0G5=K ?@545;K 0AA>F80B82=>3> @0725@BK20=8O A<KA;0); >1CA;>2;5==>ABL H8@>:8< :>=B5:AB>< (=5 ?@8<K:05B : 1;8609H8< A;>20< ?> A<KA;C); A2565ABL, =>287=0, 4065 0;>38G=>ABL A;>25A=KE A2O759 [0@8=, 1974]. >=F5?F8O MAB5B8G5A:>3> 7=0G5=8O 0:B82=> @0728205BAO A>2@5<5==>9 AB8;8AB8:>9 EC4>65AB25==>9 @5G8, ?@5645 2A53>  2 8AA;54>20=8OE ?@54AB028B5;59 0@8=A:>9 H:>;K (.. >@8A>20, ..!./78:>20, .. 8;8G, .. >F5?=O). 01>B0 =04 A>AB02;5=85< A;>20@O ?@>872545=89 .. >@L:>3> ?>72>;8;0 2KO28BL =5:>B>@K5 A2>9AB20 MAB5B8G5A:>3> 7=0G5=8O 8 >?8A0BL <5E0=87< 53> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O. !;>20 A MAB5B8G5A:8< 7=0G5=85< 2K@0AB0NB 87 ?@>ABKE C?>B@51;5=89, >1>1I0O 8E =081>;55 7=0G8<K5 EC4>65AB25==K5 A2>9AB20, A>?>AB02;OO 8 ?@>B82>?>AB02;OO 8E. (& ) -AB5B8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 2KABC?05B :0: 2=5H=55 ?@>O2;5=85 EC4>65AB25==KE A2>9AB2 A;>20  EC4>65AB25==>5 >1>1I5=85, D>@<8@CNI55 7=0G8<>5 ?>=OB85->1@07 [>F5?=O, 1997. !.177-178].  MAB5B8G5A:>< 7=0G5=88 2 M<>F8>=0;L=>->1@07=>9 D>@<5 >1J5:B828@CNBAO 3;02=K5 8458 ?@>872545=8O, 0 B0:65 F5;>AB=>5 EC4>65AB25==>5 <8@>2>77@5=85 ?8A0B5;O, 53> <KA;8 > <8@5 8 A2>5>1@0785 53> >1@07=>3> 2845=8O <8@0 [>F5?=O, 1997. !.177]. A;8 @0AA<0B@820BL ;5:A8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 A;>20 A B>G:8 7@5=8O :><<C=8:0B82=>3> ?>4E>40, B> 2 =53> 2:;NG0NBAO =5 B>;L:> :><?>=5=BK, CA2>5==K5 G5@57 :><<C=8:0F8N, => B0:65 :><?>=5=BK, ?@8>1@5B5==K5 G5;>25:>< 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I5AB25==>9 ?@0:B8:8 [!B5@=8=, 1985. !.5], 2 O45@=>9 G0AB8 ;5:A8G5A:>3> 7=0G5=8O A;>20 2K45;ONBAO 420 >A=>2=KE :><?>=5=B0  45=>B0B82=K9 8 :>==>B0B82=K9. 5=>B0B82=K9 :><?>=5=B, ?> >?@545;5=8N !B5@=8=0, A>45@68B ?@54<5B=>-?>=OB89=CN 8;8 B>;L:> ?>=OB89=CN 8=D>@<0F8N, A2O70==CN A >B@065=85< 2=5O7K:>2>9 @50;L=>AB8 [!B5@=8=, 1985. !.8]. >==>B0B82=K9 :><?>=5=B 7=0G5=8O A;>20 2K@0605B >B=>H5=85 3>2>@OI53> : ?@54<5BC =><8=0F88 2 D>@<5 M<>F88 8;8 >F5=:8 45=>B0B0. @>1;5<0 :>==>B0F88, 55 ACI=>AB8 8 AB@C:BC@K, >B=>A8BAO : G8A;C =081>;55 48A:CAA8>==KE 2 ;8=328AB8G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5. :B82=> @07@010BK20NBAO @07;8G=K5 B5>@88 :>==>B0F88  ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O (.. 5>=BL52), AB8;8AB8G5A:0O (-.!. 7=0C@>20, .. >;8=8=), ;8=328AB8G5A:0O (.. "5;8O, ..(0E>2A:89). >;LH8=AB2> 8AA;54>20B5;59 AG8B0NB, GB> :>==>B0F8O  MB> =5>BJ5<;5<K9 :><?>=5=B A>45@60B5;L=>9 AB@C:BC@K A;>20. "@048F8>==> 2 A5<0=B8G5A:CN AB@C:BC@C :>==>B0F88 ;8=328ABK 2:;NG0NB M<>F8>=0;L=K9, M:A?@5AA82=K9, >F5=>G=K9 8 DC=:F8>=0;L=>-AB8;8AB8G5A:89 :><?>=5=BK: :>==>B0F88 E0@0:B5@87CNB A;>20 ?> >F5=>G=><C, M<>F8>=0;L=><C 8 AB8;8AB8G5A:><C ?0@0<5B@0< 8 >B>1@060NB 7=0=8O > A2>9AB20E - ?8H5B .. 0A;>20 [0A;>20, 1989. !.108]. !G8B05BAO, GB> >=8 =0A;0820NBAO =0 >A=>2=>5 O4@> 7=0G5=8O A;>20, =07K205<>5 45=>B0B82=K<. 4=0:> @O4 8AA;54>20B5;59, =0?@8<5@ .. (0E>2A:89, @0AA<0B@8205B 45=>B0B82=K9 8 :>==>B0B82=K9 :><?>=5=BK :0: @02=>F5==K5, 8 ?@8 MB>< 87 :>=B5:AB0 8A:;NG05BAO AB8;8AB8G5A:89 :><?>=5=B, 2 :0G5AB25 >A=>2=KE A>AB02;ONI8E C:07K20NBAO M:A?@5AA82=K9 8 >F5=>G=K9 [(0E>2A:89, 1982]. 06=CN @>;L 2 87CG5=88 :>==>B0F88 AK3@0;8 @01>BK .. "5;8O, >=0 2K45;O5B 420 ?>=8<0=8O :>==>B0F88, ?@8=OBKE 2 A>2@5<5==>9 =0CG=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5.  C7:>< ?>=8<0=88 :>==>B0F8O  B0:>9 :><?>=5=B 7=0G5=8O O7K:>2>9 548=8FK (2KABC?0NI59 2> 2B>@8G=>9 4;O =55 =><8=0F858) :>B>@K9 4>?>;=O5B 55 >1J5:B82=>5 7=0G5=85 0AA>F80B82=>->1@07=K< ?@54AB02;5=85< >1 >1>7=0G05<>9 @50;88 =0 >A=>25 >A>7=0=8O 2=CB@5==59 D>@<K =08<5=>20=8O ["5;8O,1998.!.193]. =0 A>>B=>A8BAO A >18E>4=>-1KB>2K< >?KB><, :C;LBC@=>-=0F8>=0;L=K< 7=0=85< 3>2>@OI8E =0 40==>< O7K:5, A 8E <8@>2845=85< 8 2K@0605B F5==>AB=>-@0F8>=0;L=>5 8;8 M<>F8>=0;L=>5  ?> E0@0:B5@C >F5=:8  >B=>H5=85 3>2>@OI53> : >1>7=0G05<><C. >==>B0F8O 2 H8@>:>< A<KA;5  ;N1>9 :><?>=5=B, :>B>@K9 4>?>;=O5B ?@54<5B=>-?>=OB89=>5 (8;8 45=>B0B82=>5) A>45@60=85 O7K:>2>9 548=8FK 8 ?@8405B 59 M:A?@5AA82=CN DC=:F8N ["5;8O, 1998. !.193]. 0AH8@5==>5 ?>=8<0=85 :>==>B0F88 E0@0:B5@=> 8 4;O A0<>9 .."5;8O: :>==>B0F8O  ?@>4C:B 8AB>@8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 7=0G5=89 A;>2 (8 2K@065=89), A;54CNI8E 2 MB>< ?>ABC?0B5;L=>< 42865=88 =5 B>;L:> 70 @0728B85< A>7=0=8O G5;>25:0 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>7=0=8O 8< 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, => 8 5I5 8 70 B5<8 A2545=8O<8, :>B>@K5 0AA>F80B82=> A>?@>2>640NB 7=0=85 > <8@5 8 :>B>@K5 =5O2=> 2K@060NBAO 2 B5:AB5, 0 :>==>B0F88, 218@0O 8E 2 A51O 2 2845 2=CB@5==59 D>@<K, M:A?;8F8@C5B A B5<, GB>1K ?>43>B>28BL A>>B25BAB2CNI89 ?@03<0B8G5A:89 (M:A?@5AA82=K9) MDD5:B ["5;8O, 1986. !.98]. "0:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O =0 :>==>B0F8N ?@845@6820NBAO <=>385 8AA;54>20B5;8. "0:, -.!. 7=0C@>20 >?@545;O5B :>==>B0F8N :0: ;N1>5 4>?>;=8B5;L=>5 A>45@60=85, :>B>@>5 1078@C5BAO =0 ?>AB>O==KE 0AA>F80B82=KE A2O7OE A;>20, 2K7K205<KE 53> 25I5AB25==K< 7=0G5=85< [7=0C@>20, 1971. !.8]. =5 7028A8<>AB8 >B ?>=8<0=8O :>==>B0F88 8AA;54>20B5;8 C:07K20NB =0 55 0AA>F80B82=CN ?@8@>4C: >==>B0B82=K9 ?@87=0:, ?> >1I5?@87=0==><C <=5=8N, 2K?>;=O5B @>;L A5<0=B8G5A:>3> :>@@5;OB0 0AA>F80B82=>3> ?@87=0:0. -B> A2>9AB2> :>==>B0F88 >?@545;O5B A?5F8D8:C O2;5=8O. >==>B0F8O =5 C:07K205B =0 <8@, 0 :0: 1K >BAK;05B : 0AA>F80F88, A>74020O =52848<K9 <8@, => A0<0 >=0 =5 5ABL 0AA>F80F8O. (& ) >==>B0F8O E>BO 8 >A>7=05BAO =>A8B5;O<8 O7K:0, => O2;O5BAO 8<?;8F8B=>9, 8 ?>B><C =5 =0E>48B >B@065=8O 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E A;>20@OE [0A;>20, 1989. !.116]. 0;L=59H85 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> @>;L :>=B5:AB0 <>65B 2K?>;=OBL =5 B>;L:> =5?>A@54AB25==>5 >:@C65=85 A;>20, A>740NI55 5<C 8@>=8G5A:CN :>==>B0F8N. >;L =5>1E>48<>3> 4;O 45:>48@>20=8O 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0 :>=B5:AB0 <>65B 2K?>;=OBL B5:AB 2A53> ?@>872545=8O 2 F5;><. !CI5AB2C5B 8 1>;55 H8@>:89 3;>10;L=K9 :>=B5:AB, ?><5I0NI89 8@>=8G5A:8 C?>B@51;5==>5 A;>2> 8;8 ?@54;>65=85 A 8@>=8G5A:>9 :>==>B0F859 2 B0: =07K205<K9 25@B8:0;L=K9 :>=B5:AB  ;8B5@0BC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:89, A>F8>-:C;LBC@=K9 [N115=5B, 1984]. ! D5=><5=>< :>=B5:AB0 A2O70=> ?>=OB85, 22545==>5 -.!.7=0C@>2>9, A83=0; AB8;8AB8G5A:>3> A<KA;0: ;N1>9 M;5<5=B @5G52>3> >:@C65=8O @50;87C5<>9 548=8FK 8;8 @5G52>9 A8BC0F88, :>B>@K9 C:07K205B =0 ?@>O2;5=85 8;8 ?>O2;5=85 AB8;8AB8G5A:>3> A>45@60=8O. .. !0;8E>20 2 A2>59 @01>B5, >?8@0OAL =0 >?@545;5=85 -.!. 7=0C@>2>9, >?5@8@C5B ?>=OB85< A83=0; 8@>=88, ?><>30NI8< G8B0B5;N @0A?>7=0BL A>45@60I89AO 2 B5:AB5 8@>=8G5A:89 A<KA;. > <=5=8N .. !0;8E>2>9, =081>;55 E0@0:B5@=K< A83=0;>< 8@>=88 O2;O5BAO :>=B5:ABC0;L=0O =5C<5AB=>ABL A>>1I05<>3>, ?@>O2;ONI0OAO =0 A<KA;>2>< 8;8 AB8;8AB8G5A:>< C@>2=5 [!0;8E>20,1976. !.69]. 3.3.  ;8=328AB8G5A:8E @01>B0E, ?>A2OI5==KE DC=:F8>=8@>20=8N 8@>=88 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5, 0 B0:65 CG51=8:0E ?> AB8;8AB8:5 4>;3>5 2@5<O @0AA<0B@820;8 8@>=8N :0: AB8;8AB8G5A:89 ?@85<, 87CG0O 55 ?@58<CI5AB25==> =0 ;5:A8G5A:>< C@>2=5: @>=8O  AB8;8AB8G5A:89 ?@85<, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@>3> 2 :0:><-;81> A;>25 ?>O2;O5BAO 2708<>459AB285 42CE B8?>2 ;5:A8G5A:8E 7=0G5=89: ?@54<5B=>-;>38G5A:>3> 8 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>3>, >A=>20==>3> =0 >B=>H5=8OE ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8 (?@>B82>@5G82>AB8) [0;L?5@8=, 1986. !.133]. "0:0O B>G:0 7@5=8O >B@065=0 2 @01>B0E .. 8<, ./. '5@=O52>9, .. !0;8E>2>9, .. 5@1A. 1I8< 4;O MB8E 8AA;54>20=89 O2;O5BAO 8=B5@5A : 8@>=8G5A:>9 B@0=AD>@<0F88 A;>20, 8@>=8G5A:><C A;>2>C?>B@51;5=8N [8<, 1967]. @>=8O ?>=8<05BAO, ?@5645 2A53>, :0: B>=:0O A:@KB0O =0A<5H:0, D>@<0 2K@065=8O <KA;8, :>340 A;>2> 8;8 2KA:07K20=85 >1@5B0NB 2 :>=B5:AB5 @5G8 7=0G5=85, ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 1C:20;L=><C A<KA;C 8;8 >B@8F0NI55 53>; D>@<0 =0A<5H:8 8;8 8=>A:070=8O ['5@=O520, 1964]. A5 02B>@K MB8E @01>B ?@845@6820NBAO B>3> A?@0254;82>3> CB25@645=8O, GB> 8@>=8O =5 8<55B A>1AB25==> O7K:>2KE A@54AB2 @50;870F88, => ACI5AB2CNB O7K:>2K5 A@54AB20, :>B>@K5 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2 B>< G8A;5 8 4;O 0:BC0;870F88 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0.  @01>B0E 2KH5?5@5G8A;5==KE 8AA;54>20B5;59 ?@54AB02;5=K ?>?KB:8 :;0AA8D8:0F88 ;5:A8G5A:8E A@54AB2 @50;870F88 8@>=88; =081>;55 4@>1=0O :;0AA8D8:0F8O @07@01>B0=0 .. 8<. #65 2 MB8E 8AA;54>20=8OE, =5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> 45:;0@8@>20;0AL @50;870F8O 8@>=88 ;8HL =0 ;5:A8G5A:>< C@>2=5, CG5=K<8 >B<5G0;>AL, GB> 8@>=8O 2KE>48B 70 @0<:8 B>;L:> ;5:A8:8. 065 >3@0=8G820OAL 8AA;54>20=85< ;8HL A?>=B0==>9 @5G8, <>6=> 3>2>@8BL A:>@55 > ;5:A8:>-A8=B0:A8G5A:8E, 0 =5 > G8AB> ;5:A8G5A:8E A@54AB20E 2K@065=8O 8@>=88, B0: :0: 8@>=8O ACI5AB2C5B 2 D>@<5 2KA:07K20=89, A8=B0:A8G5A:0O AB@C:BC@0 :>B>@KE 83@05B =5<0;>206=CN @>;L. 3@0=8G820BL 65 8AA;54>20=85 8@>=88 =0 <0B5@80;5 O7K:0 EC4>65AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@K >4=8<8 ;5:A8G5A:8<8 A@54AB20<8 55 A>740=8O 01A>;NB=> =5?@02><5@=>. 5<0;CN @>;L 2 @50;870F88 8@>=88 83@0NB A8=B0:A8G5A:85, A;>2>>1@07>20B5;L=K5, AB8;8AB8G5A:85 A@54AB20. -B0 B>G:0 7@5=8O >B@065=0 2 @01>B0E .. (<5;520, ..8:>;8=>9.  AB0BL5 .. (<5;520 [(<5;52, 1969] 40=0 :;0AA8D8:0F8O B8?>2 2KA:07K20=89, A8=B0:A8G5A:0O AB@C:BC@0 :>B>@KE 2A5340 =5A5B 2 A515 8@>=8G5A:89 A<KA;.  AB0BL5 .. 8:>;8=>9 [8:>;8=0, 1975] ?@54AB02;5=0 1>;55 4@>1=0O :;0AA8D8:0F8O, CG8BK20NI0O 8 ;5:A8:>-AB8;8AB8G5A:85 A@54AB20 @50;870F88 8@>=88. 3.4. 0AA<>B@5=85 8@>=88 2 MAB5B8:5 :0: A2>5>1@07=>3> 2840 :><8G5A:>3>, 70=8<0NI53> 42>9AB25==>5 ?>;>65=85 2 53> AB@C:BC@5, D>@<K ?>7=0=8O 8 >B@065=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ?>72>;8;> 40BL 59 =>2>5 B>;:>20=85 8 2 ;8=328AB8:5. 8=328ABK 2AB0;8 ?5@54 =5>1E>48<>ABLN @07;8G5=8O 42CE ?>=OB89: 8@>=8O :0: B5E=8:0, AB8;8AB8G5A:89 ?@85< 8 8@>=8O :0: @57C;LB0B ?@8<5=5=8O @O40 AB8;8AB8G5A:8E ?@85<>2 [!.. >E>4=O, 1989; .. 030=>2A:0O, 1994; .. !B5;L<0HC:, 1994; .. $><8G520, 1996; ..!5@385=:>, 1995]. =0;87 >B5G5AB25==KE 8 70@C156=KE 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E @01>B A2845B5;LAB2C5B > ?@>8AE>4OI5< 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O ?>2>@>B5 2 B@0:B>2:5 8@>=88 2 ;8=328AB8:5, 0 B0:65 > AB@5<;5=88 8AA;54>20B5;59 ?>4>9B8 : 87CG5=8N A;>6=KE D>@< 8@>=88, @50;87CNI8EAO =0 B5:AB>2>< C@>2=5. 2B>@K MB8E 8AA;54>20=89 A?@0254;82> 70<5G0NB, GB> ?@8 D>@<8@>20=88 B5:AB>2>9 :0B53>@88 8@>=88 =01;N405BAO A>2<5AB=>5 459AB285 ;5:A8G5A:8E 8 3@0<<0B8G5A:8E A@54AB2, >1@07=>9 A8AB5<K, B5:AB>2KE :0B53>@89, :><?>78F88 ?@>872545=8O. 708<>459AB285 MB8E A@54AB2 ?@8 2>?;>I5=88 8@>=88 A;C68B A?>A>1>< A>740=8O A<KA;>2>9 8=B53@0F88 B5:AB0 8 >15A?5G8205B 53> A>45@60B5;L=>5 548=AB2>. @>=8O O2;O5BAO :>=F5?BC0;L=>9 :0B53>@859 EC4>65AB25==>3> B5:AB0, ?>72>;ONI59 02B>@C 8<?;8F8B=> 2K@078BL 53> M<>F8>=0;L=>->F5=>G=K5 ?>78F88, >B=>H5=85 : 87>1@0605<>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A>2>:C?=>ABL M;5<5=B>2 @07;8G=KE C@>2=59, 2708<>459AB2CNI8E ?@8 2>?;>I5=88 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0. 081>;55 ?>;=> 7040GC 87CG5=8O 8@>=88 =0 C@>2=5 B5:AB0 C40;>AL 2K?>;=8BL !.. >E>4=5.  A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 >=0 2K45;O5B 420 B8?0 8@>=88  A8BC0B82=CN 8 0AA>F80B82=CN. KG;5=5=85 0AA>F80B82=>9 8@>=88, ?@>O2;ONI59AO =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A53> B5:AB0, AB0;> 2>7<>6=> A 2>7=8:=>25=85< ;8=328AB8:8 B5:AB0. K2>4K > ACI5AB2>20=88 A;>6=KE B5:AB>2KE A@54AB2 2 55 @50;870F88 8 >A>1>< <5AB5 8@>=88 2 8459=>->1@07=>9 AB@C:BC@5 B5:AB0 ?>72>;8;8 !.. >E>4=5 225AB8 2 =0CG=K9 >18E>4 B5@<8= 8@>=8G5A:89 A<KA;, 2:;NG0NI89 2 >1;0ABL 8AA;54>20=8O B5:AB.  @57C;LB0B5 BI0B5;L=>3> 0=0;870 0=3;89A:>9 8 0<5@8:0=A:>9 EC4>65AB25==>9 ?@>7K 19-20 22. 2 @01>B5 !.. >E>4=8 [>E>4=O,1989] 1K;8 >?@545;5=K ;5:A8G5A:85, A8=B0:A8G5A:85 8 B5:AB>2K5 A@54AB20 @50;870F88 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0. K;0 B0:65 >ACI5AB2;5=0 A8AB5<=0O :;0AA8D8:0F8O B8?>2 8@>=88 =0 >A=>25 CA;>289 8 A@54AB2 55 @50;870F88: A8BC0B82=K9 8 0AA>F80B82=K9 B8?K, GB> ?><>3;> >?@545;8BL <5AB> :064>3> B8?0 8@>=88 2 8459=>->1@07=>9 AB@C:BC@5 EC4>65AB25==>3> ?@>872545=8O. !45;0==K5 !.. >E>4=59 206=K5 2K2>4K > =0;8G88 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5 0AA>F80B82=>9 8@>=88, 459AB2CNI59 =0 ?@>BO65=88 @0725@BK20=8O 2A53> B5:AB0, A>3;0ACNBAO A <=5=85< .N::5 > ACI5AB2>20=88 ;59B<>B82=>9 8@>=88, 0:BC0;878@CNI59AO =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A53> EC4>65AB25==>3> ?@>872545=8O 8 A;C60I59 2K@065=85< :0:>9-;81> 8458, O2;5=8O, >B@0605<KE 40==K< ?@>872545=85<.  8AA;54>20=88 !.. >E>4=8 70B@>=CB B0:65 2>?@>A >1 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=>AB8 :0: >4=>< 87 0:B82=KE A@54AB2 @50;870F88 8@>=88. -B0 @01>B0 1K;0 ?@>4>;65=0 8 C3;C1;5=0 2 48AA5@B0F88 ..$><8G52>9 [$><8G520, 1996]. N 1K; ?@8<5=5= 0:BC0;L=K9 2 A>2@5<5==>9 ;8=328AB8:5 <56B5:AB>2K9 ?>4E>4 : 87CG5=8N EC4>65AB25==KE ?@>872545=89, 2 >A=>25 :>B>@>3> ;568B :>=F5?F8O 480;>38G=>AB8 .. 0EB8=0. =0 ?>72>;O5B @0AA<0B@820BL >B45;L=K9 EC4>65AB25==K9 B5:AB =5 87>;8@>20==>, 0 2 53> A2O78 A 4@C38<8 B5:AB0<8 8 7=0:>2K<8 A8AB5<0<8, B> 5ABL 2 @0<:0E H8@>:>3> 3;>10;L=>3> :>=B5:AB0, A>?@>2>640NI53> O7K:>2CN :><<C=8:0F8N. 0==K9 ?>4E>4 ?@54?>;0305B 8 CB25@645=85 =>2>3> ?>=8<0=8O F8B0F89 8 0;;N789 :0: A?>A>1>2 2708<>459AB28O 8 2708<>?@>=8:=>25=8O A>45@60=89 @07;8G=KE 8AB>G=8:>2. > <=5=8N .. $><8G52>9, >4=8< 87 206=KE 8 MDD5:B82=KE A@54AB2 2K@065=8O B5:AB>2>9 :0B53>@88 8@>=88 O2;ONBAO 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 2:;NG5=8O. 0 >A=>20=88 0=0;870 8;;NAB@0B82=>3> EC4>65AB25==>3> <0B5@80;0 2 @01>B5 1K;8 2K45;5=K @07;8G=K5 B8?K ?5@5>A<KA;5=8O 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=KE 2:;NG5=89 ?@8 2>?;>I5=88 8@>=88: <5B0D>@0, A@02=5=85, 0;;53>@8O; :>=B5:ABC0;L=>5 ?>;5<8G5A:>5 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85 EC4>65AB25==KE <>45;59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. .. $><8G520 AG8B05B, GB> @07=>>1@07=> ?5@5>A<KA;8205<K5 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 2:;NG5=8O, 2708<>459AB2CNI85 A F8B8@CNI8< B5:AB>< ?@8 2>?;>I5=88 8@>=88, A;C60B A@54AB2>< E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?5@A>=0659 8 2K@065=8O 02B>@A:>3> <8@>2>77@5=8O, A?>A>1>< @50;870F88 A0<>8@>=88 ?5@A>=0659 @><0=0, CG0AB2CNB 2 A>740=88 >1@07>2 ?@>872545=8O, @0A:@KB88 53> 3;02=KE B5< 8 2>?;>I5=88 D8;>A>DA:8E 8459 [$><8G520, 1996]. .. !B5;L<0HC: 2 AB0BL5, ?>A2OI5==>9 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8N 8@>=88 =0 B5:AB>2>< C@>2=5, @0AA<0B@8205B 8@>=8N :0: B5:AB>2CN 4><8=0=BC. "5:AB>20O 4><8=0=B0 ?>=8<05BAO 02B>@>< AB0BL8 :0: D0:B :><<C=8:0B82=>-CAB0=>2>G=>3> E0@0:B5@0, A2O70==K9 A =0<5@5=85< 3>2>@OI53> >?@545;8BL >A=>2=CN :><<C=8:0B82=CN 7040GC DC=:F8>=0;L=> <0@:8@>20==>3> B5:AB0 8;8 53> D@03<5=B0. "5:AB>20O 4><8=0=B0 2 >B;8G85 >B A?>A>1>2 87;>65=8O =5?>A@54AB25==> ?>4:;NG05BAO : A@54AB20< @5G52>3> :>=B0:B0 2 A8;C A2>59 >@85=B8@>20==>AB8 =0 A;CH0NI53>.  >B;8G85 >B A?>A>1>2 87;>65=8O, B5:AB>20O 4><8=0=B0 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO :><?>78F8>==>9 =5>3@0=8G5==>ABLN 8 1>;LH59 >B:@KB>ABLN 4;O 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?@8 55 @50;870F88 O7K:>2KE A@54AB2 [!B5;L<0HC:, 1994. !.57]. !?5F8D8:0 8@>=8G5A:>9 4><8=0=BK, ?> <=5=8N .. !B5;L<0HC:, 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> >=0 =0A;08205BAO =0 4@C3CN >@85=B8@>20==>ABL 02B>@0, =5 4><8=0=B=CN 4;O 40==>3> B5:AB>2>3> D@03<5=B0 (=0?@8<5@, =0 >?8A0B5;L=>-45<>=AB@0F8>==CN, 8=D>@<0B82=CN 8 B.4.). AA;54>20=8N 8@>=88 :0: @07=>284=>AB8 8<?;8:0F88 ?>A2OI5=> 48AA5@B0F8>==0O @01>B0 .. !5@385=:>, 2 :>B>@>9 C45;O5BAO 1>;LH>5 2=8<0=85 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8N 8@>=88 2 @0<:0E F5;>3> ?@>872545=8O, 0 B0:65 A?5F8D8:0 ?5@540G8 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0 2 >@838=0;L=>< 8 ?5@52>4=>< B5:AB0E [!5@385=:>, 1995]. 4. 0728B85 ?@03<0B8G5A:>3> 0A?5:B0 87CG5=8O 8@>=88 2 A>2@5<5==>< O7K:>7=0=88 :BC0;L=K< 2 ?>A;54=5< 45AOB8;5B88 O2;O5BAO 87CG5=85 8@>=88 2 ?@03<0B8G5A:>< 0A?5:B5, <5E0=87<0 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8@>=88 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8, 2 5AB5AB25==>< 480;>35. -B><C ?>A2OI5=K AB0BL8 "..(8H:8=>9(1990),.. @<0:>2>9(1996), 0?B52>9 ..(1996), 48AA5@B0F8>==K5 @01>BK ..0@7>=8=0(1995), .. 0@>20(1998), .. @>:>DL520(1999). > <=5=8N 02B>@>2 2A5E ?5@5G8A;5==KE @01>B, 8@>=8O, A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?@03<0;8=328AB8:8, 4>;6=0 >A25I0BLAO 2 =>2KE ?0@0<5B@0E: A CG5B>< :><<C=8:0=B>2 8 :><<C=8:0B82=KE A8BC0F89, B> 5ABL 2@5<5=8 8 <5AB0 >1I5=8O, 3>2>@OI53> 8 04@5A0B0, 8E D>=>2KE 7=0=89, A>F80;L=>3> AB0BCA0, ?>;0 8 B.4. 1I8< 4;O 8AA;54>20B5;59 8@>=88 2 AD5@5 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8 <>65B AB0BL >?@545;5=85 8@>=88, 40==>5 ..@<0:>2>9: 8@>=8O  O7K:>20O <8AB8D8:0F8O, ?@54=0<5@5==>5 =5A>>B25BAB285 1C:20;L=>3> 8 ?>4@07C<5205<>3> A<KA;0 A;>2 8;8 2KA:07K20=89 2 F5;>< 4;O 2K@065=8O =0A<5H:8, 874520B5;LAB20 8;8 (@565) HCB:8 [@<0:>20, 1999. !.143]. @>=8N :0: >4=C 87 @07=>284=>AB59 =5?@O<>9 :><<C=8:0F88 @0AA<0B@8205B 2 A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 .. 5<5=BL52 [5<5=BL52, 2000]. "5@<8= =5?@O<0O :><<C=8:0F8O ?>=8<05BAO .. 5<5=BL52K< A;54CNI8< >1@07><: A>45@60B5;L=> >A;>6=5==0O :><<C=8:0F8O, 2 :>B>@>9 ?>=8<0=85 2KA:07K20=8O 2:;NG05B A<KA;K, =5 A>45@60I85AO A>1AB25==> 2 2KA:07K20=88, 8 B@51C5B 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE 8=B5@?@5B0F8>==KE CA8;89 A> AB>@>=K 04@5A0B0, 1C4CG8 =5A2>48<> : ?@>AB><C C7=020=8N (845=B8D8:0F88) 7=0:0 [5<5=BL52, 2000. !.4]. @>=8O >?@545;O5BAO 02B>@>< :0: >4=0 87 E0@0:B5@=KE @07=>284=>AB59 =5?@O<>9 :><<C=8:0F88, =5 8<5NI0O AB0=40@B=>9 D>@<K 2K@065=8O. (& ) @>=8O  MB> B0:0O 03@5AA8O, 2 :>B>@>9 3>2>@OI89 =5 <>65B 1KBL C;8G5=, ?>A:>;L:C >=0 =5 A>45@68B D>@<0;L=>3> ?@>B82>@5G8O A ?>ABC;0B>< !>B@C4=8G5AB20 [5<5=BL52, 2000. !.20]. @>=8O 2 @01>B5 ".. (8H:8=>9 @0AA<0B@8205BAO 2 A2O78 A :0B53>@859 :>A25==>AB8. > <=5=8N 02B>@0, <5E0=87< 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8@>=88 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8 A;54CNI89: 8;;>:CB82=0O DC=:F8O 8;8 =0<5@5=85 3>2>@OI53> @0AE>48BAO A 1078A=>9 8;;>::CF859, B> 5ABL A ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=K< A>45@60=85< 2KA:07K20=8O; =0@CH05BAO >4=0 87 <0:A8< ?@8=F8?0 :>>?5@0F88, 0 8<5==>  <0:A8<0 8A:@5==>AB8 [(8H:8=0, 1990. !.72]. (8H:8=0 C:07K205B =0 >4=C 87 3;02=KE >A>15==>AB59 8@>=88, 2K@060NI59AO 2 =5>1E>48<>AB8 CG8BK20BL @50:F8N 04@5A0B0: =0@CH5=85 <0:A8<K 8A:@5==>AB8 A;C68B 04@5A0BC A83=0;>< ?>8A:0 A:@KB>3> A<KA;0 2 2KA:07K20=88, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A MB8< 2K@010BK205BAO B0:B8:0 A>740=8O 8@>=88, B> 5ABL 0=0;87 B0:B8:8 04@5A0B0, :0:8< ?CB5< >= =0945B 8AB8==K9 A<KA; 2KA:07K20=8O 8 ?>4A:065B, GB> 8<5==> ?><>3;> A>740=8N 8@>=88  :>=B5:AB, A8BC0F8O, ;>38G5A:85 ?>:070B5;8 [(8H:8=0, 1990. !.73]. "0:8< >1@07><, (8H:8=0 AG8B05B, GB> 2 <5E0=87<5 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8 8@>=88 04@5A0B 83@05B =5 ?0AA82=CN, 0 0:B82=CN @>;L, GB> ?5@5:;8:05BAO A B>G:>9 7@5=8O .. @<0:>2>9. =0 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?>A2OB8;0 AB0BLN @0AA<>B@5=8N @07;8G=KE B8?>2 04@5A0B>2 8@>=88. G5=L ACI5AB25==K<8 4;O >1I59 B5>@88 8@>=88 O2;ONBAO 8 ?@54AB02;5==K5 2 AB0BL5 @07<KH;5=8O > A;CG0OE 2>7=8:=>25=8O :><<C=8:0B82=>9 :>@?>@0B82=>AB8, 2>7=8:=>25=8N :>B>@>9 70G0ABCN A;C68B 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8 8@>=8O, 8 > :><<C=8:0B82=>9 =5C40G5, 2>7=8:0NI59 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 ?@>87>H;> =5A>2?045=85 D>=>2KE 7=0=89 04@5A0B0 8 04@5A0=B0 8@>=88.  (8H:8=0, 8 @<0:>20 2 A2>8E @01>B0E C45;ONB 1>;LH>5 2=8<0=85 DC=:F8O< 8@>=88 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8. (8H:8=0 AG8B05B, GB> 8@>=8O G0I5 2A53> A>7405B :>=D;8:B=CN A8BC0F8N, >=0 2>7=8:05B ?@8 =0@CH5=88 ?@8=F8?0 :>>?5@0F88, :><<C=8:0B82=KE ?@028; 8 ?@028;, A>AB02;ONI8E ?@8=F8?K 256;82>AB8. >MB><C 8@>=8N, ?> <=5=8N 02B>@0, <>6=> @0745;8BL =0 ?>;>68B5;L=CN 8;8 >B@8F0B5;L=CN, 8;8 ?@8<5=8BL 1>;55 4@>1=CN :;0AA8D8:0F8N, A>740==CN 0=3;89A:8< 8AA;54>20B5;5< . @515=: -70I8I0NI0OAO 8@>=8O -:>=AB@C:B82=>-:@8B8G5A:0O 8@>=8O -4@C65;N1=0O 8@>=8O -8@>=8O, <0=8D5AB8@CNI0O ?@52>AE>4AB2> 3>2>@OI53> =04 04@5A0B><. =CN :;0AA8D8:0F8N ?@54;0305B 2 A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 ..@<0:>20, >?8@0OAL, 2 >A=>2=><, =0 B>B B8? 8@>=88, :>B>@K9 2 :;0AA8D8:0F88 (8H:8=>9 >1>7=0G5= :0: 4@C65;N1=0O 8@>=8O. > <=5=8N @<0:>2>9, 8@>=8O 2 5AB5AB25==>< 480;>35 ?@8720=0: A=OBL =0?@O65=85, A>740BL =5?@8=C645==CN 0B<>AD5@C, A=OBL M<>F8>=0;L=K9 ?0D>A (MB>B B8? 8@>=88 2>7=8:05B, :>340 ?0@B=5@ =5 ?>445@68205B >1;8G0NI89 8;8 2>AB>@65==K9 ?0D>A A2>53> A>15A54=8:0, =5 E>G5B 2KA:07K20BLAO 2 B0:>< AB8;5); 83@0BL @>;L A@54AB20 ?@>O2;5=8O :>@?>@0B82=>AB8 2 480;>35 [@<0:>20, 1996]. 'B> :0A05BAO 8@>=88 =530B82=>9, B> @<0:>20 >1>7=0G05B :0: A@54AB2> 55 0:BC0;870F88 B0:>5 O2;5=85, :0: ?5@504@5A>2:0 8@>=8G5A:>9 >F5=:8, :>B>@0O 2>7=8:05B ?@8 =0A<5H;82>9 ?>445@6:5 >AC645=8O, 2KA:070==>3> A>15A54=8:>< ?> ?>2>4C :0:>3>-;81> 8=482840 8;8 O2;5=8O, 0 <>65B B0:65 ?@>O2;OBLAO 2 D>@<5 D0;LH82>3> A>GC2AB28O ?0@B=5@C ?> :><<C=8:0F88.  A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 @<0:>20 B0:65 @0AA<0B@8205B DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 8@>=88 2 @07;8G=KE AB@0B0E @CAA:>3> O7K:0 8 ?@8E>48B : 2K2>4C, GB> 8@>=8O =081>;55 E0@0:B5@=0 4;O ;8B5@0BC@=>3> O7K:0, 2 60@3>=5 8 0@3> 5ABL @O4 8@>=8G5A:8 <>B828@>20==KE =><8=0F89, 0 2 ?@>AB>@5G88 8@>=8O ?@0:B8G5A:8 >BACBAB2C5B [.. @<0:>20, 1995. !.53]. -B>, 25@>OB=>, A2O70=> A B5<, GB> 8@>=8O =5 O2;O5BAO G8AB> O7K:>2K< O2;5=85<, >=0 2 >?@545;5==>9 <5@5 >1CA;>2;5=0 <5=B0;8B5B><, =0F8>=0;L=K< E0@0:B5@><, 8=48284C0;L=K< B5<?5@0<5=B>< 8 4@C38<8 M:AB@0;8=328AB8G5A:8<8 D0:B>@0<8. >A:>;L:C 8@>=8O O2;O5BAO A@54AB2>< A:@KB>9 AC1J5:B82=>9 >F5=:8 >1J5:B>2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 4;O 55 8AA;54>20=8O AB0=>28BAO :0: =8:>340 0:BC0;L=K< CG5=85 > O7K:>2>9 ;8G=>AB8 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : 04@5A0BC 8 04@5A0=BC 8@>=88.  48AA5@B0F8>==>< 8AA;54>20=88 .. 0@7>=8=0 [0@7>=8=, 1995] ?>4@>1=> @0718@0NBAO >A>15==>AB8 8@>=8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0 >B45;L=>9 O7K:>2>9 ;8G=>AB8 =0 ?@8<5@5 !>:@0B0, ?@82>48BAO >1H8@=0O :;0AA8D8:0F8O D0:B>@>2 D>@<8@>20=8O 8@>=8G5A:>3> 2KA:07K20=8O, CG8BK20NI0O >A>15==>AB8 04@5A0B0, 04@5A0=B0 8@>=88 8 4@C38E A>AB02;ONI8E 8@>=8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88.  48AA5@B0F8>==KE @01>B0E ..0@>20 8 ..@>:>DL520 87CG5=85 A?5F8D8:8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8@>=88 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8 ?@>2>48BAO =0 <0B5@80;5 4@0<0BC@388 - D@0=:>O7KG=>9 [0@>2, 1998] 8 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=A:>9 [@>:>DL52, 1999].  A>60;5=8N, >10 02B>@0 =5 CG8BK20NB >A>15==>AB59 EC4>65AB25==>9 @5G8, 2K?>;=O5<>9 EC4>65AB25==K< B5:AB>< MAB5B8G5A:>9 DC=:F88, :>B>@>9 ?>4G8=5=K >B1>@ 8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 2A5E O7K:>2KE A@54AB2. 8AA5@B0F8O .. @>:>DL520 =0?@02;5=0 =0 >A>15==>AB8 45:>48@>20=8O 8 8=B5@?@5B0F88 8@>=8G5A:>3> 2KA:07K20=8O, B> 5ABL >A>1>5 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO, ?@5645 2A53>, 04@5A0BC 8@>=88. @>=8O @0AA<0B@8205BAO 02B>@>< :0: 83@>2>9 <><5=B >1I5=8O: 8@>=8O  =0<5@5==0O ?5@540G0 =58A:@5==>AB8, 55 >B;8G85 >B ;68  65;0=85 04@5A0=B0, GB>1K 04@5A0B @0A:@K; =58A:@5==89 E0@0:B5@ A>>1I5=8O. (& ) @>=8G5A:>5 2KA:07K20=85 <>65B 1KBL @0AA<>B@5=> :0: G0ABL @50;87C5<>9 :><<C=8:0=B0<8 ?@>F54C@K 8@>=8G5A:>9 83@K, 2 :>B>@>9 4>;65= ?@8=8<0BL A>7=0B5;L=>5 CG0AB85 :0: 02B>@ 2KA:07K20=8O, B0: 8 53> 04@5A0B [@>:>DL52, 1999. !.49].  48AA5@B0F88 .. 0@>20 ?@54AB02;5= ?5@5G5=L E0@0:B5@8AB8:, ?> <=5=8N 02B>@0 =5?@5<5==> ?@8ACI8E 8@>=88: =0;8G85 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8O, 0:A8>;>38G5A:89 E0@0:B5@, >1J5:B=>-AC1J5:B=0O ?@8@>40, 83@>2>9 E0@0:B5@, MAB5B8G5A:>5 2>7459AB285. .. 0@>2 2 A2>5< 48AA5@B0F8>==>< 8AA;54>20=88 =0AB08205B =0 B><, GB> B>;L:> ?@8 =0;8G85 40==>3> ?5@5G=O E0@0:B5@8AB8: <>6=> 3>2>@8BL >1 0:BC0;870F88 2 2KA:07K20=88 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0; =5A>1;N45=85 ;N1>3> 87 MB8E CA;>289 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> 2>7=8:0NICN 2 B5:AB5 :>==>B0F8N =5;L7O =0720BL 8@>=8G5A:>9. 57CA;>2=>, B0:>9 ?>4E>4 2545B : AC65=8N ?>=8<0=8O 8@>=88 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5 8 4065 =5 <>65B >B@078BL 2A5E >A>15==>AB59 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8@>=88 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8. 5. @>=8O 2 848>AB8;5 .. '5E>20 KA:07K20=8O > B><, GB> <8@>2>77@5=8N .. '5E>20 ?@8ACI5 8@>=8G5A:>5 =0G0;>, 2AB@5G0;8AL 5I5 C A>2@5<5==8:>2 ?8A0B5;O. 0: ?@028;>, 2A5 ?@8<5@K 8@>=8G5A:8E @5?;8: '5E>20 2 1KB>2>9 >1AB0=>2:5 8;8 2 A2O78 A 53> 273;O40<8 =0 ;8B5@0BC@C 8 8A:CAAB2> <5<C0@8ABK A2O7K20NB A 53> =5;N1>2LN : 2K@065=8N A2>8E GC2AB2, <KA;59 8 M<>F89, >A>15==> 2 A2O78 A 2KA>:8<8 ?@54<5B0<8. @03 A0=B8<5=B>2 8 2KA?@5==8E C2;5G5=89, >=, :070;>AL, 45@60; A51O 2 <C=4HBC:5 E>;>4=>9 8@>=88& , :0: 2A?><8=0; .. 5?8= > A2>8E 2AB@5G0E A .. '5E>2K< 2 1890-5 3>4K [ 5?8=, 1986. !.85]. 45AL, <>65B 1KBL, =5A:>;L:> @57:8< >:07K205BAO >?@545;5=85 8@>=88 '5E>20 :0: E>;>4=>9, => A45@60==>ABL M<>F89 5<C =5A><=5==> 1K;0 A2>9AB25==0. >4B25@645=85< MB><C <>65B A;C68BL 2>A?><8=0=85 .!. 5@56:>2A:>3>: / 1K; <>;>4, <=5 2A5 E>B5;>AL @07@5H8BL 2>?@>AK > A<KA;5 1KB8O, > >35, > 25G=>AB8.  O ?@54;030; 8E '5E>2C, :0: CG8B5;N 687=8.  >= A2>48; 2A5 : HCB:5 8;8 0=5:4>BC. >2>@N 5<C, 1K20;>, > A;578=:5 70<CG5==>3> @515=:0, :>B>@>9 =5;L7O ?@>AB8BL, 0 >= 24@C3 >15@=5BAO :> <=5, ?>A<>B@8B =0 <5=O A2>8<8 OA=K<8, =5 =0A<5H;82K<8, => =5<=>3> E>;>4=K<8 4>:B>@A:8<8 3;070<8 8 ?@><>;28B: -  :AB0B8, 3>;C1G8:, GB> O 20< E>B5; A:070BL: :0: 1C45B5 2 >A:25, ABC?09B5-:0 : "5AB>2C, 70:068B5 A5;O=:C  ?@52>AE>4=> 3>B>2OB  40 =5 701C4LB5, GB> : =59 1>;LH0O 2>4:0 =C6=0 [5@56:>2A:89, 1991. !.49]. 0: 8 2> <=>38E ?>4>1=KE A;CG0OE, MB0 8<?;8F8B=> A>45@60I0O 8@>=8G5A:89 A<KA; @50:F8O '5E>20 =0 AC645=8O 5@56:>2A:>3> 2 4CE5 >AB>52A:>3> 2>?;>B8;0AL 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B2>@G5AB25, 2 480;>35 C@>20 A G8=>2=8:><, >1>@202H8< ;8@8G5A:>5 ?@87=0=85 35@>O > 7=0:><AB25 A >G0@>20B5;L=>9 65=I8=>9 3@C1K< <>B82>< >A5B@8=K A 4CH:><. 5A<>B@O =0 MB>, 4>;3>5 2@5<O 2 ;8B5@0BC@>254G5A:8E @01>B0E, ?>A2OI5==KE 8AA;54>20=8N B2>@G5AB20 '5E>20, 8@>=88 C45;O;>AL <0;> 2=8<0=8O.  @01>B0E .. 'C40:>20 ['C40:>2, 1976; 1990], ?>A2OI5==KE B2>@G5AB2C '5E>20, ?>4@>1=> @0718@0NBAO >A>15==>AB8 G5E>2A:>3> :><87<0, ?@8G5< =081>;LH55 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO A2>5>1@078N G5E>2A:>9 N<>@8AB8:8 @0==53> ?5@8>40, => G5E>2A:0O 8@>=8O :0: 206=K9 :><?>=5=B ?>74=53> B2>@G5AB20 4065 =5 C?><8=05BAO. 01>BK .. !:0DBK<>20, >B:@K2H85 =>2>5 ?>=8<0=85 G5E>2A:>9 ?>MB8:8 8 >1JOA=82H85 <=>385 ?@8=F8?K G5E>2A:>9 4@0<0BC@388, B>65 =5 A>45@60;8 2 A515 @0AAC645=89 >1 >A>15==>ABOE G5E>2A:>9 8@>=88.  @01>B5 .. @>9G5:0, ?>A2OI5==>9 ?@>1;5<0< :><8G5A:>3> 2 B2>@G5AB25 '5E>20, > A?5F8D8:5 G5E>2A:>9 8@>=88 3>2>@8BAO 2 0A?5:B5 AC1J5:B82=>AB8 02B>@A:>3> ?>25AB2>20=8O. @>=8O C '5E>20, AG8B05B @>9G5:, =5 >A=>2K205BAO =0 G8AB>< >B@8F0=88 8 =5 O2;O5BAO ;8HL 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 83@>9 C<0: 15A?>I04=>ABL 8 A8<?0B8O 2 ?@>872545=8OE '5E>20 =5@0AG;5=8<K. A=>2>9 MB>9 =5@0AG;5=8<>AB8 A;C68B 8@>=8O ?8A0B5;O. '5E>2 8@>=8G5=, 81> >= =5 B>;L:> 2848B =5A>>B25BAB285 65;05<>3> @50;L=><C, => 8 E>@>H> ?>=8<05B, :0: 40;5:8 ;N48 >B 8450;0 [@>9G5:. 1986. !.65]. !?5F80;L=>5 8AA;54>20=85 G5E>2A:>9 8@>=88 2?5@2K5 1K;> ?@54?@8=OB> -.. >;>F:>9 [>;>F:0O, 1969].  55 AB0BL5 @0AA<0B@820NBAO >A>15==>AB8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8@>=88 =0 @07;8G=KE MB0?0E B2>@G5AB20, ?@8G5< 02B>@ ?>4@0745;O5B G5E>2A:CN 8@>=8N =0 420 B8?0, A>>B=>A8<K5 2 >1I8E G5@B0E A 42C<O 2840<8 8@>=88, 2K45;O5<K<8 2 =0H59 @01>B5,  8@>=8O O2=0O 8 8@>=8O 2=CB@5==OO. /2=>9 8@>=859, ?> <=5=8N 02B>@0, <>65B AG8B0BLAO B0:0O 8@>=8O, :>B>@0O =5<54;5==> 2K7K205B O@:89 :><8G5A:89 MDD5:B 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B >1J5<0 :>=B5:AB0, 2 :>B>@>< >=0 @50;87>20=0. @>=8O 2=CB@5==OO @50;87C5BAO =0 ?@>BO65=88 B5:AB0 2A53> ?@>872545=8O 8, ?> <=5=8N -. >;>F:>9, =5 8<55B O7K:>2KE A@54AB2 2K@065=8O.  :=835 . 0?5@=>3> [0?5@=K9, 1986] 8@>=8O 2 B2>@G5AB25 ..'5E>20 ?>4@>1=> =5 @0718@05BAO, => 2A5 65 59 C45;O5BAO 2=8<0=85. .0?5@=K9 >B<5G05B A45@60==K9, A:@KBK9 E0@0:B5@ G5E>2A:>9 8@>=88, 3>2>@8B > =5>4=>@>4=>AB8, =5>4=>7=0G=>AB8 8@>=88 '5E>20, <=>3>>1@0788 >1J5:B>2, =0 :>B>@K5 =0?@02;5=0 8@>=8O: >60;C9, =8 C :>3> 87 =0H8E :;0AA8:>2 =5 1K;> B0:>3> A;>6=>3>  ?@8 2=5H=59 1C4=8G=>9 ?@>AB>B5  A?;020 A<5E0 8 A5@L57=>AB8, ;8@8:8 8 A0B8@K, =0A<5H:8 8 G5;>25G5A:>3> A>GC2AB28O, :0: C '5E>20. (& ) 0: <=>3>>1@07=0 MB0 G5E>2A:0O 8@>=8O  >=0 ?>@0605B A0<>4>2>;L=KE 2;045;LF52 CA0451 A :@K6>2=8:0<8, 70?C30==KE 8 70?C3820NI8E 5;8:>2KE, G8=>2=8:>2 >B =0C:8 !5@51@O:>2KE. !;8205BAO A 3@CAB=K< @074C<L5< > =5;5?>AB8 687=8, ?@>68B>9 4CH5G:0<8, >:@0H8205BAO A8<?0B859 : B0:8<, :0: >1;57;K9 10@8= 5BO "@>D8<>2 [0?5@=K9, 1989. !.23]. @>=8G5A:>5 =0G0;> G5E>2A:>3> B2>@G5AB20 >B<5G0;>AL <=>38<8 70@C156=K<8 8AA;54>20B5;O<8 [Strongin, 1981; Linden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n~ t >@~np Tf^` P`bhP\#^#J'ʺʺʺh\h@ CJh@ CJh=*h6h56CJ NHh56CJ h6NH h6h5CJNH h5CJhCJNH hCJ h5CJ h h5CJ$8np^ < *  t v Z tJ $^a$gd $ & Fa$gd$a$gdgd$a$gdgd$a$gdXp@r8TVj d`gd $@d`gdd^`gd$d^a$gd$ & Fda$gd $da$gd$a$gd $ & Fa$gdj6lPPj#,&`*.$dh`a$gdgd $`a$gd$a$gd $^a$gd$a$gd d`gdJ'^'b''+++,L-5555 6*677999>B>^?l?D4DFFLMO*OPPP.Q0QQ4zzh($Ī,NX÷hu hCJaJh ph@CJh56@hu h56@hu h6@hu h56CJ$hh5>*@ CJhu h6hu h56>*h5>*@CJh@ CJh@CJ3.64 6799:j;P<T=>^?DhFFHJTK&LLO$Q&Q$dh^a$gd$ & Fdha$gdgd$ & Fdha$gd$dh`a$gd&Q(Q.QQUWXZ["\B]$bdff(lpt0z4z  & F`gd  & F`gd   `gd   `gd`gd $`a$gd$dh`a$gd4zzX<hX»(*hj $`a$gd`gd`gdj(484( P!z(88::H;BP  & F `gd  & F`gd`gd`gdP`W[]bfju}2\ؙJާ$&ĪD&.`gd $`a$gd`gd.V"d .b $dha$gdkB$ & F h88dh^8a$gddhgdY) $dha$gdu $dh`a$gd & F h88^8gd`gdXdbXL N ^ n z   z!"&.&&&(((+:+x,,.1163B344t5p77|9 <6<vvvvvvvh^ Dh.@h^ Dh.5@h^ Dh.6@hxh.6@h:Zh.@CJ$h.@CJ$h.h@CJmH sH heIhCJaJh56@CJhkBh5CJaJhY)hCJaJh@CJh ph@CJ-X\ Jz!"&&((+`gd.dhgd.$^`a$gdeIdhgd$dh`a$gd(+,.1634t57|96<8<<<<\@DGJFKlP~QSTURVY\\$dh`a$gd.dhgd.$dh`a$gd.`gd.6<8<<<<lP"R6RSSTUhUvUUUU0VRVXXXXYH\Z\l\\\\\\ ]:]F]V]2`B`bbbcVdhd|ddee*e,e:erfffżżżżۼżŴ崐hX%h.6@CJaJhX%h.56@CJaJh.6@CJh.56@CJh.@CJhX%h.@hX%h.5@hX%h.56@hX%h.6@h.5@CJh. h.@ h.6@3\:]NabVdej~mnRrrsuRvzv.wvw{(jF$ O@dh`a$gdj[`gd. dh`gdX%$dh`a$gd.fffgg*iVi~mmmmrnnn>qLqqq*rLrr s0sBssssuvRv`vzvvvv.wX4L6(,26(DN6>TVD \ :ptλλλλλλλŻλhsh.5@CJaJhsh.@CJaJh mh.56@h mh.6@h mh.@h mh.5@htKh m6@htKh.6@htKh.@htKh.5@766DN6V  Z  \ t>$dh`a$gds @7^7`gd.  @`gd.`gd.t<><\8h!j!!t$$%&N'Z'''((:(L(P(b(r(t((+,P-p-------111\27,:J:hA=h.56@CJaJhA=h.6@CJaJhBh.6@h. h.@hsh.5@CJaJhsh.@CJaJhsh.56@CJaJhsh.6@CJaJ:>!#%N''(:((r*+P---/1(2dhgd.$dh`a$gds$ @dh`a$gds$dh`a$gds(2\27J:==0CFGHzJLM\OVWY[]afgijJl$dh`a$gd[$dh`a$gdA=`gd.dhgd.J:=C0C,E:EXEdEhEEGGHI`JzJMM@O\OWrYY]aagiiJlmm4obq~qqtssvvxxyybz~z}սhA@fh.@CJaJhA@fh.6@hA@fh.5@hA@fh.@h[h.6@h[h.@h[h.5@h[h.6@CJaJh[h.@CJaJhA=h.5@hA=h.@hA=h.6@.Jlm4o~qqsvxy~z|}~܀ހ(Ѕ0b܈xƏ & F h^`gd.$dh`a$gdA@f`gd.}(}}}~~br܈xƏvDTN^zXt~&jxܜ ܦ(txhRD h]@hRD h]56@hRD h]6@ h]5CJ h] h.@h[h.@h[h.5@h[h.6@hA@fh.@CJaJhA@fh.5@CJaJ8ƏvDNzt~jܜ ܦ(N`gd] $dha$gd]gd] $`a$gd.`gd.Դִ2xx$xz>z$ & Fgd]`gd]x "v bv$vn^pl011|455889::j==λhh]6>*@Uhh]5@hh]@hh]56@hh]6@hZh]@hZh]5@hZh]6@h"Dh]5@h"Dh]@h"Dh]6@hRD h]5@4$$l13|45$99:<=?^AB DG:IDIbJ(KNQUHW[\`gd]K ?8A0;8 <=5, GB> 1@>A8;8 :C@8BL 8 ?8BL, => :C@8B5 8 ?L5B5. 5=O >1<0=C;0 8:0. -B> E>@>H>. %>@>H> 2 B>< >B=>H5=88, GB> O <>3C B5?5@L, C68=0O A ?@8OB5;O<8, 3>2>@8BL: 5=O >1<0=K205B 1;>=48=:0& (".5. !.147) @>=8G5A:89 A<KA; 2KA:07K20=8O 2 ?8AL<5 : 8:5 878=>2>9 M:A?;8F8@C5BAO 1;03>40@O :0;0<1C@C: ?@>8AE>48B >4=>2@5<5==0O @50;870F8O 42CE 7=0G5=89 ?>;8A5<0=B8G=>3> A;>20  M:A?;8F8B=> 2K@065=> 7=0G5=85 3>2>@8BL =5?@024C, 0 8<?;8F8B=>5 7=0G5=85  1KBL =525@=>9 :><C-B>. 0;0<1C@, @50;87CNI89 :>=B5:ABC0;L=CN 8@>=8N, <>65B >A=>2K20BLAO =0 ;>6=>< ?>;8A5<0=B87<5 A;>20: 0H :=86=K9 <03078= >A8@>B5;. :07K205BAO, GB> 2 =5< =5B =8 >4=>9 <>59 :=86:8. '5E>2, >4=8< A;>2><, 2K@>48;AO, > G5< 8 A2845B5;LAB2C5B ?@8;0305<0O ?@8 A5< <5B@8G5A:0O 2K?8AL. (".4. !.255) 5:A5<0 2K@>48;AO 2KABC?05B 745AL 8 2 A2>5< ?@O<>< 7=0G5=88: 2K@>645=85  C30A0=85, 8AG57=>25=85 G53>-;81> [!, ".4, !. 286], 2 40==>< A;CG05  A=865=85 B2>@G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0; 8 2 7=0G5=88, :>B>@>5 =5 70D8:A8@>20=> 2 A;>20@OE, => 2K2>48BAO 87 :>=B5:AB0: 2K@>48;AO  ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=> @>48;AO, GB> ?>4B25@645=> <5B@8G5A:>9 2K?8ALN (B0:65 =5 ACI5AB2CNI55 A;>2>, ?> 0=0;>388 A <5B@8G5A:>9 70?8ALN). !2>5>1@07=0O ?>;8A5<8O @50;87C5BAO 8 2 A;54CNI5< :0;0<1C@=>< 2KA:07K20=88: !?@02LB5AL, ?>60;C9AB0, 2 @540:F88 0G0;0: ?@>402 0@:AC A2>8 A>G8=5=8O, 1C4C ;8 O 8<5BL ?@02> =07K20BLAO <0@:A8AB><?(".8. !.50) 45AL 83@0 A;>2, ?>@>640NI0O 8@>=8G5A:89 MDD5:B, 2>7=8:05B 1;03>40@O A>2?045=8N D0<8;89 8740B5;O G5E>2A:>3> A>1@0=8O A>G8=5=89 8 >A=>2>?>;>6=8:0 D8;>A>DA:>-?>;8B8G5A:>3> CG5=8O, B> 5ABL 2>7=8:05B A2>5>1@07=0O ><>=8<8O 8<5= A>1AB25==KE. 1.4. 5=55 0:B825=, G5< 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B2>@G5AB25, B0:>9 A?>A>1 @50;870F88 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88, :0: 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 2:;NG5=8O: @8 <=5 =0 4204F0BL BKAOG G5;>25: 1K;> ?@8A;0=> 87 5B5@1C@30 ?OBL45AOB G5BK@5 ?C40 ACE0@59. ;03>B2>@8B5;8 E>BOB ?OBLN E;510<8 ?OBL BKAOG =0:>@<8BL  ?>-520=35;LA:8. (".4. !.347) 57:>->B@8F0B5;L=CN 8@>=8G5A:CN >:@0A:C 2 ?8AL<5 : .!C2>@8=C ?@8>1@5B05B >F5=:0 '5E>2K< 45OB5;L=>AB8 1;03>B2>@8B5;L=>3> D>=40 2 3>;>40NI8E @09>=0E. 50;870F88 8@>=88 ?@>8AE>48B 1;03>40@O ?@8ACBAB28N 2 B5:AB5 0;;N788 =0 81;8N, ?@8G5< 8AB>G=8: 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=>AB8 M:A?;8F8@>20= A0<8< '5E>2K<.  M?8AB>;O@88 '5E>20 2 F5;OE A>740=8O 8@>=8G5A:>3> MDD5:B0 ?@8ACBAB2CNB 8 ?@8<5@K 02B>B5:ABC0;L=>AB8, B> 5ABL 8A?>;L7>20=85 2 B5:AB5 ?8AL<0 F8B0B 8;8 0;;N789 =0 A>1AB25==K5 ?@>872545=8O: >O1@LA:85 25B@K 4CNB =58AB>2>, A28ABOB, @2CB :@KH8. / A?;N 2 H0?>G:5, 2 BCD;OE, ?>4 42C<O >45O;0<8, A 70:@KBK<8 AB02=O<8  G5;>25: 2 DCB;O@5. (".8. !.307) 1.5. !B@C:BC@=K5 A@54AB20 @50;870F88 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88 2 ?8AL<0E '5E>20 2AB@5G0NBAO =5G0AB>, 8A:;NG5=85 A>AB02;O5B ;8HL @8B>@8G5A:89 2>?@>A, GB>, 25@>OB=>, >B@0605B A2>5>1@07=CN 1;87>ABL M?8AB>;O@8O 8 682>9 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8, 345 @8B>@8G5A:89 2>?@>A O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 >A=>2=KE AB@C:BC@=KE A@54AB2 @50;870F88 8@>=88. '0I5 2A53> @8B>@8G5A:89 2>?@>A ?@8 @50;870F88 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88 A>G5B05BAO A A5<0=B8G5A:8<8 8;8 AB8;8AB8G5A:8<8 0:BC0;870B>@0<8: A;8 1K K =5 ?@8A;0;8 <=5 <0@>:, B> >B MB>3> =5 ?>AB@040;8 1K =8 O, =8 ;8B5@0BC@0. 'B> 70 @KF0@AB2>? ">G=> O ;NH:8= 8;8 1545=, :0: 8>35=. 5 ?@8H;5B5 ;8 C6 :AB0B8 ?>GB>2>9 1C<038 8 :>=25@B>2? (".3. !.275) ;8: ;0<0-5I5@A:0O ?>AA>@8;0AL 8 CE>48B >B >@H0. 570<5=8<0O ?>B5@O! B> B5?5@L 1C45B 83@0BL 1>;L=KE :>H5: 2 ?A8E>?0B8G5A:8E ?L5A0E? (".3. !.60)  A;54CNI5< :>=B5:AB5 @50;870F8O :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88 ?@>8AE>48B A ?><>ILN :><?;5:A0 A@54AB2:  25;8:>< <>5<C C4>2>;LAB28N, ?@85E0;0 : =0< C4828B5;L=0O 0AB@>=><:0. =0 =0 20A A5@48B0 8 =07K205B 0A ?>G5<C-B> :@0A=>@5G82K< A?;5B=8:><. >-?5@2KE, >=0 A2>1>4=0 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=0, 2>-2B>@KE, >=0 =5 ?@87=05B <C6G8=, 2 B@5BL8E, 2A5 ?5G5=538 8 8=A8?84K (D@.  ?>H;O:8), 8 K >A<5;8;8AL =0?8A0BL 59 <>9 04@5A A B0:8< >1@0I5=85<: 1>605<>5 0<8 ACI5AB2> 6825B& 8 B.4. ><8;C9B5, @0725 <>6=> 70?>4>7@8BL 75<=K5 GC2AB20 C 0AB@>=><>:, ;5B0NI8E ?>4 =515A0<8? (".4. !.257) 45AL =0@O4C A @8B>@8G5A:8< 2>?@>A>< 0:BC0;870F88 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0 A?>A>1AB2C5B >@30=870F8O B5:AB0 2 2845 =5A>1AB25==>-?@O<>9 @5G8 (@073>2>@=K5 :>=AB@C:F88 8 8E ;5:A8G5A:>5 =0?>;=5=85, O2=> A2>9AB25==>5 >1J5:BC 8@>=88, 8A?>;L7>20=85 3@0D8G5A:8E A@54AB2 @50;870F88  :02KG5:), 0 B0:65 =5A>>B25BAB2CNI0O A8BC0F88 AB8;8AB8G5A:8 2>72KH5==K9 B>= 2KA:07K20=8O. @C385 @07=>284=>AB8 AB@C:BC@=KE A@54AB2 @50;870F88 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88 2 M?8AB>;O@88 '5E>20, 2 >B;8G85 >B EC4>65AB25==>3> B2>@G5AB20, 548=8G=K. -B>, 157CA;>2=>, >1JOA=O5BAO B5<, GB> AB@C:BC@=K5 A@54AB20 @50;870F88 8@>=88 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 D>@<0;L=>5 CA;>6=5=85 B5:AB0, 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 8E 2 M?8AB>;O@88 ?@>8AE>48B B>;L:> 2 B>< A;CG05, :>340 M?8AB>;O@=K9 B5:AB ?> B5< 8;8 8=K< ?@8G8=0< <0:A8<0;L=> ?@81;865= : EC4>65AB25==><C: G5@0 :0:>9-B>, ?>-2848<><C, >G5=L <>;>4>9 G5;>25: ?@8A;0; <=5 87 >@>=560 @C:>?8AL ;8AB>2 2 40, <5;:> =0?8A0==CN. ><0=. 0720=85 >G5=L =>2>5: 8I85 4CE><. (& ) !B0; O =>GLN ?5@5;8ABK20BL @><0=, 0 B0< 2A5 G5AB=>5 ?@>H;>5, A;C65=85 =0@>4C, >1I=>ABL 8=B5@5A>2, 70E>4OI55 A>;=F5. (".4. !.313)  MB>< >B@K2:5 87 ?8AL<0 : . !C2>@8=C ?@81;865=85 M?8AB>;O@=>3> B5:AB0 : EC4>65AB25==><C ?>25AB2>20=8N 48:BC5BAO B5<>9 A>>1I5=8O  M?83>=A:89 @><0= 02B>@0-=5?@>D5AA8>=0;0. 45AL >A=>2=K< A@54AB2>< @50;870F88 8@>=88 AB0=>28BAO ?>4B8? A8=B0:A8G5A:>9 :>=25@35=F88  E0>B8G5A:>5 ?5@5G8A;5=85, 8 40==K9 :>=B5:AB A>>B=>A8BAO A EC4>65AB25==K< B2>@G5AB2>< '5E>20 @0==53> ?5@8>40, 345 A ?><>ILN E0>B8G5A:>3> ?5@5G8A;5=8O (;5:A8G5A:8< =0?>;=5=85< :>B>@><C A;C68;8 HB0<?K 8 AB5@5>B8?K A>2@5<5==>9 '5E>2C ;8B5@0BC@K) >?8AK205<><C O2;5=8N 4020;0AL >B@8F0B5;L=0O >F5=:0. '0I5 2A53> AB@C:BC@=K5 A@54AB20 @50;870F88 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88 ?@8ACBAB2CNB 2 ?8AL<0E, 04@5A>20==KE 8:5 878=>2>9: !?5HC ?>@04>20BL 0A, 4>AB>C20605<0O 848O !B0E852=0: O :C?8; 4;O 0A =0 ?OB=04F0BL :>?55: B0:>9 1C<038 8 :>=25@B>2. 15I0=85 <>5 8A?>;=5=>. C<0N, GB> MB0 1C<030 2?>;=5 C4>2;5B2>@8B 87KA:0==K< 2:CA0< 2KAH53> A25B0, : :>B>@><C ?@8=04;560B 528B0=, $54>@>2 8 :>=4C:B>@0 :>==>-65;57=>9 4>@>38. (".5. !.47) @>=8G5A:89 MDD5:B, 0:BC0;878@C5<K9 ?>A@54AB2>< E0>B8G5A:>3> ?5@5G8A;5=85 <=8<KE (:>=4C:B>@0 65;57=>9 4>@>38) 8 ACI5AB2CNI8E (EC4>6=8:8 $54>@>2 8 528B0=) 04@5A0B>2 878=>2>9, 4>?>;=O5BAO 8A?>;L7>20=85< =5A>>1@07=>9 4;O 4@C65A:>3> >1I5=8O '5E>20 8 878=>2>9 AB8;8AB8G5A:>9 <0=5@K ?8AL<0. !B@C:BC@=K5 A@54AB20 M:A?;8F8@CNB 8@>=8N 8 2 A;54CNI5< :>=B5:AB5: 8;0O 8:CAO! K ?8H5B5, GB> 0< 1K;> 4>A04=> C5760BL 87 5;8E>20, 8 GB> 2 >A:25 0< =5:C40 4520BLAO >B B>A:8. K E>B8B5, GB>1K O 20< ?>25@8;? 72>;LB5, 0=35; <>9! K 2A:@C68;8 <=5 3>;>2C 4> B0:>9 AB5?5=8, GB> O 3>B>2 25@8BL 4065 B><C, GB> 42064K 420  ?OBL. >3C A515 ?@54AB028BL, :0: 2K, 154=O6:0, B>A:C5B5 2 >1I5AB25 @E8?>20, C?5@=8:, :=. #@CA>20 8 ?@>G., :0: ?@>B825= 0< :>=LO: 8 :0:8< @0< ?@54AB02;O5BAO 0< 5;8E>2>, :>340 K 2 !8<D>=8G5A:>< I53>;O5B5 2 A2>5< =>2>< 3>;C1>< ?;0BL5, :>B>@>5, 3>2>@OB, 0< >G5=L : ;8FC. (".5. !.334) 45AL 8@>=8G5A:89 MDD5:B 2>7=8:05B 1;03>40@O 8A?>;L7>20=8N AB@C:BC@=KE A@54AB2 - B@0=A?>78F8O A8=B0:A8G5A:8E AB@C:BC@, 345 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 2 D>@<0;L=>< 0A?5:B5 2KA:07K20=8O >:07K20NBAO >B@8F0B5;L=K<8 ?> A>45@60=8N. C<05BAO, GB> 2 2KH5?@82545==KE :>=B5:AB0E ?>2KH5==>5 2=8<0=85 : D>@<5 2KA:07K20=8O, ;8B5@0BC@=>ABL, ?@8720=K 702C0;8@>20BL ?@5645 2A53> 8AB8==>5, >G5=L A;>6=>5 >B=>H5=85 '5E>20 : . 878=>2>9, 53> =565;0=85 :0:8<-B> >1@07>< 2KOA=OBL 8 >?@545;OBL E0@0:B5@ 8E >B=>H5=89 8 AB@5<;5=85 ?>445@60BL >1I89 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 B>= ?8A5< =0A<5H;82K9, ;53:89. 2. $C=:F88 :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 8@>=88 2 M?8AB>;O@88 '5E>20 AE>68 A DC=:F8O<8, 2K?>;=O5<K<8 5N 2 EC4>65AB25==>< B2>@G5AB25, @07;8G85 2KO2;O5BAO ;8HL 1;03>40@O B><C, :0:85 DC=:F88 1>;55 E0@0:B5@=K 4;O EC4>65AB25==KE ?@>872545=89 8 ?8A5<. 2.1. >=B5:ABC0;L=0O 8@>=8O 2 ?8AL<0E '5E>20 G0I5 2A53> 2KABC?05B :0: A0<>8@>=8O. 1J5:B>< 8@>=88 2 MB>< A;CG05 <>3CB O2;OBLAO =5C40G8, =5AG0ABLO 04@5A0=B0 8@>=88: 5=L38  MB> 4K<! > 2AO:>< A;CG05 <=5 =C6=> B5?5@L 65 4204F0BL ?OBL BKAOG =0 C?;0BC 4>;3>2, A45;0==KE ?> B2>5<C A>25BC. ("K G0AB> 3>2>@8; <=5:  B2>8 3>4K CH:8= C65 8<5; B@84F0BL BKAOG 4>;3C). (".8. !.34) ;8: #?>@=>5 <>;G0=85 3>A?>4 G;5=>2 B>3> 2>5==>-?>;52>3> AC40, :>B>@K9 AC48; <>53> 5H53>, O <>3C >1JOA=8BL =5 G5< 8=K<, :0: B>;L:> 3>@OG8< A>GC2AB285< : <>5<C B0;0=BC 8 65;0=85< ?@>4;8BL B> @09A:8-A;04>AB@0AB=>5 =0A;0645=85, :0:>5 4>AB02;O5B <=5 ?@8OB=>5 =52545=85. B> 7=05B? KBL <>65B, <>O ?L5A0 ?@87=0=0 35=80;L=>9& 0725 =5 A;04:> 3040BL? (".3. !.269) !>G5B0=85 A@54AB2 @50;870F88 8@>=88  0=B8D@078A, AB>;L @54:> 2AB@5G0NI89AO 2 M?8AB>;O@88 '5E>20 (?@8OB=>5 =52545=85), 0 B0:65 :>=B@0AB 157CA;>2=> =530B82=>9 A8BC0F88 8 ?@5C25;8G5==> ?>;>68B5;L=>3> A5<0=B8G5A:>3> =0?>;=5=8O, 8A?>;L7>20==>3> ?@8 55 E0@0:B5@8AB8:5. ><>305B A>740=8N 8@>=8G5A:>3> MDD5:B0 8 <=>3>:@0B=>5 ?>2B>@5=85 8A?>;L7>20==>3> AB@C:BC@=>3> A@54AB20 @50;870F88 8@>=88  @8B>@8G5A:>3> 2>?@>A0. !0<>8@>=859 O2;O5BAO 8 A;54CNI55 2KA:07K20=85 '5E>20 2 ?8AL<5 : . !C2>@8=C. 'B>1K =068BL :0?8B0;K, :0: 2K ?8H5B5, 8 2K=K@=CBL 87 ?CG8=K 3@>H>2KE 701>B 8 <5;:8E AB@0E>2, 4;O <5=O >AB0;AO B>;L:> >48= A?>A>1  157=@02AB25==K9. 5=8BLAO =0 1>30B>9 8;8 2K40BL ==C 0@5=8=C 70 A2>5 ?@>872545=85. (".4. !.251) 45AL @50;870F8O 8@>=88 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 70 AG5B 18=0@=>3> :>=B5:AB0: 87;>65=85 A8BC0F88 8 55 :><<5=B8@>20=85. -:A?;8F8B=> 02B>@>< 2K@0605BAO =0<5@5=85, :>B>@>5 =8:>340 =5 1C45B 2K?>;=5=> 2284C 01A>;NB=>9 53> 01AC@4=>AB8. @8G5< A>740=0 A2>5>1@07=0O 3@040F8O =52>7<>6=>AB8 2>?;>I5=8O ?5@5G8A;O5<KE 459AB289: 5A;8 =0<5@5=85 65=8BLAO =0 1>30B>9 =5?@85<;5<> B>;L:> MB8G5A:8, => 2?>;=5 2>7<>6=>, B> 2B>@>9 20@80=B 2KE>40, ?>AB02;5==K9 2 >48= @O4 A ?5@2K<, ?>;CG05B, =5A<>B@O =0 01AC@4=>ABL, AB0BCA B>65 =5MB8G=>3>, => >ACI5AB28<>3>, E>BO 8 A 5I5 1>;LH8<8 <>@0;L=K<8 ?>B5@O<8. I5 G0I5, G5< =5C40G8 8 =5AG0ABLO, >1J5:B>< :>=B5:ABC0;L=>9 A0<>8@>=88 2 G5E>2A:8E ?8AL<0E AB0=>2OBAO 53> C40G8, 53> ?>?C;O@=>ABL: 5B5 8 -::5@<0= ;53:8 =0 ?><8=5. / =5402=> C?><8=0; 8E 2 A2>59 25;8:>9 ?>25AB8. 07K20N 55 25;8:>N, ?>B><C GB> >=0 2 A0<>< 45;5 2KE>48B 25;8:>N, B> 5ABL 1>;LH>N 8 4;8==>N, B0: GB> 4065 <=5 =04>5;> 55 ?8A0BL. 45AL ?>A@54AB2>< :0;0<1C@0  >4=>2@5<5==>9 @50;870F88 42CE 7=0G5=89 ?>;8A5<0=B8G=>3> A;>20  '5E>2K< @50;87C5BAO 8@>=8G=0O >F5=:0 A2>53> ?@>872545=8O, 2K720==0O =5 >1J5:B82=K<8 :0G5AB20<8 ?>25AB8, => >1KG=K< 4;O '5E>20 :@8B8G=K< >B=>H5=85< : A2>5<C B2>@G5AB2C. 0A<5H:>9 =04 A2>8<8 ?8A0B5;LA:8<8 ?@828;538O<8 72CG8B A;54CNI55 2KA:07K20=85 '5E>20 2 ?8AL<5 : . 8A5;52>9:  >4=>< =><5@5 02B>@ <>65B @0A?>;030BL maximum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vous comprenez, O =5 28=N <>53> 154=>3> >BF0. = ?8;, 83@0; 2 :0@BK& 1@0; 27OB:8& 0BL 65& 0 GB> 3>2>@8BL! C640, 1>@L10 70 :CA>: E;510, A>7=0=85 =8GB>65AB20& E, =5 70AB02;O9B5 <5=O 2A?><8=0BL! =5 =C6=> 1K;> A0<>9 ?@>1820BL A515 ?CBL& #@>4;82>5 8=AB8BCBA:>5 2>A?8B0=85, GB5=85 3;C?KE @><0=>2, >H81:8 <>;>4>AB8, ?5@20O @>1:0O ;N1>2L&  1>@L10 A> A@54>9? #60A=>!  A><=5=8O?  <C:8 70@>640NI53>AO =525@8O 2 687=L, 2 A51O? E! K ?8A0B5;L 8 7=05B5 =0A, 65=I8=. K ?>9<5B5&  =5AG0ABLN, O =045;5=0 H8@>:>9 =0BC@>9& / 640;0 AG0ABLO, 8 :0:>3>! / 60640;0 1KBL G5;>25:><! 0! KBL G5;>25:><  2 MB>< O 2845;0 A2>5 AG0ABL5. (".2. !.90) - / 60640;0 G53>-B> =5>1K:=>25==>3>, =565=A:>3>!  2>B&  2>B& ?>425@=C;AO =0 <>5< ?CB8 1>30BK9 AB0@8:-35=5@0;& >9<8B5 <5=O, >;L45<0@! 54L MB> 1K;> A0<>?>65@B2>20=85, A0<>>B@5G5=85, ?>9<8B5 2K! / =5 <>3;0 ?>ABC?8BL 8=0G5. / >1>30B8;0 A5<LN, AB0;0 ?CB5H5AB2>20BL, 45;0BL 4>1@>& (".2. !.91) - 'C4=0O!  ;5?5G5B ?8A0B5;L, F5;CO @C:C >:>;> 1@0A;5B0.  5 20A F5;CN, 482=0O, 0 AB@040=85 G5;>25G5A:>5! ><=8B5 0A:>;L=8:>20? = B0: F5;>20;. (".2. !.91)  @0AA:075 0304>G=0O =0BC@0 8A?>;L7C5BAO H8@>:89 A?5:B@ 0;;N782=KE 8 AB8;52KE F8B0B, :>B>@K5 ;53:> 45:>48@CNBAO G8B0B5;5<, E>@>H> 7=0:><K< A ?@54H5AB2CNI59 @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@>9. &8B8@>20=85 845B, 2 >A=>2=><, =0 A5<0=B8G5A:>< 8 AN65B=>< C@>2=OE, 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=>9 O2;O5BAO 8 A0<0 35@>8=O  154=0O 452CH:0, :>B>@0O 65@B2C5B A>1>9 8 F5=>9 =565;0==>3> 70<C65AB20 ?>;CG05B 2>7<>6=>ABL A0<>@50;870F88 8 2AN 687=L ?>A2OI05B A;54>20=8N 4>;3C. >@L10 <564C 4>;3>< 8 GC2AB2>< AB0=>28BAO ;59B<>B82>< ?>25AB2>20=8O, :0: 8 <>B82 65@B25==>AB8, AB@040=8O. !0<0 35@>8=O 8 55 A?CB=8: M:A?;8F8@CNB 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 A2O78 (/ AB@040;8F0 2> 2:CA5 >AB>52A:>3>. ;8:  5 20A F5;CN, 482=0O, 0 AB@040=85 G5;>25G5A:>5! ><=8B5 0A:>;L=8:>20? = B0: F5;>20;). 4=0:> D8=0; @0AA:070 :>=B@0AB8@C5B A ;>38:>9 ?>25AB2>20=8O 8 @5B@>A?5:B82=> ?@8405B 2A5<C ?>25AB2>20=8N >AB@>-8@>=8G5A:89 E0@0:B5@: - > 2>B AB0@8: C<5@& (& ) "5?5@L-B> 8 >B40BLAO ;N18<><C G5;>25:C, A45;0BLAO 53> ?>4@C3>9, ?><>I=8F59, =>A8B5;L=8F59 53> 8450;>2, 1KBL AG0AB;82>9& >B4>E=CBL& > :0: 2A5 ?>H;>, 304:> 8 3;C?> =0 MB>< A25B5! 0: 2A5 ?>4;>, >;L45<0@! / =5AG0AB=0, =5AG0AB=0, =5AG0AB=0! 0 <>5< ?CB8 >?OBL AB>8B ?@5?OBAB285! ?OBL O GC2AB2CN, GB> AG0ABL5 <>5 40;5:>, 40;5:>! E, A:>;L:> <C:, 5A;8 1K 2K 7=0;8! !:>;L:> <C:! - > GB> 65? 'B> AB0;> =0 20H5< ?CB8? #<>;ON 20A, 3>2>@8B5! 'B> 65? - @C3>9 1>30BK9 AB0@8:& (".2. !.92) "0:>3> B8?0 D8=0;K 2 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 ?@8=OB> =07K20BL point-:>=F>2:0<8, 8 >=8 >G5=L E0@0:B5@=K 4;O @0==53> B2>@G5AB20 .. '5E>20. /@:89 8@>=8G5A:89 MDD5:B ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 MB>3> ?@85<0 A>7405BAO 1;03>40@O B><C, GB> ?@>8AE>48B ?>;=K9 ?5@5;>< B>=0, ;5:A8G5A:89, A5<0=B8G5A:89 8;8 AB8;8AB8G5A:89 A4283 (2 40==>< A;CG05  A5<0=B8G5A:89), 8 2A5 ?@54K4CI55, B> 5ABL =0<5@5=8O, <KA;8 8 GC2AB20 ?5@A>=0659 AB02OBAO ?>4 A><=5=85 8;8 ?>;=>ABLN >B25@30NBAO. !E>68<, :070;>AL 1K, >1@07>< @50;87C5BAO B5:AB>>1@07CNI0O 8@>=8O 2 B0:8E ?@>872545=8OE, :0: (254A:0O A?8G:0, @82>5 75@:0;>, 0@LO 20=>2=0: B0: 65 =52>7<>6=K< O2;O5BAO >?@545;5=85 :>=:@5B=>3> ?@>B>B5:AB0, => 745AL B5:AB><-8AB>G=8:>< C65 AB0=>28BAO A>2@5<5==0O '5E>2C <0AA>20O ;8B5@0BC@0, 8 ?0@>48@CNBAO 55 ?>?C;O@=K5 60=@K  45B5:B82=K9 @0AA:07, A2OB>G=K9 8;8 @>645AB25=A:89 @0AA:07, 1C;L20@=K9 @><0=:  @>A:>H=> C1@0==>9 3>AB8=>9, =0 :CH5B:5, >18B>9 B5<=>-D8>;5B>2K< 10@E0B><, A845;0 <>;>40O 65=I8=0 ;5B 4204F0B8 B@5E. 20;8 55 0@L59 20=>2=>9 4=>I5:8=>9. - 0:>5 H01;>==>5, AB5@5>B8?=>5 =0G0;>!  2>A:;8:=5B G8B0B5;L.  5G=> MB8 3>A?>40 =0G8=0NB @>A:>H=> C1@0==K<8 3>AB8=K<8. '8B0BL =5 E>G5BAO! 728=ONAL ?5@54 G8B0B5;5< 8 84C 40;55. 5@54 40<>9 AB>O; <>;>4>9 G5;>25: ;5B 4204F0B8 H5AB8 A 1;54=K<, =5A:>;L:> 3@CAB=K< ;8F><. - C 2>B, 2>B& "0: O 8 7=0;, - @0AA5@48BAO G8B0B5;L.  >;>4>9 G5;>25: 8 =5?@5<5==> 4204F0B8 H5AB8 ;5B! C, 0 40;LH5 GB>? 725AB=> GB>& = ?>?@>A8B ?>M788, ;N128, 0 >=0 >B25B8B ?@>708G5A:>9 ?@>AL1>9 :C?8BL 1@0A;5B. ;8 65 =0>1>@>B, >=0 70E>G5B ?>M788, 0 >=&  G8B0BL =5 AB0=C! (".2. !.312) (& ) >;>4>9 G5;>25: =5 >B@K20; 3;07 >B <>;>4>9 65=I8=K 8 H5?B0;: - / ;N1;N B51O, GC4=0O, 4065 8 B5?5@L, :>340 >B B51O 255B E>;>4>< <>38;K! "CB C6 G8B0B5;L 2K945B 87 B5@?5=8O 8 =0G=5B 1@0=8BLAO: - '5@B 8E ?>45@8! #3>I0NB ?C1;8:C @07=>9 G5?CE>9, @>A:>H=> C1@0==K<8 3>AB8=K<8 40 :0:8<8-B> 0@LO<8 20=>2=0<8 A <>38;L=K< E>;>4><. (".2 !.312) >;3> AB>O; <>;>4>9 G5;>25: ?5@54 ?@5:@0A=>9 65=I8=>9. 0:>=5F >= A=O; AN@BC:, AB0I8; A A51O A0?>38 8 ?@>H5?B0;: - @>I09, 4> 702B@0! 0B5< >= @0ABO=C;AO =0 4820=5 8 C:@K;AO ?;NH52K< >45O;><. - @8 40<5?!  87C<8BAO G8B0B5;L.  0 MB> GCHL, G5?CE0! -B> 2>7<CB8B5;L=>! >@>4>2>9! &5=7C@0! 0 ?>AB>9B5, =5 A?5H8B5, A5@L57=K9, AB@>389, 3;C1>:><KA;5==K9 G8B0B5;L. 0<0 2 @>A:>H=> C1@0==>9 3>AB8=>9 1K;0 =0?8A0=0 <0A;O=K<8 :@0A:0<8 =0 E>;AB5 8 28A5;0 =04 4820=><. "5?5@L <>65B5 2>7<CI0BLAO, A:>;L:> 20< C3>4=>. (".2. !.313) 45AL >10 3;02=KE 35@>O ?>;=>ABLN AB5@5>B8?=K, ?@8 8E >?8A0=88 8A?>;L7>20=K @07;8G=K5  ;5:A8G5A:85 8 AB8;8AB8G5A:85  HB0<?K, => MB0 HB0<?>20==>ABL 8 AB5@5>B8?=>ABL M:A?;8F8@>20=0 ?@O<> 2 B5:AB5 CAB0<8 ?@>=8F0B5;L=>3> G8B0B5;O. AO AB@C:BC@0 @0AA:070 2KAB@>5=0 :0: 2>>1@0605<K9 480;>3 02B>@0 8 ?@>=8F0B5;L=>3> G8B0B5;O. -B>B >1@07 B>65 O2;O5BAO 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=K< 4;O @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K 452OB=04F0B>3> 25:0, >4=8<8 87 A0<KE O@:8E ?@8<5@>2 <>3CB A;C68BL B0:85 65 :2078-480;>3>2K5 ?5@A>=068 87 ?CH:8=A:>3> ><8:0 2 >;><=5 8 @><0=0 'B> 45;0BL? '5@=KH52A:>3>. 5?;8:8 02B>@0 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 AB8;87>20==K5 ?@O<K5 F8B0BK 87 ;N1>2=KE 1C;L20@=KE @><0=>2, 0 @5?;8:8 G8B0B5;O  M:A?;8F8@>20=85 MB8E 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=KE A2O759. 4=0:> 8<5==> ?@>=8F0B5;L=K9 G8B0B5;L, 53> ?@825@65==>ABL <0AA>2>9 ;8B5@0BC@5, 53> =5@071>@G82>ABL 2> 2:CA0E 8 =5>?@0240==>5 A0<><=5=85 AB0=>2OBAO >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>9 8@>=88 2 ?@>872545=8OE B0:>3> @>40. =>3>?;0=>2K<8, <=>3>A;>9=K<8 O2;ONBAO 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 2:;NG5=8O, 0:BC0;878@CNI85 B5:AB>>1@07CNICN 8@>=8N 2 ?>74=8E ?@>872545=8OE '5E>20. /@:>9 8;;NAB@0F859 MB>3> <>65B A;C68BL ?>25ABL CM;L. 081>;55 M:A?;8F8@>20==>9, ;560I59 =0 ?>25@E=>AB8, O2;O5BAO B5:AB>>1@07CNI0O 8@>=8O, 2K?>;=ONI0O DC=:F8N @5G52>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 052A:>3>: - / >B;8G=> 7=0N, BK =5 <>65HL <=5 ?><>GL, - A:070; >=, => 3>2>@N B515, ?>B><C GB> 4;O =0H53> 1@0B0-=5C40G=8:0 8 ;8H=53> G5;>25:0 2A5 A?0A5=85 2 @073>2>@0E. / 4>;65= >1>1I0BL :064K9 A2>9 ?>ABC?>:, O 4>;65= =0E>48BL >1JOA=5=85 8 >?@0240=85 A2>59 =5;5?>9 687=8 2 GL8E-=81C4L B5>@8OE, 2 ;8B5@0BC@=KE B8?0E, 2 B><, =0?@8<5@, GB> <K 42>@O=5, 2K@>6405<AO, 8 ?@>G55&  ?@>H;CN =>GL, =0?@8<5@, O CB5H0; A51O B5<, GB> 2A5 2@5<O 4C<0;: 0E, :0: ?@02 1K; ">;AB>9, 15760;>AB=> ?@02!  <=5 1K;> ;53G5 >B MB>3>.  A0<>< 45;5, 1@0B, 25;8:89 ?8A0B5;L, GB> =8 3>2>@8. ( ".7. !.355) 0B5< >= (052A:89) 2AB0; 8, >BKA:02 A2>N DC@06:C, >B?@028;AO : A2>5<C A>A;C682FC (5H:>2A:><C, C :>B>@>3> :064K9 45=L A>18@0;8AL G8=>2=8:8 83@0BL 2 28=B 8 ?8BL E>;>4=>5 ?82>. !2>59 =5@5H8B5;L=>ABLN O =0?><8=0N 0<;5B0, - 4C<0; 052A:89 4>@>3>9.  0: 25@=> (5:A?8@ 70<5B8;! E, :0: 25@=>! (".7. !.358) 0 MB>B @07 052A:><C 1>;LH5 2A53> =5 ?>=@028;0AL C 04564K $54>@>2=K 55 15;0O, >B:@KB0O H5O 8 7028BCH:8 2>;>A =0 70BK;:5 8 >= 2A?><=8;, GB> ==5 0@5=8=>9, :>340 >=0 @07;N18;8 <C60, =5 =@028;8AL ?@5645 2A53> 53> CH8, 8 ?>4C<0;: 0: MB> 25@=>! 0: 25@=>! (CM;L) 5?;8:8 052A:>3> ?5@5=0AKI5=K 0;;N78O<8 8 ?@O<K<8 F8B0B0<8 87 @CAA:>9 :;0AA8G5A:>9 8 <8@>2>9 ;8B5@0BC@K. @>=8G5A:89 MDD5:B CA8;8205BAO ?><5I5=85< 0;;N788, 8<5NI59 2KA>:85, B@038G5A:85 :>==>B0F88 (0<;5B) 2 :>=B5:AB, 8<5NI89 ;5:A8:>-A5<0=B8G5A:>5 =0?>;=5=85 A O@:> 2K@065==K< >1K45==K< 7=0G5=85< (83@0BL 2 28=B; ?8BL E>;>4=>5 ?82>). A5 A2>8 ?>ABC?:8, 4065 A0<K5 =8GB>6=K5, 2A5 =51;03>284=K5 <KA;8 052A:89 >1JOA=O5B 8 >?@024K205B, 0?5;;8@CO : ;8B5@0BC@=K< ?5@A>=060< 8 02B>@0<, 8E A>7402H8<: 5;N1>2L 052A:>3> : 045645 $54>@>2=5 2K@060;0AL 3;02=K< >1@07>< 2 B><, GB> 2A5, GB> >=0 3>2>@8;0 8 45;0;0, :070;>AL 5<C ;>6LN 8;8 ?>E>68< =0 ;>6L, 8 2A5, GB> >= G8B0; ?@>B82 65=I8= 8 ;N128, :070;>AL 5<C, :0: =5;L7O ;CGH5 ?>4E>48;> : =5<C, : 045645 $54>@>2=5 8 55 <C6C. (".7. !.349)  B5:AB5 B0:65 M:A?;8F8@>20=> 8@>=8G5A:>5 ?5@5>A<KA;5=85 40==>9 >A>15==>AB8 052A:>3>, ?@8=04;560I55 D>= >@5=C. -:A?;8:0F8O ?@>8AE>48B ?>A@54AB2>< 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0;;N789, E0@0:B5@=KE 4;O 052A:>3>, ?@O<KE F8B0B 87 53> @5G8, O2;ONI8EAO, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, B>65 F8B0B0<8, AB02H8<8 : B><C 2@5<5=8 HB0<?0<8 8;8 >1I8<8 <5AB0<88 8E 8@>=8G5A:>3> :><<5=B8@>20=8O: -  :0G5AB25 4@C30 O 6C@8; 53>, 70G5< >= <=>3> ?L5B, 70G5< 6825B =5 ?> A@54AB20< 8 45;05B 4>;38, 70G5< =8G53> =5 45;05B 8 =8G53> =5 G8B05B, 70G5< >= B0: <0;> :C;LBC@5= 8 <0;> 7=05B, - 8 2 >B25B =0 2A5 <>8 2>?@>AK >= 3>@L:> C;K10;AO, 274KE0; 8 3>2>@8;: / =5C40G=8:, ;8H=89 G5;>25:, 8;8: 'B> 2K E>B8B5, 10B5=L:0 >B =0A, >A:>;:>2 :@5?>AB=8G5AB20?, 8;8: K 2K@>6405<AO& . ;8 =0G8=0; =5AB8 4;8==CN 30;8<0BLN >1 =538=5, 5G>@8=5, 109@>=>2A:>< 08=5, 070@>25, ?@> :>B>@KE 3>2>@8;: -B> =0H8 >BFK ?> ?;>B8 8 4CEC. >=8<09B5 B0:, <>;, GB> =5 >= 28=>20B 2 B><, GB> :075==K5 ?0:5BK ?> =545;O< ;560B =5@0A?5G0B0==K<8 8 GB> A0< >= ?L5B 8 4@C38E A?08205B, 0 28=>20BK 2 MB>< =538=, 5G>@8= 8 "C@35=52, 2K4C<02H89 =5C40G=8:0 8 ;8H=53> G5;>25:0. (".7. !.360) :BC0;870F8O B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88, >@30=87CNI59 ?>25ABL 8 @50;87CNI59AO ?>A@54AB2>< 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=KE 2:;NG5=89, ?@>8AE>48B 8 1;03>40@O ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8N 052A:>3> 8 D>= >@5=0, :0: B@048F8>==>3> 4;O @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8O ;8H=8E ;N459 8 ;N459 45;0 (1;><>2 8 (B>;LF, 8@A0=>2 8 070@>2 8 B.4.). 3.1. G5=L 0:BC0;L=K< 4;O G5E>2A:>3> B2>@G5AB20 O2;O5BAO A>G5B0=85 A@54AB2 @50;870F88 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88. '0I5 2A53> MB> 1K205B A>G5B0=85 =5A>1AB25==>-?@O<>9 @5G8 8 @07;8G=>3> @>40 ?>2B>@>2: >A;5 A204L1K 68;8 E>@>H>. =0 A845;0 C =53> (C 0=B@5?@5=5@0 C:8=0) 2 :0AA5, A<>B@5;0 70 ?>@O4:>< 2 A04C, 70?8AK20;0 @0AE>4K, 2K4020;0 60;>20=85. (".10. !.104) (& ) ?>65=82H8AL, 68;8 E>@>H>. 1K:=>25==> >= (C?@02;ONI89 ;5A=K< A:;04>< @820;>2) A845; 2 ;5A=>< A:;045 4> >1540, ?>B>< CE>48; ?> 45;0<, 8 53> A<5=O;0 ;5=L:0, :>B>@0O A845;0 2 :>=B>@5 4> 25G5@0 8 ?8A0;0 B0< AG5B0 8 >B?CA:0;0 B>20@. (".10. !.106) !;>2>A>G5B0=85 68;8 E>@>H> O2;O5B A>1>9 =5A>1AB25==>-?@O<CN @5GL, ?>A:>;L:C ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5 >F5=>G=K5 2KA:07K20=8O, >A>15==> :>340 >=8 ?>B>< @0725@=CB> >1JOA=ONBAO, ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 2:@0?;5=85 2 @5GL 02B>@0 @5?;8:8 ?5@A>=060. A;8 2>A?@8=8<0BL MBC A8BC0F8N 2=5 A2O78 A ?>2B>@><, B> >=0 ;8HL A2845B5;LAB2C5B >1 C1>3>AB8 ?@54AB02;5=89 CH5G:8 > E>@>H5< 68BL5. > 2 A>G5B0=88 A A8BC0B82=K< ?>2B>@>< MB8 @5?;8:8 >1@5B0NB 8@>=8G5A:CN :>==>B0F8N. I5 . 0?5@=K9 70<5B8; >4=>>1@0785, <>=>B>==>ABL, :>B>@K5 70AB02;ONB G8B0B5;O CA><=8BLAO 2 A5@L57=>AB8 MB>3> 68;8 E>@>H> [0?5@=K9, 1980. !.17].  @0AA:075 >?@K3C=LO A@54AB2>< @50;870F88 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88 O28;AO ;5:A8:>-A5<0=B8G5A:89 ?>2B>@ 2 A>G5B0=88 A =5A>1AB25==>-?@O<>9 @5GLN: C<0;0 >=0 B0:65 > B><, GB> @O4>< A =5N, >1;>:>B82H8AL > 1>@B, AB>8B =0AB>OI89 25;8:89 G5;>25:, 35=89, 1>689 871@0==8:. A5, GB> >= A>740; 4> A8E ?>@, ?@5:@0A=>, =>2> 8 =5>1K:=>25==>, 0 B>, GB> A>740AB >= A> 2@5<5=5<, :>340 A 53> 2>7<C60;>ABLN >:@5?=5B 53> @54:89 B0;0=B, 1C45B ?>@078B5;L=>, =587<5@8<> 2KA>:>& (".7. !.15). ;L30 20=>2=0 24@C3 ?>=O;0, GB> MB> 1K; 2 A0<>< 45;5 =5>1K:=>25==K9, @54:89, 8, 2 A@02=5=88 A B5<8, :>3> >=0 7=0;0, 25;8:89 G5;>25:.  2A?><=82, :0: : =5<C >B=>A8;8AL 55 ?>:>9=K9 >B5F 8 2A5 B>20@8I8 2@0G8, >=0 ?>=O;0, GB> >=8 2845;8 2 =5< 1C4CICN 7=0<5=8B>ABL (".7. !.30). =0 E>B5;0 >1JOA=8BL 5<C, GB> B> 1K;0 >H81:0, GB> =5 2A5 5I5 ?>B5@O=>, GB> 687=L 5I5 <>65B 1KBL ?@5:@0A=>9 8 AG0AB;82>9, GB> >= @54:89, =5>1K:=>25==K9, 25;8:89 G5;>25:, 8 GB> >=0 1C45B 2AN 687=L 1;03>3>25BL ?5@54 =8<, <>;8BAO 8 8A?KBK20BL A2OI5==K9 AB@0E (".7. !.31). @>=8G5A:89 MDD5:B 4>AB8305BAO B5<, GB> 35@>8=O 8A?>;L7C5B A8=>=8<8G5A:89 8 4065 1C:20;L=K9 ;5:A8G5A:89 ?>2B>@, 4C<0O > @07=KE ;N4OE  > <C65 8 > O1>2A:><. >2B>@ONBAO =5>?@0240==>-38?5@1>;878@>20==K5 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 M?8B5BK  25;8:89, =5>1K:=>25==K9, @54:89, 0 B0:65 A;>20, 1;87:85 ?> A2>59 A5<0=B8:5, 2E>4OI85 2 >4=> ;5:A8:>-A5<0=B8G5A:>5 ?>;5  35=89, 1>689 871@0==8:, 1C4CI0O 7=0<5=8B>ABL. >8A:8 ;L3>9 20=>2=>9 459AB28B5;L=> 25;8:>3> G5;>25:0 AB0=>2OBAO ;59B<>B82>< ?>25AB2>20=8O, => 2A5 35@>8 ;L38 20=>2=K >:07K20NBAO ;>6=K<8 35@>O<8  MB> O@G5 2A53> 0:BC0;878@C5BAO 2 >1@075 O1>2A:>3>. ">;L:> 2 :>=F5 ?>25AB2>20=8O ;L30 20=>2=0 ?>=8<05B A2>N >H81:C, ?@>7@5205B, 284O 2 A2>5< C<8@0NI5< <C65 B>3> 8AB8==> 25;8:>3> G5;>25:0, :>B>@>3> 8A:0;0 2AN 687=L.  2 D8=0;5 @0AA:070 8@>=8O =5>B45;8<0 >B B@035488: B@0387< A8BC0F88  A<5@BL K<>20  8 2>A?@8OB85 35@>8=8  >=0 AB@0405B ?@5645 2A53> >B B>3>, GB> B5@O5B 459AB28B5;L=> 25;8:>3> G5;>25:0, 1C4CICN 7=0<5=8B>ABL. 2B>@A:0O ?>78F8O ?> >B=>H5=8N : 35@>8=8 2 D8=0;5 =5A:>;L:> 284>87<5=O5BAO: ?>O2;O5BAO A>GC2AB285, :>B>@>3> =5 1K;> ?@5645, :>B>@>5, >4=0:>, =5 8A:;NG05B >BB5=>: 8@>=88, ?@8>1@5B0NI59 >BB5=>: 60;>AB8 : AC4L15 35@>8=8. @8 0:BC0;870F88 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88 =5A>1AB25==>-?@O<0O @5GL <>65B A>G5B0BLAO 8 A A8BC0B82=K< ?>2B>@><: - > @0725 ?C1;8:0 ?>=8<05B MB>? 9 =C65= 10;030=! G5@0 C =0A H5; $0CAB =087=0=:C, 8 ?>GB8 2A5 ;>68 1K;8 ?CABK5, 0 5A;8 1K <K A 0=5G:>9 ?>AB028;8 :0:CN-=81C4L ?>H;>ABL, B>, ?>25@LB5, B50B@ 1K; 1K 18B:>< =018B. (".10. !.104) - "5?5@L ;5A A :064K< 3>4>< 4>@>605B =0 4204F0BL ?@>F5=B>2, - 3>2>@8;0 >=0 ?>:C?0B5;O< 8 7=0:><K<.  ><8;C9B5, ?@5645 <K B>@3>20;8 <5AB=K< ;5A><, B5?5@L 65 0A5G:0 4>;65= :064K9 3>4 5748BL 70 ;5A>< 2 >38;52A:CN 3C15@=8N.  :0:>9 B0@8D!  3>2>@8;0 >=0, 2 C60A5 70:@K20O >15 I5:8 @C:0<8.  0:>9 B0@8D! (".10. !.106) - # =0A 2 3>@>45 =5B ?@028;L=>3> 25B5@8=0@=>3> =047>@0 8 >B MB>3> <=>3> 1>;57=59. "> 8 45;> A;KH8HL, ;N48 701>;520NB >B <>;>:0 8 70@060NBAO >B ;>H0459 8 :>@>2.  74>@>2L5 4><0H=8E 682>B=KE, 2 ACI=>AB8, =04> 701>B8BLAO B0: 65, :0: > 74>@>2L5 ;N459. (".10. !.108) (& ) 3>2>@8;0 >=0 B0:65 > B><, :0: B5?5@L 45BO< B@C4=> CG8BLAO 2 38<=0788, => GB> :;0AA8G5A:>5 >1@07>20=85 ;CGH5 @50;L=>3>, B0: :0: 87 38<=0788 2AN4C >B:@KB0 4>@>30: E>G5HL  848 2 4>:B>@0, E>G5HL  2 8=65=5@K. (".10. !.111) 5@>8=O ?>:070=0 2 @07;8G=KE A8BC0F8OE, 345 >1I8< O2;O5BAO ?@54<5B @5G8 (@0AAC645=8O > 687=8, M:A?;8:0F8O >A>15==>AB59 <8@>2>77@5=8O), 8 >B;8G0NBAO ;8HL >1J5:BK @5G8, :>B>@K5 F5;8:>< 7028AOB >B B>3>, GL8 <=5=8O CH5G:0 2 40==>< :>=B5:AB5 F8B8@C5B. @>=8G5A:89 ?>4B5:AB A>7405BAO 1;03>40@O B><C, GB> F8B0BK 35@>8=59 =8:0: =5 B@0=AD>@<8@CNBAO, >=0 ?@>87=>A8B 8E B0:, :0: >=0 8E A;KH0;0, 8 ?>MB><C <5=O5BAO AB8;L 55 @5G8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B AB8;O @5G8 ;N18<>3> G5;>25:0. C4CG8 65=>9 B50B@0;L=>3> 0=B@5?@5=5@0, 3;02=0O 35@>8=O 8A?>;L7C5B 2 A2>59 @5G8 B50B@0;L=CN, A?5F80;L=CN ;5:A8:C  ;>60, 10;030=.  55 @5G8 ?@8ACBAB2CNB M:A?@5AA82=K5 @073>2>@=K5 2K@065=8O  18B:>< =018B, 0DD5:B82=K9 A8=B0:A8A  @8B>@8G5A:85 2>?@>AK, 2>A:;8F0B5;L=K5 ?@54;>65=8O. &5==>ABL 687=5==>3> O2;5=8O >?@545;O5BAO 53> MAB5B8G5A:>9 7=0G8<>ABLN: 59 =C65= 10;030=, ?>H;>ABL. A5 MB8 G5@BK, 157CA;>2=>, E0@0:B5@=K 4;O @5G8 G5;>25:0, 2AN 687=L A2O70==>3> A B50B@><. !>25@H5==> <5=O5BAO @5GL 35@>8=8 2> 2B>@>< 70<C65AB25: 8A?KBK20O 2;8O=85 45;>2>3> G5;>25:0, :C?F0, @5GL ;5=L:8 AB0=>28BAO AC3C1> 45;>2>9, 2 =59 72CG0B ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 A;>20 B>@3>2F0 ;5A><: B0@8D, 4204F0BL ?@>F5=B>2, ;5A  2 7=0G5=88 AB@>8B5;L=K9 <0B5@80;. ! ?@8E>4>< 2 687=L ;5=L:8 25B5@8=0@0 55 @5GL 2=>2L ?@8>1@5B05B 8=CN AB8;52CN >:@0A:C: >=0 =0?><8=05B =0CG=>-?>?C;O@=CN 1@>HN@C, AB0=>28BAO >157;8G5==>9, 2 =59 >BACBAB2CNB @073>2>@=K5 :>=AB@C:F88. 0AA:07 ;5=L:8 > B@C4=>ABOE CG51K 2 38<=0788 O2=> ?>2B>@O5B @0AAC645=8O 55 <0;5=L:>3> 2>A?8B0==8:0, 2 @5G8 ;5=L:8 ?>O2;ONBAO :>=AB@C:F88 87 45BA:>9 @5G8: E>G5HL  848 2 4>:B>@0, E>G5HL  2 8=65=5@K. @>=8O 2A5340 O2;O5BAO 2K@065=85< 02B>@A:>9 <>40;L=>AB8, =>, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B AB5?5=8 A>GC2AB28O 8;8 =5A>GC2AB28O 02B>@0 35@>N, >=0 <>65B ?@8>1@5B0BL 8=K5 M<>F8>=0;L=>->F5=>G=K5 :>==>B0F88. $8=0; CH5G:8 M:A?;8F8@C5B A;>6=>5, ?@>B82>@5G82>5 >B=>H5=85 '5E>20 : A2>59 35@>8=5. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 72CG8B 54:0O 8@>=8O ?> ?>2>4C O2=>9 453@040F88 2KA:07K20=89 CH5G:8  D@070, :>B>@0O A8<2>;878@C5B =>2>5 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>5 A>AB>O=85 35@>8=8 AB@>2>< =07K205BAO G0ABL ACH8, A> 2A5E AB>@>= >:@C65==0O 2>4>9 AB>8B 2 >4=>< @O4C A B0:8<8 AB5@5>B8?0<8, :0: >;30 2?0405B 2 0A?89A:>5 <>@5, >H048 :CH0NB >25A 8 A5=>. >, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 8 MB> B>65 206=> 4;O '5E>20, =>20O ?@82O70==>ABL CH5G:8, 70?>;=ONI0O 55 4CE>2=K9 <8@, 01A>;NB=> 15A:>@KAB=0, 8 MB> 2>72KH05B 55, 8 A2845B5;LAB2C5B, =0?@>B82, > 4CE>2=>< @>AB5, 1;03>B2>@=>9 M2>;NF88.  ?>25AB8 >=KG ?@8 A>740=88 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88, >1J5:B>< :>B>@>9 O2;O5BAO ?@>28=F80;L=>5 E>@>H55 >1I5AB2>, 02B>@>< 8A?>;L7C5BAO A>G5B0=85 =5A>1AB25==>-?@O<>9 @5G8 A A8BC0B82=K< ?>2B>@>< 8 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=K<8 2:;NG5=8O<8: >340 2 3C15@=A:>< 3>@>45 !. ?@857685 60;>20;8AL =0 A:C:C 8 >4=>>1@0785 687=8, B> <5AB=K5 68B5;8, :0: 1K >?@024K20OAL, 3>2>@8;8, GB>, =0?@>B82, 2 !. >G5=L E>@>H>, GB> 2 !. 5ABL 181;8>B5:0, B50B@, :;C1, 1K20NB 10;K, GB>, =0:>=5F, 5ABL C<=K5, 8=B5@5A=K5, ?@8OB=K5 A5<L8, A :>B>@K<8 <>6=> 25AB8 7=0:><AB20.  C:07K20;8 =0 A5<LN "C@:8=KE, :0: =0 A0<CN >1@07>20==CN 8 B0;0=B;82CN. (".10. !.24) =0, :0: ?>GB8 2A5 A-85 452CH:8, <=>3> G8B0;0 (2>>1I5 65 2 !. G8B0;8 >G5=L <0;>, 8 2 745H=59 181;8>B5:5 B0: 8 3>2>@8;8, GB> 5A;8 1K =5 452CH:8 8 =5 <>;>4K5 52@58, B> E>BL 70:@K209 181;8>B5:C). (".10. !.31) 45AL 8@>=8G5A:89 A<KA; 2>7=8:05B 1;03>40@O A>G5B0=8N 42CE >F5=>G=KE ?>78F89  ?@85768E 8 <5AB=KE 68B5;59. -B> ?@>B82>AB>O=85, A;C60I55 702O7:>9 @0AA:070, AB@C:BC@8@CNI55 53> :><?>78F8N, M:A?;8F8@C5BAO ?@8 ?><>I8 @5?;8:, >D>@<;5==KE :0: =5A>1AB25==>-?@O<0O @5GL A 8A?>;L7>20=85< ?5@D>@<0B82=KE 3;03>;L=KE D>@< (3>2>@8;8, 60;>20;8AL) 8 @073>2>@=KE :>=AB@C:F89. A5 ?>25AB2>20=85 A;C68B :0: 1K ?>4B25@645=85< 8;8 >?@>25@65=85< MB8E 42CE B>G5: 7@5=8O. 4=8<8 87 A0<KE O@:8E A2845B5;LAB2 B0;0=B;82>AB8 8 >1@07>20==>AB8 A5<L8 "C@:8=KE A;C60B >?8A0=8O 83@K >B8:0 =0 D>@B5?80=> 8 GB5=85 5@>9 >A8D>2=>9 A2>53> @><0=0.  AF5=5 GB5=8O 8@>=8G5A:89 MDD5:B A>7405BAO A ?><>ILN 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=KE 2:;NG5=89, 0 8<5==> 0;;N788 =0 A>2@5<5==K9 '5E>2C 8459=K9 40<A:89 @><0=: >B>< 2A5 A845;8 2 3>AB8=>9 A >G5=L A5@L57=K<8 ;8F0<8, 8 5@0 >A8D>2=0 G8B0;0 A2>9 @><0=. =0 =0G0;0 B0:: >@>7 :@5?G0;& (& ) "5?5@L, 2 ;5B=89 25G5@, :>340 4>;5B0;8 A C;8FK 3>;>A0, A<5E 8 ?>BO3820;> A> 42>@0 A8@5=LN, B@C4=> 1K;> ?>=OBL, :0: MB> :@5?G0; <>@>7 8 :0: 70E>482H55 A>;=F5 >A25I0;> A2>8<8 E>;>4=K<8 ;CG0<8 A=56=CN @02=8=C 8 ?CB=8:0, >48=>:> H54H53> ?> 4>@>35; 5@0 >A8D>2=0 G8B0;0 > B><, :0: <>;>40O, :@0A820O 3@0D8=O CAB@0820;0 C A51O 2 45@52=5 H:>;K, 1>;L=8FK, 181;8>B5:8, 8 :0: >=0 ?>;N18;0 AB@0=AB2CNI53> EC4>6=8:0, - G8B0;0 > B><, G53> =8:>340 =5 1K;> 2 687=8, 8 2A5-B0:8 A;CH0BL 1K;> ?@8OB=>, C4>1=>, 8 2 3>;>2C ;57;8 2A5 B0:85 E>@>H85, ?>:>9=K5 <KA;8, - =5 E>B5;>AL 2AB020BL& (>=KG) =B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 2:;NG5=8O 8 =5A>1AB25==>-?@O<0O @5GL M:A?;8F8@CNB B5:AB>>1@07CNICN 8@>=8N 2 @0AA:075 ==0 =0 H55: =0 2A?><8=0;0, :0: <CG8B5;L=> 1K;> 25=G0=85, :>340 :070;>AL 59, GB> 8 A2OI5==8:, 8 3>AB8, 8 2A5 2 F5@:28 3;O45;8 =0 =55 ?5G0;L=>: 70G5<, 70G5< >=0, B0:0O <8;0O, E>@>H0O, 2KE>48B 70 MB>3> ?>68;>3>, =58=B5@5A=>3> 3>A?>48=0? (".9. !.162) (& ) ?5@594O ?>@>3 A>1@0=8O, >=0 C65 C3040;0 8=AB8=:B><, GB> 1;87>ABL AB0@>3> <C60 =8A:>;L:> =5 C=8605B 55, 0 =0>1>@>B, :;045B =0 =55 ?5G0BL ?8:0=B=>9 B08=AB25==>AB8, :>B>@0O B0: =@028BAO <C6G8=0<. (".9. !.165)  ?@8ACBAB288 2 B5:AB5 =5A>1AB25==>-?@O<>9 @5G8 A2845B5;LAB2CNB ;5:A8G5A:>-A5<0=B8G5A:85 A@54AB20, E0@0:B5@=K5 4;O @5G8 ==K, >B@060NI85 >A>15==>AB8 55 <8@>2>A?@8OB8O, >B=>H5=85 : 687=8 (70G5< >=0, B0:0O <8;0O, E>@>H0O, 2KE>48B 70 MB>3> ?>68;>3>, =58=B5@5A=>3> 3>A?>48=0; ;8: 1;87>ABL AB0@>3> <C60 =8A:>;L:> =5 C=8605B 55, 0 =0>1>@>B, :;045B =0 =55 ?5G0BL ?8:0=B=>9 B08=AB25==>AB8). ==0 2>A?@8=8<05B >:@C60NI89 <8@ B>;L:> A 2=5H=59 AB>@>=K, 1>;LH5 2A53> 55 8=B5@5AC5B ?>;>68B5;L=0O >F5=:0 >:@C60NI8<8 55 2=5H=>AB8, 2A53>, GB> 55 >:@C605B. A5 2 ==5 ?>4G8=5=> AB@5<;5=8N =@028BLAO, 2> GB> 1K B> =8 AB0;>, MB> ;59B<>B82>< ?@>E>48B G5@57 25AL B5:AB: =O B0: 65, :0: 8 <0BL, <>3;0 87 AB0@>3> ?;0BLO A45;0BL =>2>5, <KBL 2 15=78=5 ?5@G0B:8, 1@0BL =0?@>:0B bijoux 8 B0: 65, :0: <0BL, C<5;0 IC@8BL 3;070, :0@B028BL, ?@8=8<0BL :@0A82K5 ?>7K, ?@8E>48BL, :>340 =C6=>, 2 2>AB>@3, 3;O45BL ?5G0;L=> 8 70304>G=>. (".9. !.162) =0 8<5;0 CA?5E C <C6G8=, MB> 1K;> OA=>, 40 8=0G5 8 1KBL =5 <>3;> (& ) (".7. !.164) (& ) 8 2 MB> 2@5<O 59 :070;>AL, GB> =0 =8E A<>B@8B 2AO 70;0, GB> 2A5 MB8 ;N48 <;5NB 8 70284CNB 8<. (".7. !.166) A5 ;5:A8G5A:85 8 ;5:A8:>-D@075>;>38G5A:85 A@54AB20, 8A?>;L7CNI85AO 02B>@>< 4;O @5?;8: ==K, >@30=87>20==KE :0: =5A>1AB25==>-?@O<0O @5GL, 2E>4OB 2 ;5:A8:>-A5<0=B8G5A:>5 ?>;5 :>:5BAB2>  =@028BLAO, 8<5BL CA?5E, =0 =8E A<>B@8B 2AO 70;0, IC@8BL 3;070, ?@8E>48BL, :>340 =C6=>, 2 2>AB>@3, C<5;0 3;O45BL ?5G0;L=> 8 70304>G=>. !0<0 D83C@0 ==K O2;O5BAO 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=>9: ?> A2>5<C A>F80;L=><C AB0BCAC, AC4L15, 2=5H=>AB8, MB0 35@>8=O AE>60 A 15A?@840==8F0<8, AB>;L G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI8<8AO 2 @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 452OB=04F0B>3> 25:0 (A0<K9 O@:89 ?@8<5@  35@>8=8 ?L5A AB@>2A:>3>).  ==5 =0 H55, =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4, @072>@0G8205BAO B8?8G=K9 4;O @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K 452OB=04F0B>3> 25:0 :>=D;8:B: 15A?@840==8F0 8 2@06451=>5 >1I5AB2>, :>B>@>5 55 3C18B. 4=0:> C '5E>20 >=0 2?>;=5 ?>4 AB0BL B5<, 2 G59 :@C3 >=0 ?>?0;0, >=0 ?>4E>48B MB><C >1I5AB2C  ?> 7040B:0<, 8=B5@5A0<, A:;>==>ABO<. 5ABL <C6C 8 2A5<C >1I5AB2C >:07K205BAO =5 2>740O=85< A?@0254;82>AB8, 0 >ACI5AB2;5=85< A:@KBKE 4> 2@5<5=8 687=5==KE ?>B5=F89. >=D;8:B >:07K205BAO =5 AB0@K<, 0 =>2K<  2848<0O ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL ?@8 A:@KB>< AE>4AB25, 8 5I5 @07 0:BC0;878@C5BAO 02B>@A:0O 845O > B><, GB> =@02AB25==K5 >A>15==>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 =5 7028AOB >B 55 A>F80;L=>3> AB0BCA0, >1I5AB25==>3> ?>;>65=8O 8 <0B5@80;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O. 2. $C=:F8>=8@>20=85 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88 2 4@0<0BC@388 .. '5E>20 $C=:F8>=8@>20=85 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88 2 ?L5A0E '5E>20 A>>B=>A8BAO A 60=@>2K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 4@0<0BC@388  =52>7<>6=>ABL ?@O<> 2K@065==KE 02B>@A:8E >F5=>:, 8<?;8F8B=> 2K@065==0O 02B>@A:0O <>40;L=>ABL. 50;870F8O B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88 2 4@0<0BC@388 '5E>20 >?8@05BAO =0 B5 65 B5:AB>2K5 :0B53>@88, GB> 8 2 ?@>708G5A:8E ?@>872545=8OE,  :>3578O, ?@>A?5:F8O, @5B@>A?5:F8O, 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=>ABL. !@54AB20 0:BC0;870F88 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88 B0:65 AE>68 A> A@54AB20<8, 8A?>;L7C5<K<8 2 ?@>75: @07;8G=>3> @>40 ?>2B>@K 8 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 2:;NG5=8O. =B5@B5:ABC0;L=K5 2:;NG5=8O 8 ;5:A8:>-A5<0=B8G5A:89 ?>2B>@ AB0=>2OBAO >4=8<8 87 3;02=KE A@54AB2 @50;870F88 B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88 2 ?L5A5 20=>2. ;02=K< A>45@60=85< ?L5AK AB0=>2OBAO =5 @50;L=K5 459AB28O 8 A>1KB8O, 0 2708<>>B=>H5=8O 35@>52. AO ?L5A0 AB@>8BAO =0 42CE @07=>=0?@02;5==KE <>B820E  =5?>=8<0=88 A51O 3;02=K< 35@>5< 8 ;>6=>< ?>=8<0=88 53> 4@C38<8 ?5@A>=060<8 20=>2 & <KA;8 <>8 ?5@5?CB0;8AL, 4CH0 A:>20=0 :0:>9-B> ;5=LN, 8 O =5 2 A8;0E ?>=8<0BL A51O. 5 ?>=8<0N =8 ;N459, =8 A51O& (& ) A;8 A> AB>@>=K ?>3;O45BL =0 <5=O, B> MB>, 25@>OB=>, C60A=>, A0< 65 O =5 ?>=8<0N, GB> 45;05BAO A <>59 4CH>9& (".11. !.254) 20=>2 #<=K9 G5;>25:, ?>4C<09B5: ?>-20H5<C, =5B =8G53> ;53G5, :0: ?>=OBL <5=O? 0? / 65=8;AO =0 ==5, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 1>;LH>5 ?@840=>5& 0? 0: ?@>AB> 8 =5A;>6=>& '5;>25: B0:0O ?@>AB0O 8 =5<C4@5=0O <0H8=0& 5B, 4>:B>@, 2 :064>< 87 =0A A;8H:>< <=>3> :>;5A, 28=B>2 8 :;0?0=>2, GB>1K <K <>3;8 AC48BL 4@C3 > 4@C35 ?> ?5@2><C 2?5G0B;5=8N 8;8 ?> 42C<-B@5< 2=5H=8< ?@87=0:0<. / =5 ?>=8<0N 20A, 2K <5=O =5 ?>=8<05B5, 8 A0<8 <K A51O =5 ?>=8<05<. (".11. !.259) 20=>2 5 ?>=8<0N, =5 ?>=8<0N, =5 ?>=8<0N! @>AB> E>BL ?C;N 2 ;>1. (".11. A.261) A5 @5?;8:8 20=>20 AB@C:BC@8@>20=K, 2>-?5@2KE, ;5:A8G5A:8< ?>2B>@><, @50;87CNI8< <>B82 =5?>=8<0=8O, 0 2>-2B>@KE, ?>2B>@>< ;5:A8:>-A5<0=B8G5A:8<, M:A?;8F8@CNI8< ?>?KB:C >1JOA=8BL ?@5645 2A53> A0<><C A515, :B> >= B0:>9 8 :0:>20 53> @>;L 8 <5AB> 2 >:@C60NI5< <8@5: 20=>2 / C<8@0N >B ABK40 ?@8 <KA;8, GB> O, 74>@>2K9, A8;L=K9 G5;>25:, >1@0B8;AO =5 B> 2 0<;5B0, =5 B> 2 0=D@540, =5 B> 2 ;8H=85 ;N48& !0< G5@B =5 @0715@5B! ABL 60;:85 ;N48, :>B>@K< ;LAB8B, :>340 8E =07K20NB 0<;5B0<8 8;8 ;8H=8<8. > 4;O <5=O MB>  ?>7>@! -B> 2>7<CI05B <>N 3>@4>ABL, ABK4 3=5B5B <5=O, 8 O AB@040N& (".11. !.255) 20=>2 =5 :065BAO, GB> O =04>@20;AO. 8<=078O, C=825@A8B5B, ?>B>< E>7O9AB2>, H:>;K, ?@>5:BK& 5@>20; O =5 B0:, :0: 2A5, 3>@OG8;AO, @8A:>20;, 45=L38 A2>8, A0< 7=05HL, 1@>A0; =0?@02> 8 =0;52>, 1K; AG0AB;82 8 AB0@040;, :0: =8:B> 2> 2A5< C5745. (& ) (".11. !.258) 20=>2 5 65=8B5AL 2K =8 =0 52@59:0E, =8 =0 ?A8E>?0B:0E, =8 =0 A8=8E GC;:0E, 0 2K18@09B5 A515 GB>-=81C4L 70C@O4=>5, A5@5=L:>5(& ). >;C1G8:, =5 2>N9B5 2K 2 >48=>G:C A BKAOG0<8, =5 A@0609B5AL A <5;L=8F0<8, =5 159B5AL ;1>< > AB5=K& 0 E@0=8B 20A 1>3 >B 2A52>7<>6=KE @0F8>=0;L=KE E>7O9AB2, =5>1K:=>25==KE H:>;, 3>@OG8E @5G59& (".11. !.259) 1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>9 8@>=88 AB0=>28BAO 35@>9 8=B5@B5:ABC0;L=K9 4;O @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K  35@>9, 2>:@C3 :>B>@>3> A>A@54>B>G5=> 2A5 459AB285, >B3>;>A:0<8 <KA;59 8 GC2AB2 :>B>@>3> 6825B 2A5 >:@C60NI55 >1I5AB2>. > 8@>=8O 02B>@0 8 B@03548O 20=>20 2 B><, GB> >= =5 35@>9, =5 2K40NI89AO G5;>25:, >= G5;>25: A@54=89, >1KG=K9 (=5A;CG05= 2K1>@ D0<8;88  >4=>9 87 A0<KE @0A?@>AB@0=5==KE 8 O2;ONI59AO A2>5>1@07=K< A8<2>;>< >1KG=>AB8 ?5@A>=060). 20=>2  :;0AA8G5A:89 4;O '5E>20 35@>9, O282H89AO =>20B>@A:8< 4;O @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K. >20B>@AB2> MB> 70:;NG05BAO 2 53> >1K:=>25==>AB8. = AB>8B 2 @O4C 35@>52 @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K 452OB=04F0B>3> 25:0, => =5 >1;0405B =8:0:8<8 2K40NI8<8AO A?>A>1=>ABO<8 [0B052, 1989]. !C4L10 20=>20 AE>60 A> <=>38<8 AC4L10<8 ;N459 53> :@C30, 53> ?>:>;5=8O. = 42865BAO 2 @CA;5 8459 8 ?>ABC?:>2 A>2@5<5==>9 5<C @CAA:>9 8=B5;;835=F88. 20=>2 @C:>2>4AB2>20;AO 2 A2>8E ?>ABC?:0E >1I8<8 845O<8, :>B>@K5 AG8B0; 548=AB25==> ?@028;L=K<8. ">, GB> >= 68; =5 :0: 2A5, 25@>20; =5 :0: 2A5 B>65 C:;04K205BAO 2 4>2>;L=> @0A?@>AB@0=5==K9 AB5@5>B8? ?>2545=8O, :>B>@K9 2 @5G8 20=>20 >1>7=0G5= ?5@5G8A;8B5;L=K< @O4><, :>B>@K9 2 25@B8:0;L=>< A>F8>-:C;LBC@=>< :>=B5:AB5 @CAA:>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 AB0=>28BAO @O4>< @5G52KE A8=>=8<>2, :;NG52KE 4;O @CAA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K  0<;5B, 0=D@54, ;8H=85 ;N48. > 2 @0<:0E A2>53> C5740 20=>2, =5A><=5==>, O2;O5BAO D83C@>9 :@C?=>9, 35@>5< 8;8 =53>4O5<, :0: AC4OB > =5< >:@C60NI85, 8 8<5==> AC645=8O >:@C60NI8E AB0=>2OBAO 5I5 >4=8< >1J5:B>< 02B>@A:>9 8@>=88. 2B>@>< A>7405BAO F5;0O A8AB5<0 ?5@5:;8G5: 2 @5?;8:0E ?5@A>=0659, ?>=8<0NI8E 20=>20: L2>2 (2>;=COAL) !;CH09B5, A:068B5 <=5 8A:@5==>: :0:>3> 2K <=5=8O >1 20=>25? >AKE =-B>? >E <C6G8=0! @>940, A:2>7L >3>=L 8 2>4C ?@>H5;. = 8 3@0D  ?OB0: ?0@0. NE>< GCNB, 345 GB> ?;>E> ;568B. 0 684>2:5 =0@20;AO, AL5; 3@81, 0 B5?5@L : N7NH:8=K< AC=4C:0< ?>418@05BAO. 1 70:;04 1LNAL, 1C4L O B@864K 0=0D5<0, 5A;8 G5@57 3>4 >= N7NH:C ?> <8@C =5 ?CAB8B. =  N7NH:C, 0 3@0D  010:8=C. 015@CB 45=56:8 8 1C4CB 68BL  ?>6820BL, 40 4>1@0 =06820BL. (".11. !.278) 8=0840 !028H=0 5=8;AO =0 A2>59 684>2:5 8 B0:, 154=K9 @0AAG8BK20;, GB> >B5F 8 <0BL 70 =5N 7>;>BK5 3>@K 404CB, 0 2KH;> A>2A5< =0?@>B82& (".11. !.246) A5 7N7NH:8=> >:@C65=85 =0:;58205B =0 20=>20 O@;K:8, 2KAB02;OO 53> ?>4;5F><, :>B>@>3>, >4=0:>, =04> C2060BL, ?>B><C GB> 2A5, GB> >= 45;0;, ?> 8E <=5=8N, ?@8720=> 1K;> A?>A>1AB2>20BL 53> >1>30I5=8N. 0 O7K:>2>< C@>2=5 MB> @50;87C5BAO A ?><>ILN A;>2 >4=>3> ;5:A8:>-A5<0=B8G5A:>3> ?>;O 1>30BAB2>, <0B5@80;L=>5 1;03>?>;CG85 :>B>@K5 8A?>;L7CNBAO @07=K<8 ;N4L<8 4;O E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 20=>20 (45=56:8; 1C4CB ?>6820BL  4>1@0 =06820BL; @0AAG8BK20BL, GB> 404CB 7>;>BK5 3>@K). 065 >F5=>G=K5 A;>20 A O@:8< =530B82=>-?@>AB>@5G=K< :><?>=5=B>< ?>;CG0NB 2 @5G8 :>AKE ?>;>68B5;L=CN :>==>B0F8N (6>E-<C6G8=0; ?@>940). 4=0:> 1570?5;;OF8>==K5 >1JOA=5=8O <>B82>2 ?>ABC?:>2 20=>20 7N7NH:8=K< >1I5AB2>< =5 AB>;L 206=K, :0: @5?;8:8 35@>52, ?@>B82>AB>OI8E ?>H;>9, >1K20B5;LA:>9 A@545  L2>20, ==K 5B@>2=K 8 !0H8. <5==> 8E ;>6=>5 ?>=8<0=85 1>;L=55 2A53> 4;O 20=>20, 8<5==> >=> A>AB02;O5B 3;02=K9 :>=D;8:B ?L5AK: L2>2 (& ) 0< =C6=0 MB0 A<5@BL 4;O =>2KE ?>4283>2; ?CABL B0:, => =5C65;8 2K =5 <>3;8 1K ?>4>640BL? A;8 1K 2K 40;8 59 C<5@5BL 5AB5AB25==K< ?>@O4:><, =5 4>;18;8 1K 55 A2>8< >B:@>25==K< F8=87<><, B> =5C65;8 1K >B 20A CH;0 1K 5154520 A> A2>8< ?@840=K<? 5 B5?5@L, B0: G5@57 3>4, G5@57 420, 2K, GC4=K9 "0@BND, CA?5;8 1K 2A:@C68BL 3>;>2C 452>G:5 8 702;045BL 55 ?@840=K< B0: 65, :0: 8 B5?5@L. (& ) >;=>B5, :>3> 2K E>B8B5 >4C@0G8BL? !1@>ALB5 <0A:C. 20=>2 (L2>2C) 0< A> AB>@>=K 284=55& G5=L 2>7<>6=>, GB> 2K <5=O ?>=8<05B5. (".11. !.267) !0H0 8:>;09 ;5:A5528G, O ?>=8<0N 20A. 0H5 =5AG0ABL5 2 B><, GB> 2K >48=>:8. C6=>, GB>1K >:>;> 20A 1K; G5;>25:, :>B>@>3> 2K 1K ;N18;8 8 :>B>@K9 20A ?>=8<0; 1K. 4=0 B>;L:> ;N1>2L <>65B >1=>28BL 20A. (".11. !.265) ==0 5B@>2=0 (& ) "5?5@L O B51O ?>=8<0N. 0:>=5F-B> O 286C, GB> BK 70 G5;>25:. 5AG5AB=K9, =87:89. (".11. !.279) !B@5<;5=85 2A5 @07;>68BL ?> ?>;>G:0<, C25@5==>ABL 2 B><, GB> >=8 2A5 ?>=8<0NB  2>B GB> AB0=>28BAO >A=>2>9 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8@>=8G5A:>3> A<KA;0, >@30=87CNI53> 8 MB8 >1@07K. >B82 ;>6=>3> ?>=8<0=8O, @50;87CNI89AO ?>A@54AB2>< ;5:A8G5A:8E ?>2B>@>2 2 @5G8 @07;8G=KE ?5@A>=0659 ?@8 E0@0:B5@870F88 20=>20, A?>A>1AB2C5B =0@0AB0=8N B@0387<0 AF5=8G5A:>3> ?>25AB2>20=8O. ==0 5B@>2=0, L2>2 8 !0H0 >1;040NB =5A>:@CH8<K< 4>25@85< : A0<><C A515, 0 MB>, ?> 535;N, 5ABL 3;02=>5 A2>9AB2> :><8G5A:>3> ?5@A>=060. A>15==> O@:8< AB0=>28BAO ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85 L2>2  20=>2. <5==> 2 @5?;8:0E L2>20 =081>;55 G0AB>B=K<, ?> A@02=5=8N A 4@C38<8 ?5@A>=060<8, >:07K205BAO ?>2B>@ <>B820, ?>=8<0=8O 20=>20. I5 >4=8< >1J5:B>< B5:AB>>1@07CNI59 8@>=88 2 MB>9 ?L5A5 AB0=>28BAO ?@>28=F80;L=>5 >1I5AB2>, >:@C60NI55 20=>20. 59B<>B82>< 53> >?8A0=8O AB0=>28BAO <>B82 AAC4=>9 :0AAK, <5AB0, 345 2A5 ?@>405BAO 8 2A5 ?>:C?05BAO: >@:8= (8=0845 !028H=5) 4C A59G0A : 20<, 0 =0 @5:5 C 20A <C68:8 :>@C 45@CB. BG53> 2K =0 >B:C? =5 >B4048B5? 8=0840 !028H=0 (8A?C30==>)  254L MB> ?@0240, <=5 8 =0 C< =5 ?@8E>48;>. (".11. !.269) "@5B89 3>ABL ! <>59 B>G:8 7@5=8O, mesdames, O B0: @0AAC640N, GB> 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 8<5BL :0?8B0; >G5=L =52K3>4=>. @>F5=B=K5 1C<038 40NB =5<=>3> 482845=B0, 0 ?CA:0BL 45=L38 2 >1>@>B G@572KG09=> >?0A=>. / B0: ?>=8<0N, mesdames,GB> G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 8<55B :0?8B0;, =0E>48BAO 2 1>;55 :@8B8G5A:>< ?>;>65=88, G5< B>B, mesdames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bJ(KNNU.WHWXYY\^^aeelltmno oqqrrulww}}}~ށĺͮĺĺͮĺͥhPh]56@hPh]6@hPh]5@hPh]@hVh]56@hVh]5@hVh]@hVh]6@hh]56@hh]6@hh]5@hh]@/\^:aaegZj,ltmo oquuw{}~΂PPp8`gd]ށ΂PVpfԐv4 ƙ<db̵Ƚ,.ƻƓ ho#5@ ho#6@ho#56CJ$ ho#@ ho#@ CJ ho~6@ ho~ho#6@ ho#5>*@ CJ ho#hPh]56@hPh]6@hPh]5@hPh]@hPh]@mH sH 1846v4T ƙƛܤRb̵Ƚgdo# $`a$gdo#`gd]ȽL,, `gdo# $`a$gdo#gdo#$dh`a$gdo#.6         \^l&6\L!."B""#h$$$$>%Z%%%%(*($0001111202J2L2*3F3`3b3d4|4V5p5|666:== @$@@@@ho#56@ ho#@ ho#5@ ho#6@ho#56CJ ho#56S     ^ln!D"#P$h$$%% &h&'*(+`gdo#+$001L2b3~4r568:=&@@2IITLjPlPTUpVW$XX^0`ac`gdo#@2III:LRLTL2QZQTUURVpVVWX$XXX0`aac cnccLefeeeffrgggBoDo&u>uvvzz}}Ƅ̄(ڇLlˆ̈DV~4@Ќ:bVrDbjprNȝ2ho#@mH sH ho#56@ ho#5@ ho#@ ho#6@UcheefgmBo@uvtxxyz|||@}}46R:rb(N`gdo#`gdo#N~2vܨ<ЯXZ*0><8&d*`gdo#ڨܨ<>Z&D\*^b>jZ  ^ v ,F\vx~rvz!8%R%&&&.&**(-ho#@mH sH ho#6@mH sH h pho#6@ho#56@ ho#6@ ho#5@ ho#@Mppl x Hxz!v#R%*@-|.P5r88`gdo#(-@-b.|.>333D4n4p4P5,9B999@EE@HXHLLfLhLZVYZZZ[[[\h\v\\\]"]<^X^"_4_``aac4ePehmmp&qr6r\rr*s~sssu6uRulu{r}}ȁ΃~؄r΋ <ho#56@ho#6@mH sH  ho#6@ ho#@ ho#5@U8D9<@TAnBpCE8FF:GZH*J(.X $dha$gd2$dh`a$gdo# $`a$gdo#`gdo#TNf2T hp*&2L<Xfrv$^"$6 B    ˽˽˽˽˽˽˽˰˽˽˽˰䠒h pho#@CJaJh pho#6@CJaJh pho#56@CJaJh2ho#@CJaJh2ho#6@CJaJh2ho#56@CJaJho#6@CJho#56@CJho#5@CJho#@CJ4XfB$ 6 ~^.6 $dha$gd p$dh`a$gd p$dh`a$gdo# $dha$gd2  2v.vXh~  ,^|Xf.<0L4P8P6B.Tnz h pho#@CJaJ#h pho#6@CJaJmH sH h pho#6@CJaJh pho#56@CJaJHf"d#%&v''X(~(Z),D//1f1r23377<@ DxHLL $`a$gdo#`gdo# $dha$gd pz    d##$2$d$$b%%%%&&&&&'Z''''4(b(~(((():)<)h)+,///V0f011N1`1f1t112r2~23333<@@ DDNHxHdLLLL^MMԿho#@CJ ho#5@ ho#@ ho#6@h pho#6@CJaJh pho#56@CJaJh pho#@CJaJh pho#5@CJaJCLMM O>OjQpSTWZp[\bcdfhmozp2uw{{`.$dh`a$gdo#$dh`a$gdo#`gdo#MMMNO>ONO>QfQjQpS~STT|WWp[[\\ccndxddddddddffffh\h`hho(oTpvpzp2uDuv(wz{{{{{{.:ȃ΃n"0>  ho#5>*@CJ ho#@CJho#6@CJho#56@CJ ho#6@ ho#5@ ho#@L.ȃ",.>ڗܰް`gdDp $`a$gd p`gdo#$dh`a$gdo# $dha$gdo#$dh`a$gdo#~B PVXZfhjlnrtŻh=*h=*0JmHnHu h=*0Jjh=*0JUhh]hDphX5@CJhDphX@CJhDphX6@h phX56@CJ hXҶ~lF(PB RPVXnp&`#$`gd]$dh`a$gdDp$dh`a$gdDp$dh`a$gdDp`gdDppr&`#$/0P. A!"7#n$% :`: 1KG=K9_HmHsHtHB`B  03>;>2>: 1$$@&a$CJ<`<  03>;>2>: 2$@&CJBA@B A=>2=>9 H@8DB 0170F0Xi@X 1KG=0O B01;8F04 l4a .k@. 5B A?8A:0FB`F A=>2=>9 B5:AB$a$5CJ jC`j A=>2=>9 B5:AB A >BABC?><$Sdh`Sa$6CJ@>`@ 0720=85$dha$5CJ L`"L 5@E=89 :>;>=B8BC;  9r 4)`14 ><5@ AB@0=8FKdR@Bd A=>2=>9 B5:AB A >BABC?>< 2dx^fS@Rf A=>2=>9 B5:AB A >BABC?>< 3x^CJaJR 78t:;}-Z%W} 8k 9q*+mLV ~ ( 0nq(4]N !!"w"#$$$$$&'r(L))**-H./k/2 4H699H9=?4@ADHE,HLOPURSTUY] ` `Z`cJhjlpppqruwy|n|ujc=` ^]R٩ s%Gb"G+l\BAE1 ,[~N`Nt   % =  joJJv. !!6$$%&)'(C*H**,x-+..D12G3)5{556)7=7779<<5==Q>>?p?@<@@@ABDEEFHHIJ(M&NNoPRSTWWXZ\3]^!^^`a~bfwfffghijll,m2nnoqrttu"vvswwtyyzX-HhDۈ{Z̋G9ϒƓ.ؗ%ry=~ŢjէǨЬ_ڰx%ĴƵhQ˸?knoʾv1n~<"V:?5nOPQn'@jk<up<=bIIFHH>e SXJ6Z 0 S   pAFDy9 ~^D v!"R""""#$%F&'()+$-./40_113{445-7579@:<>$?yDEG3J5M=NOQR8RS&VXZ\]]^:_``aa5b@bebbbbDc>f{giikkAlll4mmmmmnnpr%sssgttouvwwyz3{O"?Ȇ4Ί{j}WV0,!Ø+0VРѠߣӥoJݨϪq$TcK8NUTҿ:K(/nq_3V^4X)`nSTiG , P  A ^ YQ9|F  !"#$*2./0l1p4/778e9;<K== ?1ABBC&EFGUIIJKLKNQ[S|TTMVV@YiZ$\\W]]}`QaabbucceddeMf8g h)iQizi j|jkhlmmqnnnncopXrr7siss}ttvvy{|~"z<Ukn n- 9OA7M|Ǟ̡͡աz$%&'3uDY_080000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0 0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000000000000000000000000000000 0 0 0000000 0 0 0 0 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0 0 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0 0 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000I0I0I0@0@0I00z$%&'_K0`K0K0=(2JlƏ$\8Ƚ +cN8htXL.p    !#%'( !!]f3=(9Ze4DNW y ~,& j$u$6%C%%%''j-y->.F.66669 9<= ====n=s=????#@+@LLLLWSdSUUUU~YYYY3[9[>[C[\\]]]]^^*a6a\ddd@eIeiiiiuj~j'kGkllll0m;mVm^mmm oooptp~prssssuuu*ukuvuuuv vvvqv|vvvvvww||el$DOq~Ċ1?GT+< T[Y`4=glszSZELQXƞӞw~")2hq@ILVĩɩ)2ԪݪIV:D;EIP&/6 Zk*4#-GT,7 U]]eHPJQ\cek' 0 ek(K Z ""%%g%r%&&(()))) **H*O*T,\,m,v,O-]-x------+.4...+/4///// 001.1L1Z1'25222G3P344P4Z444{5556)707778899 =.=@@BCjCvCFFMMVN\NSS?UMU]]E^P^__``aa1d:>??AACCCCEE/F:FFFsJ~JKKhMsMvNNPQRR"R+RT T3T=TeUjUUUUU&V6VxWWXX#Z3ZZZ[[]]]]____b`{```aaaa5bGpOWAI"'7?OW}ۚ;B *4ZeաТ%+̥ܥ&bsZlav׹cn5EcnIX'2<E!%5{DVYjPY 5@ /=>P [ 7 A C"''''(((B)C)K)))))))****..//0011%2028999;9F9)??????BBFDDDDEEHJJJBKKMMNN\OdOVRoS*TTTT]___=mo!o-o2t3ttuuuuuuu)vwwwww(rs u+,2c=Fܑݑ]^d ghsDJ%*abmnST\]_`Ԟ՞UbܢݢR[NOЩѩة{ klr][\c'! ?@FR\%&, >DSTZ"/uv}XY_FGM$+  qs<BCI ! !!!"""$$$$%&&&&&'(')''6*;*@*B*O*Q*****,!,O-l-----4.6...... /L1i1'2D22293?3@3F34 555555677072777778 89999i:J;K;R;<<<<<<D>I>J>P>@@@@AACDDDEEFFFFFFHHJJJJJ}LNNNNNNRRRSSSSSWWWWYZZZZd[^^^^x^{^^^r_s_BaHaaaaaddff}fffffffgggjjjjjj m%m&m+mooooopppqVrrrrrttfuuuu vvvvv!vwwwwzzzz{| |||~S$+[`ag :@AFR`ؗ$`j՞ 067<39% ƨըۨ7;ìŬʬϬ!ҰӰٰ|ŵDJKPѸӸ289>]cdj^lz|9;aghm\` *,]_,239rt r  &yzitv{  dijo;-V[\a#;@AGR`]~G  056=N\!FKLRLS%.?P%4MRSY$ ) * / 0        45:;@(03:lqrxINi!n!o!u!K"M"""##$$$$$$M'O'''''''Q(~(|*****+..(0-0.030112222333z4555566j8p888L:Z:$? @@OJO````aaaaaaaabDbFblbnbbbbbbb/cdžSXΊstz{ :\]bcipuv|}e|zNOU#()/&+ ˝Ϡޢ}ӣԣޣaghn٦ߦªǪȪΪ,#į*0U[\bDJظٸ\ͻEH!39Y_~&'2n,M{!'IJ>!SXY^\_ ',-2ilOPUX^x4QRW{~nqJL : ? @ F   Q V W ] R[KQRXCIJPtu{!!!!""""####$$$$/H0o0t0000000_1e1f1k1445.78888X9]9^9d9(<-<<<<<<C=D=J=====@@@@FGGGHH^HaHGIMINITI[I]IOJXJ4K7KKKKKLLLLMMDNJNSSTTTTDUKUVV?VEVFVLV\V^VVV(W0W6Yf*g0g1g7ghhiWiYiii&j(j`jcjnjtjuj{jwl|lemhmmmKninjnpnvn{nnno"oUo[o\obooooopppprrpsrsss3t5tttttVv^vyzz{ {{}}}~~~Krsy'45;]_UbcjC{|Dn%&, !# df8@AI7>})/06?Av*tu{<ƞZa; jk{&)*7E-[} 9&.H.ї\1@<@ʾdp[$\"Uk- Ԏ7ǞΡա6kU*hw*by;bAw(̽ w#)XhUg28,PfsN@V%rW=?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry Fg1Table*EWordDocument1RSummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjq  F Microsoft Office Word MSWordDocWord.Document.89q