ࡱ> +- !"#$%&'()*[bjbj4ΐΐjPPPPPdddd p\ds0qqqqqqqthw>qPqPPPsQqQqQqb&PPqQqqQqQqQq.Chd B.Qqqfs0sQqwp^wQqwPQq<QqqqQqsw( : 83<C=4 $@594. 2545=85 2 ?A8E>0=0;87 ( ;5:F88 1-15) 5@52>4 ..0@KH=8:>2>9. 8B5@0BC@=0O @540:F8O ..!>:>;>2>9 8 ".. >48>=>2>9 .$@594. 2545=85 2 ?A8E>0=0;87. 5:F88 1-15. !1., ;5B59O !1, 1999 !  '0ABL ?5@20O. H81>G=K5 459AB28O @548A;>285 5 5@20O ;5:F8O. 2545=85 B>@0O ;5:F8O. H81>G=K5 459AB28O "@5BLO ;5:F8O. H81>G=K5 459AB28O (?@>4>;65=85) '5B25@B0O ;5:F8O. H81>G=K5 459AB28O (>:>=G0=85) '0ABL 2B>@0O. !=>2845=8O OB0O ;5:F8O. "@C4=>AB8 8 ?5@2K5 ?>?KB:8 ?>=8<0=8O (5AB0O ;5:F8O. @54?>;>65=8O 8 B5E=8:0 B>;:>20=8O !54L<0O ;5:F8O. /2=>5 A>45@60=85 A=>2845=8O 8 A:@KBK5 53> <KA;8 >AL<0O ;5:F8O. 5BA:85 A=>2845=8O 52OB0O ;5:F8O. &5=7C@0 A=>2845=8O 5AOB0O ;5:F8O. !8<2>;8:0 A=>2845=8O 48==04F0B0O ;5:F8O. 01>B0 A=>2845=8O 25=04F0B0O ;5:F8O. =0;87 >B45;L=KE A=>2845=89 "@8=04F0B0O ;5:F8O. @E08G5A:85 G5@BK 8 8=D0=B8;87< A=>2845=8O '5BK@=04F0B0O ;5:F8O. A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O OB=04F0B0O ;5:F8O. !><=5=8O 8 :@8B8:0 '!",  /. ('+ !"/ (1916 [1915])  ! @54;0305<>5 2=8<0=8N G8B0B5;O "2545=85 2 ?A8E>0=0;87" =8 2 :>59 <5@5 =5 ?@5B5=4C5B =0 A>?5@=8G5AB2> A C65 8<5NI8<8AO A>G8=5=8O<8 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 =0C:8 (Hitschmann. Freuds Neurosenlehre. 2 Aufl., 1913; Pfister. Die psychoanalytische Methode, 1913; Leo Kaplan. GrundzLge der Psychoanalyse, 1914; Regis et Hesnard. La psychoanalyse des nevroses et des psychoses, Paris, 1914; Adolf F. Meijer. De Behandeling van Zenuwzieken door Psycho-Analyse. Amsterdam, 1915). -B> B>G=>5 87;>65=85 ;5:F89, :>B>@K5 O G8B0; 2 B5G5=85 42CE 78<=8E A5<5AB@>2 1915/16 3. 8 1916/17 3. 2@0G0< 8 =5A?5F80;8AB0< >1>53> ?>;0. A5 A2>5>1@0785 MB>3> B@C40, =0 :>B>@>5 >1@0B8B 2=8<0=85 G8B0B5;L, >1JOA=O5BAO CA;>28O<8 53> 2>7=8:=>25=8O.  ;5:F88 =5B 2>7<>6=>AB8 A>E@0=8BL 15AAB@0AB=>ABL =0CG=>3> B@0:B0B0. >;55 B>3>, ?5@54 ;5:B>@>< AB>8B 7040G0 C45@60BL 2=8<0=85 A;CH0B5;59 2 B5G5=85 ?>GB8 42CE G0A>2. 5>1E>48<>ABL 2K720BL =5<54;5==CN @50:F8N ?@825;0 : B><C, GB> >48= 8 B>B 65 ?@54<5B >1AC640;AO =5>4=>:@0B=>, =0?@8<5@ 2 ?5@2K9 @07 2 A2O78 A B>;:>20=85< A=>2845=89, 0 70B5< 2 A2O78 A ?@>1;5<0<8 =52@>7>2. A;54AB285 B0:>9 ?>40G8 <0B5@80;0 =5:>B>@K5 206=K5 B5<K, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5, =5;L7O 1K;> 8AG5@?K20NI5 ?@54AB028BL 2 :0:><-B> >4=>< <5AB5, : =8< ?@8E>48;>AL =5>4=>:@0B=> 2>72@0I0BLAO 8 A=>20 8E >AB02;OBL, ?>:0 =5 ?@54AB02;O;0AL =>20O 2>7<>6=>ABL GB>-B> ?@81028BL : C65 8<5NI8<AO 7=0=8O< > =8E. ">B, :B> 7=0:>< A ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@>9, =0945B 2 MB>< "2545=88" =5<=>3>5 87 B>3>, GB> 1K;> 1K 5<C =58725AB=> 87 4@C38E, 1>;55 ?>4@>1=KE ?C1;8:0F89. 4=0:> ?>B@51=>ABL 40BL <0B5@80; 2 F5;>AB=><, 7025@H5==>< 2845 2K=C48;0 02B>@0 ?@82;5GL 2 >B45;L=KE @0745;0E (>1 MB8>;>388 AB@0E0, 8AB5@8G5A:8E D0=B078OE) @0=55 =5 8A?>;L7>20==K5 40==K5. 5=0, 25A=0 1917 3. . $@594  / &/  #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! =5 =58725AB=>, =0A:>;L:> :064K9 87 20A 87 ;8B5@0BC@K 8;8 ?>=0A;KH:5 7=0:>< A ?A8E>0=0;87><. 4=0:> A0<> =0720=85 <>8E ;5:F89 -- "-;5<5=B0@=>5 22545=85 2 ?A8E>0=0;87" -- ?@54?>;0305B, GB> 2K =8G53> =5 7=05B5 >1 MB>< 8 3>B>2K ?>;CG8BL >B <5=O ?5@2K5 A2545=8O. !<5N 2A5 65 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 20< 8725AB=> A;54CNI55: ?A8E>0=0;87 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 <5B>4>2 ;5G5=8O =5@2=>1>;L=KE; 8 BCB O A@07C <>3C ?@825AB8 20< ?@8<5@, ?>:07K20NI89, GB> 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 :>5-GB> 45;05BAO ?>-8=><C 8;8 4065 =0>1>@>B, G5< ?@8=OB> 2 <548F8=5. 1KG=>, :>340 1>;L=>3> =0G8=0NB ;5G8BL =>2K< 4;O =53> <5B>4><, 5<C AB0@0NBAO 2=CH8BL, GB> >?0A=>ABL =5 B0: 25;8:0, 8 C25@8BL 53> 2 CA?5E5 ;5G5=8O. / 4C<0N, MB> A>25@H5==> >?@0240==>, B0: :0: B5< A0<K< <K ?>2KH05< H0=AK =0 CA?5E. >340 65 <K =0G8=05< ;5G8BL =52@>B8:0 <5B>4>< ?A8E>0=0;870, <K 459AB2C5< 8=0G5. K 3>2>@8< 5<C > B@C4=>ABOE ;5G5=8O, 53> ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8, CA8;8OE 8 65@B20E, A2O70==KE A =8<. 'B> 65 :0A05BAO CA?5E0, B> <K 3>2>@8<, GB> =5 <>65< 53> 30@0=B8@>20BL, ?>A:>;L:C >= 7028A8B >B ?>2545=8O 1>;L=>3>, 53> ?>=OB;82>AB8, A3>2>@G82>AB8 8 2K45@6:8. AB5AB25==>, C =0A 5ABL 25A:85 >A=>20=8O 4;O B0:>3> :0: 1C4B> 1K =5?@028;L=>3> ?>4E>40 : 1>;L=><C, 2 G5< 2K, 2848<>, ?>74=55 A<>65B5 C1548BLAO A0<8. 5 A5@48B5AL, 5A;8 O =0 ?5@2KE ?>@0E 1C4C >1@0I0BLAO A 20<8 B0: 65, :0: A MB8<8 =5@2=>1>;L=K<8. !>1AB25==> 3>2>@O, O A>25BCN 20< >B:070BLAO >B <KA;8 ?@89B8 AN40 2> 2B>@>9 @07. ;O MB>3> A@07C 65 E>GC ?>:070BL 20<, :0:85 =5A>25@H5=AB20 =587156=> ?@8ACI8 >1CG5=8N ?A8E>0=0;87C 8 :0:85 B@C4=>AB8 2>7=8:0NB 2 ?@>F5AA5 2K@01>B:8 A>1AB25==>3> AC645=8O > =5<. / ?>:06C 20<, :0: 2AO =0?@02;5==>ABL 20H53> ?@54K4CI53> >1@07>20=8O 8 2A5 ?@82KG=>5 20H5 <KH;5=85 1C4CB =587156=> 45;0BL 20A ?@>B82=8:0<8 ?A8E>0=0;870 8 A:>;L:> =C6=> 1C45B 20< ?@5>4>;5BL, GB>1K A>2;040BL A MB8< 8=AB8=:B82=K< A>?@>B82;5=85<. 'B> 2K ?>9<5B5 2 ?A8E>0=0;875 87 <>8E ;5:F89, 70@0=55 A:070BL, 5AB5AB25==>, B@C4=>, >4=0:> <>3C B25@4> >15I0BL, GB>, ?@>A;CH02 8E, 2K =5 =0CG8B5AL ?@>2>48BL ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>5 8AA;54>20=85 8 ;5G5=85. A;8 65 A@548 20A =0945BAO :B>-B>, :B> =5 C4>2;5B2>@8BAO 153;K< 7=0:><AB2>< A ?A8E>0=0;87><, 0 70E>G5B ?@>G=> A2O70BL A51O A =8<, O =5 B>;L:> =5 ?>A>25BCN MB> A45;0BL, => 2AOG5A:8 AB0=C 53> ?@54>AB5@530BL >B MB>3> H030. 1AB>OB5;LAB20 B0:>2K, GB> ?>4>1=K9 2K1>@ ?@>D5AA88 8A:;NG05B 4;O =53> 2AO:CN 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>42865=8O 2 C=825@A8B5B5. A;8 65 B0:>9 2@0G 709<5BAO ?@0:B8:>9, B> >:065BAO 2 >1I5AB25, =5 ?>=8<0NI5< 53> CAB@5<;5=89, >B=>AOI5<AO : =5<C A =54>25@85< 8 2@06451=>ABLN 8 >?>;G82H5< ?@>B82 =53> 2A5 A:@KBK5 B5<=K5 A8;K. >7<>6=>, :>5-:0:85 <><5=BK, A>?CBAB2CNI85 2>9=5, A28@5?AB2CNI59 =K=5 2 2@>?5, 404CB 20< =5:>B>@>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> A8; MB8E -- ;538>=K. @0240, 2A5340 =094CBAO ;N48, 4;O :>B>@KE =>2>5 2 ?>7=0=88 8<55B A2>N ?@82;5:0B5;L=>ABL, =5A<>B@O =0 2A5 A2O70==K5 A MB8< =5C4>1AB20.  5A;8 :B>-B> 87 20A 87 8E G8A;0 8, =5A<>B@O =0 <>8 ?@54>AB5@565=8O, ?@845B AN40 A=>20, O 1C4C @04 ?@825BAB2>20BL 53>. 4=0:> 2K 2A5 2?@025 7=0BL, :0:85 B@C4=>AB8 A2O70=K A ?A8E>0=0;87><. >-?5@2KE, A;54C5B C:070BL =0 A;>6=>ABL ?@5?>4020=8O ?A8E>0=0;870 8 >1CG5=8O 5<C. 0 70=OB8OE ?> <548F8=5 2K ?@82K:;8 : =03;O4=>AB8. K 2848B5 0=0B><8G5A:89 ?@5?0@0B, >A04>: ?@8 E8<8G5A:>9 @50:F88, A>:@0I5=85 <KHFK ?@8 @074@065=88 =5@2>2. >74=55 20< ?>:07K20NB 1>;L=>3>, A8<?B><K 53> =54C30, ?>A;54AB28O 1>;57=5==>3> ?@>F5AA0, 0 2> <=>38E A;CG0OE 8 2>71C48B5;59 1>;57=8 2 G8AB>< 2845. 7CG0O E8@C@38N, 2K ?@8ACBAB2C5B5 ?@8 E8@C@38G5A:8E 2<5H0B5;LAB20E 4;O >:070=8O ?><>I8 1>;L=><C 8 <>65B5 A0<8 ?@>25AB8 >?5@0F8N.  B>9 65 ?A8E80B@88 >A<>B@ 1>;L=>3> 405B 20< <=>65AB2> D0:B>2, A2845B5;LAB2CNI8E >1 87<5=5=8OE 2 <8<8:5, > E0@0:B5@5 @5G8 8 ?>2545=88, :>B>@K5 25AL<0 2?5G0B;ONB. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@5?>4020B5;L 2 <548F8=5 83@05B @>;L 3840-M:A:C@A>2>40, A>?@>2>640NI53> 20A ?> <C75N, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2K A0<8 2ABC?05B5 2 =5?>A@54AB25==K9 :>=B0:B A >1J5:B0<8 8 1;03>40@O A>1AB25==><C 2>A?@8OB8N C156405B5AL 2 ACI5AB2>20=88 =>2KE 4;O =0A O2;5=89.  ?A8E>0=0;875, : A>60;5=8N, 2A5 >1AB>8B A>2A5< ?>-4@C3><C. @8 0=0;8B8G5A:>< ;5G5=88 =5 ?@>8AE>48B =8G53>, :@><5 >1<5=0 A;>20<8 <564C ?0F85=B>< 8 2@0G><. 0F85=B 3>2>@8B, @0AA:07K205B > ?@>H;KE ?5@56820=8OE 8 =K=5H=8E 2?5G0B;5=8OE, 60;C5BAO, ?@87=05BAO 2 A2>8E 65;0=8OE 8 GC2AB20E. @0G 65 A;CH05B, AB0@0OAL C?@02;OBL E>4>< <KA;59 1>;L=>3>, :>5 > G5< =0?><8=05B 5<C, C45@68205B 53> 2=8<0=85 2 >?@545;5==>< =0?@02;5=88, 405B >1JOA=5=8O 8 =01;N405B 70 @50:F8O<8 ?@8OB8O 8;8 =5?@8OB8O, :>B>@K5 >= B0:8< >1@07>< 2K7K205B C 1>;L=>3>. 5>1@07>20==K5 @>4AB25==8:8 =0H8E 1>;L=KE, :>B>@K< 8<?>=8@C5B ;8HL O2=>5 8 >ICB8<>5, 0 1>;LH5 2A53> 459AB28O, :0:85 <>6=> C2845BL @0725 GB> 2 :8=5<0B>3@0D5, =8:>340 =5 C?CABOB A;CG0O CA><=8BLAO: "0: MB> <>6=> 2K;5G8BL 1>;57=L >4=8<8 @073>2>@0<8?" -B>, :>=5G=>, AB>;L 65 =540;L=>284=>, A:>;L 8 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>. 54L B5 65 A0<K5 ;N48 C15645=K, GB> 1>;L=K5 "B>;L:> 2K4C<K20NB" A2>8 A8<?B><K. >340-B> A;>20 1K;8 :>;4>2AB2><, A;>2> 8 B5?5@L 2> <=>3>< A>E@0=8;> A2>N ?@56=NN GC4>459AB25==CN A8;C. !;>20<8 >48= G5;>25: <>65B >AG0AB;828BL 4@C3>3> 8;8 ?>25@3=CBL 53> 2 >BG0O=85, A;>20<8 CG8B5;L ?5@5405B A2>8 7=0=8O CG5=8:0<, A;>20<8 >@0B>@ C2;5:05B A;CH0B5;59 8 A?>A>1AB2C5B >?@545;5=8N 8E AC645=89 8 @5H5=89. !;>20 2K7K20NB 0DD5:BK 8 O2;ONBAO >1I5?@87=0==K< A@54AB2>< 2>7459AB28O ;N459 4@C3 =0 4@C30. 5 1C45< 65 =54>>F5=820BL 8A?>;L7>20=85 A;>20 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 1C45< 4>2>;L=K, 5A;8 A<>65< CA;KH0BL A;>20, :>B>@K<8 >1<5=820NBAO 0=0;8B8: 8 53> ?0F85=B. > 4065 8 MB>3> =0< =5 40=>. 5A540, 2 :>B>@>9 8 70:;NG05BAO ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>5 ;5G5=85, =5 4>?CA:05B ?@8ACBAB28O ?>AB>@>==8E; 55 =5;L7O ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL. >6=>, :>=5G=>, =0 ;5:F88 ?> ?A8E80B@88 ?>:070BL CG0I8<AO =52@0AB5=8:0 8;8 8AB5@8:0. ">B, ?>60;C9, @0AA:065B > A2>8E 60;>10E 8 A8<?B><0E, => =5 1>;LH5 B>3>. !2545=8O, =C6=K5 ?A8E>0=0;8B8:C, >= <>65B 40BL ;8HL ?@8 CA;>288 >A>1>3> @0A?>;>65=8O : 2@0GC; >4=0:> >= BCB 65 70<>;G8B, :0: B>;L:> 70<5B8B E>BL >4=>3> A2845B5;O, 8=48DD5@5=B=>3> : =5<C. 54L MB8 A2545=8O 8<5NB >B=>H5=85 : A0<><C 8=B8<=><C 2 53> 4CH52=>9 687=8, :> 2A5<C B><C, GB> >=, :0: ;8F> A>F80;L=> A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5, 2K=C645= A:@K20BL >B 4@C38E, 0 B0:65 : B><C, 2 G5< >= :0: F5;L=0O ;8G=>ABL =5 E>G5B ?@87=0BLAO 4065 A0<><C A515. "0:8< >1@07><, 15A54C 2@0G0, ;5G0I53> <5B>4>< ?A8E>0=0;870, =5;L7O CA;KH0BL =5?>A@54AB25==>. K <>65B5 B>;L:> C7=0BL > =59 8 ?>7=0:><8B5AL A ?A8E>0=0;87>< 2 1C:20;L=>< A<KA;5 A;>20 ;8HL ?>=0A;KH:5.  A>1AB25==><C 273;O4C =0 ?A8E>0=0;87 20< ?@845BAO ?@89B8 2 =5>1KG=KE CA;>28OE, ?>A:>;L:C A2545=8O > =5< 2K ?>;CG05B5 :0: 1K 87 2B>@KE @C:. > <=>3>< MB> 7028A8B >B B>3> 4>25@8O, A :>B>@K< 2K >B=>A8B5AL : ?>A@54=8:C. @54AB02LB5 A515 B5?5@L, GB> 2K ?@8ACBAB2C5B5 =0 ;5:F88 =5 ?> ?A8E80B@88, 0 ?> 8AB>@88, 8 ;5:B>@ @0AA:07K205B 20< > 687=8 8 2>5==KE ?>42830E ;5:A0=4@0 0:54>=A:>3>. 0 :0:>< >A=>20=88 2K 25@8B5 2 4>AB>25@=>ABL 53> A>>1I5=89? !=0G0;0 :065BAO, GB> 745AL 5I5 A;>6=55, G5< 2 ?A8E>0=0;875, 254L ?@>D5AA>@ 8AB>@88 =5 1K; CG0AB=8:>< ?>E>4>2 ;5:A0=4@0 B0: 65, :0: 8 2K; ?A8E>0=0;8B8:, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, A>>1I05B 20< > B><, 2 G5< >= A0< 83@0; :0:CN-B> @>;L. > BCB =0ABC?05B G5@54 B><C, GB> 70AB02;O5B =0A ?>25@8BL 8AB>@8:C. = <>65B A>A;0BLAO =0 A2845B5;LAB20 4@52=8E ?8A0B5;59, :>B>@K5 8;8 A0<8 1K;8 A>2@5<5==8:0<8 ;5:A0=4@0, 8;8 ?> 2@5<5=8 68;8 1;865 : MB8< A>1KB8O<, B. 5. =0 :=838 8>4>@0, ;CB0@E0, @@80=0 8 4@.; >= ?>:065B 20< 87>1@065=8O A>E@0=82H8EAO <>=5B 8 AB0BC9 F0@O, D>B>3@0D8N ?><?59A:>9 <>708:8 18B2K ?@8 AA5. 4=0:>, AB@>3> 3>2>@O, 2A5 MB8 4>:C<5=BK 4>:07K20NB B>;L:> B>, GB> C65 1>;55 @0==85 ?>:>;5=8O 25@8;8 2 ACI5AB2>20=85 ;5:A0=4@0 8 2 @50;L=>ABL 53> ?>4283>2, 8 2>B A MB>3> 8 <>3;0 1K =0G0BLAO 20H0 :@8B8:0. ">340 2K >1=0@C68B5, GB> =5 2A5 A2545=8O >1 ;5:A0=4@5 4>AB>25@=K 8 =5 2A5 ?>4@>1=>AB8 <>6=> ?@>25@8BL, => O =5 <>3C ?@54?>;>68BL, GB>1K 2K ?>:8=C;8 ;5:F8>==K9 70;, A><=520OAL 2 @50;L=>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 ;5:A0=4@0 0:54>=A:>3>. 0H0 ?>78F8O >?@545;8BAO 3;02=K< >1@07>< 42C<O A>>1@065=8O<8: 2>-?5@2KE, 2@O4 ;8 C ;5:B>@0 5ABL :0:85-B> <KA;8<K5 <>B82K, ?>1C482H85 2K4020BL 70 @50;L=>5 B>, GB> >= A0< =5 AG8B05B B0:>2K<, 8, 2>-2B>@KE, 2A5 4>ABC?=K5 8AB>@8G5A:85 :=838 @8ACNB A>1KB8O ?@8<5@=> >48=0:>2>. A;8 2K 70B5< >1@0B8B5AL : 87CG5=8N 4@52=8E 8AB>G=8:>2, 2K >1@0B8B5 2=8<0=85 =0 B5 65 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, =0 2>7<>6=K5 ?>1C48B5;L=K5 <>B82K ?>A@54=8:>2 8 =0 AE>4AB2> @07;8G=KE A2845B5;LAB2. 57C;LB0BK 20H53> 8AA;54>20=8O =025@=O:0 CA?>:>OB 20A =0AG5B ;5:A0=4@0, >4=0:> >=8, 25@>OB=>, 1C4CB 4@C38<8, 5A;8 @5GL 70945B > B0:8E ;8G=>ABOE, :0: >8A59 8;8 8<@>4.  B><, :0:85 A><=5=8O <>3CB 2>7=8:=CBL C 20A >B=>A8B5;L=> 4>25@8O : ;5:B>@C-?A8E>0=0;8B8:C, 2K C7=05B5 ?>765. "5?5@L 2K 2?@025 7040BL 2>?@>A: 5A;8 C ?A8E>0=0;870 =5B =8:0:8E >1J5:B82=KE ?>4B25@645=89 8 =5B 2>7<>6=>AB8 53> ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL, B> :0: 65 53> 2>>1I5 <>6=> 87CG8BL 8 C1548BLAO 2 ?@02>B5 53> ?>;>65=89? 59AB28B5;L=>, 87CG5=85 ?A8E>0=0;870 45;> =5;53:>5, 8 ;8HL =5<=>385 ?>-=0AB>OI5<C >2;04520NB 8<, >4=0:> ?@85<;5<K9 ?CBL, 5AB5AB25==>, ACI5AB2C5B. A8E>0=0;87>< >2;04520NB ?@5645 2A53> =0 A0<>< A515, ?@8 87CG5=88 A2>59 ;8G=>AB8. -B> =5 A>2A5< B>, GB> =07K205BAO A0<>=01;N45=85<, => 2 :@09=5< A;CG05 ?A8E>0=0;87 <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL :0: >48= 87 53> 284>2. ABL F5;K9 @O4 @0A?@>AB@0=5==KE 8 >1I58725AB=KE ?A8E8G5A:8E O2;5=89, :>B>@K5 ?@8 =5:>B>@>< >2;045=88 B5E=8:>9 87CG5=8O A0<>3> A51O <>3CB AB0BL ?@54<5B0<8 0=0;870. -B> 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL C1548BLAO 2 @50;L=>AB8 ?@>F5AA>2, >?8AK205<KE 2 ?A8E>0=0;875, 8 2 ?@028;L=>AB8 8E ?>=8<0=8O. @0240, CA?5H=>ABL ?@>42865=8O ?> MB><C ?CB8 8<55B A2>8 ?@545;K. >@074> 1>;LH53> <>6=> 4>AB8GL, 5A;8 B51O >1A;54C5B >?KB=K9 ?A8E>0=0;8B8:, 5A;8 =0 A>1AB25==>< / 8A?KBK205HL 459AB285 0=0;870 8 <>65HL >B 4@C3>3> ?5@5=OBL B>=G09HCN B5E=8:C MB>3> <5B>40. >=5G=>, MB>B ?@5:@0A=K9 ?CBL 4>ABC?5= ;8HL :064><C >B45;L=>, 0 =5 2A5< A@07C. ---------------------------------------- 8<@>4 (8;8 5<2@>4) ?> 181;59A:>9 ;535=45 -- >A=>20B5;L 028;>=A:>3> F0@AB20. -- @8<. @54. ?5@52>40. @C3>5 70B@C4=5=85 2 ?>=8<0=88 ?A8E>0=0;870 ;568B =5 2 =5<, 0 2 20A A0<8E, ?>A:>;L:C 2K 4> A8E ?>@ 70=8<0;8AL 87CG5=85< <548F8=K. !B8;L 20H53> <KH;5=8O, AD>@<8@>20==K9 ?@54H5AB2CNI8< >1@07>20=85<, 40;5: >B ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3>. K ?@82K:;8 >1>A=>2K20BL DC=:F88 >@30=87<0 8 8E =0@CH5=8O 0=0B><8G5A:8, >1JOA=OBL 8E E8<8G5A:8 8 D878G5A:8 8 ?>=8<0BL 18>;>38G5A:8, => =8:>340 20H8 8=B5@5AK =5 >1@0I0;8AL : ?A8E8G5A:>9 687=8, :>B>@0O :0: @07 8 O2;O5BAO 25=F>< =0H53> C4828B5;L=> A;>6=>3> >@30=87<0.  ?>A5<C ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 ?>4E>4 20< GC64, 8 2K ?@82K:;8 >B=>A8BLAO : =5<C A =54>25@85<, >B:07K20O 5<C 2 =0CG=>AB8 8 >B4020O 53> =0 >B:C? =5?@>D5AA8>=0;0<, ?8A0B5;O<, =0BC@D8;>A>D0< 8 <8AB8:0<. "0:0O >3@0=8G5==>ABL, 157CA;>2=>, B>;L:> 2@548B 20H59 2@0G51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, B0: :0: 1>;L=>9 ?@54AB05B ?5@54 20<8 ?@5645 2A53> A2>59 4CH52=>9 AB>@>=>9, :0: MB> 8 ?@>8AE>48B 2> 2A5E G5;>25G5A:8E >B=>H5=8OE, 8 O 1>NAL, GB> 2 =0:070=85 70 B> 20< ?@845BAO ?>45;8BLAO B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?><>ILN, :>B>@CN 2K AB@5<8B5AL >:070BL, A A0<>CG:0<8, 7=0E0@O<8 8 <8AB8:0<8, AB>;L ?@578@05<K<8 20<8. =5 OA=>, G5< >?@024K205BAO MB>B =54>AB0B>: 2 20H5< >1@07>20=88. 0< =5 E20B05B D8;>A>DA:8E 7=0=89, :>B>@K<8 2K <>3;8 1K ?>;L7>20BLAO 2 20H59 2@0G51=>9 ?@0:B8:5. 8 A?5:C;OB82=0O D8;>A>D8O, =8 >?8A0B5;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O, =8 B0: =07K205<0O M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O, A<56=0O A D878>;>3859 GC2AB2, :0: >=8 ?@5?>4=>AOBAO 2 CG51=KE 702545=8OE, =5 2 A>AB>O=88 A:070BL 20< GB>-=81C4L 2@07C<8B5;L=>5 >1 >B=>H5=88 <564C B5;>< 8 4CH>9, 40BL :;NG : ?>=8<0=8N 2>7<>6=>3> =0@CH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F891. @0240, 2 @0<:0E <548F8=K >?8A0=85< =01;N- ---------------------------------------- 1 !:5?B8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 $@5940 : M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 <>3;> 1KBL >1CA;>2;5=> B5<, GB> F5=B@0;L=0O 4;O =53> ?@>1;5<0 <>B820F88 ?5@2>=0G0;L=> =5 ?>425@30;0AL A5@L57=><C M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=><C 87CG5=8N. 8HL 2?>A;54AB288 2 @O45 8AA;54>20=89 (2 G0AB=>AB8, C . 528=0 8 53> H:>;K) MB0 ?@>1;5<0 AB0=>28BAO >1;0ABLN ?@8<5=5=8O M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE <5B>4>2. 405<KE ?A8E8G5A:8E @0AAB@>9AB2 8 A>AB02;5=85< :;8=8G5A:>9 :0@B8=K 1>;57=59 70=8<05BAO ?A8E80B@8O, => 254L 2 G0AK >B:@>25==>AB8 ?A8E80B@K A0<8 2KA:07K20NB A><=5=8O 2 B><, 70A;C6820NB ;8 8E >?8A0=8O =0720=8O =0C:8. !8<?B><K, A>AB02;ONI85 MB8 :0@B8=K 1>;57=59, =5 @0A?>7=0=K ?> A2>5<C ?@>8AE>645=8N, <5E0=87<C 8 2708<=>9 A2O78; 8< A>>B25BAB2CNB ;81> =5>?@545;5==K5 87<5=5=8O 0=0B><8G5A:>3> >@30=0 4CH8, ;81> B0:85 87<5=5=8O, :>B>@K5 =8G53> =5 >1JOA=ONB. "5@0?52B8G5A:><C 2>7459AB28N MB8 ?A8E8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20 4>ABC?=K B>;L:> B>340, :>340 8E <>6=> >1=0@C68BL ?> ?>1>G=K< ?@>O2;5=8O< :0:>3>-B> 8=>3> >@30=8G5A:>3> 87<5=5=8O. A8E>0=0;87 :0: @07 8 AB@5<8BAO 2>A?>;=8BL MB>B ?@>15;. = ?@54;0305B ?A8E80B@88 =54>AB0NICN 59 ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN >A=>2C, =045OAL =09B8 BC >1ICN 107C, 1;03>40@O :>B>@>9 AB0=>28BAO ?>=OB=K< A>G5B0=85 A><0B8G5A:>3> =0@CH5=8O A ?A8E8G5A:8<. ;O MB>3> ?A8E>0=0;87 4>;65= 871530BL ;N1>9 GC64>9 5<C ?>AK;:8 0=0B><8G5A:>3>, E8<8G5A:>3> 8;8 D878>;>38G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0 8 ?>;L7>20BLAO G8AB> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 2A?><>30B5;L=K<8 ?>=OB8O<8 -- 2>B ?>G5<C O >?0A0NAL, GB> >= ?>:065BAO 20< A=0G0;0 AB>;L =5>1KG=K<.  A;54CNI5< 70B@C4=5=88 O =5 E>GC >128=OBL =8 20A, =8 20H5 >1@07>20=85, =8 20HC CAB0=>2:C. 2C<O A2>8<8 ?>;>65=8O<8 0=0;87 >A:>@1;O5B 25AL <8@ 8 2K7K205B : A515 53> =5?@8O7=L; >4=> 87 =8E =0B0;:8205BAO =0 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5, 4@C3>5 -- =0 <>@0;L=>-MAB5B8G5A:85 ?@54@0AAC4:8. 5 A;54C5B, >4=0:>, =54>>F5=820BL MB8 ?@54@0AAC4:8; MB> 2;0AB=K5 A8;K, ?>1>G=K9 ?@>4C:B ?>;57=KE 8 4065 =5>1E>48<KE 87<5=5=89 2 E>45 @0728B8O G5;>25G5AB20. =8 ?>445@6820NBAO =0H8<8 0DD5:B82=K<8 A8;0<8, 8 1>@>BLAO A =8<8 B@C4=>. !>3;0A=> ?5@2><C :>@>1OI5<C CB25@645=8N ?A8E>0=0;870, ?A8E8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK A0<8 ?> A515 15AA>7=0B5;L=K, A>7=0B5;L=K ;8HL >B45;L=K5 0:BK 8 AB>@>=K 4CH52=>9 687=8. A?><=8B5, GB> <K, =0>1>@>B, ?@82K:;8 845=B8D8F8@>20BL ?A8E8G5A:>5 8 A>7=0B5;L=>5. <5==> A>7=0=85 AG8B05BAO C =0A >A=>2=>9 E0@0:B5@=>9 G5@B>9 ?A8E8G5A:>3>, 0 ?A8E>;>38O -- =0C:>9 > A>45@60=88 A>7=0=8O. 0, MB> B>645AB2> :065BAO =0AB>;L:> A0<> A>1>9 @07C<5NI8<AO, GB> 2>7@065=85 ?@>B82 =53> ?@54AB02;O5BAO =0< >G5284=>9 15AA<KA;8F59, 8 2A5 65 ?A8E>0=0;87 =5 <>65B =5 2>7@060BL, >= =5 <>65B ?@87=0BL 845=B8G=>ABL A>7=0B5;L=>3> 8 ?A8E8G5A:>3>1. !>3;0A=> 53> >?@545;5=8N, ?A8E8G5A:>5 ---------------------------------------- 1 $@594 ?>AB>O==> ?>4G5@:820;, GB> ?A8E>0=0;87 >B:@K; >1;0ABL 15AA>7=0B5;L=KE 4CH52=KE ?@>F5AA>2, B>340 :0: 2A5 >AB0;L=K5 :>=F5?F88 845=B8D8F8@CNB ?A8E8:C 8 A>7=0=85. 0AA<0B@820O MBC ?>78F8N 2 8AB>@8G5A:>9 ?5@A?5:B825, A;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> $@594 =5045:20B=> >F5=820; >1ICN A8BC0F8N 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:5. >=OB85 15AA>7=0B5;L=>9 ?A8E8:8 1K;> 22545=> 591=8F5<, D8;>A>DA:CN :>=F5?F8N :>B>@>3> 5@10@B ?5@525; =0 O7K: 4>ABC?=>9 M<?8@8G5A:><C 0=0;87C "AB0B8:8 8 48=0<8:8 ?@54AB02;5=89". 5@5E>4 >B C<>7@8B5;L=KE :>=AB@C:F89, 2:;NG02H8E 2 A51O ?>=OB85 > 15AA>7=0B5;L=>9 ?A8E8:5 (2 G0AB=>AB8, D8;>A>D88 (>?5=30CM@0), : 8A?>;L7>20=8N 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 =0C:5 =0<5B8;AO 2 A5@548=5 XIX 2., :>340 87CG5=85 DC=:F89 >@30=>2 GC2AB2 8 2KAH8E =5@2=KE F5=B@>2 ?>1C48;> 5AB5AB2>8A?KB0B5;59 >1@0B8BLAO : C:070==><C ?>=OB8N A F5;LN >1JOA=5=8O D0:B>2, =5A>2<5AB8<KE A> 273;O4>< =0 ?A8E8:C :0: >1;0ABL O2;5=89 A>7=0=8O. 5;L<3>;LF 2K428305B ?>=OB85 > "15AA>7=0B5;L=KE C<>70:;NG5=8OE" :0: <5E0=87<5 ?>AB@>5=8O A5=A>@=>3> >1@070. @54?>;>65=85 > 15AA>7=0B5;L=>9 ?A8E8:5 ;560;> 2 >A=>25 ?A8E>D878:8 $5E=5@0. !>3;0A=> !5G5=>2C, "15AA>7=0B5;L=K5 >ICI5=8O", 8;8 GC2AB2>20=8O, A;C60B @53C;OB>@0<8 42830B5;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8. B>645AB2;5=85 ?A8E8:8 8 A>7=0=8O >B25@30;8 8 <=>385 4@C385 8AA;54>20B5;8. 59AB28B5;L=0O =>287=0 :>=F5?F88 $@5940 A2O70=0 A @07@01>B:>9 ?@>1;5< =5>A>7=0205<>9 <>B820F88, 87CG5=85< =5>A>7=0205<KE :><?>=5=B>2 2 AB@C:BC@5 ;8G=>AB8 8 48=0<8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89 <564C =8<8. ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?@>F5AAK GC2AB2>20=8O, <KH;5=8O, 65;0=8O, 8 MB> >?@545;5=85 4>?CA:05B ACI5AB2>20=85 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> <KH;5=8O 8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> 65;0=8O. > 40==>5 CB25@645=85 A@07C 65 @>=O5B 53> 2 3;070E 2A5E ?@825@65=F52 B@572>9 =0CG=>AB8 8 70AB02;O5B ?>4>7@520BL, GB> ?A8E>0=0;87 -- D0=B0AB8G5A:>5 B09=>5 CG5=85, :>B>@>5 1@>48B 2 ?>B5<:0E, 65;0O ;>28BL @K1C 2 <CB=>9 2>45. 0< 65, C20605<K5 A;CH0B5;8, ?>:0 5I5 =5?>=OB=>, ?> :0:><C ?@02C AB>;L 01AB@0:B=>5 ?>;>65=85, :0: "?A8E8G5A:>5 5ABL A>7=0B5;L=>5", O AG8B0N ?@54@0AAC4:><, 2K, <>65B 1KBL, B0:65 =5 4>304K205B5AL, GB> <>3;> ?@825AB8 : >B@8F0=8N 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>, 5A;8 B0:>2>5 ACI5AB2C5B, 8 :0:85 ?@58<CI5AB20 4020;> B0:>5 >B@8F0=85. >?@>A > B><, B>645AB25==> ;8 ?A8E8G5A:>5 A>7=0B5;L=><C 8;8 65 >=> 3>@074> H8@5, <>65B ?>:070BLAO ?CAB>9 83@>9 A;>2, => A<5N 20A 7025@8BL, GB> ?@87=0=85 ACI5AB2>20=8O 15AA>7=0B5;L=KE ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2 2545B : A>25@H5==> =>2>9 >@85=B0F88 2 <8@5 8 =0C:5. K 4065 =5 ?>4>7@5205B5, :0:0O B5A=0O A2O7L ACI5AB2C5B <564C MB8< ?5@2K< A<5;K< CB25@645=85< ?A8E>0=0;870 8 2B>@K<, > :>B>@>< @5GL ?>945B =865. -B> 2B>@>5 ?>;>65=85, :>B>@>5 ?A8E>0=0;87 AG8B05B >4=8< 87 A2>8E 4>AB865=89, CB25@6405B, GB> 2;5G5=8O, :>B>@K5 <>6=> =0720BL A5:AC0;L=K<8 2 C7:>< 8 H8@>:>< A<KA;0E A;>20, 83@0NB =525@>OB=> 1>;LHCN 8 4> A8E ?>@ =5?@87=0==CN @>;L 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 =5@2=KE 8 ?A8E8G5A:8E 701>;520=89. >;55 B>3>, MB8 65 A5:AC0;L=K5 2;5G5=8O CG0AB2CNB 2 A>740=88 2KAH8E :C;LBC@=KE, EC4>65AB25==KE 8 A>F80;L=KE F5==>AB59 G5;>25G5A:>3> 4CE0, 8 8E 2:;04 =5;L7O =54>>F5=820BL. > A>1AB25==><C >?KBC 7=0N, GB> =5?@8OB85 MB>3> @57C;LB0B0 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O O2;O5BAO 3;02=K< 8AB>G=8:>< A>?@>B82;5=8O, A :>B>@K< >=> AB0;:8205BAO. %>B8B5 7=0BL, :0: <K MB> A515 >1JOA=O5<? K AG8B05<, GB> :C;LBC@0 1K;0 A>740=0 ?>4 2;8O=85< 687=5==>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8 70 AG5B C4>2;5B2>@5=8O 2;5G5=89, 8 >=0 ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 ?>AB>O==> 2>AA>7405BAO 1;03>40@O B><C, GB> >B45;L=0O ;8G=>ABL, 2ABC?0O 2 G5;>25G5A:>5 >1I5AB2>, A=>20 65@B2C5B C4>2;5B2>@5=85< A2>8E 2;5G5=89 2 ?>;L7C >1I5AB20. !@548 MB8E 2;5G5=89 7=0G8B5;L=CN @>;L 83@0NB A5:AC0;L=K5; ?@8 MB>< >=8 AC1;8<8@CNBAO, B. 5. >B:;>=ONBAO >B A2>8E A5:AC0;L=KE F5;59, 8 =0?@02;ONBAO =0 F5;8 A>F80;L=> 1>;55 2KA>:85, C65 =5 A5:AC0;L=K51. -B0 :>=AB@C:F8O, >4=0:>, 25AL<0 =5CAB>9G820, A5:AC0;L=K5 2;5G5=8O ?>402;ONBAO A B@C4><, 8 :064><C, ---------------------------------------- 1 A8E>0=0;87, :0: O2AB2C5B 87 MB8E ?>;>65=89, =5 >3@0=8G820;AO ?@8BO70=85< =0 ?>AB@>5=85 =>2>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 =>2>3> CG5=8O >1 MB8>;>388 =5@2=KE 8 ?A8E8G5A:8E 701>;520=89. K94O 70 3@0=8FK MB8E =0?@02;5=89, >= AB0; ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 >1JOA=5=85 4286CI8E A8; @0728B8O G5;>25G5A:>3> >1I5AB20 8 >B=>H5=89 <564C ;8G=>ABLN 8 :C;LBC@>9. "0:>5 >B=>H5=85 B@0:B>20;>AL :0: 87=0G0;L=> 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:>5. -B> A;54>20;> C65 87 8AE>4=KE ?>78F89 $@5940, A>3;0A=> :>B>@K< A5:AC0;L=K5 2;5G5=8O 8 03@5AA82=K5 8=AB8=:BK, >1@07CO 3;C18==K5, 18>;>38G5A:85 ?> A2>59 ACI=>AB8 >A=>2K ;8G=>AB8, =5A>2<5AB8<K A B5<8 B@51>20=8O<8, :>B>@K5 =02O7K20NB 59 A>F80;L=0O A@540 A 55 =@02AB25==K<8 =>@<0<8. :><C ?@54AB>8B 2:;NG8BLAO 2 A>740=85 :C;LBC@=KE F5==>AB59, 3@>78B >?0A=>ABL, GB> 53> A5:AC0;L=K5 2;5G5=8O =5 4>?CABOB B0:>3> 8E ?@8<5=5=8O. 1I5AB2> =5 7=05B 1>;55 AB@0H=>9 C3@>7K 4;O A2>59 :C;LBC@K, G5< 2KA2>1>645=85 A5:AC0;L=KE 2;5G5=89 8 8E 2>72@0B : 87=0G0;L=K< F5;O<. B0:, >1I5AB2> =5 ;N18B =0?><8=0=89 >1 MB>< A;01>< <5AB5 2 53> >A=>20=88, >=> =5 708=B5@5A>20=> 2 ?@87=0=88 A8;K A5:AC0;L=KE 2;5G5=89 8 2 2KOA=5=88 7=0G5=8O A5:AC0;L=>9 687=8 4;O :064>3>, 1>;LH5 B>3>, 87 2>A?8B0B5;L=KE A>>1@065=89 >=> AB0@05BAO >B2;5GL 2=8<0=85 >B 2A59 MB>9 >1;0AB8. >MB><C >=> AB>;L =5B5@?8<> : 2KH5C?><O=CB><C @57C;LB0BC 8AA;54>20=89 ?A8E>0=0;870 8 >E>B=55 2A53> AB@5<8BAO ?@54AB028BL 53> >B2@0B8B5;L=K< A MAB5B8G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 8 =5?@8AB>9=K< 8;8 4065 >?0A=K< A B>G:8 7@5=8O <>@0;8. > B0:8<8 2K?040<8 =5;L7O >?@>25@3=CBL >1J5:B82=K5 @57C;LB0BK =0CG=>9 @01>BK. A;8 C6 2K42830BL 2>7@065=8O, B> >=8 4>;6=K 1KBL >1>A=>20=K 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>. 54L G5;>25:C A2>9AB25==> AG8B0BL =5?@028;L=K< B>, GB> 5<C =5 =@028BAO, 8 B>340 ;53:> =0E>4OBAO 0@3C<5=BK 4;O 2>7@065=89. B0:, >1I5AB2> 2K405B =565;0B5;L=>5 70 =5?@028;L=>5, >A?0@820O 8AB8==>ABL ?A8E>0=0;870 ;>38G5A:8<8 8 D0:B8G5A:8<8 0@3C<5=B0<8, ?>4A:070==K<8, >4=0:>, 0DD5:B0<8, 8 45@68BAO 70 MB8 2>7@065=8O-?@54@0AAC4:8, =5A<>B@O =0 2A5 ?>?KB:8 8E >?@>25@3=CBL. !<5N 20A 7025@8BL, C20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40, GB>, 2K42830O MB> A?>@=>5 ?>;>65=85, <K 2>>1I5 =5 AB@5<8;8AL : B5=45=F8>7=>AB8. K E>B5;8 ;8HL ?>:070BL D0:B8G5A:>5 ?>;>65=85 25I59, :>B>@>5, =0455<AO, <K ?>7=0;8 2 ?@>F5AA5 C?>@=>9 @01>BK. K 8 B5?5@L AG8B05< A51O 2?@025 >B:;>=8BL 2AO:>5 2B>@65=85 ?>4>1=KE ?@0:B8G5A:8E A>>1@065=89 2 =0CG=CN @01>BC, E>BO <K 5I5 =5 CA?5;8 C1548BLAO 2 >1>A=>20==>AB8 B5E >?0A5=89, :>B>@K5 8<5NB A;54AB285< MB8 A>>1@065=8O. "0:>2K ;8HL =5:>B>@K5 87 B5E 70B@C4=5=89, A :>B>@K<8 20< ?@54AB>8B AB>;:=CBLAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 70=OB89 ?A8E>0=0;87><. ;O =0G0;0, ?>60;C9, 1>;55 G5< 4>AB0B>G=>. A;8 2K AC<55B5 ?@5>4>;5BL =530B82=>5 2?5G0B;5=85 >B =8E, <K ?@>4>;68< =0H8 15A54K. " / &/ (G+ !"M #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! K =0G=5< =5 A ?@54?>;>65=89, 0 A 8AA;54>20=8O. 3> >1J5:B>< 1C4CB 25AL<0 8725AB=K5, G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI85AO 8 <0;> ?@82;5:02H85 : A515 2=8<0=85 O2;5=8O, :>B>@K5, =5 8<5O =8G53> >1I53> A 1>;57=LN, =01;N40NBAO C ;N1>3> 74>@>2>3> G5;>25:0. -B> B0: =07K205<K5 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O 1 (Fehlleistungen) G5;>25:0: >3>2>@:8 (Versprechen) -- :>340, 65;0O GB>-;81> A:070BL, :B>-B> 2<5AB> >4=>3> A;>20 C?>B@51;O5B 4@C3>5; >?8A:8 -- :>340 B> 65 A0<>5 ?@>8AE>48B ?@8 ?8AL<5, GB> <>65B 1KBL 70<5G5=> 8;8 >AB0BLAO =570<5G5==K<; >G8B:8 (Verlesen) -- :>340 G8B0NB =5 B>, GB> =0?5G0B0=> 8;8 =0?8A0=>; >A;KH:8 (VerhFren) -- :>340 G5;>25: A;KH8B =5 B>, GB> 5<C 3>2>@OB, =0@CH5=8O A;CE0 ?> >@30=8G5A:8< ?@8G8=0< AN40, :>=5G=>, =5 >B=>AOBAO.  >A=>25 4@C3>9 3@C??K B0:8E O2;5=89 ;568B 701K20=85 (Vergessen), => =5 4;8B5;L=>5, 0 2@5<5==>5, :>340 G5;>25: =5 <>65B 2A?><=8BL, =0?@8<5@, 8<5=8 (Name), :>B>@>5 >= =025@=O:0 7=05B 8 >1KG=> 70B5< 2A?><8=05B, 8;8 701K205B 2K?>;=8BL =0<5@5=85 (Vorsatz), > :>B>@>< ?>74=55 2A?><8=05B, 0 701K205B ;8HL =0 >?@545;5==K9 <><5=B.  B@5BL59 3@C??5 O2;5=89 MB>B 2@5<5==>9 0A?5:B >BACBAB2C5B, :0:, =0?@8<5@, ?@8 70?@OBK20=88 (Verlegen), :>340 :0:>9-;81> ?@54<5B :C40-B> C18@05HL, B0: GB> =5 <>65HL 53> 1>;LH5 =09B8, 8;8 ?@8 A>25@H5==> 0=0;>38G=>< 70B5@820=88 (Verlieren). 45AL ?5@54 =0<8 701K20=85, : :>B>@><C >B=>A8HLAO 8=0G5, G5< : 701K20=8N 4@C3>3> @>40; >=> 2K7K205B C482;5=85 8;8 4>A04C, 2<5AB> B>3> GB>1K <K AG8B0;8 53> 5AB5AB25==K<. !N40 65 >B=>AOBAO >?@545;5==K5 >H81:8-701;C645=8O (IrrtLmer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er-) 2 8E =0720=8OE. >GB8 2A5 >=8 25AL<0 =5ACI5AB25==K, 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A2>5< A:>@>?@5E>4OI8 8 =5 83@0NB 206=>9 @>;8 2 687=8 G5;>25:0. ">;L:> 87@54:0 :0:>9-=81C4L 87 =8E, =0?@8<5@ 70B5@820=85 ?@54<5B>2, ?@8>1@5B05B 8725AB=CN ?@0:B8G5A:CN 7=0G8<>ABL. <5==> ?>MB><C =0 =8E =5 >1@0I0NB >A>1>3> 2=8<0=8O, 2K7K20NB >=8 ;8HL A;01K5 M<>F88 8 B. 4. <5==> : MB8< O2;5=8O< O 8 E>GC ?@82;5GL B5?5@L 20H5 2=8<0=85. > 2K =54>2>;L=> 2>7@078B5 <=5: " <8@5, :0: 8 2 4CH52=>9 687=8, 1>;55 G0AB=>9 53> >1;0AB8, 5ABL AB>;L:> 25;8:8E B09=, 2 >1;0AB8 ?A8E8G5A:8E @0AAB@>9AB2 B0: <=>3> C4828B5;L=>3>, :>B>@>5 =C6405BAO 2 >1JOA=5=88 8 70A;C68205B 53>, GB>, ?@0- ---------------------------------------- !;>2> "Irrtum" ?5@52>48BAO 1C:20;L=> :0: ">H81:0", "701;C645=85".  =0AB>OI5< 8740=88 >=> 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B :>=B5:AB0 ?5@52>48BAO ;81> :0: ">H81:0", ;81> :0: ">H81:0-701;C645=85". -- @8<. @54. ?5@52>40. 2>, 60;L B@0B8BL 2@5<O =0 B0:85 <5;>G8. A;8 1K 2K <>3;8 >1JOA=8BL =0<, :0:8< >1@07>< G5;>25: A E>@>H8< 7@5=85< 8 A;CE>< A@548 15;0 4=O <>65B C2845BL 8 CA;KH0BL B>, G53> =5B, 0 4@C3>9 24@C3 AG8B05B, GB> 53> ?@5A;54CNB 8<5==> B5, :>3> >= 4> A8E ?>@ 1>;LH5 2A5E ;N18;, 8;8 A0<K< >AB@>C<=K< >1@07>< 70I8I05B E8<5@K, :>B>@K5 ;N1><C @515=:C ?>:06CBAO 15AA<KA;8F59, <K 5I5 :0:-=81C4L ?@87=0;8 1K ?A8E>0=0;87. > 5A;8 >= ?@54;0305B =0< ;8HL @0718@0BLAO 2 B><, ?>G5<C >@0B>@ 2<5AB> >4=>3> A;>20 3>2>@8B 4@C3>5 8;8 ?>G5<C 4><>E>7O9:0 :C40-B> 70?@OB0;0 A2>8 :;NG8, 40 8 2 4@C38E ?>4>1=KE ?CABO:0E, B> <K AC<55< =09B8 ;CGH55 ?@8<5=5=85 A2>5<C 2@5<5=8 8 8=B5@5A0<". / 1K 20< >B25B8;: ""5@?5=85, C20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40!" / AG8B0N, GB> 20H0 :@8B8:0 1L5B <8<> F5;8. 59AB28B5;L=>, ?A8E>0=0;87 =5 <>65B ?>E20AB0BLAO B5<, GB> =8:>340 =5 70=8<0;AO <5;>G0<8. 0?@>B82, <0B5@80;>< 4;O 53> =01;N45=89 :0: @07 8 A;C60B B5 =570<5B=K5 O2;5=8O, :>B>@K5 2 4@C38E =0C:0E >B25@30NBAO :0: =54>AB>9=K5 2=8<0=8O, AG8B0NBAO, B0: A:070BL, >B1@>A0<8 <8@0 O2;5=89. > =5 ?>4<5=O5B5 ;8 2K 2 20H59 :@8B8:5 7=0G8<>ABL ?@>1;5< 8E 2=5H=59 O@:>ABLN? 0725 =5B 25AL<0 ACI5AB25==KE O2;5=89, :>B>@K5 <>3CB ?@8 >?@545;5==KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E 8 2 >?@545;5==>5 2@5<O 2K40BL A51O A0<K<8 =57=0G8B5;L=K<8 ?@87=0:0<8? / A ;53:>ABLN <>3C ?@825AB8 <=>3> ?@8<5@>2 B0:8E A8BC0F89. > :0:8< =8GB>6=K< ?@87=0:0< 2K, A84OI85 745AL <>;>4K5 ;N48, 70<5G05B5, GB> 702>520;8 1;03>A:;>==>ABL 40<K? 0725 4;O MB>3> 2K 645B5 >1JOA=5=89 2 ;N128, ?K;:8E >1JOB89, 0 =54>AB0B>G=> ;8 20< 5420 70<5B=>3> 273;O40, 153;>3> 42865=8O, GCBL 70BO=C2H53>AO @C:>?>60B8O?  5A;8 2K, 1C4CG8 :@8<8=0;8AB><, CG0AB2C5B5 2 @0AA;54>20=88 C189AB20, @0725 @0AAG8BK205B5 2K 2 A0<>< 45;5. GB> C189F0 >AB028; 20< =0 <5AB5 ?@5ABC?;5=8O A2>N D>B>3@0D8N A 04@5A><, 8 =5 2K=C645=K ;8 2K 4>2>;LAB2>20BLAO 1>;55 A;01K<8 8 =5 AB>;L O2=K<8 A;540<8 ?@8ACBAB28O ;8G=>AB8, :>B>@CN 8I5B5? "0: GB> =5 1C45< =54>>F5=820BL =57=0G8B5;L=K5 ?@87=0:8, <>65B 1KBL, >=8 =0254CB =0A =0 A;54 G53>-=81C4L 1>;55 206=>3>.  2?@>G5<, O, :0: 8 2K, ?>;030N, GB> 25;8:85 ?@>1;5<K <8@0 8 =0C:8 4>;6=K 8=B5@5A>20BL =0A ?@5645 2A53>. > >1KG=> >G5=L <0;> ?>;L7K >B B>3>, GB> :B>-B> 2> 2A5CA;KH0=85 70O28; > =0<5@5=88 A@07C 65 ?@8ABC?8BL : 8AA;54>20=8N B>9 8;8 8=>9 25;8:>9 ?@>1;5<K. '0AB> 2 B0:8E A;CG0OE =5 7=0NB, A G53> =0G0BL.  =0CG=>9 @01>B5 ?5@A?5:B82=55 >1@0B8BLAO : 87CG5=8N B>3>, GB> B51O >:@C605B 8 GB> 1>;55 4>ABC?=> 4;O 8AA;54>20=8O. A;8 MB> 45;0BL 4>AB0B>G=> >A=>20B5;L=>, =5?@5427OB> 8 B5@?5;82>, B>, 5A;8 ?>AG0AB;828BAO, 4065 B0:0O 25AL<0 =5?@8BO70B5;L=0O @01>B0 <>65B >B:@KBL ?CBL : 87CG5=8N 25;8:8E ?@>1;5<, ?>A:>;L:C :0: 2A5 A2O70=> A> 2A5<, B0: 8 <0;>5 A>548=O5BAO A 25;8:8<. >B B0: 1K O @0AAC640;, GB>1K ?@>1C48BL 20H 8=B5@5A : 0=0;87C :06CI8EAO B0:8<8 =8GB>6=K<8 >H81>G=KE 459AB289 74>@>2KE ;N459.  B5?5@L ?>3>2>@8< A :5<-=81C4L, :B> A>2A5< =5 7=0:>< A ?A8E>0=0;87><, 8 A?@>A8<, :0: >= >1JOA=O5B ?@>8AE>645=85 MB8E O2;5=89. @5645 2A53> >=, 2848<>, >B25B8B: ", MB> =5 70A;C68205B :0:8E-;81> >1JOA=5=89; MB> ?@>AB> <0;5=L:85 A;CG09=>AB8". 'B> 65 >= E>G5B MB8< A:070BL? KE>48B, ACI5AB2CNB =0AB>;L:> =8GB>6=K5 A>1KB8O, 2K?040NI85 87 F5?8 <8@>2KE A>1KB89, :>B>@K5 A B0:8< 65 CA?5E>< <>3CB :0: ?@>87>9B8, B0: 8 =5 ?@>87>9B8? A;8 :B>-B> =0@CH8B, B0:8< >1@07><, 5AB5AB25==K9 45B5@<8=87< 2 >4=><-548=AB25==>< <5AB5, B> @CE=5B 2A5 =0CG=>5 <8@>2>77@5=85. ">340 <>6=> ?>AB028BL 5<C 2 C?@5:, GB> @5;838>7=>5 <8@>2>77@5=85 :C40 ?>A;54>20B5;L=55, :>340 =0AB>9G82> 7025@O5B, GB> =8 >48= 2>;>A =5 C?045B A 3>;>2K 157 1>6L59 2>;8 [1C:2.: =8 >48= 2>@>159 =5 C?045B A :@KH8 157 1>6L59 2>;8]. C<0N, GB> =0H 4@C3 =5 1C45B 45;0BL 2K2>4K 87 A2>53> ?5@2>3> >B25B0, >= 2=5A5B ?>?@02:C 8 A:065B, GB> 5A;8 MB8 O2;5=8O 87CG0BL, B>, 5AB5AB25==>, =094CBAO 8 4;O =8E >1JOA=5=8O. =8 <>3CB 1KBL 2K720=K =51>;LH8<8 >B:;>=5=8O<8 DC=:F89, =5B>G=>ABO<8 2 ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@8 >?@545;5==KE CA;>28OE. '5;>25:, :>B>@K9 >1KG=> 3>2>@8B ?@028;L=>, <>65B >3>2>@8BLAO: 1) 5A;8 5<C =574>@>28BAO 8 >= CAB0;; 2) 5A;8 >= 272>;=>20=; 3) 5A;8 >= A;8H:>< 70=OB 4@C38<8 25I0<8. -B8 ?@54?>;>65=8O ;53:> ?>4B25@48BL. 59AB28B5;L=>, >3>2>@:8 2AB@5G0NBAO >A>15==> G0AB>, :>340 G5;>25: CAB0;, 5A;8 C =53> 1>;8B 3>;>20 8;8 =0G8=05BAO <83@5=L.  MB8E 65 CA;>28OE ;53:> ?@>8AE>48B 701K20=85 8<5= A>1AB25==KE. ;O =5:>B>@KE ;8F B0:>5 701K20=85 8<5= A>1AB25==KE O2;O5BAO ?@87=0:>< ?@81;860NI59AO <83@5=8.  2>;=5=88 B0:65 G0AB> ?CB05HL A;>20; 70E20BK205HL "?> >H81:5" =5 B5 ?@54<5BK, 701K205HL > =0<5@5=8OE, 40 8 ?@>872>48HL <0AAC 4@C38E =5?@542845==KE 459AB289 ?> @0AA5O==>AB8, B. 5. 5A;8 2=8<0=85 A:>=F5=B@8@>20=> =0 G5<-B> 4@C3><. 725AB=K< ?@8<5@>< B0:>9 @0AA5O==>AB8 <>65B A;C68BL ?@>D5AA>@ 87 Fliegende Bl4tter, :>B>@K9 701K205B 7>=B 8 =045205B GC6CN H;O?C, ?>B><C GB> 4C<05B > ?@>1;5<0E A2>59 1C4CI59 :=838. > A>1AB25==><C >?KBC 2A5 <K 7=05< > =0<5@5=8OE 8 >15I0=8OE, 701KBKE 87-70 B>3>, GB> =0A A;8H:>< 70E20B8;> :0:>5-B> 4@C3>5 ?5@56820=85. -B> B0: ?>=OB=>, GB>, ?>-2848<><C, =5 <>65B 2K720BL 2>7@065=89. @0240, <>65B 1KBL, 8 =5 B0: 8=B5@5A=>, :0: <K >6840;8. >A<>B@8< 65 =0 MB8 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O ?>2=8<0B5;L=55. #A;>28O, :>B>@K5, ?> ?@54?>;>65=8N, =5>1E>48<K 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O MB8E D5=><5=>2, @07;8G=K. 54><>30=85 8 =0@CH5=85 :@>2>>1@0I5=8O O2;ONBAO D878>;>38G5A:8<8 ?@8G8=0<8 =0@CH5=89 =>@<0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; 2>;=5=85, CAB0;>ABL, @0AA5O==>ABL -- ?@8G8=K 4@C3>3> E0@0:B5@0, :>B>@K5 <>6=> =0720BL ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8<8. "5>@5B8G5A:8 8E ;53:> <>6=> >1JOA=8BL. @8 CAB0;>AB8, :0: 8 ?@8 @0AA5O==>AB8 8 4065 ?@8 >1I5< 2>;=5=88, 2=8<0=85 @0A?@545;O5BAO B0:8< >1@07><, GB> 4;O A>>B25BAB2CNI53> 459AB28O 53> >AB05BAO A;8H:>< <0;>. ">340 MB> 459AB285 2K?>;=O5BAO =5?@028;L=> 8;8 =5B>G=>. 53:>5 =54><>30=85 8 87<5=5=8O ?@8B>:0 :@>28 : 3>;>2=><C <>73C <>3CB 2K720BL B0:>9 65 MDD5:B, B. 5. ?>2;8OBL =0 @0A?@545;5=85 2=8<0=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, 2> 2A5E A;CG0OE 45;> A2>48BAO : @57C;LB0B0< @0AAB@>9AB20 2=8<0=8O >@30=8G5A:>9 8;8 ?A8E8G5A:>9 MB8>;>388. 7 2A53> MB>3> 4;O ?A8E>0=0;870 :0: 1C4B> =5<=>3> <>6=> 872;5GL. # =0A <>65B >?OBL 2>7=8:=CBL 8A:CH5=85 >AB028BL MBC B5<C. > ?@8 1;8609H5< @0AA<>B@5=88 >:07K205BAO, GB> =5 2A5 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O <>6=> >1JOA=8BL 40==>9 B5>@859 2=8<0=8O 8;8, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, >=8 >1JOA=ONBAO =5 B>;L:> 5N. ?KB ?>:07K205B, GB> >H81>G=K5 459AB28O 8 701K20=85 ?@>O2;ONBAO 8 C ;8F, :>B>@K5 =5 CAB0;8, =5 @0AA5O=K 8 =5 272>;=>20=K, @0725 GB> 8< ?@8?8HCB MB> 2>;=5=85 ?>A;5 A45;0==>3> >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O, => A0<8 >=8 53> =5 8A?KBK20;8. 0 8 2@O4 ;8 <>6=> A25AB8 2A5 : ?@>AB><C >1JOA=5=8N, GB> CA8;5=85 2=8<0=8O >15A?5G8205B ?@028;L=>ABL 459AB28O, >A;01;5=85 65 =0@CH05B 53> 2K?>;=5=85. !CI5AB2C5B 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> 459AB289, G8AB> 02B><0B8G5A:8E 8 B@51CNI8E <8=8<0;L=>3> 2=8<0=8O, :>B>@K5 2K?>;=ONBAO ?@8 MB>< 01A>;NB=> C25@5==>. 0 ?@>3C;:5 G0AB> =5 4C<05HL, :C40 845HL, >4=0:> =5 A18205HLAO A ?CB8 8 ?@8E>48HL, :C40 E>B5;. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, >1KG=> 1K205B B0:. %>@>H89 ?80=8AB =5 4C<05B > B><, :0:85 :;028H8 5<C =068<0BL. =, :>=5G=>, <>65B >H818BLAO, => 5A;8 1K 02B><0B8G5A:0O 83@0 A?>A>1AB2>20;0 C25;8G5=8N G8A;0 >H81>:, B> 8<5==> 28@BC>7K, 83@0 :>B>@KE A>25@H5==> 02B><0B878@>20=0 1;03>40@O C?@06=5=8O<, >H810;8AL 1K G0I5 2A5E. K 2848< :0: @07 >1@0B=>5: <=>385 459AB28O A>25@H0NBAO >A>15==> C25@5==>, 5A;8 =0 =8E =5 >1@0I0BL 2=8<0=8O, 0 >H81>G=>5 459AB285 2>7=8:05B 8<5==> B>340, :>340 ?@028;L=>AB8 53> 2K?>;=5=8O ?@8405BAO >A>1>5 7=0G5=85 8 >B2;5G5=85 2=8<0=8O =8:0: =5 ?@54?>;0305BAO. >6=> >B=5AB8 MB> =0 AG5B "2>;=5=8O", => =5?>=OB=>, ?>G5<C >=> =5 CA8;8205B 2=8<0=8O : B><C, GB> B0: E>G5BAO 2K?>;=8BL. >340 2 206=>9 @5G8 8;8 2 @073>2>@5 87-70 >3>2>@:8 2KA:07K205HL ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 B><C, GB> E>B5; A:070BL, 2@O4 ;8 MB> <>6=> >1JOA=8BL ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@859 8;8 B5>@859 2=8<0=8O1.  >H81>G=KE 459AB28OE 5ABL B0:65 <=>3> =57=0G8B5;L=KE ?>1>G=KE O2;5=89, :>B>@K5 =5 ?>=OBK 8 =5 >1JOA=5=K 4> A8E ?>@ ACI5AB2CNI8<8 B5>@8O<8. 0?@8<5@, :>340 =0 2@5<O 701C45BAO A;>2>, B> GC2AB2C5HL 4>A04C, E>G5HL 2> GB> 1K B> =8 AB0;> 2A?><=8BL 53> 8 =8:0: =5 <>65HL >B45;0BLAO >B MB>3> 65;0=8O. >G5<C 65 @0AA5@482H5<CAO =5 C405BAO, :0: >= =8 AB0@05BAO, =0?@028BL 2=8<0=85 =0 A;>2>, :>B>@>5, :0: >= CB25@6405B, "25@B8BAO =0 O7K:5", => MB> ---------------------------------------- 1 @>1;5<0 02B><0B870F88 459AB289 2KABC?8;0 2 ?A8E>;>388 2 A2O78 A 87CG5=85< =02K:>2, B. 5. A8AB5<K 42865=89, @50;87C5<KE 157 ?@O<>9 A>7=0B5;L=>-2>;52>9 @53C;OF88. >;>65=85 > B><, GB> <=>385 ?A8E8G5A:85 DC=:F88 >ACI5AB2;ONBAO B>G=55, :>340 =0 =8E =5 =0?@02;5=> 2=8<0=85, O2;O5BAO 2 ?A8E>;>388 >1I5?@8=OBK<. @8<5@K B>3>, :0: 2=8<0=85 <5H05B 02B><0B8G5A:><C ?@>F5AAC, :>B>@K9 83@05B >?@545;5==CN @>;L 2 ?>=8<0=88 >AB@>B, A>45@60BAO 2 :=835 $@5940 "AB@>C<85 8 53> >B=>H5=85 : 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C" (1905). A;>2> BCB 65 2A?><8=05BAO, 5A;8 53> A:065B :B>-B> 4@C3>9? ;8 1K20NB A;CG08, :>340 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O <=>60BAO, ?5@5?;5B0NBAO 4@C3 A 4@C3><, 70<5=ONB 4@C3 4@C30.  ?5@2K9 @07 701K205HL > A2840=88, 4@C3>9 @07 A B25@4K< =0<5@5=85< =5 701KBL > =5< >:07K205BAO, GB> ?5@5?CB0; G0A. %>G5HL >:>;L=K< ?CB5< 2A?><=8BL 701KB>5 A;>2>, 2 @57C;LB0B5 701K205HL 2B>@>5, :>B>@>5 4>;6=> 1K;> ?><>GL 2A?><=8BL ?5@2>5. !B0@05HLAO ?@8?><=8BL B5?5@L 2B>@>5, CA:>;L705B B@5BL5 8 B. 4. "> 65 A0<>5 ?@>8AE>48B 8 A >?5G0B:0<8, :>B>@K5 A;54C5B ?>=8<0BL :0: >H81>G=K5 459AB28O =01>@I8:0. >2>@OB, B0:0O CAB>9G820O >?5G0B:0 ?@>1@0;0AL :0:-B> 2 >4=C A>F80;-45<>:@0B8G5A:CN 3075BC.  A>>1I5=88 >1 >4=>< 8725AB=>< B>@65AB25 <>6=> 1K;> ?@>G5ABL: "!@548 ?@8ACBAB2CNI8E 1K; 53> 25;8G5AB2> :>@=?@8=F". 0 A;54CNI89 45=L ?>O28;>AL >?@>25@65=85: ">=5G=>, A;54C5B G8B0BL :=>@?@8=F".  B0:8E A;CG0OE ;N1OB 3>2>@8BL > =5G8AB>9 A8;5, 7;>< 4CE5 =01>@=>3> OI8:0 8 B><C ?>4>1=KE 25I0E, 2KE>4OI8E 70 @0<:8 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88 >?5G0B:8. / =5 7=0N, 8725AB=> ;8 20<, GB> >3>2>@:C <>6=> A?@>2>F8@>20BL, B0: A:070BL, 2K720BL 2=CH5=85<. > MB><C ?>2>4C @0AA:07K20NB 0=5:4>B: :0:-B> =>28G:C ?>@CG8;8 206=CN @>;L =0 AF5=5; 2 @;50=A:>9 4525 >= 4>;65= 1K; 4>;>68BL :>@>;N, GB> :>==5B01;L >BAK;05B A2>9 <5G (der Connetable schickt sein Schwert zurLck). 3@02H89 3;02=CN @>;L ?>4HCB8; =04 @>1:8< =>28G:>< 8 2> 2@5<O @5?5B8F88 =5A:>;L:> @07 ?>4A:070; 5<C 2<5AB> =C6=KE A;>2: :><D>@B01;L >BAK;05B A2>N ;>H04L (der Komfortabel schickt sein Pferd zurLck) 8 4>18;AO A2>53>. 0 ?@54AB02;5=88 =5AG0AB=K9 451NB0=B >3>2>@8;AO, E>BO 53> ?@54C?@5640;8 >1 MB><, 0 <>65B 1KBL, 8<5==> ?>B><C B0: 8 A;CG8;>AL. A5 MB8 <0;5=L:85 >A>15==>AB8 >H81>G=KE 459AB289 =5;L7O >1JOA=8BL B>;L:> B5>@859 >B2;5G5=8O 2=8<0=8O. > MB> 5I5 =5 7=0G8B, GB> MB0 B5>@8O =5?@028;L=0. 9, ?>60;C9, G53>-B> =5 E20B05B, :0:>3>-B> 4>?>;=8B5;L=>3> CB25@645=8O 4;O B>3>, GB>1K >=0 ?>;=>ABLN =0A C4>2;5B2>@O;0. > =5:>B>@K5 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O <>6=> @0AA<>B@5BL B0:65 8 A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K. 0G=5< A >3>2>@:8, >=0 1>;LH5 2A53> ?>4E>48B =0< 87 >H81>G=KE 459AB289. %>BO A B0:8< 65 CA?5E>< <K <>3;8 1K 2K1@0BL >?8A:C 8;8 >G8B:C. !@07C 65 A;54C5B A:070BL, GB> 4> A8E ?>@ <K A?@0H820;8 B>;L:> > B><, :>340, ?@8 :0:8E CA;>28OE ?@>8AE>48B >3>2>@:0, 8 B>;L:> =0 MB>B 2>?@>A <K 8 ?>;CG0;8 >B25B. > <>6=> B0:65 708=B5@5A>20BLAO 4@C38< 8 ?>?KB0BLAO C7=0BL: ?>G5<C G5;>25: >3>2>@8;AO 8<5==> B0:, 0 =5 8=0G5; A;54C5B >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B ?@8 >3>2>@:5. K ?>=8<05B5, GB> ?>:0 <K =5 >B25B8< =0 MB>B 2>?@>A, ?>:0 <K =5 >1JOA=8< @57C;LB0B >3>2>@:8 A ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, MB> O2;5=85 >AB0=5BAO A;CG09=>ABLN, E>BO D878>;>38G5A:>5 >1JOA=5=85 5<C 8 <>6=> 1C45B =09B8. A;8 <=5 A;CG8BAO >3>2>@8BLAO, O <>3C MB> A45;0BL 2 15A:>=5G=> <=>38E 20@80=B0E, 2<5AB> =C6=>3> A;>20 <>6=> A:070BL BKAOGC 4@C38E, =C6=>5 A;>2> <>65B ?>;CG8BL 15AG8A;5==>5 <=>65AB2> 8A:065=89. !CI5AB2C5B ;8 GB>-B>, GB> 70AB02;O5B <5=O 87 2A5E 2>7<>6=KE >3>2>@>: A45;0BL 8<5==> B0:CN, 8;8 MB> A;CG09=>ABL, ?@>872>; 8 B>340, <>65B 1KBL, =0 MB>B 2>?@>A =5;L7O >B25B8BL =8G53> @07C<=>3>? 20 02B>@0, 5@8=35@ 8 095@ (>48= -- D8;>;>3, 4@C3>9 -- ?A8E80B@), ?>?KB0;8AL 2 1895 3. 8<5==> A MB>9 AB>@>=K ?>4>9B8 : 2>?@>AC >1 >3>2>@:0E. =8 A>1@0;8 <=>3> ?@8<5@>2 8 ?@>AB> >?8A0;8 8E. -B>, :>=5G=>, 5I5 =5 405B =8:0:>3> >1JOA=5=8O >3>2>@:0<, => ?>72>;O5B =09B8 ?CBL : =5<C. 2B>@K @07;8G0NB A;54CNI85 8A:065=8O, 2>7=8:0NI85 87-70 >3>2>@>:: ?5@5<5I5=8O (Vertauschungen), ?@542>AE8I5=8O (Vorkl4nge), >B72C:8 (Nachkl4nge), A<5H5=8O, 8;8 :>=B0<8=0F88 (Vermengungen, oder Kontaminationen), 8 70<5I5=8O, 8;8 AC1AB8BCF88 (Ersetzungen, oder Substitutionen). / ?@8254C 20< ?@8<5@K, ?@54;>65==K5 02B>@0<8 4;O MB8E >A=>2=KE 3@C??. !;CG09 ?5@5<5I5=8O: Die Milo von Venus 2<5AB> die Venus von Milo [?5@5<5I5=85 2 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 A;>2 -- 8;>5 87 5=5@K 2<5AB> 5=5@K 87 8;>A0]: ?@542>AE8I5=85: Es war mir auf der Schivest. auf der Brust so schwer [=5 1K;> =0 4CH5 (4>5;.: 2 3@C48) B0: BO65;>, => 2=0G0;5 2<5AB> A;>20 "Brust" -- 3@C4L -- 1K;0 A45;0=0 >3>2>@:0 "Schwest", 2 :>B>@>9 >B@078;>AL ?@542>AE8I05<>5 A;>2> "schwer" -- BO65;>]. @8<5@>< >B72C:0 <>65B A;C68BL =5C40G=K9 B>AB: Ich fordere Sie auf, auf das Wohl unseres Chefs aufzusto/en [@54;030N 0< 2K?8BL (4>A;.: G>:=CBLAO) 70 74>@>2L5 =0H53> H5D0; => 2<5AB> ansto/en -- G>:=CBLAO -- A:070=>: auf sto/en -- >B@K3=CBL]. -B8 B@8 2840 >3>2>@>: 4>2>;L=> @54:8. '0I5 2AB@5G0NBAO >3>2>@:8 87-70 ABO65=8O 8;8 A<5H5=8O, =0?@8<5@, :>340 <>;>4>9 G5;>25: 703>20@8205B A 40<>9: Wenn Sie gestatten mein Fr4ulein, mFchte ich Sie gerne begleit-digen [A;8 K @07@5H8B5, 10@KH=O, O 0A ?@>2>6C; => 2 A;>2> "begleiten" -- ?@>2>48BL -- 2AB02;5=K 5I5 B@8 1C:2K "dig"].  A;>25 begleit-digen :@>5BAO, :@><5 A;>20 begleiten [?@>2>48BL], >G5284=>, 5I5 A;>2> beleidigen [>A:>@18BL]. (>;>4>9 G5;>25:, 2848<>, =5 8<5; 1>;LH>3> CA?5E0 C 40<K.) 0 70<5I5=85 02B>@K ?@82>4OB ?@8<5@: Ich gebe die Pr4parate in den Briefkasten anstatt Brutkasten [/ AB02;N ?@5?0@0BK 2 ?>GB>2K9 OI8: 2<5AB> B5@<>AB0B0]. 1JOA=5=85, :>B>@>5 >10 02B>@0 ?KB0NBAO 2K25AB8 87 A2>53> A>1@0=8O ?@8<5@>2, A>25@H5==> =54>AB0B>G=>. =8 AG8B0NB, GB> 72C:8 8 A;>38 2 A;>25 8<5NB @07;8G=CN 7=0G8<>ABL 8 8==5@20F8O 1>;55 7=0G8<>3> M;5<5=B0 2;8O5B =0 8==5@20F8N <5=55 7=0G8<>3>. @8 MB>< 02B>@K AAK;0NBAO =0 @54:85 A;CG08 ?@542>AE8I5=8O 8 >B72C:0; 2 A;CG0OE 65 >3>2>@>: 4@C3>3> B8?0 MB8 72C:>2K5 ?@54?>GB5=8O, 5A;8 >=8 2>>1I5 ACI5AB2CNB, =5 83@0NB =8:0:>9 @>;8. '0I5 2A53> ?@8 >3>2>@:5 C?>B@51;ONB ?>E>655 ?> 72CG0=8N A;>2>, MB8< AE>4AB2>< 8 >1JOA=ONB >3>2>@:C. 0?@8<5@, 2 A2>59 2ABC?8B5;L=>9 @5G8 ?@>D5AA>@ 70O2;O5B: Ich bin nicht geneigt (geeignet), die Verdienste meines sehr gesch4tzten Vorg4ngers zu wLrdigen [/ =5 A:;>=5= (2<5AB> =5A?>A>15=) >F5=8BL 70A;C38 A2>53> C20605<>3> ?@54H5AB25==8:0]. ;8 4@C3>9 ?@>D5AA>@: Beim weiblichen Genitale hat man trotz vieler Versuchungen. Pardon: Versuche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inn). 'B> 7=0G8B "8<55B A<KA;"? -B> 7=0G8B, GB> >3>2>@:C, 2>7<>6=>, A;54C5B AG8B0BL ?>;=>F5==K< ?A8E8G5A:8< 0:B><, 8<5NI8< A2>N F5;L, >?@545;5==CN D>@<C 2K@065=8O 8 7=0G5=85. > A8E ?>@ <K 2A5 2@5<O 3>2>@8;8 >1 >H81>G=KE 459AB28OE, 0 B5?5@L >:07K205BAO, GB> 8=>340 >H81>G=>5 459AB285 O2;O5BAO A>25@H5==> ?@028;L=K<, B>;L:> >=> 2>7=8:;> 2<5AB> 4@C3>3> >68405<>3> 8;8 ?@54?>;0305<>3> 459AB28O. -B>B 459AB28B5;L=K9 A<KA; >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O 2 >B45;L=KE A;CG0OE A>25@H5==> >G52845= 8 =5A><=5=5=. A;8 ?@54A540B5;L ?0;0BK 45?CB0B>2 2 ?5@2KE 65 A2>8E A;>20E 70:@K205B 70A540=85 2<5AB> B>3>, GB>1K 53> >B:@KBL, B>, 7=0O >1AB>OB5;LAB20, 2 :>B>@KE ?@>87>H;0 >3>2>@:0, <K A:;>==K AG8B0BL MB> >H81>G=>5 459AB285 =5 ;8H5==K< A<KA;0. = =5 >68405B >B 70A540=8O =8G53> E>@>H53> 8 @04 1K; 1K A@07C 53> 70:@KBL. >:070BL MB>B A<KA;, B.5. 8AB>;:>20BL MBC >3>2>@:C, =5 A>AB02;O5B =8:0:>3> B@C40. ;8 5A;8 >4=0 40<0 A :06CI8<AO >4>1@5=85< 3>2>@8B 4@C3>9: Diesen reizenden neuen Hut haben Sie sich wohl selbst aufgepatz?. [-BC ?@5;5AB=CN =>2CN H;O?C K, 25@>OB=>, A0<8 >145;0;8? -- 2<5AB> aufgeputzt -- >B45;0;8], B> =8:0:0O =0CG=>ABL 2 <8@5 =5 ?><5H05B =0< CA;KH0BL 2 MB>9 >3>2>@:5 2K@065=85: Dieser Hut ist eine Patzerei [-B0 H;O?0 157=0456=> 8A?>@G5=0]. ;8 5A;8 8725AB=0O A2>59 M=5@38G=>ABLN 40<0 @0AA:07K205B: ">9 <C6 A?@>A8; 4>:B>@0, :0:>9 485BK 5<C ?@845@6820BLAO, =0 MB> 4>:B>@ >B25B8; -- 5<C =5 =C6=0 =8:0:0O 485B0, >= <>65B 5ABL 8 ?8BL 2A5, GB> O E>GC", B> 254L 70 MB>9 >3>2>@:>9 AB>8B OA=> 2K@065==0O ?>A;54>20B5;L=0O ?@>3@0<<0 ?>2545=8O. #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40, 5A;8 2KOA=8;>AL, GB> =5 B>;L:> =5:>B>@K5 >3>2>@:8 8 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O 8<5NB A<KA;, => 8 8E 7=0G8B5;L=>5 1>;LH8=AB2>, B>, =5A><=5==>, MB>B A<KA; >H81>G=KE 459AB289, > :>B>@>< 4> A8E ?>@ =8:B> =5 3>2>@8;, 8 AB0=5B 4;O =0A =081>;55 8=B5@5A=K<, 0 2A5 >AB0;L=K5 B>G:8 7@5=8O ?> ?@02C >B>94CB =0 704=89 ?;0=. K <>65< >AB028BL D878>;>38G5A:85 8 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK 8 ?>A2OB8BL A51O G8AB> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< 8AA;54>20=8O< > A<KA;5, B. 5. 7=0G5=88 8 =0<5@5=8OE >H81>G=KE 459AB289.  2 A2O78 A MB8< <K =5 C?CAB8< 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?@82;5GL 1>;55 H8@>:89 <0B5@80; 4;O ?@>25@:8 MB8E ?@54?>;>65=89. > ?@5645 G5< <K 2K?>;=8< MB> =0<5@5=85, O ?@>A8; 1K 20A ?>A;54>20BL ?> 4@C3><C ?CB8. '0AB> A;CG05BAO, GB> ?>MB ?>;L7C5BAO >3>2>@:>9 8;8 4@C38< >H81>G=K< 459AB285< :0: 2K@078B5;L=K< A@54AB2><. -B>B D0:B A0< ?> A515 4>;65= =0< 4>:070BL, GB> >= AG8B05B >H81>G=>5 459AB285, =0?@8<5@ >3>2>@:C, G5<-B> >A<KA;5==K<, ?>B><C GB> 254L >= 45;05B 55 =0<5@5==>. >=5G=>, MB> ?@>8AE>48B =5 B0:, GB> A2>N A;CG09=> A45;0==CN >?8A:C ?>MB >AB02;O5B 70B5< A2>5<C ?5@A>=06C 2 :0G5AB25 >3>2>@:8. = E>G5B =0< GB>-B> >1JOA=8BL >3>2>@:>9, 8 <K 4>;6=K ?>@07<KA;8BL, GB> MB> <>65B >7=0G0BL: E>G5B ;8 >= =0<5:=CBL, 1C4B> 8725AB=>5 ;8F> @0AA5O==> 8;8 CAB0;>, 8;8 53> 645B ?@8ABC? <83@5=8. >=5G=>, =5 A;54C5B ?@5C25;8G820BL B>3>, GB> ?>MB 2A5340 C?>B@51;O5B >3>2>@:C :0: 8<5NICN >?@545;5==K9 A<KA;.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >=0 <>3;0 1KBL 15AA<KA;5==>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 A;CG09=>ABLN 8 B>;L:> 2 :@09=5 @54:8E A;CG0OE 8<5BL A<KA;, => ?>MB 2?@025 ?@840BL 59 A<KA;, GB>1K 8A?>;L7>20BL 53> 4;O A2>8E F5;59.  ?>MB><C =0A 1K =5 C4828;>, 5A;8 1K >B ?>MB0 <K C7=0;8 >1 >3>2>@:5 1>;LH5, G5< >B D8;>;>30 8 ?A8E80B@0. @8<5@ >3>2>@:8 <K =0E>48< 2 0;;5=HB59=5 (8::>;><8=8, 1-9 0:B, 5-5 O2;5=85). 0:A 8::>;><8=8 2 ?@54K4CI59 AF5=5 AB@0AB=> 2KABC?05B =0 AB>@>=5 35@F>30 8 <5GB05B > 1;030E <8@0, @0A:@K2H8EAO ?5@54 =8<, :>340 >= A>?@>2>640; 4>GL 0;;5=HB59=0 2 ;035@L. 3> >B5F 8 ?>A;0==8: 42>@0 25AB5=15@3 2 ?>;=>< =54>C<5=88.  40;LH5 2 5-< O2;5=88 ?@>8AE>48B A;54CNI55: 25AB5=15@3 >B 4> G53> 4>H;>! (0AB>9G82> 8 =5B5@?5;82>.)  <K 5<C 2 ?>4>1=>< >A;5?;5=L5 >72>;8;8 C9B8, <>9 4@C3,  =5 7>25< 53> B>BG0A >1@0B=> -- B:@KBL 5<C 3;070? :B028> (>?><=82H8AL ?>A;5 3;C1>:>3> @074C<LO) =5 A0<><C B:@K; 3;070 >= H8@5, G5< E>B5;>AL. 25AB5=15@3 'B> A 20<8, 4@C3? :B028> @>:;OB0O ?>574:0! 25AB5=15@3 0:? 'B> B0:>5? :B028> >A:>@59! =5 =04> 73;O=CBL =0 MB>B 7;>?>;CG=K9 A;54  A0<><C C2845BL 2A5. >945<B5. (%>G5B 53> C25AB8.) 25AB5=15@3 0G5<? C40 2K? :B028> (2A5 5I5 B>@>?8B 53>)  =59! 25AB5=15@3  :><C? :B028> (A?>E20BK20OAL) 0 : 35@F>3C! >945<! (5@52>4 . !;02OB8=A:>3>) :B028> E>B5; A:070BL ": =5<C", 35@F>3C, => >3>2>@8;AO 8 2K40; A;>20<8 ": =59" ?@8G8=C, ?>G5<C <>;>4>9 35@>9 <5GB05B > <8@5. . 0=: (19100)1 C:070; =0 5I5 1>;55 ?>@078B5;L=K9 ?@8<5@ C (5:A?8@0 2 5=5F80=A:>< :C?F5, 2 7=0<5=8B>9 AF5=5 2K1>@0 AG0AB;82K< 2>7;N1;5==K< >4=>3> 87 B@5E ;0@F>2; O, ?>60;C9, ;CGH5 ?@>F8B8@CN A0<>3> 0=:0. ---------------------------------------- 1 0=: . (1884-1939) -- >48= 87 254CI8E ?@54AB028B5;59 ?A8E>0=0;870. @54?@8=O; ?>?KB:C <>48D8F8@>20BL 8AE>4=CN :>=F5?F8N $@5940, 2K428=C2 ?@54AB02;5=85 > "B@02<5 @>645=8O". #B25@640;>AL, GB> :064>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2> AB@0405B >B A0<>9 3;02=>9 B@02<K 2 A2>59 687=8, =0=5A5==>9 5<C >B45;5=85< >B B5;0 <0B5@8 2 <><5=B @>645=8O. !B@5<OAL, E>BO 8 =0?@0A=>, ?@5>4>;5BL MBC B@02<C, G5;>25: 15AA>7=0B5;L=> AB@5<8BAO 2>72@0B8BLAO 2 <0B5@8=A:>5 G@52>. 040G0 ?A8E>0=0;870 CA<0B@820;0AL 2 B><, GB>1K 871028BL ?0F85=B0 >B MB>9 B@02<K. >A;5 =5:>B>@KE :>;510=89 $@594 >B25@3 :>=F5?F8N 0=:0. "'@572KG09=> B>=:> EC4>65AB25==> <>B828@>20==0O 8 B5E=8G5A:8 1;5ABOI5 8A?>;L7>20==0O >3>2>@:0, :>B>@CN ?@82>48B $@594 87 0;;5=HB59=0, 4>:07K205B, GB> ?>MBK E>@>H> 7=0NB <5E0=87< 8 A<KA; >H81>G=KE 459AB289 8 ?@54?>;030NB 8E ?>=8<0=85 8 C A;CH0B5;O.  5=5F80=A:>< :C?F5 (5:A?8@0 (3-9 0:B, 2-O AF5=0) <K =0E>48< B><C 5I5 >48= ?@8<5@. >@F8O, :>B>@0O ?> 2>;5 A2>53> >BF0 <>65B 2K9B8 70<C6 B>;L:> 70 B>3>, :B> 2KBO=5B AG0AB;82K9 6@5189, ;8HL 1;03>40@O AG0AB;82>9 A;CG09=>AB8 87102;O5BAO >B =5<8;KE 59 65=8E>2. > :>340 >=0 =0E>48B =0:>=5F 0AA0=8>, 4>AB>9=>3> ?@5B5=45=B0, :>B>@K9 59 =@028BAO, >=0 1>8BAO, :0: 1K 8 >= =5 2KBO=C; =5AG0AB;82K9 6@5189. 9 E>G5BAO 5<C A:070BL, GB> 8 2 MB>< A;CG05 >= <>65B 1KBL C25@5= 2 55 ;N128, => >=0 A2O70=0 40==>9 >BFC :;OB2>9.  MB>9 2=CB@5==59 42>9AB25==>AB8 >=0 3>2>@8B 65;0==><C 65=8EC: ><54;8B5, 45=L-420 E>BL ?>4>648B5 K @8A:>20BL; 254L 5A;8 >H815B5AL -- / ?>B5@ON 20A; B0: ?>B5@?8B5. =5 GB>-B> 3>2>@8B (E>BL =5 ;N1>2L), 'B> =5 E>GC B5@OBL 20A; 20< 65 OA=>, 'B> =5=028ABL =5 40AB ?>4>1=>9 <KA;8. >, 5A;8 20< =5 2A5 5I5 ?>=OB=> (%>BL 452CH:5 ?@8AB>9=59 <KA;L, G5< A;>2>), -- / 1 <5AOF-420 E>B5;0 7045@60BL 20A, >:0 @8A:=5B5. / 1 20A =0CG8;0, 0: 2K1@0BL. > B>340 =0@CHC :;OB2C. 5B, =8 70 GB>. B0:, 2>7<>65= ?@><0E. ">340 60;5BL O 1C4C, GB> 3@5E0 5 A>25@H8;0! , ?@>:;OBL5 27>@0<, 5=O >:>;4>202H8<, @0745;82H8<! 25 ?>;>28=K C <5=O: >4=0 AO 20< ?@8=04;568B; 4@C30O -- 20<. =5 -- O A:070BL E>B5;0; 7=0G8B, 20< 65, -- "0: 20H5 2A5!.. (5@52>4 ". )5?:8=>9-C?5@=8:) >MB A C4828B5;L=K< ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< ?@>=8:=>25=85< 70AB02;O5B >@F8N 2 >3>2>@:5 A:070BL B>, =0 GB> >=0 E>B5;0 B>;L:> =0<5:=CBL, B0: :0: >=0 4>;6=0 1K;0 A:@K20BL, GB> 4> 8AE>40 2K1>@0 >=0 2AO 53> 8 53> ;N18B, 8 MB8< 8A:CA=K< ?@85<>< ?>MB 2K2>48B ;N1OI53>, B0: 65 :0: 8 A>GC2AB2CNI53> 5<C 7@8B5;O, 87 A>AB>O=8O <CG8B5;L=>9 =58725AB=>AB8, CA?>:0820O =0AG5B 8AE>40 2K1>@0". 1@0B8B5 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, :0: ;>2:> >@F8O 2KE>48B 87 A>7402H53>AO 2A;54AB285 55 >3>2>@:8 ?@>B82>@5G8O, ?>4B25@640O 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 ?@028;L=>ABL >3>2>@:8: =5 -- O A:070BL E>B5;0; 7=0G8B, 20< 65, -- "0: 20H5 2A5!.. "0: <KA;8B5;L, 40;5:89 >B <548F8=K, 8=>340 <>65B @0A:@KBL A<KA; >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O >4=8< A2>8< 70<5G0=85<, 8710282 =0A >B 2KA;CH820=8O @07JOA=5=89. K 2A5, :>=5G=>, 7=05B5 >AB@>C<=>3> A0B8@8:0 8EB5=15@30 (1742-1799),1 > :>B>@>< 5B5 A:070;: ""0<, 345 C =53> HCB:0, <>65B A:@K20BLAO ?@>1;5<0. > 254L 1;03>40@O HCB:5 8=>340 @5H05BAO ?@>1;5<0".  A2>8E >AB@>C<=KE A0B8@8G5A:8E 70<5B:0E (1853) 8EB5=15@3 ?8H5B: "= 2A5340 G8B0; Agamemnon [30<5<=>=] 2<5AB> angenommen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inn) :0:>3>-B> ?A8E8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0 =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: =0<5@5=85, :>B>@><C >= A;C68B, 8 53> <5AB> 2 @O4C 4@C38E ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>O2;5=89.  1>;LH8=AB25 =0H8E 8AA;54>20=89 A;>2> "A<KA;" <K <>65< 70<5=8BL A;>2>< "=0<5@5=85" (Absicht), "B5=45=F8O" (Tendenz). 4=0:> =5 O2;O5BAO ;8 A0<>>1<0=>< 8;8 ?>MB8G5A:>9 2>;L=>ABLN A =0H59 AB>@>=K, GB> <K CA<0B@8205< 2 >H81>G=>< 459AB288 =0<5@5=85? C45< 65 ?>-?@56=5<C 70=8<0BLAO >3>2>@:0<8 8 @0AA<>B@8< 1>;LH55 :>;8G5AB2> =01;N45=89. K C2848<, GB> 2 F5;>< @O45 A;CG052 =0<5@5=85, A<KA; >3>2>@:8 A>25@H5==> >G52845=. -B> ?@5645 2A53> B5 A;CG08, :>340 3>2>@8BAO ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 B><C, GB> =0<5@520;8AL A:070BL. @57845=B 2 @5G8 =0 >B:@KB88 70A540=8O 3>2>@8B: "1JO2;ON 70A540=85 70:@KBK<". !<KA; 8 =0<5@5=85 53> >H81:8 2 B><, GB> >= E>G5B 70:@KBL 70A540=85. "0: 8 E>G5BAO ?@>F8B8@>20BL: "0 254L >= A0< >1 MB>< 3>2>@8B"; >AB05BAO B>;L:> ?>9<0BL 53> =0 A;>25. 5 2>7@0609B5 <=5, GB> MB> =52>7<>6=>, 254L ?@54A540B5;L, :0: <K 7=05<, E>B5; =5 70:@KBL, 0 >B:@KBL 70A540=85, 8 >= A0< ?>4B25@48B MB>, 0 53> <=5=85 O2;O5BAO 4;O =0A 2KAH59 8=AB0=F859. @8 MB>< 2K 701K205B5, GB> <K CA;>28;8AL @0AA<0B@820BL >H81>G=>5 459AB285 A0<> ?> A515; > 53> >B=>H5=88 : =0<5@5=8N, :>B>@>5 87-70 =53> =0@CH05BAO, <K 1C45< 3>2>@8BL ?>765. =0G5 2K 4>?CAB8B5 ;>38G5A:CN >H81:C 8 ?@>AB> CAB@0=8B5 ?@>1;5<C, B>, GB> 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 =07K205BAO begging the question.  4@C38E A;CG0OE, :>340 ?@8 >3>2>@:5 ?@O<> =5 2KA:07K205BAO ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 CB25@645=85, 2 =59 2A5 65 2K@0605BAO ?@>B82>?>;>6=K9 A<KA;. "/ =5 A:;>=5= (2<5AB> =5A?>A>15=) >F5=8BL 70A;C38 A2>53> C20605<>3> ?@54H5AB25==8:0". "Geneigt" (A:;>=5=) =5 O2;O5BAO ?@>B82>?>;>6=K< "geeignet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a, das dr4ut. Das dauert vielleicht noch einen Monat [0, MB> ?@>4;8BAO, 25@>OB=>, 5I5 <5AOF; => 2<5AB> A;>20 "?@>4;8BAO" -- dauert -- 2=0G0;5 1K;> A:070=> AB@0==>5 "dr4ut"]. 0 2>?@>A, GB> >= MB8< E>B5; A:070BL, >=, ?>4C<02, >B25B8;: Das ist eine traurige Geschichte [-B> ?5G0;L=0O 8AB>@8O]. 7 AB>;:=>25=8O A;>2 "dauert" [40C5@B] 8 "traurige" [B@0C@835] ?>;CG8;>AL "4@0CB" (Meringer, Mayer, 1895). @C3>9 @0AA:07K205B > ?@>8AH5AB28OE, :>B>@K5 >= >AC6405B, 8 ?@>4>;605B: Dann aber sind die Tatsachen zum Vorschwein [D>@H209=] gekommen. [ B>340 >1=0@C68;8AL D0:BK; => 2 A;>2> Vorschein -- M;5<5=B 2K@065=8O ">1=0@C68;8AL" -- 2AB02;5=0 ;8H=OO 1C:20 w]. 0 @0AA?@>AK @0AA:07G8: >B25B8;, GB> >= AG8B05B MB8 D0:BK A28=AB2>< -- Schweinerei. 20 A;>20 -- Vorschein [D>@H09=] 8 Schweinerei [H209=5@09] -- 2<5AB5 >1@07>20;8 AB@0==>5 "D>@H209=" (5@8=35@, 095@). A?><=8< A;CG09, :>340 <>;>4>9 G5;>25: E>B5; begleitdigen 40<C. K 8<5;8 A<5;>ABL @0745;8BL MBC A;>25A=CN :>=AB@C:F8N =0 begleiten [?@>2>48BL] 8 beleidigen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apopos [?> 704C] 2<5AB> apropos [:AB0B8] 8;8 Eischei/weibchen [~3=CA=0O 1015=:0] 2<5AB> Eiwei/scheibchen [15;:>20O ?;0AB8=:0] (5@8=35@, 095@). K 7=05< <=>38E ;N459, :>B>@K5 @048 C4>2>;LAB28O =0<5@5==> 8A:060NB 157>184=K5 A;>20, ?@52@0I0O 8E 2 =5?@8;8G=K5; MB> AG8B05BAO >AB@>C<=K<, 8 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 G0AB> ?@8E>48BAO A?@0H820BL G5;>25:0, >B :>B>@>3> A;KH8HL ?>4>1=>5, ?>HCB8; ;8 >= =0<5@5==> 8;8 >3>2>@8;AO. C 2>B <K 157 >A>1>3> B@C40 8 @5H8;8 70304:C >H81>G=KE 459AB289! =8 =5 O2;ONBAO A;CG09=>ABO<8, 0 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 A5@L57=K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 0:BK, 8<5NI85 A2>9 A<KA;, >=8 2>7=8:0NB 1;03>40@O 2708<>459AB28N, 0 ;CGH5 A:070BL, ?@>B82>459AB28N 42CE @07;8G=KE =0<5@5=89.  B5?5@L <>3C A515 ?@54AB028BL, :0:>9 3@04 2>?@>A>2 8 A><=5=89 2K 3>B>2K =0 <5=O >1@CH8BL, 8 O 4>;65= >B25B8BL =0 =8E 8 @07@5H8BL 20H8 A><=5=8O, ?@5645 G5< <K ?>@04C5<AO ?5@2><C @57C;LB0BC =0H59 @01>BK. /, :>=5G=>, =5 E>GC ?>4B0;:820BL 20A : ?>A?5H=K< 2K2>40<. 0209B5 65 ?>425@3=5< 15A?@8AB@0AB=><C 0=0;87C 2A5 ?> ?>@O4:C, >4=> 70 4@C38<.  G5< 2K E>B5;8 1K <5=O A?@>A8BL? !G8B0N ;8 O, GB> MB> >1JOA=O5B 2A5 A;CG08 >3>2>@>: 8;8 B>;L:> >?@545;5==>5 8E G8A;>? >6=> ;8 B0:>5 >1JOA=5=85 ?5@5=5AB8 8 =0 <=>385 4@C385 284K >H81>G=KE 459AB289: =0 >G8B:8, >?8A:8, 701K20=85, 70E20BK20=85 25I59 "?> >H81:5" (Vergreifen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ergreifen >7=0G05B 1C:20;L=> ">H81:0", ">H81>G=K9 70E20B" :0:>3>-;81> ?@54<5B0. ">G=K9 ?5@52>4 A;>20 7028A8B >B :>=B5:AB0. >MB><C 2 >4=>< A;CG05 <K ?5@52>48< MB> A;>2> :0: "70E20BK20=85 (?> >H81:5)", 2 4@C3>< -- :0: "459AB285 ?> >H81:5" (=5 ?CB0BL A ">H81>G=K< 459AB285<" -- Fehlleistung, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO @>4>2K< ?>=OB85< : Vergreifen), 2 B@5BL5< -- ?@>AB> :0: ">H81:0" (=5 ?CB0BL A> A;>2>< "Irrtum", :>B>@>5 B0:65 ?5@52>48BAO :0: ">H81:0"). -- @8<. @54. ?5@52>40. 2>?@>A: GB> MB> 70 =0<5@5=8O 8;8 B5=45=F88, :>B>@K5 <5H0NB ?@>O28BLAO 4@C38<, 8 :0:>2K 2708<>>B=>H5=8O <564C =8<8? K ?@>4>;68< =0HC @01>BC B>;L:> ?>A;5 @5H5=8O MB>9 ?@>1;5<K. B0:, ?>4E>48B ;8 =0H5 >1JOA=5=85 4;O 2A5E A;CG052 >3>2>@>:? / >G5=L A:;>=5= MB><C 25@8BL 8 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> :>340 @0718@05HL :064K9 A;CG09 >3>2>@:8, B0:>5 >1JOA=5=85 =0E>48BAO. > MB> 5I5 =5 4>:07K205B, GB> =5B >3>2>@>: 4@C3>3> E0@0:B5@0. CABL 1C45B B0:; 4;O =0H59 B5>@88 MB> 157@07;8G=>, B0: :0: 2K2>4K, :>B>@K5 <K E>B8< A45;0BL 4;O 22545=8O 2 ?A8E>0=0;87, >AB0=CBAO 2 A8;5 4065 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 1K =0H5<C >1JOA=5=8N ?>44020;>AL ;8HL =51>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> >3>2>@>:, GB>, 2?@>G5<, =5 B0:. 0 A;54CNI89 2>?@>A -- <>6=> ;8 ?>;CG5==K5 40==K5 >1 >3>2>@:0E @0A?@>AB@0=8BL =0 4@C385 284K >H81>G=KE 459AB289? -- O E>B5; 1K 70@0=55 >B25B8BL ?>;>68B5;L=>. K A0<8 C1548B5AL 2 MB><, :>340 <K ?5@5945< : @0AA<>B@5=8N ?@8<5@>2 >?8A>:, 70E20BK20=8O "?> >H81:5" ?@54<5B>2 8 B. 4. > ?> <5B>48G5A:8< A>>1@065=8O< O ?@54;030N >B;>68BL MBC @01>BC, ?>:0 <K >A=>20B5;L=55 =5 @0715@5<AO A >3>2>@:0<8. >?@>A > B><, 8<5NB ;8 4;O =0A 7=0G5=85 2K428305<K5 4@C38<8 02B>@0<8 =0 ?5@2K9 ?;0= D0:B>@K =0@CH5=8O :@>2>>1@0I5=8O, CB><;5=8O, 2>71C645=8O, @0AA5O==>AB8 8 B5>@8O @0AAB@>9AB20 2=8<0=8O, 70A;C68205B 1>;55 2=8<0B5;L=>3> @0AA<>B@5=8O, 5A;8 <K ?@87=05< >?8A0==K9 2KH5 ?A8E8G5A:89 <5E0=87< >3>2>@:8. 0<5BLB5, <K =5 >A?0@8205< MB8E <><5=B>2. A8E>0=0;87 2>>1I5 @54:> >A?0@8205B B>, GB> CB25@640NB 4@C385; :0: ?@028;>, >= 4>102;O5B GB>-B> =>2>5, ?@0240, G0AB> ?>;CG05BAO B0:, GB> MB> @0=55 =5 70<5G5==>5 8 2=>2L 4>102;5==>5 8 O2;O5BAO :0: @07 ACI5AB25==K<. 0<8 157>3>2>@>G=> ?@87=05BAO 2;8O=85 =0 2>7=8:=>25=8O >3>2>@:8 D878>;>38G5A:8E CA;>289 ;53:>3> =574>@>2LO, =0@CH5=89 :@>2>>1@0I5=8O, A>AB>O=8O 8AB>I5=8O, >1 MB>< A2845B5;LAB2C5B =0H ?>2A54=52=K9 ;8G=K9 >?KB. > :0: <0;> MB8< >1JOA=O5BAO! @5645 2A53>, MB> =5 >1O70B5;L=K5 CA;>28O 4;O >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O. 3>2>@:0 2>7<>6=0 ?@8 01A>;NB=>< 74>@>2L5 8 2 =>@<0;L=>< A>AB>O=88. -B8 A><0B8G5A:85 CA;>28O <>3CB B>;L:> >1;53G8BL 8 CA:>@8BL ?@>O2;5=85 A2>5>1@07=>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> <5E0=87<0 >3>2>@:8. ;O >1JOA=5=8O MB>3> >B=>H5=8O O ?@82>48; :>340-B> A@02=5=85, :>B>@>5 A59G0A ?>2B>@N 70 =58<5=85< ;CGH53>. @54?>;>68<, GB> O 84C B5<=>9 =>GLN ?> 157;N4=><C <5ABC, =0 <5=O =0?0405B 3@018B5;L, >B=8<05B G0AK 8 :>H5;5:. "0: :0: O =5 @073;O45; ;8F0 3@018B5;O, B> 2 1;8609H5< ?>;8F59A:>< CG0AB:5 O 70O2;ON: "57;N4=>5 <5AB> 8 B5<=>B0 B>;L:> GB> >B=O;8 C <5=O F5==K5 25I8". 0 GB> ?>;8F59A:89 :><8AA0@ <=5 <>65B A:070BL: "K =0?@0A=> ?@845@68205B5AL G8AB> <5E0=8AB8G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O. @54AB028< A515 45;> ;CGH5 B0:: ?>4 70I8B>9 B5<=>BK 2 157;N4=>< <5AB5 =58725AB=K9 3@018B5;L >B=O; C 20A F5==K5 25I8. !0<K< 206=K< 2 20H5< A;CG05 O2;O5BAO, :0: <=5 :065BAO, B>, GB>1K <K =0H;8 3@018B5;O. ">340, <>65B 1KBL, <K A<>65< 701@0BL C =53> ?>E8I5==>5". "0:85 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:85 CA;>28O, :0: 2>71C645=85, @0AA5O==>ABL, =0@CH5=85 2=8<0=8O 40NB >G5=L <0;> 4;O >1JOA=5=8O >H81>G=KE 459AB289. -B> B>;L:> D@07K, H8@<K, 70 :>B>@K5 <K =5 4>;6=K 1>OBLAO 703;O=CBL. CGH5 A?@>A8<, G5< 2K720=> MB> 2>;=5=85, >A>1>5 >B2;5G5=85 2=8<0=8O. ;8O=85 A>72CG89, AE>4AB2 A;>2 8 C?>B@518B5;L=KE A;>25A=KE 0AA>F80F89 B>65 A;54C5B ?@87=0BL 206=K<8. =8 B>65 >1;53G0NB ?>O2;5=85 >3>2>@:8, C:07K20O 59 ?CB8, ?> :>B>@K< >=0 <>65B ?>9B8. > 5A;8 ?5@54> <=>9 ;568B :0:>9-B> ?CBL, ?@54@5H5=> ;8, GB> O ?>94C 8<5==> ?> =5<C? 5>1E>48< 5I5 :0:>9-B> <>B82, GB>1K O @5H8;AO =0 =53>, 8, :@><5 B>3>, A8;0, :>B>@0O 1K <5=O ?@>42830;0 ?> MB><C ?CB8. "0:8< >1@07><, :0: A>>B=>H5=85 72C:>2 8 A;>2, B0: 8 A><0B8G5A:85 CA;>28O B>;L:> A?>A>1AB2CNB ?>O2;5=8N >3>2>@:8 8 =5 <>3CB 55 >1JOA=8BL. >4C<09B5, >4=0:>, > B>< >3@><=>< G8A;5 A;CG052, :>340 @5GL =5 =0@CH05BAO 87-70 AE>65AB8 72CG0=8O C?>B@51;5==>3> A;>20 A 4@C38<, 87-70 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8 8E 7=0G5=89 8;8 C?>B@518B5;L=>AB8 A;>25A=KE 0AA>F80F89. K <>3;8 1K A>3;0A8BLAO A D8;>A>D>< C=4B>< 2 B><, GB> >3>2>@:0 ?>O2;O5BAO, :>340 2A;54AB285 D878G5A:>3> 8AB>I5=8O 0AA>F80B82=K5 =0:;>==>AB8 =0G8=0NB ?@5>1;040BL =04 4@C38<8 ?>1C645=8O<8 2 @5G8. ! MB8< <>6=> 1K;> 1K ;53:> A>3;0A8BLAO, 5A;8 1K MB> =5 ?@>B82>@5G8;> D0:B0< 2>7=8:=>25=8O >3>2>@:8 2 A;CG0OE, :>340 >BACBAB2CNB ;81> D878G5A:85, ;81> 0AA>F80B82=K5 CA;>28O 4;O 55 ?>O2;5=8O1. > >A>15==> 8=B5@5A=K< :065BAO <=5 20H A;54CNI89 2>?@>A -- :0:8< >1@07>< <>6=> C1548BLAO 2 ACI5AB2>20=88 42CE A>?5@=8G0NI8E =0<5@5=89? K 8 =5 ?>4>7@5205B5, : :0:8< A5@L57=K< 2K2>40< 2545B =0A MB>B 2>?@>A. 5 ?@0240 ;8, >4=> 87 42CE =0<5@5=89, 0 8<5==> =0@CH5==>5 (gestFrte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stFrende) =0<5@5=85. K C65 A;KH0;8, 0 2K, :>=5G=>, =5 701K;8, GB> 2 @O45 A;CG052 MB> =0<5@5=85 B>65 4>AB0B>G=> OA=> 2K@065=>. => >1=0@C68205BAO 2 MDD5:B5 >3>2>@:8, 5A;8 B>;L:> 27OBL =0 A51O A<5;>ABL AG8B0BL MB>B MDD5:B 4>:070B5;LAB2><. @57845=B, :>B>@K9 4>?CA:05B >3>2>@:C A >1@0B=K< A<KA;><, :>=5G=>, E>G5B >B:@KBL 70A540=85, => =5 <5=55 OA=>, GB> >= E>G5B 53> 8 70:@KBL. -B> =0AB>;L:> >G5284=>, GB> BCB 8 B>;:>20BL =5G53>.  :0: 4>3040BLAO > =0@CH0NI5< =0<5@5=88 ?> 8A:065=8N 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85 B>;L:> 8A:0605B ?5@2>=0G0;L=>5, =5 2K@060O A51O ?>;=>ABLN?  ?5@2>< @O45 A;CG052 MB> B>G=> B0: 65 ?@>AB> 8 45;05BAO B0:8< 65 >1@07><, :0: 8 ?@8 >?@545;5=88 =0@CH5==>3> =0<5@5=8O.  =5< A>>1I05B A0< 4>?CAB82H89 >3>2>@:C, >= A@07C <>65B 2>AAB0=>28BL B>, GB> =0<5@520;AO A:070BL ?5@2>=0G0;L=>: "Das draut, nein, das dauert vielleicht noch einen Monat" [-B> 4@0CB, =5B, MB> ?@>4;8BAO, 25@>OB=>, 5I5 <5AOF]. A:060NI55 =0<5@5=85 >= BCB 65 2K@078;, :>340 53> A?@>A8;8, GB> >= E>B5; A:070BL A;>2>< "4@0CB": "Das ist eine traurige Geschichte [-B> ?5G0;L=0O 8AB>@8O]. > 2B>@>< A;CG05, ?@8 >3>2>@:5 "Vorschwein", >= A@07C 65 ?>4B25@6405B, GB> E>B5; A=0G0;0 A:070BL: "Das ist Schweinerei" [-B> A28=AB2>], => A45@60;AO 8 2K@078;AO ?>-4@C3><C. A:060NI55 =0<5@5=85 745AL B0: 65 ;53:> CAB0=>28BL, :0: 8 8A:065==>5. / =0<5@5==> >AB0=>28;AO 745AL =0 B0:8E ?@8<5@0E, :>B>@K5 ?@82>48; 8 B>;:>20; =5 O 8;8 :B>-=81C4L 87 <>8E ?>A;54>20B5;59. 4=0:> 2 >1>8E MB8E ?@8<5@0E 4;O @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<K =C65= 1K; >48= =51>;LH>9 ?@85<. 04> 1K;> A?@>A8BL 3>2>@82H53>, ?>G5<C >= A45;0; 8<5==> B0:CN >3>2>@:C 8 GB> >= <>65B > =59 A:070BL.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05, =5 65;0O 55 >1JOA=OBL, >= ?@>H5; 1K <8<> =55. 0 ?>AB02;5==K9 65 2>?@>A >= 40; ?5@2>5 ?@8H54H55 5<C 2 3>;>2C >1JOA=5=85.  B5?5@L 2K 2848B5, GB> MB>B ?@85< 8 53> @57C;LB0B 8 5ABL ?A8E>0=0;87 8 >1@075F ;N1>3> ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O, :>B>@K< <K 709<5<AO 2?>A;54AB288. 5 A;8H:>< ;8 O =54>25@G82, ?>;030O, GB> 2 B>B A0<K9 <><5=B, :>340 C 20A B>;L:> A:;04K205BAO ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?A8E>0=0;875, ?@>B82 =53> 65 ?>4=8<05BAO 8 ?@>B5AB? 5 2>7=8:05B ;8 C 20A 65;0=8O 2>7@078BL <=5, GB> A2545=8O, ?>;CG5==K5 >B G5;>25:0, 4>?CAB82H53> >3>2>@:C, =5 2?>;=5 4>:070B5;L=K? B25G0O =0 2>?@>AK, >=, :>=5G=>, AB0@0;AO, ?>;0305B5 2K, >1JOA=8BL A2>N >3>2>@:C, 2>B 8 A:070; ?5@2>5, GB> ?@8H;> 5<C 2 3>;>2C 8 ?>:070;>AL E>BL A:>;L-=81C4L ?@83>4=K< 4;O >1JOA=5=8O. > MB> 5I5 =5 4>:070B5;LAB2> B>3>, GB> >3>2>@:0 2>7=8:;0 8<5==> B0:8< >1@07><. >=5G=>, <>3;> 1KBL 8 B0:, => A B0:8< 65 CA?5E>< 8 8=0G5. <C 2 3>;>2C <>3;> ?@89B8 8 4@C3>5 >1JOA=5=85, B0:>5 65 ?>4E>4OI55, 0 <>65B 1KBL, 4065 ;CGH55. #4828B5;L=>, :0: <0;> C 20A, 2 ACI=>AB8, C2065=8O : ?A8E8G5A:><C D0:BC! @54AB02LB5 A515, GB> :B>-B> ?@>8725; E8<8G5A:89 0=0;87 25I5AB20 8 >1=0@C68; 2 53> A>AB025 4@C3>5, 25A>< 2 AB>;L:>-B> <8;;83@0<<>2. 0==K9 25A 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL A45;0BL >?@545;5==K5 2K2>4K.  B5?5@L ?@54AB02LB5, GB> :0:><C-B> E8<8:C ?@8H;> 2 3>;>2C CA><=8BLAO 2 MB8E 2K2>40E, <>B828@CO MB> B5<, GB> 2K45;5==>5 25I5AB2> <>3;> 8<5BL 8 4@C3>9 25A. 064K9 AG8B05BAO A D0:B><, GB> 25A 8<5==> B0:>9, 0 =5 4@C3>9, 8 C25@5==> AB@>8B =0 MB>< 40;L=59H85 2K2>4K. A;8 65 =0;8F> ?A8E8G5A:89 D0:B, :>340 G5;>25:C ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C >?@545;5==0O <KA;L, 2K A MB8< ?>G5<C-B> =5 AG8B05B5AL 8 3>2>@8B5, GB> 5<C <>3;0 ?@89B8 2 3>;>2C 8 4@C30O <KA;L! # 20A 5ABL 8;;N78O ;8G=>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 A2>1>4K, 8 2K =5 E>B8B5 >B =55 >B:070BLAO. =5 >G5=L 60;L, => 2 MB>< O A0<K< A5@L57=K< >1@07>< @0AE>6CAL A 20<8 2> <=5=8OE. "5?5@L 2K =5 AB0=5B5 1>;LH5 2>7@060BL, => B>;L:> 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 =5 =0945B5 4@C3>3> ?@>B82>@5G8O. K ?@>4>;68B5: <K ?>=8<05<, GB> >A>15==>ABL B5E=8:8 ?A8E>0=0;870 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K 70AB028BL G5;>25:0 A0<>3> @5H8BL A2>8 ?@>1;5<K. >7L<5< 4@C3>9 ?@8<5@: >@0B>@ ?@83;0H05B A>1@02H8EAO G>:=CBLAO (>B@K3=CBL) 70 74>@>2L5 H5D0. > =0H8< A;>20<, =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85 2 MB>< A;CG05 -- C=878BL, >=> 8 =5 405B >@0B>@C 2K@078BL ?>GB5=85. > MB> 2A53> ;8HL =0H5 B>;:>20=85, >A=>20==>5 =0 =01;N45=8OE 70 ?@545;0<8 >3>2>@:8. A;8 <K 2 MB>< A;CG05 1C45< @0AA?@0H820BL >3>2>@82H53>AO, >= =5 ?>4B25@48B, GB> =0<5@520;AO =0=5AB8 >A:>@1;5=85, 1>;55 B>3>, >= 1C45B M=5@38G=> MB> >B@8F0BL. >G5<C 65 <K 2A5 65 =5 >B:07K205<AO >B =0H53> =54>:07C5<>3> B>;:>20=8O 8 ?>A;5 B0:>3> G5B:>3> 2>7@065=8O? 0, =0 MB>B @07 2K =0H;8 A5@L57=K9 0@3C<5=B. / ?@54AB02;ON A515 =57=0:><>3> >@0B>@0, 2>7<>6=>, 0AA8AB5=B0 B>3> H5D0, 0 2>7<>6=>, C65 ?@820B-4>F5=B0, <>;>4>3> G5;>25:0 A 1;5ABOI8< 1C4CI8<. / =0AB>9G82> AB0=C 53> 2KA?@0H820BL, =5 GC2AB2>20; ;8 >= ?@8 G5AB2>20=88 H5D0 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> =0<5@5=8O? > 2>B O 8 ?>?0;AO. "5@?5=85 53> 8AB>I05BAO, 8 >= 24@C3 =01@0AK205BAO =0 <5=O: ">=G09B5 2K A2>8 @0AA?@>AK, 8=0G5 O =5 ?>@CGCAL 70 A51O. !2>8<8 ?>4>7@5=8O<8 2K ?>@B8B5 <=5 2AN :0@L5@C. / ?@>AB> >3>2>@8;AO, A:070; aufsto/en 2<5AB> ansto/en, ?>B><C GB> 2 MB>< ?@54;>65=88 C65 420 @070 C?>B@518; "auf". # 5@8=35@0 B0:0O >3>2>@:0 =07K205BAO >B72C:><, 8 =5G53> BCB B>;:>20BL 2:@82L 8 2:>AL. K <5=O ?>=O;8? %20B8B". <, :0:0O C4828B5;L=0O @50:F8O; 25AL<0 M=5@38G=>5 >B@8F0=85. ! <>;>4K< G5;>25:>< =8G53> =5 ?>45;05HL, => O ?@> A51O 4C<0N, GB> 53> 2K405B A8;L=0O ;8G=0O 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 2 B><, GB>1K 53> >H81>G=><C 459AB28N =5 ?@84020;8 A<KA;0. >65B 1KBL, 8 20< ?>:065BAO, GB> =5?@028;L=> A 53> AB>@>=K 25AB8 A51O B0: 3@C1> 2> 2@5<O G8AB> B5>@5B8G5A:>3> >1A;54>20=8O, =>, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2, ?>4C<05B5 2K, >= A0< 4>;65= 7=0BL, GB> >= E>B5; A:070BL, 0 G53> =5B. >;65= ;8? >60;C9, MB> 5I5 2>?@>A. C, B5?5@L 2K B>G=> AG8B05B5, GB> O C 20A 2 @C:0E. "0: 2>B :0:>20 20H0 B5E=8:0 8AA;54>20=8O, O A;KHC, 3>2>@8B5 2K. A;8 A45;02H89 >3>2>@:C 3>2>@8B > =59 B>, GB> 20< ?>4E>48B, B> 2K >AB02;O5B5 70 =8< ?@02> ?>A;54=59 @5H0NI59 8=AB0=F88. "= 254L A0< MB> A:070;!" A;8 65 B>, GB> >= 3>2>@8B, 20< =5 3>48BAO, 2K BCB 65 70O2;O5B5: =5G53> A =8< AG8B0BLAO, 5<C =5;L7O 25@8BL. A5 MB> B0:. / <>3C ?@825AB8 20< 0=0;>38G=K9 A;CG09, 345 45;> >1AB>8B AB>;L 65 =525@>OB=>. A;8 >128=O5<K9 ?@87=05BAO AC4L5 2 A2>5< ?@>ABC?:5, AC4LO 25@8B 53> ?@87=0=8N; => 5A;8 >128=O5<K9 >B@8F05B A2>N 28=C, AC4LO =5 25@8B 5<C. A;8 1K 1K;> ?>-4@C3><C, B> =5 1K;> 1K ?@02>AC48O, 0 2K 254L ?@87=05B5 MBC A8AB5<C, =5A<>B@O =0 8<5NI85AO 2 =59 =54>AB0B:8. 0, => @0725 2K AC4LO, 0 A45;02H89 >3>2>@:C ?>4AC48<K9? 0725 >3>2>@:0 -- ?@5ABC?;5=85? >65B 1KBL, 8 =5 A;54C5B >B:07K20BLAO >B MB>3> A@02=5=8O. > ?>A<>B@8B5 B>;L:>, : :0:8< A5@L57=K< @07=>3;0A8O< <K ?@8H;8, C3;C182H8AL 2 B0:CN, :070;>AL 1K, =528==CN ?@>1;5<C, :0: >H81>G=K5 459AB28O. >:0 <K 5I5 =5 2 A>AB>O=88 A3;048BL 2A5 MB8 ?@>B82>@5G8O. / 2A5-B0:8 ?@54;030N 2@5<5==> A>E@0=8BL A@02=5=85 A AC4L59 8 ?>4AC48<K<. !>3;0A8B5AL, GB> A<KA; >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O =5 2K7K205B A><=5=8O, 5A;8 0=0;878@C5<K9 A0< ?@87=05B 53>. 0B> 8 O 4>;65= A>3;0A8BLAO A 20<8, GB> =5;L7O ?@54AB028BL ?@O<>3> 4>:070B5;LAB20 ?@54?>;0305<>3> A<KA;0 >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O, 5A;8 0=0;878@C5<K9 >B:07K205BAO A>>1I8BL :0:85-;81> A2545=8O 8;8 65 >= ?@>AB> >BACBAB2C5B.  B0:8E A;CG0OE B0: 65, :0: 8 2 AC4>?@>872>4AB25, ?@81530NB : :>A25==K< C;8:0<, :>B>@K5 ?>72>;ONB A45;0BL 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 25@>OB=>5 70:;NG5=85. 0 >A=>20=88 :>A25==KE C;8: AC4 8=>340 ?@87=05B ?>4AC48<>3> 28=>2=K<. # =0A =5B B0:>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8, => 8 =0< =5 A;54C5B >B:07K20BLAO >B 8A?>;L7>20=8O B0:8E C;8:. K;> 1K >H81:>9 ?@54?>;030BL, GB> =0C:0 A>AB>8B B>;L:> 87 AB@>3> 4>:070==KE ?>;>65=89, 40 8 =5?@028;L=> >B =55 MB>3> B@51>20BL. "0:85 B@51>20=8O : =0C:5 <>65B ?@54JO2;OBL B>;L:> B>B, :B> 8I5B 02B>@8B5B>2 8 >ICI05B ?>B@51=>ABL 70<5=8BL A2>9 @5;838>7=K9 :0B5E878A =0 4@C3>9, E>BO 1K 8 =0CG=K9. 0C:0 =0AG8BK205B 2 A2>5< :0B5E878A5 <0;> 0?>48:B8G5A:8E ?>;>65=89, 2 =59 1>;LH5 CB25@645=89, 8<5NI8E >?@545;5==CN AB5?5=L 25@>OB=>AB8. @87=0:>< =0CG=>3> <KH;5=8O :0: @07 8 O2;O5BAO A?>A>1=>ABL 4>2>;LAB2>20BLAO ;8HL ?@81;865=85< : 8AB8=5 8 ?@>4>;60BL B2>@G5A:CN @01>BC, =5A<>B@O =0 >BACBAB285 >:>=G0B5;L=KE ?>4B25@645=89. 0 GB> 65 =0< >?5@5BLAO 2 A2>5< B>;:>20=88, 345 =09B8 :>A25==K5 C;8:8, 5A;8 ?>:070=8O 0=0;878@C5<>3> =5 @0A:@K20NB A<KA;0 >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O?  @07=KE <5AB0E. !=0G0;0 1C45< 8AE>48BL 87 0=0;>388 A O2;5=8O<8, =5 A2O70==K<8 A >H81>G=K<8 459AB28O<8, =0?@8<5@, :>340 <K CB25@6405<, GB> 8A:065=85 8<5= ?@8 >3>2>@:5 8<55B B>B 65 C=860NI89 A<KA;, :0: 8 ?@8 =0<5@5==>< :>25@:0=89 8<5=8. 0;55 <K 1C45< 8AE>48BL 87 ?A8E8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88, 2 :>B>@>9 A>25@H05BAO >H81>G=>5 459AB285, 87 7=0=8O E0@0:B5@0 G5;>25:0, A>25@H82H53> >H81>G=>5 459AB285, 87 B5E 2?5G0B;5=89, :>B>@K5 >= ?>;CG8; 4> >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O, 2>7<>6=>, GB> 8<5==> =0 =8E >= 8 @5038@>20; MB8< >H81>G=K< 459AB285<. 1KG=> <K B>;:C5< >H81>G=>5 459AB285, 8AE>4O 87 >1I8E A>>1@065=89, 8 2KA:07K205< A=0G0;0 B>;L:> ?@54?>;>65=85, 38?>B57C 4;O B>;:>20=8O, 0 70B5<, 8AA;54CO ?A8E8G5A:CN A8BC0F8N 4>?CAB82H53> >H81:C, =0E>48< 5<C ?>4B25@645=85. =>340 ?@8E>48BAO 640BL A>1KB89, :0: 1K ?@54A:070==KE >H81>G=K< 459AB285<, GB>1K =09B8 ?>4B25@645=85 =0H5<C ?@54?>;>65=8N. A;8 O >3@0=8GCAL >4=>9 B>;L:> >1;0ABLN >3>2>@>:, O 5420 ;8 AC<5N AB>;L 65 ;53:> =09B8 =C6=K5 4>:070B5;LAB20, E>BO 8 745AL 5ABL >B45;L=K5 2?5G0B;ONI85 ?@8<5@K. >;>4>9 G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 E>B5; 1K begleitdigen 40<C, =025@=O:0 @>1:89; 40<C, <C6 :>B>@>9 5AB 8 ?L5B B>, GB> >=0 E>G5B, O 7=0N :0: >4=C 87 B5E M=5@38G=KE 65=I8=, :>B>@K5 C<5NB :><0=4>20BL 2A5< 2 4><5. ;8 2>7L<5< B0:>9 ?@8<5@: =0 >1I5< A>1@0=88 ">=:>@488" <>;>4>9 G;5= MB>3> >1I5AB20 ?@>87=>A8B 3>@OGCN >??>78F8>==CN @5GL, 2> 2@5<O :>B>@>9 >= >1@0I05BAO : G;5=0< ?@02;5=8O, =07K20O 8E "VorscAssmitglieder" [G;5=K AAC4K], A;>2><, :>B>@>5 <>65B ?>;CG8BLAO 87 A;8O=8O A;>2 Vorstand [?@02;5=85] 8 Ausschu/ [:><8AA8O]. K ?@54?>;0305<, GB> C =53> 2>7=8:;> =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85, ?@>B82>@5G0I55 53> >??>78F8>==K< 2KA:07K20=8O< 8 :>B>@>5 <>3;> 1KBL A2O70=> A> AAC4>9. 59AB28B5;L=>, 2A:>@5 <K C7=05<, GB> >@0B>@ ?>AB>O==> =C640;AO 2 45=L30E 8 =5704>;3> 4> B>3> ?>40; ?@>H5=85 > AAC45. 0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85 459AB28B5;L=> <>3;> 2K@078BLAO 2 B0:>9 <KA;8: A45@68AL 2 A2>59 >??>78F88, MB> 254L ;N48, :>B>@K5 @07@5H0B B515 2K40GC AAC4K. / A<>3C ?@825AB8 20< F5;K9 @O4 B0:8E C;8G0NI8E 4>:070B5;LAB2, :>340 ?5@594C : 4@C38< >H81>G=K< 459AB28O<. A;8 :B>-B> 701K205B E>@>H> 8725AB=>5 5<C 8<O 8 A B@C4>< 53> 70?><8=05B, B> <>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> ?@>B82 =>A8B5;O MB>3> 8<5=8 >= GB>-B> 8<55B 8 =5 E>G5B > =5< 4C<0BL. 0AA<>B@8< ?A8E8G5A:CN A8BC0F8N, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@>8AE>48B MB> >H81>G=>5 459AB285. ">A?>48= # 1K; 157=0456=> 2;N1;5= 2 40<C, :>B>@0O 2A:>@5 2KE>48B 70<C6 70 3>A?>48=0 X. %>BO 3>A?>48= # 402=> 7=05B 3>A?>48=0 % 8 4065 8<55B A =8< 45;>2K5 A2O78, >= 2A5 2@5<O 701K205B 53> D0<8;8N 8 2AO:89 @07, :>340 4>;65= ?8A0BL 5<C ?> 45;C, A?@02;O5BAO > 53> D0<8;88 C 4@C38E". G5284=>, 3>A?>48= # =5 E>G5B =8G53> 7=0BL > AG0AB;82>< A>?5@=8:5. " 4C<0BL > =5< =5 E>GC". ;8 4@C3>9 ?@8<5@: 40<0 A?@02;O5BAO C 2@0G0 > 74>@>2L5 >1I59 7=0:><>9, =07K20O 55 ?> 4528GL59 D0<8;88. 5 D0<8;8N ?> <C6C >=0 701K;0. 0B5< >=0 ?@87=05BAO, GB> >G5=L =54>2>;L=0 MB8< 70<C65AB2>< 8 =5 2K=>A8B <C60 A2>59 ?>4@C38. K 5I5 25@=5<AO : 701K20=8N 8<5= 8 >1AC48< MB> A @07=KE AB>@>=, A59G0A 65 =0A 8=B5@5AC5B ?@58<CI5AB25==> ?A8E8G5A:0O A8BC0F8O, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@>8AE>48B 701K20=85. 01K20=85 =0<5@5=89 2 >1I5< <>6=> >1JOA=8BL ?>B>:>< ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE =0<5@5=89, :>B>@K5 =5 ?>72>;ONB 2K?>;=8BL ?5@2>=0G0;L=>5 =0<5@5=85. "0: 4C<05< =5 B>;L:> <K, 70=8<0NI85AO ?A8E>0=0;87><, MB> >1I5?@8=OB>5 <=5=85 ;N459, :>B>@K5 ?@845@6820NBAO 53> 2 687=8, => ?>G5<C-B> >B@8F0NB 2 B5>@88. >:@>28B5;L, 8728=ONI89AO ?5@54 ?@>A8B5;5< 70 B>, GB> 701K; 2K?>;=8BL 53> ?@>AL1C, 5420 ;8 1C45B >?@0240= 2 53> 3;070E. @>A8B5;L A@07C 65 ?>4C<05B: 5<C 254L A>25@H5==> 2A5 @02=>; E>BO >= >15I0;, >= =8G53> =5 A45;0;.  2 687=8 701K20=85 B>65 AG8B05BAO 2 8725AB=>< >B=>H5=88 ?@54>AC48B5;L=K<, @07;8G89 <564C 68B59A:>9 8 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9 B>G:>9 7@5=8O =0 MB8 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O, ?>-2848<><C, =5B. @54AB02LB5 A515 E>7O9:C, :>B>@0O 2AB@5G05B 3>ABO A;>20- ---------------------------------------- > . . .=3C (1907, 52). > . . @8;;C (1912, 191). <8: "0:, 2K ?@8H;8 A53>4=O?  O 8 701K;0, GB> ?@83;0A8;0 20A =0 A53>4=O". ;8 <>;>4>3> G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 ?@87=0;AO 1K 2>7;N1;5==>9, GB> >= 701K; > =07=0G5==>< A2840=88. >=5G=>, >= 2 MB>< =5 ?@87=05BAO, 0 A:>@55 ?@84C<05B A0<K5 =525@>OB=K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, :>B>@K5 =5 ?>72>;8;8 5<C ?@89B8 =0 A2840=85 8 4065 =5 40;8 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?@54C?@548BL >1 MB><. 0 2>5==>9 A;C615, :0: 2A5 7=0NB 8 AG8B0NB A?@0254;82K<, 701KG82>ABL =5 O2;O5BAO >?@0240=85< 8 =5 >A2>1>6405B >B =0:070=8O. 45AL ?>G5<C-B> 2A5 A>3;0A=K, GB> >?@545;5==>5 >H81>G=>5 459AB285 8<55B A<KA;, ?@8G5< 2A5 7=0NB :0:>9. >G5<C 65 =5;L7O 1KBL 4> :>=F0 ?>A;54>20B5;L=K< 8 =5 ?@87=0BL, GB> 8 : 4@C38< >H81>G=K< 459AB28O< 4>;6=> 1KBL B0:>5 65 >B=>H5=85? 0?@0H8205BAO 5AB5AB25==K9 >B25B. A;8 A<KA; MB>3> 701K20=8O =0<5@5=89 AB>;L >G52845= 4065 4;O =5A?5F80;8AB0, B> 2K =5 1C45B5 C482;OBLAO B><C, GB> 8 ?8A0B5;8 8A?>;L7CNB MB> >H81>G=>5 459AB285 2 B>< 65 A<KA;5. B> 87 20A G8B0; 8;8 2845; ?L5AC . (>C &570@L 8 ;5>?0B@0, B>B ?><=8B, GB> 2 ?>A;54=59 AF5=5 ?5@54 >BJ574>< &570@O ?@5A;54C5B <KA;L, 1C4B> >= =0<5@520;AO GB>-B> A45;0BL, > G5< B5?5@L 701K;.  :>=F5 :>=F>2 >:07K205BAO, GB> >= 701K; ?>?@>I0BLAO A ;5>?0B@>9. -B>9 <0;5=L:>9 AF5=>9 ?8A0B5;L E>G5B ?@8?8A0BL 25;8:><C &570@N ?@58<CI5AB2>, :>B>@K< >= =5 >1;040; 8 : :>B>@><C A>2A5< =5 AB@5<8;AO. 7 8AB>@8G5A:8E 8AB>G=8:>2 2K <>65B5 C7=0BL, GB> &570@L 70AB028; ;5>?0B@C ?>A;54>20BL 70 =8< 2 8<, 8 >=0 68;0 B0< A <0;5=L:8< &570@8>=><, ?>:0 &570@L =5 1K; C18B, ?>A;5 G53> 59 ?@8H;>AL 1560BL 87 3>@>40. !;CG08 701K20=8O =0<5@5=89 2 >1I5< =0AB>;L:> OA=K, GB> <0;> ?>4E>4OB 4;O =0H59 F5;8 ?>;CG8BL :>A25==K5 C;8:8 4;O >1JOA=5=8O A<KA;0 >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O 87 ?A8E8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88. >MB><C >1@0B8<AO : >A>15==> <=>3>7=0G=K< 8 <0;>?>=OB=K< >H81>G=K< 459AB28O< -- : 70B5@820=8N 8 70?@OBK20=8N 25I59. 0<, :>=5G=>, ?>:065BAO =525@>OB=K<, GB> 2 70B5@820=88, :>B>@>5 <K G0AB> 2>A?@8=8<05< :0: 4>A04=CN A;CG09=>ABL, CG0AB2C5B :0:>5-B> =0H5 =0<5@5=85. > <>6=> ?@825AB8 <=>65AB2> =01;N45=89 2@>45 A;54CNI53>. >;>4>9 G5;>25: ?>B5@O; 4>@>3>9 4;O =53> :0@0=40H. 0 45=L 4> MB>3> >= ?>;CG8; ?8AL<> >B HC@8=0, :>B>@>5 70:0=G820;>AL A;>20<8: "# <5=O =5B 65;0=8O ?>B2>@AB2>20BL B2>5<C ;53:><KA;8N 8 ;5=8". 0@0=40H 1K; ?>40@:>< MB>3> HC@8=0. 57 B0:>3> A>2?045=8O <K, :>=5G=>, =5 <>3;8 1K CB25@640BL, GB> 2 70B5@820=88 :0@0=40H0 CG0AB2C5B =0<5@5=85 871028BLAO >B 25I8. =0;>38G=K5 A;CG08 >G5=L G0ABK. 0B5@820NBAO ?@54<5BK, :>340 ?>AA>@8HLAO A B5<, :B> 8E 40; 8 > :>< =5?@8OB=> 2A?><8=0BL, 8;8 :>340 A0<8 25I8 ?5@5AB0NB =@028BLAO 8 8I5HL ?@54;>30 70<5=8BL 8E 4@C38<8, ;CGH8<8. @>O2;5=85< B0:>3> 65 =0<5@5=8O ?> >B=>H5=8N : ?@54<5BC 2KABC?05B 8 B>, GB> 53> @>=ONB, @071820NB, ;><0NB. >6=> ;8 AG8B0BL A;CG09=>ABLN, GB> :0: @07 =0:0=C=5 A2>53> 4=O @>645=8O H:>;L=8: B5@O5B, ?>@B8B, ;><05B =C6=K5 5<C 25I8, =0?@8<5@ @0=5F 8;8 :0@<0==K5 G0AK? ">B, :B> ?5@568; <=>3> =5?@8OB=>3> 87-70 B>3>, GB> =5 <>3 =09B8 25IL, :>B>@CN A0< 65 :C40-B> 70;>68;, 2@O4 ;8 ?>25@8B, GB> >= A45;0; MB> =0<5@5==>.  2A5-B0:8 =5@54:8 A;CG08, :>340 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, A>?@>2>640NI85 70?@OBK20=85, A2845B5;LAB2CNB > =0<5@5=88 871028BLAO >B ?@54<5B0 =0 :>@>B:>5 8;8 4>;3>5 2@5<O. >B ;CGH89 ?@8<5@ B0:>3> @>40. >;>4>9 G5;>25: @0AA:07K205B <=5: "5A:>;L:> ;5B B><C =0704 C <5=O 1K;8 A5<59=K5 =5C@O48FK, O AG8B0; A2>N 65=C A;8H:>< E>;>4=>9, 8, E>BO O ?@87=020; 55 ?@5:@0A=K5 :0G5AB20, <K 68;8 157 =56=KE GC2AB2 4@C3 : 4@C3C. 4=064K >=0 ?>40@8;0 <=5 :=8- ---------------------------------------- > . 0BB=5@C. 3C, :>B>@CN :C?8;0 2> 2@5<O ?@>3C;:8 8 AG8B0;0 8=B5@5A=>9 4;O <5=O. / ?>1;03>40@8; 70 7B>B 7=0: "2=8<0=8O", >15I0; ?@>G5ABL :=83C, A?@OB0; 55 8 =5 <>3 ?>B>< =09B8. "0: ?@>H;8 <5AOFK, 8=>340 O 2A?><8=0; >1 8AG57=C2H59 :=835 8 =0?@0A=> ?KB0;AO =09B8 55. >;3>40 A?CABO 701>;5;0 <>O ;N18<0O <0BL, :>B>@0O 68;0 >B45;L=> >B =0A. >O 65=0 C5E0;0, GB>1K CE06820BL 70 A25:@>2LN. !>AB>O=85 1>;L=>9 1K;> BO65;>5, 65=0 ?>:070;0 A51O A A0<>9 ;CGH59 AB>@>=K. 4=064K 25G5@><, >E20G5==K9 1;03>40@=K<8 GC2AB20<8 : 65=5, O 25@=C;AO 4><>9, >B:@K; 157 >?@545;5==>3> =0<5@5=8O, => :0: 1K A A><=0<1C;8G5A:>9 C25@5==>ABLN >?@545;5==K9 OI8: ?8AL<5==>3> AB>;0 8 A25@EC =0H5; 402=> 8AG57=C2HCN 70?@OB0==CN :=83C". AG57;0 ?@8G8=0, 8 ?@>?060 =0H;0AL. #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! / <>3 1K ?@>4>;68BL MB>B @O4 ?@8<5@>2. > O =5 1C4C MB>3> 45;0BL.  <>59 :=835 "A8E>?0B>;>38O >1K45==>9 687=8" (2?5@2K5 2KH;0 2 1901 3.) 2K =0945B5 1>30BK9 <0B5@80; 4;O 87CG5=8O >H81>G=KE 459AB289. A5 MB8 ?@8<5@K A2845B5;LAB2CNB >1 >4=><, 0 8<5==> > B><, GB> >H81>G=K5 459AB28O 8<5NB A2>9 A<KA;, 8 ?>:07K20NB, :0: MB>B A<KA; <>6=> C7=0BL 8;8 ?>4B25@48BL ?> A>?CBAB2CNI8< >1AB>OB5;LAB20<. !53>4=O O 1C4C :@0B>:, ?>A:>;L:C <K 4>;6=K ?@8 87CG5=88 MB8E O2;5=89 ?>;CG8BL =5>1E>48<K5 A2545=8O 4;O ?>43>B>2:8 : ?A8E>0=0;87C. / =0<5@5= >AB0=>28BLAO B>;L:> =0 42CE 3@C??0E >H81>G=KE 459AB289, ?>2B>@ONI8EAO 8 :><18=8@>20==KE, 8 =0 ?>4B25@645=88 =0H53> B>;:>20=8O ?>A;54CNI8<8 A>1KB8O<8. >2B>@ONI85AO 8 :><18=8@>20==K5 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O O2;ONBAO A2>53> @>40 25@H8=>9 MB>3> 2840 459AB289. A;8 1K =0< ?@8H;>AL 4>:07K20BL, GB> ---------------------------------------- "0:65 2 A>G8=5=8OE . 545@0 (1906-1908), . . @8;;0 (1912), -. 6>=A0 (1911), . (B5@=5 (1916) 8 4@. >H81>G=K5 459AB28O 8<5NB A<KA;, <K 1K 8<5==> 8<8 8 >3@0=8G8;8AL, B0: :0: 8E A<KA; >G52845= 4065 >3@0=8G5==><C C<C 8 A0<><C ?@848@G82><C :@8B8:C. >2B>@O5<>ABL ?@>O2;5=89 >1=0@C68205B CAB>9G82>ABL, :>B>@CN ?>GB8 =8:>340 =5;L7O ?@8?8A0BL A;CG09=>AB8, => <>6=> >1JOA=8BL ?@54=0<5@5==>ABLN. 0:>=5F, 70<5=0 >B45;L=KE 284>2 >H81>G=KE 459AB289 4@C3 4@C3>< A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> A0<K< 206=K< 8 ACI5AB25==K< 2 >H81>G=>< 459AB288 O2;O5BAO =5 D>@<0 8;8 A@54AB20, :>B>@K<8 >=> ?>;L7C5BAO, 0 =0<5@5=85, :>B>@><C >=> A;C68B 8 :>B>@>5 4>;6=> 1KBL @50;87>20=> A0<K<8 @07;8G=K<8 ?CBO<8. %>GC ?@825AB8 20< ?@8<5@ ?>2B>@ONI53>AO 701K20=8O. -. 6>=A (1911, 483) @0AA:07K205B, GB> >4=064K ?> =58725AB=K< ?@8G8=0< 2 B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E 4=59 >= 701K20; ?8AL<> =0 ?8AL<5==>< AB>;5. 0:>=5F @5H8;AO 53> >B?@028BL, => ?>;CG8; >B "Dead letter office" >1@0B=>, B0: :0: 701K; =0?8A0BL 04@5A. 0?8A02 04@5A, >= ?@8=5A ?8AL<> =0 ?>GBC, => >:070;>AL, GB> 701K; =0:;58BL <0@:C. "CB C6 >= 1K; 2K=C645= ?@87=0BL, GB> 2>>1I5 =5 E>B5; >B?@02;OBL MB> ?8AL<>.  4@C3>< A;CG05 70E20BK20=85 25I59 "?> >H81:5" (Vergreifen) :><18=8@C5BAO A 70?@OBK20=85<. 4=0 40<0 A>25@H05B A> A2>8< HC@8=><, 8725AB=K< 0@B8AB><, ?CB5H5AB285 2 8<. <C >:07K205BAO A0<K9 B>@65AB25==K9 ?@85< 682CI8<8 2 8<5 =5<F0<8, 8 A@548 ?@>G53> >= ?>;CG05B 2 ?>40@>: 7>;>BCN 0=B8G=CN <540;L. 0<0 1K;0 7045B0 B5<, GB> HC@8= =5 <>65B >F5=8BL ?@5:@0A=CN 25IL ?> 4>AB>8=AB2C. >A;5 B>3> :0: 55 A<5=8;0 A5AB@0 8 >=0 25@=C;0AL 4><>9, @0A?0:>2K20O 25I8, >=0 >1=0@C68;0, GB> 27O;0 <540;L A A>1>9, A0<0 =5 7=0O :0:. =0 BCB 65 =0?8A0;0 >1 MB>< HC@8=C 8 7025@8;0 53>, GB> =0 A;54CNI89 65 45=L >B?@028B =5G0O==> ?>?02HCN : =59 <540;L 2 8<. > =0 A;54CNI89 45=L <540;L 1K;0 :C40-B> B0: 70?@OB0=0, GB> 55 =5;L7O 1K;> =09B8 8 >B?@028BL, 8 B>340 40<0 =0G0;0 4>304K20BLAO, GB> 7=0G8B 55 "@0AA5O==>ABL", -- ?@>AB> 59 E>B5;>AL >AB028BL <540;L C A51O. / C65 ?@82>48; 20< ?@8<5@ :><18=0F88 701K20=8O A >H81:>9 (Irrtum), :>340 :B>-B> A=0G0;0 701K205B > A2840=88, 0 ?>B>< A B25@4K< =0<5@5=85< =5 701KBL > =5< O2;O5BAO =5 : CA;>2;5==><C G0AC, 0 2 4@C3>5 2@5<O. !>25@H5==> 0=0;>38G=K9 A;CG09 87 A>1AB25==>9 687=8 @0AA:07K20; <=5 <>9 4@C3, :>B>@K9 70=8<0;AO =5 B>;L:> =0C:>9, => 8 ;8B5@0BC@>9. "5A:>;L:> ;5B B><C =0704 O A>3;0A8;AO 2ABC?8BL 2 :><8AA8N >4=>3> ;8B5@0BC@=>3> >1I5AB20, ?@54?>;030O, GB> >=> ?><>65B <=5 ?>AB028BL <>N 4@0<C. 064CN ?OB=8FC O ?>O2;O;AO =0 70A540=88, E>BO 8 157 >A>1>3> 8=B5@5A0. 5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 B><C =0704 O ?>;CG8; C254><;5=85 > ?>AB0=>2:5 <>59 ?L5AK 2 B50B@5 2 $. 8 A B5E ?>@ O ?>AB>O==> 701K20N > 70A540=8OE MB>3> >1I5AB20. >340 O ?@>G8B0; 0HC :=83C >1 MB8E O2;5=8OE, <=5 AB0;> ABK4=> <>59 701K2G82>AB8, O C?@5:0; A51O, GB> MB> ?>4;>ABL -- =5 O2;OBLAO =0 70A540=8O ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: ;N48 ?5@5AB0;8 1KBL =C6=K, 8 @5H8; =8 2 :>5< A;CG05 =5 701KBL ?@> 1;8609HCN ?OB=8FC. / 2A5 2@5<O =0?><8=0; A515 >1 MB>< =0<5@5=88, ?>:0, =0:>=5F, =5 2K?>;=8; 53> 8 =5 >GCB8;AO ?5@54 425@LN 70;0 70A540=89. >, : <>5<C C482;5=8N, >=0 >:070;0AL 70:@KB>9, 0 70A540=85 7025@H5==K<, ?>B><C GB> O >H81AO 2 4=5: 1K;0 C65 AC11>B0!" 5AL<0 A>1;07=8B5;L=> A>18@0BL ?>4>1=K5 =01;N45=8O, => =C6=> 84B8 40;LH5. / E>GC ?>:070BL 20< ?@8<5@K, 2 :>B>@KE =0H5 B>;:>20=85 ?>4B25@6405BAO 2 1C4CI5<. A=>2=>9 E0@0:B5@=>9 >A>15==>ABLN MB8E A;CG052 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> =0AB>OI0O ?A8E8G5A:0O A8BC0F8O =0< =58725AB=0 8;8 =54>ABC?=0 =0H5<C 0=0;87C. ">340 =0H5 B>;:>20=85 ?@8>1@5B05B E0@0:B5@ B>;L:> ?@54- ---------------------------------------- > . 59B;5@C. ?>;>65=8O, :>B>@><C <K 8 A0<8 =5 E>B8< ?@84020BL 1>;LH>3> 7=0G5=8O. > ?>74=55 ?@>8AE>4OB A>1KB8O, ?>:07K20NI85, =0A:>;L:> A?@0254;82> 1K;> =0H5 ?5@2>=0G0;L=>5 B>;:>20=85. 0:-B> @07 O 1K; 2 3>ABOE C =>2>1@0G=KE 8 A;KH0;, :0: <>;>40O 65=0 A> A<5E>< @0AA:07K20;0 > =5402=> ?@>8AH54H5< A =59 A;CG05: =0 A;54CNI89 45=L ?>A;5 2>72@0I5=8O 87 A20451=>3> ?CB5H5AB28O >=0 ?@83;0A8;0 A2>N =570<C6=NN A5AB@C, GB>1K ?>9B8 A =59, :0: 8 @0=LH5, 70 ?>:C?:0<8, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: <C6 CH5; ?> A2>8< 45;0<. 4@C3 =0 4@C3>9 AB>@>=5 C;8FK >=0 70<5G05B <C6G8=C 8, ?>4B0;:820O A5AB@C, 3>2>@8B: "!<>B@8, 2>= 845B 3>A?>48= .". =0 701K;0, GB> MB>B 3>A?>48= C65 =5A:>;L:> =545;L 1K; 55 <C65<. =5 AB0;> =5 ?> A515 >B B0:>3> @0AA:070, => O =5 @5H8;AO A45;0BL 4>;6=K9 2K2>4. / 2A?><=8; MB>B <0;5=L:89 M?87>4 A?CABO 3>4K, ?>A;5 B>3> :0: MB>B 1@0: 70:>=G8;AO A0<K< ?5G0;L=K< >1@07><. . 545@ @0AA:07K205B >1 >4=>9 40<5, :>B>@0O 70 45=L 4> A204L1K 701K;0 ?><5@8BL A20451=>5 ?;0BL5 8, : C60AC A2>59 <>48AB:8, 2A?><=8;0 >1 MB>< B>;L:> ?>74=> 25G5@><. = ?@82>48B MB>B ?@8<5@ 701K20=8O 2 A2O78 A B5<, GB> 2A:>@5 ?>A;5 MB>3> >=0 @0725;0AL A> A2>8< <C65<. / 7=0N >4=C B5?5@L C65 @072545==CN 40<C, :>B>@0O, C?@02;OO A2>8< A>AB>O=85<, G0AB> ?>4?8AK20;0 4>:C<5=BK A2>59 4528GL59 D0<8;859 70 =5A:>;L:> ;5B 4> B>3>, :0: >=0 55 459AB28B5;L=> ?@8=O;0. / 7=0N 4@C38E 65=I8=, ?>B5@O2H8E >1@CG0;L=>5 :>;LF> 2> 2@5<O A20451=>3> ?CB5H5AB28O, 8 7=0N B0:65, GB> 8E AC?@C65A:0O 687=L ?@840;0 MB>9 A;CG09=>AB8 A2>9 A<KA;.  2>B O@:89 ?@8<5@ A 1>;55 ?@8OB=K< 8AE>4><. 1 >4=>< 8725AB=>< =5<5F:>< E8<8:5 @0AA:07K20NB, GB> 53> 1@0: =5 A>AB>O;AO ?>B><C, GB> >= 701K; > G0A5 25=G0=8O 8 2<5AB> F5@:28 ?>H5; 2 ;01>@0B>@8N. = 1K; B0: C<5=, GB> >3@0=8G8;AO MB>9 >4=>9 ?>?KB:>9 8 C<5@ E>;>ABO:>< 2 3;C1>:>9 AB0@>AB8. >65B 1KBL, 20< B>65 ?@8H;> 2 3>;>2C, GB> 2 MB8E ?@8<5@0E >H81>G=K5 459AB28O 83@0NB @>;L :0:>3>-B> 7=0:0 8;8 ?@547=0<5=>20=8O 4@52=8E.  459AB28B5;L=>, G0ABL MB8E 7=0:>2 1K;0 =5 G5< 8=K<, :0: >H81>G=K< 459AB285<, :>340, =0?@8<5@, :B>-B> A?>BK:0;AO 8;8 ?040;. @C30O 65 G0ABL =>A8;0 E0@0:B5@ >1J5:B82=>3> A>1KB8O, 0 =5 AC1J5:B82=>3> 45O=8O. > 2K =5 ?>25@8B5, :0: B@C4=> 8=>340 2 :064>< :>=:@5B=>< A;CG05 >?@545;8BL, : :0:>9 3@C??5 53> >B=5AB8. 5O=85 B0: G0AB> C<55B <0A:8@>20BLAO ?>4 ?0AA82=>5 ?5@56820=85. 064K9 87 =0A, >3;O4K20OAL =0 4>;389 687=5==K9 ?CBL, <>65B, 25@>OB=>, A:070BL, GB> >= 871560; 1K <=>38E @07>G0@>20=89 8 1>;57=5==KE ?>B@OA5=89, 5A;8 1K =0H5; 2 A515 A<5;>ABL B>;:>20BL <5;:85 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O 2 >1I5=88 A ;N4L<8 :0: ?@547=0<5=>20=85 8 >F5=820BL 8E :0: 7=0: 5I5 A:@KBKE =0<5@5=89. '0I5 2A53> =0 MB> =5 >B206820NBAO: 2>7=8:05B 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> A=>20 AB0=>28HLAO AC525@=K< -- B5?5@L C65 >:>;L=K< ?CB5<, G5@57 =0C:C. > 254L =5 2A5 ?@547=0<5=>20=8O A1K20NBAO, 0 87 =0H59 B5>@88 2K ?>9<5B5, GB> =5 2A5 >=8 8 4>;6=K A1K20BLAO. '" "/ &/ (G+ !"M (G) #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40!  @57C;LB0B5 =0H8E ?@>H;KE 15A54 <K ?@8H;8 : 2K2>4C, GB> >H81>G=K5 459AB28O 8<5NB A<KA; -- MB> <K 8 2>7L<5< 70 >A=>2C =0H8E 40;L=59H8E 8AA;54>20=89. !;54C5B 5I5 @07 ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> <K =5 CB25@6405< -- 40 8 4;O =0H8E F5;59 =5B 2 MB>< =8:0:>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8, -- GB> ;N1>5 >H81>G=>5 459AB285 8<55B A<KA;, E>BO MB> :065BAO <=5 25AL<0 25@>OB=K<. 0< 4>AB0B>G=> B>3>, GB> B0:>9 A<KA; >1=0@C68205BAO >B=>A8B5;L=> G0AB> 2 @07;8G=KE D>@<0E >H81>G=KE 459AB289.  MB>< >B=>H5=88 MB8 @07;8G=K5 D>@<K ?@54?>;030NB 8 @07;8G=K5 >1JOA=5=8O: ?@8 >3>2>@:5, >?8A:5 8 B. 4. <>3CB 2AB@5G0BLAO A;CG08 G8AB> D878>;>38G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0, 2 A;CG0OE 65 701K20=8O 8<5=, =0<5@5=89, 70?@OBK20=8O ?@54<5B>2 8 B. 4. O 5420 ;8 A>3;0HCAL A B0:8< >1JOA=5=85<. 0B5@820=85, ?> 2A59 25@>OB=>AB8, <>65B ?@>87>9B8 8 =5G0O==>. AB@5G0NI85AO 2 687=8 >H81:8 (IrrtLmer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ufalls- und Symptomhandlungen]. =8 B>65 =>AOB E0@0:B5@ =5 B>;L:> =5<>B828@>20==KE, =570<5B=KE 8 =57=0G8B5;L=KE, => 8 87;8H=8E 459AB289. B >H81>G=KE 459AB289 8E >B;8G05B >BACBAB285 2B>@>3> =0<5@5=8O, A :>B>@K< AB0;:820;>AL 1K ?5@2>5 8 1;03>40@O :>B>@><C >=> 1K =0@CH0;>AL. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, MB8 459AB28O ;53:> ?5@5E>4OB 2 65ABK 8 42865=8O, :>B>@K5, ?> =0H5<C <=5=8N, 2K@060NB M<>F88.  MB8< A;CG09=K< 459AB28O< >B=>AOBAO 2A5 :06CI85AO 15AF5;L=K<8, 2K?>;=O5<K5 :0: 1K 83@0O <0=8?C;OF88 A >4564>9, G0ABO<8 B5;0, ?@54<5B0<8, :>B>@K5 <K B> 15@5<, B> >AB02;O5<, 0 B0:65 <5;>488, :>B>@K5 <K =0?5205< ?@> A51O. / C15645=, GB> 2A5 MB8 O2;5=8O ?>;=K A<KA;0 8 8E <>6=> B>;:>20BL B0: 65, :0: 8 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O, GB> >=8 O2;ONBAO =5:>B>@K< 7=0:>< 4@C38E, 1>;55 206=KE 4CH52=KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 A0<8 >B=>AOBAO : ?>;=>F5==K< ?A8E8G5A:8< 0:B0<. > O =5 A>18@0NAL >AB0=02;820BLAO =0 MB>9 =>2>9 >1;0AB8 ?A8E8G5A:8E O2;5=89, 0 25@=CAL : >H81>G=K< 459AB28O<, B0: :0: >=8 ?>72>;ONB A 1>;LH59 B>G=>ABLN ?>AB028BL 206=K5 4;O ?A8E>0=0;870 2>?@>AK.  >1;0AB8 >H81>G=KE 459AB289 A0<K<8 8=B5@5A=K<8 2>?@>A0<8, :>B>@K5 <K ?>AB028;8, => ?>:0 >AB028;8 157 >B25B0, O2;ONBAO A;54CNI85: <K A:070;8, GB> >H81>G=K5 459AB28O 2>7=8:0NB 2 @57C;LB0B5 =0;>65=8O 4@C3 =0 4@C30 42CE @07;8G=KE =0<5@5=89, 87 :>B>@KE >4=> <>6=> =0720BL =0@CH5==K< (gestFrte), 0 4@C3>5 =0@CH0NI8< (stFrende). 0@CH5==K5 =0<5@5=8O =5 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 ?@>1;5<C, 0 2>B > 4@C3>9 3@C??5 <K E>B5;8 1K 7=0BL, 2>-?5@2KE, GB> MB> 70 =0<5@5=8O, 2KABC?0NI85 :0: ?><5E0 4;O 4@C3>9 3@C??K, 8, 2>-2B>@KE, :0:>2K 8E >B=>H5=8O 4@C3 : 4@C3C. 07@5H8B5 <=5 >?OBL 27OBL 2 :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 4;O 2A5E 284>2 >H81>G=KE 459AB289 >3>2>@:C 8 >B25B8BL A=0G0;0 =0 2B>@>9 2>?@>A, ?@5645 G5< O >B25GC =0 ?5@2K9. @8 >3>2>@:5 =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85 <>65B 8<5BL >B=>H5=85 : A>45@60=8N =0@CH5==>3> =0<5@5=8O, B>340 >3>2>@:0 A>45@68B ?@>B82>@5G85, ?>?@02:C 8;8 4>?>;=5=85 : =5<C.  <5=55 65 OA=KE 8 1>;55 8=B5@5A=KE A;CG0OE =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85 ?> A>45@60=8N =5 8<55B A =0@CH5==K< =8G53> >1I53>. >4B25@645=8O >B=>H5=8O< ?5@2>3> @>40 <K 157 B@C40 =0945< 2 C65 7=0:><KE 8 8< ?>4>1=KE ?@8<5@0E. >GB8 2> 2A5E A;CG0OE >3>2>@>: =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85 2K@0605B ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 A>45@60=85 ?> >B=>H5=8N : =0@CH5==><C, >H81>G=>5 459AB285 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 :>=D;8:B <564C 42C<O =5A>3;0A>20==K<8 AB@5<;5=8O<8. / >1JO2;ON 70A540=85 >B:@KBK<, => E>B5; 1K 53> 70:@KBL -- B0:>2 A<KA; >3>2>@:8 ?@57845=B0. >;8B8G5A:0O 3075B0, :>B>@CN >128=O;8 2 ?@>406=>AB8, 70I8I05BAO 2 AB0BL5, :>B>@0O 4>;6=0 70:0=G820BLAO A;>20<8: "0H8 G8B0B5;8 <>3CB 70A2845B5;LAB2>20BL, :0: <K 2A5340 A>25@H5==> 15A:>@KAB=> 2KABC?0;8 =0 1;03> >1I5AB20". > @540:B>@, A>AB02;O2H89 MBC AB0BLN, >H81AO 8 =0?8A0; ":>@KAB=>". =, 2848<>, 4C<0;: E>BO O 8 4>;65= =0?8A0BL B0:, => O 7=0N, GB> MB> ;>6L. 0@>4=K9 ?@54AB028B5;L, ?@8720==K9 3>2>@8BL :0975@C 15A?>I04=CN (rLckhaltlos) ?@024C, ?@8A;CH02H8AL : 2=CB@5==5<C 3>;>AC, :>B>@K9 :0: 1K 3>2>@8B: 0 =5 A;8H:>< ;8 BK A<5;? -- 45;05B >3>2>@:C -- A;>2> rLckhaltlos [15A?>I04=K9] ?@52@0I05BAO 2 rLckgratlos [15AE@515B=K9].  C65 8725AB=KE 20< ?@8<5@0E, :>340 >3>2>@:0 ?@>872>48B 2?5G0B;5=85 ABO65=8O 8 A>:@0I5=8O A;>2, ?>O2;ONBAO ?>?@02:8, 4>?>;=5=8O 8 ?@>4>;65=8O 2KA:07K20=8O, 2 :>B>@KE, =0@O4C A ?5@2>9, =0E>48B A2>5 ?@>O2;5=85 8 2B>@0O B5=45=F8O. ""CB >1=0@C68;8AL (zum Vorschein kommen) D0:BK, 0 ;CGH5 C6 ?@O<> A:070BL: A28=AB20 (Schweinereien)", -- 8B0:, 2>7=8:05B >3>2>@:0: es sind Dinge zum Vorschwein gekommen. "N459, :>B>@K5 MB> ?>=8<0NB, <>6=> A>AG8B0BL ?> ?0;LF0< >4=>9 @C:8", => 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 5ABL B>;L:> >48= G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 MB> ?>=8<05B, 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?>;CG05BAO: A>AG8B0BL ?> >4=><C ?0;LFC. ;8 "<>9 <C6 <>65B 5ABL 8 ?8BL, GB> >= E>G5B". > @0725 O ?>B5@?;N, GB>1K >= GB>-B> E>B5;, 2>B 8 2KE>48B: >= <>65B 5ABL 8 ?8BL 2A5, GB> O E>GC. ----------------------------------------  =5<5F:>< @59EAB035, =>O1@L 1908 3. > 2A5E MB8E A;CG0OE >3>2>@:0 ;81> 2>7=8:05B 87 A>45@60=8O =0@CH5==>3> =0<5@5=8O, ;81> >=0 A2O70=0 A MB8< A>45@60=85<. @C3>9 284 >B=>H5=8O <564C 42C<O 1>@NI8<8AO =0<5@5=8O<8 ?@>872>48B 25AL<0 AB@0==>5 2?5G0B;5=85. A;8 =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85 =5 8<55B =8G53> >1I53> A A>45@60=85< =0@CH5==>3>, B> >B:C40 65 >=> 15@5BAO 8 ?>G5<C ?>O2;O5BAO 2 >?@545;5==>< <5AB5 :0: ?><5E0? 01;N45=8O, :>B>@K5 B>;L:> 8 <>3CB 40BL =0 MB> >B25B, ?>:07K20NB, GB> ?><5E0 2K7K205BAO B5< E>4>< <KA;59, :>B>@K5 =5704>;3> 4> B>3> 70=8<0;8 G5;>25:0 8 ?@>O28;8AL B5?5@L B0:8< >1@07>< =57028A8<> >B B>3>, 2K@078;8AL ;8 >=8 2 @5G8 8;8 =5B. -BC ?><5EC 459AB28B5;L=> <>6=> =0720BL >B72C:><, >4=0:> =5 >1O70B5;L=> >B72C:>< ?@>87=5A5==KE A;>2. 45AL B>65 ACI5AB2C5B 0AA>F80B82=0O A2O7L <564C =0@CH0NI8< 8 =0@CH5==K< =0<5@5=85<, => >=0 =5 A:@K205BAO 2 A>45@60=88, 0 CAB0=02;8205BAO 8A:CAAB25==>, G0AB> 25AL<0 >:>;L=K<8 ?CBO<8. @8254C ?@>AB>9 ?@8<5@ 87 A>1AB25==KE =01;N45=89. 4=064K O 2AB@5B8;AO C =0A 2 3>@0E C 4>;><8B>2KE ?5I5@ A 42C<O >45BK<8 ?>-BC@8ABA:8 40<0<8. / ?@>H5; A =8<8 =5<=>3>, 8 <K ?>3>2>@8;8 > ?@5;5ABOE 8 B@C4=>ABOE BC@8ABA:>3> >1@070 687=8. 4=0 87 40< A>3;0A8;0AL, GB> B0:>5 2@5<O?@5?@>2>645=85 8<55B A2>8 =5C4>1AB20. "59AB28B5;L=>, -- 3>2>@8B >=0, -- >G5=L =5?@8OB=> F5;K9 45=L H030BL ?> A>;=F5?5:C, :>340 :>DB0 8 @C10H:0 A>25@H5==> <>:@K >B ?>B0".  MB>< ?@54;>65=88 >=0 45;05B <0;5=L:CN 70<8=:C 8 ?@>4>;605B: ">340 ?@8E>48HL nach Hose [4><>9, => 2<5AB> Hause C?>B@51;5=> A;>2> Hose -- ?0=B0;>=K] 8 5ABL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?5@5>45BLAO.". K MBC >3>2>@:C =5 0=0;878@>20;8, => O 4C<0N, 2K 55 ;53:> ?>9<5B5. 0<0 8<5;0 =0<5@5=85 ?@>4>;68BL ?5@5G8A;5=85 8 A:070BL: :>DBC, @C10H:C 8 ?0=B0;>=K. 7 A>>1@065=89 1;03>?@8AB>9=>AB8 A;>2> ?0=B0;>=K =5 1K;> C?>B@51;5=>, => 2 A;54CNI5< ?@54;>65=88, A>25@H5==> =57028A8<>< ?> A>45@60=8N, =5?@>87=5A5==>5 A;>2> ?>O2;O5BAO 2 2845 8A:065=8O, AE>4=>3> ?> 72CG0=8N A> A;>2>< Hause. C 0 B5?5@L, =0:>=5F, <K <>65< ?5@59B8 : 2>?@>AC, :>B>@K9 2A5 >B:;04K20;8: GB> MB> 70 =0<5@5=8O, :>B>@K5 B0:8< =5>1KG=K< >1@07>< ?@>O2;ONBAO 2 :0G5AB25 ?><5E? 07C<55BAO, >=8 25AL<0 @07;8G=K, => <K =0945< 2 =8E 8 >1I55. 7CG82 F5;K9 @O4 ?@8<5@>2, <K <>65< 2K45;8BL B@8 3@C??K.  ?5@2>9 3@C??5 >B=>AOBAO A;CG08, 2 :>B>@KE 3>2>@OI5<C 8725AB=> =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85 8 >= GC2AB2>20; 53> ?5@54 >3>2>@:>9. "0:, 2 >3>2>@:5 "Vorschwein" 3>2>@OI89 =5 B>;L:> =5 >B@8F05B >AC645=8O >?@545;5==KE D0:B>2, => ?@87=05BAO 2 =0<5@5=88, >B :>B>@>3> >= ?>B>< >B:070;AO, ?@>87=5AB8 A;>2> "Schweinereien" [A28=AB20]. B>@CN 3@C??C A>AB02;ONB A;CG08, :>340 3>2>@OI89 B>65 ?@87=05B =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85, => =5 ?>4>7@5205B, GB> >=> AB0;> 0:B82=K< =5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@54 >3>2>@:>9. = A>3;0H05BAO A =0H8< B>;:>20=85<, => 2 8725AB=>9 AB5?5=8 C482;5= 8<. @8<5@K B0:>3> @>40 ;53G5 =09B8 2 4@C38E >H81>G=KE 459AB28OE, G5< 2 >3>2>@:0E.  B@5BL59 3@C??5 >B=>AOBAO A;CG08, :>340 A45;02H89 >3>2>@:C M=5@38G=> >B25@305B =0H5 B>;:>20=85 =0@CH0NI53> =0<5@5=8O; >= =5 B>;L:> >A?0@8205B B>B D0:B, GB> 40==>5 =0<5@5=85 ?>1C48;> 53> : >3>2>@:5, => CB25@6405B, GB> >=> 5<C A>25@H5==> GC64>. A?><=8< A;CG09 A "auf sto/en" (>B@K3=CBL 2<5AB> G>:=CBLAO), 8 B>B ?@O<>-B0:8 =5256;82K9 >B?>@, :>B>@K9 O ?>;CG8; >B >@0B>@0, :>340 E>B5; 8AB>;:>20BL =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85. 0: 2K ?><=8B5, <K =5 ?@8H;8 : 548=><C <=5=8N 2 ?>=8<0=88 MB8E A;CG052. / 1K ?@>?CAB8; <8<> CH59 2>7@065=8O >@0B>@0, ?@>87=>A82H53> B>AB, ?@>4>;60O ?@845@6820BLAO A2>53> B>;:>20=8O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2K, ?>;030N, >AB05B5AL ?>4 2?5G0B;5=85< 53> >B?>2548 8 ?>4C<05B5, =5 ;CGH5 ;8 >B:070BLAO >B B0:>3> B>;:>20=8O >H81>G=KE 459AB289 8 AG8B0BL 8E G8AB> D878>;>38G5A:8<8 0:B0<8, :0: MB> 1K;> ?@8=OB> 4> ?A8E>0=0;870. >3C ?>=OBL, GB> 20A ?C305B. >5 B>;:>20=85 ?@54?>;0305B, GB> C 3>2>@OI53> <>3CB ?@>O28BLAO =0<5@5=8O, > :>B>@KE >= A0< =8G53> =5 7=05B, => > :>B>@KE O <>3C C7=0BL =0 >A=>20=88 :>A25==KE C;8:. 0A >AB0=02;8205B =>287=0 8 A5@L57=>ABL <>53> ?@54?>;>65=8O. >=8<0N 8 ?@87=0N ?>:0 20HC ?@02>BC. > 2>B GB> <K <>65< CAB0=>28BL: 5A;8 2K E>B8B5 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> ?@845@6820BLAO >?@545;5==>3> 2>77@5=8O =0 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O, ?@028;L=>ABL :>B>@>3> 4>:070=0 B0:8< 1>;LH8< :>;8G5AB2>< ?@8<5@>2, B> 20< ?@845BAO A>3;0A8BLAO 8 A MB8< AB@0==K< ?@54?>;>65=85<. A;8 65 2K =5 <>65B5 @5H8BLAO =0 MB>, B> 20< =C6=> >B:070BLAO >B 2A53>, GB> 2K C65 7=05B5 >1 >H81>G=KE 459AB28OE. > >AB0=>28<AO ?>:0 =0 B><, GB> >1J548=O5B 2A5 B@8 3@C??K, GB> >1I53> 2 <5E0=87<5 MB8E >3>2>@>:.  AG0ABLN, MB> =5 2K7K205B A><=5=89.  ?5@2KE 42CE 3@C??0E =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85 ?@87=05BAO A0<8< 3>2>@OI8<; 2 ?5@2>< A;CG05 : MB><C ?@8102;O5BAO 5I5 B>, GB> MB> =0<5@5=85 ?@>O2;O5BAO =5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@54 >3>2>@:>9. > 2 >1>8E A;CG0OE MB> =0<5@5=85 >BB5A=O5BAO. >2>@OI89 @5H8; =5 4>?CAB8BL 53> 2K@065=8O 2 @5G8, 8 B>340 ?@>87>H;0 >3>2>@:0, B. 5. >BB5A=5==>5 =0<5@5=85 2A5-B0:8 ?@>O28;>AL ?@>B82 53> 2>;8, 87<5=82 2K@065=85 4>?CI5==>3> 8< =0<5@5=8O, A<5H02H8AL A =8< 8;8 4065 ?>;=>ABLN 70<5=82 53>. "0:>2 <5E0=87< >3>2>@:8. ! MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O <=5 B0: 65 =5B@C4=> ?>;=>ABLN A>3;0A>20BL ?@>F5AA >3>2>@>:, >B=>AOI8EAO : B@5BL59 3@C??5, A 2KH5>?8A0==K< <5E0=87<><. ;O MB>3> <=5 =C6=> B>;L:> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> MB8 B@8 3@C??K >B;8G0NBAO 4@C3 >B 4@C30 @07=>9 AB5?5=LN >BB5A=5=8O =0@CH0NI53> =0<5@5=8O.  ?5@2>9 3@C??5 MB> =0<5@5=85 >G5284=>, >=> 405B > A515 7=0BL 3>2>@OI5<C 5I5 4> 2KA:07K20=8O; B>;L:> ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: >=> >B25@3=CB>, >=> 2>7<5I05B A51O 2 >3>2>@:5. > 2B>@>9 3@C??5 =0@CH0NI55 =0<5@5=85 >BB5A=O5BAO 5I5 40;LH5, ?5@54 2KA:07K20=85< 3>2>@OI89 53> C65 =5 70<5G05B. #4828B5;L=> B>, GB> MB> =8:>8< >1@07>< =5 <5H05B 5<C 1KBL ?@8G8=>9 >3>2>@:8! > B5< ;53G5 =0< >1JOA=8BL ?@>8AE>645=85 >3>2>@>: B@5BL59 3@C??K. / 15@C =0 A51O A<5;>ABL ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 2 >H81>G=>< 459AB288 <>65B ?@>O28BLAO 5I5 >4=0 B5=45=F8O, :>B>@0O 402=>, <>65B 1KBL, >G5=L 402=> >BB5A=5=0, 3>2>@OI89 =5 70<5G05B 55 8 :0: @07 ?>MB><C >B@8F05B. > >AB028< ?>:0 MBC ?>A;54=NN ?@>1;5<C; 87 4@C38E A;CG052 2K 4>;6=K A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> ?>402;5=85 8<5NI53>AO =0<5@5=8O GB>-;81> A:070BL O2;O5BAO =5?@5<5==K< CA;>285< 2>7=8:=>25=8O >3>2>@:8. "5?5@L <K <>65< CB25@640BL, GB> ?@>428=C;8AL 5I5 40;LH5 2 ?>=8<0=88 >H81>G=KE 459AB289. K =5 B>;L:> 7=05<, GB> >=8 O2;ONBAO ?A8E8G5A:8<8 0:B0<8, 2 :>B>@KE <>6=> CA<>B@5BL A<KA; 8 =0<5@5=85, GB> >=8 2>7=8:0NB 1;03>40@O =0;>65=8N 4@C3 =0 4@C30 42CE @07;8G=KE =0<5@5=89, =>, :@><5 B>3>, GB> >4=> 87 MB8E =0<5@5=89 ?>425@305BAO >BB5A=5=8N, 53> 2K?>;=5=85 =5 4>?CA:05BAO 8 2 @57C;LB0B5 >=> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 =0@CH5=88 4@C3>3> =0<5@5=8O. C6=> A=0G0;0 ?><5H0BL 5<C A0<><C, GB>1K >=> <>3;> AB0BL ?><5E>9. >;=>5 >1JOA=5=85 D5=><5=>2, =07K205<KE >H81>G=K<8 459AB28O<8, MB8<, :>=5G=>, 5I5 =5 4>AB8305BAO. !@07C 65 2AB0NB 4@C385 2>?@>AK, 8 2>>1I5 :065BAO, G5< 40;LH5 <K ?@>428305<AO 2 ?>=8<0=88 >H81>G=KE 459AB289, B5< 1>;LH5 ?>2>4>2 4;O =>2KE 2>?@>A>2. K <>65<, =0?@8<5@, A?@>A8BL: ?>G5<C 2A5 MB> =5 ?@>8AE>48B =0<=>3> ?@>I5? A;8 5ABL B5=45=F8O >BB5A=8BL >?@545;5==>5 =0<5@5=85 2<5AB> B>3>, GB>1K 53> 2K?>;=8BL, B> MB> >BB5A=5=85 4>;6=> ?@>8AE>48BL B0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K MB> =0<5@5=85 2>>1I5 =5 ?>;CG8;> 2K@065=8O 8;8 65 >BB5A=5=85 <>3;> 1K =5 C40ABLAO 2>2A5 8 >BB5A=5==>5 =0<5@5=85 2K@078;>AL 1K ?>;=>ABLN. H81>G=K5 459AB28O, >4=0:>, ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 :><?@><8AAK, >=8 >7=0G0NB ?>;CC40GC 8 ?>;C=5C40GC 4;O :064>3> 87 42CE =0<5@5=89; ?>AB02;5==>5 ?>4 C3@>7C =0<5@5=85 =5 <>65B 1KBL =8 ?>;=>ABLN ?>402;5=>, =8 2A5F5;> ?@>O2;5=>, 70 8A:;NG5=85< >B45;L=KE A;CG052. K <>65< ?@54?>;030BL, GB> 4;O >ACI5AB2;5=8O B0:8E 8=B5@D5@5=F88 8;8 :><?@><8AA>2 =5>1E>48<K >A>1K5 CA;>28O, => <K =5 <>65< 4065 ?@54AB028BL A515 8E E0@0:B5@. / B0:65 =5 4C<0N, GB> <K <>3;8 1K >1=0@C68BL MB8 =58725AB=K5 =0< >B=>H5=8O ?@8 40;L=59H8E 1>;55 3;C1>:8E 8AA;54>20=8OE >H81>G=KE 459AB289. >@074> 1>;55 =5>1E>48<K< <K AG8B05< 87CG5=85 4@C38E B5<=KE >1;0AB59 4CH52=>9 687=8; 8 B>;L:> 0=0;>388 A B5<8 O2;5=8O<8, :>B>@K5 <K =0945< 2 MB8E 8AA;54>20=8OE, ?>72>;OB =0< A45;0BL B5 ?@54?>;>65=8O, :>B>@K5 =5>1E>48<K 4;O ;CGH53> ?>=8<0=8O >H81>G=KE 459AB289.  5I5 >4=>! ABL >?@545;5==0O >?0A=>ABL 2 @01>B5 A <0;>7=0G8B5;L=K<8 ?A8E8G5A:8<8 ?@>O2;5=8O<8, :0:8<8 ?@8E>48BAO 70=8<0BLAO =0<. !CI5AB2C5B 4CH52=>5 701>;520=85, :><18=0B>@=0O ?0@0=>9O, ?@8 :>B>@>9 [1>;L=K5] 15A:>=5G=> 4>;3> <>3CB 70=8<0BLAO >F5=:>9 B0:8E <0;>7=0G8B5;L=KE ?@87=0:>2, => O =5 ?>@CGCAL, GB> ?@8 MB>< [>=8] 45;0NB ?@028;L=K5 2K2>4K. B B0:>9 >?0A=>AB8 =0A <>65B C15@5GL B>;L:> H8@>:0O 1070 =01;N45=89, ?>2B>@O5<>ABL AE>4=KE 70:;NG5=89 87 A0<KE @07;8G=KE >1;0AB59 ?A8E8G5A:>9 687=8. 0 MB>< <K ?@5@25< 0=0;87 >H81>G=KE 459AB289. > O E>B5; 1K ?@54C?@548BL 20A >1 >4=><: 70?><=8B5, ?>60;C9AB0, <5B>4 0=0;870 MB8E D5=><5=>2. 0 8E ?@8<5@5 2K <>65B5 C2845BL, :0:>2K F5;8 =0H8E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89. K E>B8< =5 ?@>AB> >?8AK20BL 8 :;0AA8D8F8@>20BL O2;5=8O, 0 AB@5<8<AO ?>=OBL 8E :0: ?@>O2;5=85 1>@L1K 4CH52=KE A8;, :0: 2K@065=85 F5;5=0?@02;5==KE B5=45=F89, :>B>@K5 @01>B0NB A>3;0A=> 4@C3 A 4@C3>< 8;8 4@C3 ?@>B82 4@C30. K ?@845@68205<AO 48=0<8G5A:>3> ?>=8<0=8O ?A8E8G5A:8E O2;5=89.1 ! =0H59 B>G:8 7@5=8O, 2>A?@8=8<05<K5 D5=><5=K 4>;6=K CABC?8BL <5AB> B>;L:> ?@54?>;0305<K< AB@5<;5=8O<. B0:, <K 1C45< C3;C1;OBLAO 2 ?@>1;5<C >H81>G=KE 459AB289, => 1@>A8< 153;K9 273;O4 =0 MBC >1;0ABL 2> 2A59 55 H8@>B5, 745AL <K 2AB@5B8< 8 C65 7=0:><>5, 8 :>5-GB> =>2>5. K ?>-?@56=5<C 1C45< ?@845@6820BLAO C65 ?@8=OB>3> 2=0G0;5 45;5=8O =0 B@8 3@C??K >3>2>@>:, 0 B0:65 >?8A>:, >G8B>:, >A;KH5:, 701K20=8O A 53> ?>42840<8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 701KB>3> >1J5:B0 (8<5=8 A>1AB25==>3>, GC68E A;>2, =0<5@5=89, 2?5G0B;5=89) 8 70E20BK20=8O "?> >H81:5", 70?@OBK20=8O, 70B5@820=8O 25I59. H81:8-701;C645=8O (IrrtLmer), =0A:>;L:> >=8 ?>?040NB 2 ?>;5 =0H53> 2=8<0=8O, >B=>AOBAO G0AB8G=> : 701K20=8N, G0AB8G=> : 459AB28N "?> >H81:5" (Vergreifen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u 8;8 oi :0: ei; 65;0O 8A?@028BL >H81:C, G5;>25: <5=O5B 2 A;54CNI5< <5AB5 ei =0 5u 8;8 oi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erschreiben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angenommen -- A0<K9 ;CGH89 87 MB>9 3@C??K. A;8 <K E>B8< C7=0BL =0@CH0NICN B5=45=F8N, 2K7K20NICN >G8B:C, A;54C5B >AB028BL 2 AB>@>=5 =5?@028;L=> ?@>G8B0==K9 B5:AB, 0 ?>425@3=CBL 0=0;8B8G5A:><C 8AA;54>20=8N 420 <><5=B0: :0:0O <KA;L ?@8H;0 2 3>;>2C G8B02H5<C =5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@54 >G8B:>9 8 2 :0:>9 A8BC0F88 >=0 ?@>8AE>48B. =>340 7=0=8O MB>9 A8BC0F88 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O >1JOA=5=8O >G8B:8. 0?@8<5@, =5:B> 1@>48B ?> =57=0:><><C 3>@>4C, 8A?KBK20O 5AB5AB25==CN =C64C, 8 =0 1>;LH>9 2K25A:5 ?5@2>3> MB060 G8B05B :;>75B (Klosetthaus). 5 CA?52 C4828BLAO B><C, GB> 2K25A:0 28A8B A;8H:>< 2KA>:>, >= C156405BAO, GB> A;54C5B G8B0BL :>@A5BK (Korsetthaus).  4@C38E A;CG0OE >G8B>:, =57028A8<KE >B A>45@60=8O B5:AB0, =0>1>@>B, =5>1E>48< BI0B5;L=K9 0=0;87, :>B>@K9 =5;L7O ?@>25AB8, =5 7=0O B5E=8G5A:8E ?@85<>2 ?A8E>0=0;870 8 =5 4>25@OO 8<. > 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 >1JOA=8BL >G8B:C =5B@C4=>. > 70<5=5==><C A;>2C 2 ?@8<5@5 A 30<5<=>=>< OA5= :@C3 <KA;59, 87-70 :>B>@KE 2>7=8:;> =0@CH5=85. > 2@5<O MB>9 2>9=K, =0?@8<5@, =0720=8O 3>@>4>2, 8<5=0 ?>;:>2>4F52 8 2>5==K5 2K@065=8O 25AL<0 G0AB> 2KG8BK20NB 25745, 345 B>;L:> 2AB@5G05BAO E>BL :0:>5-=81C4L ?>E>655 A;>2>. ">, GB> 70=8<0B5;L=> 8 8=B5@5A=>, 70<5=O5B GC64>5 8 =58=B5@5A=>5. AB0B:8 [?@54H5AB2CNI8E] <KA;59 70B@C4=ONB =>2>5 2>A?@8OB85. @8 >G8B:5 4>AB0B>G=> G0AB> 2AB@5G0NBAO A;CG08 4@C3>3> @>40, 2 :>B>@KE A0< B5:AB 2K7K205B =0@CH0NICN B5=45=F8N, 87-70 :>B>@>9 >= 70B5< 8 ?@52@0I05BAO 2 A2>N ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL. '5;>25: 2K=C645= G8B0BL GB>-B> 4;O =53> =565;0B5;L=>5, 8 0=0;87 C156405B =0A, GB> 8=B5=A82=>5 65;0=85 >B25@3=CBL G8B05<>5 2K7K205B 53> 87<5=5=85.  @0=55 C?><O=CBKE 1>;55 G0ABKE A;CG0OE >G8B>: >BACBAB2CNB 420 D0:B>@0, :>B>@K5, ?> =0H5<C <=5=8N, 83@0NB 206=CN @>;L 2 <5E0=87<5 >H81>G=KE 459AB289: =5B :>=D;8:B0 42CE B5=45=F89 8 >BB5A=5=8O >4=>9 87 =8E, :>B>@0O 2>7<5I05B A51O 2 >H81>G=>< 459AB288. 5 B> GB>1K ?@8 >G8B:5 >1=0@C6820;>AL 1K GB>-B> A>25@H5==> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5, => 206=>ABL A>45@60=8O <KA;8, ?@82>4OI53> : >G8B:5, =0<=>3> >G5284=55, G5< >BB5A=5=85, :>B>@><C >=> 4> B>3> ?>425@3;>AL. <5==> >10 MB8E D0:B>@0 =03;O4=55 2A53> 2KABC?0NB 2 @07;8G=KE A;CG0OE >H81>G=KE 459AB289, 2K@060NI8EAO 2 701K20=88. 01K20=85 =0<5@5=89 :0: @07 >4=>7=0G=>, 53> B>;:>20=85, :0: <K C65 7=05<, =5 >A?0@8205BAO 4065 =5A?5F80;8AB0<8. 0@CH0NI0O =0<5@5=85 B5=45=F8O 2AO:89 @07 O2;O5BAO ?@>B82>?>;>6=K< =0<5@5=85<, =565;0=85< 2K?>;=8BL ?5@2>5, 8 =0< >AB05BAO B>;L:> C7=0BL, ?>G5<C >=> =5 2K@0605BAO ?>-4@C3><C 8 <5=55 70<0A:8@>20==>. > =0;8G85 MB>9 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>9 2>;8 =5A><=5==>. =>340 4065 C405BAO C7=0BL :>5-GB> > <>B820E, 2K=C640NI8E A:@K20BLAO MBC ?@>B82>?>;>6=CN 2>;N, 8 2AO:89 @07 >=0 4>AB8305B A2>59 F5;8 2 >H81>G=>< 459AB288, >AB020OAL A:@KB>9, ?>B><C GB> 1K;0 1K =025@=O:0 >B:;>=5=0, 5A;8 1K 2KABC?8;0 2 2845 >B:@KB>3> 2>7@065=8O. A;8 <564C =0<5@5=85< 8 53> 2K?>;=5=85< ?@>8AE>48B ACI5AB25==>5 87<5=5=85 ?A8E8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88, 2A;54AB285 :>B>@>3> > 2K?>;=5=88 =0<5@5=8O =5 <>65B 1KBL 8 @5G8, B>340 701K20=85 =0<5@5=8O 2KE>48B 70 @0<:8 >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O. "0:>5 701K20=85 =5 C482;O5B; ?>=OB=>, GB> 1K;> 1K 87;8H=5 2A?><8=0BL > =0<5@5=88, >=> 2K?0;> 87 ?0<OB8 =0 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O. 01K20=85 =0<5@5=8O B>;L:> B>340 <>6=> AG8B0BL >H81>G=K< 459AB285<, 5A;8 B0:>5 =0@CH5=85 8A:;NG5=>. !;CG08 701K20=8O =0<5@5=89 2 >1I5< =0AB>;L:> >4=>>1@07=K 8 ?@>7@0G=K, GB> 8<5==> ?>MB><C >=8 =5 ?@54AB02;ONB =8:0:>3> 8=B5@5A0 4;O =0H53> 8AA;54>20=8O. 4=0:> :>5-GB> =>2>5 2 42CE >B=>H5=8OE <K <>65< C7=0BL, 87CG0O 8 MB> >H81>G=>5 459AB285. K >B<5B8;8, GB> 701K20=85, B. 5. =52K?>;=5=85 =0<5@5=8O, C:07K205B =0 ?@>B82>?>;>6=CN 2>;N, 2@06451=CN MB><C =0<5@5=8N. -B> ?>;>65=85 >AB05BAO 2 A8;5, => ?@>B82>?>;>6=0O 2>;O, :0: ?>:07K20NB =0H8 8AA;54>20=8O, <>65B 1KBL 42CE 284>2 -- ?@O<0O 8 >?>A@54>20==0O. 'B> <K ?>=8<05< ?>4 ?>A;54=59, ;CGH5 2A53> ?>:070BL =0 =5:>B>@KE ?@8<5@0E. >340 ?>:@>28B5;L 701K205B 70<>;28BL A;>25G:> 70 A2>53> ?@>B565, B> MB> <>65B ?@>87>9B8 ?>B><C, GB> >= =5 >G5=L 8=B5@5AC5BAO A2>8< ?@>B565 8 C =53> =5B 1>;LH>9 >E>BK ?@>A8BL 70 =53>. <5==> 2 MB>< A<KA;5 ?@>B565 8 ?>=8<05B 701K2G82>ABL ?>:@>28B5;O. > A8BC0F8O <>65B 1KBL 8 A;>6=55. @>B82>?>;>6=0O 2K?>;=5=8N =0<5@5=8O 2>;O <>65B ?>O28BLAO C ?>:@>28B5;O ?> 4@C3>9 ?@8G8=5 8 ?@>O28BL A2>5 459AB285 A>2A5< 2 4@C3>< <5AB5. =0 <>65B =5 8<5BL : ?@>B565 =8:0:>3> >B=>H5=8O, 0 1KBL =0?@02;5=0 ?@>B82 B@5BL53> ;8F0, :>B>@>5 =C6=> ?@>A8BL. K 2848B5 B5?5@L, :0:85 A><=5=8O 2>7=8:0NB 8 745AL 2 A2O78 A ?@0:B8G5A:8< 8A?>;L7>20=85< =0H53> B>;:>20=8O. 5A<>B@O =0 ?@028;L=>5 B>;:>20=85 701K20=8O, ?@>B565 <>65B ?@>O28BL 87;8H=NN =54>25@G82>ABL 8 =5A?@0254;82>ABL ?> >B=>H5=8N : A2>5<C ?>:@>28B5;N. ;8 5A;8 :B>-=81C4L 701K205B ?@> A2840=85, =07=0G5==>5 4@C3><C, E>BO A0< 8 =0<5@5= 1K; O28BLAO, B> G0I5 2A53> MB> >1JOA=O5BAO ?@O<K< >B:07>< >B 2AB@5G8 A MB8< ;8F><. > 8=>340 0=0;87 <>65B >1=0@C68BL, GB> =0@CH0NI0O B5=45=F8O 8<55B >B=>H5=85 =5 : 40==><C ;8FC, 0 =0?@02;5=0 ?@>B82 <5AB0, 345 4>;6=> A>AB>OBLAO A2840=85, 8 A2O70=0 A =5?@8OB=K< 2>A?><8=0=85<, :>B>@>3> 701K2H89 E>G5B 871560BL. ;8 2 A;CG05, :>340 :B>-B> 701K205B >B?@028BL ?8AL<>, ?@>B82>?>;>6=0O B5=45=F8O <>65B 1KBL A2O70=0 A A>45@60=85< A0<>3> ?8AL<0; => 254L A>2A5< =5 8A:;NG5=>, GB> A0<> ?> A515 157>184=>5 ?8AL<> 2K7K205B ?@>B82>?>;>6=CN B5=45=F8N B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> >=> =0?><8=05B > 4@C3><, @0=55 =0?8A0==>< ?8AL<5, :>B>@>5 O28;>AL ?>2>4>< 4;O ?@O<>3> ?@>O2;5=8O ?@>B82>?>;>6=>9 2>;8. ">340 <>6=> A:070BL, GB> ?@>B82>?>;>6=0O 2>;O 745AL ?5@5=>A8BAO A B>3> ?@56=53> ?8AL<0, 345 >=0 1K;0 >?@0240==0, =0 40==>5, 2 :>B>@>< 59, A>1AB25==>, =5G5<C ?@>B82>@5G8BL. "0:8< >1@07><, 2K 2848B5, GB>, ?>;L7COAL =0H8< E>BO 8 ?@028;L=K< B>;:>20=85<, A;54C5B ?@>O2;OBL A45@60==>ABL 8 >AB>@>6=>ABL; B>, GB> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 B>645AB25==>, <>65B 1KBL ?@0:B8G5A:8 >G5=L 4065 <=>3>7=0G=>. >4>1=K5 O2;5=8O <>3CB ?>:070BLAO 20< >G5=L =5>1KG=K<8. >7<>6=>, 2K A:;>==K 4065 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> MB0 ">?>A@54>20==0O" ?@>B82>?>;>6=0O 2>;O E0@0:B5@87C5B C65 :0:>9-B> ?0B>;>38G5A:89 ?@>F5AA. > A<5N 20A 7025@8BL, GB> >=0 ?@>O2;O5BAO C =>@<0;L=KE 8 74>@>2KE ;N459. ?@>G5<, ?@>HC ?>=OBL <5=O ?@028;L=>. / A0< =8 2 :>59 <5@5 =5 E>GC ?@87=020BL =0H8 0=0;8B8G5A:85 B>;:>20=8O =5=0456=K<8. KH5C?><O=CB0O <=>3>7=0G=>ABL 701K20=8O =0<5@5=8O ACI5AB2C5B B>;L:> 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 <K =5 ?>425@3;8 A;CG09 0=0;87C, 0 B>;:C5< 53> B>;L:> =0 >A=>20=88 =0H8E >1I8E ?@54?>;>65=89. A;8 65 <K ?@>2545< A A>>B25BAB2CNI8< ;8F>< 0=0;87, B> <K C7=05< A ?>;=>9 >?@545;5==>ABLN, 1K;0 ;8 2 40==>< A;CG05 ?@O<0O ?@>B82>?>;>6=0O 2>;O 8;8 >B:C40 >=0 2>7=8:;0. B>@>9 <><5=B 70:;NG05BAO 2 A;54CNI5<: 5A;8 <K 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 C156405<AO, GB> 701K20=85 =0<5@5=89 >1JOA=O5BAO ?@>B82>?>;>6=>9 2>;59, B> ?>?@>1C5< @0A?@>AB@0=8BL MB> ?>;>65=85 =0 4@C3>9 @O4 A;CG052, :>340 0=0;878@C5<>5 ;8F> =5 ?@87=05B, 0 >B@8F05B >B:@KBCN =0<8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=CN 2>;N. >7L<5< 2 :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@>2 >G5=L G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI85AO A;CG08, :>340 701K20NB 25@=CBL 27OBK5 =0 2@5<O :=838, >?;0B8BL AG5B0 8;8 4>;38. K 1C45< =0AB>;L:> A<5;K, GB> A:065< 701K2H5<C, :0: 1K >= MB> =8 >B@8F0;, GB> C =53> 1K;> =0<5@5=85 >AB028BL :=838 A515 8 =5 >?;0B8BL 4>;38, 8=0G5 53> ?>2545=85 >1JOA=8BL =5;L7O, >= 8<5; =0<5@5=85, => B>;L:> =8G53> =5 7=0; > =5<; =0<, >4=0:>, 4>AB0B>G=> B>3>, GB> 53> 2K40;> 701K20=85. = <>65B, :>=5G=>, 2>7@078BL, GB> MB> 1K;0 2A53> ;8HL 701K2G82>ABL. "5?5@L 2K C7=05B5 A8BC0F8N, 2 :>B>@>9 <K C65 >4=064K >:070;8AL. A;8 <K E>B8< ?>A;54>20B5;L=> ?@>2>48BL =0H8 B>;:>20=8O >H81>G=KE 459AB289, :>B>@K5 >?@0240;8 A51O =0 @07=>>1@07=KE ?@8<5@0E, B> <K =587156=> ?@845< : ?@54?>;>65=8N, GB> C G5;>25:0 5ABL =0<5@5=8O, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 459AB2>20BL =57028A8<> >B B>3>, 7=05B >= > =8E 8;8 =5B. >, CB25@640O MB>, <K 2ABC?05< 2 ?@>B82>@5G85 A> 2A5<8 3>A?>4AB2CNI8<8 8 2 687=8, 8 2 ?A8E>;>388 273;O40<8. 01K20=85 8<5= A>1AB25==KE 8 8=>AB@0==KE =0720=89, 0 B0:65 8=>AB@0==KE A;>2 B>65 <>6=> A25AB8 : ?@>B82>?>;>6=><C =0<5@5=8N, :>B>@>5 ?@O<> 8;8 :>A25==> =0?@02;5=> ?@>B82 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> =0720=8O. 5:>B>@K5 ?@8<5@K B0:>9 ?@O<>9 =5?@8O7=8 O C65 ?@82>48; @0=55. > :>A25==K5 ?@8G8=K 745AL >A>15==> G0ABK 8 B@51CNB, :0: ?@028;>, 4;O 8E CAB0=>2;5=8O BI0B5;L=>3> 0=0;870. "0:, =0?@8<5@, A59G0A, 2> 2@5<O 2>9=K, :>B>@0O 2K=C48;0 =0A >B:070BLAO >B <=>38E ?@56=8E A8<?0B89, 2 A8;C :0:8E-B> >G5=L AB@0==KE A2O759 ?>AB@040;0 B0:65 ?0<OBL =0 8<5=0 A>1AB25==K5. 5402=> A> <=>9 ?@>87>H5; A;CG09, :>340 O =5 <>3 2A?><=8BL =0720=85 157>184=>3> <>@02A:>3> 3>@>40 875=F, 8 0=0;87 ?>:070;, GB> ?@8G8=>9 1K;0 =5 ?@O<0O 2@06451=>ABL, 0 A>72CG85 A =0720=85< ?0;0FF> 875=F8 2 @285B>, 345 O @0=LH5 =5>4=>:@0B=> 68;. >B82>< B5=45=F88, =0?@02;5==>9 ?@>B82 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O =0720=8O 2 ?0<OB8, 745AL 2?5@2K5 2KABC?05B ?@8=F8?, :>B>@K9 2?>A;54AB288 >1=0@C68B A2>5 G@572KG09=> 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 4;O >?@545;5=8O ?@8G8= =52@>B8G5A:8E A8<?B><>2: >B:07 ?0<OB8 2A?><8=0BL B>, GB> A2O70=> A =5?@8OB=K<8 >ICI5=8O<8, 8 [=>2L ?5@56820BL MB> =5C4>2>;LAB285 ?@8 2>A?><8=0=88. 0<5@5=85 871560BL =5C4>2>;LAB28O, 8AB>G=8:>< :>B>@>3> A;C60B ?0<OBL 8;8 4@C385 ?A8E8G5A:85 0:BK, ?A8E8G5A:>5 153AB2> >B =5C4>2>;LAB28O <K ?@87=05< :0: :>=5G=K9 <>B82 =5 B>;L:> 4;O 701K20=8O 8<5= 8 =0720=89, => 8 4;O <=>38E 4@C38E >H81>G=KE 459AB289, B0:8E, :0: =58A?>;=5=85 >15I0==>3>, >H81:8-701;C645=8O (IrrtLmer) 8 4@.1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 028A8<>ABL ?0<OB8 >B CAB0=>2>: AC1J5:B0 2KO28;0AL C65 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=8OE. >287=0 ?>4E>40 $@5940 70:;NG0;0AL 2 B><, GB> >= ?>AB028; 2>?@>A > @>;8 48=0<8G5A:8E (<>B820F8>==KE) D0:B>@>2 2 ?@>F5AA0E ?0<OB8, >1KG=> >B=>A8<KE : @07@O4C ?>7=020B5;L=KE, ?>4G8=5==KE 70:>=0< 0AA>F80F88 ;81> >A=>20==KE =0 ?@54<5B=>-A<KA;>2KE A2O7OE. #B25@645=85 $@5940, 1C4B> =5?@8OB=K5 2?5G0B;5=8O ?> 2A5E A;CG0OE 701K20NBAO, B5A=> A2O70=> A 53> :>=F5?F8O<8 2KB5A=5=8O 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 70I8BK. 4=0:> 701K20=85 8<5=, ?>-2848<><C, >A>15==> ;53:> >1JOA=8BL ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8<8 ?@8G8=0<8, 8 ?>MB><C 5ABL <=>3> A;CG052, 2 :>B>@KE <>B82 =5?@8OB=>3> GC2AB20 =5 ?>4B25@6405BAO. A;8 :B>-B> 1K205B A:;>=5= : 701K20=8N 8<5=, B> ?CB5< 0=0;8B8G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O <>6=> CAB0=>28BL, GB> >=8 2K?040NB 87 ?0<OB8 =5 B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> A0<8 2K7K20NB =5?@8OB=>5 GC2AB2> 8;8 :0:-B> =0?><8=0NB > =5<, 0 ?>B><C, GB> >?@545;5==>5 8<O >B=>A8BAO : 4@C3><C 0AA>F80B82=><C :@C3C, A :>B>@K< 701K20NI89 A>AB>8B 2 1>;55 8=B8<=KE >B=>H5=8OE. <O 2 =5< :0: 1K 7045@68205BAO 8 =5 4>?CA:05B 4@C38E 459AB2CNI8E 2 40==K9 <><5=B 0AA>F80F89. A;8 2K 2A?><=8B5 8A:CAAB25==K5 ?@85<K <=5<>B5E=8:8, B> A C482;5=85< 70<5B8B5, GB> 8<5=0 701K20NBAO 2A;54AB285 B5E 65 A2O759, :>B>@K5 =0<5@5==> CAB0=02;820NB, GB>1K 871560BL 701K20=8O. !0<K< O@:8< ?@8<5@>< B><C O2;ONBAO 8<5=0 ;N459, :>B>@K5 4;O @07=KE ;8F <>3CB 8<5BL @07=>5 ?A8E8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85. >7L<5<, =0?@8<5@, 8<O "5>4>@. ;O :>3>-B> >=> =8G53> >A>15==>3> =5 7=0G8B, 4;O 4@C3>3> 65 MB> <>65B 1KBL 8<O >BF0, 1@0B0, 4@C30 8;8 53> A>1AB25==>5. ?KB 0=0;8B8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 ?>:07K205B, GB> 2 ?5@2>< A;CG05 =5B >A=>20=89 701K20BL MB> 8<O, 5A;8 >=> ?@8=04;568B ?>AB>@>==5<C ;8FC, B>340 :0: 2> 2B>@>< 1C45B ?>AB>O==> ?@>O2;OBLAO A:;>==>ABL ;8H8BL ?>AB>@>==53> 8<5=8, A :>B>@K<, ?>-2848<><C, 0AA>F88@CNBAO 8=B8<=K5 >B=>H5=8O. @54?>;>68B5, GB> MB> 0AA>F80B82=>5 B>@<>65=85 <>65B A>G5B0BLAO A 459AB285< ?@8=F8?0 =5C4>2>;LAB28O (Unlustprinzip) 8, :@><5 B>3>, A <5E0=87<>< :>A25==>9 ?@8G8==>AB8, 8 2K ?>;CG8B5 ?@028;L=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, =0A:>;L:> A;>6=K ?@8G8=K 2@5<5==>3> 701K20=8O 8<5=. > B>;L:> BI0B5;L=K9 0=0;87 >:>=G0B5;L=> @0A:@>5B ?5@54 20<8 2A5 A;>6=>AB8.  701K20=88 2?5G0B;5=89 8 ?5@56820=89 5I5 >BG5B;8255 8 A8;L=55, G5< 2 701K20=88 8<5=, >1=0@C68205BAO 459AB285 B5=45=F88 CAB@0=5=8O =5?@8OB=>3> 87 2>A?><8=0=8O. >;=>ABLN MB> 701K20=85, :>=5G=>, =5;L7O >B=5AB8 : >H81>G=K< 459AB28O<, >=> >B=>A8BAO : =8< B>;L:> 2 B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 MB> 701K20=85 2KE>48B 70 @0<:8 >1KG=>3> >?KB0, B. 5., =0?@8<5@, :>340 701K20NBAO A;8H:>< A25685 8;8 A;8H:>< 206=K5 2?5G0B;5=8O 8;8 B0:85, 701K20=85 :>B>@KE ?@5@K205B A2O7L A>1KB89, 2 >AB0;L=>< E>@>H> A>E@0=82H8EAO 2 ?0<OB8. >G5<C 8 :0: <K 2>>1I5 701K205<, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 B5 ?5@56820=8O, :>B>@K5 >AB028;8 2 =0A =5A><=5==> 3;C1>G09H89 A;54, B0:85, :0: A>1KB89 ?5@2KE 45BA:8E ;5B, -- MB> A>25@H5==> 4@C30O ?@>1;5<0, 2 :>B>@>9 70I8B0 >B =5?@8OB=KE >ICI5=89 83@05B >?@545;5==CN @>;L, => >1JOA=O5B 40;5:> =5 2A5. ">, GB> =5?@8OB=K5 2?5G0B;5=8O ;53:> 701K20NBAO, -- D0:B, =5 ?>4;560I89 A><=5=8N. -B> 70<5B8;8 @07;8G=K5 ?A8E>;>38, 0 =0 25;8:>3> 0@28=0 MB>B D0:B ?@>8725; B0:>5 A8;L=>5 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> >= 225; 4;O A51O "7>;>B>5 ?@028;>" A >A>1>9 BI0B5;L=>ABLN 70?8AK20BL =01;N45=8O, :>B>@K5 ?@>B82>@5G8;8 53> B5>@88, B0: :0: >= C1548;AO, GB> 8<5==> >=8 =5 C45@6820NBAO 2 53> ?0<OB8. ">B, :B> 2?5@2K5 A;KH8B >1 MB>< ?@8=F8?5 70I8BK >B =565;0B5;L=KE 2>A?><8=0=89 ?CB5< 701K20=8O, =5 C?CAB8B A;CG0O 2>7@078BL, ?@87K20O >?KB, GB> :0: @07 =5?@8OB=>5 B@C4=> 701KBL, 8<5==> >=> ?@>B82 =0H59 2>;8 2A5 2@5<O 2>72@0I05BAO, GB>1K =0A <CG8BL, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 2>A?><8=0=8O >1 >1840E 8 C=865=8OE. 065 5A;8 MB>B D0:B 25@5=, >= =5 3>48BAO 2 :0G5AB25 0@3C<5=B0 ?@>B82 =0H53> CB25@645=8O. 06=> 2>2@5<O ?>=OBL B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, GB> 4CH52=0O 687=L -- MB> 0@5=0 1>@L1K ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE B5=45=F89 8 GB>, 2K@060OAL =5 48=0<8G5A:8, >=0 A>AB>8B 87 ?@>B82>@5G89 8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE ?0@. 0;8G85 >?@545;5==>9 B5=45=F88 =5 8A:;NG05B 8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>9 59 -- <5AB0 E20B8B 4;O >158E. 5;> B>;L:> 2 B><, :0: MB8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=K5 B5=45=F88 >B=>AOBAO 4@C3 : 4@C3C, :0:85 459AB28O 2KB5:0NB 87 >4=>9 8 :0:85 87 4@C3>9. 0B5@820=85 8 70?@OBK20=85 25I59 =0< >A>15==> 8=B5@5A=K A2>59 <=>3>7=0G=>ABLN, @07=>>1@0785< B5=45=F89, 2A;54AB285 :>B>@KE <>3CB ?@>87>9B8 MB8 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O. 1I8< 4;O 2A5E A;CG052 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> :0:>9-B> ?@54<5B E>B5;8 ?>B5@OBL, => ?@8G8=K 8 F5;8 MB>3> 459AB28O @07=K5. 5IL B5@ONB, 5A;8 >=0 8A?>@B8;0AL, 5A;8 =0<5@5=K 70<5=8BL 55 ;CGH59, 5A;8 >=0 @07>=@028;0AL, 5A;8 =0?><8=05B > G5;>25:5, A :>B>@K< 8A?>@B8;8AL >B=>H5=8O, 8;8 5A;8 >=0 1K;0 ?@8>1@5B5=0 ?@8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20E, > :>B>@KE =5 E>G5BAO 2A?><8=0BL. ! MB>9 65 F5;LN 25I8 @>=ONB, ?>@BOB 8 ;><0NB.  >1I5AB25==>9 687=8 1K;8 A45;0=K =01;N45=8O, GB> =565;0==K5 8 2=51@0G=K5 45B8 =0<=>3> 1>;57=5==55, G5< 70:>==K5. ;O 4>:070B5;LAB20 =5B =5>1E>48<>AB8 AAK;0BLAO =0 3@C1K5 ?@85<K B0: =07K205<KE "?@>872>48B5;L=8F 0=35;>2"; 2?>;=5 4>AB0B>G=> C:070BL =0 8725AB=CN =51@56=>ABL 2 CE>45 70 45BL<8.  15@56=>< >B=>H5=88 : 25I0< ?@>O2;O5BAO B> 65 A0<>5, GB> 8 2 >B=>H5=88 : 45BO<. 0;55, =0 ?>B5@N <>3CB 1KBL >1@5G5=K 25I8, =5 CB@0B82H85 A2>59 F5==>AB8, 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 8<55BAO ---------------------------------------- Engelmacherinnen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ergreifen), :0: 8 4@C385 >H81:8 (IrrtLmer), G0AB> 8A?>;L7CNB 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 2K?>;=8BL 65;0=8O, 2 :>B>@KE A;54>20;> 1K A515 >B:070BL. 0<5@5=85 <0A:8@C5BAO ?@8 MB>< ?>4 AG0AB;82CN A;CG09=>ABL. "0:, =0?@8<5@, A >4=8< <>8< 4@C3>< ?@>87>H5; B0:>9 A;CG09: >= 4>;65= 1K; O2=> ?@>B82 A2>59 2>;8 A45;0BL 2878B 70 3>@>4 ?> 65;57=>9 4>@>35, ?@8 ?5@5A04:5 >= ?> >H81:5 A5; 2 ?>574, :>B>@K9 4>AB028; 53> >1@0B=> 2 3>@>4. ;8 1K205B B0:, GB> 2> 2@5<O ?CB5H5AB28O E>G5BAO 7045@60BLAO =0 ?>;?CB8, => 87-70 >?@545;5==KE >1O70B5;LAB2 =5;L7O MB>3> 45;0BL, 8 B>340 ?@>?CA:05HL =C6=K9 ?>574, B0: GB> 2K=C645= A45;0BL 65;0==CN >AB0=>2:C. ;8 :0: A;CG8;>AL A <>8< ?0F85=B><, :>B>@><C O 70?@5B8; 72>=8BL ;N18<>9 65=I8=5, => >=, 65;0O ?>72>=8BL <=5, "?> >H81:5", "2 704C<G82>AB8" =0720; =5?@028;L=K9 =><5@ 8 2A5-B0:8 1K; A>548=5= A =59. @5:@0A=K9 ?@0:B8G5A:89 ?@8<5@ ?@O<>3> =5?@028;L=>3> 459AB28O, A2O70==>3> A ?>2@5645=85< ?@54<5B0, ?@82>48B >48= 8=65=5@: "5402=> O A <>8<8 :>;;530<8 @01>B0; 2 ;01>@0B>@88 8=AB8BCB0 =04 A5@859 A;>6=KE M:A?5@8<5=B>2 ?> C?@C3>AB8; @01>B0, 70 :>B>@CN <K 27O;8AL 4>1@>2>;L=>, 70BO=C;0AL, >4=0:>, 4>;LH5, G5< <K ?@54?>;030;8. 4=064K O A :>;;53>9 $. >?OBL ?>H5; 2 ;01>@0B>@8N, >= 60;>20;AO, GB> 8<5==> A53>4=O 5<C =5 E>B5;>AL 1K B5@OBL B0: <=>3> 2@5<5=8, C =53> <=>3> 45; 4><0; O <>3 B>;L:> A>3;0A8BLAO A =8< 8 2 HCB:C A:070;, 2A?><=82 A;CG09 =0 ?@>H;>9 =545;5: "C45< =045OBLAO, GB> 8 A53>4=O <0H8=0 >?OBL 8A?>@B8BAO, B0: GB> >AB028< @01>BC 8 ?>@0=LH5 C945<". > 2@5<O @01>BK A;CG8;>AL B0:, GB> :>;;530 $. 4>;65= 1K; C?@02;OBL :@0=>< ?@5AA0, >AB>@>6=> >B:@K20O :@0= 8 <54;5==> 2?CA:0O 684:>ABL ?>4 402;5=85< 87 0::C<C;OB>@0 2 F8;8=4@ 384@02;8G5A:>3> ?@5AA0. C:>2>48B5;L >?KB0 AB>8B C <0=><5B@0 8, :>340 402;5=85 4>AB8305B =C6=>3> C@>2=O, :@8G8B: "!B>?!" 0 MBC :><0=4C $. A> 2A59 A8;>9 ?>2>@0G8205B :@0= 2;52> (2A5 :@0=K 157 8A:;NG5=8O 70:@K20NBAO ?>2>@>B>< 2?@02>!). 7-70 MB>3> 2 ?@5AA5 =0G8=05B 459AB2>20BL ?>;=>5 402;5=85 0::C<C;OB>@0, ?>42>4OI0O B@C1:0 =5 2K45@68205B 8 ;>?05BAO -- A>2A5< =528==0O ?>;><:0 <0H8=K, => <K 2K=C645=K ?@5@20BL =0 A53>4=O @01>BC 8 ?>9B8 4><>9. %0@0:B5@=>, 2?@>G5<, GB> =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O A?CABO, :>340 <K >1AC640;8 MB>B A;CG09, ?@8OB5;L $. 01A>;NB=> =5 ?><=8; <>8E A;>2 > ?>;><:5 <0H8=K, :>B>@K5 O ?><=N A>25@H5==> >BG5B;82>". -B>B A;CG09 <>65B =025AB8 =0 ?@54?>;>65=85, GB> =5 2A5340 157>184=0O A;CG09=>ABL 45;05B @C:8 20H59 ?@8A;C38 B0:8<8 >?0A=K<8 2@030<8 20H53> 4><0. 45AL 65 2AB05B 2>?@>A, 2A5340 ;8 A;CG09=> =0=>A8HL A515 2@54 8 ?>425@305HL >?0A=>AB8 A>1AB25==>5 ACI5AB2>20=85. A5 MB> ?>;>65=8O, 7=0G8<>ABL :>B>@KE 2K ?@8 A;CG05 <>65B5 ?@>25@8BL =0 >A=>20=88 0=0;870 =01;N45=89. #20605<K5 A;CH0B5;8! -B> 40;5:> =5 2A5, GB> <>6=> 1K;> 1K A:070BL >1 >H81>G=KE 459AB28OE. ABL 5I5 <=>3> B0:>3>, GB> =C6=> 8AA;54>20BL 8 >1AC48BL. > O 4>2>;5=, 5A;8 2 @57C;LB0B5 =0H8E 15A54 2K ?5@5A<>B@5;8 ?@56=85 273;O4K 8 3>B>2K ?@8=OBL =>2K5. ?@>G5<, O >3@0=8GCAL B5<, GB> =5:>B>@K5 AB>@>=K 45;0 >AB0=CBAO =52KOA=5==K<8. 7CG0O >H81>G=K5 459AB28O, <K <>65< 4>:070BL 40;5:> =5 2A5 =0H8 ?>;>65=8O, => 4;O 8E 4>:070B5;LAB20 <K 1C45< ?@82;5:0BL =5 B>;L:> MB>B <0B5@80;. >;LH0O F5==>ABL >H81>G=KE 459AB289 4;O =0A A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> MB> >G5=L G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI85AO O2;5=8O, :>B>@K5 <>6=> ;53:> =01;N40BL =0 A0<>< A515, 8 8E ?>O2;5=85 A>25@H5==> =5 A2O70=> A :0:8<-;81> 1>;57=5==K< A>AB>O=85<.  70:;NG5=85 O E>B5; 1K >AB0=>28BLAO B>;L:> =0 >4=>< 2>?@>A5, =0 :>B>@K9 5I5 =5 >B25B8;: 5A;8 ;N48, :0: <K MB> 2845;8 2> <=>38E ?@8<5@0E, B0: 1;87:> ?>4E>4OB : ?>=8<0=8N >H81>G=KE 459AB289 8 G0AB> 254CB A51O B0:, :0: 1C4B> >=8 4>304K20NBAO >1 8E A<KA;5, B> :0: 65 <>6=> AG8B0BL MB8 O2;5=8O A;CG09=K<8, ;8H5==K<8 A<KA;0 8 7=0G5=8O 8 B0: M=5@38G=> A>?@>B82;OBLAO ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:><C 8E >1JOA=5=8N? K ?@02K -- MB> C4828B5;L=> 8 B@51C5B A2>53> >1JOA=5=8O. > O 20< 53> =5 40<, 0 ?>AB5?5==> ?>4254C : ?>=8<0=8N 2708<>A2O759, 87 :>B>@>3> >1JOA=5=85 >B:@>5BAO 20< A0<> ?> A515 157 <>53> =5?>A@54AB25==>3> CG0AB8O. '!", " / !/ (1916 [1915-16]) /"/ &/ " #!"   + +" M #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! >340-B> 1K;> A45;0=> >B:@KB85, GB> A8<?B><K 1>;57=8 =5:>B>@KE =5@2=>1>;L=KE 8<5NB A<KA;. 0 MB>< 1K; >A=>20= ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:89 <5B>4 ;5G5=8O. > 2@5<O MB>3> ;5G5=8O >1=0@C68;>AL, GB> 270<5= A8<?B><>2 C 1>;L=KE B0:65 ?>O2;O;8AL A=>2845=8O. "0: 2>7=8:;> ?@54?>;>65=85, GB> 8 MB8 A=>2845=8O 8<5NB A<KA;. > <K =5 ?>945< MB8< 8AB>@8G5A:8< ?CB5<, 0 A>25@H8< >1@0B=K9 E>4. K E>B8< ?>:070BL A<KA; A=>2845=89 8 B0:8< >1@07>< ?>4>9B8 : 87CG5=8N =52@>- ---------------------------------------- >75D @595@ 2 1880-1882 33. !@. B0:65 <>8 ;5:F88 " ?A8E>0=0;875" (19100), ?@>G8B0==K5 2 <5@8:5, 8 " 8AB>@88 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> 42865=8O" (1914d). 7>21. -B>B E>4 >?@0240=, B0: :0: 87CG5=85 A=>2845=89 =5 B>;L:> ;CGH89 A?>A>1 ?>43>B>2:8 : 8AA;54>20=8N =52@>7>2, A0<> A=>2845=85 B>65 =52@>B8G5A:89 A8<?B><, :>B>@K9 : B><C 65, GB> 8<55B 4;O =0A =5>F5=8<>5 ?@58<CI5AB2>, ?@>O2;O5BAO C 2A5E 74>@>2KE. 065 5A;8 1K 2A5 ;N48 1K;8 74>@>2K 8 B>;L:> 2845;8 A=>2845=8O, <K <>3;8 1K ?> 8E A=>2845=8O< A45;0BL 2A5 B5 2K2>4K, : :>B>@K< =0A ?@825;> 87CG5=85 =52@>7>2. B0:, A45;05< A=>2845=85 >1J5:B>< ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O. =>2L >1KG=K9, =54>AB0B>G=> >F5=5==K9 D5=><5=, :0: 1C4B> ;8H5==K9 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 7=0G8<>AB8, :0: 8 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O, A :>B>@K<8 >= 8<55B B> >1I55, GB> ?@>O2;O5BAO 8 C 74>@>2KE. > 2 >AB0;L=>< CA;>28O =0H59 @01>BK <5=55 1;03>?@8OB=K. H81>G=K5 459AB28O 2A53> ;8HL =54>>F5=820;8AL =0C:>9, 8E <0;> 87CG0;8; =>, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2, =5B =8G53> ?>ABK4=>3> 70=8<0BLAO 8<8. @0240, 3>2>@8;8, GB> 5ABL 25I8 ?>206=55, => <>6=> ---------------------------------------- 1 @>1;5<0 A=>2845=89 87=0G0;L=> A;C68;0 >B?@02=>9 2> 2A5E ?>AB@>5=8OE $@5940. ! =59 A2O70=K 8AB>:8 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> 42865=8O (59 1K;0 ?>A2OI5=0 ?5@20O :@C?=0O :=830 $@5940 "">;:>20=85 A=>2845=89" (1900), :>B>@CN ?@8=OB> AG8B0BL >A=>2>?>;030NI59 4;O ?A8E>0=0;870). >A:>;L:C ?@8 A=>2845=8OE <5E0=87< A>7=0B5;L=>-2>;52>3> :>=B@>;O, @53C;8@CNI89 ?>2545=85 ?@8 1>4@AB2>20=88, 2K:;NG5=, MB0 >1;0ABL >B:@K20;0 ?@>AB>@ 4;O 87CG5=8O =5>A>7=0205<KE ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>O2;5=89. "@0:B>2:0 A=>2845=8O :0: A8<?B><0 =52@>70 >B25@305BAO A>2@5<5==>9 =0C:>9, E>BO >?@545;5==K5 =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:85 8 ?A8E>A><0B8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20 2;8ONB =0 E0@0:B5@ A=>2845=89. -B> 2;8O=85, ?>4<5G5==>5 ?A8E>0=0;87><, 40;> ?>2>4 4;O H8@>:8E <5B>4>;>38G5A:8E 8 <8@>2>77@5=G5A:8E 2K2>4>2, 2KE>4OI8E 40;5:> 70 ?@545;K B>3>, > G5< @50;L=> A2845B5;LAB2C5B >?KB 87CG5=8O :>@@5;OF89 <564C A>45@60=85< A=>2845=89 8 <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@>9 ;8G=>AB8, :0:>9 >=0 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 MB>< A>45@60=88. 8 87 =8E :>5-GB> 872;5GL. 0=8<0BLAO 65 A=>2845=8O<8 =5 B>;L:> =5?@0:B8G=> 8 87;8H=5, => ?@>AB> ABK4=>; MB> 2;5G5B 70 A>1>9 C?@5:8 2 =5=0CG=>AB8, 2K7K205B ?>4>7@5=85 2 ;8G=>9 A:;>==>AB8 : <8AB8F87<C. 'B>1K 2@0G 70=8<0;AO A=>2845=8O<8, :>340 4065 2 =52@>?0B>;>388 8 ?A8E80B@88 AB>;L:> 1>;55 A5@L57=KE 25I59: >?CE>;8 25;8G8=>9 A O1;>:>, :>B>@K5 402OB =0 <>73, >@30= 4CH52=>9 687=8, :@>2>87;8O=8O, E@>=8G5A:85 2>A?0;5=8O, ?@8 :>B>@KE 87<5=5=8O B:0=59 <>6=> ?>:070BL ?>4 <8:@>A:>?><! 5B, A=>2845=85 -- MB> A;8H:>< =8GB>6=K9 8 =54>AB>9=K9 8AA;54>20=8O >1J5:B.  5I5 >4=0 >A>15==>ABL, ?@>B82>@5G0I0O 2A5< B@51>20=8O< B>G=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O. 54L ?@8 8AA;54>20=88 A=>2845=8O =5B C25@5==>AB8 4065 2 >1J5:B5. @54>20O 845O, =0?@8<5@, ?@>O2;O5BAO OA=> 8 >?@545;5==>. "/ -- :8B09A:89 8<?5@0B>@", -- 70O2;O5B 1>;L=>9 2> 2A5CA;KH0=85.  A=>2845=85? 3> G0AB> 2>>1I5 =5;L7O @0AA:070BL. 0725 5ABL C @0AA:07G8:0 30@0=B8O, GB> >= ?5@5405B A=>2845=85 ?@028;L=>, 0 =5 87<5=O5B <=>3>5 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?5@5A:070, GB>-B> ?@84C<K205B 2A;54AB285 =5>?@545;5==>AB8 2>A?><8=0=89? >;LH8=AB2> A=>2845=89 2>>1I5 =5;L7O 2A?><=8BL, >=8 701K20NBAO F5;8:><, 2?;>BL 4> <5;LG09H8E D@03<5=B>2.  =0 B>;:>20=88 MB>3> <0B5@80;0 8 4>;6=0 >A=>2K20BLAO =0CG=0O ?A8E>;>38O 8;8 <5B>4 ;5G5=8O 1>;L=KE? ?@545;5==>5 ?@5C25;8G5=85 2 MB>9 >F5=:5 <>65B =0A =0AB>@>68BL. >7@065=8O ?@>B82 A=>2845=8O :0: >1J5:B0 8AA;54>20=8O, >G5284=>, 70E>4OB A;8H:>< 40;5:>. ! CB25@645=85< > =57=0G8B5;L=>AB8 87CG05<>3> >1J5:B0 <K C65 8<5;8 45;>, @0718@0O >H81>G=K5 459AB28O. K 3>2>@8;8 A515, GB> 25;8:>5 <>65B ?@>O2;OBLAO 8 2 <0;><. 'B> :0A05BAO =5>?@545;5==>AB8 A=>2845=8O, B> 8<5==> >=0 O2;O5BAO E0@0:B5@=>9 53> >A>15==>ABLN =0@O4C A 4@C38<8; O2;5=8O< =5;L7O ?@54?8AK20BL 8E A2>9AB20.  :@><5 B>3>, 5ABL 254L OA=K5 8 2?>;=5 >?@545;5==K5 A=>2845=8O.  ?A8E80B@88 ACI5AB2CNB 8 4@C385 >1J5:BK, :>B>@K5 8<5NB B>B 65 =5>?@545;5==K9 E0@0:B5@, =0?@8<5@, <=>385 A;CG08 =02O7G82KE ?@54AB02;5=89, :>B>@K<8, >4=0:>, 70=8<0NBAO @5A?5:B015;L=K5, ?@87=0==K5 ?A8E80B@K1. =5 2A?><8=05BAO A;CG09 87 <>59 2@0G51=>9 ?@0:B8:8. >;L=0O >1@0B8;0AL :> <=5 A> A;>20<8: "# <5=O B0:>5 GC2AB2>, :0: 1C4B> O ?@8G8=8;0 2@54 8;8 E>B5;0 MB> A45;0BL 682><C ACI5AB2C -- @515=:C? -- 8;8 =5B, A:>@55 A>10:5, -- <>65B 1KBL, A1@>A8;0 A <>AB0 8;8 A45;0;0 GB>-B> 4@C3>5". K <>65< CAB@0=8BL =5B>G=>ABL 2>A?><8=0=8O > A=>2845=88, 5A;8 1C45< AG8B0BL A=>2845=85< B>, GB> @0AA:07K205B 28452H89 A>=, =5 >1@0I0O 2=8<0=8O =0 B>, GB> >= <>3 701KBL 8;8 87<5=8BL ?@8 2>A?><8=0=88.  :>=F5 :>=F>2, =5;L7O 65 B0: 157>3>2>@>G=> CB25@640BL, GB> A=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO G5<-B> =57=0G8B5;L=K<. 0< 8725AB=> 87 A>1AB25==>3> >?KB0, GB> =0AB@>5=85, A :>B>@K< ?@>1C6405HLAO >B A=0, <>65B 4;8BLAO 25AL 45=L; 2@0G8 =01;N40NB A;CG08, :>340 A> A=>2845=8O =0G8=05BAO 4CH52=0O 1>;57=L 8 1@54>20O 845O 15@5BAO 87 MB>3> A=>2845=8O: 8725AB=K 8AB>@8G5A:85 ;8G=>AB8, :>B>@KE ?>1C48;8 : 206=K< 45;0< A=>2845=8O. >MB><C 8 70405HLAO 2>?@>A><, >B:C40, A>1AB25==>, 2 =0CG=KE :@C30E 2>7=8:05B ?@57@5=85 : A=>2845=8N? / 4C<0N, GB> >=> O2;O5BAO @50:F859 =0 A;8H:>< 2KA>:CN >F5=:C A=>2845=89 2 4@52=85 2@5<5=0. 725AB=>, GB> 2>AAB0=>28BL ?@>H;>5 -- 45;> =5;53:>5, => A C25@5==>ABLN <>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL -- ?>72>;LB5 <=5 ---------------------------------------- 1 "5=45=F8N : =5>?@545;5==>AB8 8 ;018;L=>AB8 @50:F89 =52@>B8:>2, 8A?KBK20NI8E =02O7G82K5 A>AB>O=8O, $@594 >1AC6405B 2 A2>59 @01>B5 "0<5G0=8O >1 >4=>< A;CG05 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89" (1909). ?8A0=85 MB>9 D>@<K 701>;520=8O 405BAO B0:65 2 17-9 ;5:F88. MBC HCB:C, -- GB> =0H8 ?@54:8 3000 ;5B B><C =0704 8 @0=LH5 B>G=> B0: 65 2845;8 A=K, :0: 8 <K. 0A:>;L:> <K 7=05<, 4@52=85 =0@>4K ?@84020;8 2A5< A=>2845=8O< 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 8 AG8B0;8 8E ?@0:B8G5A:8 7=0G8<K<8. =8 2845;8 2 =8E 7=0:8 1C4CI53>, 8A:0;8 2 =8E ?@547=0<5=>20=8O. ;O 4@52=8E 3@5:>2 8 4@C38E =0@>4>2 ;86=53> 8 !@54=53> >AB>:0 2>5==K9 ?>E>4 157 B>;:>20B5;O A=>2845=89 1K; ?>4G0A B0: 65 =52>7<>65=, :0: A53>4=O 157 2>74CH=>9 @07254:8. >340 ;5:A0=4@ 0:54>=A:89 ?@54?@8=8<0; A2>9 702>520B5;L=K9 ?>E>4, 2 53> A28B5 1K;8 A0<K5 7=0<5=8BK5 B>;:>20B5;8 A=>2845=89. >@>4 "8@, @0A?>;>65==K9 B>340 5I5 =0 >AB@>25, >:070; F0@N B0:>5 O@>AB=>5 A>?@>B82;5=85, GB> >= ?>4C<K20; C65 >1 >B:075 >B 53> >A04K. > 2>B >4=064K =>GLN >= C2845; 2> A=5 B0=FCNI8E 2 B@8C<D5 A0B8@>2 8, :>340 @0AA:070; MB> A=>2845=85 B>;:>20B5;N, C7=0;, GB> 5<C ?@5425I05BAO ?>1540 =04 3>@>4><. = ?@8:070; 2>9A:0< =0ABC?0BL 8 27O; "8@. 'B>1K C7=0BL 1C4CI55, MB@CA:8 8 @8<;O=5 ?>;L7>20;8AL 4@C38<8 <5B>40<8, => 2 B5G5=85 2A53> M;;8=A:>-@8<A:>3> ?5@8>40 B>;:>20=85 A=>2845=89 :C;LB828@>20;>AL 8 2KA>:> F5=8;>AL. 7 ;8B5@0BC@K, 70=8<02H59AO MB8<8 2>?@>A0<8, 4> =0A 4>H;>, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, 3;02=>5 ?@>872545=85 -- =830 @B5<84>@0 87 0;48A0, :>B>@>3> >B=>AOB :> 2@5<5=8 8<?5@0B>@0 4@80=0. 0: ?>B>< A;CG8;>AL, GB> 8A:CAAB2> B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89 ?@8H;> 2 C?04>: 8 A=>2845=8N ?5@5AB0;8 4>25@OBL, O =5 <>3C 20< A:070BL. @>A25I5=85 =5 <>3;> AK3@0BL BCB 1>;LHCN @>;L, 254L B5<=>5 A@54=525:>2L5 A>E@0=8;> 2 B>< 65 2845 3>@074> 1>;55 01AC@4=K5 25I8, G5< 0=B8G=>5 B>;:>20=85 A=>2845=89. AB05BAO :>=AB0B8@>20BL, GB> 8=B5@5A : A=>2845=8N ?>AB5?5==> >?CAB8;AO 4> AC525@8O 8 <>3 >AB0BLAO B>;L:> A@548 =5>1@07>20==KE ;N459. >A;54=55 7;>C?>B@51;5=85 B>;:>20=85< A=>2845=89 =0E>48B A51O 2 =0H8 4=8 2 ?>?KB:5 C7=0BL 87 A=>2 G8A;0, :>B>@K5 A;54C5B 2KB0I8BL ?@8 83@5 2 ;>B>. 0?@>B82, A>2@5<5==0O B>G=0O =0C:0 A=>20 25@=C;0AL : A=>2845=8O<, => B>;L:> A =0<5@5=85< ?@>25@8BL =0 =8E A2>8 D878>;>38G5A:85 B5>@88. # 2@0G59 A=>2845=85, :>=5G=>, AG8B05BAO =5 ?A8E8G5A:8< 0:B><, 0 ?@>O2;5=85< 2 4CH52=>9 687=8 A><0B8G5A:8E @074@065=89. 8=F 2 1878 3. >1JO28; A=>2845=85 "D878G5A:8< ?@>F5AA><, 2> 2A5E A;CG0OE 15A?>;57=K<, 2> <=>38E 65 ?@O<>-B0:8 1>;57=5==K<, >B :>B>@>3> <8@>20O 4CH0 8 15AA<5@B85 >BAB>OB B0: 65 40;5:>, :0: 3>;C1>9 MD8@ >B 70@>AH59 A>@=O:0<8 ?5AG0=>9 ?>25@E=>AB8 2 A0<>9 3;C1>:>9 4>;8=5" (Binz, 1878, 35). >@8 (Maury, 1878, 50) A@02=8205B 53> A 15A?>@O4>G=K<8 ?>45@3820=8O<8 ?;OA:8 A2. 8BB0 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL :>>@48=8@>20==K< 42865=8O< =>@<0;L=>3> G5;>25:0; AB0@>5 A@02=5=85 ?@>2>48B ?0@0;;5;L <564C A>45@60=85< A=>2845=8O 8 72C:0<8, :>B>@K5 ?@>8725;8 1K "45AOBL ?0;LF52 =5A254CI53> 2 <C7K:5 G5;>25:0, :0A0NI53>AO 8=AB@C<5=B0" (Strumpell, 1877, 84). ">;:>20BL -- 7=0G8B =09B8 A:@KBK9 A<KA;; ?@8 B0:>9 65 >F5=:5 A=>2845=8O >1 MB><, :>=5G=>, =5 <>65B 1KBL 8 @5G8. >A<>B@8B5 >?8A0=85 A=>2845=8O C C=4B0 (1874), >4;O (1896) 8 4@C38E 1>;55 ?>74=8E D8;>A>D>2; A F5;LN ?@8=878BL A=>2845=85 >=8 4>2>;LAB2CNBAO ?5@5G8A;5=85< >B:;>=5=89 ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2> A=5 ?@>F5AA>2 >B <KH;5=8O 2 A>AB>O=88 1>4@AB2>20=8O, >B<5G0NB @0A?04 0AA>F80F89, >B:07 >B :@8B8:8, 8A:;NG5=85 2A53> 7=0=8O 8 4@C385 ?@87=0:8 ?>=865==>9 @01>B>A?>A>1=>AB8 ?A8E8:8. 48=AB25==> F5==K5 D0:BK 4;O ?>=8<0=8O A=>2845=8O, :>B>@K<8 <K >1O70=K B>G=>9 =0C:5, 40;8 8AA;54>20=8O 2;8O=8O D878G5A:8E @074@065=89, 459AB2CNI8E 2> 2@5<O A=0, =0 A>45@60=85 A=>2845=8O. K @0A?>;0305< 42C<O B>;ABK<8 B><0<8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89 A=>2845=89 =5402=> C<5@H53> =>@256A:>3> 02B>@0, 6. >C@;8 >;L40 (2 1910 8 1912 33. ?5@52545=K =0 =5<5F:89 O7K:), 2 :>B>@KE 87;030NBAO ?>GB8 8A:;NG8B5;L=> @57C;LB0BK 87CG5=8O 87<5=5=89 ?>;>65=8O :>=5G=>AB59. E =0< @0AE20;820NB :0: >1@075F 8AA;54>20=8O A=>2845=89. >65B5 A515 B5?5@L ?@54AB028BL, GB> 1K A:070;8 ?@54AB028B5;8 B>G=>9 =0C:8, 5A;8 1K >=8 C7=0;8, GB> <K E>B8< ?>?KB0BLAO =09B8 A<KA; A=>2845=89? >7<>6=>, >=8 C65 MB> 8 A:070;8. > <K =5 4048< A51O 70?C30BL. A;8 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O <>3CB 8<5BL A<KA;, B> 8 A=>2845=8O B>65, 0 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O 2 >G5=L <=>38E A;CG0OE 8<5NB A<KA;, :>B>@K9 CA:>;L705B >B 8AA;54>20=8O B>G=K<8 <5B>40<8. @87=05< 65 A51O B>;L:> AB>@>==8:0<8 ?@54@0AAC4:>2 4@52=8E 8 ?@>AB>3> =0@>40 8 ?>945< ?> AB>?0< 0=B8G=KE B>;:>20B5;59 A=>2845=89. ;O @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<K <K ?@5645 2A53> 4>;6=K A>@85=B8@>20BLAO, >1>7@5BL 2 >1I5< 2AN >1;0ABL A=>2845=89. 54L GB> B0:>5 A=>2845=85 (Traum)? 3> B@C4=> >?@545;8BL 2 >4=>< ?@54;>65=88. > <K 8 =5 ?KB05<AO 4020BL >?@545;5=85 B0<, 345 4>AB0B>G=> C:070=8O =0 >1I58725AB=K9 <0B5@80;. 4=0:> =0< A;54>20;> 1K 2K45;8BL 2 A=>2845=88 ACI5AB25==>5. 45 65 53> <>6=> =09B8?  MB>9 >1;0AB8 8<5NB <5AB> B0:85 =525@>OB=K5 @07;8G8O, @07;8G8O ?> 2A5< ;8=8O<. !CI5AB25==K< 1C45B, ?>60;C9, B>, GB> <K <>65< AG8B0BL >1I8< 4;O 2A5E A=>2845=89. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, ?5@2>5, GB> >1J548=O5B 2A5 A=>2845=8O, -- MB> B>, GB> <K ?@8 MB>< A?8<. G5284=>, 2845BL A=>2845=8O (Traume) 2> 2@5<O A=0 (Schlaf) O2;O5BAO 4CH52=>9 687=LN, :>B>@0O 8<55B 8725AB=K5 0=0;>388 A B0:>2>9 2 A>AB>O=88 1>4@AB2>20=8O 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O >1=0@C68205B @57:85 >B;8G8O >B =55. -B> >?@545;5=85 1K;> C65 40=> @8AB>B5;5<. >7<>6=>, GB> <564C A=>2845=85< 8 A=>< ACI5AB2CNB 5I5 1>;55 1;87:85 >B=>H5=8O. B A=>2845=8O <>6=> ?@>A=CBLAO, >G5=L G0AB> A=>2845=85 2>7=8:05B ?@8 A?>=B0==>< ?@>1C645=88, ?@8 =0A8;LAB25==>< =0@CH5=88 70AK?0=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, A=>2845=85, ?>-2848<><C, O2;O5BAO ?@><56CB>G=K< A>AB>O=85< <564C A=>< 8 1>4@AB2>20=85<.  B0:>< A;CG05 =0< ?@8E>48BAO >1@0B8BLAO :> A=C. 'B> 65 B0:>5 A>=? -B> D878>;>38G5A:0O 8 18>;>38G5A:0O ?@>1;5<0, 2 :>B>@>9 5I5 <=>3> A?>@=>3>. K =5 <>65< 745AL =8G53> A:070BL >:>=G0B5;L=>, => O ?>;030N, <>6=> ?>?KB0BLAO 40BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN E0@0:B5@8AB8:C A=0. !>= -- MB> A>AB>O=85, 2 :>B>@>< O =8G53> =5 E>GC 7=0BL > 2=5H=5< <8@5, <>9 8=B5@5A : =5<C C30A05B. / ?>3@C60NAL 2 A>=, >BE>4O >B 2=5H=53> <8@0, 7045@6820O 53> @074@065=8O. / 70AK?0N B0:65, 5A;8 O >B =53> CAB0;. 0AK?0O, O :0: 1K 3>2>@N 2=5H=5<C <8@C: "AB02L <5=O 2 ?>:>5, O E>GC A?0BL". 515=>: 70O2;O5B ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5: "/ =5 ?>94C A?0BL, O 5I5 =5 CAB0;, O E>GC 5I5 GB>-=81C4L ?5@568BL". "0:8< >1@07><, 18>;>38G5A:>9 F5;LN A=0, ?>-2848<><C, O2;O5BAO >B4KE, 53> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< ?@87=0:>< -- ?>B5@O 8=B5@5A0 : <8@C. 0H5 >B=>H5=85 : <8@C, 2 :>B>@K9 <K B0: =5>E>B=> ?@8H;8, :065BAO, =5A5B A A>1>9 B>, GB> <K =5 <>65< 53> 2K=>A8BL =5?@5@K2=>. >MB><C <K 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 2>72@0I05<AO 2 A>AB>O=85, 2 :>B>@>< =0E>48;8AL 4> ?>O2;5=8O =0 A25B, B. 5. 2> 2=CB@8CB@>1=>5 ACI5AB2>20=85.1 K A>7405<, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, A>25@H5==> 0=0;>38G=K5 CA;>28O, :>B>@K5 1K;8 B>340: B5?;>, B5<=> 8 =8GB> =5 @074@0605B. 5:>B>@K5 5I5 A2>@0G820NBAO 2 :;C1>G5: 8 ?@8=8<0NB 2> A=5 B0:>5 65 ?>;>65=85 B5;0, :0: 2 CB@>15 <0B5@8. K 2K3;O48< B0:, :0: 1C4B> >B =0A, 27@>A;KE, 2 <8@5 >AB05BAO B>;L:> 425 B@5B8, 0 >4=0 B@5BL 2>>1I5 5I5 =5 ---------------------------------------- 1 #B25@645=85 $@5940, 1C4B> A>AB>O=85 A=0 ?>4>1=> B><C, 2 :>5< 8=48284 =0E>48;AO "2 ?5@8>4 CB@>1=>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O", >B25@305BAO A>2@5<5==K< =0CG=K< 7=0=85< >1 0:B82=>AB8 <>730 2 MB>< A>AB>O=88, > D070E "1KAB@>3> A=0", A>?@O65==KE A 87<5=5=85< :0@B8=K 18>B>:>2 <>730, 42865=8O<8 3;07>42830B5;L=KE <KHF 8 4@. @>48;0AL. 064>5 ?@>1C645=85 CB@>< O2;O5BAO :0: 1K =>2K< @>645=85<.  A>AB>O=88 ?>A;5 A=0 <K 4065 3>2>@8<: O :0: 1C4B> 2=>2L @>48;AO, E>BO ?@8 MB>< <K, 25@>OB=>, 45;05< 25AL<0 =5?@028;L=>5 ?@54?>;>65=85 >1 >1I5< A0<>GC2AB288 =>2>@>645==>3>. ABL >A=>20=8O ?@54?>;030BL, GB> >= GC2AB2C5B A51O, A:>@55 2A53>, >G5=L =5CNB=>.  @>645=88 <K B0:65 3>2>@8<: C2845BL A25B. A;8 A>= ?>=8<0BL 8<5==> B0:, B> A=>2845=85 2>>1I5 =5 2E>48B 2 53> ?@>3@0<<C, 0 :065BAO A:>@55 :0:>9-B> =565;0B5;L=>9 ?@8<5ALN. K 4065 AG8B05<, GB> A>= 157 A=>2845=89 -- ;CGH89 8 548=AB25==> ?@028;L=K9. > A=5 =5 4>;6=> 1KBL =8:0:>9 4CH52=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; 5A;8 65 >=0 2A5-B0:8 ?@>8AE>48B, B> <K =5 4>AB8305< A>AB>O=8O 01A>;NB=>3> ?>:>O; >B >AB0B:>2 4CH52=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =5;L7O ?>;=>ABLN >A2>1>48BLAO. -B8 >AB0B:8 8 5ABL A=>2845=8O. > B>340 459AB28B5;L=> :065BAO, GB> A=>2845=8N =5 =C65= A<KA;. @8 >H81>G=KE 459AB28OE 45;> >1AB>O;> 8=0G5; MB> 1K;8 2A5-B0:8 459AB28O 2> 2@5<O 1>4@AB2>20=8O. > 5A;8 O A?;N, A>2A5< >AB0=>28; 4CH52=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 8 B>;L:> >?@545;5==K5 55 >AB0B:8 =5 A<>3 ?>4028BL, MB> 5I5 =5 7=0G8B, GB> MB8 >AB0B:8 8<5NB A<KA;. 0 <=5 8 =5 =C65= MB>B A<KA;, B0: :0: 254L 2A5 >AB0;L=>5 2 <>59 4CH52=>9 687=8 A?8B. "CB 459AB28B5;L=> @5GL <>65B 84B8 B>;L:> > AC4>@>6=KE @50:F8OE, B>;L:> > B0:8E ?A8E8G5A:8E D5=><5=0E, :>B>@K5 ?@O<> A;54CNB 70 A><0B8G5A:8< @074@065=85<. B0:, A=>2845=8O :0: 1C4B> O2;ONBAO <5H0NI8<8 A=C >AB0B:0<8 4CH52=>9 687=8 ?@8 1>4@AB2>20=88, 8 <K <>65< 2=>2L ?@89B8 : 70:;NG5=8N, GB> A;54C5B >AB028BL MBC =5?>4E>4OICN 4;O ?A8E>0=0;870 B5<C.  2 B> 65 2@5<O, :0: 1K A=>2845=85 =8 :070;>AL 87;8H=8<, >=> 2A5-B0:8 ACI5AB2C5B, 8 <K <>65< ?>?KB0BLAO ?>=OBL ?@8G8=K 53> ACI5AB2>20=8O. >G5<C 4CH52=0O 687=L =5 ?@5:@0I05BAO A>2A5<? 5@>OB=>, ?>B><C, GB> GB>-B> =5 405B 4CH5 ?>:>O. 0 =55 459AB2CNB @074@068B5;8, 8 >=0 =0 =8E @5038@C5B. "0:8< >1@07><, A=>2845=85 -- MB> A?>A>1 @5038@>20=8O 4CH8 =0 459AB2CNI85 2> A=5 @074@068B5;8. "5?5@L C =0A 5ABL >?@545;5==K9 ?>4E>4 : ?>=8<0=8N A=>2845=8O. 0AA<0B@820O @07;8G=K5 A=>2845=8O, <K <>65< 8A:0BL MB8 <5H0NI85 A=C @074@068B5;8, =0 :>B>@K5 G5;>25: @5038@C5B A=>2845=85<. >B <K 8 >B<5B8;8 ?5@2>5, GB> >1J548=O5B 2A5 A=>2845=8O. ABL ;8 C =8E 5I5 GB>-=81C4L >1I55? 0, =5A><=5==>, => 53> B@C4=55 ?>=OBL 8 >?8A0BL. CH52=K5 ?@>F5AAK 2> 2@5<O A=0 =>AOB A>2A5< 4@C3>9 E0@0:B5@, G5< ?@8 1>4@AB2>20=88.  A=>2845=88 <=>3>5 ?5@568205HL 8 2 MB> 25@8HL, E>BO =0 A0<>< 45;5 =8G53> =5 ?5@568205HL, :@><5, ?>60;C9, :0:>3>-B> <5H0NI53> @074@065=8O. !=>2845=85 ?5@568205BAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> 2 7@8B5;L=KE >1@070E; ?@8 MB>< <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL 8 GC2AB20, 8 4065 <KA;8, 4@C385 >@30=K GC2AB2 <>3CB B>65 GB>-B> 8A?KBK20BL, => ?@5>1;040NB 2A5-B0:8 7@8B5;L=K5 >1@07K. 0B@C4=5=8O ?@8 ?5@540G5 A=>2845=8O ?@>8AE>4OB >BG0AB8 ?>B><C, GB> MB8 >1@07K =C6=> ?5@525AB8 2 A;>20. / <>3 1K MB> =0@8A>20BL, G0AB> 3>2>@8B 28452H89 A>=, => O =5 7=0N, :0: MB> 2K@078BL A;>20<8. !>1AB25==> 3>2>@O, MB> =5 O2;O5BAO A=865=85< ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, :0: C A;01>C<=KE ?> A@02=5=8N A 35=80;L=K<8 ;N4L<8; MB> GB>-B> :0G5AB25==> 4@C3>5, => B@C4=> A:070BL, 2 G5< 70:;NG05BAO @07;8G85. . ". $5E=5@ 1 2KA:070; :0:- ---------------------------------------- 1 $5E=5@ . ". (1801-1887) -- A>740B5;L B0: =07K205<>9 ?A8E>D878:8, ?>4 :>B>@>9 >= ?>=8<0; =0C:C > 70:>=><5@=>ABOE, :>B>@K< ?>4G8=5=0 A2O7L <564C ?A8E8G5A:8<8 8 D878G5A:8<8 O2;5=8O<8. >=:@5B=K5 8AA;54>20=8O $5E=5@0 ?@825;8 : CAB0=>2;5=8N 70:>=0, A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C 8=B5=A82=>ABL >ICI5=8O 5ABL 25;8G8=0, ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=0O ;>30@8D<C D878G5A:>3> @074@065=8O. $5E=5@ 2K428=C; 845N >1 >A>1>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 M=5@388, :>B>@0O AB@5<8BAO : @02=>25A=><C A>AB>O=8N 8 2 A;CG05 @07@O4:8 2K7K205B C G5;>25:0 GC2AB2> C4>2>;LAB28O. -B0 845O 1K;0 2>A?@8=OB0 $@594><. B> ?@54?>;>65=85, GB> <5AB> (2 4CH5), 345 @07K3@K20NBAO A=>2845=8O, 8=>5, G5< <5AB> ACI5AB2>20=8O ?@54AB02;5=89 ?@8 1>4@AB2>20=88. @0240, <K MB>3> =5 ?>=8<05<, =5 7=05<, GB> ?> MB><C ?>2>4C 4C<0BL, => 2?5G0B;5=85 GC64>AB8, :>B>@>5 ?@>872>4OB 1>;LH8=AB2> A=>2845=89, 745AL 459AB28B5;L=> ?5@5405BAO. !@02=5=85 45OB5;L=>AB8 A=>2845=8O A 459AB28O<8 =5<C7K:0;L=>9 @C:8 B0:65 =5 ?><>305B. 54L ?80=8=> 2 ;N1>< A;CG05 >B25B8B B5<8 65 72C:0<8, ?CABL 8 =5 <5;>48O<8, :0: B>;L:> :B>-=81C4L A;CG09=> :>A=5BAO 53> :;028H. -BC 2B>@CN >1ICN G5@BC 2A5E A=>2845=89, :0: 1K >=0 =8 1K;0 =5?>=OB=0, 40209B5 =5 1C45< C?CA:0BL 87 284C. ABL ;8 5I5 4@C385 >1I85 G5@BK? / =5 =0E>6C 1>;LH5 =8 >4=>9, 2AN4C 286C B>;L:> @07;8G8O, ?@8G5< 2> 2A5E >B=>H5=8OE, -- :0: 2 >B=>H5=88 :06CI59AO 4;8B5;L=>AB8, B0: 8 B>3>, GB> :0A05BAO G5B:>AB8, CG0AB8O 0DD5:B>2, A>E@0=5=8O 2 ?0<OB8 8 B. ?. A5 ?@>8AE>48B, A>1AB25==> 3>2>@O, A>2A5< =5 B0:, :0: <K <>3;8 1K >6840BL ?@8 2K=C645==><, 154=><, :>=2C;LA82=>< >B@065=88 @074@065=8O. 'B> :0A05BAO 4;8B5;L=>AB8 A=>2845=89, B> 5ABL >G5=L :>@>B:85, A>45@60I85 >4=C 8;8 =5A:>;L:> :0@B8=, >4=C <KA;L 8;8 4065 B>;L:> >4=> A;>2>; 4@C385, =525@>OB=> 1>30BK5 A>45@60=85<, ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 F5;K5 @><0=K 8, ?>-2848<><C, 4;OBAO 4>;3>. ABL A=>2845=8O >BG5B;82K5, :0: ?5@56820=8O [?@8 1>4@AB2>20=88], =0AB>;L:> >BG5B;82K5, GB> <K :0:>5-B> 2@5<O ?>A;5 ?@>1C645=8O =5 ?@87=05< 8E 70 A=>2845=8O, 4@C385 65 =525@>OB=> A;01K5, @0A?;K2G0BK5, :0: B5=8; 2 >4=>< 8 B>< 65 A=>2845=88 >G5=L O@:85 <5AB0 <>3CB A<5=OBLAO 5420 C;>28<K<8 8 =5OA=K<8. !=>2845=8O <>3CB 1KBL >A<KA;5==K<8 8;8 ?> :@09=59 <5@5 A2O7=K<8, 4065 >AB@>C<=K<8, D0=B0AB8G5A:8 ?@5:@0A=K<8; 4@C385 65 A?CB0==K<8, :0: 1K A;01>C<=K<8, 01AC@4=K<8, G0AB> 4065 157C<=K<8. K20NB A=>2845=8O, :>B>@K5 >AB02;ONB =0A @02=>4CH=K<8, 4@C385 ?>;=K 2AO:8E 0DD5:B>2, 1>;LN 4> A;57, AB@0E>< 2?;>BL 4> ?@>1C645=8O, C482;5=85<, 2>AB>@3>< 8 B. 4. >;LH8=AB2> A=>2845=89 ?>A;5 ?@>1C645=8O 701K205BAO, 8;8 65 >=8 A>E@0=ONBAO F5;K9 45=L, => : 25G5@C 2A?><8=0NBAO 2A5 A;0155 8 A ?@>15;0<8; 4@C385, =0?@8<5@ 45BA:85, A=>2845=8O, A>E@0=ONBAO =0AB>;L:> E>@>H>, GB> 8 A?CABO 30 ;5B 5I5 A2568 2 ?0<OB8. !=>2845=8O, :0: 8=48284K, <>3CB O28BLAO >48=-548=AB25==K9 @07 8 =8:>340 1>;LH5 =5 ?>O2;OBLAO, 8;8 >=8 ?>2B>@ONBAO C >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 ;8F0 157 87<5=5=89 8;8 A =51>;LH8<8 >BABC?;5=8O<8. >@>G5 3>2>@O, MB0 =>G=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 4CH8 8<55B >3@><=K9 @5?5@BC0@, <>65B, A>1AB25==>, ?@>45;0BL 2A5, GB> 4CH0 B2>@8B 4=5<, => MB> 2A5-B0:8 =5 B> 65 A0<>5. >6=> 1K;> 1K ?>?KB0BLAO >1JOA=8BL MB> <=>3>>1@0785 A=>2845=89, ?@54?>;>682, GB> >=8 A>>B25BAB2CNB @07;8G=K< ?@><56CB>G=K< AB048O< <564C A=>< 8 1>4@AB2>20=85<, @07;8G=K< AB5?5=O< =53;C1>:>3> A=0. 0, => B>340 2<5AB5 A ?>2KH5=85< 7=0G8<>AB8, A>45@60B5;L=>AB8 8 >BG5B;82>AB8 A=>2845=8O 4>;6=> 1K;> 1K CA8;820BLAO ?>=8<0=85 B>3>, GB> MB> -- A=>2845=85, B0: :0: ?@8 B0:8E A=>2845=8OE 4CH0 1;87:0 : ?@>1C645=8N, 8 =5 <>3;> 1KBL B0:, GB> 2A;54 70 OA=>9 8 @07C<=>9 G0ABLN A=>2845=8O H;0 1K 15AA<KA;5==0O 8;8 =5OA=0O, 0 70 =59 -- >?OBL E>@>H> @07@01>B0==0O G0ABL. "0: 1KAB@> 4CH0 =5 <>3;0 1K, :>=5G=>, 87<5=OBL 3;C18=C A=0. B0:, MB> >1JOA=5=85 =8G53> =5 405B; 2A5 =5 B0: ?@>AB>. B:065<AO ?>:0 >B [?@>1;5<K] "A<KA;0" A=>2845=8O 8 ?>?KB05<AO ;CGH5 ?>=OBL A=>2845=8O, 8AE>4O 87 8E >1I8E G5@B. 7 >B=>H5=8O A=>2845=89 : A>AB>O=8N A=0 <K 70:;NG8;8, GB> A=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO @50:F859 =0 <5H0NI55 A=C @074@065=85. 0: <K C65 7=05<, MB> 548=AB25==K9 <><5=B, 345 =0< =0 ?><>IL <>65B ?@89B8 B>G=0O M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O; >=0 ?@82>48B 4>:070B5;LAB20 B>3>, GB> @074@065=8O, ?@>872545==K5 2> 2@5<O A=0, ?@>O2;ONBAO 2 A=>2845=88. =>3> B0:8E >?KB>2 1K;> ?>AB02;5=> C65 C?><O=CBK< >C@;8 >;L4><; :064K9 87 =0A 2 A>AB>O=88 ?>4B25@48BL MB>B @57C;LB0B =0 >A=>20=88 ;8G=>3> =01;N45=8O. ;O A>>1I5=8O O 2K15@C =5:>B>@K5 1>;55 AB0@K5 M:A?5@8<5=BK. >@8 (1878) ?@>872>48; B0:85 >?KBK =04 A0<8< A>1>9. <C 4020;8 ?>=NE0BL 2> A=5 >45:>;>=. = 2845; 2> A=5, GB> >= 2 08@5 2 ;02:5 >30==0 0@8O $0@8=0, 8 40;55 A;54>20;8 =525@>OB=K5 ?@8:;NG5=8O. ;8 53> CI8?=C;8 A;53:0 70 70BK;>:: 5<C A=8BAO =0;>65==K9 =0@K2=>9 ?;0ABK@L 8 2@0G, ;5G82H89 53> 2 45BAB25. ;8 5<C =0;8;8 =0 ;>1 :0?;N 2>4K. ">340 >= >:070;AO 2 B0;88, A8;L=> ?>B5; 8 ?8; 15;>5 28=> @285B>. ">, GB> =0< 1@>A05BAO 2 3;070 2 MB8E M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=> 2K720==KE A=>2845=8OE, 1C45B, <>65B 1KBL, OA=55 87 4@C38E ?@8<5@>2 A=>2845=89, 2K720==KE 2=5H=8< @074@068B5;5<. -B> B@8 A=>2845=8O, > :>B>@KE A>>1I8; >AB@>C<=K9 =01;N40B5;L 8;L451@0=4B (1875); 2A5 >=8 O2;ONBAO @50:F8O<8 =0 72>= 1C48;L=8:0. "B0:, 25A5==8< CB@>< O 84C 3C;OBL 8 1@54C 75;5=5NI8<8 ?>;O<8 2 A>A54=NN 45@52=N, B0< O 286C 68B5;59 45@52=8 2 ?@074=8G=KE ?;0BLOE A <>;8B25==8:0<8 2 @C:0E, 1>;LH>9 B>;?>9 =0?@02;ONI8EAO 2 F5@:>2L. C 40, 254L A53>4=O 2>A:@5A5=L5, 8 A:>@> =0G=5BAO @0==OO >154=O. / @5H0N ?@8=OBL 2 =59 CG0AB85, => A=0G0;0 >B4>E=CBL =0 >:@C60NI5< F5@:>2L :;0418I5, B0: :0: O =5<=>3> @073>@OG5=. '8B0O 745AL @07;8G=K5 =043@>1=K5 =04?8A8, O A;KHC, :0: 72>=0@L ?>4=8<05BAO =0 :>;>:>;L=N 8 286C =025@EC <0;5=L:89 45@525=A:89 :>;>:>;, :>B>@K9 4>;65= 2>725AB8BL =0G0;> 1>3>A;C65=8O. 5:>B>@>5 2@5<O >= 28A8B =5?>4286=>, 70B5< =0G8=05B :>;510BLAO -- 8 24@C3 @0740NBAO 53> 3@><:85 ?@>=78B5;L=K5 72C:8, B0:85 3@><:85 8 ?@>=78B5;L=K5, GB> O ?@>AK?0NAL. 2C:8, >4=0:>, 8AE>4OB >B 1C48;L=8:0". "B>@0O :><18=0F8O. /A=K9 78<=89 45=L; =0 C;8F0E AC3@>1K. / A>3;0A8;AO ?@8=OBL CG0AB85 2 ?@>3C;:5 =0 A0=OE, => 2K=C645= 4>;3> 640BL, ?>:0 <=5 A>>1I0B, GB> A0=8 C 2>@>B. 0B5< A;54CNB ?@83>B>2;5=8O : B><C, GB>1K CA5ABLAO, -- =045205BAO HC10, 4>AB05BAO =>6=>9 <5H>:; =0:>=5F O A86C =0 A2>5< <5AB5. > >BJ574 5I5 7045@68205BAO, ?>:0 2>660<8 =5 405BAO 7=0: =5B5@?5;82K< ;>H04O<. >B >=8 B@>30NBAO A <5AB0; A8;L=> B@OACI85AO :>;>:>;LG8:8 =0G8=0NB A2>N 7=0<5=8BCN O=KG0@A:CN <C7K:C A B0:>9 A8;>9, GB> ?0CB8=0 A=0 <><5=B0;L=> @25BAO. ?OBL MB> =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: @57:89 72>= 1C48;L=8:0". " B@5B89 ?@8<5@! / 286C AC4><>9:C, ?@>E>4OICN ?> :>@84>@C 2 AB>;>2CN A =5A:>;L:8<8 4N68=0<8 B0@5;>:, ?>AB02;5==KE >4=0 =0 4@C3CN. =5 :065BAO, GB> :>;>==0 D0@D>@0 2 55 @C:0E 2>B-2>B ?>B5@O5B @02=>25A85. !<>B@8, 3>2>@N O, 25AL 3@C7 ?>;5B8B =0 75<;N. 07C<55BAO, A;54C5B =587156=>5 2>7@065=85: O C65 ?@82K:;0 : ?>4>1=><C 8 B. 4., <564C B5< O 2A5 5I5 =5 A?CA:0N 15A?>:>9=>3> 273;O40 A 84CI59.  2 A0<>< 45;5, =0 ?>@>35 >=0 A?>BK:05BAO, 8 E@C?:0O ?>AC40 A B@5A:>< 8 72>=>< @07;5B05BAO ?> ?>;C. > MB> 15A:>=5G=> ?@>4>;60NI89AO 72>=, :0: O A:>@> 70<5G0N, =5 B@5A:, 0 =0AB>OI89 72>=, 8 28=>2=8:>< 53>, :0: C65 ?>=8<05B ?@>AK?0NI89AO, O2;O5BAO 1C48;L=8:". -B8 A=>2845=8O 4>2>;L=> 2K@078B5;L=K, A>25@H5==> >A<KA;5==K, 2>2A5 =5 B0: 15AA2O7=K, :0: MB> >1KG=> A2>9AB25==> A=>2845=8O<. K =5 1C45< ?>MB><C GB>-;81> 2>7@060BL ?> 8E ?>2>4C. 1I55 2 =8E B>, GB> 2A5 >=8 :>=G0NBAO HC<><, :>B>@K9 ?@8 ?@>1C645=88 >:07K205BAO 72>=>< 1C48;L=8:0. K 2848< 745AL, :0: ?@>872>48BAO A=>2845=85, => C7=05< B0:65 :>5-GB> 4@C3>5. !=>2845=85 =5 C7=05B 1C48;L=8:0 -- >= 8 =5 ?>O2;O5BAO 2 A=>2845=88, -- => >=> 70<5=O5B 72>= 1C48;L=8:0 4@C38<, >=> B>;:C5B @074@065=85, :>B>@>5 =0@CH05B A>=, => B>;:C5B 53> :064K9 @07 ?>-@07=><C. >G5<C B0:? 0 MB>B 2>?@>A =5B >B25B0, MB> :065BAO ?@>872>;L=K<. > ?>=OBL A=>2845=85 >7=0G0;> 1K C:070BL, ?>G5<C 8<5==> MB>B HC<, 0 =5 =8:0:>9 4@C3>9 2K18@05BAO 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O @074@065=8O >B 1C48;L=8:0. !>25@H5==> 0=0;>38G=K< >1@07>< <>6=> 2>7@078BL ?@>B82 M:A?5@8<5=B>2 >@8: ?@>872545==>5 @074@065=85 ?>O2;O5BAO 2> A=5, => ?>G5<C 8<5==> 2 MB>9 D>@<5, MB>3> =5;L7O C7=0BL 8 MB>, ?>-2848<><C, A>2A5< =5 2KB5:05B 87 ?@8@>4K =0@CH0NI53> A>= @074@065=8O.  B><C 65 2 >?KB0E >@8 : =5?>A@54AB25==><C 459AB28N @074@065=8O ?@8A>548=O5BAO >3@><=>5 :>;8G5AB2> 4@C3>3> <0B5@80;0 A=>2845=8O, =0?@8<5@ 157C<=K5 ?@8:;NG5=8O 2 A=>2845=88 A >45:>;>=><, 4;O :>B>@KE =5B >1JOA=5=8O. > ?@8<8B5 2> 2=8<0=85, GB> 87CG5=85 A=>2845=8O A ?@>1C645=85< 40AB =08;CGH85 H0=AK 4;O CAB0=>2;5=8O 2;8O=8O 2=5H=8E @074@065=89, =0@CH0NI8E A>=.  1>;LH8=AB25 4@C38E A;CG052 MB> B@C4=55. @>AK?0NBAO =5 >B 2A5E A=>2845=89, 8 5A;8 CB@>< 2A?><=8BL =>G=>5 A=>2845=85, B> :0: <>6=> =09B8 B> =0@CH0NI55 @074@065=85, :>B>@>5 459AB2>20;> =>GLN? 4=064K <=5 C40;>AL ?>765 CAB0=>28BL B0:>9 @074@060NI89 HC<, =>, :>=5G=>, B>;L:> 1;03>40@O >A>1K< >1AB>OB5;LAB20<. 0:-B> CB@>< O ?@>A=C;AO 2 3>@=>< B8@>;LA:>< <5AB5G:5 A C25@5==>ABLN, GB> O 2845; 2> A=5, 1C4B> C<5@ @8<A:89 ?0?0. / =5 <>3 >1JOA=8BL A515 A=>2845=8O, => 70B5< <>O 65=0 A?@>A8;0 <5=O: ""K A;KH0; A53>4=O 1;865 : CB@C C60A=K9 :>;>:>;L=K9 72>=, @0740202H89AO 2> 2A5E F5@:20E 8 :0?5;;0E?" 5B, O =8G53> =5 A;KH0;, <>9 A>= 1K; 1>;55 :@5?:8<, => O ?>=O; 1;03>40@O MB><C A>>1I5=8N A2>5 A=>2845=85. 0: G0AB> B0:85 @074@065=8O <>3CB 2K7K20BL C A?OI53> A=>2845=8O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: >= > =8E =8G53> =5 7=05B? >65B 1KBL, >G5=L G0AB>, <>65B 1KBL, 8 =5B. A;8 =5B 2>7<>6=>AB8 4>:070BL =0;8G85 @074@065=8O, B> =5;L7O 8 C1548BLAO 2 =5<. > 254L <K 8 157 MB>3> >B:070;8AL >B >F5=:8 =0@CH0NI8E A>= 2=5H=8E @074@065=89 A B5E ?>@, :0: <K C7=0;8, GB> >=8 <>3CB >1JOA=8BL B>;L:> G0ABL A=>2845=8O, 0 =5 2A5 53> F5;8:><. >MB><C =0< =5 A;54C5B A>2A5< >B:07K20BLAO >B MB>9 B5>@88. >;55 B>3>, >=0 <>65B =09B8 A2>5 40;L=59H55 @0728B85. !>25@H5==> 157@07;8G=>, G5< =0@CH05BAO A>=, 0 4CH0 ?>1C6405BAO : A=>2845=8N. 5 2A5340 MB> <>65B 1KBL GC2AB25==>5 @074@065=85, 8AE>4OI55 872=5, 8=>340 MB> @074@065=85, 8AE>4OI55 87 2=CB@5==8E >@30=>2, B0: =07K205<>5 >@30=8G5A:>5 @074@065=85. >A;54=55 ?@54?>;>65=85 =0?@0H8205BAO A0<> A>1>9, >=> A>>B25BAB2C5B B0:65 A0<K< @0A?@>AB@0=5==K< 273;O40< =0 2>7=8:=>25=85 A=>2845=89. '0AB> ?@8E>48BAO A;KH0BL, GB> A=>2845=8O 2>7=8:0NB 2 A2O78 A A>AB>O=85< 65;C4:0.  A>60;5=8N, 8 2 MB>< A;CG05 ?@8E>48BAO B>;L:> ?@54?>;030BL, 1K;> ;8 =>GLN :0:>5-;81> 2=CB@5==55 @074@065=85, :>B>@>5 ?>A;5 ?@>1C645=8O =52>7<>6=> >?@545;8BL, 8 ?>B><C 459AB285 B0:>3> @074@065=8O >AB05BAO =54>:07C5<K<. > =5 1C45< >AB02;OBL 157 2=8<0=8O B>B D0:B, GB> <=>385 4>AB>25@=K5 =01;N45=8O ?>4B25@640NB 2>7=8:=>25=85 A=>2845=89 >B @074@065=89 2=CB@5==8E >@30=>2.  >1I5< =5A><=5==>, GB> A>AB>O=85 2=CB@5==8E >@30=>2 <>65B 2;8OBL =0 A=>2845=8O. !2O7L <564C =5:>B>@K< A>45@60=85< A=>2845=8O 8 ?5@5?>;=5=85< <>G52>3> ?C7K@O 8;8 2>71C645==K< A>AB>O=85< ?>;>2KE >@30=>2 4> B>3> >G5284=0, GB> 55 =52>7<>6=> >B@8F0BL. B MB8E OA=KE A;CG052 <>6=> ?5@59B8 : 4@C38<, 2 :>B>@KE A>45@60=85 A=>2845=8O, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, ?>72>;O5B >?@545;5==> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> B0:85 @074@065=8O 2=CB@5==8E >@30=>2 >:070;8 A2>5 459AB285, B0: :0: 2 MB>< A>45@60=88 5ABL GB>-B>, GB> <>6=> ?>=OBL :0: ?5@5@01>B:C, >B>1@065=85, B>;:>20=85 MB8E @074@065=89. AA;54>20B5;L A=>2845=89 (5@=5@ (Scherner, 1861) >A>15==> =0AB>9G82> >BAB0820; B>G:C 7@5=8O =0 ?@>8AE>645=85 A=>2845=89 >B @074@065=89 2=CB@5==8E >@30=>2 8 ?@825; B><C =5A:>;L:> ?@5:@0A=KE ?@8<5@>2. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 A=>2845=88 "420 @O40 :@0A82KE <0;LG8:>2 A 15;>:C@K<8 2>;>A0<8 8 =56=K< F25B>< ;8F0 AB>OB 4@C3 ?@>B82 4@C30 A 65;0=85< 1>@>BLAO, 1@>A0NBAO 4@C3 =0 4@C30, >4=0 AB>@>=0 =0?0405B =0 4@C3CN, >15 AB>@>=K >?OBL @0AE>4OBAO, 70=8<0NB ?@56=55 ?>;>65=85, 8 2A5 ?>2B>@O5BAO A=0G0;0", >= B>;:C5B MB8 @O4K <0;LG8:>2 :0: 7C1K, A>>B25BAB2CNI85 4@C3 4@C3C, 8 >=> =0E>48B ?>;=>5 ?>4B25@645=85, :>340 ?>A;5 MB>9 AF5=K 284OI89 A>= "2KBO38205B 87 G5;NAB8 4;8==K9 7C1". ">;:>20=85 > "4;8==KE, C7:8E, 8728;8ABKE E>40E", ?>-2848<><C, B>65 25@=> C:07K205B =0 :8H5G=>5 @074@065=85 8 ?>4B25@6405B ?>;>65=85 (5@=5@0 > B><, GB> A=>2845=85 ?@5645 2A53> AB0@05BAO 87>1@078BL 2K7K20NI89 @074@065=85 >@30= ?>E>68<8 =0 =53> ?@54<5B0<8. B0:, <K, 4>;6=> 1KBL, 3>B>2K C65 ?@87=0BL, GB> 2=CB@5==85 @074@065=8O <>3CB 83@0BL 2 A=>2845=88 B0:CN 65 @>;L, :0: 8 2=5H=85.  A>60;5=8N, 8E >F5=820=85 2K7K205B B5 65 2>7@065=8O.  1>;LH>< G8A;5 A;CG052 B>;:>20=85 @074@065=8O 2=CB@5==8E >@30=>2 =5=0456=> 8;8 1574>:070B5;L=>, =5 2A5 A=>2845=8O, => B>;L:> >?@545;5==0O 8E G0ABL 2>7=8:05B ?@8 CG0AB88 @074@065=8O 2=CB@5==8E >@30=>2, 8, =0:>=5F, @074@065=85 2=CB@5==8E >@30=>2, B0: 65 :0: 8 2=5H=55 GC2AB25==>5 @074@065=85, 2 A>AB>O=88 >1JOA=8BL 87 A=>2845=8O =5 1>;LH5, G5< =5?>A@54AB25==CN @50:F8N =0 @074@065=85. B:C40 15@5BAO >AB0;L=0O G0ABL A=>2845=8O, >AB05BAO =5OA=K<. B<5B8< A515, >4=0:>, A2>5>1@0785 687=8 A=>2845=89, :>B>@>5 2KO2;O5BAO ?@8 87CG5=88 @074@060NI8E 2>7459AB289. !=>2845=85 =5 ?@>AB> ?5@5405B @074@065=85, >=> ?5@5@010BK205B 53>, =0<5:05B =0 =53>, AB028B 53> 2 >?@545;5==CN A2O7L, 70<5=O5B G5<-B> 4@C38<. -B> >4=0 AB>@>=0 @01>BK A=>2845=8O, :>B>@0O 4>;6=0 =0A 708=B5@5A>20BL, ?>B><C GB> >=0, 2>7<>6=>, 1;865 ?>42545B =0A : ACI=>AB8 A=>2845=8O: 5A;8 :B>-B> 45;05B GB>-=81C4L ?> ?>1C645=8N, B> MB8< ?>1C645=85< 45;> =5 >3@0=8G8205BAO. @0<0 0:15B (5:A?8@0, =0?@8<5@, 2>7=8:;0 :0: ?L5A0 ?> A;CG0N B>3>, GB> =0 ?@5AB>; 27>H5; :>@>;L, 2?5@2K5 >1J548=82H89 B@8 AB@0=K ?>4 A2>59 :>@>=>9. > @0725 MB>B 8AB>@8G5A:89 ?>2>4 8AG5@?K205B 2A5 A>45@60=85 4@0<K, >1JOA=O5B =0< 55 25;8G85 8 70304:8? >7<>6=>, 459AB2CNI85 =0 A?OI53> 2=5H=85 8 2=CB@5==85 @074@065=8O B>65 B>;L:> ?>1C48B5;8 A=>2845=8O, =8G53> =5 3>2>@OI85 =0< > 53> ACI=>AB8. @C3>5 >1I55 A=>2845=8O< :0G5AB2> -- 53> ?A8E8G5A:0O >A>15==>ABL, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, B@C4=> C;>28<0, 0 A 4@C3>9 -- =5 405B >B?@02=>9 B>G:8 4;O 40;L=59H53> 8AA;54>20=8O.  A=>2845=88 <K 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 GB>-B> ?5@568205< 2 287C0;L=KE D>@<0E. >3CB ;8 @074@065=8O 40BL MB><C >1JOA=5=85? 59AB28B5;L=> ;8 MB> B> @074@065=85, :>B>@>5 <K ?5@568205<? >G5<C 65 B>340 ?5@56820=85 287C0;L=>, 5A;8 @074@065=85 3;07 ?@>8AE>48B B>;L:> 2 A0<KE @54:8E A;CG0OE? ;8 A;54C5B 4>?CAB8BL, GB> :>340 =0< A=OBAO @5G8, B> 2> 2@5<O A=0 <K A;KH8< @073>2>@ 8;8 ?>4>1=K9 5<C HC<? -BC 2>7<>6=>ABL O ?>72>;N A515 A> 2A59 @5H8B5;L=>ABLN >B25@3=CBL. A;8 87CG5=85 >1I8E G5@B A=>2845=89 =5 <>65B ?><>GL =0< 2 40;L=59H8E 8AA;54>20=8OE, B>, 2>7<>6=>, AB>8B >1@0B8BLAO : 87CG5=8N 8E @07;8G89. @0240, A=>2845=8O G0AB> 15AA<KA;5==K, 70?CB0==K, 01AC@4=K; => 5ABL 8 >A<KA;5==K5, B@572K5 (nLchterne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agtr4ume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a sind Dinge zum Vorschwein gekommen, 8 ?> MB><C ?>2>4C 53> A?@>A8;8 -- =5B, : AG0ABLN, =5 <K, 0 4@C385, A>25@H5==> =5?@8G0AB=K5 : ?A8E>0=0;87C ;N48, -- MB8 4@C385 A?@>A8;8, GB> >= E>B5; A:070BL 40==K<8 =5?>=OB=K<8 A;>20<8. !?@>H5==K9 B>BG0A 65 >B25B8;, GB> >= 8<5; =0<5@5=85 A:070BL: das waren Schweinereien (MB> 1K;8 A28=AB20), => ?>4028; MB> =0<5@5=85 4;O 4@C3>3>, 2K@065==>3> 1>;55 <O3:>. #65 B>340 O 20< 70O28;, GB> MB>B @0AA?@>A O2;O5BAO ?@>>1@07>< ;N1>3> ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O, 8 B5?5@L 2K ?>=8<05B5, GB> B5E=8:0 ?A8E>0=0;870 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL @5H5=85 70304>:, =0A:>;L:> MB> 2>7<>6=>, >B A0<>3> >1A;54C5<>3>. "0:8< >1@07><, 28452H89 A>= A0< 4>;65= =0< A:070BL, GB> 7=0G8B 53> A=>2845=85. >, :0: 8725AB=>, ?@8 A=>2845=88 2A5 =5 B0: ?@>AB>. @8 >H81>G=KE 459AB28OE MB> C4020;>AL 2 F5;>< @O45 A;CG052, => 1K;8 8 A;CG08, :>340 A?@0H8205<K9 =8G53> =5 E>B5; 3>2>@8BL 8 4065 2>7<CI5==> >B:;>=O; ?@54;>65==K9 =0<8 20@80=B >B25B0. @8 A=>2845=88 65 A;CG052 ?5@2>3> @>40 2>>1I5 =5B; 28452H89 A>= 2A5340 >B25G05B, GB> >= =8G53> =5 7=05B. B@8F0BL =0H5 B>;:>20=85 >= =5 <>65B, ?>B><C GB> <K 5<C =8G53> =5 <>65< ?@54;>68BL. >65B 1KBL, =0< 2A5 65 >B:070BLAO >B A2>59 ?>?KB:8? 8 >=, =8 <K =8G53> =5 7=05<, 0 :B>-B> B@5B89 C6 =025@=O:0 =8G53> =5 <>65B 7=0BL, B0: GB> C =0A, ?>60;C9, =5B =8:0:>9 =04564K GB>-;81> C7=0BL. ">340, 5A;8 E>B8B5, >AB02LB5 MBC ?>?KB:C. A;8 =5B, <>65B5 A;54>20BL 70 <=>9. / A:06C 20<, GB> 25AL<0 2>7<>6=> 8 4065 >G5=L 25@>OB=>, GB> 28452H89 A>= 2A5-B0:8 7=05B, GB> >7=0G05B 53> A=>2845=85, >= B>;L:> =5 7=05B > A2>5< 7=0=88 8 ?>;0305B ?>MB><C, GB> =5 7=05B MB>3>. K <>65B5 <=5 70<5B8BL, GB> O >?OBL 22>6C =>2>5 ?@54?>;>65=85, C65 2B>@>5 2 MB>< :>@>B:>< 87;>65=88, 8 B5< A0<K< 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 AB02;N ?>4 A><=5=85 4>AB>25@=>ABL A2>53> <5B>40. B0:, ?5@2>5 ?@54?>;>65=85 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> A=>2845=85 5ABL ?A8E8G5A:89 D5=><5=, 2B>@>5 -- 2 B><, GB> 2 4CH5 G5;>25:0 ACI5AB2C5B GB>-B>, > G5< >= 7=05B, =5 7=0O, GB> >= > =5< 7=05B, 8 B. 4. !B>8B B>;L:> ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85 2=CB@5==NN =5?@024>?>4>1=>ABL :064>3> 87 MB8E 42CE ?@54?>;>65=89, GB>1K 2>>1I5 CB@0B8BL 2AO:89 8=B5@5A : 2KB5:0NI8< 87 =8E 2K2>40<. >, C20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40, O ?@83;0A8; 20A AN40 =5 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?>4C@0G8BL 8;8 GB>-B> A:@K20BL. /, ?@0240, 70O28; >1 "M;5<5=B0@=>< :C@A5 ;5:F89 ?> 22545=8N 2 ?A8E>0=0;87", => O =5 =0<5@5= 1K; 87;030BL 20< <0B5@80; in usum delphini, 87>1@060O 2A5 A3;065==K<, BI0B5;L=> A:@K20O >B 20A 2A5 B@C4=>AB8, 70?>;=OO 2A5 ?@>15;K, 70BCH52K20O A><=5=8O, GB>1K 2K A ;53:8< A5@4F5< <>3;8 ?>4C<0BL, GB> =0CG8;8AL G5<C-B> =>2><C. 5B, 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> 2K =0G8=0NI85, O E>B5; ?>:070BL 20< =0HC =0C:C :0: >=0 5ABL, A 55 H5@>E>20B>ABO<8 8 B@C4=>ABO<8, ?@5B5=78O<8 8 A><=5=8O<8. / 7=0N, GB> =8 2 >4=>9 =0C:5 =5 <>65B 1KBL 8=0G5, >A>15==> 2=0G0;5. / 7=0N B0:65, GB> ?@8 ?@5?>4020=88 A=0G0;0 AB0@0NBAO A:@KBL >B CG0I8EAO MB8 B@C4=>AB8 8 =5A>25@H5=AB20. ---------------------------------------- In usum delphini -- "4;O 4>D8=0" (=04?8AL, A45;0==0O =0 8740=88 :;0AA8:>2, :>B>@>5 ?> ?@8:07C N4>28:0 XIV 1K;> A>AB02;5=> 4;O 53> AK=0). -- @8<. =5<. 874. > : ?A8E>0=0;87C MB> =5 ?>4E>48B. / 459AB28B5;L=> A45;0; 420 ?@54?>;>65=8O, >4=> 2 ?@545;0E 4@C3>3>, 8 :><C 2A5 MB> :065BAO A;8H:>< B@C4=K< 8 =5>?@545;5==K<, :B> ?@82K: : 1>;LH59 4>AB>25@=>AB8 8 87OI5AB2C 2K2>4>2, B><C =5 A;54C5B 84B8 A =0<8 40;LH5. / B>;L:> 4C<0N, GB> 5<C 2>>1I5 A;54>20;> 1K >AB028BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K, ?>B><C GB>, 1>NAL, B>G=KE 8 4>AB>25@=KE ?CB59, :>B>@K<8 >= 3>B>2 84B8, 745AL >=, A:>@55 2A53>, =5 =0945B. 0 8 A>25@H5==> 87;8H=5, GB>1K =0C:0, :>B>@0O <>65B GB>-B> ?@54;>68BL, 15A?>:>8;0AL > B><, GB>1K 55 CA;KH0;8, 8 25@1>20;0 1K A515 AB>@>==8:>2. 5 @57C;LB0BK 4>;6=K 3>2>@8BL 70 =55 A0<8, 0 A0<0 >=0 <>65B ?>4>640BL, ?>:0 >=8 ?@82;5:CB 2=8<0=85. > B5E 87 20A, :B> E>G5B ?@>4>;60BL 70=OB8O, O 4>;65= ?@54C?@548BL, GB> >10 <>8 ?@54?>;>65=8O =5 @02=>F5==K. 5@2>5 ?@54?>;>65=85, GB> A=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO ?A8E8G5A:8< D5=><5=><, <K E>B8< 4>:070BL @57C;LB0B0<8 =0H59 @01>BK; 2B>@>5 C65 4>:070=> 2 4@C3>9 >1;0AB8 =0C:8, 8 O B>;L:> 15@C =0 A51O A<5;>ABL ?@8;>68BL 53> : @5H5=8N =0H8E ?@>1;5<. "0: 345 65, 2 :0:>9 >1;0AB8 =0C:8 1K;> 4>:070=>, GB> 5ABL B0:>5 7=0=85, > :>B>@>< G5;>25:C =8G53> =5 8725AB=> (:0: MB> 8<55B <5AB>, ?> =0H5<C ?@54?>;>65=8N, C 28452H53> A>=)? -B> 1K; 1K 70<5G0B5;L=K9, ?>@078B5;L=K9 D0:B, <5=ONI89 =0H5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > 4CH52=>9 687=8, :>B>@K9 =5B =04>1=>AB8 A:@K20BL. 564C ?@>G8<, MB> D0:B, :>B>@K9 A0< >B@8F05B B>, GB> CB25@6405B, 8 2A5-B0:8 O2;O5BAO G5<-B> 459AB28B5;L=K<, contradictio in adjecto. "0: >= 8 =5 A:@K205BAO.  =5 53> 28=0, 5A;8 > =5< =8G53> =5 7=0NB 8;8 =54>AB0B>G=> 2 =53> 24C<K20NBAO. ">G=> B0: 65 =5 =0H0 28=0, GB> >1> 2A5E MB8E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5<0E AC4OB ;N48, :>B>@K5 40;5:8 >B 2A5E =01;N45- ---------------------------------------- @>B82>@5G85 2 >?@545;5=88 (;0B.). -- @8<. ?5@. =89 8 >?KB>2, 8<5NI8E 2 40==>< 2>?@>A5 @5H0NI55 7=0G5=85. >:070B5;LAB2> 1K;> 40=> 2 >1;0AB8 38?=>B8G5A:8E O2;5=89. >340 O 2 1889 3. =01;N40; G@572KG09=> C1548B5;L=K5 45<>=AB@0F88 L51> 8 5@=359<0 2 0=A8, O 1K; A2845B5;5< 8 A;54CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0. >340 G5;>25:0 ?@825;8 2 A><=0<1C;8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85, 70AB028;8 2 MB>< A>AB>O=88 30;;NF8=0B>@=> ?5@568BL 2A52>7<>6=K5 A8BC0F88, 0 70B5< @071C48;8, B> A=0G0;0 5<C :070;>AL, GB> >= =8G53> =5 7=05B > ?@>8AE>482H5< 2> 2@5<O 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A=0. 5@=359< ?>B@51>20; @0AA:070BL, GB> A =8< ?@>8AE>48;> 2> 2@5<O 38?=>70. '5;>25: CB25@640;, GB> =8G53> =5 <>65B 2A?><=8BL. > 5@359< =0AB0820;, B@51>20;, C25@O; 53>, GB> >= 7=05B, 4>;65= 2A?><=8BL, 8 2>B G5;>25: 70:>;510;AO, =0G0; A>18@0BLAO A <KA;O<8, 2A?><=8; A=0G0;0 A<CB=> >4=> 87 2=CH5==KE 5<C ?5@56820=89, 70B5< 4@C3>5, 2>A?><8=0=85 AB0=>28;>AL 2A5 >BG5B;8259, 2A5 ?>;=55 8 =0:>=5F 1K;> 2>AAB0=>2;5=> 157 ?@>15;>2. > B0: :0: >= 2A5 MB> 7=0;, :0: 70B5< 8 >:070;>AL, E>BO =8:B> ?>AB>@>==89 =5 <>3 5<C =8G53> A>>1I8BL, B> =0?@0H8205BAO 2K2>4, GB> >= 7=0; >1 MB8E ?5@56820=8OE @0=55. ">;L:> >=8 1K;8 5<C =54>ABC?=K, >= =5 7=0;, GB> >=8 C =53> 5ABL, >= ?>;030;, GB> =8G53> > =8E =5 7=05B. B0:, MB> A>25@H5==> B0 65 A0<0O A8BC0F8O, 2 :>B>@>9, :0: <K ?@54?>;0305<, =0E>48BAO 28452H89 A>=. 045NAL, 20A ?>@078B MB>B D0:B 8 2K A?@>A8B5 <5=O: ?>G5<C 65 2K =5 A>A;0;8AL =0 MB> 4>:070B5;LAB2> C65 @0=LH5, @0AA<0B@820O >H81>G=K5 459AB28O, :>340 <K ?@8H;8 : 70:;NG5=8N, GB> ?@8?8AK20;8 >3>2>@82H5<CAO G5;>25:C =0<5@5=8O, > :>B>@KE >= =5 7=0; 8 :>B>@K5 >B@8F0;? A;8 :B>-=81C4L 4C<05B, GB> =8G53> =5 7=05B > ?5@56820=8OE, 2>A?><8=0=8O > :>B>@KE C =53> 2A5-B0:8 5ABL, B> B5< 1>;55 25@>OB=>, GB> >= =8G53> =5 7=05B 8 > 4@C38E 2=CB@5==8E 4CH52=KE ?@>F5AA0E. -B>B 4>2>4, :>=5G=>, ?@>8725; 1K 2?5G0B;5=85 8 ?><>3 1K =0< ?>=OBL >H81>G=K5 459AB28O. 07C<55BAO, O <>3 1K A>A;0BLAO =0 =53> 8 B>340, => O ?@815@53 53> 4;O 4@C3>3> A;CG0O, 345 >= 1K; 1>;55 =5>1E>48<. H81>G=K5 459AB28O G0AB8G=> @07JOA=8;8AL A0<8 A>1>9; A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, >=8 =0?><=8;8 =0<, GB> 2A;54AB285 >1I59 A2O78 O2;5=89 2A5-B0:8 A;54C5B ?@54?>;>68BL ACI5AB2>20=85 B0:8E 4CH52=KE ?@>F5AA>2, > :>B>@KE =8G53> =5 8725AB=>. 7CG0O A=>2845=8O, <K 2K=C645=K ?>;L7>20BLAO A2545=8O<8 87 4@C38E >1;0AB59, 8, :@><5 B>3>, O CG8BK20N B>B D0:B, GB> 745AL 2K A:>@55 A>3;0A8B5AL =0 ?@82;5G5=85 A2545=89 87 >1;0AB8 38?=>70. !>AB>O=85, 2 :>B>@>< A>25@H0NBAO >H81>G=K5 459AB28O, 4>;6=> 1KBL, :065BAO 20< =>@<0;L=K<, >=> =5 ?>E>65 =0 38?=>B8G5A:>5. 0?@>B82, <564C 38?=>B8G5A:8< A>AB>O=85< 8 A=><, ?@8 :>B>@>< 2>7=8:0NB A=>2845=8O, 8<55BAO 7=0G8B5;L=>5 AE>4AB2>. 54L 38?=>7>< =07K205BAO 8A:CAAB25==K9 A>=; <K 3>2>@8< ;8FC, :>B>@>5 38?=>B878@C5<: A?8B5, 8 2=CH5=8O, :>B>@K5 <K 5<C 45;05<, <>6=> A@02=8BL A> A=>2845=8O<8 2> 2@5<O 5AB5AB25==>3> A=0. A8E8G5A:85 A8BC0F88 2 >1>8E A;CG0OE 459AB28B5;L=> 0=0;>38G=K. @8 5AB5AB25==>< A=5 <K 30A8< 8=B5@5A : 2=5H=5<C <8@C, ?@8 38?=>B8G5A:>< -- >?OBL-B0:8 :> 2A5<C <8@C, 70 8A:;NG5=85< ;8F0, :>B>@>5 =0A 38?=>B878@C5B, A :>B>@K< <K >AB05<AO 2 A2O78. ?@>G5<, B0: =07K205<K9 A>= :>@<8;8FK, ?@8 :>B>@>< >=0 8<55B A2O7L A @515=:>< 8 B>;L:> 8< <>65B 1KBL @071C65=0, O2;O5BAO =>@<0;L=>9 0=0;>3859 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A=0. 5@5=5A5=85 >A>15==>AB59 38?=>70 =0 5AB5AB25==K9 A>= =5 :065BAO ?>MB><C B0:8< C6 A<5;K<. @54?>;>65=85, GB> 28452H89 A>= B0:65 7=05B > A2>5< A=>2845=88, :>B>@>5 5<C B>;L:> =54>ABC?=>, B0: GB> >= 8 A0< MB><C =5 25@8B, =5 A>2A5< 15A?>G25==>. AB0B8, 70<5B8< A515, GB> 745AL ?5@54 =0<8 >B:@K205BAO B@5B89 ?CBL : 87CG5=8N A=>2845=89: >B =0@CH0NI8E A>= @074@065=89, >B A=>2 =0O2C, 0 B5?5@L 5I5 >B A=>2845=88, 2=CH5==KE 2 38?=>B8G5A:>< A>AB>O=88.  B5?5@L, :>340 =0H0 C25@5==>ABL 2 A515 2>7@>A;0, 25@=5<AO : =0H59 ?@>1;5<5. B0:, >G5=L 25@>OB=>, GB> 28452H89 A>= 7=05B > A2>5< A=>2845=88, 8 7040G0 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K 40BL 5<C 2>7<>6=>ABL >1=0@C68BL MB> 7=0=85 8 A>>1I8BL 53> =0<. K =5 B@51C5<, GB>1K >= A@07C A:070; > A<KA;5 A2>53> A=>2845=8O, => >= <>65B >B:@KBL ?@>8AE>645=85 A=>2845=8O, :@C3 <KA;59 8 8=B5@5A>2, :>B>@K5 53> >?@545;8;8. A?><=8B5 A;CG09 >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O, :>340 C :>3>-B> A?@>A8;8, >B:C40 ?@>87>H;0 >3>2>@:0 "Vorschwein", 8 ?5@2>5, GB> ?@8H;> 5<C 2 3>;>2C, 40;> =0< @07JOA=5=85. 0H0 B5E=8:0 8AA;54>20=8O A=>2845=89 >G5=L ?@>AB0, 25AL<0 ?>E>60 =0 B>;L:> GB> C?><O=CBK9 ?@85<. K 2=>2L A?@>A8< 28452H53> A>=, >B:C40 C =53> MB> A=>2845=85, 8 ?5@2>5 53> 2KA:07K20=85 1C45< AG8B0BL >1JOA=5=85<. K =5 1C45< >1@0I0BL 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, 4C<05B ;8 >=, GB> GB>-B> 7=05B, 8;8 =5 4C<05B, 8 2 >1>8E A;CG0OE ?>ABC?8< >48=0:>2>. -B0 B5E=8:0, :>=5G=>, >G5=L ?@>AB0, =>, 1>NAL, >=0 2K7>25B C 20A A0<K9 @57:89 >B?>@. K A:065B5: =>2>5 ?@54?>;>65=85, B@5BL5!  A0<>5 =525@>OB=>5 87 2A5E! A;8 O A?@>HC C 28452H53> A>=, GB> 5<C ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C ?> ?>2>4C A=>2845=8O, B> ?5@2>5 65, GB> 5<C ?@845B 2 3>;>2C, 8 4>;6=> 40BL 65;05<>5 >1JOA=5=85? > 5<C 2>>1I5 <>65B =8G53> =5 ?@89B8 8;8 ?@845B 1>3 7=05B GB>. K =5 ?>=8<05<, =0 GB> BCB <>6=> @0AAG8BK20BL. >B C6, 459AB28B5;L=>, GB> 7=0G8B ?@>O28BL A;8H:>< <=>3> 4>25@8O B0<, 345 C<5AB=55 1K;> 1K ?>1>;LH5 :@8B8:8.  B><C 65 A=>2845=85 A>AB>8B 254L =5 87 >4=>3> =5?@028;L=>3> A;>20, 0 87 <=>38E M;5<5=B>2. 0:>9 65 <KA;8, A;CG09=> ?@8H54H59 2 3>;>2C, =C6=> ?@845@6820BLAO? K ?@02K 2> 2A5<, GB> :0A05BAO 2B>@>AB5?5==>3>. !=>2845=85 >B;8G05BAO >B >3>2>@:8 B0:65 8 1>;LH8< :>;8G5AB2>< M;5<5=B>2. ! MB8< CA;>285< B5E=8:5 =5>1E>48<> AG8B0BLAO. > O ?@54;030N 20< @0718BL A=>2845=85 =0 M;5<5=BK 8 8AA;54>20BL :064K9 M;5<5=B 2 >B45;L=>AB8, 8 B>340 2=>2L 2>7=8:=5B 0=0;>38O A >3>2>@:>9. K ?@02K 8 2 B><, GB> ?> >B=>H5=8N : >B45;L=K< M;5<5=B0< A?@0H8205<K9 <>65B >B25B8BL, GB> 5<C =8G53> =5 ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C. ABL A;CG08, 2 :>B>@KE <K C4>2;5B2>@8<AO MB8< >B25B><, 8 ?>74=55 2K C7=05B5, :0:>2K >=8. @8<5G0B5;L=>, GB> MB> B0:85 A;CG08, > :>B>@KE <K A0<8 <>65< A>AB028BL >?@545;5==>5 AC645=85. > 2 >1I5<, 5A;8 28452H89 A>= 1C45B CB25@640BL, GB> 5<C =8G53> =5 ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C, <K 2>7@078< 5<C, 1C45< =0AB0820BL =0 A2>5<, C25@OBL 53>, GB> E>BL GB>-B> 4>;6=> 5<C ?@89B8 2 3>;>2C, 8 >:065<AO ?@02K. 0:0O-=81C4L <KA;L ?@845B 5<C 2 3>;>2C, =0< 157@07;8G=> :0:0O. A>15==> ;53:> 5<C 1C45B 40BL A2545=8O, :>B>@K5 <>6=> =0720BL 8AB>@8G5A:8<8. = A:065B: 2>B MB> A;CG8;>AL 2G5@0 (:0: 2 >1>8E 8725AB=KE =0< "B@572KE" A=>2845=8OE), 8;8: MB> =0?><8=05B GB>-B> =5402=> A;CG82H55AO; B0:8< >1@07><, <K 70<5G05<, GB> A2O78 A=>2845=89 A 2?5G0B;5=8O<8 ?>A;54=8E 4=59 2AB@5G0NBAO =0<=>3> G0I5, G5< <K A=0G0;0 ?@54?>;030;8. AE>4O 87 A=>2845=8O, 28452H89 A>= ?@8?><=8B =0:>=5F 1>;55 >B40;5==K5, 2>7<>6=>, 4065 A>2A5< 40;5:85 A>1KB8O. > 2 3;02=>< 2K =5 ?@02K. A;8 2K AG8B05B5 A;8H:>< ?@>872>;L=K< ?@54?>;>65=85 > B><, GB> ?5@20O 65 <KA;L 28452H53> A>= :0: @07 8 40AB 8A:><>5 8;8 4>;6=0 ?@825AB8 : =5<C, 5A;8 2K 4C<05B5, GB> MB0 ?5@20O ?@8H54H0O 2 3>;>2C <KA;L <>65B 1KBL, A:>@55 2A53>, A>25@H5==> A;CG09=>9 8 =5 A2O70==>9 A 8A:><K<, GB> O ?@>AB> ;8HL 25@N 2 B>, GB> <>6=> >6840BL >B =55 4@C3>3>, B> 2K 3;C1>:> 701;C6405B5AL. / C65 ?>72>;8; A515 >4=064K ?@54C?@548BL 20A, GB> 2 20A :>@5=8BAO 25@0 2 ?A8E8G5A:CN A2>1>4C 8 ?@>872>;L=>ABL, => >=0 A>25@H5==> =5=0CG=0 8 4>;6=0 CABC?8BL B@51>20=8N =5>1E>48<>3> 45B5@<8=87<0 8 2 4CH52=>9 687=8. / ?@>HC 20A AG8B0BLAO A D0:B><, GB> A?@>H5==><C ?@845B 2 3>;>2C 8<5==> MB> 8 =8GB> 4@C3>5. > O =5 E>GC ?@>B82>?>AB02;OBL >4=C 25@C 4@C3>9. >6=> 4>:070BL, GB> ?@8H54H0O 2 3>;>2C A?@>H5==><C <KA;L =5 ?@>872>;L=0, 0 2?>;=5 >?@545;5==0 8 A2O70=0 A 8A:><K< =0<8.1 0, O =5402=> C7=0;, =5 ?@84020O, 2?@>G5<, MB><C 1>;LH>3> 7=0G5=8O, GB> 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O @0A?>;0305B B0:8<8 4>:070B5;LAB20<8.  A2O78 A 206=>ABLN >1AC6405<>3> ?@54<5B0 ?@>HC 20H53> >A>1>3> 2=8<0=8O. A;8 O ?@>HC :>3>-B> A:070BL, GB> 5<C ?@8H;> 2 3>;>2C ?> ?>2>4C >?@545;5==>3> M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O, B> O B@51CN >B =53>, GB>1K >= >B40;AO A2>1>4=>9 0AA>F80F88, ?@845@6820OAL 8AE>4=>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O. -B> B@51C5B >A>1>9 CAB0=>2:8 2=8<0=8O, :>B>@0O A>25@H5==> 8=0O, G5< CAB0=>2:0 ?@8 @07<KH;5=88, 8 8A:;NG05B ?>A;54=55. 5:>B>@K< ;53:> 405BAO B0:0O CAB0=>2:0, 4@C385 >1=0@C6820NB ?@8 B0:>< >?KB5 ?>GB8 ?>;=CN =5A?>A>1=>ABL. !CI5AB2C5B 8 1>;55 2KA>:0O AB5?5=L A2>1>4K 0AA>F80F88, :>340 >?CA:05BAO B0:65 8 MB> 8AE>4=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 8 >?@545;O5BAO B>;L:> 284 8 @>4 2>7=8:0NI59 <KA;8, =0?@8<5@, >?@545;O5BAO A2>1>4=> 2>7=8:0NI55 8<O A>1AB25==>5 8;8 G8A;>. -B0 2>7=8:0- ---------------------------------------- 1 587<5==> ?>4G5@:820O, GB> >= O2;O5BAO AB>@>==8:>< AB@>609H53> 45B5@<8=87<0 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : B5G5=8N ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2, $@594 8<5; 2 284C ?@8G8==CN >1CA;>2;5==>ABL MB8E ?@>F5AA>2 ?A8E8G5A:8<8 65 A8;0<8 8;8 D0:B>@0<8. !>25BA:0O ?A8E>;>38O >B25@305B ?>4>1=>5 ?>=8<0=85 45B5@<8=87<0. =0 @0AA<0B@8205B D0:BK A>7=0B5;L=>9 8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 687=8 2 8E >1CA;>2;5==>AB8 D878>;>38G5A:8<8 8 A>F80;L=K<8 D0:B>@0<8, =5 >B@8F0O 2<5AB5 A B5< 0:B82=>ABL ?A8E8G5A:>3> 8, AB0;> 1KBL, 53> >A>1CN (=5A2>48<CN : D878>;>38G5A:8< 8 A>F80;L=K< <5E0=87<0<) @>;L 2 @53C;OF88 ?>2545=8O. NI0O <KA;L <>65B 1KBL 5I5 ?@>872>;L=55, 5I5 1>;55 =5?@542845==>9, G5< 2>7=8:0NI0O ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 =0H59 B5E=8:8. > <>6=> 4>:070BL, GB> >=0 :064K9 @07 AB@>3> 45B5@<8=8@C5BAO 206=K<8 2=CB@5==8<8 CAB0=>2:0<8, =58725AB=K<8 =0< 2 <><5=B 8E 459AB28O 8 B0: 65 <0;> 8725AB=K<8, :0: =0@CH0NI85 B5=45=F88 ?@8 >H81>G=KE 459AB28OE 8 B5=45=F88, ?@>2>F8@CNI85 A;CG09=K5 459AB28O. / 8 <=>385 4@C385 ?>A;5 <5=O =5>4=>:@0B=> ?@>2>48;8 B0:85 8AA;54>20=8O A 8<5=0<8 8 G8A;0<8, A0<>?@>872>;L=> 2>7=8:0NI8<8 2 <KA;OE; =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E 1K;8 B0:65 >?C1;8:>20=K. @8 MB>< ?>ABC?0NB A;54CNI8< >1@07><: : ?@8H54H5<C 2 3>;>2C 8<5=8 2K7K20NB @O4 0AA>F80F89, :>B>@K5 C65 =5 A>2A5< A2>1>4=K, 0 A2O70=K, :0: 8 <KA;8 ?> ?>2>4C M;5<5=B>2 A=>2845=8O, 8 MB> ?@>4>;60NB 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 A2O7L =5 8AG5@?05BAO. > 70B5< 2KOA=O;8AL 8 <>B828@>2:0, 8 7=0G5=85 A2>1>4=> 2>7=8:0NI53> 8<5=8. 57C;LB0BK >?KB>2 2A5 2@5<O ?>2B>@ONBAO, A>>1I5=85 > =8E G0AB> B@51C5B 87;>65=8O 1>;LH>3> D0:B8G5A:>3> <0B5@80;0 8 =5>1E>48<KE ?>4@>1=KE @07JOA=5=89. >7<>6=>, A0<K<8 4>:070B5;L=K<8 O2;ONBAO 0AA>F80F88 A2>1>4=> 2>7=8:0NI8E G8A5;; >=8 ?@>B5:0NB B0: 1KAB@> 8 =0?@02;ONBAO : A:@KB>9 F5;8 A B0:>9 C25@5==>ABLN, GB> ?@>AB> >H5;><;ONB. / E>GC ?@825AB8 20< B>;L:> >48= ?@8<5@ A B0:8< 0=0;87>< 8<5=8, B0: :0: 53>, : AG0ABLN, <>6=> 87;>68BL :@0B:>. > 2@5<O ;5G5=8O >4=>3> <>;>4>3> G5;>25:0 O 703>20@820N A =8< =0 MBC B5<C 8 C?><8=0N ?>;>65=85 > B><, GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 :06CICNAO ?@>872>;L=>ABL, =5 <>65B ?@89B8 2 3>;>2C 8<O, :>B>@>5 =5 >:070;>AL 1K >1CA;>2;5==K< 1;8609H8<8 >B=>H5=8O<8, >A>15==>ABO<8 8A?KBC5<>3> 8 53> =0AB>OI8< ?>;>65=85<. "0: :0: >= A><=5205BAO 2 MB><, O ?@54;030N 5<C, =5 >B:;04K20O, A0<><C ?@>25AB8 B0:>9 >?KB. / 7=0N, GB> C =53> >A>15==> <=>3> @07=>3> @>40 >B=>H5=89 A 65=I8=0<8 8 452CH:0<8, 8 ?>;030N ?>MB><C, GB> C =53> 1C45B >A>15==> 1>;LH>9 2K1>@, 5A;8 5<C ?@54;>68BL =0720BL ?5@2>5 ?>?02H55AO 65=A:>5 8<O. = A>3;0H05BAO. > : <>5<C 8;8, 25@=55, : 53> C482;5=8N, =0 <5=O =5 :0B8BAO ;028=0 65=A:8E 8<5=, 0, ?><>;G02, >= ?@87=05BAO, GB> 5<C ?@8H;> =0 C< 2A53> ;8HL >4=> 8<O: ;L18=0. !B@0==>, GB> 65 2K A2O7K205B5 A MB8< 8<5=5<? !:>;L:> ;L18= 2K 7=05B5? >@078B5;L=>, => >= =5 7=05B =8 >4=>9 ;L18=K, 8 1>;LH5 5<C =8G53> =5 ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C ?> ?>2>4C MB>3> 8<5=8. B0:, <>6=> 1K;> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 0=0;87 =5 C40;AO; => =5B, >= 1K; C65 70:>=G5=, 8 =5 ?>B@51>20;>AL =8:0:8E 4@C38E <KA;59. # <>;>4>3> G5;>25:0 1K; =5>1KG=> A25B;K9 F25B 2>;>A, 2> 2@5<O 15A54 ?@8 ;5G5=88 O G0AB> 2 HCB:C =07K20; 53> ;L18=0, <K :0: @07 70=8<0;8AL 2KOA=5=85< 4>;8 65=A:>3> =0G0;0 2 53> :>=AB8BCF88. "0:8< >1@07><, >= A0< 1K; MB>9 ;L18=>9, A0<>9 8=B5@5A=>9 4;O =53> 2 MB> 2@5<O 65=I8=>9. "> 65 A0<>5 >B=>A8BAO : =5?>A@54AB25==> 2A?;K20NI8< <5;>48O<, :>B>@K5 >?@545;5==K< >1@07>< >1CA;>2;5=K :@C3>< <KA;59 G5;>25:0, 70=8<0NI8E 53>, E>BO >= MB>3> 8 =5 70<5G05B. 53:> ?>:070BL, GB> >B=>H5=85 : <5;>488 A2O70=> A 55 B5:AB>< 8;8 ?@>8AE>645=85<; => A;54C5B 1KBL >AB>@>6=K<, MB> CB25@645=85 =5 @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =0 459AB28B5;L=> <C7K:0;L=KE ;N459, >B=>A8B5;L=> :>B>@KE C <5=O ?@>AB> =5B 40==KE. # B0:8E ;N459 55 ?>O2;5=85 <>65B >1JOA=OBLAO <C7K:0;L=K< A>45@60=85< <5;>488. > G0I5 2AB@5G05BAO, :>=5G=>, ?5@2K9 A;CG09. "0:, O 7=0N >4=>3> <>;>4>3> G5;>25:0, :>B>@>3> 4>;3>5 2@5<O ?@5A;54>20;0 ?@5;5AB=0O ?5A=O 0@8A0 87 @5:@0A=>9 ;5=K [DD5=10E0], ?>:0 0=0;87 =5 >1@0B8; 53> 2=8<0=8O =0 :>=:C@5=F8N "4K" 8 ";5=K", 70=8<02HCN 53> 2 B> 2@5<O. B0:, 5A;8 A>25@H5==> A2>1>4=> 2>7=8:0NI85 <KA;8 >1CA;>2;5=K B0:8< >1@07>< 8 ?>4G8=5=K >?@545;5==>9 A2O78, B> B5< 1>;55 <K <>65< 70:;NG8BL, GB> <KA;8 A 548=AB25==>9 A2O7LN, A 8AE>4=K< ?@54AB02;5=85<, <>3CB 1KBL =5 <5=55 >1CA;>2;5==K<8. AA;54>20=85 459AB28B5;L=> ?>:07K205B, GB>, :@><5 ?@54?>;0305<>9 =0<8 A2O78 A 8AE>4=K< ?@54AB02;5=85<, A;54C5B ?@87=0BL 8E 2B>@CN 7028A8<>ABL >B 1>30BKE 0DD5:B0<8 <KA;59 8 8=B5@5A>2, :><?;5:A>2, 2>7459AB285 :>B>@KE 2 =0AB>OI89 <><5=B =58725AB=>, B. 5. 15AA>7=0B5;L=>. !2>1>4=> 2>7=8:0NI85 <KA;8 A B0:>9 A2O7LN 1K;8 ?@54<5B>< >G5=L ?>CG8B5;L=KE M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89, AK3@02H8E 2 8AB>@88 ?A8E>0=0;870 4>AB>9=CN 2=8<0=8O @>;L.1 (:>;0 C=4B0 ?@54;>68;0 B0: =07K205<K9 0AA>F80B82=K9 M:A?5@8<5=B, ?@8 :>B>@>< ---------------------------------------- 1 7CG5=85 0AA>F80F89 O2;O;>AL >4=>9 87 ?5@2KE B5< ?A8E>;>388, ?@8>1@5B02H59 >1;8: M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 =0C:8. A?KBC5<K9 2 MB8E >?KB0E 4>;65= 1K; >B@5038@>20BL =0 ?@54JO2;O5<>5 5<C A;>2>-@074@068B5;L ?5@2K< ?@8H54H8< 2 3>;>2C 4@C38< A;>2><, B. 5. =5?>A@54AB25==>9 25@10;L=>9 @50:F859. !2O7L <564C A;>2><-@074@068B5;5< 8 A;>2><-@50:F859 B@0:B>20;0AL A ?>78F89 0AA>F80B82=>9 :>=F5?F88, ?@54?>;0302H59, GB> MB0 A2O7L 45B5@<8=8@>20=0 G0AB>B>9 ?@54H5AB2CNI8E A>G5B0=89 MB8E A;>2, 8E A<56=>ABLN 8 B. ?. 0;L=59H55 87CG5=85 25@10;L=KE @50:F89 =0 ?@54JO2;O5<K9 AB8<C; 2KO28;>, GB> 2 @O45 A;CG052 =01;N405BAO 8E =5>1KG=>ABL, 7045@6:0 (B>@<>65=85) @50:F88 8 B. ?. -B> 40;> >A=>20=85 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> ?@82KG=K9 ?>B>: 0AA>F80F89 =0@CH05BAO ?>4 2;8O=85< 0DD5:B82=>9 7=0G8<>AB8 B>3> A;>20, =0 :>B>@>5 8A?KBC5<><C 1K;> ?@54;>65=> >B@5038@>20BL. !0< 8A?KBC5<K9 =5 <>3 @07JOA=8BL, ?>G5<C 53> @50:F8O >:070;0AL AB>;L =5?@82KG=>9, AB@0==>9. 5@2>=0G0;L=> D0:B 2;8O=8O =5>A>7=0205<KE 0DD5:B>2 =0 0AA>F80B82=>5 B5G5=85 ?@54AB02;5=89 1K; 2KO2;5= H259F0@A:8< ?A8E80B@>< .=3><, A1;8782H8<AO A $@594>< 2 ?5@2K9 ?5@8>4 45OB5;L=>AB8, => 70B5< @07>H54H8<AO A =8<. 0==K5 .=30 AB8<C;8@>20;8 @07@01>B:C ?>=OB8O > :><?;5:A5 -- >A>1>< ?A8E8G5A:>< >1@07>20=88, 2 :>B>@>< 7=0G8<K5 4;O ;8G=>AB8 8458 15AA>7=0B5;L=> 8 ?@>G=> A;820NBAO A 0DD5:B0<8. >=OB85 :><?;5:A0 70=O;> 2 A8AB5<5 ?@54AB02;5=89 $@5940 ?@>G=>5 <5AB>. @><5 8=48284C0;L=KE :><?;5:A>2 >= 2K45;8; >1I5:C;LBC@=K5, :>B>@K5 2KABC?0NB 2 :0G5AB25 45B5@<8=0=BK ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2A5E ;N459, ?@8=04;560I8E : 40==>9 :C;LBC@5. 8A?KBC5<><C ?@54;030;>AL :0: <>6=> 1KAB@55 >B25B8BL ;N1>9 @50:F859 =0 A;>2>-@074@068B5;L. 0B5< 87CG0;8AL 8=B5@20; <564C @074@065=85< 8 @50:F859, E0@0:B5@ >B25B=>9 @50:F88, >H81:8 ?@8 ?>2B>@5=88 B>3> 65 M:A?5@8<5=B0 8 ?>4>1=>5. &N@8EA:0O H:>;0 ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< ;59;5@0 8 .=30 40;0 >1JOA=5=85 ?@>8AE>4OI8< ?@8 0AA>F80B82=>< M:A?5@8<5=B5 @50:F8O<, ?@54;>682 8A?KBC5<><C @07JOA=OBL ?>;CG5==K5 @50:F88 4>?>;=8B5;L=K<8 0AA>F80F8O<8, 5A;8 >=8 A0<8 ?> A515 ?@82;5:0;8 2=8<0=85 A2>59 =5>1KG=>ABLN. 0B5< >:070;>AL, GB> MB8 =5>1KG=K5 @50:F88 A0<K< B5A=K< >1@07>< A2O70=K A :><?;5:A0<8 8A?KBC5<>3>. "5< A0<K< ;59;5@ 8 .=3 ?5@51@>A8;8 <>AB >B M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 : ?A8E>0=0;87C. 0 >A=>20=88 MB8E 40==KE 2K <>65B5 A:070BL: ""5?5@L <K ?@87=05<, GB> A2>1>4=> 2>7=8:0NI85 <KA;8 45B5@<8=8@>20=K, =5 ?@>872>;L=K, :0: <K ?>;030;8. "> 65 A0<>5 <K 4>?CA:05< 8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : <KA;O<, 2>7=8:0NI8< ?> ?>2>4C M;5<5=B>2 A=>2845=8O. > 254L MB> =5 B>, GB> =0< =C6=>. 54L 2K CB25@6405B5, GB> <KA;8, ?@8H54H85 ?> ?>2>4C M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O, 45B5@<8=8@>20=K :0:>9-B> =58725AB=>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 >A=>2>9 8<5==> MB>3> M;5<5=B0.  =0< MB> =5 :065BAO >G5284=K<. K C65 ?@54?>;0305<, GB> <KA;L ?> ?>2>4C M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O ?@54>?@545;5=0 :><?;5:A0<8 28452H53> A>=, => :0:0O =0< >B MB>3> ?>;L70? -B> ?@82545B =0A =5 : ?>=8<0=8N A=>2845=8O, => B>;L:> : 7=0=8N MB8E B0: =07K205<KE :><?;5:A>2, :0: MB> 1K;> 2 0AA>F80B82=>< M:A?5@8<5=B5. > GB> C =8E >1I53> A> A=>2845=85<?" K ?@02K, => C?CA:05B5 >48= <><5=B. AB0B8, 8<5==> B>B, 87-70 :>B>@>3> O =5 871@0; 0AA>F80B82=K9 M:A?5@8<5=B 8AE>4=>9 B>G:>9 MB>3> 87;>65=8O.  MB>< M:A?5@8<5=B5 >4=0 45B5@<8=0=B0 @50:F88, 0 8<5==> A;>2>-@074@068B5;L, 2K18@05BAO =0<8 ?@>872>;L=>. 50:F8O O2;O5BAO ?>A@54=8:>< <564C MB8< A;>2><-@074@068B5;5< 8 70B@>=CBK< 8< :><?;5:A>< 8A?KBC5<>3>. @8 A=>2845=88 A;>2>-@074@068B5;L 70<5=O5BAO G5<-B>, GB> A0<> 8AE>48B 87 4CH52=>9 687=8 28452H53> A>=, 87 =58725AB=KE 5<C 8AB>G=8:>2, B. 5. 87 B>3>, GB> A0<> ;53:> <>3;> 1K AB0BL "?@>872>4=K< >B :><?;5:A0". >MB><C =0?@0H8205BAO ?@54?>;>65=85, GB> 8 A2O70==K5 A M;5<5=B0<8 A=>2845=8O 40;L=59H85 <KA;8 1C4CB >?@545;5=K =5 4@C38< :><?;5:A><, 0 8<5==> :><?;5:A>< A0<>3> M;5<5=B0 8 ?@8254CB B0:65 : 53> @0A:@KB8N. >72>;LB5 <=5 =0 4@C3>< ?@8<5@5 ?>:070BL, GB> 45;> >1AB>8B 8<5==> B0:, :0: <K ?@54?>;0305< 2 =0H5< A;CG05. 01K20=85 8<5= A>1AB25==KE O2;O5BAO, A>1AB25==> 3>2>@O, ?@5:@0A=K< ?@8<5@>< 4;O 0=0;870 A=>2845=8O; B>;L:> 745AL 2 >4=>< ;8F5 A;8205BAO B>, GB> ?@8 B>;:>20=88 A=>2845=8O @0A?@545;O5BAO <564C 42C<O. A;8 O 2@5<5==> 701K; 8<O, B> C <5=O 5ABL C25@5==>ABL, GB> O MB> 8<O 7=0N; B0 C25@5==>ABL, :>B>@CN <K <>65< 2=CH8BL 28452H5<C A>= B>;L:> >1E>4=K< ?CB5< ?@8 ?><>I8 M:A?5@8<5=B0 5@=359<0. > 701KB>5, E>BO 8 7=0:><>5 8<O <=5 =54>ABC?=>. A5 CA8;8O 2A?><=8BL 53> =8 : G5<C =5 ?@82>4OB, MB> O 7=0N ?> >?KBC. > 2<5AB> 701KB>3> 8<5=8 O <>3C ?@84C<0BL >4=> 8;8 =5A:>;L:> 70<5I0NI8E 8<5=.  5A;8 B0:>5 8<O-70<5AB8B5;L (Ersatz) ?@845B <=5 2 3>;>2C A?>=B0==>, B>;L:> B>340 A8BC0F8O 1C45B ?>E>60 =0 0=0;87 A=>2845=8O. -;5<5=B A=>2845=8O 254L B>65 =5 B>, GB> =C6=>, B>;L:> 70<5AB8B5;L B>3> 4@C3>3>, =C6=>3>, G53> O =5 7=0N 8 GB> =C6=> =09B8 ?@8 ?><>I8 0=0;870 A=>2845=8O. 07;8G85 >?OBL-B0:8 B>;L:> 2 B><, GB> ?@8 701K20=88 8<5= O =5 ?@87=0N 70<5AB8B5;L A>1AB25==K< [A>45@60=85<] (Eigentliche), 0 4;O M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O =0< B@C4=> AB0BL =0 MBC B>G:C 7@5=8O. > 8 ?@8 701K20=88 8<5= 5ABL ?CBL >B 70<5AB8B5;O : A>1AB25==><C 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C [A>45@60=8N], : 701KB><C 8<5=8. A;8 O =0?@02;N A2>5 2=8<0=85 =0 8<5=0-70<5AB8B5;8 8 1C4C A;548BL 70 ?@8E>4OI8<8 <=5 2 3>;>2C <KA;O<8 ?> 8E ?>2>4C, B> @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> O =094C 701KB>5 8<O 8 ?@8 MB>< >1=0@C68BAO, GB> 8<5=0-70<5AB8B5;8, :0: 8 ?@8H54H85 <=5 2 3>;>2C, 1K;8 A2O70=K A 701KBK<, 1K;8 45B5@<8=8@>20=K 8<. / E>GC ?@825AB8 20< ?@8<5@ 0=0;870 B0:>3> @>40: >4=064K O 70<5B8;, GB> 701K; =0720=85 <0;5=L:>9 AB@0=K =0 82L5@5, 3;02=K9 3>@>4 :>B>@>9 >=B5-0@;>. -B> 1K;> 4>A04=>, => B0:. / 2A?><8=0N 2A5, GB> 7=0N >1 MB>9 AB@0=5, 4C<0N > :=O75 ;L15@B5 87 4><0 C78=LO=, > 53> 1@0:0E, > 53> ;N128 : 8AA;54>20=8N <>@A:8E 3;C18= 8 >1> 2A5<, GB> <=5 C405BAO 2A?><=8BL, => =8G53> =5 ?><>305B. >MB><C O ?@5:@0I0N @07<KH;5=85 8 AB0@0NAL 70<5=8BL 701KB>5 =0720=85. @C385 =0720=8O 1KAB@> 2A?;K20NB. !0<> >=B5-0@;>, 70B5< L5<>=B, ;10=8O, >=B52845>, >;8:>. !=0G0;0 2 MB>< @O4C <=5 1@>A05BAO 2 3;070 ;10=8O, >=0 1KAB@> A<5=O5BAO >=B5=53@>, 2>7<>6=>, :0: ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL 15;>3> 8 G5@=>3>. 0B5< O 70<5G0N, GB> 2 MB8E G5BK@5E =0720=8OE-70<5AB8B5;OE A>45@68BAO A;>3 <>=; 24@C3 O 2A?><8=0N 701KB>5 =0720=85 8 3@><:> ?@>87=>HC: >=0:>. 0<5AB8B5;8 459AB28B5;L=> 8AE>48;8 87 701KB>3>, ?5@2K5 G5BK@5 87 ?5@2>3> A;>30, ?>A;54=55 2>A?@>872>48B ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL A;>3>2 8 25AL :>=5G=K9 A;>3. 564C ?@>G8<, O <>3C 2>AAB0=>28BL, ?>G5<C O =0 2@5<O 701K; =0720=85. >=0:> 8<55B >B=>H5=85 : N=E5=C, MB> 53> 8B0;LO=A:>5 =0720=85; =0720=85 MB>3> 3>@>40 8 >:070;> B>@<>7OI55 2;8O=85. @8<5@, :>=5G=>, E>@>H, => A;8H:>< ?@>AB.  4@C38E A;CG0OE : ?5@2K< 70<5I0NI8< =0720=8O< A;54>20;> 1K ?@81028BL 1>;55 4;8==K9 @O4 2>7=8:0NI8E <KA;59, B>340 0=0;>38O A 0=0;87>< A=>2845=8O 1K;0 1K OA=55. # <5=O 8 2 MB>< 5ABL >?KB. >340 >4=064K =57=0:><5F ?@83;0A8; <5=O 2K?8BL 8B0;LO=A:>3> 28=0, 2 @5AB>@0=5 >:070;>AL, GB> >= 701K; =0720=85 28=0, :>B>@>5 E>B5; 70:070BL, B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> > =5< >AB0;8AL ;CGH85 2>A?><8=0=8O. 7 1>;LH>3> G8A;0 70<5I0NI8E =0720=89, :>B>@K5 ?@8H;8 5<C 2 3>;>2C 2<5AB> 701KB>3>, O A45;0; 2K2>4, GB> =0720=85 701KB> 87-70 :0:>9-B> 542838, 8 459AB28B5;L=>, >= =5 B>;L:> ?>4B25@48;, GB> ?@>1>20; 53> 2 >1I5AB25 >4=>9 542838, => 8 2A?><=8; 1;03>40@O MB><C 53> =0720=85.  MB><C 2@5<5=8 >= 1K; AG0AB;82> 65=0B, 0 B0 542830 >B=>A8;0AL : 1>;55 @0==5<C 2@5<5=8, > :>B>@>< >= =5>E>B=> 2A?><8=0;. ">, GB> >:070;>AL 2>7<>6=K< ?@8 701K20=88 8<5=, 4>;6=> C40ABLAO 8 ?@8 B>;:>20=88 A=>2845=89; 84O >B 70<5AB8B5;O G5@57 A2O7K20NI85 0AA>F80F88, <>6=> A45;0BL 4>ABC?=K< A:@KB>5 A>1AB25==>5 [A>45@60=85]. > ?@8<5@C 701K20=8O 8<5= <K <>65< A:070BL >1 0AA>F80F8OE A M;5<5=B>< A=>2845=8O, GB> >=8 45B5@<8=8@>20=K :0: A0<8< M;5<5=B>< A=>2845=8O, B0: 8 A>1AB25==K< 15AA>7=0B5;L=K< [A>45@60=85<]. "5< A0<K< <K ?@825;8 =5:>B>@K5 4>:070B5;LAB20 ?@02><5@=>AB8 =0H59 B5E=8:8. !,/ &/ / !  !M  ! +"+  +! #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! K 2848B5, GB> <K =5 157 ?>;L7K 87CG0;8 >H81>G=K5 459AB28O. ;03>40@O MB8< CA8;8O< <K -- 8AE>4O 87 8725AB=KE 20< ?@54?>;>65=89 -- CA2>8;8 420 <><5=B0: ?>=8<0=85 M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O 8 B5E=8:C B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=8O. >=8<0=85 M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> >= =5 O2;O5BAO A>1AB25==K< [A>45@60=85<], 0 70<5AB8B5;5< G53>-B> 4@C3>3>, =5 8725AB=>3> 28452H5<C A>=, ?>4>1=> =0<5@5=8N >H81>G=>3> 459AB28O, 70<5AB8B5;5< G53>-B>, > G5< 28452H89 A>= 7=05B, => MB> 7=0=85 5<C =54>ABC?=>. 0455<AO, GB> MB> 65 ?>=8<0=85 <>6=> @0A?@>AB@0=8BL 8 =0 2A5 A=>2845=85, A>AB>OI55 87 B0:8E M;5<5=B>2. 0H0 B5E=8:0 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K 1;03>40@O A2>1>4=K< 0AA>F80F8O< 2K720BL : MB8< M;5<5=B0< 4@C385 70<5I0NI85 ?@54AB02;5=8O, 87 :>B>@KE <>6=> C7=0BL A:@KB>5. "5?5@L O ?@54;030N 20< 2=5AB8 87<5=5=8O 2 B5@<8=>;>38N, :>B>@K5 4>;6=K C?@>AB8BL =0H5 87;>65=85. <5AB> "A:@KB>5, =54>ABC?=>5, =5 A>1AB25==>5 [A>45@- ---------------------------------------- > A<KA;C 4>;6=> 1KBL "A>1AB25==>5". @8<. @54. ?5@52>40. 60=85]" <K, 2K@060OAL B>G=55, A:065< "=54>ABC?=>5 A>7=0=8N 28452H53> A>=, 8;8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5" (unbewu/t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iderstand), :>B>@>5 ?>4=8<05BAO ?@>B82 =53> 8 2K@065=85< :>B>@>3> O2;ONBAO B5 :@8B8G5A:85 2>7@065=8O. -B> A>?@>B82;5=85 =57028A8<> >B B5>@5B8G5A:8E C15645=89 28452H53> A>=. >;LH5 B>3>. ?KB ?>:07K205B, GB> B0:>5 :@8B8G5A:>5 2>7@065=85 =8:>340 =5 1K205B ?@028;L=K<. 0?@>B82, <KA;8, :>B>@K5 E>B5;>AL 1K ?>4028BL B0:8< >1@07><, >:07K20NBAO 2A5 157 8A:;NG5=8O A0<K<8 206=K<8, @5H0NI8<8 4;O @0A:@KB8O 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>. A;8 <KA;L A>?@>2>6405BAO B0:8< 2>7@065=85<, B> MB> :0: @07 >G5=L ?>:070B5;L=>. -B> A>?@>B82;5=85 O2;O5BAO :0:8<-B> A>25@H5==> =>2K< D5=><5=><, :>B>@K9 <K =0H;8 8AE>4O 87 =0H8E ?@54?>;>65=89, E>BO >= :0: 1C4B> 8 =5 A>45@68BAO 2 =8E. -B><C =>2><C D0:B>@C <K =5 B0: C6 ?@8OB=> C482;5=K. K C65 ?@54GC2AB2C5<, GB> >= =5 >1;53G8B =0H59 @01>BK. = <>3 1K =0A ?@825AB8 : B><C, GB>1K 2>2A5 >AB028BL =0H8 AB0@0=8O ?>=OBL A=>2845=85. "0:>5 =57=0G8B5;L=>5 O2;5=85, :0: A=>2845=85, 8 B0:85 B@C4=>AB8 2<5AB> 157C:>@87=5==>9 B5E=8:8! > A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 8<5==> MB8 B@C4=>AB8 70AB02;ONB =0A ?@54?>;030BL, GB> @01>B0 AB>8B CA8;89. K ?>AB>O==> =0B0;:8205<AO =0 A>?@>B82;5=85, :>340 E>B8< >B 70<5AB8B5;O, O2;ONI53>AO M;5<5=B>< A=>2845=8O, ?@>=8:=CBL 2 53> A:@KB>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5. "0:8< >1@07><, <K <>65< ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 70 70<5AB8B5;5< A:@K205BAO GB>-B> 7=0G8B5;L=>5. =0G5 : G5<C 2A5 ?@5?OBAB28O, AB@5<OI85AO A>E@0=8BL A:@K205<>5? A;8 @515=>: =5 E>G5B >B:@KBL @C:C, GB>1K ?>:070BL, GB> 2 =59, 7=0G8B, B0< GB>-B>, G53> 5<C =5 @07@5H05BAO 8<5BL. !59G0A, :>340 <K 22>48< 2 E>4 =0H8E @0AAC645=89 48=0<8G5A:>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 A>?@>B82;5=8O, <K 4>;6=K ?>4C<0BL > B><, GB> MB> A>?@>B82;5=85 <>65B :>;8G5AB25==> 87<5=OBLAO. => <>65B 1KBL 1>;LH8< 8 <5=LH8<, 8 <K 3>B>2K : B><C, GB> 40==K5 @07;8G8O 8 >1=0@C60BAO 2> 2@5<O =0H59 @01>BK. >65B 1KBL, 1;03>40@O MB><C <K ?@8>1@5B5< 4@C3>9 >?KB, :>B>@K9 B>65 ?@83>48BAO 2 @01>B5 ?> B>;:>20=8N A=>2845=89. =>340 =5>1E>48<0 >4=0-548=AB25==0O 8;8 2A53> =5A:>;L:> <KA;59, GB>1K ?5@59B8 >B M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O : 53> 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 4@C38E A;CG0OE 4;O MB>3> B@51C5BAO 4;8==0O F5?L 0AA>F80F89 8 ?@5>4>;5=85 <=>38E :@8B8G5A:8E 2>7@065=89. K A:065< A515, GB> MB8 @07;8G8O A2O70=K A 87<5=5=85< 25;8G8=K A>?@>B82;5=8O, 8 1C45<, 25@>OB=>, ?@02K. A;8 A>?@>B82;5=85 =57=0G8B5;L=>, B> 8 70<5AB8B5;L =5 AB>;L >B;8G5= >B 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>; => 1>;LH>5 A>?@>B82;5=85 ?@82>48B : 1>;LH8< 8A:065=8O< 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>, 0 A =8<8 C4;8=O5BAO >1@0B=K9 ?CBL >B 70<5AB8B5;O : 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C. "5?5@L, <>65B 1KBL, =0AB0;> 2@5<O 27OBL :0:>5-=81C4L A=>2845=85 8 ?>?@>1>20BL ?@8<5=8BL : =5<C =0HC B5E=8:C, GB>1K >?@0240BL A2O7K205<K5 A =59 =04564K. 0, => :0:>5 4;O MB>3> 2K1@0BL A=>2845=85? K =5 ?@54AB02;O5B5 A515, :0: <=5 B@C4=> A45;0BL 2K1>@, 8 O 4065 =5 <>3C 20< 5I5 @07JOA=8BL, 2 G5< B@C4=>ABL. G5284=>, 8<5NBAO A=>2845=8O, :>B>@K5 2 >1I5< <0;> 8A:065=K, 8 A0<>5 ;CGH55 1K;> 1K =0G0BL A =8E. > :0:85 A=>2845=8O <5=LH5 2A53> 8A:065=K? >=OB=K5 8 =5 A?CB0==K5, 420 ?@8<5@0 :>B>@KE O C65 ?@82>48;? > BCB-B> 2K 3;C1>:> >H8105B5AL. AA;54>20=85 ?>:07K205B, GB> MB8 A=>2845=8O ?@5B5@?5;8 G@572KG09=> 2KA>:CN AB5?5=L 8A:065=8O. > 5A;8 O, >B:0702H8AL >B :0:8E-;81> >3@0=8G5=89, 2>7L<C ?5@2>5 ?>?02H55AO A=>2845=85, 2K, 25@>OB=>, 1C45B5 >G5=L @07>G0@>20=K. >65B A;CG8BLAO, GB> =0< =C6=> 1C45B 2K45;8BL 8 70?8A0BL B0:>5 >18;85 <KA;59 : >B45;L=K< M;5<5=B0< A=>2845=8O, GB> @01>B0 AB0=5B A>25@H5==> =5>1>7@8<>9. A;8 <K 70?8H5< A=>2845=85, 0 =0?@>B82 A>AB028< A?8A>: 2A5E ?@8H54H8E ?> 53> ?>2>4C <KA;59, B> >= <>65B 1KBL 1>;LH5 B5:AB0 A=>2845=8O. !0<K< F5;5A>>1@07=K< :065BAO, B0:8< >1@07><, 2K1@0BL 4;O 0=0;870 =5A:>;L:> :>@>B:8E A=>2845=89, 87 :>B>@KE :064>5 A<>65B =0< GB>-=81C4L A:070BL 8;8 GB>-;81> ?>4B25@48BL. 0 MB> <K 8 @5H8<AO, 5A;8 >?KB =0< =5 ?>4A:065B, 345 459AB28B5;L=> <>6=> =09B8 <0;> 8A:065==K5 A=>2845=8O. @><5 B>3>, O 7=0N 5I5 4@C3>9 ?CBL 4;O >1;53G5=8O =0H59 7040G8. <5AB> B>;:>20=8O F5;KE A=>2845=89 40209B5 >3@0=8G8<AO >B45;L=K<8 M;5<5=B0<8 8 =0 @O45 ?@8<5@>2 ?@>A;548<, :0: 8E <>6=> >1JOA=8BL, 8A?>;L7CO =0HC B5E=8:C. 0) 4=0 40<0 @0AA:07K205B, GB> @515=:>< >G5=L G0AB> 2845;0 A>=, 1C4B> C >30 =0 3>;>25 >AB@>:>=5G=K9 1C<06=K9 :>;?0:. 0: 2K MB> ?>9<5B5, =5 ?@8153=C2 : ?><>I8 28452H59 A>=? 54L MB> A>25@H5==> 15AA<KA;5==>. > MB> ?5@5AB05B 1KBL 15AA<KA;8F59, :>340 40<0 A>>1I05B, GB> 59 @515=:>< 70 AB>;>< 8<5;8 >1K:=>25=85 =04520BL B0:>9 :>;?0:, ?>B><C GB> >=0 =5 <>3;0 >B2K:=CBL >B B>3>, GB>1K =5 :>A8BLAO 2 B0@5;:8 1@0BL52 8 A5AB5@ 8 =5 A<>B@5BL, =5 ?>;CG8; ;8 :B>-=81C4L 87 =8E 1>;LH5 55. "0:8< >1@07><, :>;?0: 4>;65= 1K; 459AB2>20BL :0: H>@K. AB0B8, 8AB>@8G5A:>5 A>>1I5=85 1K;> 40=> 157 2AO:>9 7045@6:8. ">;:>20=85 MB>3> M;5<5=B0, 0 A =8< 8 2A53> :>@>B:>3> A=>2845=8O ;53:> >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 1;03>40@O A;54CNI59 <KA;8 28452H59 A>=. ""0: :0: O A;KH0;0, GB> >3 2A5254CI 8 2A5 2848B, -- 3>2>@8B >=0, -- B> A=>2845=85 >7=0G05B B>;L:>, GB> O 2A5 7=0N 8 2A5 286C, :0: >3, 4065 5A;8 <=5 E>BOB ?><5H0BL". -B>B ?@8<5@, 2>7<>6=>, A;8H:>< ?@>AB. 1) 4=0 A:5?B8G5A:8 =0AB@>5==0O ?0F85=B:0 2848B 4;8==K9 A>=, 2 :>B>@>< 8725AB=K5 ;8F0 @0AA:07K20NB 59 > <>59 :=835 "AB@>C<85" (1905A) 8 >G5=L 55 E20;OB. 0B5< GB>-B> C?><8=05BAO > "0=0;5", 2>7<>6=>, > 4@C3>9 :=835, 2 :>B>@>9 D83C@8@C5B :0=0;, 8;8 5I5 GB>-B>, A2O70==>5 A :0=0;><. >=0 =5 7=05B. MB> A>25@H5==> =5 OA=>. K A:;>==K 1C45B5 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> M;5<5=B ":0=0;" =5 ?>4405BAO B>;:>20=8N, ?>B><C GB> >= A0< B0: =5>?@545;5=5=. K ?@02K >B=>A8B5;L=> ?@54?>;0305<>3> 70B@C4=5=8O, => B>;:>20=85 B@C4=> =5 ?>B><C, GB> MB>B M;5<5=B =5OA5=, =0>1>@>B, >= =5OA5= ?> B>9 65 ?@8G8=5, ?> :>B>@>9 70B@C4=5=> B>;:>20=85: 28452H59 A>= =5 ?@8E>48B ?> ?>2>4C :0=0;0 =8:0:8E <KA;59; O, :>=5G=>, B>65 =8G53> =5 <>3C A:070BL. 5:>B>@>5 2@5<O A?CABO, 25@=55, =0 A;54CNI89 45=L >=0 3>2>@8B, GB> 59 ?@8H;> 2 3>;>2C, GB>, <>65B 1KBL, >B=>A8BAO : 45;C.  8<5==> >AB@>B0, :>B>@CN >=0 A;KH0;0. 0 ?0@>E>45 <564C C2@>< 8 0;5 8725AB=K9 ?8A0B5;L 15A54C5B A >4=8< 0=3;8G0=8=><, :>B>@K9 2 >?@545;5==>9 A2O78 F8B8@C5B: Du sublime au ridicule il nC a quun pas [B 25;8:>3> 4> A<5H=>3> B>;L:> >48= [H03]. 8A0B5;L >B25G05B: Qui, le pas de Calais [0, 0-45-0;5]; [H03 ?>-D@0=FC7A:8 "?0". -- @8<. ?5@.] -- MB8< >= E>G5B A:070BL, GB> $@0=F8O 25;8:0O AB@0=0, 0 =3;8O -- A<5H=0O. > Pas de Calais 254L :0=0;, 8<5==> @C:02 :0=0;0, Canal la manche. 5 4C<0N ;8 O, GB> MB0 <KA;L 8<55B >B=>H5=85 : A=>2845=8N? >=5G=>, 3>2>@N O, >=0 459AB28B5;L=> >1JOA=O5B 70304>G=K9 M;5<5=B A=>2845=8O. ;8 2K A><=5205B5AL, GB> MB0 HCB:0 C65 4> A=>2845=8O 1K;0 15AA>7=0B5;L=K< 4;O M;5<5=B0 ":0=0;", 8 ?@54?>;0305B5, GB> >=0 ?>O28;0AL ?>74=55? @8H54H0O 59 2 3>;>2C <KA;L A2845B5;LAB2C5B > A:5?A8A5, :>B>@K9 A:@K205BAO C =55 70 8A:CAAB25==K< 2>AE8I5=85<, 0 A>?@>B82;5=85 O2;O5BAO >1I59 ?@8G8=>9 :0: 7045@6:8 <KA;8, B0: 8 B>3>, GB> A>>B25BAB2CNI89 M;5<5=B A=>2845=8O 1K; B0:8< =5>?@545;5==K<. 4C<09B5AL 2 MB>< A;CG05 2 >B=>H5=85 M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O : 53> 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C. = :0: 1K :CA>G5: 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>, :0: 1K =0<5: =0 =53>; 87>;8@>202 53>, <K 1K 53> A>25@H5==> =5 ?>=O;8. 2) 48= ?0F85=B 2848B 4;8==K9 A>=: 2>:@C3 AB>;0 >A>1>9 D>@<K A848B =5A:>;L:> G;5=>2 53> A5<L8 8 B. 4. > ?>2>4C AB>;0 5<C ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C <KA;L, GB> >= 2845; B0:>9 AB>; ?@8 ?>A5I5=88 >?@545;5==>9 A5<L8. 0B5< 53> <KA;L @0728205BAO: 2 MB>9 A5<L5 1K;8 >A>1K5 >B=>H5=8O <564C >BF>< 8 AK=><, 8 >= BCB 65 4>102;O5B, GB> B0:85 65 >B=>H5=8O ACI5AB2CNB <564C =8< 8 53> >BF><. "0:8< >1@07><, AB>; 27OB 2 A=>2845=85, GB>1K ?>:070BL MBC ?0@0;;5;L. -B>B ?0F85=B 1K; 402=> 7=0:>< A B@51>20=8O<8 B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=8O. @C3>9, <>65B 1KBL, 1K; 1K ?>@065=, GB> B0:0O =57=0G8B5;L=0O 45B0;L, :0: D>@<0 AB>;0, O2;O5BAO >1J5:B>< 8AA;54>20=8O. K AG8B05<, GB> 2 A=>2845=88 =5B =8G53> A;CG09=>3> 8;8 157@07;8G=>3>, 8 645< @07304:8 8<5==> >B >1JOA=5=8O B0:8E =57=0G8B5;L=KE, =5<>B828@>20==KE 45B0;59. K, <>65B 1KBL, 5I5 C4828B5AL, GB> @01>B0 A=>2845=8O 2K@078;0 <KA;L "C =0A 2A5 ?@>8AE>48B B0:, :0: C =8E" 8<5==> 2K1>@>< AB>;0. > 2A5 ;53:> >1JOA=8BAO, 5A;8 2K C7=05B5, GB> MB0 A5<LO =>A8B D0<8;8N "8H;5@ [Tisch -- AB>;. -- @8<. ?5@.]. #A06820O A2>8E @>4=KE 70 MB>B AB>;, >= :0: 1K 3>2>@8B, GB> >=8 B>65 "8H;5@K. 0<5BLB5, 2?@>G5<, :0: 2 A>>1I5=8OE > B0:8E B>;:>20=8OE A=>2845=89 ?>=52>;5 AB0=>28HLAO =5A:@><=K<. "5?5@L 8 2K C2845;8 C?><O=CBK5 2KH5 B@C4=>AB8 2 2K1>@5 ?@8<5@>2. -B>B ?@8<5@ O <>3 1K ;53:> 70<5=8BL 4@C38<, => B>340, 25@>OB=>, 871560; 1K MB>9 =5A:@><=>AB8 70 AG5B :0:>9-B> 4@C3>9. =5 :065BAO, GB> B5?5@L A0<>5 2@5<O 225AB8 420 B5@<8=0, :>B>@K<8 <K <>3;8 1K C65 402=> ?>;L7>20BLAO. K E>B8< =0720BL B>, GB> @0AA:07K205BAO 2 A=>2845=88, O2=K< A>45@60=85< A=>2845=8O (manifester Trauminhalt), 0 A:@KB>5, : :>B>@><C <K ?@8E>48<, A;54CO 70 2>7=8:0NI8<8 <KA;O<8, A:@KBK<8 <KA;O<8 A=>2845=8O (latente Traumgedanken). 1@0B8< 2=8<0=85 =0 >B=>H5=8O <564C O2=K< A>45@60=85< A=>2845=8O 8 A:@KBK<8 53> <KA;O<8 2 =0H8E ?@8<5@0E. -B8 >B=>H5=8O <>3CB 1KBL 25AL<0 @07;8G=K<8.  ?@8<5@0E 0) 8 1) O2=K9 M;5<5=B O2;O5BAO A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN A:@KBKE <KA;59, => B>;L:> =57=0G8B5;L=>9 8E G0ABLN. 7 2A59 1>;LH>9 8 A;>6=>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@K 15AA>7=0B5;L=KE <KA;59 2 O2=>5 A=>2845=85 ?@>=8:05B ;8HL G0AB8F0 :0: 8E D@03<5=B 8;8 2 4@C38E A;CG0OE :0: =0<5: =0 =8E, :0: ;>7C=3 8;8 A>:@0I5=85 2 B5;53@0D=>< AB8;5. ">;:>20=85 4>;6=> 2>AAB0=>28BL F5;>5 ?> MB>9 G0AB8 8;8 =0<5:C, :0: MB> ?@5:@0A=> C40;>AL 2 ?@8<5@5 1). 48= 87 284>2 8A:065=8O, 2 :>B>@>< 70:;NG05BAO @01>B0 A=>2845=8O, 5ABL, B0:8< >1@07><, 70<5I5=85 >1@K2:>< 8;8 =0<5:><.  ?@8<5@5 2), :@><5 B>3>, <>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL 4@C3>5 >B=>H5=85, 1>;55 OA=> 2K@065==>5 2 A;54CNI8E ?@8<5@0E. 3) 8452H89 A>= 872;5:05B (hervorzieht) (>?@545;5==CN, 7=0:><CN 5<C) 40<C 87-?>4 :@>20B8. = A0< >B:@K205B A<KA; MB>3> M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O ?5@2>9 ?@8H54H59 5<C 2 3>;>2C <KA;LN. -B> >7=0G05B: >= >B405B MB>9 40<5 ?@54?>GB5=85 (Vorzug). 4) @C3><C A=8BAO, GB> 53> 1@0B 70AB@O; 2 OI8:5. 5@20O <KA;L 70<5=O5B A;>2> OI8: H:0D>< (Schrank), 0 2B>@0O 405B MB><C B>;:>20=85: 1@0B >3@0=8G8205B A51O (schr4nkt sich ein). 5) 8452H89 A>= ?>4=8<05BAO =0 3>@C, >B:C40 >B:@K205BAO =5>1K:=>25==> 40;5:89 284. -B> 72CG8B A>25@H5==> @0F8>=0;L=>, 8, <>65B 1KBL, BCB =5G53> B>;:>20BL, 0 A;54C5B B>;L:> C7=0BL, :0:85 2>A?><8=0=8O 70B@>=CBK A=>2845=85< 8 G5< >=> <>B828@>20=>. > 2K >H8105B5AL -- >:07K205BAO, 8<5==> MB> A=>2845=85 =C6405BAO 2 B>;:>20=88, :0: =8:0:>5 4@C3>5 A?CB0==>5. 8452H5<C A>= 2>2A5 =5 ?@8E>4OB 2 3>;>2C A>1AB25==K5 2>AE>645=8O =0 3>@K, 0 >= 2A?><8=05B, GB> >48= 53> 7=0:><K9 87405B "1>7@5=85" (Rundschau), 2 :>B>@>< >1AC640NBAO =0H8 >B=>H5=8O : 40;L=8< AB@0=0<. "0:8< >1@07><, A:@KB0O <KA;L A=>2845=8O 745AL: >B>645AB2;5=85 28452H53> A>= A 8740B5;5< "1>7@5=8O". 45AL 2K 2848B5 =>2K9 B8? >B=>H5=8O <564C O2=K< 8 A:@KBK< M;5<5=B0<8 A=>2845=8O. 5@2K9 O2;O5BAO =5 AB>;L:> 8A:065=85< ?>A;54=53>, A:>;L:> 53> 87>1@065=85<, =03;O4=K<, :>=:@5B=K< 2K@065=85< 2 >1@075, :>B>@>5 8<55B A2>8< 8AB>G=8:>< A>72CG85 A;>2. 4=0:> 1;03>40@O MB><C ?>;CG05BAO >?OBL 8A:065=85, ?>B><C GB> <K 402=> 701K;8, 87 :0:>3> :>=:@5B=>3> >1@070 2KE>48B A;>2>, 8 =5 C7=05< 53> 2 70<5I5=88 >1@07><. A;8 2K ?>4C<05B5 > B><, GB> O2=>5 A=>2845=85 A>AB>8B ?@58<CI5AB25==> 87 7@8B5;L=KE >1@07>2, @565 87 <KA;59 8 A;>2, B> <>65B5 4>3040BLAO, GB> MB><C 284C >B=>H5=8O ?@8=04;568B >A>1>5 7=0G5=85 2 >1@07>20=88 A=>2845=8O. K 2848B5 B0:65, GB> MB8< ?CB5< <>6=> A>740BL 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 4;O F5;>3> @O40 01AB@0:B=KE <KA;59 70<5I0NI85 >1@07K, :>B>@K5 A;C60B =0<5@5=8N A:@KBL 8E. -B> B0 65 B5E=8:0 @51CA0. B:C40 B0:85 87>1@065=8O ?@8>1@5B0NB >AB@>C<=K9 E0@0:B5@, MB> >A>1K9 2>?@>A, :>B>@>3> <K 745AL <>65< =5 :0A0BLAO.  G5B25@B>< 2845 >B=>H5=8O <564C O2=K< 8 A:@KBK< M;5<5=B0<8 A=>2845=8O O C<>;GC, ?>:0 =0H0 B5E=8:0 =5 >B:@>5B =0< 53> >A>15==>ABL. > 8 B>340 O =5 40; 1K ?>;=>3> ?5@5G8A;5=8O MB8E >B=>H5=89, 4;O =0H8E 65 F5;59 4>AB0B>G=> 8 MB>3>. ABL C 20A B5?5@L <C65AB2> @5H8BLAO =0 B>;:>20=85 F5;>3> A=>2845=8O? !45;05< ?>?KB:C 8 ?>A<>B@8<, 4>AB0B>G=> ;8 <K ?>43>B>2;5=K 4;O @5H5=8O MB>9 7040G8. 07C<55BAO, O 2K15@C =5 A0<>5 =5?>=OB=>5 A=>2845=85, 0 >AB0=>2;NAL =0 B0:><, :>B>@>5 E>@>H> >B@0605B 53> A2>9AB20. B0:, <>;>40O, => C65 402=> 2KH54H0O 70<C6 40<0 2848B A>=: >=0 A848B A <C65< 2 B50B@5, >4=0 ?>;>28=0 ?0@B5@0 A>25@H5==> ?CAB0. 5 <C6 @0AA:07K205B 59, GB> -;870 . 8 55 65=8E B>65 E>B5;8 ?>9B8, => A<>3;8 4>AB0BL B>;L:> ?;>E85 <5AB0, B@8 70 1 D;. 50 :@., 0 254L B0:85 <5AB0 >=8 =5 <>3;8 27OBL. =0 AG8B05B, GB> MB> =5 1540. 5@2>5, GB> A>>1I05B =0< 28452H0O A>=, -- MB> B>, GB> ?>2>4 : A=>2845=8N C:070= 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88. ---------------------------------------- 1 D;>@8= 50 :@59F5@>2. -- @8<. @54. ?5@52>40. C6 459AB28B5;L=> @0AA:070; 59, GB> -;870 ., 7=0:><0O, ?@8<5@=> B5E 65 ;5B, >1@CG8;0AL. !=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO @50:F859 =0 MB> A>>1I5=85. K C65 7=05<, GB> ?>4>1=K9 ?>2>4 2 ?5@56820=8OE 4=O =0:0=C=5 A=>2845=8O =5B@C4=> 4>:070BL 2> <=>38E A=>2845=8OE, 8 28452H85 A>= G0AB> 157 70B@C4=5=89 40NB B0:85 C:070=8O. "0:85 65 A2545=8O 28452H0O A>= 405B 8 ?> ?>2>4C 4@C38E M;5<5=B>2 O2=>3> A=>2845=8O. B:C40 27O;0AL 45B0;L, GB> ?>;>28=0 ?0@B5@0 =5 70=OB0? -B> =0<5: =0 @50;L=>5 A>1KB85 ?@>H;>9 =545;8. =0 @5H8;0 ?>9B8 =0 8725AB=>5 B50B@0;L=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 8 701;03>2@5<5==> :C?8;0 18;5BK, => B0: @0=>, GB> 4>;6=0 1K;0 4>?;0B8BL 70 MB>, :>340 65 >=8 ?@8H;8 2 B50B@, >:070;>AL, GB> 55 701>BK 1K;8 =0?@0A=K, ?>B><C GB> >4=0 ?>;>28=0 ?0@B5@0 1K;0 ?>GB8 ?CAB0. =0 1K =5 >?>740;0, 5A;8 1K :C?8;0 18;5BK 4065 2 45=L ?@54AB02;5=8O. 5 <C6 =5 ?@5<8=C; ?>4@07=8BL 55 70 MBC ?>A?5H=>ABL. B:C40 1 D;. 50 :@.? -B> >B=>A8BAO : A>2A5< 4@C3><C 8 =5 8<55B =8G53> >1I53> A ?@54K4CI8<, => 8 BCB 5ABL =0<5: =0 8725AB85 ?>A;54=53> 4=O. 5 =525AB:0 ?>;CG8;0 >B A2>53> <C60 2 ?>40@>: 150 D;., 8 MB0 4C@0 =5 =0H;0 =8G53> ;CGH53>, :0: ?>1560BL : N25;8@C 8 8AB@0B8BL 45=L38 =0 C:@0H5=8O.  >B:C40 B@8? 1 MB>< >=0 =8G53> =5 7=05B, 5A;8 B>;L:> =5 AG8B0BL B>9 <KA;8, GB> =525AB0 -;870 . 2A53> ;8HL =0 B@8 <5AOF0 <>;>65 55, 0 >=0 ?>GB8 45AOBL ;5B 70<C65<.  GB> MB> 70 =5;5?>ABL 1@0BL B@8 18;5B0, :>340 845HL 2 B50B@ 242>5<? 0 MB> >=0 =8G53> =5 >B25G05B 8 2>>1I5 >B:07K205BAO >B 40;L=59H8E >1JOA=5=89. > MB8 ?@8H54H85 59 2 3>;>2C <KA;8 8 B0: 40;8 =0< 4>AB0B>G=> <0B5@80;0, GB>1K <>6=> 1K;> C7=0BL A:@KBK5 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O. 1@0I05B =0 A51O 2=8<0=85 B>, GB> 2 55 A>>1I5=8OE : A=>2845=8N 2 =5A:>;L:8E <5AB0E ?>4G5@:820NBAO @07=K5 A@>:8, 1;03>40@O G5<C <564C >B45;L=K<8 G0ABO<8 CAB0=02;8205BAO =5GB> >1I55: >=0 A;8H:>< @0=> :C?8;0 18;5BK 2 B50B@, ?>A?5H8;0, B0: GB> 4>;6=0 1K;0 ?5@5?;0B8BL; =525AB:0 ?>4>1=K< 65 >1@07>< ?>A?5H8;0 A=5AB8 45=L38 N25;8@C, GB>1K :C?8BL C:@0H5=8O, :0: 1C4B> >=0 <>3;0 MB> C?CAB8BL. A;8 MB8 B0: ?>4G5@:=CBK5 "A;8H:>< @0=>", "?>A?5H=>" A>?>AB028BL A ?>2>4>< A=>2845=8O, 8725AB85<, GB> ?@8OB5;L=8F0, :>B>@0O <>;>65 55 2A53> =0 B@8 <5AOF0, B5?5@L 2A5-B0:8 =0H;0 A515 E>@>H53> <C60, 8 A :@8B8:>9, 2K@0782H59AO 2 >AC645=88 =525AB:8: =5;5?> B0: B>@>?8BLAO, B> A0<> A>1>9 =0?@0H8205BAO A;54CNI89 E>4 A:@KBKE <KA;59 A=>2845=8O, 8A:065==K< 70<5AB8B5;5< :>B>@KE O2;O5BAO O2=>5 A=>2845=85: "5;5?> 1K;> A <>59 AB>@>=K B0: B>@>?8BLAO A 70<C65AB2><. 0 ?@8<5@5 -;87K O 286C, GB> 8 ?>765 <>3;0 1K =09B8 <C60". (>A?5H=>ABL 87>1@065=0 2 55 ?>2545=88 ?@8 ?>:C?:5 18;5B>2 8 2 ?>2545=88 =525AB:8 ?@8 ?>:C?:5 C:@0H5=89. 0<C65AB2> 70<5I5=> ?>A5I5=85< B50B@0.) -B> -- 3;02=0O <KA;L; <>65B 1KBL, <K <>3;8 1K ?@>4>;60BL, => A <5=LH59 C25@5==>ABLN, ?>B><C GB> 2 MB>< <5AB5 0=0;87C =570G5< 1K;> 1K >B:07K20BLAO >B 70O2;5=89 28452H59 A>=: "0 MB8 45=L38 O <>3;0 1K ?@8>1@5AB8 2 100 @07 ;CGH55!" (150 D;. 2 100 @07 1>;LH5 1 D;. 50 :@.). A;8 1K <K <>3;8 45=L38 70<5=8BL ?@840=K<, B> MB> >7=0G0;> 1K, GB> <C60 ?>:C?0NB 70 ?@840=>5; <C6 70<5=5= C:@0H5=8O<8 8 ?;>E8<8 18;5B0<8. I5 ;CGH5 1K;> 1K, 5A;8 1K M;5<5=B "B@8 18;5B0" 8<5; :0:>5-;81> >B=>H5=85 : <C6C. > =0H5 ?>=8<0=85 =5 845B B0: 40;5:>. K B>;L:> C3040;8, GB> A=>2845=85 2K@0605B ?@5=51@565=85 : <C6C 8 A>60;5=85 > A;8H:>< @0==5< 70<C65AB25. > <>5<C <=5=8N, @57C;LB0B MB>3> ?5@2>3> B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=8O =0A 1>;LH5 ?>@0605B 8 A<CI05B, G5< C4>2;5B2>@O5B. !;8H:>< C6 <=>3> =0 =0A A@07C A20;8;>AL, 1>;LH5, A G5< <K 2 A>AB>O=88 A?@028BLAO. K C65 70<5G05<, GB> =5 A<>65< @07>1@0BLAO 2 B><, GB> <>65B 1KBL ?>CG8B5;L=>3> 2 MB>< B>;:>20=88 A=>2845=8O. >A?5H8< 65 872;5GL B>, GB> <K C7=0;8 =5A><=5==> =>2>3>. >-?5@2KE, 70<5G0B5;L=>, GB> 2 A:@KBKE <KA;OE 3;02=K9 0:F5=B ?0405B =0 M;5<5=B ?>A?5H=>AB8; 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 8<5==> >1 MB>< =8G53> =5B. 57 0=0;870 <K 1K =5 <>3;8 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> MB>B <><5=B 83@05B :0:CN-B> @>;L. =0G8B 2>7<>6=>, GB> :0: @07 A0<>5 3;02=>5 B>, GB> O2;O5BAO F5=B@>< 15AA>7=0B5;L=KE <KA;59, 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 >BACBAB2C5B. ;03>40@O MB><C A>25@H5==> <5=O5BAO 2?5G0B;5=85 >B 2A53> A=>2845=8O. >-2B>@KE, 2 A=>2845=88 8<55BAO 01AC@4=>5 A>?>AB02;5=85 B@8 70 1 D;. 50 :@., 2 <KA;OE A=>2845=8O <K C304K205< D@07C: =5;5?> 1K;> (B0: @0=> 2KE>48BL 70<C6). >6=> ;8 >B@8F0BL, GB> MB0 <KA;L "=5;5?> 1K;>" 2K@065=0 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 8<5==> 01AC@4=K< M;5<5=B><? -B@5BL8E, A@02=5=85 ?>:07K205B, GB> >B=>H5=85 <564C O2=K<8 8 A:@KBK<8 M;5<5=B0<8 =5 ?@>AB>, >=> A>AB>8B =5 2 B><, GB> >48= O2=K9 M;5<5=B 2A5340 70<5I05B >48= A:@KBK9. -B> A:>@55 3@C??>2>5 >B=>H5=85 <564C >1>8<8 ;035@O<8, 2=CB@8 :>B>@>3> >48= O2=K9 M;5<5=B ?@54AB02;O5BAO =5A:>;L:8<8 A:@KBK<8 8;8 >48= A:@KBK9 <>65B 70<5I0BLAO =5A:>;L:8<8 O2=K<8. 'B> :0A05BAO A<KA;0 A=>2845=8O 8 >B=>H5=8O : =5<C 28452H59 A>=, B> >1 MB>< <>6=> 1K;> 1K B>65 A:070BL <=>3> C4828B5;L=>3>. @0240, >=0 ?@87=05B B>;:>20=85, => ?>@0605BAO 5<C. =0 =5 7=0;0, GB> ?@5=51@568B5;L=> >B=>A8BAO : A2>5<C <C6C, >=0 B0:65 =5 7=05B, ?>G5<C >=0 : =5<C B0: >B=>A8BAO. B0:, 2 MB>< 5I5 <=>3> =5?>=OB=>3>. / 459AB28B5;L=> 4C<0N, GB> <K 5I5 =5 3>B>2K : B>;:>20=8N A=>2845=89 8 =0< =04> A=0G0;0 5I5 ?>CG8BLAO 8 ?>43>B>28BLAO. !,/ &/ "! !M #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! # =0A 2>7=8:;> 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> <K A;8H:>< CH;8 2?5@54. 5@=5<AO =5<=>3> =0704. @5645 G5< <K ?@54?@8=O;8 ?>A;54=NN ?>?KB:C ?@5>4>;5BL A ?><>ILN =0H59 B5E=8:8 B@C4=>AB8 8A:065=8O A=>2845=8O, <K ?>=O;8, GB> ;CGH5 1K;> 1K 55 >1>9B8, 27O2 B0:85 A=>2845=8O, 5A;8 >=8 8<5NBAO, 2 :>B>@KE 8A:065=85 >BACBAB2C5B 8;8 >=> >G5=L =57=0G8B5;L=>. @8 MB>< <K >?OBL >B>945< >B 8AB>@88 @0728B8O =0H8E 7=0=89, ?>B><C GB> 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 =0 ACI5AB2>20=85 B0:8E A2>1>4=KE >B 8A:065=8O A=>2845=89 >1@0B8;8 2=8<0=85 B>;L:> ?>A;5 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>3> ?@8<5=5=8O B5E=8:8 B>;:>20=8O 8 ?@>2545=8O 0=0;870 8A:065==KE A=>2845=89. !=>2845=8O, :>B>@K5 =0< =C6=K, 2AB@5G0NBAO C 45B59. =8 :@0B:8, OA=K, =5 15AA2O7=K, =5 42CA<KA;5==K, 8E ;53:> ?>=OBL, 8 2A5-B0:8 MB> A=>2845=8O. > =5 4C<09B5, GB> 2A5 A=>2845=8O 45B59 B0:>3> @>40.  2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5 >G5=L @0=> =0ABC?05B 8A:065=85 A=>2845=89; 70?8A0=K A=>2845=8O ?OB8-2>AL<8;5B=8E 45B59, :>B>@K5 8<5NB 2A5 ?@87=0:8 1>;55 ?>74=8E. > 5A;8 2K >3@0=8G8B5AL 2>7@0AB>< A =0G0;0 8725AB=>9 4CH52=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 4> G5B25@B>3> 8;8 ?OB>3> 3>40, B> 2AB@5B8B5AL A @O4>< A=>2845=89, :>B>@K5 8<5NB B0: =07K205<K9 8=D0=B8;L=K9 E0@0:B5@, 0 70B5< >B45;L=K5 A=>2845=8O B0:>3> @>40 <>6=> =09B8 8 2 1>;55 ?>74=85 45BA:85 3>4K. 065 C 27@>A;KE ?@8 >?@545;5==KE CA;>28OE 1K20NB A=>2845=8O, ?>E>685 =0 B8?8G=> 8=D0=B8;L=K5. A?>;L7CO MB8 45BA:85 A=>2845=8O, <K A ;53:>ABLN 8 C25@5==>ABLN A45;05< 2K2>4K > ACI=>AB8 A=>2845=8O, :>B>@K5, E>B8< =045OBLAO, 1C4CB ACI5AB25==K<8 8 >1I8<8 [4;O 2A5E A=>2845=89].1 1. ;O ?>=8<0=8O MB8E A=>2845=89 =5 B@51C5BAO 0=0;87 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 =0H59 B5E=8:8. 5 =04> 8 @0AA?@0H820BL @515=:0, @0AA:07K20NI53> A2>5 A=>2845=85. >AB0B>G=> =5<=>3> 4>?>;=8BL A=>2845=85 A2545=8O<8 87 687=8 @515=:0. A5340 8<55BAO :0:>5-=81C4L ?5@56820=85 ?@54K4CI53> 4=O, >1JOA=ONI55 =0< A=>2845=85. !=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO @50:F859 4CH52=>9 687=8 2> A=5 =0 MB> 2?5G0B;5=85 4=O. K E>B8< ?@54;>68BL 20< =5A:>;L:> ?@8<5@>2, GB>1K A45;0BL 5I5 =5:>B>@K5 2K2>4K. 0) 22-<5AOG=K9 <0;LG8: :0: ?>74@028B5;L 4>;65= ?@5?>4=5AB8 :>@78=C 28H5=. = 45;05B MB> A O2=>9 =5>E>B>9, E>BO 5<C >15I0NB, GB> >= A0< ?>;CG8B =5A:>;L:> 28H5=. #B@>< >= @0AA:07K205B A2>9 A>=: 5(@)<0= AJ5; 2A5 28H=8. ---------------------------------------- 1 1@0I5=85 $@5940 : 45BA:8< A=>2845=8O< 1K;> >1CA;>2;5=> 53> >1I59 (708<AB2>20==>9 87 M2>;NF8>==>9 :>=F5?F88) CAB0=>2:>9 > B><, GB> 2 ?@>AB59H8E ?A8E8G5A:8E D>@<0E, =5 >A;>6=5==KE ?>A;54CNI8< @0728B85< ;8G=>AB8, >1I85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 48=0<8:8 =5>A>7=0205<KE <>B82>2 2KABC?0NB 2 1>;55 @57:>< B8?8G=>< 2K@065=88. $0:BK 8;;N7>@=>9 @50;870F88 ?>B@51=>AB59 2 >1@070E A=>2845=89 8A?>;L7>20;8AL $@594>< 4;O ?>4:@5?;5=8O A2>59 >1I59 B5>@88, AB@>OI59AO =0 ?@>B82>?>;>65=88 2;5G5=89 ;8G=>AB8 CA;>28O< 55 ACI5AB2>20=8O 2 @50;L=>< <8@5. 1) 52>G:0 3 1/4 ;5B 2?5@2K5 :0B05BAO =0 ;>4:5 ?> >75@C. >340 =04> 1K;> 2KE>48BL 87 ;>4:8, >=0 =5 E>B5;0 MB>3> A45;0BL 8 3>@L:> @0A?;0:0;0AL. 9 ?>:070;>AL, GB> 2@5<O ?@>3C;:8 ?@>H;> A;8H:>< 1KAB@>. 0 A;54CNI55 CB@> >=0 A:070;0: !53>4=O =>GLN O :0B0;0AL ?> >75@C. K <>3;8 1K ?@81028BL, GB> MB0 ?@>3C;:0 4;8;0AL 4>;LH5. 2) 5 1/4-;5B=53> <0;LG8:0 27O;8 A A>1>9 =0 ?@>3C;:C 2 -H5@=B0;L 1;87 0;;HB0BB0. = A;KH0;, GB> 0;;HB0BB @0A?>;>65= C ?>4=>68O 0EHB59=0.  MB>9 3>@5 >= ?@>O2;O; 1>;LH>9 8=B5@5A. 7 A2>53> 4><0 2 CA755 >= <>3 E>@>H> 2845BL 0EHB59=, 0 2 ?>47>@=CN B@C1C <>6=> 1K;> @073;O45BL =0 =5< !8<>=83NBB5. 515=>: =5 @07 ?KB0;AO C2845BL 55 2 ?>47>@=CN B@C1C, =58725AB=>, A :0:8< CA?5E><. @>3C;:0 =0G0;0AL 2 =0AB@>5=88 @04>AB=>3> >6840=8O. 0: B>;L:> ?>O2;O;0AL :0:0O-=81C4L =>20O 3>@0, <0;LG8: A?@0H820;: MB> 0EHB59=? '5< G0I5 >= ?>;CG0; >B@8F0B5;L=K9 >B25B, B5< 1>;LH5 @0AAB@0820;AO, ?>B>< A>2A5< 70<>;G0; 8 =5 70E>B5; 4065 =5<=>3> ?@>9B8 : 2>4>?04C. C<0;8, GB> >= CAB0;, => =0 A;54CNI55 CB@> >= @04>AB=> @0AA:070;: A53>4=O =>GLN O 2845; 2> A=5, GB> <K 1K;8 =0 !8<>=83NBB5. = CG0AB2>20; 2 fLNt9v9999:>>>>>"?*?,?AAAAABGGGGH.I.s:tpjl`tnvnnn( ( ( ( ( ) ) P) hMvUhJh_imH sH hK+h_i5>* h?h_ihY$Uh_i5hJh_i5h_ih_imH sH h_i: R`lnprtv v ( Z  f h  j gd_ij 4 | zN 246\gd_iz  n(>n<gd_i$&(*,.@BDFj *!!@""j#$$&%%V&&n''((gd_i(B))b**+,,*--^../00*11H22l33$44F5566<77h8gd_ih889$::2;;`<<p==>??2@@\AA~BCC*DDHEEpFGG"HHgd_iHIIJJ:KKXLLM NNNfOOP QQRR(SS@TTlUVV2WWZXgd_iZXXY$ZZN[[t\]]^^D__r``aa$bb\r,":Nr"gd_iBp"Hl$P0Hl&Jvgd_i0L"Tlx>Xl,R gd_i*H(t*X"v*R  `  gd_i  (  T  x$Hv \x8&Zgd_iZz0`x  D!!Z""L##f$$%&&>''^(())4*gd_i4**++<,,l-..//D00l112$3v344*55,66,77>88p9:gd_i::;;H<<p==>,??\@@ABBCC>DD`EEFGGBHHhIIvJgd_ivJKK@LLZMM\NNvOPPQQRRSS"TTNUUlVWHWWfXXY&Zgd_i&ZZZ[[4\n\\2]]\^^v_``:aabb&ccPddpe ff6ggXhhgd_ihvijjjkkHllrmnn2oo^pp|qrr:ssTttnuvv6ww*xxgd_ixNyyXzzzz{8{r{{{,|T|V|h|||}}6}\}^}p}}}}}}}gd_i}~Z~~~~DTVp "H,gd_iNޅl2̈f(Lz^4ΏpHgd_iHؑ b<^`2ʔd:<Nڙ`gd_i|М^*$&(*Rpr&Lآngd_i8`z8Ωd"P&8Z "Fgd_iFֳ^>NvL~2h"D@gd_i@f Hlx>R|fXgd_iXx.V8\JH>\Fgd_iFj(Tt  ^jP,gd_i2Rz @T|Njgd_iBbd>Zj   ,  X  | Hgd_ivbx"HDhB`gd_i<  h!!""##V$$z%&<&&R''h(()**>++V,,~-..D/gd_iD//`001&2233:44J55x6 77$8899<::Z;;< ==6>>6?gd_i6??V@@AArB CC4DDTEE|F GGHr |зgd_iJ|2ʽX0Vv*Pp:\gd_i8d :TVx6\gd_i@hl":Rt ,Hrhgd_iFPt 8TtX~<*@`ngd_iBdz $8p$Nx.`Hgd_iH^2LV  B  X  b  l  "@gd_if8Nb|6h<^  gd_i :!P!!z"##4$$d%%,&&J''x( )) **J++~, --...4//N0gd_iN00r122.33b445 66R778996::N;;n<==&>>>??f@@gd_i@~AABBxCD(DDHEEBFF\GGHII*JJ$KKKBLLTMMNOOgd_iO8PPVQQpRRSTT8UU^VV|WXXBYYlZZ[\\B]]n^^_"`gd_i"``@aafbbzccd(eeff*gg@hhliijkkDllbmmznoo,pgd_i,ppHqqdrrs ttTuuvwwBxxpyzzzd{{||`}}~*Fgd_iFڀn6Ѓj>ʇZt0ĊL0čJ4gd_iPn ,ƔZp 6Йj:̝`gd_i>̡dڢb|>̦f&Lتp8Ү8gd_i8$Bڲj|شd<Ըl&Vz\z gd_i (LlLh$nt0`ngd_in$>Rx>l$^Djgd_i$Pl"BPZrNz2Tgd_iT~<\j,Jp(T~gd_i.T"dLv<    @  n  z gd_iJj Dp "$FHJLNPfhgd_ihj4" *<Jdh  gd_i v! ""6##,$$%%B&&T''n()),**R++b,,- ..2//<00gd_i0J11t233.44T55266\778$99>::`;;<==<>>f?@@2Agd_i2AA\BB&CCRDDEE&FFFGHHHIItJKK0LL^MM|NOO6PPgd_iPfQQR*SSVTTvUVV,WWTXXnYY|Z[[2\<\\`]]n^^_``gd_i`΄d&FވlF܋t2Ngd_iN$@ؑp(XrJܗp 0>Нbgd_ib &RvBڧhBЫdܮgd_iܮ^>Ȳ\ܴn>ҸZ@htgd_i:Ŀ^*LtD\x"<f(gd_i8Rvj:l4FhHbgd_i"Lr4T 6^p>\gd_i| 0\t <j>Lrr.gd_iNz2Fb >(@T|  4  \  p gd_ip   Fl*Rx.Jphgd_iB `  B!!""@##j$$~%&&0''P((|)***$+gd_i$++@,,f--. ///~011622V333~455@66<7788L99V:gd_iV::z;;;;;;;;;;;<<<&==F>>j?@@2AARBBpCDFDgd_iFDDEE&FFVGnGGHII4JJTKKLMMNN*OO>PPjQRRRPSgd_iPSSTUU.VVRWWbXXTYYtZ[[2\\R]]x^^_p__``,aaLbgd_iLbb|cddeeef$ggXhh8iiVjjkll2mmnxnnxopp2qqgd_iqdrrs tt8uuTvvwx~xyy,zzX{{|}}<~~Tp 6gd_i6‚B؃d,ƆVp.ʊR~ .ƎX|gd_iP~<Εht :Κh4P| *gd_i*&Vڤ`ڥf&Lp4̬f0gd_i,±X *8ȶFj2Ƚ&Jҿgd_iҿV.V:j6b$8b gd_i<Rtv`4h,Nt>`gd_i f$Vv (Nx:Z(Jhgd_i*<8`@r Jp .Bgd_iBn4V>:X   H  t   2Lgd_inBDFHJLjlnpZx<Rpbgd_ibf B.  X!!p""#($$D%%L&&l'(()gd_i))B*f**+,,@--l.//"00611d2233444Z55p66788gd_i8<99b::;;\<<z==>(??X@@AArB CCDD"EE.FFJGGZHgd_iZHHVIIlJJKLL"MMBNZNNpOOPPQRR@SSdTTU$VVPWWgd_iWpX YY*ZZZ[[v\]]]0^^\__`aa҅`gd_iއjDȊ8ҌZ܍f :ƐZD֓f| gd_i 8j*8ę\Rz ڝXZz0Ȣ\~gd_i~:ƦVv*֪h(Hd BҲdgd_i@ԶjnҺbLڼp"Pt 0<gd_i<h$&(*,.LNPRz|0Trh gd_i4d8z :r4,J gd_i.:ZLv~ (P &Dd"gd_i?@>3C;:5, >6840O MB>3> <><5=B0.  ?>4@>1=>ABOE >= B>;L:> A:070;, GB> C65 A;KH0; @0=LH5: ?>4=8<0NBAO H5ABL G0A>2 225@E ?> ABC?5=L:0<. -B8E B@5E A=>2845=89 4>AB0B>G=>, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL =C6=K5 =0< A2545=8O. 2. K 2848<, GB> MB8 45BA:85 A=>2845=8O =5 15AA<KA;5==K; MB> ?>=OB=K5, ?>;=>F5==K5 4CH52=K5 0:BK. A?><=8B5, GB> O 3>2>@8; 20< ?> ?>2>4C <548F8=A:>3> AC645=8O > A=>2845=88: MB> B>, GB> ?>;CG05BAO, :>340 =5 7=0NI89 <C7K:8 15A?>@O4>G=> ?5@518@05B :;028H8 ?80=8=>. K =5 <>65B5 =5 70<5B8BL, :0: @57:> MB8 45BA:85 A=>2845=8O ?@>B82>@5G0B B0:><C ?>=8<0=8N. > =5 A;8H:>< ;8 AB@0==>, GB> @515=>: 2 A>AB>O=88 2> A=5 ?5@56820BL ?>;=>F5==K5 4CH52=K5 0:BK, B>340 :0: 27@>A;K9 4>2>;LAB2C5BAO 2 B>< 65 A;CG05 AC4>@>6=K<8 @50:F8O<8. # =0A 5ABL B0:65 2A5 >A=>20=8O ?@54?>;030BL, GB> A>= @515=:0 ;CGH5 8 3;C165. 3. -B8 A=>2845=8O ;8H5=K 8A:065=8O, ?>MB><C >=8 =5 =C640NBAO 2 B>;:>20=88. /2=>5 8 A:@KB>5 A=>2845=85 A>2?040NB. B0:, 8A:065=85 A=>2845=8O =5 5ABL ?@>O2;5=85 53> ACI=>AB8. !<5N ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> C 20A ?@8 MB>< :0<5=L A20;8;AO A 4CH8. > G0AB8FC 8A:065=8O A=>2845=8O, >?@545;5==>5 @07;8G85 <564C O2=K< A>45@60=85< A=>2845=8O 8 53> A:@KBK<8 <KA;O<8 <K ?>A;5 =5:>B>@>3> @07<KH;5=8O ?@87=05< 8 70 MB8<8 A=>2845=8O<8. 4. 5BA:>5 A=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO @50:F859 =0 ?5@56820=85 4=O, :>B>@>5 >AB028;> A>60;5=85, B>A:C, =58A?>;=5==>5 65;0=85. !=>2845=85 405B ?@O<>5, =5?@8:@KB>5 8A?>;=5=85 MB>3> 65;0=8O. A?><=8B5 B5?5@L =0H8 @0AAC645=8O > @>;8 D878G5A:8E @074@065=89, 2=5H=8E 8 2=CB@5==8E, :0: =0@CH8B5;59 A=0 8 ?>1C48B5;59 A=>2845=89. K C7=0;8 A>25@H5==> 4>AB>25@=K5 D0:BK ?> MB><C ?>2>4C, => B0:8< >1@07>< <>3;8 >1JOA=8BL ;8HL =51>;LH>5 G8A;> A=>2845=89.  MB8E 45BA:8E A=>2845=8OE =8GB> =5 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > 459AB288 B0:8E A><0B8G5A:8E @074@065=89; 2 MB>< <K =5 <>65< >H818BLAO, B0: :0: A=>2845=8O A>25@H5==> ?>=OB=K 8 2 =8E B@C4=> G53>-=81C4L =5 70<5B8BL. 4=0:> MB> =5 70AB02;O5B =0A >B@8F0BL ?@>8AE>645=85 A=>2845=89 >B @074@065=89. K B>;L:> <>65< A?@>A8BL, ?>G5<C <K A A0<>3> =0G0;0 701K;8, GB>, :@><5 D878G5A:8E, 5ABL 5I5 8 4CH52=K5 @074@065=8O, =0@CH0NI85 A>=? K 254L 7=05<, GB> MB8 2>;=5=8O 1>;LH5 2A53> 2K7K20NB =0@CH5=85 A=0 C 27@>A;>3> G5;>25:0, <5H0O CAB0=>28BL 4CH52=>5 A>AB>O=85 70AK?0=8O, ?045=8O 8=B5@5A0 : <8@C. '5;>25:C =5 E>G5BAO ?@5@K20BL 687=L, >= ?@>4>;605B @01>BC =04 70=8<0NI8<8 53> 25I0<8 8 ?>MB><C =5 A?8B. ;O @515=:0 B0:8< <5H0NI8< A?0BL @074@065=85< O2;O5BAO =58A?>;=5==>5 65;0=85, =0 :>B>@>5 >= @5038@C5B A=>2845=85<. 5. BAN40 <K :@0BG09H8< ?CB5< ?@8E>48< : >1JOA=5=8N DC=:F88 A=>2845=8O. !=>2845=85, 1C4CG8 @50:F859 =0 ?A8E8G5A:>5 @074@065=85, 4>;6=> 1KBL @02=>7=0G=> >A2>1>645=8N >B MB>3> @074@065=8O, B0: GB> >=> CAB@0=O5BAO, 0 A>= <>65B ?@>4>;60BLAO. 0: 48=0<8G5A:8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO MB> >A2>1>645=85 1;03>40@O A=>2845=8N, <K 5I5 =5 7=05<, => C65 70<5G05<, GB> A=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO =5 =0@CH8B5;5< A=0, :0: MB> 5<C ?@8?8AK205BAO, 0 >15@5305B 53>, CAB@0=O5B =0@CH5=8O A=0. @0240, =0< :065BAO, GB> <K ;CGH5 A?0;8 1K, 5A;8 1K =5 1K;> A=>2845=8O, => <K =5 ?@02K; 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 157 ?><>I8 A=>2845=8O <K 2>>1I5 1K =5 A?0;8. <C <K >1O70=K, GB> ?@>A?0;8 E>BO 1K 8 B0:. => =5 <>3;> =5<=>3> =5 ?><5H0BL =0<, ?>4>1=> =>G=><C AB>@>6C, :>B>@K9 =5 <>65B A>2A5< =5 HC<5BL, ?@>3>=OO =0@CH8B5;59 ?>:>O, :>B>@K5 E>BOB @071C48BL =0A HC<><. 6. ;02=>9 E0@0:B5@=>9 G5@B>9 A=>2845=8O O2;O5BAO B>, GB> >=> ?>1C6405BAO 65;0=85<, 8A?>;=5=85 MB>3> 65;0=8O AB0=>28BAO A>45@60=85< A=>2845=8O. @C3>9 B0:>9 65 ?>AB>O==>9 G5@B>9 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> A=>2845=85 =5 ?@>AB> 2K@0605B <KA;L, 0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 30;;NF8=0B>@=>5 ?5@56820=85 8A?>;=5=8O 65;0=8O. / 65;0;0 1K. :0B0BLAO ?> >75@C, 3;0A8B 65;0=85, 2K7K20NI55 A=>2845=85, A>45@60=85 A=>2845=8O: O :0B0NAL ?> >75@C. 07;8G85 <564C A:@KBK< 8 O2=K< A=>2845=85<, 8A:065=85 A:@KB>9 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O >AB05BAO 8 2 MB8E ?@>ABKE 45BA:8E A=>2845=8OE, 8 MB> -- ?@52@0I5=85 <KA;8 2 ?5@56820=85. @8 B>;:>20=88 A=>2845=8O =04> ?@5645 2A53> >1=0@C68BL 8<5==> MB> G0AB8G=>5 87<5=5=85. A;8 1K MB0 E0@0:B5@=0O G5@B0 >:070;0AL >1I59 2A5< A=>2845=8O<, B> ?@82545==K9 2KH5 D@03<5=B A=>2845=8O: O 286C A2>53> 1@0B0 2 OI8:5 -- =04> 1K;> 1K ?>=8<0BL =5 :0: "<>9 1@0B >3@0=8G8205BAO", 0 :0: "O E>B5; 1K, GB>1K <>9 1@0B >3@0=8G8;AO, <>9 1@0B 4>;65= >3@0=8G8BLAO". G5284=>, GB> 87 42CE ?@82545==KE E0@0:B5@=KE G5@B A=>2845=8O C 2B>@>9 1>;LH5 H0=A>2 1KBL ?@87=0==>9 157 2>7@065=89, G5< C ?5@2>9. ">;L:> <=>3>G8A;5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O <>3CB CAB0=>28BL, GB> 2>71C48B5;5< A=>2845=8O 4>;6=> 1KBL 2A5340 65;0=85, 0 =5 >?0A5=85, =0<5@5=85 8;8 C?@5:, => 4@C30O E0@0:B5@=0O G5@B0, :>B>@0O 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> A=>2845=85 =5 ?@>AB> ?5@5405B MB> @074@065=85, 0 ?@5:@0I05B, CAB@0=O5B, C=8GB>605B 53> ?@8 ?><>I8 >A>1>3> @>40 ?5@56820=8O, >AB05BAO =5?>:>;518<>9. 7. AE>4O 87 MB8E E0@0:B5@=KE G5@B A=>2845=8O, <K <>65< >?OBL 25@=CBLAO : A@02=5=8N A=>2845=8O A >H81>G=K< 459AB285<.  ?>A;54=5< <K @07;8G0;8 =0@CH0NICN 8 =0@CH5==CN B5=45=F8N, 0 >H81>G=>5 459AB285 1K;> :><?@><8AA>< <564C >158<8. "0 65 A0<0O AE5<0 ?>4E>48B 8 4;O A=>2845=8O. 0@CH5==>9 B5=45=F859 2 =59 <>65B 1KBL 65;0=85 A?0BL. 0@CH0NICN B5=45=F8N <K 70<5=O5< ?A8E8G5A:8< @074@065=85<, B> 5ABL 65;0=85<, :>B>@>5 AB@5<8BAO : A2>5<C 8A?>;=5=8N, B0: :0: 4> A8E ?>@ <K =5 2845;8 =8:0:>3> 4@C3>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> @074@065=8O, =0@CH0NI53> A>=.  745AL A=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO @57C;LB0B>< :><?@><8AA0. !?8HL, => ?5@568205HL CAB@0=5=85 65;0=8O; C4>2;5B2>@O5HL 65;0=85 8 ?@>4>;605HL A?0BL.  B> 8 4@C3>5 >BG0AB8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO, >BG0AB8 =5B. 8. A?><=8B5, :0: <K ?KB0;8AL >4=064K =09B8 ?CBL : ?>=8<0=8N A=>2845=89 8AE>4O 87 >G5=L ?>=OB=KE >1@07>20=89 D0=B0788, B0: =07K205<KE "A=>2 =0O2C". -B8 A=K =0O2C 459AB28B5;L=> O2;ONBAO 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=89, G5AB>;N182KE 8 M@>B8G5A:8E, :>B>@K5 =0< E>@>H> 8725AB=K, => >=8 <KA;5==K5, 8 E>BO 682> ?@54AB02;ONBAO, => =8:>340 =5 ?5@56820NBAO 30;;NF8=0B>@=>. "0:8< >1@07><, 87 42CE E0@0:B5@=KE G5@B A=>2845=8O 745AL >AB05BAO <5=55 4>AB>25@=0O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2B>@0O, 7028AOI0O >B A>AB>O=8O A=0 8 =5 @50;87C5<0O 2 1>4@AB2>20=88, A>25@H5==> >B?0405B.  2 O7K:5 5ABL B0:65 =0<5: =0 B>, GB> 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O O2;O5BAO >A=>2=>9 E0@0:B5@=>9 G5@B>9 A=>2845=8O. 564C ?@>G8<, 5A;8 ?5@56820=85 2 A=>2845=88 O2;O5BAO B>;L:> ?@52@0I5==K< ?@54AB02;5=85<, B. 5. "=>G=K< A=>< =0O2C", 2>7<>6=K< 1;03>40@O A>AB>O=8N A=0, B> <K C65 ?>=8<05<, GB> ?@>F5AA >1@07>20=8O A=>2845=8O <>65B CAB@0=8BL =>G=>5 @074@065=85 8 ?@8=5AB8 C4>2;5B2>@5=85, ?>B><C GB> 8 A=K =0O2C O2;ONBAO 45OB5;L=>ABLN, A2O70==>9 A C4>2;5B2>@5=85<, 8 254L B>;L:> 87-70 MB>3> 8< 8 >B40NBAO. 5 B>;L:> MB>, => 8 4@C385 >1I5C?>B@518B5;L=K5 2K@065=8O 8<5NB B>B 65 A<KA;. 725AB=K5 ?>3>2>@:8 CB25@640NB: A28=L5 A=8BAO 65;C4L, 3CAN -- :C:C@C70; 8;8 A?@0H820NB: GB> 2848B 2> A=5 :C@8F0? @>A>. >3>2>@:0 845B, A;54>20B5;L=>, 40;LH5, G5< <K, -- >B @515=:0 : 682>B=><C -- 8 CB25@6405B, GB> A>45@60=85 A=0 O2;O5BAO C4>2;5B2>@5=85< ?>B@51=>AB8. =>385 2K@065=8O, ?>-2848<><C, ?>4B25@640NB MB>, =0?@8<5@: "?@5:@0A=>, :0: 2> A=5", "MB>3> 8 2> A=5 =5 C2848HL", "O 1K =5 <>3 A515 MB> ?@54AB028BL 4065 2 A0<>< =5>1KG09=>< A=5". #?>B@51;5=85 2 O7K:5 B0:8E 2K@065=89, >G5284=>, 3>2>@8B 2 =0HC ?>;L7C. @0240, 5ABL AB@0H=K5 A=>2845=8O 8 A=>2845=8O A =5?@8OB=K< 8;8 157@07;8G=K< A>45@60=85<, => 8E A;>2>C?>B@51;5=85 8 =5 :>A=C;>AL. %>BO <K 8 3>2>@8< > "4C@=KE" A=0E, => 4;O =0H53> O7K:0 A=>2845=85 2A5 @02=> >AB05BAO B>;L:> 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O. 5B =8 >4=>9 ?>3>2>@:8, :>B>@0O 1K CB25@640;0, GB> A28=LO 8;8 3CAL 2845;8 2> A=5, :0: 8E 70:0;K20NB. >=5G=>, =5<KA;8<>, GB>1K AB>;L E0@0:B5@=0O G5@B0 A=>2845=8O, 2K@060NI0OAO 2 8A?>;=5=88 65;0=8O, =5 1K;0 1K 70<5G5=0 02B>@0<8, ?8A02H8<8 > A=>2845=8OE. -B> ?@>8AE>48;> >G5=L G0AB>, => =8 >4=><C 87 =8E =5 ?@8H;> 2 3>;>2C ?@87=0BL 55 >1I59 E0@0:B5@=>9 G5@B>9 8 AG8B0BL MB> :;NG52K< <><5=B>< 2 >1JOA=5=88 A=>2845=89. K <>65< A515 E>@>H> ?@54AB028BL, GB> 8E <>3;> >B MB>3> C45@6820BL, 8 5I5 :>A=5<AO MB>3> 2>?@>A0. > ?>A<>B@8B5, A:>;L:> A2545=89 <K ?>;CG8;8 87 2KA>:> >F5=5==KE =0<8 45BA:8E A=>2845=89 8 ?>GB8 157 B@C40. $C=:F8O A=>2845=8O :0: AB@060 A=0, 53> 2>7=8:=>25=85 87 42CE :>=:C@8@CNI8E B5=45=F89, 87 :>B>@KE >4=0 >AB05BAO ?>AB>O==>9 -- 65;0=85 A=0, 0 4@C30O AB@5<8BAO C4>2;5B2>@8BL ?A8E8G5A:>5 @074@065=85; 4>:070B5;LAB2>, GB> A=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO >A<KA;5==K< ?A8E8G5A:8< 0:B><; >15 53> E0@0:B5@=K5 G5@BK: 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O 8 30;;NF8=0B>@=>5 ?5@56820=85.  ?@8 MB>< <K ?>GB8 701K;8, GB> 70=8<05<AO ?A8E>0=0;87><. @><5 A2O78 A >H81>G=K<8 459AB28O<8 2 =0H59 @01>B5 =5 1K;> =8G53> A?5F8D8G5A:>3>. N1>9 ?A8E>;>3, =8G53> =5 7=0NI89 >1 8AE>4=KE ?@54?>;>65=8OE ?A8E>0=0;870, <>3 1K 40BL MB> >1JOA=5=85 45BA:8E A=>2845=89. >G5<C 65 =8:B> MB>3> =5 A45;0;? A;8 1K 2A5 A=>2845=8O 1K;8 B0:8<8 65, :0: 45BA:85, B> ?@>1;5<0 1K;0 1K @5H5=0, =0H0 7040G0 2K?>;=5=0, 8 =5 =C6=> 1K;> 1K @0AA?@0H820BL 28452H53> A>=, ?@82;5:0BL 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 8 ?>;L7>20BLAO A2>1>4=>9 0AA>F80F859. > 2 MB><-B>, >G5284=>, 8 A>AB>8B =0H0 40;L=59H0O 7040G0. 0H >?KB C65 =5 @07 ?>:07K20;, GB> E0@0:B5@=K5 G5@BK, :>B>@K5 AG8B0NBAO >1I8<8, ?>4B25@640NBAO 70B5< B>;L:> 4;O >?@545;5==>3> 2840 8 G8A;0 A=>2845=89. 5GL, A;54>20B5;L=>, 845B > B><, >AB0NBAO ;8 2 A8;5 >B:@KBK5 1;03>40@O 45BA:8< A=>2845=8O< >1I85 E0@0:B5@=K5 G5@BK, 3>4OBAO ;8 >=8 4;O B5E =5OA=KE A=>2845=89, O2=>5 A>45@60=85 :>B>@KE =5 >1=0@C68205B >B=>H5=8O : :0:><C-B> >AB02H5<CAO 65;0=8N. K ?@845@68205<AO <=5=8O, GB> MB8 4@C385 A=>2845=8O ?@5B5@?5;8 3;C1>:>5 8A:065=85 8 ?>MB><C > =8E =5;L7O AC48BL A@07C. K B0:65 ?@54?>;0305<, GB> 4;O 8E >1JOA=5=8O =5>1E>48<0 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:0O B5E=8:0, :>B>@0O =5 1K;0 =0< =C6=0 4;O ?>=8<0=8O 45BA:8E A=>2845=89. <55BAO, 2?@>G5<, 5I5 >48= :;0AA =58A:065==KE A=>2845=89, 2 :>B>@KE, :0: 8 2 45BA:8E, ;53:> C7=0BL 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O. -B> B5, :>B>@K5 2K7K20NBAO 2 B5G5=85 2A59 687=8 8<?5@0B82=K<8 ?>B@51=>ABO<8 B5;0: 3>;>4><, 6064>9, A5:AC0;L=>9 ?>B@51=>ABLN, B. 5. O2;ONBAO 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=89 :0: @50:F88 =0 2=CB@5==85 A><0B8G5A:85 @074@065=8O. "0:, O 70?8A0; A=>2845=85 19-<5AOG=>9 452>G:8, :>B>@>5 A>AB>O;> 87 <5=N A ?@8102;5=85< 55 8<5=8 (==0 $., 75<;O=8:0, <0;8=0, O8G=8F0, :0H0). !=>2845=85 O28;>AL @50:F859 =0 45=L 3>;>4>2:8 87-70 @0AAB@>9AB20 ?8I520@5=8O, 2K720==>3> :0: @07 42C<O C?><O=CBK<8 O3>40<8.  B> 65 2@5<O 8 101CH:0, 2>7@0AB :>B>@>9 2<5AB5 A 2>7@0AB>< 2=CG:8 A>AB028; A5<L45AOB ;5B, 2A;54AB285 15A?>:>9AB20 87-70 1;C640NI59 ?>G:8 4>;6=0 1K;0 F5;K9 45=L 3>;>40BL, 8 2 BC 65 =>GL 59 A=8;>AL, GB> 55 ?@83;0A8;8 2 3>AB8 8 C3>I0NB A0<K<8 ;CGH8<8 ;0:><AB20<8. 01;N45=8O 70 70:;NG5==K<8, :>B>@KE 70AB02;ONB 3>;>40BL, 8 70 ;8F0<8, B5@?OI8<8 ;8H5=8O 2 ?CB5H5AB28OE 8 M:A?548F8OE, A2845B5;LAB2CNB > B><, GB> 2 MB8E CA;>28OE >=8 ?>AB>O==> 284OB 2> A=5 C4>2;5B2>@5=85 MB8E ?>B@51=>AB59. "0:, BB> >@45=H5;L4 2 A2>59 :=835 =B0@:B8:0 (1904) A>>1I05B > 78<>202H59 A =8< :><0=45 (B. 1, A. 366 8 c;.): " =0?@02;5==>AB8 =0H8E A>:@>25==59H8E <KA;59 >G5=L OA=> 3>2>@8;8 =0H8 A=>2845=8O, :>B>@K5 =8:>340 ?@5645 =5 1K;8 AB>;L O@:8 8 <=>3>G8A;5==K. 065 B5 =0H8 B>20@8I8, :>B>@K5 2845;8 A=K 2 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE A;CG0OE, B5?5@L ?> CB@0<, :>340 <K >1<5=820;8AL A2>8<8 ?5@56820=8O<8 87 MB>3> D0=B0AB8G5A:>3> <8@0, <>3;8 @0AA:07K20BL 4;8==K5 8AB>@88. > 2A5E =8E @5GL H;0 > B>< 2=5H=5< <8@5, :>B>@K9 1K; B5?5@L B0: 40;5: >B =0A, => G0AB> >=8 8<5;8 >B=>H5=85 8 : =0H8< B>340H=8< CA;>28O<. 40 8 ?8BL5 1K;8 F5=B@><, 2>:@C3 :>B>@>3> G0I5 2A53> 2@0I0;8AL =0H8 A=>2845=8O. 48= 87 =0A, :>B>@K9 >A>15==> G0AB> =0A;0640;AO 3@0=48>7=K<8 =>G=K<8 ?8@0<8, 1K; >B 4CH8 @04, 5A;8 CB@>< <>3 A>>1I8BL, "GB> AJ5; >154 87 B@5E 1;N4"; 4@C3>9 2845; 2> A=5 B010:, F5;K5 3>@K B010:C; B@5BL8 -- :>@01;L, =0 2A5E ?0@CA0E ?@81;860NI89AO 87 >B:@KB>3> <>@O. 0A;C68205B C?><8=0=8O 5I5 >4=> A=>2845=85: O2;O5BAO ?>GB0;L>= A ?>GB>9 8 4;8==> >1JOA=O5B, ?>G5<C 55 ?@8H;>AL B0: 4>;3> 640BL, >= =5?@028;L=> 55 A40; 8 5<C A 1>;LH8< B@C4>< C40;>AL ?>;CG8BL 55 >1@0B=>. >=5G=>, 2> 2@5<O A=0 =0A 70=8<0;8 5I5 1>;55 =52>7<>6=K5 25I8, => ?>GB8 2> 2A5E A=>2845=8OE, :>B>@K5 2845; O A0< 8;8 > :>B>@KE A;KH0;, ?>@0605B 154=>ABL D0=B0788. A;8 1K 2A5 MB8 A=>2845=8O 1K;8 70?8A0=K, MB>, =5A><=5==>, ?@54AB028;> 1K 1>;LH>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 8=B5@5A. > ;53:> ?>=OBL, :0:8< 65;0==K< 1K; 4;O =0A A>=, ?>B><C GB> >= <>3 40BL =0< 2A5, G53> :064K9 1>;LH5 2A53> 65;0;". &8B8@CN 5I5 ?> N @5;N (1885, 231): "C=3> 0@:, ?>38102H89 >B 6064K 2> 2@5<O ?CB5H5AB28O ?> D@8:5, 15A?@5@K2=> 2845; 2> A=5 <=>3>2>4=K5 4>;8=K 8 ;C30 A2>59 @>48=K. "0: 8 <CG8<K9 3>;>4>< "@5=: 2845; A51O 2> A=5 2 Sternschanze 2 03451C@35, >:@C65==K< @>A:>H=K<8 >1540<8, 0 5>@3 0::, CG0AB=8: ?5@2>9 M:A?548F88 $@0=:;8=0, :>340 2A;54AB285 =52K=>A8<KE ;8H5=89 1K; 1;87>: : 3>;>4=>9 A<5@B8, ?>AB>O==> 2845; 2> A=5 >18;L=K5 >154K". "><C, :B> 70 C68=>< 5AB >AB@CN ?8IC, 2K7K20NICN 6064C, ;53:> <>65B ?@8A=8BLAO, GB> >= ?L5B. 07C<55BAO, =52>7<>6=> C4>2;5B2>@8BL A8;L=CN ?>B@51=>ABL 2 545 8;8 ?8BL5 ?@8 ?><>I8 A=>2845=8O; >B B0:8E A=>2845=89 ?@>AK?05HLAO A GC2AB2>< 6064K 8 =0?8205HLAO 2>4K ?>-=0AB>OI5<C. >AB865=85 A=>2845=8O 2 MB>< A;CG05 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =57=0G8B5;L=>, => =5 <5=55 >G5284=>, GB> >=> 2>7=8:;> A F5;LN =5 4>?CAB8BL @074@065=85, 70AB02;ONI55 ?@>A=CBLAO 8 459AB2>20BL. @8 =57=0G8B5;L=>9 A8;5 MB8E ?>B@51=>AB59 A=K, ?@8=>AOI85 C4>2;5B2>@5=85, G0AB> 2?>;=5 ?><>30NB. ">G=> B0: 65 A=>2845=85 405B C4>2;5B2>@5=85 A5:AC0;L=KE @074@065=89, => >=> 8<55B >A>15==>AB8, > :>B>@KE AB>8B C?><O=CBL. A;54AB285 >A>1>3> A2>9AB20 A5:AC0;L=>3> 2;5G5=8O 2 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8 7028A5BL >B >1J5:B0, G5< ?@8 3>;>45 8 60645, C4>2;5B2>@5=85 2 A=>2845=88 A ?>;;NF8O<8 <>65B 1KBL @50;L=K<, 0 87-70 >?@545;5==KE B@C4=>AB59 2 >B=>H5=8OE A >1J5:B><, > G5< <K A:065< ?>765, >G5=L G0AB> @50;L=>5 C4>2;5B2>@5=85 A2O70=> A =5OA=K< 8;8 8A:065==K< A>45@60=85< A=>2845=8O. -B0 >A>15==>ABL A=>2845=8O A ?>;;NF8O<8 45;05B 8E, :0: 70<5B8; . 0=: (19120), C4>1=K<8 >1J5:B0<8 4;O 87CG5=8O 8A:065=8O A=>2845=8O. ?@>G5<, 2A5 A=>2845=8O 27@>A;KE, A2O70==K5 A C4>2;5B2>@5=85< ?>B@51=>AB8, :@><5 C4>2;5B2>@5=8O A>45@60B <=>3>5 4@C3>5, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 87 G8AB> ?A8E8G5A:8E 8AB>G=8:>2 @074@065=8O 8 4;O A2>53> ?>=8<0=8O =C6405BAO 2 B>;:>20=88. ?@>G5<, <K =5 E>B8< CB25@640BL, GB> >1@07C5<K5 ?> B8?C 45BA:8E A=>2845=8O 27@>A;KE A 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O O2;ONBAO B>;L:> @50:F8O<8 =0 B0: =07K205<K5 8<?5@0B82=K5 ?>B@51=>AB8. 0< 8725AB=K B0:65 :>@>B:85 8 OA=K5 A=>2845=8O B0:>3> B8?0 ?>4 2>7459AB285< >?@545;5==KE 4><8=8@CNI8E A8BC0F89, 8AB>G=8:0<8 :>B>@KE O2;ONBAO, =5A><=5==>, ?A8E8G5A:85 @074@065=8O. "0:>2K, =0?@8<5@, A=>2845=8O, [2K@060NI85] =5B5@?5=85, :>340 :B>-B> 3>B>28BAO : ?CB5H5AB28N, 206=>9 4;O =53> 2KAB02:5, 4>:;04C, 2878BC 8 2848B 70@0=55 2> A=5 8A?>;=5=85 >68405<>3>, B. 5. =>GLN 5I5 4> =0AB>OI53> A>1KB8O 4>AB8305B F5;8, 2848B A51O 2 B50B@5, 15A54C5B 2 3>ABOE. ;8 B0: =07K205<K5 "C4>1=K5" A=>2845=8O, :>340 :B>-B>, 65;0O ?@>4;8BL A>=, 2848B, GB> >= C65 2AB0;, C<K205BAO 8;8 =0E>48BAO 2 H:>;5, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ?@>4>;605B A?0BL, B. 5. ?@54?>G8B05B 2AB020BL 2> A=5, 0 =5 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. 5;0=85 A?0BL, ?> =0H5<C <=5=8N, ?>AB>O==> ?@8=8<0NI55 CG0AB85 2 >1@07>20=88 A=>2845=8O, O2=> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 MB8E A=>2845=8OE :0: ACI5AB25==K9 D0:B>@ >1@07>20=8O A=>2845=8O. >B@51=>ABL 2> A=5 A ?>;=K< ?@02>< 70=8<05B <5AB> 2 @O4C 4@C38E D878G5A:8E ?>B@51=>AB59. 0 ?@8<5@5 @5?@>4C:F88 :0@B8=K (28=40 87 (0::-30;5@58 2 N=E5=5 O ?>:06C 20<, :0: ?@028;L=> ?>=O; EC4>6=8: 2>7=8:=>25=85 A=>2845=8O ?> 4><8=8@CNI59 A8BC0F88. -B> "!=>2845=85 C7=8:0", A>45@60=85 :>B>@>3> =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: 53> >A2>1>645=85. @8<5G0B5;L=>, GB> >A2>1>645=85 4>;6=> >ACI5AB28BLAO G5@57 >:=>, ?>B><C GB> G5@57 >:=> ?@>=8:05B A25B>2>5 @074@065=85, >B :>B>@>3> C7=8: ?@>AK?05BAO. !B>OI85 4@C3 70 4@C3>< 3=><K ?@54AB02;ONB 53> A>1AB25==K5 ?>A;54>20B5;L=K5 ?>;>65=8O ?@8 ?>?KB:5 2K;57B8 225@E : >:=C 8, 5A;8 O =5 >H810NAL 8 =5 ?@8?8AK20N =0<5@5=8N EC4>6=8:0 A;8H:>< <=>3>3>, AB>OI89 2KH5 2A5E 3=><, :>B>@K9 ?5@5?8;8205B @5H5B:C, B. 5. 45;05B B>, GB> E>B5; 1K A45;0BL A0< C7=8:, 8<55B 53> G5@BK ;8F0. > 2A5E 4@C38E A=>2845=8OE, :@><5 45BA:8E 8 C:070==KE, 8=D0=B8;L=KE ?> A2>5<C B8?C, :0: A:070=>, 8A:065=85 2>7428305B =0 =0H5< ?CB8 ?@53@04K. K ?>:0 5I5 =5 <>65< A:070BL, O2;ONBAO ;8 8 >=8 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O, :0: <K ?@54?>;0305<; 87 8E O2=>3> A>45@60=8O <K =5 7=05<, :0:><C ?A8E8G5A:><C @074@065=8N >=8 >1O70=K A2>8< ?@>8AE>645=85<, 8 <K =5 <>65< 4>:070BL, GB> >=8 B0:65 AB@5<OBAO CAB@0=8BL MB> @074@065=85. =8, 25@>OB=>, 4>;6=K 1KBL 8AB>;:>20=K, B. 5. ?5@52545=K, 8E 8A:065=85 =04> CAB@0=8BL, O2=>5 A>45@60=85 70<5=8BL A:@KBK<, ?@5645 G5< A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> >B:@KB>5 =0<8 2 45BA:8E A=>2845=8OE ?>4B25@6405BAO 4;O 2A5E A=>2845=89. /"/ &/ &#  !M #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! K ?>7=0:><8;8AL A 2>7=8:=>25=85<, ACI=>ABLN 8 DC=:F859 A=>2845=8O, 87CG0O A=>2845=8O 45B59. !=>2845=8O O2;ONBAO CAB@0=5=85< =0@CH0NI8E A>= (?A8E8G5A:8E) @074@065=89 ?CB5< 30;;NF8=0B>@=>3> C4>2;5B2>@5=8O. @0240, 87 A=>2845=89 27@>A;KE <K A<>3;8 >1JOA=8BL B>;L:> >4=C 3@C??C, :>B>@CN <K =0720;8 A=>2845=8O<8 8=D0=B8;L=>3> B8?0. 0: >1AB>8B 45;> A 4@C38<8 A=>2845=8O<8, <K ?>:0 =5 7=05<, <K B0:65 8 =5 ?>=8<05< 8E. >:0 <K ?>;CG8;8 @57C;LB0B, 7=0G5=85 :>B>@>3> =5 E>B8< =54>>F5=820BL. AO:89 @07, :>340 A=>2845=85 =0< 01A>;NB=> ?>=OB=>, >=> O2;O5BAO 30;;NF8=0B>@=K< 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O. "0:>5 A>2?045=85 =5 <>65B 1KBL A;CG09=K< 8 =57=0G8B5;L=K<. AE>4O 87 =5:>B>@KE A>>1@065=89 8 ?> 0=0;>388 A ?>=8<0=85< >H81>G=KE 459AB289 <K ?@54?>;0305<, GB> A=>2845=85 4@C3>3> @>40 O2;O5BAO 8A:065==K< 70<5AB8B5;5< 4;O =58725AB=>3> A>45@60=8O 8 B>;L:> 8< 4>;6=> >1JOA=OBLAO. AA;54>20=85, ?>=8<0=85 MB>3> 8A:065=8O A=>2845=8O 8 O2;O5BAO =0H59 1;8609H59 7040G59. A:065=85 A=>2845=8O -- MB> B>, GB> =0< :065BAO 2 =5< AB@0==K< 8 =5?>=OB=K<. K E>B8< <=>3>5 C7=0BL > =5<: 2>-?5@2KE, >B:C40 >=> 15@5BAO, 53> 48=0<87<, 2>-2B>@KE, GB> >=> 45;05B 8, =0:>=5F, :0: >=> MB> 45;05B. K <>65< B0:65 A:070BL, GB> 8A:065=85 A=>2845=8O -- MB> ?@>4C:B @01>BK A=>2845=8O. K E>B8< >?8A0BL @01>BC A=>2845=8O 8 C:070BL =0 459AB2CNI85 ?@8 MB>< A8;K.  B5?5@L 2KA;CH09B5 ?@8<5@ A=>2845=8O. 3> 70?8A0;0 40<0 =0H53> :@C30, ?> 55 A;>20<, >=> ?@8=04;568B >4=>9 ?>GB5==>9 2KA>:>>1@07>20==>9 ?@5AB0@5;>9 40<5. =0;87 MB>3> A=>2845=8O =5 1K; ?@>872545=. 0H0 @5D5@5=B:0 70<5G05B, GB> 4;O ?A8E>0=0;8B8:0 >=> =5 =C6405BAO 2 B>;:>20=88. !0<0 28452H0O A>= 53> =5 B>;:>20;0, => >=0 2KA:070;0 > =5< A2>5 AC645=85, :0: 1C4B> >=0 AC<5;0 1K 53> 8AB>;:>20BL. >B :0: >=0 2KA:070;0AL > =5<: 8 B0:0O >B2@0B8B5;L=0O 3;C?>ABL A=8BAO 65=I8=5 50 ;5B, :>B>@0O 45=L 8 =>GL =5 8<55B 4@C38E <KA;59, :@><5 701>BK > A2>5< @515=:5.  2>B 8 A=>2845=85 > ";N1>2=>9 A;C615". "=0 >B?@02;O5BAO 2 30@=87>==K9 3>A?8B0;L No 1 8 3>2>@8B G0A>2><C C 2>@>B, GB> 59 =C6=> ?>3>2>@8BL A 3;02=K< 2@0G>< (>=0 =07K205B =57=0:><>5 59 8<O), B0: :0: >=0 E>G5B ?>ABC?8BL =0 A;C61C 2 3>A?8B0;L. @8 MB>< >=0 B0: ?>4G5@:8205B A;>2> "A;C610", GB> C=B5@->D8F5@ B>BG0A 4>304K205BAO, GB> @5GL 845B > ";N1>2=>9 A;C615". "0: :0: >=0 AB0@0O 65=I8=0, B> >= ?@>?CA:05B 55 ?>A;5 =5:>B>@>3> :>;510=8O. > 2<5AB> B>3> GB>1K ?@>9B8 : 3;02=><C 2@0GC, >=0 ?>?0405B 2 1>;LHCN B5<=CN :><=0BC, 345 2>:@C3 4;8==>3> AB>;0 A848B 8 AB>8B <=>3> >D8F5@>2 8 2>5==KE 2@0G59. =0 >1@0I05BAO A> A2>8< ?@54;>65=85< : :0:><C-B> HB01=><C 2@0GC, :>B>@K9 ?>=8<05B 55 A =5A:>;L:8E A;>2. >A;>2=> 55 @5GL 2> A=5 A;54CNI0O: "/ 8 <=>385 4@C385 65=I8=K 8 <>;>4K5 452CH:8 5=K 3>B>2K A>;40B0<, @O4>2K< 8 >D8F5- ---------------------------------------- >A?>60 4-@ D>= C3-5;;L<CB (1915). @0< 157 @07;8G8O." 45AL 2 A=>2845=89 A;54C5B :0:>5-B> 1>@<>B0=85. > B>, GB> 55 ?@028;L=> ?>=O;8, 284=> ?> >BG0AB8 A<CI5==><C, >BG0AB8 ;C:02><C 2K@065=8N ;8F >D8F5@>2. 0<0 ?@>4>;605B: "/ 7=0N, GB> =0H5 @5H5=85 =5A:>;L:> AB@0==>, => >=> 4;O =0A G@572KG09=> A5@L57=>. !>;40B0 =0 ?>;5 1>O B>65 =5 A?@0H820NB, E>G5B >= C<8@0BL 8;8 =5B". !;54C5B <8=CB=>5 <CG8B5;L=>5 <>;G0=85. (B01=>9 2@0G >1=8<05B 55 70 B0;8N 8 3>2>@8B: "8;>AB820O 3>AC40@K=O, ?@54AB02LB5 A515, GB> 45;> 459AB28B5;L=> 4>H;> 1K 4> . (1>@<>B0=85)". =0 >A2>1>6405BAO >B 53> >1JOB88 A <KA;LN: "A5 >=8 >48=0:>2K" -- 8 2>7@0605B: ">A?>48, O AB0@0O 65=I8=0 8, <>65B 1KBL, =5 >:06CAL 2 B0:>< ?>;>65=88. ?@>G5<, >4=> CA;>285 4>;6=> 1KBL A>1;N45=>: CG5B 2>7@0AB0; GB>1K =5<>;>40O 40<0 A>2A5< <>;>4><C ?0@=N. (1>@<>B0=85); MB> 1K;> 1K C60A=>". (B01=>9 2@0G: "/ ?@5:@0A=> ?>=8<0N". 5:>B>@K5 >D8F5@K, 8 A@548 =8E B>B, :B> A45;0; 59 2 <>;>4>AB8 ?@54;>65=85, 3@><:> A<5NBAO, 8 40<0 65;05B, GB>1K 55 ?@>2>48;8 : 7=0:><><C 3;02=><C 2@0GC 4;O >:>=G0B5;L=>3> 2KOA=5=8O. @8 MB><, : 25;8:><C A<CI5=8N, 59 ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C, GB> >=0 =5 7=05B 53> 8<5=8. (B01=>9 2@0G B5< 2@5<5=5< >G5=L 256;82> ?@54;0305B 59 ?>4=OBLAO =0 25@E=89 MB06 ?> C7:>9 65;57=>9 28=B>2>9 ;5AB=8F5, :>B>@0O 2545B ?@O<> 87 :><=0BK =0 25@E=85 MB068. >4=8<0OAL, >=0 A;KH8B, :0: >48= >D8F5@ 3>2>@8B: "-B> :>;>AA0;L=>5 @5H5=85, 157@07;8G=>, <>;>40O 8;8 AB0@0O; =C6=> >B40BL 4>;6=>5". ! GC2AB2><, GB> ?@>AB> 2K?>;=O5B A2>9 4>;3, >=0 ?>4=8<05BAO ?> 15A:>=5G=>9 ;5AB=8F5". -B> A=>2845=85 ?>2B>@O5BAO =0 ?@>BO65=88 =5A:>;L:8E =545;L 5I5 420 @070 A A>25@H5==> =57=0G8B5;L=K<8 8 4>2>;L=> 15AA<KA;5==K<8 87<5=5=8O<8, :0: 70<5G05B 40<0.  A2>5< B5G5=88 A=>2845=85 A>>B25BAB2C5B 4=52=>9 D0=B0788: 2 =5< <0;> ?5@5@K2>2, =5:>B>@K5 G0AB=>AB8 2 53> A>45@60=88 <>3;8 1K 1KBL @07JOA=5=K @0AA?@>A0<8, G53>, :0: 2K 7=05B5, =5 1K;>. > A0<>5 70<5G0B5;L=>5 8 8=B5@5A=>5 4;O =0A B>, GB> 2 A=>2845=88 5ABL =5A:>;L:> ?@>?CA:>2, ?@>?CA:>2 =5 2 2>A?><8=0=88, 0 2 A>45@60=88.  B@5E <5AB0E A>45@60=85 :0: 1K AB5@B>; @5G8, 2 :>B>@KE 8<5NBAO ?@>?CA:8, ?@5@K20NBAO 1>@<>B0=85<. "0: :0: <K =5 ?@>2>48;8 0=0;870, B>, AB@>3> 3>2>@O, =5 8<55< ?@020 GB>-;81> 3>2>@8BL > A<KA;5 A=>2845=8O. @0240, 2 =5< 5ABL =0<5:8, 87 :>B>@KE <>6=> :>5-GB> 70:;NG8BL, =0?@8<5@, 2K@065=85 ";N1>2=0O A;C610", => G0AB8 @5G8, =5?>A@54AB25==> ?@54H5AB2CNI85 1>@<>B0=8N, B@51CNB ?@5645 2A53> 4>?>;=5=89, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 8<5BL >48= A<KA;. A;8 <K 8E 8A?>;L7C5<, B> ?>;CG8BAO D0=B078O B0:>3> A>45@60=8O, GB> 28452H0O A>= 3>B>20, 8A?>;=OO ?0B@8>B8G5A:89 4>;3, ?@54>AB028BL A51O 4;O C4>2;5B2>@5=8O ;N1>2=KE ?>B@51=>AB59 2>5==KE, :0: >D8F5@>2, B0: 8 @O4>2KE. -B>, 157CA;>2=>, A>25@H5==> =5?@8;8G=>, >1@075F 45@7:>9 ;8184>7=>9 D0=B0788, => 2 A=>2845=88 MB>3> 2>2A5 =5B. 0: @07 B0<, 345 E>4 <KA;59 ?@825; 1K : MB><C ?@87=0=8N, 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 =5OA=>5 1>@<>B0=85, GB>-B> CB@0G5=> 8;8 ?>402;5=>. K A>3;0A8B5AL, =045NAL, GB> 8<5==> =5?@8;8G85 MB8E <5AB 1K;> <>B82>< 4;O 8E ?>402;5=8O. 45, >4=0:>, =09B8 0=0;>38N MB><C A;CG0N?  =0H8 4=8 20< =5 ?@845BAO 55 4>;3> 8A:0BL. >7L<8B5 :0:CN-=81C4L ?>;8B8G5A:CN 3075BC, 8 2K =0945B5, GB> 2 =5A:>;L:8E <5AB0E B5:AB 87JOB, =0 53> <5AB5 A25B8BAO 15;0O 1C<030. K 7=05B5, GB> MB> 45;> 3075B=>9 F5=7C@K. 0 MB8E ?CABKE <5AB0E 1K;> GB>-B>, GB> =5 ?>=@028;>AL 2KA>:8< F5=7C@=K< 2;0ABO< 8 ?>MB><C 1K;> C40;5=>. K 4C<05B5, :0: 60;L, MB> 1K;>, <>65B 1KBL, A0<>5 8=B5@5A=>5, "A0<>5 ;CGH55 <5AB>".  4@C38E A;CG0OE F5=7C@0 >:07K205B A2>5 459AB285 =5 =0 3>B>2K9 B5:AB. 2B>@ ?@542845;, :0:85 2KA:07K20=8O <>3CB 2K720BL 2>7@065=8O F5=7C@K, 8 ?@54CA<>B@8B5;L=> A<O3G8; 8E, A;53:0 87<5=8; 8;8 C4>2>;LAB2>20;AO =0<5:0<8 8 =5?>;=K< 87;>65=85< B>3>, GB> E>B5; A:070BL. ">340 2 3075B5 =5B ?CABKE <5AB, 0 ?> =5:>B>@K< =0<5:0< 8 =5OA=>ABO< 2K@065=8O 2K <>65B5 4>3040BLAO, GB> B@51>20=8O F5=7C@K C65 70@0=55 ?@8=OBK 2> 2=8<0=85. C45< ?@845@6820BLAO MB>3> A@02=5=8O. K CB25@6405<, GB> ?@>?CI5==K5, A:@KBK5 70 1>@<>B0=85< A;>20 A=>2845=8O ?@8=5A5=K 2 65@B2C F5=7C@5. K ?@O<> 3>2>@8< > F5=7C@5 A=>2845=8O, :>B>@>9 A;54C5B ?@8?8A0BL 8725AB=>5 CG0AB85 2 8A:065=88 A=>2845=8O. 5745, 345 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 5ABL ?@>?CA:8, 2 =8E 28=>20B0 F5=7C@0 A=>2845=8O. 0< A;54>20;> 1K ?>9B8 5I5 40;LH5 8 AG8B0BL, GB> 459AB285 F5=7C@K A:07K205BAO :064K9 @07 B0<, 345 M;5<5=B A=>2845=8O 2A?><8=05BAO >A>15==> A;01>, =5>?@545;5==> 8 A A><=5=85< ?> A@02=5=8N A 4@C38<8, 1>;55 OA=K<8 M;5<5=B0<8. > F5=7C@0 @54:> ?@>O2;O5BAO B0: >B:@>25==>, B0:, E>B5;>AL 1K A:070BL, =082=>, :0: 2 ?@8<5@5 A=>2845=8O > ";N1>2=>9 A;C615". >@074> G0I5 F5=7C@0 ?@>O2;O5BAO ?> 2B>@><C B8?C, ?>4AB02;OO =0 <5AB> B>3>, GB> 4>;6=> 1KBL, A<O3G5==>5, ?@81;878B5;L=>5, =0<5:0NI55. "@5B89 A?>A>1 459AB28O F5=7C@K =5;L7O A@02=8BL A ?@85<0<8 3075B=>9 F5=7C@K; => O <>3C ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL 53> =0 C65 ?@>0=0;878@>20==>< ?@8<5@5 A=>2845=8O. A?><=8B5 A=>2845=85 A "B@5<O ?;>E8<8 18;5B0<8 2 B50B@ 70 1 D;. 50 :@.".  A:@KBKE <KA;OE MB>3> A=>2845=8O =0 ?5@2>< <5AB5 1K; M;5<5=B "?>A?5H=>, A;8H:>< @0=>". -B> >7=0G0;>: =5;5?> 1K;> B0: @0=> 2KE>48BL 70<C6, B0:65 15AA<KA;5==> 1K;> ?>:C?0BL B0: @0=> 18;5BK 2 B50B@, A<5H=> 1K;> A> AB>@>=K =525AB:8 B0: ?>A?5H=> 8AB@0B8BL 45=L38 =0 C:@0H5=8O. B MB>3> F5=B@0;L=>3> M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O =8G53> =5 >AB0;>AL 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88; 2 =5< F5=B@ BO65AB8 ?5@5<5AB8;AO =0 ?>A5I5=85 B50B@0 8 ?>:C?:C 18;5B>2. ;03>40@O MB><C A<5I5=8N 0:F5=B0, MB>9 ?5@53@C??8@>2:5 M;5<5=B>2 A>45@60=8O O2=>5 A=>2845=85 AB0=>28BAO =0AB>;L:> =5?>E>68< =0 A:@KBK5 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O, GB> <K 8 =5 ?>4>7@5205< > =0;8G88 MB8E ?>A;54=8E 70 ?5@2K<. -B> A<5I5=85 0:F5=B0 O2;O5BAO 3;02=K< A@54AB2>< 8A:065=8O A=>2845=8O 8 ?@8405B A=>2845=8N BC AB@0==>ABL, 87-70 :>B>@>9 28452H89 A>= A0< =5 E>B5; 1K ?@87=0BL 53> 70 A>1AB25==K9 ?@>4C:B. @>?CA:, <>48D8:0F8O, ?5@53@C??8@>2:0 <0B5@80;0 -- B0:>2K 459AB28O F5=7C@K A=>2845=8O 8 A@54AB20 53> 8A:065=8O. !0<0 F5=7C@0 A=>2845=8O O2;O5BAO ?@8G8=>9 8;8 >4=>9 87 ?@8G8= 8A:065=8O A=>2845=8O, 87CG5=85< :>B>@>3> <K B5?5@L 709<5<AO. >48D8:0F8N 8 ?5@53@C??8@>2:C <K ?@82K:;8 =07K20BL "A<5I5=85<" (Verschiebung). >A;5 MB8E 70<5G0=89 > 459AB288 F5=7C@K A=>2845=8O >1@0B8<AO : 2>?@>AC > 55 48=0<87<5. 045NAL, 2K =5 2>A?@8=8<05B5 2K@065=85 A;8H:>< 0=B@>?><>@D=> 8 =5 ?@54AB02;O5B5 A515 F5=7>@0 A=>2845=8O <0;5=L:8< AB@>38< G5;>25G:>< 8;8 4CE><, ?>A5;82H8<AO 2 <>73>2>< 65;C4>G:5 8 >BBC40 C?@02;ONI8< 45;0<8, => =5 A2O7K205B5 53> B0:65 8 A ?@>AB@0=AB25==K< ?@54AB02;5=85< > :0:><-B> "<>73>2>< F5=B@5", >:07K20NI5< B0:>5 F5=7C@8@CNI55 2;8O=85, :>B>@>5 ?@5:@0B8;>AL 1K A =0@CH5=85< 8;8 C40;5=85< MB>3> F5=B@0. >:0 MB> =5 1>;55 G5< 25AL<0 C4>1=K9 B5@<8= 4;O >1>7=0G5=8O 48=0<8G5A:>3> >B=>H5=8O. -B> A;>2> =5 <5H05B =0< 7040BL 2>?@>A, :0:85 B5=45=F88 8 =0 :0:85 M;5<5=BK A=>2845=8O >:07K20NB MB> 2;8O=85, <K =5 C4828<AO B0:65, C7=02, GB> @0=LH5 C65 AB0;:820;8AL A F5=7C@>9 A=>2845=8O, <>65B 1KBL, =5 C7=02 55.  MB> 1K;> 459AB28B5;L=> B0:. A?><=8B5, A :0:8< ?>@078B5;L=K< D0:B>< <K 2AB@5B8;8AL, :>340 =0G0;8 ?@8<5=OBL =0HC B5E=8:C A2>1>4=>9 0AA>F80F88. K ?>GC2AB2>20;8 B>340, GB> =0H8 CA8;8O ?5@59B8 >B M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O : 53> 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C, 70<5AB8B5;5< :>B>@>3> >= O2;O5BAO, =0B>;:=C;8AL =0 A>?@>B82;5=85. K 3>2>@8;8, GB> MB> A>?@>B82;5=85 @07;8G05BAO ?> A2>59 25;8G8=5, 2 >4=8E A;CG0OE >=> >3@><=>, 2 4@C38E =57=0G8B5;L=>.  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 4;O @01>BK B>;:>20=8O =C6=> 1K;> B>;L:> =5A:>;L:> ?@><56CB>G=KE 725=L52, => 5A;8 >=> 1K;> 25;8:>, B>340 <K 4>;6=K 1K;8 0=0;878@>20BL 4;8==K5 F5?>G:8 0AA>F80F89 >B M;5<5=B0, 40;5:> CE>48;8 1K >B =53> 8 2K=C645=K 1K;8 1K ?@5>4>;520BL <=>3> B@C4=>AB59 2 2845 :@8B8G5A:8E 2>7@065=89 ?@>B82 MB8E 0AA>F80F89. ">, GB> ?@8 B>;:>20=88 ?@>O2;O5BAO :0: A>?@>B82;5=85, B5?5@L 2 @01>B5 A=>2845=8O 2KABC?05B 53> F5=7C@>9. !>?@>B82;5=85 B>;:>20=8N -- MB> B>;L:> >1J5:B820F8O F5=7C@K A=>2845=8O. => 4>:07K205B =0<, GB> A8;0 F5=7C@K =5 8AG5@?K205BAO 2=5A5=85< 2 A=>2845=85 8A:065=8O 8 ?>A;5 MB>3> =5 C30A05B, => GB> >=0 :0: ?>AB>O==> 459AB2CNI0O A8;0 ?@>4>;605B ACI5AB2>20BL, AB@5<OAL A>E@0=8BL 8A:065=85. AB0B8, :0: 8 A>?@>B82;5=85 ?@8 B>;:>20=88 :064>3> M;5<5=B0 <5=O5BAO ?> A2>59 A8;5, B0: 8 2=5A5==>5 F5=7C@>9 8A:065=85 2 >4=>< 8 B>< 65 A=>2845=88 @07;8G=> 4;O :064>3> M;5<5=B0. A;8 A@02=8BL O2=>5 8 A:@KB>5 A=>2845=8O, B> >1=0@C68BAO, GB> >B45;L=K5 A:@KBK5 M;5<5=BK ?>;=>ABLN >BACBAB2CNB, 4@C385 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 <>48D8F8@>20=K, 0 B@5BL8 >AB0;8AL 157 87<5=5=89 8 4065, <>65B 1KBL, CA8;5=K 2 O2=>< A>45@60=88 A=>2845=8O. > <K A>18@0;8AL 8AA;54>20BL, :0:85 B5=45=F88 >ACI5AB2;ONB F5=7C@C 8 ?@>B82 G53> >=0 =0?@02;5=0. 0 MB>B 2>?@>A, 8<5NI89 206=59H55 7=0G5=85 4;O ?>=8<0=8O A=>2845=8O 8 4065, <>65B 1KBL, 2A59 687=8 G5;>25:0, ;53:> >B25B8BL, 5A;8 ?@>A<>B@5BL @O4 8AB>;:>20==KE A=>2845=89. "5=45=F88, >ACI5AB2;ONI85 F5=7C@C, -- B5, :>B>@K5 ?@87=0NBAO 28452H8< A>= 2 1>4@AB2CNI5< A>AB>O=88, A :>B>@K<8 >= A>3;0A5=. C4LB5 C25@5=K, GB> 5A;8 2K >B:07K205B5AL >B 2?>;=5 ?@028;L=>3> B>;:>20=8O A>1AB25==>3> A=>2845=8O, B> 2K ?>ABC?05B5 ?> B5< 65 <>B820<, ?> :>B>@K< 459AB2>20;0 F5=7C@0 A=>2845=8O, ?@>87>H;> 8A:065=85 8 AB0;> =5>1E>48<> B>;:>20=85. A?><=8B5 > A=>2845=88 =0H59 50-;5B=59 40<K. 57 B>;:>20=8O >=0 AG8B05B 53> >B2@0B8B5;L=K<, 1K;0 1K 5I5 1>;LH5 2>7<CI5=0, 5A;8 1K 4-@ D>= C3-5;;L<CB A>>1I8;0 59 GB>-B> =5>1E>48<>5 4;O B>;:>20=8O, 8 8<5==> 87-70 MB>3> >AC645=8O 2 55 A=>2845=88 A0<K5 =5?@8;8G=K5 <5AB0 70<5=5=K 1>@<>B0=85<. 4=0:> B5=45=F88, ?@>B82 :>B>@KE =0?@02;5=0 F5=7C@0 A=>2845=8O, A;54C5B A=0G0;0 >?8A0BL ?> >B=>H5=8N : MB>9 ?>A;54=59. ">340 <>6=> B>;L:> A:070BL, GB> >=8 ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45 157CA;>2=> 4>AB>9=K >AC645=8O, =5?@8;8G=K 2 MB8G5A:><, MAB5B8G5A:><, A>F80;L=>< >B=>H5=88, MB> O2;5=8O, > :>B>@KE =5 A<5NB 4C<0BL 8;8 4C<0NB B>;L:> A >B2@0I5=85<. -B8 >B25@3=CBK5 F5=7C@>9 8 =0H54H85 2 A=>2845=88 8A:065==>5 2K@065=85 65;0=8O O2;ONBAO ?@5645 2A53> ?@>O2;5=85< 1573@0=8G=>3> 8 15A?>I04=>3> M3>87<0.  459AB28B5;L=>, A>1AB25==>5 / ?>O2;O5BAO 2 ;N1>< A=>2845=88 8 83@05B 2 =5< 3;02=CN @>;L, 4065 5A;8 MB> C<5;> A:@KB> 2 O2=>< A>45@60=88. -B>B "sacro egoismo" A=>2845=8O, :>=5G=>, A2O70= A CAB0=>2:>9 =0 A>=, :>B>@0O A>AB>8B 2 ?045=88 8=B5@5A0 :> 2A5<C 2=5H=5<C <8@C. !2>1>4=>5 >B 2A5E MB8G5A:8E C7 / 845B =02AB@5GC 2A5< ?@8BO70=8O< A5:AC0;L=>3> 2;5G5=8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 B0:8<, :>B>@K5 402=> >AC645=K =0H8< MAB5B8G5A:8< 2>A?8B0=85< 8 ?@>B82>@5G0B 2A5< MB8G5A:8< >3@0=8G8B5;L=K< B@51>20=8O<. !B@5<;5=85 : C4>2>;LAB28N -- ;8184> (Libido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nempeche pas dexister, -- A;KH0; O 2 B0:8E A;CG0OE <>;>4K< 2@0G>< >B A2>53> CG8B5;O (0@:>. @8E>48BAO A<8@8BLAO A> A2>8<8 A8<?0B8O<8 8 0=B8?0B8O<8, 5A;8 E>G5HL 7=0BL, GB> 2 MB>< <8@5 @50;L=>. A;8 :0:>9-=81C4L D878: 4>:065B 20<, GB> 2 A:>@>< 1C4CI5< >@30=8G5A:0O 687=L =0 75<;5 ?@5:@0B8BAO, ?>A<55B5 ;8 2K 5<C 2>7@078BL: MB>3> =5 <>65B 1KBL, MB0 ?5@A?5:B820 A;8H:>< =5?@8OB=0? / 4C<0N, GB> 2K ?@><>;G8B5 8;8 ?>4>645B5, ?>:0 O28BAO 4@C3>9 D878: 8 C:065B =0 >H81:C 2 53> ?@54?>;>65=8OE 8;8 @0AG5B0E. A;8 2K >BAB@0=O5B5 >B A51O B>, GB> 20< =5?@8OB=>, B> 2K, ?> <5=LH59 <5@5, 459AB2C5B5 :0: <5E0=87< >1@07>20=8O A=>2845=8O, 2<5AB> B>3> GB>1K ?>=OBL 53> 8 >2;045BL 8<. >65B 1KBL, 2K A>3;0A8B5AL B>340 =5 >1@0I0BL 2=8<0=8O =0 >B2@0B8B5;L=K9 E0@0:B5@ >B25@3=CBKE F5=7C@>9 65;0=89, 0 2K428=5B5 4>2>4, GB> ?@>AB> =525@>OB=>, GB>1K 2 :>=AB8BCF88 G5;>25:0 AB>;L:> <5AB0 70=8<0;> 7;>. > 405B ;8 20< 20H >?KB ?@02> B0: 3>2>@8BL? / =5 E>GC 3>2>@8BL > B><, :0:8<8 2K :065B5AL A0<8 A515, => <=>3> ;8 2K =0H;8 1;03>A:;>==>AB8 C A2>53> =0G0;LAB20 8 :>=:C@5=B>2, <=>3> ;8 @KF0@AB20 C A2>8E ---------------------------------------- -B> =5 <5H05B B><C, GB>1K 1K;> B0: (D@0=F.). -- @8<. ?5@. 2@03>2 8 <0;> ;8 7028AB8 2 A2>5< >1I5AB25, GB>1K GC2AB2>20BL A51O >1O70==K< 2KABC?0BL ?@>B82 M3>8AB8G5A:8 7;>3> 2 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?@8@>45? 0725 20< =58725AB=>, :0: ?;>E> 2;0455B A>1>9 8 :0: <0;> 70A;C68205B 4>25@8O A@54=89 G5;>25: 2> 2A5E >1;0ABOE A5:AC0;L=>9 687=8? ;8 2K =5 7=05B5, GB> 2A5 7;>C?>B@51;5=8O 8 15AG8=AB20, :>B>@K5 =0< A=OBAO =>GLN, 5654=52=> A>25@H0NBAO 1>4@AB2CNI8<8 ;N4L<8 :0: 459AB28B5;L=K5 ?@5ABC?;5=8O?  40==>< A;CG05 ?A8E>0=0;87 B>;L:> ?>4B25@6405B AB0@>5 87@5G5=85 ;0B>=0, GB> 4>1@K<8 O2;ONBAO B5, :>B>@K5 4>2>;LAB2CNBAO A=>2845=8O<8 > B><, GB> 7;K5 45;0NB 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8.  B5?5@L >B2;5:8B5AL >B 8=48284C0;L=>3> 8 ?5@5=5A8B5 A2>9 27>@ =0 25;8:CN 2>9=C, :>B>@0O 2A5 5I5 >?CAB>H05B 2@>?C, ?>4C<09B5 > 1573@0=8G=>9 65AB>:>AB8, A28@5?>AB8 8 ;682>AB8, :>B>@K5 A59G0A H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=8;8AL 2 :C;LBC@=>< <8@5. K 459AB28B5;L=> 4C<05B5, GB> :CG:5 15AA>25AB=KE :0@L5@8AB>2 8 A>1;07=8B5;59 C40;>AL 1K A45;0BL AB>;L:> 7;0, 5A;8 1K <8;;8>=K 84CI8E 70 2>60:0<8 =5 1K;8 A>CG0AB=8:0<8 ?@5ABC?;5=8O? 5H8B5AL ;8 2K 8 ?@8 MB8E CA;>28OE ;><0BL :>?LO 70 8A:;NG5=85 7;>3> 87 4CH52=>9 :>=AB8BCF88 G5;>25:0?1 K <=5 2>7@078B5, GB> O >4=>AB>@>==5 AC6C > 2>9=5; >=0 >1=0@C68;0 A0<>5 ?@5:@0A=>5 8 1;03>@>4=>5 2 ;N4OE, 8E 35@>9AB2>, A0<>>B25@65==>ABL, A>F80;L=>5 GC2AB2>. >=5G=>, => =5 1C4LB5 AB>;L 65 =5A?@0254;82K : ?A8E>0=0;87C, :0: B5, :B> C?@5:05B 53> 2 B><, GB> >= >B@8F05B >4=>, GB>1K CB25@640BL 4@C3>5. K =5 A>18@0;8AL >B@8F0BL 1;03>@>4=K5 AB@5<;5=8O G5- ---------------------------------------- 5@A8O > B><, GB> 8AB>G=8: 2>9= A:@KB 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< CAB@>9AB25 G5;>25:0, O2;O5BAO A>25@H5==> =5A>AB>OB5;L=>9. =0 >?@>25@305BAO 8AB>@8G5A:8< >?KB><, C:07K20NI8< =0 @5H0NICN @>;L A>F80;L=KE D0:B>@>2 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 2>9=. ;>25G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K 8 =8G53> =8:>340 =5 45;0;8, GB>1K C<0;8BL 8E 7=0G8<>ABL. 0?@>B82, O ?>:07K20N 20< =5 B>;L:> >B25@3=CBK5 F5=7C@>9 7;K5 65;0=8O A=>2845=8O, => 8 F5=7C@C, :>B>@0O 8E ?>402;O5B 8 45;05B =5C7=0205<K<8. K ?>4G5@:8205< 7;>5 2 G5;>25:5 B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> 4@C385 >B@8F0NB 53>, >BG53> 4CH52=0O 687=L G5;>25:0 AB0=>28BAO E>BO =5 ;CGH5, => =5?>=OB=55. A;8 <K >B:065<AO >B >4=>AB>@>==59 MB8G5A:>9 >F5=:8, B>, :>=5G=>, <>65< =09B8 1>;55 ?@028;L=CN D>@<C A>>B=>H5=8O 7;>3> 8 4>1@>3> 2 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?@8@>45. B0:, 2A5 >AB05BAO ?>-?@56=5<C. 0< =5 =C6=> >B:07K20BLAO >B @57C;LB0B>2 =0H59 @01>BK ?> B>;:>20=8N A=>2845=89, E>BO >=8 8 :06CBAO =0< AB@0==K<8.  ?>:0 70?><=8<: 8A:065=85 A=>2845=8O O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< F5=7C@K, :>B>@0O >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?@87=0==K<8 B5=45=F8O<8 / ?@>B82 =5?@8;8G=KE ?>1C645=89, H525;OI8EAO 2 =0A =>GLN 2> 2@5<O A=0. @0240, ?>G5<C =>GLN 8 >B:C40 15@CBAO MB8 =54>AB>9=K5 65;0=8O, 2 MB>< 5I5 <=>3> =5?>=OB=>3>, GB> ?@54AB>8B 8AA;54>20BL. > A =0H59 AB>@>=K 1K;> 1K =5A?@0254;82>, 5A;8 1K <K =5 2K45;8;8 2 4>AB0B>G=>9 <5@5 4@C3>9 @57C;LB0B MB8E 8AA;54>20=89. 5;0=8O A=>2845=8O, :>B>@K5 =0@CH0NB =0H A>=, =0< =58725AB=K, <K C7=05< > =8E B>;L:> 87 B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89; 8E <>6=> ?>MB><C =0720BL 15AA>7=0B5;L=K<8 2 40==>5 2@5<O 2 C:070==>< 2KH5 A<KA;5. 8452H89 A>= >B25@305B 8E, :0: <K 2845;8 2> <=>38E A;CG0OE, ?>A;5 B>3> :0: C7=0; > =8E 1;03>40@O B>;:>20=8N. >2B>@O5BAO A;CG09, A :>B>@K< <K 2AB@5B8;8AL ?@8 B>;:>20=88 >3>2>@:8 "auf sto/en", :>340 >@0B>@ 2>7<CI5==> C25@O;, GB> =8 B>340, =8 :>340-;81> @0=LH5 >= =5 8A?KBK20; =5?>GB8B5;L=>3> GC2AB20 : A2>5<C H5DC. #65 B>340 <K A><=520;8AL 2 B0:>< 7025@5=88 8 2K428=C;8 2<5AB> =53> ?@54?>;>65=85, GB> >@0B>@ 4>;3> =8G53> =5 7=0; >1 8<5NI5<AO GC2AB25. "5?5@L MB> ?>2B>@O5BAO ?@8 2AO:>< B>;:>20=88 A8;L=> 8A:065==>3> A=>2845=8O 8 B5< A0<K< ?@8>1@5B05B 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 4;O ?>4B25@645=8O =0H59 B>G:8 7@5=8O. K 3>B>2K ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 2 4CH52=>9 687=8 5ABL ?@>F5AAK, B5=45=F88, > :>B>@KE G5;>25: 2>>1I5 =8G53> =5 7=05B, >G5=L 402=> =8G53> =5 7=05B, 2>7<>6=>, =8:>340 =8G53> =5 7=0;. ;03>40@O MB><C 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 ?>;CG05B 4;O =0A =>2K9 A<KA;; ?>=OB85 "2 40==>5 2@5<O" 8;8 "2@5<5==>" 8AG5705B 87 53> ACI=>AB8, >=> <>65B B0:65 >7=0G0BL 4;8B5;L=> 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5, 0 =5 B>;L:> "A:@KB>5 =0 40==>5 2@5<O". 1 MB>< =0<, :>=5G=>, B>65 ?@845BAO ?>3>2>@8BL 2 4@C3>9 @07. !/"/ &/ ! !M #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! K C1548;8AL, GB> 8A:065=85, :>B>@>5 <5H05B =0< ?>=OBL A=>2845=85, O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< 45OB5;L=>AB8 F5=7C@K, =0?@02;5==>9 ?@>B82 =5?@85<;5<KE, 15AA>7=0B5;L=KE 65;0=89. > <K, :>=5G=>, =5 CB25@6405<, GB> F5=7C@0 O2;O5BAO 548=AB25==K< D0:B>@><, 2K7K20NI8< 8A:065=85 A=>2845=8O, 8 2 40;L=59H5< <K 459AB28B5;L=> <>65< CAB0=>28BL, GB> 2 MB>< 8A:065=88 CG0AB2CNB 8 4@C385 <><5=BK. -B8< <K E>B8< A:070BL, GB> 5A;8 F5=7C@C A=>2845=8O <>6=> 1K;> 1K 8A:;NG8BL, <K 2A5 @02=> 1K;8 1K =5 2 A>AB>O=88 ?>=OBL A=>2845=8O, O2=>5 A=>2845=85 =5 1K;> 1K 845=B8G=> A:@KBK< 53> <KA;O<. -B>B 4@C3>9 <><5=B, 70B5<=ONI89 A=>2845=85, MB>B =>2K9 D0:B>@ 53> 8A:065=8O <K >B:@>5<, 5A;8 >1@0B8< 2=8<0=85 =0 87JO= =0H59 B5E=8:8. / C65 ?@87=020;AO 20<, GB> 0=0;878@C5<K< 8=>340 459AB28B5;L=> =8G53> =5 ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C ?> ?>2>4C >B45;L=KE M;5<5=B>2 A=>2845=8O. @0240, MB> ?@>8AE>48B =5 B0: G0AB>, :0: >=8 CB25@640NB; 2 >G5=L <=>38E A;CG0OE ?@8 =0AB>9G82>AB8 <KA;L 2A5-B0:8 <>6=> 70AB028BL ?>O28BLAO. > 1K20NB, >4=0:>, A;CG08, 2 :>B>@KE 0AA>F80F8O =5 ?>;CG05BAO 8;8, 5A;8 55 2K=C48BL, >=0 =5 405B B>3>, GB> <K >B =55 >68405<. A;8 MB> ?@>8AE>48B 2> 2@5<O ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> ;5G5=8O, B> ?@8>1@5B05B >A>1>5 7=0G5=85, > G5< <K =5 1C45< 745AL 3>2>@8BL. > MB> A;CG05BAO 8 ?@8 B>;:>20=88 A=>2845=89 C =>@<0;L=KE ;N459 8;8 ?@8 B>;:>20=88 A2>8E A>1AB25==KE A=>2845=88. >340 2848HL, GB> =8:0:0O =0AB>9G82>ABL =5 ?><>305B, B> 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 C156405HLAO, GB> =565;0B5;L=0O A;CG09=>ABL @53C;O@=> ?>2B>@O5BAO ?@8 >?@545;5==KE M;5<5=B0E A=>2845=8O, 8 B>340 =0G8=05HL 2845BL =>2CN 70:>=><5@=>ABL B0<, 345 A=0G0;0 ?@54?>;030; B>;L:> =5A>AB>OB5;L=>ABL B5E=8:8.  B0:8E A;CG0OE 2>7=8:05B A>1;07= A0<><C 8AB>;:>20BL MB8 "=5<K5" M;5<5=BK A=>2845=8O, ?@54?@8=8<05HL 8E ?5@52>4 (,bersetzung) A>1AB25==K<8 A@54AB20<8. !0<> A>1>9 ?>;CG05BAO, GB>, 5A;8 4>25@8BLAO B0:><C 70<5I5=8N, :064K9 @07 =0E>48HL 4;O A=>2845=8O 2?>;=5 C4>2;5B2>@ONI89 A<KA;; 0 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 =5 @5H8HLAO =0 MB>B ?@85<, A=>2845=85 >AB05BAO 15AA<KA;5==K< 8 53> A2O7=>ABL =0@CH05BAO. >2B>@5=85 <=>38E G@572KG09=> ?>E>68E A;CG052 ?@8405B =0H59 2=0G0;5 @>1:>9 ?>?KB:5 =5>1E>48<CN C25@5==>ABL. / 87;030N 2A5 =5A:>;L:> AE5<0B8G=>, => MB> 2?>;=5 4>?CAB8<> 2 4840:B8G5A:8E F5;OE, 8 <>5 87;>65=85 =5 D0;LA8D8:0F8O, 0 =5:>B>@>5 C?@>I5=85. "0:8< >1@07>< 4;O F5;>3> @O40 M;5<5=B>2 A=>2845=89 ?>;CG05HL >4=8 8 B5 65 ?5@52>4K, ?>4>1=> B5<, :0:85 <>6=> =09B8 2 =0H8E ?>?C;O@=KE A>==8:0E 4;O 2A52>7<>6=KE ?@8A=82H8EAO 25I59. 4=0:> =5 701K209B5, GB> ?@8 =0H59 0AA>F80B82=>9 B5E=8:5 ?>AB>O==K5 70<5I5=8O M;5<5=B>2 A=>2845=8O =8:>340 =5 2AB@5G0;8AL. K A@07C 65 2>7@078B5, GB> MB>B ?CBL B>;:>20=8O :065BAO 20< 5I5 1>;55 =5=0456=K< 8 A?>@=K<, G5< ?@56=89 ?>A@54AB2>< A2>1>4=KE 0AA>F80F89. > 745AL A;54C5B :>5-GB> 4>1028BL. >340 1;03>40@O >?KBC =0- :0?;8205BAO 4>AB0B>G=> B0:8E ?>AB>O==KE 70<5I5=89, =0G8=05HL ?>=8<0BL, GB> MB> G0AB8G=>5 B>;:>20=85 459AB28B5;L=> 2>7<>6=> 8AE>4O 87 A>1AB25==KE 7=0=89, GB> M;5<5=BK A=>2845=8O 459AB28B5;L=> <>6=> ?>=OBL 157 [8A?>;L7>20=8O] 0AA>F80F88 28452H53> A>=. 0:8< >1@07>< <>6=> C7=0BL 8E 7=0G5=85, >1 MB>< 1C45B A:070=> 2> 2B>@>9 G0AB8 =0H53> 87;>65=8O. -B> ?>AB>O==>5 >B=>H5=85 <564C M;5<5=B>< A=>2845=8O 8 53> ?5@52>4>< <K =07K205< A8<2>;8G5A:8< (symbolische), A0< M;5<5=B A=>2845=8O A8<2>;>< (Symbol) 15AA>7=0B5;L=>9 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O. K ?><=8B5, GB> @0=LH5 ?@8 8AA;54>20=88 >B=>H5=89 <564C M;5<5=B0<8 A=>2845=8O 8 53> A>1AB25==K< [A>45@60=85<] O 2K45;8; B@8 2840 B0:8E >B=>H5=89: G0AB8 >B F5;>3>, =0<5:0 8 >1@07=>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O.  G5B25@B>< O B>340 C?><O=C;, => =5 =0720; 53>. 2545==>5 745AL A8<2>;8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 O2;O5BAO MB8< G5B25@BK<. > ?>2>4C =53> 8<5NBAO >G5=L 8=B5@5A=K5 A>>1@065=8O, : :>B>@K< <K >1@0B8<AO, ?@5645 G5< ?@8ABC?8< : 87;>65=8N =0H8E A?5F80;L=KE =01;N45=89 =04 A8<2>;8:>9. !8<2>;8:0, <>65B 1KBL, A0<0O ?@8<5G0B5;L=0O G0ABL 2 B5>@88 A=>2845=8O. @5645 2A53>: 2284C B>3>, GB> A8<2>;K 8<5NB CAB>O2H85AO ?5@52>4K, >=8 2 8725AB=>9 <5@5 @50;87CNB 8450; 0=B8G=>3> 8 ?>?C;O@=>3> B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89, >B :>B>@>3> <K ?@8 =0H59 B5E=8:5 B0: 40;5:> CH;8. =8 ?>72>;ONB =0< 8=>340 B>;:>20BL A=>2845=8O, =5 @0AA?@0H820O 28452H53> A>=, 254L >= 2A5 @02=> =8G53> =5 A<>65B A:070BL ?> ?>2>4C A8<2>;0. A;8 7=0BL ?@8=OBK5 A8<2>;K A=>2845=89 8 : B><C 65 ;8G=>ABL 28452H53> A>=, CA;>28O, 2 :>B>@KE >= 6825B, 8 ?>;CG5==K5 8< 4> A=>2845=8O 2?5G0B;5=8O, B> G0AB> <K >:07K205<AO 2 A>AB>O=88 157 70B@C4=5=89 8AB>;:>20BL A=>2845=85, ?5@525AB8 53> A@07C 65. "0:>9 D>:CA ;LAB8B B>;:>20B5;N 8 8<?>=8@C5B 28452H5<C A>=; MB> 2K3>4=> >B;8G05BAO >B CB><8B5;L=>9 @01>BK ?@8 @0AA?@>A0E 28452H53> A>=. > ?CABL MB> =5 22545B 20A 2 701;C645=85. K =5 AB028< ?5@54 A>1>9 7040GC ?>:07K20BL D>:CAK. ">;:>20=85, >A=>20==>5 =0 7=0=88 A8<2>;>2, =5 O2;O5BAO B5E=8:>9, :>B>@0O <>65B 70<5=8BL 0AA>F80B82=CN 8;8 @02=OBLAO A =59. !8<2>;8G5A:>5 B>;:>20=85 O2;O5BAO B>;L:> 4>?>;=5=85< : =59 8 405B F5==K5 @57C;LB0BK ;8HL 2 A>G5B0=88 A 0AA>F80B82=>9 B5E=8:>9.  GB> :0A05BAO 7=0=8O ?A8E8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88 28452H53> A>=, B> ?@>HC ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85, GB> 20< ?@845BAO B>;:>20BL A=>2845=8O =5 B>;L:> E>@>H> 7=0:><KE ;N459, GB> >1KG=> 2K =5 1C45B5 7=0BL A>1KB89 4=O, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO ?>1C48B5;O<8 A=>2845=89, 8 GB> <KA;8, ?@8E>4OI85 2 3>;>2C 0=0;878@C5<>3>, :0: @07 8 404CB 20< 7=0=85 B>3>, GB> =07K205BAO ?A8E8G5A:>9 A8BC0F859.  A2O78 A >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8, > :>B>@KE 1C45B 84B8 @5GL =865, 4>AB>9=> >A>1>3> 2=8<0=8O B>, GB> ?@87=0=85 ACI5AB2>20=8O A8<2>;8G5A:>3> >B=>H5=8O <564C A=>2845=85< 8 15AA>7=0B5;L=K< 2K7K20;> >?OBL-B0:8 A0<K5 M=5@38G=K5 2>7@065=8O. 065 ;N48, >1;040NI85 A<5;>ABLN AC645=8O 8 ?>;L7CNI85AO ?@87=0=85<, ?@>H54H85 A ?A8E>0=0;87>< 7=0G8B5;L=K9 ?CBL, >B:070;8AL 2 MB>< A;54>20BL 70 =8<. "0:>5 >B=>H5=85 B5< 1>;55 C4828B5;L=>, GB>, 2>-?5@2KE, A8<2>;8:0 A2>9AB25==0 8 E0@0:B5@=0 =5 B>;L:> 4;O A=>2845=8O, 0 2>-2B>@KE, A8<2>;8:C 2 A=>2845=88, :0: =8 1>30B >= >H5;><;ONI8<8 >B:@KB8O<8, >B:@K; =5 ?A8E>0=0;87. A;8 C6 2>>1I5 ?@8?8AK20BL >B:@KB85 A8<2>;8:8 A=>2845=8O A>2@5<5==8:0<, B> A;54C5B =0720BL D8;>A>D0 . . (5@=5@0 (Scherner, 1861). A8E>0=0;87 B>;L:> ?>4B25@48; >B:@KB8O (5@=5@0, E>BO 8 >A=>20B5;L=> 284>87<5=8; 8E. "5?5@L 20< E>G5BAO CA;KH0BL GB>-=81C4L > ACI=>AB8 A8<2>;8:8 A=>2845=8O 8 ?>7=0:><8BLAO A 55 ?@8<5@0<8. / >E>B=> A>>1IC 20<, GB> 7=0N, => A>7=0NAL, GB> =0H8 7=0=8O =5 A>>B25BAB2CNB B><C, G53> 1K =0< E>B5;>AL. !CI=>ABLN A8<2>;8G5A:>3> >B=>H5=8O O2;O5BAO A@02=5=85, E>BO 8 =5 ;N1>5. @54?>;0305BAO, GB> MB> A@02=5=85 >A>1K< >1@07>< >1CA;>2;5=>, E>BO MB0 >1CA;>2;5==>ABL =0< =5 A>2A5< OA=0. 5 2A5 B>, A G5< <K <>65< A@02=8BL :0:>9-B> ?@54<5B 8;8 ?@>F5AA, 2KABC?05B 2 A=>2845=88 :0: A8<2>;. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, A=>2845=85 2K@0605B 2 A8<2>;0E =5 2A5, 0 B>;L:> >?@545;5==K5 M;5<5=BK A:@KBKE <KA;59 A=>2845=8O. B0:, >3@0=8G5=8O 8<5NBAO A >158E AB>@>=. !;54C5B B0:65 A>3;0A8BLAO A B5<, GB> ?>:0 ?>=OB85 A8<2>;0 =5;L7O AB@>3> >?@545;8BL, >=> A;8205BAO A 70<5I5=85<, 87>1@065=85< 8 B. ?., ?@81;8605BAO : =0<5:C. 560I55 2 >A=>25 A@02=5=8O 2 @O45 A8<2>;>2 >A<KA;5==>. 0@O4C A MB8<8 A8<2>;0<8 5ABL 4@C385, ?@8 :>B>@KE 2>7=8:05B 2>?@>A, 345 8A:0BL >1I55, Tertium comparationis MB>3> ?@54?>;0305<>3> A@02=5=8O. @8 1;8609H5< @0AA<>B@5=88 <K ;81> =0945< 53>, ;81> 459AB28B5;L=> >=> >AB0=5BAO A:@KBK< >B =0A. #4828B5;L=>, 40;55, B>, GB> 5A;8 A8<2>; 8 O2;O5BAO A@02=5=85<, B> >=> =5 >1=0@C68205BAO ?@8 ?><>I8 0AA>F80F88, GB> 28452H89 A>= B>65 =5 7=05B A@02=5=8O, ?>;L7C5BAO 8<, =5 7=0O > =5<. 065 1>;LH5 B>3>, 28452H89 A>= =5 65;05B ?@87=020BL MB> A@02=5=85, :>340 5<C =0 =53> C:07K20NB. B0:, 2K 2848B5, GB> A8<2>;8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 O2;O5BAO A@02=5=85< A>25@H5==> >A>1>3> @>40, >1CA;>2;5==>ABL :>B>@>3> =0< 5I5 =5 A>2A5< OA=0. >65B 1KBL, C:070=8O 4;O 53> 2KOA=5=8O >1=0@C60BAO 2 40;L=59H5<. '8A;> ?@54<5B>2, 87>1@0605<KE 2 A=>2845=88 A8<2>;8G5A:8, =525;8:>. '5;>25G5A:>5 B5;> 2 F5;><, @>48B5;8, 45B8, 1@0BLO 8 A5AB@K, @>645=85, A<5@BL, =03>B0 8 5I5 =5<=>3>5. 48=AB25==> B8?8G=>5, B. 5. ?>- ---------------------------------------- Tertium comparationis -- "B@5BL5 2 A@02=5=88", B. 5. >1I55 2 42CE A@02=8205<KE <564C A>1>9 O2;5=8OE, A;C60I55 >A=>20=85< 4;O A@02=5=8O. -- @8<. @54. ?5@52>40. AB>O==>5 87>1@065=85 G5;>25:0 2 F5;><, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 4><, :0: ?@87=0; (5@=5@, :>B>@K9 4065 E>B5; ?@840BL MB><C A8<2>;C ?5@2>AB5?5==>5 7=0G5=85, :>B>@>5 5<C =5 A2>9AB25==>.  A=>2845=88 A;CG05BAO A?CA:0BLAO ?> D0A04C 4><>2 B> A C4>2>;LAB285<, B> A> AB@0E><. ><0 A A>25@H5==> 3;04:8<8 AB5=0<8 87>1@060NB <C6G8=; 4><0 A 2KABC?0<8 8 10;:>=0<8, 70 :>B>@K5 <>6=> 45@60BLAO, -- 65=I8=. >48B5;8 ?>O2;ONBAO 2> A=5 2 2845 8<?5@0B>@0 8 8<?5@0B@8FK, :>@>;O 8 :>@>;52K 8;8 4@C38E ?@54AB028B5;L=KE ;8F, ?@8 MB>< A=>2845=85 ?@58A?>;=5=> GC2AB20 ?>GB5=8O. 5=55 =56=> A=>2845=85 >B=>A8BAO : 45BO<, 1@0BLO< 8 A5AB@0<, >=8 A8<2>;878@CNBAO <0;5=L:8<8 725@5=KH0<8, ?0@078B0<8. >645=85 ?>GB8 2A5340 87>1@0605BAO ?>A@54AB2>< :0:>3>-;81> >B=>H5=8O : 2>45, 2 2>4C 8;8 1@>A0NBAO, 8;8 2KE>4OB 87 =55, 87 2>4K :>3>-=81C4L A?0A0NB 8;8 B51O A?0A0NB 87 =55, GB> >7=0G05B <0B5@8=A:>5 >B=>H5=85 : A?0A05<><C. #<8@0=85 70<5=O5BAO 2> A=5 >BJ574><, ?>574:>9 ?> 65;57=>9 4>@>35, A<5@BL -- @07;8G=K<8 =5OA=K<8, :0: 1K =5@5H8B5;L=K<8 =0<5:0<8, =03>B0 -- >4564>9 8 D>@<5==>9 >4564>9. K 2848B5, :0: BCB AB8@0NBAO 3@0=8FK <564C A8<2>;8G5A:8< 8 =0<5:0NI8< 87>1@065=85<. @>A05BAO 2 3;070, GB> ?> A@02=5=8N A ?5@5G8A;5==K<8 >1J5:B0<8 >1J5:BK 87 4@C3>9 >1;0AB8 ?@54AB02;5=K G@572KG09=> 1>30B>9 A8<2>;8:>9. "0:>20 >1;0ABL A5:AC0;L=>9 687=8, 35=8B0;89, ?>;>2KE ?@>F5AA>2, ?>;>2KE A=>H5=89. '@572KG09=> 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> A8<2>;>2 2 A=>2845=88 O2;ONBAO A5:AC0;L=K<8 A8<2>;0<8. @8 MB>< 2KOA=O5BAO C4828B5;L=>5 =5A>>B25BAB285. 1>7=0G05<KE A>45@60=89 =5<=>3>, A8<2>;K 65 4;O =8E G@572KG09=> <=>3>G8A;5==K, B0: GB> :064>5 87 MB8E A>45@60=89 <>65B 1KBL 2K@065=> 1>;LH8< G8A;>< ?>GB8 @02=>7=0G=KE A8<2>;>2. @8 B>;:>20=88 ?>;CG05BAO :0@B8=0, 2K7K20NI0O 2A5>1I55 2>7<CI5=85. ">;:>20=8O A8<2>;>2 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL <=>3>>1@078N 87>1@065=89 A=>2845=8O >G5=L >4=>>1@07=K. -B> =5 =@028BAO :064><C, :B> >1 MB>< C7=05B, => GB> 65 ?>45;05HL? "0: :0: 2 MB>9 ;5:F88 <K 2?5@2K5 3>2>@8< > 2>?@>A0E ?>;>2>9 687=8, O AG8B0N A2>8< 4>;3>< A>>1I8BL 20<, :0: O A>18@0NAL 87;030BL MBC B5<C. A8E>0=0;87 =5 2848B ?@8G8= 4;O A:@K20=8O 8 =0<5:>2, =5 AG8B05B =C6=K< ABK48BLAO >1AC645=8O MB>3> 206=>3> <0B5@80;0, ?>;0305B, GB> :>@@5:B=> 8 ?@8AB>9=> 2A5 =07K20BL A2>8<8 =0AB>OI8<8 8<5=0<8, 8 =0455BAO B0:8< >1@07>< A:>@55 2A53> CAB@0=8BL <5H0NI85 ?>AB>@>==85 <KA;8. "> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, GB> <=5 ?@8E>48BAO 3>2>@8BL ?5@54 A<5H0==>9 0C48B>@859, ?@54AB02;ONI59 >10 ?>;0, =8G53> =5 <>65B 87<5=8BL. 0: =5B =0C:8 in usum delphini, B0: =5B 55 8 4;O 452>G5:-?>4@>AB:>2, 0 40<K A2>8< ?>O2;5=85< 2 MB>9 0C48B>@88 40NB ?>=OBL, GB> >=8 E>BOB ?>AB028BL A51O =0@02=5 A <C6G8=0<8. B0:, A=>2845=85 87>1@0605B <C6A:85 35=8B0;88 =5A:>;L:8<8 A8<2>;0<8, 2 :>B>@KE ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 2?>;=5 >G5284=> >1I55 >A=>20=85 4;O A@02=5=8O. @5645 2A53>, 4;O <C6A:8E 35=8B0;89 2 F5;>< A8<2>;8G5A:8 206=> A2OI5==>5 G8A;> 3. @82;5:0NI0O 1>;LH55 2=8<0=85 8 8=B5@5A=0O 4;O >1>8E ?>;>2 G0ABL 35=8B0;89, <C6A:>9 G;5=, A8<2>;8G5A:8 70<5=O5BAO, 2>-?5@2KE, ?>E>68<8 =0 =53> ?> D>@<5, B> 5ABL 4;8==K<8 8 B>@G0I8<8 225@E ?@54<5B0<8, B0:8<8, =0?@8<5@, :0: ?0;:8, 7>=BK, H5ABK, 45@52LO 8 B. ?. 0B5< ?@54<5B0<8, 8<5NI8<8 A >1>7=0G05<K< AE>4AB2> ?@>=8:0BL 2=CB@L 8 @0=8BL, B. 5. 2AO:>3> @>40 >AB@K< >@C685<, =>60<8, :8=60;0<8, :>?LO<8, A01;O<8, 0 B0:65 >3=5AB@5;L=K< >@C685<: @C6LO<8, ?8AB>;5B0<8 8 >G5=L ?>E>68< ?> A2>59 D>@<5 @5- ---------------------------------------- ;O 4>D8=0. 2>;L25@><.  AB@0H=KE A=0E 452CH5: 1>;LHCN @>;L 83@05B ?@5A;54>20=85 <C6G8=K A =>6>< 8;8 >3=5AB@5;L=K< >@C685<. -B>, <>65B 1KBL, A0<K9 G0ABK9 A;CG09 A8<2>;8:8 A=>2845=8O, :>B>@K9 2K B5?5@L ;53:> <>65B5 ?>=OBL. "0:65 2?>;=5 ?>=OB=0 70<5=0 <C6A:>3> G;5=0 ?@54<5B0<8, 87 :>B>@KE ;L5BAO 2>40: 2>4>?@>2>4=K<8 :@0=0<8, ;59:0<8, D>=B0=0<8 8 4@C38<8 ?@54<5B0<8, >1;040NI8<8 A?>A>1=>ABLN 2KBO3820BLAO 2 4;8=C, =0?@8<5@, 28AOG8<8 ;0<?0<8, 2K42830NI8<8AO :0@0=40H0<8 8 B. 4. ?>;=5 ?>=OB=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 MB>< >@30=5 >1CA;>2;8205B B>G=> B0: 65 B>, GB> :0@0=40H8, @CG:8, ?8;>G:8 4;O =>3B59, <>;>B:8 8 4@C385 8=AB@C<5=BK O2;ONBAO =5A><=5==K<8 <C6A:8<8 ?>;>2K<8 A8<2>;0<8. ;03>40@O ?@8<5G0B5;L=><C A2>9AB2C G;5=0 ?>4=8<0BLAO 2 =0?@02;5=88, ?@>B82>?>;>6=>< A8;5 ?@8BO65=8O (>4=> 87 ?@>O2;5=89 M@5:F88), >= 87>1@0605BAO A8<2>;8G5A:8 2 2845 2>74CH=>3> H0@0, 0M@>?;0=>2, 0 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 2 2845 2>74CH=>3> :>@01;O F5??5;8=0. > A=>2845=85 <>65B A8<2>;8G5A:8 87>1@078BL M@5:F8N 5I5 8=K<, 3>@074> 1>;55 2K@078B5;L=K< A?>A>1><. => 45;05B ?>;>2>9 >@30= A0<>9 ACBLN ;8G=>AB8 8 70AB02;O5B 55 ;5B0BL. 5 >3>@G09B5AL, GB> G0AB> B0:85 ?@5:@0A=K5 A=K A ?>;5B0<8, :>B>@K5 <K 2A5 7=05<, 4>;6=K 1KBL 8AB>;:>20=K :0: A=>2845=8O >1I53> A5:AC0;L=>3> 2>71C645=8O, :0: M@5:F8>==K5 A=>2845=8O. !@548 8AA;54>20B5;59-?A8E>0=0;8B8:>2 . $545@= (1914) 4>:070;, GB> B0:>5 B>;:>20=85 =5 ?>4;568B =8:0:><C A><=5=8N, => 8 ?>G8B05<K9 70 A2>N ?540=B8G=>ABL >C@;8 >;L4, M:A?5@8<5=B8@>202H89 =04 A=>2845=8O<8, ?@84020O 8A:CAAB25==>5 ?>;>65=85 @C:0< 8 =>30<, 8 AB>O2H89 2 AB>@>=5 >B ?A8E>0=0;870, <>65B 1KBL, 4065 =8G53> =5 7=02H89 > =5<, ?@8H5; 2 A2>8E 8AA;54>20=8OE : B><C 65 2K2>4C (1910-1912, B. 2, 791). 5 2>7@0609B5, GB> 65=I8=0< B>65 <>65B ?@8A=8BLAO, GB> >=8 ;5B0NB. A?><=8B5 ;CGH5, GB> =0H8 A=>2845=8O E>BOB 8A?>;=8BL =0H8 65;0=8O 8 GB> >G5=L G0AB> C 65=I8= 1K205B A>7=0B5;L=>5 8;8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 65;0=85 1KBL <C6G8=>9.  2AO:><C 7=0NI5<C 0=0B><8N ?>=OB=>, GB> 8 65=I8=0 <>65B @50;87>20BL MB> 65;0=85 B5<8 65 >ICI5=8O<8, GB> 8 <C6G8=0.  A2>8E 35=8B0;8OE 65=I8=0 B>65 8<55B <0;5=L:89 >@30=, 0=0;>38G=K9 <C6A:><C, 8 MB>B <0;5=L:89 >@30=, :;8B>@, 83@05B 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5 8 2 2>7@0AB5 ?5@54 =0G0;>< ?>;>2>9 687=8 BC 65 @>;L, GB> 8 1>;LH>9 <C6A:>9 ?>;>2>9 G;5=.  G8A;C <5=55 ?>=OB=KE <C6A:8E A5:AC0;L=KE A8<2>;>2 >B=>AOBAO >?@545;5==K5 ?@5A<K:0NI85AO 8 @K1K, ?@5645 2A53> 8725AB=K9 A8<2>; 7<58. >G5<C H;O?0 8 ?0;LB> ?@8>1@5;8 B0:>5 65 A8<2>;8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85, :>=5G=>, =5;53:> C7=0BL, => >=> =5A><=5==>. 0:>=5F, 2>7=8:05B 5I5 2>?@>A, <>6=> ;8 AG8B0BL A8<2>;8G5A:8< 70<5I5=85 <C6A:>3> >@30=0 :0:8<-=81C4L 4@C38<, =>3>9 8;8 @C:>9. / 4C<0N, GB> >1I89 E>4 A=>2845=8O 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 0=0;>388 C 65=I8= 70AB02;ONB =0A MB> A45;0BL. 5=A:85 ?>;>2K5 >@30=K 87>1@060NBAO A8<2>;8G5A:8 ?@8 ?><>I8 2A5E ?@54<5B>2, >1;040NI8E A2>9AB2>< >3@0=8G820BL ?>;>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2>, GB>-B> ?@8=OBL 2 A51O. ". 5. ?@8 ?><>I8 H0EB, :>?59 8 ?5I5@, ?@8 ?><>I8 A>AC4>2 8 1CBK;>:, :>@>1>:, B010:5@>:, G5<>40=>2, 10=>:, OI8:>2, :0@<0=>2 8 B. 4. !C4=> B>65 >B=>A8BAO : 8E @07@O4C. =>385 A8<2>;K 8<5NB 1>;LH5 >B=>H5=8O : <0B:5, G5< : 35=8B0;8O< 65=I8=K, B0:>2K H:0DK, ?5G8 8 ?@5645 2A53> :><=0B0. !8<2>;8:0 :><=0BK A>?@8:0A05BAO 745AL A A8<2>;8:>9 4><0, 425@8 8 2>@>B0 AB0=>2OBAO A8<2>;0<8 ?>;>2>3> >B25@AB8O. 0B5@80;K B>65 <>3CB 1KBL A8<2>;0<8 65=I8=K, 45@52>, 1C<030 8 ?@54<5BK, A45;0==K5 87 MB8E <0B5@80;>2, =0?@8<5@, AB>; 8 :=830. 7 682>B=KE =5A><=5==K<8 65=A:8<8 A8<2>;0<8 O2;ONBAO C;8B- :0 8 @0:>28=0; 87 G0AB59 B5;0 @>B :0: >1@07 ?>;>2>3> >B25@AB8O, 87 AB@>5=89 F5@:>2L 8 :0?5;;0. 0: 2848B5, =5 2A5 A8<2>;K >48=0:>2> ?>=OB=K.  35=8B0;8O< A;54C5B >B=5AB8 B0:65 8 3@C48, :>B>@K5, :0: 8 O3>48FK 65=A:>3> B5;0, 87>1@060NBAO ?@8 ?><>I8 O1;>:, ?5@A8:>2, 2>>1I5 D@C:B>2. >;>AK =0 35=8B0;8OE >1>8E ?>;>2 A=>2845=85 >?8AK205B :0: ;5A 8 :CAB0@=8:. !;>6=>ABLN B>?>3@0D88 65=A:8E ?>;>2KE >@30=>2 >1JOA=O5BAO B>, GB> >=8 G0AB> 87>1@060NBAO ;0=4H0DB><, A> A:0;0<8, ;5A>< 8 2>4>9, <564C B5< :0: 2=CH8B5;L=K9 <5E0=87< <C6A:>3> ?>;>2>3> 0??0@0B0 ?@82>48B : B><C, GB> 53> A8<2>;0<8 AB0=>2OBAO B@C4=> ?>440NI85AO >?8A0=8N 2 2845 A;>6=KE <0H8=. 0: A8<2>; 65=A:8E 35=8B0;89 A;54C5B C?><O=CBL 5I5 H:0BC;:C 4;O C:@0H5=89, 4@03>F5==>ABLN 8 A>:@>28I5< =07K20NBAO ;N18<K5 ;8F0 8 2> A=5; A;04>AB8 G0AB> 87>1@060NB ?>;>2>5 =0A;0645=85. !0<>C4>2;5B2>@5=85 >1>7=0G05BAO G0AB> :0: 2AO:>3> @>40 83@0, B0: 65 :0: 83@0 =0 D>@B5?80=>. "8?8G=K< 87>1@065=85< >=0=87<0 O2;O5BAO A:>;L65=85 8 A:0BK20=85, 0 B0:65 A@K20=85 25B:8. A>15==> ?@8<5G0B5;5= A8<2>; 2K?045=8O 8;8 2K@K20=8O 7C10. @5645 2A53> >= >7=0G05B :0AB@0F8N 2 =0:070=85 70 >=0=87<. A>1K5 A8<2>;K 4;O 87>1@065=8O 2 A=>2845=88 ?>;>2>3> 0:B0 <5=55 <=>3>G8A;5==K, G5< <>6=> 1K;> 1K >6840BL =0 >A=>20=88 2KH587;>65==>3>. 45AL A;54C5B C?><O=CBL @8B<8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, =0?@8<5@, B0=FK, 25@E>2CN 574C. ?>4J5<K, 0 B0:65 ?5@56820=8O, A2O70==K5 A =0A8;85<, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 1KBL 70402;5==K<. !N40 65 >B=>AOBAO >?@545;5==K5 @5<5A;5==K5 @01>BK 8, :>=5G=>, C3@>70 >@C685<. K =5 4>;6=K ?@54AB02;OBL A515 C?>B@51;5=85 8 ?5@52>4 MB8E A8<2>;>2 G5<-B> >G5=L ?@>ABK<. @8 MB>< 2>7<>6=K 2AO:85 A;CG09=>AB8, ?@>B82>@5G0I85 =0H8< >6840=8O<. "0:, =0?@8<5@, :065BAO <0;>25@>OB=K<, GB> ?>;>2K5 @07;8G8O 2 MB8E A8<2>;8G5A:8E 87>1@065=8OE ?@>O2;ONBAO =5 @57:>. 5:>B>@K5 A8<2>;K >7=0G0NB 35=8B0;88 2>>1I5, 157@07;8G=>, <C6A:85 8;8 65=A:85, =0?@8<5@, <0;5=L:89 @515=>:, <0;5=L:89 AK= 8;8 <0;5=L:0O 4>GL. =>9 @07 ?@58<CI5AB25==> <C6A:>9 A8<2>; <>65B C?>B@51;OBLAO 4;O 65=A:8E 35=8B0;89 8;8 =0>1>@>B. -B> =5;L7O ?>=OBL 157 1>;55 1;87:>3> 7=0:><AB20 A @0728B85< A5:AC0;L=KE ?@54AB02;5=89 G5;>25:0.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE MB0 42>9AB25==>ABL B>;L:> :06CI0OAO; A0<K5 O@:85 87 A8<2>;>2, B0:85, :0: >@C685, :0@<0=, OI8:, =5 <>3CB C?>B@51;OBLAO 2 18A5:AC0;L=>< 7=0G5=88. "5?5@L O 1C4C 8AE>48BL =5 87 87>1@0605<>3>, 0 87 A8<2>;0, @0AA<>B@N B5 >1;0AB8, 87 :>B>@KE ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 15@CBAO A5:AC0;L=K5 A8<2>;K, 8 ?@8102;N =5:>B>@K5 4>?>;=5=8O, ?@8=8<0O 2> 2=8<0=85 A8<2>;K, 2 :>B>@KE =5OA=0 >1I0O >A=>20. "0:8< B5<=K< A8<2>;>< O2;O5BAO H;O?0, <>65B 1KBL, 2>>1I5 3>;>2=>9 C1>@ >1KG=> A <C6A:8< 7=0G5=85<, => 8=>340 8 A 65=A:8<. ">G=> B0: 65 ?0;LB> >7=0G05B <C6G8=C, => =5 2A5340 2 ?>;>2>< >B=>H5=88. K <>65B5 A:>;L:> C3>4=> A?@0H820BL ?>G5<C. !28A0NI89 30;ABC:, :>B>@K9 65=I8=0 =5 =>A8B, O2;O5BAO O2=> <C6A:8< A8<2>;><. 5;>5 15;L5, 2>>1I5 ?>;>B=> A8<2>;878@C5B 65=A:>5; ?;0BL5, D>@<5==0O >45640, :0: <K C65 7=05<, O2;O5BAO 70<5AB8B5;O<8 =03>BK, D>@< B5;0, 0 10H<0:, BCD;O -- 65=A:8E 35=8B0;89; AB>; 8 45@52> :0: 70304>G=K5, => >?@545;5==> 65=A:85 A8<2>;K C65 C?><8=0;8AL. AO:>3> @>40 ;5AB=8FK, AB@5<O=:8 8 ?>4J5< ?> =8< -- =5A><=5==K9 A8<2>; ?>;>2>3> 0:B0. 4C<02H8AL, <K >1@0B8< 2=8<0=85 =0 @8B<8G=>ABL MB>3> ?>4J5<0, :>B>@0O, :0: 8, 2>7<>6=>, 2>7@0AB0=85 2>71C645=8O, >4KH:0 ?> <5@5 ?>4J5<0, O2;O5BAO >1I59 >A=>2>9. K C65 C?><8=0;8 > ;0=4H0DB5 :0: 87>1@065=88 65=A:8E 35=8B0;89. >@0 8 A:0;0 -- A8<2>;K <C6A:>3> G;5=0; A04 -- G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI89AO A8<2>; 65=A:8E 35=8B0;89. ;>4 8<55B 7=0G5=85 =5 @515=:0, 0 3@C459. 8:85 725@8 >7=0G0NB GC2AB25==> 2>71C645==KE ;N459, :@><5 B>3>, 4@C385 3@C1K5 65;0=8O, AB@0AB8. &25B5=85 8 F25BK >1>7=0G0NB 35=8B0;88 65=I8= 8;8, 2 1>;55 A?5F80;L=>< A;CG05, -- 452AB25==>ABL. 5 701K209B5, GB> F25BK 459AB28B5;L=> O2;ONBAO 35=8B0;8O<8 @0AB5=89. ><=0B0 =0< C65 8725AB=0 :0: A8<2>;. 45AL <>6=> ?@>4>;68BL 45B0;870F8N: >:=0, 2E>4K 8 2KE>4K :><=0BK ?>;CG0NB 7=0G5=85 >B25@AB89 B5;0.  MB>9 A8<2>;8:5 >B=>A8BAO B0:65 8 B>, >B:@KB0 :><=0B0 8;8 70:@KB0, 0 :;NG, :>B>@K9 >B:@K205B, O2;O5BAO =5A><=5==K< <C6A:8< A8<2>;><. "0:>2 <0B5@80; A8<2>;8:8 A=>2845=89. = 5I5 =5 ?>;>= 8 53> <>6=> 1K;> 1K C3;C18BL 8 @0AH8@8BL. > O 4C<0N, 20< 8 MB>3> 1>;55 G5< 4>AB0B>G=>, 0 <>65B 1KBL, C65 8 =04>5;>. K A?@>A8B5: =5C65;8 O 459AB28B5;L=> 682C A@548 A5:AC0;L=KE A8<2>;>2? 5C65;8 2A5 ?@54<5BK, :>B>@K5 <5=O >:@C60NB, ?;0BLO, :>B>@K5 O =04520N, 25I8, :>B>@K5 15@C 2 @C:8, 2A5340 A5:AC0;L=K5 A8<2>;K 8 =8GB> 4@C3>5? >2>4 4;O =54>C<5==KE 2>?@>A>2 459AB28B5;L=> 5ABL, 8 ?5@2K9 87 =8E: >B:C40 =0<, A>1AB25==>, 8725AB=K 7=0G5=8O MB8E A8<2>;>2 A=>2845=8O, > :>B>@KE A0< 28452H89 A>= =5 3>2>@8B =0< =8G53> 8;8 A>>1I05B >G5=L <0;>? / >B25GC: 87 >G5=L @07;8G=KE 8AB>G=8:>2, 87 A:07>: 8 <8D>2, HCB>: 8 >AB@>B, 87 D>;L:;>@0, B. 5. 87 A2545=89 > =@020E, >1KG0OE, ?>3>2>@:0E 8 =0@>4=KE ?5A=OE, 87 ?>MB8G5A:>3> 8 >1K45==>3> O7K:0. 45AL 2AN4C 2AB@5G05BAO B0 65 A8<2>;8:0, 8 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE <K ?>=8<05< 55 157 2AO:8E C:070=89. A;8 <K AB0=5< ?>4@>1=> 87CG0BL MB8 8AB>G=8:8, B> =0945< A8<2>;8:5 A=>2845=88 B0: <=>3> ?0@0;;5;59, GB> C25@8<AO 2 ?@028;L=>AB8 =0H8E B>;:>20=89.1 '5;>25G5A:>5 B5;>, :0: <K A:070;8, ?> (5@=5@C G0AB> 87>1@0605BAO 2 A=>2845=88 A8<2>;>< 4><0. @8 45B0;L=>< @0AA<>B@5=88 MB>3> 87>1@065=8O >:=0, 425@8 8 2>@>B0 O2;ONBAO 2E>40<8 2> 2=CB@5==85 ?>;>AB8 B5;0, D0A04K 1K20NB 3;04:85 8;8 8<5NB 10;:>=K 8 2KABC?K, GB>1K 45@60BLAO. > B0:0O 65 A8<2>;8:0 2AB@5G05BAO 2 =0H59 @5G8, :>340 <K D0<8;LO@=> ?@825BAB2C5< E>@>H> 7=0:><>3> "altes Haus" [AB0@8=0], :>340 3>2>@8<, GB>1K 40BL :><C-=81C4L E>@>H5=L:> aufs Dachl [?> :C?>;C] 8;8 > 4@C3><, GB> C =53> =5 2A5 2 ?>@O4:5 in OberstLbchen [G5@40: =5 2 ?>@O4:5].  0=0B><88 >B25@AB8O B5;0 ?@O<> =07K20NBAO Leibespforten [2>@>B0 B5;0]. ">, GB> @>48B5;8 2 A=>2845=88 ?>O2;ONBAO 2 2845 8<?5@0B>@A:>9 8;8 :>@>;52A:>9 G5BK, A=0G0;0 :065BAO C4828B5;L=K<. > MB> =0E>48B A2>N ?0@0;;5;L 2 A:07:0E. 0725 =5 2>7=8:05B C =0A <KA;L, GB> 2 =0G0;5 <=>38E A:07>: 2<5AB>: "68;8-1K;8 :>@>;L A :>@>;52>9" 4>;6=> 1K;> 1K 1KBL: "68;8-1K;8 >B5F A <0B5@LN"?  A5<L5 45B59 2 HCB:C =07K20NB ?@8=F0<8, 0 AB0@H53> =0A;54=8:>< (Kronprinz). >@>;L A0< =07K205B A51O >BF>< AB@0=K [Landesvater, ?>-@CAA:8 -- F0@L-10BNH:0]. 0;5=L:8E 45B59 2 HCB:C <K =07K205< G5@2O:0<8 [?>-@CAA:8 -- :;>?0<8] 8 A>AB@040B5;L=> 3>2>@8<: 154=K9 G5@2O: [das arme Wurm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ie hat viel Holz vor dem Haus [C MB>9 <=>3> 4@>2 ?5@54 4><><], :0: 1C4B> 65;0O ?@89B8 =0< =0 ?><>IL 2 =0H5< 8AB>;:>20=88 45@520 :0: 65=A:>3>, <0B5@8=A:>3> A8<2>;0.  5I5 > 45@525. 0< =5OA=>, :0: MB>B <0B5@80; AB0; A8<2>;8G5A:8 ?@54AB02;OBL <0B5@8=A:>5, 65=A:>5. 1@0B8<AO 70 ?><>ILN : A@02=8B5;L=>9 D8;>;>388. 0H5 =5<5F:>5 A;>2> Holz [45@52>] >4=>3> :>@=O A 3@5G5A:8< ili, GB> >7=0G05B "<0B5@80;", "AK@L5". "CB <K 8<55< 45;> A 4>2>;L=> G0ABK< A;CG05<, :>340 >1I55 =0720=85 <0B5@80;0 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 A>E@0=8;>AL 70 >4=8< G0AB=K<.  >:50=5 5ABL >AB@>2 ?>4 =0720=85< 0459@0. "0: :0: >= 25AL 1K; ?>:@KB ;5A><, ?>@BC30;LFK 40;8 5<C MB> =0720=85, :>340 >B:@K;8 53>. Madeira =0 ?>@BC30;LA:>< O7K:5 7=0G8B ";5A". > ;53:> C7=0BL, GB> madeira =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: A;53:0 87<5=5==>5 ;0B8=A:>5 A;>2> materia, GB> >?OBL-B0:8 >1>7=0G05B <0B5@8N 2>>1I5. A materia ?@>8AE>48B >B A;>20 mater -- <0BL. 0B5@80;, 87 :>B>@>3> GB>-;81> A>AB>8B, O2;O5BAO :0: 1K <0B5@8=A:>9 G0ABLN. "0:8< >1@07><, MB> 4@52=55 ?>=8<0=85 2 A8<2>;8G5A:>< C?>B@51;5=88 ?@>4>;605B ACI5AB2>20BL. >645=85 2 A=>2845=88 ?>AB>O==> 2K@0605BAO >B=>H5=85< : 2>45; 1@>A0BLAO 2 2>4C 8;8 2KE>48BL 87 =55 >7=0G05B @>640BL 8;8 @>640BLAO. 5 A;54C5B 701K20BL, GB> MB>B A8<2>; 242>9=5 >?@0240= AAK;:>9 =0 8AB>@8N @0728B8O. 5 B>;L:> B5<, GB> 2A5 =075<=K5 <;5:>?8B0NI85, 2:;NG0O ?@54:>2 G5;>25:0, ?@>87>H;8 >B 2>4O=KE 682>B=KE -- MB> 25AL<0 >B40;5==0O 0=0;>38O, -- => 8 B5<, GB> :064>5 <;5:>?8B0NI55, :064K9 G5;>25: ?@>E>48B ?5@2CN D07C A2>53> ACI5AB2>20=8O 2 2>45, 0 8<5==> :0: M<1@8>= 2 >:>;>?;>4=>9 684:>AB8 2 G@525 <0B5@8, 0 ?@8 @>645=88 2KE>48B 87 2>4K. / =5 E>GC CB25@640BL, GB> 28452H89 A>= 7=05B MB>, =0?@>B82, O AG8B0N, GB> 5<C 8 =5 =C6=> MB>3> 7=0BL. =, 25@>OB=>, 7=05B GB>-=81C4L 4@C3>5, GB> 5<C @0AA:07K20;8 2 45BAB25, => 8 745AL O 1C4C CB25@640BL, GB> MB> 7=0=85 =5 A?>A>1AB2>20;> >1@07>20=8N A8<2>;0.  45BA:>9 5<C 3>2>@8;8, GB> 45B59 ?@8=>A8B 08AB, => >B:C40 >= 8E 15@5B? 7 ?@C40, 87 :>;>4F0, B. 5. >?OBL-B0:8 87 2>4K. 48= 87 <>8E ?0F85=B>2, :>B>@><C MB> A:070;8, :>340 >= 1K; <0;5=L:8<, 8AG57 ?>A;5 MB>3> =0 2A5 ?>A;5>1545==>5 2@5<O. 0:>=5F 53> =0H;8 =0 15@53C ?@C40 C 70<:0, >= ;560;, ?@8=8:=C2 ;8G8:>< : ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K 8 CA5@4=> 8A:0; =0 4=5 <0;5=L:8E 45B59.  <8D0E > @>645=88 35@>O, ?>425@3=CBKE A@02=8B5;L=><C 8AA;54>20=8N . 0=:>< (1909), A0<K9 4@52=89 87 :>B>@KE > F0@5 !0@3>=5 87 3045, >:>;> 2800 ;5B 4> . X., ?@5>1;040NICN @>;L 83@05B 1@>A0=85 2 2>4C 8 A?0A0=85 87 2>4K. 0=: >B:@K;, GB> MB> -- 87>1@065=8O @>645=8O, 0=0;>38G=K5 B0:8< 65 2 A=>2845=88. A;8 2> A=5 A?0A0NB 87 2>4K :0:>5-=81C4L ;8F>, B> AG8B0NB A51O 53> <0B5@LN 8;8 ?@>AB> <0B5@LN; 2 <8D5 ;8F>, A?0A0NI55 @515=:0 87 2>4K, AG8B05BAO 53> =0AB>OI59 <0B5@LN.  8725AB=>< 0=5:4>B5 C<=>3> 52@59A:>3> <0;LG8:0 A?@0H820NB, :B> 1K; <0B5@LN >8A5O. = =5 704C<K20OAL >B25G05B: ?@8=F5AA0. > :0: 65, 2>7@060NB 5<C, >=0 254L B>;L:> 2KB0I8;0 53> 87 2>4K. "0: 3>2>@8B >=0, >B25G05B <0;LG8:, ?>:07K20O, GB> ?@028;L=> 8AB>;:>20; <8D. BJ574 >7=0G05B 2 A=>2845=88 A<5@BL, C<8@0=85. @8=OB> B0: 65 >B25G0BL 45BO< =0 2>?@>A, :C40 4520;>AL C<5@H55 ;8F>, >BACBAB285 :>B>@>3> >=8 GC2AB2CNB, GB> >=> C5E0;>. / >?OBL E>B5; 1K 2>7@078BL B5<, :B> AG8B05B, GB> A8<2>; A=>2845=8O ?@>8AE>48B >B MB>3> A?>A>10 >B45;0BLAO >B @515=:0. >MB ?>;L7C5BAO B0:>9 65 A8<2>;8:>9, 3>2>@O > 703@>1=>9 687=8 :0: > =5>B:@KB>9 AB@0=5, >B:C40 =5 2>72@0I0;AO =8 >48= ?CB=8: (?> traueller).  >1K45==>9 687=8 <K B>65 G0AB> 3>2>@8< > ?>A;54=5< ?CB8. AO:89 7=0B>: 4@52=53> @8BC0;0 7=05B, :0: A5@L57=> >B=>A8;8AL : ?@54AB02;5=8N > ?CB5H5AB288 2 AB@0=C <5@B2KE, =0?@8<5@, 2 4@52=5538?5BA:>9 @5;8388. > =0A 4>H;0 2> <=>38E M:75<?;O@0E =830 <5@B2KE, :>B>@>9, :0: 1545:5@><, A=0160;8 2 MB> ?CB5H5AB285 <C<8N. ! B5E ?>@ :0: :;0418I0 1K;8 >B45;5=K >B 68;8I, ?>A;54=55 ?CB5H5AB285 C<5@H53> AB0;> @50;L=>ABLN. !8<2>;8:0 35=8B0;89 B>65 =5 O2;O5BAO G5<-B> ?@8ACI8< B>;L:> A=>2845=8N. 064><C 87 20A A;CG05BAO 1KBL =5256;82K< 8 =0720BL 65=I8=C "alte Schachtel" [AB0@0O :>;>40], =5 7=0O, GB> 2K ?>;L7C5B5AL ?@8 MB>< A8<2>;>< 35=8B0;89.  >2>< 025B5 A:070=>: 65=I8=0 -- A>AC4 A:C45;L=K9. !2OI5==>5 8A0=85 52@552, B0: ?@81;860NI55AO ?> AB8;N : ?>MB8G5A:><C, ?>;=> A5:AC0;L=>-A8<2>;8G5A:8E 2K@065=89, :>B>@K5 =5 2A5340 ?@028;L=> ?>=8<0;8AL 8 B>;:>20=85 :>B>@KE, =0?@8<5@, 5A=8 5A=59, ?@825;> : =5:>B>@K< =54>@07C<5=8O<.  1>;55 ?>74=59 52@59A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 >G5=L @0A?@>AB@0=5=> 87>1@065=85 65=I8=K 2 2845 4><0, 2 :>B>@>< 425@L AG8B05BAO ?>;>2K< >B25@AB85<. C6 60;C5BAO, =0?@8<5@, 2 A;CG05 >BACBAB28O 452AB25==>AB8, GB> =0H5; 425@L >B:@KB>9. !8<2>; AB>;0 4;O 65=I8=K B0:65 8725AB5= 2 MB>9 ;8B5@0BC@5. 5=I8=0 3>2>@8B > A2>5< <C65: O ?@83>B>28;0 5<C AB>;, :> >= 53> ?5@525@=C;. %@><K5 45B8 ?>O2;ONBAO 87-70 B>3>, GB> <C6 ?5@525@=C; AB>;. -B8 D0:BK O 15@C 87 AB0BL8 . 528 87 @N==0: "!5:AC0;L=0O A8<2>;8:0 181;88 8 B0;<C40" (1914). ">, GB> 8 :>@01;8 2 A=>2845=88 >7=0G0NB 65=I8=, ?>OA=ONB =0< MB8<>;>38, :>B>@K5 CB25@640NB, GB> ?5@2>=0G0;L=> :>@01;5< (Schiff) =07K20;AO 3;8=O=K9 A>AC4 8 MB> 1K;> B> 65 A;>2>, GB> >2F0 (Schaff). @5G5A:>5 A:070=85 > 5@80=4@5 87 >@8=D0 8 53> 65=5 5;8AA5 ?>4B25@6405B, GB> ?5GL >7=0G05B 65=I8=C 8 G@52> <0B5@8. >340, ?> 5@>4>BC, B8@0= 2K720; B5=L A2>59 3>@OG> ;N18<>9, => C18B>9 87 @52=>AB8 AC?@C38, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL >B =55 =5:>B>@K5 A2545=8O, C<5@H0O C4>AB>25@8;0 A51O =0?><8=0=85<, GB> >=, 5@80=4@, ?>AB028; A2>9 E;51 2 E>;>4=CN ?5GL, =0<5:0O =0 A>1KB85, > :>B>@>< =8:B> 4@C3>9 =5 <>3 7=0BL.  8740==>9 $. !. @0CAA>< Anthropophyteia, =570<5=8<>< 8AB>G=8:5 2A53>, GB> :0A05BAO ?>;>2>9 687=8 =0@>4>2, <K G8B05<, GB> 2 >4=>9 =5<5F:>9 <5AB=>AB8 > 65=I8=5, @07@5H82H59AO >B 1@5<5=8, 3>2>@OB, GB> C =55 >120;8;0AL ?5GL. @83>B>2;5=85 >3=O, 2A5, GB> A =8< A2O70=>, 4> 3;C18=K ?@>=8:=CB> A5:AC0;L=>9 A8<2>;8:>9. ;0<O 2A5340 O2;O5BAO <C6A:8<8 35=8B0;8O<8, 0 <5AB> >3=O, >G03 -- 65=A:8< ;>=><. A;8, 1KBL <>65B, 2K C482;O;8AL B><C, :0: G0AB> ;0=4H0DBK 2 A=>2845=88 8A?>;L7CNBAO 4;O 87>1@065=8O 65=A:8E 35=8B0;89, B> >B <8D>;>3>2 2K <>65B5 C7=0BL, :0:CN @>;L <0BL-75<;O 83@0;0 2 ?@54AB02;5=8OE 8 :C;LB0E 4@52=>AB8 8 :0: ?>=8<0=85 75<;545;8O >?@545;O;>AL MB>9 A8<2>;8:>9. ">, GB> 2 A=>2845=88 :><=0B0 (Zimmer) ?@54AB02;O5B 65=I8=C (Frauenzimmer), 2K A:;>==K 1C45B5 >1JOA=8BL C?>B@51;5=85< 2 =0H5< O7K:5 A;>20 Frauenzimmer [1010] 2<5AB> Frau, B. 5. 70<5=K G5;>25G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8 ?@54=07=0G5==K< 4;O =55 ?><5I5=85<. >4>1=K< 65 >1@07>< <K 3>2>@8< > KA>:>9 >@B5 8 ?>4@07C<5205< ?>4 MB8< AC;B0=0 8 53> ?@028B5;LAB2>; =0720=85 4@52=5538?5BA:>3> 2;0AB8B5;O D0@0>=0 B0:65 >7=0G0;> =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: "1>;LH>9 42>@". ( @52=5< >AB>:5 42>@K <564C 42>9=K<8 2>@>B0<8 3>@>40 O2;ONBAO <5AB>< A1>@8I0, :0: @K=>G=K5 ?;>I048 2 :;0AA8G5A:>< <8@5.) /, ?@0240, 4C<0N, GB> MB> >1JOA=5=85 A;8H:>< ?>25@E=>AB=>. =5 :065BAO 1>;55 25@>OB=K<, GB> :><=0B0 :0: ?@>AB@0=AB2>, 2:;NG0NI55 2 A51O G5;>25:0, AB0;0 A8<2>;>< 65=I8=K. K C65 254L 7=05<, GB> A;>2> "4><" C?>B@51;O5BAO 2 MB>< 7=0G5=88; 87 <8D>;>388 8 ?>MB8G5A:8E 2K@065=89 <K <>65< 4>1028BL 2 :0G5AB25 4@C38E A8<2>;>2 65=I8=K 5I5 3>@>4, 70<>:, 42>@5F, :@5?>ABL. >?@>A 1K;> 1K ;53G5 @5H8BL, 8A?>;L7CO A=>2845=8O ;8F, =5 7=0NI8E 8 =5 ?>=8<0NI8E =5<5F:>3> O7K:0.  ?>A;54=85 3>4K O ;5G8; ?@58<CI5AB25==> 8=>AB@0=F52 8, =0A:>;L:> ?><=N, 2 8E O7K:0E =5 1K;> 0=0;>38G=>3> A;>2>C?>B@51;5=8O. ABL 8 4@C385 4>:070B5;LAB20 B><C, GB> A8<2>;8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 <>65B ?5@59B8 O7K:>2K5 3@0=8FK, GB>, 2?@>G5<, C65 CB25@640; AB0@K9 8AA;54>20B5;L A=>2845=89 (C15@B (1814). ?@>G5<, =8 >48= 87 <>8E ?0F85=B>2 =5 1K; 01A>;NB=> =5 7=0:>< A =5<5F:8< O7K:><, B0: GB> O ?@54>AB02;ON @5H8BL MB>B 2>?@>A B5< ?A8E>0=0;8B8:0<, :>B>@K5 <>3CB A>1@0BL >?KB 2 4@C38E AB@0=0E, 8AA;54CO ;8F, 2;045NI8E >4=8< O7K:><. !@548 A8<2>;>2, 87>1@060NI8E <C6A:85 35=8B0;88, 5420 ;8 =0945BAO E>BL >48=, :>B>@K9 =5 C?>B@51;O;AO 1K 2 HCB>G=KE, ?@>AB>=0@>4=KE 8;8 ?>MB8G5A:8E 2K@065=8OE, >A>15==> C :;0AA8G5A:8E ?>MB>2 4@52=>AB8.  =8< >B=>AOBAO =5 B>;L:> A8<2>;K, 2AB@5G0NI85AO 2 A=>2845=8OE, => 8 =>2K5, =0?@8<5@, @07;8G=K5 8=AB@C<5=BK, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L ?;C3. ?@>G5<, :0A0OAL A8<2>;8G5A:>3> 87>1@065=8O <C6A:>3>, <K 70B@038205< >G5=L H8@>:CN 8 3>@OG> >A?0@8205<CN >1;0ABL, >B C3;C1;5=8O 2 :>B>@CN 87 A>>1@065=89 M:>=><88 <K E>B8< 2>745@60BLAO. 8HL ?> ?>2>4C >4=>3>, :0: 1K 2K?040NI53> 87 @O40 A8<2>;0 "B@8" <=5 E>B5;>AL 1K A45;0BL =5A:>;L:> 70<5G0=89. I5 =5OA=>, =5 >1CA;>2;5=0 ;8 >BG0AB8 A2OB>ABL MB>3> G8A;0 40==K< A8<2>;8G5A:8< >B=>H5=85<. > =5A><=5==K< :065BAO B>, GB> 2A;54AB285 B0:>3> A8<2>;8G5A:>3> >B=>H5=8O =5:>B>@K5 2AB@5G0NI85AO 2 ?@8@>45 B@5EG0AB=K5 ?@54<5BK, =0?@8<5@ B@8;8AB=8:, 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2 :0G5AB25 35@1>2 8 M<1;5<. "0: =07K205<0O D@0=FC7A:0O ;8;8O, B>65 B@5EG0AB=0O, 8 AB@0==K9 35@1 42CE B0: 40;5:> @0A?>;>65==KE 4@C3 >B 4@C30 >AB@>2>2, :0: !8F8;8O 8 >AB@>2 5=, Triskeles (B@8 ?>;CA>3=CBK5 =>38, 8AE>4OI85 87 >4=>3> F5=B@0), ?>-2848<><C, B>;L:> AB8;870F8O <C6A:8E 35=8B0;89.  4@52=>AB8 ?>4>18O <C6A:>3> G;5=0 AG8B0;8AL A0<K<8 A8;L=K<8 70I8B=K<8 A@54AB20<8 (Apotropaea) ?@>B82 4C@=KE 2;8O=89, 8 A MB8< A2O70=> B>, GB> 2 ?@8=>AOI8E AG0ABL5 0<C;5B0E =0H53> 2@5<5=8 2A5340 ;53:> C7=0BL 35=8B0;L=K5 8;8 A5:AC0;L=K5 A8<2>;K. 0AA<>B@8< B0:>9 =01>@, :>B>@K9 =>A8BAO 2 2845 <0;5=L:8E A5@51@O=KE 1@5;>:>2: G5BK@5E;8AB=K9 :;525@, A28=LO, 3@81, ?>4:>20, ;5AB=8F0 8 B@C1>G8AB. '5BK@5E;8AB=K9 :;525@, A>1AB25==> 3>2>@O, 70<5=O5B B@5E;8AB=K9; A28=LO -- 4@52=89 A8<2>; ?;>4>@>48O; 3@81 -- =5A><=5==>, A8<2>; ?5=8A0, 5ABL 3@81K, :>B>@K5 87-70 A2>53> =5A><=5==>3> AE>4AB20 A <C6A:8< G;5=>< ?>;CG8;8 ?@8 :;0AA8D8:0F88 =0720=85 Phallus impudicas; ?>4:>20 ?>2B>@O5B >G5@B0=85 65=A:>3> ?>;>2>3> >B25@AB8O, 0 B@C1>G8AB, =5ACI89 ;5AB=8FC, 8<55B >B=>H5=85 : MB>9 :><?0=88 ?>B><C, GB> 45;05B B0:85 42865=8O, A :>B>@K<8 2 ?@>AB>=0@>4L5 A@02=8205BAO ?>;>2>9 0:B (A<. Anthropophyteia). ! 53> ;5AB=8F59 :0: A5:AC0;L=K< A8<2>;>< <K ?>7=0:><8;8AL 2 A=>2845=88; =0< =0 ?><>IL ?@8E>48B C?>B@51;5=85 2 =5<5F:>< O7K:5 A;>20 "steigen" [?>4=8<0BLAO], ?@8<5=O5<>3> 2 A?5F8D8G5A:8 A5:AC0;L=>< A<KA;5. >2>@OB: "Den Frauen nachsteigen" [?@8AB020BL : 65=I8=0<] 8 "ein alter Steiger" [AB0@K9 2>;>:8B0]. >-D@0=FC7A:8 ABC?5=L:0 =07K205BAO la marche, <K =0E>48< A>25@H5==> 0=0;>38G=>5 2K@065=85 4;O AB0@>3> 1>=2820=0 "un vieux marcheur". ! MB8<, 25@>OB=>, A2O70=> B>, GB> ?@8 ?>;>2>< 0:B5 <=>38E :@C?=KE 682>B=KE A0<5F 2718@05BAO, ?>4=8<05BAO (steigen, besteigen) =0 A0<:C. !@K20=85 25B:8 :0: A8<2>;8G5A:>5 87>1@065=85 >=0=87<0 =5 B>;L:> A>2?0405B A ?@>AB>=0@>4=K< 87>1@065=85< >=0=8AB8G5A:>3> 0:B0, => 8<55B 8 40;5:> 84CI85 <8D>;>38G5A:85 ?0@0;;5;8. > >A>15==> 70<5G0B5;L=> 87>1@065=85 >=0=87<0 8;8, ;CGH5 A:070BL, =0:070=8O 70 =53>, :0AB@0F88, ?>A@54AB2>< 2K?045=8O 8 2K@K20=8O 7C1>2, ?>B><C GB> MB><C 5ABL 0=0;>38O 2 D>;L:;>@5, :>B>@0O, 4>;6=> 1KBL, 8725AB=0 >G5=L =5<=>38< ;8F0<, 284OI8< 8E 2> A=5. =5 :065BAO =5A><=5==K<, GB> @0A?@>AB@0=5==>5 C AB>;L <=>38E =0@>4>2 >1@570=85 O2;O5BAO M:2820;5=B>< 8 70<5=>9 :0AB@0F88.  2>B =0< A>>1I0NB, GB> 2 2AB@0;88 8725AB=K5 ?@8<8B82=K5 ?;5<5=0 22>4OB >1@570=85 2 :0G5AB25 @8BC0;0 ?@8 =0ABC?;5=88 ?>;>2>9 7@5;>AB8 (2> 2@5<O ?@074=5AB2 ?> A;CG0N =0ABC?;5=8O A>25@H5==>;5B8O), 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 4@C385, 682CI85 A>2A5< @O4><, 2<5AB> MB>3> 0:B0 2KH810NB >48= 7C1. -B8<8 ?@8<5@0<8 O 70:>=GC A2>5 87;>65=85. -B> 2A53> ;8HL ?@8<5@K; <K 1>;LH5 7=05< >1 MB><, 0 2K <>65B5 A515 ?@54AB028BL, =0A:>;L:> A>45@60B5;L=55 8 8=B5@5A=55 ?>;CG8;>AL 1K ?>4>1=>5 A>1@0=85 ?@8<5@>2, 5A;8 1K >=> 1K;> A>AB02;5=> =5 48;5B0=B0<8, :0: <K, 0 =0AB>OI8<8 A?5F80;8AB0<8 2 >1;0AB8 <8D>;>388, 0=B@>?>;>388, O7K:>7=0=8O, D>;L:;>@0. 0?@0H820NBAO =5:>B>@K5 2K2>4K, :>B>@K5 =5 <>3CB 1KBL 8AG5@?K20NI8<8, => 40NB =0< ?8IC 4;O @07<KH;5=89. >-?5@2KE, <K ?>AB02;5=K ?5@54 D0:B><, GB> 2 @0A?>@O65=88 284OI53> A>= =0E>48BAO A8<2>;8G5A:89 A?>A>1 2K@065=8O, :>B>@>3> >= =5 7=05B 8 =5 C7=05B 2 A>AB>O=88 1>4@AB2>20=8O. -B> =0AB>;L:> 65 ?>@078B5;L=>, :0: 5A;8 1K 2K A45;0;8 >B:@KB85, GB> 20H0 ?@8A;C30 ?>=8<05B A0=A:@8B, E>BO 2K 7=05B5, GB> >=0 @>48;0AL 2 1>35<A:>9 45@52=5 8 =8:>340 53> =5 87CG0;0. @8 =0H8E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 2>77@5=8OE =5;53:> >1JOA=8BL MB>B D0:B. K <>65< B>;L:> A:070BL, GB> 7=0=85 A8<2>;8:8 =5 >A>7=05BAO 28452H8< A>=, >=> >B=>A8BAO : 53> 15AA>7=0B5;L=>9 4CE>2=>9 687=8. > 8 MB8< ?@54?>;>65=85< <K =8G53> =5 4>AB8305<. > A8E ?>@ =0< =5>1E>48<> 1K;> ?@54?>;030BL B>;L:> 15AA>7=0B5;L=K5 AB@5<;5=8O, B0:85, > :>B>@KE =0< 2@5<5==> 8;8 ?>AB>O==> =8G53> =5 8725AB=>. "5?5@L 65 @5GL 845B > 15AA>7=0B5;L=KE 7=0=8OE, > ;>38G5A:8E >B=>H5=8OE, >B=>H5=8OE A@02=5=8O <564C @07;8G=K<8 >1J5:B0<8, 2A;54AB285 :>B>@KE >4=> ?>AB>O==> <>65B 70<5I0BLAO 4@C38<. -B8 A@02=5=8O =5 2>7=8:0NB :064K9 @07 70=>2>, >=8 C65 70;>65=K 3>B>2K<8, 7025@H5=K @07 8 =02A5340; MB> 2KB5:05B 87 8E AE>4AB20 C @07;8G=KE ;8F, AE>4AB20 4065, ?>-2848<><C, =5A<>B@O =0 @07;8G85 O7K:>2. B:C40 65 15@5BAO 7=0=85 MB8E A8<2>;8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89? ">;L:> =51>;LH0O 8E G0ABL >1JOA=O5BAO A;>2>C?>B@51;5=85<. 07=>>1@07=K5 ?0@0;;5;8 87 4@C38E >1;0AB59 ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 =58725AB=K 28452H5<C A>=; 40 8 <K ;8HL A B@C4>< >BKA:820;8 8E. >-2B>@KE, MB8 A8<2>;8G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O =5 O2;ONBAO G5<-B> B0:8<, GB> 1K;> 1K E0@0:B5@=> B>;L:> 4;O 28452H53> A>= 8;8 4;O @01>BK A=>2845=8O, 1;03>40@O :>B>@>9 >=8 2K@060NBAO. 54L <K C7=0;8, GB> B0:0O 65 A8<2>;8:0 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2 <8D0E 8 A:07:0E, 2 =0@>4=KE ?>3>2>@:0E 8 ?5A=OE, 2 >1I5?@8=OB>< A;>2>C?>B@51;5=88 8 ?>MB8G5A:>9 D0=B0788.1 1;0ABL ---------------------------------------- 1 45O > B><, GB> 2 :0@B8=0E A=>2845=89 8<55BAO A8<2>;8G5A:>5 A>45@60=85, B@51CNI55 >A>1>3> 8AB>;:>20=8O, A;>68;0AL 2 4@52=59H85 2@5<5=0. 1KG=> MB><C A>45@60=8N ?@84020;AO ?@>3=>AB8G5A:89 A<KA;, E>BO 4>ABC?=KE ;>38G5A:><C >1>A=>20=8N 8 M<?8@8G5A:>9 ?@>25@:5 4>:070B5;LAB2 ?@02><5@=>AB8 B0:>3> ?>4E>40 =5 ?@82>48;>AL. !2>5>1@0785 ?>78F88 $@5940, AB02H59 ?@54<5B>< >AB@KE 48A:CAA89 8 ?>1C482H59 <=>38E AB>@>==8:>2 ?@87=0=8O 206=>9 @>;8 15AA>7=0B5;L=KE 2;5G5=89 >B>9B8 >B B>3> 20@80=B0 ?A8E>0=0;870, :>B>@K9 A>740; $@594, 70:;NG0;>AL 2 B><, GB> 2 :0G5AB25 >A=>2=>3> ?@8=F8?0 >1JOA=5=8O A>45@60=8O A=>2845=89 1K; 2K428=CB ?@8=F8? A5:AC0;L=>9 A8<2>;8:8. 1@07K ;N1KE O2;5=89, ?@54AB02;O5<KE AC1J5:B>< 2 A=>284=>< A>AB>O=88, $@594 A3@C??8@>20; 2 @07;8G=K5 D>@<K A5:AC0;L=>9 A8<2>;8:8. A8<2>;8:8 G@572KG09=> >1H8@=0, A8<2>;8:0 A=>2845=89 O2;O5BAO 55 <0;>9 G0ABLN, 4065 =5F5;5A>>1@07=> ?@8ABC?0BL : @0AA<>B@5=8N 2A59 MB>9 ?@>1;5<K 8AE>4O 87 A=>2845=8O. =>385 C?>B@518B5;L=K5 2 4@C38E >1;0ABOE A8<2>;K 2 A=>2845=8OE =5 2AB@5G0NBAO 8;8 2AB@5G0NBAO ;8HL >G5=L @54:>, =5:>B>@K5 87 A8<2>;>2 A=>2845=89 2AB@5G0NBAO =5 2> 2A5E 4@C38E >1;0ABOE, 0 B>;L:> 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9. >7=8:05B 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> ?5@54 =0<8 :0:>9-B> 4@52=89, => CB@0G5==K9 A?>A>1 2K@065=8O, >B :>B>@>3> 2 @07=KE >1;0ABOE A>E@0=8;>AL @07=>5, >4=> B>;L:> 745AL, 4@C3>5 B>;L:> B0<, B@5BL5 2 A;53:0 87<5=5==>9 D>@<5 2 =5A:>;L:8E >1;0ABOE. / E>GC 2A?><=8BL 745AL D0=B078N >4=>3> 8=B5@5A=>3> 4CH52=>1>;L=>3>, 2>>1@0602H53> A515 :0:>9-B> ">A=>2=>9 O7K:", >B :>B>@>3> 2> 2A5E MB8E A8<2>;8G5A:8E >B=>H5=8OE 1C4B> 1K 8<5;8AL >AB0B:8. -B@5BL8E, 20< 4>;6=> 1K;> 1@>A8BLAO 2 3;070, GB> A8<2>;8:0 2 4@C38E C:070==KE >1;0ABOE =5 B>;L:> A5:AC0;L=0O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 A=>2845=88 A8<2>;K 8A?>;L7CNBAO ?>GB8 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 4;O 2K@065=8O A5:AC0;L=KE >1J5:B>2 8 >B=>H5=89.  MB> =5;53:> >1JOA=8BL. 5 =0H;8 ;8 8AE>4=> A5:AC0;L=> 7=0G8<K5 A8<2>;K ?>74=55 4@C3>5 ?@8<5=5=85 8 =5 A2O70= ;8 A MB8< 8725AB=K9 ?5@5E>4 >B A8<2>;8G5A:>3> 87>1@065=8O : 4@C3><C 53> 284C? 0 MB>B 2>?@>A, >G5284=>, =5;L7O >B25B8BL, 5A;8 8<5BL 45;> B>;L:> A A8<2>;8:>9 A=>2845=89. >6=> ;8HL ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> ACI5AB2C5B >A>15==> B5A=>5 >B=>H5=85 <564C 8AB8==K<8 A8<2>;0<8 8 A5:AC0;L=>ABLN. > MB><C ?>2>4C =0< 1K;> 40=> 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K >4=> 206=>5 C:070=85. $8;>;>3 . (?5@15@ (#?A0;0), @01>B0NI89 =57028A8<> >B ?A8E>0=0;870, 2K428=C; (1912) CB25@645=85, GB> A5:AC0;L=K5 ?>B@51=>AB8 ?@8=8<0;8 A0<>5 =5?>A@54AB25==>5 CG0AB85 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 8 40;L=59H5< @0728B88 O7K:0. 0G0;L=K5 72C:8 @5G8 A;C68;8 A>>1I5=8N 8 ?>47K20;8 A5:AC0;L=>3> ?0@B=5@0; 40;L=59H55 @0728B85 :>@=59 A;>2 A>?@>2>640;> B@C4>2K5 >?5@0F88 ?5@2>1KB=>3> G5;>25:0. -B8 @01>BK 1K;8 A>2<5AB=K<8 8 ?@>E>48;8 2 A>?@>2>645=88 @8B<8G5A:8 ?>2B>@O5<KE O7K:>2KE 2K@065=89. @8 MB>< A5:AC0;L=K9 8=B5@5A ?5@5=>A8;AO =0 @01>BC. 4=>2@5<5==> ?5@2>1KB=K9 G5;>25: 45;0; B@C4 ?@8OB=K< 4;O A51O, ?@8=8<0O 53> 70 M:2820;5=B 8 70<5=C ?>;>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@>87=>A8<>5 ?@8 >1I59 @01>B5 A;>2> 8<5;> 420 7=0G5=8O, >1>7=0G0O :0: ?>;>2>9 0:B, B0: 8 ?@8@02=5==CN : =5<C B@C4>2CN 45OB5;L=>ABL. !> 2@5<5=5< A;>2> >A2>1>48;>AL >B A5:AC0;L=>3> 7=0G5=8O 8 70D8:A8@>20;>AL =0 MB>9 @01>B5. !;54CNI85 ?>:>;5=8O ?>ABC?0;8 B>G=> B0: 65 A =>2K< A;>2><, :>B>@>5 8<5;> A5:AC0;L=>5 7=0G5=85 8 ?@8<5=O;>AL : =>2><C 284C B@C40. "0:8< >1@07>< 2>7=8:0;> :0:>5-B> G8A;> :>@=59 A;>2, :>B>@K5 2A5 1K;8 A5:AC0;L=>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O, 0 70B5< ;8H8;8AL A2>53> A5:AC0;L=>3> 7=0G5=8O. A;8 2KH587;>65==0O B>G:0 7@5=8O ?@028;L=0, B> ?5@54 =0<8, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, >B:@K205BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>=8<0=8O A8<2>;8:8 A=>2845=89. K <>3;8 1K ?>=OBL, ?>G5<C 2 A=>2845=88, A>E@0=ONI5< :>5-GB> 87 MB8E A0<KE 4@52=8E >B=>H5=89, 8<55BAO B0:>5 >3@><=>5 <=>65AB2> A8<2>;>2 4;O A5:AC0;L=>3>, ?>G5<C 2 >1I5< >@C685 8 >@C48O A8<2>;878@CNB <C6A:>5, <0B5@80;K 8 B>, GB> >1@010BK205BAO, -- 65=A:>5. !8<2>;8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 1K;> 1K >AB0B:>< 4@52=59 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 A;>20; 25I8, :>B>@K5 :>340-B> =07K20;8AL B0: 65, :0: 8 35=8B0;88, <>3;8 B5?5@L 2 A=>2845=88 2KABC?8BL 4;O B>3> 65 2 :0G5AB25 A8<2>;>2. > 1;03>40@O MB8< ?0@0;;5;O< : A8<2>;8:5 A=>2845=89 2K <>65B5 B0:65 >F5=8BL E0@0:B5@=CN >A>15==>ABL ?A8E>0=0;870, 1;03>40@O :>B>@>9 >= AB0=>28BAO ?@54<5B>< 2A5>1I53> 8=B5@5A0, G53> =5 <>3CB 4>18BLAO =8 ?A8E>;>38O, =8 ?A8E80B@8O. @8 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9 @01>B5 702O7K20NBAO >B=>H5=8O A >G5=L <=>38<8 4@C38<8 3C<0=8B0@=K<8 =0C:0<8, A <8D>;>3859, 0 B0:65 A O7K:>7=0=85<, D>;L:;>@><, ?A8E>;>3859 =0@>4>2 8 @5;838>2545=85<, 87CG5=85 :>B>@KE >15I05B F5==59H85 @57C;LB0BK. 0< 1C45B ?>=OB=>, ?>G5<C =0 ?>G25 ?A8E>0=0;870 2K@>A 6C@=0; Imago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raumarbeit). 01>B0, ?@>45;K205<0O 2 >1@0B=>< =0?@02;5=88, :>B>@0O 8<55B F5;LN >B O2=>3> A=>2845=8O 4>1@0BLAO 4> A:@KB>3>, O2;O5BAO =0H59 @01>B>9 B>;:>20=8O (Deutungsarbeit). 01>B0 B>;:>20=8O AB@5<8BAO CAB@0=8BL @01>BC A=>2845=8O. @87=0==K5 >G5284=K< 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O A=>2845=8O 45BA:>3> B8?0 2A5-B0:8 8A?KB0;8 =0 A515 G0AB8G=CN @01>BC A=>2845=8O, 0 8<5==> ?5@52>4 65;0=8O 2 @50;L=>ABL 8 ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 B0:65 ?5@52>4 <KA;59 2 287C0;L=K5 >1@07K. 45AL =5 B@51C5BAO =8:0:>3> B>;:>20=8O, B>;L:> >1@0B=K9 E>4 MB8E 42CE ?@52@0I5=89. ">, GB> ?@8102;O5BAO : @01>B5 A=>2845=8O 2 4@C38E A=>2845=8OE, <K =07K205< 8A:065=85< A=>2845=8O (Traumentstellung); 8<5==> 53> 8 =C6=> CAB@0=8BL ?>A@54AB2>< =0H59 @01>BK B>;:>20=8O. !@02=820O 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> B>;:>20=89 A=>2845=89, O 2 A>AB>O=88 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> ?>:070BL 20<, GB> ?@>45;K205B @01>B0 A=>2845=8O A <0B5@80;>< A:@KBKE 53> <KA;59. > O ?@>HC 20A =5 B@51>20BL >B MB>3> A;8H:>< <=>3>3>. -B> 2A53> ;8HL >?8A0=85, :>B>@>5 =C6=> 2KA;CH0BL A> A?>:>9=K< 2=8<0=85<. 5@2K< 4>AB865=85< @01>BK A=>2845=8O O2;O5BAO A3CI5=85 (Verdichtung). >4 MB8< <K ?>4@07C<5205< B>B D0:B, GB> O2=>5 A=>2845=85 A>45@68B <5=LH5, G5< A:@KB>5, B. 5. O2;O5BAO A2>53> @>40 A>:@0I5==K< ?5@52>4>< ?>A;54=53>. =>340 A3CI5=85 <>65B >BACBAB2>20BL, >4=0:>, :0: ?@028;>, >=> 8<55BAO 8 >G5=L G0AB> 4065 G@57<5@=>5. > =8:>340 =5 1K205B >1@0B=>3>, B. 5. GB>1K O2=>5 A=>2845=85 1K;> 1>;LH5 A:@KB>3> ?> >1J5<C 8 A>45@60=8N. !3CI5=85 ?@>8AE>48B 1;03>40@O B><C, GB>: 1) >?@545;5==K5 A:@KBK5 M;5<5=BK 2>>1I5 >?CA:0NBAO; 2) 2 O2=>5 A=>2845=85 ?5@5E>48B B>;L:> G0ABL =5:>B>@KE :><?;5:A>2 A:@KB>3> A=>2845=8O; 3) A:@KBK5 M;5<5=BK, 8<5NI85 GB>-B> >1I55, 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 A>548=ONBAO, A;820NBAO 2 >4=> F5;>5. A;8 E>B8B5, B> <>65B5 A>E@0=8BL =0720=85 "A3CI5=85" B>;L:> 4;O MB>3> ?>A;54=53> ?@>F5AA0. 3> @57C;LB0BK <>6=> >A>15==> ;53:> ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL. 7 A2>8E A>1AB25==KE A=>2845=89 2K 157 B@C40 2A?><=8B5 > A3CI5=88 @07;8G=KE ;8F 2 >4=>. "0:>5 A<5H0==>5 ;8F> 2K3;O48B :0: , => >45B> :0: , A>25@H05B :0:>5-B> 459AB285, :0:>5, ?><=8BAO, 45;0; , 0 ?@8 MB>< 7=05HL, GB> MB> ;8F> -- . >=5G=>, 1;03>40@O B0:><C A<5H820=8N >A>15==> ?>4G5@:8205BAO GB>-B> >1I55 4;O 2A5E G5BK@5E ;8F. "0: 65, :0: 8 87 ;8F, <>6=> A>AB028BL A<5AL 87 ?@54<5B>2 8;8 87 <5AB=>AB59, 5A;8 A>1;N405BAO CA;>285, GB> >B45;L=K5 ?@54<5BK 8 <5AB=>AB8 8<5NB GB>-B> >1I55 <564C A>1>9, 2K45;O5<>5 A:@KBK< A=>2845=85<. -B> GB>-B> 2@>45 >1@07>20=8O =>2>3> 8 <8<>;5B=>3> ?>=OB8O A MB8< >1I8< 2 :0G5AB25 O4@0. ;03>40@O =0:;04K20=8N 4@C3 =0 4@C30 >B45;L=KE A3CI05<KE 548=8F 2>7=8:05B, :0: ?@028;>, =5OA=0O, @0A?;K2G0B0O :0@B8=0, ?>4>1=> B>9, :>B>@0O ?>;CG05BAO, 5A;8 =0 >4=>9 D>B>?;0AB8=:5 A45;0BL =5A:>;L:> A=8<:>2. ;O @01>BK A=>2845=8O >1@07>20=85 B0:8E A<5A59 >G5=L 206=>, ?>B><C GB> <K <>65< 4>:070BL, GB> =5>1E>48<K5 4;O MB>3> >1I85 ?@87=0:8 =0@>G=> A>740NBAO B0<, 345 8E @0=LH5 =5 1K;>, =0?@8<5@, 1;03>40@O 2K1>@C A;>25A=>3> 2K@065=8O :0:>9-;81> <KA;8. K C65 ?>7=0:><8;8AL A B0:8<8 A3CI5=8O<8 8 A<5H5=8O<8; >=8 83@0;8 @>;L 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 =5:>B>@KE A;CG052 >3>2>@>:. A?><=8B5 <>;>4>3> G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 E>B5; begleitdigen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erschiebung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igentliche).  >AB@>B0 G0AB> ?>;L7C5BAO =0<5:><, >=0 >B:07K205BAO >B 0AA>F80F88 ?> A>45@60=8N 8 70<5=O5B 55 =5>1KG=K<8 2=5H=8<8 0AA>F80F8O<8, B0:8<8, :0: A>72CG85 8 <=>3>7=0G=>ABL A;>20 8 4@. > >=0 A>E@0=O5B ?>=OB=>ABL; >AB@>B0 ;8H8;0AL 1K 2A53> A2>53> 459AB28O, 5A;8 1K =5;L7O 1K;> 157 B@C40 ?@>45;0BL >1@0B=K9 ?CBL >B =0<5:0 : A>1AB25==><C A>45@60=8N. > =0<5: A<5I5=8O 2 A=>2845=88 A2>1>45= >B >1>8E >3@0=8G5=89. = A2O70= A 70<5I05<K< M;5<5=B>< A0<K<8 2=5H=8<8 8 >B40;5==K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8 8 ?>MB><C =5?>=OB5=, 0 5A;8 53> @07JOA=8BL, B> B>;:>20=85 ?@>872>48B 2?5G0B;5=85 =5C40G=>9 >AB@>BK 8;8 =0A8;LAB25==> ?@8BO=CB>9 70 2>;>AK, ?@8=C645==>9 8=B5@?@5B0F88. &5=7C@0 B>;L:> B>340 4>AB8305B A2>59 F5;8, :>340 59 C405BAO ?>;=>ABLN 70B5<=8BL >1@0B=K9 ?CBL >B =0<5:0 : A>1AB25==><C [A>45@60=8N]. !<5I5=85 0:F5=B0 :0: A@54AB2> 2K@065=8O <KA;8 =5 2AB@5G05BAO. @8 <KH;5=88 2 1>4@AB2CNI5< A>AB>O=88 <K 8=>340 4>?CA:05< 53> 4;O 4>AB865=8O :><8G5A:>3> MDD5:B0. ?5G0B;5=85 >H81:8, :>B>@>5 >=> ?@>872>48B, O <>3C C 20A 2K720BL, =0?><=82 >48= 0=5:4>B: 2 45@52=5 1K; :C7=5F, :>B>@K9 A>25@H8; ?@5ABC?;5=85, 4>AB>9=>5 A<5@B=>9 :07=8. !C4 ?>AB0=>28;, GB> >= 4>;65= ?>=5AB8 =0:070=85 70 A2>5 ?@5ABC?;5=85, => B0: :0: 2 45@52=5 1K; B>;L:> >48= :C7=5F 8 >= 1K; =5>1E>48<, ?>@B=KE 65 2 45@52=5 68;> B@>5, B> >48= 87 MB8E B@5E 1K; ?>25H5= 2<5AB> =53>. "@5B89 @57C;LB0B @01>BK A=>2845=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 A0<K9 8=B5@5A=K9. = A>AB>8B 2 ?@52@0I5=88 <KA;59 2 7@8B5;L=K5 >1@07K. 0?><=8<, GB> =5 2A5 2 <KA;OE A=>2845=8O ?>4;568B MB><C ?@52@0I5=8N, :>5-GB> A>E@0=O5B A2>N D>@<C 8 ?>O2;O5BAO 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 :0: <KA;L 8;8 7=0=85; 7@8B5;L=K5 >1@07K O2;ONBAO B0:65 =5 548=AB25==>9 D>@<>9, 2 :>B>@CN ?@52@0I0NBAO <KA;8. 4=0:> >=8 2A5-B0:8 O2;ONBAO ACI5AB25==K< D0:B>@>< 2 >1@07>20=88 A=>2845=8O; MB0 AB>@>=0 @01>BK A=>2845=8O, :0: <K 7=05<, O2;O5BAO 2B>@>9 ?>AB>O==>9 G5@B>9 A=>2845=8O, 0 4;O 2K@065=8O >B45;L=KE M;5<5=B>2 A=>2845=8O ACI5AB2C5B, :0: <K 2845;8, =03;O4=>5 87>1@065=85 A;>20. /A=>, GB> MB> =5;53:0O @01>B0. 'B>1K A>AB028BL ?>=OB85 > 55 B@C4=>ABOE, ?@54AB02LB5 A515, GB> 2K 27O;8 =0 A51O 7040GC 70<5=8BL ?>;8B8G5A:CN ?5@54>28FC :0:>9-B> 3075BK @O4>< 8;;NAB@0F89, B. 5. 25@=CBLAO >B 1C:25==>3> H@8DB0 : ?8AL<C @8AC=:0<8. ">, GB> 2 MB>9 AB0BL5 3>2>@8BAO > ;8F0E 8 :>=:@5B=KE ?@54<5B0E, 2K ;53:> 8, <>65B 1KBL, C40G=> 70<5=8B5 8;;NAB@0F8O<8, => ?@8 87>1@065=88 01AB@0:B=KE A;>2 8 2A5E G0AB59 @5G8, 2K@060NI8E ;>38G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O, B0:8E :0: G0AB8FK, A>N7K 8 B. ?., 20A >6840NB B@C4=>AB8. @8 87>1@065=88 01AB@0:B=KE A;>2 2K A<>65B5 A515 ?><>GL 2A52>7<>6=K<8 8A:CAAB25==K<8 ?@85<0<8. K ?>?KB05B5AL, =0?@8<5@, ?5@540BL B5:AB AB0BL8 4@C38<8 A;>20<8, :>B>@K5 72CG0B, <>65B 1KBL, =5>1KG=>, => A>45@60B 1>;LH5 :>=:@5B=KE 8 ?>4E>4OI8E 4;O 87>1@065=8O ?>=OB89. 0B5< 2K 2A?><=8B5, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> 01AB@0:B=KE A;>2 O2;ONBAO ?>BCA:=52H8<8 :>=:@5B=K<8 8 ?>MB><C ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 2>A?>;L7C5B5AL ?5@2>=0G0;L=K< :>=:@5B=K< 7=0G5=85< MB8E A;>2. B0:, 2K 1C45B5 @04K, 5A;8 A<>65B5 87>1@078BL >1;040=85 (Besitzen) >1J5:B>< :0: 459AB28B5;L=>5 D878G5A:>5 A845=85 (Darauf sitzen). "0: 65 ?>ABC?05B 8 @01>B0 A=>2845=8O. @8 B0:8E >1AB>OB5;LAB20E 2K 5420 ;8 1C45B5 ?@54JO2;OBL 1>;LH85 ?@5B5=788 : B>G=>AB8 87>1@065=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, 8 @01>B5 A=>2845=8O 2K ?@>AB8B5, GB> >=0, =0?@8<5@, B0:>9 B@C4=K9 4;O 87>1@065=8O M;5<5=B, :0: =0@CH5=85 1@0G=>9 25@=>AB8 (Ehebruch), 70<5=O5B 4@C38< :0:8<-;81> @07@K2>< (Bruch), ?5@5;>< =>38 (Beinbruch). 045NAL, 2K AC<55B5 4> =5:>B>@>9 AB5?5=8 ?@>AB8BL 15A?><>I=>ABL O7K:0 @8AC=:>2, :>340 >= 70<5I05B A>1>9 1C:25==K9. ---------------------------------------- @8 8A?@02;5=88 :>@@5:BC@K MB>3> ;8AB0 <=5 A;CG09=> ?>?0;0AL 3075B=0O 70<5B:0, :>B>@CN O 745AL ?@82>6C :0: =5>6840==>5 ?>OA=5=85 2KH587;>65==KE ?>;>65=89. "  (?5@5;>< @C:8 70 =0@CH5=85 AC?@C65A:>9 25@=>AB8) (Armbruch durch Ehebruch). ==0 M., AC?@C30 >4=>3> >?>;G5=F0, >128=8;0 ;5<5=B8=C . 2 =0@CH5=88 AC?@C65A:>9 25@=>AB8.  >128=5=88 3>2>@8BAO, GB> . =0E>48BAO A 0@;>< . 2 ?@5ABC?=>9 A2O78, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 55 A>1AB25==K9 <C6 =0 2>9=5, >B:C40 >= 4065 ?@8AK;05B 59 565<5AOG=> A5<L45AOB :@>=. . ?>;CG8;0 >B <C60 ?>AB@0402H59 C65 4>2>;L=> <=>3> 45=53, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: >=0 A0<0 A @515=:>< 2K=C645=0 68BL 2 =C645 8 B5@?5BL 3>;>4. ">20@8I8 <C60 @0AA:07K20;8 59, GB> . ?>A5I05B A . @5AB>@0=K 8 :CB8B B0< 4> ?>74=59 =>G8. 4=064K >128=O5<0O 4065 A?@>A8;0 <C60 ?>AB@0402H59 2 ?@8ACBAB288 <=>38E A>;40B, A:>@> ;8 >= @072545BAO A> A2>59 "AB0@CE>9", GB>1K ?5@55E0BL : =59. 5=0 ?@82@0B=8:0 4><0, 345 6825B ., B>65 =5>4=>:@0B=> 2845;0 <C60 ?>AB@0402H59 2 ?>;=>< =53;865 =0 :20@B8@5 . G5@0 ?5@54 AC4>< 2 5>?>;L4HB0BB5 . >B@8F0;0, GB> 7=05B ., 0 >1 8=B8<=KE >B=>H5=8OE C6 =5 <>65B 1KBL 8 @5G8. 4=0:> A2845B5;L=8F0 ;L15@B8=0 . ?>:070;0, GB> =5>6840==> 70AB0;0 ., :>340 >=0 F5;>20;0 <C60 ?>AB@0402H59. >?@>H5==K9 ?@8 ?5@2>< @071>@5 45;0 2 :0G5AB25 A2845B5;O . >B@8F0; B>340 8=B8<=K5 >B=>H5=8O A >128=O5<>9. G5@0 AC4L5 1K;> ?@54AB02;5=> ?8AL<>, 2 :>B>@>< A2845B5;L >B:07K205BAO >B A2>53> ?>:070=8O =0 ?5@2>< @0718@0B5;LAB25 45;0 8 A>7=05BAO, GB> 4> 8N=O <5AOF0 ?>445@6820; ;N1>2=CN A2O7L A . @8 ?5@2>< @071>@5 >= B>;L:> ?>B><C >B@8F0; A2>8 >B=>H5=8O A >128=O5<>9, GB> >=0 ?5@54 @071>@>< 45;0 O28;0AL : =5<C 8 =0 :>;5=OE C<>;O;0 A?0AB8 55 8 =8G53> =5 3>2>@8BL. ""5?5@L 65, -- ?8H5B A2845B5;L, -- O GC2AB2CN ?>B@51=>ABL >B:@>25==> A>7=0BLAO ?5@54 AC4><, B0: :0: O A;><0; ;52CN @C:C, 8 MB> :065BAO <=5 =0:070=85< 1>6L8< 70 <>5 ?@5ABC?;5=85". !C4LO CAB0=>28;, GB> A@>: ?@5ABC?;5=8O ?@>H5;, ?>A;5 G53> ?>AB@0402H0O 27O;0 60;>1C >1@0B=>, 0 >128=O5<0O 1K;0 >?@0240=0". ;O 87>1@065=8O G0AB59 @5G8, ?>:07K20NI8E ;>38G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O, 2@>45 "?>B><C GB>, ?>MB><C, =>" 8 B. 4., =5B ?>4>1=KE 2A?><>30B5;L=KE A@54AB2; B0:8< >1@07><, MB8 G0AB8 B5:AB0 ?@>?04CB ?@8 ?5@52>45 2 @8AC=:8. ">G=> B0: 65 1;03>40@O @01>B5 A=>2845=8O A>45@60=85 <KA;59 A=>2845=8O @0AB2>@O5BAO 2 53> AK@>< <0B5@80;5 >1J5:B>2 8 45OB5;L=>AB59.  2K <>65B5 1KBL 4>2>;L=K, 5A;8 20< ?@54>AB028BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL :0:8<-B> >1@07>< =0<5:=CBL 2 1>;55 B>=:>< >1@07=>< 2K@065=88 =0 >?@545;5==K5 =54>ABC?=K5 87>1@065=8N >B=>H5=8O. ">G=> B0: 65 @01>B5 A=>2845=8O C405BAO 2K@078BL GB>-B> 87 A>45@60=8O A:@KBKE <KA;59 A=>2845=8O 2 D>@<0;L=KE >A>15==>ABOE O2=>3> A=>2845=8O, 2 53> OA=>AB8 8;8 =5OA=>AB8, 2 53> @0745;5=88 =0 =5A:>;L:> D@03<5=B>2 8 B. ?. >;8G5AB2> G0AB59 A=>2845=8O, =0 :>B>@K5 >=> @0A?0405BAO, :0: ?@028;>, A>G5B05BAO A G8A;>< >A=>2=KE B5<, E>4>< <KA;59 2 A:@KB>< A=>2845=88; :>@>B:>5 2ABC?8B5;L=>5 A=>2845=85 G0AB> >B=>A8BAO : ?>A;54CNI5<C ?>4@>1=><C >A=>2=><C A=>2845=8N :0: 22545=85 8;8 <>B828@>2:0; ?@840B>G=>5 ?@54;>65=85 2 <KA;OE A=>2845=8O 70<5I05BAO 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 A<5=>9 2:;NG5==KE 2 =53> AF5= 8 B. 4. "0:8< >1@07><, D>@<0 A=>2845=89 =8 2 :>5< A;CG05 =5 O2;O5BAO =57=0G8B5;L=>9 8 A0<0 B@51C5B B>;:>20=8O. 5A:>;L:> A=>2845=89 >4=>9 =>G8 G0AB> 8<5NB >4=> 8 B> 65 7=0G5=85 8 C:07K20NB =0 CA8;8O :0:-=81C4L ?>;CGH5 A?@028BLAO A =0@0AB0NI8< @074@065=85<. 065 2 >4=>< A=>2845=88 >A>15==> B@C4=K9 M;5<5=B <>65B 1KBL 87>1@065= "4C1;5B0<8", =5A:>;L:8<8 A8<2>;0<8. @8 40;L=59H5< A@02=5=88 <KA;59 A=>2845=8O A 70<5I0NI8<8 8E O2=K<8 A=>2845=8O<8 <K C7=05< B0:85 25I8, : :>B>@K< 5I5 =5 ?>43>B>2;5=K, =0?@8<5@, GB> 15AA<KA;8F0 8 01AC@4=>ABL A=>2845=89 B0:65 8<5NB A2>5 7=0G5=85. 0, 2 MB>< ?C=:B5 ?@>B82>@5G85 <564C <548F8=A:8< 8 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:8< ?>=8<0=85< A=>2845=8O >1>AB@O5BAO 4> ?>A;54=59 AB5?5=8. ! <548F8=A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O A=>2845=85 15AA<KA;5==>, ?>B><C GB> 4CH52=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL A?OI53> ;8H5=0 2AO:>9 :@8B8:8; A =0H59 65, =0?@>B82, A=>2845=85 15AA<KA;5==> B>340, :>340 A>45@60I0OAO 2 <KA;OE A=>2845=8O :@8B8:0, AC645=85 "MB> 15AA<KA;5==>" 4>;6=K =09B8 A2>5 87>1@065=85. 725AB=>5 20< A=>2845=85 A ?>A5I5=85< B50B@0 (B@8 18;5B0 70 1 D;. 50 :@.) -- E>@>H89 B><C ?@8<5@. K@065==>5 2 =5< AC645=85 >7=0G05B: 15AA<KA;5==> 1K;> B0: @0=> 2KE>48BL 70<C6. ">G=> B0: 65 ?@8 @01>B5 =04 B>;:>20=85< <K C7=05< > G0AB> 2KA:07K205<KE A><=5=8OE 8 =5C25@5==>AB8 28452H53> A>= ?> ?>2>4C B>3>, 2AB@5G0;AO ;8 2 A=>2845=88 >?@545;5==K9 M;5<5=B, 1K; ;8 MB> 40==K9 M;5<5=B 8;8 :0:>9-B> 4@C3>9. 0: ?@028;>, MB8< A><=5=8O< 8 =5C25@5==>AB8 =8G53> =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B 2 A:@KBKE <KA;OE A=>2845=8O; >=8 2>7=8:0NB 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ?>4 459AB285< F5=7C@K A=>2845=8O 8 4>;6=K 1KBL ?@8@02=5=K : =5 2?>;=5 C402H8<AO ?>?KB:0< C=8GB>65=8O MB8E M;5<5=B>2.  A0<K< ?>@078B5;L=K< >B:@KB8O< >B=>A8BAO A?>A>1, :0:8< @01>B0 A=>2845=8O @07@5H05B ?@>B82>@5G8O A:@KB>3> A=>2845=8O. K C65 7=05<, GB> A>2?045=8O 2 A:@KB>< <0B5@80;5 70<5I0NBAO A3CI5=8O<8 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88.  2>B A ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABO<8 @01>B0 A=>2845=8O ?>ABC?05B B>G=> B0: 65, :0: A A>2?045=8O<8, 2K@060O 8E A >A>1K< ?@54?>GB5=85< >4=8< 8 B5< 65 O2=K< M;5<5=B><. 48= M;5<5=B 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88, :>B>@K9 A?>A>15= 1KBL ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABLN, <>65B, B0:8< >1@07><, >7=0G0BL A51O A0<>3>, 0 B0:65 A2>N ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL 8;8 8<5BL >10 7=0G5=8O; B>;L:> ?> >1I5<C A<KA;C <>6=> @5H8BL, :0:>9 ?5@52>4 2K1@0BL. ! MB8< A2O70= B>B D0:B, GB> 2 A=>2845=89 =5;L7O =09B8 87>1@065=8O "=5B", ?> :@09=59 <5@5 =542CA<KA;5==>3>. @8<5@ 65;0==>9 0=0;>388 MB><C AB@0==><C ?>2545=8N @01>BK A=>2845=8O 405B =0< @0728B85 O7K:0. 5:>B>@K5 ;8=328ABK CB25@640NB, GB> 2 A0<KE 4@52=8E O7K:0E ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8, =0?@8<5@, A8;L=K9 -- A;01K9, A25B;K9 -- B5<=K9, 1>;LH>9 -- <0;5=L:89, 2K@060;8AL >4=8< 8 B5< 65 :>@=52K< A;>2><. ("@>B82>?>;>6=K9 A<KA; ?5@2>=0G0;L=KE A;>2"). "0:, =0 4@52=5538?5BA:>< O7K:5 ken ?5@2>=0G0;L=> >7=0G0;> "A8;L=K9" 8 "A;01K9". > 871560=85 =54>@07C<5=89 ?@8 C?>B@51;5=88 B0:8E 0<1820;5=B=KE A;>2 2 @5G8 >@85=B8@>20;8AL =0 8=B>=0F8N 8 A>?@>2>48B5;L=K9 65AB, ?@8 ?8AL<5 ?@8102;O;8 B0: =07K205<K9 45B5@<8=0B82, B. 5. @8AC=>:, =5 ?@>87=>A82H89AO ?@8 GB5=88. Ken 2 7=0G5=88 "A8;L=K9" ?8A0;>AL, B0:8< >1@07><, A ?@8102;5=85< ?>A;5 1C:25==KE 7=0:>2 @8AC=:0 ?@O<> A84OI53> G5;>25G:0; 5A;8 ken >7=0G0;> "A;01K9", B> A;54>20; @8AC=>: =51@56=> A84OI53> =0 :>@B>G:0E G5;>25G:0. ">;L:> ?>765 1;03>40@O ;53:8< 87<5=5=8O< >48=0:>2> 72CG0I53> ?5@2>=0G0;L=>3> A;>20 ?>;CG8;>AL 420 >1>7=0G5=8O 4;O A>45@60I8EAO 2 =5< ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=89. "0: 87 ken -- "A8;L=K9 -- A;01K9" 2>7=8:;> ken -- "A8;L=K9" 8 kan -- "A;01K9". 5 B>;L:> 4@52=59H85 O7K:8 2 A2>5< ?>74=59H5< @0728B88, => 8 3>@074> 1>;55 <>;>4K5 8 4065 682K5 =K=5 O7K:8 A>E@0=8;8 2 1>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25 >AB0B:8 MB>3> 4@52=53> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> A<KA;0. %>GC ?@825AB8 20< 2 MB>9 A2O78 =5A:>;L:> ?@8<5@>2 ?> . 15;N (1884).  ;0B8=A:>< O7K:5 B0:8<8 2A5 5I5 0<1820;5=B=K<8 A;>20<8 O2;ONBAO: altus (2KA>:89 -- =87:89) 8 sacer (A2OB>9 -- =5G5AB82K9).  :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@>2 <>48D8:0F88 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 :>@=O O C?><O=C: clamare -- :@8G0BL, dam -- A;01K9, B8E89, B09=K9; siccus -- ACE>9, succus -- A>:. !N40 65 87 =5<5F:>3> O7K:0 <>6=> >B=5AB8: Stimme -- 3>;>A, stumm -- =5<>9. A;8 A@02=8BL @>4AB25==K5 O7K:8, B> <>6=> =09B8 <=>3> ?@8<5@>2. >-0=3;89A:8 lock -- 70:@K20BL; ?>-=5<5F:8 Loch -- 4K@0, LLcke -- ;N:.  0=3;89A:>< cleave -- @0A:0;K20BL, 2 =5<5F:>< kleben -- :;58BL. =3;89A:>5 A;>2> without, >7=0G0NI55, A>1AB25==>, "A -- 157", B5?5@L C?>B@51;O5BAO 2 7=0G5=88 "157"; B>, GB> with, :@><5 ?@8102;5=8O, 8<55B B0:65 7=0G5=85 >B=8<0=8O, A;54C5B 87 A;>6=KE A;>2 withdraw -- >B45@3820BL, 1@0BL =0704, withhold -- >B:07K20BL, >AB0=02;820BL. >4>1=>5 65 7=0G5=85 8<55B =5<5F:>5 wieder.  @0728B88 O7K:0 =0E>48B A2>N ?0@0;;5;L 5I5 >4=0 >A>15==>ABL @01>BK A=>2845=8O.  4@52=5538?5BA:><, :0: 8 2 4@C38E 1>;55 ?>74=8E O7K:0E, 2AB@5G05BAO >1@0B=K9 ?>@O4>: 72C:>2 2 A;>20E A >4=8< 7=0G5=85<. "0:8<8 ?@8<5@0<8 2 0=3;89A:>< = =5<5F:>< O7K:0E O2;ONBAO: Topf -- pot [3>@H>:]; boat -- tub [;>4:0]; hurry [A?5H8BL] -- Ruhe [?>:>9, =5?>4286=>ABL]; Balken [1@52=>, 1@CA] -- Kloben [?>;5=>, GC@10=].  ;0B8=A:>< 8 =5<5F:><: capere -- packen [E20B0BL]; ren -- Niere [?>G:0]. "0:85 8=25@A88, :0:85 745AL ?@>8AE>4OB A >B45;L=K<8 A;>20<8, A>25@H0NBAO @01>B>9 A=>2845=8O @07;8G=K< A?>A>1><. 5@52>@0G820=85 A<KA;0, 70<5=C ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABLN <K C65 7=05<. @><5 B>3>, 2 A=>2845=8OE 2AB@5G0NBAO 8=25@A88 A8BC0F88, 2708<>>B=>H5=8O <564C 42C<O ;8F0<8, :0: 2 "?5@525@=CB>< <8@5".  A=>2845=88 70OF =5@54:> AB@5;O5B 2 >E>B=8:0. 0;55, 2AB@5G0NBAO 87<5=5=8O 2 ?>@O4:5 A;54>20=8O A>1KB89, B0: GB> B>, GB> O2;O5BAO ?@54H5AB2CNI59 ?@8G8=>9, 2 A=>2845=88 AB028BAO ?>A;5 2KB5:0NI53> 87 =55 A;54AB28O. A5 ?@>8AE>48B :0: ?@8 ?>AB0=>2:5 ?L5AK ?;>E>9 B@C??>9, :>340 A=0G0;0 ?0405B 35@>9, 0 ?>B>< 87-70 :C;8A @07405BAO 2KAB@5;, :>B>@K9 53> C18205B. ;8 5ABL A=>2845=8O, 2 :>B>@KE 25AL ?>@O4>: M;5<5=B>2 >1@0B=K9, B0: GB> ?@8 B>;:>20=88, GB>1K ?>=OBL 53> A<KA;, ?>A;54=89 M;5<5=B =C6=> ?>AB028BL =0 ?5@2>5 <5AB>, 0 ?5@2K9 -- =0 ?>A;54=55. K ?><=8B5 B0:65 87 =0H53> 87CG5=8O A8<2>;8:8 A=>2845=8O, GB> 2E>48BL 8;8 ?040BL 2 2>4C >7=0G0;> B> 65 A0<>5, GB> 8 2KE>48BL 87 2>4K, 0 8<5==> @>640BL 8;8 @>640BLAO, 8 GB> ?>4=8<0BLAO ?> ;5AB=8F5 >7=0G05B B> 65 A0<>5, GB> 8 A?CA:0BLAO ?> =59. 5A><=5==>, GB> 8A:065=85 A=>2845=8O <>65B 872;5GL 87 B0:>9 A2>1>4K 87>1@065=8O >?@545;5==CN 2K3>4C. -B8 G5@BK @01>BK A=>2845=8O <>6=> =0720BL 0@E08G5A:8<8. =8 ?@8ACI8 B0:65 4@52=8< A8AB5<0< 2K@065=8O, O7K:0< 8 ?8AL<5==>ABO<, 8 =5ACB A A>1>9 B5 65 B@C4=>AB8, > :>B>@KE @5GL 1C45B =865 2 :@8B8G5A:>< >17>@5.  B5?5@L 5I5 > =5:>B>@KE 4@C38E 273;O40E. @8 @01>B5 A=>2845=8O 45;>, >G5284=>, 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K 2K@065==K5 2 A;>20E A:@KBK5 <KA;8 ?5@525AB8 2 GC2AB25==K5 >1@07K ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 7@8B5;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0. 0H8 <KA;8 :0: @07 8 ?@>87>H;8 87 B0:8E GC2AB25==KE >1@07>2; 8E ?5@2K< <0B5@80;>< 8 ?@5420@8B5;L=K<8 MB0?0<8 1K;8 GC2AB25==K5 2?5G0B;5=8O, ?@028;L=55 A:070BL, >1@07K 2>A?><8=0=8O > B0:>2KE. ">;L:> ?>74=55 A =8<8 A2O7K20NBAO A;>20, 0 70B5< 8 <KA;8. "0:8< >1@07><, @01>B0 A=>2845=8O 70AB02;O5B <KA;8 ?@>9B8 @53@5AA82=K9 ?CBL, ;8H05B 8E 4>AB83=CB>3> @0728B8O, 8 ?@8 MB>9 @53@5AA88 4>;6=> 8AG57=CBL 2A5 B>, GB> 1K;> ?@8>1@5B5=> 2 E>45 @0728B8O >B >1@07>2 2>A?><8=0=89 : <KA;O<. "0:>20 @01>B0 A=>2845=8O. > A@02=5=8N A ?@>F5AA0<8, > :>B>@KE <K C7=0;8 ?@8 55 87CG5=88, 8=B5@5A : O2=><C A=>2845=8N 4>;65= >B>9B8 =0 704=89 ?;0=. > MB><C ?>A;54=5<C, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO 2A5-B0:8 548=AB25==K<, GB> =0< =5?>A@54AB25==> 8725AB=>, O E>GC ?>A2OB8BL 5I5 =5A:>;L:> 70<5G0=89. AB5AB25==>, GB> O2=>5 A=>2845=85 B5@O5B 4;O =0A A2>N 7=0G8<>ABL. 0< 157@07;8G=>, E>@>H> >=> A>AB02;5=> 8;8 @0A?0405BAO =0 @O4 >B45;L=KE 15AA2O7=KE >1@07>2. 065 5A;8 >=> 8<55B :06CICNAO >A<KA;5==>9 2=5H=NN AB>@>=C, B> <K 2A5 @02=> 7=05<, GB> >=0 2>7=8:;0 1;03>40@O 8A:065=8N A=>2845=8O 8 <>65B 8<5BL : 2=CB@5==5<C 53> A>45@60=8N B0: 65 <0;> >B=>H5=8O, :0: D0A04 8B0;LO=A:>9 F5@:28 : 55 :>=AB@C:F88 8 A8;CMBC.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE 8 MB>B D0A04 A=>2845=8O 8<55B A2>5 7=0G5=85, :>340 >= ?5@5405B 2 <0;> 8;8 4065 A>2A5< =5 8A:065==>< 2845 :0:CN-B> 206=CN A>AB02=CN G0ABL A:@KBKE <KA;59 A=>2845=8O. > <K =5 <>65< C7=0BL MB>3>, =5 ?>425@3=C2 A=>2845=85 B>;:>20=8N 8 =5 A>AB0282 1;03>40@O 5<C AC645=8O > B><, 2 :0:>9 <5@5 8<5;> <5AB> 8A:065=85. >4>1=>5 65 A><=5=85 2K7K205B B>B A;CG09, :>340 420 M;5<5=B0 A=>2845=8O, ?>-2848<><C, =0E>4OBAO 2 B5A=>9 A2O78.  MB>< <>65B A>45@60BLAO F5==K9 =0<5: =0 B>, GB> A>>B25BAB2CNI85 MB8< M;5<5=B0< A:@KBK5 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O B>65 4>;6=K 1KBL ?@82545=K 2 A2O7L, => 2 4@C38E A;CG0OE C156405HLAO, GB> B>, GB> A2O70=> 2 <KA;OE, @07J548=5=> 2 A=>2845=88.  >1I5< A;54C5B 871530BL B>3>, GB>1K >1JOA=OBL >4=C G0ABL O2=>3> A=>2845=8O 4@C3>9, :0: 1C4B> A=>2845=85 A2O7=> A>AB02;5=> 8 O2;O5BAO ?@03<0B8G5A:8< 87;>65=85<. 3>, A:>@55, <>6=> A@02=8BL A 8A:CAAB25==K< <@0<>@>< 1@5:G859, A>AB02;5==K< 87 @07;8G=KE :CA:>2 :0<=O ?@8 ?><>I8 F5<5=B8@CNI53> A@54AB20 B0:, GB> ?>;CG0NI85AO C7>@K =5 A>>B25BAB2CNB ?5@2>=0G0;L=K< A>AB02=K< G0ABO<. 59AB28B5;L=>, 5ABL =5:0O G0ABL @01>BK A=>2845=8O, B0: =07K205<0O 2B>@8G=0O >1@01>B:0 (sekund4re Bearbeitung), :>B>@0O AB0@05BAO A>AB028BL 87 1;8609H8E @57C;LB0B>2 @01>BK A=>2845=8O 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 30@<>=8G=>5 F5;>5. @8 MB>< <0B5@80; @0A?>;0305BAO 70G0ABCN A>25@H5==> =5 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> A<KA;><, 0 B0<, 345 :065BAO =5>1E>48<K<, 45;0NBAO 2AB02:8. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, =5;L7O ?5@5>F5=820BL @01>BC A=>2845=8O, A;8H:>< 59 4>25@OBL. 5 45OB5;L=>ABL 8AG5@?K205BAO ?5@5G8A;5==K<8 @57C;LB0B0<8; 1>;LH5 G5< A3CAB8BL, A<5AB8BL, =03;O4=> 87>1@078BL 8 ?>425@3=CBL F5;>5 2B>@8G=>9 >1@01>B:5, >=0 =5 <>65B A45;0BL. ">, GB> 2 A=>2845=88 ?>O2;ONBAO 2K@065=8O AC645=89, :@8B8:8, C482;5=8O, 70:;NG5=8O, -- MB> =5 @57C;LB0BK @01>BK A=>2845=8O, 8 B>;L:> >G5=L @54:> MB> ?@>O2;5=8O @07<KH;5=8O > A=>2845=88, => MB> ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 -- D@03<5=BK A:@KBKE <KA;59 A=>2845=8O, 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 <>48D8F8@>20==KE 8 ?@8A?>A>1;5==KE : :>=B5:ABC, ?5@5=5A5==KE 2 O2=>5 A=>2845=85. 01>B0 A=>2845=8O B0:65 =5 <>65B A>74020BL 8 @5G59. 0 <0;K<8 8A:;NG5=8O<8 @5G8 2 A=>2845=88 O2;ONBAO ?>4@060=8O<8 8 A>AB02;5=K 87 @5G59, :>B>@K5 28452H89 A>= A;KH0; 8;8 A0< ?@>87=>A8; 2 B>B 45=L, :>340 2845; A>=, 8 :>B>@K5 2:;NG5=K 2 A:@KBK5 <KA;8 :0: <0B5@80; 8;8 :0: ?>1C48B5;8 A=>2845=8O. ">G=> B0: 65 @01>B0 A=>2845=8O =5 <>65B ?@>872>48BL 2KG8A;5=8O; 2A5 2KG8A;5=8O, :>B>@K5 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88, -- MB> ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 =01>@ G8A5;, :06CI85AO 2KG8A;5=8O, :0: 2KG8A;5=8O >=8 A>25@H5==> 15AA<KA;5==K, 8 8AB>:8 2KG8A;5=89 >?OBL-B0:8 =0E>4OBAO 2 A:@KBKE <KA;OE A=>2845=8O. @8 MB8E >B=>H5=8OE =5C4828B5;L=> B0:65, GB> 8=B5@5A, :>B>@K9 2K7K205B @01>B0 A=>2845=8O, A:>@> CAB@5<;O5BAO >B =55 : A:@KBK< <KA;O< A=>2845=8O, ?@>O2;ONI8<AO 1;03>40@O O2=><C A=>2845=8N 2 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 8A:065==>< 2845. > =5;L7O >?@024K20BL B>, GB>1K MB> 87<5=5=85 >B=>H5=8O 70E>48;> B0: 40;5:>, GB> A B5>@5B8G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O A:@KBK5 <KA;8 2>>1I5 AB02OBAO =0 <5AB> A0<>3> A=>2845=8O 8 > ?>A;54=5< 2KA:07K205BAO B>, GB> <>65B >B=>A8BLAO B>;L:> : ?5@2K<. !B@0==>, GB> 4;O B0:>3> A<5H820=8O <>3;8 7;>C?>B@518BL @57C;LB0B0<8 ?A8E>0=0;870. "!=>2845=85<" <>6=> =0720BL =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: @57C;LB0B @01>BK A=>2845=8O, B. 5. D>@<C, 2 :>B>@CN A:@KBK5 <KA;8 ?5@52>4OBAO 1;03>40@O @01>B5 A=>2845=8O. 01>B0 A=>2845=8O -- ?@>F5AA A>25@H5==> A2>5>1@07=>3> E0@0:B5@0, 4> A8E ?>@ 2 4CH52=>9 687=8 =5 1K;> 8725AB=> =8G53> ?>4>1=>3>. "0:85 A3CI5=8O, A<5I5=8O, @53@5AA82=K5 ?@52@0I5=8O <KA;59 2 >1@07K O2;ONBAO =>2K<8 >1J5:B0<8, ?>7=0=85 :>B>@KE C65 4>AB0B>G=> 2>7=03@06405B CA8;8O ?A8E>0=0;870. 7 ?@82545==KE ?0@0;;5;59 : @01>B5 A=>2845=8O 2K <>65B5 B0:65 ?>=OBL, :0:85 A2O78 >B:@K20NBAO <564C ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:8<8 8AA;54>20=8O<8 8 4@C38<8 >1;0ABO<8, 2 G0AB=>AB8, <564C @0728B85< O7K:0 8 <KH;5=8O.  4@C3>< 7=0G5=88 MB8E 273;O4>2 2K <>65B5 4>3040BLAO B>;L:> B>340, :>340 C7=05B5, GB> <5E0=87<K >1@07>20=8O A=>2845=89 O2;ONBAO ?@>B>B8?>< A?>A>10 2>7=8:=>25=8O =52@>B8G5A:8E A8<?B><>2. / 7=0N B0:65, GB> <K 5I5 =5 <>65< ?>;=>ABLN ?>=OBL 7=0G5=8O 4;O ?A8E>;>388 2A5E =>2KE 40==KE, 70:;NG0NI8EAO 2 MB8E @01>B0E. K E>B8< C:070BL ;8HL =0 B>, :0:85 =>2K5 4>:070B5;LAB20 8<5NBAO 4;O ACI5AB2>20=8O 15AA>7=0B5;L=KE 4CH52=KE 0:B>2 -- 0 254L A:@KBK5 <KA;8 O2;ONBAO 8<8 -- 8 :0:>9 =5>6840==> H8@>:89 4>ABC? : 7=0=8N 15AA>7=0B5;L=>9 4CH52=>9 687=8 >15I05B =0< B>;:>20=85 A=>2845=89. C 0 B5?5@L, ?>60;C9, A0<>5 2@5<O ?@825AB8 20< @07;8G=K5 ?@8<5@K >B45;L=KE A=>2845=89, : MB><C 2K ?>43>B>2;5=K 2A5< 2KH587;>65==K<. &"/ &/  ",+% ! #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! 5 @07>G0@>2K209B5AL, 5A;8 O >?OBL ?@54;>6C 20< D@03<5=BK B>;:>20=89 A=>2845=89, 2<5AB> B>3> GB>1K ?@83;0A8BL 20A CG0AB2>20BL 2 B>;:>20=88 1>;LH>3> E>@>H53> A=>2845=8O. K A:065B5, GB> 8<55B5 =0 MB> ?@02> ?>A;5 AB>;L:8E ?@83>B>2;5=89, 8 2KA:065B5 C15645=85, GB> ?>A;5 C40G=>3> B>;:>20=8O AB>;L:8E BKAOG A=>2845=89 402=> 4>;6=0 1K;0 1K 2>7=8:=CBL 2>7<>6=>ABL A>AB028BL =01>@ >B;8G=KE A=>2845=89, :>B>@K5 ?>72>;O;8 1K ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL 2A5 =0H8 CB25@645=8O > @01>B5 8 <KA;OE A=>2845=8O. 0, => ACI5AB2C5B A;8H:>< <=>3> B@C4=>AB59, ?@5?OBAB2CNI8E 2K?>;=5=8N 20H53> 65;0=8O. @5645 2A53> 4>;65= 20< ?@87=0BLAO, GB> =5B =8:>3>, :B> 70=8<0;AO 1K B>;:>20=85< A=>2845=89 2 :0G5AB25 A2>53> >A=>2=>3> 70=OB8O. 54L :0: ?@8E>4OB : B>;:>20=8N A=>2845=89? !;CG09=>, 157 >A>1>3> =0<5@5=8O <>6=> 70=OBLAO A=>2845=8O<8 4@C30 8;8 @01>B0BL :0:>5-B> 2@5<O =04 A2>8<8 A>1AB25==K<8 A=>2845=8O<8, GB>1K ?>C?@06=OBLAO 2 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9 @01>B5; => ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 ?@8E>48BAO 8<5BL 45;> A> A=>2845=8O<8 ;8F, AB@040NI8E =52@>70<8, ?>425@30NI8EAO 0=0;8B8G5A:><C ;5G5=8N. !=>2845=8O MB8E ?>A;54=8E ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 >B;8G=K9 <0B5@80; 8 =8:>8< >1@07>< =5 CABC?0NB A=>2845=8O< 74>@>2KE, => B5E=8:0 ;5G5=8O 2K=C6405B =0A ?>4G8=OBL B>;:>20=85 A=>2845=8O B5@0?52B8G5A:8< 7040G0< 8 >AB02;OBL 157 2=8<0=8O 1>;LH>5 G8A;> A=>2845=89 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: 87 =8E 1K;> 27OB> GB>-B> =C6=>5 4;O ;5G5=8O. 5:>B>@K5 A=>2845=8O, 2AB@5G0NI85AO 2> 2@5<O ;5G5=8O, 2>>1I5 =54>ABC?=K ?>;=><C B>;:>20=8N. "0: :0: >=8 2>7=8:0NB 87 2A59 A>2>:C?=>AB8 =58725AB=>3> =0< ?A8E8G5A:>3> <0B5@80;0, B> 8E ?>=8<0=85 2>7<>6=> B>;L:> ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O ;5G5=8O. !>>1I5=85 > B0:8E A=>2845=8OE A45;0;> 1K =587156=K< @0A:@KB85 2A5E B09= =52@>70; MB> =0< =5 =C6=>, B0: :0: <K 27O;8AL 70 A=>2845=85 A F5;LN ?>43>B>28BLAO : 87CG5=8N =52@>7>2. K >E>B=> >B:070;8AL 1K >B MB>3> <0B5@80;0 8 A:>@55 ?@54?>G;8 1K CA;KH0BL B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89 74>@>2KE ;N459 8;8 A2>8E A>1AB25==KE. > 87-70 A>45@60=8O A=>2845=89 MB> =54>?CAB8<>. 8 A0<>3> A51O, =8 4@C3>3>, GL8< 4>25@85< ?>;L7C5HLAO, =5;L7O B0: 15A?>I04=> >1=060BL, :0: MB>3> B@51C5B ?>4@>1=>5 B>;:>20=85 53> A=>2845=89, :>B>@K5, :0: 2K C65 7=05B5, 8<5NB >B=>H5=85 : A0<><C 8=B8<=><C 2 53> ;8G=>AB8. @><5 MB>3> 70B@C4=5=8O 2 ?>;CG5=88 <0B5@80;0, 4;O A>>1I5=8O ?@8=8<05BAO 2> 2=8<0=85 8 4@C3>5. K 7=05B5, GB> A=>2845=85 :065BAO AB@0==K< 4065 A0<><C 28452H5<C A>=, =5 3>2>@O C65 > 4@C3>< G5;>25:5, :>B>@><C ;8G=>ABL 28452H53> A>= =5 7=0:><0.  =0H59 ;8B5@0BC@5 =5B =54>AB0B:0 2 E>@>H8E 8 ?>4@>1=KE 0=0;870E A=>2845=89, O A0< >?C1;8:>20; =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E 2 @0<:0E 8AB>@89 1>;57=8; <>65B 1KBL, A0<K9 ;CGH89 ?@8<5@ B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 >?C1;8:>20==K5 . 0=:>< (1910b) 420 A2O70==KE <564C A>1>9 A=>2845=8O >4=>9 <>;>4>9 452CH:8, 70?8AL :>B>@KE 70=8<05B >:>;> 42CE ?5G0B=KE AB@0=8F, B>340 :0: 8E 0=0;87 -- 76 AB@0=8F. =5 ?>=04>18;AO 1K ?@8<5@=> F5;K9 A5<5AB@, GB>1K ?>:070BL 20< MBC @01>BC. A;8 15@5HLAO 70 :0:>5-=81C4L 1>;55 4;8==>5 8 5I5 1>;55 8A:065==>5 A=>2845=85, B> ?@8E>48BAO 4020BL AB>;L:> >1JOA=5=89, ?@82;5:0BL B0:>5 >18;85 0AA>F80B82=KE <KA;59 8 2>A?><8=0=89, 45;0BL B0: <=>3> >BABC?;5=89, GB> ;5:F8O > =5< >:070;0AL 1K A>25@H5==> 70?CB0==>9 8 =5C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=>9. >MB><C O 4>;65= ?@>A8BL 20A 4>2>;LAB2>20BLAO B5<, GB> ;53G5 ?>;CG8BL, -- A>>1I5=85< > =51>;LH8E D@03<5=B0E A=>2845=89 ;8F, AB@040NI8E =52@>7><, ?> :>B>@K< ?> >B45;L=>AB8 <>6=> C7=0BL B> 8;8 8=>5. 53G5 2A53> ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL A8<2>;K A=>2845=8O, 70B5< -- >?@545;5==K5 >A>15==>AB8 @53@5AA82=>3> 87>1@065=8O A=>2845=89.  :064>< 87 =865A;54CNI8E A=>2845=89 O A:06C 20<, ?>G5<C O AG5; =C6=K< A>>1I8BL > =5<. 1. !=>2845=85 A>AB>8B B>;L:> 87 42CE ?@>ABKE :0@B8=: 53> 4O4O :C@8B ?0?8@>AC, E>BO A53>4=O AC11>B0; :0:0O-B> 65=I8=0 3;048B 8 ;0A:05B 53> (28452H53> A>=), :0: A2>53> @515=:0. > ?>2>4C ?5@2>9 :0@B8=K 28452H89 A>= (52@59) 70<5G05B, GB> 53> 4O4O -- =01>6=K9 G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 =8:>340 =5 A>25@H0; 8 =5 A>25@H8; 1K ?>4>1=>3> 3@5E0. B=>A8B5;L=> 65=I8=K 2> 2B>@>9 :0@B8=5 5<C =8G53> =5 ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C, :@><5 B>3>, GB> MB> 53> <0BL. 15 MB8 :0@B8=K 8;8 <KA;8, >G5284=>, A;54C5B ?@825AB8 2 A>>B25BAB285 4@C3 A 4@C3><. > :0:8< >1@07><? "0: :0: >= @5H8B5;L=> >A?0@8205B 459AB285 4O48, B> 5AB5AB25==> ?@81028BL "5A;8". "A;8 <>9 4O4O, A2OB>9 G5;>25:, AB0; 1K :C@8BL 2 AC11>BC ?0?8@>AC, B> O <>3 1K 4>?CAB8BL ;0A:8 <0B5@8". G5284=>, GB> ;0A:0 <0B5@8 -- B0:>5 65 =54>?CAB8<>5 459AB285, :0: :C@5=85 2 AC11>BC 4;O =01>6=>3> 52@5O. A?><=8B5, GB> O 3>2>@8; 20< > B><, GB> ?@8 @01>B5 A=>2845=8O >B?040NB 2A5 >B=>H5=8O <564C <KA;O<8 A=>2845=8O; >=8 @0AB2>@ONBAO 2 A2>5< AK@>< <0B5@80;5, 8 7040G59 B>;:>20=8O O2;O5BAO 2=>2L 2>AAB0=>28BL >?CI5==K5 >B=>H5=8O. 2. ;03>40@O A2>8< ?C1;8:0F8O< > A=>2845=88 O AB0; 2 8725AB=>< A<KA;5 >1I5AB25==K< :>=AC;LB0=B>< ?> 2>?@>A0< A=>2845=89 8 2 B5G5=85 <=>38E ;5B ?>;CG0N A A0<KE @07=KE AB>@>= ?8AL<0, 2 :>B>@KE <=5 A>>1I0NBAO A=>2845=8O 8;8 ?@54;0305BAO 8E B>;:>20=85. /, :>=5G=>, 1;03>40@5= 2A5< B5<, :B> ?@8102;O5B : A=>2845=8N 4>AB0B>G=> <0B5@80;0, GB>1K B>;:>20=85 AB0;> 2>7<>6=K<, 8;8 :B> A0< 405B B0:>5 B>;:>20=85.  MB>9 :0B53>@88 >B=>A8BAO A;54CNI55 A=>2845=85 >4=>3> 2@0G0 87 N=E5=0, >B=>AOI55AO : 1910 3. / ?@82>6C 53>, ?>B><C GB> >=> <>65B 20< 4>:070BL, =0A:>;L:> A=>2845=85 2 >1I5< =54>ABC?=> ?>=8<0=8N, ?>:0 28452H89 A>= =5 40AB =0< 4>?>;=8B5;L=> A2>8E A2545=89. / 254L ?@54?>;030N, GB> 2K, 2 ACI=>AB8, AG8B05B5 8450;L=K< B>;:>20=85 A=>2845=89 A ?><>ILN 8A?>;L7>20=8O 7=0G5=8O A8<2>;>2, 0AA>F80B82=CN 65 B5E=8:C E>B5;8 1K CAB@0=8BL, 0 <=5 E>G5BAO >A2>1>48BL 20A >B MB>3> 2@54=>3> 701;C645=8O. "13 8N;O 19103. <=5 A=8BAO: O 54C =0 25;>A8?545 2=87 ?> C;8F5 "N18=35=0, :0: 24@C3 :>@8G=520O B0:A0 ?CA:05BAO 70 <=>9 2 ?>3>=N 8 E20B05B <5=O 70 ?OB:C. @>5E02 =5<=>3> 40;LH5, O A;570N A 25;>A8?540, A06CAL =0 ABC?5=L:C 8 =0G8=0N :>;>B8BL 682>B=>5, :@5?:> CF5?82H55AO 7C10<8 (>B C:CA0 8 2A59 AF5=K C <5=O =5B =5?@8OB=KE GC2AB2). 0?@>B82 A84OB =5A:>;L:> ?@5AB0@5;KE 40<, :>B>@K5 A<>B@OB =0 <5=O C;K10OAL. 0B5< O ?@>AK?0NAL, 8, :0: C65 G0AB> 1K20;>, 2 MB>B <><5=B ?5@5E>40 : 1>4@AB2>20=8N 2A5 A=>2845=85 AB0=>28BAO <=5 OA=K<". !8<2>;0<8 745AL <0;> ?><>65HL. > 28452H89 A>= A>>1I05B =0<: " ?>A;54=55 2@5<O O 1K; 2;N1;5= 2 >4=C 452CH:C, 2845; 55 B>;L:> =0 C;8F5, => =5 8<5; =8:0:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 7025AB8 7=0:><AB2>. !0<K< ?@8OB=K< 4;O <5=O ?>2>4>< 4;O 7=0:><AB20 <>3;0 1KBL B0:A0, B0: :0: O 1>;LH>9 ;N18B5;L 682>B=KE 8 MB> 65 :0G5AB2> A A8<?0B859 70<5B8; C 452CH:8". = 4>102;O5B B0:65, GB> =5>4=>:@0B=> A 1>;LH>9 ;>2:>ABLN 8 70G0ABCN : C482;5=8N 7@8B5;59 2<5H820;AO 2 1>@L1C 3@K7CI8EAO <564C A>1>9 A>10:. B0:, <K C7=05<, GB> ?>=@0282H0OAO 5<C 452CH:0 ?>AB>O==> ?>O2;O;0AL 2 A>?@>2>645=88 MB>9 >A>15==>9 A>10:8. > 87 O2=>3> A=>2845=8O MB0 452CH:0 CAB@0=5=0, >AB0;0AL B>;L:> 0AA>F88@C5<0O A =59 A>10:0. >65B 1KBL, ?@5AB0@5;K5 40<K, :>B>@K5 5<C C;K10NBAO, 70=O;8 <5AB> 452CH:8. ">3>, GB> >= 5I5 A>>1I05B, =54>AB0B>G=> 4;O >1JOA=5=8O MB>3> <><5=B0. ">, GB> 2 A=>2845=88 >= 545B =0 25;>A8?545, O2;O5BAO ?@O<K< ?>2B>@5=85< ?@8?><8=05<>9 A8BC0F88. = 2A5340 2AB@5G0; 452CH:C A A>10:>9 B>;L:> B>340, :>340 1K; =0 25;>A8?545. 3. A;8 :B>-=81C4L ?>B5@O; A2>53> 4>@>3>3> @>4AB25==8:0, B> 5<C 4>;3>5 2@5<O ?>A;5 MB>3> A=OBAO A=K >A>1>3> @>40, 2 :>B>@KE 7=0=85 > A<5@B8 70:;NG05B A0<K5 AB@0==K5 :><?@><8AAK A ?>B@51=>ABLN 2>A:@5A8BL <5@B2>3>. "> C<5@H89, 1C4CG8 <5@B2K<, ?@>4>;605B 2A5-B0:8 68BL, ?>B><C GB> >= =5 7=05B, GB> C<5@, 8 5A;8 1K >= MB> C7=0;, B> ;8HL B>340 C<5@ 1K >:>=G0B5;L=>; B> >= =0?>;>28=C <5@B2, 0 =0?>;>28=C 682, 8 :064>5 87 MB8E A>AB>O=89 8<55B A2>8 >A>1K5 ?@87=0:8. -B8 A=>2845=8O =5;L7O =0720BL 15AA<KA;5==K<8, B0: :0: 2>A:@5A5=85 4;O A=>2845=8O =5 O2;O5BAO =5?@85<;5<K<, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 8 4;O A:07:8, 345 MB> A>25@H5==> >1KG=>5 A>1KB85. 0A:>;L:> O A<>3 ?@>0=0;878@>20BL B0:85 A=>2845=8O, >=8 A?>A>1=K =0 @07C<=>5 @5H5=85, => 4>AB>9=>5 C2065=8O 65;0=85 2>72@0B8BL : 687=8 <5@B2>3> C<55B 4>1820BLAO MB>3> A0<K<8 AB@0==K<8 A@54AB20<8. / ?@54;030N 20< 745AL B0:>5 A=>2845=85, :>B>@>5 72CG8B 4>AB0B>G=> AB@0==> 8 15AA<KA;5==> 8 0=0;87 :>B>@>3> ?>:065B 20< <=>3>5 87 B>3>, : G5<C 2K ?>43>B>2;5=K =0H8<8 B5>@5B8G5A:8<8 @0AAC645=8O<8. !=>2845=85 >4=>3> <C6G8=K, :>B>@K9 =5A:>;L:> ;5B B><C =0704 ?>B5@O; >BF0. B5F C<5@, => 1K; 2K:>?0= 8 ?;>E> 2K3;O48B. ! B5E ?>@ >= 6825B, 8 28452H89 A>= 45;05B 2A5, GB>1K >= =8G53> =5 70<5B8;. (0B5< A=>2845=85 ?5@5E>48B =0 4@C385 O2;5=8O, =5 8<5NI85 A MB8<, ?>-2848<><C, =8G53> >1I53>). B5F C<5@, MB> <K 7=05<. 'B> >= 1K; 2K:>?0=, =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 40 8 2A5 ?>A;54CNI55 =5 ?@8=8<05B 55 2> 2=8<0=85. > 28452H89 A>= @0AA:07K205B: :>340 >= 25@=C;AO A ?>E>@>= >BF0, C =53> @071>;5;AO 7C1. = E>B5; ?>ABC?8BL A =8< ?> ?@54?8A0=8N 52@59A:>3> CG5=8O: 5A;8 B2>9 7C1 B515 4>A06405B, 2K@28 53>, -- 8 >B?@028;AO : 7C1=><C 2@0GC. > B>B A:070;: 7C1 =5 A;54C5B 2K@K20BL, =C6=> ?>B5@?5BL. / :>5-GB> ?>;>6C, GB>1K 53> C18BL, ?@8E>48B5 G5@57 B@8 4=O >?OBL, O MB> 2K=C. -B> "2K=8<0=85", 3>2>@8B 24@C3 28452H89 A>=, 8 5ABL M:A3C<0F8O. 5C65;8 28452H89 A>= ?@02? 5 A>2A5<, ?>B><C GB> 254L 2K=8<0;AO =5 A0< 7C1, 0 B>;L:> B>, GB> 2 =5< ><5@B25;>. > ?>4>1=K5 =5B>G=>AB8, AC4O ?> 4@C38< ?@8<5@0<, 2?>;=5 <>6=> >6840BL >B @01>BK A=>2845=8O. 8452H89 A>= A3CAB8;, A;8; 2 >4=> C<5@H53> >BF0 8 <5@B2K9, => A>E@0=5==K9 7C1. 5C4828B5;L=>, GB> 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 ?>;CG8;>AL GB>-B> 15AA<KA;5==>5, ?>B><C GB> =5 2A5, GB> <>6=> A:070BL > 7C15, ?>4E>48B : >BFC. 45 65 2>>1I5 Tertium comparationis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ons Veneris, 1C3>@ 5=5@K. 7. I5 >4=> A=>2845=85, :>B>@>5 <>6=> @07JOA=8BL ?@8 ?><>I8 A8<2>;>2, 70<5G0B5;L=>5 8 C1548B5;L=>5 B5<, GB> A0< 28452H89 A>= ?5@525; 2A5 A8<2>;K, E>BO C =53> =5 1K;> =8:0:8E ?@5420@8B5;L=KE B5>@5B8G5A:8E 7=0=89 4;O B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89. "0:>9 >1@07 459AB289 25AL<0 =5>1KG5=, 8 CA;>28O 53> B>G=> =58725AB=K. ": 3C;O5B A >BF>< 2 :0:><-B> <5AB5, =025@=>5, =0 @0B5@5, ?>B><C GB> 284=0 @>B>=40, ?5@54 =59 <0;5=L:0O ?@8AB@>9:0, : =59 ?@82O70= 2>74CH=K9 H0@, :>B>@K9 :065BAO 4>2>;L=> ?;>E> =04CBK<. B5F A?@0H8205B 53>, : G5<C 2A5 MB>; >= C482;O5BAO MB><C, => >1JOA=O5B 5<C. 0B5< >=8 ?@8E>4OB =0 42>@, =0 :>B>@>< @07;>65= 1>;LH>9 ;8AB 65AB8. B5F E>G5B >B>@20BL A515 >B =53> 1>;LH>9 :CA>:, => A=0G0;0 >3;O4K205BAO, =5 <>65B ;8 53> :B>-=81C4L 70<5B8BL. = 3>2>@8B 5<C, GB> =C6=> B>;L:> A:070BL A<>B@8B5;N, 8 B>340 >= <>65B 27OBL A515 157 2AO:8E :>;510=89. 7 MB>3> 42>@0 2=87 2545B ;5AB=8F0 2 H0EBC, AB5=K :>B>@>9 >18BK <O3:8<, 2@>45 :0: :>60=>5 :@5A;>.  :>=F5 MB>9 H0EBK 4;8==0O ?;0BD>@<0, 0 40;LH5 =0G8=05BAO =>20O H0EB0." !0< 28452H89 A>= B>;:C5B 53>: @>B>=40 -- <>8 35=8B0;88, 2>74CH=K9 H0@ ?5@54 =59 -- <>9 ?5=8A, =0 <O3:>ABL :>B>@>3> O 2K=C645= 60;>20BLAO. !;54C5B ?5@525AB8 1>;55 45B0;L=>: @>B>=40 -- 704=OO G0ABL, ?>AB>O==> ?@8G8A;O5<0O @515=:>< : 35=8B0;8O<, <0;5=L:0O ?@8AB@>9:0 -- <>H>=:0.  A=>2845=88 >B5F 53> A?@0H8205B, GB> 2A5 MB> 7=0G8B, B. 5. > F5;8 8 DC=:F88 35=8B0;89. ?>;=5 5AB5AB25==> >15@=CBL MB> ?>;>65=85 25I59 B0:, GB>1K A?@0H820; >=. "0: :0: >= =8:>340 =5 A?@0H820; >BF0 >1 MB><, <KA;L A=>2845=8O A;54C5B ?>=8<0BL :0: 65;0=85 ?@8=OBL 53> CA;>2=> 2@>45: "5A;8 1K O ?>?@>A8; >BF0 @07JOA=8BL A5:AC0;L=>5". @>4>;65=85 MB>9 <KA;8 <K A:>@> =0945< 2 4@C3>< <5AB5. 2>@, 345 @07;>65=0 65ABL, =5 A;54C5B A@07C ?>=8<0BL A8<2>;8G5A:8, >= ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 B>@3>2>5 ?><5I5=85 >BF0. > ?@8G8=5 A>1;N45=8O B09=K O 70<5=8; 65ABLN B>B <0B5@80;, :>B>@K< B>@3C5B >B5F, =5 87<5=82 =8 2 G5< >AB0;L=>< 4>A;>2=CN ?5@540GC A=>2845=8O. 8452H89 A>= 2ABC?8; 2 45;> >BF0 8 1K; G@572KG09=> ?>@065= B>9 A:>@55 =5:>@@5:B=>9 ?@0:B8:>9, =0 :>B>@>9 ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 >A=>2K205BAO ?>;CG5=85 ?@81K;8. >MB><C ?@>4>;65=85 2KH5C?><O=CB>9 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O <>3;> 1K 3;0A8BL: "(5A;8 1K O 53> A?@>A8;), >= >1<0=C; 1K <5=O, :0: >1<0=K205B A2>8E :;85=B>2". > ?>2>4C ;><:8 65AB8, :>B>@0O A;C68B 4;O 87>1@065=8O 45;>2>9 =5G5AB=>AB8, 28452H89 A>= A0< 405B 2B>@>5 >1JOA=5=85: >=0 >7=0G05B >=0=87<. -B> =0< =5 B>;L:> 402=> 7=0:><>, => B0:65 >G5=L E>@>H> A>3;0AC5BAO A B5<, GB> B09=0 >=0=87<0 2K@065=0 ?>A@54AB2>< ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8 (254L MB> <>6=> 45;0BL >B:@KB>). 0;55, :0: 8 A;54>20;> >6840BL, >=0=8AB8G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@8?8AK205BAO >?OBL-B0:8 >BFC, :0: 8 @0AA?@>AK 2 ?5@2>9 AF5=5 A=>2845=8O. (0EBC >= A@07C 65 B>;:C5B :0: 2;030;8I5, AAK;0OAL =0 <O3:CN >182:C AB5=. ">, GB> A?CA:><, :0: 8 ?>4J5<><, >1KG=> 87>1@0605BAO ?>;>2>9 0:B 2> 2;030;8I5, O 4>102;N ?> A>1AB25==>9 8=8F80B825. "5 45B0;8, GB> 70 ?5@2>9 H0EB>9 A;54C5B 4;8==0O ?;0BD>@<0, 0 70B5< =>20O H0EB0, >= A0< >1JOA=O5B 18>3@0D8G5A:8. = 4>;3>5 2@5<O 25; ?>;>2CN 687=L, 70B5< >B:070;AO >B ?>;>2KE A=>H5=89 2A;54AB285 70B@C4=5=89 8 B5?5@L =0455BAO >?OBL 2>7>1=>28BL 8E A ?><>ILN ;5G5=8O. 8. 10 A;54CNI8E A=>2845=8O >4=>3> 8=>AB@0=F0 A ?@54@0A?>;>65==>ABLN : ?>;830<88 O ?@8254C 20< 2 4>:070B5;LAB2> CB25@645=8O, GB> A>1AB25==>5 / ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 :064>< A=>2845=88, 4065 5A;8 >=> A:@KB> 2 O2=>< A>45@60=88. '5<>40=K 2 A=>2845=88 O2;ONBAO 65=A:8<8 A8<2>;0<8. 0) = C57605B, 53> 10306 4>AB02;O5BAO 2 M:8?065 =0 2>:70;, <=>3> G5<>40=>2 >48= =0 4@C3><, A@548 =8E 420 1>;LH8E G5@=KE ">1@07F>2KE" G5<>40=0.  CB5H5=85 >= :><C-B> 3>2>@8B: B0: 254L MB8 54CB B>;L:> 4> 2>:70;0.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >= ?CB5H5AB2C5B A >G5=L 1>;LH8< 10306><, 2> 2@5<O ;5G5=8O @0AA:07K205B B0:65 >G5=L <=>3> 8AB>@89 A 65=I8=0<8. 20 G5@=KE G5<>40=0 A>>B25BAB2CNB 42C< 1@N=5B:0<, :>B>@K5 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 83@0NB 2 53> 687=8 3;02=CN @>;L. 4=0 87 =8E E>B5;0 ?@85E0BL 2A;54 70 =8< 2 5=C; => ?> <>5<C A>25BC >= >B:070; 59 ?> B5;53@0DC. 1) !F5=0 2 B0<>6=5: >48= ?0AA068@ >B:@K205B A2>9 G5<>40= 8 3>2>@8B, @02=>4CH=> 70:C@820O ?0?8@>AC: BCB =8G53> =5B. "0<>65==K9 G8=>2=8:, :065BAO. 25@8B 5<C, => >?CA:05B 5I5 @07 @C:C 8 =0E>48B GB>-B> >A>15==> 70?@5I5==>5. ">340 ?0AA068@ @07>G0@>20==> 3>2>@8B: BCB =8G53> =5 ?>45;05HL. = A0< -- ?0AA068@, O -- B0<>65==K9 G8=>2=8:. 1KG=> >= >G5=L 8A:@5=5= 2 A2>8E ?@87=0=8OE, => @5H8; CB08BL >B <5=O =>2CN A2O7L A 40<>9, ?>B><C GB> ?@028;L=> ?>;030;, GB> >=0 <=5 =5157K725AB=0. 5?@8OB=>5 ?>;>65=85 1KBL C;8G5==K< >= ?5@5=5A =0 GC6>5 ;8F>, B0: GB> A0< >= :0: 1C4B> =5 ?>O2;O5BAO 2 MB>< A=>2845=88. 9. >B ?@8<5@ 8A?>;L7>20=8O A8<2>;0, > :>B>@>< O 5I5 =5 C?><8=0;: = 2AB@5G05B A2>N A5AB@C 2 A>?@>2>645=88 42CE ?>4@C3, :>B>@K5 A0<8 A5AB@K. = ?>405B @C:C >158<, 0 A5AB5@ =5B. 8:0:>9 A2O78 A 459AB28B5;L=K<8 A>1KB8O<8. 3> <KA;8 C=>AOBAO : B><C 2@5<5=8, :>340 >= @07<KH;O; =04 A2>8< =01;N45=85<, GB> 3@C4L 452>G5: @0728205BAO B0: ?>74=>. B0:, >15 A5AB@K -- MB> 3@C48, >= A C4>2>;LAB285< 1K 8E ?>B@>30;, => B>;L:> GB>1K MB> =5 1K;8 3@C48 53> A5AB@K. 10.  2>B ?@8<5@ A8<2>;8:8 A<5@B8 2 A=>2845=88: = 845B ?> >G5=L 2KA>:><C :@CB><C 65;57=><C <>AB8:C A 42C<O ;8F0<8, 8<5=0 :>B>@KE 7=05B, => ?@8 ?@>1C645=88 701K205B. 4@C3 B5 42>5 8AG570NB, 0 >= 2848B G5;>25:0, ?>E>653> =0 ?@82845=85, 2 :>;?0:5 8 ?>;>B=O=>< :>ABN<5. = A?@0H8205B C =53>, =5 B5;53@0D8AB ;8 >=. 5B. 5 872>7G8: ;8? 5B. ">340 >= 845B 40;LH5, 5I5 2> A=5 8A?KBK205B A8;L=K9 AB@0E 8, ?@>A=C2H8AL, ?@>4>;605B A=>2845=85 D0=B07859, GB> 65;57=K9 <>AB 24@C3 ;><05BAO, 8 >= ?0405B 2 ?@>?0ABL. 8F0, > :>B>@KE ?>4G5@:8205BAO, GB> >=8 =58725AB=K, GB> 8E 8<5=0 701KBK, ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 >G5=L 1;87:85 ;N48. 8452H89 A>= 8<55B 42CE A5AB5@; 5A;8 1K >= E>B5; 8< >158< A<5@B8, B> 1K;> 1K 2?>;=5 A?@0254;82>, GB> 70 MB> 53> ?>AB83 1K AB@0E A<5@B8.  B5;53@0D8AB5 >= 70<5G05B, GB> B0:85 ;N48 2A5340 ?@8=>AOB ?;>E85 25AB8, AC4O ?> D>@<5==>9 >45645, MB> <>3 1KBL 8 D>=0@I8:, :>B>@K9 B0: 65 BCH8B D>=0@8, :0: 35=89 A<5@B8 30A8B D0:5; 687=8. ! 872>7G8:>< >= 0AA>F88@C5B AB8E>B2>@5=85 #;0=40 > <>@A:>9 ?>574:5 :>@>;O 0@;0 8 2A?><8=05B >?0A=>5 <>@A:>5 ?CB5H5AB285 A 42C<O B>20@8I0<8, 2> 2@5<O :>B>@>3> >= 83@0; @>;L :>@>;O 87 AB8E>B2>@5=8O. > ?>2>4C 65;57=>3> <>AB0 5<C ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C >48= =5AG0AB=K9 A;CG09 ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8 8 3;C?>5 2K@065=85: "687=L 5ABL <>AB 87 F5?59". 11. @C38< ?@8<5@>< 87>1@065=8O A<5@B8 <>65B A;C68BL A=>2845=85: 58725AB=K9 3>A?>48= ?>405B 70 =53> 2878B=CN :0@B>G:C A G5@=>9 :09<>9. 12. > <=>38E >B=>H5=8OE 20A 708=B5@5AC5B A;54CNI55 A=>2845=85, : ?@54?>AK;:0< :>B>@>3>, ?@0240, >B=>A8BAO =52@>B8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85. = 545B ?> 65;57=>9 4>@>35. >574 >AB0=02;8205BAO 2 >B:@KB>< ?>;5. = ?>;0305B, GB> 3@>78B :0B0AB@>D0 8 =04> ?>4C<0BL > B><, GB>1K A?0AB8AL 153AB2><, ?@>E>48B ?> 2A5< >B45;5=8O< ?>5740 8 C18205B 2A5E, :>3> 2AB@5G05B: :>=4C:B>@>2, <0H8=8AB0 8 B. 4. > MB><C ?>2>4C -- 2>A?><8=0=85 > @0AA:075 4@C30. 0 :0:>9-B> ;8=88 2 B0;88 2 ?>;C:C?5 ?5@52>78;8 4CH52=>1>;L=>3>, => ?> =54>A<>B@C 2?CAB8;8 : =5<C ?0AA068@0. CH52=>1>;L=>9 C18; A?CB=8:0. "0:8< >1@07><, >= 845=B8D8F8@C5B A51O A MB8< 4CH52=>1>;L=K< 8 >1>A=>2K205B A2>5 ?@02> =02O7G82K< ?@54AB02;5=85<, :>B>@>5 53> 2@5<5=0<8 <CG05B, GB> >= 4>;65= "CAB@0=8BL 2A5E A>CG0AB=8:>2". > 70B5< >= A0< =0E>48B ;CGHCN <>B828@>2:C, :>B>@0O 405B ?>2>4 4;O A=>2845=8O. G5@0 2 B50B@5 >= A=>20 C2845; 452CH:C, =0 :>B>@>9 E>B5; 65=8BLAO, => >AB028;, B0: :0: >=0 40;0 5<C >A=>20=85 4;O @52=>AB8. @8 B>9 8=B5=A82=>AB8, 4> :>B>@>9 C =53> 4>E>48B @52=>ABL, >= 459AB28B5;L=> A>H5; 1K A C<0, 5A;8 1K 65=8;AO =0 =59. -B> 7=0G8B: >= AG8B05B 55 =0AB>;L:> =5=0456=>9, GB> 87 @52=>AB8 4>;65= 1K; 1K C1820BL 2A5E ;N459, :>B>@K5 ?>?040;8AL 5<C =0 ?CB8. %>645=85 G5@57 @O4 :><=0B, 2 40==>< A;CG05 >B45;5=89, :0: A8<2>; A>AB>O=8O 2 1@0:5 (Verheiratetsein) (?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL 548=>1@0G8N -- Einehe) <K C65 7=05<. 1 >AB0=>2:5 ?>5740 2 >B:@KB>< ?>;5 8 AB@0E5 ?5@54 :0B0AB@>D>9 >= @0AA:07K205B: :>340 >4=064K 2> 2@5<O ?>574:8 ?> 65;57=>9 4>@>35 ?@>87>H;0 =5>6840==0O >AB0=>2:0 =5 =0 AB0=F88, >4=0 54CI0O 2<5AB5 A =8< <>;>40O 40<0 70O28;0, GB>, 2>7<>6=>, ?@54AB>8B AB>;:=>25=85 8 B>340 A0<K< F5;5A>>1@07=K< 1K;> 1K C1560BL [die Beine hoch zu heben -- ?>4=OBL 225@E =>38]. > MB> "=>38 225@E" (die Beine hoch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eckerrinerungen), ?CB5< >A=>20B5;L=>3> 0=0;870 87 =8E <>6=> 872;5GL 2A5 701KB>5. @8 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>< ;5G5=88 A>25@H5==> 70:>=><5@=> 2>7=8:05B 7040G0 70?>;=8BL ?@>15; 2 45BA:8E 2>A?><8=0=8OE, 8 ?>A:>;L:C ;5G5=85 2>>1I5 2 :0:>9-B> AB5?5=8 C405BAO, 8 MB> A;CG05BAO 25AL<0 G0AB>, <K 2 A>AB>O=88 >?OBL 2>AAB0=>28BL A>45@60=85 B5E 701KBKE 45BA:8E ;5B. -B8 2?5G0B;5=8O =8:>340 ?>-=0AB>OI5<C =5 701K20NBAO, >=8 1K;8 B>;L:> =54>ABC?=K<8, A:@KBK<8, ?@8=04;560;8 : 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C. > A0<> ?> A515 A;CG05BAO 8 B0:, GB> >=8 2A?;K20NB 87 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>, 8 ?@>8AE>48B MB> 2 A2O78 A> A=>2845=8O<8. :07K205BAO, GB> 687=L 2> A=5 C<55B =0E>48BL 4>ABC? : MB8< A:@KBK< 8=D0=B8;L=K< ?5@56820=8O<.  ;8B5@0BC@5 8<5NBAO ?@5:@0A=K5 B><C ?@8<5@K, 8 O A0< 8<5; 2>7<>6=>ABL >?C1;8:>20BL A>>1I5=85 > ?>4>1=>< A;CG05. 4=064K O 2845; 2> A=5 2 >?@545;5==>9 A2O78 >4=> ;8F>, :>B>@>5, ?> 2A59 25@>OB=>AB8, >:070;> <=5 CA;C3C 8 :>B>@>5 O OA=> C2845; ?5@54 A>1>9. -B> 1K; >4=>3;07K9 <C6G8=0 <0;5=L:>3> @>AB0, B>;ABK9, A 3;C1>:> A84OI59 <564C ?;5G0<8 3>;>2>9. 7 >1I53> :>=B5:AB0 O 70:;NG8;, GB> >= 1K; 2@0G.  AG0ABLN, O <>3 @0AA?@>A8BL A2>N B>340 1K2HCN 5I5 2 682KE <0BL, :0: 2K3;O45; 2@0G B>9 <5AB=>AB8, 345 O @>48;AO 8 :>B>@CN O ?>:8=C; 2 B@8 3>40, 8 C7=0; >B =55, GB> >= 1K; >4=>3;07K9, :>@>B:89, B>;ABK9, A 3;C1>:> A84OI59 <564C ?;5G0<8 3>;>2>9, ?>;CG8; B0:65 A2545=8O > B><, ?@8 :0:>< 701KB>< <=>9 =5AG0AB=>< A;CG05 >= >:070; <=5 ?><>IL. "0:8< >1@07><, MB0 2>7<>6=>ABL @0A?>@O60BLAO 701KBK< <0B5@80;>< 45BA:8E ;5B O2;O5BAO 4@C3>9 0@E08G5A:>9 G5@B>9 A=>2845=8O. "> 65 A0<>5 >B=>A8BAO 8 : 4@C3>9 87 B5E 70304>:, A :>B>@K<8 <K C65 4> MB>3> AB>;:=C;8AL. K ?><=8B5, A :0:8< C482;5=85< 2K 2A5 ?@8=O;8 @57C;LB0BK =0H53> 8AA;54>20=8O, :>B>@K5 ?>:070;8, GB> ?>1C48B5;O<8 A=>2845=89 O2;ONBAO 7;>1=>-M=5@38G=K5 8 157C45@6=K5 A5:AC0;L=K5 65;0=8O, A45;02H85 =5>1E>48<K<8 F5=7C@C 8 8A:065=85 A=>2845=89. >340 <K B>;:>20;8 B0:>5 A=>2845=85 28452H5<C A>=, >= 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 =5 >A?0@820; A0<> B>;:>20=85, => 2A5-B0:8 ?>AB>O==> 704020; 2>?@>A, >B:C40 C =53> 15@5BAO B0:>5 65;0=85, B0: :0: >= 2>A?@8=8<05B 53> :0: GC64>5 8 >A>7=05B ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 5<C. 0< =5G53> AB5A=OBLAO C:070=89 =0 8E ?@>8AE>645=85. -B8 7;>1=K5 65;0=8O ?@>8AE>4OB 87 ?@>H;>3>, G0AB> 87 >G5=L =540;5:>3>. >6=> ?>:070BL, GB> :>340-B> >=8 1K;8 8725AB=K 8 >A>7=0==K, E>BO B5?5@L MB>3> C65 =5B. 5=I8=0, A=>2845=85 :>B>@>9 >7=0G05B, GB> >=0 E>B5;0 1K 2845BL <5@B2>9 A2>N 548=AB25==CN 17-;5B=NN 4>GL, ?>4 =0H8< @C:>2>4AB2>< ?@87=05B, GB> >=0 :>340-B> ?>GB8 65;0;0 MB>9 A<5@B8. 515=>: O2;O5BAO ?;>4>< =5AG0AB=>3>, 2A:>@5 @0AB>@3=CB>3> 1@0:0. >340 >=0 =>A8;0 4>GL 5I5 2> G@525, >4=064K ?>A;5 1C@=>9 AF5=K A <C65< 2 ?@8?04:5 O@>AB8 >=0 =0G0;0 :>;>B8BL :C;0:0<8 ?> 682>BC, GB>1K C18BL 2 =5< @515=:0. !:>;L:> 5ABL <0B5@59, :>B>@K5 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =56=>, <>65B 1KBL, G5@5AGC@ =56=> ;N1OB A2>8E 45B59, :>B>@K5, >4=0:>, =5>E>B=> 2AB@5B8;8 8E ?>O2;5=85 =0 A25B 8 :>340-B> 65;0;8, GB>1K 687=L 2 =8E ?@5:@0B8;0AL; 40 >=8 8 ?5@52>48;8 MB> 65;0=85 2 @07;8G=K5, : AG0ABLN, 1572@54=K5 459AB28O. "0:>5 ?>74=55 :06CI55AO 70304>G=K< 65;0=85 A<5@B8 ;N18<><C ;8FC ?@>8AE>48B, B0:8< >1@07><, 87 1>;55 @0==53> >B=>H5=8O : =5<C. B5F, A=>2845=85 :>B>@>3> ?>4B25@6405B B>;:>20=85, GB> >= 65;05B A<5@B8 A2>5<C ;N18<><C AB0@H5<C @515=:C, B>65 2K=C645= 2A?><=8BL > B><, GB> :>340-B> MB> 65;0=85 1K;> 5<C =5 GC64>. >340 MB>B @515=>: 1K; 5I5 3@C4=K< <;045=F5<, =54>2>;L=K9 A2>8< 1@0:>< <C6 G0AB> 4C<0;, GB> 5A;8 1K <0;5=L:>5 ACI5AB2>, =8G53> 4;O =53> =5 7=0G0I55, C<5@;>, >= >?OBL 1K; 1K A2>1>45= 8 ;CGH5 8A?>;L7>20; 1K MBC A2>1>4C. >6=> >1=0@C68BL, GB> 1>;LH>5 G8A;> ?>4>1=KE GC2AB2 =5=028AB8 8<5NB B0:>5 65 ?@>8AE>645=85; >=8 O2;ONBAO =0?><8=0=8O<8 > B><, GB> >B=>A8;>AL : ?@>H;><C, :>340-B> 1K;> A>7=0B5;L=K< 8 83@0;> A2>N @>;L 2 4CH52=>9 687=8. BAN40 2K 70E>B8B5 A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> B0:8E 65;0=89 8 B0:8E A=>2845=89 =5 4>;6=> 1KBL, :>340 ?>4>1=K5 ?5@5<5=K >B=>H5=8O : :0:><C-B> ;8FC =5 8<5;8 <5AB0, :>340 MB> >B=>H5=85 1K;> @>2=K< A A0<>3> =0G0;0. / 3>B>2 A>3;0A8BLAO A MB8< 20H8< 2K2>4><, E>GC B>;L:> ?@54C?@548BL 20A > B><, GB>1K 2K 8<5;8 2 284C =5 1C:20;L=K9 B5:AB A=>2845=8O, 0 53> A<KA; ?>A;5 B>;:>20=8O. >65B A;CG8BLAO, GB> O2=>5 A=>2845=85 > A<5@B8 ;N18<>3> ;8F0 B>;L:> =045;> AB@0H=CN <0A:C, 0 >7=0G05B >=> A>25@H5==> 4@C3>5, 8;8 ;N18<>5 ;8F> 2KABC?05B >1<0=G82K< 70<5AB8B5;5< 4@C3>3> ;8F0. > B5 65 D0:BK 2K7>2CB C 20A 4@C3>9, 1>;55 A5@L57=K9 2>?@>A. K A:065B5: 5A;8 MB> 65;0=85 A<5@B8 4065 8<5;>AL :>340-B> 8 ?>4B25@6405BAO 2>A?><8=0=85<, B> MB> 2A5-B0:8 5I5 =5 >1JOA=5=85, MB> 65;0=85 254L 402=> ?@5>4>;5=>, A53>4=O >=> <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL 2 15AA>7=0B5;L=>< B>;L:> :0: ;8H5==>5 0DD5:B>2 2>A?><8=0=85, 0 =5 :0: A8;L=>5 ?@>O2;5=85 GC2AB20.  ?>;L7C ?>A;54=53> 254L =8G53> =5 3>2>@8B. 0G5< 65 A=>2845=85 2>>1I5 > =5< =0?><8=05B? -B>B 2>?@>A 459AB28B5;L=> >?@0240=; ?>?KB:0 >B25B8BL =0 =53> 7025;0 1K =0A A;8H:>< 40;5:> 8 70AB028;0 1K >?@545;8BL A2>8 ?>78F88 ?> >B=>H5=8N : >4=><C 87 A0<KE 7=0G8B5;L=KE <><5=B>2 B5>@88 A=>2845=89. > O 2K=C645= >AB020BLAO 2 @0<:0E =0H53> @071>@0 8 2>745@6820BLAO >B ;8H=53>. !<8@8B5AL A MB8< 2@5<5==K< >B:07><. C45< 4>2>;LAB2>20BLAO D0:B8G5A:8< C:070=85< =0 B>, GB> MB> ?@5>4>;5==>5 65;0=85, :0: 4>:070=>, O2;O5BAO ?>1C48B5;5< A=>2845=8O, 8 ?@>4>;68< 8AA;54>20=85 >B=>A8B5;L=> B>3>, =5 2K2>4OBAO ;8 8 4@C385 7;>1=K5 65;0=8O 87 ?@>H;>3>. AB0=>28<AO =0 65;0=8OE CAB@0=5=8O, :>B>@K5 <K 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 <>65< >1JOA=8BL =5>3@0=8G5==K< M3>87<>< 28452H53> A>=. >6=> 4>:070BL, GB> B0:>5 65;0=85 >G5=L G0AB> O2;O5BAO ?@8G8=>9 >1@07>20=8O A=>2845=8O. AO:89 @07, :>340 :B>-=81C4L 2AB05B C =0A =0 ?CB8 -- 0 :0: G0AB> MB> A;CG05BAO 2 A;>6=KE 687=5==KE >B=>H5=8OE, -- A=>2845=85 BCB 65 3>B>2> 53> C18BL, 1C4L B> >B5F, <0BL, :B>-B> 87 1@0BL52 8 A5AB5@, ?0@B=5@ ?> 1@0:C 8 B. ?. K C65 4>AB0B>G=> C482;O;8AL MB>9 8A?>@G5==>AB8 G5;>25G5A:>9 =0BC@K 8, :>=5G=>, =5 A:;>==K 157>3>2>@>G=> AG8B0BL ?@028;L=K< MB>B @57C;LB0B B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89. > 5A;8 =0< C:07K20NB =0 B>, GB> 8AB>:8 B0:8E 65;0=89 =04> 8A:0BL 2 ?@>H;><, B> 2A:>@5 <K >B:@K205< ?5@8>4 8=48284C0;L=>3> ?@>H;>3>, :>340 B0:>9 M3>87< 8 B0:85 65;0=8O 4065 ?@>B82 A0<KE 1;87:8E A>2A5< =5C4828B5;L=K. <5==> B0:>2 @515=>: 2 B5 ?5@2K5 3>4K, :>B>@K5 ?>74=55 >:CBK20NBAO 0<=57859, >= G0AB> >1=0@C68205B MB8 @57:85 ?@>O2;5=8O M3>87<0, ?>AB>O==> 405B ?>GC2AB2>20BL O2=CN ?@54@0A?>;>65==>ABL : =5<C 8;8, 25@=55, 53> >AB0B:8. 515=>: ?@5645 2A53> ;N18B A0<>3> A51O 8 B>;L:> ?>74=55 CG8BAO ;N18BL 4@C38E, 65@B2>20BL G0AB8F59 A2>53> / @048 4@C38E. 065 ;8F, :>B>@KE >=, :065BAO, ;N18B A A0<>3> =0G0;0, >= ;N18B B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> =C6405BAO 2 =8E, =5 <>65B 157 =8E >1>9B8AL, B0: GB> >?OBL-B0:8 87 M3>8AB8G5A:8E <>B82>2. ">;L:> ?>74=55 GC2AB2> ;N128 45;05BAO =57028A8<K< >B MB>3> M3>87<0. = D0:B8G5A:8 =0 M3>87<5 =0CG8;AO ;N128.  MB>9 A2O78 1C45B ?>CG8B5;L=> A@02=8BL CAB0=>2:C @515=:0 : 53> 1@0BLO< 8 A5AB@0< A CAB0=>2:>9 : 53> @>48B5;O<. !2>8E 1@0BL52 8 A5AB5@ <0;5=L:89 @515=>: =5 2A5340 ;N18B, G0AB> 65 O2=> =5 ;N18B. 5A><=5==>, GB> >= =5=02848B 2 =8E :>=:C@5=B>2, 8 8725AB=>, :0: G0AB> MB0 CAB0=>2:0 ACI5AB2C5B =5?@5@K2=> 2 B5G5=85 4>;38E ;5B 2?;>BL 4> 2@5<5=8 7@5;>AB8, 4065 5I5 4>;LH5. @0240, >=0 4>AB0B>G=> G0AB> A<5=O5BAO 8;8, ;CGH5 A:070BL, ?>:@K205BAO 1>;55 =56=>9, => 2@06451=0O, ?>-2848<><C, 2?>;=5 70:>=><5@=>, ?>O2;O5BAO @0=LH5. 53G5 2A53> 55 =01;N40BL C @515=:0 >B 2, 5 4> 4 8 5 ;5B, 5A;8 ?>O2;O5BAO =>2K9 1@0B8: 8;8 A5AB@5=:0.  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 MB> 2AB@5G05B >G5=L =54@C65;N1=K9 ?@85<. K@065=8O 2@>45 "/ 53> =5 ;N1;N, ?CABL 08AB >?OBL 2>7L<5B 53> A A>1>9" 25AL<0 >1KG=K. ?>A;54AB288 8A?>;L7C5BAO ;N10O 2>7<>6=>ABL C=878BL ?@8H5;LF0 8 4065 ?>?KB:8 8A:0;5G8BL 53>, ?@O<K5 ?>:CH5=8O =0 =53> =5 O2;ONBAO =5A;KE0==K<8 ?@>8AH5AB28O<8. A;8 @07=8F0 ;5B <5=55 7=0G8B5;L=0, B> ?@8 ?@>1C645=88 1>;55 8=B5=A82=>9 4CH52=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 @515=>: =0E>48B :>=:C@5=B0 C65 =0 <5AB5 8 ?@8A?>A01;8205BAO : =5<C. A;8 @07=8F0 1>;LH5, B> =>2K9 @515=>: A A0<>3> =0G0;0 <>65B 2K720BL >?@545;5==K5 A8<?0B88 :0: 8=B5@5A=K9 >1J5:B, :0: 6820O :C:;0, 0 ?@8 @07=8F5 2 2>A5<L ;5B 8 1>;55, >A>15==> C 452>G5:, C65 <>3CB ?@>O28BLAO 701>B;82K5, <0B5@8=A:85 GC2AB20. >, >B:@>25==> 3>2>@O, 5A;8 70 A=>2845=85< >B:@K205HL 65;0=85 A<5@B8 1@0BLO< 8 A5AB@0<, =5 =C6=> AG8B0BL 53> =5>1JOA=8<K<, 53> ?@>B>B8? 157 B@C40 =0E>48HL 2 @0==5< 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5, 4>2>;L=> G0AB> -- B0:65 8 2 1>;55 ?>74=85 3>4K A>2<5AB=>9 687=8. 5@>OB=>, =5B =8 >4=>9 45BA:>9 157 >65AB>G5==KE :>=D;8:B>2 <564C 55 >18B0B5;O<8. >B820<8 O2;ONBAO 1>@L10 70 ;N1>2L @>48B5;59, 70 >1;040=85 >1I8<8 25I0<8, 70 <5AB> 2 :><=0B5. @06451=K5 GC2AB20 =0?@02;ONBAO :0: ?@>B82 1>;55 AB0@H8E, B0: 8 ?@>B82 1>;55 <;04H8E 1@0BL52 8 A5AB5@. 065BAO, 5@=0@4 (>C 2KA:070; <KA;L: "A;8 5ABL :B>-B>, :>3> <>;>40O 0=3;89A:0O 40<0 =5=02848B 1>;LH5, G5< A2>N <0BL, B> MB> 55 AB0@H0O A5AB@0". > 2 MB>< 87@5G5=88 5ABL =5GB> C4828B5;L=>5 4;O =0A. 5=028ABL 1@0BL52 8 A5AB5@ 8 A>?5@=8G5AB2> <K <>65< 2 :@09=5< A;CG05 ?>=OBL, => :0: <>65B 2>7=8:=CBL =5=028ABL 2 >B=>H5=8OE <564C 4>G5@LN 8 <0B5@LN, @>48B5;O<8 8 45BL<8? -B> >B=>H5=85 8 45BL<8 >F5=8205BAO =5A><=5==> :0: 1>;55 1;03>?@8OB=>5. => A>>B25BAB2C5B B0:65 =0H8< >6840=8O<; <K AG8B05< 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 ?@54>AC48B5;L=K<, 5A;8 =5 E20B05B ;N128 <564C @>48B5;O<8 8 45BL<8, G5< <564C 1@0BLO<8 8 A5AB@0<8.  ?5@2>< A;CG05 <K, B0: A:070BL, AG8B05< A2OBK< B>, GB> 2 4@C3>< O2;O5BAO >1KG=K<. 4=0:> ?>2A54=52=>5 =01;N45=85 ?>:07K205B, :0: G0AB> GC2AB20 <564C @>48B5;O<8 8 27@>A;K<8, 45BL<8 =5 A>>B25BAB2CNB ?>AB02;5==><C >1I5AB2>< 8450;C, A:>;L:> 2 =8E =0:>?8;>AL 2@06451=>AB8, 3>B>2>9 ?@>@20BLAO, 5A;8 1K 55 =5 A45@6820;> =5<=>3> ?>GB8B5;L=>AB8 8 =56=KE GC2AB2. >B82K MB>3> >1I58725AB=K 8 >1=0@C6820NB B5=45=F8N >B45;8BL ;8F B>3> 65 ?>;0, 4>GL >B <0B5@8, >BF0 >B AK=0. >GL =0E>48B 2 <0B5@8 A8;C, :>B>@0O >3@0=8G8205B 55 2>;N 8 =0 :>B>@CN 2>7;>65=0 <8AA8O ?@>25AB8 2 687=L B@51C5<K9 >1I5AB2>< >B:07 >B A5:AC0;L=>9 A2>1>4K, 2 >B45;L=KE A;CG0OE 5I5 8 :>=:C@5=B:C, :>B>@0O ?@>B828BAO 2KB5A=5=8N. "> 65 A0<>5, => 2 5I5 1>;55 @57:>9 D>@<5 ?>2B>@O5BAO <564C >BF>< 8 AK=><. ;O AK=0 2 >BF5 2>?;>I05BAO ;N1>5 =0A8;LAB25==>5 A>F80;L=>5 ?@8=C645=85; >B5F 70:@K205B 5<C 4>ABC? : ?@>O2;5=8N A>1AB25==>9 2>;8, : ?@56452@5<5==><C A5:AC0;L=><C =0A;0645=8N 8 : ?>;L7>20=8N >1I5A5<59=K< 4>AB>O=85< B0<, 345 >=> 8<55BAO. # ?@5AB>;>=0A;54=8:0 65;0=85 A<5@B8 >BF0 2K@0AB05B 4> @07<5@>2, 3@0=8G0I8E A B@0354859. 5=55 >?0A=K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO >B=>H5=85 <564C >BF>< 8 4>G5@LN, <0B5@LN 8 AK=><. >A;54=55 405B G8AB59H85 >1@07FK =5=0@CH5==>9 =8:0:8<8 M3>8AB8G5A:8<8 A>>1@065=8O<8 =587<5==>9 =56=>AB8.1 ;O G53> O 3>2>@N >1 MB8E 10=0;L=KE 8 >1I58725AB=KE 25I0E? >B><C GB> 8<55BAO >G5284=>5 AB@5<;5=85 >B@8F0BL 8E 7=0G5=85 2 687=8 8 2K4020BL A>F80;L=> >1CA;>2;5==K9 8450; 70 >ACI5AB2;5==K9 3>@07- ---------------------------------------- 1  MB8E AC645=8OE 2KABC?05B :>@5==>9 <5B>4>;>38G5A:89 87JO= ?A8E>0=0;870 $@5940 -- ?>4<5=0 A>F80;L=KE D0:B>@>2 ;8G=>AB=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 (2 A2>N >G5@54L, A2545==K<8 : ?A8E>A5:AC0;L=K<). B=>H5=8O, :>B>@K5 A:;04K20NBAO 2 A5<L5 <564C 55 G;5=0<8, <>3CB >B@060BL ;8G=>AB=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 A8<?0B88 8 0=B8?0B88 (:>B>@K5, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, >1CA;>2;5=K 8AB>@859 2=CB@8A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89, E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8<8 A2>9AB20<8 G;5=>2 A5<L8). 4=0:> A0<0 A5<LO -- ?@>4C:B A>F80;L=>9 8AB>@88. !>F80;L=>5 65 ?@8=C645=85 =5 O2;O5BAO ?@>4C:B>< ?>;>2>7@0AB=KE @07;8G89. 4> G0I5, G5< >= 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO. > ;CGH5, 5A;8 ?@024C A:065B ?A8E>;>3, G5< F8=8:. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, MB> >B@8F0=85 >B=>A8BAO B>;L:> : @50;L=>9 687=8. > ;8B5@0BC@5 8 4@0<0B8G5A:>9 ?>M788 ?@54>AB02;O5BAO A2>1>4=> ?>;L7>20BLAO <>B820<8, 2KB5:0NI8<8 87 =0@CH5=8O MB>3> 8450;0. B0:, =0< =5 A;54C5B C482;OBLAO B><C, GB> C 1>;LH>3> G8A;0 ;N459 A=>2845=85 >1=0@C68205B 65;0=85 CAB@0=8BL @>48B5;59, 0 8<5==> B>3> 87 =8E, :B> >4=>3> ?>;0 A 28452H8< A>=. !<55< ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> MB> 65;0=85 8<55BAO 2 A>AB>O=88 1>4@AB2>20=8O 8 4065 8=>340 >A>7=05BAO, 5A;8 >=> <>65B 70<0A:8@>20BLAO ?>4 4@C3>9 <>B82, =0?@8<5@, ?>4 A>AB@040=85 : =5=C6=K< <CG5=8O< >BF0, :0: MB> 1K;> C 28452H53> A>= 2 ?@8<5@5 3. 54:> >4=0 B>;L:> 2@06451=>ABL >?@545;O5B >B=>H5=85, 3>@074> G0I5 70 =59 2KABC?0NB 1>;55 =56=K5 ?>1C645=8O, :>B>@K<8 >=0 ?>402;O5BAO 8 4>;6=0 2K6840BL 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 A=>2845=85 55 :0: 1K 87>;8@C5B. ">, GB> A=>2845=85 A ?><>ILN B0:>9 87>;OF88 87>1@0605B ?@5C25;8G5==K<, 70B5< >?OBL C<5=LH05BAO, :>340 ?>A;5 =0H53> B>;:>20=8O 2:;NG05BAO 2 >1ICN 687=5==CN A2O7L (Sachs, 1912, 569). > <K =0E>48< MB> 65;0=85 A=>2845=8O 4065 B0<, 345 >=> =5 8<55B A2O78 A 687=LN 8 345 27@>A;K9 =8:>340 =5 ?@87=0;AO 1K 2 =5< 2 1>4@AB2CNI5< A>AB>O=88. @8G8=0 MB>3> 2 B><, GB> A0<K9 3;C1>:89 8 ?>AB>O==K9 <>B82 >BGC645=8O, >A>15==> <564C ;8F0<8 >4=>3> ?>;0, ?>O2;O5BAO C65 2 @0==5< 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5. / 8<5N 2 284C A>?5@=8G5AB2> 2 ;N128 O2=> ?>;>2>3> E0@0:B5@0. !K= C65 <0;5=L:8< @515=:>< =0G8=05B 8A?KBK20BL >A>1CN =56=>ABL : <0B5@8, :>B>@CN >= AG8B05B A2>59 A>1AB25==>ABLN, 0 >BF0 2>A?@8=8<05B :0: :>=:C@5=B0, :>B>@K9 >A?0@8205B C =53> MB> 8A:;NG8B5;L=>5 >1;040=85, 8 B>G=> B0: 65 <0;5=L:0O 4>GL 2848B 2 <0B5@8 ;8F>, <5H0NI55 55 =56=><C >B=>H5=8N : >BFC 8 70=8<0NI55 <5AB>, :>B>@>5 >=0 A0<0 A C4>2>;LAB285< 1K 70=O;0. 7 =01;N45=89 A;54C5B C7=0BL, 4> :0:>3> @0==53> 2>7@0AB0 4>E>48B MB0 CAB0=>2:0, :>B>@CN <K =07K205< -48?>2K< :><?;5:A><, 1 ?>B><C GB> 2 ;535=45 >1 -48?5 @50;87CNBAO A A>25@H5==> =57=0G8B5;L=K< >A;01;5=85< >10 :@09=8E 65;0=8O, 2KB5:0NI85 87 ?>;>65=8O AK=0, -- C18BL >BF0 8 27OBL 2 65=K <0BL. / =5 E>GC CB25@640BL, GB> -48?>2 :><?;5:A 8AG5@?K205B >B=>H5=85 45B59 : @>48B5;O<, >=> <>65B 1KBL =0<=>3> A;>6=55. -48?>2 :><?;5:A <>65B 1KBL B0:65 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 A8;L=> 2K@065=, <>65B A0< ?@5B5@?5BL ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 2K@065=85, => >= ?>AB>O==K9 8 >G5=L 7=0G8B5;L=K9 D0:B>@ 4CH52=>9 687=8 @515=:0, 8 2>7=8:05B >?0A=>ABL A:>@55 =54>>F5=8BL 53> 2;8O=85 8 >1CA;>2;5==>5 8< @0728B85, G5< ?5@5>F5=8BL 53>. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, 45B8 G0AB> @5038@CNB M48?>2>9 CAB0=>2:>9 =0 GC2AB2> @>48B5;59, :>B>@K5 4>2>;L=> G0AB> @C:>2>4AB2CNBAO ?>;>2K< @07;8G85< 2 A2>5< ;N1>2=>< 2K1>@5, B0: GB> >B5F ?@54?>G8B05B 4>GL, <0BL -- AK=0, 0 2 A;CG05 >E;0645=8O 2 1@0:5 70<5=ONB 8<8 >15AF5=5==K9 >1J5:B ;N128. 5;L7O A:070BL, GB>1K <8@ 1K; >G5=L 1;03>40@5= ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:><C 8AA;54>20=8N 70 >B:@KB85 -48?>20 :><?;5:A0. 0>1>@>B, >=> 2K720;> A0<K9 O@>AB=K9 ?@>B5AB 27@>A;KE, 8 ;8F0, :>B>@K5 C?CAB8;8 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@8=OBL CG0AB85 2 >B@8F0=88 MB>3> ?@54>- ---------------------------------------- 1 -48?>2 :><?;5:A -- >4=> 87 3;02=KE >1JOA=8B5;L=KE ?>=OB89 D@59487<0. >4@>1=> >= >1AC6405BAO 2 >4=>9 87 ?>A;54CNI8E ;5:F89.  ?@54AB02;5=8N >1 -48?>2>< :><?;5:A5 $@594, ?> 53> CB25@645=8N, ?@8H5;, 8AE>4O 87 0=0;870 2708<>>B=>H5=89 A A>1AB25==K< >BF><. $@594 =587<5==> ?@845@6820;AO 25@A88 >1 -48?>2>< :><?;5:A5, >B25@3=CB>9 ?@56=8<8 ?@825@65=F0<8 >@B>4>:A0;L=>3> ?A8E>0=0;870, 2 B>< G8A;5 4;5@>< 8 .=3><, =0 :>B>@KE 8 A>45@68BAO =0<5: 2 MB>9 ;5:F88, AC48B5;L=>3> 8;8 70?@5B=>3> GC2AB25==>3> >B=>H5=8O, 8A?@028;8 2?>A;54AB288 A2>N >H81:C ?>A@54AB2>< ?5@5B>;:>20=89, ;8H82 :><?;5:A 53> 7=0G5=8O. > <>5<C B25@4><C C15645=8N, 745AL =5G53> >B@8F0BL 8 =5G53> ?@8C:@0H820BL. !;54C5B ?@8<8@8BLAO A D0:B><, :>B>@K9 4065 3@5G5A:8< A:070=85< ?@87=05BAO :0: =5C<>;8<K9 @>:. =B5@5A=>, GB> 8A:;NG5==K9 87 687=8 -48?>2 :><?;5:A ?@54>AB02;O5BAO ?>M788, :0: 1K ?5@5405BAO 2 55 ?>;=>5 @0A?>@O65=85. . 0=: 2 BI0B5;L=> ?@>2545==>< 8AA;54>20=88 (19122) ?>:070;, GB> 8<5==> -48?>2 :><?;5:A 40; 4@0<0B8G5A:>9 ?>M788 1>30BK5 <>B82K 2 15A:>=5G=KE 87<5=5==KE, A<O3G5==KE 8 70<0A:8@>20==KE D>@<0E, B. 5. 2 B0:8E 8A:065=8OE, 2 :0:8E <K C7=05< @57C;LB0B 459AB28O F5=7C@K. -B>B -48?>2 :><?;5:A <K <>65<, B0:8< >1@07><, ?@8?8A0BL B0:65 B5< ;8F0<, :>B>@K< ?>AG0AB;828;>AL 871560BL 2 40;L=59H59 687=8 :>=D;8:B>2 A @>48B5;O<8, 8 2 B5A=>9 A2O78 A =8< <K =0E>48< B>, GB> =07K205< :><?;5:A>< :0AB@0F88, @50:F8N =0 ?@8?8AK205<>5 >BFC A5:AC0;L=>5 70?C3820=85 8;8 ?>402;5=85 @0==59 45BA:>9 A5:AC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. !AK;0OAL =0 C65 ?@>2545==K5 8AA;54>20=8O 45BA:>9 4CH52=>9 687=8, <K A<55< B0:65 =045OBLAO, GB> ?>4>1=K< 65 >1@07>< 1C45B =0945=> >1JOA=5=85 ?@>8AE>645=8O 4@C3>9 G0AB8 70?@5B=KE 65;0=89 A=>2845=89, G@57<5@=KE A5:AC0;L=KE GC2AB2. "0:8< >1@07><, C =0A 2>7=8:05B AB@5<;5=85 87CG0BL @0728B85 45BA:>9 A5:AC0;L=>9 687=8, 8 <K C7=05< ?@8 MB>< 87 <=>3>G8A;5==KE 8AB>G=8:>2 A;54CNI55: =54>?CAB8<>9 >H81:>9 O2;O5BAO, ?@5645 2A53>, >B@8F0=85 C @515=:0 A5:AC0;L=>9 687=8 8 ?@54?>;>65=85, GB> A5:AC0;L=>ABL =0G8=05BAO B>;L:> :> 2@5<5=8 ?>;>2>3> A>7@520=8O 2<5AB5 A A>7@520=85< 35=8B0;89. 0?@>B82, C @515=:0 A A0<>3> =0G0;0 8<55BAO 1>30B0O A5:AC0;L=0O 687=L, :>B>@0O 2> <=>3>< >B;8G05BAO >B B>9, :>B>@CN ?>74=55 ?@8=OB> AG8B0BL =>@<0;L=>9. ">, GB> 2 687=8 27@>A;KE <K =07K205< "872@0I5=85<", >B;8G05BAO >B =>@<K A;54CNI8<8 A2>9AB20<8: 2>-?5@2KE, 2KE>4>< 70 ?@545;K 2840 (?@>?0ABL <564C 682>B=K< 8 G5;>25:><), 2>-2B>@KE, 2KE>4>< 70 3@0=8FK >B2@0I5=8O, 2-B@5BL8E, 2KE>4>< 70 ?@545;K 8=F5AB0 (70?@5B A5:AC0;L=>3> C4>2;5B2>@5=8O A 1;87:8<8 ?> :@>28 @>4AB25==8:0<8), 2-G5B25@BKE, 3><>A5:AC0;L=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8 8, 2-?OBKE, ?5@5=5A5=85< DC=:F89 35=8B0;89 =0 4@C385 >@30=K 8 CG0AB:8 B5;0. A5 MB8 >3@0=8G5=8O =5 ACI5AB2CNB A A0<>3> =0G0;0, 0 A>740NBAO ;8HL ?>AB5?5==> 2 E>45 @0728B8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O. 0;5=L:89 @515=>: A2>1>45= >B =8E. = 5I5 =5 7=05B AB@0H=>9 ?@>?0AB8 <564C G5;>25:>< 8 682>B=K<; 2KA>:><5@85, >B;8G0NI55 G5;>25:0 >B 682>B=>3>, 2>7=8:05B C =53> ;8HL ?>74=55. !=0G0;0 C =53> =5B >B2@0I5=8O : M:A:@5<5=B0<, >= C7=05B > =5< ?>AB5?5==> ?>4 402;5=85< 2>A?8B0=8O; >= =5 ?@8405B >A>1>3> 7=0G5=8O @07;8G8N ?>;>2, A:>@55, ?@54?>;0305B C >1>8E >48=0:>2CN D>@<C 35=8B0;89; >= =0?@02;O5B A2>8 ?5@2K5 A5:AC0;L=K5 2;5G5=8O 8 A2>5 ;N1>?KBAB2> =0 A0<KE 1;87:8E 8 ?> @07=K< ?@8G8=0< A0<KE ;N18<KE ;8F -- @>48B5;59, 1@0BL52 8 A5AB5@, CE06820NI8E 70 =8< ;N459 8, =0:>=5F, C =53> >1=0@C68205BAO B>, GB> 2=>2L ?@>@K205BAO ?>765 ?@8 =081>;LH59 A8;5 ;N1>2=>3> >B=>H5=8O, 0 8<5==> B>, GB> >= ?>;CG05B C4>2>;LAB285 =5 B>;L:> >B ?>;>2KE >@30=>2, => GB> <=>385 4@C385 CG0AB:8 B5;0 >1;040NB B>9 65 GC2AB28B5;L=>ABLN, 4>AB02;ONB 0=0;>38G=K5 >ICI5=8O =0A;0645=8O 8 <>3CB, B0:8< >1@07><, 83@0BL @>;L 35=8B0;89. "0:8< >1@07><, @515=>: <>65B 1KBL =0720= "?>;8<>@D=> 872@0I5==K<", 8 5A;8 C =53> ?@>O2;ONBAO ;8HL A;54K 2A5E MB8E GC2AB2, B> MB> ?@>8AE>48B, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 87-70 =57=0G8B5;L=>9 8E 8=B5=A82=>AB8 ?> A@02=5=8N A 1>;55 ?>74=8<8 3>40<8 687=8, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 87-70 B>3>, GB> 2>A?8B0=85 A@07C 65 M=5@38G=> ?>402;O5B 2A5 A5:AC0;L=K5 ?@>O2;5=8O @515=:0. -B> ?>402;5=85 ?5@5E>48B, B0: A:070BL, 2 B5>@8N, :>340 27@>A;K5 AB0@0NBAO =5 70<5G0BL :0:CN-B> G0ABL 45BA:8E A5:AC0;L=KE ?@>O2;5=89 8 ;8H8BL A5:AC0;L=>9 ?@8@>4K ?CB5< ?5@5B>;:>20=8O 4@C3CN 55 G0ABL, ?>:0 >=8 70B5< =5 =0G8=0NB >B@8F0BL 2A5. '0AB> MB> B5 65 ;N48, :>B>@K5 B>;L:> 2 45BA:>9 =53>4CNB 87-70 2A5E A5:AC0;L=KE 4C@=KE ?@82KG5: 45B59, 0 70B5< 70 ?8AL<5==K< AB>;>< 70I8I0NB A5:AC0;L=CN G8AB>BC B5E 65 45B59. "0<, 345 45B8 ?@54>AB02;5=K A0<8< A515 8;8 1K;8 A>1;07=5=K, >=8 G0AB> >1=0@C6820NB 4>2>;L=> 7=0G8B5;L=K5 872@0I5=8O. 07C<55BAO, 27@>A;K5 ?@02K, >B=>AOAL : MB><C =5A5@L57=>, :0: : "@51OG5AB2C" 8 "701020<", ?>B><C GB> @515=:0 =5;L7O AC48BL =8 AC4>< =@02AB25==>AB8, =8 ?> 70:>=C, => 254L MB8 25I8 ACI5AB2CNB, >=8 8<5NB 7=0G5=85 :0: ?@87=0:8 2@>645==>9 :>=AB8BCF88, 0 B0:65 :0: 1;03>?@8OBAB2CNI85 ?@8G8=K 40;L=59H53> @0728B8O, >=8 <=>3>5 =0< >B:@K20NB 2 45BA:>9 A5:AC0;L=>9 687=8, 0 2<5AB5 A B5< 8 2 A5:AC0;L=>9 687=8 G5;>25:0 2>>1I5. B0:, :>340 70 A2>8<8 8A:065==K<8 A=>2845=8O<8 <K >?OBL =0E>48< 2A5 MB8 872@0I5==K5 65;0=8O, B> MB> B>;L:> >7=0G05B, GB> A=>2845=85 8 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 A45;0;> H03 =0704 : 8=D0=B8;L=><C A>AB>O=8N. !@548 MB8E 70?@5B=KE 65;0=89 >A>1>3> C?><8=0=8O 70A;C6820NB 5I5 8=F5ABC>7=K5, B. 5. =0?@02;5==K5 =0 ?>;>2>9 0:B A @>48B5;O<8, 1@0BLO<8 8 A5AB@0<8. K 7=05B5, :0:>5 >B2@0I5=85 GC2AB2C5B 8;8, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, ?@>O2;O5B G5;>25G5A:>5 >1I5AB2> ?@>B82 ?>;>2KE >B=>H5=89 B0:>3> @>40 8 :0:>5 2=8<0=85 >1@0I05BAO =0 70?@5BK, =0?@02;5==K5 ?@>B82 MB>3>. @8;030;8AL A0<K5 =525@>OB=K5 CA8;8O, GB>1K >1JOA=8BL MB>B AB@0E ?5@54 8=F5AB><. 4=8 ?@54?>;030;8, GB> MB> A>>1@065=8O C;CGH5=8O 2840 2 ?@8@>45, ?A8E8G5A:8 ?@54AB02;5==K5 2 MB>< 70?@5B5, ?>B><C GB> 8=F5AB CEC4H8; 1K E0@0:B5@=K5 ?@87=0:8 @0A, 4@C385 CB25@640;8, GB> 1;03>40@O A>2<5AB=>9 687=8 A @0==53> 45BAB20 A5:AC0;L=>5 2>645;5=85 : C:070==K< ;8F0< >A;015205B.  >1>8E A;CG0OE, 2?@>G5<, 871530=85 8=F5AB0 1K;> 1K >15A?5G5=> 02B><0B8G5A:8, 8 =5?>=OB=>, 70G5< =C6=K AB@>385 70?@5BK, :>B>@K5 A2845B5;LAB2CNB A:>@55 > =0;8G88 A8;L=>3> 2>645;5=8O. A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O =542CA<KA;5==> ?>:070;8, GB> 8=F5ABC>7=K9 2K1>@ >1J5:B0 ;N128 O2;O5BAO, =0?@>B82, ?5@2K< 8 >1KG=K<, 8 B>;L:> 2?>A;54AB288 ?@>B82 =53> 2>7=8:05B A>?@>B82;5=85, ?@>8AE>645=85 :>B>@>3> 87 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A;54C5B, 2848<>, >B@8F0BL. !>?>AB028< B5?5@L, GB> 65 =0< 40;> C3;C1;5=85 2 87CG5=85 45BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 4;O ?>=8<0=8O A=>2845=8O. K >1=0@C68;8 =5 B>;L:> B>, GB> 4;O A=>2845=8O 4>ABC?5= <0B5@80; 701KBKE 45BA:8E ?5@56820=89, => C2845;8 B0:65, GB> 4CH52=0O 687=L 45B59 A> 2A5<8 A2>8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8, M3>87<><, 8=F5ABC>7=K< 2K1>@>< >1J5:B0 ;N128 8 B. 4. 5I5 ?@>4>;605B ACI5AB2>20BL 4;O A=>2845=8O, B. 5. 2 15AA>7=0B5;L=><, 8 GB> A=>2845=85 :064CN =>GL 2>72@0I05B =0A =0 MBC 8=D0=B8;L=CN ABC?5=L. "0:8< >1@07><, ?>4B25@6405BAO, GB> 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 4CH52=>9 687=8 5ABL 8=D0=B8;L=>5. !B@0==> =5?@8OB=>5 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> 2 G5;>25:5 B0: <=>3> 7;>3>, =0G8=05B >A;01520BL. -B> AB@0H=> 7;>5 -- ?@>AB> ?5@2>=0G0;L=>5, ?@8<8B82=>5 8=D0=B8;L=>5 2 4CH52=>9 687=8, >B:@KB>5 ?@>O2;5=85 :>B>@>3> <K <>65< =09B8 C @515=:0, => G53> <K >BG0AB8 =5 70<5G05< 87-70 53> =57=0G8B5;L=>AB8, ?>B><C GB> =5 B@51C5< >B @515=:0 MB8G5A:>3> A>25@H5=AB20. !=>2845=85, A?CAB82H8AL =0 MBC ABC?5=L, A>7405B 2?5G0B;5=85, 1C4B> >=> @0A:@K205B 2 =0A MB> 7;>5. > MB> 2A53> ;8HL 701;C645=85, :>B>@>5 =0A B0: ?C30;>. K =5 B0: C6 7;K, :0: <>6=> 1K;> ?@54?>;>68BL ?>A;5 B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89. A;8 MB8 7;K5 ?@>O2;5=8O 2 A=>2845=8OE 2A53> ;8HL 8=D0=B8;87<K, 2>72@0I0NI85 =0A : 8AB>:0< =0H53> MB8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, 45;0NI85 =0A 2> A=5 >?OBL ?@>AB> 45BL<8 ?> <KA;O< 8 GC2AB20<, B> 1;03>@07C<=> 1K;> 1K =5 ABK48BLAO MB8E 7;KE A=>2845=89. > 1;03>@07C<85 O2;O5BAO B>;L:> G0ABLN 4CH52=>9 687=8, :@><5 B>3>, 2 4CH5 ?@>8AE>48B 5I5 <=>3> B0:>3>, GB> =5@07C<=>, 8 ?>MB><C A;CG05BAO B0:, GB> <K =51;03>@07C<=> ABK48<AO B0:8E A=>2845=89. K ?>425@305< 8E F5=7C@5, ABK48<AO 8 A5@48<AO, 5A;8 2 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE A;CG0OE >4=><C 87 MB8E 65;0=89 C405BAO ?@>=8:=CBL 2 A>7=0=85 2 =0AB>;L:> =58A:065==>9 D>@<5, GB> =0< ?@8E>48BAO 53> C7=0BL; ?@0240, 8A:065==KE A=>2845=89 <K B>G=> B0: 65 ABK48<AO, :0: 1C4B> <K 8E ?>=8<05<. A?><=8B5 E>BO 1K =53>4>20=85 B>9 A;02=>9 AB0@>9 40<K ?> ?>2>4C 55 =58AB>;:>20==>3> A=>2845=8O > ";N1>2=KE CA;C30E". "0: GB> ?@>1;5<0 5I5 =5 @5H5=0, 8 2>7<>6=>, GB> ?@8 40;L=59H5< 87CG5=88 7;>3> 2 A=>2845=88 <K ?@845< : 4@C3><C AC645=8N 8 : 4@C3>9 >F5=:5 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K.  @57C;LB0B5 8AA;54>20=8O <K ?@8E>48< : 42C< ?>;>65=8O<, :>B>@K5, >4=0:>, 254CB 70 A>1>9 ;8HL =>2K5 70304:8, =>2K5 A><=5=8O. >-?5@2KE, @53@5AA8O @01>BK A=>2845=8O =5 B>;L:> D>@<0;L=0, => 8 <0B5@80;L=0. =0 =5 B>;L:> ?5@52>48B 2 ?@8<8B82=CN D>@<C 2K@065=8O =0H8 <KA;8, => 8 2=>2L >682;O5B 2A5 E0@0:B5@=K5 G5@BK =0H59 ?@8<8B82=>9 4CH52=>9 687=8, ?@56=55 2A5<>3CI5AB2> /, ?5@2>=0G0;L=K5 ?@>O2;5=8O A5:AC0;L=>9 687=8, 4065 4@52=55 4>AB>O=85 =0H53> 8=B5;;5:B0, 5A;8 A8<2>;8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 <>6=> ?@87=0BL 70 B0:>2>5.  2>-2B>@KE, 2A5 MB> 402=55 8=D0=B8;L=>5, GB> :>340-B> A0<>45@602=> 3>A?>4AB2>20;>, <K 4>;6=K B5?5@L ?@8G8A;8BL : 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C, ?@54AB02;5=8O > :>B>@>< B5?5@L <5=ONBAO 8 @0AH8@ONBAO. 5AA>7=0B5;L=>5 -- MB> =5 B>;L:> =0720=85 2@5<5==> A:@KB>3>, 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 -- MB> >A>10O 4CH52=0O >1;0ABL A> A2>8<8 A>1AB25==K<8 65;0=8O<8, A>1AB25==K< A?>A>1>< 2K@065=8O 8 A2>9AB25==K<8 5<C 4CH52=K<8 <5E0=87<0<8, :>B>@K5 8=0G5 =5 459AB2CNB. > A:@KBK5 <KA;8, > :>B>@KE <K C7=0;8 1;03>40@O B>;:>20=8N A=>2845=89, 2A5-B0:8 =5 87 MB>9 >1;0AB8; >=8, A:>@55, B0:85, :0:8<8 <>3;8 1K 1KBL 8 2 A>AB>O=88 1>4@AB2>20=8O.  2A5 65 >=8 15AA>7=0B5;L=K; :0: @07@5H05BAO MB> ?@>B82>@5G85? K =0G8=05< ?>4>7@520BL, GB> 745AL A;54C5B ?@>8725AB8 ?>4@0745;5=85. 5GB>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 87 =0H59 A>7=0B5;L=>9 687=8 8 8<55B 55 ?@87=0:8 -- <K =07K205< MB> >AB0B:0<8 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89, -- A>548=O5BAO 4;O >1@07>20=8O A=>2845=8O A G5<-B> 4@C38< 87 >1;0AB8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>. 564C MB8<8 42C<O G0ABO<8 8 @0725@BK205BAO @01>B0 A=>2845=8O. ;8O=85 >AB0B:>2 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89 1;03>40@O ?@8A>548=ONI5<CAO 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C O2;O5BAO, ?>-2848<><C, CA;>285< @53@5AA88.  MB>< 70:;NG05BAO A0<>5 3;C1>:>5 ?>=8<0=85 ACI=>AB8 A=>2845=8O, :>B>@>3> <K <>65< 4>AB8GL, ?@5645 G5< 87CG8< 4@C385 >1;0AB8 4CH52=>9 687=8. > A:>@> =0AB0=5B 2@5<O 40BL 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C E0@0:B5@C A:@KBKE <KA;59 A=>2845=8O 4@C3>5 =0720=85 A F5;LN >B;8G8BL 8E >B 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> 87 >1;0AB8 8=D0=B8;L=>3>. K, 5AB5AB25==>, <>65< B0:65 ?>AB028BL 2>?@>A: GB> 2K=C6405B ?A8E8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 2> 2@5<O A=0 =0 B0:CN @53@5AA8N? >G5<C >=0 =5 A?@02;O5BAO A =0@CH0NI8<8 A>= ?A8E8G5A:8<8 @074@065=8O<8 157 ?>A;54=59?  5A;8 87-70 F5=7C@K A=>2845=8O >=0 2K=C645=0 ?>;L7>20BLAO 4;O <0A:8@>2:8 0@E08G=>9, B5?5@L =5?>=OB=>9 D>@<>9 2K@065=8O, B> 4;O G53> 59 A;C68B 2>7@>645=85 402=8E, B5?5@L ?@5>4>;5==KE 4CH52=KE 42865=89, 65;0=89 8 E0@0:B5@=KE G5@B, B. 5. <0B5@80;L=0O @53@5AA8O, :>B>@0O ?@8A>548=O5BAO : D>@<0;L=>9? 48=AB25==K9 C4>2;5B2>@ONI89 =0A >B25B 70:;NG0;AO 1K 2 B><, GB> B>;L:> B0:8< >1@07>< <>65B >1@07>20BLAO A=>2845=85, GB> 8=0G5 =52>7<>6=> 48=0<8G5A:8 A=OBL @074@065=85 2> A=5. > ?>:0 <K =5 2?@025 4020BL B0:>9 >B25B. '"+ &"/ &/ ! M #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! 5 AB>8B ;8 <=5 5I5 @07 ?>:070BL 20< ?@>945==K9 =0<8 ?CBL? 0: <K, ?@8<5=OO =0HC B5E=8:C, =0B>;:=C;8AL =0 8A:065=85 A=>2845=8O, @074C<K20;8 A=0G0;0, :0: 1K 53> >1>9B8, 8 ?>;CG8;8 206=59H85 A2545=8O > ACI=>AB8 A=>2845=8O 87 8=D0=B8;L=KE A=>2845=89? 0: <K 70B5<, 2>>@C65==K5 @57C;LB0B0<8 MB>3> 8AA;54>20=8O, 70=O;8AL =5?>A@54AB25==> 8A:065=85< A=>2845=8O 8, =045NAL, H03 70 H03>< ?@5>4>;5;8 53>? > B5?5@L <K 4>;6=K ?@87=0BL, GB> =0945==>5 B5< 8 4@C38< ?CB5< =5 A>2A5< A>2?0405B. 5@54 =0<8 2AB05B 7040G0 A>?>AB028BL >10 @57C;LB0B0 8 A>>B=5AB8 8E <564C A>1>9. ! >158E AB>@>= <K ?@8H;8 : 2K2>4C, GB> @01>B0 A=>2845=8O, 2 ACI=>AB8, A>AB>8B 2 ?5@52>45 <KA;59 2 :0:>5-B> 30;;NF8=0B>@=>5 ?5@56820=85. 0: MB> ?@>8AE>48B, ?@54AB02;O5BAO 25AL<0 70304>G=K<, => MB> O2;O5BAO ?@>1;5<>9 >1I59 ?A8E>;>388, :>B>@0O =5 4>;6=0 =0A 745AL 70=8<0BL. 7 45BA:8E A=>2845=89 <K C7=0;8, GB> @01>B0 A=>2845=8O AB@5<8BAO : CAB@0=5=8N =0@CH0NI53> A>= 4CH52=>3> @074@065=8O ?@8 ?><>I8 8A?>;=5=8O 65;0=8O. 1 8A:065==KE A=>2845=8OE <K =5 <>3;8 A:070BL =8G53> ?>4>1=>3>, ?>:0 =5 =0CG8;8AL 8E B>;:>20BL. > A A0<>3> =0G0;0 <K ?@54?>;>68;8, GB> A<>65< @0AA<0B@820BL 8A:065==K5 A=>2845=8O A B5E 65 ?>78F89, GB> 8 8=D0=B8;L=K5. 5@2K< 65 ?>4B25@645=85< MB>3> ?@54?>;>65=8O AB0;> A45;0==>5 =0<8 >B:@KB85, GB>, A>1AB25==> 3>2>@O, 2A5 A=>2845=8O O2;ONBAO 45BA:8<8 A=>2845=8O<8, @01>B0NB A 45BA:8< <0B5@80;><, A 45BA:8<8 4CH52=K<8 42865=8O<8 8 ?@8 ?><>I8 45BA:8E <5E0=87<>2. !G8B0O 8A:065=85 A=>2845=8O A=OBK<, <K 4>;6=K ?@8ABC?8BL : 8AA;54>20=8N B>3>, <>65B ;8 1KBL @0A?@>AB@0=5=> ?>;>65=85 >1 8A?>;=5=88 65;0=8O =0 8A:065==K5 A=>2845=8O. 5402=> <K ?>425@3;8 B>;:>20=8N @O4 A=>2845=89, => A>2A5< C?CAB8;8 87 284C 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O. #15645=, GB> ?@8 MB>< C 20A =5>4=>:@0B=> =0?@0H820;AO 2>?@>A: :C40 65 45;>AL 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O, :>B>@>5, 2848<>, O2;O5BAO F5;LN A=>2845=8O? -B> 206=K9 2>?@>A, 8<5==> 53> 8 AB0;8 704020BL =0H8 4><>@>I5==K5 :@8B8:8. 0: 2K 7=05B5, G5;>25G5AB2> >1;0405B 8=AB8=:B82=>9 >1>@>=8B5;L=>9 @50:F859 =0 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 =>2H5AB20.1 =0 2K@0605BAO 2 B><, GB> B0:>5 =>2H5AB2> A@07C 65 =872>48BAO 4> A0<>9 =57=0G8B5;L=>9 25;8G8=K, ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 A2>48BAO : ;>7C=3C. -B8< ;>7C=3>< 4;O =>2>9 B5>@88 A=>2845=8O AB0;> 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O. 8;5B0=B 70405B 2>?@>A: 345 65 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O? !@07C 65 ?>A;5 B>3> :0: >= CA;KH0;, GB> A=>2845=85 4>;6=> 1KBL 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O, >=, 704020O MB>B 2>?@>A, >B25G05B =0 ---------------------------------------- 1 #B25@645=85, 1C4B> G5;>25G5AB2C ?@8ACI 8=AB8=:B A>?@>B82;5=8O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K< =>2H5AB20<, >B@0605B >1ICN >@85=B0F8N $@5940 =0 >1JOA=5=85 18>;>38G5A:8<8 ?@8G8=0<8 O2;5=89, 8<5NI8E A>F80;L=CN ?@8@>4C. =AB8=:B -- 18>;>38G5A:0O A8;0, 2@>645==0O @50:F8O. 564C B5< >B=>H5=85 : =>2K< 845O<, 8E ?@8=OB85 8;8 A>?@>B82;5=85 8< >?@545;ONBAO =5 2@>645==K<8 D0:B>@0<8, 0 A>F8>:C;LBC@=K< :>=B5:AB>< 8 @>;LN, :>B>@CN 83@0NB 2 =5< >B45;L=K5 ;8G=>AB8 8 8E 3@C??K. =53> >B@8F0B5;L=>. <C A@07C 65 ?@8E>4OB 2 3>;>2C <=>3>G8A;5==K5 A>1AB25==K5 A=>2845=8O, A :>B>@K<8 1K;> A2O70=> =5?@8OB=>5 GC2AB2> 2?;>BL 4> 3=5BCI53> AB@0E0, B0: GB> 40==>5 CB25@645=85 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9 B5>@88 A=>2845=8O :065BAO 5<C A>25@H5==> =525@>OB=K<. 0< =5B@C4=> >B25B8BL 5<C, GB> ?@8 8A:065==KE A=>2845=8OE 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O =5 <>65B 1KBL >G5284=K<, 0 53> =5>1E>48<> ?>8A:0BL, B0: GB> 157 B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=8O C:070BL =0 =53> =5;L7O. K B0:65 7=05<, GB> 65;0=8O MB8E 8A:065==KE A=>2845=89 -- 70?@5I5==K5, >B25@3=CBK5 F5=7C@>9 65;0=8O, ACI5AB2>20=85 :>B>@KE :0: @07 8 AB0;> ?@8G8=>9 8A:065=8O, <>B82>< 4;O 2<5H0B5;LAB20 F5=7C@K. > :@8B8:C-48;5B0=BC B@C4=> 4>:070BL, GB> 4> B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=8O =5;L7O A?@0H820BL >1 8A?>;=5=88 53> 65;0=8O. 4=0:> >= >1 MB>< ?>AB>O==> 701K205B. 3> >B@8F0B5;L=0O ?>78F8O ?> >B=>H5=8N : B5>@88 8A?>;=5=8O 65;0=8O O2;O5BAO, A>1AB25==>, =5 G5< 8=K<, :0: A;54AB285< F5=7C@K A=>2845=8O, 70<5I5=85< 8 @57C;LB0B>< >B@8F0=8O MB8E ?@>H54H8E F5=7C@C 65;0=89 A=>2845=8O. 07C<55BAO, 8 C =0A 2>7=8:05B ?>B@51=>ABL =09B8 >1JOA=5=85 B><C, GB> 5ABL <=>3> <CG8B5;L=KE 8, 2 G0AB=>AB8, AB@0H=KE A=>2845=89. @8 MB>< <K 2?5@2K5 AB0;:8205<AO A ?@>1;5<>9 0DD5:B>2 2 A=>2845=88, :>B>@0O 70A;C68205B 87CG5=8O A0<0 ?> A515, =>, : A>60;5=8N, <K =5 <>65< 5N 70=OBLAO. A;8 A=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O, B> 2> A=5 =52>7<>6=K <CG8B5;L=K5 >ICI5=8O, 2 MB>< :@8B8:8-48;5B0=BK, ?>-2848<><C, ?@02K. > =C6=> ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85 B@8 2840 >A;>6=5=89, > :>B>@KE >=8 =5 ?>4C<0;8. >-?5@2KE, <>65B 1KBL, GB> @01>B5 A=>2845=8O =5 2?>;=5 C40;>AL >ACI5AB28BL 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O, B0: GB> G0ABL <CG8B5;L=>3> 0DD5:B0 <KA;59 A=>2845=8O >AB05BAO 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88. ">340 0=0;87 4>;65= 1K; 1K ?>:070BL, GB> MB8 <KA;8 1K;8 5I5 1>;55 <CG8B5;L=K<8, G5< ?>;CG82H55AO 87 =8E A=>2845=85. 064K9 @07 MB> 8 C405BAO 4>:070BL. ">340 <K A>3;0H05<AO, GB> @01>B0 A=>2845=8O =5 4>AB83;0 A2>59 F5;8, B0: 65 :0: A=>2845=85, 2 :>B>@>< ?L5HL ?>4 2;8O=85< 6064K, <0;> 4>AB8305B F5;8 CB>;8BL 6064C. 5 ?@>4>;605HL 8A?KBK20BL, 8 =C6=> ?@>A=CBLAO, GB>1K ?>?8BL.  2A5-B0:8 MB> 1K;> =0AB>OI55 A=>2845=85, 2 53> ACI=>AB8 =8G53> =5 87<5=8;>AL. K 4>;6=K A:070BL: Ut desint vires, taLmen est laudanda voluntas. > :@09=59 <5@5, 70A;C68205B ?>E20;K OA=> 2K@065==>5 =0<5@5=85. "0:85 A;CG08 =5C40G8 =5@54:8. -B><C A>459AB2C5B B>, GB> @01>B5 A=>2845=8O =0<=>3> B@C4=55 87<5=8BL 2 =C6=>< A<KA;5 0DD5:BK, G5< A>45@60=85; 0DD5:BK 8=>340 >G5=L CAB>9G82K. >B 8 ?>;CG05BAO, GB> @01>B0 A=>2845=8O ?@52@0B8;0 <CG8B5;L=>5 A>45@60=85 <KA;59 A=>2845=8O 2 8A?>;=5=85 :0:>3>-B> 65;0=8O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: <CG8B5;L=K9 0DD5:B ?@>@K205BAO 2 5I5 =587<5=5==>< 2845.  B0:8E A=>2845=8OE 0DD5:B A>25@H5==> =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B A>45@60=8N, 8 =0H8 :@8B8:8 <>3CB A:070BL, GB> A=>2845=85 =0AB>;L:> 40;5:> >B 8A?>;=5=8O 65;0=8O, GB> 2 =5< 4065 157>184=>5 A>45@60=85 <>65B >ICI0BLAO :0: <CG8B5;L=>5. 0 MB> =5@07C<=>5 70<5G0=85 <K >B25B8<, GB> 8<5==> 2 B0:8E A=>2845=8OE AB@5<;5=85 @01>BK A=>2845=8O 8A?>;=8BL 65;0=85 2A;54AB285 53> [AB@5<;5=8O] 87>;8@>20==>AB8 ?@>O2;O5BAO OA=55 2A53>. H81:0 ?@>8AE>48B >B B>3>, GB> B>B, :B> =5 7=05B =52@>7>2, ?@54AB02;O5B A515 A2O7L <564C A>45@60=85< 8 0DD5:B>< A;8H:>< B5A=>9 8 ?>MB><C =5 <>65B ?>=OBL, GB> A>45@60=85 <>65B <5=OBLAO, =5 87<5=OO >B=>AOI55AO : =5<C 0DD5:B82=>5 ?@>O2;5=85. ---------------------------------------- CABL =54>AB0;> A8;, ?>E20;K 4>AB>9=> CA5@485 (C1;89 28489 07>=). -- @8<. @54. ?5@52>40. B>@>9, 3>@074> 1>;55 206=K9 8 3;C1>:89 <><5=B, :>B>@K9 B0:65 =54>>F5=8205BAO 48;5B0=B><, A;54CNI89. A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O, :>=5G=>, 4>;6=> 1K;> 1K 4>AB028BL =0A;0645=85, =>, A?@0H8205BAO, :><C? 07C<55BAO, B><C, :B> 8<55B 65;0=85. > > 28452H5< A>= =0< 8725AB=>, GB> >= >B=>A8BAO : A2>8< 65;0=8O< A>25@H5==> >A>1>. = >B25@305B 8E, ?>425@305B F5=7C@5, >4=8< A;>2><, =5 B5@?8B 8E. "0:8< >1@07><, 8E 8A?>;=5=85 <>65B 4>AB028BL 5<C =5 =0A;0645=85, 0 B>;L:> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 GC2AB2>. 0;55 >?KB ?>:07K205B, GB> MB> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 GC2AB2>, :>B>@>5 A;54C5B 5I5 >1JOA=8BL, 2KABC?05B 2 D>@<5 AB@0E0. 8452H53> A>= 2 >B=>H5=88 : 53> 65;0=8O< 2> A=5 <>6=> A@02=8BL B>;L:> A ACI5AB2><, A>AB>OI8< 87 42CE ;8F, >G5=L B5A=> A2O70==KE, >4=0:>, <564C A>1>9. 70<5= 40;L=59H8E @0AAC645=89 ?@54;030N 20< ?>A;CH0BL 8725AB=CN A:07:C, 2 :>B>@>9 2K =0945B5 B5 65 >B=>H5=8O. >1@0O D5O >15I05B 154=>9 AC?@C65A:>9 ?0@5, <C6C 8 65=5, 8A?>;=5=85 8E ?5@2KE B@5E 65;0=89. =8 AG0AB;82K 8 A>18@0NBAO BI0B5;L=> 2K1@0BL MB8 B@8 65;0=8O. > 65=0 A>1;07=O5BAO 70?0E>< 60@5=KE A>A8A>: 87 A>A54=59 E868=K 8 65;05B ?>;CG8BL ?0@C B0:8E A>A8A>:. '5@57 <3=>25=85 >=8 C65 745AL -- 8 ?5@2>5 65;0=85 8A?>;=5=>. ">340 <C6 A5@48BAO 8 2 3>@L:>9 >1845 65;05B, GB>1K A>A8A:8 ?>28A;8 C 65=K =0 =>AC. -B> B>65 8A?>;=O5BAO, 8 A>A8A:8 =5;L7O C40;8BL A 8E =>2>3> <5AB0 ?@51K20=8O -- 2>B 8A?>;=8;>AL 8 2B>@>5 65;0=85, => C65 65;0=85 <C60; 65=5 8A?>;=5=85 MB>3> 65;0=8O >G5=L =5?@8OB=>. K 7=05B5, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 40;LH5 2 A:07:5. "0: :0: >10, 2 ACI=>AB8, A>AB02;ONB 2A5-B0:8 >4=>, <C60 8 65=C, B> B@5BL5 65;0=85 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K A>A8A:8 >AB028;8 =>A 65=K. K <>65< 8A?>;L7>20BL MBC A:07:C 5I5 <=>3> @07 2 4@C3>9 A2O78; 745AL >=0 A;C68B B>;L:> 8;;NAB@0F859 B>3>, GB> 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O >4=>3> <>65B 2K720BL =5?@8OB=>5 GC2AB2> C 4@C3>3>, 5A;8 >10 =5 A>3;0A=K <564C A>1>9. "5?5@L =0< 1C45B =5B@C4=> 5I5 ;CGH5 ?>=OBL AB@0H=K5 A=>2845=8O. K B>;L:> ?@82;5G5< 5I5 >4=> =01;N45=85 8 B>340 @5H8<AO 2KA:070BL ?@54?>;>65=85, 2 70I8BC :>B>@>3> <>6=> ?@825AB8 <=>3> 4>2>4>2. 01;N45=85 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> AB@0H=K5 A=>2845=8O G0AB> 8<5NB A>45@60=85, A>25@H5==> A2>1>4=>5 >B 8A:065=8O, B0: A:070BL, 8715602H55 F5=7C@K. !B@0H=>5 A=>2845=85 G0AB> O2;O5BAO =5?@8:@KBK< 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O, 5AB5AB25==>, =5 ?@8OB=>3>, 0 >B25@305<>3> 65;0=8O. <5AB> F5=7C@K ?>O2;O5BAO AB@0E. A;8 > 45BA:>< A=>2845=88 <>6=> A:070BL, GB> >=> O2;O5BAO 8A?>;=5=85< 4>72>;5==>3> 65;0=8O, >1 >1K:=>25==>< 8A:065==>< A=>2845=88 -- GB> >=> 70<0A:8@>20==>5 8A?>;=5=85 2KB5A=5==>3> 65;0=8O, B> 4;O AB@0H=>3> A=>2845=8O ?>4E>48B B>;L:> D>@<C;0, GB> >=> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5?@8:@KB>5 8A?>;=5=85 2KB5A=5==>3> 65;0=8O. !B@0E O2;O5BAO ?@87=0:>< B>3>, GB> 2KB5A=5==>5 65;0=85 >:070;>AL A8;L=55 F5=7C@K, GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 =55, >=> 2A5-B0:8 ?@>18;>AL : 8A?>;=5=8N 8;8 1K;> 3>B>2> ?@>18BLAO. K ?>=8<05<, GB> B>, GB> 4;O =53> O2;O5BAO 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O, 4;O =0A, ?>A:>;L:C <K =0E>48<AO =0 AB>@>=5 F5=7C@K A=>2845=8O, <>65B 1KBL B>;L:> ?>2>4>< 4;O <CG8B5;L=KE >ICI5=89 8 >B?>@0. >O2;ONI89AO ?@8 MB>< 2 A=>2845=88 AB@0E, 5A;8 E>B8B5, 5ABL AB@0E ?5@54 A8;>9 MB8E >1KG=> A45@68205<KE 65;0=89. >G5<C MB>B >B?>@ ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 D>@<5 AB@0E0, =5;L7O ?>=OBL, 87CG0O B>;L:> A=>2845=8O; >G5284=>, =C6=> 87CG0BL AB@0E ?> 4@C38< 8AB>G=8:0<. A5, GB> A?@0254;82> 4;O =58A:065==KE AB@0H=KE A=>2845=89, <K <>65< ?@54?>;>68BL B0:65 4;O B0:8E A=>2845=89, :>B>@K5 ?@5B5@?5;8 G0AB8G=>5 8A:065=85, 8 4;O ?@>G8E =5?@8OB=KE A=>2845=89, <CG8B5;L=K5 >ICI5=8O :>B>@KE, 25@>OB=>, 1;87:8 : AB@0EC. !B@0H=>5 A=>2845=85 >1KG=> 2545B : ?@>1C645=8N; <K 8<55< >1K:=>25=85 ?@5@K20BL A>=, ?@5645 G5< 2KB5A=5==>5 65;0=85 A=>2845=8O ?@>1L5BAO G5@57 F5=7C@C : A2>5<C ?>;=><C 8A?>;=5=8N.  MB>< A;CG05 @57C;LB0B A=>2845=8O >:07K205BAO =530B82=K<, => 53> ACI=>ABL >B MB>3> =5 <5=O5BAO. K A@02=820;8 A=>2845=85 A =>G=K< AB>@>65<, >E@0=ONI8< =0H A>=, GB>1K 5<C =5 ?><5H0;8.  =>G=>9 AB>@>6 ?>?0405B 2 B0:>5 ?>;>65=85, :>340 >= 1C48B A?OI8E, 0 8<5==> B>340, :>340 GC2AB2C5B A51O A;8H:>< A;01K<, GB>1K CAB@0=8BL ?><5EC 8;8 >?0A=>ABL.  2A5-B0:8 =0< 8=>340 C405BAO ?@>4>;60BL A?0BL, 4065 5A;8 A=>2845=85 AB0=>28BAO B@52>6=K< 8 =0G8=05B 70@>640BLAO AB@0E. K 3>2>@8< A515 2> A=5: 254L MB> B>;L:> A>= -- 8 ?@>4>;605< A?0BL. >340 65 A;CG05BAO B0:, GB> 65;0=85 A=>2845=8O >:07K205BAO 2 A>AB>O=88 ?@5>4>;5BL F5=7C@C? #A;>285 4;O MB>3> <>65B 2>7=8:=CBL :0: A> AB>@>=K 65;0=8O A=>2845=8O, B0: 8 A> AB>@>=K F5=7C@K. > =5?>=OB=K< ?@8G8=0< 65;0=85 <>65B AB0BL 8=>9 @07 G5@5AGC@ A8;L=K<: => C =0A A:;04K205BAO 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> G0I5 28=0 70 MB> A<5I5=85 A>>B=>H5=8O 459AB2CNI8E A8; ;568B =0 F5=7C@5 A=>2845=8O. K C65 7=05<, GB> F5=7C@0 @01>B05B 2 :064>< >B45;L=>< A;CG05 A @07=>9 8=B5=A82=>ABLN, : :064><C M;5<5=BC >B=>A8BAO A @07=>9 AB5?5=LN AB@>3>AB8; 745AL =0< E>B5;>AL 1K 2KA:070BL 5I5 >4=> ?@54?>;>65=85, GB> >=0 2>>1I5 25AL<0 20@8015;L=0 8 =5 2A5340 >48=0:>2> AB@>30 : >4=><C 8 B><C 65 =5?@8;8G=><C M;5<5=BC. A;8 A;CG8BAO B0:, GB> >=0 =0 :0:>9-B> <><5=B ?>GC2AB2C5B A51O 15AA8;L=>9 ?5@54 :0:8<-;81> 65;0=85< A=>2845=8O, C3@>60NI8< 70E20B8BL 55 2@0A?;>E, B> 2<5AB> 8A:065=8O >=0 ?@815305B : ?>A;54=5<C >AB02H5<CAO 59 A@54AB2C -- >B:070BLAO >B A>AB>O=8O A=0 ?>4 2;8O=85< =0@0AB0NI53> AB@0E0. @8 MB>< =0< 1@>A05BAO 2 3;070, GB> <K 254L 2>>1I5 =5 7=05<, ?>G5<C MB8 A:25@=K5, >B25@3=CBK5 65;0=8O 40NB > A515 7=0BL 8<5==> 2 =>G=>5 2@5<O, GB>1K =0@CH8BL =0H A>=. B25B <>65B 40BL B>;L:> ?@54?>;>65=85, CG8BK20NI55 ?@8@>4C A>AB>O=8O A=0. =5< =0 MB8 65;0=8O BO65;> 4028B F5=7C@0, =5 40NI0O 8<, :0: ?@028;>, 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?@>O28BLAO 2 :0:><-B> 459AB288.  =>G=>5 2@5<O MB0 F5=7C@0, 25@>OB=>, :0: 2A5 4@C385 8=B5@5AK 4CH52=>9 687=8, A2>48BAO : 548=AB25==><C 65;0=8N A?0BL 8;8 65, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, A8;L=> >A;01;O5BAO. -B><C >A;01;5=8N F5=7C@K 2 =>G=>5 2@5<O 70?@5B=K5 65;0=8O 8 >1O70=K B5<, GB> <>3CB A=>20 >6820BL. ABL =5@2=K5 1>;L=K5, AB@040NI85 15AA>==8F59, :>B>@K5 ?@87=020;8AL =0<, GB> A=0G0;0 >=8 A0<8 E>B5;8 A2>59 15AA>==8FK. =8 =5 @5H0;8AL CA=CBL, ?>B><C GB> 1>O;8AL A2>8E A=>2845=89, B. 5. ?>A;54AB289 MB>3> >A;01;5=8O F5=7C@K. K, ?@0240, ;53:> 70<5B8B5, GB> MBC ?@8>AB0=>2:C 45OB5;L=>AB8 F5=7C@K 2A5 65 =5 A;54C5B >F5=820BL :0: 1>;LHCN =5>AB>@>6=>ABL. !>AB>O=85 A=0 ;8H05B =0A A?>A>1=>AB8 42830BLAO; =0H8 4C@=K5 =0<5@5=8O, 5A;8 >=8 8 =0G8=0NB H525;8BLAO, =5 <>3CB ?@825AB8 =8 : G5<C 8=><C, :0: : ?@0:B8G5A:8 1572@54=><C A=>2845=8N, 8 =0 MB> CA?>:>8B5;L=>5 A>AB>O=85 C:07K205B 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 1;03>@07C<=>5 70<5G0=85 A?OI53>, >B=>AOI55AO, ?@0240, : =>G8, => =5 : 687=8 2> A=5: 254L MB> B>;L:> A>=, ?>MB><C ?@54>AB028< 5<C A2>1>4C 459AB28O 8 1C45< ?@>4>;60BL A?0BL. A;8, 2-B@5BL8E, 2K 2A?><=8B5 > B><, GB> <K ?@54AB028;8 28452H53> A>= 1>@NI8<AO A> A2>8<8 65;0=8O<8, A>AB>OI8< 87 42CE >B45;L=KE, => :0:8<-B> >1@07>< >G5=L B5A=> A2O70==KE ;8F, B> ?@87=05B5 8 4@C3CN 2>7<>6=>ABL: :0: 1;03>40@O 8A?>;=5=8N 65;0=8O <>65B >ACI5AB28BLAO B>, GB> 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 =5?@8OB=>, -- 0 8<5==> =0:070=85. 45AL =0< >?OBL <>65B ?><>GL A:07:0 > B@5E 65;0=8OE: 60@5=K5 A>A8A:8 =0 B0@5;:5 1K;8 ?@O<K< 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O ?5@2>3> ;8F0, 65=K; A>A8A:8 =0 55 =>AC 1K;8 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O 2B>@>3> ;8F0, <C60, => >4=>2@5<5==> 8 =0:070=85< 70 3;C?>5 65;0=85 65=K. @8 =52@>70E <K =0E>48< 70B5< <>B820F8N B@5BL53> 65;0=8O, :>B>@>5 5I5 >AB0;>AL 2 A:07:5.  4CH52=>9 687=8 G5;>25:0 <=>3> B0:8E =0:07C5<KE B5=45=F89; >=8 >G5=L A8;L=K, 8 8E <>6=> AG8B0BL >B25BAB25==K<8 70 =5:>B>@CN G0ABL <CG8B5;L=KE A=>2845=89. "5?5@L 2K, <>65B 1KBL, A:065B5, GB> ?@8 MB8E CA;>28OE >B E20;5=>3> 8A?>;=5=8O 65;0=8O >AB05BAO =5<=>3>5. > ?@8 1>;55 ?@8AB0;L=>< @0AA<>B@5=88 ?@845B5 : 70:;NG5=8N, GB> =5 ?@02K. > A@02=5=8N A 1>;55 ?>74=8<8 C:070=8O<8 =0 <=>3>>1@0785 B>3>, G5< <>3;> 1K 1KBL A=>2845=85, -- 0 ?> <=5=8N <=>38E 02B>@>2, G5< >=> 8 O2;O5BAO =0 A0<>< 45;5, -- ?@54AB02;5=85 > A=>2845=88 :0: 8A?>;=5=88 65;0=8O -- ?5@56820=88 AB@0E0 -- 8A?>;=5=88 =0:070=8O -- >:07K205BAO 2A5-B0:8 25AL<0 >3@0=8G5==K<.  MB><C =C6=> ?@81028BL B>, GB> AB@0E 5ABL ?@O<0O ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL 65;0=8O, GB> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8 2 0AA>F80F88 >A>15==> 1;87:8 4@C3 4@C3C, 0 2 15AA>7=0B5;L=><, :0: <K C7=0;8, A>2?040NB, 40;55 B>, GB> =0:070=85 B>65 O2;O5BAO 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O, => 4@C3>3> -- F5=7C@8@CNI53> ;8F0. B0:, O 2 >1I5< =5 A45;0; =8:0:8E CABC?>: 20H5<C 2>7@065=8N ?@>B82 B5>@88 8A?>;=5=8O 65;0=8O. > <K >1O70=K 4>:070BL 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O 2 ;N1>< 8A:065==>< A=>2845=88 8, :>=5G=>, =5 A>18@05<AO >B:07K20BLAO >B MB>9 7040G8. 5@=5<AO : C65 8AB>;:>20==><C A=>2845=8N > B@5E ?;>E8E B50B@0;L=KE 18;5B0E 70 1 3C;L45= 50 :@., =0 ?@8<5@5 :>B>@>3> <K C65 <=>3><C =0CG8;8AL. 045NAL, 2K 53> 5I5 ?><=8B5. 0<0, <C6 :>B>@>9 A>>1I8; 59 4=5<, GB> 55 ?>4@C30 -;870, :>B>@0O <>;>65 55 =0 B@8 <5AOF0, >1@CG8;0AL, 2848B 2> A=5, GB> >=0 A848B 2 B50B@5 A> A2>8< <C65<. 4=0 AB>@>=0 ?0@B5@0 ?>GB8 ?CAB0. 5 <C6 3>2>@8B 59, GB> -;870 A 65=8E>< B>65 E>B5;8 ?>9B8 2 B50B@, => =5 A<>3;8, B0: :0: 4>AB0;8 B>;L:> ?;>E85 <5AB0, B@8 70 >48= 3C;L45= ?OBL45AOB. =0 ?>;0305B, GB> 2 MB>< =5B =8:0:>3> =5AG0ABLO. K 4>3040;8AL, GB> <KA;8 A=>2845=8O 2K@060;8 4>A04C =0 @0==55 70<C65AB2> 8 =54>2>;LAB2> A2>8< <C65<. N1>?KB=>, :0: MB8 <@0G=K5 <KA;8 1K;8 ?5@5@01>B0=K 2 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O 8 345 :@>5BAO 53> A;54 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88. K C65 7=05<, GB> M;5<5=B "A;8H:>< @0=>, ?>A?5H=>" CAB@0=5= 87 A=>2845=8O F5=7C@>9. 0<5:>< =0 =53> O2;O5BAO ?CAB>9 ?0@B5@. 0304>G=>5 "B@8 70 >48= 3C;L45= ?OBL45AOB" AB0=>28BAO B5?5@L 1>;55 ?>=OB=K< A ?><>ILN A8<2>;8:8, A :>B>@>9 <K 70 MB> 2@5<O ?>7=0:><8;8AL. -B0 B@>9:0 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >7=0G05B <C6G8=C, 8 O2=K9 M;5<5=B ;53:> <>6=> ?5@525AB8: :C?8BL A515 <C60 70 ?@840=>5 ("70 <>5 ?@840=>5 O <>3;0 1K A515 :C?8BL 2 45AOBL @07 ;CGH53>"). 0<C65AB2> O2=> 70<5I5=> ?>A5I5=85< B50B@0. "!;8H:>< @0==OO ?>:C?:0 18;5B>2" ?@O<> 70<5I05B A;8H:>< @0==55 70<C65AB2>. > MB> 70<5I5=85 O2;O5BAO 45;>< 8A?>;=5=8O 65;0=8O. 0H0 40<0 =5 2A5340 1K;0 B0: =54>2>;L=0 A2>8< @0==8< 70<C65AB2><, :0: 2 B>B 45=L, :>340 >=0 ?>;CG8;0 8725AB85 > ?><>;2:5 A2>59 ?>4@C38.  A2>5 2@5<O >=0 3>@48;0AL 8< 8 GC2AB2>20;0 A2>5 ?@52>AE>4AB2> ?5@54 ?>4@C3>9. 082=K5 452CH:8 G0AB> ?>A;5 ?><>;2:8 2K@060NB @04>ABL, GB> B5?5@L A:>@> ?>94CB 2 B50B@ =0 2A5 4> A8E ?>@ 70?@5I5==K5 ?L5AK 8 2A5 C284OB. >;O AB@0AB8 : ?>43;O4K20=8N 8;8 ;N1>?KBAB20, :>B>@0O 745AL ?@>O2;O5BAO, 1K;0 A=0G0;0 >?@545;5==> A5:AC0;L=>9 AB@0ABLN : ?>43;O4K20=8N, =0?@02;5==>9 =0 ?>;>2CN 687=L, >A>15==> @>48B5;59, 8 70B5< AB0;0 A8;L=K< ----------------------------------------  4@C3>< =0?@0H820NI5<AO B>;:>20=88 MB>9 B@>9:8 C 15745B=>9 65=I8=C O =5 C?><8=0N, B0: :0: =0AB>OI89 0=0;87 =5 40; MB>3> <0B5@80;0. <>B82><, ?>1C6402H8< 452CH:C : @0==5<C 70<C65AB2C. "0:8< >1@07><, ?>A5I5=85 B50B@0 AB0=>28BAO ?>=OB=K< =0<5:0NI8< 70<5AB8B5;5< 4;O 70<C65AB20. "0: GB> 2 A2>59 B5?5@5H=59 4>A045 =0 A2>5 @0==55 70<C65AB2> >=0 2>72@0I05BAO : B><C 2@5<5=8, :>340 >=> 1K;> 8A?>;=5=85< 65;0=8O, ?>B><C GB> C4>2;5B2>@O;> AB@0ABL : ?>43;O4K20=8N, 0 ?>4 2;8O=85< MB>3> ?@56=53> 65;0=8O 70<C65AB2> 70<5I05BAO ?>A5I5=85< B50B@0. K <>65< A:070BL, GB> 2K1@0;8 =5 A0<K9 C40G=K9 ?@8<5@ 4;O 4>:070B5;LAB20 8A?>;=5=8O A:@KB>3> 65;0=8O. =0;>38G=K< >1@07>< <K 4>;6=K 1K;8 1K ?>ABC?8BL 8 A 4@C38<8 8A:065==K<8 A=>2845=8O<8. / =5 <>3C MB>3> A45;0BL 8 E>GC B>;L:> 2K@078BL C15645=85, GB> MB> 2AN4C C40ABAO. > =0 MB>< <><5=B5 B5>@88 <=5 E>G5BAO 5I5 7045@60BLAO. ?KB ?>:070; <=5, GB> 2> 2A59 B5>@88 A=>2845=8O MB>B <><5=B A0<K9 CO728<K9 8 GB> <=>385 2>7@065=8O 8 =54>@07C<5=8O A2O70=K A =8<. @><5 B>3>, C 20A, <>65B 1KBL, A;>68BAO 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> O C65 >BG0AB8 >B:070;AO >B A2>53> CB25@645=8O, A:0702, GB> A=>2845=85 O2;O5BAO 2K?>;=5==K< 65;0=85< 8;8 53> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABLN -- >ACI5AB2;5==K< AB@0E>< 8;8 =0:070=85<, 8 ?>4C<05B5, GB> MB> C4>1=K9 A;CG09 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 2K=C48BL <5=O =0 40;L=59H85 CABC?:8. / A;KH0; B0:65 C?@5: 2 B><, GB> 87;030N 25I8, :06CI85AO <=5 >G5284=K<8, A;8H:>< A60B> 8 ?>B><C =54>AB0B>G=> C1548B5;L=>. A;8 :B>-=81C4L A;54>20; 70 =0<8 2 B>;:>20=88 A=>2845=89 4> MB>3> <5AB0 8 ?@8=O; 2A5, GB> >=> =0< 4> A8E ?>@ 40;>, B> =5@54:> ?5@54 2>?@>A>< >1 8A?>;=5=88 65;0=8O >= >AB0=02;8205BAO 8 A?@0H8205B: 4>?CAB8<, GB> :064>5 A=>2845=85 8<55B A<KA;, 8 MB>B A<KA; <>6=> 2A:@KBL ?@8 ?><>I8 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9 B5E=8:8, ?>G5<C 65 MB>B A<KA;, 2>?@5:8 2AO:>9 >G5284=>AB8, >1O70B5;L=> 4>;65= 1KBL 2B8A=CB 2 D>@<C;C 8A?>;=5=8O 65;0=8O? >G5<C A<KA; MB>3> =>G=>3> <KH;5=8O =5 <>65B 1KBL =0AB>;L:> 65 @07=>>1@07=K<, :0: 8 A<KA; 4=52=>3> <KH;5=8O, B. 5. A=>2845=85 <>65B A>>B25BAB2>20BL >48= @07 >4=><C 8A?>;=5==><C 65;0=8N, 2 4@C3>9 @07, :0: 2K A0<8 3>2>@8B5, 53> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8, :0:><C-B> 459AB28B5;L=><C >?0A5=8N, 0 70B5< 2K@060BL 8 :0:>5-B> =0<5@5=85, ?@54>AB5@565=85, @0AAC645=85 70 8 ?@>B82 8;8 C?@5:, C:>@ A>25AB8, ?>?KB:C ?>43>B>28BLAO : ?@54AB>OI5<C 459AB28N 8 B. 4.? >G5<C 65 2A5340 >4=> 65;0=85 8;8 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 5I5 53> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL? >6=> 1K;> 1K ?>4C<0BL, GB> @07=>3;0A85 2 MB>< 2>?@>A5 =5 B0: 206=>, 5A;8 2> 2A5< >AB0;L=>< A =0<8 A>3;0A=K. >AB0B>G=> B>3>, GB> <K =0H;8 A<KA; A=>2845=8O 8 ?CB8, GB>1K 53> C7=0BL; 2 A@02=5=88 A MB8< =5 8<55B 1>;LH>3> 7=0G5=8O B>, GB> <K 2K=C645=K >3@0=8G8BL MB>B A<KA;, >4=0:> MB> =5 B0:. 54>@07C<5=85 2 MB>< ?C=:B5 70B@038205B A0<CN ACBL =0H8E ?@54AB02;5=89 > A=>2845=88 8 AB028B ?>4 A><=5=85 8E 7=0G5=85 4;O ?>=8<0=8O =52@>70. @><5 B>3>, B0 CABC?G82>ABL, :>B>@0O 2 :><<5@G5A:>< <8@5 F5=8BAO :0: "?@54C?@548B5;L=>ABL", 2 =0C:5 =5C<5AB=0 8, A:>@55 2A53>, 2@54=0. >9 ?5@2K9 >B25B =0 2>?@>A, ?>G5<C A=>2845=85 =5 4>;6=> 1KBL 2 C:070==>< A<KA;5 <=>3>7=0G=K<, 3;0A8B, :0: >1KG=> 2 B0:8E A;CG0OE: O =5 7=0N, ?>G5<C B0: =5 4>;6=> 1KBL. / 1K =5 8<5; =8G53> ?@>B82. CABL 1C45B B0:. 8HL >4=0 <5;>GL ?@>B82>@5G8B MB><C 1>;55 H8@>:><C 8 1>;55 C4>1=><C ?>=8<0=8N A=>2845=8O, 0 8<5==> B>, GB> 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 MB> =5 B0:. B>@>9 <>9 >B25B ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> <=5 A0<><C =5 GC64> ?@54?>;>65=85 > A>>B25BAB288 A=>2845=8O <=>3>>1@07=K< D>@<0< <KH;5=8O 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE >?5@0F89. / :0:-B> A>>1I0; 2 >4=>9 8AB>@88 1>;57=8 > A=>2845=88, O2;O2H5<AO B@8 =>G8 ?>4@O4 8 1>;LH5 =5 ?>2B>@O2H5<AO, 8 >1JOA=8; MB>B A;CG09 B5<, GB> A=>2845=85 A>>B25BAB2>20;> =0<5@5=8N, :>B>@><C =570G5< 1K;> ?>2B>@OBLAO ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: >=> 1K;> 2K?>;=5=>. >74=55 O >?C1;8:>20; ?@8<5@ >4=>3> A=>2845=8O, A>>B25BAB2>202H53> ?@87=0=8N. 0: 65 O 2A5-B0:8 <>3C CB25@640BL, GB> A=>2845=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 2A5340 B>;L:> 8A?>;=5==>5 65;0=85? / 45;0N MB> ?>B><C, GB> =5 E>GC 4>?CA:0BL 3;C?>3> =54>@07C<5=8O, :>B>@>5 <>65B ;8H8BL =0A @57C;LB0B>2 2A5E =0H8E CA8;89 2 0=0;875 A=>2845=89, =54>@07C<5=8O, ?@8 :>B>@>< A=>2845=85 ?CB0NB A> A:@KBK<8 53> <KA;O<8 8 2KA:07K20NB > =5< B>, GB> >B=>A8BAO : MB8< ?>A;54=8< 8 B>;L:> : =8<. 1A>;NB=> ?@028;L=>, GB> A=>2845=85 <>65B ?@54AB02;OBL 2A5 MB> 8 1KBL 70<5=5=> B5<, GB> <K C65 ?5@5G8A;8;8: =0<5@5=85<, ?@54>AB5@565=85<, @0AAC645=85<, ?@83>B>2;5=85<, ?>?KB:>9 @5H5=8O :0:>9-B> 7040G8 8 B. 4. > 5A;8 2K ?@8A<>B@8B5AL, B> C2848B5, GB> 2A5 MB> >B=>A8BAO B>;L:> : A:@KBK< <KA;O< A=>2845=8O, ?@52@0B82H8<AO 2 A=>2845=85. 7 B>;:>20=89 A=>2845=89 2K 7=05B5, GB> 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 <KH;5=85 ;N459 70=OB> B0:8<8 =0<5@5=8O<8, ?@83>B>2;5=8O<8, @07<KH;5=8O<8 8 B. 4., 87 :>B>@KE 70B5< @01>B0 A=>2845=8O 45;05B A=>2845=8O. A;8 20A ?>:0 =5 8=B5@5AC5B @01>B0 A=>2845=8O, => >G5=L 8=B5@5AC5B 15AA>7=0B5;L=0O @01>B0 <KH;5=8O G5;>25:0, B> 8A:;NG8B5 @01>BC A=>2845=8O 8 A:068B5 > A=>2845=88 ?@028;L=>, GB> >=> A>>B25BAB2C5B ?@54>AB5@565=8N, =0<5@5=8N 8 B. ?.  ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 MB> G0AB> 2AB@5G05BAO: ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 AB@5<OBAO B>;L:> : B><C, GB>1K 2=>2L @07@CH8BL D>@<C A=>2845=8O 8 2<5AB> =53> 2>AAB0=>28BL >1ICN A2O7L A:@KBKE <KA;59, 87 :>B>@KE >=> A>AB02;5=>. "0:, A>25@H5==> <564C ?@>G8< <K C7=05< 87 >F5=:8 A:@KBKE <KA;59 A=>2845=8O, GB> 2A5 MB8 =0720==K5 G@572KG09=> A;>6=K5 4CH52=K5 ?@>F5AAK <>3CB ?@>E>48BL 15AA>7=0B5;L=>, -- AB>;L 65 3@0=48>7=K9, A:>;L 8 >H5;><;ONI89 @57C;LB0B! > 25@=5<AO =0704. K 1C45B5 ?@02K, 5A;8 COA=8B5 A515, GB> ?>;L7>20;8AL A>:@0I5==K<8 2K@065=8O<8, 8 5A;8 =5 1C45B5 4C<0BL, GB> 4>;6=K >B=5AB8 C?><O=CB>5 @07=>>1@0785 : ACI=>AB8 A=>2845=8O. A;8 2K 3>2>@8B5 > A=>2845=88, B> 2K 4>;6=K 8<5BL 2 284C 8;8 O2=>5 A=>2845=85, B. 5. ?@>4C:B @01>BK A=>2845=8O, 8;8 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 A0<C @01>BC A=>2845=8O, B. 5. B>B ?A8E8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA, :>B>@K9 >1@07C5B O2=>5 A=>2845=85 87 A:@KBKE <KA;59. N1>5 4@C3>5 C?>B@51;5=85 A;>20 1C45B ?CB0=8F59 2 ?>=OB8OE, :>B>@0O <>65B 1KBL B>;L:> ?@8G8=>9 =54>@07C<5=8O. A;8 2 A2>8E CB25@645=8OE 2K 8<55B5 2 284C A:@KBK5 <KA;8, AB>OI85 70 A=>2845=85<, B> A:068B5 >1 MB>< ?@O<> 8 =5 >1;5:09B5 ?@>1;5<C A=>2845=8O 2 =5OA=K5 2K@065=8O, :>B>@K<8 2K ?>;L7C5B5AL. !:@KBK5 <KA;8 -- MB> <0B5@80;, :>B>@K9 @01>B0 A=>2845=8O ?@5>1@07C5B 2 O2=>5 A=>2845=85. >G5<C 65 2K =5?@5<5==> E>B8B5 A<5H820BL <0B5@80; A @01>B>9, :>B>@0O 53> D>@<>>1@07C5B? 0:85 65 C 20A B>340 ?@58<CI5AB20 ?> A@02=5=8N A B5<8, :B> 2848B B>;L:> ?@>4C:B 8 =5 <>65B >1JOA=8BL, >B:C40 >= ?@>8AE>48B 8 :0: >= A45;0=? 48=AB25==> ACI5AB25==K< 2 A=>2845=88 O2;O5BAO @01>B0 A=>2845=8O, :>B>@0O 2>7459AB2C5B =0 <0B5@80; <KA;59. K =5 8<55< ?@020 83=>@8@>20BL 55 2 B5>@88, 5A;8 8 <>65< A515 ?>72>;8BL ?@5=51@5GL 5N 2 >?@545;5==KE ?@0:B8G5A:8E A8BC0F8OE. @><5 B>3>, 0=0;8B8G5A:>5 =01;N45=85 ?>:07K205B, GB> @01>B0 A=>2845=8O =8:>340 =5 >3@0=8G8205BAO B5<, GB>1K ?5@525AB8 MB8 <KA;8 2 8725AB=CN 20< 0@E08G5A:CN 8;8 @53@5AA82=CN D>@<C 2K@065=8O. > >=0 ?>AB>O==> ?@8102;O5B :>5-GB>, =5 8<5NI55 >B=>H5=8O : 4=52=K< A:@KBK< <KA;O<, O2;ONI55AO, A>1AB25==> 3>2>@O, 4286CI59 A8;>9 >1@07>20=8O A=>2845=8O. -B> =587156=>5 4>102;5=85 8 5ABL 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 65;0=85, 4;O 8A?>;=5=8O :>B>@>3> ?@5>1@07C5BAO A>45@60=85 A=>2845=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, A=>2845=85 <>65B 1KBL G5< C3>4=> -- ?@54>AB5@565=85<, =0<5@5=85<, ?@83>B>2;5=85< 8 B. 4., 5A;8 2K 1C45B5 ?@8=8<0BL 2> 2=8<0=85 B>;L:> ?@54AB02;5==K5 8< <KA;8; >=> 2A5340 1C45B B0:65 8A?>;=5=85< 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> 65;0=8O 8 B>;L:> 8<, 5A;8 2K 1C45B5 @0AA<0B@820BL 53> :0: @57C;LB0B @01>BK A=>2845=8O. !=>2845=85, B0:8< >1@07><, =8:>340 =5 1C45B ?@>AB> =0<5@5=85<, ?@54C?@5645=85<, 0 2A5340 =0<5@5=85< 8 B. ?., ?5@52545==K< A ?><>ILN 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> 65;0=8O 2 0@E08G5A:CN D>@<C 2K@065=8O 8 ?@5>1@07>20==K< 4;O 8A?>;=5=8O MB8E 65;0=89. 48= ?@87=0: -- 8A?>;=5=85 65;0=8O -- ?>AB>O=5=, 4@C3>9 <>65B 87<5=OBLAO, >= <>65B, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, B>65 1KBL 65;0=85<, B0: GB> 4=52=>5 A:@KB>5 65;0=85 A=>2845=85 ?@54AB02;O5B 8A?>;=5==K< A ?><>ILN 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> 65;0=8O. / 2A5 MB> >G5=L E>@>H> ?>=8<0N, => =5 7=0N, C40;>AL ;8 <=5 A45;0BL MB> ?>=OB=K< 4;O 20A. 0B@C4=ONAL B0:65 4>:070BL 20< MB>. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, MB> =52>7<>6=> 157 BI0B5;L=>3> 0=0;870 <=>38E A=>2845=89, 0 A 4@C3>9 -- =5;L7O C1548B5;L=> 87;>68BL MB>B A0<K9 I5:>B;82K9 8 A0<K9 7=0G8B5;L=K9 ?C=:B =0H53> ?>=8<0=8O A=>2845=8O, =5 ?@82>4O 53> 2 A2O7L A B5<, > G5< 1C45B @5GL =865. >65B5 ;8 2K 2>>1I5 ?@54AB028BL A515, GB> ?@8 B5A=>9 A2O78 2A5E 25I59 <>6=> 3;C1>:> ?@>=8:=CBL 2 ?@8@>4C >4=>9, =5 2<5H02H8AL 2 4@C385, AE>4=>9 A =59 ?@8@>4K? "0: :0: <K 5I5 =8G53> =5 7=05< > 1;8609H8E @>4AB25==8:0E A=>2845=8O, > =52@>B8G5A:8E A8<?B><0E, B> 8 745AL <K 2K=C645=K >3@0=8G8BLAO 4>AB83=CBK<. / B>;L:> E>GC @07JOA=8BL 20< 5I5 >48= ?@8<5@ 8 ?@825AB8 =>2K5 A>>1@065=8O. >7L<5< >?OBL B> A0<>5 A=>2845=85 > B@5E B50B@0;L=KE 18;5B0E 70 1 3C;L45= 50 :@., : :>B>@><C <K =5>4=>:@0B=> 2>72@0I0;8AL. >3C 20A 7025@8BL, GB> A=0G0;0 O 27O; 53> 2 :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 157 >A>1KE =0<5@5=89. !:@KBK5 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O 2K 7=05B5. >A040, GB> 40<0 ?>A?5H8;0 A 70<C65AB2><, ?>A;5 B>3> :0: C7=0;0, GB> 55 ?>4@C30 B>;L:> B5?5@L >1@CG8;0AL; ?@5=51@565=85 : A2>5<C <C6C, <KA;L, GB> >=0 <>3;0 1K 8<5BL ;CGH53>, 5A;8 1K B>;L:> ?>4>640;0. 5;0=85, A>7402H55 A=>2845=85 87 MB8E <KA;59, 2K B>65 7=05B5 -- MB> AB@0ABL : ?>43;O4K20=8N, 2>7<>6=>ABL E>48BL 2 B50B@, ?@>8AE>4OI0O, ?> 2A59 25@>OB=>AB8, 87 ?@56=53> ;N1>?KBAB20 C7=0BL =0:>=5F, GB> 65 ?@>8AE>48B, :>340 2KE>48HL 70<C6. -B> ;N1>?KBAB2>, :0: 8725AB=>, C 45B59 ?>AB>O==> =0?@02;5=> =0 A5:AC0;L=CN 687=L @>48B5;59, B0: GB> >=> 8=D0=B8;L=>, 0 ?>A:>;L:C ?@8ACBAB2C5B 8 40;LH5, O2;O5BAO 2;5G5=85<, CE>4OI8< :>@=O<8 2 8=D0=B8;L=>5. > 4;O ?@>1C645=8O MB>9 AB@0AB8 : ?>43;O4K20=8N 4=52=>5 8725AB85 =5 1K;> ?>2>4><, 0 2K720;> B>;L:> 4>A04C 8 A>60;5=85. !=0G0;0 MB> 65;0=85 =5 >B=>A8;>AL : A:@KBK< <KA;O< A=>2845=8O, 8 <K <>3;8 2:;NG8BL @57C;LB0B B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=8O 2 0=0;87, =5 >1@0I0O =0 =53> 2=8<0=8O. >A040 A0<0 ?> A515 =5 A?>A>1=0 2K720BL A=>2845=85; 87 <KA;59 "15AA<KA;5==> 1K;> B0: @0=> 2KE>48BL 70<C6" A=>2845=85 =5 <>3;> >1@07>20BLAO @0=55, G5< >=8 ?@>1C48;8 ?@56=55 65;0=85 C7=0BL =0:>=5F, GB> ?@>8AE>48B ?@8 70<C65AB25. 0B5< MB> 65;0=85 >1@07>20;> A>45@60=85 A=>2845=8O, 70<5=82 70<C65AB2> ?>A5I5=85< B50B@0 8 ?@8402 5<C D>@<C 8A?>;=5=8O ?@56=53> 65;0=8O: 2>B, O <>3C 84B8 2 B50B@ 8 A<>B@5BL 2A5 70?@5I5==>5, 0 BK =5 <>65HL; O 70<C65<, 0 BK 4>;6=0 640BL. "0:8< >1@07><, =0AB>OI0O A8BC0F8O ?@52@0B8;0AL 2 A2>N ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL, ?@56=89 B@8C<D 1K; ?>AB02;5= =0 <5AB> =>2>3> ?>@065=8O. 564C ?@>G8<, C4>2;5B2>@5=85 AB@0AB8 : ?>43;O4K20=8N A;8205BAO A M3>8AB8G5A:8< C4>2;5B2>@5=85< >B ?>154K 2 :>=:C@5=F88. -B> C4>2;5B2>@5=85 >?@545;O5B O2=>5 A>45@60=85 A=>2845=8O, 2 :>B>@>< >=0 459AB28B5;L=> A848B 2 B50B@5, 0 ?>4@C30 =5 A<>3;0 ?>?0ABL.  MB>9 A8BC0F88 C4>2;5B2>@5=8O 2 2845 =5?>4E>4OI59 8 =5?>=OB=>9 <>48D8:0F88 ?@8102;5=K B5 M;5<5=BK A>45@60=8O A=>2845=8O, 70 :>B>@K<8 5I5 A?@OB0=K A:@KBK5 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O. @8 B>;:>20=88 A=>2845=8O =5 =C6=> >1@0I0BL 2=8<0=8O =0 2A5, GB> A;C68B 87>1@065=8N 8A?>;=5=8O 65;0=8O, 0 2>AAB0=>28BL <CG8B5;L=K5 A:@KBK5 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O.1 4=> A>>1@065=85, :>B>@>5 O E>GC ?@825AB8, 4>;6=> >1@0B8BL 20H5 2=8<0=85 =0 2AB02H85 B5?5@L =0 ?5@2K9 ?;0= A:@KBK5 <KA;8. @>HC 20A =5 701K20BL, GB>, 2>-?5@2KE, >=8 15AA>7=0B5;L=K 2 4;O 28452H53> A>=, 2>-2B>@KE, A>25@H5==> @07C<=K 8 A2O7=K, B0: GB> 8E 2?>;=5 <>6=> ?@8=OBL 70 ?>=OB=K5 @50:F88 =0 ?>2>4 A=>2845=8O, 2-B@5BL8E, GB> >=8 <>3CB 8<5BL 7=0G8<>ABL ;N1>3> 4CH52=>3> 42865=8O 8;8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 >?5@0F88. -B8 <KA;8 O =07>2C B5?5@L AB@>65, G5< 4> A8E ?>@, ">AB0B:0<8 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89" =57028A8<> >B B>3>, ?@87=05BAO 2 =8E 28452H89 A>= 8;8 =5B. "5?5@L O @0745;ON >AB0B:8 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89 8 A:@KBK5 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O, =07K20O A:@KBK<8 <KA;O<8 2 A>>B25BAB288 A =0H8< ---------------------------------------- 1 @82>48<K9 ?@8<5@ <>65B A;C68BL O@:>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 2;8O=8O =0 $@5940 :0: 8AA;54>20B5;O, A;>682H53>AO 2 1C@6C07=>< >1I5AB25, ?@54AB02;5=89, >B@060NI8E :;0AA>2CN A?5F8D8:C MB>3> >1I5AB20 A 53> G0AB=>A>1AB25==8G5A:8<8 >B=>H5=8O<8. 2 "5@<8= "15AA>7=0B5;L=>5", :0: O2AB2C5B 87 ?@82545==KE @0AAC645=89 $@5940, ?@8>1@5B0; C =53> @07;8G=>5 A>45@60=85. 5@2>=0G0;L=> >= >1>7=0G0; AD5@C 2;5G5=89 (?>1C645=89, 8<5NI8E >?@545;5==CN, 2 >A=>2=>< A5:AC0;L=CN =0?@02;5==>ABL).  ?>A;54CNI8E @01>B0E $@594 ?5@5A<0B@8205B A2>8 273;O4K =0 =5>A>7=0205<K5 C@>2=8 ?A8E8G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8. ?@56=8< C?>B@51;5=85< 2A5 B>, GB> <K C7=05< 87 B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=8O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: >AB0B:8 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89 -- MB> B>;L:> G0ABL A:@KBKE <KA;59 A=>2845=8O. 0;55, A>3;0A=> =0H5<C ?>=8<0=8N, : >AB0B:0< 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89 GB>-B> ?@8102;O5BAO, GB>-B> >B=>A82H55AO B0:65 : 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C, A8;L=>5, => 2KB5A=5==>5 65;0=85, 8 B>;L:> >=> 45;05B 2>7<>6=K< >1@07>20=85 A=>2845=8O. ;8O=85 MB>3> 65;0=8O =0 >AB0B:8 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89 2K7K205B 4@C3CN G0ABL A:@KBKE <KA;59 A=>2845=8O, BC, :>B>@0O C65 =5 :065BAO @0F8>=0;L=>9 8 ?>=OB=>9 87 687=8 2 1>4@AB2>20=88. ;O >B=>H5=8O >AB0B:>2 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89 : 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C 65;0=8N O 2>A?>;L7>20;AO A@02=5=85<, :>B>@>5 <>3C 745AL B>;L:> ?>2B>@8BL. > 2AO:>< ?@54?@8OB88 =C65= :0?8B0;8AB, 15@CI89 =0 A51O @0AE>4K, 8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;L, :>B>@K9 8<55B 845N 8 C<55B 55 >ACI5AB28BL.  >1@07>20=88 A=>2845=8O @>;L :0?8B0;8AB0 2A5340 83@05B 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 65;0=85; >=> >B405B ?A8E8G5A:CN M=5@38N 4;O >1@07>20=8O A=>2845=8O; ?@54?@8=8<0B5;L -- >AB0B>: 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89, :>B>@K9 @0A?>@O605BAO MB8<8 @0AE>40<8. @0240, :0?8B0;8AB A0< <>65B 8<5BL 845N, 0 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;L :0?8B0;. -B> C?@>I05B ?@0:B8G5A:CN A8BC0F8N, => 70B@C4=O5B 55 B5>@5B8G5A:>5 ?>=8<0=85.  =0@>4=>< E>7O9AB25 MB> >4=> ;8F> 2A5340 1C4CB 45;8BL =0 420 -- :0?8B0;8AB0 8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;O -- 8 2>AAB0=>2OB BC >A=>2=CN ?>78F8N, 87 :>B>@>9 ?@>87>H;> =0H5 A@02=5=85. @8 >1@07>20=88 A=>2845=8O B>65 A;CG0NBAO B0:85 65 20@80F88, ?@>A;548BL :>B>@K5 O ?@54>AB02;ON 20<. 0;LH5 <K A 20<8 =5 <>65< ?>9B8, ?>B><C GB> 2K, 25@>OB=>, C65 402=> 70=OBK 2>?@>A><, :>B>@K9 70A;C68205B 2=8<0=8O. K A?@0H8205B5, 459AB28B5;L=> ;8 >AB0B:8 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89 15AA>7=0B5;L=K 2 B>< 65 A<KA;5, GB> 8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 65;0=85, :>B>@>5 ?@8102;O5BAO, GB>1K A45;0BL 8E A?>A>1=K<8 A>740BL A=>2845=85? 0H5 ?@54?>;>65=85 ?@028;L=>. 45AL A:@K205BAO A0<0O ACBL 2A53> 45;0. =8 =5 15AA>7=0B5;L=K 2 B>< 65 A<KA;5. 5;0=85 A=>2845=8O >B=>A8BAO : 4@C3><C 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C, : B><C, :>B>@>5 <K ?@87=05< 70 8=D0=B8;L=>5 8 =045;O5< >A>1K<8 <5E0=87<0<8. K;> 1K 2?>;=5 C<5AB=> @0745;8BL MB8 420 2840 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>, 402 8< @07=K5 =0720=8O. > A MB8< ;CGH5 ?>4>640BL, ?>:0 <K =5 ?>7=0:><8<AO A >1;0ABLN =52@>7>2. A;8 C6 70 >4=> 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 =0A C?@5:0NB 2 D0=B0AB8G=>AB8, B> GB> 65 A:06CB =0 =0H5 ?@87=0=85, GB> =0< =5>1E>48<K 5I5 8 420 2840 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>? 0209B5 745AL >AB0=>28<AO. ?OBL 2K CA;KH0;8 B>;L:> > G5<-B> =570:>=G5==><; => @0725 =5 2=CH05B =04564C <KA;L, GB> MB8 7=0=8O ?@8254CB : =>2K<, :>B>@K5 ?@8>1@5B5< <K A0<8 8;8 4@C385 ?>A;5 =0A?  <K A0<8 @0725 =5 C7=0;8 4>AB0B>G=> =>2>3> 8 ?>@078B5;L=>3>? /"&"/ &/ !M   " #20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40! K =5 <>65< >AB028BL >1;0ABL A=>2845=8O, =5 C?><O=C2 > A0<KE >1KG=KE A><=5=8OE 8 :>;510=8OE, 2>7=8:0NI8E 2 A2O78 A =0H8<8 =>2K<8 273;O40<8. !0<K5 2=8<0B5;L=K5 A;CH0B5;8 87 20A A0<8 A>1@0;8 :>5-:0:>9 <0B5@80; ?> MB><C ?>2>4C. 1. >7<>6=>, C 20A A;>68;>AL 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> @57C;LB0BK =0H59 @01>BK ?> B>;:>20=8N A=>2845=89, =5A<>B@O =0 BI0B5;L=>ABL B5E=8:8, 4>?CA:0NB B0: <=>3> =5>?@545;5==>AB59, GB> A45;0BL B>G=K9 ?5@52>4 O2=>3> A=>2845=8O =0 [O7K:] A:@KBKE 53> <KA;59 2A5-B0:8 =5 C405BAO.  70I8BC MB>3> 2K A:065B5, GB> 2>-?5@2KE, =8:>340 =5 8725AB=>, A;54C5B ;8 >?@545;5==K9 M;5<5=B ?>=8<0BL 2 53> A>1AB25==>< A<KA;5 8;8 A8<2>;8G5A:8, ?>B><C GB> 25I8, 8A?>;L7>20==K5 2 :0G5AB25 A8<2>;>2, 87-70 MB>3> 2A5 65 =5 ?5@5AB0NB 1KBL A0<8<8 A>1>9. > 5A;8 =5B >1J5:B82=>3> >A=>20=8O 4;O @07@5H5=8O 40==>9 ?@>1;5<K, B> 2 MB>< A;CG05 B>;:>20=85 7028A8B >B ?@>872>;0 B>;:>20B5;O. 0;55, 2A;54AB285 A>2?045=8O ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59 ?@8 @01>B5 A=>2845=8O :064K9 @07 >AB05BAO =5OA=K<, A;54C5B ;8 ?>=8<0BL :0:>9-B> >?@545;5==K9 M;5<5=B A=>2845=8O 2 ?>;>68B5;L=>< 8;8 >B@8F0B5;L=><, 2 ?@O<>< 8;8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>< A<KA;5.  MB> =>2K9 ?>2>4 4;O ?@>O2;5=8O ?@>872>;0 B>;:>20B5;O. -B@5BL8E, 2A;54AB285 AB>;L 87;N1;5==KE 2 A=>2845=88 8=25@A89 B>;:>20B5;L 2>;5= 2 ;N1>< <5AB5 A=>2845=8O ?@54?@8=OBL B0:CN 8=25@A8N. 0:>=5F, 2K A>H;5B5AL =0 <>8 A;>20, GB> @54:> <>6=> 1KBL C25@5==K< 2 B><, GB> =0945==>5 B>;:>20=85 548=AB25==> 2>7<>6=>5. A5340 5ABL >?0A=>ABL ?@>3;O45BL :0:>5-=81C4L 2?>;=5 4>?CAB8<>5 ?5@5B>;:>20=85 B>3> 65 A=>2845=8O. @8 B0:8E >1AB>OB5;LAB20E, 70:;NG8B5 2K, ?@>872>;C B>;:>20B5;O >B:@K205BAO B0:>5 ?>;5 45OB5;L=>AB8, H8@>B0 :>B>@>3>, ?>-2848<><C, =5A>2<5AB8<0 A >1J5:B82=>9 =0456=>ABLN @57C;LB0B>2. ;8 65 2K <>65B5 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 45;> 2>2A5 =5 2 A=>2845=88, => GB> =54>AB0B:8 =0H53> B>;:>20=8O >1JOA=ONBAO =5?@028;L=>ABLN =0H8E 273;O4>2 8 8AE>4=KE ?@54?>AK;>:. 5AL 20H <0B5@80;, 157CA;>2=>, E>@>H, => O ?>;030N, GB> >= =5 >?@024K205B 42CE 20H8E 70:;NG5=89: > B><, GB> B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89, :0: <K 8E ?@>2>48<, ?@54>AB02;5=K ?@>872>;C, 8 > B><, GB> 87JO=K ?>;CG5==KE @57C;LB0B>2 AB02OB ?>4 2>?@>A ?@02><5@=>ABL =0H53> <5B>40. A;8 ?>4 ?@>872>;>< B>;:>20B5;O 2K 1C45B5 ?>=8<0BL 53> ;>2:>ABL, >?KB, ?>=OB;82>ABL, B> O A 20<8 A>3;0HCAL, >B B0:8E ;8G=KE >A>15==>AB59 <K 459AB28B5;L=> =5 <>65< >B:070BLAO, B5< 1>;55 ?@8 @5H5=88 B@C4=>9 7040G8 B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89. > 254L 8 2 4@C38E >1;0ABOE =0C:8 =5 8=0G5. 5B A@54AB20 ?><5H0BL B><C, GB>1K >48= 2;045; :0:>9-B> >?@545;5==>9 B5E=8:>9 =5 EC65 4@C3>3> 8;8 =5 <>3 ;CGH5 55 8A?>;L7>20BL. AB0;L=>5, ?@>872>4OI55 2?5G0B;5=85 ?@>872>;0, =0?@8<5@, ?@8 B>;:>20=88 A8<2>;>2, CAB@0=O5BAO B5<, GB>, :0: ?@028;>, A2O7L <KA;59 A=>2845=8O <564C A>1>9, A2O7L A=>2845=8O A 687=LN 28452H53> A>= 8 2AO ?A8E8G5A:0O A8BC0F8O, 2 :>B>@>9 A=>2845=85 ?@>8AE>48B, 70AB02;ONB 2K1@0BL 87 40==KE 2>7<>6=KE B>;:>20=89 >4=>, 0 >AB0;L=K5 >B:;>=8BL :0: =5?@83>4=K5.  70:;NG5=85 > =5?@028;L=>AB8 =0H59 CAB0=>2:8, >A=>20==>5 =0 =5:>B>@KE =5A>25@H5=AB20E B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89, >?@>25@305BAO 70<5G0=85<, GB> <=>3>7=0G=>ABL 8;8 =5>?@545;5==>ABL A=>2845=8O O2;O5BAO 53> =5>1E>48<K< A2>9AB2><, 2?>;=5 >B25G0NI8< =0H8< >6840=8O<. A?><=8< > =0H5< CB25@645=88, GB> @01>B0 A=>2845=8O ?5@52>48B <KA;8 A=>2845=8O 2 ?@8<8B82=CN D>@<C 2K@065=8O, 0=0;>38G=CN ?8AL<C ?@8 ?><>I8 @8AC=:>2. > 2A5 MB8 ?@8<8B82=K5 A8AB5<K 2K@065=8O AB>;L 65 =5>?@545;5==K 8 42CA<KA;5==K, E>BO C =0A =5B =8:0:>3> A><=5=8O 2 8E ?@83>4=>AB8 : 40==><C C?>B@51;5=8N. K 7=05B5, GB> A>2?045=85 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59 ?@8 @01>B5 A=>2845=8O 0=0;>38G=> B0: =07K205<><C "?@>B82>?>;>6=><C A<KA;C ?5@2>=0G0;L=KE A;>2" 2 4@52=59H8E O7K:0E. 8=328AB . 15;L (1884), :>B>@><C <K >1O70=K MB8< ?@54AB02;5=85<, ?@54C?@56405B =0A, GB>1K <K =5 4C<0;8, GB> A>>1I5=85, A45;0==>5 ?@8 ?><>I8 B0:8E 0<1820;5=B=KE A;>2, 1K;> 42CA<KA;5==K<. ">= @5G8 8 A>?@>2>640NI89 55 65AB 4>;6=K 1K;8 OA=> ?>:070BL, :0:>5 87 42CE ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE 7=0G5=89 3>2>@OI89 8<5; 2 284C. 0 ?8AL<5, 345 65AB >BACBAB2C5B, >=8 70<5=O;8AL 4>?>;=8B5;L=K<, =5 >1O70B5;L=K< 4;O ?@>87=>H5=8O @8AC=:><-7=0:><, =0?@8<5@, 87>1@065=85< 15AA8;L=> >?CAB82H53>AO =0 :>@B>G:8 8;8 ?@O<> A84OI53> G5;>25G:0 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, >7=0G05B ;8 42CA<KA;5==>5 ken 85@>3;8D8G5A:>3> ?8AL<0 "A;01K9" 8;8 "A8;L=K9". "0:8< >1@07><, =5A<>B@O =0 <=>3>7=0G=>ABL 72C:>2 8 7=0:>2, =54>@07C<5=85 CAB@0=O;>AL. @52=85 A8AB5<K 2K@065=8O, =0?@8<5@ ?8AL<5==>ABL 4@52=59H8E O7K:>2, 40NB =0< ?@54AB02;5=85 > =5:>B>@KE =5>?@545;5==>ABOE, :>B>@KE <K =5 ?>B5@?5;8 1K 2 =0H59 A>2@5<5==>9 ?8AL<5==>AB8. "0:, 2 =5:>B>@KE A5<8BA:8E O7K:0E =0 ?8AL<5 >1>7=0G0NBAO B>;L:> A>3;0A=K5 A;>2. @>?CI5==K5 3;0A=K5 G8B0NI89 4>;65= 2AB02;OBL A>>1@07=> A2>5<C 7=0=8N 8 ?> :>=B5:ABC. 5 A>2A5< B0:, => >G5=L ?>E>65 ?@>8AE>48B 2 85@>3;8D8G5A:>9 ?8AL<5==>AB8, ?>MB><C ?@>87=>H5=85 538?5BA:>3> O7K:0 >AB0;>AL =0< =58725AB=K<. !2OI5==>5 ?8AL<> 538?BO= 8<55B 5I5 8 4@C3CN =5>?@545;5==>ABL. "0:, =0?@8<5@, ?8HCI89 <>65B ?@>872>;L=> @0A?>;030BL @8AC=:8 A?@020 =0;52> 8;8 A;520 =0?@02>. 'B>1K G8B0BL, =C6=> A>1;N40BL ?@028;> GB5=8O 2 BC AB>@>=C, :C40 >1@0I5=K A8;CMBK D83C@, ?B8F 8 B. ?. > ?8HCI89 <>3 @0A?>;030BL @8AC=:8 8 ?> 25@B8:0;8, 0 ?@8 =04?8AOE =0 =51>;LH8E >1J5:B0E >= ?>72>;O; A515 87<5=8BL ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 7=0:>2 ?> MAB5B8G5A:8< A>>1@065=8O< 8 4;O 70?>;=5=8O ?@>AB@0=AB20. > 1>;55 2A53> 2 85@>3;8D8G5A:>< ?8AL<5 70B@C4=O5B >BACBAB285 @0745;5=8O A;>2. 8AC=:8 @0A?>;>65=K 2 AB@>:5 =0 >48=0:>2>< @0AAB>O=88 4@C3 >B 4@C30, 8 2 >1I5< =5;L7O C7=0BL, >B=>A8BAO ;8 7=0: : ?@54K4CI5<C A;>2C 8;8 O2;O5BAO =0G0;>< =>2>3>.  ?5@A84A:>9 :;8=>?8A8, =0?@>B82, :>A>9 :;8= A;C68B @0745;8B5;5< A;>2. 57CA;>2=> 4@52=85, => C?>B@51;O5<K5 8 A53>4=O 400 <8;;8>=0<8 O7K: 8 ?8AL<5==>ABL -- :8B09A:85. 5 4C<09B5, GB> O 8E 7=0N; O B>;L:> >A254><8;AO > =8E, =045OAL =09B8 0=0;>388 A =5>?@545;5==>ABO<8 A=>2845=8O.  <>5 >6840=85 <5=O =5 >1<0=C;>. 8B09A:89 O7K: ?>;>= B0:8E =5>?@545;5==>AB59, GB> >=8 <>3CB 2=CH8BL =0< C60A. 0: 8725AB=>, >= A>AB>8B 87 :0:>3>-B> G8A;0 A;>3>2KE 72C:>2, :>B>@K5 ?@>87=>AOBAO >B45;L=> 8;8 2 A>G5B0=88 87 42CE. 48= 87 >A=>2=KE 480;5:B>2 A>45@68B >:>;> 400 B0:8E 72C:>2. "0: :0: A;>20@L MB>3> 480;5:B0 =0AG8BK205B ?@8<5@=> 4000 A;>2, ?>;CG05BAO, GB> :064K9 72C: 2 A@54=5< 8<55B 45AOBL @07;8G=KE 7=0G5=89, =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E <5=LH5, => 4@C385 70B> 5I5 1>;LH5. 0;55 8<55BAO F5;K9 @O4 A@54AB2, GB>1K 871560BL <=>3>7=0G=>AB8, B0: :0: B>;L:> ?> :>=B5:ABC =5;L7O 4>3040BLAO, :0:>5 87 45AOB8 7=0G5=89 A;>3>2>3> 72C:0 3>2>@OI89 ?@54;0305B A;CH0B5;N. !@548 =8E -- A>548=5=85 42CE 72C:>2 2 >4=> A>AB02=>5 A;>2> 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 G5BK@5E @07;8G=KE "B>=>2", 2 A>?@>2>645=88 :>B>@KE MB8 A;>38 ?@>87=>AOBAO. ;O =0H53> A@02=5=8O 8=B5@5A=> 5I5 B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, GB> 2 MB>< O7K:5 ?>GB8 =5B 3@0<<0B8:8. 8 >1 >4=>< 87 >4=>A;>6=KE A;>2 =5;L7O A:070BL, ACI5AB28B5;L=>5 ;8 MB>, 3;03>;, ?@8;030B5;L=>5, 8 =5B =8:0:8E 87<5=5=89 A;>2, ?> :>B>@K< <>6=> 1K;> 1K C7=0BL @>4, G8A;>, >:>=G0=85, 2@5<O 8;8 =0:;>=5=85. "0:8< >1@07><, O7K: A>AB>8B, B0: A:070BL, B>;L:> 87 AK@>3> <0B5@80;0, ?>4>1=> B><C, :0: =0H O7K: <KA;59 @07;0305BAO 1;03>40@O @01>B5 A=>2845=8O, CAB@0=ONI59 2K@065=85 >B=>H5=89, =0 53> AK@>9 <0B5@80;.  :8B09A:>< O7K:5 2> 2A5E B0:8E =5>?@545;5==KE A;CG0OE @5H5=85 ?@54>AB02;O5BAO A;CH0B5;N, :>B>@K9 @C:>2>4AB2C5BAO ?@8 MB>< >1I8< A<KA;><. / 70?8A0; A515 ?@8<5@ >4=>9 :8B09A:>9 ?>3>2>@:8, :>B>@0O 2 4>A;>2=>< ?5@52>45 3;0A8B: "0;> GB> 2845BL, <=>3> GB> C4828B5;L=>". 5 =5B@C4=> ?>=OBL. =0 <>65B >7=0G0BL: G5< <5=LH5 :B>-B> 2845;, B5< 1>;LH5 >= =0E>48B C4828B5;L=>3> 8;8 <=>3> 5ABL G5<C ?>4828BLAO 4;O B>3>, :B> <0;> 2845;. 07;8G85 <564C MB8<8 B>;L:> 3@0<<0B8G5A:8 @07=K<8 ?5@52>40<8, @07C<55BAO, =5 ?@8=8<05BAO 2> 2=8<0=85. 5A<>B@O =0 MB8 =5>?@545;5==>AB8, :8B09A:89 O7K:, :0: =0A C25@ONB, O2;O5BAO ?@5:@0A=K< A@54AB2>< 2K@065=8O <KA;59. "0:8< >1@07><, =5>?@545;5==>ABL =5>1O70B5;L=> 4>;6=0 25AB8 : <=>3>7=0G=>AB8. 4=0:> <K 4>;6=K ?@87=0BLAO, GB> 2 A8AB5<5 2K@065=8O A=>2845=89 2A5 3>@074> <5=55 1;03>?@8OB=>, G5< 2> 2A5E MB8E 4@52=8E O7K:0E 8 ?8AL<5==>ABOE. >B><C GB> ?>A;54=85 2 >A=>25 A2>59 2A5-B0:8 ?@54=07=0G5=K 4;O A>>1I5=8O, B. 5. @0AAG8B0=K =0 B>, GB>1K 1KBL ?>=OBK<8 :0:8<8 C3>4=> ?CBO<8 8 A 8A?>;L7>20=85< ;N1KE 2A?><>30B5;L=KE A@54AB2. > 8<5==> MB0 G5@B0 C A=>2845=8O >BACBAB2C5B. !=>2845=85 =8:><C =8G53> =5 E>G5B 3>2>@8BL, >=> =5 O2;O5BAO A@54AB2>< A>>1I5=8O, =0>1>@>B, >=> @0AAG8B0=> =0 B>, GB>1K >AB0BLAO =5?>=OBK<. >MB><C <K =5 4>;6=K 1K;8 1K C482;OBLAO 8 A<CI0BLAO, 5A;8 >:070;>AL, GB> :0:>5-B> G8A;> <=>3>7=0G=>AB59 8 =5>?@545;5==>AB59 A=>2845=8O =5 ?>4405BAO @07JOA=5=8N. 5A><=5==K< @57C;LB0B>< =0H53> A@02=5=8O >AB0=5BAO B>;L:> B> C15645=85, GB> B0:85 =5>?@545;5==>AB8, 87-70 :>B>@KE E>B5;8 ?>AB028BL ?>4 A><=5=85 >A=>20B5;L=>ABL =0H8E B>;:>20=89 A=>2845=89, O2;ONBAO ?>AB>O==K<8 E0@0:B5@=K<8 G5@B0<8 2A5E ?@8<8B82=KE A8AB5< 2K@065=8O. ">;L:> >?KB 8 ?@0:B8:0 <>3CB CAB0=>28BL, =0A:>;L:> 3;C1>:8< <>65B 1KBL 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ?>=8<0=85 A=>2845=8O. / ?>;030N, GB> >G5=L 3;C1>:8<, 8 A@02=5=85 @57C;LB0B>2, :>B>@K5 ?>;CG0NB ?@028;L=> >1CG5==K5 0=0;8B8:8, ?>4B25@6405B <>N B>G:C 7@5=8O. (8@>:0O ?C1;8:0 48;5B0=B>2, 4065 =0CG=KE, =0E>48B C4>2;5B2>@5=85 2 B><, GB> ?5@54 ;8F>< B@C4=>AB59 8 =5C25@5==>AB8 2 =0CG=>9 @01>B5 E20AB05B 2KA>:><5@=K< A:5?B8F87<><. / 4C<0N, GB> >=8 =5 ?@02K. >65B 1KBL, =5 2A5< 20< 8725AB=>, GB> ?>4>1=0O A8BC0F8O 8<5;0 <5AB> 2 8AB>@88 @0AH8D@>2:8 0AA8@>-2028;>=A:8E =04?8A59. K;> 2@5<O, :>340 >1I5AB25==>5 <=5=85 70E>48;> B0: 40;5:>, GB> AG8B0;> @0AH8D@>2I8:>2 :;8=>?8A8 D0=B075@0<8, 0 8AA;54>20=85 >1JO2;5=> "H0@;0B0=AB2><". > 2 18573. >@>;52A:>5 0780BA:>5 >1I5AB2> ?@>8725;> @5H0NICN ?@>25@:C. => ?@54;>68;> G5BK@5< A0<K< 284=K< 8AA;54>20B5;O< :;8=>?8A8 -- >C;8=A>=C, %8=:AC, "0;L1>BC 8 ??5@BC -- 2KA;0BL 5<C 2 70?5G0B0==>< :>=25@B5 =57028A8<K5 ?5@52>4K 2=>2L =0945==KE =04?8A59 8 ?>A;5 A@02=5=8O G5BK@5E ?5@52>4>2 A<>3;> >1JO28BL, GB> 8E AE>4AB2> 4>AB0B>G=> 25;8:>, GB> >=> >?@024K205B 4>25@85 : C65 4>AB83=CB><C 8 405B C25@5==>ABL 2 40;L=59H8E CA?5E0E. 0A<5H:8 CG5=KE-=5A?5F80;8AB>2 70B5< ?>AB5?5==> ?@5:@0B8;8AL, 0 C25@5==>ABL ?@8 GB5=88 :;8=>?8A=KE 4>:C<5=B>2 A B5E ?>@ G@572KG09=> 2>7@>A;0. 2. B>@>9 @O4 A><=5=89 B5A=> A2O70= A 2?5G0B;5=85<, >B :>B>@>3>, <>65B 1KBL, =5 2?>;=5 A2>1>4=K 8 2K, GB> G0ABL 20@80=B>2 B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89, :>B>@K5 <K 2K=C645=K ?@54;>68BL, :06CBAO =0BO=CBK<8, 8A:CAAB25==K<8, ?@8BO=CBK<8 70 2>;>AK, B. 5. =0A8;LAB25==K<8 8;8 4065 A<5H=K<8 8 ?>E>68<8 =0 =5C40G=CN >AB@>BC. "0:85 70O2;5=8O =0AB>;L:> G0ABK, GB> O 2>7L<C =0C304 ?>A;54=55, 8725AB=>5 <=5. B0:, A;CH09B5: =5402=> 2 A2>1>4=>9 (259F0@88 >48= 48@5:B>@ A5<8=0@88 1K; ;8H5= A2>53> <5AB0 87-70 B>3>, GB> 70=8<0;AO ?A8E>0=0;87><. = 2K@078; ?@>B5AB, 8 >4=0 15@=A:0O 3075B0 >?C1;8:>20;0 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C H:>;L=KE 2;0AB59 > =5<. 7 MB>3> 4>:C<5=B0 O ?@82>6C =5A:>;L:> ?@54;>65=89, >B=>AOI8EAO : ?A8E>0=0;87C: "40;55 ?>@0605B ?@5B5=F8>7=>ABL 8 8A:CAAB25==>ABL 2> <=>38E ?@8<5@0E, :>B>@K5 8<5NBAO 2 ?@82545==>9 :=835 4-@0 D8AB5@0 87 &N@8E0. >@0605B, A>1AB25==>, B>, GB> 48@5:B>@ A5<8=0@88 157 :@8B8:8 ?@8=8<05B 2A5 MB8 CB25@645=8O 8 ?A524>4>:070B5;LAB20". -B8 D@07K 2K40NBAO 70 @5H5=85 "15A?@8AB@0AB=>3> AC4L8". / 4C<0N, GB> "8A:CAAB25==>" A:>@55 MB> 15A?@8AB@0AB85. @8<5< MB8 70O2;5=8O A <KA;LN, GB> 4065 ?@8 15A?@8AB@0AB=>< AC645=88 =5 <5H05B ?>4C<0BL 8 1KBL =5<=>3> 7=0:><K< A 45;><. 59AB28B5;L=>, ?@8OB=> 2845BL, :0: 1KAB@> 8 157>H81>G=> :B>-B> <>65B @07>1@0BLAO 2 B0:>< 70?CB0==>< 2>?@>A5 3;C18==>9 ?A8E>;>388, 8AE>4O 87 A2>8E ?5@2KE 2?5G0B;5=89. ">;:>20=8O :06CBAO 5<C =04C<0==K<8 8 =02O70==K<8, >=8 5<C =5 =@02OBAO, 7=0G8B, >=8 =5?@028;L=K, =8:C40 =5 3>4OBAO; 8 5<C 4065 A;CG09=> =5 ?@8E>48B 2 3>;>2C <KA;L > 4@C3>9 2>7<>6=>AB8, > B><, GB> MB8 B>;:>20=8O 8<5NB 25A:85 >A=>20=8O, 2 A2O78 A G5< 2>7=8:05B C65 A;54CNI89 2>?@>A, :0:>2K 65 MB8 25A:85 >A=>20=8O. 1AC6405<K9 D0:B, 2 ACI=>AB8, 8<55B >B=>H5=85 : @57C;LB0B0< A<5I5=8O, :>B>@>5 20< 8725AB=> :0: A0<>5 A8;L=>5 A@54AB2> F5=7C@K A=>2845=8O. ! ?><>ILN A<5I5=8O F5=7C@0 A=>2845=8O A>7405B 70<5AB8B5;59, :>B>@K5 <K =0720;8 =0<5:0<8. > MB> =0<5:8, :>B>@K5 A0<8 ?> A515 =5 B0:-B> ;53:> C7=0NBAO, >1@0B=K9 ?CBL >B =8E : A>1AB25==><C A>45@60=8N =5;53:> =09B8, 8 >=8 A2O70=K A MB8< ?>A;54=8< A0<K<8 AB@0==K<8, ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 2AB@5G0NI8<8AO 2=5H=8<8 0AA>F80F8O<8. > 2> 2A5E MB8E A;CG0OE @5GL 845B > 25I0E, :>B>@K5 4>;6=K 1KBL A:@KBK<8, 4>;6=K >AB020BLAO 2 B09=5; 254L : MB><C AB@5<8BAO F5=7C@0 A=>2845=8O. 5;L7O 65 >6840BL, GB> A?@OB0==>5 =0945BAO 2 <5AB5, 345 5<C >1KG=> 8 ?>;0305BAO =0E>48BLAO. 59AB2CNI85 A53>4=O ?>3@0=8G=K5 :><8AA88 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88 E8B@55, G5< H259F0@A:85 H:>;L=K5 2;0AB8.  ?>8A:0E 4>:C<5=B>2 8 70?8A59 >=8 =5 4>2>;LAB2CNBAO ?@>A<>B@>< ?>@BD5;59 8 :0@<0=>2, => AG8B0NBAO A 2>7<>6=>ABLN, GB> H?8>=K 8 ?5@5156G8:8 <>3CB =>A8BL B0:85 70?@5I5==K5 25I8 2 A0<KE ?>B09=KE <5AB0E A2>59 >4564K, 345 8<, 157CA;>2=>, =5 <5AB>, =0?@8<5@, <564C 42>9=K<8 ?>4>H20<8 A0?>3. A;8 A:@KBK5 25I8 =0945=K B0<, B> 8E, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, =5 B>;L:> M=5@38G=> 8A:0;8, => B0:65 8 =0H;8. A;8 <K ?@87=05< 2>7<>6=>ABL A0<KE >B40;5==KE, A0<KE AB@0==KE, :06CI8EAO B> A<5H=K<8, B> >AB@>C<=K<8 A2O759 <564C :0:8<-B> A:@KBK< M;5<5=B>< A=>2845=8O 8 53> O2=K< 70<5AB8B5;5<, B> >?8@05<AO ?@8 MB>< =0 1>30BK9 >?KB ?@8<5@>2, @07JOA=5=85 :>B>@KE <K, :0: ?@028;>, ?>;CG8;8 =5 A0<8. '0AB> ?@>AB> =52>7<>6=> 4020BL B0:85 B>;:>20=8O A0<><C, =8 >48= @07C<=K9 G5;>25: =5 <>3 1K 4>3040BLAO >1 8<5NI59AO A2O78. 5@52>4 405B =0< 28452H89 A>= ;81> A@07C 1;03>40@O =5?>A@54AB25==> ?@8H54H59 5<C 2 3>;>2C <KA;8 -- >= 254L <>65B MB> A45;0BL, ?>B><C GB> C =53> 8 2>7=8: MB>B 70<5AB8B5;L, -- ;81> >= ?@54>AB02;O5B =0< AB>;L:> <0B5@80;0, GB> B>;:>20=85 C65 =5 B@51C5B >A>1>3> >AB@>C<8O, 0 =0?@0H8205BAO A0<> A>1>9. A;8 65 28452H89 A>= =5 ?><>305B =0< MB8<8 42C<O A?>A>10<8, B> A>>B25BAB2CNI89 O2=K9 M;5<5=B B0: 8 >AB05BAO =02A5340 =5?>=OB=K< 4;O =0A. >72>;LB5 @0AA:070BL 20< 5I5 >48= B0:>9 ?@8<5@, :>B>@K9 <=5 =5402=> 2AB@5B8;AO. 4=0 87 <>8E ?0F85=B>: 2> 2@5<O ;5G5=8O ?>B5@O;0 >BF0. ! B5E ?>@ >=0 8A?>;L7C5B ;N1>9 ?>2>4, GB>1K 2>A:@5A8BL 53> 2> A=5.  >4=>< 87 55 A=>2845=89 >B5F ?>O2;O5BAO 2 >?@545;5==>9, =5 8<5NI59 >A>1>3> 7=0G5=8O A2O78 8 3>2>@8B: B5?5@L G5B25@BL 425=04F0B>3>, ?>;>28=0 425=04F0B>3>, B@8 G5B25@B8 425=04F0B>3>. @8 B>;:>20=88 MB>9 AB@0==>AB8 59 ?@8H;0 2 3>;>2C B>;L:> B0 <KA;L, GB> >B5F 1K20; 4>2>;5=, :>340 27@>A;K5 45B8 0::C@0B=> O2;O;8AL : >1I5<C AB>;C. -B>, :>=5G=>, 1K;> A2O70=> A M;5<5=B>< A=>2845=8O, => =5 ?>72>;O;> A45;0BL =8:0:>3> 70:;NG5=8O > 53> ?@>8AE>645=88. K;> ?>4>7@5=85, >1CA;>2;5==>5 B>340H=59 A8BC0F859 ;5G5=8O, GB> 2 MB>< A=>2845=88 ?@8=8<0;> CG0AB85 BI0B5;L=> ?>402;O5<>5 :@8B8G5A:>5 A>?@>B82;5=85 ;N18<><C 8 ?>G8B05<><C >BFC.  ?>A;54CNI5< E>45 2>7=8:0NI8E C =55 <KA;59, :0: 1C4B> 1K A>2A5< >B40;82H8EAO >B A=>2845=8O, 28452H0O A>= @0AA:07K205B, GB> 2G5@0 2 55 ?@8ACBAB288 <=>3> 3>2>@8;>AL > ?A8E>;>388, 8 >48= @>4AB25==8: 2KA:070; 70<5G0=85: 2> 2A5E =0A ?@>4>;605B 68BL ?5@2>1KB=K9 G5;>25: (Urmensch). "5?5@L =0< 2A5 ?>=OB=>. -B> 40;> 59 ?@5:@0A=K9 ?>2>4 5I5 @07 2>A:@5A8BL C<5@H53> >BF0.  A=>2845=89 >=0 A45;0;0 53>, B0:8< >1@07><, G5;>25:><, 682CI8< ?> G0A0< (Uhrmensch), 70AB0282 53> >1JO2;OBL G5B25@B8 G0A0 ?>?>;C4=8.  MB>< ?@8<5@5 2K =5 <>65B5 =5 70<5B8BL AE>4AB20 A >AB@>B>9, 8 459AB28B5;L=> 4>AB0B>G=> G0AB> A;CG05BAO B0:, GB> >AB@>BC 28452H53> A>= ?@8=8<0NB 70 >AB@>C<85 B>;:>20B5;O. ABL 8 4@C385 ?@8<5@K, :>340 A>2A5< =5 ;53:> @5H8BL, 8<55HL ;8 45;> A >AB@>B>9 8;8 A> A=>2845=85<. > 2K ?><=8B5, GB> 8<5==> B0:>5 A><=5=85 ?>O28;>AL C =0A ?@8 0=0;875 =5:>B>@KE >3>2>@>:. 48= <C6G8=0 @0AA:07K205B, GB> 5<C A=8;>AL, 1C4B> 53> 4O4O ?>F5;>20; 53>, :>340 >=8 A845;8 2 53> 02B> (<>18;5) (Auto). = A@07C 65 ?@8102;O5B B>;:>20=85. -B> 7=0G8B 0CB>M@>B87< (Autoerotismus) (B5@<8= 87 B5>@88 ;8184>, >7=0G0NI89 C4>2;5B2>@5=85 157 ?>AB>@>==53> >1J5:B0). 5 ?>72>;8; ;8 A515 MB>B G5;>25: A =0<8 HCB:C 8 =5 2K40; ;8 ?>=@0282HCNAO 5<C >AB@>BC 70 A=>2845=85? / 4C<0N, GB> =5B; >= 459AB28B5;L=> C2845; B0:>9 A>=. > >B:C40 15@5BAO MB> ?>@078B5;L=>5 AE>4AB2>?  A2>5 2@5<O MB>B 2>?@>A C25; <5=O =5<=>3> 2 AB>@>=C >B <>53> ?CB8, ?>AB0282 ?5@54 =5>1E>48<>ABLN 8AA;54>20BL A0<> >AB@>C<85. @8 MB>< >1=0@C68;>AL, GB> 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O >AB@>BK ?@54A>7=0B5;L=K9 E>4 <KA;59 ?>425@305BAO 15AA>7=0B5;L=>9 >1@01>B:5, ?>A;5 :>B>@>9 >= ?>O2;O5BAO 2 2845 >AB@>BK. >4 2;8O=85< 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> MB8 <KA;8 ?>425@30NBAO 2>7459AB28N 3>A?>4AB2CNI8E B0< <5E0=87<>2 A3CI5=8O 8 A<5I5=8O, B. 5. B5E 65 ?@>F5AA>2, :>B>@K5, :0: <K >1=0@C68;8, CG0AB2CNB 2 @01>B5 A=>2845=8O, 8 2 MB>9 >1I=>AB8 A;54C5B 8A:0BL 8AB>G=8: AE>4AB20 >AB@>C<8O 8 A=>2845=8O B0<, 345 >=> 8<55B <5AB>. > =5?@54=0<5@5==>5 ">AB@>C<85 A=>2845=8O" =5 4>AB02;O5B =0< =8:0:>3> C4>2>;LAB28O. >G5<C, 2K <>65B5 C7=0BL, C3;C182H8AL 2 87CG5=85 >AB@>C<8O. "AB@>C<85 A=>2845=8O" :065BAO =0< =5C40G=K< >AB@>C<85<, >=> =5 2K7K205B A<5E0, >AB02;O5B =0A @02=>4CH=K<8. @8 MB>< <K 845< ?> AB>?0< 0=B8G=>3> B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89, >AB0282H53> =0< =0@O4C A> <=>38< 15A?>;57=K< =5:>B>@K5 E>@>H85 ?@8<5@K B>;:>20=8O A=>2845=89. !59G0A O @0AA:06C 20< 8AB>@8G5A:8 206=>5 A=>2845=85 ;5:A0=4@0 0:54>=A:>3>, > :>B>@>< A>>1I0NB A =5:>B>@K<8 87<5=5=8O<8 ;CB0@E 8 @B5<84>@ 87 0;48A0. >340 F0@L 1K; 70=OB >A04>9 >BG0O==> 70I8I02H53>AO 3>@>40 "8@0 (322 3. 4> . X.), >= C2845; :0:-B> 2> A=5 B0=FCNI53> A0B8@0. ">;:>20B5;L A=>2845=89 @8AB0=4@, =0E>482H89AO ?@8 2>9A:5, 8AB>;:>20; MB> A=>2845=85, @07;>682 A;>2> A0B8@ =0 sa Tiros [B2>9 "8@] 8 ?>MB><C >15I0; ;5:A0=4@C ?>154C =04 3>@>4><. >4 2;8O=85< B>;:>20=8O ;5:A0=4@ ?@>4>;68; >A04C 8 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 27O; "8@. ">;:>20=85, :>B>@>5 2K3;O48B 4>AB0B>G=> 8A:CAAB25==K<, 1K;> =5A><=5==> ?@028;L=K<. 3. >3C A515 ?@54AB028BL, :0:>5 >A>1>5 2?5G0B;5=85 ?@>872545B =0 20A A>>1I5=85, GB> ?@>B82 =0H53> ?>=8<0=8O A=>2845=8O 2>7@060;8 8 B5 ;8F0, :>B>@K5 A0<8 :0: ?A8E>0=0;8B8:8 4>;3>5 2@5<O 70=8<0;8AL B>;:>20=85< A=>2845=89. K;> 1K A;8H:>< =5>1K:=>25==K<, 5A;8 1K B0:>9 ?>2>4 : =>2K< 701;C645=8O< >AB0;AO =58A?>;L7>20==K<, B0: GB> 87-70 ?CB0=8FK ?>=OB89 8 =5>?@0240==KE >1>1I5=89 2>7=8:;8 1K CB25@645=8O, :>B>@K5 ?> =5?@028;L=>AB8 =5=0<=>3> CABC?0;8 ?>=8<0=8N A=>2845=89 2 <548F8=5. 4=> 87 =8E 2K C65 7=05B5. => 70O2;O5B, GB> A=>2845=85 ?KB05BAO ?@8A?>A>18BLAO : =0AB>OI5<C 8 @5H8BL 7040G8 1C4CI53>, B. 5. ?@5A;54C5B "?@>A?5:B82=CN B5=45=F8N" (Maeder, 1912). K C65 C:070;8, GB> MB> CB25@645=85 >A=>20=> =0 ?>4<5=5 A=>2845=8O 53> A:@KBK<8 <KA;O<8, B. 5. =0 83=>@8@>20=88 @01>BK A=>2845=8O.  :0G5AB25 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>9 C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, : :>B>@>9 ?@8=04;560B A:@KBK5 <KA;8 A=>2845=8O, MB> CB25@645=85, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, =5 =>2>, A 4@C3>9, >=> =5 O2;O5BAO 8AG5@?K20NI8<, ?>B><C GB> 15AA>7=0B5;L=0O C<AB25==0O 45OB5;L=>ABL =0@O4C A ?>43>B>2:>9 1C4CI53> =0?@02;5=0 =0 <=>3>5 4@C3>5. I5 1>;55 3@C10O >H81:0 70:;NG5=0 2 CB25@645=88, GB> 70 :064K< A=>2845=85< AB>8B ":;0C7C;0 A<5@B8" (Todesklausel) (Stekel, 1911, 34). / =5 7=0N, GB> >7=0G05B MB0 D>@<C;0, => ?@54?>;030N, GB> 70 =59 A:@K205BAO ?>4<5=0 A=>2845=8O 2A59 ;8G=>ABLN 28452H53> A>=. 5>?@0240==>5 >1>1I5=85 =5<=>38E E>@>H8E ?@8<5@>2 A>45@68BAO 2 ?>;>65=88, GB> :064>5 A=>2845=85 4>?CA:05B 420 B>;:>20=8O: >4=>, ?>:070==>5 =0<8, B0: =07K205<>5 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>5, 4@C3>5 -- B0: =07K205<>5 0=0;>38G5A:>5, :>B>@>5 >B:07K205BAO >B 2;5G5=89 8 =0?@02;5=> =0 87>1@065=85 2KAH8E 4CH52=KE ?@>F5AA>2 (Silberer, 1914). "0:85 A=>2845=8O 8<5NBAO, => 2K =0?@0A=> 1C45B5 ?KB0BLAO @0A?@>AB@0=8BL MBC B>G:C 7@5=8O E>BO 1K =0 1>;LH8=AB2> A=>2845=89. >A;5 2A53>, GB> 2K A;KH0;8, 20< ?>:065BAO A>25@H5==> =5?>=OB=K< 8 CB25@645=85, GB> 2A5 A=>2845=8O A;54C5B B>;:>20BL 18A5:AC0;L=>, :0: A;8O=85 ?>B>:>2, :>B>@K5 A;54C5B =07K20BL <C6A:8< 8 65=A:8< (4;5@, 1910). >=5G=>, 5ABL 8 B0:85 >B45;L=K5 A=>2845=8O, 8 ?>74=55 2K C7=05B5, GB> >=8 8<5NB B> 65 AB@>5=85, GB> 8 >?@545;5==K5 8AB5@8G5A:85 A8<?B><K. / C?><8=0N >1> 2A5E MB8E >B:@KB8OE =>2KE >1I8E G5@B A=>2845=8O, GB>1K ?@54>AB5@5GL 20A >B =8E 8;8, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, GB>1K =5 >AB028BL C 20A A><=5=8O ?> ?>2>4C B>3>, GB> O >1 MB>< 4C<0N. ---------------------------------------- .@848G5A:89 B5@<8=, >7=0G0NI89 >3>20@8205<>5 CA;>285 (2 4>3>2>@5). -- @8<. @54. ?5@52>40. 4. 4=064K >1J5:B82=0O 7=0G8<>ABL 87CG5=8O A=>2845=89 1K;0 ?>AB02;5=0 ?>4 2>?@>A 87-70 =01;N45=8O, GB> ?0F85=BK, ;5G0I85AO 0=0;87><, ?@8A?>A01;820NB A>45@60=85 A2>8E A=>2845=89 : ;N18<K< B5>@8O< A2>8E 2@0G59; >4=8< A=OBAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> A5:AC0;L=K5 2;5G5=8O, 4@C38< -- AB@5<;5=85 : 2;0AB8, B@5BL8< -- 4065 =>2>5 @>645=85 ((B5:5;L). &5==>ABL MB>3> =01;N45=8O ?>=8605BAO, 5A;8 ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85 B>, GB> ;N48 2845;8 A=K C65 4> ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> ;5G5=8O, :>B>@>5 <>3;> 1K 2;8OBL =0 8E A=>2845=8O, 8 GB> B5?5@5H=85 ?0F85=BK B0:65 8<5;8 >1K:=>25=85 2845BL A=K 8 4> ;5G5=8O. $0:B8G5A:0O AB>@>=0 MB>3> >B:@KB8O A:>@> ?@87=05BAO A0<> A>1>9 @07C<5NI59AO 8 =5 8<5NI59 =8:0:>3> 7=0G5=8O 4;O B5>@88 A=>2845=8O. AB0B:8 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89, ?>1C640NI85 : >1@07>20=8N A=>2845=8O, 8<5NB A2>8< 8AB>G=8:>< CAB>9G82K5 687=5==K5 8=B5@5AK ?@8 1>4@AB2>20=88. A;8 15A54K 2@0G0 8 40==K5 8< C:070=8O ?@8>1@5;8 4;O 0=0;878@C5<>3> 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85, B> >=8 2E>4OB 2 :@C3 >AB0B:>2 4=52=KE 2?5G0B;5=89, <>3CB AB0BL ?A8E8G5A:8<8 ?>1C48B5;O<8 A=>2845=8O, :0: 4@C385 M<>F8>=0;L=> >:@0H5==K5 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==K5 8=B5@5AK 4=O, 8 459AB2>20BL ?>4>1=> A><0B8G5A:8< @074@068B5;O<, >:07K20NI8< 2>7459AB285 =0 A?OI53> 2> 2@5<O A=0. >4>1=> MB8< 4@C38< ?>1C48B5;O< A=>2845=8O 2K720==K5 2@0G>< <KA;8 <>3CB 2>7=8:=CBL 2 O2=>< A=>2845=88 8;8 >1=0@C68BLAO 2 A:@KB><. K C65 7=05<, GB> A=>2845=8O <>6=> 2K720BL M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=> 8;8, ?@028;L=55 A:070BL, 225AB8 2 A=>2845=85 G0ABL 53> <0B5@80;0. "0:8< >1@07><, 1;03>40@O MB><C 2;8O=8N =0 A2>53> ?0F85=B0 0=0;8B8: 83@05B @>;L M:A?5@8<5=B0B>@0, :>B>@K9, :0: >C@;8 >;L4, ?@8405B G;5=0< 8A?KBC5<>3> >?@545;5==K5 ?>;>65=8O. '0AB> <>6=> 2=CH8BL A?OI5<C, > G5< 4>;6=> 1KBL 53> A=>2845=85, => =8:>340 =5;L7O ?>2;8OBL =0 B>, GB> >= C2848B 2> A=5. 5E0=87< @01>BK A=>2845=8O 8 53> 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 65;0=85 =5 ?>440NBAO =8:0:><C GC6><C 2>7459AB28N. @8 >F5=:5 A=>2845=89, 2K720==KE A><0B8G5A:8<8 @074@068B5;O<8, 2K C65 C7=0;8, GB> A2>5>1@0785 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL 687=8 2> A=5 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 @50:F88, :>B>@>9 A=>2845=85 >B25G05B =0 2;8O2H85 =0 =53> A><0B8G5A:85 8;8 ?A8E8G5A:85 @074@068B5;8. B0:, 2 >A=>25 >1AC6402H53>AO 745AL CB25@645=8O, :>B>@>5 ?>AB028;> ?>4 A><=5=85 >1J5:B82=>ABL 87CG5=8O A=>2845=89, >?OBL ;568B ?>4<5=0 A=>2845=8O 53> <0B5@80;><. >B 8 2A5, C20605<K5 40<K 8 3>A?>40, GB> O E>B5; 20< A:070BL > ?@>1;5<0E A=>2845=8O. K 4>304K205B5AL, GB> <=>3>5 O C?CAB8;, 8 7=05B5 A0<8, GB> ?>GB8 ?> 2A5< 2>?@>A0< O 2KA:070;AO =5?>;=>. > ?@8G8=>9 MB>3> O2;O5BAO 2708<>A2O7L D5=><5=>2 A=>2845=8O 8 =52@>B8G5A:8E O2;5=89. K 87CG0;8 A=>2845=85 :0: 22545=85 2 B5>@8N =52@>7>2, 8 MB>, :>=5G=>, ?@028;L=55, G5< 5A;8 1K <K ?>ABC?8;8 =0>1>@>B. > :0: A=>2845=85 ?>43>B02;8205B ?>=8<0=85 =52@>7>2, B0:, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ?@028;L=CN >F5=:C A=>2845=8O <>6=> ?@8>1@5AB8 B>;L:> ?>A;5 7=0:><AB20 A =52@>B8G5A:8<8 O2;5=8O<8. 5 7=0N, :0: 4C<05B5 2K, => O 4>;65= 20A 7025@8BL, GB> =5 60;5N > B><, GB> ?>A2OB8; ?@>1;5<0< A=>2845=8O B0: <=>3> ?@54>AB02;5==>3> =0< 2@5<5=8 8 B0: 4>;3> 70=8<0; 20H5 2=8<0=85. 8 =0 :0:>< 4@C3>< >1J5:B5 =5;L7O B0: 1KAB@> C1548BLAO 2 ?@028;L=>AB8 CB25@645=89, =0 :>B>@KE 78645BAO ?A8E>0=0;87. C6=0 =0?@O65==0O @01>B0 2 B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E <5AOF52 8 4065 ;5B, GB>1K ?>:070BL, GB> A8<?B><K :0:>3>-B> A;CG0O =52@>B8G5A:>3> 701>;520=8O 8<5NB A2>9 A<KA;, A;C60B :0:><C-B> =0<5@5=8N 8 >1CA;>2;5=K >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8 687=8 1>;L=>3>. 0?@>B82, 2 B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E G0A>2 C405BAO, <>65B 1KBL, 4>:070BL B> 65 A0<>5 >B=>A8B5;L=> A=0G0;0 70?CB0==>3> A=>2845=8O 8 ?>4B25@48BL MB8< 2A5 ?>;>65=8O ?A8E>0=0;870 -- > 15AA>7=0B5;L=>AB8 4CH52=KE ?@>F5AA>2, >1 >A>1KE <5E0=87<0E, :>B>@K< >=8 ?>4G8=ONBAO, 8 4286CI8E A8;0E, :>B>@K5 2 =8E ?@>O2;ONBAO.  5A;8 <K A>?>AB028< ?>;=CN 0=0;>38N 2 ?>AB@>5=88 A=>2845=8O 8 =52@>B8G5A:>3> A8<?B><0 A 1KAB@>B>9 ?@52@0I5=8O A?OI53> G5;>25:0 2 1>4@AB2CNI53> 8 @07C<=>3>, B> C =0A ?>O28BAO C25@5==>ABL, GB> 8 =52@>7 >A=>20= B>;L:> =0 87<5=5==>< 2708<>459AB288 A8; 4CH52=>9 687=8. Last-modified: Sat, 20 Nov 1999 14:02:34 GMT F5=8B5 MB>B B5:AB "B\v 2Tr0Rz :^gd_i^~Flz6XJb|8.gd_i.Pt"DNx 4Dl  8 b  z   gd_i 8  TH2`z4\$Vgd_i&@h !!""4##\$$z%&&''D((t)**&++R,,gd_i,b--.//P00r122"33J44x566@77V8899F::`;;<$=gd_i$==>>??@@@hAABCC:D~DEEFFHGGfHHI(JJ6KK\LLgd_iLfMMvN OOPPBQQjRR|STT0UUXVVWWWWWWW X XXXgd_iX8X:XXRYY~Z[[F\\Z]z]^^,___^``a,bbLcc|dee:ffgd_ifgg:hhVii~jkk6lldmrmmnn8oofpptqqrssDttjuugd_iuv wwPxxyyFzzz{||4}}\~~|0āT| `gd_i NHrڋh,Pf*Jp gd_i (ĖJ|<fxܜl6Fܠv6gd_i6ʤTx6̨b(Pz2Tܰdڱhgd_iBʵZ 0¹Hںb:P޽t޾$:f,gd_iRt<h2` &Dd Ttgd_i4Nn&T<Rt"68gd_i88d<bz0@\~Ptgd_iFHn$Rv*Hn" F  $ gd_i$  6 ^  t     8 d  t  * t  " R     > gd_i>  f   &  H                6  h    ( gd_i(  V  |    `  x ! ! 8" " " d# # $ % % R& & <' ' ' h( ) ) * gd_i* 8* * `+ + X, , j- - ~. / / &0 0 H1 1 p2 3 3 4 4 65 5 f6 6 7 $8 8 F9 9 gd_i9 ": : N; ; z< = = ,> > N? ? n@ A A B B DC C hD D E E 6F F HG G hH H I gd_iI J J 4K K BL L ^M M N O O BP P ^Q Q Q R S S S hT T $U U Z Z T[ [ r\ \ ] ^ ^ $_ _ P` ` va a b c c c ~d e e &f f Pg g h gd_ih i xi j j *k k Pl l fm m ~n o o po o p p >q q jr r zs t t t Du u ^v v gd_iv w x x y ~y z z { { L| | 4} } F~ ~ R  v   : Ѓ d . T gd_iT z  < ԉ f 0 ȍ L n  * T t . gd_i N z   @ ؛ : ʜ d & R |  & V h " gd_i D ֧  |  @ ֫ l  2 ® L ܯ v  2 T  2 gd_i2  0 N غ n һ b F ν \   . @ b $ gd_i$ > f  : \  < X t : H n  & gd_i F n  L D p  . $ T  F z * gd_i*  @  @ n 2 N r 2 Z  2 R gd_iR f . P x   @ b x  &  T    <  V gd_iV  r   &  R j  8 \ j     &  N  x   0  gd_i `    F  h    2  V  p  b  x  &! ! L" " Z# # $ $ gd_i$ .% % N& & R' ' $( ( N) ) * + + ", , T- - N. . t/ 0 0 (1 1 H2 2 j3 3 4 gd_i4 5 5 66 6 `7 7 8 8 ^9 9 *: : @; ; f< < = (> > T? ? |@ A A &B B TC C D gd_iD E E >F F F G H H I I @J J lK K ~L M M *N N O ^O O xP P Q &R R PS S gd_iS JT T rU U pV W W X X DY Y RZ hZ Z ~[ \ \ (] ] L^ ^ _ _ 8` ` `a a b c gd_i c c c Fd d de e f g jg lg ng pg rg tg g g g g g g \h h i j j 8k k l l gd_il Bm m jn o o p p 4q q Xr r zs t t u u Fv v \w w 4x x Ty y zz { { 0| | gd_i| R} } } r~ ~   & T  2 ą Z t * J ؉ h j gd_i  : Ȏ b  $ F Г h ,  6  L ؚ ` gd_i v  .  & 4 Ρ . R | . Z |  : ҩ l gd_i ( : ԭ ` |  ( J z F س d $ 8 : ¸ Z ~  gd_i  4 Ƚ N Ծ Z z  > H  B X  : n  gd_i 2 ` t  4 L p  " H 2 Z  B r gd_ir  L `  8 b  H F h  l gd_il ( 8 b v  0 B H v   P h  b gd_i  < R 8 ^ 2 J  t  N `  r     H  l gd_il  P f 2 H  `   ,  P  t  (  V  l    gd_i   >  `     8  T  b  z ! ! $" " J# # $ $ $% % N& & t' ( gd_i( ( ,) ) \* * z+ , , ,- - N. . J/ / l0 0 1 2 2 B3 3 X4 4 p5 6 6 67 7 7 gd_i7 8 9 9 .: : ; ; < < < < < < >< @< B< D< F< H< < < < < = = .> > Z? ? gd_i? p@ @ 4A A JB B `C C D $E E @F F dG G H $I I NJ J K K :L L bM M N O O gd_iO FP P jQ R R ,S S JT T VU U zV W W 6X X :Y Y Z Z 4[ [ X\ \ ] ^ ^ @_ _ gd_i_ T` ` la a b c c 8d d ^e e xf f g g Lh h ri j j &k k k nl m m m Xn n gd_in o p p Bq q lr s s s @t t bu u v $w w Fx x Py y vz { { $| @| | T} } l~ gd_il~ ~   B < ̂ Z p 4 R Ƈ T  ( J z  gd_i . Ȏ P 0 6 ē Z ~  N r , P ؛ l gd_i   2 Ƞ R  @ ڤ n  |  2 F ޫ b Ȭ gd_iȬ V f z  > Ұ D ұ f N t  8 t   @ λ gd_iλ D Ҽ j $ > Ŀ F b > d x  2 Z ~  gd_i z  8 j , H r  B h V V T z gd_iz  L 2 d T z  < h ,  2 \ gd_i x  < X ~ L t f t $ F 6 gd_i Z $ f F \ l X     6 \  z   .  gd_i X   d x  6 t     ,  X  |   B  &  @ gd_i@  n   ,  \           h j     @  ` ! ! gd_i! 8" " d# # $ % % <& & `' ' ~( ( N) ) * + + , , H- - v. / / (0 0 81 1 gd_i1 J2 2 b3 3 4 5 5 &6 6 D7 7 f8 8 9 : : ; 2; ; P< < |= > > ,? ? L@ @ tA gd_itA B B &C C LD D jE E F F (G G XH H xI J J 2K K ^L L M *N N PO O |P Q Q gd_iQ Ι `  F ҝ j ( D gd_iD ܡ n  * ¤ R  " : ʩ ` ^ l  l  gd_i 6 α X z  0 ȵ  * Z z  ( ¼ P  : gd_i f  : ^ ~  0 j   > f > gd_i Z  : n  2 T . X r  gd_i @ d  n  & < b |  2 R z  gd_i , P l  B X z 0 T ` , gd_i, ( * , . V X  b   &  X  z   $  : gd_i B b   *  P  d  ~   * B    D  n    > gd_i>  `     *  P  |  ! ! >" " j# # \$ $ h% % & ' ' 2( ( V) gd_iV) ) * + + >, , p- - . / / B0 0 h1 1 2 2 2 N3 3 ~4 5 5 .6 6 R7 7 8 9 gd_i9 9 6: : N; ; f< < = > > ұ f * ´ Z x  gd_i N n  n  D ڽ d (  F t  $ gd_i Z & L r  . V  2 X t 8 X ~  gd_i ,  L r 0 Z 6 h 4 ( R  gd_i "  @ f  H t & J r   B Z gd_i n  Z \ ^ ` b d f J l B h 0 V r gd_ir *P|B`z:  N  h      `gd_i"~0Ph|8j$8Tgd_i &  B!!n""n##$,%%V&&x'(z())**B++f,,-$..gd_i.D//r0 1T11z2334444h5666"77@88d99:$;;F<<j==gd_i=> ??H@@VAABCC6DDREE\FFG HH4IIVJJlKKLMM Ngd_i NNNOOPPJQQlRRNSShTUU*VVXWWpXYY(ZZJ[[p\~\\]gd_i]^^2__Z``zabb:ccTddeff6ggRhhviijkk0llDmZmgd_iZmmjnoo*ppFqqrrrs tt@uudvvwxx4yyTzpz{{$||>}gd_i>}}f~~ v8΃\ ,F҈T҉h(gd_iD܍d~ 8̑dΓ\ڔr&Jn0›Vgd_iVܜf. HءjBb|4ȨPΩ^gd_i6̮Hد`^`bdgd_i21h:pMv. A!"R#n$n% j 666666666vvvvvvvvv666666>6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666hH6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666662 0@P`p2( 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p8XV~ OJPJQJ_HmHnHsHtHL L Mv1KG=K9 dCJ_HaJmHsHtH BA B A=>2=>9 H@8DB 0170F0XiX 01KG=0O B01;8F04 l4a .k . 0 5B A?8A:0 N`N _i 57 8=B5@20;0CJ_HaJmHsHtH PK![Content_Types].xmlj0Eжr(΢Iw},-j4 wP-t#bΙ{UTU^hd}㨫)*1P' ^W0)T9<l#$yi};~@(Hu* Dנz/0ǰ $ X3aZ,D0j~3߶b~i>3\`?/[G\!-Rk.sԻ..a濭?PK!֧6 _rels/.relsj0 }Q%v/C/}(h"O = C?hv=Ʌ%[xp{۵_Pѣ<1H0ORBdJE4b$q_6LR7`0̞O,En7Lib/SeеPK!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xml M @}w7c(EbˮCAǠҟ7՛K Y, e.|,H,lxɴIsQ}#Ր ֵ+!,^$j=GW)E+& 8PK!Ƶtheme/theme/theme1.xmlYnE#;8U i-qN3'JH DA\8 R>CW]{'ސ{g?x݈]"$q+_,y>8{7 K }xLވHe 2{Rܜaˋ??<ߟdžSr$L].<İT̟72S"ѵ_JwL&BJ05kZVyVy|xC OO|x>+<>@(:??/>5{yxFDdm 3^q5'=q6nib-$RB}}YGq=xK@;)^qbha79g . pUʹ;bbmc[$c'a}5KKfH5HL!ݦ&|mK{N6M6hq v|y 58+zH  *~ HHy\K*t@G>{sA}"))y sGfۡqǾ'w E1 [8>ܤ4Aбt׎~ls14_>,Ȭ7TT GqME=w-i>mo[oiBszbP:j5if F 9Pɉ* k\ A ;!N`.{I SցD p3˅5veU}AbvyA/g 氚 Z N+lR~aeԩj9&&CLgMʼn7a A0ƀHEA3~{q q1vƨl効9)>൜fN1N FIrdq8Y^:_73.|3 f%Jش?MOY s 3;} Rc0`d[鯠$ÿ - έhǴ"P 6T{TUٴ+9E28Y*MOt0O9Bݍqg7Ŕ9O)z?7#]u rBIHAאTpl>՟,SpT4@~BA%}'0+{eRF&rĪ#uu\{BHuM6`pG}N+!'_oN콶3a3dXZzCyCUɪ嶂ZZZ۱f,fAg-@`g v6V?Dhf6t=M&ʺ6ײ'݉#֚>d8s9xN=ڮjAv11;u2%M2oN1uo%տPK! ѐ'theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0wooӺ&݈Э5 6?$Q ,.aic21h:qm@RN;d`o7gK(M&$R(.1r'JЊT8V"AȻHu}|$b{P8g/]QAsم(#L[PK-![Content_Types].xmlPK-!֧6 +_rels/.relsPK-!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-!Ƶtheme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-! ѐ' theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK] jsj (h8HZXNhwF Z4*:vJ&Zhx}HF@XFD/6?O^m{0H N0@O"`,pF8 nTh 02AP` pNܮp $+V:FDPSLbq6*ҿBb)8ZHWVgw ~<"^. ,$=LXfu 68$ > ( * 9 I X h v T 2 $ * R V  $ 4 D S c l |  r l l  ( 7 ? O _ n l~  Ȭ λ z  @ ! 1 tA Q Pa dq N D   , > V) 9 I 4Y Ji y < Ƙ r    r .= N]Zm>}Vtuvwxyz{|}~Z[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~8@0(  B S  ?  )*-.;LSXejr''''?(C([,a,1111/84899WD^DG GW\`\a\i\]]]]^^^^____C`J`````iatavaa^bfbcdfde"effg g zzzz ÎĎȎɎЎю׎R]twxȕЕ$2ENZdƗїӗחؗCFGKLOPU]`afgjkoۘޘQV{ #$/|KOPST]^beknstwx{|țћ .7YcќԜ՜ٜ Ɵǟ˟̟ן؟[_`jks|^j]cfmզަ8D*01:;@ADEJKNOSTXY_`i"#&'+,4ALju,7|,3κٺdoûʻ #+  !%&+,1z8>AGLTW_mru} ?H 9ADL+&.AKlt                                  6 9 : = > I JS[c*+++[,m,,,,, 6677;; ===%=X=c=?(?BBtCwCCCCC DDJ#J7J=JMMMMMMNNNNQQWWT[Y[ ccccc(ceef&fwfflllllmqrr&rwwsx~xxxyyyyyyyyz!z"z&z'z,z-z0z1z;zLȌˌޙ9;<@AFGJKUV^WZ[`an«ʫֲݲ=@)1LV QZrz?J/5 #* N V  2222222%2&2(2)2+2,2-2.2223262v2y2{2}2~22222233333!3L3R39999[:b:9<C<D<O<<<<< @@@@@@5AUVVVVWW[[[[__Oc`cNhOhPhShl l&l0lAlJlaljllllllmmmnnjx7;=Hɘ/127FKݞ:> ũ˩ϩ۩ %̶ζmwQ]/5mt8C578@ADEMU X Y _   W%^%`%h%%%u)|)})),,,,----777777::????D@J@K@P@&H(H2\9\]]]]]]]]^ ^ ^^Z^g^__`%```````bbbbbbbbbbbbbc1d5dXd[d|eeeeef.f5fJfOfkk llllulylpp@rDrErNruu1v7vtvzvvvww x(x)x8xzzzz7{C{R{V{ڄƇ͇·ׇCJȉˉ̉щ҉ى_abghp݊ds~ȫѫӫګ˶ն=HܼǾhsQ]<CBN"BGXa)3 nx<I"$)+,/!$EHX[)0=@[alr15?DZ`|MUs{ %+>Dpvz++EEEE4G8G{G}GOOVVZZooooppq qyy6{C{|ˍ:=>CDHIKLQ %9IX]M[r0@kmntuz|,2:??=A===d>i>] ]ff~~58fprxzJRϩclntw{ƻHQU\IKLQ$$136;>l111y2{2\6^6f8h8=9@9z::; ;;;<#<= =O>Q>Z>a>X@Y@yAAKBSBHCOCCCEFFG+-UXSTz}{uxX8:IS`i!*,J     (    jsdpuvOQW^Z\]gnr'(HL~!!!!""$$''''''l(n(o((((((-)=))))*(*,*,,l-m-^/`/00L0Q0D2I22222 444(44455566677=9>9;;;;'<3<<<==h=l=>>EAHABBPDVDDD-E7E8E?EEEFFGGGGOIPIIILLMMOOQQQRRRS SSSTTRU_UuUyUWEWXXX(XuZZZZH[J[[[[[\\%]/]]]@^A^^^s_u_v_{_``bbbbtc}cddddhhiiiijjppSq[qqq:t@tuuuuvv6x8xyy_zaz{{||||f|g|~||}}}}~~~~~~}~;=^abf-.VX  ]^:K‰ljȉ͉24 34=D  TU fik=>w %*x(ΠҠOX&08;<HAFMPݬTWXY*1QR Z^&HRz{nw8B13Zc"'(/Mt}*+2+-%KL*+tMXNXXt)*in Z_23YZ(*d56rz +#hq2 < K Y {     ! , ! % joJSV]  8>.8/7v    I"Z"""##&$6$k${$$%%%%%Y&`&''((|**--//A/B/C/D/11)2*2v2222334444z5{55588: ::::: <<<<T<[<M=^==>T>U>>>>>??@@{A|A