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G8A;5, B> 8 ?>4;560I55 4>;6=> AB>OBL 2 8<5=8B5;L=>< ?04565 54. G8A;0.  MB>< ?@54;>65=88 2 B0:>9 D>@<5 AB>8B B>;L:> A;>2> advocatus, A;54>20B5;L=>, MB> 8 5ABL ?>4;560I55. 0E>48< 7=0G5=85 A;>20 2 A;>20@5, 2K?8AK205< 53> 2 A;>20@=>9 D>@<5 8 ?5@52>48< ?>4;560I55 8 A:07C5<>5 2<5AB5: 042>:0B 70I8I05B. ;03>; defendere - ?5@5E>4=K9, 7=0G8B ?@8 =5< 4>;6=> 1KBL ?@O<>5 4>?>;=5=85 2 28=8B5;L=>< ?04565 157 ?@54;>30, >B25G0NI55 =0 2>?@>A :>3>? GB>?  acc. sing. AB>8B A;>2> reum. 0E>48< MB> A;>2> 2 A;>20@5 8 2K?8AK205< 53>: reus, i m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legem brevem esse oportet" (70:>= 4>;65= 1KBL :@0B:8<). @0B:>ABL ;0BK=8 <>3;0 ?@>8AB5:0BL 87 3;C18=K 55 A<KA;0 8;8 C<5;>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O 55 3@0<<0B8G5A:8E D>@<.  :0G5AB25 >1@07F0 <>6=> ?@825AB8 A;>20 ?0?K @8<A:>3> ;5<5=B0 III, ?@>87=5A5==K5 8< 2 >B25B =0 ?@54;>65=85 87<5=8BL =>@<K CAB020 >@45=0 857C8B>2: "sint ut sunt aut non sint" (?CABL 1C4CB, :0: >=8 5ABL, 8;8 ?CABL =5 1C4CB 2>2A5). !CI5AB2CNB 8 4@C385 O@:85 A2845B5;LAB20 0=B8G=>9 ;0?840@=>AB8. 8HL B@8 A;>20 "iura novit curia" (1C:2. "AC4C 8725AB=> ?@02>") A>45@60;8 1>30BK9 A<KA;. =8 D0:B8G5A:8 >7=0G0;8, GB> AC4 =5 4>;65= >B25@30BL 8A: ?>4 ?@54;>3>< B>3>, GB> 5<C =58725AB=K ?@02>2K5 =>@<K, =0 >A=>25 :>B>@KE A;54C5B ?@8=8<0BL @5H5=85, 8 GB> AB>@>=K 4>;6=K 87;030BL B>;L:> D0:B8G5A:85 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, 0 AC4 A0< 40AB 8< ?@02>2CN >F5=:C. !B@5<;5=85 : :@0B:>AB8 2 ;0B8=A:>< N@848G5A:>< O7K:5 ?@>O2;O5BAO 8 2 H8@>:>< 8A?>;L7>20=88 A>:@0I5=89. "0:, G5BK@5 1C:2K S.P.Q.R. (Senatus Populusque Romanus) A>AB02;O;8 B>@65AB25==CN D>@<C;C @8<A:>9 3>AC40@AB25==>AB8. 1@0<;5==K5 4C1>2K<8 ;8ABLO<8, :@5?:> AE20G5==K5 :>3BO<8 >@;0 (avis Romana), >=8 2AB@5G0;8AL ?>2A5<5AB=>. A53> ;8HL 420 7=0:0 SC >1>7=0G0;8 senatusconsultum - A>25B, @5:><5=40F8N A5=0B0, 0 2 M?>EC ?@8=F8?0B0 - ?>AB0=>2;5=85, ?@8@02=8202H55AO : 70:>=C. >;L7>20;8AL ?>?C;O@=>ABLN 8 :@0B:85 A>:@0I5=8O, =0?@8<5@: N.L. (non liquet) - 2>?@>A =5 OA5=; D.D. (dono dedit) - 40; 2 40@; D.P.S. (de pecunia sua) - =0 A2>8 A@54AB20; a.d. 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A=>2=0O <0AA0 N@848G5A:8E ;0B8=A:8E 87@5G5=89 8725AB=0 =0< 2 2845 F8B0B, 27OBKE 87 :>=:@5B=KE ;8B5@0BC@=KE 8AB>G=8:>2 8 ?0<OB=8:>2 ?@020. =8 @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: A?5F80;L=K5 B5@<8=K, => 1;03>40@O A2>59 CB>=G5==>9 D>@<5 8 3;C1>:>9 >1@07=>AB8 >=8 8<5NB 8 =5A><=5==CN EC4>65AB25==CN F5==>ABL. 0B8=A:85 N@848G5A:85 2K@065=8O C:@0H0NB @5GL, 45;0NB 55 1>;55 O@:>9, >1>30I0NB AB8;8AB8G5A:8, ?>2KH0NB M:A?@5AA82=CN A8;C 2KA:07K20=8O. =8 >1;040NB 1>;LH>9 C1548B5;L=>ABLN, 4>:070B5;L=>ABLN, 0 7=0G8B, 8 =5A><=5==K< 2>A?8B0B5;L=K< MDD5:B>< 8 ?>MB><C <>3CB @0AA<0B@820BLAO 2 :0G5AB25 0?>D53<0B 8 0:A8><, =5?@5<5==KE 0B@81CB>2 >@0B>@A:>3> 8A:CAAB20. 4=0:> =5:>@@5:B=> @0AA<0B@820BL ;0B8=A:85 N@848G5A:85 87@5G5=8O B>;L:> :0: @8B>@8G5A:>5 C:@0H5=85 8 >@0B>@A:89 ?@85<. =8 5ABL ?>:070B5;L 8 =5>1E>48<K9 @57C;LB0B A;>6=>3> 8 480;5:B8G5A:8 ?@>B82>@5G82>3> ?@>F5AA0 >1@07>20=8O ?@020. 7@5G5==K5 8 70:@5?82H85AO 2 ?@0:B8:5 N@848G5A:85 ?@028;0 8 =>@<K A>AB028;8 M;5<5=B0@=K5 G0AB8FK ?@02>2>9 687=8. =8 65 O28;8AL CA;>285< 2AO:>3> A8=B5B8G5A:>3> 2>A?@8OB8O ?@02>2>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, D0:B>@>< =0:>?;5=8O ?@02>2>3> >?KB0. B2;5:0OAL >B 45B0;59 8 ?>?>;=OO =54>AB0NI55, ;0B8=A:85 <0:A8<K ?@>2>73;0H0;8 8 70:@5?;O;8 >1I85 ?@02>2K5 ?@8=F8?K, >A2>1>640;8 ?@02>2CN <KA;L >B B@0D0@5B0 8 H01;>=0, 4020;8 ?@>AB>@ 01AB@0:B=><C <KH;5=8N. @54AB02;OO A>1>9 ;0:>=8G=K5, 70:>=G5==K5 D>@<C;8@>2:8 ?@02>2KE 8459 8 CAB0=>2>:, ;0B8=A:85 N@848G5A:85 0D>@87<K 2K7K20NB 2 A>7=0=88 ;N459 1>30BK5 0AA>F80F88, 7>2CB : ?>8A:C. ;0AA8G5A:0O ?@>AB>B0 8 G5:0==0O AB@>3>ABL AB0@8==KE ?@028;, >BB>G5==>ABL N@848G5A:>9 B5E=8:8 B0OB 2 A515 2?5G0B;ONICN 3;C18=C ?@02>2>9 <KA;8. <5==> A>45@60B5;L=><C M;5<5=BC 4@52=8<8 ?@84020;>AL >?@545;ONI55 7=0G5=85, > G5< A2845B5;LAB2C5B A;54CNI0O A5=B5=F8O: "Rem tene, verba sequentur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ummum ius est summa iniuria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oboedientia est legis essentia), 53> =0?@02;5==>ABL (executio est finis et fructus legis), 53> 8AB>G=8:8 (consuetudo est altera lex), ?@8=F8?K ?@02>2>9 687=8 (cogitationis poenam nemo patitur), 206=59H85 ?@02>2K9 8=AB8BCBK (culpa lata, culpa levis, delictum) 8 B.4. 0B8=A:85 0D>@87<K C:07K20NB 8 =0 >B45;L=K5 >B@0A;8 ?@020: =0A;54AB25==>5 (heres succedens in honore, succedit in onere), 8<CI5AB25==>5 (cuius est dominium eius est periculum - B>B, :B> 2;0455B, B>B 8 =5A5B @8A:), 3@0640=A:>5 (nemo cogitur rem suam vendere, etiam iusto pretio - =8:B> =5 4>;65= ?@8=C640BLAO : ?@>4065 A2>53> 8<CI5AB20 4065 ?> A?@0254;82>9 F5=5), C3>;>2=>5 (nemo debet bis puniri pro uno delicto), ?@>F5AAC0;L=>5 (plus valet unus oculatus testis, quam auriti decem - >48= >G52845F AB>8B 1>;LH5, G5< 45AOBL A2845B5;59 ?> A;CEC) 8 4065 M:>;>38G5A:>5 (fluminis naturalem cursum non avertere - =5 A;54C5B 87<5=OBL 5AB5AB25==>5 B5G5=85 @5:8). .@848G5A:85 CAB0=>2:8 4@52=8E 70;>68;8 >A=>2K AC451=>9 A8AB5<K, :@8<8=>;>388 8 ?5=8B5=F80@=>9 ?>;8B8:8, 0 =8E <>6=> >1=0@C68BL 8 8458 >1I5AB25==>9 157>?0A=>AB8. 0B8=A:85 N@848G5A:85 <0:A8<K - MB> >1I89 O7K: ?@02>254>2 2A53> <8@0, 8E A2>5>1@07=K9 "MA?5@0=B>". =8 A;C60B 8=AB@C<5=B>< ;CGH53> ?>=8<0=8O 8 2708<>459AB28O. ">G=>ABL 8 ?@>AB>B0 ;0B8=A:8E N@848G5A:8E 87@5G5=89 ?@54>?@545;8;8 8E >A>1>5 8 25AL<0 206=>5 <5AB> =5 B>;L:> 2 8AB>@88 ?@020. 0B8=A:0O D@075>;>38O ?>;>68;0 =0G0;> 52@>?59A:>9 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 B@048F88, A>AB02;OO ACI5AB25==CN G0ABL :C;LBC@=>3> 0@A5=0;0 ;N1>3> >1@07>20==>3> G5;>25:0. =>385 D>@<C;K @8<A:>3> ?@020 8 A53>4=O O2;ONBAO =5?@5<5==>9 ?@8=04;56=>ABLN =0CG=>3> >1>@>B0 8 H8@>:> 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2 4>:C<5=B0E <8@>2>3> A>>1I5AB20, 2 N@848G5A:>9 8 >1I59 ;8B5@0BC@5 8 ?C1;8F8AB8:5. 5?@5E>4OI55 7=0G5=85 @8<A:>3> ?@020, 2>?;>I5==>3> 2 A5=B5=F8OE, A>AB02;O5B =5?@5@5:05<CN >1I5G5;>25G5A:CN F5==>ABL A O@:> 2K@065==K< 3C<0=8AB8G5A:8< A>45@60=85< (ius est ars boni et aequi). @5;K5, ?@>4C<0==K5, 84CI85 87 A0<>9 3;C18=K G5;>25G5A:>9 687=8 87@5G5=8O 4@52=8E CG0B, GB> 2A5340 8 2AN4C A;54C5B ?><=8BL > A?@0254;82>AB8. 0B8=A:85 87@5G5=8O =0?><8=0NB 8 > 4CE>2=KE =0G0;0E <0B5@80;L=>3> <8@0, > @5;838>7=KE 8AB>:0E ?@020. @52=OO <C4@>ABL 3;0A8B: iurisprudentia est divinarum atque humanarum rerum notitia, iusti atque iniusti scientia (?@02>20O =0C:0 5ABL ?>7=0=85 1>65AB25==KE 8 G5;>25G5A:8E 45;, 7=0=85 A?@0254;82>AB8 8 =5A?@0254;82>AB8). "! . '! + / Persona grata - 5;0B5;L=>5 ;8F> Dolus malus - ;>9 C<KA5; Corpus delicti - !>AB02 ?@5ABC?;5=8O Divide et impera - 0745;O9 8 2;0AB2C9 In dubio pro reo -  A;CG05 A><=5=8O - 2 ?>;L7C ?>4AC48<>3> Periculum est in mora - ?0A=>ABL 2 ?@><54;5=88 (A ?@><54;5=85< A2O70= @8A:) Lex retro non agit - 0:>= >1@0B=>9 A8;K =5 8<55B Lex prospicit, non respicit - 0:>= A<>B@8B 2?5@54, 0 =5 =0704 Nemo debet bis puniri pro uno delicto - 8:B> =5 4>;65= 1KBL =0:070= 42064K 70 >4=> ?@5ABC?;5=85 Ignorantia non est argumentum - 57=0=85 =5 O2;O5BAO 4>:070B5;LAB2>< Nemo ignorantia iuris recusare potest - 8:B> =5 <>65B >?@024K20BLAO =57=0=85< ?@020 Magna neglegentia culpa est, magna culpa dolus est (Paulus) - >;LH0O =51@56=>ABL 5ABL 28=0, 3@C10O =5>AB>@>6=>ABL 5ABL C<KA5; Iustitia est constans et perpetua voluntas ius suum cuique tribuens (Ulpianus) - !?@0254;82>ABL 5ABL ?>AB>O==0O 8 =587<5==0O 2>;O 2>74020BL :064><C A2>5 ?@02> Obligatio est iuris vinclum - 1O70B5;LAB2> - MB> C7K ?@020 Ius est ars boni et aequi - @02> 5ABL 8A:CAAB2> 4>1@0 8 A?@0254;82>AB8 Legem brevem esse oportet - 0:>= 4>;65= 1KBL :@0B:8< Lex posterior derogat priori - >A;54CNI89 70:>= >B<5=O5B 459AB285 ?@54K4CI53> Lex specialis derogat generali - !?5F80;L=K9 70:>= >B<5=O5B >1I89 Omnis definitio in iure civili periculosa est (Iavolenus Priscus) - AO:>5 >?@545;5=85 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025 >?0A=> Accessio cedit principali - @8=04;56=>ABL A;54C5B AC4L15 3;02=>9 25I8 Par in parem non habet iurisdictionem - 02=K9 ?@>B82 @02=>3> =5 8<55B N@8A48:F88 (?@8=F8? AC451=>3> 8<<C=8B5B0) Par in parem imperium non habet - 02=K9 =04 @02=K< 2;0AB8 =5 8<55B Primus inter pares - 5@2K9 A@548 @02=KE Dura lex, sed lex - !C@>2 70:>=, => MB> 70:>= Nemo iudex in propria causa - 8:B> =5 AC4LO 2 A>1AB25==>< 45;5 Manifestum non eget probatione - G5284=>5 =5 =C6405BAO 2 4>:070B5;LAB25 Culpa caret, qui scit, sed prohibere non potest - 5 8<55B 28=K B>B, :B> 7=05B, => =5 <>65B ?><5H0BL Vim vi repellere licet - 0A8;85 ?>72>;5=> >B@060BL A8;>9 Tertium non datur - "@5BL53> =5 40=> Contra factum non datur argumentum - @>B82 D0:B0 =5B 4>:070B5;LAB20 Audiatur et altera pars - 04> 2KA;CH0BL 8 4@C3CN AB>@>=C Casum sentit dominus - !;CG09=K9 C1KB>: B5@?8B E>7O8= (@8A: A;CG09=>9 3815;8 25I8 =5A5B A>1AB25==8:) !irculus vitiosus - >@>G=K9 :@C3 Dare, facere, praestare - 020BL, 45;0BL, ?@54>AB02;OBL (AC<<0@=K9 B5@<8= 4;O 8A?>;=5=8O >1O70B5;LAB20) Respondere, cavere, agere - 4020BL >B25BK, A>AB02;OBL 4>:C<5=BK, 2KABC?0BL 2 AC45 (B@8 2840 45OB5;L=>AB8 N@8AB0) Ianuis clausis - ?@8 70:@KBKE 425@OE Pacta sunt servanda - >3>2>@K 4>;6=K A>1;N40BLAO Nullum crimen sine poena, nulla poena sine lege, nullum crimen sine poena legali - 5B ?@5ABC?;5=8O 157 =0:070=8O, =5B =0:070=8O 157 70:>=0, =5B ?@5ABC?;5=8O 157 70:>==>3> =0:070=8O Nulla potentia supra leges - 5B A8;K ?@52KH5 70:>=0 Qui tacet consentire videtur - B> <>;G8B, B>B, ?>-2848<><C, A>3;0H05BAO Quod erat demonstrandum - 'B> 8 B@51>20;>AL 4>:070BL Quod licet Iovi, non licet bovi - 'B> ?>72>;5=> .?8B5@C, =5 ?>72>;5=> 1K:C Status in statu - >AC40@AB2> 2 3>AC40@AB25 Testis unus, testis nullus - 48= A2845B5;L - =5 A2845B5;L Tres faciunt collegium - "@>5 A>AB02;ONB :>;;538N Ipso iure -  A8;C A0<>3> ?@020 Ipso facto - !0<8< D0:B>< (D0:B8G5A:8) Res nullius cedit primo occupanti - 8GLO 25IL ?>ABC?05B 2 A>1AB25==>ABL ?5@2>3>, 55 70E20B82H53> Salus populi suprema lex - ;03> =0@>40 - 2KAH89 70:>= /",+ !'! # persona, ae f  ;8F>, ;8G=>ABL culpa, ae f  28=0 Aausa, ae f  ?@8G8=0, >A=>20=85, 45;>, AC451=K9 ?@>F5AA sententia, ae f  <=5=85, ?@83>2>@ familia, ae f  A5<LO iustitia, ae f  A?@0254;82>ABL, ?@02>AC485 iniuria, ae f  =5A?@0254;82>ABL poena, ae f  =0:070=85 regula, ae f  ?@028;> noxa, ae f  2@54, CI5@1 tutela, ae f  >?5:0 cura, ae f  701>B0 , ?>?5G8B5;LAB2> mora, ae f  7045@6:0, ?@>A@>G:0 querella, ae f  60;>10 rapina, ae f  3@0156, >3@01;5=85 homicida, ae m, f  C189F0 victima, ae f  65@B20 dolus, i m  >1<0=, C<KA5;, E8B@>ABL dominus, i m  E>7O8=, A>1AB25==8: reus, i m  >128=O5<K9, ?>4AC48<K9 arbiter, tri m  AC4LO furtum, i n  :@060 delictum, i n  ?@>ABC?>:, ?@02>=0@CH5=85, ?@5ABC?;5=85 testamentum, i n  7025I0=85 debitum, i n  4>;3 debitor , oris m  4>;6=8: bonum, i n  8<CI5AB2> advocatus, i m  70I8B=8: locus, i m  <5AB> matrimonium, i n  1@0: testimonium, i n  A2845B5;LAB2>, A2845B5;LA:>5 ?>:070=85 iudicium, i n  AC4, AC451=>5 A;54AB285, AC451=>5 @5H5=85 ius, iuris n  ?@02> (>A=>2=>5 ?>=OB85 @8<A:>3> ?@020) lex, legis f  70:>= libertas, atis f  A2>1>40 crimen, inis n  ?@5ABC?;5=85 civis, is m, f  3@0640=8= civitas, atis f  3@0640=AB2>, 3>AC40@AB2> actio, onis f  459AB285, 8A:, ?@>872>4AB2> 45;0, ?C1;8G=>5 >128=5=85 actor, oris m  8AB5F testis, is m, f  A2845B5;L iudex, icis m  AC4LO obligatio, onis f  >1O70B5;LAB2> heres, dis m  =0A;54=8: hereditas, tis f  =0A;54AB2> possessio, Mnis f  2;045=85 possessor, Mris m  2;045;5F exceptio, Mnis f  8A:;NG5=85, >3>2>@:0, 2>7@065=85 status, us m  A>AB>O=85 lis, litis f  BO610, AC451=K9 A?>@, ?@>F5AA (3@0640=A:89), ?@54<5B A?>@0 condiAio, Mnis f  CA;>285 caput, -tis n  3>;>20, ?@02>A?>A>1=>ABL corpus, Oris n  B5;>, A>AB02 tempus, Oris n  2@5<O, A@>: manus, us f  @C:0, 2;0ABL casus, us m  A;CG09 usus, us m  ?>;L7>20=85, ?@02> ?>;L7>20=8O 25ILN res, ei f  25IL, 45;> dies, ei m, f  45=L, A@>: argumentum, i n  4>:070B5;LAB2> carcer, ris m  BN@L<0 definitio, Mnis f  >?@545;5=85 consensus, us m  A>3;0H5=85 constitutio, Mnis f  CAB0=>2;5=85 donatio, Mnis f  40@5=85 emancipatio, Mnis f  >A2>1>645=85 87-?>4 2;0AB8 >BF0 fides, ei f  25@0, 4>25@85 honor, Mris m  G5ABL, ?>G5B, ?>G5ABL imperium, i n  2KAH0O 2;0ABL lapsus, us m  >H81:0 nomen, -nis n  8<O officium, i n  >1O70==>ABL, 4>;6=>ABL popmlus, i m  =0@>4 potestas, tis f  2;0ABL servus, i m  @01 vita, ae f  687=L mors, tis f  A<5@BL " ,+ / 0@80=B 1 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: digitus, i m ?0;5F; soror, oris f A5AB@0. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: rideo, risi, risum, re A<5OBLAO (imperfectum indicativi activi) neco, avi, atum, re C1820BL (praesens indicativi passivi). 0@80=B 2 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: fabula, ae f 10A=O; vestis, is f >45640. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: ago, egi, actum, re 3=0BL (imperfectum indicativi passivi) censeo, censui, censum, re >F5=820BL (praesens indicativi activi). 0@80=B 3 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: ventus, i m 25B5@; carcer, ris m BN@L<0. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: 5do, edidi, editum, re 874020BL (praesens indicativi passivi) pareo, ui, itum, re ?>28=>20BLAO (imperfectum indicativi activi). 0@80=B 4 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: stella, ae f 725740; mos, moris m >1KG09. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: finio, ivi, itum, +re >:0=G820BL (praesens indicativi activi) statuo, statui, statutum, re AB028BL (imperfectum indicativi passivi). 0@80=B 5 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: insula, ae f >AB@>2; pater, tris m >B5F. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: minuo, minui, utum, re C<5=LH0BL (praesens indicativi passivi) laudo, avi, atum, re E20;8BL (imperfectum indicativi activi). 0@80=B 6 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: actum, i n 459AB285; uxor, oris f 65=0. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: taceo, tacui, tacitum, re <>;G0BL (praesens indicativi activi) punio, ivi, itum, +re =0:07K20BL (imperfectum indicativi passivi). 0@80=B 7 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: oppidum, i n 3>@>4; regula, ae f ?@028;>. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: 0perio, aperui, apertum, +re >B:@K20BL (praesens indicativi passivi) gero, gessi, gestum, re 25AB8 (imperfectum indicativi activi). 0@80=B 8 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: servus, i m @01; mulier, ris f 65=I8=0. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: moveo, movi, motum, re 42830BL (praesens indicativi activi) vendo, vendidi, venditum, re ?@>4020BL (imperfectum indicativi passivi). 0@80=B 9 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: lepus, oris m 70OF; porta, ae f 2>@>B0. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: habeo, habui, habitum, re 8<5BL (imperfectum indicativi activi) facio, feci, factum, re 45;0BL (praesens indicativi passivi). 0@80=B 10 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: donum, i n 40@; avis, is f ?B8F0. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: cado, cecidi, casum, re ?040BL (praesens indicativi activi) rogo, avi, atum, re ?@>A8BL (imperfectum indicativi passivi). 0@80=B 11 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: finis, is m :>=5F; dolus, i m >1<0=. 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: reddo, reddidi, redditum, re 2>72@0I0BL (imperfectum indicativi activi) appello, avi, atum, re =07K20BL (praesens indicativi passivi). 0@80=B 12 1. ?@545;8B5 B8? A:;>=5=8O 8 ?@>A:;>=O9B5: pactum, i n 4>3>2>@; pars, partis f G0ABL 2. ?@545;8B5 B8? A?@O65=8O 8 ?@>A?@O309B5: trado, tradidi, traditum, re ?5@54020BL (imperfectum indicativi passivi) venio, veni, ventum, +re ?@8E>48BL (praesens indicativi activi). #/ " "#  018G52 ."., >@>2A:89 /.. !;>20@L ;0B8=A:8E :@K;0BKE A;>2. - ., 1982. 0@B>H5: . 8<A:>5 ?@02>: (>=OB8O, B5@<8=K, >?@545;5=8O) / 5@. A G5H. - ., 1989. K4K=A:89 $.. 0B8=A:>-@CAA:89 A;>20@L : 8AB>G=8:0< @8<A:>3> ?@020: > 8740=8N 1896 3.  ., 1998. 070G5=>: ".. @K;0BK5 ;0B8=A:85 87@5G5=8O: "5<0B. A1. - 8=A:, 1993. >70@652A:89 .'. #G51=8: ;0B8=A:>3> O7K:0.  ., 1981. >70@652A:89 .'. 0B8=A:89 O7K:. #G51=>5 ?>A>185 4;O N@848G5A:8E D0:C;LB5B>2 C=825@A8B5B>2.  ., 1991. 0B8=A:85 N@848G5A:85 87@5G5=8O / !>AB. .. 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