ࡱ>   { bjbjzz_VRR$;(;(;(PCT Mt;(/nSVSV({V{V{V.......$13X7.h1 hh7.{V{V`T/h^-{V{V.h.>%^-{Vǯl,x-j/0/9-x42j 4-4-L S7.7.^/hhhh4R? :. . !>@>:8= !&,/ ?A8E>;>38O #G51=>5 ?>A>185 >4 =0CG=. @54. . . (8?8FK=>9 ', !0=:B-5B5@1C@3 2004 88 !65 5F5=75=BK: :. ?. =., 4>F5=B !8 . . 5<LO=GC: 4. <54. =., ?@>D. !1# . !. 20=>2 !>@>:8= . . !65 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O: #G51. ?>A>185 / >4 =0CG=. @54. . . (8?8FK=>9.  !1.: 5GL, 2004. 216 A. ISBN 5-9268-0214-8  CG51=>< ?>A>188 2 >1>1I5==>9 D>@<5 87;030NBAO >1I5B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?>;>65=8O, ;560I85 2 >A=>25 <=>3>G8A;5==KE >B@0A;59 A>2@5<5==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 7=0:><;5=85 A MB8<8 ?>;>65=8O<8 ?>72>;8B ?@54AB028BL 40==CN =0C:C :0: F5;>AB=CN 48AF8?;8=C, >1;040NICN 2=CB@5==8< 548=AB2><. =830 ?@54=07=0G5=0 4;O ABC45=B>2-?A8E>;>3>2, => <>65B 1KBL ?>;57=0 8 4@C38< A?5F80;8AB0<  ?5403>30<, 2@0G0<, ;>3>?540<. 5G0B05BAO ?> @5H5=8N #G5=>3> !>25B0 =AB8BCB0 A?5F80;L=>9 ?5403>38:8 8 ?A8E>;>388 5GL, 2003 =AB8BCB A?5F80;L=>9 ?5403>38:8 8 ?A8E>;>388, 2003 . . !>@>:8=, 2003 . . >@>75=5F, >D>@<;5=85, 2003 ISBN 5-9268-0214-8  '5;>25: 4>;65= 1KBL AG0AB;82 B5<, GB> C =53> 5ABL.  =5 1KBL =5AG0AB=K< >B B>3>, G53> C =53> =5B. . >@C0   ?@>F5AA5 >1CG5=8O 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 ?>43>B>2:8 1C4CI8E ?@>D5AA8>=0;>2 2 >1;0AB8 ?A8E>;>388 ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 :;NG520O @>;L, 15AA?>@=>, ?@8=04;568B :C@AC !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. -B>9 48AF8?;8=5 ?@8405BAO >A>1>5 7=0G5=85 8 2 =>2>< 3>AC40@AB25==>< AB0=40@B5 2KAH53> ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >1@07>20=8O (A?5F80;L=>ABL 031900 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O). C@A !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ?@8720= AD>@<8@>20BL ?@54AB02;5=8O > B5>@5B8:>-<5B>4>;>38G5A:8E >A=>20E MB>9 =0C:8, 55 107>2KE :0B53>@8OE, ?@8=F8?0E, A2>5>1@0788 <5B>4>2 8 ?@85<>2. ;02=K< D0:B>@><, >?@545;ONI8< 548=AB2> @07;8G=KE >B@0A;59 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, O2;ONBAO ?>=OB8O > ACI=>AB8 D5=><5=>2 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O, <5E0=87<0E 8E D>@<8@>20=8O 8 >1I8E 70:>=><5@=>ABOE 487>=B>-35=570. @54AB02;5=85 > ?@8@>45 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O :0: B0:>2>3> 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL @0A:@KBL ?@54<5B=>5 A>45@60=85 40==>9 =0C:8. >;55 B>3>, A53>4=O 2A5 >BG5B;8255 AB0=>28BAO ?>=OB=K<, GB> ACI5AB2CNI85 >B@0A;8 ?@54AB02;ONB ;8HL >B45;L=K5 AB>@>=K 55 F5;>AB=>3> ?@54<5B0, =081>;55 87CG5==K5 2 A8;C ?@0:B8G5A:>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8. !0< 65 >= 7=0G8B5;L=> H8@5. 7CG5=85 :C@A0 !?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@54H5AB2C5B 7=0:><AB2C A B0:8<8 55 G0AB=K<8 @0745;0<8, :0: ?A8E>;>38O ;8F A =0@CH5=85< 7@5=8O, A;CE0, >?>@=>-42830B5;L=>3> 0??0@0B0, C<AB25==>9 >BAB0;>ABLN 8 4@. -B> ?>72>;O5B C2845BL 2 @07;8G=KE 20@80=B0E =0@CH5=89 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O =5 B>;L:> A?5F8D8G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8, => 8 >1I85 70:>=><5@=>- !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 2545=85 AB0, 0 B0:65 ?@>3=>78@>20BL =5@07@K2=CN A2O7L 548=>3> F5;>3>, :0:>2K< O2;O5BAO A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. @54AB02;5=85 > F5;>AB=>< (?CABL 8 =5@02=><5@=> 87CG5==><) ?@54<5B5 A?>A>1AB2C5B OA=><C 2K45;5=8N A>1AB25==>9 >1;0AB8 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20. 204F0B>5 AB>;5B85 AB0;> ?@8<5@>< 1C@=>3> @0AF25B0 8=B53@0F88 >B45;L=KE =0C:. > ?>4>1=0O 8=B53@0F8O 2>7<>6=0 ;8HL ?@8 CA;>288 87=0G0;L=>9 G5B:>9 8E 48DD5@5=F80F88. BACBAB285 >?@545;5==KE ?@54AB02;5=89 > 548=>< ?@54<5B5 8AA;54>20=8O ?@82>48B : B><C, GB> >= G0AB8G=> 8;8 ?>;=>ABLN ?>?0405B 2 AD5@C 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 0:B82=>AB8 4@C38E =0C:. -B>, 157CA;>2=>, >154=O5B A>45@60=85 A0<>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 ;8H=89 @07 ?>4G5@:8205B @07<KB>ABL 3@0=8F 55 ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O. >;55 B>3>, MB> >:07K205B =530B82=>5 2;8O=85 =0 @0728B85, :070;>AL 1K, =57028A8<KE @0745;>2 40==>9 48AF8?;8=K. "5=45=F8O : 8=B53@8@>20==><C 2845=8N ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O 3@><:> 70O28;0 > A515 2 ?>A;54=85 420 45AOB8;5B8O 2 A2O78 A @>AB>< <=>3>>1@078O >?8AK205<KE 20@80=B>2 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O 8 ?>O2;5=8O 2A5 =>2KE >B@0A;59 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. #25;8G5=85 :>;8G5AB20 ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88, >B<5G0NI55AO 2 ?>A;54=85 45AOB8;5B8O, :0: 8 1C@=K9 ?@>F5AA @5D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<K :>@@5:F8>==>3> >1@07>20=8O 2KABC?8;8 D0:B>@0<8 0:B82870F88 AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. <5AB5 A B5< ?@8:;04=>9 E0@0:B5@ 40==>9 =0C:8, 55 =0?@02;5==>ABL =0 @5H5=85 0:BC0;L=KE 8 206=KE 7040G =5 4>;6=K ?@52@0I0BL 55 2 =5:89 CB8;8B0@=K9 ?@840B>: ?@0:B8:8. @8:;04=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 =0C:8 =0?@O<CN 7028A8B >B @0728B>AB8 55 :>=F5?BC0;L=>9 107K. 1 >?0A=>AB8 CB8;8B0@87<0 2 =0CG=>9 A@545, A 53> ?@5=51@565=85< : B5>@88 3>2>@8; 5I5 . !. K3>BA:89. 07@01>B:0 >1I59 B5>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 4>;6=0 AB0BL DC=40<5=B>< 4;O C65 ACI5AB2CNI8E 8 B>;L:> 5I5 D>@<8@CNI8EAO >B@0A;59 MB>9 =0C:8, :>B>@K5 2>94CB 2 55 A>AB02 :0: >@30=8G5A:85 G0AB8 548=>3> F5;>3>, 0 =5 :0: @07@>7=5==K5, ?0@0;;5;L=> ACI5AB2CNI85 M;5<5=BK.  @><5 B>3>, A>2@5<5==0O @50;L=>ABL ?@0:B8G5A:>9 @01>BK A?5F80;L=>3> ?A8E>;>30 B0:>20, GB> 5<C ?@8E>48BLAO 8<5BL 45;>, :0: ?@028;>, =5 A >4=>9 D>@<>9 >B:;>=5=89, 0 A@07C (8;8 ?>>G5@54=>) A =5A:>;L:8<8. <5==> ?>MB><C B0: 206=> 7=0=85 >1I8E >A=>2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, 548=KE 70:>=><5@=>AB59 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88. #A;>6=5=85 ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ;8H=89 @07 ?>4G5@:8205B 55 <=>3>0A?5:B=>ABL, GB> ?>72>;O5B CAB0=02;820BL 1>;55 B5A=K5 <56?@54<5B=K5 A2O78 A 4@C38<8 >B@0A;O<8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8. @5645 2A53>, A;54C5B C:070BL =0 35=5B8G5A:89 0A?5:B, D8:A8@CNI89 A2O78 @0AA<0B@8205<>9 48AF8?;8=K A ?A8E>;>3859 @0728B8O.  @0<:0E A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 @50;87C5BAO ?>?KB:0 A>?>AB028BL @07=K5 ?0@0<5B@K ?0B>35==KE CA;>289 A @07;8G=K<8 AB>@>=0<8 =0@CH5=8O ?@>F5AA0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. A;8 ?A8E>;>38O @0728B8O 8AA;54C5B, :0:8< 1K205B MB>B ?@>F5AA, B> A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O >B25G05B =0 2>?@>A, :0: >=> (@0728B85) <>65B ?@>E>48BL 2 8=KE CA;>28OE, GB> ACI5AB25==> @0AH8@O5B =0H8 ?@54AB02;5=8O > 35=575 ?A8E8:8 2 F5;><. >;CG5=85 >1J5:B82=KE 40==KE > @07;8G=KE AB>@>=0E =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 2>7<>6=> ;8HL ?@8 CA;>288 ?@>2545=8O 2A5AB>@>==53> A@02=8B5;L=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O 8 0=0;870. 57C;LB0BK ?>4>1=KE 8AA;54>20=89, ?>;CG5==K5 =0 :0:>9-B> >?@545;5==>9 3@C??5 45B59 A =0@CH5==K< @0728B85<, 4>;6=K 1KBL >1O70B5;L=> A>?>AB02;5=K A 0=0;>38G=K<8 40==K<8 3@C??K =>@<0;L=> @072820NI8EAO 45B59 B>3> 65 2>7@0AB0. KO2;5==K5 >B;8G8O <>3CB 1KBL :20;8D8F8@>20=K :0: A?5F8D8G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 ;8HL 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 >=8 1C4CB ?>425@3=CBK 5I5 >4=><C A@02=5=8N A 40==K<8 B0:8E 65 >?KB>2, ?@>2545==KE =0 4>?>;=8B5;L=>9 3@C??5 45B59 A 4@C3>9 D>@<>9 >B:;>=5=8O. -B0 F5?L A@02=5=89 O2;O5BAO <8=8<0;L=> =5>1E>48<>9, => =5 2A5340 4>AB0B>G=>9 4;O ?>;CG5=8O B>G=KE @57C;LB0B>2. B;8G8B5;L=K5 >A>15==>AB8 >?@545;5==>9 3@C??K 45B59 A >B:;>=ONI8<AO @0728B85< 70G0ABCN >1CA;>2;5=K =5 B>;L:> >A=>2=K< =0@CH5=85<, => 8 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 E0@0:B5@>< >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 A5<59- !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 2545=85 =>3>. <5==> ?>MB><C B@51CNBAO @57C;LB0BK 5I5 >4=>9 3@C??K 45B59 A B>9 65 D>@<>9 >B:;>=5=8O, => >1CG0NI8EAO 2 8=KE CA;>28OE (=0?@8<5@, 2 4@C3>9 H:>;5, ?> 4@C3>9 ?@>3@0<<5, 8=K<8 <5B>40<8). > 8 =0 MB>< A@02=8B5;L=K9 0=0;87 =5 70:0=G8205BAO. !>?>AB02;5=8O 2 @0<:0E >4=>9 3@C??K 487>=B>-35=570 2 @07=KE CA;>28OE >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 4>?>;=ONBAO A@02=5=85< <564C A>1>9 @07=KE AB5?5=59 2K@065==>AB8 >A=>2=>3> =0@CH5=8O. A5 2KH5A:070==>5 405B >A=>20=85 CB25@640BL, GB> A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A>45@60B5;L=CN G0ABL A@02=8B5;L=>9 8 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 A0<>< H8@>:>< A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20. 1H8@=K9 =0CG=K9 :>=B5:AB A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 3>2>@8B > G@572KG09=>9 A;>6=>AB8 55 ?@54<5B0, 8AA;54>20=85 :>B>@>3> <>65B 8<5BL =5 B>;L:> ?@0:B8G5A:>5, => 8 DC=40<5=B0;L=>5 B5>@5B8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85. 45AL <K <>65< 2K45;8BL B0:65 8 :;8=8G5A:89 0A?5:B. B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88, ?>;L7COAL 2K@065=85< . !. K3>BA:>3>, <>6=> >?@545;8BL :0: >A>1K9 A?>A>1 35=570, =5 ?@54AB02;ONI89 A>1>9 D>@<C 701>;520=8O. >A;54=55 ACBL @07@CH8B5;L=K9 ?@>F5AA @07=>9 8=B5=A82=>AB8 8 B5<?0. 0728B85, ?CABL 4065 =0@CH5==>5, ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45 ?@54AB02;O5B =5GB> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 1>;57=8. -B> D5=><5= ?>78B82=>3> A>7840=8O. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 1>;57=L 8 55 ?>A;54AB28O G0AB> O2;ONBAO ?@8G8=>9 >B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88.  40==>< A;CG05 1>;57=L 2KABC?05B 4;O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >4=8< 87 :;0AA>2 =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>289, =0 D>=5 :>B>@KE ?@>B5:05B ?A8E>35=57.  ?>4>1=KE A;CG0OE 2 A0<>< 35=575 ?A8E8:8 25AL<0 A;>6=K< >1@07>< ?5@5?;5B0NBAO A8<?B><K 701>;520=8O 8 D5=><5=K >B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88. 040G0 A>AB>8B =5 B>;L:> 2 8E 48DD5@5=F80F88, GB> A2O70=> A @073@0=8G5=85< ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 :><?5B5=F88 2@0G0 8 ?A8E>;>30, => 8 2 A>?>AB02;5=88 ?0@0<5B@>2 701>;520=8O, :0: >A>1>3> :;0AA0 CA;>289 A E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8 @07=KE AB>@>= @0728B8O ?A8E8:8. "0:8< >1@07><, :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:89 :>=B5:AB =5 <5=55 2065=, G5< A@02=8B5;L=K9 8 35=5B8G5A:89.  MB>9 A2O78 B0:65 =5A;CG09=K< O2;O5B- AO 8 B>, :0: =07K20;8 A?5F80;L=CN ?A8E>;>38N 2 =0G0;5 XX 25:0.  B>B ?5@8>4 >=0 G0AB> >1>7=0G0;0AL :0: ?0B>;>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O.  A>2@5<5==>9 52@>?59A:>9 B@048F88 B5@<8= A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O <0;> C?>B@518<. 0==0O 48AF8?;8=0 G0I5 2A53> @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: G0AB=K9 @0745; :;8=8G5A:>9 8 8=>340 >?@545;O5BAO :0: 0=>@<0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. 0@B8=0 AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 1K;0 1K =5?>;=>9, 5A;8 1K <K =5 C:070;8 =0 55 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85, MB8G5A:85, 3C<0=8B0@=K5 0A?5:BK, 81> ?@>1;5<0 8=20;84=>AB8 =5 B>;L:> <548F8=A:0O, ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O, ?5403>38G5A:0O 8;8 M:>=><8G5A:0O, =>, ?@5645 2A53>, =@02AB25==0O. AB>@8O >B=>H5=8O >1I5AB20 : 8=20;840< :@09=5 4@0<0B8G=0 8 87>18;C5B ?@8<5@0<8 :0: 15AG5;>25G=>3>, B0: 8 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 65@B25==>3> 8 <8;>A5@4=>3> >1@0I5=8O A =8<8. K =5 157 3>@4>AB8 >A>7=05<, GB> A?5F80;L=K5 ?A8E>;>38 2A5340 >BAB0820;8 845N 3C<0==>3> >B=>H5=8O : ;N4O< A >3@0=8G5==K<8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 2 @0728B88. 5;0;>AL MB> 4065 B>340, :>340 ?>4>1=K5 8458 =5 =0E>48;8 2 >1I5AB25 ?>445@6:8 8 >4>1@5=8O.  2 B><, GB> A53>4=O >B=>H5=85 >1I5AB20 : 8=20;840< 3C<0=878@C5BAO, ?CABL <54;5==> 8 ?@>B82>@5G82>, => 70B> @50;L=>, 0 =5 =0 A;>20E, =5 ?>A;54=OO @>;L ?@8=04;568B 8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. #<5AB=> 2A?><=8BL 0D>@87< >=DCF8O: 3;O48AL 2 >H81:8 G5;>25:0 8 ?>7=05HL AB5?5=L 53> G5;>25G=>AB8. "> 65 <>6=> A:070BL 8 > G5;>25G5AB25 2 F5;><. 0H8 >H81:8 8 701;C645=8O 8 =5;5?K5 ?@54@0AAC4:8 2 >B=>H5=88 8=20;84>2, 682CI85 8 ?> A59 45=L, 5ABL A2>5>1@07=0O <5@0 =0H59 3C<0==>AB8 8 <8;>A5@48O. 5 <5=55 B>G=> MB8 A2>9AB20 >B@0605B 8 B>, =0A:>;L:> 3;C1>:> <K <>65< >A>7=0BL A2>8 >H81:8, 871028BLAO >B ?@54@0AAC4:>2, =5 4>AB>9=KE G5;>25:0, 8 87<5=8BL A2>5 >B=>H5=85 : B5<, :B> =C6405BAO 2 =0H59 ?><>I8. ;O =0G0;0 4>AB0B>G=> CA2>8BL ?@>ABCN <KA;L: A0<0 ?> A515 8=20;84=>ABL =5 A>7405B =8:0:8E >A>15==KE, A?5F80;L=KE B@C4=>AB59, => >=0 CA;>6=O5B >1I5G5;>25G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K, 4>?>;=8B5;L=> 70B@C4=OO ?@>F5AA 8E @07@5H5=8O. 5 ?>A;54=NN @>;L 2 MB>< 83@05B =530B82=>5, 157@07;8G=>5 8;8 ?@>AB> D>@<0;L=> >BAB@0=5==>5 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 2545=85 >B=>H5=85 >1I5AB20 : 8=20;84C.  =5 B>;L:> : =5<C, => 8 : 53> 1;8609H5<C >:@C65=8N. '5;>25G5A:0O :C;LBC@0 ?@>872>4=0 >B G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O, :0: 8 A0<> A>7=0=85 5ABL ?@>4C:B G5;>25G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K, ACI5AB2>20=85 :>B>@>9 >?@0240=> ;8HL 2 B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 >=0 A?>A>1=0 A>459AB2>20BL @50;870F88 2KAH8E G5;>25G5A:8E ?>B@51=>AB59 2 A2>1>45, B2>@G5AB25, A0<>0:BC0;870F88, A<KA;5, ;N128, >1I5=88, A0<>C2065=88, 157>?0A=>AB8 8 4@. @02> =0 2>?;>I5=85 MB8E ?>B@51=>AB59 ?@8=04;568B 2A5< ;N4O<, =57028A8<> >B @0AK, =0F8>=0;L=>AB8, 2>7@0AB0, ?>;0 8;8 C@>2=O D878G5A:>3> 8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. ">;L:> 2 MB>< A<KA;5 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > 2A5>1I5< @025=AB25 2A5E ?5@54 2A5<8. <5==> B0: =0< 2848BAO ?>4;8==>5 2K@065=85 3C<0=87<0 8 <8;>A5@48O. !8AB5<0 A?5F80;L=>3> >1@07>20=8O, :0: 8 ?@0:B8G5A:0O @01>B0 A?5F80;L=>3> ?A8E>;>30, 5ABL :>=:@5B=>5 2>?;>I5=85 3C<0=8AB8G5A:>3> ?>4E>40 2 ?>=8<0=88 ?@8@>4K G5;>25:0. @>3@5AA F828;870F88, >15A?5G820NI89 B5E=8G5A:CN 2>>@C65==>ABL G5;>25:0 =0 ?CB8 @50;870F88 53> 28B0;L=KE =C64, 2?>;=5 >?@0240=, E>BO 8 =5 ;8H5= 42CA<KA;5==>AB8, B0: :0: =0CG=K5 8 B5E=8G5A:85 4>AB865=8O =5 2A5340 ?@8=>AOB >4=C ;8HL ?>;L7C. C;LBC@0 65 2 >B;8G85 >B F828;870F88 ?@8720=0 ?><>30BL G5;>25:C 2 @5H5=88 53> M:78AB5=F80;L=KE ?@>1;5<.  2 MB>< A<KA;5 :@8B5@88 @0728B8O :C;LBC@K 2 >B;8G85 >B CA;>289 @0728B8O F828;870F88 2K3;O4OB 7=0G8B5;L=> A;>6=55. 4=8< 87 B0:8E :@8B5@852 <>65B A;C68BL ?>AB5?5==>5 8 ?>78B82=>5 87<5=5=85 >B=>H5=8O >1I5AB20 : 8=20;840<, ?@87=0=85 @025=AB20 8E ?@02 A> 74>@>2K<8 ;N4L<8, AB@5<;5=85 CAB0=02;820BL ?0@8B5B=K5 8 ?@>4C:B82=K5 >B=>H5=8O. !25@E B>3>, ?@87=0=85 D0:B0, GB> >1I5AB2> >1O70=> ?> =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?><>30BL 8=20;840<, B0: 8;8 8=0G5 4>;6=> ?5@5@0AB8 2 >A>7=0=85 MB>9 ?><>I8 :0: 206=59H59 ?>B@51=>AB8 ;N1>3> G5;>25G5A:>3> :>;;5:B820. !53>4=O <K AB>8< 5I5 B>;L:> 2 =0G0;5 A;>6=>3> ?CB8 =@02AB25==>3> A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O. > <>6=> A C25@5==>ABLN A:0- 8 70BL, GB> ;N48, 871@02H85 2 :0G5AB25 1C4CI59 ?@>D5AA88 A?5 -F80;L=CN ?A8E>;>38N, B5< A0<K< A45;0;8 =0 MB>< ?CB8 ?5@2K9, => >G5=L 206=K9 H03. ! 45BAB20 7=0:><K9 :064><C 87 =0A 0=B8G=K9 0D>@87< 2 74>@>2>< B5;5 74>@>2K9 4CE ?@54?>;0305B, GB> 2 1>;L=>< B5;5 74>@>2>3> 4CE0 1KBL =5 <>65B. > 459AB28B5;L=>ABL =0 :064>< H03C >?@>25@305B :0B53>@8G=>ABL MB>3> ?>;>65=8O.  A0<K<8 C1548B5;L=K<8 0@3C<5=B0<8 745AL O2;ONBAO AC4L1K <=>38E 8=20;84>2, ACI5AB2>20=85 :>B>@KE >?@0240=> 2 B>9 65 <5@5, GB> 8 687=L B0: =07K205<KE =>@<0;L=KE, 74>@>2KE ;N459. A5 459AB28B5;L=>5 @07C<=>; 2A5 @07C<=>5 459AB28B5;L=> (535;L). >7<>6=>, 2KAH89 A<KA; ACI5AB2>20=8O 1>;L=KE 2 B>< 8 A>AB>8B, GB>1K 74>@>2K9 G5;>25:, ?@>O2;OO : =8< <8;>A5@485 8 A>AB@040=85, B5< A0<K< 4CE>2=> A>25@H5=AB2>20;AO, 87102;OOAL >B ?@54@0AAC4:>2, :>B>@K5 A0< 8 A>74020;, ?@82KG=> 45;O A>F80;L=K9 <8@ =0 <K (74>@>2K5) 8 >=8 (8=20;84K).  A2O78 A MB8< E>G5BAO 2A?><=8BL >4=C 87 =081>;55 F8B8@C5<KE <KA;59 . !. K3>BA:>3> > B><, GB> @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> <548F8=0 ?>1548B 701>;520=8O, ?@82>4OI85 : A;5?>B5, 3;CE>B5, C<AB25==>9 >BAB0;>AB8 8 B. 4. > 7=0G8B5;L=> @0=LH5 >1I5AB2> 4>;6=> ?@5>4>;5BL MB8 =54C38 A>F80;L=>. 0<5B8<, GB> . !. K3>BA:89 3>2>@8B > A>F80;L=>9 ?>1545 :0: > 45;5 1C4CI53>, OA=> ?>=8<0O, :0: A;>6=0 MB0 7040G0. @O4 ;8 <>6=> CB5H8BL 8=20;840 <KA;LN > B><, GB> :>340-=81C4L 701>;520=85, >B :>B>@>3> >= AB@0405B, 1C45B 87;5G8<K<. '5;>25: 2?@025 68BL A53>4=O, 0 =5 :>340-B> 2 1C4CI5<, ?CABL 2 AB5A=5==KE 1>;57=LN CA;>28OE, => 687=LN 4>AB>9=>9 G5;>25:0. KA>:89 3C<0=8AB8G5A:89 8 A>F80;L=K9 A<KA; A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 <>65B, =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4, :>=B@0AB8@>20BL A 55 :06CI8<AO A:>@><=K<, => >B=N4L =5 ?@>ABK< A>45@60=85<. "0:>20 ;N10O =0C:0, 8 ?A8E>;>38O 2 B>< G8A;5. !CE0O D0:B>;>38O ?@5>1@0605BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 A2>53> 0=0;870 8 8=B5@?@5B0F88, >1@5B0O B5< A0<K< =>2K9 >A>1K9 A<KA;. @>F5AA =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O  MB> 2A5340 42865=85 <KA;8 >B >4=>3> ?0@04>:A0 : 4@C3><C, 81> 2=5 53> =0C:0 =5 ACI5AB2C5B. !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 2545=85 . 8=71C@3 25AL<0 B>G=> >4=064K 70<5B8;0, GB> ?A8E>;>38O :0: =0C:0 =0G8=05BAO =5 A 8=B5@5A0 : 4CH52=>9 687=8 G5;>25:0, 0 A >ICI5=8O 55 ?0@04>:A0;L=>AB8.  MB>< A<KA;5 A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5 :>;;5:F8N ?>;><>: G5;>25G5A:>9 ?A8E8:8, 0 ?>?KB:C >1JOA=8BL 8 ?>=OBL C4828B5;L=CN A?>A>1=>ABL =0H53> A>7=0=8O A>E@0=OBL A2>N F5;>AB=>ABL 2 ?@545;L=> A;>6=KE CA;>28OE ACI5AB2>20=8O, 45<>=AB@8@CO ?@8 MB>< ?>4G0A >1@07FK 2KA>G09H8E 4>AB865=89 G5;>25G5A:>3> 4CE0. >2>@O > :>=B5:AB0E A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, :>B>@K5 >?@545;ONB 55 ?@54<5B=>5 A>45@60=85 8 D>@<8@>20=85 >B45;L=KE >B@0A;59, 70=8<0NI8EAO 87CG5=85< @07;8G=KE D>@< 487>=B>35=570, <K =5 4>;6=K C?CAB8BL 87 284C 5I5 >48= 87 =8E  @5018;8B0F8>==K9 8 25AL<0 1;87:89 : =5<C ?> A>45@60=8N  8=B53@0F8>==K9. 5018;8B0F8O  >?@545;5==K< >1@07>< >@30=87>20==0O 8 =0?@02;5==0O A8AB5<0 <5@>?@8OB89  A2O70=0 =5 AB>;L:> A 2>AAB0=>2;5=85< :0:8E-B> >B45;L=KE DC=:F89, E>BO MB> 8 O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 55 1078A=KE 7040G, ?>2KH0O 040?B0F8>==K9 ?>B5=F80; ;8G=>AB8, A:>;L:> >@85=B8@>20=0 =0 @5>@30=870F8N 8 >?B8<870F8N A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 1KB8O ;8G=>AB8, ?@82545=85 2 A>>B25BAB285 2>7<>6=>AB59 G5;>25:0 A 53> ?>B@51=>ABO<8, 0 B0:65 A F5==>ABO<8. >;3>5 2@5<O 2 =0H5< >1I5AB25 4><8=8@>20;0 845O, A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 C<5=LH5=85 DC=:F8>=0;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 G5;>25:0 4>;6=> 02B><0B8G5A:8 ?@82>48BL : AC65=8N :@C30 53> ?>B@51=>AB59.  3;02=>5, 2 >B=>H5=88 8=20;84>2 @5GL, :0: ?@028;>, 25;0AL >1 M;5<5=B0@=KE ?>B@51=>ABOE, 0 =5 > F5==>ABOE, >?@545;ONI8E ACI=>ABL 687=8. "0:85 ?>=OB8O, :0: 8=20;84 8 8=20;84=>ABL, :0: ?@028;>, A>45@60B ?5@5G8A;5=85 G0AB=KE =5A?>A>1=>AB59, 157 2AO:>9 AAK;:8 =0 G5;>25G5A:CN ;8G=>ABL. 57;8G=>3> 8=482840 ?@>I5 >B>645AB2;OBL A M;5<5=B0@=K<8 ?>B@51=>ABO<8, G5< A F5==>ABO<8, @07;8G85 <564C :>B>@K<8 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> ?5@2K5 B>;:0NB G5;>25:0 A7048 ?><8<> 53> 2>;8, 0 2B>@K5 ?@8BO3820NB : A515 A?5@548. <5==> =0;8G85 F5==>AB59 >?@545;O5B ?>4;8==>5 1KB85 G5;>25:0. ><>IL 10 , 2 C4>2;5B2>@5=88 M;5<5=B0@=KE ?>B@51=>AB59 <>6=> =0720BL ?@>ABK< >1A;C6820=85<, => =5 @5018;8B0F859 2 8AB8==>< A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20. >A;54=OO ?@54?>;0305B A>740=85 B0:8E CA;>289, ?@8 :>B>@KE G5;>25: A >3@0=8G5==K<8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 8<5; 1K <8=8<0;L=K5 ?@5?OBAB28O 2 @50;870F88 A2>8E ;8G=>AB=KE F5==>AB59. @><5 B>3>, @5018;8B0F8O B0: 8;8 8=0G5 4>;6=0 >?8@0BLAO =0 0:B82=>ABL 8=20;840, ?>445@6820O 8 C:@5?;OO 55. !>1AB25==>5 1KB85 ?5@568205BAO G5;>25:>< :0: =5GB> ?>;=>F5==>5 B>;L:> B>340, :>40 >= >A>7=05B, GB> =5 4>;65= GB>-B> 640BL >B 687=8, 0 MB> A0<0 687=L 645B G53>-B> >B =53> (. $@0=:8).  F5==>AB8, 8 0:B82=>ABL ;8G=>AB8 B0: 8;8 8=0G5 =0?@02;5=K =0 4@C3>3> 8=482840. 0?@8<5@, B@C4 ?@8>1@5B05B AB0BCA F5==>AB8 B>;L:> B>340, :>340 >:07K205BAO ?>;575= 4;O :>3>-B>, 0 =5 ?@>AB> O2;O5BAO 70=OB85< 4;O G5;>25:0. 5GB> ?>E>655 <K >1=0@C68< 8 ?@8 @0AA<>B@5=88 ?@>1;5<K 8=B53@8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. I5 2A53> ?>;B>@0 45AOB8;5B8O =0704 ?>4>1=0O ?@>1;5<0 @0AA<0B@820;0AL :0: M:7>B8G5A:0O D>@<0 M:A?5@8<5=B8@>20=8O, =5 8<5NI0O =8:0:8E ?5@A?5:B82. !D5@0 8=B53@8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O, :0: 8 AD5@0 @5018;8B0F88, 2> <=>3>< A2O70=0 A A>>B=>H5=85< 2>7<>6=>AB59 8 F5==>AB59 G5;>25:0. "5< =5 <5=55 ?><8<> A>1AB25==KE >@30=870F8>==KE 8 <5B>48G5A:8E 2>?@>A>2, MB0 ?@>1;5<0B8:0 8<55B 8 >A>1>5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 A>45@60=85, A2O70==>5 A ?>=OB85< A>F80;L=0O A8BC0F8O @0728B8O.  40==>< A;CG05 @5GL 845B >1 C=8:0;L=>9 A8BC0F88 @0728B8O 2 CA;>28OE 487>=B>35=570. =0 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 >B;8G05BAO >B B@048F8>==>9, E0@0:B5@=>9 4;O ?@>F5AA0 >1CG5=8O 2 :>@@5:F8>==KE CG@5645=8OE. #A;>28O 8=B53@8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, B@51CNB >B @515=:0 8 53> 1;8609H53> >:@C65=8O 7=0G8B5;L=KE CA8;89, => A 4@C3>9, ?@54>AB02;ONB 1>;LH85 2>7<>6=>AB8 2 A0<>@50;870F88. 7 2A53> 2KH5A:070==>3> AB0=>28BAO OA=>, GB> ?@54<5B=>5 A>45@60=85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, >?@545;O5<>5 >1I8<8 :>=B5:AB0<8, 7=0G8B5;L=> H8@5 8 1>30G5 ?@>AB>9 A>2>:C?=>- 1J !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O AB8 55 G0AB=KE >B@0A;59. <5==> ?>MB><C >A=>2=>5 A>45@60=85 40==>3> CG51=>3> ?>A>18O ?>A2OI5=> 0=0;87C =5:>B>@KE >1I8E 2>?@>A>2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, <5=55 @07@01>B0==KE 2 A@02=5=88 A >B45;L=K<8 D>@<0<8 487>=B>35=570, ?@54AB02;5==K<8 2 <=>3>G8A;5==KE <>=>3@0D8OE 8 CG51=KE ?>A>18OE. ;020 1  "  ' !&, !% !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O <>65B 1KBL >E0@0:B5@87>20=0 :0: >4=0 87 AB0@59H8E ?@8:;04=KE >B@0A;59 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8, GB> A;54C5B ?>=8<0BL 1C:20;L=>, :0: A8AB5<C 8A?>;L7>20=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 7=0=89 2 @5H5=88 :>=:@5B=KE ?@>1;5< ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0. "0:, ?@8<5=5=85 ?A8E>;>388 2 74@02>>E@0=5=88, ?@>A25I5=88, ?@><KH;5==>< ?@>872>4AB25 AB0;> >A=>2>9 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O B0:8E 55 ?@8:;04=KE >B@0A;59, :0: <548F8=A:0O, ?5403>38G5A:0O, B@C4>20O ?A8E>;>38O. @8:;04=>9 E0@0:B5@ A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 @0A:@K205BAO G5@57 55 8AB>@8G5A:85 A2O78 A :>@@5:F8>==>9 ?5403>38:>9. <5==> D>@<8@>20=85 8 @0728B85 A8AB5<K A?5F80;L=>3> >1@07>20=8O AB0;> >4=8< 87 >?@545;ONI8E, E>BO 40;5:> =5 548=AB25==K< D0:B>@>< 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 40==>9 =0C:8. 4=0:> =5 A;54C5B C?@>I5==> ?>=8<0BL ?@8G8=K 55 AB0=>2;5=8O 8 A2>48BL 8E ;8HL : D0:BC ?>O2;5=8O ?@0:B8:8 >1CG5=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. >B@51>20;0AL 4>2>;L=> 4;8B5;L=0O M2>;NF8O A0<>9 ?@0:B8:8, ?@5645 G5< ?@8H;> >A>7=0=85 =5>1E>48<>AB8 3;C1>:8E 8 2A5AB>@>==8E 7=0=89 >1 >A>15==>ABOE =0@CH5==>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O @07=KE 3@C?? 45B59 :0: 206=>3> D0:B>@0 MDD5:B82=>9 CG51=>-2>A?8B0B5;L=>9 @01>BK A =8<8. > 8 MB>3> >:070;>AL =54>AB0B>G=>, 81> A0<0 ?A8E>;>38O 4>;6=0 1K;0 4>AB8GL B>3> C@>2=O 7@5;>AB8, ?@8 :>B>@>< A<>3;0 1K >B25B8BL =0 70?@>AK 8 ?>- 13 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O B@51=>AB8 ?@0:B8:8. CB8 8AB>@8G5A:>3> @0728B8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >?@545;ONBAO ?5@5?;5B5=85< 42CE M2>;NF8>==KE @O4>2, ?>AB>O==> 2708<>459AB2CNI8E 4@C3 A 4@C3><,  A8AB5<K A?5F80;L=>3> :>@@5:F8>==>3> >1@07>20=8O 8 A0<>3> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 7=0=8O. !;>2>A>G5B0=85 A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ?@>G=> C:>@5=8;>AL 2 AD5@5 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >1I5=8O 8 402=> =0H;> A2>5 >B@065=85 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A>2@5<5==KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E A;>20@59. <5AB5 A B5< =5>4=>:@0B=> 45;0;8AL ?>?KB:8 70<5=K MB>3> B5@<8=0 :0: =5 2?>;=5 C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=>3> A B>G:8 7@5=8O 0:045<8G5A:>3> ?>4E>40, B0: :0: >= =5 @0A:@K205B A2>5>1@078O ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O 40==>3> =0CG=>3> =0?@02;5=8O.  =0720=8OE 4@C38E ?@8:;04=KE >B@0A;59 ?A8E>;>388  <548F8=A:>9, ?>;8B8G5A:>9, :>A<8G5A:>9, 8=65=5@=>9, A?>@B82=>9 8 ?@. >BG5B;82> ?@>A<0B@8205BAO C:070=85 =0 AD5@C 8E ?@0:B8G5A:>3> ?@8<5=5=8O. <5==> MB8 M;5<5=BK =0720=89 8 D8:A8@CNB ?@54<5B=>5 A>45@60=85 40==KE 48AF8?;8= 8 >?@545;ONB 8E A?5F8D8:C ?> >B=>H5=8N :> 2A5< >AB0;L=K<.  B>< A;CG05, :>340 =0 <5AB5 ?>4>1=>3> A;>20 ?>O2;O5BAO B5@<8= A?5F80;L=0O, <K, ?> ACI5AB2C, AB0;:8205<AO A D5=><5=>< A<KA;>2>9 B02B>;>388. <5==> MB> >1AB>OB5;LAB2> 8 ?@825;> : ?>8A:0< =>2KE, 1>;55 045:20B=KE =0720=89. > 2 A2O78 A> 7=0G8B5;L=>9 C:>@5=5==>ABLN B5@<8=0 A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O MB8 ?>?KB:8, :0: ?@028;>, <0;> @57C;LB0B82=K, 8 ?@54;>65==K5 20@80=BK, B0:85 :0::>@@5:-F8>==0O ?A8E>;>38O 8;8 ?A8E>;>38O 487>=B>35=570, =5 ?>;CG8;8 H8@>:>3> C?>B@51;5=8O. @>1;5<0 =0720=8O <>65B ?>:070BLAO D>@<0;L=>9 8 2B>@>AB5?5==>9. > >=0 206=0 8 ?>:070B5;L=0 ?> :@09=59 <5@5 2 42CE >B=>H5=8OE. >-?5@2KE, ;>38:0 @0728B8O =0C:8 8 ;>38:0 @0728B8O O7K:0 1K20NB 25AL<0 ?@>B82>@5G82K. @O4 ;8 <>6=> >?@545;8BL, :B> 8 :>340 ?@54;>68; B5@<8= A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. >, 4065 1C4CG8 =5B>G=K< 2 >B=>H5=88 ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O =0C:8, >= ?@>G=> C:>@5=8;AO 2 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>< A;>20@5. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, <>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> :>;;878O A =0720=85< 40==>9 48AF8?;8=K 5ABL =5 14  ;020 1. @54<5B 8 7040G8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 GB> 8=>5, :0: 25AL<0 A2>5>1@07=>5 8 =5 >A>7=0205<>5 >B@065=85 ?@>1;5<K >?@545;5=8O 55 ?@54<5B0. ! <5B>4>;>38G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 2>?@>A ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O 4;O ;N1>9 =0C:8 O2;O5BAO :0@48=0;L=K<, ?@5645 2A53> ?>B><C, GB> 70405B 3@0=8FK >B@0A;52>9 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 >?@545;O5B E0@0:B5@ 2708<>>B=>H5=89 A 4@C38<8 48AF8?;8=0<8. <5AB5 A B5< ?@>F5AA =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O 2 A2>N >G5@54L >:07K205B 2;8O=85 =0 87<5=5=85 ?@54AB02;5=89 > ?@54<5B5 87CG5=8O, B> @0AH8@OO, B> AC60O 53> 3@0=8FK.  A>7=0=88 ?@>D5AA8>=0;>2 A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O G0AB> 0AA>F88@C5BAO A A>2>:C?=>ABLN 55 >B@0A;59: ?A8E>;>3859 A;5?KE, 3;CE8E, C<AB25==> >BAB0;KE 8 B. 4. -B> >?@545;5=85 <>6=> ?@8=OBL ;8HL A >?@545;5==>9 4>;59 CA;>2=>AB8.  B0:>< A;CG05 B5@<8= A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O B5@O5B 2AO:89 A<KA;, AB0=>28BAO =5:8< A>18@0B5;L=K< =0720=85<, ?@>AB>9 >1>;>G:>9, 157@07;8G=>9 : A2>5<C A>45@60=8N. !0<8 ?> A515 C:070==K5 @0745;K A>AB02;ONB ;8HL 53> G0ABL, :>B>@0O =5 <>65B 70<5=8BL A>1>9 F5;>5. -B> F5;>5 8<55B B5=45=F8N : @0AH8@5=8N: ?>O2;ONBAO =>2K5 3@C??K 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. "5< =5 <5=55 :>=AB@C8@>20=85 ?@54<5B0 =0C:8 4>;6=> 1KBL B0:8<, GB>1K >= <>3 >1J548=8BL @07=>@>4=K5 0A?5:BK 8 >4=>2@5<5==> 7040BL =5:>B>@K5 @0<:8, 3@0=8FK A2>53> A>45@60=8O. 1I55 ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?@54<5B5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A2O70=> A ?@>F5AA>< 87CG5=8O 70:>=><5@=>AB59 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O. 07=K5 20@80=BK 40==>3> D5=><5=0 G0AB> >1>7=0G0NBAO B5@<8=>< 487>=B>35=57. "0:, 2 =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==>< >?@545;5=88 ?@54<5B0 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 C:07K205BAO =0 ?@>F5AA 8AA;54>20=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 0=><0;L=KE 45B59, 45D5:B :>B>@KE >1CA;>2;5= 48DDC7=K< ?>@065=85< :>@K 3>;>2=>3> <>730, =0@CH5=85< 45OB5;L=>AB8 0=0;870B>@>2, =54>@0728B85< @5G8 ?@8 A>E@0=5=88 A;CE0 (A8E>;>38G5A:89 A;>20@L. ., 1986, A.309).  4@C3>< >?@545;5=88 3>2>@8BAO >1 87CG5=88 ;N459, 4;O :>B>@KE E0@0:B5@=> >B:;>=5=85 >B =>@<0;L=>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, A2O70==>5 A 15 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 1. @54<5B 8 7040G8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2@>645==K<8 8;8 ?@8>1@5B5==K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 D>@<8@>20=8O =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K {!?5F80;L=0O ?5403>38:0/>4. @54. 070@>2>9. ., 2000, A. 67)  ?@>F8B8@>20==KE >?@545;5=8OE A<KA;>2K5 0:F5=BK =5 B>G=> @0AAB02;5=K. @5645 2A53>, A0< ?@54<5B A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?>4<5=O5BAO ?5@5G8A;5=85< 55 >B@0A;59, GB> A@07C ?@82>48B : CB@0B5 53> F5;>AB=>AB8. @><5 B>3>, A0<8E >B@0A;59 ACI5AB2C5B 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH5, G5< ?@54AB02;5=> 2 40==>9 45D8=8F88. 1@0I05B =0 A51O 2=8<0=85 8 B>B D0:B, GB> 2 ?5@2>< >?@545;5=88 3>2>@8BAO >1 0=><0;L=KE 45BOE, 0 2> 2B>@><  > ;N4OE A E0@0:B5@=K<8 >B:;>=5=8O<8 >B =>@<0;L=>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. "5< =5 <5=55 A0<> ?>=OB85 0=><0;L=K5 45B8 =C6405BAO 2 ?>OA=5=88. > B>B 65 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 A;>20@L, 3>2>@O > 45BOE A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 (A>2@5<5==K9 0=0;>3 @0AA<0B@8205<>3> B5@<8=0) C:07K205B, GB> >B:;>=5=8O 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 <>3CB 1KBL 2K720=K A5=A>@=K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8, ?>@065=8O<8 F5=B@0;L=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, 42830B5;L=K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8, BO65;K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 @5G8 {A8E>;>38G5A:89 A;>20@L. ., 1996, A.90). > ACB8, MB> >?@545;5=85 ?>2B>@O5B ?5@2CN 87 ?@82545==KE 45D8=8F89 ?@54<5B0 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, :>B>@K9 : B><C 65 =5?@02><5@=> AC605BAO 2 2>7@0AB=>< >B=>H5=88, B0: :0: A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 87CG05B =5 B>;L:> ;8F 45BA:>3> 2>7@0AB0. -B>B =54>AB0B>: 2>A?>;=O5BAO 2> 2B>@>< >?@545;5=88, 345 3>2>@8BAO C65 > ;N4OE (=5 B>;L:> > 45BOE), => ?@8 MB>< =5 C:07K205BAO, GB> 8<5==> 87CG05BAO C MB8E ;N459, 4;O :>B>@KE E0@0:B5@=K >B:;>=5=8O >B =>@<0;L=>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ;8F0 A ?>4>1=K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 <>3CB 1KBL >1J5:B>< 8AA;54>20=8O <=>38E =0C:  <548F8=K, 18>;>388, A>F8>;>388, ?5403>38:8 8 B. 4.  >4=>< 87 ?@82545==KE >?@545;5=89 5ABL B@51C5<0O AAK;:0: @5GL 845B >1 87CG5=88 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59. > :0:85 MB> >A>15==>AB8  2>7@0AB=K5, 8=48284C0;L=K5, ?>;>2K5, ?0B>;>38G5A:85 8 ?@., >?OBL 65 =5 A:070=>. #?>B@51;5=85 MB>3> A;>20, ?>-2848<><C, >7=0G05B, GB> >A=>2=>9 0:F5=B 2 87CG5=88 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 4>;- 16 65= 1KBL A45;0= =0 8E >B;8G8OE >B =>@<0;L=> @072820NI8EAO. > 2A5AB>@>==55 8AA;54>20=85 =5 <>65B >3@0=8G8BLAO D8:A0F859 >4=8E >B;8G89. => 4>;6=> B0:65 2KO2;OBL 8 AE>4AB20, GB> 8<55B 3>@074> 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85. "0:8< >1@07><, 4065 :@0B:89 0=0;87 =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==KE >?@545;5=89 ?@54<5B0 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ;8H=89 @07 4>:07K205B A;>6=>ABL ?>AB02;5==>9 7040G8. A;8 ?>?KB0BLAO 40BL :@0B:>5 >?@545;5=85 ?@54<5B0 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, B> ?@5645 2A53> A;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> >=0 87CG05B =5 A0<8 D5=><5=K =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O, :0: >1KG=> ?@8=OB> AG8B0BL. (1> MB8 8E <>3CB 87CG0BL 8 4@C385 =0C:8.) !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 8AA;54C5B @07;8G=K5 D>@<K 8 AB>@>=K @0728B8O ?A8E8:8 2 =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>28OE. =0G5 3>2>@O, 55 <>65B 8=B5@5A>20BL B>, :0: ?@>B5:05B ?@>F5AA ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2 A0<KE @07=KE ?0B>35==KE A8BC0F8OE; :0: 8 :0:8< >1@07>< <>3CB 87<5=OBLAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B <=>3>>1@07=KE ?0@0<5B@>2 MB8E CA;>289 @07;8G=K5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?A8E>35=570. !>25@H5==> >G5284=>, GB> 2 40==>< :>=B5:AB5 >A>1K9 8AA;54>20B5;LA:89 8=B5@5A 1C45B A2O70= B0:65 A 87CG5=85< 70?0A0 ?@>G=>AB8 ?@>F5AA0 @0728B8O. 0:8< >1@07>< ?A8E8:5, 4065 2 >A;>6=5==KE, AB5A=5==KE CA;>28OE, C405BAO A>E@0=OBL A2>N F5;>AB=>ABL, @50;87CO >A=>2=K5 DC=:F88 ?> 045:20B=><C >B@065=8N >:@C60NI53> <8@0 8 @53C;OF88 ?>2545=8O? 0:>20 AB@C:BC@0 8 48=0<8:0 MB8E :><?5=A0B>@=KE A?>A>1=>AB59? =0;878@CO ?@>F5AA @0728B8O 2 AB0=40@B=KE CA;>28OE 53> ?@>B5:0=8O, >B25B8BL =0 MB8 2>?@>AK 25AL<0 A;>6=>. #?><O=CBK5 2 =0H5< >?@545;5=88 =51;03>?@8OB=K5 A8BC0F88 A0<8 ?> A515 =5 2A5340 A?>A>1=K 2K720BL >B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88.  :>=5G=>< AG5B5, <=>3>5 1C45B >?@545;OBLAO A>G5B0=85< @07=>>1@07=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: 8=482840, >?>A@54CNI8E 8E 2>7459AB285. <5==> ?>MB><C >4=8 8 B5 65 CA;>28O 4;O @07=KE ;N459 <>3CB 8<5BL @07;8G=K5 ?>A;54AB28O. 51;03>?@8OB=0O A8BC0F8O ?@87=05BAO ?0B>35==>9, A?>A>1=>9 A?@>2>F8@>20BL B5 8;8 8=K5 >B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88, 5A;8 A8;0 55 2>7459AB28O ?@52KH05B :><?5=A0B>@=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 8=482840 8 >B=>A8B5;L=> CAB>9G82> 17 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O.r-A % 87<5=O5B E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 0:BC0;L=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O ?A8E8:8 2 ?0@0<5B@0E B>G=>AB8, ?>;=>BK 8 A:>@>AB8 >B@060B5;L=KE 8 @53C;OB>@=KE DC=:F89 8 2 @57C;LB0B5 87<5=O5B B5<? 55 2>7@0AB=>3> @0728B8O. >2>@O > B><, GB> A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 87CG05B ?@>F5AA @0728B8O, ?@>B5:0NI89 2 >A;>6=5==KE CA;>28OE, :>B>@K5 A0<8 ?> A515 =5 <>3CB 87<5=8BL 53> ACI=>AB8 8 =0?@02;5==>AB8, => ?@840NB 5<C >?@545;5==CN A?5F8D8:C 2 D>@<5 >A>1>3> A?>A>10 @50;870F88, <K <>65< 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 B>G=> >G5@B8BL @0<:8 ?@54<5B0 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, =5 A2>4O 2A5 55 A>45@60=85 : ?A8E>;>388 A;5?>BK, 3;CE>BK, C<AB25==>9 >BAB0;>AB8 8 B. ?.  :0G5AB25 B0:>2KE <>3CB 2KABC?0BL =5 B>;L:> =0@CH5=8O 2 45OB5;L=>AB8 0=0;870B>@>2, >?>@=>-42830B5;L=>3> 0??0@0B0, @07=>>1@07=K5 F5@51@0;L=K5, @5G52K5 @0AAB@>9AB20, B> 5ABL D0:B>@K 2=CB@5==53> ?>@O4:0. ><8<> MB>3> <>6=> 3>2>@8BL 8 > 2=5H=8E =51;03>?@8OB=KE D0:B>@0E, H8@>:89 A?5:B@ :>B>@KE D>@<8@C5BAO ?@8 A5@L57=KE 8 4;8B5;L=KE 45D>@<0F8OE A>F80;L=>9 A8BC0F88 @0728B8O  BO65;K5 ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI85 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 687=8, 2>A?8B0=85 70 ?@545;0<8 A5<L8, =5A>>B25BAB2CNI85 2>7@0ABC @515=:0 >1@07 687=8, 284K 45OB5;L=>AB8, B@51>20=8O 8 >6840=8O A> AB>@>=K 27@>A;KE. >A;54=55 <>65B :0A0BLAO, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 45B59, @0=> 8 O@:> ?@>O282H8E :0:>5-B> 40@>20=85 8 2 A2O78 A MB8< =0G8=02H8< @0==NN ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=CN ?>43>B>2:C, 0 B> 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL. 065 A0<0 ?> A515 =5AB0=40@B=>ABL >40@5==KE 45B59 <>65B ACI5AB25==> <5=OBL A8AB5<C >B=>H5=89 : =8<, GB> A?>A>1=> 2KABC?8BL 2 :0G5AB25 >A;>6=5==>9 A8BC0F88 @0728B8O. 5;5=85 =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>289 =0 2=CB@5==85 8 2=5H=85 4>AB0B>G=> CA;>2=>.  @50;L=>9 687=8 2=CB@5==85 CA;>28O <>3CB A?@>2>F8@>20BL D>@<8@>20=85 F5;>3> @O40 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE 2=5H=8E. "0:, 45B8 A =0@CH5=8O<8 >G5=L G0AB> 2>A?8BK20NBAO 2 A8BC0F88 4><0H=59 87>;OF88, =5 8<5O 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?>;=>F5==>3> >1I5=8O A> A25@AB=8:0<8, GB> =5 <>65B =5 A:070BLAO =0 E0@0:B5@5 8E ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O.  =0>1>@>B, 2=5H=85 =51;03>?@8OB=K5 CA;>28O A> 2@5<5=5< 18  ;020 1. @54<5B 8 7040G8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A?>A>1=K B@0=AD>@<8@>20BLAO 2> 2=CB@5==85. ;8B5;L=>5 ?@51K20=85 @515=:0 2 A8BC0F88 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> =0?@O65=8O 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5, :0: ?@028;>, ?@82>48B : CAB>9G82K< A1>O< 2 @01>B5 F5=B@0;L=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K 8 =0@CH5=8O< ?>2545=8O. ><8<> A:070==>3> A;54C5B >A>1> ?>4G5@:=CBL 8 B>, GB> :@C3 =530B82=KE D0:B>@>2 @0728B8O, >?8AK205<KE @07=K<8 =0C:0<8, ?>AB>O==> @0AH8@O5BAO, GB>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?@82>48B : A>>B25BAB2CNI5<C CA;>6=5=8N ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 064K9 @07 59 ?@8E>48BAO A>?>AB02;OBL E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?0B>35==KE CA;>289 A 87<5=5=8O<8 2 ?0@0<5B@0E ?@>F5AA0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, 2K45;OO =081>;55 B8?8G=K5 A@548 =8E. "0:8< >1@07><, >1>7=0G82 >1;0ABL ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, <K ?>4G5@:=C;8 :0: 55 C=8:0;L=>ABL ?> A@02=5=8N A 4@C38<8 @0745;0<8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8, B0: 8 548=AB2> A =8<8. =>385 >B@0A;8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 7=0=8O 87CG0NB A2>9 ?@54<5B 8<5==> A B>G:8 7@5=8O CA;>289. 5403>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O 8AA;54C5B ?A8E8:C 2 CA;>28OE CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, <548F8=A:0O  2 CA;>28OE B>3> 8;8 8=>3> 701>;520=8O 8 ?@>F5AA0 ;5G5=8O, B@C4>20O  2 CA;>28OE ?@>872>4AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 B. 4. 0;8G85 A>1AB25==>3> ?@54<5B0 8AA;54>20=8O >?@545;O5B 8 :>=:@5B=K5 7040G8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. N10O =0C:0 2A5340 AB@5<8BAO @0A:@KBL 8 2>A?@>8725AB8 =081>;55 >1I85 70:>=K A2>53> ?@54<5B0. >, ?@5645 2A53>, >=0 4>;6=0 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 B>G=> @0A:@KBL 53> ACI=>ABL, 81> C:070BL =0 ?@54<5B 8 CAB0=>28BL 53> ?@8@>4C 40;5:> =5 >4=> 8 B> 65. @54<5B>< A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 <K =0720;8 87CG5=85 ?@>F5AA0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2 AB5A=5==KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E. !0<> 65 =0@CH5==>5 @0728B85, O2;ONI55AO A;54AB285< 2>7459AB28O MB8E >1AB>OB5;LAB2, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 AB>9:>5 87<5=5=85 ?0@0<5B@>2 0:BC0;L=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O ?A8E8:8 8 B5<?>2 55 2>7@0AB=>9 48=0<8:8, 4>AB>25@=> >B;8G0NI8EAO >B A@54=8E 7=0G5=89, E0@0:B5@=KE 4;O 40==>3> 2>7@0AB0. >2>@O > :>=:@5B=KE 7040G0E A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, =5>1E>48<> 2K45;8BL =081>;55 7=0G8<K5 A@548 =8E.  8E G8A-. 19 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;C <>6=> >B=5AB8 8AA;54>20=85 =5A:>;L:8E 3@C?? 70:>=><5@=>AB59 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, 0 8<5==>: 0) >A=>2=K5 8 >1I85, B> 5ABL 70:>=><5@=>AB8, ?> :>B>@K< @0728205BAO ?A8E8:0 2 >1KG=KE 8 =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA ;>28OE; 1) <>40;L=>-=5A?5F8D8G5A:85  @O4 >A>1KE 70:>=><5@ =>AB59, A2>9AB25==KE 2A5< 3@C??0< 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8 O<8 2 @0728B88 =57028A8<> >B E0@0:B5@0 >A=>2=>3> =0 @CH5=8O; 2) <>40;L=>-A?5F8D8G5A:85  >A>15==>AB8, A2>9AB25= =K5 :0:>9-B> >4=>9 3@C??5 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @07 28B88; 3) =0:>=5F, ?>A;54=OO 3@C??0 70:>=><5@=>AB59 A2O70=0 A CAB0=>2;5=85< 7028A8<>AB59 E0@0:B5@0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @07 28B8O >B A8;K 8 2K@065==>AB8 ?0B>35==>3> D0:B>@0, =0 ?@8<5@ >B AB5?5=8 8 2@5<5=8 ?>B5@8 A;CE0, >B 4;8B5;L =>AB8 A>AB>O=8O M<>F8>=0;L=>9 45?@820F88 8 4@.  40==>< A;CG05 @5GL 845B >1 CAB0=>2;5=88 8=48284C0;L=>-B8?>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 2=CB@8 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 2840 >B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88. !;54C5B >A>1> >B<5B8BL B>B D0:B, GB> A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O, =0G8=0O @072820BLAO :0: <=>3>>B@0A;520O 48AF8?;8=0, =0 ?5@2KE MB0?0E A2>53> AB0=>2;5=8O ?@58<CI5AB25==> 0:F5=B8@>20;0 2=8<0=85 =0 87CG5=88 <>40;L=>-A?5F8D8G5A:8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59. >765, 1;03>40@O 8AA;54>20=8O< . !. K3>BA:>3>, D>:CA AB0; ?>AB5?5==> A<5I0BLAO 2 >1;0ABL >1I8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59.  B>;L:> 2 A0<CN ?>A;54=NN >G5@54L =0G0;8AL ?>?KB:8 87CG5=8O <>40;L=>-=5A?5F8D8G5A:8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59. -B0 8AB>@8G5A:0O ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL A2O70=0 A >4=8< ?0@04>:A>< A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, =0 :>B>@K9 2?5@2K5 >1@0B8; 2=8<0=85 . . C1>2A:89. >A:>;L:C <>40;L=>-A?5F8D8G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 AB0;8 8AA;54>20BLAO @0=LH5, A>74020;>AL CAB>9G82>5 C15645=85 2 B><, GB> 8<5==> MB>B B8? 70:>=><5@=>AB59 87CG5= ;CGH5 4@C38E. =0;87 M<?8@8G5A:>3> <0B5@80;0, 0 3;02=>5, A?>A>1 53> ?>;CG5=8O, ?@8- 20  ;020 1. @54<5B 8 7040G8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 25; . . C1>2A:>3> : >1@0B=><C 2K2>4C. 5AOB8;5B8O<8 CG5=K< :070;>AL, GB> >=8 87CG0NB <>40;L=>-A?5F8D8G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8, => 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 @5GL H;0 > <>40;L=>-=5A?5F8D8G5A:8E. @8G8=>9 MB>3> AB0; @0A?@>AB@0=5==K9 =54>AB0B>: 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 AB@0B5388. @>2>4O M:A?5@8<5=B, 8AA;54>20B5;L, :0: ?@028;>, A>?>AB02;O; @57C;LB0BK, ?>;CG5==K5 =0 >4=>9 3@C??5 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88, A 0=0;>38G=>9 ?> 2>7@0ABC 3@C??>9 =>@<0;L=> @072820NI8EAO 45B59. KO2;5==K5 >B;8G8O @0AA<0B@820;8AL :0: A2>9AB25==K5 B>;L:> 4;O 40==>3> B8?0 >B:;>=5=8O. >A;54CNI85 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 >=8 B8?8G=K >4=>2@5<5==> 4;O =5A:>;L:8E 3@C?? 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 8 ?> ACB8 O2;ONBAO <>40;L=>-=5A?5F8D8G5A:8<8.  B5 8 4@C385 70:>=><5@=>AB8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 ;8HL A2>5>1@07=>5 ?@>O2;5=85 >1I8E, >A=>2=KE 70:>=>2 @0728B8O ?A8E8:8, E0@0:B5@=KE :0: 4;O A;CG052 =>@<K, B0: 8 4;O ?0B>;>388. AA;54>20=85 @07=KE B8?>2 70:>=><5@=>AB59, :0: 7040G0 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, A>?@O65=> B0:65 A 87CG5=85< :><?5=A0B>@=KE <5E0=87<>2, ?>72>;ONI8E A>7=0=8N G5;>25:0 ?@>4>;60BL @50;87>2K20BL A2>8 >A=>2=K5 DC=:F88 2 CA;>28OE 487>=B>35=570. 5@5G8A;5==K5 7040G8 ?> A2>5<C ACI5AB2C O2;ONBAO 8 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8<8 8 ?@8:;04=K<8 >4=>2@5<5==>. <5NI85AO 2 0@A5=0;5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A2545=8O >1 >A=>2=KE, <>40;L=>-=5A?5F8D8G5A:8E, <>40;L=>-A?5F8D8G5A:8E 8 8=48284C0;L=>-B8?>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>ABOE ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 45B59 A B5<8 8;8 8=K<8 >B:;>=5=8O<8 ?>72>;ONB 48DD5@5=F8@>20BL ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O MB8E 45B59, AB@>8BL 045:20B=K5 8 MDD5:B82=K5 :>@@5:F8>==K5 ?@>3@0<<K 4;O @01>BK A =8<8, A>740BL CA;>28O, ?@5?OBAB2CNI85 ?>O2;5=8N =>2KE >B:;>=5=89  ?@>2>48BL ?A8E>?@>D8;0:B8:C. "0:8< >1@07><, 25AL H8@>:89 A?5:B@ ?@8:;04=KE 7040G A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >1CA;>2;5= ?@>F5AA>< @07@01>B:8 =0CG=KE >A=>2 4;O <5B>4>2 8 A>45@60=8O >1CG5=8O @07=KE 3@C?? 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88, :>@@5:F8>==>9, @5018;8B0F8>==>9 8 ?A8E>?@>D8;0:B8G5A:>9 @01>BK A =8<8. 21 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O >=B@>;L=K5 2>?@>AK  G5< A>AB>OB B@C4=>AB8 >?@545;5=8O ?@54<5B0 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388? 0: 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O >?@545;O5BAO ?@54<5B A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388? '5< >1JOA=O5BAO =5>1E>48<>ABL B>G=>3> >?@545;5=8O ?@54 <5B0 =0C:8?  G5< A>AB>OB >A=>2=K5 7040G8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388? '5< >?@545;ONBAO AB>OI85 ?5@54 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>3859 7040G8?  G5< A>AB>8B B5>@5B8G5A:>5 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 A?5F8 0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388? 8B5@0BC@0 51548=A:89 . . 0@CH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O C 45B59. , 1985. C1>2A:89 . . A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 4803=>AB8:8 0=> <0;L=>3> @0728B8O 45B59. ., 1989. >60@ . A8E>;>38O 0=><0;L=KE 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2  ?0 B>?A8E>;>38O. ., 1996. !?5F80;L=0O ?5403>38:0 / >4 @54. . . 070@>2>9 ., 2000. #A0=>20 . . !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1990. ;020 2  "+ !/ !&, !% !  # # 0CG=>5 ?>7=0=85 2A5340 >1@0I5=> : 8AA;54>20=8N :0:>9-B> >B45;L=>9, :>=:@5B=>9 AB>@>=K 8;8 A2>9AB20 A2>53> ?@54<5B0. !0< 65 ?@54<5B, :0: ?@028;>, >1;0405B <=>65AB2>< AB>@>= 8 A2>9AB2, :>B>@K5 2 A2>N >G5@54L AB0=>2OBAO >1J5:B0<8 87CG5=8O 4@C38E =0C:. "0:8< >1@07><, ;N10O =0C:0 8AA;54C5B A2>9 ?@54<5B ;8HL 2 >?@545;5==>< @0:C@A5, >?CA:0O >AB0;L=K5. ;O B>3> GB>1K 2>A?@>8725AB8 ?@54<5B 2 53> ?5@2>=0G0;L=>9 F5;>AB=>AB8, =5>1E>48<> A>?>AB028BL 40==K5 > =5< 87 @07;8G=KE =0CG=KE >1;0AB59. >7<>6=>ABL ?>4>1=>3> A>?>AB02;5=8O @50;87C5BAO 1;03>40@O ACI5AB2>20=8N A2O759 <564C >B45;L=K<8 =0C:0<8, GB> =5@54:> ?@82>48B : D>@<8@>20=8N =>2KE =0CG=KE 48AF8?;8=. 7CG5=85 87>;8@>20==>3> >1J5:B0 5ABL 01AB@0:F8O.  @50;L=>AB8 :064K9 >1J5:B 2:;NG5= 2 <=>3>>1@07=K5 A2O78 8 >B=>H5=8O. KO2;5=85 E0@0:B5@0 MB8E >B=>H5=89 @0AH8@O5B ?@54AB02;5=8O > A2>9AB20E >1J5:B0.  =0CG=>9 ?@0:B8:5 25AL<0 G0AB> A:;04K20NBAO A8BC0F88, :>340 =5A:>;L:> =0C: 87CG0NB >48= 8 B>B 65 ?@54<5B, => ?>4 @07=K<8 C3;0<8 7@5=8O, @07;8G=K<8 <5B>40<8, ?>;L7COAL A>1AB25==K<8 :0B53>@80;L=K<8 0??0@0B0<8. 73;O4 =0 >48= 8 B>B 65 >1J5:B A @07=KE B>G5: 7@5=8O <>65B D>@<8@>20BL ?>4G0A >G5=L =5?>E>685 :0@B8=K, :0640O 87 :>B>@KE 1C45B 8 25@=>9 8 >4=>AB>@>==59 >4=>2@5<5==>, => ?@8 MB>< 2>A?@>872>4OBAO @07=>>1@07=K5 53> A2O78 8 >B=>H5=8O. 23 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O* wtv-, -% .%>-%;- "0:8< >1@07><, >1>30I5=85 =0H8E 7=0=89 ;568B =0 ?CB8 =0CG=>9 8=B53@0F88, CAB0=>2;5=88 B5A=KE :>=B0:B>2 <564C 48AF8?;8=0<8. !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O >1;0405B >1H8@=K<8 <56?@54<5B=K<8 A2O7O<8, :>B>@K5 8<5NB >BG5B;82CN B5=45=F8N : 40;L=59H5<C @>ABC. @><5 B>3>, =5;8H=5 =0?><=8BL, GB> A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 8AB>@8G5A:8 D>@<8@>20;0AL 2 ?@>F5AA5 =5?@5@K2=>3> 2708<>459AB28O A 4@C38<8 =0C:0<8. "0:, O2;OOAL G0ABLN ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8, A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ?@5645 2A53> 8 B5A=55 2A53> A2O70=0 A 4@C38<8 55 >B@0A;O<8 8 2 >A>15==>AB8 A >1I59, 2>7@0AB=>9 8 ?5403>38G5A:>9. =0=8O, =0:>?;5==K5 8<8, 2KABC?0NB 2 :0G5AB25 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 107K 4;O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, 81> @0728B85 ?A8E8:8 2 CA;>28OE A5=A>@=KE, @5G52KE, 42830B5;L=KE 8 4@C38E =0@CH5=89 ?>4G8=O5BAO >1I8< 70:>=0< DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8 35=570 A>7=0=8O. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, >1I5?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@54AB02;5=8O ACI5AB25==> >1>30I0NBAO 70 AG5B :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89, ?@>2>48<KE 2 @0<:0E A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. =>385 70:>=><5@=>AB8 2 =>@<5 ;53:> <>3CB CA:>;L7=CBL >B 273;O40 8AA;54>20B5;O ;81> :@09=5 B@C4=K 4;O 87CG5=8O 2 8A:CAAB25==KE CA;>28OE. !;CG08 ?0B>;>388 O2;ONBAO, ?> >1@07=><C 2K@065=8N . . 02;>20, 65AB>:8< M:A?5@8<5=B>< ?@8@>4K, 40NI8< C=8:0;L=CN 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>25@8BL AB5?5=L C=825@A0;L=>AB8 70:>=>2, >B:@KBKE 8 >?8A0==KE @0=55. -B> >A>15==> 206=>, 5A;8 CG5ABL, GB> AB@C:BC@0 ?A8E8:8 =5 <>65B 1KBL @50;L=> @07;>65=0 =0 A>AB02;ONI85 55 :><?>=5=BK, MB> >ACI5AB28<> ;8HL B5>@5B8G5A:8.  2 MB>< A<KA;5 7=0G5=85 :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 C=8:0;L=>: ?>@>9 B>B 8;8 8=>9 70:>= >1=0@C68205B A51O ;8HL B>340, :>340 >= =0@CH05BAO, GB> 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL 53> >?8A0BL 8 87CG8BL. 5 A;CG09=> ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5 :@C?=K5 ?@54AB028B5;8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8 C45;O;8 7=0G8B5;L=>5 2=8<0=85 :;8=8G5A:><C <0B5@80;C. "5A=K5 A2O78 B0:65 ACI5AB2CNB <564C A?5F80;L=>9 8 <548F8=A:>9 8;8 :;8=8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>3859. 0 ?5@2>=0G0;L=KE MB0?0E AB0=>2;5=8O 8E ?@54<5B=>5 A>45@60=85 =5 2A5- 24 ;020 2. 56?@54<5B=K5'!2O78 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A 4@C38<8 =0C:0<8 340 1K;> G5B:> @0745;5=>. >6=> A:070BL, GB> 2 =0G0;5 XX 2. >=8 A>AB02;O;8 548=CN =0CG=CN 48AF8?;8=C, :>B>@CN 8=>340 >1>7=0G0;8 B5@<8=>< ?0B>;>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. 5:>B>@K5 02B>@K 8 A53>4=O >B>645AB2;ONB 8E. >4>1=0O B>G:0 7@5=8O =5 2?>;=5 25@=0, E>BO <564C A?5F80;L=>9 8 <548F8=A:>9 ?A8E>;>3859 ACI5AB2C5B <=>3> >1I53>. A=>2=>9 ?@>1;5<>9 <548F8=A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 O2;O5BAO 2>?@>A > 2;8O=88 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> 701>;520=8O =0 DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 ?A8E8:8, @02=> :0: 8 @>;L ?A8E8:8 2 ?@>F5AA5 ;5G5=8O 701>;520=89. @54<5B=>5 A>45@60=85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A2O70=> A @07=K<8 20@80=B0<8 >B:;>=ONI53>AO ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, :>B>@K5 =5 @0AA<0B@820NBAO 2 :0G5AB25 =>7>;>38G5A:8E 548=8F. @C3>5 ACI5AB25==>5 >B;8G85 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> <548F8=A:0O ?A8E>;>38O @0AA<0B@8205B G5;>25:0 2 :;8=8G5A:>< :>=B5:AB5, 2 ?@>F5AA5 ;5G5=8O.  A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8=>9 :>=B5:AB  A>F80;L=K9, B> 5ABL >1CG5=85, 2>A?8B0=85, ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5 A0<>>?@545;5=85. 07=K5 :>=B5:ABK A2O70=K A @07=>9 =0?@02;5==>ABLN ?@8;>65=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 7=0=89. 548F8=A:0O ?A8E>;>38O >1A;C68205B AD5@C 74@02>>E@0=5=8O, A?5F80;L=0O  AD5@C :>@-@5:F8>==>3> >1@07>20=8O. #:070==K5 >B;8G8O =5 >B@8F0NB ACI5AB2>20=8O >1;0AB59 8 7>= 2708<>459AB28O <564C 42C<O =0C:0<8. A>15==> B5A=K5 A2O78 C A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 CAB0=02;820NBAO A >4=8< 87 =081>;55 @07@01>B0==KE @0745;>2 <548F8=A:>9 ?A8E>;>388  =59@>?A8E>;>3859. >A;54=OO 70=8<05BAO 87CG5=85< =0@CH5=89 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 ?@8 ;>:0;L=KE ?>@065=8OE <>730. 0: 8725AB=>, 4;O <=>38E 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 E0@0:B5@=> =0;8G85 @5784C0;L=KE >@30=8G5A:8E ?0B>;>389 <>730. <5==> ?>MB><C 8A?>;L7>20=85 >A=>2=KE ?@8=F8?>2 8 <5B>4>2 =59@>?A8E>;>388 ?@8 87CG5=88 MB8E 45B59 >:070;>AL 25AL<0 ?@>4C:B82=K< 8 ?5@A?5:B82=K<. !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O B0:65 :>=B0:B8@C5B A @O4>< :;8-=8:>-18>;>38G5A:8E =0C:: =59@>D878>;>3859, =52@>?0B>;>3859, 45BA:>9 ?A8E80B@859, >DB0;L<>;>3859, >B>@8=>;0@8=3>;>3859, <548F8=A:>9 35=5B8:>9 8 4@. =0=8O > AB@C:BC@- 25 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 2. 56?@54<5B=K5 A2O78 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A 4@C38<8 =0C:0<8 =>-DC=:F8>=0;L=KE >A=>20E >@30=870F88 ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 C3;C1;ONB ?@54AB02;5=8O > ?@8@>45 =0@CH5=89 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. =>3>G8A;5==K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 8 =5@2=K5 701>;520=8O, :0: 8 701>;520=8O >@30=>2 7@5=8O, A;CE0 8 @5G52>3> 0??0@0B0, <>3CB AB0BL ?@8G8=0<8 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88. <5==> ?>MB><C :;8=8G5A:85 A2545=8O 87 ?5@5G8A;5==KE 48AF8?;8= B0: 206=K 4;O ?>AB@>5=8O B5>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. !:070==>5, 157CA;>2=>, =5 >7=0G05B >B>645AB2;5=85 :;8=8G5A:>3> 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> ?>4E>4>2, 81> :;8=8F8AB0 (2@0G0) ?@5645 2A53> 8=B5@5ACNB A8<?B><K 8 A8=4@><K 701>;520=8O :0: 2=5H=85 ?@>O2;5=8O 2=CB@5==53> ?0B>D878>;>38G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0. A8E>;>3 65, ?> A?@0254;82><C <=5=8N . . 51548=A:>3>, 70 :;8=8G5A:8<8 A8<?B><0<8 8I5B <5E0=87<K =0@CH5=89 =>@<0;L=>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8;8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 @50:F88 =0 MB8 A8<?B><K. "0:8< >1@07><, :;8=8G5A:89 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87K >1@0I5=K : @07=K< C@>2=O< 87CG05<>3> O2;5=8O  D878>;>38G5A:><C 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:><C, :064K9 87 :>B>@KE ?@8 2A5< 8E 548=AB25 >1;0405B 2K@065==>9 A?5F8D8:>9, A>1AB25==K<8 70:>=><5@=>ABO<8 8 =5A2>48< : 4@C3><C. !>>B=>H5=85 :;8=8G5A:>3> 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0;87>2 G0AB> =0?><8=05B 8725AB=K9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 D5=><5= ?>>G5@54=>9 A<5=K D83C@K 8 D>=0, ?>A;54>20B5;L=> ?@52@0I0NI8EAO 4@C3 2 4@C30. 0?@8<5@, 45BA:0O ?A8E80B@8O 70=8<05BAO =5 ?@>AB> ?A8E8G5A:8<8 701>;520=8O<8, 8E MB8>;>3859, ?0B>35=57>< 8 B. 4., => ?@5645 2A53> B5<, :0: >=8 ?@>B5:0NB 8 ?@>O2;ONB A51O 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 2>7@0AB=>3> D0:B>@0. 45AL 1>;57=L 2KABC?05B 2 @>;8 D83C@K, 0 2>7@0AB 2 @>;8 D>=0. !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 8=B5@5AC5BAO B5<, :0: ?A8E8G5A:>5 701>;520=85 8 53> ?>A;54AB28O (@02=> :0: 8 4@C385 A><0B8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20) 2;8ONB =0 ?@>F5AA 2>7@0AB=>3> @0728B8O ?A8E8:8.  MB>< A;CG05 ?@>F5AA 2>7@0AB=>3> @0728B8O ?@54AB02;5= 2 2845 D83C@K, 0 1>;57=L 8 55 ?>A;54AB28O 2 @>;8 D>=0. @C3 ?@54<5B=KE A2O759 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 =5 >3@0=8G8205BAO 2708<>459AB285< A ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 8 :;8=8-:>-18>;>38G5A:8<8 48AF8?;8=0<8. !0<> 2>7=8:=>25=85 A?5- F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A2O70=> A ?@0:B8:>9 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. G5284=K< O2;O5BAO B>B D0:B, GB> <5B>4K 8 A>45@60=85 A?5F80;L=>3> >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 4>;6=K >A=>2K20BLAO =0 7=0=88 >A>15==>AB59 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 45B59 A >3@0=8G5==K<8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8.  MB>< A>AB>8B, ?@5645 2A53>, A2O7L A?5F80;L=>9 (:>@@5:-F8>==>9) ?5403>38:8 8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388.  40==>< A;CG05 A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 2KABC?05B 2 :0G5AB25 >4=>3> 87 M;5<5=B>2 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 107K :>@@5:F8>==>9 ?5403>38:8. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ?@0:B8:0 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 O2;O5BAO 206=K< A@54AB2>< ?@>25@:8 B>G=>AB8 8 =0456=>AB8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@54AB02;5=89. 708<>459AB285 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 ?5403>38:8 A?>A>1AB2C5B A>45@60B5;L=><C >1>30I5=8N >158E =0C:; 70 ?>A;54=55 45AOB8;5B85 >=> ACI5AB25==> 284>87<5=8;>AL. @>F5AA >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 4>;385 3>4K 1K; 65AB:> @53;0<5=B8@>20= 548=K<8 ?@>3@0<<0<8, CG51=K<8 ?;0=0<8, AB0=40@B0<8 8 B. ?.  =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8 ?>O28;>AL <=>65AB2> >@838=0;L=KE =0?@02;5=89 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8, ACI5AB25==> @0AH8@8;>AL ?5403>38G5A:>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2> 8 A2>1>40 ?5403>38G5A:>3> M:A?5@8<5=B8@>20=8O.  =K=5H=8E CA;>28OE A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ?>;CG8;0 C=8:0;L=CN 2>7<>6=>ABL A@02=8B5;L=>3> 87CG5=8O A2>5>1@078O @0728B8O >A>1>3> @515=:0 2 @07=KE CA;>28OE 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >1CG5=8O, =0G8=0O >B B@048F8>==>3> 8 :>=G0O @07;8G=K<8 D>@<0<8 8=B53@8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O. >4>1=K5 A@02=8B5;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O <>3CB ACI5AB25==> >1>30B8BL ?@54AB02;5=8O > D5=><5=0E >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O, >=8 A0<8 8 8E @57C;LB0BK 2KABC?0NB 2 :0G5AB25 M:A?5@B=KE >F5=>:, >?@545;ONI8E, :0:85 87 ?5403>38G5A:8E B5E=>;>389 >1;040NB 1>;LH8< @072820NI8< 8 :>@@5:F8>==K< ?>B5=F80;><. @C3>9 0A?5:B 2708<>A2O78 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 :>@@5:F8>==>9 ?5403>38:8 :0A05BAO A>45@60=8O ?@>F5AA0 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 A >A>1K<8 =C640<8, A5<59=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O. >2>;L=> 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O A5<59=><C 2>A?8B0=8N =5 C45;O;>AL 4>;6=>3> 2=8<0=8O 8 =5 ?@84020;>AL =5>1E>48<>3> 7=0G5=8O. 26 27 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O'" ;020 2. 56?@54<5B=K5 A2O78 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A 4@C38<8 =0C:0<8  >7@>645=85 ?>4;8==>3> 8=B5@5A0 : MB><C ?@>F5AAC =0G0;>AL 8<5==> 2 AD5@5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?5403>38:8.  @0<:0E A5<L8 70:;04K20NBAO >A=>2K =@02AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O ;8G=>AB8, 85@0@E88 F5==>AB59, >1I5AB25==> 7=0G8<K5 <>B82K ?>2545=8O 8 B. 4.  A?5F80;L=0O ?5403>38:0 >A>7=0;0 MB8 ?>;>65=8O @0=LH5 >1I59 2 A8;C F5;>3> @O40 ?@8G8=, A@548 :>B>@KE A;54C5B >B<5B8BL @>;L ;8G=>AB8 8=20;840 2 ?@>F5AA5 53> A>F80;L=>9 040?B0F88. =>3>:@0B=> 1K;> ?>:070=>, GB> ?@8 >4=>< 8 B>< 65 =0@CH5=88, ?@8 ?@>G8E @02=KE CA;>28OE, CA?5H=>ABL A>F80;L=>9 040?B0F88 7028A8B >B ;8G=>AB=KE A2>9AB2 8=482840 8 ?@5645 2A53> >B E0@0:B5@0 53> A0<>>F5=:8, CAB0=>2>: 8 85@0@E88 <>B82>2. 0: C65 1K;> A:070=>, 8<5==> MB8 :0G5AB20 2 A2>59 >A=>25 70:;04K20NBAO ?>4 2;8O=85< A5<59=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O.  MB>9 A2O78 =5 A;CG09=K< :065BAO B>B D0:B, GB> >4=>2@5<5==> A ?>4J5<>< 8=B5@5A0 : ?@>1;5<0< A5<59=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 2 :>@@5:F8>==>9 ?5403>38:5, 2 >1;0AB8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2A5 0:BC0;L=55 AB0=>28BAO ?@>1;5<0B8:0 @0728B8O M<>F8>=0;L=>-2>;52>9 AD5@K 8 ;8G=>AB8 2 F5;>< C ;N459 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. A5 3;C165 >A>7=05BAO B>B D0:B, GB> 7=0=8O >1 >A>15==>ABOE ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 45B59 A ?@>1;5<0<8 2 @0728B88 (=0 G5< B@048F8>==> 45;0;AO C?>@) O2=> =54>AB0B>G=K 8 >4=>AB>@>==8 8 =5 2:;NG0NI85 ?>=8<0=85 A2>5>1@078O D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 MB8E 45B59.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O ?>O2;O5BAO 2A5 1>;LH5 8AA;54>20=89, ?>A2OI5==KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< 0A?5:B0< A5<59=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O >A>1>3> @515=:0. 708<>459AB285 :>@@5:F8>==>9 ?5403>38:8 8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 AD5@5 A5<59=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O @515=:0 A >A>1K<8 =C640<8 A =587156=>ABLN ?@825;> : ?@>1;5<5 ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:>9 ?><>I8 @>48B5;O< ?>4>1=KE 45B59. B E0@0:B5@0 @>48B5;LA:8E @50:F89 =0 D0:B @>645=8O 1>;L=>3> @515=:0, >B >A>15==>AB59 D>@<8@CNI53>AO : =5<C >B=>H5=8O, >?@545;ONI53> AB8;L 2>A?8B0=8O, 2> <=>3>< 7028A8B A2>5>1@0785 @0728B8O 53> ;8G=>AB8, 0 B0:65 @5H5=85 :0@48=0;L=>3> 2>?@>A0 A>F80;L=>9 040?B0F88  ?@52@0B8BAO 8;8 =5 ?@52@0B8BAO ;8G=>ABL 8=20;840 2 8=20;84=CN ;8G=>ABL. : > |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| =8OE @5G8 8 A;CE0 A;54C5B 8A?>;L7>20BL 7040=8O, =5 B@51CN- f I85 @5G52>3> >BG5B0. =AB@C:F8O <>65B ?>4020BLAO 2 D>@<5 45<>=AB@0F88 >1@07F0 459AB289, :>B>@K5 4>;65= ?>2B>@8BL 8A?KBC5<K9. @C3>9 8 25AL<0 @0A?@>AB@0=5==>9 >A>15==>ABLN <=>38E 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88, =0:;04K20NI59 A2>9 >B?5G0B>: =0 @57C;LB0BK M:A?5@8<5=B0 8 B@51CNI59 CG5B0 :0: ?@8 53> >@30=870F88, B0: 8 ?@8 8=B5@?@5B0F88 ?>;CG5==KE 40==KE, O2;O5BAO =57@5;>ABL 8E <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@K, 55 =5CAB>9G82>ABL, =87:89 C@>25=L ?>7=020B5;L=KE 8=B5@5A>2. !2O7L <>B820F8>==KE 8 >?5@0F8>=0;L=KE :><?>=5=B>2 ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1I58725AB=0. 0: 2KA>:0O, B0: 8 =87:0O 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 8A?KBC5<>3> 2> 2@5<O M:A?5@8<5=B0 A?>A>1=0 ?@825AB8 : A=865=8N 53> @57C;LB0B82=>AB8. <5==> =5CAB>9G82>ABL <>65B 1KBL 8AB8==>9 ?@8G8=>9 G@572KG09=>3> @071@>A0 ?>;CG5==KE ?>:070B5;59 C >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 8A?KBC5<>3>. !:070==>5 >7=0G05B, GB> >@30=870F8O M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 ?@>F54C@K A =587156=>ABLN B@51C5B CG5B0 A>AB>O=8O <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@K >1A;54C5<>3>. @8G8=0<8 >BACBAB28O 8=B5@5A0 <>65B 1KBL =5?>=8<0=85 A<KA;0 ?@54;>65==>3> 7040=8O, > G5< 3>2>@8;>AL 2KH5, A=865=85 C@>2=O >1I59 @01>B>A?>A>1=>AB8, 1KAB@> @072820NI55AO CB><;5=85 8 A2O70==>5 A =8< GC2AB2> M<>F8>=0;L=>3> 48A:><D>@B0. -:A?5@8<5=B0B>@ 4>;65= ?><=8BL >1 MB>< 8 70@0=55 ?@54C?@5640BL @0728B85 CB><;5=8O. <5==> ?>MB><C ?@>2545=85 M:A?5@8<5=B0 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 =>A8B 4>78@>20==K9, ?>@F80;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. 0: 8725AB=>, <5B>4 M:A?5@8<5=B0 ?>4@0745;O5BAO =0 8=48284C0;L=K9 8 3@C??>2>9; ;01>@0B>@=K9 8 5AB5AB25==K9; :>=AB0B8@CNI89 8 D>@<8@CNI89. A5 ?5@5G8A;5==K5 284K M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 @01>BK B0: 8;8 8=0G5 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, => ?@58<CI5AB2> >B405BAO 8=48284C- 0;L=>9 D>@<5. A:;NG5=85 A>AB02;ONB B5 A8BC0F88, :>340 2 :0G5AB25 >1J5:B0 8AA;54>20=8O 2K18@0NBAO B0:85 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 D5=><5=K, :0: >1I5=85, >B=>H5=85, 8=B5@?5@A>=0;L=0O ?5@F5?F8O 8 B. ?. 02=>5 7=0G5=85 8<5NB :0: ;01>@0B>@=K9, B0: 8 5AB5AB25==K9 M:A?5@8<5=B, E>BO ?>A;54=89 2 @01>B5 45BL<8 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 1>;55 ?@54?>GB8B5;5= 2 A8;C C:070==KE 2KH5 >A>15==>AB59 <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@K. A>1K< O2;O5BAO 2>?@>A > A>>B=>H5=88 :>=AB0B8@CNI53> 8 D>@<8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0.  B0 8 4@C30O D>@<K C?>B@51;ONBAO 2 ?@0:B8:5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 4=0:> 8E @07@5H0NI0O A?>A>1=>ABL 8 =0?@02;5==>ABL @07;8G=K, ?>MB><C 2K1>@ 7028A8B >B :>=:@5B=KE F5;59 8AA;54>20=8O. 725AB=>, GB> :>=AB0B8@CNI89 M:A?5@8<5=B 2 A2>59 >A=>25 =0?@02;5= =0 2KO2;5=85 =0;8G=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 @515=:0. >2>@O A;>20<8 . !. K3>BA:>3>, >= 4803=>AB8@C5B 7>=C 0:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O, B> 5ABL A?5:B@ 53> 7=0=89, C<5=89, =02K:>2 =0 40==K9 :>=:@5B=K9 <><5=B 2@5<5=8. ;O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 :0: 2 =0CG=>-DC=40<5=B0;L=KE, B0: 8 2 ?@8:;04=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE 7040G0 >?@545;5=8O 7>=K 0:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O >A>1> 206=0, 1;03>40@O MB><C <>6=> 4>AB>25@=> >F5=8BL AB5?5=L >BAB020=8O @515=:0 >B =>@<0B82=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: 40==>3> 2>7@0AB0, >?@545;8BL, :0:85 AB>@>=K 53> ?A8E8:8 8 ?>2545=8O 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 =0@CH5=K, 0 :0:85 >AB0NBAO >B=>A8B5;L=> A>E@0==K<8 8 B. 4., GB>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL >@30=87>20BL 045:20B=CN 8 F5;5=0?@02;5==CN :>@@5:F8>==CN ?><>IL. > @0728B85 ?>4@07C<5205B ?@52@0I5=85 =0AB>OI53> 2 1C4CI55, ?>B5=F80;L=>3> 2 0:BC0;L=>5. <5==> ?>MB><C ?><8<> 4803=>70 2065= 5I5 8 ?@>3=>7, @0A:@KB85 ?>B5=F80;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59. -B0 7040G0 C=825@A0;L=0 ?>GB8 4;O 2A5E 284>2 ?@8:;04=>9 ?A8E>;>388, => 4;O A?5F80;L=>9  2 >A>15==>AB8. "0 8;8 8=0O D>@<0 =51;03>?>;CG8O @515=:0 1K205B C65 >G5284=0 5I5 4> ?@>2545=8O :0:>9-;81> 4803=>AB8:8. 45AL 206=> CG8BK20BL ?@8G8=K MB>3> =51;03>?>;CG8O 8 ?5@A?5:B82K 40;L=59H53> @0728B8O. B25B8BL =0 MB8 2>?@>AK =0 46 47 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 4. 5B>4K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 C@>2=5 :>=AB0B8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0 <>6=> ;8HL >BG0AB8, >?@545;82 AB5?5=L 8 ?@8G8=K >BAB020=8O >B =>@<K. @>3=>7 2>7<>65= ;8HL =0 C@>2=5 D>@<8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0, :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO 5AB5AB25==K< 8 =5>1E>48<K< ?@>4>;65=85< :>=AB0B8@CNI53>. $>@<8@CNI89 M:A?5@8<5=B 2>?;>I05B E>@>H> 8725AB=CN 845N . !. K3>BA:>3> > 254CI59 @>;8 >1CG5=8O 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 @515=:0. !0<0 ?@>F54C@0 A>AB>8B 2 <>45;8@>20=88 A8BC0F88 >1CG5=8O. -:A?5@8<5=B0B>@ >:07K205B @515=:C @07=K5 D>@<K 4>78@>20==>9 ?><>I8. @8 MB>< ?@54?>;0305BAO, GB> AB5?5=L ?@8=OB>9 @515=:>< ?><>I8 2>A?@>872>48B 53> ?>B5=F80;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8. @>I5 3>2>@O, B>, GB> @515=>: 2K?>;=8; ?@8 CG0AB88 27@>A;>3>, A>AB02;O5B 7>=C 53> 1;8609H53> @0728B8O 8 <>65B A> 2@5<5=5< ?5@59B8 2 7>=C 0:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O. $>@<8@CNI89 M:A?5@8<5=B ?@8>1@5; 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >A>1>5 7=0G5=85. = AB0; =5>BJ5<;5<>9 G0ABLN 48DD5@5=F80;L=>9 4803=>AB8:8. 3> 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?>72>;O5B :0G5AB25==> >F5=8BL ?A8E8G5A:85 O2;5=8O, @0A:@KBL E0@0:B5@ A0<>3> ?@>F5AA0 2K?>;=5=8O 7040=8O, 0 =5 B>;L:> D8:A8@>20BL AB0B8G=K9 @57C;LB0B, :0:8< 1K 2K@078B5;L=K< >= =8 1K;. @><5 B>3>, 8A?>;L7>20=85 AE5< D>@<8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL 2KO28BL :0G5AB25==K9 ?@>D8;L >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O. -B> 25AL<0 B@C4>5<:0O 7040G0 ?> 48DD5@5=F80F88 2 548=>9 AB@C:BC@5 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O B@5E >A=>2=KE :><?>=5=B>2  2>7@0AB=>3>, 8=48284C0;L=>3> 8 ?0B>;>38G5A:>3>. 515=>: A B>9 8;8 8=>9 D>@<>9 >B:;>=5=8O, ?@5645 2A53>, ?@8=04;568B : >?@545;5==>9 2>7@0AB=>9 :0B53>@88 8 5<C A2>9AB25==> 2A5 B>, GB> A2>9AB25==> 53> A25@AB=8:0<. "0:85 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 =07K20NBAO 2>7@0AB=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8. <5AB5 A B5<, A@548 45B59 >4=>3> 2>7@0AB0 =5;L7O =09B8 ?>E>68E 4@C3 =0 4@C30 @51OB, 81> 4065 @>25A=8:8 >1;040NB =5?>2B>@8<K<8 8=48284C0;L=K<8 G5@B0<8.  =0:>=5F, :@><5 2>7@0AB=KE 8 8=48284C0;L=KE A2>9AB2 5ABL B0:85, :>B>@K5 >1CA;>2;5=K >A=>2=K< =0@CH5=85<. ;8=8G5A:85 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8, :>=5G=>, B>65 20@8015;L=K, 8 >=8 <>48D8F8- 48 . @CNB ?@>O2;5=8O 8 2>7@0AB=KE, 8 8=48284C0;L=KE A2>9AB2 @515=:0, => =5 >B<5=ONB 8 =5 87<5=ONB 8E ?@8@>4C. >7@0AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8=48 >A5284C0;L=K5 15==>AB8    > ;8=8G5A:85 A>15==>AB8A>1> ?>4G5@:=5<, GB> 7040G0 ?> 48DD5@5=F80F88 >1>7=0G5==KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: =5 <>65B @5H0BLAO >4=><><5=B=>, E>BO 1K ?>B><C, GB> D>@<8@CNI89 M:A?5@8<5=B B@51C5B 1>;LH8E 2@5<5==KE 70B@0B. !;54C5B 4>1028BL, GB> MDD5:B82=>ABL 8A?>;L7>20=8O AE5<K D>@<8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0 ?>2KH05BAO, 5A;8 >=0 (AE5<0) A>G5B05BAO A ;>=38BN4=>9 AB@0B53859. <5==> MB> ?>72>;O5B >B45;8BL 2>7@0AB=K5 8 8=48284C0;L=K5 A2>9AB20 >B A2>9AB2, A2O70==KE A >A=>2=K< =0@CH5=85<. 0?><=8<, GB> ;>=38BN4=K9 ?>4E>4 8;8 <5B>4 ?@>4>;L=KE A@57>2 A>AB>8B 2 ?>2B>@5=88 >4=>9 8 B>9 65 (8;8 ?>GB8 >4=>9 8 B>9 65) M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 ?@>F54C@K =0 >4=>9 3@C??5 8A?KBC5<KE G5@57 >?@545;5==K5 8=B5@20;K 2@5<5=8. >2>@O > B@51>20=8OE, ?@54JO2;O5<KE : <5B>48:0< 2 AD5@5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> A2>5>1@0785 MB8E B@51>20=89 2> <=>3>< 7028A8B >B >1;0AB8 8E ?@8<5=5=8O. @8:;04=0O AD5@0, 2 >B;8G85 >B =0CG=>-DC=40<5=B0;L=>9, ?><8<> =0720==KE CA;>289 2K428305B 5I5 >4=>  2KA>:89 C@>25=L @07@5H0NI59 A?>A>1=>AB8 B>9 8;8 8=>9 <5B>48:8 4;O F5;59 48DD5@5=F80;L=>9 4803=>AB8:8 8 >B1>@0 45B59 2 :>@@5:F8>==>->1@07>20B5;L=K5 CG@5645=8O. "0:0O 4803=>AB8:0 ?@54?>;0305B, ?@5645 2A53>, :0G5AB25==K9, 0 =5 49 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 4. 5B>4K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 AC3C1> :>;8G5AB25==K9 ?>4E>4 2 0=0;875 ?>;CG5==KE 2 M:A?5@8<5=B5 40==KE. 57CA;>2=>, :0G5AB25==>3> 0=0;870 2=5 :>;8G5AB25==>3> =5 1K205B. 48= 2K@0AB05B 87 4@C3>3> 8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?@>4C:B 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 M:A?5@8<5=B0B>@0, 53> B2>@G5AB2>, C<5=85 70 >F8D@>20==K<8 ?>:070B5;O<8 C2845BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN @50;L=>ABL. >AB0B>G=> G0AB> 2 ;8B5@0BC@5 D5=><5=>;>38G5A:89 (>?8A0B5;L=K9) C@>25=L =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5BAO >1JOA=8B5;L=><C. @8 MB>< ?>A;54=89 B@0:BC5BAO :0: 2KAH89. 50;L=>ABL 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>3> ?@>F5AA0 2A5 65 B0:>20, GB> 8E ?@028;L=> 1K;> 1K >1>7=0G8BL :0: ?>A;54>20B5;L=K5 MB0?K. 57 <5B>48G=>3> 8 2A5AB>@>==53> >?8A0=8O ?5@59B8 : >1JOA=5=8N ?>7=0205<KE O2;5=89 =52>7<>6=>. @><5 B>3>, =587156=0O ?>B@51=>ABL 2 CB>G=5=88 8 C3;C1;5=88 A2545=89 >1 87CG05<>< 2>72@0I05B ?@>F5AA ?>7=0=8O A=>20 : >?8A0B5;L=><C MB0?C. 50;870F8O :0G5AB25==>3> ?>4E>40 2 M:A?5@8<5=B5 2>7<>6=0 G5@57 >1JOA=8B5;L=K9 A?>A>1 <KH;5=8O, ?>A;54=55 65 4>AB8305BAO ?CB5< BI0B5;L=>3> >?8A0=8O. @8 >ACI5AB2;5=88 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0;870 :;8=8G5A:>3> <0B5@80;0 B@51>20=8O : D5=><5=>;>388 >A>15==> 2KA>:8. 0A0OAL 4@C38E <5B>4>2 8AA;54>20=8O, B0:8E :0: >?@>A, 15A540, A>F8><5B@8O, 0=0;87 ?@>4C:B>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ?@>G55, A;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> >=8 4>AB0B>G=> H8@>:> 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2 ?@0:B8:5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 E0@0:B5@87CNBAO A:>@55 D>@<0;L=K<, G5< A>45@60B5;L=K< A2>5>1@0785<. 0 ?5@2K9 ?;0= 2KABC?05B B5E=8G5A:0O AB>@>=0 8E 2>?;>I5=8O, 7028AOI0O >B ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 8A?KBC5<KE. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 0=:5B=K9 >?@>A ;8F A 3;C1>:8<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 7@5=8O <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL, 5A;8 B5:AB 1C45B ?@54AB02;5= 2 A?5F80;L=>9 A8AB5<5 ?8AL<0 . @09;O. @><5 B>3>, 70?>;=5=85 ?>4>1=>9 0=:5BK B@51C5B 1>;LH8E 2@5<5==KE 70B@0B, :0: 8 ?@>F5AA 55 >1@01>B:8, ?@54?>;030NI89, ?@5645 2A53>, ?5@52>4 1@09;52A:>3> H@8DB0 2 >1KG=K9  ?;>A:>?5G0B=K9. 0?>;=5=85 0=:5BK A0<8< ?A8E>;>3>< A> A;>2 =57@OG53> =0@CH05B :>=D845=F80;L=>ABL 8 A=8605B C@>25=L 4>AB>25@=>AB8 ?>;CG5==>3> <0B5@80;0. @>2545=85 ?>4>1=KE 50 >?@>A>2 A@548 ;8F A >3@0=8G5==K<8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K<8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 B0:65 <>65B 1KBL A2O70=> A >?@545;5==K<8 B@C4=>ABO<8: >BACBAB285 ?>AB>@>==59 ?><>I8 =5 2A5340 30@0=B8@C5B ?@028;L=>ABL ?>=8<0=8O ?>AB02;5==KE 2>?@>A>2. >MB><C 2 ?>4>1=KE A;CG0OE : D>@<C;8@>2:5 ?>A;54=8E ?@54JO2;ONBAO >A>1K5 B@51>20=8O. B45;L=> A;54C5B >AB0=>28BLAO =0 8A?>;L7>20=88 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 AB0=40@B878@>20==KE B5E=8: (B5AB>2). -B> >A>15==> 206=> 2 A8;C G@572KG09=>9 ?>?C;O@=>AB8 ?>A;54=8E.  >1;0AB8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 AB0=40@B878@>20==K5 <5B>48:8 B@048F8>==> 8A?>;L7CNBAO 25AL<0 H8@>:>, B0: :0: 8<5==> 745AL >=8 2?5@2K5 8 ?>O28;8AL. > ?@8<5=5=85 B5AB>2KE B5E=>;>389 B@51C5B 2KA>:>3> ?@>D5AA8>=0;87<0 8 >AB>@>6=>AB8. @5645 2A53>, B@C4=>AB8 2>7=8:0NB 2 >B=>H5=88 A0<>9 AB0=40@B878@>20==>5"!, 65AB:> C=8D8F8@>20==>3> E0@0:B5@0 ?@>2545=8O 2A53> B5AB>2>3> >1A;54>20=8O, =0G8=0O >B =587<5==>AB8 D>@<C;8@>20=8O 8=AB@C:F88, 2@5<5=8 2K?>;=5=8O B>3> 8;8 8=>3> 7040=8O, :0G5AB20 AB8<C;L=>3> <0B5@80;0 8 :>=G0O 2K=5A5=85< AK@KE >F5=>: 8 ?@. !B0=40@B870F8O ?>72>;O5B ?>AB028BL 2A5E 8A?KBC5<KE 2 @02=K5 CA;>28O 8 B5< A0<K< ?@>25AB8 @0=3>2K5 A@02=5=8O, A>?>AB028BL @57C;LB0BK >4=>3> 8A?KBC5<>3> A @57C;LB0B0<8 4@C38E. 5;L7O =5 ?@87=0BL, GB> 2 >?@545;5==KE CA;>28OE MB> 25AL<0 206=>, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 A8BC0F88 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >B1>@0. !0<8 ?0@0<5B@K AB0=40@B>2 (D>@<0, A:>@>ABL ?>40G8 8=AB@C:F88, 55 A>45@60=85, 0 B0:65 <5B@8G5A:85 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 AB8<C;L=>3> <0B5@80;0) 2A5340 A>>B=5A5=K A 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 =>@<0;L=>3> 2 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:>< >B=>H5=88 G5;>25:0. >MB><C @515=>: A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 A A0<>3> =0G0;0 B5AB>2>3> >1A;54>20=8O ?>?0405B 2 =5A>>B25BAB2CNICN 53> 2>7<>6=>ABO< A8BC0F8N. 0?@8<5@, >= =5 <>65B =0 A;CE 2>A?@8=OBL 8=AB@C:F8N 8;8 =5 ?>=8<05B 55 A ?5@2>3> @070, 8;8 @07<5@ :0@B8=>: 4;O =53> A;8H:>< <0; 8 B. 4.  MB>< A;CG05 =87:85 @57C;LB0BK >B@060NB =5 A=865=85 4803=>AB8@C5- 51 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 4. 5B>4K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 <>9 A?>A>1=>AB8, 0 =5045:20B=>ABL CA;>289 >A>15==>ABO< @515=:0.  B0:>9 A8BC0F88 8E AB0=40@B=K5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 A;54C5B 87<5=8BL. '0AB> MB> ?@82>48B : =>2K< ?@>1;5<0<. =5AO 87<5=5=8O 2 AB0=40@B, 8=48284C0;L=K9 @57C;LB0B C65 =5;L7O A>?>AB028BL A 8<5NI8<AO 2 B5AB5 =>@<0B82><. 5;0;8AL ?>?KB:8 A>740BL AB0=40@B878@>20==K5 <5B>48:8 4;O >B45;L=KE 3@C?? 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88: =0?@8<5@, <>48D8F8@>20==K9 B5AB 5:A;5@0 4;O =57@OG8E. 4=0:> >= =5 =0H5; H8@>:>3> ?@8<5=5=8O 2 A8;C G@572KG09=>9 3@><>74:>AB8. @><5 B>3>, ?>;CG5==K5 A 53> ?><>ILN @57C;LB0BK A;5?KE 8A?KBC5<KE =52>7<>6=> A@02=8BL A @57C;LB0B0<8 7@OG8E, 4>1KBKE A 8A?>;L7>20=85< >1KG=>3> 20@80=B0 B5AB0 5:A;5@0.  ?>2A54=52=>9 @01>B5 A?5F80;L=K5 ?A8E>;>38 G0AB> 8A?>;L7CNB =5 25AL B5AB, 0 ;8HL 53> >B45;L=K5 D@03<5=BK, =081>;55 045:20B=K5 2>7<>6=>ABO< @515=:0, 8;8 =5A:>;L:> 87<5=ONB AB0=40@B=K5 CA;>28O. @8 MB>< 2 >1>8E A;CG0OE ?@8E>48BAO >@85=B8@>20BLAO =5 =0 B5AB>2K5 =>@<0B82=K5 40==K5, 0 A>18@0BL 2=CB@5==89 =>@<0B82, A :>B>@K< A>>B=>AOBAO =>2K5 8=48284C0;L=K5 @57C;LB0BK. 3@0=8G5==>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 B5AB>2KE B5E=>;>389 A2O70=> B0:65 A A>45@60B5;L=K<8 :><?>=5=B0<8 87CG5=8O ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. "5AB, :0: ?@028;>, D8:A8@C5B :>=5G=K9 8B>3 :0:>9-B> 45OB5;L=>AB8. !0< 65 ?@>F5AA 53> ?>;CG5=8O >AB05BAO =54>ABC?=K< 4;O 0=0;870. I5 @07 ?>4G5@:=5<, GB> 4;O ?@0:B8:8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 206=> =5 A0<> 7=0=85 > =87:>< @57C;LB0B5, 0 ?>=8<0=85 ?@8G8=, ?>@>482H8E 53>.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 MDD5:B82=0O :>@@5:F8>=-=0O @01>B0 =52>7<>6=0. @>D5AA8>=0;L=K9 ?A8E>;>3 =5 4>;65= C?CA:0BL 87 284C ?@58<CI5AB2> M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> ?>4E>40 2 A@02=5=88 A B5AB>2K<. -:A?5@8<5=B =5 B>;L:> ?>72>;O5B, >= ?@54?>;0305B ?>AB>O==>5 20@L8@>20=85 CA;>289 ?@>2545=8O. <5==> 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL 2>A?@>8725AB8 =5 B>;L:> @57C;LB0B, => 8 A0< ?@>F5AA 53> 4>AB865=8O 8;8 =0@CH5=8O MB>3> ?@>F5AA0.  =0:>=5F, A0<>5 206=>5. >402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> AB0=40@B878@>20==KE B5E=>;>389 >B@060NB ;8HL =0;8G=K9 C@>- 52 25=L ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 8A?KBC5<>3>, 7>=C 53> 0:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O. > 4;O ?@0:B8:8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 >A>15==> :>@@5:F8>==>9 ?5403>38:8 MB>3> <0;>: =5>1E>48<> 8<5BL ?@>3=>7, A2545=8O > ?>B5=F80;L=KE 2>7<>6=>ABOE @515=:0, > 7>=5 53> 1;8609H53> @0728B8O. B MB>3> 7028A8B =5 B>;L:> MDD5:B82=>ABL 48DD5@5=F80;L=>9 4803=>AB8:8, => 8 =0?@02;5=85 :>@@5:F8>==>9 @01>BK 8 >F5=:0 55 ?@>4C:B82=>AB8. 5H5=85 MB8E 7040G 2>7<>6=> B>;L:> ?CB5< M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 AB@0B5388 8 ?@5645 2A53> D>@<8@CNI53> (>1CG0NI53>) M:A?5@8<5=B0. A5 2KH5A:070==>5 =5 4>;6=> 2>A?@8=8<0BLAO :0: ?>;=>5 >B@8F0=85 AB0=40@B878@>20==KE B5E=>;>389 2>>1I5. @>D5AA8>=0;87<, A@548 ?@>G53>, A>AB>8B 2 G5B:>< >A>7=0=88 ?>AB02;5==>9 F5;8 8 2 C<5=88 >B>1@0BL 4;O 55 4>AB865=8O =081>;55 045:20B=K5 8 MDD5:B82=K5 <5B>4K, :0:>2K<8 B5ABK, 27OBK5 A0<8 ?> A515, 2 @5H5=88 >A=>2=KE ?@>1;5< A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 =5 O2;ONBAO. . . C1>2A:89 A?@0254;82> 70<5G05B, GB> B5ABK =5 ?@8A?>A>1;5=K 4;O 2KO2;5=8O A?5F8D8:8 >BAB020=8O 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88, A2O70==>9 A> A2>5>1@0785< 45D5:B0 (B> 5ABL >=8, =0?@8<5@, =5 <>3CB >1=0@C68BL @07;8G89 <564C ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 @515=:0 A   8 A =0@CH5==K< @0728B85< @5G8 ?@8 A>E@0==KE 2>7<>6=>ABOE 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O) (A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 4803=>AB8:8 0=><0;L=>3> @0728B8O. ., 1989, A. 73). "0:8< >1@07><, AB0=40@B878@>20==K5 <5B>48:8 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 <>3CB 8A?>;L7>20BLAO A >?@545;5==K<8 >3@0=8G5=8O<8, 2 2845 2A?><>30B5;L=>3> A@54AB20 ?@8 254CI59 @>;8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> ?>4E>40 8 :0G5AB25==>3> 0=0;870 ?>;CG5==>3> <0B5@80;0. I5 1>;55 ?@>1;5<0B8G=> >1AB>8B 45;> A 8A?>;L7>20=85< 2 40==>9 >B@0A;8 ?@>65:B82=KE <5B>48:.  A>2@5<5==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, >A>15==> 2 >1;0AB8 55 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 ?@0:B8:8, ?@8<5=5=85 <5B>48: >@H0E0, >75=-F25930, >=48, "", NH5@0 8 4@. 402=> C65 ?5@5AB0;> 1KBL @54:>ABLN (@5GL 845B > ?>8A:>2>9 ?@0:B8:5, >4=>9 87 F5;59 53 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 4. 5B>4K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 :>B>@>9 O2;O5BAO ?@>25@:0 8 >F5=:0 48DD5@5=F80;L=>-4803=>AB8G5A:8E 2>7<>6=>AB59 40==KE 8=AB@C<5=B>2). A?>;L7>20=85 ?@>65:B82=KE <5B>48:, =0?@8<5@, 2 F5;OE >B1>@0 2 :>@@5:F8>==K5 CG@5645=8O, 25AL<0 >3@0=8G5=> 8 70B@C4=5=> 87-70 8E =87:>9 48DD5@5=F80;L=>-4803=>AB8G5A:>9 @07@5H0NI59 A?>A>1=>AB8, GB>, 157CA;>2=>, =5 70:@K205B ?CBL 8E C?>B@51;5=8O 2 :0G5AB25 2A?><>30B5;L=>3> <5B>48G5A:>3> A@54AB20 (=0?@8<5@, <5B>48:8 ?@>65:B82=KE @8AC=:>2 8 B. 4.). A=>2=K<8 B5>@5B8G5A:8<8 ?@>1;5<0<8, >B @5H5=8O :>B>@KE 7028A8B 40;L=59H55 8A?>;L7>20=85 MB8E B5E=>;>389 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, O2;ONBAO ?@>1;5<K A2>5>1@078O >B:;>=5=89 =0 C@>2=5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8, :0: 8 :0:8< >1@07>< 87<5=O5BAO ?@>F5AA ?@>5:F88 ?@8 @07=KE D>@<0E 487>=B>35=570; :0:85 AB>@>=K ?A8E8G5A:>9 @50;L=>AB8 2>A?@>872>4OBAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@>5:F88 2 CA;>28OE >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O  845B ;8 @5GL >1 >1KG=KE A:@KBKE ?5@56820=8OE 8;8 487>=-B>35=5B8G5A:8E A8<?B><0E 8 B. 4.  70@C156=>9 ?A8E>4803=>AB8:5 45;0;8AL 548=8G=K5 ?>?KB:8 A>740=8O A?5F80;L=KE ?@>5:B82=KE <5B>48: 4;O ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. ;O =57@OG8E 1K; A:>=AB@C8@>20= B@5E<5@=K9 0??5@F5?B82=K9 B5AB (30?B8G5A:89 0=0;>3 B5AB0 >@H0E0) 8 0C48B>@=K9 0??5@F5?B82=K9 B5AB (A;CE>20O 25@A8O ""), => @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O A@548 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE ?>;L7>20B5;59 >=8 =5 ?>;CG8;8.  :>=F5 70-E 3>4>2 ?> <5@5 @0728B8O 45BA:>9 =59@>?A8E>;>388 55 AE5<K, ?@8=F8?K 8 <5B>4K AB0;8 ?>AB5?5==> 8A?>;L7>20BLAO 8 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. @8=F8? A8=4@><=>-3> 8 D0:B>@=>3> 0=0;870, @07@01>B0==K9 . . C@859 2 ?@>F5AA5 8A?>;L7>20=8O =59@>?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1, >:070;AO 25AL<0 MDD5:B82=K< ?@8 87CG5=88 @07=KE D>@< 487>=B>35=570. AA;54>20=85 A>AB>O=89 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 A 8A?>;L7>20=85< =59@>?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> ?>4E>40 ACI5AB25==> 4>?>;=O5B 8 @0AH8@O5B =0H8 ?@54AB02;5=8O > AB@C:BC@=>9 >@30=870F88 B5E 8;8 8=KE >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88. 54 C4CG8 >A=>2=K<, M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K9 <5B>4, 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2A5 65 =5 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO 2 :0G5AB25 548=AB25==>3>. 3> MDD5:B82=>ABL >?@545;O5BAO B5<, =0A:>;L:> >= 4>?>;=O5BAO 4@C38<8 B5E=8:0<8, 2 G0AB=>AB8, B5<8, :>B>@K5 A?>A>1=K 2 >?@545;5==>9 <5@5 2>A?>;=8BL 53> >3@0=8G5=8O.  40==>< A;CG05 @5GL 845B > <5B>45 =01;N45=8O :0: F5;5=0?@02;5==>3> 2>A?@8OB8O 87CG05<>3> >1J5:B0. 01;N45=85, 2 A8;C ?0AA82=>9 ?>78F88 8AA;54>20B5;O ?> >B=>H5=8N : >1J5:BC ?>7=0=8O, 157CA;>2=>, ?@>83@K205B M:A?5@8<5=BC 2> 2@5<5==KE 70B@0B0E. > >=> 8<55B 8 25AL<0 206=>5 ?@58<CI5AB2>. -:A?5@8<5=B, 2 :0:>9 1K D>@<5 >= =8 @5-0;87>2K20;AO, 2A5340 =5A5B M;5<5=B 8A:CAAB25==>AB8, GB> =5 <>65B =5 A:070BLAO =0 E0@0:B5@5 8 :0G5AB25 @57C;LB0B>2. 01;N45=85 2>A?@>872>48B >1J5:B 87CG5=8O 2 5AB5AB25==KE CA;>28OE, GB> ?>2KH05B 53> M:>;>38G5A:CN 20;84=>ABL. 0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, =01;N45=8N 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@8405BAO >A>1>5 7=0G5=85, B0: :0: 2 @O45 A;CG052 =5 2A5340 C405BAO >@30=87>20BL 8 ?@>25AB8 B@048F8>==CN M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=CN ?@>F54C@C 2 A8;C BO65AB8 8 2K@065==>AB8 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> =0@CH5=8O 2 @0728B88 8A?KBC5<>3>. @><5 B>3>, >@85=B0F8O =0 :0G5AB25==K9 0=0;87 ?>;CG5==KE M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE D0:B>2 ?@54?>;0305B 4>?>;=5=85 ?>A;54=8E @57C;LB0B0<8 =01;N45=89. 0: 8 2>>1I5 2 ?A8E>;>388, =01;N45=85 <>65B 1KBL MDD5:B82=K<, 5A;8 >B25G05B @O4C B@51>20=89. @5645 2A53>, >=> 4>;6=> 1KBL F5;5=0?@02;5==K<, B> 5ABL 8AA;54>20B5;L =01;N405B =5 2>>1I5 70 2A5< <=>3>>1@0785< ?>2545=8O 8=482840, 0 2K18@05B ;8HL >?@545;5==K5, =5>1E>48<K5 4;O 87CG5=8O D@03<5=BK. @C3>9 206=>9 >A>15==>ABLN ?@>F5AA0 =01;N45=8O O2;O5BAO 53> >1J5:B82=>ABL.  >B=>H5=88 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 @50;L=>AB8 MB> B@51>20=85 2K?>;=8BL 25AL<0 B@C4=>. !>7=0=85 A0<>3> =01;N40B5;O =5 B>;L:> D8:A8@C5B D0:B ?>2545=8O, => 8 <3=>25==> 53> 8=B5@?@5B8@C5B. >4<5=0 C2845==>3> <KA;8<K< ?@>8AE>48B ?>GB8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>. 84 C;K10NI53>AO G5;>25:0 2K7K205B <KA;L > B><, GB> 5<C 25A5;>. -<>F8>=0;L=0O M:A?@5AA8O ?@8=8<05BAO 70 ?>;=K9 0=0- 55 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 4. 5B>4K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ;>3 2=CB@5==53> AC1J5:B82=>3> A>AB>O=8O. > <564C MB8<8 42C<O @O40<8 D0:B>2 (2=5H=53> ?>2545=8O 8 2=CB@5==53> A>AB>O=8O) =0 C@>2=5 >4=>@07>2>3> =01;N45=8O 40;5:> =5 2A5340 ACI5AB2C5B ?@8G8==>-A;54AB25==0O A2O7L. ?@545;5==0O AB5?5=L 4>AB>25@=>AB8 AC645=89 > 2=CB@5==8E AC1J5:B82=KE A>AB>O=8OE 8=482840 <>65B 1KBL 4>AB83=CB0 B>;L:> ?CB5< <=>3>:@0B=>9, 15A?@8AB@0AB=>9 @538AB@0F88 ?>2545=G5A:8E ?@>O2;5=89, 0 =5 8E 8=B5@?@5B0F88. !0< ?@>F5AA 8=B5@?@5B0F88 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A;>6=K9 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K9 0:B, A;54CNI89 70 ?5@8>40<8 =0:>?;5=8O 1>;LH>3> D0:B8G5A:>3> <0B5@80;0 @57C;LB0B>2 >1J5:B82=>3> =01;N45=8O. 5@5G8A;5==K5 CA;>28O >B=>AOBAO : ?@>F5AAC ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> =01;N45=8O =57028A8<> >B 53> F5;8 8 >1J5:B0.  A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 MB>B <5B>4 A>?@O65= A 4>?>;=8B5;L=K<8 B@C4=>ABO<8. @5645 2A53>, ACI5AB25==> 2>7@0AB0NB 2@5<5==K5 70B@0BK 2 A8;C C25;8G5=8O A;>6=>AB8 ?>2545=G5A:8E 0:B>2. 0 ?5@2KE MB0?0E C 8AA;54>20B5;O <>65B 4065 A:;04K20BLAO >ICI5=85 =5?@>7@0G=>AB8, >B>@20==>AB8 ?>2545=8O @515=:0 >B =0;8G=>9 A8BC0F88. "@51C5BAO 1>30BK9 :;8=8G5A:89 >?KB 8 7=0=8O, 0 B0:65 25AL<0 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O, GB>1K C2845BL 70:>=><5@=>ABL, ;>38:C 2 @8AC=:5 ?>2545=8O @515=:0 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. I5 >4=0 A;>6=>ABL >@30=870F88 8 ?@>2545=8O ?@>F5AA0 =01;N45=8O <>65B 1KBL CA;>2=> >?@545;5=0 :0: 45D5:B-F5=B@87<. !<KA; MB>3> 8A:CAAB25==> A:>=AB@C8@>20==>3> B5@<8=0 A>AB>8B 2 A;54CNI5<. 0: ?@028;>, =01;N40B5;L 70@0=55 7=05B > =51;03>?>;CG88 @515=:0, :>B>@>3> A>18@05BAO 87CG0BL. <5==> MB> 7=0=85 8 A>7405B CAB0=>2:C, 8A:060NICN ?@>F5AA =01;N45=8O,  2A5 A2>5>1@0785 ?>2545=G5A:>3> @8AC=:0 2A5F5;> >1JOA=O5BAO 70 AG5B >A=>2=>3> =0@CH5=8O. 5D5:B-F5=B@87<  A;>6=K9 CAB0=>2>G=K9 D5=><5=, ?@82>4OI89 : A<5H5=8N 2>7@0AB=KE 8 8=48284C0;L=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: 459AB289 @515=:0 A :;8=8G5A:8<8 A8<?B><0<8. 5 <5=55 ?@>4C:B82=> 2 A@02=5=88 A 4@C38<8 B5E=8:0<8 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8A?>;L7CNBAO 8 <5B>4K 15A54K, A1>@0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0<=570.  5A540 2KABC?05B :0: 2 :0G5AB25 4>?>;=5=8O : M:A?5@8<5=BC, B0: 8 2?>;=5 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>. 5 ?@>2545=85 B@51C5B 2KA>:>3> ?@>D5AA8>=0;87<0. @5645 2A53>, ?A8E>;>3 4>;65= CAB0=>28BL E>@>H89 :>=B0:B A @515=:><, A>740BL 0B<>AD5@C 4>25@8O 8 157>?0A=>AB8. !>15A54=8: 4>;65= GC2AB2>20BL 708=B5@5A>20==>5 >B=>H5=85 : A515. !;54C5B ?@>AB> 8 4>E>4G82> >1JOA=8BL ?@8G8=C, ?> :>B>@>9 A =8< ?@>2>4OB 40==K9 @073>2>@. 040205<K5 2>?@>AK 4>;6=K 1KBL ?>=OB=K. 45AL B0:65 =5>1E>48<> B>G=> >?@545;8BL F5;L, >A=>2=>5 A>45@60=85 15A54K, E0@0:B5@ 8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL ?@54;0305<KE 2>?@>A>2, :>B>@K5 D>@<C;8@CNBAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>43>B>2:8. A8E>;>3 B0:B8G=> =0?@02;O5B 15A54C 2 =C6=>< =0?@02;5=88, 5A;8 8AA;54C5<K9 CE>48B 2 AB>@>=C, ?5@5D>@<C;8@C5B 2>?@>AK, 5A;8 >=8 >:07K20NBAO =5OA=K<8.  ?@>F5AA5 15A54K D8:A8@CNBAO M<>F8>=0;L=K5 @50:F88, 8=B>=0F88 8A?KBC5<KE. 5A540 =5 4>;6=0 1KBL G@57<5@=> 4;8B5;L=>9, 81> @515=>: <>65B CAB0BL 8 CB@0B8BL 8=B5@5A : 55 A>45@60=8N. A?>;L7>20=85 40==>3> <5B>40 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8=>340 B@51C5B >B A?5F80;8AB0 >A>1KE =02K:>2. "0:, ?@8 @01>B5 A 3;CE8<8 =5>1E>48<> E>@>H55 7=0=85 40:B8;L=>9 8 65AB>2>9 @5G8.  ?>4>1=>9 D>@<5 G0I5 2A53> ?@>2>48BAO A1>@ ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0<=570  8AB>@88 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O @515=:0. 5A540 A @>48B5;O<8, CG8B5;O<8, 2>A?8B0B5;O<8 8 4@C38<8 27@>A;K<8, 7=0NI8<8 @515=:0, <>65B ?@54>AB028BL =5<0;> F5==>9 8=D>@<0F88. !;>6=>ABL A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> MB8 40==K5 =5 AB@C:BC@8@>20=K. 0G8=0NI5<C ?A8E>;>3C 8=>340 :065BAO, GB> AB>8B 7040BL @>48B5;O< 2>?@>A, :0: @072820;AO 8E @515=>:, 8 >= ?>;CG8B @0725@=CBK9 >B25B. ?KB ?>:07K205B, GB> MB> 40;5:> =5 2A5340 B0:. >48B5;O< 70G0ABCN B@C4=> 2K45;8BL 3;02=>5, <=>385 ?CB0NB 8AB>@8N 1>;57=8 A 8AB>@859 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O A2>53> @515=:0. <5==> ?>MB><C ?A8E>;>3 4>;65= B>G=> =0?@02;OBL 8E @0AA:07, 704020O :>=:@5B=K5 2>?@>AK >1 MB0?0E 8 AB>@>=0E @0728B8O. =0<=5AB8G5A:85 A2545=8O <>6=> ACI5AB25==> ?>?>;=8BL, 5A;8 8AB>@8O @0728B8O @515=:0 2>A?@>872>48BAO @07=K<8 ;N4L<8 (>BF>< 8 <0B5@LN, >4=8< 87 @>48B5;59 8 CG8B5;5< 8 B. 4.). @8 56 57 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 4. 5B>4K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A1>@5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0<=570 2 ?@>F5AA5 15A54K A @>48B5;O<8 ?A8E>;>3 =5 4>;65= 701K20BL, GB> B5<0, :0A0NI0OAO A?5F8D8G=>AB8 8E @515=:0, <>65B 1KBL 4;O =8E 25AL<0 1>;57=5==>9. >MB><C D>@<C;8@>20=85 2>?@>A>2 4>;6=> 1KBL ?@545;L=> 45;8:0B=K<. 5A540  MB> ?@074=>5 ;N1>?KBAB2> 8 =5<5E0=8G5A:>5 @538AB@8@>20=85 A2545=89 > @515=:5. !1>@ 0=0<=570 2 ?@>F5AA5 @01>BK A CG8B5;O<8 2A5340 1>;55 ?@>4C:B825= 2 A8;C 8E ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 ?>43>B>2:8. "5< =5 <5=55 8 745AL 2>7=8:0NB >?@545;5==K5 B@C4=>AB8. 5403>38 A:;>==K @0AA<0B@820BL @0728B85 2 :>=B5:AB5 ?@>F5AA0 >1CG5=8O, GB> 45;05B 0=0<=57 =5A:>;L:> >4=>AB>@>==8<. 5B>4 A0<>=01;N45=8O 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 70=8<05B >B=N4L =5 ?@828;538@>20==>5 <5AB>. >AB0B>G=> 4>;3> >B=>H5=85 : =5<C 1K;> :@09=5 =530B82=K<. 5B5@?8<>ABL : 8=B@>A?5:F8>=87<C 8 D5=><5=>;>388 02B><0B8G5A:8 ?5@5=>A8;0AL =0 40==CN B5E=8:C, :>B>@>9 >B:07K20;8 2 =0CG=>AB8 8 4>AB>25@=>AB8. @8 MB>< 83=>@8@>20;AO >G5284=K9 D0:B 8A:;NG8B5;L=>9 @>;8 A0<>=01;N45=8O 2 >@30=870F88 8 @53C;OF88 ?>2545=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8. "5< =5 <5=55 2 ?@>F5AA5 15A54K 8;8 0=:5B=>3> >?@>A0 <K 8<55< 45;> 8<5==> A @57C;LB0B0<8 A0<>0=0;870 8A?KBC5<>3>. !;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> 2>7<>6=>AB8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 40==KE A0<>=01;N45=8O 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, :0: 8 2 45BA:>9, 25AL<0 >3@0=8G5=K. 3> MDD5:B82=>ABL =0?@O<CN 7028A8B >B C@>2=O @0728B8O A0<>A>7=0=8O, O2;ONI53>AO 4>AB0B>G=> ?>74=8< =>2>>1@07>20=85< 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88. ">340 :0: 5ABL 2A5 >A=>20=8O ?>;030BL, GB> ;N10O D>@<0 48-7>=B>35=570 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB5?5=8 70B@038205B @07=K5 AB>@>=K @0728B8O A0<>A>7=0=8O. >MB><C 40==K5 A0<>=01;N45=8O G0I5 2A53> D8:A8@CNB ;8HL C@>25=L @0728B8O ?>A;54=53> 8 =5 <>3CB @0AA<0B@820BLAO 2 :0G5AB25 >1J5:B82=>3> 4>AB>25@=>3> D0:B0. A:;NG5=85 A>AB02;ONB ;8HL A;CG08 7@5;>3> 2>7@0AB0 2 A>G5B0=88 A ?>;=>9 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>E@0==>ABLN. 4=8<8 87 A0<KE 2K@078B5;L=KE ?@8<5@>2 B0:>3> 3;C1>:>3> 8 B>=:>3> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> A0<>0=0;870 <>6=> AG8B0BL :=838 . . !:>@>E>4>2>9 0: O 2>A?@8=8<0N, ?@54AB02;ON 8 ?>=8<0N >:@C60NI89 <8@ 8 . . )5@18=K !;5?>9 <C7K:0=B >@>;5=:>.  ?>A;54=85 3>4K 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2A5 H8@5 =0G8=0NB C?>B@51;OBLAO @07;8G=K5 <5B>4K ?0@0<5B@8G5A:>9 8 =5?0@0<5B@8G5A:>9 AB0B8AB8:8. =>385 8AA;54>20B5;8 A?@0254;82> >B<5G0NB, GB> B5E=8:8 AB0B8AB8G5A:>3> 0=0;870 =5 O2;ONBAO A>1AB25==> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 8 8A?>;L7CNBAO ;8HL :0: 2A?><>30B5;L=>5 A@54AB2> ?>2KH5=8O B>G=>AB8 8 >1J5:B82=>AB8 ?>;CG5==KE 40==KE. @0B:> ?>42>4O 8B>3 2A5<C A:070==><C, >1@0B8<AO : >A=>2=K< ?@8=F8?0< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> >1A;54>20=8O 45B59 A @07=K<8 D>@<0<8 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88. 081>;55 >1I8< 87 =8E O2;O5BAO A@02=8B5;L=K9 ?@8=F8?, A<KA; :>B>@>3> >G52845=: M<?8@8G5A:85 40==K5, ?>;CG5==K5 2 M:A?5@8<5=B5 8;8 =01;N45=88, >F5=820NBAO :0: =0CG=> 20;84=K5 ;8HL 2 A;CG05 8E A@02=5=8O A 0=0;>38G=K< D0:B8G5A:8< <0B5@80;><, 2>A?@>872545==K< =0 A>?>AB028<>9 2K1>@:5 =>@<0;L=> @072820NI8EAO 45B59. -B> CA;>285 =5>1E>48<>, => =5 4>AB0B>G=>. !@02=8B5;L=K9 ?@8=F8? ?>4@07C<5205B B0:65 A>?>AB02;5=85 40==KE, ?>;CG5==KE =0 :>=:@5B=>9 3@C??5 45B59, A 0=0;>38G=K<8 @57C;LB0B0<8 8AA;54>20=89, ?@>2545==KE =0 45BOE A 8=>9 D>@<>9 =0@CH5=8O. @8 2A59 D>@<0;L=>9 ?@>AB>B5 B5E=8G5A:0O @50;870F8O MB>3> ?@8=F8?0 <>65B 1KBL A>?@O65=0 A <5B>48G5A:8<8 B@C4=>ABO<8. !>>B=5AB8 ?>;CG5==K5 2 A@02=8B5;L=>< 8AA;54>20=88 @57C;LB0BK 2>7<>6=> ;8HL ?@8 845=B8G=>AB8 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 ?@>F54C@K, 8A?>;L7C5<>9 2 @01>B5 A @07=K<8 3@C??0<8 45B59.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 ?>4>1=>5 A>?>AB02;5=85 =5:>@@5:B=>. >18BLAO B0:>3> @>40 <5B>48G5A:>9 845=B8G=>AB8 1K205B 25AL<0 A;>6=>, 81> >4=0 8 B0 65 :>=:@5B=0O <5B>48:0, ?@83>4=0O 2 @01>B5 A >4=>9 3@C??>9 45B59, <>65B 1KBL A>25@H5==> =520;84=0 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 4@C3>9. =5A5=85 65 <>48D8:0F89 AB028B ?>4 A><=5=85 A0<C 2>7<>6=>ABL A@02=5=8O @57C;LB0B>2. @C3>9 ?@8=F8?  48=0<8G5A:89 ?@54AB02;O5B ;>38G5A:>5 ?@>4>;65=85 A@02=8B5;L=>3>. 45:20B=K5 A2545=8O > E0@0:- 58 59 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 4. 5B>4K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 B5@5 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> >B:;>=5=8O <>3CB 1KBL ?>;CG5=K 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?@>2545=8O <=>3>:@0B=KE 2@5<5==KE A@57>2. %0@0:B5@ >B:;>=5=8O, 53> A2>5>1@0785 8 :0G5AB2> 2>A?@>872>48<K ;8HL 2 48=0<8:5. @8=F8? :><?;5:A=>3> ?>4E>40 A>AB>8B 2 A;54CNI5<: 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< >1A;54>20=88 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8, >A>15==> ?@8 8=B5@?@5B0F88 ?>;CG5==KE @57C;LB0B>2, ?A8E>;>3 >1O70= CG8BK20BL 40==K5 :;8=8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0 (=52@>;>38G5A:89 8 A><0B8G5A:89 AB0BCA, A>AB>O=85 7@5=8O, A;CE0, @5G8, 42830B5;L=>9 AD5@K, 2>7<>6=>ABL =0A;54AB25==>9 ?@8@>4K =0@CH5=89 8 ?@.). -B>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?@54JO2;O5B 2KA>:85 B@51>20=8O : 53> :;8=8G5A:>9 M@C48F88, ?>72>;ONI59 @0AA<0B@820BL A>1AB25==K9 D0:B>;>38G5A:89 <0B5@80; =5 87>;8@>20=>, 0 2 :;8=8G5A:>< :>=B5:AB5. A8E>;>38G5A:85 40==K5 4>?>;=ONBAO B0:65 70 AG5B 8A?>;L7>20=8O B0: =07K205<KE ?0@0:;8=8G5A:8E B5E=8:, 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K 2A5 H8@5 ?@8<5=O5<KE 2 >1;0AB8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 5GL 845B > ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8E: M;5:B@>M=F5D0;>3@0D88, <03=8B>M=F5D0;>3@0D88, ?>78B82=>-M<8AA8>==>9 B><>3@0D88 <>730, >:C;>3@0D88, M;5:B@><8>3@0D88 8 4@. @8=F8? F5;>AB=>3>, A8AB5<=>3> 87CG5=8O ?@54?>;0305B, ?@5645 2A53>, >1=0@C65=85 =5 ?@>AB> >B45;L=KE ?@>O2;5=89 =0@CH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, 0 A2O759 <564C =8<8, >?@545;5=85 8E ?@8G8=, CAB0=>2;5=85 85@0@E88 >1=0@C65==KE =54>AB0B:>2 8;8 >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88... (C-1>2A:89 . . A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 4803=>AB8:8 0=><0;L=>3> @0728B8O 45B59. ., 1985, A. 51). 50;870F8O 40==>3> ?@8=F8?0 2>7<>6=0 B>;L:> ?@8 :0G5AB25==>< 0=0;875 ?>;CG5==KE M<?8@8G5A:8E D0:B>2. @85=B0F8O =0 :0G5AB25==K9 0=0;87 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 5I5 >48= ?@8=F8? 87CG5=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88, => >= =5 >B@8F05B 2>7<>6=>AB8 8A?>;L7>20=8O :>;8G5AB25==KE A>?>AB02;5=89 A ?@82;5G5=85< @07;8G=KE ?@>F54C@ AB0B8AB8G5A:>9 >1@01>B:8  :>@@5;OF8>==>3>, D0:B>@=>3>, :;0AB5@=>3>, 48A?5@A8>==>3> 0=0;870 8 ?@. >A;54>20B5;L=0O @50;870F8O ?5@5G8A;5==KE ?@8=F8?>2 2 A>G5B0=88 A G5B:> ?>AB02;5==>9 7040G59 (F5;LN) 8AA;54>20=8O, @02=> :0: 8 :>@@5:B=> AD>@<C;8@>20==>9 38?>B57>9, ?>72>;O5B =045OBLAO =0 A1>@ 045:20B=KE M<?8@8G5A:8E @57C;LB0B>2. @>2545=85 M:A?5@8<5=B0, ?>;CG5=85 M<?8@8G5A:8E 40==KE 2 :>;8G5AB25==>9 8 :0G5AB25==>9 D>@<5, 40;L=59H0O 8E AB0B8AB8G5A:0O >1@01>B:0  2A5 MB> ;8HL ?@5420@8B5;L=K5 MB0?K 3;02=>9 D07K ;N1>3> =0CG=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O  0=0;870 4>1KB>3> <0B5@80;0. A=>2=>5 53> A>45@60=85 A2>48BAO : >B25BC =0 2>?@>A, GB> 3>2>@OB ?>;CG5==K5 A2545=8O > B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB>@>=5 8AA;54C5<>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 @50;L=>AB8. =0;8B8G5A:>5 =0?@02;5=85 70405B 2=OB=> >?@545;5==0O ?@>1;5<0, B> 5ABL >A=>2=>9 2>?@>A 8AA;54>20=8O 8 =0;8G85 38?>B57K (8;8 38?>B57) ?@54?>;>65=89, ?@028;L=>ABL 8;8 >H81>G=>ABL :>B>@KE ?@>25@O5BAO 2 40==>9 87KA:0B5;L=>9 @01>B5. 0720==K5 =0<8 ?@8=F8?K 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 >B=>AOBAO : >A>15==>ABO< >@30=870F88 8 ?@>2545=8O 8AA;54>20=8O, ?>MB><C <>3CB 1KBL >1>7=0G5=K :0: :>=:@5B=>-<5B>48G5A:85. @>F5AA 0=0;870 8 8=B5@?@5B0F88 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 D0:B>;>388 B@51C5B >?>@K =0 1>;55 A;>6=K5 8 >1>1I5==K5 ?>;>65=8O.  AD5@5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 B0:85 ?>ABC;0BK =081>;55 G5B:> AD>@<C;8@>20=K . . 0<09GC:.  >B;8G85 >B ?5@5G8A;5==KE 8E <>6=> 1K;> 1K =0720BL :>=:@5B=>-<5B>4>;>38G5A:8<8, B> 5ABL >1JOA=8B5;L=K<8 ?@8=F8?0<8 2 >B=>H5=88 ?>=8<0=8O @07;8G=KE D5=><5=>2 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O. 5@2K9 ?@8=F8?  >=B>35=5B8G5A:89. A=>2=>9 A<KA; 53> A2>48BAO : B><C, GB> 3;02=K5 70:>=><5@=>AB8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O >AB0NBAO ?@8=F8?80;L=> >1I8<8 :0: 4;O A;CG052 =>@<K, B0: 8 ?0B>;>388. -B> :;0AA8G5A:>5 ?>;>65=85 AD>@<8@>20=> 5I5 . /. "@>H8=8=K< 8 . !. K3>BA:8<, => 2 40==>< A;CG05 0:F5=B A45;0= ;8HL =0 >4=>9 53> G0AB8. KO2;5==>5 =0@CH5=85 =5 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO 87>;8@>20=>. 3> 0=0;87, :20;8D8:0F8O (:0G5AB25==0O >F5=:0) 4>;6=K >ACI5AB2;OBLAO 2 :>=B5:AB5 :>=:@5B=>9 D07K 2>7@0AB=>3> @0728B8O A> A2>9AB25==>9 59 AB@C:BC@>9 ?A8E8:8, B8?8G=K<8 <56DC=- 60 61 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 4. 5B>4K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 :F8>=0;L=K<8 A2O7O<8, >A>15==>ABO<8 A>F80;L=>9 A8BC0F88 @0728B8O, ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 =>2>>1@07>20=8O<8 8 254CI8< 284>< 45OB5;L=>AB8. ">;L:> B0: 25@8D8F8@>20==>5 =0@CH5=85 =5 1C45B 2K3;O45BL A;CG09=K<, G5<-B> 8=>@>4=K< ?> >B=>H5=8N : 4@C38< M;5<5=B0< ?A8E8:8; B>;L:> B>340 >:065BAO 2>7<>6=K< @0A:@KBL <5E0=87< 2>7=8:=>25=8O MB>3> @0AAB@>9AB20 8 53> AB@C:BC@C. =0G5 3>2>@O, =0@CH5=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 >4=> 87 A2>9AB2 A0<>3> ?@>F5AA0 @0728B8O, 157 CG5B0 :>B>@>3> =5;L7O 045:20B=> ?>=OBL 53> A2>9AB20, ?CABL 4065 8 =530B82=K5. 0AA<0B@820O >B:;>=5=8O 2 :>=B5:AB5 :>=:@5B=>3> MB0?0 2>7@0AB=>3> @0728B8O, <K =5 B>;L:> ?>;=55 ?>7=05< 53> ACI=>ABL, => 8 >1>30I05< =0H5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?@>F5AA5 @0728B8O 2>>1I5. B>@>9 ?@8=F8?  A8AB5<=>-AB@C:BC@=>3> ?>4E>40. 45O A8AB5<=>3> AB@>5=8O A>7=0=8O 2?5@2K5 1K;0 2KA:070=0 . !. K3>BA:8<, ?@54;0302H8< @0AA<0B@820BL ?A8E8:C :0: A;>6=>5 F5;>AB=>5 >1@07>20=85. %0@0:B5@ A2O759 A8AB5<K =5 A;CG05=. <5==> A2O78, 0 =5 >1J548=O5<K5 8<8 M;5<5=BK >?@545;ONB ACI=>ABL A8AB5<K. A8E8G5A:>5 @0728B85 ?@>E>48B =5 70 AG5B @>AB0 >B45;L=KE M;5<5=B>2 (DC=:F89), 0 1;03>40@O 87<5=5=8N >B=>H5=89 <564C =8<8. >MB><C >B:;>=5=85 2 @0728B88 B5E 8;8 8=KE ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 4>;6=> @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: A;54AB285 =5045:20B=KE A2O759 8 >B=>H5=89 MB>9 DC=:F88 A 4@C38<8, B> 5ABL =0@CH5=85 F5;>AB=>AB8 2A59 A8AB5<K. ;03>40@O 8AA;54>20=8O< . !. K3>BA:>3> 8 . . C@88 1K;> ?5@5A<>B@5=> A0<> ?>=OB85 DC=:F8O*, ?@54AB02;O2H55AO @0=55 :0: =5GB> =5@07;>68<>5 8 =548DD5@5=F8@>20==>5.  B@0:B>2:5 . !. K3>BA:>3> DC=:F8O ?>;CG8;0 AB0BCA A;>6=>9 A8AB5<K, 2:;NG0NI59 <=>3> :><?>=5=B>2, 725=L52 8 D07. BAN40 AB0=>28BAO OA=>, GB> ?@>AB0O :>=AB0B0F8O =0@CH5=8O ;N1>3> M;5<5=B0 ?A8E8:8 157 ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> 87CG5=8O 53> A2>9AB2 8 C:070=8O =0 B>, :0:>9 :><?>=5=B MB>9 AB@C:BC@K =0@CH5=, ?> ACB8 A2>59 5ABL 83=>@8@>20=85 A8AB5<=>-AB@C:BC@=>3> ?>4E>40 8 ;8H5=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0;870 2AO:>3> A>45@60=8O.  =0:>=5F, B@5B89 ?@8=F8?  C@>2=52>3> 0=0;870. $>@<8@>20=85 ?A8E8:8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 1;03>40@O =5@07@K2=><C 548=AB2C ?@>F5AA>2 48DD5@5=F80F88, 8=B53@0F88 8 85@0@-E870F88 (?>A;54>20B5;L=>3> A>?>4G8=5=8O >4=8E DC=:F89 4@C38<8). @8 0=0;875 487>=B>35=5B8G5A:>9 D5=><5=>;>388 ?A8E>;>3 >1O70= CG8BK20BL E0@0:B5@ =0@CH5=8O 85@0@E8G5A:8E (C@>2=52KE) A2O759. "0:, ?@8 @0AAB@>9AB25 <>;>4>9 8 1>;55 A;>6=>9 DC=:F88, :0: ?@028;>, ?@>8AE>48B 2KA2>1>645=85 1>;55 M;5<5=B0@=>9, ?>4G8=5==>9 59, GB> <>65B ?@>O2;OBLAO 2 A=865=88 C@>2=O ?@>872>;L=>AB8 55 @53C;OF88. 1>7=0G5==K5 2KH5 425 3@C??K ?@8=F8?>2: :>=:@5B=>-<5B>4>;>38G5A:85 8 :>=:@5B=>-<5B>48G5A:85  >1@07CNB B5>@5B8G5A:89 DC=40<5=B A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, =0@O4C A CG5=85< > ACI=>AB8 8 AB@C:BC@5 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O. >=B@>;L=K5 2>?@>AK '5< >B;8G0NBAO ?>=OB8O <5B>4 8 <5B>48:0? '5< E0@0:B5@87C5BAO <5B>4 =01;N45=8O 8 2 G5< >A>15==>AB8 53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388? ?8H8B5 A?5F8D8:C >@30=870F88 8 ?@>2545=8O M:A?5@8<5= B0;L=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388.  G5< A>AB>OB >A=>2=K5 4>AB>8=AB20 <5B>40 D>@<8@CNI53> M:A ?5@8<5=B0 8 :0:>2> 53> 7=0G5=85 4;O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388? 'B> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 0=0<=5AB8G5A:89 <5B>4 8 :0:>20 53> @>;L 2 8AA;54>20=88 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88? 0:>2K >A=>2=K5 ?@8=F8?K >@30=870F88 8 ?@>2545=8O ?A8 E>;>38G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88?  G5< A>AB>8B 845O :0G5AB25==>3> 8 :>;8G5AB25==>3> ?>4E> 4>2 2 87CG5=88 ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88? 0A:@>9B5 ?@8G8=K >3@0=8G5=89 2 8A?>;L7>20=88 AB0=40@B8 78@>20==KE <5B>4>2 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388.  G5< 70:;NG0NBAO >A=>2=K5 >B;8G8O :;8=8G5A:>3> 8 ?A8E> ;>38G5A:>3> >1A;54>20=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88? 10. 07>28B5 8 >E0@0:B5@87C9B5 107>2K5 :>=:@5B=>-<5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 62 63 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 8B5@0BC@0 ;59E5@. . 0B>?A8E>;>38G5A:0O 4803=>AB8:0. 852, 1986. ><8F:528G !. . 5B>4K =0CG=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20 =89 2 45D5:B>;>388. @:CBA:, 1983. 5930@=8: . ., @0BCAL . !. G5@:8 ?> ?A8E>;>388 0=><0;L =>3> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8. ., 1980. 010=>2 . . 5B>4K ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 4803=>AB8:8 8 :>@ @5:F88 2 :;8=8:5. ., 1983. 51548=A:89 . . 0@CH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O C 45B59. ., 1985. 52G5=:> . .. 0B>?A8E>;>38O: B5>@8O 8 ?@0:B8:0. ., 2000. C1>2A:H . /. A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 4803=>AB8:8 0=> <0;L=>3> @0728B8O 45B59. ., 1989. 0:A8<>20 . .., 8;NB8=0 . . C@A ;5:F89 ?> 45BA:>9 ?0 B>?A8E>;>388. >AB>2-=0->=C, 2000. 0<09GC: . . A8E>;>38O 487>=B>35=570. !1., 2000. 5B>4K 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?A8E>;>388 / >4 @54. ". . >@=8;> 2>9. ., 1998. A=>2K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 / >4 @54. . . C7=5F>2>9. ., 2002. >60@ . A8E>;>38O 0=><0;L=KE 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2  ?0 B>?A8E>;>38O. ., 1996. >70=>20 ". . @8=F8?K ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 4803=>AB8:8 >B :;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 C 45B59 /5D5:B>;>38O, 1995. ! 1. C18=HB59= !. /. -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 <5B>48:8 ?0B>?A8E>;> 388. !1., 1998. !5<03> . /., !5<03> . . C:>2>4AB2> ?> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 4803=>AB8:5. ., 2000. !5<5=>28G . . 59@>?A8E>;>38G5A:0O 4803=>AB8:0 8 :>@@5: F8O 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5. ., 2002. !5<03> II. /., !5<03> . . @>1;5<=K5 45B8. A=>2K 4803=> AB8G5A:>9 8 :>@@5:F8>==>9 @01>BK ?A8E>;>30. ., 2000. #A0=>20 . . !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1990. %C48: . . 5BA:0O ?0B>?A8E>;>38O. 852, 1997. . . ;020 5 !" / !"/ !&, !% >AA>74020O MB0?K @0728B8O 8459 8 B5>@89, 8AB>@8O ;N1>9 =0C:8 A?>A>1AB2C5B ;CGH5<C ?>=8<0=8N A>2@5<5==>3> A>AB>O=8O =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO 70:>=><5@=K< @57C;LB0B>< 8 ;>38G5A:8< ?@>4>;65=85< ?@54H5AB2CNI8E 8AB>@8G5A:8E MB0?>2. 57 7=0=8O A2>59 8AB>@88 =0C:0 @8A:C5B CB@0B8BL A>1AB25==K9 DC=40<5=B, ?>B5@OBL >@85=B0F8N 2 =0?@02;5=88 =0CG=KE ?>8A:>2. C4CG8 G0ABLN >1I5G5;>25G5A:>9 8AB>@88, ?@>F5AA AB0=>2;5=8O 8 @0728B8O =0C:8 =5 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO 87>;8@>20=>, 2=5 :>=:@5B=>3> :C;LBC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:>3> :>=B5:AB0.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 >= ?@52@0I05BAO 2 15A:>=5G=K9 @O4 >H81>: 8 701;C645=89 >4=8E CG5=KE 8 B0:CN 65 F5?L 1;5ABOI8E >B:@KB89 8 4>AB865=89 4@C38E, =0CG=>5 A>>1I5AB2> 45;8BAO =0 ?@>3@5AA82=KE 8 @50:F8>==KE 8AA;54>20B5;59, :>B>@K5 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 A ;53:>ABLN <5=ONBAO <5AB0<8. AB>@8O =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O  MB> 4;8B5;L=K9 8 4@0<0B8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA ?>8A:0 8AB8=K, ?>AB>O==>3> ?@81;865=8O : =59. 8 >48= CG0AB=8: MB>3> ?@>F5AA0 =5 70AB@0E>20= >B 701;C645=89. >;55 B>3>, 8AB>@8O G5;>25G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K 8 =0C:8 A2845B5;LAB2C5B, GB> ?>O2;5=8N >B:@KB89, :0: ?@028;>, ?@54H5AB2C5B 4>;389 ?5@8>4 =5C40G 8 >H81>G=KE @5H5=89. 0: =8 AB@0==>, => 8<5==> MB8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 A?>A>1AB2CNB CB>G=5=8N 8 :>@@5:B8@>2:5 =0?@02;5=89 =0CG=>3> ?>8A:0, 2K42865=8N =>2KE 38?>B57 8, 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5, ?@81;865=8N 8AA;54>20B5;59 : ?>AB02;5==>9 F5;8. 3 ..!>@>:8= 65  I !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O AB>@8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2K3;O48B 4>AB0B>G=> A:@><=> 2 A@02=5=88 A 2=CH8B5;L=K< ?@>H;K< B0:8E =0C:, :0: D878:0, E8<8O, <0B5<0B8:0 8 4@., => 8 >=0 O2;O5BAO =5>BJ5<;5<>9 G0ABLN G5;>25G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K, 8 2 MB>< A<KA;5 ?>CG8B5;L=0, ?>;57=0 8 8=B5@5A=0, 81> A2O70=0 A 87CG5=85< 4CH52=>3> A:;040 ;N459, 682CI8E 2 8=KE CA;>28OE, G5< ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> B0: =07K205<KE =>@<0;L=KE 8=48284>2. AB>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 ?>A2OI5=> =5 B0: <=>3> @01>B. B45;L=K5 D@03<5=BK 55 @0728B8O >B@065=K 2 8AA;54>20=8OE, @0A:@K20NI8E AB0=>2;5=85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?5403>38:8.  MB> 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==>, 81>, :0: <K C65 3>2>@8;8, @0728B85 A8AB5<K :>@@5:F8>=-=>3> >1@07>20=8O AB0;> 206=59H8< CA;>285< 70@>645=8O 8 D>@<8@>20=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 48AF8?;8=K. AB>@8O ;N1>9 =0C:8 =8:>340 =5 =0G8=05BAO A ?CAB>3> <5AB0 8;8 G8AB>3> ;8AB0; 2A5340 ACI5AB2C5B =5:0O ?@54KAB>@8O. 0CG=0O ?A8E>;>38O CE>48B A2>8<8 :>@=O<8 2 B0: =07K205<CN >1K45==CN, 68B59A:CN ?A8E>;>38N. <5==> >1K45==>5 A>7=0=85, :0: >4=0 87 D>@< >1I5AB25==>3>, AB0;> B>9 AD5@>9, 345 @0=LH5 2A53> =0G0;8 :>=F5=B@8@>20BLAO 7=0=8O > ?A8E8:5 G5;>25:0, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 > ?A8E8G5A:8E >B:;>=5=8OE. N48 A ?>4>1=K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 68;8 2 G5;>25G5A:>< A>>1I5AB25 2A5340 8 =5 <>3;8 =5 >1@0I0BL =0 A51O 2=8<0=8O >:@C60NI8E. 1K45==>5 A>7=0=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 15AA8AB5<=K9 =01>@ 68B59A:8E ?@54AB02;5=89 > B5E 8;8 8=KE O2;5=8OE >:@C60NI53> <8@0. 01;N40O 70 ?>2545=85< ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8, ;N48 ?KB0;8AL >1JOA=8BL ?@8G8=K, 2K7202H85 8E. 4=0:> >1K45==>5 A>7=0=85 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO =5B>G=>ABLN, ?@>B82>@5G82>ABLN, D@03<5=B0@=>ABLN, >=> =0?@02;5=> ?@58<CI5AB25==> =0 2=5H=NN AB>@>=C O2;5=8O, 0 =5 =0 53> ACI=>ABL.  >1K45==>< A>7=0=88 ?@8GC4;82> ?5@5?;5B0NBAO 25AL<0 B>G=K5 =01;N45=8O 8 4>304:8 A =5;5?K<8 ?@54@0AAC4:0<8 8 AC525@8O<8. >A;54=85 ?@840NB 5<C O@:CN, M<>F8>-  ;020 5. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 =0;L=CN >:@0A:C 8 A2>9AB2> 8@@0F8>=0;L=>AB8. >, :0: <K C65 >B<5G0;8, 8<5==> C =53> 2K@0AB05B =0CG=>5 7=0=85, =5 ?>@K20O A =8< A2O78, G5@?0O 87 =53> D0:BK 8 8A?>;L7CO ?@8=F8? 74@02>3> A<KA;0. <5AB5 A B5< 8 =0CG=>5 7=0=85 >:07K205B A8;L=>5 2;8O=85 =0 68B59A:85 ?@54AB02;5=8O, 87<5=OO 8E A>45@60=85. %0@0:B5@ >1K45==KE ?@54AB02;5=89 > ?@8G8=0E >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2> <=>3>< >?@545;O; >B=>H5=85 ;N459 : 8E =>A8B5;O<.  =0A:>;L:> @07=>@>4=K 8 ?@>B82>@5G82K 1K;8 B0:85 ?@54AB02;5=8O, =0AB>;L:> =5>4=>7=0G=K< O2;O;>AL 8 >B=>H5=85 : 8=20;840<  >B A>AB@040=8O 8 AB@5<;5=8O ?><>GL 4> >B:@>25==>9 2@06451=>AB8 8 ?@5A;54>20=89. >4>1=>3> @>40 CAB0=>2:8 <>3;8 @0A?@>AB@0=OBLAO 8 =0 1;8609H8E @>4AB25==8:>2 ;8F A ?A8E8G5A:8<8 0=><0;8O<8. 7CG5=85 B8?>2 68B59A:>3> 7=0=8O > ?@8@>45 >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88, 8E 8AB>@8G5A:0O M2>;NF8O 8 A>2@5<5==>5 A>AB>O=85 ?@54AB02;O5B 8A:;NG8B5;L=K9 =0CG=K9 8=B5@5A, 8 =5 B>;L:> 2 0:045<8G5A:>< A<KA;5. 0728B85 2 XX 25:5 A8AB5<K <=>3>AB>@>==59 ?><>I8 8=20;840< A F5;LN 8E =081>;55 ?>;=>3> 2:;NG5=8O 2 687=L >1I5AB20 A> 2A59 >BG5B;82>ABLN ?>:070;>, GB> A>AB>O=85 >1K45==>3> A>7=0=8O <>65B 2KABC?0BL :0: =530B82=K<, B0: 8 ?>78B82=K< D0:B>@>< @5018;8B0F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0. B=>H5=85 : 8=20;840< =0 1KB>2>< C@>2=5 =5 ?>4405BAO 70:>=>40B5;L=>9 @53C;OF88 8 87<5=O5BAO 25AL<0 <54;5==> ?>4 2;8O=85< A8AB5<0B8G5A:>9 8 4;8B5;L=>9 =0CG=>-?@>A25B8B5;LA:>9 @01>BK. 1LI5==>5 A>7=0=85 0:F5=B8@C5B 2=8<0=85 =0 >B;8G8OE, 65AB:> 45;O A>F80;L=K9 <8@ =0 <K (74>@>2K5 ;N48) 8 >=8 (8=20;84K), ?@8?8AK20O ?>A;54=8< <=>3>G8A;5==K5 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 A2>9AB20. 5 A;CG09=> ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> @5A?>=45=B>2 A>F8>;>38G5A:8E >?@>A>2 >B<5G0NB =5>1JOA=8<>5 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 =0?@O65=85, 2>7=8:0NI55 2 A8BC0F88, :>340 >=8 AB0;:820NBAO A 8=20;840<8. -B> =0?@O65=85 40;5:> >B 2@06451=>AB8, => 8 =5 8<55B ?>;>68B5;L=>3> 7=0:0. @@0F8>=0;L=>5 ?@8?8AK20=85 8=20;84C :0:8E-B> >A>1KE A2>9AB2, AB@0E 53> =5?@54A:07C5<>AB8 ACI5AB25==> 70B@C4=ONB ?@>F5AA >1I5=8O. 66 67 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 0;8G85 ?>4>1=KE CAB0=>2>: ?> >B=>H5=8N : ;8F0< A ?A8E8G5A:8<8 @0AAB@>9AB20<8 >1JOA=O5BAO @07=K<8 ?@8G8=0<8, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 35=5B8G5A:>3> ?>@O4:0. <5AB5 A B5< 254CI8< D0:B>@>< 2 40==>< A;CG05 A;54C5B ?@87=0BL 8459=CN 0B<>AD5@C 2 >1I5AB25. >4G5@:=5<, 8<5==> 8459=CN, 0 =5 845>;>38G5A:CN. -B0 0B<>AD5@0 >?@545;O5BAO C:>@5=5==>ABLN 3C<0=8AB8G5A:8E F5==>AB59 8 B@048F89, 3;02=59H8<8 87 :>B>@KE O2;ONBAO A0<>F5==>ABL G5;>25G5A:>9 687=8, =5?@8:>A=>25==>ABL, C=8:0;L=>ABL 8 4>AB>8=AB2> G5;>25G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8. 1K45==>5 A>7=0=85 ?@>45;0;> 4;8B5;L=K9 ?CBL M2>;NF88 8 4>AB0B>G=> 4>;3> 1K;> 548=AB25==K< 8AB>G=8:>< 7=0=89 > ?A8E8G5A:8E 0=><0;8OE. @C3>9 D>@<>9 >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O, 2>7=8:H59 ?>765 >1K45==>3> 8 >:0702H59 =0 =53> A8;L=59H55 2;8O=85, 1K;> A>7=0=85 @5;838>7=>5, ?@54AB02;ONI55 A>1>9 A8AB5<C C15645=89, >A=>20==KE =0 25@5. 5;838>7=>5 A>7=0=85 ?KB05BAO ?>AB@>8BL F5;>AB=CN :0@B8=C <8@0, ?>-A2>5<C >1JOA=OO 2A5 53> O2;5=8O. @8 MB>< A;54C5B >A>1> >B<5B8BL, GB> 2 @O4C ?>A;54=8E ?A8E8G5A:85 8 D878G5A:85 0=><0;88 2A5340 ?@82;5:0;8 : A515 >A>1>5 2=8<0=85. 8 >4=0 A:>;L:>-=81C4L :@C?=0O <8@>20O @5;838O =5 >1E>48;0 MB>B 2>?@>A, @5H0O 53> A B>G:8 7@5=8O 2KAH59 A?@0254;82>AB8, A?@0254;82>3> =0:070=8O 8;8 2>7=03@0645=8O. A8E8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20 <>3;8 @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: =0:070=85 70 :0:85-B> 3@5E8 8;8 :0: ?@O<>5 ?@>O2;5=85 15A>2AB20, GB> @072O7K20;> @C:8 @5;838>7=K< D0=0B8:0<. 8F0 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 ?@5A;54>20;8AL, 873>=O;8AL, ?>425@30;8AL C=865=8O< 8 D878G5A:><C C=8GB>65=8N. @>O2;5=85 60;>AB8 : =8< @0AF5=820;>AL :0: >BABC?;5=85 >B 25@K A> 2A5<8 2KB5:0NI8<8 ?>A;54AB28O<8.  B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 @5;838>7=>5 A>7=0=85 B@0:BC5B ?A8E8G5A:CN 0=><0;L=>ABL :0: >A>1K9 7=0: 1;065==>AB8, >B=>H5=85 87<5=O5BAO 2 8=CN AB>@>=C. 8F0 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 AB0=>2OBAO >1J5:B0<8 701>BK 8 ?@87@5=8O. >AB0B>G=> >1@0B8BLAO : MB8>;>388 @CAA:>3> A;>20 C1>389, :>B>@>5 A53>4=O 8<55B >B:@>25==> =530B82=K9 A<KA;.  A2>5< ?5@2>=0G0;L=>< C?>B@51;5=88 >=> >7=0G0;> 1;87>ABL : >3C 8 B5< A0<K< D8:A8- 68  ;020 5. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 @>20;> >A>1K9 E0@0:B5@ >1@0I5=8O A B0:8<8 ;N4L<8. @0:B8G5A:>5 >ACI5AB2;5=85 MB>3> 2:;NG0;> @07=>>1@07=K5 70?@5BK =0 2AO:>3> @>40 ?@8B5A=5=8O, ?>?KB:8 2>A?8BK20BL ?@8 <>=0ABK@OE ;8F A C<AB25==K<8 8 D878G5A:8<8 @0AAB@>9AB20<8, ?@8>1I5=85 8E : ?>A8;L=K< 2840< B@C40 8 A0<>>1A;C6820=8O. 5A<>B@O =0 <8AB8G5A:89 E0@0:B5@ ?>=8<0=8O ACI=>AB8 8 ?@8@>4K ?A8E8G5A:8E 0=><0;89, G8AB> 8=BC8B82=>, <5B>4>< ?@>1 8 >H81>:, => 2A5 65 C4020;>AL 4>1820BLAO ?>;>68B5;L=KE @57C;LB0B>2 1;03>40@O B5@?8<>AB8, ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 B@51>20=89, @>2=>3> M<>F8>=0;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O 8 4>1@>65;0B5;L=>AB8, ?>A8;L=>AB8 ?@54;0305<KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ?>;=>3> >B:070 >B D878G5A:8E =0:070=89 8 ?@8=C645=8O ($. ;5:A0=45@). 5;L7O =5 >B<5B8BL 5I5 >48= 8AB>G=8: 7=0=89 > ?@8@>45 >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88. 5GL 845B > EC4>65AB25==>9 D>@<5 >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O. 8@>2>5 8 >B5G5AB25==>5 8A:CAAB2> 8 ;8B5@0BC@0 =5>4=>:@0B=> >1@0I0;8AL : >1@070< ?5@A>=0659 A @07;8G=K<8 ?A8E8G5A:8<8 =0@CH5=8O<8. >AB0B>G=> B>;L:> A>A;0BLAO =0 >1I58725AB=K5 ?@>872545=8O B0:8E 02B>@>2, :0: . 5?8=, . !C@8:>2, . 5@>2, . =B>:>;LA:89, $. >AB>52A:89, . >3>;L, . >@>;5=:>, . CH:8=, . '5E>2, . =4@552, . N3>, . 0@H0;, !. >;5:052, . 5A:>2, . >;52>9, . AB@>2A:89, . . ;LH20=3 8 <=>385 4@. =0G5=85 8 @>;L MB8E ?5@A>=0659 2 EC4>65AB25==>< 70<KA;5 ?@>872545=89 <>3CB 1KBL A>25@H5==> @07;8G=K :0: 8 A0< E0@0:B5@ 8 A?>A>1 8E >?8A0=8O. 1I8< O2;O5BAO AB@5<;5=85 ?@>=8:=CBL 2> 2=CB@5==89 <8@ B0:8E ;N459, @0A:@KBL ;>38:C 8E ?>2545=8O, 40BL G5@57 >?8A0=85 548=8G=>3> :0@B8=C 2A5>1I59 ACI=>AB8 ?@8@>4K G5;>25:0 =57028A8<> >B A>AB>O=8O 53> ?A8E8G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO. =>385 87 ?@>872545=89, @0A:@K20O B@0387< >1I5AB25==>3> 1KB8O ;8F A B5<8 8;8 8=K<8 @0AAB@>9AB20<8, A?>A>1AB2>20;8 8 A?>A>1AB2CNB 87<5=5=8N >1LI5==KE ?@54AB02;5=89 8 >B=>H5=8O >1I5AB20 : MB>9 :0B53>@88 8=48284CC<>2. A;8 >1K45==K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O 1078@CNBAO =0 M<?8@8G5A:><, 68B59A:>< >?KB5, B> @5;838>7=K5 8 EC4>65AB25==K5 69 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 8<5NB 8=CN >A=>2C  8@@0F8>=0;L=>-<8AB8G5A:CN 8 >1@07=>-M<>F8>=0;L=CN. A5 B@8 C:070==K5 D>@<K >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O ACI5AB25==> >B;8G0NBAO >B 1>;55 ?>74=53> ?> 2@5<5=8 2>7=8:=>25=8O =0CG=>3> A?>A>10 87CG5=8O <8@0. 0C:0 65 >?8@05BAO =0 @0F8>=0;L=K5 D0:BK, 8A?>;L7C5B >1J5:B82=K9 A?>A>1 ?>;CG5=8O 8=D>@<0F88. 5 F5;LN O2;O5BAO A1>@ 4>AB>25@=KE, ?@>25@O5<KE 8 2>A?@>872>48<KE A2545=89. ?5@2K5 ?>?KB:0 40BL @0F8>=0;L=>5 >1JOA=5=85 ?@8@>4K @07;8G=KE >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 1K;0 ?@54?@8=OB0 2 @0<:0E <548F8=K. %0@0:B5@ MB>3> >1JOA=5=8O 8 A?>A>1>2 ;5G5=8O =0?@O<CN 7028A5; >B @0728B8O 5AB5AB2>7=0=8O 8, ?@5645 2A53>, >B ?@54AB02;5=89 > AB@>5=88 8 DC=:F8OE =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K 8 8E A2O78 A ?A8E8:>9. >;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E A53>4=O 2K3;O4OB 1>;55 G5< =082=>, => 4;O =0A 206=55 4@C3>5: ?>O2;5=85 =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89 7=0<5=C5B A>1>9 8=>9 A?>A>1 ?>;CG5=8O 7=0=8O ?CB5< A8AB5<0B8G5A:>3> =01;N45=8O 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0, 0 B0:65 ?@8G8==>-@0F8>=0;L=>3> A?>A>10 B@0:B>2:8 4>1KBKE D0:B>2. > ACI5AB2C, ?5@2K5 =0CG=K5, 2 AB@>3>< A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20, ?@54AB02;5=8O =0G0;8 D>@<8@>20BLAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 A8AB5<0B8G5A:>3> >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 A =0@CH5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. >4>1=0O A8AB5<0 AB0;0 A:;04K20BLAO 2 2@>?5 2 XVIII AB>;5B88 ?>4 2;8O=85< 3C<0=8AB8G5A:8E 8 ?@>A25B8B5;LA:8E 8459. 5?>A;54=NN @>;L 2 MB>< ?@>F5AA5 AK3@0;0 ?>?C;O@=>ABL A5=AC0;8AB8G5A:8E B5>@89, ?>4G5@:8202H8E 8A:;NG8B5;L=CN @>;L >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 @515=:0. 5<0;>206=> >B<5B8BL 8 4>AB865=8O <548F8=K B>3> 2@5<5=8. >AB0B>G=> C:070BL 2 :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 =0 25AL<0 7=0<5=0B5;L=K9 D0:B >B3@0=8G5=8O C<AB25==>9 >BAB0;>AB8 :0: AB>9:>3> A>AB>O=8O =54>@0728B8O >B ?A8E8G5A:8E 701>;520=89, 2?5@2K5 ?@>872545==>5 D@0=FC7A:8< ?A8E80B@>< . -A:8@>;5<. >;>65==K5 2 >A=>2C >1CG5=8O ?> ?@58<CI5AB2C 8=BC8B82=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O >1 >A>15==>ABOE ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8, 0 B0:65 >1 8E ?>B5=F80;L=KE 2>7- 70  ;020 5. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 <>6=>ABOE 2 @50;L=>< ?5403>38G5A:>< ?@>F5AA5 ?>AB5?5==> CA;>6=O;8AL, >1>30I0;8AL 8 48DD5@5=F8@>20;8AL. "5< =5 <5=55 ?>;CG5==K5 ?@0:B8G5A:8< ?CB5< ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 7=0=8O ?@54AB02;O;8 A>1>9 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ?>1>G=K9 ?@>4C:B ?5403>38G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, >AB020OAL 4>;3>5 2@5<O 55 2=CB@5==8< :><?>=5=B><, =5 2A5340 OA=> >A>7=0205<K<. > <5@5 =0:>?;5=8O 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>3> 103060 >=8, ?@O<> 8;8 :>A25==>, :@8AB0;;87>20;8AL 2 CG51=KE ?@>3@0<<0E, CG51=8:0E, <5B>48G5A:8E @5:><5=40F8OE 8 B. ?. <5==> ?>MB><C ?5@8>4 4> :>=F0 XIX AB>;5B8O <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL :0: >A>1K9 MB0? 2 @0728B88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, :>B>@K9 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO 55 2:;NG5==K< A>AB>O=85< 2 :>@@5:F8>==>-?5403>38-G5A:89 ?@>F5AA; MB0?, =0 :>B>@>< >=0 5I5 =5 2K45;8;0AL 2 A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN D>@<C ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A> A2>8< ?@54<5B>< 8 <5B>40<8. $>@<8@>20=8N A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 :0G5AB25 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 48AF8?;8=K 2> <=>3>< A?>A>1AB2>20;> @0728B85 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2> 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=5 XIX 25:0. #65 : 90-< 3>40< =0G0;8 D>@<8@>20BLAO ?@8:;04=K5 >B@0A;8 ?A8E>;>388. 5@2K<8 ?@0:B8G5A:8<8 AD5@0<8, 2 :>B>@KE ?KB0;8AL 8A?>;L7>20BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 7=0=85, 1K;8 :;8=8:0 8 H:>;0. 5D5:B>;>38G5A:0O ?@0:B8:0 ?> A2>5<C A>45@60=8N 70=8<0;0 ?@><56CB>G=>5 ?>;>65=85 <564C MB8<8 42C<O >1;0ABO<8. <5==> ?>MB><C =0 AB0=>2;5=85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 =0C:8 >:070;8 A8;L=>5 2;8O=85 ?5403>38G5A:0O 8 <548F8=A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. 5 A;CG09=> 8 ?> A59 45=L 2 55 @CA;5 >BG5B;82> ?@>A;568205BAO :;8=8-:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:0O 8 ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:0O =0?@02;5==>ABL 8AA;54>20=89.  =0G0;5 XX 25:0 :;8=8G5A:89 0A?5:B 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 O2=> 4><8=8@>20;.  MB> =5 A;CG09=>, 5A;8 CG5ABL, GB> ?5@2K<8 A?5F80;8AB0<8 2 MB>9 B>;L:> GB> =0@>482H59AO >1;0AB8 1K;8 2@0G8, 8, ?@5645 2A53>, ?A8E>=52@>;>38. =B5@5A=> >B<5B8BL, GB> 2 :>=F5 XIX - =0G0;5 XX 25:0 ?@54<5BK A?5F80;L=>9 8 <548F8=A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 G0AB> =5 @0745;O;8AL, B0 8 4@C30O 48AF8?;8=K @0A?@>AB@0=5==> >1>7=0G0;8AL B5@- 71 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O <8=>< ?0B>;>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O, :>B>@0O =5 <5=55 G0AB> ?CB0;0AL A ?A8E>?0B>;>3859. 5<0;>206=K< D0:B>@>< 2 AB0=>2;5=88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2KABC?8;8 CA?5E8 :8=8G5A:>9 <548F8=K  >DB0;L<>;>388, >B>;0@8=3>;>388 8 45;02H59 A2>8 ?5@2K5 H038 45BA:>9 ?A8E80B@88. !0<0 ?> A515 :;8=8G5A:0O ?@0:B8:0 AB0;0 1>30BK< 8AB>G=8:>< ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 7=0=89, 8 >AB05BAO 8< 4> A8E ?>@.  AD5@C A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?>AB5?5==>, E>BO 8 <54;5==>, 2=54@ONBAO M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 <5B>4K 8AA;54>20=8O. 7 :;8=8G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:8 ?@>4C:B82=> 708<AB2CNBAO B5E=8:8 =01;N45=8O 8 :0G5AB25==>3> 0=0;870 ?>;CG5==>3> <0B5@80;0. C@=>5 @0728B85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 =0G0;5 XX 25:0 =5>B@K2=> >B >A>15==>AB59 :C;LBC@=>3> :>=B5:AB0 52@>?59A:>9 8AB>@88 MB>3> ?5@8>40. A>15==>ABLN MB>3> :>=B5:AB0 O28;AO =5>1K:=>25==K9 ?>4J5< 8=B5@5A0 : D5=><5=C 45BAB20, :>B>@>5 4>;3> B@0:B>20;>AL 2 C7:>18>;>38G5A:8E @0<:0E. 5BAB2> AB0;> @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: A;>6=K9 <=>3><5@=K9 >1J5:B 87CG5=8O. 515=>: ?@52@0B8;AO 2 87;N1;5==>3> ?5@A>=060 ;8B5@0BC@=KE 8 682>?8A=KE ?@>872545=89. <5==> 2 MB>B ?5@8>4 A>740NBAO =081>;55 O@:85 @01>BK ?> 45BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388, 2 G0AB=>AB8 ?> ?A8E>;>388 83@K 8 45BA:>3> B2>@G5AB20, H>:8@CNI85 ?C1;8:C 8AA;54>20=8O 3. $@5940, ?>A2OI5==K5 45BA:>9 A5:AC0;L=>AB8, 70:;04K20NB >A=>2K MB=>3@0D88 45BAB20. /@:8< ?@8<5@>< ?>2KH5=8O 8=B5@5A0 : 45BA:>9 B5<0B8:5 AB0;> ?>O2;5=85 >A>1>9 =0C:8  ?54>;>388, >:0702H59 A8;L=>5 2;8O=85 =0 A?5F80;L=CN ?A8E>;>38N. 7CG5=8N @0728B8O @515=:0 2 CA;>28OE ?0B>;>388 1K; ?>A2OI5= B0:>9 @0745; ?54>;>388, :0: ?0B>-?54>;>38O, A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN :>B>@>3> 1K;0 A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. 7 ?54>;>388 2 ?>A;54=NN ?@8H;8 ?@8=F8?K 48=0<8G5A:>3>, A8AB5<=>-:><?;5:A=>3> 8 A@02=8B5;L=>3> 0=0;870. 5=5B8G5A:0O 845O, B> 5ABL 87CG5=85 @515=:0 2 ?@>F5AA5 @0728B8O, AB0;0 4><8=8@CNI59. 0B>;>38G5A:0O <>45;L @0728B8O @0AA<0B@820;0AL 2 ?54>;>388 :0: =5>BJ5<;5<K9 :><?>=5=B 72  ;020 5. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 7=0=89 >1 >1I8E 70:>=><5@=>ABOE =>@<0;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 D>@<8@>20=8O 45BA:>9 ?A8E8:8.  =0G0;5 XX AB>;5B8O 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 =01;N405BAO 0:B82=0O 2=CB@5==OO 48DD5@5=F80F8O. 5@2>=0G0;L=>, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> A;>682H59AO A8AB5<>9 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 0=><0;L=KE 45B59, =0G8=0NB A:;04K20BLAO B0:85 55 >B@0A;8, :0: AC@4>?A8E>;>38O, B8D;>?A8E>;>38O 8 >;83>D@5-=>?A8E>;>38O.  :>=F5 XIX  =0G0;5 XX 25:0 A8AB5<0 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 :0: 2 2@>?5, B0: 8 2 >AA88 ?@8>1@5B05B >A>1CN 48=0<8:C. B:@K20NBAO =>2K5 H:>;K, ?@8NBK, A0=0B>@88. ><8=8@>202H89 :;8=8:>-18>-;>38G5A:89 ?>4E>4 =0G8=05B 2A5 1>;55 0:B82=> 4>?>;=OBLAO A>F80;L=>-?5403>38G5A:8<. <5==> 2 MB>B ?5@8>4 ?>O2;ONBAO <=>3>G8A;5==K5 =0CG=K5 @01>BK, ?>A2OI5==K5 @07;8G=K< ?@>1;5<0< A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. E 02B>@0<8 1K;8 . 0;O@52A:89, . . 0I5=:>, . . @0G520, . . >20;52A:89, . . ;048<8@A:89, . . @H0=A:89, . !. @81>54>2, . . @>38CA 8 <=>385 4@C385.  1915 3. 1K; >?C1;8:>20= 42CEB><=K9 DC=40<5=B0;L=K9 B@C4 . /. "@>H8=0 !@02=8B5;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O =>@<0;L=KE 8 =5=>@<0;L=KE 45B59. 06=CN 4;O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 @>;L AK3@0; . . 5EB5@52, A>7402H89 2 >4=>< 87 ?>4@0745;5=89 @C:>2>48<>9 8< A8E>=52@>;>38G5A:>9 0:045<88 A?5F80;L=CN ;01>@0B>@8N ?> 87CG5=8N ?A8E8:8 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. !8AB5<0 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 4> =5402=53> 2@5<5=8 1K;0 GCBL ;8 =5 548=AB25==>9 AD5@>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 345 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 7=0=89 =>A8;> ?>AB>O==K9, A8AB5<0B8G5A:89 8 >1O70B5;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. 5GL, ?@5645 2A53>, 845B > ?@8<5=5=88 ?A8E>4803=>AB8:8 ?@8 >B1>@5 45B59 2 @07=K5 B8?K :>@@5:F8>==KE CG@5645=89. #65 C?><8=0;>AL, GB> 2=54@5=85 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> <5B>40 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 H;> <54;5==> 8 ?@>B82>@5G82>. > 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88 >=0 =5 O2;O5BAO 8A:;NG5=85< 2 @O4C 4@C38E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 48AF8?;8=, D>@<8@>202H8EAO 2 B> 2@5<O. <5AB5 A B5< A?5F80;L=>9 73 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ?A8E>;>388 ?@8=04;568B >A>10O @>;L 2 AB0=>2;5=88 B0:>9 <>I=> @0728B>9 A53>4=O >B@0A;8, =5>BJ5<;5<>9 G0AB8 1>;LH8=AB20 @0745;>2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 7=0=8O  ?A8E>4803=>AB8:0. 0: 8725AB=>, ?5@2K5 B5AB>2K5 <5B>48:8, A :>B>@KE 8 =0G0;AO ?A8E>4803=>AB8G5A:89 1C< XX 25:0, 1K;8 A>740=K 8<5==> 2 @0<:0E A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 ?@54=07=0G5=K 4;O 48DD5@5=F80;L=>9 4803=>AB8:8 2 A8AB5<5 >B1>@0 45B59 2 :>@@5:F8>==K5 CG@5645=8O. C@=>5 @0728B85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 4>@52>;NF8>==K9 ?5@8>4 >AA88, 2 AB0=>2;5=88 :>B>@>9 ?><8<> C?><O=CBKE =0<8 CG5=KE ?@8=8<0;8 A0<>5 =5?>A@54AB25==>5 CG0AB85 B0:85 ?@87=0==K5 ;845@K ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8, :0: . . ;>=A:89, . . >;BC=>2, . !. 5@=HB59=, . . >A-A>;8<>, . $. 07C@A:89, . . 0;:8=4, . . (C15@B, . . K10:>2, . . 5G052, . . '5;?0=>2, . . C@528G, . . !>:>;>2, . /. 0A>2 8 4@., 1K;> A5@L57=> ?@8>AB0=>2;5=> 4> A5@548=K 20-E 3>4>2 2 A2O78 A> A;>6=>9 ?>;8B8:>-M:>=><8G5A:>9 A8BC0F859, A;>682H59AO 2 @57C;LB0B5 @52>;NF88, 3@0640=A:>9 2>9=K, <0AA>2>3> 3>;>40 8 @07@CE8. >AB5?5==> : A5@548=5 20-E 3>4>2 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:85 @01>BK =0G8=0NB 2>7>1=>2;OBLAO, E>BO C65 =5 4>AB830NB ?@56=53> C@>2=O 87-70 >AB@>9 =5E20B:8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE =0CG=KE :04@>2. "5< =5 <5=55 AC48BL >1 8=B5=A82=>AB8 ?@>2>48<KE 8AA;54>20=89 <>6=> E>BO 1K ?> B><C =5?>;=><C A?8A:C CG@5645=89 >A:2K, 345 >=8 8 >ACI5AB2;O;8AL. !@548 =8E: KAH85 ?5403>38G5A:85 :C@AK, A8E>;>38G5A:85 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:85 :C@AK, KAH85 =0CG=>-?5403>38G5A:85 :C@AK, :045<8O A>F80;L=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O, 5403>38G5A:89 8=AB8BCB 45BA:>9 45D5:B82=>AB8, A8E>;>38G5A:89 8=AB8BCB ?@8 ?5@2>< #, &5=B@0;L=K9 ?54>;>38G5A:89 8=AB8BCB, >AC40@AB25==K9 <>A:>2A:89 ?A8E>=52@>;>38G5A:89 8=AB8BCB, >AC40@AB25==K9 <548:>-?54>;>38G5A:89 8=AB8BCB 0@:><74@02>>E@0=5=8O, ;01>@0B>@8O M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 45BA:>9 ?A8E>=52@>;>388 ?@8 52@>;>38G5A:>< 8=AB8BCB5 ?5@2>3> #, 548:>-?54>;>38G5A:0O :;8=8:0, &5=B@0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O ;01>@0B>@8O 2A?><>30B5;L-  ;020 5. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 =KE H:>;, &5=B@0;L=K9 3C<0=8B0@=K9 ?5403>38G5A:89 8=AB8BCB, C759 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 8 4@. 5 <5=55 8=B5=A82=> 25;0AL @01>B0 8 2 5=8=3@045: 2 A8E>=52@>;>38G5A:>9 0:045<88, =AB8BCB5 <>730 . . 5EB5@520 8 2 5=8=3@04A:>< ?5403>38G5A:>< 8=AB8BCB5. > 2A59 AB@0=5 1K;8 A>740=K 3>@>4A:85, :@052K5 8 @09>==K5 ?54>;>38G5A:85 :018=5BK, ?@54AB02;ONI85 A>1>9 =5:89 ?@>>1@07 3>AC40@AB25==>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 A;C61K 2 >1;0AB8 0=><0;L=>3> 45BAB20 (. . -B:8=4). !53>4=O =5B B>G=KE A2545=89, A:>;L:> B0:8E ;01>@0B>@89 8 :018=5B>2 =0AG8BK20;>AL 2 AB@0=5. 4=0:> 2 >A:25 8 5=8=3@045 >=8 ACI5AB2>20;8 2 :064>< @09>=5 8 2> <=>38E H:>;0E. >?@>A0<8 >@30=870F88 CG51=>9 8 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 @01>BK 70=8<0;8AL 420 :@C?=KE =0@:><0B0  ?@>A25I5=8O 8 74@02>>E@0=5=8O. &5=B@0;L=K< =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:8< CG@5645=85<, 2>73;02;O2H8< 8 :>>@48=8@>202H8< 2A5 @>AA89A:85 87KA:0=8O 2 >1;0AB8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, 1K; A>740==K9 2 1919 3. -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>-45D5:B>;>38G5A:89 8=AB8BCB. A>1>5 <5AB> 2 8AB>@88 AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?> ?@02C ?@8=04;568B . !. K3>BA:><C. C@=K9 @0AF25B @0AA<0B@8205<>9 =0<8 48AF8?;8=K, ?@8E>4OI89AO, :0: <K =5 @07 C65 C?><8=0;8, =0 =0G0;> XX 25:0, B@51>20; >?@545;5==>9 7025@H5==>AB8, GB> 8<5==> ?@8H;>AL =0 4>;N . !. K3>BA:>3>. = ?@840; A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 E0@0:B5@ AD>@<8@>20==>9 =0C:8 A A>1AB25==K< ?@54<5B><, <5B>40<8, 7040G0<8 8 A8AB5<>9 >1JOA=8B5;L=KE ?@8=F8?>2. I5 @07 ?>4G5@:=5<, GB> . !. K3>BA:89 =5 >A=>20; A?5F80;L=CN ?A8E>;>38N (:0: MB> G0AB> CB25@6405BAO), 0 A?>A>1AB2>20; 55 >:>=G0B5;L=><C >D>@<;5=8N 8 ?@52@0I5=8N 2 A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN =0CG=CN >1;0ABL. -B> >:070;>AL 2>7<>6=K< 1;03>40@O 53> C=8:0;L=K< A?>A>1=>ABO< ?@>4C:B82=> 8A?>;L7>20BL >?KB A2>8E ?@54H5AB25==8:>2.  =0A;5488 . !. K3>BA:>3> @01>BK, ?>A2OI5==K5 2>?@>A0< A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, 70=8<0NB >A>1>5 <5AB>. <5==> MB> ?>72>;O5B =5:>B>@K< 02B>@0< 45;0BL 2K2>4 > B><, GB> 74 75 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 5. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 45D5:B>;>38G5A:0O B5<0B8:0 2 53> =0CG=>< B2>@G5AB25 O2;O;0AL 3;02=>9 8 >?@545;ONI59. 4=0:> F5=B@0;L=>9 AB@0B538G5A:>9 7040G59 . !. K3>BA:>3> 1K;> A>740=85 =>2>9 B5>@88 @0728B8O ?A8E8:8, :>B>@0O 1K;0 1;5ABOI5 @50;87>20=0, 7025@H82H8AL A>740=85< :>=F5?F88 :C;LBC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, D>@<8@>20=8O 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89, 7=0:>2>3> >?>A@54>20=8O, A<KA;>2>3> 8 A8AB5<=>3> AB@>5=8O A>7=0=8O 8 B. 4. #=8:0;L=>ABL 40==>9 =0CG=>9 A8BC0F88 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> @57C;LB0BK :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 . !. K3>BA:>3> A>AB028;8 >A=>2C A>740==>9 8< :C;LBC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:>9 B5>@88 @0728B8O ?A8E8:8.  C?><O=CB0O B5>@8O, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 2KABC?8;0 107>9 4;O >B5G5AB25==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. <5==> A MB8E ?>78F89 . !. K3>BA:8< 1K;8 AD>@<C;8@>20=K 206=59H85 ?>;>65=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 =0 <=>385 45AOB8;5B8O 2?5@54, >?@545;82H85 =0?@02;5=8O :0: B5>@5B8G5A:8E, B0: 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89. 0CG=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL . !. K3>BA:>3> ?@8H;0AL =0 2B>@CN ?>;>28=C 20-E  ?5@2CN ?>;>28=C 30-E 3>4>2. A;8 A5@548=0 20-E E0@0:B5@87>20;0AL 25AL<0 8=B5=A82=K< @0728B85< =0C:8, B> : =0G0;C B@5BL53> 45AOB8;5B8O ?>;>65=85 =0G8=05B <5=OBLAO. #A;>6=5=85 A>F80;L=>-?>;8B8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88 2 AB@0=5 ?@82>48B : CA8;5=8N 845>;>38G5A:>3> 48:B0B0 8 ?>;8B8G5A:8< @5?@5AA8O<. 0?@5I0NBAO F5;K5 =0CG=K5 =0?@02;5=8O. >7=020B5;L=>5 7=0G5=85 =0C:8 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: =5GB> ?@>872>4=>5 >B 7040G >1A;C6820=8O 8=B5@5A>2 ?@0:B8:8 2 CB8;8B0@=>< A<KA;5. 5AB> =0CG=KE B5>@89 8 38?>B57 70=8<0NB =5?@5@5:05<K5 2 A2>59 01A>;NB=>AB8 CG5=8O.  MB> 2@5<O 3>=5=8O< ?>425@30NBAO ?A8E>B5E=8:0, A>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O, ?A8E>0=0;87. !?5F80;L=K< ?>AB0=>2;5=85< & (1)  ?54>;>38G5A:8E 872@0I5=8OE 2 A8AB5<5 0@:><?@>A0 >A=. 1936 3. ;8:2848@C5BAO ?54>;>38O. <O . !. K3>BA:>3> C?><8=05BAO ;8HL 2 A2O78 A 157C45@6=>9 :@8B8:>9, =5 8<5NI59 =8:0:>3> >B=>H5=8O : =0C:5. 3> @01>BK AB0=CB 4>ABC?=K<8 H8@>:><C G8B0B5;N ;8HL G5@57 4204F0BL ;5B  2 A5@548=5 50-E 3>4>2. ;O ?A8E>;>388 MB> 1K; BO65;K9 ?5@8>4.  45;> 70:;NG0;>AL =5 B>;L:> 2 :>;8G5AB25==>< C<5=LH5=88 =0CG=>9 ?@>4C:F88, => ?@5645 2A53> 2 87<5=5=88 :0G5AB20. A=>2=K<8 >1JOA=8B5;L=K<8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 ?@8=F8?0<8 ?A8E>;>388 AB0;8 70:>=K 2KAH59 =5@2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 <0:@>A>F8>;>388 (A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:0O D>@<0F8O, A>2>:C?=>ABL >1I5AB25==KE >B=>H5=89, :;0AA>20O 1>@L10 8 B. 4.).  A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >4=>2@5<5==> 4><8=8@>20;8 @57:> :>=B@0AB8@CNI85 G@57<5@=> 18>;>38G5A:85 8 2C;L30@=> A>F8>;>38G5A:85 2>77@5=8O, AB>;L 65 =5A>2<5AB8<K5, A:>;L 8 >4=>AB>@>==85. -B>, 157CA;>2=>, B>@<>78;> 55 @0728B85. "5< =5 <5=55 ACI5AB2>20=85 A8AB5<K A?5F80;L=>3> >1@07>20=8O A =587156=>ABLN B@51>20;> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89, E>BO 1K =5<=>3>G8A;5==KE, 2 C7:>< :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A-:>< ?;0=5. "0:8< >1@07><, AD5@0 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 1K;0 B5< >078A><, 345 @>AA89A:0O (A>25BA:0O) ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O =0C:0 <>3;0 ;530;L=> ACI5AB2>20BL 2 B5G5=85 <=>38E ;5B. <5==> ?>MB><C A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 2 >B;8G85 >B 4@C38E >1;0AB59 =08<5=55 ?>AB@040;0 >B 45D>@<8@CNI53> 2;8O=8O 845>;>38G5A:>3> ?@5AA0. ?@545;5==0O 0:B82870F8O 2 ?A8E>;>388 >B<5G0;0AL 2 ?5@8>4 5;8:>9 B5G5AB25==>9 2>9=K 8 ?>A;5 55 >:>=G0=8O.  >?OBL MB> >B=>A8;>AL ?> ?@58<CI5AB2C : AD5@5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. #25;8G5=85 G8A;0 8=20;84>2 >AB@> ?>AB028;> 2>?@>A >1 8E A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 8 B@C4>2>9 040?B0F88. >?@>A0<8 @5018;8B0F88 70=8<0;8AL <=>385 >B5G5AB25==K5 ?A8E>;>38 (. . 5>=BL52, . . 0?>@>65F, . . 5930@=8:, !. /. C18=HB59=, . . =0=L52, . . C@8O, . . >20;5=:>, . !. 5@;8= 8 <=>385 4@C385). !> 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=K 50-E 3>4>2 =0G8=05BAO 2>7@>645=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8 2 !!! . >AAB0=02;820NBAO 2 ?@020E 8458 . !. K3>BA:>3>. >;CG05B 40;L=59H55 @0728B85 A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O, >@85=B8@>20==0O =0 ?@0:B8:C >1CG5=8O 45B59 A ?A8E8G5A:8<8 >B:;>=5=8O<8. "5<0B8:0 8AA;54>20=89 2 40==>9 >1;0AB8 ?@58<CI5AB25==> 1K;0 A2O70=0 A 87C- 76 77 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O G5=85< ?>7=020B5;L=KE ?@>F5AA>2  2>A?@8OB85, ?0<OBL, <KH;5=85 8 @5GL. 0 ?>A;54=85 3>4K B5<0B8G5A:89 =01>@ ACI5AB25==> >1>30B8;AO. #7:>:>3=8B82=K9 ?>4E>4 AB0; 0:B82=> 4>?>;=OBLAO 8AA;54>20=8O<8 M<>F8>=0;L=>-2>;52>9 AD5@K, 87CG5=85< ;8G=>AB8, A0<>A>7=0=8O, <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 2 CA;>28OE @07=KE D>@< >B:;>=5=89 >B =>@<0;L=>3> @0728B8O. !0<8 B8?>;>38G5A:85 3@C??K @0AA<0B@820NBAO H8@5 :0: 2 :;8=8G5A:><, B0: 8 2 2>7@0AB=>< 0A?5:B0E. > <5@5 @0728B8O ?@0:B8:8 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 0=><0;L=KE 45B59 AB0;> OA=>, GB> G5< @0=LH5 =0G8=05BAO :>@@5:F8>==>5 2>7459AB285, B5< 2KH5 53> MDD5:B82=>ABL. <5==> ?>MB><C 2 >1J5:B A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 AB0;8 2:;NG0BLAO 45B8 4>H:>;L=>3> 8 ?@544>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0. "0:8< >1@07><, A?5-F80;L=>?A8E>;>38G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O 2KABC?8;8 >4=8< 87 D0:B>@>2 D>@<8@>20=8O 4>H:>;L=>9 :>@@5:F8>==>9 ?5403>38:8. >7@0AB=>9 480?07>= 8=B5@5A>2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 C25;8G8205BAO =5 B>;L:> 70 AG5B 4>H:>;L=8:>2, => 8 ;8F 7@5;>3> 8 ?>68;>3> 2>7@0AB0.  A5@548=5 60-E 3>4>2 B5<0 :><?5=A0B>@=KE <5E0=87<>2, 0=0;878@C5<KE ?@58<CI5AB25==> =0 D878>;>38G5A:>< C@>2=5, ?>AB5?5==> A<5=8;0AL =0 ?@>1;5<C A>F80;L=>9 040?B0F88 8 @5018;8B0F88, >1I5AB25==>3> 1KB8O 27@>A;KE 8=20;84>2 2 H8@>:>< 0A?5:B5: ?>;CG5=85 40;L=59H53> >1@07>20=8O, ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5 8 ;8G=>AB=>5 A0<>>?@545;5=85. !> 2@5<5=5< B@0=AD>@<0F88 ?>425@305BAO 8 ?@54<5B @07=KE @0745;>2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. B 87CG5=8O 2K@065==KE D>@< B>9 8;8 8=>9 ?0B>;>388 0:F5=B A<5I05BAO 2 AB>@>=C @5784C0;L=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8:. "0:, =0?@8<5@, ?5@2>=0G0;L=> >1J5:B>< AC@4>?A8E>;>388 8 B8D;>?A8E>;>388 1K;8 ;8HL 3;CE85 8 A;5?K5, ?> <5@5 @0728B8O MB8E =0C: >= AB0; 2:;NG0BL 2 A51O B0:65 A;01>A;KH0I8E 8 A;01>284OI8E ;8F. ><8<> 2=CB@5==59 <>48D8:0F88 B@048F8>==KE >B@0A;59 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 (B8D;>-, AC@4>- 8 >;83>D@5=>-?A8E>;>388) <>6=> =01;N40BL D>@<8@>20=85 55 =>2KE =0?@02;5=89, B0:8E :0: ?A8E>;>38O 45B59 A 7045@6:>9 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, ?A8E>;>38O ;8F A ?0B>;>3859 >?>@=>-42830B5;L=>- 78  ;020 5. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 3> 0??0@0B0. 0:;04K20NBAO >A=>2K ;>3>?A8E>;>388, ?A8E>;>388 45B59, 2K@>AH8E 2 CA;>28OE <0B5@8=A:>9 45?@820F88, @5018;8B0F8>==>9 ?A8E>;>388. 4=>2@5<5==> ?@0:B8:0 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 >BG5B;82> A2845B5;LAB2C5B >1 87<5=5=8OE 2 A>AB025 CG0I8EAO :>@-@5:F8>==>-2>A?8B0B5;L=KE CG@5645=89. A=>2=0O >A>15==>ABL MB8E ?5@5<5= 70:;NG05BAO 2 CA;>6=5=88 AB@C:BC@K ?A8E8G5A:8E @0AAB@>9AB2, ?@>O2;ONI5<AO 2 :><18=8@>20==KE A>G5B0=8OE @07=KE 0=><0;89. -B8 =0@CH5=8O A>740NB :0G5AB25==> 8=K5 20@80=BK >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O, =5 A2>4OI85AO : ?@>AB>9 AC<<5 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E M;5<5=B>2. 081>;55 G0AB> 2AB@5G0NB =0@CH5=85 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O A >4=>2@5<5==>9 ?0B>;>3859 7@5=8O 8 (8;8) A;CE0, @0AAB@>9AB2> >?>@=>-42830B5;L=>3> 0??0@0B0 2 A>G5B0=88 A C<AB25==K< =54>@0728B85< 8 B. 4. >O2;5=85 ?>4>1=KE D>@< A>G5B0==>9 ?0B>;>388 A =587156=>ABLN AB028B 2>?@>A > A?5F8D8:5 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O ?>4>1=KE 45B59, 0 MB>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, AB8<C;8@C5B ?@>2545=85 8AA;54>20=89 A2>5>1@078O 8E ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. "0:8< >1@07><, 70:;04K20NBAO >A=>2K =>2KE @0745;>2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, 2>7=8:0NI8E =0 ABK:5 B@048F8>==KE. 57028A8<> >B A2>5>1@078O ?@54<5B0 B>9 8;8 8=>9 >B@0A;8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2=CB@8 :064>9 87 =8E <>6=> 2K45;8BL =5A:>;L:> =0?@02;5=89 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 @01>BK. 5@2>5  :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>5, 4;O :>B>@>3> =081>;55 E0@0:B5@=> A>?>AB02;5=85 ?>;CG5==KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 40==KE A >A>15==>ABO<8 >A=>2=>3> =0@CH5=8O, 53> 3;C18=>9, MB8>;>3859 8 ?0B>35=57><. @C3>5 =0?@02;5=85  ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:>5; A 53> ?>78F89 @515=>: A B5< 8;8 8=K< >B:;>=5=85< @0AA<0B@8205BAO 2 :>=B5:AB5 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O. "@5BL5 =0?@02;5=85  A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>5. @54<5B>< 53> =5?>A@54AB25==>3> 87CG5=8O O2;O5BAO @515=>: =5 A0< ?> A515, 0 E0@0:B5@ 53> <56;8G=>ABKE >B=>H5=89, >A>15==>AB8 ?@>F5AA0 >1I5=8O, 3@C??>20O 48=0<8:0, 8=B5@?5@A>=0;L=>5 2>A?@8OB85 8 B. ?. >AB0B>G=> 1;87:> : C:070==><C =0?@02;5=8N ?@8<K:05B @5018;8B0F8>==> >@85=B8@>20==K5 79 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 5. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388  8AA;54>20=8O, A>G5B0NI85 2 A515 M;5<5=BK B@5E C?><O=CBKE AD5@.  ?>A;54=55 45AOB8;5B85 >A>15==> 0:BC0;L=>9 AB0=>28BAO ?@>1;5<0 8=B53@8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8. !0<0 ?> A515 A8BC0F8O >1CG5=8O ?@54AB02;O5B >A>1K9 :;0AA CA;>289 ?@>B5:0=8O ?@>F5AA0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, GB> >B:@K205B =>2K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O @515=:0 A >A>1K<8 =C640<8 =0 ?CB8 53> @0==59 A>F80;L=>9 8=B53@0F88. 0:>=5F, G5B25@B>5 =0?@02;5=85, =0G8=0NI55 >D>@<;OBLAO 2 A0<>5 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O, A2O70=> A CA8;5=85< 2=8<0=8O : D0:B>@C A5<59=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59-8=20;84>2, 0 B0:65 A ?@>F5AA>< 8=B53@8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O. 3> <>6=> CA;>2=> >1>7=0G8BL :0: :>=AC;LB0B82=>5. !>45@60=85 MB>3> =0?@02;5=8O 2:;NG05B >:070=85 :20;8D8F8@>20==>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?><>I8 @>48B5;O< 8 CG8B5;O< ?@>1;5<=KE 45B59. !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 2 =0H59 AB@0=5, :0: 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O =0C:0 2 F5;><, @072820;0AL ?@58<CI5AB25==> 2 @0<:0E 5AB5AB25==>-=0CG=>9 ?0@0483<K. A=>2>9 MB>3> ?>4E>40 O2;O5BAO >@85=B0F8O =0 87CG5=85 >1I8E 70:>=>2. =48284C0;L=K5 20@80F88 >1J548=ONBAO 2 B8?K, 3@C??K 8 284K. 06=K< CA;>285< MB>9 ?0@0483<K 2KABC?05B 2>A?@>872>48<>ABL @57C;LB0B>2, 8E 70:>=><5@=0O ?>2B>@O5<>ABL. A=>2=K< <5B>4>< AG8B05BAO M:A?5@8<5=B. AB5AB25==>-=0CG=>9 ?0@0483<5 B@048F8>==> ?@>B82>AB>8B 3C<0=8B0@=0O, A 55 8=B5@5A>< : 8=48284C0;L=>-=5?>2B>@8<K< AB>@>=0< 87CG05<>3> O2;5=8O (0 AB0;> 1KBL, 8 =52>A?@>872>48<K<). 45AL ?@8>@8B5B >B405BAO D5=><5=>;>38G5A:><C >?8A0=8N. =>38<8 02B>@0<8 >B<5G05BAO, GB> >D>@<;5=85 3C<0=8B0@=>9 ?0@0483<K A>AB02;O5B >4=C 87 =>2KE B5=45=F89 A>2@5<5==>3> MB0?0 @0728B8O >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>;>388. -B> 25@=> ;8HL >BG0AB8. =0;87 8AB>@88 @0728B8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 C1548B5;L=> ?>:07K205B, GB> 4065 2 B5 ?5@8>4K, :>340 5AB5AB25==>-=0CG=0O ?0@0483<0 1K;0 548=AB25==> 2>7<>6=>9, 2 @0<:0E 40==>9 48AF8?;8=K, 2 A2O78 A >A>15==>ABO<8 55 ?@54<5B0, 3C<0=8B0@=K9 ?>4E>4 : 0=0;87C 87CG05<KE O2;5=89 2A5340 ?@8ACBAB2>20;, E>BO 8 =5 8<5; ?>- 80 88 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 5. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>3! 4>1=>3> =0720=8O. ;8=8G5A:85 D5=><5=K >1>AB@5==> 8=48284C0;878@>20=K, =5?>2B>@8<K 8 ?;>E> ?>440NBAO 3@C??8@>2:5.  MB>< A;CG05 B@51C5BAO A:@C?C;57=K9 0=0;87 :064>3> 548=8G=>3> A;CG0O, A>?>AB028<>3> ;8HL A A0<8< A>1>9. @8 MB>< M:A?5@8<5=B =5 >1O70B5;L=> 4>;65= 1KBL 548=AB25==K< 8 3;02=K< <5B>4><. -B> ?@8<5G0B5;L=>5 O2;5=85 2 B>< >B=>H5=88, GB> B5=45=F88 2 @0728B88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@542>AE8I0NB >1I85 =0?@02;5=8O @0728B8O >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 F5;>< 8 4065 >?5@560NB 8E. "0:8< >1@07><, A>2@5<5==0O A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A;>6=> 48DD5@5=F8@>20==CN 8 48=0<8G=> @072820NICNAO >B@0A;L ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8. @><5 B>3>, ?> C@>2=N ?@0:B8G5A:>9 2>AB@51>20==>AB8 A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O =0 A>2@5<5==>< MB0?5 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 ;845@>2 A@548 ?@>G8E ?@8:;04=KE =0?@02;5=89. 5AL<0 C?@>I5==> 8AB>@8G5A:CN ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL D>@<8@>20=8O 7=0=89 > =0@CH5=8OE ?@>F5AA0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O <K >B@078;8 =0 @8AC=:5 5.1. 0728B85 52@>?59A:>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >B;8G05BAO >B 8AB>@88 AB0=>2;5=8O >B5G5AB25==>9 2 A8;C @07=KE A>F80;L=>-?>;8B8G5A:8E 8 M:>=><8G5A:8E CA;>289. 2@>?59A:0O A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O A A0<>3> =0G0;0 A2>53> ACI5AB2>20=8O ?KB0;0AL @0AA<0B@820BL D5=><5=K =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O A =5A:>;L:8E B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?>78F89  ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9, 18E528>@8ABA:>9, 35HB0;LB?A8E>;>38G5A:>9, :>3-=8B828ABA:>9, M:;5:B8G5A:>9 8 4@. !0<> D>@<8@>20=85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 >B@0A;8 ?@>87>H;> ?>765, G5< 2 >AA88. "5< =5 <5=55 ACI5AB2>20=85 MB>3> @0745;0 25745 @0AA<0B@8205BAO B>;L:> 2 @0<:0E :;8=8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. ! A0<>3> =0G0;0 A2>53> 2>7=8:=>25=8O 52@>?59A:0O A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O A>E@0=O5B ?@8:;04=CN->@85=B8@>20==>ABL. :045<8G5A:89, A>1AB25==> 8AA;54>20B5;LA:89 0A?5:B A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@54AB02;5= :@09=5 C7:>. >=B@>;L=K5 2>?@>AK  G5< A>AB>8B A<KA; 87CG5=8O 8AB>@88 =0C:8?  :0:>9 AD5@5 >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O 2?5@2K5 AB0;8 :>= F5=B@8@>20BLAO A2545=8O >1 >A>15==>ABOE ?>2545=8O ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88? '5< E0@0:B5@87C5BAO >B=>H5=85 : 8=20;840< =0 C@>2=5 @5;8 38>7=>3> A>7=0=8O? 0:>20 @>;L A8AB5<0B8G5A:>3> >1CG5=8O ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 2 AB0=>2;5=88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388?  G5< 7=0G5=85 3C<0=8AB8G5A:8E 8459 2 87<5=5=88 >B=>H5 =8O >1I5AB20 : ;8F0< A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88? 0:85 >B@0A;8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 AD>@<8@>20;8AL 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 8 ?>G5<C?  G5< A>AB>8B 2:;04 . !. K3>BA:>3> 2 @0728B85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388? 0:85 =>2K5 >B@0A;8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >D>@<8;8AL 8 ?>O2;ONBAO 2 ?>A;54=85 45AOB8;5B8O? 0: ?@54AB02;5=K 3C<0=8B0@=0O 8 5AB5AB25==>=0CG=0O ?0@0 483<K 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388? 8B5@0BC@0 ;5:A0=45@ $. '5;>25: 8 53> 4CH0: ?>7=0=85 8 2@0G520=85 >B 4@52=>AB8 4> =0H8E 4=59. ., 1995. 0A>20 . ., 3>@>20 !. $. AB>@8O AC@4>?5403>38:8. ., 1984. 59=-. !. 8 4@. >A;5A;>285//K3>BA:89 . !. !>1@. A>G. ". 5. ., 1983. K3>4A:0O . ., 8D0=>20 ". . 52 !5<5=>28G K3>BA:89. ., 1996. K3>BA:89 . !. A=>2K 45D5:B>;>388. !1., 2003. K3>BA:89 . !. !>1@. A>G. ". 5. ., 1983. 0<A:89%. !. AB>@8O >;83>D@5=>?5403>38:8. ., 1974. 0<A:89 X. !. #<AB25==> >BAB0;K5 45B8. AB>@8O 87CG5=8O, 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >1CG5=8O A 4@52=8E 2@5<5= 4> A5@548=K XIX 25:0. ., 1995. 82 83 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 9. 0==018E .. AB>@8O ?A8E80B@88. ., 1994. 5>=BL52 . . . !. K3>BA:89. . 1990. 8B20:. . "5>@5B8G5A:85 2>?@>AK B8D;>?A8E>;>388. ., 1974. 8D0=>20 ".. >;=0O 181;8>3@0D8O B@C4>2 . !. K3>BA:> 3>/6. >?@>AK ?A8E>;>388, 1996. ! 5, A. 22 25. ;>94 45 >7. A8E>8AB>@8O. >AB>2-=0->=C, 2000. C1>2A:89 . . A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 4803=>AB8:8 0=> <0;L=>3> @0728B8O 45B59. ., 1989. 0;>D552 . . !?5F80;L=>5 >1@07>20=85 2 >AA88 8 70 @C15 6><. ., 1996. A>2A:89 . ., 5;5=:>50 . .. 5403>38G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 8 =0CG=K5 2>77@5=8O . /. "@>H8=0/ 5D5:B>;>38O, 2000. ! 3, A. 16-18. !?5F80;L=0O ?5403>38:0/>4 @54. . . 070@>2>9. ., 2000. $5>:B8AB>20 . . G5@:8 8AB>@88 70@C156=>9 B8D;>?5403> 38:8. ., 1973 $C:> . AB>@8O 157C<8O 2 :;0AA8G5A:CN M?>EC. !1., 1997. -B:8=4 . . -@>A =52>7<>6=>3>. AB>@8O ?A8E>0=0;870 2 >AA88. !1., 1993. ;020 6  '+ "  !%'! " A=>2C ?@8=F8?0 45B5@<8=87<0 A>AB02;O5B 845O ?@8G8==>9 >1CA;>2;5==>AB8 8 2A5>1I59 2708<>A2O78 O2;5=89 >1J5:B82=>9 @50;L=>AB8.  MB>< A<KA;5 ;N1>5 >B:;>=5=85 2 @0728B88 2A5340 8<55B A2>N ?@8G8=C, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, 8725AB=0 >=0 =0< 8;8 =5B. 5@5G5=L ?>4>1=KE ?@8G8= =5>1K:=>25==> 25;8:. 1KG=> 2A5 <=>3>>1@0785 ?0B>35==KE D0:B>@>2 45;OB =0 M=4>35==K5 (=0A;54AB25==K5) 8 M:7>35==K5 (A@54>2K5).  ?5@8>4 2=CB@8CB@>1=>3> @0728B8O =0 ?;>4 <>3CB 459AB2>20BL 701>;520=8O <0B5@8 (28@CA=K5 8=D5:F88, :@0A=CE0, B>:A>?;07-<>7 8 4@.). @8 MB>< >B<5G05BAO, GB> >B=>A8B5;L=> ;53:> ?@>B5:0NI85 701>;520=8O C 65=I8=K <>3CB ?@82>48BL : BO65;K< ?>@065=8O< ?;>40.  G8A;C MB8>;>38G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 >B=>AOB B0:65 A5@45G=>-A>AC48ABK5 8 M=4>:@8==K5 701>;520=8O, B>:A8:>7K 15@5<5==>AB8, 8<<C=>;>38G5A:CN =5A>2<5AB8<>ABL :@>28 <0B5@8 8 ?;>40, M<>F8>=0;L=K5 AB@5AAK, ?5@53@520=8O, ?5@5>E;0645=8O, 459AB285 281@0F88, >1;CG5=85, =5:>B>@K5 ;5:0@AB25==K5 ?@5?0@0BK, C?>B@51;5=85 2 ?5@8>4 15@5<5==>AB8 0;:>3>;O, B010:0, =0@:>B8:>2 8 B. ?. "O65;K<8 ?> A2>8< ?>A;54AB28O< @>4>2K5 B@02<K 8 0AD8:A88. =D5:F8>==K5 8 28@CA=K5 701>;520=8O 2 @0==5< 45BAB25 B0:65 A?>A>1=K AB0BL ?@8G8=>9 >B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88. 0@O4C A 18>;>38G5A:8<8 D0:B>@0<8 =5 <5=55 7=0G8<0 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:0O 45B5@<8=0F8O. B@K2 @515=:0 >B <0B5@8, =54>- 85 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 6. @8G8=K >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 AB0B>: M<>F8>=0;L=>9 B5?;>BK, 154=0O 2 A5=A>@=>< >B=>H5=88 A@540, 1574CH=>5 8 65AB>:>5 >1@0I5=85 <>3CB 2KABC?0BL 2 2845 ?@8G8= @07;8G=KE =0@CH5=89 ?A8E>35=570. A;8 D0:B>@K 18>;>38G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 A>AB02;ONB ?>;5 8=B5@5A>2 :;8=8F8AB>2, B> A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:89 A?5:B@ 1;865 : ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 >1;0AB8 ?5403>3>2 8 ?A8E>;>3>2. ;O ?>A;54=8E 25AL<0 206=> COA=8BL A;>6=K9 E0@0:B5@ 2708<>A2O78 MB8>;>38G5A:>3> D0:B>@0 8 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O. ;8=8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> >4=0 8 B0 65 ?@8G8=0 8=>340 ?@82>48B : A>25@H5==> @07;8G=K< >B:;>=5=8O< 2 @0728B88. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, >B;8G0NI85AO ?> E0@0:B5@C ?0B>35==K5 CA;>28O <>3CB 2K720BL >48=0:>2K5 D>@<K @0AAB@>9AB2. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> ?@8G8==>-A;54AB25==K5 A2O78 <564C ?0B>35==K< D0:B>@>< 8 =0@CH5==K< @0728B85< <>3CB =>A8BL =5 B>;L:> ?@O<>9, => 8 >?>A@54>20==K9 E0@0:B5@, GB> 3@0D8G5A:8 ?@54AB02;5=> =0 @8AC=:5 6.1. @C6:0<8 2 25@E=5< @O4C <K >1>7=0G8;8 @07=>>1@07=K5 MB8>;>38G5A:85 D0:B>@K, 0 2 =86=5< @O4C :204@0B0<8 ?@54AB02;5=K 20@80=BK >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88. !B@5;:8 45<>=AB@8@CNB >?8A0==K5 A2O78. "0:8< >1@07><, :>=5G=K9 MDD5:B 459AB28O ?0B>35==>3> D0:B>@0, B> 5ABL :>=:@5B=0O D>@<0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 1C45B 7028A5BL =5 B>;L:> >B =53> A0<>3>, => 8 >B <=>3>>1@07=KE :><18=0F89 >?>A@54CNI8E ?5@5<5==KE.  G8A;C B0:8E ?5@5<5==KE A;54C5B >B=5AB8 ?@58<CI5AB25==CN ;>:0;870F8N 2@54>=>A=>3> 2>7459AB28O, 2;8O=85 :>B>@>3> G0I5 2A53> 8718@0B5;L=>, 2 @57C;LB0B5 G53> ?>@065==K<8 <>3CB >:070BLAO A0<K5 @07;8G=K5 AB@C:BC@K, >@30=K 8 A8AB5<K. @C3>9 =5 <5=55 206=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 45AB@C:B82=KE CA;>289 O2;O5BAO 8E 8=B5=A82=>ABL. 57CA;>2=>, A8;0 2>7459AB28O ?0B>35==>3> D0:B>@0 =0?@O<CN >?@545;O5B 53> :>=5G=K9 MDD5:B, 2K@065==>ABL B>3> 8;8 8=>3> =0@CH5=8O. ><8<> =0720==KE 25AL<0 7=0G8<>9 ?5@5<5==>9 2KABC?05B M:A?>78F8O, 4;8B5;L=>ABL 2>7459AB28O. 5B >A>1>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8 A?5F80;L=> 4>:07K20BL, GB> G5< 4>;LH5 8=48284 8A?KBK205B =0 A515 2;8O=85 ?0B>35==>3> D0:B>@0, B5< BO65;55 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 <>-  86 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 3CB >:070BLAO ?>A;54AB28O. 065 5A;8 =51;03>?@8OB=>5 2>7-' 459AB285 1C45B :@0B:>2@5<5==K< 8 4>AB0B>G=> A;01K<, ?@8 53> G0AB>9 ?>2B>@O5<>AB8 25@>OB5= :><<C;OB82=K9 MDD5:B, A?>A>1=K9 ?@825AB8 : A5@L57=K< @0AAB@>9AB20< 2 @0728B88. >MB><C G0AB>B0 B0:65 O2;O5BAO 206=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 2@54>=>A=KE CA;>289. 5@5G8A;5==K5 ?5@5<5==K5 >B=>AOBAO, :0: <>6=> 70<5B8BL, : E0@0:B5@8AB8:0< A0<>3> ?0B>35==>3> D0:B>@0. > =5 <5=LH55 7=0G5=85 8<5NB 8 A>1AB25==K5 A2>9AB20 8=482840, 8A?KBK20NI53> =0 A515 ?>4>1=>5 2;8O=85.  =8<, ?@5645 2A53>, A;54C5B >B=5AB8 2>7@0AB. 1I0O 70:>=><5@=>ABL 2 40==>< A;CG05 B0:>20: A2O7L 2>7@0AB0 8 BO65AB8 ?>A;54AB289 459AB28O ?0B>35==>3> D0:B>@0 >1@0B=> ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=0. =0G5 3>2>@O, G5< <5=LH5 @515=>:, B5< EC65 4;O =53> 2>7<>6=K5 ?>A;54AB28O @07;8G=KE 2@54=>AB59. >A;54=85 A =587156=>ABLN 2K7K20NB @50:F8N, A>?@>B82;5=8O A> AB>@>=K 70I8B=KE A8AB5<, =0G8=0O A 8<<C==>9 8 70:0=G820O A;>6=K<8 :><?5=A0B>@=K<8 @50:F8O<8 2 2845 <=>3>>1@07=KE <5E0=87<>2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 70I8BK. 1>7=0G8< 8E =0 =0H59 AE5<5 ?>=OB85< :><?5=A0B>@=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8.  =0:>=5F, =0< A;54C5B 2K45;8BL 5I5 >4=C ?5@5<5==CN, :>B>@CN =5;L7O >B=5AB8 =8 : A2>9AB20< ?0B>35==>3> D0:B>@0, =8 : :0G5AB20< 8=482840. >=5G=K9 MDD5:B 45AB@C:B82=KE CA;>289 2> <=>3>< >?@545;O5BAO 8 B5<, =0A:>;L:> 1KAB@> 8 MDD5:B82=> ?>AB@0402H5<C 1C45B >:070=0 :20;8D8F8@>20==0O ?><>IL, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:0O. A5 A:070==>5 >7=0G05B, GB> @57C;LB0B 2>7459AB28O MB8>;>38G5A:>3> D0:B>@0 2A5340 ACI5AB25==> >?>A@54>20= A;>6=59H8< A>G5B0=85< 53> E0@0:B5@8AB8: 8 A2>9AB2 A0<>3> 8=482840. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@>1;5<0 ?@8G8==>9 >1CA;>2;5==>AB8 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 >B=N4L =5 >4=>7=0G=0. I5 1>;55 55 CA;>6=O5B 8 B>, GB> @07=K5 ?@8G8==>-A;54AB25==K5 A2O78 @072>@0G820NBAO 2 @07;8G=KE 2@5<5==KE <0AHB010E. "0:, >4=8 ?0B>35==K5 2>7459AB28O ?@8 >?@545;5==>9 :><18=0F88 CA;>289 A?>A>1=K ?@0:B8G5A:8 A@07C 2K7K20BL 2K@065==K5 @0AAB@>9AB20; 4@C385, =0?@>B82, ?@>O2;ONBAO 2 2845 >B40;5==KE ?>A;54AB289. _^ ;020 6. @8G8=K >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 !;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C 8 5I5 >4=> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>. 0B>35==>5 2>7459AB285, :0: ?@028;>, ?@82>48B : D>@<8@>20=8N =5 A0<>3> D5=><5=0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O, 0 ;8HL : ?>O2;5=8N 0=0B><>-D878>;>38G5A:8E ?@54?>AK;>:  >B=>A8B5;L=> CAB>9G82KE =0@CH5=89 F5=B@0;L=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K. 0==K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 C65 =5?>A@54AB25==CN ?@8G8=C 0=><0;89 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. > A>>B=>H5=85 0=0B><>-D878>;>38G5A:>3> D0:B>@0 8 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 B>65 =5>4=>7=0G=> 8 2 G5<-B> =0?><8=05B A2O7L 7040B:>2 8 A?>A>1=>AB59 A >B@8F0B5;L=K< 7=0:><. 040B:8, 1C4CG8 :>=AB8BCF8>==K<8 (4065 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8<8) ?@54?>AK;:0<8 A?>A>1=>AB59, <>3CB ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 ?>A;54=85 ;8HL ?@8 1;03>?@8OB=KE A>F80;L=KE CA;>28OE. 5GB> ?>4>1=>5 <K <>65< =01;N40BL 8 2 A;CG05 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88. 8>;>38G5A:85 45B5@<8=0=BK, 157CA;>2=>, >:07K20NB 7=0G8B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 =0 ?>O2;5=85 >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88. > 40;5:> =5 ?>A;54=NN @>;L 2 MB>< ?@>F5AA5 83@0NB =51;03>?@8OB=K5 A>F80;L=K5 D0:B>@K, A?>A>1=K5 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 @0A:@KBL =530B82=K9 ?>B5=F80;, 70;>65==K9 2 :>=AB8BCF8>==KE E0@0:B5@8AB8:0E 487>=B>35=570. !>G5B0=85 B0:8E 2=CB@5==8E 8 2=5H=8E =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>289 2 A>2>:C?=>AB8 >1@07C5B >A>1K9 0=><0;L=K9 8;8, 3>2>@O A>2@5<5==K< O7K:><, 487>=B>35=5B8G5A:89 D0:B>@, ?@54AB02;ONI89 A>1>9 >A=>2=CN 45B5@<8=0=BC =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. =0=85 ?@8G8=, 2K7K20NI8E >B:;>=5=8O, 8 CA;>289, >?>A@54CNI8E 8E, @0AH8@O5B =0H8 ?@54AB02;5=8O > ACI=>AB8 487>=B>35=570. @><5 B>3>, MB8 7=0=8O 40NB 2>7<>6=>ABL ?A8E>;>3C 1>;55 0:B82=> 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=> ?@8=8<0BL CG0AB85 2 @01>B5 ?> ?@>D8;0:B8:5 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 C 45B59. >=B@>;L=K5 2>?@>AK 'B> O2;O5BAO 8AB>G=8:>< =0H8E 7=0=89 > ?@8G8=0E >B:;>=5 =89 2 @0728B88? 0:85 D0:B>@K A?>A>1=K >?>A@54>20BL 2;8O=85 ?0B>35==>3> 2>7459AB28O? 88 89 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 'B> ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 M=4>35==K5 8 M:7>35==K5 ?@8G8=K >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88? >6=> ;8 @0AA<0B@820BL >B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88 :0: D>@<C 701>;520=8O? 8B5@0BC@0 >15@=8: . ., !8=52 . . 2545=85 2 A?5F80;L=>ABL 45D5: B>;>38O. 852, 1984. >20;52 . . A8E80B@8O 45BA:>3> 2>7@0AB0. ., 1995. >20;52 . . !5<8>B8:0 8 4803=>AB8:0 ?A8E8G5A:8E 701>;5 20=89 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2. ., 1985. >@@5:F8>==0O ?5403>38:0/>4 @54. . . C70=>20 .,1999. !0<A>=>2 $. . A=>2K 35=5B8:8 2 45D5:B>;>388. ., 1980. !?5F80;L=0O ?5403>38:0/>4 @54. . .070@>2>9 .,2000. -D@>8<A>= . ., ;N<8=0 . . 5=5B8:0 >;83>D@5=88, ?A8 E>7>2, M?8;5?A88. ., 1978. ;020 7 !!$&  #(  !%'! " N10O =0C:0, 87CG0O ACI=>ABL A2>53> >1J5:B0, ?KB05BAO 2=5AB8 >?@545;5==K9 M;5<5=B C?>@O4>G5==>AB8 2 A>1AB25==K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O > =5<. AA;54C5<K5 O2;5=8O >1J548=ONBAO 2 @07=>>1@07=K5 3@C??K, B8?K, :;0AA8D8F8@CNBAO.  G5< >=8 <=>3>>1@07=55, B5< 1>;LH5 2>7=8:05B @07;8G=KE :;0AA8D8:0F89. "5< A0<K< ?>O2;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>=8<0=8O 2=CB@5==8E 70:>=>2 8AA;54C5<KE O2;5=89. "0:8< >1@07><, :;0AA8D8F8@>20=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A2>5>1@07=K9 <5B>4 ?>7=0=8O >1I8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59, ;560I8E 2 >A=>25 =0CG=>3> ?@54<5B0. > ACB8, 8AB>@8N =0C:8 <>6=> 87CG0BL ?> B><C, :0: 2 =59 ?@>8AE>48B A<5=0 >4=>9 :;0AA8D8:0F8>==>9 A8AB5<K =0 4@C3CN; :0: >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =587156=K9 ?5@5E>4 >B M<?8@8:>-D5=><5=>;>38G5A:8E (>?8A0B5;L=KE) :;0AA8D8:0F89 : :0B53>@80;L=K< (ACI=>AB=K<). !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O B0:65 A>7405B A2>8 ?>4@0745;5=8O @07;8G=KE B8?>2 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. E 7=0G8B5;L=>5 :>;8G5AB2> A2O70=>, ?@5645 2A53>, A <=>3>>1@0785< AB>@>=, A2>9AB2 8 M;5<5=B>2 @072820NI59AO ?A8E8:8, :064K9 87 :>B>@KE <>65B >:070BLAO =0@CH5==K< 2 ?@>F5AA5 A2>53> AB0=>2;5=8O 2 A2O78 A 459AB285< ?0B>35==KE D0:B>@>2. ;0AA8D8:0F88 >B;8G0NBAO 4@C3 >B 4@C30 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B :@8B5@8O, 27OB>3> 2 :0G5AB25 >A=>20=8O 4;O 3@C??8@>2>:. >3CB 8A?>;L7>20BLAO >4=>2@5<5==> =5A:>;L:> :@8B5@852  B>340 :;0AA8D8:0F8O ?@8>1@5B05B 1>;55 4@>1=K9 E0@0:B5@. 91 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 06=K< A2>9AB2>< B0:>9 3@C??8@>2:8 O2;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL 8A?>;L7>20BL 55 =0 ?@0:B8:5.  =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE G0AB> ?@8<5=ONBAO B0: =07K205<K5 @01>G85, 2@5<5==K5 :;0AA8D8:0F88, 2KABC?0NI85 2 :0G5AB25 2A?><>30B5;L=>3> A@54AB20 ?@8 @5H5=88 :>=:@5B=KE 7040G. >2>@O >1 >B:;>=5=8OE 2 @0728B88, <K <>65<, 0:F5=B8@CO @07=K5 AB>@>=K, ?>>G5@54=> @0745;OBL 8E =0 @07=K5 3@C??K, B> 5ABL >ACI5AB2;OBL @07;8G=K5 :;0AA8D8:0F88. 0?@8<5@, ?> 2@5<5=8 8E 2>7=8:=>25=8O. !CI5AB2CNB =0@CH5=8O 2@>645==K5 8 ?@8>1@5B5==K5, ?>O282H85AO C65 ?>A;5 @>645=8O. =CB@8 3@C??K 2@>645==KE =0@CH5=89 A;54C5B 2K45;8BL ?>43@C??C, A2O70==CN A =0A;54AB25==>9 ?0B>;>3859, 81> =5 2A5 2@>645==>5 O2;O5BAO =0A;54AB25==K<, => 2A5 =0A;54AB25==>5 G0I5 2A53> 1K205B 2@>645==K<. @C??0 ?@8>1@5B5==KE =0@CH5=89 2:;NG05B @0=> 8 ?>74=> ?@8>1@5B5==K5. >7@0AB=0O 3@0=8F0 <564C =8<8 <>65B 1KBL @07;8G=>9. "0:, 2 A;CG0OE =0@CH5=8O A;CE0 8<55B 7=0G5=85 2@5<O 53> ?>B5@8 >B=>A8B5;L=> A@>:>2 @0728B8O @5G8, B5E MB0?>2, :>340 @5GL 5I5 =5 =0G8=0;0 A2>5 D>@<8@>20=85, ?5@8>4>2 ?5@2>=0G0;L=>3> @0728B8O 8 2>7@0AB0, :>340 @5GL C65 1K;0 >B=>A8B5;L=> AD>@<8@>20=0. -B>B ?@8<5@ 25AL<0 ?>:070B5;5=, >= 45<>=AB@8@C5B ?@8=F8? E@>=>35==>AB8 A2O78 BO65AB8 @0AAB@>9AB20 A 2@5<5=5< 2>7=8:=>25=8O >A=>2=>3> =0@CH5=8O. <5==> >B ?>A;54=53> 2> <=>3>< 7028A8B ?@>3=>7 40;L=59H53> @0728B8O, E0@0:B5@ 8 A>45@60=85 :>@@5:F8>==KE <5@>?@8OB89, 8<5NI8E 8;8 =5 8<5NI8E 2>7<>6=>ABL >?>@K =0 ?5@8>4 =>@<0;L=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O ?A8E8:8, 5A;8 B0:>2>9 ACI5AB2C5B. K1@02 2 :0G5AB25 >A=>20=8O 4;O :;0AA8D8:0F88 >1@0B8<>ABL 2>7=8:0NI8E >B:;>=5=89, 2A5 <=>3>>1@0785 8E 20@80=B>2 <>6=> @0745;8BL =0 =5>1@0B8<K5, G0AB8G=> >1@0B8<K5 8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 >1@0B8<K5.  >B=>H5=88 ?>A;54=59 3@C??K =0-, @CH5=89, :>B>@K5 A?>A>1=K B@0=AD>@<8@>20BLAO 2 =>@<0;L-) =>5 @0728B85, >A>1> 206=0 A:>@>ABL 8;8 B5<?K >1@0B8<>AB8!  B0:>< A;CG05 <K ?>;CG05< 5I5 =5A:>;L:> ?>43@C??. '0AB> ?@8 A>740=88 :;0AA8D8:0F88 8A?>;L7C5BAO MB8>;A 38G5A:89 :@8B5@89  >A=>2=0O ?@8G8=0, 2K7202H0O >B:;>=5= ;020 7. ;0AA8D8:0F88 =0@CH5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 =85. !0<8 ?> A515 MB8>;>38G5A:85 D0:B>@K 25AL<0 @07=>>1@07=K, GB>, :AB0B8 3>2>@O, ?@82>48B : =5>1E>48<>AB8 8 8E 3@C??8@>2:8. 45AL C<5AB=> 2K45;8BL =0@CH5=8O F5@51@0;L=>->@30=8G5A:>3>, ?A8E>35==>3> 8 A><0B>35==>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O. @8G8=K >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 8=>340 ?@545;L=> >1>1I0NB, >1J548=OO 2 425 1>;LH85 3@C??K  A>F80;L=K5 8 18>;>38G5A:85. 4=0:> 2 AB>;L 87>;8@>20==>< 2845 MB8 D0:B>@K 2KABC?0NB :@09=5 @54:>. >MB><C ?@8 2K45;5=88 3@C?? >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O ?> 40==><C :@8B5@8N C:07K20NB =0 >B=>A8B5;L=>5 ?@5>1;040=85 2 ?@>8AE>645=88 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> =0@CH5=8O A>F80;L=> =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>289 8;8 18>;>38G5A:>3> D0:B>@0 (1C4L B> 8=D5:F8O, 8=B>:A8:0F8O, 0AD8:A8O 8;8 B@02<0). ! B>G:8 7@5=8O :;8=8G5A:>3> ?>4E>40 B@048F8>==K< AB0;> ?>4@0745;5=85 2A5E D>@< ?A8E8G5A:8E @0AAB@>9AB2 =0 420 1>;LH8E :;0AA0. 5@2K9 87 =8E >1>7=0G05BAO B5@<8=>< @5B0@40F8O, 70?074K20=85 8;8 ?@8>AB0=>2:0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O ;N1>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O; =54>@0728B85 2 @07=>>1@07=KE D>@<0E C<AB25==>9 >BAB0;>AB8. K45;ONB 425 @07=>284=>AB8 @5B0@40F88  >1ICN (B>B0;L=CN) 8 G0AB8G=CN (?0@F80;L=CN).  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 @5GL 845B > =57@5;>AB8 >B45;L=KE DC=:F89, AB>@>= ?A8E8:8 2 G0AB=>AB8, H:>;L=KE =02K:>2  GB5=8O, AG5B0, ?8AL<0 8;8 A2>9AB2 ;8G=>AB8. B>@>9 :;0AA @0AAB@>9AB2 =07K205BAO 0A8=E@>=8O. =0 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO A>G5B0=85< 2K@065==>3> >?5@565=8O 2 @0728B88 >4=8E DC=:F89 A> 7=0G8B5;L=K< >BAB020=85< B5<?0 D>@<8@>20=8O 4@C38E, GB> ?@82>48B : 48A30@<>=88 AB@C:BC@K ?A8E8:8, 55 8A:065=8N 8 48A?@>?>@F8>=0;L=>AB8. 5A;>6=> ?>=OBL, GB> 2 :0G5AB25 :@8B5@8O C:070==>3> 45;5=8O 8A?>;L7C5BAO B5<?>2K9 ?@87=0: ?@>F5AA0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2 F5;>< 8 >B45;L=KE 53> AB>@>=. . . >20;52 : 42C< @0AA<>B@5==K< =0<8 3@C??0< 487>=-B>35=570 4>102;O5B 5I5 8 B@5BLN, A2O70==CN A <5E0=87<0<8 2KA2>1>645=8O 8 D8:A0F88 1>;55 @0==8E >=B>35=5B8G5A:8E D>@< =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:>3> @5038@>20=8O. 92 93 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 7. ;0AA8D8:0F88 =0@CH5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 =0 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO @07=>>1@07=K<8 A8<?B><0<8 8 A8=4@><0<8, 2AB@5G0NI8<8AO ?@8 @07;8G=KE ?A8E8G5A:8E 701>;520=8OE. @5645 2A53>, MB> :0B>B>=8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20, @07=>>1@07=K5 @53@5AA82=K5, :0A0NI85AO C65 AD>@<8@>20==KE =02K:>2, B>B0;L=K9 8 M:;5:B82=K9 <CB87<, 38?5@0:B82=>ABL, ?0B>;>38G5A:85 AB@0E8, ME>;0;88 8 ME>?@0:A88 8 <=>3>5 4@C3>5. A:;NG8B5;L=> 206=>9 ?@54AB02;O5BAO <KA;L > B><, GB> =0@CH5=85 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O =5 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO 87>;8@>20==>, >=> >4=>2@5<5==> O2;O5BAO :><?>=5=B>< 48-7>=B>35=570 2 F5;>< 8 >4=>9 87 53> D07. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 5ABL >A=>20=8O ?>;030BL, GB> 2 :0G5AB25 107K ?A8E8G5A:>3> 8=D0=B8;87<0 2KABC?0NB ?>A;54AB28O =0@CH5=89 F5=>35=570 (E0@0:B5@0 8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 A<5=K <>@D>D878>;>38G5A:8E 87<5=5=89 M<1@8>=0 8 ?;>40). 072820O 40==>5 ?>;>65=85, . . >20;52 ?>4@0745;O5B 2A5 D>@<K 487>=B>35=570 =0 425 3@C??K 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 48=0<8G5A:8E E0@0:B5@8AB8: MB8>;>38G5A:>3> D0:B>@0.  A2O78 A MB8< >= ?>4G5@:8205B: > >A>15==>ABO< 35=570 8 48=0<8:8 @07;8G0NB M2>;NB82=K9 (=5?@>F5AAC0;L=K9) ?A8E8G5A:89 487>=B>-35=57, 2 >A=>25 :>B>@>3> ;568B B>;L:> =0@CH5=85 @0728B8O, 8 ?@>F5AAC0;L=K9, ?A8E8G5A:89 487>=B>35=57, O2;ONI89AO A;54AB285< 1>;57=5==>3> ?@>F5AA0 (H87>D@5=8O, M?8;5?A8O, ?@>3@5AA8@CNI55 >@30=8G5A:>5 701>;520=85 3>;>2=>3> <>730), 2>7=8:H53> 4> 7025@H5=8O A>7@520=8O F5=B@0;L=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K. 8=0<8:0 =5?@>F5AAC0;L=>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> 487>=B>35=570 M2>;NB82=0O, ?>4G8=O5BAO >1I8< 70:>=><5@=>ABO< ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, >B;8G0OAL >B =53> ?> B5<?C, A@>:0< 8 A>>B=>H5=8N >B45;L=KE ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 8 A2>9AB2 ;8G=>AB8. 8=0<8:0 :;8=8G5A:8E ?@>O2;5=89 ?@>F5AAC0;L=>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> 487>=B>35=570 1>;55 A;>6=0O 8 7028A8B >B BO65AB8 8 B5<?0 B5G5=8O >A=>2=>3> 701>;520=8O. @8 =51;03>?@8OB=>< B5G5=88 2>7<>6=K CA8;5=8O @5B0@40F88 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, =0@0AB0=85 53> 48A?@>?>@F88, C3;C1;5=85 @53@5AA0 ?A8E8:8 (>20;52 . . !5<8>B8:0 8 48=0<8:0 ?A8E8G5A:8E 701>;520=89 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2. ., 1985, A. 19).  ?>?KB:0E :;0AA8D8:0F88 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 8A?>;L7CNBAO 8 4@C385 :@8B5@88. "0:, 25AL A?5:B@ ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 <>65B 1KBL @0745;5= =0 8A?>;=8B5;LA:85 (G0AB=K5) 8 @5-3C;OB>@=K5 (>1I85). ">340 8 87 @0AAB@>9AB20, A>>B25BAB25==>, 1C4CB 2:;NG0BL =0@CH5=8O G0AB=KE DC=:F89 (3=>78A, ?@0:A8A, @5GL) 8 >1I8E @53C;OB>@=KE, A2O70==KE A @01>B>9 ;>1=KE >B45;>2 <>730. >AB@>5=85 B0:>3> @>40 :;0AA8D8:0F88 >A=>20=> =0 B5>@88 B@5E DC=:F8>=0;L=KE 1;>:>2 2 @01>B5 <>730, @07@01>B0==>9 . . C@859. "5>@8O DC=:F8>=0;L=KE 1;>:>2 AD>@<C;8@>20=0 8 ?@8<5=O5BAO 2 @0<:0E =59@>?A8E>;>388 2 F5;OE AB@C:BC@=>3> 0=0;870 =0@CH5=89 ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@8 ;>:0;L=KE ?>@065=8OE <>730. > >?KB ?>:07K205B, GB> >=0 <>65B 1KBL ?@>4C:B82=> 8A?>;L7>20=0 8 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 4;O >?8A0=8O <5E0=87<>2 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O 8 8E :;0AA8D8:0F88. "0:, . . !5<5=>28G ?@54;0305B A2>N =59@>?A8E>;>38G5-A:CN :;0AA8D8:0F8N >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88, 2K45;OO A;54CNI85 8E D>@<K, A2O70==K5 A =57@5;>ABLN >B45;L=KE <>73>2KE AB@C:BC@: 1) DC=:F8>=0;L=0O =5AD>@<8@>20==>ABL ?@5D@>=B0;L=KE : (;>1=KE) >B45;>2 <>730; DC=:F8>=0;L=0O =5AD>@<8@>20==>ABL ;52>9 28A>G=>9 >1;0AB8; DC=:F8>=0;L=0O =5AD>@<8@>20==>ABL <56?>;CH0@=KE 2708<>459AB289 B@0=A:>@B8:0;L=>3> C@>2=O (<>7>;8A B>5 B5;>); ' 4) DC=:F8>=0;L=0O =5AD>@<8@>20==>ABL ?@02>3> ?>;CH0-3 @8O <>730; tf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s 8 2 52 > 8 m A> 52 . 3 3 : > > 105 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 7. ;0AA8D8:0F88 =0@CH5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 ;>38G5A:>3> :><?>=5=B0 8 A ?0@F80;L=>9 =5AD>@<8@>20==>-ABLN A<5H0==>3> B8?0. A8=E@>==>5 @0728B85 ?@54AB02;5=> 42C<O 2840<8: 48A30@<>=8G5A:>5 @0728B85 M:AB@0?C=8B82=>3>, 8=B@0?C=8B82=>3> 8 0?0B8G5A:>3> B8?0 8 8A:065==>5 @0728B85 A ?@58<CI5AB25==K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 2 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 8 :>3=8B82=>9 AD5@0E, 0 B0:65 A A>G5B0=85< B>3> 8 4@C3>3>. >2@5645==>5 @0728B85 >?8A0=> 02B>@0<8 A ?><>ILN 42CE ?>4@0745;>2: ;>:0;L=>3> ?>2@5645==>3> 8 48DDC7=> ?>2@5645==>3> @0728B8O.  =0:>=5F, 45D8F8B0@=>5 @0728B85 B0:65 A>45@68B 425 3@C??K: @0==545D8F8B0@=>5 8 ?>74=545D8F8B0@=>5 @0728B85. 5B@C4=> 70<5B8BL, GB> ?><8<> B@048F8>==>3> A?>A>10 :;0AA8D8F8@>20=8O 02B>@K 8A?>;L7>20;8 8 =59@>?A8E>;>38-G5A:89 ?>4E>4, GB> 45;05B 40==CN A8AB5<C 1>;55 3;C1>:>9 8 2A5AB>@>==59. -B> 405B >A=>20=85 AG8B0BL 55 =>2K<, E>BO 8 40;5:> =5 ?>A;54=8< H03>< =0 ?CB8 0=0;870 <=>3>>1@07=KE D>@< 487>=B>35=570.  70:;NG5=85 >B<5B8<, GB> 4;O A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>;>388 2>>1I5 8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 G0AB=>AB8, :0: 2?@>G5< 8 4;O <=>38E ?>3@0=8G=KE A =5N 48AF8?;8=, E0@0:B5@=> ?@5>1;040=85 M<?8@8:>-D5=><5=>;>38G5A:8E (>?8A0B5;L=KE) :;0AA8D8:0F89. "0:>2K<8 O2;ONBAO A>2@5<5==K5 :;0AA8D8:0F88 B8?>2 ;8G=>AB8, B5<?5@0<5=B0, 0:F5=BC0F89, ?A8E>?0B89, 03=>789, 0?@0:A89 8 B. 4. $5=><5=>;>38G5A:89 ?>4E>4, :0: C65 1K;> A:070=>, O2;O5BAO =587156=K< 8 =5>1E>48<K< MB0?>< =0 ?CB8 ?>7=0=8O 3;C18==>9 ACI=>AB8 87CG05<KE O2;5=89. ;O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 MB> >A>15==> 0:BC0;L=>, 81> 4> =5402=53> 2@5<5=8 ?@>1;5<0 :;0AA8D8F8@>20=8O >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88, :0: 8 ?@>1;5<0 ACI=>AB8 A0<>3> D5=><5=0 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O 2>>1I5 =5 >A>7=020;0AL :0: B0:>20O. B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88 @0AA<0B@820;8AL :0: O2;5=8O A0<>>G5284=K5 8 =5 =C640NI85AO 2 A?5F80;L=>< B>;:>20=88.  3@C??8@>2:8 8E 284>2 A>>B=>A8;8AL A >A=>2=K<8 B8?0<8 A?5F80;L=KE H:>;. > <5@5 C25;8G5=8O :0G5AB25==>3> @07=>>1@078O <=>3>G8A;5==KE 20@80=B>2 =5AB0=40@B=>3> ?A8E>35=570 2A5 1>;55 >AB@> 2AB05B 2>?@>A 87CG5=8O 8E ACI=>AB8 8 <5E0=87<>2. 4=8< 87 A?>A>1>2 8;8 =0?@02;5=89 53> @5H5=8O 8 ?@54AB02;O5BAO <5B>4 :;0AA8D8F8@>20=8O. >=B@>;L=K5 2>?@>AK '5< >1JOA=O5BAO <=>3>>1@0785 D>@< >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88?  G5< A>AB>8B >B;8G85 B5>@5B8G5A:8E 8 M<?8@8G5A:8E :;0AA8 D8:0F89? 0:>2K >A=>2=K5 ?@8=F8?K :;0AA8D8:0F89 @07=KE D>@< >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88?  G5< 4>AB>8=AB20 8 =54>AB0B:8 :;0AA8D8:0F88 . . 515 48=A:>3>? '5< >?@545;ONBAO 2>7<>6=>AB8 A>740=8O =>2KE:;0AA8D8:0F89? 8B5@0BC@0 >=552. . 8 4@. A=>2K :>@@5:F8>==>9 ?5403>38:8. ., 1999. >15@=8: . ., !8=52 . . 2545=85 2 A?5F80;L=>ABL 45D5:B> ;>38O. 852, 1984. >20;52 . . !5<8>B8:0 8 4803=>AB8:0 ?A8E8G5A:8E 701>;5 20=89 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2. ., 1985. >@@5:F8>==0O ?5403>38:0/>4 @54. . . C70=>20. ., 1999. 0?H8= . ., C70=>2 . . A=>2K 45D5:B>;>388. , 1990. 51548=A:89 . . 0@CH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5. ., 2003. 0<09GC: . . A8E>;>38O 487>=B>35=570. !1., 2000. 0ABN:>20 . . 5G51=0O ?5403>38:0. ., 1997. 564C=0@>4=0O :;0AA8D8:0F8O 1>;57=59 (10-9 ?5@5A<>B@). !1., 1994. !5<03> . /., !5<03> . . @>1;5<=K5 45B8. ., 2000. !5<5=>28G . . 59@>?A8E>;>38G5A:0O 4803=>AB8:0 8 :>@@5: F8O 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5. ., 2002. #A0=>20 . . !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1990. 106 ;020 8. !CI=>ABL D5=><5=0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O ;020 8 !#)!", $  #( "/ @>F5AA =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O =587<5==> 845B ?> >4=><C 8 B><C 65 ?CB8  >B 87CG5=8O 2=5H=8E ?@>O2;5=89 8AA;54C5<>3> ?@54<5B0 (>B D5=><5=>;>388) : ?>AB865=8N 53> 2=CB@5==59 ACI=>AB8 8 ?@8@>4K. > ACB8, MB> 42865=85 >B D>@<K : A>45@60=8N. A;8 D>@<0 <>65B 1KBL GC2AB25==> 2>A?@8=OB0, B> A>45@60=85 ?>AB8305BAO G0I5 2A53> 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>, 81> C2845BL ACI=>ABL =5;L7O. "0:8< >1@07>< >?@545;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> =0?@02;5=85 =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O, => 8 >AB@K9 4@0<0B87< MB>3> ?@>F5AA0, B0: :0: D>@<0 8 A>45@60=85, =5A<>B@O =0 B5A=CN A2O7L =8:>340 =5 A>2?040NB.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 =0C:5 >B?0;0 1K A0<0 A>1>9. >2>@O > B><, GB> A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 70=8<05BAO 87CG5=85< ?@>F5AA0 @0728B8O 2 =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>28OE, :>B>@K5 A?>A>1=K ?@82>48BL : 87<5=5=8N 53> ?0@0<5B@>2, <K A =5>1E>48<>ABLN 4>;6=K ?>AB028BL 2>?@>A > ACI=>AB=>9 ?@8@>45 A0<>3> D5=><5=0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. 57 ?@5C25;8G5=8O <>6=> A:070BL, GB> MB> >48= 87 F5=B@0;L=KE 2>?@>A>2 B5>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, 81> ?>AB865=85 ACI=>AB8 A>AB02;O5B A<KA; ;N1>9 =0C:8. "5< =5 <5=55 206=> ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> 40==0O ?@>1;5<0 AB0=>28BAO 0:BC0;L=>9 ;8HL 2 A0<>5 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O. > <=>3>< MB> >?@024K205BAO A2>5>1@0785< @0728B8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, ?>AB5?5==> ?5@5E>4OI59 >B D5=><5=>;>38G5A:>3> C@>2=O ?>7=0=8O : >1JOA=8B5;L=><C. @><5 B>3>, :0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, 40==0O =0C:0 =0G8=0;0 A2>5 AB0=>2;5=85 :0: <=>3>>B@0A;520O 48AF8?;8=0, 70=8<0OAL 87CG5=85< >B45;L=KE 284>2 4>AB0B>G=> 3@C1KE  68LNln ޻ޭޟ|n`TF:hJ!@B*RHephhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph)hJ!5@B*CJOJQJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJ"aJ"phhJ!@B*CJVEHaJVph%hJ!5@B*CJ<RHV\aJ<phhJ!hJ!@B*CJ*EHaJ*phjhJ!UmHnHu 8Nnq]]$-DM ]a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!d-DM ]^`gdJ!R-DM ^RgdJ!d[-DM ^gdJ!Z-DM gdJ! dF-DM ^ gdJ!   nM!$-d;>-DM ]^-`a$gdJ!`M-DM ^`gdJ!- d-DM ^-` gdJ!6d^-DM ^6gdJ!d6+-DM ]^`gdJ!$[-DM ^[a$gdJ!Bd-DM ]^B`gdJ!  J ^ @ < $   r $&VXyoe[JJJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*phhJ!@B*phhJ!@B*phhJ!@B*phhJ!@B*phh. hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!5@B*RHe\phhJ!@B*RHephhJ!5@B*RHe\phhJ!@B*RHephhJ! &XjR dE-DM ^ `gdJ!$CdE -DM ]Ca$gdJ! dE-DM ^ gdJ!$"d6-DM ^"a$gdJ!$+d6-DM ^+a$gdJ!$&d6-DM ^&a$gdJ!$2d;-DM ]^2`a$gdJ!$P*ZֺȺ֥rdSrEhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph'h. hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph)hJ!5@B*CJ\aJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph'hJ!56@B*CJ\]aJpht$&vvgg -DM gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!!$d 2-DM ]^`a$gdJ!$";-DM ^"a$gdJ!$5-DM a$gdJ!r d;-DM ^r gdJ! -DM gdJ! lrtJ,zF.l"&(*ͿͿ͕ͱyͿhh`hJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!'hJ!56@B*CJ\]aJph!&(*z$N)d+h+vYL -DM gdJ!$5%d  -DM ]5`%a$gdJ!$&  d -DM ]&^ ` a$gdJ!$"%d -DM ]^"`%a$gdJ!$5 d -DM ^5` a$gdJ!$Cd -DM ^Ca$gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!*.l.xzX @!!"""#|##Z$$$"%%%n&&X'8(L)N))+b+j++,,8-ĸָָ֪րҀָ֪֪Ҫo!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHu(8----N..0x0z00T11:22&333t4R55066 7|77^88D9:; ;8;<;˽ٓˇˡykˇZ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph h+-z03 ; ;:;N;P;R;T;~ooeo dgdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$ %d -DM ^ `%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] ^`a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ] `%a$gdJ!$  d  -DM ] ` a$gdJ! <;L;P;R;T;X;;@<<$=>v>>>??@ @@@AHBB(CCDDEHFF*GG HzHHI>JJJƸtfƐhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph&T;> @JZZZZZZZ[{b$"d -DM ^"a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ!$d -DM a$gdJ!$%d -DM `%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ! J"K&K(K.KKLLLfMM*@B*CJ]aJph [bchiijupU>$ d -DM ` a$gdJ!$  d -DM ] ^ a$gdJ!-DM gdJ!$+%d -DM ]+^`%a$gdJ!!$*d -DM ]^`*a$gdJ!!$ *d -DM ]^ `*a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!ngghhh^iiiiiPjjj`kkLll*m n|nnbooFp*qqrrlssPtt@uuuu>vvwwxnxѮѠє㔆xjՔjjjhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph)nxxTyXyyyyyyyyzzzl{N||*}\}^}}2~~܁2~څJ*催ttfhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph(uVyXyyyyyy^}g$%d  -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ! dgdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ! *vV4nV@dfЏ8lؒN“rfԗFH񛍛qӍhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph*fHNPRvgg] dgdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$  d-DM ] ^` a$gdJ!$%d-DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$d-DM a$gdJ!  -DM ^gdJ! HJLTpR̚Кޚ.24dؽدwi[دMhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJRH~aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH !h. hJ!@B*CJaJphΚ02ڞntvygg$-DM a$gdJ!$% d -DM ^%` a$gdJ!$  d -DM ^ ` a$gdJ!d-DM `gdJ!$ -DM ] a$gdJ!$d-DM a$gdJ!-DM gdJ! dΝB؞ڞB$vZƢ:lnrvzl|ةP񩷩śō|ōn׷`hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph%v&FjM$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! #-DM ^gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$ *d -DM ] `*a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!$  d  -DM ] ^ a$gdJ!$"-DM ^"a$gdJ!$ zV̭>v$&vV³ DF vdnpڹĺɻɛ廍孛ziɛɻ׭ hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph)FpTZ\^`xxnx dgdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$ .d -DM ]^ `.a$gdJ! ĺ6nܽR.RTXF廭ɭ|kZ|KhJ!6B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphFX\^`DnpJf꟎}qcqcUcG9hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!CJaJ$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph`pttc-DM ^gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$"d -DM ^"a$gdJ!fF$xV6ijugVgJՃJuFhJ!hJ!B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph X6`B&~\BõѧߵыzziXJhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphBt$vb@$rTȺֺ֬֌~p_J)hJ!6@B*CJ]aJmH phsH !hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphr\lN*l}oa}aSS}SoaE}ahJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph)hJ!6@B*CJ]aJmH phsH 'h. hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph~iJ$"d -DM ]"^`a$gdJ!$"d -DM ]"^a$gdJ! # -DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$d -DM ]`a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!Nl(|~X>lnP:"*өӘŷ׷|n|nhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph*zj<drtxzFõçÙÙ~p~b~Tb~T~hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphtkk NNd-DM ^N`gdJ!+d-DM ^+gdJ!$n-DM ^na$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$& d -DM ^&` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!F*     "    6    d"hj߷ũqqcUōUhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!  jpxaH$ d -DM ] a$gdJ! -DM ^gdJ!-DM gdJ!$*d  -DM ]`*a$gdJ!!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ! NNd-DM ^N`gdJ! NNd-DM ^N`gdJ!jntN. d@$t^>NL    b!!>"@"ɻwiw術i譻iihJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^Jph& @"F"H"v"x""*#b! & F d-DM ^`gdn9$`-DM ]`a$gdJ!U-DM ^gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!!$  d -DM ] ^ `a$gdJ!@"D"H"t"x"""(#*#### $6$8$$$% %"%%%%%%´˜|n˜|`|RDhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!6>*@B*]phhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph*##8$$"%%%\&''kk & F d-DM ^`gdn9! & F d-DM ^`gdn9$e3-DM ]ea$gdJ! & F d-DM ^gdn9 & F d-DM ^`gdn9 %%J&Z&\&|&&''('''',(.(J(((((((ij{m_OK=KhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJRHzaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph'.((((()@.L3qT$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!$%d -DM `%a$gdJ!$0d-DM ^0a$gdJ!$+d-DM ^+a$gdJ!$+d-DM ^+a$gdJ!$"-DM ^"a$gdJ! & F d-DM gdn9((())))p**\++F,,-.>.@..(//01t1`22J3L3P3T3õéÛqcccP%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphL3R3T335ABBCp]"-DM ^"gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$*d -DM ]`*a$gdJ!$ *d -DM ]^ `*a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^ `a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!T333333344V5555n66R77>8899h::D;;==d>>J??,@{{m_QQ{hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!hJ!@B*RHNphh. hJ!@B*RHNphhJ!@B*RHNmH phsH hJ!6@B*RHN]ph,@@AAAABBBBBCCCCCCDvDDFGGG\HHյÔÁo^PBhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!h. hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH $hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphH>IJJJ`K6LLM^NN8OOPP.Q0QQzRRRRR S$SSSSSSǹǫǫ㙋xgTgLhJ!CJaJ$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphC0QRRR"SSSSS^\~$d -DM a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$d -DM a$gdJ! SS&TTvUU`VVBWW$XtYYHZZ$[[\\\^\\4]]^_|__f``Laa:b*@B*CJ]aJph)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph(^sfshss(t*t,t.t2t~܃nm"d -DM ]m^"gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ!V&`#$+DS/&gdJ! d gdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ!-DM gdJ! s&t*t,t.t0t2ttuuupvlJڃރ񩔁p[F)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph)hJ!5B*CJ OJQJRH\aJ ph!hJ!5B*OJQJ\^Jph%hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\aJph)hJ!5B*CJOJQJRHz\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph zgg]g dgdJ! -DM ^ gdJ!J-DM ^gdJ!md-DM ]m^gdJ!"Z-DM ^"gdJ!@d0-DM ]@^gdJ!@d-DM ]@^gdJ!"-DM ^"gdJ!    $PTV.߷ߜߔsfXJ@fhވh*XZʊչ㧙}oaoSaEhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphz$npތ>BDHŴyhZ=9hJ!5B*CJpEHOJQJRH\^JaJpmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphp@FXe@d-DM ]@^`gdJ!$&-DM ^&a$gdJ!d-DM gdJ! & F msd-DM ^sgdn9! & F mmd-DM ^m`gdn9$ 8-DM ^ a$gdJ! HVXҏD nP8ޕN0DH뷫돫돷seVVhJ!6B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph%hJ!5@B*CJ RHT\aJ ph%hJ!5@B*CJ RHT\aJ phhJ!hJ!@B*CJRH|aJph!Fwwj[[-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$d  -DM ]`a$gdJ!$  d  -DM ] ` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$d v-DM ^`a$gdJ! ҚF&d֞FL̾zl^P?PPP!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!ʧЧPeH$0%d-DM ^0`%a$gdJ!$>d-DM ]^>a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$ d -DM ^ `a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] `a$gdJ!-DM gdJ! dgdJ!L"BFRVȤ 0Ͼudu`RARuduRAR!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@ B*CJ\aJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph0PThl~\ȧʧΧҧF,jتF(NPҢҞ}qҞcUGUGhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph~fү@LN\ʵҶֶ0VZ\ջշɷɻ㷕tcTLhJ!CJaJhJ!6B*CJ]aJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5B*OJQJ\^Jph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphPNԶֶXZvviZZ5-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ!9& +D-D/&M gdJ!!$0%d -DM ]0^`%a$gdJ!!$+%d -DM ]+^`%a$gdJ!!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ! Z\^r~Rq] d -DM ` gdJ!*d -DM `*gdJ!dR-DM ^gdJ!`-DM ^`gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!$> d-DM ]>^ a$gdJ!5-DM gdJ! dgdJ!\^`̷8~prغJ.jؾN~b: ~ĶඌҀҶrĀĶ_%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!%dL, f*V: hL,|~PRƸr✸r𜀸dhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!"RVZX, |:>@$ x|^qcqUchJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!6B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph!RXZ@s$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$  %d -DM ] ^ `%a$gdJ!$d  -DM a$gdJ! d gdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ!*-DM ^*gdJ! ^J.X68<@&RT0 ~L6>@rX:lXɷśōŷɍŷɷhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph18>T@xU?$[-DM ][a$gdJ!"$ + > d -DM ]>` a$gdJ!!$+&d -DM ]+^&`a$gdJ!!$ 0%d -DM ] ^0`%a$gdJ!$Hd-DM ^Ha$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$d -DM ^`a$gdJ! 8LP^<Ǵ棔~pbTF8hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!6B*CJ]aJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphN@flza$Hd -DM ^Ha$gdJ!&-DM ^&gdJ!$M d -DM ]M^` a$gdJ!$d -DM `a$gdJ! dgdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$[-DM ][a$gdJ! pJ6x\ ~>@dfjnLխǭ՟ǭq^%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!L.J  *   r  \   (pR6jb巩שɩũqhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph%dfhjrh dgdJ!:-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$Rd  -DM ]R`a$gdJ!!$Rd -DM ]R^`a$gdJ!!$ d  -DM ]^` a$gdJ! bfhjnPz|T<ŷxl^l^PBPhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!6B*CJ]aJphhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphj|"h$%43vY$ d  -DM ]` a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!$ d :-DM ] ^a$gdJ!<. f  P!2""""##f$j$$F%%%',(())z**X++<, ---p../60012v222343344ɩɩɩũ׷ɷɍōhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph2434444"4*4,4Z4\4@9h9~$3-DM ]a$gdJ!$d-DM a$gdJ! -DM ^gdJ! -DM gdJ!0-DM gdJ! dgdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ! 444 4$4(4,4X4\4`44H5566678p88>9@9f9h99~p~bTFhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!6>*@B*]phhJ!B*CJaJph)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphhJ!hJ!CJaJ9H:Z:\:: ;;;;;;;,<.<R<<<<D=====j>㭡~p_Q@Q_~!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphh9\:;;;.<<eC! & F KKd -DM ^K`gdn9 & F K[d -DM ^[gdn9$8-DM ]a$gdJ!! & F ZZd -DM ^Z`gdn9! & F ZZd  -DM ^Z`gdn9! & F ZZd -DM ^Z`gdn9<==~>$???~bE & F K[d -DM ^[gdn9 & F K[d -DM ^[gdn9! & F KKd -DM ^K`gdn9 & F KKd -DM ^K`gdn9 & F K[d -DM ^[gdn9! & F KKd  -DM ^K`gdn9j>|>~>>>?"?$?Z??????@@@@J@L@@$AĶ񋜪}ok]OkAhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph?@L@EGJJJJJxxeeV-DM gdJ!1-DM ^1gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$d  -DM `a$gdJ!@5d-DM ]@^5`gdJ!$N-DM ^a$gdJ! $AAB~BBnCCNDD*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphJKKK K W~ZZbho$ %d -DM ] `%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!-DM gdJ!$.d -DM ]`.a$gdJ!$  d -DM ^ ` a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ! KK KKhLLDMM NNOlOORPP8QQRRSvSS\TT8UUVVV W WzWZXXY|Z~Zʼخ؆xj殔\hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!CJaJ$~ZZZl[F\\(]]^r^V__4``aaahbbbbnccLdd.eefdggHhhhh^iiiiij jjXjʼؼؼʼذذؼؼʰʼ~~k$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph*hiii jZj\j^j`j6mrs!$0 d -DM ]^0` a$gdJ!Hd -DM ^HgdJ! d gdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ! Xj\j^j`jdjjDk8l:lxx y$yyzxzz\{>|V|X||0}} ~~\>܂Nƒ4xz2hlnprҸĪҪҸxjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!,rvz~ zXƊN0jH欞vhZL>hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphxN`w-DM gdJ!$*d -DM ]`*a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!$"d -DM ^"a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ!"-DM gdJ! HޏL0|^ГpܗLN^bИ246bnx~™șؙTƛ0ŷߖߎӀrrhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph,`46dfhj$-DIfM gdJ!d$-DIfM ]^gdJ! dgdJ!d-DM gdJ!jlnaO6d$-DIfM ^gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!kd$$If(\ } 0 (4 (a(p(4kd"$$If(4\} 0`` (4 (a(p($-DIfM gdJ!d$-DIfM ]gdJ!Mkd}$$If(4\} 0   (4 (a(p($-DIfM gdJ!™ʙ̙d $-DIfM ^gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!̙ΙЙҙԙ֙A////$-DIfM gdJ!kd$$If(4r } 0 ` 24 (a(p2ؙ֙d $-DIfM ]gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!<A !$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!kds$$If(4r } 0  24 (a(p2d:<jڡH*,04`dt,巩ŘŅtl^PhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph<,24bVtp$  d -DM ] ` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$  d -DM ] ^` a$gdJ! TV¦lީ̪>"rtRȭ>lTƱ6`д@ζ<㩛ћśŷqѩhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph*tFT_D$"d-DM ]"`a$gdJ!!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$d-DM ]^`a$gdJ!$"d-DM ]^"`a$gdJ!$"d-DM ^"a$gdJ! -DM ^ gdJ!$ d -DM ` a$gdJ!<DF"bD*jRTX\F*ѵçÛѵ||tfߛjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph(TZ\@*pt$d -DM ]`a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ! dgdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!  `>@ x(*tX:~bHnpHJNR4Jrɻ񩷩שɩl%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph*pJPtLvU!$&d -DM ]&^`a$gdJ!!$  d -DM ]^ ` a$gdJ!!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$*d -DM ]`*a$gdJ!rtD& JL$vRz\BDHLx|ҜҜm\\!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!#DJLzXx$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$d C-DM ^a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ!>-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$d -DM ]`a$gdJ! DV8:VX2*,`<ؼʮʮؠvʒhʼZhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!hJ!CJaJ#X,@|,24vYGG$-DM a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^ `a$gdJ! -DM ^ gdJ!$ *d -DM ] `*a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!\$ |h>@$vz|\FnJ*,0਌~pbhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!&04`d*`@|~& z  * ,   x  `  @   ^ jǹǭǹuuuuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!-4b~,  e!$*d -DM ]^`*a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ! dgdJ!0-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! F,lH ~\@r\@      ɭɟɃqבבihJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJph&       H      dgdJ!-DM gdJ!5-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$%d +-DM `%a$gdJ!    F J      !!!"<#>##$$$ %j%l%%D&&&''((X))濱ymm懣m^PyhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph >#l%)*003nS$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^ a$gdJ!$+%d -DM ]+`%a$gdJ!!$.d -DM ]^`.a$gdJ!$+%d -DM ]^+`%a$gdJ!$+d -DM ^+a$gdJ!))*z*,---f..F//(0,0000@11 223334445@5j5H667สҜrarShJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! 789999:H;;<===>>6>P>>>>>>>???4?8?õߍ|thhU$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph39>>>>>>??6???qq&-DM gdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!$  d -DM ] ^` a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ! 8??????@r@@AApAAJBBCDtDDPEE*FFGGGGVHJJƸƜƎƎƀrdS!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph???AGJ0NPz]$%d "-DM ^`%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$  d -DM ] ` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] ^a$gdJ!&-DM gdJ! dgdJ!J:JJJJLKK,LL MzMM.N2NNOOOPJQQ.RRSSTTFUU$VVVrWWRXX&Y8Y:YҴҦ˜Š|Ҵn|hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph&PT:Y]]]]]]]]:^<^q&-DM gdJ!5-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ] `%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ! :YYZj[[\4]]]]]]]]]]]8^<^>^@^B^^__h``aշqcUGhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHu!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph<^>^@^chDmqNsvsz[I$.-DM a$gdJ!$ d-DM ]^ `a$gdJ!$*d-DM `*a$gdJ!$"*d  -DM ]"`*a$gdJ!!$*d -DM ]^`*a$gdJ!$d 0-DM ^a$gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!a:b(cccc6ddefffHg2hhhhiijj\kkBll&mBmFmmnn,qqqrprLsNsts㵧ՍǛ㛧ǛÍqǛ`!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph%tsvsssBtttufuhuuVvXv4w6wwxxxx^yyy*zzz{d{h{j{l{p{t{x{|{ĶĨ~ĨČĶҨҨph\\hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!"vssthuXv6wxxyzf{h{j{l{r{-DM gdJ! dgdJ!$cd -DM ]^c`a$gdJ! & F ZZd -DM ^Z`gdn9 & F Znd -DM ^ngdn9r{z{|{{{{<||}\~~^Ԁq & F *Cd -DM ^Cgdn9 & F **d -DM ^*`gdn9 & F *Cd -DM ^Cgdn9$M-DM ]Ma$gdJ!P-DM ^gdJ! -DM gdJ! |{{{{{{{:|<|^||||4}p}}}}$~Z~\~xjYKxjx=hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!hJ!6@B*]ph\~~~~~\^vVҀԀ<>@ҁԁ\ijҥĆxgYQChJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphԀ>@ԁ^ڃnʅxk & F BBd -DM gdn9 & F Bd -DM gdn9 & F BBd -DM ^B`gdn9! & F BBd -DM ^B`gdn9gdJ! & F *Cd -DM ^Cgdn9 \^p΂n؃ڃLln0ȅʅ؅ėxj\Nx@hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph؅܅Bʆ &lnvzŷ||pbTD@2hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJRH|aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph'hJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph)hJ!6@B*CJ]aJmH phsH xrtvxxkkk -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ! dgdJ!$ .d  -DM ] `.a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!@[{d-DM ]@^[`{gdJ!$H3-DM ^Ha$gdJ! އJ&t( |`΍B ^ʑ<ptvxѷߛћŷwi]hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph ڒܒޒD x< j֚F, 򲤖||n`R`|`R`hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph9hJ!5B*CJEHOJQJRHY\^JaJmH phsH hJ!jhJ!UmHnHu ܒΞjءeL sH-DM ^sgdJ!$0d -DM ^0`a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$*d -DM ]^`*a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!Cd-DM ^CgdJ! R̞Ξ<hnԡ֡ء046ަP$r󷩷ӈwii[׷ӛ׷[hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph ء6fhjlrz|u$C-DM a$gdJ!}-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!*d -DM `*gdJ!!$0M d "-DM ]0^M` a$gdJ!$nd-DM ]^na$gdJ! rvxfڪN0pڮ0dhjlptx|~rj\K!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!B*phhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH pT6~Z̷ tZʻD(*,jLNRXʼʮʜ֮ʀʜʮʼtc hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHu&,NT8V~aD$:%d -DM ]:`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! eX0-DM ^0gdJ!5-DM ^5gdJ!$"*d -DM ^"`*a$gdJ!$  d -DM ] ^` a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!`B 68hR>& ^F&TV*,04<hjlDɷשōn!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph&V,24j"viN$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!$&%d-DM ]&`%a$gdJ!$5d-DM ]5a$gdJ!$-DM ]a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$`%d  -DM ]``%a$gdJ!D "btvL.bnH*÷߷ѩq_N!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph^^BDHN(pZ>$tӾӭןsdVhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph!DJz]JJ.-DM ^.gdJ!$R%d -DM ]R`%a$gdJ!!$5 d -DM ]5^` a$gdJ!$&d -DM ]^&a$gdJ! jS5 -DM ^5gdJ!>-DM ^>gdJ!$5%d -DM ^5`%a$gdJ!RXZfB"rX\´||xhY|G#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJph * LNPdB& zfsgYYggshJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphNv{hQ H2-DM ^gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ` a$gdJ!$*d -DM ]`*a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^ a$gdJ!$5-DM ^a$gdJ!fjlrN0|V0rR<$ zzvΖhvSv)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH  tv.24hJdfv|~JϐϐvdSvdSvϐ!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphvf dRR$-DM a$gdJ!$& d -DM ]&` a$gdJ!$0 %d -DM ]0^ `%a$gdJ!!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$ &d -DM ] ^&a$gdJ!pNBd   6  "    R  8ɻ񭩻כש׭שl^M^!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph0Z#t&bA!$"%d -DM ]"^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! >25-DM ^gdJ!$ %d -DM ^ `%a$gdJ!$  %d -DM ] ^ `%a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ!$"-DM ^"a$gdJ!X8.0nZ$lN*xR0Ŵ㦢xj\hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph  xX^   d!!H"0####,$$ %z%%X&r&t&N''(( (2(Ѿ㟑ՃwwwweT!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph2(()`**F++(,V,X,,----------V.Z.\.^.h..H//.001ǹ㙑||kk]իjhJ!UmHnHu!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJpht&X,--------X.Z.\.^. dgdJ!-DM gdJ!C-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!!$5  d -DM ]5^ ` a$gdJ!$"*d  -DM ]"`*a$gdJ! 1112223425556|66d7B88$99:l:n:;"<<=r===&>>?l??B@@"AAB|BB\CCCCNDD8EEFtFӷũũ者ŷŷũhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJph2^.15n:=CvFtS!$d  -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$d -DM ^`a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^ `a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^`a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ!tFvFFPGG2HHI|IIXJZJJ6KKLLLLLMMM MMM@MBMDMMNOnOƸҪҜҸseTe!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! vFZJLLLMMMMBMvWZb!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!$j-DM ^ja$gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!$"d -DM ]"`a$gdJ!$" d -DM ]"` a$gdJ! nOOJPP6QQRRRbSS:TT,UUVtVVtWvWWRXY"Z~ZZR[[:\\\\\ǹǑ񃹃ǃqǃ^%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph Z\\"]aflll~_MM$-DM a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!!$ %d -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ! +-DM ^gdJ! -DM ^ gdJ!$".d  -DM ]"`.a$gdJ!\ ]"]^r^^X__.`` aaaJbb0ccdddpee ffzffg6hhijjVkkllllllݵݙѵљݧÙы}l!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph'llBmDmFmHmLmlppsvx~_$  d -DM ]^ ` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] ^`a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!dgdJ! dgdJ!0-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! l@mDmFmHmJmLmZm`mmBnn(oopjplpnppppPq侦~pZD~6hJ!@B*CJaJph+jhZMB*CJUaJmHnHphu+jhp,B*CJUaJmHnHphuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph/jhZM@B*CJUaJmHnHphu/jhp,@B*CJUaJmHnHphujhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!hJ!6B*CJ]aJphPqqr snspsxszssXtt:uuvvvvvv4wwxxxxѹՇoW?/jhp,@B*CJUaJmHnHphu/jhZM@B*CJUaJmHnHphu/jhp,@B*CJUaJmHnHphuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph/jhZM@B*CJUaJmHnHphu/jhp,@B*CJUaJmHnHphuhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphxy~yy^zzL{{0|||||||||||*}J}N}P}R}V}}0~ǹ㫧p]pOjhJ!UmHnHu$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!6B*]phhJ!CJaJ%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphx||||||L}N}P}R}({`$ed-DM ]e^a$gdJ! dgdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!'1&`+D-D/&M gdJ!&$-DM gdJ! dgdJ!-DM ^gdZM$ *d -DM ] `*a$gdJ! 0~~j&(fڂN&rֆD( >Bhj‹2ŷכqchJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph&(@j‹ԌrR & F %%#d -DM ^%`#gdn9 & F %Hd -DM ^Hgdn9$`R-DM ^`a$gdJ!$}d-DM ^}`a$gdJ!$M d-DM ]^M` a$gdJ!$>+d-DM ]>^+`a$gdJ!ҌԌHln@B~(>@ܑz|ǹ㏁sgcRDhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphԌnB@{Y7! & F %%#d+-DM ^%`#gdn9! & F %%#d2-DM ^%`#gdn9 & F %%#d-DM ^%`#gdn9 & F %%#d -DM ^%`#gdn9! & F %%#d -DM ^%`#gdn9! & F %%#d#-DM ^%`#gdn9|nL! & F d6"-DM ^`gdn9 & F d2-DM ^`gdn9 & F -DM gdn9! & F d-DM ^`gdn9$P-DM ]a$gdJ!! & F %%#d-DM ^%`#gdn9|vʓ0prƔȔ02BҔxggVH7!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphrȔ22468>FH|mm+-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! & F d-DM ^`gdn9 dgdJ! & F d-DM ^`gdn9 & F -DM gdn9 & F +-DM gdn9 BDHN 0468<@DHŷxjbjVR=R)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph'hJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph)hJ!6@B*CJ]aJmH phsH HPtx~֖ؖ(*Brɻי}l^P}?1hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphHvxؖ*tؘ&l & F Bd-DM gdn9 & F BBd-DM ^B`gdn9 & F BBd-DM ^B`gdn9 & F B-DM gdn9M-DM ^MgdJ!-DM ^gdJ! rtؘ֘L$&f(*ě.02Bij҉ҥ{j{bQ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph&*02<NlV$-DM ^a$gdJ! & F rrd-DM ^r`gdn9 & F r-DM ^gdn9gdJ! & F BBd-DM ^B`gdn9 & F B-DM gdn9 & F BBd-DM ^B`gdn9:>LNtpXȟĠ:$vðÏsesWsK=shJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph%hJ!5@B*CJRHY\aJph%hJ!5@B*CJRHY\aJphhJ!hJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphNԧڧܧvxz|~yyyyoy dgdJ! -DM gdJ!+-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$ d &-DM ]` a$gdJ!$> d -DM ^>` a$gdJ!-d-DM ]-^`gdJ! vޣNҧԧاܧ tx|~jƩȩǹխzie]UGGhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!CJaJh3j hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphȩ(48eT-DM ^gd3j$ %d -DM ^ `%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ!&`+D0/&gdJ!_&`+D/&gdJ!O&`+D/&gdJ!ȩ4nXέD$pڰ&(Rij8ܶJ2468׻ןכɍqɟqqqjfh3j h" hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph$8:<BDv}b$d -DM ^`a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!N-DM gd3j5-DM gd3j-DM ^gdJ! dgdJ!8:<@BDHtvx^ι@ rbҽL*p<˺ˬvvhZLhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuh3jhJ!B*CJaJphh3jB*CJaJphhJ!hJ!CJaJ<vZ`^`Bn(Vh> ɷũ~׷p~hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@bB*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph,`*FHJrPPF dgdJ!! & F UUd -DM ^U`gdn9! & F UUd -DM ^U`gdn9$0=-DM ]0a$gdJ!$>d -DM ]>`a$gdJ!!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ! e@"+-DM ^"gdJ!(*DHJLPTX\^.0ථoaQoAhJ!@B*CJRH`aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJphhJ!B*CJRH`aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJph(hJ!6>*@B*CJRH`]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!JLRZ\0x$n3-DM ]na$gdJ! & F  d-DM ^` gdn9 -DM ^gdJ!:-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!! & F UUd -DM ^U`gdn9 FnpP.̼̼vfSC3hJ!@B*CJRH`aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH`]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH`]aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH`]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH`]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJphpaK$-DM ^a$gdJ!! & F d -DM ^`gdn9 & F d -DM ^gdn9 & F d -DM ^`gdn9 & F d -DM ^gdn9! & F d -DM ^`gdn90f zX8̼zl^PD6^6D6hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJRH{aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH`]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJphhJ!@B*CJRH`aJphPRXZuua$-DM ]a$gdJ!/-DM ^/gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$d -DM `a$gdJ!-d-DM ]-^`gdJ!hF,pNRVZ^RpTéÁsbsÍQ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph6BbbA!$ %d -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! #kC-DM ^kgdJ!d -DM ^`gdJ!$*d -DM `*a$gdJ!$>%d -DM ]>`%a$gdJ!$:d -DM ]:^a$gdJ!.dR446h@B ɻ~mɟ㟍\mɍ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph tT`bhjL0HJ(bd268:>BFJݳݙϙwwhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph,Jd468:@HJ{n__>-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! dxgdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$"*d -DM ]"`*a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!$*d -DM ]^`*a$gdJ! JLx|^> j  N    Z  >* |JݶݶrdݎrVdVhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu Jz ^6k$%d -DM `%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!$.d +-DM ^`.a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ!0-DM gdJ! J*\`B, z46|^L&Z\`btŷŊ{ӷśmכm_mmhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph"6\vR y_Jd -DM ^J`gdJ!d -DM ^gdJ! & F @@d -DM ^@`gdn9 Jd -DM ^`gdJ!$d -DM ]`a$gdJ!$d -DM ]`a$gdJ!tvPR~     h!!!!!!!!!!ǹrdd՟\NjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJph'hJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph)hJ!6@B*CJ]aJmH phsH hJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJH*aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph  !!!!!!!,"%j$d -DM ]a$gdJ!$-DM ^a$gdJ! -DM gdJ!"-DM gdJ! dgdJ!!$ d-DM ]^` a$gdJ!!$Ed -DM ]^E`a$gdJ! !*",""##\$$>%%%%:&''^(`((**b++6,X,Z,,-.//0@1B1F1L1Ϳ闳͉{m_۳_hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph"%`(Z,B1H112&6~hI$H%d -DM ]^H`%a$gdJ!Vd -DM ^VgdJ! zRn-DM ^RgdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$ d -DM ^ `a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$  d -DM ]^ ` a$gdJ!L111102222f3D44 56$6&6:6667J88299:X:Z::8;;<ʼذʢʔʆؼugYK؆KʰhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph&6Z:HHͿseeeYeeYKhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphHI JxJK(L*LLLMfMMMN0N4N6NNNNO"O$OOOO PPpPPŷũשzi[[[M[hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphC*LMM2NN$OOiH!$>%d-DM ]^>`%a$gdJ!!$~d-DM ]^~`a$gdJ! N&-DM ^&gdJ! & F ]]d-DM ^]`gdn9$&%d-DM ]^&`%a$gdJ!$%d-DM ]`%a$gdJ!OPPPbQQ.RfK & F ]K-DM ^Kgdn9! & F ]]d-DM ^]`gdn9 & F ]K -DM ^Kgdn9 & F ]Kd -DM ^Kgdn9! & F ]]d -DM ^]`gdn9 & F ]Kd -DM ^Kgdn9PPPP`QbQQQQ,R.RRRRBSSSSSTTT,U.UtUvUUU(V*V~VVV\WWǹ񏝋}ochJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph".RRSST.UvUU~bD & F E3d  -DM ^3gdn9 & F E3d -DM ^3gdn9 & F EEd -DM ^E`gdn9 & F E3d -DM ^3gdn9! & F EEd -DM ^E`gdn9!$0&*d-DM ]0^&`*a$gdJ!U*VV2Z4Z6Z8Z>ZFZHZvZZZsH-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ! dgdJ!$>*d -DM ]>`*a$gdJ! & F E3d -DM ^3gdn9 & F E3d -DM ^3gdn9 WDX Z0Z4Z6Z8Zttu|uuNvPvv(wwxzxǻn՛՛񭻭!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph%PpXpZpps>tPv.y~_$  d -DM ] ^` a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^`a$gdJ!$:-DM ^:a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!zxx,y.yyztzzR{{X|Z||4}}~VX^b8õѵߵћߛߊ|nYE'hJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph)hJ!6@B*CJ]aJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph.yZ|X`t<zfD! & F ppd -DM ^p`gdn9 ~+cd -DM ^+`cgdJ!$ d -DM ` a$gdJ! p-DM ^gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!!$ d -DM ] ^`a$gdJ!fځrtxz:<h<xz(*^`ʈ ״嘊|צn`R|hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphz*`XZbdqqb-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$V%d -DM ]^V`%a$gdJ!!$R d -DM ]^R` a$gdJ! khd -DM ^`hgdJ! & F ppd -DM ^p`gdn9 vVXĊzXZ`d  廷婛׷|kcWOCjhJ!CJUaJhJ!CJaJj1hJ!CJUaJhJ!CJaJ hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph s$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!Q&`#$+D݌/&gdJ!. &`#$+D/&gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ! ~`ԏ>t\̕8lVX›4 |~ήΆxܮxꮲjxܮhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ(~jY`-DM ^`gdJ!d2-DM ]^gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!jd--DM ]^jgdJ!b-DM ^gdJ!-DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!~r]G+hJ!56B*CJ OJQJ\]aJ ph)hJ!5@B*CJ OJQJ\aJ ph)hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph)hJ!5B*CJOJQJRH\aJph'hJ!hJ!5B*OJQJ\^Jph)hJ!5B*OJQJ\^JmH phsH )hJ!5B*CJOJQJRHR\aJph%hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphʝ̝ΝНҝԝ֝؝ܝιubOObC0$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!B*CJaJph%hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\aJph%hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\aJph/hJ!56B*CJOJQJ\]^JaJphhJ!)hJ!5B*CJ OJQJ\^JaJ ph%hJ!5B*CJ OJQJ\aJ ph)hJ!5@B*CJ OJQJ\aJ ph/hJ!hJ!5B*CJ OJQJ\^JaJ ph1hJ!5B*CJ OJQJ\^JaJ mH phsH Νҝ֝ڝܝ}pppaa-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!@-DM ^gdJ! -DM ^gdJ!$d-DM ]^a$gdJ!$dR-DM ]^a$gdJ! "(*|2424 vX̤<bƸtfXJfhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphhJ!*44dlM$ .d -DM ] ^`.a$gdJ!!$ +*d -DM ] ^+`*a$gdJ!$*d  -DM ^`*a$gdJ!!$0d -DM ]^0`a$gdJ!$5d -DM ]^5a$gdJ!-DM gdJ! dgdJ!bdΥ@68 x4ppV*,rdVhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!d8,HΰtTTT & F ZZd-DM ^Z`gdn9 & F Zjd-DM ^jgdn9$.-DM a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!$"3d  -DM ]"`3a$gdJ!!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!FH̰@BVX|бұ Nrtǹ㝑|n`OA3hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphΰBXұt4 *wwww & F Zsd-DM ^sgdn9 & F ZZd-DM ^Z`gdn9 & F Zsd-DM ^sgdn9$.-DM a$gdJ! & F Zjd-DM ^jgdn9 t24 D޴(*J Ķ҉xjYKChJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph|6xxb$-DM ^a$gdJ!" -DM ^"gdJ!-DM ^gdJ! & F rrd-DM ^r`gdn9 & F r0d-DM ^0gdn9gdJ! & F ZZd-DM ^Z`gdn9 Fz|46R<Ķ}yfyXHy:hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJRH{aJphjhJ!UmHnHu$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph<dfи>fܻPƼ*,Z̿$vXrT4v "lõѩߛߩѩэéߩ}oѩѩߛhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphUhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph+f,"jlnpy^^T^ dgdJ!$d -DM ^`a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^ `a$gdJ!$d -DM a$gdJ!$0*d -DM ]0`*a$gdJ!$:*d -DM ^:`*a$gdJ!@d-DM ]@^`gd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{5B@>20 . ., 5;O:>20 . . B> >=8  45B8 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88? ., 1998, A. 4). > MB><C ?>2>4C A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> =5:>B>@K5 02B>@K 8A?>;L7CNB ?>=OB8O >B:;>=ONI55AO, =0@CH5==>5 @0728B85 8 B. ?., B>340 :0: 4@C385 ?@54?>G8B0NB C:07K20BL =0 53> AC1J5:B0, =>A8B5;O. @8 MB>< C?>B@51;ONBAO A;>20: 45B8 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 8;8 ;8F0 A ?@>1;5<0<8 2 @0728B88. 118  ;020 8. !CI=>ABL D5=><5=0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O  F5;>< 65 A ?@82545==K< 2KH5 >?@545;5=85< <>6=> A>3;0A8BLAO. 4=0:> 5A;8 @5GL 845B > ?@85<5 8 ?5@5@01>B:5 8=D>@<0F88, B> =5>1E>48<> CG8BK20BL, GB> MB> <=>3>:0=0;L=K9, 0 3;02=>5, <=>3>C@>2=52K9 ?@>F5AA.  B0:>< A;CG05 B@51C5BAO C:070=85, =0 :0:>< 8<5==> C@>2=5 ?@>8AE>4OB MB8 =0@CH5=8O, B>;L:> ;8 >=8 >4=8 A2>9AB25==K 45BO< A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 8 B>;L:> ;8 8<. >;55 B>G=>5 8 @0725@=CB>5 >?@545;5=85 ?@8=04;568B . >60@C.  =0H5< >?@545;5=88 0=><0;L=K5 45B8  MB> 45B8 8 ?>4@>AB:8 A B@C4=>ABO<8 A>F80;L=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O, 2KB5:0NI8<8 87 45D8F8B0@=>AB8 8;8 =54>AB0B:0 >@30=0, 53> DC=:F88 8 ?@>F5AA0, A> A?5F8D8G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 8 E0@0:B5@=K<8 B@C4=>ABO<8 2 ?>7=0=88 >:@C60NI53> <8@0 8 >1I5=88 A ;N4L<8, 0 B0:65 A> A?5F8D8G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 D>@<8@>20=8O 8E ;8G=>AB8 {>60@ . A8E>;>38O 0=><0;L=KE 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2  ?0B>?A8E>;>38O. ., 1996, A. 13). "0:8< >1@07><, 745AL >?8A0=K ?@8G8=K 8 AD5@K ?@>O2;5=8O >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88, 0 A0<8 >B:;>=5=8O @0A:@K20NBAO G5@57 ?>=OB8O E0@0:B5@=K5 B@C4=>AB8 8 A?5F8D8G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8. !CI=>ABL ?>A;54=8E =5 0=0;878@C5BAO. 2B>@ B0:65 =5 CG8BK205B 8 B>3> ?@>AB>3> D0:B0, GB> ;N1>9 8=48284 157 :0:8E 1K B> =8 1K;> >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=88 ?A8E8:8 A =587156=>ABLN 4>;65= 8A?KBK20BL E0@0:B5@=K5 4;O A51O B@C4=>AB8 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>7=0=8O 8 >1I5=8O, 0 B0:65 >1;040BL A?5F8D8G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 D>@<8@>20=8O A>1AB25==>9 ;8G=>AB8. 0==K5 :0B53>@88 B@C4=>ABL 8 A?5F8D8G=>ABL  =C640NBAO 2 :0G5AB25==>9 :20;8D8:0F88.  F5;>< 65 40==>5 >?@545;5=85 <>6=> ?@87=0BL 2?>;=5 045:20B=K<, => 87;8H=5 >1I8< 8 D>@<0;L=K<. 2B>@K CG51=>3> ?>A>18O A=>2K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, @0A:@K20O >4=>2@5<5==> ?@54<5B 40==>9 =0C:8 8 ACI=>ABL >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O, >B<5G0NB, GB> ?>A;54=85 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 :;0AA >A>1KE A>AB>O=89, 2>7=8:0NI8E ?@58<CI5AB25==> 2 45BA:>< 8 ?>4@>AB:>2>< 2>7@0AB5 ?>4 2;8O=85< @07;8G=KE 3@C?? D0:B>@>2 (>@30=8G5A:>9 8;8 DC=:F8>=0;L=>9 ?@8@>4K) 8 ?@>O2;ONI8EAO 2 70<54;5=88 8;8 2K@065==>< 119 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O A2>5>1@0788 ?A8E>A>F80;L=>3> @0728B8O @515=:0, 70B@C4=ONI8E 53> A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:CN 040?B0F8N, 2:;NG5=85 2 >1@07>20B5;L=>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2> 8 40;L=59H55 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5 A0<>>?@545;5=85 (A=>2K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 / >4 @54. . . C7=5F>2>9. ., 2002, A. 10). A5AB>@>==OO ?>;=>B0 40==>3> >?@545;5=8O =5 =C6405BAO 2 >A>1>< 0:F5=B5, => 8 =5 87102;O5B >B =5>1E>48<>AB8 =5:>B>@KE :><<5=B0@852. !>25@H5==> A?@0254;82> >B=>AO =0@CH5=8O 2 @0728B88 : >A>1K< A>AB>O=8O<, 02B>@K =542CA<KA;5==> 40NB ?>=OBL, GB> @5GL 845B >1 8E >A>1>< :0G5AB25. > MB> :0G5AB2> E0@0:B5@87C5BAO G5@57 70<54;5=85 8;8 2K@065==>5 A2>5>1@0785 ?A8E>A>F80;L=>3> @0728B8O. >4>1=>5 CB25@645=85 =5 2?>;=5 B>G=> 8 =5A:>;L:> 01AB@0:B=>. >A;54=55 :0A05BAO C:070=8O =0 2K@065==>5 A2>5>1@0785, A>45@60=85 :>B>@>3> >AB05BAO =5@0725@=CBK<, =5 3>2>@O C65 > B><, GB> 8=48284C0;L=>5 @0728B85 ;N1>3> @515=:0 =5?>2B>@8<> 8 A2>5>1@07=>. <5==> ?>MB><C 40==K5 ?@87=0:8 =5 <>3CB 2KABC?0BL 2 :0G5AB25 E0@0:B5@8AB8: =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O, 157 AAK;:8 =0 53> A>45@60B5;L=K5 >A>15==>AB8. @><5 B>3>, 70<54;5=85 B5<?>2 @0728B8O, O2;OOAL 25AL<0 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K< A8<?B><>< 487>=-B>35=570, =5 2A5340 >1O70B5;L=>.  @O45 A;CG052 CA:>@5==K5 B5<?K B0:65 <>3CB 3>2>@8BL > =5AB0=40@B=>< E0@0:B5@5 D>@<8@>20=8O ?A8E8:8. >;55 B>3>, A;54C5B >A>1> ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> A:>@>ABL @0728B8O  ?>=OB85 8AB>@8G5A:>5 8 :C;LBC@0;L-=>5. ">, GB> ?@87=05BAO 2 >4=> 2@5<O 8 2 >4=>9 :C;LBC@5 70 =>@<0;L=K9 B5<?, 2 4@C3>5 2@5<O 8 2 4@C3>9 :C;LBC@5 <>65B 1KBL @0AF5=5=> :0: >BAB020=85 >B =>@<K. "> 65 2 @02=>9 AB5?5=8 <>6=> A:070BL 8 > 4@C38E ?@87=0:0E, ?@82>48<KE 2 0=0;878@C5<>9 =0<8 45D8=8F88  B@C4=>AB8 2 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 040?B0F88, 2:;NG5=85 2 >1@07>20B5;L=>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2> 8 2 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5 A0<>>?@545;5=85. A5 >=8 2 @07=>9 AB5?5=8 ?@8ACI8 @07;8G=K< 20@80=B0< =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. > =5 O2;ONBAO 8A:;NG5=85< 8 4;O A;CG052 =>@<K; E0@0:B5@ 8E <=>3>>1@075=, ?>MB><C 5A;8 >=8 2KABC?0NB 2 :0G5AB25 ?@87=0:>2 0=><0;88, B> 4>;6=K 1KBL A>45@60B5;L=> >E0@0:B5@87>20=K. 120  ;020 8. !CI=>ABL D5=><5=0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 081>;55 B>G=CN 8 5<:CN 45D8=8F8N ACI=>AB8 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 2 A>2@5<5==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 40NB . /. !5<03> 8 . . !5<03>. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O MB8E 02B>@>2, ;N1>5 >B:;>=5=85 >B45;L=>9 DC=:F88 8;8 A8AB5<K ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 >B ?@>3@0<<K @0728B8O 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B 7=0:0 MB>3> 87<5=5=8O + 8;8  (>?5@565=85 8;8 70?074K20=85), 2KE>4OI55 70 ?@545;K A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> =>@<0B820, >?@545;O5<>3> 4;O 40==>9 >1@07>20B5;L=>9, A>F8>:C;LBC@=>9 8;8 MB=8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88 8 40==>3> 2>7@0AB0 @515=:0, A;54C5B @0AA<0B@820BL :0: >B:;>=ONI55AO @0728B85 40==>9 DC=:F88 8;8 A8AB5<K ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89. 515=>:, 45<>=AB@8@CNI89 ?>4>1=K5 D5=><5=K, 4>;65= 1KBL >B=5A5= : :0B53>@88 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 {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{K3>BA:89 . !. !>1@. A>G. ". 4, A. 305). >=8<0=85 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 2 :>=B5:AB5 :C;LBC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:>3> 35=570 G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O A>AB02;O5B 206=59H89 2:;04 . !. K3>BA:>3> 2 @0728B85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. <5AB5 A B5<, :0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, @57C;LB0BK :;8-=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89, ?@>2>48<KE 2 H:>;5 . !. K3>BA:>3>, AB0;8 >A=>2=>9 G0ABLN B5>@5B8G5A:>3> DC=40<5=B0 A0<>9 :C;LBC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:>9 B5>@88 D>@<8@>20=8O ?A8E8:8. >=F5?F8O . !. K3>BA:>3>, :>B>@CN >= A0< =07K20; 25@H8==>9 ?A8E>;>3859, ?> A2>5<C A>45@60=8N 1K;0 >1@0I5=0 : 87CG5=8N >@30=870F88 =081>;55 A;>6=KE C@>2=59 ?A8E8:8 8 ?@>B82>?>AB02;O;0AL =0BC@0;8AB8G5A:><C, C7:>18>;>38G5A:><C 55 ?>=8<0=8N. ! ?>78F89 40==>9 :>=F5?F88 2>7=8:=>25=85 A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89 A2O70=> A B5<, GB> ;N1>5 ?5@28G=>5 =0@CH5=85 ?@5?OBAB2C5B ?@>F5AAC CA2>5=8O G5;>25G5A:>3> >?KB0 A>F80;870F88, 2@0AB0=8N @515=:0 2 :C;LBC@C >1I5AB20, 81> 2A5 A>- 140 141 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O F80;L=K5 8=AB8BCBK B0: 8;8 8=0G5 @0AAG8B0=K =0 =>@<0;L=CN, AB0=40@B=CN ?A8E>D878>;>38N. <5==> MB> 4020;> >A=>20=85 . !. K3>BA:><C @0AA<0B@820BL 40==K5 @0AAB@>9AB20 :0: A>F80;L=K9 2K28E, :0: D5=><5= 2K?045=8O @515=:0 87 :C;LBC@K, GB> O2;O5BAO ?>4;8==>9 ?@8G8=>9 >B:;>=5=89 >B =>@<0;L=>3> E>40 @0728B8O. "0:>5 ?>=8<0=85 ?@8@>4K =0@CH5=89 35=570 ?A8E8:8 2<5AB5 A B5< ?>72>;O;> =0<5B8BL AB@0B538G5A:CN ;8=8N 8E 8A?@02;5=89, 81> 2>7=8:=>25=85 A0<8E =0@CH5=89 8 ?@>F5AA 8E :>@@5:F88 ;560B 2 >4=>9 8 B>9 65 A>F80;L=>9 ?;>A:>AB8. "@C4=>AB8 2 CA2>5=88 >1I5G5;>25G5A:>3> >?KB0 <>3CB 2 8725AB=>9 <5@5 ?@5>4>;520BLAO 70 AG5B A>740=8O >1E>4=KE ?CB59, CAB0=>2;5=8O =>2KE A2O759 A A>F80;L=K< <8@>< ?@8 >?>@5 =0 A>E@0==K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 @515=:0. >2>@O > <5E0=87<0E 2>7=8:=>25=8O A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89, A@07C C:065< =0 25AL<0 @0A?@>AB@0=5==>5 8 2 :>@=5 >H81>G=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> MB8 >B:;>=5=8O 2>7=8:0NB A0<8 ?> A515, =5?@>872>;L=>. AB0B8 A:070BL, >G5=L G0AB> ?>4>1=K< >1@07>< B@0:BC5BAO 8 ?@>F5AA =>@<0;L=>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O  :0: D5=><5= 02B><0B8G5A:>3> ?>O2;5=8O 2>7@0AB=KE =>2>>1@07>20=89. 57CA;>2=>, 8 :0: <K C65 3>2>@8;8, >A=>2=>9 <5E0=87< 2B>@8G=KE =0@CH5=89 >1CA;02;8205BAO =0;8G85< <56DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A2O759 <564C @07;8G=K<8 :><?>=5=B0<8 ?A8E8:8. > 2>7=8:=>25=85 A0<8E MB8E A2O759 8 8E 87<5=5=85 =5 A;CG09=K, 0 >?@545;ONBAO ?@>F5AA>< 2>7@0AB=>3> @0728B8O, =0?@02;5==>3> =0 D>@<8@>20=85 >?B8<0;L=>9 AB@C:BC@K A>7=0=8O.  >?B8<0;L=><, >B=>A8B5;L=> AD>@<8@>20==>< 2845 AB@C:BC@0 A>7=0=8O A:;04K205BAO 87 42CE >A=>2=KE :><?>=5=B>2  MB> B0: =07K205<K5 1KB89=K9 8 @5D;5:A82=K9 A;>8 A>7=0=8O. 5@2K9 =0?@02;5= =0 >B@065=85 2=5H=53> <8@0, 2B>@>9 >1@0I5= 2=CB@L, =0 A>1AB25==K9 AC1J5:B82=K9 <8@.  D>@<C;8@>2:0E . !. K3>BA:>3> MB8 A;>8 >1>7=0G0NBAO :0: A>7=0=85 4;O 1KB8O 8 A>7=0=85 4;O A>7=0=8O. A=>2=>9 25:B>@ 2>7@0AB=>3> @0728B8O :0: @07 8 70405BAO D>@<8@>20=85< C:070==KE C@>2=59 8 8E 2708<>?@>=8:=>25=85<. >A;54=55 >A>- 142  ;020 10. 5E0=87<K D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=KE =0@CH5=89 15==> 206=>, 81> >15A?5G8205B F5;>AB=>ABL ?@>F5AA0 >B@065=8O 2 548=AB25 >1J5:B0 8 AC1J5:B0. 708<>459AB2CO A ?@54<5B0<8 2=5H=53> <8@0, @515=>: >B@0605B :0: 8E A2>9AB20, B0: 8 A2>8 A>1AB25==K5. 5@07@K2=>5 548=AB2> 1KB89=>3> 8 @5D;5:A82=>3> A;>52 ?@>O2;O5BAO C65 2 0:B0E 2>A?@8OB8O, 2 ?@>F5AA5 :>B>@>3> G5;>25: >4=>2@5<5==> >A>7=05B 8 B>, GB> >= 2>A?@8=8<05B, 8 B>, GB> AC1J5:B>< 2>A?@8OB8O O2;O5BAO >= A0<.  MB>< A<KA;5 1KB89=K9 A;>9 A>7=0=8O O2;O5BAO >4=>2@5<5==> 8 A>@5D;5:A82=K<, 0 @5D;5:A82=K9  A>1KB89=K<. BAN40 ?>=OB=>, GB> =8 >4=> A:>;L:>-=81C4L A5@L57=>5 =0@CH5=85 2 AD5@5 1KB89=>3> A;>O A>7=0=8O =5 ?@>945B 15AA;54=> 4;O DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8 @0728B8O @5D;5:A82=>9 53> AB>@>=K, 8 =0>1>@>B. -B8 =0@CH5=8O <>3CB :0A0BLAO AB@C:BC@=KE :><?>=5=B>2, 87 :>B>@KE 2 A2>N >G5@54L A:;04K20NBAO 40==K5 C@>2=8. A=>2=K<8 M;5<5=B0<8, >1@07CNI8<8 1KB89=K9 A;>9, O2;O5BAO GC2AB25==0O 8 18>48=0<8G5A:0O B:0=L A>7=0=8O. 'C2AB25==0O B:0=L ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A>2>:C?=CN A5=A>@=CN 107C ?5@F5?B82=KE >1@07>2 8 8E A2>9AB2. 8>48=0<8G5A:0O B:0=L 2>?;>I05BAO 2 682>< G5;>25G5A:>< 42865=88, 2KABC?0O >A=>2>9 ?@54<5B=KE 459AB289. 5D;5:A82=K9 A;>9 A>7=0=8O B>65 A:;04K205BAO 87 42CE :><?>=5=B>2  MB> 7=0G5=8O 8 A<KA;K. =0G5=85 G0AB> B@0:BC5BAO :0: A>45@60=85 ?>=OB8O, 2K@065==>5 2 A;>25.  7=0G5=8OE 2 >1>1I5==>9 D>@<5 D8:A8@C5BAO 8AB>@8G5A:89 >?KB; >=8 A2O70=K A @5G5<KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN G5;>25:0. 0;8G85 A<KA;>2>9 AD5@K C:07K205B =0 =5A2>48<>ABL 8=48284C0;L=>3> A>7=0=8O : 157;8G=><C 7=0=8N. -B> 7=0=85 2A5340 ?@8=04;568B 682><C AC1J5:BC, 8 2 A8;C MB>3> >=> ?@8AB@0AB=>. !<KA;  MB> 2=CB@5==OO AB>@>=0 7=0G5=8O, A>>B=>AOI0O 53> A @50;L=>ABLN 687=8 :>=:@5B=>3> G5;>25:0. !<KA;>20O AD5@0 2>A?@>872>48B A51O 2 M<>F8OE, >B=>H5=8OE, F5==>ABOE.  @0<:0E 1KB89=>3> A>7=0=8O ACI5AB2C5B B5A=0O A2O7L <564C GC2AB25==>9 8 18>48=0<8G5A:>9 B:0=O<8. 'C2AB25==0O B:0=L D>@<8@C5BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 682>3> 42865=8O, A>AB02;OO 55 143 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 2=CB@5==NN AB>@>=C 8 C?@02;OO 5N. 5 <5=55 B5A=K5 >B=>H5=8O ACI5AB2CNB <564C 7=0G5=8O<8 8 A<KA;0<8. =0G5=8O <>3CB >A<KA;820BLAO, 0 A<KA;K >7=0G820BLAO. 'C2AB25==0O 8 18>48=0<8G5A:0O B:0=L ?@8405B @50;L=>ABL >1J5:B82=>9 :0@B8=5 <8@0, :>B>@K9 2KABC?05B 4;O G5;>25:0 :0: =5GB> 2=5H=55 ?> >B=>H5=8N : A>7=0=8N, :0: >1J5:B 53> ?@54<5B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. ;03>40@O DC=:F8>=8@>20=8N @5D;5:A82=>3> A;>O B0:CN 65 @50;L=>ABL >1@5B05B 8 2=CB@5==89 AC1J5:B82=K9 <8@ ;8G=>AB8. !2O7L 1KB89=>3> 8 @5D;5:A82=>3> A;>52 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO G5@57 2708<>459AB285 A>AB02;ONI8E 8E :><?>=5=B>2. "0:, A<KA;K 8 7=0G5=8O  MB> 2A5340 A<KA;K 8 7=0G5=8O :>=:@5B=KE >1@07>2 8 459AB289. @8 MB>< GC2AB25==0O 8 18>48=0<8G5A:0O B:0=L >1O70B5;L=> 2:;NG05B 2 A51O M;5<5=BK @5D;5:A88. !:070==>5 >7=0G05B, GB> 2A5 <=>3>>1@07=K5 <56DC=:F8>=0;L=K5 A2O78 <564C @07;8G=K<8, <=>3>G8A;5==K<8 ?A8E8G5A:8<8 D5=><5=0<8 >?@545;ONBAO 2KH5>?8A0==>9 AB@C:BC@>9 A>7=0=8O. 0@CH5=85 A2O759 2 8725AB=>9 <5@5 @0AAB@08205B 0@E8B5:B>=8:C MB>9 AB@C:BC@K. > >=0 65 >?@545;O5B =0?@02;5=85 2>7=8:=>25=8O A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, : :0:><C AB@C:BC@=><C :><?>=5=BC A>7=0=8O ?@8=04;568B ?5@28G=> =0@CH5==0O DC=:F8O. "0:, 8AE>4=K5 ?5@28G=K5 =0@CH5=8O 2 AD5@5 GC2AB25==>9 B:0=8, ?@5645 2A53>, >B@07OBAO =0 18>48=0<8:5 8 2 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8  =0 AD5@5 7=0G5=89 8 A<KA;>2. "> 65 <>6=> A:070BL 8 > A8BC0F88, ?@8 :>B>@>9 ?5@2>=0G0;L=> =0@CH05BAO 18>48=0<8G5A:0O B:0=L. !;54AB285< MB>3> 1C45B @0AAB@>9AB2> DC=:F89 GC2AB25==>9 B:0=8. =0;>38G=> <>65B 2K3;O45BL :0@B8=0 ?@8 8AE>4=KE =0@CH5=8OE 2 A<KA;>2>9 AD5@5 (M<>F8>=0;L=>-2>;52K5 8 ?>2545=G5A:85 >B:;>=5=8O) 8 AD5@K 7=0G5=89 (@5G52K5 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 @0AAB@>9AB20). >2>@O > AB@C:BC@=>9 >@30=870F88 A>7=0=8O 8 >1AC640O 2 A2O78 A MB8< >48= 87 <5E0=87<>2 D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89, <K B5< A0<K< E>B5;8 ?>4G5@:=CBL =5A;CG09=K9 E0@0:B5@ 8E 2>7=8:=>25=8O. "0:8< >1@07>< ?@5>4>;5205BAO 25AL<0 01AB@0:B=0O AE5<0 >?8A0=8O A8AB5<>35=570, ?@8 :>B>-  ;020 10. 5E0=87<K D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=KE =0@CH5=89 @>9 C:07K205BAO, GB> =0@CH5=85 :0:>9-B> >4=>9 DC=:F88 ?@82>48B : @0AAB@>9AB2C 4@C3>9, A2O70==>9 A =59. @54AB02;5==K9 2 A0<>< >1I5< 2845 <5E0=87< D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89 =5 O2;O5BAO 548=AB25==K<. @C3>9 A2O70= A A5=78B82=K<8 ?5@8>40<8 AB0=>2;5=8O @07=KE AB>@>= ?A8E8:8. @8=F8? 459AB28O MB>3> <5E0=87<0 2 >1I8E G5@B0E A2>48BAO : A;54CNI5<C.  <><5=B 459AB28O ?0B>35==>3> D0:B>@0, ?@5645 2A53>, =0@CH0NBAO AB>@>=K ?A8E8:8, =0E>4OI85AO 2 D075 =081>;55 8=B5=A82=>3> @0728B8O. @8 MB>< <>3CB >B<5G0BLAO @0AAB@>9AB20 DC=:F89, =5?>A@54AB25==> =5 A2O70==KE A ?5@28G=> ?>2@5645==K<8. =0G5 3>2>@O, 2 40==>< A;CG05 >1AC6402H89AO 2KH5 <5E0=87< <56DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A2O759 =5 @01>B05B, 0 0:BC0;878@C5BAO :0:>9-B> 4@C3>9. 5@>OB=55 2A53> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 2 ?5@8>4K A5=78B82-=>9 0:B82=>AB8 O2=> A=8605BAO MDD5:B82=>ABL @01>BK :><?5=A0B>@=KE <5E0=87<>2, GB> ?@82>48B : A=865=8N B>;5@0=B=>AB8, :0: 2A59 ?A8E8:8, B0: 8 >B45;L=KE 55 AB>@>=. ;O 1>;55 :>=:@5B=>9 8 ?@54<5B=>9 8;;NAB@0F88 MB>3> <5E0=87<0 G0AB> 8A?>;L7CNB @07;8G=K5 35=5B8G5A:85 AE5<K D07 8 MB0?>2 @0728B8O ?A8E8:8.  A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >A>15==> G0AB> 8A?>;L7CNBAO AE5<K ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O . . >20;520 8 . . #H0:>20, 4;O :>B>@KE E0@0:B5@=0 871KB>G=0O >1>1I5==>ABL. <5==> ?>MB><C 8;;NAB@8@C5<K5 A 8E ?><>ILN =0@CH5=8O 2K3;O4OB 3;>10;L=> 8 @0AG;5=5==>. @><5 B>3>, =0720==K5 02B>@K 65AB:> ?@82O7K20NB 2K45;O5<K5 D07K : A>25@H5==> >?@545;5==><C 2>7@0ABC, GB> O2=> ?@>B82>@5G8B A>2@5<5==K< ?@54AB02;5=8O< > @0728B88 ?A8E8:8 8 4><8=8@CNI8< 273;O40< =0 G@572KG09=CN 8=48284C0;L=CN 20@8015;L=>ABL A5=78B82=KE ?5@8>4>2.  MB>< >B=>H5=88 :C40 1>;55 2K83@KH=0 A8AB5<0 ?@54AB02;5=89 MB0?=>AB8 2>7@0AB=>3> @0728B8O . . 5::5@0. !E5<0 ?@54AB02;5=0 48DD5@5=F8@>20==K<8 AB@C:BC@=K<8 C@>2=O<8.  =59 >?@545;5==0O ABC?5=L @0728B8O ?A8E8:8 A>>B=5A5=0 =5 A :>=:@5B=K< 2>7@0AB><, 0 A A>>B25BAB2CNI8< 284>< 45OB5;L=>AB8, @53C;OF8O :>B>@>3> >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =0 40==>< C@>2=5 @0728B8O ?A8E8:8. >;55 B>3>, D>@<8@>20=85 144 145 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O >?@545;5==>3> 2840 45OB5;L=>AB8 A>7405B ?@54?>AK;:8 4;O ?5@5E>40 ?A8E8:8 =0 1>;55 2KA>:CN ABC?5=L. >A;54>20B5;L=>ABL MB0?>2 2>7@0AB=>3> @0728B8O ?@54AB02;5=0 =0 @8AC=:5 10.1. AE>4=K9 C@>25=L @0728B8O ?A8E8:8 >1>7=0G5= =0 AE5<5 :0: A5=A>@=>-M<>F8>=0;L=K9. 0 MB>< C@>2=5 @515=>: A?>A>15= >B@060BL >1I85 ?@>AB@0=AB25==>-2@5<5==K5 :>>@48=0BK 2=5H=53> <8@0 8 M;5<5=B0@=K5 >@30=8G5A:85 ?>B@51=>AB8. A8E8G5A:0O 0:B82=>ABL 745AL @53C;8@C5B =081>;55 !0<>@53C;OF8O!0<>A>7=0=85 , __,$>@<8@>20=85 ;8G=>AB8>ABC?>:   ^ __,0G0B:8 @5G52>3>&5;5=0?@02;5==0O@0728B8O 8 A>7=0=8O45OB5;L=>ABLI  -^0G0B:8 A5=A><>B>@=>3> 8=B5;;5:B0!>2<5AB=K5 D>@<K 45OB5;L=>AB8   ^ -_5@F5?B82=>-0=8?C;OB>@=0OM<>F8>=0;L=0O ?A8E8:045OB5;L=>ABL1 %  _!5=A>@=>-M<>F8>=0;L=0O ?A8E8:0>:><>F88   f 8A. 10.1. -B0?K @0728B8O ?A8E8:8 146  ;020 10. 5E0=87<K D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=KE =0@CH5=89 ?@>ABK5 D>@<K ?>2545=8O  ;>:><>F88 8 ?5@5<5I5=8O 2 >3@0=8G5==>< ?@>AB@0=AB25. >:><>B>@=0O 0:B82=>ABL 2 A2>N >G5@54L ?>72>;O5B ?5@59B8 =0 1>;55 2KA>:CN ABC?5=L @0728B8O  ?5@F5?B82=>-M<>F8>=0;L=CN. 0 MB>< C@>2=5 2>7=8:05B 2>7<>6=>ABL >B@065=8O F5;>AB=KE ?@54<5B>2 8 ?@>AB59H8E A2O759 <564C =8<8. >2545=G5A:8 MB> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 @072>@0G820=88 <0=8?C;OB>@=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 M;5<5=B0@=KE ?@54<5B=KE 459AB289, :>B>@K5 B5< A0<K< A?>A>1AB2CNB ?5@5E>4C =0 A;54CNICN ABC?5=L ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. -B> C@>25=L A5=A><>B>@=>3> 8=B5;;5:B0, ?>72>;ONI89 @53C;8@>20BL A>2<5AB=K5 D>@<K 45OB5;L=>AB8 :0: 70G0B:8 A>F80;L=>3> ?>2545=8O. ><<C=8:0B82=>-?@5>1@07CNI55 ?>2545=85 ?@82>48B : 40;L=59H5<C CA;>6=5=8N @0728B8O, 4;O :>B>@>3> E0@0:B5@=> D>@<8@>20=85 @5G8, =03;O4=>->1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O 8 70G0B:>2 A>7=0=8O. ! @0728B85< @5G8 8 <KH;5=8O >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?5@5E>4 : ?@>872>;L=><C A?>A>1C @53C;OF88 A2>53> ?>2545=8O, :>B>@>5 ?@5>1@07C5BAO 2 45OB5;L=>ABL 2 A>1AB25==>< A<KA;5 MB>3> A;>20 A =0;8G85< F5;8, <>B820 8 >1@070 :>=5G=>3> @57C;LB0B0. !>7=0B5;L=>ABL 8 F5;5=0?@02;5==>ABL 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@82>48B : D>@<8@>20=8N 1>;55 A;>6=>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 >@30=870F88  ;8G=>AB8 :0: AC1J5:B0 A>7=0=8O 8 >1I5=8O. @><5 B>3>, 4;O MB>3> MB0?0 E0@0:B5@=> @0728B85 01AB@0:B=>3> <KH;5=8O. 8G=>AB=K9 C@>25=L ?A8E8G5A:>9 8=B53@0F88 A?>A>1AB2C5B 2>7=8:=>25=8N A>F80;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@5>1@07CO 55 2 >A>1CN D>@<C  ?>ABC?>: :0: A>7=0B5;L=>5 459AB285, 0:B =@02AB25==>3> >?@545;5=8O G5;>25:0, 2 :>B>@>< >= CB25@6405B A2>5 >B=>H5=85 : 4@C3><C, : A515 A0<><C 8 >1I5AB2C 2 F5;><. 50;870F8O B0:>9 =@02AB25==> @53C;8@C5<>9 D>@<K 45OB5;L=>AB8 2545B : AB0=>2;5=8N 2KAH53> C@>2=O ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O  A0<>A>7=0=8N. >A;54=55 A?>A>1AB2C5B 284>87<5=5=8N 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ?>O2;5=8N A0<>@53C;OF88, ?>4G8=ONI59 A515 2A5 A;>8 :0: ?A8E8G5A:>9, B0: 8 2=5H=59 ?>2545=G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8.  ?@82545==>9 35=5B8G5A:>9 AE5<5 2K45;5==K5 H5ABL C@>2=59 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2<5AB5 A B5< ?@54AB02;ONB >4=>2@5<5==> >?@545;5==K5 AB>@>=K ?A8E8:8, :0640O 87 147 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O :>B>@KE 2 8725AB=K9 <><5=B 2@5<5=8 <>65B =0E>48BLAO 2 A>AB>O=88 A5=78B82=>AB8 8 E0@0:B5@87>20BLAO =5CAB>9G82>ABLN ?> >B=>H5=8N : 2>7459AB28O< ?0B>35==KE D0:B>@>2. /2=K<8 ?@87=0:0<8 MB>9 =5CAB>9G82>AB8 A;C60B =0@CH5=8O @07;8G=KE D>@< 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@8C@>G5==KE : A>>B25BAB2CNI8< C@>2=O< ?A8E>35=570. ;8O=85 ?0B>35==>3> D0:B>@0 G0I5 2A53> =0?@02;5=> =0 M;5<5=BK ?A8E8:8, =0E>4OI85AO 2 40==K9 <><5=B =0 MB0?5 0:B82=>3> @0728B8O; ?@8 MB>< B5 55 :><?>=5=BK, :>B>@K5 C65 <8=>20;8 D07C A5=78B82=>AB8, <>3CB >AB020BLAO >B=>A8B5;L=> A>E@0==K<8. =0G5 >1AB>8B 45;> A 1>;55 A;>6=K<8 ABC?5=O<8 ?A8E8G5A:>9 >@30=870F88, :>B>@K< 5I5 B>;L:> ?@54AB>8B 2E>645=85 2 D07C A5=78B82=>AB8. KA>:0 25@>OB=>ABL, GB> ?A8E8:0 =0 MB8E C@>2=OE ?@>O28B ?@87=0:8 70<54;5==>3> @0728B8O, GB> G0I5 2A53> 2K@0605BAO 2 1>;55 ?>74=8E A@>:0E A0<8E A5=78B82=KE ?5@8>4>2, O2=> 2KE>4OI8E 70 ?@545;K 4065 25AL<0 H8@>:>9, => 2A5 65 =>@<0B82=>9 8=48284C0;L=>9 20@8015;L=>AB8, ;81> >B@5038@C5B A=865=85< 8=B5=A82=>AB8 ?@>O2;5=89 A5=78B82=>3> ?5@8>40. 0: C:07K20;>AL 2KH5, >4=8< 87 :;NG52KE <><5=B>2 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 @515=:0 O2;O5BAO ?@>F5AA >1I5=8O. <5==> 2 >1I5=88 27@>A;K9 ?5@5405B @515=:C :C;LBC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:89 >?KB, CA2>5=85 :>B>@>3> 8 A>AB02;O5B ACI=>ABL ?@>F5AA0 D>@<8@>20=8O G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O. 0 @0==8E MB0?0E @0728B8O ?5@540G0 >?KB0 @50;87C5BAO 2 B><, GB> 27@>A;K9 @0A:@K205B 4;O @515=:0 A?>A>1K 459AB28O A ?@54<5B0<8, 81> A0<>AB>OB5;L=> >B:@KBL 8E @515=>: 5I5 =5 <>65B. 2;04520O 8AB>@8G5A:8 A;>682H8<8AO A?>A>10<8 459AB28O A ?@54<5B0<8, @515=>: ?@8>1@5B05B ?5@2K5 >1>1I5==K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O :0: M;5<5=B 1C4CI53> A>7=0=8O. BAN40 =5A;>6=> ?>=OBL, GB> ;N1>5 ?5@28G=>5 =0@CH5=85 2 @07=>9 AB5?5=8 8 A @07=KE AB>@>= 70B@C4=O5B >1I5=85 8 ?@>F5AA ?5@540G8 >?KB0, B5< A0<K< 70<54;OO ?@>F5AA ?A8E>35=570. 1I5=85 2KABC?05B, B0:8< >1@07><, 206=59H8< CA;>285< AB0=>2;5=8O 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89. >A;54=85, :0: C:07K20; . !. K3>BA:89, O2;ONBAO ?@8687=5==> D>@<8@C- 148  ;020 10. 5E0=87<K D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=KE =0@CH5=89 5<K<8 ?> A2>5<C 35=57C, ?@>872>;L=K<8 ?> A?>A>1C @53C;OF88 8 >?>A@54>20==K<8 ?> AB@>5=8N.  ?@>F5AA5 A2>53> D>@<8@>20=8O 2KAH85 ?A8E8G5A:85 DC=:F88 ?@>E>4OB ?>A;54>20B5;L=> 425 D07K  8=B5@?A8E8G5A:CN 8 8=B@0?A8E8G5A:CN. ;O ?5@2>9 E0@0:B5@=> B>, GB> DC=:F8O :0:>5-B> 2@5<O =5 ?@8=04;568B 2A5F5;> @515=:C, 0 ACI5AB2C5B 2 @0745;5==>< 2845. 4=8 55 M;5<5=BK @50;87CNBAO 27@>A;K<, 0 4@C385 2K?>;=ONBAO @515=:><.  B0:>< 2845 DC=:F8O =0E>48BAO 4>2>;L=> 4>;3>, ?>:0 @515=>: ?>;=>ABLN =5 >A2>8B 2A5 55 M;5<5=BK. ">;L:> ?@>94O MB>B ?5@8>4, >=0 AB0=>28BAO 2=CB@5==59 ?@8=04;56=>ABLN @515=:0, B> 5ABL ?5@5E>48B 2 8=B@0?A8E8G5A:CN D07C. 57 CG0AB8O 27@>A;>3>, >1I0OAL A :>B>@K< @515=>: <>65B @50;87>20BL 2KAH85 ?A8E8G5A:85 DC=:F88, D>@<8@>20=85 ?>A;54=8E >:070;>AL 1K =52>7<>6=>. >7=8:0NI85 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I5=8O 70B@C4=5=8O, E0@0:B5@=K5 ?@0:B8G5A:8 4;O 2A5E 3@C?? 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88, A =587156=>ABLN 70<54;ONB ?@>F5AA 8E AB0=>2;5=8O. ?8A0==K9 <5E0=87< ?@>O2;5=8O A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89 -<>6=> 1K;> 1K >1>7=0G8BL :0: :><<C=8:0B82=K9. 5OB5;L=>ABLN MB>3> <5E0=87<0 >1JOA=O5BAO D>@<8@>20=85 >4=>B8?=KE =0@CH5=89 2 M<>F8>=0;L=>-2>;52>9 AD5@5 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 A @07=K<8 20@80=B0<8 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88. 0@CH5=85 :><<C=8:0B82=>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20 <564C @515=:>< 8 27@>A;K< <>65B ?@>O28BLAO 2 45D>@<0F88 A>F80;L=>9 A8BC0F88 @0728B8O, >4=8< 87 :>=:@5B=KE 20@80=B>2 :>B>@>9 O2;O5BAO =5?@028;L=>5 2>A?8B0=85. 5>1E>48<> B0:65 C:070BL =0 45OB5;L=>AB=K9 <5E0=87< D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89. A8E8:0 2KABC?05B 2 @>;8 >A>1>3> @53C;OB>@0 2=5H=59 ?@54<5B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, >1@07CO 55 2=CB@5==89 ?;0=. <5==> ?>MB><C =0@CH5=8O ?@>F5AA0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, :0: ?@028;>, A =587156=>ABLN ?@82>4OB : >BAB020=8N 2 B5<?0E D>@<8@>20=8O ?A8E><>B>@8:8, ?@54<5B=KE 459AB289 8 @07=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8. >, 1C4CG8 2=CB@5==8< ?;0=>< ;N1>9 2=5H=59 0:B82=>AB8, ?A8E8:0 A0<0 ?@5>1@07C5BAO. >MB><C =54>AB0B:8 2 @0728B88 @07- 149 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O =KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@82>4OB : 70<54;5=8N B5<?0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, A>74020O B5< A0<K< 70<:=CBK9 :@C3, 345 ?@8G8=0 8 A;54AB285 ?>?5@5<5==> <5=ONBAO <5AB0<8. >=:@5B=K< ?@>O2;5=85< 40==>3> <5E0=87<0 <>6=> AG8B0BL =0@CH5=85 ?@>F5AA0 D>@<8@>20=8O C<AB25==KE 459AB289. 0: 8725AB=>, C<AB25==K5 459AB28O D>@<8@CNBAO C @515=:0 ;8HL A >?>@>9 =0 2=5H=85 ?@54<5B=K5 >?5@0F88, :>B>@K5 ?> <5@5 02B><0B870F88 8 A>:@0I5=8O ?>AB5?5==> ?5@5E>4OB 87 2=5H=53> ?;0=0 A2>53> ACI5AB2>20=8O 2> 2=CB@5==89. 0;8G85 @07;8G=KE =0@CH5=89 2 <>B>@=>9 AD5@5 B0: 8;8 8=0G5 =530B82=> A:065BAO =0 AB0=>2;5=88 C<AB25==KE 459AB289. @><5 B>3>, @>48B5;8 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88, =01;N40O 70 B@C4=>ABO<8, :>B>@K5 8A?KBK205B 8E @515=>: 2 @07;8G=KE D>@<0E 45OB5;L=>AB8, AB0@0NBAO >3@048BL 53> >B MB>9 0:B82=>AB8 8 B5< A0<K< 4>?>;=8B5;L=> >A;>6=ONB ?@>F5AA ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. %>@>H> 8725AB=>, GB> 4;O 1>;LH8=AB20 487>=B>35=5B8G5A-:8E ?@>O2;5=89 E0@0:B5@=K @07=>>1@07=K5 @5G52K5 =0@CH5=8O. 5GL 2KABC?05B =5 B>;L:> :0: A@54AB2> >1I5=8O 8 ?>7=0=8O, => 8 :;NG52K< >?>A@54CNI8< M;5<5=B>< AB@C:BC@K 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89, GB> 83@05B 206=CN @>;L 4;O ?@>872>;L=>9 @53C;OF88 ?A8E8G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8. BAN40 AB0=>28BAO ?>=OB=>9 A2O7L @5G52KE =0@CH5=89 A >BAB020=85< B5<?>2 D>@<8@>20=8O 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89.  MB>9 A2O78 CA<0B@8205BAO 5I5 >48= <5E0=87< A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88.  =0:>=5F, ?>A;54=89 87 @0AA<0B@8205<KE <5E0=87<>2 <>65B 1KBL >1>7=0G5= :0: 45?@820F8>8=K9. !2>5>1@0785 687=5==>9 A8BC0F88 1>;LH8=AB20 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO 2;8O=85< A@07C =5A:>;L:8E 284>2 45?-@820F88. !@548 =8E ?5@28G=K5, 8;8 :;8=8G5A:85 A2O70=K A =54>AB0B:0<8 7@5=8O, A;CE0, @5G8 8 42830B5;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8. A>15==> B8?8G=0 4;O ?5@8>40 4>H:>;L=>3> 45BAB20 A>F80;L=0O 45?@820F8O, ?@>O2;ONI0OAO 2 AC65=88 :@C30 >1I5=8O. 5 @54:>ABLN O2;O5BAO 8 A8BC0F8O M<>F8>=0;L=>9 45-?@820F88, A2O70==>9 A E>;>4=K< 8 @02=>4CH=K< >B=>H5=85< 150  ;020 10. 5E0=87<K D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=KE =0@CH5=89 : @515=:C 2 A5<L5. >4>1=K5 CA;>28O A?>A>1=K >:070BL =530B82=>5 2;8O=85, :0: =0 M<>F8>=0;L=>5, B0: 8 =0 :>3=8B82=>5 @0728B85 @515=:0. "0:8< >1@07><, ?>42>4O 8B>3 =0H5<C 0=0;87C, <K 4>;6=K :>=AB0B8@>20BL, GB> >4=> B>;L:> =0;8G85 ?5@28G=>3> =0@CH5=8O 02B><0B8G5A:8 =5 ?@82>48B : ?>O2;5=8N A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89, D>@<8@>20=85 :>B>@KE A2O70=> A 459AB285< @07=>>1@07=KE <5E0=87<>2. >=B@>;L=K5 2>?@>AK 0:>20 @>;L >1I5=8O 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 @515=:0? 0:>2K ?>A;54AB28O =0@CH5=89 2 AD5@5 >1I5=8O 4;O ?@>F5A A0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O? 0: A2O70=K <564C A>1>9 =0@CH5=8O 2 D>@<8@>20=88 @07=KE D>@< 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 E0@0:B5@ ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O @515= :0? 0: A2O70=K <564C A>1>9 A5=78B82=K5 ?5@8>4K 8 D>@<8@> 20=85 A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88? 8B5@0BC@0 8=0@A:0O . . 0==55 @5G52>5 @0728B85 @515=:0 8 ?@>1;5<K 45D5:B>;>388. ., 1987. K3>BA:89 . !. !>1@. A>G. ". 5. ., 1983. ;8=8G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O / >4 @54. . . 0@20A0@A:>3> !1., 2002. 51548=A:89 . . 0@CH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2 45BA :>< 2>7@0AB5. ., 2003. 0:A8<>20 . .., 8;NB8=0 . . C@A ;5:F89 ?> 45BA:>9 ?0 B>?A8E>;>388. >AB>2-=0->=C, 2000. ;020 11 )  !&$'!  !" "/.)!/ "/ K C65 =5>4=>:@0B=> >B<5G0;8, GB> A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 70=8<05BAO 87CG5=85< B>3>, :0:8< >1@07>< 2545B A51O ?@>F5AA ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2 @07;8G=KE =51;03>?@8OB=KE 4;O =53> CA;>28OE. "5 >A>15==>AB8, :>B>@K5 ?@>O2;O5B MB>B ?@>F5AA 2 A@02=5=88 A 53> 65 ?0@0<5B@0<8 2 =>@<5, 8 >1>7=0G0NBAO :0: A?5F8D8G5A:85. K B0:65 3>2>@8;8 > B><, GB> >=8 45;OBAO =0 420 :;0AA0  <>40;L=> A?5F8D8G5A:85 8 <>40;L=> =5A?5F8D8G5A:85.  ?5@>2><C >B=>AOBAO E0@0:B5@8AB8:8, A2>9AB25==K5 >?@545;5==>9 3@C??5 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8, =0?@8<5@ >A>15==>AB8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 45B59 A =0@CH5=8O<8 A;CE0. =0G5 3>2>@O  MB> B>, GB> >B;8G05B >4=C 3@C??C >B 4@C3>9. B>@>9 :;0AA A2O70= A B5<8 :0G5AB20<8, :>B>@K5 =01;N40NBAO C 2A5E 3@C?? 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88, MB> B> >1I55, GB> 5ABL <564C =8<8, 8 >4=>2@5<5==> B>, GB> 8E 2A5E >B;8G05B >B =>@<0;L=> @072820NI8EAO 45B59. AB>@8G5A:0O ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 87CG5=8O >A>15==>AB59 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 B0:>20, GB> ?5@2>=0G0;L=> 8AA;54>20;8AL <>40;L=> A?5F8D8G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8. > <5@5 =0:>?;5=8O 7=0=89 > =8E >:070;>AL 2>7<>6=K< ?CB5< A>?>AB02;5=8O ?>4>9B8 : 0=0;87C <>40;L=> =5A?5F8D8G5A:8E. @>1;5<0 A>AB>8B 2 B><, :0: A>>B=5AB8 >1I85 8 A?5F8D8-j G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8  @0AA<0B@820BL ;8 8E :0: 420 =570-.' 152  ;020 11. 0:>=><5@=>AB8 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O 28A8<KE @O40, 8;8 ?@87=0BL A?5F8D8G5A:85 >A>1>9 D>@<>9 ?@>O2;5=8O 2A5 B5E 65 >1I8E. >;3>5 2@5<O 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@5>1;040; ?5@2K9 20@80=B. 07;8G8O< <564C =>@<0;L=> @072820NI8<8AO 45BL<8 8 45BL<8 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 ?@84020;>AL 206=>5 7=0G5=85, AE>4AB20 65 @0AA<0B@820;8AL :0: =5ACI5AB25==K5. 1A>;NB870F8O @07;8G89 =5 <>3;0 =5 A:070BLAO =0 ?@0:B8:5 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 A @07;8G=K<8 >B:;>=5=8O<8, =0 E0@0:B5@5 >B=>H5=8O : =8< A> AB>@>=K >1I5AB20. 3=>@8@>20=85 ?>B5=F80;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 MB8E 45B59 (8;8, :0: >1@07=> 2K@078;AO . !. K3>BA:89, ?C4>2 8E 74>@>2LO) ?@82>48;> : B><C, GB> ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O 1K; 2A5F5;> >@85=B8@>20= =0 7>=C 0:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O.  A8;C MB>3> >1AB>OB5;LAB20 <=>385 45B8 >1JO2;O;8AL 2 ?@8=F8?5 =5>1CG05<K<8, =5A?>A>1=K<8 : @0728B8N. >B@51>20;8AL <=>3>;5B=85 CA8;8O 8 C?>@=K9 B@C4 =5 >4=>3> ?>:>;5=8O CG5=KE, GB>1K ?@89B8 : 0:A8><0B8G5A:>9 <KA;8 > B><, GB> @0728B85 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 ?@>B5:05B ?> B5< 65 70:>=0<, GB> 8 2 =>@<5.  >B5G5AB25==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2?5@2K5 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> 8 4>:070B5;L=> 845N >1I=>AB8 70:>=>2 @0728B8O 2 =>@<5 8 ?0B>;>388 >BAB0820; 284=K9 @CAA:89 ?A8E80B@ . /. "@>H8=. 725AB=>, GB> 845O >1I=>AB8 70:>=>2 =>@<K 8 ?0B>;>388 1LH0 :;NG52>9 2 :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=8OE . !. K3>BA:>3>. 0: A?@0254;82> >B<5G05B . . 5930@=8:, ?0B>;>38O ?@>8AB5:05B =5 87 B>3>, GB> =0@O4C A MB8<8 (>1I8<8 70:>=><5@=>ABO<8.  . !.) =0G8=0NB 459AB2>20BL 5I5 :0:85-B> A?5F8D8G5A:85 ?0B>;>38G5A:85 <5E0=87<K, 0 87-70 B>3>, GB> CA;>28O @01>BK 8 ?@>B5:0=8O >1I8E 4;O ;N1>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 687=8 <5E0=87<>2 8A:060NBAO >A>1K<8 18>;>38G5A:8<8, D878>;>38G5A:8<8 CA;>28O<8 (5930@=8: . ., @0BCAJ . !. G5@:8 ?> ?A8E>;>388 0=><0;L=>3> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8. ., 1980, A. 51). 59AB28B5;L=>, 5A;8 @0AA<0B@820BL ?@87=0:8 >B:;>=5=8O 87>;8@>20==>, =5 CG8BK20O >1I8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59, B> >=8 2K3;O4OB G5<-B> 2@>45 >A>1>3> :0G5AB20. <5==> ?@5>1;040=85 B>3> 87>;8@>20==>3> 0=0;870 D5=><5=>2 >B:;>=5=8O 8 153 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 . 0:>=><5@=>AB8 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O ?@82>48;> : B><C, GB> 845O >1I=>AB8 70:>=>2 =>@<K 8 ?0B>;>388 B0: 4>;3> 8 B0: B@C4=> ?@>1820;0 A515 4>@>3C, E>BO 2KA:07K20;0AL 402=>. >AB0B>G=> A>A;0BLAO =0 >4=>3> 87 02B>@8B5B=KE ?@54AB028B5;59 ?A8E80B@88 XIX 2. . X. 0=48=A:>3>, ?8A02H53> > ?>4>1=>< 87>;8@>20==>< B8?5 0=0;870 C =5:>B>@KE CG5=KE, >F5=820NI8E 2A5 ?@8=04;560I55 : 1>;57=5==><C A>AB>O=8N, ?> ACI5AB2C, G5<-B> 4@C38<, >B;8G=K< >B O2;5=89 =>@<0;L=>9 687=8,  :0: 1C4B> 1>;57=5==>5 A>AB>O=85 =5 5ABL B0 65 687=L, B5:CI0O ?> B5< 65 A0<K< 70:>=0<, :0: 8 687=L =>@<0;L=0O, => B>;L:> ?@8 87<5=5==KE CA;>28OE (F8B. ?>: 5930@=8: . ., @0BCAL . !. G5@:8 ?> ?A8E>;>388 0=><0;L=>3> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8. ., 1980, A. 65). "0:8< >1@07><, <>40;L=> A?5F8D8G5A:85 8 <>40;L=> =5A?5F8D8G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: A2>5>1@07=>5 ?@>O2;5=85 >1I8E 70:>=>2 @0728B8O. >;55 B>G=> <>6=> A:070BL, GB> C:070==K5 >A>15==>AB8 5ABL 70:>=><5@=0O @50:F8O ?@>F5AA0 @0728B8O =0 D0:B =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>289, 2 @0<:0E :>B>@KE @072>@0G8205BAO MB>B ?@>F5AA.  A2O78 A 2KH5A:070==K< > A>>B=>H5=88 >1I8E 8 A?5F8D8G5A:8E, <K 5I5 @07 4>;6=K ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> ?@54<5B>< A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 O2;ONBAO =5 >B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88, 0 A0<> @0728B85 8 53> E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 2 A8BC0F88 =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>289.  MB>< A<KA;5 B>, GB> =0<8 >1>7=0G05BAO :0: A?5F8D8G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8, 5ABL A2>5>1@07=>5 ?@>O2;5=85 >1I8E 70:>=>2. >2>@O >1 >A=>2=KE 70:>=><5@=>ABOE ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, 2 @02=>9 <5@5 ?@8ACI8E :0: =>@<5, B0: 8 ?0B>;>388, <K <>65< 2K45;8BL A;54CNI85. @5645 2A53>, ?@>F5AA @0728B8O  MB> ?5@<0=5=B=K5 ?>78B82=K5 87<5=5=8O, A2O70==K5 A ?>O2;5=85< :0G5AB25==KE =>2>>1@07>20=89.  E>45 ?A8E>35=570 ?@>8AE>48B ?5@5AB@>9:0 >B=>H5=89 <564C >B45;L=K<8 :><?>=5=B0<8 ?A8E8:8. #=825@A0;L=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 @0728B8O O2;O5BAO 53> =5@02=><5@=>ABL. 5@8>4K =081>;55 0:B82=>3> @0728B8O B5E 8;8 8=KE :><?>=5=B>2 A>7=0=8O, :0: C65 C?><8=0;>AL, >1>7=0G0NBAO 2 ?A8E>;>388 B5@<8=>< A5=78B82=>ABL. 154 @>F5AA @0728B8O =5?@5@K25= 8 =5>1@0B8<. 0: 8 35=57 2A5E 682KE A8AB5<, @0728B85 ?A8E8:8 ?>4G8=5=> 70:>=C F5;>AB=>AB8. 5682K5 A8AB5<K D>@<8@CNBAO >B G0AB8 : F5;><C; 682K5 84CB ?> ?CB8 >B F5;>3> : F5;><C. =CB@5==8<8 <5E0=87<0<8 @0728B8O 2KABC?05B 548=AB2> ?@>F5AA>2 48DD5@5=F80F88 8 8=B53@0F88, 2K45;5=8O 2 AB@C:BC@5 D>@<8@CNI59AO A8AB5<K =>2KE :><?>=5=B>2 (48DD5@5=F80F8O) 8 A>G;5=5=85 MB8E :><?>=5=B>2 A 4@C38<8 (8=B53@0F8O). 06=59H8< 70:>=>< @0728B8O ?A8E8:8, :0: 8 2A5E 682KE A8AB5<, O2;O5BAO ?@8=F8? 548=AB20 M2>;NF8>=8@>20=8O 8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O.  A>740=88 =5682KE A8AB5< MB8 420 ?@>F5AA0 @072545=K 2> 2@5<5=8; >=8 A=0G0;0 A>740NBAO (M2>;NF8O) 8 B>;L:> 70B5< M:A?;C0B8@CNBAO (DC=:F8>=8@>20=85). 82K5 A8AB5<K @072820NBAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 8 DC=:F8>=8@CNB 2 ?@>F5AA5 A2>53> @0728B8O. @O4 ;8 <>6=> ?@54AB028BL A515 A8BC0F8N, ?@8 :>B>@>9 <K A=0G0;0 4>;6=K 4>640BLAO <><5=B0, :>340 C @515=:0 AD>@<8@C5BAO <KH;5=85 8;8 @5GL, 8 B>;L:> ?>B>< ?>72>;8BL 5<C 4C<0BL 8 3>2>@8BL. A:;NG8B5;L=K< A2>9AB2>< @0728B8O G5;>25G5A:>9 ?A8E8:8 A>7=0=8O O2;O5BAO ?@8=F8?80;L=0O =52>7<>6=>ABL 70@0=55 ?@542845BL :>=5G=K9 ?@>4C:B MB>3> ?@>F5AA0. ">, :0:8< >?KB>< 1C45B >1;040BL G5;>25:, B>, GB> AB0=5B A>45@60=85< 53> A>7=0=8O, 70@0=55 =5 ?@54A:07C5<>, B0: :0: =0 >?@545;5==>< MB0?5 AB0=>2;5=8O G5;>25: ?@52@0I05BAO 2 AC1J5:B A2>53> @0728B8O. -B> 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL ;8G=>AB8 A0<>9 >?@545;OBL =0?@02;5=85 A>1AB25==>9 A0<>@50;870F88. 0:>=5F, ?A8E8G5A:>5 @0728B85 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 @07=>>1@07=KE D>@< ?@54<5B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 0 :064>< MB0?5 >=B>35=570 2K45;O5BAO 254CI89 284 45OB5;L=>AB8.  >4=8E 2840E D>@<8@C5BAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> <>B820F8>==>-?>-B@51=>AB=0O AD5@0 ?A8E8:8; 2 4@C38E  >?5@0F8>=0;L=0O. A8E8G5A:>5 @0728B85 =5 2>7<>6=> 2=5 >1I5=8O. <5==> 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I5=8O A> 27@>A;K< @515=>: >A208205B 8 ?@8A208205B :C;LBC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:89 >?KB G5;>25G5AB20, GB> A>AB02- 155 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;O5B ACI=>ABL ?@>F5AA0 D>@<8@>20=8O G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O, :>340 =0 1075 M;5<5=B0@=KE ?A8E8G5A:8E A?>A>1=>AB59 >1@07CNBAO 2KAH85 ?A8E8G5A:85 DC=:F88. >;L 8 7=0G5=85 >1I5=8O 4;O AB0=>2;5=8O ?A8E8:8 ?>42>48B =0A : 5I5 >4=>9 206=59H59 A>AB02;ONI59 MB>3> ?@>F5AA0. . !. K3>BA:89 >?@545;O; 55 :0: A>F80;L=CN A8BC0F8N @0728B8O, A8AB5<C >B=>H5=89 @515=:0 A >:@C60NI8<8 ;N4L<8. =0 ?>4@07C<5205B B@51>20=8O 8 >6840=8O 27@>A;KE ?> >B=>H5=8N : @515=:C. !>F80;L=0O A8BC0F8O  =5 ?0AA82=K9 8 =587<5==K9 D>= @0728B8O, 0 0:B82=>5 48=0<8G5A:>5 >1@07>20=85, O2;ONI55AO >4=8< 87 M;5<5=B>2 2 AB@C:BC@5 35-=570 ?A8E8:8. I5 @07 ?>4G5@:=5<, GB> ?5@5G8A;5==K5 2KH5 >1I85 70:>=K 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 E0@0:B5@=K :0: 4;O =>@<0;L=> @072820NI8EAO 45B59, B0: 8 4;O ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8. ><8<> >1I8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59 2 CA;>28OE 487>=B>35=570 >1=0@C6820NBAO 8 A?5F8D8G5A:85, :>B>@KE <K =5 2AB@5G05< 2 =>@<5; => >?OBL 65 >=8 5ABL =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: A2>5>1@07=>5 ?@>O2;5=85 >1I8E, :0: @50:F8O ?@>F5AA0 @0728B8O =0 @07=K5 =51;03>?@8OB=K5 CA;>289 53> ?@>B5:0=8O. >2>@O > A?5F8D8G5A:8E 70:>=><5@=>ABOE, E0@0:B5@=KE 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 <5@5 4;O 2A5E 3@C?? 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88, <K <>65< C:070BL A;54CNI85. 5@2>9, =081>;55 >1I59 G5@B>9 2A5E D>@< 487>=B>35=570 O2;O5BAO 70<54;5=85 B5<?0 2>7@0AB=>3> @0728B8O, 87<5=5=85 A@>:>2 ?5@5E>40 >B >4=>9 D07K : 4@C3>9. 0<54;5=85 B5<?0 8<55B CAB>9G82K9 8;8 ?5@5<5==K9 E0@0:B5@. => <>65B 70B@03820BL @0728B85 ?A8E8:8 2 F5;>< 8 55 >B45;L=KE AB>@>=. K@065==>ABL >BAB020=8O =5 7028A8B =0?@O<CN >B AB5?5=8 BO65AB8 >A=>2=>3> =0@CH5=8O. -B0 A2O7L >?>A@54>20=0 A8;>9 :><?5=A0B>@=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59, 2@5<5=5< 8 :0G5AB2>< >:070==>9 @515=:C ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:>9 ?><>I8. =>385 8AA;54>20B5;8 C:07K20NB =0 B>, GB> ?@8 @07=KE B8?0E >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 70<54;O5BAO A:>@>ABL ?@85<0 8 ?5@5@01>B:8 ?>ABC?0NI59 8=D>@<0F88. @8 MB>< ?>4@07C<520NBAO =0@CH5==K5 A5=A>@=K5 A8AB5<K, 2 >B=>H5=88 :>- 156  ;020 11. 0:>=><5@=>AB8 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O B>@KE MB> 1K;> 1K >G5284=> 8 5AB5AB25==>. 5GL 845B > A>E@0==KE A5=A>@=KE A8AB5<0E, =0?@8<5@ 7@8B5;L=>9 C 3;CE8E 8 A;01>A;KH0I8E 45B59. -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 40==K5 40NB 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 70<54;5=85 A:>@>AB8 ?5@5@01>B:8 8=D>@<0F88 2 >A=>2=>< ?@>8AE>48B =0 C@>2=5 0AA>F80B82=KE 7>= 8 7>= ?5@5:@KB8O. 5@>OB=>, MB> A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> ?@8 @07=KE B8?0E >B:;>=5=89 <K 8<55< 45;> A> A=865=85< C@>2=O 8=B53@0B82=>AB8 2 DC=:F8>=8@>20=88 <>730 :0: A?5F8D8G5A:>9 25AL<0 A;>6=>9 ?> A2>5<C A>AB02C @50:F859. -BC <KA;L B>G=> 2K@0605B .. . C;;5@: '5< A;>6=55 A0<>@53C;8@CNI0OAO A8AB5<0 8 G5< 1>;55 2KA>: C@>25=L 3><5>AB070, =5>1E>48<K9 4;O 55 =>@<0;L=>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O, B5< <5=55 25@>OB=>, GB> ?>2@5645=85 :0:>3>-;81> <5E0=87<0 ?@>O28BAO >4=>7=0G=K<8 ?@87=0:0<8 2K?045=8O 53> DC=:F88. 0>1>@>B, 2 MB>< A;CG05 B0:0O A8AB5<0 >B25B8B :0A:04>< ?>A;54>20B5;L=KE :><?5=A0B>@=KE DC=:F89, ?@8G5< =0 2KE>45 1C4CB >1=0@C65=K B8?>2K5, 4>AB0B>G=> =5A?5F8D8G5A:85 @50:F88 W-oro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{>;>68= . ., !C11>B8= .. . 40?B0F8O 8 :><?5=A0F8O  C=825@A0;L=K9 18>;>38G5A:89 <5E0=87< ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O. ., 1987, A. 33-34). ><?5=A0B>@=K5 ?@>F5AAK A@010BK20NB B0:65 2 A8BC0F88 =0@CH5==>3> @02=>25A8O, => ?> ?@8G8=5 87<5=5=89, ?@>87>H54H8E =5 2 A@545, 0 2 A0<>< 8=482845.  MB>< A;CG05 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 10;0=A0 2>7<>6=> ?@8 CA;>288 G0AB8G=>3> 8;8 ?>;=>3> 2>72@0I5=8O 8=482840 : 8AE>4=><C A>AB>O=8N. "0:8< >1@07><, 040?B0F8>==K5 8 :><?5=A0B>@=K5 ?@>F5AAK 459AB2CNB 2 @07=KE =0?@02;5=8OE 2 A8BC0F88 =0@CH5==>3> @02=>25A8O 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B ?@8G8=K MB8E =0@CH5=89  A@54>2KE 8;8 2=CB@8A5<59=KE. 7;>65==K5 ?>;>65=8O <>6=> >1>1I5==>, E>BO 8 25AL<0 AE5<0B8G=> ?@54AB028BL 2 3@0D8G5A:>9 D>@<5. 0 @8AC=:5 12.3. 2>A?@>872545=K =0?@02;5=8O 459AB28O 040?B0F8>==KE 8 :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2.  25@E=5< @O4C ?@54AB02;5=> =0?@02;5=85 459AB28O 040?B0F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0 A 2K45;5=85< B@5E D07. 5@20O D070  A>AB>O=85 48=0<8G5A:>3> @02=>25A8O 8=482840 A>-A@54>9, >1>7=0G5==0O =0 AE5<5 845=B8G=K<8 ?> D>@<5 35><5B@8G5A:8<8 D83C@0<8 (1>;LH>9 :204@0B  >:@C60NI0O A@540; <0;K9 :204@0B  8=48284). B>@0O D070  =0@CH5==>5 @02=>25A85, 2A;54AB285 87<5=5=89 A@54>2>3> ?>@O4:0. 0 AE5<5 MB> ?>;>65=85 >B@065=> ?CB5< ?@5>1@07>20=8O 1>;LH>3> :204@0B0 2 :@C3. "@5BLO D070  2>AAB0=>2;5=85 CB@0G5==>3> @02=>25A8O  ?@5>1@07>20=85 <0;>3> :204@0B0 2 :@C3. "0:8< >1@0- 177    !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O . 40?B0F8>==K9 ?@>F5AA  ;020 12. ><?5=A0F8O, :>@@5:F8O... :0: :0B53>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 040?B0F8>==K5, ?@81;878B5;L=> C@02=820OAL A =8<. > <5@5 AB0@5=8O ?5@2K<8 =0G8=0NB >A;01520BL 040?B0F8>==K5 <5E0=87<K, 0 ?>765 :><?5=A0B>@=K5. 8=0<8:0 2>7@0AB=>3> A>>B=>H5=8O 040?B0F8>==KE 8 :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2 ?@54AB02;5=0 =0 @8AC=:5 12.4.  ><?5=A0F8O 40?B0F8O It 1D070 ' II D070 " III D070   . ><?5=A0F8>==K9 ?@>F5AA  1D070 II D070 III D070 8A. 12.3. 0?@02;5=85 459AB28O 040?B0F8>==KE 8 :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2 7>< 284=>, GB> >A=>2=>5 =0?@02;5=85 040?B0F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0 =0 ?CB8 4>AB865=8O 10;0=A0 ;568B 2 CE>45 >B A2>53> 87=0G0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O. 0 B>9 65 AE5<5 87>1@065=> >1@0B=>5 =0?@02;5=85 459AB28O :><?5=A0B>@=KE <5E0=87<>2. C4CG8 548=K<8 8 @07=>=0?@02;5==K<8, 040?B0F8O 8 :><?5=A0F8O @072820NBAO 2 >=B>35=575 =5@02=><5@=>. !B0=>2;5=85 040?B0F8>==KE ?@>F5AA>2 O2=> >13>=O5B D>@<8@>20=85 :><?5=A0B>@=KE, 81> ?@>F5AA @0728B8O ?> A2>59 2=CB@5==59 ACI=>AB8 25AL<0 1;87>: : 040?B0F88. >7@0AB=>5 @0728B85  MB> D>@<8@>20=85 =>2>>1@07>20=89, B> 5ABL ?>AB>O==K9 CE>4 >B A2>53> ?@56=53> A>AB>O=8O. 0;55, ?> <5@5 27@>A;5=8O @0728B85 :><?5=A0B>@=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 CA8;8205BAO 8 4>3>=O5B 178 >7@0AB 8A. 12.4. >7@0AB=0O 48=0<8:0 @0728B8O 040?B0F8>==KE 8 :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2  A>2@5<5==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 B5@<8= :><?5=A0F8O =5 O2;O5BAO H8@>:> C?>B@518<K<. C40 G0I5 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?>=OB85 @5018;8B0F8O. ><?5=A0F8O  MB> 2=CB@5==89 ?@>F5AA; @5018;8B0F8O  2=5H=89. 5018;8B0F8>==0O ?@>1;5<0B8:0 AB0;0 0:B82=> ?@82;5:0BL : A515 2=8<0=85 >B5G5AB25==KE A?5F80;8AB>2 2 :>=F5 60-E 3>4>2. 5018;8B0F8O >?@545;O5BAO :0: A8AB5<0 3>AC40@AB25==KE, A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:8E, <548F8=A:8E, ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE, ?5403>38G5A:8E, ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8 4@C38E <5@>?@8OB89, =0?@02;5==KE =0 ?@54C?@5645=85 @0728B8O ?0B>;>38G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2, ?@82>4OI8E : 2@5<5==>9 8;8 AB>9:>9 CB@0B5 B@C4>A?>A>1=>AB8, =0 MDD5:B82=>5 8 @0==55 2>72@0I5=85 1>;L=KE 8 8=20;84>2 (45B59 8 27@>A;KE) 2 >1I5AB2> 8 : >1I5AB25==> ?>;57=><C B@C4C. 5018;8B0F8O ?@54AB02;O5B A;>6=K9 ?@>F5AA, 2 @57C;LB0B5 :>B>@>3> C ?>AB@0402H53> A>7405BAO 0:B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 : =0@CH5=8N 53> 74>@>2LO 8 2>AAB0=02;8205BAO 179 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O^ %. ?>;>68B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : 687=8, A5<L5 8 >1I5AB2C {010=>2 . . 5018;8B0F8O ?A8E8G5A:8 1>;L=KE. ., 1985, A. 10). ;NG52K< 2 MB>< >?@545;5=88 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> @5018;8B0F8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A8AB5<C <5@>?@8OB89. -B> A;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL >A>1>, GB>1K >B45;8BL 40==>5 ?>=OB85 >B B5@<8=0 :><?5=A0F8O. B45;L=> 27OB>5 2>7459AB285 =5 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: @5018;8B0F8>==>5. -B>B ?@>F5AA =0?@02;5= =5 =0 A0<> =0@CH5=85, 0 =0 ;8G=>ABL G5;>25:0 A B5< 8;8 8=K< =0@CH5=85<, =0 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 ?>;=>F5==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O MB>9 ;8G=>AB8 2 >1I5AB25, =0 ?@5>4>;5=85 A>F80;L=KE ?>A;54AB289 701>;520=8O 8;8 B@02<K. >2>@O A>2A5< C?@>I5==>, F5;L @5018;8B0F88  =5-4>?CAB8BL ?@52@0I5=85 ;8G=>AB8 8=20;840 2 8=20;84=CN ;8G=>ABL. ! ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 4@0<0 8=20;84=>AB8 A>AB>8B 2 :>=D;8:B5 ?>;=>F5==KE G5;>25G5A:8E ?>B@51=>AB59 A >3@0=8G5==K<8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 8E @50;870F88. 5018;8B0F8O =0?@02;5=0 =0 <0:A8<0;L=>5 ?@5>4>;5=85 8 @07@5H5=85 MB>3> :>=D;8:B=>3> A>AB>O=8O, 81> 2 ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 2>7<>6=0 ?>AB5?5==0O 45D>@<0F8O ;8G=>AB8 ?>AB@0402H53>. !;54C5B B0:65 70<5B8BL, GB> @5018;8B0F8>==K5 <5@>?@8OB8O =0?@02;5=K =0 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 B>3>, GB> 2KH5 =0<8 =07K20;>AL >A=>2=K<8 687=5==K<8 >?>@0<8  A5<LO, ?@>D5AA8O 8 A>F80;L=>5 >:@C65=85. -B> ?@O<> C:070=> 2 ?@82545==>< >?@545;5=88. !CI5AB2CNB A?5F80;L=K5 284K @5018;8B0F88: A5<59=0O, A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:0O 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=0O. -B8 =0?@02;5=8O ?><>I8 ?>:070=K 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 2 @57C;LB0B5 8=20;84870F88 C G5;>25:0 2>7=8:0NB ?@>1;5<K 2 AD5@5 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 (2 B>< G8A;5 8 ?> 28=5 A0<>3> 8=20;840), B@C4>CAB@>9AB20 8 <56;8G=>AB=KE :>=B0:B>2 A >:@C60NI8<8 ;N4L<8. C4CG8 2=5H=8<8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 8=48284C, @5018;8B0F8>==K5 <5@>?@8OB8O >?8@0NBAO =0 :><?5=A0B>@=K5 2=CB@5==85 ?@>F5AAK. >6=> A:070BL, GB> @5018;8B0F8O 5ABL =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: ?>?KB:0 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 :><?5=A0B>@=K5 180 ;020 12. ><?5=A0F8O, :>@@5:F8O... :0: :0B53>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A?>A>1=>AB8 G5;>25:0. @8 MB>< @07=K5 284K @5018;8B0F88 >?8@0NBAO 8 =0?@02;5=K =0 @07=K5 C@>2=8 :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2. "0:, <548F8=A:0O @5018;8B0F8O >1@0I5=0 : 18>;>38G5A:><C C@>2=N >@30=870F88 :><?5=A0B>@=KE <5E0=87<>2. 54CI0O @>;L 745AL ?@8=04;568B 18>;>38G5A:>9 B5@0?88, 2:;NG0O 8A?>;L7>20=85 ;5:0@AB25==KE A@54AB2, ;5G51=>9 D87:C;LBC@K 8 B. 4. A8E>;>38G5A:0O @5018;8B0F8O 2 A2>N >G5@54L =0?@02;5=0 =0 >?B8<870F8N ?@>B5:0=8O :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2 =0 C@>2=5 A>7=0=8O. =0 ?@54?>;0305B 8A?>;L7>20=85 @07=>>1@07=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 8 ?A8E>:>@@5:F8>==KE <5@>?@8OB89. E F5;LN O2;O5BAO <0:A8<0;L=>5 ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 A<O3G5=85 :@878A=KE ?5@56820=89 ;8G=>AB8, D>@<8@>20=85 045:20B=>9 A0<>>F5=:8 8 ?>78B82=>3> A0<>2>A?@8OB8O, @0AH8@5=85 ?@54AB02;5=89 > 687=5==>9 ?5@A?5:B825, D>@<8@>20=85 B@C4>2KE CAB0=>2>: ;8G=>AB8 8=20;840. >340 <K 3>2>@8< > A>F80;L=>-?A8E8G5A:>< 8 A>F80;L=>< C@>2=5 :><?5=A0B>@=KE <5E0=87<>2, B> 4>;6=K C:070BL, GB> : =8< >1@0I5=K B0:85 D>@<K @5018;8B0F88, :0: A5<59=0O, ?5403>38G5A:0O (?5@5>1CG5=85), B@C4>20O (?@8>1I5=85 : 4>ABC?=K< 2840< B@C4>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8), 4>AC3>20O, :@50B82=0O 8 A>F80;L=0O 2 H8@>:>< A<KA;5 A;>20. >A;54=OO ?>4@07C<5205B 25AL<0 >1H8@=K9 A?5:B@ A>F80;L=KE, A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:8E 8 3>AC40@AB25==KE <5@>?@8OB89, ?@54AB02;5==KE =5 2 2845 >B45;L=KE 0:F89, 0 :0: 4>;3>A@>G=0O, F5;5=0?@02;5==0O ?>;8B8:0 2 >B=>H5=88 @07=KE 3@C?? 8=20;84>2 A ?@54>AB02;5=85< >?@545;5==KE ;L3>B 8 >1O70B5;LAB2 A> AB>@>=K 3>AC40@AB20.  =0:>=5F, : AD5@5 A>F80;L=>9 @5018;8B0F88 A;54C5B 4>1028BL D>@<8@>20=85 A>>1I5AB2 @07;8G=KE 3@C?? 8=20;84>2, 7040G59 :>B>@KE O2;O5BAO 2708<=0O ?><>IL, A>740=85 CA;>289 4;O A>F80;L=>9 040?B0F88 8 >BAB0820=85 8=B5@5A>2 A0<8E 8=20;84>2 =0 @538>=0;L=>< 8 3>AC40@AB25==>< C@>2=5.  2KH5A:070==><C A;54C5B 4>1028BL A;54CNI55: :0: =5B G5B:8E 3@0=8F <564C C@>2=O<8 ?@>B5:0=8O :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2, B0: =5 ACI5AB2C5B 8 65AB:>3> @0745;5=8O @07=KE 181 Ik !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O D>@< @5018;8B0F8>==KE <5@>?@8OB89, GB> ?>4G5@:8205B 8E 548=AB2> 8 :><?;5:A=>ABL. '  ;8B5@0BC@5 C:07K205BAO, GB> CA?5H=>ABL @50;870F88 @5018;8B0F8>==KE <5@>?@8OB89 2>7<>6=0 ?@8 A>1;N45=88 >?@545;5==KE ?@8=F8?>2.  8E G8A;C >B=>AOBAO A;54CNI85: 548=AB2> 18>;>38G5A:8E 8 ?A8E>A>F80;L=KE 2>7459AB289; @07=>?;0=>2>ABL CA8;89 4;O >@30=870F88 @5018;8B0F8 >==KE <5@>?@8OB89 (?A8E>;>38G5A:0O, A5<59=0O, ?@> D5AA8>=0;L=0O @5018;8B0F8O); . 3) 0?5;;OF8O : ;8G=>AB8 8=20;840 A 8A?>;L7>20=85< ?0@B=5@A:8E >B=>H5=89 A>B@C4=8G5AB20 2 ?@>F5AA5 @5018;8B0F88; 4) ABC?5=G0B>ABL 8;8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL <5@>?@8OB89, 345 ?@54K4CI85 ?>43>B02;820NB ?>G2C 4;O ?>A;54CNI8E 2>7459AB289. 5@5G8A;5==K5 ?@8=F8?K AD>@<C;8@>20=K >4=8< 87 02B>@8B5B=KE A?5F80;8AB>2 ?> 2>?@>A0< @5018;8B0F88 . . 010=>2K<. < 65 @07@01>B0=K 8 MB0?K @5018;8B0F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0. 5@2K9 MB0?  2>AAB0=>28B5;L=>5 ;5G5=85. B>@>9 MB0?  @5040?B0F8O  70:;NG05BAO 2 @0728B88 2>7<>6=>AB59 8=20;840 : CA;>28O< 2=5H=59 A@54K. 54CI0O @>;L 745AL ?@8=04;568B ?A8E>A>F80;L=K< 2>7459AB28O<, =0?@02;5==K< =0 AB8<C;OF8N A>F80;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 ?>AB@0402H53>. "@5B89 MB0?  A>1AB25==> @5018;8B0F8>==K9, 7040G0 :>B>@>3> A>AB>8B 2 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 ?@56=8E >B=>H5=89 8=20;840 A >:@C60NI59 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN. F5=820O @5018;8B0F8>==K9 ?>B5=F80; G5;>25:0, <K 4>;6=K CG8BK20BL =5 B>;L:> E0@0:B5@ 8 3;C18=C =0@CH5=8O, => 8 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?>A;54AB28O MB>3> =0@CH5=8O. "0: ?@8 >4=>9 8 B>9 65 ?0B>;>388 >=8 <>3CB 1KBL @07;8G=K<8, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, :0:8< >1@07>< =0@CH5==0O DC=:F8O 1K;0 A2O70=0 A ?@56=59 ?@>D5AA859 8 :0:>5 <5AB> ?@>D5AA8O 70=8<0;0 2 85@0@E88 F5==>AB59 ;8G=>AB8. 5A:>;L:> 8=CN A8BC0F8N 2>A?@>872>48B 4@C3>9 B5@<8=, =5 <5=55 C?>B@518<K9 2 A>2@5<5==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>- 182 ;020 12. ><?5=A0F8O, :>@@5:F8O... :0: :0B53>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 388,  018;8B0F8O, >7=0G0NI89 2 4>A;>2=>< ?5@52>45  ?@54>AB02;5=85 ?@02. @8 @5018;8B0F88 @5GL 845B > 2>AAB0=>2;5=88, 2>7<5I5=88 ?>B5@O==KE A2>9AB2, CA;>289, B>3> :0G5AB20 687=8, :>B>@>5 1K;> CB@0G5=> 8=48284><. 18;8B0F8>==0O A8BC0F8O E0@0:B5@87C5BAO 8=0G5. -B> B5 A;CG08, :>340 8=48284 C65 @>6405BAO A B5< 8;8 8=K< ?>@>:><, >B:;>=5=85< 2 D878G5A:>< 8;8 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88. 01>B0 A G5;>25:><, 8<5NI8< 2@>645==K5 =0@CH5=8O, AB@>8BAO =0 8=>9 >A=>25.  ?>4>1=KE A;CG0OE 2>7<>6=K 8AE>4=0O =5040?B8@>20==>ABL, >BACBAB285 ?5@8>40 =>@<0;L=>3> @0728B8O 8 :0:>9 1K B> =8 1K;> CB@0BK. >MB><C 018;8B0F8>==K5 <5@>?@8OB8O =C6=> ?>=8<0BL :0: A8AB5<C @0==53> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2 ?@>F5AA @0728B8O @515=:0 A F5;LN 4>AB865=8O 53> <0:A8<0;L=>9 ?@8A?>A>1;5==>AB8 : 2=5H=8< CA;>28O< ACI5AB2>20=8O A CG5B>< 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 8<5NI8EAO =0@CH5=89. >A;54=OO :0B53>@8O, :>B>@CN <K @0AA<>B@8<,  :>@@5:F8O, ?>4 :>B>@>9 ?>=8<05BAO ?@>F5AA 8A?@02;5=8O B5E 8;8 8=KE =0@CH5==KE DC=:F89.  A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O >1AC6405BAO 2>?@>A > A>>B=>H5=88 :>@@5:F88 8 :><?5=A0F88. !C<<8@CO 2A5 B>G:8 7@5=8O, <>6=> AD>@<C;8@>20BL =5A:>;L:> ?>;>65=89. @5645 2A53>, :>@@5:F8O  MB> 2A5340 >?@545;5==>5 2>7459AB285 =0 G5;>25:0 A F5;LN 8A?@02;5=8O G53>-;81>, MB> 2=5H=89 ?@>F5AA ?> >B=>H5=8N : 8=48284C, 2 >B;8G85 >B :><?5=A0F88. 57CA;>2=>, 2=5H=55 :>@@5:F8>==>5 2>7459AB285 4>;6=> =0 GB>-B> >?8@0BLAO, :0:, =0?@8<5@, @5018;8B0F8O >?8@05BAO =0 :><?5=A0B>@=K5 ?@>F5AAK. ;O :>@@5:F8>==KE <5@>?@8OB89 2 :0G5AB25 107K 2KABC?0NB <5E0=87<K A5=A818;870F88  70:>=><5@=>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 DC=:F89 : ?>2KH5=8N A2>59 MDD5:B82=>AB8 ?>4 2;8O=85< B@5=8@>2:8. >@@5:F8O, 2 >B;8G85 >B :><?5=A0F88, ?>:070=0 2 A;CG05 =0@CH5=8O DC=:F88, => =5 55 2K?045=88. >@@838@>20BL, =0?@8<5@, 7@5=85, :>340 >=> >BACBAB2C5B, 15AA<KA;5==>.  MB>< A;CG05 @5GL 845B :0: @07 > 2>A?>;=5=88 CB@0G5==>9 DC=:F88. 1@0B8B5 2=8<0=85, GB> A;>2>A>G5B0=85 =0@CH5==0O DC=:F8O D83C@8@C5B 2 >?@545;5=88 8 :><?5=A0F88, 8 :>@@5:- 183 \ !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O* F88. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> 2>?@>A > B><, A;54C5B ;8 =0@CH5==CN DC=:F8N :>@@838@>20BL 8;8 :><?5=A8@>20BL, @5H05BAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, =0A:>;L:> 2K@065=K A0<8 =0@CH5=8O. 0AAB@>9AB20 DC=:F88, ?@8 :>B>@KE >=0 5I5 ACI5AB2C5B, => C65 =5 A?>A>1=0 4>AB8GL C@>2=O F5;5A>>1@07=>9 @57C;LB0B82=>AB8, A2845B5;LAB2CNB > =5>1E>48<>AB8 2:;NG5=8O :><?5=A0B>@=KE <5E0=87<>2. "0:, =0?@8<5@, A=865=85 >AB@>BK 7@5=8O 4> B0:8E ?>:070B5;59, ?@8 :>B>@KE =8:0:>5 ?@81;865=85 ?@54<5B0 : 3;070<, @02=> :0: 8 53> C25;8G5=85 =5 ?@82>48B : D>@<8@>20=8N >1@070 2>A?@8OB8O, => >AB0NBAO A>E@0==K<8 ;8HL M;5<5=B0@=K5 >ICI5=8O, <>6=> =0720BL 2K@065==>9 =5A?>A>1=>ABLN : F5;5A>>1@07=>9 @57C;LB0B82=>AB8 7@8B5;L=>9 DC=:F88.  ?>4>1=>9 A8BC0F88 3>2>@8BL >1 MDD5:B82=>9 :>@@5:F88 =5 8<55B A<KA;0. "0:8< >1@07><, <K ?>?KB0;8AL @073@0=8G8BL >1AC6405<K5 ?>=OB8O. "5< =5 <5=55 C:070==K5 @07;8G8O 8<5NB =5 01A>;NB=K9, 0 >B=>A8B5;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. 1> :>@@5:F8O 8 :><?5=A0F8O <>3CB 2708<=> 4>?>;=OBL 4@C3 4@C30. 065 ?@8 =57=0G8B5;L=>< A=865=88 >AB@>BK 7@5=8O =0 >48= 3;07, DC=:F8N 254CI53> 02B><0B8G5A:8 15@5B =0 A51O A>E@0==K9, 2>A?>;=OO =54>AB0B:8 1>;L=>3>. > ACB8 A2>59 MB> :><?5=A0B>@=K9 0:B. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 2 A8BC0F88 2K@065==>3> =0@CH5=8O DC=:F89 2>7<>6=> 8 4065 =5>1E>48<> ?@>2545=85 >?@545;5==KE :>@@5:F8>==KE <5@>?@8OB89. %>@>H> 8725AB=> 7=0G5=85 @0728B8O >AB0B>G=>3> 7@5=8O 8 A;CE0 C A;5?KE 8 3;CE8E 45B59 4;O ?>2KH5=8O 8E 040?B8@>20==>5"!. K @0AA<>B@5;8 2 A@02=8B5;L=>< ?;0=5 B0:85 :0B53>@88, :0: :><?5=A0F8O, 040?B0F8O, @5018;8B0F8O, 018;8B0F8O 8 :>@@5:F8O. 0A:@KB85 8E 7=0G5=89 ?>72>;O5B ;CGH5 ?>=OBL A0< D5=><5= >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O. 57CA;>2=>, 3;02=K< :@8B5@85< MDD5:B82=>AB8 :>@@5:F88, @5018;8B0F88 8 018-;8B0F88 O2;O5BAO ?>;CG5==K9 @57C;LB0B. > =5 <5=55 206=0 8 CAB>9G82>ABL 4>AB83=CB>3> MDD5:B0, 0 B0:65 2@5<5==K5 70B@0BK, :0: 2K@065=85 B@C4>5<:>AB8, 0 AB0;> 1KBL, AB>8<>AB8 :>@@5:F8>==>9 8;8 @5018;8B0F8>==>9 CA;C38. 184 ;020 12. ><?5=A0F8O, :>@@5:F8O... :0: :0B53>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >=B@>;L=K5 2>?@>AK 'B> ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 :><?5=A0B>@=K5 ?@>F5AAK? 0:>20 C@>2=520O >@30=870F8O :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2? E0@0:B5@87C9B5 >A=>2=K5 D07K :><?5=A0B>@=>3> ?@>F5AA0.  G5< AE>4AB20 8 @07;8G8O :><?5=A0F88 8 040?B0F88?  G5< A>AB>8B ACI=>ABL B0:8E D5=><5=>2, :0: 45:><?5=A0F8O, ?A524>:><?5=A0F8O 8 38?5@:><?5=A0F8O? 'B> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 @5018;8B0F8>==K9 ?@>F5AA? 0: A>>B=>AOBAO <564C A>1>9 B0:85 ?>=OB8O, :0: :><?5=A0 F8O 8 @5018;8B0F8O? 'B> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?@>F5AA 018;8B0F88? 8B5@0BC@0 4;5@ . "5>@8O 8 ?@0:B8:0 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. .; !1., 1996. =>E8= . . 1I85 ?@8=F8?K :><?5=A0F88 =0@CH5==KE DC= :F89 8 8E D878>;>38G5A:>5 >1>A=>20=85. ., 1963. @0BCAL. ! =><0;88 ;8G=>AB8. ., 1988. 097<0=. 5018;8B0F8>==0O ?5403>38:0. ., 1996. >;>H8= . ., !C11>B8= .. . 40?B0F8O 8 :><?5=A0F8O  C=825@A0;L=K9 18>;>38G5A:89 <5E0=87< ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O. ., 1987. K3>BA:89 .!. 5D5:B 8 A25@E:><?5=A0F8O // @>1;5<0 45 D5:B>;>388. ., 1996. @0=>2A:0O . ., 8:>;LA:0O . . A8E>;>38G5A:0O 70I8B0 C 45B59. !1., 2000. 5930@=8: . . "5>@88 ;8G=>AB8 2 70@C156=>9 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1982. 5<F>20. . CB8 :><?5=A0F88 A;5?>BK. ., 1956. 10. 010=>2 . . 5018;8B0F8O ?A8E8G5A:8 1>;L=KE. ., 1985. . 010=>2 . . A8E>A>F80;L=0O @5018;8B0F8O 8 A>F80;L=0O ?A8E80B@8O. !1., 1998. 12. 8B20: . . "5>@5B8G5A:85 2>?@>AK B8D;>?A8E>;>388. ., 1974. 185 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 8B20:. . "8D;>?A8E>;>38O. ., 1985. 0<09GC: . . A8E>:>@@5:F8O 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 A =0@C H5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. !1., 2000. 0=>20-"><>20 . !. A8E>;>38G5A:0O @5018;8B0F8O ?@8 =0 @CH5=8OE ?>2545=8O 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5. !>D8O, 1981. 8:8D>@>2 . !. A8E>;>38O 74>@>2LO. !1., 2002. >60@ . A8E>;>38O 0=><0;L=KE 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2  ?0 B>?A8E>;>38O. ., 1996. !5<03> . /., !5<03> . . @>1;5<=K5 45B8. ., 2000. !>;=F520 . . 0728B85 :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2 C A;5?KE 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0. ., 1980. &25H:>20. !. 59@>?A8E>;>38G5A:0O @5018;8B0F8O. ., 1985. /@<>;5=:> .. @>1;5<K :><?5=A0F88 3;CE>BK. 852, 1976. ;020 13  &+ $+   '  !!"  #( "/ "5@<8= 45?@820F8O, 2>H54H89 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 A;>20@L 2 A5@548=5 2>AL<845AOBKE 3>4>2, 2 1C:20;L=>< A<KA;5 >7=0G05B ;8H5=85. > A2>59 ACB8 45?@820F8>==K5 D5=><5=K ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 <=>3>>1@07=K5 87<5=5==K5 A>AB>O=8O A>7=0=8O, 0 B0:65 @07;8G=K5 20@80=BK =0@CH5=89 =>@<0;L=>3> E>40 2>7@0AB=>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2A;54AB285 1;>:8@>2:8 7=0G8<KE ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8E ?>B@51=>AB59 G5;>25:0.  A8;C @07;8G=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2 G5;>25G5AB2> =5>4=>:@0B=> AB0;:820;>AL A 45?@820F8>==K<8 D5=><5=0<8 8 <>3;> =01;N40BL 8E @07;8G=K5 ?>A;54AB28O, => A>1AB25==> =0CG=K5 8AA;54>20=8O MB>3> 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 8=B5@5A=>3> O2;5=8O =0G0;8AL B>;L:> 2 A5@548=5 40-E 3>4>2 4204F0B>3> AB>;5B8O. > <=>3>< MB> 1K;>, 25@>OB=>, A2O70=> A 1C@=K< @0728B85< B5E=8G5A:>3> ?@>3@5AA0, ?@54>AB0282H53> G5;>25:C =>2K5 2>7<>6=>AB8, => 2<5AB5 A B5< ?@54JO282H53> : =5<C >A>1K5 B@51>20=8O 8 A>740202H53> M:AB@5<0;L=K5 CA;>28O ACI5AB2>20=8O: >A2>5=85 :>A<>A0, 4;8B5;L=>5 02B>=><=>5 ?>42>4=>5 ?;020=85, C?@02;5=85 A25@E72C:>2K<8 ;5B0B5;L=K<8 0??0@0B0<8, <=>3><5AOG=>5 ?@51K20=85 =0 ?>;O@=KE AB0=F8OE 8 4@. -B8 25AL<0 =5B8?8G=K5 4;O ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8 CA;>28O B5< =5 <5=55 40NB C=8:0;L=K9 H0=A 87CG5=8O ?>B5=F80;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?A8E8:8. 187 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O %.%:%" % ;020 <13, 5?@820F8>==K5 D5=><5=K  >?@545;5=88 45?@820F88 3>2>@8BAO > ?@>F5AA5 1;>:8@>20=8O ?>B@51=>AB59, : G8A;C :>B>@KE, ?@5645 2A53>, >B=>AOBAO ?>B@51=>ABL 2 42830B5;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8, 2 =>2KE 2?5G0B;5=8OE  ?5@F5?B82=0O ?>B@51=>ABL. A>1>5 7=0G5=85 2 687=8 G5;>25:0 B0:65 8<5NB ?>B@51=>AB8 2 >1I5=88, M<>F8>=0;L=>9 ?>445@6:5, A0<>@50;870F88, C2065=88, 157>?0A=>AB8, B2>@G5AB25, 845=B8G=>AB8, 8=B8<=>AB8 8 ?@. 52>7<>6=>ABL @50;87>2K20BL 8E 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O, :0: ?@028;>, ?@82>48B : A5@L57=K< 48ADC=:F8O< A>7=0=8O. "0:, =0?@8<5@, ?@8 @57:>< A>:@0I5=88 ?>B>:0 2=5H=59 AB8<C;OF88, :0: 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE, B0: 8 2 5AB5AB25==KE CA;>28OE, <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL @07=>>1@07=K5 @0AAB@>9AB20 2 @01>B5 ?A8E8:8  87<5=5=8O B5<?0 ?@>B5:0=8O AC1J5:B82=>3> 2@5<5=8, =0@CH5=8O 2>A?@8OB8O ?@>AB@0=AB20, B@C4=>AB8 2 ?@>872>;L=>< :>=B@>;8@>20=88 <KA;8B5;L=KE ?@>F5AA>2, 0:B82870F8O 2=CB@5==53> 480;>30, @0AAB@>9AB20 AE5<K A>1AB25==>3> B5;0, @07=>>1@07=K5 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 =0@CH5=8O.  @O45 A;CG052 >B<5G05BAO ?>O2;5=85 30;;NF8=0F89.  7028A8<>AB8 >B 4;8B5;L=>AB8 ?@51K20=8O G5;>25:0 2 ?>4>1=>9 A8BC0F88 2KH5>?8A0==K5 =0@CH5=8O <>3CB ?@8>1@5B0BL =5>1@0B8<K9 E0@0:B5@.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =5 ACI5AB2C5B 548=>9 B5>@88 45?@820-F8>==KE O2;5=89 8 >1I59 8E :;0AA8D8:0F88. 081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==0O M<?8@8G5A:0O :;0AA8D8:0F8O 1078@C5BAO =0 2K45;5=88 =5A:>;L:8E 284>2 ;8H5=89 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B E0@0:B5@0 1;>:8@C5<>9 ?>B@51=>AB8: A5=A>@=>-?5@F5?B82=0O 45?@820F8O, :><<C=8:0B82=0O, :8=5AB5B8G5A:0O, M<>F8>=0;L=0O 8 4@.  40==>< A;CG05 A;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL 420 ?@8=F8?80;L=KE <><5=B0. @5645 2A53>, =04> 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> 45?@820F8>==K5 D5=><5=K =5 <>3CB 2KABC?0BL 2 :0G5AB25 >1JOA=8B5;L=>3> ?@8=F8?0 2 =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE, 81> A0<8 =C640NBAO 2 BI0B5;L=>< >?8A0=88 8 >1JOA=5=88. @><5 B>3>, =5 A;54C5B ?CB0BL 45?@820F8>==K5 O2;5=8O A 45?@820F8>==>9 A8BC0F859. >A;54=OO ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 2=5H=85 >1J5:B82=K5 CA;>28O, ?@5?OBAB2CNI85 @50;870F88 B>9 8;8 8=>9 ?>B@51=>AB8 G5;>25:0. 5@2K5 65 ACBL O2;5=8O AC1J5:B82=K5, 2=CB@5=- 188 =85, ?@8ACI85 A>7=0=8N.  B> 8 4@C3>5 =0E>48BAO 2 ?@8G8==>-A;54AB25==KE >B=>H5=8OE, => 548=AB2> =5 >7=0G05B 8E B>645AB20. !:070==>5 ?@54?>;0305B, GB> @07=K5 ;N48 8=48284C0;L=> @5038@CNB =0 A8BC0F88 ;8H5=8O. '5;>25: 4>AB0B>G=> 4>;3> <>65B =0E>48BLAO 2 ?>4>1=KE CA;>28OE, => ?@8 MB>< =5 ?@>O2;OBL =8:0:8E 2K@065==KE ?@87=0:>2 45?@820F8>==KE D5=><5=>2, 8 =0>1>@>B. ;O ?@>D5AA8>=0;>2 2 >1;0AB8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >A>1K9 8=B5@5A ?@54AB02;ONB B0:85 D>@<K 45?@820F88, :0: :><<C=8:0B82=0O 8 M<>F8>=0;L=0O. 54>AB0B>G=>ABL >1I5=8O 8 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> B5?;0, >A>15==> 2 ?5@2K5 3>4K 687=8, 25AL<0 ?03C1=> A:07K205BAO =0 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 @515=:0. >A;54AB28O< 45BA:>9 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 45?@820F88 ?>A2OI5=> >3@><=>5 :>;8G5AB2> 8AA;54>20=89, >4=> 87 ?5@2KE 8 =081>;55 ?>;=KE A@548 =8E ?@8=04;568B ==5 $@594 8 (0@;>B5 N;5@. <5==> >=8 >?8A0;8 D5=><5=, ?>;CG82H89 =0720=85 A8=4@>< :0?8B0;87<0. A=>2=K5 ?@>O2;5=8O A8=4@><0 3>A?8B0;87<0 A2>4OBAO : A;54CNI5<C. # @515=:0, ;8H5==>3> 2 ?5@2K5 3>4K 687=8 2>7<>6=>AB8 >1I5=8O A <0B5@LN 8;8 70<5=ONI8< 55 ;8F><, =01;N405BAO A5@L57=>5 >BAB020=85 2 B5<?0E D878G5A:>3>, C<AB25==>3>, @5G52>3> 8 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> @0728B8O. >4>1=K5 45B8 >B;8G0NBAO 2K@065==K<8 ?>2545=G5A:8<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 8 B@C4=>ABO<8 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 040?B0F88. #:070==K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 3>2>@OB > B><, GB> 45?@820F8>==K5 A8BC0F88  A5@L57=0O ?@8G8=0 2K@065==KE >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 @515=:0. <5==> ?>MB><C =5:>B>@K5 02B>@K 2?>;=5 A?@0254;82> 2K45;ONB >A>1CN D>@<C 487>=B>35=570, >1>7=0G0O B5@<8=>< 45?@820F8>==K5 ?>2@5645=8O. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, =5:>B>@K5 20@80=BK >B:;>=5=89 A0<8 O2;ONBAO ?@8G8=>9 2>7=8:=>25=8O 45?@820F8>==KE D5=><5=>2, GB> 4>?>;=8B5;L=> >BO3>I05B ?@>F5AA @0728B8O. "0:, 2K@065==K5 =0@CH5=8O 7@5=8O, A;CE0, 42830B5;L=>3> 0=0;870B>@0 8 @5G8, 157CA;>2=>, ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 >A>1K5 D>@<K A5=A>@=>9 8 :><<C=8:0B82=>9 45?@820F88. E A2>5>1@0- 189 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 13. 5?@820F8>==K5 D5=><5=K 785 :@>5BAO 2 A0<>9 AB@C:BC@5 45?@820F8>==>9 A8BC0F88. 1KG=> 45?@820F8>==K5 O2;5=8O, 87CG05<K5 2 5AB5AB25==KE 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE CA;>28OE, E0@0:B5@87CNBAO 2=5H=59 ;>:0;870F859 1;>:8@0B>@0 ?>B@51=>AB8.  A;CG0OE A5=A>@=KE =0@CH5=89 B0:>2K<8 2KABC?0NB >=8 A0<8. 5@>OB=>, 8=0O AB@C:BC@0 45?@820F8>==>9 A8BC0F88 <>65B A:070BLAO =0 :0G5AB25==>< A2>5>1@0788 A0<8E 45?@820F8>==KE D5=><5=>2. "0:, 2 CA;>28OE M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 A5=A>@=>9 45-?@820F88 >G5=L G0AB> >1=0@C6820NBAO =0@CH5=8O 2>A?@8OB8O 2 2845 <=>3>G8A;5==KE 8;;N789 8 30;;NF8=0F89.  A8BC0F88 2@>645==>9 A;5?>BK 8 3;CE>BK ?>4>1=KE O2;5=89 =5 =01;N405BAO. >B5@O 7@5=8O 2 7@5;>< 2>7@0AB5, >A>15==> 2=570?=0O, <>65B A>?@>2>640BLAO 30;;NF8=0B>@=K<8 >1@070<8, 402=> 8725AB=K<8 2 ?A8E>?0B>;>388 ?>4 =0720=85< 8;;N788 (0@;O >=M. 4=0:> >=8 >1;040NB >A>15==>ABO<8, >B;8G0NI8<8 8E >B ?>4>1=KE O2;5=89, 8<5NI8E <5AB> 2 A8BC0F88 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 A5=A>@=>9 45?@820F88.  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 =0@CH5=8O 2 AD5@5 2>A?@8OB8O 8 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 @0AAB@>9AB20 CA8;820NBAO 8 CA;>6=ONBAO 2 A2>5< A>45@60=88. @8 CB@0B5 7@5=8O 2 7@5;>< 2>7@0AB5, =0?@>B82, 8;;N7>@=K5 =0@CH5=8O 2>A?@8OB8O (8 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 AD5@K) A> 2@5<5=5< @54CF8@CNBAO. @><5 B>3>, 2 CA;>28OE M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 (2=5H=59) 45?@820F88 7=0G8B5;L=> ?>2KH05BAO ?A8E8G5A:0O 0:B82=>ABL 8=482840.  A8BC0F88 2@>645==>3> 8 ?>74=> CB@0G5==>3> 7@5=8O =01;N405BAO =5GB> >1@0B=>5  A=865=85 0:B82=>AB8, 8 ?@5645 2A53> ?>7=020B5;L=>9. !:070==>5 ?>72>;O5B CB25@640BL, GB> 45?@820F8O <>65B 2KABC?0BL >4=>2@5<5==> 8 :0: ?@8G8=0, 8 :0: A;54AB285 48-7>=B>35=570. <5AB5 A B5< =04> >B<5B8BL, GB> @515=>:, ?@>O2;ONI89 ?@87=0:8 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O, 8A?KBK205B =0 A515 2;8O=85 =5A:>;L:8E 284>2 ;8H5=89. @5645 2A53>, MB> 8AE>4=0O 45?@820F8>==0O A8BC0F8O, A2O70==0O A >A=>2=K< =0@CH5=85<. ><8<> MB>3> 4;O 1>;LH8=AB20 45B59 A ?@>1;5<0<8 2 @0728B88, >A>15==> 2 4>H:>;L=>< 45BAB25, A2>9AB25==0 A8BC0F8O :><<C=8:0B82=>9 45?@820F88. G5=L G0AB> @0==55 45BAB2> ?>4>1=KE 45B59 ?@>B5:05B 2 70<:=CB>< A5<59=>< 190 :@C3C, >3@0=8G5==>< :>=B0:B0<8 A 1;8609H8<8 @>4AB25==8:0<8, GB> 25AL<0 ?03C1=> A:07K205BAO =0 E0@0:B5@5 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O @515=:0, ;8H5==>3> >1I5=8O A> A25@AB=8:0<8 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>2<5AB=>9 83@>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8.  ?5@5G8A;5==><C A;54C5B 4>1028BL 8 =5@54:85 A8BC0F88 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 45?@820F88, >1CA;>2;5==K5 A2>5>1@07=K<8 ;8G=>AB=K<8 @50:F8O<8 @>48B5;59 =0 D0:B >1=0@C65==KE C @515=:0 >B:;>=5=89. BG0O=85, 157=0456=>ABL, 15AA8;85 8=>340 A>?@>2>640NBAO M<>F8>=0;L=K< >B25@65=85< @515=:0 A> AB>@>=K >4=>3> 8;8 A@07C 42CE @>48B5;59. 515=>: 2>A?@8=8<05BAO :0: 8AB>G=8: =570A;C65==KE AB@040=89, 0 ?>B><C 2=CB@5==5 =5 ?@8=8<05BAO. B25@65=85 <>65B 1KBL :0: =5>A>7=0205<K<, B0: 8 BI0B5;L=> A:@K205<K<.  2 B>< 8 2 4@C3>< A;CG05 @515=>: AB0=>28BAO ;8HL >1J5:B>< CE>40, => =5 ;N128 8 2>A?8B0=8O. -<>F8>=0;L=0O G5@AB2>ABL @>48B5;59 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 4>?>;=8B5;L=K9 =530B82=K9 D0:B>@, CAC3C1;ONI89 8 157 B>3> A;>6=CN A8BC0F8N @0728B8O 45BA:>9 ?A8E8:8. @8 MB>< ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> :>@@5:F8>==KE CG@5645=89  %0>B8G=>ABL ( )  4=>>1@0785 ( ) 07=>>1@0785 (+)  !B@C:BC@8@>20==>ABL (+) 8A. 13.1. !5<0=B8G5A:>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2> @5?@575=B0F88 <8@0 2 A>7=0=88 . 5B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 2 ?0@0<5B@0E @07=>>1@0785 >4=>>1@0785, AB@C:BC@8@>20==>ABL E0>B8G=>ABL 191 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 13. 5?@820F8>==K5 D5=><5=K I 702545=8O 8=B5@=0B=>3> B8?0; A@548 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 =5@54:8 8 3>A?8B0;870F88 A F5;LN 4>?>;=8B5;L=>9 4803=>AB8:8 8 ;5G5=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, <>6=> 70:;NG8BL, GB> @5?@575=B0F8O <8@0 2 A>7=0=88 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO >?@545;5==>9 AB5?5=LN 154=>AB8 8 >4=>>1@078O. #I5<;5=-=>ABL GC2AB25==>9 B:0=8 A>7=0=8O ?@82>48B : A=865=8N C@>2=O AB@C:BC@8@>20==>AB8, CAB>9G82>AB8 8 C?>@O4>G5==>AB8 :0@B8=K <8@0. >A;54=OO 2>A?@>872>48BAO <5=55 >?@545;5==> 8 ?@54A:07C5<>, ?>2KH05BAO C@>25=L M=B@>?88 (M=B@>?8O  <5@0 E0>B8G=>AB8, 15A?>@O4>G=>AB8, =5AB@C:BC@8@>20==>AB8). !;54>20B5;L=>, >154=5==>ABL 8 =87:0O AB@C:BC@8@>20==>ABL @5?@575=B0F88 2=5H=53> <8@0 2 A>7=0=88 >A>1>3> @515=:0 <>65B 1KBL >B=5A5=0 : :0B53>@88 <>40;L=> =5A?5F8D8G5A:8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O (A<. @8A. 13.1). >MB><C ?@>1;5<0 ?@>D8;0:B8:8 45?@820F8>==KE A8BC0F89 2 @0728B88 ?@>1;5<=KE 45B59 G@572KG09=> 0:BC0;L=0 :0: 2 ?@0:B8G5A:><, B0: 8 2 B5>@5B8G5A:>< >B=>H5=88. >=B@>;L=K5 2>?@>AK  G5< A>AB>8B ACI=>ABL 45?@820F8>==KE O2;5=89? 0: ?@>O2;ONBAO @07=K5 284K 45?@820F89? 0:>2> A>>B=>H5=85 45?@820F8>==KE D5=><5=>2 8 45?@820 F8>==KE A8BC0F89? 0:>2K >A=>2=K5 =0?@02;5=8O ?@>D8;0:B8:8 45?@820F8>= =KE O2;5=89?  G5< A>AB>8B 2;8O=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 45?@820F89 =0 ?@>F5AA ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O? 0:>20 A2O7L 45?@820F8>==KE O2;5=89 8 D5=><5=>2 =0@CH5= =>3> @0728B8O? 8B5@0BC@0 1. 0=3<595@ ., 0B59G8: 3. A8E8G5A:0O 45?@820F8O 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5. @030, 1984. 192  018@8=BK >48=>G5AB20/>4 @54. . . >:@>2A:>3>. ., 1989. C7=5F>2 . ., 515452 . . A8E>;>38O 8 ?A8E>?0B>;>38O >48 =>G5AB20. ., 1972. A052 . . A8E>A><0B8G5A:0O <548F8=0 45BA:3> 2>7@0AB0. !1., 1997. 0B2552 . $. A8E8G5A:85 =0@CH5=8O ?@8 45D5:B0E 7@5=8O 8 A;CE0. 1985. A8E8G5A:>5 @0728B85 2>A?8B0==8:>2 45BA:>3> 4><0 / >4 @54. . . C1@>28=>9, . . CAA:>9. ., 1990. A8E8G5A:>5 @0728B85 45B59-A8@>B / >4 @54. . . (8?8FK- =>9. !1., 1996. (HHFK=0 . . 0728B85 ;8G=>AB8 @515=:0 2 CA;>28OE <0B5 @8=A:>9 45?@820F89. !1., 1997. 5B8-A8@>BK. >=AC;LB8@>20=85 8 4803=>AB8:0 @0728B8O / >4 @54. . . !B@515;52>9. ., 1998. ;020 14. 8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 ;020 14 '!"+ !!" "   !" ! "/  " 8G=>ABL ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 >4=> 87 =081>;55 A;>6=KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >1@07>20=89 A B>G:8 7@5=8O AB@C:BC@K, 35=578A0 8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O. <5==> ?>MB><C 40==0O :0B53>@8O 2 ?A8E>;>388 2K3;O48B B0: ?@>B82>@5G82> 8 =5>4=>7=0G=>. !CI5AB2C5B <=>3> B5>@89 ;8G=>AB8, ?>-@07=><C B@0:BCNI8E ACI=>ABL MB>3> D5=><5=0. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O A>2@5<5==>3> A8AB5<=>3> ?>4E>40 ;8G=>ABL G0I5 2A53> @0AA<0B@8205BAO =5 :0: >B45;L=K9 :><?>=5=B ?A8E8:8, 0 :0: 55 >A>1>5 A2>9AB2>, A?>A>1 >@30=870F88 8 A0<>@53C;OF88. >;55 H8@>:> ;8G=>ABL <>6=> B@0:B>20BL :0: >A>1>5 :0G5AB2>, ?@8ACI55 8A:;NG8B5;L=> G5;>25:C. 8G=>ABL E0@0:B5@87C5B G5;>25:0 A> AB>@>=K 53> >1I5AB25==KE A2O759 8 >B=>H5=89 A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8. >MB><C 40==>5 ?>=OB85 ?@8>1@5B05B :>=:@5B=K9 A<KA; ;8HL 2 A8AB5<5 MB8E >B=>H5=89, 2>?;>I05<KE G5@57 A>F80;L=K5 @>;8. . . 5>=BL52 E0@0:B5@87>20; ;8G=>ABL :0: A8AB5<=>5 8 A25@EGC2AB25==>5 :0G5AB2>, C:07K20O ?@8 MB>< =0 B>, GB> =>A8B5;5< MB>3> :0G5AB20 O2;O5BAO B5;5A=K9, GC2AB25==K9 8=48284 A ?@8ACI8<8 5<C 2@>645==K<8 8 ?@8>1@5B5==K<8 A2>9AB20<8. >A;54=85 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 ;8HL CA;>28O 8 ?@54?>AK;:8 D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 G5;>25:0, =5 ?@54>?@545;OO 2A5F5;> 55 ACI=>AB8. !:070==>5 >7=0G05B, GB> ;8G=>ABL  >A>1K9 A?>A>1 ACI5AB2>20=8O G5;>25:0 2 >1I5AB25 :0: ?@54AB028B5;O >?@545;5==>9 3@C??K. A=>2=>5 F5;52>5 ?@54=07=0G5=85 ;8G=>AB8 A>- 194 AB>8B 2 A0<>@53C;OF88 A>F80;L=>3> ?>2545=8O G5;>25:0 >B=>A8B5;L=> 4@C38E 8=48284CC<>2.  A2O78 A MB8< ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2?>;=5 >?@0240==K< <=5=85 =5:>B>@KE 8AA;54>20B5;59, @0AA<0B@820NI8E 2 :0G5AB25 548=8FK 0=0;870 ;8G=>AB8 B0:CN :0B53>@8N, :0: ?>ABC?>:, ?>=8<05<K9 :0: A>7=0B5;L=>5 459AB285 =@02AB25==>3> A0<>>?@545;5=8O G5;>25:0, 2 :>B>@>< >= CB25@6405B A51O 2 A2>5< >B=>H5=88 : 4@C38< ;N4O< 8 : A0<><C A515. <5==> ?>ABC?>: @0A:@K205B ACI=>ABL ;8G=>AB8, 55 ?>78F88, <>B82K 8 A?>A>1K ?>2545=8O, @50;87CNI85 B5 8;8 8=K5 687=5==K5 F5;8 G5;>25:0. 8G=>ABL  MB> G5;>25:, A2>1>4=> 8 >B25BAB25==> >?@545;ONI89 A2>5 <5AB> A@548 4@C38E G;5=>2 >1I5AB20. K@060OAL A;>20<8 . . 0EB8=0, AC1J5:B ?>ABC?0=8O, B> 5ABL A2>1>4=>3> A>F80;L=>3> 459AB28O. "0:8< >1@07><, ;8G=>ABL ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 8A:;NG8B5;L=> A>F8>:C;LBC@=>5 >1@07>20=85. -B> =5 ?@>AB> D>@<0 ACI5AB2>20=8O G5;>25:0 2 >1I5AB25, => 8 548=AB25==K9 87 2>7<>6=KE A?>A>1>2 ;8G=>AB=>3> @0728B8O. ">;L:> 2:;NG5==>ABL 2 >1I5AB25==K5 >B=>H5=8O ?>72>;O5B G5;>25:C >1@5AB8 40==>5 :0G5AB2>. =5 MB>3> ?@>F5AA0, 4065 ?@8 CA;>288 A>25@H5==> A>E@0==KE 18>;>38G5A:8E ?@54?>AK;>:, D>@<8@>20=85 ;8G=>AB8 ?@8=F8?80;L=> =52>7<>6=>. ;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@>1;5<0B8:0 ;8G=>AB8 8AA;54>20;0AL ?@58<CI5AB25==> 2 B5>@5B8:>-<5B>4>;>38G5A:><, D8;>A>DA:>< 0A?5:B5. > =0G8=0O ?@8<5@=> A 70-E 3>4>2 4><8=8@>20BL AB0; :>=:@5B=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:89, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K9 ?>4E>4.  A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A>E@0=O;>AL 0=0;>38G=>5 ?>;>65=85. A=>2=>5 2=8<0=85 2 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 ?@0:B8:5 C45;O;>AL 87CG5=8N ?>7=020B5;L=KE ?@>F5AA>2. > <=>3>< MB> 1K;> >1CA;>2;5=> ?>B@51=>ABO<8 8 70?@>A0<8 A8AB5<K >1@07>20=8O 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. > ?> <5@5 >A>7=0=8O 7=0G8<>AB8 ?@>1;5< B@C4>2>9 040?B0F88 8 A>F80;L=>9 8=B53@0F88 8=20;84>2, 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2A5 1>;LH5 0:BC0;878@>20;AO 8=B5@5A : 2>?@>A0< D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 ?@8 @07;8G=KE >B:;>=5=8OE 2 @0728B88. >AB5?5==> AB0;8 ?>O2;OBLAO 8AA;54>20=8O, ?>A2OI5==K5 >A>15==>A- 195 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O BO< M<>F8>=0;L=>9 AD5@K, ?>B@51=>AB59, 8=B5@5A>2, <>B82>2, A0<>>F5=:8 ;8F A @07;8G=K<8 D>@<0<8 487>=B>35=570. 4=>2@5<5==> A MB8< 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 @0725@=C;0AL 25AL<0 1C@=0O 48A:CAA8O > B><, <>65B 8;8 =5 <>65B ?5@28G=>5 =0@CH5=85 >:07K20BL =530B82=>5 2;8O=85 =0 E>4 D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8, 8 5A;8 <>65B, B> :0:>2K <5E0=87<K MB>3> 2;8O=8O. A5 <=>3>>1@0785 2KA:07K205<KE B>G5: 7@5=8O A2>48;>AL : B@5< ?@8=F8?80;L=K< ?>78F8O<. 5@20O A>AB>O;0 2 >B@8F0=88 :0:>3> 1K B> =8 1K;> =530B82=>3> 2;8O=8O O45@=>3> @0AAB@>9AB20 =0 ?@>F5AA AB0=>2;5=8O ;8G=>AB8 >A>1>3> @515=:0. @54AB028B5;8 MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O AAK;0;8AL =0 A>F80;L=K9 E0@0:B5@ 45B5@<8=0F88 MB>3>, >B@8F0O @>;L 18>;>38G5A:>3> D0:B>@0. !B>@>==8:8 2B>@>3> ?>4E>40 >BAB0820;8 845N > 48DD5@5=F8@>20==>< 2;8O=88 >A=>2=>3> ?0B>35==>3> D0:B>@0. @54?>;030;>AL, GB> >4=8 AB>@>=K @072820NI59AO ;8G=>AB8 ?>425@65=K =530B82=><C 2>7459AB28N ?5@28G=>9 ?0B>;>388 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8, G5< 4@C385. @8 MB>< ?>4G5@:820;>AL, GB> ACI5AB2CNB >?@545;5==K5 AB@C:BC@=K5 :><?>=5=BK ;8G=>AB8, E0@0:B5@87CNI85AO >A>1>9 B>;5@0=B=>ABLN 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88. 0:>=5F, ?@54AB028B5;8 B@5BL53> =0?@02;5=8O AG8B0;8, GB> @0728B85 ;8G=>AB8 2 F5;>< 4>;6=> A =587156=>ABLN 8A?KBK20BL =0 A515 =530B82=>5 2;8O=85 >A=>2=>3> =0@CH5=8O. #?><O=CB0O =0<8 48A:CAA8O >AB05BAO 0:BC0;L=>9 8 ?> A59 45=L. 5 ?>B5@O2 A2>59 >AB@>BK 8 7=0G8<>AB8, >=0 A> 2@5<5=5< CB@0B8;0 =5=C6=K9 >BB5=>: :0B53>@8G=>AB8. @><5 B>3>, 55 CG0AB=8:8 >1;040NB A53>4=O 25AL<0 H8@>:>9 M<?8@8G5A:>9 4>:070B5;L=>9 107>9. > ?>4>1=0O 48A:CAA8O 1C45B 8<5BL :>@@5:B=K9 8 ?@>4C:B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ B>;L:> 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 ;8F0, 254CI85 55, ?>;L7CNBAO 2?>;=5 >?@545;5==K<8 8 :>=:@5B=>-A>45@60B5;L=K<8 >1I8<8 4;O 2A5E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 :0B53>@8O<8. !53>4=O 2@O4 ;8 <>65B 2K7K20BL A><=5=8O 845O > =530B82=>< 2;8O=88 8AE>4=>3> =0@CH5=8O =0 ?@>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 >A>1>3> @515=:0, ?> B>9 ?@>AB>9 ?@8G8=5, GB> A0< MB>B ?@>F5AA A>AB02;O5B ;8HL >4=C 87 AB>@>= >=B>35=570 196  ;020 14. 8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 ?A8E8:8 2 F5;><. !8AB5<=K9 E0@0:B5@ AB@>5=8O G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O ?@54?>;0305B, GB> =0@CH5=85 >4=>3> 53> :><?>=5=B0 =0 >?@545;5==>< MB0?5 A =587156=>ABLN 4>;6=> A:070BLAO =0 >AB0;L=KE. A=>2=>5 A>45@60=85 ?@>1;5<K A>AB>8B 2 @0A:@KB88 <5E0=87<0 2;8O=8O 8AE>4=>3> =0@CH5=8O =0 ?@>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8, @>;8 8 7=0G5=8O <=>3>G8A;5==KE >?>A@54CNI8E D0:B>@>2, 459AB2CNI8E :064K9 @07 ?>-@07=><C 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B E0@0:B5@0 =0@CH5=8O, 53> 2K@065==>AB8 8 4;8B5;L=>AB8. 5AL<0 206=K< 8 =5 4> :>=F0 @5H5==K< >AB05BAO 2>?@>A > E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:>9 A?5F8D8G=>AB8 @07=KE D>@< 487>=B>35=570. @>I5 3>2>@O, > B><, ACI5AB2CNB ;8 B8?8G=K5 G5@BK ;8G=>AB8, A2>9AB25==K5 B>;L:> 4;O =57@OG8E, =5A;KH0I8E 8 B. 4.? >?KB:8 A>740=8O ?>4>1=KE B8?>;>389 ?@>872>48;8AL =5>4=>:@0B=>, B5< 1>;55 GB> 2 AD5@5 >1K45==>3> A>7=0=8O ACI5AB2>20=85 B0:>3> @>40 :0G5AB2 =5 ?>4;568B A><=5=8N. <5AB5 A B5< 5A;8 >1>1I8BL @07=>@>4=K5 8 =5@54:> ?@>B82>@5G82K5 40==K5, ?>;CG5==K5 >?KB=K< ?CB5<, B> ?@5645 2A53> >1@0I05B =0 A51O 2=8<0=85, GB> ?0B>35==>5 2>7459AB285 <=>3>G8A;5==KE =0@CH5=89 =0 ?@>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 >?8AK205BAO G5@57 2K45;5=85 25AL<0 AE>68E >B@8F0B5;L=KE G5@B E0@0:B5@0. @8@>4C 2>7=8:=>25=8O MB8E G5@B, :0: ?@028;>, =5 ?>425@30NB 45B0;L=><C 87CG5=8N. "5< =5 <5=55, =5 @0A:@K2 <5E0=87< 2>7=8:=>25=8O B5E 8;8 8=KE E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59, <K =5 A<>65< A 4>AB>25@=>ABLN AC48BL > B><, =0A:>;L:> >=8 70:>=><5@=K, B8?8G=K 8;8 A;CG09=K 4;O 40==>9 :0B53>@88 =0@CH5=89. !@548 C?><O=CBKE G5@B G0I5 2A53> 2AB@5G0NBAO A;54CNI85: AC65=85 AD5@K 8=B5@5A>2 8 ?>B@51=>AB59, A=865=85 C@>2=O >1I59 0:B82=>AB8, >A;01;5=85 <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@K A 4><8=8@>20=85< <>B820 871530=8O =5C40G8 8 @54CF8@>20==K< <>B82>< 4>AB865=8O, GB> 2K@0605BAO 2 >B:075 >B 1>@L1K. @><5 B>3>, C:07K205BAO =0 ?@5>1;040=85 M:AB5@=0;L=>3> ;>:CA0 :>=B@>;O, 2KA>:85 ?>:070B5;8 8=B@025@B8@>20==>AB8, 0?0B8G=>ABL, 157K=8F80B82=>ABL, M3>F5=B@8G5A:85 CAB0=>2:8, 0CB8G-=>ABL, B@52>6=>ABL, =54>25@G82>ABL, 2=CH05<>ABL, A:;>=- 197 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;020 14. 8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 =>ABL : ?>4@060=8N, 154=>5 A>45@60=85 A0<>A>7=0=8O, =5045:20B=> 702KH5==0O 8;8 70=865==0O =5CAB>9G820O A0<>>F5=:0, ACI5AB25==K5 @0AE>645=8O <564C >1@07>< @50;L=>3> 8 8450;L=>3> / 8 <=>3>5 4@C3>5. ;8=8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O >B<5G0NB =0;8G85 <=>3>G8A;5==KE =52@>B8G5A:8E A8=4@><>2 8 ?A8E>?0B8G5A:8E G5@B E0@0:B5@0. @54AB02;5==K9 ?5@5G5=L 40;5:> =5 ?>;=K9 8 157 >A>1>3> B@C40 <>65B 1KBL @0AH8@5=. > 2 40==>< A;CG05 206=> 4@C3>5: 2A5 MB8 :0G5AB20 E0@0:B5@87CNB ;8G=>ABL 2 F5;>< A> AB>@>=K 55 =57@5;>AB8. 5 C405BAO >1=0@C68BL =8 :>=:@5B=>9 G5@BK 8;8 A>G5B0=8O G5@B, B8?8G=KE B>;L:> 4;O >4=>9 D>@<K =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O.  B>9 8;8 8=>9 <5@5 2A5 >=8 ?@8ACBAB2CNB 2 >?8A0=8OE @07=KE 284>2 487>=B>35=570. @>8AE>48B MB> ?> ?@8G8=5, =0 :>B>@CN <K C:07K20;8 2 @0745;5 <5B>4K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. AA;54>20=8O 8 2K2>4K 45;0NBAO =0 >A=>25 A@02=5=8O @57C;LB0B>2 B>;L:> 42CE 3@C?? 8A?KBC5<KE  >A=>2=>9, ?@54AB02;5==>9 45BL<8 A >?@545;5==>9 D>@<>9 >B:;>=5=8O, 8 :>=B@>;L=>9, A>AB>OI59 87 =>@<0;L=> @072820NI8EAO A25@AB=8:>2. K45;5==K5 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:85 >B;8G8O ?@8=8<0NBAO 70 A?5F8D8G5A:85 G5@BK, ?@8ACI85 ;8G=>AB=><C @0728B8N 45B59 40==>9 :0B53>@88 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. > CAB0=>28BL AB5?5=L A?5F8D8G=>AB8 <>6=> B>;L:> ?@8 CA;>288 A>?>AB02;5=8O ?>;CG5==KE @57C;LB0B>2 A 0=0;>38G=K<8 40==K<8 ?> 3@C??5 45B59 A 8=>9 D>@<>9 487>=B>35=570, G53>, :0: ?@028;>, =5 45;05BAO. >MB><C B0:65 2K2>4K =5C1548B5;L=K 8 =5>1>A=>20==K. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> ?@8 87CG5=88 ;8G=>AB=KE >A>15==>AB59 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 206=0 D8:A0F8O =5 B>;L:> >B;8G89, => 8 AE>4AB20. 3=>@8@>20=85 ?>A;54=53>, ?> ACB8, 70:@K205B =0< 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>=OBL A2>5>1@0785 ;8G=>AB8 8 55 ?@8@>4C 2 CA;>28OE @07=KE D>@< 487>=B>35=570. 5>1E>48<> >A>1> ?>4G5@:=CBL 8 B>, GB> ?@82545==K9 A?8A>: =530B82=KE ;8G=>AB=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: <>65B 1KBL A2>9AB25=5= =5 B>;L:> ;8F0< A @07=K<8 D>@<0<8 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O, => 8 2>2A5 157 B0:>2KE. B;8G8O, A:>@55 2A53>, <>- 198 3CB :0A0BLAO ;8HL AB5?5=8 2K@065==>AB8, CAB>9G82>AB8 8 25@>OB=>AB8 2>7=8:=>25=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, : AE>4=><C @57C;LB0BC, B> 5ABL : >1I5<C =01>@C >B@8F0B5;L=KE A2>9AB2, A?>A>1=K ?@82>48BL A>25@H5==> @07;8G=K5 ?@8G8=K, GB>, 25@>OB=55 2A53>, A2845B5;LAB2C5B > =5?@O<><, >?>A@54>20==>< 8E 2;8O=88. -B> 405B >A=>20=85 >B=5AB8 2KH5C:070==K5 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 A2>9AB20 ;8G=>AB8 : @07@O4C <>40;L=>-=5A?5F8D8G5A:8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O, 40 8 B> :0: D0:C;LB0B82=KE, 8<5NI8E <5AB> =5 2A5340 8 =5 C 2A5E. 5>1O70B5;L=>ABL >B@8F0B5;L=>9 E0@0:B5@>;>388 B0:65 =0E>48B A2>5 ?@>O2;5=85 2 55 =5CAB>9G82>AB8. >A:>;L:C 1>;LH8=AB2> 8AA;54>20=89 ?@>2>48;8AL 8 ?@>2>4OBAO 2 >A=>2=>< =0 45BOE 8 ?>4@>AB:0E, B> >?8AK205<K5 2 =8E G5@BK A 1>;LH>9 4>;59 25@>OB=>AB8 <>3CB ?@54AB02;OBL ;8HL >?@545;5==K9 2>7@0AB=>9 MB0? 2 AB0=>2;5=88 E0@0:B5@0 8 ?>425@30BLAO 2 40;L=59H5< A5@L57=>9 B@0=AD>@<0F88. <5==> ?>MB><C 4;O CAB0=>2;5=8O CAB>9G82KE 8 B8?8G5A:8E :0G5AB2 ;8G=>AB8 =5>1E>48<> 8A?>;L7>20=85 =5 B>;L:> C?><O=CB>9 2KH5 @0AH8@5==>9 A@02=8B5;L=>9 AE5<K 8AA;54>20=8O, => 8 ?@8<5=5=8O ;>=38BN4=>9 AB@0B5388. 8G=>AB=K5 87<5=5=8O, :0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL, 2>7=8:0NB =5 ?@O<> ?>4 2;8O=85< =0@CH5=8O :0:>9-B> :>=:@5B=>9 DC=:F88, 81> A0<8 DC=:F88 157;8G=K; >=8 ;8HL 8=AB@C<5=B, A@54AB2> 4>AB865=8O :>=:@5B=KE G5;>25G5A:8E F5;59. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ;8G=>ABL E0@0:B5@87C5BAO 2=5GC2AB25==>ABLN, =5A2>48<>ABLN : A2>8< ?@8@>4=K< ?@54?>AK;:0<, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 : >B45;L=K< DC=:F8O<. =0 D>@<8@C5BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 2:;NG5=8O G5;>25:0 2 A8AB5<C >1I5AB25==KE >B=>H5=89. "0 8;8 8=0O ?0B>;>38O 70B@C4=O5B 2AB@0820=85 2 MBC A8AB5<C, 87<5=O5B E0@0:B5@ A0<8E >B=>H5=89 :0: 8718@0B5;L=KE A2O759 G5;>25:0 A <8@><, ?@5645 2A53> A <8@>< :C;LBC@K.  B>;L:> >?>A@54>20==K5 B0:8< >1@07>< =54>AB0B:8 >B45;L=>9 DC=:F88 A?>A>1=K ?>2;8OBL =0 ?@>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8. 4=0:> B>, GB> 87<5=5=85 >B=>H5=89 A <8@>< G5;>25G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K ?@8 @07=>>1@07=KE 2840E 487>=B>35=570 8<55B 199 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O <=>3> >1I8E G5@B  87>;OF8O >B >1I5AB20, =0AB>@>65==>5 8;8 =530B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 53> G;5=>2 : 8=20;840<, =5?@028;L=>5 A5<59=>5 2>A?8B0=85 8 B. ?., A?>A>1=> ?@82>48BL : ?>E>68< E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8< =0@CH5=8O< C @07=KE 3@C?? ;8F. I5 @07 ?>4G5@:=5<, GB> ?0B>18>;>38G5A:89 D0:B>@ =5 O2;O5BAO 548=AB25==>9 ?@8G8=>9 48A30@<>=870F88 A>F80;L=KE >B=>H5=89 G5;>25:0 8 >1I5AB20 45D>@<0F88. "5< =5 <5=55 @57C;LB0B >AB05BAO 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 8=20@80=B=K<  >B:;>=5=8O 2 ;8G=>AB=>< @0728B88. >MB><C 2K45;5=85 C7:>A?5F8D8G5A:8E B8?>2 ;8G=>AB8, E0@0:B5@=KE 4;O >?@545;5==>3> 2840487>=B>35=570, ?@54AB02;O5BAO <0;>?5@A?5:B82=>9 =0CG=>9 7040G59. ! ?>4>1=K< CA?5E>< <>6=> 1K;> 1K 70=8<0BLAO >?8A0=85< 548=>3> B8?0 ;8G=>AB8 74>@>2>3> G5;>25:0, 83=>@8@CO ?@8 MB>< 15A:>=5G=>5 @07=>>1@0785 53> 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?@8@>4K, AB>;L 65 A2>9AB25==>9 8 4;O 8=20;840. 07;8G8O 2 40==>< A;CG05 :0A0NBAO ;8HL 25@>OB=>AB8 @8A:0 2>7=8:=>25=8O =0@CH5=89 2 D>@<8@>20=88 8E ;8G=>AB8. >=B@>;L=K5 2>?@>AK 0:>2> A>>B=>H5=85 18>;>38G5A:8E 8 A>F80;L=KE D0:B>@>2 2 ?@>F5AA5 D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 2 =>@<5 8 ?0B>;>388? 0:>2K >A=>2=K5 ?@8=F8?K 8AA;54>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 ;8F A >B:;>=5=88 2 @0728B88?  G5< A>AB>8B 87<5=5=85 ?@54AB02;5=89 >1 >A>15==>ABOE ;8G =>AB8 8=20;84>2? 0:>2K >A=>2=K5 <5E0=87<K D>@<8@>20=8O =0@CH5=89 2 @0728B88 ;8G=>AB8 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 A >3@0=8G5==K<8 2>7 <>6=>ABO<8?  ;020 14. 8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 J3. 5930@=8: . ., @0BCAL . !. G5@:8 ?> ?A8E>;>388 0=><0;L=>3> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8. ., 1980. >B>2 . . 5D5:B 7@5=8O 8 ?A8E8G5A:>5 @0728B85 ;8G=>AB8 // A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 A;5?KE 8 A;01>284OI8E H:>;L =8:>2. ., 1981. 0;86=N: -. !. A8E8G5A:85 =0@CH5=8O ?@8 45BA:8E F5@51 @0;L=KE ?0@0;8G0E. 852, 1587. 51548=A:89 . . 0@CH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O C 45B59. ., 1985. 8B20:. . A8E>;>38O A;5?KE 8 A;01>284OI8E. !1., 1999. 0:A8<>20 . .., 8;NB8=0 . . C@A ;5:F89 ?> 45BA:>9 ?0 B>?A8E>;>388. >AB>2-=0->=C, 2000. 0<09GC: . . A8E>;>38O 487>=B>35=570. !1., 2000. 0B2552 . $. A8E8G5A:85 =0@CH5=8O ?@8 45D5:B0E 7@5=8O 8 A;CE0. ., 1985. 5B@>20 . ., 5;O:>20 . . B> >=8, 45B8 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. ., 1998. >60@ . A8E>;>38O 0=><0;L=KE 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2  ?0 B>?A8E>;>38O. ., 1996. A8E>;>38O 3;CE8E45B59/>4 @54. . . !>;>2L520. ., 1971. C15=HB59= !. /. A8E>;>38O C<AB25==> >BAB0;>3> H:>;L=8 :0. ., 1989. !8=O: . ., C45;L<0= . . A>15==>AB8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @07 28B8O 3;CE>3> @515=:0. ., 1975. !>;=F520 . . "8D;>?A8E>;>38O 45BAB20. ., 2000. (8?8FK=0 . ., 0<09GC: . . 5BA:89 F5@51@0;L=K9 ?0 @0;8G. !1., 2001. (8?8FK=0 . . 5>1CG05<K9 @515=>: 2 A5<L5 8 >1I5AB25. !1., 2002. 8B5@0BC@0 5;>?>;JA:0O . . A8E>;>38G5A:0O 4803=>AB8:0 ;8G=>AB8 45 B59 A 7045@6:>9 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. ., 1999. @0BCAL. !. =><0;88 ;8G=>AB8. ., 1988. 200 0:;NG5=85 .' 0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O =0 A>2@5<5==>< MB0?5 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 48=0<8G=> @072820NICNAO >B@0A;L ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8. > <=>3>< MB> >1CA;>2;5=> C25;8G5=85< @07=>>1@07=KE >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E>D878G5A:>< @0728B88, >A>15==> A@548 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2.  A?5F80;878@>20==>9 ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:>9 ?><>I8 =C640NBAO =5 B>;L:> 45B8, >1CG0NI85AO 2 :>@@5:F8>==KE CG@5645=8OE, => 8 2>A?8B0==8:8 <0AA>2KE H:>; 8 45BA:8E A04>2. >;LH8=AB2> B0:8E 45B59 =5 3@C1K5, 0 AB5@BK5, ?>3@0=8G=K5 D>@<K >B:;>=5=89, ?@>O2;ONI85AO 2 45D8F8B5 2=8<0=8O, @0AAB@>9AB20E M<>F8>=0;L=>9 AD5@K, E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8E, ?>2545=G5A:8E 45280F8OE 8 ?@. !;54AB285< MB>3> AB0=>2OBAO 70B@C4=5=8O 2 D>@<8@>20=88 @07;8G=KE D>@< 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@5645 2A53> CG51=>9, 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 CAB>9G820O A>F80;L=0O 457040?B0F8O 8 =0@CH5=8O ?@>F5AA0 A>F80;870F88. @8G8=0<8 2A53> ?5@5G8A;5==>3> <>3CB 2KABC?0BL @07=>>1@07=K5 ?0B>35==K5 D0:B>@K 2 2845 @0AAB@>9AB2 F5=B@0;L=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, <=>3>G8A;5==K5 E@>=8G5A:85 A><0B8G5A:85 701>;520=8O, =51;03>?@8OB=K5 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 CA;>28O 2 2845 BO65;KE M<>F8>=0;L=KE ?5@56820=89, G0I5 2A53> A2O70==KE A =5?@028;L=K< A5<59=K< 2>A?8B0=85<, A8BC0F8O<8 2K=C645==>3> ?5@5A5;5=8O, =0A8;8O 8 B. 4. #25;8G5=85 G8A;5==>AB8 ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 ACI5AB25==> 87<5=8;> E0@0:B5@ >B=>H5=8O A> AB>@>=K : =8< >1I5AB20, GB> AB0;> 4>?>;=8B5;L=K< AB8<C;>< 2 @0728B88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, ?>2KA82 55 A>F80;L=CN 7=0G8<>ABL. 202  07=>>1@0785 ?@8:;04=KE 7040G, AB>OI8E ?5@54 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>3859, B0: 8;8 8=0G5 A?>A>1AB2C5B 0:B82870F88 55 2=CB@5==59 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 =0?@02;5==>AB8, 2 G0AB=>AB8 @5H5=8N B0:>9, :070;>AL 1K, AC3C1> 0:045<8G5A:>9 8 2<5AB5 A B5< 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 ?@8:;04=>9 7040G8  ACI=>AB8 D5=><5=0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. 1>1I5==>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > 487>=B>35=575 8 53> 48DD5@5=F80;L=KE ?@87=0:0E 206=>, ?@5645 2A53>, 2 ?@0:B8G5A:>< A<KA;5: 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 ?A8E>4803=>AB8G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:5 25AL<0 A;>6=> @073@0=8G8BL :@09=85 20@80=BK =>@<0;L=>3> @0728B8O >B AB5@BKE ?>3@0=8G=KE D>@< 487>=B>35=89. >4>1=>3> @>40 >H81:8 >1E>4OBAO >G5=L 4>@>3> 8, : A>60;5=8N, ?>;CG0NB 2A5 1>;LH55 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85. 082=0O C15645==>ABL 2 B><, GB> ?>4>1=CN ?@>1;5<C <>6=> @5H8BL 02B><0B8G5A:8 ?CB5< 8A?>;L7>20=8O <=>3>>1@07=KE ?A8E>4803=>AB8G5A:8E <5B>48:, 8;;N78O, ?@8G5< =5157>?0A=0O. 57 @07@01>B:8 B5>@5B8G5A:8E >A=>2 ;N1K5 ?@8:;04=K5 >B@0A;8 @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> ?@52@0I0NBAO 2 CB8;8B0@=K5 ?@840B:8 =0C:8. 1KG=0O <5E0=8G5A:0O AC<<0F8O ?@54AB02;5=89 > @07=KE 2840E 487>=-B>35=570 =5 405B A0<0 ?> A515 >1>1I5==>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O > ACI=>AB8 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. ;O MB>3> B@51C5BAO B5>@5B8G5A:89 0=0;87. >;55 B>3>, >1>1I5==>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?@8@>45 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O :0: B0:>2>3> ?>72>;O5B @0AH8@8BL =0H8 7=0=8O > :>=:@5B=KE 53> D>@<0E. >2>@O > 2=CB@5==59 ;>38:5 =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O, . !. K3>BA:89 ?>4G5@:820;, GB> 4;O 2AO:>9 =0C:8 @0=LH5 8;8 ?>765 =0ABC?05B <><5=B, :>340 >=0 4>;6=0 >A>7=0BL A51O A0<>5 :0: F5;>5, >A<KA;8BL A2>8 <5B>4K 8 ?5@5=5AB8 2=8<0=85 A D0:B>2 8 O2;5=89 =0 B5 ?>=OB8O, :>B>@K<8 >=0 ?>;L7C5BAO (!>1@. A>G. ".1, A. 310). !:070==>5 G@572KG09=> 0:BC0;L=> 4;O A>2@5<5==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 5:>B>@K5 =0C:8 =0G8=0NB A2>5 D>@<8@>20=85 A >1I59 B5>@88, 0 ?>B>< ?5@5E>4OB : @0728B8N >B45;L=KE >B@0A;59 8 G0AB=KE :>=F5?F89. !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 2 A2>5< @0728B88 H;0 >1@0B=K< ?CB5<: =5<=>3>G8A;5==0O A>2>:C?=>ABL 55 @0745;>2 4>;3> 0AA>F88@>20;>AL A =0C:>9, 2 F5;>< C65 2 A5@5- 203 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 0:;NG5=85 48=5 XX AB>;5B8O AB0;> A:;04K20BLAO ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 >1I5< ?@54<5B5, 40NI5< 2>7<>6=>ABL >?@545;8BL 55 0:BC0;L=K9 8 ?>B5=F80;L=K9 A>AB02. 5157K=B5@5A=> B0:65 >B<5B8BL =5:>B>@CN 8AB>@8G5A:CN 8=25@A8>==>ABL 2 @0728B88 A?5F80;L=>9 8 45BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388. >A;54=OO :0: @07 70=8<0;0AL 87CG5=85< >1I8E ?@>1;5< 2 CI5@1 2>?@>A0< 8=48284C0;L=KE @07;8G89. $>@<8@>20=85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@>8AE>48B 70 AG5B ?>O2;5=8O =>2KE @0745;>2, GB> 45;05B 55 ?@54<5B 2=CB@5==5 ?@>B82>@5G82K<. -B> ;8H=89 @07 3>2>@8B >1 0:BC0;L=>AB8 8AA;54>20=8O ?@>1;5< >1I53> E0@0:B5@0, :>=AB8BC8@CNI8E F5;>AB=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > 548=>< ?@54<5B5 =0C:8. 0 =0G0;L=KE MB0?0E @0728B8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, :>340 ACI5AB2>20;> =5 1>;55 B@5E 55 >B@0A;59, 2=CB@5==OO ?@>B82>@5G82>ABL ?@54<5B0 O2=> =5 >A>7=020;0AL, E>BO ACI5AB2>20;0 C65 B>340. 0AH8@5=85 A?5:B@0 >B@0A;52KE =0?@02;5=89 >1>AB@O5B >ICI5=85 D@03<5=B0@=>AB8 55 ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O 8 0:B82878@C5B ?>8A: 53> 8=B53@0B82=KE ?@54AB02;5=89.  :0G5AB25 107>2>3> ?>=OB8O 4;O >1I59 B5>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, A =0H59 B>G:8 7@5=8O, 4>;6=0 2KABC?0BL :0B53>@8O @0728B8O, 0 =5 487>=B>35=570. !0<> @0728B85 ?>=8<05BAO :0: C=825@A0;L=>5 A2>9AB2> <0B5@88 8 A>7=0=8O, ?@>O2;ONI55AO 2 =5>1@0B8<><, =0?@02;5==>< 8 70:>=><5@=>< 8E 87<5=5=88, 2 @57C;LB0B5 G53> 2>7=8:05B =>2>5 :0G5AB25==>5 A>AB>O=85 >1J5:B0  53> A>AB020 8 AB@C:BC@K.  MB>9 A2O78 ?@54<5B>< 87CG5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 4>;6=K 2KABC?0BL =5 =0@CH5=8O 2 @0728B88 A0<8 ?> A515, 0 B>, :0: ?@>B5:05B ?@>F5AA ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2 =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>28OE, A;54AB285< G53> 8 O2;ONBAO 2>7=8:0NI85 =0@CH5=8O. "5>@5B8G5A:89 0=0;87 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?> A2>59 ACB8 5ABL A>?>AB02;5=85 ?0@0<5B@>2 35=570 ?A8E8:8 A ?0@0<5B@0<8 ?0B>35==KE CA;>289. > B5E ?>@ ?>:0 =530B82=K5 2>7459AB285 =5 A?>A>1=> =0@CH8BL F5;>AB=>ABL ?A8E8:8 8;8, =0>1>@>B, ?>:0 ?A8E8:0 A?>A>1=0 2 =51;03>?@8OB=>9 A8BC0F88 A>E@0=OBL A2>N F5;>AB=>ABL, 87<5=OO ?@8 MB>< ;N1K5 A2>8 ?0@0<5B@K, <K <>65< 3>2>@8BL > =0@CH5==>< @0728B88. #B@0B0 F5;>AB=>AB8 >B;8G05B =0@CH5==>5 @0728B85 >B 8=>3> D5=><5=0  @0A?040, =5 O2;ONI53>AO ?@54<5B>< 87CG5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388.  >B;8G85 >B CA;>2=> =>@<0;L=>3> @0728B8O 487>=B>35=88 ?@5645 2A53> 4>;6=K E0@0:B5@87>20BLAO AB5?5=LN @0AAB@>9AB20 >?>A@54>20==>AB8 AB@>5=8O 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89. "0:8< >1@07><, F5;>AB=>ABL ?A8E8:8 8 C@>25=L 55 >?>A@54>20==>AB8 2KABC?0NB >A=>2=K<8 :@8B5@8O<8, >B3@0=8G820NI8<8 =0@CH5==>5 @0728B85, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, >B =>@<0;L=>3>, 0 A 4@C3>9  >B D5=><5=>2 @0A?040. > A@02=5=8N A ?>A;54=8<, 2 CA;>28OE 487>=B>35=570 A>E@0=ONBAO 25AL<0 2KA>:85, E>BO 8 8=48284C0;L=> 20@8015;L=K5, ?>B5=F80;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8. E ACI=>ABL 8 ?@8@>40 B0:65 A>AB02;ONB ?@54<5B=>5 A>45@60=85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 204    # ! !+ !&, !% I.  &-"'!  &5;L :C@A0. $>@<8@>20=85 107>2KE ?@54AB02;5=89 > <5 B>4>;>38G5A:8E >A=>20E 8 AB@C:BC@5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 >B@0A;8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8. 040G8 :C@A0. $>@<8@>20=85 ?@54AB02;5=89 > ?@54<5B =>< A>45@60=88, F5;OE 8 7040G0E A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, 55 A2O7OE A 4@C38<8 =0C:0<8 8 <5AB5 2 AB@C:BC@5 A>2@5<5==> 3> G5;>25:>7=0=8O. "@51>20=8O : CA2>5=8N A>45@60=8O :C@A0.  @57C;LB0B5 87CG5=8O <0B5@80;0 :C@A0 ABC45=B 4>;65= ?@8>1@5AB8 DC=40 <5=B0;L=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O: > ACI=>AB8 D5=><5=0 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O, > 53> AB@C:BC@5 8 A2>9AB20E, Q > <5B>40E A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, % > <5AB5 2 AB@C:BC@5 4@C38E =0C:. . !  # ! 1. @54<5B=>5 A>45@60=85 A>2@5<5==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 @>1;5<0 ?@54<5B0 8 >1J5:B0 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. @>F5AA 48DD5@5=F80F88 8 8=B53@0F88 ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. B3@0=8G5=85 ?@54<5B0 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >B A>45@60=8O ?0B>?A8E>;>388, :;8=8- 206  @>3@0<<0 :C@A0 A=>2K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, =59@>?A8E>;>388 8 ?A8E>?0B>;>388. &5;8 8 7040G8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 0CG=>-B5>@5B8G5A:85 7040G8 A>2@5<5==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. @8:;04=K5 8 ?@0:B8G5A:85 7040G8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. A=>2=K5 =0?@02;5=8O 2 @5H5=88 =0CG=> ?@0:B8G5A:8E 7040G  @5018;8B0F8>==0O ?A8E>;>38O, ?A8E>;>38O 8=B53@8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O, A?5F80;L=0O ?5403>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O, 2>7@0AB=0O A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O, :>@@5:F8>==0O A?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. !2O7L A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A 4@C38<8 =0C:0<8. !2>5>1@0785 ?@54<5B=KE A2O759 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A 4@C38<8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 48AF8?;8=0<8 (2>7@0AB=0O, >1I0O, ?5403>38G5A:0O 8 :;8=8G5A:0O >B@0A;8). A>15==>AB8 A2O78 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A :;8=8:>-18>;>38G5A:8<8 48AF8?;8=0<8 (35=5B8:0, ?A8E>?0B>;>38O, M2>;NF8>==0O 18>;>38O, =52@>?0B>;>38O, >DB0;L<>;>38O 8 4@.). !2O7L A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A :>@@5:F8>==>9 ?5403>38:>9. A=>2=K5 >B@0A;8 A>2@5<5==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. >;L 8 7=0G5=85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 ?>=8<0=88 ?@8@>4K G5;>25:0 8 53> @0728B8O. 2. !>2@5<5==K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O > ACI=>AB8 D5=><5=0 =0@C H5==>3> @0728B8O >=OB85 > ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88. !>2@5<5==K5 B5>@88 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. ?@545;5=8O 487>=B>35=570. !CI=>ABL D5=><5=0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 8 53> >A=>2=K5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8. >=OB85 =>@<K 8 ?0B>;>388 2 A>2@5<5==>< G5-;>25:>7=0=88. A=>2=K5 48DD5@5=F80;L=K5 ?>4E>4K : ?@>1;5<5 =>@<0  ?0B>;>38O: 8=BC8B82=>-M<?8@8G5A:89, G0AB>B=K9, :C;LBC@0;L=>-@5;OB82=K9, 040?B0F8>==K9, ?>4E>4 A>F80;L=KE =>@<, 3C<0=8AB8G5A:89, C@>2=52K9 8 4@. =0G5=85 ?@54AB02;5=89 > =0@CH5==>< @0728B88 4;O ?>=8<0=8O ?@8@>4K =>@<0;L=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O ?A8E8:8. 3. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 !2>5>1@0785 ?@54AB02;5=89 >1 >B:;>=5=8OE 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 =0 C@>2=5 >1K45==>3> A>7=0=8O. 5;838>7=K5 ?@54- 207 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O @>3@0<<0 :C@A0 A=>2K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 I. AB02;5=8O > ?@8@>45 ?A8E8G5A:8E 0=><0;89. A>15==>AB8 >B@065=8O >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 2 EC4>65AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 8 8A:CAAB25 :0: D>@<5 EC4>65AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O. 0CG=>5 A>7=0=85 :0: >A=>2=>9 8AB>G=8: 7=0=89 > ACI=>AB8 8 ?@8@>45 >B:;>=5=89 >B =>@<0;L=>3> E>40 @0728B8O. !8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 >1CG5=85 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 :0: ?@54?>AK;:0 2>7=8:=>25=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. ;8=8:>-M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>5 8 ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:>5 =0?@02;5=8O 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. >;L 8 7=0G5=85 . !. K3>BA:>3> 2 AB0=>2;5=88 8 @0728B88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. !>2@5<5==>5 A>AB>O=85 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 >AA88. A=>2=K5 >B@0A;8 A>2@5<5==>9 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388: B8D;>?A8E>;>38O, AC@4>?A8E>;>-38O, ?A8E>;>38O ;8F A C<AB25==>9 >BAB0;>ABLN, ?A8E>;>38O 45B59 A 7045@6:>9 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, ?A8E>;>38O 45B59 A =0@CH5=8O<8 >?>@=>-42830B5;L=>3> 0??0@0B0, ?A8E>;>38O ;8F A =0@CH5=8O<8 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 8 ?>2545=G5A:>9 AD5@, ?A8E>;>38O 45B59 A> A;>6=K<8 =54>AB0B:0<8 @0728B8O 8 4@. 4. 5B>4K 8 ?@8=F8?K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >=OB85 > =0CG=>< <5B>45. 01;N45=85 :0: <5B>4 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 53> A2>5>1@0785 2 ?@>F5AA5 87CG5=8O ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. A>15==>AB8 8A?>;L7>20=8O <5B>40 M:A?5@8<5=B0 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 84K 8 D>@<K M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE B5E=8:, ?@8<5=O5<KE 2 ?@0:B8:5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. !B0=40@B878@>20==K5 ?A8E>4803=>AB8G5A:85 ?@>F54C@K 8 8E 8A?>;L7>20=85 2 ?@0:B8:5 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 5B>4 0=:5B 8 >?@>A>2. A>15==>AB8 ?@8<5=5=8O A0<>=01;N45=8O 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. =0<=5AB8G5A:89 <5B>4 2 ?@>F5AA5 87CG5=8O @07;8G=KE D>@< =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. A=>2=K5 ?@8=F8?K ?@>2545=8O 8AA;54>20=89 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 5. @8G8=K >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 8 D0:B>@K, 8E >?@545;ONI85 -:7>35==K5 8 M=4>35==K5 2@54=>AB8 :0: ?@8G8=K >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88. A=>2=K5 D0:B>@K, >?>A@54CNI85 459- 208 AB285 ?0B>35==KE 2@54=>AB59: ;>:0;870F8O, M:A?>78F8O, 8=B5=A82=>ABL, 2>7@0AB, :><?5=A0B>@=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 4@. @>D8;0:B8:0 >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88. 6. !B@C:BC@0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 8 <5E0=87<K D>@<8@> 20=8O A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89 >=OB85 > AB@C:BC@5 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. A=>2=K5 ?0@0<5B@K 487>=B>35=570. @54AB02;5=8O > ?5@28G=KE, 2B>@8G=KE 8 B@5B8G=KE =0@CH5=8OE 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88. >40;L=>-A?5F8D8G5A:85 8 <>40;L=>-=5A?5F8D8G5A:85 =0@CH5=8O. 1I85 8 A?5F8D8G5A:85 =0@CH5=8O 2 AB@C:BC@5 487>=B>35=570. 5E0=87<K D>@<8@>20=8O 2B>@8G=KE >B:;>=5=89: 45?@820F8>==K9, >1I5:><<C=8:0B82=K9, 45OB5;L=>-AB=K9, @5G52>9, A5=78B82=K9. 7. ;0AA8D8:0F88 >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 8 >1 I0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 >B45;L=KE D>@< 487>=B>35=570 ;0AA8D8:0F8O :0: <5B>4 =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O. @8=F8?K ?>AB@>5=8O =0CG=KE :;0AA8D8:0F89. "5>@5B8G5A:85 8 M<?8@8G5A:85 :;0AA8D8:0F88 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88. 564C=0@>4=0O :;0AA8D8:0F8O ?A8E8G5A:8E 8 ?>2545=G5A:8E @0AAB@>9AB2 10-3> ?5@5A<>B@0. !>2@5<5==K5 >B5G5AB25==K5 :;0AA8D8:0F88 . . >20;520, . . 51548=A:>3>, . . !5<03> 8 4@. @0B:0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 >B45;L=KE D>@< 487>=B>35=570. 8. @54AB02;5=8O > ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 :>@@5:F88, :><?5=A0 F88, @5018;8B0F88 8 018;8B0F88 >=OB85 > :><?5=A0B>@=KE D5=><5=0E. !B@C:BC@=>-C@>2-=520O >@30=870F8O :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2. 8>;>38G5A:85 8 A>F80;L=K5 D0:B>@K :><?5=A0F88. >=OB85 > 45:><?5=A0F88, 38?5@:><?5=A0F88, ?A524>:><?5=A0F88. 40?B0F8>==K5 8 :><?5=A0B>@=K5 ?@>F5AAK. >=OB85 @5018;8B0F88. $>@<K 8 =0?@02;5=8O @5018;8B0F8>==KE <5@>?@8OB89. 18;8B0F8O. 0I8B=K5 <5E0=87<K 8 :>?8=3-AB@0B5-388. >=OB85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 :>@@5:F88. @>1;5<0 A>F8- 209 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 0;L=>-B@C4>2>9 040?B0F88 8 8=B53@0F88 ;8F A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. 9. 5?@820F8>==K5 D5=><5=K :0: ?@8G8=0 8 A;54AB285 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O !CI=>ABL 45?@820F8>==KE D5=><5=>2. A=>2=K5 B5>@88 45?@820F88. 84K 8 D>@<K 45?@820F8>==KE D5=><5=>2. 5?@820F8>==K5 O2;5=8O 8 A8BC0F88. !5=A>@=0O 45?@820F8O. ><<C=8:0B82=0O 45?@820F8O. 0B5@8=A:0O 45?@820F8O. 5?@820F8O 8 =0@CH5==>5 @0728B85. @8=F8?K ?@>D8;0:B8:8 45?@820F8>==KE O2;5=89. >=B@>;L=K5 2>?@>AK !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O :0: >B@0A;L 7=0=89 8 ?@>D5AA8> =0;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL. &5;8 8 7040G8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. !2O7L A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A 4@C38<8 =0C:0<8. @>1;5<0 =>@<K 8 ?0B>;>388 2 A>2@5<5==>9 =0C:5. !CI=>ABL 8 DC=:F88 :><?5=A0B>@=KE <5E0=87<>2. >=OB85 > ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 :>@@5:F88. $>@<K 8 284K @5018;8B0F88. !B@C:BC@0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 8 55 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8. >;L :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 7=0=89 2 ?>=8<0=88 ?@8@> 4K ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. !>2@5<5==K5 >B@0A;8 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. !CI=>ABL D5=><5=0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. @8=F8?K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. 1I5<5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. >=:@5B=>-<5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E> ;>388. >=:@5B=>-<5B>48G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;> 388. AB>@8G5A:85 MB0?K AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. >;L >1K45==>3> A>7=0=8O 2 D>@<8@>20=88 ?@54AB02;5=89 > ?@8@>45 =0@CH5==>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. 210  @>3@0<<0 :C@A0 A=>2K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 5;838>7=K5 B>;:>20=8O ACI=>AB8 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O. %C4>65AB25==>5 A>7=0=85 8 53> 2:;04 2 ?>=8<0=85 ACI=>AB8 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O. !8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 >1CG5=85 8 2>A?8B0=85 45B59 A >B:;>=5=8O <8 2 @0728B88 8 AB0=>2;5=88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. >;L . !. K3>BA:>3> 2 AB0=>2;5=88 >B5G5AB25==>9 A?5F80;L =>9 ?A8E>;>388. ;8=8:>-M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>5 8 ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:>5 =0?@02;5=85 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8E 8AB>@8G5A:85 A> >B=>H5=8O. @8G8=K >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88 8 D0:B>@K, 8E >?@545;ONI85. >;L 18>;>38G5A:>3> 8 A>F80;L=>3> D0:B>@0 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 8 ?@5>4>;5=88 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88. >;>65=85 8=20;840 2 A>2@5<5==>< >1I5AB25. >;L >1CG5=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 :>@@5:F88 >B:;>=5=89 2 @0728B88. A>15==>AB8 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E <5B>4>2 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8 E>;>388. !B@C:BC@0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 8 55 >A=>2=K5 E0@0:B5@8A B8:8. ;0AA8D8:0F88 >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88. !CI=>ABL 45?@820F8>==KE D5=><5=>2. A=>2=0O ;8B5@0BC@0 >340=>20 ". . !C@4>A?8E>;>38O. ., 2002. @0BCAL . !. =><0;88 ;8G=>AB8. .,1988. 097<0= . 5018;8B0F8>==0O ?5403>38:0. ., 1996. 8=0@A:0O . . 0==55 @5G52>5 @0728B85 @515=:0 8 ?@>1;5<K 45D5:B>;>388. ., 1987. >;>68= . ., !C11>B8= .. . 40?B0F8O 8 :><?5=A0F8O  C=825@A0;L=K9 18>;>38G5A:89 <5E0=87< ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O. ., 1987. K3>4A:0O . ., 8D0=>20 ". . 52 !5<5=>28G K3>BA:89. ., 1996. K3>BA:89. !. A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 45D5:B>;>388. ., 1996. K3>BA:89. !. !>1@. A>G. ". 5. ., 1983. 211 !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 9. 0<A:89%. !. #<AB25==> >BAB0;K5 45B8. AB>@8O 87CG5=8O, 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >1CG5=8O A 4@52=8E 2@5<5= 4> A5@548=K XIX 25:0. ., 1995. 5930@=8: . ., @0BCAL . !. G5@:8 ?> ?A8E>;>388 0=><0;L =>3> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8. ., 1980. 010=>2 . . A8E>A>F80;L=0O @5018;8B0F8O 8 A>F80;L=0O ?A8E80B@8O. !1., 1998. 51548=A:89 . . 0@CH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2 45BA :>< 2>7@0AB5. ., 2003. 8B20:. 7^ A8E>;>38O A;5?KE 8 A;01>284OI8E. !1., 1999. C1>2A:89 . . A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 4803=>AB8:8 0=> <0;L=>3> @0728B8O 45B59. ., 1989. 0;>D552 . . !?5F80;L=>5 >1@07>20=85 2 >AA88 8 70 @C15 6><. ., 1996. 0<09GC: . . A8E>;>38O 487>=B>35=570. ., 2000. >ABN:>20 . . 5G51=0O ?5403>38:0. ., 1997. A=>2K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 / >4 @54. . . C7=5F>2>9 8 4@. ., 2002. 5B@>20 . ., 5;O:>20 . . B> >=8, 45B8 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88? ., 1998. >60@ . A8E>;>38O 0=><0;L=KE 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2  ?0 B>?A8E>;>38O. ., 1996. !0<A>=>2 $. . A=>2K 35=5B8:8 2 45D5:B>;>388. ., 1980. !5<03> . /., !5<03> . . @>1;5<=K5 45B8. A=>2K 4803=> AB8G5A:>9 8 :>@@5:F8>==>9 @01>BK ?A8E>;>30. ., 2000. !>;=F520 . . "8D;>?A8E>;>38O 45BAB20. ., 2000. !?5F80;L=0O ?5403>38:0/>4 @54. . . 070@>2>9. , 2000. #A0=>20 . . !?5F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1990. (8?8FK=0 . . 5>1CG05<K9 @515=>: 2 A5<L5 8 >1I5AB25. !1., 2002. /@<>;5=:> . . @>1;5<K :><?5=A0F88 3;CE>BK. 852, 1976. >?>;=8B5;L=0O ;8B5@0BC@0 1. 4;5@ . "5>@8O 8 ?@0:B8:0 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. .; !1., 1996.  @>3@0<<0 :C@A0 A=>2K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 0A>20 . ., 3>@>20 !. $. AB>@8O AC@4>?5403>38:8. ., 1984. >=552. . 8 4@. A=>2K :>@@5:F8>==>9 ?5403>38:8. ., 1999. ><8F:528G !. . 5B>4K =0CG=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20 =89 2 45D5:B>;>388. @:CBA:, 1983. 0<A:89%. !. AB>@8O >;83>D@5=>?5403>38:8. ., 1974. 010=>2 . . 5018;8B0F8O ?A8E8G5A:8 1>;L=KE. ., 1985. >15@=8: . ., !8=52 . . 2545=85 2 A?5F80;L=>ABL 45D5: B>;>38O. 852, 1984. >@@5:F8>==0O ?5403>38:0/ >4 @54. . . C70=>20. ., 1999. 0?H8= . ., C75=>2 . . A=>2K 45D5:B>;>388. ., 1990. 51548=A:89 . . 0@CH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O C 45B59. . 1985 0<09GC: . . A8E>:>@@5:F8O 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 A =0@C H5=8O<8 2 @0728B88. !1., 2000. 0=>20-"><>20 . !. A8E>;>38G5A:0O @5018;8B0F8O ?@8 =0 @CH5=8OE ?>2545=8O 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5. !>D8O, 1981. 5=45;5288 . . ;8=8G5A:0O 8 <548F8=A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1999. !5<03> . /, !5<03> . . C:>2>4AB2> ?> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 4803=>AB8:5. ., 2000. !>;=F520 . . 0728B85 :><?5=A0B>@=KE ?@>F5AA>2 C A;5?KE 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0. ., 1980. !?5F80;L=0O ?5403>38:0/>4 @54. . . 070@>2>9. ., 2000. %C48: . . A8E>;>38O 0=><0;L=>3> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8. 852, 1993. %C48: . . 5BA:0O ?0B>?A8E>;>38O. 852, 1997. -D@>8<A>= . ., ;N<8=0 . . 5=5B8:0 >;83>D@5=88, ?A8 E>7>2, M?8;5?A88. ., 1978. 212  2545=85 3 ;020 1. @54<5B 8 7040G8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 13 ;020 2. 56?@54<5B=K5 A2O78 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 A 4@C38<8 =0C:0<8 23 ;020 3. @8=F8?K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 31 ;020 4. 5B>4K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 43 ;020 5. AB>@8O AB0=>2;5=8O A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388.... 65 ;020 6. @8G8=K >B:;>=5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 85 ;020 7. ;0AA8D8:0F88 =0@CH5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 91 ;020 8. !CI=>ABL D5=><5=0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 108 ;020 9. !B@C:BC@0 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 125 ;020 10. 5E0=87<K D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=KE =0@CH5=89 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 140 ;020 11. 1I85 8 A?5F8D8G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O 152 ;020 12. ><?5=A0F8O, :>@@5:F8O 8 @5018;8B0F8O :0: :0B53>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 164 ;020 13. 5?@820F8>==K5 D5=><5=K :0: ?@8G8=0 8 A;54AB285 =0@CH5==>3> @0728B8O 187 ;020 14. 8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 A >B:;>=5=8O<8 2 @0728B88 194 0:;NG5=85 202 @>3@0<<0 :C@A0 A=>2K A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 206  ', ",!" ', ?@54AB02;O5B 20H5<C 2=8<0=8N CG51=>-<5B>48G5A:>5 ?>A>185 . . !>@>:8=0 8 . . >:>@5=:>  "#  !&, !% @0:B8:C< ?> A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 O2;O5BAO A2>5>1@07=K< ?CB52>48B5;5< 4;O ABC45=B>2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E, ?5403>38G5A:8E, <548F8=A:8E 8 8=KE A?5F80;L=>AB59, 2A5E B5E, :B> B0: 8;8 8=0G5 A>?@8:0A05BAO A 45BL<8 A =0@CH5=8O<8 @0728B8O.  :@0B:>9 D>@<5 2 ?@0:B8:C<5 87;030NBAO >A=>2=K5 :0B53>@88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, >A25I0NBAO :>=F5?BC0;L=K5 ?>4E>4K : ?>=8<0=8N ?@>1;5<K >B:;>=ONI53>AO @0728B8O, @0A:@K20NBAO <5E0=87<K D>@<8@>20=8O A8AB5<=KE >B:;>=5=89, 0 B0:65 =0<5G0NBAO 2>7<>6=K5 ?CB8 4;O A0<>AB>OB5;L=KE =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89. 5>F5=8<CN ?><>IL 2 87CG5=88 A?5F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >:06CB =03;O4=K5 87>1@065=8O A8AB5<0B878@>20==KE ?@54AB02;5=89  AE5<K, ?>72>;ONI85 1>;55 ?@>4C:B82=> 8 =0 4;8B5;L=K9 A@>: 70?><=8BL ?@54AB02;5==CN 8=D>@<0F8N. :;NG5==K5 2 ?@0:B8:C< B5AB>2K5 7040=8O 4;O ?@>3@0<<8@>20==>3> :>=B@>;O 7=0=89 ?>72>;ONB 1KAB@> 8 >1J5:B82=> >F5=8BL A>1AB25==K9 C@>25=L >2;045=8O 7=0=8O<8. >?@>AK 4;O >1AC645=8O =0 A5<8=0@0E, B5<K 4>:;04>2 8 @5D5@0B>2, ?@8<5@=K5 B5<K :C@A>2KE @01>B A :@0B:8<8 @5:><5=40F8O<8 ?> =0?8A0=8N, =5A><=5==>, 708=B5@5ACNB =5 B>;L:> ABC45=B>2, => 8 ?@5?>4020B5;59, :0: =5>1E>48<K9 <5B>48G5A:89 <0B5@80;. ', ', ",!" #G51=>5 ?>A>185 8:B>@ 8E09;>28G !>@>:8= !&,/ !%/ ;02=K9 @540:B>@ . 284>= 0254CNI0O @540:F859 ". "C;C?L520 "5E=8G5A:89 @540:B>@ . >;5A=8G5=:> %C4>65AB25==K9 @540:B>@ . >@>75=5F ",!" ', ?@54AB02;O5B 20H5<C 2=8<0=8N :=838 ?> ?A8E>;>388 0A G8B0NB <=>385: 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 ?A8E>;>38, 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52BK, 8 ABC45=BK, >2;04520NI85 MB>9 =5?@>AB>9 A?5F80;L=>ABLN, 8 2A5 B5, :><C =C6=> C<5BL ?>=8<0BL ;N459 8 2;8OBL =0 =8E  ?5403>38, 2@0G8, <5=5465@K, 8 B5, :B> ?@>AB> AB@5<8BAO @07>1@0BLAO 2 A515 A0<>< 8 2 >:@C60NI5< <8@5.   ! #  ",!" ', >1@0I0BLAO ?> B5;5D>=0<: 8F5=78O  ! 000364 >B 29.12.99. >4?8A0=> 2 ?5G0BL 22.07.2004. $>@<0B 84%108'/3,. #A;. ?5G. ;. 13,5. 5G0BL 2KA>:0O. >?. B8@06 5000 M:7. 0:07 ! 27.  740B5;LAB2> 5GL. 199004, !0=:B-5B5@1C@3, . ., 3-O ;8=8O,6 (;8B. ), B5;. (812)323-76-70, 323-90-63, info@rech.spb.ru, www.rech.spb.ru B?5G0B0=> A D>B>D>@< 2 $# 5G0B=K9 42>@ 8=8AB5@AB20 $ ?> 45;0< ?5G0B8, B5;5@048>25I0=8O 8 A@54AB2 <0AA>2KE :><<C=8:0F89. 197110, !0=:B-5B5@1C@3, ':0;>2A:89 ?@., 15.  2 !0=:B-5B5@1C@35 2 >A:25 (812) 323-76-70 (812) 323-90-63 (095) 502-67-07 -;5:B@>==0O ?>GB0: rech@mail.Ianck.net 4@5A 2 A5B8 =B5@=5B: http://www.rech.spb.ru -'" ?> M;5:B@>==>9 ?>GB5: postbook@areal.com.ru ?> B5;.: 268-22-97; B5;./D0:A 268-90-93 ?> ?>GB5: 192236, !0=:B-5B5@1C@3, 0/O ! 300,  @50;      HYPERLINK "http://globalteka.ru/" globalteka.ru - @0<>B=>5 8 :0G5AB25==>5 2K?>;=5=85 2A5E 284>2 =0CG=KE @01>B. !:84:8, >@838=0;L=>ABL, :>=B@>;L ?;0380B0, ?@O<>5 >1I5=85 A 02B>@><. 0:070BL 2K?>;=5=85 CG51=>9 8;8 =0CG=>9 @01>BK <>6=> 745AL:  HYPERLINK "http://globalteka.ru/order.html" http://globalteka.ru/order.html 8A.5.1. AB>@8G5A:0O ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL D>@<8@>20=8O 7=0=89 >1 >B:;>=5=8OE 2 @0728B88 !?5F80;L=0O ?@0:B8:0 5403>38G5A:0O ?@0:B8:0 ;8=8G5A:0O ?@0:B8:0 0CG=>5 A>7=0=85 %C4>65AB25==>5 A>7=0=85 5;838>7=>5 A>7=0=85 1K45==>5 A>7=0=85 lN.^> hlnpvz"bɻ񻩭廩vhW!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!px,&t_ --DM gdJ!$s%d-DM ]s`%a$gdJ!!$M*d "-DM ]M^`*a$gdJ!$>%d  -DM ^>`%a$gdJ!$-DM ^a$gdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!bxfnF$|.̾vhZL>0>hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph.2Z 2<@x|*,r((`>ijijvhvhWIvhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph"$&rX:&t4ҿҠseWցIhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphbL.0h :T^f N j ~  ƸԪ⸊ykykZLhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph  > B D F J N T X Z     n  R   (~ߵߧߧ|n|_|Q@!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!5B*CJ\aJph%hJ!5B*CJOJQJ\aJphhJ!CJaJhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph&@ B D F L V X  jxr$&%d -DM ]&`%a$gdJ!$5d  -DM ^5a$gdJ!$-DM ^a$gdJ! -DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ! ~<fR:hjR"z\>$vx~thhYhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphx"t)H*P*R*eSS$-DM a$gdJ!$0d -DM ^0`a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! - -DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!X>JhN0 f!J""""N## %|%%d&&&'.(6(̾آ̾ṵg̰̰XghJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph"6(R(()r)t))F*H*N*R*V******`++@,,---ĶėĉxĉgYK=hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphR**0: ::Z;>pQ$  .d -DM ] ^ `.a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! (-DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$ %d -DM ] `%a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!$R-DM ^Ra$gdJ!-n.Z//200000122b3t3x3D446~66^77F8J8809999ǹwiwXJhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph9999999:::$::::X;Z;;2<6<<==x===ܺܛ܍sdVEV!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph=>>>>L???(@AvAAJBBBB`CCDDDF|FFFFGG(HHʾugYuKguhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph>BFIII.JM|c$&d  -DM ^&a$gdJ!$e-DM ^ea$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$  d -DM ] ^` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^ `a$gdJ!H IIIIIJ,J.J0JzKKKL^LL>MMMNNOzOqcUߡG9hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphzOOXPQRRRtSSSSXTTT*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph"MSYYZd\hi~_D$& d -DM ^&` a$gdJ!$  d -DM ] ^` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] ^a$gdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$"%d -DM ]"`%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] ^`a$gdJ!] ]>]]]]^d^^^^^_v__\``bBb`bbbbccFdddeeƷƩyhZyLyZhZyyHhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJpheerffLgg(hZh\hh6iiiiiiiiijBkk&lllɻ񩛷|iXJhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphiiiioTtBwzyydQ-DM ^gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!!$n3d -DM ]n^`3a$gdJ!!$50%d -DM ]5^0`%a$gdJ!$ed -DM ^ea$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!lmmmrnn\ooo8pqqfrrJsxs|s$tRtTtݻ{m{_{Q@Q{!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphTttuvvvw w@wBw x$xxybyfyxyzyyyyǶǧxjYjH5$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphyyyPzz4{{|||||4}J}} ~~ѵ맖wfUDw3!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphyy|nyyeL$jd  -DM ^ja$gdJ!$-DM ^a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$ *d -DM ]^ `*a$gdJ!!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ! #&-DM gdJ!*bfڀFfj~X\dЄDyhyZyL;LZ!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph lnֆF$8 ŴpbQbp@!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph > N8pސP6t^H$ƸƊ|ԊnƘԸƘ]n!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph^Vƚ:,}o^M<!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph©ʩ̩qq]$-DM ^a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!!$  %d -DM ] ^ `%a$gdJ! 60-DM ^gdJ! -DM ^ gdJ!%d -DM `%gdJ!`Ɵ֟ vPġ0̻}yk]QBQ4}hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphTX> pP©ȩ̩ҩzN0 㸪ɪ񘇘yhyתZhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph2f̹.ֽv`>! & F! PPd -DM ^P`gdn9$3-DM ]a$gdJ!$d-DM ]a$gdJ! >+-DM ^>gdJ!$R*d -DM ]R`*a$gdJ!!$&%d -DM ]^&`%a$gdJ!$`d -DM ^`a$gdJ! rZүF602ж<޸}o}a}PBhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!5B*\phhJ!5@B*\phhJ!5@B*\phhJ!5@B*\phhJ!5@B*\phhJ!5@B*\phhJ!@B*phhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph޸djȹʹ̹>bҼ,.qcUG9hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphԽֽL0PR¿ Dǹչn`RA3hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphֽRTiMi & F" F[d-DM ^[gdn9 & F" FFd-DM ^F`gdn9 & F" F[d-DM ^[gdn9$8-DM ]a$gdJ! & F! PPd -DM ^P`gdn9! & F! PPd -DM ^P`gdn9RTp$pz|^`2lntijxj\K\!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph|`n x81-DM ^81gdJ!H-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! d}gdJ!d-DM ^gdJ! & F" F[d-DM ^[gdn9 & F" FFd-DM ^F`gdn9  6:>DFdn^N>hJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphjhJ!UmHnHu%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJph(hJ!6>*@B*CJRH_]aJph#hJ!B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!CJaJhJ! 8:2d! & F# KKd-DM ^K`gdn9 Kxd-DM ^xgdJ! K}d-DM ^}gdJ! Kd-DM ^gdJ! Kd(-DM ^`gdJ!k-DM ^kgdJ!028:Xn"hjȼȼةȆvfUGhJ!B*CJRH_aJph!hJ!6B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphjH0tT & F# KKd-DM ^K`gdn9 & F# Kd-DM gdn9 & F# Kd&-DM gdn9 & F# KKd#-DM ^K`gdn9 & F# K-DM gdn9! & F# KKd-DM ^K`gdn9<FHj.0:̼繁xjZJ:*hJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!B*CJRH_aJph!hJ!6B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph:dfx z:nprnߩyfffVfhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphfpgG & F# KKd-DM ^K`gdn9 & F# Kd-DM gdn9 & F# Kd&-DM gdn9! & F# KKd(-DM ^K`gdn9! & F# KKd-DM ^K`gdn9! & F# KKd"-DM ^K`gdn9z~rY$d -DM `a$gdJ!@3Fd-DM ]@^3`FgdJ!$ ]-DM ^ a$gdJ! & F# KKd--DM ^K`gdn9 & F# K"-DM gdn9! & F# KKd(&-DM ^K`gdn9nx|4jJ* |\:|~`,.˽ˣ{m_mQm{mm_mQ{_m_{hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJRH{aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph~.Bhu$d -DM ^a$gdJ! dgdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!/-DM ^/gdJ!$ d -DM ] `a$gdJ!$   d -DM ] ^ ` a$gdJ! (@Dfh0H^hϾ{j\j\NBhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!h&,w^?$ d -DM ]^ `a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ! -DM ^ gdJ!$*d &-DM ]`*a$gdJ!d  -DM ^`gdJ!$".d -DM ]"^`.a$gdJ!$ *d -DM ] ^`*a$gdJ!h$& bJ& v`:÷񷚌~~pbQ?Q#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH !hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph(*,p>lhD0õћթՊyk]L!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph |^:tVx^FJ(ƸҪƜƜ|nҜ_|Q|hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph B p$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$"%d e-DM ^"`%a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ!`-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$d -DM ^`a$gdJ!  "n@B*򸩘|n]L;!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!6B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuf    f  B   t  Z  @     b R  l   ǧçÍÛÁyohJ!@B*phhJ!CJaJjJhJ!CJUaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph'    y\$d -DM ^`a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!]^gdJ!$ d-DM ] a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$" d -DM ]"` a$gdJ!$*d -DM ]^`*a$gdJ!   ^    <    p  R  8 : @ B d h j   ǶǨՊ|ՖpbTC!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph : B f h       u$"d -DM ]"^a$gdJ! dgdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!& +D-D/&M gdJ!$ d -DM ]^ `a$gdJ!       f   H   t V   ~  f    n  P    ŷ驷se鏩WF!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph  t" P# X# ) * zY!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!5-DM ^5gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ! 2   F! ! &" r" t" " N# P# V# Z# # @$ $ $% % & t& & V' ' ) ) n) ) L* * * + + + f, , D- &. . / ~/ `0 0 B1 1 1 1 <2 2 2 ǹǭթ㩭՛չխǍթխթչՍǭչչǩhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph2* 1 2 2 2 2 :3 <3 >3 @3 6 r$d [-DM ]a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ!`-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$> d -DM ]>^` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ! 2 2 2 2 2 83 <3 >3 @3 D3 3 ,4 4 5 5 5 \6 6 6 6 7 ,8 9 t9 v9 9 Z: : B; (< < Ƹt휪fXhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph6 v9 B C E K O :R ~]B$:*d -DM ]:`*a$gdJ!!$0 d -DM ]0^` a$gdJ!!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$+d -DM ^+a$gdJ!+-DM ^+gdJ!$ d -DM ^ `a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!< = |= = ? 6@ @ *A A B B B B C C C C jD D LE E E E bF G (H H |I I jJ J JK K K K `L L ,N N O O pO O NP ջǻ㭩㻋}}o}}}}hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*OJQJ^JphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph+NP P 0Q Q R 8R :R @R DR FR rR vR R R R R R 8S S S S T T T hU U ŷũŅ}ũoaPaoo!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph:R BR DR tR R R R R Y ] H` p$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ` a$gdJ! d gdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ! U U LV rV V V 8W W X X X Y Y vY Y ZZ Z >[ [ &\ ] ] ] ] d^ ^ ҳ{wk]O]OkOAwkOkhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph^ F_ _ F` H` a b b b b b b dc c d e :e *@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph6r 8r :r zv z  ΁ Ё ҁ ԁ ܁  s"-DM gdJ!:-DM gdJ! d}gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^ `a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ! -DM gdJ! d gdJ! y `z z z z `{ H| | 0} } ~ ~ x  \ Ԁ J ā ́ Ё ҁ ԁ ځ ށ   h l n p ŷũшрttfUUр!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ%hJ!5@B*OJQJ\^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph! j l n p P x چ 2 . c & F% ^^ d -DM ^^` gdn9 & F$ ^jd -DM ^jgdn9 & F$ ^jd -DM ^jgdn9$ 3-DM ^ a$gdJ!$d +-DM a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ! p v ` ԃ J 0  N P v x ؆ چ 0 2 , . , . ʼʸrdVdHrHrhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHu. .  qUU & F& Ued-DM ^egdn9 & F& Ued-DM ^egdn9$ 8-DM ] a$gdJ! & F$ ^jd -DM ^jgdn9 & F% ^^ d -DM ^^` gdn9 & F$ ^jd -DM ^jgdn9 ؉   :  @ tfUG9tGhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph B 0 ԍ z ^ Ə ȏ -DM ^gdJ! & F' Kd-DM gdn9Bd-DM ^B`gdJ! & F& Ued-DM ^egdn9 & F& UUd-DM ^U`gdn9 @ B ^ . 0 l ҍ ֍ ܍ J x z \ ^ z Ķė{j{fX{XG!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph ď ȏ ʏ ڏ ܏  0 2 ^ ` Đ 6 d ʓ H & qcRcDhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphȏ ܏ 2 ` & hU #-DM gdJ!$+%d-DM ]+`%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$jd-DM ^ja$gdJ!$}d-DM ^}a$gdJ!$}d}-DM ^}a$gdJ!$-DM ^a$gdJ!&  t ^ И B $ *  d М @  l N &  ~ Ң õõߊߩõ|Ûn|]!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJph$ Ԣ  rrr -DM gdJ! dgdJ!$>d-DM ^>`a$gdJ!$Cd-DM ]^C`a$gdJ!$0 d-DM ]^0` a$gdJ!$d-DM ]^a$gdJ! Ң Ԣ >  |  h p ħ L . © ` Ϊ ⵦvvhWh!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!! & . oR$+d -DM ]+^a$gdJ! (-DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$V*d-DM ]V`*a$gdJ!!$:C*d&-DM ]:^C`*a$gdJ!$`d -DM ^`a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!Ϊ D " ح J 0 4  v \ b γ @  6 㻭|n]խ|՟ջShJ!@B*ph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph6 v R ȷ @ $ & , 2  n X Լ @ ŷzi[ӌ[M?hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!5@B*\ph@  ֿ ` r D " b d  @  H J & òդ񤓤wii[whJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph d J gJ$+%d  -DM ^+`%a$gdJ!$Hd  -DM ^Ha$gdJ!$}-DM ^}a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$R*d -DM ^R`*a$gdJ!$ > d -DM ] ^>` a$gdJ!$"+*d -DM ]"^+`*a$gdJ!& F z ` <  t f D  z d L Ӷ󶨶~p~pbbhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJph&  & d nO$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! #-DM gdJ!$C%d  -DM ]C`%a$gdJ!!$5%d -DM ]5^`%a$gdJ!!$""%d  -DM ]"^"`%a$gdJ! . b @  $ *  b d < j x T 4  N ŷӨߗ߉{ŷm{ӷ_mm{hJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph%  h @      , D X Z < (  n  ugugYhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph!      Z j$d-DM ]^a$gdJ!$-DM ^a$gdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!  $$-DIfM a$gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ! d{gdJ!$ %d-DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!   " $ & _M8MMM$$-DIfM a$gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!kd|$$If(4\*J* P`3 (4 (a(p(  , 0 2 8 @ Z j n ~   4 < > @ F N ^ | 픁n`hJ!@B*CJaJph%hJ!5@ZB*CJ"RH\aJ"ph%hJ!5B*CJ"\aJ"mH phsH )hJ!5B*CJ"RH\aJ"mH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph & ( * , : < _MM7M $-DIfM gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!kd ~$$If(4\*J* P 3 (4 (a(p(< > @ l n aO/O$}xd-$-DIfM ]}^xa$gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!kd`$$If(\*J* P3 (4 (a(p(n JAAAA $IfgdJ!kd$$If(4\*J`*` P`3 (4 (a(p($$-DIfM a$gdJ! Mkd$$If(4\*J *  P 3 (4 (a(p($-DIfM gdJ! 9kd$$If(\*J* P3 (4 (a(p($-DIfM gdJ! $-DIfM gdJ! :kd؄$$If(\*J* P3 (4 (a(p($-DIfM gdJ!$$-DIfM a$gdJ!   6 $$-DIfM a$gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!$..d($-DIfM ].^.a$gdJ!6 8 : < H J aOO9O $-DIfM gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!kd&$$If(\*J* P3 (4 (a(p(J L N aO/O$HVd($-DIfM ]H^Va$gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!kdt$$If(\*J* P3 (4 (a(p( ?6666 $IfgdJ!kdˆ$$If(4\*J`*` P`3 (4 (a(p($d-$-DIfM ]^a$gdJ! Mkd0$$If(4\*J *  P 3 (4 (a(p($-DIfM gdJ!   . 4 P ^ b z  H J ȺȬȺȐȂrdȐOEhJ!@B*ph)hJ!5B*CJ"RH@\aJ"mH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJRH^aJphhJ!B*CJH*aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!%hJ!5@#B*CJ"RH\aJ"phhJ!5B*CJ"\aJ"ph!hJ!5B*CJ"RH\aJ"ph 9kd$$If(\*J* P3 (4 (a(p($-DIfM gdJ! $-DIfM gdJ!   0 2 4 :kd$$If(\*J* P3 (4 (a(p($-DIfM gdJ!$$-DIfM a$gdJ!4 ` b | $$-DIfM a$gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!$Vsd-$-DIfM ]V^sa$gdJ!| ~ aOO9O $-DIfM gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!kdH$$If(\*J* P3 (4 (a(p( aO/O$V}d-$-DIfM ]V^}a$gdJ!$-DIfM gdJ!kd$$If(\*J* P3 (4 (a(p( JAAAA $IfgdJ!kd$$If(4\*J`*` P`3 (4 (a(p($$-DIfM a$gdJ!  M7$-DIfM ^gdJ!kd`$$If(4\*J *  P 3 (4 (a(p($-DIfM gdJ!   J R mWDC-DM ^CgdJ!$C-DM ^Ca$gdJ!kd$$If(FJJP3     4 (a(p$-DIfM gdJ!J P V * | b >  p N *  ` < " | \ 0 2  n p ´ЦЊЦŠŠ|nhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJph&R 2 p x z  sT$  d -DM ]^ ` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ!$-DM ^a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$:*d -DM ]:`*a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ! E""-DM ^"gdJ!p v z ~  n  N  4    `      z  * z \       ´¦|´¦´n|nhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph(   t *   v bE$C%d  -DM ]C`%a$gdJ!!$5 3d  -DM ]5^ `3a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!>d -DM ^>gdJ! N0-DM ^0gdJ!+-DM ^+gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ! r t  ( *   n  P  8    h  L   6 r      ^ b  ݥωϳ}o^oݳM}!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph @ ~   R V  :     t v |      "   r H! ! $" " # ѲѦߕ߇x߇j\ѦhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphv ~   p% ) - - gT-DM ^gdJ!$ %d -DM ] `%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] ^`a$gdJ!$*d -DM `*a$gdJ!$d  -DM ]^a$gdJ!$> -DM ^>a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!# v# # ^$ $ n% p% % ,& J& T& & (' ' ( r( ( L) ) ) ) &* F* f* * H+ + , - x- մyk]L]kkk!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphx- - - - - ^. `. J/ l/ n/ / 0 (1 T1 V1 |1 ~1 1 1 X2 2 2 2 p3 |n`RD`RhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph- `. n/ V1 ~1 1 2 x3 L4 |\\\ & F( hh d -DM ^h` gdn9 & F( hsd -DM ^sgdn9$3-DM ^a$gdJ!$ d-DM ] ^`a$gdJ!$ d-DM ] ^a$gdJ! -DM gdJ!p3 v3 x3 J4 L4 `4 b4 4 4 4 5 5 (5 \5 ^5 5 5 ǻykZL>L0hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphL4 b4 5 ^5 5 6 D7 F7 Z7 7 u_d-DM ^gdJ!$>-DM ]>a$gdJ! & F) ccd-DM ^c`gdn9 & F) cxd-DM ^xgdn9! & F) ccd-DM ^c`gdn9$=-DM ^a$gdJ! 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 B7 F7 H7 X7 Z7 7 7 7 7 7 8 $9 ijҗyuguYKu=/hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJRH~aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph7 7 > @ A A *B DH yfI$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! j#-DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$*d -DM `*a$gdJ!$R*d -DM ]R^`*a$gdJ!!$C.d -DM ]C^`.a$gdJ!- :d-DM ]-^ `:gdJ!$9 9 : : : d; ; B< < 6= = $> > > f? ? D@ @ @ @ A @A BA A A A A (B *B ɻןן񍛟|j|\K hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH !hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph*B B C tC PD D 8E E F F F nG G BH DH H I I J pJ J 2L 4L L M 0M >M M rN N O RO O O O JP P Q Q 㧛ǹ~Սmǫǧ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph&DH 4L O Q Q Q Q 8R :R R ||r| d gdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$&d -DM ]&`a$gdJ!$" d -DM ]"` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^ `a$gdJ! Q Q Q Q Q 6R :R R DR R 0S S S S S S S T T T T hU U V }kZ}kZ}LLLhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphV V W c @c c d d e e pe ҦΘ|nδnhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph+>R W XZ $] :^ a a lY-DM ^gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!!$ *d  -DM ]^ `*a$gdJ!$   d -DM ] ^ ` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] ^`a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!a @c e ni l o hp pp rp vYGG$-DM a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ^ `%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ] `%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!pe e Lf f g h |h h bi li ni i *B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph+  X ` b l sR!$>%d -DM ]^>`%a$gdJ!$sd -DM ^sa$gdJ!$-DM ^a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ! j#V-DM gdJ! h ć ܇ J . t P ċ   v V X ^ b d 婛卩{m卉_QjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphd   ~ h ֒ J ( x X Ȗ @ j l ֗ H ,  b ؛ @ x δΘ|nΦhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph%l Z @ ̮ iJ$ 0 d -DM ] ^0` a$gdJ!$*d -DM ^`*a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! j#-DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$Hd -DM ]Ha$gdJ! X Z ʟ :  l > @  ޥ V " d ܨ J  X ʮ ̮ Ү ֮ ΘΊ|n|`hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph$̮ Ԯ ֮  г ` D eR-DM ^gdJ!$"%d -DM ]"^`%a$gdJ!$*d -DM ]`*a$gdJ!!$  d -DM ] ^` a$gdJ!$"d -DM ^"a$gdJ!$[-DM ^[a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!֮ خ    ` ڰ ±  γ г 0  l ڶ 0 ^ ` ̹ @ (  x B D ϳ݋}ϙoϳݧϳa}ϳݙhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu!   v , ~ f  D T $ X Z < &  r \ 8 : @ B f j |δΘ|nhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph)  Z pQ$  d -DM ]^ ` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$   d -DM ] ^ ` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ! e-DM ^gdJ! : B h j  w$ d -DM ^ a$gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM ^gdJ!& +D-D/&M gdJ!!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ! j   X & :   p X 6  ^ F < ŷ雷sseWWseshJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph" > \  V ~^^^^ & F* FFd -DM ^F`gdn9! & F* FFd -DM ^F`gdn9$5-DM ^a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ] `%a$gdJ! < > Z |  Z \   ~pbTFhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! T V j l  V  b d ´ykZL@k´2hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphV l d "  h ` b [-DM ^[gdJ!d -DM gdJ! & F+ 88d -DM ^8`gdn9 & F+ 8Vd -DM ^Vgdn9$3-DM ]a$gdJ! " B J   2 f h  ^ ĶxgYKx=hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph^ b  : < t v | V 4  h L {m_{{{QDhJ!5@B*\phhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJRHyaJphjhJ!UmHnHu hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!  < v \ dG$d -DM ]`a$gdJ!!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^ `a$gdJ!$+d-DM ^+a$gdJ!$&d-DM ^&a$gdJ!$0d-DM ^0a$gdJ!$0-DM ^0a$gdJ! z Z ^ D F * 6 < > t \ H 2   z \ Ҫ}ҪҸl^hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!\ F          xii-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ! dgdJ!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!$d -DM `a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^a$gdJ!  z V & r J   z          2 4 6 `  񫝫ǙǙwfwU!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph 4    Z | tS!$&d  -DM ]^&`a$gdJ!!$& d -DM ]^&` a$gdJ!!$ &*d  -DM ] ^&`*a$gdJ!$ 0%d -DM ] ^0`%a$gdJ!:d  -DM ^:gdJ!$`-DM ^`a$gdJ!   V    " t  \     X Z r  0 z |  Z b 걣Еvh걣ZI!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph| f   ^A$:%d -DM ]:`%a$gdJ!!$5 %d -DM ]5^ `%a$gdJ!!$5 d -DM ]5^` a$gdJ!$&.d -DM ]&^`.a$gdJ!!$"" d -DM ]"^"` a$gdJ!$"d -DM ]^"`a$gdJ! d f H $ | 2      6     |Ίn|`O`||!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph       f  H    2  |  \  . * ,   8 ~ ĶrrdSEhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!6B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJph    , J R T ! ! ttgXX-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$d -DM ^`a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!!$ %d -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!C-DM gdJ! -DM ^ gdJ! ~  n    & T p  :     p  N  Ƕǥzl^P^P^B4hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph . H J P T ! ! ! ! ! `" @# # $ $ $ % J& & *' ' ' ' $( ( ) ) * H+ $, &, - v- - . / ߯ߧߛ㛍qqqqcqqqqhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph&! ! ! ' &, / j0 r0 x0 p]Kd*#-DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$5 d -DM ]5` a$gdJ!$&d -DM ]&^`a$gdJ!!$  d  -DM ] ^` a$gdJ!$3d -DM ^`3a$gdJ!-DM gdJ! d gdJ!/ / / h0 j0 p0 t0 v0 z0 0 X1 1 >2 2 3 3 3 l4 4 45 65 5 6 ~6 6 `7 7 <8 8 9 : T; ; *< < < < ஠ࠔxjxhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph+hJ!56B*CJjEHRH1\]aJjphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!$x0 65 < ? ? ? @ @ @ @ @ @ ~~t~ldgdJ! d gdJ! -DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$d -DM ^`a$gdJ!$   d -DM ] ^ ` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ! < D= > > ? t? ? ? ? ? @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ :A  d-DM ]C^>` a$gdJ! \` ` ` g g h h h fi i i i i Ϳwi[MhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*phhJ!5B*\ph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphb d >g i i rj n u zeF$  d -DM ] ^ `a$gdJ!$d -DM a$gdJ! >-DM ^ gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$+ d -DM ]+` a$gdJ!!$%d  -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!!$ d  -DM ]^` a$gdJ!i pj rj Zk k >l `l l l l l m n rn n n :o o .p p q q q q r r s ϰݟϑuiXIihJ!5B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphs *t t u vu u u u jv v Hw x y y y y y z ,z .z 0z z { z{ \| | | } ɻɩɩq`qRɩhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphu y y y .z } \ p a!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!!$ "%d  -DM ] ^"`%a$gdJ!$&d -DM ^&a$gdJ!$jR-DM ^ja$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!} p} } Z~ ~ B   Z \ Ȁ @  n p ؂ J 4   t N P .  ǹի՝ՍՍm\ hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph#hJ!B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph$p P " eF$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^ `a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ! -DM ^ gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$5%d -DM ]5`%a$gdJ!!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ! " Z Ό < r ʏ  ^ ʒ N “ 6  j ܖ L — 2  ƸԪԜԪԪo!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!( P R T V & Z j n td2-DM ^gdJ! -DM ^ gdJ!&& #$+D-D/&M gdJ!d -DM ^gdJ! dgdJ!-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ! N R T V ^ К $ & X Z \ h j l n ڛ ܛ N  f ҟ > ǹ՟{m_mS_E_hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*ph3hJ!56B*CJ(EHOJQJRHB\]aJ(phhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphn ܛ , 4  8 @ eJ$*d -DM ^`*a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$5Hd -DM ]5`Ha$gdJ!J-DM ^JgdJ! b آ F * , 2 6  T ħ 2   H   | d ֫ 6 8  ` ή õǩǍ|k]éǛhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph$ή > @  L 0   wocoRHhJ!@B*ph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!CJUaJhJ!CJaJjhJ!CJUaJhJ!CJaJjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*OJQJ^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJph  " vvl dMgdJ!$d -DM a$gdJ!`-DM gdJ!]^gdJ!h-DM gdJ!*-DM ^*gdJ!S >&`+D/&gdJ!!&`+D /&gdJ!dgdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!  $ ( j ƶ ȶ ڶ ܶ Ⱥ֖֊vWMEhJ!B*phhJ!@B*ph=hJ!5@B*CJ8EHOJQJRH:\^JaJ8mH phsH hJ!@B*phhJ!@B*phjhJ!CJUaJhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!CJaJj?hJ!CJUaJ ȶ ܶ   " |n`& +D/&gdJ!& +D /&gdJ!   0 -DM ^gdJ!d=-DM gdJ!#&`#$+D-D/&M gdJ!*B*CJ]aJph%l t v | R  pP & F, kkd -DM ^k`gdn9 & F, kUd  -DM ^Ugdn9$:%d -DM ]^:`%a$gdJ! b:d  -DM ^:gdJ!$`-DM ^`a$gdJ!d%-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!v z ~  L P R &  j  | ϾⰢzl^PBhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!1hJ!5@B*CJ@EHRH!\aJ@mH phsH  d B h D > B | ~ ^ > | ~ V X ದ{j{\{\ΦhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph ~ ~ X ` {`M-DM ^gdJ!$M%d -DM ]M`%a$gdJ!!$:%d -DM ]:^`%a$gdJ!!$" d -DM ]"^` a$gdJ!!$bd -DM ]^b`a$gdJ!!$b.d -DM ]^b`.a$gdJ!X ^ b   f D (  νίtcRA!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph` t |]>$ %d -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$ *d -DM ]^ `*a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ^ `%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ] ^`a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ! -DM ^ gdJ! . p N @ 8 ˺qcUqG;c;hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph  r t z ~      ,   z   >  (   r    }qcUqGhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!6@B*]phhJ!6B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJpht | ~      H q^Q -DM gdJ! -DM ^ gdJ!$+ d -DM ]+` a$gdJ!!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$&d  -DM ^&a$gdJ!$-DM ^a$gdJ!$-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!   x X < >    p  V     F H n p   < > ǻǛ񩻩{m_mQhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!6>*@B*]phhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphH p  >    8  ( > }$3-DM a$gdJ! & F- ZZd-DM ^Z`gdn9 & F- Zjd-DM ^jgdn9 & F- Zjd-DM ^jgdn9$ U-DM ] a$gdJ! >        6 8   & ( < > P     :   ǹ㫝wi[J<hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph>    P >  z  a & F. ^^d-DM ^^`gdn9 & F. ^^d-DM ^^`gdn9 & F/ ^}d-DM ^}gdn9 & F. ^^d-DM ^^`gdn9! & F. ^^d-DM ^^`gdn9     N P   2 < >    " T x z xj\N=/NhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphz     ` b j     P R          < @ F tct҂PBjhJ!UmHnHu%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph b R     > @  }}e & F0 Pd-DM gdn9-DM ^gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!>Bd-DM ^>`BgdJ!>d -DM ^>gdJ! & F/ ^}d -DM ^}gdn9 F ^    D F n   @      " X     L N j ̻̚̚zgW̚D%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!B*CJRH_aJph!hJ!6B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJph F   "  N 6! iO & F0 Pd-DM gdn9 & F0 Pd -DM gdn9 & F0 PPd-DM ^P`gdn9 & F0 Pd-DM gdn9! & F0 PPd -DM ^P`gdn9! & F0 PPd-DM ^P`gdn9j 4! 8! H! J! x! z! ! ! ! ! <" " # # ̼vcWI;-hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph%hJ!5@B*CJRHY\aJph%hJ!5@B*CJRHY\aJph!hJ!5B*CJRHY\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRH_]aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJphhJ!@B*CJRH_aJph6! J! z! ! ! $ \+ ^+ f+ h+ nn[[`0-DM ^`0gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ!$d -DM `a$gdJ!$d-DM ^a$gdJ!$d-DM ^a$gdJ!$ d-DM ^ a$gdJ!$-DM ^a$gdJ! # # n$ $ $ \% % :& ' ( r( ( V) :* * + Z+ ^+ d+ h+ + + + + + + + `, , F- - õ㛵щxe]OjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJ$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph#hJ!B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphh+ + + + + + 4 d7 b; j; o-DM ^gdJ!$+ d -DM ]+` a$gdJ!$"%d -DM ]"^`%a$gdJ!$+%d -DM ^+`%a$gdJ! d gdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ! - ". . / t/ / V0 0 >1 1 2 2 2 h3 3 H4 4 4 &5 p6 6 H7 b7 d7 7 F8 ,9 9 |: : `; b; h; l; ; T< b< d< < ǹի㝏㹫ǹq㋫cǫhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph&j; d< H> x@ bB |G J jK$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$  d -DM ]^ ` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]a$gdJ!< @= = F> H> > @ v@ x@ @ PA A *B 8B `B bB B >C C D D D `E E >F F G @G zG |G G |n|`O!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphG NH 2I I J J J J J LJ PJ J J J J J K ~K K ^L L L M M N vN N ŷũŅ}ũoaSEShJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphJ J J NJ J J J J L U (Z 0Z yfs-DM ^gdJ!$%d-DM ]`%a$gdJ!:*d  -DM ^:`*gdJ!$d-DM ^a$gdJ! dgdJ!e-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ! N O

U-DM ^>a$gdJ!$d e-DM ^a$gdJ!b :b b @b ^b `b b b b b b b b >c c d d d d d Jd Nd d d ٳxjU@(hJ!6>*@B*CJRHR]aJph(hJ!6>*@B*CJRHR]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphjhJ!CJUaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJjhJ!CJUaJhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphd d d Ld d d d d d e k Hl e$ d -DM ]^` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ` a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^ a$gdJ!d&"-DM gdJ! dgdJ!x-DM gdJ! -DM gdJ!.-DM ^.gdJ! d d d d d e e e e f f g vg g ^h h Hi *j j k k k Fl Hl nl pl l ˽˕ykk]OhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph5hJ!5B*CJdEHOJQJ\^JaJdmH phsH hJ!hJ!CJaJHl pl l m m 6n n ho ~o kU$5=-DM ]5a$gdJ!! & F1 PPd  -DM ^P`gdn9! & F1 PPd -DM ^P`gdn9 & F1 P`d -DM ^`gdn9 & F1 P`d -DM ^`gdn9$.-DM ]a$gdJ!l l m m m m m n 4n 6n n n n Jo fo ho |o ~o o o o (p *p 0p 4p 6p p ǹ՝Տso^oPoHhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph~o *p 2p 6p p Tq q lr :s s t u u u }}n -DM ^ngdJ! & F2 d-DM ^`gdn9 & F2 dn-DM gdn9gdJ!-DM gdJ!!$+F#d -DM ]+^F`#a$gdJ!p p p ,q Rq Tq lq q q q q Nr jr lr r 8s :s s s s s ͿseWeI8!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph%hJ!6@B*CJRHR]aJphs Bt t t t :u >u u u u u u u u v Dv Fv v w w ǹxj\N@2hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphu u u Fv | X }bO-DM ^gdJ!$& d -DM ]&` a$gdJ!$d -DM ]`a$gdJ!$d -DM ^`a$gdJ!@zd-DM ]@^`zgdJ!:d-DM ^:gdJ!$+#-DM ^+a$gdJ!w x tx x Zy y y y Dz z Z{ ^{ r{ v{ | | | | | | *} d} n} } ^~ ׸񸧸o\I%hJ!5@B*CJRHS\aJph%hJ!5@B*CJRHS\aJphhJ!@B*CJRHSaJph%hJ!5@B*CJRHS\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph^~ ~ V X    8 $ x Ђ f ރ ǶǪՐ՜ǪtctcP?!hJ!5B*CJRHS\aJph%hJ!5@B*CJRHS\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!%hJ!5@B*CJRHS\aJph%hJ!5@B*CJRHS\aJphރ F L : > څ  R ʆ @ (  ~ ܉ މ H $ qcWcWWIWIIhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph މ R Z \ p }}iL$&d -DM ]^&a$gdJ!$V-DM ^Va$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^ `a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ! ‹ Ό D $ p P R X \ d n p ؑ ,  z \ Е  v T 4 Θ܊|kܦܦ]ΦδhJ!@B*CJaJph hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph$p  f  ֟ ޟ R hU@ e-DM gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$+%d -DM ]+`%a$gdJ!$*d -DM ]^`*a$gdJ!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!!$%d -DM ]^`%a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!4   d f Ԛ H *    ` ԟ ֟ ܟ H N P R 2 ^ ң   r ޤ R . ÷ѩé햅v÷ééhhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!6B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph(R  ҫ ү گ ܯ v x z | zzpz dgdJ! -DM gdJ!>-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ!$ *d -DM ]^ `*a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]^ a$gdJ! .  n F 4  Ы ҫ B   x b Я ү د ܯ ޯ  ɻɭ񭛍qcP$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph t x z | Z : h س P 4  ~  v Ĺ 4  Ƚ ŷ鍩ōpc遛ŁhJ!5@B*\ph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!CJaJhJ!$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph#| ¿ ʿ r |aF$ d -DM ^ `a$gdJ!$  d -DM ] ^ a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$&%d -DM ]&`%a$gdJ!$%d  -DM ]`%a$gdJ!$*d -DM ]^`*a$gdJ!$d >-DM ^a$gdJ! l ܾ H ¿ ȿ ̿ @ p r N 4  . b F b d > " r V 8   ŷśɛqɛɩɛɛhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph, d  . ~eJ$*d -DM ]`*a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ!$:"-DM ^:a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$  d -DM ] ^ `a$gdJ!$d -DM ]^`a$gdJ!$ d -DM ]` a$gdJ! , . 0 ^ 6 R 6  n ݼxjx\NhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph%hJ!6@B*CJRHR]aJphjhJ!UmHnHu!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ! 2 * pS$hd -DM ^h`a$gdJ! -DM gdJ!! & F3 ZZ d  -DM ^Z` gdn9! & F3 ZZ d -DM ^Z` gdn9! & F3 ZZ d -DM ^Z` gdn9$ .-DM ] a$gdJ!  0 2 0 & ( * , 2 ǹǝ}hW}E4!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH  hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph(hJ!6>*@B*CJRHR]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph2 p   l 2 4 L  d f B f νҡtttcUMchJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph 4 f h zZZ & F6 UUd -DM ^U`gdn9! & F6 UUd -DM ^U`gdn9gdJ! & F5 Znd -DM ^ngdn9! & F4 ZZd -DM ^Z`gdn9 & F4 ZZd -DM ^Z`gdn9 f h   z  B d f  ^ ` ~ ĶҨҨ{jĶYKҨhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph f ` e% & F7 ZfZd -DM ]f^Z`gdn9$=-DM ]a$gdJ!! & F6 UUd -DM ^U`gdn9 & F6 UUd -DM ^U`gdn9 & F6 Ud -DM ^gdn9 $ v * , 2 6 J N T h j B pbTF8hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHu!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph#hJ!B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph , 4 6 L N j q^}-DM ^gdJ!$+ d -DM ]+` a$gdJ!$  d -DM ^ ` a$gdJ!$C-DM ^Ca$gdJ!$-DM ^$gdJ!-DM gdJ! & F8 Znd -DM ^ngdn9 B  t R  ` ( T 4 $ " $  v R :  h J N ׻׭ɩ㛩כɛ}ɻhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*OJQJ^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph1 $ * 2 4 d | ~ vii_ dgdJ! -DM gdJ!R-DM gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$*d -DM `*a$gdJ!$d -DM ^a$gdJ! 0 Z > ( * 0 4 6 b f z ~ b ᙆum[J!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!CJaJ!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*OJQJ^JphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph @        mmZZ-DM ^gdJ!$d -DM a$gdJ!$d -DM ]`a$gdJ!$  %d -DM ] ^ `%a$gdJ!$%d -DM ^`%a$gdJ!$ d R-DM ]^ a$gdJ! -DM gdJ! b  :  > @    l  R  :      ( p ` X J  p շǷ÷㟒xmx`mx÷hJ!5@B*\phhJ!5B*\phhJ!5@B*\phhJ!5@B*\phhJ!5@B*\phhJ!@B*phhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph X  6      h P  0     f       F H N ǹէ՛񧛧qcQ#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!B*OJQJ^JphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph H   N ` b  lgL & F: K-DM ^Kgdn9gdJ!! & F9 E5%d-DM ^5`%gdn9! & F9 E5%d -DM ^5`%gdn9! & F9 E5%d -DM ^5`%gdn9rE-DM ^rgdJ!sd-DM ^s`gdJ!N     r    @  ( L N   , ^ thWF8hhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph^ ` b     B D H      * ,       ̺إ̗xgYK̥=hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph#hJ!@B*CJaJmH phsH hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJ!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph  D   ,   _P-DM gdJ!!$H d +-DM ]H^` a$gdJ!!$> 8d(-DM ]>^ `8a$gdJ!$ P-DM ^ a$gdJ! Kd-DM ^KgdJ!Kd-DM ^KgdJ! & F: Kd-DM ^Kgdn9 L N P  6  $ ( | V! ! " # ># B# # # # \$ $ $ ʼwiXXJ<hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@ B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ! hJ!6>*B*CJ]aJph$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph P H& & + b+ D, L, N, xYGG$-DM a$gdJ!$ %d -DM ]^ `%a$gdJ! *d -DM ^*gdJ!$ d-DM ]^ `a$gdJ!   d-DM ^ ` gdJ!$ d -DM ] ^a$gdJ! -DM gdJ!$ $ >% % % % % & F& H& L& N& & & & & & >' ' ( ( ( X) ) raSSEhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph) :* * + + + + `+ b+ + B, D, J, N, z, ~, , , , , , ³Ӕӄs`X;9hJ!5@B*CJ.EHOJQJ\^JaJ.mH phsH hJ!CJaJ$hJ!6>*@B*CJ]aJph!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphhJ!@B*OJQJ^JphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphN, |, , , , , , (/ 0 0 n!$" d -DM ]^"` a$gdJ!$"%d -DM ]^"`%a$gdJ!$&d  -DM ^&a$gdJ!dx$-DM gdJ! dgdJ! -DM gdJ!-DM gdJ! , , , - D. . &/ (/ / 0 0 r0 0 0 0 0 1 2 z2 2 2 2 2 `3 d3 3 3 3 <4 4 4 4 ŷ߷߷өyyhW!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!7hJ!hJ!5@B*CJ.EHOJQJ\^JaJ.ph0 4 5 : : V; ^; < w\$d-DM ]^a$gdJ!-DM ^gdJ!$+%d-DM ]+^`%a$gdJ!$%d-DM ]`%a$gdJ! *d-DM ^*gdJ!!$ %d  -DM ] ^`%a$gdJ!4 4 5 5 5 5 p5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 .7 7 7 7 8 z8 8 T9 9 : : : : : : : uuudSu!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJph: T; V; \; `; ; @< < < < < = B= D= = > > > Z? ? 2@ j@ l@ p@ r@ qcWF!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*OJQJ^JphhJ!hJ!@B*CJaJph< D= l@ >A LD D LH TH kP>$-DM a$gdJ!$ d -DM ^` a$gdJ! *d-DM ^`*gdJ!$ d-DM ]^` a$gdJ! *d-DM ^`*gdJ!$%d-DM ]`%a$gdJ! *d-DM ^`*gdJ!r@ @ A A B B XB \B B B B B ^C C C DD JD LD PD RD ˽sbTC4hJ!5B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphRD D D D E E bE E ,F 0F F F F G &G *G pG G JH LH RH VH `H H H H ;Ͱr;ͰdVEV!hJ!6@B*CJ]aJphjhJ!UmHnHuhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!B*CJaJphhJ!!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphTH VH H I I K L L iG! & F; mmd -DM ^m`gdn9$"8-DM ^"a$gdJ!!$ 03d -DM ] ^0`3a$gdJ!!$ C d-DM ] ^C` a$gdJ!Hd%-DM ^HgdJ!$}:-DM ^}a$gdJ!$-DM a$gdJ!H I I I I I I I J 4J 8J ~J J J J TK jK nK K K K L L rL Ÿ֪}l}^PBhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!5@B*\phhJ!5@B*\phhJ!hJ!B*CJaJphhJ!5B*CJ\aJphhJ!@B*CJaJphrL vL L L L M M bM dM M M N N hN jN N N O O vO O O O P P VP XP P P Q ҶҶҨ~~~pbZLhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!CJaJhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJphhJ!@B*CJaJph!hJ!5@B*CJ\aJphL M dM M N jN N O O O P g & F= cd  -DM ^gdn9gdJ!! & F; mmd-DM ^m`gdn9 & F< md-DM ^gdn9 & F< m -DM ^gdn9 & F< md -DM ^gdn9 P XP P Q Q Q dR *S cC & F= ccd-DM ^c`gdn9 & F= cd-DM ^gdn9! & F= ccd#+-DM ^c`gdn9! & F= ccd -DM ^c`gdn9 & F= cd-DM ^gdn9 & F= cd -DM ^gdn9Q Q tQ Q Q Q Q Q bR dR (S