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"@048F8>==> 2 ?A8E>;>388 @0745;ONB >1I85 8 A?5F80;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8. 1I85 A?>A>1=>AB8 >15A?5G820NB ;53:>ABL, 1KAB@>BC 8 ?@>4C:B82=>ABL 2 >2;045=88 7=0=8O<8 8 2 >ACI5AB2;5=88 @07;8G=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8.  >B;8G85 >B >1I8E A?5F80;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 ?><>30NB 4>AB8GL 2KAH8E @57C;LB0B>2 2 :0:>9-;81> A?5F80;L=>9 >1;0AB8 45OB5;L=>AB8 (<C7K:0;L=>9, >@30=870B>@A:>9, ?5403>38G5A:>9 8 B.4.). > A;54C5B A:070BL, GB> @0745;5=85 A?>A>1=>AB59 =0 >1I85 8 A?5F80;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 O2;O5BAO 25AL<0 CA;>2=K<. 7CG0O A>>B=>H5=85 >1I8E 8 A?5F80;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59, ..=0=L52 (1968), ..528B>2 (1962), ..OA8I52 (1962) @0AA<0B@820;8 >1I85 A?>A>1=>AB8 :0: >A=>2C A?5F80;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59. 0?@8<5@, ..528B>2 10 4>:07K20; ACI5AB2>20=85 >1I53> 8=B5;;5:B0 A;54CNI8<8 D0:B0<8: " 1>;LH8< G8A;>< CG0I8EAO, ?@8<5@=> @02=> CA?520NI8E ?> 2A5< ?@54<5B0< 8 =5 ?@>O2;ONI8E >A>1KE 40@>20=89 2 :0:>9-B> >4=>9 >1;0AB8 H:>;L=KE 7=0=89; " =0;8G85< 2KA>:>@0728BKE A?>A>1=>AB59 C 2K40NI8EAO ;N459 2 A0<KE @07=KE >1;0ABOE 7=0=89; " =0;8G85< C<AB25==KE >BAB0;>AB59 @07=KE C@>2=59, >1KG=> ?@>O2;ONI8EAO 2> 2A5E 2840E 45OB5;L=>AB8. ..528B>2 ?8A0;: 3=>@8@>20=85 ?>=OB8O >1I53> 8=B5;;5:B0 ?@82>48B 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O : 1574>:070B5;L=K< CB25@645=8O< > B><, GB> B> 8;8 4@C3>5 ;8F> >1;0405B A?5F80;L=>9 A?>A>1=>ABLN (1962, !.32). > <=5=8N ...!0<0@8=0, & A?>A>1=>ABL 2:;NG0BL =>2K5 7=0=8O 2 AD>@<8@>202HCNAO A8AB5<C 7=0=89 8 381:> ?5@5AB@0820BL MBC A8AB5<C 2 A2O78 A =0:>?;5=85< =>2KE D0:B>2 O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 ACI5AB25==59H8E A8=B5B8G5A:8E C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59, @07282H8EAO 2 @57C;LB0B5 <=>3>>1@07=>3> 687=5==>3> >?KB0 (1962, !.47). #<AB25==K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 ?@>O2;ONBAO 2 CA2>5=88 8 ?@8<5=5=88 @07;8G=KE A8AB5< 7=0=89, 0 @0728B85 C<0 (A?>A>1=>AB59) =5@07@K2=> A2O70=> A 2A5AB>@>==8< 8 A?5F80;L=K< @>AB>< 7=0=89. >=:@5B=K9 8=B5;;5:B A2O70= A C@>2=O<8 @0728B8O :C;LBC@K 2 @07;8G=K5 M?>E8 ACI5AB2>20=8O G5;>25:0, ?>MB><C D8;>35=5B8G5A:>5 @0728B85 8=B5;;5:B0 A>2@5<5==>3> G5;>25:0 >B;8G05BAO >B 8=B5;;5:B0 G5;>25:0 ?@>H;KE M?>E. > ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 <5E0=87< 8=B5;;5:B0 =5 8<55B B0:8E @07;8G89, 5<C A2>9AB25==K ;8HL 8=48284C0;L=K5 @07;8G8O, >?@545;O5<K5 CA;>28O<8 >=B>35=570. >MB><C 2 40==>< A;CG05 8=B5;;5:B 2KABC?05B :0: A?>A>1=>ABL. >=OB85 "8=B5;;5:B" >G5=L <=>3>?;0=>2>, ?>MB><C 2 >1>1I5==>< 2845, ?> <=5=8N /..>=><0@520, 8=B5;;5:B ?>=8<05BAO :0: "& 0??0@0B A?5F8D8G5A:>9 4;O 682KE A8AB5< >@85=B0F88 2> 2@5<5=8 8 ?@>AB@0=AB25".  5A;8 11 AC78BL ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 8=B5;;5:B5 G5;>25:0 4> 53> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> <5E0=87<0, B> 206=59H59 >A>15==>ABLN MB>3> <5E0=87<0 O2;O5BAO A?>A>1=>ABL 459AB2>20BL "2 C<5" (1975, !.11). >?@>A > A>>B=>H5=88 >1I8E 8 A?5F80;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 O2;O5BAO 4> A8E ?>@ =5OA=K<. ..(04@8:>2, =0 =0H 273;O4, A>25@H5==> ?@02, AG8B0O, GB> & D5=><5= A?5F80;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59, :0: >B;8G=KE >B >1I8E A?>A>1=>AB59, O2;O5BAO D0=B><><. > 53> <=5=8N, A?5F80;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 5ABL >1I85 A?>A>1=>AB8, & ?@8>1@5BH85 G5@BK >?5@0B82=>AB8 ?>4 2;8O=85< B@51>20=89 45OB5;L=>AB8 (1996, !.232). 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"0:65 0:BC0;L=K<8 O2;ONBAO ?@>1;5<K ?A8E>4803=>AB8:8 8=B5;;5:B0, A2O759 8=B5;;5:B0 8 45OB5;L=>AB8, 8=B5;;5:B0 8 B2>@G5AB20 8 B.4. @8 87CG5=88 A?>A>1=>AB59 >A=>2=0O ?@>1;5<0 70:;NG05BAO 2 >?@545;5=88 B5E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E :0G5AB2, :>B>@K5 @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: A?>A>1=>AB8; 2 =0E>645=88 12 8E <5AB0 2 ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 2 8E 87<5@5=88, ?>72>;ONI5< 2KO28BL C@>25=L @0728B8O A?>A>1=>AB59. =K<8 A;>20<8, ?>4 >1I8<8 C<AB25==K<8 A?>A>1=>ABO<8 ?>=8<0NBAO :0G5AB20 8=B5;;5:B0, AB>OI85 70 >?@545;5==K<8 :>;8G5AB25==K<8 ?>:070B5;O<8 53> @0728B8O. >;LH>9 2:;04 2 8AA;54>20=85 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O 2=5A;8 @01>BK .8065 8 53> H:>;K (1976, 1986). .8065 >?@>25@305B @O4 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B5>@89, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 0?@8>@8ABA:CN :>=F5?F8N ?A8E>;>388 <KH;5=8O, A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 8=B5;;5:B ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5:>5 75@:0;> ;>38:8, 35HB0;LB8ABA:CN B5>@8N, >A=>20==CN =0 ?>=8<0=88 8=B5;;5:B0 :0: A>2>:C?=>AB8 =57028A8<KE >B @0728B8O ?A8E8:8 AB@C:BC@=KE >1@07>20=89. .8065 D>@<C;8@C5B A2>9 ?>4E>4, 8725AB=K9 2 ?A8E>;>388 :0: :>3=8B82=K9, A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C, 8=B5;;5:B  >B=>A8B5;L=> CAB>9G820O AB@C:BC@0 C<AB25==>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 8=482840, >A>10O D>@<0 2708<>459AB28O <564C AC1J5:B>< 8 >1J5:B0<8, A?5F8D8G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, :>B>@0O 1C4CG8 ?@>872>4=>9 >B 2=5H=59 ?@54<5B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@54AB05B :0: A>2>:C?=>ABL 8=B5@8>@87>20==KE >?5@0F89, A:>>@48=8@>20==KE <564C A>1>9 8 >1@07CNI8E >1@0B8<K5, CAB>9G82K5 8 >4=>2@5<5==> ?>4286=K5 F5;>AB=K5 AB@C:BC@K (1976, !.78). #65 B>340 8065 @0AA<0B@820; 8=B5;;5:B 2 45OB5;L=>AB=>< :>=B5:AB5. 'B> 2E>48B 2 A>AB02 8;8 AB@C:BC@C A?>A>1=>AB59? !.. C18=HB59= AG8B0;, GB> 2 A>AB02 :064>9 A?>A>1=>AB8, 45;0NI59 G5;>25:0 ?@83>4=K< : 2K?>;=5=8N >?@545;5==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2A5340 2E>4OB =5:>B>@K5 >?5@0F88 8;8 A?>A>1K 459AB28O, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@KE MB0 45OB5;L=>ABL >ACI5AB2;O5BAO. > "& O4@> A?>A>1=>AB8,- ?> <=5=8N !.. C18=HB59=0,- MB> =5 CA2>5==0O, =5 02B><0B878@>20==0O >?5@0F8O, 0 B5 ?A8E8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK, 13 ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@KE MB8 >?5@0F88 8 8E DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 @53C;8@CNBAO, :0G5AB2> MB8E ?@>F5AA>2" (1960, !.9). !CI5AB2C5B =5A:>;L:> <>45;59 AB@C:BC@K C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59, 2K45;5==KE =0 >A=>25 D0:B>@=>3> 0=0;870.  >4=8E 87 =8E 2K45;O5BAO B>;L:> ">1I89 D0:B>@", E0@0:B5@87C5<K9 :0: D>@<0;L=0O C<AB25==0O A?>A>1=>ABL, =0?@8<5@, "g-D0:B>@" ?> !?8@<5=C (1932).  4@C38E -B>;L:> "3@C??>2K5 D0:B>@K", @0AA<0B@8205<K5 :0: =57028A8<K5 "?5@28G=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8" (."5@AB>C=, 1941; 6. 8;D>@4, 1966).  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AE>4O 87 ?@8=F8?0 A8AB5<=>AB8 ?@>O2;5=8O >B45;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 2 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ?>=8<0=8O A?>A>1=>AB59 :0: A2>9AB2 DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A8AB5<, @50;87CNI8E >B45;L=K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 DC=:F88, ..(04@8:>2 (1996) B0:65 405B E0@0:B5@8AB8:C >40@5==>AB8, :0: A8AB5<=>3> :0G5AB20, ?@>O2;ONI53>AO 2 :0:>9-B> :>=:@5B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. !.. C18=HB59= (1960) 2 A2>5 2@5<O :@8B8:>20; B5 B5>@88 >1I59 >40@5==>AB8, :>B>@K5 >B@K20;8 >40@5==>ABL >B :>=:@5B=KE A?5F80;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59. "0: 65 ?>=8<0; A>>B=>H5=85 A?>A>1=>AB59 8 >40@5==>AB8 : :0:>9-;81> 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 .."5?;>2 (1961). = 2?5@2K5 40; 3;C1>:89 0=0;87 AB@C:BC@K <C7K:0;L=>9 >40@5==>AB8, >@30=8G5A:8 A2O70==>9 A >1I8< @0728B85< ;8G=>AB8. B:@KB85 ..02;>2K< 70:>=>2 2KAH59 =5@2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 @0A:@K;> A8AB5<=>ABL, F5;>AB=>ABL CA;>2=>-@5D;5:B>@=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 <>730, ?>72>;8;> 3>2>@8BL > 31 2708<>A2O78 <564C >1I59 >40@5==>ABLN 8 A?5F80;L=K<8 A?>A>1=>ABO<8 8 >1JOA=8BL ?@8@>4=CN >A=>2C MB>9 2708<>A2O78. ..(04@8:>2 (1966) ?8H5B, GB> A?>A>1=>ABL, ?>=8<05<0O A ?>78F88 A8AB5<=>3> ?>4E>40 :0: A2>9AB2> DC=:F8>=0;L=>9 A8AB5<K, 5ABL >4=0 87 ":;5B>G5:", =0 >A=>25 :>B>@>9 <>6=> ?>AB@>8BL 2AN A8AB5<C ?>7=020B5;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 :0: A8AB5<C A2>9AB2 DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A8AB5< <>730, @50;87CNI8E >B@060B5;L=CN DC=:F8N.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 40==0O ?@>1;5<0 2 @07;8G=KE 0A?5:B0E @07@010BK205BAO D0:B8G5A:8 2A5<8 =0CG=K<8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 H:>;0<8, AB02 >4=>9 87 F5=B@0;L=KE 4;O ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 ?5403>38:8, B> 5ABL 87CG05BAO =0 <5648AF8?;8=0@=>< C@>2=5.  1>;LH8=AB25 8AA;54>20=89 ?@>1;5<0 8=B5;;5:B0 @0AA<0B@8205BAO G5@57 ?@87<C ?@>1;5< ?A8E>;>388 @0728B8O, 2>7@0AB=>9 8 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. .8065 ?8A0;: =B5;;5:B - MB> A;>6=0O <=>3>C@>2=520O A8AB5<0, >B=>A8B5;L=> CAB>9G820O AB@C:BC@0 C<AB25==>9 A?>A>1=>AB8, >A>10O D>@<0 2708<>459AB28O <564C AC1J5:B>< 8 >1J5:B0<8, A?5F8D8G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, :>B>@0O 1C4CG8 ?@>872>4=>9 >B 2=5H=59 ?@54<5B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@54AB05B :0: A>2>:C?=>ABL 8=B5@8>@87>20==KE >?5@0F89, A:>>@48=8@>20==KE <564C A>1>9 8 >1@07CNI8E >1@0B8<K5, CAB>9G82K5 8 >4=>2@5<5==> ?>4286=K5 F5;>AB=K5 AB@C:BC@K (1986, C.78). A;8 AB>@>==8:8 B5>@88 G5@B ;8G=>AB8 ?>=8<0;8 ;8G=>ABL :0: ?@>ABCN A>2>:C?=>ABL 01AB@0:B=KE G5@B, B>, :0: ?8H5B ..>AA>2, & 1>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L A8AB5<=>AB8 1K; ?@8ACI, =0?@8<5@, :>=F5?F88 ..=0=L520, :>B>@K9 ?>AB>O==> 0:F5=B8@>20; 2=8<0=85 =0 2708<>A2O7OE A2>9AB2 (E>BO 8 B>65 01AB@0:B=KE) (1997). >;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L A8AB5<=>AB8 2 87CG5=88 ;8G=>AB8 32 A>740;8 8458 .!.5@;8=0 >1 8=48284C0;L=>< AB8;5 45OB5;L=>AB8 :0: A>>B=>H5=88 A2>9AB2 ;8G=>AB8 8 >1J5:B82=KE B@51>20=89 45OB5;L=>AB8. ..>AA>2 ?8H5B: 4=0:> 2 :>=B5:AB5 ?@>1;5<K ;8G=>AB8 @5GL 4>;6=0 84B8 =5 > B5E 8;8 8=KE 45OB5;L=>ABOE, 0 > 687=545OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0 2 F5;><. @><5 B>3>, 2@O4 ;8 A;54C5B B@0:B>20BL 8=48284C0;L=K9 AB8;L 45OB5;L=>AB8 B>;L:> :0: A?>A>1 :><?5=A0F88 =5MDD5:B82=KE 2 40==KE CA;>28OE A2>9AB2 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, AC60O MB8< 40==>5 A0<8< .!.5@;8=K< >?@545;5=85 AB8;O (>AA>2 .., 1997). 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MB>< :0: @07 8 70:;NG05BAO >48= 87 ?0@04>:A>2 ?A8E>;>388 8=B5;;5:B0: =0 ?>7=020B5;L=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL =0 ;N1>< 55 C@>2=5 (2>A?@8OB8O, ?0<OB8, <KH;5=8O 8 B.4.) 33 459AB28B5;L=> >:07K20NB 2;8O=85 @07=>>1@07=K5 ;8G=>AB=K5 D0:B>@K (2002, !.69). 48=AB2> 0DD5:B0 8 8=B5;;5:B0 & <>65B 2K@060BLAO 2 42CE :0G5AB25==> @07=KE D>@<0E: 8=B5;;5:B <>65B :>=B@>;8@>20BL 2;5G5=8O, 2KA2>1>640O A>7=0=85 87 ?;5=0 AB@0AB59, 8 8=B5;;5:B <>65B >1A;C6820BL 2;5G5=8O, ?>3@C60O A>7=0=85 2 8;;N7>@=K9, 65;05<K9 <8@ (%>;>4=0O .., 2002, !.70). >MB><C :@8B5@85< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 7@5;>AB8, ?> <=5=8N .. %>;>4=>9, 2KABC?05B A?>A>1=>ABL AC1J5:B0 ?@8=8<0BL <8@ 8 ;N1>5 A>1KB85 B0:8<, :0:8< >= >1J5:B82=> O2;O5BAO, 8 <5=OBL A2>8 <>B82K 8 ?>B@51=>AB8 A CG5B>< >1J5:B82=KE B@51>20=89 459AB28B5;L=>AB8.  =87:89 C@>25=L 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 7@5;>AB8 1C45B 8=8F88@>20BL, ?>-2848<><C, @07=K5 20@80=BK 70I8B=>3> ?>2545=8O. @838=0;L=CN :>=F5?F8N A?>A>1=>AB59 ?@54;030NB ..(04@8:>2 8 ..'5@5<>H:8=0 (1990), 2 :>B>@>9 >=8 >1J548=ONB 8458 45OB5;L=>AB=>3>, A8AB5<=>3> 8 :><?-;5:A=>3> ?>4E>4>2. !?>A>1=>AB8 >?@545;ONBAO 02B>@0<8 :0: A2>9AB20 DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A8AB5<, @50;87CNI8E >B45;L=K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 DC=:F88, :>B>@K5 8<5NB 8=48284C0;L=CN <5@C 2K@065==>AB8, ?@>O2;ONICNAO 2 CA?5H=>AB8 8 :0G5AB25==>< A2>5>1@0788 >A2>5=8O 8 @50;870F88 45OB5;L=>AB8 (1990, !. 14). "0:>5 ?>=8<0=85 A?>A>1=>AB59 ?>72>;O5B C:070BL 8E <5AB> 2 AB@C:BC@5 ?A8E8:8: A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, >=8 @50;87CNB DC=:F8N >B@065=8O 8 ?@5>1@07>20=8O @50;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, A 4@C3>9  E0@0:B5@87CNB 8=48284C0;L=CN <5@C 2K@065==>AB8 MB>3> A2>9AB20 ("0< 65). 1@0I0OAL : ?@>1;5<5 @0728B8O A?>A>1=>AB59, <K AB0;:8205<AO A ?@>1;5<>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, A >?@545;5=85< <5AB0 8 7=0G5=8O A?>A>1=>AB59 : 45OB5;L=>AB8, A 2KO2;5=85< CA;>289, ?@8 :>B>@KE 45OB5;L=>ABL AB0=>28BAO A@54AB2>< @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8 2 F5;>< 8 A?>A>1=>AB59 2 34 G0AB=>AB8. > <=5=8N ..(04@8:>20 (1996), 40==K5 ?@>1;5<K @5H0NBAO A ?>78F88 A8AB5<>35=570 45OB5;L=>AB8. "0:8< >1@07><, <=>385 AE>4OBAO 2> <=5=88, GB> >1I85 C<AB25==K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 =04> @0AA<0B@820BL A ?>78F88 DC=:F89 :0: <=>3>C@>2=52CN A8AB5<C, >ACI5AB2;ONICN A?5F8D8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL =5 B>;L:> ?> 040?B0F88 G5;>25:0 : >:@C60NI5<C <8@C, => 8 ?> 0:B82=><C ?@5>1@07>20=8N 53>. $C=:F88 8=B5;;5:B0 ?@8 MB>< @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: DC=:F88 F5;>AB=>9 A8AB5<K 2708<>A2O70==KE ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2 (A?>A>1=>AB59). 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"0:8< >1@07><, <K A>3;0A8<AO A B5<, GB> 2> 2708<>459AB288 C=8:0;L=>3> 2=CB@5==53> (AC1J5:B82=>3>) <8@0 @072820NI59AO ;8G=>AB8 A 4@C38<8 ;8G=>ABO<8 8 @50;L=K< (>1J5:B82=K<) <8@>< ?@>8AE>48B @0A:@KB85 8 @50;870F8O 1573@0=8G=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 @515=:0. 1.2.  + $  /  "/ #!"+% !!!" 0728B85 8 D>@<8@>20=85 C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59 ->4=0 87 206=59H8E 8 0:BC0;L=59H8E ?@>1;5<, 35 @07@010BK205<KE <=>38<8 >B5G5AB25==K<8 8 70@C156=K<8 ?A8E>;>30<8. >MB><C 2 8AB>@88 ?A8E>;>388 2>?@>AC @0728B8O A?>A>1=>AB59 2A5340 C45;O;>AL <=>3> 2=8<0=8O (-.-@8:A>=, 1995; .8065, 1986; ./.0;L?5@8=, 1998; ..02K4>2, 1966; ..>3>O2;5=A:0O, 1984; .!.59B5A, 1974 8 4@.). 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'5< 27@>A;55 @515=>:, B5< ;CGH5 >= 2K45;O5B 8=D>@<0B82=K5 ?@87=0:8 2>A?@8=8<05<>3> >1J5:B0 8 01AB@038@C5BAO >B =54>AB0B>G=> 8=D>@<0B82=KE. ;O B>3>, GB>1K C;>28BL =0AB@>5=85 G5;>25:0, 45B8 A<>B@OB 5<C 2 3;070, ?@8A;CH820NBAO : 53> 3>;>AC. 4=>2@5<5==> >=8 >1CG0NBAO 25AB8 F5;5=0?@02;5==K9 ?>8A: =C6=KE 8=D>@<0B82=KE M;5<5=B>2.  :>=FC ?5@2>3> 3>40 687=8 64 >B=>AOBAO ?5@2K5 ?@87=0:8 =0;8G8O <KH;5=8O C @515=:0 2 D>@<5 A5=A><>B>@=>3> ?@>F5AA0. 57C;LB0BK <=>38E 8AA;54>20=89 A2845B5;LAB2CNB > B><, GB> ?@>F5AA 2>A?@8OB8O  MB> ?>AB>O==> @072820NI55AO O2;5=85, :>B>@>5 =0 :064>< 2>7@0AB=>< MB0?5 8<55B A2>8 E0@0:B5@=K5 >A>15==>AB8. 725AB=>, GB> A@548 CG0I8EAO <;04H53> H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 ?@5>1;0405B 0=0;8B8G5A:89 B8? 2>A?@8OB8O, 0 C AB0@H8E H:>;L=8:>2  A8=B5B8G5A:89. -B> A2O70=> A 2>7@0AB=K<8 8 8=48284C0;L=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O CG0I8EAO. 081>;55 1;03>?@8OB=K< O2;O5BAO 0=0;8B8:>-A8=B5B8G5A:89 B8? 2>A?@8OB8O, :>B>@K9 ?@54?>;0305B =0;8G85 AB@5<;5=8O : ?>=8<0=8N A<KA;0 2>A?@8=8<05<>3> O2;5=8O, 0 B0:65 45B0;L=>9 >F5=:5 53> AB@C:BC@K. >MB><C 7040G59 @0728B8O ?5@F5?B82=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 CG0I8EAO O2;O5BAO D>@<8@>20=85 >?B8<0;L=>3> B8?0 2>A?@8OB8O - 0=0;8B8:>-A8=B5B8G5A:>3>. 0<8 8AA;54>20=85 ?5@F5?B82=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 2545BAO 2 ?;0=5 8E @0728B8O 8 2;8O=8O =0 ?@>F5AA >1CG5=8O. #@>25=L 8 :0G5AB2> ?@>F5AA0 2>A?@8OB8O >:07K20NB 2;8O=85 =0 ?@>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O ?@54AB02;5=89, O2;ONI8EAO 107>9 4;O D>@<8@>20=8O ?>=OB89. >MB><C ?@>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O 2>A?@8OB8O 83@05B 1>;LHCN @>;L 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 @515=:0 8 O2;O5BAO B5A=> A2O70==K< A @0728B85< 53> ?0<OB8 8 <KH;5=8O. 1.4. !%'! $" + "/ '!% !!!" @8 D0:B>@=>< 0=0;875 ?>7=020B5;L=KE DC=:F89 ?0<OBL 2K45;O5BAO :0: "?5@28G=0O C<AB25==0O A?>A>1=>ABL" (8=G5=:> .., 1961; !<8@=>2 .., 1966). "0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 "B@5E<5@=CN <>45;L 8=B5;;5:B0" 6.8;D>@40 (1966) ?0<OBL 2E>48B =0@O4C A B0:8<8 A?>A>1=>ABO<8, :0: 65 4825@35=B=>5 8 :>=25@35=B=>5 <KH;5=85, >F5=>G=K5 >?5@0F88 8 ?>7=020B5;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8. >;55 B>3>, <>6=> A:070BL, GB> ?0<OBL >B=>A8BAO : 2A5>1I8<, @>4>2K< A2>9AB20< G5;>25:0, 0 B0:65 : >A=>2=K< ?>7=020B5;L=K< ?@>F5AA0<, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?@85<, ?5@5@01>B:0 8 CA2>5=85 8=D>@<0F88. 4=0:> 8=48284C0;L=K5 G5@BK MB>3> A2>9AB20 C @07=KE ;N459 @07;8G=K. ?5@2K5 ?>=OB85 "<=5<8G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8" 225; 2 >B5G5AB25==CN ?A8E>;>38N 2 1966 3. ..!<8@=>2, >?@545;82 8E :0: 8=48284C0;L=K5 @07;8G8O 2 B>G=>AB8, 1KAB@>B5 8 ?@>G=>AB8 70?><8=0=8O. =B5@5A : ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?@8@>45 8 <5E0=87<0< ?0<OB8 2>7=8: >G5=L 402=>. I5 @8AB>B5;5< 1K; =0?8A0= A?5F80;L=K9 B@C4 > @01>B5 ?0<OB8. > ?>-=0AB>OI5<C =0CG=>5 >1JOA=5=85 MB>9 C4828B5;L=>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 G5;>25:0 AB0;> 2>7<>6=K< B>;L:> A @0728B85< CG5=8O > <>735 8 53> @01>B5. 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"@048F8>==K5 >?@545;5=8O <KH;5=8O >1KG=> 2:;NG0NB 2 A51O 420 ?@87=0:0: >1>1I5==>ABL 8 >?>A@54AB2>20==>ABL. -B8< 8 >B;8G05BAO <KH;5=85 >B 2>A?@8OB8O, E>BO MB8 420 ?@>F5AA0 B5A=> ?5@5?;5B5=K. A8E>;>3859 <KH;5=8O 70=8<0;8AL B0:85 2K40NI85AO >B5G5AB25==K5 ?A8E>;>38, :0: ..5>=BL52 (1964), !.. C18=HB59= (1958, 1960), /.. >=><0@52 (1975), .."8E><8@>2 (1980, 1984), ./.0;L?5@8= (1985, 1998), .!.K3>BA:89 (1983), ..5=G8=A:0O (1960), ..N1;8=A:0O (1960) 8 4@. ..5>=BL52 (1964) 2K428=C; ?@8=F8?80;L=K5 ?>;>65=8O > <=>3>>1@0788 284>2 G5;>25G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O, =52>7<>6=>AB8 8E A2545=8O B>;L:> : B5>@5B8G5A:><C, A;>25A=>-;>38G5A:><C <KH;5=8N 8 >1 >1I=>AB8 AB@>5=8O ?@54<5B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 B5>@5B8G5A:>9, <KA;8B5;L=>9. -B8 ?>;>65=8O, E>BO 8 =5 >E20BK20NB 2A5 ?@>1;5<K ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 87CG5=8O <KH;5=8O, => ?@82>4OB ?A8E>;>3>2 : <KA;8, GB> =5>1E>48<> A?5F80;L=> 87CG0BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 D0:B>@K ?@>B5:0=8O <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 80 > <=5=8N !.. C18=HB59=0 (1958), 2 :0G5AB25 >A=>2=>3> ?@54<5B0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 87CG5=8O, <KH;5=85 2KABC?05B :0: ?@>F5AA, :0: 45OB5;L=>ABL. -B> >?@545;5=85 >7=0G05B, GB> <KH;5=85 @0725@BK205BAO 2> 2@5<5=8, 2:;NG05B 2 A51O =5:>B>@K5 MB0?K: =0G0;>, A5@548=C, 7025@H5=85, 0 B0:65 B>, GB> <KH;5=85 5ABL ?@>O2;5=85 >?@545;5==>9 0:B82=>AB8 AC1J5:B0, 0 =5 B>;L:> =0?@02;5=> =0 >B@065=85 2=5H=53> <8@0. @54AB02;5=85 > <KH;5=88, :0: > ?@>F5AA5, @0728205BAO 2 @01>B0E ..@CH;8=A:>3> (1979), .."8E><8@>20 (1984), ./. 0;L?5@8=0 (1985). "KH;5=85 - MB> ?@>F5AA, ?>7=020B5;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, ?@>4C:BK :>B>@>9 E0@0:B5@87CNBAO >1>1I5==K<, >?>A@54>20==K<, >B@065=85< 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ("8E><8@>2 .., 1984). "KH;5=85" - MB> 2A5340 8A:0=85 8 >B:@KB85 ACI5AB25==> =>2>3>" (@CH;8=A:89 .., 1979).  >?@545;5=88 ./.0;L?5@8=0 <KH;5=85 2KABC?05B :0: "?@>F5AA >@85=B8@>2:8 AC1J5:B0 ?@8 @5H5=88 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE 7040G =0 <KH;5=85" (1985). .."8E><8@>2 (1984) ?8H5B, GB> 5A;8 =0 C@>2=5 ;>38G5A:>3> 0=0;870 <>6=>, 0 8=>340 8 =C6=> 01AB@038@>20BLAO >B AC1J5:B0, B> =0 C@>2=5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0;870 >B AC1J5:B0 01AB@038@>20BLAO =5;L7O, B0: :0: 8 <KA;8B, 8 >@85=B8@>2:C >ACI5AB2;O5B AC1J5:B. >MB><C, AG8B05B .."8E><8@>2, =54>AB0B>G=> >?8AK20BL @50;L=K9 ?@>F5AA <KH;5=8O, :0: 2708<>459AB285 B>;L:> >?5@0F89 0=0;870 8 A8=B570, B0: :0: MB>B ?@>F5AA 2:;NG05B 2 A51O 8 48=0<8:C, 8 ?>@>645=85 A<KA;>2, F5;59, >F5=>: 8 ?>B@51=>AB59. "KH;5=85 2>7=8:05B :0: ?@>F5AA, 2:;NG5==K9 2 687=545OB5;L=>ABL, @072820OAL, >=> ?@52@0I05BAO 2 >B=>A8B5;L=> A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, 8<5NICN A2>8 <>B82K, F5;8, A?>A>1K" ("8E><8@>2 .., 1984). KH;5=85 2 ?A8E>;>388 ?@8=OB> 45;8BL =0 284K 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B C@>2=59 >1>1I5=8O, E0@0:B5@0 8A?>;L7C5<KE A@54AB2 8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B AB5?5=8 81 0:B82=>AB8 A0<>3> AC1J5:B0 <KH;5=8O. "0: :0: <KH;5=85, A>3;0A=> >1I5?@8=OB>9 B>G:5 7@5=8O, O2;O5BAO A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN, B> 4>;6=K 1KBL 8 A?>A>1=>AB8, =5>1E>48<K5 4;O 2K?>;=5=8O MB>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 D>@<8@C5<K5 2 ?@>F5AA5 MB>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. -B> <KA;8B5;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8, :>B>@K5 2E>4OB 2 AB@C:BC@C >1I8E C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59 2 :0G5AB25 107>2KE, ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 A;>6=>5 >1@07>20=85 ;8G=>AB8 8 =5 A2>4OBAO : >4=><C :0:><C-=81C4L A2>9AB2C ?A8E8:8. KH;5=85, O2;OOAL >4=8< 87 C@>2=59 ?A8E8G5A:>3> >B@065=8O, 2:;NG05B 2 A51O :0: >A>7=0==K9, B0: 8 =5>A>7=0==K9 :><?>=5=BK. "0:8< >1@07><, ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 87CG5=85 <KH;5=8O 8 <KA;8B5;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 2>7<>6=> B>;L:> A CG5B>< 8E 2708<>A2O78 A 4@C38<8 ?>7=020B5;L=K<8 ?@>F5AA0<8 8 ?>B@51=>AB=>-<>B820F8>==>9 AD5@>9 AC1J5:B0. @5645 G5< ?@8ABC?8BL : 87CG5=8N ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K <KA;8B5;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59, <K @0AA<>B@8< @07;8G=K5 284K <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 345 ?@>O2;ONBAO MB8 A?>A>1=>AB8.  ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 8A?>;L7CNB =5A:>;L:> :;0AA8D8:0F89 284>2 <KH;5=8O. 07;8G0NB =03;O4=>-459AB25==>5, =03;O4=>->1@07=>5 8 A;>25A=>- ;>38G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 :0: MB0?K @0728B8O <KH;5=8O 2 >=B>35=575 8 D8;>35=575. !;>25A=>-;>38G5A:>5, 8;8 @0AAC640NI55 <KH;5=85, 2K45;O5BAO :0: >48= 87 >A=>2=KE 284>2 <KH;5=8O, E0@0:B5@87CNI89AO 8A?>;L7>20=85< ?>=OB89 8 ;>38G5A:8E :>=AB@C:F89, ACI5AB2CNI8E =0 1075 O7K:0 8 O7K:>2KE A@54AB2. 03;O4=>-459AB25==>5 <KH;5=85 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?@8 @5H5=88 7040G A ?><>ILN @50;L=>3> ?@5>1@07>20=8O A8BC0F88, A ?><>ILN =01;N45=8O 70 42830B5;L=K< 0:B><. @>O2;5=85 MB>3> 2840 <KH;5=8O C 2KAH8E 682>B=KE 87CG0; ..02;>2 (1951).  >B;8G85 >B =03;O4=>- 82 459AB25==>3> <KH;5=8O ?@8 =03;O4=>->1@07=>< <KH;5=88 A8BC0F8O ?@5>1@07C5BAO ;8HL 2 ?;0=5 >1@070. @><5 2KH5?@82545==KE 284>2 <KH;5=8O, 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 8A?>;L7C5BAO =5A:>;L:> "?0@=KE" :;0AA8D8:0F89: B5>@5B8G5A:>5 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>5, 8=BC8B82=>5 8 0=0;8B8G5A:>5 (;>38G5A:>5), @50;8AB8G5A:>5 8 0CB8AB8G5A:>5, ?@>4C:B82=>5 8 @5?@>4C:B82=>5, ?@>872>;L=>5 8 =5?@>872>;L=>5 <KH;5=85. "5>@5B8G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 - MB> ?>7=0=85 70:>=>2 8 ?@028;. "5>@5B8G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 8=>340 A@02=820NB A M<?8@8G5A:8< <KH;5=85<. E =5>1E>48<> @07;8G0BL ?> E0@0:B5@C >1>1I5=89: 2 ?5@2>< A;CG05 - MB> =0CG=K5 ?>=OB8O, 0 2> 2B>@>< - 68B59A:85, A8BC0B82=K5 >1>1I5=8O. @0:B8G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 3;C1>:> 87CG0; .. "5?;>2 (1961, 1986). @0:B8G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 @0725@BK205BAO 2 CA;>28OE 65AB:>3> 45D8F8B0 2@5<5=8, 8 7040G59 MB>3> 2840 <KH;5=8O O2;O5BAO ?>43>B>2:0 D878G5A:>3> ?@5>1@07>20=8O A8BC0F88: ?>AB0=>2:0 F5;8, A>740=85 ?;0=0, AE5<K. ;O ?@>2545=8O @07;8G8O <564C 8=BC8B82=K< 8 0=0;8B8G5A:8< (;>38G5A:8<) <KH;5=85< 8A?>;L7CNB B@8 ?@87=0:0: 2@5<5==>9 (2@5<O ?@>B5:0=8O ?@>F5AA0), AB@C:BC@=K9 (G;5=5=85 =0 MB0?K), C@>25=L ?@>B5:0=8O (>A>7=0==>ABL 8;8 =5>A>7=0==>ABL). =0;8B8G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 @0725@=CB> 2> 2@5<5=8, 8<55B G5B:> 2K@065==K5 MB0?K 8 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 >A>7=0=>. =BC8B82=>5 <KH;5=85 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO 1>;LH>9 A:>@>ABLN ?@>F5AA0, >BACBAB285< G5B:> 2K@065==KE MB0?>2 8 O2;O5BAO 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 =5>A>7=0==K<. /..>=><0@52 (1967) ?@54AB028; A>>B=>H5=85 ;>38G5A:>3> 8 8=BC8B82=>3> <KH;5=8O AE5<0B8G5A:8 2 2845 42CE 2708<>?@>=8:0NI8E AD5@, 2=5H=85 3@0=8 :>B>@KE ?@54AB02;ONB ;>38G5A:>5 8 8=BC8B82=>5 <KH;5=85. -B8 284K <KH;5=8O O2;ONBAO ?@545;0<8 48A:C@A82=>3> <KH;5=8O, :>B>@>5 8<55B ?OBL MB0?>2 8;8 AB@C:BC@=KE 83 C@>2=59. @>F5AAK 8=BC8B82=>3> <KH;5=8O =5 >A>7=0NBAO, 8 AB@>3> 8=BC8B82=>5 <KH;5=85 - MB> <KH;5=85 682>B=KE. @>F5AAK ;>38G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O >A>7=0=K, @0AG;5=5=K A ?@>4C:B>< <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, A?>A>1K @5H5=8O 7040G 2KO2;5=K 8 ?@52@0I5=K 2 459AB285, 8 AB@>3> ;>38G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 - MB> <KH;5=85 <0H8=. 8A:C@A82=>5 65 <KH;5=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 548=AB2> 8=BC8B82=>3> 8 ;>38G5A:>3>. 50;8AB8G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 =0?@02;5=> 2 >A=>2=>< =0 2=5H=89 <8@, @53C;8@C5BAO ;>38G5A:8<8 70:>=0<8, 0 0CB8AB8G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 A2O70=> A @50;870F859 65;0=89 G5;>25:0. =>340 MB> <KH;5=85 >?@545;ONB :0: M3>F5=B@8G5A:>5, E0@0:B5@87CNI55AO =52>7<>6=>ABLN ?@8=OBL B>G:C 7@5=8O 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0. 1CG5=85 O7K:0< ?@>3@0<<8@>20=8O A 8A?>;L7>20=85< M;5<5=B>2 <0B5<0B8G5A:>9 ;>38:8 8 B5>@88 0;3>@8B<>2 ?@825;> =5:>B>@KE 8AA;54>20B5;59 : 2K42865=8N B578A0 > ACI5AB2>20=88 A?5F8D8G5A:>3> (0;3>@8B<8G5A:>3>) A?>A>10 <KH;5=8O. A=>20=85< 4;O 2K45;5=8O ?@>4C:B82=>3> (B2>@G5A:>3>) <KH;5=8O ?>A;C68;> >BACBAB285 A2O78 <564C B@048F8>==K<8 B5AB0<8 8=B5;;5:B0 8 CA?5H=>ABLN @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<=KE A8BC0F89. -BC A?>A>1=>ABL AB0;8 87CG0BL =57028A8<> >B 8=B5;;5:B0, :0: A?>A>1=>ABL, >B@060NICN A2>9AB2> 8=482840 A>74020BL =>2K5 ?>=OB8O 8 D>@<8@>20BL =>2K5 =02K:8. 6.8;D>@4 8 53> A>B@C4=8:8 2K45;8;8 16 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59, E0@0:B5@87CNI8E :@50B82=>ABL. -B> 153;>ABL 8 381:>ABL <KA;8, >@838=0;L=>ABL, ;N1>7=0B5;L=>ABL, A?>A>1=>ABL : @07@01>B:0< 38?>B57, @5;520=B=>ABL, D0=B0AB8G=>ABL 8 4@. 6.8;D>@4 >1J548=8; MB8 D0:B>@K ?>4 >1I8< =0720=85< "4825@35=B=>5 <KH;5=85" (C:0=>2 .., 1975). 5B>48G5A:89 ?>4E>4 6.8;D>@40 (1977) A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> >= 2K45;8; A?5F8D8G5A:89 D0:B>@, A>>B25BAB2CNI89 B2>@G5A:>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 8 84 >15A?5G820NI89 "1>:>2>5" (;0B5@0;L=>5 8;8 4825@35=B=>5) <KH;5=85. "5< A0<K< >= ?@8H5; : 2K2>4C, GB> B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 ACI5AB2CNB ?0@0;;5;L=> 8 =57028A8<> >B >1I8E 8 A?5F80;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59.  8AA;54>20=8OE ..>3>O2;5=A:>9 (1971, 1984, 1995) CAB0=>2;5= B>B D0:B, GB> ?@>F5AA ?>7=0=8O 45B5@<8=8@>20= ?@8=OB>9 7040G59 B>;L:> =0 ?5@2>9 AB0488. 0B5<, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, @0AA<0B@8205B ;8 G5;>25: @5H5=85 7040G8 :0: A@54AB2> 4;O >ACI5AB2;5=8O 2=5H=8E ?> >B=>H5=8N : ?>7=0=8N F5;59, 8;8 >=> A0<> 5ABL F5;L, >?@545;O5BAO 8 AC4L10 ?@>F5AA0.  ?5@2>< A;CG05 ?@>F5AA ?>7=0=8O >1@K205BAO, :0: B>;L:> @5H5=0 7040G0. > 2B>@>< A;CG05 - =0?@>B82, ?@>4>;605BAO 40;LH5. ..>3>O2;5=A:0O ?8H5B: ...45AL <K =01;N405< D5=><5= A0<>42865=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8, :>B>@K9 ?@82>48B : 2KE>4C 70 ?@545;K 7040==>3>, 2 >1;0ABL >:>;>, GB> 8 ?>72>;O5B C2845BL =5?@542845==>5 (1995, !.55).  MB> A0<>@0728B85 ?@>F5AA0 =5 >1JOA=8<> B>;L:> A2>9AB20<8 8=B5;;5:B0 8;8 >4=8< 87 53> D0:B>@>2. -B> A2>9AB2> F5;>AB=>9 ;8G=>AB8, 2708<>459AB285 ?>7=020B5;L=KE 8 <>B820F8>==KE D0:B>@>2 2 8E 548=AB25. ..>3>O2;5=A:0O (1995) AG8B05B, GB> :@50B82=>ABL 5ABL A?>A>1=>ABL : >ACI5AB2;5=8N A8BC0B82=> =5AB8<C;8@>20==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, B> 5ABL, A?>A>1=>ABL : ?>7=020B5;L=>9 A0<>45OB5;L=>AB8, 8 B2>@G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 =5 ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5BAO ;>38G5A:><C, 0 5ABL 53> 65 @0728B85. 07;8G0NB B0:65 ?@>872>;L=>5 (F5;5=0?@02;5==>5 @5H5=85 <KA;8B5;L=KE 7040G) 8 =5?@>872>;L=>5 <KH;5=85 (=0?@8<5@, =5?@>872>;L=K5 B@0=AD>@<0F88 >1@07>2 A=>2845=8O).  AB@C:BC@C >1I8E A?>A>1=>AB59 2:;NG0NB 8 B0:>5 ?>=OB85, :0: :>3=8B82=K9 AB8;L, :>B>@>5 >B;8G05BAO ?> A2>5<C A<KA;C >B ?>=OB8O <KA;8B5;L=0O A?>A>1=>ABL. > <=5=8N -..>;C152>9 (1989, 1993), :>3=8B82=L9 AB8;L 85 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 8=AB@C<5=B0;L=KE :><?>=5=B>2 @0728B8O A?>A>1=>AB59, B>340 :0: ?>7=020B5;L=0O ?>B@51=>ABL O2;O5BAO <>B820F8>==K< :><?>=5=B>< @0728B8O A?>A>1=>AB59. >3=8B82=K9 AB8;L >B@0605B 8=48284C0;L=K5 @07;8G8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?5@5@01>B:8 8=D>@<0F88. ..%>;>4=0O (1996) ?@54;0305B B@0:B>2:C :>3=8B82=KE AB8;59 :0: >A>1>3> @>40 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59, >B25G0NI8E 70 C?@02;5=85 ?@>F5AA>< ?5@5@01>B:8 8=D>@<0F88.  >B;8G85 >B >1KG=KE 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59, >B25G0NI8E 70 ?@028;L=>ABL 8 A:>@>ABL ?5@5@01>B:8 8=D>@<0F88, :>3=8B82=K5 AB8;8 E0@0:B5@87CNB 8=48284C0;L=K5 @07;8G8O 2 >A>15==>ABOE ?>AB@>5=8O <5=B0;L=>3> >1@070 A8BC0F88 8 AB5?5=8 AD>@<8@>20==>AB8 <5E0=87<>2 <5B0:>3=8B82=>9 @53C;OF88 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. >3=8B82=K5 AB8;8 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8, - ?8H5B ..%>;>4=0O, - MB> @07=K5 ?> A2>8< ?@>O2;5=8O<, => 548=K5 ?> A2>8< 3;C18==K< ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< >A=>20=8O< D>@<K 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 7@5;>AB8 AC1J5:B0" (1996, !.23). -B>B A?8A>: 284>2 <KH;5=8O =5 O2;O5BAO ?>;=K<. 564C 2A5<8 MB8<8 2840<8 <KH;5=8O ACI5AB2CNB A;>6=K5 >B=>H5=8O. 0?@8<5@, 3..0;<K:>20 2K45;O5B A;>25A=>-;>38G5A:85 8 8=BC8B82=> - ?@0:B8G5A:85 :><?>=5=BK ?@>4C:B82=>3> <KH;5=8O (1981, C. 21). "> 5ABL, >48= 284 <KH;5=8O 2 :0G5AB25 A>AB02=>3> M;5<5=B0 <>65B 2E>48BL 2 AB@C:BC@C 4@C3>3> 2840 <KH;5=8O, 2 B> 65 2@5<O A0< <>65B A>AB>OBL 87 M;5<5=B>2 4@C38E 284>2 <KH;5=8O. !.. C18=HB59= (1958, 1960) 2K45;O5B 420 ?>4E>40 : ?@>1;5<5 ?>=8<0=8O <KH;5=8O. = :@8B8:C5B ?>78F88 B5E ?A8E>;>3>2, :>B>@K5 AG8B0NB, GB> <KH;5=85 - MB> >?5@8@>20=85 2 3>B>2>< 2845 ?>;CG5==K<8 >1>1I5=8O<8. 86 = ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> <KH;5=85 G5;>25:0 2A5340 ;8G=>AB=> >1CA;>2;5=>. @30=870F8O C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, :0: E>@>H> >B@01>B0==KE >?5@0F89, E>BO 8 >1;53G05B, 8 C?@>I05B 7040GC >1CG5=8O, 8 >15A?5G8205B 1>;55 1KAB@>5 4>AB865=85 CG51=>3> @57C;LB0B0, => MB>B @57C;LB0B 1C45B AB@>3> >3@0=8G5=, "70?@>3@0<<8@>20=" CG8B5;5<.  MB>< A;CG05 <K 8<55< B>;L:> <KH;5=85 - =02K:, 0 =5 <KH;5=85 - A?>A>1=>ABL. !.. C18=HB59= (1960) ?8H5B, GB> =54>AB0B>G=> A=0160BL CG0I8EAO 3>B>2K<8 AE5<0<8 459AB28O, =04> 5I5 ?>4C<0BL > A>740=88 2=CB@5==8E CA;>289 4;O 8E ?@>4C:B82=>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O, 0 B0:65 > 2>7<>6=>AB8 A0<8< CG0I8<AO =0E>48BL =>2K5 >1>1I5=8O, =>2K5 ?@85<K, =>2K5 A?>A>1K 459AB28O - >?5@0F88. -B>, 2 >B;8G85 >B ?@O<>3> =0CG5=8O, 4@C3>9 ?CBL, ?CBL @C:>2>4AB20 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN CG0I8EAO, ?CBL D>@<8@>20=8O 8E C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59. 0A0OAL ?@>1;5<K D>@<8@>20=8O C<AB25==KE 459AB289 2 A2O78 A ?@>F5AA>< CG5=8O, ..5=G8=A:0O (1960) ?8H5B: 8:0: =5;L7O A>3;0A8BLAO A ..5>=BL52K<, :>B>@K9 2 1957 3>4C CB25@640;, GB> ?@>F5AA ?@52@0I5=8O 2=5H=8E 459AB289 2> 2=CB@5==85, C<AB25==K5 ?@>F5AAK A>AB02;O5B F5=B@0;L=CN ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN ?@>1;5<C >1CG5=8O C G5;>25:0. > <=5=8N ..5=G8=A:>9, >B@8F0B5;L=K< <><5=B>< <5B>48:8 D>@<8@>20=8O C<AB25==KE 459AB289 ./.0;L?5@8=0 8 A>B@C4=8:>2 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> MB0 <5B>48:0 >3@0=8G8205B C<AB25==CN 0:B82=>ABL CG0I8EAO. >765 ./.0;L?5@8= (1985, 1998) ?8A0;, GB> >A=>2=>9 7040G59 2 ?@>F5AA5 CG5=8O O2;O5BAO 2>>@C65=85 CG0I8EAO =5 E>@>H> >B@01>B0==K<8 459AB28O<8, 0 2>>@C65=85 >1I8<8 <5B>40<8 0=0;870 8 A8=B570 87CG05<>3> <0B5@80;0. #G5=8: A 8E ?><>ILN A0< AB@>8B 4;O ;N1>3> =>2>3> 7040=8O ?>;=CN >@85=B8@>2>G=CN >A=>2C 459AB28O 8 87 A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 55 CA208205B. -B>B B8? CG5=8O =081>;55 ?@>4C:B825= 8 A B>G:8 7@5=8O 53> 2;8O=8O =0 >1I55 @0728B85 CG0I53>AO.  206=>AB8 >2;045=8O CG0I8<8AO <5B>40<8 0=0;870 8 A8=B570, >1>1I5==K<8 ?@85<0<8 <KA;8B5;L=KE >?5@0F89 ?8A0;8 ..=0=L52 (1962, 1968), ..>3>O2;5=A:0O (1971, 1984, 1995), !.. C18=HB59= (1958, 1960, 1976), ..5=G8=A:0O (1960), ..N1;8=A:0O (1960), ..0BNH:8= (1982) 8 4@C385. 0AA<>B@5=85 <KH;5=8O =5 :0: >B45;L=>9 DC=:F88, 0 :0: 45OB5;L=>AB8 A =5>1E>48<>ABLN ?@82>48B 8AA;54>20B5;59 : 0=0;87C ?>1C640NI8E 53> <>B82>2, ;8G=>AB=>3> A<KA;0 8 >B=>H5=8O AC1J5:B0 : 40==>9 <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 54CI85 >B5G5AB25==K5 ?A8E>;>38 (K3>BA:89 .!., 1958; 5>=BL52 .., 1965; C18=HB59= !.., 1966; ><>2 .$., 1981) ?>4G5@:820;8, GB> 2 <KH;5=88 2KABC?0NB =5 B>;L:> 53> >?5@0F8>==>-?@>F5AAC0;L=K5 70:>=><5@=>AB8 (0=0;870, A8=B570, >1>1I5=8O 8 B.4.), => 8 ;8G=>AB=>-<>B820F8>==K5. ?5@0F8>==0O 8 ;8G=>AB=>-<>B820F8>==0O AB>@>=K <KH;5=8O - MB> 420 0A?5:B0 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 O2;5=8O. > A>>B=>H5=85 ?@>4C:B82=>AB8 <KA;8B5;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 8 ;8G=>AB=> - <>B820F8>==>3> :><?>=5=B0 <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 5I5 =54>AB0B>G=> 87CG5=>. !?>A>1=>ABL : <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2K45;O5B G5;>25:0 87 >AB0;L=>3> <8@0 8 ?@54>AB02;O5B 5<C 2>7<>6=>ABL 0:B82=> ?@5>1@07>2K20BL 53>, 8AE>4O 87 A>1AB25==KE 65;0=89, F5;59 8 ?>B@51=>AB59. > A0<0 <KA;L, 5A;8 01AB@038@>20BLAO >B 55 A>45@60=8O (> G5< MB0 <KA;L), 5ABL =5GB>, G5<C =52>7<>6=> 40BL >?@545;5=85. .."8E><8@>2 (1984) ?@8E>48B : 2K2>4C, GB> B5@<8=>< "<KH;5=85" 2 ?A8E>;>388 >1>7=0G0NBAO :0G5AB25==> @07=>@>4=K5 ?@>F5AAK. 0?@8<5@, <KA;8B5;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 2:;NG5=0 2 :><<C=8:0B82=K9 ?@>F5AA, >=0 A>AB02;O5B =5>1E>48<K9 :><?>=5=B 2>7459AB28O =0 4@C3>3> 88 G5;>25:0, 0 B0:65 2:;NG5=0 2 ?@>F5AAK <56;8G=>AB=>3> ?>7=0=8O. @><5 B>3>, <KH;5=85 <>65B ?@8=8<0BL D>@<C A>2<5AB=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 1KBL :><?>=5=B>< @5D;5:A88 ;8G=>AB8 8 A0<> AB0=>28BLAO >1J5:B>< MB>9 @5D;5:A88. KA;8B5;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 G5;>25:0 B5A=> 2708<>A2O70=K A ?@>F5AA0<8 ?0<OB8 8 2>A?@8OB8O, 8<5NB <=>3>C@>2=52CN AB@C:BC@C, ?>MB><C 87CG5=85 <KA;8B5;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 G5;>25:0 ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2>7<>6=K< B>;L:> 2 A8AB5<5 A> 2A5<8 4@C38<8 A?>A>1=>ABO<8 G5;>25:0, 8=48284C0;L=> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 8 M<>F8>=0;L=>-<>B820F8>==K<8 :><?>=5=B0<8 53> ;8G=>AB8. 89  2. + "&  " #!"+% !!!" 2.1. "+  + "& #!" /",!" ' 5OB5;L=>ABL G5;>25:0 5ABL ?@>O2;5=85 53> ?@>872>;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8 8 8<55B A>F80;L=CN ?@8@>4C. -B> F5;5=0?@02;5==K9 ?@>F5AA, 45B5@<8=8@C5<K9 >A>7=0205<K<8 <>B820<8. >A:>;L:C <K @0AA<0B@8205< 2708<>A2O7L <>B820F88 8 >1I8E C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59, B>, 3>2>@O 2 40;L=59H5< > 45OB5;L=>AB8, <K 1C45< 3>2>@8BL >1 C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8.  B><C 65 ;N10O 87 254CI8E 45OB5;L=>AB59 (CG51=0O, B@C4>20O, 0 B0:65 83@>20O 45OB5;L=>ABL), =5 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 157 CG0AB8O B0:8E >1I8E C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59, :0: 2>A?@8OB85, <KH;5=85 8 ?0<OBL. >B820F8O :0: 4286CI0O A8;0 ?>2545=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0, 157CA;>2=>, 70=8<05B 254CI55 <5AB> 2 AB@C:BC@5 ;8G=>AB8, ?@>=87K20O 2A5 55 AB@C:BC@=K5 >1@07>20=8O: =0?@02;5==>ABL, E0@0:B5@, M<>F88, A?>A>1=>AB8, ?A8E8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK 8 B0: 40;55. >B820F8O - MB> =5>1E>48<>5 CA;>285 4;O @0725@BK20=8O 0:BC0;L=>9 <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> @5H5=8N 7040G, => >=0 <>65B 1KBL @07;8G=>9. ;O 87CG5=8O 2;8O=8O <>B820F88 =0 @0728B85 >1I8E C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59 <K 4>;6=K @0AA<>B@5BL 8<5NI85AO 2 A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>;>388 >A=>2=K5 ?>4E>4K : :;0AA8D8:0F88 <>B82>2 C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 90  ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 ?@8=OB> 2K45;OBL 425 3@C??K <>B82>2 ?>7=020B5;L=>9 (C<AB25==>9) 45OB5;L=>AB8: 2=CB@5==85 8 2=5H=85 <>B82K, 8;8 A?5F8D8G5A:8 ?>7=020B5;L=K5 8 =5A?5F8D8G5A:85 (@CH;8=A:89 .. 8 >;>28:>20 .., 1983). >2>@O > 2=5H=59 (=5A?5F8D8G5A:>9) <>B820F88, 8<5NB 2 284C, GB> ?>7=020B5;L=0O 7040G0 @5H05BAO @048 4>AB865=8O F5;59, =5 A2O70==KE A ?>7=0=85< >1J5:B0 (<>B820F8O ?@5AB860, 1;03>?>;CG8O, 871530=8O =5C40G8 8 B.4.). 0?@8<5@, CG0I89AO @5H05B 7040GC @048 B>3>, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL ?>E20;C. > B0 65 A0<0O 7040G0 <>65B @5H0BLAO 8 =0 >A=>25 2=CB@5==8E <>B82>2. 0?@8<5@, GB>1K @07>1@0BLAO 2 40==>9 7040G5 8;8 =09B8 >@838=0;L=K5 ?CB8 55 @5H5=8O. > 45;5=85 =0 2=CB@5==85 8 2=5H=85 <>B82K C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 25AL<0 CA;>2=>.  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"0:8< >1@07><, <K ?@8E>48< : 2K2>4C, GB> =0 D>@<8@>20=85 >1I8E C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 2;8ONB  2=CB@5==OO A?5F8D8G5A:8 ?>7=020B5;L=0O <>B820F8O 4>AB865=8O 8 ?A8E>48=0<8G5A:85 ?>:070B5;8 <>B820F88. $>@<8@>20=85 G5;>25G5A:8E A?>A>1=>AB59 - MB> 2A5340 0:B82=K9 A> AB>@>=K AC1J5:B0 ?@>F5AA. >B820F8O >:07K205BAO D0:B>@><, @53C;8@CNI8< 8=B5=A82=>ABL >A>7=0==>3> 8 =5>A>7=0==>3> 0=0;870 A8BC0F88 ?@8 ?>8A:5 @5H5=8O: 2 A8BC0F88 A 2KA>:>7=0G8<>9 <>B820F859 ?@>8AE>48B 1>;55 8=B5=A82=K9 0=0;87, G5< 2 A8BC0F88 A <5=55 7=0G8<>9 <>B820F859. 110 >;CG5==K5 =0<8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 @57C;LB0BK (2000, !.146) ?>72>;8;8 A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> ACI5AB2C5B B5A=0O A2O7L <564C <>B820F8>==K<8 ?>:070B5;O<8 8 ?>:070B5;O<8 ;8G=>AB=KE, 2 B>< G8A;5, 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8:. 725AB=>, GB> A0< ?> A515 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K9 C@>25=L :>=:@5B=>3> 8=482840 =5 30@0=B8@C5B 5<C @50;L=KE CA?5E>2 2 687=8, B0: :0: 4>AB865=8O 2> <=>3>< 7028AOB >B =0;8G=>9 <>B820F88 : MB8< 4>AB865=8O<. 57C;LB0B <>65B 1KBL 2KA>:8<, :>340 4><8=8@C5B <>B820F8O 4>AB865=8O CA?5E0, 8 =87:8<, 5A;8 ?@5>1;0405B <>B820F8O 871530=8O =5C40G8. .. @CH;8=A:89 8 .. >;>28:>20 (1983) AG8B0NB, GB> ;N10O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=0O >?5@0F8O =5 A>45@68B 2 A515 87=0G0;L=> 2A5E CA;>289 A2>53> D>@<8@>20=8O 8 ?@8<5=5=8O, B>;L:> 2 E>45 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> (?@>B5:0NI53> 2 40==>5 2@5<O) <KA;8B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 G5;>25: @0A:@K205B CA;>28O >1@07>20=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E C<AB25==KE 459AB289 8 >?5@0F89. -B> >7=0G05B B0:65, GB> =5 B>;L:> 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 >?5@0F88, => 8 <>B820F8O <KH;5=8O D>@<8@C5BAO 2 MB>< ?@>F5AA5, 0 =5 ?@82=>A8BAO 872=5 2 70:>=G5==>< 2845. 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" '!/ "&/  " #!"+% !!!" > <=5=8N <=>38E ?A8E>;>3>2, 87CG0NI8E B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8, 2 G5;>25:5 87=0G0;L=> 70;>65=> AB@5<;5=85 : B2>@G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8, ?@5>1@07>20B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. !B@5<;5=85 : C4>2;5B2>@5=8N ?>B@51=>AB8 2 B2>@G5AB25 O2;O5BAO B5< =5>1E>48<K< CA;>285< 4;O D>@<8@>20=8O <>B82>2 : B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2=CB@8 :>B>@>9 @072820NBAO B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 G5;>25:0. >MB><C 125 @0AA<>B@8<, :0:8< >1@07>< <>B82K : B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 8;8 B2>@G5A:0O <>B820F8O, 2;8ONB =0 @0728B85 >1I8E C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59. ..#7=0475 (1966) ?8A0;, GB> 28B0;L=K5 8 ?>7=020B5;L=K5 ?>B@51=>AB8, 0 B0:65 ?>B@51=>ABL 2 A>F80;L=>< :>=B0:B5 >B=>AOBAO : :;0AAC AC1AB0=F8>=0;L=KE ?>B@51=>AB59.  >B;8G85 >B =8E ACI5AB2C5B B0: =07K205<0O ?>B@51=>ABL 2 DC=:F8>=8@>20=88. .. #7=0475 ?>:070;, GB> 2 ?5@8>4 A>7@520=8O ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 2>7=8:05B ?>B@51=>ABL ?@82545=8O 2 459AB285 B5E A8;, :>B>@K5 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI59 A8BC0F88 2K7K20NB B0:CN D>@<C 0:B82=>AB8, :0: B2>@G5A:>5 ?>2545=85. 458 A0<>0:BC0;870F88 ;8G=>AB8 ?>4@>1=> @0AA<0B@820NBAO 2 3C<0=8AB8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 . >465@A0 (1993), . 0A;>C (1954), 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 .4;5@0 (1997), 2 8AA;54>20=8OE CG5=KE 4@C38E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E H:>;, 0 B0:65 2 0:<5>;>388, 8=B5=A82=> @07@010BK205<>9 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O >B5G5AB25==K<8 ?A8E>;>30<8. !>3;0A=> . 4;5@C, ;N48 >1;040NB B2>@G5A:>9 A8;>9, :>B>@0O 405B 8< 2>7<>6=>ABL @0A?>@O60BLAO A>1AB25==>9 687=LN, ?>MB><C >?@545;ONI59 G5@B>9 G5;>25:0 O2;O5BAO A2>1>4=0O, >A>7=0==0O 0:B82=>ABL.  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"  .   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F5;>< >B 5-3> : 11-<C :;0AAC G8A;> C:070=89 =0 <>B82K 4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8 A=8605BAO 8 ?>2KH05BAO G8A;> C:070=89 =0 <>B82K A0<>>?@545;5=8O 8 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O. 0G8=0O A 6-3> :;0AA0 8 4> 11 :;0AA0 C7:>;8G=>AB=K5 <>B82K (1;03>?>;CG8O 8 ?@5AB860) 70=8<0NB ?5@2>5 <5AB>. @>87>H;8 87<5=5=8O 8 2 CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=>9 <>B820F88. =0G8B5;L=> C25;8G8;>AL G8A;> C:070=89 =0 <>B82, A2O70==K9 A A>45@60=85< CG5=8O ( ;N1;N C7=020BL =>2>5 ).  10-< 8 11-< :;0AA0E CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K - A 3-3> <5AB0 ?5@5<5AB8;8AL =0 2-5 <5AB>. 172 K 2848<, GB> 2 <>B820F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@5 CG0I8EAO 10-11-E :;0AA>2 ?@>8AE>4OB 7=0G8B5;L=K5 87<5=5=8O. 0: 284=> 87 B01;8FK 8, CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K 2KE>4OB =0 2B>@>5 <5AB> (30,1% 8 32,2%), C25;8G8205BAO G8A;> C:070=89 =0 H8@>:85 A>F80;L=K5 <>B82K 70 AG5B <>B82>2 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O 8 A0<>>?@545;5=8O (31,0 % 2 11-< :;0AA5), <>B82K 871530=8O =5C40G8 ?>-?@56=5<C 70=8<0NB 4-5 <5AB>, => G8A;> C:070=89 =0 MB8 <>B82K 7=0G8B5;L=> A=8605BAO (1,7 % 2 11-< :;0AA5). "01;8F0 8 5AB> >A=>2=KE 3@C?? <>B82>2 2 AB@C:BC@5 <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@K H:>;L=8:>2 5-11 :;0AA>2 >B82K (8@>:85 A>F80;L=K5#G51=>-?>7=020-B5;L=K5#7:>;8G-=>AB=K571530=8O =5C40G8>;8G5AB2> C:070=89 (%) 8 @0=3>2>5 <5AB>V36,916,637,67,2  IIIIIIIV VI37,317,339,55,9  IIIIIIIV VII34,118,938,18,9  IIIIIIIV VIII31,118,041,59,4  IIIIIIIV I%28,418,546,17,0  IIIIIIIV %29,330,135,75,0  IIIIIIIV %I31,032,235,11,7  IIIIIIIV <;04H5< H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 8<5NB H8@>:85 A>F80;L=K5 <>B82K. "0:CN A>F80;L=CN 173 CAB0=>2:C ( %>GC 1KBL :C;LBC@=K< 8 @0728BK< ,  >=8<0N, GB> 4>;65= E>@>H> CG8BLAO ,  >=8<0N, GB> 7=0=8O =C6=K 4;O 1C4CI53> ) A>740NB A5<LO, 45BA:89 A04. >, ?> <=5=8N .. 0BNE8=>9 (1984), 40==K5 <>B82K =5 O2;ONBAO 4;O @515=:0 @50;L=> 459AB2CNI8<8. =>385 87 C:070==KE <>B82>2 <>3CB 1KBL @50;87>20=K B>;L:> 2 40;5:>< 1C4CI5<, ?>MB><C 8E ?>1C48B5;L=0O A8;0 ?>AB5?5==> A=8605BAO. > : 10-<C 8 11-<C :;0AAC <>B82K A0<>>?@545;5=8O 8 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O AB0=>2OBAO 0:BC0;L=K<8 8 =0G8=0NB 83@0BL 1>;55 7=0G8B5;L=CN @>;L 2 <>B820F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@5 H:>;L=8:>2. "0:8< >1@07><, CG51=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, O2;OOAL 254CI59 45OB5;L=>ABLN =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A53> H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0, ?>1C6405BAO F5;>9 A8AB5<>9 @07=>>1@07=KE <>B82>2, ?@8G5< 4;O 45B59 @07=>3> 2>7@0AB0 =5 2A5 <>B82K 8<5NB >48=0:>2CN ?>1C48B5;L=CN A8;C. 4=8 <>B82K O2;ONBAO >A=>2=K<8, 254CI8<8, 4@C385  2B>@>AB5?5==K<8. 0?@8<5@, <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0 >G5=L 2>;=C5B ?>;CG5=85 E>@>H59 >B<5B:8. > 45B8 G0I5 2A53> AB@5<OBAO : >B<5B:5 =5 @048 >F5=:8 7=0=89, 0 @048 A>E@0=5=8O 8 ?>2KH5=8O A2>53> ?@5AB860 8;8 @C:>2>4AB2CNBAO <>B82>< 871530=8O =5?@8OB=>AB59 ( =5 E>GC ?>;CG0BL ?;>E85 >B<5B:8 ). 1CG5=85, ?@8 :>B>@>< =5 >15A?5G8205BAO @0728B85 ?>7=020B5;L=>3> 8=B5@5A0, =5 A?>A>1AB2C5B D>@<8@>20=8N ?>;>68B5;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O : CG515 8 @0728B8N ;8G=>AB8 @515=:0. ">;L:> AB>9:89 8=B5@5A : 7=0=8O< O2;O5BAO =0456=>9 <>B820F8>==>9 >A=>2>9 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 >A=>2>9 @0728B8O C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59 8 ;8G=>AB8 2 F5;><, 0 3;02=K< CA;>285< D>@<8@>20=8O ?>7=020B5;L=>3> 8=B5@5A0, ?> <=5=8N 1>;LH8=AB20 ?A8E>;>3>2, O2;O5BAO =0?@02;5==>ABL 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG5=8:0 =0 >A2>5=85 B5>@5B8G5A:8E 7=0=89. >MB><C 2 A>2@5<5==>9 ?5403>38:5 >A=>2=>9 0:F5=B ?@8 >1CG5=88 2 H:>;5 1K; ?5@5=5A5= =0 D>@<8@>20=85 8<5==> B5>@5B8G5A:8E 7=0=89. >O28;8AL @07;8G=K5 174 H:>;K, M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 @072820NI85 ?@>3@0<<K, >1CG5=85 ?> :>B>@K< 459AB28B5;L=> A?>A>1AB2C5B ?@>4C:B82=>AB8 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 H:>;L=8:>2 70 AG5B D>@<8@>20=8O C 45B59 CAB>9G82>3> ?>7=020B5;L=>3> 8=B5@5A0.  >A=>2C B0:8E @072820NI8E ?@>3@0<< ;53;8 ?@8=F8?K, @07@01>B0==K5 .. -;L:>=8=K< 8 .. 02K4>2K< (1974, 1986), A>3;0A=> :>B>@K<, ?@54<5B>< CA2>5=8O CG5=8:>2, =0G8=0O A ?5@2>3> :;0AA0, AB0=>28BAO A8AB5<0 ?>=OB89 8 2KB5:0NI8E 87 =8E A?>A>1>2 ?@0:B8G5A:8E 459AB289. >MB><C @515=>:, >1CG0NI89AO ?> @072820NI59 ?@>3@0<<5, A A0<>3> =0G0;0 >@85=B8@>20= =0 @0A?>7=020=85 =081>;55 ACI5AB25==KE A2>9AB2 8 >B=>H5=89 ?@54<5B>2, 8E 2=CB@5==59 AB@C:BC@K. @>0=0;878@C5< @57C;LB0BK D>@<8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0, :>B>@K9 >?8AK20NB ..CA028F:89 8 . >@B=0O (1977). 0 >A=>20=88 ?@>2545==>3> 8<8 M:A?5@8<5=B0 02B>@K ?8HCB, GB> D>@<8@>20=85 <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@K CG0I8EAO >1KG=KE 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE :;0AA>2 ?@>8AE>48B ?@8=F8?80;L=> @07;8G=>. BB0;:820OAL >B :;0AA8D8:0F88 <>B82>2, ?@54;>65==>9 .. >6>28G (1972), >=8 @0745;8;8 2A5 >A>7=0205<K5 <>B82K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 H:>;L=8:>2 =0 A<KA;>>1@07CNI85 8 =5?>A@54AB25==> ?>1C640NI85 : CG5=8N.  A<KA;>>1@07CNI8< <>B820< >=8 >B=5A;8 A;54CNI85: <>B82K ?>;CG5=8O 1C4CI59 ?@>D5AA88, <>B82K 4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8, <>B82K ?>;CG5=8O >1@07>20=8O, ?>;CG5=8O 7=0=89, C7:>;8G=K5 <>B82K (AB@5<;5=85 CG8BLAO 4;O A51O, 2>7<>6=>ABL 2 1C4CI5< 8A?>;L7>20BL 7=0=8O 2 ;8G=KE F5;OE).  =5?>A@54AB25==> ?>1C640NI8< : CG5=8N <>B820< 1K;8 >B=5A5=K A;54CNI85: B@51>20=8O 27@>A;KE, CA?5E 2 CG515, 3@C??>2>9 8=B5@5A, ?>7=020B5;L=K9 8=B5@5A. B45;L=> 1K;> 2K45;5=> ;8G=>AB=>5 >B=>H5=85 : CG5=8N. >4 <>B820<8 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?>=8<0NBAO 2A5 D0:B>@K, >1CA;>2;820NI85 175 ?@>O2;5=85 CG51=>9 0:B82=>AB8: ?>B@51=>AB8, CAB0=>2:8, F5;8, GC2AB2> 4>;30, 8=B5@5AK 8 B.4. =0;87 A<KA;>>1@07CNI8E <>B82>2 ?>:070;, GB> CG5=8:8 >1KG=KE 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE :;0AA>2 >48=0:>2> >A>7=0NB A>F80;L=CN 7=0G8<>ABL <>B82>2. > ?@>F5=B >A>7=0=8O <>B82>2 4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8 C CG5=8:>2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> :;0AA0 >:070;AO 2 2-3 @070 2KH5, G5< 2 >1KG=KE :;0AA0E, 0 ?@>F5=B C:070=89 =0 C7:>;8G=>AB=K5 <>B82K, =0>1>@>B, 2 2-3 @070 =865. =0;87 =5?>A@54AB25==> ?>1C640NI8E : CG5=8N <>B82>2 ?>:070;, GB> ?@>F5=B 2=5H=8E <>B82>2 CG5=8O (B@51>20=8O 27@>A;KE, CA?5E 2 CG515, 3@C??>2>9 8=B5@5A) C CG5=8:>2 8 2 >1KG=KE, 8 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE :;0AA0E ?@8<5@=> >48=0:>2. >, GB> :0A05BAO 2=CB@5==59 ?>7=020B5;L=>9 <>B820F88 CG5=8O, B> CG5=8:8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE :;0AA>2 2 2-4 @070 G0I5 =07K20NB MB8 <>B82K, G5< CG5=8:8 >1KG=KE :;0AA>2. ..CA028F:89 8 . >@B=0O (1977) 45;0NB 2K2>4 > B><, GB> C CG5=8:>2 >1KG=KE :;0AA>2 ?>7=020B5;L=K9 8=B5@5A 2?;>BL 4> 4-3> :;0AA0 =>A8B A8BC0F8>==K9 E0@0:B5@, 8 4065 2 4->< :;0AA5 >= D>@<8@C5BAO =5 C 2A5E.  M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 65 :;0AA0E ?@>8AE>48B ?>AB5?5==>5 D>@<8@>20=85 AB>9:>3> ?>7=020B5;L=>3> 8=B5@5A0 =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A5E ;5B =0G0;L=>9 H:>;K. "0:8< >1@07><, 5A;8 ?@8 >1KG=>< <5B>45 >1CG5=8O 2 4->< :;0AA5 B>;L:> C >B45;L=KE CG5=8:>2 =0G8=0NB D>@<8@>20BLAO ?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K 8 ;8G=>AB=>5 >B=>H5=85 : CG5=8N, B> ?@8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>< (@072820NI5<) >1CG5=88 : 4-<C :;0AAC 2 >A=>2=>< 7025@H05BAO 8E D>@<8@>20=85. ;O 87CG5=8O 87<5=5=89 2 <>B820F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@5 H:>;L=8:>2 2 E>45 D>@<8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0 8 87CG5=8O CA;>289 D>@<8@>20=8O CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=>9 <>B820F88 =0<8 1K;0 0?@>18@>20=0 ?@>3@0<<0 ?> D>@<8@>20=8N ?>78B82=>9 <>B820F88 CG5=8O C ?5@2>:;0AA=8:>2. K1>@:0 A>AB028;0 56 CG0I8EAO. 176 K ?@54?>;>68;8, GB> D>@<8@>20=85 ?>78B82=>9 <>B820F88 CG5=8O 1C45B =081>;55 MDD5:B82=K<, 5A;8: 1) A>740BL @072820NI55 ?@>AB@0=AB2>; 2) ?@8<5=8BL :><?;5:A <5B>4>2 8 ?@85<>2, =0?@02;5==KE =0 D>@<8@>20=85 ?>78B82=>9 (CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=>9) <>B820F88; 3) 2K@01>B0BL 548=CN AB@0B538N 2 @01>B5 ?5403>3>2 8 @>48B5;59. >A;5 ?@>2545=8O D>@<8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0 2 B5G5=85 >4=>3> CG51=>3> 3>40 1K;0 ?@>2545=0 ?>2B>@=0O 4803=>AB8:0 <>B820F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@K ?5@2>:;0AA=8:>2. 57C;LB0BK :>=B@>;L=>3> M:A?5@8<5=B0 A2845B5;LAB2CNB > A;54CNI59 48=0<8:5 2 <>B820F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@5 ?5@2>:;0AA=8:>2. >B820F8O 8AA;54>20;0AL ?> <5B>48:5 .. 8=71C@30. 57C;LB0BK 8AA;54>20=8O ?@54AB02;5=K 2 B01;8F5 9. "01;8F0 9 8=0<8:0 87<5=5=89 2 AB@C:BC@5 <>B820F88 ?5@2>:;0AA=8:>2 2 ?@>F5AA5 D>@<8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0 !>B820F8O-:A?5@8<5=B0;L=0O 3@C??0, %>=B@>;L=0O 3@C??0, %  12121#G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=0O28,650,032,239,42!>F80;L=0O18,222,914,317,83F5=>G=0O25,014,328,621,443@>20O11,39,310,77,25=5H=OO6,53,53,53,56>78F8>==0O10,4-10,710,7@8<5G0=85: 1, 2  4> 8 ?>A;5 D>@<8@CNI53> M:A?5@8<5=B0. 177 0: 284=> 87 B01;8FK 9, 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 3@C??5 H:>;L=8:>2 C25;8G8;>AL G8A;> 45B59 A ?@5>1;040NI59 CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=>9 <>B820F859 A 28,6 % 4> 50 %. !>2A5< =5 AB0;> 45B59 A ?>78F8>==>9 <>B820F859, 8, 2 F5;><, ?@>A;56820NBAO 1>;LH85 87<5=5=8O 2 <>B820F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@5 H:>;L=8:>2. =0G8B5;L=>, ?> A@02=5=8N A 45BL<8 :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??K, C25;8G8;>AL G8A;> 45B59 A H8@>:8<8 A>F80;L=K<8 <>B820<8 (A 18,2 % 4> 22,9 %), 8 7=0G8B5;L=> C<5=LH8;>AL G8A;> 45B59 A >F5=>G=K<8 (A 25 % 4> 14.3 %) 8 83@>2K<8 <>B820<8 (A 11,3 % 4> 9,3 %).  :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??5, E>BO 8 ?@>87>H;8 87<5=5=8O 2 <>B820F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@5 H:>;L=8:>2, => >=8 =5 B0:85 1>;LH85, :0: 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 3@C??5. K 2848<, GB> 2 @57C;LB0B5 F5;5=0?@02;5==>9 @01>BK ?> D>@<8@>20=8N ?>78B82=>9 CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=>9 <>B820F88 <>6=> 4>18BLAO 7=0G8B5;L=KE 87<5=5=89 2 <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@5 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2. "0:8E 65 @57C;LB0B>2 4>1820NBAO <=>385 ?5403>38, @01>B0NI85 ?> A?5F80;L=K< @072820NI8< ?@>3@0<<0<, B0: :0: 2 >@30=870F8N @072820NI8E 70=OB89 A 45BL<8 =5>1E>48<K< 8 206=K< MB0?>< 2E>48B <>B820F8>==K9 MB0?. "0:, .. 0@:>20 (1990) =07K205B >A=>2=K<8 D0:B>@0<8, 2;8ONI8<8 =0 D>@<8@>20=85 ?>;>68B5;L=>9 CAB>9G82>9 <>B820F88 : CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, A;54CNI85: -A>45@60=85 CG51=>3> <0B5@80;0; ->@30=870F8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; -:>;;5:B82=K5 D>@<K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; ->F5=:0 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; -AB8;L ?5403>38G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG8B5;O.  >@30=870F8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?> <=5=8N .. 0@:>2>9, 4>;6=0 A>AB>OBL 87 3-E MB0?>2, ?5@2K< 87 :>B>@KE O2;O5BAO <>B820F8>==K9 MB0?. = 2:;NG05B 2 A51O: 0) A>740=85 ?@>1;5<=>9 A8BC0F88; 1) D>@<C;8@>2:C >A=>2=>9 CG51=>9 7040G8 :0: 8B>30 >1AC645=8O ?@>1;5<=>9 A8BC0F88; 2) @0AA<>B@5=85 2>?@>A>2 178 A0<>:>=B@>;O 8 A0<>>F5=:8. ">;L:> ?>A;5 <>B820F8>==>3> MB0?0 A;54CNB >?5@0F8>=0;L=>-?>7=020B5;L=K9 8 @5D;5:A82=>->F5=>G=K9 MB0?K. "0:65 4;O A@02=5=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 @072820NI59 ?@>3@0<<K >1CG5=8O A B@048F8>==>9 =0<8 1K;> ?@>2545=> 8AA;54>20=85 AB@C:BC@K <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@K B@5BL5:;0AA=8:>2 A ?><>ILN <5B>48:8 .. 0BNE8=>9 (B01;8F0 10). K1>@:0 A>AB028;0 52 G5;>25:0. 3-0 :;0AA >1CG0;AO ?> @072820NI59 ?@>3@0<<5 (M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=0O 3@C??0), 3-1 :;0AA - ?> B@048F8>==>9 ?@>3@0<<5 (:>=B@>;L=0O 3@C??0). "01;8F0 10 5AB> <>B82>2 2 AB@C:BC@5 <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@K CG0I8EAO B@5BL8E :;0AA>2 >B82K-:A?5@8<5=B0;L=0 O 3@C??0 (3-0 :;0AA)>=B@>;L=0O 3@C??0 (3-1 :;0AA)% @0=3 % @0=3 (8@>:85 A>F80;L=K5: -4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8, -A0<>>?@545;5=8O 8 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O20 282 133,3 25,91 2#G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5: -<>B820F8O A>45@60=85<, -<>B820F8O ?@>F5AA><20 22 37,4 -5 6#7:>-;8G=>AB=K5: -1;03>?>;CG8O, -?@5AB8608 -4 518,5 -3 671530=8O =5?@8OB=>AB59 12 3 14,8 4 1>1I0O @57C;LB0BK 8AA;54>20=8O <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@K CG0I8EAO B@5BL8E :;0AA>2, <>6=> 70:;NG8BL, GB> 2 =081>;LH59 AB5?5=8 >A>7=0NBAO H8@>:85 A>F80;L=K5 <>B82K  <>B82K A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O 8 179 A0<>>?@545;5=8O, 4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8. 'B> :0A05BAO CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=KE <>B82>2, B> C H:>;L=8:>2, >1CG0NI8EAO ?> @072820NI59 ?@>3@0<<5, >=8 70=8<0NB 2B>@>5 8 B@5BL5 @0=3>2K5 <5AB0 ?>A;5 H8@>:8E A>F80;L=KE <>B82>2.  C H:>;L=8:>2 :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??K CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K 70=8<0NB B>;L:> ?OB>5 8 H5AB>5 <5AB0. !@02=5=85 42CE <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O: B@048F8>==>3> 8 @072820NI53> =03;O4=> ?>:070;>, GB> ?@8 @072820NI5< >1CG5=88 C 45B59 1KAB@55, G5< 2 >1KG=KE :;0AA0E, D>@<8@CNBAO CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K.  CG51=KE <>B820E CG0I8EAO >B@060NBAO F5;8, :>B>@K5 AB02OBAO ?5@54 =8<8 >1I5AB2><, => A2O7L MB8E F5;59 8 <>B82>2 >G5=L A;>6=0O. =0 >1CA;>2;5=0 <=>38<8 D0:B>@0<8, 2:;NG0O 2>7@0AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 CG0I8EAO 8, @07C<55BAO, CA;>28O 8E >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O. @8 8A?>;L7>20=88 >B<5B>:  <>B820F8>==>9 >A=>2>9 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG0I8EAO >:07K205BAO B@52>6=>ABL, => =5 8=B5@5A. 515=>: >68405B 8;8 E>G5B 8<5BL 1>;55 2KA>:CN >B<5B:C, G5< ?>;CG05B. "0:0O A8BC0F8O 2>A?@8=8<05BAO CG0I8<8AO :0: =5C40G0 2 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, GB> 2K7K205B >B@8F0B5;L=K5 M<>F88 (B@52>6=>ABL). >MB><C >1CG5=85 157 >B<5B>:, ?> <=5=8N (..<>=0H28;8 (1975), O2;O5BAO D0:B>@><, A?>A>1AB2CNI8< ?>=865=8N B@52>6=>AB8 8 ?>2KH5=8N C@>2=O CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=KE <>B82>2. ;O >F5=:8 C@>2=O H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 =0<8 1K;0 8A?>;L7>20=0 <5B>48:0 .. CA:0=>2>9 (1999). 0==0O <5B>48:0 ?>72>;O5B 1KAB@> 2KO28BL ?OBL >A=>2=KE C@>2=59 H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88: 1) 25-30 10;;>2 (<0:A8<0;L=> 2KA>:89 C@>25=L)  2KA>:89 C@>25=L H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88, CG51=>9 0:B82=>AB8. 2) 20-24 10;;0 - E>@>H0O H:>;L=0O <>B820F8O. 180 3) 15-19 10;;>2  ?>;>68B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : H:>;5, => H:>;0 ?@82;5:05B 1>;LH5 2=5CG51=K<8 AB>@>=0<8. 4) 10 -14 10;;>2  =87:0O H:>;L=0O <>B820F8O. 5) 865 10 10;;>2  =530B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 : H:>;5, H:>;L=0O 457040?B0F8O. 0<8 8AA;54>20;AO C@>25=L H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 CG0I8EAO 5-E  9-E :;0AA>2 >1KG=>9 H:>;K. K1>@:0 A>AB028;0 2 5-E :;0AA0E 66 G5;>25:, 2 6-E :;0AA0E  72 G5;>25:0, 2 7-E :;0AA0E  140 G5;>25:, 2 8-E :;0AA0E  115 G5;>25:, 2 9-E :;0AA0E  107 G5;>25:. A53> ?@>B5AB8@>20=> 500 G5;>25:.  B01;8F5 11 ?@82545=K >1>1I5==K5 40==K5 ?> C@>2=O< H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88. 57C;LB0BK 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> 2 F5;>< C CG0I8EAO 5-E - 9-E :;0AA>2 C@>25=L H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 E>@>H89 8 ?>;>68B5;L=K9. >;8G5AB2> CG0I8EAO A 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< <>B820F88 A>AB02;O5B >B 1,4 % 4> 5,2 %. >;LH>9 ?@>F5=B CG0I8EAO 8<5NB =87:89 8 =530B82=K9 C@>25=L H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88. B 5-3> 4> 9-3> :;0AA0 C@>25=L H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 70<5B=> A=8605BAO: C<5=LH05BAO G8A;> CG0I8EAO A 2KA>:8< 8 E>@>H8< C@>2=O<8 <>B820F88 8 C25;8G8205BAO G8A;> CG0I8EAO A ?>;>68B5;L=K<, =87:8< 8 =530B82=K< C@>2=O<8.  9-KE :;0AA0E G8A;> CG0I8EAO A =87:8< C@>2=5< H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 A>AB02;O;> C65 38,3% 8 A =530B82=K< C@>2=5<  13,1%. "01;8F0 11 #@>2=8 H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 CG0I8EAO 5-E  9-E :;0AA>2 ?> <5B>48:5 .. 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B01;8F5 12 ?>:070=> A>>B=>H5=85 ?>:070B5;59 C@>2=O H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88, 87<5@5==KE A ?><>ILN <5B>48:8 .. CA:0=>2>9, 8 284>2 <>B820F88, ?>;CG5==KE A ?><>ILN <5B>48:8 . . 8=71C@30. !0<K9 2KA>:89 C@>25=L H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88, B> 5ABL AB@5<;5=8O E>48BL 2 H:>;C, AB@5<;5=8O CG8BLAO, >:070;AO C 45B59 A 2K@065==>9 CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=>9 <>B820F859 (26,5 10;;>2). "0:65 2KA>:89 C@>25=L H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 8<5NB CG0I85AO A A>F80;L=>9 <>B820F859 (<>B82K 4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8, A0<>>?@545;5=8O 8 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O) (25,5 10;;>2). #@>25=L <>B820F88 C 45B59 A 2K@065==>9 >F5=>G=>9 <>B820F859 =0E>48BAO 2 ?@545;0E 22,1 10;;0, =87:89 C@>25=L <>B820F88 ?@8 83@>2>9 8 2=5H=59 A>F80;L=>9 <>B820F88 (17,0 18,4 10;;0).  A0<K9 =87:89 C@>25=L H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 (13,8 10;;>2) ?@8 =5AD>@<8@>20==>AB8 CG51=>9 <>B820F88. (:>;L=8:>2 ?>1C640NB : CG5=8N G0I5 =5 CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K, 0 A>F80;L=K5 (4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8) 8 C7:>;8G=>AB=K5 (<>B82K ?@5AB860, 182 >F5=>G=K5). -B8 <>B82K O2;ONBAO @50;L=> 459AB2CNI8<8, 0 ?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K O2;ONBAO B>;L:> ?>=8<05<K<8. "0: :0: A>F80;L=K5 8 C7:>;8G=>AB=K5 <>B82K =5 =0?@02;5=K =5?>A@54AB25==> =0 CG51=K5 7040G8, 0 =0?@02;5=K =0 C4>2;5B2>@5=85 4@C38E ?>B@51=>AB59 (A0<>CB25@645=8O, 1;03>?>;CG8O, 871530=8O =5C40G8 8 B.4.), =5 >B=>AOI8EAO : CG51=K< 7040G0<, B> @0728B85 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 2 >A=>2=>< ?@>8AE>48B AB8E89=>, 0 ?>MB><C 7=0G8B5;L=> <54;5==55, G5< ?@8 AD>@<8@>202H59AO CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=>9 <>B820F88. "01;8F0 12 #@>2=8 H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 CG0I8EAO A @07=K<8 2840<8 <>B820F88 !>B820F8O#@>2=8 <>B820F881#G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=0O26,52KA>:892!>F80;L=0O25,52KA>:893F5=>G=0O22,1E>@>H8943@>20O18,4?>;>68B5;L=K95!>F80;L=0O (2=5H=OO)17,0?>;>68B5;L=K965AD>@<8@>20==>ABL <>B820F8813,8=87:89;O 87CG5=8O AB@C:BC@K CG51=>9 <>B820F88 H:>;L=8:>2 <K @07@01>B0;8 A>1AB25==CN <5B>48:C, A>AB>OICN 87 22 2>?@>A>2. =0 ?>72>;O5B 1>;55 48DD5@5=F8@>20==> ?>4>9B8 : 87CG5=8N AB@C:BC@K <>B820F88 8 2KO28BL =081>;55 7=0G8<K5 <>B82K CG5=8O A>2@5<5==KE H:>;L=8:>2. -B> <>B82K 4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8, A0<>>?@545;5=8O 8 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O, 1;03>?>;CG8O, 0DD8;80F88, ?@5AB860, 871530=8O =5C40G8, CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 (A>45@60=85< 8 ?@>F5AA>< CG5=8O), :><<C=8:0B82=K5 <>B82K, <>B82K B2>@G5A:>9 A0<>@50;870F88, <>B82K 4>AB865=8O CA?5E0. 183 57C;LB0BK ?@>2545==>3> 8AA;54>20=8O H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 CG0I8EAO 5-E :;0AA>2 ?> @07@01>B0==>9 =0<8 <5B>48:5 ?@54AB02;5=K 2 B01;8F5 13. 57C;LB0BK 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> @50;L=> 459AB2CNI8<8 <>B820<8 C CG0I8EAO 5-E :;0AA>2 >:07K20NBAO <>B82K 4>AB865=8O (%>GC CG8BLAO B>;L:> =0 4 8 5, %>GC 4>18BLAO 2 1C4CI5< 1>;LH8E CA?5E>2), 871530=8O =5C40G8 (%>GC, GB>1K =5 @C30;8 @>48B5;8 8 CG8B5;O, 5 E>GC ?>;CG0BL ?;>E85 >B<5B:8), :><<C=8:0B82=K5 <>B82K (=5 8=B5@5A=> 15A54>20BL A CG8B5;5< =0 @07=K5 B5<K, =5 1>;LH5 =@028BAO 2K?>;=OBL CG51=>5 7040=85 2 3@C??5, G5< >4=><C) 8 <>B82K B2>@G5A:>9 A0<>@50;870F88 (N1;N @5H0BL 7040G8 @07=K<8 A?>A>10<8, N1;N 2A5 =>2>5 8 =5>1KG=>5). 5=LH55 G8A;> 2K1>@>2 C CG5=8:>2 ?>;CG8;8 CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K (?@>F5AA><), <>B82K A0<>-A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O 8 A0<>>?@545;5=8O 8 <>B82K 0DD8;80F88 (?> 7,4 %). #G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K (A>45@60=85<) A>AB028;8 B>;L:> 3,7 %. >B82K 4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8 8 ?@5AB860 =5 2KO28;8AL :0: 254CI85 <>B82K 2 8AA;54C5<>9 3@C??5 H:>;L=8:>2. "01;8F0 13 !B@C:BC@0 <>B820F88 H:>;L=8:>2 5-3> :;0AA0 !>B82K>;8G5AB2> CG0I8EAO, %1>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB802!0<>>?@545;5=8O 8 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O7,43;03>?>;CG8O04>B82K 0DD8;80F887,45@5AB8600671530=8O =5C40G814,87#G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 (A>45@60=85< CG5=8O)3,78#G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 (?@>F5AA>< CG5=8O)7,4184 9><<C=8:0B82=K511,110"2>@G5A:>9 A0<>@50;870F8811,111>AB865=8O CA?5E037"0:8< >1@07><, @0728B85 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 H:>;L=8:>2 2> <=>3>< >1CA;>2;5=> C@>2=5< @0728B8O CG51=KE 8 CG51=>-:><<C=8:0B82=KE C<5=89 8 =02K:>2 8 B5A=> A2O70=> A @0728B85< B0:8E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E :0G5AB2, :0: A0<>@53C;OF8O, A0<>>F5=:0, ?>7=020B5;L=0O <>B820F8O, >A>15==>AB8 >1I5=8O 8 B.4. !5@8O 2. 7CG5=85 AB@C:BC@K CG51=>9 <>B820F88 ABC45=B>2 !<KA; CG5=8O 4;O CG0I8EAO 8 ABC45=B>2 - 2 8E 1C4CI5<, => ?>1C640NB 8E : CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 <>B82K 1>;55 1;87:85 8 =5?>A@54AB25==> A2O70==K5 A ?>2A54=52=>9 687=LN 8 CG51=>9 @01>B>9.  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"0:8< >1@07><, <K <>65< A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 ?>AB5?5==> 2>7@0AB0NB ?@8 ?5@5E>45 A >4=>9 ABC?5=8 =0 4@C3CN, 8 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 MB><C A?>A>1AB2C5B CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=0O <>B820F8O. @8 >F5=>G=>9 8 2=5H=59 A>F80;L=>9 <>B820F88 B0:65 =01;N405BAO ?>2KH5=85 ?>:070B5;59 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59, =>, A:>@55 2A53>, >=> A2O70=> A ?>AB5?5==K< >2;045=85< H:>;L=8:0<8 =02K:0<8 CG51=KE 459AB289.  ?>A:>;L:C D>@<8@>20=85 =02K:>2 CG51=KE 459AB289 ?@>8AE>48B =5@02=><5@=>, GB> >1CA;>2;5=> @07=K<8 ?@8G8=0<8 8 CA;>28O<8 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, B> 8 @0728B85 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 157 CAB>9G82>9 198 CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=>9 <>B820F88 ?@>8AE>48B =5@02=><5@=> 8 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 AB8E89=>. 0=68@>20=85 <>B82>2 2 <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@5 CG0I8EAO =0G0;L=>9 H:>;K 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B C@>2=O 8=B5;;5:B0 1K;> ?@>2545=> =0<8 =0 2K1>@:5 CG0I8EAO 1-3 :;0AA>2 (2A53>: 204 G5;>25:0). AA;54>20=85 ?@>2>48;>AL A ?><>ILN B5AB0 . 5:A;5@0 8 <5B>48:8 H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88 .. 0BNE8=>9. 7 B01;8FK 20 284=>, GB> C CG0I8EAO A> A@54=8< 8 =87:8< C@>2=O<8 8=B5;;5:B0 ?5@2>5 @0=3>2>5 <5AB> 70=8<0NB H8@>:85 A>F80;L=K5 <>B82K (4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8, A0<>>?@545;5=8O 8 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O). # CG0I8EAO A 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< 8=B5;;5:B0 =0 ?5@2>< <5AB5 - C7:>;8G=>AB=K5 <>B82K (?@5AB860, 1;03>?>;CG8O), 0 H8@>:85 A>F80;L=K5 <>B82K 70=8<0NB 2B>@>5 @0=3>2>5 <5AB>. >B82K CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 70=8<0NB C CG0I8EAO A 2KA>:8< 8 A@54=8< 8=B5;;5:B>< B@5BL5 <5AB>, 0 <>B82K 871530=8O =5C40G8  G5B25@B>5 <5AB>. # CG0I8EAO A =87:8< 8=B5;;5:B>< CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K >?CA:0NBAO =0 ?>A;54=55 G5B25@B>5 <5AB>, 0 <>B82K 871530=8O ?>4=8<0NBAO =0 2B>@>5 <5AB>. =0G8B, 45B8 A =87:8< 8=B5;;5:B>< G0I5 2A53> @C:>2>4AB2CNBAO 2 CG515 <>B820<8 871530=8O, 0 2KA>:>8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 45B8  C7:>;8G=>AB=K<8. #G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K 4065 C 45B59 A 2KA>:8< 8=B5;;5:B>< AB>OB B>;L:> =0 B@5BL5< <5AB5. "01;8F0 20 5AB> <>B82>2 2 AB@C:BC@5 <>B820F88 H:>;L=8:>2 ?@8 @07=KE C@>2=OE @0728B8O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 #@>25=L 8=B5;;5:B0 0=3>B82KKA>:89I II III#7:>;8G=>AB=K5 (8@>:85 A>F80;L=K5 #G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5199 IV >B82K 871530=8O!@54=89I II III IV(8@>:85 A>F80;L=K5 #7:>;8G=>AB=K5 #G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 >B82K 871530=8O87:89I II III IV(8@>:85 A>F80;L=K5 >B82K 871530=8O #7:>;8G=>AB=K5 #G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5"0:8< >1@07><, =0 D>@<8@>20=85 8 @0728B85 >1I8E C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59 2;8O5B 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8, G5< 4@C385 284K <>B820F88, 2=CB@5==OO A?5F8D8G5A:8 ?>7=020B5;L=0O <>B820F8O. A;8 ?5403>3C C40ABAO AD>@<8@>20BL C H:>;L=8:>2 AB>9:89 ?>7=020B5;L=K9 8=B5@5A =0 =0G0;L=>9 ABC?5=8 >1CG5=8O, B> <>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> =0 ?>A;54CNI8E ABC?5=OE >1CG5=8O @50;L=> 459AB2CNI59 AB0=5B 8<5==> A?5F8D8G5A:8 ?>7=020B5;L=0O <>B820F8O. > 2B>@>9 A5@88 =0<8 ?@>2545=> 87<5@5=85 A>>B=>H5=8O ?A8E>48=0<8G5A:8E ?0@0<5B@>2 ?A8E8:8 (B@52>6=>AB8, M<>F8>=0;L=>9 CAB>9G82>AB8, @01>B>-A?>A>1=>AB8) A ?>:070B5;O<8 2K?>;=5=8O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE 7040=89 (?> B5ABC 5:A;5@0). 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"01;8F0 22 >@@5;OF8>==K5 A2O78 <564C <KA;8B5;L=K<8 A?>A>1=>ABO<8 8 ?A8E>48=0<8G5A:8<8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8 2B>@>:;0AA=8:>2 @8<5G0=85: * - p < ,05 KH- ;5=85 (0@8D< )KH- ;5=85 (AE > 4AB 2> )-<>F8>- =0;L=0O CAB>9- G82>ABL 01>B>- A?>A>1- =>ABL"@52>6 -=>ABL#A?5-205<>ABLKH;5=85 (0@8D<5B)1KH;5=85 (AE>4AB2>)0,504*1-<>F8>=. CAB>9G 82>ABL-0,242-0,1181 01>B>A?>-A>1=>ABL-0,0340,0490,1091"@52>6 =>ABL-0,0480,0070,058-0,769*1#A?5205<>AB L0,541*0,347*-0,0870,119-0,2021"01;8F0 23 202 >@@5;OF8>==K5 A2O78 <564C <KA;8B5;L=K<8 A?>A>1=>ABO<8 8 ?A8E>48=0<8G5A:8<8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8 B@5BL5:;0AA=8:>2 KH-;5=85 (0@8D< )KH -;5=85 (AE>4AB2 > )-<>F8> =0;L=0O CAB>9G8 2>ABL 01>B>-A?>A>1 -=>ABL"@52>6 =>ABL#A?520 5 <>ABLKH;5=85 (0@8D<5B)1KH;5=85 (AE>4AB2>)0,579*1-<>F8>= . 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"01;8F0 41 !@54=85 7=0G5=8O ?>:070B5;59 :@50B82=>AB8 C H:>;L=8:>2 2B>@KE 8 B@5BL8E :;0AA>2 241 ;0AAK53;>ABL81:>ABL@838=0;L=>ABL 07@01>B0==>ABL2 - 06,25,58,420,12  16,45,48,219,83  06,05,47,620,23 - 16,15,37,220,4 0A?@545;5=85 H:>;L=8:>2 ?> B@5< C@>2=O< :@50B82=>AB8 (2KA>:89, A@54=89, =87:89) B0:65 5I5 @07 ?>:07K205B, GB> >B 2B>@>3> : B@5BL5<C :;0AAC A=8605BAO ?>:070B5;L 8E :@50B82=>AB8. 0: 2848< 87 B01;8FK 42, 2 B@5BL8E :;0AA0E A=878;>AL G8A;> H:>;L=8:>2 A 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< :@50B82=>AB8 (8,7% 8 8,5%) ?> A@02=5=8N A> 2B>@K<8 :;0AA0<8, 345 G8A;> B0:8E H:>;L=8:>2 A>AB02;O5B 10,5% 8 9,8%. , =0>1>@>B, 2 B@5BL8E :;0AA0E C25;8G8;>AL G8A;> H:>;L=8:>2 A =87:8< C@>2=5< :@50B82=>AB8 (23,3% 8 32,1%) ?> A@02=5=8N A> 2B>@K<8 :;0AA0<8 (21,3% 8 18,7%). >;CG5==K5 =0<8 40==K5 =5 ?@>B82>@5G0B 8725AB=K< 87 ;8B5@0BC@=KE 8AB>G=8:>2 A2545=8O< > B5=45=F88 A=865=8O A 2>7@0AB>< B2>@G5A:8E A?>A>1=>AB59 C 45B59. 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"01;8F0 42 0A?@545;5=85 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2 ?> C@>2=O< :@50B82=>AB8 (?> <5B>48:5 ">@@5=A0) #@>2=82 0 :;0AA2 1 :;0AA3 0 :;0AA3 1 :;0AA % 45B59% 45B59% 45B59% 45B59KA>:8910,59,88,78,5242 !@54=8968,271,563,059,487:8921,318,723,332,1"@5BLO A5@8O. =0;87 2708<>A2O759 :@50B82=>AB8 8 C@>2=O @0728B8O 8=B5;;5:B0 C H:>;L=8:>2 2-E 8 3-E :;0AA>2. !>?>AB0282 ?>;CG5==K5 =0<8 @57C;LB0BK 4803=>AB8:8 :@50B82=>AB8 8 8=B5;;5:B0, <K C1548;8AL, GB> 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 8 B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 <564C A>1>9 =5 2708<>A2O70=K, B0: :0: C@>25=L 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O B@5BL5:;0AA=8:>2, E>BL =57=0G8B5;L=>, => 2A5 65 2 A@54=5< 2KH5, G5< C 2B>@>:;0AA=8:>2.  :@50B82=>ABL, :@><5 ?>:070B5;O 07@01>B0==>ABL, C B@5BL5:;0AA=8:>2 ?>=8605BAO. !@54=85 ?>:070B5;8 8=B5;;5:B0 8 :@50B82=>AB8 ?@54AB02;5=K 2 B01;8F5 43. 7 B01;8FK 43 284=>, GB> @0A?@545;5=85 :;0AA>2 ?> A@54=5<C C@>2=N 8=B5;;5:B0 >B 2KAH53> : =87H5<C (3-3-2-2) =5 A>2?0405B A @0A?@545;5=85< 8E ?> A@54=5<C ?>:070B5;N :@50B82=>AB8 (2-2-3-3). 0: 8725AB=>, :>;8G5AB2> 38?>B57, ?>@>6405<KE 8=48284>< ?@8 @5H5=88 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 7040G8, :>@@5;8@C5B A :@50B82=>ABLN, 87<5@5==>9 ?> <5B>48:5 ">@@0=A0, 0 ?@028;L=>ABL @5H5=8O 7040G ?>;>68B5;L=> :>@@5;8@C5B A C@>2=5< >1I53> 8=B5;;5:B0, 87<5@5==>3> ?> B5ABC 8=B5;;5:B0 . 5:A;5@0. !;54>20B5;L=>, :@50B82=>ABL 8 >1I89 8=B5;;5:B O2;ONBAO A?>A>1=>ABO<8, >?@545;ONI8<8 ?@>F5AA @5H5=8O <KA;8B5;L=>9 7040G8, => 83@0NI8<8 @07=CN @>;L =0 @07;8G=KE 53> MB0?0E. 0H5 8AA;54>20=85 ?>4B25@6405B MB8 2K2>4K. 57C;LB0BK ?@>2545==>3> =0<8 4@C3>3> M:A?5@8<5=B0 =0 2K1>@:5 ?5@2>:;0AA=8:>2 B0:65 ?>4B25@48;8 >BACBAB285 :>@@5;OF8>==>9 A2O78 <564C :@50B82=>ABLN 8 C@>2=5< C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O. 0<8 1K;8 87<5@5=K B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 CG0I8EAO 1-E :;0AA>2 8 C@>25=L C<AB25==>3> 243 <5B>48:5 5:A;5@0 (2K1>@:0 A>AB028;0 82 @0728B8O ?> G5;>25:0). "01;8F0 43 !@54=85 ?>:070B5;8 8=B5;;5:B0 8 :@50B82=>AB8 H:>;L=8:>2 2B>@KE 8 B@5BL8E :;0AA>2 ;0AAK=B5;;5:B@50B82=>ABL284.340,2280.039,8390.539,2387.839,0:;0AA>2 "01;8F0 44 #@>2=8 @0728B8O :@50B82=>AB8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B C@>2=O C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O C CG0I8EAO 1-E #@>2=8 @0728B8O B2>@G5A:8E A?>A>1=>AB59'8A;> CG0I8EAO 2 % A C@>2=O<8 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O 2KA>:89A@54=89=87:89KA>:8937,00,00,0!@54=8931,06,53,287:891,69,711,3 57C;LB0BK ?>4B25@48;8 ;8B5@0BC@=K5 40==K5, GB> CG0I85AO A 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O <>3CB 8<5BL B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 :0: =0 2KA>:>< C@>2=5, B0: 8 =0 A@54=5<, 8 =87:>< C@>2=OE (37,0; 31,0; 1,6 % A>>B25BAB25==>) (A<. 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B@048F8>==>9 H:>;5, >1 MB>< A2845B5;LAB2CNB <=>3>G8A;5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O, ?@>8AE>48B ?>402;5=85 :@50B82=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 H:>;L=8:>2. 0<8 1K;> ?@54?>;>65=>, GB> =0 C@>25=L @0728B8O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 1C45B ?>;>68B5;L=> 2;8OBL C@>25=L H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88. >MB><C H:>;L=8:8 2B>@KE 8 B@5BL8E :;0AA>2 1K;8 ?@>B5AB8@>20=K ?> <5B>48:5 ..CA:0=>2>9 =0 C@>25=L H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88. 5B>48:0 2:;NG05B 2 A51O 10 2>?@>A>2 8 ?@>5:B82=K9 @8AC=>G=K9 B5AB >O H:>;0. 57C;LB0BK ?@54AB02;5=K 2 B01;8F5 45. @5645 2A53>, 87 B01;8FK 45 A;54C5B, GB> 2KA>:89 C@>25=L <KH;5=8O ?@82>48B : ?>;>68B5;L=>9 CG51=>9 <>B820F88. !@548 CG0I8EAO A 8=B5;;5:B>< 2KH5 A@54=53> C@>2=O 63,1 % H:>;L=8:>2 8<5NB 2KA>:89 8 2KH5 A@54=53> C@>2=8 >B=>H5=8O : CG515, 31,6 % 45B59  A@54=89 C@>25=L 8 5,3 % - =87:89 8 =865 A@54=53>. !@548 CG0I8EAO A> A@54=8< C@>2=5< @0728B8O 8=B5;;5:B0 64% ?>:070;8 2KA>:89 8 2KH5 A@54=53> C@>2=8 H:>;L=>9 <>B820F88, 30,6 % - A@54=89 C@>25=L 8 5,4  =87:89 8 =865 A@54=53>. !@548 CG0I8EAO A C@>2=O<8 @0728B8O 8=B5;;5:B0 =865 A@54=53> 8 =87:8< 8<5NB 2KA>:89 8 2KH5 A@54=53> 245 C@>25=L <>B820F88 A>>B25BAB25==> 35 % 8 35,6 %, 0 C@>2=8 =865 A@54=53> 8 =87:89 8<5NB 15 % 8 24,3% CG0I8EAO. 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K ?>;0305<, GB> B@048F8>==0O A8AB5<0 >1CG5=8O :0: 2 H:>;5, B0: 8 2 2C75, ?@>4>;605B >AB020BLAO 70 @54:8< 8A:;NG5=85< 02B>@8B0@=>9, 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 =5 CG8BK205B 8=48284C0;L=K5 >A>15==>AB8 >1CG0NI8EAO 8 =5 >15A?5G820NI0O A2>N @072820NICN DC=:F8N. #G51=>-?>7=020B5;L=K5 <>B82K D>@<8@CNBAO AB8E89=>, 0 B2>@G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; >1CG0NI8EAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 2>AB@51>20=. ;O ?>2KH5=8O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> 8 B2>@G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0 H:>;L=8:>2 8 ABC45=B>2 =C6=K =>2K5 ?@>3@0<<K 8 D>@<K >1CG5=8O, ?@54CA<0B@820NI85 1;>:8 D>@<8@>20=8O <>B820F88 C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A CG5B>< 7=0=8O > @>;8 :><<C=8:0B82=>9, CG51=>-?>7=020B5;L=>9 8 B2>@G5A:>9 <>B820F88 2 @0728B88 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE 8 B2>@G5A:8E A?>A>1=>AB59 ;8G=>AB8. 260 81;8>3@0D8O 1. 1C;LE0=>20-!;02A:0O .. 8G=>AB=K5 B8?K <KH;5=8O / >3=8B82=0O ?A8E>;>38O. - .: 0C:0, 1986.  !. 154- 172. 2. 4;5@ . >=OBL ?@8@>4C G5;>25:0.  !1: :045<8G5A:89 ?@>A?5:B, 1997. 3. 975=: ... =B5;;5:B: =>2K9 273;O4 // >?@>AK ?A8E>;>388. -1995. -!1.- !. 111-131. 4. ;5:A5520 .$. 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