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(!= 100 +1/2 ) > 40==K< B01;. 1 @0AAG8B0BL @0AE>4K A5<L8 =0 ?>B@51;5=85 8 25;8G8=C A15@565=89 ?@8 :064>< C@>2=5 4>E>40 (2 4>;;0@0E) 8 ?>AB@>8BL 3@0D8:. 0AAG8B0BL ?@8 :0:8E C@>2=OE @0A?>;0305<>3> 4>E>40 () 70B@0BK =0 ?>B@51;5=85 (!) @02=K, <5=LH5 8 1>;LH5 53> >1J5<0. >E>4 ?>A;5 C?;0BK =0;>30, B.5. @0A?>;0305<K9 4>E>4 () @025= ?>B@51;5=8N (!) + A15@565=8O (S) = ! + S S=   ! 0A?>;0305<K9 4>E>4 ()>B@51;5=85 (!)!15@565=85 (S)0100- 100 (0-100)100150 (100+1/2*100)-50 (100-150)200200 (100+1/2*200)0 (200-200)300250 (100+1/2*300)50 (300-250)400300 (100+1/2*400)100 (400-300)500350 (100+1/2*500)150 (500-350)          8A. 13. @0D8: ?>B@51;5=8O @8 @0A?>;0305<>< 4>E>45 () @02=K< >B 0 4> 200 ?>B@51;5=85 (!) 1>;LH5 @0A?>;0305<>3> 4>E>40 (). 0640O B>G:0 18AA5:B@8AK 5ABL B>G:0, 2 :>B>@>9 @0A?>;0305<K9 4>E>4 () @025= ?>B@51;5=8N (!). @8 >B=>A8B5;L=> =87:>9 25;8G8=5 () =01;N405BAO 687=8 2 4>;3, 0 MB> >7=0G05B, GB> 4><>E>7O9AB20 1C4CB ?>B@51;OBL A25@E A2>8E B5:CI8E @0AE>4>2 ?CB5< A=865=8O A15@565=89 8;8 70=8<0O A@54AB20 2 4>;3. #@>25=L 4>E>4>2 2 200$ O2;O5BAO ?>@>3>2K<, B.5. ?>B@51;ONBAO 2A5 4>E>4K ?>;=>ABLN. @8 40==KE @0A?>;0305<>3> 4>E>40 () >B 300 4> 500$ ?>B@51;5=85 (!) <5=LH5 @0A?>;0305<>3> 4>E>4>2 (), ?>MB><C ?@8 1>;55 2KA>:8E 4>E>40E 4><>E>7O9AB20 1C4CB ?;0=8@>20BL A15@565=8O G0AB8 A2>53> 4>E>40. 5;8G8=0, =0 :>B>@CN ?@O<0O ?>B@51;5=8O (!) =865 18AA5:B@8AK (), ?>:07K205B C@>25=L A15@565=89. "0:, ?@8 C@>2=5 4>E>40 300$, 0 ?>B@51;5=88 (!) 250 $, A15@565=85 (S) A>AB028B 50$.        8A. 14. @0D8: A15@565=89 !@54=OO 8 ?@545;L=0O A:;>==>ABL : A15@565=8N 8 ?>B@51;5=8N !>2>:C?=K9 A?@>A 2:;NG05B 2 A51O ?>B@518B5;LA:89 A?@>A (@0AE>4K =0 ?>B@51;5=85) 8 8=25AB8F8>==K9 A?@>A (@0AE>4K =0 :0?8B0;L=K5 B>20@K). >B@51;5=85 (!)  >1I55 :>;8G5AB2> B>20@>2, :C?;5==KE 8 ?>B@51;5==KE 2 B5G5=85 :0:>3>-B> ?5@8>40. ;8 MB> 2K@065=85 >1I53> ?>B@518B5;LA:>3> 8;8 ?;0B565A?>A>1=>3> A?@>A0. >B@51;5=85 7028A8B >B 42CE D0:B>@>2: !C1J5:B82=K9  ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O A:;>==>ABL ;N459 : ?>B@51;5=8N 1J5:B82=K9  C@>25=L 4>E>40 8 53> @0A?@545;5=85, 70?0AK 1>30BAB20, =0;8G=K5 A@54AB20, F5=K, =>@<0 ?@>F5=B0. !@54=OO A:;>==>ABL : ?>B@51;5=8N ( !) ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 D0:B>@, >B@060NI89 65;0=85 ;N459 ?>:C?0BL ?>B@518B5;LA:85 B>20@K. ?@545;O5BAO ?CB5< 45;5=8O ?>B@518B5;LA:>9 G0AB8 =0F8>=0;L=>3> 4>E>40 (!) :> 2A5<C =0F8>=0;L=><C 4>E>4C () B.5. 4>E>4C ?>A;5 C?;0BK =0;>3>2.  ! = ?>B@51;5=85 (!)/ 4>E>4 () @545;L=0O A:;>==>ABL : ?>B@51;5=8N ( !-marginal propensity to consume) 2K@0605BAO >B=>H5=85< ;N1>3> 87<5=5=8O 2 ?>B@51;5=88 : B><C 87<5=5=8N 2 4>E>45, :>B>@>5 53> 2K720;>.  ! = 87<5=5=85 2 ?>B@51;5=88 =  !  7<5=5=85 2 4>E>40E  >340 @50;L=K9 4>E>4 >1I5AB20 C25;8G8205BAO 8;8 C<5=LH05BAO, 53> ?>B@51;5=85 1C45B C25;8G820BLAO 8;8 C<5=LH0BLAO, => =5 A B0:>9 1KAB@>B>9.  ! 2A5340 1C45B <5=LH5 1, B0: :0: 4>E>4 () 1>;LH5 ?>B@51;5=8O (!) BAN40: A;8  ! =0, 2A5 ?@8@0I5=8O 4>E>40 1C4CB A15@530BLAO, B.:. A15@565=8O 5ABL B0 G0ABL 4>E>40, :>B>@0O =5 ?>B@51;O5BAO.  ! = - C25;8G5=85 4>E>40 1C45B @0745;5=> <564C ?>B@51;5=85< 8 A15@565=85< ?>@>2=C.  ! = 1  2A5 ?@8@0I5=8O 4>E>40 1C4CB 87@0AE>4>20=K =0 ?>B@51;5=85. !15@565=8O (S)  G0ABL 4>E>4>2, :>B>@0O =5 ?>B@51;O5BAO 8 >7=0G05B A>:@0I5=85 ?>B@51;5=8O. -:>=><8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 A15@565=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 53> >B=>H5=88 : 8=25AB8F8O<, B.5. ?@>872>4AB2C @50;L=>3> :0?8B0;0. !@54=OO A:;>==>ABL : A15@565=8N (APS -marginal propensity to save) = S := 87<5=5=8O 2 A15@565=88 : 87<5=5=8O 2 4>E>45 A;8  = ! + S, B>  = ! + S ">340 AC<<0 ?@545;L=>9 A:;>==>AB8 : ?>B@51;5=8N 8 ?@545;L=>9 A:;>==>AB8 : A15@565=8N = 1 MPC + MPS = 1 MPC + MPS = (S :) + (S :) = (!+S) :  =  :  =1 !;54>20B5;L=>:  ! = 1  MPS MPS = 1 - MPC A?>;L7C5< 40==K5 2KH5 C:070==>9 B01;8FK, 4;O @0AG5B0 ?>:070B5;59 ?@545;L=>9 A:;>==>AB8 : ?>B@51;5=8N 8 A15@565=8N. 0A?>;0305<K9 4>E>4 ()>B@51;5=85 (!)!15@565=85 (S)0100- 100 (0-100)100150 (100+1/2*100)-50 (100-150)200200 (100+1/2*200)0 (200-200)300250 (100+1/2*300)50 (300-250)400300 (100+1/2*400)100 (400-300)500350 (100+1/2*500)150 (500-350) !S (3@.1-3@.2) ! (3@.2:1) S (3@.3:1) ! (3@.2:1)MPS (3@.3:1) 12345670100-1000 (100:0)00,50,5100150-501,5 (150:100)-0,50,50,520020001 (200:200)00,50,5300250500,830,160,50,54003001000,750,250,50,55003501500,70,30,50,5>;O 4>E>40 ;N1>3> >1I5AB20, :>B>@0O 845B =0 ?>B@51;5=85 =07K205BAO A@54=59 A:;>==>ABLN : ?>B@51;5=8N ( !) = ?>B@51;5=85 (!) / 4>E>4 () = 3@.2 : 3@.1  ! = @.6 = (150 - 100) : (100 - 0) = 50:100 = 0,5 (200 -150) : (200-100)= 50:100=0,5 (250 - 200) : (300 -200) = 50 :100= 0,5 8.B.4. MPS = @.7 = (50-100) : (100  0) = 0,5 (0 -50) : (200-100) = 0,5 (50 -0) : (300 -200) = 0,5 8.4. @8 CA;>288 4>E>40 () = 400 ?@545;L=0O A:;>==>ABL : ?>B@51;5=8N  ! 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