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"0:, . !. >= 70<5G05B, GB> 3>@<>=K 2A5E B@5E 3@C?? :0: <C6A:85 (0=4@>35=K), B0: 8 65=A:85 (MAB@>35=K 8 ?@>35AB8=K)  ?@8ACBAB2CNB C ;8F >1>53> ?>;0. #@>25=L MAB@>35=>2 C <C6G8= A>AB02;O5B >B 2% 4> 30%, 0 C@>25=L ?@>35AB5@>=0  >B 6% 4> 100% 65=A:>3> C@>2=O MB8E 3>@<>=>2. !@54=89 C@>25=L 0=4@>35=>2 C 65=I8= A>AB02;O5B 6% <C6A:>3> C@>2=O (Money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olker R., Widom !. S., 1980). >2K5, ?> <=5=8N . !. >=0, 1>;55 A>25@H5==K5 <5B>4K  B5AB !0=4@K 5< (Bern S. L., 1979) 8 >?@>A=8: ;8G=>AB=KE A2>9AB2 60-=5B !?5=A 8 >15@B0 %5;L<@09E0 (Spence J. "., Helmreich R. L., 1979) @0AA<0B@820NB  8 $ C65 =5 :0: 0;LB5@=0B82K, ?>;NAK >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 :>=B8=CC<0, 0 :0: =57028A8<K5 87<5@5=8O. "5AB !0=4@K 5< @0745;O; <C6G8= 8 65=I8= =0 G5BK@5 3@C??K B0:, :0: ?>:070=> 2 A;54CNI59 =865 B01;8F5.  8B>35 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > 2>AL<8 ?>;>@>;52KE B8?0E (?> G5BK@5 4;O <C6G8= 8 4;O 65=I8=). >4 0=4@>38==>9 ;8G=>ABLN 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O ?>=8<0NB ?>;>2CN 845=B8G=>ABL, A>G5B0NICN 2 A515 @O4 ?>78B82=KE 0A?5:B>2 :0: B@048F8>==> <C6A:>3>, B0: 8 B@048F8>==> 65=A:>3> ?>2545=8O (@093 ., 2002, A. 147). . !. >= (1988) 8 . . 030= (1991) AG8B0NB B5@<8= 0=4@>38=8O =5C40G=K< 87-70 0AA>F80F88 A ?0B>;>3859 8;8 >BACBAB285< 2AO:>9 ?>;>2>9 48DD5@5=F8@>2:8, >4=0:> >= CB25@48;AO 2 B5>@88 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 0=4@>38=88. =>385 8AA;54>20B5;8, 2 G0AB=>AB8 >=B5@ <-<>=, 284OB 2 =59 E>;8G5A:CN :>=F5?F8N ;8G=>AB8. <<>= ?>=8<05B 0=4@>38=8N :0: <=>3><5@=CN 8=B53@0F8N ?@>O2;5=89 M<>F8>=0;L=>-M:A?@5AA82=>3> (65=A:>3>) 8 8=AB@C<5=B0;L=>3> (<C6A:>3>) AB8;59 45OB5;L=>AB8, :0: A2>1>4C B5;5A=KE M:A?@5AA88 8 ?@54?>GB5=89 >B 65AB:>3> 48:B0B0 ?>;>2KE @>;59, :0: M<0=A8?0F8N >1>8E ?>;>2, 0 =5 1>@L1C 65=I8= 70 @025=AB2> 2 <0A:C;8==> >@85=B8@>20==>< >1I5AB25. ! ?>=OB85< 0=4@>38=88 A2O7K20NB 1>;55 2KA>:85 2>7<>6=>AB8 A>F80;L=>9 040?B0F88. #65 -. 0::>18 8 . 65:;8= >1@0I0NB 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, GB> 2KA>:0O D5<8=8==>ABL C 65=I8= G0AB> A>2?0405B A ?>=865==K< A0<>C2065=85< 8 ?>2KH5==>9 B@52>6=>ABLN. >765 <=>385 4@C385 8AA;54>20B5;8 ?>:070;8, GB> <0A:C;8==K5 <C6G8=K 8 D5<8=8==K5 65=I8=K 8A?KBK20NB 1>;LH5 B@C4=>AB59 2 B5E 2840E 45OB5;L=>AB8, :>B>@K5 =5 A>2?040NB A B@048F8>==K<8 ?>;>@>;52K-<8 AB5@5>B8?0<8, B>340 :0: 0=4@>38==K5 ;8G=>AB8 A 8E 2KA>:8<8 ?>B5=F8O<8 8 <0A:C;8==>AB8, 8 D5<8=8==>AB8 ;53G5 <5=ONB B8? 8 AB8;L 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B CA;>289; ?>MB><C >=8 <5=55 ?>425@65=K 48AB@5AA0<.  B> 65 2@5<O 2>7<>6=>AB8 A>F80;L=>9 040?B0F88 7028AOB, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, >B 8=48284C0;L=>9 040?B82=>AB8, ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 381:>AB8 (030= . ., 1991). 54>AB0B:>< B5>@88 0=4@>38=88 <>6=> AG8B0BL =5>4=>7=0G=>ABL A0<8E H:0; /$. 4=8 8AA;54>20B5;8 87<5@ONB 8=B5@5AK, 4@C385  M<>F8>=0;L=K5 @50:F88, B@5BL8  >B=>H5=85 : B5< 8;8 8=K< 0A?5:B0< <C6A:8E 8;8 65=A:8E @>;59; :@><5 B>3>, =5>4=>7=0G=K :@8B5@88 2K1>@0 H:0; (>= . !, 1988). 5=45@ 45>;>38G5A:8 : ?>=OB8N 0=4@>38=88 ?@8<K:05B ?>=OB85 35=-45@.  B> 8 4@C3>5 ?@54?>;0305B 876820=85 AB5@5>B8?>2 85@0@E8G=>AB8, 48A:@8<8=0F88, 0A8<<5B@88 8 >1>7=0G05B ?@8=F8?80;L=> =>2K9, A>2@5<5==K9 ?>4E>4 : 8=B5@?@5B0F88 >1I5AB25==KE 8 ;8G=KE ?@>1;5< (2545=85 2 B5=45@=K5 8AA;54>20=8O, 2000, A. 3).  A?@02>G=KE 8740=8OE ?> D8;>A>D88 ?>=OB85 B5=45@ >?@545;O5BAO :0: B5@<8=, 22545==K9 D5<8=8AB0<8 A F5;LN 2K45;5=8O A>F80;L=>3> 0A?5:B0 @07;8G8O ?>;>2. >340 3>2>@OB > @07;8G88 <564C ACI5AB20<8 65=A:>3> 8 <C6A:>3> ?>;0 :0: > @07;8G88 "?>;0" (0=3;. sex), B> 8<5NB 2 284C 8E 18>;>38G5A:>5 @07;8G85. >340 3>2>@OB > B5=45@5, B> 8AE>4OB 87 >?@545;5==KE A>F8>:C;LBC@=KE 45D8=8F89 (>?@545;5=89) ?>=OB8O 65=I8=K 8 <C6G8=K 8 ?@54?>;030NB 87=0G0;L=> CAB0=>2;5==>5 @07;8G85 8E A>F80;L=>3> ?>;>65=8O (Hornsby J., 1995, @. 305). "5=45@=K5 8AA;54>20=8O :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O >1;0ABL =0CG=KE 8=B5@5A>2 ?>O28;8AL 8 70 @C156><, 8 C =0A 2 AB@0=5 A@02=8B5;L=> =5402=>, >:>;> 10 ;5B =0704, 8 4> A8E ?>@ ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 A:>@55 A>18@0B5;L=>5 ?>=OB85 4;O =>259H8E 3C<0=8B0@=KE B5>@89  M:>=><8G5A:8E, A>F80;L=KE, ?>;8B8G5A:8E, ;8=328AB8G5A:8E 8 4@C38E.  1980-5 3>4K B5=45@ AB0=>28BAO >A=>2>9 =>2>3> MB0?0 @0728B8O B5>@88 D5<8=87<0, 2=>AO ACI5AB25==K5 87<5=5=8O 2 B5>@8N ?>;0. =3;89A:>5 A;>2> gender >7=0G05B @>4 :0: 3@0<<0B8G5A:89 @>4, 8;8 284, 2 A<KA;5 >B=>H5=8O : >?@545;5==><C :;0AAC, ;81> 2 G5;>25G5A:>< >1I5AB25 : A5<59=>9, @>4>2>9 B@048F88, B> 5ABL : B><C, GB> CAB0=02;8205B A2O7L ?>:>;5=89, 8;8 35=5@0F89. @8<5=5=85 MB>3> >1>7=0G5=8O :0: B5@<8=0 3C<0=8B0@=>3> 7=0=8O ?@8720=> >B;8G8BL A>-F80;L=K9 ?>; >B 18>;>38G5A:>3> ?>;0, >1>7=0G5==>3> 2> 2A5E 0=:5B0E :0: sex (2545=85 2 B5=45@=K5 8AA;54>20=8O, 2000, A. 6). !;>2> @>4 2 @CAA:>< O7K:5 8<55B =5A:>;L:> 7=0G5=89. > 871560=85 @07=>GB5=89 ?@8 >?@545;5=88 A>F80;L=KE 8 :C;LBC@=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: @>40 ?@8 ?5@52>45 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?>=OB85 B5=45@ (84-458A-., 1999, A. 153). 5:>B>@K5 02B>@K @0AA<0B@820NB B5=45@ :0: >1I55 ?>=OB85, 2:;NG0NI55 8 A;>2> ?>;. "0:, >?@545;5=85 B5=45@0, A>45@60I55AO 2 CG51=8:5 !>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O, 3;0A8B: 5=45@: 2 ?A8E>;>388  A>F80;L=>-18>;>38G5A:0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0, A ?><>ILN :>B>@>9 ;N48 40NB >?@545;5=85 ?>=OB8O< "<C6G8=0 8 65=I8=0". "0: :0: ?>; O2;O5BAO 18>;>38G5A:>9 :0B53>@859, A>F80;L=K5 ?A8E>;>38 G0AB> AAK;0- NBAO =0 18>;>38G5A:8 >1CA;>2;5==K5 B5=45@=K5 @07;8G8O :0: =0 "?>;>2K5 @07;8G8O" (095@A ., 1999, A. 228). "0:8< >1@07><, ?>;>2K5 @07;8G8O @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: G0AB=K9 A;CG09 B5=45@=KE. =>340 MB8 ?>=OB8O @0AA<0B@820NB :0: 2708<>70<5=O5<K5: "?>;" 8 "35=45@" @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: A8=>=8<K (Ruble D., 1988, @093 ., 2002); 35=45@=K5 >A>15==>AB8  >A>15==>AB8, A2O70==K5 A ?@87=0:0<8 ?>;>2>9 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 ('5;>25: >B @>645=8O 4> A<5@B8, 2001, A. 624). 0 ?>A;54=85 ?OBL ;5B 2 >AA88 =01;N405BAO 2A?;5A: 1>;LH>3> G8A;0 ?C1;8:0F89 ?> ?@>1;5<0< ?>;0 8 B5=45@0 (=4@5520 ". ., 1997,1998; 0;018E8=0 . ., 1998; $5=><5= ?>;0 2 :C;LBC@5, 1998; >>@ !. ., 1999; 0@:>20 . .., 2000; >;, 35=45@, :C;LBC@0, 2000; 5@= (., 2001; '5@=>20 . ., 2001; %0<8B>2 . ., 2001; ;L8= . ., 2002 8 4@.). ! :>=F0 1990-E 3>4>2 2 @07;8G=KE 2C70E G8B0NBAO A?5F:C@AK ;5:F89 ?> B5=45@=K< ?@>1;5<0<. AB>@8G5A:8 ?5@28G=55 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 B5@<8=K ?>;, ?>;>2K5 @07;8G8O 8 ?>;>2>9 48<>@D87< 8 48?A8E87<, C?>B@51;O2H85AO 4> =0G0;0 8 ?0@0;;5;L=> A B5=45@=K<8 8AA;54>20=8O<8 =0 0?045. >;>2K5 @07;8G8O ! 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(0BB5A 8 %0=, 1975, F8B. ?>: A8E>;>38O G5;>25:0 >B @>645=8O 4> A<5@B8, 2001). @C385 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> A0<>>F5=:0 65=I8= A2O70=0 A ?>;CG05<>9 8<8 70@?;0B>9 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8, G5< A 8E 2=5H=>ABLN. !0<>>F5=:0 8 B5E 8 4@C38E 2 @02=>9 AB5?5=8 CO728<0, 8 B0:85 A>1KB8O, :0: 1>;57=L, D8=0=A>2K5 ?@>1;5<K, =5C40G8 =0 @01>B5 8;8 @072>4 7=0G8B5;L=> >A;01;ONB C25@5==>ABL 2 A515. :070;>AL, GB> 95% >?@>H5==KE 65=I8= ?>;030NB, GB> 8<5==> A5<LO ?><>305B A>E@0=8BL 8< 2=CB@5==NN A8;C (8B:8= ., 1996). ;O <C6G8= @073>20@820BL  7=0G8B ?5@54020BL D0:BK. =8 3>2>@OB 2 >A=>2=>< 2 C<5, A0<8 A A>1>9 (> @5H5=88 40==>9 ?@>1;5<K). 5=I8=K 65 G0AB> 4C<0NB 2A;CE, ?5@518@0O 2A5 2>7<>6=K5 20@80=BK A2>8E 1C4CI8E 459AB289, G5< G0AB> CB><;ONB A2>8E <C659. . . 1>7>2 =0 >A=>20=88 0=0;870 40==KE @07=KE 02B>@>2 (. 59-=8=35@0, . AB0DL520, . 59<0=0, . =0=L520, . C;8:>20 8 4@.) 45;05B 2K2>4 > DC=:F8>=0;L=>< =07=0G5=88 <C6G8= 8 65=I8=: % <C6G8=K  ?@5>1@07>20B5;8 2=5H=53> <8@0, ?8>=5@K 2 >A2>5=88 2@5<5=8 8 ?@>AB@0=AB20; <C6G8=0, ?@5>1@07CO 2=5H=89 <8@, <>65B :0: A>7840BL, B0: 8 @07@CH0BL 53>; 65=I8=K  E@0=8B5;L=8FK G5;>25G5A:>9 687=8 8 >:@C60NI53> 8E <8@0 (45B59, @>4AB25==8:>2); 65=I8=0 AB018;878@C5B 2A5, :>=A5@28@C5B 687=L 4;O 55 A>E@0=5=8O. 8B5@0BC@0 =0=L52 . ., 2>@OH8=0 . ., C4@O2F520 . . =48284C0;L=>5 @0728B85 G5;>25:0 8 :>=AB0=B=>ABL 2>A?@8OB8O. , 1968. =4@5520 ". , !>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 D0:B>@K D>@<8@>20=8O =0?@02;5==>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 2 ?@>F5AA5 B2>@G5A:>3> AB0=>2;5=8O (=0 ?@8<5@5 0@E8B5:B>@>2). 8A.... :0=4. ?A8E>;. =0C:. ., 1989. =4@5520 ". . 8>3@0D8G5A:89 <5B>4 2 8AA;54>20=88 B2>@G5A:>3> AB0=>2;5=8O ;8G=>AB8//"5>@5B8G5A:85 8 ?@8:;04=K5 2>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388. K?. 2. '. 2. !1., 1996. =4@5520 ". . >;>2K5 @07;8G8O 2 B2>@G5A:>< AB0=>2;5=88 ;8G=>AB8 ?@54AB028B5;59 >4=>9 ?@>D5AA88//"5>@5B8G5A:85 8 ?@8:;04=K5 2>?@>AK ?A8E>;>388. K?. 3. '. 2. !1., 1997. =4@5520 ". . >;>@8AB8:0 3>@>4A:>9 A@54K: ?@54?>GB5=8O 68B5;59 // =0=L52A:85 GB5=8O-97. "57. =0CG=>-?@0:B. :>=D. !1., 1997. =4@5520 ". . !>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. !1.: !1#, 1998. =4@5520 ". . "5=45@=K5 @07;8G8O 2 >1CG5=88 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2 :0: D0:B>@ 45A>-F80;870F88 ;8G=>AB8 // A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A=>2K ?5403>38G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 0B5@80;K 28-9 =0CG=>9 :>=D. !1.: !0=:B-5B5@1C@3A:0O 3>AC40@AB25==0O 0:045<8O D878G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K 8<. . $. 5A30DB0, 2001. 5@= (. "5=45@=0O ?A8E>;>38O. !1.: @09<-2@>7=0:, 2001. 2545=85 2 B5=45@=K5 8AA;54>20=8O. #G51=>5 ?>A>185 / >4 >1I59 @54. . . >AB8:>2>9. 74-2> >A:>2. C=825@A8B5B0, 2000. 8B:8=. 5=I8=0 8 AB@5AA. !1.: 8B5@, 1996. 8B:8=. C6G8=0 8 AB@5AA. !1.: 8B5@, 1996. 8B:8=. @0240 > 65=I8=0E. !1.: 8B5@, 1996. 5>40:O= . . >;L ?>;>2 2 ?5@540G5 8 ?@5>1@07>20=88 35=5B8G5A:>9 8=D>@<0F88 // @>1;5<K ?5@540G8 8=D>@<0F88. 1965. ! 1. !. 105 112. >1A>= 6. >48B5;O< 8 <>;>4>65=0<: 4>:B>@ >1A>= >B25G05B =0 20H8 2>?@>AK. ., 1992. @5<5520 . ., %@87<0= ". . 0;LG8:8 8 452>G:8  420 @07=KE <8@0. .:  8=:0-@5AA, 1998. ;L8= . . 8DD5@5=F80;L=0O ?A8E>D878>;>38O <C6G8=K 8 65=I8=K. !1., 2002. 0;018E8=0 . . #G51=>-<5B>48G5A:85 <0B5@80;K ?> :C@AC !>F80;L=K9 ?>;: M:>=><8G5A:>5 8 45<>3@0D8G5A:>5 ?>2545=85. .: 80;>3-#, 1998. 030= . . >A?8B0B5;N > A5:A>;>388. ., 1991. 5;0< ., -115@ . @8G8=K :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F89 2 A5<L5 // '5;>25: ?>A;5 @072>40. 8;L=NA. 1985. >20;52 !. . @>1;5<K A>2@5<5==>9 A5<L8. ., 1989. >= . !. 2545=85 2 A5:A>;>38N. ., 1988. @093 . A8E>;>38O @0728B8O. !54L<>5 <564C=0@>4=>5 8740=85. !1.: 8B5@, 2002. 095@A. !>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. !1.: 8B5@, 1999. 0@:>20 . .. 11A8E>;>38O ?>;0 8 2>7@0AB0. !1., 2000. 1>7>2 . . C6G8=0 f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ern S. L. Theory and measurement of androgyny // Journ. Personal, soc. Psychol. 1979. Vol. 37. P. 1047-1054. ColkerR., Widom ! S. Correlates of female athletic participation: masculinity, femininity, self-esteem and attitudes toward women // Sex Roles. 1980. Vol. 6. P. 47-58. Money J. Endocrine influences and psychosexual status spanning the life cycle // Handbook of biological psychiatry. N.Y., 1980. Part 3. P. 279-318.. Ruble D. (1988). Sex-role development. In M. Bornstein, M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental psychology: An advanced textbook (2nd ed. P. 411-460). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Spence J. "., Helmreich R. L. The many faces of androgyny // Journ. Personal, soc. Psychol. 1979. Vol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ischel W., 1966). "5>@8N ?> ;>2>9 B8?870F88 C?@5:0NB 2 <5E0=8AB8G=>AB8, A 55 ?>78F89 B@C4=> >1JOA=8BL ?>O2;5=85 <=>3>G8A;5==KE 8 =5 7028AOI8E >B 2>A?8B0=8O 8=48284C0;L=KE 20@80F89 8 >B:;>=5=89 >B ?>;>2KE AB5@5>B8?>2. =>385 AB5@5>B8?=K5 <0A:C;8==K5 8 D5<8=8==K5 @50:F88 A:;04K20NBAO AB8E89=>, =57028A8<> >B >1CG5=8O 8 ?>>I@5=8O 8 4065 2>?@5:8 8<. III. "5>@8O A0<>:0B53>@870F88, >?8@0NI0OAO =0 :>3=8B82=>-35=5B8G5A:CN B5>@8N, ?>4G5@:8205B ?>7=020B5;L=CN AB>@>=C MB>3> ?@>F5AA0 8 >A>15==> 7=0G5=85 A0<>A>7=0=8O: @515=>: A=0G0;0 CA208205B ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?>;>2>9 845=B8G=>AB8, > B><, GB> 7=0G8B 1KBL <C6G8=>9 8;8 65=I8=>9, 70B5< >?@545;O5B A51O :0: <0;LG8:0 8;8 452>G:C 8 ?>A;5 MB>3> AB0@05BAO A>>1@07>20BL A2>5 ?>2545=85 A B5<, GB> :065BAO 5<C A>>B25BAB2CNI8< B0:><C ?>2545=8N. #O728<>5 725=> MB>9 B5>@88 2 B><, GB> ?>;>@>;520O 48DD5@5=F80F8O ?>2545=8O =0G8=05BAO C 45B59 3>@074> @0=LH5, G5< C =8E A:;04K205BAO CAB>9G82>5 A>7=0=85 A2>59 ?>;>2>9 845=B8G=>AB8.  A25B5 B5>@88 ?>;>2>9 B8?870F88 @515=>: <>3 1K A:070BL: / ;N1;N ?>;CG0BL ?>>I@5=8O: <5=O ?>>I@ONB, :>340 O 45;0N "<0;LG8:>2K5" 25I8: ?>MB><C O E>GC 1KBL "<0;LG8:><", 0 2 A25B5 B5>@88 A0<>:0B53>@870F88: / <0;LG8:, ?>MB><C O E>GC 45;0BL "<0;LG8:>2K5" 25I8 8 B0:>5 ?>2545=85 4>AB02;O5B <=5 C4>2>;LAB285. 5@>OB=>, MB8 B5>@88 =C6=> AG8B0BL =5 AB>;L:> 0;LB5@=0B82=K<8, A:>;L:> 2708<>4>?>;=ONI8<8. =8 >?8AK20NB ?@>F5AA ?>;>2>9 A>F80;870F88 A @07=KE B>G5: 7@5=8O: B5>@8O ?>;>2>9 B8?870F88  A B>G:8 7@5=8O 2>A?8B0B5;59, B5>@8O A0<>:0B53>@870F88  A B>G:8 7@5=8O @515=:0. IV. !CI5AB2C5B ?>4E>4, @0AA<0B@820NI89 ?@>F5AA ?>;>2>9 A>F80 ;870F88 :0: 0=0;>38G=K9 CA2>5=8N O7K:0 8;8 ;N1>9 4@C3>9 A8AB5<K ?@028; (?>;>20O @>;L =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: =5:>5 ?@028;>) (Constantinople ., 1979). V. !B0480;L=0O B5>@8O ?>4G5@:8205B =5 A>1AB25==K9 <5E0=87< ?> ;>2>9 48DD5@5=F80F88 A>7=0=8O, 0 70:>=><5@=>AB8 55 @0728B8O 2> 2@5<5=8, ?> MB0?0<: CA2>5=85 AB0=40@B>2 A>F80;L=>3> ?>2545=8O; >1CG5=85 ?>;>A?5F8D8G5A:><C ?>2545=8N; A>?>AB02;5=85 A51O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8; >A>7=0=85 =5>1@0B8<>AB8 A2>53> ?>;0 8 A;54>20=85 ?@028;0< ?>;0 C65 ?> 2=CB@5==8<, 8=B5@8>@87>20==K<, 0 =5 2=5H=8< <>B820<. !G8B05BAO, GB> @0728B85 35=45@=KE AE5< (Levy G. D.,Carter, D. ., 1989), >1CA;>2;5==KE ?>;>< A>F8>:C;LBC@=KE =>@< 8/8;8 AB5@5>B8?>2, >BG0AB8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A;54AB285 C@>2=O :>3=8B82=>3> @07- 28B8O @515=:0, >BG0AB8  @57C;LB0B 2;8O=8O >B45;L=KE AB>@>= :C;LBC@K, :>B>@K5 @515=>: <>65B =01;N40BL. '0ABLN B5=45@=KE AE5< O2;O5BAO ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?>;>2>9 845=B8G=>AB8, :>B>@>5 2 >?@545;5==>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 @0728205BAO C @515=:0 =0 ?@>BO65=88 ?5@2KE 7 8 ;5B 53> 687=8. 5B8 =0G8=0NB =07K20BL A51O <0;LG8:>< 8;8 452>G:>9 2 >G5=L @0==5< 2>7@0AB5. 4=0:> >=8 5I5 =5 ?>=8<0NB, GB> 1C4CB >AB020BLAO <C6G8=0<8 8 65=I8=0<8 2AN A2>N 687=L 8 GB> ?>; =5;L7O 87<5=8BL :0: >4564C, ?@8G5A:C 8;8 @>4 70=OB89. >H:>;L=8: 2?>;=5 <>65B ?>8=B5@5A>20BLAO C A2>53> >BF0, :5< B>B 1K; 2 45BAB25  <0;LG8:>< 8;8 452>G:>9.  6 7 3>40< 1>;LH8=AB2> C65 =5 45;05B ?>4>1=KE >H81>:. 5B8 4>AB830NB ABC?5=8, :>B>@CN <>6=> >E0@0:B5@87>20BL :0: :>=AB0=B=>ABL ?>;0 (StangorC, Ruble D. N., 1987).  ?>A;54=85 3>4K G0I5 8A?>;L7C5BAO B5@<8= 35=45@=0O A>F80;870F8O. A?>;L7C5BAO B0:65 ?>=OB85 35=45@=0O @>;L, >7=0G0NI55 =01>@ >68405<KE >1@07F>2 ?>2545=8O 4;O <C6G8= 8 65=I8=. !G8B05BAO, GB> :C;LBC@=K5 >6840=8O D>@<8@CNB =0H8 ?@54AB02;5=8O > B><, :0: 4>;6=K 25AB8 A51O <C6G8=0 8 65=I8=0 (095@A ., 1999). 2B>@ CB25@6405B: >6=> A:070BL, GB> 35=45@=0O A>F80;870F8O 405B 452>G:0< ":>@=8", 0 <0;LG8:0< ":@K;LO". 0 ?>A;54=85 ?>;AB>;5B8O 2 45BA:8E :=830E, C4>AB>5==KE ?@5<88 04F5:>BB0 (Caldecott Award books), 452>G:8 2 G5BK@5 @070 G0I5 <0;LG8:>2 87>1@060;8AL :0: 8A?>;L7CNI85 ?@54<5BK 4><0H=59 CB20@8 (H201@K, H259=K5 83>;:8, :0AB@N;8 8 A:>2>@>4:8), 0 <0;LG8:8 2 ?OBL @07 G0I5 452>G5: ?>;L7>20;8AL 8=AB@C<5=B0<8 (B0:8<8, :0: ?;C3, 28;K, >@C685) (Crabb and Bielawski, 1994). 2B>@K AG8B0NB MB> ?@8G8=>9 B>3>, GB> ?>2A5<5AB=>, :0: A>>1I05B  (1991), 65=I8=K 2K?>;=ONB 1>;LHCN G0ABL 4><0H=59 @01>BK (095@A ., 1999, A. 259). ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ACI5AB2CNB 8 :C;LBC@0;L=K5 @07;8G8O, >1CA;>2;5==K5, 2 G0AB=>AB8, >A>15==>ABO<8 8AB>@8G5A:>3> @0728B8O @07=KE AB@0= 70 ?>A;54=85 45AOB8;5B8O. 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onstantinople A. Sex-role acquisiton: In search of the elephant // Sex Roles. 1979. Vol 5. P. 121 134. Mischel W. A social-learning view of sex differences in behavior. The Development of sex differences / Ed. E. E. Maccoby. Stanfort, 1966. P. 56-61. Stangor C, Ruble D. N. Development of gender role knowledge and gender consistency. New Directions for Child Development, 38, 5-22. Levy, ., Carter, D. B. Gender schema gender constancy and gender-role knowledge: The roles of cognitive factors in preschoolers gender-role stereotype attributions. Developmental Psychology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errard .,1987). @><5 B>3>, 1>;LH8=AB2> ABC45=B>2 :>;;54659 >1>53> ?>;0 >B<5B8;>, GB> ?@54?>G8B05B 2ABC?8BL 2 1@0: A G5;>25:><, 5I5 =5 ?>B5@O2H8< =528==>AB8 (Williams J. D., Jacobi A. P., 1989). %>BO <>;>4K5 ;N48 2 !( ?>-?@56=5<C AG8B0;8 A5:A ACI5AB25==>9 G0ABLN @><0=B8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89, >=8 >1KG=> =5 >4>1@O;8 A;CG09=KE A2O759 (Abler R. M., Sedlacek W. ., 1989). 7<5=O5BAO ?@>F5AA 2K1>@0 AC?@C30 8 >B=>H5=85 : 1@0:C 2 F5;><: 2ABC?;5=85 2 1@0: =5 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: =5>1E>48<>ABL, @0A B5B G8A;> 4><>E>7O9AB2, A>AB>OI8E 87 >4=>3> G5;>25:0 A@548 <>;>4568 8 A@548 ?>68;KE ;N459; 2A5 1>;LH55 G8A;> <>;>4KE ;N459 A>7=0B5;L=> 8718@0NB >48=>:89 >1@07 687=8 :0: A2>9 687=5==K9 AB8;L (@093 ., 2002); C<5=LH8;>AL 2;8O=85 @>48B5;59 =0 2K1>@ AC?@C30 (8A:;NG0O B5 A5<L8, 2 :>B>@KE 2>?@>AK =0A;54>20=8O 83@0NB 7=0G8B5;L =CN @>;L); 2K@>A;8 >6840=8O 8 B@51>20=8O, ?@54JO2;O5<K5 <>;>4K<8 ;N4L <8 : A5<59=>9 687=8. > <=5=8N =5:>B>@KE 0<5@8:0=A:8E 8A A;54>20B5;59, =8GB> B0: =5 87<5=8;>AL 2 <8@5, :0: ?@54AB02;5=8O 65=I8= > B><, :0:8< 4>;65= 1KBL 1@0: (. @>=5, 1995); 2K1>@ >A=>2K205BAO 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 =0 >A=>25 ;8G=KE :0G5AB2 (0 =5 A>F80;L=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8:).  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 2 >1I5AB25 ACI5AB2C5B ?@>1;5<0 >48=>G5AB20. :>;> >4=>9 A54L<>9 G0AB8 2A5E 68B5;59 AB@0=K, =0E>4OI8EAO 2 1@0G- =>< 2>7@0AB5, =5 A>AB>OB 2 1@0:5 (1>7>2 . ., 1979). ;O G5;>25:0 >1I8B5;L=>3>, C<5NI53> AB@>8BL A2>8 >B=>H5=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8, 2ABC?;5=85 2 1@0: =5 ?@54AB02;O5B B@C4=>AB59. '5;>25:C <0;>>1I8B5;L=><C ?@8E>48BAO =0<=>3> A;>6=55. A=>2=0O ?@8G8=0, :>B>@CN =07K20NB >48=>:85,  B@C4=>AB8 2 ?>8A:5 ?0@B=5@0. > <=5=8N . . 1>-7>20 (1979), ACI5AB2CNB @07;8G=K5 D0:B>@K, 70B@C4=ONI85 ?>8A: ?>4E>4OI53> ?0@B=5@0 4;O 2ABC?;5=8O 2 1@0:. >AB :@C?=KE 3>@>4>2 ?@82>48B : B><C, GB> AC605BAO :@C3 >1I5=8O A>2@5<5==>3> G5;>25:0 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, ?>;5 53> 2K1>@0.  B> 65 2@5<O B@51>20=8O : 1C4CI5<C AC?@C3C ?>2KA8;8AL, 480?07>= :0G5AB2 65;05<>3> ?0@B=5@0 AB0; H8@5, B0: :0: A>2@5<5==K9 1@0:  A>N7 4CE>2=> 1;87:8E, ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 8 A5:AC0;L=> A>2<5AB8<KE ;N459. !CI5AB2CNB 8 >1J5:B82=K5 B@C4=>AB8 4;O 7=0:><AB20: =0;8G85 ?@58<CI5AB25==> 65=A:8E 8;8 <C6A:8E ?@54?@8OB89 (8 2C7>2), =54>AB0B>: <5AB, 2 :>B>@KE <>;>456L <>3;0 1K >1I0BLAO. !CI5AB25==>9 ?@53@04>9 : A>740=8N A5<L8 O2;ONBAO ;8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 @07;8G=KE ;N459: =5A?>A>1=>ABL : CAB0=>2;5=8N (8 C45@60=8N) :>=B0:B0, B@C4=>AB8 2 >1I5=88, =52@>B8G5A:85 @50:F88. . . 1>7>2 8 . . 1>7>20 (1981) ?>;030NB, GB> ?@8 A?>=B0==><, A2>1>4=>< ?>41>@5 1@0G=KE ?0@B=5@>2 >1@07>202H85AO ?0@K ;8HL 2 1/3 A;CG052 >1=0@C6820NB 4>AB0B>G=CN A>2<5AB8<>ABL. <5==> =0 MB0?5 2K1>@0 ?0@B=5@>2 A>25@H0NBAO >H81:8, 2 40;L=59H5< 254CI85 : =5CAB>9G82>AB8 1@0:0. >6=> =0720BL ?> :@09=59 <5@5 420 D0:B>@0, >1CA;>2;820NI85 =5045:20B=>ABL 2K1>@0 ?0@B=5@0: AC65=85 ?>;O 2K1>@0 8 >H81:8 AC1J5:B82=>3> 2>A?@8OB8O. K1>@ ?0@B=5@0 >3@0=8G5= 2>7@0AB><, AB0BCA><, B5@@8B>@80;L=K<8 8 4@C38<8 3@0=8F0<8.  ?@545;0E >AB02H53>AO ?>;O 2K1>@0 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO @50;L=K9 2K1>@  8=48284C0;L=K9 8 AC1J5:B82=K9. @8 2K1>@5 CG8BK20NBAO E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 2A5E C@>2=59  A5:AC0;L=K5 8 2=5H=85 40==K5, 8=B5;;5:B, >1@07>20=85, E0@0:B5@, AD5@0 8=B5@5A>2 ;8G=>AB8 8 F5==>AB=K5 >@85=B0F88. 07=>>1@0785 E0@0:B5@8AB8:, ?> :>B>@K< =5>1E>48<0 ?5@A>=0;L=0O A>2<5AB8<>ABL, 8 O2;O5BAO ?@8G8=>9 AC65=8O ?>;O 2K1>@0 4065 2 CA;>28OE >BACBAB28O A>F80;L=KE >3@0=8G5=89 ?@8 2K1>@5 8 A>F80;L=>9 <>18;L=>AB8 =0A5;5=8O. > @0AG5B0< . . 1>7>2>9 8 . . 1>7>20, 4065 ?@8 CG5B5 G5BK@5E =5A>?@O65==KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: >?B8<0;L=K< ?0@B=5@>< <>65B 1KBL ;8HL >48= 87 H5AB=04F0B8 ?@5B5=45=B>2. "0:8< >1@07><, @0AH8@5=85 ?>B5=F80;L=>3> ?>;O 2K1>@0 ?0@B=5@>2  >4=> 87 CA;>289 =08;CGH53> 1@0G=>3> 2K1>@0. B>@>9 D0:B>@ =5045:20B=>3> 2K1>@0 A2O70= A <5E0=87<0<8 2>A?@8OB8O ;N4L<8 4@C3 4@C30. K1>@ AC?@C30 @53C;8@C5BAO 8450;L=K< >1@07>< ?0@B=5@0.  A>740=88 MB>3> >1@070 CG0AB2C5B 25AL ?@54H5AB2CNI89 >?KB >1I5=8O ;8G=>AB8, MB0;>=K @>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L8, ;8B5@0BC@=K5 ?@>>1@07K, A>F80;L=K5 AB5@5>B8?K 8 8450;K 1;8609H53> >:@C65=8O, >H81>G=>ABL >1@070 ?0@B=5@0 <>65B 1KBL >4=8< 87 8AB>G=8:>2 =5045:20B=>3> 2K1>@0. !;54C5B CG8BK20BL, GB> E0@0:B5@8AB8:8, ?> :>B>@K< ?>418@05BAO >?B8<0;L=K9 ?0@B=5@, B@C4=K 4;O @0A?>7=020=8O. ;O 1>;55 045:20B=>9 >F5=:8 MB8E E0@0:B5@8AB8: =5>1E>48< >?@545;5==K9 C@>25=L ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?>43>B>2:8. G5=L 2065= 4>AB0B>G=K9 AB06 7=0:><AB20, ?@8 MB>< . . 1>7>20, . . 1>7>2 8 4@C385 8AA;54>20B5;8 A5<L8 A>25BCNB =5 70:@K20BL 3;070 =0 =54>AB0B:8 ?0@B=5@0 4> 1@0:0, =5 =045OBLAO ?5@52>A?8B0BL 53> ?>B><, B0: :0: 8A?@02;5=85 27@>A;>3> G5;>25:0  ?@>F5AA <0;>@50;L=K9. AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> MB8 CA;>28O  4>AB0B>G=K9 AB06 ?@541@0G=>3> 7=0:><AB20 8 ?@028;L=0O A8AB5<0 F5==>AB59 ?@8 2K1>@5 ?0@B=5@0  =5@54:> >BACBAB2CNB. "  +   '  "  !CI5AB2CNB @07;8G=K5 B5>@88 2K1>@0 1@0G=>3> ?0@B=5@0. 5:>B>@K5 8AA;54>20B5;8, =0?@8<5@ . 5;28;;, C?>4>1;ONB ?@>F5AA 2K1>@0 AC?@C30 B>@3>2>9 A45;:5, ?@8G5< 20;NB>9 2 >1<5=5 A;C60B B0:85 A>F80;L=K5 F5==>AB8 42CE 8=48284>2, :0: A>F80;L=>5 ?@>8AE>645=85, M:>=><8G5A:>5 ?>;>65=85, >1@07>20=85 8 ;8G=K5 :0G5AB20 (2>7@0AB, 2=5H=>ABL) (Melville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yeL, BerardoE, 1973). "5>@8O 4>?>;=ONI8E ?>B@51=>AB59 (#8=G .) 70:;NG05BAO 2 ?@54?>;>65=88, GB> ?@8=F8? 3><>30<88 <>65B 1KBL ?@8<5=5= B>;L:> : A>F80;L=>-:C;LBC@=K< E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<, 0 =0 C@>2=5 ;8G=>AB=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: ?@8BO3820NBAO ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8 (Winch R., 1954). -B> >7=0G05B, GB> 2;0AB=>3> <C6G8=C =5@54:> ?@82;5:05B :@>B:0O 65=I8=0, 0 A?>:>9=>3> 8 <O3:>3> <C6G8=C <>65B 2;5GL : M=5@38G=>9 8 ?@O<>9 65=I8=5 (@093 ., 2002). =AB@C<5=B0;L=0O B5>@8O ?>41>@0 AC?@C3>2, @07@01>B0==0O !5=-B5@A>< (Centers R., 1975), B0:65 C45;O5B ?5@2>AB5?5==>5 2=8<0=85 C4>2;5B2>@5=8N ?>B@51=>AB59, => ?@8 MB>< CB25@6405B, GB> >4=8 ?>B@51=>AB8 (=0?@8<5@, ?>;>20O 8 ?>B@51=>ABL 2 ?@8=04;56=>AB8) 1>-J ;55 206=K, G5< 4@C385, 8 GB> =5:>B>@K5 ?>B@51=>AB8 1>;55 ?@8ACI8 <C6G8=0<, G5< 65=I8=0<, 8 =0>1>@>B. !>3;0A=> !5=B5@AC, G5;>25:0 2;5G5B : B><C, GL8 ?>B@51=>AB8 AE>4=K A 53> A>1AB25==K<8 8;8 4>?>;** =ONB 8E. !>3;0A=> 40<AC, 87CG02H5<C ?@>G=K5 ABC45=G5A:85 ?0@K =0 ?@>BO65=88 6 <5AOF52, ?5@28G=>5 2;5G5=85 >A=>20=> A:>@55 =0 2=5H=8E >A>15==>ABOE, B0:8E :0: D878G5A:0O ?@82;5:0B5;L=>ABL, >1I8B5;L=>ABL, C@02=>25H5==>ABL 8 >1I85 8=B5@5AK. 02O702H85AO >B=>H5=8O C:@5?;ONBAO 1;03>40@O @50:F8O< >:@C60NI8E, ?>;CG5=8N AB0BCA0 ?0@K, >ICI5=8N CNB0 8 A?>:>9AB28O 2 ?@8ACBAB288 4@C3 4@C30 8 459AB28N 4@C38E ?>4>1=KE D0:B>@>2. 0B5< ?0@0 2ABC?05B 2 AB048N 2708<=KE >1O70B5;LAB2 8 1;87>AB8, GB> 5I5 1>;LH5 A1;8605B ?0@B=5@>2. ';5=K ?0@K, A2O702H85 A51O 2708<=K<8 >1O70B5;LAB20<8, 87CG0NB 273;O4K 8 F5==>AB8 4@C3 4@C30. 0 MB>9 AB0488 ?0@0 G0AB> 3>B>20 : B><C, GB>1K ?@8=OBL @5H5=85 > 2ABC?;5=88 2 1@0: (Adams . ., 1979). "5>@8O AB8<C; F5==>ABL @>;L (5@AB59= .) >A=>2K205BAO =0 42CE 206=KE ?>AK;:0E: 1) =0 :064>9 ABC?5=8 @0728B8O 2708<>>B=>H5=89 ?0@B=5@>2 ?@>G- =>ABL >B=>H5=89 7028A8B >B B0: =07K205<>3> @025=AB20 >1<5=0 (?@>8AE>48B CG5B ?;NA>2 8 <8=CA>2 :064>3> 8=482840, :064K9 G5;>25: AB0@05BAO 2ABC?8BL 2 1@0: A =081>;55 ?@82;5:0B5;L=K< 4;O A51O ?0@B=5@><); 2) 1@0G=K9 2K1>@ 2:;NG05B 2 A51O A5@8N ?>A;54>20B5;L=KE AB0 489, 8;8 D8;LB@>2. K45;ONBAO B@8 AB0488: AB8<C; (?@82;5:0 B5;L=>ABL ?0@B=5@0)  F5==>ABL (AE>4AB2> 273;O4>2)  @>;L (A> >B25BAB285 @>;52>3> ?>2545=8O 871@0==8:0 A2>8< >6840=8O<) (MursteinB., 1970).  :@C3>2>9 B5>@88 ;N128 ( 59A .) @0AA<0B@8205BAO G5BK@5 AB0488: CAB0=>2;5=85 2708<>A2O78 (:@8B5@89  ;53:>ABL >1I5=8O, 70 28AOI89 >B A>F80;L=>-:C;LBC@=KE D0:B>@>2); A0<>@0A:@KB85  2>7=8:=>25=85 4>25@8O, 2>7<>6=>ABL @0A:@K- B8O A51O ?5@54 4@C38<;  D>@<8@>20=85 2708<=>9 7028A8<>AB8 (=0 >A=>25 GC2AB20 =5>1 E>48<>AB8 4@C3 4@C3C); @50;870F8O 107>2KE ?>B@51=>AB59 ;8G=>AB8 (2 ;N128, 4>25@88) (Reissl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A5 MB8 A?>A>1=>AB8, AG8B05B . . !KA5=:>, O2;ONBAO ?>:070B5;O<8 C<5=8O G5;>25:0 1KAB@> 87<5=OBL A2>5 ?>2545=85 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 87<5=ONI8<8AO >A>15==>ABO<8, ?@>O2;OBL B5@?8<>ABL, CAB>9G82>ABL 8 ?@54A:07C5<>ABL A2>53> ?>2545=8O, A?>A>1=>ABL : :><?@><8AAC. 8B5@0BC@0 4;5@ . 0C:0 68BL /5@. A 0=3;. 8 =5<. 852, 1997. @>=5 . 072>4: :@0E 8;8 =>20O 687=L? ., 1995. 0A?0@O= . . >;>4>ABL. N1>2L. !5<LO. !>F8>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K. !1.: !>20, 1996. 0A?0@O= . . !5<LO =0 ?>@>35 XXI 25:0 (A>F8>;>38G5A:8^ ?@>1;5<K). !1.: 5B@>?>;8A, 1999. >;>4 !. . 8G=0O 687=L: ;N1>2L, >B=>H5=8O ?>;>2. ., 1990. 5<>3@0D8G5A:89 5653>4=8: >AA88. ., 1999. >20;52 !. . A8E>;>38O A>2@5<5==>9 A5<L8. ., 1988. >20;52 !. . >43>B>2:0 AB0@H5:;0AA=8:>2 : A5<59=>9 687=8: B5ABK, >?@>A=8:8, @>;52K5 83@K: =. 4;O CG8B5;O. .: @>A25I5=85, 1991. @093. A8E>;>38O @0728B8O. !1.: 8B5@, 2002. 0A5;5=85 8 >1I5AB2>. !B0B8AB8G5A:89 A1>@=8:. ., 2000. 1>7>2 . . 56;8G=>AB=K5 >B=>H5=8O. ., 1979. 1>7>2 . ., 1>7>20 . . $0:B>@K CAB>9G82>AB8 1@0:0: "57. :>=D. !5<LO 8 ;8G=>ABL! 2 3. @>4=>. ., 1981. !>F8>;>38O <>;>4568. #G51=8:/ B2. @54. . ". 8A>2A:89. !1.: 74-2> !1#, 1996, !KA5=:> . . >;>456L 2ABC?05B 2 1@0:. .: KA;L, 1986. !KA5=:> . . #AB>9G82>ABL 1@0:0: @>1;5<K, D0:B>@K, CA;>28O. ., 1991. $>B5520 . . !5<LO 2 A>2@5<5==>< 1C@6C07=>< <8@5. ., 1988. (=0945@ . . A8E>;>38O A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. C@A ;5:F89. ?@5;L @5AA. -!- -@5AA, 2000. /DD5., $5=28: $. !5:A 2 687=8 65=I8=K. ., 1991. Abler R. ., Sedlacek W. E. Freshman sexual attitudes and behaviors over a 15-year-period // Journal of College Student Develoment. 30.1989. 201-209. Adams . . Mate selection in the Unated States: A theoretical summarization. In W. Butt, R. Hill, I. Nye, I. Reis (Eds.). Contemporary theories about the family (Vol. 1. P. 259- 267). New York: Free Press. 1979. Centers R. Sexual attractions and love: An instrumental theory. Springfield, IL: Chas, ! Tomas. 1975. Gerrard M. Sex, sex guilt, and contraceptive use revisited The 1980s // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 975-980. Melville K. Marriage and the family. N.Y., 1977. Murstein B. Stimulus-value-role: a theory of marital choice // Journ. of marriage and the family. 1970. Vol. 32. Nye I., Berardo F. The family: its structure and interaction. N.Y., 1973. 5H /. L. Family systems in America. N.Y., 1976. Williams, J. D. Jacoby, A. P. (1989). The effects of premarital heterosexual and homosexual experience on dating and marriage desirability // Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 489-497. "5<0 IV  + .    "5<0 ;N128 8 1@0:0  =58AAO:05<K9 8AB>G=8: 24>E=>25=8O ?8A0B5;59 8 D8;>A>D>2.  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A8E>;>38O @0728B8O. !1.; : 8B5@, 2002. 095@A. !>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. !1.: 8B5@, 1999. 5B@>2A:89 . . >?C;O@=K5 15A54K > ?A8E>;>388. ., 1983. !>1G0: . . 803=>AB8:0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 A>2<5AB8<>AB8. I5 @07 ?@> ;N1>2L (?A8E>;>3 > ;N128, > A5<L5, > 45BOE). !1.: 5GL, 2002. !C@>6A:89 . "08=AB2> ;N128. !1., 1994. "@>8F:89 !. %@8AB80=A:0O D8;>A>D8O 1@0:0. ., 1995. "@>D8<>20 . . 5403>38:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O. A8E>;>38O 1@0:0: #G51=>5 ?>A>185. !1.: 74-2> !1"#, 2001. $8;>A>D8O ;N128 / >4 @54. >@A:>3> . . ., 1990. $@><< -. A:CAAB2> ;N18BL: AA;54>20=85 ?@8@>4K ;N128. ., 1990. -945<8;;5@ -. ., .AB8F:89 . . !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O. .: 548F8=0, 1990. 192 A. -945<8;;5@ -. ., .AB8F:8A . A8E>;>38O 8 ?A8E>B5@0?8O A5<L8. !1.: 8B5@, 2000. .@:528G . . >;L A>25BA:>3> A5<59=>3> ?@020 2 C:@5?;5=88 A5<L8 // !>F80;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O. 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 8AA;54>20=8O 1KB0. K?. 7. .: 0C:0, 1971. Lee J. A. A typology of styles of loving // Person, and Soc. Psyhol. Bull. 1977. Vol. 3. P. 173 182. Sternberg R. A triangular of love. Psichological Review. 93.1986.119-135. "5<0 V  +  !, >;LH8=AB2> ?A8E>;>3>2 8 A>F8>;>3>2, 8AA;54CNI8E A5<59=K5 >B=>H5=8O, ?>4G5@:820NB 206=>ABL =0G0;L=>3> ?5@8>40 @0728B8O A5<L8 (0F:>2A:89 . !, %0@G52 . ., 1978; !KA5=:> . ., 1981; 5<5=BL520 . $., 1991; "@0?57=8:>20 ". ., 1988; 8G0@4A>= ., 1994; @515==8:>2 . $., 1991 8 4@.). 0: 8 2A5 682>5, A5<LO 1K205B =081>-. ;55 A;01>9 2 <><5=B 2>7=8:=>25=8O (.@:528G . ., 1971, A. 88). '  >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>;>388, :0: ?@028;>, 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?5@8>4870F8O @0728B8O A5<L8, ?@54;>65==0O . . !KA5=:> (1981, 1989). !>3;0A=> MB>9 ?5@8>4870F88, B5@<8= <>;>40O A5<LO ?>=8<05BAO 4>2>;L=> @0AH8@5==>  .A>2A5< <>;>4K5 1@0:8  >B 0 4> 4 ;5B AB060 8 <>;>4K5 1@0:8 >B 5 4> 9 ;5B. =>385 8AA;54>20B5;8 2K45;ONB 2 :0G5AB25 ?5@2>3> ?5@8>40 @0728B8O A5<L8 ?5@2K5 3>4-420 A>2<5AB=>9 687=8. 0 7=0G8<>ABL 8<5==> MB>3> >B@57:0 687=5==>3> F8:;0 A5<L8 C:07K205B C65 B>B D0:B, GB>, ?> @07=K< 8AB>G=8:0<, 70 MB> 2@5<O @0A?0405BAO >B 20%. 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"0:8< >1@07><, 2 ?@54AB02;5=8OE A5<59=KE <C6G8= 8 65=I8= =01;N405BAO =5:>B>@0O B5=45=F8O : A>2<5AB=><C 2K?>;=5=8N @>;59, >4=0:> ?>-?@56=5<C 4><8=8@C5B >1I0O CAB0=>2:0 =0 B>, GB> A5<59=K5 >1O70==>AB8, 2:;NG0O 2>A?8B0=85 45B59,  C45; 65=I8=, <C6G8=K 2 A2>5< 1>;LH8=AB25 GC2AB2CNB A51O >B25BAB25==K<8 B>;L:> 70 >4=C @>;L  <0B5@80;L=>3> >15A?5G5=8O. @81;8605BAO : ?>;>28=5 (>:>;> 40%) G8A;> <C659 8 65=, ?>;030NI8E, GB> :064CN 87 A5<59=KE @>;59 AC?@C38 4>;6=K 45;8BL ?>@>2=C (=4@5520 "., 0:C;8=0 .. ., 1996). . /. 0@30 (1989) >B<5G05B 5I5 >4=C >A>15==>ABL DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O A5<L8 2 MB>B ?5@8>4  C<5=LH5=85 A2>1>4=>3> 2@5<5=8, 2 >A>15==>AB8 ?@>2>48<>3> AC?@C30<8 A>2<5AB=>. 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ossi A. S. Transition to parenthood. In P. Rossi (Ed), Socialization and the life cycle. New York: St. Martins Press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(>;>4 !. ., 1984).  40==>< >?@545;5=88 ?>4G5@:820NBAO: =58=AB8BCF8>=0;L=K9 E0@0:B5@ A2O78, A2>9AB25==K9 AC?@C65AB2C; @02=>?@0285 8 A8<<5B@8G=>ABL =@02AB25==KE >1O70==>AB59 8 ?@828;5389 >1>8E AC?@C3>2. !5<LO ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 1>;55 A;>6=CN A8AB5<C >B=>H5=89, >=0 >1J548=O5B =5 B>;L:> AC?@C3>2, =>9 8E45B59, 0B0:65 4@C38E @>4AB25==8:>2 8;8 ?@>AB> 1;87:8E AC?@C30< 8 =5>1E>48<KE 8< ;N459 (%0@G52 . ., 1979, A. 66). > >?@545;5=8N . . =B>=>20, A5<LO  MB> >A=>20==0O =0 548=>9 >1I5A5<59=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >1I=>ABL ;N459, A2O70==KE C70<8 AC?@C65AB20-@>48B5;LAB20-@>4AB20, 8 B5< A0<K< >ACI5AB2;ONI0O 2>A?@>872>4AB2> =0A5;5=8O 8 ?@55<AB25==>ABL A5<59=KE ?>:>;5=89, 0 B0:65 A>F80;870F8N 45B59 8 ?>445@60=85 ACI5AB2>20=8O G;5=>2 A5<L8. =B>=>2 AG8B05B, GB> ;8HL =0;8G85 B0:>3> B@8548=>3> >B=>H5=8O ?>72>;O5B 3>2>@8BL > :>=AB@C8@>20=88 A5<L8 :0: B0:>2>9 2 55 AB@>3>9 D>@<5. $0:B >4=>3> 8;8 42CE 87 =0720==KE >B=>H5=89 E0@0:B5@87C5B D@03<5=B0@=>ABL A5<59=KE 3@C??, 1K2H8E ?@5645 A>1AB25==> A5<LO<8 (?> ?@8G8=5 27@>A;5=8O 8 >B45;5=8O 45B59, @0A?040 A5<L8 87-70 1>;57=8, A<5@B8 55 G;5=>2, 87-70 @072>40 8 4@C38E 284>2 A5<59=>9 457>@30=870F88), ;81> =5 AB02H8E 5I5 A5<LO<8 (=0?@8<5@, A5<L8 <>;>4>65=>2, E0@0:B5@87CNI8EAO B>;L:> AC?@C65AB2><, => =5 @>48B5;LAB2>< 8 :@>2=K< @>4AB2><). ;O 2A5E MB8E D@03<5=B0@=KE, >A:>;>G=KE D>@< A5<L8 ;CGH5 ?>4E>48B B5@<8= A5<59=0O 3@C??0, ?>4 :>B>@>9 ?>=8<05BAO 3@C??0 ;N459, 254CI8E A>2<5AB=>5 4><>E>7O9AB2> 8 >1J548=O5<KE B>;L:> @>4AB2>< 8;8 AC?@C65AB2>< (=B>=>20. ., 54:>2 . ., 1996). $#& !, A=>2=K<8 DC=:F8O<8 A5<L8, ?> <=5=8N . . @515==8:>20 (@515==8:>2 . ., 1991), O2;ONBAO: @5?@>4C:B82=0O (2>A?@>872>4AB2> 687=8, B> 5ABL @>645=85 45 B59, ?@>4>;65=85 G5;>25G5A:>3> @>40); M:>=><8G5A:0O (>1I5AB25==>5 ?@>872>4AB2> A@54AB2 : 687=8, 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 8AB@0G5==KE =0 ?@>872>4AB25 A8; A2>8E 27@>A;KE G;5=>2, 2545=85 A2>53> E>7O9AB20, =0;8G85 A2>53> 1N465B0, >@30=870F8O ?>B@518B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8); 2>A?8B0B5;L=0O (D>@<8@>20=85 ;8G=>AB8 @515=:0, A8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 2>A?8B0B5;L=>5 2>7459AB285 A5<59=>3> :>;;5:B820 =0 :064>3> A2>53> G;5=0 2 B5G5=85 2A59 53> 687=8, ?>AB>O==>5 2;8O=85 45B59 =0 @>48B5;59 8 4@C38E 27@>A;KE G;5=>2 A5<L8); % :><<C=8:0B82=0O (?>A@54=8G5AB2> A5<L8 2 :>=B0:B5 A2>8E G;5=>2 A> A@54AB20<8 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88, ;8B5@0BC@>9 8 8A:CAAB2><, 2;8O=85 A5<L8 =0 <=>3>>1@07=K5 A2O78 A2>8E G;5=>2 A >:@C60NI59 ?@8@>4=>9 A@54>9 8 =0 E0@0:B5@ 55 2>A?@8OB8O, >@30=870F8O 2=CB@8A5<59=>3> >1I5=8O, 4>AC30 8 >B4KE0). . !. 0F:>2A:89 (1989) >A=>2=K5 DC=:F88 A>2@5<5==>9 A5<L8 4>?>;=O5B A;54CNI8<8: E>7O9AB25==>-1KB>2>9, A>F80;L=>-AB0BCA=>9, M<>F8>=0;L=>9, A5:AC0;L=>9, AD5@>9 ?5@28G=>3> A>F80;L=>3> :>=B@>;O, AD5@>9 4CE>2=>3> >1I5=8O. 5:>B>@K5 02B>@K 2K45;ONB A?5F8D8G5A:85 8 =5A?5F8D8G5A:85 DC=:F88 A5<L8 (%0@G52 . ., 1968; =B>=>20. ., 54:>2 . ., 1996; 0209B8A ., 1999). !>3;0A=> . . %0@G52C, A?5F8D8G5A:85 DC=:F88 A5<L8 2KB5:0NB 87 ACI=>AB8 A5<L8 8 >B@060NB 55 >A>15==>AB8 :0: A>F80;L=>3> O2;5=8O, B>340 :0: =5A?5F8D8G5A:85 DC=:F88, MB> B5, : 2K?>;=5=8N :>B>@KE A5<LO >:070;0AL ?@8=C645==>9 8;8 ?@8A?>A>1;5==>9 2 >?@545;5==KE 8AB>@8G5A:8E >1AB>OB5;LAB20E. !?5F8D8G5A:85 DC=:F88 A5<L8, : :>B>@K< >B=>AOBAO @>645=85 (@5?@>4C:B82=0O DC=:F8O), A>45@60=85 45B59 (M:78AB5=F80;L=0O DC=:F8O) 8 8E 2>A?8B0=85 (DC=:F8O A>F80;870F88), >AB0NBAO, ?> <=5=8N 02B>@0, ?@8 2A5E 87<5=5=8OE >1I5AB20, E>BO E0@0:B5@ A2O78 <564C A5<L59 8 >1I5AB2>< <>65B 87<5=OBLAO 2 E>45 8AB>@88. 5A?5F8D8G5A:85 DC=:F88 A5<L8, A2O70==K5 A =0:>?;5=85< 8 ?5@540G59 A>1AB25==>AB8, AB0BCA0, >@30=870F859 ?@>872>4AB20 8 ?>B@51;5=8O, >B4KE0 8 4>AC30, A 701>B>9 > 74>@>2L5 8 1;03>?>;CG88 G;5=>2 A5<L8, A A>740=85< <8:@>:;8<0B0, A?>A>1AB2CNI53> A=OB8N =0?@O65=89 8 A0<>A>E@0=5=8N. 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">B 65 02B>@, 8AE>4O 87 A5<59=KE DC=:F89, ?5@5G8A;O5B =5A:>;L:> 3@C?? ?>B@51=>AB59, C4>2;5B2>@O5<KE A5<L59: ?>B@51=>AB8, A2O70==K5 A >BF>2AB2>< 8 <0B5@8=AB2><, ?>B@51=>AB8, A2O70==K5 A A>740=85< 8 ?>445@60=85< =5:>B>@KE <0B5@80;L=KE CA;>289 687=8 A5<L8, 8 ?>B@51=>AB8 2 D878G5A:>9 8 ?A8E8G5A:>9 8=B8<=>AB8 (B0< 65, A. 6 7). !" #"#  !, !CI5AB2C5B <=>65AB2> @07;8G=KE 20@80=B>2 A>AB020, 8;8 AB@C:BC@K, A5<L8: =C:;50@=0O A5<LO A>AB>8B 87 <C60, 65=K if 8E 45B59; ?>?>;=5==0O A5<LO  C25;8G5==K9 ?> A2>5<C A>AB02C A>N7: AC?@C65A:0O ?0@0 8 8E 45B8, ?;NA @>48B5;8 4@C38E ?>:>;5=89, =0?@8<5@ 101CH:8, 454CH:8, 4O48, B5B8, 682CI85 2A5 2<5AB5 8;8 2 B5A=>9 1;87>AB8 4@C3 >B 4@C30 8 A>AB02;ONI85 AB@C:BC@C A5<L8; A<5H0==0O A5<LO O2;O5BAO ?5@5AB@>5==>9 A5<L59, >1@07>202H59AO 2A;54AB285 1@0:0 @072545==KE ;N459. !<5H0==0O A5<LO 2:;NG05B =5@>4=KE @>48B5;59 8 =5@>4=KE 45B59, B0: :0: 45B8 >B ?@54K4CI53> 1@0:0 2;820NBAO 2 =>2CN 548=8FC A5<L8; A5<LO @>48B5;O->48=>G:8 O2;O5BAO E>7O9AB2><, :>B>@>5 2545BAO >4=8< @>48B5;5< (<0B5@LN 8;8 >BF><) 87-70 @072>40, CE>40 8;8 A<5@B8 AC?@C30 ;81> ?>B><C, GB> 1@0: =8:>340 8 =5 1K; 70:;NG5= (528 ., 1993). . . =B>=>2 8 . . 54:>2 2K45;ONB ?> A>AB02C: =C:;50@=K5 A5<L8, :>B>@K5 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 8 A>AB>OB 87 @>48B5;59 8 8E 45B59, B> 5ABL 87 42CE ?>:>;5=89.  =C:;50@=>9 A5<L5 8<55BAO =5 1>;55 B@5E =C:;50@=KE ?>78F89 (>B5F-<C6, <0BL-65=0, AK=-1@0B 8;8 4>GL-A5AB@0); @0AH8@5==K5 A5<L8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 A5<LN, >1J548=ONICN 425 8;8 1>;55 =C:;50@=KE A5<59 A >1I8< 4><>E>7O9AB2>< 8 A>AB>OICN 87 B@5E 8;8 1>;55 ?>:>;5=89  ?@0@>48B5;59, @>48B5;59 8 45B59 (2=C:>2). 2B>@K C:07K20NB, GB>, :>340 =04> ?>4G5@:=CBL =0;8G85 2 =C:;50@=>9 A5<L5, >A=>20==>9 =0 ?>;830<=>< 1@0:5, 42CE 8 1>;55 65=-<0B5@59 (?>;838=8O), 8;8 <C659->BF>2 (?>;80=4@8O), B>340 3>2>@OB > A>AB02=>9, 8;8 A;>6=>9 =C:;50@=>9, A5<L5.  ?>2B>@=KE A5<LOE (>A=>20==KE =0 ?>2B>@=><, =5 ?5@2>< 1@0:5) 2<5AB5 A AC?@C30<8 <>3CB =0E>48BLAO 45B8 >B40==>3> 1@0:0 8 45B8 :>3>-;81> 87 AC?@C3>2, ?@82545==K5 8< 2 =>2CN A5<LN (=B>=>2 . ., 54:>2 . .) . . 8G:> (8G:> . ., 1979) @07@01>B0; A;54CNICN :;0AA8D8:0F8N A5<59: 1. !B@C:BC@=K9 A>AB02: ?>;=0O A5<LO (5ABL <0BL 8 >B5F); =5?>;=0O A5<LO (5ABL B>;L:> <0BL 8;8 >B5F); 8A:065==0O 8;8 45D>@<8@>20==0O A5<LO (=0;8G85 >BG8<0 2<5AB> >BF0 8;8 <0G5E8 2<5AB> <0B5@8). 2. $C=:F8>=0;L=K5 >A>15==>AB8: % 30@<>=8G=0O A5<LO; " 48A30@<>=8G=0O A5<LO. !CI5AB2CNB @07;8G=K5 :;0AA8D8:0F88 B8?>2 @0A?@545;5=8O @>;59 2 A5<L5. 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A G5HA:>3> / >4 @54. . !. 0A8;LG5=:> .: 548F8=0, 1991. 559 . !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O: AB>@8O, B5>@8O 8 ?@0:B8:0. !1., 1993. 8G:>. . >4@>AB:>20O ?A8E80B@8O. ., 1979. 0F:>2A:89 . !. !>F8>;>38O A5<L8. .: 0C:0, 1989. 0209B8A . !5<LO 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 :>=AC;LB0F88. .; >@>=56: >A:>2A:89 ?A8- E>;>3>-A>F80;L=K9 8=AB8BCB.  >4M:, 1999. 8G0@4A>= . #. !8;K A5<59=KE C7. !1.: :F845=B; 5=0B>, 1994. "@0?57=8:>20 ". . !>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O A5<L8: 5B>48G5A:>5 ?>A>185 : :C@AC ;5:F89. .: #, 1987. "@0?57=8:>20 ". . -B8:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. ., 1988. %0@G52. . @0: 8 A5<LO 2 !!! .  1979. "5<0 VII #" !",    !# #!/ !!"!",  A2O78 A 87<5=5=85< A5<59=KE DC=:F89 2 A>2@5<5==>< >1I5AB25 ?@>1;5<0 :0G5AB20 1@0:0 AB0=>28BAO F5=B@0;L=>9 ?@>1;5<>9 ?@8 8AA;54>20=88 A5<L8.  ;8B5@0BC@5 ?> ?@>1;5<0< A5<L8 ACI5AB2C5B =5:>B>@0O @07<KB>ABL 2 B5@<8=>;>388, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 2 45D8=8F88 CAB>9G82>AB8 1@0:0.  @01>B0E, ?>A2OI5==KE MB>9 ?@>1;5<0B8:5, <>6=> 2AB@5B8BL B0:85 ?>=OB8O, :0: CAB>9G82>ABL, AB018;L=>ABL, :0G5AB2> 1@0:0, AC?@C65A:>5 AG0ABL5, 1;03>?>;CG85 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 8 B. 4. !B018;L=>ABL 8 C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 1@0:><  A2O70==K5 ?>=OB8O, => 8E =C6=> @07;8G0BL, ?@8G5< @07;8G8O A2O70=K A @0745;5=85< ?>4E>4>2 : 87CG5=8N :0G5AB20 1@0:0 =0 A>F8>;>38G5A:89 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89.  @CA;5 A>F8>;>38G5A:>3> ?>4E>40 4>AB0B>G=K< ?>:070B5;5< CA?5H=>AB8 AC?@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89 O2;O5BAO A0< D0:B A>E@0==>AB8 1@0:0, B> 5ABL >BACBAB285 @072>40. -B0 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 ?>;CG8;0 =0720=85 AB018;L=>AB8 1@0:0 8 H8@>:> 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2 @07;8G=KE 45<>3@0D8G5A:8E, A>F8>;>38G5A:8E 8 4@C38E 8AA;54>20=8OE. 0: >B<5G05B . . :>?460=O=, AB018;L=>ABL  206=59H55 DC=40<5=B0;L=>5 ?>=OB85.  A?5F80;L=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 ?>4 ?>=OB85< AB018;L=>ABL >1KG=> ?>=8<0NB ?@>G=>ABL, CAB0=>282H89AO @568<, 2 ?@>B82>25A :>=D;8:B=>AB8, :@8B8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88 2 A5<L5, 7025@H0NI59AO @072>4>< (:>?460=O= . ., 1978). -B0 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 8<55B <=>3> ?@58<CI5AB2 (745AL ?@0:B8G5A:8 >BACBAB2C5B ?@>1;5<0 87<5@5=8O, 4>AB0B>G=> 7=0BL, @072545=K AC?@C38 8;8 =5B, 1;03>40@O G5<C 2 8AA;54>20=88 <>65B 1KBL ?@>0=0;878@>20=0 D0:B8G5A:8 ;N1>9 25;8G8=K 2K1>@:0 @5A?>=45=B>2 8 B. 4.). > 5ABL 8 A2>8 =54>AB0B:8, A0<K9 ACI5AB25==K9 87 :>B>@KE A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> D0:B A>E@0==>AB8 1@0:0 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =8G53> =5 3>2>@8B > B><, :0: AC?@C38 >F5=820NB A2>8 2708<>>B=>H5=8O, =0A:>;L:> >=8 AG0AB;82K 2 1@0:5 8 B. 4., 0 4;O F5;59 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O, B5< 1>;55 4;O ?A8E>;>- 38G5A:>9 :>@@5:F88 8 ?A8E>4803=>AB8:8, 206=> 8<5==> MB> (;5H8=0 .. ., >7<0=./., C1>2A:0O . ., 1987). @><5 B>3>, N@848G5A:0O A>E@0==>ABL 1@0:0 2>2A5 =5 >7=0G05B, GB> AC?@C38 459AB28B5;L=> 682CB 4@C3 A 4@C3>< 8 254CB A>2<5AB=>5 E>7O9AB2> (/=:>20 3. ., >4-78=A:0O .. ., 20=5A>2 . !, 1978). #" !",    ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< 8AA;54>20=88 >A=>2=>9 0:F5=B AB028BAO =0 87CG5=88 8<5==> C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 1@0:><. >;LH8=AB2> A?5F80;8AB>2 >?@545;ONB 55 :0: 2=CB@5==NN AC1J5:B82=CN >F5=:C, >B=>H5=85 AC?@C3>2 : A>1AB25==><C 1@0:C. 081>;55 ?>;=>5 >?@545;5=85 8<5==> C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 1@0:>< 405B !. . >;>4: #4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 1@0:><, >G5284=>, A:;04K205BAO :0: @57C;LB0B 045:20B=>9 @50;870F88 ?@54AB02;5=8O (>1@070) > A5<L5, A;>682H53>AO 2 A>7=0=88 G5;>25:0 ?>4 2;8O=85< 2AB@5G A @07;8G=K<8 A>1KB8O<8, A>AB02;ONI8<8 53> >?KB (459AB28B5;L=K9 8;8 A8<2>;8G5A:89) 2 40==>9 AD5@5 45OB5;L=>AB8 (>;>4 !. ., 1984). !B018;L=>ABL A5<L8 8 C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 1@0:>< =5 2708<>8A:;NG0NI85 ?>=OB8O, >=8 8<5NB <=>3> >1I53>, => >4=>7=0G=>3> 7=0G5=8O >=8 =5 8<5NB  2KA>:>AB018;L=K5 1@0:8 =5 2A5340 E0@0:B5@87CNBAO 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 1@0:>< (=0?@8<5@, 4;O B@048F8>==KE A5<59 2?>;=5 >1KG5= AB018;L=K9 1@0: ?@8 ?>;=>9 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 AC?@C3>2 A2>8<8 >B=>H5=8O<8, 0 2 A>2@5<5==>9 A5<L5 ?>4>1=0O =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL <>65B ?@825AB8 : @07@K2C 4065 ?@8 =0;8G88 45B59) (!KA5=:> . ., 1981). 7CG5=85< E0@0:B5@8AB8:, 2;8ONI8E =0 C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 1@0:><, 70=8<0;8AL <=>385 8AA;54>20B5;8.  =081>;55 A8AB5<0B878@>20==>< 2845 >=8 ?@54AB02;5=K 2 <>45;8 :0G5AB20 1@0:0, A>740==>9 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 8AA;54>20B5;O<8 . . 5-28A>< 8 6. . !?M=85@><, >ACI5AB282H8<8 2B>@8G=K9 0=0;87 A2KH5 300 @01>B 2 :>=F5 70-E 3>4>2. <8 1K;> 2K45;5=> 40 206=59H8E ?@87=0:>2 AC?@C65A:>3> CA?5E0, >1J548=5==>3> 2 14 3@C??, :>B>@K5, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 40;8 B@8 C:@C?=5==KE 1;>:0 D0:B>@>2: 0) 4>1@0G=K5; 1) A>F80;L=K5 8 M:>=><8G5A:85; 2) ;8G=>AB=K5 8 2=CB@81@0G=K5 (2=CB@8AC?@C65A:85). >;55 2/3 87 =0720==KE 8<8 :>=:@5B=KE ?0@0<5B@>2, ?>78B82=> 2;8ONI8E =0 :0G5AB2> 1@0:0, =>AOB AC3C1> ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 E0@0:B5@. 2B>@K <>45;8 :0G5AB20 1@0:0 >B<5G0NB, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> 2K45;5==KE 8<8 ?0@0<5B@>2 E0@0:B5@87CNB AB5?5=L AE>4AB20 8 A>3;0A8O 2 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=8OE AC?@C3>2 ?> @07=K< ?0@0<5B@0< (Lewis R., SpanierG., 1979). -B>B ?@8=F8?  ?@8=F8? 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">C<5= =0 >A=>20=88 A2>8E >1H8@=KE 8AA;54>20=89 2;8O=8O A5<59=>9 :>=AB5;;OF88 (>:>;> 3000 A5<59) CB25@6405B, GB> 4;O AB018;L=>3> AC?@C65AB20 @5H0NI55 7=0G5=85 8<55B B>, 2 :0:>9 <5@5 2 =5< ?>2B>@O5BAO ?>;>65=85, :>B>@>5 :064K9 87 AC?@C3>2 70=8<0; A@548 1@0BL52 8 A5AB5@ (Toman W., 1976). 07;8G0NB A?>A>1=>ABL : 845=B8D8:0F88 8 :><?;5<5=B0@=>AB8. =48284CC< ;53G5 2A53> 845=B8D8F8@C5B A51O A B5<, :B> ?@>8AE>48B 87 >4=>B8?=>9 A5<59=>9 :>=AB5;;OF88 (=0?@8<5@, AB0@H89 1@0B 87 >4=>9 A5<L8 <>65B 845=B8D8F8@>20BL A51O A> AB0@H8< 1@0B>< B 4@C3>9 A5<L8). 0?@>B82, 2708<>459AB285 8 A>B@C4=8G5AB2> ;5B5 2A53> 4>AB830NBAO 2 >1I5=88 A 8=48284CC<><, 70=8<02H8< :><?;5<5=B8@CNI55 ?>;>65=85. 0?@8<5@, AB0@H89 1@0B, C :>B>@>3> 1K;0 <;04H0O A5AB@0, <>65B A>740BL 8A:;NG8B5;L=> CAB>9G82K9 A>N7 A 65=>9, B0:65 8<52H59 AB0@H53> 1@0B0 (@0B>E28; !, 1991; 8G0@4A>= ., 1994). =0;>38G=> MB><C, <;04H89 1@0B, C :>B>@>3> 1K;0 AB0@H0O A5AB@0, >68405B, GB> 65=0 1C45B 701>B8BLAO > =5<, >15@530BL 53>, CE06820BL 70 =8<. 5=0, O2;O2H0- OAO 2 @>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 AB0@H59 A5AB@>9 1@0BC, 1C45B 8 : <C6C ?@>O2;OBL 701>B;82>5 >B=>H5=85. !>N7 1C45B AB018;L=K< 8 30@<>=8G=K<. !>3;0A=> ">C<5=C, ?@>8AE>48B ?5@5=>A A2O759, ACI5AB2>202H8E 2 @>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 <564C 1@0BLO<8 8 A5AB@0<8, =0 A2>53> ?0@B=5@0 2 AC?@C65AB25. 0==0O A2O7L B5< ?@>G=55 8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=55, G5< 1>;LH5 >B=>H5=8O >1>8E ?0@B=5@>2 =0?><8=0NB 8E ?>;>65=85 2 A5<LOE @>48B5;59. -B> ?@028;> =07K20NB B5>@859 4C1;8:0B>2 (?> Toman). >;L, :>B>@CN 83@0; :064K9 87 AC?@C3>2 2 @>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5, <>65B >E0@0:B5@87>20BLAO 53> ?>;>65=85< (?>@O4>:, ?>;) A@548 1@0BL52 8 A5AB5@. !;54>20B5;L=>, A MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O AC?@C65A:85 A2O78 <>3CB 1KBL :><?;5<5=B0@=K<8, G0AB8G=> :><?;5<5=B0@=K<8 8 =5:><?;5<5=B0@=K<8 (@0B>E28; !, 1991). ><?;5<5=B0@=K9 1@0:  MB> B0:>9 A>N7, 2 :>B>@>< :064K9 87 AC?@C3>2 70=8<05B B> ?>;>65=85, :0:>5 >= 8<5; ?> >B=>H5=8N : 1@0BLO< 8;8 A5AB@0< 2 @>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5. 0?@8<5@, <C6 1K; AB0@H8< 1@0B>< 42CE A5AB5@; A;54>20B5;L=>, >= =0CG8;AO >1@0I0BLAO A 452>G:0<8, GC2AB2C5B A51O >B25BAB25==K< 70 =8E, >15@5305B 8E 8 ?><>305B 8<. 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A8E>;>38O. 1987. ! 2. ;5H8=0 .. . =48284C0;L=>5 8 A5<59=>5 :>=AC;LB8@>20=85. .: & >=A>@F8C<0 !>F80;L=>5 I>@>2L5 >AA88, 1993. ;5H8=0 .. .. ?@8A>2 . .. >;>@>;520O 48DD5@5=F80F8O :0: ?>:070B5;L <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 AC?@C3>2 // 5AB=8: >A:. C=-B0. !5@. 14. A8E>;>38O. 1989. !2. ;5H8=0 .. ., >3<0= . /., C1>2A:0O . . !>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 <5B>4K 8AA;54>20=88 AC?@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89. #, 1987. =4@5520 ". . !>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. !1.: !1#, 1998. =4@5520 ". . A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K AC?@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89 //5AB=8: !0=:B-5B5@1C@3A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0. !5@. 6. 1999. K?. 3. ! 20. =4@5520 ". . !5;LA:0O A5<LO. 0B5@80;K 3-3> AJ5740 1I5AB20 ?A8E>;>3>2. !1.: !1#. 2003. =4@5520 ". ., 8?G5=:> ". .. >B@51=>AB8 65=I8= 8 <C6G8= 2 1@0G=>-A5<59=KE >B=>H5=8OE // A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:89 ?>8A:: ?@>1;5<K 8 4>AB865=8O: 0B5@80;K 3-9 <562C7. =0CG8, :>=D. !1., 1999. =4@5520 ". ., ">;AB>20. . "5<?5@0<5=B AC?@C3>2 8 A>2<5AB8<>ABL 2 1@0:5 //=0=L-52A:85 GB5=8O-2001. "57. =0CG=. :>=D. !1; !1#, 2001. =4@5520 ". ., >=>=>20 . . 0A?@545;5=85 @>;59 2 <>;>4>9 A5<L5 // =0=L52A:85 GB5-=8O-2002. A8E>;>38O 8 ?>;8B8:0. "57. =0CG=.-?@0:B. :>=D. !1.: !1#, 2002. @CBN=O= . .. 0@80=B 2>7<>6=>9 B8?>;>388 AB8;59 >B=>H5=89 2 A5<L5 // !>F80;L=K5 8 45<>3@0D8G5A:85 0A?5:BK 8AA;54>20=8O 1@0:0, A5<L8 8 @5?@>4C:B82=KE CAB0=>2>:. @520=, 1983. C3CAB8=028GNB5 . AA;54>20=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 A>2<5AB8<>AB8 2 A5<L5 // !5<LO 8 ;8G=>ABL. ., 1981. C78=0 . ., >2>A5;LF520 . . #4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 1@0:>< 2 <>;>4KE A5<LOE // =0=L52A:85 GB5=8O-2002. A8E>;>38O 8 ?>;8B8:0. "57. =0CG.-?@0:B. :>=D. !1.: !1#, 2002. 0;:8=0 ". ., ;LH0=A:89 . . 40?B0F8>==0O <>45;L <>B820F88 2K1>@0 ?0@B=5@0 ?> 48045 2 >B=>H5=8OE ;N128 8 4@C61K //8G=>ABL 2 A8AB5<5 >1I5AB25==KE >B=>H5=89. '. 4. ., 1983. >7<0=. /., ;5H8=0 .. . 1I5=85 8 @0728B85 2708<>>B=>H5=89 2 AC?@C65A:>9 ?0@5. .: 874-2> >A:>2A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0, 1987. >;>4 !. . !B018;L=>ABL A5<L8: A>F80;L=K9 8 45<>3@0D8G5A:89 0A?5:BK. ., 1984. >;>4 !. 8G=0O 687=L: ;N1>2L, >B=>H5=8O ?>;>2. ., 1990. @>74>20 . ., 845@5 . . ><?;A<A=B0@=>ABL AC?@C3>2 8 C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 1@0:>< // !5<59=0O ?A8E>;>38O 8 A5<59=0O B5@0?8O. ! 2.1997. C@:> ". . !B0=>2;5=85 <>;>4>9 A5<L8 2 :@C?=>< 3>@>45: CA;>28O 8 D0:B>@K AB018;L=>AB8. 8A.... :0=4. D8;>A>D, =0C:, ., 1983. C@:> ". . #4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 1@0:>< :0: ?>:070B5;L AC?@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89 // !5<LO 8 A>F80;L=0O AB@C:BC@0. ., 1987. @0B>E28;!. A8E>B5@0?8O A5<5 9=>-A5:AC0;L=KE 48A30@<>=89/5@. A G5HA:>3>/>4 @54. 0A8;LG5=:> . . .: 548F8=0, 1991. 0209B8A . !5<LO 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 :>=AC;LB0F88. .; >@>=56: >A:>2A:89 ?A8E>;>3>-A>F80;L=K9 8=AB8BCB.  -, 1999. 1>7>2 . ., 1>7>20. . 803=>AB8:0 AC?@C65A:8E 70B@C4=5=89 //A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0;. 1982. ". 3. !2. 1>7>2 . ., 1>7>20. . $0:B>@K CAB>9G82>AB8 1@0:0 //!5<LO 8 ;8G=>ABL. ., 1979. 1>7>20 . . !C?@C65A:0O A>?<5AB8<>ABL  D0:B>@ CAB>9G82>AB8 1@0:0 //8G=>ABL 2 A8AB5<5 >1I5AB25==KE >B=>H5=89. '. 4. ., 1983. 1>7>2 . . !>2<5AB8<>ABL 8 5@;10BK??5<>ABL ;N459. !1.: 1;8:, 2000. ;59=8: .. . AA;54>20=85 C@>2=59 A>2<5AB8<>AB8 2 <>;>4>9 A5<L5 // A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0;. 1986. ! 2. !. 59-67. 50= . . >:CA :>=B@>;O 45; 8=:25= 3=>9 ;8G=>AB8 // A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0;. 1994. ". 15. ! 2. 50= . . @0:B8G5A:0O ?A8E>4803=>AB8:0 ;8G=>AB8. !1#, 2001. !:8==5@ ., ;887. !5<LO 8 :0: = =59 CF5;5BL / 5@. A 0=3;. .: 57028A8<0O D8@<0 ;0AA, 1995. '5@=8:>2 . . =B53@0B82=0O <>45;L A8AB5<=>9 A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 4803=>AB8:8. ., 1997. %0@G52. ., 0F:>2A:89 . !. !>2@5<5==0O A5<LO 8 55 ?@>1;5<K. ., 1978. .@:528G . . !>25BA:0O A5<LO: DC=:F88 8 CA;>28O AB018;L=>AB8. 8=A:, 1970. Lewis R & SpanierG The rising about the quality and stability of marriage // Contemporary theories about the family. Vol 2. Eds W Burr > N. 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"> 65 ?>4B25@48;>AL 8 40==K<8 >1 8E ?>2545=88: A@548 8<52H8E 2=51@0G=K5 A2O78 1>;55 ?>;>28=K 1K;8 2?>;=5 C4>2;5B2>@5=K >B=>H5=8O<8 2 1@0:5. "5, :B> 2ABC?8; 2> 2=51@0G=K5 A2O78, 1C4CG8 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==K< 2 1@0:5, 2 :0G5AB25 >A=>2=KE <>B82>2 MB>9 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 C:070;8 =54>AB0B>: 2708<=>3> GC2AB20 8 =5>?KB=>ABL 65=K :0: A5:AC0;L=>3> ?0@B=5@0. B25BK 65=I8= 4>AB0B>G=> A8;L=> >B;8G0;8AL >B >B25B>2 <C6G8=. 0 ?5@2K9 ?;0= 745AL 2KABC?8;> B>, GB> 4;O <C6G8= 1K;> AC3C1> 2B>@>AB5?5==K<,  =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 2 1@0:5. =0G8<>ABL MB>3> <>B820 4;O 65=I8= ?>4B25@6405BAO 8 4@C38<8 40==K<8: A@548 8<52H8E 2=51@0G=K5 A2O78 65=I8= B>;L:> 1/3 C4>2;5B2>@5=K 1@0:><, 8 2/3 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==KE. >40==K< !. . >;>40, 87 <0:A8<0;L=> C4>2;5B2>@5==KE 1@0:>< 65=I8= 2=51@0G=K5 A2O78 8<5;8 1/4 65=I8=, 87 A@54=5 C4>2;5B2>@5==KE  44%, 87 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==KE  65%. ! 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J., 1976). @82;5:0B5;L=>ABL 87<5=K A2O70=0 C <C6G8= A B0:>9 ;8G=>AB=>9 G5@B>9, :0: 4><8=0=B=>ABL. $0:B8G5A:>5 =0;8G85 2=51@0G=KE A2O759 >B@8F0B5;L=> :>@@5;8@C5B A 2>7@0AB><: G5< <>;>65 >?@>H5==K5, B5< 1>;LH5 A@548 =8E =0@CH0NI8E AC?@C65A:85 =>@<K, 8 =0>1>@>B (2 2>7@0AB=>< 480?07>=5 >B 19 4> 35 ;5B) (=4@5520 ". ., (<>BG5=:> .. ., 2003). AA;54>20=85 >B=>H5=8O 65=I8= : <C6A:>9 =525@=>AB8 ?>:070;>, GB> 1>;55 B@52>6=K5 8 1>;55 >B25BAB25==K5 65=I8=K (D0:B>@K  8 G 2 >?@>A=8:5 5BB5;0) =530B82=> >B=>AOBAO : B5>@5B8G5A:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 87<5=K AC?@C30 (:>@@5;OF8O =04>AB>25@=>< C@>2=5 7=0-( G8<>AB8). ><8=0=B=>ABL 8 A>F8015;L=>ABL (:><D>@<=>ABL) :0: ;8G=>AB=K5 G5@BK 65=I8= AB0B8AB8G5A:8 7=0G8<> 2708<>A2O70=K A B5>@5B8G5A:>9 B5@?8<>ABLN : 2>7<>6=>9 87<5=5 AC?@C30. >7@0AB=K5 2708<>7028A8<>AB8 C 65=I8= 0=0;>38G=K <C6A:8<: G5< AB0@H5 >?@>H5==K5 (2 480?07>=5 >B 20 4> 60 ;5B), B5< 1>;55 =5?@8<8@8<> >=8 >B=>AOBAO : 87<5=5, @0AF5=820O MB> :0: 0<>@0;L=>5 ?>2545=85 (=4@5520 ". ., 8?G5=:>". )., 1999). . <5;8=A:89 >B<5B8;, GB> B5=45=F8O : 87<5=5 >?@545;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> ?>;>2K< 8=AB8=:B><, => 8 >1KG=K< AB@5<;5=85< G5;>25:0 : ?>8A:C =>2KE ?5@56820=89. 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ysenck H. J. Sex and personality. London, 1976. Imielinski . (red) Scksuologia spoleczna. Warszawa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prokreatio  @>645=85, ?@>872545=85 =0 A25B). "0:, . . 8H=52A:89 2K45;O5B 420 2840 ?>B@51=>AB59  ?@>-:@50F8>==CN, B> 5ABL ?>B@51=>ABL 2 >?@545;5==>< G8A;5 @>645=89, >?@545;5==>< C@>2=5 @>6405<>AB8, 8 @5?@>4C:B82=CN, A2O70==CN A =5>1E>48<>ABLN =5?@5@K2=>3> 2>7>1=>2;5=8O ?>:>;5=89 CE>4OI8E G;5=>2 >1I5AB20 8;8 A5<L8 =>2K<8 (B5@<8= @5?@>4C:F8O ?@8H5; 87 0=3;>O7KG=>9 45<>3@0D8G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K: reproduction  2>A?@>872545=85) (8H=52A:89 . ., 1979). > <=5=8N 02B>@0, 2>7<>6=>, GB> @5?@>4C:B82=0O ?>B@51=>ABL =5 87<5=O5BAO, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: A>>B25BAB2CNI0O 59 ?@>:@50F8>==0O ?>B@51=>ABL 2 @57C;LB0B5 A=865=8O A<5@B=>AB8 =5?@5@K2=> A>:@0I05BAO (>4=0 8 B0 65 G8A;5==>ABL A5<L8 ?@8 @07=>9 A<5@B=>AB8 B@51C5B 8 @07=>9 @>6405<>AB8). >;LH8=AB2> 45<>3@0D>2 (5;>20 . ., 1975; =B>=>2 . ., 1973, 1980; 54:>= . ., 1987; >@8A>2 . ., 1990) 2A5 65 8A?>;L7CNB B5@<8= @5?@>4C:B82=0O CAB0=>2:0 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : 65;0=8N 8<5BL >?@545;5==>5 G8A;> 45B59 >?@545;5==>3> ?>;0. . . =B>=>2 22>48B ?>=OB85 ?>B@51=>ABL 2 45BOE, ?>=8<0O ?>4 =59 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 A2>9AB2> 8=482840, ?@>O2;ONI55AO 2 B><, GB> 157 =0;8G8O 45B59 8=48284 8A?KBK205B 70B@C4=5=8O :0: ;8G=>ABL. >B@51=>ABL ;8G=>AB8 2 45BOE O2;O5BAO 4CE>2=>9 ?>B@51=>ABLN 8 2KE>48B 70 @0<:8 87CG5=8O 55 B>;L:> 2 A2O78 A @>6405<>ABLN.  =0CG=>9 :;0AA8D8:0F88 ?>B@51=>AB59 G5;>25:0 >=0 4>;6=0 70=OBL A2>5 <5AB> 270<5= <8D>;>38G5A:>9 ?>B@51=>AB8 @07<=>65=8O. >B@51=>ABL 2 45BOE  B0:65 >4=0 87 D>@< ?@>O2;5=8O ?>B@51=>AB8 2 4@C3>< G5;>25:5, >=0 E0@0:B5@87C5B AB5?5=L =@02AB25==>3> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8.  50;L=>ABL ?>B@51=>AB8 2 45BOE >7=0G05B, GB> @50;870F8O A5<L59 @5?@>4C:B82=>9 DC=:F88 7028A8B >B A8;K <>B820F88 : 45B>@>645=8N >1CA;02;8205<>9 :>=:@5B=K<8 A>F80;L=K<8, M:>=><8G5A:8<8, ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 8 4@C38<8 CA;>28O<8 1KB8O A5<L8, :>B>@K5 ?@5;><;ONBAO 2 A>7=0=88 AC?@C3>2 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 8=48284C0;L=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 ;8G=>AB8. > . . =B>=>2C (1980), @5?@>4C:B82=K5 CAB0=>2:8 >B=>AOBAO : A>F80;L=>-D8:A8@>20==K< CAB0=>2:0<. =8 E0@0:B5@87CNB ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN ?@54@0A?>;>65==>ABL, 3>B>2=>ABL : >?@545;5==><C @57C;LB0BC @5?@>4C:B82=>3> ?>2545=8O, B> 5ABL A?5F8D8G5A:><C >B=>H5=8N ;8G=>AB8.  8AA;54>20=88 >A:20-78 4;O 87<5@5=8O ?>B@51=>AB8 2 45BOE 8< @07@01>B0= =01>@ ?>:070B5;59 ?> 2KO2;5=8N 55 :>;8G5AB25==>9 (CAB0=>2>: : G8A;C 45B59) 8 :0G5AB25==>9 (<>B82>2, ?>1C640NI8E : @>645=8N B>3> 8;8 8=>3> G8A;0 45B59) AB>@>=. #AB0=>2:8 45B=>AB8 2:;NG0NB 2 A51O CAB0=>2:8 =0 G8A;> 45B59 2>>1I5 8 >?@545;5==>3> ?>;0 2 G0AB=>AB8, 0 B0:65 CAB0=>2:8 =0 ?@54?>G8B05<K5 8=B5@20;K @>645=8O 45B59: =0 ?@>B>35=5B8G5A:89 8=B5@20; (?5@8>4 <564C 70:;NG5=85< 1@0:0 8 @>645=85< ?5@25=F0) 8 =0 8=B5@35=5B8G5A:89 8=B5@20; (<564C ?5@2K< 8 2B>@K<, 2B>@K< 8 B@5BL8< @515=:>< 8 B. 4.). 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B>@>9 @515=>:. ., 1987. =B>=>2 . . @>1;5<K <5B>4>;>388 8 <5B>48:8 8AA;54>20=8O A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 0A?5:B>2 @5?@>4C:B82=>3> ?>2545=8O A5<L8. 8A. ... :0=4. ?A8E>;. =0C:. ., 1973. =B>=>2 . ., >@8A>2 . . @878A A5<L8 8 ?CB8 53> ?@5>4>;5=8O. ., 1990. =B>=>2 . ., 54:>2 . . !>F8>;>38O A5<L8. .: 74-2> >A:>2A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0. 740B-2> 564C=0@. C=825@A8B5B0 187=5A0 8 C?@02;5=8O (@0BLO 0@8G), 1996. =B>=>2 . . 8:@>A>F8>;>38O A5<L8 (<5B>4>;>38O 8AA;54>20=8O AB@C:BC@ 8 ?@>F5A* A>2): #G51=>5 ?>A>185 4;O 2C7>2. .: 740B5;LA:89 >< NOTA BENE, 1998. =4@5520 ". ., >7;>20 . . 5?@>4C:B82=K5 CAB0=>2:8 65=I8=: 2;8O=85 <0B5@8=A:>5 3> 2>A?8B0=8O. =0=L52A:85 GB5=8O-98. (30-;5B85 :0D54@K A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388). "57. =0CG.-?@0:B. :>=D. !1.: !1#, 1998. >9:> . . 0;>45B=0O A5<LO. !>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:89 0A?5:B. 74. 2B>@>5, ?5@5-@01. 8 4>?>;=5==>5. .: KA;L, 1988. >9:> . . >6405<>ABL: !>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 0A?5:BK. .: KA;L, 1987. >9:> . ., 30=O= . ., >?KB5=:>20 . . !>F80;L=> 70I8I5==K5 8 =570I8I5==K5 A5<L8 2 87<5=ONI59AO >AA88. !1.: !C40@K=O, 1999. 8H=52A:89 . . >A?@>872>4AB=> =0A5;5=8O 8 >1I5AB2>. ., 1982. 4@02>>E@0=5=85 !0=:B-5B5@1C@30 2 F8D@0E / >4 @540:F859 . . >@N:8=0. !1., 1994. I 8@LO=>20 . . @878A 0<5@8:0=A:>9 A5<L8. ., 1987. i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rent R. . Evidence bearing on the construct validity of ideal family size // Population and environment. Vol. 3, n. 4. P. 318-319, 1980. "5<0 XI     " +%   57>@30=870F8O AC?@C65A:>9 687=8 8 E@>=8G5A:85 :>=D;8:BK <564C AC?@C30<8 O@G5 2A53> 2KO2;ONBAO 2 AB0B8AB8:5 @072>4>2. 0?@8<5@, :>;8G5AB2> @072>4>2 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 2 1986 3>4C ?> A@02=5=8N A 1940 3>40 2K@>A;> 2 4,6 @070. !CI5AB2C5B B5=45=F8O : @>ABC G8A;0 @072>4>2 2> 2A5< <8@5, 2 >A>15==>AB8 CA8;82H0OAO A 1960-E 3>4>2. "0:, 2 =3;88 A 1960 ?> 1970 3>4K G0AB>B0 @072>4>2 C42>8;0AL, <564C =0G0;>< 1970-E 8 1980-E 3>4>2 2=>2L 2>7@>A;0 1>;55 G5< 2 420 @070. > $@0=F88 A 1970 3>40 4> =0G0;0 1980-E 3>4>2 @072>48<>ABL B>65 2>7@>A;0 1>;55 G5< 2 420 @070.  (25F88 8 5@<0=88 MB> C42>5=85 ?@>87>H;> <564C 1970-<8 8 1988 3>40<8 (@>=5 ., 1995).  !!!  2 1966 3>40 =>2>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> >1;53G8;> ?@>F54C@C @072>4>2. ! MB>3> 2@5<5=8 =01;N40;AO 2A?;5A: G8A;0 @072>4>2 2 =0H59 AB@0=5.  1970-5 3>4K ?A8E>;>38 8 A>F8>;>38 =0G0;8 0=0;878@>20BL ?@8G8=K 8 <>B82K @072>4>2.  '+ !"  !@548 ?@8G8= @>AB0 G8A;0 @072>4>2 @07;8G=K5 02B>@K 2K45;ONB =5A:>;L:> 3@C?? D0:B>@>2. -:>=><8G5A:85 D0:B>@K  G0AB>B0 @072>4>2 C<5=LH05BAO 2 B@C4=K5 2@5<5=0 8 ?>4=8<05BAO 2> 2@5<5=0 M:>=><8G5A:>3> 1;03>?>;CG8O. "0:, G0AB>B0 @072>4>2 2 !( ?>=860;0AL 2 B5G5=85 5@2>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K, ?>2KA8;0AL, :>340 >=0 70:>=G8;0AL, ?>=878;0AL ?>A;5 :@0E0 $>=4>2>3> @K=:0 1929 3>4C 8 1K;0 >B=>A8B5;L=> =87:0 2 B5G5=85 5;8:>9 45?@5AA88 8 B>@>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K. > >:>=G0=88 2>9=K  @>AB G8A;0 @072>4>2 (?8: ?@8E>48BAO >:>;> 1946 3>40), : 1950-< 3>40<  AB018;870F8O 8 C<5=LH5=85 (2>7<>6=>, 2;8O=85 ?>:>;5=8O, 2K@>AH53> 2> 2@5<5=0 5;8:>9 45?@5AA88). >;8B8G5A:85 D0:B>@K A:07K20NBAO 2 B><, GB> 2 ;815@0;L=K5 2@5<5=0 8 2 3>4K A>F80;L=KE M:A?5@8<5=B>2 :>;8G5AB2> @072>4>2 >1KG=> C25;8G8205BAO (:>=5F 1960-E 8 1970-5 3>4K 2 !().  1>;55 :>=A5@20B82=K5 2@5<5=0 G8A;> @072>4>2 ?0405B (:0: MB> 1K;> 2 !( 2 1980-5 3>4K). 0A>2K5 @07;8G8O (C@>25=L @072>4>2 C G5@=>:>653> =0A5;5=8O !( 2 420 @070 2KH5, G5< C 15;KE 8 8A?0=>O7KG=KE,  25@>OB=>5 2;8O=85 @07=8FK 2 A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:>< ?>;>65=88). K45;ONB B0:65 @5;838>7=K5 @07;8G8O (C :0B>;8:>2 C@>25=L @072>4>2 =865, G5< C ?@>B5AB0=B>2) (@>=5 ., 1995). 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B> 65 2@5<O 8E >F5=:8 A>1AB25==>9 03@5AA82=>AB8 8 02B>@8B0@=>AB8 ?@52KH0NB 2 A@54=5< >F5=:8 @072545==KE 65=I8=. ><8=8@>20=85 <>;>4KE 65=I8= =5 A?OG0=> (AB0B8AB8G5A:8) A 8E C4>2;5B2>@5=-, =>ABLN 1@0:><. 081>;55 E0@0:B5@=>9 D>@<>9 ?>2545=8O 2 :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F8OE 8 4;O 70<C6=8E, 8 4;O @072545==KE 65=I8= =09<5BAO 871530=85, 40;55 A;54CNB A>B@C4=8G5AB2>, :><?@><8AA (C @072545==KE 65=I8= 7=0G8<> =865), ?@8A?>A>1;5=85 8 A>?5@=8G5AB2> (=4@5520 ". ., CA0:8=0. ., 1999).  1990-E 3>40E 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 CA8;820NBAO @07@CH8B5;L=K5 B5=45=F88 2 >B=>H5=88 A5<L8 8 1@0:0. "0:, 5A;8 2 1970 3>4C =0 :064CN 1000 G5;>25: 1K;> 70D8:A8@>20=> 10,1 1@0:>2 8 3,0 @072>4>2, 2 1980  10,6 1@0:>2 8 4,2 @072>4>2, B> 2 1990-< =A53> ;8HL 8,9 1@0:>2 8 3,8 @072>40, 0 2 1995 3>4C  7,3 1@0:0 8 4,5 @?;N4; (!5<LO = >AA88, 1996). 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A=>2=0O <0AA0 @072>4>2 A>25@H05BAO 4> 40 ;5B.  1986 3>4C 4>;O @072>4OI8EAO <C6G8= MB>3> 2>7@0AB=>3> ?5@8>40  73,9%, 65=I8=  . 78,3%. 081>;LH0O 8=B5=A82=>ABL @072>4>2 ?@8E>48BAO =0 2>7@0AB8 =CN 3@C??C 25-29 ;5B. 081>;55 G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI89AO 2>7@0AB @0AB>@65=8O 1@0:>2 (<>40;L=K9 2>7@0AB) C <C6G8=  28,8 3>40, 65=I8=  ; 27,8 3>40. !@54=89 2>7@0AB  32,5 8 29,5 ;5B (?>;>28=0 2A5E @072>4>2 A>25@H05BAO 4> MB>3> 2>7@0AB0, 0 4@C30O ?>;>28=0  ?>A;5 =53>) (!K-^ A5=:> . .). !CI5AB2CNB 40==K5, GB> =081>;55 G0AB> @072>4OBAO AC?@C65A:85 ?0@K, A>AB>OI85 2 1@0:5: 4> 4 ;5B, 4 5 ;5B, 10-14 ;5B (8-* B5: ., 1988). !>?>AB02;5=85 A ?5@8>4870F859 1@0:>2 ?>:07K205B, GB0 =081>;55 >?0A=K9 A B>G:8 7@5=8O AB018;L=>AB8 1@0:0 ?5@8>4  B0F, =07K205<K5 A>2A5< <>;>4K5 1@0:8  (>B 0 4> 4 ;5B).  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MB><C 4>102;ONBAO >3@0=8G5==K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 2845BL 45B59 (!>;>2L52 ., 1985). 0 2>?@>A A>F8>;>30: 5;05B5 ;8 2K 25@=CBLAO 2 ?@56=NN A5<LN?  ?>;>68B;L=> >B25B8;8 19,5% >?@>H5==KE <C6G8= 8 8,51% 65=I8= (!>;>2L52 ., 1980). ;C18=0 ?5@56820=89 @072545==KE AC?@C3>2 7028A8B >B =5>6840==>AB8 @072>40. 081>;LH0O B@02<0 C B>3>, :><C 1K;> ?@54;>65=> @0725AB8AL, 0 >4=>AB>@>==89 @072>4  A:>@55 ?@028;>, G5< 8A:;NG5=85< >68;K5 ;N48 8 AC?@C38 A 1>;LH8< AB065< 1@0:0 ?>;CG0NB 1>;LHCN B@02<C, G5< <>;>4K5 (2 1>;LH59 <5@5 5ABL GB> B5@OBL, 8< 1>;LH5 =04> ?5@5CG820BLAO 4;O =>2>9 687=8). !@548 =5402=> @072545==KE <C6G8= 8 65=I8= 2KH5 C@>25=L 0;:>3>;87<0, D878G5A:8E 1>;57=59 8 45?@5AA89, GB> 8=>340 O2;O5BAO ?@O<K< @57C;LB0B>< 87<5=5=8O 687=8 ?>A;5 @072>40. 4=0:> 4;O =5:>B>@KE @072>4  MB> 65;0==>5 >1;53G5=85, :>B>@>5 ?@8=>A8B A2>1>4C >B >3@0=8G5=89, >1O70==>AB59 8 4CH52=>3> A<OB5=8O (@093 ., 2002). >;LH8=AB2> @072545==KE A?@02;ONBAO A> A2>8<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 G5@57 2 3 3>40 ?>A;5 >:>=G0B5;L=>3> @07@K20, 8 C =8E 2=>2L 2>7=8:05B >ICI5=85 1;03>?>;CG8O (Spanier, Furstenberg, 1982). ;8O=85 @072>40 @>48B5;59 =0 45B59 > <=5=8N 1>;LH8=AB20 70@C156=KE 8 >B5G5AB25==KE ?A8E>;>3>2, D>@<8@>20=85 M<>F8>=0;L=> 74>@>2>3> @515=:0 7028A8B >B 2708<=>3> >1I5=8O @515=:0 A >1>8<8 @>48B5;O<8. 90% 45B59 @072>4OI8EAO @>48B5;59, C7=02 > @072>45, 8A?KBK20;8 :@0B:>2@5<5==K9 H>: A >ICI5=85< 1>;8 8 157>BG5B=K< AB@0E><. > 40==K< 0<5@8:0=A:8E 8AA;54>20B5;59 (>1A>= ., 8:>;8 ., 1995), 50% >BF>2 ?@5:@0I0NB =025I0BL A2>8E 45B59 A?CABO B@8 3>40 ?>A;5 @072>40. :>;> ?>;>28=K 45B59 GC2AB2CNB A51O >B@8=CBK<8 8 701@>H5==K<8. 0 2>?@>A, :>340 >=8 A51O GC2AB2>20;8 1>;55 =5AG0AB=K<8  5 ;5B A?CABO ?>A;5 @072>40 8;8 G5@57 1,5 3>40 37% 45B59 >B25G0;8: A?CABO 5 ;5B. 725AB=>, GB> ;8H5==K5 2 45BAB25 4>AB0B>G=>3> >1I5=8O A >BF><, <0;LG8:8 ;81> CA20820NB 65=A:89 B8? ?>2545=8O, ;81> A>740NB 8A:065==>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > <C6A:>< ?>2545=88 :0: 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> 65=A:><C 8 =5 2>A?@8=8<0NB 2A53> B>3>, GB> ?KB05BAO 8< ?@828BL <0BL. 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B>@>9 1@0: A @072545==>9 65=I8=>9, 8<5NI59 45B59.  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 @072545==K<8 1K20NB >10 ?0@B=5@0, ?@8G5< @07=8F0 2 2>7@0AB5 >1KG=> =525;8:0. 10 1K;8 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==K 2 ?5@2>< 1@0:5 8 2 =>2K9 2ABC?0NB A =04564>9, GB> =0 MB>B @07 AC?@C65A:0O 687=L 1C45B ;CGH5. =8 C65 8<5NB ?>CG8B5;L=K9 >?KB, AB0;8 <5=55 381:8<8, <54;5==55 <5=ONB A2>8 ?@82KG:8. 5=0 ?@82>48B A A>1>9 @515=:0 (8;8 =5A:>;L:8E 45B59) >B ?5@2>3> 1@0:0. 5B8 >B ?5@2>3> 1@0:0 >:07K20NB >B@8F0B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 =0 A>3;0A85 2 =>2>9 A5<L5 (@0- B>E28;!, 1991). 0: =5@>4=K< @>48B5;O<, B0: 8 8E ?0AK=:0< 8 ?04G5@8F0<, =5>1E>48<> 2@5<O, GB>1K ?@8A?>A>18BLAO  C7=0BL E0@0:B5@ 4@C3 4@C30 8 ?@>25@8BL A2>8 7=0=8O. 'B>1K A45;0BL MB>, >BG8<K 8 <0G5E8 4>;6=K ?>?KB0BLAO 70=OBL 2 687=8 45B59 <5AB>, >B;8G0NI55AO >B <5AB0 @>4=>3> >BF0 8 <0B5@8. A;8 >=8 ?>?KB0NBAO :>=:C@8@>20BL A @>4=K<8 @>48B5;O<8 @515=:0, 2KA>:0 25@>OB=>ABL, GB> 8E ?>AB83=5B =5C40G0 (@093 ., 2002). > =5:>B>@K< 40==K<, <0;LG8:8, 682CI85 A <0B5@O<8, ?>2B>@=> 2KH54H8<8 70<C6, <5=55 B@52>6=K, 1>;55 >@85=B8@>20=K =0 A>F80;L=>5 ?>2545=85, ?@>O2;ONB 1>;LH5 :>3=8B82=KE C<5=89, G5< AK=>2LO >48=>:8E <0B5@59 ((=5945@ . ., 2000). <5AB5 A B5< 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> 2 B5E ?>2B>@=KE 1@0:0E, 345 >B=>H5=8O A;>68;8AL =5 AB>;L C40G=>, 3;02=CN ?@>1;5<C A>AB02;ONB 2708<>>B=>H5=8O A 45BL<8 >B ?@54K4CI53> 1@0:0. 0G0ABCN ?5@2K5 3>4K ?>2B>@=>3> 1@0:0 ?@>E>4OB 2 AB@5AA>2>9, E0>B8G=>9 >1AB0=>2:5, => A> 2@5<5=5< >B=>H5=8O 2A5 65 =0;06820NBAO ( 095 $., 2000).  B> 65 2@5<O 40==K5 @>AA89A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O 3>2>@OB > =51;03>?>;CG88 2> <=>38E AD5@0E 687=8 A<5H0==KE A5<59. '0ABL <C6G8=- >BG8<>2 2>A?@8=8<0NB @515=:0 >B ?5@2>3> 1@0:0 <0B5@8 :0: ?><5EC 2 AC?@C65A:>9 687=8. 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A>1K5 ?@>1;5<K <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL ?@8 ?>2B>@=KE 1@0:0E 24>2F>2 8 24>2. A;8 ?5@2K9 1@0: C AC?@C3>2 1K; A?>:>9=K< 8 2?>;=5 1;03>?>;CG=K<, 8=>340 2>7=8:0NB ?>4@K20NI85 AC?@C65AB2> B5=45=F88 A@02=5=8O 2B>@>3> ?0@B=5@0 A ?5@2K<. >A?><8=0=8O 8 =5B0:B8G=K5 AAK;:8 =0 ?@8<5@ C<5@H53> <C60 <>3CB 2K7K20BL =0?@O65=85 8 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL. >4>1=K5 A8BC0F88 G0I5 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 A5<LOE, 345 <0BL ?@82>48B A A>1>9 45B59 >B ?5@2>3> 1@0:0 (@0B>E28; !, 1991).  F5;>< 2ABC?82H85 2 =>2K9 1@0: 24>2K 8 24>2FK A>>1I0NB > 1>;55 ?>;>68B5;L=KE >B=>H5=8OE 4@C3 A 4@C3>< 8 A 45BL<8 2 A<5H0==>9 A5<L5, G5< @0=55 @072545==K5 <0G5E8 8 >BG8<K (Ihinger Tallman, Pasley, 1987). 7 ?@0:B8:8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A;54C5B, GB> <=>385 =5@07@5H5==K5 ?@>1;5<K ?5@2KE 1@0:>2 ?5@5E>4OB 2 ?>2B>@=K5 (%0@;8 #, 1992; 5-;8A ., 1995). 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C6G8=0, 8<52H89 2 ?5@2>< 1@0:5 87;8H=5 M<>F8>=0;L=CN 65=C, ?>AB>O==> B@51>202HCN ?@>O2;5=89 2=8<0=8O : A515, 4;O 2B>@>3> 1@0:0 2K18@05B A:@><=CN, B8ECN 65=I8=C. ;8 65 <C6G8=0, 8<52H89 2 ?5@2>< 1@0:5 A;8H:>< 701>B;82CN 65=C, >B G@57<5@=>9 >?5:8 :>B>@>9 >= GC2AB2>20; A51O @515=:><, 2> 2B>@>9 @07 2K18@05B 65=I8=C, A :>B>@>9 C =53> CAB0=02;820NBAO A8<<5B@8G=K5 B>20@8I5A:85 >B=>H5=8O, 8;8 4065 =5A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN 65=I8=C, @0AAG8BK20NICN =0 53> 70I8BC 8 701>BC, GB> ?>72>;8B 5<C ?>445@6820BL 2 A515 >ICI5=85 7@5;>AB8 8 GC2AB2> >B25BAB25==>AB8. =>340 2> 2B>@>< 1@0:5 2>7=8:05B ?@>1;5<0, A2O70==0O A >B;8G85< 2 ?>2545=88 =>2>3> ?0@B=5@0 (2 A@02=5=88 A ?@54K4CI8<). 'C2AB20 8 <>B820F88 <>3CB 1KBL 0<1820;5=B=K<8. 0?@8<5@, 65=I8=0, 2KH54H0O 70<C6 2> 2B>@>9 @07, 3>2>@8B ?A8E>B5@0?52BC: >9 2B>@>9 <C6  E>@>H89 G5;>25:, B8E89 8 =56=K9, B0:>9, :0:>3> O E>B5;0. 5@2K9 <C6 1K; 3@C1K< 8 45A?>B8G=K<, => MB> 1K; <C68: (@0B>E28; !, 1991). @58<CI5AB20 2B>@>3> 1@0:0 ?> A@02=5=8N A ?5@2K< 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> ?0@B=5@K C65 =5 @0AAG8BK20NB =0 25G=CN, @><0=B8G=CN ;N1>2L 8 ?>4E>4OB : AC?@C65AB2C 1>;55 @0F8>=0;L=>. ><=O > B>9 3>@5G8, A :>B>@>9 =5@54:> >:0=G8205BAO ?5@2K9 1@0:, ?0@B=5@K 8A?KBK20NB 1;03>40@=>ABL 70 2A5 E>@>H55, GB> 8< ?@54AB02;O5B 2B>@>9 1@0:, >=8 AB0@0NBAO A>E@0=8BL 53> 8 0:B82=55 53> >15@530NB (@0B>E28; !, 1991). 5@>4=K< @>48B5;O< (?> 0<5@8:0=A:8< 40==K<) G0AB> C405BAO A>740BL A5<59=CN 0B<>AD5@C ;N128, 701>BK 8 157>?0A=>AB8, 8=>340 1>;55 C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=CN, G5< =0?@O65==0O 0B<>AD5@0 A5<L8 ?5@54 @072>4><. $0:B8G5A:8 1>;LH8=AB2> >BG8<>2, <0G5E, 8E ?0AK=:>2 8 ?04G5@8F ?>AB5?5==> CA?5H=> ?@8A?>A01;820NBAO : 687=8 2 =>2>9 A5<L5 (Clingempeel, & Segal, 1986; Visher, & Visher, 1983). 5@>OB=>ABL B0:>3> ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O 2KH5 2 B5E A<5H0==KE A5<LOE, :>B>@K5 A>740NB =>2CN A>F80;L=CN 548=8FC, @0AH8@ONICN A?5:B@ A2>9AB2 18>;>38G5A:>9 A5<L8 45B59, GB>1K 2:;NG8BL =>2K5 >B=>H5=8O 8 AB8;8 >1I5=8O, A?>A>1K 2>A?8B0=8O, <5B>4K @5H5=8O ?@>1;5< 8 E 4. (Paernov, 1984; Pasley, & Ihinger-Tallman, 1989; Whiteside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alts !. Divorce process // Journ. of divorce. 1979. Vol. 2 (3). (=5945@. . A8E>;>38O A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. C@A ;5:F89. .: ?@5;L-@5AA, 74-2> -:A<>-@5AA, 2000. 512 A. Spanier G., Casto R. Adjustment to separation and divorce // Journ. of divorce. 1979. Vol. 1, 2(3). "5<0 XII !,/  !&&/ '!" !&&/ !>F80;870F8O  MB> ?@>F5AA 2E>645=8O 8=482840 2 A>F80;L=CN A@54C, CA2>5=8O 8< A>F80;L=KE 2;8O=89, ?@8>1I5=85 53> : A8AB5<5 A>F80;L=KE A2O759 (=4@5520 . ., 1980, A. 335). 2B>@ C:07K205B, GB> ACI5AB2C5B ?@>1;5<0 @072545=8O ?>=OB89 A>F80;870F8O, @0728B8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O. A;8 A>F80;870F8N ?>=8<0BL B>;L:> :0: ?@>F5AA CA2>5=8O 8< A>F80;L=KE 2;8O=89, B> ?> >1J5<C ?>=OB8O @0728B85 ;8G=>AB8 8 A>F80;870F8O :0: 1K A>2?040NB, 0 0:F5=B =0 0:B82=>ABL ;8G=>AB8 :065BAO 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 G5B:> ?@54AB02;5==K< 8<5==> 2 8455 @0728B8O, 0 =5 A>F80;870F88  745AL >= :0:-B> ?@8BCH5=, :>;L A:>@> 2 F5=B@5 2=8<0=8O  A>F80;L=0O A@540 8 ?>4G5@:8205BAO =0?@02;5=85 55 =>7459AB=8O =0;8G=>ABL. @>F5AA 65 @0728B8O @515=:0 =5<KA;8< 157 CA2>5=8O 8< A8AB5<K A>F80;L=KE A2O759, >B=>H5=89, 2=5 2:;NG5=8O 2 =8E. >A?8B0=85, ?> <=5=8N . . =4@552>9, <>6=> ?>=8<0BL 2 C7:>< A<KA;5 A;>20  :0: ?@>F5AA F5;5=0?@02;5==>3> 2>7459AB28O =0 G5;>25:0 A> AB>@>=K AC1J5:B0 2>A?8B0B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 A F5;LN ?5@540G8, ?@828B8O 5<C >?@545;5==>9 A8AB5<K ?>=OB89, =>@< 8 B. 4. #40@5=85 745AL AB028BAO =0 F5;5=0?@02;5==>ABL, ?;0=><5@=>ABL ?@>F5AA0 2>7459AB28O (B0<65, A. 337).  MB>< A;CG05 A>F80;870F8O >B;8G05BAO ?> A2>5<C 7=0G5=8N >B ?@>F5AA0, >?8AK205<>3> B5@<8=>< 2>A?8B0=85. O4 02B>@>2 ?@845@68205BAO 8<5==> B0:>3> ?>=8<0=8O, ?@8 :>B>@>< A>F80;870F8O ;8G=>AB8 H8@5 ?>=OB8O 2>A?8B0=85. "0:, . . 5-0= 8 /. . >;><8=A:89 C:07K20NB, GB> 2>A?8B0=85, ?> ACI5AB2C, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 C?@02;O5<K9 8 F5;5=0?@02;5==K9 ?@>F5AA A>F80;870F88 ( 50= . ., >;><8=A:89 /. ., 1999). 2B>@K ?>4G5@:820NB, GB> =5 2A5340 2 >D8F80;L=KE 8=AB8BCB0E A>F80;870F8O 8<55B F5;5=0?@02;5==K9 E0@0:B5@. >7<>6=> >4=>2@5<5==>5 ACI5AB2>20=85 A>F80;870F88 8 :0: F5;5=0?@02;5==>3>, 8 :0: =5@53C;8@C5<>3> ?@>F5AA0. @>8AE>48B =5 B>;L:> 70:@5?;5=85 >?@545;5==KE ?@028; 8 =>@<, => 8 ?@8A2>5=85 @50;L=> 8A?KBK205<>3> 8;8 =01;N405<>3> >?KB0 A>F80;L=>3> 2708<>459AB28O CG8B5;59 8 CG5=8:>2 :0: <564C A>1>9, B0: 8 2=CB@8 A>F80;L=>9 3@C??K (A. 33). A;8 65 ?@>F5AA 2>A?8B0=8O ?>=8<0BL 2 @0AH8@8B5;L=>< A<KA;5, :>340 AC1J5:B>< 2>A?8B0B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 O2;O5BAO 2A5 >1I5AB2> 8;8 2AO 687=L, B> @07;8G85 <564C B5@<8=0<8 8AG5705B (=4@5520 . ., 1980, 1996). !>F80;870F8O ;8G=>AB8 >?@545;O5BAO :0: ?@>F5AA AB0=>2;5=8O ;8G=>AB8 ?CB5< >A2>5=8O 8=48284>< 4CE>2=KE F5==>AB59, 2K@01>B0==KE G5;>25G5AB2><. 8G=>ABL AG8B05BAO A>F80;878@>20==>9, 5A;8 >=0 =0CG5=0 4C<0BL 8 ?>ABC?0BL 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 2>7@0AB><, ?>;>< 8 A>F80;L=>9 A8BC0F859. 2B>@K ?>4G5@:820NB 0:B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ A>F80;870F88: !>F80;870F8O  MB> 42CAB>@>==89 ?@>F5AA, 2:;NG0NI89 2 A51O, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, CA2>5=85 8=48284>< A>F80;L=>3> >?KB0 ?CB5< 2E>645=8O 2 A>F80;L=CN A@54C, A8AB5<C A>F80;L=KE A2O759; A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K (G0AB> =54>AB0B>G=> ?>4G5@:8205<>9 2 8AA;54>20=8OE), ?@>F5AA 0:B82=>3> 2>A?@>872>4AB20 A8AB5<K A>F80;L=KE A2O759 8=48284>< 70 AG5B 53> 0:B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0:B82=>3> 2:;NG5=8O 2 A>F80;L=CN A@54C (B0< 65, A. 338). '5;>25: =5 ?@>AB> CA208205B A>F80;L=K9 >?KB, => 8 ?@5>1@07>2K205B 53> 2 A>1AB25==K5 F5==>AB8, CAB0=>2:8, >@85=B0F88 (=4@520 . ., 1980). !>F80;870F8O  MB> >A>1K9 ?@>F5AA 2:;NG5=8O @515=:0 2 >1I5AB2>, ?@>F5AA 8 @57C;LB0B CA2>5=8O, 0:B82=>3> 2>A?@>872>4AB20 8=48284>< A>F80;L=>3> >?KB0. = <>65B ?@>8AE>48BL :0: AB8E89=>, B0: 8 F5;5=0?@02;5==> (2>A?8B0=85) (A8E>;>38O G5;>25:0 >B @>645=8O 4> A<5@B8, 2001).  A>>B25BAB288 A MB8< ?>4E>4>< 2>A?8B0=85 ?>=8<05BAO :0: @07=>284=>ABL A>F80;870F88, :>B>@0O ?@>8AE>48B F5;5=0?@02;5==>. 59AB28B5;L=>, F5;K9 @O4 A>F80;870B>@>2 459AB2CNB, ?> ACB8, AB8E89=>, 8 ?@8 MB>< :>A25==>. -B> <>3CB 1KBL A25@AB=8:8, 4@C7LO, 7=0:><K5 8 4065 A;CG09=K5 ;N48, A :>B>@K<8 A2O70=> :0:>5-=81C4L =5?@8OB=>5 A>1KB85 (=0?@8<5@, C3@>70 =0?045=8O). "0:, D>@<8@CNI55 2;8O=85 =0 ;8G=>ABL <0;LG8:0 >:07K205B B@5=5@ ?> 1>@L15 8 A25@AB=8:8->4=>:;0AA=8:8, ?CB5< =5?@54=0<5@5==>3> =02O7K20=8O A2>8E =>@<, ?>=8<0=8O 687=8, <0=5@ ?>2545=8O 8 4065 A2>8< >1;8:><. O4 M;5<5=- B>2 A>F80;L=>9 A@54K <>65B 2>7459AB2>20BL :0: 1K ?0AA82=>  MB> <>65B 1KBL MAB5B8:0 3>@>4A:>9 A@54K 8;8 =0>1>@>B, 0=B8MAB5B8:0 A20;>: 8 42>@>2, 345 @515=>: ?@>2>48B A2>5 2@5<O. >A?8B0=85 5ABL ?@>F5AA A>F80;L=K9 2 A0<>< H8@>:>< A<KA;5. >A?8BK205B 2A5: ;N48, 25I8, O2;5=8O, =>, ?@5645 2A53> 8 1>;LH5 2A53>,  ;N48. 7 =8E =0 ?5@2>< <5AB5  @>48B5;8 8 ?5403>38. !> 2A5< A;>6=59H8< <8@>< >:@C60NI59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 @515=>: 2E>48B 2 15A:>=5G=>5 G8A;> >B=>H5=89, :064>5 87 :>B>@KE =587<5==> @0728205BAO, ?5@5?;5B05BAO A 4@C38<8 >B=>H5=8O<8, CA;>6=O5BAO D878G5A:8< 8 =@02AB25==K< @>AB>< A0<>3> @515=:0. 5AL MB>B E0>A =5 ?>4405BAO :0: 1C4B> =8:0:><C CG5BC, B5< =5 <5=55 >= A>7405B 2 :064K9 <><5=B >?@545;5==K5 87<5=5=8O 2 ;8G=>AB8 @515=:0. 0?@028BL MB> @0728B85 8 @C:>2>48BL 8<  7040G0 2>A?8B0B5;O (0:0@5=:> . !, 1981, A. 12). . . =0=L52 @0AA<0B@820; A>F80;870F8N @0AH8@8B5;L=> :0: 42C=0?@02;5==K9 ?@>F5AA, >7=0G0NI89 AB0=>2;5=85 G5;>25:0 :0: ;8G=>AB8 8 :0: AC1J5:B0 45OB5;L=>AB8. >=5G=0O F5;L ?>4>1=>9 A>F80;870F88 70:;NG05BAO 2 D>@<8@>20=88 8=48284C0;L=>AB8. K45;ONB ?OBL AB>@>= A>F80;870F88: D>@<8@>20=85 7=0=89 > ;N4OE, >1I5AB25 8 > A515; 2K@01>B:0 =02K:>2 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; 2K@01>B:0 =>@<, @>;59, ?>78F89; 2K@01>B:0 0BB8BN4>2, F5==>AB=KE >@85=B0F88; 2:;NG5=85 2 ?@0:B8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL. !B0488 A>F80;870F88 . . =4@5520 C:07K205B =0 ACI5AB2>20=85 B@5E AB0489 A>F80;870F88: 4>B@C4>2CN, B@C4>2CN 8 ?>A;5B@C4>2CN. >B@C4>20O AB048O >E20BK205B 25AL ?5@8>4 68G=8 G5;>25:0 >B =0G0;0 B@C4>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. -B0 AB048O 45;8BAO =0 420 ?5@8>40: 0) @0==OO A>F80;870F8O, >E20BK20NI0O 2@5<O >B @>645=8O @515=:0 4> ?>ABC?;5=8O 53> 2 H:>;C, 1) AB048O >1CG5=8O. "@C4>20O AB048O A>F80;870F88 >E20BK205B ?5@8>4 7@5;>AB8 G5;>25:0. !B048O B5>@5B8G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O A>F80;870F88 2 MB>B ?5@8>4 ?@0:B8G5A:8 >BACBAB2C5B (=4@5520 . ., 1980). @54?@8=8<0;8AL ?>?KB:8 8AA;54>20=8O B2>@G5A:>3> AB0=>2;5=8O ;8G=>AB8 =0 2K1>@:5 0@E8B5:B>@>2 =0 4>B@C4>2>9 8 B@C4>2>9 AB048OE (=4@5520 ". ., 1989). >A;5B@C4>20O AB048O A>F80;870F88. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O B>9 AE5<K, :>B>@0O >?8AK205B ?@>F5AA A>F80;870F88 2 A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388; ?>68;>9 2>7@0AB @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: 2>7@0AB, 2=>AOI89 ACI5AB25==K9 2:;04 2 2>A?@>872>4AB2> A>F80;L=>3> >?KB0. >?@>A 2>7=8:05B ;8HL >1 87<5=5=88 B8?0 0:B82=>AB8 2 MB>B ?5@8>4. >68;>9 G5;>25: AB028BAO ?5@54 0;LB5@=0B82>9 2K1>@0 40;L=59H59 687=8 ;81> ?> ?CB8 A>E@0=5=8O A51O :0: 8=482840, ;81> ?> ?CB8 A>E@0=5=8O A51O :0: ;8G=>AB8 8 AC1J5:B0 45OB5;L=>AB8.  B>< 8 4@C3>< A;CG05 2>?@>A AB>8B > 40;L=59H5< ;8G=>AB=>< A0<>>?@545;5=88, 2K1>@5 AB@0B5388 687=5==>3> ?CB8, ?>8A:0E A<KA;0 687=8 (C;5H>20 . ., 2001, A. 257). 0 2A5E AB048OE A>F80;870F88 >1I5AB2> >:07K205B =0 =55 2>7459AB285 8;8 =5?>A@54AB25==>, 8;8 G5@57 3@C??C. 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A5<L5 45B8 ?>AB5?5==> ?@8>1I0NBAO : A;>6=><C <8@C 27@>A;KE. 2B>@ C:07K205B, GB> 2>A?8B0==8:8 4065 A0<KE ;CGH8E 4>H:>;L=KE 45B4><>2 >BAB0NB 2 =5:>B>@KE 0A?5:B0E >B 45B59 B>3> 65 2>7@0AB0, 2>A?8BK20NI8EAO 2 A5<L5. > <=5=8N . !. >=0, ?@8G8=0 :@>5BAO 2 B><, GB> >=8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 87>;8@>20=K >B >B:@>25==KE @073>2>@>2 27@>A;KE 8 MB> 70B@C4=O5B 8E >7=0:><;5=85 A =5:>B>@K<8 AB>@>=0<8 687=8: >B=>H5=8O <564C 27@>A;K<8 =0 @01>B5, F5=0 45=53 8 B. 4. -B@5BL8E, @>48B5;LA:85 GC2AB20 8 701>B0 > 45BOE  5AB5AB25==K5 G5;>25G5A:85 GC2AB20, >1>30I0NI85 8=482840 :0: ;8G=>ABL (>= . !, 1991).  >;L >BF0 2 A>F80;870F88 45B59 . 4;5@ ?>4G5@:820; @>;L >BF0 2 D>@<8@>20=88 C @515=:0 A>F80;L=>3> 8=B5@5A0. >-?5@2KE, C >BF0 4>;6=0 1KBL ?>78B82=0O CAB0=>2:0 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 65=5, @01>B5 8 >1I5AB2C. 4>102>: : MB><C, 53> AD>@<8@>20==K9 A>F80;L=K9 8=B5@5A 4>;65= ?@>O28BLAO 2 >B=>H5=8OE A 45BL<8. > 4;5@C, 8450;L=K9 >B5F  MB> B>B, :B> >B=>A8BAO : A2>8< 45BO< :0: : @02=K< 8 ?@8=8<05B 0:B82=>5 CG0AB85 =0@O4C A 65=>9 2 8E 2>A?8B0=88. B5F 4>;65= 871530BL 42CE >H81>:: M<>F8>=0;L=>9 >B3>@>65==>AB8 8 @>48B5;LA:>3> 02B>@8B0@87<0, 8<5NI8E, :0: =8 AB@0==>, >48=0:>2K5 ?>A;54AB28O. 5B8, GC2AB2CNI85 >BGC645==>ABL @>48B5;59, >1KG=> ?@5A;54CNB A:>@55 F5;L 4>AB865=8O ;8G=>3> ?@52>AE>4AB20, G5< ?@52>AE>4AB20, >A=>20==>3> =0 A>F80;L=>< 8=B5@5A5. >48B5;LA:89 02B>@8B0@87< B0:65 ?@82>48B : 45D5:B=><C AB8;N 687=8. 5B8 45A?>B8G=KE @>48B5;59 =0CG0NBAO 1>@>BLAO 70 2;0ABL 8 ;8G=>5, 0 =5 A>F80;L=>5 ?@52>AE>4AB2> (F8B. ?>: %L5;; ., 83;5@ ., 1997);  1970 1980-5 3>4K @>;L >BF>2 2 2>A?8B0=88 8 A>F80;870F88 45-< B59 1K;0 ?>4 =5C:;>==K< 2=8<0=85< 0<5@8:0=A:8E 8AA;54>20B5;59. A>15==> ?@8AB0;L=>5 2=8<0=85 8AA;54>20B5;59 C45;O;>AL ?5@8>4C <;045=G5AB20. B<5G0;>AL, GB> 2 !( >BFK ?@>2>4OB A> A2>8<8 <0;5=L:8<8 45BL<8 1>;LH5 2@5<5=8, G5< @0=LH5 (@093 ., 2002). (">65 ?8A0;8 A>25BA:85 8AA;54>20B5;8 > =0H8E <C6G8=0E 2 1960 1970-5 3>4K (!5<LO 8 1KB, 1969)). '0ABL 8AA;54>20B5;59 ?>;030NB, GB>, 70 8A:;NG5=85< :>@<;5=8O 3@C4LN, >BFK A?>A>1=K >15A?5G8BL ?>;=K9 CE>4 70 @515=:><. =8 <>3CB :C?0BL 53>, ?5;5=0BL, :>@<8BL 8 :0G0BL B0: 65 C<5;>, :0: <0BL. BFK A?>A>1=K C;02;820BL A83=0;K @515=:0 AB>;L 65 GCB:>, :0: <0B5@8 (Parke, 1981), 8 <;045=FK <>3CB ?@82O70BLAO : >BF0< =5 <5=LH5, G5< : <0B5@O<. # >BF>=, :>B>@K5 ?>A2OI0NB <=>3> 2@5<5=8 701>B0< > 3@C4=>< @515=:5, CAB0=08;8?0NBAO A =8< ?@>G=K5 >B=>H5=8O ?@82O70==>AB8, 8 45BO< MB> ?@8=>A8B 1>;LHCN ?>;L7C (Ricks, 1985). @C3>5 8AA;54>20=85 40;> =5A:>;L:> 8=K5 @57C;LB0BK. 2B>@K 25;8 =01;N45=85 70 <>;>4K<8 >BF0<8 8 <0B5@O<8, ?>A5I02H8<8 :C@AK <>;>4KE @>48B5;59, =0 :>B>@KE, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 A=0G0;0, >BFK 25;8 A51O >G5=L 0:B82=>, 8 >6840;>AL, GB> >=8 @0745;OB 701>BK ?> CE>4C 70 @515=:>< A> A2>8<8 65=0<8. >A;5 @>645=8O @515=:0 >BF>2A:85 =02K:8 ?> CE>4C 70 <;045=F5< >1>8<8 @>48B5;O<8 1K; 8 >F5=5=K 7=0G8B5;L=> =865 <0B5@8=A:8E.  @57C;LB0B5 >BF0< 1K;0 >B2545=0 @>;L ?><>I=8:>2 <0B5@59. 8 >48= 87 >BF>2, ?@8=8<02H8E CG0AB85 2 MB>< 8AA;54>20=88, =5 3>2>@8; > B><, GB> 65=0 ?><>305B 5<C 2 CE>45 70 @515=:><. 0BL 1@0;0 =0 A51O >A=>2=CN >B25BAB25==>ABL ?> CE>4C 70 @515=:><, 0 >BFK 83@0;8 2B>@>AB5?5==CN @>;L, GB> A2O7K205BAO, ?> <=5=8N 8AA;54>20B5;59, A 8E GC2AB2>< =5:><?5B5=B=>AB8 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 (Entwi, 1988, A. 197). >:070=> 2;8O=85 >BF>2 =0 @0==55 @0728B85 @515=:0. 0==K5 <=>38E 8AA;54>20=89 3>2>@OB > B><, GB> >BFK, 45@602H85 @515=:0 =0 @C:0E A@07C ?>A;5 @>645=8O, 8 2 40;L=59H5< ?@>4>;60;8 1>;LH5 83@0BL A> A2>8<8 ?>4@0AB0NI8<8 45BL<8 8 701>B8BLAO > =8E. -B0 =>20O @>;L 701>B;82>3> >BF0 1;03>?@8OB=> A:07K205BAO =0 @0728B88 A5<L8. > @57C;LB0B0< >4=>3> 87 8AA;54>20=89, <;045=FK, GL8 >BFK 0:B82=> CG0AB2>20;8 2 8E 2>A?8B0=88, ?>:070;8 1>;5 2KA>:85 >F5=:8 ?> B5AB0< <>B>@=>3> 8 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O (Pederson et al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alkovitz, 1985). 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"0:85 >BFK 8<5NB 1>;LH55 2;8O=85 =0 A2>8E 45B59, 45B8 G0I5 ?@8A;CH820NBAO : =8< 8 E>BOB ?>E>48BL =0 =8E 1;03>40@O CAB0=>282H8<AO <564C =8<8 B5A=K<, @07=>>1@07=K< >B=>H5=8O< (@093 ., 2001). >;>68B5;L=CN @>;L >BF>2 2 @0==5< 45BAB25 @07;8G=K5 02B>@K A2O7K20NB A B5<, GB>: >BFK 83@0NB 70<5B=CN @>;L 2 D>@<8@>20=88 A2>53> @515=:0 2 A8BC0F8OE, :>340 5<C =5OA=>, :0: 25AB8 A51O 2 40==K9 <><5=B; >BFK, :>B>@K5 GCB:> @5038@CNB =0 A83=0;K @515=:0 8 A:>@55 AB0 =>2OBAO 7=0G8<K<8 D83C@0<8 2 45BA:>< <8@5, A:>@55 ?@>O2;O NB A51O :0: 459AB25==K5 ?>A@54=8:8 A>F80;870F88; % :>340 @515=>: AB0=>28BAO AB0@H5, >B5F ?@52@0I05BAO 4;O =53> 2 206=CN @>;52CN <>45;L; % >B5F <>65B 2KABC?0BL 2 @>;8 1>;5;LI8:0 @515=:0 8 70I8B=8:0 , 53> CA?5E>2. 5:>B>@K5 0<5@8:0=A:85 8AA;54>20B5;8 >B<5G0NB 4065, GB> C >BF>2, :>B>@K5 =54>AO305<K 4;O <0;5=L:8E45B59, <>3CB 2>7=8:=CBL B@C4=>AB8 2 =0;06820=88 A =8<8 ?@>G=KE M<>F8>=0;L=KE A2O759 2 ?>A;5-* 4CNI5< (Rick, 1985). 4=0:> 4065 =0;8G85 O2=>9 :>@@5;OF8>==>9 7028A8<>AB8 <564C 701>B>9 >BF>2 > =>2>@>645==KE 45BOE 8 8E 2708<>>B=>H5=8O<8 2 1>;55 ?>74=5< 2>7@0AB5 @515=:0 (=0?@8<5@, 2 ?>4@>AB:>2><) 5I5 =5 3>2>@8B >1 8E ?@8G8==>-A;54AB25==>9 A2O78. !:>@55 2A53>, 1>;55 3;C1>:8< D0:B>@>< O2;O5BAO >1I55 >B=>H5=85 <C6G8=K : 1;87:8<, : A5<L5 (8 : @515=:C) 8 : A0<><C A515. A;8 2 53> 687=8 3;02=>5  C4>2;5B2>@5=85 A>1AB25==KE ?>B@51=>AB59, 0 ;N1>2L : A515 70B<5205B 2A5 4@C385 D>@<K ;N128  : 65=5, @515=:C, B> B0:>5 >B=>H5=85 <>65B ?@520;8@>20BL :0: 2 @0==89 ?5@8>4 >BF>2AB20, B0: 8 2 40;L=59H59 687=8. 0?@8<5@, 5A;8 4;O @>48B5;O 3;02=>5  53> @01>B0, >1I5=85 2=5 A5<L8, >B4KE, :>B>@K9 =5 ?@54CA<0B@8205B =8 701>BC > @515=:5, =8 A>2<5AB=>5 A =8< ?@5?@>2>645=85 2@5<5=8, B0 B0:>9 >B5F 2 B@8 3>40 <>65B <0;> 8=B5@5A>20BLAO 2>A?8B0=85< @515=:0, 2 ?OBL ;5B  2KA:07K20BL 2A5< =54>2>;LAB2> 45BA:8<8 =530B82=K<8 ?@>O2;5=8O<8 (;N1K<8) 8 53> ?;>E8< 2>A?8B0=85<, :>B>@>5 40;8 5<C <0BL, 101CH:0 (28=>2=8: 2A5340 2>2=5), 0 2 45AOBL 2>7<CI0BLAO ?;>E8<8 CA?5E0<8 AK=0 8;8 4>G5@8 2 CG515. > <=5=8N 0<5@8:0=A:8E CG5=KE, :>A25==>5 2;8O=85 >BF0 =0 <;045=F0 8 =0 A5<LN 8<55B 25AL<0 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85. =>3>G8A;5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> ?>445@6:0 >BF>< <0B5@8 2> 2@5<O 55 15@5<5==>AB8 8 @0==53> <;045=G5AB20 >G5=L 206=0 4;O =0G0;0 CAB0=>2;5=8O ?>78B82=KE >B=>H5=89. BACBAB285 >BF0 2 ?5@8>4 <;045=G5AB20 A>7405B =5<0;K5 B@C4=>AB8 4;O DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O A5<59=>9 A8AB5<K (Lewis, 1987). ;0@:-!BN0@B : A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 B@5EAB>@>==8E >B=>H5=89 2> <=>38E A5<LOE >1=0@C68;0, GB> 2;8O=85 <0B5@8 =0 @515=:0 =>A8B =5?>A@54AB25==K9 E0@0:B5@, B>340 :0: >B5F 2;8O5B =0 <0;KH0 G0AB> >?>A@54>20==>  G5@57 <0BL. 515=>: 65 G0I5 2A53> 2;8O5B =0 >1>8E @>48B5;59 =0?@O<CN (Clarke-Stewart . ., 1978). B5G5AB25==K5 ?5403>38 8 ?A8E>;>38 B0:65 ?>AB>O==> ?>4G5@:820;8 7=0G5=85 >BF0 2 A5<59=>9 A>F80;870F88. B<5G0;>AL, =0?@8<5@, GB> 2 2>A?8B0=88 AK=0 >BFC ?@8=04;568B >A>10O @>;L. =0G8<>ABL ;8G=>AB8 >BF0 ?@5645 2A53> 2 B><, GB> 4;O AK=0 >= ?@54AB02;O5B (=4@5520 ". ., 2003) MB0;>= <C6G8=K. 1@07FK ?>2545=8O >BF0, :>?8@C5- <K5 @515=:><, D>@<8@CNB =@02AB25==K9 >1;8:, A?>A>1K ?>2545=8O <0;LG8:0. 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(0E0@>2 . ., 2000, A. 77). . 5<?15;; =0 >A=>25 A2>8E =01;N45=89 ?8H5B, GB> C 4>1@KE >BF>2 2K@0AB0NB <C65AB25==K5 AK=>2LO, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: C G5@AB2KE, A25@E<0A:C;8==KE  65=>?>4>1=K5 (5<?15;; ., 1992). . 8B:8= C:07K205B, GB> <0;5=L:89 <0;LG8: ?>;L7C5BAO >BF>2A^ :>9 <>45;LN ?>2545=8O. A;8 >B5F 2K@0605B A2>5 =54>2>;LAB2> 03@5AA82=>, 53> AK= 1C45B ?KB0BLAO ?>ABC?0BL ?>4>1=K< 65 >1@07><. A;8 >B5F A:@K205B A2>5 @074@065=85 ?>4 <0A:>9 <>;G0=8O, AK= 1C45B AG8B0BL MB> =>@<>9 <C6A:>3> ?>2545=8O. 1I85 83@K, A5:@5BK, A8<?0B88 8 ?@82O70==>AB8 <564C >BF>< 8 AK=>< 1C4CB 4;O AK=0 3>@074> ;CGH59 <>45;LN <C6A:>3> ?>2545=8O, G5< ?@O<K5 65AB:85 ?>?KB:8 2>A?8B0BL =0AB>OI53> <C6G8=C. 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A2O78 A MB8< B@51>20=8O : D5<8=8==>A-B8 452>G5: ?@>3@5AA82=> C<5=LH0NBAO, 2 480?07>= 8E ?>;>-@>;52KE >@85=B0F88 2A5 1>;LH5 8 1>;LH5 2:;NG0NBAO <0A:C;8=878@>20==K5 AB5@5>B8?K ?>2545=8O 27@>A;KE 65=I8= (030= . ., 1991, A. 71). >= >1@0I05B 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, GB> >G5=L 206=> A8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 2>A?8B0=85 @>48B5;59, >A>15==> <0B5@59, GB>1K >=8 =5 AB0@0;8AL G@57<5@=> >?5:0BL 8 70=O=G820BL <0;LG8:>2 (>= . !, 1989, A. 227). >;L >BF0 2 CA2>5=88 @515=:>< ?>;>2>9 @>;8 <>65B 1KBL >A>1> 7=0G8<>9 (Honig, 1980, Parke, 1981). BFK 4065 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8, G5< <0B5@8, ?@8CG0NB 45B59 : ?>;>2K< @>;O<, ?>4:@5?;OO @0728B85 65=AB25==>AB8 C A2>8E 4>G5@59 8 <C65AB25==>AB8  C AK=>259. 4=> 2@5<O AG8B0;>AL, GB> 2;8O=85 >BF>2 A:07K205BAO B>;L:> =0 >1CG5=88 AK=>259 <0A:C;8==K< <>45;O< ?>2545=8O, 8, :065BAO, MB> CB25@645=85 459AB28B5;L=> 25@=> 4;O 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> ?5@8>40. 0;LG8:, >B5F :>B>@>3> ?>:8=C; A5<LN 4> B>3>, :0: 5<C 8A?>;=8;>AL ?OBL ;5B, 2?>A;54AB288 >:07K205BAO 1>;55 7028A8<K< >B A2>8E @>25A=8:>2 8 <5=55 C25@5==K< 2 A515, G5< <0;LG8: 87 ?>;=>9 A5<L8 (Parke, 1981). A;8 <0;LG8: 2545B A51O, >?8@0OAL =0 3>B>2CN <>45;L >BF>2A:>3> ?>25;5=8O, B> 2 @57C;LB0B5 53> ?>2545=85 8 ?A8E8:0 AB0=>2OBAO 1>;55 AB018;L=K<8 (8B:8= ., 19960). 0 452>G:0E >BACBAB285 >BF0 A:07K205BAO 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 2 ?>4@>AB:>2K9 ?5@8>4. %>@>H85 >BFK A?>A>1=K ?><>GL A2>8< 4>G5@O< =0CG8BLAO 2708<>459AB2>20BL A ?@54AB028B5;O<8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> ?>;0 045:20B=> A8BC0F88 (Lamb, 1979, Parke, 1981). >2>@OB: <0BL CG 8B @515=:0 68BL 2 4><5, >B5F ?><>305B 5<C 2K9B8 2 <8@, 4@C38<8 A;>20<8, <0BL >B25BAB25==0 70 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 ?@82O