ࡱ> n p Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m #`bjbjmm4:r^T*8b,*O[\(2Z4Z4Z4Z4Z4Z4Z$\hm^TXZXZ [ R R R2/2Z R2Z R R R @oM RYd[0O[ R^P$^ R R^Y0 RXZXZQXO[***d****** 0E0@>2 . . A8E>B5@0?8O =52@>7>2 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2.  3;02;5=85  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl1.shtm" ;020 1. 0B>35=5B8G5A:85 >1>A=>20=8O ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl2.shtm" ;020 2. !5<LO :0: ?0B>35=5B8G5A:8 >1CA;>2;820NI89 D0:B>@ =52@>7>2 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl2.shtm" 1A;54>20=85 A5<L8 45B59 A =52@>70<8.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl3.shtm" @0@>48B5;LA:0O A5<LO 8 55 2;8O=85 =0 @>48B5;LA:CN A5<LN.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl4.shtm"  0728B85 45B59 4> 701>;520=8O =52@>7><.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl5.shtm" 8G=>ABL @>48B5?59.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl6.shtm" B=>H5=8O 2 A5<L5.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl7.shtm" A>15==>AB8 2>A?8B0=8O.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl8.shtm" 0B>35=57 =52@>7>2 C 45B59.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl9.shtm" ;020 3. A=>2=K5 =0?@02;5=8O 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl9.shtm" 17>@ >B5G5AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@K.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl10.shtm" 17>@ 70@C156=>9 ;8B5@0BC@K.   HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl11.shtm" ;020 4. !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl12.shtm" ;020 5. =48284C0;L=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl12.shtm"  07JOA=ONI0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl13.shtm" @8<5=5=85 ?A8E>B5@0?88 87>1@078B5;L=>3> B2>@G5AB20.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl14.shtm" 3@>20O B5@0?8O.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl15.shtm" ;020 6. =CH5=85 8 38?=>7.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl15.shtm" =CH5=85 =0O2C.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl16.shtm" 8?=>B5@0?8O.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl17.shtm" ;020 7. @C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl18.shtm" 0:;NG5=85.   HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl19.shtm" 8B5@0BC@0.  >=>3@0D8O "A8E>B5@0?8O =52@>7>2 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2" - MB> ?>4@>1=>5 >?8A0=85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E <5B>4>2 ;5G5=8O =52@>7>2, @01>BK A 45BL<8 8 ?>4@>AB:0<8, A=0165==>5 B5>@5B8G5A:8< >17>@>< 8 8;;NAB@0B82=K<8 ?@8<5@0<8 87 ?@0:B8:8 02B>@0. ;O ?A8E>;>3>2, ?A8E80B@>2, =52@>?0B>;>3>2, ABC45=B>2 C:070==KE A?5F80;L=>AB59 8 2A5E 8=B5@5ACNI8EAO 40==>9 ?@>1;5<0B8:>9. ;020 1. 0B>35=5B8G5A:85 >1>A=>20=8O ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2. A8E>B5@0?8O =52@>7>2 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 2:;NG05B 4803=>AB8:C 2708<>A2O70==KE =52@>B8G5A:8E 8 ;8G=>AB=KE =0@CH5=89 C 2A5E G;5=>2 A5<L8 8 A>>B25BAB2CNICN ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN @01>BC A 1>;L=K< @515=:>< 8 53> =5?>A@54AB25==K< >:@C65=85<. >MB><C 2 >17>@5 ;8B5@0BC@K <K >AB0=>28<AO 2=0G0;5 =0 >A=>2>?>;030NI8E 4;O >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2>?@>A0E ?0B>35=570 =52@>7>2 2 ?>=8<0=88 . . OA8I520 8 53> H:>;K. B?@02=>9 B>G:>9 ?0B>35=570 =52@>70 O2;O5BAO @50:F8O ;8G=>AB8 =0 ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI85 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 687=8.  MB>9 A2O78 ?@54AB02;O5B 8=B5@5A <=5=85 . . 0;8=A:>3>, :>B>@K9 5I5 2 :>=F5 ?@>H;>3> 25:0 ?8A0;, GB> C :064>3> G5;>25:0 5ABL A2>9 :@C3 8459 8 GC2AB2>20=89, 2 :>B>@KE ?@58<CI5AB25==> ;53:> 2K7K20NBAO 4CH52=K5 2>;=5=8O [0;8=A:89 . ., 1958]. . . 5EB5@52 (1909) B0:65 AG8B0; ?0B>35==K< D0:B>@>< =5 B>;L:> 687=5==K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 A0<8 ?> A515, => 8 2>A?@8OB85 8 >B=>H5=85 : =8< 1>;L=>3>, >1CA;>2;5==K5 53> 8=48284C0;L=>ABLN 8 ?@>H;K< 687=5==K< >?KB><. . Kretschmer (1927) >B=>A8; ?5@56820=8O, A?>A>1=K5 2K7K20BL E0@0:B5@=K5 4;O ;8G=>AB8 @50:F88, : :;NG52K< 8 >B<5G0;, GB> E0@0:B5@ 8 :;NG52>5 ?5@56820=85 ?>4E>4OB 4@C3 : 4@C3C, :0: :;NG : 70<:C. 0B>35=5B8G5A:0O :>=F5?F8O =52@>7>2 . . OA8I520 >A=>20=0 =0 ?>=8<0=88 ;8G=>AB8 :0: A8AB5<K >B=>H5=89. ;O =52@>70 :0: ?A8E>35==>9 1>;57=8 ;8G=>AB8 8AE>4=K< 8 >?@545;ONI8< O2;O5BAO =0@CH5=85 >B=>H5=89, 87 :>B>@>3> 2KB5:0NB =0@CH5=85 ?5@5@01>B:8 8 @0AAB@>9AB2> ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, :0: ;8G=>ABL ?5@5@010BK205B 8;8 ?5@568205B 459AB28B5;L=>ABL. >A:>;L:C ?0B>35==>ABL 2=5H=8E >1AB>OB5;LAB2 687=8 ?@>O2;O5BAO ;8HL 2 A>G5B0=88 A A>>B25BAB2CNI8< 7=0G8<K< >B=>H5=85< : =8<, B> 8<55B 7=0G5=85 =5 AB>;L:> >1J5:B82=0O B@C4=>ABL ?@>1;5<K, A:>;L:> AC1J5:B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 : =59. ?@545;ONICN @>;L 2 ?0B>35=575 =52@>70 83@05B ?A8E>;>38G5A:89, B. 5. 2=CB@5==89, :>=D;8:B, :>B>@K9 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5A>2<5AB8<>ABL, AB>;:=>25=85 ?@>B82>@5G82KE >B=>H5=89 ;8G=>AB8. @8ACI85 :>=D;8:BC ?5@56820=8O AB0=>2OBAO 8AB>G=8:0<8 701>;520=8O ;8HL 2 B>< A;CG05, :>340 70=8<0NB F5=B@0;L=>5 <5AB> 2 A8AB5<5 >B=>H5=89 ;8G=>AB8 8 :>340 :>=D;8:B =5 <>65B 1KBL ?5@5@01>B0= B0:, GB>1K 8AG57;> ?0B>35==>5 =0?@O65=85 8 1K; =0945= @0F8>=0;L=K9, ?@>4C:B82=K9 2KE>4 87 2>7=8:H53> ?>;>65=8O [OA8I52 . ., 1934, 1939, 1960].  @01>B0E CG5=8:>2 . . OA8I520, . . 0G5?8F:>3>, . . O35@, . . 0@20A0@A:>3>, .. /. "C?8F8=0 8 4@. @0A:@K205BAO 480;5:B8G5A:>5 548=AB2> >1J5:B82=KE 8 AC1J5:B82=KE D0:B>@>2 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8 @0728B8O =52@>B8G5A:>3> :>=D;8:B0. A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:8< ?>78F8O<, ?>8A:C "2KB5A=5==KE" 8=AB8=:B82=KE 2;5G5=89 :0: >A=>2K :>=D;8:B0 ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5BAO 53> 0=0;87 A ?>78F89 ?A8E>;>388 >B=>H5=89. >4G5@:820NBAO E@>=8G5A:89 E0@0:B5@ M<>F8>=0;L=>3> AB@5AA0 C 1>;L=KE A =52@>70<8 8 =0;8G85 C =8E =87:>9 AB@5AA>2>9 B>;5@0=B=>AB8 2A;54AB285 =0@CH5=89 >1I59 @50:B82=>AB8 [C10G52 .. . 8 4@., 1976]. !>2<5AB=0O @>;L ?A8E>35==KE 8 A><0B>35==KE D0:B>@>2 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 =52@>7>2 2A5AB>@>==5 @0A:@KB0 . . O35@ (1976). A>1>5 <5AB> A@548 AB@5AA>2KE D0:B>@>2 70=8<05B AB@0E, >1CA;>2;5==K9 C3@>7>9 A<5@B8 4;O 1>;L=>3> 8 1;87:8E 5<C ;8F 8;8 >?0A5=8O<8 CB@0B8BL 2;0ABL =04 A2>8<8 <KA;O<8 8 "?>B5@OBL @0AAC4>:" [5<G8= ". ., 1965]. !C1:;8=8G5A:>5 @5038@>20=85 ?@8 =52@>75 ?@54AB02;O5B A2>5>1@07=CN "70I8B=CN" ?5@5AB@>9:C, =0?@02;5==CN =0 =59B@0;870F8N ?0B>35==>3> 459AB28O ?A8E8G5A:>9 B@02<K [0AA8= $. . 8 4@., 1979]. !0< =52@>7 =5@54:> 2K?>;=O5B DC=:F8N ?0B>;>38G5A:>3> ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O : AC1J5:B82=> =5?@85<;5<K< CA;>28O< <8:@>A@54K [C10G52 .. ., 818E !. !., 1977].  ?0B>D878>;>38G5A:>< 0A?5:B5 =52@>7>2 =5?@5E>4OI55 7=0G5=85 8<5NB CAB0=>2;5==K5 . . 02;>2K< 70:>=><5@=>AB8 ?5@5=0?@O65=8O =5@2=KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 8E "AH81:8", ?>O2;5=8O 70AB>9=KE >G03>2 8 D07>2KE A>AB>O=89. @8 =52@>70E 87<5=O5BAO A>AB>O=85 A83=0;L=KE A8AB5< [>;L?5@B . ., 1972], @0AAB@0820NBAO DC=:F88 8=B53@0B82=KE A8AB5< <>730, A@548 :>B>@KE, =0@O4C A :>@>9 1>;LH8E ?>;CH0@89 3>;>2=>3> <>730, ACI5AB25==0O @>;L >B2>48BAO ;8<18:>-@5B8:C;O@=><C :><?;5:AC [0@20A0@A:89 . ., 1980].  ?>A;54=55 4204F0B8;5B85 2>7@>A;> 2=8<0=85 : ?@>1;5<0< A5<L8.  A>F8>;>388 8 A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >=0 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: >A=>20==0O =0 1@0:5 8 @>4AB25 <0;0O 3@C??0 [%0@G52 . ., 1961], >B=>H5=8O 2 :>B>@>9 ACI5AB25==K< >1@07>< A:07K20NBAO =0 ?A8E8G5A:>< 74>@>2L5 55 G;5=>2 [/=:>20 3. ., 1970, 1979; 02@8;>20 . ., 1971; >;>4 !. ., 1971; $09=1C@3 3., 1972; 0A8;L520 -. ., 1975; '5G>B . ., 1976; 1>7>2 . ., 1979]. =>38<8 02B>@0<8 4>:070=> >B@8F0B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 4;8B5;L=>9 ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI59 A8BC0F88 2 A5<L5 =0 D>@<8@>20=85 E0@0:B5@0 8 ;8G=>AB8 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 [8=48:8= . /., 1961; 5@18:>2 . ., 1962; N18= . ., 1966; "@8D>=>2 . ., 1967; >20;52 . ., 1968; 05@N=0A 3. ., 1968; ;5:A0=4@>2 . ., 1974; -945<8;;5@ -. ., 1973; 8G:> . ., 1977].  A2O78 A MB8< ?>4G5@:8205BAO =51;03>?@8OB=0O @>;L =5?>;=>9 A5<L8 [A8?>20 . ., 1932; #H0:>2 . ., 1966], 0 B0:65 0;:>3>;87<0 @>48B5;59 [!B@>3>=>2 .. ., 0?0=0475 . ., 1978]. @8 =52@>70E A5<59=>-1KB>2K5 ?0B>35==K5 A8BC0F88 O2;ONBAO ?@5>1;040NI8<8 [OA8I52 . ., 0@20A0@A:89 . ., 1967]. 80% ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI8E A8BC0F89, 254CI8E : @0728B8N MB>3> 701>;520=8O, A2O70=K A E@>=8G5A:8<8 8 =5@07@5H8<K<8 :>=D;8:B=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8 <564C G;5=0<8 A5<L8 [O35@ . ., 1973].  >A=>25 =52@>B8G5A:8E :>=D;8:B>2, =>AOI8E AC1J5:B82=K9 E0@0:B5@, ;568B AB@5<;5=85 AC?@C3>2 : =5@50;8AB8G5A:8< F5;O< 8 >4=>AB>@>==5<C 4><8=8@>20=8N, >BACBAB285 040?B0F88 : =>2K< A5<59=K< @>;O< 2> 2@5<O 8 ?>A;5 ":@878A=KE ?5@8>4>2" 2 687=8 A5<L8 [O35@ . ., 8H8=0 ". ., 1976]. K45;ONBAO B@8 B8?0 AC?@C65A:8E 2708<>>B=>H5=89 ?@8 =52@>75 >4=>3> 8;8 >1>8E AC?@C3>2: A>?5@=8G5AB2>, ?A524>A>B@C4=8G5AB2> 8 87>;OF8O [8H8=0 ". ., 1978]. 4=8 8AA;54>20B5;8 >B<5G0NB AE>4AB2> ;8G=>AB=KE ?@>D8;59 AC?@C3>2 :0: D0:B>@, ?>;>68B5;L=> 2;8ONI89 =0 8E A>2<5AB8<>ABL [>E8=0 . ., 1978; 1>7>2 . ., 1979], 4@C385 - =0E>4OB 1>;LH5 @07;8G89 2 ;8G=>AB=KE >F5=:0E C AC?@C3>2 2 ?@>G=KE 1@0:0E, G5< 2 =5?@>G=KE [$54>B>20 . $., $8;8??>20 . ., 1975].  @0==5< 0=0<=575 1>;L=KE =52@>7>< 27@>A;KE G0AB> 2KO2;ONBAO =0@CH5==K5 >B=>H5=8O C @>48B5;59, 38?5@>?5:0, >3@0=8G5=8O, ?@82>4OI85 : @0728B8N =5A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 2 @5H5=8OE 8 =5C25@5==>AB8 2 A515 [>=>=GC: . ., 1976], GB> A>3;0AC5BAO A =0H8<8 40==K<8 [0E0@>2 . ., 1972]. O4 8AA;54>20=89 =0?@02;5= =0 87CG5=85 ;8G=>AB=KE >A>15==>AB59 1>;L=KE =52@>70<8. > 40==K< >?@>A=8:0 975=:0, CAB0=>2;5= 8=B@>25@B8@>20==K8 B8? @5038@>20=8O 2 A2O78 A 4;8B5;L=>ABLN 701>;520=8O C 27@>A;KE [#;LO=>20 . ., 1976]; ?8: ?> H:0;5 "45?@5AA8O" 2 <=>3>?@>D8;L=>< ;8G=>AB=>< >?@>A=8:5 MMPI [0@0=40H520 -. ., C@75=:> . ., 1972; C10G52 .. . 8 4@., 1976]; B@52>6=>ABL, ?> 40==K< B5<0B8G5A:>3> 0??5@F5?F8>==>3> B5AB0 - "" [8;LOH520 . ., 1967]; ?@5>1;040=85, ?> >?@>A=8:C >75=F25930, M:AB@0?C=8B82=>3> =0?@02;5=8O D@CAB@0F8>==KE @50:F89 ?@8 <5=LH59 G0AB>B5 8<?C=8B82=KE 8 4><8=8@>20=8O B8?0 @50:F89 "A D8:A0F859 =0 C4>2;5B2>@5=88 ?>B@51=>AB59" ["0@01@8=0 . ., 1973], =081>;LH0O AB5?5=L =0@CH5==KE >B=>H5=89 2 3@0D0E "A0<>>F5=:0", "687=5==K5 F5;8" 8 ">B=>H5=85 : @>4=K<" ?> <5B>48:5 "=570:>=G5==K5 ?@54;>65=8O" [8=:H=0 . ., 1971]; ?>=865=85 =525@10;L=>9 AB>@>=K 8=B5;;5:B0 ?> A@02=5=8N A 25@10;L=>9 [8;LOH520 . ., 1969]. 52@>7K C 45B59, :0: 8 C 27@>A;KE, O2;ONBAO =081>;55 G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI59AO D>@<>9 =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:>9 ?0B>;>388 [>;53>20 . ., 1971]. > <=5=8N !. . 5154520 (1979), @0A?@>AB@0=5==>ABL =52@>7>2 C 45B59 AB0B8AB8G5A:8 4>AB>25@=> ?@52KH05B @0A?@>AB@0=5==>ABL =5?@>F5AAC0;L=KE =52@>7>?>4>1=KE A8=4@><>2. 8>;>38G5A:8<8 ?@54?>AK;:0<8 =52@>7>2 C 45B59 O2;ONBAO ?>=865=85 18>B>=CA0 >@30=87<0, A><0B8G5A:0O >BO3>I5==>ABL [A8?>20 . ., 1932; !:0=028 . ., 1934], =52@>?0B8O [LO:>20 . ., 1929], 2 >A=>25 :>B>@>9 . . 8@8G5=:> 8 . ". C@10 (1976) =0E>4OB DC=:F8>=0;L=CN =54>AB0B>G=>ABL 2535B0B82=>9 @53C;OF88.  @01>B0E !. . 5154520 CAB0=>2;5=0 AB0B8AB8G5A:8 4>AB>25@=0O A2O7L =52@>?0B88 A =52@>70<8. # 45B59 A 2@>645==>9 8 ?@8>1@5B5==>9 D878G5A:>9 =5?>;=>F5==>ABLN G0AB> >1=0@C6820NBAO ?A8E>35==K5 @50:F88 8 ?0B>;>38G5A:85 87<5=5=8O E0@0:B5@0 [5@HB59= . ., @09=8=0 . /., 1933] 8;8 ?0B>;>38G5A:85 @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8 [!8<5>= ". ., 1934; ;59 . ., 1940; >20;52 . ., 1968]. 52@>B8G5A:85 @50:F88 <>3CB B0:65 2>7=8:0BL =0 D>=5 7045@6:8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O [>;>20=L . ., 1976] 8 @5784C0;L=>9 F5@51@0;L=>9 >@30=8G5A:>9 =54>AB0B>G=>AB8 [C;0E>20 . . 8 4@., 1976].  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 2>7@0AB05B 8=B5@5A : ?@>1;5<0< =0@CH5=8O A=0 ?@8 =52@>70E C 45B59. !CI5AB2C5B <=5=85, GB> MB8 701>;520=8O 2A5340 A>?@>2>640NBAO @0AAB@>9AB20<8 A=0 [>;L18= . &., 1979]. >7@0AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 2>7=8:=>25=8O =52@>7>2 C 45B59 87CG5=K . . !CE0@52>9 8 . !. .A528G (1965), :>B>@K5 >B<5G0NB 1>;55 8=B5=A82=CN @50:F8N 45B59 4> 3 ;5B =0 ?5@5<5=C >1AB0=>2:8 8 =>2K5, =5>1KG=K5 @074@068B5;8, 0 ?>A;5 3 ;5B - =0 B@C4=K5 687=5==K5 A8BC0F88. ". . !8<5>=, . . >45;L 8 . . 0;L?5@8= (1935) C:07K20NB =0 =0@0AB0=85 A 2>7@0AB>< :>=D;8:B>2 2=CB@5==53> ?>@O4:0, >1CA;>2;5==KE @0728B85< A0<>>F5=:8, B@51>20B5;L=>AB8 : A515 8 A?>A>1=>AB8 : 8=B@0?A8E8G5A:>9 ?5@5@01>B:5. -B8 65 02B>@K @0AA<0B@820NB =52@>B8G5A:85 @50:F88 2 A2O78 A @>645=85< 2B>@>3> @515=:0 2 A5<L5.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 1>;LH>5 2=8<0=85 2>7@0AB=>9 48=0<8:5 =52@>7>2 C45;ONB . . >20;52 (1969), . . 0:>A8=0 (1970) 8 . . #H0:>2 (1973). 07@01>B0==K5 . . >20;52K< (1969) ?@8=F8?K M2>;NF8>==>-48=0<8G5A:>3> ?>4E>40 2 45BA:>9 ?A8E80B@88 >B=>AOBAO 8 : ?@>1;5<5 =52@>7>2. 7 ?@5<>@184=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: 45B59 A =52@>70<8 . . OA8I52 (1960) 2K45;O5B B5, :>B>@K5 70B@C4=ONB 1;03>?>;CG=>5 @07@5H5=85 B@02<8@CNI59 A8BC0F88.  =8< >= >B=>A8B ?5@525A AC1J5:B82=>3> 8 0DD5:B82=>3> =04 >1J5:B82=K< 8 ;>38G5A:8< A >B=>AOI8<8AO AN40 G5@B0<8 8<?C;LA82=>AB8, M3>F5=B@87<0, C?@O<AB20, A5=78B82=>AB8 8 B. 4., 0 B0:65 ?5@525A 0DD5:B82=>9 8=5@B=>AB8 =04 0DD5:B82=>9 ?;0AB8G=>ABLN, A>740NI89 2O7:85 4><8=0=BK 1>;57=5==KE ?5@56820=89. . . A8?>20 (1932), . . 5@HB59= 8 . /. @09=8=0 (1933) >A>1>5 7=0G5=85 ?@840NB 8=B@>25@B8@>20==><C B8?C @5038@>20=8O. . . !CE0@520 8 . !. .A528G (1965) ?>4G5@:820NB 2?5G0B;8B5;L=>ABL, 2>71C48<>ABL, ?C3;82>ABL. . . 0@1C7>2K< CB>G=5=> ?>=OB85 ?@5=52@>B8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:>3> @048:0;0, >1@07CNI53> >A=>2C =52@>B8G5A:>3> @5038@>20=8O [0@1C7>2 . . 8 4@., 1977]. <5AB5 A B5< . . OA8I52 (I960) >B<5G05B, GB> =52@>7 <>65B 2>7=8:=CBL 8 157 :0:>3>-;81> ?@54@0A?>;>65=8O. "0:>3> 65 <=5=8O ?@845@6820NBAO . . (>30<, . . 8?30@B, . . 8@>2A:89 (1970). 0 =0H 273;O4, 2A5 MB8 B>G:8 7@5=8O 8<5NB 8725AB=>5 >1>A=>20=85.  F5;>< =52@>7 1>;55 =>7>;>38G5A:8 A?5F8D8G5= ?@8 <5=LH5< C45;L=>< 25A5 ?@54@0A?>;>65=8O 8 1>;LH5< C45;L=>< 25A5 ?A8E>35==KE D0:B>@>2. AB@0O ?A8E8G5A:0O B@02<0 2 2845 8A?C30, A8;L=>3> ?>B@OA5=8O AG8B05BAO =5<0;>206=K< D0:B>@>< 2 ?@>8AE>645=88 =52@>7>2 [!8<-A>= ". ., 1934; ;59 . ., 1940].  =0H8E =01;N45=8OE >=0 >:07K20;0 B5< 1>;LH55 ?0B>35==>5 459AB285, G5< <5=55 ?@5<>@184=> 1K;> 2K@065=> E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:>5 A2>5>1@0785 1>;L=KE. >A;54=55, B0:8< >1@07><, 2 A;CG05 >AB@>9 ?A8E>B@02<K, 2 >B;8G85 >B E@>=8G5A:>9, >ACI5AB2;O;> @>;L >?@545;5==>3> 70I8B=>3> D0:B>@0. >@074> G0I5 ?@>8AE>645=85 =52@>7>2 C 45B59 >1CA;>2;5=> 459AB285< E@>=8G5A:8E ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI8E D0:B>@>2, ?@5645 2A53> =0@CH5==KE A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 8 =5?@028;L=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 2 2845 38?5@>?5:8 8 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 [5EB5@52 . ., 1909; A8?>20 . ., 1932; OA8I52 . ., 1960; 82>20@>20 . ., 1962; /:>2;520 . ., 0G5?8F:89 . ., 1961; >18:>20 . ., 1971; 0E0@>2 . ., 1972]. 0 >A=>25 AB0B8AB8G5A:>3> 0=0;870 !. . 515452 @0A?@545;8; 7=0G5=85 ?0B>35==KE D0:B>@>2 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 =52@>7>2 C 45B59 A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 1) E@>=8G5A:0O ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI0O A5<59=0O A8BC0F8O; 2) 45D5:BK 2>A?8B0=8O; 3) H:>;L=K5 :>=D;8:BK; 4) >AB@0O ?A8E8G5A:0O B@02<0; 5) 1KB>2>5 ?LO=AB2> 8 0;:>3>;87< @>48B5;59. . . >7;>2 (1978) ?>:070; 2 =52@>B8G5A:8E A5<LOE 4065 ?@8 2=5H=5< 1;03>?>;CG88 =0;8G85 B5E 8;8 8=KE :>=D;8:B>2.  ?0B>35=575 =52@>7>2 C 45B59 >?@545;5==CN @>;L 83@0NB 8=4C:F8>==K5 <5E0=87<K ?>O2;5=8O =5:>B>@KE =52@>B8G5A:8E A8<?B><>2, :>340 @515=>: ?>2KH5==> 2>A?@88<G82 : 0DD5:B82=><C A>AB>O=8N >:@C60NI8E 53> ;8F [>38E5A . ., 1929]. . . @:8= (1968) C:07K205B, GB> "?@8<5@ >:@C60NI8E 83@05B ?5@25=AB2CNICN @>;L =5 B>;L:> 2 B>< A<KA;5, GB> 27@>A;K5 2=5H=8<8 ?@>O2;5=8O<8 AB@0E0, G0AB> A>25@H5==> 15AA<KA;5==>3>, 70@060NB 45B59, =>, GB> >G5=L 206=> ?>4G5@:=CBL, A2>8< ?0=8G5A:8< ?>2545=85< ?> <0;59H5<C ?>2>4C, 3@>7OI5<C, ?> 8E <=5=8N, >?0A=>ABLN @515=:C, A>740NB 2 @515=:5 A>AB>O=85 =0?@O65==>9 B@52>38 8 AB@0E0"1. 0;55 >= ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> @0==55 70@>645=85 AB@0E0 8 53> ?>A;54CNI55 =0@0AB0=85 <>3CB A;C68BL =5 B>;L:> B>@<>7>< 4;O =>@<0;L=>3> @0728B8O, => 8 B>;G:>< : A5@L57=K< 8 AB>9:8< 1>;57=5==K< C:;>=5=8O<. @8 =045;5=88 @074@068B5;59, 84CI8E >B 27@>A;KE, CA;>2=>-@5D;5:B>@=K< ?0B>35==K< 7=0G5=85< MB8 @074@068B5;8 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO @515=:>< :0: A83=0;K >?0A=>AB8 [$09=15@3 !. ., 1961]. =0G5 3>2>@O, =52@>B8G5A:85 @50:F88 @072820NBAO 2 >B25B =5 AB>;L:> =0 A0<8 @074@068B5;8, A:>;L:> =0 A?>A>1 @5038@>20=8O 27@>A;KE =0 =8E [ >6=>2 . ., @0?:8= . 3., 1974].  1 @:8= . . 515=>: 2 4>H:>;L=K5 3>4K. ., 1968, A. 129.  =>3> 2=8<0=8O C45;O5BAO ?@>1;5<0< =52@>B870F88 548=AB25==>3> @515=:0 2 A5<L5 [/:>2;520 . ., 1958; 5?C:0;L= . ., 1976; 0@1C7>2 . ., 1978]. . !. 0:0@5=:> (1955) AG8B0;, GB> B>;L:> 2 A5<L5, 345 5ABL =5A:>;L:> 45B59, @>48B5;LA:0O 701>B0 <>65B 8<5BL =>@<0;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. # 548=AB25==KE 45B59 G0AB> 8<5NB <5AB> =0@CH5=8O 040?B0F88 8 =52@>B8G5A:85 @50:F88 2 >B25B =0 ?><5I5=85 2 OA;8 8 45BA:89 A04 [;59 . ., 1940; >;C1520 . . 8 4@., 1974]. > 2A5E A;CG0OE =51;03>?@8OB=>5 2;8O=85 =0 D>@<8@>20=85 E0@0:B5@0 @515=:0 >:07K205B @57:>5 @0AE>645=85 B@51>20=89 @>48B5;59, 254CI8E : @0728B8N C =53> G@57<5@=>9 >AB>@>6=>AB8, 8 B@51>20=89 45BA:>3> :>;;5:B820, :>B>@K9 F5=8B A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL, 0:B82=>ABL, A<5;>ABL. -B> ?@>B82>@5G85 A>7405B :>=D;8:B=>5 A>AB>O=85 8 ?@54@0A?>;0305B : 2>7=8:=>25=8N =52@>B8G5A:8E @50:F89 [!CE0@520 . ., 1959]. . . OA8I52 (1960), >?@545;OO 8AB>G=8:8 =52@>70 2 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 2 C7:> A5<59=>9 A8BC0F88, :>=:@5B878@C5B MB> ?0B>35==>9 @>;LN A5<59=KE :>=D;8:B>2, ?@>B82>@5G82>ABLN >B=>H5=89 @>48B5;59 : @515=:C. $>@<8@CNI89AO 2 MB8E CA;>28OE A?>A>1 ?5@5@01>B:8 687=5==KE B@C4=>AB59 405B >A=>20=8O 3>2>@8BL > 7045@6:5 2>;52>3> @0728B8O 8 2>7=8:=>25=88 0DD5:B82=>-38?>1C;8G5A:>3> 8 AC1J5:B82=>-8@@50;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0 ?5@5@01>B:8 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. ;O =52@>70 8AE>4=K< 8 >?@545;ONI8< O2;O5BAO =0@CH5=85 A8AB5<K >B=>H5=89 (8;8 ?@54>B=>H5=89, ?> . . OA8I52C), :>B>@>5 2>7=8:05B 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?@>B82>@5G89 <564C B5=45=F8O<8 8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 ;8G=>AB8 8 B@51>20=8O<8 8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. 5C40G=>, =5@0F8>=0;L=> 8 =5?@>4C:B82=> @07@5H05<>5 ?@>B82>@5G85 <564C ;8G=>ABLN 8 7=0G8<K<8 4;O =55 AB>@>=0<8 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 2K7K205B 1>;57=5==> BO3>AB=K5 ?5@56820=8O, :>B>@K5 ?@82>4OB : >1@07>20=8N 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0 - AB>;:=>25=8O 2 A>7=0=88 @515=:0 ?@>B82>?>;>6=> >:@0H5==KE 0DD5:B82=KE >B=>H5=89 : B><C 8;8 8=><C 1;87:><C ;8FC 8;8 : A>7402H59AO A8BC0F88. >=D;8:B 70=8<05B F5=B@0;L=>5 <5AB> 2 687=8 @515=:0, >:07K205BAO 4;O =53> =5@07@5H8<K< 8, 70BO3820OAL, A>7405B 0DD5:B82=>5 =0?@O65=85, :>B>@>5, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, >1>AB@O5B ?@>B82>@5G8O, CA8;8205B B@C4=>AB8, ?>2KH05B =5CAB>9G82>ABL 8 2>71C48<>ABL, C3;C1;O5B 8 1>;57=5==> D8:A8@C5B ?5@56820=8O, A=8605B ?@>4C:B82=>ABL 8 A0<>:>=B@>;L, 457>@30=87C5B 2>;52>5 C?@02;5=85 ;8G=>AB8 2 F5;><. 1J5:B82=>5 8 ;>38G5A:>5 2 <KH;5=88 CABC?05B <5AB> AC1J5:B82=><C 8 A8<2>;8G5A:><C. A8E8G5A:0O 8 D878>;>38G5A:0O 457>@30=870F8O ;8G=>AB8, ?@>8AE>4OI0O ?>4 2;8O=85< ?A8E>35==KE D0:B>@>2, O2;O5BAO >A=>2>9 =52@>70. >MB><C 7040G0 0=0;870 @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8 =52@>B8:0 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K 2KOA=8BL, :0: 2 ?@>F5AA5 @>AB0 C @515=:0 A:;04K20NBAO 1>;57=5==K5 >B=>H5=8O, 70@>6405BAO :>=D;8:B, A>7405BAO =0?@O65=85, D>@<8@C5BAO =52@>B8G5A:0O, B. 5. 8=48284C0;8AB8G5A:0O, 8@@0F8>=0;L=0O, AC1J5:B82=0O CAB0=>2:0, 3@>7OI0O 27@K2>< - ?0B>;>38G5A:>9 :0@B8=>9 =52@>70. =0G5=85 2 ?A8E>35=575 =52@>7>2 :>=D;8:B0 =0 ?>G25 ;8G=KE ?@82O70==>AB59 >B<5G0NB ". . !8<5>= (1934) 8 . . ;59 (1940). . . A8?>20 (1932) AG8B05B :;NG52K< ?5@56820=85< C 45B59 ?@8 MB>< 701>;520=88 CO72;5=85 GC2AB20 A>1AB25==>9 ;8G=>AB8, 0 E0@0:B5@ =52@>B8G5A:8E @50:F89 >?@545;O5B :0: 70I8B=K9 8 8=D0=B8;L=K9. . . ;59 (1940) ?>4G5@:8205B ?0B>35==CN @>;L "<5AB0 =08<5=LH53> A>?@>B82;5=8O" 8 =0ABC?0NICN 2 @57C;LB0B5 =52@>70 4578=B53@0F8N ;8G=>AB8. > . . 8;O@>2A:><C (1938), ACI=>ABL =52@>70 70:;NG05BAO 2 =5A>>B25BAB288 <564C 2>7<>6=>ABO<8, =0E>4OI8<8AO 2 @0A?>@O65=88 ;8G=>AB8, 8 B5<8 >1O70==>ABO<8, :>B>@K5 ?@>8AB5:0NB 87 =0;8G8O >?@545;5==KE A>F80;L=KE >B=>H5=89. ;O 53> 2>7=8:=>25=8O =5>1E>48<> A>G5B0=85 3 725=L52 ?A8E8G5A:>9 B@02<K, >A>1>3> A:;040 ;8G=>AB8 8 55 =52@>B8G5A:>3> @0728B8O ?>4 2;8O=85< B@02<K. 0: 8 . . OA8I52, . . 8;O@>2A:89 (1934) AG8B05B F5=B@0;L=K< 2 35=575 =52@>70 =0@CH5=85 :>=B0:B>2 A >:@C60NI8<8, 0 A0<> 701>;520=85 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 :><?5=A8@>20==K9 A@K2 ;8G=>AB8 ?@8 55 @0728B88 8 ?>?KB:0E CB25@645=8O 2 =5:>B>@KE ?>78F8OE. 7 4@C38E :>=F5?F89 >A=>2=>3> ?0B>35==>3> :>=D;8:B0 A;54C5B >B<5B8BL 273;O4 . . 5EB5@520 8 . /. >;0=B (1929) =0 =52@>7 :0: =0 @57C;LB0B ?@>B82>@5G89 <564C D8;>- 8 >=B>35=5B8G5A:8 >1CA;>2;5==K< B8?>< @5038@>20=8O 8 :>=:@5B=K<8 A@54>2K<8 CA;>28O<8. . . OA8I52 (1973) >B<5B8;, GB> =52@>B8G5A:85 A>AB>O=8O B@52>38 8 AB@0E0, B@52>6=>9 <=8B5;L=>AB8, >184G82>AB8 8 27@K2G0B>AB8, @50;87COAL 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 D>@<5, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B5<?5@0<5=B0, 2K7K20NB @50:F88 M<>B82=>3> E0@0:B5@0, ?5@5E>4OI85 2 A>AB>O=85 =52@>70 8 C3;C1;ONI85AO ?@8 =5?>=8<0=88 A> AB>@>=K >:@C60NI8E. . . 0@1C7>2K< 8 4@. (1977) 2 :0G5AB25 254CI53> MB8>?0B>35=5B8G5A:>3> D0:B>@0 ?@8 =52@>70E C 45B59 2K45;5=K 87<5=5=8O 2@>645==KE B8?>2 @5038@>20=8O =0 =52@>B8G5A:85, ?@>8AE>4OI85 ?>4 2>7459AB285< =51;03>?@8OB=KE 18>A>F80;L=KE D0:B>@>2. 54CI55 A>45@60=85 ?0B>35==>3> :>=D;8:B0 ?@8 =52@>70E >?@545;O5BAO :0: =5A>>B25BAB285 2>A?8B0=8O 2>7<>6=>ABO< @0728B8O @515=:0, >?KBC AB0=>2;5=8O 53> "O" [0E0@>2 . ., 1972].  >A=>25 MB>3> ?0B>35==>3> :>=D;8:B0 ;568B :>=D;8:B <564C "O" 8 "<K", :>340 @515=>: E>G5B, => =5 <>65B ?> @07=K< ?@8G8=0< 2>9B8 2 @5D5@5=B=CN 3@C??C "<K" (2=0G0;5 MB> A5<LO, 70B5< 3@C??0 A25@AB=8:>2). 1CA;>2;5==>5 MB8< GC2AB2> >1>A>1;5==>AB8 O2;O5BAO ?@54?>AK;:>9 4;O @0728B8O =52@>B8G5A:>3> 8=48284C0;87<0 8 =0@0AB0NI53> ?@>F5AA0 >BGC645=8O "O" >B "<K" A ?>AB5?5==K< ?@52@0I5=85< ?>A;54=53> 2 :0B53>@8N ">=8" 2 D>@<5 ?5@568205<>3> GC2AB20 =5?@8=OB8O (=5?@8G0AB=>AB8) 8 =5?>=8<0=8O (=5?@87=0=8O). -B> ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85 =5 4>AB8305B B0:>9 AB5?5=8, :0:0O 1K205B ?@8 ?A8E>?0B8G5A:8E @0728B8OE ;8G=>AB8, 0 =>A8B 2=CB@5==89, 1>;LH59 G0ABLN =5>A>7=0==K9 E0@0:B5@ 8 A>?@>2>6405BAO >ICI5=85< =55AB5AB25==>AB8, GC2AB2>< 15A?>:>9AB20, 28=K 8 AB@0E0, :>340 ?>=OB85 ">=8" 0AA>F88@C5BAO A> 2A5< =>2K<, =58725AB=K< 8;8 B@02<8@CNI8< >?KB><, 2K@0605<K< AB@0E>< 87<5=5=8O "O". "0:8< >1@07><, ?@54AB02;5==K9 ?0B>35=57 =52@>7>2 C 45B59 ?>:07K205B 53> >1I85 AB>@>=K :0: ?@>F5AA0 ?A8E>35==>3> 701>;520=8O D>@<8@CNI59AO ;8G=>AB8. 081>;55 ?>;=> ?0B>35=57 @0AA<>B@5= ?@8 =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 [!:0=028 . ., 1934; /:>2;520 . ., 1958; A0B80=8 . ., 1967; 0@1C7>2 . ., 1970; 8?30@B . ., 1974; (52G5=:> .. !., 1980]. ;O ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?0B>35=57 >B45;L=KE :;8=8G5A:8E D>@< =52@>70 8<55B ACI5AB25==>5 7=0G5=85, B0: :0: ?>72>;O5B A45;0BL 55 1>;55 =0?@02;5==>9.  @0AA<0B@8205<>9 ?@>1;5<5 >AB05BAO 5I5 <=>3> =5@0A:@KBKE AB>@>=, ?@5645 2A53> 2 >B=>H5=88 2708<>A2O78 <564C =5?@028;L=K< 2>A?8B0=85<, :0: 3;02=K< ?0B>35==K< D0:B>@><, 8 ;8G=>AB=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 @>48B5;59, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>=52@>;>388 "terra incognita". ;020 2. !5<LO :0: ?0B>35=5B8G5A:8 >1CA;>2;820NI89 D0:B>@ =52@>7>2 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2. 1A;54>20=85 A5<L8 45B59 A =52@>70<8. @8 87CG5=88 A5<L8 45B59 A =52@>70<8 ?@8<5=O5BAO :;8=8:>-0=0<=5AB8G5A:89 <5B>4, 4>?>;=5==K9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< 8 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8< <5B>40<8. 0745;5=85 8E CA;>2=>, B0: :0: 2<5AB5 >=8 A>AB02;ONB :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:89 <5B>4 87CG5=8O =52@>7>2. @8 >1@0I5=88 : ?A8E>B5@0?52BC @>48B5;59 1>;L=>3> @515=:0 @5GL >1KG=> 845B > B5@0?52B8G5A:8 @578AB5=B=KE A;CG0OE A <=>3>;5B=8< B5G5=85< =52@>70. -B> 2K720=> =5 B>;L:> >BACBAB285< MDD5:B0 ;5:0@AB25==>9 B5@0?88 8 =54>AB0B>G=> 8=B5=A82=>9 8 =0?@02;5==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?><>ILN 2 >B=>H5=88 1>;L=>3>, => 8 =0;8G85< =52@>70 C >4=>3> 8;8 =5A:>;L:8E 27@>A;KE G;5=>2 A5<L8, A?>A>1AB2CNI53> 701>;520=8N @515=:0 8 O2;ONI53>AO ?@5?OBAB285< 4;O 53> 2K74>@>2;5=8O. @8 ?0B>;>38G5A:>< DC=:F8>=8@>20=88 A5<L8, >4=8< 87 2K@065=89 :>B>@>3> O2;O5BAO =52@>7 @515=:0, =5 2A5340 ;53:> 2KO28BL ?5@28G=K9 8AB>G=8: =52@>B8G5A:>3> 701>;520=8O, B0: :0: >48= 87 @>48B5;59 <>65B >BACBAB2>20BL =0 ?@85<5, 0 ?>:070=8O 4@C3>3> =5 2A5340 >1J5:B82=K. >MB><C <K ?@83;0H05< =0 ?5@28G=K9 ?@85< >1>8E @>48B5;59. -B8< ?>4G5@:8205BAO 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 2@0G0 2 :>=B0:B5 A> 2A59 A5<L59, 0 =5 A >B45;L=K<8 55 ";CGH8<8" 8;8 "EC4H8<8" ?@54AB028B5;O<8. BACBAB285 >4=>3> 87 @>48B5;59 <>65B C:070BL =0 ?@>1;5<=K9 E0@0:B5@ A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89, :>340 >48= 87 =8E 83=>@8@C5B =5>1E>48<>ABL ;5G5=8O @515=:0, =5 ?@8405B MB><C 4>;6=>3> 7=0G5=8O 8;8 AG8B05B 4@C38E G;5=>2 A5<L8 >B25BAB25==K<8 70 A>7402H55AO ?>;>65=85. K@060O A>60;5=85 ?> ?>2>4C >BACBAB28O >BF0 8;8 <0B5@8, ?@8 ?>A;54CNI8E 2878B0E <K ?@54>AB02;O5< 8< 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>>G5@54=> ?@8E>48BL A @515=:>< =0 ?@85<. >4>1=0O CAB0=>2:0 A>740AB 4>?>;=8B5;L=K9 AB8<C; 4;O ?>A5I5=8O 2@0G0 >BACBAB2CNI8< 2 ?5@2K9 @07 @>48B5;5<. @85< ?@>E>48B 2 :018=5B5, 345 =0E>4OBAO 83@CH:8 8 @8AC=:8 45B59, 2 =5?@8=C645==>9 >1AB0=>2:5, A>740205<>9 ?@85<>< 157 E0;0B0, >BACBAB285< <548F8=A:>9 A5AB@K 8 ?>AB>@>==8E ;8F, 15A54>9 2 :@5A;0E 2>:@C3 AB>;8:0. =0G0;5 4;O 15A54K ?@83;0H05BAO <0BL, 0 >B5F >AB05BAO A @515=:>< 2 E>;;5, 345 8<5NBAO 83@CH:8 8 45BA:85 :=86:8. !0<> >6840=85 ?@85<0 2KABC?05B 2 :0G5AB25 5AB5AB25==>3> M:A?5@8<5=B0, :>340 >1=0@C68205BAO =5C<5=85 @>48B5;59 70=OBL @515=:0, =0;048BL A =8< 2708<>>B=>H5=8O, MDD5:B82=>ABL 8 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 2 >1@0I5=88.  ?@>F5AA5 =5?@>4>;68B5;L=>9 15A54K A <0B5@LN C405BAO A>AB028BL ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 >A=>2=KE ?@>1;5<0E, A2O70==KE A> 74>@>2L5< @515=:0 8 >B=>H5=8O<8 2 A5<L5. >A;5 55 CE>40 2 :018=5B ?@83;0H05BAO >B5F, :>B>@K9 B0:65 87;0305B A2>5 <=5=85 > 15A?>:>OI8E 53> 8 4@C38E G;5=>2 A5<L8 2>?@>A0E. 5A540 A >BF>< <5=55 ?@>4>;68B5;L=0, B0: :0: =5B 2>?@>A>2, :0A0NI8EAO @0==53> 0=0<=570. >>G5@54=>5 2KA;CH820=85 60;>1 >1>8E @>48B5;59, :0: 8 @0745;L=>5 ?>;CG5=85 >B =8E 0=0<=5AB8G5A:8E A2545=89, 8<55B @O4 ?@58<CI5AB2. 064K9 87 @>48B5;59 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B >B=>H5=89 2 A5<L5 <>65B 2KA:070BL <=5=85 > A;>682H59AO A8BC0F88 8 @0A:@KBL =5:>B>@K5 87 A2>8E ;8G=KE ?@>1;5<. "0:8< >1@07><, C405BAO A>AB028BL 1>;55 ?>;=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 >B=>H5=8OE 2 A5<L5 8 >1 8=48284C0;L=>< ?>=8<0=88 55 ?@>1;5<. >7<>6=>ABL A2>1>4=> ?>45;8BLAO =5:>B>@K<8 87 =01>;52H8E 2>?@>A>2 2 C25@5==>AB8, GB> A>15A54=8: ?>9<5B 8 >:065B ?><>IL, 8<55B 8A:;NG8B5;L=>5 7=0G5=85 2 ?;0=5 A>740=8O C @>48B5;59 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 >@85=B8@>20==>9 <>B820F88, 8A:@5==>AB8 8 4>25@8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>A;54CNI8E 4803=>AB8G5A:8E 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 2AB@5G. >A;5 15A54K A >BF>< ?@>2>48BAO ?@85< 1>;L=>3>. A;8 @515=>: >1=0@C68205B AB@0E 8 15A?>:>9AB2> 157 <0B5@8, B> 15A540 70<5=O5BAO 83@>2K< :>=B0:B>< 2 55 ?@8ACBAB288. 0B5< 1>;L=>9 >AB05BAO 2 E>;;5 2 A>?@>2>645=88 <548F8=A:>9 A5AB@K 8;8 >48=, 5A;8 ?>72>;O5B 53> 2>7@0AB.  :018=5B ?@83;0H0NBAO >10 @>48B5;O, 8 2@0G 2KA:07K205B A2>5 <=5=85 > A>AB>O=88 @515=:0. &5;L A>2<5AB=>9 15A54K A>AB>8B 2 ?>4G5@:820=88 0:BC0;L=>AB8 >1@0I5=8O @>48B5;59 8 2>7<>6=>AB8 >:070=8O <548F8=A:>9 ?><>I8 @515=:C ?@8 CA;>288 A>B@C4=8G5AB20 A 2@0G><.  15A545 >B<5G0NBAO 157 45B0;870F88 2708<>A2O7L A>AB>O=8O @515=:0 A >1I59 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 0B<>AD5@>9 A5<L8 8 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 AB>@>=K 53> ;8G=>AB8. 5 405BAO >15I0=89 A:>@>3> 87;5G5=8O, A:>@55 =0>1>@>B, 2=8<0=85 @>48B5;59 A>A@54>B>G8205BAO =0 A5@L57=>AB8 ?@>1;5<K 8 =0 =5>1E>48<>AB8 8E 0:B82=>3> 8 =5?>A@54AB25==>3> CG0AB8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88. "0:0O ?>AB0=>2:0 2>?@>A0 ACI5AB25==0, B0: :0: =5@54:> B>B 8;8 8=>9 G;5= A5<L8, >1KG=> >B5F, =54>>F5=8205B A5@L57=>ABL A;>682H59AO A8BC0F88 8 2>A?@8=8<05B A8<?B><K =52@>70 C @515=:0 :0: =5 70A;C6820NI85 2=8<0=8O 8;8 O2;ONI85AO ?@>O2;5=85< 10;>2AB20 8 >BACBAB28O 48AF8?;8=K. <5AB5 A B5< 206=> CA?>:>8BL @>48B5;59, =5@54:> GC2AB2CNI8E A51O 2 1572KE>4=>< ?>;>65=88, 8 2A5;8BL 2 =8E 25@C 2 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>AB5?5==>3> 1;03>?@8OB=>3> @07@5H5=8O :@8B8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>2<5AB=>3> A 2@0G>< ?>8A:0 =081>;55 045:20B=KE ?CB59 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=B0:B0 A @515=:><, C:@5?;5=8O 53> =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K 8 @0A:@KB8O B2>@G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0 @>AB0.  ?>A;54CNI5< @>48B5;8 ?@82>4OB @515=:0 =0 ?@85< ?>>G5@54=>. >:0 2@0G 70=8<05BAO A =8<, @>48B5;L 70?>;=O5B ;8ABK ;8G=>AB=KE >?@>A=8:>2. !@548 =8E 040?B8@>20==K5 2 8=AB8BCB5 8<. . . 5EB5@520 >?@>A=8: 975=:0, MMPI, <5B>48:0 "=570:>=G5==K5 ?@54;>65=8O", D@CAB@0F8>==0O <5B>48:0 >75=F25930; 2 # 8<. . . 40=>20 - >?@>A=8: 5BBM;0, D>@<0 "!", 0 B0:65 @O4 4@C38E <5B>48: - >?@>A=8: 5BBM;0, D>@<0 ""; >?@>A=8: 8@8; F25B>20O <5B>48:0 NH5@0; >?@>A=8: PARI 8 4@. >A;5 ?0@0;;5;L=>3> >1A;54>20=8O @515=:0 8 @>48B5;59 A ?><>ILN >?@>A=8:>2 ?>A;54=85 ?>>G5@54=> ?@83;0H0NBAO =0 ?@85< 4;O A1>@0 4803=>AB8G5A:>9 8=D>@<0F88 2 2845 :;8=8G5A:>9 15A54K 8;8 AB0=40@B878@>20==>3> 8=B5@2LN. > 2@5<O @0745;L=KE >1A;54>20=89 70B@03820NBAO ?@8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 2>?@>AK >:070=8O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?><>I8 B><C 8;8 8=><C @>48B5;N. 4=>2@5<5==>5 >1A;54>20=85 45B59 8 @>48B5;59 A>7405B ;CGH85 CA;>28O 4;O ?>=8<0=8O ?>A;54=8<8 2708<>A2O70==>3> E0@0:B5@0 ?@>1;5< 2 A5<L5, 0 B0:65 ?@54>AB02;O5B =5>4=>:@0B=CN 2>7<>6=>ABL 4;O >1AC645=8O 8=B5@5ACNI8E 2>?@>A>2 8 >:070=8O 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?><>I8. >AB0=>2:0 A5<59=>3> 4803=>70 8 >1AC645=85 @57C;LB0B>2 >1A;54>20=8O A @>48B5;O<8 1C4CB 87;>65=K 2 3;025 "!5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O". 45AL 65 @0AA<>B@8< =5?>A@54AB25==K5 @57C;LB0BK >1A;54>20=8O A5<L8, :>B>@K5 2 A2>59 A>2>:C?=>AB8 ?>72>;ONB @0A:@KBL A;>6=K9 8 <=>3>AB>@>==89 ?@>F5AA ?@>8AE>645=8O =52@>7>2 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2. @0@>48B5;LA:0O A5<LO 8 55 2;8O=85 =0 @>48B5;LA:CN A5<LN. !> AB>@>=K @515=:0 A5<LN <>6=> ?@54AB028BL :0: A5<L "O", B. 5. 2 2845 A5<8 G5;>25:, 87 :>B>@KE G5B25@> >1@07CNB 425 ?@0@>48B5;LA:85 A5<L8 (101CH:0 8 454CH:0 @515=:0 ?> ;8=88 <0B5@8 8 >BF0), 42>5 - @>48B5;LA:CN A5<LN (<0BL 8 >B5F @515=:0), A54L<K< O2;O5BAO A0< @515=>: (@8A. 2).  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris2.gif" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 2. !5<LO @51Q=:0. 0==K5 > ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 <K C7=05< 87 8=B5@2LN A @>48B5;O<8. E =0456=>ABL >15A?5G8205BAO ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< :>=B0:B>< A 2@0G><. 284C MB>3> AB0=40@B878@>20==>5 8=B5@2LN ?@>2>48BAO 2 :>=F5 8AA;54>20=8O, :>340 @>48B5;8 C65 8<5NB =5:>B>@K9 =02K: 70?>;=5=8O ;8G=>AB=KE >?@>A=8:>2 8 15A54 A 2@0G><, 4>25@ONB 5<C 8 284OB ?5@2K5 CA?5E8 >B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> :>=B0:B0 2@0G0 A @515=:><.  =0AB>OI5< 8 ?>A;54CNI5< @0745;0E ?@54AB02;5=0 B>;L:> G0ABL ?>;CG5==KE @57C;LB0B>2, >1J5< :>B>@KE 1>;55 7=0G8B5;5=. !B0B8AB8G5A:85 40==K5 ?@82>4OBAO B>;L:> 2 =5:>B>@KE, =081>;55 70A;C6820NI8E 2=8<0=8O A;CG0OE. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 40;5:> =5 2A5 @>48B5;8 >1@0I0NBAO 70 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?><>ILN 4065 ?@8 =0;8G88 BO65;>3> =52@>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O C @515=:0. K720=> MB> @07=K<8 ?@8G8=0<8, 2 B>< G8A;5 2K@065==>9 ?A8E>?0B>;>38G5A:>9 >BO3>I5==>ABLN A0<8E @>48B5;59, 7;>C?>B@51;5=85< 0;:>3>;5<, =0;8G85< ?0B>;>38G5A:>9 @52=>AB8, 0A>F80;L=K<8 CAB0=>2:0<8 8;8 =87:>9 :C;LBC@>9 A5<L8. @><5 B>3>, 2 ?>;5 7@5=8O 2@0G0 =5 ?>?0405B A5<LO >BF0 @515=:0, 5A;8 @>48B5;8 @072545=K. >MB><C ?>;CG5==K5 =0<8 40==K5 =5 ?@5B5=4CNB =0 01A>;NB=CN ?>;=>BC. =>3>;5B=89 >?KB @01>BK ?>72>;O5B A C25@5==>ABLN A:070BL, GB> 0;:>3>;87<, ?A8E>?0B8O 8 ?A8E8G5A:85 701>;520=8O =5 B8?8G=K 4;O 87CG05<KE A5<59. '0I5 @5GL 845B >1 >B45;L=KE =52@>B8G5A:8E 8 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8E ?@>O2;5=8OE, 0 B0:65 > A><0B8G5A:>9 ?0B>;>388.  ?@0@>48B5;LA:8E A5<LOE E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:85 =0@CH5=8O 2AB@5G0NBAO G0I5, G5< 2 @>48B5;LA:8E 8 B5< 1>;55 - C @515=:0 A =52@>7><. -B> =5 >7=0G05B, GB> 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:8E A5<LOE =5B =52@>7>2, => >=8 2AB@5G0NBAO =5 B0: G0AB>.  >B;8G85 >B ?@0@>48B5;LA:8E 2 @>48B5;LA:8E A5<LOE G0I5 8<5NB <5AB> =0@CH5=8O =52@>B8G5A:>3> :@C30, 4>AB830NI85 A2>53> :;8=8G5A:>3> 0?>35O 2 701>;520=88 @515=:0. "0:8< >1@07><, =0 ?@>BO65=88 687=8 B@5E ?>:>;5=89 (?@0@>48B5;8 - @>48B5;8 - @515=>:) ?@>8AE>48B A=865=85 2K@065==>AB8 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8E 87<5=5=89 8 =0:>?;5=85 87<5=5=89 =52@>B8G5A:>3> :@C30. &5=B@>< ?A8E>?0B>;>38G5A:>3> ?5@5:@5AB0 1C4CB @>48B5;8, C :>B>@KE A>G5B0NBAO E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:85 8 =52@>B8G5A:85 =0@CH5=8O. !CI5AB2>20=85 MB>3> ?5@5:@5AB0 =5 ?>72>;O5B A45;0BL >4=>7=0G=>3> A@02=5=8O =52@>70 @515=:0 A "?A8E>?0B8G5A:8< >A:>;:><" ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L8, B0: :0: MB0 2708<>A2O7L =>A8B 1>;55 A;>6=K9 8 >?>A@54>20==K9 E0@0:B5@. ;02=K< ?0B>35==K< D0:B>@><, ?@>E>4OI8< ":@0A=>9 =8BLN" G5@57 2A5 ?>:>;5=8O, O2;O5BAO ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI89 >?KB <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89. A=>2=K< 725=>< ?5@540G8 MB>3> >?KB0 4;O @515=:0 O2;O5BAO @>48B5;LA:0O A5<LO. 5:>B>@K5 87 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E AB5@5>B8?>2 >B=>H5=89 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 70:@5?;ONBAO 2 >?KB5 D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 1C4CI8E AC?@C3>2 8 @>48B5;59 8 >B@060NBAO 2 2845 B5E 8;8 8=KE ACI5AB2CNI8E C =8E 2 =0AB>OI5< A5<59=KE CAB0=>2>:. "0:, <0BL @515=:0 <>65B =5?@>872>;L=> AB@5<8BLAO 2> 2A5< 4><8=8@>20BL 2 687=8 A5<L8 8 B5< 1>;55 2 2>A?8B0=88 45B59, >B@060O 2 MB>< =5 AB>;L:> @50;L=CN =5>1E>48<>ABL, A:>;L:> 02B>@8B0@=K5 G5@BK ;8G=>AB8 A2>59 <0B5@8. 4=0:> MB> AB@5<;5=85 ?@>O2;O5BAO C65 2 >A;01;5==>< 8, 3;02=>5, =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>< 2845, ?>A:>;L:C >=0 2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 >A>7=05B 53> =5045:20B=>ABL 8 8<55B, 2 >B;8G85 >B A2>59 <0B5@8, C65 B>;L:> G0ABL 55 02B>@8B0@87<0 ?@8 >4=>2@5<5==> 1>;LH5< =52@>B87<5. "> 65 >B=>A8BAO : AB@5<;5=8N <0B5@59 G@57<5@=> :>=B@>;8@>20BL A2>8E 45B59, GB>, >4=0:>, ?> 8E 65 A>1AB25==K< A;>20<, =8:>340 @50;L=> =5 ?>;CG05BAO. @><5 B>3>, <0BL @515=:0 ?@8 >BACBAB288 2 45BAB25 ?@85<;5<KE 4;O =55 M<>F8>=0;L=KE >B=>H5=89 A> A2>8< >BF>< =5>A>7=0==> E>G5B 2>A?>;=8BL 8E 2 >B=>H5=8OE A <C65<, 2K18@05<K< ?> ?@87=0:C ?>E>65AB8 =0 55 >BF0. B5F @515=:0 =5>A>7=0==> >B@0605B 2 >B=>H5=8OE A 65=>9 =52@>B8G5A:CN ?@82O70==>ABL : A2>59 <0B5@8 2 45BAB25, >6840O >B 65=K B0:>9 65 AB5?5=8 701>BK 8 2=8<0=8O. K 2848<, GB> 2 87CG05<KE A5<LOE 2K1>@ 1@0G=>3> ?0@B=5@0 ?@>8AE>48B ?> B8?C =52@>B8G5A:8 <>B828@>20==>3> 2708<>4>?>;=5=8O, :>B>@>5 >1;53G05B, 2 8725AB=>9 <5@5, 2708<>>B=>H5=8O 2 =0G0;5 1@0:0. @8 MB>< 4><8=0=B=K5 G5@BK 2 E0@0:B5@5 AC?@C38 8 55 CAB0=>2:8 =0 >?5:C 8 2;8O=85, 84CI85 >B 55 <0B5@8, A>G5B0NBAO A CAB0=>2:0<8 AC?@C30 =0 701>BC 8 7028A8<>ABL, 84CI85 >B 53> =52@>B8G5A:>9 ?@82O70==>AB8 : A2>59 <0B5@8. > A@02=5=8N A 871KB>G=K< 2;8O=85< <0B5@59 (101CH5:) 2;8O=85 >BF>2 (454CH5:) =0 D>@<8@>20=85 ;8G=>AB8 1C4CI8E AC?@C3>2 8 @>48B5;59 :@09=5 =54>AB0B>G=>, GB> >1CA;>2;5=> 2 >A=>2=>< @072>4>< 8;8 A<5@BLN >BF0. "0:8< >1@07><, ?0B>35==>5 2;8O=85 B5E 8;8 8=KE =0@CH5=89 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 =0 ?>A;54CNI85 ?>:>;5=8O 845B :0: >B 101CH5:, B0: 8 >B 454CH5: @515=:0, 8 MB8 =0@CH5=8O 8<5NB B5A=CN 2708<>A2O7L. 081>;LH0O @>;L ?@8=04;568B 101CH:5 ?> <0B5@8=A:>9 ;8=88 8 454CH:5 ?> >BF>2A:>9, :>340 8<55B <5AB> 42CAB>@>==89 A4283 2 AB>@>=C :0: 871KB>G=>3> 2>A?8B0B5;L=>3> 2;8O=8O 101CH:8, B0: 8 =54>AB0B>G=>3> 2;8O=8O 454CH:8. B@065=85 ?5@2>3> A42830 <K =0E>48< 2 CAB0=>2:5 <0B5@8 A 4><8=0=B=K<8 G5@B0<8 E0@0:B5@0 =0 G@57<5@=> AB@>389 :>=B@>;L 2 >B=>H5=88 @515=:0, 55 87;8H=59 ?@8=F8?80;L=>AB8 8 =5381:>AB8 2 2>?@>A0E 2>A?8B0=8O 8 AC?@C65A:8E >B=>H5=8OE. B@065=85< 2B>@>3> A42830 O2;ONBAO <O3:>ABL E0@0:B5@0 >BF>2, =54>AB0B>G=0O A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL 8 =57@5;>ABL 8E GC2AB20 >BF>2AB20. ;;NAB@8@C5< 40==K5 > ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 AB0B8AB8G5A:8<8 2K:;04:0<8.  ?>:>;5=88 ?@0@>48B5;59 45B59 A =52@>70<8 =5?>;=0O A5<LO ?> ;8=88 <0B5@8 (84 A5<L8) 8 >BF0 @515=:0 (66 A5<59) 2AB@5G05BAO 2 39%, =5A:>;L:> G0I5 (60%) ?@8 =52@>75 AB@0E0 C 45B59. !<5@BL >4=>3> 87 G;5=>2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L8 ?@8 MB>< 701>;520=88 >B<5G05BAO 4>AB>25@=> G0I5, G5< ?@8 >AB0;L=KE =52@>70E (t=2,l; p<0,05).  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 ?@8 =52@>75 AB@0E0 @5GL 845B > 2=570?=>9 A<5@B8 G;5=>2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L8. -B> ?>:07K205B, GB> ;560I89 2 >A=>25 =52@>70 C 45B59 AB@0E A<5@B8 8<55B ?>4 A>1>9 25AL<0 @50;L=CN >A=>2C. @C3>9 70A;C6820NI89 2=8<0=8O D0:B 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> @072>4 2 @>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 ?@>8AE>48B 4>AB>25@=> G0I5 ?@8 =0;8G88 @072>40 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 (t=3,6; p<0,001), B. 5. >BACBAB285 <>45;8 ?>;=>9 A5<L8 >1;53G05B @5H5=85 <0B5@8 8 >BF0 @515=:0 > @07@K25 AC?@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89. 01CH:8 ?> >158< ;8=8O< G0I5 8<5NB <O3:85, G5< 65AB:85, G5@BK E0@0:B5@0, 454CH:8 - =0>1>@>B. @8 =52@>75 AB@0E0 C 45B59 C 8E ?@0@>48B5;59 =01;N405BAO >1@0B=>5 A>>B=>H5=85. # ?@0@>48B5;59 =081>;55 G0AB> ?@>O2;O5BAO B0:0O G5@B0 ;8G=>AB8, :0: A5=78B82=>ABL, 2:;NG0NI0O ?>2KH5==CN M<>F8>=0;L=CN GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL, @0=8<>ABL, >184G82>ABL 8 2?5G0B;8B5;L=>ABL. !5=78B82=>ABL G0AB> A>G5B05BAO A 38?5@A>F80;870F859 (70>AB@5==K< GC2AB2>< >B25BAB25==>AB8, 4>;30, >1O70==>AB8, B@C4=>ABLN :><?@><8AA>2) 8 B@52>6=>ABLN (2K@065==K< 15A?>:>9AB2><, 2>;=5=8O<8 ?> ;N1><C ?>2>4C, ?;>E>9 ?5@5=>A8<>ABLN >6840=8O). !5=78B82=>ABL, 38?5@A>F80;870F8O 8 B@52>6=>ABL ?@54AB02;ONB 1078A=CN B@804C ;8G=>AB=>3> B8?0 @5038@>20=8O 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9, @>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 8 C 45B59 A =52@>70<8. 081>;55 >BO3>I5=K 101CH:8 452>G5: ?> <0B5@8=A:>9 ;8=88. >=D;8:B=K5 >B=>H5=8O 4>AB>25@=> G0I5 (t=2,7; p<0,01) 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:8E A5<LOE ?> ;8=88 <0B5@8 (63%), G5< ?> ;8=88 >BF0 (36%). # <0B5@8 @515=:0 A =52@>7>< AB@0E0 :>=D;8:BK 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 ?@>8AE>4OB 4>AB>25@=> G0I5, G5< ?@8 >AB0;L=KE =52@>70E. !E>4AB2> 8;8 @07;8G85 ?> ?@87=0:C <O3:>ABL - B25@4>ABL E0@0:B5@0 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 2;8O5B =0 G0AB>BC :>=D;8:B0 <564C AC?@C30<8 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:8E A5<LOE. B=>H5=8O 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 <564C @>48B5;O<8 8 45BL<8 >B;8G0NBAO ?@>1;5<=K< E0@0:B5@><. >=D;8:BK >B<5G0NBAO G0I5 C 101CH:8 @515=:0 8 53> <0B5@8 (40%), @565 - C 101CH:8 @515=:0 8 53> >BF0 (17%).  :064>9 B@5BL59 A5<L5 ?@0@>48B5;8 E0@0:B5@87CNBAO :0: G@57<5@=> AB@>385 8 45A?>B8G=K5. 5=55 2A53> MB> >B=>A8BAO : 101CH:5 @515=:0 ?> >BF>2A:>9 ;8=88. >@074> G0I5 8<55B <5AB> =5?>=8<0=85 ?@0@>48B5;O<8 A2>8E 45B59. A:;NG5=85< >?OBL 65 O2;ONBAO >B=>H5=8O <564C 101CH:>9 8 >BF>< @515=:0, :>340 =5?>=8<0=85 2AB@5G05BAO 2 B@5B8 A;CG052. K@065==K9 =54>AB0B>: M<>F8>=0;L=>9 B5?;>BK 8;8 55 >BACBAB285 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 >B<5G05B :0640O 2B>@0O <0BL A> AB>@>=K >1>8E @>48B5;59 8 :064K9 2B>@>9 >B5F A> AB>@>=K A2>53> >BF0 8 B>;L:> :064K9 G5B25@BK9 >B5F - A> AB>@>=K A2>59 <0B5@8. BACBAB285 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> :>=B0:B0 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5 G0I5 8<55B <5AB> C @>48B5;59 45B59 A =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 8 =52@>7>< AB@0E0. 54>AB0B>: B5?;0 8 701>BK A>?@>2>6405BAO GC2AB2>< >48=>G5AB20 8 B@52>38, G5< 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 >1JOA=O5BAO AB@5<;5=85 @>48B5;59, >A>15==> <0B5@59, :><?5=A8@>20BL A2>N ?@54H5AB2CNICN M<>F8>=0;L=CN =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 38?5@>?5:>9 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 45BO<, :>B>@0O O2;O5BAO A2>5>1@07=K< A8<?B><>< =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 <0B5@8, 55 70I8B>9 >B AB@0E0 >48=>G5AB20 8 >BGC645=8O 2 ?@>H;>< 8 =0AB>OI5<. 7 MB>3> A;54C5B, GB> 2 38?5@>?5:5 =C640NBAO =5 AB>;L:> 45B8, A:>;L:> A0<8 @>48B5;8, 4;O :>B>@KE >=0 2K?>;=O5B A2>5>1@07=CN ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN @>;L. 8G5< 8=K< =5;L7O >1JOA=8BL =5@54:> =01;N402H55AO =0<8 ?0@04>:A0;L=>5, =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4, O2;5=85, :>340 C;CGH5=85 A>AB>O=8O @515=:0 A>?@>2>640;>AL CEC4H5=85< M<>F8>=0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O <0B5@8, =5@54:> 2?;>BL 4> >1>AB@5=8O 8;8 <0=8D5AB0F88 =52@>70 A 254CI8< B@52>6=>-45?@8<8@>20==K< D>=>< =0AB@>5=8O. @>8AE>4OI55 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 C;CGH5=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O @515=:0 A =52@>7><, 2 B>< G8A;5 C<5=LH5=85 53> B@52>38 8 AB@0E0, 45;05B <5=55 0:BC0;L=K< 8 G@57<5@=CN 701>BC, 87;8H=55 ?@54>E@0=5=85 >B >?0A=>AB8 8 15A?>:>9AB2>.  MB8E CA;>28OE =52@>B8G5A:0O ?>B@51=>ABL <0B5@8 2 871KB>G=>9 701>B5 > @515=:5 >:07K205BAO =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>9, 0 =081>;55 4>ABC?=K9 ?CBL 2K@065=8O 55 15A?>:>9AB20 - 1;>:8@>20==K<. !C1J5:B82=>5 >ICI5=85 A2>59 "=5=C6=>AB8", >BACBAB285 :>=:@5B=>9 F5;8, =5A?>A>1=>ABL ?5@5:;NG8BL 2=8<0=85 =0 =>2K5, 1>;55 ?>78B82=K5 AB>@>=K 2708<>>B=>H5=89 A @515=:>< O2;ONBAO D0:B>@0<8 45:><?5=A0F88 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O <0B5@8. >MB><C <K A5@L57=> 704C<K205<AO =04 B5<, A;54C5B ;8 A?5H8BL A C;CGH5=85< M<>F8>=0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O @515=:0 A =52@>7>< 157 ?@5420@8B5;L=>9 8;8 ?0@0;;5;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?><>I8 <0B5@8, 0 B0:65 >B@53C;8@>20=8O =5:>B>@KE ?@>1;5< A5<59=KE 2708<>>B=>H5=89. 0: 1C45B ?>:070=> 40;55, @>48B5;8 45B59 A =52@>70<8 =5 B>;L:> =5?@>872>;L=> :><?5=A8@CNB, => 8 ?>2B>@ONB <=>385 87 ?@>1;5< 2708<>>B=>H5=89 2 ?@0@>48B5;LA:>9 A5<L5, 2 B>< G8A;5 =5?@8=OB85 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 45B59, >BACBAB285 ?>=8<0=8O 8E 2>7<>6=>AB59 8 ?>B@51=>AB59 8 B. 4. -B> >1JOA=O5BAO D>@<8@>20=85< ?0B>;>38G5A:8E CAB0=>2>: 8 AB5@5>B8?>2 >B=>H5=89, :>B>@K5 459AB2CNB :0: 7040==K5, 70?@>3@0<<8@>20==K5 8;8 4065 :0: 2=CH5==K5 2 687=5==>< >?KB5. @><5 B>3>, >A>7=0=85 A2>8E >H81>:, ?CABL 4065 8 G0AB8G=>5, ?@>8AE>48B 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?>?KB>: @>48B5;59 ?>=OBL ?@8G8=K =52@>B8G5A:>3> 701>;520=8O @515=:0 C65 "post factum". ?@545;5==0O @>;L 2 ?>2B>@5=88 =5045:20B=>3> >?KB0 <56;8G=>AB=KE A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 ?@8=04;568B B5< >A>15==>ABO< ;8G=>AB8 @>48B5;59, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO >1I8<8 A >A>15==>ABO<8 ;8G=>AB8 ?@0@>48B5;59.  =8< >B=>AOBAO, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, A5=78B82=>ABL, 38?5@A>F80;870F8O 8 B@52>6=>ABL. >=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>-35=5B8G5A:>9 ?@54?>AK;:>9 A5=78B82=>AB8 O2;O5BAO M<>F8>=0;L=0O GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL 8;8 2 1>;55 H8@>:>< ?;0=5 - M<>F8>=0;L=0O @50:B82=>ABL, 38?5@A>F80;870F88 - 8=5@B=>ABL =5@2=KE ?@>F5AA>2, =5@54:> ?@>O2;ONI0OAO @8384=>ABLN <KH;5=8O. >=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>-35=5B8G5A:>9 ?@54?>AK;:>9 B@52>6=>AB8 O2;O5BAO 70>AB@5=85 8=AB8=:B0 A0<>A>E@0=5=8O. 0728B85 MB8E ?@54?>AK;>: ?@>8AE>48B ?>4 2;8O=85< =5C40G=>3> >?KB0 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89. 0728B85 45B59 4> 701>;520=8O =52@>7><. 0: >B<5G05B . . 0@20A0@A:89 (1980), ?@>1;5<0 D>@<8@>20=8O =52@>B8G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8 8 2>7=8:=>25=8O =52@>70 =C6405BAO 2 40;L=59H59 @07@01>B:5. . . >20;52 ?>4G5@:8205B: "54>>F5=:0 40==KE A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> >1A;54>20=8O, =52=8<0=85 : <>B820< 8 E0@0:B5@C ;8G=>AB=KE @50:F89 @515=:0 8;8 ?>4@>AB:0, =5C<5=85 @07>1@0BLAO 2 A;>6=KE <56;8G=>AB=KE 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE 2 A5<L5, 45BA:>< :>;;5:B825 254CB : ?5@5>F5=:5 MB8>;>38G5A:>9 @>;8 0=0<=5AB8G5A:8E 40==KE > @0==8E M:7>35==>->@30=8G5A:8E 2@54=>ABOE 7=0G5=8O >B45;L=KE ?@>O2;5=89 @5784C0;L=>->@30=8G5A:>9 F5@51@0;L=>9 =54>AB0B>G=>AB8 8 >AB0B>G=>9 =52@>;>38G5A:>9 <8:@>A8<?B><0B8:8". AB0=>28<AO B>;L:> =0 B5E >A>15==>ABOE @0728B8O, :>B>@K5 ?>72>;ONB ;CGH5 ?>=OBL A;>6=CN 8 2> <=>3>< ?@>B82>@5G82CN ;8G=>ABL 1>;L=>3> =52@>7><. 5 A2>5>1@0785 >?@545;O5BAO =0;8G85< B5E >A>15==>AB59 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO ?@54?>AK;:0<8 4;O D>@<8@>20=8O =52@>B8G5A:>3> B8?0 @5038@>20=8O. >A;54=89 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =54>AB0B>G=> >A>7=0205<CN <>B820F8N 70I8BK "O" >B ?>2B>@5=8O ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI53> >?KB0, :>B>@K9 C3@>605B 687=5==> 206=K< ?>B@51=>ABO< F5;L=>AB8 "O", A0<>@0A:@KB8O 8 @>AB0. 52@>B8G5A:89 B8? @5038@>20=8O, :0:8<8 1K =8 1K;8 53> 35=5B8G5A:85 8 >@30=8G5A:8-45AB@C:B82=K5 ?@54?>AK;:8, 2KABC?05B, ?@5645 2A53>, :0: ?0B>;>38G5A:8 D>@<8@CNI89AO >?KB, 2 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 <5@5 =5A>2<5AB8<K9 A C65 AD>@<8@>202H8<AO 8 D>@<8@CNI8<AO >?KB>< "O". >4>1=>5 ?@>B82>@5G85 @0728B8O ?5@568205BAO :0: =55AB5AB25==>ABL, GC64>ABL, 1>;57=5==>ABL, B. 5. :0: ?A8E>35==K9 ?@>F5AA 4578=B53@0F88 D>@<8@CNI53>AO "O". @82>48<K5 2 MB>< @0745;5 40==K5 >A=>20=K =0 87CG5=88 99 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 A @07;8G=K<8 :;8=8G5A:8<8 D>@<0<8 =52@>70, >1A;54>20==KE 2 1977-1980 33. !>>B=>H5=85 <0;LG8:>2 8 452>G5: A>AB02;O5B 1,5:1.  ?>A;54CNI8E @0745;0E 8AA;54C5<0O 2K1>@:0 1C45B 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH59, => 20@L8@CNI59 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B F5;8 AB0B8AB8G5A:>3> 0=0;870. =B5=0B0;L=K5 ?0B>35==K5 D0:B>@K.  >B=>A8B5;L=> ?@5>1;040NI5< G8A;5 A;CG052 (56%) 87CG05<0O 15@5<5==>ABL ?5@20O, 2 >AB0;L=KE 44% 59 ?@54H5AB2C5B, :0: ?@028;>, >48= 01>@B (66%) 8;8 =5?@>872>;L=K9 2K:84KH (34%). 01>;520=8O 65=A:>9 ?>;>2>9 AD5@K, 1>;LH59 G0ABLN 2>A?0;8B5;L=K5 701>;520=8O <0B:8 8 ?@840B:>2, 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 =51>;LH>< G8A;5 A;CG052 (15%), => 7=0G8B5;L=> G0I5 (t=2; @<0,05) ?@8 ?>A;54CNI5< 2>7=8:=>25=88 8AB5@8G5A:>3> =52@>70, G5< =52@0AB5=88 8 =52@>70 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 C @515=:0. "0:8< >1@07><, B5@<8= "hystera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t=3,45; @<0,001). #3@>70 A0<>?@>872>;L=>3> 2K:84KH0 8<55B <5AB> 2 :064>< B@5BL5< A;CG05 (32%) - <0;LG8:8 40%, 452>G:8 21%. @8 =52@>75 AB@0E0 C3@>70 2K:84KH0 >B<5G05BAO 4>AB>25@=> G0I5, G5< ?@8 >AB0;L=KE =52@>70E (t=2,7; @<0,01).  F5;>< C3@>60NI89 2K:84KH =01;N405BAO =5A:>;L:> G0I5 C =565;0==KE 45B59.  ;8B5@0BC@5 8<5NBAO C:070=8O =0 B>, GB> C3@>70 ?@5@K20=8O 15@5<5==>AB8 2 @0==85 A@>:8 2K7K205B A>AB>O=85 38?>:A88, =0@CH5=85 <5B01>;87<0 8 ?>2@5645=8O DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A8AB5< ?;>40. ">:A8:>7K :0: ?5@2>9, B0: 8 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=K 15@5<5==>AB8 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 25% A;CG052. >;55 ACI5AB25==0 ?0B>;>38O 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=K 15@5<5==>AB8, :>B>@0O, ?> 40==K< ;8B5@0BC@K, 2 =>@<5 =5 ?@52KH05B 10%.  B><C 65 B>:A8:>7K 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=K 15@5<5==>AB8 >1;040NB 1>;LH8< A><0B>B@>?=K< 459AB285< =0 ?;>4 8 2 @O45 A;CG052 O2;ONBAO ?A8E>A><0B8G5A:>9 @50:F859 <0B5@8 =0 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 AB@5AA. 5@8=0B0;L=K5 ?0B>35==K5 D0:B>@K. @56452@5<5==K5 @>4K 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 20% A;CG052.  3@C??5 =565;0==KE 45B59 >=8 4>AB>25@=> G0I5, G5< C 65;0==KE (t=2,15; p<0,05). !;01>ABL @>4>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 55 AB8<C;OF88 >B<5G5=K 2 45% A;CG052 - 4>AB>25@=> G0I5 (t=2,05; p<0,05) C <0;LG8:>2 (55%), G5< C 452>G5: (31%). # =565;0==KE 45B59 >=0 =01;N405BAO =5A:>;L:> G0I5, G5< C 65;0==KE. @8 =0;8G88 C <0B5@8 ?@54H5AB2CNI53> M<>F8>=0;L=>3> AB@5AA0 ?0B>;>38O @>4>2 >B<5G05BAO 4>AB>25@=> G0I5 (t=2,47; @<0,05). AD8:A8O @515=:0 2 @>40E 2AB@5G05BAO >B=>A8B5;L=> @54:> (13%), => ?@8 AB@5AA5 <0B5@8 2 ?5@8>4 15@5<5==>AB8 >=0 =01;N405BAO 4>AB>25@=> G0I5 (t=3,6; @<0,01). !;54>20B5;L=>, 0DD5:B82=>5 A>AB>O=85 <0B5@8 <>65B =51;03>?@8OB=> >B@060BLAO =0 >B=>H5=88 : ?>O2;5=8N 1C4CI53> @515=:0, =0 B5G5=88 15@5<5==>AB8 8 @>4>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. >AB=0B0;L=K5 ?0B>35==K5 D0:B>@K. "5 8;8 8=K5 ?@87=0:8 @5784C0;L=>9 F5@51@0;L=>9 =54>AB0B>G=>AB8 2 ?>=8<0=88 . . >20;520 (1979) C 45B59 ?5@2KE ;5B 687=8 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 25% A;CG052 (<0;LG8:8 36%, 452>G:8 10%). 081>;55 G0AB> >@30=8G5A:0O =54>AB0B>G=>ABL 8<55B <5AB> C 45B59 A 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7><, GB> <>65B 1KBL A2O70=> A ?@54H5AB2CNI8<8 15@5<5==>AB8 701>;520=8O<8 <0B:8 8 ?@840B:>2 C <0B5@8. @30=8G5A:0O =54>AB0B>G=>ABL A>7405B C B0:8E 45B59 70>AB@5==>-1>;57=5==CN CAB0=>2:C =0 2=8<0=85 : A515 >:@C60NI8E 8 ?@87=0=85 8E 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE 4>AB865=89 8 ?>B@51=>AB59. &5@51@0;L=0O =54>AB0B>G=>ABL 4>AB>25@=> G0I5 ?@>O2;O5BAO C =565;0==KE 45B59 (t=2,15; p<0,05), B0: :0: 65=I8=K ?@8 >B@8F0B5;L=>< >B=>H5=88 : 15@5<5==>AB8 =5 AB@5<OBAO 55 A>E@0=OBL. 52@>?0B8O, 2 ?>=8<0=88 ". . !8<5>= (1958), 2AB@5G05BAO C 58% 45B59: C <0;LG8:>2 - 2 62%, C 452>G5: - 2 52% A;CG052. =0 =01;N405BAO =5A:>;L:> G0I5 ?@8 =0;8G88 C <0B5@59 B>:A8:>70 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=K 15@5<5==>AB8. 081>;55 ACI5AB25==K< 8AB>G=8:>< =52@>?0B88 O2;ONBAO M<>F8>=0;L=K9 AB@5AA 8 =52@>B8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85 <0B5@8 2 ?5@8>4 15@5<5==>AB8, ?@8 :>B>@KE =52@>?0B8O C @515=:0 4>AB>25@=> G0I5 (t=2,67; p<0,01). "0:8< >1@07><, 2A5 @0AA<>B@5==K5 =51;03>?@8OB=K5 D0:B>@K ?@8 15@5<5==>AB8, 8 ?@5645 2A53> M<>F8>=0;L=K9 AB@5AA C <0B5@8, <>6=> AG8B0BL ?5@2>9 "?A8E>B@02<>9" C 45B59, 2?>A;54AB288 701>;520NI8E =52@>70<8. 8>E8<8G5A:8 >?>A@54>20==K< A;54AB285< AB@5AA0 <0B5@8 O2;O5BAO 87<5=5=85 @50:B82=>AB8 @515=:0 8 >A;01;5=85 18>B>=CA0 53> >@30=87<0, GB> C<5=LH05B B>;5@0=B=>ABL : 459AB28N @07;8G=KE ?>AB=0B0;L=KE AB@5AA>2KE D0:B>@>2. -<>F8>=0;L=K9 AB@5AA <0B5@8 2 ?5@2K9 3>4 687=8 @515=:0 =5 C<5=LH05BAO, 0 =0@0AB05B, >E20BK20O 82% <0B5@59. 0: ?@028;>, >= A>?@>2>6405BAO 2=CB@5==59 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABLN, 0DD5:B82=>9 =0?@O65==>ABLN, 15A?>:>9AB2>< 8 2K720= 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L M<>F8>=0;L=> =5@>2=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8 A <C65< 8 @>48B5;O<8, >1I59 =5CAB@>5==>ABLN, ?@>1;5<0<8 CE>40 70 @515=:><, 2>7=8:=>25=85< =>2>9 15@5<5==>AB8. -B> >:07K205B =51;03>?@8OB=>5 2;8O=85 =0 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 @0728B85 @515=:0, B0: :0: B@52>6=>-45?@8<8@>20==K9 =0AB@>9 <0B5@8 2 2845 15A?>:>9AB20, A=865==>3> =0AB@>5=8O, =5C25@5==>AB8, ?>=865==>9 A0<>>F5=:8, ?5AA8<8AB8G5A:>9 >F5=:8 ?5@A?5:B82K ?5@5405BAO @515=:C :0: 48DDC7=>5 GC2AB2> 15A?>:>9AB20 8 AB@0E0. "0:0O <0BL @54:> C;K105BAO, 87;8H=5 A:>20==0, =0?@O65=0 8 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=0 2 >1@0I5=88 A @515=:><. >A:>;L:C <0BL 8<55B 2 ;8F5 @515=:0 =081>;55 4>ABC?=K9 ">1J5:B" 4;O ?@>O2;5=8O A2>53> =54>2>;LAB20, @074@065=8O 8 15A?>:>9AB20, 55 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 A>AB>O=85 =5A:>;L:> :><?5=A8@C5BAO 2 B5G5=85 ?5@2KE ;5B 687=8 @515=:0. > M<>F8>=0;L=>5 A>AB>O=85 @515=:0, =0>1>@>B, 2A5 1>;55 CEC4H05BAO ?> <5@5 @0728B8O 2 0DD5:B82=> =5A?>:>9=>9 A5<59=>9 >1AB0=>2:5, : :>B>@>9 >= =5 <>65B 040?B8@>20BLAO 8 2 :>B>@>9 2K?>;=O5B @>;L ":>7;0 >B?CI5=8O" 4;O @>48B5;59, =5 >1J548=OO A5<LN, :0: B>3> E>B5;0 1K <0BL, 0 @07J548=OO 55.  MB>9 A8BC0F88 8 157 B>3> 15A?>:>9=0O <0BL 2A5 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 ?@82O7K205B : A515 @515=:0, >:@C60O 53> B@52>6=K<8 ?@54>E@0=5=8O<8 8 1>;57=5==>-70>AB@5==K< 2=8<0=85<, >1@07CO A =8< >1>A>1;5==CN M<>F8>=0;L=CN 4804C. !>74020O 7028A8<>ABL >B A2>53> =0AB@>5=8O, <0BL =5?@>872>;L=> ?5@5405B @515=:C A2>5 15A?>:>9AB2>, :>B>@>5 =0G8=05B ?>O2;OBLAO C =53> 4065 ?@8 55 :@0B:>2@5<5==>< >BACBAB288, >A>15==> 2 ?5@8>4 70AK?0=8O. "@51CO ?;0G5< 8;8 15A?>:>9AB2>< ?@8ACBAB28O @O4>< <0B5@8, @515=>:, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 0DD5:B82=> ?@82O7K205B 55 : A515. >7=8:05B ?>@>G=K9 :@C3, :>B>@K9 ?@>O2;O5BAO >1I59 B@52>6=>9 7028A8<>ABLN @515=:0 8 <0B5@8 4@C3 >B 4@C30, =5?5@5=>A8<>ABLN A >158E AB>@>= >48=>G5AB20 8 87>;OF88, 2>7=8:=>25=85< C @515=:0 15A?>:>9AB20 ?@8 ;N1>< @50;L=>< 8;8 :06CI5<AO M<>F8>=0;L=>< >B40;5=88 >B <0B5@8. 0==8< 70@>645=85< 15A?>:>9AB20 <>6=> 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 >1JOA=8BL ?>A;54CNI85 2>;=5=8O @515=:0 ?> ?>2>4C ?@54AB>OI8E A>1KB89 8 53> ?;>ECN ?5@5=>A8<>ABL >6840=8O.  =081>;LH59 AB5?5=8 B@52>6=K5 @50:F88 =0 >BACBAB285 <0B5@8 2K@065=K ?@8 =52@>70E AB@0E0 8 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 ?> A@02=5=8N A =52@0AB5=859 8 >A>15==> 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7><.  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 8725AB=K< ?@5?OBAB285< 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O 15A?>:>9AB20 O2;O5BAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=0O >@85=B0F8O @515=:0 =0 A51O (M3>F5=B@87<). !B@5<;5=85 <0B5@8 :0: <>6=> @0=LH5 2K9B8 =0 @01>BC 8 ?5@540BL @515=:0 =0 2>A?8B0=85 @>4AB25==8:0< CA8;8205B 53> 15A?>:>9AB2>, >A>15==> ?@8 ?@54H5AB2CNI5< >B@8F0B5;L=>< >B=>H5=88 : 15@5<5==>AB8. >A;54AB28O<8 G@57<5@=> @0==53> >B@K20 B@52>6=> ?@82O70==>3> : <0B5@8 8 M<>F8>=0;L=> @0=8<>3> @515=:0 O2;ONBAO 0DD5:B82=K5 @50:F88 ?@8 ?><5I5=88 2 OA;8 8 70B@C4=5=8O 2 ?>A;54CNI59 040?B0F88 2 4>H:>;L=KE CG@5645=8OE.. AB>G=8:0<8 15A?>:>9AB20 C 45B59, 2?>A;54AB288 701>;520NI8E =52@>7><, <>3CB 1KBL 2 @07;8G=>< 2>7@0AB5: 1) 8=4CF8@>20=85 15A?>:>9AB20 A> AB>@>=K <0B5@8, =0E>4OI59AO 2 A>AB>O=88 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> AB@5AA0; 2) M<>F8>=0;L=K5 ?>B@OA5=8O 8 8A?C38 (>?KB @0==8E @07;C: 8 2=570?=KE 2>7459AB289, ?@54AB02;ONI8E C3@>7C 4;O 687=8, 2 B>< G8A;5 0DD5:B82=K5 @50:F88 =0 ?><5I5=85 2 OA;8, 1>;L=8FC, =5AG0AB=K5 A;CG08, @57:85 1>;52K5 >ICI5=8O); 3) C3@>70 ;8H5=8O 701>BK 8 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> :>=B0:B0 ?@8 =0;8G88 =52@>B8G5A:8 <>B828@>20==>9 38?5@>?5:8 A> AB>@>=K <0B5@8 8 "?@82O7K20=8O" @515=:0 : A515.  =081>;LH59 <5@5 MB> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 @0==5< 0=0<=575 45B59, 701>;520NI8E =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 8 =52@>7>< AB@0E0; 4) >BACBAB285 157>?0A=>AB8 - >?>@K 2 1;8609H5< >:@C65=88. ICI5=85 =570I8I5==>AB8, =5=0456=>AB8 8 =5?>=OB=>AB8 >:@C65=8O. 52>7<>6=>ABL ?@54A:070BL ?>2545=85 (@50:F88) 1;87:8E ;8F, >A>15==> ?@8 8E =52@>B8G5A:>< A>AB>O=88 8 :>=D;8:B0E 2 A5<L5, :>340 8<55B <5AB> 15A?>:>9AB2> 70 @>48B5;O, : :>B>@><C ?@82O70= @515=>: 8;8 A :>B>@K< >= A51O 845=B8D8F8@C5B.  A;CG05 =565;0==>AB8 @515=:0 8;8 =5?@8=OB8O 53> 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 @0728B8O 15A?>:>9AB2> 2K720=> >ICI5=85< =5=C6=>AB8 8 =8:G5<=>AB8 ?@5645 2A53> C 45B59, 701>;520NI8E =52@>7>< AB@0E0 8 =52@0AB5=859; 5) >?0A5=8O >AC645=8O, =0:070=8O 8 ;8H5=8O ?>;>68B5;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O A> AB>@>=K 7=0G8<KE 4;O @515=:0 ;8F 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 >= A2O70= =5?><5@=> 1>;LH8< G8A;>< <>@0;L=KE ?@54?8A0=89 8 >1O70B5;LAB2, :>B>@K5 =5 2 A8;0E >?@0240BL (A>>B25BAB2>20BL 8<). -B> 8;;NAB@8@C5BAO A;54CNI8<8 A;>20<8 <0B5@8: ">GL ?>AB>O==> =0E>48BAO 2 =0?@O65==>< >6840=88, GB> =0 =55 @0AA5@4OBAO, GB> >=0 24@C3 =5 B0: A45;05B 8;8 =5 B0: A:065B". >4>1=>5 A>AB>O=85 E0@0:B5@=> ?@8 =52@>70E AB@0E0 8 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89, O2;OOAL 2 ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 =0@O4C A 8=5@B=>ABLN 8 @8384=>ABLN <KH;5=8O ?@54?>AK;:>9 @0728B8O <=8B5;L=>AB8; 6) =52>7<>6=>ABL 1KBL ?>=OBK< 8 ?@87=0==K< 1;8609H8< >:@C65=85<; 7) >A>7=0=85 >B;8G89 >B A25@AB=8:>2. 'C2AB2> ;8G=>9 =54>AB0B>G=>AB8 8 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 87>;OF88. 0AA<>B@5==K5 8AB>G=8:8 15A?>:>9AB20 A>?>AB028<K A 3;02=K<8 2840<8 ?A8E>35=89 C 45B59 2 4>H:>;L=K9 ?5@8>4 8E 687=8. 5A?>:>9AB2> 2K@0605BAO :0: 2 2845 2=5H=5 =5?@>O2;O5<>9 8 :>=:@5B=> =5AD>:CA8@>20==>9 B@52>38, B0: 8 2 2845 AB@0E0 ?> >B=>H5=8N : @50;L=><C C3@>60NI5<C >1J5:BC. # 45B59 ?5@2KE ;5B 687=8 15A?>:>9AB2> =5@54:> ?@>O2;O5BAO M<>F8>=0;L=>9 ;018;L=>ABLN 2<5AB5 A >1I8< A=865==K< D>=>< =0AB@>5=8O, ?;0:A82>ABLN, >A;01;5=85< 0??5B8B0, A>A0=85< ?0;LF52 8 ?@54<5B>2, 3@K75=85< =>3B59, 8=>340 <0ABC@10F8O<8 ?5@54 A=><. =5 7028A8<>AB8 >B ?>A;54CNI8E AB@C:BC@=KE >A>15==>AB59 15A?>:>9AB2> O2;O5BAO >B?@02=>9 B>G:>9 ?0B>35=570 =52@>70 8 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB5?5=8 >:07K205B 2>7459AB285 =0 2A5 @0AA<0B@8205<K5 =865 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 @0==53> @0728B8O. 081>;55 2K45;ONI59AO >A>15==>ABLN ?@5<>@184=>3> @0728B8O ?@8 =52@>70E 1C45B M<>F8>=0;L=0O GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL, :>B>@0O O2;O5BAO ?@54?>AK;:>9 4;O 2>7=8:=>25=8O GC2AB20 15A?>:>9AB20 2 >B25B =0 459AB285 2KH5@0AA<>B@5==KE D0:B>@>2.  A2>N >G5@54L, 15A?>:>9AB2> 70>AB@O5B M<>F8>=0;L=CN GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL 2 2845 A5=78B82=>AB8 - ?>2KH5==>9 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8, @0=8<>AB8, 70?5G0B;5205<>AB8 =5?@8OB=KE A>1KB89, >184G82>AB8, 2 40;L=59H5< - A:;>==>AB8 "2A5 1;87:> ?@8=8<0BL : A5@4FC", ;53:> @0AAB@0820BLAO 8 2>;=>20BLAO.  F5;>< 45B8, 701>;520NI85 =52@>7><, E0@0:B5@87CNBAO :0: M<>F8>=0;L=> GC2AB28B5;L=K5 8 2?5G0B;8B5;L=K5, 4>25@G82K5, 4>1@K5, 60;>AB;82K5 8 A>AB@040NI85.  45BA:>< A04C 8 >A>15==> 2 H:>;5 MB8, =5 A@07C 040?B8@CNI85AO, B8E85 45B8, >1KG=> 45@60I85AO =5A:>;L:> 2 AB>@>=5, =5 B>;L:> ;8H5=K 03@5AA82=>AB8, => 8 15770I8B=K, =5 C<5NB ?>AB>OBL 70 A51O, 40BL A40G8, =09B8 A@07C =C6=K9 >B25B ?@8 2=570?=>< >1@0I5=88, ;53:> B5@ONBAO. 5 >=8 4@07=OB 8 1LNB 4@C38E, 0 B5 - 8E; >=8 65 >1860NBAO 8 ?;0GCB, ?5@56820O C=865=85 8 15AA8;85 ?5@54 >184G8:><.  MB>< G5;>25G5A:>< :0G5AB25 >=8 O2;ONBAO >1J5:B>< 4;O 2K@065=8O 03@5AA82=KE B5=45=F89 4@C38E 45B59. >6=> >B<5B8BL =5A:>;L:> 8AB>G=8:>2 @0AA<0B@8205<>9 15770I8B=>AB8 C 45B59.  A2>59 >A=>25 >=0 >B@0605B M<>F8>=0;L=CN GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL, 2?5G0B;8B5;L=>ABL 8 @0=8<>ABL. @C38< 8AB>G=8:>< O2;O5BAO >BACBAB285 D>@<8@>20=8O =5>1E>48<KE =02K:>2 2708<>459AB28O A> A25@AB=8:0<8. -B> >1I85 A;CG08 ?;>E>9 ?@8A?>A>1;5==>AB8, =54>AB0B:0 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> >?KB0, =5C<5=8O >1I0BLAO 2A;54AB285 87>;OF88 >B A25@AB=8:>2 2 ?5@2K5 3>4K 687=8; =54>AB0B>G=>3> CG0AB8O >BF0 2 687=8 A5<L8 8 >BACBAB28O A>>B25BAB2CNI59 <>45;8 ?>2545=8O 8 >1CG5=8O A 53> AB>@>=K; >B@8F0B5;L=>3> 2>7459AB28O ?@8<5@0 :>=D;8:B=>3> 2708<>459AB28O @>48B5;59. I5 >4=8< 8AB>G=8:>< 15770I8B=>AB8 <>65B 1KBL AB@0E, ?@54AB0NI89 =0 >A>7=0205<>< C@>2=5 :0: AB@0E =0A8;8O 8 =5AG0ABLO, 0 =0 =5>A>7=0205<>< - :0: AB@0E C25GLO 8 A<5@B8. >MB><C 2 >B25B =0 =5>6840==>5 8 03@5AA82=>5 ?>2545=85 4@C3>3> 2>7=8:05B 70I8B=0O CAB0=>2:0 B8?0 70?@545;L=>3> B>@<>65=8O, 2=5H=5 ?@>O2;O5<>3> :0: >F5?5=5=85 8 AB@0E. A;8 <K 25@=5<AO : @0=55 40==><C >?@545;5=8N =52@>B8G5A:>3> B8?0 @5038@>20=8O :0: =54>AB0B>G=> >A>7=0205<>9 <>B820F88 70I8BK "O" >B ?>2B>@5=8O ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI53> >?KB0, B> 15770I8B=>ABL B0:65 <>65B 1KBL >B=5A5=0 : MB>9 :0B53>@88. !CI5AB25==>9 ?@5<>@184=>9 >A>15==>ABLN 1C45B 8 @0==55 @0728B85 GC2AB20 "O", :>B>@>5 ?@>O2;O5BAO ?>4G5@:=CBK< GC2AB2>< A>1AB25==>3> 4>AB>8=AB20, ?>2KH5==>9 GC2AB28B5;L=>ABLN : ?>@8F0=8O< 8 ?>E20;5, =5C40G0< 8 >H81:0<, =0A<5H:0<, =5A?@0254;82>AB8 8 >1840<. 4=>2@5<5==> MB8 45B8 =5 ;3CB, =5 872>@0G820NBAO, 0, =0>1>@>B, =5?>A@54AB25==K, 15AE8B@>AB=K 8 =5A:>;L:> ?@O<>;8=59=K 2 A2>8E AC645=8OE, =082=K 8 4>25@G82K ?> >B=>H5=8N : 4@C38<.  B> 65 2@5<O =082=>ABL <>65B 2KABC?0BL =5 B>;L:> :0: >?KB F5;>AB=>3>, =548A:@5B=>3> "O", => 8 :0: A;54AB285 =54>AB0B>G=>3> >?KB0 A>F80;L=>3> 2708<>459AB28O. 06=>9 ?@5<>@184=>9 >A>15==>ABLN O2;O5BAO B5=45=F8O : 2=CB@5==5<C A?>A>1C ?5@5@01>B:8 8 2K@065=8O M<>F89, A>A@54>B>G5==>AB8 =0 A2>8E >ICI5=8OE ?@8 A45@6820=88 2=5H=53> 2K@065=8O GC2AB2. >48B5;8 >1KG=> 3>2>@OB >1 MB8E 45BOE, GB> >=8 "2A5 2 A515". 59AB28B5;L=>, >=8 1>;LH5 GC2AB2CNB 8 ?>=8<0NB, G5< <>3CB MB> 2K@078BL, GB> 2<5AB5 A =5:>B>@>9 =54>AB0B>G=>ABLN ?@0:A8A0 A>7405B 2?5G0B;5=85 8725AB=>9 A:>20==>AB8 ?@8 >1I59 4>AB0B>G=> 2K@065==>9 0:B82=>AB8 8 ?>4286=>AB8. @>B82>@5G85 <564C 2=CB@5==8< 8 2=5H=8< ?;0=>< @5038@>20=8O <>65B 1KBL 2K720=> B@C4=>ABO<8 A>G5B0=8O :>=B@0AB=KE G5@B B5<?5@0<5=B0, =0?@8<5@, G5@B D;53<0B8G5A:>3> 8 E>;5@8G5A:>3> B5<?5@0<5=B0. =CB@5==89 A?>A>1 2K@065=8O M<>F89 8 ?5@5@01>B:8 ?5@56820=89 C 45B59 8<55B A2>8 >1>A=>20=8O 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI5< A?>A>15 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> @5038@>20=8O @>48B5;59 8 2 8E =54>AB0B>G=>9 >1I8B5;L=>AB8.  48=0<8:5 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O >1@0I05B =0 A51O 2=8<0=85 =5A:>;L:> 70<54;5==K9 B5<? 2KO2;5=8O 2>7<>6=>AB59 8 A?>A>1=>AB59, GB> >1CA;>2;5=> 8=B5=A82=> =0:0?;8205<K< 2=CB@5==8< 8 =5 @0A:@K205<K< =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O ?>B5=F80;>< @0728B8O. -B8< 45BO< =C6=> 1>;LH5 2@5<5=8, GB>1K 8E ;0B5=B=K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 A2>9AB20 ?@>O28;8AL 2=5H=5, @0A:@K;8AL. >MB><C G@57<5@=> @0==55 8 8=B5=A82=>5 AB8<C;8@>20=85 8E 2>7<>6=>AB59, :0: 8 ?@54JO2;5=85 C;LB8<0BC<>2 2@>45 "A59G0A 65", "=5<54;5==>", 2A5340 G@520B> >?0A=>ABLN ?5@5=0?@O65=8O. >A:>;L:C M<>F8>=0;L=0O AB@C:BC@0 B0:8E 45B59 ?>2KH5==> @0=8<0, >=8 B@51CNB 1>;55 <O3:>3>, M<>F8>=0;L=> I04OI53>, B5?;>3> 8 ?>445@6820NI53> >B=>H5=8O A> AB>@>=K >:@C60NI8E ;8F. ">;L:> B>340 2>7<>6=> 8725AB=>5 4>7@520=85 M<>F8>=0;L=KE AB@C:BC@, 8E 40;L=59H55 @0728B85 8 C:@5?;5=85.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 ?@8 459AB288 G@57<5@=> 8=B5=A82=KE, A8;L=KE, 70?@545;L=KE @074@068B5;59, ?@52KH0NI8E ?>@>3 2K=>A;82>AB8 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, 2>7=8:05B 70I8B=0O @50:F8O 2 2845 B>@<>78<>AB8, 4>E>4OI0O 4> AB5?5=8 70B>@<>65==>AB8, 8=5@B=>AB8 8 ":>?0=8O" =0 >4=>< <5AB5. 1I55 2?5G0B;5=85 > @0==5< M<>F8>=0;L=>< @0728B88 - MB> 2?5G0B;5=85 > 45BOE, :0: 1K @>482H8EAO @0=LH5 D0:B8G5A:>3> A@>:0, B. 5. A =54>AB0B>G=K< 2=CB@8CB@>1=K< ?5@8>4>< @0728B8O, M<>F8>=0;L=> 1>;55 @0=8<KE 8 =570I8I5==KE, G5< 1>;LH8=AB2> A25@AB=8:>2, GB> 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< 2>7459AB28O =0 <>73 ?;>40 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> AB@5AA0 <0B5@8 2 ?5@8>4 15@5<5==>AB8 8 @>4>2. 5GL 845B =5 > 7045@6:5 @0728B8O, 0 > 53> A2>5>1@0788, B0: :0: 2A5 3;02=K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 DC=:F88, 2:;NG0O 2@5<O ?>O2;5=8O @50:F88 "M<>F8>=0;L=>3> >682;5=8O", @5G8 8 E>4L1K, =5 >B;8G0NBAO >B =>@<K. >4>1=> MB><C G5@BK M<>F8>=0;L=>9 @0=8<>AB8, 15770I8B=>AB8 8 =082=>AB8 =5;L7O >?@545;8BL :0: ?@>O2;5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> 8=D0=B8;87<0, ?>A:>;L:C >4=>2@5<5==> 8<5NB <5AB> >?5@560NI55 2>7@0AB @0728B85 GC2AB20 "O" 8 D>@<8@>20=85 =@02AB25==>-MB8G5A:8E CAB0=>2>: 4>;30 8 >1O70==>AB8. >;55 ?>4E>4OI8< >?@545;5=85< O2;O5BAO =5@02=><5@=>ABL ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. @C30O >A>15==>ABL @0728B8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 53> ?@>B82>@5G82>AB8 - =0;8G88 B@C4=>A>2<5AB8<KE A>G5B0=89 @07;8G=KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: ;8G=>AB8, >1;53G0NI8E ?>O2;5=85 2 40;L=59H5< 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0. K C65 :0A0;8AL ?@>B82>@5G8O <564C 2=CB@5==8< A?>A>1>< 2K@065=8O M<>F89 8 >1I59 0:B82=>ABLN. @C3>5 ACI5AB25==>5 ?@>B82>@5G85 2K@065=> A;>20<8 <0B5@8 > @0==5< ?A8E8G5A:>< @0728B88 A2>53> AK=0: " >A ?>4286=K<, M=5@38G=K<, C?>@=K< 2 4>AB865=88 F5;8 8 >4=>2@5<5==> GC2AB28B5;L=K<, 2?5G0B;8B5;L=K< 8 >184G82K<". -B> ?@>B82>@5G85 <564C 2>;52>9 8 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 AB>@>=0<8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, 30@<>=88 :>B>@KE <>6=> 4>AB8GL B>;L:> ?@8 1;03>?@8OB=KE, A?>A>1AB2CNI8E 157>?0A=>AB8 8 B2>@G5A:><C @>ABC 2=5H=8E CA;>28OE.  @0AA<0B@8205<KE A;CG0OE MB>3> =5 ?@>8AE>48B, 8 =0@CH5=85 10;0=A0 2708<>459AB28O 2>;52>9 8 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 AD5@ 2K3;O48B 2=0G0;5 :0: 8E 70>AB@5=85 2 2845 C?@O<AB20 8 A5=78B82=>AB8, 0 70B5< ?>4 ?@>4>;60NI8<AO 2;8O=85< 48AAB@5AA0 - :0: ?>402;5=85 (8=3818F8O) 2>;52>9 8 :><?5=A0B>@=>5 70>AB@5=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 AB>@>=K =>@<8@CNI59AO ;8G=>AB8.  B><C 65 =5:>B>@0O =54>AB0B>G=>ABL ?@0:A8A0 ?@82>48B : 70B@C4=5=8N ?5@5E>40 <KA;8B5;L=>3> 0:B0 2 7025@H5==>5 459AB285, GB> A>7405B 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 ?@5?OBAB28O 4;O @50;870F88 B2>@G5A:8E 2>7<>6=>AB59 ;8G=>AB8. 0AA<>B@5==K5 ?@5<>@184=K5 >A>15==>AB8 @0728B8O <>6=> A3@C??8@>20BL A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 1) A5=78B82=>ABL (M<>F8>=0;L=0O GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL 8 @0=8<>ABL) A 2K45;5=85< 87 =55 AB@C:BC@K 2?5G0B;8B5;L=>AB8; 2) =5?>A@54AB25==>ABL (=082=>ABL); 3) 2K@065==>ABL GC2AB20 "O": 4) 8<?@5AA82=>ABL (2=CB@5==89 B8? ?5@5@01>B:8 M<>F89); 5) ;0B5=B=>ABL (?>B5=F80;L=>ABL - >B=>A8B5;L=> 1>;55 ?>AB5?5==>5 @0A:@KB85 2>7<>6=>AB59 ;8G=>AB8); 6) ?@>B82>@5G82>ABL @0728B8O 2A;54AB285 B@C4=>A>2<5AB8<>9 :>=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>9 :>=AB5;;OF88 =5:>B>@KE G5@B B5<?5@0<5=B0 8 E0@0:B5@0; 7) =5@02=><5@=>ABL ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, >1CA;>2;5==0O 459AB285< ?@54H5AB2CNI8E D0:B>@>2. ?8A0B5;L=> @515=>:, 701>;520NI89 2?>A;54AB288 =52@>7><, 2K3;O48B ?>2KH5==> 2?5G0B;8B5;L=K<, M<>F8>=0;L=> GC2AB28B5;L=K< 8 @0=8<K<, >1>AB@5==> @5038@CNI8< =0 >B=>H5=85 >:@C60NI8E, =5 A@07C @0A:@K20NI8< A51O, ?>402;ONI8< 2=5H=55 2K@065=85 GC2AB2 8 ?5@56820=89, =082=K<, 15AE8B@>AB=K<, =5?>A@54AB25==K< 8 4>25@G82K<, 4>1@K<, >B7K2G82K<, A 2K@065==K< GC2AB2>< "O". @>8;;NAB@8@C5< =5:>B>@K5 87 MB8E E0@0:B5@8AB8: 2KA:07K20=8O<8 @>48B5;59: "=5;L7O ?>2KA8BL =0 =53> 3>;>A", "AB>8B >4=C 8 BC 65 D@07C A:070BL =5 B5< B>=><, :0: >=0 >18605BAO - =5 B0: A:070;0"; "B0: >68405B 45=L @>645=8O, GB> <>65B 4065 701>;5BL >B MB>3>"; "53> <>65B >1845BL 4065 <0;>;5B=89 :@>E0"; "4065 <CEC C18BCN ?>60;55B"; ">G5=L 4>1@K9, 70 2A5 1>;57=5==> ?5@568205B, 5A;8 GB>-;81> =5 ?>;CG05BAO, =5 E>G5B, GB>1K 5<C ?><>30;8, 8 ?;0G5B"; "70 2A5E ?5@568205B"; "1>8BAO ;5GL A?0BL, GB>1K =5 ?@>A?0BL F5;K9 45=L"; "B8E0O 2 45BA:>< A04C, ?>A;CH=0O, 8A?>;=8B5;L=0O, ?5@568205B, 5A;8 GB>-;81> =5 B0:, 2 70=OB8OE 0:B82=0O, ;N1>7=0B5;L=0O, 4><0 65 AB0=>28BAO G@57<5@=> HC<=>9 8 2>71C645==>9"; "AB>8B 53> ?>E20;8BL 8 >= ;575B 87 :>68 2>=, GB>1K >?@0240BL 4>25@85"; "=5 ?@>A8B ?@>I5=8O 8 =5 >B:07K205BAO >B A2>8E C15645=89"; "C =53> 2A5340 1K;> A2>5 <=5=85"; "2A5 2A?><=8B ?>B><, 2=0G0;5 =8 A;>20"; "=8:>340 =5 60;C5BAO 8 =5 @0AA:07K205B > B><. GB> ?@>8AE>48B A =8< 2 45BA:>< A04C": ":>340 AK=C 1K; >48= 3>4 8 >= ;560; 2 1>;L=8F5 ?> ?>2>4C ?=52<>=88, B> ?@8 C:>;5 =5 :@8G0; 8 =5 ?;0:0;, 0 <>;G0;, A68<0O :C;0G:8": "2 4 3>40 4>G5@8 C40;O;8 045=>84K 8 55 >4=C 2K=5A;8 1;54=>9, 157 A;578=:8, => C28452 <0BL, >=0 @07@K40;0AL 8 ?>:@K;0AL :@0A=K<8 ?OB=0<8"; "2 ?>;B>@0 3>40 101CH:0 =0:@8G0;0 =0 2=C:0, :>B>@K9 ?@8 MB>< <>;G0;, 2 3 3>40 >= A:070; 59 =5>6840==>: ">G5<C BK A> <=>9 B0: 3@><:> @073>20@820;0?". @82545==K5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 =5 ?>72>;ONB A45;0BL 2K2>4 > ?@54H5AB2CNI8E =52@>7C ?0B>;>38G5A:8E 87<5=5=8OE E0@0:B5@0, A:>@55 @5GL 845B :0: > =5:>B>@>< A2>5>1@0788 @0728B8O, ?>4G5@:=CB0O G5;>25G5A:0O >A=>20 :>B>@>3> =5A><=5==0, B0: 8 > =0;8G88 >B45;L=KE ?@5E>4OI8E 8 =57=0G8B5;L=> 2K@065==KE O2;5=89 487>=B>35=570. =0=85 ?@5<>@184=KE >A>15==>AB59 @0728B8O, ?@5<>@184=>9 "=0BC@K" ?>72>;O5B ;CGH5 ?>=OBL ?0B>35=57 =52@>7>2 C 45B59 8 ?>AB@>8BL =0 53> >A=>25 A>>B25BAB2CNI8< >1@07>< =0?@02;5==K9 ?@>F5AA ?A8E>B5@0?88. 8G=>ABL @>48B5?59. A5 B5 4C@=K5 =0:;>==>AB8, :>B>@K5 @>48B5;8 AB0@0NBAO C=8GB>68BL 2 A2>8E 45BOE, 3=574OBAO 2 =8E A0<8E. . !?5=A5@. >A?8B0=85 C<AB25==>5, =@02AB25==>5 8 D878G5A:>5 ?8A0=85 @>48B5;59 <K =0G=5< A >1I59 :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8, 70B5< @0AA<>B@8< 40==K5 ;8G=>AB=KE >?@>A=8:>2, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@KE CB>G=O5BAO @O4 AB>@>= ;8G=>AB8 @>48B5;59. @><5 B>3>, >?@>A=8:8 40NB 2>7<>6=>ABL AB0=40@B870F88 8 A>?>AB02;5=8O @57C;LB0B>2 8AA;54>20=8O. > 40==K< >1A;54>20=8O 108 A5<59, <O3:>ABL E0@0:B5@0 C <0B5@59 ?@5>1;0405B =04 B25@4>ABLN 2 A>>B=>H5=88 2:1, C >BF>2 B25@4>ABL =57=0G8B5;L=> ?@5>1;0405B =04 <O3:>ABLN. # >BF>2 MB> A;54AB285 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E <O3:8E G5@B E0@0:B5@0 454CH:8 @515=:0 ?> >BF>2A:>9 ;8=88, =54>AB0B>G=>3> 2;8O=8O A 53> AB>@>=K 8 70<5I0NI53> 2>7459AB28O A> AB>@>=K 101CH:8 ?> >BF>2A:>9 ;8=88. # @>48B5;59 8<55BAO @O4 >1I8E >A>15==>AB59 ;8G=>AB8, 3;02=K< >1@07>< 2 2845 A5=78B82=>AB8 8 38?5@A>F80;870F88. >4 A5=78B82=>ABLN ?>4@07C<520NBAO ?>2KH5==0O M<>F8>=0;L=0O GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL, 2?5G0B;8B5;L=>ABL, @0=8<>ABL, >184G82>ABL, 2K@0605<K5 A:;>==>ABLN "2A5 1;87:> ?@8=8<0BL : A5@4FC 8 ;53:> @0AAB@0820BLAO", 0 ?>4 38?5@A>F80;870F859 - 70>AB@5==>5 GC2AB2> >B25BAB25==>AB8, 4>;30, >1O70B5;L=>AB8, B@C4=>ABL :><?@><8AA>2. >=B@0AB=>5 A>G5B0=85 A5=78B82=>AB8 8 38?5@A>F80;870F88 >7=0G05B =0;8G85 2=CB@5==53> ?@>B82>@5G8O <564C GC2AB2>< 8 4>;3><, A?>A>1AB2CNI8< 2>7=8:=>25=8N 2=CB@5==53> =@02AB25==>-MB8G5A:>3> :>=D;8:B0. @C3>9 >1I59 >A>15==>ABLN ;8G=>AB8 <0B5@8 8 >BF0 O2;O5BAO 70I8B=K9 E0@0:B5@ ?>2545=8O, B. 5. >BACBAB285 >B:@KB>AB8, =5?>A@54AB25==>AB8 8 =5?@8=C645==>AB8 2 >1I5=88, GB> >1CA;>2;5=> =5 AB>;L:> A?>A>1>< 2K@065=8O M<>F89, A:>;L:> @0=55 8<52H8<AO ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI8< >?KB>< <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89.  A2O78 A MB8< @>48B5;8 ?>4G5@:820NB =0;8G85 C A51O ?@>1;5< A0<>2K@065=8O 8 A0<>:>=B@>;O, C:07K20O, GB> <>3;8 1K 1KBL =0<=>3> 0:B82=55, 5A;8 1K =5 ?@8E>48;8AL A45@6820BL A51O. @>1;5<K <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 =5 ?@>O2;ONBAO 3@C1K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 A>F80;L=>9 040?B0F88, @0AB>@<>65==K<8 8 0A>F80;L=K<8 D>@<0<8 ?>2545=8O. 5<0;> ?@>1;5< 8 2 >1;0AB8 A5:AC0;L=KE >B=>H5=89. '0AB> 2AB@5G0NI55AO ?>=865=85 ?>;>2>3> 2;5G5=8O, >A>15==> A> AB>@>=K 65=I8=K, O2;O5BAO 8=48:0B>@>< M<>F8>=0;L=>9 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 >B=>H5=8O<8 2 1@0:5, 0 2 1>;55 2K@065==KE A;CG0OE ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A8<?B>< =52@>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O. 52@>7 =0 <><5=B >1A;54>20=8O 4803=>AB8@>20= C 1>;LH8=AB20 <0B5@59 (62%). A;8 CG5ABL 8 A>AB>O=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> AB@5AA0, =5 4>AB830NI55 AB5?5=8 =52@>70, B> B0:8E <0B5@59 >:07K205BAO 78%. >;LH59 G0ABLN =52@>7 C =8E ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 2845 =52@0AB5=88 8 =52@>70 AB@0E0; >1KG=> 53> :;8=8G5A:0O D>@<0 A>>B25BAB2C5B :;8=8G5A:>9 D>@<5 =52@>70 C @515=:0. 081>;55 G0AB> =52@>B8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85 <0B5@8 ?@>O2;O5BAO ?@8 =52@>75 AB@0E0 C 45B59 (80%), =5A:>;L:> @565 ?@8 =52@0AB5=88 8 =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 (63%) 8 @565 2A53> ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75 (40%). 52@>7 C >BF>2 =01;N405BAO 2 B@8 @070 @565, G5< C <0B5@59 (21%).  A>G5B0=88 A A>AB>O=85< M<>F8>=0;L=>3> AB@5AA0 MB>B ?>:070B5;L C25;8G8205BAO 4> 37%. '0I5 2A53> (53%) 2AB@5G0NBAO A5<L8, 2 :>B>@KE >48= 87 AC?@C3>2 (?@58<CI5AB25==> <0BL) 1>;5= =52@>7>< 8;8 =0E>48BAO 2 A>AB>O=88 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> AB@5AA0. 565 8<55B <5AB> =0;8G85 =52@>70 8;8 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> AB@5AA0 C >1>8E AC?@C3>2 (29%), 8 <5=LH5 2A53> A5<59 A >BACBAB285< MB8E A>AB>O=89 (18%).  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > =52@>75 A5<L8, ?>4@07C<520O ?>4 MB8< =52@>B8G5A:>5 701>;520=85 ?> :@09=59 <5@5 C 2 G;5=>2 A5<L8 - @515=:0 8 >4=>3> 87 @>48B5;59.  <0B5@8 8 >BFK =081>;55 G0AB> ?@54JO2;ONB 60;>1K =0 @074@068B5;L=>ABL, A>AB>O=85 2=CB@5==53> 15A?>:>9AB20, =5?5@5=>A8<>ABL >6840=8O (A8<?B><K M<>F8>=0;L=>9 ;018;L=>AB8 8 B@52>6=>AB8). @><5 MB>3>, <0B5@8 60;CNBAO =0 ?>2KH5==CN CB><;O5<>ABL, 3>;>2=K5 1>;8 ?@8 =0?@O65=88 8 CB><;5=88, A?07<K 8 1>;8 2 >1;0AB8 A5@4F0, 65;C4:0 8 :8H5G=8:0, >ICI5=85 :><:0 2 3>@;5, ?>:@0A=5=8O ?@8 2>;=5=88, >7=>1K, ?>2KH5=85 0@B5@80;L=>3> 402;5=8O 2> 2@5<O =0?@O65=89 8 2>;=5=89 (A8<?B><K 2535B>A>AC48AB>9 48ADC=:F88). !><0B8G5A:0O ?0B>;>38O C :064>9 B@5BL59 <0B5@8 ?@54AB02;5=0 =5 B>;L:> 2535B>A>AC48AB>9 48AB>=859, => 8 E@>=8G5A:8<8 B>=78;;8B0<8 8 @8=8B0<8. # :064>3> B@5BL53> >BF0 >B<5G5=0 ?0B>;>38O A> AB>@>=K 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 2 2845 30AB@8B>2, O725==>9 1>;57=8 65;C4:0 8 425=04F0B8?5@AB=>9 :8H:8, :>;8B>2. 1@0I0NB =0 A51O 2=8<0=85 1>;55 G0ABK5, G5< 2 :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??5, 701>;520=8O :>68 C >BF>2 (=52@>45@<8B, M:75<0, ?A>@807). 0: ?@028;>, >=8 2AB@5G0NBAO C ;8F AB5=8G=KE, A5:AC0;L=> =5C4>2;5B2>@5==KE, A45@6820NI8E 2=5H=55 2K@065=85 GC2AB2 8 @07@O60NI8E 2=CB@5==55 =0?@O65=85 2 2845 =5?@>872>;L=> 2>7=8:0NI8E ?@8ABC?>2 @0AG5AK20=8O 4> >ICI5=8O 1>;8. =0=85 =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:>9 8 A><0B8G5A:>9 ?0B>;>388 @>48B5;59 ACI5AB25==> 4;O 55 >F5=:8 8 CG5B0 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?>A:>;L:C B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=0O, 8?>E>=4@8G5A:0O 8 8AB5@8G5A:0O D8:A0F8O 45B59 =0 A2>5< =5@2=>< 8 A><0B8G5A:>< A>AB>O=88 >B@0605B ?>4>1=CN D8:A0F8N C @>48B5;59 8 ?@54AB02;O5B >4=> 87 A0<KE 7=0G8B5;L=KE ?@5?OBAB289 4;O ?@>2545=8O ?A8E>B5@0?88. @><5 MB>3>, C 45B59, :0: 8 C @>48B5;59, >B<5G0NBAO 2535B>A>AC48ABK5 48AB>=88, G0ABK5 ?@>ABC4=K5 701>;520=8O, B>=78;;8BK, @8=8BK, 48ADC=:F88 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0. >MB><C >1;53G0NI8< ?A8E>B5@0?8N CA;>285< O2;O5BAO ?@>2545=85 4> 55 =0G0;0 8;8 ?0@0;;5;L=> A =59 :><?;5:A0 >1I5C:@5?;ONI8E <5@>?@8OB89 C 2A5E G;5=>2 A5<L8, 2:;NG0O A0=0F8N >G03>2 E@>=8G5A:>9 8=D5:F88, C;CGH5=85 8<<C==>9 70I8BK, ?5@8>48G5A:85 :C@AK <548:0<5=B>7=>3> 8 D878>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ;5G5=8O, =0@O4C A H8@>:8< 8A?>;L7>20=85< 459AB28O 5AB5AB25==KE D0:B>@>2. 8G=>AB=K9 >?@>A=8: 975=:0. AA;54>20;8AL 167 <0B5@59 8 121 >B5F. > D>@<5 "" ?>:070B5;8 >B:@>25==>AB8 >:070;8AL 2KH5, G5< ?> D>@<5 "", ?>MB><C D>@<0 "" 8A?>;L7>20;0AL :0: >A=>2=0O. >A;5 >BA520 ?> H:0;5 "=5>B:@>25==>ABL" >AB0;>AL 145 <0B5@59 8 102 >BF0. >=B@>;L=CN 3@C??C A>AB028;8 50 <0B5@59 8 50 >BF>2 ?@0:B8G5A:8 74>@>2KE 45B59. # <0B5@59 ?@8 =52@>70E C 45B59 A@54=89 10;; ?> H:0;5 "M:AB@025@A8O - 8=B@>25@A8O" A>AB028; 10,5, B. 5. >B<5G05BAO C<5@5==0O AB5?5=L 8=B@>25@B8@>20==>AB8. >;55 8=B@>25@B8@>20=K <0B5@8 45B59 A =52@>70<8 AB@0E0 8 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 ?> A@02=5=8N A <0B5@O<8, 45B8 :>B>@KE 1>;L=K =52@0AB5=859 8 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7><. > :@8B5@8N !BLN45=B0, @07;8G8O 4>AB>25@=K. BFK 45B59 A =52@>70<8 <5=55 8=B@>25@B8@>20=K, G5< <0B5@8 (11,5). 0: 8 C <0B5@59, 8=B@>25@B8@>20==>ABL 4>AB>25@=> 1>;55 2K@065=0 ?@8 =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 C @515=:0. > H:0;5 "AB018;L=>ABL - =5AB018;L=>ABL" C <0B5@59 2 F5;>< >B=>A8B5;L=> 2KA>:89 C@>25=L 2=CB@5==59 =0?@O65==>AB8 - =59@>B87<0 (15,0). -B>B ?>:070B5;L =5 <5=O5BAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B D>@<K =52@>70 C 45B59. # >BF>2 C@>25=L =59@>B87<0 ACI5AB25==> =865 (10,0), >A>15==> =87>: >= ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75 C 45B59 (7,95). B0:, <0B5@8 1>;55 8=B@>25@B8@>20=K 8 1>;55 =59@>B8G=K, G5< >BFK. >AB>25@=> 1>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L =59@>B87<0 C <0B5@59 ?@8 =52@>70E C 45B59 ?> A@02=5=8N A :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??>9 (t=6,4; p<0,001) >1CA;>2;5= =51;03>?@8OB=> A:;04K20NI8<8AO >B=>H5=8O<8 2 A5<L5 8 =5@2=K< 701>;520=85< @515=:0. @><5 B>3>, >= :>@@5;8@C5B A> AB5?5=LN =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 1@0:>< 8 4;8B5;L=>ABLN 701>;520=8O C @515=:0. A;8 C <0B5@8 :>=D;8:B A AC?@C3>< ?@O<> =5 2;8O5B =0 2K@065==>ABL 55 =59@>B87<0, B> C >BF0 ?@8 :>=D;8:B5 A AC?@C3>9 =59@>B87< ?>=8605BAO, B. 5. :>=D;8:B 4;O =53> A;C68B A@54AB2>< @07@O4:8 =0:>?82H53>AO =5@2=>3> =0?@O65=8O. >4>1=K< 65 7=0G5=85< C <0B5@8 >1;0405B :>=D;8:B A @515=:><. 59@>B87< <0B5@8 2A5340 2KH5 ?@8 ?>?KB:0E 65AB:> 4><8=8@>20BL 2 A5<L5 8 70<5I0BL @>;L >BF0. @8 =0;8G88 AK=0 ?>4>1=0O B5=45=F8O C25;8G8205B 55 8 157 B>3> 2K@065==CN D878G5A:CN 8 =5@2=CN ?5@53@C7:C. 0B5@8 8 >BFK 45B59 A =52@>70<8 1>;55 8=B@>25@B8@>20=K 8 A>>B25BAB25==> <5=55 >1I8B5;L=K, G5< @>48B5;8 :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??K (C <0B5@59 t=3,97; p<0,001, C >BF>2 (t=4,6; p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http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris3.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 3. "!5<59=K9 ?>@B@5B" 2 2845 '5@B0 8 01K-/38, >B@060NI89 B@02<8@CNI89 >?KB A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 C <0;LG8:0 9 ;5B. >=D;8:B A @>48B5;O<8 >B@060NB 8 :>H<0@=K5 A=>2845=8O.  MB>9 A2O78 <>6=> C?><O=CBL > 452>G:5 6 ;5B A =52@>B8G5A:8< M=C@57>< 8 =59@>45@<8B>< 2 :;8=8G5A:>9 :0@B8=5 =52@0AB5=88. 5 <0BL A E>;5@8G5A:8<8 G5@B0<8 B5<?5@0<5=B0, 8AB5@8G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@>9 ;8G=>AB8 8 BO65;K< =52@>B8G5A:8< A>AB>O=85< ?>AB>O==> >45@38205B, B>@>?8B 8 @C305B 4>GL 70 55 >1ICN A >BF>< <54;8B5;L=>ABL. AN A2>N ;N1>2L <0BL ?5@5=>A8B =0 B0:>3> 65 0:B82=>3>, :0: >=0, <;04H53> AK=0, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: >B5F, : :>B>@><C ?@82O70=0 4>GL, G0AB> =0E>48BAO 2 4;8B5;L=KE :><0=48@>2:0E. > 2@5<O ?@85<0 452>G:0 ?@>872>48;0 2?5G0B;5=85 :@09=5 70B>@<>65==>9, >184G82>-=54>25@G82>9 8 C?@O<>9. > :>340 59 1K; 7040= 2>?@>A > A=0E, >=0 A@07C >6828;0AL, A;>2=> ?@>A=C2H8AL, 8 AB0;0 M<>F8>=0;L=>, A 65AB8:C;OF859 @0AA:07K20BL > F0@OI8E 2 =8E ;N4>540E 8 @071>9=8:0E, A :>B>@K<8 >=0, >4=0:>, =0E>48;0 1>;55 >1I89 O7K:, G5< A <0B5@LN. =5< 65 55 70B>@<>65==>ABL 8 A2O70==>5 A =59 C?@O<AB2> 1K;8 =5?@>872>;L=>-70I8B=>9 @50:F859 =0 1574CH=>5, 3@C1>5 8 8<?C;LA82=>-=5?>A;54>20B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 <0B5@8.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE 45B8 =5?@>872>;L=> >1K3@K20NB 2K7K20NI85 15A?>:>9AB2> @>48B5;59 A8BC0F88 A F5;LN :><?5=A0F88 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==KE ?>B@51=>AB59. 0?@8<5@, 452>G:0 5 ;5B 8A?>;L7C5B 15A?>:>9AB2> <0B5@8 ?> ?>2>4C 55 ?;>E>3> 0??5B8B0 4;O 87<5=5=8O 2 ?@85<;5<CN AB>@>=C >B=>H5=8O : =59. 1KG=> G@57<5@=> AB@>30O 8 B@51>20B5;L=0O <0BL =5C7=0205<> <5=O5BAO 2> 2@5<O 54K, B0: :0: 4C<05B, GB> 4>GL =5<8=C5<> C<@5B >B 8AB>I5=8O, 5A;8 =5 1C45B 5ABL "A:>;L:> ?>;>65=>", 2K@060O 2 MB>< =5 AB>;L:> 701>BC, A:>;L:> B@52>6=>ABL 8 ?0@0=>9O;L=K5 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0. >GL 65, =5 8<5O 2>7<>6=>AB8 2K@078BL 8=K< ?CB5< A2>9 ?@>B5AB ?> ?>2>4C ?@8=C640NI53> >B=>H5=8O <0B5@8, =5?@>872>;L=> C4;8=O5B 2@5<O ?@85<0 ?8I8, GB> 2K7K205B 15A?>:>9AB2> <0B5@8 8 A<O3G5=85 55 B@51>20=89. "> 65 2>7=8:05B ?5@54 A=><, :>340 ;N1K5 ?@>O2;5=8O 15A?>:>9AB20 C @515=:0 2K7K20NB 1>;55 045:20B=K9 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 >B:;8: C @>48B5;59. =0;>38G=K5 A8BC0F88 =01;N40NBAO C <;04H8E 45B59 ?@8 4;8B5;L=>< >4520=88 8 BC0;5B5, 2> 2@5<O :>B>@KE @>48B5;8 2K=C645=K 2ABC?0BL 2 >1I5=85 A 45BL<8. > 2A5E A;CG0OE 15A?>:>9AB2> @>48B5;59 8 @515=:0 2KABC?05B 2 :0G5AB25 1>;55 ?@85<;5<>3> A@54AB20 :><<C=8:0F88 <564C =8<8. ;O 45B59 MB> >4=>2@5<5==> 8 A?>A>1 >B@5038@>20=8O :>=D;8:B=KE =0?@O65=89 2 >B=>H5=8OE A @>48B5;O<8. 708<>>1CA;>2;5==K9 ?@>1;5<=K9 E0@0:B5@ >B=>H5=89 2845= 87 A;54CNI8E 2KA:07K20=89: "0: B>;L:> C <5=O A?0405B =0?@O65=85, >=> @0AB5B C <C60; ?>;CG05BAO 70:>;4>20==K9 :@C3, <K 2A5 B@>5 D8:A8@>20=K 4@C3 =0 4@C35", ""5?5@L 2A5 45;> 2 =0A, <>O 65=0 8 55 <0BL >G5=L M<>F8>=0;L=K 8 G0AB> :@8G0B =0 AK=0, >1@07CO A =8< :>0;8F8N. >340 O ?KB0NAL >15@530BL 53>, C <5=O 2>7@0AB0NB B@5=8O A =8<8, 0 AK= GCB:> @5038@C5B =0 MB>. ?OBL 65, 5A;8 O =5 2<5H820NAL, B> @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> A@K20NAL 8 C <5=O =5B 2KE>40" (4>1028<, GB> 2KE>4 2A5 65 1K; =0945=... >B5F G0AB> C57605B 2 :><0=48@>2:8), "01CH:0 7;8BAO =0 <0<C, <0<0 7;8BAO =0 <5=O, 0 C <5=O B5@?5=85 ;>?05BAO", "C6 AB0; <5=O @074@060BL, 8 O ?@>B82>@5GC 5<C 2> 2A5<, 70B5< C <5=O 45?@5AA8O, 8 2A5 2K;8205BAO =0 AK=0".  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 C <0;LG8:0 1K;8 C?>@=K5 ?@8ABC?K 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<K =0 D>=5 >1I53> A <0B5@LN =52@>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O. 4=>2@5<5==> 1K; ?@>2545= :C@A 38?=>B5@0?88 C <0B5@8 8 AK=0, => =5>6840==> ?@8ABC?K 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<K 2?5@2K5 2 687=8 2>7=8:;8 C >BF0.  4@C3>< A;CG05 ?>A;5 CAB@0=5=8O C 452>G:8 9 ;5B A =52@>B8G5A:8< A>AB>O=85< ?@8ABC?>2 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<K C 55 <0B5@8 2>7=8:;0 =52@>B8G5A:0O 45?@5AA8O, :>B>@0O <0A:8@>20;0AL @0=LH5 38?5@>?5:>9 8 15A?>:>9AB2>< 2 >B=>H5=88 1>;L=>9 4>G5@8. ">;L:> ?>A;5 0:B82=>3> A>459AB28O A> AB>@>=K >BF0 8 >:070=8O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?><>I8 <0B5@8 C40;>AL =>@<0;87>20BL >1AB0=>2:C 2 A5<L5. ! F5;LN 1>;55 ?>;=>3> 87CG5=8O A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 <K 8A?>;L7C5< M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=CN <5B>48:C "3><5>AB0B". -B> M;5:B@>==>5 CAB@>9AB2> A 2K=>A=K< ?C;LB><, 345 8<5NBAO @CG:8 8 F8D5@1;0B A> AB@5;:>9. 4=>2@5<5==>5 8 A>3;0A>20==>5 2@0I5=85 42CE 8;8 B@5E @CG5: 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B G8A;0 8A?KBC5<KE ?>72>;O5B ?@825AB8 AB@5;:C H:0;K 2 A@54=55 ?>;>65=85.  A;>6=>< @568<5 MB> ?@0:B8G5A:8 =52>7<>6=> A45;0BL. !5<L8 45B59 A =52@>70<8 (70 A5<59) 8 :>=B@>;L=0O 3@C??0 (44 A5<L8) 8AA;54>20;8AL 2=0G0;5 ?> A5<59=K< 48040< "<0BL - >B5F", "<0BL - @515=>:", ">B5F - @515=>:", 0 70B5< 2 F5;><. 57C;LB0BK 8AA;54>20=8O >1J5:B82=> ?>4B25@640NB =87:CN CA?5H=>ABL A>2<5AB=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 A5<L5 C 45B59 A =52@>70<8, =0;8G85 1>;LH>3> G8A;0 =0?@O65=89 8 <0;>?@>4C:B82=KE 459AB289.  =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 MB> 2K720=> :>=D;8:B=K< AB@5<;5=85< AC?@C3>2 : >4=>AB>@>==5<C 4><8=8@>20=8N 2> 2=CB@8A5<59=KE >B=>H5=8OE, =02O7K20=85< A2>59 B>G:8 7@5=8O 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O =52>7<>6=>ABLN A>>B25BAB2>20BL 59 @50;L=>. >48B5;8 ?@8 2708<>459AB288 <564C A>1>9 8 A 45BL<8 8A?>;L7CNB ?@58<CI5AB25==> @07=CN 8 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=CN B0:B8:C. A>15==> MB> 70<5B=> 2 >B=>H5=8OE A 45BL<8, :>340 >48= 87 @>48B5;59 : B><C 65 ?KB05BAO 65AB:> 4><8=8@>20BL, 0 4@C3>9 2> 2A5< 5<C CABC?05B.  :>=B@>;L=KE A5<LOE 157 =52@>70 C 45B59 AB0B8AB8G5A:8 4>AB>25@=> 2KH5 CA?5H=>ABL A>2<5AB=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, >=0 1>;55 ?@>4C:B82=0 8 A>?@>2>6405BAO ACI5AB25==> <5=LH8< G8A;>< M<>F8>=0;L=KE =0?@O65=89. >;55 CA?5H=> 8 4><8=8@>20=85 2 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=8OE, 5A;8 >=> 8<55B <5AB>.  B><C 65 4><8=8@>20=85 =>A8B 1>;55 381:89 8 A8BC0B82=K9 E0@0:B5@. =0G8B5;L=> G0I5, G5< 2 A5<LOE A =52@>70<8 C 45B59, 2 AC?@C65A:8E >B=>H5=8OE 4><8=8@C5B >B5F. 0: 2> 2708<>459AB288 <564C A>1>9, B0: 8 A @515=:><, @>48B5;8 :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??K 1>;LH59 G0ABLN 8A?>;L7CNB A>3;0A>20==CN 8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=CN B0:B8:C.  ?0@5 A @515=:>< @>48B5;8 2708<>459AB2CNB =0 "@02=KE", ?@845@6820OAL <564C A>1>9 >48=0:>2>9 B0:B8:8, :>340 >=8 2<5AB5 CABC?0NB @515=:C 8;8 4><8=8@CNB 2 >B=>H5=8OE A =8<. 0AA<>B@5==K5 >A>15==>AB8 >B=>H5=89 2 A5<LOE 45B59 A =52@>70<8 <>3CB 1KBL A3@C??8@>20=K A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 1) ?>AB@>5=85 >B=>H5=89 2 1@0:5 ?> B8?C =52@>B8G5A:8 <>B828@>20==>3> 2708<>4>?>;=5=8O ?@8 @50;L=>< :>=B@0AB5 G5@B E0@0:B5@0 AC?@C3>2; 2) ;8G=>AB=K5 87<5=5=8O C @>48B5;59, 0 B0:65 =52@>7 C >4=>3> 87 =8E, ?@54H5AB2CNI89 2>7=8:=>25=8N =52@>70 C @515=:0; 3) 8=25@A8O AC?@C65A:8E 8 @>48B5;LA:8E @>;59; 4) >1@07>20=85 M<>F8>=0;L=> >1>A>1;5==KE 4804 8 1;>:8@>20=85 >4=>3> 87 G;5=>2 A5<L8; 5) B@52>6=>-45?@8<8@>20==0O M<>F8>=0;L=0O 0B<>AD5@0 2 A5<L5; 1) ?>2KH5==0O M<>F8>=0;L=0O 2>71C48<>ABL 8 =5?@>4C:B82=K5 =0?@O65=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I5=8O 2 A5<L5; 7) 8A?>;L7>20=85 >4=>3> 87 G;5=>2 A5<L8 2 @>;8 ":>7;0 >B?CI5=8O". A>15==>AB8 2>A?8B0=8O. K C65 :0A0;8AL =5:>B>@KE AB>@>= 2>A?8B0=8O, 2 G0AB=>AB8 =5?@8=OB8O 8 38?5@>?5:8. 5?@8=OB85 ?>4@07C<5205B =5 B>;L:> =565;0==>ABL @515=:0 8;8 =5A>>B25BAB285 53> ?>;0 >6840=8O< <0B5@8 8 >BF0, => 8 =5?@8=OB85 53> 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 @0728B8O, =5A>2<5AB8<KE A E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8, :>=D;8:B=> 8;8 =52@>B8G5A:8 87<5=5==K<8 ?@54AB02;5=8O<8 @>48B5;59. 59B<>B82 MB>3> >B=>H5=8O A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> @515=>: =5 B>B, :B> >6840;AO, :B> >?@024K205B =04564K, A :5< ;53:>, 0 B>B, :B>, =0>1>@>B, 2>A?@>872>48B ?@>1;5<K A0<8E @>48B5;59 8;8 =0?><8=05B =565;0B5;L=K5 G5@BK >4=>3> 87 =8E, >B=8<05B 2A5 2@5<O 8 ?@5?OBAB2C5B @50;870F88 687=5==KE ?;0=>2. >MB><C =081>;55 2K45;ONI59AO AB>@>=>9 8E >B=>H5=8O O2;O5BAO =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL @515=:><, GB> 2AB@5G05BAO C <0B5@59 45B59 A =52@>70<8 4>AB>25@=> G0I5, G5< 2 :>=B@>;L=KE 3@C??0E. !CI5AB25==> 8 B>, GB> C MB8E <0B5@59 =5A:>;L:> 1>;55 <54;5==> @0728205BAO GC2AB2> <0B5@8=AB20, :>B>@>5 A>E@0=O5BAO 1>;55 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O =0 =587<5==>< C@>2=5. 52@>B8G5A:8 >?5:0O @515=:0 8 70<5=OO A>1>9 <8@ A25@AB=8:>2, <0BL >B:07K205B 5<C 8 2 ?@025 =0 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL, =5 4>25@OO 53> >?KBC 8 B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=> >?0A0OAL ?>A;54AB289 53> A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8. 081>;LH55 C482;5=85 C <0B5@59 2K7K20NB A;>20 2@0G0 > =0;8G88 C 8E 45B59, >A>15==> AK=>259, 2>;8. " 0725?" - A =54>25@85< 3>2>@OB >=8.  8E ?@54AB02;5=88 2>;O - MB> 15A?@5:>A;>2=>5 ?>A;CH0=85 8 157>3>2>@>G=>5 ?>4G8=5=85 2A5< 8E B@51>20=8O<. 4=8 <0B5@8 CB25@640NB ?@8 MB><, GB> C @515=:0 =5B A2>53> "O" - >= C?@O<K9. @C385, 70O2;OO, GB> C =53> =5B =8:0:>3> GC2AB20 >B25BAB25==>AB8, >?5:0NB 8 B@52>60BAO 70 AK=0 2 B0:>9 AB5?5=8, GB> ?@0:B8G5A:8 682CB 2<5AB> =53>, ?>4<5=OO 53> 8=48284C0;L=>ABL 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 @5H5=85 ?@>1;5<. "5< A0<K< >=8 =5>A>7=0==> :C;LB828@CNB 7028A8<>ABL @515=:0 >B A51O 8 ?0AA82=>ABL, ?@8=F8?80;L=> B@51CO 2 B> 65 2@5<O >B =53> >B25BAB25==>AB8. >340 2@0G ?@>A8B 45B59 ?5@8>48G5A:8 A>>1I0BL > A>AB>O=88 A2>53> 74>@>2LO ?> B5;5D>=C, 2<5AB> =8E 2A5340 3>2>@OB <0B5@8.  MB>9 CAB0=>2:5 "68BL 2<5AB>", 0 =5 "2<5AB5" A @515=:>< <>65B ?@>O2;OBLAO 8 A25@E?@8=8<0NI55 >B=>H5=85 <0B5@8, :>340 >=0 B0: ;N18B A2>53> @515=:0, GB> 70<5=O5B 53> A>1>9, 0B@>D8@CO 53> 0:B82=>ABL, 8=8F80B82=>ABL 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL. 515=>: 65 <>65B ?5@56820BL B0:>5 >B=>H5=85 :0: =54>25@85 : 53> 2>7<>6=>ABO< 8 =5?>=8<0=85 53> 70?@>A>2. A;8 =565;0==>ABL @515=:0 G0I5 2AB@5G05BAO C <>;>4KE @>48B5;59 A 5I5 =5 AD>@<8@>202H8<AO GC2AB2>< <0B5@8=AB20 8 >BF>2AB20, B> =5?@8=OB85 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 @515=:0 ?@8ACI5 1>;55 "?>68;K<" @>48B5;O<, >1;040NI8< 4><8=0=B=K<8, B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=K<8 8 38?5@A>F80;878@>20==K<8 G5@B0<8 E0@0:B5@0. A;8 <>;>4K5 @>48B5;8 AB@5<OBAO :0: <>6=> @0=LH5 >B40BL @515=:0 2 OA;8 8;8 ?5@5?>@CG8BL 53> A2>8< @>48B5;O<, B> "?>68;K5" @>48B5;8, =0>1>@>B, AB@5<OBAO 87>;8@>20BL 53> >B ;N1KE 2=5A5<59=KE :>=B0:B>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 >B 2@54=>3>, A 8E B>G:8 7@5=8O, 2;8O=8O A25@AB=8:>2 8 =5@54:> ?>;L7CNBAO ;N1K< ?>2>4><, GB>1K =5 2>48BL @515=:0 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O 2 45BA:89 A04 8;8 H:>;C. #AB0=>2>G=>5 >B=>H5=85 @>48B5;59 2 2845 =5?@8=OB8O 8 8E E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 =51;03>?@8OB=> >B@060NBAO =0 ;N128 : @515=:C.  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 >=0 =>A8B ?@8=F8?80;L=K9 8 =5 2K@0605<K9 2=5H=5 E0@0:B5@. 4=0 <0BL 70<5B8;0: "0A:0BL =5;L7O =8 2 :>5< A;CG05, >=8 @0710;BK20NBAO >:>=G0B5;L=>". N1>2L CA;>2=0, B. 5. @515=>: ?@87=0205< 8 ;N18< B>;L:> B>340, :>340 >= >?@024K205B ?>2KH5==K5 >6840=8O 8 B@51>20=8O @>48B5;59.  B><C 65 >=0 8<55B "A>1AB25==8G5A:89" E0@0:B5@. >48B5;8 ;N1OB =5 AB>;L:> A0<>3> @515=:0, A:>;L:> 53> A>>B25BAB285 A2>5<C =02O7K205<><C 8;8 2=CH05<><C >1@07C "O". N1>2L :>=JN=:BC@=0, ?>A:>;L:C =0 =55 A?@>5F8@>20=K >B=>H5=8O @>48B5;59 2 2845 2708<=>9 @52=>AB8 8 =54>2>;LAB20 4@C3 4@C3><. 5@54:> 2 =59 B0:65 0DD5:B82=>-70>AB@5==> (@50:B82=>) A>A@54>B>G8205BAO =58A?>;L7>20==K9 ?>B5=F80; ;N128 @>48B5;59, 8E =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL >B=>H5=8O<8 2 1@0:5. ;O <0B5@59 45B59 A =52@>70<8 B8?8G=0 38?5@>?5:0, :>B>@0O, B0: 65 :0: 8 =5?@8=OB85, >1CA;>2;5=0 4><8=0=B=K<8, B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=K<8 8 38?5@A>F80;878@>20==K<8 G5@B0<8 E0@0:B5@0. <5AB5 A =52@>B8G5A:8 70I8B=>9 <>B820F859 MB> >1JOA=O5B B0:85 AB>@>=K 38?5@>?5:8, :0: AB@5<;5=85 A>?@>2>640BL :064K9 H03 @515=:0, 2A5 45;0BL 70 =53>, =02O7K20BL ?@028;0 8 CA;>2=>AB8, ?@54>E@0=OBL 8 70I8I0BL >B 2>>1@0605<KE >?0A=>AB59, =5>1>A=>20==> 15A?>:>8BLAO, C45@6820BL @515=:0 >:>;> A51O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: >= =5 =C6405BAO 2 MB><, 8 >4=>2@5<5==> B@52>6=> ?@82O7K20BL 53> : A515. ;02=>5 ?0B>35==>5 7=0G5=85 38?5@>?5:8 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> ?>A@54AB2>< 55 @515=:C ?5@5405BAO 15A?>:>9AB2> <0B5@8. ><8<> MB>3>, 38?5@>?5:0 >7=0G05B 8 ?>4<5=C >1I5=8O A> A25@AB=8:0<8 =02O7K205<K< :>=B0:B>< A> 27@>A;K<8, 8 ?>O2;5=85 =5A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 @515=:0, ?0AA82=KE 8 8=D0=B8;L=KE @50:F89.  =081>;LH59 AB5?5=8 38?5@>?5:0 2K@065=0 ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75 8 =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89. A;8 ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75 >=0 A2O70=0 A> AB@0E>< >48=>G5AB20 C <0B5@8 8 55 70>AB@5==>9 ?>B@51=>ABLN =09B8 ?@87=0=85 2 @515=:5, B> ?@8 =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 38?5@>?5:0 >1CA;>2;5=0 A25@EF5==K< AB@0E>< <0B5@8 ?> ?>2>4C ?@54?>;0305<>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 =5AG0ABLO A @515=:><. >A;54=8< >1JOA=O5BAO AB@5<;5=85 <0B5@8 =5>B@K2=> 45@60BL @515=:0 >:>;> A51O, GB> C<5=LH05B 55 15A?>:>9AB2>, => A>740AB 1>;57=5==CN 7028A8<>ABL @515=:0 >B 55 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O 8 ?@>1;5<K ?@8 >1I5=88 A> A25@AB=8:0<8. "5=45=F8O : G@57<5@=> AB@>3><C, >3@0=8G820NI5<C :>=B@>;N ?@>O2;O5BAO C >1>8E @>48B5;59, => 1>;55 2K@065=0 C <0B5@59. '0I5 >3@0=8G820NBAO <0;LG8:8, 0:B82=>ABL 8 ?>4286=>ABL :>B>@KE, >A>15==> 2 ?5@2K5 3>4K 687=8, @074@060NB @>48B5;59. >4>1=K9 :>=B@>;L, :0: 8 38?5@>?5:0, <>65B 1KBL >1CA;>2;5= =52@>B8G5A:8< A>AB>O=85< @>48B5;59, => 2 >B;8G85 >B 38?5@>?5:8 >= 1>;55 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8 <>B828@>20=, ?@5645 2A53> 4><8=0=B=>ABLN (2;0AB=>ABLN) 8 =5381:>ABLN <KH;5=8O. '@57<5@=K9 :>=B@>;L 2K@0605BAO 2 AB@5<;5=88 @>48B5;59 ?@54C?@5640BL 0:B82=>ABL @515=:0, ?@54?8AK20BL 5<C >1@07 459AB289, >3@0=8G820BL 53> A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL, 70?@5I0BL, G0AB> =0:07K20BL, A;548BL 70 ?>?KB:0<8 @515=:0 45;0BL ?>-A2>5<C, 157 <5@K B>@>?8BL 8 ?>43>=OBL 53>. A=>2=>5 ?0B>35==>5 7=0G5=85 :>=B@>;O 2 87CG05<KE A5<LOE 70:;NG05BAO 2 >3@0=8G5=88 ?>4286=>AB8 45B59, GB> ?>2KH05B 8E 2>71C48<>ABL, : B><C 65 >= G0AB> =5 4>AB8305B A2>59 F5;8 2A;54AB285 =52@>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O @>48B5;59 8 @07=>3;0A89 <564C =8<8. > 2 MB>< A;CG05 @>48B5;8 1>;LH5 :@8G0B 8 =0:07K20NB 45B59, GB> >?OBL 65 ?@82>48B : ?>2KH5=8N 8E 2>71C48<>AB8. 3@0=8G5=8O 4>AB>25@=> G0I5 =01;N40NBAO ?@8 =52@0AB5=88 45B59, :>340 @>48B5;8 F5=>9 ?5@5=0?@O65=8O @515=:0 8 C=865=8O GC2AB20 53> "O" ?KB0NBAO 157>3>2>@>G=> =02O70BL 5<C A2>N 2>;N, 70AB02;OO 45;0BL B>, GB> >= =5 <>65B, =5 C<55B 8;8 =5 E>G5B, :>340 >=8 AB@5<OBAO 2> GB> 1K B> =8 AB0;> "?5@5?;028BL" >4=8 G5@BK B5<?5@0<5=B0 @515=:0 =0 4@C385, =5 >1@0I0O 2=8<0=8O =0 A2>5>1@0785 53> ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, B5<? 8 2K=>A;82>ABL >@30=87<0.  87CG5==KE A5<LOE >BACBAB2CNB 687=5@04>AB=K5, =5?>A@54AB25==K5, @>2=K5, 381:85 8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=K5 >B=>H5=8O @>48B5;59 A 45BL<8. <5AB> MB>3> G0AB> ?@>O2;ONBAO 87;8H=OO ?@8=F8?80;L=>ABL, B@51>20B5;L=>ABL 8 =5B5@?8<>ABL, =54>AB0B>G=> ?@8=8<05BAO 2> 2=8<0=85 GC2AB2> A>1AB25==>3> 4>AB>8=AB20, 8<5NB <5AB> G0ABK5 ?>@8F0=8O ?@8 >BACBAB288 >4>1@5=8O 8 ?>E20;K, =5A?@0254;82K5 8 =570A;C65==K5 =0:070=8O, =5A2>52@5<5==0O M<>F8>=0;L=0O >B7K2G82>ABL 8 ?>445@6:0, =54>AB0B>G=0O 4CH52=0O I54@>ABL, B5?;>B0 8 8A:@5==>ABL. 065 2 :>=B@>;8@C5<>< ?@>F5AA5 83@>2KE 70=OB89 @>48B5;8 8 45B8 3>2>@OB 2A5 2<5AB5, ?5@51820O 4@C3 4@C30, G0AB> =0 ?>2KH5==KE B>=0E, >A>15==> @>48B5;8, :>B>@K5 2<5AB> ?>OA=5=89 157 :>=F0 B@51CNB 8;8 G8B0NB =>B0F88, =5 4>25@ONB A;>20< 45B59.  @073>2>@5 >AB05BAO <=>3> =54>A:070==>3>, B5<K =>AOB >4=>1>:89, @CB8==K9 E0@0:B5@, >B=>AOBAO : B><C, 2KCG8; ;8 @515=>: C@>:8 8 2>2@5<O ;8 >= ;53 A?0BL. ;02=>5, GB> @>48B5;8 8 45B8 =5 C<5NB >1I0BLAO <564C A>1>9, ?@54AB02;OBL A51O =0 <5AB5 4@C3 4@C30 8 A>E@0=OBL @>2=K5 8 =5?@8=C645==K5 >B=>H5=8O. !;54C5B 70<5B8BL, GB> B@51>20=8O @>48B5;59 <>3CB 1KBL ?@028;L=K<8 2 A2>59 >A=>25, => =5045:20B=K<8 ?> <0=5@5 2K@065=8O, G5<C 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 A?>A>1AB2C5B 8E =52@>B8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85. >;57=5==> 702KH5==K9 >1J5< B@51>20=89 @>48B5;59 8 0DD5:B82=K9 A?>A>1 ?@54JO2;5=8O 70AB02;ONB 3>2>@8BL >1 8E @50:B82=>< E0@0:B5@5 8 @0AA<0B@820BL :0: A@54AB2> =5>A>7=0==>9 :><?5=A0F88 GC2AB20 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 A>1>9 8 =87:>3> C@>2=O A0<>?@8=OB8O. "0:8< >1@07><, 871KB>G=K5 8 @074@065==>-=5B5@?5;82K5 B@51>20=8O @>48B5;59 2KABC?0NB 2 :0G5AB25 =5?@>872>;L=>3> @8BC0;0 70I8BK "O" >B A>1AB25==KE ?@>1;5< A0<>:>=B@>;O. 52>7<>6=>ABL :@8B8G5A:>3> ?@87=0=8O MB8E ?@>1;5< 8 8E :>=AB@C:B82=>3> ?@5>4>;5=8O ?>@>6405B GC2AB2> 2=CB@5==59 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 8 15A?>:>9AB20, =54>2>;LAB20 A>1>9, ?>2KH5=85 2=CB@5==53> =0?@O65=8O 8 :><?5=A0B>@=CN 0DD5:B82=>-03@5AA82=CN @07@O4:C 2 2845 "?>B>:0" B@51>20=89, C3@>7, A>25B>2 8 ?@54?8A0=89.  MB>< 7=0G5=88 =5A>@07<5@=K9, 0DD5:B82=>-?>2KH5==K9 C@>25=L B@51>20=89 @>48B5;59, :0: 8 =5B5@?5;82>ABL 8 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 2 >1@0I5=88 A @515=:><, <>6=> @0AF5=8BL :0: ?@>O2;5=85 =52@>B8G5A:8 <>B828@>20==>3> B8?0 @5038@>20=8O. @><5 B>3>, <=>385 87 :@09=>AB59 >B=>H5=8O <0B5@8, >A>15==> B@51>20=8O ?540=B8G=>3> A>1;N45=8O @568<0 4=O, O2;ONBAO @5784C0;L=K<8 ?@>O2;5=8O<8 02B>@8B0@87<0 55 <0B5@8, 101CH:8 @515=:0. A5 MB> >1JOA=O5B MDD5:B "7040==>AB8" 2 2>A?8B0=88, :>340 @>48B5;8 ?>ABC?0NB ?>4G5@:=CB> "?@028;L=>", 87;8H=5 ?@8=F8?80;L=>.  :0:>9-B> <5@5 >=8 ?>=8<0NB =55AB5AB25==>ABL A2>53> >B=>H5=8O, => =5 A?>A>1=K 53> ?5@5AB@>8BL, :0: 8 ?@5B2>@8BL A2>8 ?@8=F8?K 2 687=L. @C30O >A>15==>ABL 2>A?8B0=8O - MB> =0;8G85 C @>48B5;59 @O40 A25@EF5==KE 8459, >B@060NI8E 8E B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=K5 8 ?0@0=>9O;L=K5 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0. 45AL 8 A25@EF5==K9 AB@0E ;8H8BLAO 2;8O=8O =0 @515=:0, 8 ?0@0=>9O;L=0O C15645==>ABL 2 B><, GB> 53> =C6=> 2> GB> 1K B> =8 AB0;> >15@530BL >B 2A5E >?0A=>AB59 8 B@C4=>AB59 687=8, GB> =0 =53> ?;>E> 2;8ONB 4@C3>9 @>48B5;L 8 A25@AB=8:8, GB> @515=>: =5 E>G5B 84B8 8< =02AB@5GC (2 B> 2@5<O :0: >= D0:B8G5A:8 =5 <>65B), GB> C =53> =5B A8;K 2>;8, A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, GB> 8< =C6=> 2> 2A5< C?@02;OBL, ?>4G8=82 53> ?>;=>ABLN A515 8 B. 4. I5 >4=0 >A>15==>ABL - MB> =5?@>872>;L=>5 2=CH5=85 45BO< GC2AB20 ;8G=>AB=>9 =54>AB0B>G=>AB8 >A>1>9 <0=5@>9 >1@0I5=8O A =8<8: "BK =8:>340 8 =8G53> =5 45;05HL B0:, :0: =C6=>", "C B51O >4=8 :@09=>AB8, BK =5 <>65HL >1>9B8AL 157 D>:CA>2", "A<>B@8, =5 A45;09...", "5A;8 BK..." 8 B. 4. >4>1=K5 2KA:07K20=8O 2K7K20NB ?@>B82>?>;>6=K9 MDD5:B, ?@8:>2K20O 2=8<0=85 @515=:0 8 A>74020O C =53> =02O7G82>5 65;0=85 @50;87>20BL 70?@5B. "@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=><C =0AB@>N 45B59 G0AB> A?>A>1AB2CNB =5>AB>@>6=K5 2KA:07K20=8O 27@>A;KE G;5=>2 A5<L8 2@>45: ";O<1;88 2K3=0;8, 0 >=8 C65 CA?5;8 A45;0BL E>4K". >AB>O==> ?@>8AE>4OI55 "70@065=85" M<>F8O<8 AB@0E0 8 B@52>38 2 4><0H=8E CA;>28OE 4>:07K205BAO CA8;5=85< 15A?>:>9AB20 C 45B59 ?>A;5 ?5@5@K20 2 ;5G5=88, :>340 >=8 A=>20 1>OBAO 70E>48BL 2 :018=5B 2@0G0, ?C30NBAO 2A53> =>2>3> 8 =5>6840==>3>, 2 B>< G8A;5 8< C65 7=0:><KE <0A>: 8 :C:>;, 87>1@060NI8E 725@59. A5 =51;03>?@8OB=>5 2>7459AB285 @>48B5;59 =0 45B59, 2:;NG0O =5>AB>@>6=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 A;>2, >1;040NI8E >B@8F0B5;L=K< 2=CH0NI8< 459AB285<, <K >1>7=0G05< B5@<8=>< "?0@5=B>35=8O" (>B ;0B. parens - @>48B5;L 8 3@5G. genesis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metus mutandi - ;0B.) :0: AB@0E =5 1KBL A>1>9 >7=0G05B B0:65 AB@0E 8AG57=CBL :0: ;8G=>ABL, @0AB2>@8BLAO, ":0=CBL 2 5BC", B. 5. 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 =5 A>AB>OBLAO, =5 7=0G8BL, =5 1KBL. !B@0E 87<5=5=8O 70>AB@O5B 8=AB8=:B A0<>A>E@0=5=8O 4> AB5?5=8 M3>F5=B@87<0, ?@82>48B : >1I59 =0AB>@>65==>AB8, =54>25@G82>AB8, 1>O7;82>AB8, A25@EF5==K< AB@0E0< >48=>G5AB20, B5<=>BK, 70AK?0=8O 8 A0<>3> A=0, 0 B0:65 2A53> B>3>, GB> A?>A>1=> 5I5 1>;LH5 B@0=AD>@<8@>20BL "O" 8 70<5=8BL 53>.  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 MB> AB@0E GC6>3> 273;O40, ?@>=8:=>25=8O 2 A51O, D0=B0AB8G5A:8E ?@52@0I5=89, 2=CH5=8O 8 38?=>70, E8@C@38G5A:8E 2<5H0B5;LAB2, 8=J5:F89, ?@85<0 B@0=:28;870B>@>2, :C@5=8O 8 0;:>3>;O (C ?>4@>AB:>2). !N40 65 <>6=> >B=5AB8 8 AB@0E AC<0AH5AB28O, AB@0E 1KBL =5 A0<8< A>1>9 2 @57C;LB0B5 C:CA>2 682>B=KE (>A>15==> 1>;L=KE 15H5=AB2>< A>10:) 8;8 70@065=8O <8:@>10<8. !B@0E 87<5=5=8O ;568B 2 >A=>25 >1A5AA82=>3> =52@>70. 0: 8725AB=>, >1A5AA8O >7=0G05B >45@68<>ABL =02O7G82K<8, GC64K<8, ?@82=5A5==K<8 872=5 <KA;O<8 8 AB@0E0<8, :>B>@K5 =5 ?>4G8=ONBAO 2>;52><C :>=B@>;N "O". -B> =0E>48B >B@065=85 2 AB@0E5 GC4>28I, =0?><8=0NI8E G5<-B> G5;>25:0, => 2 >B;8G85 >B =53> 8<5NI8E @>30 8;8 :;K:8. >4>1=K5 ?5@A>=068 >;8F5B2>@ONB B>, GB> <>65B ?@>87>9B8, B. 5. C3@>7C ?>B5@8 "O". !B@0E 1KBL =5 A>1>9, =5 G5;>25:>< - MB> A8<2>; "?0B>A0" - 1>;57=5==KE, =5C?@02;O5<KE A>7=0=85< 8 87<5=ONI8E ?A8E8:C A8;. > 2A5E A;CG0OE AB@0E 87<5=5=8O "O" ?@>O2;O5BAO AB@0E>< =>2>3>, =58725AB=>3>. >MB><C A0<K< B@52>6=K< 4=5< =545;8 C 45B59 A =52@>70<8 O2;O5BAO 2>A:@5A5=L5, 0 2@5<5=5< 3>40 - :>=5F 023CAB0, 2@5<O ?5@54 =0G0;>< H:>;L=KE 70=OB89. !CI5AB25==>, GB> 45B8 ?@8 =0;8G88 AB@0E0 87<5=5=8O, 8 2 G0AB=>AB8 AB@0E0 1KBL 4@C38<, =5 <>3CB A2>1>4=> 8 =5?@8=C645==> ?@8=8<0BL 8 83@0BL @>;8, B. 5. ?@54AB02;OBL A51O =0 <5AB5 4@C38E, ?@>=8:0BLAO 8E <KA;O<8 8 ?5@56820=8O<8, B0: :0: MB> >7=0G05B 4;O =8E C3@>7C 1KBL 4@C38<, ?>B5@OBL >AB0B:8 A2>53> "O", 8AG57=CBL 2 <0AA5, @0AB2>@8BLAO. @5?OBAB2CO @0728B8N M<?0B88, ?@8=OB8N =>2KE @>;59 8 CA2>5=8N =>2>3> >?KB0, AB@0E 87<5=5=8O ?@82>48B : =5381:>AB8 ?>2545=8O, 53> 70I8B=><C E0@0:B5@C, AC65=8N :@C30 >1I5=8O, ?>O2;5=8N "?A524>-O" :0: A>2>:C?=>AB8 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E, =5 :>=B@>;8@C5<KE A>7=0=85< <>B820F89.  A0<>< >1I5< 2845 2=CB@5==89 :>=D;8:B :0: ;8G=>AB=0O ?@>1;5<0 @0728B8O - MB> =52>7<>6=>ABL 2K@078BL A51O 8 =09B8 ?@87=0=85 8 2708<>?>=8<0=85 A@548 >:@C60NI8E, 2=0G0;5 2 A5<L5, 0 70B5< A@548 A25@AB=8:>2.  A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>< :>=B5:AB5 - MB> =5@07@5H8<0O ?@>1;5<0 "1KBL A>1>9 A@548 4@C38E". =CB@5==89 :>=D;8:B, :0:8< 1K >= =8 1K; M;5<5=B0@=K<, :0: 0DD5:B82=0O @50:F8O =0 =5C4>2;5B2>@5=85 >A=>2=KE ?>B@51=>AB59 C 45B59 ?5@2KE ;5B 687=8 8;8 A;>6=K< 2 A2>59 ?5@5@01>B:5 C 45B59 ?>A;54CNI8E ;5B 687=8, 2A5340 >7=0G05B ?5@56820=85 >B@8F0B5;L=KE M<>F89, B. 5. A>AB>O=85 48AAB@5AA0. 0AA<>B@8< @0728B85 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0 2 ?@>F5AA5 D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8. 5@56820=85 15A?>:>9AB20 - ?5@28G=>5, =081>;55 @0==55, 2K@065=85 48AAB@5AA0 2 >B25B =0 459AB285 =5>6840==KE AB8<C;>2 B8?0 CB@0BK 8 70<5=K >:@C65=8O, A><0B8G5A:>3> 8 8=D5:F8>==>3> 701>;520=8O, GC2AB20 1>;8 8 B. 4. A;8 2 8AE>4=>< ?;0=5 15A?>:>9AB2> - MB> 8=AB8=:B82=K9 >B25B >@30=87<0 =0 D878G5A:89 8 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 48A:><D>@B, B> ?> <5@5 @0728B8O GC2AB20 "O" (;8G=>9 >?@545;5==>AB8) >=> A>?@>2>6405BAO ?5@56820=85< ?> ?>2>4C A>1AB25==>9 157>?0A=>AB8.  01AB@0:B=>< A<KA;5 MB> ?@54AB05B C 1>;55 AB0@H8E 45B59 ?@>1;5<>9 "1KBL", B. 5. 68BL, ACI5AB2>20BL 2>>1I5. @>1;5<0 "1KBL" ?>4@07C<5205B AB@0E "=5 1KBL", B. 5. =5 68BL, =5 ACI5AB2>20BL.  <0:A8<0;L=>< 2K@065=88 ?>A;54=55 >7=0G05B AB@0E "1KBL =8G5<" - "<5@B2K<". !B@0E A<5@B8, >A>15==> C 45B59, 701>;520NI8E =52@>7>< AB@0E0, :0: <K C65 =5 @07 >B<5G0;8, 8<55B ?>4 A>1>9 @50;L=K5 >A=>20=8O. @8 40;L=59H5< D>@<8@>20=88 "O-:>=F5?F88" (A>1AB25==>< 7=0G8<>AB8) ?5@56820=8O 2>7=8:0NB 2 A2O78 A ?@5?OBAB28O<8 =0 ?CB8 2K@065=8O "O".  01AB@0:B=>< A<KA;5 MB> B>645AB25==> ?@>1;5<5 "1KBL A>1>9", 0:BC0;870F88 A2>8E 2>7<>6=>AB59 8 ?>B@51=>AB59. @>1;5<0 "1KBL A>1>9" >1>@0G8205BAO AB@0E>< "=5 1KBL A>1>9", 2 2845 @0AA<>B@5==>3> AB@0E0 87<5=5=8O "O". 081>;55 G0AB> MB>B AB@0E, :0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, 2AB@5G05BAO C 45B59 A =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89, A>AB02;OO 254CICN D01C;C 8E 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0. 0 AB0488 D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB=>9 >?@545;5==>AB8 ?5@56820=8O 2>7=8:0NB 2 A2O78 A ?@5?OBAB28O<8 =0 ?CB8 @50;870F88 ?@87=0=8O - A0<>0:BC0;870F88 2 7=0G8<>9 A8AB5<5 G5;>25G5A:8E >B=>H5=89. 0 40==>< MB0?5 @0728B8O 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0 ?@>1;5<0 "1KBL" :0: ?@>1;5<0 A0<>CB25@645=8O ?@5;><;O5BAO ?@>1;5<>9 "1KBL A>1>9 A@548 4@C38E", A 0:F5=B>< =0 "1KBL A>1>9", B. 5. 1KBL ?@87=0==K< A> A2>59 B>G:8 7@5=8O. -B0 ?@>1;5<0 70>AB@O5BAO AB@0E>< "1KBL =5?@87=0==K<", 2K@0605<K<, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, AB@0E>< "1KBL =8:5<", B. 5. =5 ?@54AB02;OBL, =5 7=0G8BL, 0 A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K - AB@0E>< "1KBL B>;L:> A>1>9", B. 5. =5?>=OBK<, 87>;8@>20==K<, ?>:8=CBK< 8 >48=>:8<.  =081>;LH59 AB5?5=8 MB>B AB@0E ?@8ACI 45BO<, 701>;520NI8< 2?>A;54AB288 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7><. $>@<8@>20=85 @>;52>9 AB@C:BC@K >B=>H5=89 8 =@02AB25==>-MB8G5A:8E (<>@0;L=KE) :0B53>@89, ?>2KH5=85 7=0G8<>AB8 "O->1@070" (?@54AB02;5=8O > A515 A B>G:8 7@5=8O 4@C38E) ?@82>48B : ?>O2;5=8N ?5@56820=89 =5A>>B25BAB28O ?@8=OBK< =>@<0< ?>2545=8O 2 B5E 8;8 8=KE A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 3@C??0E, 1C4L MB> A5<LO, 3@C??0 A25@AB=8:>2 8;8 H:>;L=K9 :>;;5:B82. 45AL C65 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > @0725@=CB>9 AB@C:BC@5 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0, :>340 ;8G=0O ?@>1;5<0 "1KBL" ?5@568205BAO :0: ;8G=>AB=0O ?@>1;5<0 "1KBL A>1>9 A@548 4@C38E", A 0:F5=B>< =0 "1KBL A@548 4@C38E", A>>B25BAB2>20BL 8<, 1KBL ?@8=OBK<, >4>1@O5<K<, F5=8<K<. -B0 ?@>1;5<0 ?@5;><;O5BAO AB@0E>< "1KBL =5 B5<", > :>< E>@>H> 3>2>@OB, ?>=8<0NB, ;N1OB 8 C2060NB.  A2>N >G5@54L, MB> >7=0G05B =5 B>;L:> AB@0E ?>B5@OBL A>F80;L=>5 >4>1@5=85, => 8 2 1>;55 H8@>:>< A<KA;5 - AB@0E =5C40G8, ?>@065=8O, :@CH5=8O =04564, B. 5. AB@0E 45;0BL "=5 B>", 1KBL "=5 B5<", "=8:5<" 4;O 4@C38E - "?CABK< <5AB><", "=8G5<", 2 8B>35 =5 ?@54AB02;OBL, =5 7=0G8BL, =5 A>>B25BAB2>20BL, =5 A>AB>OBLAO, =5 1KBL G5;>25:><. "0: 70<K:05BAO <>B820F8>==K9 :@C3 =52@>B8G5A:>3> 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0. !B@0E =5A>AB>OBLAO, =5 A>>B25BAB2>20BL, 1KBL "=5 B5<" 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB5?5=8 2AB@5G05BAO C 45B59 (8 ?5@28G=> C 8E @>48B5;59) A> 2A5<8 :;8=8G5A:8<8 D>@<0<8 =52@>70.  =081>;LH59 AB5?5=8 >= 2K@065= ?@8 =52@0AB5=88. "0:8< >1@07><, =52@>B8G5A:89 :>=D;8:B :0: ;8G=>AB=> =5@07@5H8<0O ?@>1;5<0 "1KBL A>1>9 A@548 4@C38E" ?@5;><;O5BAO 2 48=0<8:5 ?@>1;5<>9 "1KBL" (1070;L=K< C@>2=5< 15A?>:>9AB20 ?@8 =52@>75 AB@0E0), ?@>1;5<>9 "1KBL A>1>9" (?@8 =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89), ?@>1;5<>9 "1KBL A>1>9 A@548 4@C38E" A 0:F5=B>< =0 "1KBL A>1>9" (?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75) 8;8 "1KBL A@548 4@C38E" (?@8 =52@0AB5=88). @>1;5<0 "1KBL" :0: ?@>1;5<0 ACI5AB2>20=8O 8 :0: ?@>1;5<0 "1KBL G5;>25:><" 8<55B A2>59 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABLN ?@>1;5<C "=5 1KBL" :0: ?@>1;5<C 548=AB20 "O", ?@>O2;O5<CN AB@0E>< "=5 1KBL 2>>1I5" - "1KBL =8G5<" (?@8 =52@>75 AB@0E0), "=5 1KBL A>1>9" - 2 2845 AB@0E0 87<5=5=8O "O" (?@8 =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89), AB@0E>< "1KBL =8:5<" (?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75) 8 1KBL "=5 B5<" (?@8 =52@0AB5=88). 0;L=59H55 @0728B85 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0 ?@>O2;O5BAO ?@>1;5<>9 A>3;0A>20=8O 42CE 2 A2>59 >A=>25 F5;>AB=KE 0A?5:B>2 ACI5AB2>20=8O - "1KBL A>1>9" 8 "1KBL A@548 4@C38E". @>1;5<0 A>3;0A>20=8O 70>AB@O5BAO >4=>2@5<5==> ACI5AB2CNI8<, => ?@>B82>?>;>6=> =0?@02;5==K< AB@0E>< "1KBL B>;L:> A>1>9" 8 "1KBL B>;L:> 4@C38<", GB> 2K@0605B ;8G=>AB=K9 48AA>=0=A, >BACBAB285 2=CB@5==53> 548=AB20, =5@07@5H8<CN 1>@L1C ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59, A>AB>O=85 2=CB@5==59 =5CAB>9G82>AB8 8 15A?>:>9AB20. @>B82>@5G82>ABL 2=CB@5==59 ?>78F88 1>;L=KE =52@>70<8 >B@0605BAO ;018;L=>ABLN 8E A0<>>F5=:8, :>340 702KH5==K9 C@>25=L ?@8BO70=89 A>?@>2>6405BAO =525@85< 2 A2>8 A8;K 8 2>7<>6=>AB8. 52>7<>6=>ABL C4>2;5B2>@5=8O 7=0G8<KE ?>B@51=>AB59, :0: 8 2>A?@8OB85 A51O =5?@8=OBK<, =5>4>1@O5<K< 8 =5F5=8<K<, B. 5. =5 A>>B25BAB2CNI8< ?@54AB02;5=8O< >:@C60NI8E, =5A?>A>1=K< >?@0240BL 8E B@51>20=8O 8 =04564K, ?@82>48B : ?>O2;5=8N C 45B59 B@52>38 ?> ?>2>4C A0<>3> D0:B0 8E ACI5AB2>20=8O, >ICI5=8N A2>59 =8:G5<=>AB8 8 =5=C6=>AB8, B. 5. : @C48<5=B0@=K< 845O< A0<>C=8G865=8O. "@02<8@CNI55 >A>7=0=85 >B;8G89 >B A25@AB=8:>2 8 0DD5:B82=> ?5@568205<>5 >B:;>=5=85 ?@54AB02;5=89 > A0<>< A515 254CB : CA8;5=8N B@52>6=>9 ?5@5@01>B:8 >?KB0 8 =5C25@5==>AB8 2 A515 2 2845 G0ABKE A><=5=89 8 >?0A5=89, B@52>6=>3> ?@54GC2AB28O =5C40G8, 87;8H=59 >AB>@>6=>AB8 8 =5@5H8B5;L=>AB8 2 >1I5=88, B. 5. : @0728B8N B>@<>78<KE G5@B E0@0:B5@0. 5?@8OB85 =52@>B8G5A:8 87<5=5==>3> @515=:0 A25@AB=8:0<8 @0=8B 53> A0<>;N185 8 70AB02;O5B 871530BL 5AB5AB25==>3> :@C30 >1I5=8O.  B> 65 2@5<O >= =5 <>65B =09B8 C4>2;5B2>@ONI53> 53> >1I5=8O 4><0. "0: C =53> ?>O2;O5BAO GC2AB2> >48=>G5AB20, ?>@>640NI55, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 8=48284C0;87<, :0: @50:F8N =0 =5?>=8<0=85 A> AB>@>=K >:@C60NI8E. =48284C0;87<, :0: ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL :>;;5:B8287<C, A>7405B ?@5?OBAB28O 2 ?>A;54CNI59 A>F80;L=>9 040?B0F88, :>340 B0:85 45B8, ?> A;>20< >4=>9 87 <0B5@59, 4>;6=K "?5@51>;5BL", ?@5645 G5< 2>94CB 2 :>;;5:B82. "0:8< >1@07><, =52@>7K 2 H8@>:>< A<KA;5 A;>20 ?@54AB0NB ?5@54 =0<8 :0: >4=0 87 <>45;59 2>7=8:=>25=8O ?@>1;5< ?>=8<0=8O 8 >1I5=8O ;N459.  8B>35 >1I89 ?0B>35=57 =52@>7>2 <>6=> ?@54AB028BL A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 1) A=865=85 18>B>=CA0 8 87<5=5=85 @50:B82=>AB8 2 @57C;LB0B5 459AB28O >A;01;ONI8E 70I8B=K5 A8;K >@30=87<0 0=B5-, ?5@8- 8 ?>AB=0B0;L=KE D0:B>@>2; 2) A2>5>1@0785 ?@5<>@184=>3> @0728B8O 2 2845 3;02=K< >1@07>< A5=78B82=>AB8 8 ;0B5=B=>AB8, C4;8=ONI8E ?@>F5AA A>F80;870F88 8 CA8;820NI8E 2>A?@88<G82>ABL : 459AB28N AB@5AA>2KE D0:B>@>2. 0;8G85 B@C4=>A>2<5AB8<KE A>G5B0=89 =5:>B>@KE G5@B B5<?5@0<5=B0 8 E0@0:B5@0, =0@CH0NI8E 10;0=A 2708<>459AB28O 2=CB@5==8E A8; @0728B8O; 3) 70>AB@5=85 :>=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>-35=5B8G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 ?>4 2>7459AB285< AB@5AA>2KE D0:B>@>2; 4) D>@<8@>20=85 =5C40G=>3> ;8G=>AB=>3> >?KB0, ?@5;><;O5<>3> 15A?>:>9AB2><, =0?@O65=85< 8 0DD5:B82=>-70I8B=K< B8?>< @5038@>20=8O; 5) 2>7=8:=>25=85 2=CB@5==53> =5@07@5H8<>3> :>=D;8:B0 ?>4 2;8O=85< =5C40G=>3> 8 4@0<0B8G5A:8 ?5@568205<>3> >?KB0 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 8 >1CA;>2;5==0O MB8< 4578=B53@0F8O ?@>F5AA0 D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8; 6) ?5@5=0?@O65=85 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8E, 040?B0F8>==KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 >@30=87<0 8 :@8B8G5A:>5 =0@0AB0=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 =0?@O65==>AB8 ?>4 2;8O=85< AB@5AA>2KE CA;>289 @0728B8O, ?>402;5==>3> 2=5H=53> @074@065=8O 8 =5@07@5H8<>9 ;8G=>AB=>9 8 A5<59=>9 A8BC0F88; 7) "A@K2" 2KAH8E =59@>@53C;OB>@=KE DC=:F89 A ?>O2;5=85< @0725@=CB>9 :;8=8G5A:>9 :0@B8=K =52@>70.  :0G5AB25 "?CA:>2>3>", 8;8 "@07@5H0NI53>", D0:B>@0 2KABC?05B >AB@0O ?A8E8G5A:0O B@02<0. >4 2>7459AB285< 48AAB@5AA0, ?>4@K20NI53> 70I8B=K5 A8;K >@30=87<0, 45:><?5=A8@CNBAO "<5AB0 =08<5=LH53> A>?@>B82;5=8O" =0 >@30=8G5A:8-45D8F8B0@=>< 8 :>=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>-35=5B8G5A:>< C@>2=5, 2 5I5 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 A=860NBAO 18>B>=CA, 687=5==0O 0:B82=>ABL 8 25@0 2 A51O, 8AG5705B A0<>1KB=>ABL 8 ?@5:@0I05BAO ?@>F5AA B2>@G5A:>3> A0<>@0728B8O. @54AB02;5==0O A ?>78F89 A8AB5<=>3> 0=0;870 >1I0O AE5<0 ?0B>35=570 =52@>70 :0: ?A8E>35==>3> 701>;520=8O D>@<8@CNI59AO ;8G=>AB8 <>65B 1KBL 25AL<0 @07;8G=>9 ?@8 B5E 8;8 8=KE 53> :;8=8G5A:8E D>@<0E. ;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 CA;>289 D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 O2;O5BAO >A=>2>9 ?0B>35=5B8G5A:>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, =0?@02;5==>9 =0 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 ?A8E8G5A:>3> 548=AB20 ;8G=>AB8 8 C:@5?;5=85 040?B0F8>==KE, =59@>@53C;OB>@=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 >@30=87<0. ;020 3. A=>2=K5 =0?@02;5=8O 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2. 17>@ >B5G5AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@K. 0 A>2@5<5==>< MB0?5 @0728B8O ?A8E>B5@0?88 =01;N405BAO 87<5=5=85 55 =0?@02;5==>AB8 >B =>7>F5=B@8G5A:>9 (CAB0=>2:0 =0 1>;57=L) : 0=B@>?>F5=B@8G5A:>9 (CAB0=>2:0 =0 G5;>25:0) 8 40;55 : A>F8>F5=B@8G5A:>9 (CAB0=>2:0 =0 A2O78 ;8G=>AB8 A A>F80;L=>9 A@54>9) >@85=B0F88 (010=>2 . ., 1976). !>2@5<5==0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O - MB> :><?;5:A=>5 ;5G51=>5 2>7459AB285 =0 ?A8E8:C 1>;L=>3>, 0 G5@57 =55 =0 25AL 53> >@30=87< A F5;LN CAB@0=5=8O 1>;57=5==KE A8<?B><>2 8 87<5=5=8O >B=>H5=8O : A515, A2>5<C A>AB>O=8N 8 >:@C60NI59 A@545 ( >6=>2 . ., 1971). 54CI55 7=0G5=85 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?@8405BAO ?>1C645=8N 1>;L=>3> : 0:B82=><C, A>7=0B5;L=><C A>CG0AB8N 2 1>@L15 70I8B=KE A8; >@30=87<0 ?@>B82 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E D0:B>@>2, :>340 ?A8E>B5@0?8O 2KABC?05B :0: F5;>AB=0O A8AB5<0 2708<>A2O70==KE 8 2708<>4>?>;=ONI8E <5B>4>2 ;5G51=>3> 2>7459AB28O =0 ;8G=>ABL 1>;L=>3>, 0 G5@57 =55 =0 1>;57=L (5EB5@52 . ., 1954), 0:B828@>20=8N 45OB5;L=>AB8 1>;L=>3>, 53> A?>A>1=>AB8 : @>ABC, ?A8E8G5A:><C >1>30I5=8N, 0 G5@57 MB> : ?@5>4>;5=8N =5045:20B=KE 1>;57=5==KE @50:F89 (>=AB>@C< !. ., 1962). 0B>35=5B8G5A:0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O :0: ?A8E>B5@0?8O >B=>H5=89 (OA8I52 . ., 1973) 70:;NG05BAO 2 ?5@5AB@>9:5 ;8G=>AB8 1>;L=>3> =52@>7>< =0 >A=>25 459AB25==>3> >A>7=0=8O ?@8G8= 8 ?@>F5AA0 @0728B8O 1>;57=8 8 ?5@5AB@>9:8 >B=>H5=8O 1>;L=>3> : ?0B>35==K< D0:B>@0< 701>;520=8O (OA8I52 . ., 1966). -B0 ?5@5AB@>9:0 =0?@02;5=0 =0 D>@<8@>20=85 C 1>;L=>3> ?@028;L=>3> >B@065=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8 ?@028;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O : =59 (OA8I52 . ., 1965). 0B>35=5B8G5A:0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O A>AB>8B 87 B@5E MB0?>2. 0 ?5@2>< 87CG05BAO 8AB>@8O D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8. 0 2B>@>< 2KOA=O5BAO ACI=>ABL :>=D;8:B0, 8 15A54K A 1>;L=K< =0?@02;ONBAO B0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K >= A0< CAB0=>28; 0AA>F80B82=K5 A2O78 <564C >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8 ?0B>35==>9 A8BC0F88 8 >A>15==>ABO<8 53> 1>;57=5==KE >B=>H5=89. 0 B@5BL5< >ACI5AB2;O5BAO @5:>=AB@C:F8O =0@CH5==KE >B=>H5=89 (0G5?8F:89 . ., /:>2;520 . ., 1960). !CI5AB25==K9 2:;04 2 ?0B>35=5B8G5A:CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N 2=5A5= . . 20=>2K< (1973, 1974), :>B>@K9 @0A:@K; 7=0G5=85 4570:BC0;870F88 ?5@56820=89 1>;57=8 8 <>18;870F88 70I8B=KE ;8G=>AB=KE <5E0=87<>2. ;O ?A8E>B5@0?88 206=>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B D>@<8@>20=85 2 A>7=0=88 1>;L=KE "MB0;>=0 2@0G0", 2 :>B>@>< >1>1I05BAO >?KB >1I5=8O A =081>;55 02B>@8B5B=K<8 2 8E 687=8 ;8F0<8 8 >B@0605BAO @O4 AB5@5>B8?>2 >1I5=8O: @C:>2>48B5;L, 2>A?8B0B5;L, ?0@B=5@, 4@C3 ("0H;K:>2 . ., 1972).  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O @07@01>B0=K @5:><5=40F88 ?> 4803=>AB8:5 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2 2 CA;>28OE A?5F80;878@>20==>3> >B45;5=8O (0@20A0@A:89 . . 8 4@., 1979; 0@20A0@A:89 . ., 1980), :;0AA8D8:0F88 <5B>48: ?A8E>B5@0?88 (O3:>2 . $., 1967; 8?30@B . ., 1974) A CG5B>< MB0?0 @0728B8O 1>;57=8 (0:>A8=0 . ., 1975). 0A:@KBK <=>385 87 <5E0=87<>2 459AB28O @0F8>=0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 (0=:>2 . ., 1974), 38?=>B5@0?88 (;0B>=>2 . ., 1962; >6=>2 . ., 1974), 2=CH5=8O =0O2C 8 A0<>2=CH5=8O (C@=> . ., 1974), 0CB>35==>9 B@5=8@>2:8 (!2O4>I . ., 1961: 0=>2 . . 8 4@., 1973), ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88 (!;CF:89 . !., 1979). 07@01>B0=K =0?@02;5==K5 <5B>48:8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75 ("C?8FK= .. /., 1973), =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=88 (A0B80=8 . ., 1974), ?A8E0AB5=88 (C@=> . ., 1974) 8 ;>3>=52@>75 ((:;>2A:89 . ., 1966).  A>2@5<5==>9 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2 (818E !. !., 1967, 1974; @>9A<0= . ., 1969; 0@20A0@A:89 . ., C@75=:> . ., 1975; AC@8=0 . ., 5;8:-0@A040=>2 . .., 1979) 8 55 <>48D8:0F8OE (>;L?5@B . ., 1972) =0E>4OB A2>5 ?@5;><;5=85 ?>;>65=8O ?A8E>;>388 <0;KE 3@C?? (!25=F8F:89 . ., 1966; C7L<8= . !., 1967; >;:>2 . ., 1970; 0@K38= . ., 1971), ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O B5>@8O :>;;5:B820 (5B@>2A:89 . ., 1975, 1979) 8 2>?@>AK 2>A?@8OB8O G5;>25:0 G5;>25:>< 2 ?@>F5AA5 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 (>40;52 . ., 1965, 1975). >;CG8;0 @0728B85 8 A5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O, :>B>@0O =0?@02;5=0 =0 87<5=5=85 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 8 CAB@0=5=85 M<>F8>=0;L=KE =0@CH5=89 2 A5<L5 (O35@ . . 1973). !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O >B;8G05BAO >B >1KG=KE 15A54 A @>4AB25==8:0<8 ?0F85=B0 4;O ?>;CG5=8O >1J5:B82=KE A2545=89 8;8 4;O =0AB02;5=89 2 >B=>H5=88 @568<0 8 ;5G5=8O 1>;L=>3>. !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O - MB> ?@>F5AA 3@C??>2>3> 2708<>459AB28O, 8<5NI89 A2>N >A>1CN 48=0<8:C. 5@5AB@>9:0 >B=>H5=89 2 A5<L5 4>AB8305BAO ?>A;5 4;8B5;L=>9 8=48284C0;L=>9 @01>BK A :064K< 87 AC?@C3>2, ?>=8<0=85< 8<8 ?@8G8= A5<59=KE :>=D;8:B>2 8 A2O78 <564C 2>7=8:=>25=85< =52@>70 C >4=>3> 8;8 =5A:>;L:8E G;5=>2 A5<L8 8 A8BC0F859 2 A5<L5. @8 >BACBAB288 :>=B0:B0 A >4=8< 87 =8E A5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O ?@>2>48BAO 42C<O A?5F80;8AB0<8, >1KG=> 2@0G>< 8 ?A8E>;>3><. >A;54CNI85 A>2<5AB=K5 2AB@5G8 A AC?@C30<8 ?@>8AE>4OB @07 2 =545;N 2 B5G5=85 2-3 <5A. 0 MB> 2@5<O C;CGH05BAO 2708<>?>=8<0=85 <564C =8<8 8 8E 2708<>>B=>H5=8O ?>4=8<0NBAO =0 1>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L. "5 65 7040G8 AB02OBAO ?@8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =0@CH5==KE A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 <5B>40<8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  3@C??5 CG0AB2CNB =5A:>;L:> AC?@C65A:8E ?0@, 8=>340 A> AB0@H8<8 45BL<8. !N65BK 4;O ?@>83@K20=8O 8 >1AC645=8O A8BC0F89 2K18@0NBAO 87 687=8 ?0F85=B>2 8;8 =>AOB 1>;55 >1>1I5==K9 E0@0:B5@. >4G5@:8205BAO 1>;LH>5 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, B0: :0: =8345 ?A8E80B@ B0: 1;87:> =5 A>?@8:0A05BAO A 687=5==K<8 ?@>1;5<0<8, :0: 2 AD5@5 A5<L8 (O35@ , ., 8H8=0 ". ., 1976). A>1K9 8=B5@5A ?@54AB02;ONB 40==K5 >1 MDD5:B82=>AB8 ?A8E>B5@0?88. A?>;L7>20=85 :;8=8:>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E :@8B5@852 >F5=:8 ?>:07K205B MDD5:B82=>ABL ?0B>35=5B8G5A:8 >1>A=>20==>3> <5B>40 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2, A1;865=85 2 55 ?@>F5AA5 ?@54AB02;5=89 1>;L=>3> > "=0AB>OI5<" 8 "65;05<><" "O" (>2;52 . . 8 4@., 1976), ACI5AB25==>5 ?>2KH5=85 A0<>>F5=:8 (0@20A0@A:89 . . 8 4@., 1977), >B=>A8B5;L=CN AB>9:>ABL D@CAB@0F8>==KE @50:F89 (8=:H=0 . ., 1976), =5@02=><5@=CN 48=0<8:C ;8G=>AB=KE 87<5=5=89 2 ?@>F5AA5 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 (AC@8=0 . ., 1979). @8 >F5=:5 MDD5:B82=>AB8 ?0B>35=5B8G5A:>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 AG8B05BAO F5;5A>>1@07=K< 8A?>;L7>20=85 A;54CNI8E :@8B5@852 ($54>@>2 . ., 1976): 1) A8<?B><0B8G5A:>3> C;CGH5=8O; 2) AB5?5=8 >A>7=0=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E <5E0=87<>2 1>;57=8; 3) AB5?5=8 @5:>=AB@C:F88 =0@CH5==KE >B=>H5=89 ;8G=>AB8; 4) C;CGH5=8O A>F80;L=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O 1>;L=>3>. #AB0=>2;5=0 7028A8<>ABL @57C;LB0B>2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >B >A>15==>AB59 ;8G=>AB8 1>;L=>3> =52@>7><, AB5?5=8 53> @5A>F80;870F88 8 @5040?B0F88 (O35@ . ., 1971). 08<5=LH55 G8A;> @5F8482>2 >1=0@C65=> C ;8F, 70=OBKE ;N18<K< 45;>< 8 C4>2;5B2>@5==KE 2 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>< ?;0=5, B. 5. C ;8F A>F80;L=> :><?5=A8@>20==KE (O35@ . ., 1976). @C??>2K5 8 A5<59=K5 D>@<K ?A8E>B5@0?88 045:20B=K <5B>40< @5018;8B0F88 (@5A>F80;870F88) 1>;L=KE (010=>2 . ., 0@20A0@A:89 . ., 1978).  H8@>:>< A<KA;5 A;>20 ?>4 @5018;8B0F859 ?>=8<05BAO @07=>AB>@>==89 ?@>F5AA 2>7459AB28O =0 1>;L=>3> 8 53> <8:@>A@54C, 2 :>B>@>< >4=8< 87 206=59H8E ?@8=F8?>2 O2;O5BAO "?0@B=5@AB2>" 2@0G0 8 1>;L=>3> 2 4>AB865=88 >1I59 F5;8 - 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O ;8G=>3> 8 A>F80;L=>3> AB0BCA0 ?0F85=B0 (010=>2 . ., 1976). ;8=8G5A:0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O =52@>7>2 C 45B59, =5A<>B@O =0 @O4 >1I8E ?>;>65=89 A ?A8E>B5@0?859 C 27@>A;KE, 8<55B A2>8 >A>15==>AB8 8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN =0CG=CN 48AF8?;8=C (CO=>2 . ., 1971; >20;52 . ., 1972). 515=>: =5@54:> =5 >A>7=05B ?@8G8= A2>53> 1>;57=5==>3> A>AB>O=8O, ?>MB><C 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 45B59 1>;LH55 2=8<0=85, G5< C 27@>A;KE, C45;O5BAO ?@85<0< >B2;5G5=8O 8 ?5@5:;NG5=8O (!8<5>= ". ., 1958). 0G8=0O A> AB0@H53> 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 7040G0 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A>AB>8B 2 D>@<8@>20=88 C 1>;L=>3> =52@>7>< >A>7=0==>3> >B=>H5=8O : A2>8< 1>;57=5==K< ?@>O2;5=8O<, ?@82;5G5=88 53> : 1>@L15 A> A2>8<8 =54>AB0B:0<8 8 ?5@52>A?8B0=88 53> ;8G=>AB8 (!CE0@520 . ., 0?845A . ., 1959).  ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 8 2>A?8B0B5;L=>9 @01>BK 45B8 =0G8=0NB ?>=8<0BL, >A<KA;820BL A2O78 8 7=0G5=85 B>3>, GB> >?@545;O5B 8E ?>2545=85. ;02=K< O2;O5BAO >1@07>20=85 =0 MB>9 >A=>25 @53C;OF88 ?>B@51=>AB59, :>B>@0O =0 2KA>:>< C@>2=5 A2O70=0 A A0<>2>A?8B0=85< (OA8I52 . ., 1960). >=5G=0O F5;L 4;8B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 ?5@52>A?8B0=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 ?>AB0=>2:5 @515=:0 =04 =5?@8OB=>9 A8BC0F859, B. 5. 2 ?@828B88 5<C =02K:>2 ;CGH53> ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, C<5=8O ?@5>4>;520BL ?A8E>B@02<8@CNICN A8BC0F8N (75@5F:89 . ., 1934). "5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>3=>7 7028A8B >B @0728B8O >1I5AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O C 1>;L=>3> =52@>7>< - G5< 1>;LH5 >= A2O70= A :>;;5:B82><, B5< ;53G5 ?5@52>A?8B0=85 53> ;8G=>AB8 (!CE0@520 . ., 1959). &5;5=0?@02;5==>5 2>7459AB285 =0 ;8G=>ABL 1>;L=>3> =52@>7>< A 2>A?8B0B5;L=K<8 F5;O<8 >1>7=0G05BAO :0: ;5G51=>-?5403>38G5A:>5 8 A>AB02;O5B =5>BJ5<;5<CN G0ABL >1I53> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O. . . OA8I52 (1960) 2 MB>9 A2O78 >B<5G05B, GB> 1>@L10 A =52@>70<8 - MB> ?>3@0=8G=0O <564C ?5403>38:>9 8 <548F8=>9 >1;0ABL, 0 ?A8E>B5@0?8O O2;O5BAO AB>;L:> 65 <5B>4>< ;5G5=8O, A:>;L:> 8 ?5@52>A?8B0=8O ;8G=>AB8. 0==K9 ?>4E>4 ?@54AB02;5= @0=55 . . !CE0@52>9 (1924), :>B>@0O 2 A2>5< >?KB5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 AG8B05B ACI5AB25==K< ?>4=OBL C @515=:0 GC2AB2> C25@5==>AB8 2 A2>8E A8;0E. ! MB>9 F5;LN 8A?>;L7C5BAO <5B>4 >B25BAB25==KE ?>@CG5=89, =0G8=0O A ;53:8E 8 ?5@5E>4O : A5@L57=K<. @0G >?8@05BAO =0 1>;55 @0728BK5 DC=:F88. # EC4>65AB25==> >40@5==KE 45B59 ?CB5< MAB5B8G5A:>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 2KO2;O5BAO B0 ?>78F8O, 2 :>B>@>9 >=8 GC2AB2CNB A51O C25@5==K<8. 5G51=>-?5403>38G5A:85 A@54AB20 ?>2KH0NB 2>7<>6=>AB8 A0<>@53C;8@>20=8O 8 C?@06=ONB A?>A>1=>ABL : 7045@6:0<. . . >20;52 8 . . CO=>2 (1979) =0E>4OB >1;0ABL @0F8>=0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 C 45B59 H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 >1I59 A ;5G51=>9 ?5403>38:>9. . . CO=>2 8 . 3. @0?:8= (1977), >?@545;OO >A=>2=K5 B5=45=F88 A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2, AB@040NI8E =52@>70<8, 284OB >A=>2=CN 7040GC ?A8E>B5@0?88 2 ;5G5=88 A ?>A;54CNI59 ;8G=>AB=>9 8 A>F80;L=>9 @5018;8B0F859. 5G51=0O ?5403>38:0, A?>A>1AB2CO ;5G5=8N, 3;02=>9 7040G59 AB028B @0728B85 8 >1CG5=85 1>;L=>3> @515=:0 8 ?>4@>AB:0, 2>A?8B0=85 2 =5< A>F80;L=KE, B@C4>2KE 8 MB8G5A:8E CAB0=>2>:. . 3. @0?:8= 8 . . "@8D>=>2 (1979) C:07K20NB, GB> ;5G51=0O ?5403>38:0 ?@8 =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:8E 701>;520=8OE 8<55B 8 A2>N >B45;L=CN AD5@C ?@8;>65=8O 8 GB>, B0:8< >1@07><, =5?@02><5@=> ;N1>5 <548:>-?5403>38G5A:>5 2>7459AB285 >1>7=0G0BL :0: ?A8E>B5@0?8N. -B> A?@0254;82>5 70<5G0=85 >A=>20=> =0 @07=>AB>@>==5< >?KB5 ;5G51=>9 ?5403>38:8 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 (@81>54>2 . !., 1926; 5H0?5;8 . ., 1958; 527=5@ . !., 1962; 0:H25@ . ., 1971; >30= . ., 1977). >4G5@:8205BAO, GB> 2=8<0=85 ?5403>30 4>;6=> 1KBL =0?@02;5=> =5 =0 "2>A?8B0=85 B>@<>65=8O", 0 =0 2>A?8B0=85 A8;L=KE ?>1C640NI8E 687=5==KE <>B82>2, :>B>@K5 =587156=> 70B>@<>7OB =5=C6=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL (=>E8= . ., 1958). "0:65 AG8B05BAO, GB> =5 1>@L10 A M<>F8O<8 8 8A:>@5=5=85 8E, 0 ?@028;L=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 8 F5;5A>>1@07=>5 =0?@02;5=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 M=5@388 @515=:0 O2;ONBAO >4=>9 87 >A=>2=KE 7040G A>F80;L=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O (@:8= . ., 1968). >A?8B0=85 <>B82>2 =5>B45;8<> >B 2>A?8B0=8O ?5@A?5:B82=KE ?CB59, A>F80;L=> ?>;57=>9 F5;8 (0:0@5=:> . !. 1950), CB25@645=8O 2 @515=:5 A>F8>F5=B@87<0, :>;;5:B82=KE =>@< 687=8 (>38E5A . ., 1929). @8 MB>< =5>1E>48<> A>1;N40BL A>>B25BAB285 <564C A8;>9 2>7459AB28O 8 A8;>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K @515=:0 8 A>87<5@OBL B@51>20=8O : @515=:C A 53> 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 (@0A=>3>@A:89 . ., 1954; C4@O2F520 . ., 1958). &5;5A>>1@07=> 8A?>;L7>20=85 =0 ?5@2KE MB0?0E ?A8E>B5@0?88 B0:8E B@048F8>==KE ?@85<>2, :0: ;5G51=>->E@0=8B5;L=K9 @568<, ?@54>E@0=5=85, CA?>:>5=85, >B2;5G5=85, ?5@5:;NG5=85 (>38E5A . ., 1929; !8<5>= ". ., 1958). 5B>4 >E@0=8B5;L=>3> B>@<>65=8O A;54C5B A>G5B0BL A <5B>4>< B@5=8@>2:8 =5@2=KE ?@>F5AA>2 (C4@O2F520 . ., 1957).  ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2 2K45;ONBAO B@8 AB0488. 0 ?5@2>9 CAB0=02;8205BAO :>=B0:B A 1>;L=K<, =0 2B>@>9 2A:@K205BAO ACI=>ABL :>=D;8:B0, =0 B@5BL59 1>;L=><C 405BAO CAB0=>2:0, ?><>30NI0O @07@5H8BL :>=D;8:B=CN A8BC0F8N. A;8 C 45B59 2-6 ;5B 2 83@5 2KO2;O5BAO :>=D;8:B 8 =0<5G0NBAO ?CB8 53> @07@5H5=8O, B> C 45B59 6-9 ;5B MB>9 65 F5;8 A;C60B @8AC=:8. >A;5 10 ;5B F5;5A>>1@07=> ?@>2545=85 ?;0=><5@=KE 15A54 (!8<5>= ". . 8 4@., 1935). @8<5=5=85 @07JOA=ONI59 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2>7<>6=> C 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=> @0728BKE 45B59 2 2845 @0AA:070 2@0G0 > A8BC0F88, 1;87:>9 : B>9, :>B>@0O B@02<8@>20;0 @515=:0. ">340 >= <>65B ;CGH5 >F5=8BL A2>5 ?>2545=85 ?@8 CA;>288 C2065=8O : 53> ;8G=>AB8 (!CE0@520 . ., 1959). # ?>4@>AB:>2, 1>;L=KE =52@>70<8, ?>:070=K @0725@=CBK5 ?@85<K @0F8>=0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 (/:>2;520 . ., 0G5?8F:89 . ., 1961). @8 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8E =0@CH5=8OE 8 ?A8E>?0B8OE <5B>4K ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?@8<5=ONBAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B8?0 0:F5=BC0F88 E0@0:B5@0 8 C2;5G5=89 ?>4@>AB:0 (-945<8;;5@ -. ., 1973; 8G:> . ., 1977; !:@>F:89 .. ., 1978). !CI5AB2C5B <=5=85 > B><, GB> ?@8 M<>F8>=0;L=>-;018;L=>9 0:F5=BC0F88 =5>1E>48<> 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?859 4>18BLAO M<>F8>=0;L=>3> >B@5038@>20=8O 8 2 MB>B <><5=B 8A?>;L7>20BL 48@5:B82=K9 AB8;L 2545=8O ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 AC335AB8N, ?>A;5 G53> F5;5A>>1@07=> ?@8<5=5=85 A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 (8G:> . ., 1979). @8 D>18OE 8A?>;L7CNBAO ?@85<K CA;>2=>-@5D;5:B>@=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2 2845 ?>AB5?5==>3> ?@54JO2;5=8O @515=:C @074@068B5;59 >B ?@8OB=KE 4> =5?>A@54AB25==> A2O70==KE A 0DD5:B>< AB@0E0 (;59 . ., 1940; 82>20@>20 . ., !8<5>= ". ., 1956; $09=15@3 !. ., 1973; 0E0@>2 . ., 1974). (8@>:>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 ?>;CG05B DC=:F8>=0;L=0O (?>2545=G5A:0O) B@5=8@>2:0 2 ?@5>4>;5=88 D>189 8 8?>E>=4@8G5A:8E ?5@56820=89 (CO=>2 . ., 1976). 5A<>B@O =0 1>;LH>5 G8A;> 8AA;54>20=89 ?A8E>;>388 83@K 2 20- 30-5 3>4K 8 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O (5>=BL52 . ., 1972, -;L:>=8= . ., 1978), ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 ?@8;>65=85 83@K >BAB05B >B 70?@>A>2 ?@0:B8:8. >6=> =0720BL B>;L:> 548=8G=K5 8AA;54>20=8O: . . @:8=0 2 30-5 3>4K, :>B>@K9 CB25@640;, GB> "83@0 G5;>25:0 O2;O5BAO <>3CI5AB25==K< D0:B>@>< @0728B8O ?>;=>F5==>9 A>F80;L=>9 ;8G=>AB8, A;C60 0@5=>9 8A?KB0=8O 8 70:0;0 A>F80;L=KE GC2AB2, A>F80;L=>9 48AF8?;8=K 8 :>;;5:B82=>9 A>;840@=>AB8"2, ". . !8<5>= (1944) ?> A=OB8N @50:B82=> 2>7=8:H59 70B>@<>65==>AB8 C 45B59 ?@54>AB02;5=85< 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O 2KE>40 8E 03@5AA82=KE B5=45=F89 2 >B=>H5=88 >1J5:B0 AB@0E0; =0H8 8AA;54>20=8O (0E0@>2 . ., 1973) 8 >?KB ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 :C:>;L=>9 4@0<0B870F88 .. !. (52G5=:> (1976). =5 =52@>7>2 83@>20O B5@0?8O ;CGH5 2A53> @07@01>B0=0 ?@8 708:0=88 (>;:>20 . ., 1976), H87>D@5=8G5A:>< 0CB87<5 (!?820:>2A:0O . !., 1980) 8 M?8;5?A88 (%0@8B>=>2 . ., %@8?:>20 . ., 1976).  2 @:8= .  515=>: 2 4>H:>;L=K5 3>4K.  , 1968, A. 217-218.  =0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH55 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 ?>;CG05B 2 =0G0;5 30-E 3>4>2 :>;;5:B82=0O ;5G51=>-?5403>38G5A:0O @01>B0 A 45BL<8 8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L A 1>;L=K<8 ;>3>=52@>7><. 0=OB8O 2 3@C??0E ?@>2>4OBAO A F5;LN ?@5>4>;5=8O M3>F5=B@8G5A:8E CAB0=>2>: 8 2>2;5G5=8O 2 :>;;5:B82=K5 D>@<K 687=8. >;;5:B82=0O ?A8E>>@B>?548G5A:0O @01>B0 A 1>;L=K<8 ;>3>=52@>7>< @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: D>@<0 8E A>F8>B5@0?88 (8;O@>2A:89 . ., 1932). 0 B0: =07K205<KE "?A8E>>@B>?548G5A:8E ?;>I04:0E" H8@>:> 8A?>;L7CNBAO :>;;5:B82=0O @8B<8:0 :0: A@54AB2> @53C;8@>20=8O M<>F8>=0;L=>9 M:A?@5AA88 8 A0<>:>=B@>;O 45B59 (!0<>9;5=:> . !., 1929; $;>@5=A:0O .. ., %>4>@>20 3. !., 1935), ?@85<K :>;;5:B82=>3> A>@52=>20=8O (030=>20 -. ., 1933). #45;O5BAO 2=8<0=85 2>?@>A0< >@30=870F88 ;5G51=KE 3@C??, 2 B>< G8A;5 A CG5B>< @07=>@>4=>AB8 B5<?5@0<5=B>2, E0@0:B5@>2 8 >40@5==>AB8 8E CG0AB=8:>2 (@:8= . ., 1968). 0NBAO @5:><5=40F88 ?> >@30=870F88 :>;;5:B82=>3> 2708<>459AB28O 45B59 A =52@>?0B859 2 45BA:>< A04C (LO:>20 . ., 1929), 345 ?@>2>48BAO ?A8E>38385=8G5A:0O 8 ?A8E>?@>D8;0:B8G5A:0O @01>B0, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 548=AB25==K< 45BO< 2 A5<L5, :>B>@K5 >1=0@C6820NB ?@5B5=788 =0 3;025=AB2>. >AB5?5==>9 A<5=>9 2 :>;;5:B825 @>;59 >B 3;02=KE 4> @02=KE :>@@838@CNBAO MB8 8 ?>4>1=K5 =54>AB0B:8 E0@0:B5@0 (A8?>20 . ., 61>;48=0 . $., 1934).  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O :>@@5:F8O >4=>AB>@>==53> 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 2 A5<L5 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?>A@54AB2>< A?5F80;L=> >@30=87>20==KE 3@C??>2KE 83@ 2 45BA:>< A04C, ?><>30NI8E ?@5>4>;5BL B@C4=>AB8 040?B0F88 (>7;>2 . ., 1978). @8 =52@>70E 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O ?@>2>48BAO 2 AB0F8>=0@=KE (@0?:8= . 3., 1973) 8 0<1C;0B>@=KE CA;>28OE (0E0@>2 . ., 1971). 1H8@=K9 >?KB =0:>?;5= 2 >1;0AB8 38?=>AC335AB82=KE <5B>4>2 ?A8E>B5@0?88. =CH5=85 =0O2C A ?5403>38G5A:8<8 F5;O<8 CA?5H=> 8A?>;L7>20;8 . . ">:0@A:89 (1895), . . 5EB5@52 (1912), . !. (20@F<0= (1914), !. . @02:>2 (1924), . . >20;52 (1970), . . (20@F (1971), . C;8:>2 (1978). . . ">:0@A:89 CAB0=>28;, GB> A ?><>ILN 2=CH5=8O <>65B 1KBL >A;01;5=> 2;8O=85 ?@82KG:8, 2=5A5=K =>2K5 AB@5<;5=8O 8 2>71C645=0 M=5@38O C65 ACI5AB2CNI8E. =, :0: 8 4@C385 02B>@K (0:0@5=:> . !., 1950; ;0B>=>2 . ., 1962), @5H8B5;L=> >B25@305B >A;01;5=85 ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 2>;8 2 ?@>F5AA5 2=CH5=8O. . . >20;52 (1979) >B<5G05B >B=>A8B5;L=> <0;CN MDD5:B82=>ABL @0F8>=0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 C 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 8 <;04H53> H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 2 A2O78 A =57@5;>ABLN 01AB@0:B=>3> 8 ?@5>1;040=85< =03;O4=>-459AB25==>3> 8 >1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O. >MB><C >A=>2=>9 ?@8=F8? ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5 70:;NG05BAO 2 H8@>:>< 8A?>;L7>20=88 <5B>4>2 2=CH5=8O. # <;04H8E 45B59 MB> ?@5645 2A53> :>A25==>5 2=CH5=85, =0 GB> 2 A2>5 2@5<O C:07K20;8 8 4@C385 02B>@K (0F5=5;LA>= $. /., >@5;8: . ., 1958; $09=15@3 !. ., 1973). @8 8AB5@8G5A:8E @0AAB@>9AB20E A 2K?045=85< B5E 8;8 8=KE DC=:F89 B@048F8>==> 4>?CA:05BAO ?@8<5=5=85 H>:>2>3> 2840 2=CH5=8O (8;O@>2A:89 . ., 1938: !CE0@520 . ., 1959). @><5 MB>3>, >?8AK205BAO >@838=0;L=0O <5B>48:0 2=CH5=8O <;04H8< 45BO< 2 ?0@04>:A0;L=>9 D075 5AB5AB25==>3> A=0 ( >6=>2 . ., 82H8F . !., 1973). @54;030NBAO :><18=8@>20==K5 <5B>48:8 2=CH5=8O =0O2C 8 38?=>B5@0?88 (82>20@>20 . ., 1962), 2=CH5=8O 8 M;5:B@>A=0 (8H . ., 1974). 8?=>B5@0?8O ?>:070=0 ?@8 70D8:A8@>20==KE =52@>B8G5A:8E @50:F8OE 8AB5@8G5A:>3> (5;8=0 . ., 1954; CAL:>2 ., O3:>2 . $., 1966) 8 >1A5AA82=>3> :@C30 (5AB80H28;8 . ., 1966), 0AB5=>=52@>B8G5A:8E =0@CH5=8OE (!CE0@520 . ., 1959; <8B@8520 . ., 1968), ;>3>=52@>75 (@0?:8= . 3., 1966), =52@>B8G5A:>< M=C@575 (CB>@8=0 . ., 1968; 0A:>2 . ., @59<5@ . /., 1975; CO=>2 . ., 1977), @0AAB@>9AB20E A=0 (>;L18= . &., 1979), ?0B>;>38G5A:8E ?@82KG:0E 8 2;5G5=8OE (20=>2 . ., 1958). =CH5=85 2 38?=>75 >?@0240==> ?@8 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 ;018;L=>AB8, 8=D0=B8;L=KE G5@B0E ;8G=>AB8, =52@>?0B88, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2=CH5=85 =0O2C 8 @07;8G=K5 284K :>A25==>3> 2=CH5=8O 1>;55 ?>:070=K ?@8 B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=KE G5@B0E E0@0:B5@0 (C:>2A:0O . !., 1973). 1@0I05BAO 2=8<0=85 =0 70B@C4=5=8O 2 8A?>;L7>20=88 38?=>B5@0?88 ?@8 >BACBAB288 >A>7=0=8O 45BL<8 A2>53> 701>;520=8O, AB@0E5 ?5@54 2@0G>< 8 1>O7=8 70A=CBL (@0?:8= . 3., 1966). %C65 ?>440NBAO 38?=>B5@0?88 ;8F0 A 8AB5@8G5A:8<8 G5@B0<8 E0@0:B5@0. 8?=015;L=>ABL 8 MDD5:B82=>ABL 38?=>B5@0?88 =865 ?@8 M3>F5=B@87<5 8 A:;>==>AB8 : A0<>;N1>20=8N (CO=>2 . ., 1976). >:070=> ?>;>68B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 38?=>70 =0 ?A8E8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 1>;L=KE 45B59, =0 C:@5?;5=85 8E >A;01;5==KE M<>F8>=0;L=KE 8 ?>;52KE ?@>F5AA>2 (">:0@A:89 . ., 1895; ;0B>=>2 . ., 1962). AA;54>20=8O =59@>48=0<8:8 4> 8 ?>A;5 38?=>B5@0?88 ?>4B25@640NB =>@<0;870F8N 2KAH59 =5@2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 C 45B59 A =52@>70<8 (82>20@>20 . ., !8<5>= ". ., 1956).  F5;>< 38?=>B5@0?8O AG8B05BAO 045:20B=K< 8 MDD5:B82=K< <5B>4>< 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 =0G8=0O A 6 ;5B ( >6=>2 . ., 1971). @54?>AK;:8 4;O A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 :0: ?>4E>40 : ;5G5=8N @515=:0 A CG5B>< 53> A5<59=>3> >:@C65=8O <>6=> =09B8 C . . 0;O@52A:>3> (1886), :>B>@K9 ?@>2>48; 0<1C;0B>@=> A>2<5AB=K5 2@0G51=>-?5403>38G5A:85 15A54K A @>48B5;O<8 8 45BL<8. -. . 030=>20 (1933) 2 :>;;5:B82=KE 15A540E A @>48B5;O<8 >1AC640;0 A;CG08 701>;520=8O =52@>7>< C 45B59, 2A:@K20;0 53> ?@8G8=K, ?@>2>48;0 GB5=85 8 @071>@ ?>?C;O@=>9 ;8B5@0BC@K, >@30=87>2K20;0 A 45BL<8 M:A:C@A88 2 :;8=8:8 8 A0=0B>@88. =0G5=85 @01>BK A A5<L59 ?>4G5@:820NB <=>385 02B>@K 30-E 3>4>2 =0AB>OI53> AB>;5B8O. . . 8;O@>2A:89 >B<5G05B, GB> "?>A:>;L:C =52@>B8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20 45B59 =0E>4OBAO G0AB> 2 ?@O<>9 A2O78 A =5@2=>ABLN @>48B5;59, O2;ONI59AO 8AB>G=8:>< =5=>@<0;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O : 45BO<, ?>AB>;L:C ?A8E>B5@0?8N =C6=> =0G8=0BL A 1;87:8E, AB@5<OAL A>740BL >:>;> @515=:0 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 C@02=>25H5==CN 8 =5 B@02<0B878@CNICN 53> A@54C"3. "0:>9 65 B>G:8 7@5=8O ?@845@6820NBAO . . !CE0@520 8 . !. .A528G (1965), :>B>@K5 AG8B0NB, GB> 7040G0 2@0G0 70:;NG05BAO =5 B>;L:> 2 ;5G5=88 @515=:0, => 8 2 0:B82=>9 @07JOA=8B5;L=>9 @01>B5 A> 27@>A;K<8 A F5;LN 87<5=5=8O B5E CA;>289, :>B>@K5 1K;8 ?@8G8=>9 701>;520=8O.  3 8;O@>2A:89 . . A8E80B@8O. ., 1938, A 719.  !>2@5<5==K5 B5=45=F88 A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 @072820NBAO . . >7;>2K< (1976), :>B>@K9 A>G5B05B 55 ?@8 D>18OE A 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?859 45B59. 0<8 @07@01>B0= 548=K9 ?0B>35=5B8G5A:89 :><?;5:A A5<59=>9, 8=48284C0;L=>9 8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 A =52@>70<8 (0E0@>2 . ., 1971, 1973).  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O MB>B :><?;5:A ?@8<5=O5BAO ?@8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 A =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 (>20;52 . ., (52G5=:> .. !., 1980). !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O AG8B05BAO ?>:070==>9 =5 B>;L:> ?@8 =52@>70E, => 8 ?@8 ?A8E>?0B8OE C ?>4@>AB:>2 (-945<8;;5@ -. ., 1973).  1>;55 H8@>:>< :>=B5:AB5 A5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O 2E>48B 2 B0: =07K205<CN "?A8E>B5@0?8N A@54K", :>B>@0O =5@54:> ?@8>1@5B05B @5H0NI55 7=0G5=85 2 A8AB5<5 ;5G5=8O @515=:0 A =52@>7>< ( >6=>2 . ., @0?:8= . 3., 1974; >20;52 . ., 1979). >?@>A > F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8 ;5G5=8O 45B59 A =52@>70<8 2 AB0F8>=0@=KE 8;8 0<1C;0B>@=KE CA;>28OE @5H05BAO 2 ?>;L7C ?>A;54=8E. . . C@H52 (1973) >B<5G05B =5C40G=K5 ?>?KB:8 ;5G5=8O 45B59 2-5 ;5B 2 AB0F8>=0@5. . 3. @0?:8= (1973) AG8B05B =54>AB0B:>< AB0F8>=0@=>3> ;5G5=8O >B@K2 1>;L=>3> >B CA;>289 =>@<0;L=>9 687=8, A5<L8 8 :>;;5:B820 74>@>2KE A25@AB=8:>2, GB> <>65B C25;8G820BL G8A;> @5F8482>2 701>;520=8O ?>A;5 2K?8A:8. =>385 87 MB8E =54>AB0B:>2 . 3. @0?:8= A<>3 CAB@0=8BL 2 @C:>2>48<>< 8< ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>< ?>4@>AB:>2>< >B45;5=88, 345 8A?>;L7CNBAO 381:89 ;5G51=K9 @568<, ?@54>AB02;5=85 ?>4@>AB:0< A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 2 >@30=870F88 4>AC30, 0:B828@CNI89 ?@>F5AA 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. A=>2=K5 ?@8=F8?K ?@>D8;0:B8:8 =52@>7>2 C 45B59 A>AB>OB 2 @0==5< 2KO2;5=88 =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:8E >B:;>=5=89 (02845=:>2 !. ., 1954), B5A=>< :>=B0:B5 ?5480B@0 A =52@>?0B>;>3>< 8 ?A8E80B@>< (82>20@>20 . ., 1962), ?@028;L=>< 2>A?8B0=88 45B59 (/:>2;520 . ., 1958; #H0:>2 . ., 1966), H8@>:>< :><?;5:A5 ?A8E>38385=8G5A:8E 8 ?A8E>?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89 (75@5F:89 . ., 1934; A8?>20 . ., 61>;48=0 . $., 1934), ?@>4C<0==>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?>43>B>2:5 : 45BA:><C A04C (>;C1520 . . 8 4@., 1974, 1980; ;0A>2 . ., 1978). 17>@ 70@C156=>9 ;8B5@0BC@K. 284C 1>;LH>3> G8A;0 8AA;54>20=89 <K >AB0=>28<AO B>;L:> =0 3;02=KE =0?@02;5=8OE ?A8E>B5@0?88 C 45B59, A>?>AB02;OO 8E A =0?@02;5=8O<8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 C 27@>A;KE.  :>=F5 XIX - =0G0;5 XX 2. =081>;LH55 7=0G5=85 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 C 27@>A;KE ?@8405BAO <5B>40< 38?=>AC335AB82=>3> 2>7459AB28O (Bernheim ., 1910; Moll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dler (1928, 1930) 2=5A 7=0G8B5;L=K9 2:;04 2 @0728B85 @0F8>=0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2 8 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8E =0@CH5=89 C 45B59. > 53> <=5=8N, <>B820F8O ?>2545=8O, >A=>20==0O =0 GC2AB25 =5?>;=>F5==>AB8, O2;O5BAO F5=B@>< =52@>B8G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8. 52@>B8G5A:89 E0@0:B5@ 8<55B A2>59 F5;LN 1573@0=8G=CN :><?5=A0F8N ?>=865==>3> GC2AB20 ;8G=>AB8, ?@5645 2A53> 2 ?;0=5 ?>;>2>9 845=B8G=>AB8, :>B>@0O 2K@0605BAO, >A>15==> C <0;LG8:>2, ?@>B5AB=K<8 @50:F8O<8, =530B82=K< ?>2545=85< 8 C?@O<AB2><.  B> 65 2@5<O @515=>: A2>59 A;01>ABLN 8 7028A8<>ABLN ?KB05BAO =0?@028BL 701>BC >:@C60NI8E =0 A51O. 15 ;8=88 ?>2545=8O 30@0=B8@CNB :><?5=A0F8N ?>=865==>3> GC2AB20 ;8G=>AB8 8 ?>72>;ONB 871028BLAO >B B@51>20=89 687=8.  MB>< 70:;NG0NBAO D8:B82=0O, ?@54>?@545;ONI0O F5;L =52@>B8:0, 53> 687=5==0O ?>78F8O. 52@>7, B0:8< >1@07><, @0AF5=8205BAO =5 B>;L:> :0: 1>;57=L, => 8 :0: A2>5>1@07=0O "C;>2:0", "4><8=8@CNI0O D8:F8O". 5A<>B@O =0 2AN F5==>ABL 40==KE 2K2>4>2, 2 =8E =5;L7O =5 CA<>B@5BL >4=>AB>@>==53> ?@5;><;5=8O ?@>1;5<K =52@>7>2.  A8AB5<5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A. Adler C45;O5B >A>1>5 2=8<0=85 :>@@5:F88 87=565==>AB8 2 E0@0:B5@5 45B59, :>B>@0O, :0: 8 GC2AB2> D878G5A:>9 =5?>;=>F5==>AB8, AG8B05BAO >B?@02=>9 B>G:>9 4;O 1>;57=5==>3> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8. 5@5AB@0820O >B=>H5=8O (?>78F8N) 45B59 A =52@>70<8 2 >B=>A8B5;L=> =51>;LH>9 ?> A@02=5=8N A ?A8E>0=0;87>< >B@57>: 2@5<5=8, A. Adler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reud. !G8B0O ?A8E8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK 15AA>7=0B5;L=K<8, 0 A>7=0B5;L=K9 ?@>F5AAK B>;L:> :0: >B45;L=K5 ?@>O2;5=8O 4CH52=>9 687=8, >= ?@8?8AK20; A5:AC0;L=K< 2;5G5=8O< ?@54>?@545;ONICN @>;L :0: ?@8G8=5 =5@2=KE 8 4CH52=KE 701>;520=89. > 53> <=5=8N, ?0B>35=57 =52@>7>2 70:;NG05BAO 2 2KB5A=5=88 87 A>7=0=8O 2 AD5@C 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> 0DD5:B82=> >:@0H5==KE A5:AC0;L=KE ?5@56820=89 ?5@2KE ;5B 45BAB20, ?@54AB02;5==KE "-48?>2K< :><?;5:A><" 8 2=CB@5==8< :>=D;8:B>< <564C 8=AB8=:B82=K<8 8 A>F80;L=K<8 B@51>20=8O<8.  40;L=59H5< S. Freud =5 @07 CB>G=O5B, GB> "G5;>25: 701>;5205B 87-70 :>=D;8:B0 <564C B@51>20=8O<8 8=AB8=:B82=>9 687=8 8 A>?@>B82;5=85<, :>B>@>5 2>7=8:05B 2=CB@8 G5;>25:0 ?@>B82 MB>3>"4.  4 Freud S. The !omplete Psychological Works. Stanford ed. 1944, v. 22. p. 57-77.  0 2=5H=8<8 ?@>O2;5=8O<8 1>;57=8 S. Freud =0E>48B 15AA>7=0B5;L=K5 4286CI85 A8;K 8 2 A2O78 A MB8< @0AF5=8205B A8<?B><K =52@>70 :0: 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 2K@065=85 B>3>, GB> @0=LH5 1K;> F5;LN. >MB><C >= 4>?CA:05B, GB> 2 8=B5@?@5B0F88 ?>;CG5==KE 40==KE =5 =C6=> 8A:0BL B>9 >G5284=>AB8, :>B>@CN 8I5B :;8=8G5A:89 ?A8E80B@, B0: :0: D0:BK A;54C5B @0AA<0B@820BL :0: A8<2>;K @0=55 ?5@568B>3>, ?@5645 2A53> 2 ?;0=5 A5:AC0;L=>3> @0728B8O 8 "-48?>20 :><?;5:A0". 1JOA=OO A8<?B><K :0: :>A25==>5 2K@065=85 15AA>7=0B5;L=KE 8 =5A>2<5AB8<KE ?>B@51=>AB59, S. Freud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reud, 1C4CG8 B>=:8< =01;N40B5;5<, ?>4<5B8; <=>385 >A>15==>AB8 45BA:>3> @0728B8O, :>B>@K5 4> =53> =5 1K;8 8725AB=K 8;8 83=>@8@>20;8AL.  =8< <>6=> >B=5AB8 8 45BA:CN A5:AC0;L=>ABL. > B@0:B>2:0 55 2 2845 "-48?>20 :><?;5:A0" :0: 548=AB25==>3> 8AB>G=8:0 =52@>70 B@51C5B ?>OA=5=89. 59AB28B5;L=>, 45B8 2 2>7@0AB5 4-6 ;5B <>3CB 8A?KBK20BL =5GB>, =0?><8=0NI55 A5:AC0;L=>5 2;5G5=85, => >=> A?5F80;L=> =5 =0?@02;5=> =0 @>48B5;O 4@C3>3> ?>;0, 0 <>65B ?@>O2;OBLAO 2 2845 A?5F8D8G5A:8E >ICI5=89 ?@8 ;0A:5 A> AB>@>=K 27@>A;KE 8 83@0E A> A25@AB=8:0<8. !;54C5B 4>1028BL, GB> A5:AC0;L=>5 @0728B85 C 45B59, 701>;520NI8E =52@>70<8, =5A:>;L:> 70B>@<>65=>. ;O MB>3> 5ABL <=>3> ?@8G8=, 2 B>< G8A;5 "15A?>;>5" 2>A?8B0=85 A> AB>@>=K @>48B5;59 8 @5?@5AA82=K5 <5@K 2 >B=>H5=88 ;N1KE, 5AB5AB25==KE 4;O 45B59, ?@>O2;5=89 A5:AC0;L=>3> 8=B5@5A0. 54:> =01;N405BAO 2 =0H8E A;CG0OE 8 <0ABC@10F8O C 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 (6%). 0B>@<>65==>ABL A5:AC0;L=>3> @0728B8O O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 2K@065=89 =5@57:8E =0@CH5=89 @0728B8O AE5<K B5;0 C 45B59 A =52@>70<8, :>340 >=8 EC65, G5< 8E 74>@>2K5 A25@AB=8:8, GC2AB2CNB A2>5 B5;> 8 :>>@48=8@CNB A2>8 459AB28O. "><C 5ABL ?@8G8=K 8 A@548 =8E - G@57<5@=0O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=0O AB8<C;OF8O, >3@0=8G5=8O D878G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8, >1I0O, =5@2=0O 8 A><0B8G5A:0O >A;01;5==>ABL. 0: 8725AB=>, AB@C:BC@0 "-48?>20 :><?;5:A0" 2:;NG05B ;8184>=>7=CN ?@82O70==>ABL 45B59 2 2>7@0AB5 5 ;5B : @>48B5;N 4@C3>3> ?>;0, 2K720==CN MB8< :>=:C@5=F8N 8;8 2@06451=>ABL : @>48B5;N B>3> 65 ?>;0 8, :0: A;54AB285, 2KB5A=5=85 8=F5ABC>7=KE ?5@56820=89 2 A=K, GC2AB2> 28=K 8 15A?>:>9AB20.  1978 3. <K ?@>25;8 >1H8@=>5 8AA;54>20=85 (961 ?0F85=B 3-16 ;5B 157 =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:8E >B:;>=5=89) ?> 87CG5=8N 2>7@0AB=KE 8 ?>;>2KE >A>15==>AB59 845=B8D8:0F88 45B59 A @>48B5;O<8. KOA=8;>AL, GB> ?8: 845=B8D8:0F88, :0: >B>645AB2;5=8O A51O A @>48B5;5< B>3> 65 ?>;0, C <0;LG8:>2 8 452>G5: =01;N405BAO 8<5==> 2 2>7@0AB5 5-6 ;5B.  MB><C 2>7@0ABC A>740NBAO =5>1E>48<K5 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 8 :>3=8B82=K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 4;O 845=B8D8:0F88 2 2845 @0728B8O A?>A>1=>AB8 : M<?0B88 8 ?@8=OB8N @>;8, 0 B0:65 @0728205BAO ?>B@51=>ABL 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI5< ?> ?>;C ?>2545=8N 2 >1I5=88 A> A25@AB=8:0<8, MB0;>=>< :>B>@>3> O2;O5BAO @>48B5;L B>3> 65 ?>;0. 45=B8D8:0F8O A =8< A>?@O65=0 A M<>F8>=0;L=> B5?;K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8, >A>15==> C 452>G5:. 7;>65==>5 ?>72>;O5B A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> 45B8 2 87CG05<>< 2>7@0AB5, ?@54AB02;OO A51O =0 <5AB5 @>48B5;O B>3> 65 ?>;0 8 >B>645AB2;OO A51O A =8<, 8A?KBK20NB ?@8 MB>< 8 ?>B@51=>ABL 2 ?>4@060=88 53> >B=>H5=8N : @>48B5;N 4@C3>3> ?>;0, B. 5. <0;LG8:8, B0: 65 :0: 8 >B5F, E>BOB 1KBL "65=0BK<8" =0 A2>59 <0B5@8, 0 452>G:8 1KBL "70<C65<" 70 >BF><. !;54>20B5;L=>, @>48B5;L B>3> 65 ?>;0 O2;O5BAO =5 >1J5:B>< 2@06451=>AB8, 0 >1J5:B>< ?>4@060=8O 8 02B>@8B5B0. K 2848<, GB> S. Freud @0AH8@8; AD5@C A5:AC0;L=>3>, ?> ACI5AB2C 70<5=82 8< M<>F8>=0;L=CN 8 :>3=8B82=CN AD5@C @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2A5 >=8 2KABC?0NB 2 548=AB25 8 7=0<5=CNB >?@545;5==CN 7@5;>ABL 35=5B8G5A:>3> 8 A>F80;L=>-45B5@<8=8@>20==>3> ;8G=>AB=>3> @0728B8O : 5-6 3>40<. S. Freud A?5F80;L=> =5 70=8<0;AO ?A8E>0=0;87>< 45B59. ;0AA8G5A:89 ?A8E>0=0;87 C 45B59 2 20-30-5 3>4K ?@54AB02;5= 8AA;54>20=8O<8 . Huq-Helmuth, M. Klein 8 A. Freud. A;8 . Klein ?@>2>48B 0=0;87 157 2<5H0B5;LAB20 8 @C:>2>4AB20, B> . Huq-Helmuth 8 A. Freud >ACI5AB2;ONB, ?@8 =5>1E>48<>AB8, 0:B82=>5 @C:>2>4AB2> 1>;L=K<, 87<5=5=85 53> >B=>H5=89 8 ?5@52>A?8B0=85. . Huq-Helmuth 2848B 7040GC 2>A?8B0=8O "2 C<5=88 =09B8 4>;6=CN <5@C 2 ?>>I@5=88 @0728B8O >4=8E 2;5G5=89 8 2 B>@<>65=88 4@C38E"5. >4G5@:820O C2065=85 : 5AB5AB25==><C E>4C @0728B8O @515=:0 8 ?0B>35==>5 7=0G5=85 =5@07@5H8<>3> 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0, >=0 2?5@2K5 ?@0:B8:C5B <548:>-?5403>38G5A:85 :>=AC;LB0F88 ?> ?@>1;5<0< 2>A?8B0=8O, F5;LN :>B>@KE O2;O5BAO A<O3G5=85 =0?@O65==KE >B=>H5=89 <564C @>48B5;5< 8 @515=:><. !0<0 B5E=8:0 ?A8E>0=0;870 >AB05BAO 157 87<5=5=89, 2?;>BL 4> 8A?>;L7>20=8O :CH5B:8 2> 2@5<O A50=A0.  5 Huq-Helmuth . >2K5 ?CB8 : ?>7=0=8N 45BA:>3> 2>7@0AB0. 5@. A =5<., ., 1926, A. 63.  A. Freud 2K2>48B 2A5 :>=D;8:BK 45BAB20 87 ?@>F5AA0 "A>7@520=8O". @>O2;5=8O =52@>B8G5A:>9 70B>@<>65==>AB8 >=0 CAB@0=O5B M<>F8>=0;L=K< :>=B0:B>< A 45BL<8 8 8=B5@?@5B0F859 8E ?>2545=8O 2 83@5, 4;O G53> >=8 ?>1C640NBAO 2> 2A5< 4020BL >BG5B. 2B>@8B5B 0=0;8B8:0 ?@87=05BAO 2KH5 02B>@8B5B0 @>48B5;59 8 AG8B05BAO, GB> >= 4>;65= =0?@02;OBL @515=:0. >A;54=55 >ACI5AB28<>, :>340 C @515=:0 5ABL OA=>5 >A>7=0=85 A2>53> "45D5:B0" 8 65;0=85 >B =53> 871028BLAO. ;O 0=0;870 8A?>;L7CNBAO B0:65 45BA:85 @8AC=:8 (Freud A., 1971). . Klein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lein 2 40;L=59H5< >1>7=0G05BAO :0: 83@>20O B5@0?8O (play therapy). A. Freud 8 . Klein 2 20-30-E 3>40E, G. Pearson (1949) 8 I. Kessler (1966) 4;O ;CGH53> ?>=8<0=8O :>=D;8:B>2 @515=:0 =01;N40NB 70 83@>9, GB>1K ?>A;5 =55 40BL 8=B5@?@5B0F8N.  >B;8G85 >B MB>3> D. Levy (1939) =01;N45=85 70 83@>9 8A?>;L7C5B :0: ?@5420@8B5;L=>5 CA;>285 4;O 55 ?;0=8@>20=8O 8 CG0AB8O 2 =59. # 2A5E MB8E 8AA;54>20B5;59 83@0 >?@545;5==K< >1@07>< 8=B5@?@5B8@C5BAO 8 >@30=87C5BAO, ?>MB><C 40==>5 =0?@02;5=85 83@>2>9 B5@0?88 ?>;CG05B =0720=85 48@5:B82=>3>. >A;54CNI55 @0728B85 ?A8E>0=0;870 845B ?> ?CB8 A>:@0I5=8O 53> ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 (C65 C . Klein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uche I., 1967).  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O ?A8E>0=0;87 C65 =5 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: 8AB8=0 2 ?>A;54=59 8=AB0=F88, => ?@8 >3@0=8G5=88 53> M:A?0=A82=>AB8 8 A>E@0=5=88 70 =8< 53> A>1AB25==>3> ?>;O 2 @O45 A;CG052 AG8B05BAO ?>;57=K<. 48= 87 =081>;55 284=KE ?@54AB028B5;59 A>2@5<5==>3> ?A8E>0=0;870 . Erikson (1968), A>3;0H0OAL A :;0AA8G5A:8<8 ?>;>65=8O<8 ?A8E>0=0;870 > 4>AB865=88 1>;LH59 ?>4286=>AB8 ">=>", B5@?8<>AB8 "A25@E-O" 8 A?>A>1=>AB8 "O" : A8=B57C, 4>102;O5B, GB> 0=0;87 "O" 4>;65= ?@>8AE>48BL 2 A2O78 A 8AB>@8G5A:8<8 87<5=5=8O<8, 4><8=8@>202H8<8 2 ?5@8>4 45BAB20 8 >B@>G5A:8E :@878A>2, 8 A>F80;L=K< ?@8A?>A>1;5=85< 2 7@5;K9 ?5@8>4. A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:85 8 =5?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:85 <5B>4K ;5G5=8O =52@>7>2, 8A?>;L7CNI85 @O4 >1I8E ?@8=F8?>2, >1J548=ONBAO ?>4 =0720=85< ?A8E>48=0<8G5A:>9 B5@0?88. =0 =0?@02;5=0 =0 CAB@0=5=85 A:>@55 ?@8G8= =52@>70, G5< 53> A8<?B><>2.  ?A8E>48=0<8G5A:>< ?>4E>45 3;02=K<8 45B5@<8=0=B0<8 =52@>B8G5A:>3> ?>2545=8O A;C60B 2=CB@8?A8E8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK 8 ?>4A>7=0B5;L=K5 <>B82K, 0 >A=>2=K<8 ?>=OB8O<8 O2;ONBAO B@52>30 8 70I8B0. @>1;5<0, :0: <K C65 2845;8, =5 2 B><, GB> >=8 5ABL, 0 2 B><, :0: 8=B5@?@5B8@CNBAO <5E0=87<K 8E ?@>8AE>645=8O. "0:85 8725AB=K5 70@C156=K5 ?A8E80B@K =5?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> =0?@02;5=8O, :0: . >rn5C (1950) 8 . Sullivan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rn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rn5C, F5;L ;5G5=8O - ?><>GL 1>;L=><C =52@>7>< >A>7=0BL A2>5 @50;L=>5 "O" 8 @0728BL 2>7<>6=>AB8 53> ?A8E8G5A:>3> @>AB0.  ?A8E>18>;>388 (0C5r ., 1934) ;8G=>ABL @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: F5;>AB=>5 >1@07>20=85 2 :>=B5:AB5 A2>53> 8AB>@8G5A:>3> D>@<8@>20=8O, 0 ?A8E8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20 87CG0NBAO :0: 48=0<8G5A:85 457040?B82=K5 @50:F88 8=482840 =0 =0?@O65=85 - AB@5AA 8 :>=D;8:B.  =5?@8=C645==>9 15A545 3;02=>5 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO =5 >BKA:0=8N ?>4A>7=0B5;L=KE <>B82>2 8 <5E0=87<>2 =52@>B8G5A:>3> ?>2545=8O, 0 D0:B8G5A:8< A8BC0F8O< 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20<. "@0=AD5@C =5 ?@8405BAO 7=0G5=8O, 8 ?A8E80B@ AB@5<8BAO =5 : B><C, GB>1K ?0F85=B 2=>2L ?5@568; A2>8 @0==85 ?5@56820=8O, 0 : B><C, GB>1K >= ?>=O; 8E A53>4=OH=55 7=0G5=85. 1AC645=85 A ?A8E>B5@0?52B>< 8<55B F5;LN ?><>GL 1>;L=><C ?@>A;548BL ?@>8AE>645=85 A2>8E @0AAB@>9AB2. >4>1=K9 18>3@0D8G5A:89 0=0;87 B0:65 2:;NG05B 87CG5=85 A><0B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 8 ?0=>@0<C ?A8E>A5:AC0;L=>3> @0728B8O ?0F85=B0. 8A:CB8@CNBAO B>;L:> B5 D0:BK, :>B>@K5 ?>=OB=K ?0F85=BC 8;8 70=8<0;8 284=>5 <5AB> 2 53> 687=5==KE ?5@56820=8OE. >A;5 B>3> :0: @07;8G=K5 ?5@56820=8O, A8BC0F88 8 A8<?B><K ?@>0=0;878@>20=K 8 ?@>48A:CB8@>20=K, ?0F85=B0 ?@>AOB ?5@5D>@<C;8@>20BL 8E 2 48=0<8G5A:CN 02B>18>3@0D8N A 40G59 <>B820F89, GB>1K >= ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 <>3 ?>=OBL 8E A<KA; 8 M2>;NF8N. 73;O4K . 0C5r =5 1K;8 AB>;L H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 2 M@C 3>A?>4AB20 ?A8E>0=0;870, => :0: 2K@065=85 =081>;55 C40;5==>9 >B ?A8E>0=0;870 25B28 ?A8E>48=0<8G5A:>9 B5@0?88 >=8 AK3@0;8 A2>N @>;L, 8, =0 =0H 273;O4, >B@078;8AL =0 @0728B88 A8AB5<=>3> ?>4E>40 2 70@C156=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. (Masserman I., 1969). A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>4E>4, 8AE>4OI89 87 >?KB0 ?0F85=B0 8 AB02OI89 53> 2 F5=B@ 2708<>459AB28O A 2@0G><, ?>;CG05B A2>5 @0728B85 2 2845 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >B=>H5=89 8;8 ":;85=B-F5=B@8@>20==>9" (client-centered) ?A8E>B5@0?88 !. Rogers (1965).  =59 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 8 A>7=0B5;L=>5 @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: 548=AB2> 2 ?>=OB8OE >?KB0 8 ?5@F5?F88. 52@>B8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20 >1JOA=ONBAO :0: A;54AB285 =5@50;87>20==KE 687=5==> 206=KE ?>B@51=>AB59, ?A8E>35==>9 1;>:8@>2:8 ("70:C?>@:8") >?KB0 8 ?>B5@8 53> :>=3@CM=B=>AB8 A "O". !. Rogers =5 B0: >701>G5= ?@>H;K< ?0F85=B0, :0: ?A8E>0=0;8B8:, 8 =5 ?@82;5:05B ?5@5=>A 8 8=B5@?@5B0F8N 2 :0G5AB25 459AB2CNI8E D0:B>@>2 ?A8E>B5@0?88. A=>2=>5 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO =5 AB>;L:> A2O78 <564C B@52>3>9 8 70I8B>9, A:>;L:> ?>=865==><C C =52@>B8:0 ?@54AB02;5=8N > A0<>< A515 8 GC2AB2C A0<>C2065=8O. B=>H5=8O <564C 2@0G>< 8 ?0F85=B>< (:;85=B><, ?> !. Rogers) AB@>OBAO ?> ?@8=F8?C M30;8B0@=>AB8, B. 5. =0 C@>2=5 "G5;>25:-G5;>25:", 0 =5 "2@0G-?0F85=B", :0: 2 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>< ?>4E>45. >;LH55 7=0G5=85 8<55B =5 B>, GB> 2@0G 3>2>@8B, 0 B>, GB> >= 5ABL: ;8G=>ABL B5@0?52B0 - MB> 53> 3;02=>5 >@C485 (Rogers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ogers !., Kinget G. Psychotherapie et relations humames. Theorie et pratique de la therapie non-directive. Lohvain-Pans, 1965, p. 209.  A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>4E>4 !. Rogers =0H5; =5:>B>@>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2 ?@0:B8:5 70@C156=>9 ?5403>38G5A:>9 @01>BK, :>340 CG5=8:8 8 CG8B5;O 2 83@5 <5=ONBAO @>;O<8 8 3@C??0 459AB2C5B 2 MB8E CA;>28OE :0:>5-B> 2@5<O. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@54?>AK;:8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 !. Rogers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ogers ?>;CG8;0 A2>5 @0728B85 2 =0?@02;5=88 =548@5:B82=>9 83@>2>9 B5@0?88, :>340 ?A8E>B5@0?52B =5 2<5H8205BAO 2 A?>=B0==CN 83@C 45B59 8 =5 8=B5@?@5B8@C5B 55, :0: 2 2KH5@0AA<>B@5==>< 48@5:B82=>< =0?@02;5=88, 0 A>7405B A0<>9 83@>9 0B<>AD5@C B5?;0, 157>?0A=>AB8 8 157CA;>2=>3> ?@8=OB8O GC2AB2 8 <KA;59 ?0F85=B0 (Alien E., 1942; Axline V., 1947; Moustakas !., 1970).  40==>< 2845 83@>20O B5@0?8O AG8B05BAO ?>:070==>9 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 4;O 45B59 A 4;8B5;L=K<8 =52@>B8G5A:8<8 @0AAB@>9AB20<8, M<>F8>=0;L=> =0?@O65==KE, ?>402;ONI8E A2>8 GC2AB20 (Alien F., 1942). 3@>20O B5@0?8O 4>;6=0 ?><>GL @515=:C C2845BL, >A>7=0BL A0<>3> A51O, A2>8 4>AB>8=AB20 8 =54>AB0B:8, B@C4=>AB8 8 CA?5E8. -B><C A?>A>1AB2CNB AD>@<C;8@>20==K5 V. Axline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xline 2 @57C;LB0B5 83@>2>9 B5@0?88 45B8 ?>;CG0NB 2>7<>6=>ABL 42830BLAO 2?5@54, AB0=>2OBAO 1>;55 =57028A8<K<8 8 7@5;K<8. @54>AB02;OO @515=:C <0:A8<0;L=CN A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL 2 83@5, V. Axline 2K45;O5B ;8HL B@8 B8?0 >3@0=8G5=89: =587<5==CN ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL A50=A0, 70?@5B =0 ?>2@5645=85 83@>2>3> <0B5@80;0 8 =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 2@0G0 2 :0G5AB25 >1J5:B0 03@5AA88. !. Moustakas (1970), 0:B82=> @01>B02H89 A 45BL<8 2 50-5 3>4K, AG8B05B A0<K< 206=K< 0A?5:B>< B5@0?52B8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89 CAB0=>2;5=85 ?>4>1=KE >3@0=8G5=89, :>B>@K5 A2O7K20NB ?A8E>B5@0?8N A @50;L=>ABLN 8 =0?><8=0NB @515=:C >1 53> >B25BAB25==>AB8 ?5@54 A>1>9 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B><. 0728B85 ?>78B82=KE >B=>H5=89 2 83@5 AB0=>28BAO 2>7<>6=K< B>;L:> B>340, :>340 27@>A;K9 >B25G05B =0 GC2AB20 @515=:0 8 8A:@5==5 25@8B 2 =53>. ">340 @515=>: 42865BAO : 2K@065=8N OA=KE ?>;>68B5;L=KE 8;8 >B@8F0B5;L=KE >B=>H5=89, :>B>@K5 40NB 5<C 2>7<>6=>ABL GC2AB2>20BL A51O 4>AB>9=K< 8 @072820BL A2>8 @50;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8. >A:>;L:C M<>F8>=0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K 8 A8<?B><K @515=:0 O2;ONBAO >B@065=8O<8 53> >B=>H5=89, B> ?> <5@5 8E 87<5=5=8O 8AG570NB ?@>1;5<K 8 A8<?B><K.  A2>59 @01>B5 A @>48B5;O<8 !. Moustakas 2A5 @5H5=8O >AB02;O5B 70 =8<8. >;CG5==K9 <0B5@80; :><<5=B8@C5BAO >AB>@>6=>, 2 @0<:0E GC2AB2 8 <KA;59 @>48B5;O. &5;L A5<59=>9 :>=AC;LB0F88 - ?><>GL <0B5@8 8 >BFC 68BL A @515=:>< ";8F>< : ;8FC", => 157 ?;0=0, :0: 87CG0BL 8 0=0;878@>20BL 53> A>AB>O=85. 5 8A?>;L7CNBAO >1CG5=85, 0:B82=0O ?5@5AB@>9:0 >B=>H5=89, 8 ?>4>1=0O B0:B8:0 =5 2A5340 <>65B ?@825AB8 : >ICB8<K< ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< @57C;LB0B0<. > =0H8< =01;N45=8O<, =548@5:B82=0O 83@>20O B5@0?8O <>65B 1KBL ?>;57=0 2 :0G5AB25 =0G0;L=>3>, => =5 >A=>2=>3> MB0?0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0 C 45B59. 0<5B=K9 2:;04 2 B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 83@K 2=5A . Erikson (1964), :>B>@K9 AG8B05B A?>=B0==CN 83@C A?>A>1>< @07@5H5=8O 687=5==KE B@C4=>AB59 ?>A@54AB2>< A>740=8O <>45;L=KE A8BC0F89 8 >2;045=8O @50;L=>ABLN G5@57 M:A?5@8<5=B 8 ?;0=8@>20=85. >MB><C 83@0 2K3;O48B :0: A0<0O 5AB5AB25==0O A0<>87;5G820NH0O <5@0, =0 :>B>@CN A?>A>1=> 45BAB2>.  30-40-5 3>4K @0728B85 A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 8458 J. >r5n> CA:>@8;8 @0728B85 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. S. Slavson - >A=>2>?>;>6=8: 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 C 45B59 - ?>72>;O5B 2K@078BL 2 3@C??5 2=CB@5==85 :>=D;8:BK 8 03@5AA82=K5 B5=45=F88. @C??>2>9 :0B0@A8A >B:@K205B 4>@>3C 1>;55 4@C65AB25==K< >B=>H5=8O<, A=8<05B 15A?>:>9AB2>, GC2AB2> 28=K 8 AB@0E0. # ?>4@>AB:>2 4>?>;=8B5;L=> ?@8<5=O5BAO >1AC645=85 8E ?@>1;5<. "0:B8:0 2@0G0 A8BC0B82=0 8 20@L8@C5B 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 3@C??>2>9 48=0<8:8. A:;NG8B5;L=>5 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO ?>41>@C CG0AB=8:>2 ?A8E>B5@0?88. @C??K 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B F5;8 45;OBAO =0 70:@KBK5 (>4=>2@5<5==K5 =0G0;> 8 :>=5F ;5G5=8O) 8 >B:@KBK5 (?>AB5?5==0O 70<5=0 CG0AB=8:>2).  8B>35 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 @0728205BAO A?>A>1=>ABL ?@8=OB8O A51O 8 4@C38E, @0AH8@ONBAO 687=5==K5 8=B5@5AK, ?>2KH05BAO 2K=>A;82>ABL : =5C40G0< 8 687=5==K< B@C4=>ABO<, D>@<8@CNBAO 7@5;>ABL ;8G=>AB8 8 "3@C??>20O <>@0;L" (Slavson S., 1943). . Ginott (1961) ?@8<5=O5B 3@C??>2CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N : E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8 B>@<>78<K< 45BO<. #:07K20O, GB> 2 3@C??5 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =52>7<>6=> 871560BL AB@0E0, . Ginott, :0: 8 S. Slavson, 2>A?@>872>48B 2 ?@>F5AA5 A?>=B0==KE 8 =0?@02;O5<KE 83@ A8BC0F88, 2K7K20NI85 AB@0E, 8 ?><>305B 53> 83@>2><C 8 25@10;L=><C 2K@065=8N.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O ?>;CG8;0 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 8 2 >1KG=KE H:>;0E 2 @0<:0E ?@>3@0<<K ?> >:070=8N ?><>I8 45BO< A M<>F8>=0;L=K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 (Anderson N., Marrone R., 1977). >;>68B5;L=K5 @57C;LB0BK 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?> 40==K< @07=KE 02B>@>2, =01;N40NBAO ;8HL 2 1/3 A;CG052 (Abramowitz !., 1976), GB> A2O70=>, =0 =0H 273;O4, A =54>AB0B>G=> :@8B8G5A:8< 8A?>;L7>20=85< ?>:070=89 4;O 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?@8<5=5=85< <0;>?@>4C:B82=KE 3@C??>2KE ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:8E B5E=8: 157 @0728B8O ?@>F5AA0 3@C??>2>9 48=0<8:8. A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O :>=F5?F8O ?A8E>4@0<K J. Moreno, A>740==0O 2 40-E 3>40E, >A=>20=0 =0 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 70:>=><5@=>ABOE >1I5=8O, GB> 2 =081>;LH59 <5@5 >B25G05B B@51>20=8O< @50;L=>9 687=8.  >A=>25 ;5G51=>3> 459AB28O ?A8E>4@0<K ;568B :0B0@A8A - B> 4CH52=>5 ">G8I5=85" 8 >1;53G5=85, > :>B>@>< ?8A0; @8AB>B5;L, @07JOA=OO <5E0=87< 459AB28O 0=B8G=>9 B@035488 =0 7@8B5;O. AB>G=8:>< :0B0@A8A0, ?> J. >r5n>, O2;O5BAO A?>=B0==>ABL, ?>4 :>B>@>9 >= ?>=8<05B A?>A>1=>ABL : 045:20B=>9 @50:F88 =0 2=570?=> 2>7=8:H85 >1AB>OB5;LAB20. -B0 A?>A>1=>ABL C =52@>B8:0 >A;01;5=0. # =53> B0:65 =0@CH5=> @02=>25A85 <564C <8@>< @50;L=>AB8 8 <8@>< 2>>1@065=8O. A8E>4@0<0, >1J548=OO @50;L=CN 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 8 2>>1@065=85, CAB@0=O5B MB>B @07@K2. 040G0 ?A8E>4@0<K 70:;NG05BAO 2 A>740=88 CA;>289, ?@8 :>B>@KE 2K?>;=5=85 @>;8 1C45B 2>A?@8=8<0BLAO CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K :0: 5AB5AB25==>5 2K@065=85 "O", GB> ?>72>;8B A=OBL <=>385 87 8E ?5@5=0?@O65=89. ;02=K9 35@>9 ?A8E>4@0<K - ?@>B03>=8AB - 87>1@0605B A51O 2 @07;8G=KE ?@>1;5<=KE A8BC0F8OE. A?><>30B5;L=K5 ?5@A>=068, :>B>@K5 >= =07=0G05B 87 G8A;0 ?@8ACBAB2CNI8E, >B@060NB 8 87<5=ONB E0@0:B5@ 53> 2708<>459AB28O. >4>1=CN @>;L ?@8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 2K?>;=O5B 8 @C:>2>48B5;L 83@K. > J. >r5n>, 8A?>;L7>20=85 2 @>;52>< 459AB288 2A?><>30B5;L=>3> "O" >B;8G05B ?A8E>4@0<C >B 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. A8E>4@0<0B8G5A:89 A50=A 2:;NG05B B@8 AB0488: ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 @07<8=:8, 459AB28O 8 ?>A;54CNI59 48A:CAA88. 07<8=:0 - MB> 8=B5@2LN 8 0=0;87 ?@54AB>OI8E 83@>2KE A8BC0F89, :>B>@K5 4>;6=K 1KBL 0:BC0;L=K<8 8 8=B5@5A=K<8 4;O CG0AB=8:>2 83@K, ?> =5 G@57<5@=> B@02<8@CNI8<8. 0?@O65=8O, 2>7=8:0NI85 2 ?A8E>4@0<5, C<5=LH0NBAO ?@8 ?><>I8 2K<KH;5==KE A8BC0F89, 87<5=5=8O @>;59 8 ?>2B>@5=8O 83@>2>9 B5<K. #<5=85 "2>9B8" 2 =C6=CN @>;L @0AA<0B@8205BAO 2 ?A8E>4@0<5 :0: A@54AB2> A=OB8O 871KB:0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> =0?@O65=8O. @8 MB>< 2>7459AB285 0C48B>@88 - 3@C??K 8 ?@8ACBAB2CNI8E =0 A50=A5 ;8F - ACI5AB25==> 2 A8AB5<5 =0CG5=8O 040?B8@>20==><C ?>2545=8N.  @57C;LB0B5 ?A8E>4@0<K ?@>8AE>4OB M<>F8>=0;L=>5 >B@5038@>20=85, >A>7=0=85 8 @07@5H5=85 ?@>1;5< C 55 CG0AB=8:>2 A >4=>2@5<5==K< C;CGH5=85< 8E ?A8E8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O (Moreno J., 1946).  @0725@=CB>< 2845 :;0AA8G5A:0O ?A8E>4@0<0 ?@8<5=O5BAO 2 >A=>2=>< C ?>4@>AB:>2 (Lebovici S., 1961). <5NBAO <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?>?KB:8 C?@>AB8BL ?A8E>4@0<C. G. Lehmann (1968) ?@54;0305B 4;O C<5=LH5=8O =52@>B8G5A:>9 ?C15@B0B=>9 70B>@<>65==>AB8 8<?@>2870F8>==CN 3@C??>2CN 83@C 2 A:07:C. I. Corman (1973) 8 R. Gardner (1975) 8A?>;L7CNB 4@0<0B870F8N 2 8=48284C0;L=>9 @01>B5 A 45BL<8. (8@>:>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 <5B>4 ?A8E>4@0<K ?>;CG8; 2 A>F80;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0=0E.   , :@><5 G. Lehmann, 55 ?@0:B8:CNB !. Krauss, V. Scholz, . Knopfel (1977), S. Palmer 8 R. Rank (1978); 2 '5E>A;>20:88 . Bouchal, D. Dufkova, M. Robes, Z. Sekaninova (1973) 8 4@. # MB8E 02B>@>2 ?A8E>4@0<0B8G5A:8 ?@5;><;ONBAO @8B<8:0, ?0=B><8<0, ?>4286=K5 83@K. 7 @07=>>1@07=KE 20@80=B>2 ?A8E>4@0<K, >1J548=ONI8E 55 A 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?859, A;54C5B >B<5B8BL B0: =07K205<CN :8=5B8G5A:CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N R. Schachter 4;O 45B59 A =52@>B8G5A:8<8 8 ?>2545=G5A:8<8 >B:;>=5=8O<8, 8A?KBK20NI8E B@C4=>AB8 2 A;>25A=>< 2K@065=88 A2>8E GC2AB2.  ?>4286=KE 83@0E 45B8 >1CG0NBAO 1>;55 045:20B=><C 2K@065=8N 3=520 8 4@C38E M<>F89. 5E0=87<K ?A8E>4@0<K B@0:BCNBAO 2 ?>=OB8OE 83@>2>9 B5@0?88, :;0AA8G5A:>9 ?A8E>4@0<K J. Moreno 8 18E528>@8AB8G5A:>9 (?>2545=G5A:>9) B5@0?88 (Schacter R., 1974). @54;>65= @O4 4@C38E A>G5B0=89 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A 4@0<0B870F859, @8B<8:>9 8 M:A?@5AA82=K<, "B5;5A=K<" 2K@065=85< 45BL<8 A2>8E GC2AB2, 2 G5< >B@0605BAO E0@0:B5@=0O 4;O D@0=FC7A:>9 ?A8E80B@88 :>=F5?F8O "?A8E><>B>@=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O" (Dellaert R. et al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onod ., Bosse J., 1965; Cosnier I. et al., 1971; Testemale G., 1971). @8=F8? 45A5=A818;870F88, A>AB02;ONI89 >A=>2C ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88 (behaviour therapy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kinnera. >2545=G5A:85 B5@0?52BK ?>;030NB, GB> 2A5 ?>2545=85, :0: =>@<0;L=>5, B0: 8 0=>@<0;L=>5, - ?@>4C:B B>3>, GB> G5;>25: 2KCG8; 8;8 =5 2KCG8;. >MB><C =52@>B8G5A:85 =0@CH5=8O @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: ?@82KG:8, ACI5AB2CNI85 2 =0AB>OI5<, 8 8E @0728B8N =5 ?@8405BAO 7=0G5=8O. . Eysenck (1959) 70O2;O5B, GB> =5B =52@>70, A:@K20NI53> A8<?B><, 0 5ABL ?@>AB> A8<?B>< 8 5A;8 871028BLAO >B =53>, B> <>6=> C=8GB>68BL 8 =52@>7. ;O ?>2545=G5A:>3> B5@0?52B0 2A5 ?@>1;5<K O2;ONBAO ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45 ?5403>38G5A:8<8. 0F85=B >1CG05BAO =>2K< M<>F8>=0;L=K< 8 ?>7=020B5;L=K< 0;LB5@=0B820< ?>2545=8O, :>B>@K5 4>;6=K 1KBL ?@>@5?5B8@>20=K 8 8A?KB0=K 2=CB@8 8 70 ?@545;0<8 B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88. 1CG5=85 8A:;NG05B =5>1E>48<>ABL 8=A09B0 8 :0B0@A8A0. 5B>4 :CH5B:8 (2 :;0AA8G5A:>< ?A8E>0=0;875) 70<5=O5BAO <5B>40<8 :0D54@K 8 :;0AA=>9 :><=0BK, 0 >B=>H5=8O <564C B5@0?52B>< 8 ?0F85=B>< =0?><8=0NB >B=>H5=8O <564C CG8B5;5< 8 CG5=8:><. >2545=G5A:89 B5@0?52B @0AA<0B@8205B A51O :0: 8=AB@C<5=B ?@O<>3> 2;8O=8O, 2<5H0B5;LAB20 8 :>=B@>;O, 0 B0:65 :0: A>F80;L=K9 CA8;8B5;L 4;O ?0F85=B0 (Hollander M., 1975).  ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88 H8@>:> ?@8<5=ONBAO ?@85<K ?>>I@5=8O, @565 - =0:070=8O 8 BI0B5;L=> :>=B@>;8@CNBAO @57C;LB0BK B5@0?88 (Wolpe J., 1958; Eysenck H., 1959). !CI5AB2CNB B@8 >A=>2=K5 <>48D8:0F88 ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88. @8 A8AB5<0B8G5A:>9 45A5=A818;870F88 - @5F8?@>:=>9 8=3818@>20==>9 B5@0?88 (Wolpe J., 1958) - 70@0=55 A>AB02;O5BAO A?8A>: >1J5:B>2 AB@0E0, =0G8=0O A A0<>3> A;01>3>. 0F85=B0 ?@>AOB =0 =5A:>;L:> <8=CB ?@54AB028BL A8BC0F8N, 2K7K20NICN 2=0G0;5 A;01K9 AB@0E, 0 70B5< 8=AB@C:B8@CNB 53> 2 >B=>H5=88 ?@85<>2 @5;0:A0F88. -B>B ?@>F5AA ?>2B>@O5BAO 4> ?>;=>3> >BACBAB28O 15A?>:>9AB20 2 2>>1@0605<>9 A8BC0F88 2K@065==>3> AB@0E0.  4@C3>< 20@80=B5 @5;0:A0F8O ?@54H5AB2C5B ?@54JO2;5=8N AB8<C;0 AB@0E0, :>B>@K9, : B><C 65, <>65B 1KBL =081>;55 8=B5=A82=K< 2=0G0;5, => ?>A:>;L:C ?@54JO2;5=85 AB@0E0 845B =0 D>=5 >1I53> @0AA;01;5=8O, B> ?@>8AE>48B 53> >A;01;5=85 (45A5=A818;870F8O). # 45B59 @5;0:A0F8O =5 2A5340 2>7<>6=0, => A0< ?@8=F8? ?>AB5?5==>3> 8 >?>A@54>20==>3> ?@54JO2;5=8O AB8<C;>2 AB@0E0 =0H5; H8@>:89 >B:;8:, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?@8 ;5G5=88 H:>;L=KE D>189, =5@54:> A2O70==KE A> AB@0E>< >B45;5=8O >B <0B5@8 (Duvano I., 1962; Garvey W., Hegrenes I., 1966). ?8AK205BAO @048:0;L=K9 ?>2545=G5A:89 ?@85<, >1>7=0G05<K8 :0: "?>3@C65=85", :>340 45B59 ?><5I0NB 2 >:@C65=85, 2K7K20NI55 15A?>:>9AB2>, 8 345 >=8 =0E>4OBAO 4>AB0B>G=> ?@>4>;68B5;L=>5 2@5<O, GB>1K A?@028BLAO A =8< (Lamontague V., 1975). @C30O <>48D8:0F8O ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88 AB028B A2>59 F5;LN ?@O<>5 CA8;5=85 65;05<>3> ?>2545=8O ?>A@54AB2>< 8A?>;L7>20=8O 4>78@>20==KE ?@>F54C@ ?>>I@5=8O, @565 - =0:070=8O. @8=F8? ?>4>1=>3> >?5@0=B=>3> >1CA;>2;820=8O ?@542>AE8I5= . Jones (1924), :>B>@0O ?>:070;0, GB> @50:F88 AB@0E0 <>3CB 1KBL C30H5=K 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?@54JO2;5=8O >1J5:B>2, 2K7K20NI8E AB@0E, >4=>2@5<5==> A 4@C38<, ?@8OB=K< @074@068B5;5<, =0?@8<5@ :>=D5B>9. 5B>4K ?>>I@5=8O H8@>:> 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2 45BA:>9 ?@0:B8:5, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 ;5G5=88 M;5:B82=>3> <CB87<0 8 2 >1CG5=88 <0B5@59 ?@85<0< ?>AB5?5==>3> CAB@0=5=8O AB@0E>2 C 45B59 (Hagman R., 1932). =>9 <5B>4 ?@8<5=O5BAO ?@8 ;5G5=88 M=C@570, :>340 2 >B25B =0 <>G58A?CA:0=85 ?@>8AE>4OB 70<K:0=85 M;5:B@8G5A:>9 F5?8 8 ?@>1C645=85 >B 72C:0 1C48;L=8:0 8;8 A;01>3> C40@0 B>:0 (Eysenck H., 1959). !;54CNI0O <>48D8:0F8O ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88 A2O70=0 A 8A?>;L7>20=85< <>45;59, >A>15==> C 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0. > MB><C <5B>4C ;5G5=85, =0?@8<5@, D>189 A>10: A>AB>8B 87 8 :@0B:>2@5<5==KE ?5@8>4>2, 2 :>B>@KE 1>OI85AO 45B8 =01;N40NB A ?><>ILN :8=>, :0: 4@C385 45B8 157 AB@0E0 ?>4E>4OB : A>10:0< 8 3;04OB 8E (Bandura A., 1969).  =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8 ?>2545=G5A:0O B5@0?8O ?@5B5@?5;0 @O4 87<5=5=89.  =59 <5=LH5 <0:A8<0;87<0, 1>;LH5 2=8<0=8O C45;O5BAO <56;8G=>AB=>9 4803=>AB8:5, ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B@5=8@>2:5 C25@5==>AB8 2 A515, 0 B0:65 3@C??>2K< 8 A5<59=K< D>@<0< B5@0?88. =>385 87 ?@85<>2 ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88 ?@>G=> 2>H;8 2 0@A5=0; A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 8 C<5=85 2@0G0 "A?@02;OBLAO" A D8:A8@>20==K<8 A8<?B><0<8 =5 <5=55 206=>, G5< 8E ?0B>35=5B8G5A:89 0=0;87. 0728B85 A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E80B@88 2 50- 60-5 3>4K >:070;> 2;8O=85 8 =0 @0728B85 A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 2 :>B>@>9 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K C 45B59 87CG0NBAO A B>G:8 7@5=8O DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O A5<L8 2 F5;><. A=>2K F5;>AB=>3> ?>4E>40 : A5<L5 :0: 548=8F5 87CG5=8O 8 >1J5:BC ;5G5=8O AD>@<C;8@>20=K N. Ackerman (1958) 8 I. Howells (1968), :>B>@K5 ?>:070;8, GB> ?A8E80B@8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K A5<L8 =5 O2;ONBAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=> >1;0ABLN ?A8E>0=0;870, 8 5A;8 4065 :064><C 55 G;5=C 1C45B >:070=0 8=48284C0;L=0O ?><>IL, B> MB> 5I5 =5 A>740AB ?A8E>B5@0?8N A5<L8. >A;54=OO ?>=8<05BAO :0: <5B>4 2=54@5=8O ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 2 A5<59=CN A8AB5<C, A B5< GB>1K A?>A>1AB2>20BL A>7@520=8N A5<59=>3> ?@>F5AA0. ;O CA?5H=>AB8 A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2065= ?@028;L=K9 2K1>@ ?5@28G=>3> ?0F85=B0, B. 5. ;8F0, >:07K20NI53> =081>;LH55 ?0B>35==>5 2;8O=85 2 A5<L5. >A@54AB2>< A>2<5AB=KE 8 @0745;L=KE 8=B5@2LN CAB0=02;8205BAO E0@0:B5@ A5<59=KE =0@CH5=89, GB> =0E>48B A2>5 >B@065=85 2 48=0<8G5A:>< "A5<59=>< 4803=>75". ">G:0 7@5=8O N. Ackerman 8 I. Howells >1 >4=>2@5<5==>< ;5G5=88 >4=8< 2@0G>< @>48B5;59 8 45B59 ?>445@68205BAO <=>38<8 A>2@5<5==K<8 8AA;54>20B5;O<8 (Bell J., 1957; Carroll E., 1960; Buckle D., Lebovici S., 1966; Graham Ph., 1976; Minuchin S., 1974). <5NBAO @07=>>1@07=K5 ?>4E>4K : A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?A8E>0=0;87 (Grotjahn M., 1960: Ville-Bourgoin E., 1962; Berge ., 1965), ?>2545=G5A:0O B5@0?8O (Liberman R., 1970), A>G5B0=85 ?A8E>0=0;870 8 ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88 (Skynner ., 1976), 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O @07;8G=KE =0?@02;5=89 (Bell J., 1957; Skynner A., 1976), A>2<5AB=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O @515=:0 8 <0B5@8 (Male P. et al., 1969), ?A8E>B5@0?8O, =0?@02;5==0O =0 2708<>459AB285 "@>48B5;L-@515=>:" (Bromwich R., 1976). !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O <>65B >ACI5AB2;OBLAO :0: >4=8<, B0: 8 42C<O 2@0G0<8, @01>B0NI8<8 A AC?@C30<8 (Martin P., Bird H., 1953), 8 4065 B@5<O A?5F80;8AB0<8, 5A;8 >48= 87 =8E 70=8<05BAO ?A8E>B5@0?859 45B59 (Sandler I., 1966). (8@>:> 8A?>;L7CNBAO <5B>4K =5?@O<>3> =01;N45=8O 70 2708<>459AB285< G;5=>2 A5<L8, <03=8B>D>==0O 8 B5;52878>==0O 70?8AL 8=B5@2LN. @8<5=ONBAO @07;8G=K5 @8AC=>G=K5 ?@>1K A F5;LN ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 4803=>AB8:8 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 (Van Krevelen D. A., 1975). >;CG8;8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 F5=B@K ?A8E8G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO 4;O >:070=8O ?@525=B82=>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 8 ?A8E80B@8G5A:>9 ?><>I8 A5<LO<, =0E>4OI8<AO 2 :@878A=>< ?5@8>45 A2>53> @0728B8O (Caplan G., 1964). ;O A>2@5<5==>9 70@C156=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 E0@0:B5@=K 2708<=>5 ?@>=8:=>25=85 8 4>?>;=5=85 @07;8G=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E ?>4E>4>2, GB> =0E>48B A2>5 >B@065=85 2 B@C4=>ABOE 48DD5@5=F8@>20==>9 >F5=:8 8E MDD5:B82=>AB8. -B> 405B >A=>20=8O B0:><C 8725AB=><C ?A8E>B5@0?52BC, :0: J. Frank (1977), 70O28BL, GB> 2K1>@ <5B>40 ?A8E>B5@0?88 4>;65= 1KBL ?>4G8=5= ;8G=><C AB8;N ?A8E>B5@0?52B0. K;> 1K 8450;L=K<, 5A;8 1K ?>A;54=89, 2;045O 2A5<8 <5B>40<8 ?A8E>B5@0?88, <>3 2K18@0BL =081>;55 ?>4E>4OI89 87 =8E 4;O B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?0F85=B0. @C30O >A>15==>ABL @0728B8O 70@C156=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A>AB>8B 2 1>;55 H8@>:><, G5< @0=LH5, 8A?>;L7>20=88 <5B>4>2 2>A?8B0=8O 8 87<5=5=8O >B=>H5=89.  MB>9 A2O78 W. Spiel (1976) @073@0=8G8205B ?>=OB8O "?A8E>B5@0?8O" 8 "2>A?8B0=85". A;8 ?A8E>B5@0?8O 2 C7:>< A<KA;5 A;>20 70:;NG05BAO 2 2>72@0I5=88 1>;L=><C "2=CB@5==53> @02=>25A8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> 0??0@0B0", B> ?@>F5AA 2>A?8B0=8O =0?@02;5= =0 ">1;03>@06820=85" 8 A>740=85 ?@54?>AK;>: 4;O F5;5=0?@02;5==>3> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8. !@02=820O 4>AB865=8O 70@C156=>9 8 >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2 C 45B59, A;54C5B >B<5B8BL ?@8>@8B5B >B5G5AB25==KE 8AA;54>20=89 2 @O45 >1;0AB59 ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?@5645 2A53> 2 38?=>B5@0?88 8 3@C??>2>9 (:>;;5:B82=>9) ?A8E>B5@0?88. 0=LH5 AD>@<C;8@>20=K 8 ?@8=F8?K <548:>-?5403>38G5A:>9 @01>BK A A5<L59.  F5;>< 2 >B5G5AB25==KE 8AA;54>20=8OE ?@5>1;0405B <548:>-?5403>38G5A:89 0A?5:B, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 70@C156=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE 1>;LH55 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO A>1AB25==> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8< <5B>40<. =>3>5 87 4>AB83=CB>3> 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 1K;> CB5@O=> 2 A5@548=5 30-E 3>4>2, :>340 >4=>AB>@>==5 ?>=8<05<K9 D878>;>38G5A:89 ?>4E>4 : ?@>1;5<5 =52@>7>2 8 8E ;5G5=8O 7045@60; @0728B85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0A?5:B0 ?@>1;5<K. >;>65=85 =0G8=05B 8A?@02;OBLAO 2 70-E 3>40E. 2545=85 =><5=:;0BC@=>9 4>;6=>AB8 45BA:>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 8 >1CG5=8O ?> MB>9 A?5F80;L=>AB8 CA:>@8B @0728B85 45BA:>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 >ACI5AB2;5=85 MDD5:B82=KE <5@ ?> ?A8E>?@>D8;0:B8:5 =52@>7>2 C 45B59 8 27@>A;KE. 0H >?KB ?A8E>B5@0?88 D>@<8@>20;AO A =0G0;0 60-E 3>4>2. 5:>B>@K5 87 A0<>AB>OB5;L=> @07@01>B0==KE =0<8 <5B>48: ?A8E>B5@0?88 8<5NB 0=0;>38 2 70@C156=>< >?KB5. -B> >B=>A8BAO : A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 8A?>;L7>20=8N 83@K 8 3@C??K 2 :0G5AB25 B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 8=AB@C<5=B0, ?@85<0< ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88. !CI=>ABL =0H53> ?>4E>40 =5 2 ?@8<5=5=88 B5E 8;8 8=KE >B45;L=KE <5B>48:, 0 2 8A?>;L7>20=88 8E :0: 548=>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> :><?;5:A0, >A=>20==>3> =0 ?@8=F8?0E >B5G5AB25==>9 ?0B>35=5B8G5A:>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 . . OA8I520 8 53> H:>;K. <5AB5 A B5< ?A8E>B5@0?8O C 45B59 - =5 :>?8O ?A8E>B5@0?88 27@>A;KE, 0 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K9, :;8=8G5A:8 >G5@G5==K9 <5B>4 ;5G5=8O =52@>7>2. A8E>B5@0?8N 2 :0G5AB25 >A=>2=>3> <5B>40 ;5G5=8O =52@>7>2 <>6=> >?@545;8BL :0: ?@>F5AA =0?@02;5==>3> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> (?A8E8G5A:>3>) 2>7459AB28O 2@0G0 =0 1>;L=>3> A F5;LN 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O =0@CH5==KE ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89, 8E C:@5?;5=8O 8 @0728B8O.  MB>< A<KA;5 >=0 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> 2KABC?05B :0: 548=K9 ?@>F5AA ;5G51=KE 8 ?5403>38G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89, =5 4>?CA:0NI89 70<5=K ;5G51=>3> 0A?5:B0 ?5403>38G5A:8<, GB> G@520B> >?0A=>ABLN ?@8<5=5=8O 2>A?8B0B5;L=KE <5@ B0<, 345 B@51C5BAO CAB@0=5=85 1>;57=5==KE ?@>O2;5=89. A8E>B5@0?8O - MB> =5 B>;L:> ?@>F5AA 2>7459AB28O 2@0G0 =0 1>;L=>3>, => 8 ?@>F5AA 2708<>459AB28O <564C =8<8, 48=0<8G5A:89, 42CAB>@>==89 E0@0:B5@ :>B>@>3> >G52845= 2 ;8G=>AB=> >@85=B8@>20==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. -B>B ?@>F5AA 2:;NG05B A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 <5E0=87<K >1I5=8O, 8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L <5E0=87<K <56;8G=>AB=>3> :>=B0:B0. A;8 >1J548=8BL >B<5G5==K5 AB>@>=K ?A8E>B5@0?88, B> >=0 1C45B 2K3;O45BL :0: ;8G=>AB=> >@85=B8@>20==K9 ?@>F5AA 2708<>459AB28O 2@0G0 8 1>;L=>3>, =0?@02;5==K9 =0 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 8 C:@5?;5=85 ?A8E8G5A:>3> 548=AB20 ;8G=>AB8 1>;L=>3> 8 4>AB865=85 C =53> ?@85<;5<>3> C@>2=O A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 040?B0F88. 45AL 206=> A>1;N45=85 10;0=A0 <564C 8=48284C0;L=>-;8G=>AB=K<8 8 A>F80;L=K<8 B@51>20=8O<8, B. 5. <564C B@51>20=8O<8 1>;L=>3> 8 B@51>20=8O<8 @50;L=>AB8.  =0G0;5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2@0G 1>;LH59 G0ABLN 8AE>48B 87 B@51>20=89 8 =04564 1>;L=>3> :0: G5;>25:0, ?><>30O 5<C =09B8 A51O, 8AA;54>20BL A2>8 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 CB25@48BLAO 2 =8E. @8 ?@>4>;65=88 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2@0G 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 >@85=B8@C5BAO =0 A>F80;L=> 7=0G8<K5 B@51>20=8O, :>@@838@CO >B=>H5=8O, ?5@5AB@0820O 687=5==CN ?>78F8N 8 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0, 2>A?8BK20O ?>;>68B5;L=K5, A>F80;L=> ?@85<;5<K5 ;8G=>AB=K5 :0G5AB20. A8E>B5@0?8O CA;>2=> ?>4@0745;O5BAO =0 A5<59=CN, 8=48284C0;L=CN 8 3@C??>2CN, GB> A>AB02;O5B 548=K9 ?0B>35=5B8G5A:89 :><?;5:A, ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 2 :>B>@>< >?@545;O5BAO :;8=8G5A:8<8 8 ;8G=>AB=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 1>;L=KE. @8 =52@>B8G5A:8E @50:F8OE <>65B 1KBL 2?>;=5 4>AB0B>G=K< :>@>B:89 :C@A ;5G5=8O, A>AB>OI89 87 M;5<5=B>2 AC335AB82=>9, @07JOA=ONI59 8 83@>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 0 B0:65 =5:>B>@KE @5:><5=40F89 @>48B5;O<. A8E>B5@0?8O 1>;L=KE A E@>=8G5A:8< B5G5=85< =52@>70 8 =51;03>?@8OB=K<8 ;8G=>AB=K<8 87<5=5=8O<8, :0: ?@028;>, B@51C5B ?@>4>;68B5;L=>3>, <=>3><5AOG=>3> ;5G5=8O 8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2A53> :><?;5:A0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O, =0G8=0O A A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. >@@5:F8O =51;03>?@8OB=> A;>682H8EAO A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 ?@54AB02;O5B =5>1E>48<>5 CA;>285 ?0B>35=5B8G5A:8 >1>A=>20==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. A>1>5 7=0G5=85 MB> 8<55B 2 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5, :>340 A5<LO >:07K205B =081>;LH55 2;8O=85 =0 D>@<8@>20=85 ;8G=>AB8 45B59. A>7=0=85 @>48B5;O<8 ?@8G8= 1>;57=5==>3> A>AB>O=8O @515=:0, C;CGH5=85 8E ?A8E8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O 8 ?5@5AB@>9:0 2=CB@8A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 254CB : CAB@0=5=8N =081>;55 G0AB>3> 8AB>G=8:0 ?A8E8G5A:>9 B@02<0B870F88 C 45B59, A2O70==>9 A :>=D;8:B0<8 2 A5<L5 8 =5?@028;L=K< 2>A?8B0=85<. !=OB85 1>;57=5==KE ?@>O2;5=89, C:@5?;5=85 ?A8E8:8 8 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K 2 F5;><, ?5@5AB@>9:0 >B=>H5=89 1>;L=>3> : A515 8 4@C38< 8 87<5=5=85 53> =51;03>?@8OB=> AD>@<8@>202H8EAO G5@B E0@0:B5@0 ?@>8AE>4OB 2 ?@>F5AA5 8=48284C0;L=>9 8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  @57C;LB0B5 ?5@5AB@>9:8 >B=>H5=89 @>48B5;59 8 45B59 =01;N40NBAO =>@<0;870F8O 8E <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 8 ?@5:@0I5=85 :>=D;8:B0. 74>@>2;5=85 A5<59=>9 A@54K A>7405B ?@54?>AK;:8 4;O 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O =0@CH5==KE >B=>H5=89 1>;L=>3> 2 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E AD5@0E >1I5=8O.  F5;>< MDD5:B ?A8E>B5@0?88, 2 B>< G8A;5 55 >B45;L=KE <5B>48:, O2;O5BAO ?@>872>4=K< :0: >B ;8G=>AB8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0, 53> G5;>25G5A:8E :0G5AB2, 687=5==>3> 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >?KB0, B0: 8 >B ;8G=>AB8 1>;L=>3>, ?@5645 2A53> 53> 65;0=8O 87;5G5=8O, 25@K 2> 2@0G0 8 <5B>4 ;5G5=8O, :;8=8G5A:>9 BO65AB8 A>AB>O=8O, E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8E 87<5=5=89 8 ;8G=>AB=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59. 8G=>AB=> >@85=B8@>20==K9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>4E>4 <>6=> ?@54AB028BL :0: 2708<>459AB285 =0 C@>2=5 ";8G=>ABL (2@0G0)-;8G=>ABL (1>;L=>3>)", 0 =5 "2@0G-1>;L=>9" 8;8 ;8G=>ABL (2@0G0)-1>;L=>9". 081>;55 ACI5AB25==K< D0:B>@>< 2 B0:>9 A8AB5<5 1C45B CAB0=>2:0 2@0G0 =0 ;8G=>ABL 1>;L=>3>, >1@0B82H53>AO 70 ?><>ILN, 8 2K45;5=85 ?@5645 2A53> 53> G5;>25G5A:8E :0G5AB2, 0 70B5< C65 B5E AB>@>= ;8G=>AB8, :>B>@K5 ?>@O65=K 1>;57=5==K< ?@>F5AA><. B B>3>, :0:>20 MB0 ;8G=>ABL 2 A2>59 =@02AB25==>-MB8G5A:>9 >A=>25, =0A:>;L:> >=0 87<5=5=0 8;8 0=><0;L=0 A >1I5?@8=OB>9, G5;>25G5A:>9 B>G:>9 7@5=8O, 2> <=>3>< 7028AOB MDD5:B82=>ABL ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 55 ?@>3=>7. 8G=>AB=> >@85=B8@>20==K9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>4E>4 - MB> B0:65 A8BC0B82=>-48=0<8G5A:89 ?>4E>4, 20@L8@CNI89AO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B :>=:@5B=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88. 'C2AB2>20BL MBC A8BC0F8N 8 @C:>2>48BL 5N 2 8=B5@5A0E 2K74>@>2;5=8O 1>;L=>3> - =5>BJ5<;5<0O ?@8=04;56=>ABL ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> >?KB0. 8G=>ABL ?A8E>B5@0?52B0, 53> 7=0=8O 8 >?KB - >48= 87 A0<KE ACI5AB25==KE D0:B>@>2 CA?5H=>AB8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 064K9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B 8<55B A2>9 480?07>= ;5G51=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59, 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 7028AOI89 >B 53> ;8G=>AB=>-B8?>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59. A8E>B5@0?52BK A 8=B@>25@B8@>20==>9 AB@C:BC@>9 ;8G=>AB8 =5@54:> ?@54?>G8B0NB 0=0;8B8G5A:85, @07JOA=ONI85 <5B>4K ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 A ?@54C15645=85< <>3CB >B=>A8BLAO : 55 83@>2K<, 3@C??>2K< 8 ?>2545=G5A:8< <>48D8:0F8O<, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 4@C385 ?A8E>B5@0?52BK C45;ONB 8< 1>;LH55 2=8<0=85. !CI5AB25==K< ?0@0<5B@>< O2;O5BAO 8 2>7@0AB ?A8E>B5@0?52B0. 0G8=0NI85 2@0G8 AB@5<OBAO >2;045BL ?@5645 2A53> 38?=>AC335AB859, A:>@55 CB25@640NI59 8E 2 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>< C<5=88 ;5G8BL. ! 2>7@0AB>< <=>385 B2>@G5A:8 =0AB@>5==K5 ?A8E>B5@0?52BK @0AH8@ONB A2>9 ;5G51=K9 480?07>=, 8A?>;L7CO @07=>>1@07=K5 <5B>48:8 ?A8E>B5@0?88, >B@060NI85 8E 2>7@>AH89 687=5==K9 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K9 >?KB. # :064>3> 8ICI53> ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 5ABL A2>9 :@8B8G5A:89 MB0? ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> @0728B8O, :>340 >= 704C<K205BAO =04 A2>8< B5@0?52B8G5A:8< ?>B5=F80;>< 8 =0E>48B =>2K5 ?>4E>4K 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 :><<C=8:0F88 A 1>;L=K<. @8 MB>< 2 ;CGH59 A8BC0F88 >:07K205BAO B>B ?A8E>B5@0?52B, 2>7@0AB :>B>@>3> @025= 2>7@0ABC @>48B5;59 @515=:0 8;8 ?@52KH05B 53>.  70<5B=>9 <5@5 MB> ?@>O28;>AL 2 =0H59 ?@0:B8:5 A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, :>340 =5 B>;L:> 2>7@>AH89 >?KB, => 8 AC335AB82=K9 MDD5:B 2>7@0AB0 ?>72>;8; =0< 4>AB8GL 1>;55 2KA>:8E @57C;LB0B>2 2 :>@@5:F88 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. A:;NG8B5;L=>5 7=0G5=85 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8<5NB 8A:CAAB2> C15640BL, 3>2>@8BL OA=K< 8 ?>=OB=K< 1>;L=><C O7K:><, C25@5==>ABL 2 A2>8E A8;0E ?@8 :@8B8G5A:>< >A<KA;820=88 >?KB0, :0: 8 381:0O B0:B8:0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2708<>459AB28O, A>G5B0NI0OAO A> A?>A>1=>ABLN ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 @07@O60BL 8 AB018;878@>20BL M<>F8>=0;L=K5 @50:F88 ?0F85=B0. ">=CA 2@0G0, 53> 687=5@04>AB=K9, >?B8<8AB8G5A:89 =0AB@>9, ?@>B82>AB>OI89 ?5AA8<87<C 8 A:5?B8F87<C 1>;L=>3>, 8A:@5==>ABL 8 =5?>A@54AB25==>ABL 2 >1@0I5=88, ?>>I@5=85 0:B82=>AB8 ?0F85=B0 2 ;5G5=88 B0:65 ACI5AB25==K 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  8725AB=KE ?@545;0E 2@0G =5 ?@5?OBAB2C5B 2K@065=8N 03@5AA82=KE D0=B0789 8 <KA;59 ?0F85=B0, >= ?@8=8<05B 53> B0:8<, :0:>9 >= 5ABL, ?@54>AB02;OO 2>7<>6=>ABL 4;O M<>F8>=0;L=>3> >B@5038@>20=8O 2=CB@5==8E =0?@O65=89, A B5< GB>1K =0?@028BL 8E 2 1>;55 ?@85<;5<>5 @CA;> 8 @0728BL A?>A>1=>AB8 A0<>:>=B@>;O.  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 2@0G 2KABC?05B 4;O 1>;L=>3> :0: >1J5:B ?>4@060=8O 8 02B>@8B5B0. C6=> C<5;> ?>;L7>20BLAO MB8<, =5 A>74020O C ?0F85=B0 7028A8<>AB8 >B A51O 8 =5 ?>4@K20O 02B>@8B5B0 @>48B5;59. A8E>B5@0?52B 4>;65= 1KBL 4CH52=> B5?;K<, 4>1@K< 8 >B7K2G82K<, GB>1K ?>=8<0BL A;01>ABL 1>;L=>3>, => 4>AB0B>G=> A8;L=K<, GB>1K 1KBL A?>A>1=K< ?5@5=>A8BL 8 CAB@0=OBL 8E. 0E>4OAL A 1>;L=K< 2 A8BC0F88 <56;8G=>AB=>3> :>=B0:B0, ?>;=>ABLN 4>25@OO 5<C 8 25@O 2 53> G5;>25G5A:85 :0G5AB20, 2@0G A?>A>1AB2C5B C:@5?;5=8N C 1>;L=>3> 4>25@8O : A515, : A2>8< 2>7<>6=>ABO< 8 A?>A>1=>ABO<. "5< A0<K< 2@0G ?>2KH05B C =53> GC2AB2> ;8G=>AB=>9 F5==>AB8, A>@07<5@OO 53> A B@51>20=8O<8 >:@C60NI59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. A8E>B5@0?52B 8AE>48B 87 :>=F5?F88 ?@8=F8?80;L=>9 >1@0B8<>AB8 =52@>B8G5A:8E @0AAB@>9AB2 8 AB@5<8BAO ?@8 ?@>G8E @02=KE CA;>28OE ?@8<5=8BL B5 <5B>48:8 ?A8E>B5@0?88, :>B>@K5 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 =0E>4OB >B:;8: C ?0F85=B0. ?B8<0;L=K< 20@80=B>< O2;O5BAO 4>AB865=85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> @57>=0=A0, :>340 8A?>;L7C5<K5 <5B>48:8 A>>B25BAB2CNB ?@5420@8B5;L=K< >6840=8O< 1>;L=>3> 2 >B=>H5=88 A?>A>10 53> ;5G5=8O. ">340 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 2>7459AB285 =0E>48B C =53> =081>;55 0:B82=K9 ?>;>68B5;L=K9 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 >B:;8:.  A2>N >G5@54L, A2>52@5<5==K9 8 4065 2 G5<-B> >?5@560NI89 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 >B:;8: 2@0G0 =0 =C64K 8 70?@>AK ?0F85=B0, =0 53> A?>A>1 @5038@>20=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 O2;O5BAO <>45;LN G5;>25G5A:>9 >B7K2G82>AB8 8 A?>A>1AB2C5B D>@<8@>20=8N C 1>;L=KE ?>4>1=KE >B25B=KE M<>F8>=0;L=KE @50:F89. @>=8:0OAL GC2AB20<8 8 <KA;O<8 1>;L=>3>, 2@0G-?A8E>B5@0?52B =5@54:> ?5@568205B A8BC0F8N ;5G5=8O 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8, G5< A0< 1>;L=>9, >4=>2@5<5==> C?@02;OO ?@>F5AA>< ;5G5=8O 8 >B=>H5=8O<8 2 =5<. 5>1E>48<>ABL ?><=8BL >1 8=48284C0;L=>< A2>5>1@0788 :064>3> 1>;L=>3>, 53> 48=0<8:5 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A>7405B C 2@0G0 ?A8E8G5A:>5 =0?@O65=85, =5 3>2>@O C65 > 7=0G8B5;L=>9 B@0B5 53> =5@2=>9 M=5@388. >MB><C >= <>65B C45@6820BL 2 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 ?0<OB8 >?KB @01>BK B>;L:> A >3@0=8G5==K< :>=B8=35=B>< 1>;L=KE. 45AL B@C4=> =0720BL :>=:@5B=K5 F8D@K 2284C 8E 20@80B82=>AB8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 ?A8E>B5@0?52B>2. 0 =0H 273;O4, <>6=> MDD5:B82=> 25AB8 >4=>2@5<5==> =5 1>;LH5 10- 12 1>;L=KE 2 ?@>F5AA5 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, AB>;L:> 65 ?@8 3@C??>2>9 8 38?=>AC335AB82=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, B. 5. 2 8B>35 =5 1>;LH5 30-40 1>;L=KE. =0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH55 G8A;> 8E <>65B 1KBL ?@8 :0B0<=5AB8G5A:>< =01;N45=88 8 ?>445@6820NI5< ;5G5=88. A;>6=ONB ?A8E>B5@0?8N B0:85 ?@>O2;5=8O ;8G=>AB8 2@0G0, :0: =58A:@5==>ABL, 83@0, 0?;><1, =54>25@G82>ABL, ?@5427OB>ABL, B@52>6=>ABL 8 :>=D;8:B=>ABL, :>B>@K5 <>3CB A5@L57=> ?>4>@20BL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:CN :><<C=8:0F8N A 1>;L=K<. 58A:@5==>ABL 2>A?@8=8<05BAO 1>;L=K< :0: "<0A:0", =0?><8=05B > ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI5< >?KB5 >B=>H5=89 8 2K7K205B =54>25@85 : A;>20< 8 459AB28O< 2@0G0. # 4>H:>;L=8:>2 : MB><C ?@8A>548=O5BAO 15A?>:>9AB2>, 5A;8 2@0G =0@>G8B> ?>4G5@:=CB> >1@0I05BAO A =8<8, :0: A 45BL<8. >4>1=>5 >B=>H5=85 =5?@>872>;L=> 0AA>F88@C5BAO A E8B@K<8 8 :>20@=K<8 >1@070<8 A:07>: 8 C25;8G8205B, 0 =5 C<5=LH05B B@52>6=>ABL 2 :018=5B5 2@0G0. # ?>4@>AB:>2 >A;>6=ONB ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 :>=B0:B 87;8H=OO D0<8;LO@=>ABL 2@0G0, =02O7K20=85 <=5=8O 8 >BACBAB285 >1AC645=89 2>;=CNI8E 2>?@>A>2. %>@>H> ?>AB02;5==K9 3>;>A 2@0G0 157 =0@>G8B>3> CA8;5=8O 8;8 ?@83;CH5==>AB8 8 B5< 1>;55 157 >BB5=:>2 @074@065=8O 8 C3@>7K, 2 <5@C 2K@078B5;L=0O <8<8:0, ?;0AB8:0 42865=89 8 2AO <0=5@0 ?>2545=8O >:07K20NB 2>7459AB285 =0 1>;L=>3> G5@57 8=4C:F8>==K9 <5E0=87< ?>4@060=8O, >682;OO 53> <8<8:C, ?>2KH0O B>=CA 8 @072820O A?>A>1=>AB8 A0<>2K@065=8O.  8B>35 @O4 ?@8=F8?>2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 <>6=> AD>@<C;8@>20BL A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 1) 25AB8 ?@85< 157 <548F8=A:>3> E0;0B0 8 1KBL 4;O @515=:0 ?@>AB> G5;>25:><; 2) 2KE>48BL 87-70 AB>;0, ?>4E>48BL : @515=:C 8 =5?>A@54AB25==> :>=B0:B8@>20BL A =8<; 3) 83@0BL 2<5AB5 8 1KBL 4;O =53> ?0@B=5@><; 4) 8AE>48BL 87 GC2AB2 8 65;0=89 @515=:0 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8, G5< 87 A2>8E >BO3>I5==KE 2@0G51=K< >?KB>< ?@54AB02;5=89 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> 0?;><10, 2>72545==>3> 2 AB5?5=L 02B>@8B0@=>3> CB25@645=8O 2;0AB8 =04 1>;L=K<; 5) =5 B>@>?8BLAO A ?5@52>A?8B0=85< @515=:0, =5 7=0O, GB> >= 87 A51O ?@54AB02;O5B 8 =0 GB> A?>A>15=; 6) =5 701K20BL, GB>, :@><5 2@0G0, 5ABL 8 @>48B5;8, 3>B>2K5 :0: >B40BL @515=:0 ?>;=>ABLN =0 ?>?5G5=85 2@0G0, B0: 8 @52=82> 2>A?@8=8<0BL 53> CA?5E8 2 :>=B0:B5 8 @0728B88 @515=:0; 7) 25@8BL 2 A51O 8 2 A2>N A?>A>1=>ABL ;5G8BL, ?@5645 G5< C15640BL @515=:0 ?>25@8BL 2 A51O 8 2 2>7<>6=>ABL 87;5G5=8O.  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl9.shtm" \o ";020 3. A=>2=K5 =0?@02;5=8O 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2." @54K4CI0O 3;020 HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/oglav.shtm" \o "5@=CBLAO : >3;02;5=8N :=838" 3;02;5=85 HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/gl11.shtm" \o ";020 4. !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O." !;54CNI0O 3;020  ;020 4. !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O. !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: <5B>4 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O DC=:F8>=0;L=>3> 548=AB20 A5<L8 ?>A@54AB2>< =>@<0;870F88 >B=>H5=89 8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO 55 G;5=>2. =0 A>AB>8B 87 A;54CNI8E MB0?>2: 1) >1A;54>20=8O A5<L8; 2) A5<59=KE >1AC645=89; 3) A>2<5AB=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 1>;L=>3> 8 @>48B5;59. 5@2K9 MB0? A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 1K; @0AA<>B@5= @0=55. = 7025@H05BAO ?>AB0=>2:>9 B0: =07K205<>3> A5<59=>3> 4803=>70, 2 :>B>@><, A ?>78F89 A8AB5<=>3> 0=0;870, >1>1I0NBAO ?A8E>?0B>;>38G5A:85, ;8G=>AB=K5 8 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 8AA;54C5<>9 A5<L8. A>1>5 2=8<0=85 >1@0I05BAO =0 =54>AB0B>G=>5 DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 A5<L8 :0: A8AB5<K 2708<>A2O70==KE @>;59, =87:CN ?@>4C:B82=>ABL A>2<5AB=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, =0;8G85 1>;LH>3> :>;8G5AB20 =5@07@5H5==KE ?@>1;5< 8 O2=KE 8;8 A:@KBKE :>=D;8:B>2. @8 >1A;54>20=88 2@0G, 1>;L=>9 8 @>48B5;8 A>AB02;ONB <0;CN 3@C??C, >B=>H5=8O 2 :>B>@>9 ACI5AB25==> 2;8ONB =0 ?@>F5AA ?>A;54CNI59 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  ?5@2CN >G5@54L MB> >B=>A8BAO : CAB0=>2:0< 55 CG0AB=8:>2 =0 2@0G51=CN ?><>IL. "0:, 1>;LH8=AB2> @>48B5;59, =0E>4OAL 2 :>=D;8:B5 A 45BL<8, >6840NB, GB> 2@0G 70AB028B 45B59 15A?@5:>A;>2=> 2K?>;=OBL 8E B@51>20=8O 8 CAB@0=8B C =8E "4CE A2>52>;8O".  A2O78 A MB8< @>48B5;8 <>3CB ?@O<> 8;8 :>A25==> ?@54?8AK20BL 2@0GC >?@545;5==K9 ?;0= 459AB289 A F5;LN CA8;5=8O A2>59 ?>78F88 2 A5<L5. "0:8< >1@07><, 2@0G <>65B 1KBL 2>2;5G5= 2 =5@07@5H5==K9 A5<59=K9 :>=D;8:B, ?>MB><C >= 4>;65= A>1;N40BL 8725AB=K9 =59B@0;8B5B 2 A5<59=>< :>=D;8:B5, >A=>20==>< =5 =0 M<>F8>=0;L=> E>;>4=>< 8;8 G@57<5@=> A45@60==>< >B=>H5=88, 0 =0 M<>F8>=0;L=> B5?;>< M<?0B8G5A:>< ?@>=8:=>25=88 2 ?@>1;5<K A5<L8, 8A:;NG0NI5< 157>3>2>@>G=CN ?>445@6:C :0:>3>-;81> G;5=0 A5<L8 2 CI5@1 4@C38< 8 ?>?KB:C 2A5 A@07C "?>AB028BL =0 A2>5 <5AB>". $C=:F8O 2@0G0 70:;NG05BAO 2 A>459AB288 ?@>3@5AA82=><C @0728B8N A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 8 ?>=8<0=88 B>G5: 7@5=8O 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2 :>=D;8:B0. = 2KABC?05B =5 :0: AC4LO, 0 :0: ?>A@54=8: 2 ?@>1;5<0E A5<L8, 8AE>4O ?@5645 2A53> 87 7040G ;5G5=8O @515=:0, 1>;57=L :>B>@>3> 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 >1CA;>2;5=0 =51;03>?@8OB=> A;>682H8<8AO A5<59=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8.  MB>< 7=0G5=88 2@0G ?>445@68205B 65;0=85 @>48B5;59 =>@<0;87>20BL >1AB0=>2:C 2 A5<L5 8 2K;5G8BL @515=:0, GB> C65 A0<> ?> A515 2K?>;=O5B 8=B53@8@CNICN @>;L 2 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 =0@CH5==KE A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. A>1>3> 2=8<0=8O 70A;C68205B ?>78F8O @>48B5;O, :>B>@K9 =5 ?>A5I05B 2@0G0 8 >B@8F0B5;L=> >B=>A8BAO : ;5G5=8N @515=:0. @8 4><8=8@>20=88 2 A5<L5 >= <>65B A25AB8 =0 =5B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 2>7459AB285 2@0G0. 5@54:> ?@>B82 >1@0I5=8O 70 ?><>ILN 2KABC?0NB >BFK, @0AF5=820O MB> :0: 2<5H0B5;LAB2>, ?>4@K20NI55 8E <C6A:>9 02B>@8B5B. !2>52@5<5==>5 >1AC645=85 A >1>8<8 @>48B5;O<8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 ;5G5=8O @515=:0 ?@54C?@56405B ?>4>1=>5 >B@8F0B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85. > >B=>H5=8N : ;5G5=8N 2A5E @>48B5;59 <>6=> @0745;8BL =0 425 3@C??K. 4=8 ?@840NB A5@L57=>5 7=0G5=85 =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:><C 74>@>2LN A2>8E 45B59 8 >15A?>:>5=K 8E A>AB>O=85<.  B0:>9 @>;8 G0AB> 2KABC?05B <0BL, A0<0 AB@040NI0O =52@>7>< 8 8A?KBK20NI0O GC2AB2> 28=K 70 2>7=8:=>25=85 1>;57=8 C @515=:0. @C385 ?@82>4OB 45B59 =0 ?@85< B>;L:> ?> =0AB>O=8N A?5F80;8AB>2, =5 >A>7=020O A2>59 >B25BAB25==>AB8. -B8 @>48B5;8 D>@<0;L=> >B=>AOBAO : @5:><5=40F8O< 2@0G0.  MB8E A;CG0OE >B =53> B@51C5BAO =5<0;> B0:B0 8 C<5=8O, GB>1K 708=B5@5A>20BL @>48B5;59 2 >:070=88 2A5AB>@>==59 ?><>I8 @515=:C, G5<C A?>A>1AB2C5B >1>A=>20==K9 2@0G51=K9 ?@>3=>7 > 53> 40;L=59H5< =51;03>?@8OB=>< ;8G=>AB=>< @0728B88. #A?5H=>ABL ?>4>1=>9 :>@@5:F88 >B=>H5=8O @>48B5;59 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 7028A8B >B 8E :C;LBC@=>3> 8 =@02AB25==>-MB8G5A:>3> C@>2=O. A;>6=ONB A5<59=CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N ?0@0=>9O;L=K9 =0AB@>9 C @>48B5;59, 02B>@8B0@=K5, 8AB5@8G5A:85 8 M3>F5=B@8G5A:8-70I8B=K5 G5@BK 8E ;8G=>AB8, =5A?>A>1=>ABL : M<>F8>=0;L=><C A>?5@56820=8N, A:C?>ABL, "B>20@=K9 D5B8H87<", =5381:>ABL <KH;5=8O, =5B5@?5;82>ABL 8 =5CAB>9G82>ABL E0@0:B5@0. >48B5;8 A ?0@0=>9O;L=K< =0AB@>5< A =54>25@85< >B=>AOBAO : ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:><C, 2 A2>59 >A=>25 ?A8E>;>38G5A:><C <5B>4C ;5G5=8O, =0AB>@>65==> 2>A?@8=8<0NB 459AB28O 2@0G0 8 =5 4>?CA:0NB 53> : >1AC645=8N ?@>1;5< A5<L8 8 >B=>H5=89 A @515=:><. -B> AB0=>28BAO ?>=OB=K<, 5A;8 CG5ABL, GB> 8 4><0 @>48B5;8 A ?0@0=>9O;L=K< =0AB@>5< =0E>4OB 2> 2A5< =54>AB0B:8 C @515=:0, =5B5@?8<K : =8<, =5 4>25@ONB 53> >?KBC, 2>7<>6=>ABO< 8 ?>B@51=>ABO<, 15A:><?@><8AA=K 8 G@57<5@=> =0AB>9G82K 2 >ACI5AB2;5=88 A2>8E B@51>20=89. 5@54:> MB>B =0AB@>9 2K@0605BAO B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=K< =54>25@85< : 2>7<>6=>AB8 >:070=8O MDD5:B82=>9 ?><>I8 @515=:C, :>B>@K9 ?@54AB02;O5BAO =587;5G8<> 1>;L=K<, 0 ?>AB5?5==>5 C;CGH5=85 53> A>AB>O=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >F5=8205BAO :0: 2@5<5==>5, =5=0456=>5 8 =5 70A;C6820NI55 2=8<0=8O. >4>1=>5 >B=>H5=85 @>48B5;59 : 2>7<>6=>ABO< ?A8E>B5@0?88 O2;O5BAO =081>;55 ACI5AB25==K< ?@5?OBAB285< 4;O 55 ?@>2545=8O. 2B>@8B0@=K5 @>48B5;8 A:;>==K A0<8 ?@54>?@545;OBL B0:B8:C ?A8E>B5@0?88. 0: 8 @>48B5;8 A ?0@0=>9O;L=K< =0AB@>5<, >=8 87;8H=5 B@51>20B5;L=K : 2@0GC, =5@54:> ?5@5E>4OB >B >4=>3> 2@0G0 : 4@C3><C 2 ?>8A:0E "GC4>459AB25==>3>" 4>:B>@0, => A0<8 =5 A?>A>1=K 87<5=8BL >B=>H5=8O 8 C:;>=ONBAO >B :@8B8G5A:>3> @0AA<>B@5=8O A2>8E ?@>1;5<. "> 65 >B=>A8BAO : @>48B5;O< A 8AB5@8G5A:8<8 G5@B0<8 ;8G=>AB8, :>B>@K5 : B><C 65 =5@54:> B@51CNB : A515 1>;LH53> 2=8<0=8O, G5< : @515=:C, 8 @0AAG8BK20NB =0 8A:;NG8B5;L=> MDD5:B82=K5, A 8E B>G:8 7@5=8O, 38?=>AC335AB82=K5 <5B>4K ?A8E>B5@0?88. -3>F5=B@8G5A:8-70I8B=K5 CAB0=>2:8 2 >B=>H5=88 ?A8E>B5@0?88 70:;NG0NBAO 2 >?0A5=8OE 8 AB@0E5 CB@0B8BL 2;8O=85 =0 @515=:0 2 ?@>F5AA5 C<5=LH5=8O 53> =52@>B8G5A:>9 B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=>9 7028A8<>AB8 >B @>48B5;59, :>340 C =8E >B?0405B ?>B@51=>ABL 2 871KB>G=>< 15A?>:>9AB25 8 38?5@>?5:5 8 >=8 >AB0NBAO ">48= =0 >48=" A> A2>8<8 A>1AB25==K<8 =5@07@5H5==K<8 ;8G=>AB=K<8 ?@>1;5<0<8, <0A:8@CNI8<8AO 2 =0AB>OI5< =52@>B8G5A:8< A>AB>O=85< @515=:0. -B> B5 A;CG08, :>340 @>48B5;8 ?@5:@0I0NB ;5G5=85 =5 2 A8;0E "@0AAB0BLAO" A ?@54AB02;ONI8<8 G0ABL 8E "O" 8 ?@>5F8@C5<K<8 =0 @515=:0 AB@0E0<8 8 B@52>30<8, :>340 >=8 ?0=8G5A:8 1>OBAO ?@8E>48BL : 2@0GC, >?0A0OAL C<5=LH5=8O 38?5@>?5:8, :>340 >=8 =5 E>BOB ;8H8BLAO A2>8E @>48B5;LA:8E 0<18F89, A?>A>1AB2CNI8E =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:>9 ?5@53@C7:5 @515=:0. @><5 MB>3>, 15A?>:>9AB2> ?> 53> ?>2>4C =5@54:> 2KABC?05B :0: 548=AB25==> ?@85<;5<0O D>@<0 A>3;0A8O <564C @>48B5;O<8, A2>5>1@07=K9 284 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 :><<C=8:0F88 2 A5<L5. -<>F8>=0;L=0O =5>B7K2G82>ABL @>48B5;59, :0: 8 8E A:C?>ABL, M3>F5=B@87<, 8=48284C0;8AB8G5A:0O =0?@02;5==>ABL, ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 >B=>H5=88 : ?@>AL10< 2@0G0 ?@8=5AB8 ?@54<5BK @8A>20=8O 8 83@K 4;O 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2 70=OB8OE A 8E @515=:><. 0: ?@028;>, >=8 "701K20NB" MBC ?@>AL1C, 2 G5< ?@>O2;ONBAO M<>F8>=0;L=0O "3;CE>ABL" : 70?@>A0< @515=:0 8 =565;0=85, GB>1K 83@CH:0<8 ?>;L7>20;8AL 4@C385 45B8. -B8 65 @>48B5;8 >1KG=> =5 ?@83;0H0NB 2 3>AB8 : A2>5<C @515=:C A25@AB=8:>2, >?0A0OAL 70@065=8O 8=D5:F8>==K<8 701>;520=8O<8, H0;>AB59, HC<0, ?>2@5645=8O 25I59 8 83@CH5:. >A;54=OO 3@C??0 "=5=0456=KE" 2 ?;0=5 A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 @>48B5;59 - MB> =5CAB>9G82K5 8 =5B5@?5;82K5 2 M<>F8>=0;L=>< 8 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:>< >B=>H5=88 ;8F0, =5A?>A>1=K5 :0: >A>7=0BL 8 >F5=8BL ?> 4>AB>8=AB2C 7040G8 ?;0=><5@=>3> ;5G5=8O @515=:0, B0: 8 2K45@60BL A0< ?@>F5AA ?A8E>B5@0?88. @C30O :@09=>ABL ?@54AB02;5=0 A;5?K< A>3;0A85< A A>25B0<8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0, :>B>@K5 @>48B5;8 =5 2 A>AB>O=88 >ACI5AB28BL =0 ?@0:B8:5. -B> <>65B >:070BLAO ;>2CH:>9 4;O 2@0G0, ?@82K:H53> : 48@5:B82=>9 <0=5@5 >1@0I5=8O A 1>;L=K<8. > 2A5E A;CG0OE >B=>H5=85 @>48B5;59 : 7040G0< A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 O2;O5BAO 8=48:0B>@>< 8E >B=>H5=89 : @515=:C 8 =5 B>;L:> 8<55B 4803=>AB8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85, => 8 ?>:07K205B 2AN A;>6=>ABL >ACI5AB2;5=8O =0 ?@0:B8:5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 @01>BK A A5<L59. 0: ?@028;>, @>48B5;8 =5 ?>=8<0NB 8AB8==KE ?@8G8= 701>;520=8O @515=:0, 8 =5>1E>48<> 2 B0:B8G=>9 D>@<5 A45;0BL B0:, GB>1K >=8 ?@8=O;8 :>=F5?F8N 2@0G0 8 8A?KBK20;8 65;0=85 ?5@5AB@>8BL =5:>B>@K5 87 A2>8E >B=>H5=89. 4=0:> MB> 5I5 4>;6=> =09B8 A2>5 ?@0:B8G5A:>5 2K@065=85, 4;O G53> B@51CNBAO 4>AB0B>G=> ?@>4>;68B5;L=>5 2@5<O 8 >?@545;5==>5 >1CG5=85 @>48B5;59.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE B@52>6=K5 8 ?5AA8<8AB8G5A:8 =0AB@>5==K5 @>48B5;8, @07>G0@>202H85AO 2 <548F8=5 8 =5 25@OI85 2 B>, GB> :>340-=81C4L 8E @515=>: 1C45B 74>@>2, A0<8 =C640NBAO 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI5< 2=CH5=88. 0:8< 1K =8 1K;> CAB0=>2>G=>5 >B=>H5=85 @>48B5;59, 2@0G ?>4G5@:8205B ?@8 ?5@2>9 A>2<5AB=>9 15A545 =5>1E>48<>ABL B5A=>3> A>B@C4=8G5AB20 A =8<8, GB> 2> <=>3>< O2;O5BAO 70;>3>< CA?5H=>AB8 ;5G5=8O 8E @515=:0.  ?>;>68B5;L=><C =0AB@>N 8 CA?>:>5=8N @>48B5;59 ?@82>4OB 24C<G82>5 8 F5;5=0?@02;5==>5 CG0AB85 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 2 ?@>1;5<0E A5<L8 8 ?@54>AB02;5=85 CA;>289 4;O 8=48284C0;L=>3> 87;>65=8O 8<8 A2>8E 70B@C4=5=89, GB> >1;53G05B ?@>F5AA ?A8E>B5@0?88. -B> ACI5AB25==>, 5A;8 CG5ABL, GB> @>48B5;8 >1@0I0NBAO 70 ?><>ILN, :>340 =5 <>3CB A?@028BLAO A ?@>1;5<0<8 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >B=>H5=8O 2 A5<L5 =>AOB :>=D;8:B=K9 E0@0:B5@. 4=0:>, =045OAL =0 2@0G51=CN ?><>IL, >=8 8=>340 @0AAG8BK20NB =0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0, :0: =0 "BO3;>2CN A8;C", A ?><>ILN :>B>@>9 <>6=> 2K25AB8 8E 0AB5=878@>20==>3> @515=:0 =0 ?@O<CN 4>@>3C @>48B5;LA:8E 0<18F89. K =5>4=>:@0B=> C15640;8AL 2 B0:8E A;CG0OE 2 :@0B:>2@5<5==>AB8 ;5G51=>3> MDD5:B0, :>340 ?>A;5 ?@>2545=8O 38?=>B5@0?88 8 >1I5C:@5?;ONI53> ;5G5=8O C 45B59 G5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O ?>O2;O;8AL B5 65 A8<?B><K, GB> 8 @0=LH5, 8 2A5 ?>2B>@O;>AL A=>20, :0: 2 8725AB=>9 A:07:5. >MB><C <K 2> 2A5 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 AB0;8 A2O7K20BL MDD5:B82=>ABL ?A8E>B5@0?88 A ?@5420@8B5;L=K< A>3;0A85< @>48B5;59 2 >B=>H5=88 A=OB8O ?5@53@C7>: C @515=:0. -B8:0 2@0G0 =5 ?>72>;O5B ?@5:@0B8BL ;5G5=85 ?@8 =52K?>;=5=88 @>48B5;O<8 53> @5:><5=40F89, => ?@8 MB>< 70@0=55 C:07K205BAO =0 >68405<K9 =54>AB0B>G=K9 MDD5:B ?A8E>B5@0?88, >1CA;>2;5==K9 =5 :20;8D8:0F859 2@0G0, 0 =0;8G85< ?>AB>O==>9 ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI59 8 8AB>I0NI59 =5@2=K5 A8;K @515=:0 A8BC0F88.  B0:>< A;CG05 ?@>2>48BAO A8<?B><0B8G5A:>5 ;5G5=85, 8A:;NG0NBAO 38?=>B5@0?8O 8 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O, ?@8=>AOI85 ;8HL 2@5<5==>5 C;CGH5=85. =>340 @>48B5;8 =5A>3;0A=K A <=5=85< 2@0G0 8 =5 ?@8E>4OB =0 A;54CNI89 ?@85<. 0: ?@028;>, C =8E 2K@065=K 87<5=5=8O ;8G=>AB8, 8 ?A8E>B5@0?8O 745AL 1K;0 1K <0;>MDD5:B82=>9. 5:>B>@K5 @>48B5;8 B@51CNB =570<54;8B5;L=>3> 8AF5;5=8O @515=:0, A0<8 65 >AB0NBAO ?0AA82=K<8 8 >128=ONB 2@0G0 2 =54>AB0B>G=>9 MDD5:B82=>AB8 ;5G5=8O. 515A?>;57=> B>340 C1548BL 8E 2 B><, GB> =52>7<>6=> 70<5=8BL >A;01;5==K9 >@30=87< @515=:0, 8 @5GL <>65B 84B8 B>;L:> > ?>AB5?5==>< 53> C:@5?;5=88 ?@8 A>>B25BAB2CNI5< =0AB@>5 2 A5<L5. CGH8< A@54AB2>< :>@@5:F88 @8384=KE CAB0=>2>: @>48B5;59 1C45B 4>AB865=85 C;CGH5=8O 2 A>AB>O=88 @515=:0, :>340 C =8E 2>7@0AB0NB 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 2 53> ;5G5=88 8 2>A?@88<G82>ABL : A>25B0< 2@0G0. A;8 65 8E >B=>H5=85 =5 <5=O5BAO 8 >=8 ?@>4>;60NB M:A?;C0B8@>20BL @515=:0 2 C3>4C A2>8< 702KH5==K< ?@8BO70=8O<, B> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>3=>7 AB0=>28BAO >A>1> =51;03>?@8OB=K<. > 2A5E A;CG0OE 2284C CA;>6=5=8O B@51>20=89 : A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 040?B0F88 45B59 2A5 1>;55 0:BC0;L=K< O2;O5BAO CG0AB85 2@0G59-A?5F80;8AB>2 8 ?A8E>;>3>2 2 >ACI5AB2;5=88 H8@>:>9 ?@>3@0<<K ?A8E>?@>D8;0:B8G5A:>9 8 ?A8E>38385=8G5A:>9 @01>BK A A5<LO<8, =5 A?@02;ONI8<8AO A ?@>1;5<0<8 2>A?8B0=8O.  MB>< 7=0G5=88 ?A8E>B5@0?8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 >4=C 87 MDD5:B82=KE <>45;59 @0728B8O B2>@G5A:8E @5AC@A>2 8 2>7<>6=>AB59 ;8G=>AB8 8 A2>52@5<5==>9 :>@@5:F88 :@878A=KE A8BC0F89 2 55 D>@<8@>20=88. A8E>B5@0?52B CG8B @>48B5;59 1>;55 2=8<0B5;L=> >B=>A8BLAO : 4CE>2=K< 70?@>A0< 45B59, 70<5G0BL 8 @072820BL ?>;>68B5;L=K5 @>AB:8 A>7840B5;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8, 1>;55 045:20B=> A>@07<5@OBL B@51>20=8O A ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8<8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 >@30=87<0 45B59 8 0:B82=> D>@<8@>20BL >1I5AB25==CN =0?@02;5==>ABL 8E ;8G=>AB8. !5<59=K5 >1AC645=8O @57C;LB0B>2 >1A;54>20=8O >1KG=> ?@54H5AB2CNB ?A8E>B5@0?88 45B59. @8 40;5:> 70H54H5< :>=D;8:B5 @>48B5;59, 8E "M<>F8>=0;L=>< @072>45" >=0 =5A:>;L:> >?5@5605B >1AC645=8O, B0: :0: C;CGH5=85 2 A>AB>O=88 45B59 ?>;>68B5;L=> 2;8O5B =0 E0@0:B5@ A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89, 8=>340 ?@8>AB0=02;820O 40;L=59H55 @0728B85 A5<59=>3> :>=D;8:B0. "@51CNB ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?><>I8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L =5 B5 @>48B5;8, :>B>@K5 >B:@KB> :>=D;8:BCNB <564C A>1>9, 0 B5, :>B>@K5 ?>4 <0A:>9 "4@C6=KE" >B=>H5=89 A:@K20NB =5?@8O7=5==K5 GC2AB20 4@C3 : 4@C3C, 2K<5I0O 8E =0 @515=:5. @8 :>=D;8:B5 ?> ?>2>4C 2>A?8B0=8O 1>;55 F5;5A>>1@07=> 53> >1AC645=85 A >1>8<8 @>48B5;O<8, :>B>@K5 ;53G5 2 B0:>< A;CG05 ?@8E>4OB : >1I5<C A>3;0A8N A 2@0G><. @8 87>;8@>20==>< :>=D;8:B5 2 >1;0AB8 AC?@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89 >1AC645=8O ?@>2>4OBAO @0745;L=>, 2 B> 2@5<O :>340 @>48B5;8 ?>>G5@54=> ?@8E>4OB A @515=:>< =0 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@85< 8 :>340 53> MDD5:B82=>ABL ?@O<> A2O7K205BAO A M<>F8>=0;L=K< <8:@>:;8<0B>< 2 A5<L5. 1KG=> @0745;L=>5 >1AC645=85 =0G8=05BAO A 4><8=8@CNI53> 2 A5<L5 @>48B5;O. @8 1>;LH59 ?@82O70==>AB8 : =5<C @515=:0 @07@5H5=85 ?@>1;5< A5<L8 >:07K205BAO 1>;55 CA?5H=K<.  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 MB8< ;8F>< O2;O5BAO <0BL, => 5A;8 45B8, >A>15==> 452>G:8, ?@82O70=K : >BFC, B> 1>;LH89 MDD5:B 1C45B >B 8E A>2<5AB=>3> ?>A5I5=8O 2@0G0, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: <0BL ?0@0;;5;L=> ?>;CG05B ;5G5=85 8 ?>4:;NG05BAO : ?A8E>B5@0?88 @515=:0 ?> <5@5 C;CGH5=8O 55 A>AB>O=8O. !5<59=K5 >1AC645=8O @57C;LB0B>2 >1A;54>20=8O =0G8=0NBAO A 87;>65=8O @>48B5;O<8 A2>59 B>G:8 7@5=8O =0 ?@8G8=K 2>7=8:=>25=8O =5@2=>3> A>AB>O=8O C @515=:0. 5@54:> >B<5G0O >B45;L=K5 =54>AB0B:8 2 2>A?8B0=88, >A>15==> M<>F8>=0;L=CN =5CAB>9G82>ABL 8 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL, >=8 =5 ?>=8<0NB 8AB8==KE ?@8G8= =52@>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O 45B59, =>, B5< =5 <5=55, ?5@56820NB A>7402H55AO ?>;>65=85 8 8A?KBK20NB GC2AB2> 28=K. -B>3> =5;L7O A:070BL >1 02B>@8B0@=KE @>48B5;OE, AG8B0NI8E C?@O<AB2> 8 "A2>52>;85" 45B59 548=AB25==K< 8AB>G=8:>< :>=D;8:B=KE >B=>H5=89 A =8<8. KA;CH02 @>48B5;59, 2@0G 87;0305B A2>5 <=5=85 > ?@8G8=0E 2>7=8:=>25=8O =52@>70 C @515=:0. >4G5@:820NBAO D0:B 701>;520=8O =5 B>;L:> @515=:0, => 8 27@>A;KE G;5=>2 A5<L8 8 A5@L57=>ABL A>7402H53>AO ?>;>65=8O. >:07K205BAO :>=:@5B=0O A2O7L =52@>B8G5A:8E =0@CH5=89 A ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI59 A8BC0F859 2 A5<L5 8 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 @>48B5;59. B<5G05BAO, GB> 8E ?>2KH5==K5 8 ?@>B82>@5G82K5 B@51>20=8O =5 A>>B25BAB2CNB @50;L=K< 2>7<>6=>ABO< 8 ?>B@51=>ABO< 45B59, 0 =52>7<>6=>ABL @50;870F88 O2;O5BAO 3;02=K< 8AB>G=8:>< :>=D;8:B0 <564C @>48B5;O<8 8 45BL<8. 1AC6405BAO B5=45=F8O =5:>B>@KE @>48B5;59 :><?5=A8@>20BL =0 45BOE 2708<=> >1CA;>2;5==K5 GC2AB20 2=CB@5==59 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 8 =0?@O65=8O. @8 15A545 =5 8A?>;L7CNBAO >F5=>G=K5 AC645=8O B8?0 ?>@8F0=8O 8 >128=5=8O 2 04@5A <0B5@8 8 >BF0, ?@>2>48BAO ?>8A: ?>;>68B5;L=KE <><5=B>2 2 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=8OE :0: ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?5@A?5:B82K 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88. >A;54CNI0O 0:B82=>ABL @>48B5;59 A2845B5;LAB2C5B >1 0:BC0;L=>AB8 70B@>=CBKE ?@>1;5<. >AB5?5==> 2 15A545 2>7=8:05B 480;>3, ?5@5E>4OI89 2 48A:CAA8N, F5;LN :>B>@>9 O2;ONBAO ?>8A: 8 A>3;0A>20=85 >1I59 B>G:8 7@5=8O =0 2>A?8B0=85, 2=0G0;5 ?> 2B>@>AB5?5==K<, 0 70B5< 8 ?> 3;02=K< 2>?@>A0<. -B><C ?><>305B >?@545;5==0O B5E=8:0 48A:CAA88, :>B>@0O ?@>2>48BAO =0 ?0@8B5B=KE =0G0;0E 2 A?>:>9=>9 8 =5?@8=C645==>9 >1AB0=>2:5. >4G5@:820NBAO @>;L >1>8E @>48B5;59 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88, =5>1E>48<>ABL B5A=>3> A>B@C4=8G5AB20 A 2@0G><. 5:><5=4C5BAO 2>745@6820BLAO >B 40;L=59H8E >1>AB@5=89 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89, :0:8<8 1K =8 1K;8 8E ?@8G8=K.  48A:CAA88 2@0G ?@845@68205BAO 0:B82=>9 ?>78F88, => =5 ?@8<5=O5B 48@5:B82 8 ?@54?8A0=89. =0 =0?@02;O5BAO B0:, GB>1K E0@0:B5@ >1AC6405<KE ?@>1;5<, ?>;>68B5;L=K5 ?@8<5@K 87 :;8=8G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:8 ?>4A:07K20;8 @>48B5;O< ?CB8 8E @5H5=8O. 1AC645=85 @O40 ?@>1;5< B>;L:> =0<5G05BAO, => =5 7025@H05BAO, GB> 2K7K205B =587156=K5 2>?@>AK A> AB>@>=K @>48B5;59, CA8;8205B 8E 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 2 A>2<5AB=>< ?>8A:5 @5H5=8O :@878A=>9 A8BC0F88. ?B8<0;L=0O AB@0B538O ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> >= @0745;O5B B@52>38 A5<L8, =5=02O7G82> CG0AB2C5B 2 55 >?KB5 8 ?>AB5?5==> C;CGH05B AB@C:BC@C A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 =5 70<5I5=85< A5<59=KE @>;59, 0 8=B53@0B82=K< 2;8O=85< A2>59 2@0G51=>9 DC=:F88.  8B>35 48A:CAA88 4>AB8305BAO >1I0O B>G:0 7@5=8O =0 ?@8G8=K =52@>B8G5A:>3> 701>;520=8O @515=:0 8 =0 A?>A>1K 53> ;5G5=8O. @8 MB>< 3;02=K< O2;O5BAO 87<5=5=85 >B=>H5=8O : @515=:C :0: : =5A?>A>1=><C 2=5AB8 ?>78B82=K9 2:;04 2 @07@5H5=85 A5<59=KE ?@>1;5<. 5@54:> ?>4>1=>5 >B=>H5=85 @>48B5;59 3>2>@8B > 8E =565;0=88 8;8 =5A?>A>1=>AB8 =0;048BL M<>F8>=0;L=K9 :>=B0:B A @515=:><. !;54C5B =5 B>;L:> @5018;8B8@>20BL 53> 2 3;070E @>48B5;59, => 8 040?B8@>20BL 8E : =5<C 2 @57C;LB0B5 87<5=5=8O >B=>H5=89 8 C;CGH5=8O =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O A0<8E @>48B5;59. 5@5AB@>9:5 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 A?>A>1AB2C5B A>>1I5=85 :>=:@5B=KE 40==KE >1A;54>20=8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?>;CG5==KE A ?><>ILN B5AB>2 8 3><5>AB0B0. ;O @8384=KE @>48B5;59 MB> =5@54:> 1>;55 C1548B5;L=>, G5< 0=0;87 8E ;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 ?> 40==K< :;8=8G5A:>3> 8=B5@2LN 8 =01;N45=8O. >;57=> >1>1I5=85 8 40==KE >1A;54>20=8O 4@C38E A5<59. !>3;0A=> >?@>A=8:C PARI, <0B5@8 ?@8 =52@>70E C 45B59 2 >B;8G85 >B <0B5@59 2 :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??5 =5 A:;>==K ?>1C640BL 45B59 : >A>7=0=8N 2>7=8:0NI8E ?@>1;5< 2708<>>B=>H5=89 8 2KA:07K20=8N A2>53> <=5=8O, >=8 <5=LH5 >1I0NBAO A @515=:>< =0 @02=KE, ?;>E> @072820NB 53> 0:B82=>ABL 8 =5 CAB0=02;820NB A =8< B>20@8I5A:85 >B=>H5=8O. <5AB> MB>3> <0B5@8 ?KB0NBAO C?@02;OBL @515=:>< =0 @0AAB>O=88, =5B5@?5;82> B@51CO >B =53> B>, GB> <>6=> 1K;> >ACI5AB28BL =03;O4=K<, =5?>A@54AB25==K< >?KB>< 2708<>459AB28O.  MB8G5A:8 4>ABC?=>9 D>@<5 0=0;878@CNBAO 8 >A>15==>AB8 2K45;5=8O @>48B5;O<8 G5@B E0@0:B5@0 45B59 87 A>AB02;5==>3> =0<8 A?8A:0 2 360 G5@B. >48B5;8 45B59 A =52@>70<8 (127 G5;>25:) 2 >B;8G85 >B @>48B5;59 :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??K (262) 7=0G8B5;L=> G0I5 (t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tvxz * , v x | ~ d f ñylyU-hhF5@B* CJOJQJ\^JaJphfhhF0J5B* \phfhhF0J5\hhF-hhF5@B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphwww hhF0JhhFCJOJQJ^JaJ#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJ-hhF5@B* CJOJQJ\^JaJph3hhFhhF5@B* CJOJQJ\^JaJphhhF0JOJQJ^J!txz | j 4 v t(,fL:&*gdhF$a$gdhF4f j l . 0 4 6 JLprvx "FH.0nptv$&(*.0bd#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJhhF0J5B* \phf-hhF5@B* CJOJQJ\^JaJphfhhF0J5\#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJhhFCJOJQJ^JaJ?*,`bfhFHLN`b46:<HJ  "&(*,ߠ#jPhhFCJOJQJU^JaJhhF0J5B* \phf-hhF5@B* CJOJQJ\^JaJphfhhF0J5\hhFCJOJQJ^JaJ#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJ8*J 4&.68<?C0NUW8`fnps:zJNƃʃ`gdhF$a$gdhFgdhFgdhF~~JLNPƃȃ02ߴߢߒv__MM;M#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJ#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJ-hhF5@B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph33#jHhhFCJOJQJU^JaJhhFOJQJ^JhhFB*H*OJQJ^Jph#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJ&hhFB*CJH*OJQJ^JaJph-hhF5@B* CJOJQJ\^JaJphhhFCJOJQJ^JaJ#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJ`xpjƨԹz0 $a$gdhFgdhFgdhF4B!$&*X9CDIHPR$SWv`*cXmfqu xPx~~l$a$gdhFgdhFCDR$Srr xPx{{~~~01P Q6:D:^`&&.0ҼԼּؼ@yxy򡏡#j hhFCJOJQJU^JaJ#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJ hhF6CJOJQJ]^JaJ-hhF5@B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph-hhF5@B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph33hhFCJOJQJ^JaJ/J: ΣưJ 6&t~$a$gdhFgdhF0  6f!)013X67*:ACL2OP QT\^agzl$a$gdhFgdhF`4Σ`$̻(\2dD:$a$gdhFgdhF^ t`&&,02=EI&Q6S[,c ns\x{X$a$gdhFgdhFL.ڼƽ  80%J-9">jAECLN4h8hNiRio{J0ȽgdhFgdhFgdhFJhLhiNiPi(*&e(eff4f6f8f:fff g ggggggggűşŏ}kkbkkkUkkkbkhhF0J5B* \phfhhF0J5\#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJ#jdhhFCJOJQJU^JaJhhFB*H*OJQJ^Jph#jchhFCJOJQJU^JaJ&hhFB*CJH*OJQJ^JaJphhhFCJOJQJ^JaJ#jNchhFCJOJQJU^JaJ hhFhhFOJQJ^JmH sH hhFOJQJ^J(,n< b!#%(-B0\4;@rBLEGgdhFgdhFgdhFGOnU(^^Z_``` bb:d&e8fgg $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$$IfgdhFggg8hj`nt}~΃D|wwwwwwwwwwgdhF$a$gdhFgdhFvkdFe$$IfTF$$ $6    34apT ggg8h ]]gF F G G G G s t ^ @ B       @ B ꮜsa#j-hhFCJOJQJU^JaJ#jجhhFCJOJQJU^JaJ-hhF5@B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph33#jehhFCJOJQJU^JaJ#jhhFCJOJQJU^JaJU hhF6CJOJQJ]^JaJ-hhF5@B* CJOJQJ\^JaJphhhFCJOJQJ^JaJhhFCJaJ#DF<v 0n$&,=H@LNjX]]] _$a$gdhFgdhFgdhF __p`ataa*bccl¼P    % l, - 1 V7 .= gdhF4:@5?;5=88 C;CGH5=8O >4>1@5=85<, ?>E20;>9, =03@04>9. A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA ?@>8AE>48B 2 ?5@8>4 2@5<5=8, :>340 C 1>;L=>3> 8 53> @>48B5;59 ?@>O2;ONBAO =081>;LH0O 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 8 0:B82=>ABL 2 ;5G5=88. 5>1E>48<> 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 8A?>;L7>20BL MB>B ?5@8>4 4;O ?@>2545=8O >A=>2=KE ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89. @5420@8B5;L=> <>6=> B>;L:> =0<5B8BL ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL ;5G5=8O, B0: :0: =58725AB=K 2>7<>6=>AB8 1>;L=>3> 8 53> A?>A>1=>AB8 : ?5@5<5=0<.  >AB@>9 AB0488 =52@>70 ?>:070=K <5B>48:8, ?>72>;ONI85 ?@5645 2A53> >B@5038@>20BL ?A8E8G5A:>5 =0?@O65=85. ! MB>9 F5;LN ?@8<5=ONBAO @8AC=:8, A?>=B0==0O 8 >?@545;5==K< >1@07>< =0?@02;5==0O 83@0, CAB@0=ONBAO ?5@53@C7:8, 40NBAO ?A8E>38385=8G5A:85 @5:><5=40F88. >A;5 C<5=LH5=8O 0:BC0;L=>9 =52@>B8G5A:>9 A8<?B><0B8:8 ?>:070=K @07JOA=ONI85, :>@@838@CNI85 8 AB8<C;8@CNI5-B@5=8@>2>G=K5 <5B>48:8 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  8E :;8=8G5A:8 >1CA;>2;5==>< A>G5B0=88 70:;NG05BAO 48DD5@5=F8@>20==>ABL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O. A?>;L7>20=85 <5B>48: ?A8E>B5@0?88 2<5AB5 A ;5:0@AB25==>9 B5@0?859 ?>72>;O5B 3>2>@8BL > :><?;5:A=>< E0@0:B5@5 ;5G5=8O. !2>52@5<5==>5 =07=0G5=85 >1I5C:@5?;ONI8E 8 45384@0B0F8>==KE A@54AB2 C<5=LH05B ?@>O2;5=8O F5@51@0;L=>9 0AB5=88, C;CGH05B :>=F5=B@0F8N 2=8<0=8O 8 A>7405B ;CGH85 ?@54?>AK;:8 4;O ?A8E>B5@0?88.  >B=>H5=88 B@0=:28;870B>@>2 8 0=B845?@5AA0=B>2 2>?@>A >1AB>8B A;>6=55. '0AB> >=8 A>740NB 2848<>ABL C;CGH5=8O, 8A:CAAB25==> 703;CH0O 8;8 AB8<C;8@CO 0:B82=>ABL 1>;L=>3>. 5:0@AB20 =5 2;8ONB =0 ?A8E>35==CN ACI=>ABL =52@>B8G5A:>3> 701>;520=8O, =5 CAB@0=ONB ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN <>B820F8N 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0 8, :@><5 B>3>, <>3CB >A;>6=OBL ?@>2545=85 AC335AB82=>9, 83@>2>9 8 @07JOA=ONI59 ?A8E>B5@0?88. "@0=:28;870B>@K 8A?>;L7CNBAO ?@8 =0;8G88 >@30=8G5A:8 >1CA;>2;5==>9 @0AB>@<>65==>AB8 8 38?5@0:B82=>AB8.  MB>< A;CG05 ;CGH5 459AB2C5B <5;;5@8; (A>=0?0:A).  >AB0;L=KE A;CG0OE, >A>15==> ?@8 =0;8G88 =52@>?0B88, F5;5A>>1@07=> =07=0G5=85 =0AB>52 B@02. A>15==>ABO<8 <548:0<5=B>7=>3> ;5G5=8O O2;ONBAO 53> 4;8B5;L=>ABL (1,5 <5A.), ?>AB5?5==>5 C25;8G5=85 8 C<5=LH5=85 B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 4>7K 8 AC335AB82=>5 ?>4:@5?;5=85 ?@85<0 ;5:0@AB2. $878>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 <5B>4K, 2:;NG0O 8>=>D>@57, 2>@>B=8: ?> )5@10:C 8 B. 4., =5 40NB MDD5:B0 ?@8 =52@>70E 8 ?>:070=K ?@8 A>?CBAB2CNI8E @0AAB@>9AB20E. A8E>B5@0?8O :0: G0ABL :C;LBC@=>3> =0A;548O G5;>25G5AB20 1K;0 8 >AB05BAO 2K@065=85< 8=48284C0;L=>3> <0AB5@AB20 2@0G0, 53> D8;83@0==>9 @01>B>9, =5 B5@?OI59 ?>B>G=>3> 8 =5:@8B8G5A:>3> ?@8<5=5=8O, B5< 1>;55 GB> 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 @01>B5 5<C ?@8E>48BAO 8<5BL 45;> A 1>;L=K<8 @07=>3> 2>7@0AB0. 4=0:> MB> A>7405B >?@545;5==K5 B@C4=>AB8, 8 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K <K AB@5<8<AO =07=0G0BL 4>H:>;L=8:>2, <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 2 @07=K5 4=8, :>340 ;53G5 >1J548=8BL 45B59 >4=>3> 2>7@0AB0 4;O A>2<5AB=>9 83@K 8;8 >1AC645=8O. #A?5H=>ABL ;5G5=8O 7028A8B =5 B>;L:> >B 2>2;5G5==>AB8 ?0F85=B0 2 ?@>F5AA ?A8E>B5@0?88, => 8 >B C<5=8O 2@0G0 @0A:@KBL :>=D;8:B=K5 AD5@K ?5@56820=89 8 A>740BL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 <>45;8 8E @07@5H5=8O 2 2845 83@K 8;8 >1AC645=89. 06=>, GB>1K 45B8 >2;045;8 =02K:0<8 040?B82=>3> >1I5=8O 8 C1548;8AL =0 ?@0:B8:5 2 A2>59 A?>A>1=>AB8 A?@02;OBLAO A 2=CB@5==8<8 =0?@O65=8O<8 8 :>=D;8:B0<8. A8E>B5@0?8O 8768205B A51O ?@8 ?@52KH5=88 2@0G>< ?>;=><>G89, 157>3>2>@>G=>< =02O7K20=88 <=5=89 8 >F5=>:, =54>CG5B5 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 @515=:0, ?>?KB:0E =825;8@>20BL 53> B5<?5@0<5=B, CAB@0=8BL M<>F8>=0;L=>ABL 8 GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL, A45;0BL 53> >4=>3> >B25BAB25==K< 70 ?@>O2;5=85 701>;520=8O. >2B>@5=85 ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI8E CA;>289 687=8 @515=:0 =01;N405BAO 8 B0<, 345 2@0G ?@O<>;8=59=> ?KB05BAO ;8H8BL 53> 2>A?@8OB85 =5?>A@54AB25==>AB8 8 F5;L=>AB8, @57:> 87<5=8BL ?@5>1;040NI89 C =53> =525@10;L=K9, ?5@2>A83=0;L=K9 A?>A>1 >B@065=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. 52@>B8G5A:>5 701>;520=85 8<55B A2>8 >A>15==>AB8 48=0<8:8, >B@060NI85 ?@>1;5<K ;8G=>AB=>3> AB0=>2;5=8O. @>8AE>4OI85 ?@8 MB>< 1>@L10 <>B82>2, ?>8A: 2KE>40 87 ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI59 A8BC0F88 =5 <>3CB 1KBL 70<5=5=K >4=>7=0G=K< 8 :0B53>@8G=K< <=5=85< 2@0G0 2 B>B ?5@8>4, :>340 1>;L=>9 5I5 =5 ?>43>B>2;5= : =5<C 8 A0< AB@5<8BAO =09B8 ?@85<;5<>5 @5H5=85.  MB>< A;CG05 1>;55 F5;5A>>1@07=K @07JOA=5=85, >1AC645=85, ?>445@6:0, A>2<5AB=K9 ?>8A: @5H5=8O, G5< 2=CH5=85 8 38?=>7. >1@>65;0B5;L=0O 8 B5@?5;820O <0=5@0 ?>2545=8O 2@0G0, A>740=85 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I5=8O A 1>;L=K< ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 0B<>AD5@K >?B8<87<0, 687=5@04>AB=>AB8, =5?>A@54AB25==>AB8, 8A:@5==>AB8 8 4>25@8O A?>A>1=K >:070BL 1>;LH55 2;8O=85, G5< ?>?KB:8 CAB@0=5=8O ?5@56820=89 8 ?5@52>A?8B0=8O 157 3;C1>:>3> 0=0;870 ?@>1;5<=>9 A8BC0F88 8 ?>8A:0 =081>;55 5AB5AB25==KE ?CB59 55 @07@5H5=8O. 5>1E>48<K< CA;>285< ?A8E>B5@0?88 O2;O5BAO =0;8G85 M<>F8>=0;L=> ?>;>68B5;L=KE >B=>H5=89 A 1>;L=K<. # 4>H:>;L=8:>2 MB><C <>65B ?@5?OBAB2>20BL GC2AB2> AB@0E0 ?5@54 2@0G><, C ?>4@>AB:>2 - =0AB>@>65==>ABL 2 >B=>H5=88 53> 459AB289. B=>A8B5;L=> ;53G5 :>=B0:B CAB0=02;8205BAO 2 6-11 ;5B, :>340 2 =081>;LH59 <5@5 ?@>O2;ONBAO 2>7@0AB=K5 <5E0=87<K 845=B8D8:0F88 8 2=CH05<>AB8. 0B@C4=5=8O 2 =5< 2>7=8:0NB C G@57<5@=> >?5:05<KE, 703@C65==KE 8 B@52>6=> ?@82O70==KE : <0B5@8 8;8 101CH:5 45B59.  MB>9 A2O78 <>6=> A:070BL > 452>G:5 5 ;5B A >B=>A8B5;L=> =5BO65;K< 708:0=85<. 5 ?@82>48; =0 ?@85< <O3:89 ?> E0@0:B5@C 8 =5 ?>;L7CNI89AO 2;8O=85< 2 A5<L5 >B5F. 5>1I8B5;L=0O, 2;0AB=0O, =54>25@G820O 8 B@52>6=0O <0BL ?>;=>ABLN ?>4G8=8;0 A515 4>GL, =0AB>@>65==> 2>A?@8=8<0O ;N1K5 55 :>=B0:BK 2=5 4><0, 2:;NG0O ?@85<K C 2@0G0. =0 ?@8=F8?80;L=> =5 2K?>;=O;0 ?5@540205<K5 <C65< A>25BK 2@0G0. B@8F0B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 <0B5@8 : 2@0GC ?5@540;>AL 4>G5@8, ?@8>AB0=>282 8 =59B@0;87>202 MDD5:B 55 ;5G5=8O. '0I5 2A53> ?@5@K20NB ;5G5=85 452>G:8 A 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7><, GB> 3>2>@8B >1 8E M3>F5=B@87<5, =5A?>A>1=>AB8 45;8BLAO A ?A8E>B5@0?52B>< A2>8<8 ?5@56820=8O<8, > =565;0=88 ?@8=OBL >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 A2>5 ?>2545=85 8 ?5@5AB@>8BL 53> A>3;0A=> B@51>20=8O< 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. ?@545;5==>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B 8 ?>; 2@0G0, B0: :0: M<>F8>=0;L=>5 1;>:8@>20=85 >BF0 452>G:8 2 A5<L5 <>65B 1KBL >4=8< 87 ?@>O2;5=89 =5?@8OB8O 2A53> <C6A:>3> 8 @0A?@>AB@0=8BLAO =0 2@0G0-<C6G8=C 2 2845 =0AB>@>65==>-=54>25@G82>3> 8 =530B82=>3> >B=>H5=8O. B@8F0B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : ;5G5=8N <>65B 1KBL A?@>2>F8@>20=> 15AF5@5<>==K< 2<5H0B5;LAB2>< 2@0G0 2 8=B8<=CN 687=L 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2, 2>A?@8=8<05<K< 8<8 :0: C3@>70 87<5=5=8O 8E "O", : :>B>@><C >=8 5I5 =5 ?>43>B>2;5=K ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 8 :>B>@>3> 1>OBAO :0: 2A53> =>2>3> 8 =58725AB=>3>. >A:>;L:C <56;8G=>AB=K9 :>=B0:B A 45BL<8, AB@040NI8<8 =52@>70<8, 845B G5@57 D07C C?@>G5=8O M<>F8>=0;L=KE >B=>H5=89 8 845=B8D8:0F88 A 2@0G><, >A>1>3> 2=8<0=8O B@51CNB 45B8, 8<5NI85 ?@>1;5<K 2 M<>F8>=0;L=>< :>=B0:B5 A @>48B5;O<8.  =5?>;=>9 2A;54AB285 @072>40 @>48B5;59 A5<L5 >BACBAB285 AB018;878@CNI53> 8 A>F80;878@CNI53> 2;8O=8O 02B>@8B5B0 >BF0 =51;03>?@8OB=> >B@0605BAO =0 D>@<8@>20=88 ;8G=>AB8 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2, GB> 284=> 87 ?@>2545==>3> =0<8 A@02=8B5;L=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O N=>H59 8 452CH5: (15-17 ;5B) 87 ?>;=KE 8 =5?>;=KE A5<59. !B0B8AB8G5A:8 7=0G8<K5 @07;8G8O <564C =8<8 ?>;CG5=K ?> @O4C D0:B>@>2 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:>3> >?@>A=8:0 5BBM;0 (D>@<0 "!"). # >1A;54C5<KE 87 =5?>;=KE A5<59 <5=LH5 A8;0 "O", 1>;LH0O M<>F8>=0;L=0O =5AB018;L=>ABL 8 ;8G=>AB=0O =57@5;>ABL, ?>2KH5=0 M<>F8>=0;L=0O GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL, >=8 1>;55 ?0AA82=K, @>1:8, ?C3;82K, =5@5H8B5;L=K. -B8 =0@CH5=8O >1CA;>2;5=K =5 B>;L:> >BACBAB285< 845=B8D8:0F88 A >BF><, => 8 70<5I0NI8< 2;8O=85< <0B5@8, =5@54:> 871KB>G=> ?@>4>;60NI59 >?5:0BL A2>8E 27@>A;5NI8E 45B59. BACBAB285 4>ABC?=>9 <>45;8 ?>2545=8O, A>>B25BAB2CNI53> ?>;C, ?@82>48B : 70B@C4=5=8O< 2 >1I5=88 C N=>H59, =5 ?>;L7CNI8EAO, ?> 40==K< A>F8><5B@88, ?>?C;O@=>ABLN A@548 A25@AB=8:>2. 081>;LH85 70B@C4=5=8O >=8 8A?KBK20NB ?@8 >1I5=88 A 452CH:0<8, 8450;878@CO 8E 8 =0E>4OAL 2 B@52>6=>9 7028A8<>AB8 >B 8E @0A?>;>65=8O. 0: MB> >B@0605BAO =0 2>7=8:=>25=88 ?>A;54CNI8E ?@>1;5< 2 1@0:5, <K C65 2845;8 @0=55. 7 87;>65==>3> A;54C5B, GB> ?>4@>AB:8-<0;LG8:8 87 =5?>;=KE A5<59 =C640NBAO 2 1>;55 >ICB8<>< @C:>2>4AB25 8 02B>@8B5B5 2@0G0-<C6G8=K, 2KABC?0NI53> 2 @>;8 =0AB02=8:0, @072820NI53> 8E A>1AB25==CN 0:B82=>ABL, 25@C 2 A51O 8 CB25@645=85 A51O :0: ?@54AB028B5;O <C6A:>3> ?>;0. # 65=I8=K-2@0G0, 1>;55 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 F5==>9, <>65B >:070BLAO M<>F8>=0;L=0O :><<C=8:0F8O A ?>4@>AB:><, 2KABC?0NI0O :0: <>45;L @0728B8O 53> >1I5=8O A 4@C38< ?>;><. 0A;C68205B 2=8<0=8O B0:B8:0 2@0G0 2 @01>B5 A <0;LG8:0<8, ?@>O2;ONI8<8 03@5AA8N ?> >B=>H5=8N : <0B5@8. 3@5AA8O 2>7=8:05B C <0;LG8:>2, ?>E>68E 2=5H=5 =0 >BF0, => ;8H5==KE 2 A8;C @07=KE ?@8G8= >1I5=8O A =8< 8 53> 70I8BK. 54>AB0NICN @>;L >BF0 157CA?5H=> ?KB05BAO 2K?>;=OBL <0BL, 8<5NI0O <=>3> =5@07@5H5==KE ;8G=>AB=KE ?@>1;5<, G0AB> 15A?><>I=>-8=D0=B8;L=0O 2 2>?@>A0E 2>A?8B0=8O 8 =57@5;0O 2 A2>5< GC2AB25 <0B5@8=AB20.  8725AB=>< A<KA;5 >=0 =5 ;N18B 8 =5 ?@8=8<05B <0;LG8:0 87-70 53> AE>4AB20 A >BF><, A :>B>@K< C =55 =5?@8O7=5==K5 >B=>H5=8O. 0B5@8 =5 B>;L:> >B25@30NB A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL, =0AB>9G82>ABL 8 C?>@AB2> AK=0, => 8 ?5@540NB 53> 2 ?5@2K5 3>4K 687=8 =0 2>A?8B0=85 A2>8< @>48B5;O<, :>B>@K5 >1KG=> 2> 2A5< 84CB 5<C =02AB@5GC.  2 40;L=59H5< <0;LG8: =5 B>;L:> =5 ?>;CG05B =5>1E>48<>9 ;0A:8 8 B5?;0 A> AB>@>=K <0B5@8, => 8 <5H05B 59 2 >ACI5AB2;5=88 1>;55 206=KE 687=5==KE F5;59. 5 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 =0?@O65=85, @074@065=85 8 =54>2>;LAB2> ?5@540NBAO AK=C 8 2<5AB5 A =0@0AB0NI8< C =53> GC2AB2>< >184K 8 4>A04K 254CB : ?>O2;5=8N =5 2A5340 2=5H=5 <>B828@>20==KE 2A?KH5: 3=520 8 O@>AB8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : <0B5@8. =8 70:0=G820NBAO 1C@=K< @0A:0O=85<, ?;0G5<, >128=5=85< A51O 2 A;CG82H5<AO, 7025@5=8O<8 2 ;N128 8 2K=C645==K< >B25B=K< ?@87=0=85< <0B5@8. 0B0@:B8G5A:0O @07@O4:0 2@5<5==> A=8<05B =0?@O65==>ABL 2> 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE, ?>:0 2A5 =5 ?>2B>@O5BAO A=>20.  @0AA<>B@5==>< A;CG05 03@5AA82=>ABL <>6=> @0AF5=8BL :0: A;54AB285 :>=D;8:B=>3> =0?@O65=8O 2 >B=>H5=8OE A M<>F8>=0;L=> =5?@8=8<0NI59 <0B5@LN, 70<5I0NI59 >BF0 8 ?@5?OBAB2CNI59 >1I5=8N A =8<. A8E>35==> A?@>2>F8@>20==K5 ?@8ABC?K 03@5AA88 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 15AA8;L=K5 ?>?KB:8 CAB@0=8BL MB8 ?@5?OBAB28O. 45AL AK=, ?> ACI5AB2C, AB028B A51O =0 <5AB> >BF0, ?@>O2;OO =5A2>9AB25==K9 5<C >B:;8: =0 ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI55 >B=>H5=85 <0B5@8, :>B>@>5 A B@C4>< ?>4405BAO ?5@5AB@>9:5, ?>A:>;L:C C =55 C65 AD>@<8@>20;AO 273;O4 =0 AK=0 ":0: =0 157=0456=>3>". <5AB> :>=AB@C:B82=>3> 480;>30 <0BL 3>B>20 871028BLAO >B AK=0, AB@5<OAL ?><5AB8BL 53> 2 1>;L=8FC, ?>A;5 :>B>@>9 <564C =8<8 2>7=8:05B =5?@5>4>;8<0O AB5=0 =54>25@8O, >184K 8 2@064K. >;LH53> MDD5:B0 <>6=> 4>AB8GL, 5A;8 2@0G A>3;0H05BAO A A5@L57=>ABLN A>7402H53>AO ?>;>65=8O 8 ?@82;5:05B >BF0 4;O @07@5H5=8O A5<59=KE ?@>1;5<. 4=>2@5<5==> >B<5G05BAO =5>1E>48<>ABL ?@54>AB02;5=8O 45BO< 2>7<>6=>AB59 4;O M<>F8>=0;L=>9 8 D878G5A:>9 @07@O4:8, 70=OB89 D87:C;LBC@>9 8 A?>@B>< ?>A;5 ;5G5=8O. >;>68B5;L=>5 7=0G5=85 B0:65 8<5NB 02B>@8B5B <C6G8=K-2@0G0 4;O 1>;L=>3> 8 15A:>=D;8:B=0O <>45;L >B=>H5=89 <564C =8<8. !>2<5AB=K5 ?@>83@K20=8O A <0B5@LN 0:BC0;L=KE 687=5==KE A8BC0F89 8 8E ?>A;54CNI85 >1AC645=8O ?><>30NB 87<5=8BL 55 273;O4K =0 2708<>>B=>H5=8O A AK=>< 8 C<5=LH8BL 2=CB@8A5<59=CN =0?@O65==>ABL.  ?>A;54CNI5< 0:F5=B 45;05BAO =0 2708<>459AB288 >BF0 A AK=><, 2 ?@>F5AA5 :>B>@>3> C;CGH0NBAO 8E >B=>H5=8O 8 ?>2KH05BAO 02B>@8B5B >BF0 2 A5<L5. A8E>;>38G5A:89 :>=B0:B 2@0G0 A >BF>< =5 4>;65= 2K7K20BL M<>F8>=0;L=>9 87>;OF88 <0B5@8. >MB><C 70:;NG8B5;L=K5 >1AC645=8O ;CGH5 ?@>2>48BL A >1>8<8 @>48B5;O<8, ?>4G5@:820O >A>15==>AB8 @0728B8O <0;LG8:0 8 ?@8=F8?80;L=> >1@0B8<K9 E0@0:B5@ 53> M<>F8>=0;L=KE =0@CH5=89. "5< A0<K< A>740NBAO ?@54?>AK;:8 4;O CA?5H=>AB8 ?>A;54CNI59 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 1>;L=>3> 8 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O 53> 4>25@8O : @>48B5;O<. A;>6=O5B ?@>2545=85 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 =0;8G85 C 45B59 =52@>B8G5A:>3> @0728B8O B>@<>78<>3> :@C30 A B@52>3>9, AB@0E0<8, =5C25@5==>ABLN 2 A515 8 =5@5H8B5;L=>ABLN, ?A8E>A><0B8G5A:8<8 @0AAB@>9AB20<8 2 2845 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<K, DC=:F8>=0;L=KE =0@CH5=89 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 8 65;G52K2>4OI8E ?CB59. 52@>B8G5A:>5 @0728B85 B>@<>78<>3> :@C30 8 ?A8E>A><0B8G5A:85 701>;520=8O G0I5 2AB@5G0NBAO C <0;LG8:>2, 2;8O=85 >BF>2 =0 :>B>@KE =54>AB0B>G=>, <0B5@8 65 >1;040NB 02B>@8B0@=>-?0@0=>9O;L=K<8 8 B@52>6=K<8 G5@B0<8 E0@0:B5@0, G@57<5@=> >?5:0NB 8 >3@0=8G820NB AK=>259, >1O7K20NB 2K?>;=OBL 15AG8A;5==K5 ?@028;0 8 CA;>2=>AB8, ?>402;OO MB8< 8E 0:B82=>ABL, :C;LB828@CO 7028A8<>ABL 8 >A=>20==>5 =0 GC2AB25 28=K ?>A;CH0=85. >MB><C <0;LG8:8 8A?KBK20NB 157>BG5B=>5 GC2AB2> 15A?>:>9AB20 ?@8 ;N1><, :06CI5<AO 8;8 @50;L=><, =0@CH5=88 ?@54?8A0==>3> <0B5@LN ?>2545=8O 8 AB@0E ?>B5@OBL 55 @0A?>;>65=85. A;54AB285 MB>3> >=8 2K=C645=K 5I5 1>;LH5 ?>402;OBL 2=5H=85 ?@>O2;5=8O 0:B82=>AB8 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, AB@040O >B =52>7<>6=>AB8 ?@>O28BL A51O 8 =09B8 ?@85<;5<K9 2KE>4. 8AAB@5AA, >1CA;>2;5==K9 1;>:8@>20=85< 2>7<>6=>AB59 A0<>2K@065=8O 8 2=CB@5==8< =0?@O65=85<, ?@82>48B : @0AAB@>9AB2C 2KAH8E =59@>@53C;OB>@=KE DC=:F89, GB> ?@>O2;O5BAO A8<?B><0<8 2535B>A>AC48AB>9 48AB>=88 8 DC=:F8>=0;L=K<8 @0AAB@>9AB20<8 :>=AB8BCF8>=0;L=> >A;01;5==KE A8AB5< >@30=87<0, =0?@8<5@ AC4>@>6=K<8 A>:@0I5=8O<8 <KHF ;8F0 (B8:8), B5;0 (38?5@:8=57K), A?07<0<8 1@>=E>2 (1@>=E80;L=0O 0AB<0) 8 65;G52K2>4OI53> ?@>B>:0. >7=8:=>25=85 ?A8E>A><0B8G5A:8E =0@CH5=89 ?@8 =52@>70E CA8;8205B B@52>6=>-45?@8<8@>20==K9 D>= =0AB@>5=8O, 2?;>BL 4> ?>O2;5=8O >1I59 A:>20==>AB8 8 70B>@<>65==>AB8. @8 ?A8E>A><0B8G5A:>< M:2820;5=B5 =52@>70 2 2845 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<K A2>5>1@07=K< ?A8E8G5A:8< 0;;5@35=>< O2;O5BAO B@52>6=0O :><<C=8:0F8O <564C <0B5@LN 8 1>;L=K<. 1KG=> @5GL 845B > =52@>B8G5A:>9 7028A8<>AB8 <0;LG8:>2 >B B@52>6=>9 <0B5@8, :>340 8E 2@5<5==>5 @07J548=5=85, =0?@8<5@ 2 CA;>28OE =>G=>3> A=0, 2K7K205B ?@8ABC? 15A?>:>9AB20 A >158E AB>@>=, 70:0=G820NI89AO "@07@5H0NI8<" B@52>3C DC=:F8>=0;L=K< A?07<>< 1@>=E>2.  40==>< A;CG05 4>AB865=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> :>=B0:B0 A 1>;L=K< 8 2>7=8:=>25=85 C =53> GC2AB20 157>?0A=>AB8 =0 ?@85<5 8<55B A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85, ?>A:>;L:C C<5=LH05BAO B@52>6=0O 7028A8<>ABL >B <0B5@8 8 >1;53G05BAO M<>F8>=0;L=K9 :>=B0:B A >BF><. >A;54CNI55 >A;01;5=85 15A?>:>9AB20 C 1>;L=>3> ?@>8AE>48B 2 @57C;LB0B5 =0?@02;5==>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O @8A>20=8O 8 83@K, ?>72>;ONI8E >B@5038@>20BL 0DD5:BK AB@0E0. 0;55 2=CH5=85< =0O2C A=8<05BAO CA;>2=>-@5D;5:B>@=K9 E0@0:B5@ ?@8ABC?>2 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<K. >AB83=CB>5 C;CGH5=85 70:@5?;O5BAO 38?=>B5@0?859 2=0G0;5 2 3@C??5, 0 70B5< 8=48284C0;L=>. 5@2K5 A50=AK 2>A?@>872>4OB 4><0H=NN >1AB0=>2:C 2 ?@>2>4OBAO A>2<5AB=> A <0B5@LN, ?>A;54CNI85 - 157 =55, GB> 2545B : 40;L=59H5<C C<5=LH5=8N 2708<>>1CA;>2;5==>3> 15A?>:>9AB20. 0AA<>B@5==0O B0:B8:0 ?>AB@>5=8O M<>F8>=0;L=>3> :>=B0:B0 A 1>;L=K<, 83@>2KE 70=OB89, 2=CH5=8O =0O2C, 38?=>B5@0?88 8 ?0@0;;5;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 @01>BK A <0B5@LN C<5=LH05B B@52>6=>ABL C =55 8 @515=:0. 708<>459AB285 <564C =8<8 C65 =5 A>?@>2>6405BAO 35=5@0F859 B@52>38, GB> A?>A>1AB2C5B ?>AB5?5==><C 70BCE0=8N ?@8ABC?>2 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<K. > 2A5E ?@82545==KE A;CG0OE 70B@C4=5=8O M<>F8>=0;L=>3> :>=B0:B0 A 1>;L=K< CAB@0=ONBAO A>740=85< C =53> 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8 2 ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2 ?@>F5AA5 ;5G5=8O 87<5=5=8OE 8 CG0AB85< >1>8E @>48B5;59 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88, =0G8=0O A ?5@8>40 >1A;54>20=8O A5<L8. @0G 2A5340 ?><=8B, GB> 53> 8A:;NG8B5;L=K9 02B>@8B5B C 1>;L=>3> - MB> :><?5=A0F8O =5@50;87>20==>3> 02B>@8B5B0 @>48B5;59. A;8 >= 87;8H=5 ?@82O7K205B : A515 ?0F85=B0 8 B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=> 15A?>:>8BAO ?> ?>2>4C 53> 74>@>2LO, 4020O 15AG8A;5==K5 A>25BK 8 ?@54?8A0=8O, B> ?>4>1=>5 >B=>H5=85 =0?><8=05B >A=>20==CN =0 15A?>:>9AB25 @>48B5;LA:CN 38?5@>?5:C. <5AB5 A 87;8H=5 G0ABK<8 2878B0<8 MB> A>7405B C 1>;L=>3> M<>F8>=0;L=CN 7028A8<>ABL 8 >?0A5=8O =5 >?@0240BL ?>2KH5==K5 >6840=8O 2@0G0. >MB><C, =5A<>B@O =0 M<>F8>=0;L=> B5?;K5 8 =5?@8=C645==K5 >B=>H5=8O, 2@0G 4>;65= A>1;N40BL =5:>B>@CN 48AB0=F8N A 1>;L=K<, A>E@0=OO A2>9 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K9 ?@5AB86 8 02B>@8B5B. ?@024K20O >6840=8O 1>;L=>3>, A?>A>1AB2CO 53> CA?>:>5=8N 8 A=OB8N >AB@>BK =52@>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O, <>6=> ;53:> ?5@59B8 3@0=8FC @50;L=>AB8, >A2>1>640O 53> >B >B25BAB25==>AB8 8 4020O 5<C 3>B>2K5 AE5<K @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<. !;54AB285< MB>3> 1C4CB 7028A8<>ABL 1>;L=>3> >B 2@0G0 8 =87:0O 0:B82=>ABL 2 ?@5>4>;5=88 8<5NI8EAO @0AAB@>9AB2. A;8 2@0G 845B 2> 2A5< =02AB@5GC, :><?5=A8@CO =54>AB0B:8 A5<59=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O, B> @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> >= 1C45B 2K=C645=, A>3;0ACOAL A @50;L=>ABLN, ?5@5AB@0820BL A2>N B0:B8:C. >4>1=0O =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL =0?><8=05B @515=:C >B=>H5=85 @>48B5;59, 2K7K205B M<>F8>=0;L=>5 >E;0645=85 : 2@0GC 8 2=CB@5==89 ?@>B5AB. ?B8<0;L=0O B0:B8:0 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >A=>20=0 =0 ?>=8<0=88 B>3>, GB> 2>7<>6=>AB8, ?@54>AB02;O5<K5 1>;L=><C, O2;ONBAO A:>@55 B5@0?52B8G5A:8<, G5< @50;L=K< D5=><5=><. $0:B8G5A:8 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2@0G 2>A?@8=8<05B GC2AB20 @515=:0, A?>A>1AB2C5B 8E @0A:@KB8N 8 @0728B8N A CG5B>< 8=48284C0;L=>-;8G=>AB=KE 8 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B@51>20=89. "@51>20=8O, 2K@0605<K5 2@0G>< =5 AB>;L:> 2 ?@O<>9, A:>;L:> 2 >?>A@54>20==>9 D>@<5, A>@07<5@ONBAO A 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 1>;L=>3> 2 =0AB>OI5< 8 53> ?@>3=>78@C5<K< C;CGH5=85< 2 1C4CI5<. > <5@5 C<5=LH5=8O @0AAB@>9AB2 ?A8E8:8 8 C:@5?;5=8O >@30=87<0 A>740NBAO CA;>28O 4;O ?5@5AB@>9:8 >B=>H5=89 8 G5@B E0@0:B5@0. 5>1E>48<>, GB>1K 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 45B8 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 2>7@0AB>< 8 A>AB>O=85< GC2AB2>20;8 >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 A2>5 ?>2545=85 8 8A?>;L7>20;8 2 ?>;=>9 AB5?5=8 A>1AB25==K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 8 C<5=8O. ">340 >=8 1C4CB A?>A>1=K =5 B>;L:> ?@028;L=> ?>=8<0BL 8 >F5=820BL ?@8G8=K A2>8E ?>ABC?:>2, => 8 :>@@838@>20BL 8E A>>B25BAB25==> A2>8< @50;L=K< 2>7<>6=>ABO< 8 ?>B@51=>ABO<.  A8BC0F88 <56;8G=>AB=>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> :>=B0:B0 45B8 2A5 1>;LH5 4>@>60B 4>25@85< 2@0G0 8, 3>@4OAL 53> ?>E20;>9 8 A2>8<8 CA?5E0<8, =0G8=0NB 1>;LH5 4>25@OBL A515, A2>8< GC2AB20< 8 459AB28O<. >;55 B>3>, >=8 1>OBAO >3>@G8BL 2@0G0, A45;0BL GB>-;81> =5 B0:, =5 >?@0240BL 53> >6840=89, ?5@56820NB, GB> A:06CB 5<C, GB> >= > =8E ?>4C<05B, :0: >F5=8B 8E CA?5E8 8 ?@><0E8.  @O45 A;CG052 ?>O2;ONBAO GC2AB2> 28=K 8 @C48<5=B0@=K5 8458 A0<>C=8G865=8O 2 A2O78 A @50;L=>9 8;8 :06CI59AO =5>B7K2G82>ABLN 2 >B=>H5=8OE A 2@0G><, =5A?>A>1=>ABLN A?@028BLAO A 7040=8O<8 8 B. 4. -B> >B=>H5=85 2>A?@>872>48B =52@>B8G5A:89 A?>A>1 @5038@>20=8O, =>, GB> ?@8=F8?80;L=> 206=>, 2 C?@02;O5<>9 A8BC0F88 ;5G5=8O, :>340 1>;L=><C ?@54>AB02;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL M<>F8>=0;L=>3> >B@5038@>20=8O A2>8E ?5@56820=89 8 >= >1CG05BAO 045:20B=><C >?KBC <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89. >O2;ONI55AO 2 ?@>F5AA5 ;5G5=8O 4>25@85 : ?A8E>B5@0?52BC 8 040?B0F8O : 53> ;8G=>AB8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 <>45;L 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O 4>25@8O 45B59 : @>48B5;O< ?@8 CA;>288 87<5=5=8O A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. A8E>B5@0?8O - MB> 48=0<8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA C;CGH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> @5038@>20=8O 1>;L=>3> A CG5B>< A=OB8O 1>;57=5==KE ?@>O2;5=89, C:@5?;5=8O >A;01;5==KE ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 8 @0728B8O 8=48284C0;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59. >4>1=K5 87<5=5=8O =5 2A5340 ?@>8AE>4OB 2 >3@0=8G5==>5, 70@0=55 7040==>5 2@5<O, B0: :0: C :064>3> 1>;L=>3> 5ABL A2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?>@>3, :>340 40;L=59H55 C;CGH5=85 <>65B 1KBL 4>AB83=CB> B>;L:> ?@8 CA;>288 70:@5?;5=8O ?>;CG5==KE @57C;LB0B>2 8 ?>O2;5=8O =>2KE 2>7@0AB=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 @0728B8O.  >1>1I5==>< 2845 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 MDD5:B A> AB>@>=K 1>;L=>3> >1CA;>2;5= A;54CNI8<8 D0:B>@0<8: 1) CAB0=>2:>9 =0 ?><>IL 8 65;0=85< ;5G8BLAO; 2) 25@>9 2> 2@0G0 8 ?@8<5=O5<K9 8< <5B>4 ;5G5=8O; 3) 2=CH05<>ABLN 2 A8BC0F88 ;5G5=8O 8 A?>A>1=>ABLN : ?5@5<5=0<; 4) :;8=8G5A:8<8 8 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8; 5) 4>ABC?=K< 2>7@0ABC 8 @50;L=>AB8 >B@5038@>20=85< ?5@56820=89, @07@5H5=85< 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0; 6) 2>AAB0=>2;5=85< 4>25@8O : A515, A>3;0A8O A> A2>8<8 GC2AB20<8 8 459AB28O<8, C25;8G5=85< 4>25@8O 8 >B7K2G82>AB8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 4@C38<; 7) @0A:@KB85< A51O 8 @0728B85< GC2AB20 C25@5==>AB8 =0 >A=>25 8=48284C0;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59, =>2>3> >?KB0 8 >2;045=8O =02K:0<8 040?B82=>3> ?>2545=8O.  ?@0:B8:5 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8A?>;L7CNBAO >B45;L=K5 ?@85<K ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88 D>189.  :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 ?@82545< 8AB>@8N <0;LG8:0 4,5 ;5B, :>B>@K9 >B:07K20;AO 70E>48BL 2 <03078=, B0: :0: 1>O;AO, GB> 425@8 2=570?=> 70:@>NBAO 8 >= =5 A<>65B 2K9B8 >1@0B=>. !>2<5AB=> A <0B5@LN 1K;0 @07@01>B0=0 B0:B8:0 A=OB8O AB@0E0. =0G0;5 <0;LG8:C ?>:070;8, :0: 70:@K20NBAO 425@8 2 <03078= A=0@C68 8 87=CB@8. 0B5< >= 70E>48; 2 <03078= A <0B5@LN, ?>B>< >6840; 55 2 =5:>B>@>< >B40;5=88 8, =0:>=5F, 70E>48; >48=.  4@C3>< A;CG05 452>G:0 10 ;5B ?0=8G5A:8 1>O;0AL >?>740BL 2 H:>;C. 5 AB@0E ?@>H5; ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: >=0 ?> A>25BC 2@0G0 2 B5G5=85 2 =545;L ?>AB5?5==> 2KE>48;0 87 4><0 2A5 ?>765 8 ?>765 8 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 70H;0 2 :;0AA A@07C ?>A;5 CG8B5;L=8FK. "5@0?52B8G5A:89 <5E0=87< 2 B0:8E A;CG0OE 70:;NG05BAO 2 ?>AB5?5==>< 8 :>=B@>;8@C5<>< A>7=0=85< 2>A?@>872545=88 2K7K20NI8E AB@0E A8BC0F89, B. 5. 45A5=A818;870F88 : =8<. @85<K ?>2545=G5A:>9 B5@0?88 =5MDD5:B82=K ?@8 =52@>B8G5A:>9 ?@82O70==>AB8 : @>48B5;O< 8 AB@0E5 70 8E 687=L. @8 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ACI5AB25==>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B CB>G=5=85 E0@0:B5@0 A=>2845=89. 5B8 @54:> 3>2>@OB > =8E A0<8, 8 =5>1E>48<CN 8=D>@<0F8N <>6=> ?>;CG8BL ?@8 @8A>20=88 A=>2845=89 ?> 7040=8N 2@0G0, A>2<5AB=>9 83@5 2 :C:;K 8 =02>4OI8E 2>?@>A0E. >H<0@=K5 A=>2845=8O, =5A<>B@O =0 A2>5 >B@8F0B5;L=>5 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 72CG0=85, 2K?>;=ONB 70I8B=CN, 45A5=A818;878@CNICN DC=:F8N, @50;87CO 2 A8<2>;8G5A:>9 D>@<5 @07;8G=K5 687=5==K5 A8BC0F88. <5AB5 A B5< >=8, 2>?;>I0O 2 0;;53>@8G5A:>9 D>@<5 4=52=K5 >?0A5=8O, AB@0E8 8 =04564K, =5@54:> O2;ONBAO A2>5>1@07=>9 D>@<>9 8E >A>7=0=8O, GB> A>?@>2>6405BAO AB@0E>< ?>2B>@5=8O ?>4>1=KE A=>2845=89.  :>H<0@=KE A=0E ?>-A2>5<C @07@5H05BAO B@02<8@CNI0O A8BC0F8O, :0:, =0?@8<5@, C 452>G:8 7 ;5B, 1>;57=5==> 2>A?@8=8<0NI59 ;N1>2L <0B5@8 : <;04H5<C 1@0BC: "K ?@8H;8 2 7>>?0@:, 0 B0< ;N4>54K, 8 >=8 AJ5;8 <0<C 8 <>53> 1@0B8:0". !B@0E 87<5=5=8O, 701>;520=8O @50;87C5BAO 2 A=>2845=8OE, 2 :>B>@KE ?@>8AE>4OB D0=B0AB8G5A:85 ?@52@0I5=8O (@8A. 4).  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris4.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 4. !B@0E 87<5=5=8O "O" 2 :>H<0@=>< A=5 452>G:8 12 ;5B "# <5=O 2K@>A;8 @>30" !B@0E =0A8;8O, 2=570?=>3> 2>7459AB28O 8 AB>;:=>25=8O 4>1@0 8 7;0 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 A=>2845=88 <0;LG8:0 12 ;5B: "/ 2 ;5AC =01@5; =0 871CH:C, =0 :>B>@>9 1K;> =0?8A0=> - ">1@> ?>60;>20BL", 2>H5; 2 =55, 8 24@C3 =0 <5=O GB>-B> =020;8;>AL AB@0H=>5 - AB@0H=55 01K-/38". 5>ACI5AB2;5==K5 65;0=8O, @0718BK5 =04564K 72CG0B 2> A=5 <0;LG8:0 9 ;5B: "/ ?>;5B5; =0 C=C, ?>;5B0; B0<, 0 ?>B>< :>@01;L C?0; =0 5<;N 8 @0718;AO". "5<0 1572KE>4=>AB8, >1@5G5==>AB8, =5>B2@0B8<>AB8 =0:070=8O, >BACBAB28O ?>445@6:8 8 A>GC2AB28O >B@0605B B@02<8@CNI55 >B=>H5=85 @>48B5;59. "0:, 452>G:0 9 ;5B 2848B 2> A=5: "0 <=>9 ?>3=0;AO 45@52O==K9 25;8:0= A H5ABLN @C:0<8, 8 O >B =53> C1560;0, => :>340 ?@81560;0 : 4><C, B> >= >:070;AO ?5@54 =8< 8 70:@8G0;: "30! >?0;0AL!" - O ?@>A=C;0AL 8, :>340 A=>20 70A=C;0, B> <=5 ?@8A=8;>AL, GB> O ?>H;0 : 4@C3>9 452>G:5, 0 >= <5=O ?>4:0@0C;8; 8 AJ5;!"; 452>G:0 14 ;5B: "B>-B> 70 <=>9 ?>3=0;AO, O 21560;0 2 4>< 8 AB0;0 72>=8BL ?> 2A5< :20@B8@0<, => =8:B> =5 >B:@K20;. / 4>1560;0 4> ?>A;54=53> MB060 8, CA;KH02, GB> <5=O C65 4>3>=ONB, 1@>A8;0AL 2=87 8 ?@>A=C;0AL!"; <0;LG8: 7 ;5B: ">4E>48B :> <=5 010-/30 8 =0G8=05B 4CH8BL <5=O, O 3>2>@N: "5 C18209, =5 C18209", - 0 >=0 "A5 @02=> C1LN!"; <0;LG8: 6 ;5B: "! 3>@K ?040NB, ?040NB :0<=8 <=5 =0 3>;>2C, 8 845B 2>9=0. =5 AB@0H=>". BACBAB285 157>?0A=>AB8, =5=0456=>ABL 1;8609H53> >:@C65=8O 72CG8B 2> A=5 452>G:8 10 ;5B: "0 <=>9 3=0;8AL, O ?@81560;0 4><>9, AB0;0 70:@K20BL 425@L, 0 >=0 =5 70:@K205BAO"; <0;LG8:0 9 ;5B: "B5F ?@8E>48B 4><>9 157 =>38, <0BL 157 3;070". !5<59=K9 :>=D;8:B >B@0605BAO 2 A=0E B8?0 "0: 1C4B> =0H 4>< 27>@20;AO", "B>-B> :>3>-B> 70@570;". >=D;8:B A @>48B5;O<8 - 2 :>H<0@=KE A=0E A 48=>702@0<8, 10@<0;5O<8, 2>;:0<8, 01>9-/3>9 !B@0E >48=>G5AB20, @07;C:8 A @>48B5;O<8 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 B0:8E A=0E: "&K30=5 1@>4OB ?> 3>@>4C 8 E>BOB <5=O 701@0BL A A>1>9", "0<0 >B <5=O CE>48B, O >AB0NAL >4=0", "@81560;8 : ?0?5 =0 :>@01;L, 0 >= C65 >B?;K205B". #3@>70 4;O 687=8 =0E>48B 2K@065=85 2 A=0E: "5=O E>BOB C18BL 8;8 704CH8BL, => =8:>340 MB> =5 ?>;CG05BAO", "'5@B8 >:@C68;8 <5=O, 3;02=K9 5A ?>9<0; <5=O 8 2545B : G5@BO<, GB>1K >=8 <5=O @07>@20;8", "5=O E>B5;8 CB>?8BL ?;>E85 ;N48". $0B0;L=K9 AB@0E A<5@B8 =0E>48B 2>?;>I5=85 2 A;54CNI8E A=0E: "0=48BK AE20B8;8 <5=O 8 C18;8", ">@>4 70B>?8;>, ?@8?;K;8 >AL<8=>38 8 <5=O AJ5;8", "0: <5=O, <0<C 8 101CH:C 70AK?0;8 75<;59", "K 845< A <0<>9 ?> <>ABC, 0 >= >1@CH8;AO, 8 <K C?0;8". >4>1=K5 A=K 3>2>@OB > ?>B5@5 687=5==>9 F5;8, :@0E5 =04564, 687=5==>9 :0B0AB@>D5. @8 >BACBAB288 2>A?><8=0=89 > B@02<8@CNI5< E0@0:B5@5 A=>2845=89, =54>?CI5=88 8E 2 A>7=0=85 2AB@5G0NBAO ?>=865==K9 D>= =0AB@>5=8O, 70B>@<>65==>ABL 8 15A?>:>9AB2>. 0AA<>B@5==K5 A=>2845=8O C:07K20NB =0 =0;8G85 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0, A>AB>O=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 8 15A?>:>9AB20. 565 2AB@5G0NBAO ?@8OB=K5 A=>2845=8O, 2 :>B>@KE, B5< =5 <5=55, =0E>48B A2>5 :><?5=A0B>@=>5 2K@065=85 45D8F8B >A=>2=KE 687=5==KE ?>B@51=>AB59. "@8OB=K9 A>=, :>340 O 83@0N A @51OB0<8 8 4@C6C A =8<8", "/ AB0; CG8BLAO 2 H:>;5 =0 >4=8 ?OB5@:8 8 <5=O ?>E20;8;8", "5=O ?>E20;8;0 <0<0". 048:0;L=>5 CAB@0=5=85 :>H<0@=KE A=>2845=89 2>7<>6=> ?>A;5 =>@<0;870F88 >1AB0=>2:8 2 A5<L5 8 ?5@5AB@>9:8 >B=>H5=89 45B59 8 @>48B5;59. > MB>3> C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=K9 MDD5:B, ?><8<> 2K?>;=5=8O >1I58725AB=KE 38385=8G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89, =01;N405BAO >B ?@8<5=5=8O 2=CH5=8O, >1;53G0NI53> 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>1C645=8O ?@8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 8 ?5@5:;NG0NI53> A=>2845=8O =0 =59B@0;L=CN 8;8 ?>;>68B5;L=CN B5<0B8:C. A;8 MDD5:B >B 2=CH5=8O =0 ?5@2KE ?@85<0E >:07K205BAO =54>AB0B>G=K<, B> 1>;L=><C 405BAO 7040=85 =0@8A>20BL A=K 4><0, GB> C<5=LH05B ?> ?@8=F8?C 45A5=A818;870F88 8E B@02<8@CNI55 7=0G5=85. 8AC=:8 2<5AB5 A 87>1@065==K<8 =0 =8E AB@0E0<8 >AB0NBAO C 2@0G0, GB> CA8;8205B 459AB285 @0=55 A45;0==>3> 2=CH5=8O. 5:>B>@K5 B5@0?52B8G5A:8 @578AB5=B=K5 A=>2845=8O ?>A;5 8E 87>1@065=8O =0 @8AC=:5 ?@>83@K20NBAO 2 @>;OE A>2<5AB=> A 2@0G><. @8 2>A?@>872545=88 @515=:>< >1@070, 2K7K20NI53> AB@0E, 4>AB8305BAO 1>;LH89 MDD5:B >B 83@K.  :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 <>6=> C?><O=CBL > 452>G:5 10 ;5B, ?0=8G5A:8 1>O2H59AO 2> A=5 GC4>28I0. 5 >B5F, : :>B>@><C >=0 1K;0 ?@82O70=0, 7;>C?>B@51;O; 0;:>3>;5<, 8 53> 87<5=5==K9 >1@07 ?@5;><;O;AO 2 2845 D0=B0AB8G5A:>3> ?5@A>=060. 0;8G85 MB>9 A2O78 =5 >1JOA=O;>AL, 8 452>G:0, ?> A>25BC 2@0G0, A45;0;0 4><0 <0A:C GC4>28I0, :>B>@>3> 87>1@060;0 2 A>2<5AB=>9 83@5 =0 ?@85<5. 9 ?5@5AB0;8 A=8BLAO AB@0H=K5 A=K, 8 40;L=59H55 C;CGH5=85 A>AB>O=8O 1K;> 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 >1CA;>2;5=> ?5@5AB@>9:>9 >B=>H5=8O >BF0.  8B>35 ?@8=F8?K 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 <>3CB 1KBL AD>@<C;8@>20=K A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 1) B0:B8:0 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A>3;0A>2K205BAO A @>48B5;O<8 1>;L=>3> @515=:0, >15A?5G820O MB8< =5>1E>48<CN ?><>IL A 8E AB>@>=K; 2) 2K1>@ <5B>48:8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 7028A8B >B :>=:@5B=>9 A8BC0F88 2708<>459AB28O 2@0G0 8 1>;L=>3>, 40==KE :;8=8:8 8 8=48284C0;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 1>;L=>3> =0 :064>< 2>7@0AB=>< MB0?5 53> @0728B8O; 3) =0?@02;5==>ABL ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O A>G5B05BAO A> A?>=B0==>ABLN, GB> 45;05B 53> 1>;55 381:8<, 5AB5AB25==K< 2 ?@81;865==K< : 687=8; 4) @C:>2>4AB2> 1>;L=K< >A=>20=> =0 ?0@8B5B=>AB8 >B=>H5=89 A =8<; 5) 2@0G 459AB2C5B 2<5AB5 A 1>;L=K<, 0 =5 2<5AB> =53>, >AB020OAL 2 ?@545;0E A2>53> "O", GC2AB2CO 8 ?>=8<0O ?5@56820=8O 1>;L=>3>; 6) CAB@0=5=85 1;>:8@CNI8E =52@>B8G5A:8E <5E0=87<>2 "O", @0A:@KB85 8 @0728B85 53> @575@2>2, 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 4>25@8O : A515 8 ?5@5AB@>9:0 >B=>H5=89 A> 7=0G8<K<8 4@C38<8 @0AA<0B@820NBAO 2 :0G5AB25 =5@07@K2=> A2O70==KE <564C A>1>9 ;5G51=KE 8 ?5403>38G5A:8E 0A?5:B>2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 :><<C=8:0F88 A 1>;L=K<; 7) 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 4>AB8305BAO 2708<=0O 040?B0F8O 45B59 8 @>48B5;59. 07JOA=ONI0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O. K45;5=85 @07JOA=ONI59 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =>A8B CA;>2=K9 E0@0:B5@, B0: :0: >=0 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 <5@5 A>?@>2>6405B 2A5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 459AB28O 2@0G0 2 @01>B5 A 45BL<8 5-6 ;5B 8 AB0@H5. >38G5A:8 >1>A=>20==>5 @07JOA=5=85 =5:>B>@KE ?@8G8= 2>7=8:=>25=8O =52@>B8G5A:>3> 701>;520=8O >ACI5AB28<> C ?>4@>AB:>2, 2 >B=>H5=88 :>B>@KE C65 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > 4>AB0B>G=>< C@>2=5 @0728B8O <KH;5=8O 8 D>@<8@>20=88 =@02AB25==>-MB8G5A:8E :0B53>@89. "> 65 >B=>A8BAO : @07JOA=5=8N <5E0=87<0 459AB28O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E <5B>48: 8 >1AC645=8N 687=5==KE ?@>1;5<. ;O B>3> GB>1K 1>;L=>9 <>3 ?>=OBL, :0:8< >= <>65B AB0BL ?>A;5 ;5G5=8O (?5@A?5:B820 ?A8E>B5@0?88), 5<C 2=0G0;5 =5>1E>48<> ?>=OBL, :B> >= 5ABL. >A;54=55 =52>7<>6=> ?@8 2K@065==KE ?@87=0:0E 701>;520=8O, 8A:060NI53> 2>A?@8OB85, 254CI53> : @50:B82=K<, 70I8B=K< CAB0=>2:0< 8 40;L=59H8< =0@CH5=8O< 2 >B=>H5=8OE. >MB><C, ?@5645 G5< ?5@5AB@0820BL =51;03>?@8OB=K5 ;8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 1>;L=>3>, =5>1E>48<> A>740BL 045:20B=>5 >B=>H5=85 : 701>;520=8N 8 ;5G5=8N 8 C<5=LH8BL >AB@>BC =52@>70. !>740BL 045:20B=>5 >B=>H5=85 1>;L=>3> : A2>5<C A>AB>O=8N - 7=0G8B 8A:;NG8BL :0: 53> =54>>F5=:C, B0: 8 ?5@5>F5=:C.  ?5@2>< A;CG05 C 45B59 >BACBAB2C5B AB8<C; 4;O CAB@0=5=8O 1>;57=5==KE 87<5=5=89 8 ?A8E>B5@0?8O ;8H5=0 A<KA;0. B>@>9 A;CG09 ?@54AB02;O5B OB@>35==>5 CBO65;5=85 A>AB>O=8O 1>;L=>3>. !>2<5AB=> A =8< 2@0G ?KB05BAO @07>1@0BLAO 2 8AB>G=8:0E ?5@56820=89, ?><>305B >A>7=0BL =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E. 45AL 8<5NB <5AB> 420 >3@0=8G5=8O, 0 8<5==>: @0728B85 <KH;5=8O C 45B59 8 MB8G5A:85 A>>1@065=8O 2@0G0. >A;54=55 >7=0G05B, GB> 2@0G A>3;0H05BAO A A5@L57=>ABLN ?5@56820=89, A2O70==KE A >B=>H5=8O<8 2 A5<L5, => 8715305B >AC645=8O @>48B5;59. ! F5;LN :>=:@5B870F88 ?5@56820=89, A2O70==KE A >B=>H5=85< @>48B5;59, <K ?@>2>48< A 1>;L=K<8 AB0=40@B878@>20==>5 8=B5@2LN. >;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E >B<5G0NB, GB> @>48B5;8 871KB>G=> 701>BOBAO > =8E, B@51CNB 2A5 45;0BL 2>2@5<O (B. 5. B>@>?OB 8 ?>43>=ONB), 2A5 2@5<O =0?><8=0NB > B><, :0: =C6=> A51O 25AB8 (B. 5. ;8H0NB =5?>A@54AB25==>AB8, ?>@8F0NB 8 G8B0NB <>@0;L), G0AB> 15A?>:>OBAO, GB> A =8<8 <>65B GB>-B> A;CG8BLAO (B. 5. 8=4CF8@CNB B@52>3C), ?>AB>O==> 70AB02;ONB 45;0BL B>, GB> >=8 =5 E>BOB (B. 5. ?@8=C640NB), B@51CNB 2> 2A5< 15A?@5:>A;>2=>3> ?>A;CH0=8O (B. 5. 7028A8<>3>, ?0AA82=>3> ?>2545=8O), 3>2>@OB, GB>1K >=8 70=8<0;8AL A2>8< 45;>< 8 =5 A>20;8 =>A 2 >AB0;L=>5 (B. 5. >BAB@0=ONB >B CG0AB8O 2 687=8 A5<L8).  @O45 A;CG052 2@0G ?@>A8B 45B59 >1JOA=8BL B> 8;8 8=>5 >B=>H5=85 @>48B5;59 8 ?@825AB8 ?@8<5@K. @8 70B@C4=5=8OE <>65B 1KBL ?@54;>65=0 A>2<5AB=0O 83@0. B=>H5=85 @>48B5;59 =5 :><<5=B8@C5BAO, => 1>;L=>9 GC2AB2C5B 65;0=85 2@0G0 ?><>GL 5<C 8 AB@5<8BAO A> A2>59 AB>@>=K =09B8 2KE>4 87 :>=D;8:B=>9 A8BC0F88. ! MB>9 65 F5;LN ?@8<5=ONBAO =01>@K @8AC=:>2 ( 5=5-8;O, >75=F25930, >@838=0;L=K5 @07@01>B:8), 345 ?@54AB02;5=K @07=>>1@07=K5, 2 B>< G8A;5 :>=D;8:B=K5, AD5@K >B=>H5=89 45B59 2 A5<L5, 45BA:>< A04C, H:>;5 8 B. 4. 1AC645=85 =5:>B>@KE @8AC=:>2 A 45BL<8 70:0=G8205BAO 2>?@>A>< > B><, :0: 1K >=8 ?>ABC?8;8 =0 <5AB5 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?5@A>=060. @8 =5045:20B=>< @5H5=88 A8BC0F89 ?>4A:07K20NBAO 4@C385 ?CB8. O4 @5H5=89 ?@54;0305BAO 2>A?@>8725AB8 4><0 2 2845 @8AC=:0 8 ?@8=5AB8 =0 ?@85<, ?>A;5 G53> >=8 <>3CB 1KBL @07K3@0=K 2 @>;OE. &5==K< 4;O 4803=>AB8:8 8 :>@@5:F88 >B=>H5=89 O2;O5BAO B5<0B8G5A:89 0??5@F5?F8>==K9 B5AB (""), ?> :0@B8=:0< :>B>@>3> ?@>AOB A>AB028BL ?5@2K9 ?@8H54H89 2 3>;>2C @0AA:07. -<>F8>=0;L=0O >:@0A:0 @0AA:07>2 45B59, 1>;L=KE =52@>70<8, - 3@CAB=0O, ?>402;5==0O, ?5AA8<8AB8G5A:0O. '0AB> 72CG0B B5<K C=865=8O, ?@8=C645=8O, =0A8;8O, =5AG0ABLO, =587156=>AB8 8 =5>B2@0B8<>AB8 A<5@B8, B. 5. >1@5G5==>AB8 8 157KAE>4=>AB8.  MB><, >A>15==> C ?>4@>AB:>2, =0E>48B >B@065=85 =5@07@5H8<>ABL ;8G=>AB=>9 A8BC0F88, ?>B5@O C25@5==>AB8 2 A515, =0456=>AB8 >:@C65=8O 8 A<KA;0 687=8. >4@>AB:8 B0:65 G0AB> ?>4G5@:820NB B5<K @07;C:8, >48=>G5AB20, =5@0745;5==>AB8 GC2AB2 8 AB@040=89. A8E>;>38G5A:89 "=04;><" B0:8E ?>4@>AB:>2, ?5AA8<87<, @07>1I5=85 A >:@C60NI8<8 8 CE>4 2 A51O ?>72>;ONB @0AF5=8BL 8E =52@>7 :0: A2>53> @>40 M:2820;5=B ":><<C=8:0B82=>3> AC8F840" 254CI53> : M3>F5=B@8G5A:8-70I8B=><C 8 45?@5AA82=><C B8?C ?5@56820=89.  4>25@8B5;L=>9 15A545 A 45BL<8 <>3CB 1KBL @0A:@KBK <=>385 87 ?5@56820=89, :>B>@K5 284=K 87 A;54CNI8E 2KA:07K20=89: "=>340 45=L :065BAO >G5=L 4>;38<, 8 MB> :0:-B> ?;>E>, 4;8BAO, 4;8BAO 8 2A5 :>=G8BLAO =5 <>65B - =04>5;>, 45=L =0AB0; 8 ?CABL B5<=55B" (<0;LG8: 5 ;5B), ">;55 ?@028;L=> :> <=5 >B=>A8BAO ?0?0, ?>B><C GB> <0<0 G0AB> 70AB02;O5B 45;0BL B>, GB> 59 E>G5BAO, O =5 <>3C ?>AB@>8BL, 0 >=0 3>2>@8B - AB@>9, 0 ?0?0 845B =5 ?@>B82 <5=O, >= =5 70AB02;O5B 45;0BL, GB> 5<C E>G5BAO. A;8 >= E>G5B, GB>1K O GB>-=81C4L A45;0;, 0 O =5 C<5N, B> >= A45;05B MB> A> <=>9 2<5AB5 8;8 3>2>@8B - 45;09, GB> C<55HL, 0 GB> =5 C<55HL - ?><>3C" (<0;LG8: 5 ;5B), "5 ;N1;N, :>340 >=8 (@>48B5;8) AA>@OBAO. # <5=O 2 !818@8 5ABL 101CH:0, :>B>@0O A:070;0, GB> 5A;8 ?0?0 A <0<>9 1C4CB AA>@8BLAO, B> ?CABL O =0?8HC ?8AL<>, 8 >=0 ?@8545B. / 5I5 =5 C<5N ?8A0BL, => :0: =0CGCAL - >1O70B5;L=> =0?8HC" (452>G:0 5 ;5B), "0<0 G0AB> <5=O =5 ?>=8<05B 8 :064K9 ?CABO: ?@52@0I05B 2 B@03548N" (452>G:0 6 ;5B), "7<CG8;0 >=0 (<0BL) <5=O A>2A5<, B> 1L5B, B> 60;55B, B> O - O3>4:0" (<0;LG8: 6 ;5B), "8:B> <5=O =5 ;N18B, 2A5 =0 <5=O :@8G0B" (452>G:0 6 ;5B), "0<>G:0, O 65 =5 28=>20B, GB> C <5=O ?>;CG05BAO 2A5 ?;>E>, O E>GC 1KBL E>@>H8< <0;LG8:><, B0:8<, GB>1K 2A5 <5=O ;N18;8, => =5 ?>;CG05BAO MB> C <5=O, O =5 7=0N, ?>G5<C, 2848<>, G5@B <=5 <5H05B, 0 BK 65 A8;L=0O, B0: ?><>38 <=5!" (87 @073>2>@0 <0;LG8:0 6 ;5B A <0B5@LN), "/ :064K9 45=L AB0@0NAL 25AB8 A51O E>@>H>, => =5 ?>;CG05BAO, :0: 1C4B> O 8IC 4@03>F5==K9 :0<5=L 8 =5 =0E>6C. > O 1C4C, 1C4C AB0@0BLAO" (<0;LG8: 6 ;5B), "A;8 1K <5=O >1845;8, B> ?@8 =51>;LH>9 >1845 ?>45;8;AO 1K A ?0?>9 8 A <0<>9, 0 ?@8 1>;LH>9 >1845 - >AB028; 1K 55 ?@> A51O. / =5 ;N1;N >1 MB>< @0AA:07K20BL A0<, ?>B><C GB> =5A?@0254;82> =0:06CB 8;8 =5?@028;L=> ?>9<CB, B>65 =5?@8OB=>, MB> :0: >1840 4;O <5=O" (<0;LG8: 7 ;5B), "=5 :065BAO, GB> O >G5=L ?;>E0O, GB> O @07;N18;0 <0<C 8 <=5 =8:B> =5 <>65B ?><>GL 8 <=5 >G5=L E>B5;>AL ?;0:0BL, 8 O ?;0:0;0" (452>G:0 10 ;5B), "=>385 3>2>@OB - BK <>65HL 3>@48BLAO A2>8< ?0?>9!  :0:>9 3>@4>AB8 >=8 3>2>@OB? 0725 <>6=> ;N18BL 8 3>@48BLAO ?>GB8 =57=0:><K< G5;>25:><? !59G0A >= ?8H5B 48AA5@B0F8N 8 >G5=L CAB05B. >, ?@84O A @01>BK, A@07C 15@5BAO 70 3075BC: ""0:, =C GB> =>25=L:>3>?" - 3>2>@8B >= 8 =0G8=05B G8B0BL, G8B0BL.  MB> 2@5<O, GB> C =53> =5 A?@0H8209, >= =8G53> =5 >B25B8B" (<0;LG8: 12 ;5B), "=8 <=>3> 701>BOBAO 8 A>25BCNB - MB> EC65, G5< :@8: 8 ?@8:07" (452>G:0 13 ;5B), "=8 =5 ?@87=0NB 70 <=>9 =8:0:8E ?@02, B>;L:> CG8BLAO, 0 254L <=5 =C6=> :C40-=81C4L ?>9B8, 2AB@5B8BLAO A 4@C7LO<8. 0BL A>740;0 :0:>9-B> >1@07 E>@>H59 452>G:8 8 B@51C5B >B <5=O ?> ?C=:B0< A>>B25BAB28O MB><C >1@07C, >=0 E>G5B, GB>1K O 1K;0 =0 =55 ?>E>60. / AG8B0N, GB> >=0 E>@>H89 G5;>25:, 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O O AG8B0N, GB> O 4@C3>9 G5;>25:. =>340 <=5 :065BAO, GB> <564C =0<8 =0;06820NBAO >B=>H5=8O, 0 8=>340 - GB> <K A>2A5< 420 GC68E G5;>25:0. =5H=5 >=0 5I5 8=>340 ?>:07K205B ;N1>2L 2 2845 ?>40@:>2, 0 2=CB@5==5 - >G5=L @54:>.  12 ;5B 1K; <><5=B, :>340 <=5 >A>15==> E>B5;>AL, GB>1K <5=O ?>=O;0 <0<0, A59G0A O MB>3> =5 E>GC - MB> =52>7<>6=>. / AG8B0N, GB> ?> E0@0:B5@C <K A >BF>< 1;865 4@C3 : 4@C3C, => O 53> <0;> 7=0N, ?>B><C GB> 2 45BAB25 >= C5760;, 8 O 68;0 A 101CH:>9 8 454CH:>9. # <5=O B0:>5 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> 4065 ?0?0 =5 2A5340 <>65B ?>=OBL <0<C, >=0 8 5<C G8B05B =@02>CG5=8O, B0: :0: 2A5340 E>G5B, GB>1K 2A5 1K;> ?> =59. 5 7=0N, :0: ?0?0, => <=5 :065BAO, GB> <0<0 <>65B >1>9B8AL 157 <5=O, O 5ABL - E>@>H>, =5B - B>65. / =5 >B@8F0N, GB> >=0, <>65B 1KBL, ;N18B <5=O, => >G5=L ?>-A2>5<C" (452>G:0 15 ;5B). # ?>4@>AB:>2 >1AC645=85 ;8G=>AB=KE ?@>1;5< ?@>2>48BAO >B45;L=> >B @>48B5;59. >4@>AB:>2, AB@040NI8E =52@>70<8, G0AB> 3=5B5B, GB> >=8 =5 B0:85, :0: 2A5, =5 <>3CB GC2AB2>20BL 8 ;N18BL, :0: 4@C385, =09B8 A51O. E G0AB> ?@5A;54CNB AB@0E =5C40G8, GC2AB2> 2=CB@5==59 A:>20==>AB8 87-70 =02O7G82KE <KA;59 8 4@C38E 1>;57=5==KE ?5@56820=89, AB@0E A<5@B8.  B><C 65 2A;54AB285 701>;520=8O >=8 B5@ONB C25@5==>ABL 2 A515, 0:B82=>ABL, 687=5@04>AB=>ABL 8 4>1@>65;0B5;L=>ABL : ;N4O<. 0>AB@5==>-1>;57=5==> 2>A?@8=8<0O ?@>8AE>4OI85 A =8<8 87<5=5=8O, >=8 =5@54:> AG8B0NB ?>;>65=85 1572KE>4=K<, 0 A51O =5AG0AB=K<8 8 =8:><C =5 =C6=K<8. 4=0:> 2=5H=5 >=8 254CB A51O ?>4G5@:=CB> 157@07;8G=> 8;8 >B:07K20NBAO >B ?><>I8, @07>G0@>202H8AL 2 ?@54H5AB2CNI8E A>25B0E 27@>A;KE. ">340 708=B5@5A>20BL 8E <>6=> B>;L:> C1548B5;L=K< ?>:07>< 2>7<>6=>AB59 A0<>@53C;OF88 8 @0A:@KB8O B2>@G5A:>3> "O". >25@8B5;L=0O <0=5@0 15A54K, C<5;>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 2=CH5=8O 8 02B>@8B5B ;8G=>AB8 2@0G0 ?><>30NB A>740BL =5>1E>48<>5 2708<>?>=8<0=85 2 >1I5=88 A ?>4@>AB:><. A;8 2 >B=>H5=8OE A =8< 2@0G 8A:@5=5=, @>25=, 4>1@>65;0B5;5=, M<>F8>=0;L=> >B7K2G82, 381>:, 2=CB@5==5 C25@5= 8 ?>A;54>20B5;5=, B> B0:0O <>45;L ?>2545=8O ?>72>;O5B ?>4@>AB:C ;CGH5 C2845BL A51O 8 A;C68B AB8<C;>< 4;O 87<5=5=8O 53> CAB0=>2>:. -B><C 65 A?>A>1AB2C5B >1AC645=85 4=52=8:0 ?>4@>AB:0, >B@060NI53> ?@>1;5<K 53> 2708<>>B=>H5=89 8 ?@>8AE>4OI85 A =8< ?5@5<5=K, ?@>4C<0==>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 EC4>65AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@K (181;8>B5@0?8O), 3@C??>2K5 48A:CAA88 A CA?5H=> ?@>E>4OI8<8 :C@A ;5G5=8O A25@AB=8:0<8, 0 B0:65 0:B82=>5 CG0AB85 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 @01>B5 A 4@C38<8 1>;L=K<8.  ?;0=5 ?>=8<0=8O 8 >B@5038@>20=8O :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F89 E>@>H> 70@5:><5=4>20; A51O ?5@5A:07 =0 ?@85<5 A>G8=5==KE 4><0 8AB>@89 =0 @50;L=K5 8;8 D0=B0AB8G5A:85 B5<K. K1>@ B5<K >?@545;O5BAO A0<8< 1>;L=K< 8 >1KG=> 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB5?5=8 >B@0605B 0:BC0;L=CN 4;O =53> B5<0B8:C ?5@56820=89. @8 A>3;0A88 1>;L=KE 8AB>@8O <>65B 1KBL @07K3@0=0 2 @>;OE A CG0AB85< 2@0G0, @>48B5;59 8 A25@AB=8:>2. 081>;LH55 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 459AB285 @0AA:07>2 8 8E 4@0<0B870F88 >B<5G05BAO C 1>;L=KE A =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89. @82545< 8AB>@8N, A>G8=5==CN ?>4@>AB:>< 11 ;5B A =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89: "0: 1>;57=8 ?> ;N4O< ?>H;8". "8;8 2 AB0@>< 3>@>45 101CH:8-;5=BO9:8. =8 =5 E>B5;8 @01>B0BL, 5ABL 8< 1K;> =5G53>, 8 >=8 A:>@> 1K C<5@;8, 5A;8 1K =5 @5H8;8 ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 ;8E>@04:C. "C45< B@OAB8 G5;>25:0, 8 >= =0< 2A5 >B40AB", - ?>4C<0;8 >=8. KH;8 >=8 =0 C;8FC 8 AB0;8 640BL. 4CB 42>5 - 1>30BK9 :C?5F 8 <5;L=8:. =8 2 =8E 2;57;8 8 AB0;8 B@OAB8. >30BK9 :C?5F A@07C 701>;5;, 8 53> C;>68;8 2 ?>AB5;L. @C7LO ?@8=5A;8 5<C A0<>5 ;CGH55, =>, =5A<>B@O =8 =0 GB>, >= ?@>4>;60; 1>;5BL. 3> 65=0, =5 2K45@602, A:070;0 - E20B8B ;560BL, C65 3-9 3>4 ?>H5;, 2AB0=L 8 ?>948, <>65B, ;53G5 1C45B. > >= >B25B8;, GB> =5 <>65B. ">340 ?@825;8 AB0@CN 7=0E0@:C, :>B>@0O A:070;0, GB> 2K3>=8B ;8E>@04:C 70 24 G0A0, 5A;8 >= 1C45B 2> 2A5< 55 A;CH0BLAO. !20@8;0 >=0 20@52> 8 40;0 5<C, A:0702, GB> E20B8B =568BLAO 2 ?>AB5;8, GB>1K >= 5; 20@52> 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 >=> =5 1C45B =52:CA=K<. >:0 >= 5;, 7=0E0@:0 >1;8;0 53> 2>4>9. C?5F 2A:>G8; A ?>AB5;8 8 70:@8G0;.  MB> 2@5<O AB0@CE0, A84OI0O 2 =5<, 8A?C30;0AL, 2K;57;0 8 701@0;0AL 2 7=0E0@:C, 0 :C?5F 1;03>40@8; 55 70 ?><>IL 8 ?>65;0; <=>38E ;5B 687=8. =0E0@:0 65 ?@8H;0 4><>9, A:>@G8;0AL 8 2K?8;0 G0H:C B@K=-B@02K. ">340 ;8E>@04:0 8A?C30;0AL 8 2K;57;0 87 =55. 5H8;0 >=0 ?5@51@0BLAO 2 4@C3>9 3>@>4, 345 5I5 =5 C<5;8 ;5G8BL MBC 1>;57=L, 0 BCB 59 8 =0?0@=8F0, 4@C30O 101CH:0, ?>?0;0AL, :>B>@0O ?@> A51O @0AA:070;0. 01@0;0AL >=0 2 154=>3> <5;L=8:0, 0 >= @0AB>;>: G5A=>:, ?>;8; 53> C:ACA>< 8 AJ5;, 8 >=0 GCBL 1K;> =5 >B@028;0AL, =>, A>1@02H8AL A ?>A;54=8<8 A8;0<8, ?>440;0 5<C 60@C. ">340 <5;L=8: 2;57 2 E>;>4=CN ?@>@C1L, 8 >=0 GCBL =5 C<5@;0, 5A;8 1K =5 C1560;0. >A;5 B>3>, :0: >15 =0?0@=8FK @0AA:070;8 4@C3 4@C3C, GB> A =8<8 ?@>87>H;>, >=8 @5H8;8, GB> =C6=> 2K9B8 70<C6 8 =0@>60BL 45B59, :>B>@K5 1C4CB >1CG5=K 8E=5<C @5<5A;C. ! B5E ?>@ ?>H;8 @07=K5 1>;57=8, :>B>@K5 5ABL 8 4> A8E ?>@".  40==>9 8AB>@88 >B@0605BAO AB@0E 87<5=5=8O "O" 2 @57C;LB0B5 459AB28O =5?>=OB=KE 4;O ?>4@>AB:0 1>;57=5==KE, 8@@0F8>=0;L=KE A8;. "> 65 2848< 2 4@C3>< @0AA:075-8<?@>2870F88 452>G:8 11 ;5B, 2 :>B>@>< 2 A8<2>;8G5A:>9 D>@<5 >B@0605BAO ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI0O 4;O =55 A8BC0F8O 2 A5<L5: "# >4=>9 7;>9 65=I8=K 1K; AK=, :>B>@>3> >=0 70AB02;O;0 @01>B0BL 45=L 8 =>GL. 0;LG8:C =04>5;>, 8 >= C1560; 2 ;5A, => 1>O;AO, GB> <0BL 53> =03>=8B 8 1C45B 18BL. 560; >= 4>;3> 8 ?>B5@O; 2A5 A8;K. #2845; 28H=N, ?>5; 8 70A=C;, 0 :>340 ?@>A=C;AO, B> C2845;, GB> C =53> =0 3>;>25 @>30". "@02<8@CNI55 >A>7=0=85 >B;8G89 >B A25@AB=8:>2, 65;0=85 871028BLAO >B 1>;57=5==KE 87<5=5=89 8 =5@50;87>20==0O ?>B@51=>ABL ?@87=0=8O 8 ;N128 284=K 87 A;54CNI8E 8AB>@89: "8;-1K; 2>;:, 8 >4=064K 53> =0?C30;8, 8 AB0; >= ?>A;5 MB>3> 708:0BLAO. >H5; >= >4=064K 2 ;5A 8 2848B - 845B @0A=0O (0?>G:0, 8 70E>B5;>AL 5<C 55 AJ5ABL.  E>B5; >= MB> 59 A:070BL, 8 ?>:0 ?KB0;AO, @0A=0O (0?>G:0 2A5 ?>=O;0 8 C1560;0.  ?>=O; B>340 2>;:, GB> 68BL B0: 40;LH5 =5;L7O, 8 ?>H5; ;5G8BLAO 2 25B5@8=0@=CN 1>;L=8FC" (452>G:0 14 ;5B). "8; 1K; <0;LG8: >G5=L E>@>H89, 4>1@K9, => 1K; C =53> >48= =54>AB0B>: - >= 1K; =5@2=K9. ;O >:@C60NI8E MB> =5 1K;> >G5=L 70<5B=>, 0 4;O <0;LG8:0 >G5=L 206=>, 8 ?>MB><C >= 68; >48=, >BH5;L=8:><. 4=064K >= 2AB@5B8; 452>G:C 8 ?>;N18; 55. =, :>=5G=>, ?>=8<0;, GB> =8:>340 =5 A<>65B 59 MB> A:070BL.  452>G:0 A0<0 ?>;N18;0 MB>3> <0;LG8:0, 2A5 ?>=8<0;0, GB> C =53> =0 4CH5, 8 @5H8;0 A0<0 ?@87=0BLAO 5<C 2 ;N128.  :>340 >=0 5<C >1 MB>< A:070;0, ?@>87>H;> GC4>. = ?5@5AB0; 1KBL =5@2=K<, ?>B><C GB> ;N1>2L - MB> GC4>" (452>G:0 15 ;5B). >A:>;L:C C 1>;L=>3> =52@>7>< 1>;55 7=0G8<0O 8=D>@<0F8O G0AB> A>45@68BAO =5 2 A:070==><, 0 2 =54>3>2>@5==><, B> CA?5H=K< >:07K205BAO 8A?>;L7>20=85 <5B>48:8 =570:>=G5==KE 2@0G>< 8AB>@89, @072O7:C :>B>@KE 8 7025@H5=85 4>;6=K ?@84C<0BL A0<8 45B8. AB>@88 ?>AB@>5=K B0:8< >1@07><, GB> C =8E =5B >4=>7=0G=>3> @07@5H5=8O :>=D;8:B=>9 A8BC0F88 8 >=8 4>?CA:0NB 2 H8@>:8E ?@545;0E 8<?@>2870F8N. 5B8, >A>15==> ?>4@>AB:8, =5A<>B@O =0 A;>6=CN D01C;C :>=D;8:B0, 4>AB0B>G=> 1KAB@> C;02;820NB =081>;55 F5;5A>>1@07=K9 B8? 53> @07@5H5=8O 8 B5< A0<K< ;CGH5 040?B8@CNBAO : =5<C 2 @50;L=>9 687=8. >A;54CNI55 ?@>83@K20=85 M:A?@><B>< 7025@H0NI59 G0AB8 8AB>@88 A>7405B 1>;55 ?@>G=K9 =02K: 040?B82=>3> 2708<>459AB28O 2 AB@5AA>2KE A8BC0F8OE. 0: "4><0H=55 7040=85" 45BO< ?@54;0305BAO >ACI5AB28BL =0 ?@0:B8:5 >48= 87 @0AA<>B@5==KE 20@80=B>2 ?>2545=8O. >AB865=85 2 MB>< 4065 =51>;LH8E CA?5E>2, =0@O4C A ?>445@6:>9 2@0G0, @0728205B C =8E 25@C 2 A51O, 2 A2>8 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 A?>A>1=>AB8. "5< A0<K< A>740NBAO CA;>28O 4;O A>3;0A>20=8O ?>2545=8O A 045:20B=K< ?@54AB02;5=85< > A515 8 GC2AB2>< A>1AB25==>3> 4>AB>8=AB20, GB> 45;05B 1>;55 CA?5H=K<8 ?5@5AB@>9:C >B=>H5=89 8 :>@@5:F8N =51;03>?@8OB=KE G5@B E0@0:B5@0. =48284C0;L=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O 45B59, :0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, ?@>2>48BAO ?0@0;;5;L=> A ?A8E>B5@0?859 @>48B5;59. A>1>5 2=8<0=85 >1@0I05BAO =0 A>AB>O=85 @>48B5;59 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 0:B82=>3> :C@A0 ?A8E>B5@0?88 C 45B59, B0: :0: 53> CEC4H5=85 <>65B A25AB8 =0 =5B 4>AB83=CBK5 @57C;LB0BK.  MB>9 A2O78 <>6=> C?><O=CBL > <0B5@8, :>B>@0O ?@54JO2;O;0 15AG8A;5==K5 8 =5 A>2A5< ?>=OB=K5 60;>1K =0 A>AB>O=85 AK=0 10 ;5B. :070;>AL, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E, 2 B>< G8A;5 0AB<0B8G5A:85 70B@C4=5=8O 4KE0=8O, 1K;8 ?;>4>< 55 1>;57=5==>3> 2>>1@065=8O. !G8B0O A51O 2> 2A5< ?@02>9, =5 4>25@OO >?KBC @515=:0 8 G@57<5@=> B@52>60AL > 53> A>AB>O=88, <0BL =5?@>872>;L=> A>74020;0 ?@>1;5<K >B=>H5=89 A AK=>< 8 A0<0 65 =0 =8E M<>F8>=0;L=> @5038@>20;0. 5 C4828B5;L=>, GB> =0< C40;>AL A@02=8B5;L=> 1KAB@> 2K;5G8BL <0;LG8:0, B0: :0: 53> =52@>7 ?>GB8 F5;8:>< 1K; 8=4CF8@>20= <0B5@LN. >A;5 ;5G5=8O AK=0 55 A>AB>O=85 ?>AB5?5==> CEC4H8;>AL, 2?;>BL 4> <0=8D5AB0F88 =52@>B8G5A:>9 45?@5AA88, :>B>@0O @0=55 <0A:8@>20;0AL 871KB>G=>9 701>B>9 8 ?>AB>O==>9 B@52>3>9 > 74>@>2L5 AK=0. !CI5AB2>20=85 ?>4>1=>9 =52@>B8G5A:>9 2708<>A2O78 ?>4G5@:8205B =5>1E>48<>ABL >:070=8O A2>52@5<5==>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?><>I8 =5 B>;L:> 45BO<, => 8 27@>A;K< G;5=0< A5<L8. @8<5=5=85 ?A8E>B5@0?88 87>1@078B5;L=>3> B2>@G5AB20. 8AC=:8 :0: 284 B2>@G5AB20 O2;ONBAO ?@5;><;5=85< 2 A>7=0=88 @515=:0 >:@C60NI59 53> 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. # 4>H:>;L=8:>2 >B@065=85 @50;L=>AB8 A:>@55 A8<2>;8G=>, G5< =0BC@0;8AB8G=>, B0: :0: >=8 87>1@060NB ?@54<5BK 8 ;N459 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> A2>8<8 2>7@0AB=K<8 ?@54AB02;5=8O<8. 7>1@078B5;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL O2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> A@54AB2>< A2O78 <564C @072820NI8<8AO <KH;5=85< 8 M<>F8O<8, => 8 5AB5AB25==K< AB8<C;>< 4;O 2>>1@065=8O. @0:B8G5A:0O F5==>ABL @8A>20=8O A>AB>8B 2 ?@54>AB02;5=88 @515=:C 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 4;O =525@10;L=>3> 2K@065=8O 8459.  :0G5AB25 >A>1>3> O7K:0 ?>7=0=8O @8A>20=85 2KABC?05B :0: A2>5>1@07=K9 284 :><<C=8:0F88 @515=:0 A >:@C60NI59 53> A>F80;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN. 8A>20=85 :0: B2>@G5A:89 0:B ?>72>;O5B @515=:C ;CGH5 >B@5038@>20BL D0=B0788 8 ?5@56820=8O, 1571>;57=5==> A>?@8:>A=CBLAO A 2>;H51=K< <8@>< A:07>: 8 ?@540=89, @0728BL A2>8 B2>@G5A:85 ?>B5=F88. 5B8 A =52@>70<8 1>;LH5 GC2AB2CNB 8 ?>=8<0NB, G5< <>3CB 2K@078BL MB> A;>20<8. 5@10;870F8O 8E GC2AB2 8 <KA;59 =5 2A5340 2>7<>6=0 ?@8 :>=D;8:B=KE >B=>H5=8OE 2 A5<L5, =54>AB0B>G=>9 >B7K2G82>AB8 @>48B5;59 8 B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=>< A?>A>15 ?5@5@01>B:8 687=5==KE =5C40G. 5A2>9AB25==0O @515=:C, 2K=C645==0O 7045@6:0 M<>F89, =0:>?;5=85 ?5@56820=89 ?>4>1=> M<>F8>=0;L=><C B>@<>7C ?@5?OBAB2C5B @0A:@KB8N B2>@G5A:8E 2>7<>6=>AB59, A=8605B C25@5==>ABL 2 A2>8E A8;0E 8 687=5==CN 0:B82=>ABL.  @57C;LB0B5 87>1@078B5;L=>5 8A:CAAB2> A?>A>1=> 83@0BL 7=0G8B5;L=CN @>;L 2 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 4CH52=>3> @02=>25A8O, A?>A>1AB2CO >A2>1>645=8N ?>402;5==>9 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 8 B2>@G5A:>9 M=5@388 8 >4=>2@5<5==> 2KABC?0O 2 :0G5AB25 A@54AB20 MAB5B8G5A:>3> 2>A?8B0=8O.  87CG05<KE A5<LOE @>48B5;8 =5@54:> AG8B0NB 83@C 8 @8A>20=85 =5A5@L57=K<8 70=OB8O<8, >4=>AB>@>==5 70<5=OO 8E 25@10;L=K< =0CG5=85<. >MB><C @8AC=:8, A45;0==K5 45BL<8 2> 2@5<O ;5G51=KE 70=OB89, ?><>30NB 8< C2845BL B2>@G5A:85 2>7<>6=>AB8 @515=:0 8 >F5=8BL 53> A?>=B0==CN A>7840B5;L=CN 0:B82=>ABL. 8A>20=85 - =5 B>;L:> =525@10;L=K9 A?>A>1 :><<C=8:0F88, => 8 A@54AB2> @0728B8O A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8. 8ACO, @515=>: <>65B >AB0BLAO >48= =0 >48= A> A2>8<8 <KA;O<8 8 ;CGH5 @07>1@0BLAO 2 A2>8E ?5@56820=8OE. >;57=> =01;N45=85 70 ?>2545=85< @515=:0 ?@8 @8A>20=88. #A?>:>5=85 ?A8E><>B>@=> 2>71C48<KE 45B59 3>2>@8B > ?@58<CI5AB25==> DC=:F8>=0;L=>< E0@0:B5@5 8E =0@CH5=89. @8 @8A>20=88 ?> 7040=8N <>65B ?@>O28BLAO =5C25@5==>ABL 2 A2>8E A8;0E, 8 @515=>: 4>;65= ?@5>4>;5BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 10@L5@, GB>1K 2K?>;=8BL 7040=85 2@0G0. =0;87 A2KH5 BKAOG8 @8AC=:>2 45B59 A =52@>70<8, 2K?>;=5==KE A?>=B0==> 8 ?> 7040=8N 2@0G0, ?>:070; A;54CNI55. ><0 <0;LG8:8 G0I5 2A53> 87>1@060NB <0H8=K, :>@01;8, B@0=A?>@B, 70B5< 84CB 10B0;L=K5 AF5=K, 452>G:8 65 G0I5 @8ACNB ?@8@>4C, 4><, ;N459, 682>B=KE, B. 5. 8<55B <5AB> >1KG=0O B5<0B8:0 @8AC=:>2. K?>;=5==K5 ?> 7040=8N 2@0G0 4><0 8 =0 ?@85<5 @8AC=:8 =0 B5<C "C;8F0", "42>@" 2 ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 O2;ONBAO >4=>D83C@=K<8 :><?>78F8O<8, B. 5. 45B8 87>1@060NB B>;L:> A51O, >B@060O B5< A0<K< A2>8 ?@>1;5<K >1I5=8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 =5?@8=OB85 A> AB>@>=K A25@AB=8:>2.  @8AC=:0E =0 B5<C "45BA:89 A04" 45B8 87>1@060NB A51O 2 ?@8ACBAB288 >4=>3> 8;8 =5A:>;L:8E A25@AB=8:>2, ?><5I0O A51O =0 ?5@8D5@88 3@C??K.  @8AC=:0E =0 B5<C "H:>;0" 1>;LH8=AB2> 45B59 87>1@060NB A51O 2 >48=>G5AB25, @565 A =0E>4OI8<AO @O4>< 27@>A;K< (CG8B5;5<). !25@AB=8:8 D83C@8@CNB =0 @8AC=:0E B>;L:> 2 1/3 A;CG052 8 >1KG=> =0E>4OBAO 2 F5=B@0;L=>9 ?>78F88 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 1>;L=><C. A5 MB> ?>4B25@6405B =0;8G85 C 45B59 A =52@>70<8 ?@>1;5< >1I5=8O. A;8 A@02=8BL @8AC=:8 =0 B5<C "45BA:89 A04" 8 "H:>;0", B> >G5284=K 2A5 1>;LH85 70B@C4=5=8O >1I5=8O 2 1>;55 AB0@H5< 2>7@0AB5 (@8A. 5).  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris5.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 5. B>1@065=85 =5?@8OB8O 452>G:8-?>4@>AB:0 A> AB>@>=K A25@AB=8:>2 2 H:>;5.  @O45 A;CG052 @8AC=:8 ?>72>;ONB CB>G=8BL :;8=8G5A:85 40==K5. >A?@>872545=85 E0>B8G=>3> 42865=8O, @07<070==>ABL 8 @071@>A0==>ABL M;5<5=B>2 @8AC=:0, >BACBAB285 :><?>78F88 =5@54:> 3>2>@OB > ?>2KH5==>9 2>71C48<>AB8 1>;L=KE ?@8 =52@0AB5=88. "@52>6=>-45?@8<8@>20==K9 8;8 AC145?@5AA82=K9 D>= =0AB@>5=8O ?@8 =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 8 =52@>75 AB@0E0 2K@0605BAO F25B>2K< >A:C45=85< @8AC=:0 A ?@5>1;040=85< A5@>3> F25B0, C<5=LH5=85< @07<5@>2 G5;>25G5A:8E D83C@, 8E =5?>;=K< 87>1@065=85< 8;8 >BACBAB285<. @8 2K@065==>< GC2AB25 15A?>:>9AB20 8 AB@0E0 : MB><C =5@54:> ?@8A>548=ONBAO 3CAB0O HB@8E>2:0 @8AC=:0, ?5@5?;5B0NI85AO 2>;=8ABK5 ;8=88, 70?>;=ONI85 2A5 53> ?@>AB@0=AB2>. @8 A8=4@><5 =52@>B8G5A:>3> @53@5AA0 =01;N405BAO 4578=B53@0F8O :><?>78F88 @8AC=:0. = AB0=>28BAO D@03<5=B0@=K< 8 >4=>2@5<5==> 1>;55 @07=>>1@07=K< 8 =0AKI5==K< ?> F25B>2>9 30<<5. 7>1@065=8O ;N459 70<5I0NBAO 87>1@065=8O<8 682>B=KE. -<>F8>=0;L=K5 8 ;8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 45B59 ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75 =0E>4OB >B@065=85 2 O@:>< :>;>@8B5 @8AC=:0, :@0A>G=>< 87>1@065=88 F25B>2, ;515459, ?@8=F5AA 8 :>@>;59. 803=>AB8G5A:85 2>7<>6=>AB8 70:;NG5=K 2 @8AC=>G=>9 ?@>15 "A5<LO", ?>72>;ONI59 CB>G=8BL >B=>H5=8O 2 A5<L5.  ?5@2>< 20@80=B5 @515=>: 87>1@0605B A51O 8 >AB0;L=KE G;5=>2 A5<L8 2 G5BK@5E :><=0B0E, @0A?>;>65==KE 2 42CE MB060E, - ?> >4=><C 2 :><=0B5. @8 0=0;875 @8AC=:0 8<5NB 7=0G5=85 E0@0:B5@ @07<5I5=8O G;5=>2 A5<L8 8 B>, :B> 87 =8E =0E>48BAO @O4>< A @515=:><. 1KG=> MB> M<>F8>=0;L=> 1;87:>5 ;8F>. > 2B>@><, >A=>2=>< 20@80=B5 45B8 @8ACNB A5<LN, =5 ?>;CG0O :0:8E-;81> 8=AB@C:F89. =0;87 ?@>2>48BAO 2 >B=>H5=88 A>AB020 87>1@065==>9 A5<L8, AB@C:BC@=>9 8 F25B>2>9 :><?>78F88 @8AC=:0. =>340 45B8 "701K20NB" =0@8A>20BL >4=>3> 87 G;5=>2 A5<L8. 1KG=> MB> <0;>7=0G8<>5 4;O @515=:0 ;8F> 8;8 1@0B (A5AB@0), 2K7K20NI89 GC2AB2> @52=>AB8. @54AB02;O5B 8=B5@5A 8 2:;NG5=85 2 A5<LN 4@C38E ;8F - 7=0:><KE, @>4AB25==8:>2, 2@0G0. >4>1=0O B5=45=F8O G0I5 ?@>O2;O5BAO ?@8 =0;8G88 1>;LH>9 8;8 =5?>;=>9 A5<L8 (@8A. 6).  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris6.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 6. "8:B>" (A 70BCH520==K< ;8F><), =0@8A>20==K9 ?>4@>AB:><, A@548 G;5=>2 A2>59 A5<L8.  @0A?>;>65=88 8 @07<5@0E D83C@ >B@0605BAO @O4 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 A5<L8.  A?;>G5==>< 55 E0@0:B5@5 3>2>@8B 1;87:>5 @0A?>;>65=85 D83C@. @8 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 @07>1I5==>AB8 >=8 C40;5=K 4@C3 >B 4@C30 8;8 >4=0 87 =8E @8AC5BAO >B45;L=> (@8A. 7, 8, 9). @8 ?@82O70==>AB8 : @>48B5;N >= 87>1@0605BAO @O4>< A @515=:><.  B>< 65 2 @O45 A;CG052 3>2>@8B A>548=5=85 8E @C:. # 1>;L=KE A =52@>7>< AB@0E0, =5A<>B@O =0 @50;L=CN ?@82O70==>ABL : >4=><C 87 @>48B5;59, >BACBAB2C5B A>?@8:>A=>25=85 @C:.  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris7.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 7. 7>1@065=85 A5<L8 <0;LG8:>< 4 ;5B. !;520 =0?@02> - >=; 101CH:0, :>B>@0O ?>AB>O==> =0E>48BAO A =8< 4><0; <0BL, ?5@8>48G5A:8 70=8<0NI0OAO AK=><, 8 =52:;NG5==K9 2 687=L A5<L8 >B5F (2 ?@02>< 25@E=5< C3;C).  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris8.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 8. >A?@8OB85 452>G:>9 9 ;5B >BF0, 7;>C?>B@51;ONI53> 0;:>3>;5< 8 =5 2K?>;=ONI53> A2>8E >15I0=89.  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris9.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 9. 8AC=>: =0 B5<C "A5<LO" <0;LG8:0 4 ;5B. >;LH0O D83C@0 (A?@020) >B>1@0605B 4><8=8@CNI89 2 A5<L5 >1@07 0:B82=>9 <0B5@8; D83C@0 2 =59 - >1@07 ?0AA82=>3>, 7028A8<>3> >B <0B5@8 >BF0, :0: 1K 0AA>F88@>20==>3> A ?>;>65=85< ?;>40 ?@8 15@5<5==>AB8. '0I5 2A53> 87>1@060NB A51O 2 A5@548=5 @8AC=:0, B. 5. <564C @>48B5;O<8, 1>;L=K5 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7><. =8 65, 2 >B;8G85 >B 4@C38E 45B59, @8ACNB A51O 2KH5 8 :@C?=55 @>48B5;59. A5 MB> ?>4G5@:8205B M3>F5=B@87<, ?>2KH5==>5 A0<><=5=85 8 ?@5B5=F8>7=>ABL 1>;L=KE A 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7><. @8 :>=D;8:B5 @>48B5;59 45B8 G0I5 @8ACNB A51O <564C =8<8, :0: 1K >1J548=OO A5<LN. =5 :>=D;8:B0 >=8 (:@><5 45B59 A 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7><) @8ACNB A51O ?@58<CI5AB25==> A?@020 8;8 A;520 >B >1>8E @>48B5;59. @8 :>=D;8:B5 A <0B5@LN 8;8 >BF>< @515=>: G0I5 @8AC5B A51O @O4><, B. 5. "CAB@0=O5B" :>=D;8:B. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 @8AC=:0E <>65B >B@060BLAO =5 B>;L:> D0:B8G5A:>5 ?>;>65=85, => 8 CAB0=>2:0 =0 1>;55 ?@85<;5<K9 E0@0:B5@ >B=>H5=89 2 A5<L5. @8 4>?>;=8B5;L=>< 7040=88 =0@8A>20BL 8 2@0G0 53> 1>;LH59 G0ABLN ?><5I0NB @O4>< A >BF><, >B>645AB2;OO A =8< ?> ?@87=0:C ?>;0. ?@545;5==K9 8=B5@5A ?@54AB02;O5B 8 F25B>20O :><?>78F8O @8AC=:0 ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 :@0A=>3>, 75;5=>3>, A8=53> 8 G5@=>3> F25B>2.  =59 =5 C405BAO 2K45;8BL >ICB8<>3> ?@5>1;040=8O F25B0 2 >:@0A:5 @515=:>< A2>59 D83C@K 8 D83C@ @>48B5;59. A:;NG5=85< O2;O5BAO A8=OO >:@0A:0 BC;>28I0 >BF0 45BL<8 A 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7>< (55%). >4>1=0O >:@0A:0 C:07K205B =0 2>A?@8OB85 >BF0 :0: 8AB>G=8:0 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> CA?>:>5=8O, ?@82O70==>AB8 8 ;N128. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL 8 A@02=8B5;L=> 1>;55 G0AB>5 >:@0H820=85 A2>53> BC;>28I0 G5@=>9 :@0A:>9 C 1>;L=KE =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89, GB> ?>4G5@:8205B 8E ?5AA8<87<, GC2AB2> >48=>G5AB20 8 87>;8@>20==>AB8 >B >:@C60NI8E.  ?>;>28=5 A;CG052 45B8 A =52@>70<8 8A?>;L7CNB F25B >:@0A:8 BC;>28I0, >1I89 A B5< 87 @>48B5;59, =0 :>B>@>3> >=8 ?>E>4OB 2=5H=5 8;8 E0@0:B5@><. # 452>G5: MB> 2K@065=> B>;L:> 2 >B=>H5=88 <0B5@8.  >B=>H5=88 845=B8D8:0F88 45B59 A @>48B5;O<8 2>?@>A >1AB>8B A;>6=55. A;8 C <0;LG8:>2 B@C4=> >1=0@C68BL A2O7L <564C 2K1>@>< ?@8 >?@>A5 @>;8 >BF0 8 >1I59 A =8< >:@0A:>9 BC;>28I0, B> :0640O 2B>@0O 452>G:0 8A?>;L7C5B >48= F25B, 5A;8 >=0 2K18@05B ?@8 >?@>A5 @>;L <0B5@8, B. 5. 845=B8D8F8@C5B A51O A =59. !;54>20B5;L=>, >1I0O >:@0A:0 BC;>28I0 <>65B A;C68BL ?@87=0:>< 845=B8D8:0F88 B>;L:> 2 >3@0=8G5==>< G8A;5 A;CG052. BACBAB2C5B >1I0O >:@0A:0 BC;>28I0 A @>48B5;5<, : :>B>@><C ?@82O70= @515=>:. I5 1>;LH55 @07=>>1@0785 2 ?0;8B@5 :@0A>: =01;N405BAO ?@8 87>1@065=88 =0 @8AC=:5 ;8F0. @8 :>=B@>;L=>< 2>A?@>872545=88 @8AC=:0 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 <5=ONBAO @0A?>;>65=85 D83C@K 1>;L=>3> 8 >:@0A:0 53> BC;>28I0. "0:8< >1@07><, 40==0O @8AC=>G=0O ?@>10 =>A8B 20@80B82=K9 E0@0:B5@. 4=0:> >=0 <>65B 2 8725AB=KE ?@545;0E 4>?>;=OBL :;8=8G5A:>5 >1A;54>20=85 8 A>74020BL ?>2>4 4;O 15A54K > A5<59=KE >B=>H5=8OE. A?KBK205<K5 45BL<8 AB@0E8 ?> 7040=8N 2@0G0 @8ACNBAO 4><0. =0;87 @8AC=:>2 ?>:07K205B, GB> G0I5 2A53> >=8 A2O70=K A 2>>1@0605<K<8 ?5@A>=060<8 8;8 A>1KB8O<8, 0AA>F88@C5<K<8 A =5>6840==K< 2>7459AB285< (8A?C3><), =0A8;85< (03@5AA859), C@>4AB2>< (<5B0<>@D>7>9), 1>;57=LN (=5AG0ABL5<) 8 A<5@BLN (:>=F><).  >1I5< 2845 @5GL 845B > AB@0E5 B>3>, GB> <>65B A;CG8BLAO.  53> >A=>25 ;568B AB@0E 87<5=5=8O, 8=0G5 - AB@0E "=5 1KBL A>1>9" 2 @57C;LB0B5 459AB28O B@0=AD>@<8@CNI8E ?A8E8:C A8;. # ?>4@>AB:>2 MB> <>65B 1KBL 8 AB@0E ?>B5@8 A0<>:>=B@>;O, 4>AB830NI89 A2>53> 0?>35O 2 AB@0E5 AC<0AH5AB28O - =5:>=B@>;8@C5<>3> A>7=0=85< @0A?040 8 C=8GB>65=8O "O".  1>;55 H8@>:>< 0A?5:B5 AB@0E 87<5=5=8O <>B828@>20= AB@0E>< ?>B5@8 G5;>25G5A:>3> >1;8:0, B. 5. AB@0E>< 8AG57=>25=8O A51O :0: 8=482840 8 :0: ;8G=>AB8 (@8A. 10).  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris10.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 10. ">;>20AB8:8" - AB@0H=K9 A>= <0;LG8:0 11 ;5B, 2>?;>I0NI89 53> AB@0E <5B0<>@D>7K - 87<5=5=8O "O".  @0AA<0B@8205<>< 7=0G5=88 =52@>B8G5A:89 AB@0E O2;O5BAO ?0B>;>38G5A:>9 D>@<>9 >A>7=0=8O C3@>7K 4;O "O". @@50;L=K9, 8=>9 @07 =5>1JOA=8<K9 2=5H=8<8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8 8 =0E>4OI89AO 70 "A5<LN ?5G0BO<8" <>B82 =52@>B8G5A:>3> AB@0E0 =5@54:> 2KABC?05B 8 :0: 0@E08G5A:0O D>@<0 A0<>A>7=0=8O 2 2845 ?5@540205<KE 87 ?>:>;5=8O 2 ?>:>;5=85 A5<59=KE >?0A5=89, AB@0E>2 8 ?@540=89. 45AL 8 A@54=525:>20O B5<0B8:0 :>;4C=>2, 254L<, ?@87@0:>2, ;5H8E, 4><>2KE, 8 >B@065=85 AB@0E0 ?5@54 ?@8;5B0NI8<8 8740;5:0, 2A5 A6830NI8<8 8 2A5 ?>68@0NI8<8 4@0:>=0<8 8 <55< >@K=KG5<, 8 B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=0O B@0=A:@8?F8O A5<59=KE 701>;520=89, =5AG0AB89, A<5@B8. 8B0B5;L=>9 ?>G2>9 4;O AB@0E>2 O2;ONBAO B0:65 A:;>==>ABL : AC525@8O< 8 ?@54@0AAC4:0<, 157>BG5B=0O 25@0 2 A25@EJ5AB5AB25==>5, =5>1KG=>5 8 <038G5A:>5. !0< D0:B 87>1@065=8O AB@0E>2 ?> 7040=8N 2@0G0 459AB2C5B :0: B5@0?52B8G5A:8 45A5=A818;878@CNI89 D0:B>@. "> 7040=8N 2@0G0" - >7=0G05B, GB> @515=>: 4>;65= =0@8A>20BL A2>9 AB@0E, A>25@H82 @O4 459AB289.  G0AB=>AB8, >= 4>;65= A0<>AB>OB5;L=> ?@>4C<0BL :><?>78F8N @8AC=:0, ?@5>4>;5BL 2=CB@5==55 =0?@O65=85 8 AB@0E AB@0E0 8, <>18;87>202 A2>N B2>@G5A:CN D0=B078N, 2K?>;=8BL 7040=85 ?>A@54AB2>< 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>3> 2>;52>3> CA8;8O. 5@5ABC?0O A2>9 AB@0E, =0@CH0O 53> =5?@8:>A=>25==>ABL 8 =54>ABC?=>ABL >A>7=0==K< 87>1@065=85<, @515=>: 2KABC?05B 2 @>;8 B2>@F0, ?>ABC;8@CO A2>5 0:B82=>5 =0G0;>. "0: :0: 7040=85 405B 2@0G 8 1>;L=>9 7=05B > 53> ;5G51=>9 @>;8, B> >=> =5?@>872>;L=> 0AA>F88@C5BAO A C;CGH5=85< A>AB>O=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, 45A5=A818;870F8O : AB@0EC ?@>8AE>48B 2 @57C;LB0B5 459AB28O <=>38E D0:B>@>2, 2:;NG0O @>;L =57@8<>9 ?>445@6:8 2@0G0 8 :>A25==>3> 2=CH5=8O A 53> AB>@>=K. A8E>B5@0?8O AB@0E>2 ?>A@54AB2>< @8A>20=8O MDD5:B82=0 2 2>7@0AB=>< 480?07>=5 4-11 ;5B, ?@5645 2A53> 2 6-9 ;5B, :>340 2 =081>;LH59 <5@5 ?@>O2;O5BAO 5AB5AB25==K9 8=B5@5A : @8A>20=8N. ! ?><>ILN @8AC=:>2 <>6=> CAB@0=8BL AB@0E8, 8<5NI85 ?@58<CI5AB25==> :>=:@5B=K9 8, 3;02=>5, 3@0D8G5A:8 2>A?@>872>48<K9 E0@0:B5@, 2@>45 AB@0E>2 682>B=KE, =0A5:><KE, GC4>28I, >3=O (?>60@0), 0 B0:65 2>7=8:0NI8E 2 B5<=>B5, A=>2845=8OE 8 B. 4. 5=55 MDD5:B82=> CAB@0=5=85 AB@0E>2 >B2;5G5==>-01AB@0:B=>3> E0@0:B5@0 2 2845 AB@0E>2 =58725AB=>3>, =0A8;8O, =5AG0ABLO, 701>;520=8O 8 A<5@B8. > 5A;8, : ?@8<5@C, AB@0E =58725AB=>3>, =0A8;8O 0AA>F88@C5BAO A 10=48B0<8, @071>9=8:0<8, B. 5. A :>=:@5B=K<8 ;8F0<8, B> @57C;LB0BK >B 8A?>;L7>20=8O @8AC=:>2 <>3CB 1KBL 2?>;=5 C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=K<8. "> 65 >B=>A8BAO : =02O7G82K< AB@0E0< 701>;520=8O 8 A<5@B8 2 @57C;LB0B5 70@065=8O <8:@>10<8. '0AB8G=K9 MDD5:B >B<5G05BAO ?@8 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 >1CA;>2;5==>AB8 =02O7G82KE AB@0E>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 >B25B>2 C 4>A:8 8 ?C1;8G=KE 2KABC?;5=89, ?>A:>;L:C 745AL 2KABC?05B ?@5645 2A53> =5 AB@0E 4@C38E, 0 AB@0E A2>59 =5A>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, =5A?>A>1=>AB8 459AB2>20BL B0:, :0: ?@8=OB>. BACBAB2C5B MDD5:B >B @8AC=:>2 ?@8 A25@EF5==KE AB@0E0E 70 4@C38E ;8F, ?@5645 2A53> 1;87:8E. A8E>B5@0?8O AB@0E>2 ?>A@54AB2>< @8AC=:>2 =0G8=05BAO A 2KOA=5=8O 8E E0@0:B5@0 2 15A545 8 83@5, ?>A;5 G53> 1>;L=><C ?@54;0305BAO =0@8A>20BL AB@0E8 4><0 8 ?@8=5AB8 =0 ?@85<. 064K9 AB@0E @8AC5BAO =0 >B45;L=>< ;8AB5. 0@0=55 C:07K205BAO, GB> =5 8<55B 7=0G5=8O :0G5AB2> @8AC=:>2, =5 1C4CB ?@>AB02;OBLAO >F5=:8 8 3;02=>5 70:;NG05BAO 2 A0<>< D0:B5 @8A>20=8O. 0 ?@85<5 @8AC=:8 ?@>A<0B@820NBAO A>2<5AB=> A 1>;L=K<. >=AB0B8@C5BAO 2K?>;=5=85 4><0H=53> 7040=8O, 70B5< @8AC=:8 2 ?@8ACBAB288 1>;L=>3> ?><5I0NBAO 2 ?0?:C A =04?8ALN "AB@0E8", :>B>@0O, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, C18@05BAO 2 H:0D. "0:8< >1@07><, 0:B82=>ABL 1>;L=>3> ?>;CG05B ?@87=0=85 8 >4>1@5=85 2@0G0, 8 >B=K=5 53> AB@0E8 "=0E>4OBAO" 2 ;5G51=>< CG@5645=88. "0: :0: =5 405BAO 8=AB@C:F89, :0: @8A>20BL AB@0E8, B> 1>;L=>9 <>65B =5 =0@8A>20BL A51O. A;8 65 >= 87>1@0605B 8 A51O, B>, :0: ?@028;>, >B<5G05BAO 1>;55 2K@065==K9 45A5=A818;878@CNI89 MDD5:B @8A>20=8O AB@0E>2.  >1>8E A;CG0OE ?@8 =54>AB0B>G=>< MDD5:B5 @5:><5=4C5BAO, GB>1K =0 >4=>< @8AC=:5 @515=>: 87>1@078; A51O 1>OI8<AO, B. 5. A51O 8 ?C30NI89 >1J5:B, 0 =0 4@C3>< - =51>OI8<AO. >A;>2=> 8=AB@C:F8O A;54CNI0O: "0@8AC9 =0 >4=>< @8AC=:5 A51O 8 B>, GB> BK 1>8HLAO, 0 =0 4@C3><, GB> BK MB>3> C65 =5 1>8HLAO". !;54>20B5;L=>, @515=>: 4>;65= 2=0G0;5 >A>7=0BL AB@0E 8 87>1@078BL 53> =0 @8AC=:5. 0B5< >= 4>;65= A<>45;8@>20BL A8BC0F8N =0 4@C3>< @8AC=:5 B0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K ?>1>@>BL MB>B AB@0E.  MB>9, :070;>AL 1K, ?@>AB>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 459AB289 A>45@68BAO MDD5:B82=K9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 :>4. >=:@5B870F8O AB@0E0, ?@>=8:=>25=85 2 =53>, 4@0<0B870F8O A2O70==>3> A =8< ?5@56820=8O 8 CA;>2=>ABL 87>1@065=8O >1CA;>2;820NB A>>B25BAB25==> MDD5:BK 8=A09B0, :0B0@A8A0 8 45A5=A818;870F88. >A;54CNI55 B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 <>45;8@>20=85 =0 @8AC=:5 ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI59 A8BC0F88 O2;O5BAO, ?> ACI5AB2C, ?5@5AB@>9:>9 >B=>H5=89 ?>4 2;8O=85< :>A25==>3> (CAB0=>2>G=>3>) 2=CH5=8O. >A;54=55 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 2K@065=85 25@K 2 2>7<>6=>AB8 @515=:0, ?>4G5@:=CB>5 :>=B@0AB>< "BK 1>8HLAO - C65 =5 1>8HLAO". 0;8F> 8 MDD5:B >1CG5=8O, ?>A:>;L:C @515=>: A;54C5B >?@545;5==>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 459AB289 2 >B=>H5=88 ?@5>4>;5=8O AB@0E0. !2O70==K5 <564C A>1>9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 <5E0=87<K ?>;>68B5;L=>9 CAB0=>2:8 A> AB>@>=K 1>;L=>3> (65;0=8O CAB@0=8BL AB@0E), 8=A09B0, :0B0@A8A0, 45A5=A818;870F88, 2=CH5=8O, >1CG5=8O 8 >1CA;>2;5==>9 2A5< MB8< ?5@5AB@>9:8 >B=>H5=89 >1JOA=ONB 8=B53@0;L=K9 MDD5:B @8AC=>G=>9 B5@0?88. >MB><C =5 AB>;L:> CA;>2=>5 87>1@065=85, : ?@8<5@C, B5<=>BK 8;8 682>B=KE ?><>305B @515=:C ?@5>4>;5BL AB@0E ?5@54 =8<8 (E>BO MB>3> 8 4>AB0B>G=> 2 @O45 A;CG052), A:>;L:> :>=B@0AB=>5 87>1@065=85 A51O 2 B5<=>B5 8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 682>B=><C 2 ?0AA82=>9 8 0:B82=>9 @>;8, B. 5. 2 A>AB>O=88 0DD5:B0 AB@0E0 8 157 =53>. 8A>20=85 405B @515=:C @07;8G=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O A8<2>;8G5A:>3> >B@5038@>20=8O AB@0E0. "0:, =0 @8AC=:0E >= 1@>A05B 01C-/3C 2 :>AB5@, >B@C105B 4@0:>=C 3>;>2C 8 B. 4.  >B;8G85 >B 83@>2>9 B5@0?88, MDD5:B :>B>@>9 >1CA;>2;5= ?@8=OB85< @>;8 D@CAB@8@CNI53> ?5@A>=060, 2 @8AC=>G=>9 B5@0?88 @515=>: >AB05BAO A0<8< A>1>9, GB> >1;53G05B 55 ?@8<5=5=85 C 1>;L=KE A> AB@0E>< 87<5=5=8O "O". >MB><C @8A>20=85 ?@54H5AB2C5B 83@5, A>74020O 4;O =55 =5>1E>48<K5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 ?@54?>AK;:8. <5AB> @8AC=:>2 1>;L=><C <>65B 1KBL ?@54;>65=> A45;0BL <0A:8 8;8 2K;5?8BL AB@0H=KE 4;O =53> ?5@A>=0659. > 2A5E A;CG0OE ?@>4C:BK 87>1@078B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 1>;L=KE >AB0NBAO 2 :018=5B5 2@0G0 2 2845 =0AB5==KE @8AC=:>2, A>1@0=8O 8A?>;L7C5<KE 2 ?>A;54CNI59 83@5 <0A>:, ;5?=KE ?@>872545=89. -B> ?@8=OB>5 A A>3;0A8O 1>;L=>3> @5H5=85 459AB2C5B 2 :0G5AB25 ?>4:@5?;ONI53> AC335AB82=>3> D0:B>@0 8 >7=0G05B, GB> >= ">B40;" A2>8 AB@0E8 2@0GC, :>B>@K9 8E "?@8=O;" 8 >B=K=5 "45@68B" C A51O. #AB@0=5=85 AB@0E>2 8<55B 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 206=>5 7=0G5=85 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88, B0: :0: ?@8=>A8B 1>;L=><C ACI5AB25==>5 >1;53G5=85, 0:B82878@C5B 53> 2>;N, ?>2KH05B 02B>@8B5B 2@0G0 8 ?@54>B2@0I05B ?>A;54CNI55 =02O7G82>5 @0728B85 AB@0E>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 >1@07>20=85 ;>3>D>189 8 =02O7G82KE B8:>2. 0456=>ABL CAB@0=5=8O AB@0E>2 C 45B59 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 7028A8B >B CA?5H=>AB8 ?A8E>:>@@5:F8>==>9 @01>BK A @>48B5;O<8. ;O MB>3> =5>1E>48<> 7=0BL, :0:8< AB@0E0< 8 >?0A5=8O< >=8 ?>425@65=K A0<8. @82545< ?@8<5@K ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O @8AC=:>2.  ?5@2>< A;CG05 <0;LG8: 5 ;5B ?0=8G5A:8 1>O;AO A>10:. !B@0E 1K; A=OB ?>A;5 42CE @8AC=:>2, =0 :>B>@KE >= 87>1@060; A51O C1530NI8< >B A>10:8 8 AB>OI8< A =59 @O4>< (@8A. 11).  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris11.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 11. #AB@0=5=85 A ?><>ILN @8AC=:>2 D>188 A>10: C <0;LG8:0 6 ;5B. > 2B>@>< A;CG05 452>G:5 5 ;5B G0AB> A=8;AO 2>;:, 03@5AA82=>5 ?>2545=85 :>B>@>3> =0?><8=0;> 59 >BF0, 7;>C?>B@51;O2H53> 0;:>3>;5<. 0 ?>2B>@=K9 ?@85< 452>G:0 ?@8=5A;0 @8AC=>:, 345 ?@>AB> 87>1@078;0 2>;:0. "5< =5 <5=55 >=0 ?5@5AB0;0 1>OBLAO 53> 2> A=5. 4=>2@5<5==> <0BL >B<5B8;0 C 4>G5@8 1>;55 A?>:>9=K9 A>=. > 4=5< >=0 AB0;0 1>;55 2>71C48<>9 8 03@5AA82=>9.  ?>A;54CNI59 83@5 A :C:;0<8 452>G:0 27O;0 @>;L 709F0 (B. 5. :>A25==> A51O) 8 =07=0G8;0 =0 @>;L 2>;:0 2@0G0.  83@5 70OF =5 B>;L:> >:07K20; A>?@>B82;5=85 2>;:C, => 8 A0< =0?040; =0 =53>.  8B>35 2>;: ?5@5AB0; A=8BLAO 452>G:5. 0 MB>< ?@8<5@5 284=>, GB> :>H<0@=K5 A=>2845=8O - MB> 2KB5A=5==K5 2 ?>4A>7=0=85 4=52=K5 ?5@56820=8O, A2>5>1@07=0O D>@<0 8E >B@5038@>20=8O. #AB@0=5=85 ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI53>, 03@5AA82=>3> A>45@60=8O A=>2845=89 A>?@>2>6405BAO ?>2KH5=85< 2>71C48<>AB8 8 03@5AA82=>AB8 4=5<. 3@5AA82=>ABL =5 =0?@02;O5BAO 2 A8;C @07=KE ?@8G8= =0 >BF0, :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO 55 8AB>G=8:><, => <>65B 1KBL 2 A8<2>;8G5A:>9 D>@<5 >B@5038@>20=0 =0 2@0G5, 8A?>;=ONI5< 0AA>F88@>20==CN A >1@07>< >BF0 @>;L 2>;:0.  B@5BL5< A;CG05 <0;LG8: 6 ;5B ?>A;5 ?@>A<>B@0 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> :8=>D8;L<0 ?0=8G5A:8 1>O;AO 48=>702@0, :>B>@K9, A 53> B>G:8 7@5=8O, <>3 ?@>=8:=CBL 2 4><, ?@>;><82 AB5=K. B5F <0;LG8:0 459AB28B5;L=> <>3 MB> A45;0BL, =0E>4OAL 2 A>AB>O=88 0DD5:B0. 5G5@>< <0;LG8: =0?@O65==> ?@8A;CH820;AO : @07=K< H>@>E0<, =5 <>3 4>;3> 70A=CBL, A?0; A >B:@KBK<8 3;070<8, ?@>AK?0OAL ?@8 <0;59H5< H>@>E5. = A<>3 =0@8A>20BL B>;L:> >4=>3> 48=>702@0, => ?>A;5 42CE ?>A5I5=89 2@0G0 AB0; 1KAB@55 70AK?0BL, =5A<>B@O =0 5I5 ?@>4>;60NI55AO ?>O2;5=85 GC4>28I0 2> A=5. >;=>ABLN AB@0E ?5@54 =8< 8 A0<8 :>H<0@=K5 A=>2845=8O 1K;8 CAB@0=5=K ?>A;5 83@K, 2 :>B>@>9 <0;LG8: 87>1@060; 48=>702@0, ?>>G5@54=> A@0602H53>AO A 2@0G>< 8 >BF><, 2KABC?02H8<8 2 @>;8 1>OI8EAO.  ?>A;54CNI5< 48=>702@ AB0; >1J5:B>< HCB>: 8 =0A<5H5: @515=:0.  G5B25@B>< A;CG05 452>G:0 5 ;5B 1>O;0AL 01K-/38. 5 <0BL A B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=K<8 G5@B0<8 E0@0:B5@0, :0: >=0 A0<0 ?8H5B 2 4=52=8:5, "2AN 687=L 8A:0;0 2KE>4 87-?>4 830 @>48B5;LA:>9 ;N128". "O3>BOAL A5<59=K<8 >1O70==>ABO<8, >=0 =5 E>B5;0 2 A2>5 2@5<O ?>O2;5=8O @515=:0 8, ?> ACI5AB2C, ?@>O2;O;0 2 >B=>H5=88 4>G5@8 =5 AB>;L:> ;N1>2L, A:>;L:> GC2AB2> 4>;30 8 B@52>38, 2K@0605<>5 2=5H=5 38?5@>?5:>9. !>74020O B@52>3>9 =52@>B8G5A:CN ?@82O70==>ABL C 4>G5@8, <0BL A?0;0 A =59 2<5AB5, 8 4>GL ?@8 MB>< 2AN =>GL 2 =0?@O65=88 45@60;0 55 70 @C:C. !0<0 65 <0BL 1K;0 87;8H=5 AB@>3>9, AB@5<8;0AL ?540=B8G=> A>1;N40BL @568< 4=O, 157 :>=F0 G8B0;0 4>G5@8 <>@0;L 8 ?C30;0 55 2AOG5A:8<8 ?>A;54AB28O<8 =5?>A;CH0=8O. B5F 452>G:8, B25@4K9 8 @5H8B5;L=K9 ?> E0@0:B5@C, ?>AB>O==> 1K; 2 :><0=48@>2:0E 8 =5 <>3 C45;OBL 59 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> 2=8<0=8O.  2,5 3>40 <0BL 2?5@2K5 CH;0 >B A?OI59 4>G5@8 : A>A54O<. 5@=C2H8AL, >=0 70AB0;0 4>GL A ?5@5:>H5==K< >B C60A0 ;8F><, <5GCI59AO ?> :><=0B5, A :@8:>< "<0<0, <0<0". >A;5 B>3> :0: <0BL A=>20 ;53;0 A =59, 4>GL 70A=C;0. > 2 B5G5=85 ?>A;54CNI8E <5AOF52 452>G:0 ?>4>;3C =5 <>3;0 70A=CBL, 15A?>:>9=> A?0;0, ?;0:0;0 2> A=5 8 <=>3>:@0B=> ?@>25@O;0 ?@8ACBAB285 @O4>< <0B5@8. 57:> CEC4H8;AO 0??5B8B, ?>O28;8AL 8AB5@8:8, :0?@87=>ABL, C?@O<AB2> 8 =530B8287<. 5@5AB0;0 >B?CA:0BL <0BL >B A51O 8 4=5<, @52=>20;0 55 : >BFC, =0 :>B>@>3> 1K;0 ?>E>60 2=5H=5, AB0;0 =5C?@02;O5<>9 2 ?@8ACBAB288 >1>8E @>48B5;59 (A8=4@>< "B@5BL53> ;8H=53>"). 0 MB>< D>=5 ?>O28;8AL 708:0=85, >B:07K >B 83@ A> A25@AB=8:0<8, =5?@>872>;L=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 708:0=8O :0: A@54AB20 A<O3G5=8O 87;8H=5 AB@>38E 8 2@5<5=0<8 45A?>B8G=KE B@51>20=89 <0B5@8.  5 ;5B >BG5B;82> ?@>O28;AO B@52>6=>-45?@8<8@>20==K9 D>= =0AB@>5=8O, AB@0E A<5@B8. 0>AB@8;8AL 8 AB@0E8 A:07>G=KE ?5@A>=0659 A 254CI8< AB@0E>< 01K-/38. (0<5B8<, GB> 2 =0@>4=>< M?>A5 010-/30 ?@54AB02;O5BAO :0: ?@>B82>?>;>6=K9 :@0A>B5, ;N128 8 8A:@5==>AB8 C@>4;82K9, 1574CH=K9 8 :>20@=K9 >1@07, >;8F5B2>@ONI89 A>1>9 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 A<5@BL.  =5:>B>@KE A:07:0E 010-/30 2KABC?05B 8 2 @>;8 ;N4>54:8, ?>E8I0NI59 45B59.) @8 83@5 A 2@0G>< 452>G:0 ?@54?>G8B0;0 03@5AA82=>5 ?>2545=85 A2>8E ?5@A>=0659, 2 G0AB=>AB8 709F0, :>B>@K9 =0?040; =0 2>;:0 (2@0G0). @8 83@5 A <0B5@LN 452>G:0 87>1@060;0 55, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: <0BL 4>;6=0 1K;0 83@0BL =5?>A;CH=>3> AK=0, B. 5. 4>GL ?>4>1=>9 @0AAB0=>2:>9 @>;59 ?5@5AB@0820;0 >B=>H5=85 <0B5@8. >A;54=OO 459AB28B5;L=> E>B5;0 8<5BL AK=0, 0 =5 4>GL, 8 >B=>A8;0AL : =59 B0:, :0: 5A;8 1K >=0 1K;0 <0;LG8:><. >?>;=8B5;L=> <0B5@8 8 4>G5@8 1K;> @5:><5=4>20=> ?@>83@K20BL 4><0 2>7=8:0NI85 <564C =8<8 :>=D;8:BK, GB>1K 2 8725AB=>9 <5@5 @07@O48BL 0DD5:B82=K9 70@O4 8E >B=>H5=89. 4=0:> ACI5AB25==>5 C;CGH5=85 2 A>AB>O=88 452>G:8 =0ABC?8;> ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: >=0 4><0 A?>=B0==> 2K;5?8;0 01C-/3C, :@04CICN @515=:0 87 :>;OA:8 C A?OI59 <0B5@8. ?8AK20O MBC AF5=C =0 ?@85<5, 452>G:0, A8;L=> 708:0OAL, 4>1028;0, GB> 010-/30, C:@02 452>G:C, ?@>3;>B8;0 55, 0 <0BL B0: 8 =5 ?@>A=C;0AL. >340 <0BL A?@>A8;0 4><0, ?>G5<C 65 >=0 =5 ?@>A=C;0AL, B> CA;KH0;0 2 >B25B, GB> 010-/30 A8;L=55 <0B5@8. >;L=0O, 25@>OB=>, =5 ?><=8;0 :>H<0@=>3> A=>2845=8O 2 420 3>40, 2 :>B>@>< 010-/30 :@045B 15770I8B=>3> @515=:0 C A?OI59 <0B5@8.  ?>A;54CNI5< ?5@568BK9 C60A 2A5 2@5<O 45@60;AO 2 ?>4A>7=0=88, ?>4:@5?;OOAL 0AA>F88@>20==K< A >1@07>< 01K-/38 87;8H=5 ?@8=F8?80;L=K< 8 =54>AB0B>G=> M<>F8>=0;L=> 2:;NG5==K< >B=>H5=85< <0B5@8. >A;5 B>3> :0: 1>;L=0O 2>A?@>8725;0 8 >B@5038@>20;0 @0==55 H>:>2>5 ?5@56820=85, 2 55 A>AB>O=88 =0ABC?8;> ACI5AB25==>5 C;CGH5=85, ?>4>1=> MDD5:BC :0B0@A8A0. #<5=LH8;8AL M<>F8>=0;L=0O =0?@O65==>ABL 8 :0?@87=>ABL, C;CGH8;0AL @5GL, =0 ;8F5 ?>O28;0AL C;K1:0. A;01;0, :0: A:070;0 <0BL, "=5C;>28<0O ?C?>28=0 B@52>38 8 AB@0E0", A2O7K202H0O 8E, 2 @57C;LB0B5 G53> 4>GL 2?5@2K5 AB0;0 >B?CA:0BL <0BL >B A51O. 0@0;;5;L=> 452>G:0 ?> A>1AB25==>9 8=8F80B825 AB0;0 @8A>20BL A2>8 AB@0E8, 8A?KBK20O ?@8 MB>< 7=0G8B5;L=>5 >1;53G5=85. 0 1>;LH8=AB25 @8AC=:>2 2 @07;8G=KE A8BC0F8OE 87>1@060;0AL 010-/30. 0 >4=>< 87 =8E >=0 A=O;0 A> A2>59 871CH:8 :C@L8 =>6:8, GB>1K 45B8 =5 4>3040;8AL, GB> MB> 55 4><. 0B5< 010-/30 2;5B5;0 2 >:=> 8 C=5A;0 >4=C 452>G:C, :>B>@0O ?;>E> 5AB, 2<5AB5 A :@>20BLN. 7>1@065=> ;8F> 452>G:8 2 871CH:5, =0 :>B>@>9 =0?8A0=> "<0<0" 8 ";0?0". 0 4@C3>< @8AC=:5 010-/30 A>548=8;0 ?5@5E>4>< A2>9 4>< A 4><>< 452>G:8 8 ?> =5<C C=5A;0 55 2 A2>9 4><, 345 8E C65 ?>46840; <59 >@K=KG. 42>5< >=8 AJ5;8 452>G:C. @><5 MB>3>, 010-/30 87>1@065=0 2 ?>;5B5, 2 :>B>@>< >=0 ":@CB8B" 2A5E 45B59 45BA:>3> A040 =0 :0G5;OE 8 E>G5B C=5AB8 "3@O7=CN", B. 5. ?;>ECN, 452>G:C : A515. 0 @8AC=:0E 2 :>=F5 83@>2>9 B5@0?88 >1@07 01K-/38 >BACBAB2C5B, 2<5AB> =55 87>1@065=K D0=B0AB8G5A:0O <0H8=0, :>B>@0O "2A5E 2@03>2 @565B", 8 >1@07 "2@030", =0?><8=0NI89 >B0 2 A0?>30E. >A;5 A5@88 @8AC=:>2 708:0=85 452>G:8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 ?@5:@0B8;>AL, => ?>B@51>20;AO 5I5 <=>3><5AOG=K9 :C@A 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, GB>1K ?@5>4>;5BL 55 1>;57=5==CN 70AB5=G82>ABL 8 =5C25@5==>ABL 2 A515. 0 ?5@2KE 3@C??>2KE 70=OB8OE >=0 A C4>2>;LAB285< 45;0;0 AB@0H=K5 <0A:8, 8A?KBK20O ?@8 MB><, :0: 8 ?@8 @8A>20=88, 7=0G8B5;L=>5 >1;53G5=85. 5@5AB@>9:0 >B=>H5=8O <0B5@8 ?>72>;8;0 4>18BLAO ?>;=>9 =>@<0;870F88 A>AB>O=8O 1>;L=>9.  ?OB>< A;CG05 <0;LG8: 11 ;5B 1>O;AO :>H<0@=KE A=>2: ";>E>9 4O4L:0 A <5H:>< 3>=O5BAO 70 <=>9 2 :>@84>@5". =>340 >= 2A:0:820; =>GLN 8 1530; ?> :><=0B5. 0 M;5:B@>M=F5D0;>3@0<<5 8<5;8AL ?@87=0:8 ?0@>:A87<0;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8. 5G5@>< 1>O;AO GC4>28I, ?>MB><C BI0B5;L=> 70:@K20; 425@L 8 C:@K20;AO A 3>;>2>9. 0;LG8: 1K; =565;0==K< 4;O @>48B5;59, :>B>@K5 8<5;8 5I5 >4=>3> AK=0. >A B8E8<, 70AB5=G82K<, 2?5G0B;8B5;L=K<, ?@82O70==K< : <0B5@8. # =53> :>=D;8:B A >BF><, :>B>@>3> >= 1>O;AO 87-70 87;8H=5 AB@>3>3> 8 ?@8=C640NI53> >B=>H5=8O. 5 ?@>O2;OOAL 4=5<, :>=D;8:B ?5@5E>48; 2 >1;0ABL A=>2845=89. > A>25BC 2@0G0 <0;LG8: ?@8=5A @8AC=:8 :>H<0@=KE A=>2, ?>A;5 G53> ?5@5AB0; 8E 1>OBLAO, 2A:0:820BL =>GLN 8 70:@K20BL 425@L. >A:>;L:C >= 1>O;AO >B25G0BL ?5@54 AB@>38< CG8B5;5< <0B5<0B8:8, 0AA>F88@C5<K< A >BF><, 1K;0 ?@>2545=0 83@0 A CG0AB85< ?>A;54=53>. 0;LG8: 87>1@060; AB@>3>3> CG8B5;O, 0 >B5F 8 2@0G - CG5=8:>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 53> A0<>3>.  40;L=59H5< >= AB0; 1>;55 C25@5==> >B25G0BL 2 H:>;5.  H5AB>< A;CG05 452>G:0 8 ;5B 1>O;0AL 2> A=5 725@59 2 :;5B:5, 0 4=5< 70<:=CBKE ?@>AB@0=AB2: ;8DB0, 203>=0, =51>;LH>9 :><=0BK, 2 G5< >B@060;AO 55 AB@0E A<5@B8. 0@8A>202 725@59 2 :;5B:5, >=0 ?5@5AB0;0 1>OBLAO A=>2, => 4=52=K5 AB@0E8 >AB0;8AL 157 87<5=5=89, B0: :0: 1K;8 >A=>20=K =0 01AB@0:B=>< ?>=OB88 - AB@0E5 A<5@B8. #AB@0=8BL 8E C40;>AL B>;L:> 2 ?@>F5AA5 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 :>@@838@CNI59 @01>BK A @>48B5;O<8.  A54L<>< A;CG05 C <0;LG8:0 6 ;5B =01;N40;0AL D>18O ?>60@0. 0 :064K9 87 565=545;L=KE ?@85<>2 >= ?@8=>A8; =0@8A>20==K5 8< AB@0E8. 0: 8 2 >AB0;L=KE A;CG0OE, 5<C ?@O<> =5 C:07K20;>AL, GB> ?><>65B 871028BLAO >B AB@0E0, => ?>4G5@:820;>AL C;CGH5=85 2 53> A>AB>O=88. 0 ?5@2KE @8AC=:0E 1K;> 87>1@065=> 3>@OI55 740=85, :>B>@>5 @07;8G0;>AL A B@C4><, B0: :0: 1K;> 70BCH520=> :@0A=K< F25B><.  40;L=59H5< C?>B@51;5=85 :@0A=>3> F25B0 C<5=LH0;>AL ?> <5@5 A=865=8O 8=B5=A82=>AB8 AB@0E>2. 0@0;;5;L=> C25;8G820;0AL 4>;O G5@=>3> F25B0, :>B>@K< >1>7=0G0;8AL 4K< 8 2A5 1>;55 ?@>3;O4K20NI85 :>=BC@K 740=8O. >AB5?5==> 1>;L=>9 70:@0A8; 25AL 4>< G5@=K< F25B>< ("?>30A8; AB@0E") 8 ?5@5AB0; 1>OBLAO ?>60@0. !51O <0;LG8: 845=B8D8F8@>20; =0 =5:>B>@KE @8AC=:0E A ?>60@=K<. 8A>20=85 AB@0E>2 ?><>305B 8 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 4;8B5;L=> ?@>B5:0NI8E =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 0?@8<5@, 1>;L=0O 7 ;5B A 70I8B=K< @8BC0;>< =02O7G82>3> <KBLO @C: 1>O;0AL C<5@5BL >B 70@065=8O. =0 @8A>20;0 O4>28BCN B@02C, >B@02;5==CN 54C, 3@O7L, <8:@>1K 8 B. 4.  B5G5=85 2 <5A. 452>G:0 ">74>@>2;O;0" B5<0B8:C A2>8E @8AC=:>2, GB> 3>2>@8;> >1 C;CGH5=88 55 A>AB>O=8O 8 > ?@5:@0I5=88 AB@0E>2. %>@>H89 MDD5:B CAB@0=5=8O AB@0E>2 >B<5G05BAO 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 3@C??5, :>340 45B8 ?@8=>AOB 4;O >1AC645=8O =0@8A>20==K5 4><0 =0 1>;LH8E ;8AB0E AB@0E8 (@8A. 12).  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://bookap.by.ru/genpsy/nevroz2/ris12.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  8A. 12. "5<0B8:0 AB@0E>2 C 452>G:8 9 ;5B A =52@>7>< AB@0E0 5:>B>@K5 87 =8E ?@>83@K20NBAO 2A5<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K. >;8 @0A?@545;O5B 02B>@ @8AC=:0. "> 65 >B=>A8BAO : <0A:0< AB@0H=KE ?5@A>=0659. :B82=>5 >1AC645=85 AB@0E>2 2 3@C??5 8 8E ?@>83@K20=85 2 >1AB0=>2:5 687=5@04>AB=>9 0B<>AD5@K 3@C??K A>459AB2C5B CAB@0=5=8N @0=55 B5@0?52B8G5A:8 @578AB5=B=KE AB@0E>2 8 7=0G8B5;L=> C<5=LH05B >1ICN B@52>6=>ABL 1>;L=KE. 8AC=>G=0O B5@0?8O <>65B ?@8<5=OBLAO 8 ?@8 =52@>B8G5A:8E ?@>1;5<0E >4520=8O, :>340 @515=>: ?>A;54>20B5;L=> @8AC5B A51O 2A5 1>;55 >45BK<, A=8<0O =0?@O65=85 2 A2O78 A =>2>9 >4564>9, 0 B0:65 ?@8 =52@>B8G5A:8E ?@>1;5<0E ?5@5>4520=8O (?A8E>35==> <>B828@>20==>3> B@0=A25AB87<0), :>340 2 @8AC=:0E @50;87CNBAO D0=B0788 02B>@0. 8AC=:8 <>3CB A;C68BL 8=48:0B>@>< ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 87<5=5=89.  ?5@2CN >G5@54L MB> >B=>A8BAO : 48=0<8:5 83@>2>9 B5@0?88, ?>A;5 :>B>@>9 AB@0H=K5 ?5@A>=068 2K3;O4OB C65 =5 B0: C3@>60NI5, ?0;8B@0 :@0A>: AB0=>28BAO 1>;55 @07=>>1@07=>9, =0 @8AC=:0E =0G8=0NB G0I5 D83C@8@>20BL ;N48, :>B>@K5, : B><C 65, =5 =0E>4OBAO, :0: @0=LH5, 2 :>=D;8:B=>-@07>1I5==>9 (C40;5==>9) ?>78F88 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 1>;L=><C. 3@>20O B5@0?8O. 3@>20O B5@0?8O >A=>20=0 =0 5AB5AB25==>9 4;O 45B59 ?>B@51=>AB8 2 83@5, O2;ONI59AO 206=59H8< CA;>285< ?@028;L=>3>, 30@<>=8G=>3> @0728B8O @515=:0, 2 B>< G8A;5 2>>1@065=8O, A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, =02K:>2 040?B8@>20==>3> 2708<>459AB28O A ;N4L<8. 3@>20O B5@0?8O ?>4@07C<5205B >@30=870F8N 83@K :0: B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0 8 B@51C5B M<>F8>=0;L=>9 2>2;5G5==>AB8 2@0G0, 53> 381:>AB8 8 A?>A>1=>AB8 : 83@>2><C ?5@52>?;>I5=8N. 3@>20O B5@0?8O 8 2=CH5=85 O2;ONBAO >A=>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 C 45B59, 55 4286CI59 A8;>9. 3@>20O B5@0?8O =0E>48B A2>5 CA?5H=>5 ?@8<5=5=85 :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O <5B>48:0 ?A8E>B5@0?88, B0: 8 2 A>G5B0=88 A 4@C38<8 <5B>48:0<8. KH5 C65 3>2>@8;>AL > 55 2>7<>6=>ABOE :0: 7025@H0NI59 AB0488 A5<59=>9 8 @8AC=>G=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. @8 :><18=0F88 @07JOA=ONI59, 83@>2>9 8 AC335AB82=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?@85< ?@>E>48B 2 A;54CNI59 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8: 15A540 - A?>=B0==0O 83@0 - =0?@02;5==0O 83@0 - 2=CH5=85. !?>=B0==0O 83@0 :0: =5D>@<0;L=0O G0ABL ?@85<0 A=8<05B =0?@O65=85, 2>7=8:0NI55 ?@8 15A545, ?>2KH05B 8=B5@5A : ;5G5=8N 8 ?@54AB02;O5B A2>5>1@07=CN @07<8=:C ?5@54 =0?@02;5==K<8 83@0<8. # 4>H:>;L=8:>2 =0 ?@85<5 ?@5>1;0405B 83@>2>9 :><?>=5=B, C <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2 2@5<O 15A54K 8 83@K ?@81;878B5;L=> >48=0:>2>, 2 ?>4@>AB:>2>< 2>7@0AB5 7=0G8B5;L=> 2>7@0AB05B 4>;O >1AC645=89. 3@0 ?@>2>48BAO 2 :018=5B5 2@0G0, 345 8<5NBAO :>2@8: 8 AB5;;068 A 83@CH:0<8. 01>@ 83@CH5: 2:;NG05B =5?>4286=KE :C:>; 4;O 45B59 ?5@2KE ;5B 687=8, 4;O 1>;55 AB0@H8E - :C:>;-?5B@CH5:, =045205<KE =0 ?0;LFK 8;8 =0 @C:C (:C:>;L=K9 B50B@), <0A:8, :53;8, 1C1=K 8 =51>;LH>9 10@010=, 45BA:CN ?>AC4C, @071>@=K5 :>=AB@C:F88 8 B. 4.  :018=5B5 =0E>48BAO 1>;LH>5 3>@87>=B0;L=>5 75@:0;>, 2 :>B>@>< 45B8 <>3CB 2845BL A51O 2> 2@5<O 83@K. ! ?><>ILN =51>;LH>3> :>;8G5AB20 :C:>; <>6=> 2>A?@>8725AB8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5>3@0=8G5==>5 G8A;> 83@>2KE A8BC0F89.  :0G5AB25 B5< 4;O 83@K 8A?>;L7CNBAO A:07:8, AB8E8, @0AA:07K, ?@84C<0==K5 8AB>@88, D0=B0788 45B59, A>45@60=85 A=>2845=89 8;8 @50;L=K5 A>1KB8O. @>4>;68B5;L=>ABL 83@>2>3> A50=A0 >1KG=> =5 ?@52KH05B 30 <8=. -B>3> 2@5<5=8 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O ?>445@60=8O 8=B5@5A0 : 83@5 8 C4>2;5B2>@5=8O ?>B@51=>AB8 2 =59. 5=LH55 2@5<O 2K7K205B GC2AB2> =57025@H5==>AB8 8 65;0=85 45B59 ?@>4>;60BL 83@C.  MB>< A;CG05 =54>?CAB8<> 55 @57:>5 ?@5:@0I5=85, B0: :0: MB> >B@8F0B5;L=> A:07K205BAO =0 M<>F8>=0;L=>< :>=B0:B5 1>;L=>3> A 2@0G><. >;LH0O ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL 83@K <>65B 2K720BL A=865=85 8=B5@5A0 : =59 8 GC2AB2> ?@5AKI5=8O. B=>A8B5;L=> ?>AB>O==0O 4;8B5;L=>ABL 83@>2>3> A50=A0 O2;O5BAO 4;O 1>;L=>3> >@30=87CNI8< <><5=B><, =57@8<K< ?@54?8A0=85<. "> 65 >B=>A8BAO : 70?@5BC ?>2@5645=8O 83@CH5: 8 8E C1>@:5 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 83@K. '0AB>B0 83@>2KE A50=A>2 7028A8B >B 7040G ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 2>7<>6=>AB59 2@0G0.  >AB@>< ?5@8>45 =52@>70 >=8 ?@>2>4OBAO 2-3 @070, ?@8 E@>=8G5A:>< B5G5=88 - 1 @07 2 =545;N. !>>B25BAB25==> >?@545;O5BAO ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL :C@A0 83@>2>9 B5@0?88 - >B =5A:>;L:8E 4=59 4> =5A:>;L:8E <5AOF52. 803=>AB8G5A:85, B5@0?52B8G5A:85 8 >1CG0NI85 7040G8 83@>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 B5A=> A2O70=K <564C A>1>9. =8 @50;87CNBAO 2 A?>=B0==>9, ?@>2>48<>9 157 >?@545;5==>3> 2@0G51=>3> AF5=0@8O, 83@5 8;8 2 =0?@02;5==>9 83@5 ?> 70@0=55 A>AB02;5==><C ?;0=C. 0: ?@028;>, ?>A;54=OO =5 A>45@68B 65AB:>3> ?@54?8A0=8O @>;59 8 4>?CA:05B 7=0G8B5;L=CN 4>;N 8<?@>2870F88. A:;NG5=85< O2;ONBAO 83@K 2 ":53;8" 8 ":>;>1>:" A> AB0=40@B878@>20==>9 4803=>AB8G5A:>9 ?@>F54C@>9.  83@5 ":53;8" 1>;L=>9 1@>A05B H0@ ?>>G5@54=> A 2@0G>< A >4=>3> <5AB0, ?@>83@02H89 A>18@05B :53;8. @0G <>65B "?@>83@K20BL" 8;8 "2K83@K20BL", A>74020O ?@58<CI5AB20 4;O 1>;L=>3> 8;8 4;O A51O, CA;>6=OBL 8;8 C?@>I0BL 83@>2CN 7040GC, @0AAB02;OO :53;8 =0 1>;LH5< 8;8 <5=LH5< @0AAB>O=88 4@C3 >B 4@C30 8 B. 4. "0:0O 83@0 2KO2;O5B @0728B85 :>>@48=0F88, C@>25=L ?@8BO70=89, AB@5<;5=85 : 4><8=8@>20=8N, @50:F8N =0 CA?5E 8 =5C40GC. ?5G0B;5=85 <>6=> A>AB028BL 8 > 2=CH05<>AB8 1>;L=>3>, 5A;8 >=, =5 704C<K20OAL, ?>2B>@O5B @O4 459AB289 2@0G0, =0?@8<5@ =0@>G8B> ?>4G5@:=CB>5 =5?>?040=85 2 F5;L 8;8 53> =5@0F8>=0;L=K5 ?>?KB:8 A18BL >B45;L=> AB>O2HCN :53;N 2<5AB> =5A:>;L:8E @0A?>;>65==KE @O4><. ! ?><>ILN 83@K 2 :53;8 <>6=> ?>2KH0BL B>;5@0=B=>ABL : AB@5AAC 8 :>@@838@>20BL =51;03>?@8OB=K5 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0.  83@5 ":>;>1>:" ?> <>B820< 8725AB=>9 A:07:8 @>;L >;>1:0 8A?>;=O5B 1>;L=>9, :>B>@K9 C15305B 87 4><0 8 2AB@5G05BAO A @07;8G=K<8 ?5@A>=060<8, 87>1@0605<K<8 2@0G><. 0 A2>5< ?CB8 >;>1>: 4>;65= ?@5>4>;5BL @O4 ?@5?OBAB289, =0?@8<5@ =09B8 4>@>3C 2 ;5AC, C:@KBLAO >B 3@>7K, ?5@59B8 @5G:C, 70I8B8BL A51O >B C3@>7K =0?045=8O 8 B. 4. 45AL, :@><5 2KO2;5=8O AB@0E>2, 8<55B 7=0G5=85 8 B>, =0A:>;L:> 40;5:> <>65B C9B8 @515=>: 2 A2>59 D0=B0788. # 7028A8<KE 8 B@52>6=KE 45B59 >;>1>: ?@>O2;O5B 2A5 1>;LH5 15A?>:>9AB20 8 65;0=8O 25@=CBLAO ?> <5@5 C40;5=8O >B 4><0. # 45B59 A B5=45=F859 : =57028A8<>AB8 8 ?@>B5AB=K<8 @50:F8O<8 >;>1>: A>25@H05B 1>;55 40;L=89 "?>153". 803=>AB8G5A:0O DC=:F8O 83@K 70:;NG05BAO 2 @0A:@KB88 ?5@56820=89 1>;L=>3>, >A>15==>AB59 53> E0@0:B5@0 8 >B=>H5=89. 3@0 :0: 5AB5AB25==K9 M:A?5@8<5=B 2KO2;O5B =5:>B>@K5 A:@KBK5 A8<?B><K 8 B5=45=F88, 70I8B=K5 CAB0=>2:8, :>=D;8:BK 8 A?>A>1K 8E @07@5H5=8O. "5@0?52B8G5A:0O DC=:F8O A?>=B0==>9 83@K A>AB>8B 2 ?@54>AB02;5=88 1>;L=><C 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O M<>F8>=0;L=>3> 8 <>B>@=>3> A0<>2K@065=8O, >A>7=0=8O 8 >B@5038@>20=8O =0?@O65=89, AB@0E>2 8 D0=B0789. >A@54AB2>< =0?@02;5==>9 83@K C:@5?;ONBAO 8 B@5=8@CNBAO ?A8E8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK, ?>2KH05BAO D@CAB@0F8>==0O B>;5@0=B=>ABL 8 A>740NBAO 1>;55 ?@85<;5<K5 D>@<K ?A8E8G5A:>3> @5038@>20=8O. 3@>20O B5@0?8O A 55 687=5@04>AB=K<, >?B8<8AB8G5A:8< =0AB@>5< 0:B82878@C5B 687=5==K5 A8;K 45B59, ?>2KH05B 8E B>=CA. 5@5AB@>9:0 >B=>H5=89 1>;L=KE, :>@@5:F8O =51;03>?@8OB=KE G5@B E0@0:B5@0, =0@O4C A @0AH8@5=85< 687=5==>3> :@C3>7>@0 8 480?07>=0 >1I5=8O, D>@<8@>20=85< =02K:>2 040?B82=>3> 2708<>459AB28O, ?>72>;ONB 3>2>@8BL >1 >1CG0NI59 DC=:F88 83@>2>9 B5@0?88. 3@0 B0:65 A?>A>1AB2C5B @0728B8N <=>38E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89, 2 B>< G8A;5 A5=A>@=KE 8 <>B>@=KE :><?>=5=B>2 ?>2545=8O. @8 83@5 A>1;N405BAO @O4 ?@028;, A?>A>1AB2CNI8E ;CGH59 >@30=870F88 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0: 1) 83@0 8A?>;L7C5BAO :0: A@54AB2> 4803=>AB8:8, B5@0?88 8 >1CG5=8O; 2) 2K1>@ 83@>2KE B5< >B@0605B 8E 7=0G8<>ABL 4;O 2@0G0 8 8=B5@5A 4;O 1>;L=>3>; 3) @C:>2>4AB2> 83@>9 AB@>8BAO B0:, GB>1K A?>A>1AB2>20BL @0728B8N A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 8 8=8F80B82K 45B59; 4) A?>=B0==K5 8 =0?@02;O5<K5 2@0G>< 83@K ?@54AB02;ONB 425 2708<>4>?>;=ONI85 D07K 548=>3> 83@>2>3> ?@>F5AA0, 2 :>B>@>< 3;02=>5 - 2>7<>6=>ABL 8<?@>2870F88; 5) A>>B=>H5=85 A?>=B0==KE 8 =0?@02;5==KE :><?>=5=B>2 83@K 7028A8B =5 AB>;L:> >B 2>7@0AB0 45B59, A:>;L:> >B :;8=8G5A:8E 8 ;8G=>AB=KE >A>15==>AB59. @8 >AB@KE =52@>B8G5A:8E @50:F8OE ?@5>1;0405B A?>=B0==K9 :><?>=5=B 83@K, ?@8 =52@>B8G5A:8E @0728B8OE 45;05BAO 0:F5=B =0 =0?@02;5==>< 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 =0@CH5==KE >B=>H5=89. 52@>B8G5A:85 A>AB>O=8O B@51CNB 8=48284C0;L=> ?>418@05<>9 :><?>78F88 83@K; 6) 83@0 =5 :><<5=B8@C5BAO 2@0G><; 7) =0?@02;5==>5 2>7459AB285 =0 1>;L=>3> >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?>A@54AB2>< E0@0:B5@0 2>A?@>872>48<KE 8< 8 2@0G>< ?5@A>=0659 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8 <>45;8@C5<>9 83@>2>9 A8BC0F88. 0AA<>B@8< ?>AB@>5=85 83@>2>3> A50=A0. 3@0 ?>=8<05BAO :0: 65;0B5;L=K9, => =5 >1O70B5;L=K9 284 45OB5;L=>AB8. =0G0;5 @515=:C ?@54>AB02;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL 4;O A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 :018=5B5 2@0G0 8;8 2 A?5F80;L=>9 83@>2>9 :><=0B5.  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 >=0 2=0G0;5 <>65B ?@>2>48BLAO 2<5AB5 A >4=8< 87 @>48B5;59, >A>15==> C 4>H:>;L=8:>2. 0B5< =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O @515=>: 83@05B >48= 8;8 2 ?@8ACBAB288 "70=OB>3> A2>8< 45;><" 2@0G0. @8 70B@C4=5=8OE A =0G0;>< 83@K 2@0G ?@54;0305B 4@C3CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, =0?@8<5@ @8A>20=85, 8;8 7=0:><8B 1>;L=KE A 83@CH:0<8 8 ?>AB5?5==> 2>2;5:05B 8E 2 83@C.  40;L=59H5< 45B8 459AB2CNB A0<>AB>OB5;L=>. 5 O2;O5BAO >1O70B5;L=K< 8 CA;>285 =5?@5@K2=>AB8 83@K. =0 <>65B 1KBL ?@5:@0I5=0 ?> A>1AB25==>9 8=8F80B825 1>;L=>3>, => >= 4>;65= 40BL MB><C >1JOA=5=85. 1KG=> ?@5:@0I5=85 83@K A2O70=> A ?>B5@59 : =59 8=B5@5A0 8;8 1>O7=LN =5:>B>@KE A8BC0F89. BACBAB285 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2@0G0 =5 >7=0G05B, GB> >= =5 >:07K205B 2;8O=8O. 515=>: 2848B 2@0G0, "70=OB>3> A2>8< 45;><", => =5 <>65B ?@54A:070BL 53> ?>2545=85. >7=8:0NI0O A8BC0F8O =5>?@545;5==>AB8, =54>A:070==>AB8 8 =58725AB=>AB8 A>7405B >?@545;5==>5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 =0?@O65=85, :>B>@>5 @515=>: 4>;65= ?@5>4>;5BL 8 2K?>;=8BL ?>AB02;5==CN ?5@54 =8< 7040GC - 459AB2>20BL A0<>AB>OB5;L=>. > <5@5 B>3> :0: >= =0G8=05B 83@0BL A0<, C =53> ?@>E>48B GC2AB2> =0AB>@>65==>AB8 8 A:>20==>AB8. #2;5:0OAL, 45B8 =0G8=0NB 2A5 A<5;55 2K@060BL A2>8 M<>F88, 1C@=> 65AB8:C;8@>20BL, 3>2>@8BL 8 B. 4. 1KG=> M<>F8>=0;L=>5 >682;5=85 1>;LH5 2K@065=> C 45B59 AB@>38E, >3@0=8G820NI8E @>48B5;59. B@5038@>20=85 M<>F89 - =5 548=AB25==K9 B5@0?52B8G5A:89 <5E0=87< A?>=B0==KE 83@. <55B 7=0G5=85 8 2>7<>6=>ABL 2K@078BL A51O 2 157>?0A=>9 83@>2>9 A8BC0F88, 345 @515=>: =0E>48BAO 2 A>3;0A88 A A0<8< A>1>9 8 A2>8<8 GC2AB20<8. @8=OB85 2@0G>< 53> GC2AB2 8 >BACBAB285 >AC645=8O 459AB2CNB CA?>:0820NI5, @072820NB 4>25@85 : A515 8 A?>A>1=>ABL : ?@8=OB8N @5H5=8O. 708<>?>=8<0=85 A 2@0G>< ?@54AB02;O5B 4;O @515=:0 65;05<CN <>45;L >1I5=8O, C;CGH05B 53> A0<>GC2AB285 8 2>A?@8OB85 A51O, 2K?>;=OO, B0:8< >1@07><, ?>;>68B5;L=CN @53C;8@CNICN @>;L 2 A8AB5<5 53> F5==>AB=KE >@85=B0F88. 5:>B>@K5 45B8, >A>15==> 4>H:>;L=8:8, A>?@>2>640NB A?>=B0==CN 83@C @5?;8:0<8 83@>2KE ?5@A>=0659, GB> 5I5 1>;LH5 A?>A>1AB2C5B >A;01;5=8N M<>F8>=0;L=>3> =0?@O65=8O. 570<5B=>5 (=52:;NG5==>5) =01;N45=85 2@0G0 70 ?>2545=85< 8 @5?;8:0<8 83@>2KE ?5@A>=0659 405B F5==CN 8=D>@<0F8N >1 >A>15==>ABOE B5<?5@0<5=B0, E0@0:B5@0 8 >B=>H5=89 45B59, 2:;NG0O >B=>H5=8O 2 A5<L5. "0:, 2 83@5 "4>G:8-<0B5@8" 452>G:8 2 @>;8 <0B5@8 <>3CB =0A8;L=> 70AB02;OBL :C:;C 5ABL, A?0BL, :@8G0BL =0 =55, =0:07K20BL 8 G8B0BL =@02>CG5=8O. A;8 45B8 87>1@060NB <8@ 725@59, B> 2 =5< F0@8B 0B<>AD5@0 4>1@>65;0B5;L=>AB8, ?>=8<0=8O 8 A?>:>9AB28O 8;8 ?@>O2;ONBAO 4><8=8@CNI85 8 03@5AA82=K5 B5=45=F88.  MB>< =5B@C4=> C2845BL >B@065=85 65;0=89 45B59 8;8 2>A?@>872545=85 @50;L=KE 687=5==KE :>;;8789. 0?@8<5@, <0;LG8: 6 ;5B G0AB> 87>1@060; 2 83@5 0@<0;5O, :>B>@K9 =01@0AK20;AO =0 725@59 A> A;>20<8: "C6=> @074028BL :01;C:><". 3> 03@5AA82=>ABL 1K;0 >B:;8:>< =0 G0ABK5 D878G5A:85 =0:070=8O, 8AE>4OI85 >B <0B5@8, :@5?:> 45@602H59 53> (A402;820NI59) ?@8 MB><.  @O45 A;CG052 2 A?>=B0==KE 83@0E CG0AB2C5B 8 2@0G 2 @>;8, =07=0G05<>9 45BL<8. AB020OAL 2 55 3@0=8F0E, >= CABC?05B 2> 2A5< 3;02=><C 459AB2CNI5<C ;8FC, ?@>O2;OO C =53> >B@8F0B5;L=K5 B5=45=F88 (G@57<5@=CN >184G82>ABL, =0AB>@>65==>ABL, AB@0E8, 871530=85 8;8 4><8=8@>20=85, 03@5AA82=>ABL). 1=065=85 MB8E B5=45=F89 4> AB5?5=8 3@>B5A:0 2545B : >A>7=0=8N 1>;L=K< 8E =565;0B5;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0. >7<>6=>AB8 4@C38E 83@>2KE ?5@A>=0659 ?>72>;ONB 2 =5?@O<>9 D>@<5 2>A?@>8725AB8 =5:>B>@K5 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0 8 ?>2545=8O 1>;L=>3>. -B> 75@:0;L=>5 >B@065=85 B0:65 ?><>305B >A>7=0=8N =5045:20B=KE @50:F89. @8 =0?@02;O5<KE 2@0G>< 83@0E 4;O :064>3> 1>;L=>3> ?>418@05BAO 8=48284C0;L=K9 B5<? ?>A@54AB2>< ?>AB5?5==>3> C25;8G5=8O 4;8B5;L=>AB8, @07=>9 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 83@>2KE ?0C7 8 G5@54>20=8O 83@>2KE AN65B>2. ?B8<0;L=K9 B5<? CAB@0=O5B <>=>B>==>ABL 83@K 8 HB0<?.  B> 65 2@5<O =5F5;5A>>1@07=0 G0AB0O A<5=0 AN65B>2, B0: :0: >=8 B@51CNB >?@545;5==>3> 2@5<5=8 4;O @07K3@K20=8O 8 ?>;CG5=8O B5@0?52B8G5A:8E @57C;LB0B>2. !>740=85 2 83@5 =0?@02;5=8O >7=0G05B =5 B>;L:> @C:>2>4AB2> 5N A> AB>@>=K 2@0G0, => 8 ?@8=OB85 8< ?5@56820=89 1>;L=>3> :0: CA;>28O A>2<5AB=>9 83@K.  =59 459AB2CNB ?@028;0 83@>2>9 @50;L=>AB8 8 83@>2>3> @025=AB20. >A;54=55 ?>4@07C<5205B @0745;5=85 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 ?@8=OB85 @5H5=89 8 8A?>;=5=85 3;02=KE 8 ?>4G8=5==KE @>;59 :0: 2@0G><, B0: 8 1>;L=K<. 0@8B5B=>5 CG0AB85 2@0G0 ?>2KH05B 83@>2CN 8=8F80B82C 45B59, :>B>@K< ?@54;0305BAO 2K1@0BL ;N1CN 87 459AB2CNI8E @>;59. &5;L 83@K =5 >1JOA=O5BAO, 0 E0@0:B5@ @>;8 >?@545;O5BAO 55 >1I5?@8=OBK< 7=0G5=85< 2 A:07:0E, =0?@8<5@, @>;L 2>;:0 ?>4@07C<5205B 03@5AA82=>ABL 8 604=>ABL, 709F0 - =5?>A@54AB25==>ABL 8 AB@0E, ;8AK - E8B@>ABL 8 :>20@AB2>, <54254O - A8;C 8 3;C?>ABL, ?5BCE0 - 2>8=AB25==>ABL, :>B0 - 15A:>@KAB=CN 4@C61C 8 B. 4.  8<?@>2870F8>==>9 83@5 A>740NBAO A?5F80;L=K5 AB@5AA>2K5 A8BC0F88 8A?C30, >128=5=8O, A?>@0, 8 @515=:C ?@54>AB02;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL 8E A0<>AB>OB5;L=>3> @07@5H5=8O. A;8 >= =5 <>65B A45;0BL MB> ?@85<;5<K< >1@07><, 5<C ?>4A:07K20NBAO ?CB8 @07@5H5=8O :>=D;8:B0, => =5 ?@O<>, 0 G5@57 A>>B25BAB2CNI55 ?>2545=85 ?5@A>=060, 87>1@0605<>3> 2@0G><. >4>1=>5 ?>2545=85 ?>4@07C<5205B C25@5==>ABL, :>>?5@0F8N, @>;52CN 381:>ABL, >BACBAB285 AB@0E0 8 03@5AA82=>AB8. >A?@>872545=85 2@0G>< B5@0?52B8G5A:8 =0?@02;5==KE <>45;59 2>A?@8=8<05BAO 1>;L=K< =5 :0: A?5F80;L=K9 ?>:07 B@51C5<>3> ?>2545=8O, 0 :0: =081>;55 ?@85<;5<K9 A?>A>1 83@>2>3> >1I5=8O 8 @5H5=8O 2>7=8:0NI8E B@C4=>AB59. > 2@5<O 83@K 1>;L=><C =5 3>2>@8BAO > B><, :0: =C6=> 83@0BL, GB> 8<5==> >= 4>;65= 87>1@060BL 2 :064K9 :>=:@5B=K9 <><5=B 8 :0:85 @5?;8:8 ?@>87=>AOB 83@>2K5 ?5@A>=068. BACBAB285 65AB:>3> @568AA5@A:>3> :>=B@>;O 8 >1O70B5;LAB2 >1JOA=OBL ?>2545=85 ?5@A>=0659 83@K ?>72>;O5B A>E@0=8BL ?@8=F8? 83@>2>9 @50;L=>AB8 8 >1;53G05B 26820=85 2 @>;L.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 @515=>: >1O70= :>=B@>;8@>20BL A2>N 83@C, GB> 70B@C4=O5B ?5@52>?;>I5=85 8 8<?@>2870F8N. @><5 ?>:070 <>45;59 @5H5=8O :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F89, 2 =0?@02;5==>9 83@5 CAB@0=ONBAO =5:>B>@K5 AB@0E8 8 :>@@838@CNBAO =51;03>?@8OB=K5 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0 8 ?>2545=8O 1>;L=>3>. =0G0;5 @0AA<>B@8< 83@>2CN <5B>48:C CAB@0=5=8O AB@0E>2. !B@0E8 ?5@54 @50;L=K<8 8 A:07>G=K<8 682>B=K<8 (A>10:>9, <542545<, 2>;:>< 8 B. 4.) >1KG=> CAB@0=ONBAO 2 B5G5=85 >4=>3> A50=A0, A>AB>OI53> 87 B@5E D07 83@>2>3> 2708<>459AB28O.  ?5@2>9 D075 CAB0=02;820NB E0@0:B5@ AB@0E0 8 B8? @5038@>20=8O 1>;L=>3> 2 2845 871530=8O ?C30NI53> >1J5:B0, ?>:07K205<>3> 2@0G><. > ACI5AB2C, MB> >7=0G05B 2>A?@>872545=85 A8BC0F88, 2K7K20NI59 AB@0E. > 2B>@>9 D075 ?@>2>48BAO 45A5=A818;870F8O : AB@0EC ?>A@54AB2>< ?5@5<5=K @>;59. @0G ?>2545=85< A2>53> ?5@A>=060 (=0?@8<5@, 709F0) 87>1@0605B AB@0E 1>;L=>3>, ?>A;54=89 2>A?@>872>48B C3@>60NI89 >1@07 (87>1@060O, =0?@8<5@, 2>;:0). @8 MB>< 45B8 ?@>O2;ONB 03@5AA82=>ABL, >1KG=> 2K@065==CN 2 B0:>9 65 AB5?5=8, 2 :0:>9 >=8 8A?KBK20NB GC2AB2> AB@0E0. "5@0?52B8G5A:89 MDD5:B >1CA;>2;5= 3;C18=>9 26820=8O 2 C3@>60NI89 >1@07, 53> M<>F8>=0;L=K< >B@5038@>20=85< 8 45A5=A818;870F859 2 A>7=0=88 1>;L=>3>.  B@5BL59 D075 8A?>;L7CNBAO >1CG0NI85 <>45;8 ?>2545=8O ?>A@54AB2>< ?>2B>@=>9 ?5@5<5=K @>;59. 7>1@065=85 2@0G>< C3@>60NI53> >1@070 C65 =5 A>?@>2>6405BAO @50:F8O<8 AB@0E0 C 1>;L=>3>. "0:8< >1@07><, 1>O7=L 682>B=KE CAB@0=O5BAO 2 B5G5=85 B@5E D07 83@>2>3> 459AB28O: 0:BC0;870F88 AB@0E0, 53> >B@5038@>20=8O 8 70:@5?;5=8O 4>AB83=CBKE @57C;LB0B>2. 0 40;L=59H8E ?@85<0E 45BO< ?@54>AB02;ONBAO @>;8 15AAB@0H=>3> :><0=48@0, ;5BG8:0, <>@O:0, ?>60@=>3> 8 B. 4., @072820NI85 C25@5==>ABL 2 A515 8 A?>A>1=>ABL : ?@8=OB8N @5H5=8O. @0B:>9 8;;NAB@0F859 83@>2>9 <5B>48:8 CAB@0=5=8O AB@0E0 <>65B A;C68BL 83@>20O B5@0?8O 452>G:8 2,5 ;5B, C :>B>@>9 ?>O28;8AL 708:0=85 8 1>O7=L B5<=>BK ?>A;5 =>G=>3> 8A?C30, ?@8G8=C :>B>@>3> >=0 =5 <>3;0 >1JOA=8BL. @85< ?@>E>48; A?CABO =5A:>;L:> 4=59 ?>A;5 =>G=>3> M?87>40.  A?>=B0==>9 83@5 A :C:;0<8 1K;> 70<5B=> 871530=85 "2>;:0".  B> 65 2@5<O 1>;L=0O >E>B=> 83@0;0 A 4@C38<8 83@CH:0<8. K >1@0B8;8 =0 MB> 2=8<0=85 @>48B5;59, :>B>@K5 2A?><=8;8, GB> =5704>;3> 4> 701>;520=8O >=8 G8B0;8 4>G5@8 A:07:C "@0A=0O (0?>G:0". >7=8:;> ?@54?>;>65=85 >1 >B@065=88 A:07:8 2 :>H<0@=>< A=>2845=88. > 55 AN65BC 1K;0 ?@>2545=0 83@0, 2 :>B>@>9 <0BL 87>1@060;0 ?>A@54AB2>< C?@02;O5<>9 :C:;K 4>1@>3> 2>;:0. @8 MB>< 452>G:0 C65 =5 >1=0@C6820;0 ?@56=59 >AB@>BK AB@0E0, GB> O28;>AL @57C;LB0B>< A>2<5I5=8O C3@>60NI53> >1@070 A M<>F8>=0;L=> 1;87:8< 4;O =55 ;8F><.  40;L=59H5< @>;L 2>;:0 8A?>;=O; 2@0G, ?>AB5?5==> =045;OO 53> A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 0B@81CB0<8 ?>2545=8O. 0: 8 2 83@5 A <0B5@LN, C 452>G:8 >B<5G0;0AL ;8HL =57=0G8B5;L=0O >B25B=0O @50:F8O AB@0E0. @8 ?5@5<5=5 @>;59, :>340 1>;L=0O 87>1@060;0 2>;:0, =0452 =0 @C:C B@O?8G=CN :C:;C, >=0 :@8G0;0 8 C3@>60;0 @0A=>9 (0?>G:5, @>;L :>B>@>9 8A?>;=O; 2@0G. @8 >1@0B=>< 87<5=5=88 @>;59 C 452>G:8 >BACBAB2>20;8 @50:F88 AB@0E0. =0 AB0;0 ;CGH5 70AK?0BL 4><0, ?@5:@0B8;8AL AB@0E8 B5<=>BK, 2 B5G5=85 =545;8 ?>;=>ABLN =>@<0;87>20;0AL @5GL. 5F84820 =5 1K;>, ?> 40==K< 45AOB8;5B=53> :0B0<=570. >:070B5;L=0 8 83@>20O B5@0?8O AB@0E>2 C <0;LG8:0 3 ;5B A =52@>B8G5A:8< 708:0=85<. 0 ?@85<5 >= 1>O;AO 2>;:0, :>B>@K9, ?> 53> A;>20<, "2A5E 1L5B". 845; 53> 2> A=5, ?@8 @0AA:075 >1 MB>< A8;L=> 708:0;AO. 5AB:89 ?> E0@0:B5@C 8 8<?C;LA82=K9 >B5F <0;LG8:0 :@09=5 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=> >B=>A8;AO : AK=C 8 G0AB> =0:07K20; 53> D878G5A:8.  ?@>B82>25A >BFC <0BL 1K;0 <O3:>9 ?> E0@0:B5@C, => >3@0=8G820;0 ?>4286=>ABL AK=0. 0;LG8: 1>O;AO =5 B>;L:> 2>;:0, => 8 >BG0AB8 ;8AK: "# =55 7C1K >AB@K5". 0 ?@85<5 A0< 27O; @>;L 2>;:0, =0452 B@O?8G=CN :C:;C =0 @C:C, <0BL A45;0; ;8A8G:>9. >;: 25; A51O 03@5AA82=> 8 =0?040; =0 ;8AC. !B@0E 1K; A=OB 8 ?5@5AB0; 72CG0BL 2 40;L=59H5<. 4=>2@5<5==> C40;>AL 1KAB@> :C?8@>20BL 708:0=85. # 4@C38E 45B59 2 A;CG05 AB@0E0 B5<=>BK, >1CA;>2;5==>3> AB@0E>< >48=>G5AB20, E>@>H> A51O 70@5:><5=4>20;0 83@0 "2 ?@OB:8" 8 "6<C@:8" 2 ?>AB5?5==> 70B5<=O5<>< :018=5B5, 2=0G0;5 2 ?@8ACBAB288 @>48B5;59 8 2@0G0, 70B5< ?@8 CG0AB88 B>;L:> 2@0G0 8 1>;L=>3>. # AB5=8G=KE 45B59 AB@0E B5<=>BK <>65B 1KBL B0:65 CAB@0=5= A ?><>ILN 83@K ":>H:8-<KH:8". @0G 8 1>;L=>9 ?>>G5@54=> ?@OGCBAO 2 ?>AB5?5==> 70B5<=O5<>< :018=5B5. @8 M<>F8>=0;L=>< 2>2;5G5=88 2 83@C 45B8 >1KG=> ?>;=>ABLN "876820NB" A2>9 AB@0E. 5@54:> AB@0E8 B5<=>BK <>B828@>20=K AB@0E>< =5>6840==>3> 2>7459AB28O, =0?045=8O, GB> =0E>48B A2>5 >B@065=85 2 :>H<0@=KE A=>2845=8OE.  MB>< A;CG05 B5@0?52B8G5A:8 MDD5:B82=K< O2;O5BAO A;54CNI55 ?>AB@>5=85 83@>2>3> A50=A0. =0G0;5 1>;L=>9 ?@OG5BAO 2 :018=5B5 157 A25B0, 8 53>, =0452 <0A:8, ?>>G5@54=> 8ICB <0BL, >B5F, 2@0G 8 =57=0:><K5 27@>A;K5, :>B>@K5 A>?@>2>640NB A2>8 459AB28O A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 "03@5AA82=K<8" @5?;8:0<8, GB>, >4=0:>, =5 C25;8G8205B, 0 C<5=LH05B AB@0E 45B59. 0B5< @>;8 <5=ONBAO, 8 2 :018=5B5 ?>>G5@54=> ?@OGCBAO 27@>A;K5. >;L=>9 2 "AB@0H=>9" <0A:5 =0E>48B 8E, ?@>O2;OO ?@8 MB>< 1>;LH5 8=B5@5A0 8 83@>2>3> 070@B0, G5< A:>20==>AB8 8 AB@0E0. -B>B ?@85< CAB@0=5=8O AB@0E>2 >1KG=> =5 B@51C5B >1@0B=>9 ?5@5<5=K @>;59 ?@8 CA;>288 2K@065==>3> M<>F8>=0;L=>3> >B@5038@>20=8O AB@0E0. A;8 @515=>: ?> A>1AB25==><C 65;0=8N A@07C 87>1@0605B >1J5:B A2>53> AB@0E0, MB> C:07K205B =0 53> 1>;LHCN @5H8<>ABL ?@5>4>;5BL MB>B AB@0E. !B@0E B5<=>BK, >A>15==> 5A;8 >= =>A8B :>=:@5B=K9 E0@0:B5@, O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 2K@065=89 AB@0E0 87<5=5=8O "O", >A;>6=ONI8< ?@8=OB85 =>2KE @>;59, @0728B85 M<?0B88 8 045:20B=>9 A>F80;L=>9 >B7K2G82>AB8. @8 =0;8G88 2K@065==>3> AB@0E0 87<5=5=8O, >1KG=> :>@@5;8@CNI53> A >1I59 B@52>6=>ABLN, ?>:070=0 83@>20O B5@0?8O, =0?@02;5==0O =0 C;CGH5=85 A0<>3> ?@>F5AA0 ?@8=OB8O 8 83@0=8O @>;59. >4>1=K< :><<C=8:0B82=K< B@5=8=3>< C405BAO CAB@0=8BL AB@0E 87<5=5=8O "O" 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B :>=:@5B=>9 D>@<K 53> 2K@065=8O. ">340 >?8A0==K5 2KH5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 ?@85<K CAB@0=5=8O AB@0E>2 <>3CB 2KABC?0BL 2 :0G5AB25 53> ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> MB0?0. 0 A;54CNI5< MB0?5 A>2<5AB=> A @>48B5;O<8 ?@>83@K20NBAO =5A;>6=K5 8AB>@88, A>G8=5==K5 1>;L=K< 4><0. 45AL 3;02=K<8 O2;ONBAO 8<?@>2870F8O 8 87>1@065=85 =5 A51O, 0 4@C38E, B. 5. 2E>645=85 2 8E >1@07. !0<> ?> A515 @>;52>5 ?5@52>?;>I5=85 ?> E>4C 8=AF5=8@>2>: - 65;0B5;L=>5, => =5 >1O70B5;L=>5 CA;>285 83@K. 5 <5=55 ACI5AB25==K 87>1@065=85 4@C38E ?> ?@8=F8?C "5A;8 1K..." 8 25AL M<>F8>=0;L=K9 =0AB@>9 83@K, 55 687=5CB25@640NI0O, A>7840B5;L=0O 0:B82=>ABL.  40;L=59H5< 8A?>;L7CNBAO AN65BK =5:>B>@KE A:07>:, 345 ?@>8AE>4OB 2>;H51=K5 ?@52@0I5=8O, =0?@8<5@: "@0A=0O (0?>G:0", "!:07:0 > ?>B5@O==>< 2@5<5=8", A:07:0 > "0A8;8A5 @5<C4@>9", :>B>@0O C<55B >1>@0G820BLAO 2 ?B8F 8 B2>@8BL GC45A0, 45;0O G5;>25:0 =5>1K:=>25==> A8;L=K<, A:07:0 > "&0@52=5-;O3CH:5", :>B>@>9 B0:65 2A5 ?>:>@=> 2 >1;0AB8 GC45A=KE ?@52@0I5=89. 07K3@K20=85 MB8E A:07>: @515=:><, 2@0G>< 8 @>48B5;5< C<5=LH05B AB@0E 87<5=5=8O "O" ?@8 ?>AB5?5==>< CA;>6=5=88 AN65B>2, 8<?@>2870F88 8 G5@54>20=88 @>;59, B. 5. 87<5=5=8O 83@K, ?@840=8O 59 :064K9 @07 M;5<5=B>2 =>287=K. 0 ?>A;54=8E 70=OB8OE <>45;8@C5BAO >1I5=85 2 M:AB@5<0;L=KE 687=5==KE A8BC0F8OE. 515=>: ?@8 MB>< 87>1@0605B A51O :0: C25@5==>3> 2 A2>8E A8;0E 8 2>7<>6=>ABOE, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2@0G 8 @>48B5;8 ?>4:@5?;ONB MB> 87>1@065=85< 4@C38E.  8B>35 4>AB8305BAO @>;520O 381:>ABL ?>2545=8O, ?>4@07C<520NI0O 1571>;57=5==>5 8 ?>;=>ABLN :>=B@>;8@C5<>5 2E>645=85 2 B>B 8;8 8=>9 >1@07, ?@>83@K20=85 53> ?@8 CA;>28OE A>E@0=5=8O F5;L=>AB8 "O" 8 C25@5==>AB8 2 A515, B. 5. 157 AB@0E0 87<5=5=8O "O". #G0AB85 @>48B5;59 2 83@>2>9 B5@0?88 8 ?5@5AB@>9:0 8E >B=>H5=89 70:@5?;ONB ?>;CG5==K5 @57C;LB0BK. A;8 65 @5GL 845B > =5>1E>48<>AB8 40;L=59H53> 87<5=5=8O >B=>H5=89 1>;L=>3> 8 53> =51;03>?@8OB=> A;>682H8EAO G5@B E0@0:B5@0, B> ?>:070=0 @>;520O :>@@5:F8O ?>2545=8O.  A2>59 M;5<5=B0@=>9 D>@<5 >=0 A>AB>8B 87 B@5E 83@>2KE MB0?>2, >ACI5AB2;O5<KE =0 >4=>< 8;8 =5A:>;L:8E A50=A0E. 0 ?5@2>< MB0?5 1>;L=><C =07=0G0NBAO @>;8, >B>1@060NI85 =51;03>?@8OB=K5 G5@BK 53> E0@0:B5@0. 05BAO 8E :@0B:0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0, =0?@8<5@ ?;0:A82K9 568:, :0?@87=K9 <8H:0, 1>O7;82K9 709G8: 8 B. 4. @0G 87>1@0605B ?5@A>=0659 A ?@>B82>?>;>6=K<8, ?>;>68B5;L=K<8 G5@B0<8 E0@0:B5@0, ?>:07K20O B5< A0<K< <>45;L ?@85<;5<>3> ?>2545=8O. 0 2B>@K< MB0?5 @>;8 <5=ONBAO. >;L=>9 ?>:07K205B 65;0B5;L=CN <>45;L ?>2545=8O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2@0G :>=B@0AB=> >B@0605B >A>15==>AB8 53> ?>2545=8O. 0 B@5BL5< MB0?5 >=8 >10 2>A?@>872>4OB 045:20B=CN <>45;L 83@>2>3> 2708<>459AB28O. ?8AK205<0O 83@>20O <5B>48:0 ?@8<5=8<0 =5 B>;L:> : <;04H8< H:>;L=8:0< 8 AB0@H8< 4>H:>;L=8:0<, => 8 : 45BO< 2,5-4 ;5B, C :>B>@KE ?@0:B8G5A:8 =52>7<>6=K 4@C385 <5B>48:8 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 =5 B@51C5BAO 2E>645=8O 2 83@>2>9 >1@07, 0 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2K@065==0O 2 MB>< 2>7@0AB5 B5=45=F8O : ?>4@060=8N, B. 5. 1>;LH89 0:F5=B 45;05BAO =0 ?@>F5AA5 >1CG5=8O ?>A@54AB2>< 8<8B0F88 8 2=CH5=8O. >;52CN :>@@5:F8N ?>2545=8O <>6=> ?@>8;;NAB@8@>20BL =0 ?@8<5@5 452>G:8 5,5 ;5B A =52@>B8G5A:8< 708:0=85<. C4CG8 0:B82=>9, M=5@38G=>9 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9, >=0 =0E>48;0AL 2 CA;>28OE G@57<5@=>9 >?5:8, 87;8H=5 AB@>3>3>, ?@8=F8?80;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O @>48B5;59 8 ?>;=>ABLN @07@5H0NI53> >B=>H5=8O 42CE 101CH5:. >MB><C >=0 AB0=>28;0AL 2A5 1>;55 C?@O<>9 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O M<>F8>=0;L=> =5CAB>9G82>9 8 :0?@87=>9.  MB><C A;54C5B 4>1028BL G0ABK5 =0:070=8O A> AB>@>=K >BF0-?5403>30 70 ?@>O2;5=85 C?@O<AB20 8 A2>52>;8O C 4>G5@8. 5 <;04H89 1@0B A>A@54>B>G820; =0 A515 2A5 2=8<0=85 @>48B5;59, GB> 2K7K20;> C =55 GC2AB2> >184K 8 >1@0I5==K5 : @>48B5;O< =02O7G82K5 2>?@>AK: "K <5=O ;N18B5?" -B8 2>?@>AK C:07K20;8 =0 ?>O2;5=85 A><=5=89 2 8A:@5==>AB8 @>48B5;LA:8E GC2AB2 8 A2O70==>5 A MB8< GC2AB2> 15A?>:>9AB20. A8E8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85 452>G:8 C;CGH8;>AL ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: @>48B5;8, ?> A>25BK 2@0G0, AB0;8 4><0 ?>>G5@54=> 83@0BL A =59, ?>72>;OO 2K@078BL 2 83@5 D0=B0788, >184K 8 @074@065=8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 2 >B=>H5=88 : =8<. 0 ?@85<5 452>G:0, ?>43>B>282H8AL 4><0, @0AA:07K20;0 A>45@60=85 A:07:8 8 A0<0 @0A?@545;O;0 @>;8.  40;L=59H5< B5<K 4;O 83@K 2K18@0;8 ?>>G5@54=> 452>G:0, @>48B5;8 8 2@0G. 3@0 =0G8=0;0AL 2 ?>;8:;8=8:5 8 ?@>4>;60;0AL 4><0.  A2>8E 8=AF5=8@>2:0E 1>;L=0O 1K;0 E@01@K< 709F5<, :>B>@K9 =0?040; =0 2>;:0, 87>1@0605<>3> ?>>G5@54=> @>48B5;O<8 8 2@0G><, 8 >45@6820; =04 =8< ?>154C. "0: 2 A8<2>;8G5A:>9 D>@<5 1K;8 >B@5038@>20=K =54>2>;LAB2> 8 >1840. @8 ?5@5<5=5 @>;59 2>;: 1K; <8@>;N182K<. 0;L=59H55 C;CGH5=85 2 A>AB>O=88 1>;L=>9, 2:;NG0O 55 @5GL, ?@>87>H;> ?>A;5 8A?>;L7>20=8O @53@5AA82=>9 83@>2>9 B0:B8:8. >48B5;O< 1K;> @5:><5=4>20=> >B=>A8BLAO : 4>G5@8, :0: : <0;5=L:><C @515=:C, ?>4>1=> 3>4>20;><C 1@0BC A060BL 55 =0 :>;5=8, :0G0BL, ?5BL ?5A=8, 40BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>;L7>20BLAO @>6:><, A>A:>9 8 B. 4. 52>G:0 A 2>AB>@3>< ?@8=O;0 A<O3G5=85 >B=>H5=8O @>48B5;59, :><?5=A8@CNI55 =54>AB0B>: 4CH52=>9 >B7K2G82>AB8 8 B5?;0 A 8E AB>@>=K. @><5 B>3>, >=0 B0:8< >1@07>< C@02=820;0AL 2 ?@020E A 1@0B><, GB> CAB@0=O;> 55 >184C =0 @>48B5;59. '5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O 452>G:0 8 55 @>48B5;8 AB0;8 ;CGH5 >A>7=020BL :@09=>AB8 A2>8E >B=>H5=89, GB> A?>A>1AB2>20;> 8E ?5@5AB@>9:5 8 A45;0;> =5=C6=K< ?@>4>;65=85 @53@5AA82=>9 83@>2>9 B0:B8:8. >=D;8:B <564C A81A0<8, =0G8=0O A 5-6 ;5B, <>65B 1KBL CAB@0=5= =5 B>;L:> 87<5=5=85< >B=>H5=89 @>48B5;59, => 8 8E ?@>83@K20=85< A>2<5AB=> A 2@0G><. 5BO< @5:><5=4C5BAO 70?><8=0BL 8;8 70?8AK20BL 2>7=8:0NI85 <564C =8<8 :>=D;8:B=K5 A8BC0F88, A B5< GB>1K 2<5AB5 >1AC48BL 8 ?@>83@0BL =0 ?@85<5. @8 @52=>AB8 : >4=><C 87 @>48B5;59 >= 87>1@0605BAO ?>>G5@54=> :064K< 87 CG0AB=8:>2 :>=D;8:B0, 0 2@0G ?@54AB02;O5B >BACBAB2CNI53> @>48B5;O. !10;0=A8@>20==>3> >B=>H5=8O <564C A81A0<8 C405BAO 4>AB8GL 8 ?>A@54AB2>< ?@>83@K20=8O A:07>G=KE AN65B>2, 345 4@0<0B878@>20=K >B=>H5=8O <564C ?5@A>=060<8. @82545< 5I5 @O4 ?@8<5@>2 @>;52>9 :>@@5:F88 ?>2545=8O.  ?5@2>< A;CG05 @5GL H;0 > <0;LG8:5 3 ;5B A =52@>B8G5A:8< 708:0=85<, 2>7=8:H8< 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?5@5=0?@O65=8O 2>7<>6=>AB59 @0728B8O (@0==55 8=B5=A82=>5 >1CG5=85) 8 1;>:8@>20=8O M<>F8>=0;L=>3> A0<>2K@065=8O (38?5@>?5:0 2 A>G5B0=88 A 87;8H=5 AB@>38< 8 <>@0;87CNI8< >B=>H5=85< @>48B5;59 8 42CE 101CH5:). >B@51=>ABL 2 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 @07@O4:5 C AB5=8G=>3> ?> ?@8@>45 <0;LG8:0 1K;0 =0AB>;L:> 25;8:0, GB> 2@5<5=0<8 >= A0< =5?@>872>;L=> A>74020; ?>2>4K 4;O ?;0G0, ?>A;5 G53> 70<5B=> CA?>:0820;AO, B. 5. ?;0G O2;O;AO A@54AB2>< @07@O4:8 M<>F89. 0;LG8: >A>7=020; 70B@C4=5=8O 2 @5G8 8 ?5@56820; 8E. >A;5 :>@@838@CNI8E 15A54 A @>48B5;O<8 1K;> ?@>2545=> =5A:>;L:> 83@>2KE A50=A>2. 0 ?5@2>< A50=A5 2@0G 1K; A;>=5=:><, :>B>@K9, <8=CO 2A5 ?@5?OBAB28O, ?@>18@0;AO 2 D@8:C : 4>:B>@C 91>;8BC, 87>1@0605<><C 1>;L=K<, :0: 8 2@0G><, A>>B25BAB2CNI59 83@CH:>9. @54AB02 ?5@54 91>;8B><, A;>=5=>:, 708:0OAL, A:070;, GB> 5<C <5H05B 3>2>@8BL 70=>70 2> @BC 8 5A;8 >=0 1C45B C40;5=0, B> >= A<>65B 3>2>@8BL ;53:> 8 G8AB> (:>A25==>5 2=CH5=85 A> AB>@>=K 2@0G0). 91>;8B A>3;0A8;AO A MB8< 8 C40;8; 70=>7C - <0;5=L:CN ?0;>G:C, :>B>@CN A;>=5=>: (2@0G) 45@60; 2> @BC. !;>=5=>: ?>1;03>40@8; 4>:B>@0 8, A:0702 (A 2=CH0NI8< 0:F5=B0<), GB> B5?5@L 5<C =8GB> =5 <5H05B 3>2>@8BL, ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20; A2>N G8ABCN @5GL, ?>AB>O==> 2>A:;8F0O, :0:>9 A8;L=K9 4>:B>@ 91>;8B, >= 2A5 <>65B. 91>;8B 2>A?@8=O; 2A5 MB> >G5=L M<>F8>=0;L=> 8 AB0;, @04>AB=> 65AB8:C;8@CO, :@8G0BL 2<5AB5 A> A;>=5=:><, GB> 5<C B5?5@L =8GB> =5 <5H05B 3>2>@8BL, A;>20 84CB A0<8, ;53:> 8 A2>1>4=>. >A;5 ?@85<0 <0;LG8: B>@65AB25==> 2K1@>A8; "70=>7C" 2 <CA>@=>5 254@>. 3> @5GL 7=0G8B5;L=> C;CGH8;0AL, =>, :0: MB> G0AB> 1K205B ?@8 =52@>B8G5A:>< 708:0=88, >= AB0; 1>;55 2>71C48<K<, :0?@87=K<, C?@O<K< 8 03@5AA82=K<, ?>A:>;L:C 708:0=85 :0: ?A8E><>B>@=0O D>@<0 @07@O4:8 2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 ?@54>B2@0I0;> MB8 @50:F88. > A>25BC 2@0G0 @>48B5;8 =5 AB0;8 ?@>B828BLAO HC<=K< 83@0< <0;LG8:0, 2 :>B>@KE >= E>BO 8 ?5@52>71C640;AO, => 0:B82=> 2K@060; A2>8 GC2AB20 8 =0AB@>5=85. >A;5 C<5=LH5=8O 2>71C48<>AB8 70>AB@8;>AL 15A?>:>9AB2>, B. 5. >1=068;AO 1070;L=K9 C@>25=L =52@>B8G5A:>3> @5038@>20=8O. 0 >G5@54=>< A50=A5 2@0G 2<5AB5 A 1>;L=K< ?>;70; ?> 83@>2>9 :><=0B5, 8<8B8@CO >?0A=>ABL 8 55 0:B82=>5 ?@5>4>;5=85 A 3@><>3;0A=K<8 CB25@645=8O<8: "0< =5 AB@0H5= A5@K9 2>;:, ?@>3>=8< 2A5 ?;>E>5". >A;5 83@K <0;LG8: AB0; 70<5B=> A?>:>9=55.  ?>A;54CNI8E 83@>2KE A50=A0E >=, :0: 8 @0=LH5, 2KABC?0; 2 @>;8 2A5<>3CI53> 4>:B>@0 91>;8B0, :>B>@K9 CA?5H=> ;5G8; 2AO:85 1>;57=8 C 725@OB, ?@54AB02;O5<KE 2@0G><. 25@8 ?>AB>O==> ?>4G5@:820;8 G8ABCN @5GL "4>:B>@0" 8 53> C25@5==>ABL, :0: ?@8<5@ 4;O =8E (AC335AB82=>5 70:@5?;5=85 4>AB83=CBKE @57C;LB0B>2 C <0;LG8:0).  ?@82545==>< A;CG05 <K 2848< CA?5H=>5 A>G5B0=85 83@K A :>A25==K< 2=CH5=85< 2@0G0 8 ?5@5AB@>9:>9 >B=>H5=89 @>48B5;59. > 2B>@>< A;CG05 <K =01;N40;8 452>G:C 4 ;5B A =52@>B8G5A:8<8 B8:0<8, 2>7=8:H8<8 =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 =0704 =0 N35 2> 2@5<O ;5B=53> >B4KE0. 52>G:0 A B@C4>< ?5@5=5A;0 ?5@5<5=C >1AB0=>2:8 8 =5 5;0 B0:, :0: E>B5;8 @>48B5;8, =5A<>B@O =0 =0A8;L=>5 :>@<;5=85 A 8E AB>@>=K. I5 =0 N35 >=0 AB0;0 :0?@87=>9 8 @074@068B5;L=>9, =0 GB> @>48B5;8 >B@5038@>20;8 @57:8< CA8;5=85< AB@>3>AB8 8 =0:070=8O<8.  >B25B =0 MB> 452>G:0 AB0;0 ?;0:A82>9, 8 2A:>@5 C =55 ?>O28;8AL @07=>>1@07=K5 G5@54CNI85AO B8:8. A=>2=K< 1K;> "7520=85" - =5?@>872>;L=>5 >B:@K20=85 @B0, :>B>@>5 =0?><8=0;> 3@8<0AC >B2@0I5=8O. "0: 452>G:0 15AA>7=0B5;L=> 2K@060;0 ?@>B5AB ?@>B82 =0A8;L=>3> :>@<;5=8O. > <5@5 =0@0AB0=8O B8:>2 C =55 C<5=LH8;0AL M<>F8>=0;L=0O =0?@O65==>ABL. -B> 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> B8:8 :0: ?A8E><>B>@=0O D>@<0 @07@O4:8 2K?>;=ONB 2 =5:>B>@>< @>45 70I8B=CN DC=:F8N 4;O >@30=87<0. 4=>2@5<5==> >=8 C:07K20NB =0 :>=AB8BCF8>=0;L=CN 45D8F8B0@=>ABL ?A8E><>B>@=>9 AD5@K (C >BF0 452>G:8 3;07=>9 B8:). 0 ?5@2>< ?@85<5 1>;L=0O A B@C4>< 2E>48;0 2 :>=B0:B A 2@0G><, >AB020OAL M<>F8>=0;L=> =0?@O65==>9 8 A:>20==>9. =0 ?@54?>G8B0;0 @07@CH0BL A45;0==K5 5N 65 ?>AB@>9:8, M<>F8>=0;L=> 1C@=> @5038@CO ?@8 MB><. 0 2B>@>< ?@85<5 70O28;0, GB> E>G5B =0:>@<8BL 2A5E 725@NH5:, =>, 2 >B;8G85 >B <0B5@8, ?@8 >ACI5AB2;5=88 MB>3> 1K;0 B5@?5;82>9, =8:>3> =5 C3>20@820;0 8 =5 ?@8=C640;0. >;=>ABLN 2>H;0 2 :>=B0:B A 2@0G><. 0 B@5BL5< ?@85<5 ?>?@>A8;0 <0BL 2K9B8 87 :018=5B0 8 AB0;0 83@0BL A 2@0G>< "2 3>AB8". @83;0A82 53> : A515, AB0;0 C3>I0BL, => 157 C3>2>@>2 8 402;5=8O. 0B5< >=0 AB0;0 72>=8BL 2@0GC ?> 83@CH5G=><C B5;5D>=C. @8 MB>< 2@0G 2KABC?0; >B 8<5=8 568:0 (?@>AC=C2 @C:C 2 B@O?8G=CN :C:;C), 0 452>G:0 - >B 8<5=8 @07;8G=KE 725@NH5:, :>B>@KE >=0, :0: 8 2@0G, ?>>G5@54=> 45@60;0 2 @C:0E. 68:C A>>1I0;>AL, GB> 725@NH:8 2A5 45;0NB 1KAB@>, 54OB 157 C3>2>@>2, A;CH0NBAO @>48B5;59 8 =5 45@30NBAO. 68: 2A5 MB> 2=8<0B5;L=> 2KA;CH820;, @04>20;AO 2<5AB5 A 452>G:>9 8 E20;8; 55, A>>1I0O =>2>ABL 2A5< A84OI8< @O4>< :C:;0<. >B82>< B0:8E 7025@5=89 1K;8 ?>;>68B5;L=K9 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 :>=B0:B A 2@0G>< 8 53> 02B>@8B5B 2 3;070E 452>G:8. =0 4>@>68;0 MB8< 8 AB0@0;0AL ?>=@028BLAO 2@0GC, >?@024K20O 53> >6840=8O 2 >B=>H5=88 87<5=5=8O A2>53> ?>2545=8O.  A;54CNI89 @07 : 83@5 1K;0 ?>4:;NG5=0 <0BL, :>B>@CN 4>GL, ?><5=O2H8AL A =59 @>;O<8, :>@<8;0 157 C3>2>@>2 8, 3;02=>5, E20;8;0 55. <5AB5 A ?5@5AB@>9:>9 >B=>H5=89 @>48B5;59 A>AB>O=85 452>G:8 ?>AB5?5==> ?@8H;> 2 =>@<C.  B@5BL5< A;CG05 AB5=8G=0O 8 2=5H=5 ?>E>60O =0 >BF0 452>G:0 6 ;5B 87 =5?>;=>9 A5<L8 :>=D;8:B>20;0 A 38?5@A>F80;878@>20==>9 8 8AB5@8G=>9 <0B5@LN, 8A?KBK202H59 <=>3> A>1AB25==KE ?@>1;5< 8 682CI59 2 A2>5<, 70:@KB>< >B 4>G5@8, 2=CB@5==5< <8@5. 0BL ?C=:BC0;L=> 70AB02;O;0 4>GL CG8BL AB8E8, 420 @070 2 45=L G8AB8BL 7C1K, 45;0BL 70@O4:C, 45;0;0 59 15AG8A;5==K5 70<5G0=8O, ?>AB>O==> >45@3820O 8 D878G5A:8 65AB>:> =0:07K20O ?@8 =5?>A;CH0=88.  ?5@2K5 3>4K 687=8 452>G:8 <0BL 2>520;0 A =59 87-70 ?;>E>3>, A 55 B>G:8 7@5=8O, 0??5B8B0 8 =565;0=8O A?0BL 4=5<.  @57C;LB0B5 4>GL, 1C4CG8 C?@O<>9 8 =530B82=>9 : <0B5@8, ?>AB>O==> "70:0BK20;0" 8AB5@8:8 8 =5>4=>:@0B=> >1<0G820;0AL 2 B5G5=85 4=O. 0 ?5@2>< A50=A5 <0BL 8 4>GL 4>;3> =5 <>3;8 =0;048BL :>=B0:B 2 83@5, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: ?@8 CG0AB88 2 =59 2@0G0 452>G:0 1K;0 ?>;=>ABLN :>=B0:B=>9 8 =5:0?@87=>9. =0 2K1@0;0 @>;L 709G8:0, =07=0G8;0 =0 @>;L 2>;:0 2@0G0 8 A45;0;0 <0BL ;8A>9, GB> 2?>;=5 A>>B25BAB2>20;> 55 ;LAB82>-2:@04G82><C 3>;>AC. >;: 8 ;8A0 3>=O;8AL 70 709F5< 8 =5 <>3;8 53> ?>9<0BL, B. 5. 4>GL E>B5;0, GB>1K <0BL =5 =0AB83;0 55 E>BO 1K 2 83@5. 0B5< 452>G:0 ?@52@0B8;0 A51O 2 <54254O, 0 <0BL 2 :>AC;N, :>B>@CN <54254L A@07C 65 703@K7. "0: 2 A8<2>;8G5A:>9 D>@<5 >=0 2K@078;0 >B25B=CN 03@5AA8N : <0B5@8. 0;55 4>GL AB0;0 >E>B=8:><, 0 <0BL A=>20 A45;0;0 ;8A>9. 3@5AA82=>3> 2>;:0 (2@0G0) >E>B=8: A@07C ?>4AB@5;8;, ;8A0 65 A?@OB0;0AL 8, :>340 >E>B=8: A5; >B4>E=CBL, =570<5B=> ?>4:@0;0AL A7048 8 ?KB0;0AL AE20B8BL @C6L5, => 1K;0 A@07C 65 70AB@5;5=0. >4>1=K< 459AB285< 452>G:0 :0: 1K CAB@0=O;0 B@02<8@CNI89 >1@07 "=5 <0B5@8", :0: A8<2>; =58A:@5==>AB8, >1<0=0 8 :>20@AB20. >A;5 MB>3> 4@0<0B8G5A:>3> M?87>40 >=0 70E>B5;0 ?>83@0BL A <0B5@LN A0<0. @0G 2KH5; 87 :018=5B0. 3@0 ?@>8AE>48;0 157 AA>@. >2545=85 452>G:8 >B;8G0;>AL <O3:>ABLN 8 CABC?G82>ABLN.  ?>A;54CNI85 4=8 <0BL >B<5B8;0, GB> 4>GL 1K;0 :0: =8:>340 A?>:>9=>9, 157 :0?@87>2, 8AB5@8: 8 C?@O<AB20. @5:@0B8;>AL 4=52=>5 =545@60=85 <>G8, 452>G:0 AB0;0 1>;55 2=8<0B5;L=>9 8 :@8B8G=>9 : A515. 0 A;54CNI5< ?@85<5 <0BL 2?5@2K5 >?CAB8;0AL =0 :>2@8: 8 AB0;0 83@0BL A 4>G5@LN ";8F>< : ;8FC". @8H54H53> 2@0G0 452>G:0 A45;0;0 ?0?>9, 0 A51O <0<>9. >G5@LN >=0 >1>7=0G8;0 :C:;C, A:0702 ?@> =55, GB> >=0 =5 B>;L:> :0?@87=8G05B, ?8A05BAO, => 8 :0:05BAO. BAB@0=82 B0:8< >1@07>< >B A51O 2A5 ?;>E>5, 452>G:0 2 @>;8 <0B5@8 8 2@0G 2 @>;8 @5018;8B8@>20==>3> >BF0 =0G0;8 2>A?8BK20BL 4>GL. "0BL" 4><8=8@>20;0 2 83@5, AB028;0 "4>GL" 2 C3>;, H;5?0;0, G8B0;0 =@02>CG5=8O 8 CB25@640;0, GB> >=0 =8 =0 GB> =5 A?>A>1=0, GB> >=0 ?;>E0O, 3@O7=0O, =8:>3> =5 ;N18B 8 B. 4. 0BL =5 ?@8=8<0;0 =5?>A@54AB25==>3> CG0AB8O 2 83@5, => 2845;0 8 A;KH0;0, :0: 4>GL, C2;5:H8AL 83@>9, 87>1@060;0 55 >B=>H5=85. 0:>=5F, "=58A?@028<CN 4>GL" 452>G:0 2 @>;8 <0B5@8 ?>25;0 2 1>;L=8FC, 345 8E ?@8=O; 4>:B>@ - <0BL 452>G:8. >:B>@ 40; A>25BK ?> 2>A?8B0=8N 8 2K?8A0; @07;8G=K5 ;5:0@AB20.  >B;8G85 >B ?>2545=8O 4><0 <0BL 2 @>;8 4>:B>@0 4020;0 C65 1>;55 045:20B=K5 A>25BK, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?@54;030;0 83@0BL A 4>G5@LN. 0B5< A=>20 <0BL 8 4>GL 4@C6=> 83@0;8 2<5AB5 157 2@0G0. 564C ?@85<0<8 452>G:0 1K;0 A?>:>9=>9. 0BL 8 4>GL AB0;8 ;CGH5 ?>=8<0BL 4@C3 4@C30 8 4>@>68BL MB8<. 0 B@5BL5< ?@85<5 G5@57 =545;N 452>G:0 >?OBL 2KABC?0;0 2 @>;8 <0B5@8, 0 <0BL 2 @>;8 4>G5@8.  >B;8G85 >B ?@54K4CI59 83@K 2 8E 2708<>459AB288 1K;8 1>;LH0O 381:>ABL 8 A?>=B0==>ABL. # 452>G:8 ?>-?@56=5<C =5 1K;> A;CG052 =545@60=8O <>G8.  ?>A;54CNI5< >=0 E>@>H> 040?B8@>20;0AL 2 H:>;5. !;54C5B A:070BL 8 > <0;LG8:5 5 ;5B 87 =5?>;=>9 A5<L8, 8<5NI5< G@57<5@=> 53> >?5:0NICN 02B>@8B0@=CN 101CH:C 8 M<>F8>=0;L=>-=5CAB>9G82CN <0BL A 8AB5@8G5A:8<8 G5@B0<8 E0@0:B5@0. 0BL ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 70=8<0;0AL AK=><, >B4020O 2A5 2@5<O @01>B5.  B> 65 2@5<O >=0 1K;0 ?>4G5@:=CB> AB@>3>9 8 ?@8=F8?80;L=>9 8 =5 4>?CA:0;0 53> 2AB@5G A >BF><. 5C4>2;5B2>@5==0O ?>B@51=>ABL A>>B25BAB2CNI59 ?> ?>;C 845=B8D8:0F88 >1>@0G820;0AL AB@0E0<8, :0?@870<8, C?@O<AB2>< 8 >4=>2@5<5==> B@52>6=>9 7028A8<>ABLN >B <0B5@8, ?@>B5AB>< ?@>B82 ?>A5I5=8O 45BA:>3> A040. @8 ?5@2>< 2878B5 <0BL 8 @515=>: 1K;8 >AB02;5=K 2 83@>2>9 :><=0B5 A ?@54;>65=85< =0G0BL 83@C. >72@0B82H8AL, 2@0G C2845;, GB> <0BL 2<5AB> 83@K A @515=:>< G8B0;0 5<C =@02>CG5=8O.  55 ?@8ACBAB288 2@0G =0G0; 83@C A <0;LG8:><, :>A25==> >B@060O ?>2545=85< ?5@A>=0659 53> ?@>1;5<K >1I5=8O 2 45BA:>< A04C. 0BL ?> A>25BC 2@0G0 =570<5B=> 2KH;0, GB>1K =5 A:>2K20BL 83@>2CN 8=8F80B82C AK=0. >A;5 A>2<5AB=>9 83@K 2@0G ?@54;>68; <0;LG8:C ?>83@0BL 2 :53;8 8 2KH5; : <0B5@8, GB>1K ?@>:><<5=B8@>20BL 83@C. @8 2B>@>< 2878B5 G5@57 10 4=59 <0BL >B<5B8;0 >BACBAB285 ?;0G0 8 :0?@87>2 ?@8 ?>A5I5=88 45BA:>3> A040. 0: 8 2 ?5@2K9 @07, >=0 =5 A<>3;0 83@0BL A AK=><. = 65 ?> A>1AB25==>9 8=8F80B825 87>1@078; @07;8G=K5 ?@>1;5<=K5 A8BC0F88 2 45BA:>< A04C, A:0702, GB> MB> >B=>A8BAO =5 : =5<C, 0 : 4@C3><C <0;LG8:C. > A5:@5BC ?@87=0;AO 2@0GC, GB> >= A>;40B, B. 5. CB25@48; A51O 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI59 ?>;C @>;8. @8 B@5BL5< 2878B5 G5@57 10 4=59 @0AA:070; ?@84C<0==>5 8< AB8E>B2>@5=85: "51> A8=55, <>@5 A8;L=>5, ?0?0 A8;L=K9, <0<0 :@0A820O". 0 @8AC=:5 "A5<LO" 2:;NG8; >BF0 2 A>AB02 A5<L8.  45BA:89 A04 E>48; A 65;0=85<. @5:@0B8;8AL :>=D;8:BK A @51OB0<8, AB0; CG0AB2>20BL 2 83@5, 0 =5 AB>OBL, :0: @0=LH5, 2 AB>@>=5. ><0 ?>A;5 ?@>A<>B@0 B5;5D8;L<0 =0 2>5==CN B5<C 2?5@2K5 2A5 2>A?@>8725; 2 ;8F0E. >B>28;AO A =5B5@?5=85< : ?@074=8:C 2 45BA:>< A04C, A0< A45;0; :>ABN< "'8?>;;8=>". > MB><C ?>2>4C 2>7=8: :>=D;8:B A <0B5@LN, :>B>@>9 =5 ?>=@028;AO 2K1>@ AK=0. K;> @5H5=> ?@>83@K20BL 2>7=8:0NI85 :>=D;8:BK A <0B5@LN =0 ?@85<5, ?>A;5 G53> >=8 ?>;=>ABLN ?@5:@0B8;8AL 4><0, B0: :0: <0BL AB0;0 A45@6820BL A51O. 0 ?@85<5 2@0G 8 <0;LG8: 157 <0B5@8 2>A?@>872>48;8 AF5=K @07;8G=KE A@065=89. =8 ?@OB0;8AL 70 ABC;LO, :840O 4@C3 2 4@C30 "3@0=0BK" 8 AG8B0O G8A;> ?>?040=89. 0B5< ?@>2>48;AO ?>548=>: =0 "A01;OE". 0<5B8<, GB> ?>4>1=K5 83@K, 2 :>B>@K5 G0AB> 83@0NB 74>@>2K5 45B8, 5AB5AB25==K< >1@07>< ?@54>B2@0I0NB AB@0E ?@8:>A=>25=8O 8 87<5=5=8O "O" 8 <>3CB 1KBL A CA?5E>< 8A?>;L7>20=K 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:5. 0 MB>< 65 ?@85<5 2 :>@84>@5 ?>;8:;8=8:8 ?@>2>48;0AL 83@0 2 ?@OB:8. =0G0;5 ?@OB0;AO <0;LG8:, 0 2@0G 8 <0BL 8A:0;8 53>, 70B5< =0>1>@>B. B<5G0;8AL A ?>E20;>9 ;>2:>ABL 8 A>>1@078B5;L=>ABL <0;LG8:0, 53> 2K45@6:0 8 B5@?5=85.  :0G5AB25 =03@04K 1K;8 2@CG5=K A?>@B82=K5 7=0G:8. @8 G5B25@B>< 2878B5 G5@57 10 4=59 A>AB>O=85 <0;LG8:0 1K;> ?>;=>ABLN =>@<0;87>20=>. @5:@0B8;8AL :>=D;8:BK A <0B5@LN, :>B>@0O ?5@5AB0;0 ?@5?OBAB2>20BL 83@5 AK=0. 54CI59 45OB5;L=>ABLN =0 ?@85<5 1K;0 M:A:C@A8O ?> ?>;8:;8=8:5 A ?>A5I5=85< :018=5B>2 2@0G59, :>B>@K5 >4>1@8B5;L=> >B7K20;8AL > <0;LG8:5. >A;5 ?@85<0 <0BL 2?5@2K5 ?>257;0 AK=0 2 3>@>4>: 0BB@0:F8>=>2. 0 MB>< ?@8<5@5 284=>, :0: A2>52@5<5==>5 C4>2;5B2>@5=85 2>7@0AB=>9 ?>B@51=>AB8 <0;LG8:0 2 @>;52>9 83@5 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI59 ?>;C ?>B@51=>AB8 2 845=B8D8:0F88 ?><>305B 5<C GC2AB2>20BL A51O 1>;55 C25@5==K< 8 A?>A>1=K< : >1I5=8N A> A25@AB=8:0<8. 0: 284=> 87 ?@8<5@>2, 3;02=>5 2 83@>2>9 B5@0?88 - >B@5038@>20=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> =0?@O65=8O 8 @>;52>5 <>45;8@>20=85 @07=>>1@07=KE ?CB59 @5H5=8O ?@>1;5< >1I5=8O 2 A>2<5AB=>< A 2@0G>< 8 @>48B5;O<8 B2>@G5A:>< ?>8A:5, ACI=>ABLN :>B>@>3> O2;ONBAO @0A:@KB85 =58A?>;L7>20==KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 @0728B8O, C:@5?;5=85 548=AB20 "O", GC2AB20 A>1AB25==>3> 4>AB>8=AB20 8 25@K 2 A51O :0: G5;>25:0. K ?@825;8 ;8HL A@02=8B5;L=> ?@>ABK5 A;CG08 83@>2>9 B5@0?88 :0: A>AB02=>9 G0AB8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0. 06=> ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> =5B 42CE >48=0:>2KE 83@>2KE A50=A>2, :0: 8 42CE >48=0:>2KE 1>;L=KE, 8 GB> 83@>2K5 @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<=KE A8BC0F89 >A=>20=K 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 =0 B2>@G5A:>9 8<?@>2870F88 2@0G0, G5< =0 ?>43>=:5 1>;L=>3> ?>4 70@0=55 A>AB02;5==K9 8 =5 4>?CA:0NI89 8A:;NG5=89 AF5=0@89. 06=> 8 B>, GB> 8A?>;L7C5<0O ?> ?>:070=8O< 83@>20O B5@0?8O ?@54>B2@0I05B 87;8H=5 G0AB>5 ?@8<5=5=85 ?A8E>D0@<0:>;>38G5A:8E A@54AB2. 3@>20O B5@0?8O (8=AF5=8@>2:8) =081>;55 CA?5H=0 2 2>7@0AB5 4-7 ;5B, :>340 ?@>8AE>48B 8=B5=A82=K9 ?@>F5AA @>;52>3> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8. &5;5A>>1@07=> 55 8A?>;L7>20=85 8 2 1>;55 <;04H5< (?>4286=K5, ?@54<5B=K5 83@K) 8 AB0@H5< 2>7@0AB5 (4@0<0B870F8O). # ?>4@>AB:>2 83@0 ?@>2>48BAO 157 :C:>; 8 83@CH5G=>3> @5:2878B0, 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 2>>1@0605<>9 >1AB0=>2:5.  A>2<5AB=KE A 2@0G>< ?@>83@K20=8OE ACI5AB25==K< O2;O5BAO >1CG5=85 ?>4@>AB:0 ?@8=OB8N 045:20B=KE @5H5=89 2 AB@5AA>2KE A8BC0F8OE >1I5=8O, B. 5. :><<C=8:0B82=K9 B@5=8=3. ;O MB>3> 8A:;NG8B5;L=>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B >1@07 459AB289 2@0G0 8 53> 02B>@8B5B 2 3;070E ?>4@>AB:0. >;LH55 7=0G5=85 ?> A@02=5=8N A 4@C38< 2>7@0AB>< ?@8405BAO >@30=870F88 >1AC645=89 8 48A:CAA89. ><>30NB 4@0<0B870F8O< A45;0==K5 ?>4@>AB:>< <0A:8 ;N459 A @07;8G=K<8 G5@B0<8 E0@0:B5@0 8 480;>38 2 <0A:0E A 2@0G><.  F5;>< @>;520O ?A8E>B5@0?8O C ?>4@>AB:>2 1>;55 CA?5H=0 2 3@C??5, >B@060NI59 8E 2>7@0AB=CN ?>B@51=>ABL 2 >1I5=88.  ;020 6. =CH5=85 8 38?=>7. =CH5=85 =0O2C. =CH5=85 =0O2C O2;O5BAO B@048F8>==K< A@54AB2>< 2>7459AB28O ?@8 =52@>70E 8 A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN ;N1>9 <5B>48:8 ?A8E>B5@0?88. =CH0NI8< 459AB285< 2 A8BC0F88 ;5G5=8O <>3CB >1;040BL =5 B>;L:> A;>20 2@0G0, => 8 53> 273;O4, <0=5@0 ?>2545=8O, >1AB0=>2:0, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@>E>48B ?@85<, 8 <=. 4@. >MB><C 2K45;8BL 2=CH5=85 2 G8AB>< 2845 <>6=> B>;L:> CA;>2=>. B 4@C38E 284>2 A;>25A=>3> 2>7459AB28O 2=CH5=85 >B;8G05BAO A>G5B0=85< =0?@02;5==>AB8, 48@5:B82=>AB8, =5>1KG=>AB8, M:A?@5AA82=>AB8, 48=0<8G=>AB8, 8=D>@<0B82=>AB8 8 C1548B5;L=>AB8. 0?@02;5==>ABL - :>=:@5B=K9 E0@0:B5@ 2=CH5=8O, 53> F5;L. 8@5:B82=>ABL - 157>3>2>@>G=>ABL 2=CH5=8O, 53> :0B53>@8G=>ABL 8 >1O70B5;L=>ABL, 2K@065==K5 2 D>@<5 ?>25;8B5;L=>3> =0:;>=5=8O. 8@5:B82=>ABL ?>4@07C<5205B >BACBAB285 >1@0B=>9 25@10;L=>9 A2O78, B. 5. <>=>;>3 2@0G0, 0 =5 480;>3 A 1>;L=K<. 5>1KG=>ABL - A?5F8D8:0 ?@>2545=8O 2=CH5=8O, >B;8G0NI0O 53> >B 4@C38E 284>2 ;5G51=>3> 2>7459AB28O, 2 @O45 A;CG052 - 53> =5>6840==>ABL 8 =>287=0. -:A?@5AA82=>ABL - 2K@078B5;L=>ABL @5G8. 8=0<8G=>ABL - M=5@35B8G5A:0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 2=CH5=8O, 53> B5<?. !8;0 72C:0 >1KG=> =0@0AB05B 2 A5@548=5 8;8 :>=F5 B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 G0AB8 2=CH5=8O, ?@8:>2K20O 2 <0:A8<0;L=>9 <5@5 2=8<0=85 2=CH05<>3>. ;87:> : MB><C ?@8<K:0NB @8B< 2=CH5=8O, @0AAB0=>2:0 2 =5< M<>F8>=0;L=KE 8 A<KA;>2KE 0:F5=B>2, 48=0<8G=>5 G5@54>20=85 A;>2 8 ?0C7 8 2 1>;55 H8@>:>< 0A?5:B5 - :><?>78F8>==0O AB@>9=>ABL 2=CH5=8O. =D>@<0B82=>ABL - >?B8<0;L=0O <>B820F8>==>-A<KA;>20O =0AKI5==>ABL ?@8 <8=8<0;L=>9 4;8B5;L=>AB8. #1548B5;L=>ABL - >1>A=>20=85 A>45@60I59AO 2 =5< 8=D>@<0F88 C25@5==>9 <0=5@>9 ?>2545=8O 2@0G0, >A>1K< B5<1@>< 53> 3>;>A0, 4>25@8B5;L=K< 8;8 ?>4G5@:=CB>-D>@<0;L=K< >1@0I5=85< A 1>;L=K<, C<5;K< 8A?>;L7>20=85<, =0@O4C A 4@C38<8 A@54AB20<8, 273;O40 8 65AB0. @><5 8<?5@0B82=>3>, 157CA;>2=>3> 8 ;0:>=8G=>3> ?> A2>5<C E0@0:B5@C 2=CH5=8O, 2K45;O5BAO <>B828@>20==>5 2=CH5=85, ?@8 :>B>@>< 405BAO 1>;LH89 >1J5< 8=D>@<0F88 A <5=LH59 8=B5=A82=>ABLN 8 4>102;5=85< M;5<5=B>2 C15645=8O 8 @07JOA=5=8O, GB> >15A?5G8205B =5>1E>48<CN 8=48284C0;870F8N 8 381:>ABL. @8 >4=8E 8 B5E 65 =52@>B8G5A:8E A8<?B><0E 2=CH5=85 <>65B 1KBL :0: 2KA>:>MDD5:B82=K<, B0: 8 157@57C;LB0B=K<. -B> >1JOA=O5BAO >?>A@54>20==>ABLN 53> MDD5:B0 @07;8G=K<8 D0:B>@0<8 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>3>, ;8G=>AB=>3> 8 :;8=8G5A:>3> ?>@O4:0. =>3>5 7028A8B >B 8A:CAAB20 8 >?KB0 2@0G0, :>B>@K9 =5@54:> 8=BC8B82=> =0E>48B ?>:070=8O 4;O 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2=CH5=8O. 0: ?@028;>, :064K9 2@0G ?CB5< ?@>1 8 >H81>: CAB0=02;8205B B>B :;8=8G5A:89 480?07>= AC335AB82=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59, 2 :>B>@>< >= :0: A?5F80;8AB GC2AB2C5B A51O C25@5==>. ?@545;ONI8< D0:B>@>< O2;O5BAO 25@0 A0<>3> 2@0G0 2 459AB25==>ABL 2=CH5=8O, ?>A:>;L:C A:5?B8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 <>65B ?>4>@20BL 53> CA?5H=>ABL. =CH5=85 ?@8<5=O5BAO ?@8 =0;8G88 2K@065==KE CAB0=>2>: =0 ;5G5=85. A:CAAB2> 2@0G0 ?@8 AC335AB82=>9 B5@0?88 70:;NG05BAO =5 B>;L:> 2 CAB0=>2;5=88 4>25@8B5;L=>3> :>=B0:B0 A 1>;L=K<, => 8 2 A>E@0=5=88 A =8< =5:>B>@>9 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 48AB0=F88. B40;5=85 2@0G0 >B 1>;L=>3> <>65B ?>2KA8BL MDD5:B82=>ABL 2=CH5=8O, => B>;L:> 4> >?@545;5==>3> ?@545;0, :>340 ?>O2;ONBAO 87;8H=55 =0?@O65=85 8 AB@0E, ?@5?OBAB2CNI85 53> CA2>5=8N, 2 B> 65 2@5<O 4@C65A:85 >B=>H5=8O A 2@0G>< <>3CB A=878BL 53> ?@5AB86 2 3;070E 1>;L=>3>, =5>1KG=>ABL 0B<>AD5@K 2=CH5=8O 8 53> B5@0?52B8G5A:85 @57C;LB0BK. =CH5=85 =0?@02;5=> =0 87<5=5=85 B5E A8<?B><>2, :>B>@K5 15A?>:>OB 1>;L=>3>, B. 5. >A>7=0NBAO 8<, 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO :0: ?@82E>4OI85, GC64K5, =02O70==K5. -<>F8>=0;L=> 2>7459AB2CO =0 ?A8E8:C, 2=CH5=85 G5@57 D>@<8@C5<CN 8< B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 4><8=0=BC 0:B828@C5B 70I8B=K5, 74>@>2K5 A8;K >@30=87<0, <>18;87C5B @575@2K A0<>@53C;OF88, ?>2KH05B 18>B>=CA. A5< MB8< >15A?5G8205BAO MDD5:B82=>ABL ?@8<5=5=8O 2=CH5=8O. 45AL 3;02=>5 - MDD5:B "A42830" 8;8 "B>;G:0", B. 5. 87<5=5=85 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E CA;>2=>-@5D;5:B>@=KE @8B<>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 <>730, =5@54:> ?@8>1@5B0NI8E 70AB>9=K9 8 AB5@5>B8?=K9 E0@0:B5@. >MB><C 459AB25==>ABL 2=CH5=8O 2> <=>3>< >1CA;>2;5=0 MDD5:B>< ?5@2>9 2AB@5G8 A 2@0G><, :>340 >= >:07K205B =0 1>;L=>3> =081>;LH55 2;8O=85 2 ?;0=5 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> 70?5G0B;5=8O, :>340 2>;=CNI0O 0B<>AD5@0 >6840=8O 2AB@5G8 @07@5H05BAO >?@0240=85< =04564 2 >B=>H5=88 ?5@A?5:B82K 2K74>@>2;5=8O.  MB>< A;CG05 4065 =51>;LH>5 C;CGH5=85 2 A>AB>O=88 8;8 =5 2KO2;O5<>5 2=5H=5 87<5=5=85 A0<>A>7=0=8O 1>;L=>3> ?>4:@5?;ONB 53> 2>A?@8OB85 A51O :0: A?>A>1=>3> ?>425@30BLAO ;5G51=K< 87<5=5=8O< 8 1KBL A>1>9, B. 5. 74>@>2K<. !C335AB82=>5 @0728B85 0:B82878@CNI59 687=5==>9 :>=F5?F88 "O <>3C, O ?>?@02;NAL" CA?5H=>, 5A;8 2@0G @50;L=> ?@>3=>78@C5B 2>7<>6=>AB8 1>;L=>3>, 708=B5@5A>2K205B 53> ?@>8AE>4OI8<8 87<5=5=8O<8, 5A;8 2=CH5=8O MB8G5A:8 ?@85<;5<K 8 =5 70<5=ONB, 0 @072820NB ?>B5=F80;L=> 74>@>2K5 DC=:F8>=0;L=K5 AB@C:BC@K 53> "O", 5A;8 >=8 8<5NB =5 01AB@0:B=K9, 0 :>=:@5B=K9, >1@0I5==K9 : ;8G=>AB8 E0@0:B5@. "0:, ?@8 =02O7G82KE B8:0E 2=CH05BAO: ""K ?5@5AB05HL >1@0I0BL 2=8<0=85 =0 ;8H=85 42865=8O 8 >=8 CE>4OB 87 B51O", 0 =5: ""8:8 C<5=LH0NBAO 8 ?@>E>4OB".  A2>59 ACI=>AB8 2=CH5=85 >4=><><5=B=>, B. 5. >=> 459AB2C5B A@07C 8;8 =5 459AB2C5B 2>>1I5. 5E0=87< 459AB28O AC335AB82=>9 B5@0?88 A>AB>8B 2 G0AB8G=>9 8;8 ?>;=>9 70<5=5 ?0B>;>38G5A:>9 4><8=0=BK ;5G51=>9, 0:B828@CNI59 DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 74>@>2KE =59@>48=0<8G5A:8E A8AB5< >@30=87<0. A5 ?>A;54CNI85 2=CH5=8O =0?@02;5=K =0 ?>4:@5?;5=85 8 CA8;5=85 4>AB8305<KE ;5G51=KE 87<5=5=89. 0456=>ABL MDD5:B0 2=CH5=8O 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 7028A8B >B AB5?5=8 53> 8=B5@8>@870F88 - 2:;NG5=8O 2 A8AB5<C F5==>AB=KE >@85=B0F88 8=482840.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 - >BB>@305BAO ?>4>1=> 8=>@>4=><C B5;C. 5<0;0O @>;L 2 CA8;5=88 459AB28O 2=CH5=8O ?@8=04;568B @>48B5;O<. ;03>?@8OB=0O A8BC0F8O 2>7=8:05B 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 >=8 A>3;0A=K A A>45@60=85< 2=CH5=89, 25@OB 2 8E MDD5:B82=>ABL, A>>B25BAB2CNI8< >1@07>< ?>>I@ONB 0:B82=>ABL @515=:0 8 871530NB ?@8<5=5=8O 4><0 "2>A?8B0B5;L=KE" :>=B@2=CH5=89 B8?0 "BK =8:>340 8 =8G53> =5 <>65HL A45;0BL B0:, :0: =C6=>". 565;0B5;L=> @57:>5 CA8;5=85 B@51>20=89 A> AB>@>=K @>48B5;59 ?> @50;870F88 2=CH5=8O, GB> ?@52KH05B 2>7<>6=>AB8 @515=:0, 2K7K205B ?@>B5AB 8 2545B : CEC4H5=8N, 0 =5 C;CGH5=8N A>AB>O=8O. 59B@0;87>20BL 459AB285 2=CH5=8O <>65B 8 B@52>6=>5 >6840=85 @>48B5;O<8 53> @57C;LB0B>2, 2K@065=85 =54>25@8O : ?>78B82=K< 87<5=5=8O< 2 A0<>GC2AB288 8 ?>2545=88 @515=:0. >MB><C ?@5420@8B5;L=>5 @07JOA=5=85 8< <5E0=87<0 459AB28O 2=CH5=8O :0: =081>;55 F5;5A>>1@07=>3> 2 40==>< A;CG05 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> A@54AB20 ;5G5=8O =5 <5=55 206=>, G5< ?@>2545=85 53> A0<><C @515=:C. A=>2=0O 7040G0 2=CH5=8O A>AB>8B 2 87<5=5=88 8 CAB@0=5=88 =52@>B8G5A:8E @50:F89, 2>7=8:0NI8E ?>4 2;8O=85< A25@EA8;L=KE ?A8E>35==KE @074@068B5;59.  =8< >B=>AOBAO =54;8B5;L=> ?@>B5:0NI85 @50:F88 AB@0E0, =52@>B8G5A:>5 708:0=85, <CB87<, 0D>=8O, 0<02@>7 8 4@C385 70D8:A8@>20==K5 DC=:F8>=0;L=K5 @0AAB@>9AB20 B5E 8;8 8=KE 0=0;870B>@>2. =CH5=85 =0O2C ?>:070=> B0:65 ?@8 =52@>B8G5A:8E @50:F8OE, 2>7=8:0NI8E ?> CA;>2=>-@5D;5:B>@=><C <5E0=87<C, =0?@8<5@ ?@8 =02O7G82KE AB@0E0E, B8:0E, 708:0=88, =0@CH5=8OE A=0, ?A8E>A><0B8G5A:8E =0@CH5=8OE B8?0 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<K, A8<?B><0E 8AB5@8G5A:>3> :@C30, <0ABC@10F88. #A?5H=> 53> ?@8<5=5=85 ?@8 =52@>B8G5A:>< M=C@575 8 M=:>?@575. 0 @54:8<8 8A:;NG5=8O<8 2=CH5=85 =5MDD5:B82=> ?@8 =52@>B8G5A:8E @0728B8OE, 48DDC7=>< GC2AB25 15A?>:>9AB20, =52@>B8G5A:8E 45?@5AA8OE, 8AB5@8G5A:8E @5=B=KE CAB0=>2:0E, A>A0=88 O7K:0 8 ?0;LF52, 3@K75=88 =>3B59. =CH5=85 =5 CAB@0=O5B =0@CH5==K5 >B=>H5=8O 1>;L=KE 8 2=CB@5==89 :>=D;8:B, => <>65B 1KBL ?>;57=K< 2 ?;0=5 :>@@5:F88 =5:>B>@KE G5@B E0@0:B5@0 8 A>740=8O 1>;LH59 C25@5==>AB8 2 A515. =CH5=85 =5 459AB2C5B, 5A;8 @515=>: =5 ?>=8<05B 53> A<KA;0, 8 >:07K205B A;01>5 459AB285 ?@8 =87:>9 ?>1C48B5;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8, 2K@065==>9 2>71C48<>AB8 8;8 70B>@<>65==>AB8, ?@8 A>?CBAB2CNI59 =52@>7C @5784C0;L=>9 F5@51@0;L=>->@30=8G5A:>9 =54>AB0B>G=>AB8 8 0AB5=88 2A;54AB285 G@57<5@=KE ?5@53@C7>:. > 2A5E MB8E A;CG0OE =87:0O :>=F5=B@0F8O 2=8<0=8O 8 >A;01;5==K9 B>=CA ?@5?OBAB2CNB D8:A0F88 2=CH5=8O 8 <>18;870F88 @5AC@A>2 >@30=87<0. >MB><C >=> AB0=>28BAO F5;5A>>1@07=K< ?>A;5 C<5=LH5=8O >AB@>BK 0DD5:B82=KE @0AAB@>9AB2, C:@5?;5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E A8AB5< >@30=87<0 8 A=OB8O ?5@53@C7>:. =0G5 AC335AB82=0O B5@0?8O ?@52@0I05BAO 2 1>@L1C A 25B@O=K<8 <5;L=8F0<8, 48A:@548B8@CO A51O 2 ?@54AB02;5=88 1>;L=>3> 8 2@0G0. 725AB=0O >AB>@>6=>ABL =5>1E>48<0 ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 8<?5@0B82=KE 8 A;>6=KE 2=CH5=89 C 45B59 A> A;01K< B8?>< =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, A=865==>9 @50:B82=>ABLN, =52@>?0B859, A><0B8G5A:8 >A;01;5==KE 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O >1;040NI8E ?>2KH5==K< GC2AB2>< >B25BAB25==>AB8.  MB8E A;CG0OE >=> <>65B >:070BLAO A25@EA8;L=K< @074@068B5;5< 8 2<5AB5 A B@51>20=8O<8, ;560I8<8 2 53> >A=>25, ?@825AB8 =5 : >A;01;5=8N, 0 : 2@5<5==><C CA8;5=8N B0:8E ?A8E><>B>@=KE =0@CH5=89, :0: B8:, 708:0=85, M=C@57. >;=K9 MDD5:B >B 2=CH5=8O G0I5 >B<5G05BAO 2 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5, G0AB8G=K9 - 2 ?>4@>AB:>2><. @8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 701>;520=8O 3 3>40 8 1>;LH5 2=CH5=85 2 F5;>< <5=55 MDD5:B82=>, G5< ?@8 4;8B5;L=>AB8 701>;520=8O 4> 3 ;5B. =5 7028A8<>AB8 >B MB>3> 2=CH5=85 C <0;LG8:>2 4>AB>25@=> G0I5 ?@82>48B : ?>;>68B5;L=><C (2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB5?5=8) MDD5:BC, G5< C 452>G5:. -B> A2O70=> =5 A 2=CH05<>ABLN, :>B>@0O ?@0:B8G5A:8 >48=0:>20, 0 A 1>;55 2K@065==K< 45AB@C:B82=K< E0@0:B5@>< @0AAB@>9AB2 C 452>G5:.  ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =5 <5=LH55 7=0G5=85, G5< A0<> 2=CH5=85, 8<55B 2=CH05<>ABL 1>;L=>3>. >;55 B>3>, 2=CH5=85 ACI5AB2C5B ;8HL ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C 5ABL 2=CH05<>ABL. >A;54=OO :0: 8=48284C0;L=0O 2>A?@88<G82>ABL : 2=CH5=8O< <>65B 7028A5BL =5 B>;L:> >B ;8G=>AB8 2@0G0, 53> 459AB28B5;L=KE :0G5AB2, => 8 >B B>3>, :0:8< >= ?@54AB02;O5BAO 1>;L=><C. A;8 MB8 ?@54AB02;5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNB 53> >6840=8O<, B> 2=CH05<>ABL <>65B 1KBL 1>;55 2KA>:>9 8 =0>1>@>B. 5 >1KG=K9 C@>25=L A2845B5;LAB2C5B =5 > A;01>AB8, 0 > 381:>AB8, ?;0AB8G=>AB8 ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: =87:89 C@>25=L 2=CH05<>AB8 <>65B C:07K20BL =0 8E @8384=>ABL.  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 =87:0O 2=CH05<>ABL O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< >B@8F0B5;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O : 2@0GC 8 ;5G5=8N. =0 =5A:>;L:> ?>2KH05BAO ?@8 ?5@2KE 2AB@5G0E A 2@0G>< 8 70B5< A=8605BAO 70 AG5B 2>7@0AB0=8O 0:B82=>AB8 A0<8E 1>;L=KE 8 C;CGH5=8O 8E A>AB>O=8O. ;O CA?5E0 ?A8E>B5@0?88 206=> 2>2@5<O 8A?>;L7>20BL ?8: ;5G51=>9 2=CH05<>AB8.  1979 3. =0<8 1K; ?@>2545= M:A?5@8<5=B ?> 87CG5=8N 2=CH05<>AB8 C 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 3-16 ;5B 157 =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:8E =0@CH5=89. 5@2>=0G0;L=> 2 =5< CG0AB2>20;> 1212 8A?KBC5<KE, => ?>A;5 >BA520 8A?KBC5<KE, :20;8D8F8@C5<KE 2>A?8B0B5;O<8 8 CG8B5;O<8 :0: =5@2=K5, 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 2K1>@:5 >AB0;8AL 998 8A?KBC5<KE, 87 =8E 465 <0;LG8:>2 8 533 452>G:8. @>F54C@0 8AA;54>20=8O 70:;NG0;0AL 2 ?@>2545=88 AB0=40@B878@>20==>3> 8=48284C0;L=>3> 8=B5@2LN, 2 E>45 :>B>@>3> 2KOA=O;8AL ?@58<CI5AB25==0O >@85=B0F8O =0 A0<>>F5=:C, >F5=:C 4@C38<8 (A25@AB=8:0<8 8 27@>A;K<8) 8;8 A<5H0==CN >F5=:C, 0 B0:65 65;0=85 AB0BL AB0@H5 8;8 <;04H5 ;81> @0AB8 :0: 5ABL. >?>;=8B5;L=> CG8B5;O >F5=820;8 CA?5205<>ABL 8 040?B8@>20==>ABL CG0I8EAO 2 :>;;5:B825, 0 2>A?8B0B5;8 >B<5G0;8 C?@O<AB2> C 4>H:>;L=8:>2. 0B5< ?@>2>48;8AL ?@>1K =0 2=CH05<>ABL 2 >1;0AB8 >@30=>2 GC2AB2: >1>=O=8O (2=CH5=85 =5ACI5AB2CNI53> 70?0E0 ;5:0@AB20), >AO70=8O (2=CH5=85 GC2AB20 B5?;0 =0 >4=>< CG0AB:5 B5;0 ?>A;5 ?@8:>A=>25=8O : :>65 2 4@C3>< <5AB5 8 2=CH5=85 B>3>, GB> >4=0 87 ?@>18@>: 1>;55 B5?;0O), A;CE0 (2=CH5=85 =5ACI5AB2CNI53> 72C:0, 84CI53> 87 "A?5F80;L=>3> ?@81>@0"). -:A?5@8<5=B0B>@ 1K; 4;O 8A?KBC5<KE =57=0:><K< ;8F><. =CH0NI8< 7=0G5=85< >1;040;0 3;02=K< >1@07>< A0<0 8=D>@<0F8O, A>45@60I0OAO 2 A;>25A=>9 8=AB@C:F88, 0 =5 8A:CAAB25==> A>740205<0O B>=0;L=>ABL @5G8. A?KBC5<K< ?@54>AB02;O;0AL 2>7<>6=>ABL 2K1>@0 @5H5=8O. 0?@8<5@, 8=AB@C:F8O 2 >4=>9 87 ?@>1 70:0=G820;0AL B0:: "...5A;8 BK ?>GC2AB2C5HL 70?0E ;5:0@AB20 2 >4=>9 87 ?@>18@>:, B> A:065HL, GB> 5ABL 70?0E, 5A;8 BK =5 1C45HL GC2AB2>20BL 70?0E0 ;5:0@AB20, B> A:065HL, GB> =5B 70?0E0". "0:8< >1@07><, 2=CH5=85 =5 =>A8;> 8<?5@0B82=>3> E0@0:B5@0, 0 1K;> ?@81;865=> : 5AB5AB25==K< CA;>28O< 2708<>459AB28O 27@>A;KE A 45BL<8 8 ?>4@>AB:0<8. AA;54>20=85 7025@H0;>AL C H:>;L=8:>2 70?>;=5=85< >?@>A=8:0, 0=0;87 :>B>@>3> ?>72>;O; CB>G=8BL B0:85 AB>@>=K ;8G=>AB8 8A?KBC5<KE, :0: 2>>1@065=85, :0B53>@8G=>ABL AC645=89, B@52>6=K9, "<038G5A:89" 8 45?@8<8@>20==K9 =0AB@>9. =0;87 @57C;LB0B>2 M:A?5@8<5=B0 ?>:07K205B, GB> 2=CH05<>ABL :0: ;8G=>AB=> 45B5@<8=8@>20==K9 ?@>F5AA 157CA;>2=>3> ?@8=OB8O 7040205<>9 872=5 8=D>@<0F88 2 B>< 8;8 8=>< 2845 ?@8ACI0 1>;LH8=AB2C >1A;54>20==KE 45B59. 0@O4C A >BACBAB285< A2O78 <564C 2=CH05<>ABLN 8 =5@2=>ABLN, B@52>6=>ABLN, AB@0E0<8 8 45?@8<8@>20==K< =0AB@>5=85< MB> C:07K205B =0 55 5AB5AB25==K9, D878>;>38G5A:89, 0 =5 ?0B>;>38G5A:89 E0@0:B5@. BACBAB285 @07;8G89 2> 2=CH05<>AB8 C <0;LG8:>2 8 452>G5: ?>4G5@:8205B 55 C=825@A0;L=K9 E0@0:B5@, :0: >4=>9 87 D>@< 040?B82=>3> ;8G=>AB=>3> 2708<>459AB28O A >:@C60NI59 A>F80;L=>9 A@54>9. >;LH5 2A53> 2=CH05<KE 2KO2;5=> 2 8-10 ;5B (?8: 2 10 ;5B). -B> >1CA;>2;5=> ?5@5;><=K< MB0?>< 2 @0728B88 A0<>A>7=0=8O, :>340, ?> 40==K< ?@>2545==>3> =0<8 >?@>A0, 2 8-10 ;5B 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85 =0G8=05B ?@8>1@5B0BL A>G5B0=85 A>1AB25==>3> <=5=8O A <=5=85< 4@C38E > A515, G5<, :0: MB> 1K;> @0=LH5, :064>3> 87 MB8E <=5=89 2 >B45;L=>AB8. >A:>;L:C G5;>25: :0: ;8G=>ABL =5 <>65B 7=0G8BL 4;O A51O 157 7=0G8<>AB8 53> 4;O 4@C38E, B> MB> C25;8G8205B 53> 2>A?@88<G82>ABL : A>3;0A>20==K< >F5=:0< 2> 2708<>459AB288 A 4@C38<8 (2 B>< G8A;5 M:A?5@8<5=B0B>@><), >4=8< 87 2K@065=89 :>B>@>9 8 O2;O5BAO 2=CH05<>ABL. >A;5 10 ;5B 2=CH05<>ABL 8<55B B5=45=F8N : ?>AB5?5==><C C<5=LH5=8N 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?>O2;5=8O 2A5 1>;LH59 :@8B8G=>AB8 8 A0<>:>=B@>;O, B. 5. ;8G=>AB=> 45B5@<8=8@>20==>3> ?@>F5AA0 CA;>2=>3> ?@8=OB8O 7040205<>9 872=5 8=D>@<0F88. =CH05<>ABL C <0;LG8:>2 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8, G5< C 452>G5:, 2>A?@>872>48B ?>B@51=>ABL ?@87=0=8O A51O A@548 4@C38E A F5;LN 4>AB865=8O ;8G=>AB=> ?@85<;5<>3> A>F80;L=>3> AB0BCA0. # 452>G5: 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B 55 M<>F8>=0;L=>-;8G=>AB=K9 0A?5:B. # =8E "<038G5A:0O" =0AB@>5==>ABL (25@0 2 =5>1KG=K5, A25@EJ5AB5AB25==K5 O2;5=8O) ACI5AB25==K< >1@07>< (@<0,05) 2;8O5B =0 2=CH05<>ABL. # <0;LG8:>2 8 C 452>G5: GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL : 2=CH0NI5<C 2>7459AB28N 2 >1;0AB8 A;CE>2>3> 0=0;870B>@0 4>AB>25@=> =865 (@<0,001), G5< 2 >1;0AB8 >1>=O=8O 8 >AO70=8O. =CH05<>ABL C 4>H:>;L=8:>2 4>AB>25@=> C<5=LH05BAO (@<0,001) ?@8 C?@O<AB25 - @8384=>9 >@85=B0F88 =0 A2>N B>G:C 7@5=8O. =0 =5 7028A8B >B C@>2=O H:>;L=>9 CA?5205<>AB8, AB5?5=8 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 040?B0F88, 2K@065==>AB8 2>>1@065=8O 8 :0B53>@8G=>AB8 2KA:07K20=89. =CH05<>ABL ?@8 =52@>70E 87CG5=0 C 132 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2. #A@54=5==0O ?> 2A5< ?@>10< 2=CH05<>ABL ?@8 =52@>70E 2 8-9 ;5B >B<5G5=0 2 66% A;CG052, 2 =>@<5 - 70%.  11 - 12 ;5B >=0 =5A:>;L:> 2KH5 (72%), G5< 2 =>@<5 (57%). > B0:>9 G0AB> C?>B@51;O5<>9 ?@>15, :0: 2=CH5=85 =5ACI5AB2CNI53> 70?0E0, @07;8G8O >BACBAB2CNB ?>;=>ABLN.  >1;0AB8 >AO70=8O 8 A;CE0 2=CH05<>ABL =5A:>;L:> 2KH5 ?@8 =52@>70E, G5< 2 =>@<5, >A>15==> 2 11 - 12 ;5B. "0:8< >1@07><, 4>:070=>, GB> 2=CH05<>ABL ?@8 =52@>70E 8;8 =5 >B;8G05BAO >B =>@<K, 8;8 =57=0G8B5;L=> 2KH5 55. =CH05<>ABL @07;8G05BAO ?@8 @07=KE :;8=8G5A:8E D>@<0E =52@>70. 08<5=55 >=0 2K@065=0 ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75 2A;54AB285 M3>F5=B@8G5A:>9 D8:A0F88.  1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 2=CH05<>ABL ?@>O2;O5BAO ?@8 =52@0AB5=88 8 4>AB>25@=> 2KH5 ?> A@02=5=8N A 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7>< ?@8 =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 8 =52@>75 AB@0E0. @><5 ?5@5G8A;5==KE ?@>1, <K 8A?>;L7C5< 8 @O4 4@C38E. "0:, C H:>;L=8:>2 4;O >?@545;5=8O 2=CH05<>AB8 ?@8<5=O5BAO ?@>F54C@0 =52@>;>38G5A:>3> >1A;54>20=8O.  ?>75 ><15@30 1>;L=><C C:07K205BAO, GB> 53> ?>BO=5B 2?5@54. @>8AE>4OI89 ?@8 MB>< =5?@>872>;L=K9 =0:;>= 3>2>@8B > 2=CH05<>AB8. 0==0O ?@>10 =081>;55 2K@065=0 ?@8 =52@>75 AB@0E0 (82%) 8 >1A5AA82=>< =52@>75 (75%), <5=55 - ?@8 =52@0AB5=88 (51%) 8 ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75 (42%). 3@>20O <5B>48:0 ":53;8" B0:65 ?@8<5=O5BAO 4;O >?@545;5=8O 2=CH05<>AB8 2 ?;0=5 2>A?@8OB8O 1>;L=K< M<>F89 2@0G0, 53> 42865=89, A?5F80;L=KE ?@><0E>2 8 >1I53> B5<?0 83@K.  MB>< A;CG05 C@>25=L M<>F8>=0;L=>9 2>2;5:05<>AB8 (70@0605<>AB8 M<>F8O<8) 2KH5 ?@8 =52@0AB5=88, =865 ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75, =52@>75 AB@0E0 8 >A>15==> ?@8 >1A5AA82=>< =52@>75.  83@5 ":53;8" >BG5B;82> 2KO2;O5BAO B0:0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0, :0: @8384=>ABL, >?@545;O5<0O ?> ?@54?>GB5=8N >4=064K 2K1@0==>3> @0A?>;>65=8O :53;59, =5A<>B@O =0 @07;8G=K5 8 1>;55 F5;5A>>1@07=K5 20@80=BK 8E @0AAB0=>2:8 2@0G><.  =081>;LH59 AB5?5=8 @8384=>ABL ?@>O2;O5BAO ?@8 =52@>75 AB@0E0, GB> 5I5 @07 ?>4G5@:8205B 2K@065==K9 ?@8 MB>< =52@>75 AB@0E 87<5=5=8O "O" :0: >B@065=8O AB@0E0 2A53> =>2>3> 8 =58725AB=>3>, 2:;NG0O ?@>F54C@C M:A?5@8<5=B0. 07;8G=K5 AB>@>=K 2=CH05<>AB8 AC<<8@CNBAO 2 10;;0E 2 H:0;5 2=CH05<>AB8. 5 ?>;=0O >F5=:0 AB0=>28BAO 2>7<>6=>9 B>;L:> ?>A;5 87CG5=8O 0=0<=570 687=8, 40==KE >?@>A0 @>48B5;59, ?>2545=8O @515=:0 =0 ?@85<5 8 ?@82545==KE 2KH5 ?@>1. <5AB5 A B5< <K 2848<, GB> 2=CH05<>ABL ACI5AB25==K< >1@07>< 7028A8B >B E0@0:B5@0 8A?>;L7C5<KE 4;O 55 >?@545;5=8O ?@>1. "5E=8:0 ?@>2545=8O 2=CH5=8O 8 53> @07=>284=>AB8 >?8A0=K =0<8 @0=55 (0@1C7>2 . ., 0E0@>2 . ., A052 . ., 1977). @><5 ?@O<>3>, ?@8<5=O5BAO :>A25==>5 2=CH5=85, :>B>@>5 =5 >A>7=05BAO 1>;L=K< 8 2A;54AB285 MB>3> =5 2AB@5G05B ?@>B82>459AB28O. 3> ACI=>ABL 70:;NG05BAO 2 A>740=88 AC335AB82=>9 CAB0=>2:8 =0 2>7=8:=>25=85 ;5G51=>3> MDD5:B0 2 A2O78 A ?@85<>< B5E 8;8 8=KE ;5:0@AB2 8;8 ?@>F54C@. ! F5;LN ?>4:@5?;5=8O MB>9 CAB0=>2:8 ?>A@54AB2>< A0<>2=CH5=8O 45B0;878@C5BAO ?@85< :0: >1I5C:@5?;ONI8E 8 CA?>:0820NI8E A@54AB2, B0: 8 ?@>F54C@ (?@>3C;:8, 20==K, D878>B5@0?8O), ?>4G5@:8205BAO 206=>ABL MB>3> 4;O CA?5E0 ;5G5=8O 2 F5;><. >A25==>5 2=CH5=85 CA?5H=> ?@5645 2A53> C 1>;L=KE A B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=K<8 G5@B0<8 E0@0:B5@0 8 ?>2KH5==K< GC2AB2>< >B25BAB25==>AB8. 1KG=> MB> 45B8 A =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89. < ?@54?8AK205BAO ?C=:BC0;L=K9 @568< 4=O, >?@545;5==>5 2@5<O 2AB020=8O, 70@O4:8, ?@85<0 ?8I8, 2KE>40 87 4><0, ?@83>B>2;5=8O C@>:>2, ?@85<0 ;5:0@AB2, >B4KE0, >BE>40 :> A=C 8 B. 4. A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 MDD5:B 2 40==>< A;CG05 >A=>20= =0 @8BC0;L=>< ?@54?8A0=88 >1@070 459AB289, GB> A>7405B C 1>;L=>3> GC2AB2> >?@545;5==>AB8, >B2;5:05B >B =02O7G82KE 459AB289 8 70<5I05B @8BC0;K, <>B828@>20==K5 GC2AB2>< AB@0E0. >A25==K< 2=CH0NI8< 7=0G5=85< >1;040NB >?@545;5==>5 2@5<O 2878B0, 70?@5B 4@C38E 284>2 ;5G5=8O, ">1O7K20=85" ?0F85=B0 B8?0 ">340 BK ?@845HL G5@57 <5AOF, B> A:065HL <=5...", C?>B@51;5=85 2@0G>< B0:8E >1>@>B>2, :0: " 0AA:068, :0: BK GC2AB2C5HL A51O B5?5@L", "!:068, 2 G5< B515 AB0;> ;CGH5", "/ 70?8HC 2A5, GB> BK A:065HL" 8 B. 4. '0AB>B0 A50=A>2 2=CH5=8O 20@L8@C5BAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 2>7@0AB0 8 :;8=8G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59. '5< <5=LH5 2>7@0AB 8 BO65;55 A>AB>O=85, B5< G0I5 ?@>2>4OBAO 2=CH5=8O. ;O 8E @50;870F88 B@51C5BAO >?@545;5==>5 2@5<O, ?>MB><C A;8H:>< G0AB>5 ?@8<5=5=85 <>65B ?@825AB8 : ?>O2;5=8N AC335AB82=>3> "1;>:0", :>340 ?A8E8:0 ?0F85=B0 =5 2 A>AB>O=88 CA2>8BL 8 ?5@5@01>B0BL >1J5< B@51>20=89, ;560I8E 2 >A=>25 2=CH5=8O. ">340 >=> ?@52@0I05BAO 2 A2>N ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL. 54:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 2=CH5=8O 8A:;NG05B ?>4:@5?;5=85 8 =59B@0;87C5B 53> 459AB285. !CI5AB25==CN @>;L ?@8>1@5B05B >?@545;5=85 >?B8<0;L=>3> 8=B5@20;0 2@5<5=8 <564C ?5@2K< 8 2B>@K< A50=A>< 2=CH5=8O. 01;N45=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> 4;O H:>;L=8:>2 AB0@H5 10 ;5B ?@545;L=K9 8=B5@20; A>AB02;O5B >4=C =545;N, 4;O 45B59 6-10 ;5B - 4-5 4=59, 0 4;O 45B59 3-6 ;5B - 2-3 4=O. >?@>A > G0AB>B5 A;54CNI8E A50=A>2 @5H05BAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 48=0<8:8 B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 87<5=5=89. ?B8<0;L=0 B0:0O G0AB>B0 2=CH5=89, ?@8 :>B>@>9 1>;L=>9 ?@8E>48B :064K9 @07 A C;CGH5=85<. @>4>;68B5;L=>ABL :C@A0 AC335AB82=>9 B5@0?88 >B=>A8B5;L=> =525;8:0, :0: ?@028;>, =5 1>;LH5 =5A:>;L:8E =545;L.  MB>B A@>: 2 >A=>2=>< 8AG5@?K20NBAO 55 2>7<>6=>AB8. !@54=55 G8A;> 2=CH5=89 ?@8 =52@0AB5=88 A>AB02;O5B 2,6, ?@8 >1A5AA82=>< =52@>75 - 2,5, ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75 - 3,1. > 4065 MB> =51>;LH>5 G8A;> 2=CH5=89 8A:;NG05B ?@8<5=5=85 >48=0:>2>9 D>@<C;K. =CH5=85 2A5340 =>A8B ?>MB0?=K9 8 ?>AB5?5==> CA;>6=ONI89AO E0@0:B5@. >A;5 2K?>;=5=8O AB>OI8E ?5@54 =8< 7040G 8;8 ?@8 A=865=88 8=B5=A82=>AB8 ;5G51=KE 87<5=5=89 =5>1E>48<> A2>52@5<5==> ?5@59B8 : 4@C38< <5B>48:0< ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?@58<CI5AB25==> 83@>2>3> 8 @07JOA=ONI53> ?;0=0 8 38?=>B5@0?88. 8?=>B5@0?8O. 8?=>7 87402=0 =0E>48B A2>5 ?@8<5=5=85 ?@8 ;5G5=88 =52@>7>2. > . . 02;>2C (1951), 38?=>7 :0: ?5@5E>4=>5 A>AB>O=85 >B A=0 : 1>4@AB2>20=8N ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 8A:CAAB25==> 2K720==>5 70I8B=>5 B>@<>65=85. . . ;0460;>20, . . >6=>2, !. . 0<5=5F:89 (1976) 284OB 2 MB>< B>@<>65=88 >A>1CN D>@<C ?5@5@01>B:8 8=D>@<0F88, >B;8G=CN >B A=0 8 1>4@AB2>20=8O. 8?=>B5@0?8O A ?@0:B8G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, >ACI5AB28<0 C 45B59 ?>A;5 4 ;5B.  1>;55 @0==5< 2>7@0AB5 =5 2A5340 C405BAO ?>;CG8BL 38?=>B8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85, 8 B@51C5BAO 4;8B5;L=0O ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O ?>43>B>2:0 1>;L=>3>. -B> =5 8A:;NG05B >B45;L=KE 1;03>?@8OB=KE @57C;LB0B>2 8A?>;L7>20=8O 38?=>B5@0?88 2 1>;55 @0==5< 2>7@0AB5, >A>15==> ?@8 ?5@5E>4=KE A>AB>O=8OE <564C A=>< 8 1>4@AB2>20=85< 2 G0AK 5AB5AB25==>3> 4;O @515=:0 4=52=>3> A=0. > 2A5E A;CG0OE =5>1E>48<K >?@545;5==0O :>=F5=B@0F8O 2=8<0=8O =0 A>45@60=88 38?=>B8G5A:8E 2=CH5=89 8 ?>=8<0=85 8E A<KA;0. # 45B59 <;04H53> 2>7@0AB0 A50=A ?@>2>48BAO 2 ?@8ACBAB288 <0B5@8, :>B>@0O "C10N:8205B" @515=:0, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2@0G A>>B25BAB25==> 55 B>=C ?@>87=>A8B ?>=OB=K5 4;O @515=:0 A;>20 2=CH5=8O. 0 MDD5:B82=>ABL 38?=>B5@0?88 2;8ONB <=>385 D0:B>@K. @><5 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE 7=0=89, 8<5NB 7=0G5=85 >A>15==>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 2@0G0. 5GL 845B =5 > "<038G5A:><" 2;8O=88, ACI5AB2CNI5< B>;L:> 2 ?@54AB02;5=88 ?0F85=B0, 8 4065 =5 > 1>;55 2K@065==>< 18>?>;5 C =5:>B>@KE 38?=>B5@0?52B>2. ;02=K<8 O2;ONBAO 25@0 A0<>3> 2@0G0 2 2>7<>6=>AB8 38?=>B5@0?88, ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5 C<5=85 8 A>>B25BAB285 53> ?>2545=8O >1@07C, A>740==><C 2>>1@065=85< 1>;L=>3>, 53> =045645 8 25@5 2 87;5G5=85. AB020OAL 2 ?@545;0E "CA;>2=>9 @50;L=>AB8", 38?=>B5@0?52B =5 4>;65= G@57<5@=> @072820BL 8;8 CAB@0=OBL MB8 ?@54AB02;5=8O, B0: :0: >=8 O2;ONBAO =5>1E>48<>9 ?@54?>AK;:>9 CA?5H=>AB8 ;5G5=8O. 54>25@85 8 >B@8F0B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : 38?=>7C =5@54:> 3>2>@8B > ?0@0=>9O;L=KE 8 B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=KE G5@B0E E0@0:B5@0 A0<>3> 1>;L=>3>, 53> @>48B5;59 8 =5:>B>@KE A?5F80;8AB>2. =>340 @>48B5;8 B@51CNB 8A?>;L7>20=8O B>;L:> 38?=>B5@0?88, :>B>@0O >68405BAO :0: "GC4>", A?>A>1=>5 <3=>25==> 2K;5G8BL @515=:0 8 87<5=8BL 53> E0@0:B5@ 2 C3>4=CN 4;O =8E AB>@>=C. 5@54:> 70 ?>4>1=K< >B=>H5=85< A:@K20NBAO AB@5<;5=85 871560BL >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 2>7=8:=>25=85 701>;520=8O C @515=:0, 02B>@8B0@=>ABL 8;8 =52@>B8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85. A;8 2@0G 845B =02AB@5GC B@51>20=8O< @>48B5;59, B> 2AB@5G05B =530B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 @515=:0, 4;O :>B>@>3> 38?=>B5@0?8O 2 MB>< A;CG05 O2;O5BAO M:2820;5=B>< @>48B5;LA:>3> =0:070=8O. >48B5;8 65 AG8B0NB >BACBAB285 @57C;LB0B>2 ;5G5=8O A;54AB285< =54>AB0B>G=>9 :20;8D8:0F88 2@0G0, =0 :>B>@>3> ?5@5:;04K20NB >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 A>7402H55AO ?>;>65=85 8 A2>8 =5@5H5==K5 ?@>1;5<K.  MB8E CA;>28OE 2@0G >:07K205BAO 4;O A5<L8 2 @>;8 ":>7;0 >B?CI5=8O". >4>1=K9 702KH5==K9 C@>25=L ?@8BO70=89 @>48B5;59 =5>1E>48<> :>@@838@>20BL 70@0=55, ?>4G5@:=C2, GB> 38?=>B5@0?8O - MB> ?@5645 2A53> A@54AB2> C:@5?;5=8O >@30=87<0, ?>2KH5=8O B>=CA0 8 70I8B=KE A8;, A>740NI55 =5>1E>48<K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 4;O 2K74>@>2;5=8O. 5 40NBAO >15I0=8O 2K;5G8BL 1>;L=>3> : >?@545;5==><C 4=N 8 A50=AC, B0: :0: C =53> <>65B @0728BLAO AB@0E =5 >?@0240BL >6840=89 8 B@51>20=89 2@0G0, GB> A0<> ?> A515 A?>A>1=> =59B@0;87>20BL MDD5:B 38?=>B5@0?88. #:07K205BAO =0 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>2545=8O ?@8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 5I5 =5A:>;L:8E <5=55 ?@>4>;68B5;L=KE :C@A>2 38?=>B5@0?88, :>B>@K5 ?>72>;OB =5 B>;L:> 70:@5?8BL 4>AB83=CBK5 @57C;LB0BK, => 8 @0728BL 8E, 8A?>;L7>202 2>7@>AH85 ?>B5=F88 >@30=87<0. @0:B8:0 ?>:07K205B, GB> @>48B5;8, :>B>@K5 B@51CNB 38?=>70 4;O A2>8E 45B59, G0AB> =C640NBAO 2 =5< A0<8, ?>MB><C 8< >:07K205BAO =5>1E>48<0O <548:0<5=B>7=0O 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O ?><>IL, 2:;NG0O ?0@0;;5;L=K9 :C@A 38?=>B5@0?88. 5:>B>@K5 45B8 8 27@>A;K5 1>OBAO 38?=>70, :>B>@K9 ?@54AB02;O5BAO :0: =5GB> A?>A>1=>5 87<5=8BL 8E ;8G=>ABL, B@0=AD>@<8@>20BL "O".  1>;55 H8@>:>< ?;0=5 MB> 3>2>@8B > AB@0E5 35B5@>2;8O=8O, ?@8=C645=8O, ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 70@065=8O, 8<5NI53> 2 A2>59 >A=>25 =52@>B8G5A:89 AB@0E 87<5=5=8O "O". BAN40 A;54C5B 8 AB@0E 3;C1>:>3> 38?=>70 A> A=>?>4>1=K< 87<5=5=85< A>7=0=8O. 0==K9 AB@0E 2K@0605BAO 2 1>O7=8 70A=CBL 8 =5 ?@>A=CBLAO, 2 G5< >B@0605BAO =5 B>;L:> AB@0E A<5@B8, => 8 AB@0E ?>B5@OBL 2> A=5 "O", A2>N A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL 8 A2>1>4C, B. 5. ?@>A=CBLAO 8 1KBL 4@C38<, =5 B0:8<, :0:8< 1K E>B5;>AL 1KBL. 0: ?@028;>, ;8F0, 1>OI85AO 38?=>70, ?;>E> 70AK?0NB 25G5@><, >?0A0OAL :>H<0@=KE A=>2845=89, 2 :>B>@KE >=8 15AA8;L=K ?5@54 ;8F>< =042830NI59AO >?0A=>AB8. A5< MB8< >1JOA=ONBAO 8=>340 2AB@5G0NI85AO B@C4=>AB8 2E>645=8O 2 38?=>B8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85, => 8<5==> 1;03>40@O MB8< B@C4=>ABO< C405BAO C<5=LH8BL AB@0E 87<5=5=8O "O", ?>A:>;L:C 45A5=A818;878@CNI8< 7=0G5=85< >1;0405B =5>4=>:@0B=> 2>A?@>872>48<K9 "38?=>B8G5A:89 >?KB" ?0F85=B0, 2KABC?0NI89 :0: <>45;L =>2>3>, => ?@8=F8?80;L=> >1@0B8<>3> 8, 3;02=>5, ;5G51=>3> A>AB>O=8O. A;>6=O5B 38?=>B5@0?8N 15A?>:>9AB2> 1>;L=>3>, >A>15==> 5A;8 >=> ?@>O2;O5BAO AB@0E0<8 >B45;5=8O >B <0B5@8, >48=>G5AB20 8 B5<=>BK. >4>1=K5 AB@0E8 :>@@838@CNBAO 4> 38?=>B5@0?88. @><5 B>3>, A0<8 A50=AK, ?@>2>48<K5 157 <0B5@8 8 2 70B5<=5==>< ?><5I5=88, 2KABC?0NB 2 :0G5AB25 A@54AB20, >A;01;ONI53> AB@0E. @5?OBAB2CNB 38?=>B5@0?88 70B>@<>65==>ABL 1>;L=>3>, >BACBAB285 25@K 2 A51O 8 ?5AA8<87<. -B8 =565;0B5;L=K5 O2;5=8O 4>;6=K 1KBL CAB@0=5=K 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@5420@8B5;L=>9 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. "> 65 >B=>A8BAO 8 : A=OB8N >AB@>BK ?A8E><>B>@=>9 2>71C48<>AB8 8 38?5@0:B82=>AB8, B0: :0: 2 ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 2K=C645==>5 >3@0=8G5=85 42865=89 2> 2@5<O A50=A0 A>7405B =0?@O65=85 8 ?@5?OBAB2C5B CA2>5=8N 2=CH5=8O. # ?>4@>AB:>2 2>7<>6=> A>?@>B82;5=85 ;5G5=8N 8;8 ?0AA82=>ABL, 5A;8 38?=>B5@0?8O ?@8<5=O5BAO A;8H:>< @0=>, 70<5=OO >1I5=85 A 2@0G>< 8 >1AC645=85 ?@>1;5<. 8?=>B5@0?8O =5MDD5:B82=0 =5 B>;L:> ?@8 2K@065==>< AB@0E5 38?=>70, => 8 ?@8 ?@>B>?0B8G5A:>9 B@52>35, 03@5AA82=>AB8, =52@>B8G5A:8E, 8 ?0B>E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8E @0728B8OE. =0 ?@>B82>?>:070=0 ?@8 =0;8G88 8AB5@8G5A:8E ?@>5:F89 8 @5=B=KE CAB0=>2>:, A:;>==>AB8 : :>=D01C;OF8O< 8 38?=03>38G5A:8< 30;;NF8=0F8O<. #A?5H=>ABL 38?=>B5@0?88 7028A8B =5 B>;L:> >B 0:B82=>AB8 1>;L=>3> 2 ?@>F5AA5 ;5G5=8O, ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8E @5AC@A>2 53> >@30=87<0 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >?KB0 2@0G0, => 8 >B 2K?>;=5=8O ?>A;54=8< @O40 ?@5420@8B5;L=KE CA;>289, 206=59H55 87 =8E 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K ?@8<5=OBL 38?=>B5@0?8N B>;L:> ?>A;5 C<5=LH5=8O >AB@>BK =52@>70, 0:BC0;L=>AB8 =52@>B8G5A:>3> :>=D;8:B0 8, =0A:>;L:> MB> 2>7<>6=>, ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> C:@5?;5=8O >A;01;5==KE A8; >@30=87<0. >MB><C >=0 O2;O5BAO 70:;NG8B5;L=K< MB0?>< 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. A:;NG5=85< 87 40==>3> ?@028;0 O2;ONBAO >AB@K5 =52@>B8G5A:85 @50:F88, 2>7=8:0NI85 2 @57C;LB0B5 A25@EA8;L=KE ?A8E>35==KE @074@068B5;59, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?A8E>35==K9 <CB87<, =52@>B8G5A:>5 708:0=85, @5A?8@0B>@=K5 B8:8, 2K:@8:8, 8AB5@8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20 2 2845 0<02@>70, 0=5AB5788, ":><:0" 2 3>@;5, ?0@57>2 8 ?0@0;8G59. @8 MB8E =0@CH5=8OE F5;5A>>1@07=> :0: <>6=> 1>;55 @0==55 ?@8<5=5=85 H>:>2>3> 2=CH5=8O 2 A>AB>O=88 @5;0:A0F88 8;8 38?=>70, GB>, =0@O4C A 4@C38<8 <5B>48:0<8 38?=>B5@0?88, @0AA<>B@5=> =0<8 @0=55 (0@1C7>2 . ., 0E0@>2 . ., A052 . ., 1977).  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 38?=>B5@0?8O ?@8<5=O5BAO ?>A;5 :C@A0 2=CH5=8O =0O2C. A;8 MDD5:B >B =53> >BACBAB2C5B ?>;=>ABLN, B> 38?=>B5@0?8O <>65B 40BL ;8HL G0AB8G=K9 MDD5:B, B0: :0: >1I8< 4;O >158E <5B>48: O2;O5BAO 2=CH5=85. A;8 65 2=CH5=85 =0O2C >:070;> "@07@KE;ONI55" 459AB285 =0 =52@>B8G5A:CN A8<?B><0B8:C, B> MDD5:B82=>ABL ?>A;54CNI59 38?=>B5@0?88 >1JOA=O5BAO ;CGH59 D8:A0F859 2=CH5=8O 1;03>40@O A=865=8N 2 38?=>75 :@8B8G5A:>3> 2>A?@8OB8O 1>;L=>3>, 0 B0:65 A540B82=K< 8 >1I5C:@5?;ONI8< 459AB285< 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O. =0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 2KA>:89 MDD5:B, G5< >B 2=CH5=8O =0O2C, =01;N405BAO >B 8A?>;L7>20=8O 38?=>B5@0?88 ?@8 0AB5=>=52@>B8G5A:8E A>AB>O=8OE 8 @0AAB@>9AB20E A=0. >;55 CA?5H=0 38?=>B5@0?8O ?@8 =52@>70E A 2535B0B82=K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 8 ?A8E>A><0B8G5A:8E 701>;520=8OE. @8 38?=>B5@0?88 =52@>7>2, =5A<>B@O =0 >BACBAB285 A?5F80;L=KE 2=CH5=89, =5@54:> >1;53G05BAO B5G5=85 =5:>B>@KE A>?CBAB2CNI8E A><0B8G5A:8E 701>;520=89 8 @565 2>7=8:0NB ?@>ABC4=K5 701>;520=8O. A5 MB> C:07K205B B0:65 =0 A><0B>B@>?=K9 A?5:B@ 459AB28O 38?=>B5@0?88, ?>2KH0NI59 @50:B82=>ABL >@30=87<0. =0 F5;5A>>1@07=0 8 ?@8 =5:>B>@KE A>?CBAB2CNI8E 0;;5@38G5A:8E 8<<C==KE =0@CH5=8OE, :>340 8A?>;L7>20=85 ;5:0@AB2 70B@C4=5=> 87-70 848>A8=:@078G5A:8E @50:F89. >A@54AB2>< 2=CH5=8O 2 3;C1>:>< 38?=>75 <>6=> =59B@0;87>20BL B@02<8@CNI55 A>45@60=85 =5:>B>@KE :>H<0@=KE A=>2845=89. =0G0;5 2=CH05BAO 8=48DD5@5=B=0O, 0 70B5< M<>F8>=0;L=> ?>;>68B5;L=0O B5<0B8:0 A=>2845=89. >AB83=CB0O <>45;L 65;05<>3> ?>2545=8O 70:@5?;O5BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>A;54CNI8E 83@>2KE 70=OB89.  3;C1>:>< 38?=>75 A>740NBAO =5>1E>48<K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 4;O CAB@0=5=8O D>189, :>B>@K5 B@C4=> 2>A?@>8725AB8 2 83@5 8;8 @8AC=:0E.  =8< >B=>AOBAO =02O7G82K5 AB@0E8 >6840=8O, =5AG0ABLO, 701>;520=8O, A<5@B8 8 B. 4.  A5@88 A50=A>2 1>;L=><C 2=CH05BAO >1@07 C25@5==>3> 2 A515 G5;>25:0. >;57=> 4>?>;=8B5;L=>5 2=CH5=85 =>G=KE A=>2845=89, 345 1>;L=>9 2848B A51O A2>1>4=K< >B AB@0E>2. 50;870F8O MB8E A=>2845=89 O2;O5BAO 1;03>?@8OB=K< ?@>3=>AB8G5A:8< ?@87=0:><. :>=G0B5;L=>5 CAB@0=5=85 AB@0E>2 4>AB8305BAO ?@8 ?>A;54CNI8E >1AC645=8OE A 1>;L=K< 8 ?5@5AB@>9:5 53> >B=>H5=89. 8?=>7 A>7405B 1;03>?@8OB=K5 CA;>28O 4;O B@5=8@>2:8 =0 >?@545;5==>< MB0?5 ;5G5=8O =5:>B>@KE DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A8AB5< >@30=87<0, =0?@8<5@ 4;O 2K@01>B:8 CA;>2=>3> @5D;5:A0 =0 G8ABCN @5GL, ?@>872>;L=>9 @53C;OF88 4KE0=8O ?@8 ?@8ABC?0E 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<K 8 B. 4. >A@54AB2>< 38?=>B5@0?88 CAB@0=O5BAO CA;>2=>-@5D;5:B>@=>5 459AB285 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E 4><8=0=B, =>@<0;87C5BAO A>=, C<5=LH0NBAO ?@>O2;5=8O F5@51@0;L=>9 0AB5=88 8 C;CGH05BAO 2535B0B82=0O @53C;OF8O >@30=87<0. 1I5A><0B8G5A:89 8 =59@>2535B0B82=K9 A?5:B@ 459AB28O 38?=>B5@0?88 >1JOA=O5B 55 MDD5:B ?@8 A>?CBAB2CNI59 =52@>7C =52@>?0B88. >6=> 4065 CB25@640BL, GB> G5< 1>;55 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 45B5@<8=8@>20= =52@>7, B5< <5=55 2K@065= MDD5:B 38?=>B5@0?88, ?>A:>;L:C >=0 =5 CAB@0=O5B =52@>B8G5A:89 :>=D;8:B 8 =0@CH5==K5 >B=>H5=8O. >;55 B>3>, ?@8 2K@065==>< :>=D;8:B5 8 ?>?KB:0E A3;048BL 38?=>B5@0?859 0:BC0;L=K5 ;8G=>AB=K5 ?@>1;5<K >=0 70@0=55 >1@5G5=0 =0 =5C40GC. "@0=:28;870B>@K, =07=0G05<K5 >4=>2@5<5==> A 38?=>B5@0?859, <>3CB C;CGH0BL 2E>645=85 2 38?=>B8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85, => 70<54;ONB 2K@01>B:C CA;>2=KE @50:F89 =0 2=CH5=85, ?>MB><C ?@8 =0;8G88 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E ?>:070=89 8E ;CGH5 ?@8<5=OBL 4> 8;8 ?>A;5 =55. 1>A=>20==>ABL ?@8<5=5=8O 38?=>B5@0?88 O2;O5BAO 70;>3>< 55 CA?5H=>AB8. A>1K9 8=B5@5A 4;O ?A8E>B5@0?88 ?@54AB02;O5B 38?=>:0B0@A8A - 2KO2;5=85 2 A>AB>O=88 38?=>70 @0=55 8A?KB0==KE 8 2?>A;54AB288 0<=578@>20==KE ?5@56820=89. = ?>;575= 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 =5 C405BAO @0A:@KBL E0@0:B5@ ?A8E8G5A:>9 B@02<K, G0AB8G=> >B@060NI59AO 2 ?>2545=88 1>;L=>3>, 2 A>45@60=88 53> A=>2845=89 8 D0=B0789. -B8G5A:8 ?@>4C<0==>5 2>A?@>872545=85 ?A8E8G5A:>9 B@02<K 2 38?=>75 =5 A>?@>2>6405BAO ?@56=59 >AB@>B>9 ?5@56820=89 2284C 7@8B5;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0 55 2>A?@8OB8O, 5AB5AB25==>3> "87=>A0" 2 ?0<OB8, 70I8B=>3> @5038@>20=8O 1>;L=>3> 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 >1AB0=>2:8 ?@>2545=8O A50=A0. A;01;5==K9 E0@0:B5@ ?>2B>@=KE ?5@56820=88 AB@0E0 A>AB02;O5B >A=>2C ;5G51=>3>, 45A5=A818;878@CNI53> MDD5:B0 38?=>:0B0@A8A0. A:@KB85 1078A=>3> AB@0E0 ?>72>;O5B 1>;55 =0?@02;5==> ?>AB@>8BL ?@>F5AA ?>A;54CNI59 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 4>18BLAO 2 =59 ;CGH8E @57C;LB0B>2. A?>;L7>20=85 38?=>:0B0@A8A0 >?@0240==> C =5:>B>@KE 1>;L=KE A 708:0=85<, =0G02H8<AO 2 ?5@2K5 3>4K 687=8 ?>A;5 H>:>2>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 B@02<K (8A?C30). 5 2>A?@>872545=85 2 38?=>75 ?@82>48B : C<5=LH5=8N A2O70==>3> A =59 AB@0E0. >A;54CNI55 >B@065=85 2KO2;5==>9 ?A8E>B@02<K 2 83@5 8 @8AC=:0E A?>A>1AB2C5B 55 ?>;=>9 4570:BC0;870F88 2 2>A?@8OB88 1>;L=KE. BACBAB285 AB@0E0 2 B5E 8;8 8=KE A8BC0F8OE >1I5=8O 45;05B 1>;55 CA?5H=>9 ?>A;54CNICN @01>BC =04 @5GLN. @8 ?@>2545=88 38?=>:0B0@A8A0 2>7=8:05B 2>?@>A > B><, 2 :0:>9 AB5?5=8 @50;87C5BAO 2=CH5==0O B@0=AD>@<0F8O 2>7@0AB0. ?KB ?>72>;O5B 2@0GC 48DD5@5=F8@>20BL 2>7@0AB=K5 @07;8G8O 2 38?=>75 =0 >A=>20=88 87<5=5=89 3>;>A0, <8<8G5A:8E 8 ?>2545=G5A:8E @50:F89. 4=0:> MB> =5 2A5340 C1548B5;L=>. ! F5;LN >1J5:B82870F88 2=CH5==>3> 2 38?=>75 2>7@0AB0 <K ?@>25;8 M:A?5@8<5=B, 2 :>B>@>< CG0AB2>20;> 10 ?>4@>AB:>2 14-15 ;5B, ?@>E>482H8E ;5G5=85 ?> ?>2>4C ;>3>=52@>70.  ?@54H5AB2CNI8E A50=A0E 1K;0 4>AB83=CB0 3;C1>:0O AB5?5=L 38?=>70. > 2@5<O >G5@54=>3> A50=A0 ?>4@>AB:C 2=CH0;AO 2>7@0AB 6 ;5B, ?>A;5 G53> ?A8E>;>3 (. .. 0=0AN:) ?@>2>48; 8AA;54>20=85 53> 8=B5;;5:B0 ?> -WISC, 87>1@060O 2>A?8B0B5;O 45BA:>3> A040. !50=A 70:0=G820;AO 2=CH5=85< 0<=5788 ?@>2545==>9 15A54K. '5@57 =545;N 8=B5;;5:B 8AA;54>20;AO 2=>2L, => C65 2 >1KG=>9 >1AB0=>2:5. !@02=5=85 42CE >1A;54>20=89 ?>:070;>, GB> 2 38?=>75 >B25BK 8A?KBC5<KE A>>B25BAB2>20;8 >B25B0< 45B59 9-10 ;5B. 07=8F0 <564C MB8< 8 2=CH5==K< (6 ;5B) 2>7@0AB>< >B=>A8;0AL 3;02=K< >1@07>< : AD5@5 25@10;L=>3> 8=B5;;5:B0. !;54>20B5;L=>, ?@8 38?=>:0B0@A8A5 8<55B <5AB> 87<5=5==>5 2>A?@8OB85 1>;L=K< A2>53> 2>7@0AB0, :>B>@>5 G0AB8G=> A>>B25BAB2C5B 2=CH5==><C. =CH5=85 0:BC0;L=KE A8BC0F89 2 38?=>75 ?>4B25@6405B 273;O4 =0 =53> :0: =0 70I8B=>5 B>@<>65=85. @>8;;NAB@8@C5< MB> =0 ?@8<5@5 E>@>H> 38?=015;L=KE 1>;L=KE 14-15 ;5B A ;>3>=52@>7><.  42CE ?5@2KE 3@C??0E, ?> 9 1>;L=KE 2 :064>9, :C@A ;5G5=8O B>;L:> =0G8=0;AO, 2 G5BK@5E :>=B@>;L=KE 3@C??0E, ?> 8 1>;L=KE, >= 1K; 70:>=G5= =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 =0704.  ?5@2KE 3@C??0E 2 A5@548=5 A50=A0 2=CH0;8AL A 15-<8=CB=K< 8=B5@20;>< 425 A8BC0F88: 2 >4=>9 3@C??5 2=0G0;5 A8BC0F8O "H:>;0", 70B5< ";5A", 2 4@C3>9, =0>1>@>B, 2=0G0;5 ";5A", 70B5< "H:>;0". !8BC0F8O "H:>;0" A>74020;0AL A;54CNI8< 2=CH5=85<: "!59G0A ?> AG5BC 1-2-3 :064K9 87 20A 1C45B =0E>48BLAO 8 H:>;5 8 >B25G0BL C@>:". !8BC0F8O ";5A": "!59G0A ?> AG5BC 1-2-3 :064K9 87 20A 1C45B =0E>48BLAO 2 ;5AC. 45B 4>64L. 0< E>;>4=> 2 =5?@8OB=>". '5@57 2 <8=CBK =0E>645=8O 2 2>>1@0605<>9 A8BC0F88 2=CH0;>AL: ""5?5@L =8GB> =5 8<55B 7=0G5=8O, :@><5 3;C1>:>3> ;5G51=>3> A=0. !?8B5 3;C1>:>, :@5?:>". >A;5 30-<8=CB=>9 ?0C7K 1>;L=K5 1K;8 2K2545=K 87 38?=>70. @8 8=48284C0;L=>9 15A545 704020;AO 2>?@>A: ""K ?><=8HL > B><, GB> 8A?KBK20; 2 38?=>75, 8;8 =5B?" # 4 1>;L=KE 87 18 1K;0 ?>;=0O 0<=578O. AB0;L=K5 14 C:07K20;8 =0 7@8B5;L=K5 >1@07K, A2O70==K5 A ?@51K20=85< 2 ;5AC. 0?@8<5@: ">-<>5<C, O 1K; :0: 2 ;5AC", "!=8;>AL GB>-B> 2@>45 ;5A0", "K;> E>;>4=>", "/ ?>?0; ?>4 4>64L" 8 B. 4.  B> 65 2@5<O =8:B> 87 MB8E 14 1>;L=KE =5 2A?><=8; > A8BC0F88 "H:>;0". !;54>20B5;L=>, >G5@54=>ABL 2=CH5=8O A8BC0F89 =5 8<5;0 7=0G5=8O. 0: <>6=> >1JOA=8BL ?>;CG5==K5 40==K5? ;O 1>;L=KE A BO65;K< 708:0=85< 8 AB@0E>< ?5@54 >B25B0<8 2 :;0AA5 H:>;0 ?@54AB02;O;0 1>;55 2K@065==CN ?A8E>B@02<8@CNICN A8BC0F8N. >MB><C >=0 =5 1K;0 4>?CI5=0 2 A>7=0=85, B. 5. 0<=578@>20=0. !8BC0F8O ";5A", =5A<>B@O =0 A2>5 >B@8F0B5;L=>5 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 72CG0=85, ?>4@07C<5205B <>;G0=85, 0 =5 @5G52>5 >1I5=85 8 ?>MB><C 4>?CA:05BAO 2 A>7=0=85. # ?>4@>AB:>2 :>=B@>;L=KE 3@C?? @5GL 1K;0 G8AB>9 8;8 1;87:>9 : MB><C. BACBAB285 708:0=8O 8 AB@0E0 ?5@54 >B25B0<8 2 H:>;5 ?@825;> : B><C, GB> ?@8 0=0;>38G=>< ?>AB@>5=88 M:A?5@8<5=B0 C 8 87 32 ?>4@>AB:>2 1K;0 ?>;=0O 0<=578O =0 A>45@60=85 2=CH5=89, >AB0;L=K5 24 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 <5@5 ?><=8;8 >15 2=CH5==K5 A8BC0F88. "0:8< >1@07><, M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=> ?>4B25@6405BAO ACI5AB2>20=85 C 1>;L=KE A =52@>70<8 =5>A>7=0205<>-70I8B=>3> B8?0 @5038@>20=8O 2 2845 =54>?CI5=8O 2 A>7=0=85 =081>;55 B@02<8@CNI8E ?5@56820=89 8 B5< A0<K< =0;8G85 ?@8 38?=>75 70I8B=>->E@0=8B5;L=>9 >@30=870F88 45OB5;L=>AB8 <>730. !;54C5B >AB0=>28BLAO 8 =0 2>?@>A5 > 38?=015;L=>AB8. 8?=015;L=>ABL, :0: 8 2=CH05<>ABL, >B@0605B A8BC0F8N ;5G5=8O 8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =>@<0;L=CN D878>;>38G5A:CN E0@0:B5@8AB8:C, 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB5?5=8 A2>9AB25==CN 2A5< ;N4O<. 0 20 ;5B @01>BK A 1>;L=K<8 =52@>70<8 <K =5 2845;8 =8 >4=>3> A;CG0O B0: =07K205<>3> ?0B>;>38G5A:>3> ?@8AB@0AB8O : 38?=>7C.  ?@>F5AA5 38?=>B5@0?88 >B<5G05BAO A8BC0B82=>5 ?>2KH5=85 38?=015;L=>AB8 2 @57C;LB0B5 2K@01>B:8 CA;>2=>3> @5D;5:A0 =0 38?=>7. => 2>7<>6=> 4> >?@545;5==>3> ?@545;0, ?>A;5 G53> 38?=015;L=>ABL ?>=8605BAO 8<5==> 2A;54AB285 ?@82K:0=8O. @><5 B>3>, 2@5<5==>5 ?>2KH5=85 55 ?@>O2;O5BAO B>;L:> 2 CA;>28OE >1I5=8O A 2@0G><, ?@>2>4OI8< ;5G5=85. @8 ?5@540G5 1>;L=>3> 4@C3><C 38?=>B5@0?52BC 38?=015;L=>ABL 70<5B=> A=8605BAO, 8 =5>1E>48<> 8725AB=>5 2@5<O, GB>1K >=0 ?>2KA8;0AL A=>20. !CI5AB25==> 8 B>, GB> ?@8 :0B0<=5AB8G5A:>< =01;N45=88 >1=0@C68205BAO 1>;55 =87:0O 38?=015;L=>ABL, G5< ?@8 0:B82=>< :C@A5 ;5G5=8O. 8?=015;L=>ABL 2KH5 C 74>@>2KE, G5< C 1>;L=KE =52@>70<8, GB> A2O70=> A =0@CH5=85< C ?>A;54=8E 1>4@AB2>20=8O 8 A=0, 2=8<0=8O, 2>;52>3> A>A@54>B>G5=8O, 0 B0:65 =0;8G85< 2>71C48<>AB8.  A2>N >G5@54L, 38?=015;L=>ABL A@02=8B5;L=> 2KH5 C 45B59, 1KAB@> 70AK?0NI8E 8 3;C1>:> A?OI8E, 0 B0:65 E>@>H> 040?B8@>20==KE, >1I8B5;L=KE, ?A8E8G5A:8 381:8E 8 M<>F8>=0;L=KE.  MB><C A;54C5B 4>1028BL, GB> 45B8, ;53:> 83@0NI85 A> A25@AB=8:0<8, 38?=>B878@CNBAO 2A5340 ;CGH5, G5< =5>1I8B5;L=K5 8 70<:=CBK5. A;8 @0A?>;>68BL 74>@>2KE 8 1>;L=KE 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2 2 ?>@O4:5 C1K20NI59 38?=015;L=>AB8, B> ?>;CG8BAO A;54CNI89 @O4: 74>@>2K5, A><0B8G5A:8 1>;L=K5, 1>;L=K5 A =52@>70<8, ?A8E>?0B8G5A:85 ;8G=>AB8, ?A8E8G5A:8 1>;L=K5. -B> ?>4B25@6405B 7=0G5=85 38?=015;L=>AB8 :0: A2>5>1@07=>3> 8=45:A0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO. ?@545;8BL 38?=015;L=>ABL B@C4=55, G5< 2=CH05<>ABL. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> >=0 2 8725AB=>9 <5@5 5ABL D878>;>38G5A:>5 ?@>O2;5=85 2=CH05<>AB8, MB8 ?>=OB8O =5 2A5340 A>2?040NB. >;LH8=AB2> 87 ?@54;>65==KE ?@>1 =0 38?=015;L=>ABL >B@060NB 55 ;8HL G0AB8G=> 8 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 3>2>@OB > 2=CH05<>AB8.  38?=015;L=>AB8 :0: B0:>2>9 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL, :0: ?@028;>, ?>A;5 2>7=8:=>25=8O C 1>;L=KE 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O. > MB>3> > =59 <>6=> AC48BL ?> @50:F88 =0 >1JOA=5=85 ?@54AB>OI59 ?@>F54C@K 38?=>B870F88 8 ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2 38?=>75 O2;5=89. # E>@>H> 38?=015;L=KE AC1J5:B>2 ?@8 MB>< ?>O2;ONBAO =5:>B>@K5 87 >?8AK205<KE ?@87=0:>2 38?=>70, 2 B>< G8A;5 @0AA;01;5=85 @C:, >BO65;5=85 8 >?CA:0=85 25:, 2K@065=85 A>=;82>AB8 =0 ;8F5 8 B. 4. #G8BK20O, GB> 38?=>B5@0?8O A>AB>8B ?> :@09=59 <5@5 87 =5A:>;L:8E A50=A>2, 38?=015;L=>ABL <>6=> 2KO28BL 2 ?5@2>< 87 =8E. ;O MB>3> 1>;L=><C ?@54;0305BAO >B4>E=CBL =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O A 70:@KBK<8 3;070<8. >?CA:0NBAO 42865=8O 8 :@0B:>2@5<5==>5 >B:@K20=85 3;07. #:07K205BAO =0 2>7<>6=>5 ?>O2;5=85 A>=;82>AB8. >A;5 8=AB@C:F88 1>;L=>9 70:@K205B 3;070 8 ;568B 15-30 <8=. 2 ?>AB5?5==> 70B5<=O5<>< :018=5B5. !>AB>O=85 >B4KE0 ?>4:@5?;O5BAO A>>B25BAB2CNI8< 2=CH5=85<. ;865 : :>=FC A50=A0 2@0G 2KE>48B 87 :018=5B0, GB> ?>72>;O5B ?@8 2>72@0I5=88 C2845BL A?>=B0==K5 @50:F88 1>;L=>3>. !50=A 70:0=G8205BAO A;>20<8: "!59G0A <>6=> >B:@KBL 3;070. 'C2AB2C5HL A51O ;53:> 8 A2>1>4=>". >A;5 MB>3> 1>;L=>3> A?@0H820NB >1 8A?KB0==KE >ICI5=8OE.  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 C65 2> 2@5<O ?5@2>3> A50=A0 ?>O2;ONBAO @0AA;01;5=85, GC2AB2> ?>:>O 8 A>=;82>AB8, B. 5. =0G0;L=K5 ?@87=0:8 38?=>70. >4>1=K5 CAB0=>2>G=K5 A50=AK ?@8<5=ONBAO 2 >A=>2=>< C 4>H:>;L=8:>2 8 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2. # B@52>6=KE 45B59 A50=AK ?@>2>4OBAO 2 ?@8ACBAB288 <0B5@8, :>B>@0O >AB05BAO 2 38?=>B0@88, :>340 2@0G 2KE>48B 87 =53>. @8 4>AB865=88 4>AB0B>G=>9 3;C18=K 38?=>70 ?@8ACBAB285 <0B5@8 =5 >1O70B5;L=> 8 55 70<5=O5B <548F8=A:0O A5AB@0.  @O45 A;CG052 ?@8 ?>A;54CNI8E A50=A0E >BACBAB2CNB ?@87=0:8 38?=>B8G5A:>N A>AB>O=8O, GB> 3>2>@8B > ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< =0?@O65=88, >1CA;>2;5==>< A>?@>B82;5=85< ;5G5=8N. 5A540 A 1>;L=K< ?><>305B ?>4B25@48BL MB> 8 CG5ABL ?@8 40;L=59H5< ?>AB@>5=88 38?=>A50=A>2. @8 2K@065==>< A>?@>B82;5=88 ?@8=8<05BAO @5H5=85 2@5<5==> 2>745@60BLAO >B 38?=>B5@0?88 2284C ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =5?>43>B>2;5==>AB8 1>;L=>3> 8 8A?>;L7>20BL 4@C385 <5B>48:8.  =0H59 ?@0:B8:5 ?>4>1=K5 A;CG08 A>AB02;ONB 8A:;NG5=85, ?>A:>;L:C, :0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, 38?=>B5@0?8O ?@8<5=O5BAO 2 :>=F5 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, :>340 2@0G E>@>H> 7=05B 1>;L=>3>. A8E>;>38G5A:>5 >1@0<;5=85 A50=A0 38?=>70 2K?>;=O5B @>;L A2>5>1@07=>3> @8BC0;0, ?>2KH0O 459AB25==>ABL 38?=>2=CH5=8O. 45AL 8 >1O70B5;L=>ABL ?>A5I5=8O 2@0G0 2<5AB5 A @>48B5;O<8, 8 ?@5420@8B5;L=0O 8=48284C0;L=0O 15A540 A 1>;L=K<, D8:A8@>20==>5 2@5<O =0G0;0 A50=A0, A<5=0 C;8G=>9 >1C28, =0;8G85 A=0@C68 A25B>2>3> B01;>: ""8H8=0, 845B A50=A 38?=>70", @5>AB0B 2=CB@8 38?=>B0@8O 4;O ?>AB5?5==>3> C<5=LH5=8O 8=B5=A82=>AB8 >A25I5=8O, C4>1=K5 B>?G0=K, >6840=85 =0G0;0 A50=A0, ?@8ACBAB285 4@C38E 1>;L=KE, 2 A>AB>O=88 :>B>@KE C65 ?@>87>H;> C;CGH5=85, 8 B. 4. A5 MB>, 0 B0:65 A?>:>9AB285 2@0G0, 53> 4>1@>65;0B5;L=>ABL 8 C25@5==>ABL A>740NB >A>1CN ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN 0B<>AD5@C 38?=>A50=A0, :>B>@0O, :0: 8 A0<> 38?=>B8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85, 459AB2C5B 8<5==> A2>59 =5>1KG=>ABLN, ?>2KH0O B5< A0<K< B5@0?52B8G5A:CN 2=CH05<>ABL 1>;L=>3>. 2545=85 2 38?=>7 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 2>7459AB285< =0 A;CE>2>9, 7@8B5;L=K9 8 :>6=K9 0=0;870B>@K. @8 A;>25A=>9 B5E=8:5 38?=>B870F88 1>;L=><C ?@54;0305BAO A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 8;8 ?> AG5BC 70:@KBL 3;070 8 2=8<0B5;L=> A;CH0BL 2@0G0, :>B>@K9 2=CH05B >ICI5=8O, 8A?KBK205<K5 ?@8 70AK?0=88. @58<CI5AB2> MB>9 B5E=8:8 2 55 =5A;>6=>AB8 8 2>7<>6=>AB8 38?=>B870F88 2 3@C??5. @8 :><18=8@>20==>< 2>7459AB288 =0 7@8B5;L=K9 8 A;CE>2>9 0=0;870B>@K 1>;L=><C ?@54;0305BAO A<>B@5BL =0 1;5ABOI89 H0@, =52@>;>38G5A:89 <>;>B>G5: 8;8 2 3;070 2@0GC. @8 MB>< 2=CH0NBAO ?>O2;5=85 GC2AB20 BO65AB8 2 25:0E, 8E >?CA:0=85 8 70:@K20=85. >A;54CNI85 2=CH5=8O CA8;820NB O2;5=8O A>=;82>AB8. @58<CI5AB20 40==>9 B5E=8:8 - 8=48284C0;870F8O 8 <5=LH0O 70B@0B0 2@5<5=8.  B> 65 2@5<O 2284C 55 1>;LH>9 A;>6=>AB8 B@51C5BAO >?@545;5==K9 =02K: 2@0G0. 0: 4>?>;=8B5;L=K9 ?@85< 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2>7459AB285 =0 :>6=K9 0=0;870B>@ 2 2845 ?@8:>A=>25=89 8 ?>3;06820=89 @C:8, 0 B0:65 2>74CH=KE ?0AA>2 =04 ;8F>< 1>;L=>3>. !CI5AB2C5B B@8 AB5?5=8 38?=>70, 4;O :>B>@KE ?0B>3=><>=8G=K< ?@87=0:>< O2;O5BAO <KH5G=>5 @0AA;01;5=85, 2>A?@8=8<05<>5 :0: GC2AB2> BO65AB8. @8 ?5@2>9 AB5?5=8 38?=>70 @0AA;01;5=85 =57=0G8B5;L=> 8 ?@>8AE>48B 2 >A=>2=>< 2 >1;0AB8 :>=5G=>AB59; ?@8 2B>@>9 8 B@5BL59 AB5?5=8 >=> 8<55B 2K@065==K9 E0@0:B5@ 8 <>65B ?@>O2;OBLAO 2 ?045=88 ?@8?>4=OB>9 @C:8. 5 "70ABK20=85" - :0B0;5?A8O - =5 O2;O5BAO >1O70B5;L=K< ?@87=0:>< 2B>@>9 8 B@5BL59 AB5?5=59 38?=>70, B0: :0: 2AB@5G05BAO 2 548=8G=KE A;CG0OE. "> 65 <>6=> A:070BL 8 2 >B=>H5=88 87>;8@>20==>3> @0??>@B0, :>B>@K9 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: @5G52>9 :>=B0:B 7038?=>B878@>20==>3> B>;L:> A 2@0G><. $0:B8G5A:8 4065 3;C1>:> 7038?=>B878@>20==K9 >B25G05B =0 2>?@>AK 2A5E ?@8ACBAB2CNI8E ;8F.  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 87>;8@>20==K9 @0??>@B O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< ?@O<>3> 8;8 :>A25==>3> 2=CH5=8O. @8 ;N1>< A?>A>15 38?=>B870F88 2 ?5@2KE A50=A0E =5>1E>48<> A>1;N40BL @O4 CA;>289. > A50=A0 1>;L=K5 =0AB@0820NBAO =0 2>7<>6=> 1>;55 ?>;=K9 >B4KE A C:070=85< =0 =5>1O70B5;L=>ABL A=0, GB> A=8<05B 8E 2>;=5=85 ?> ?>2>4C =52>7<>6=>AB8 70A=CBL 8;8 AB@0E0 =5 ?@>A=CBLAO. "> 65 A0<>5 >1JOA=O5BAO @>48B5;O<. @8 2=CH5=8OE 8A:;NG0NBAO A;>20 "A>=" 8 "38?=>7". A?>;L7>20=85 MB8E A;>2 2>7<>6=> ?@8 C25@5==>AB8 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 2K@065==>3> 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 1>;L=K5, >A>15==> ?>4@>AB:8, =5A<>B@O =0 =0;8G85 ;53:>3> 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O, AG8B0NB, GB> 5A;8 >=8 =5 A?0;8, B> C =8E "=5 1K;> 38?=>70" 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, 2>7459AB285 2@0G0 1K;> =5MDD5:B82=K<. &5;L ?5@2KE A50=A>2 A>AB>8B 2 4>AB865=88 =5 <0:A8<0;L=>9 3;C18=K 38?=>70, 0 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O 2>>1I5 :0: CA;>28O 4;O @50;870F88 ;5G51=KE 2=CH5=89. >;LH8=AB2> =5C40G =0G8=0NI8E ?A8E>B5@0?52B>2 70:;NG05BAO 2 AB@5<;5=88 4>18BLAO 2> 2@5<O ?5@2>3> A50=A0 3;C1>:>3> 38?=>70, GB> =5@54:> ?@52KH05B @50;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 1>;L=>3> 8 A>7405B C =53> >ICI5=85 =5A>>B25BAB28O <564C 2=CH05<K< 8 8A?KBK205<K<, =0?@O65=85 8 A0<>?@>872>;L=K9 2KE>4 87 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O. @><5 B>3>, =5 C 2A5E 1>;L=KE C405BAO 4>AB8GL 3;C1>:>3> 38?=>70 4065 2 ?>A;54CNI8E A50=A0E, =5A<>B@O =0 2K@065==CN 2=CH05<>ABL 8 38?=015;L=>ABL. =B5=A82=>ABL 38?=>B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O 7028A8B >B 8=48284C0;L=KE 8 2>7@0AB=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 1>;L=KE, 0 B0:65 48=0<8:8 @0728B8O 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O 2 ?5@8>4 A50=A0. >A@54AB2>< 2=CH5=89 2=0G0;5 @50;87CNBAO CAB0=>2:8, A45;0==K5 1>;L=><C 4> A50=A0 (=0?@8<5@, GC2AB2> >B4KE0 8 @0AA;01;5=8O), 70B5< >=8 @072820NBAO 4> >68405<KE 2 40==>< A50=A5 @57C;LB0B>2 (GC2AB2> A>=;82>AB8). #A?5H=>ABL @50;870F88 2=CH5=8O 7028A8B >B >?KB0 8 8A:CAAB20 2@0G0.  ?5@2KE A50=A0E >=> 2 >A=>2=>< =0?@02;5=> =0 ?>;CG5=85 38?=>MDD5:B0, B. 5. =0 @0728B85 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O.  ?>A;54CNI8E A50=A0E ?> <5@5 C25;8G5=8O 3;C18=K 38?=>70 (2 ?@545;0E 2B>@>9 AB5?5=8) ?>AB5?5==> C<5=LH05BAO >1J5< ?>4:@5?;ONI8E 38?=>7 2=CH5=89 8 C25;8G8205BAO >1J5< B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 2=CH5=89. @8 7=0G8B5;L=>< >1J5<5 >1>8E 284>2 2=CH5=8O 1>;L=><C B@C4=> 8E CA2>8BL 8 48DD5@5=F8@>20BL. "5@0?52B8G5A:85 2=CH5=8O 1>;55 459AB25==K, :>340 >=8 >B45;5=K ?0C7>9 >B ?>4:@5?;ONI8E 2=CH5=89. =5 7028A8<>AB8 >B A>45@60=8O 2=CH5=89 AB5?5=L 8E <>B820F88 =0E>48BAO 2 >1@0B=>< A>>B=>H5=88 A 3;C18=>9 38?=>70. @8 ?5@2>9 AB5?5=8 38?=>70 ?@8<5=ONBAO <>B828@>20==K5 2=CH5=8O, ?5@540205<K5 2 =0AB>OI5< 2@5<5=8, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: ?@8 B@5BL59 AB5?5=8 >=8 8<5NB ?@58<CI5AB25==> 8<?5@0B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ A 8A?>;L7>20=85< ?@>H54H53> 2@5<5=8. -DD5:B82=>ABL B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 2=CH5=89 >1KG=> C25;8G8205BAO ?> <5@5 C3;C1;5=8O 38?=>70 2A;54AB285 8E ;CGH59 D8:A0F88 8 MDD5:B0 ?>AB38?=>B8G5A:>3> 459AB28O. =8 ?@>2>4OBAO ?@8 <0:A8<0;L=>9 3;C18=5 38?=>70, =5 @0=55 30-40 <8=CB >B =0G0;0 38?=>B870F88 ?@8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 A50=A0 75-80 <8=CB. >A;5 2K2>40 87 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O 1>;L=><C =5>1E>48<> 40BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>;560BL =5A:>;L:> <8=CB, GB> 45;05B ?5@5E>4 : 1>4@AB2>20=8N 1>;55 5AB5AB25==K<. @8 38?=>B5@0?88, :0: 8 ?@8 2=CH5=88 =0O2C, A;54C5B CG8BK20BL >A>15==>AB8 48=0<8:8 ;5G51=KE 87<5=5=89, GB> ?>72>;O5B CB>G=8BL ?0B>35=57 =5:>B>@KE DC=:F8>=0;L=KE =0@CH5=89 ?@8 =52@>70E. "0:, ?@>8AE>4OI55 ?>4 2;8O=85< 38?=>B5@0?88 >A;01;5=85 B8:0, 708:0=8O, M=C@570 8 M=:>?@570 A>?@>2>6405BAO ?>2KH5=85< 2>71C48<>AB8, 42830B5;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8 8 =5@54:> 03@5AA82=>AB8, 70>AB@5=85< C?@O<AB20 8 =530B8287<0 ?> >B=>H5=8N : @>48B5;O<. -B> C:07K205B =0 2KO2;5=85 0DD5:B82=>-2>71C48<>3> C@>2=O =52@>B8G5A:>3> @5038@>20=8O, 2A:@KB85 8 >B@5038@>20=85 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0. ;0?0=>< 4;O >B@5038@>20=8O M<>F8>=0;L=>3> =0?@O65=8O @0=55 O2;O;8AL =5?>A@54AB25==> A0<8 ?A8E><>B>@=K5 @50:F88.  B0:8E A;CG0OE <K A>25BC5< @>48B5;O< CG5ABL 2@5<5==K9 E0@0:B5@ ?>2KH5==>9 2>71C48<>AB8 1>;L=>3>, 65;0B5;L=>ABL 4>?>;=8B5;L=>9 ?A8E><>B>@=>9 @07@O4:8 2 ?@>3C;:0E 8 ?>4286=KE 83@0E. >AB5?5==>5 ?>=865=85 2>71C48<>AB8 1>;L=KE CA8;8205B 8E 15A?>:>9AB2>, =5@54:> 0:BC0;878@C5B AB@0E8 >48=>G5AB20 8 A<5@B8. 3@5AA82=>ABL, C?@O<AB2> 8 =530B8287< A<5=ONBAO B5<, GB> 45B8 =0G8=0NB "F5?;OBLAO" 70 @>48B5;59, =5 >AB0NBAO >4=8 4><0, AB0=>2OBAO 157 ?>2>40 15A?>:>9=K<8 8 B@52>6=K<8, B. 5. 2A:@K205BAO 1>;55 3;C1>:89 C@>25=L =52@>B8G5A:>3> @5038@>20=8O, >1CA;>2;5==K9 @0==8< ?A8E>B@02<8@CNI8< >?KB>< @07;C: 8 B@52>3.  MB>< A;CG05 >B @>48B5;59 B@51CNBAO >A>1>5 2=8<0=85 : ?@>8AE>4OI8< 87<5=5=8O< 2 A>AB>O=88 45B59, 1>;LH0O B5?;>B0 8 GCB:>ABL. @8 ?@>4>;65=88 38?=>B5@0?88 15A?>:>9AB2> A<O3G05BAO 8 =0 ?5@2K9 ?;0= 2KABC?0NB M<>F8>=0;L=0O ;018;L=>ABL 8 A5=78B82=>ABL 2 2845 70>AB@5=8O M<>F8>=0;L=>9 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8, @0=8<>AB8, 60;>AB;82>AB8 8 ?;0:A82>AB8, B. 5. =01;N405BAO :0: 1K 2>72@0B =0 1>;55 @0==NN ABC?5=L M<>F8>=0;L=>3> @0728B8O - 2 B>B 687=5==K9 ?5@8>4, 345 2>7=8:;8 ?5@28G=K5 =52@>B8G5A:85, 2 A2>59 >A=>25 M<>F8>=0;L=K5, @0AAB@>9AB20. 1=065=85 1070;L=>3>, 0DD5:B82=>-A5=78B82=>3> C@>2=O =52@>B8G5A:>3> @5038@>20=8O, ?@>8AE>4OI55 2 ?@>F5AA5 AC335AB82=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?>:07K205B 2 >1@0B=>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 ?0B>35=57 =52@>B8G5A:8E =0@CH5=89, AE5<0B8G=> 2K@0605<K9 A;54CNI8< >1@07><: A5=78B82=>ABL - M<>F8>=0;L=0O ;018;L=>ABL - 15A?>:>9AB2> - 2=CB@5==89 :>=D;8:B - 0DD5:B82=0O =0?@O65==>ABL - ?A8E><>B>@=K5 =52@>B8G5A:85 =0@CH5=8O. 0AA<>B@5==0O 48=0<8:0 38?=>B5@0?88 ?@>8AE>48B 2 B5G5=85 1,5 - 2 <5A. ?@8 42C:@0B=>< ?>A5I5=88 2 =545;N. @8 2=CH5=88 =0O2C ?>4>1=K5 87<5=5=8O ?@>8AE>4OB 70 <5=55 ?@>4>;68B5;L=K9 ?5@8>4. =8<0B5;L=>5 =01;N45=85 70 48=0<8:>9 ;5G51=KE 87<5=5=89 8 381:0O B0:B8:0 2@0G0 C;CGH0NB @57C;LB0BK 38?=>B5@0?88. @8 4>AB865=88 8AE>4=>3>, 0DD5:B82=>-A5=78B82=>3> C@>2=O =52@>B8G5A:>3> @5038@>20=8O =5>1E>48<> ?5@59B8 : 4@C38< <5B>48:0< ?A8E>B5@0?88, =0?@8<5@ 25@=CBLAO : 55 83@>2K< 8 @07JOA=ONI5-:>@@5:F8>==K< D>@<0<, =0?>;=82 8E =>2K< A>45@60=85<. A;8 B@51C5BAO 1>;55 0:B82=0O ?5@5AB@>9:0 >B=>H5=89 8 =51;03>?@8OB=KE G5@B E0@0:B5@0, B> 8A?>;L7C5BAO 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O. 0:>9 A?>A>1 22545=8O 2 38?=>B8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85 ?@54?>GB8B5;5=? 0 MB>B 2>?@>A 25AL<0 =5?@>AB> >B25B8BL, B0: :0: 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?@58<CI5AB25==>5 2>7459AB285 ;81> =0 A;CE>2>9, ;81> =0 7@8B5;L=K9 0=0;870B>@.  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 @5GL 845B, ?> ACI5AB2C, > :><18=8@>20==>< A?>A>15 38?=>B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O, ?>A:>;L:C D0AF8=0F8O (D8:A0F8O 27>@0 38?=>B878@C5<>3> =0 1;5ABOI5< ?@54<5B5 8;8 7@0G:0E 2@0G0) ?>4:@5?;O5BAO ?@8 ?5@2KE A50=A0E :@0B:>9 A;>25A=>9 D>@<C;>9 2=CH5=8O. 725AB=K 40==K5 . . !B@5;LGC:0 (1966), :>B>@K9 5I5 2 1953 3. CAB0=>28; 1>;55 1KAB@>5 8 MDD5:B82=>5 4>AB865=85 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O ?CB5< ?5@28G=>3> 2>7459AB28O =0 1>;55 B>@<>78<CN A83=0;L=CN A8AB5<C. >4>1=K< >1@07>< C ;8F EC4>65AB25==>3> B8?0 38?=>7 ;53G5 4>AB8305BAO 2>7459AB285< =0 A;CE>2>9, 0 C ;8F <KA;8B5;L=>3> B8?0 - =0 7@8B5;L=K9 0=0;870B>@. ! F5;LN A@02=5=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 42CE =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==KE A?>A>1>2 38?=>B870F88 <K ?@>25;8 2 1979 3. M:A?5@8<5=B, 2 :>B>@>< CG0AB2>20;> 259 74>@>2KE ?>4@>AB:>2 10-15 ;5B (A@54=89 2>7@0AB 12,5 ;5B). -:A?5@8<5=B ?@>2>48;AO 2 25G5@=55 2@5<O 2 ?8>=5@A:8E ;035@OE 8 @52<0B>;>38G5A:>< A0=0B>@88. 3> F5;L >1JOA=O;0AL 8A?KBC5<K< :0: 87CG5=85 2>7<>6=>AB59 C?@02;5=8O ?@>F5AA>< 70AK?0=8O. =0G0;5 >=8 70?>;=O;8 A?5F80;L=CN 0=:5BC, 70B5< >?@545;O;0AL 8E 2=CH05<>ABL ?> >1=0@C65=8N =5ACI5AB2CNI53> 70?0E0 ;5:0@AB20 2 >4=>9 87 ?@>18@>:, ?>A;5 G53> ?@>2>48;AO A50=A 38?=>70. 8?=>B870F8O 2 :064>9 87 ?0;0B >ACI5AB2;O;0AL ?>>G5@54=> 8;8 2>7459AB285< =0 A;CE>2>9 0=0;870B>@, :>340 8A?KBC5<K5 A0<8 70:@K20;8 3;070 8 8< 2=CH0;8AL ?@87=0:8 38?=>70, 8;8 :><18=8@>20==K< A?>A>1>< 2>7459AB28O =0 7@8B5;L=K9 8 A;CE>2>9 0=0;870B>@K.  40;L=59H5< 4;O :@0B:>AB8 1C45< >1>7=0G0BL MB8 A?>A>1K 38?=>B870F88 :0: 25@10;L=K9 8 D0AF8=0F8N. >A;5 2K2545=8O 87 38?=>70 8A?KBC5<K5 >?@0H820;8AL 8=48284C0;L=> >1 >ICI5=8OE 2> 2@5<O A50=A0. > A?5F80;L=>9 H:0;5 2K2>48;AO A@54=89 10;; 3;C18=K 38?=>70, :>B>@K9 @0AF5=820;AO :0: :@8B5@89 MDD5:B82=>AB8 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> A?>A>10 2=CH5=8O ?@87=0:>2 38?=>70, B. 5. CA?5H=>AB8 38?=>B870F88 2 F5;><. !B0B8AB8G5A:0O >1@01>B:0 40==KE M:A?5@8<5=B0 ?>:070;0, GB> 2=CH05<>ABL <0;LG8:>2 8 452>G5: ?@0:B8G5A:8 >48=0:>20 (A>>B25BAB25==> 44 8 42% ?>;>68B5;L=KE ?@>1). 0: 8 2 ?@54K4CI5< M:A?5@8<5=B5, 2K?>;=5==>< =0 4@C3>< :>=B8=35=B5, 2=CH05<>ABL 8 =5@2=>ABL =5 A2O70=K <564C A>1>9. 0;8G85 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O >B<5G5=> C 93% <0;LG8:>2 8 88% 452>G5:, B. 5. 8E 38?=015;L=>ABL ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 8<55B @07;8G89. 0A;C68205B 2=8<0=8O, GB> >=0 2KO2;O5BAO 2 2 @070 G0I5, G5< 2=CH05<>ABL, :>B>@0O, B0:8< >1@07><, 8<55B 1>;55 8718@0B5;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. !B5?5=L 38?=015;L=>AB8 (3;C18=K 38?=>70) AB0B8AB8G5A:8 4>AB>25@=> (@<0,001) C<5=LH05BAO >B 11 : 14 3>40<. 5@2=>ABL (?> >F5=:5 ?5403>3>2) =5 2;8O5B =0 38?=015;L=>ABL. #AB0=>2;5=>, GB> C <0;LG8:>2 A?>A>1 38?=>B870F88 =5 2;8O5B =0 AB5?5=L 8E 38?=015;L=>AB8 (3;C18=K 38?=>70), 2 B> 2@5<O :0: C 452>G5: 25@10;L=K9 A?>A>1 38?=>B870F88 AB0B8AB8G5A:8 4>AB>25@=> (@<0,05) ?>2KH05B 55 AB5?5=L. =CH05<>ABL 4>AB>25@=> C25;8G8205B 38?=015;L=>ABL C <0;LG8:>2 8 C 452>G5: B>;L:> ?@8 D0AF8=0F88, B. 5. >=0 CA8;8205B 38?=>B8G5A:89 MDD5:B 273;O40. !;54>20B5;L=>, D0AF8=0F8O 2A5340 ?@54?>GB8B5;L=55 ?@8 38?=>B870F88 2=CH05<KE AC1J5:B>2, G5< 25@10;L=K9 A?>A>1. A;8 <0;LG8:8 8 452>G:8 =5 B>;L:> 2=CH05<K, => 8 "<038G5A:8" =0AB@>5=K, B> D0AF8=0F8O B0:65 2545B : 1>;LH59 3;C18=5 38?=>70, G5< 25@10;L=K9 A?>A>1 38?=>B870F88. # <0;LG8:>2 MB8 @07;8G8O AB0B8AB8G5A:8 4>AB>25@=K (@<0,01). # =8E ?@8 D0AF8=0F88 4>AB>25@=> C25;8G8205B 38?=015;L=>ABL 8 B0:0O ;8G=>AB=0O ?5@5<5==0O, :0: 2>>1@065=85 (@<0,05). "0:8< >1@07><, MDD5:B 2=CH5=8O ?@87=0:>2 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O 7028A8B >B A?>A>10 38?=>B870F88, ?>;0 8A?KBC5<KE 8 @O40 ;8G=>AB=KE ?5@5<5==KE. > A@02=5=8N A 25@10;L=K< <5B>4>< 38?=>B870F88 D0AF8=0F8O - 1>;55 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 45B5@<8=8@>20==K9 <5B>4.  ?5@2CN >G5@54L MB> >B=>A8BAO : <0;LG8:0< 8 >1JOA=O5BAO =0;8G85< C =8E =5 B>;L:> "<038G5A:>3>" =0AB@>O, => 8 :>=F5?F88 "<038G5A:>3> 273;O40", B. 5. =045;5=8O ?@8AB0;L=>3> 273;O40 =5>1KG=K<, >:07K20NI8< >A>1>5 459AB285 7=0G5=85<, GB> =0E>48B A2>5 >B@065=85 2 ?@>F54C@5 38?=>B8G5A:>3> 2=CH5=8O ?>A@54AB2>< D0AF8=0F88. !>>B25BAB285 <5B>40 38?=>AC335AB82=>3> 2>7459AB28O CAB0=>2:0< =0 53> 459AB25==>ABL ?@82>48B : 2>7=8:=>25=8N ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> @57>=0=A0, >1;040NI53> 2KA>:>9 M<>F8>=0;L=> 70?5G0B;520NI59 8 0CB>AC335AB82=>-38?=>B8G5A:>9 0:B82=>ABLN. ><8<> MB>3>, ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 MDD5:B 459AB28O D0AF8=0F88 C <0;LG8:>2 A @0728BK< 2>>1@065=85< <>65B 1KBL A2O70= 8 A 1>;55 :>=:@5B=>9 ?5@A>=8D8:0F859 "<038G5A:>3> 273;O40" ?> B8?C ">BF>2A:>3> 273;O40" :0: 8AB>@8G5A:8 AD>@<8@>202H53>AO A8<2>;0 157CA;>2=>3> ?>4G8=5=8O 8 02B>@8B5B0.  70:;NG5=85 >AB0=>28<AO =0 =5:>B>@KE 2>?@>A0E MDD5:B82=>AB8 38?=>B5@0?88. 1KG=> >B =55 64CB 3>@074> 1>;LH5, G5< >=0 <>65B 40BL =0 A0<>< 45;5.  MB>< A;CG05 =587156=K @5F8482K 8 @07>G0@>20=85 :0: A> AB>@>=K 2@0G0, B0: 8 A> AB>@>=K 1>;L=>3>. @><5 B>3>, G0AB> 1K205B =54>AB0B>G=K< :>;8G5AB2> A50=A>2, :>340 ;5G5=85 >1@K205BAO A@07C ?>A;5 ?>;CG5=8O ?5@2KE ?>;>68B5;L=KE A4283>2, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: =5>1E>48<> ?@>25AB8 ?>GB8 B0:>5 65 :>;8G5AB2> A50=A>2 4;O 70:@5?;5=8O ?>;CG5==KE @57C;LB0B>2. !=8605B MDD5:B 38?=>B5@0?88 8 >BACBAB285 55 ?>2B>@=KE, ?CABL 4065 8 1>;55 :@0B:8E, :C@A>2, :>B>@K5 =C6=K A:>@55 :0: ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:>5 A@54AB2>, G5< :0: A@54AB2> ?>A;54=53> 2K1>@0. >MB><C 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 38?=>B5@0?8O A>AB>8B 87 =5A:>;L:8E :C@A>2, ?@>2>48<KE 2 B5G5=85 >4=>3> 8;8 42CE ;5B. =0G5=85 MB>3> ?>4G5@:8205BAO B5<, GB> MDD5:B ?5@2>3> :C@A0 38?=>B5@0?88, :0: 8 2=CH5=8O =0O2C, C<5=LH05BAO ?> <5@5 C25;8G5=8O 4;8B5;L=>AB8 701>;520=8O (?> 40==K< A@02=5=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 38?=>B5@0?88 ?@8 4;8B5;L=>AB8 =52@>70 4> 3 ;5B 8 1>;55). !@54=55 G8A;> A50=A>2 ?5@2>3> :C@A0 38?=>B5@0?88 ?@8 42C:@0B=>< ?>A5I5=88 2 =545;N 8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 A50=A0 75 <8=. A>AB02;O5B ?@8 =52@0AB5=88 - 13,3 (1,5 <5A. ;5G5=8O), ?@8 8AB5@8G5A:>< =52@>75 - 10,0 (>:>;> 1 <5A.), ?@8 =52@>75 =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 - 15,3 (2 <5A.). 081>;55 0:B82=>5 C25;8G5=85 3;C18=K 38?=>70 ?@>8AE>48B 2 ?5@2K5 A50=AK (2 A@54=5< 4> 6-3> A50=A0), 70B5< >=> 70<54;O5BAO 8 A 13-3> A50=A0 ?@0:B8G5A:8 >BACBAB2C5B. 8=0<8:0 ;5G51=KE 87<5=5=89 =5 2A5340 ?0@0;;5;L=0 C25;8G5=8N 3;C18=K 38?=>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O, => ?>A;54=55 C65 A0<> ?> A515 3>2>@8B >1 C:@5?;5=88 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K 8 O2;O5BAO 1;03>?@8OB=K< ?@>3=>AB8G5A:8< D0:B>@><. 48=AB25==>5 =565;0B5;L=>5 O2;5=85 ?@8 38?=>B5@0?88 - MB> ?@52@0I5=85 55 2 A2>5>1@07=K9 @8BC0;, :>340 1>;L=>9 ?>A5I05B 2@0G0 B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> A50=AK 2@5<5==> C<5=LH0NB 53> GC2AB2> 15A?>:>9AB20 8 =5C25@5==>AB8 2 A515.  B0:>< A;CG05 38?=>B5@0?8O O2;O5BAO ;8HL A@54AB2>< ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?>4:@5?;5=8O. 5A<>B@O =0 B> GB> MB> >BG0AB8 ?><>305B 1>;L=><C, =C6=> 2>2@5<O 8 B5< A0<K< A <5=LH8<8 70B@0B0<8 A8; 8A?>;L7>20BL 4@C385, 1>;55 F5;5A>>1@07=K5 2 40==>< A;CG05 <5B>48:8 ?A8E>B5@0?88. 5 <5=55 206=> >15A?5G8BL 8=48284C0;L=K9 :>=B0:B 2> 2@5<O 38?=>B5@0?88, ?>A:>;L:C >=0 8=>340 ?@54AB02;O5BAO :0: =5GB> 157;8G=>5 8 :0: >BGC645=85 >B 2@0G0. -B8 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 @50:F88 <>3CB A25AB8 =0 =5B C65 4>AB83=CBK5 @57C;LB0BK. !50=AK =5 ?@5:@0I0NBAO A@07C ?>A;5 4>AB865=8O 8 70:@5?;5=8O ;5G51=KE 87<5=5=89, 0 ?>AB5?5==> C@560NBAO 8 ?@>2>4OBAO G5@57 =545;N, 425 =545;8, <5AOF 8 B. 4. A;8 8A?>;L7>20;0AL D0AF8=0F8O, B> >=0 ?>AB5?5==> 70<5=O5BAO 2A5 1>;55 :@0B:>9 25@10;L=>9 38?=>B870F859 ?> B8?C 38?=>70->B4KE0, 2>A?@>872>4OI53> 5AB5AB25==K9 A?>A>1 A=OB8O CAB0;>AB8 8 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O A8;. # ?>4@>AB:>2 : MB><C <>3CB 1KBL ?>4:;NG5=K >B45;L=K5 M;5<5=BK 0CB>B@5=8=30, GB> C;CGH05B A0<>@53C;OF8N 8 0:B82=>ABL 2 ?@5>4>;5=88 687=5==KE B@C4=>AB59. ?@>A 1>;L=KE 8 8E @>48B5;59 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O :C@A0 38?=>B5@0?88 ?>:07K205B, GB> 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L >=0 ?@82>48B : =>@<0;870F88 8;8 ACI5AB25==><C C;CGH5=8N ?@>F5AA>2 70AK?0=8O 8 A=0 (93% =01;N45=89), GB> 5I5 @07 ?>4G5@:8205B D878>;>38G5A:CN ?@8@>4C 38?=>70 :0: A=>?>4>1=>3> A>AB>O=8O. A;01;O5BAO >A=>2=0O, =081>;55 15A?>:>OI0O 1>;L=>3> =52@>B8G5A:0O A8<?B><0B8:0 (85% =01;N45=89). #:@5?;O5BAO M<>F8>=0;L=K9 B>=CA, 2K@02=8205BAO =0AB@>5=85, C<5=LH0NBAO ?@>O2;5=8O F5@51@0;L=>9 8 A><0B8G5A:>9 0AB5=88 (A>>B25BAB25==> >B 70 4> 78% =01;N45=89). 5=55 0:B82=> 38?=>B5@0?8O 2;8O5B =0 A5=78B82=>ABL (58% C;CGH5=8O). -DD5:B 38?=>B5@0?88 =5 8<55B ACI5AB25==KE @07;8G89 C <0;LG8:>2 8 452>G5:, 2 >B;8G85 >B 2=CH5=8O =0O2C, :>B>@>5 4>AB>25@=> 1>;55 MDD5:B82=> C <0;LG8:>2. K74>@>2;5=85 4>AB>25@=> G0I5 =01;N405BAO C 4>H:>;L=8:>2, GB> A2O70=> A <5=LH59 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABLN 8E 701>;520=8O ?> A@02=5=8N A> H:>;L=8:0<8.  F5;>< 65 38?=>B5@0?8O (2K74>@>2;5=85 8 C;CGH5=85) 1>;55 CA?5H=0 2 H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5. CB>35==0O B@5=8@>2:0 ?@8<5=8<0 B>;L:> 2 AB0@H5< ?>4@>AB:>2>< 2>7@0AB5, 8 D>@<0 55 ?@>2545=8O <0;> >B;8G05BAO >B :;0AA8G5A:>9 0CB>35==>9 B@5=8@>2:8 27@>A;KE. >MB><C =0 =59 <K =5 >AB0=02;8205<AO.  ;020 7. @C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O. @C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O 7025@H05B A5<59=CN 2 8=48284C0;L=CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N, ?>2KH0O 8E 459AB25==>ABL 2 ?@81;865==KE : @50;L=>AB8 CA;>28OE >1I5=8O A> A25@AB=8:0<8. @5420@8B5;L=K<8 CA;>28O<8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A> AB>@>=K @>48B5;59 O2;ONBAO C;CGH5=85 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 8 A=OB85 >AB@>BK 8E =52@>70, 0 A> AB>@>=K 1>;L=>3> - 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 2 @57C;LB0B0E ;5G5=8O, A<O3G5=85 =52@>B8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O, 4>ABC?=K5 2>7@0ABC >A>7=0=85 8 @07@5H5=85 2 >A=>2=KE G5@B0E 2=CB@5==53> :>=D;8:B0. #A?5H=>ABL MB>9 <5B>48:8 ;5G5=8O 7028A8B >B ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 ?>43>B>2:8 2@0G0 8 53> ;8G=>AB=KE :0G5AB2, CA;>289 ?@>2545=8O ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?@028;L=>3> ?>41>@0 1>;L=KE, >?B8<0;L=>9 B0:B8:8 @C:>2>4AB20 3@C??>9. >43>B>2:0 2@0G0 B@51C5B A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 7=0=89 2 >1;0AB8 ?A8E80B@88, ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 2:;NG05B >?KB ?5403>38G5A:>9 8 83@>2>9 @01>BK A 45BL<8, 7=0:><AB2> A 8<5NI59AO ?@0:B8:>9 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. @0GC =5>1E>48<> C<5BL >1J548=OBL 45B59 4;O 2K?>;=5=8O ?>AB02;5==KE 7040G 8 CAB@0=OBL C =8E 87;8H=55 =0?@O65=85.  B> 65 2@5<O 5<C =C6=> 1KBL 4>AB0B>G=> <O3:8<, GB>1K A>74020BL 2 3@C??5 0B<>AD5@C 157>?0A=>AB8 8 ?@8=OB8O, 8 =5 B>;L:> 84B8 =02AB@5GC 0:B82=>AB8 45B59, => 8 CABC?0BL 8< 2 =5:>B>@KE 2>?@>A0E. @C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O ?@>2>48BAO 2 0<1C;0B>@=KE 8;8 AB0F8>=0@=KE CA;>28OE.  0<1C;0B>@=KE CA;>28OE :C@A ;5G5=8O >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 157 >B@K20 >B ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8 45B59, GB> 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL =5?>A@54AB25==> ?@>A;548BL 53> @57C;LB0BK 8 ?>4:;NG8BL : =5<C ?@8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 @>48B5;59, B. 5. ?@>25AB8 3@C??>2CN A5<59=CN ?A8E>B5@0?8N. A8E>B5@0?8O 2 AB0F8>=0@=KE CA;>28OE >?@0240=0 ?@8 BO65;>< B5G5=88 =52@>7>2, =0;8G88 A>?CBAB2CNI59 A><0B8G5A:>9 >BO3>I5==>AB8, =5@07@5H8<KE A5<59=KE :>=D;8:B0E 2 0A>F80;L=>< ?>2545=88 27@>A;KE G;5=>2 A5<L8. "5< =5 <5=55 =5:>B>@K5 45B8 0DD5:B82=>-@0=8<> @5038@CNB =0 2@5<5==CN @07;C:C A @>48B5;O<8 8 =5 <>3CB 040?B8@>20BLAO 2 1>;L=8F5, GB> >A;>6=O5B ;5G5=85 8 ?>4G0A 45;05B 53> 157CA?5H=K<.  MB>< A;CG05 F5;5A>>1@07=> ?@>2545=85 ;5G5=8O 2 4=52=>< AB0F8>=0@5. !>2<5AB=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O A @>48B5;O<8 2>7<>6=0 B>;L:> 2 0<1C;0B>@=KE CA;>28OE. @C??>2K5 70=OB8O <>3CB ?@>2>48BLAO 2 1>;LH>< 2@0G51=>< :018=5B5, 70;5 4;O ;5G51=>9 D87:C;LBC@K 8;8 :>=D5@5=F89. A;8 8<55BAO A?5F80;L=>5 ?><5I5=85, >=> >D>@<;O5BAO 4;O 4>H:>;L=8:>2 ?> B8?C 83@>2>9 :><=0BK 45BA:>3> A040. 0 AB5;;060E 8 :>2@8:5 =0E>4OBAO :C:;K 8 <0A:8, 87>1@060NI85 ;N459 8 A:07>G=KE ?5@A>=0659, 83@CH5G=K5 ?@54<5BK 4><0H=53> >18E>40, <0:5BK 4><8:>2, 45@52L52, @07;8G=K9 <0B5@80; 4;O ?>AB@>5:, @8A>20=8O 8 ;5?:8. !B5=K C:@0H5=K @8AC=:0<8 45B59. 0 >4=>9 87 =8E C:@5?;5=> =5A:>;L:> 1>;LH8E 75@:0;. # H:>;L=8:>2 2 83@>2>< ?><5I5=88 ?>AB02;5=K ?0@BK, 4>A:0 4;O ?8AL<0, B. 5. 2>A?@>872>48BAO >1AB0=>2:0 CG51=>3> :;0AA0. 0 70:;NG8B5;L=KE MB0?0E 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A F5;LN A0<>=01;N45=8O ?0@BK @0A?>;030NBAO ?5@54 70<5=ONI8< 4>A:C 75@:0;><. A?>;L7>20=85 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 ?><5I5=8O 4;O 70=OB89 >1;53G05B 2>7=8:=>25=85 B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 0B<>AD5@K 2 3@C??5. 5:>B>@K5 2@0G8 AG8B0NB ?@5?OBAB285< 4;O ?@>2545=8O 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >BACBAB285 A?5F80;L=> 2K45;5==>3> 2@5<5=8. 4=0:> 4065 3@C??0 87 6 1>;L=KE ?>72>;O5B, =5 =0@CH0O ACI5AB2CNI8E =>@< ?@85<0, ?@>25AB8 A =8<8 G0A>2>5 70=OB85. @C38< ACI5AB25==K< D0:B>@>< CA?5H=>AB8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 O2;O5BAO ?@028;L=K9 ?>41>@ 1>;L=KE A CG5B>< :;8=8G5A:8E 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?>:070=89, :>B>@K<8 4;O 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 O2;ONBAO E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:85 8 0DD5:B82=K5 =0@CH5=8O, 2>7=8:H85 8;8 70>AB@82H85AO ?@8 4;8B5;L=>< B5G5=88 =52@>70, A>740NI85 ?@>1;5<K 2 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=8OE 8 ?@5?OBAB2CNI85 2K74>@>2;5=8N 2 ?@>F5AA5 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  =8< <>6=> >B=5AB8 =5045:20B=K9 C@>25=L ?@8BO70=89, M3>F5=B@87<, =5CAB>9G82>ABL A0<>>F5=:8, =525@85 2 A51O 8 A2>8 2>7<>6=>AB8, 87;8H=NN 70AB5=G82>ABL, A:>20==>ABL 8 =5C25@5==>ABL 2 >1I5=88, B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=K5 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0, 70D8:A8@>20==K5 2 ?@>H;>< >?KB5 D>188 8 B. 4. @82545< @O4 2KA:07K20=89 @>48B5;59 > ?@>1;5<0E 45B59 ?5@54 =0G0;>< 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88: "5C<5=85 :>=B0:B8@>20BL 2 >1I5AB25 45B59 1>;LH5 >4=>3>. 52=>ABL, 8AB5@8:0, AB@0E, >B:07 83@0BL A> A25@AB=8:0<8, 5A;8 ?@8A>548=O5BAO :B>-=81C4L 5I5". ">A;5 ?5@2>3> 70=OB8O 1K;0 2 3>ABOE C 4@C30, :>B>@K9 >B:070;AO A =59 83@0BL. AB@> ?5@56820;0 87<5=C, =5 <>3;0 =09B8 <5AB> A@548 45B59, 1K;0 2 AB@0H=>< =0?@O65=88. A5 MB> A>2?0;> A >BJ574>< >BF0. !8;L=> ?5@56820O 8 708:0OAL, @0AA:070;0 <=5, GB> 452>G:8 8A:;NG8;8 55 87 83@K. 8=>20B0 O, MB> O 420 3>40 >B2>48;0 55 >B @51OB =0H53> 4><0, 2A5 640;0 :>340 >=0 ?5@5AB0=5B 708:0BLAO". "=8B5;L=0. >;57=8 >:@C60NI8E ?@8<5@O5B : A515, ?;>E> ?5@5=>A8B =57=0G8B5;L=K5 1>;8 8 =54><>30=8O, ?@8 A5@L57=>9 65 1>;57=8 2545B A51O <C65AB25==>". @>B82>?>:070=8O 4;O 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >1CA;>2;5=K >B@8F0B5;L=K< >B=>H5=85< 1>;L=KE : ;5G5=8N, B@C4=>:>=B@>;8@C5<K< ?>2545=85< 2A;54AB285 2K@065==>9 @0AB>@<>65==>AB8, ?A8E><>B>@=>9 =5AB018;L=>AB8 8 03@5AA82=>AB8, A=865==K< 8=B5;;5:B><. &5;L 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A>AB>8B 2 2>AAB0=>2;5=88 ?A8E8G5A:>3> 548=AB20 ;8G=>AB8 ?>A@54AB2>< =>@<0;870F88 55 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89. =0 4>AB8305BAO ?@8 CA?5H=>< @5H5=88 2 3@C??5 7040G ;8G=>AB=>9 4803=>AB8:8, B5@0?88 8 >1CG5=8O. 8G=>AB=0O 4803=>AB8:0 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 =01;N45=8O 70 2708<>459AB285< 45B59 2 @07;8G=KE 3@C??>2KE A8BC0F8OE.  A;CG05, :>340 2 3@C??5 2>A?@>872>48BAO >1I5=85 45B59 2 687=8, 53> <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL :0: 5AB5AB25==K9 M:A?5@8<5=B. !>1AB25==> B5@0?52B8G5A:0O 7040G0 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A2O70=0 A M<>F8>=0;L=K< >B@5038@>20=85< :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F89 2 3@C??5 8 4570:BC0;870F859 C3@>60NI8E >1@07>2 2 A>7=0=88 ?>A@54AB2>< 8E CA;>2=>3> 87>1@065=8O 2 83@5. !=OB85 8;8 C<5=LH5=85 0DD5:B82=>-B@52>6=>9 =0?@O65==>AB8 2 >1I5=88 ?@54AB02;O5B =5>1E>48<>5 CA;>285 4;O @5H5=8O >A=>2=>9 7040G8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 - >1CG5=8O, 2 :>B>@>5 2E>4OB >1CG5=85 =02K:0< 040?B82=>3> ?>2545=8O, :>@@5:F8O =51;03>?@8OB=KE G5@B E0@0:B5@0 8 4>AB865=85 1>;55 045:20B=>9 A>F80;870F88. 54>AB0B>G=0O MDD5:B82=>ABL 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =5@54:> 7028A8B >B =5C40G=>3> ?>41>@0 1>;L=KE, ?@028;L=> 65 AD>@<8@>20==0O 3@C??0 7=0G8B5;L=> ?>2KH05B 55 @57C;LB0BK. 0H8 =01;N45=8O ?>72>;8;8 2K45;8BL 420 254CI8E :@8B5@8O D>@<8@>20=8O 3@C??K: 1) @07=>>1@0785 2=CB@83@C??>2KE A2O759 ?@8 :;8=8G5A:>9 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 A>2<5AB8<>AB8 55 CG0AB=8:>2; 2) 70:@KBK9 E0@0:B5@ 3@C??K 8 >BACBAB285 1>;L=KE, ?@>E>4OI8E ?>2B>@=K9 :C@A ;5G5=8O. 07=>>1@0785 2=CB@83@C??>2KE A2O759 >7=0G05B 2>A?@>872545=85 CA;>289, =0?><8=0NI8E >1I5=85 1>;L=KE 2 687=8.  3@C??C 2:;NG0NBAO 45B8 A @07=>9 BO65ABLN 701>;520=8O, @07=K< 2>7@0AB><, ?>;><, B5<?5@0<5=B><, CAB0=>2:0<8 =0 :>;;5:B82 8 B. 4. ">340 >=0, 1C4CG8 <>45;LN 687=5==KE >B=>H5=89, ?>72>;O5B 55 CG0AB=8:0< 045:20B=> >B>1@078BL A2>8 ?@>1;5<K 8 :>=D;8:BK 8 =09B8 >?B8<0;L=K5 ?CB8 8E @07@5H5=8O.  :;8=8G5A:>< >B=>H5=88 A>2<5AB8<K 1>;L=K5 A ;>3>=52@>7><, =52@0AB5=859, =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89. @C??0 87 1>;L=KE A 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7>< <>65B AB0BL =5C?@02;O5<>9 2284C M<>F8>=0;L=>3> @0AB>@<>65=8O 8 ?>2KH5==KE 0<18F89 55 G;5=>2. 1KG=> 45B8 A 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7>< 2 =51>;LH>< G8A;5 2:;NG0NBAO 2 3@C??C, >A=>2C :>B>@>9 A>AB02;ONB 1>;L=K5 A =52@0AB5=859. >;L=K5 A B8:0<8 (2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B 8E =>7>;>38G5A:>9 ?@8=04;56=>AB8) >:07K20NB =51;03>?@8OB=>5 8=4CF8@CNI55 459AB285 =0 >AB0;L=KE, ?>MB><C ;CGH5 70=8<0BLAO A =8<8 2 >B45;L=>9 3@C??5. 0: ?@028;>, B8:8 CAB@0=ONBAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@54H5AB2CNI59 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  3@C??5 =5 4>;6=K ?@5>1;040BL 45B8 A BO65;K< B5G5=85< =52@>70, <0AA82=K<8 >@30=8G5A:8<8 =0A;>5=8O<8 8 38?5@0:B82=>ABLN, B0: :0: 2K@065==0O 8AE>4=0O ?A8E>?0B>;>38G5A:0O >BO3>I5==>ABL =5 ?>72>;O5B CA?5H=> @0728BL B5@0?52B8G5A:8 =0?@02;5==K5 >B=>H5=8O. 5;0B5;L=> 2:;NG0BL 2 3@C??C =5A:>;L:> E>@>H> :C@015;L=KE 1>;L=KE, A>740NI8E B5< A0<K< 2 =59 >?@545;5==K9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 =0AB@>9. A8E>;>38G5A:0O A>2<5AB8<>ABL 2 3@C??5 4>AB8305BAO ?>AB5?5==K< ?>41>@>< CG0AB=8:>2 2 ?@>F5AA5 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, :>340 =0 ?@85< >4=>2@5<5==> =07=0G0NBAO =5A:>;L:> 45B59, GB> ?>72>;O5B 2KO28BL A>2<5AB8<K5 83@>2K5 4804K 8 B@804K 8 2:;NG8BL 8E 2 A>AB02 1C4CI59 3@C??K. >4>1=K9 D@03<5=B0@=K9 ?>41>@ 3@C??K >1;53G05B 55 ?>A;54CNICN 8=B53@0F8N 2284C =0;8G8O 3>B>2KE "O45@ A?;>G5=8O". >7@0AB=K5 3@0=8FK 3@C?? (4-5, 5-7, 7-9, 9-11, 11 - 14 ;5B) >B@060NB >48=0:>2K9 C@>25=L A>F80;870F88 45B59 8 ?>72>;ONB 8A?>;L7>20BL 2 ?5403>38G5A:8E F5;OE 2>7@0AB=>9 ?@8<5@. '8A;> CG0AB=8:>2 - 2 ?@545;0E <0;>9 3@C??K (4 45B59 2 4-5 ;5B, 6 2 5-11 ;5B, 8 2 11 - 14 ;5B). "0:>9 A>AB02 45;05B 3@C??C C?@02;O5<>9, ?@54C?@56405B @0A?04 =0 87>;8@>20==K5 ?>43@C??K 8 ?@5?OBAB2C5B 45D8F8BC @>;59 2 83@5. @><5 B>3>, G5B=>5 G8A;> G;5=>2 3@C??K A?>A>1AB2C5B @0745;5=8N =0 83@>2K5 ?0@K 8 2>2;5G5=8N 2A5E 2 83@C. '5< 1>;LH5 2>7@0AB 45B59, B5< <5=LH5 >3@0=8G5=89 2 2>7@0AB=>< 8 :>;8G5AB25==>< ?>41>@5 3@C??K. ;O @50;870F88 "B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0" 3@C??K 8 D>@<8@>20=8O :>;;5:B82=KE >B=>H5=89 =5>1E>48< =5 B>;L:> E>@>H> ?>4>1@0==K9 A>AB02 1>;L=KE, => 8 >?@545;5==0O 4;8B5;L=>ABL 3@C??>2>3> ;5G5=8O, 4;O B>3> GB>1K C 55 CG0AB=8:>2 2>7=8:;8 >1I85 7040G8, A2O70==0O AB@C:BC@0 >B=>H5=89 8 AB0BCA=0O 48DD5@5=F80F8O. -B> 3>2>@8B > @0728B88 AB@C:BC@K 3@C??K :0: A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 A8AB5<K. 5?@5@K2=>ABL 55 ACI5AB2>20=8O ?>445@68205BAO >?B8<0;L=>9 G0AB>B>9 2AB@5G CG0AB=8:>2. @8 =52@>70E A =0@CH5=8O<8 >1I5=8O 8 ;8G=>AB=K<8 87<5=5=8O<8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A>AB02;O5B =5 <5=55 3 <5A. ?@8 42C:@0B=KE ?>A5I5=8OE 2 =545;N (24 70=OB8O). A;8 ?>4@>AB:8 70=8<0NBAO >48= @07 2 =545;N, B> ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL ;5G5=8O A>>B25BAB25==> C25;8G8205BAO. ;8B5;L=>ABL >B45;L=KE 2AB@5G 20@L8@C5B >B 45 <8=. C 4>H:>;L=8:>2 4> G0A0 2 7-11 ;5B 8 1,5 G. C ?>4@>AB:>2, GB> ?>72>;O5B @07K3@0BL @O4 A;>6=KE AN65B>2, ?@>25AB8 >1AC645=85 8 871560BL ?@8 MB>< CB><;5=8O 45B59. @>F5AA 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A:;04K205BAO 87 2708<=> ?5@5:@K20NI8EAO G5BK@5E MB0?>2: >1J548=5=8O 45B59 2 3@C??C, @0AA:07>2, 83@K, >1AC645=8O. 1J548=5=85 45B59 2 3@C??C =0G8=05BAO A>2<5AB=>9 8 8=B5@5A=>9 4;O =8E 45OB5;L=>ABLN 2 2845 M:A:C@A89 2 <C759, ?0@:, :8=>, >A<>B@0 ?>;8:;8=8:8 8 :018=5B>2, @8A>20=8O, ;5?:8, ?@54<5B=KE 83@, @0AA:07>2 > :=830E 8 C2;5G5=8OE 8 B. ?. >A;5 A=OB8O =0?@O65==>AB8, 2K720==>9 ?@51K20=85< 2 3@C??5, 2@0G @0A:@K205B 2 15A540E >1I89 E0@0:B5@ ?@>1;5<, AB>OI8E ?5@54 55 CG0AB=8:0<8, 4>ABC?=> >1JOA=O5B F5;L A>2<5AB=>3> ;5G5=8O 8 2KOA=O5B <=5=85 > 53> A?>A>10E. @8 15A540E 2 3@C??5 ?>AB5?5==> 2>7=8:05B 0B<>AD5@0 4>25@8O 8 >B:@>25==>AB8, M<>F8>=0;L=> >1J548=ONI0O 55 CG0AB=8:>2. =8 =0G8=0NB 45;8BLAO A2>8<8 65;0=8O<8 8 B@52>30<8, GB> =5@54:> O2;O5BAO 548=AB25==>9 2>7<>6=>ABLN 4;O 8E 2K@065=8O. "5@0?52B8G5A:89 MDD5:B 2KA:07K20=89 >1CA;>2;5= B5<, GB> 45B8 2>A?@8=8<0NB 3@C??C :0: ?>=8<0NICN, A>GC2AB2CNICN 8 ?>445@6820NICN 0C48B>@8N, :>B>@0O >B25G05B =5@50;87>20==K< >6840=8O< ?@8=OB8O A> AB>@>=K A25@AB=8:>2. 1J548=O5B 45B59 2 3@C??C 8 ?@>2545=85 A =8<8 83@. =0G0;5 >1@0I0NB =0 A51O 2=8<0=85 A:>20==>ABL, 70B@C4=5=8O 2 >1I5=88, 2E>645=88 2 @>;L, ?@8=OB88 @5H5=8O. > ACI5AB2C, <=>385 87 45B59 =5 <>3CB 83@0BL, GB> 2K720=> 2=CB@5==59 =0?@O65==>ABLN 8 AB@0E><, 2A;54AB285 65AB:> >3@0=8G820NI53> E0@0:B5@0 2>A?8B0=8O, 0 B0:65 >BACBAB28O 2>7<>6=>AB8 A?>=B0==KE 83@ 4><0. >MB><C 2 :0G5AB25 "@07<8=:8" 2=0G0;5 8A?>;L7CNBAO ?@>ABK5 83@K A ?@5>1;040=85< 42865=8O 8 M:A?@5AA82=>3> 2K@065=8O M<>F89, =0?@8<5@ "?0;>G:0-2K@CG0;>G:0", ":>H:8-<KH:8", "6<C@:8", "C@>: D87:C;LBC@K" 8 B. 4. ;02=>5 2 =8E - M<>F8>=0;L=> >6828BL 45B59, A>740BL 83@>2>9 =0AB@>9. 0B5< ?@8<5=ONBAO 1>;55 A;>6=K5 83@K, @072820NI85 381:>ABL 2>>1@065=8O. =8 =0G8=0NBAO A 83@-HCB>: 2 ?@54<5BK, =0?@8<5@ ;>6:C, 28;:C, B0@5;:C, A:0B5@BL, AB>;, ABC; 2 AN65B5 ">154"; :=86:C, @CG:C, AB>;, ABC;, G0AK 2 AN65B5 "4><0H=85 C@>:8" 8 B. 4. 48= 87 45B59 83@05B A51O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 4@C385 87>1@060NB =0720==K5 ?@54<5BK. >A;5 83@-HCB>: 2>A?@>872>48BAO >1AB0=>2:0 :C:>;L=>3> B50B@0. 2>5 8;8 B@>5 45B59 70 H8@<>9 8<?@>2878@CNB 2 83@5 A :C:;0<8, =045BK<8 =0 @C:C. AB0;L=K5 2<5AB5 A 2@0G>< =01;N40NB "A?5:B0:;L", >682;OO 53> >B45;L=K<8 @5?;8:0<8. 1KG=> 45B8 83@0NB A 1>;LH8< 65;0=85<, =5 8A?KBK20O =0?@O65=8O 8 AB@0E0. # 1>;LH8=AB20 1>;L=KE A ;>3>=52@>7>< ?@8 MB>< 8<55B <5AB> G8AB0O @5GL. >;8 15@CBAO ?> 65;0=8N, 8 =5 >1@0I05BAO 2=8<0=85 =0 E0@0:B5@ 8E 8A?>;=5=8O - 2065= A0< ?@>F5AA 3@C??>2>3> 2708<>459AB28O. @0G =5 ?@8=8<05B =5?>A@54AB25==>3> CG0AB8O 2 83@5. !?>=B0==K5 83@K ?@>4>;60NBAO 4> 2>7=8:=>25=8O 2 3@C??5 =5>1E>48<>9 AK3@0==>AB8 55 CG0AB=8:>2. >:070B5;5< CA?5H=>AB8 >1J548=5=8O 45B59 2 3@C??C O2;O5BAO 8E A>2<5AB=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 157 AB8<C;OF88 A> AB>@>=K 2@0G0, :>340 3@C??0 A?>A>1=0 ">1A;C68BL A51O" ?>A@54AB2>< A?>=B0==>9 :><<C=8:0B82=>9 0:B82=>AB8 A2>8E G;5=>2.  ?@>8AE>4OI8E 87<5=5=8OE =0 40==>< MB0?5 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 3>2>@OB A;54CNI85 2KA:07K20=8O @>48B5;59: "0<5B8;0, GB> G5< 1>;LH5, :0: 2K 8 A>25B>20;8, 2>48BL 55 ?> B50B@0<, <C75O<, 2KAB02:0<, B5< ;CGH5 >=0 A51O GC2AB2C5B, B5< AG0AB;8255 AB0=>28BAO. >O2;O5BAO ?5@A?5:B820 702B@0H=53> 4=O, @04>ABL >6840=8O 7@5;8I0", "0=5 >G5=L =@02OBAO 70=OB8O 2 3@C??5. = 2=CB@5==5 >A2>1>6405BAO >B =0?@O65=89, 2K720==KE H:>;>9 8 4><><, =0G8=05B HCB8BL, C;CGH05BAO =0AB@>5=85, 8 4065 A M:75<>9 ?>;CGH5", "B :>=B0:B>2 5I5 2>71C6405BAO, => AB0;0 25A5;55", "K83@K205BAO >= =0 70=OB8OE 4> >A=>20=8O 8 2545B A51O 1>;55 @0A:>20==>", "45B A =5B5@?5=85< 4=O, :>340 1C45B 83@>2>5 70=OB85", "0=OB8O 4;O =55 8=B5@5A=K", ">@48BAO ?>E20;>9 2@0G0". !;54CNI89 MB0? 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 - @0AA:07K, :>B>@K5 A>G8=ONBAO 4><0 8 ?> >G5@548 @0AA:07K20NBAO 2 3@C??5. =8 <>3CB 1KBL =0 ;N1CN B5<C. '8A;> 459AB2CNI8E ;8F =5 4>;6=> ?@52KH0BL G8A;0 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. @>4>;68B5;L=>ABL @0AA:070 >3@0=8G5=0 10-15 <8=., GB> ?>72>;O5B 871560BL A;8H:>< A;>6=KE AN65B>2 8 ?@54>AB028BL 2>7<>6=>ABL 4;O 2KABC?;5=89 >AB0;L=K< 45BO<. 0AA:07K 2=>AOB >@30=87CNI89 <><5=B 2 45OB5;L=>ABL 3@C??K, B0: :0: =0 ?@54K4CI5< MB0?5 >1J548=5=8O 45B59 ?@>8AE>48B ?>2KH5=85 8E M<>F8>=0;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8, 2K720==>5 >B@5038@>20=85< ?>402;5==KE M<>F8>=0;L=KE @50:F89.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE MB>B ?>78B82=K9 ?@>F5AA A>?@>2>6405BAO M<>F8>=0;L=K< @0AB>@<>65=85< 45B59 8 457>@30=870F859 @01>BK 3@C??K 2 F5;><.  40==>< ?5@8>45 3@C??>2>9 48=0<8:8 =565;0B5;L=> ?@8<5=5=85 65AB:8E A0=:F89, GB>1K =5 =0@CH8BL M<>F8>=0;L=K9 :>=B0:B A 45BL<8.  B> 65 2@5<O 2@0G =5 4>;65= >AB020BLAO ?0AA82=K<, B0: :0: @8A:C5B ?>B5@OBL 4>25@85 3@C??K :0: 55 @C:>2>48B5;L.  A;>682H59AO A8BC0F88 8A?>;L7>20=85 @0AA:07>2 :0: ?>A;54>20B5;L=KE <>=>;>3>2 C?>@O4>G8205B ?>2545=85 45B59. 0B5< 8< ?@54;0305BAO 5I5 @07 A>G8=8BL @0AA:07, 2 :>B>@>< "02B>@" 1K; 1K 3;02=K< 459AB2CNI8< ;8F><, 0 B5<0B8:0 1K;0 1K A2O70=0 A B0:8<8 7=0G8<K<8 B5<0<8, :0: 74>@>2L5 8 1>;57=L, AB@0E8 8 >?0A5=8O, A=>2845=8O 2 B. 4. $01C;>9 @0AA:070 A;C68B B>, GB> :>340-B> ?@>8AE>48;>, ?@>8AE>48B 8;8 <>65B ?@>87>9B8 A 53> 3;02=K< ?5@A>=065<. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 @0AA:075 <>3CB 1KBL 2>A?@>872545=K :>=:@5B=K5 ?5@56820=8O 1>;L=KE 8;8 8E D0=B0788.  B>, 8 4@C3>5 >48=0:>2> F5==>, B0: :0: ?>72>;O5B ;CGH5 ?>=OBL 2=CB@5==89 :>=D;8:B 45B59 8 8E 70I8B=K5 CAB0=>2:8. A>1>5 7=0G5=85 MB8 @0AA:07K 8 A45;0==K5 ?> =8< 4><0 @8AC=:8 8 <0A:8 8<5NB 4;O 1>;L=KE A =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89, 4020O 8< 2>7<>6=>ABL M<>F8>=0;L=> >B@5038@>20BL ?5@56820=8O, >1CA;>2;5==K5 C3@>7>9 4;O 8E 74>@>2LO 8 687=8. ">340 B5@0?52B8G5A:89 MDD5:B @0AA:070 25AL<0 7=0G8B5;5= 8 70:;NG05BAO 2 C<5=LH5=88 >AB@>BK B@52>38 8 AB@0E0.  ;N1>< A;CG05 @0AA:07K 40NB 2@0GC <=>3> F5==KE A2545=89 > =0:;>==>ABOE 8 ?5@56820=8OE 45B59, A?>A>1AB2CNB @0728B8N 8E 2>>1@065=8O 8 C<5=8O @C:>2>48BL 3@C??>9. @82545< 2 :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@>2 @O4 8AB>@89.  >4=8E >B@0605BAO AB@0E =0?045=8O, D878G5A:>3> C=8GB>65=8O, A<5@B8 (?> B5<5 2@0G0 "G53> O 1>;LH5 2A53> 1>NAL"), 2 4@C38E - 687=5==K5 ?@>1;5<K 45B59 (?> B5<0< "GB> <5=O 15A?>:>8B, 2 G5< <=5 ?;>E>, GB> O =5 <>3C, 345 <5=O >1860NB"). "4=064K >48= G5;>25: 27O; <5H>: 8 ?>H5; 2 3>@K 8 C2845; 24@C3 :0:>5-B> 65;B>5 ?OB=>. = 2=0G0;5 8A?C30;AO, ?>B><C GB> B0<, 40;5:> 2 3>@0E, 2A5 1K;> 65;B>5 - 65;B0O 101CH:0, :>B>@0O @0AAK?0;0AL, :0: B>;L:> G5;>25: 4>B@>=C;AO 4> =55, 65;BK9 G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 A:070;, GB> =0;5B5;0 5;B0O !<5@BL 8 2A5E AJ5;0, 0 >= >AB0;AO 68BL, ?>B><C GB> A?@OB0;AO 2 :@82>9 :><=0B5. ">340 MB>B G5;>25: ?>H5; 8A:0BL 5;BCN !<5@BL, =0H5; 55 8 AB0; A =59 1>@>BLAO, 0 87 =55 AB0;8 2K;5B0BL =>38, @C:8 8 G5;>25G:8" (1>;L=0O 5 ;5B A> AB@0E>< 01K-/38). "8; 1K; G5;>25:, 8 ?>H5; >= >4=064K 3C;OBL. >H5; >= 4> 40;5:>9 AB@0=K 8 A<>B@8B - B0< =5B ;N459. = 70H5; 2 871CH:C 8 C2845; B>;L:> >4=>3> G5;>25:0 8 A?@>A8; - ?>G5<C =5B =8:>3> 2 MB>9 AB@0=5, 8 CA;KH0;, GB> ?@8;5B5; ;>9 @0:>= 8 2A5E A653 >3=5<. ">;L:> >= MB> A:070;, :0: A@07C ?>O28;AO @0:>=, :>B>@K9 A:070;: "AB02;O; O >4=>3> G5;>25:0 682K<, 0 A59G0A BCB 42>5, 8 O AJ5< 20A B5?5@L >1>8E". !B0;8 >=8 A@060BLAO, 8 G5;>25: ?>1548;" (1>;L=0O 6 ;5B 87 =5?>;=>9 A5<L8). "4=064K <>O 7=0:><0O ?@8H;0 ?5@2K9 @07 2 A048:, B0< 2A5 @51OB0 :@8G0B, 0 >=0 AB>8B 2 AB>@>=5, AB5A=O5BAO ?>7=0:><8BLAO 8 ?;0G5B" (1>;L=0O 6 ;5B, :>B>@0O 1>8BAO 84B8 2 45BA:89 A04). "# =0A 2 45BA:>< A04C, :>340 2>A?8B0B5;L=8F0 2KH;0, 2A5 AB0;8 @073>20@820BL, 0 :>340 >=0 ?@8H;0 8 A?@>A8;0, :B> @073>20@820;, =8:B> =5 ?@87=0;AO. > >=0 ?>AB028;0 >4=C 87 452>G5: 2 C3>; =0 F5;K9 G0A" (1>;L=>9 6 ;5B >1=0@C68205B 2 MB>< @0AA:075 >B=>H5=85 : =5A?@0254;82><C =0:070=8N). "5=O 2 H:>;5 ?>AB>O==> >1860NB. >9 A>A54 ?> ?0@B5 =0B>G8; >AB@K9 B@5C3>;L=8: 8 =0G0; BK:0BL 8< 2 <5=O, 70B5< =0?8A0; =0 ;8AB>G:5: "!;020-4C@0:" 8 @O4>< =0@8A>20; A:5;5B.  :>340 =0 ?5@5<5=5 <=5 ?>4AB028;8 ?>4=>6:C 8 O C?0;, 2A5 4>;3> A<5O;8AL =04 MB8<" (1>;L=>9 8 ;5B, >18605<K9 A25@AB=8:0<8). "8;-1K; 2 >4=>< 3>@>45 <0;LG8: 5BO, :>B>@K9 1>O;AO D87:C;LBC@K, >A>15==> MAB0D5B, 0 B0:65 B>3>, GB> 53> 1C4CB @C30BL @51OB0, 5A;8 >= GB>-;81> =5?@028;L=> 2K?>;=8B. = @0AA:070; > A2>59 1545 >BFC, :>B>@K9 A:070;: ">?@>1C9 MBC MAB0D5BC 4><0".  <0;LG8: AB0; :064>5 CB@> 45;0BL 55 ?5@54 H:>;>9. ">340 C =53> 2A5 ?>;CG8;>AL, 8 @51OB0 53> 1>;LH5 =5 @C30;8" (1>;L=>9 9 ;5B >B@0605B 2 MB>< @0AA:075 A2>8 ?5@56820=8O, D0:B8G5A:8 >B5F =5 4020; 5<C B0:8E A>25B>2). "48= <0;LG8: 4>;3> =5 <>3 70A=CBL, ?>B><C GB> 4C<0; A 2>;=5=85< > 702B@0H=5< 4=5. 0:>=5F >= 70A=C;, 8 5<C ?@8A=8;AO :>H<0@=K9 A>=, GB> >= =8:0: =5 <>65B 4>9B8 4> H:>;K, 5<C <5H0NB ?@>E>685, 2>2@5<O =5 ?@8E>48B 02B>1CA, ?> >H81:5 >= 545B =5 2 BC AB>@>=C. 0:>=5F, >= ?@8E>48B 2 H:>;C, 215305B 2 :;0AA 8 2848B 53> ?CABK<. 4@C3 87 MB>3> ?CAB>3> :;0AA0 2K1530NB CG5=8:8 A> A;>20<8 "A5 :>=G5=>!". "CB <0;LG8: ?@>AK?05BAO >B 72>=:0 1C48;L=8:0, E<C@K< 8 @074@065==K<, =0G8=05B B>@>?8BLAO, 1>8BAO >?>740BL, GB>-B> 701K205B, => C65 =5:>340.  H:>;5 53> 2AB@5G05B 30@45@>1I8: 8 3>2>@8B A5@48B>, GB> 30@45@>1 C65 70:@KB 8 2>B-2>B ?@>725=8B 72>=>:. 0;LG8: <G8BAO ?> :>@84>@C, 8 BCB 5<C ?>?0405BAO C1>@I8F0, :>B>@0O G8B05B 4;8==CN <>@0;L, GB> =04> ;CGH5 2KB8@0BL =>38, G53> >= B0:>9 =52=8<0B5;L=K9 <0;LG8: 8 >B:C40 B>;L:> B0:>9 27O;AO, :B> 53> @>48B5;8 8 70G5< >= 1568B A;><O 3>;>2C. ! B@C4>< >A2>1>482H8AL >B =55, >= ?KB05BAO 2>9B8 2 :;0AA, => 4>@>3C 5<C ?@53@06405B 456C@=K9, :>B>@K9 =0G8=05B 4>B>H=> ?@>25@OBL 53> 4=52=8:, G8AB>BC =>3B59 8 ?@. 0:>=5F @07405BAO 72>=>:, 8 =0G8=05BAO C@>:. 3> 2K7K20NB : 4>A:5 8 ?@>AOB ?@>G8B0BL AB8E>B2>@5=85, :>B>@>5 >= :0: =07;> 701K; 2KCG8BL. >;CG05B 42>9:C 8 2 ?>402;5==>< =0AB@>5=88 2>72@0I05BAO 4><>9. A5 :065BAO <@0G=K<, 2A5 <5H05B. 0B5< ?@>8AE>48B 1C@=>5 >1JOA=5=85 A ?@8H54H8<8 4><>9 @>48B5;O<8, :>B>@K5 3>2>@OB, GB> >= A?>A>15= B>;L:> =0 B>, GB>1K ?>;CG0BL 42>9:8".  ?>A;54=59 8AB>@88 <0;LG8: 9 ;5B A =52@>7>< AB@0E0 2>A?@>872>48B 2 4@0<0B8G5A:>9 D>@<5 A2>N A8BC0F8N 2 A5<L5, 345 >= >:@C65= 15AG8A;5==K<8 B@51>20=8O<8, ?@54?8A0=8O<8, CA;>2=>ABO<8, 84CI8<8 >B 53> B@52>6=>-<=8B5;L=KE @>48B5;59 8 2;0AB=>9 101CH:8.  83@5 >= 87>1@060; <0;LG8:0 87 A2>53> @0AA:070. !;54CNI89, >A=>2=>9, MB0? 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 - 83@0, :>B>@0O ?@>2>48BAO =0 B5<K, ?@54;0305<K5 45BL<8 8 2@0G><.  83@0E ?>A;54>20B5;L=> 2>A?@>872>4OBAO @0AA:07K, A:07:8, CA;>2=K5 8 @50;L=K5 A8BC0F88. 3@K =0 40==>< MB0?5 2 >B;8G85 >B MB0?0 >1J548=5=8O B@51CNB 2:;NG5=8O 2@0G0 8 2KA>:>9 0:B82=>AB8 83@0NI8E.  =0G0;5 83@K >A=>20=K ?>;=>ABLN =0 8=8F80B825 45B59. @0G =5 @C:>2>48B 83@>9, ?@54>AB02;OO MBC 2>7<>6=>ABL 02B>@C @0AA:070, :>B>@K9 AB0=>28BAO 3;02=K< 459AB2CNI8< ;8F>< 8 @0A?@545;O5B 2A?><>30B5;L=K5 @>;8 A@548 >AB0;L=KE G;5=>2 3@C??K, 2:;NG0O 2@0G0. >A;54=89 ?@8=8<05B =5?>A@54AB25==>5 CG0AB85 2 83@5, => =5 <>65B ?@5@K20BL 55 8 45;0BL 70<5G0=8O. >4>1=0O B0:B8:0 2@0G0 8 ?@8<5@ 53> 83@>2>3> ?5@52>?;>I5=8O A?>A>1AB2CNB @0728B8N 8=8F80B82K 45B59, 5AB5AB25==>AB8 8E 2708<>459AB28O, ;CGH5<C 2E>645=8N 2 83@>2>9 >1@07. =5 83@K 2@0G ?@>4>;605B @C:>2>48BL 3@C??>9, CAB0=02;820O >1I89 @0A?>@O4>: 8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL 70=OB89, >1AB0=>2:C 8E ?@>2545=8O 8 B. 4. 3@0 >A=>20=0 =0 >1I59 D01C;5 @0AA:070, 8 2 =59 =5B 3>B>2KE @5?;8: 4;O 8A?>;=ONI8E B5 8;8 8=K5 @>;8, B. 5. 4>?CA:05BAO 2 >?@545;5==KE ?@545;0E 8<?@>2870F8O 480;>3>2 459AB2CNI8E ;8F.  B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E 70=OB89 ?@>83@K20NBAO @0AA:07K 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. 5:>B>@K5 87 =8E <>3CB =5>4=>:@0B=> @C:>2>48BL 83@>9, 5A;8 ?@54;030NB 4;O =55 @07=K5 AN65BK. @8 @0A?@545;5=88 @>;59 >1@0I05B =0 A51O 2=8<0=85 B5=45=F8O ?@54?>GB5=8O @C:>2>48B5;O<8 83@K =5:>B>@KE CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, GB> C:07K205B =0 ?>O2;5=85 A8<?0B89 <564C =8<8. @54K4CI89 @0AA:07 <0;LG8:0, 1>OI53>AO >?>740BL 2 H:>;C (=> D0:B8G5A:8 =8:>340 =5 >?074K20NI53>), 1K; ?@>83@0= A;54CNI8< >1@07><. = 8A?>;=O; @>;L 3;02=>3> 459AB2CNI53> ;8F0, @>;L C1>@I8FK - 53> <0BL, ?@83;0H5==0O 4;O MB>3> 2 83@>2>5 ?><5I5=85. @0G 1K; 30@45@>1I8:><, 4@C385 @>;8 @0A?@545;O;8AL <564C >AB0;L=K<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K, :>B>@K5 87>1@060;8 ?> E>4C 83@K @>48B5;59 <0;LG8:0, 02B>1CA (>1@07CO B5A=K9 :@C3), H>D5@0, :>=B@>;5@0, A25B>D>@, H;0310C<, ?@>E>68E, 456C@=>3> 8 CG5=8:>2 2 :;0AA5.  83@5 ?@8=8<0;8 CG0AB85 ABC45=BK-?A8E>;>38 8 2@0G8, ?@>E>4OI85 CA>25@H5=AB2>20=85. 4=>2@5<5==> >=8 A>74020;8 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 D>= 4;O 83@K, 0:BC0;878@CO ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 =59 A>1KB8O @5?;8:0<8 2@>45 "!<>B@8B5, >= >?074K205B", " 2@5<5=8 2A5 <5=LH5", "G5=L ?;>E>", "-B> =8:C40 =5 3>48BAO" 8 B. 4. > @0AA:07C, 2K94O 87 4><0, <0;LG8: (8<0) AB0; 640BL 02B>1CA, :>B>@K9 4>;3> =5 ?@8E>48;. !?5H0I85 <8<> ?@>E>685 (2A5 CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K, 2:;NG0O 2@0G0) ?>4G5@:=CB> 157@07;8G=> 3>2>@8;8, GB> 02B>1CA 70?074K205B, GB> >= 2>>1I5 =5 ?@8545B, >AB0=>2:0 ?5@5=5A5=0 8 B. 4. 5@52>;=>202H8AL, 8<0 A048BAO =5 2 B>B 02B>1CA, 2KOA=OO, ?>G5<C 02B>1CA 845B 2 4@C3CN AB>@>=C, >= ?>;CG05B ?@>B82>@5G82K5 >B25BK. KB0OAL A>9B8 =0 1;8609H59 >AB0=>2:5, >= 2AB@5G05B :>=B@>;5@0, :>B>@K9 =0AB>9G82> 2KOA=O5B, :B> >= B0:>9, A;CH05BAO ;8 @>48B5;59, 2A5340 ;8 ?@>A8B C =8E ?@>I5=8O 8 G0AB> ;8 5748B 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=CN AB>@>=C. 0;55 8<0 545B C65 2 "A2>5<" 02B>1CA5, =0 ?CB8 :>B>@>3> 2AB@5G0NBAO @07;8G=K5 ?@5?OBAB28O: @5<>=B 4>@>38, 4>;3> =5 >B:@K20NI89AO H;0310C<, G0ABK5 A25B>D>@K 8 B. 4. @5<5=8 65 >AB05BAO 2A5 <5=LH5 8 <5=LH5. K94O 87 02B>1CA0, >= 1568B 2 H:>;C, 0 >48= 87 A>?@>2>640NI8E 53> CG0AB=8:>2 83@K 2A5 2@5<O ?>2B>@O5B: "%>@>H85 <0;LG8:8 =5 >?074K20NB 2 H:>;C, >=8 ?@8E>4OB 2>2@5<O". @C3>9 CG0AB=8: 3@C??K 87>1@0605B G0AK 8 B>65 =02O7G82> ?>2B>@O5B: "AB0;>AL 10 <8=CB 4> =0G0;0 C@>:0, 5 <8=CB, 1 <8=CB0, A59G0A ?@>725=8B 72>=>:" 8 B. 4.  H:>;5 8<5 G8B0NB <>@0;L 30@45@>1I8: 8 C1>@I8F0, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2>B-2>B 4>;65= ?@>725=5BL 72>=>:. 0BL 3;02=>3> 35@>O 2>A?@8=O;0 1C:20;L=> A2>N @>;L C1>@I8FK 8 G8B0;0 C=878B5;L=CN <>@0;L A2>5<C AK=C, =5 2 A8;0E >AB0=>28BLAO 4065 B>340, :>340 ?@>725=5; 72>=>: 8 8<0 4>;65= 1KBL ?> @0AA:07C C65 2 :;0AA5. 0;55 A;54C5B 2AB@5G0 A 456C@=K<, 8 :>340 8<0 215305B 2 :;0AA, B> 2 >B;8G85 >B @0AA:070 >= 2848B 53> C65 ?CABK<. = >?>740;, C@>:8 70:>=G8;8AL, 2A5 CH;8, >= >AB0;AO >48=. >O2;O5BAO 702CG, :>B>@K9, =5 @07>1@02H8AL, B>65 G8B05B <>@0;L 8 A@>G=> 2K7K205B @>48B5;59 2 H:>;C. 0 A;54CNI5< 83@>2>< 70=OB88 2>A?@>872>48BAO >B=>H5=85 @>48B5;59 : A;CG82H5<CAO. @83;0H5==K9 4;O 83@K >B5F @0AA:07G8:0, :0: 8 53> <0BL, 1C:20;L=> 2>A?@8=O; A2>N @>;L 8 AB0; @C30BL 8 >AC640BL "35@>O", 2<5AB> B>3> GB>1K ?>A>GC2AB2>20BL, A?>:>9=> 8 >1J5:B82=> @07>1@0BLAO 2 A;CG82H5<AO, ?><>GL =09B8 @0F8>=0;L=K9 2KE>4 87 :>=D;8:B0 8 ?@54>B2@0B8BL 53> 2 40;L=59H5<. !K= 2?0; 2 =5?>445;L=>5 >BG0O=85, ?>A:>;L:C ?>=O;, GB> >B5F 4065 2 83@5 =5 <>65B ?5@5AB@>8BL A2>5 >B=>H5=85 : =5<C. > 4@C385 CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K, 2:;NG0O 2@0G0, ?><>3;8 A>740BL >?B8<8AB8G5A:89 D8=0;. >48B5;8 =5 ?@8ACBAB2CNB =0 83@0E 45B59, CG0AB2CO 2 =8E ;8HL M?87>48G5A:8, :0: MB> 1K;> 2 40==>< A;CG05. @8 ?>A;54CNI59 A>2<5AB=>9 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >=8 83@0NB A 45BL<8 2<5AB5.  @0AA<0B@8205<>< A;CG05 >?0A5=8O 8 AB@0E8 C <0;LG8:0 1K;8 4@0<0B8G5A:8 70>AB@5=K 8 B5< A0<K< 4570:BC0;878@>20=K, ?>A:>;L:C 1K; A=OB B@52>6=K9 :><?>=5=B >6840=8O B>3>, GB> <>65B A;CG8BLAO, ?@>87>9B8.  83@5 MB> C65 A25@H8;>AL, ?@>87>H;>, B. 5. @50;87>20;>AL. >A;5 A5@88 3@C??>2KE @0AA:07>2 2>>1@0605<K5 45BL<8 A8BC0F88 8;8 AB@0E8 <>3CB 1KBL ?@54AB02;5=K 2 2845 A45;0==KE 4><0 @8AC=:>2 =0 1>;LH8E ;8AB0E 1C<038, AB@0H=KE <0A>: 8;8 <C;O659 (=0?@8<5@, 4@0:>=0, 01K-/38, >I5O 8 4@C38E A:07>G=KE ?5@A>=0659). 8AC=:8 @07K3@K20NBAO 2 @>;OE, @0A?@545;O5<KE 02B>@><. 3@K ?> @0AA:070< 8 @8AC=:0< A<5=ONBAO 4@0<0B870F859 >1I58725AB=KE A:07>:. 0: 8 ?@8 ?@>83@K20=88 @0AA:07>2 8 @8AC=:>2, ?@8 83@5 2 A:07:8 8 ?>A;54CNI5< 2>A?@>872545=88 CA;>2=KE 8 @50;L=KE A8BC0F89 ?5@2>=0G0;L=> =5 A>1;N405BAO >G5@54=>ABL 2K42865=8O 45BL<8 83@>2KE B5< 8 =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E <>3CB =5>4=>:@0B=> @C:>2>48BL 83@>9, 5A;8 ?@54;030NB 4;O =55 :064K9 @07 =>2CN A:07:C. -B> ?>72>;O5B A>740BL 4>?>;=8B5;L=K9 AB8<C; 4;O 0:B82=>AB8 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, ?>>I@8BL 8E 8=8F80B82C 8 40BL 2>7<>6=>ABL @0A:@KBL ;845@A:85 :0G5AB20. &5==>ABL 83@K 2 A:07:8 70:;NG05BAO 2 C<5=LH5=88 B@52>6=>AB8 8 AB@0E0 87<5=5=8O "O" ?>A@54AB2>< 87>1@065=8O "AB@0H=KE" ?5@A>=0659 8 2708<>459AB28O A =8<8. !>45@60=85 A:07>: ?>4@07C<5205B 1>;55 :>=:@5B=K5 (=> =5 A;>2> 2 A;>2>) 480;>38 459AB2CNI8E ;8F, GB> B@5=8@C5B 2=8<0=85 8 O2;O5BAO >@30=87CNI8< <><5=B>< ?@8 83@5. ;O ?@>83@K20=8O <>6=> 2K1@0BL A:07:8 "@0A=0O (0?>G:0", ""@8 <54254O", "N9<>2>G:0", ">;CH:0", ">;H51=8: 87C<@C4=>3> 3>@>40" 8 4@. 0 <=>385 83@K 2 A:07:8 =0:;04K205B >B?5G0B>: E0@0:B5@ A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. "0:, 2 83@5 ">;CH:0" 8A?>;=O2H0O 55 @>;L 452>G:0 5 ;5B @0=8<> @5038@>20;0 =0 >B=>H5=85 "A5AB5@", @>;8 :>B>@KE 8A?>;=O;8 27@>A;K5. >A;54=85, 2>94O 2 @>;L, AB0;8 ?>43>=OBL >;CH:C, A @074@065=85< :@8G0BL =0 =55 8 C3@>60BL =0:070=85<. -B8 ?@82KG=K5 4;O 27@>A;KE @50:F88 2 A5<L5 >:070;8 2;8O=85 =0 40;L=59H89 E>4 83@K. >340 >;CH:0 4>;6=0 1K;0 ?@83;0A8BL "A5AB5@" 2> 42>@5F, >=0 :0B53>@8G5A:8 >B:070;0AL MB> A45;0BL, =5A<>B@O =0 8E ?@>AL1K. @C30O 452>G:0 4 ;5B, 8<5NI0O :>=D;8:B=KE @>48B5;59, ?@52@0B8;0 2 83@5 "2>;H51=0O ?0;>G:0" A51O 8 >4=>3> 87 <0;LG8:>2 2 101>G5:, :>B>@K5 AB0;8 4@C6=> 68BL 2<5AB5. 0BL 452>G:8 70?;0:0;0 ?@8 MB><. >A;5 A:07>: 2 83@5 2>A?@>872>4OBAO A8BC0F88, :>B>@K5 <>3;8 1K ?@>87>9B8 =0 A0<>< 45;5, => 2 4@C3>5 2@5<O, 2 4@C3>< <5AB5 8 A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8. @0G <>65B 2 A0<KE >1I8E G5@B0E =0<5B8BL B5<0B8:C, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: CG0AB=8:8 3@C??K, 8<?@>2878@CO, 4>;6=K =0?>;=8BL 55 :>=:@5B=K< A>45@60=85<. 0?@8<5@, 2 A8BC0F88 "=5>18B05<K9 >AB@>2", =0 :>B>@>< >=8 <>3;8 1K >GCB8BLAO, =5>1E>48<> @0A?@545;8BL >1O70==>AB8, A45;0BL >@C48O B@C40, 4>1KBL ?8HC, ?>AB@>8BL 68;8I5, 70I8B8BL A51O >B =0?045=8O 8 B. 4. @C30O CA;>2=0O A8BC0F8O - ">A040 :@5?>AB8", :>340 CG0AB=8:8 83@K A0<>AB>OB5;L=> @0745;ONBAO =0 420 ;035@O.  >1>@>=ONI5<AO ;035@5 2=0G0;5 >:07K20NBAO =5C25@5==K5 2 A515 8 B@52>6=K5, 0 2 =0?040NI5< - AB5=8G=K5 45B8 A 03@5AA82=K<8 B5=45=F8O<8.  40;L=59H5< ?>4>1=>5 A>>B=>H5=85 AB0=>28BAO <5=55 :>=B@0AB=K<. 0745;5=85 83@0NI8E =0 420 ;035@O <>65B B0:65 A2845B5;LAB2>20BL > =0;8G88 M<>F8>=0;L=KE ?@54?>GB5=89 2 3@C??5.  83@>2>9 A8BC0F88 "AB0@8==K9 70<>:" 2>A?@>872>48BAO 0B<>AD5@0 ?>:>O 8 B8H8=K, C548=5=8O, 2>;=CNI53> >6840=8O. 4=8 87 CG0AB=8:>2 83@K, ?>?040O 2 70<>:, ?@>E>48B <8<> @KF0@A:8E 4>A?5E>2, AB0@8==>9 <515;8, @07;8G=KE 70B5<=5==KE :><=0B, GB> CA;>2=> 87>1@0605BAO 45BL<8 2 A;01>>A25I5==>< ?><5I5=88. =570?=> 2A5 >68205B, ?>O2;ONBAO A;C68B5;8 70<:0, ?@5?OBAB2CNI85 2KE>4C 35@>O. >A;54=89 4>;65= 70I8B8BL A51O 8 ?>:8=CBL 70<>: F5;K< 8 =52@548<K<.  @>;8 3;02=>3> 459AB2CNI53> ;8F0 <>3CB 2KABC?0BL 2A5 65;0NI85. 081>;55 C40G=K5 83@>2K5 @5H5=8O 2AB@5G0NB >4>1@5=85 8 ?@5?>4=>AOBAO 2 :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 C25@5==>AB8 2 A515 8 381:>3> ?>2545=8O. >4>1=0O 83@0 =081>;55 F5;5A>>1@07=0 2 ?>4@>AB:>2>< 2>7@0AB5 8 ?>72>;O5B CA?5H=> :>@@838@>20BL AB@0E 87<5=5=8O "O". @>8AE>4OI55 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@54H5AB2CNI8E 83@ >B@5038@>20=85 D0=B0789 8 AB@0E>2 (@0AA:07K, @8AC=:8, <0A:8, <C;O68 8 ">682;5=85" 8E 2 83@5), 03@5AA82=>AB8 (">A040 :@5?>AB8"), CAB@0=5=85 AB@0E0 ?@8=OB8O @5H5=8O ("=5>18B05<K9 >AB@>2") 8 87<5=5=8O "O" (A:07:8, A8BC0F8O "AB0@8==K9 70<>:") 70:;NG05BAO 83@>9 "?@074=8:".  =59 2>A?@>872>48BAO 0B<>AD5@0 ?@8?>4=OB>3> =0AB@>5=8O 8 HC<=>3> 25A5;LO, :>340 2KABC?0NI85 =0 AF5=5 HCBOB, A<5H0B 7@8B5;59, 8@>=878@CNB ?> ?>2>4C 2>>1@0605<KE =54>AB0B:>2 8E E0@0:B5@0, 70B5< A<5H820NBAO 2 "B>;?5" 8 B0=FCNB ?>4 @8B< 1C1=0. -<>F8>=0;L=>5 2>7459AB285 B0:>9 83@K 1K205B 25AL<0 7=0G8B5;L=K<, 8 55 =5>4=>:@0B=>5 ?>2B>@5=85 ?>2KH05B 687=5@04>AB=>ABL 8 0:B82=>ABL 45B59. #A;>2=K5 A8BC0F88 >1;53G0NB ?@>83@K20=85 @50;L=KE, 2 :>B>@KE >B@060NBAO 687=5==K5 :>;;8788 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. 07K3@K20=85 A8BC0F89 "7=0:><AB2>", "2AB@5G0", ">6840=85", "<03078=", "181;8>B5:0", "?@85< 2@0G0", "C@>: 2 H:>;5", "?@85< C =0G0;L=8:0", "2K1>@ :0=4840BC@K", "?>E>4", "?>74=> 25G5@><" 8 4@. ?@82>48B : C<5=LH5=8N B@52>38, A2O70==>9 A =5C40G=K< >?KB>< >1I5=8O, A?>A>1AB2C5B ;CGH5<C @0A:@KB8N 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE 8 >@30=870B>@A:8E :0G5AB2. 0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, 2@0G ?@8=8<05B CG0AB85 2 83@5 2<5AB5 A> 2A5<8.  ?@545;0E ?@54?8A0==>9 5<C @>;8 >= A>7405B <0=5@>9 ?>2545=8O A2>53> ?5@A>=060 A>>B25BAB2CNICN ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN 0B<>AD5@C, C<5=LH0O 2>7=8:0NI85 2 83@5 =0?@O65=8O 8 >682;OO 480;>38.  @07=>>1@07=KE AN65B0E =0 B5<C "A5<LO" ("@>48B5;8 8 45B8", "1@0BLO 8 A5AB@K", "?@83>B>2;5=85 C@>:>2", "B5;5287>@", "A2>1>4=>5 2@5<O", "C:;04K20=85 A?0BL" 8 B. 4.) >B@060NBAO CA;>28O 687=8 45B59. 0?@8<5@, >=8 =5 2K18@0NB @>;L >BF0, 5A;8 >= =5 8=B5@5AC5BAO 687=LN A5<L8. 5?>?C;O@=K B0:65 @>;8 "?;>E>3> AK=0", "1>;L=>3>", "101CH:8". 0B5@8 >1KG=> 87>1@060NBAO :0: 2;0AB=K5, G@57<5@=> B@51>20B5;L=K5 8 =0:07K20NI85. CB8==>ABL A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 O@:> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 87>1@065=88 @>48B5;59, 2A5 ?><KA;K :>B>@KE A>A@54>B>G5=K =0 B><, GB>1K =0A8;L=> =0:>@<8BL 45B59, 70AB028BL 8E A5ABL =0 3>@H>:, ;5GL A?0BL, =0:070BL ?@8 =5?>A;CH0=88 8 B. 4. # H:>;L=8:>2 @>48B5;8 =5 4>25@ONB 45BO<, 157 :>=F0 ?@>25@ONB C@>:8, G0AB> 3>2>@OB =0 ?>2KH5==KE B>=0E, ?5@51820O 4@C3 4@C30. A=>2=>5 7=0G5=85 83@, >@30=87C5<KE 45BL<8, A>AB>8B 2 C;CGH5=88 ?@>F5AA0 ?@8=OB8O 8 ?@>83@K20=8O @>;59, ?@5>4>;5=88 AB@0E>2 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 10@L5@>2 =0 ?CB8 >1I5=8O, 2>7=8:=>25=88 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@K ;5G51=>9 3@C??K. -B> 8;;NAB@8@CNB A;54CNI85 A;>20 @>48B5;59: "A5 A2>8 AB@0E8, 0 70>4=> 8 GC685 >=0 2> 2@5<O 83@K ?5@56820;0 70=>2>, => =5 2 @57:>9 D>@<5, 0 :0: 1K A<>B@O =0 =8E A> AB>@>=K. "0:, 2 ?@>F5AA5 70=OB89 >=0 1>;LH5 =0G8=0;0 1>OBLAO ?0C:0, :><0@0, ?LO=>3>, <5O >@K=KG0, >6828;AO AB@0E 70 =0A 8 4065 =5<=>6:> AB@0E B5<=>BK. > 2A5 MB> 1KAB@> ?@>E>48;>, 8 A59G0A >=0 2A53> MB>3> =5 1>8BAO A>2A5<". ">A;5 83@ 2 A:07:8 AK= A C4>2>;LAB285< ?>A5I05B 3@C??C. AG57;> GC2AB2> AB@0E0 A:07>G=KE ?5@A>=0659. A>15==> E>G5BAO >B<5B8BL ?>A5I5=85 A 3@C??>9 ?>420;0, :>340 >= 8 >AB0;L=K5 45B8 ?> >G5@548 ?C30;8 4@C3 4@C30. >A;5 MB>3> AB0; >AB020BLAO >48=, 70AK?05B A0< 2 B5<=>9 :><=0B5, GB> @0=LH5 1K;> =52>7<>6=>", "4@C3 0B0H0 =5>6840==> 4;O <5=O ?>41560;0 : A>10:5 8 ?>3;048;0 55. 5 ?><=N, :0: O A0<0 A45@60;0AL 8 =5 >45@=C;0 55 (254L A0<0-B> O 8E B>65 1>NAL), 0, =0>1>@>B, ?>E20;8;0. >A;5 MB>3> 7=0G8B5;L=> >A;01;8 3;07=>9 B8: 8 708:0=85". "# 7C1=>3> 2@0G0 1>;L ?5@5=5A;0 <C65AB25==> 8 157 AB@0E0. 9 70?;><18@>20;8 3 7C10 8 3 C40;8;8". "0 MB>B ?5@8>4 ;5G5=8O <K A45;0;8 <=>3> 1>;LH8E 8 <0;5=L:8E ?>154. ;02=>5, GB> <564C =0<8 >A;01;0 B@52>6=0O A2O7L, 8 @5=0 A0<0 ?>GC2AB2>20;0 >1;53G5=85 >B MB>3>. !B@0E8 ?>1;5:;8, 0 8E 1K;> >G5=L <=>3>. "5?5@L A?>:>9=> A<>B@8B A0<K5 AB@0H=K5 A:07:8. @8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 >AB05BAO >4=0 4><0. 0AK?05B B0:65 157 =0A.  3;02=0O ?>1540 - >=0 AB0;0 >1I8B5;L=55, E>BO 4>;389 I04OI89 @568< =0=5A =0< 1>;LH>9 2@54, >=0 >BAB0;0 2 MB>< ?;0=5 >B A25@AB=8:>2 8 B5?5@L >G5=L 1C@=> 4>3>=O5B. %>@>H>, GB> C;CGH5=85 2>7=8:;> 2 =>@<0;L=>9 687=5==>9 >1AB0=>2:5, 0 =5 2 8A:CAAB25==KE CA;>28OE ?@85<0 ;5:0@AB2 8;8 1>;L=8FK", ">;55 A2>1>4=> 2545B A51O =0 70=OB8OE, 4>1@>65;0B5;L=> =0AB@>5=0 : 45BO<", "@>?0;0 2=CB@5==OO A:>20==>ABL, 0H0 157C45@6=> AG0AB;820", ">A?8B0B5;L=8F0 2 45BA:>< A04C A:070;0, GB> 4>GL AB0;0 >G5=L >7>@=>9 8 1>52>9, 83@05B A <0;LG8H:0<8 2 2>9=C, <=>3> 10;C5BAO", "A;8 @0=LH5 <>3;0 83@0BL B>;L:> 242>5<, B> A59G0A AB0;0 83@0BL A@07C A =5A:>;L:8<8 @51OB0<8", "545B A51O 1>;55 @0A:>20==>. 0=LH5 =5 E>48;0 3C;OBL >4=0, 0 B5?5@L ?>=5<=>3C 3C;O5B >:>;> 4><0, 83@05B A 45BL<8. 0=LH5 1>O;0AL : =8< ?>4E>48BL 8 ?>MB><C 3C;OBL 2A5340 E>48;0 A :5<-=81C4L 87 27@>A;KE", " >B;8G85 >B ?@>H;>3>, A59G0A CE>48B 2 H:>;C >4=0 8 =5 4>?CA:05B, GB>1K 55 ?@>2>60;8", "!B0; 1>;55 >1I8B5;L=K<, ?@>H;8 70<:=CB>ABL, C3@N<>ABL, 2@5<5=0<8 ?@>AB> 25A5;K9, ;53G5 83@05B 8 AE>48BAO A @51OB0<8", ""5?5@L O ?@83;0H0N : 4>G5@8 4@C38E @51OB 4;O 83@K, 8 MB> 59 >G5=L =@028BAO, :0: >=0 3>2>@8B - 4=8 ?>H;8 =5A:CG=K5". AB0=>28<AO =0 >A>15==>ABOE D>@<8@>20=8O >B=>H5=89 2 3@C??5 ?@8 A?>=B0==KE 83@0E 8 83@0E =0 B5<K, ?@54;>65==K5 45BL<8. -B8 83@K ?@54AB02;ONB 5AB5AB25==K9 284 8E 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2KO2;OO ?>;>68B5;L=K5 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0, >A>15==>AB8 2708<>>B=>H5=89 8 @5038@>20=8O 2 =5>1KG=KE CA;>28OE. >AB5?5==> 2 3@C??5 2>7=8:0NB >B=>H5=8O, 2A5 1>;55 1;87:85 : @50;L=>9 687=8 55 CG0AB=8:>2. 708<=>5 2>A?@8OB85 8 >F5=:0 AB0=>2OBAO 1>;55 :@8B8G=K<8, ?>O2;ONBAO M<>F8>=0;L=> >1>A>1;5==K5 ?>43@C??K, ?@>8AE>48B 48DD5@5=F80F8O 3@C??K =0 ;845@>2, ?@8=OBKE, 87>;8@>20==KE 8 >B25@3=CBKE. -B8 AB0BCA=K5 @07;8G8O 4803=>AB8@CNBAO ?>A@54AB2>< A>F8><5B@88 - 8=48284C0;L=>3> >?@>A0 > ?@54?>GB8B5;L=>< 8;8 =565;0B5;L=>< 2K1>@5 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K 4;O A>2<5AB=>9 83@K 2 ?>;8:;8=8:5 8 4><0. !>F8><5B@8O =0 40==>< MB0?5 3@C??>2>9 48=0<8:8 G0AB> C:07K205B =0 A>2?045=85 ?>;>65=8O 45B59 2 3@C??5 8 2 @50;L=KE CA;>28OE, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 45BA:>< A04C 8 H:>;5. 0@0AB0NI89 ?@>F5AA AB0BCA=>9 48DD5@5=F80F88 3@C??K =5 2A5340 ?@>B5:05B 1571>;57=5==> 4;O 55 CG0AB=8:>2. >7<>6=K :0: 2@5<5==K5 =0?@O65=8O <564C >B45;L=K<8 45BL<8 2A;54AB285 1>@L1K 70 4><8=8@CNI55 ?>;>65=85, B0: 8 :>=D;8:B=K5 >B=>H5=8O, >A>15==> 2 83@0E, >B@060NI8E 687=5==K5 A8BC0F88. ">340 3@C??0 2>2;5:05BAO 2 A>AB>O=85 AB@5AA0, O2;ONI53>AO 0=0;>3>< =0@CH5==KE 687=5==KE >B=>H5=89 8 8AE>4=>9 =52@>B870F88 CG0AB=8:>2 83@K.  @57C;LB0B5 AB@5AA0 2>7<>6=> 70:@5?;5=85 AB0BCA=KE @07;8G89. ;O ?@8=OBKE G;5=>2 3@C??K - MB> ?>78B82=0O B5=45=F8O, 4;O 87>;8@>20==KE 8 >B25@3=CBKE - >B@8F0B5;L=0O.  MB>< A;CG05 5ABL >?0A=>ABL B>3>, GB> 48=0<8:0 3@C??K AB0=5B 8=5@B=>9 8 @8384=>9, 70D8:A8@CNBAO ?0B>;>38G5A:85 AB5@5>B8?K ?>2545=8O, 8 2A5 MB> 2<5AB5 27OB>5 O28BAO ?@5?OBAB285< 4;O D>@<8@>20=8O 2 =59 :>;;5:B82=KE >B=>H5=89. 5>1E>48<> 2>2@5<O 70<5B8BL 40==K5 =565;0B5;L=K5 O2;5=8O, GB>, >4=0:>, =5 >7=0G05B =570<54;8B5;L=>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2@0G0 8 ?@8<5=5=8O 65AB:>3> @53;0<5=B8@>20=8O, :>B>@>5 <>65B ?>4>@20BL 0:B82=>ABL 3@C??K 8 AB8<C;K : 40;L=59H59 ?5@5AB@>9:5 >B=>H5=89 C 55 CG0AB=8:>2.  B><C 65 >=8 =5 CA?520NB ?5@568BL 8 4>;6=K< >1@07>< >A>7=0BL A8BC0F8N AB@5AA0. >MB><C 3@C??0 G5@57 >1AC645=8O ?>AB5?5==> ?>42>48BAO : ?>=8<0=8N ?@8G8= <56;8G=>AB=>9 =0?@O65==>AB8 ?>A@54AB2>< 0=0;>388 A B@02<8@CNI8< 687=5==K< >?KB><, => =5 40NBAO C:070=8O 2 >B=>H5=88 A?>A>1>2 A=OB8O 3@C??>2>3> AB@5AA0. >A;54=55 4>AB8305BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@>4>;60NI59AO A>2<5AB=>9 83@K, :>340 2@0G :>@@838@C5B >B=>H5=8O 2 3@C??5 "87=CB@8" :0: CG0AB=8: 83@K 8 70B5< ?>>G5@54=> A 45BL<8 @C:>2>48B 3@C??>9.  @>;8 CG0AB=8:0 83@K 2@0G >1;0405B B0:8<8 65 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 2>7459AB28O =0 3@C??C, :0: 8 3@C??0 ?> >B=>H5=8N : =5<C. > >= <>65B, 8<?@>2878@CO 2 ?@545;0E 7040==>9 @>;8, >B@060BL 2 :>A25==>< 2845 =565;0B5;L=K5 G5@BK ?>2545=8O C >4=8E 45B59 8 ?>4G5@:820BL ?>;>68B5;L=K5 G5@BK 4@C38E, GB> A;C68B 459AB25==K< A@54AB2>< 87<5=5=8O 8E >B=>H5=89. >A;5 MB>3> 22>48BAO ?@028;> >1 CG0AB88 2 83@5 2A5E 45B59, :>B>@>5 ?>445@68205BAO ;8G=K< ?@8<5@>< 2@0G0, 2708<>459AB2CNI53> A> 2A5<8 G;5=0<8 3@C??K, >A>15==> A 87>;8@>20==K<8 2 >B25@3=CBK<8. !;54CNI8< ?@028;>< O2;O5BAO ?>>G5@54=>ABL 2K42865=8O 83@>2KE B5< 2A5<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 3@C??K, 2:;NG0O 2@0G0. >A;54>20B5;L=>5 @C:>2>4AB2> 3@C??>9 ?@54>B2@0I05B C7C@?8@>20=85 55 ;845@0<8 83@>2>9 8=8F80B82K, ?>2KH05B 0:B82=>ABL 8 GC2AB2> ?@8=04;56=>AB8 : 3@C??5 C >AB0;L=KE 45B59. >340 @C:>2>4AB2> ?5@5E>48B : 2@0GC, >= AB@5<8BAO G0I5 =07=0G0BL =0 3;02=K5 @>;8 87>;8@>20==KE 8 >B25@3=CBKE G;5=>2 3@C??K, ?>4G5@:820O ?>;>68B5;L=K5 G5@BK 8E E0@0:B5@0. >4>1=K< @0A?@545;5=85< @>;59 2@0G C;CGH05B A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:CN AB@C:BC@C 3@C??K, GB> ?>4B25@6405BAO 40==K<8 ?>2B>@=>9 A>F8><5B@88, ?>:07K20NI59 >BACBAB285 ?@5=51@5305<KE 8 87>;8@>20==KE G;5=>2 3@C??K, B. 5. ?>2KH5=85 B5@?8<>AB8 : =8<.  B> 65 2@5<O ;845@K ?@>4>;60NB C45@6820BL A2>9 AB0BCA, => =5 ?@>B82>?>AB02;OO A51O 4@C38< G;5=0< 3@C??K, 0, =0?@>B82, >:07K20O 8< ?>445@6:C. '5@54>20=85 @C:>2>4AB20 3@C??>9 ?@54>AB02;O5B 2>7<>6=>ABL ?5@5E>40 : ?>AB>O==><C @C:>2>4AB2C A> AB>@>=K 2@0G0 A F5;LN 4>AB865=8O =0?@02;5==>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 8 @5040?B0F8>==>3> MDD5:B0. ;O MB>3> B5?5@L A>740=K =5>1E>48<K5 CA;>28O: 3@C??0 >1;0405B @0728B>9 A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@>9, >B=>H5=8O 2 =59 =>AOB @50;L=K9, 1;87:89 : 687=8 8 AB018;L=K9 E0@0:B5@, 8<5NB <5AB> AK3@0==>ABL 55 CG0AB=8:>2, 2K@065==>5 GC2AB2> ?@8=04;56=>AB8 : 3@C??5 8 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 2 ;5G5=88. @><5 B>3>, 2@0G 4>AB0B>G=> E>@>H> 87CG8; ;8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 45B59, 8E A8;L=K5 8 A;01K5 AB>@>=K, GB>1K A45;0BL CA?5H=K< A2>5 =0?@02;5==>5 2>7459AB285 =0 3@C??C. 3@K =0 B5<K, ?@54;>65==K5 2@0G><, ?@>E>4OB 2 >1@0B=>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8: A:07:8, CA;>2=K5 8 @50;L=K5 A8BC0F88, @0AA:07K. C:>2>4O 83@>9, >= @0A?@545;O5B @>;8 A CG5B>< ;8G=>AB=KE 8 :;8=8G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 45B59 A F5;LN 2>7459AB28O =0 83@0NI53> E0@0:B5@>< 87>1@0605<>3> ?5@A>=060. @8 83@5 2 A:07:8 CG8BK205BAO, GB> ACI=>ABL A:07>G=KE ?5@A>=0659 =587<5==0: 2>;: 2A5340 03@5AA825=, 70OF B@CA;82, ;8A0 E8B@0 8 B. 4.  @50;L=KE A8BC0F8OE @>;L :><0=48@0 3>2>@8B >1 >@30=870B>@A:8E :0G5AB20E 8 E@01@>AB8, CG8B5;O - > 7=0=8OE 8 B. 4. 3@0O ?>4>1=K5 @>;8, 45B8 8<5NB 2>7<>6=>ABL ;CGH5 >A>7=0BL A2>8 4>AB>8=AB20 8 =54>AB0B:8, ?@5>4>;5BL AB@0E ?5@54 =5:>B>@K<8 87 @50;L=KE 0=0;>3>2 @>;59. >A;54=55 >1CA;>2;5=> 26820=85< 2 C3@>60NI89 >1@07, B. 5. ?@O<K< 53> 87>1@065=85< 2 83@5. 0?@8<5@, AB@0E ?5@54 >1@07>< 01K-/38 CAB@0=O5BAO, 5A;8 45B8 2 83@5 ?5@52>?;>I0NBAO 2 MB>B >1@07, =045;OO 53> A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 0B@81CB0<8 ?>2545=8O. A;8 >=8 1>OBAO CG8B5;O, B> A=OBL MB>B AB@0E ?><>305B 87>1@065=85 =5 A0<8E A51O 8;8 A25@AB=8:>2, 0 CG8B5;O.  @0AA<0B@8205<KE A;CG0OE ?@>8AE>48B 45A5=A818;870F8O : AB@0EC G5@57 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 <5E0=87< >2;045=8O 8 C?@02;5=8O C3@>60NI8< >1@07><, CAB@0=5=8O >@5>;0 53> =54>ABC?=>AB8, :>=:@5B870F88 2 A>7=0=88. @><5 45A5=A818;870F88, B5@0?52B8G5A:89 MDD5:B >1CA;>2;5= B0:65 >B@5038@>20=85< M<>F89. 5040?B0F8>==K9 MDD5:B 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 4>AB8305BAO ?>A@54AB2>< 2>A?@>872545=8O CA;>2=KE 8 @50;L=KE A8BC0F89 >1I5=8O A F5;LN >2;045=8O =02K:0<8 040?B82=>3> ?>2545=8O. #A;>2=K5 A8BC0F88 ?@8<5=ONBAO 4;O 2K@01>B:8 045:20B=KE D>@< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 70I8BK 2 >B25B =0 A?5F80;L=> A>740205<K5 <>45;8 3@C??>2>3> :>=D;8:B0, =0?@8<5@ ?@8 83@0E =0 A;54CNI85 B5<K: ">H81:0", "=5C40G0", "8A?>@G5==K9 B5;5D>=", "2708<=K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?>@B@5BK", ">128=5=85", "4>:070B5;LAB2>", ">A:>@1;5=85", ">1840", "8A?C3" 8 B. 4. "5<K 4;O @50;L=KE A8BC0F89 >AB0NBAO B0:8<8 65, :0: 8 @0=LH5, => 1>;LH55 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO ?@>83@K20=8N AN65B>2, A2O70==KE A 45BA:8< A04><, H:>;>9 8 A5<L59. A>15==>ABLN 83@ =0 40==>9 AB0488 O2;O5BAO 8E 4C1;8@>20=85 A ?5@5<5=>9 @>;59. >A;5 ?@>83@K20=8O :0:>9-;81> A8BC0F88 55 CG0AB=8:8 <5=ONBAO @>;O<8, 8 >=0 2>A?@>872>48BAO A=>20, GB> 45;05B 83@C 1>;55 @07=>>1@07=>9, ?>72>;O5B 45BO< ;CGH5 ?>=OBL A51O 8 4@C3 4@C30, @0AH8@O5B @>;52>9 480?07>= >1I5=8O. @0G 2 2K1@0==>9 8< @>;8 <>65B 75@:0;L=> >B@060BL =565;0B5;L=K5 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0 >4=8E 45B59 (A F5;LN 8E >A>7=0=8O), @072820BL ?>;>68B5;L=K5 G5@BK 4@C38E, ?@>5F8@>20BL =5:>B>@K5 AB>@>=K "O" CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, @0A:@K20BL 8E 65;0=8O 8 ?>B@51=>AB8, A>74020BL ?@>1;5<=K5 A8BC0F88 >1I5=8O, ?>4A:07K20BL A?>A>1K 8E @5H5=8O 8 B. 4. 5B>48G5A:8 83@0 AB@>8BAO A;54CNI8< >1@07><. 064K9 87 CG0AB=8:>2 2=0G0;5 @0AA:07K205B ?@8ACBAB2CNI8< > A2>8E 70B@C4=5=8OE ?@8 >1I5=88 A> A25@AB=8:0<8 8 27@>A;K<8.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE 5<C <>3CB 1KBL ?>4A:070=K B5 8;8 8=K5 A8BC0F88 2@0G>< 8 45BL<8.  83@5 @0AA:07G8: 87>1@0605B A51O, 0 2@0G 8 >AB0;L=K5 45B8 8A?>;=ONB A>3;0A=> 53> ?@54?8A0=8O< @>;8 7=0G8<KE 4@C38E, A25@AB=8:>2 8 27@>A;KE. 3@0 ?><>305B ;CGH5 ?>=OBL E0@0:B5@ ?@>1;5< 3;02=>3> 459AB2CNI53> ;8F0. 0B5< @>;8 <5=ONBAO, 8 MB8< ;8F>< AB0=>2OBAO ?> 65;0=8N >48= 87 45B59 8;8 2@0G, ?>:07K20NI85 ?@85<;5<K9 20@80=B ?>2545=8O 2 40==>9 A8BC0F88, @0AA:07G8: 65 83@05B @>;L 7=0G8<>3> 4@C3>3>.  70:;NG5=85 ?@>2>48BAO >1@0B=0O ?5@5<5=0 @>;59, :>340 @0AA:07G8: A=>20 AB0=>28BAO A>1>9, 1C4CG8 A?>A>1=K< : 045:20B=><C 2708<>459AB28N A 4@C38<8, B. 5. 1KBL A>1>9 A@548 4@C38E, CA?5H=> ?@5>4>;520O B5< A0<K< B@C4=>AB8 >1I5=8O 8 70:@5?;OO =02K:8 040?B82=>3> ?>2545=8O.  3@C??0E 1>;L=KE A ;>3>=52@>7>< 8 D>18O<8 >1I5=8O 040?B0F8O ?@>2>48BAO 8 2 @50;L=KE CA;>28OE: 2 H:>;5, <03078=5, 181;8>B5:5 8 B. 4. "0:8< >1@07><, @>;520O 83@0 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 2 =5A:>;L:> ?@85<>2: 0:BC0;870F8O ?@>1;5<K, 55 @07@5H5=85 8 70:@5?;5=85 4>AB83=CBKE @57C;LB0B>2. 5@5AB@>9:0 >B=>H5=89 C :064>3> 87 CG0AB=8:>2 83@K ?@>8AE>48B ?>4 2>7459AB285< =5 B>;L:> 2@0G0, => 8 3@C??K, GB> 3>2>@8B > 55 :>;;5:B82=>9 >@85=B0F88. 7<5=5=85 >B=>H5=89 C =5:>B>@KE G;5=>2 3@C??K <>65B 1KBL 70B@C4=5=> 87-70 =0;8G8O =51;03>?@8OB=KE G5@B E0@0:B5@0, 2 G0AB=>AB8 M3>F5=B@87<0 2 A>G5B0=88 A ?@O<>;8=59=>ABLN, G@57<5@=>9 ?@8=F8?80;L=>ABLN 8 B@52>6=>9 <=8B5;L=>ABLN. 45AL B@51C5BAO 4>?>;=8B5;L=>5, =0?@02;5==>5 2>7459AB285 2@0G0, >?>A@54>20==>5 :>;;5:B82=K< 459AB285< 3@C??K: 2 ?>4>1=KE A;CG0OE @>;52K5 83@K 7025@H0NBAO 4@0<0B870F859 53> @0AA:07>2, 3;02=>5 459AB2CNI55 ;8F> :>B>@KE =0?><8=05B A2>8< E0@0:B5@>< >4=>3> 87 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K. >A?@>872545=85 A@548 A25@AB=8:>2 2 8=>A:070B5;L=>9 D>@<5 =51;03>?@8OB=KE >A>15==>AB59 53> E0@0:B5@0 O2;O5BAO MDD5:B82=K< AB8<C;>< 4;O 8E >A>7=0=8O 8 ?5@5AB@>9:8. # 4>H:>;L=8:>2 8 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2 @0AA:07K 2@0G0 @07K3@K20NBAO 2 2845 :C:>;L=>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O. 0E>4OAL 70 H8@<>9 A :C:;>9, =045B>9 =0 @C:C, 2@0G 2545B ?>25AB2>20=85 >B 55 ;8F0 2 2845 <>=>;>30 8;8 480;>30 A 4@C38<8 :C:;0<8, 87>1@060NI8<8 A:07>G=KE ?5@A>=0659 8 ;N459. B;8G8B5;L=>9 G5@B>9 83@K O2;O5BAO ?5@8>48G5A:>5 >1@0I5=85 3;02=>3> ?5@A>=060 : 7@8B5;O<, :>B>@K5 B5< A0<K< ?@8=8<0NB 2 =59 0:B82=>5 CG0AB85. 0?@8<5@, 568: A?@0H8205B ;8AC, ?>G5<C >= B0: G0AB> ?;0G5B. 8A0 <>65B C:;>=8BLAO >B >B25B0 8;8 40BL 70254><> =5?@028;L=K9. ">340 =54>2>;L=K9 568: >1@0I05BAO : 7@8B5;O<, :>B>@K5 2 40==K9 <><5=B ?@54AB02;5=K :0: @07;8G=K5 >18B0B5;8 ;5A0. 0B5< 459AB285 ?@>4>;605BAO, 8 568: 2AB@5G05BAO A 4@C38<8 ?5@A>=060<8, :>B>@K5 A>25BCNB, :0: 871028BLAO >B ?;0G0. = 157CA?5H=> ?KB05BAO A;54>20BL 8E A>25B0< 8 2=>2L >1@0I05BAO 70 ?><>ILN. @8B5;8 ?@54;030NB @07;8G=K5 20@80=BK @5H5=89, 8=>340 ?@8 MB>< A?>@O 4@C3 A 4@C3><. KA:07K20NB A2>5 <=5=85 8 45B8, ?>2545=85 :>B>@KE 2 :>A25==>9 D>@<5 >B>1@0605BAO 2 83@5. =8, A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 8;8 ?@8A;CH820OAL : <=5=8N 4@C38E, =0E>4OB ?@028;L=>5 @5H5=85, GB> 3>2>@8B >1 >1CG0NI5< E0@0:B5@5 83@K. 5:>B>@K5 87 =8E ?> A>1AB25==>9 8=8F80B825 ?>4:;NG0NBAO : 83@5, 2708<>459AB2CO 2 >4=>9 87 @>;59 A ?5@A>=065< 2@0G0. # ?>4@>AB:>2 ?@8<5=O5BAO <5B>48:0 =570:>=G5==KE @0AA:07>2 =0 @50;L=K5 B5<K, @072O7:C :>B>@KE >=8 4>;6=K ?@84C<0BL A0<8 8 2>A?@>8725AB8 2 83@5.  70:;NG5=85 ?@>83@K205BAO =081>;55 ?@85<;5<K9 20@80=B. 0 3;02=CN @>;L =07=0G05BAO CG0AB=8: 3@C??K, ?>2545=85 :>B>@>3> 2 702C0;8@>20==>< 2845 2>A?@>872>48;>AL 2 @0AA:075.  ;8G=>AB=> 7=0G8<>9 @>;8 >= 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 <5@5 >B@0605B 3@C??>2K5 =>@<K 040?B82=>3> ?>2545=8O, GB> O2;O5BAO 459AB25==K< A?>A>1>< ?5@5AB@>9:8 53> >B=>H5=89. "0:8< >1@07><, A>45@60=85 @>;52KE 83@ <5=O5BAO >B B5@0?52B8G5A:8 =0?@02;5==KE 4> >1CG0NI8E. "5@0?52B8G5A:85 83@K AB02OB A2>59 F5;LN CAB@0=5=85 0DD5:B82=KE ?@5?OBAB289 2 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=8OE, 0 >1CG0NI85 - 4>AB865=85 1>;55 045:20B=>9 040?B0F88 8 A>F80;870F88 45B59. 0AA<>B@8< =5:>B>@K5 ?@8=F8?K @>;52>9 83@K, :>B>@0O ?>=8<05BAO :0: 0:B B2>@G5AB20 8 A0<>@0A:@KB8O, 40NI89 2>7<>6=>ABL ;CGH5 ?>=OBL A51O 8 4@C38E, ?5@5AB@>8BL A2>8 >B=>H5=8O. ;O MB>3> >=0 AB@>8BAO =0 >A=>25 8<?@>2870F88 :0: 8=48284C0;L=>9 D>@<K A0<>2K@065=8O, @07=>>1@078O 8 A<5=K AN65B>2, 8E C2;5:0B5;L=>AB8 8 0:BC0;L=>AB8 4;O 45B59. 3@0 ?>4@07C<5205B CA;>2=>ABL 8 >4=>2@5<5==> @50;L=>ABL ?@>8AE>4OI53> 459AB28O. #A;>2=>ABL >15A?5G8205BAO =5>1O70B5;L=>ABLN 3@8<0, 45:>@0F89 8 ?@>G8E B50B@0;L=KE 0B@81CB>2. @>8AE>4OI55 <>65B 1KBL ?>4G5@:=CB> >B45;L=K<8 45B0;O<8, =0?@8<5@, 83@CH5G=K9 4><8:, ?>AB02;5==K9 A@548 83@0NI8E, >7=0G05B, GB> 459AB285 ?@>8AE>48B 2 =5<; 5;>G:0 >;8F5B2>@O5B ;5A; ;8=59:0, ;560I0O =0 ?>;C, A8<2>;878@C5B 4>@>3C; ABC; - AB5=C, ?@5?OBAB285 8 B. 4. 50;L=>ABL A>7405BAO 2>2;5G5==>ABLN 45B59 2 83@C 8 2E>645=85< 2 83@>2>9 >1@07. -B><C 65 A?>A>1AB2C5B >BACBAB285 @568AA5@A:>3> :>=B@>;O, =07840=89 8 70CG5==KE @5?;8: ?5@A>=0659. ;02=K<8 2 83@5 O2;ONBAO M<>F8>=0;L=0O 0B<>AD5@0, AK3@0==>ABL CG0AB=8:>2 8 8E A?>=B0==0O 0:B82=>ABL. =0 @0A:@K205B M<>F8>=0;L=K5 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 @575@2K 3@C??K, :>340 8<55B 7025@H5==K9 E0@0:B5@. @>1;5=85 55 =0 :>@>B:85 M?87>4K 8 8E >1AC645=8O =0@CH0NB ?@8=F8? A?>=B0==>AB8 2 7025@H5==>AB8 83@>2>3> 459AB28O. @8 =0;8G88 A;>6=KE, <=>3>?;0=>2KE AN65B>2 >=8 @07K3@K20NBAO 2 B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E 70=OB89 2 2845 >B45;L=KE A5@89. O4 AN65B>2 =0 @50;L=K5 B5<K (=0?@8<5@, "H:>;0") ?@>83@K20NBAO =5A:>;L:> @07, => MB> =5 >7=0G05B 8E ?>2B>@5=8O 2284C G5@54>20=8O @>;59 8 8<?@>2870F88 480;>3>2. #G8BK20O, GB> AF5=8G5A:0O 687=L B>9 8;8 8=>9 B5<K 8<55B A2>8 ?@545;K, >=0 =5 2>A?@>872>48BAO 1>;LH5 3-4 @07. @8 1>;LH5< G8A;5 2>A?@>872545=89 ?>O2;ONBAO @CB8==>ABL 8 HB0<?.  MB>< ?;0=5 8<55B 7=0G5=85 2 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL "G8AB>9" 83@K. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, B@51C5BAO :0:>5-B> 2@5<O, GB>1K >=0 2>H;0 2 =C6=CN :>;5N 8 ?@>83@0;0 55 AN65B 2 70:>=G5==>< 2845. ! 4@C3>9, 87;8H=OO ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL ?@82>48B : =0AKI5=8N 8 ?>B5@5 8=B5@5A0 : 83@5. AE>4O 87 A:070==>3>, 55 >?B8<0;L=0O ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL A>AB02;O5B 30 <8=. C 4>H:>;L=8:>2 8 45 <8=. C H:>;L=8:>2. >A;5 A=OB8O M<>F8>=0;L=>9 =0?@O65==>AB8 8 C;CGH5=8O ?@>F5AA0 >1I5=8O =5>1E>48<> C:@5?;5=85 8 @0728B85 @O40 87<5=5==KE 2 ?@>F5AA5 1>;57=8 ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89. ! MB>9 F5;LN 8A?>;L7CNBAO 83@K, @072820NI85 1KAB@>BC @50:F89, 2=8<0=85, B5@?5=85, 2K=>A;82>ABL 8 :>>@48=0F8N. 081>;55 C?>B@518B5;L=K5 B5<K 4;O MB8E 83@: ":B> ?5@2K9", "A0<K9 ;>2:89", "2=570?=K5 2>?@>AK", ":53;8", "@8B<8:0", "83@0 A <OG><", "153 ?> AG5BC", "2=570?=0O >AB0=>2:0" 8 B. 4. =8 >48=0:>2> 206=K 4;O 45B59 ;N1>3> 2>7@0AB0 8 C ?>4@>AB:>2 =>AOB 1>;55 A?>@B82=K9, => 4>ABC?=K9 8E 2>7<>6=>ABO< E0@0:B5@.  B><C 65 ?>4>1=K5 83@K 2=>AOB 70<5B=>5 @07=>>1@0785 2 45OB5;L=>ABL 3@C??K 8 ?@54AB02;ONB A2>5>1@07=CN 83@>2CN @07<8=:C ?5@54 >1AC645=8O<8. 1AC645=85 ?@54AB02;O5B 70:;NG8B5;L=K9 MB0? 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. &5;L 53> A>AB>8B 2 70:@5?;5=88 @57C;LB0B>2 ;5G5=8O, 40;L=59H5< @0AH8@5=88 :@C3>7>@0 45B59 8 @0728B88 8E A0<>A>7=0=8O.  @0725@=CB>< 2845 >=> =081>;55 F5;5A>>1@07=> C ?>4@>AB:>2.  4>ABC?=>9 D>@<5 >1AC640NBAO B0:85 2>?@>AK, :0: >B=>H5=85 : A515 8 >:@C60NI8<, 02B>=><8O 8 7028A8<>ABL, >B25BAB25==>ABL 8 GC2AB2> 4>;30, ?>B@51=>AB8 8 2>7<>6=>AB8, ?@87=0=85, 4@C610 8 B. 4. 8=0<8:C ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 87<5=5=89 C 45B59 8;;NAB@8@CNB A;54CNI85 2KA:07K20=8O @>48B5;59: " >B;8G85 >B ?@56=53>, :>340 ?0=8G5A:8 1>O;0AL 8 =5 >B?CA:0;0 <5=O >B A51O, B5?5@L A0<0 ?@>3>=O5B <5=O 4><>9, ?>4>;3C 3C;O5B 2> 42>@5, ;53:> 2ABC?05B 2 :>=B0:B A =57=0:><K<8 45BL<8, ;0705B ?> 701>@0<, 15305B ?> AB@>9:5, ?@8E>48B 4><>9 >G5=L 4>2>;L=0O 8 CAB0;0O", "@8 =5C40G5 C65 =5 1@>A05B, :0: @0=LH5, =0G0B>5 45;> A> A;570<8 8 A:0=40;><", "CGH5 ?5@5=>A8B >6840=85", ">;=>ABLN A=O;0AL @0AB>@<>65==>ABL", ">A;5 83@ AB0;0 <5=55 C?@O<>9, ?><>305B 27@>A;K<", "53G5 AB0;> 55 C3>2>@8BL, G0I5 CABC?05B, =5B ?@56=59 @50:F88 =0 70<5G0=8O 8 >184G82>AB8", " H:>;C E>48B A 1>;LH8< 65;0=85<", "0 2>?@>A, :0: >B=>H5=8O A <0;LG8:0<8, AB0; >B25G0BL >?B8<8AB8G=> - =>@<0;L=>! 0=LH5 65 =0G8=0; =KBL 8 60;>20BLAO, GB> 53> >1860NB, 4@07=OB 8 ?>4HCG820NB =04 =8<", ">340 @0=LH5 4>G5@8 704020;8 AB8E>B2>@5=85, >=0 ?;>E> 70AK?0;0, =>GLN =5A:>;L:> @07 ?@>AK?0;0AL 8 G8B0;0 53> 2A;CE. "5?5@L A?8B A?>:>9=>, AB8E8 =5 G8B05B, 2 H:>;C 845B C25@5==>. KAB@> >A2>8;0AL 2 =>2>< :;0AA5. ! @51OB0<8 AE>48BAO 1KAB@>, ?>4E>48B : =8< A0<0. > A>1AB25==>9 8=8F80B825 =>A8B C@>:8 701>;52H8< 452>G:0<", "0 ;5B=89 ?5@8>4 8 ?5@2K9 <5AOF 70=OB89 2 H:>;5 70<5B=K A42838 2 ;CGHCN AB>@>=C, AB0; =0<=>3> C25@5==55, 8AG57;8 8AB5@8:8, =0CG8;AO 2;045BL A>1>9, A45@6820BL A;57K. KB05BAO 70I8I0BLAO, 405B A40G8 8 4065 70I8I05B 452>G5:". #AB@0=5=85 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 M<>F8>=0;L=KE =0@CH5=89 8 ?5@5AB@>9:0 >B=>H5=89 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K ?@54AB02;ONB =5>1E>48<>5 CA;>285 4;O 55 A?;>G5=8O =0 :0G5AB25==> =>2>< C@>2=5 :>;;5:B82=KE >B=>H5=89.  3@C??5 A>7405BAO =0?@02;5=85 2 2845 B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 =>@<K, A>F80;L=>-F5==>AB=KE >@85=B0F88, :>;;5:B82=>9 2708<>?><>I8 8 GC2AB20 >B25BAB25==>9 7028A8<>AB8. !>F8><5B@8O, ?@>2>48<0O 2 B@5B89 @07, B0:65 ?>4B25@6405B :>;;5:B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ >@30=870F88 3@C??K. ;>B=>ABL A>F8><5B@8G5A:8E A2O759 =0@0AB05B ?> :@8B5@8O< D>@<0;L=>3> 8 =5D>@<0;L=>3> 2K1>@0, GB> C:07K205B =0 A>2<5AB8<>ABL F5;8 ;5G5=8O A >1I5=85< 45B59. 4=>2@5<5==> C25;8G8205BAO G8A;> 2708<=KE 8 ?>;>68B5;L=KE 2K1>@>2 8 C<5=LH05BAO G8A;> >B@8F0B5;L=KE. 081>;55 1;03>?@8OB=0O A8BC0F8O =01;N405BAO 2 B>< A;CG05, :>340 254CI85 G;5=K 3@C??K 8<5NB ;CGH85 @57C;LB0BK ;5G5=8O. 0AA<>B@5==K9 ?@>F5AA 3@C??>2>9 48=0<8:8 ?>:07K205B 53> A;>6=K9 E0@0:B5@ 8 =0;8G85 @O40 ?>A;54>20B5;L=KE D07.  ?5@2>9 D075 - >@85=B0F88 3@C??K - ?@>8AE>4OB M<>F8>=0;L=>5 >1J548=5=85 45B59 8 ?>O2;5=85 C =8E >4=>@>4=KE CAB@5<;5=89.  MB>9 D075 2>7<>6=> 2>7=8:=>25=85 :@8B8G5A:>3> ?5@8>40 2 687=8 3@C??K - 55 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> @0AB>@<>65=8O. > 2B>@>9 D075 - 48DD5@5=F80F88 3@C??K - >D>@<;ONBAO AB0BCA=K5 @07;8G8O, A8<?0B88 8 0=B8?0B88 45B59.  40==>9 D075 2>7<>6=> ?>O2;5=85 4@C3>3> :@8B8G5A:>3> ?5@8>40, >1CA;>2;5==>3> >B@065=85< 2 3@C??5 :>=D;8:B=KE ?>78F89 45B59 8 687=8.  B@5BL59 D075 - 8=B53@0F88 3@C??K - >B<5G0NBAO AB018;870F8O 55 AB@C:BC@K, A?;>G5=85 45B59 8 @0728B85 :>;;5:B82=KE >B=>H5=89. @>F5AA 3@C??>2>9 48=0<8:8 =0E>48BAO 2 B5A=>9 A2O78 A B0:B8:>9 @C:>2>4AB20 3@C??>9.  =0G0;5 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2@0G >@30=87C5B 45B59 =0 2K?>;=5=85 ?>AB02;5==KE ?5@54 =8<8 7040G 8 A>459AB2C5B 8E M<>F8>=0;L=><C >1J548=5=8N. 0B5< 2 3@C??5 @0728205BAO A?>=B0==0O 0:B82=>ABL 8 2@0G ?5@5E>48B =0 ?>;>65=85 >4=>3> 87 55 CG0AB=8:>2.  MB>9 ?>78F88 >= 2<5AB5 A 45BL<8 @07@5H05B :>=D;8:B=K5 A8BC0F88, A?>A>1AB2CO 87=CB@8 8=B53@0F88 3@C??K =0 :>;;5:B82=>< C@>2=5 >B=>H5=89. >;;5:B82=0O >@30=870F8O 3@C??K ?>72>;O5B >ACI5AB2;OBL @C:>2>4AB2> 5N A>2<5AB=> A 45BL<8, GB> O2;O5BAO =08;CGH8< AB8<C;>< 4;O ?5@5AB@>9:8 8E >B=>H5=89. !>2<5AB=0O 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O 45B59 8 @>48B5;59 ?@8<5=O5BAO 2 A;CG0OE E@>=8G5A:>3> B5G5=8O =52@>7>2 C 45B59, A>G5B0NI8EAO A B@C4=>@07@5H8<K< A5<59=K< :>=D;8:B>< 8 @8384=K<8 273;O40<8 @>48B5;59 =0 2>A?8B0=85. >?KB:8 ?@8A>548=8BL 27@>A;KE 157 A?5F80;L=>9 ?>43>B>2:8 : 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 =5F5;5A>>1@07=K, B0: :0: >=8 =5?@>872>;L=> 2<5H820NBAO 2 70=OB8O, >3@0=8G820O 0:B82=>ABL 45B59 8 =02O7K20O 8< A2>N B>G:C 7@5=8O. -B8< 8A:;NG0NBAO 8A:@5==>ABL 8 A?;>G5=85 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K.  B><C 65 >=8 A0<8 2=0G0;5 2KABC?0NB ?@>B82 A>2<5AB=KE 70=OB89. >MB><C =5>1E>48<0 ?@5420@8B5;L=0O <548:>-?5403>38G5A:0O @01>B0 A 3@C??>9 @>48B5;59, :>B>@0O ?@>2>48BAO =5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@54 =0G0;>< 8 ?0@0;;5;L=> 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 45B59. 0 565=545;L=K5 70=OB8O ?@83;0H0NBAO, ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8, <0BL 8 >B5F. &8:; 87 10 70=OB89 2 2845 ;5:F89 8 48A:CAA89 @0AAG8B0= 2 A@54=5< =0 2,5 <5A.  ;5:F8OE >A25I0NBAO 2>?@>AK 2>A?8B0=8O, A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89, ?@>8AE>645=8O =52@>7>2 8 8E ?@>D8;0:B8:8. 0 =5:>B>@KE 70=OB8OE >1AC640NBAO 8AB>@88 701>;520=8O 45B59, >B@060NI85 0:BC0;L=K5 4;O ?@8ACBAB2CNI8E ?@>1;5<K A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. 0B5< ?@>2>48BAO 48A:CAA8O, 2 ?@>F5AA5 :>B>@>9 2K@010BK205BAO >1I0O B>G:0 7@5=8O, ?><>30NI0O @>48B5;O< =09B8 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O @5H5=8O A2>8E 70B@C4=5=89 A 45BL<8. >AB5?5==>5 2>7=8:=>25=85 2 3@C??5 :>;;5:B82=KE >@85=B0F88 >:07K205B ?>;>68B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 =0 A5<59=K5 >B=>H5=8O C 55 CG0AB=8:>2. >;;5:B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ >B=>H5=89 2 3@C??0E 45B59 8 @>48B5;59 ?>72>;O5B A>740BL 548=CN ?> F5;O< 8 7040G0< 3@C??C, @C:>2>4AB2> :>B>@>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 2@0G><, 45BL<8 8 @>48B5;O<8. @8 @C:>2>4AB25 @>48B5;O<8 <>6=> =03;O4=> C1548BLAO 2 ?>AB5?5==>< 53> 87<5=5=88 2 AB>@>=C 1>;LH59 381:>AB8 8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8. -B><C A?>A>1AB2C5B ?@8<5@ 2708<>>B=>H5=89 2@0G0 8 45B59. "5<0B8:0 A>2<5AB=KE 83@ >B@0605B 2K<KH;5==K5 8 @50;L=K5 8AB>@88. ! ?>4@>AB:0<8 A@07C @07K3@K20NBAO @50;L=K5 A8BC0F88. # 4>H:>;L=8:>2 8 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2 2=0G0;5 ?@>83@K20NBAO A:07:8, GB> A>459AB2C5B >1J548=5=8N 3@C??. >AB5?5==> B5<0B8:0 83@ 2A5 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 >@85=B8@C5BAO =0 H:>;L=K5 8 A5<59=K5 A8BC0F88. 1KG=> MB8 B5<K A2O70=K <564C A>1>9 >4=8< 83@>2K< AF5=0@85<, 2 @07@01>B:5 :>B>@>3> CG0AB2C5B 2AO 3@C??0. # H:>;L=8:>2 70=OB8O =0G8=0NBAO 2 83@>2>< :;0AA5. #@>: ?>>G5@54=> 254CB "AB@>389" 8 "<O3:89" CG8B5;L. @8E>48B "48@5:B>@", :>B>@K9 8=B5@5AC5BAO 48AF8?;8=>9. !@548 CG5=8:>2 5ABL "42>5G=8:8", ">B;8G=8:8", "7018O:8", "O154K", "?;0:AK", @>;8 :>B>@KE 8A?>;=ONB 45B8, 27@>A;K5 8 2@0G, CG8B5;59 2A5 83@0NB ?>>G5@54=>. !CI5AB25==> 8 B>, GB> 45B8 2 @>;8 CG8B5;59 <>3CB 45;0BL 70<5G0=8O @>48B5;O<, 87>1@060NI8< CG5=8:>2, 8 2>A?@>872>48BL B5< A0<K< <=>385 87 0:BC0;L=KE ?@>1;5< A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89. 0 "?54A>25B5" "CG8B5;O" A>>1I0NB > ?>2545=88 8 CA?5E0E "CG5=8:>2" 8 ?@8=8<0NB =5>1E>48<K5 <5@K. @>2>48BAO "@>48B5;LA:>5 A>1@0=85", =0 :>B>@>< =5@54:> @073>@05BAO A?>@ > B><, :B> 28=>20B - H:>;0 8;8 A5<LO - 2 ?;>E>< ?>2545=88 CG5=8:0. 0 ?5@2KE "@>48B5;LA:8E A>1@0=8OE" 45B8 83@0NB @>;8 A2>8E @>48B5;59, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: ?>A;54=85 - @>;8 @>48B5;59 4@C38E 45B59. A;8 A>1@0=85 2545B ?>4G5@:=CB> AB@>389 8 2;0AB=K9 "CG8B5;L" (>1KG=> >48= 87 45B59), B> 1>;LH8=AB2> ?@8ACBAB2CNI8E 2>7<CI0NBAO 53> 87;8H=5 AB@>38< 8 =5A?@0254;82K< >B=>H5=85<, =5A?>A>1=>ABLN =09B8 8=48284C0;L=K9 ?>4E>4 : =5:>B>@K< CG5=8:0<. A5 MB> O2;O5BAO =03;O4=K< C@>:>< 4;O CG0AB2CNI8E 2 83@5 @>48B5;59. 4=0 87 452>G5: 2 @>;8 CG8B5;L=8FK, 70I8I0OAL, A45;0;0 70<5G0=85 4@C3>9 452>G:5, 87>1@060NI59 <0BL, GB> >=0 1>;LH5 701>B8BAO > :>B5, G5< > @515=:5, GB> A>>B25BAB2>20;> 8AB8=5, B0: :0: 55 <0BL, >AB0282 :>B0, >B40;0 452>G:C =0 2>A?8B0=85 A2>8< @>48B5;O<.  :>=F5 "@>48B5;LA:>3> A>1@0=8O" <=5=8O ?@8ACBAB2CNI8E >1KG=> @0745;ONBAO. >;LH8=AB2>, >A>15==> 45B8, AG8B0NB, GB> CG8B5;L=8F0 A;8H:>< AB@>30O, =5 ?@>I05B >H81>: 8 A =54>25@85< >B=>A8BAO : A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 CG0I8EAO, GB> >=0 ?@>AB> =5 C20605B 8E 8 ?@8H;0 =5 ?> ?@8720=8N 2 H:>;C. 0B5< 83@0 ?5@5=>A8BAO 2 A5<LN. =0G0;5 >=0 A2O70=0 A> H:>;>9, 70B5< >B45;O5BAO >B =55 8 70B@038205B @07=>>1@07=K5 ?@>1;5<K 2708<>>B=>H5=89 @>48B5;59 8 45B59. 0: 8 2 83@5 "H:>;0", >=8 ?>>G5@54=> 87>1@060NB A51O, 7=0G8<KE ;8F, 4@C3 4@C30 8 2 :>=F5 A=>20 A51O. '5@54>20=85 @>;59 ?>72>;O5B 83@0NI8< 1>;55 :@8B8G5A:8 273;O=CBL =0 A51O, A@02=820O A2>5 ?>2545=85 A ?>2545=85< 87>1@0605<KE 8<8 ;8F.  83@0E =0 B5<C "A5<LO" ?>:070=0 <5B>48:0, :>340 @C:>2>4AB2> 3@C??>9 >ACI5AB2;ONB 420 @07=KE ?> ?>;C 27@>A;KE. 48= 87 =8E <>65B 1KBL ?A8E>;>3><, @>48B5;5< 8;8 A@54=8< <548F8=A:8< @01>B=8:><, ?@>H54H8< A?5F80;L=CN ?>43>B>2:C. @8=8<0O CG0AB85 2 83@5 2<5AB5 A @>48B5;O<8 8 45BL<8, 254CI85 83@C 2>A?@>872>4OB D@03<5=BK 8E >B=>H5=89, => 157 :>=:@5B=>3> >1@0I5=8O : B>9 8;8 8=>9 A5<L5.  B> 65 2@5<O @>48B5;O< 8 45BO< =5B@C4=> C7=0BL A51O, B0: :0: >=8 ?@8=8<0NB =5?>A@54AB25==>5 CG0AB85 2 83@5. >A;5 ?>:070 ?@85<;5<KE 20@80=B>2 @5H5=8O :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F89 3@C??0 @0745;O5BAO =0 ?0@K "27@>A;K9-@515=>:". 3@0 2 ?0@0E ?@>2>48BAO >4=>2@5<5==>, => =0 @07=K5 B5<K, ?@54;0305<K5 ?>>G5@54=> 8E CG0AB=8:0<8. >A;54=85 A0<8 4>3>20@820NBAO > B><, :B> 1C45B 8A?>;=OBL @>;L 27@>A;>3>, 0 :B> @515=:0, => G5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O >=8 4>;6=K ?5@5<5=8BL @>;8 8 A=>20 ?@>83@0BL B5 65 AN65BK. 54CI85 83@C 27@>A;K5 =5 CG0AB2CNB 2 =59, => ?@8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 <>3CB ?>4>9B8 : ;N1>9 ?0@5 8, 27O2 @>;L ?> A8BC0F88, 2:;NG8BLAO 2 83@>2>9 480;>3, >682;OO 53> 8 ?@84020O 5<C 5I5 1>;LHCN >AB@>BC.  @O45 A;CG052 2A5 ?0@K @07K3@K20NB >4=C 8 BC 65 A8BC0F8N >1I5=8O A ?>A;54CNI8< 55 3@C??>2K< >1AC645=85<. @8 4>AB865=88 A>3;0A>20==>3> 2708<>459AB28O 2 ?0@0E 8E CG0AB=8:8 <5=ONBAO.  B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E 70=OB89 2A5 45B8 8 27@>A;K5 8<5NB 2>7<>6=>ABL =5?>A@54AB25==>3> >1I5=8O 4@C3 A 4@C3><, GB> C;CGH05B 8E A?>A>1=>ABL : 2708<=><C 480;>3C. >340 2 ?0@5 >:07K20NBAO @>48B5;L 8 @515=>:, B> E0@0:B5@ 8E <56;8G=>AB=>3> :>=B0:B0 70<5B=> >B;8G05BAO >B ?@82KG=>3> 4;O =8E >1I5=8O 4><0. =8 ;CGH5 ?@54AB02;ONB A51O =0 <5AB5 4@C3 4@C30 8 G0I5 =0E>4OB 2708<>?@85<;5<K5 @5H5=8O. A;8 MB>3> =5 ?@>8AE>48B, B> 2 83@>2>9 480;>3 2ABC?0NB 254CI85 83@C, >4=8 =0 AB>@>=5 @>48B5;O, 4@C3>9 =0 AB>@>=5 @515=:0. K?>;=OO 2A?><>30B5;L=CN @>;L, 254CI85 =5?>A@54AB25==> =5 >1I0NBAO <564C A>1>9, => A>740NB 2 83@5 =0?@02;5=85, :>B>@>5 ?>72>;O5B CG0AB=8:0< ?0@K ;CGH5 ?>=OBL 4@C3 4@C30. 2B>@8B0@=K5 @>48B5;8 >1=0@C6820NB AB5@5>B8?=K5 A?>A>1K @07@5H5=8O 83@>2KE A8BC0F89.  MB>< A;CG05 254CI85 @01>B0NB >B45;L=> A :064K< CG0AB=8:>< ?0@K. 48= 87 =8E, @01>B0NI89 A @>48B5;5<, 87>1@0605B 53> @515=:0, 0 4@C3>9, 83@0NI89 A @515=:><, 87>1@0605B 53> @>48B5;O. >A;5 A5@88 83@>2KE AN65B>2 @>;8 <5=ONBAO. >A:>;L:C 83@0 ?@>8AE>48B 2 42CE >1>A>1;5==KE 48040E, B> @>48B5;L 8 @515=>: =5 2708<>459AB2CNB <564C A>1>9. "0:>5 ?>AB@>5=85 70=OB89 45;05B 8E ?>A;54CNI89 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K9 :>=B0:B 1>;55 381:8<. 0AA<>B@5==0O <5B>48:0 :>@@838@C5<>3> ?0@=>3> 2708<>459AB28O >B;8G05BAO @07=>>1@0785< ?@85<>2. 59AB25==K< O2;O5BAO 8A?>;L7>20=85 480;>3>2 ?> B8?C ">128=5=8O 8 70I8BK" A F5;LN C;CGH5=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 70I8BK C 45B59 2 AB@5AA>2KE A8BC0F8OE >1I5=8O A> 27@>A;K<8.  ?>AB>O==> <5=ONI8EAO ?0@0E >48= ?@84C<K205B >128=5=8O 8 C3@>7K, =0?@8<5@: "G5@0 O 2845;, :0: 2K ?5@5H;8 C;8FC 2 =5?>;>65==>< <5AB5", "=5 :065BAO, GB> 2K 4C<05B5 B>;L:> > A515", 8 B. 4., 0 4@C3>9 4>;65= 8E C40G=> ?0@8@>20BL. 0B5< >=8 <5=ONBAO @>;O<8. 54CI85 ?>:07K20NB ?@8<5@K 480;>3>2, ?>4G5@:820O @>;L 53> CG0AB=8:>2. !?CABO =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O 83@>2K5 4804K >1J548=ONBAO 2 B@804K, 8, ?>AB5?5==> C25;8G820OAL, ?>43@C??K 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 A;820NBAO 2 3@C??C :0: F5;>5, :>B>@0O 2K?>;=O5B @>;L ">128=8B5;O", 0 2 @>;8 "70I8I0NI53>AO" ?>>G5@54=> =0E>4OBAO 2A5 55 CG0AB=8:8, 2:;NG0O 254CI8E 83@C. 025@H0NI89 MB0? A>2<5AB=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A>AB>8B 87 >1AC645=89 >A>15==>AB59 E0@0:B5@0 8 ?>2545=8O 45B59. =0G0;5 >1AC645=8O ?@>2>4OBAO >B45;L=> A 45BL<8 8 27@>A;K<8. 0B5< >=8 ?> >G5@548 ?>A5I0NB 4@C3 4@C30, >48= 87 45B59 845B 2 3@C??C 27@>A;KE, 0 53> >B5F 8;8 <0BL - 2 3@C??C 45B59. > ?>A5I5=8O 45B59 @>48B5;L 45;8BAO A >AB0;L=K<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 A2>59 3@C??K ?@>1;5<0<8 >B=>H5=89 A @515=:><. "5< A0<K< AB028BAO 7040G0, :>B>@0O >1AC6405BAO 8 @5H05BAO C65 2 >BACBAB285 40==>3> @>48B5;O. 7@>A;K5 2 15A545 A @515=:>< =5 C:07K20NB 8AB>G=8:0 A2>8E A2545=89 > =5<, B0: :0: <>3CB A>AB028BL A2>5 ?@5420@8B5;L=>5 <=5=85 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>2<5AB=KE 70=OB89. 5>1E>48<CN 8=D>@<0F8N >=8 ?>;CG0NB B0:65 87 >B25B>2 @515=:0 =0 8E 2>?@>AK, 70B@03820NI85 @07=>>1@07=K5 AB>@>=K 53> 2708<>>B=>H5=89, >A>15==>AB8 E0@0:B5@0, 8=B5@5AK 8 C2;5G5=8O. 5A54CO A @515=:><, 27@>A;K5 ?>4G5@:820NB ?>;>68B5;L=K5 G5@BK 53> E0@0:B5@0, 0:B82=>ABL 2 ;5G5=88 8 ?>;CG5==K5 @57C;LB0BK, 2K@060NB C25@5==>ABL 2 CA?5H=>< ?@5>4>;5=88 2AB@5G0NI8EAO B@C4=>AB59 8 C:07K20NB, 2>7<>6=K5 ?CB8.  4@C65A:>9 <0=5@5 15A54K =5B@C4=> C2845BL 0=0;>38N A ?@54H5AB2CNI8<8 A5<59=K<8 >1AC645=8O<8, ?@>2545==K<8 2@0G><. 5@5AB@0820O >B45;L=K5 AB>@>=K E0@0:B5@0 8 ?>2545=8O 45B59, 3@C??0 @>48B5;59 O2;O5BAO :>;;5:B82=K< ?><>I=8:>< 2@0G0, :>B>@K9 CG0AB2C5B 2 >1AC645=88 =0@02=5 A> 2A5<8. @8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 >= A ?><>ILN A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 2>?@>A>2 A>7405B >?@545;5==CN =0?@02;5==>ABL >1AC645=89.  3@C??5 45B59 2>?@>AK : 27@>A;><C 8 A>45@60=85 15A54K A =8< A2845B5;LAB2CNB > 2>7@>AH5< C@>2=5 8E A>F80;870F88. >?@>AK :0A0NBAO ?>4?8A:8 =0 6C@=0;K, ?>A5I5=8O :8=>, B50B@>2, <C7552, =0;8G8O 4><0 F25B>2, ;N128 : 682>B=K<, =5:>B>@KE >B=>H5=89 2 A5<L5 8 B. 4. 0 70:;NG8B5;L=KE 70=OB8OE >1AC645=8O ?@>2>4OBAO A=>20 2 >1J548=5==>9 3@C??5 45B59 8 @>48B5;59 8 =0?@02;5=K =0 70:@5?;5=85 4>AB83=CBKE @57C;LB0B>2. @8 MB>< =01;N40NBAO 2KA>:0O 0:B82=>ABL, A0<>:@8B8:0 8 4@C65A:0O ?>445@6:0 55 CG0AB=8:>2. !?;>G5==K9 E0@0:B5@ 3@C??K 2K@0605BAO 2 65;0=88 55 CG0AB=8:>2 2AB@5G0BLAO ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O ;5G5=8O, A B5< GB>1K >1AC640BL =5:>B>@K5 7=0G8<K5 4;O =8E 2>?@>AK 8 ?><>30BL 4@C3 4@C3C. >MB><C 2 B5G5=85 A;54CNI53> CG51=>3> 3>40 <K ?@>2>48< ?> :@09=59 <5@5 565<5AOG=K5 2AB@5G8 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K, 2> 2@5<O :>B>@KE B0:65 @5H05BAO 2>?@>A > =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?>2B>@=>3>, 1>;55 :@0B:>3> :C@A0 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 2:;NG0O 38?=>B5@0?8N 8 =07=0G5=85 >1I5C:@5?;ONI8E A@54AB2. ;O 87CG5=8O 48=0<8:8 2=CH05<>AB8 45B59 8 @>48B5;59 2 ?@>F5AA5 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 1K; ?@8<5=5= <>48D8F8@>20==K9 =0<8 20@80=B B5AB0 . (5@8D0.  >@838=0;L=>< 2845 B5AB =0?@02;5= =0 87CG5=85 ?@>F5AA0 2K@01>B:8 3@C??>2KE =>@< 8 >A=>20= =0 8;;N788 42865=8O A25BOI59AO B>G:8 2 B5<=>9 :><=0B5. !B5?5=L MB>9 8;;N788 @53C;8@>20;0AL 2=CH0NI8< 2>7459AB285< 2@0G0: "B>G:0 42865BAO 225@E, 2=87, ?> :@C3C, >AB0=02;8205BAO". AA;54>20=8O ?@>872>48;8AL 2 =0G0;5 8 2 :>=F5 3@C??>2KE 70=OB89. >;CG5==K5 40==K5 3>2>@OB >1 C<5=LH5=88 2=CH05<>AB8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 2@0GC :0: C 45B59, B0: 8 C @>48B5;59 : <><5=BC >:>=G0=8O 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, GB> C:07K205B =0 4>AB865=85 2 55 ?@>F5AA5 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 ;8G=>AB=>9 7@5;>AB8 8 A?>A>1=>AB8 : A0<>:>=B@>;N. ;O 87CG5=8O 87<5=5=89, ?@>8AH54H8E 2 M<>F8>=0;L=>-2>;52>9 AD5@5 45B59 8 @>48B5;59 2 ?@>F5AA5 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 1K; 8A?>;L7>20= 8-F25B=K9 B5AB NH5@0. =0;87 2K1>@0 F25B>2, ?@>872545==>3> 45BL<8 2 =0G0;5 8 :>=F5 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?>:07K205B C;CGH5=85 2 8E M<>F8>=0;L=>-2>;52>< A>AB>O=88, GB> A>3;0AC5BAO A :;8=8G5A:>9 48=0<8:>9. #<5=LH0NBAO B@52>6=>ABL, >1I55 15A?>:>9AB2>, ?>O2;O5BAO 65;0=85 459AB2>20BL, ?@8=8<0BL @5H5=8O, :06CI0OAO 157KAE>4=>ABL ;8G=>AB=>9 A8BC0F88 A<5=O5BAO 25@>9 2 2>7<>6=>ABL @07@5H5=8O ACI5AB2CNI8E B@C4=>AB59. # @>48B5;59 87<5=5=8O <5=55 7=0G8B5;L=K. >6=> 3>2>@8BL > ?>O2;5=88 1>;LH59 8=8F80B82K 2 ?@5>4>;5=88 ?@>1;5<=KE A8BC0F89 C ?>A5I02H8E 70=OB8O <0B5@59, 65;0=88 87<5=8BL =5:>B>@K5 87 A2>8E G5@B E0@0:B5@0 C >BF0. 0: C <0B5@59, B0: 8 C >BF>2 2 :>=F5 A>2<5AB=>9 A 45BL<8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 >B<5G0NBAO :@8B8G=>ABL 2 2>A?@8OB88 :>=D;8:B=>9 A8BC0F88, ?>8A: =>2KE @5H5=89 <56;8G=>AB=KE ?@>1;5<. -B> ?>4G5@:8205B ?0B>35=5B8G5A:89 MDD5:B 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 254CI59 : >A>7=0=8N <56;8G=>AB=KE 8AB>G=8:>2 =52@>B8G5A:8E ?@>1;5<, 040?B82=>9 ?5@5AB@>9:5 >B=>H5=89 8 =51;03>?@8OB=> AD>@<8@>202H8EAO G5@B E0@0:B5@0. 081>;LH85 ?>78B82=K5 87<5=5=8O A2O70=K A CAB@0=5=85< B>@<>78<KE G5@B E0@0:B5@0 8 D>189, C25;8G5=85< :><<C=8:015;L=>AB8. >4>1=0O 48=0<8:0 ?>4B25@6405B ?@58<CI5AB25==> 0:B828@CNICN =0?@02;5==>ABL 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  70:;NG5=85 A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 8AA;54>20=85 MDD5:B82=>AB8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2 ?@>F5AA5 4;8B5;L=>3> :0B0<=5AB8G5A:>3> =01;N45=8O 2KO28;> 55 ?@58<CI5AB2> ?> A@02=5=8N A 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?859, ?@5645 2A53> 70 AG5B <5=LH53> G8A;0 @5F8482>2 =52@>7>2 2A;54AB285 1>;55 3;C1>:>9 ?5@5AB@>9:8 >B=>H5=89 1>;L=KE 2 A5<L5 8 :>;;5:B825. @8 >F5=:5 MB8E @57C;LB0B>2 =5>1E>48<> ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85, GB> 3@C??>20O ?A8E>B5@0?8O ?@>2>48;0AL C 45B59 A 1>;55 BO65;K< B5G5=85< =52@>7>2, ?;>E> :C@015;L=KE 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@54H5AB2CNI59 8=48284C0;L=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. 284C MB>3> @50;L=0O MDD5:B82=>ABL 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2KH5 8=48284C0;L=>9 =5 B>;L:> ?> 40==K< :0B0<=570, => 8 ?@8 55 =5?>A@54AB25==>< >:>=G0=88. @82545< 2KA:07K20=8O @>48B5;59 2 >B=>H5=88 8B>3>2 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. ">A;5 2-3> 70=OB8O ;CGH5 AB0; AE>48BLAO A @51OB0<8, =5 1>8BAO ?>4>9B8 ?5@2K<. ?5@2K5 157 1>O7=8 ?>H5; 2 H:>;C. >A;5 12-3> 70=OB8O 2A5 B5@?5;82> 2K45@60; C 7C1=>3> 2@0G0, 0 @0=LH5 >B AB@0E0 =5 <>3 >B:@KBL @>B. K; >G5=L 4>2>;5=, GB> 2K 53> ?>E20;8;8 8 40;8 7=0G>:. >A;5 13-3> 70=OB8O 1>O;AO 84B8 =0 A;54CNI55, B0: :0: ?@54AB>O;0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O MAB0D5B0 8 >= 4C<0;, GB> C =53> =5 ?>;CG8BAO, =04 =8< 1C4CB A<5OBLAO, >AB0=5BAO 157 7=0G:0 8 B. 4. >A;5 14-3> 70=OB8O >AB05BAO >48= 2 :20@B8@5, =5 1>8BAO =>GLN 84B8 2 BC0;5B. 0AK?05B >48=. >A;5 15-3> 70=OB8O =5 1>8BAO =58725AB=>3>, A?>:>9=> 845B 2 H:>;C, 2 B>< G8A;5 =0 C@>: D87:C;LBC@K. A;8 @0=LH5 =5 ?>4E>48; : =57=0:><K< 45BO<, B> B5?5@L 45;05B MB> A?>:>9=>. @5645 1>O;AO :0B0BLAO A 3>@, 0 B5?5@L >G5=L ;N18B. >A;5 20-3> 70=OB88 ?5@5AB0; 1>;57=5==> @5038@>20BL =0 =0A<5H:8 @51OB. %>48B C25@5==> =0 D87:C;LBC@C, 4065 E>G5B 70?8A0BLAO 2 A5:F8N. A:>@5 ?@85E0; >B5F ?>A;5 6 <5A. ?;020=8O. 0O28;, GB> AK= AB0; =5C7=0205<> E>@>H8<: >1I8B5;L=K<, =51>OI8<AO, A?>:>9=> @073>20@8205B A> 27@>A;K<8, 157 AB@0E0 E>48B 2 H:>;C. >A;5 25-3> 70=OB8O A 1>;LH8< 65;0=85< ?>A5I05B A5:F8N 180B;>=0", "@>H;> 6 <5A. ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 70=OB89. 0 MB> 2@5<O =4@59 =5 A45;0; =8 >4=>9 70?8=:8. > 2A5E A8BC0F8OE, 2:;NG0O ?@>ABC4=>5 701>;520=85, :>340 2>;=>20;AO 8 @0AAB@0820;AO, @5GL >AB020;0AL ?;02=>9. A5 AB@0E8 8AG57;8, 4065 B@C4=> A:070BL, 2 :0:>9 ?5@8>4 MB> ?@>87>H;>. K;8 <><5=BK, :>340 O, ?><=O > 1>O7=8 B5<=>BK, 2:;NG0;0 A25B 8;8 >AB02;O;0 425@L >B:@KB>9, B0: =4@59 (5<C 5 ;5B) A<55BAO: "'B> MB>, <0<0, BK 4C<05HL? K:;NG09 A25B". / GC2AB2CN, :0: >= @0AA;018;AO, AG0AB;82, GB> <>65B B5?5@L =5 1>OBLAO C:>;>2 8 B5<=>BK. >;=>ABLN ?@>H;0 42830B5;L=0O @0AB>@<>65==>ABL.  ?>2545=88 AB0; @>2=K<", "0 2@5<O 83@>2KE 70=OB89 70<5B=> C;CGH8;>AL A>AB>O=85 4>G5@8. A;8 @0=LH5 2 :>=F5 G5B25@B8 1K;8 A@K2K (=02O7G82K5 A;>20, AB@0E8, B8:8) 8 >=0 =5 2K45@6820;0 >6840=8O ?5@54 :>=B@>;L=K<8, B> 425 ?>A;54=85 G5B25@B8 70:>=G8;0 A?>:>9=>. @5:@0B8;8AL AB@0E8 8 =02O7G82K5 ?>2B>@5=8O, 8AG57;8 B8:8 =5 2>;=C5BAO ?5@54 :>=B@>;L=K<8, =5 1>8BAO >?>740BL 2 H:>;C, =5B 1>;57=5==>9 @50:F88 =0 >F5=:8. 57 <C: =0?8A0;0 425 :>=B@>;L=K5 =0 >B;8G=>. 5=LH5 B5?5@L >1@0I05B =0 A51O 2=8<0=85. >O28;AO >1H8@=K9 :@C3 7=0:><KE. N18B 83@0BL A 45BL<8. !0<0 ?@8E>48B 87 H:>;K, 5748B 2 ;8DB5, >AB05BAO >4=0 4><0. #@>:8 45;05B A0<>AB>OB5;L=>. !B0;0 1>;55 C25@5==>9 2 A2>8E A8;0E 8 2K=>A;82>9", "A;8 2A?><=8BL, :0: ;O =5 A?0;0 @0=LH5, 2A5E 872>48;0 A2>8<8 ?@>1C645=8O<8 8 AB@0E0<8 8 =52>7<>6=> ?@8 MB>< 1K;> 55 CA?>:>8BL, 8 MB> 4;8;>AL 420 A ?>;>28=>9 3>40, B> A59G0A =0H0 687=L - @09 75<=>9", "-B>B 3>4 <K ?@>68;8 @04>AB=>, A :0:8<-B> 1>52K<, 1>4@K< =0AB@>5=85<, A 25@>9 2 1C4CI55", " ?>;>68B5;L=K< AB>@>=0< 3@C??K A;54C5B >B=5AB8 0B<>AD5@C 4>1@>65;0B5;L=>AB8, >?B8<87<0", ">9 AK= >1@0B8; A5@L57=>5 2=8<0=85 =0 A51O, 8<5; 2>7<>6=>ABL A@02=820BL, >1@5; C25@5==>ABL, ?>;CG8; <=>3> =>2KE ?>=OB89 8 7=0=89", ">O 4>GL AB0;0 <5=LH5 @074@060BLAO ?@8 =5C40G0E, 2>7@>A;8 55 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL 8 =0AB>9G82>ABL 2 ?@5>4>;5=88 B@C4=>AB59", ">9 AK= :@8B8G5A:8 8 A 1>;LH59 >B25BAB25==>ABLN B5?5@L >B=>A8BAO : A2>5<C ?>2545=8N, ?>2KA8;AO 02B>@8B5B A@548 @51OB, 871@0= G;5=>< A>25B0 4@C68=K", ">8 >B=>H5=8O A 4>G5@LN 87<5=8;8AL 2 AB>@>=C 1>;LH53> 4>25@8O 8 2708<>?>=8<0=8O, ?>O28;>AL ?>=8<0=85 55 E0@0:B5@0, 1>;55 H8@>:>5, G5< @0=LH5, 8 A>>B25BAB25==> 87<5=8;8AL 2 ;CGHCN AB>@>=C >B=>H5=8O A =59". !2>52@5<5==>5 8 045:20B=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2 :0G5AB25 ?0B>35=5B8G5A:8 >1>A=>20==>3> <5B>40 ;5G5=8O =52@>7>2 C 45B59 ?@54>B2@0I05B =52@>B8G5A:>5 @0728B85 8E ;8G=>AB8 8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 MDD5:B82=>5 A@54AB2> ?@>D8;0:B8:8 =52@>7>2 C 27@>A;KE. !@54=OO ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL A5<59=>9, 8=48284C0;L=>9 8 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A>AB02;O5B 14 <5A. >;55 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>3> ;5G5=8O, G5< 1>;L=K5 A =52@0AB5=859 8 8AB5@8G5A:8< =52@>7>< (12 <5A.), B@51CNB 1>;L=K5 A =52@>7>< =02O7G82KE A>AB>O=89 (16 <5A.). !@54=OO ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL ;5G5=8O 2 2,65 @070 <5=LH5 A@54=59 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 701>;520=8O. -B> AB0B8AB8G5A:8 4>AB>25@=>5 @07;8G85 ?>4B25@6405B =0?@02;5==K9 MDD5:B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 2>7459AB28O, =5A2>48<K9 : A?>=B0==><C 2K74>@>2;5=8N 1>;L=>3>. -DD5:B82=>ABL ?A8E>B5@0?88 87CG5=0 ?> 40==K< :0B0<=570 4;8B5;L=>ABLN >B 6 <5A. 4> 14 ;5B. >;=>5 2K74>@>2;5=85 >B<5G5=> C 30% 1>;L=KE, ACI5AB25==>5 C;CGH5=85 - C 45%, =57=0G8B5;L=>5 C;CGH5=85 - C 12% 8 >BACBAB285 MDD5:B0 - C 13%, B. 5. 2 2/3 A;CG052 4>AB8305BAO >ICB8<K9 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 MDD5:B C 1>;L=KE A ?@>4>;68B5;L=K< 8 @0=55 @578AB5=B=K< : ;5G5=8N =52@>7><. 0<5B8<, GB> ?>4 2K74>@>2;5=85< ?>4@07C<5205BAO =5 B>;L:> CAB@0=5=85 2=5H=8E ?@87=0:>2 701>;520=8O, => 8 ?5@5AB@>9:0 2 =5>1E>48<CN AB>@>=C >B=>H5=89, G5@B E0@0:B5@0 8 4>AB865=85 ?@85<;5<>3> C@>2=O A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 040?B0F88. > 40==K< ?>2B>@=>3>, 1>;55 >B40;5==>3> :0B0<=570, G0ABL 1>;L=KE 2 A>AB>O=88 ACI5AB25==>3> C;CGH5=8O ?5@5E>48;0 2 3@C??C ?@0:B8G5A:8 74>@>2KE ;8F, ?>A:>;L:C 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?A8E>B5@0?88 4;O MB>3> 1K;8 70;>65=K 2A5 =5>1E>48<K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 8 =C6=> 1K;> ;8HL 2@5<O, GB>1K >:@5?H85 A 2>7@0AB>< A8;K >@30=87<0 ?>72>;8;8 ?>;=>ABLN @50;87>20BL 55 MDD5:B.  >B=>H5=88 2K74>@>2;5=8O =5B 7=0G8<KE @07;8G89 ?> ?>;C 8 4803=>7C, GB> O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< ?@5645 2A53> ;8G=>AB=>9 =0?@02;5==>AB8 ?A8E>B5@0?88. 5F8482K CAB0=>2;5=K C 27,5% <0;LG8:>2 8 15% 452>G5:, :0: ?@028;>, C 45B59 A><0B8G5A:8 8 F5@51@0;L=>->@30=8G5A:8 >A;01;5==KE 8 8<5NI8E E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8 87<5=5==KE @>48B5;59. =8 :C?8@>20;8AL <5=55 ?@>4>;68B5;L=K< :C@A>< ?A8E>B5@0?88. !@02=5=85 MDD5:B82=>AB8 ;5G5=8O 99 45B59, 701>;52H8E ?>4 2>7459AB285< 4;8B5;L=> 459AB2CNI59 (82%) 8 H>:>2>9 (18%) ?A8E8G5A:>9 B@02<K, ?>:070;>, GB> 2 ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 CA?5H=>ABL ?A8E>B5@0?88 =5A:>;L:> 2KH5 2284C ?@5>1;040NI53> 0DD5:B82=>3>, 0 =5 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:>3> C@>2=O =52@>B8G5A:8E @0AAB@>9AB2. !>?>AB02;5=85 459AB25==>AB8 @07;8G=KE <5B>48: ?A8E>B5@0?88 =5?@02><5@=>, B0: :0: 8E 2K1>@ ?@>48:B>20= @07=K<8 7040G0<8 8, :@><5 B>3>, >=8 @54:> ?@8<5=ONBAO 87>;8@>20==>. @8 CA;>2=>< A@02=5=88 =081>;LH89 ?@>F5=B ACI5AB25==KE A4283>2 2 A>AB>O=88 1>;L=>3> =01;N405BAO >B ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O @8A>20=8O (90%), => B>;L:> 2 ?@545;0E 2>7@0AB0 4-8 ;5B, 70B5< >B 38?=>B5@0?88 (81%), 2=CH5=8O =0O2C (72%) 8 83@>2>9 B5@0?88 (63%). !><0B8G5A:0O >BO3>I5==>ABL (44,5%) 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 >A;>6=O5B ?@>2545=85 ?A8E>B5@0?88 C <0;LG8:>2, G5< C 452>G5:. 5784C0;L=0O F5@51@0;L=>->@30=8G5A:0O =54>AB0B>G=>ABL (25%) 1>;55 >B@8F0B5;L=> >B@0605BAO =0 @57C;LB0B0E ;5G5=8O 452>G5:. "> 65 >B=>A8BAO : 2;8O=8N ?5@53@C7:8 (A?5F80;878@>20==K5 H:>;K, 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> :@C6:>2). # <0;LG8:>2 8 452>G5: E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:85 87<5=5=8O AB0B8AB8G5A:8 4>AB>25@=> CEC4H0NB MDD5:B ?A8E>B5@0?88 (t=2,5; p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