ࡱ> #`j bjbjmmn TYm@ @ @ P ` ` ` t 8888pDt ? nF???|>~>~>~>~>~>~>$@h CN>` d?dd>` ` ;?t/t/t/dr7` ` |>t/d|>t/t/08` ` : wr.8* (:8:Q?0?`:8WC, WCp:WC` : ?Z@t/4 W???>>/^????ddddt t t 8t t t 8t t t ` ` ` ` ` `  PBBI Psychologisches Beratungs-und Betreuungs Institut !%" / , !!" #!!/+'+%  !&    /2;O5BAO 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 A>1AB25==>ABLN PBBI. 5@5?5G0B:5, :>?8@>20=8N, 0 B0:65 ?5@540G5 M;5:B@>==K<8, A25B>:>?8@>20;L=K<8 A@54AB20<8 8;8 2 2845 <03=8B>70?8A8 =5 ?>4;568B 157 A>3;0A8O =0 MB> 02B>@>2. Ludenscheid- 2001 2B>@K 8 A>AB028B5;8 CG51=>3> ?>A>18O: Prof. Dr., Dr.Psycholog. Isabel Kotova spirant CK GTU Oleg Kanarkewich Geschaftsfuhrer Victor Jung 0745; 1,2,9 =0?8A0=K ?@8 CG0AB88 Dr. Psycholog. 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teinglass et al., 1977). ;:>3>;8G5A:85 A5<59=K5 A8AB5<K 8<5NB >?@545;5==CN 2=CB@5==NN ?@>3@0<<C, B.:. 2 ?0BB5@=5 0;:>3>;870F88 :064K9 G;5= A5<L8 8<55B A2>N >A>1CN @>;L. >2545=85 2 B@572>< 8 ?LO=>< A>AB>O=88 4>2>;L=> AB5@5>B8?=>. <55B <5AB> 4>AB0B>G=> AB@>3>5 @0A?@545;5=85 @>;59, :>B>@K5 2708<=> 4>?>;=ONB 4@C3 4@C30 2 A2>59 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8. >2545=G5A:85 F8:;K, B.5. ?5@5E>4K >B ?LO=AB20 : B@572>AB8, 65AB:> 45B5@<8=8@>20=K 8 =5 40NB 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?@>O28BL 381:>ABL 2 ?@8<5=5=88 0;LB5@=0B82=KE ?>4E>4>2 : @5H5=8N ?@>1;5<. 48B5;L=>ABL 8 M<>F8>=0;L=0O CO728<>ABL : 0;:>3>;N A> AB>@>=K =5?LNI8E G;5=>2 A5<L8 O2;ONBAO AB018;878@CNI8< D0:B>@>< @0728B8O 0;:>3>;87<0. 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A5<59=0O E>@5>3@0D8O =5 :>=F5=B@8@C5BAO =0 A;>20E, B> >=0 45<>=AB@8@C5B A<5=C D07 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89 2 55 5AB5AB25==>9 =5?@5@K2=>AB8 A ?><>ILN D878G5A:8E 42865=89 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=> 2K7K205<KE M<>F89. @>A;56820NBAO @07;8G=K5 AB0488 @0728B8O A5<L8, GB> ?>72>;O5B CG0AB=8:0< B5@0?88 C2845BL ?@>1;5<C 0;:>3>;870F88 =0 ?@>BO65=88 @O40 ?>:>;5=89. !@02=8205BAO ?>2545=85 B5E, :B> >:@C60; 8;8 >:@C605B 1>;L=>3> 0;:>3>;87<><, ?><>305B ?>=OBL, ?>G5<C A<5=ONBAO 459AB2CNI85 ;8F0, 0 @>;8 8 A8BC0F88 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 <5=ONBAO. 6C;8CA -.., 5?? . =0G0;8 ?@8<5=OBL B5E=8:C A5<59=>9 E>@5>3@0D88 ?@8 @01>B5 A 0;:>3>;8G5A:8<8 A5<LO<8 2 @0<:0E ?@>5:B0, :>B>@K9 D8=0=A8@>20;AO 0F8>=0;L=K< 8=AB8BCB>< ?> ?@>1;5<0< 7;>C?>B@51;5=8O 0;:>3>;5< 8 0;:>3>;87<0 (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). AA;54>20B5;8 ?@5645 2A53> 87CG0;8 ?5@28G=CN ?@>D8;0:B8:C 0;:>3>;87<0 C 45B59, 1;8609H85 @>4AB25==8:8 :>B>@KE 1K;8 0;:>3>;8:0<8. <8 @07@010BK20;8AL =>2K5 ?@>3@0<<K B@572>3> >1@070 687=8 8 A5<8=0@0, ?>A2OI5==>3> A5<59=><C >1@07>20=8N, 0 B0:65 @01>B0 A >B45;L=K<8 :;85=B0<8 8 AC?@C65A:8<8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8<8 3@C??0<8. @8 @5H5=88 MB8E 7040G 8A?>;L7>20;8AL B5E=8:8 =0720==KE 02B>@>2. "5E=8:0 A5<59=>9 E>@5>3@0D88 ?>72>;O5B 3@C??5, 2:;NG0NI59 >4=C 8;8 =5A:>;L:> A5<59, ?@>A;56820BL ?>2B>@ONI85AO ?0BB5@=K 2708<>459AB28O 8 2K?>;=5=85 B5E 8;8 8=KE @>;59 2 A8BC0F8>==KE A5<59=KE AF5=0@8OE. 5?@O<>9 <5B0D>@8G5A:89 ?>4E>4 ?>72>;O5B C2845BL A51O 8 A2>5 A5<59=>5 >:@C65=85 A> AB>@>=K. "5@<8= A5<59=0O E>@5>3@0D8O A>72CG5= A:C;L?BC-@8@>20=8N B5E=8:5 =525@10;L=>3> 459AB28O, :>B>@CN @072820; M284 0=B>@ (Duhl, 1973). !:C;L?BC@8@>20=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 @50;L=K9 M<?8@8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA, ?><>30NI89 8AA;54>20BL A5<59=K5 A8AB5<K 8 >A<KA;820BL 8=48284C0;L=K5 @>;8 8 MDD5:B82=K5 >B=>H5=8O 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25==KE :><?>78F8OE. -B>B ?@>F5AA 0=B>@ =0720; A5<59=K< A:C;L?BC@8@>20=85<. !0B8@ (Satir, 1972) 8 M?? ( 0@@, 1976) @5:><5=4>20;8 8A?>;L7>20BL AF5=0@=CN AE5<C A:C;L?BC@8@>20=8O 4;O 45<>=AB@0F88 48048G5A:8E 8 B@8048G5A:8E >B=>H5=89 ?5@54 CG0AB=8:0<8 A5<8=0@>2 ?> ?A8E>B5@0?88. !5<59=>5 A:C;L?BC@8@>20=85 ?@8<5=O;>AL 2 3@C??0E, 2:;NG0NI8E >4=C 8;8 =5A:>;L:> A5<59, 2 3@C??0E ?0F85=B>2 A H87>D@5=859 (Julius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adogan, 1977). :;NG5=85 2 B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA AC?@C30 ?>72>;O5B >1=0@C68BL <=>385 A5<59=K5 ?@>1;5<K 8 ?0BB5@=K ?0B>;>38G5A:>3> A5<59=>3> 2708<>459AB28O, <>B828@C5B 8E >1AC645=85 2 3@C??5 8 ?@8405B 48A:CAA88 4>?>;=8B5;L=K9 8<?C;LA. > 0=0;>388 A 3@C??>2>9 B5@0?859 AC?@C65A:0O 3@C??>20O B5@0?8O ?@54>AB02;O5B 2>7<>6=>ABL =0CG8BLAO @5H5=8N ?@>1;5< 8 ?@8>1@5AB8 >?KB 8E @0F8>=0;L=>3> >1AC645=8O. #G0AB=8:0< ?@>I5 =09B8 @5H5=85 GC68E ?@>1;5< 4065 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 MB8 ?@>1;5<K =0?><8=0NB 8E A>1AB25==K5, :>B>@K5 B0: 8 =5 C40;>AL ?@5>4>;5BL. # G;5=>2 3@C??K, :>B>@K5 ?@54;030NB 4@C38< A2>8 20@80=BK @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<, ?>O2;O5BAO GC2AB2> A>1AB25==>9 7=0G8<>AB8.  A2>N >G5@54L 4@C385 CG0AB=8:8 ?>;CG0NB 2>7<>6=>ABL 2K1@0BL 87 ?@54;>65==KE 0;LB5@=0B82 ?@85<;5<K9 A?>A>1 @5H5=8O A2>8E ?@>1;5<, GB> 2K7K205B >682;5==K9 >1<5= 8=D>@<0F859. 708<=0O ?><>IL 8 ?>445@6:0 A>740NB 2 3@C??5 0B<>AD5@C 2=8<0=8O 8 701>BK. > A2845B5;LAB2C CG0AB=8:>2, >ICI5=85 701>BK A> AB>@>=K 4@C38E G;5=>2 AC?@C65A:>9 3@C??K 8<55B 3>@074> 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85, G5< A0<8 A?>A>1K @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<. @C??>20O @01>B0 ?@54?>;0305B 8AA;54>20=85 ?@8G8= >B:;>=5=8O 2?>;=5 >1>A=>20==KE ?@54;>65=89. !>?@>B82;5=85 G;5=>2 3@C??K, 2K@060NI55AO 2 >B:075 A;54>20BL @07C<=K< A>25B0<, G0AB> A2845B5;LAB2C5B > =0;8G88 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E <>B82>2 8 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: G0ABL ?@>F5AA0, :>B>@K9 =0?@02;5= =0 A>E@0=5=85 ?@>1;5<K. :F5=B =0 MB>< ?@>F5AA5 ?>4A:07K205B 3@C??5 40;L=59H89 ?>@O4>: 459AB289 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 2A5 ?@54;>65=8O 1K;8 >B:;>=5=K. -B>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, A=8605B 2K@065==>ABL 2>7=8:0NI59 C G;5=>2 3@C??K D@CAB@0F88. 1=0@C65=85 ?@>F5AA0, ;560I53> 2 >A=>25 @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<, 8<55B ?@8 @01>B5 A AC?@C65A:>9 3@C??>9 3>@074> 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85, G5< =0E>645=85 A0<>3> @5H5=8O. @82;5G5=85 2=8<0=8O G;5=>2 3@C??K : ?@>F5AAC @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<, 0 =5 : A0<8< ?@>1;5<0<, ?>72>;O5B 8A?>;L7>20BL ?>;CG5==K5 2 3@C??5 =02K:8 2 @07;8G=KE A8BC0F8OE. 725AB=>, GB> 0;:>3>;8:8 A:;>==K 2ABC?0BL 2 >B=>H5=8O 7028A8<>AB8 A 1;8609H8< >:@C65=85<.  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">G=> B0: 65 :0: ?@>1;5<K 0;:>3>;8:0 >B25G0NB >?@545;5==>9 F5;8, A5<LO 0;:>3>;8:0 <>65B 872;5:0BL >?@545;5==CN 2K3>4C 87 53> B@C4=>AB59. "0:, 2 A5<L5, 345 F0@8B @07;04, 8;8 2 A;CG05 =5>?@545;5==>AB8 ?>78F89 55 G;5=>2 ?>O2;5=85 B0:>9 ?@>1;5<K, :0: 0;:>3>;87<, A?>A>1=> C:@5?8BL A5<59=K5 C7K 8 OA=55 >1>7=0G8BL ?>78F88. @>8AE>48B A?;>G5=85 A5<L8 A F5;LN ?><>GL 1>;L=><C, GB> A>?@>2>6405BAO ?>O2;5=85< @0=55 >BACBAB2>202H8E A<KA;0 687=8, >ICI5=8O 206=>AB8 ?@>8AE>4OI53>. !5<LO 0;:>3>;8:0 ?5@5AB@08205BAO 8 ?@8A?>A01;8205BAO : 0;:>3>;87<C. !> 2@5<5=5< CAB0=02;8205BAO =5:>5 @02=>25A85, 4>AB0B>G=> CAB>9G82>5 : @07;8G=K< 87<5=5=8O<. >2545=85 0;:>3>;8:0 8 CA8;8O G;5=>2 A5<L8 ?> 53> A?0A5=8N AB0=>2OBAO G0ABLN ?0BB5@=0 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O A5<L8. 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E A0<>>F5=:0 G@572KG09=> =5CAB>9G820, GB> ?@82>48B : ?>O2;5=8N GC2AB20 2@06451=>AB8 >:@C65=8O, A:>20==>AB8 8 =0?@O65==>AB8 2 A8BC0F8OE, ?@54?>;030NI8E <56;8G=>AB=>5 >1I5=8O. 5@A?5:B820 CE>40 87 A8BC0F88 =5@54:> ?@54AB02;O5BAO 8< 5I5 1>;55 =5?@8OB=>9. ;:>3>;8:8 A:;>==K AG8B0BL AB@0E 87>;OF88 A2845B5;LAB2>< A2>59 A;01>AB8 8 =5:><<C=8:015;L=>AB8. =>385 0;:>3>;8:8 AB5A=ONBAO ?@87=0BLAO 2 A2>59 A5=B8<5=B0;L=>AB8, ?>;030O, GB> MB> ?@>O2;5=85 =5045:20B=>AB8. 5A<>B@O =0 >AB@CN ?>B@51=>ABL 2 ;0A:5 8 B5?;>B5, =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E AG8B0NB 4>1@K5 4@C65A:85 GC2AB20 ?>4B25@645=85< ;0B5=B=>9 A:;>==>AB8 : 3><>A5:AC0;87<C. ;:>3>;8:C <>65B :070BLAO, GB> B5?;K5 8=B8<=K5 >B=>H5=8O A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8 ?@8254CB : >1=0@C65=8N 8E A>1AB25==KE =5?@85<;5<KE :0G5AB2, A ?>A;54CNI8< 8E >B25@65=85< 8 87>;OF859. !B@0E8 8 2=CB@5==85 ?@>B82>@5G8O 254CB : B><C, GB> 0;:>3>;8: GC2AB2C5B =5;>2:>ABL 2 A8BC0F8OE ?>2A54=52=>3> >1I5=8O, AB0=>28BAO 70<:=CBK<. ;:>3>;L A?>A>1AB2C5B A=865=8N B@52>38, A2O70==>9 A <56;8G=>AB=K< 2708<>459AB285<. =>385 ;N48 8A?KBK20NB C4>2>;LAB285 >B C<5@5==>3> C?>B@51;5=8O 0;:>3>;O. 59AB28B5;L=>, 2A5 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 @0728BK5 >1I5AB20 8<5;8 2 A2>5< @0A?>@O65=88 A?5F80;L=K5 A@54AB20 4;O 87<5=5=8O =0AB@>5=8O, A=865=8O B@52>38 8 A=OB8O AB@5AA0 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8 (La Barre, 1975). >A:>;L:C <=>38< 0;:>3>;8:0< ?@8ACI0 2K@065==0O A>F80;L=0O B@52>6=>ABL, 7;>C?>B@51;5=85 0;:>3>;5< >1JOA=O5BAO 53> 0=:58>;8B8G5A:8< 459AB285<. -B> ?>;>65=85 ?>4B25@6405BAO A>1AB25==K<8 ?@87=0=8O<8 0;:>3>;8:>2 2> 2@5<O B5@0?52B8G5A:8E A5AA89. 8F0, A:;>==K5 : 7;>C?>B@51;5=8N 0;:>3>;5<, 70O2;ONB, GB> 2K=C645=K @01>B0BL =0 ?C1;8:C, :070BLAO 25A5;K<8 8 >1I8B5;L=K<8, E>BO 8< A0<8< MB> =5?@8OB=>. =>385 >?0A0NBAO, :0: 1K >:@C60NI85 =5 4>3040;8AL >1 8E 8AB8==KE GC2AB20E, 8 ?>;030NB, GB> 0;:>3>;L ?><>305B A?@028BLAO A B@52>3>9 ?> MB><C ?>2>4C. @5>4>;5=85 B@52>3, A2O70==KE A <56;8G=>AB=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8, A?>A>1AB2C5B C<5=LH5=8N ?@82;5:0B5;L=>AB8 0;:>3>;870F88. "0:8< >1@07><, =0;06820=85 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 206=59H8E DC=:F89 B5@0?88 0;:>3>;8:>2 8 O2;O5BAO =5>BJ5<;5<>9 A>AB02;ONI59 AC?@C65A:>9 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88. ;03>40@O >1@0B=>9 A2O78, B> 5ABL :>=D@>=B0F88 8 >1AC645=8N 2 3@C??5 2708<=KE >6840=89 8 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> 2>7459AB28O CG0AB=8:>2 4@C3 =0 4@C30, AC?@C65A:0O 3@C??>20O B5@0?8O ?><>305B ?0@5 :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 548=8F5, 0 B0:65 2E>4OI8< 2 55 A>AB02 8=482840< C7=0BL > A>1AB25==>< =5040?B82=>< ?>2545=88, :>B>@>5 <5H05B >1I5=8N A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8. @><5 B>3>, >1@0B=0O A2O7L ?><>305B G;5=0< 3@C??K ?@8=OBL A51O B0:8<8, :0:85 >=8 5ABL, 0 B0:65 ?>72>;O5B >ICB8BL @50;L=>ABL A2>53> 2;8O=8O =0 >:@C60NI8E. >4>1=K9 >?KB ?>72>;O5B 70<5B=> A=878BL B@52>3C, >1CA;>2;5==CN 2>7<>6=>ABLN >B25@65=8O. ;:>3>;8:8 G0AB> 60;CNBAO =0 B>, GB> 8E ?@>1;5<K CAC3C1;ONBAO >48=>G5AB2>< 8 A:>20==>ABLN 2 A8BC0F8OE ?>2A54=52=>3> >1I5=8O. @><5 B>3>, A>F80;L=0O 87>;OF8O, ?@5?OBAB2CO 5AB5AB25==><C 8 A2>52@5<5==><C 2K@065=8N M<>F89, 2545B : CA8;5=8N AB@0E0 ?5@54 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8, GB> 2 A2>N >G5@54L 5I5 1>;55 CAC3C1;O5B 70:@5?>I5==>ABL 0;:>3>;8:0 ?@8 <56;8G=>AB=>< >1I5=88.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE AC?@C65A:0O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O 3@C??0 70?>;=O5B A>F80;L=K9 20:CC< 2 687=8 ?0@K. #4>2;5B2>@OO ?>B@51=>ABL 2 ?@8=OB88 8 >1I5=88 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:0O 3@C??0 >:07K205B 1;03>B2>@=>5 459AB285, >4=0:>, ;8H05B AB8<C;0 : CAB0=>2;5=8N 4@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89 2=5 3@C??K. 4=0 87 DC=:F89 3@C??K 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K CG0AB=8:8 ?@8>1@5;8 8 70:@5?8;8 A>F80;L=K5 =02K:8. @C??0 =5 ?@54=07=0G5=0 4;O B>3>, GB>1K C4>2;5B2>@OBL A>F80;L=K5 ?>B@51=>AB8 A2>8E G;5=>2.  >1O70==>AB8 B5@0?52B0 =5 2E>48B ?@5?OBAB2>20=85 CAB0=>2;5=8N 4@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89 <564C G;5=0<8 3@C??K. A8E>B5@0?52B 4>;65= ?@54C?@548BL CG0AB=8:>2 > 2>7<>6=KE >A;>6=5=8OE 8 ?@8720BL 8E 8A?>;L7>20BL ?@8>1@5B5==K5 2 3@C??5 =02K:8 A>F80;870F88 4;O @0AH8@5=8O A2>8E A>F80;L=KE :>=B0:B>2.  A;CG05 CAB0=>2;5=8O 4@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89 <564C >B45;L=K<8 G;5=0<8 3@C??K B5@0?52B ?>>I@O5B A>2<5AB=>5 >1AC645=85 M<>F89 ?> ?>2>4C ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0, :>B>@K<8 >1<5=820NBAO CG0AB=8:8 2=5 A5AA89. -B> A=8605B 25@>OB=>ABL B>3>, GB> M<>F8>=0;L=> >:@0H5==K5 ?5@56820=8O, A2O70==K5 A 3@C??>9, @0AA5O2H8AL 2 @57C;LB0B5 :0B0@A8A0, B0: 8 >AB0=CBAO =5?@>@01>B0==K<8. I5 >4=8< 206=K< 0A?5:B><, :>B>@K9 >1O70B5;L=> A;54C5B CG8BK20BL ?@8 @01>B5 A 0;:>3>;8:0<8, O2;ONBAO ?@>1;5<K :><<C=8:0F88. 5@073>2>@G82K5 A:@KB=K5 ;N48, =04 :>B>@K<8 BO3>B5NB A>F80;L=K5 70?@5BK, G0AB> ?KB0NBAO ?@5>4>;5BL MB> A>AB>O=85 A ?><>ILN 0;:>3>;O. <5AB5 A B5< 0;:>3>;L ;8HL CAC3C1;O5B A>F80;L=CN 87>;OF8N B0:8E 8=48284>2, =0@CH0O 8E A?>A>1=>ABL : >1I5=8N. ><<C=8:0B82=K5 ?@>1;5<K 8 A>F80;L=0O A:>20==>ABL ?@82>4OB : 5I5 1>;LH5<C 7;>C?>B@51;5=8N 0;:>3>;5<, GB>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, CAC3C1;O5B 8<5NI85AO ?@>1;5<K, 70<K:0O B5< A0<K< ?>@>G=K9 :@C3. %M=A>= AG8B05B, GB> >4=>9 87 >A=>2=KE ?@>1;5< 2 0;:>3>;8G5A:>< 1@0:5 O2;O5BAO =5E20B:0 >1I5=8O (Hanson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eck, 1976; Ellis & Harper, 1972; Raimy, 1975). 1=0@C65=85 =5040?B82=KE C15645=89 8 ?@5>4>;5=85 @07=>3;0A89 ?@82>4OB : B5@0?52B8G5A:8< 87<5=5=8O< 2 CAB0=>2:0E, M<>F8OE 8 ?>2545=88, @0=55 >:07K202H8E @07@CH8B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 =0 687=L AC?@C3>2 8 8E 2708<>>B=>H5=8O. !> 2@5<5=5< 0;:>3>;8:8 8 8E AC?@C38 >1KG=> ?@8E>4OB : 2K2>4C > B><, GB> B@52>30 O2;O5BAO >A=>2=>9 ?@8G8=>9 <=>38E ?@>1;5<. 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A>60;5=8N, MB8 ?>?KB:8 =5@54:> ?@>872>4OB >1@0B=K9 MDD5:B, ?>445@6820O ACI5AB2>20=85 MB8E ?>B@51=>AB59. > <=5=8N ::5@<0=0, =52@>B8G5A:89 :>=D;8:B <>65B =5 B>;L:> @07@CH8BL >B=>H5=8O, => 8 A?>A>1AB2>20BL ?>445@60=8N ?0B>;>38G5A:8E 2708<>>B=>H5=89 (Ackerman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F5;>< 1>;LH8=AB2> A>2@5<5==KE 8AA;54>20=89 ?>4B25@6405B 206=>ABL 2>2;5G5=8O AC?@C30 2 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA. %M=A>= A :>;;530<8 CB25@6405B, GB> CG0AB85 AC?@C38 ?><>305B 0;:>3>;8:C ;CGH5 C7=0BL A2>N 65=C 8 40BL 59 2>7<>6=>ABL ;CGH5 C7=0BL A51O. 5=0, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?>;CG8B ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> =530B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 : AC?@C3C =5 B>;L:> >B40;O5B 8E 4@C3 >B 4@C30, => 8 ?@5?OBAB2C5B >B:@KB><C 2K@065=8N 55 A>1AB25==KE <KA;59 8 GC2AB2 (Hanson, 1968). > =0AB>OI53> 2@5<5=8 =5 >?8A0=0 A?5F8D8G5A:0O 0;:>3>;8G5A:0O ;8G=>ABL. #40;>AL CAB0=>28BL ?@O<CN A2O7L <564C ?@82;5G5=85< : B5@0?88 65= 0;:>3>;8:>2 8 ?@>E>645=85< 8E <C6LO<8 ?>;=>3> :C@A0 ;5G5=8O 2 CA;>28OE :;8=8:8. #G0AB85 65=K 2 B5@0?88 2545B : ;CGH5<C ?>=8<0=8N 8 ?>445@6:5 <C60-0;:>3>;8:0. @>8AE>4OI85 B5@0?52B8G5A:85 87<5=5=8O 2 ?>2545=88 65=K A>>B25BAB2CNB B0:>2K< C <C60, B0:65 ?@>E>4OI53> :C@A ;5G5=8O. 5@B>= 8 0?;0= ?>4B25@48;8 38?>B57C > B><, GB> C;CGH5=85 AC?@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89 A2O70=> A> A=865=85< 0;:>3>;870F88. >=AC;LB8@>20=85 ?> ?>2>4C A5<59=>9 ?0B>;>388 0;:>3>;8:>2 <>65B >:070BL ?>;>68B5;L=>5 2>7459AB285 =5 B>;L:> =0 A5<59=K5 8 AC?@C65A:85 ?@>1;5<K, => 8 C<5=LH8BL 0;:>3>;870F8N (Burton & Kaplan, 1968).  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B>;L:> ?>A;5 4>7K 400 500 <; 0;:>3>;O 2 45=L =0 ?@>BO65=88 48 4=59 8;8 1>;55. "5< =5 <5=55 <>6=> A:070BL, GB> 8 E0@0:B5@, 8 8=B5=A82=>ABL A8=4@><0 0;:>3>;L=>9 01AB8=5=F88, ?>-2848<><C, >1KG=> 7028AOB >B AB5?5=8 8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 E@>=8G5A:>9 8=B>:A8:0F88, ?@54H5AB2CNI59 01AB8=5=F88 8;8 @57:><C ?@5:@0I5=8N ?@85<0 0;:>3>;O" (Hofmarm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"0: :0: =5;L7O ?@54A:070BL, :0:0O <>40;L=>ABL B5@0?88 8 :0:85 55 M;5<5=BK 404CB ;CGH89 @57C;LB0B, :;8=8F8ABC A;54C5B =01;N40BL 70 @50:F859 ?0F85=B0 =0 ;5G5=85 8 381:> >1J548=OBL B5@0?52B8G5A:85 M;5<5=BK, AB@5<OAL >@30=87>20BL @01>BC A 0448:B82=K<8 ?@>O2;5=8O<8 =0 :@0B:>A@>G=>9 >A=>25, 0 C4>2;5B2>@5=85 B5@0?52B8G5A:8E ?>B@51=>AB59  =0 >A=>25 1>;55 4>;3>A@>G=>9. A;8, =0?@8<5@, =5:>B>@K5 ?0F85=BK =0AB>;L:> @8384=K 8 =5 A?>A>1=K ?@5>4>;5BL A2>8 ?0BB5@=K ?>2545=8O, GB> A;54C5B ?;0=8@>20BL 1>;55 4;8B5;L=>5 B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 2>7459AB285 8;8 0:B82878@>20BL ?@>3@0<<C A0<>?><>I8, 0 B0:65 ?@54;030BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 >1CG5=85. K74>@>2;5=85 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:85 =C64K ?0F85=B>2 ;CGH5 2A53> C4>2;5B2>@ONBAO B2>@G5A:8< :><18=8@>20=85< @07;8G=KE B5@0?52B8G5A:8E M;5<5=B>2. @8 MB>< :;8=8F8AB =5 4>;65= 701K20BL > 2>7<>6=KE A;01KE <5AB0E 2 AB@C:BC@5 ?A8E8:8 ?0F85=B0, :>B>@K5 <>3CB AB0BL ?@>B82>?>:070=85< : 8A?>;L7>20=8N 2K1@0==>3> <5B>40 ;5G5=8O; 2 MB>< A;CG05 8E =04> 2>2@5<O @0A?>7=0BL, 0 70B5< @0AA<>B@5BL 0;LB5@=0B82=K5 B5@0?52B8G5A:85 ?>4E>4K. !! " "# + ;:>3>;87<.  ., 1959.  A. 430. 5@:;8-;5= . 01KB>5 8A:CAAB2> A;CH0BL.  !1.: 8B5@ @5AA, 1997.  256 A. !B@.117-124 @0BCAL .!. =><0;88 ;8G=>AB8.  .: KA;L, 1988. @0BCAL .!. 7<5=5=8O ;8G=>AB8 ?@8 0;:>3>;87<5.  ., 1973. @0BCAL .!. 0G0;0 E@8AB80=A:>9 ?A8E>;>388.  .: 0C:0, 1995. @0BCAL .!., !C@=>2 .. 5B>48:0 D>@<8@>20=8O CAB0=>2:8 =0 B@572>ABL C 1>;L=KE 0;:>3>;87<>< // 5AB=8: #. !5@. A8E>;>38O. 1983. ! 3. C@=> ..  =5:>B>@KE ;8G=>AB=KE 20@80=B0E 0;:>3>;8:>2 2 A2O78 A ?A8E>B5@0?859. ., 1973 08A>2 !.. 5B>48:0 4803=>AB8:8 ?>B@51=>AB59 =0@:>7028A8<KE. >>@48=0BK /: 345 8 :0:. ;L<0=0E 2. !1., 1999. !. 108. >=G0@ !. >B>H=K5 35=5B8:8 CAB0=>28;8 ?@8G8=C 0;:>3>;87<0. < HYPERLINK "mailto:sergey@rvh.khv.ru" sergey@rvh.khv.ru>, 1999. C@28G .. K2>4K 8 @5:><5=40F88 4;O ?@>3@0<< ?5@28G=>9 ?@>D8;0:B8:8.  HYPERLINK "mailto:director@narcom.ru" director@narcom.ru C@L520 .., 8=48:8= ./. .=>H5A:85 ?A8E>?0B88 8 0;:>3>;87<.  ., 1980. 8A;8= !.. 1 0;:>3>;L=KE @0AAB@>9AB20E.  >@>=56, 1935. 8A;8= !.. G5@:8 :;8=8G5A:>9 ?A8E80B@88.  ., 1965. 8=3 ., &8B@5=10C< '. -:78AB5=F80;L=0O 38?=>B5@0?8O. ., 1998. >20;52 !.. AF5;5=85 A ?><>ILN .  .: 74-2> ! +, 1999. >@>;52 ... 0: 871560BL 0;:>3>;L=>3> A@K20. ., 2000. M4>3M= . . !C?@C65A:0O 3@C??>20O B5@0?8O ?@8 ;5G5=88 0;:>3>;87<0 // !5<5==0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O. - !1: 8B5@, 2000. - !. 416-435 8H8= .. A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K ?@54C?@5645=8O 8 ?@5>4>;5=8O ?LO=AB20 8 0A>F80;L=>3> ?>2545=8O ?>4@>AB:>2: 5B>48G5A:85 @07@01>B:8.  ., 1986. 03078=5@ ./.  =0456=59H5< 2@0G51=>< A?>A>15 >BCG0BL ;N459 >B ?LO=AB20 8 70?>O 8 ;5G8BL 53>.  !1., 1837. 03078=5@ ./. 5G5=85 1>;57=8, ?@>8AE>4OI59 >B ?LO=AB20, 8 > A?>A>15 >BCG8BL >B =53>.  !1., 1854. >;LAB5@ @28= 18B05<K9 G5;>25:: "5@0?52B8G5A:>5 8AA;54>20=85 ;8G=>AB8/5@. A 0=3;. ./. >328=A:>9.  .: 57028A8<0O D8@<0 ";0AA", 1999.  240 A.  (81;8>B5:0 ?A8E>;>388 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88). !B@. 148-179 >@B=>2 .., OB=8F:0O .. ;8=8:0 0;:>3>;87<0.  ., 1971. A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 87<5=5=89 ;8G=>AB8 ?@8 0;:>3>;87<5.  ., 1974. OB=8F:0O .. ;8=8G5A:0O =0@:>;>38O.  ., 1975.  A. 111-112. 5<8AA88 ?@8 0;:>3>;87<5.  ., 1987.  A. 23. >6=>2 .. 5B>48:0 :>;;5:B82=>9 M<>F8>=0;L=>-AB@5AA>2>9 38?=>B5@0?88 1>;L=KE E@>=8G5A:8< 0;:>3>;87<><.  ., 1971. >6=>2 .. A8E>B5@0?8O 0;:>3>;87<0 8 4@C38E =0@:><0=89.  ., 1971. !5<59=0O ?A8E>B5@0?8O / !>AB028B5;8 -945<8;;5@ -. ., ;5:A0=4@>20 . ., .AB8F:8A . / 6C;8CA -. ., M?? . !5<59=0O E>@5>3@0D8O: 0;:>3>;8G5A:0O A5<59=0O A8AB5<0 =0 ?@>BO65=88 =5A:>;L:8E ?>:>;5=89. . - !1: 8B5@, 2000.  512 A.: 8;.  (!5@8O %@5AB><0B8O ?> ?A8E>;>388)- !. 479-496 !C@=>2 .. 7<5=5=85 CAB0=>2>: ;8G=>AB8 ?@8 0;:>3>;87<5: 2B>@5D. :0=4. 48AA.  ., 1982. $;0=G $. @5>1@07CNI85 480;>38. 852, 1997. &8B@5=10C< '., 8=3 ., >M= #. 8?=>B5@0?8O 2@54=KE ?@82KG5:/5@, A 0=3;. .. @0H>2>9.  .: 57028A8<0O D8@<0 ";0AA", 1998.  192 A.  (81;8>B5:0 ?A8E>;>388 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88). #H0:>2 . . %@>=8G5A:89 0;:>3>;87< 8 1>@L10 A =8<.  /@>A;02;L, 1959. 0B5@80;K 87 Internet  HYPERLINK "http://gazeta.ru/health/24-03-1999_obezbol.htm" \t "_blank" 5==0O 8=65=5@8O ?>156405B 1>;L - Gazeta.Ru  HYPERLINK "http://gazeta.ru/health/12-03-1999_kurenie2.htm" \t "_blank" !8;0 ?@82KG:8 : B010:C >?@545;O5BAO 35=0<8 - Gazeta.Ru  HYPERLINK "http://www.sci.aha.ru/ATL/ra00.htm" \t "_blank" Web-B;0A: ":@C60NI0O A@540 8 74>@>2L5 =0A5;5=8O >AA88"  HYPERLINK "http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org/" \t "_blank" Alcoholics Anonymous Web Site - A09B 1I5AB20 =>=8<=KE ;:>3>;8:>2  HYPERLINK "http://alcoholism.miningco.com/" \t "_blank" Mining Co. 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