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MB>9 A8BC0F88 :>=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= ?><=8BL 3;02=CN F5;L :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O  ?><>GL :;85=BC ?>=OBL, GB> 8<5==> >= A0< 8 5ABL B>B G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 4>;65= @5H0BL, 459AB2>20BL, 87<5=OBLAO, 0:BC0;878@>20BL A2>8 A?>A>1=>AB8. 1. 2. !%'! !#,"   !%" / 0A?@545;5=85 MB8E 42CE AD5@ ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?><>I8  A;>6=0O 7040G0, ?>A:>;L:C 2 =5<0;>< G8A;5 A;CG052 ?@>D5AA8>=0;C B@C4=> A:070BL, 70=8<05BAO >= ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< :>=AC;LB8@>20=85< 8;8 ?A8E>B5@0?859. 0: 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88, B0: 8 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8A?>;L7CNBAO B5 65 A0<K5 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 =02K:8; B@51>20=8O, ?@54JO2;O5<K5 : ;8G=>AB8 :;85=B0 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0, >48=0:>2K; ?@>F54C@K, 8A?>;L7C5<K5 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88, B>65 ?>4>1=K. 0:>=5F, 2 ?5@2>< 8 2B>@>< A;CG0OE ?><>IL :;85=BC >A=>2K205BAO =0 2708<>459AB288 <564C :>=AC;LB0=B>< (?A8E>B5@0?52B><) 8 :;85=B><. 7-70 B@C4=>AB8 @0745;5=8O MB8E 42CE >1;0AB59 =5:>B>@K5 ?@0:B8:8 8A?>;L7CNB ?>=OB8O "?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 :>=AC;LB8@>20=85" 8 "?A8E>B5@0?8O" :0: A8=>=8<K, 0@3C<5=B8@CO A2>N B>G:C 7@5=8O AE>65ABLN 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 8 :>=AC;LB0=B0-?A8E>;>30. > ?>A:>;L:C 2 1>;LH8=AB25 AB@0= 40==K5 ?@>D5AA88 ACI5AB2CNB :0: >B45;L=K5, 206=> =09B8 >A=>20=8O, ?> :>B>@K< 8E <>6=> 1K;> E>BO 1K G0AB8G=> @0745;8BL. Bramer 8 Shostrom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elso, Fretz (1992), Blosher (1966) 2K45;ONB A?5F8D8G5A:85 G5@BK ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O, >B;8G0NI85 53> >B ?A8E>B5@0?88: :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 >@85=B8@>20=> =0 :;8=8G5A:8 74>@>2CN ;8G=>ABL; MB> ;N48, 8<5NI85 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 B@C4=>AB8 8 ?@>1;5<K, 60;>1K =52@>B8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0, 0 B0:65 ;N48, GC2AB2CNI85 A51O E>@>H>, >4=0:> AB02OI85 ?5@54 A>1>9 F5;L 40;L=59H53> @0728B8O ;8G=>AB8; :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 A>@85=B8@>20=> =0 74>@>2K5 AB>@>=K ;8G=>AB8 =57028A8<> >B AB5?5=8 =0@CH5=8O; MB0 >@85=B0F8O >A=>20=0 =0 25@5, GB> "G5;>25: <>65B 87<5=OBLAO, 2K18@0BL C4>2;5B2>@ONICN 53> 687=L, =0E>48BL A?>A>1K 8A?>;L7>20=8O A2>8E 7040B:>2, 4065 5A;8 >=8 =525;8:8 87-70 =5045:20B=KE CAB0=>2>: 8 GC2AB2, 70<54;5==>3> A>7@520=8O, :C;LBC@=>9 45?@820F88, =54>AB0B:0 D8=0=A>2, 1>;57=8, 8=20;84=>AB8, ?@5:;>==>3> 2>7@0AB0" (Jordan A A>02B.; F8B. ?>: Myers A A>02B., 1968); :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 G0I5 >@85=B8@C5BAO =0 =0AB>OI55 8 1C4CI55 :;85=B>2; :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 >1KG=> >@85=B8@C5BAO =0 :@0B:>A@>G=CN ?><>IL (4> 15 2AB@5G); :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 >@85=B8@C5BAO =0 ?@>1;5<K, 2>7=8:0NI85 2> 2708<>459AB288 ;8G=>AB8 8 A@54K; 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 0:F5=B8@C5BAO F5==>AB=>5 CG0AB85 :>=AC;LB0=B0, E>BO >B:;>=O5BAO =02O7K20=85 F5==>AB59 :;85=B0<; :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 =0?@02;5=> =0 87<5=5=85 ?>2545=8O 8 @0728B85 ;8G=>AB8 :;85=B0. 1. 3. "  '!"   " !#," / 06=>ABL B5>@88 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< :>=AC;LB8@>20=88, :0: 8 2 4@C38E >1;0ABOE ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:8, B@C4=> ?5@5>F5=8BL. >6=> A:070BL, GB> ?>?KB:0 :20;8D8F8@>20==> ?><>GL 4@C3><C G5;>25:C 2 @07@5H5=88 53> ?@>1;5< 157 >?>@K =0 A8AB5<C B5>@5B8G5A:8E 2>77@5=89, ?>4>1=0 ?>;5BC 157 >@85=B8@>2. "0:>9 ";5BG8:" 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 =5 B>;L:> =5 MDD5:B825=, => 8=>340 8 >?0A5=.  ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 @>;L :0@BK 2K?>;=O5B B5>@8O ;8G=>AB8, >B:@K20NI0O H8@>:CN ?5@A?5:B82C ?>=8<0=8O ?@>1;5< :;85=B0 8 C:07K20NI0O MDD5:B82=K5 <5B>4K 8E @07@5H5=8O. "5>@8O ?><>305B :>=AC;LB0=BC D>@<C;8@>20BL 48=0<8G=K5 38?>B57K, @07JOA=ONI85 :;85=BC ?@>1;5<K, 8 ?>72>;O5B GC2AB2>20BL A51O 2 157>?0A=>AB8 ?@8 AB>;:=>25=88 A E0>B8G=K<, 457>@30=87>20==K< 2=CB@5==8< <8@>< =5:>B>@KE :;85=B>2. Bramer, Shostrom (1982) ?>4G5@:820NB, GB> :>=AC;LB0=B, =5 CA2>82H89 B5>@5B8G5A:85 >A=>2K A2>59 ?@>D5AA88, =5 >7=0:><82H89AO A 8AA;54>20=8O<8, 2K?>;=5==K<8 2 40==>9 >1;0AB8, =5 A<>65B =8G53> A45;0BL 4;O :;85=B0, :@><5 ?@8<5=5=8O G0AB=>9 B5E=8:8. 0640O B5>@8O 2K?>;=O5B G5BK@5 >A=>2=K5 DC=:F88: >1>1I05B =0:>?;5==CN 8=D>@<0F8N; 45;05B 1>;55 ?>=OB=K<8 A;>6=K5 O2;5=8O; ?@54A:07K205B ?>A;54AB28O @07=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2; A?>A>1AB2C5B ?>8A:C =>2KE D0:B>2 (George, Cristiani, 1990). -B8 DC=:F88 2?>;=5 ?>4E>4OB : ;N1>9 B5>@88, ;560I59 2 >A=>25 :>=AC;LB0B82=>9 ?@0:B8:8. 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A2>1>45= ;8 2K1>@ G5;>25:0 ?@8 ;N1KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E 8;8 65 >?@545;O5BAO =0A;54AB25==>ABLN 8 A>1KB8O<8 ?@>H;>3>? ACI5AB2CNB ;8 ?@54?>AK;:8 87<5=5=8O G5;>25:0 8 :0: >= <>65B 87<5=OBLAO? B25BK =0 MB8 2>?@>AK >?@545;ONB, :0: :>=AC;LB0=B ?>=8<05B AB@C:BC@C ;8G=>AB8, 45B5@<8=0F8N ?>2545=8O, 35=578A ?0B>;>388, ?5@A?5:B82C =>@<0;L=>3> @0728B8O. 0: 284=> 87 B01;. 2, 3;02=K5 ?@8=F8?K >A=>2=KE H:>; ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ACI5AB25==> >B;8G0NBAO (George, Cristiani, 1990). "01;8F0 2. "5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K A>2@5<5==KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E =0?@02;5=89 0?@02;5=85 A=>2=K5 B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>5 =0?@02;5=85 !CI=>ABL G5;>25:0 >?@545;O5BAO ?A8E8G5A:>9 M=5@3859 A5:AC0;L=>9 ?@8@>4K 8 >?KB>< @0==53> 45BAB20. 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B0:8E A;CG0OE :>=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= ?><>GL :;85=BC ?>=OBL =587156=>ABL A8BC0F88 8 A<8@8BLAO A =59. -DD5:B82=>5 :>=AC;LB8@>20=85  MB> ?@>F5AA, :>B>@K9 2K?>;=O5BAO 2<5AB5 A :;85=B><, => =5 2<5AB> :;85=B0.  2>?@>AC AB@C:BC@K ?@>F5AA0 <K 5I5 25@=5<AO ?@8 :>=:@5B=>< >1AC645=88 E>40 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O. " "#  Blocher D. . Developmental Counseling. N. Y.: Ronald Press, 1966. Bramer L. M., Shostrom E. L. Therapeutic Psychology: Fundamentals of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 4th Ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1982. Burks . M., Steffire B. Theories of Counseling, 3rd Ed. N. Y.: McGraw-Hill, 1979. Gelso !. J., Fretz. . !. Counseling Psychology. N. Y.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1992. George R. L., Cristiani T. S. Counseling: Theory and Practice, 3rd Ed., Englewood Cliffs. N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1990. Gilliland . E., James R. K., Bowman J. T. Theories and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 2nd Ed. Englewood Cliffs. N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1989. May R. The Art of Counseling. N. Y.: Abingdon Press, 1967. Myers R. A., Layton W. C., Morgan . . The Counseling Psychologist. Washington, D. 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MB>9 A8BC0F88 =5?@028;L=>5 ?>=8<0=85 :>=AC;LB0=B>< A2>59 @>;8 B>;L:> C25;8G8B 7028A8<>ABL :;85=B0 >B =53> 8 ?><5H05B ?><>GL :;85=BC 2 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>< ?@8=OB88 @5H5=89. 8:0:>9 :>=AC;LB0=B =5 <>65B C:07K20BL 4@C3><C G5;>25:C, :0: 5<C 68BL.  ?@0:B8:5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 A;54C5B G0I5 2A?><8=0BL A;>20 7=0<5=8B>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 J. Bugental (1987) > B09=5 8 7=0=88: ""09=0 >E20BK205B 7=0=85, 2 =59 A:@KB0 8=D>@<0F8O. "09=0 15A:>=5G=0, 7=0=85 8<55B ?@545;: :>340 2>7@0AB05B 7=0=85, 5I5 1>;LH5 AB0=>28BAO B09=0... A8E>B5@0?52B>2 ?>4AB5@5305B A>1;07= 2ABC?8BL 2 A3>2>@ A :;85=B0<8 8 >B25@3=CBL B09=C.  MB>9 >B2@0B8B5;L=>9 A45;:5 ?>4@07C<5205BAO, => @54:> @0A:@K205BAO 8;;N78O, GB> ACI5AB2CNB >B25BK =0 2A5 687=5==K5 ?@>1;5<K, GB> <>6=> @0A:@KBL 7=0G5=85 :064>3> A=0 8;8 A8<2>;0 8 GB> 8450;L=>9 F5;LN 74>@>2>9 ?A8E8G5A:>9 687=8 O2;O5BAO @0F8>=0;L=K9 :>=B@>;L. A8E>B5@0?52BK >1O70=K <=>3> 7=0BL, => >4=>2@5<5==> 8A?KBK20BL ?@5:;>=5=85 8 ?>:>@=>ABL ?5@54 B09=>9. 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A;8 B0:8< >1@07>< 2 >1I8E G5@B0E ?@54AB028BL A>45@60=85 @>;8 :>=AC;LB0=B0, AB0=>28BAO >G5284=K<, GB> >G5=L ACI5AB25==>9 A>AB02;ONI59 ?@>F5AA0 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O O2;O5BAO '!", !#,"". 2. 2. " /  '!" !#,""  , -$$" !#,"" 8G=>ABL :>=AC;LB0=B0 (?A8E>B5@0?52B0) 2K45;O5BAO ?>GB8 2> 2A5E B5>@5B8G5A:8E A8AB5<0E :0: 206=59H55 F5;8B5;L=>5 A@54AB2> 2 ?@>F5AA5 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O. >4G5@:820NBAO B> >4=8, B> 4@C385 55 G5@BK. 725AB=K9 0=3;89A:89 ?A8E>0=0;8B8: 25=35@A:>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O . Balint 2 1957 3. 3>2>@8; > ?>;=>< 70125=88 B>3>, GB> ?A8E>B5@0?8O  MB> =5 B5>@5B8G5A:>5 7=0=85, 0 =02K:8 ;8G=>AB8. <C 2B>@8B =5 <5=55 7=0<5=8BK9 ?@54AB028B5;L 3C<0=8AB8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 !. Rogers (1961), ?>4G5@:820O, GB> B5>@8O 8 <5B>4K :>=AC;LB0=B0 <5=55 206=K, =565;8 >ACI5AB2;5=85 8< A2>59 @>;8. A. Gombs 8 A>B@C4. (1969; F8B. ?>: George, Cristiani, 1990) =0 >A=>20=88 =5A:>;L:8E 8AA;54>20=89 CAB0=>28;8, GB> ?@5CA?520NI53> :>=AC;LB0=B0 >B;8G0NB >B =5C40G=8:0 G5@BK ;8G=>AB8. S. Freud =0 2>?@>A > :@8B5@8OE CA?5H=>AB8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 >B25B8;, GB> ?A8E>0=0;8B8:C =5 >1O70B5;L=> <548F8=A:>5 >1@07>20=85, 0 =5>1E>48<0 =01;N40B5;L=>ABL 8 C<5=85 ?@>=8:0BL 2 4CHC :;85=B0. B0:, ?> ACI5AB2C >A=>2=0O B5E=8:0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O  MB> "O-:0:-8=AB@C<5=B", B.5. >A=>2=K< A@54AB2><, AB8<C;8@CNI8< A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 ;8G=>AB8 :;85=B0, O2;O5BAO ;8G=>ABL :>=AC;LB0=B0 (A. Adber: "B5E=8:0 ;5G5=8O 70;>65=0 2 0A"). A. Storr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alint 8 . 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Buber (1961) >E0@0:B5@87>20; MB>B D0:B>@ :0: 8=B5@5A : ;N4O< 2 A8;C 8E 1KB8O, 0 =5 ?>B><C, GB> =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E H87>D@5=8:8 8;8 ?A8E>?0BK]; GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL : CAB0=>2:0< 8 ?>2545=8N 4@C38E ;N459; M<>F8>=0;L=0O AB018;L=>ABL 8 >1J5:B82=>ABL; A?>A>1=>ABL 2K7K20BL 4>25@85 4@C38E ;N459; C2065=85 ?@02 4@C38E ;N459.  1964 3. ><8B5B ?> =047>@C 8 ?>43>B>2:5 :>=AC;LB0=B>2 !( CAB0=>28; A;54CNI85 H5ABL :0G5AB2 ;8G=>AB8, =5>1E>48<KE :>=AC;LB0=BC (F8B. ?>: George, Cristiani, 1990): 4>25@85 : ;N4O<; C2065=85 F5==>AB59 4@C3>9 ;8G=>AB8; ?@>=8F0B5;L=>ABL; >BACBAB285 ?@54C15645=89; A0<>?>=8<0=85; A>7=0=85 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> 4>;30. L. Wolberg (1954) 0:F5=B8@C5B B0:85 >A>15==>AB8: GCB:>ABL, >1J5:B82=>ABL (=5>B>645AB2;5=85 A51O A :;85=B0<8), 381:>ABL, M<?0B8N 8 >BACBAB285 A>1AB25==KE A5@L57=KE ?@>1;5<.  >A>1>  + 4;O :>=AC;LB0=B0 G5@B0< >= >B=>A8B 02B>@8B0@=>ABL, ?0AA82=>ABL 8 7028A8<>ABL, 70<:=CB>ABL, A:;>==>ABL 8A?>;L7>20BL :;85=B>2 4;O C4>2;5B2>@5=8O A2>8E ?>B@51=>AB59, =5C<5=85 1KBL B5@?8<K< : @07;8G=K< ?>1C645=8O< :;85=B>2, =52@>B8G5A:CN CAB0=>2:C 2 >B=>H5=88 45=53. A. Gombs A A>02B. 2 A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 CAB0=>28;, GB> ?@5CA?520NI89 :>=AC;LB0=B >1KG=> 2>A?@8=8<05B 4@C38E :0: A?>A>1=KE @5H0BL A>1AB25==K5 ?@>1;5<K 8 ?@8=8<0BL =0 A51O >B25BAB25==>ABL, :0: ?@54?>G8B0NI8E >B>645AB2;OBLAO A ;N4L<8, 0 =5 A ?@54<5B0<8. . Strupp A A>02B. (1969; F8B. ?>: Schneider, 1992), 8AA;54>202H89 G5@BK "E>@>H53> :>=AC;LB0=B0" A ?>78F88 :;85=B>2, C:07K205B =0 2=8<0B5;L=>ABL, C<5=85 2KA;CH0BL, B5?;>BC, A5@45G=>ABL, C<C4@5==>ABL 2 4@C65A:8E A>25B0E. > <=5=8N A. 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B0:>9 <>45;8 8 4>;65= AB@5<8BLAO :>=AC;LB0=B, 5A;8 65;05B 1KBL =5 B5E=8G=K< @5<5A;5==8:><, 0 EC4>6=8:>< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O. 0:>=5F, A2>9AB20 ;8G=>AB8 MDD5:B82=>3> :>=AC;LB0=B0 <>3CB 1KBL 8 F5;LN ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O  ?>O2;5=85 MB8E A2>9AB2 C :;85=B0 2 MB>< A;CG05 AB0=>28BAO ?>:070B5;5< MDD5:B82=>AB8 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O. 2. 3. !!" &!" !#,"" 064K9 G5;>25: 8<55B A>1AB25==CN A8AB5<C F5==>AB59, :>B>@0O >?@545;O5B 53> @5H5=8O 8 B>, :0: >= 2>A?@8=8<05B >:@C60NI89 <8@ 8 4@C38E ;N459. 5GL 845B > 206=59H8E 687=5==KE :@8B5@8OE. !8AB5<0 F5==>AB59 :>=AC;LB0=B0 >?@545;O5B 8AE>4=K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O. N10O ?@>1;5<0 ;8G=>AB8, :0: >B<5G05B R. May (1967), MB> <>@0;L=0O ?@>1;5<0; 8=0G5 3>2>@O, :0640O ?@>1;5<0 ;8G=>AB8 8<55B A2>9 <>@0;L=K9 ?>4B5:AB. #65 A0< 2>?@>A, G0AB> 7040205<K9 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88,  "0: O 4>;65= 68BL?"  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atterson (1958; F8B. ?>: George, Cristiani, 1990) C:07K205B B0:65 =0 F5;K9 @O4 ?@8G8=, ?> :>B>@K< :>=AC;LB0=BC A;54C5B 871530BL >:07K20BL 2>7459AB285 =0 F5==>AB8 :;85=B0: 687=5==0O D8;>A>D8O :064>3> 8=482840 C=8:0;L=0 8 =565;0B5;L=> =02O7K20BL 55 4@C38<; =8 >48= :>=AC;LB0=B =5 <>65B CB25@640BL, GB> 8<55B ?>;=>ABLN @0728BCN, 045:20B=CN D8;>A>D8N 687=8; =081>;55 ?>4E>4OI85 <5AB0 4;O CA2>5=8O F5==>AB59  MB> A5<LO, F5@:>2L 8 H:>;0, 0 =5 :018=5B :>=AC;LB0=B0; 8=48284 @0728205B A>1AB25==CN MB8G5A:CN A8AB5<C, ?>;L7COAL =5 >4=8< 8AB>G=8:>< 8 =5 70 >48= 45=L, 0 ?>4 2;8O=85< <=>38E 687=5==KE D0:B>@>2 8 2 B5G5=85 4;8B5;L=>3> >B@57:0 2@5<5=8; =8:B> =5 <>65B 2>A?@5?OBAB2>20BL 4@C3><C G5;>25:C 2 D>@<8@>20=88 C=8:0;L=>9 D8;>A>D88 687=8, :>B>@0O 1K;0 1K 4;O =53> A0<>9 >A<KA;5==>9; :;85=B 8<55B ?@02> =0 =5?@8OB85 MB8G5A:8E ?@8=F8?>2 8 D8;>A>D88 687=8 4@C3>3> ;8F0. 0 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>< ?>;NA5  <=5=85 . 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A;8 @50;L=> ?>A<>B@5BL =0 A8BC0F8N :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O, AB0=5B OA=>, GB> ?>;=>ABLN 8A:;NG8BL F5==>AB8 :>=AC;LB0=B0, <8@>2>77@5=G5A:85 0A?5:BK 87 :>=AC;LB0B82=>3> :>=B0:B0 A :;85=B>< ?@>AB> =52>7<>6=>, 5A;8 :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 ?>=8<0BL :0: >B=>H5=8O 42CE ;N459, 0 =5 :0: =5GB> <5E0=8G5A:>5 8;8 70@0=55 70?@>3@0<<8@>20==>5. >=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= G5B:> 7=0BL A2>8 F5==>AB8, =5 A:@K20BL 8E >B :;85=B0 8 =5 871530BL F5==>AB=KE 48A:CAA89 =0 :>=AC;LB0B82=KE 2AB@5G0E, ?>A:>;L:C =5<0;> ?@>1;5< A:@KB> 8<5==> 2 F5==>AB=KE :>=D;8:B0E :;85=B>2 8;8 2 =5?>=8<0=88 8<8 A>1AB25==>9 F5==>AB=>9 A8AB5<K. 4=0:> OA=0O F5==>AB=0O ?>78F8O :>=AC;LB0=B0 =5 ?>4@07C<5205B =@02>CG5=89 8 <>@0;878@>20=8O.  ;N1>< A;CG05 2;8O=85 F5==>AB59 :>=AC;LB0=B0 =0 :;85=B0 8<55B A2>N MB8G5A:CN AB>@>=C, 5A;8 ?@87=0BL, GB> 2K428305<K5 :>=AC;LB0=B>< F5;8 8 8A?>;L7C5<K5 <5B>4K >B@060NB 8 53> D8;>A>D8N 687=8. 065 ?@O<> =5 =02O7K20O :;85=BC A2>8 F5==>AB8, >4=0:> ?@845@6820OAL 2 @01>B5 >?@545;5==>9 D8;>A>D88, <K =587156=> "2=>A8<" 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 A2>5 2>77@5=85 =0 A8AB5<C ACI=>AB=KE 2>?@>A>2 687=8. ;85=B:0: 65=I8=0 30 ;5B, 70<C6=OO, 8<55B B@>8E 45B59, AB0@H5<C 87 =8E 10 ;5B. @>1;5<0, A :>B>@>9 >=0 >1@0B8;0AL 70 ?><>ILN,  B@C4=>AB8 2 ?@8=OB88 @5H5=8O: A>E@0=8BL 1@0: 8;8 @0725AB8AL A <C65<, :>B>@>3> >=0 E0@0:B5@87C5B :0: =5 701>BOI53>AO > =59 8 45BOE, ?>;=>ABLN ?>3@C65==>3> 2 A2>N @01>BC, A:CG=>3> 8 A0<>4>2>;L=>3>. 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'B> 2>>1I5 4C<05B :>=AC;LB0=B > 1@0:5, A5<L5, @072>45, ?>;>65=88 45B59 2 A5<L5? ;85=B:0 3>2>@8B > 2=51@0G=KE A2O7OE. 'B> 4C<05B :>=AC;LB0=B >1 8E ?@02><5@=>AB8? >;57=K 8;8 45AB@C:B82=K MB8 A2O78 4;O 687=8 :;85=B:8? 'B> 4C<05B :>=AC;LB0=B > ?>B@51=>AB8 2 157>?0A=>AB8 8 @8A:5 2 687=8 G5;>25:0? B >B25B>2 =0 7040==K5 2>?@>AK 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 1C45B 7028A5BL 8 ?@>F5AA :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O 8 53> @57C;LB0B. > <=5=8N G. Corey (1986), :>=AC;LB0=B 8;8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B, 65;0O 871560BL F5==>AB=KE :>;;8789 2 ?@>F5AA5 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O, 4>;65= 8<5BL G5B:CN ?>78F8N ?> =5:>B>@K< 2>?@>A0<. 06=59H85 AD5@K, 2 :>B>@KE 206=0 ?>78F8O :>=AC;LB0=B0,  MB> A5<LO, A5:A, 01>@BK, @5;838O, =0@:>B8:8. >=AC;LB0=BC 15A:>=5G=> 206=> 7=0BL, :0:>5 2;8O=85 >:07K20NB 53> F5==>AB8 =0 E>4 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O, GB>1K >= <>3 1KBL A0<8< A>1>9 8 B5< =5 <5=55 871560BL =02O7K20=8O A>1AB25==KE CAB0=>2>: :;85=B0<. 87=5==0O D8;>A>D8O :064>3> G5;>25:0 8 53> F5==>AB8 C=8:0;L=K. K;> 1K A;8H:>< 2KA>:><5@=> 4C<0BL, GB> B>;L:> :>=AC;LB0=B 7=05B, GB> B0:>5 "E>@>H0O 8 ?@0254=0O 687=L". ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, =59B@0;L=>ABL :>=AC;LB0=B0 >7=0G05B 8;8 53> 0<1820;5=B=>ABL 2 >B=>H5=88 F5==>AB59, 8;8 B>, GB> >= 701>B8BAO B>;L:> > "70I8B5" ?@>F5AA0 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O >B A2>8E F5==>AB59, 8 MB> <5H05B 0CB5=B8G=>AB8 8 8A:@5==>AB8.  ?@>F5AA5 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O <K 4>;6=K ?><>GL :;85=B0< =081>;55 ?>;=> 2KO28BL A8AB5<C 8E F5==>AB59 8 ?@8=OBL =0 55 >A=>20=88 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 @5H5=85, :0:8< >1@07>< >=8 <>3CB 87<5=8BL ?>2545=85 8;8 4065 A0<8 F5==>AB8. !;54>20B5;L=>, :>=AC;LB0=B ?>4=8<05B 2>?@>AK, 0 >B25BK =0 =8E 8I5B 8 =0E>48B :;85=B =0 >A=>25 A>1AB25==KE F5==>AB59. >=AC;LB0=B, >@85=B8@COAL =0 A2>N A8AB5<C F5==>AB59, B0:65 ?><>305B :;85=BC ;CGH5 ?>=OBL ?>A;54AB28O =5:>B>@KE @5H5=89, ?>ABC?:>2 4;O 53> A>1AB25==>9 687=8 8 1;03>?>;CG8O 1;87:8E 5<C ;N459. 2. 4. /  $!!, /",!"  '!", !#,"" @>D5AA8O ?A8E>;>30-:>=AC;LB0=B0 8;8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 8=B5@5A=0 8 405B =5<0;> ?>;57=>3> A0<><C :>=AC;LB0=BC. 0:0O 4@C30O ?@>D5AA8O ?>72>;O5B B0: 3;C1>:> 8 1;87:> ?>7=0BL AB>;L:> @07=KE ;N459? 5@54:> >=0 4>AB02;O5B GC2AB2> C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 A>1>9, >A>15==> :>340 B51O F5=OB :;85=BK, :>340 BK C25@5=, GB> A<>3 ?><>GL. 4=0:>, =5A<>B@O =0 ?>;57=>ABL ?@>D5AA88, 70G0ABCN >=0 AB>8B 70=8<0NI8<AO 5N ;N4O< 4>2>;L=> 4>@>3>. >7459AB285 =5 2A5340 70<5B=> A> AB>@>=K, => 53> =0AB>OICN F5=C GC2AB2C5B A0< :>=AC;LB0=B. A. Storr (1980) 2K45;O5B =5A:>;L:> 206=KE 0A?5:B>2 MB>9 "?;0BK": C3@>70 CB@0B8BL 845=B8G=>ABL 8 "@0AB2>@8BLAO" 2 :;85=B0E; >B@8F0B5;L=K5 ?>A;54AB28O <>3CB A:070BLAO 2 ;8G=>9 687=8 (A5<LO, 4@C7LO); C3@>70 ?A8E8G5A:8E =0@CH5=89 87-70 ?>AB>O==KE AB>;:=>25=89 A B5<=K<8 AB>@>=0<8 687=8 8 ?A8E8G5A:>9 ?0B>;>3859 (!. Jung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aine, 1981; Maslach, 1982; Corey, 1986). "!8=4@>< A3>@0=8O"  A;>6=K9 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:89 D5=><5=, :>B>@K9 >?@545;O5BAO :0: M<>F8>=0;L=>5, C<AB25==>5 8 D878G5A:>5 8AB>I5=85 87-70 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>9 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 =03@C7:8. !8=4@><, ?> >?8A0=8N Corey (1986) 8 Naisberg-Fennig A A>02B. (1991), 2K@0605BAO 2 45?@5AA82=>< A>AB>O=88, GC2AB25 CAB0;>AB8 8 >?CAB>H5==>AB8, =54>AB0B:5 M=5@388 8 M=BC7807<0, CB@0B5 A?>A>1=>AB59 2845BL ?>;>68B5;L=K5 @57C;LB0BK A2>53> B@C40, >B@8F0B5;L=>9 CAB0=>2:5 2 >B=>H5=88 @01>BK 8 687=8 2>>1I5. !CI5AB2C5B <=5=85, GB> ;N48 A >?@545;5==K<8 G5@B0<8 ;8G=>AB8 (15A?>:>9=K5, GC2AB28B5;L=K5, M<?0B8G=K5, A:;>==K5 : 8=B@>25@A88, 8<5NI85 3C<0=8AB8G5A:CN 687=5==CN CAB0=>2:C, A:;>==K5 >B>645AB2;OBLAO A 4@C38<8) 1>;LH5 ?>425@65=K MB><C A8=4@><C (Edelwick, Brodsky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zasz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A;8 :>=AC;LB0=B0 3=5B5B 3@C7 ?@>H;KE 701;C645=89 8;8 =0ACI=K5 701>BK, @0725 A<>65B >= ?><>GL :;85=BC 871028BLAO >B ?>4>1=KE ?@>1;5<?  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 <K =5 ?@>428=5<AO A :;85=B>< 40;LH5 ?@>945==>3> =0<8 ?CB8. >=AC;LB8@>20=85 C :>;;538-?@>D5AA8>=0;0 F5==> 8 ?5@54 =0G0;>< 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?>A:>;L:C ?>AB>O==K5 AB>;:=>25=8O A @07=>>1@07=K<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 :;85=B>2 =5@54:> 2A:@K20NB =0H8 AB0@K5 :>=D;8:BK, 2KB5A=5==K5 GC2AB20. 0G8=0NI53> :>=AC;LB0=B0 =5@54:> <CG8B GC2AB2> ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> 15AA8;8O. -B> B>65 B@51C5B >?@545;5==>9 ?><>I8 :>;;53. @C3>5 206=>5 ?@58<CI5AB2> ;8G=>9 B5@0?88 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> :>=AC;LB0=B 2E>48B 2 @>;L :;85=B0 8 ?@8>1@5B05B A>>B25BAB2CNI89 >?KB. 0: CB25@6405B A. Storr (1980), "4>:B>@ ?@81;8605BAO : A>25@H5=AB2C, 5A;8 >= B>65 1K; ?0F85=B><". . . 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Rogers (F8B. ?>: Gelso, Fretz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A5 MB> 45;05B :>=AC;LB0B82=K9 :>=B0:B 8=B8<=K< >B=>H5=85< 42>8E ;N459, ?@8G5< A?5F8D8G5A:8 8=B8<=K<, =5?>E>68< =0 ?@82KG=K5 4@C65A:85 8;8 ;N1>2=K5 >B=>H5=8O. -B0 A?5F8D8G=>ABL =5?;>E> @0A:@KB0 Henry A A>02B. (1973 3.; F8B. ?>: Kennedy, 1977): "#=8:0;L=>ABL ?@8@>4K B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> :>=B0:B0 7028A8B >B A?>A>1=>AB8 B5@0?52B0 @07;8G0BL 8=B8<=>-;8G=>AB=K5 8 8=B8<=>-B5@0?52B8G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O.  ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL 1;87:8< ;8G=K< A2O7O< B5@0?52B8G5A:89 :>=B0:B, E>BO 8 =0?>;=5= GC2AB20<8, O2;O5BAO 0A8<<5B@8G=K<, B.5. B>;L:> ?0F85=B @0A:@K205B 8=B8<=K5 ?>4@>1=>AB8 A2>59 687=8. 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"5?5@L ?5@5945< : >?@545;5=8O< :>=AC;LB0B82=>3> :>=B0:B0. =8 @07=>>1@07=K, => <K @0AA<>B@8< B>;L:> 420 =081>;55 >1>1I5==KE >?@545;5=8O, >B25G0NI85 =0H59 B>G:5 7@5=8O =0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 :>=AC;LB8@>20=85. >=AC;LB0B82=K9 :>=B0:B  MB> C=8:0;L=K9 48=0<8G=K9 ?@>F5AA, 2> 2@5<O :>B>@>3> >48= G5;>25: ?><>305B 4@C3><C 8A?>;L7>20BL A2>8 2=CB@5==85 @5AC@AK 4;O @0728B8O 2 ?>78B82=>< =0?@02;5=88 8 0:BC0;878@>20BL ?>B5=F80; >A<KA;5==>9 687=8 (George, Cristiani, 1990). >=AC;LB0B82=K9 :>=B0:B  MB> GC2AB20 8 CAB0=>2:8, :>B>@K5 CG0AB=8:8 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O (:>=AC;LB0=B 8 :;85=B  @8<. 02B.) 8A?KBK20NB >48= ?> >B=>H5=8N : 4@C3><C, 8 A?>A>1 8E 2K@065=8O (Gelso, Carter, 1985). @0:B8G5A:8 2A5 >?@545;5=8O C:07K20NB =0 =5A:>;L:> C=8:0;L=KE G5@B :>=AC;LB0B82=>3> :>=B0:B0. 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'B> 45;05B :>=AC;LB0B82=K9 :>=B0:B B5@0?52B8G=K<, MDD5:B82=K< 4;O @5H5=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5< :;85=B>2? @5645 2A53> B>, GB> A0< E0@0:B5@ :>=B0:B0 <564C :>=AC;LB0=B>< 8 :;85=B>< >B@0605B >A>15==>AB8 >B=>H5=89 :;85=B0 A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8, AB8;L 8 AB5@5>B8?K 53> >1I5=8O  ?@>1;5<K :;85=B>2 <>6=> C2845BL A;>2=> 2 75@:0;5. %0@0:B5@ :>=AC;LB0B82=>3> :>=B0:B0 2 A0<>< ?@>F5AA5 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O 7028A8B >B B5>@5B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88 :>=AC;LB0=B0 (George, Cristiani, 1990). "01;8F0 3. !>2@5<5==K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O > :>=AC;LB0B82=>< :>=B0:B5 0?@02;5=85 >=AC;LB0B82=K9 :>=B0:B A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>5 =0?@02;5=85 >=AC;LB0=B A>E@0=O5B ;8G=CN 0=>=8<=>ABL, GB>1K :;85=B <>3 A2>1>4=> ?@>5F8@>20BL =0 =53> A2>8 GC2AB20. 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A;8 :>=AC;LB0=B 2K=C6405B :;85=B0 G@57<5@=> @0A:@K20BLAO, :;85=B ?>A;5 2878B0 8A?KBK205B =5C4>1AB2>, ?5@568205B GC2AB2> 28=K 8 =5@54:> ?@5:@0I05B :>=AC;LB8@>20=85; =5>1E>48<> A>1;N40BL ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=CN B09=C. A;8 :>=AC;LB0=B ?> :0:8<-B> ?@8G8=0< >1O70= 45;8BLAO A 4@C38<8 A2545=8O<8 > :;85=B5 (=0?@8<5@, ?@8 =047>@5 70 :>=AC;LB8@>20=85<), =04> ?>AB028BL 53> 2 8725AB=>ABL; A;54C5B ?><>GL :;85=BC ?>GC2AB2>20BL A51O =5?@8=C645==> 2> 2@5<O :>=AC;LB0B82=KE 2AB@5G. ;O MB>3> :>=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= ?@>O2;OBL 4@C65;N185, 8A:@5==>ABL, 5AB5AB25==>ABL, AC<5BL 2>9B8 2 ?>;>65=85 :;85=B0; : ?@>1;5<0< :;85=B0 =5>1E>48<> >B=>A8BLAO 157 >AC645=8O. >=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= =5 >F5=820BL, 0 A;CH0BL, A;KH0BL 8 ?>=8<0BL. >340 :>=AC;LB0=B 8A:@5==5 8 5AB5AB25==> 45<>=AB@8@C5B CAB0=>2:C "?@8=OB8O", :;85=B GC2AB2C5B A51O ?>=OBK< 8 70A;C6820NI8< C2065=8O. 06=>ABL "?@8=OB8O" 4;O @>AB0 8 87<5=5=8O ;8G=>AB8 :;85=B0 !. Rogers (1961) >?@545;8; 8725AB=>9 38?>B57>9 "5A;8  B>": "A;8 O 8A:@5==5 8 B5?;> >B=>HCAL : G5;>25:C, AB0@0NAL =09B8 : =5<C 8=48284C0;L=K9 ?>4E>4 8 >F5=8BL 53> CA8;8O, B> >=: @50;87C5B B5 0A?5:BK A0<>1KB=>AB8, :>B>@K5 ?@5645 ?>402;O;; AB0=5B 1>;55 8=B53@8@>20==K< 8 A?>A>1=K< 68BL ?>;=>F5==55; AB0=5B 1>;55 ?>E>6 =0 B>3>, :5< 5<C E>G5BAO 1KBL; AB0=5B 1>;55 C25@5==K< 2 A515 8 A:;>==K< : A0<>>?@545;5=8N; AB0=5B 1>;55 C=8:0;L=>9 8 A0<>0:BC0;878@CNI59AO ;8G=>ABLN; ;CGH5 ?>9<5B 4@C38E 8 AB0=5B B5@?8<55, MDD5:B82=55 1C45B A>?@>B82;OBLAO 687=5==K< =5273>40<". !. Rogers (1961) AD>@<C;8@>20; B0:65 2>?@>AK, :>B>@K5 :>=AC;LB0=B >1O70= 7040BL A515. -B8 2>?@>AK >1JOA=ONB CA;>28O 2>7=8:=>25=8O 2708<=>3> 4>25@8O 8 >4=>2@5<5==> ?@54AB02;ONB :@8B5@89 =5>1E>48<>9 A0<>C25@5==>AB8 :>=AC;LB0=B0: >3C ;8 O 1KBL B0:8<, GB>1K 4@C385 ;N48 2>A?@8=8<0;8 <5=O :0: =0456=>3> G5;>25:0? >3C ;8 O >BG5B;82> 2K@060BL A2>8 <KA;8, GB>1K 2 >1I5=88 <5=O ?>=8<0;8 =542CA<KA;5==>? >3C ;8 O 8<5BL 2 >B=>H5=88 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0 CAB0=>2:8, 1078@CNI85AO =0 B5?;>B5, 701>B5, C2065=88, 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8? >3C ;8 O 1KBL 4>AB0B>G=> A8;L=>9 ;8G=>ABLN, GB>1K >B;8G0BLAO >B 4@C38E? >3C ;8 O GC2AB2>20BL A51O 4>AB0B>G=> A0<>C25@5==K<, GB>1K ?>72>;8BL 4@C3><C G5;>25:C 1KBL 8=K<, >B;8G=K< >B <5=O? >3C ;8 O ?>72>;8BL A515 ?>;=>ABLN ?>3@C78BLAO 2 <8@ GC2AB2 8 ;8G=>AB=KE A<KA;>2 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0 8 8A?KB0BL AE>4=K5 ?5@56820=8O? >3C ;8 O ?@8=OBL 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0 B0:8<, :0:>2 >= 5ABL? #40ABAO ;8 <=5 ?5@540BL 5<C MB>? >3C ;8 O 1KBL 4>AB0B>G=> GCB:8< 2 >B=>H5=8OE A 4@C38<8, GB>1K <>5 ?>2545=85 =5 1K;> 2>A?@8=OB> :0: C3@>70? >3C ;8 O >A2>1>48BL 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0 >B >?0A=>AB8 2=5H=8E >F5=>:? >3C ;8 O ?@8=OBL 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0 :0: =0E>4OI53>AO 2 ?@>F5AA5 AB0=>2;5=8O 8;8 1C4C AB5A=5= 53> 8 A2>8< >?KB><? ;O CAB0=>2;5=8O >1>N4=>3> 4>25@8O, :0: B5?5@L >1I5?@87=0=>, :>=AC;LB0=BC >A>15==> =5>1E>48<K :0G5AB20, 2?5@2K5 2K45;5==K5 !. Rogers (1951): 8A:@5==>ABL, A?>A>1=>ABL : M<?0B88 8 157CA;>2=>5 C2065=85 : ;N4O<. A:@5==>ABL :>=AC;LB0B82=>3> :>=B0:B0 (:>=3@CM=B=>ABL) A:@5==>ABL  >48= 87 206=59H8E M;5<5=B>2 A>740=8O B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> :;8<0B0. A:@5==>AB8 =5;L7O =0CG8BLAO, >4=0:> :>=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= C<5BL 25AB8 A51O A :;85=B0<8 B0:, GB>1K >=8 2>A?@8=O;8 2E>645=85 2 A2>9 2=CB@5==89 <8@ :0: ?>445@6:C, 0 =5 :0: C3@>7C. > <=5=8N !. Rogers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sine qua non (=5?@5<5==K< CA;>285<) :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88. =0 2:;NG05B 845=B8D8:0F8N A 4@C38< ;8F><, ?@8 :>B>@>9 AB0=>28BAO 2>7<>6=K< 2708<>?>=8<0=85 @07=KE ;N459. -B> 4>2>;L=> B08=AB25==K9 ?@>F5AA. A. Adler (F8B. ?>: May, 1967) ?8H5B: "-<?0B8O ?>O2;O5BAO, :>340 >48= G5;>25: @073>20@8205B A 4@C38<. 52>7<>6=> ?>=OBL 4@C3>3> 8=482840, 5A;8 =5 845=B8D8F8@>20BL A51O A =8<... A;8 <K ?KB05<AO >1=0@C68BL, >B:C40 2>7=8:05B A?>A>1=>ABL 459AB2>20BL 8 GC2AB2>20BL =0?>4>185 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0, B> >B:@K205< ACI5AB2>20=85 2@>645==>3> A>F80;L=>3> GC2AB20. => =>A8B :>A<8G5A:89 E0@0:B5@ 8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5?@5<5==CN E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 1KB8O G5;>25:0". > <=5=8N !. Jung (F8B. ?>: May, 1967), 745AL ?@>8AE>48B ?@>F5AA A;8O=8O, 2 :>B>@>< 87<5=ONBAO :0: :>=AC;LB0=B, B0: 8 :;85=B: "AB@5G0 42CE ;8G=>AB59 ?>4>1=0 A>548=5=8N E8<8G5A:8E AC1AB0=F89; 5A;8 2>7=8:05B @50:F8O, >=8 >15 87<5=ONBAO. !G8B05BAO, GB> 4>:B>@ >:07K205B 2;8O=85 =0 ?0F85=B0 2 :064>< A;CG05 MDD5:B82=>3> ;5G5=8O ?A8E8:8, => MB> 2;8O=85 2>7<>6=>, 5A;8 8 =0 =53> 2;8O5B ?0F85=B". "0:8< >1@07><, ?@>O2;5=85 M<?0B88 2 >1I5=88 >7=0G05B, GB> :>=AC;LB0=B GCB:> 8 B>G=> @5038@C5B =0 ?5@56820=8O :;85=B0, A;>2=> MB> 53> A>1AB25==K5 ?5@56820=8O. >4@07C<5205BAO A?>A>1=>ABL "268BLAO" 2 AC1J5:B82=K9 <8@ :;85=B0 8 ?>=OBL A<KA; @07=KE A>1KB89 2 MB>< <8@5. "0:>5 "2E>645=85" 4>;6=> 1KBL 157>F5=>G=K<, =5 @0745;ONI8< A>45@60=85 8=>3> <8@0 =0 ?@028;L=CN 8 =5?@028;L=CN, E>@>HCN 8 ?;>ECN G0AB8. 57>F5=>G=0O CAB0=>2:0 :>=AC;LB0=B0 ?>72>;O5B :;85=B0< 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 ?@8=8<0BL A51O. >340 :>=AC;LB0=B B>G=> 8 AB0@0B5;L=> 845=B8D8F8@C5B @07=>>1@07=K5 GC2AB20  7;>1C, AB@0E, 2@06451=>ABL, B@52>3C, @04>ABL,  :;85=B 8<55B 2>7<>6=>ABL ;CGH5 CA;KH0BL 8 ?>=OBL A51O. -<?0B8O B0:65 ?><>305B :>=AC;LB0=BC @07>1@0BLAO 2 ?@8G8=0E =54>AB0B>G=>9 >B:@>25==>AB8 :;85=B0: > G5<-B> :;85=B =5 3>2>@8B, ?>A:>;L:C MB><C ?@5?OBAB2C5B 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 A>?@>B82;5=85, GB>-B> ?@>AB> A:@K205B 8 > G5<-B> =5 @0AA:07K205B 87-70 >?0A5=89 =5 1KBL CA;KH0==K< (!>E, 1988). >94O 2 <8@ 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0, :>=AC;LB0=BC 206=> >AB020BLAO 02B>=><=K< >B :;85=B0, B.5. A>E@0=8BL A0<>ABL. 45AL ACI5AB2C5B =5:>B>@0O >?0A=>ABL, :>B>@CN 2K@078; !. Rogers (1961): "A;8 O 459AB28B5;L=> >B:@KB B><C, :0: ?>=8<05B 687=L 4@C3>9 G5;>25:, 8 ?@8=8<0N 53> <8@ 2 A2>9, B> @8A:CN =0G0BL A<>B@5BL =0 687=L 53> 3;070<8 8 2A;54AB285 CB@0BK A0<>AB8 A>?@>B82;OBLAO 87<5=5=8N 2<5AB5 A =8<. @C30O :@09=>ABL A>AB>8B 2 ?>;=>< A>E@0=5=88 A>1AB25==>3> 273;O40 =0 <8@, A:@C?C;57=>< 0=0;875 8 87;8H=59 >F5=:5, 8 B>340 ?>=8<0=85 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0 AB0=>28BAO =54>ABC?=>". >MB><C A>?5@56820=85 :>=AC;LB0=B0 :;85=BC =8:>340 =5 4>;6=> 1KBL B>B0;L=K<, 0 B>;L:> G0AB8G=K< 8 2@5<5==K<. -<?0B8O >7=0G05B A?>A>1=>ABL :>=AC;LB0=B0 =5 B>;L:> A>?5@56820BL, => 8 ?>=8<0BL :;85=B0.  MB>< A<KA;5 >=0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 0DD5:B82=K9 8 :>3=8B82=K9 =02K:  0DD5:B82=K9, ?>A:>;L:C ?>72>;O5B :>=AC;LB0=BC 845=B8D8F8@>20BL GC2AB20 :;85=B0, 0 :>3=8B82=K9  ?>A:>;L:C >1O7K205B :>=AC;LB0=B0 CAB0=02;820BL A>1KB8O, 2K7K20NI85 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 GC2AB20 (George, Cristiani, 1990). "0:>2 273;O4 1>;LH8=AB20 ?@54AB028B5;59 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O =0 M<?0B8N :0: =0 <=>3>ABC?5=G0BK9 ?@>F5AA. > <=5=8N Gladstein (1983), 2>-?5@2KE, M<?0B8G5A:>5 ?>7=0=85 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?@5645 2A53> M<>F8>=0;L=>, G5@57 A>?5@56820=85 :;85=BC. !>?5@56820=85 =5 1K205B ?>;=K<. !:>@55 MB> ?@>F5AA, 2 :>B>@>< :>=AC;LB0=B G0AB8G=> 8A?KBK205B GC2AB20 :;85=B0, >4=>2@5<5==> A>E@0=OO =5>1E>48<CN >BAB@0=5==>ABL. >-2B>@KE, M<?0B8O O2;O5BAO :>3=8B82=K< ?@>F5AA><, 2 :>B>@>< :>=AC;LB0=B 2=8<0B5;L=> 0=0;878@C5B B>, A G5< AB>;:=C;AO 2 AC1J5:B82=>< <8@5 :;85=B0, 8 ?5@5405B A<KA; A>45@60=8O :;85=BC. - B@5BL8E, :0: >B<5G05B !. Rogers (1975), 206=0 ?5@540G0 M<?0B88 :;85=BC. -<?0B8G5A:>5 ?>=8<0=85 <>6=> ?>:070BL :;85=BC A0<K<8 @07=K<8 A?>A>10<8  <>;G0=85<, >B@065=85< GC2AB2, C40G=>9 8 A2>52@5<5==>9 8=B5@?@5B0F859, @0AA:07K20O :0:CN-=81C4L 8AB>@8N, B>G=>9 <5B0D>@>9 8 B.?.  ?>A;54=85 3>4K (>17>@ Hackley (1978); F8B. ?>: Gelso, Fretz, 1992) =01;N405BAO B5=45=F8O A2>48BL AC1J5:B82=K9 >?KB M<?0B88, :>B>@K9 :>=AC;LB0=B <>65B 2K@060BL @07;8G=K<8 A?>A>10<8, : C<5;><C >1I5=8N. 5;05BAO ?>?KB:0 AC78BL B>, GB> Rogers ?>=8<0; :0: "A?>A>1 ACI5AB2>20=8O", 4> =02K:0, ?>440NI53>AO B@5=8@>2:5. -B0 B5=45=F8O ?@>O2;O5BAO B0:65 2 ?@8@02=820=88 M<?0B88 : >4=>9 87 B5E=8: ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O  >B@065=8N GC2AB2 (:>=AC;LB0=B ?5@5D@078@C5B 8 >B@0605B GC2AB20 :;85=B0, GB>1K ?><>GL 5<C 2 8E 2K@065=88). %>BO >B@065=85 >1;53G05B ?5@540GC M<?0B8G5A:>3> ?>=8<0=8O, => A;>6=K9 8 <=>3>ABC?5=G0BK9 ?@>F5AA M<?0B88 >B=N4L =5 8AG5@?K205BAO G0AB=>9 B5E=8:>9. >A:>;L:C M<?0B8O =5 O2;O5BAO ?@>ABK< =02K:><, =5OA=K< >AB05BAO 2>?@>A >1CG5=8O. #=8:0;L=0O A?>A>1=>ABL :>=AC;LB0=B0 : M<?0B88 A>AB>8B 2 A2>5>1@07=>< 2845=88 :;85=B0  C<5=88 2=8:=CBL 2 53> =525@10;L=>5 ?>2545=85 8 GC2AB20, A:070==>5 >1 MB8E GC2AB20E 8 =0 >A=>20=88 8=BC8F88 ?>=OBL, GB> :;85=B 3>2>@8B >B:@>25==> 8 > G5< C<0;G8205B 8 B.4. 57CA;>2=>5 C2065=85 :;85=B0 >4 ?>=OB85< "157CA;>2=>5 C2065=85" 8<55BAO 2 284C 157CA;>2=>5 8 157>F5=>G=>5 ?@8=OB85 :;85=B0 :0: F5;>AB=>9 ;8G=>AB8. >A;54>20B5;8 !. Rogers 8A?>;L7CNB 5I5 B5@<8= "157CA;>2=>5 ?>78B82=>5 >B=>H5=85", :>B>@>5 >B>645AB2;O5BAO A M<>F8>=0;L=>9 B5?;>B>9 8 701>B>9  A;>6=59H8<8 8 ?@>B82>@5G82K<8 A>AB02;ONI8<8 B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> :;8<0B0. !. Rogers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arkhuff 8 Berenson (1977) >B<5G0NB, GB> ?>78B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 : :;85=B0< D>@<8@C5BAO =0 >A=>20=88 A0<>C2065=8O :>=AC;LB0=B0. A;8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B =5 4>@>68B A2>8<8 GC2AB20<8 8 <KA;O<8, ?@5=51@5305B A2>8< ?@>H;K<, 5<C B@C4=> C2060BL <KA;8 8 GC2AB20 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0. >78B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 >G5=L 206=0O A>AB02;ONI0O ?@>F5AA0 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O. George, Cristiani (1990) ?>4<5B8;8, GB> :C@A0=BK 2> 2@5<O >1CG5=8O :>=AC;LB8@>20=8N G0AB> C482;ONBAO, :0: <>65B =@028BLAO :064K9 G5;>25:, >1@0I0NI89AO 70 ?><>ILN. >;LH8=AB2> A?5F80;8AB>2 A?>A>1=K ?>445@6820BL ?>78B82=K5 >B=>H5=8O A A0<K<8 @07=K<8 ;N4L<8  :>=AC;LB0B82=K9 :>=B0:B ?>72>;O5B "?5@5ABC?8BL" G5@57 ?@53@04K, :>B>@K5 >1KG=> AG8B0NBAO =5?@5>4>;8<K<8. A;8 2 :0:><-;81> A;CG05 :>=AC;LB0=B =5 2 A>AB>O=88 ?5@51>@>BL A51O, >= >1O70= =0?@028BL :;85=B0 : :>;;535 (>1 CA;>28OE =0?@02;5=8O A<. =865). AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> 157CA;>2=>5 ?>78B82=>5 >B=>H5=85  MB> A;>6=>5 O2;5=85; 2 =5< <>6=> 2K45;8BL =5A:>;L:> =57028A8<KE D0:B>@>2 (Lietaer, 1984; Barret- Lennard, 1986). Barret-Lennard (1986) C:07K205B =0 420 ACI5AB25==KE D0:B>@0: C@>25=L >B=>H5=8O 8 157CA;>2=>ABL >B=>H5=8O. #@>25=L >B=>H5=8O >?@545;O5BAO :0: >1I0O 2K@065==>ABL M<>F8>=0;L=>3> @5038@>20=8O >4=>3> G5;>25:0 =0 4@C3>3>. >78B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 2:;NG05B B5?;>BC, A8<?0B8N, 701>BC, >F5=:C :;85=B0 157 AB@5<;5=8O :>=B@>;8@>20BL 8 C?@02;OBL. A;8 C@>25=L >B=>H5=8O A2O70= A ?@>O2;5=85< ?>78B82=KE 8;8 =530B82=KE GC2AB2 : :;85=BC, B> 157CA;>2=>ABL >B=>H5=8O ?>4@07C<5205B ?>AB>O=AB2> ?@8=OB8O :;85=B0, B.5. >B=>H5=85 157 2AO:8E "5A;8". 57CA;>2=>ABL >7=0G05B, GB> 107>20O CAB0=>2:0 :>=AC;LB0=B0 =5 :>;51;5BAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B M<>F8>=0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O 8 ?>2545=8O :;85=B0. 57CA;>2=>5 ?>78B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 ?@54AB02;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> A;>6=K<, => 8 4>2>;L=> ?@>B82>@5G82K< D5=><5=><. !. Rogers AG8B05B ?>78B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 : :;85=BC >4=8< 87 B@5E CA;>289 CA?5H=>9 B5@0?88, => >= =54>AB0B>G=> ?@>0=0;878@>20; A0<> ?>=OB85 8 A>?CBAB2CNI85 ?@>1;5<K. @8B8:8 CB25@640NB, GB> 2 ?A8E>B5@0?88 8 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 =5@50;L=> =045OBLAO =0 157>3>2>@>G=>5 C2065=85 : :;85=B0<. "@51>20=85 157CA;>2=>AB8 C2065=8O ?@>B82>@5G8B, ?> 8E <=5=8N, 4@C38< B@51>20=8O< : :>=AC;LB0=BC (=0?@8<5@, 8A:@5==>AB8). B25B =0 B0:>3> @>40 :@8B8:C <>65B 1KBL 42>O:8<. >- ?5@2KE, 5I5 Berenson 8 Carkhuff 2 1967 3. ?>4G5@:820;8, GB> ?>78B82=>5 >B=>H5=85  B5>@5B8G5A:>5 ?>=OB85, 8 A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?>2A54=52=>9 ?@0:B8:8 ?@028;L=55 3>2>@8BL > 157CA;>2=>< ?>78B82=>< >B=>H5=88 2> <=>65AB25 A8BC0F89 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O. =>340 >B=>H5=85 1K205B >1CA;>2;5==K<. >-2B>@KE, >A=>2K20OAL =0 CB25@645=88 Lietaer (1984), A;54C5B @07;8G0BL AC1J5:B82=K9 <8@ :;85=B0 8 53> 2=5H=55 ?>2545=85. 57CA;>2=>ABL =0?@02;5=0 =0 ?@8=OB85 GC2AB2, D0=B0789, <KA;59, 65;0=89 :;85=B0. Lietaer (1984) ?8H5B: ";85=B 2 >1I5=88 A> <=>9 <>65B 1KBL A2>1>45= 8 ?@54020BLAO ;N1K< ?5@56820=8O<; >= 4>;65= GC2AB2>20BL, GB> O >B:@KB 53> >?KBC 8 =5 A:;>=5= : >AC645=8N". 4=0:> MB> =5 >7=0G05B, A>3;0A=> Lietaer, ?@85<;5<>AB8 ;N1>3> ?>2545=8O. 0: 2 B5@0?52B8G5A:8E >B=>H5=8OE, B0: 8 70 8E ?@545;0<8 2>7<>6=0 A8BC0F8O, :>340 :>=AC;LB0=B =5 >4>1@O5B 8 >B25@305B ?>2545=85 :;85=B0. @8 MB>< 206=> ?>=OBL, GB> A:@KB> 70 ?>2545=85<, :>B>@>5 =5 >4>1@O5BAO. 3. 4. +  / !#,"" "" 525@10;L=>5 >1I5=85  >1I5=88 ;N48 =5?@5@K2=> ?5@540NB 8=D>@<0F8N 4@C3 4@C3C =5 B>;L:> ?>A@54AB2>< @5G8, => 8 2K@065=85< ;8F0, 42865=8O<8 B5;0, CAB0=>2;5=85< 48AB0=F88 8 B.?. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@8 A>2<5AB=>< ?@51K20=88 <K =8:0: =5 <>65< 871560BL >1I5=8O. K 2KA:07K205<, :0: GC2AB2C5< A51O, GB> 4C<05<, :0: E>B5;8 1K ?>ABC?8BL, =5 ?@>87=>AO =8 A;>20. 525@10;L=>5 ?>2545=85 G5;>25:0 >G5=L ACI5AB25==> 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I5=8O.  :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 <K B0:65 ?>AK;05< :;85=B0< =525@10;L=K5 A>>1I5=8O 8 "AG8BK205<" 8E =525@10;L=K5 @50:F88. @09=5 206=>, GB>1K :>=AC;LB0=B >B<5G0; =525@10;L=K5 ?>A;0=8O :;85=B>2, @5038@>20; =0 =8E 8 >4=>2@5<5==> >A>7=020; 2;8O=85 A2>53> =525@10;L=>3> ?>2545=8O =0 :;85=B>2. Gazda A A>02B. (1984) @0A?@545;8; =525@10;L=K5 @50:F88 =0 G5BK@5 >A=>2=K5 <>40;L=>AB8. 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Jung 2 5=5, ?>78F8O >A=>20B5;O ?A8E>0=0;870 87<5=8;0AL. 0 <=5=85 Freud ?>2;8O;0 :0B53>@8G=>ABL CB25@645=8O Jung, GB> "?5@5=>A  MB> 0;LD0 8 ><530 B5@0?88". >7<>6=>ABL ?5@5=>A0 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 2 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 <5@5 ?@87=0NB ?@54AB028B5;8 ?>GB8 2A5E B5>@5B8G5A:8E >@85=B0F89. 5@5=>A O2;O5BAO A>AB02=>9 G0ABLN :>=AC;LB0B82=>3> (B5@0?52B8G5A:>3>) :>=B0:B0. 0==K9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 D5=><5= ?@8ACBAB2C5B 2 ;N1KE <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=8OE, >4=0:> 2 :>=AC;LB0B82=>< :>=B0:B5 >= =0<=>3> 8=B5=A82=55 2A;54AB285 ?@8@>4K A0<>3> :>=B0:B0. >=AC;LB0=B 70254><> >1;0405B 02B>@8B5B><, <0;> 3>2>@8B > A515 8 >AB05BAO 0=>=8<=K<, ?>A:>;L:C : =5<C >1@0I0NBAO 70 ?><>ILN. -B8< >1;53G05BAO 2>7=8:=>25=85 ?5@5=>A0. >7<>6=K 420 >A=>2=KE >?@545;5=8O ?5@5=>A0. !>3;0A=> :;0AA8G5A:><C ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:><C >?@545;5=8N, ?5@5=>A - MB> >682;5=85 :><?;5:A0 -48?0 2 B5@0?52B8G5A:>9 A8BC0F88. 50:F8O =0 B5@0?52B0 B0:>20, A;>2=> >=  CG0AB=8: @0==8E M48?>2KE >B=>H5=89 :;85=B0, B.5. ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 >BF0 8;8 <0BL.  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B25BK =0 MB8 2>?@>AK 7028AOB >B B>3>, ?@>O2;O5BAO ;8 :>=B@?5@5=>A 2 D>@<5 2=5H=53> ?>2545=8O 8;8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 B>;L:> ?5@56820=8O :>=AC;LB0=B0.  ?5@2>< A;CG05 8<5NBAO 2 284C 459AB28O =0 >A=>25 2=CB@5==8E :>=D;8:B>2, 8, :>=5G=>, B0:>9 :>=B@?5@5=>A =5>1E>48<> >1AC48BL A :>;;53>9 8;8 2 A?5F80;L=KE 3@C??0E ?@>D5AA8>=0;>2, ?>B><C GB> =5:>=B@>;8@C5<K9 8 ?;>E> >A>7=0205<K9 :>=B@?5@5=>A ?@5?OBAB2C5B >1J5:B82=>AB8 :>=AC;LB0=B0.  :0G5AB25 2=CB@5==8E ?5@56820=89 :>=B@?5@5=>A <>65B >:070BLAO 25AL<0 F5==K< (Gelso, Fretz, 1992), ?>A:>;L:C ?><>305B :>=AC;LB0=BC ;CGH5 ?>=OBL, :0:>5 2;8O=85 ?>2545=85 :;85=B0 >:07K205B =0 =53> 8 =0 4@C38E ;N459.  ;N1>< A;CG05 2;8O=85 :>=B@?5@5=>A0 =0 E>4 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O 7028A8B >B 65;0=8O 8 3>B>2=>AB8 :>=AC;LB0=B0 273;O=CBL =0 8AB>:8 A2>8E 8AB8==KE GC2AB2 : :;85=B0<. " "#  Barret-Lennard G. ". The Relationship Inventory now: issues and advances in theory, method and uses // In: L. Greenberg, W. Pinsoff (Eds.). The Psychotherapeutic Process. N. Y.: Guilford, 1986. 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ay (1967), >:@C65=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 H0E<0B=CN 4>A:C 8 D83C@K, >4=0:> ?> 4>A:5 8 D83C@0< =5;L7O ?@542845BL, :0: 1C45B ?@>8AE>48BL 83@0. May ?@>4>;605B: "5:@0A820O 452CH:0 <>65B 60;>20BLAO, GB> B0:>9 @>48;0AL, >4=0:> =04> ?><>GL 59 ?>=OBL, GB> =5:@0A82>ABL ?>O2;O5BAO 87-70 =5C<5=8O ?>40BL A2>N 2=5H=>ABL 2 2K3>4=>< A25B5 2A;54AB285 >H81>G=KE CAB0=>2>:". 064K9 87 =0A 8<55B B@C4=>AB8 2 687=8. May (1967) ?@87=05BAO: "B:@>25==> 3>2>@O, O =5 2AB@5G0; :;85=B0, ?@>1;5< :>B>@>3> =5 CA<0B@820; 1K 8 C A51O, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 ?>B5=F80;L=>". >MB><C ?5@2>5 8 206=59H55 ?>;>65=85 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 (> :>B>@>< :>=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= A>>1I8BL :;85=BC): =0;8G85 ?@>1;5<  MB> =>@<0;L=>5 O2;5=85. 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KA:07K20=8O > A515 A>740NB ?A8E8G5A:CN 48AB0=F8N >B A0<>AB8; B0:0O 48AB0=F8O =5>1E>48<0 ?@8 65;0=88 ?>=OBL, :>=B@>;8@>20BL, 0 B0:65 87<5=OBL A51O. !0< D0:B 25@10;870F88 45;05B 2>7<>6=>9 :@8B8G5A:CN >F5=:C A8BC0F88. A;8 :;85=B 3>2>@8B > A2>8E GC2AB20E, B> ?> :@09=59 <5@5 2 40==K9 <><5=B >=8 =5 C?@02;ONB 8<. @8 2KA:07K20=88 "/ A5@6CAL" ?@>8AE>48B >B40;5=85 >B MB>3> GC2AB20. KA:070BL B>, GB> GC2AB2C5HL,  MB> ?5@2K9 H03 2 =0?@02;5=88 :>=B@>;O =04 GC2AB20<8. >MB><C 25@10;870F8O ?@>1;5< >G5=L 206=0, 4065 5A;8 >=8 ?@54AB02;ONBAO =5@07@5H8<K<8. 803=>AB8:0: "70" 8 "?@>B82" A8E>;>38G5A:89 4803=>7 >?8@05BAO =0 0=0;87 8 >1JOA=5=85 ?@>1;5< :;85=B0. = 2:;NG05B ?@8G8=K B@C4=>AB59 :;85=B0, 8E @0728B85 2> 2@5<5=8, >B=5A5=85 : >?@545;5==><C :;0AAC ?@>1;5<, >?@545;5=85 A?5F80;L=KE A?>A>1>2 ?><>I8 8 ?@>3=>7 25@>OB=>AB8 1;03>?@8OB=>3> 8AE>40 (Corey, 1986). ! ?5@2KE ?>?KB>: 48DD5@5=F8@>20BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K, GB>1K B>G=55 CAB0=>28BL, :0:0O ?><>IL =C6=0 2 :064>< :>=:@5B=>< A;CG05, 2 ?@>F5AA5 4803=>AB8:8 A;54CNB ?@8=OB>9 2 <548F8=5 <>45;8, ACBL :>B>@>9 A>AB02;ONB B@8 >A=>2=KE H030: CAB0=>2;5=85 A8<?B><>2; CAB0=>2;5=85 8E ?@8G8=; =0E>645=85 MDD5:B82=KE A?>A>1>2 ;5G5=8O MB8E A8<?B><>2. 4=0:> >G5284=>, GB> ?A8E8G5A:85 =0@CH5=8O 87@O4=> >B;8G0NBAO >B A><0B8G5A:8E (B5;5A=KE) @0AAB@>9AB2 8 1>;57=59. !8<?B><K ?A8E8G5A:8E =0@CH5=89 =5 =0AB>;L:> 3><>35==K, :0: A><0B8G5A:85 A8<?B><K. 0?@8<5@, A8<?B><K 2>A?0;5=8O ;53:8E =0<=>3> 1>;55 2708<>A2O70=K, G5<, A:065<, A8<?B><K H87>D@5=88. >MB><C ?@8<5=5=85 <548F8=A:>9 <>45;8 845=B8D8:0F88 ?@>1;5< 2 A>2@5<5==>< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 <0;>?>;57=> 8 5420 ;8 >?@0240=>. 564C >B45;L=K<8 H:>;0<8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88 ACI5AB2CNB 4>2>;L=> O2=K5 ?@>B82>@5G8O 2 >B=>H5=88 4803=>AB8:8. @54AB028B5;8 @07=KE B5>@5B8G5A:8E >@85=B0F89, :0: ?@028;>, 2K=>AOB =0 ?5@2K9 ?;0= =5>48=0:>2K5 0A?5:BK 70B@C4=5=89 :;85=B0. 0?@8<5@, 0=0;8B8G5A:8 >@85=B8@>20==K9 :>=AC;LB0=B 1>;LH55 2=8<0=85 C45;O5B ?A8E>48=0<8:5, 18E528>@8AB  ?>2545=G5A:8< ?@>O2;5=8O<, 0 ?@54AB028B5;L M:78AB5=F80;L=>9 B5@0?88  AC1J5:B82=><C <8@C. -B> 45;05B A8AB5<K ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 4803=>AB8:8 =5AB018;L=K<8 8 3>2>@8B =5 2 8E ?>;L7C. 0:>=5F, 5A;8 2 <548F8=5 >?@545;5==K9 4803=>7 ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5340 ?@54?>;0305B A?5F8D8G5A:>5 ;5G5=85, A>>B25BAB2CNI55 C@>2=N @0728B8O <548F8=K 2 40==K9 <><5=B, B> 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 E0@0:B5@ 8 A?>A>1K ?><>I8 ;53G5 ?@54C3040BL ?> B5>@5B8G5A:>9 >@85=B0F88 :>=AC;LB0=B0, =565;8 ?> ?@>1;5<0< :;85=B0 (Gelso, Fretz, 1992). A5 MB8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 70AB02;ONB >1AC48BL 0@3C<5=BK "70" 8 "?@>B82" 4803=>AB8G5A:>3> ?>4E>40 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88. >=AC;LB0=BK, =0AB0820NI85 =0 =5>1E>48<>AB8 4803=>AB8:8 (G0I5 2A53> ?@54AB028B5;8 ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>9 8 18E528>@8ABA:>9 >@85=B0F89), CB25@640NB, GB> 4803=>7, >A=>20==K9 =0 >F5=:5 ?>2545=8O :;85=B0 2 ?@>H;>< 8 =0AB>OI5<, ?>72>;O5B ?@028;L=> ?;0=8@>20BL ?@>F5AA ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?><>I8. > 8E <=5=8N: 4803=>7 ?>72>;O5B ?@542845BL 40;L=59H55 @0728B85 =0@CH5=8O; 4803=>7 >?@545;O5B >A>1CN AB@0B538N ?><>I8 ?@8 @07;8G=KE =0@CH5=8OE; 4803=>AB8G5A:85 AE5<K ?>72>;ONB MDD5:B82=> A>B@C4=8G0BL ?@>D5AA8>=0;0<, ?>A:>;L:C :0640O 4803=>AB8G5A:0O :0B53>@8O A>>B25BAB2C5B :>=:@5B=K< E0@0:B5@8AB8:0< ?>2545=8O; 4803=>7 >?@545;O5B 3@0=8FK =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E @01>B (Corey, 1986). 048:0;L=K5 :@8B8:8 4803=>AB8G5A:>3> ?>4E>40, 0 A@548 =8E 1>;LH8=AB2> A>AB02;ONB ?@54AB028B5;8 M:78AB5=F80;L=>-3C<0=8AB8G5A:>3> =0?@02;5=8O, ?>;030NB, GB> 4803=>7 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 2>>1I5 =5 =C65=, 0 <>65B 1KBL, 4065 2@545=. =8 2K42830NB A;54CNI85 >A=>2=K5 0@3C<5=BK: 4803=>7 >1KG=> 2K@0605B M:A?5@B=K9 273;O4 :>=AC;LB0=B0 A> AB>@>=K =0 ?>2545=85 8 ?5@56820=8O :;85=B0 157 ?@8=OB8O 2> 2=8<0=85 AC1J5:B82=>3> 7=0G5=8O A>1KB89; 4803=>7 83=>@8@C5B A;>6=>ABL G5;>25:0; ?> <=5=8N Rogers (1951), 1>;LH8=AB2> 4803=>7>2 C?@>I0NB ?>2545=85 8 AC1J5:B82=K9 <8@; :@><5 B>3>, ?@>8AE>48B >@85=B0F8O =5 =0 8=48284C0;L=>ABL, 0 =0 AE>4AB2> <564C ;N4L<8, 8 B5< A0<K< 83=>@8@CNBAO ?>B5=F80;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 :064>3> G5;>25:0 8 >B405BAO ?@54?>GB5=85 AB5@5>B8?870F88; ?@8 ?>?KB:5 2<5AB8BL G5;>25:0 2 @0<:8 4803=>AB8G5A:8E :0B53>@89 >= ?@8=8605BAO, ?>B><C GB> ?@52@0I05BAO 2 >1J5:B; =0:>=5F, 1>;LH8=AB2> :;85=B>2, A :>B>@K<8 <K AB0;:8205<AO 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88, =5;L7O ?@8G8A;8BL =8 : >4=>9 :0B53>@88; C =8E ACI5AB2CNB B@C4=>AB8 ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O : 687=8, :>B>@K5 =5 GC64K <=>38< ;N4O<; :;85=BK ?@>AB> =C640NBAO 2 ?><>I8, GB>1K 2>AAB0=>28BL A?>A>1=>ABL ?@5>4>;520BL 2>7=8:0NI85 ?@>1;5<K; =08;CGH89 A?>A>1 ?>=OBL 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0  MB> ?>3@C78BLAO 2 53> AC1J5:B82=K9 <8@, 0 =5 ?@81530BL : :;0AA8D8:0F8O<; 4803=>7 AC605B ?>;5 7@5=8O :>=AC;LB0=B0 ?> >B=>H5=8N : :;85=BC, 70AB02;O5B 53> ?@8=8<0BL 2> 2=8<0=85 ;8HL B>, GB> 2<5I05BAO 2 ?>AB02;5==K9 4803=>7, 0 MB> G0I5 2A53> ?@>O2;5=8O, A2O70==K5 A @07;8G=K<8 =54>AB0B:0<8, 8 B5< A0<K< 701K205BAO 3;02=59H0O ?@54?>AK;:0 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O  >@85=B0F8O =0 ?>B5=F80;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 G5;>25:0, @>AB ;8G=>AB8, @0728B85; 4803=>7 70AB02;O5B G5;>25:0 ?@8=OBL B>B A?>A>1 ?>2545=8O, :>B>@K9 =02O7K205BAO 4803=>7><, 0 ;N459 87 >:@C65=8O :;85=B0  >F5=820BL 53> ?> ?>AB02;5==><C 4803=>7C; ?> <=5=8N 8725AB=>3> 0=3;89A:>3> ?A8E80B@0 8 ;845@0 0=B8?A8E80B@8G5A:>3> 42865=8O Laing (1967), :;85=B G0AB> ?@8=8<05B =02O7K205<CN :>=AC;LB0=B>< B>G:C 7@5=8O 8 =0G8=05B A>>B25BAB25==> >F5=820BL A2>5 ?>2545=85: "/ AC<0AH54H89. "0: GB> 2K <>65B5 640BL >B <5=O?" > <=5=8N Szasz (1968), 4803=>7 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 =5 AB>;L:> @07@5H05B ?@>1;5<K, A:>;L:> >1>AB@O5B 8E: :>340 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K, 70 :>B>@K5 :;85=B >1O70= ?@8=OBL =0 A51O >B25BAB25==>ABL, ?@52@0I0NBAO 2 4803=>7K, :;85=B, ?> ACB8, >A2>1>6405BAO >B >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 A2>8 459AB28O.  =5:>B>@KE >?0A=>ABOE 4803=>AB8:8 3>2>@OB 8 =5 A;8H:>< @048:0;L=K5 55 ?@>B82=8:8 (Bramer, Shostrom, 1982): =0 >A=>25 =54>AB0B>G=KE 40==KE <>6=> A45;0BL >H81>G=K5 2K2>4K; :>=AC;LB0=B >G5=L 4>;3> 70=8<05BAO 8AB>@859 687=8 :;85=B0 8 C45;O5B <0;> 2=8<0=8O 53> =0ACI=K< ?>2545=8N 8 CAB0=>2:0<; C :>=AC;LB0=B0 2>7=8:05B A>1;07= ?5@54>25@8BLAO @57C;LB0B0< B5AB8@>20=8O; ?@8 4803=>AB8:5 A;8H:>< <=>3> 2=8<0=8O C45;O5BAO ?0B>;>38G5A:8< @50:F8O< :;85=B0 8 =54>AB0B>G5= 8=B5@5A : 74>@>2K< 8 B2>@G5A:8< 0A?5:B0< 53> 687=8; 4803=>AB8:0 D>@<8@C5B >F5=>G=CN CAB0=>2:C 2 >B=>H5=88 :;85=B0 8 ?>1C6405B 4020BL C:070=8O, GB> >= 4>;65= 45;0BL. I5 >4=0 >?0A=>ABL, A2O70==0O A 4803=>AB8:>9, 2>7=8:05B, :>340 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 <K AB0;:8205<AO A ?@54AB028B5;O<8 @07=KE :C;LBC@, ?>B><C GB> =>@<>9 >1KG=> AG8B0NBAO 4><8=8@CNI85 :C;LBC@=K5 AB5@5>B8?K. Sue (1981) ?@82>48B ?@8<5@, :>340 :;85=BK 0780BA:>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O 2 0<5@8:0=A:>9 A@545 >F5=820;8AL :0: A8;L=> 70B>@<>65==K5, ?>A:>;L:C =5>E>B=> @0A:@K20;8AL, ?@>O2;O;8 =5C25@5==>ABL 8 M<>F8>=0;L=CN A45@60==>ABL.  0<5@8:0=A:>9 :C;LBC@5 >4>1@ONBAO A>2A5< ?@>B82>?>;>6=K5 AB0=40@BK ?>2545=8O. 5 C4828B5;L=>, GB> 0780BK, >@85=B8@>20==K5 =0 ?@>O2;5=85 M<>F89 8 A:@KB=>ABL 2=5 A5<59=>3> :@C30, :06CBAO 0<5@8:0=F0< AB@0==K<8. > <=5=8N Kennedy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ramer 8 Shostrom (1982), 4803=>7 4>;65= >B@060BL AB8;L 687=8 :;85=B0 8 ?><>30BL :>=AC;LB0=BC ?;0=8@>20BL AB@0B538N 8 B0:B8:C A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8, MDD5:B82=> ?@>3=>78@>20BL 55 @57C;LB0BK 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O 2> 871560=85 A5@L57=KE >H81>: =5 C?CA:0BL 87 284C @50;L=CN ?0B>;>38N 2 ?>2545=88 :;85=B0. 0AB>OI89 :>=AC;LB0=B, :0: ?>4G5@:820NB 2KH5C?><O=CBK5 02B>@K, "?>=8<05B :;85=B0 8 4803=>AB8G5A:8, 8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8". 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"5AB8@>20=85, ?> 8E <=5=8N, 8=AB@C<5=B 2=5H=53> ?>=8<0=8O 8 =5 A?>A>1AB2C5B CA?5H=><C :>=AC;LB8@>20=8N. -B8 4>2>4K OA=> AD>@<C;8@>20;0 Arbuckle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ramer 8 Shostrom (1982) O2;ONBAO AB>@>==8:0<8 0:B82=>9 @>;8 :;85=B>2 2 B5AB8@>20=88 8 ?@83;0H0NB 8E CG0AB2>20BL 2 2K1>@5 B5AB>2. =8 2=54@ONB 2 ?@0:B8:C A;54CNI85 ?>;>65=8O: :;85=B 8 :>=AC;LB0=B 2> 2@5<O 15A54K @5H0NB, :0:0O 8=D>@<0F8O, 4>ABC?=0O A ?><>ILN B5AB>2, <>65B >:070BLAO =5>1E>48<>9 ?@8 @5H5=88 ?@>1;5< :;85=B0; :>=AC;LB0=B 7=0:><8B :;85=B0 A @07=K<8 B8?0<8 B5AB>2; :>=AC;LB0=B @5:><5=4C5B :;85=BC B5ABK, :>B>@K5 ?><>3CB ?>;CG8BL 8A:><CN 8=D>@<0F8N, 8 C:07K205B =0 15A?>;57=K5 2 40==>< A;CG05 B5ABK; :>=AC;LB0=B 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL :;85=BC 2KA:070BL A2>8 A><=5=8O 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 GC2AB20 ?> >B=>H5=8N : >B>1@0==K< B5AB0<; A><=5=8O 8 GC2AB20 >1AC640NBAO A>2<5AB=>. >4>1=>9 <>45;8 CG0AB8O :;85=B>2 2 B5AB8@>20=88 A>>B25BAB2CNB 8 ?@54AB02;5==K5 Corey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Benjamin (1987) >B<5G05B: "B:@KBK5 2>?@>AK @0AH8@ONB 8 C3;C1;ONB :>=B0:B; 70:@KBK5 2>?@>AK >3@0=8G820NB 53>. 5@2K5 H8@>:> @0A?0E820NB 425@8 E>@>H8< >B=>H5=8O<, 2B>@K5 >1KG=> >AB02;ONB 8E 70:@KBK<8". @8<5@K >B:@KBKE 2>?@>A>2: "! G53> K E>B5;8 1K =0G0BL A53>4=O?", "'B> K B5?5@L GC2AB2C5B5?", "'B> 0A >?5G0;8;>?" 8 B.?. B:@KBK5 2>?@>AK 40NB 2>7<>6=>ABL 45;8BLAO A2>8<8 701>B0<8 A :>=AC;LB0=B><. =8 ?5@540NB :;85=BC >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 15A54C 8 ?>1C640NB 53> 8AA;54>20BL A2>8 CAB0=>2:8, GC2AB20, <KA;8, F5==>AB8, ?>2545=85, B. 5. A2>9 2=CB@5==89 <8@. Ivey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enjamin (1987) C:07K205B: "/ A8;L=> A><=520NAL ?> ?>2>4C 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2>?@>A>2 2 15A545 8 GC2AB2CN, GB> 7040N A;8H:>< <=>3> 2>?@>A>2, G0AB> 15AA<KA;5==KE. K 70405< 2>?@>AK, :>B>@K5 @0AAB@0820NB :;85=B0, ?@5@K20NB 53>, 8 2>?@>AK, =0 :>B>@K5 >=, 2>7<>6=>, =5 2 A>AB>O=88 >B25B8BL. =>340 <K 4065 70405< 2>?@>AK, 70254><> =5 65;0O ?>;CG0BL >B25BK, 8 2 @57C;LB0B5 =5 A;CH05< >B25B>2". %>BO ?>AB0=>2:0 2>?@>A>2 O2;O5BAO 206=>9 B5E=8:>9 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O, >4=0:>, :0: =8 ?0@04>:A0;L=>, >A<5;NAL CB25@640BL, GB> 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 A;54C5B 871530BL G@57<5@=>3> >?@0H820=8O. N1>9 2>?@>A 4>;65= 1KBL >1>A=>20=  704020O 53>, =04> 7=0BL, A :0:>9 F5;LN >= 70405BAO. -B> 25AL<0 A;>6=0O ?@>1;5<0 4;O =0G8=0NI53> :>=AC;LB0=B0, :>B>@K9 =5@54:> A;8H:>< 15A?>:>8BAO, > G5< 65 5I5 A?@>A8BL :;85=B0, 8 701K205B, GB> ?@5645 2A53> :;85=B0 =04> A;CH0BL. A;8 >?@>A ?@52@0B8BL 2 >A=>2=CN B5E=8:C :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O, B> 8 :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 ?@52@0B8BAO 2 4>?@>A 8;8 A;54AB285.  B0:>9 A8BC0F88 :;85=B ?>:8=5B :018=5B :>=AC;LB0=B0 A GC2AB2><, GB> 1K; =5 AB>;L:> ?>=OB 8 ?@8720= : M<>F8>=0;L=><C CG0AB8N 2 :>=AC;LB0B82=>< :>=B0:B5, A:>;L:> 4>?@>H5=. '5@5AGC@ 1>;LH0O A:;>==>ABL @0AA?@0H820BL 2> 2@5<O :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O A>7405B <=>3> ?@>1;5< (George, Cristiani, 1990): ?@52@0I05B 15A54C 2 >1<5= 2>?@>A0<8->B25B0<8, 8 :;85=B =0G8=05B ?>AB>O==> 640BL, GB>1K :>=AC;LB0=B A?@>A8; 5I5 > G5<-=81C4L; 70AB02;O5B :>=AC;LB0=B0 ?@8=OBL =0 A51O 2AN >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 E>4 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O 8 B5<0B8:C >1AC6405<KE ?@>1;5<; ?5@52>48B 15A54C >B M<>F8>=0;L=> >:@0H5==KE B5< : >1AC645=8N D0:B>;>388 687=8; "C=8GB>605B" ?>4286=K9 E0@0:B5@ 15A54K. > MB8< ?@8G8=0< =0G8=0NI8< :>=AC;LB0=B0< 2>>1I5 =5 @5:><5=4C5BAO 704020BL :;85=B0< 2>?@>AK, 8A:;NG0O A0<>5 =0G0;> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O. >6=> C?><O=CBL 5I5 =5A:>;L:> ?@028;, :>B>@K5 A;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C, 704020O 2>?@>AK :;85=B0<: >?@>AK "B>, GB>?" 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">340 >=> ?> >B=>H5=8N : :>=AC;LB0=BC 8<55B <0=8?C;OB82=K9 A<KA;. 45AL :;85=B 2545B 83@C: "/ <>3C A845BL :0: :0<5=L 8 ?>A<>B@N, C40ABAO ;8 5<C (:>=AC;LB0=BC) A428=CBL <5=O". =>340 ?0C7K <>;G0=8O 2>7=8:0NB, :>340 15A540 ?@>B5:05B =0 ?>25@E=>AB=>< C@>2=5 8 8715305BAO >1AC645=85 =081>;55 206=KE 8 7=0G8B5;L=KE 2>?@>A>2, :>B>@K5 . >4=0:>, C25;8G820NB B@52>3C :;85=B0. >;G0=85 8=>340 ?>4@07C<5205B 3;C1>:>5 >1>1I5=85 157 A;>2, >=> B>340 1>;55 >A<KA;5==> 8 :@0A=>@5G82>, G5< A;>20. 0C7K <>;G0=8O 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 ?>4=8<0NB 2>?@>A: 4>;65= ;8 8E ?@5@K20BL A0< :>=AC;LB0=B? 0A?@>AB@0=5=> <=5=85, GB> :>=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= ?@5@K20BL ?CAB>5 <>;G0=85 8 =5 A?5H8BL ?@5@K20BL ?@>4C:B82=>5 <>;G0=85. >340 :;85=B C<>;:05B 8 <>;G0=85 4;8BAO 4>;3>, C<5AB=> 70<5G0=85 :>=AC;LB0=B0: "K, :065BAO, >G5=L 704C<0;8AL. 5 E>B5;8 1K ?>45;8BLAO B5<, GB> A59G0A GC2AB2C5B5?" 8;8 "'B> 206=>5 4;O A51O K A;KH8B5 2 MB>< <>;G0=88?". <5AB5 A B5< =5 A;54C5B 701K20BL, GB> :;85=B A0< >B25G05B 70 ?@5:@0I5=85 <>;G0=8O. 5A@02=5==CN B5@0?52B8G5A:CN F5==>ABL <>;G0=8O 8;;NAB@8@C5B Rogers (1951) ?@8<5@>< 87 A2>59 ?@0:B8:8: "/ =5402=> 7025@H8; :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 A0<>3> AB@0==>3> 87 2AB@5G02H8EAO <=5 A;CG052 (...). 6>0= 1K;0 >4=>9 87 ?5@2KE <>8E :;85=B>2, :>340 O =0G0; 565=545;L=> :>=AC;LB8@>20BL 2 <5AB=>9 A@54=5>1@07>20B5;L=>9 H:>;5. 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Blocher (1966) 2K45;O5B G5BK@5 >A=>2=KE: A>F80;L=0O ?@8A?>A>1;5==>ABL; ;8G=>AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8; ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=0O ?@8A?>A>1;5==>ABL; CA?5H=>ABL CG51K. @8B5@89 A>F80;L=>9 ?@8A?>A>1;5==>AB8 H8@>:> 8A?>;L7C5BAO, ?>A:>;L:C 1>;LH8=AB2> :;85=B>2 8 >1@0I0NBAO : :>=AC;LB0=BC 87-70 2>7=8:H8E B@C4=>AB59 2 A>F80;L=>< ?@8A?>A>1;5=88, :0: ?@028;>, ?> ?@8G8=5 2=CB@5==8E :>=D;8:B>2 ;8G=>AB8. #;CGH5=85 A>F80;L=>3> ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O A?>A>15= >F5=8BL A0< :;85=B, => : >F5=:5 <>6=> ?@82;5GL 4@C759 :;85=B0, G;5=>2 A5<L8, CG8B5;59 (5A;8 <K :>=AC;LB8@C5< @515=:0). 8G=>AB=K5 :@8B5@88 >E20BK20NB 87<5=5=85 A0<>>F5=:8 8 <=>65AB2> 4@C38E ?0@0<5B@>2, >1KG=> 87<5@O5<KE B5AB0<8. @>D5AA8>=0;L=0O ?@8A?>A>1;5==>ABL 2:;NG05B ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 ?;0=K, C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL @01>B>9 8 B.?. @8B5@88 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 CG0I8EAO 8 >B@060NB 48=0<8:C CA?5205<>AB8. 1KG=> >A=>2=K< 8AB>G=8:>< 8=D>@<0F88 >1 MDD5:B82=>AB8 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O O2;O5BAO A0< :;85=B, ?@54AB02;O5<0O 8< >F5=:0 A2>53> A>AB>O=8O. "0:0O >F5=:0 8<55B >?@545;5==K5 >3@0=8G5=8O, => 2A5 65 >1J5:B82=55 2A53> >B@0605B 8AB8==>5 ?>;>65=85. 06=>, GB>1K >F5=:0 @57C;LB0B>2 A0<8< :;85=B>< 1K;0 4>AB0B>G=> :>=:@5B=0. >MB><C >4=0 87 206=59H8E 7040G :>=AC;LB0=B0  ?><>GL :;85=BC :>=:@5B878@>20BL A2>8 4>AB865=8O 2 E>45 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O. F5=:0 @57C;LB0B>2 B5@0?88 :>=AC;LB0=B>< B>65 ACI5AB25==0, E>BO 55 40;5:> =5 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O >:>=G0B5;L=KE 2K2>4>2. >>1I5 3>2>@O, >:>=G0=85 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O 8 A2>48BAO : >1AC645=8N 8 A>3;0A>20=8N >F5=>: 4>AB83=CB>3> MDD5:B0, ?@54AB02;5==KE :;85=B>< 8 :>=AC;LB0=B><. " "#  Arbuckle D. Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Existential-Humanistic View. 3rd Ed. Boston: Allyn and Backon. Benjamin A. The Helping Interview. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987. Blocher D. H. Developmental Counseling. N. Y.: Ronald Press, 1966. Bramer L., Shostrom E. Therapeutic Psychology: Fundamentals of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 4th Ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. Y.: Prentice Hall, 1982. Bugental J. F. T. The Art of Psychotherapist. 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A;CG0OE 45?@5AA88 >1KG=> 8A?>;L7C5BAO <548:0<5=B>7=>5 ;5G5=85 0=B845?@5AA0=B0<8. 07=0G5=85 ;5:0@AB2 8 4>78@>2:0  MB> 45;> 2@0G59, >4=0:> :>=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= 7=0BL, C?>B@51;O5B ;8 53> :;85=B ;5:0@AB20 8 :0:>20 A8;0 8E 2>7459AB28O. 5 A;54C5B 4020BL A>25BK :;85=BC ?> 2K1>@C ;5:0@AB2 8;8 4>7, >4=0:> 2>7=8:0NI85 2>?@>AK >1O70B5;L=> =C6=> >1AC48BL A =07=0G82H8< ;5:0@AB2> 2@0G><. >=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= 7=0BL > 18>;>38G5A:>9 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?@54@0A?>;>65==>AB8 =5:>B>@KE ;N459 : 45?@5AA82=K< @50:F8O< 2 B@C4=KE 687=5==KE A8BC0F8OE. # B0:8E :;85=B>2 A>AB>O=85 45?@5AA88 <>65B ?>2B>@OBLAO 2 =51;03>?@8OB=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E. 5?@5AA8O, >A>15==> 2>7=8:H0O 2 A8;C 2=5H=8E ?@8G8=, 8AG5705B ?@8 87<5=5=88 687=5==KE CA;>289. @>F5AA :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O 45?@5AA82=KE :;85=B>2 :@0A82> >1>1I8; Jacobson (F8B. ?>: Kennedy, 1977): "5>1E>48<0 ?@>4>;68B5;L=0O CB>=G5==0O M<?0B8G5A:0O A2O7L <564C 0=0;8B8:>< 8 45?@5AA82=K< :;85=B><; <K 4>;6=K 1KBL >G5=L 2=8<0B5;L=K<8, GB>1K =5 4>?CA:0BL 2>F0@5=8O 15AA<KA;5==>9 B8H8=K 8;8 =5 3>2>@8BL G@57<5@=> <=>3>, A;8H:>< 1KAB@> 8;8 ?@>=8:=>25==>, B. 5. =8:>340 =5 A;54C5B >B4020BL >G5=L <=>3> 8;8, =0>1>@>B, <0;>.  ;N1>< A;CG05 45?@5AA82=K< ?0F85=B0< =C6=K >B=>A8B5;L=> G0ABK5 8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=K5 2AB@5G8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 8E =0AB@>5=8O, =C6=> B5?;>5 >B=>H5=85 8 C2065=85  CAB0=>2:8, :>B>@K5 =5 A;54C5B ?CB0BL A G@57<5@=K<8 4>1@>B>9, A8<?0B859, CA?>:>5=85<... ! MB8<8 ?0F85=B0<8 <K 2A5340 =0E>48<AO <564C ?@>?0ABLN 8 A8=8< <>@5<  MB> =587156=>". A>15==>AB8 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O ?@8 AC8F84=KE =0<5@5=8OE '5;>25: 2 A>AB>O=88 45?@5AA88 G0AB> ?@54AB02;O5B >?0A=>ABL 4;O A0<>3> A51O, ?>B><C GB> A:;>=5= : A0<>@07@CH5=8N 2 O2=>9 8 A:@KB>9 D>@<0E. >340 <K 2AB@5G05<AO A 45?@5AA82=K<8 :;85=B0<8, =5;L7O 701K20BL, GB> A;01>2K@065==0O 45?@5AA8O <>65B ?5@5@0AB8 2 >AB@CN A AC8F84=K<8 =0<5@5=8O<8. !0<>C189AB2> AG8B05BAO C60A=K<, ?>ABK4=K< 45;><, 8 =5:>B>@K5 :>=AC;LB0=BK, @01>B0O A 45?@5AA82=K<8 :;85=B0<8, =52>;L=> ?@5=51@530NB B0:>9 2>7<>6=>ABLN 8 ?>;030NB, GB> 8E :;85=BK =5 <>3CB 4065 ?>4C<0BL >1 MB><. A;8 :>=AC;LB0=B ?@>O2;O5B B0:>3> @>40 A;5?>BC, 2>7=8:05B 1>;LH0O >?0A=>ABL 4;O 1;03>?>;CG8O 8 4065 687=8 :;85=B0. @>1;5<0 A>AB>8B, :0: ?@028;>, =5 2 A>:@KB88 A0<>C189F59 A2>8E =0<5@5=89, 0 2 B><, GB> >= =5 1C45B CA;KH0=, :>340 3>2>@8B > =8E. 1KG=> @07;8G0NB ?>?KB:C A0<>C189AB20 (?0@0AC8F84) 8 @50;87>20==>5 A0<>C189AB2>. > 40==K< Davis (1968: F8B. ?>: Kennedy, 1977), 65=I8=K 2 G5BK@5 @070 G0I5, G5< <C6G8=K, ?KB0NBAO ?>:>=G8BL 687=L A0<>C189AB2><, 0 <C6G8=K 2 G5BK@5 @070 G0I5 :>=G0NB 687=L A0<>C189AB2><. =>340 CB25@6405BAO, GB> =5C402H0OAO ?>?KB:0 A0<>C189AB20 >7=0G05B, GB> =0<5@5=85 1K;> =5A5@L57=K<. -B> 4>2>;L=> >?0A=>5 701;C645=85, 81> =5<0;> ;N459, ?KB02H8EAO A>25@H8BL A0<>C189AB2>, ?>2B>@ONB ?>?KB:C. > 40==K< Shocket (1970; F8B. ?>: Kennedy, 1977), 2 12% A;CG0OE ?>2B>@=0O ?>?KB:0 ?@54?@8=8<05BAO 2 B5G5=85 B@5E ;5B. 065= 2>?@>A, :B> 8<5==> 8 2 :0:8E A8BC0F8OE G0I5 A>25@H05B A0<>C189AB2>. #65 C?><8=0;>AL, GB> =5 2A5 ;N48 2 A>AB>O=88 45?@5AA88 =0<5@520NBAO A>25@H8BL A0<>C189AB2>, => 2=5 45?@5AA88 A0<>C189AB2> A>25@H05BAO >G5=L @54:>. @54?@8=8<0NBAO ?>?KB:8 40BL 1>;55 ?>;=CN E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 3@C??5 ?>B5=F80;L=KE A0<>C189F. Kennedy (1977) C:07K205B =5A:>;L:> :@8B5@852 @8A:0: 48=>:85 <C6G8=K (@072545==K5 8 =5 8<5NI85 1;87:8E 4@C759) AB0@H5 40 ;5B. 8F0, 682CI85 >4=8. ;:>3>;8:8. N48, ?5@5=5AH85 1>;LHCN CB@0BC. N48 ?@5:;>==>3> 2>7@0AB0, 8<5NI85 A><0B8G5A:85 701>;520=8O. Pretzel (1972) >B<5G05B 420 CA;>28O, A?>A>1AB2CNI85 ?>?KB:0< A0<>C189AB20. 5@2>5  C25;8G5=85 AB@5AA0 4> B@C4=> ?5@5=>A8<>3> 8=48284>< C@>2=O. B>@>5  =5A?>A>1=>ABL ?@5>4>;5BL AB@5AA =8 2 >48=>G:C, =8 A ?><>ILN 4@C38E. 1KG=> @5H5=85 > A0<>C189AB25 =5 2>7=8:05B 2=570?=>. '0AB> 5<C ?@54H5AB2C5B A5@8O ?>?KB>: ?>45;8BLAO A2>8<8 =0<5@5=8O<8 A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8. 081>;LH0O 25@>OB=>ABL ?>?KB:8 A0<>C189AB20 ?@8E>48BAO =0 25@H8=C M:78AB5=F80;L=>3> :@878A0. Coleman (1972) >B<5G05B B@8 D0:B>@0, A8;L=> ?>2KH0NI85 @8A: ?@8 ?@54@0A?>;>65==>AB8 : A0<>C189AB2C: <56;8G=>AB=K5 :@878AK, ?045=85 C@>2=O A0<>>F5=:8, CB@0B0 A<KA;0 687=8 8 ?5@A?5:B82K. Shneidman (1969) C:07K205B G5BK@5 CA;>28O, A?>A>1AB2CNI85 2>7<>6=>AB8 A0<>C189AB20: 5?@5AA8O. 57>@85=B0F8O A 30;;NF8=0F8O<8 8 1@54><. !B@5<;5=85 25@=CBL A515 :>=B@>;L 70 >:@C65=85< 2 >?@545;5==KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E, =0?@8<5@: =587;5G8<> 1>;L=>9 G5;>25: <>65B ?KB0BLAO A>25@H8BL A0<>C189AB2> 2 F5;OE 27OBL ?>4 :>=B@>;L 2@5<O A2>59 A<5@B8. 028A8<>ABL >B 4@C38E 8 1>;LH0O =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL B0:8< ?>;>65=85<. G5=L 206=0O G5@B0 ?>B5=F80;L=>3> A0<>C189FK  0<1820;5=B=>ABL. =0 70B@C4=O5B @0A?>7=0=85 459AB28B5;L=KE =0<5@5=89. >MB><C > ?KB02H8EAO A>25@H8BL A0<>C189AB2> 8=>340 <>6=> CA;KH0BL: "5 ?>E>65 =0 45?@5AA8N. G5@0 25G5@>< C =53> 1K;> E>@>H55 =0AB@>5=85". >=AC;LB0=B, 2AB@5G0NI89AO A :;85=B0<8, 8<5NI8<8 AC8F84=K5 =0<5@5=8O, ?@5645 2A53> >1O70= ?@>0=0;878@>20BL A>1AB25==K5 CAB0=>2:8 8 GC2AB20 ?> >B=>H5=8N : A0<>C189AB2C, 7=0BL 8E 70@0=55.  @01>B5 =8:>340 =5 A;54C5B A:@K20BL A2>8 ?>4;8==K5 GC2AB20. %>@>H89 :>=B0:B A :>=AC;LB0=B>< <>65B 1KBL :@5?G09H59 =8BLN, A2O7K20NI59 ?>B5@O2H53> =04564C G5;>25:0 A 687=LN. =>340 ?>;030NB, GB> >1AC645=85 A :;85=B0<8 2>7<>6=>AB8 A0<>C189AB20 B>;L:> CA8;8205B 8E =0<5@5=8O. 4=0:>, :0: ?@028;>, 15A540 > GC2AB20E, ?>4B0;:820NI8E : A0<>C189AB2C, C<5=LH05B 25@>OB=>ABL @50;870F88 ?>1C645=89. >MB><C :>=AC;LB0=B =5 4>;65= C:;>=OBLAO >B >1AC645=8O A 45?@5AA82=K<8 :;85=B0<8 ?@>1;5<K A0<>C189AB20. "5< A0<K< >= ?>:07K205B :;85=BC, GB> <KA;8 > A0<>C189AB25 <>3CB 1KBL 2>A?@8=OBK 8 ?>=OBK 4@C38< G5;>25:><. 0AA<0B@820O >G5=L A5@L57=> ;N1>5 =0<5@5=85 A0<>C189AB20, 2A5 65 =5;L7O 701K20BL > 2>7<>6=>AB8 <0=8?C;OB82=>9 C3@>7K A F5;LN C1548BL :>=AC;LB0=B0 2 206=>AB8 A2>59 ?@>1;5<K 8 ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 <0:A8<C< 53> 2@5<5=8. >;LH8=AB2> A8<C;O=B>2 O2;ONBAO 8AB5@8G5A:8<8 ;8G=>ABO<8. 5:>B>@K5 :;85=BK 3>2>@OB > A0<>C189AB25 87 65;0=8O >B><AB8BL B5<, :B> O:>1K 8E =54>AB0B>G=> ;N18B. >>1I5 M;5<5=B 2@06451=>AB8 ?@8ACBAB2C5B ?>GB8 2 :064>< A0<>C189AB25. AB@5B82H8AL 2 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 A 45?@5AA82=K< :;85=B><, 2KA:07K20NI8< AC8F84=K5 =0<5@5=8O, >G5=L 206=> >F5=8BL @8A: 8E @50;870F88. B ?@028;L=>3> ?@>3=>70 <>65B 7028A5BL 687=L :;85=B0. > <=5=8N Pretzel (1972), "70<KA5; A0<>C189AB20 8<55B B@8 A>AB02;ONI8E: 2K1>@ A@54AB20, C189AB25==0O <>IL A@54AB20 8 53> 4>ABC?=>ABL. A;8 G5;>25: C65 2K1@0; A?>A>1 A0<>C189AB20, =025@=O:0 >15A?5G820NI89 A<5@BL, 8 A@54AB2> ;53:> 4>ABC?=>, @8A: AB0=>28BAO >G5=L 1>;LH8<. !B5?5=L 25@>OB=>AB8 A0<>C189AB20 :>=AC;LB0=B <>65B 2KOA=8BL, 704020O :;85=BC :>A25==K5 2>?@>AK (Bird, 1973). @O<> A?@0H820BL: "5 =0<5@5205B5AL ;8 K A>25@H8BL A0<>C189AB2>?"  =5?@85<;5<>, ?>B><C GB> B0:>9 2>?@>A ?>1C6405B :;85=B0 : >B@8F0=8N. -DD5:B82=0 B0:B8:0 "?>AB5?5==>3>" @0AA?@>A0: >=AC;LB0=B: 0: 84CB 45;0? ;85=B: (?>68<05B ?;5G0<8). >=AC;LB0=B: 5 2A5 E>@>H>? ;85=B: (B@OA5B 3>;>2>9). >=AC;LB0=B: @CAB=>? ;85=B: (:8205B 3>;>2>9). >=AC;LB0=B: A5 :065BAO 157=0456=K<? ;85=B: 0. >=AC;LB0=B: 87=L 8=>340 :065BAO 15AA<KA;5==>9? ;85=B: =>340. >=AC;LB0=B: '0AB> ;8 K 4C<05B5, GB> E>B5;8 1K C<5@5BL? ;85=B: >;LHCN G0ABL 2@5<5=8. >=AC;LB0=B: >7=8:05B 65;0=85 ?>:>=G8BL A 687=LN? ;85=B: =>340. >=AC;LB0=B: 1AC640;8 ;8 K, :0: MB> A45;0BL? ;85=B: I5 =5 70H5; B0: 40;5:>. "0:0O ?>AB5?5==>ABL >?@>A0 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL B>G=55 C7=0BL, :0: 40;5:> 70H5; :;85=B 2 A2>8E <KA;OE > A<5@B8.  40==>< A;CG05 :;85=B 8<55B O2=K5 AC8F84=K5 =0<5@5=8O, >4=0:> ?@O<>9 C3@>7K A0<>C189AB20 ?>:0 =5B. A=>20B5;L ;>3>B5@0?88 V. Frankl ?@54;0305B >F5=820BL 2<5AB> 25@>OB=>AB8 A0<>C189AB20 25;8G8=C 687=5==>3> ?>B5=F80;0 8 A?@0H820BL :;85=B0 =5 > ?@8G8=5 =565;0=8O 68BL, 0 > A<KA;5 687=8 4;O =53>. '5< 1>;LH5 =0E>48BAO =8B59, A2O7K20NI8E :;85=B0 A 687=LN, B5< <5=55 25@>OB=> A0<>C189AB2>. !CI5AB2CNB >?@545;5==K5 ?@028;0 :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O ;8F, =0<5@520NI8EAO A>25@H8BL A0<>C189AB2> (Schutz, 1982; Berman, Cohen-Sandler, 1983; F8B. ?>: Corey, 1986; Bird, 1973; Kennedy, 1977): ! B0:8<8 :;85=B0<8 =C6=> G0I5 2AB@5G0BLAO. >=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= >1@0I0BL 2=8<0=85 AC8F84=>3> :;85=B0 =0 ?>78B82=K5 0A?5:BK 2 53> 687=8. 0?@8<5@: "K C?><8=0;8, GB> ?@5645 <=>38< 8=B5@5A>20;8AL. 0AA:068B5 > A2>8E ?@8AB@0AB8OE" 8;8 "A5340 5ABL @048 G53> 68BL. 'B> K 4C<05B5 >1 MB><?". 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"5< =5 <5=55 :>=AC;LB0=BC ;CGH5 ?>=045OBLAO =0 A2>N 8=BC8F8N 8 CG5ABL >?0A=K5 ?@87=0:8 2 ?>2545=88 :;85=B0, ?>A:>;L:C CB5H8B5;L=K5 70O2;5=8O <>3CB =>A8BL >B2;5:0NI89 E0@0:B5@.  A;CG0OE O2=>3> AC8F84=>3> @8A:0 :>=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= ?>B@51>20BL =5<54;5==>9 3>A?8B0;870F88, E>BO 1>;LH8=AB2> :;85=B>2 :0B53>@8G5A:8 ?@>B5ABCNB ?@>B82 ?><5I5=8O 2 ?A8E80B@8G5A:CN :;8=8:C. 5:>B>@K5 ?A8E>B5@0?52BK (Storr, 1980) AG8B0NB, GB> :;85=B0 H>:8@C5B 87<5=5=85 ?>2545=8O :>=AC;LB0=B0. '5;>25:, ?>1C640NI89 : =57028A8<>AB8 8 A2>1>4=><C 2K1>@C, 24@C3 15@5B =0 A51O ?>;=><>G8O >3@0=8G8BL A2>1>4C :;85=B0, 70?5@5BL 53> 2 ?A8E80B@8G5A:>9 :;8=8:5. 0< 4C<05BAO, GB> ?@02> >:>=G0B5;L=>3> 2K1>@0 8<55B :064K9 G5;>25:, => >1O70==>ABL :>=AC;LB0=B0 2 A;CG05 C3@>7K A0<>C189AB20  A45;0BL <0:A8<C< 2>7<>6=>3>, GB>1K ?>2;8OBL =0 2K1>@ :;85=B0 2 ?>;L7C 687=8. >=AC;LB0=B =5 4>;65= ?>72>;OBL :;85=BC <0=8?C;8@>20BL A>1>9 ?>A@54AB2>< C3@>7K A0<>C189AB20. >=AC;LB0=B >1O70= =5 701K20BL, GB> >= =5 >3 8, =5278@0O =0 A0<K5 ;CGH85 ?>1C645=8O, =5 2A5340 A?>A>15= 2>A?@5?OBAB2>20BL A0<>C189AB2C. 081>;LHCN >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 A>1AB25==K5 459AB28O =5A5B A0< :;85=B. >=AC;LB0=B =5 <>65B ?>;=>ABLN 8 548=>;8G=> >B25G0BL 70 :;85=B0. = ;8HL ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=> >B25BAB25=5= 70 ?@5A5G5=85 @50;870F88 AC8F84=KE =0<5@5=89. 4=0:> =5>?@>25@68<0 0:A8><0  5A;8 :;85=B 459AB28B5;L=> E>G5B ?>:>=G8BL A 687=LN, =8:B> =5 A?>A>15= >AB0=>28BL 53>. 0: >B<5G05B Kennedy (1977), "<K 3>2>@8< "40" 687=8 :;85=B0, => 4>;6=K 1KBL 3>B>2K : B><C, GB> =5:>B>@K5 :;85=BK 2A5-B0:8 A:06CB A2>59 687=8 "=5B". >=AC;LB0=B >1O70= ?>4@>1=>, 2 ?8AL<5==>9 D>@<5, 4>:C<5=B8@>20BL A2>8 459AB28O, GB>1K 2 A;CG05 =5AG0ABLO >= A<>3 4>:070BL A515 8 4@C38<, GB> 459AB2>20; ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=> 8 ?@8=O; 2A5 <5@K 4;O 871560=8O :0B0AB@>DK. >=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= 7=0BL A?5F8D8:C :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O ;8F, ?KB02H8EAO A>25@H8BL A0<>C189AB2>. >=AC;LB8@>20=85 =0?@02;O5BAO =0 ?@5>4>;5=85 ?>1C645=89 : A0<>C189AB2C, :>B>@K5 5I5 >AB0NBAO ?>A;5 =5C402H59AO ?>?KB:8. Hamilton 8 Moss (F8B. ?>: Kennedy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ollins (1978; F8B. ?>: Menninger, 1991) >?8AK205B A2>8 ?5@56820=8O ?>A;5 A0<>C189AB20 ?0F85=B0: "=0G0;5 BO3>B8;> >AB@>5 GC2AB2> 28=K 8 =5 >A>7=020;0AL =5?@8O7=L : ?0F85=BC 70 A>25@H5==>5 A0<>C189AB2>. 8HL ?>AB5?5==> ?@8H;> >A>7=0=85 >7;>1;5==>AB8 87-70 CB@0G5==>9 ?5@A?5:B82K. 7;>1;5==>ABL 2 A2>N >G5@54L ?@>2>F8@>20;0 28=C. 4=>2@5<5==> 4>2;5;> GC2AB2> ABK40 ?5@54 :>;;530<8. @>F5AA A:>@18 ?5@5?;5B0;AO A ?>2B>@ONI8<8AO 2>A?><8=0=8O<8 8 A=0<8.  ?5@2K5 4=8 ?>A;5 =5AG0ABLO ?>:>=G82H89 A A>1>9 ?0F85=B =5 2KE>48; 87 3>;>2K, G5@BK ?0F85=B0 2845;8AL C 1>;LH8=AB20 2AB@5G5==KE ;N459. A5 MB> 2@5<O >ICI0;0AL >1O70==>ABL >1JOA=OBLAO A :>;;530<8  @0AA:07K20BL 8< > A2>59 ?>A;54=59 15A545 A ?0F85=B>< 8 2K@060BL A>60;5=85, GB> =5 70<5B8; ?@87=0:>2 =042830NI53>AO A0<>C189AB20. 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">;L:> 2 B0:>< A;CG05 C<5=LH8BAO 25@>OB=>ABL 55 @07@O4:8 =0 A;CG09=KE >1J5:B0E. >A;5 ?5@2>9 @50:F88 =0 A<5@BL 1;87:>3> G5;>25:0  H>:0, >B@8F0=8O, 7;>1K  ?@>8AE>48B >A>7=0=85 CB@0BK 8 A<8@5=85 A =59.  AB0BL5 "!:>@1L 8 <5;0=E>;8O" (1917) S. Freud =0720; ?@>F5AA 040?B0F88 : =5AG0ABLN "@01>B>9 A:>@18" (Trauerarbeit). !>2@5<5==K5 8AA;54>20B5;8 "@01>BC A:>@18" E0@0:B5@87CNB :0: :>3=8B82=K9 ?@>F5AA, 2:;NG0NI89 87<5=5=85 <KA;59 >1 C<5@H5<, 3>@5GL CB@0BK, ?>?KB:C >BAB@0=8BLAO >B CB@0G5==>3> ;8F0, ?>8A: A2>53> <5AB0 2 =>2KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E (Stroebe, 1992). -B>B ?@>F5AA =5 O2;O5BAO :0:>9-B> =5045:20B=>9 @50:F859, >B :>B>@>9 =04> C15@5GL G5;>25:0, A 3C<0=8AB8G5A:8E ?>78F89 >= ?@85<;5< 8 =5>1E>48<. <55BAO 2 284C >G5=L BO65;0O ?A8E8G5A:0O =03@C7:0, 70AB02;ONI0O AB@040BL. >=AC;LB0=B A?>A>15= 4>AB028BL >1;53G5=85, >4=0:> 53> 2<5H0B5;LAB2> =5 2A5340 C<5AB=>. !:>@1L =5;L7O ?@8>AB0=02;820BL, >=0 4>;6=0 ?@>4>;60BLAO AB>;L:>, A:>;L:> =5>1E>48<>. 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olen-Hoekseman (1987; F8B. ?>: Stroebe, 1992), 65=I8=K 2> 2@5<O 45?@5AA88 A:;>==K : =02O7G82K< @074C<LO<, GB> B>;L:> C3;C1;O5B C?04>: =0AB@>5=8O. C6G8=K, =0>1>@>B ?@>O2;ONB 0:B82=>ABL, 8 MB> >1;53G05B 8 C:>@0G8205B 45?@5AA8N. ! >:>=G0=85< "@01>BK A:>@18" ?@>8AE>48B 040?B0F8O : @50;L=>AB8 =5AG0ABLO, 8 4CH52=0O 1>;L C<5=LH05BAO. >=5AH53> CB@0BC G5;>25:0 =0G8=0NB 70=8<0BL =>2K5 ;N48 8 A>1KB8O. 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Kirkpatrik (1975; F8B. no: George, Cristiani, 1990) AD>@<C;8@>20; 452OBL ?@028; A5:A>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O: >=AC;LB0=B =5 4>;65= 1KBL >BO3>I5= A>1AB25==K<8 A5:AC0;L=K<8 ?@>1;5<0<8. -B> =5>1E>48<>5 CA;>285 4;O 045:20B=>3> @5038@>20=8O =0 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 70B@C4=5=8O :;85=B>2. >=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= C<5BL A2>1>4=> 8 >B:@KB> 3>2>@8BL > A5:AC0;L=KE ?@>1;5<0E, B.5. =5 C?>B@51;OBL >1B5:05<KE 2K@065=89 8 ?@028;L=> 8A?>;L7>20BL A5:A>;>38G5A:CN B5@<8=>;>38N. >=AC;LB0=B 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE 4>;65= ?5@2K< =0G0BL @073>2>@ > 2>7<>6=KE A5:AC0;L=KE ?@>1;5<0E :;85=B0, ?>A:>;L:C :;85=B <>65B ?@>O2;OBL @>1>ABL. >=AC;LB0=B >1O70= C<5BL 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL A5:AC0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K, :>340 :;85=B ?@54AB02;O5B 8E 2 70<0A:8@>20==>9 D>@<5. >=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= 1KBL E>@>H> >A254><;5= 2 @07;8G=KE 2>?@>A0E A5:AC0;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0, GB>1K ?@54>AB028BL :;85=B0< A>>B25BAB2CNICN 8=D>@<0F8N (0=0B><8O, ?A8E>;>38O ?>;>2, D0@<0:>;>38O, :>=B@0F5?B82=K5 A@54AB20). >=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= 8<5BL 2 284C ?@8 :>=AC;LB8@>20=88 ?>4@>AB:>2 8 N=>H59, GB> 8E 7=0=8O > A5:AC0;L=>AB8 <>3CB 1KBL =5?>;=K<8 8 8A:065==K<8. !;54C5B >1@0B8BL >A>1>5 2=8<0=85 =0 @0==85 ?>;>2K5 >B=>H5=8O, <0ABC@10F8N, 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@54>E@0=8B5;L=KE A@54AB2. >=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= ?>=8<0BL ?@545;K A2>8E 2>7<>6=>AB59. 5 A;54C5B 70=8<0BLAO A5:A>B5@0?859 157 A?5F80;L=>9 ?>43>B>2:8. >=AC;LB0=B >1O70= 7=0BL, 2 :0:8E A;CG0OE =0?@02;OBL :;85=B0 : 4@C38< A?5F80;8AB0<, 8 04@5A0 MB8E A?5F80;8AB>2. >=AC;LB0=B 4>;65= >B:070BLAO >B >AC640NI8E >F5=>: 2 >B=>H5=88 A5:AC0;L=>3> ?>2545=8O 8 4>AB>8=AB2 :;85=B>2.  ;5G5=88 A5:AC0;L=KE =0@CH5=89 ?>;L7C5BAO ?>?C;O@=>ABLN A5:A>B5@0?8O, ?@54;>65==0O 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 CG5=K<8 Masters 8 Johnson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Stroebe M. Coping with bereavement: a review of the grief work hypothesis // Omega, 1991-1993. Vol. 26 (1). P. 19-42. Yalom I. Existential Psychotherapy. N. Y.: Basic Books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"5< =5 <5=55 ?@8 ?@52@0I5=88 :>=AC;LB0B82=>3> :>=B0:B0 2 A5:AC0;L=CN A2O7L C :;85=B>2 @0728205BAO :@09=OO 7028A8<>ABL, 0 :>=AC;LB0=B B5@O5B >1J5:B82=>ABL, 0 MB>< 8 70:0=G8205BAO ;N1>5 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5 :>=AC;LB8@>20=85 8 ?A8E>B5@0?8O. " "#  American Psychological Association. Ethical principles of Psychologists // American Psychologist, 1990. Vol. 45. P. 390-395. Beauchamp ". L., Childress J. S. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 3rd Ed. N. Y.: Oxford University Press, 1983. George R. L., Cristiani T. S. Counseling: Theory and Practice, 3rd Ed. Englewood Cliffs. N. J.: Prentice Hall, 1990. Holroyd J. C., Brodsky A. Psychologists' attitudes and practices regarding erotic and non-erotic physical contact with patients // American Psychologist, 1977. Vol. 32. P. 845-849.      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