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E0@0:B5@87C9B5 D>@<8@CNI89 M:A?5@8<5=B 8 53> 7=0G5=85 4;O ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:8. 8. 0A:@>9B5 ACI=>ABL <5B>40 0=:5B8@>20=8O 8 A>F8><5B@8G5A:>3> <5B>40. 9. @>4C<09B5 2>?@>AK 0=:5BK 4;O CG0I8EAO II III :;0AA>2 ?> 2KO2;5=8N CG51=KE 8 2=5CG51=KE 8=B5@5A>2. 8B5@0BC@0 5=8= . .  2>?@>AC > 480;5:B8:5.  >;8. A>1@. A>G., B. 29. >6>28G . . 8G=>ABL 8 55 D>@<8@>20=85 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5. ., 1968. K3>BA:89 . !. - 0728B85 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89. ., 1960, A. 438 453. 02K4>2 . . A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 2>7@0AB=>9 8 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 =0 A>2@5<5==>< MB0?5 @0728B8O >1@07>20=8O. >?@. ?A8E>;>388, 1976, ! 4. 5>=BL52 . . @>1;5<K @0728B8O ?A8E8:8. 3-5 874. ., 1972, 3;. HI. 5=G8=A:0O . . 0728B85 ?A8E8:8 @515=:0: =52=8: <0B5@8. 2-5 874. ., 1957. 5B>4K ?5403>38G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O/>4 @54. . . /C@02;520. ., 1972. 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KH;5=85 4>H:>;L=8:0, B0: 65 :0: ? 4@C385 ?>7=020B5;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK, 8<55B @O4 >A>15==>AB59. "0:, =0?@8<5@, @515=:C A@54=53> 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>;@;A30 @> ?@5<O ?@>3C;:8 >:>;> @5:8 7040NB A;54CNI85 2>?@>AK:  !:068, >@O, ?>G5<C ?;020NB 2 2>45 ;8AB>G:8?  >B><C GB> >=8 <0;5=L:85 8 ;53:85.   ?>G5<C ?;K25B ?0@>E>4? . >B><C GB> 1>;LH>9 8 BO65;K9. 5B8 MB>3> 2>7@0AB0 =5 C"1!'>B A?5 @=;A.1O?> A\ IA?25==K5 A2O78 2 ?@54<5B0E 8 O2;5=8OE 8 45;0BL >1>1I0NI85 2K2>4K. 0 ?@>1O651111 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 <KH;5=85 @515=:0 ACI5AB25==> <5=O5BAO. -B> 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 2K@0605BAO 2 B><, GB> >= >2;045205B =>2K<8 A?>A>10<8 <KH;5=8O 8 C<AB25==K<8 459AB28O<8. 0728B85 53> ?@>8AE>48B ?>MB0?=>, 8 :064K9 ?@54K4CI89 C@>25=L =5>1E>48< 4;O ?>A;54CNI53>. KH;5=85 @0728205BAO >B =03;O4=>-459AB25==>3> : >1@07=><C."0B5< =0 >A=>25 >1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O =0G8=05B @072820BLAO >1@07=>-AE5<0B8G5A:>5, :>B>@>5 ?@54AB02;O5B ?@><56CB>G=>5 725=> <564C >1@07=K< 8 ;>38G5A:8< <KH;5=85<. 06-@07=>-AE5<0-HG5A:>5 <KH;5=85 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL CAB0=02;820BL A2O78 = >B=>H5=8O <564C ?@54<5B0<8 8 8E A2>9AB20<8. 0CG=K<8 ?>=OB8O<8 @515=>: =0G8=05B >2;04520BL 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1CG5=8O 2 H:>;5, =>, :0: ?>:07K20NB 8AA;54>20=8O, ' !<.: 5=578A A5=A>@=KE A?>A>1=>AB59/>4 @54. .  AH5@0. ., 1976, A. 19, 135. 70 C65 C 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 <>6=> AD>@<8@>20BL ?>;=>F5==K5 ?>=OB8O. -B> ?@>8AE>48B 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 @515=:C 40NB 2=5H=55 A@54AB2>, A>>B25BAB2CNI55 40==>9 3@C??5 ?@54<5B>2 8;8 8E A2>9AB2. 0?@8<5@, 4;O 87<5@5=8O 4;8=K <5@:C (?>;>A:C) 1C<038. ! ?><>ILN <5@:8 @515=>: 2=0G0;5 >ACI5AB2;O5B 2=5H=55 >@85=B8@>2>G=>5 459AB285, :>B>@>5 2 40;L=59H5< 8=B5@8>@878@C5BAO. 0728385 <KH;5=8O @515=:0 B5A=> A2O70=> A @5GLN*.  <;04H5< 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 =0 B@5BL5< 3>4C 687=8 @5GL A>?@>2>6405B ?@0:B8G5A:85 459AB28O @515=:0, => >=0 5I5 =5 2K?>;=O5B ?;0=8@CNI59 DC=:F88.  4 3>40 45B8 A?>A>1=K ?@54AB028BL E>4 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> 459AB28O, => =5 C<5NB @0AA:070BL > 459AB288, :>B>@>5 =C6=> ?@>8725AB8.  A@54=5< 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 @5GL =0G8=05B ?@54H5AB2>20BL 2K?>;=5=8N ?@0:B8G5A:8E 459AB289, ?><>305B ?;0=8@>20BL 8E. 4=0:> =0 MB>< MB0?5 >1@07K >AB0NBAO >A=>2>9 <KA;8B5;L=KE 459AB289. ">;L:> =0 A;54CNI5< MB0?5 @0728B8O @515=>: >:07K205BAO A?>A>1=K< @5H0BL ?@0:B8G5A:85 7040G8, ?;0=8@CO 8E A;>25A=K<8 @0AAC645=8O<8. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 8AA;54>20=88 . . N1;8=A:>9 4>H:>;L=8:0< 3 6 ;5B ?@54;030;8 A>AB028BL 87 ?;>A:>AB=KE D83C@ =0 D>=5 A040, ?>;O=:8, :><=0BK :0@B8=:C. "@5E;5B=85 45B8 A@07C ?@8ABC?0;8 : 459AB25==><C @5H5=8N 7040G8, A>25@H5==> A;CG09=> A>548=OO D83C@:8. =8 1K20;8 >G5=L 4>2>;L=K,5A;8 C =8E GB>-B> ?>;CG0;>AL: !<>B@8B5, GB> ?>;CG8;>AL! 5B8 6 ;5B, =5 =0G8=0O 459AB2>20BL, 3>2>@8;8: / A;>6C, :0: 42>5 2>5==KE A:0GCB 4@C3 70 4@C3>< =0 ;>H04OE. 0 ?@>BO65=88 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 ?@>8AE>48B 40;L=59H55 @0728B85 ?0<OB8, >=0 2A5 1>;LH5 2K45;O5BAO 87 2>A?@8OB8O.  <;04H5< 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 5I5 70<5B=CN @>;L 2 @0728B88 ?0<OB8 83@05B C7=020=85 ?@8 ?>2B>@=>< 2>A?@8OB88 ?@54<5B0. > 2A5 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85 =0G8=05B ?@8>1@5B0BL A?>A>1=>ABL : 2>A?@>872545=8N.  A@54=5< 8 AB0@H5< 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 ?>O2;ONBAO 4>AB0B>G=> ?>;=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O ?0<OB8. @>4>;605BAO 8=B5=A82=>5 @0728B85 >1@07=>9 ?0<OB8 (70?><8=0=85 ?@54<5B>2 8 8E 87>1@065=89). ;O @0728B8O ?0<OB8 @515=:0 E0@0:B5@=> 42865=85 >B >1@07=>9 : A;>25A=>-;>38G5A:>9. 0728B85 ?@>872>;L=>9 ?0<OB8 =0G8=05BAO A 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8 @0728B8O ?@>872>;L=>3> 2>A?@>872545=8O, 0 70B5< A;54C5B ?@>872>;L=>5 70?><8=0=85. KOA=5=85 7028A8<>AB8 70?><8=0=8O >B E0@0:B5@0 45OB5;L=>AB8 4>H:>;L=8:>2 (70=OB8O ?> B@C4C, A;CH0=85 @0AA:070, ;01>@0B>@=K9 M:A?5@8<5=B) ?>:07K205B, GB> @07;8G8O 2 ?@>4C:B82=>AB8 70?><8=0=8O 2 @07;8G=KE 2840E 45OB5;L=>AB8 C 8A?KBC5<KE A 2>7@0AB>< ?@>?0- ' !<.: N1;8=A:0O . . 5BA:0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1971, A. 247 248; >44LO:>2 . . KH;5=85 4>H:>;L=8:0. ., 1977. 71 40NB".  :0G5AB25 ?@85<0 ;>38G5A:>3> 70?><8=0=8O 2 @01>B5 8A?>;L7>20;>AL A<KA;>2>5 A>>B=5A5=85 B>3>, GB> =C6=> 70?><=8BL, A 2A?><>30B5;L=K<-<0B5@80;>< (:0@B8=:>9).  @57C;LB0B5 ?@>4C:B82=>ABL 70?><8=0=8O C25;8G820;0AL 242>5. >>1@065=85 @515=:0 =0G8=05B @072820BLAO 2 :>=F5 2B>@>3>, =0G0;5 B@5BL53> 3>40 687=8.  =0;8G88 >1@07>2 :0: @57C;LB0B5 2>>1@065=8O <>6=> AC48BL ?> B><C, GB> 45B8 A C4>2>;LAB285< A;CH0NB =51>;LH85 @0AA:07K, A:07:8, A>?5@56820O 35@>O<. 0728B8N 2>AA>740NI53> (@5?@>4C:B82=>3>) 8 B2>@G5A:>3> (?@>4C:B82=>3>) 2>>1@065=8O 4>H:>;L=8:>2 A?>A>1AB2CNB @07;8G=K5 284K 45OB5;L=>AB8, B0:85, :0: 83@0, :>=AB@C8@>20=85, ;5?:0, @8A>20=85. A>15==>ABL >1@07>2, :>B>@K5 A>7405B @515=>:, A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> >=8 =5 <>3CB ACI5AB2>20BL A0<>AB>OB5;L=>. < =C6=0 2=5H=OO >?>@0 2 45OB5;L=>AB8. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 5A;8 2 83@5 @515=>: 4>;65= A>74020BL >1@07 G5;>25:0, B> MBC @>;L >= 15@5B =0 A51O 8 459AB2C5B 2 2>>1@0605<>9 A8BC0F88. >;LH>5 7=0G5=85 2 @0728B88 B2>@G5A:>3> 2>>1@065=8O 8<55B 45BA:>5 A;>2>B2>@G5AB2>. 5B8 A>G8=ONB A:07:8, 4@07=8;:8, AG8B0;:8 8 B. 4.  <;04H5< 8 A@54=5< 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 ?@>F5AA A;>2>B2>@G5AB20 A>?@>2>6405B 2=5H=85 458AB-28O @515=:0.  AB0@H5<C 4>H:>;L=><C 2>7@0ABC >=> AB0=>28BAO =57028A8<K< >B 2=5H=59 45OB5;L=>AB8 @515=:0.  4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5, >B<5G05B . . 'C:>2A:89, @515=>: >G5=L GC2AB28B5;5= : 72C:>2>9 AB>@>=5 O7K:0. >AB0B>G=> 5<C CA;KH0BL >?@545;5==>5 72C:>A>G5B0=85, :0: >=> B>BG0A 65 >B>645AB2;O5BAO A 25ILN 8 A;C68B B>;G:>< : A>740=8N >1@070. <'B> B0:>5 0@404K<? A?@0H820NB C G5BK@5E;5B=53> 0;8. = A59G0A 65 >B25G05B 157 2AO:8E @074C<89: !B@0H=K9, 1>;LH>9, 2>B B0:>9.  ?>:07K205B @C:>9 2 ?>B>;>:2. %0@0:B5@=>9 4;O 4>H:>;L=8:0 O2;O5BAO 2>7@0AB0NI0O ?@>872>;L=>ABL 2>>1@065=8O.  E>45 @0728B8O >=> ?@52@0I05BAO 2 >B=>A8B5;L=> A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN ?A8E8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL. 0G0;L=K5 MB0?K D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 @515=:0. >H:>;L=K9 2>7@0AB O2;O5BAO =0G0;L=K< MB0?>< D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8. # 45B59 2>7=8:0NB B0:85 ;8G=>AB=K5 >1@07>20=8O, :0: A>?>4G8=5=85 <>B82>2, CA2>5=85 =@02AB25==KE =>@< 8 D>@<8@>20=85 ?@>872>;L=>AB8 ?>2545=8O. !>?>4G8=5=85 <>B82>2 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> 45OB5;L=>ABL 8 ?>2545=85 4>H:>;L=8:>2 =0G8=0NB >ACI5AB2;OBLAO =0 >A=>25 A8AB5<K <>B82>2, A@548 :>B>@KE 2A5 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85 ?@8>1@5B0NB <>B82K >1I5AB25==>3> A>45@60=8O, :>B>@K5 ?>4G8=ONB 4@C385 <>B82K. ' !G : AB><8=0 3. . 0728B85 ?0<OB8. ., 1978, A. 62. * !< : 'C:>2A:89 . . B 42CE 4> ?OB8. ., 1970, A 86. 72 7CG5=85 <>B82>2 4>H:>;L=8:>2 40;> 2>7<>6=>ABL CAB0=>28BL A@548 =8E 425 1>;LH85 3@C??K: ;8G=K5 8 >1I5AB25==> 7=0G8<K5. # 45B59 <;04H53> 8 A@54=53> 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 ?@5>1;040NB ;8G=K5 <>B82K. =8 =081>;55 O@:> ?@>O2;ONBAO 2 >1I5=88 A> 27@>A;K<8. 515=>: AB@5<8BAO ?>;CG8BL M<>F8>=0;L=CN >F5=:C 27@>A;>3> >4>1@5=85, ?>E20;C, ;0A:C. >B@51=>ABL 2 >F5=:5 C @515=:0 =0AB>;L:> 25;8:0, GB> >= G0AB> ?@8?8AK205B A515 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 :0G5AB20. "0:, >48= 4>H:>;L=8:, ?>@O4>G=K9 B@CA8H:0, 3>2>@8; > A515: / ?>H5; 2 46C=3;8 >E>B8BLAO, 286C B83@. / 53> @07 ?>9<0; 8 >B?@028; 2 7>>?0@:. @0240, O A<5;K9? 8G=K5 <>B82K ?@>O2;ONBAO 2 @07;8G=KE 2840E 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 =0?@02;5=K =0 ?@54<5BK 45OB5;L=>AB8. 0?@8<5@, 2 83@>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 @515=>: AB@5<8BAO >15A?5G8BL A51O 83@CH:0<8 8 0B@81CB0<8 83@K, =5 0=0;878@CO 70@0=55 A0<>3> ?@>F5AA0 83@K 8 =5 2KOA=OO, ?>=04>1OBAO ;8 5<C 2 E>45 83@K 40==K5 ?@54<5BK. >AB5?5==> 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>2<5AB=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 4>H:>;L=8:>2 C @515=:0 D>@<8@CNBAO 8 >1I5AB25==> 7=0G8<K5 <>B82K, 2K@060NI85AO 2 D>@<5 65;0=89 A45;0BL GB>-B> 4;O 4@C38E ;N459.  4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 @515=>: =0G8=05B @C:>2>4AB2>20BLAO 2 A2>5< ?>2545=88 =@02AB25==K<8 =>@<0<8. # =53> D>@<8@CNBAO <>@0;L=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O 8 >F5=:8.  A@54=5< 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 @515=>: 0:B82=> ?5@568205B A>1KB8O, ?>ABC?:8, > :>B>@KE, A;KH0;, :>B>@K5 =01;N40;. @>O2;ONBAO A>GC2AB285, 701>B;82>ABL.  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A=>2=0O 7040G0 ?>43>B>2:8 45B59 : H:>;5 70:;NG05BAO A=>2K 4>H:>;L=>9 ?5403>38:8/>4 @54. . . 0?>@>6F0. ". . 0@:>2>9. ., 1980, A. 120. B5 2 8E >1I5< @0728B88. 5H0O MBC 7040GC, =5>1E>48<> H8@>:> 8A?>;L7>20BL 4840:B8G5A:85 83@K, =03;O4=>5 <>45;8@>20=85 72C:>2>3> A>AB020 A;>20 8 @07;8G=KE :>;8G5AB25==KE >B=>H5=89, ?>1C640BL @515=:0 : @07;8G=>3> @>40 ?@0:B8G5A:8< 459AB28O<. AA;54>20=8O 2>7<>6=>AB59 >1CG5=8O 5B59 A H5AB8;5B=53> 2>7@0AB0 ?>:070;8, GB> C =8E =5A:>;L:> 70B@C4=5= ?5@5E>4 >B 2=5H=53> ?;0=0 459AB28O 2> 2=CB@5==89. >MB><C =5>1E>48<0 BI0B5;L=0O >B@01>B:0 459AB28O 2> 2=5(=59 D>@<5. -B> ?@5645 2A53> >B=>A8BAO : @0728B8N <KH;5=8O. 0AA<0B@820O ?@>1;5<K D>@<8@>20=8O =03;O4=>->1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O, . . >44LO:>2 ?8H5B: 4=8< 87 206=59H8E <><5=B>2 MB0?0 <0B5@80;L=>3> 459AB28O O2;O5BAO D>@<8@>20=85 C 45B59 ?>;=KE 8 B>G=KE ?@54AB02;5=89 > ?@>872>;L=>< 459AB288 8 53> @57C;LB0B0E.  G5< 1>;55 BI0B5;L=> >B@010BK205BAO <0B5@80;L=>5 459AB285, B5< 1>;55 ?>;=K5 7=0=8O, ?@54AB02;5=8O >1 MB>< 459AB288 D>@<8@CNBAO C @515=:0'. A>15==>ABLN D>@<8@>20=8O 2=CB@5==53> ?;0=0 459AB28O 2 MB>< 2>7@0AB5 O2;O5BAO B0:65 8 @53C;OF8O @515=:>< A2>53> ?>2545=8O, GB> 2 .?5@2CN >G5@54L >B=>A8BAO : ?@8>1@5B5=8N 8< C<5=89 >?5@8@>20BL >1@070<8, 2 :>B>@KE ?@54AB02;5=K =>@<K ?>2545=8O, 8 ?>4G8=OBL A2>8 459AB28O MB8< MB0;>=0<. AA;54>20=8O2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 3>B>2=>AB8 : H:>;L=><C >1CG5=8N 45B59 H5AB8- 8 A5<8;5B=53> 2>7@0AB0 ?>:07K20NB, GB> A5<8;5B=85 45B8 : <><5=BC =0G0;0 70=OB89 2 H:>;5 2=CB@5==5 1>;55 3>B>2O : 2:;NG5=8N 2 CG51=K9 ?@>F5AA. 5@2>5 <5AB> A@548 70=OB89, =081>;55 8E ?@82;5:0NI8E, O2;ONBAO C@>:8 3@0<<0B8:8 8 AG5B0, B. 5. B5 70=OB8O, :>B>@K5 A?5F8D8G=K 8<5==> 4;O H:>;K. # H5AB8;5B>: >A=>2=>9 8=B5@5A 2K7K20NB C@>:8 GB5=8O, @8B<8:8, @8A>20=8O, 70=OB8O D87:C;LBC@>9 8 B@C4><. #G51=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL B@51C5B >B @515=:0 2KA>:>3> C@>2=O ?@>872>;L=>AB8, A>7=0B5;L=>3> :>=B@>;O 70 A2>8<8 459AB28O<8, C<5=8O ?>4G8=OBL 8E A8AB5<5 ?@028; 8 B@51>20=89, 7040205<KE CG8B5;5<.  8AA;54>20=883 1K;> CAB0=>2;5=>, GB> L =0G0;5 CG51=>3> 3>40 H5AB8;5B:0< B@51>20;>AL 3>@074> 1>;LH5 2@5<5=8 =0 2K?>;=5=85 CG51=KE 7040=89. =AB@C:F8O : 7040=8N, :>B>@0O 4020;0AL 45BO<, 4>;6=0 1K;0 1KBL >A>15==> ?>;=>9, B0: :0: ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 B>9, :>B>@0O 4020;0AL A5- ' >44LO:>2 . . KH;5=85 4>H:>;L=8:0. ., 1977, A. 18. * !<.: 56=>20 ". . A8E>;>38G5A:85 @07;8G8O 2 >B=>H5=88 : H:>;5 8 CG5=8N C H5AB8- 8 A5<8;5B=8E H:>;L=8:>2 2 =0G0;5 8 2 :>=F5 H:>;L=>3> >1CG5=8O.  :=.: 803=>AB8:0 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O 45B59/>4 @54. . . -;L:>===0, . . 5=35@0. ., 1981, " 87. ' !<.: $8;8??>20 . ., 5=35@ . .  ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>ABOE 5B59, >1CG0NI8EAO 2 H:>;5 A H5AB8 ;5B.   :=.: 803=>AB8:0 CG51=>9 5OB5;L=>ABO 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O 45B59/>4 @54. . . -;L:>=?- " 0, . . 5=35@0. ., 1981, A. 69, 74. 17 <8;5B:0<, ?@8E>48;>AL ?@81530BL : 4>?>;=8B5;L=><C @07JOA=5=8N >B45;L=KE 55 G0AB59. >2B>@=>5 >1A;54>20=85 H5AB8;5B>: 2 :>=F5 3>40 ?>:070;>, GB> ?> A2>5<C >B=>H5=8N : 7040=8O< 8 @57C;LB0B0< 8E 2K?>;=5=8O >=8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 ?5@5AB0;8 >B;8G0BLAO >B A5<8;5B=8E 45B59. #A?5E >1CG5=8O H5AB8;5B>: 7028A8B >B ?@028;L=>9 >@30=870F88 8E 687=8 8 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8'. ;O MB>3> >=8 4>;6=K CA2>8BL =>@<K ?>2545=8O CG5=8:0 8 >?@545;5==K< >1@07>< A51O 25AB8, => 2 B> 65 2@5<O =5>1E>48<> A>74020BL CA;>28O 4;O ?@>O2;5=8O 8E 0:B82=>AB8. 06=K< CA;>285< CA?5H=>3> >1CG5=8O H5AB8;5B>: O2;O5BAO :>=B@>;L 70 ?@>F5AA0<8 8E @0728B8O 8 8=48284C0;L=K9 ?>4E>4. @>2>48<K5 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 8AA;54>20=8O ?> @07@01>B:5 4803=>AB8: ?@5A;54CNB F5;L 2>2@5<O >1=0@C6820BL B>;L:> =0<5G0NI85AO >B:;>=5=8O 2 @0728B88 8 8A?@02;OBL 8E 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1CG5=8O. 4. !%'!  !+ "!"   #'.  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G5< 70:;NG05BAO 3>B>2=>ABL @515=:0 : >1CG5=8N 2 H:>;5? 16. 0:>2K ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@54?>AK;:8 >1CG5=8O H5AB8;5B>:? \ 8B5@0BC@0 <>G0H28;8 (. . 4@02AB2C9B5, 45B8! ., 1983. >7@0AB=0O 8 ?5403>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O/>4 @54. . . 5B@>2A:>3>.. 2-5 G74. ., 1979. A. 37 49. K3>BA:89 . !. !>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89 2 6-B8 B><0E. ., 1982, B. I. A. 362 454. 5=578A A5=A>@=KE A?>A>1=>AB59/>4 @54. . . 5=35@0. ., 1976, A. 3 13; 233 249. 803=>AB8:0 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O 45B59/>4 @54. . . -;L:>?880, . . 5=35@0. ., 1981, A. 3 13. AB><8< 3. . 0728B85 ?0<OB8. ., 1978. N1;8=A:0O . . 5BA:0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1971. CE8=0 . !. A8E>;>38O 4>H:>;L=8:0. ., 1975. CE8=0 . !. 7>1@078B5;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL @515=:0 :0: D>@<0 CA2>5=8O A>F80;L=>3> >?KB0. ., 1981, A. 9 40. A=>2K 4>H:>;L=>9 ?5403>38:8/>4 @54. . . 0?>@>6F0, ". . 0@:>2>9.  . 1980, A. 49 59. 0728B85 >1I5=8O C 4>H:>;L=8:>2/>4 @54. . . 0?>@>6F0 8 . II G^==>;'!. ., 1074. A 250 383. !>45@60=85 8 <5B>4K C<AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 4>H:>;L=8:>2/>4 @54. . . ?4GLO:>20. , 1980, A 5 54. -;L:>=8= . . A8E>;>38O 83@K. ., 1978, A. 271 285. 1* ^ > ;020 V.. /",!", ( (, 9 1. #'/ /",!",   !" #"#  >=OB85 >1 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 515=>:, ?>ABC?0NI89 2 H:>;C, =5 C<55B CG8BLAO, =5 2;0455B CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN.  ?5@2K5 4=8 2 H:>;5 459AB2C5B 2 >A=>2=>< CG8B5;L. = AB028B ?5@54 45BL<8 F5;8, ?>:07K205B A?>A>1K 2K?>;=5=8O 7040=8O, :>=B@>;8@C5B 8 >F5=8205B @01>BC @515=:0. #G51=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 254CI0O 45OB5;L=>ABL <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0. >4 254CI59 45OB5;L=>ABLN 2 A>25BA:>9 45BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?>=8<05BAO B0:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, ^,2 ?@>F5AA5 :>B>@>9 ?@>8AE>48B D>@<8@>20=85 >A=>2=KE ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2 8 A2>9AB2 ;8-G=>AB8, ?>O2;ONBAO 3;02=K5 =>2>>1@07>20=8O 2>7@0AB0 (?@>872>;L=>ABL, @5D;5:A8O, A0<>:>=B@>;L, 2=CB@5==89 ?;0= 459AB289)'. #G51=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A53> >1CG5=8O @515=:0 2 H:>;5. > A2>N 254CICN DC=:F8N B0 8;8 8=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, :0: AG8B05B . . -;L:>=8=,  >ACI5AB2;O5B =081>;55 ?>;=> 2 ?5@8>4, :>340 >=0 A:;04K205BAO, D>@<8@C5BAO. ;04H89 H:>;L=K9 2>7@0AB 8 5ABL ?5@8>4 =081>;55 8=B5=A82=>3> D>@<8@>20=8O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB82. #G51=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL MB> >A>1K9 284 45OB5;L=>AB8, >B;8G=K9 =0?@8<5@, >B B@C4>2>9. 7<5=OO <0B5@80;, @01>B0O A =8<, G5;>25: 2 ?@>F5AA5 B@C4>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A>7405B =>2K9 ?@>4C:B. !CI=>ABL B@C4>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A>AB>8B 8<5==> 2 A>740=88 @>4C:B0. !CI=>ABL 65 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A>AB>8B 2 ?@8A2>5=88 .=0CG=KE 7=0=88^ 515=>: ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< CG8B5;O =0G8=05B >?5@8@>20BL =0CG=K<8 ?>=OB8O<8. &5;L CG5=8O 2 A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 @0AA<0B@8205BAO =5 B>;L:> 2 ?;0=5 ?@8>1@5B5=8O 7=0=89, 0 3;02=K< >1@07>< 2 ?;0=5 >1>30I5=8O, ?5@5AB@0820=8O ;8G=>AB8 @515=:0. > <=5=8N . . -;L:>=8=0, @57C;LB0B>< CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2 E>45 :>B>@>9 ?@>8AE>48B CA2>5=85 =0CG=KE ?>=OB89, O2;O5BAO ?@5645 2A53> 87<5=5=85 A0<>3> CG5=8:0, 53> @0728B85.  >1I5< 2845 <>6=> A:070BL, GB> MB> 87<5=5=85 5ABL ?@8>1@5B5- ' "!<.: >7@0AB=0O 8 ?5403>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O/>4 @54. . . 5B@>2A:>3>. 2-5 874. , 1979, A. 86. 3 -;L:>=8= . . A8E>;>38O >1CG5=8O <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0. , 1974 (5403>38:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O, ! 10), A. 18. 84 .2=5 @515=:>< =>2KE A?>A>1=>AB59, B, 5. =>2KE A?>A>1>2 459- , AB28O A =0CG=K<8 ?>=OB8O<8.- "0:8< >1@07><, CG51=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 5ABL ?@5645 2A53> B0:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, 2 @57C;LB0B5 :>B>@>9 ?@>8AE>4OB 87<5=5=8O 2 A0<>< CG5=8:5. -B> 45OB5;L=>ABL ?> A0<>87<5=5=8N, 55 ?@>4C:B>< O2;ONBAO B5 87<5=5=8O, :>B>@K5 ?@>87>H;8 2 E>45 55 2K?>;=5=8O 2 A0<>< AC1J5:B5'. -B8 87<5=5=8O A>AB02;ONB: 87<5=5=8O 2 C@>2=5 7=0=89, C<5=89, =02K:>2, >1CG5==>AB8; 87<5=5=8O 2 C@>2=5 AD>@<8@>20==>AB8 >B45;L=KE AB>@>= CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; 87<5=5=8O 2 C<AB25==KE >?5@0F8OE, >A>15==>ABOE ;8G=>AB8, B. 5. 2 C@>2=5 >1I53> 8 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O. #G51=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL  MB> A?5F8D8G5A:0O D>@<0 8=4828-4C0;K">9 0:B82=>AB8. =0 A;>6=0 ?> A2>59 AB@C:BC@5 8 B@51C5B A?5F80;L=>3> D>@<8@>20=8O. 0: 8 B@C4>20O, CG51=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL E0@0:B5@87C5BAO F5;O<8, <>B820<8. 0: 8 27@>A;K9 G5;>25:, 2K?>;=ONI89 @01>BC, CG5=8: 4>;65= 7=0BL, GB> 45;0BL, 7'0G5< 45;0BL, :0: 45;0BL, 2845BL A2>8 >H81:8, :>=B@>;8@>20BL 8 >F5=820BL A51O. 515=>:, ?>ABC?0NI89 2 H:>-~ ;C, =8G53> MB>3> A0<>AB>OB5;L=> =5 45;05B, B. 5. >= =5 >1;0405B CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN.  ?@>F5AA5 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 <;04H89 H:>;L=8: =5 B>;L:> CA208205B 7=0=8O, C<5=8O 8 =02K:8. => 8 CG8BAO AB028BL ?5@54 A>1>9 CG51=K5 7040G8 (F5;8), =0E>48BL A?>A>1K CA2>5=8O 8 ?@8<5=5=8O 7=0=89, :>=B@>;8@>20BL 8 >F5=820BL A2>8 459AB28O. !B@C:BC@0 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. . . -;L:>=8=89__..0 2K4>22 @0AA<0B@820NB CG51=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 2 548=AB25 =5A-:>;L:8E^55'" :><?>=5=B>2: CG51=>9 7040G8, CG51=KE 459AB289, ^ 459AB289 A0<>:>=B@>;O 8 A0<>>F5=:8. ) (^^'0"3^^- =04> >B;8G0BL >B_ :>=:@5B=>^?@_0:B8G5A:>9. 0?@8<5@, ?5@54 CG0HO<=AO~<>65B AB>OBL 7040G0 2KCG8BL AB8E>B2>@5=85.  <>65B AB>OBL 7040G0 =0CG8BLAO 70CG820BL AB8- ^XQTBogeifte.  2 ?5@2>< A;CG05 45B8 :>5-G5<C =0CG0BAO, => 2@O4 ;8 2 A;54CNI89 @07 >=8 1C4CB 70CG820BL AB8E>B2>@5=85 1>;55 @0F8>=0;L=K<8 A?>A>10<8. > 2B>@>< 65 A;CG05 .?5@54 @515=:>< AB>8B 459AB28B5;L=> CG51=0O 7040G0. | . 5H5=85 <>65B 1KBL 4>AB83=CB> @07=K<8 ?CBO<8. >6=> ?@>AB> A>>1I8BL 45BO<, 87 :0:8E G0AB59 A>AB>8B A;>20;_?530- ^70BL~=0 '?@8<5@5, "70B5<?@54;>68BL @O4 7040G =0 >?@545;5=85 ':>@=O '8 4@C38E '<>@D>;>38G5A:8E"'G0AB59' A;>20, 8 MB> 1C45B B@048F8>==K< >1CG5=85< ?> >1@07FC-@57C;LB0BC, 0 <>6=> "2>>@C68BL @515=:0 A?>A>10<8, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@KE >?@542- ~. ;ONBAO G0AB8'A;>20^ > 2B>@>< A;CG05 45B8 2K?>;=ONB A?5F=- " -;KN=8= . . A8E>;>38O >1CG5=8O <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0. ., 1974 (5403>38:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O, ! 10), A. 45. * !<.: >7@0AB=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 CA2>5=8O 7=0=89/>4 @54. . . -;L:>=8=0, . . 02K4>20. ., 1966. 85 04L=>5 .#'51=>5_458AB2F5, :>B>@>5 A:;04K205BAO 87 @O40 3^51==E ">?5@0F89. 0?@8<5@, ?@8 >A2>5=88 <>@D>;>38G5A:>3> A>'"-" AB020 A;>20 MB> B0:85 >?5@0F88, :0: 87<5=5=85 D>@<K A;>20, A@02=5=85 A;>2, CAB0=>2;5=85 8E A<KA;>2>3> 8 D>=5-HG5A:>3> AE>4AB20 8 @07;8G8O, A@02=5=85 D>@<K A;>20 8 53> 7=0G5=8O. =0=85 A?>A>1>2 459AB28O >15A=5GF-_. 205B CA?5H=K9 @57C;LB0B,'?@=4053 45OB5;L=>AB8 AG8A;, AB02.!_ C48:0 2 ?>78F8N 55 AC1J5:B0, GB> 2 A2>N >G5@54L AB8<C;8@C5B 8 ?>445@68205B 8=B5@5A @515=:0 : CG5=8N. B0:, ?>;=>F5==>5 >1CG5=85 @515=:0 =0G8=05BAO B>340, :>340 >= CG "A O CG8BLAO, >2;045205B CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN. @8 >1KG=>< >1CG5=88 ?> >1@07F0< >F5=8205BAO ?@5645 2A53> @57C;LB0B, >2;045=85 65 A?>A>1>< 459AB28O AG8B05BAO ?@8 ?>;CG5=88 @57C;LB0B0 4>AB83=CBK<. > AB>8B =5<=>3> >B>9B8 >B >1@07F0, :0: 45B8 C65 =5 A?@02;ONBAO A 7040G59. =8 CG0BAO ?>2B>@5=8N ?> >1@07FC, 0 =5 >2;045=8N >1I8< A?>A>1>< @5H5=8O. 59AB285 A0<>:>=B@>;O 5ABL 459AB285 A;8G5=8O, A>->3=5A5==O CG51=KE 459AB289 A >1@07F><, :>B>@K9 70405BAO 872=5.  ?@0:B8:5 @01>BK H:>;K >1CG5=85 :>=B@>;N 845B ?CB5< ?@O<>3> ?>4@060=8O CG8B5;N, D>@<8@>20=85 :>=B@>;O >ACI5AB2;O5BAO AB8E89=>, ?CB5< ;@=<5@820=8O 8 15AG8A;5==KE ?@>1 8 >H81>:. >=B@>;L, :0: ?@028;>, >ACI5AB2;O9AO B>;L:> ?> :>=5G=><C @57C;LB0BC: @>25@L, A>H5;AO ;8 >B25B; @>25@L, =5 A45;0; ;8 >H81:8 ?@8 48:B0=B5. @><5 :>B@>;O ?> @57C;LB01C (8B>3>2K9 A0<>:>=B@>;L), 2K45;O5BAO 5I5 420 2840 A0<>:>=B@>;O: ?>>?5@0F8>==K9 8 ?5@A?5:B82=K91. >>?5@0F8>==K9 (?>H03>2K9, B5:CI89) A0<>:>=B@>;L 1>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L :>=B@>;O, G5< 8B>3>2K9. -B> :>@@5:F8O 45OB5;L=>AB8, A;565=85 70 E>4>< 459AB28O, 70 B5<, :0:>5 459AB285 2K?>;=O5BAO 2 40==K9 <><5=B, :0:85 459AB28O ?@>45;0=K, GB> 5I5 ?@54AB>8B 45;0BL. 4=>2@5<5==> 845B :>=B@>;L 8 :0G5AB20, :0: 2K?>;=O5BAO 459AB285, A>>B25BAB2CNB ;8 459AB28O 7040==K< B@51>20=8O<. 5@A?5:B82=K9 (?;0=8@CNI89) A0<>:>=B@>;L 5I5 1>;55 A>25@H5==K9 284 A0<>@53C;OF88. -B> :>@@5:B8@>20=85 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0 =5A:>;L:> >?5@0F89 2?5@54, A;8G5=85 ?@54AB>OI59 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 A2>8E 2>7<>6=>AB59 55 2K?>;=5=8O. 59AB285 A0<>>F5=:8 A>AB02;O5B ?@>F5AA >F5=820=8O @515=:>< A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0 @07=KE MB0?0E 55 >ACI5AB2;5=8O. !0<0O >1I0O 8 206=0O DC=:F8O A0<>>F5=:8 @53C;OB82=0O. K45;ONB 420 2840 A0<>>F5=:8: @5B@>A?5:B82=CN, B. 5. >F5=:C 4>AB83=CBKE @57C;LB0B>2 A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 (E>@>H> 8;8 ?;>E> O A45;0;?), 8 ' !<.: 0@:>20 . . A8E>;>38O CA2>5=8O O7K:0 :0: A@54AB20 >1I5=8O. ., 1974, A. 97 98. 86 ?@>3=>AB8G5A:CN, ?@54AB02;ONICN A>1>9 >F5=:C AC1J5:B>< A>1AB25==KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 (<>3C ;8 O A?@028BLAO A MB>9 7040G59 8;8 =5B?).  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 @515=>: 4>;65= A>>B=5AB8 CA;>285 7040G8 A> A2>8< >?KB><. -B0 A0<>>F5=:0 >?8@05BAO =0 @5D;5:A8N (C<5=85 2K45;OBL, 0=0;878@>20BL, A>>B=>A8BL A A8BC0F859 A2>8 2>7<>6=>AB8). !0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 >ACI5AB2;5=85 459AB289 A0<>:>=B@>;O 8 A0<>>F5=:8 2?>;=5 4>AB868<> C65 2 <;04H5< H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5'. "0:, 2 8AA;54>20=88 . . !594C;05202 C CG0I8EAO II III :;0AA>2 D>@<8@>20;AO ?@>F5AAC0;L=K9 (?>>?5@0F8>==K9) :>=B@>;L =0 C@>:0E @CAA:>3> O7K:0 ?@8 ;8=328AB8G5A:>< 0=0;875 A;>20. # 45B59 >B@010BK20;AO :>=B@>;L A;54CNI8E CG51=KE 459AB289: 87<5=5=85 A;>20, D>@<0;L=>5 A@02=5=85, A<KA;>2>5 A>?>AB02;5=85, <>45;8@>20=85 (3@0D8G5A:>5 2K45;5=85 <>@D5< 8 C:070=85 8E 7=0G5=89). @8 MB>< CG0I85AO ?>;L7>20;8AL A;54CNI8< ?@028;>< A0<>?@>25@:8: 1) A>AB02L ?;0= 2K?>;=5=8O 0=0;870 A;>20; 2) ):068 2A5 ?@87=0:8, =5>1E>48<K5 4;O 0=0;870 40==>3> B515 A;>20; 3) 2=8<0B5;L=> A;548 70 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABLN 459AB289 8 >B<5G09 8E 2K?>;=5=85; 4) AD>@<C;8@C9 ?>;CG5==K9 @57C;LB0B. K;0 22545=0 A8AB5<0 CA;>2=KE 7=0:>2, :>B>@0O ?>72>;8;0 CG0I8<AO A0<>AB>OB5;L=> >1>7=0G0BL 8 :>=B@>;8@>20BL 2K?>;=O5<K5 CG51=K5 459AB28O (459AB285 87<5=5=8O , 459AB285 D>@<0;L=>3> A@02=5=8O  , 459AB285, A<KA;>2>3> A@02=5=8O , 459AB285 <>45;8@>20=8O D). @028;L=>5 2K?>;=5=85 :064>3> 87 C:070==KE 459AB289 2 E>45 ;8=328AB8G5A:>3> 0=0;870 A;>20 D8:A8@>20;>AL A0<8<8 CG0I8<8AO 7=0:>< (+), 0 =5?@028;L=>5 2K?>;=5=85 7=0:>< ( ). !0<>>F5=:0 B0:65 1K;0 ?@54<5B>< A?5F80;L=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O @O40 02B>@>2. 0: ?>:070;> 8AA;54>20=85 . . 8?:8-=>93, >B A0<>>F5=:8 7028A8B 1>;LH0O 8;8 <5=LH0O C25@5==>ABL CG5=8:0 2 A2>8E A8;0E, >B=>H5=85 : 4>?CI5==K< >H81:0<, B@C4=>ABO< CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. ;04H85 H:>;L=8:8 A 045:20B=>9 A0<>>F5=:>9 >B;8G0;8AL 0:B82=>ABLN, AB@5<;5=85< : 4>AB865=8N CA?5E0 2 CG5=88, ?@>O2;5=85< <0:A8<C<0 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8. !>2A5< 8=0G5 25;8 A51O 45B8 A =87:>9 A0- " !<.: -;L:>=8= . . A8E>;>38O >1CG5=8O <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0. ., 1974 (5403>38:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O, ! 10), A. 54. * !<.: !594C;052 . . $>@<8@>20=85 459AB28O :>=B@>;O 2 CG51=> 45OB5;L=>AB8 H:>;L=8:>2.  :=.: A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 H:>;L=8:0. ., 1977. ' !G.: 8?:8=0 . . !0<>>F5=:0 H:>;L=8:0. ., 1976 (5403>38:0 " ?A8E>;>38O, ! 12), A. 46 64. 87 <>>F5=:>9. =8 ?@>O2;O;8 =5C25@5==>ABL 2 A515, 1>O;8AL CG8B5;O, 640;8 =5CA?5E0, =0 C@>:0E ?@54?>G8B0;8 A;CH0BL 4@C38E, G5< A0<8< 2:;NG0BLAO 2 >1AC645=85.  A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 . . =?:8=0 8A?>;L7>20;0 @O4 A?>A>1>2 4;O ?>2KH5=8O 045:20B=>AB8 A0<>>F5=:8. 1. 0 ?@>BO65=88 3>40 2A5 45B8 4>;6=K 1K;8 A0<8 >F5=820BL A2>8 @01>BK, ?@5645 G5< >B40BL 8E =0 ?@>25@:C CG8B5;N. 0B5< @01>BK >F5=820;8AL CG8B5;5<, >1AC640;8AL A;CG08 =5A>2?045=8O 8 2KOA=O;8AL >A=>20=8O, =0 :>3>@KE AB@>8;0AL >F5=:0 MB8E @01>B 45BL<8 A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 8 CG8B5;5< A 4@C3>9. !B5?5=L 045:20B=>AB8 >F5=820=8O A2>8E @01>B 2>7@0AB0;0. A;8 2 =0G0;5 CG51=>3> 3>40 80% 45B59 >F5=820;8 A2>8 @01>BK =0 10;; 2KH5, B> : :>=FC 3>40 MB> =01;N40;>AL B>;L:> C 20% CG0I8EAO. 2. 01>BK, 2K?>;=5==K5 2 :;0AA5, @074020;8AL =0 2708<=>5 @5F5=78@>20=85. "@51>20;>AL >B<5B8BL 4>AB>8=AB20 8 =54>AB0B:8 8 2KA:070BL A2>5 <=5=85 >1 >F5=:5. >A;5 @5F5=78@>20=8O @01>B0 2>72@0I0;0AL 02B>@C, 8 CG0I89AO <>3 5I5 @07 ?@>0=0;878@>20BL A>1AB25==CN @01>BC, GB> D>@<8@>20;> :@8B8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 : A>1AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 3. !;01>CA?520NI5<C CG5=8:C A 70=865==>9 A0<>>F5=:>9, @57:8< A=865=85< <>B820 4>AB865=8O ?>@CG0;>AL >:07K20BL ?><>IL A;01>CA?520NI5<C <;04H5<C H:>;L=8:C, GB> 87<5=O;> A>F80;L=>-;8G=>AB=CN ?>78F8N @515=:0, E0@0:B5@ 53> 45OB5;L=>AB8, >B=>H5=85 : A515. >2KH5=85 A0<>>F5=:8 1;03>40@O 708<AB2>20=8N ?>78F88 CG8B5;O 2 40==>< A;CG05 1K;> ?@54?>AK;:>9 ?>2KH5=8O C@>2=O A>1AB25==>9 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 87<5=5=8O >B=>H5=8O : =59. 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CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. ">;L:> 2 MB>< A;CG05 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > B><, GB> CG51=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL AB0;0 254CI59. ' !<.: 0E0@>20 . . $>@<8@>20=85 A0<>>F5=:8 2 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8.   :=.: A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 H:>;L=8:0. ., 1977. 2 !<.: =4@CI5=:> ". .. 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A2O78 A MB8< ?@8 C?@02;5=88 @0728B85< =04> >@85=B8@>20BLAO =0 8=48284C0;L=K5 >A>15==>AB8 H:>;L=8:0. #?@02;5=85 D>@<8@>20=85< CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8.  8AA;54>20=8OE . . 02K4>20 8 . . -;L:>=8=0 8 8E A>B@C4=8:>2 @0A:@KBK >A>15==>AB8 D>@<8@>20=8O A0<>9 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0. . . 02K4>2 A2O7K205B B@C4=>ABL CA2>5=8O <0B5@80;0 2 =0G0;L=KE :;0AA0E A M<?8@8G5A:8< E0@0:B5@>< >1>1I5=8O. 040G0 65 H:>;K, ?> 53> <=5=8N, A>AB>8B 2 D>@<8@>20=88 B5>@5B8G5A:>3> >1>1I5=8O.  B5>@5B8G5A:>< >1>1I5=88 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL 2 B>< A;CG05, :>340 CG0I89AO =0 >A=>25 F5;5=0?@02;5==>3> 0=0;870 >4=>3> G0AB=>3> A;CG0O ?>;CG05B 2>7<>6=>ABL 2K45;8BL ACI5AB25==K5 ?@87=0:8 :0: >A=>2C ?>=OB8O. 0?@8<5@, =0 >A=>25 0=0;870 >4=>9 7040G8 (<>45;8 4@C38E 7040G) 2KOA=O5BAO .>1I0O AB@C:BC@0 A?>A>10 @5H5=8O, 0 70B5< MB>B A?>A>1 ?@8<5=O5BAO : 4@C38< 7040G0<. $>@<8@>20=85 >1>1I5==KE ?@85<>2 @5H5=8O 7040G A@54AB2> CA?5H=>3> 2K?>;=5=8O G0AB=KE 7040G. @8 B0:>< A?>A>15 >1CG5=8O ?@>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O '?>=OB89 AB0=>28BAO 2>AE>645=85< >B 01AB@0:B=KE ?>AK;>: : :>=:@5B=K< 7=0=8O<. ! MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O >1CG5=85 4>;6=> AB@>8BLAO A;54CNI8< >1@07><: ?5@2>=0G0;L=> H:>;L=8:8 4>;6=K CA2>8BL >A=>2=K5 ?>=OB8O, A>AB02;ONI85 B5>@8N 40==>3> ?@54<5B0, GB> 405B ?>=8<0=85 53> >1I8E ?@87=0:>2, 0 MB>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?><>305B @0A:@KBL G0AB=K5 ?@8<5=5=8O. @30=870F8O CA2>5=8O 7=0=89 ?> ?@8=F8?C B5>@5B8G5A:>3> >1>1I5=8O ?@8- 5=G8=A:0O . . @>1;5<K A0<>C?@02;5=8O ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN 8 @0728B85 ;8G=>AB8.   :=.: "5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K C?@02;5=8O ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN G5;>25:0. ., 1975, A. 118. 119 2>48B : CA2>5=8N H:>;L=8:0<8 2A5>1I8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59 40==>3> CG51=>3> ?@54<5B0 8 2KO2;5=8N CG0I8<8AO >1I53> A?>A>10 A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8. >7=8:05B 2>?@>A: :0: 65 <>6=> 2K45;8BL MB> >1I55? G5284=>, GB> MB> >1I55 2>7=8:05B 2A;54AB285 B0:8E 459AB289 45B59 A <0B5@80;><, B0:8E 53> 87<5=5=89, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@KE 45B8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=> >B:@K20NB 87CG05<K5 A2>9AB20. @82545< ?@8<5@ B0:>9 >@30=870F88 CA2>5=8O 7=0=89. 5B59 CG8;8, :0: =04> 459AB2>20BL A> A;>2>< 8 ?@54;>65=85<, GB>1K @0A:@KBL 8E AB@C:BC@C 8 DC=:F88. #G0I89AO ?@>872>48; A;54CNI85 459AB28O, GB>1K 2KOA=8BL <>@D>;>38G5A:89 A>AB02 A;>20. 1. 7<5=5=85 8AE>4=>3> A;>20, ?>;CG5=85 53> 20@80=B=KE, @>4AB25==KE A;>2. 2. !@02=5=85 7=0G5=89 8AE>4=>3> A;>20 8 =>2KE A;>2, ?>;CG5==KE 2 @57C;LB0B5 87<5=5=88 8AE>4=>3> A;>20. 3. !>?>AB02;5=85 D>@< 8AE>4=>3> A;>20 G =>2KE A;>2 8 2K45;5=85 <>@D5<. 4. #AB0=>2;5=85 DC=:F8>=0;L=>3> 7=0G5=8O <>@D5<, 2E>4OI8E 2 A>AB02 0=0;878@C5<>3> A;>20. 59AB285 87<5=5=8O A;>20 ?@82>48B 2 42865=85 53> 7=0G5=85. O4>< A 8AE>4=K< A;>2>< B5?5@L AB>OB 53> 20@80=B=K5 D>@<K, >B;8G0NI85AO >4=0 >B 4@C3>9 => 7=0G5=8N.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 2 8AA;54>20=8OE A>25BA:8E ?A8E>;>3>2 AB02BAO 2>?@>A 8 >1 C?@02;5=88 <>B820F8>==K< :><?>=5=B>< CG5=8O, :>B>@K9, :0: ?>:07K20NB 8AA;54>20=8O . . A=G8=-A:>9, O2;O5BAO =081>;55 48=0<8G=K<, 0 7=0G8B, 8 C?@02;O5<K<. #?@02;5=85 ?@>F5AA>< CG5=8O 4>;6=> 1KBL =0?@02;5=> =5 =0 ?@8=C645=85 CG0I8EAO : 2K?>;=5=8N C?@02;ONI8E 2>7459AB288 CG8B5;O, 0 =0 B>, G3>1K 2K720BL C CG5=8:0 ?>B@51=>ABL 8 65;0=85 8E 2K?>;=OBL. ;O MB>3> C?@02;5=85 4>;6=> >?8@0BLAO =0 2=CB@5==85 A8;K CG5=8-:0. #?@02;5=85 CG5=85< 4>;6=> 1KBL 381:8<. 5AB:>ABL C?@02;5=8O (AB@>30O ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 459AB289 CG5=8:0 2 ?@>F5AA5 CG5=8O) 4>;6=0 C1K20BL ?> <5@5 @>AB0 CG0I8EAO. A;8 2 <;04H5< H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 >=0 <>65B 1KBL-?>;=>9, B> C65 ?@8 ?5@5E>45 : <;04H5<C ?>4@>AB:>2><C 2>7@0ABC (IV V :;0AAK) >=0 4>;6=0 ?@8>1@5B0BL 8725AB=CN 381:>ABL'. ! 2>7@0AB>< 4>;6=> 84B8 87<5=5=85 AB5?5=8 CG0AB8O A0<>3> H:>;L=8:0 2 ?>AB0=>2:5 G0AB=KE F5;59 CG5=8O.  <;04H5< 2>7@0AB5 CG5=8: A >E>B>9 8 65;0=85< ?@8=8<05B, F5;8, ?@54;0305<K5 CG8B5;5<, => A ?5@5E>4>< @515=:0 2 1>;55 AB0@H89 :;0AA C =53> 2>7=8:05B ?>B@51=>ABL AB0BL AC1J5:B>< A2>59 ' $@84<0= . .  :>=F5?F88 C?@02;5=8O ?@>F5AA>< CG5=8O 2 A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 ?5403>38:5.   :=.: "5>@5B8G5A:85- ?@>1;5<K C?@02;5=8O ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN G5;>25:0. ., 1975, A. 197. 120 45OB5;L=>AB8, B. 5. 8<5BL ?@02> 8 >ACI5AB2;OBL 53> 2 ?>@>645-' =88 G0AB=KE F5;59 A2>8E :>=:@5B=KE 45OB5;L=>AB59*. '5< AB0@H5 @515=>:, B5< 1>;55 ;8G=>AB=K9 E0@0:B5@ 4>;6=> ?@8>1@5B0BL CG5=85. A8E>;>38G5A:8 3@0<>B=>5 C?@02;5=85 A =5>1E>48<>ABLN 2K7K205B 2AB@5G=CN 0:B82=>ABL H:>;L=8:0, 157 :>B>@>9 2>>1I5 =52>7<>65= ?@>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O 7=0=89, =02K:>2 " 8 C<5=89 8 C<AB25==>5 @0728B85. S. " #/ /",!", ( (,  <;04H5< H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 2;8O=85 =0 D>@<8@>20=85 206=59H8E G5@B ;8G=>AB8 >:07K205B, ?><8<> CG51=>9, 8 B@C4>20O 45OB5;L=>ABL, =0?@02;5==0O =0 A>740=85 >?@545;5==>3> ?@>4C:B0. K45;5=85 B@C40 2 A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN, >B25BAB25==CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 87<5=O5B 53> E0@0:B5@ 8 A>45@60=85. A;8 B@C4 4>H:>;L=8:0 MB> ?@58<CI5AB25==> B@C4 ?> A0<>>1A;C6820=8N, B> C H:>;L=8:0 >= A2O70= A >1I8<8 7040G0<8 A5<L8 8 H:>;K. >H:>;L=8:C, :0: ?@028;>, 40NB >B45;L=K5 <5;:85 ?>@CG5=8O: ?>9B8 BC40-B>, ?@8=5AB8 B>-B>. 5@54 @515=:>< H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 AB02OBAO 1>;55 A;>6=K5 7040G8. 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B<5B:0. , 1980, (^5403>38:0 O ?A2;>;>38O, ! 10), A. 3 19. 38 63. ,3>O2;5=A:89 . ., 5=G8=A:0O . . A8E>;>38O CA2>5=8O 7=0=8O 2 H:>B5. .. 1959, 3;. IV. A. 155 177. >6>28G . . 8G=>ABL 8 55 D>@<8@>20=85 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5. ., 1968, G. 3, 3;. 2. 1, 2. A. 247 259. 02K4>2 . . 84K >1>1I5=8O 2 >1CG5=88. , 1972, 3;. IV, A. Ill 171, 3;. VIII, A. 364 394. >7@0AB=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 CA2>5=8O 7=0=89/>4, @54. . . -;L:>=?=0 8 . . 02K4>20. ., 1966, 3;. I, A. 3 53, 3;. II, A. 126 190 3; IV A. 359 394, 3;. V, A. 395 420. >?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2/>4 @54. . . -;L:>=8=0, . . 02K4>20. ., 1962, A. 25 49, 50 184, 224 258. CA028F:89 . . 0304:0 ?B8FK $5=8:A. ., 1978. 8?:8=0 . . !0<>>F5=:0 H:>;L=8:0. ., 1976, (5403>38:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O, ! 12). A. 46 64. 0@:>20 . .. $>@<8@>20=85 <>B820F88 CG5=8O 2 H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5 ., 1983, A. 3 69, 88 95. " ' 5=G8=A:0O . . @>1;5<K CG5=8O 8 @0728B8O.   :=.: @>1;5<K >1I59, 2>7@0AB=>9 8 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. !.. 1978, A. 253 268. 1CG5=85 8 @0728B85/>4 @54. . . 0=:>20. ., 1975, 3;. Ill, A. 46 57, 3;. VII, VIII, IX, A. 155 238. @>1;5<K 4803=>AB8:8 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O CG0I8EAO/>4 A54 3. . 0;<K:>2>9, ., 1975, A. 10 38. A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K =5CA?5205<>AB8 H:>;L=8:>2/>4 @54. . . 5=G8=A:>9. .. 1971, 3;. IV, A. 96 128. "0;K78=0 . $. #?@02;5=85 ?@>F5AA>< CA2>5=8O 7=0=89. ., 1975, 3;. II, 3, 4, A. 84 143. $0@0?>=>20 -. ., '5@=KH52 . . $>@<8@>20=85 >1I5AB25==KE <>B82>2 B@C4>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 C <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2.   :=.: A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 H:>;L=8:0/>4 @54.   02K4>20. ., 1977. $0@0?>=>20 -. . 1CG5=85 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2 @01>B5 A ?@>AB59H8<8 G5@B560<8 =0 C@>:0E ?>;8B5E=8G5A:>9 B@C4>2>9 ?>43>B>2:8.  "0< 65. $@84<0= . . A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:85 >A=>2K >1CG5=8O <0B5<0B8:5 2 H:>;5. ., 1983, 3;. III, IV. -;L:>=H . . A8E>;>38O >1CG5=8O <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0. ., 1974, (5403>H:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O, ! 10), A. 3 64. /:>1A>= . . A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K <>B820F88 ?>2545=8O G5;>25:0. ., 1969. G. I, 3;. 5. ;020 Yl. )/ % " !" '!"  -&,- !$ + ( (, 1. !!" '!"   " !" 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"0:>2K 40==K5, :>B>@K5 3>2>@OB > B><, GB> 2;8O=85 CA?5205<>AB8 H:>;L=8:>2 =0 8E A0<>>F5=:C =5A><=5==>. > MB> 2;8O=85 ?>4405BAO 87<5=5=8N, :>@@5:F88.  8AA;54>20=88 . . 14@0E<0=>2>91, ?@>2>48<>< ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< . . 8?:8=>9, ?A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:89 M:A?5@8<5=B A>AB>O; 2 A;54CNI5<.  >4=>< :;0AA5 :064>3> @515=:0 A@02=820;8 B>;L:> A =8< A0<8<. #A?5E8 8;8 =5C40G8 @515=:0 =5 A>?>- ' !<.: 14@0E<0=>20 . . 028A8<>ABL A0<>>F5=:8 >B 8=B@0;?G=>AB=>-3> 8 88B5@;8G=>AB=>3> A@02=5=8O. >?@. ?A8E>;>388, 1975, ! 5, A. 138. 148 AB02;O;8AL A @57C;LB0B0<8, :>B>@KE 4>AB83;8 4@C385.  4@C3>< :;0AA5 CA?5E8 >4=>3> @515=:0 A@02=820;8 A CA?5E0<8 8;8 =5CA?5E0<8 4@C3>3>, ?@8 MB>< A>?>AB02;O;8 @02=>3> A @02=K< 5<C ?> 2>7<>6=>ABO< (A?>A>1=>ABO<), => 2 A8;C >?@545;5==KE ;8G=>AB=KE :0G5AB2 (AB5?5=L AB0@0B5;L=>AB8, >@30=87>20==>AB8, 48AF8?;8=8@>20==>AB8), 4>AB830NI8< 2 CG5=88 4@C38E @57C;LB0B>2. !@02=5=85 745AL =5 ?@8=860;> CG5=8:0, 0, =0>1>@>B, @0A:@K20;> 3/5@54 =8< 53> 2>7<>6=>AB8.  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AA;54>20=8O2 ?>:070;8, GB> -y^eHHKa.M.JL.JL-U :;0AA>2 =54>ABC?=0 5I5 >F5=:0 A>1AB25==>9 ;8G=>AB8 2 F5;><, 0" CG0I85AO III :;0AA0 C65 ?@>O2;ONB BC A?>A>1=>ABL. @8 MB>< >=8 25AL<0 :@8B8G=>" >B=>AOBAO : ' !G : 0E0@>20 .  $>@<8@>20=85 A0<>>F5=:8 2 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8.  mi.: A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 H:>;L=8:0. ., 1977, 5@FD08 . ., 0E0@>20   F5=:0 CG0I8<8AO ?@>F5AA0 8 @57C;LB0B>2 @5H5=8O CG51=KE 7040G  >?@ ?A8E>;>388. 1975, M 6; =4@CI5=:> ". .. A8E>;>38G5A:85 ^;>28O D>@<8@>20=8O A0<>>F5=:8 L <;04H5< H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5. >?@ ?A8E>;>388, 1977, ! 4 t !<.: ![IG0: !. $  A0<>>F5=:5 ;8G=>AB8 CG0I8EAO 3-.\ 8 4 \ :;0AA>2.  A1.""@-2;5<K ?A8E>;>388 ;8G=>AB8 8 A>F80;L=0O ?A8\>;>38O. . 1977, " 1-19 >F5=:5 A>1AB25==>9 ;8G=>AB8, A?>A>1=K >?@545;8BLAO-2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 >F5=8BL =0;8G85 8;8 >BACBAB285 C A51O B>3>  8;8 8=>3> :0G5AB20. 5B0 @0AAC640NB B0:: </ E>GC 1KBL 0::C@0B=K<, 4>1@K<, ;0A:>2K<, C<=K< 8 B.4. 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F5;>< 2KO2;5=> B@8 C@>2=O @0728B8O =@02AB25==KE GC2AB2 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2'. 5BO< A 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< @0728B8O =@02AB25==KE GC2AB2 A2>9AB25==0 CAB>9G82>ABL 8 459AB25==>ABL B0:8E :0G5AB2, :0: GCB:>ABL, >B25BAB25==>ABL, >B7K2G82>ABL, 4>1@>B0. # H:>;L=8:>2 A> A@54=8< C@>2=5< @0728B8O =@02AB25==KE GC2AB2 MB8 65 :0G5AB20 ?@>O2;ONBAO B>;L:> ?> >B=>H5=8N : ' 4@C7LO<. 5B8 A =87:8< C@>2=5< @0728B8O B0:8E GC2AB2, 0 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> MB> 7=0G8B5;L=0O 3@C??0 CG0I8EAO, @54:> ?@>O2;ONB MB8 :0G5AB20 2> 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE A> A25@AB=8:0<8. G5284=>, GB> ?@8 2>A?8B0=88 =@02AB25==KE GC2AB2 =5>1E>48<> CG8BK20BL >3@0=8G5==>ABL =@02AB25==>3> >?KB0 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2. >MB><C =5>1E>48<0 A8AB5<0B8G5A:0O @01>B0 CG8B5;O ?> =0:>?;5=8N 8 >1>30I5=8N ;8G=>3> =@02AB25==>3> >?K- ' !<.: 8;8?5=:> . .  D>@<8@>20=88 =@02AB25==KE GC2AB2 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2.  :=.: A8E>;>38O CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 H:>;L=8:>2. ., 1982. 158 B0 CG0I8EAO. 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~45^AB188.  >4=8E 'A;CG0OE GC2AB20~A?>1A>1AB2CNB @0728B8N'' 2>;8, ~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s ! 6. II 3axs 3984 191 [! ?>ABC?;5=85< 2 H:>;C =0 @515=:0 459AB2C5B 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> @07=>>1@07=KE A8;L=KE @074@068B5;5=.  ?@>F5AA5 'CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >= 4>;65= C<5BL A>A@54>B>G8BLAO 8 ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< CG8B5;O >A>7=0==> 2K1@0BL 3;02=>5! ACI5AB25=-=>0-4;O A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8. --'"^ <0G5_=L 2.06=0 4;O<;04H53>'.. H:>;L=8:0,, ?@8 MB><) 4>ABC?=>ABL F5;58\ 5OB5;L=>ABL, =0?@02;5==0O =0 @5H5=85 @ABC?-^GLE'*"4;O"#G5==:0 7040G, \\\>\\>1\!10^^1{5^='0?@02;5==>ABL^^^^^^ @5H8<0O 7040G0, A>74020O >1J5:B111"C3>" 2>7<>6=>ABL CA?5E0, '70AB0&; O 5B_ @515=:0 <>18;87>20BL A8;K 4;O 4>AB865=8O F5;8, . ? @>O28BL .>230=87>20"=>ABL, ""5@?A=1"Q7~=1"AB>8G82>ABL1 ;O^= 0~-G8=0N8E53> H:>;L=8:0 @07@5H8<>ABL 7040G8 G0AB> >?@545;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> B5<, 2 :0:>9 <5@5 >= 2;0455B A@54AB20<8 4;O 55 @5H5=8O, => 8 B5<, =0A:>;L:> 5<C 284=0 F5;L. >MB><C @515=:C =5157@07;8G=>, 345 =0G0;> 8 :>=5F 7040=8O. 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'5< E0@0:B5@87CNBAO M<>F8>=0;L=K5 A>AB>O=8O <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0? @82548B5 ?@8<5@K ?@>O2;5=8O M<>F8>=0;L=KE A>AB>O=88. 7. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?@>O2;5=8O 2KAH8E GC2AB2 @515=:0. 8. 0: 2;8O5B :>;;5:B82 =0 D>@<8@>20=85 =@02AB25==KE GC2AB2? 9. E0@0:B5@87C9B5 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 :0G5AB20 2>;8 <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0 8 ?CB8 8E 2>A?8B0=8O. 10. 0A:@>9B5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 CA;>28O ?@8<5=5=8O ?>>I@5=8O 8 =0:070=8O. 11. E0@0:B5@87C9B5 A;CG;? ?@>O2;5=8O A<KA;>2>3> 10@L5@0 8 53> ?@8G8=K. ' 8B5@0BC@0 =8:5520 . . #G8B5;N > ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< :;8<0B5 2 :>;;5:B825. ., 1983. >6>28G . . 8G=>ABL 8 55 D>@<8@>20=85 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5. ., 1968, G. 3, 3;. I, II. >6>23? . . 'B> B0:>5 2>;O. !5<LO 8 H:>;0, 1981, ! 1. K3>BA:89 . !. >;O 8 55 @0728B85 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5.  :=.: 0728B85 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89. ., 1960. C:0B . ..  =5:>B>@KE >A>15==>ABOE 8 DC=:F88 8450;>2 2 H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5.  :=.: >?@>AK ?A8E>;>388 ;8G=>AB8 H:>;L=8:0. ., 1961. >;><8=A:89 /. ., 5@57>2K9 . . 5:>B>@K5 ?5403>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. -, 1977, A. 39 63. >ABK@;> . . 0728B85 2>;52>3> ?>2545=8O C 4>H:>;L=8:>2. 852, 1971, 3;. VIII. C?F>2 . . >A?8B0=85 2>;8. 0G0;L=0O H:>;0, 1981, ! 3. 8?:8=0 . . !0<>>F5=:0 H:>;L=8:0. ., 1976 (5403>38:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O, ! 10). 59B5A . !. #<AB25O=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 8: 2>7@0AB. ., 1971, 3;, I, A. & 45. 8@ 45BAB20: ;04H89 H:>;L=8:/>4 @54. . . %@??:>2>9. ., 1981, A. 261 265. CB>H:8= . . -<>F8>=0;L=0O 687=L 45BA:>3> :>;;5:B820. '., 1978 (5403>38:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O, ! 4). !02>=L:> . . >7@0AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 A>>B=>H5=8O >@85=B0F88 =0 A0<>>F5=:C 8 =0 >F5=:C 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8.  :=.: 7CG5=85 <>B820F88 ?>2545=8O 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2/>4 @54. . . >6>28G 8 . . ;03>=0-4568=>9. ., 1972. !;028=0 . !. 5B8 A 0DD5:B82=K< ?>2545=85<. ., 1966 A. 139 148. !;028=0 . !. >;L ?>AB02;5==>9 ?5@54 @515=:>< F5;8 : >1@07>20==>3> 8< A0<8< =0<5@5=8O :0: <>B82>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 H:>;L=8:0.   :=.: 7CG5=85 <>B820F88 ?>2545=8O 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2/>4 @54. . . >6>28G 8 . . ;03>=04568=>9. ., 1972. /:>1A>=.  . -<>F8>=0;L=0O 687=L H:>;L=8:0: A8E>;>38G5A:89 >G5@:  1966, 3;. I, A. 15 29; 3;. IV, A. 82 113; 3;. X, A. 249 289. B ;020 VII. ",+  &!!+ '!" ( (, ;!!"9! 1.  ;" ?'- =8<0=85 A0<> ?> A515 =5 O2;O5BAO >A>1K< ?>7=020B5;L=K< ?@>F5AA><. => ?@8ACI5 ;N1><C ?>7=020B5;L=><C ?@>F5AAC (2>A?@8OB8N, <KH;5=8N, ?0<OB8 8 B. 4.) 8 2KABC?05B :0: D>@<0, A?>A>1=>ABL >@30=870F88 MB>3> ?@>F5AA0. . . #H8?A:89 B0: 3>2>@8; > @>;8 2=8<0=8O: ...2=8<0=85 5ABL 8<5==> B0 425@L, G5@57 :>B>@CN ?@>E>48B 2A5, GB> B>;L:> 2E>48B 2 4CHC G5;>25:0 87 2=5H=53> <8@0'. 725AB=> 2KA:07K20=85 . 0@:A0, 2 :>B>@>< ?>4G5@:8205BAO 7=0G5=85 2=8<0=8O 2 B@C4>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8: ...2 B5G5=85 2A53> 2@5<5=8 B@C40 =5>1E>48<0 F5;5A>>1@07=0O 2>;O, 2K@060NI0OAO 2> 2=8<0=88, 8 ?@8B>< =5>1E>48<0 B5< 1>;55, G5< <5=LH5 B@C4 C2;5:05B @01>G53> A2>8< A>45@60=85< 8 A?>A>1>< 8A?>;=5=8O...2. #<5=85 1KBL 2=8<0B5;L=K< 8<55B 7=0G5=85 =5 B>;L:> 2 >1>30I5=88 CG0I8EAO 7=0=8O<8, C<5=8O<8 8 =02K:0<8, => 8 2 @0728B88 8E ;8G=>AB8. "0:, 5A;8 CG5=8: 2=8<0B5;L=> 2K?>;=O5B :0: 8=B5@5A=>5, B0: 8 =58=B5@5A=>5 7040=85, ?@5>4>;520O ?@8 MB>< =5?@8OB=K5 M<>F88, B> C =53> B@5=8@C5BAO 2>;52>5 CA8;85 8 D>@<8@C5BAO =0AB>9G82>ABL, F5;5CAB@5<;5==>ABL; 5A;8 CG5=8: 2=8<0B5;5= : B>20@8I0<, ?@>O2;O5B @50;L=CN 701>BC > =8E, B> C =53> @0728205BAO GC2AB2> B>20@8I5AB20. 5?@>872>;L=>5 2=8<0=85 <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0. @5>1;040NI8< 284>< 2=8<0=8O <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0 2 =0G0;5 >1CG5=8O O2;O5BAO =5?@>872>;L=>5, D878>;>38G5A:>9 >A=>2>9 :>B>@>3> A;C68B >@85=B8@>2>G=K9 @5D;5:A. 50:F8O =0 2A5 =>2>5, O@:>5, =5>1KG=>5 A8;L=0 2 MB>< 2>7@0AB5. 515=>: =5 <>65B 5I5 C?@02;OBL A2>8< 2=8<0=85< 8 G0AB> >:07K205BAO 2> 2;0AB8 2=5H=8E 2?5G0B;5=89. 065 ?@8 A>A@54>B>G5=88 2=8<0=8O CG0I85AO =5 70<5G0NB 3;02=>3>, ACI5AB25==>3>. -B> >1JOA=O5BAO >A>15==>ABO<8 8E <KH;5=8O. 03;O4=>->1@07=K9 E0@0:B5@ <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@82>48B : B><C, GB> CG0I85AO 2A5 A2>5 2=8<0=85 =0?@02;ONB =0 >B45;L=K5, 1@>A0NI85AO 2 3;070 ?@54<5BK 8;8 8E ?@87=0:8. >7=8:0NI85 2 A>7=0=88 45B59 >1@07K, ?@54AB02;5=8O 2K7K20NB A8;L=K5 ?5@56820=8O, :>B>@K5 >:07K20NB B>@<>7=>5 2;8O=85 =0 <KA;8B5;L=CN ' #H8=A:F9 . . !>1@. A>G. ., 1950, B. 10, A. 22. * 0@:A . 0?8B0;, B. 1. 0@:A ., -=35;LA $. !>G., 1, 23, A. 18?. 172 45OB5;L=>ABL. >MB><C 5A;8 ACBL ?@54<5B0 =5 =0E>48BAO =0 ?>25@E=>AB8, 5A;8 >=0 70<0A:8@>20=0, B> <;04H85 H:>;L=8:8 8 =5 70<5G0NB 55. ! @0728B85< 8 A>25@H5=AB2>20=85< <KH;5=8O <;04H85 H:>;L=8:8 2A5 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 AB0=>2OBAO A?>A>1=K<8 A>A@54>B>G8BL A2>5 2=8<0=85 =0 3;02=><, >A=>2=><, ACI5AB25==><. =8<0=85 <;04H53> H:>;L=8:0 B5A=> A2O70=> A <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN CG0I85AO =5 <>3CB A>A@54>B>G8BL A2>5 2=8<0=85 =0 =5OA=><, =5?>=OB=><. =8 1KAB@> >B2;5:0NBAO 8 =0G8=0NB 70=8<0BLAO 4@C38<8 45;0<8. 5>1E>48<> B@C4=>5, =5?>=OB=>5 A45;0BL 4;O CG0I8EAO ?@>ABK< 8 4>ABC?=K<, @072820BL 2>;52>5 CA8;85, 0 2<5AB5 A =8< 8 ?@>872>;L=>5 2=8<0=85. 0 ?@>BO65=88 <;04H53> H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 =5?@>872>;L=>5 2=8<0=85 @0728205BAO. 515=>: 1KAB@> @5038@C5B =0 B>, GB> 53> 8=B5@5AC5B, GB> A2O70=> A 53> ?>B@51=>ABO<8. A;8 @515=>: C2;5:AO GB5=85< :=838, B> =5?@>872>;L=>5 2=8<0=85 53> 1C45B >G5=L CAB>9G82K<, GB> A2O70=> A 2>7=8:=>25=85< AB>9:>3> 4><8=8@CNI53> >G030 2>71C645=8O 2 :>@5 3>;>2=>3> <>730 @515=:0. >MB><C >G5=L 206=> 2>A?8BK20BL ?>7=020B5;L=K5 8=B5@5AK 8 ?>B@51=>AB8. 0728B85 ?@>872>;L=>3> 2=8<0=8O. >;LH>5 7=0G5=85 @0728B8N ?@>872>;L=>3> 2=8<0=8O <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2 ?@84020; . . #H8=A:89. = 2KABC?0; ?@>B82 B>3>, GB>1K 25AL CG51=K9 ?@>F5AA 2 =0G0;L=KE :;0AA0E AB@>8;AO B>;L:> =0 8=B5@5A5 8 70=8<0B5;L=>AB8: >=5G=>, A45;02 70=8<0B5;L=K< A2>9 C@>:, 2K <>65B5 =5 1>OBLAO =0A:CG8BL 45BO<, => ?><=8B5, GB> =5 2A5 <>65B 1KBL 70=8<0B5;L=K< 2 CG5=L5, 0 =5?@5<5==> 5ABL 8 A:CG=K5 25I8, 8 4>;6=K 1KBL. @8CG8B5 65 @515=:0 45;0BL =5 B>;L:> B>, GB> 70=8<05B, => 8 B>, GB> =5 70=8<05B, 45;0BL @048 C4>2>;LAB28O 8A?>;=8BL A2>N >1O70==>ABL'. . . #H8=A:89 ?>4G5@:820;, GB> >4=>3> ?0AA82=>3> 2=8<0=8O 5I5 =54>AB0B>G=>, 8 4065 @0728B>5 ?@56452@5<5==>, G@57<5@=> 8 157 A>459AB28O 0:B82=>3> 2=8<0=8O... >=> <>65B ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 1>;57=5==>5 A>AB>O=85 4CH8, :>B>@0O 45;05BAO :0:>N-B> 15AA8;L=>9, ;5=82>9, B@51C5B 15A?@5AB0==> @074@065=8O 8=B5@5A=K<8 @0AA:070<8 8;8 8=B5@5A=K< GB5=85<2. 0: ?>:07K20NB 8AA;54>20=8O A>25BA:8E ?A8E>;>3>2 (. . >6>28G, . . 5>=BL520 8 4@.), @0728B85 ?@>872>;L=>3> 2=8<0=8O 2 A;CG05 @C:>2>4AB20 MB8< ?@>F5AA>< 2 ?5@2K5 3>4K >1CG5=8O <>65B ?@>8AE>48BL 4>2>;L=> 8=B5=A82=>. >;LH>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B @0728B85 C CG0I8EAO C<5=8O @01>B0BL F5;5=0?@02;5==>. 5@2>=0G0;L=> F5;L ?5@54 CG5=8:0<8 AB02OB 27@>A;K5 (@>48B5;8, CG8B5;O), 8, 5A;8 MB> =5>1E>48<>, 27@>A;K5 >:07K20NB ?><>IL 45BO< 2 55 4>AB865=88. 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" 02K4>2 . . 84K >1>1I5=8O 2 >1CG5=88. ., 1972, !.-264 282. ,30: . 3. 0: >?@545;8BL C@>25=L @0728B8O <KH;5=8O H:>;L=8:0. ., 1982 (5403>38:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O, ! 1), A. 37 77. ' 528B8=0 !. !, >6=> ;8 C?@02;OBL 2=8<0=85< H:>;L=8:0? ., 1980 (5403>38:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O, ! 11), A. 19 52. 1CG5=85 8 @0728B85/>4 @54. . . 0=:>20. ., 1975, 3;. VIII, A. 181 206. >;CO=>2 .. . >>1@065=85 8 A?>A>1=>AB8. ., 1982, (5403>38:0 8 ?A8E>;>38O, ! 11), A. 3 34. !<8@=>2 . . @>1;5<K ?A8E>;>388 ?0<OB8. ., 1966, A. 242 269, 285 299, 324 329. (0@40:>2 . . KH;5=85 H:>;L=8:0. ., 1963, A. 66 95, 120 143. $@84<0= . . A8E>;>3>-?5403>38G5A:85 >A=>2K >1CG5=8O <0B5<0B8:5 2 H:>;5. ., 1983. A. 32 37. ;020 VIIL  !+ !% #, %  (# (,# 1.  / #,+% !!" 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