╨╧рб▒с>■  ТФ■   ВГДЕЖЗИЙКЛМНОПРС                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ье┴#`°┐ь, bjbjmеmе.U ╧╧iU      дЇЇЇЇЇЇЇdX|Ё|Ё|Ё░,ёЬ╚Є<XнЎўў(8ў8ў8ў8ў8ў8ў┤╢╢╢╢╢╢$гh Ў┌НЇ8ў8ў8ў8ў8ў┌ЇЇ8ў8ўgМММ8ўFЇ8ўЇ8ў┤М8ў┤ММЇЇМ8ўў `qзк├╧|Ё~¤М└Ї}0нМ~╢МЇМ48ў8ўМ8ў8ў8ў8ў8ў┌┌4X8ў8ў8ўн8ў8ў8ў8ўXXX$ъ|ЁXXX|ЁXXXЇЇЇЇЇЇ     #'-!!",! !""#" 0111 ,&) !"/  '!% # !!!  1@07>20=85 5403>38G5A:85 " =0C:8 " +(/  #!" !" (, >4 @540:F859 . . >44LO:>20, . $. >2>@:>2>9  74.113.8  17 5G0B05BAO ?> @5H5=8N 540:F8>?8>-8740B5;LA:>3> A>25B0 :045<88 ?5403>38G5A:8E =0C: !!!  2B>@K: . . ,/, . D.  ,   "( . .  , . .  !, - !   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B0:, B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL B>;L:> =0 >A=>25 B2>@G5A:>3> <5B>40 2>A?8B0=8O 8 >1CG5=8O.  MB>< 0A?5:B5 87CG0;8AL 2708<>A2O78 >B45;L=KE :><?>=5=B>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 (<>B820, F5;8 8 CA;>289) A >1@07CNI8<8 55 548=8F0<8 (459AB28O<8 8 >?5@0F8O<8), 0 B0:65 2708<>A2O7L ?>A;54=8E A 45OB5;L=>ABLN 8 <564C A>1>9. !>3;0A=> ?@8=OB>9 2 @01>B0E ?> ?A8E>;>388 45OB5;L=>AB8 B5@<8=>;>388, 45OB5;L=>ABL, 459AB28O 8 >?5@0F88 A>AB02;ONB <0:@>AB@C:BC@C 45OB5;L=>AB8 [. . 0?>@>65F, 1960; .. . 8??5=@59B5@, 1973; . . 5>=-BL52, 1983]. K@060OAL O7K:>< MB>9 B5@<8=>;>388, >A=>2=>9 7040G59 =0H53> M:A?5@8<5=B0 1K;> 87CG5=85 2=CB@5==59 48=0<8:8 <0:@>AB@C:BC@K 45OB5;L=>AB8. !>3;0A=> ?>;>65=8O<, @07@01>B0==K< 2 B@C40E . . 5>=BL520, 0 B0:65 4@C38E ?A8E>;>3>2 [. /. 0;L?5@8=, 1957, 1976; . . 0?>@>65F, 1960; . . 8=G5=:>, . . >@4>=, 1976], ?@54AB02;5=85 > <0:@>AB@C:BC@5 45OB5;L=>AB8 =5?>A@54AB25==> A2O70=> A 2K45;5=85< 2 45OB5;L=>AB8 55 ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O. => >?@545;O5B @50;L=CN AB@C:BC@C ?>2545=8O G5;>25:0 2 :>=:@5B=>9, 31 AC1J5:B=> ?@54AB02;5==>9 5<C ?@54<5B=>9 A8BC0F88. !B@C:BC@0 B0:>3> ?>2545=8O (8;8 л>1I53> ?>B>:0 45OB5;L=>AB8╗, ?> . . 5>=BL52C) >1@07>20=0 >A>1K<8 548=8F0<8, 2 :0G5AB25 :>B>@KE 2KABC?0NB 45OB5;L=>ABL, 459AB285 8 >?5@0F8O. -B8 548=8FK A>>B25BAB2CNB @07;8G=K< C@>2=O< AB@>5=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8 [. . 8=G5=:>, . . >@4>=, 1976]. "5>@5B8G5A:85 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>72>;8;8, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 2KO28BL 5I5 >4=> л87<5@5=85╗ 45OB5;L=>AB8 <=>3>C@>2=52>ABL, 0 A 4@C3>9 :>=:@5B878@>20BL ?>=OB85 :064>9 87 548=8F 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2KO2;OO ?@8 MB>< 8E ACI5AB25==59H55 A2>9AB2> <=>3>-<5@=>ABL. 5OB5;L=>ABL, 459AB28O 8 >?5@0F88 :0: >B45;L=K5 548=8FK 2 :064>9 :>=:@5B=>9 A8BC0F88 A2O70=K <564C A>1>9 >4=>2@5<5==> @07=>3> @>40 >B=>H5=8O<8. 5:>B>@K5 87 MB8E >B=>H5=89 8<5NB 4>2>;L=> 65AB:89 E0@0:B5@ 8 2KABC?0NB 2 2845 70:>=><5@=>AB59 =0 C@>2=5 548=8F 45OB5;L=>AB8. @C385 65 >1CA;>2;820NB ?>4286=>ABL, 48=0<8G=>ABL, 2708<>?5@5E>4K >4=8E 548=8F 2 4@C385, 8 A2O70=K >=8 C65 A 70:>=><5@=>ABO<8, 8<5NI8<8 <5AB> =0 C@>2=5 ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8.  G8A;5 ?5@2KE 2K45;ONBAO >B=>H5=8O A>?>4G8=5=8O, A>3;0A=> :>B>@K< 0:BK ?>2545=8O, 2KABC?0NI85 2 2845 45OB5;L=>AB59, 2:;NG0NB 2 A51O 8 ?>4G8=ONB A515 459AB28O 8 >?5@0F88 (0 =5 =0>1>@>B); 459AB28O 65 A>>B25BAB25==>, 2:;NG0NB 2 A51O 8 ?>4G8=ONB >?5@0F88. =K<8 A;>20<8, :0640O 87 548=8F 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A8AB5<C 2708<>A2O70==KE 548=8F ?@54K4CI53> C@>2=O [. . 8=G5=:>, . . >@4>=, 1976]. !N40 65 <>6=> >B=5AB8 8AB>@8:>-35=5B8G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O <564C 548=8F0<8 45OB5;L=>AB8, CAB0=02;820NI8<8 70:>=K 8E ?@>8AE>645=8O, 70:>=K, =>AOI85 >4=>=0?@02;5==K9 E0@0:B5@, A>3;0A=> :>B>@K< (C?@>I5==> 3>2>@O) 459AB285 @>6405BAO 87 45OB5;L=>AB8 (8;8 45OB5;L=>AB59), 0 >?5@0F88 87 459AB289. >?@>A > ?@>8AE>645=88 548=8F 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 35=5B8G5A:>9 ?@55<AB25==>AB8 <564C =8<8 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O <0;> 87CG5= 8 ?@54AB02;O5BAO A>2@5<5==K< 8AA;54>20B5;O< >G5=L A;>6=K<. 5A<>B@O =0 B> GB> MB0 ?@55<AB25==>ABL >G5284=0 8 8<5==> >=0 >?@545;O5B ;8=8N M2>;NF88 >B 45OB5;L=>AB8 : >?5@0F8O<, :0640O 87 MB8E 548=8F, ?> <=5=8N 8AA;54>20B5;59, 8<55B @07=>5 ?@>8AE>645=85, @07=CN 48=0<8:C 8 @07=CN AC4L1C 32 (B0: A:070; . . 5>=BL52 ?> ?>2>4C 459AB289 8 >?5@0F89, => MB>, 2848<>, 2 :>=B5:AB5 53> CG5=8O 8<55B >B=>H5=85 8 : 45OB5;L=>AB8 [1983, B. II]). -B0 45OB5;L=>ABL @>6405BAO, =0?@8<5@, 2 ?@>1;5<=>9 A8BC0F88, 2 CA;>28OE 0:B82=>9 ?@54AB02;5==>AB8 MB>9 A8BC0F88 AC1J5:BC, 2 CA;>28OE, :>340 8<5NI0OAO C AC1J5:B0 ?>B@51=>ABL л2AB@5G05BAO A ?@54<5B><╗, ?>1C640NI8< : 0:B82=><C 2708<>459AB28N A =8<, 8 л=0?>;=O5BAO ?@54<5B=K< A>45@60=85<╗ [B0< 65]. 59AB285 8<55B 4@C3>5 ?@>8AE>645=85: л5=578A 459AB28O ;568B 2 >B=>H5=8OE >1<5=0 45OB5;L=>ABO<8...╗ [B0< 65, A. 156 157]. 59AB285, 8<5O 2 ?@8=F8?5 >48=0:>2>5 AB@>5=85 A 45OB5;L=>ABLN, 2>7=8:05B B>;L:> B>340, :>340 53> A>1AB25==K9 ?@54<5B, =5?>A@54AB25==0O F5;L, =0 :>B>@CN >=> =0?@02;5=>, AB0=>28BAO >A>7=0==K< 2 A2>5< >B=>H5=88 : <>B82C 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2 :>B>@CN >=> 2:;NG5=> [. . 5>=BL52, 1983, B. I]. >;CG05BAO, GB> 459AB285 8 1>;55 ?;0AB8G=>5 >1@07>20=85, G5< 45OB5;L=>ABL (>=> <>65B 2E>48BL 2 A>AB02 @07=KE 45OB5;L=>AB59 8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B MB>3> 8<5BL @07=CN ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN E0@0:B5@8AB8:C), 8 1>;55 A;>6=>5, B0: :0: 53> ?@54<5B=>5 A>45@60=85 =5>1E>48<> 2708<>459AB2C5B A ?@54<5B=K< A>45@60=85< 2A59 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2ABC?0O A =8< 2 A;>6=K5 85@0@E8G5A:85 >B=>H5=8O, 2 @57C;LB0B5 G53> 53> F5;L =5 A>2?0405B A >1I8< <>B82>< 2A59 45OB5;L=>AB8. 'B> 65 :0A05BAO >?5@0F89, B> >=8 O2;ONBAO л@57C;LB0B>< ?@5>1@07>20=8O 459AB28O, ?@>8AE>4OI53> 2 @57C;LB0B5 2:;NG5=8O 53> 2 4@C3>5 459AB285 8 =0ABC?0NI59 53> лB5E=870F88╗ [. . 5>=BL52, 1983, B. II, A. 157]. ?5@0F8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9, B0:8< >1@07><, 02B><0B878@>20==>5 8 H01;>=878@>20==>5 459AB285, :>B>@>5 ?@54AB02;O5B'C65 A?>A>1 >ACI5AB2;5=8O 459AB28O (A@548 4@C38E 2>7<>6=KE A?>A>1>2). @><5 @0AA<>B@5==KE =0<8 >B=>H5=89 A>?>4G8=5=8O 8 >B=>H5=89 35=5B8G5A:>9 2708<>>1CA;>2;5==>AB8 <564C >B45;L=K<8 548=8F0<8 45OB5;L=>AB8, ACI5AB2CNB, :0: <K C65 3>2>@8;8, 8 4@C385, :>B>@K5 >15A?5G820NB 48=0<8:C 45OB5;L=>AB=>3> ?@>F5AA0 8 2708<>?5@5E>4K >4=8E 548=8F 2 4@C385: 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 459AB28O 8 >?5@0F88 8 =0>1>@>B. ;03>40@O MB8< >B=>H5=8O< 45OB5;L=>ABL, ?> A;>20< . . 5>=BL520, л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╗ [B0< 65, A. 158]. 07K20O MB8 B@0=AD>@<0F88 ?@>F5AA0<8 л4@>1;5=8O╗ 8 лC:@C?=5=8O╗ AB@C:BC@=KE 548=8F 45OB5;L=>AB8, . . 5>=BL52 8 4@C385 8AA;54>20B5;8 [.. . 8?-?5=@59B5@, 1973; . . 8=G5=:>, . . >@4>=, 1976] C:07K20NB =0 ?A8E8G5A:85 <5E0=87<K, 8E >15A?5G820NI85, A2O70==K5, 2>-?5@2KE, A 2K45;5=85< ?@><56CB>G=KE F5;59 87 >A=>2=>9, >1I59 F5;8, :>340 459AB285 >:07K205BAO ?;>E> >15A?5G5==K< лA=87C╗ 8 =5 <>65B 2K?>;=OBLAO A ?><>ILN AD>@<8@>20==KE @0=55 >?5@0F89 (B>340 2>7=8:05B 4@>1;5=85 459AB28O =0 1>;55 <5;:85, ?5@5D>@<C;8@>2:0 7040G8 8 B. ?.) [.. . 8??5=@59B5@, 1973, A. 23], 8, 2>-2B>@KE, A B5<, GB> ?@><56CB>G=K5 F5;8 ?5@5AB0NB 2K45;OBLAO 8 >A>7=020BLAO AC1J5:B>< (B>340 ?@>8AE>48B лC:@C?=5=85╗ AB@C:BC@=KE 548=8F 45OB5;L=>AB8). ;C1>:CN B@0:B>2:C MB8 O2;5=8O ?>;CG8;8 B0:65 2 B@C40E !. . C18=HB59=0. < 1K;> CAB0=>2;5=>, GB> ?@8G8=K ?>4>1=KE B@0=AD>@<0F89 45OB5;L=>AB8 :@>NBAO 2 л480;5:B8:5 55 F5;59 8 A@54AB2╗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л>B@01>B:8╗, CA2>5=88 >B45;L=KE 459AB289 8 >?5@0F89 8 ?>A;54CNI53> 8E 2>AA>548=5=8^ (?> ACI5AB2C A;>65=8O) 2 548=>5 >1@07>20=85, :>B>@>5 ?> <=5=8N ?5403>30, 8 O2;O5BAO 45OB5;L=>ABLN (8 :0:>2>╗ >=> =0 A0<>< 45;5 =5 O2;O5BAO, :0: 1C45B ?>:070=> ?>74=55). -A?5@8<5=B0;L=>5 8AA;54>20=85 <0:@>AB@C:BC@K 45OB5;L=>AB8 70B@C4=5=> B5<, GB> ?@>F5AAK B@0=AD>@<0F88 45OB5;L=>AB8, :0: A?@0254;82> 70<5B8; . . 5>=BL52, =5 2KABC?0NB 4>AB0B>G=> >BG5B;82> =8 ?@8 2=5H=5< =01;N45=88, =8 8=B@0A?5:B82=>. 7CG5=85 8E 4>;6=> 1KBL >ACI5AB2;5=> лA?5F80;L=K< 0=0;87>< 8 >1J5:B82=K<8 8=48:0B>@0<8╗ [1983, B. II, A. 158].  G8A;C 045:20B=KE M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE <5B>4>2 A>2@5<5==K5 8AA;54>20B5;8 >B=>AOB ;8HL =5<=>385: <5B>4 D8:A0F8>==>3> >?B>:8=5B8G5A:>3> =8AB03<0 [.. . 8??5=@59B5@, 1973; . . 5>=BL52, 1983, B. II], ?>72>;ONI89, ?> <=5=8N 8AA;54>20B5;59, лG;5=8BL╗ =5?@5@K2=K9 ?@>F5AA 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0 >B45;L=K5 548=8FK 8 2KO2;OBL 8E 48=0<8:C; <5B>4 87CG5=8O F5;5>1@07>20=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@>4C:B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, =0?@02;5==>9 =0 @07@5H5=85 :0:>9-;81> 7040G8 [. C=:5@, 1965; . . @CH;8=A:89, 1970]; <5B>4 8AA;54>20=8O C@>2=O ?@8BO70=89. "@C4=>ABL, >4=0:>, 70:;NG05BAO =5 B>;L:> 2 =54>AB0B:5 >1J5:B82=KE 8=48:0B>@>2, => 8 2 B><, GB> <K =5 A<>65< >B25B8BL =0 ?>AB02;5==K5 2>?@>AK, л=0E>4OAL 2> 2=5H=59 ?>78F88╗ ?> >B=>H5=8N : AC1J5:BC лB0: :0: =5 7=05<, GB> 2 40==K9 <><5=B 4;O AC1J5:B0 2KABC?05B ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 :0: F5;L╗ [.. . 8??5=@59B5@, 1973, A. 23].  MB> 70<5G0=85 ?>;=>ABLN A>3;0AC5BAO A B5<, GB> 1K;> A:070=> !. . 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G5284=>, GB> B0:85 :><?;5:AK =5 B>645AB25==K 45OB5;L=>AB8. 0 D>=5 C65 AD>@<8@>20==KE 45OB5;L=>AB=KE 548=8F =>20O 45OB5;L=>ABL <>65B ?>;CG8BLAO =5 8=0G5, :0: 2 @57C;LB0B5 A;>6=>3> 2708<>459AB28O <564C =8<8 2 ?;0=5 8E ?@54<5B=>3> A>45@60=8O, 0 =5 ?CB5< 8E A;>65=8O 8;8 A:>;L C3>4=> A;>6=>3> >1J548=5=8O. >340 65 2 :>=B5:AB5 0:B82=>9 ?@54<5B=>9 >B=5A5==>AB8 AC1J5:B0 : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 <>6=> :>=AB0B8@>20BL C =53> =0;8G85 A;>6=>9 85@0@E878@>20==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, A>AB>OI59 87 F5;>9 A8AB5<K M;5<5=B>2, >B=>H5=85 8 @07;8G85 <564C MB8<8 M;5<5=B0<8 8 2A59 45OB5;L=>ABLN =5;L7O, 2848<>, 2K@078BL :0: >B=>H5=85 8 @07;8G85 2KAH8E 8 =87H8E D>@< ?@>O2;5=8O 0:B82=>AB8, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 >@30=8G5A:8 548=K5 ?@>F5AAK 45OB5;L=>AB=K5 548=8FK. 07;8G85 <564C =8<8 2KABC?05B 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 2 8E ?@54<5B=>< A>45@60=88 8 2 @07;8G8OE 8E DC=:F8>=0;L=KE @>;59, 2 :>B>@KE >=8 2 40==>< :>=B5:AB5 2KABC?0NB. 7 2A53> 2KH5A:070==>3>, >4=0:>, =5 A;54C5B, GB> 45OB5;L=>AB=K5 548=8FK <>3CB ?5@5E>48BL A >4=>3> C@>2=O =0 4@C3>9 :0: =587<5==K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 >1@07>20=8O, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 =5 <>3CB 1KBL >B45;5=K >B AC1J5:B0 A ?@8ACI8< 5<C ?>AB>O==> 87<5=G82K< ?@54<5B=K< ?>;5< ;8G=>AB8. 5@5E>4O A >4=>3> DC=:F8>=0;L=>3> C@>2=O =0 4@C3>9, 2:;NG0O A2>5 ?@54<5B=>5 A>45@60=85 2 8=K5 ?@54<5B=>-A<KA;>2K5 :>=B5:ABK, 45OB5;L=>AB=K5 548=8FK <>3CB <5=OBLAO 8 A> AB>@>=K A2>53> AB@>5=8O, 8 A> AB>@>=K A2>53> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 8 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:>3> >15A?5G5=8O. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 8AA;54>20=8O ?> D>@<8@>20=8N 459AB289 8 =02K:>2 [. . C@LO=>2, 1941; . . 0?>@>65F, 1948, 1960], ?> 2>AAB0=>2;5=8N 42865=89 2 ?0B>;>388 [. . 5>=BL52, 1983, B. II; !. . C18=HB59=, 1946; . . 0?>@>65F, 1960] 8 4@C385 (. . >44LO:>2, 1960; . . 5>=BL52, 1983, B. 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MB>< 1C4B> 1K 8 70:;NG05BAO ?@>F5AA 02B><0B870F88.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 65, :0: MB> <K ?KB0;8AL ?>:070BL =0 ?@8<5@5 D>@<8@>20=8O >@C489=>9 >?5@0F88, CA>25@H5=AB2>20=85 =02K:0, ?@>8AE>4OI55 2 ?@>F5AA5 02B><0B870F88, 70:;NG05BAO 2 2KAH5< A8=B575, >1J548=5=88 2 53> A>AB02 42830B5;L=KE :><?>=5=B>2 =0 >A=>25 >B@065=8O =081>;55 ACI5AB25==KE CA;>289 2K?>;=O5<>3> 459AB28O. > ACI5AB2C <K 8<55< 745AL 45;> A 2KAH59 AB04859 ?@>872>;L=>AB8╗ [1960, A. 114 115]. 7;>65==K5 745AL ?@54AB02;5=8O ?><>30NB ?>-=>2><C 273;O=CBL =0 ?@>1;5<C D>@<8@>20=8O ?@>4C:B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 C 45B59 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O. "@048F8>==K9 ?>4E>4 : MB>9 ?@>1;5<5 >A=>2K20;AO =0 B><, GB> 2 B5G5=85 4>;3>3> 2@5<5=8 ?5403>38G5A:0O B5>@8O 8 ?@0:B8:0, 8<5O 2>7<>6=>ABL =01;N40BL 8 :>=B@>;8@>20BL B>;L:> 2=5H=85 ?@>O2;5=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8 @515=:0, ?@54AB02;O;0 A515 MBC 45OB5;L=>ABL :0: A;>65==CN 87 <=>65AB20 >B45;L=KE 55 :><?>=5=B>2 459AB289 8 >?5@0F89. >A:>;L:C 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25 8 2> 2@5<5=8 =01;N405<K5 2=5H=5 MB8 M;5<5=BK ?@54AB02;5=K 2 2845 ;8=59=>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8, MB> 8 A?>A>1AB2>20;> ?@54AB02;5=8N > 45OB5;L=>AB8 :0: >1 >A>1>< 0:B5 ?>2545=8O, >ACI5AB2;O5<>< 2 2845 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> A>25@H0NI8EAO M;5<5=B>2 459AB289 8 >?5@0F89. 7 MB>3> B0:65 45;0;AO 2K2>4, GB>, 4;O B>3> GB>1K AD>@<8@>20BL C @515=:0 >?@545;5==K9 284 45OB5;L=>AB8, A;54C5B A=0G0;0 AD>@<8@>20BL C =53> >B45;L=K5 55 M;5<5=BK (G0I5 2A53> MB> 1K20NB 8<5==> 2=5H=85 55 M;5<5=BK), 0 70B5< >1J548=OBL 8E, @0A?@545;82 2 >?@545;5==>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25 8 2> 2@5<5=8: л>4>1=> B><C :0: ?@8 CA2>5=88 ;N1>3> =>2>3> A;>6=>3> 459AB28O ?@>8AE>48B ?>>?5@0F8>==>5 53> CA2>5=85, B0: 8 @5H5=85 ?@>1;5<K, B@51CNI55 ?@>O2;5=8O @O40 G5@B B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 8E @07=>>1@07=>< A>G5B0=88, ?@54?>;0305B ?5@2>=0G0;L=>5 CA2>5=85 MB8E G5@B ?>M;5<5=B=> 8 ?>4 G5B:8< @C:>2>4AB2>< CG8B5;O╗ [. /. 5@=5@, 1976, A. 42]. 0: C65 1K;> C:070=>, 2 @01>B0E . . 5>=BL520, !. . 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"0:85 65 40==K5 ?>;CG5=K 8 70@C156=K<8 8AA;54>20B5;O<8 [. 0;;>=, 1956; . 8065, . =5;L45@, 1963; 6. @C=5@, 1971]. >7=8:=>25=85 C 45B59 C<5=89 459AB2>20BL 2 ?;0=5 ?@54AB02;5=89 @O4 254CI8E ?A8E>;>3>2 @0AA<0B@8205B :0: C7;>2>9 <><5=B 8E ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. 0 >A=>- 4* 99 25 0=0;870 8 >1>1I5=8O @07;8G=KE 8AA;54>20=89, ?>A2OI5==KE 87CG5=8N <KH;5=8O 4>H:>;L=8:>2, <>6=> A45;0BL 2K2>4 > B><, GB> =03;O4=>->1@07=>5 <KH;5=85 2>7=8:05B 8 @0728205BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 2708<>459AB28O ?@54<5B=KE 459AB289, @5G8, ?>4@060=8O, 83@>2>9, ?@>4C:B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 B. 4. @8G5< C<5=85 >?5@8@>20BL :>=:@5B=K<8 >1@070<8 ?@54<5B>2 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O =03;O4=>->1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O A<5=O5BAO ?@5>1@07>20=85< >1>1I5==KE >1@07>2 ?@54<5B>2. %0@0:B5@8AB8:5 >B45;L=KE D>@< <KH;5=8O ?>A2OI5=> 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> @01>B. =0G8B5;L=> A;0155 87CG5=K >A>15==>AB8 ?5@5E>40 >B >4=>9 D>@<K : 4@C3>9.  254L 8<5==> 87CG5=85 ?5@5E>4=KE ?5@8>4>2 @0728B8O <KH;5=8O =081>;55 206=> 2 8AA;54>20=88 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O 4>H:>;L=8:0. 5@5E>4=K5 ?5@8>4K  C7;>2K5 ?C=:BK 2 @0728B88 <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 45B59, 8 8E 87CG5=85 <>65B ?@>;8BL A25B =0 >A>15==>AB8 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8 @0728B8O B>9 8;8 8=>9 D>@<K <KH;5=8O. "0:, ?> <=5=8N . . N1;8=A:>9, ?5@5E>4 >B 459AB289 A @50;L=K<8 >1J5:B0<8 : >?5@8@>20=8N >1@070<8 7=0G8B5;L=> A;>6=55 8 3;C165, G5< ?@>AB> лA25@BK20=85╗ 2=5H=53> 459AB28O 8 53> ?@5>1@07>20=85 2 C<AB25==>5 [1966]. . 0;;>= [1967] 8 . 8065 [1969] 8AA;54>20;8 CA;>28O ?5@5E>40 >B A5=A><>B>@=>3> (=03;O4=>-459AB25==>3>) : 4>?>=OB89=><C 8=B5;;5:BC (>1@07=><C <KH;5=8N). . 0;;>=, 2 G0AB=>AB8, CB25@640;, GB> 2 ?@>F5AA5 @0728B8O A5=A><>B>@=>3> 8=B5;;5:B0 @515=:0 D>@<8@CNBAO A5=A><>B>@=K5 AE5<K, >15A?5G820NI85 >B@065=85 ACI5AB25==KE A2>9AB2 >:@C60NI8E ?@54<5B>2 8 O2;5=89. "5< A0<K< A>740NBAO ?@54?>AK;:8 4;O ?5@5E>40 : =03;O4=>->1@07=><C <KH;5=8N. 54CICN @>;L 2 D>@<8@>20=88 B0:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 . 0;;>= >B2>48B 2=CB@5==59 8<8B8@CNI59 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?>4@060=8N [1967]. AA;54>20=8O<8 A>25BA:8E ?A8E>;>3>2 ?>:070=>, GB> C<5=85 >?5@8@>20BL A2>8<8 ?@54AB02;5=8O<8 (C@>25=L >1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O) 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 7028A8B >B A>45@60=8O 8 <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O [. /. 0;L?5@8=, 1966; /. . >=><0@52, 1967; 8 4@.]. #AB0=>2;5=>, GB> 45B8 4 5 ;5B <>3CB ?@54AB028BL A515 ?5@5<5I5=85 @07;8G=KE >1J5:B>2 ?> >:@C6=>AB8, 2>A?@>8725AB8 2 ?@54^ B04;5=8< (@54<5BK 2 @07;8G=KE ?@>AB@0=AB25==KE ?>;>65=8OE 8 B. 4. [. . >44LO:>2, 1977]. 5H0NICN @>;L 2 D>@<8@>20=88 MB8E C<5=89., :0: 2KOA=8;>AL, 83@0;8 A2>5>1@07=K5 <>45;8 8 A-E5<<C' A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE 45- 100 B8 A=0G0;0 2 ?;0=5 2=5H=59 @0725@=CB>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2>A?@>872>48;8 ?5@5<5I5=85 ?@54<5B0 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25, 0 70B5< ?@542>AE8I5=85 B0:8E ?5@5<5I5=89 >ACI5AB2;O;>AL 8<8 2 ?;0=5 ?@54AB02;5=89, B. 5. C 45B59 D>@<8@>20;>AL C<5=85 ?@>872>;L=> >?5@8@>20BL A2>8<8 ?@54AB02;5=8O<8 2 ?@>F5AA5 @5H5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 7040G. 725AB=>, GB> =03;O4=>->1@07=>5 <KH;5=85  G@572KG09=> A;>6=>5 >1@07>20=85, 2KABC?0NI55 :0: >?@545;5==0O A8AB5<0 2708<>A2O70==KE @07=>@>4=KE M;5<5=B>2. 54CI8<8 2 A8AB5<5, =0 =0H 273;O4, O2;ONBAO @07;8G=K5 284K 45BA:8E ?@54AB02;5=89 8 C<5=85 >?5@8@>20BL 8<8. K ?@54?>;>68;8, GB> 4;O D>@<8@>20=8O =03;O4=>->1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B =5 AB>;L:> >@85=B8@>2:0 =0 ACI5AB25==K5 A2O78 A8BC0F88 [. . 8=A:0O, 1954], =5 AB>;L:> CA2>5=85 7=0=89 > ?@>AB@0=AB25==KE >B=>H5=8OE 25I59 [/. . >=><0@52, 1967], A:>;L:> @0A:@KB85 ?5@54 @515=:>< 42CE 2708<>A2O70==KE >1;0AB59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 (>@838=0;  <>45;L). A=>2=>5 2=8<0=85 <K C45;8;8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=><C 87CG5=8N @>;8 <>45;59 8 AE5< 2 D>@<8@>20=88 =03;O4=>->1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O C 4>H:>;L=8:>2 @07=>3> 2>7@0AB0.  A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 <K 8AE>48;8 87 ?@54?>;>65=8O > B><, GB> 4>H:>;L=8:0<, >A>15==> <;04H8<, B@C4=> ?>=OBL >B=>H5=85 л<>45;L  >@838=0;╗. 5>1E>48<> 1K;> =09B8 45BA:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, 4>AB0B>G=> @0728BCN C65 2 <;04H5< 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5, :>B>@0O <>3;0 1K ?>A;C68BL >A=>2>9 4;O D>@<8@>20=8O C 45B59 ?>=8<0=8O >B=>H5=8O л<>45;L  >@838=0;╗.  :0G5AB25 B0:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 <K 2K1@0;8 ?>4@060=85. 0==0O 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@82;5:;0 =0H5 2=8<0=85 =5 A;CG09=>. >:070=> [. 0;;>=, 1967; . 8065, 1969; . . 0?>@>65F, 1972], GB> ?>4@060=85 MB> >A>10O 45OB5;L=>ABL, :>B>@0O A;C68B 8AE>4=>9 >A=>2>9 D>@<8@>20=8O :0: ?;0=0 459AB289 ?> ?@54AB02;5=8N, B0: 8 4@C38E 206=KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E =>2>>1@07>20=89, 2>7=8:0NI8E 2 4>H:>;L=>< 45BAB25. . 0;;>= >B<5G05B, GB> ?>4@060B5;L=K5 459AB28O AB@>OBAO 2=0G0;5 ?> >1@07FC 459AB289 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0, 0 70B5< ?> >1@07FC 25I59. > . 8065, 254CI55 7=0G5=85 2 D>@<8@>20=88 >1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O 8<5NB 83@>20O 8 ?>4@060B5;L=0O 45OB5;L=>AB8: 8<5==> 2 MB8E 45OB5;L=>ABOE C 45B59 2>7=8:05B A?>A>1=>ABL ?@54AB02;OBL >4=C 25IL ?>A@54AB2>< 4@C3>9. @>A;548< B5=45=F8N 87<5=5=8O E0@0:B5@0 ?>4@060B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 @515=:0 8 ?>?KB05<AO =0<5B8BL (01 A=>2=K5 MB0?K 55 @0728B8O. 1. 5@2>=0G0;L=> <0;KH ?>4@0605B 42865=8O< 27@>A;>3> (=0?@8<5@, E;>?05B 2 ;04>H8, >ACI5AB2;O5B 2@0I0B5;L=K5 42865=8O :8ABO<8 @C:). 2. 0B5< 2 1;6  2 3>40 >= =0G8=05B ?>4@060BL 459AB28O< 27@>A;>3> A ?@54<5B><. 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л ... =0 >A=>25 ?>MB0?=>9 <5B>48:8 <K ?>;CG8;8 2 6 7 (8 4065 2 5) ;5B, B. 5. 2 AB0@H5< 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5, 132 C<AB25==K5 459AB28O 8 ?>=OB8O, :>B>@K5 ?> >1I5?@8=OBK< AB0=40@B0< >B25G0NB C@>2=N <KH;5=8O 2 ?>4@>AB:>2>< 2>7@0AB5 ... 1K;8 AD>@<8@>20=K F5;K5 A8AB5<K ?>=OB89, :>B>@K5 =0 F5;K9 ?5@8>4 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O >?5@560;8 >AB0;L=>5 A>45@60=85 A>7=0=8O╗ [1967, A. 612]. "0:8< >1@07><, :>=:@5B=>ABL 8 =03;O4=>ABL 45BA:>3> <KH;5=8O, :>B>@K5 @0=55 AG8B0;8AL =5>BJ5<;5<K<8 A2>9AB20<8, >:070;8AL A;54AB285< =5 A>2A5< ?@028;L=> >@30=87>20==>3> >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59, :>340 CA208205<K5 8<8 7=0=8O =>A8;8 ;8HL :>=:@5B=K9 E0@0:B5@ 8 =5 ?@54AB02;O;8 A>1>9 G5B:>9 A8AB5<K. =B5@5A=K5 ?>4E>4K : @5H5=8N ?@>1;5<K C<AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 8 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O 5ABL 2 @01>B0E . /. 0;L?5@8=0 [1966], . . 02K4>20 [1972] 8 . . 5?><=OI59 [1975]. 4=0 87 ;8=89 MB8E 8AA;54>20=89 70:;NG05BAO 2 ?5@52>45 45B59 A C@>2=O 4>>?5@0B>@=>3> <KH;5=8O =0 1>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L :>=:@5B=KE >?5@0F89. -B>, :>=5G=>, 206=59H0O 7040G0 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O 45B59 AB0@H53> 4>H:>;L=>3> 8 H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0. > =5 <5=55 206=0 70-40G0 <0:A8<0;L=>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2>7<>6=>AB59 4>>?5@0B>@=>3> <KH;5=8O 2 C<AB25==>< @0728B88 @515=:0. 5@8>4 4>>?5@0B>@=>3> <KH;5=8O ?@8E>48BAO =0 2>7@0AB @515=:0 >B 2 4> 7 ;5B.  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"0:8< >1@07><, ?A8E8G5A:>5, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 C<AB25==>5, @0728B85 @515=:0 2KABC?05B :0: ?@>F5AA, 8<5NI89 :>=:@5B=>-8AB>@8G5A:CN 8 A>F80;L=CN ?@8@>4C, 2A5 >A=>2=K5 MB0?K :>B>@>3> >1CA;>2;5=K >A>15==>ABO<8 ?5@540G8 >1I5AB25==>3> >?KB0. -B> ?>;>65=85 A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 405B ?@028;L=>5 =0?@02;5=85 ?@8 8AA;54>20=88 ?@>1;5<K 2708<>459AB28O 18>;>38G5A:8E 8 A>F80;L=KE D0:B>@>2 2 ?@>F5AA5 @0728B8O 8=482840. ! @0==53> 45BAB20 @515=:0 >:@C60NB A>740==K5 @C:0<8 G5;>25:0 ?@54<5BK, 2 :>B>@KE D8:A8@>20=K >?@545;5==K5 >1I5AB25==K5 DC=:F88. 072820OAL, @515=>: A ?><>ILN 27@>A;>3> CG8BAO 8E 8A?>;L7>20BL. ! 2>7@0AB>< ?>O2;ONBAO 1>;55 A;>6=K5 D>@<K 2708<>>B=>H5=89 A >:@C60NI8<8 ;N4L<8, 87<5=O5BAO <5AB>, :>B>@>5 70=8<05B @515=>: 2 A8AB5<5 G5;>25G5A:8E >B=>H5=89, D>@<8@CNBAO =>2K5 ?>B@51=>AB8. ?@545;5==K5 >B=>H5=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, =>2K5 A2>9AB20 25I59, :>B>@KE @0=55 @515=>: =5 70<5G0;, B5?5@L 2KABC?0NB 4;O =53> =0 ?5@2K9 ?;0=. 4=0:> ?@>8AE>48B =5 ?@>AB> C25;8G5=85 :>;8G5AB20 7=0=89: =>2>5 A>45@60=85 <>65B 1KBL CA2>5=> ;8HL =0 >A=>25 =>2KE D>@< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. "0:8< >1@07><, @0728B85 <KH;5=8O 845B 2 =0?@02;5=88 CA;>6=5=8O :0: A>45@60=8O, B0: 8 >A=>2=KE D>@<. 5@5E>4 >B ?>7=0=8O 2=5H=8E A2>9AB2 8 A2O759 O2;5=89 : ?>7=0=8N 2=CB@5==8E, A:@KBKE >B =5?>A@54AB25==>3> 2>A?@8OB8O A2O759 8 >B=>H5=89 B@51C5B ACI5AB25==>9 ?5@5AB@>9:8 <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 45B59, D>@<8@>20=8O C =8E =>2KE ?@85<>2 8 A?>A>1>2 >2;045=8O 7=0=8O<8.  CA;>28OE AB8E89=>3> >1CG5=8O MB>B ?@>F5AA @0728205BAO 4>2>;L=> <54;5==>. 5H5=85 ?>4>1=KE 7040G <>65B 1KBL >ACI5AB2;5=> ;8HL 2 E>45 F5;5=0?@02;5==>3> >1CG5=8O 45B59. 1CG5=85 =0 70=OB8OE 2 CA;>28OE >1I5AB25==>3> 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 2KABC?05B 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O :0: >A=>2=>9 D0:B>@ C<AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 4>H:>;L=8:>2.  A2O78 A MB8< >A>15==>5 7=0G5=85 ?@8>1@5B05B 87CG5=85 2>?@>A>2 A>45@60=8O 8 <5B>4>2 C<AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59. >4 A>45@60=85< C<AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 2 4>H:>;L- ^54 =>9 ?5403>38:5 ?>=8<05BAO D>@<8@>20=85 C 45B59 >?@545;5==>3> >1J5<0 7=0=89 >1 >:@C60NI8E ?@54<5B0E 8 O2;5=8OE (>1I5AB25==>9 687=8, 682>9 8 =5682>9 ?@8@>45 8 B. 4.) 8 A?>A>1>2 <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8  C<5=8O =01;N40BL, 0=0;878@>20BL, A@02=820BL, 45;0BL ?@>ABK5 >1>1I5=8O 1J5< 8 E0@0:B5@ A>45@60=8O >?@545;5= л@>3@0<<>9 2>A?8B0=8O 2 45BA:>< A04C╗. #A?5H=>ABL C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O 45B59 7028A8B >B E0@0:B5@0 CA208205<KE 7=0=89, 0 B0:65 >B <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O.  A2O78 A MB8< >4=>9 87 F5=B@0;L=KE ?@>1;5< C<AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O O2;O5BAO ?@>1;5<0 >1CG5=8O 8 @0728B8O. ?5@2K5 >=0 1K;0 ?@54AB02;5=0 2 @01>B0E . !. K3>BA:>3>. 0: 8725AB=> 87 @01>B . !. K3>BA:>3>, 2 AB8E89=>< >?KB5 4>H:>;L=8:>2 2=0G0;5 2>7=8:0NB ;@54?>=OB89-=K5 >1@07>20=8O  :><?;5:AK, ?A524>?>=OB8O 8 ;8HL 70B5< D>@<8@CNBAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 H:>;L=>3> >1CG5=8O ?>;=>F5==K5 ?>=OB8O [ 1982, B. 2 ].  @01>B0E . /. 0;L?5@8=0, . $. "0;K78=>9 ?>;CG5=K 40==K5, A2845B5;LAB2CNI85 > 1><, GB> 2 CA;>28OE >@30=87>20==>3> >1CG5=8O A0< E>4 D>@<8@>20=8O ?>=OB89 8<55B ACI5AB25==> 8=K5 70:>=><5@=>AB8, G5< ?@8 AB8E89=>< >1CG5=88. @8<5=O5<0O 2 @01>B5 . / 0;L?5@8=0 <5B>48:0 ?>MB0?=>3> D>@<8@>20=8O C<AB25==KE 459AB289 ?>72>;O5B D>@<8@>20BL ?>;=>F5==K5 ?>=OB8O 2 AB0@H5< 4>H:>;L=>< 2>7@0AB5, 8 >1J5< 8E >3@0=8G5= ;8HL =0;8G85< =5>1E>48<KE ?@5420@8B5;L=KE 7=0=89 8 C<5=89 [ 1966].  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O ?@8>1@5B05B 0:BC0;L=>ABL 2>?@>A > ?>2KH5=88 =0CG=>AB8 =5 B>;L:> H:>;L=KE, => 8 4>H:>;L=KE 7=0=89 >=5G=>, MB0 ?@>1;5<0 4>;6=0 @5H0BLAO ?@8=F8?80;L=> 8=0G5, G5< 2 H:>;L=>< >1CG5=88. @O4 ;8 A59G0A ?@02><5@=> AB028BL 2>?@>A > D>@<8@>20=88 2 <0AA>2>9 ?@0:B8:5 45BA:8E A04>2 A8AB5<K =0CG=KE ?>=OB89 C 4>H:>;L=8:>2. 4=0:> A>740BL ?@54?>AK;:8 B0:>3> D>@<8@>20=8O, :>B>@K5 1C4CB @50;87>20=K 2 H:>;5, C65 <>6=> 8 C 4>H:>;L=8:>2. 081>;55 ACI5AB25==K5 A42838 2 C<AB25==>< @0728B88 @515=:0 O2;ONBAO @57C;LB0B>< CA2>5=8O =5 :0:8E-;81> >B45;L=KE 7=0=89 8 C<5=89, 0, 2>-?5@2KE, >?@545;5==>9 A8AB5<K 7=0=89, >B@060NI59 ACI5AB25==K5 A2O78 8 7028A8<>AB8 B>9 8;8 8=>9 >1;0AB8 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 8, 2>-2B>@KE, >1I8E D>@< <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ;560I8E 2 >A=>25 MB>9 A8AB5<K 7=0=89.  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K45;5==K5 >A=>2=K5 CA;>28O D>@<8@>20=8O ;>38G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O ?>72>;ONB =0<5B8BL =>2K5 ;8=88 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O 4>H:>;L=8:>2, :>B>@K5 =54>AB0B>G=> CG8BK20;8AL 2 ?@56=8E 8AA;54>20=8OE. A=>2=K5 @57C;LB0BK ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 ?> @0728B8N <KH;5=8O 4>H:>;L=8:>2 @50;87>20=K 2 ?5403>38G5A:>< ?@>F5AA5 45BA:>3> A040. ! CG5B>< ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 <KH;5=8O 4>H:>;L=8:>2 @07@01>B0=K =>2>5 A>45@60=85 8 =>2K5 <5B>4K C<AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O. 57C;LB0BK MB>9 @01>BK =0H;8 >B@065=85 2 ?@>3@0<<=>-<5B>48G5A:8E 4>:C<5=B0E 45BA:>3> A040 [@>3@0<<0 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 2 45BA:>< A04C, 1984; #<AB25==>5 2>A?8B0=85 8 @5G52>5 @0728B85 2 45BA:>< A04C, 1984]. 195 8B5@0BC@0  @5D>@<5 >1I5>1@07>20B5;L=>9 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 H:>;K: !1>@=8: 4>:C<5=B>2 8 <0B5@80;>2. ., 1984. 112 A. =0=L52 . . D>@<8@>20=85 2>A?@8OB8O ?@>AB@0=AB20 8 ?@>AB@0=AB25==KE ?@54AB02;5=89 C 45B59. ., 1956. 200 A. 0B8I52  !. :B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ 2>A?8B0=8O (?> . 0@:AC 8 $. -=35;LAC). >2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?5403>38G5A:8E =0C:0E. 1965. 2K?. V, A. 73 79. 0B8I52  !. >A?8B0=85 8 >1@07>20=85 (?> . 0@:AC 8 $. -=35;LAC). >2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?5403>38G5A:8E =0C:0E, 1966. 2K?. VI, A. 70 77. 5@=HB59= . .  ?>AB@>5=88 42865=89. ., 1947. 255 A. 5@=HB59= . . G5@:8 ?> D878>;>388 42865=89 8 D878>;>388 0:B82=>AB8. ., 1966. 349 A. >6>28G . ., >@>7>20 . ., !;028=0 . !. 0728B85 <>B82>2 CG5=8O C A>25BA:8E H:>;L=8:>2. 725AB8O  !$! , 1951, 2K?. 36, A. 29 104. @C=5@ 6.  ?>7=020B5;L=>< @0728B88.  :=.: AA;54>20=8O @0728B8O ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. ., 1971, A. 25 99. @C=5@ 6. A8E>;>38O ?>7=0=8O. ., 1977. 416 A. @CH;8=A:89 . . A8E>;>38O <KH;5=8O 8 :815@=5B8:0. ., 1970. 191 A. 0;;>= . B 459AB28O : <KA;8. ., 1956. 238 A. 0;;>= . A8E8G5A:>5 @0728B85 @515=:0. ., 1967. 196 A. 5=35@ . . 0728B85 ?>=8<0=8O ?@8G8==>AB8 C 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0: 2B>@5D. :0=4. 48A. ., 1959. 20 A. 5=35@ . ., $8;8??>20 . .  ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>ABOE 45B59, >1CG0NI8EAO 2 H:>;5 A H5AB8 ;5B.  :=.: 803=>AB8:0 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O 45B59. ., 1981, A. 64 69. 5=35@ . . >A?@8OB85 8 >1CG5=85. ., 1969. 340 A. 5=35@ . ., CE8=0 . !. A=>2=K5 70:>=><5@=>AB8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O @515=:0. >H:>;L=>5 2>A?8B0=85, 1973 ! 5 A 29 38-! 6, A. 32 39. ^>;:>2 . . >A?@8OB85 ?@54<5B0 8 @8AC=:0. ., 1950. 508 A. K3>-:89 . !. !>1@. A>G.:  6-B8 B. ., 1982, B. 2. 361 A 1983, B. 3. 328 A.; 1984, B. 4. 415 A. 0;L?5@8= . /- #<AB25==>5 459AB285 :0: >A=>20 D>@<8@>20=8O <KA;8 8 >1@070. >?@. ?A8E>;>388, 1957, ! 1, A. 58 69. 0;L?5@8= . /. 0728B85 8AA;54>20=89 ?> D>@<8@>20=8N C<AB25==KE 459AB289.  :=.: A8E>;>38G5A:0O =0C:0 2 !!!  ., 1959, B. I, A. 441 469. 0;L?5@8= . /. A8E>;>38O <KH;5=8O 8 CG5=85 > ?>MB0?=>< D>@<8@>20=88 C<AB25==KE 459AB289.  :=.: AA;54>20=85 <KH;5=8O = A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1966, A. 236 277. 0;L?5@8= . /.  8AA;54>20=8N 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> @0728B8O 196 @515=:0. >?@. ?A8E>;>388, 1969, ! 1, A. 15 25. 0;L?5@8= . /. 2545=85 2 ?A8E>;>38N. ., 1976. 150 A. 0;L?5@8= . /., -;L:>=8= . .  0=0;87C B5>@88 . 8065 > @0728B88 45BA:>3> <KH;5=8O.   :=.: 6. $;5925;;. 5=5B8G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O 0=0 8065/5@, A 0=3;. ., 1967, A. 596 621. 8??5=@59B5@ .. . 2865=8O 3;07 2 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0 8 55 8AA;54>20=85.  :=.: AA;54>20=85 7@8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0. ., 1973, A. 3 25. >2>@:>20 . $.  ?>=OB88 8 ?A524>?>=OB88. >2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?A8E>;>388 8 2>7@0AB=>9 D878>;>388, 1970, ! 1, A. 115 121. >2>@:>20 . $.  ?>=OB89=>9 ?@8@>45 M<?8@8G5A:8E >1>1I5=89. >?@. ?A8E>;>388, 1971, ! 6, A. 78 88. >@>15F ". ,- $>@<8@>20=85 C H:>;L=8:>2 MDD5:B82=KE AB@0B5389 @5H5=8O 7040G.  :=.: 1CG5=85 8 @0728B85 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2. 852, 1970, A. 232 237. 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K?. 2. ., 1963, A. 3 6. 0?>@>65F . . 5=8=A:0O B5>@8O ?>7=0=8O 8 ?@>1;5<K >1CG5=8O 8 C<AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0. >H:>;L=>5 2>A?8B0=85, 1970, ! 4, A. 28 36. 0?>@>65F . . 5403>38G5A:85 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 2A5AB>@>==53> @0728B8O 8 ?>43>B>2:8 : H:>;5 AB0@H8E 4>H:>;L=8:>2. >H:>;L=>5 2>A?8B0=85, 1972, ! 4, A. 37 47. HG5=:> . ., >@4>= . . 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0;870 45OB5;L=>AB8.  :=.: !8AB5<=K5 8AA;54>20=8O. ., 1976, A. 75 109. 010=>20-5;;5@ . . A8E>;>38O D>@<8@>20=8O 7=0=89 8 =02K:>2 C H:>;L=8:>2. ., 1962. 376 A. 5>=BL52 . . 71@0==K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>872545=8O:  2-E B. ., 1983. 5@=5@ . /. 840:B8G5A:0O A8AB5<0 <5B>4>2 >1CG5=8O. ., 1976. 64 A. 8A8=0 . . 1I5=85 A> 27@>A;K<8 C 45B59 ?5@2KE 7 ;5B 687=8.  :=.: @>1;5<K >1I59, 2>7@0AB=>9 8 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1978, A. 237 252. N1;8=A:0O . . >A?8B0=85 <KH;5=8O C 45B59. >H:>;L=>5 2>A?8B0=85, 1951, ! 12, A. 26 34. N1;8=A:0O . . G5@:8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @0728B8O @515=:0. ., 1965. 363 A. N1;8=A:0O . . 0==85 D>@<K <KH;5=8O @515=:0.  :=.: AA;54>20=8O <KH;5=8O 2 A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1966, A. 319 348. 197 0BNH:8= . . :BC0;L=K5 2>?@>AK ?@>1;5<=>3> >1CG5=8O.   :=.: . :>=L. A=>2K ?@>1;5<=>3> >1CG5=8O. ., 1968, A. 186 203. 0BNH:8= . . @>1;5<=K5 A8BC0F88 2 <KH;5=88 8 >1CG5=88 ., 1972. 208 A. 5=G8=A:0= . . A8E>;>38O >1CG5=8O 0@8D<5B8:5. ., 1955. 432 A. 5=G8=A:0O . . @>1;5<K лA0<>C?@02;5=8O╗ ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN 8 @0728B85 ;8G=>AB8.  :=.: "5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K C?@02;5=8O ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN G5;>25:0. ., 1975, A. 110 113. 5H:>20 . ., 8:>;0520 !. . 01;N45=85 70 @K10<8. >H:>;L=>5 2>A?8B0=85, 1977, ! 3, A. 35 42. 8=A:0O . . 5@5E>4 >B =03;O4=>-459AB25==>3> : @0AAC640NI5<C <KH;5=8N C 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0: 2B>@5D. :0=4. 4=5. ., 1954.-22 A. 54>A?0A>20 . . A8E>;>38G5A:89 <5E0=87< ?@5>4>;5=8O F5=B@0-F88 2 <KH;5=88 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0: 2B>@5D. :0=4. 4=5. ., 1972. 22 A. 5?><=OI0O . . !8AB5<=K9 ?>4E>4 8 7040G8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O.   :=.: ?KB A8AB5<=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O ?A8E8:8 @515=:0/>4 @54. . . 5?><=OI59. ., 1975, A. 5 23. 1CE>20 . $. -B0?K @0728B8O 45BA:>3> <KH;5=8O. ., 1972. 152 A. 3C@F>2 . @0:B8:0.  :=.: $8;>A>DA:0O M=F8:;>?548O. ., 1967, B. 4, A. 340 348. :>=L . A=>2K ?@>1;5<=>3> >1CG5=8O. ., 1968. 208 A A=>2=K5 =0?@02;5=8O 8AA;54>20=88 ?A8E>;>388 <KH;5=8O 2 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0=0E/>4 @54. . . (>@>E>2>9. ., 1966.  297 A. 8065 . 5GL 8 <KH;5=85 @515=:0. ., ., 1932. 412 A. 8065 . >;L 459AB28O 2 D>@<8@>20=88 <KH;5=8O. >?@ ?A8E>;>388, 1965, ! 6, A. 33 51. 8065 . 71@0==K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 B@C4K. ., 1969. 612 A 8065 ., =5;L45@ . 5=578A M;5<5=B0@=KE ;>38G5A:8E AB@C:BC@.  1963. 424 A. >44LO:>2 . . A>15==>AB8 >@85=B8@>2>G=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 C 4>H:>;L=8:>2 ?@8 D>@<8@>20=88 8 02B><0B870F88 ?@0:B8G5A:8E 459AB288: 2B>@5D. :0=4. 48A. ., 1960, 22 A. >44LO:>2 . . $>@<8@>20=85 C 4>H:>;L=8:>2 A?>A>1=>AB8 =03;O4=> ?@54AB02;OBL ?5@5<5I5=8O ?@54<5B>2 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25.   :=.: !5=A>@=>5 2>A?8B0=85 4>H:>;L=8:>2. ., 1963, A. 163 185 >44LO:>2 . .  ?>AB0=>2:5 ?@>1;5<K C<AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 2 45BA:>< A04C.  :=.. #<AB25==>5 2>A?8B0=85 4>H:>;L=8:>2. ., 1972, A. 5 52. >44LO:>2 . . KH;5=85 4>H:>;L=8:0. ., 1977 262 A >44LO:>2 .  A>15==>AB8 ?>7=020B5;L=>3> @0728B8O 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0. .  :=. :BC0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1983, A. 36 42 >44LO:>2  ., 0:A8<>20 "  0728B85 :>@@5:F88 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> 459AB28O 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 53> @57C;LB0B0 C 4>H:>;L=8:>2. >2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?A8E>;>388 8 2>7@0AB=>9 D878>;>388, 1972, ! 1 (5), A 74 79. >=><0@52 /.  =0=8O, <KH;5=85 8 C<AB25==>5 @0728B85 ., 1967 264 A @>3@0<<0 >1CG5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O 2 45BA:>< A04C ., 1984. 175 A A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K =@02AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59/>4 198 @54. $. " 8E09;>20, . . C1@>28=>9, !.  /:>1A>=. ., 1977. 158 A. A8E>;>38O 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0: 0728B85 ?>7=020B5;L=KE ?@>F5AA>2/>4 @54. . . 0?>@>6F0, . . -;L:>=8=0. ., 1964. 352 A. C18=HB59= !. . A=>2K >1I59 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1946. 704 A. C18=HB59= !. .  <KH;5=88 8 ?CBOE 53> 8AA;54>20=8O. ., 1958. 142 A. C18=HB59= !. . @8=F8?K 8 ?CB8 @0728B8O ?A8E>;>388. ., 1959. 356 A. C18=HB59= !. . @>1;5<K >1I59 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1973. 416 A. !02G5=:> . . '0AB8 @5G8 8 :0B53>@88 <KH;5=8O. >AB>2-=0->=C, 1959. 67 A. !0<>@C:>20 .  !8AB5<0B870F8O 7=0=89 45B59 > ?@8@>45. >H:>;L=>5 2>A?8B0=85, 1973, ! 4, A, 76 81. !>45@60=85 8 <5B>4K C<AB25==>3> 2>A?8B0=8O H:>;L=8:>2. ., 1980. 216 A. "0;K78=0 . $. "5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K ?@>3@0<<8@>20==>3> >1CG5=8O. ., 1969. 134 A. "8E><8@>2 . . !B@C:BC@0 <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0. ., 1969. 304 A. #<AB25==>5 2>A?8B0=85 8 @5G52>5 @0728B85 2 45BA:>< A04C/>4 @54. . . >44LO:>20, $. . !>E8=0. ., 1984. 294 A. #A>20 . . 1CG5=85 2 45BA:>< A04C. ., 1979. 204 A. $@594:8= . !. 7=0:><;5=85 4>H:>;L=8:>2 A 42865=85< ?@54<5B>2: 2B>@5D. :0=4. 48A. ., 1972. 22 A. -;L:>=8= ,. . A8E>;>38G5A:85 CA;>28O @072820NI53> >1CG5=8O.  :=.: 1CG5=85 8 @0728B85 <;04H8E H:>;L=8:>2. 852, 1970, A. 31 36. -;L:>=8= . . A8E>;>38O 83@K. ., 1978.  304 A. 0?0830 ., ##0537 . . 5>A101 1,503H?з 0?A1 53M>?0(C 5C51>@B5?1. N. I., 1965. 329 @. NF^! / ",.5 B>301 ]80^5B5?1 >] (5 A0 1->?0>?. 1932. 405 @. 10з51 1 , 1??51053  1-5 05C51>@5B5?1 057 |B0^57 B5?1015M A,53 5?0?! 0?7. 1961 -296 @. 3;02;5=85 @548A;>285 ..... 3 ;020 I. @>1;5<K @0728B8O <KA;8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 C 45B59 4>H:>;L=>3> 2>7@0AB0 ...... 5 з 1. 5:>B>@K5 >1I85 2>?@>AK @0728B8O <KH;5=8O 4>H:>;L=8:>2 .....  з 2. @>1;5<=>5 >1CG5=85 2 A25B5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88 45OB5;L=>AB8 ..... 28 з 3. >;L ?@>B82>@5G82KE A8BC0F89 2 @0728B88 <KH;5=8O 45B59 ........ 50 ;020 II. 0728B85 =03;O4=>-459AB25==>3> 8 =03;O4=>->1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O .. . 84 з 1. 0728B85 :>@@5:F88 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> 459AB28O . .  з 2. 0728B85 ?;0=0 ?@54AB02;5=89 ..... . . 99 ;020 III. 0728B85 ;>38G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O . . . .121 з 1. =20@80=B=>ABL ?>=OB89=>3> 8 4>?>=OB89=>3> >1>1I5=8O . . ......  з 2. >;L ?>78F88 2 @0728B88 ;>38G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O . .138 ;020 IV. #<AB25==>5 2>A?8B0=85 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O 3>B>2=>ABL 45B59 : >1CG5=8N 2 H:>;5 ..... .151 з 1. #<AB25==>5 2>A?8B0=85 2 45BA:>< A04C ...... з 2. 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