ࡱ>    #`2bjbjmm4n U...8T.40{2L4(t4t4t4t444 $1hpep?t4t4p?p?t4t45ĸĸĸp?8tt4t4ĸp?ĸĸr^Tt42 @i.\n<K0{ h l :44Z8ĸ:=X444lX444{p?p?p?p?d'.. '" "  !"? 8AA;54>20=85 F5;8 4CE>2=>3> ?CB8 >4 @540:F859 6>=0 #09B0 740B5;LAB2> "@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>3> =AB8BCB0. ., 1996 The Aquarian Press, Wellngborough, Northamptonshire, 1984   HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt00.htm" ==>B0F8O  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt00.htm" \l "rov" @548A;>285 . >2=5@0  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt00.htm" \l "pre" @548A;>285 6.#09B0  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt01.htm"  8G0@4 0:  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt02.htm" " !-!HH/  !'!# !. ;0= #>BA  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt03.htm" -"  ;4>A %0:A;8  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt04.htm" '/ $!$/ -25;8= =45E8;;  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt05.htm" ,  HH %LNAB>= !<8B  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt06.htm" !/) !!", ;;0= >M=  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt07.htm" %    ! !/ 6>= #09B  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt08.htm" .,, !   !" (8=B5@2LN A 6. @8H=0<C@B8) !0B?@5<  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt09.htm" !"  #' (  #  6>= #09B  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt10.htm"  !"  #-% !"!/ " &/ 5:A %8:A>=  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt11.htm" !/",  H  !"/: ! ! + >465@ #>;H  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt12.htm" !.'", #(  ,:    +  ! + !!/ >?8 @8H=0  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt13.htm" !"/ &,  M= 04LO@  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt14.htm" "''!, !( ''!"  ", '"     0 02-=0=40  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt15.htm" !"   !"/ 5= #8;15@  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt16.htm"  ,H !!"/ !/ @8;>65=85 1  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt17.htm"  "+ ,!" @8;>65=85 2  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt18.htm" )+   !" @8;>65=85 3  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt19.htm"  / / ,(% !!  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt20.htm" 8B5@0BC@=K5 8AB>G=8:8  HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\'B>%20B0:>5%20?@>A25B;\\txt21.htm" 1 02B>@0E 6>= #09B (@54.) '" "  !"? 740B5;LAB2> "@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>3> =AB8BCB0. >A:20, 1996.  326 A.  ==>B0F8O  MB>9 C=8:0;L=>9 0=B>;>388 6>= #09B, 8725AB=K9 8AA;54>20B5;L 2 >1;0AB8 A>7=0=8O 8 4CE>2=>3> @0728B8O, A>1@0; B5:ABK ?OB=04F0B8 =081>;55 8725AB=KE 8 ?>G8B05<KE 2 <8@5 4CE>2=KE CG8B5;59, :064K9 87 :>B>@KE ?@54;0305B A2>9 >B25B =0 DC=40<5=B0;L=K9 2>?@>A: "'B> B0:>5 ?@>A25B;5=85?". A5 >=8 A>3;0A=K 2 B><, GB> B@0=AD>@<0F8O A>7=0=8O, @57C;LB0B>< :>B>@>9 O2;O5BAO @>A25B;5=85, =5 <>65B 1KBL 045:20B=> 2K@065=0 A;>20<8; 5Q <>6=> ?>7=0BL, ;8HL ?@>94O G5@57 A0<> MB> ?5@56820=85. "5< =5 <5=55 >=8 8A?>;L7CNB ?@8<5@K 87 A>1AB25==>9 687=8, 8458 ?@8=8<05<KE 8<8 CG5=89 8 A2>8 A>1AB25==K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 ?>?KB:5 >A25B8BL =5:>B>@K5 0A?5:BK ?5@56820=8O @>A25B;5=8O 8 ?>:070BL MB> ?5@56820=85 2 B0:>9 ?5@A?5:B825, :>B>@0O <>3;0 1K ?@>OA=8BL 53> ?@8@>4C :0: 4;O B5E, :B> ?@>HQ; G5@57 =53>, B0: 8 4;O B5E, :B> =5 ?@>HQ;.  #" 70=8<05B ?>AB 48@5:B>@0 >B45;0 >1@07>20=8O 2 =AB8BCB5 >MB8G5A:8E 0C: ( Institute of Noetic Sciences) 8 O2;O5BAO @C:>2>48B5;5< ";LD0->38:8", H:>;K A0<>@0728B8O 8 2=CB@5==53> @>AB0. =  02B>@ 8 @540:B>@ <=>38E :=83, ?>A2OI5==KE G5;>25G5A:><C A>7=0=8N 8 4CE>2=><C @0728B8N. ISBN 5-88389-012-1 John W. White, 1995 CAA:89 ?5@52>4 8 >D>@<;5=85, 874-2> "@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>3> =AB8BCB0 1996  5;838O @>A25B;5=8O 0 @C1565 II-3> 8 ?>@>35 III-3> E@8AB80=A:8E BKAOG5;5B88, ?@>A25I5==K9 0?04 >:070;AO ?5@54 402=> >68405<>9 :0@B8=>9  E@8AB80=AB2> ?5@5AB0;> 1KBL 53> 4CE>2=>9 4><8=0=B>9. -B> ?@>87>H;> =5 ?>B><C, GB> 8A;0< 8;8 1C4487<, 8;8 :0:0O-=81C4L 4@C30O B@048F8>==0O @5;838O, 8;8 >4=> 87 <>4=KE, <8AB8G5A:8E 42865=89 ?>B5A=8;8 E@8AB80=AB2>. 5;> A>2A5< =5 2 MB>< 5;> 2 B><, GB> 2A5 <8@>2K5 @5;8388 8 <8AB8G5A:85 CG5=8O AB0;8 24@C3 A>@07<5@8<K 8 GB> :0@BK @50;L=>AB8, @07@01>B0==K5 A2OI5==K<8 B@048F8O<8, A>AB028;8 >48= 1>;LH>9 8 8=B5@5A=K9 0;L1>< 8 B5?5@L :064K9 <>65B 53> ;8AB0BL, =5 ?@8;030O 4;O MB>3> >A>1KE CA8;89. /7K:8 >?8A0=8O @07;8G=KE @5;8389 CB@0B8;8 A2>N 8A:;NG8B5;L=>ABL 8 8<?5@0B82=>ABL, 8 AB0; 2>7<>65= 8 4065 65;0B5;5= ?5@52>4 A<KA;>2. >7=8:;8 A<KA;>2K5 M:2820;5=BK, A2>5>1@07=K5 A5<0=B8G5A:85 45=L38, =0 :>B>@K5 <>6=> ?@8>1@5AB8 =5GB> 0=0;>38G=>5, ?5@5B5:0NI55 87 >4=>3> CG5=8O 2 4@C3>5. 8@ @0AH8@8;AO 8 =5>6840==> AB0; <5=LH5, 154=55, A5@55. 0 D>=5 MB>9 :0@B8=K ?> BC AB>@>=C 2A5E @5;8389 8 B@048F89 2A5 >BG5B;8255 AB0;0 ?@>ABC?0BL 4@52=OO 8 25G=> =>20O @5;838O ?@>A25B;5=8O. 'B> 65 B0:>5 ?@>A25B;5=85? -B>3> =5 7=05B =8:B>. @>A25B;5=85 =5;L7O ?@>?>254>20BL, 2 =53> =5;L7O 25@8BL, 53> =5;L7O 25@8D8F8@>20BL. @>A25B;5=85  MB> =5 1>3>A;>285, =5 <8D>;>38O, =5 D8;>A>DA:89 48A:C@A. 5B =8:0:>9 <5B>48:8 8;8 ?A8E>B5E=8:8, 254CI8E : ?@>A25B;5=8N. !;8H:>< <=>3> A53>4=O 48A:C@A>2 8 ?A8E>B5E=8:, :>B>@K5 =8 : G5<C =5 ?@8G0AB=K. '5< 65 =>20O @5;838O >B;8G05BAO >B 2A5E 4@C38E @5;8389? >60;C9 B5<, GB> 2A5 4@C385 @5;8388 402=> C65 AB0;8 ?CBO<8, :>B>@K5 =8:C40 =5 254CB, 0 ?@>A25B;5=8N 157@07;8G=>, :0:8< ?CB5< BK : =5<C ?@8H5;. 5;8388 2A5 1>;LH5 8 1>;LH5 ?@>O2;ONB A51O :0: 1>;LH85 <>=C<5=BK ?@>H;KE ?@>A25B;5=89, 0 A>2@5<5==K5 <8AB8G5A:85 CG5=8O  :0: ?0<OB=8:8 =5402=8E <0;KE ?@>A25B;5=89.  B5, 8 4@C385 70ABK;8 2 ?>78F88 2708<=>3> =5?@8OB8O 8 A0<>C?>5=8O, 8 2K25AB8 8E 87 MB>3> A>AB>O=8O =52>7<>6=>. 5;838O ?@>A25B;5=8O A25B;> C;K105BAO 2A5< 8<. =0 ?@825BAB2C5B 8 ?>4=8<05B =0 I8B =5 B>, GB> 8E 2A5E @0745;O5B, 0 B>, GB> 8E >1J548=O5B, 8 B>, GB> 8E ?@81;8605B : =0< 8 4@C3 : 4@C3C. =0 =0E>48B 2 =8E 15AG8A;5==K5 4@03>F5==K5 8 C=8:0;L=K5 :@8AB0;;K 1K;KE >B:@>25=89 8 2 <5AB5 A B5<8, :B> A;54C5B MB8<8 ?CBO<8 8 @5;838O<8, @04C5BAO 84CI5<C >B =8E A25BC. =0 =8G53> =5 >B25@305B 8 2A5 ?@8=8<05B. AQ, :@><5 8458 8A:;NG8B5;L=>AB8 :064K9 87 MB8E @5;8389 8 ?CB59. 5B, MB> 2>2A5 =5 03>=8AB8G5A:0O 8 =5 0?>D0B8G5A:0O @5;838O, :>B>@CN =52>7<>6=> =8:><C ?5@540BL 8 >1JOA=8BL.  >A=>25 5Q ;568B >A>1>5 7=0=85 A>AB>O=89, :>B>@>5 AB>;L:> 25:>2 1K;> ?@5=51@5305<> 045?B0<8 1>;LH8E @5;8389,  2A5<8, :@><5 =5<=>38E, 4>=5AH8E 53> 4> =0A.  >A=>25 5Q ;568B >B:@KB>ABL B5< 2KAH8< 25O=8O<, C :>B>@KE <=>65AB2> 8<5= 2 @07=KE B@048F8OE 8 :>B>@K5 =5;L7O ?>9<0BL =8:0:8<8 A8;:0<8, A;>20<8 8 7=0:0<8. >6=> A:070BL (8 B0: 3>2>@8B >48= 87 02B>@>2 :=838, :>B>@CN 2K A59G0A 45@68B5 2 @C:0E), GB> ?>;=>9 8 :>=:@5B=>9 ?;0=5B0@=>9 D>@<>9 ?@>A25B;5==>3> 1KB8O O2;O5BAO ;5@><0 G5;>25G5AB20, ;560I0O ?> BC AB>@>=C 2A5E B@048F89 8 :C;LBC@, 8 GB> "2=CB@5==89 CG8B5;L" 2 :064>< 87 =0A 5ABL =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: <>I=0O 8 MDD5:B82=0O D>:CA8@>2:0 ;5@><K 2 G5;>25:5. ;5@><0  MB> ?@5645 2A53> 1KB85 8 ?>B><C B0:65 8 A>7=0=85. 4=0:> F5=B@ 55 ;568B ?> BC AB>@>=C B>3>, GB> 2>A?@8=8<0NB =0H8 GC2AB20 8 <KA;L.  ;5@><5 =5B =8 <C60, =8 65=K, =8 =0G0;L=8:0 8 ?>4G8=Q==>3>, =8 @07=8FK O7K:>2 8 :C;LBC@. >B5=F80;L=> ;5@><0 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 2A5340 8 25745 :0: 0@E5B8?8G5A:89 <8@, => >=0 =0E>48BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 0:BC0;870F88 2 G5;>25G5A:>< 1KB88 8 A>7=0=88. @>A25B;Q==K9 G5;>25: 8 O2;O5BAO ;5@><>9, =57@8<> ?@>=87K20NI59 25AL :>A<>A. ?@>G5<, 2AQ MB> ?CABK5 A;>20, =5 8<5NI85 >B=>H5=8O : ;5@><5. 'B> 65 B0:>5 ?@>A25B;5=85? B25G05B 8>=8A89 @5>?038B "=0 =5 4CH0, =5 C<, =8 2>>1@065=85 8;8 <=5=8O, 8;8 A;>20, 8;8 @07C<5=8O =0 =5 8<55B, =0 =8 5ABL =8 A;>2>, =8 <KA;L; =0 8 A;>2>< =5 2K@078<0 8 =5 C@07C<5205<0; =0 8 =5 G8A;>, 8 =5 ?>@O4>:, =5 25;8G8=0 8 =5 <0;>ABL, =5 @025=AB2> 8 =5 =5@025=AB2>, =5 ?>4>185 8 =5 >B;8G85; 8 =0 =5 AB>8B, =5 42865BAO, =5 ?@51K205B ?>:>5, =5 8<55B A8;K 8 =5 O2;O5BAO =8 A8;>9, =8 A25B><; =0 =5 6825B 8 =5 687=L; =0 =5 5ABL =8 ACI=>ABL, =8 25:, =8 2@5<O; 9 =5 A2>9AB25==> GC2AB25==>5 2>A?@8OB85; =0 =5 7=0=85, =5 8AB8=0, =5 F0@AB2>, =5 ?@5<C4@>ABL; =0 =5 548=>5 8 =5 548=AB2>, =5 1>65AB25==>ABL, =5 1;03>ABL; =0 =5 5ABL 4CE 2 8725AB=>< =0< A<KA;5, =5 AK=>2AB2>, =5 >BF>2AB2>, =8 GB>-;81> 4@C3>5 87 4>ABC?=>3> =0H5<C 8;8 GLN-=81C4L 87 ACI8E 2>A?@8OB8N; =0 =5 GB>-B> 87 =5-ACI53> 8 =5 GB>-B> 87 ACI53>; =8 ACI55 =5 7=05B Q B0:>9, :0:>20 =0 5ABL, =8 =0 =5 7=05B ACI53> B0:8<, :0:>2> >=> 5ABL; 9 =5 A2>9AB25==K =8 A;>2>, =8 8<O, =8 7=0=85; =0 =5 BL<0 8 =5 A25B, =5 701;C645=85 8 =5 8AB8=0; : 59 A>25@H5==> =5 ?@8<5=8<K =8 CB25@645=85, =8 >B@8F0=85; 8 :>340 <K ?@8;0305< : 59 8;8 >B=8<05< >B 55 GB>-B> 87 B>3>, GB> 70 Q ?@845;0<8, <K 8 =5 ?@8;0305<, 8 =5 >B=8<05<, ?>A:>;L:C 2KH5 2AO:>3> CB25@645=8O A>25@H5==0O 8 548=0O @8G8=0 2A53>, 8 2KH5 2AO:>3> >B@8F0=8O ?@52>AE>4AB2> 5, :0: A>25@H5==> 4;O 2A53> 70?@545;L=>9". KAH85 A>AB>O=8O, 4>ABC?=K5 G5;>25:C, 8 =58AA;548<K5 25O=8O 1;03>40B8, M<0=8@CNI85 87 ;5@><K,  2>B >AL 8 >A=>20 =>2>9 8 4@52=59 @5;8388 ?@>A25B;5=8O, : :>B>@>9 A @07=KE AB>@>= ?>4ABC?0NB 02B>@K MB>9 =5>1KG=>9 :=838, 55 <0AB5@0 8 8AA;54>20B5;8. ?5@548 B@C4=K9 ?CBL  B@C4=K9 ?>B><C, GB> 4@52=85 B@>?K 70@>A;8 1C@LO=><, =>2K5 H8@>:85 H>AA5 ?>:@K;8 75<;N 0AD0;LB>< 8 =0 =59 =8G53> =5 @0AB5B. @54AB>OB =>2K5 >B:@KB8O A:@KBKE 2 =0A 2>7<>6=>AB59 ?@5>1@065=8O, =0H59 C=8:0;L=>AB8 8 548=AB20 2 2KAH5<, 2 ;5@><5.  4>1@K9 ?CBL, @>AA89A:85 8A:0B5;8! @:0489 >2=5@ 0?@5;L 1996 3>40 @548A;>285 -B0 :=830 O2;O5BAO A2>53> @>40 ?@>4>;65=85< <>59 ?5@2>9 :=838 "KAH55 A>AB>O=85 A>7=0=8O", :>B>@0O 2KH;0 2 A25B 2 1972 3>4C. ">B A1>@=8: 1K; 2?>;=5 ?>4E>4OI8< 4;O A2>53> 2@5<5=8 8 =0 ?@>BO65=88 10 ;5B 53> E>@>H> ?>:C?0;8, => >B 3>40 : 3>4C =5:>B>@K5 87 2:;NG5==KE BC40 B5:AB>2 CAB0@520;8 8 : =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8 >:070;8AL =5 A>2A5< C<5AB=K<8. 07C<55BAO, B0 :=830 2K?>;=8;0 ?>;57=CN 7040GC. 5A><=5==> 8 B>, GB> 55 ?>;57=>ABL 8AG5@?0=0, ?>MB><C 55 8 ?5@5AB0;8 A59G0A ?5@5874020BL.  :=83C "'B> B0:>5 ?@>A25B;5=85?" O A=>20 ?><5AB8; B@8 87 B@84F0B8 B@5E AB0B59 ?@54K4CI53> A1>@=8:0 (MB> AB0BL8 0:0, %0:A;8 8 #>BA0). =8 27OBK 87 B>9 :=838 87-70 8E G@572KG09=>9 ?>;57=>AB8 4;O ?>8A:0 2KAH53> A>7=0=8O 8 A0<>B@0=AF5=48@>20=8O, AB02H53> =K=5 3;>10;L=K<, 0 B0:65 87-70 8E 2=52@5<5==>AB8  :0G5AB20, :>B>@>5 2K45;O5B 8E A@548 >AB0;L=KE B5:AB>2 "KAH53> A>AB>O=8O". A5 >AB0;L=>5 2 A1>@=8:5 "'B> B0:>5 ?@>A25B;5=85?" ?>;=>ABLN, :0: <=5 :065BAO, A>>B25BAB2C5B 53> >1I5<C =0720=8N. / ?>AB0@0;AO 871560BL =54>AB0B:>2, :>B>@K5 >1=0@C68; 2 ?5@2>9 :=835, AB@5<OAL 2 MB>9 =>2>9 0=B>;>388 : 1>;LH59 C@02=>25H5==>AB8 8 :@0B:>AB8, ?><=O A;>20 -::;5780AB0  "=>65AB2C :=83 =5B :>=F0, 8 >B <=>3>9 CG5=>AB8  ;8HL A;01>ABL ?;>B8". 045NAL, :=830 2K?>;=8B A2>5 =07=0G5=85 8 AB0=5B 20< 4@C3>< 8 25@=K< ?><>I=8:>< 2 ?@>E>645=88 687=5==>3> ?CB8. 50;L=>5 >1CG5=85  MB>, :>=5G=>, B>;L:> ;8G=>5 ?CB5H5AB285, >4=0:> 70?8A0==K5 CG5=8O A2845B5;LAB2CNB > ?CB5H5AB28OE 4@C38E ;N459 8 B5< A0<K< >1>30I0NB 20H5 A>1AB25==>5. CABL 65 >=> 1C45B ?>-=0AB>OI5<C 1>30BK<. 6>= #09B  '" "  !"? 'B> B0:>5 ?@>A25B;5=85? 0 ?@>BO65=88 8AB>@88 MB8< 2>?@>A>< 704020;8AL ;N48, 8ICI85 A<KA; 1KB8O. > 2A5 2@5<5=0 1K;8 <C6G8=K 8 65=I8=K, :>B>@K5 ?>;=>ABLN ?>A2OI0;8 A51O ?>8A:0< >B25B0 =0 MB>B 2>?@>A, =5 278@0O =0 B@C4=>AB8 8 ;8H5=8O, 8=>340 4065 =0 2@06451=>5 >B=>H5=85 : =8< >1I5AB20,  =0AB>;L:> F5==K< 8 206=K< 4;O 8E AG0ABLO ?@54AB02;O;>AL 8< B0:>5 ?>=8<0=85. >1C48B5;L=K< <>B82>< 8E ?>8A:>2 1K; 3>;>4 A0<>?>7=0=8O  :B> O? ?>G5<C O 745AL? :C40 O 84C? GB> B0:>5 687=L 2>>1I5? A5 MB> 0A?5:BK >4=>3> DC=40<5=B0;L=>3> 2>?@>A0  "'B> B0:>5 ?@>A25B;5=85?"  =0H8 4=8 2A5 1>;LH5 AB0=>28BAO 8A:0B5;59, :>B>@K5 84CB ?> AB>?0< A2>8E ?@54H5AB25==8:>2. E =5 CAB@08205B =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL status quo, =5 A>45@60I53> 2 A515 =8 =C6=KE >B25B>2, =8 AG0ABLO. @><5 B>3>, MB8< 4@52=8< 2>?@>A>< 7040NBAO B5?5@L 8 CG5=K5  8AA;54>20B5;8 A>7=0=8O, 8 ?@>AB> ;N1>7=0B5;L=K5, CA;KH02H85 A<CB=K5, => A>1;07=8B5;L=K5 @0AA:07K > G5<-B> B0:><, GB> =0?>;=O5B 687=L 1;065=AB2>< 8 4>AB>8=AB2>< 8 GB> =07K205BAO ?@>A25B;5=85< "O30 : 7=0=8N > ?@>A25B;5=88 @0A?@>AB@0=8;0AL =0AB>;L:> H8@>:>, GB> 2?5@2K5 70 G5;>25G5A:CN 8AB>@8N 45OB5;L=>ABL >B45;L=KE ;8G=>AB59 8 >@30=870F89, >1JO2;ONI8E A51O A254CI8<8 2 MB>< 2>?@>A5, A>740;0 1C@=> @072820NI55AO ?>;5 :><<5@F88. =4CAB@8O ?@>A25B;5=8O AB0;0 1>;LH8< 187=5A><. 5:;0<=K5 >1JO2;5=8O ?>2AN4C 2>725I0NB, GB> 4;O ?>8A:>2 >B25B0 C65 =5 ?>B@51CNBAO 3>4K AB@>3>9 48AF8?;8=K 2 >B40;5==KE A2OBKE C1568I0E. !53>4=O ?@>A25B;5=85 4>ABC?=> 2A5<. -  #!" /  !"/ 0, 2 =5:>B>@>< :@09=5< A<KA;5 25@=> 8 B>, GB> ?@>A25B;5=85 4>ABC?=> 2A5<. -B>, A;020 >3C, 8 5ABL B>, : G5<C 42865BAO 2A5 B2>@5=85. > >4=8< 87 C4@CG0NI8E 0A?5:B>2 2A59 MB>9 :><<5@F80;870F88 O28;>AL >15AF5=820=85 A0<>3> B5@<8=0 "?@>A25B;5=85". >;=0 :=83, AB0B59, 0C48>- 8 2845>70?8A59, ;5:F89 8 A5<8=0@>2, ?>A2OI5==KE ?@>A25B;5=8N, =5A5B A A>1>9 <0AAC ?@>B82>@5G82KE <=5=89, CB25@645=89 8 2>7@065=89 =0AG5B =53>. "0:65 ?@>87>H5; =0AB>OI89 27@K2 2 >1;0AB8 ?A8E>B5E=>;>388 8 A@54AB2 87<5=5=8O A>7=0=8O, ?@5B5=4CNI8E =0 22545=85 2 <8AB8G5A:85, B@0=AD>@<0B82=K5 8 "?@>A25B;5==K5" A>AB>O=8O. 8?=>B8G5A:85 <03=8B>70?8A8, A50=AK 2>A?><8=0=8O ?@>H;KE 687=59, B@5=8@>2:0 0;LD0- 8 BMB0-2>;=>2>9 0:B82=>AB8 <>730, 2=5B5;5A=K5 0AB@0;L=K5 72C:8, @07=>>1@07=K5 A8AB5<K <548B0F88, :0<5@K A5=A>@=>9 87>;OF88  2>B B8?8G=K5 B>20@K, ?@54;0305<K5 =K=5 2 4CE>2=KE AC?5@<0@:5B0E.  2A5 65 4CE>2=><C ?>B@518B5;N A;54>20;> 1K A?@>A8BL A51O " 5ABL ;8 2 =8E :0:0O-;81> F5==>ABL? A;8 5ABL, :0:>20 55 F5=0?  '5<C MB0 F5==>ABL <>65B ?>A;C68BL?" !B0BL8, A>1@0==K5 2 :=835, >B25BOB =0 MB8 2>?@>AK 8, :>=5G=>, =0 :0@48=0;L=K9 2>?@>A, ?><5I5==K9 2 703;0288.  ?@5420@8B5;L=> <>6=> A:070BL B>;L:>, GB> C?><O=CBK5 B>20@K, CA;C38 8 A8AB5<K 459AB28B5;L=> 8<5NB =5:>B>@CN F5==>ABL, => >=0 25AL<0 >3@0=8G5==0  MB> F5==>ABL 4;O =>28G:0, 4;O B>3>, :B> B>;L:> =0G8=05B >A>7=020BL B5 2KAH85 AD5@K 1KB8O, :>B>@K5 >B25@3=CBK :C;LBC@>9 70?04=>3> >1I5AB20 8 8A:;NG5=K 87 55 >1@07>20B5;L=>3> :@C3>7>@0 -B8 CA;C38 A?>A>1=K 40BL =5:>B>@K5 284K ?5@56820=89, :>B>@K5 =5<=>3> H8@5, G5< ?>2A54=52=K5, @0A:@K20O MB8< =0< >:=> 2 @50;L=>ABL. =8 <>3CB ?>:070BL >3@0=8G5=8O >1K45==>3> A>7=0=8O 8 2>7<>6=>ABL ACI5AB2>20=8O G53>-B> 70 53> ?@545;0<8. > :;NG52>9 4;O ?>=8<0=8O <><5=B 70:;NG05BAO 2>B 2 G5<: F5==>ABL <8AB8G5A:8E 8 B@0=AD>@<0B82=KE A>AB>O=89 =5 2 B><, GB> >=8 ?@8=>AOB :0:>5-B> =>2>5 ?5@56820=85, 0 2 B><, GB> >=8 87102;ONB >B A0<>3> "/" ?5@56820NI53>. >2>@O 8=0G5, >=8 87102;ONB >B M3>F5=B@8G=>3> A>7=0=8O, 2>A?@8=8<0NI53> 687=L A 65AB:>9, A0<>F5=B@8@>20==>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, 0 =5 2 B>9 A2>1>4=>9, @0A:>20==>9 ?5@A?5:B825, :>B>@0O ?@8ACI0 <C4@5FC, 7=0NI5<C, GB> >= 8 5ABL A0<0 15A:>=5G=>ABL, ?@>O2;5==0O 2 >3@0=8G5==>9 D>@<5. '"  //"!/  !" A;8 ?>A;54=55 2KA:07K20=85 ?>:065BAO =5 A;8H:>< OA=K< (:0: ?>GB8 2A5 CB25@645=8O ?> ?>2>4C ?@>A25B;5=8O), B> >=>, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, ?>4A:065B =0<, G5< ?@>A25B;5=85 =5 O2;O5BAO. -B> =5 87<5=5==>5 A>AB>O=85 A>7=0=8O, 2K720==>5 ?@8 ?><>I8 <548B0F88, =0@:>B8:>2, A5:A0 8;8 :0:>9-;81> 4@C3>9 ?A8E>B5E=>;>388, A?>A>1=>9 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 @07C<. 48= 87 02B>@>2 40==>9 0=B>;>388, ?@54AB028B5;L B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 5= #8;15@ B0: ?8A0; 2 =01@>A:5 (=K=5 C=8GB>65==><) A2>53> MAA5: "0< 8725AB=> @545;L=>5 !>AB>O=85 !>7=0=8O =5 :0: >4=> A@548 <=>38E 4@C38E, 0 :0: B> 548=AB25==>5, C :>B>@>3> =5B @02=KE, >=> =5 O2;O5BAO 87<5=5==K< A>AB>O=85< A>7=0=8O, ?>B><C GB> 4;O =53> =5 ACI5AB2C5B 0;LB5@=0B82K".  ?@>A25B;5=85  MB> =5 1;8AB0B5;L=K9 ?>:07 <548C<8G5A:8E D5=><5=>2 8 ?0@0=>@<0;L=KE A8;. -B> 8 =5 2845=85, ?5@5<5I0NI55 20A 2 :0:CN-B> =515A=CN AD5@C -B> =5 =5?>4286=>5 A845=85 2 B@0=A5, :>340 2>A?@8=8<05HL =5:89 2=CB@5==89 <8@ 70E20BK20NI8E >BB5=:>2 F25B0 8 72C:0 8;8, =0>1>@>B, ?>;=CN ?CAB>BC C<0. @>A25B;5=85 <>65B 2:;NG0BL 2 A51O 2A5 MB>, => >=> 15A:>=5G=> ?@52>AE>48B 2A5 MB>. 7 2A53> B>3>, GB> <5=LH5 ?@545;L=>3>, =8GB> =5 ?>4E>48B 2 :0G5AB25 >B25B0, 0 2A5 D5=><5=K ?@5E>4OI8 8 =5 O2;ONBAO ?@545;L=K<8.   caveat emptor [1]  MB> :0A05BAO ?>GB8 2A53>, GB> ?@54;0305B 8=4CAB@8O ?@>A25B;5=8O. > <5@5 B>3> :0: 2AO AC5B0 ?> ?>2>4C 1KAB@>9 =0;04:8 <0H8= 1;065=AB20, >1;53G5==KE A8AB5< B@5=8@>2:8 8 <3=>25==KE :C@A>2 ;5G5=8O -3> @072>@0G8205BAO 157 :0:8E-;81> 70<5B=KE @57C;LB0B>2 8 ?5=0 :><<5@F80;870F88 >A5405B, ;N48 A0<8 =0G8=0NB 3;C165 23;O4K20BLAO 2 ?@8@>4C A0<>B@0=AD>@<0F88 8 4CE>2=KE ?>8A:>2, => ;8HL C25;8G820NB MB8< A2>5 70<5H0B5;LAB2> 8 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL.  >?OBL 2>7=8:05B 2>?@>A GB> 65 B0:>5 ?@>A25B;5=85? '/ # !", A;8 2>?@>A MB>B 1K; 8725G=K<, B> >B25B =0 =53> <>6=> =0720BL 8725G=>9 <C4@>ABLN. -B> 8 5ABL F5;L 4CE>2=>3> ?CB5H5AB28O @048:0;L=>5 ?>=8<0=85, :>B>@>5 ?@8E>48B 2 A0<>5 A5@4F5 G5;>25G5A:>3> >?KB0, >70@OO A>1>N :064CN 53> 3@0=L, CAB@0=OO 2AO:>5 A><=5=85 >B=>A8B5;L=> A<KA;0 ACI5AB2>20=8O 8 ?@8@>4K @50;L=>AB8. 5GL 845B =5 AB>;L:> > D0:B8G5A:>< 7=0=88, A:>;L:> > <C4@>AB8, =5 > <=>3>CG5=>AB8, 0 >1 C25@5==>AB8. 0==0O :=830 8<5==> >1 MB><.  =59 A>1@0=> :>5-GB> A0<>5 ;CGH55 87 >1H8@=>9 ;8B5@0BC@K, ?>A2OI5==>9 ?@>A25B;5=8N, B0: GB> 2K <>65B5 ?>;CG8BL OA=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > <C4@>AB8 ?@>H;KE 25:>2.  @07=KE <>8E 0=B>;>38OE, ?>A2OI5==KE 2KAH5<C G5;>25G5A:><C @0728B8N, O 3>4 70 3>4>< AB@5<8;AO A>1@0BL 2 >48= B>< 2A5>1J5<;NICN :>;;5:F8N, GB>1K G8B0B5;L <>3 ?>;CG8BL A>;84=>5 22545=85 ?> 206=>9 B5<5 8;8 ?@54<5BC, =5 ?@>18@0OAL A:2>7L 3>@K <0B5@80;>2 8 =0 @0AE>4CO <=>3> 2@5<5=8 8 M=5@388 2 ;8B5@0BC@=KE ?>8A:0E -B> =0<5@5=85 A>E@0=8;>AL C <5=O 8 A59G0A. '8B0O MBC :=83C, 2K <>65B5 ?>;CG8BL G5B:>5 ?>=OB85 > ?@>A25B;5=88  8=B5;;5:BC0;L=> >A=>20B5;L=>5 ?>=8<0=85, :>B>@>5 =0 A0<>< 45;5 <>65B 1KBL =5:>9 :0@B>9 @50;L=>AB8. (>;65=, 2?@>G5<, ?@54>AB5@5GL: :0@B0  MB> 5I5 =5 A0<0 B5@@8B>@8O. =K<8 A;>20<8, ?8@>38 =0 :0@B8=:5 =8:>3> =5 =0AKBOB. "5@<8= "?@>A25B;5=85" >AB05BAO B0: 8;8 8=0G5 ;8HL A;>2><, >BAB>OI8< >G5=L 40;5:> >B B>3>, GB> >=> >1>7=0G05B. >MB><C 40;55 O 5I5 1C4C 3>2>@8BL > :0@B0E @50;L=>AB8) 725G=0O <C4@>ABL =587<5==0, 8AB8=0 2A5340 >4=0.  MB>< A>3;0H0NBAO <564C A>1>9 <C4@5FK 2A5E 25;8:8E @5;8389 8 A2OI5==KE B@048F89, 2A5E 35@<5B8G5A:8E D8;>A>DA:8E B5G5=89, ?>4;8==> <8AB8G5A:8E H:>; 8 2KAH8E >::C;LB=KE ?CB59. @>A25B;5=85 A>AB02;O5B ACI=>AB=CN 8AB8=C 8E 2A5E.  5A;8 27OBL H8@5, >=>  ACBL A0<>9 687=8, F5;L 2AO:>3> @>AB0, @0728B8O, M2>;NF88. @>A25B;5=85  MB> @0A:@KB85 B>3>, GB> <K 5ABL 2 ?@545;L=>< A<KA;5, >B25B =0 3;02=K5 =0H8 2>?@>AK: "B> O B0:>9?", ">G5<C O 745AL?", "C40 O 84C?", "'B> B0:>5 687=L 2>>1I5?"  ! +"/  !"/  4CE>2=>< ?CB5H5AB288 70;>65= 3;C18==K9 ?0@04>:A. 5;> 2 B><, GB> F5;L =0H53> AB@0=AB28O, =C6=K9 =0< >B25B  MB> B>, G5< <K C65, 2 ACI=>AB8, O2;O5<AO, KB85<, ?@545;L=>9 F5;>AB=>ABLN, :>B>@0O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 8AB>G=8: 8 >A=>20=85 2AO:>3> !B0=>2;5=8O. @>A25B;5=85  MB> ?>AB865=85 8AB8=K KB8O. -B> =0H5 @>4=>5 A>AB>O=85; =0H5 8AB8==>5 /  B> KB85, :>B>@>5 B@048F8>==> =07K205BAO >3><, >A<8G5A:>9 8G=>ABLN, KAH8< KB85<, 48=K<-2>-2A5<. (AB0B8, =5:>B>@K5 ?@>A25B;5==K5 CG8B5;O, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 C440, GB>1K 1KBL ;CGH5 ?>=OBK<8, ?@54?>G8B0;8 871530BL B58AB8G5A:8E B5@<8=>2 =8 AB0@0;8AL >1>9B8 3;C1>:CN :C;LBC@=CN >1CA;>2;5==>ABL, :>B>@0O 2>7=8:05B 87-70 =0H53> O7K:0 8 1;>:8@C5B ?>=8<0=85). K O2;O5<AO ?@>O2;5=8O<8 KB8O, =>, ?>4>1=> A0<><C :>A<>AC, >AB05<AO 2 ?@>F5AA5 !B0=>2;5=8O, =5?@5@K2=> @072820OAL, 87<5=OOAL, M2>;NF8>=8@CO :> 2A5 1>;55 8 1>;55 2KA>:8< A>AB>O=8O<, :>B>@K5 A> 2A5 1>;LH59 :@0A>B>9 2K@060NB A>25@H5=AB2> 8AB>G=8:0 ACI5AB2>20=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, :064K9 87 =0A ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5 B>;L:> G5;>25G5A:>5 1KB85, => 8 G5;>25G5A:>5 AB0=>2;5=85 8 ?@>A25B;5=85  GB> ?>=8<0=85 A>25@H5==>3> @02=>25A8O 1KB8O-2-AB0=>2;5=88. AB8=0 2AO:>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O 8 2AO:>3> >?KB0 ;568B, A;54>20B5;L=>, =5 2 G5< 8=><, :0: 2 157CA;>2=>< 1KB88 745AL-8-A59G0A, 2 C65 ?@8ACBAB2CNI59 87=0G0;L=>9 ?@8@>45 B>3>, GB> 8ICB, : G5<C AB@5<OBAO 8 > G5< 2>?@>H0NB  2 A0<>< KB88. CE>2=>5 ?CB5H5AB285  ?@>F5AA >B:@KB8O MB>9 8AB8=K 8 55 ?@>6820=8O.  =55 2E>48B 8 A0< 284OI89 3;07  8;8 B>G=55, "O", 284OI55 A2>5 /. 0 O7K:5 D8;>A>D88, ?@>A25B;5=85 >E20BK205B 548=AB2> 2A5E 4C0;L=>AB59, 30@<>=8G=CN A>?>;>65==>ABL 2A5E ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59, 548=AB25==>ABL 15A:>=5G=>9 <=>65AB25==>AB8 8 15A:>=5G=>3> @07=>>1@078O. 0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< O7K:5 MB> ?@52>AE>645=85 ;N1KE GC2AB2 >3@0=8G5==>AB8 8 8=0:>2>AB8.  3C<0=8AB8G5A:8E B5@<8=0E >=> O2;O5BAO ?>=8<0=85< B>3>, GB> ?CB5H5AB285  MB> CG5=85, GB> 8 A0< ?CBL 8 F5;L  MB> >4=> 8 B> 65.  B5>;>38G5A:8E B5@<8=0E MB>  ?>AB865=85 548=AB20 >30 8 ?@8@>4K G5;>25:0.  >=B>;>38G5A:8E B5@<8=0E ?@>A25B;5=85, O2;O5BAO !>AB>O=85< 2A5E A>AB>O=89, #A;>285< 2A5E CA;>289, :>B>@>5 ?@52>AE>648B 25AL :>A<>A, => >AB05BAO 2A5 65 >1K45==>9 @50;L=>ABLN, ?>A:>;L:C =8G53> >B =53> >B45;L=>3> =5B 8 =5 <>65B 1KBL. >340 <K 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 ?>=8<05< MBC 5;8:CN "09=C, B> >1=0@C68205< A2>N =0AB>OICN ?@8@>4C, KAH55 ">645AB2>, / 2A53> ACI53>. @O<>5 2>A?@8OB85 =0H59 B>645AB25==>AB8 A 15A:>=5G=K<, MB0 =>MB8G5A:>5 [2] ?>AB865=85 =0H53> B>645AB20 A 1>65AB25==K< AB0=>28BAO 8AB>G=8:>< 2A53> 2>7<>6=>3> AG0ABLO, 4>1@>BK, :@0A>BK 8 8AB8=K. -B> ?5@56820=85 2KE>48B 70 ?@545;K 2@5<5=8, ?@>AB@0=AB20 8 ?@8G8==>AB8; >=> ?@5>4>;5205B >3@0=8G5=8O -3> 8 ;N1>3> A>F80;L=> >1CA;>2;5==>3> GC2AB20 "/". =0=85 > B><, GB> <K 2=52@5<5==K, =5>3@0=8G5==K 8 ?>MB><C :>A<8G5A:8 A2>1>4=K, :;045B :>=5F 8;;N788 >B45;L=>AB8 8 2A5< B5< 1>;57=5==K< 45AB@C:B82=K< 70I8B=K< <5E0=87<0<, :>B>@K5 <K 8=48284C0;L=> 8;8 :>;;5:B82=> A>740;8 4;O A>E@0=5=8O =0H59 M3>8AB8G5A:>9 8;;N788 70 AG5B 2A53> >AB0;L=>3>.  09B@0O=0 #?0=8H045 B0: 3>2>@8BAO >1 MB>< ">AB83=C2 A2>5 O :0: 2KAH55 /, G5;>25: ;8H05BAO O. -B> =082KAH0O B09=0". .&/, -.&/   )  !"!" >A:>;L:C <K O2;O5<AO, 2 ACI=>AB8, KB85<, <K =5 AB0B8G=K. K 5I5 8 0:B82=K, <K O2;O5<AO KB85<-2-?@>F5AA5-A0<>-?>@>6405<KE-87<5=5=89, :>B>@>5 B@048F8>==> =07K205BAO !B0=>2;5=85<, 8;8 ?@>F5AA>< :>A<8G5A:>9 M2>;NF88. >=5G=>, M2>;NF8O  MB> B>;L:> >48= 0A?5:B MB>3> B08=AB25==>3> ?@>F5AA0, ;560I53> 2 >A=>20=88 2A53> B2>@5=8O. @C3>9 ?@>F5AA  8=2>;NF8O, MB>B "2K4>E" >30, MB> ">?CAB>H5=85" 8;8 :5=>78A [3], :>B>@K9 ?@82=>A8B 1>65AB25==>ABL 2 25AL :>A<>A 8 2 <0B5@8N, B0: GB> B5?5@L 1>65AB25==>ABL 8 <0B5@8O <>3CB A>B@C4=8G0BL, 84B8 2<5AB5 G5@57 @07;8G=K5 AB0488 @>AB0 >A>7=0=8O, >B =52545=8O G5@57 ?@>AB>5 A>7=0=85, A0<>A>7=0=85 8 :>A<8G5A:>5 A>7=0=85 : B><C 5;8:><C >A?><8=0=8N->A:@5H5=8N, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO =5 G5< 8=K<, :0: 48=K<-2>-2A5<. K 2>2;5G5=K 2 <0B5@8N 4;O B>3>, GB>1K M2>;NF8>=8@>20BL :0: CE K @0728205<AO :0: 8=48284C0;L=>, B0: 8 :0: G5;>25G5A:0O @0A0, G5@57 @07;8G=K5 C@>2=8 ACI5AB2>20=8O  D878G5A:89, <5=B0;L=K9 8 4CE>2=K9,  :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO, 2 ACI=>AB8, ;8HL 3@040F8O<8 >30, 5;8:>9 &5?LN KB8O 7=0G0;L=> B2>@5=85 :>A<>A0 1K;> <0B5@80;870F859 CE0, 0 70B5< =0G0;0AL A?8@8BC0;870F8O <0B5@88 2> 2A5E <8@0E, 2KAH8E 8 =87H8E "0:8< >1@07><, <K A0<8 8 O2;O5<AO, 2 ACI=>AB8, >3>< 2 B>9 4@0<5, :>B>@CN <K A>7405<, 2 :>B>@>9 G0ABL >30 "701K205B" > 5<, ?5@568205B MBC "CB@0BC" 8 B0:8< >1@07>< >1@5B05B <>B82 4;O ?>8A:0 2>AA>548=5=8O A &5;K<, A 4=8<-57-@C3>3>. @>F5AA, 2 :>B>@>< <K AB0=>28<AO CB@0B82H8<8 8 701K2H8<8 =0HC 1>65AB25==CN ?@8@>4C, O2;O5BAO 8=2>;NF859, ?045=85< >B 1;065=AB20 8 1;03>40B8, 0 ?@>F5AA, 2 :>B>@>< <K >1@5B05< A51O 8 2A?><8=05<, GB> =0H5 8AB8==>5 A>AB>O=85  MB> M2>;NF8O, A>7=0B5;L=>5 2>72@0I5=85 : 1>65AB25==><C >340 <K ?>=8<05< MB>, <K =0G8=05< 68BL "1>65AB25==>9 687=LN", :0: =07K20; 55 (@8 C@>18=4>. !#)!"      :>A<8G5A:>9 ?5@A?5:B825 A8BC0F8O, 2 :>B>@>9 <K >1=0@C68205< A51O, MB> 4@0<0, 2 :>B>@>9 <K  A?OI85 0:B5@K. K 845< G5@57 687=L, =5 >A>7=020O B>B D0:B, GB> 2A5 O2;O5BAO 83@>9 >30. ;O ?@>1C645=8O >B MB>9 4@0<K A;C68B ?@>A25B;5=85. K >B:@K205B5, GB> >3 O2;O5BAO 02B>@><, 0:B5@>< 8 2A5<8 AB048O<8 2 MB>9 4@0<5, 8A?>;=5==>9 15A:>=5G=>9 83@82>AB8, 8 ?>MB><C 8A?>;=5==>9 15A:>=5G=>3> 1;065=AB20. > GB> 20< 45;0BL ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: 2K ?@>1C48;8AL? 0: ?5@5=5AB8 MB> 2 ?>2A54=52=CN 687=L? K A=>20 2>72@0I05B5AL : A2>8< 45;0<, A=>20 >AB05B5AL A B5<, GB> <K 4>;6=K 45;0BL 2 <8@5  2> 2A5E <8@0E.  MB>< A<KA;5 2K AB0=>28B5AL 2<5AB5 A >3>< A>B2>@F>< 2 45;5 "A?0A5=8O" A5;5==>9, 45;0O B>, GB> <>3;> 1K ?><>GL 4@C38< C2845BL A25B 8 ;N1>2L 1>65AB25==>3>, A8ONICN 2> 2A5E 25I0E, 0 =0 A0<>< 45;5 O2;ONICNAO 2A5<8 MB8<8 25I0<8. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@>A25B;5=85  MB> 15A:>=5G=K9 ?@>F5AA, 0 =5 B>;L:> 548=AB25==>5 ?@>8AH5AB285.  ?>8AB8=5, :0: >B<5G0NB ":0@BK @50;L=>AB8", @07@01>B0==K5 A2OI5==K<8 B@048F8O<8, ACI5AB2CNB A2>53> @>40 :20=B>2K5 A:0G:8 2 ?@>F5AA5 >A>7=0=8O, :>B>@K5 >B<5G0NB ?@>42865=85 ?> 4CE>2=><C ?CB8, => A0<> ?> A515 ?5@56820=85 "15;>3> A25B0" 5I5 =5 45;05B G5;>25:0 =8 <8AB8:><, =8 A2OBK<  4065 =081>;55 4CE>2=> 2>72KH5==K5 ;N48 ?@87=0NB, GB> 5ABL A>AB>O=8O 1KB8O 8 70 ?@545;0<8 B>3> C@>2=O @0728B8O, :>B>@>3> >=8 4>AB83;8 @5<5=8, >B2545==>3> G5;>25:C =0 687=L, 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 4>AB8GL ?@>A25B;5=8O, => =54>AB0B>G=> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 7025@H8BL 53>. !0<>?>AB865=85  MB> =5 B> 65 A0<>5, GB> A0<>?@5>1@065=85. 0: >B<5G0; (@8 C@>18=4>, ?>AB865=85 1>65AB25==>3>  MB> ;8HL "?@><56CB>G=0O AB048O" 2 ?@>F5AA5 2KAH53> G5;>25G5A:>3> @0728B8O.  ?>MB><C A0<>?>AB865=85, 4065 @048:0;L=>5, =5 O2;O5BAO 5I5 :>=F>< G5;>25G5A:>3> ?CB5H5AB28O. KAH85 A>AB>O=8O @0728B8O 7>2CB =0A : 40;L=59H59 B@0=AD>@<0F88, 8 MB> =0H M2>;NF8>==K9 C45;. >=OB=>, :>=5G=>, GB> 2A5 MB8 1C4CI85 AB0488 !B0=>2;5=8O O2;ONBAO =5 G5< 8=K<, :0: ?@>O2;5=85< ?@8ACBAB28O 15A:>=5G=>3> 8 25G=>3> KB8O, 8 MB> =0H5 ?@545;L=>5 B>645AB2> A 1>65AB25==K<, ?> A;>20< 4CE>2=>3> CG8B5;O. 0 02-=0=4K (>= 65 0 $@8 6>=), >4=>3> 87 02B>@>2 MB>3> A1>@=8:0, "C65 A0<> ?> A515 8 5ABL >3" -B> 8 5ABL ?@>A25B;5=85.   !+  !"/ @>A25B;5=8N 4020;8 <=>65AB2> 8<5=. <O C440 >7=0G05B "?@>A25B;5==K9", B> 65 A0<>5 >7=0G0NB 8<5=0 %@8AB>A 8 5AA8O !2. 025; =07K20; ?@>A25B;5=85 ">65AB25==K< ?>:>5<, :>B>@K9 ?@52>AE>48B ?>=8<0=85", 0 8G0@4 5::  ":>A<8G5A:8< A>7=0=85<"  475=-1C4487<5 MB> A0B>@8, 2 9>35 MB> A0<04E8 8;8 <>:H0, 2 ACD87<5  D0=0, 2 40>A87<5  2C, 8;8 @545;L=>5 0>. C@46852 =07K20; MB> ">1J5:B82=K< A>7=0=85<", (@8 C@>18=4> 3>2>@8; > !25@E@07C<5, <8AB8G5A:85 H:>;K 8 >::C;LB=K5 B@048F88 3>2>@OB >1 ">70@5=88", ">A2>1>645=88" 8 "A0<>?>AB865=88". @><5 B>3>, ?@>A25B;5=85 A8<2>;878@>20;>AL <=>65AB2>< >1@07>2 BKAOG5;5?5AB:>2K9 ;>B>A 2 8=4C87<5, !2OB>9 @00;L C E@8AB80=, OA=>5 75@:0;> C 1C448AB>2, 25740 02840 C 8C4552, :@C3 8=L-O= C 40>A>2; 25@H8=0 3>@K, ;5154L, A?>:>9=>5 >75@>, <8AB8G5A:0O @>70 8 25G=>5 ?;0<O. @>A25B;5=85 >?8AK20;>AL A2OBK<8, ?@>@>:0<8 8 CG5=8:0<8 <=>38<8 ?CBO<8. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 5= #8;15@, :>B>@>3> <=>385 AG8B0NB =081>;55 2K40NI8<AO B5>@5B8:>< B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 :>B>@>3> <>6=> A@02=8BL A -9=HB59=>< 2 >1;0AB8 8AA;54>20=8O A>7=0=8O, ?>425; 8B>3 MB>3> 2 D8=0;L=>9 G0AB8 A2>59 1;5ABOI59 @01>BK Eye to eye: KAH55 !>AB>O=85 !>7=0=8O >1KG=> >?8AK205BAO 2 <8AB8G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 :0: A>548=5=85 A 1A>;NB><, 2 :>B>@>< 1A>;NB ?>7=05BAO =5 :0: >4=> 87 <=>38E 4@C38E O2;5=88, 0 :0: "48= 157 4@C3>3>". >;55 B>3>, >B<5G05BAO, GB> ?>7=0BL 1A>;NB  MB> 7=0G8B AB0BL A0<8< MB8< 1A>;NB>< 7 MB>3> A;54C5B, GB> KAH55 !>AB>O=85 !>7=0=8O A0<> ?> A515 O2;O5BAO 1A>;NB><, 8, B0:8< >1@07><, KAH55 !>AB>O=85 !>7=0=8O >:07K205BAO =5 ?@>AB> A>AB>O=85< A>7=0=8O, >4=8< 87 <=>38E, => 548=AB25==K< 2 A2>5< @>45 A>AB>O=85<, ">4=8< 157 4@C3>3>" >6=> A:070BL, GB> >=> 2:;NG05B 2 A51O 01A>;NB=> 2A5 "0:8< >1@07><, KAH55 !>AB>O=85 !>7=0=8O =5 O2;O5BAO 87<5=5==K< A>AB>O=85< A>7=0=8O, ?>A:>;L:C C =53> =5B =8:0:>9 0;LB5@=0B82K 8 >=> ?>8AB8=5 >4=> 157 4@C3>3>. ><<5=B8@>20; MBC B5<C 8 0 02-=0=40. 3> B>G:0 7@5=8O, 2K@01>B02H0OAO 2 53> 15A540E 8 :=830E, 87;0305BAO 2 >B@K2:5 87 :=838 ""5;5A=>5 65@B2>?@8=>H5=85 2=8<0=8O" (The Bodily Sacrifice of Attention): 1KG=> G5;>25: ?>;0305B, GB> @>A25B;5=85  MB> :0:85-B> >A>1K5 2845=8O > @>A25B;5=85 3>@074> 1>;55 B>=:>, 157<>;2=>, 53> ACI=>ABL =52K@078<0 A;>20<8. -B> >4E8G8BB0, 2KAH55 ?>AB865=85 KB8O, 2KAH0O C4@>ABL. 0 MB>9 >A=>25 2>7=8:0NB @07;8G=K5 284K A8ONI8E B@0=AD>@<0F89, => A0<>5 >AB865=85 =0AB>;L:> DC=40<5=B0;L=>, =0AB>;L:> 157<>;2=>, =0AB>;L:> ?@>AB> [4], =0AB>;L:> =5?>A@54AB25==>, =0AB>;L:> >G5284=>, =0AB>;L:> 70?@545;L=>, GB> MB> =52>7<>6=> >B>645AB28BL =8 A >4=8< 87 D5=><5=>2 =0H53> ACI5AB2>20=8O 8;8 7=0=8O. ;O ?5@540G8 ?>=8<0=8O MB>3> >AB865=8O ACI5AB2C5B ?@>1C645==K9 8=48284, CE>2=K9 0AB5@, => A0<>5 ?>AB865=85 >AB05BAO 157<>;2=K<, A>25@H5==K<, ?@>ABK<, =5?>A@54AB25==K< 8 >G5284=K<. >340 2K ?@8E>48B5 : <><5=BC ?>AB865=8O >65AB25==>3> ">645AB20 8 B5E CA;>289 ?@>O2;5==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O, 2 :>B>@KE 2K 6825B5, B>340 2K 4>AB8305B5 @>A25B;5=8O. "045CH >;0A, 02B>@ :@0B:>3>, => <C4@>3> " C:>2>4AB20 ?> ?@>A25B;5=8N 4;O ;5=82KE" (The Lazy Man's Guide to Enlightenment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noetic)  >B=>AOI89AO : A>7=0=8N, >B 3@5G5A:>3> "=>MA8A" (<KH;5=85, @07C<5=85).  @8<. ?5@52. [3] 5=>78A  1C:20;L=> "8AB>I5=85" (3@5G.)  B5@<8= ?@02>A;02=>3> 1>3>A;>28O >3, ">?CAB>H05B" A51O, 2;8205B A51O 2 B2>@5=85, ">1>65AB2;OO" 53> ("B5>78A"), E>BO = 2 B> 65 2@5<O =5:8< ?0@04>:A0;L=K< >1@07>< =5 8AB>I05BAO 8 =8GB> 2 5< =5 C<5=LH05BAO ?@8 MB><. !<. . 0=45@, ">3 8 <8@", 0@86 YMCA-Press, 1948, B. 1, A. 88  @8<. ?5@52. [4] 0AB5@0 475= =0<5:0;8 =0 B>, GB> :>340 G5;>25: 4>AB8305B ?@>A25B;5=8O, >= ?>=8<05B, GB> ?@>A25B;5=85  MB> =5GB> =5>1KG09=> ?@>AB>5, :0: 2:CA @50;L=>AB8, 8 GB> >=>, >:07K205BAO, 2A5340 =0E>48;>AL @O4>< A =0<8, 2 =0A A0<8E. >, =5A<>B@O =0 B0:CN ?@>AB> BC, MB> B@C4=> >1JOA=8BL A;>20<8 4;O B>3>, :B> =5 ?>AB83 A0<, 8 ?>B><C 4@52=85 0AB5@0 =5>E>B=> 3>2>@8;8 >1 MB><.  @8<. ?5@52.  8G0@4 . 0: " !-!HH/  !'!# !. =830 ">A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85", =0?8A0==0O 2 1901 3>4C, O28;0AL >4=8< 87 =5<=>38E :;0AA8G5A:8E B5:AB>2, :>B>@K5 A>459AB2>20;8 2>7=8:=>25=8N ?@>8AE>4OI53> =K=5 3;>10;L=>3> 42865=8O 8AA;54>20=8O A>7=0=8O (5I5 >4=8< B0:8< B5:AB>< 1K;0 :=830 #8;LO<0 659<A0, "=>3>>1@0785 @5;838>7=>3> >?KB0" [2], >?C1;8:>20==0O 2?5@2K5 2 1902 3>4C).  1872 3>4C 35-;5B=89 :0=04A:89 ?A8E80B@ 8G0@4 . 0: ?5@568; M:AB@0>@48=0@=>5 >70@5=85 8 A B>3> <><5=B0 ?>A2OB8; A51O 87CG5=8N D5=><5=0, 3;C1>:> 87<5=82H53> 53> 687=L : ;CGH5<C. @>A;56820O G5;>25G5A:CN 8AB>@8N, >= >1=0@C68; 8 >?8A0; 1>;55 4N68=K ?@8<5@>2 ;N459, 2 :>B>@KE ?@>O2;O;>AL B>, GB> >= =0720; :>A<8G5A:8< A>7=0=85<,  =>20O A?>A>1=>ABL, >1@5B5==0O G5;>25G5A:>9 @0A>9 1;03>40@O M2>;NF88. = 2:;NG8; 2 A2>9 :0B0;>3 B0:65 =5A:>;L:> 45AOB:>2 "<5=55 7=0G8<KE, =5A>25@H5==KE 8 A><=8B5;L=KE" A;CG052.  G8A;5 B5E, :B>, A>3;0A=> 0:C, >1;040; ?>;=K< :>A<8G5A:8< A>7=0=85<,  C440, @8H=0, 8ACA, A2. 025;, ;>B8=, >E0<<54, 0=B5, A2. >0== @5AB0, #8;LO< ;59:, #>;B #8B<5= 8 040< N9>=.  >B@K2:5, 2K1@0==>< 4;O =0H59 0=B>;>388, 0: >1AC6405B E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 :>A<8G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O.  42CE 25I0E 745AL A;54C5B C?><O=CBL >A>1>. >-?5@2KE, AB8;L 87;>65=8O C 0:0, 2 G5<-B> AB@0==K9 4;O A>2@5<5==>3> ?>=8<0=8O, 2 A2>5 2@5<O 1K; 2?>;=5 ?@85<;5<K< 8 M;530=B=K<.  ?CABL B>, GB> 02B>@ >B4020; =5:>B>@>5 ?@54?>GB5=85 <C6A:><C =0G0;C, =5 ?><5H05B G8B0B5;O< 2>A?@8=OBL ACBL 53> ?>A;0=8O. >-2B>@KE, =5A<>B@O =0 C15645==>ABL 0:0, GB> :>A<8G5A:>5 A>7=0=85 "?@>O2;O5BAO 3;02=K< >1@07>< C 8=48284>2 <C6A:>3> ?>;0", >= 2>2A5 =5 1K; 0=B8D5<8=8AB><.  @0745;5 "<5=55 7=0G8<KE, =5A>25@H5==KE 8 A><=8B5;L=KE A;CG052" >= ?@825; B@8 ?@8<5@0 65=I8=, 0 :>=F5 :=838 C?><O=C;, GB> ;8G=> 7=05B 65=I8=C, :>B>@0O ?@51K205B 2 ?>4;8==>< :>A<8G5A:>< A>7=0=88, => ?@54?>G8B05B >AB0BLAO =5=0720==>9. >=OB=>, E>BO 8 4>AB>9=> A>60;5=8O, ?>G5<C 0: AC<5; @07KA:0BL B0: <0;> 70?8A0==KE A2845B5;LAB2 > ?@>A25B;5==KE 65=I8=0E  254L 4>:C<5=B8@>20==0O 8AB>@8O 2 53> 2@5<5=0 1K;0, ?> ?@58<CI5AB2C, <C6A:>9 8AB>@859, 83=>@8@>202H59 ?>;>28=C G5;>25G5A:>9 @0AK 87-70 ?0B@80@E0;L=>3> ?@8AB@0AB8O : <C6G8=0< 8 <C6A:8< 45;0<. @>4>;60NI85AO =K=5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>AB5?5==> 8A?@02;ONB B0:>5 ?>;>65=85 45; (A<. @8;>65=85 2). I A;8 25@=> =0H5 ?@54?>;>65=85 > B><, GB> [G5;>25G5A:0O M2>;NF8O 5I5 =5 7025@H8;0AL, 8] 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 2 @07C<5 1C4CB 2>7=8:0BL =>2K5 A?>A>1=>AB8, B>, >G5284=>, =>2K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 2>7=8:0;8 8 2 ?@>H;><. A;8 MB> B0:, ?@54?>;>68<, GB> B> =5GB>, =0720==>5 2 MB>9 :=835 >A<8G5A:8< !>7=0=85<, O2;O5BAO B0:>9... 2>7=8:H59 A?>A>1=>ABLN. 0209B5 ?>A<>B@8<, GB> =0< 8725AB=> >1 MB>< =>2>< GC2AB25, =>2>< A>AB>O=88, =>2>9 A?>A>1=>AB8, :0: 1K MB> =5 =07K20;>AL. @5645 2A53> A;54C5B 70<5B8BL, GB> MB> =>2>5 GC2AB2>20=85 =5 ?>O2;O5BAO A;CG09=> C B>3> 8;8 8=>3> G5;>25:0. 1O70B5;L=> 4>;6=0 ACI5AB2>20BL M:70;LB8@>20==0O G5;>25G5A:0O ;8G=>ABL, A?>A>1=0O A>740BL =5>1E>48<K5 CA;>28O 4;O 53> 2>7=8:=>25=8O. A>15==>ABLN 25;8:8E A;CG052 O2;O5BAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=>5 @0728B85 2A5E 8;8 =5:>B>@KE 87 >1KG=KE G5;>25G5A:8E A?>A>1=>AB59. !;54C5B, 2 G0AB=>AB8, >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 =0 C=8:0;L=>5 A>25@H5=AB2> 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE, =@02AB25==KE 8 >A>1KE A5=A>@=KE A?>A>1=>AB59 C #>;B0 #8B<5=0, @07 C6 MB>B A;CG09 4>?>4;8==> =0< 8725AB5=. 5@>OB=>, :0:>5-B> ?@81;865=85 : B0:8< M2>;NF8>==K< 2KA>B0< 1K;> 2> 2A5E A;CG0OE. 0;55, 2 =5:>B>@KE, 0 <>65B 1KBL, 8 2> 2A5E A;CG0OE, B0:><C G5;>25:C 1K;8 A2>9AB25==K 8A:;NG8B5;L=K5 D878G5A:85 40==K5  =5>1KG09=0O :@0A>B0 :><?;5:F88 8 D83C@K, ?@82;5:0B5;L=>ABL, ?@5:@0A=>5 74>@>2L5, 8A:;NG8B5;L=> <O3:89 =@02 8 >G0@>20=85. II # A0<>9 MB>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 <=>3> =0720=89, => >=8 4> A8E ?>@ =5 ?>=OBK 8;8 =5 ?@87=0=K. "0: GB> =5;8H=5 1C45B C?><O=CBL A59G0A =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E. > E>4C 45;0 >=8 AB0=CB ?>=OB=55. "> ;8 A0< 0CB0<0 [C440], B> ;8 :B>-B> 87 53> ?5@2KE CG5=8:>2 =0720; MBC A?>A>1=>ABL "8@20=>9" 87-70 "C30A0=8O" =5:>B>@KE <5=B0;L=KE :0G5AB2 (B0:8E, :0: GC2AB2> 3@5E>2=>AB8, AB@0E ?5@54 A<5@BLN, 65;0=85 1>30BAB20 8 B. 4.),  MB> C30A0=85 ?@>8AE>48B =5?>A@54AB25==> 2 <><5=B 70@>645=8O MB>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 (:>A<8G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O). "0:>5 ?>402;5=85 AB0@>9 ;8G=>AB8 =0@O4C A @>645=85< =>2>9 ?>GB8 @02=>7=0G=> C=8GB>65=8N AB0@>3> A51O 8 A>B2>@5=8O =>2>3>. !;>2> "=8@20=0" >?@545;O5BAO :0: "A>AB>O=85, : :>B>@><C AB@5<8BAO 1C4489A:89 A2OB>9, :0: : 2KAH59 F5;8 8 25;8G09H5<C 1;03C". 8ACA =0720; =>2>5 A>AB>O=85 "&0@AB2>< >688<" 8;8 "&0@AB285< 515A=K<" 87-70 ?@8ACI8E 5<C ?>:>O 8 AG0ABLO, :>B>@K5, =04> ?>;030BL, A>AB02;ONB 53> A0<K5 E0@0:B5@=K5 G5@BK. 025; =0720; MB> A>AB>O=85 "%@8AB>A".  A515 A0<>< >= 3>2>@8; :0: > "G5;>25:5 2> %@8AB5", >4=>< 87 "B5E, :B> 2> %@8AB5". "0:65 >= =07K20; MB> "CE><" 8 "CE>< >6L8<". >A;5 2E>645=8O 2 >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85 025; C7=0;, GB> 8ACA >1;040; >A<8G5A:8< 'C2AB2>< 8 GB> >= (:0: 1K) 68; 687=LN 8ACA0  GB> 2 =5< 68;0 5I5 >4=0 8=48284C0;L=>ABL, 5I5 >4=0 ACI=>ABL. -BC 2B>@CN ACI=>ABL >= =07K20; %@8AB>< (1>65AB25==K< ?>A;0=F5<-A?0A8B5;5<), A>>B=>AO 5Q =5 AB>;L:> A G5;>25:>< ?> 8<5=8 8ACA, A:>;L:> A> A?0A8B5;5<, :>B>@K9 4>;65= 1K; 1KBL ?>A;0= 8 1K; ?>A;0= 2 MB>9 ;8G=>AB8, :>B>@0O AB0;0 >4=>2@5<5==> 8ACA>< (>1KG=K< G5;>25:>< A !0<>-!>7=0=85<) 8 5AA859 (?@>2>725AB=8:>< 8 >1@07F>< =>2>9 2KAH59 @0AK). 2>9=0O ;8G=>ABL C ;N459, >1;040NI8E >A<8G5A:8< !>7=0=85<, 1C45B C?><8=0BLAO 2 =0H5< 87;>65=88 <=>3> @07, 8 <K C2848<, GB> MB> ?>AB>O==K9 8 G5B:> @07;8G8<K9 D5=><5=. >E0<<54 =0720; >A<8G5A:>5 'C2AB2> "01@8M;L" 8, ?>-2848<><C, @0AA<0B@820; 53> :0: O2=> >B45;L=CN ;8G=>ABL, 682HCN 2 =5< 8 3>2>@82HCN A =8<. 0=B5 =0720; 53> "50B@8G5" ("0@OI59 AG0ABL5"), 8<5=5<, :>B>@>5 ?>GB8 @02=>7=0G=> "&0@AB28N 515A=><C". 0;L70: =0720; =>2>3> G5;>25:0 "A?5F80;8AB><", 0 =>2>5 A>AB>O=85 "!?5F80;87<><". #8B<5= =07K20; >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85 ">59 CH>9", => 3>2>@8; > =5< A;>2=> > 4@C3>< ;8F5, =0?@8<5@, B0:: , 4CH0 157C45@6=0O, O A B>1>N 8 BK A> <=>9... K B>65 AO45< =0 :>@01;L, >, 4CH0... !> A<5E>< 8 <=>65AB2>< ?>F5;C52... , 4CH0, :0: =@028HLAO BK <=5, 0 O  B515. M:>= (2 A>=5B0E) A B0:8< A>?5@56820=85< >B=>A8;AO : >A<8G5A:><C 'C2AB2C, :0: : >B45;L=>9 ;8G=>AB8, GB> <8@ 2 B5G5=85 B@5E AB>;5B89 ?>=8<0; 53> 1C:20;L=> 2 C25@5==>AB8, GB> MB>9 ";8G=>ABLN" (=5206=>, ?>4 :0:8< 8<5=5<) 1K; N=K9 4@C3 ?>MB0!.. III KH5 =5A:>;L:> @07 C?><8=0;>AL, GB> 2 B>B <><5=B, :>340 @0A0 2ABC?05B 2 >1;040=85 =>2>9 A?>A>1=>ABLN, >A>15==> 5A;8 MB> ?@>8AE>48B ?> ;8=88 ?@O<>3> 2>AE>645=8O @0AK, GB> 157CA;>2=> 8<55B <5AB> 2 A;CG05 >A<8G5A:>3> !>7=0=8O, =>2CN A?>A>1=>ABL >1O70B5;L=> 1C4CB >1@5B0BL A=0G0;0 ;CGH85 ?@54AB028B5;8 @0AK, ?@8G5< 2A5340 2 =08;CGH55 4;O =8E 2@5<O  B> 5ABL 2 ?>@C ?>;=>9 7@5;>AB8 8 4> =0ABC?;5=8O 2>7@0AB=KE A;CG09=KE CEC4H5=89. 0:>2K 65 B>340 D0:BK, A2845B5;LAB2CNI85 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88 > ?@8E>45 >A<8G5A:>3> 'C2AB20? E <>6=> AC<<8@>20BL 2 =5A:>;L:8E A;>20E A;54CNI8< >1@07><: A@548 34 A;CG052, :>340 >70@5=85 1K;> <3=>25==K<, A :0:>9-B> AB5?5=LN 4>AB>25@=>AB8 8725AB5= ?5@8>4, :>340 >=> ?@>87>H;>.  >4=>< A;CG05 2>7@0AB G5;>25:0, ?5@5H54H53> 2 >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85, A>AB02;O; 24 3>40, 2 B@5E A;CG0OE  30 ;5B; 2 42CE A;CG0OE  31 3>4; 2 42CE A;CG0OE  31 3>4 A ?>;>28=>9; 2 B@5E A;CG0OE  32 3>40; 2 >4=>< A;CG05  33 3>40; 2 42CE A;CG0OE  34 3>40; 2 2>AL<8 A;CG0OE  35 ;5B; 2 42CE A;CG0OE  36 ;5B; 2 42CE A;CG0OE  37 ;5B; 2 42CE A;CG0OE  38 ;5B; 2 B@5E A;CG0OE  39 ;5B; 2 >4=>< A;CG05  40 ;5B; 2 >4=>< A;CG05  49 ;5B; 8 2 >4=>< A;CG05  54 3>40... IV "0:8< >1@07><, >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85 2>7=8:05B 2 8=48284C0;L=>ABOE... A E>@>H8< 8=B5;;5:B><, 2KA>:8<8 =@02AB25==K<8 :0G5AB20<8, ?@52>AE>4=K<8 D878G5A:8<8 40==K<8. => 2>7=8:05B ?@8<5@=> 2 B> 2@5<O 687=8, :>340 @01>B>A?>A>1=>ABL >@30=87<0 =0E>48BAO =0 2KAH59 >B<5B:5, 2 2>7@0AB5 >B 30 4> 40 ;5B. >;6=> 1KBL, 8 =5?>A@54AB25==K9 ?@54H5AB25==8: >A<8G5A:>3> !>7=0=8O  !0<>-!>7=0=85  B>65 =0G8=05B ?@>O2;OBLAO : A5@548=5 687=8, 2 >B45;L=KE A;CG0OE B> B0<, B> BCB C =081>;55 ?@>428=CBKE ?@54AB028B5;5 @0AK, ?>AB5?5==> AB0=>2OAL ?>GB8 2A5>1I8< (2 B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 @0A0 4> =53> 4>@0AB05B), B0: GB> 53> ?@>O2;5=8O >B=>AOBAO :> 2A5 1>;55 8 1>;55 @0==5<C 2>7@0ABC, 2?;>BL 4> B>3> (:0: <K 2848<), GB> A59G0A >=> =01;N405BAO C ;N1>9 4>AB0B>G=> AD>@<8@>202H59AO 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 2 2>7@0AB5 >:>;> B@5E ;5B. !;54CO 0=0;>388, <K <>3;8 1K ?@89B8 : C15645=8N, GB> A;54CNI89 H03 ?@>42865=8O... >68405B 2AN @0AC, 8 GB> ?@845B 2@5<O, :>340 >BACBAB285 C :>3>-=81C4L >1AC6405<>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 1C45B ?@87=0:>< >BAB0;>AB8, :0: =K=5 B0:8< ?@87=0:>< A;C68B >BACBAB285 =@02AB25==>AB8. >6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, =025@=>5, GB> =>2>5 GC2AB2> 1C45B AB0=>28BAO 2A5 1>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K< 8 =01;N40BLAO 2> 2A5 1>;55 @0==5< 2>7@0AB5, ?>:0 G5@57 <=>385 ?>:>;5=8O =5 AB0=5B ?@>O2;OBLAO C :064>3> =>@<0;L=>3> 8=482840 2 2>7@0AB5 ?>;>2>3> A>7@520=8O 8;8 4065 @0=LH5; ?>B><, ?>A;5 <=>38E BKAOG ?>:>;5=89, AB0=>2OAL 5I5 1>;55 2A5>1I8< 8 ?@>O2;OOAL 5I5 @0=LH5, >=> 1C45B 2>7=8:0BL ?@8 2KE>45 87 <;045=G5A:>3> 2>7@0AB0 ?>GB8 C :064>3> ?@54AB028B5;O @0AK. V C6=> G5B:> ?>=8<0BL, GB> A;CG08 >A<8G5A:>3> !>7=0=8O ?@>8AE>4OB =5 =0 >4=>< 8 B>< 65 ?;0=5. ;8 65, 5A;8 4;O =0A @>AB>5 !>7=0=85, !0<>-!>7=0=85 8 >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85 70=8<0NB :064>5 A2>9 >B45;L=K9 ?;0=, 0 >E20B @>AB>3> !>7=0=8O =0 53> ?;0=5 (345 :B>-B> <>65B 1KBL @8AB>B5;5<, &570@5<, LNB>=>< 8;8 >=B><, B>340 :0: 53> A>A54 ?> C;8F5 ?>GB8 =5 1C45B >B;8G0BLAO ?> 2A5< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K< 8 <>@0;L=K< ?@>O2;5=8O< >B A:>B8=K 2 AB>9;5) =0<=>3> H8@5 >E20B0 @>AB>3> !>7=0=8O C :064>9 40==>9 >A>18 =0 53> ?;0=5, B> A;54C5B >6840BL, GB> >E20B >A<8G5A:>3> !>7=0=8O (?@54?>;>68<, <8;;8>=K A;CG052, :0: =0 4@C38E ?;0=0E) H8@5, G5< >E20B !0<>-!>7=0=8O, 8, 25@>OB=>, >= 459AB28B5;L=> =0<=>3> 1>;LH5 8 ?> E0@0:B5@C 8 ?> AB5?5=8; 8=K<8 A;>20<8, 5A;8 1K ACI5AB2>20; <8@, =0A5;5==K9 ;N4L<8 A >A<8G5A:8< !>7=0=85<, >=8 1>;LH5 @07;8G0;8AL 1K <564C A>1>9 ?> A8;5 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE A?>A>1=>AB59, ?> 2KA>B5 <>@0;L=>3> 8;8 4CE>2=>3> 1;03>@>4AB20 8 ?> E0@0:B5@C, G5< 68B5;8 ?;0=5BK 2 ?;0=5 !0<>-!>7=0=8O.  ?@545;0E ?;0=0 >A<8G5A:>3> !>7=0=8O >48= G5;>25: 1C45B 1>3><, 0 4@C3>9  :0: 1K =8 1K;0 M:70;LB8@>20=0, CA8;5=0 8 >G8I5=0 =>2K< A<KA;>< 53> 2=CB@5==OO 687=L  =5 2>72KA8BAO =0AB>;L:> =04 >1KG=K< G5;>25G5AB2>< A B>G:8 7@5=8O A;CG09=>3> =01;N40B5;O. > B0: 65, :0: G5;>25: !>7=0NI89 !51O (?@8 ;N1>9 AB5?5=8 453@040F88) D0:B8G5A:8 15A:>=5G=> ?@52>AE>48B 682>B=>5 A @>ABK< !>7=0=85<, B0: ;N1>9 G5;>25:, ?>AB>O==> =045;5==K9 >A<8G5A:8< !<KA;><, 1C45B ?@0:B8G5A:8 15A:>=5G=> 2KH5 8 1;03>@>4=55 ;N1>3> 4@C3>3>, C :>3> 5ABL B>;L:> !0<>-!>7=0=85. >;55 B>3>, G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 ?>1K20; 2 >A<8G5A:>< !>7=0=88 E>BO 1K =5A:>;L:> <3=>25=89, ?>60;C9, C65 =5 A=87>945B =0 4CE>2=K9 C@>25=L >4=>3> B>;L:> !0<>-!>7=0=8O. 20, 30 8;8 40 ;5B ?>A;5 MB>3> A>1KB8O >= 1C45B >ICI0BL =0 A515 >G8I0NI89, CA8;820NI89 8 M:70;LB8@CNI89 MDD5:B MB>3> 1>65AB25==>3> >70@5=8O, 8 <=>385 87 B5E, :B> 8<5; B0:>5 >70@5=85, ?@87=0NB, GB> 53> 4CE>2=K9 C@>25=L 2KH5 A@54=53>. VI > 38?>B575, ?@8=OB>9 02B>@><, G8A;> A;CG052 >A<8G5A:>3> !>7=0=8O 4>;6=> C25;8G820BLAO >B 25:0 : 25:C, :@><5 B>3> >=8 4>;6=K 1KBL 2A5 1>;55 A>25@H5==K<8, 1>;55 O2=K<8. 0:>2K 65 D0:BK? AB02;OO 2 AB>@>=5 <5=55 7=0G8<K5 A;CG08, :>B>@K5 2 B5G5=85 ?>A;54=8E =5A:>;L:8E BKAOG5;5B89 4>;6=K 1K;8 ?@>O2;OBLAO A>B=O<8 8 BCB 65 701K20BLAO, 2A?><=8< >1 >?8A0==KE 2KH5 B@8=04F0B8, ?> <5=LH59 <5@5, A;CG0OE, =0AB>;L:> 25;8:8E, GB> >=8 =8:>340 =5 A>B@CBAO 87 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?0<OB8  MB> 0CB0<0 [C440], 8ACA, 025;, ;>B8=, >E0<<54, 0=B5, 0A 0A0A, %C0= >?5A (>0== @5AB0), $@M=A8A M:>=, /:>1 Q<5, #8;LO< ;59:, 0;L70: 8 #>;B #8B<5=. B 0CB0<K [C44K] 4> 0=B5 ?@>H;> 18 AB>;5B89, 8 70 MB>B ?5@8>4 <K 8<55< ?OBL A;CG052.  >B 0=B5 4> =0H8E 4=59 ?@>H;> H5ABL AB>;5B89, 70 :>B>@K5 <K =0AG8B0;8 2>A5<L A;CG052. -B> 7=0G8B, GB> 2 1>;55 @0==5< ?5@8>45 >48= A;CG09 ?@8E>48;AO =0 :064K5 360 ;5B, B>340 :0: 2 1>;55 ?>74=5<  =0 :064K5 75 ;5B. @C38<8 A;>20<8, >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85 2AB@5G0;>AL 70 ?>A;54=89 ?5@8>4 2 4,8 @070 G0I5.  4> 2@5<5= 0CB0<K [C44K]? 5@>OB=>, A;CG052 =5 1K;>, 8;8 >=8 1K;8 <0;>G8A;5==K 8 ?@>O2;O;8AL =5A>25@H5==>. K 7=05<, GB> 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =01;N405BAO <=>3> B0:8E A;CG052, :>B>@K5 <>6=> =0720BL <0;K<8, => 8E 2AB@5G05<>ABL =52>7<>6=> A@02=8BL A G8A;>< ?>4>1=KE A;CG052 2 ?@>H;>< ?> B>9 ?@8G8=5, GB> >=> =5 8725AB=>. !;54C5B B0:65 ?><=8BL, GB> 13 2KH5>?8A0==KE "25;8:8E A;CG052" <>3CB A>AB02;OBL ;8HL =51>;LHCN 4>;N >1I53> G8A;0 AB>;L 65 25;8:8E A;CG052, 8<52H8E, <>65B 1KBL, <5AB> A> 2@5<5=8 0CB0<K [C44K], 254L 2?>;=5 25@>OB=>, GB> ;8HL =5<=>385 87 ;N459, : :>B>@K< >B=>AOBAO MB8 "25;8:85 A;CG08" A>25@H8;8 =5GB> B0:>5, GB> >15A?5G8;> 8E ?0<OBL > =8E. 54L :0: ;53:> <>3;0 AB5@5BLAO ?0<OBL 4065 >1 8ACA5 87 C<>2 53> A>2@5<5==8:>2 8 ?>A;54>20B5;59 ?>GB8 ?5@54 A0<K< 55 @>645=85<! =>385 A53>4=O ?>;030NB, GB> 5A;8 1K 025; A@07C 65 =5 AB0; 53> ?>A;54>20B5;5<, B> ?@8 =587<5==>AB8 ?@>G8E >1AB>OB5;LAB20E B@C4K 8 8<O 8ACA0 8AG57;8 1K 2<5AB5 A ?>:>;5=85< B5E, :B> A;KH0; 53> ;8G=>... VII 025@=>5, C :064>3> 8;8 ?>GB8 C :064>3> 87 B5E, :B> 2E>48B 2 >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85, 2>A?@8OB85 2=0G0;5 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 2>71C645=>, 8 C G5;>25:0 2>7=8:05B A><=5=85, =5 O2;O5BAO ;8 =>2>5 GC2AB2> A8<?B><>< 8;8 D>@<>9 157C<8O. >E0<<54 1K; 25AL<0 2AB@52>65=. =5 :065BAO 8 025; B@52>68;AO, MB> >G5284=>; 8 4@C385, > :>B>@KE @5GL ?>945B 40;LH5, 1K;8 B0: 65 >15A?>:>5=K. >B ?5@2>5, > G5< A?@0H8205B A51O ;N1>9 G5;>25:, 8A?KB02H89 =>2>5 GC2AB2>: ?@54AB02;O5B ;8 B>, GB> O 286C 8 GC2AB2CN, @50;L=>ABL 8;8 65 <5=O >4>;5205B 8;;N78O? ">B D0:B, GB> =>2K9 >?KB :065BAO 4065 1>;55 @50;L=K<, G5< AB0@K9, :>B>@><C G5;>25: =0CG8;AO 2 @>AB>< !0<>-!>7=0=88, ?>=0G0;C =5 C156405B 53> 2 @50;L=>AB8 ?@>8AE>4OH53> A =8<, ?>B><C GB> >= <>65B 7=0BL > B><, GB> ?@8ACBAB2CNI0O 8;;N78O >2;045205B C<>< B0: 65 A8;L=>, :0: 459AB28B5;L=K5 D0:BK. "0: 8;8 8=0G5, 2AO:89 G5;>25:, ?5@5682H89 8=B5@5ACNI89 =0A >?KB, 2>;59-=52>;59 C25@O5BAO 2 53> C@>:0E, ?@8=8<05B 8E B0: 65 01A>;NB=>, :0: ;N1K5 4@C385 C@>:8 >?KB0. -B8<, 2?@>G5<, =5 4>:07K205BAO 8E ?>4;8==>ABL, ?>A:>;L:C B> 65 A0<>5 <>6=> 1K;> 1K A:070BL > 30;;NF8=0F8OE 157C<F0. 0: 65 B>340 <>65< <K C7=0BL, GB> MB> 459AB28B5;L=> =>2>5 A<KA;>>ICI5=85, @0A:@K20NI55 D0:B, 0 =5 :0:0O-B> D>@<0 157C<8O, ?>3@C60NI0O 2 ><CB 8;;N788? >-?5@2KE, B5=45=F88 >1AC6405<>3> A>AB>O=8O =8A:>;L:> =5 ?>4>1=K 8 4065 ?@>B82>?>;>6=K B5=45=F8O< <5=B0;L=>3> >BGC645=8O  2 B> 2@5<O :0: ?>A;54=85 =>AOB O2=> 0<>@0;L=K9 8;8 4065 0=B8<>@0;L=K9 E0@0:B5@, ?5@2K5 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 <>@0;L=K. >-2B>@KE, 5A;8 ?@8 2A5E D>@<0E 157C<8O A0<>>3@0=8G5=85  A45@6820=85 A51O  ?>402;O5BAO, 0 8=>340 A2>48BAO =0 =5B B> 0 >A<8G5A:>< !>7=0=88 >=> CA8;8205BAO 2 >3@><=>9 AB5?5=8. 1A>;NB=>5 4>:070B5;LAB2> MB><C CB25@645=8N <>6=> =09B8 2 687=5>?8A0=8OE ;N459, :>B>@K5 ?@82>4OBAO 745AL 2 ?@8<5@. -B@5BL8E, =5B A><=5=89 2 B><, GB> A>2@5<5==0O F828;870F8O (2 H8@>:>< A<KA;5) 2> <=>38E >B=>H5=8OE ?>:>8BAO (:0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL) =0 C@>:0E =>2>3> A<KA;>>ICI5=8O (GB> 1K =8 3>2>@8;8 ?> MB><C ?>2>4C 1571>6=8:8). < =0CG5=K <0AB5@0, 0 C65 >B <0AB5@>2 25AL >AB0;L=>9 <8@  G5@57 8E :=838, 8E ?>A;54>20B5;59 8 CG5=8:>2, B0: GB> 5A;8 1K B>, GB> =07K205BAO 745AL >A<8G5A:8< !>7=0=85<, 1K;> =5:>9 D>@<>9 157C<8O, <K AB>;:=C;8AL 1K A C60A=K< D0:B>< (=5 1C4L >= A0< ?> A515 01AC@45=), GB> =0H0 F828;870F8O, 2:;NG0O 2A5 2KA>G09H85 @5;8388, >A=>2K205BAO =0 8;;N788. > 254L (2-G5B25@BKE), =8A:>;L:> =5 AG8B0O B0:CN C60A=CN 0;LB5@=0B82C =587156=>9 8 =8 =0 A5:C=4C 55 =5 ?@8=8<0O, <>6=> =0AB0820BL =0 B><, GB> >1J5:B82=0O @50;L=>ABL, A>>B25BAB2CNI0O MB>9 A?>A>1=>AB8, 8<55B 4;O =0A B0:CN 65 >G5284=>ABL, :0: 8 @50;L=>ABL, ?@8:@5?;ONI0O O@;K: : ;N1><C 4@C3><C >ICI5=8N 8;8 :0:>9 1K B> =8 1K;> A?>A>1=>AB8. 0?@8<5@, 7@5=85: 2K 7=05B5, GB> 45@52>, :>B>@>5 AB>8B 70 ?>;5< 2 ?>;C<8;5 >B 20A, @50;L=>, GB> >=> =5 30;;NF8=0F8O, ?>B><C GB> 2A5 4@C385 >1;040NI85 7@5=85< ;N48, A :>B>@K<8 2K > =Q< 3>2>@8B5, B>65 53> 284OB, B>340 :0: 30;;NF8=0F8N =8:B> :@><5 20A =5 C2845; 1K. > B><C 65 <5B>4C @0AAC645=8O <K CAB0=02;8205< @50;L=>ABL >1J5:B82=>9 A5;5==>9, A>>B25BAB2CNI59 >A<8G5A:><C !>7=0=8N. 064K9, C :>3> 5ABL B0:0O A?>A>1=>ABL, 70 AG5B =55 >A>7=05B ACI=>ABL >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 D0:B0 8;8 D0:B>2. A;8 B@5E G5;>25:, A<>B@52H8E =0 45@52>, ?>?@>A8BL G5@57 ?>;G0A0 =0@8A>20BL 8;8 >?8A0BL 53>, B> B@8 =01@>A:0 8;8 >?8A0=8O =5 A>2?04CB 2 B>G=>AB8 45B0;59, => 1C4CB A>>B25BAB2>20BL >4=> 4@C3><C 2 >1I59 AE5<5.  B>G=> B0: 65 A>>1I5=8O B5E, :B> 8A?KB0; >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85, A>2?040NB ?> ACI5AB2C, E>BO =5?@5<5==> 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 @0AE>4OBAO 2 45B0;OE (2?@>G5<, MB8 @0AE>645=8O =0AB>;L:> 65 A2>9AB25==K =0H5<C =54>?>=8<0=8N A>>1I5=89, =0A:>;L:> A0<8< A>>1I5=8O< ). "0: GB>, =5B =8 >4=>3> ?@8<5@0 G5;>25:0, 8A?KB02H53> >70@5=85, :>B>@K9 >B@8F0; 1K 8;8 >A?0@820; 2?5G0B;5=8O :>3>-=81C4L 4@C3>3>, ?@>H54H53> G5@57 B>B 65 A0<K9 >?KB... VIII 0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL 8;8 ?>4@07C<520;>AL 2KH5, 4;O B>3>, GB>1K G5;>25: 2>H5; 2 >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85, >= 4>;65= ?@8=04;560BL : =082KAH5<C A;>N 2 <8@5 !0<>-!>7=0=8O. <C =5 >1O70B5;L=> =C6=> >1;040BL M:AB@0>@48=0@=K< 8=B5;;5:B>< (MBC A?>A>1=>ABL >1KG=> >F5=820NB =0<=>3> 2KH5 5Q @50;L=>9 F5==>AB8, 8 =04> 4C<0BL, >=0 A MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O =5 O2;O5BAO B0:>9 65 7=0G8<>9, :0: =5:>B>@K5 4@C385), E>BO >= 8 =5 4>;65= 1KBL >BAB0;K< 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88. # =53> 4>;6=K 1KBL E>@>H85 D878G5A:85 40==K5 8 :@5?:>5 74>@>2L5, => 1>;55 2A53> >AB0;L=>3> 5<C =5>1E>48<K M:70;LB8@>20==0O =@02AB25==0O ?@8@>40, CAB>9G82K5 A8<?0B88, B5?;>5 A5@4F5, E@01@>ABL, A8;0 8 8A:@5==55 @5;838>7=>5 GC2AB2>. A;8 2A5 MB> ?@8ACBAB2C5B, 8 G5;>25: 4>AB83 B>3> 2>7@0AB0, :>B>@K9 =5>1E>48< GB>1K ?>?0ABL =0 25@H8=C <5=B0;L=>3> A;>O !0<>-!>7=0=8O, B> @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> >= 2E>48B 2 >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85. 'B> B>340 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 53> ?5@56820=85? 5B0;8 53> 40NBAO A =5>?@545;5==>ABLN, ?>A:>;L:C 8<8 8AG5@?K205BAO B>, GB> 8725AB=> 02B>@C ?> =5<=>38< A;CG0O<, 0 D5=><5=K =0 A0<>< 45;5 =5A><=5==> 1>;55 @07=>>1@07=K 8 @07;8G=K <564C A>1>9. "5< =5 <5=55, =0 ?@82545==K5 745AL 40==K5 <>6=> ?>;>68BLAO 2 B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 >=8 1C4CB ?>;57=K<8.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE >=8 4>AB>25@=K, 2 :0:8E-B> 4@C38E >=8 ;8HL G0AB8G=> 70B@03820NB ?>;=>BC 8AB8=K, B0: GB> 8E <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL :0: CA;>2=> :>@@5:B=K5. =570?=>, 157 ?@54C?@5645=8O, C G5;>25:0 2>7=8:05B >ICI5=85 ?>3;>IQ==>AB8 ?;0<5=5< 8;8 >1;0:>< @>7>2>3> F25B0, 0 <>65B 1KBL, >ICI5=85 B>3>, GB> A0< @07C< 70?>;=8;AO B0:8< >1;0:>< 8;8 4K<:>9.  B> 65 A0<>5 <3=>25=85 >= :0: 1K >:C=05BAO 2 GC2AB2> @04>AB8, C25@5==>AB8, B@8C<D0, "A?0A5=8O". >A;54=55 A;>2> =5 A>2A5< ?>4E>48B, 5A;8 53> 1@0BL 2 >1KG=>< A<KA;5, B0: :0: ?>;=>ABLN @0728B>5 GC2AB2> A>AB>8B =5 2 B><, GB> A>25@H05BAO :0:>9-B> >B45;L=K9 0:B A?0A5=8O, 0 2 B><, GB> =8:0:>3> >A>1>3> "A?0A5=8O" =5 =C6=>, GB> <8@ A0< ?> A515 CAB@>5= 4>AB0B>G=K< >1@07><. -B> :0: @07 B0, 70254><> ?@52>AE>4OI0O 2AQ, GB> ?@8=04;568B 687=8 !0<>-!>7=0=8O, M:AB0B8G=>ABL, :>B>@>9 >E20G5=K ?@58<CI5AB25==> ?>MBK: 0CB0<0 [C440] 2 A2>8E @5G0E, A>E@0=82H8EAO 2 "!CBB0E", 8ACA 2 "@8BG0E", 025; 2 ">A;0=8OE", 0=B5 2 D8=0;5 "'8AB8;8I0" 8 =0G0;5 " 0O", (5:A?8@ 2 "!>=5B0E", 0;L70: 2 "!5@0D8B5", #8B<5= 2 "8ABLOE", -420@4 0@?5=B5@ 2 " 45<>:@0B88". 52F0< 4>AB0NBAO C4>2>;LAB285 8 1>;L, ;N1>2L 8 =5=028ABL, @04>AB8 8 ?5G0;8, <8@ 8 2>9=0, 687=L 8 A<5@BL G5;>25:0 !0<>-!>7=0=8O; ?>MBK B>65 <>3CB MB8< 70=8<0BLAO, => A =>2>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, :0: 3>2>@8BAO 2 "8ABLOE": "/ =8:>340 =5 703>2>@N > ;N128 8;8 > A<5@B8 ?>4 :@KH59 4><0"  B> 5ABL, A> AB0@>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, 2 AB0@>< 7=0G5=88. 4=>2@5<5==> 8;8 A@07C 2A;54 70 2KH5C:070==K<8 A<KA;>>ICI5=85< 8 M<>F8>=0;L=K< ?5@56820=85< : G5;>25:C ?@8E>48B 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>5 >70@5=85, =5 ?>440NI55AO =8:0:><C >?8A0=8N. >4>1=> 2A?KH:5 53> A>7=0=8N ?@54AB05B =5:0O OA=0O :>=F5?F8O (2845=85) 2 >G5@B0=8OE A<KA;0 8 =07=0G5=8O A5;5==>9. = =5 ?@>AB> ?@8E>48B : C15645==>AB8, 0 2848B 8 7=05B, GB> :>A<>A, :>B>@K9 C<C !0<>-!>7=0=8O :065BAO A45;0==K< 87 <5@B2>9 <0B5@88, =0 A0<>< 45;5 5ABL A>25@H5==> 8=>5  MB>, ?>8AB8=5, 682>5 ?@8ACBAB285. = 2848B, GB> 2 @50;L=>AB8 ;N48  MB> 2>2A5 =5 ?OB=KH:8 687=8, :0: 1K @0AA5O==K5 2 15A:>=5G=>< >:50=5 =5682>9 AC1AB0=F88, 0 =0>1>@>B, >=8 O2;ONBAO :@C?8F0<8 >B=>A8B5;L=>9 A<5@B8 2 15A:>=5G=>< >:50=5 687=8. = 2848B, GB> 687=L 2 G5;>25:5 25G=0, :0: 8 2AO:0O 687=L 25G=0; GB> 4CH0 G5;>25:0 B0: 65 15AA<5@B=0, :0: >3; GB> A5;5==0O B0: CAB@>5=0 8 C?>@O4>G5=0, GB> 2A5 25I8 2=5 2AO:>3> A><=5=8O @01>B0NB A>2<5AB=> 2> 1;03> 2A5E 4@C38E 8 :064>9 ?> >B45;L=>AB8; GB> >A=>2>?>;030NI8< ?@8=F8?>< 2 <8@5 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> <K =07K205< ;N1>2LN, 8 GB> AG0ABL5 :064>9 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 ?> 1>;LH><C AG5BC 01A>;NB=> >15A?5G5=>. ">B, :B> ?@>E>48B G5@57 ?>4>1=K9 >?KB, 70 =5A:>;L:> <8=CB 8;8 4065 <3=>25=89 C7=05B 1>;LH5, G5< 70 <5AOFK 8;8 3>4K CG51K, 8 >= C7=05B =0<=>3> 1>;LH5 B>3>, GB> 4020;0 8;8 <>65B 40BL ;N10O CG510. A>15==> MB> :0A05BAO >1@5B5=8O 8< B0:>9 :>=F5?F88 F5;>AB=>AB8 8;8, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, =5:>3> >3@><=>3> F5;>3>, :>B>@0O ?>;=>ABLN 70B<5205B A>1>9 ;N1CN :>=F5?F8N, ;N1>5 2>>1@065=85 8;8 @0AAC645=85, 2K@>AH55 2 !0<>-!>7=0=88. "0:0O :>=F5?F8O 45;05B 2A5 ?@56=85 ?>?KB:8 <5=B0;L=>3> >E20B0 A5;5==>9 8 55 A<KA;0 60;:8<8 8 4065 A<5H=K<8. @>1C645=85 8=B5;;5:B0 1K;> E>@>H> >?8A0=> C >4=>3> 02B>@0, :>B>@K9 B0: E0@0:B5@87>20; /:>10 Q<5: "1AC6405<K5 8< B09=K =5 1K;8 5<C A>>1I5=K, >= 8E A>75@F0;. = 2845; :>@5=L 2A5E B09=, Ungrund 8;8 Urgrund, >B:C40 ?@>8AB5:0NB 2A5 :>=B@0ABK 8 ?@>B82>@5G82K5 ?@8=F8?K, 65AB:>ABL 8 <O3:>ABL, AB@>3>ABL 8 :@>B>ABL, A;04>ABL 8 3>@5GL, ;N1>2L 8 ?5G0;L, =515A0 8 ?@58A?>4=OO. E >= 2845; 2 8E 87=0G0;L=>9 D>@<5; 8E ?KB0;AO >?8A0BL 2 8E ?@>8AB5G5=88 8 ?@8<8@8BL 2 8E ?@51K20NI8E 2 25G=>AB8 @57C;LB0B0E. = ?@>7@520; 2 1KB85 >30, >B:C40 @>6405BAO 8 ?@>4>;605BAO ?@>O2;5=85 1>65AB25==>3>. @8@>40 =5?@8:@KB> ;560;0 ?@54 =8<  2 A5@4F5 25I59 >= 1K; C A51O 4><0. 3> A>1AB25==0O :=830, 4;O :>B>@>9 A0< >= 1K; G5;>25G5A:8< <8:@>:>A<>< (:0: 8 #8B<5=: "5B =8:0:>9 :=838; :B> :>A=QBAO MB>3>, :0A05BAO G5;>25:0"), A> A2>59 B@>9=>9 687=LN, AB0;0 ?>G5B=K< C4>AB>25@5=85< 53> 2845=8N". 0@O4C A =@02AB25==K< ?>4J5<>< 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K< >70@5=85< ?@8E>48B B>, GB> 70 =58<5=85< ;CGH53> B5@<8=0 A;54>20;> 1K =0720BL GC2AB2>< 15AA<5@B8O. -B> =5 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=0O C15645==>ABL, :0: ?>A;5 @07@5H5=8O :0:>9-B> ?@>1;5<K, 8 =5 >?KB, :0: ?>A;5 =0CG5=8O G5<C-B>, ?@5645 =58725AB=><C. -B> GC2AB2> 3>@074> ?@>I5 8 M;5<5=B0@=55, 53> ;CGH5 A@02=820BL A B>9 ?@8ACI59 :064><C G5;>25:C >?@545;5==>ABLN >B45;L=>9 8=48284C0;L=>AB8, :>B>@0O ?@8E>48B A !0<>-!>7=0=85< 8 ?@8=04;568B 5<C. @8 >70@5=88 AB@0E ?5@54 A<5@BLN, :>B>@K9 8=>340 2AN 687=L ?@5A;54C5B AB>;L <=>38E <C6G8= 8 65=I8=, A?0405B A;>2=> 25BE89 ?;0I,  8 =5 ?>4 2>7459AB285< @0AAC645=89; 0 >= ?@>AB> 8A?0@O5BAO. "> 65 A0<>5 <>6=> A:070BL > GC2AB25 3@5E>2=>AB8. 5 B> GB>1K G5;>25: 8715305B 3@5E0  >= C65 =5 2848B 2 <8@5 =8:0:>3> 3@5E0, :>B>@>3> A;54>20;> 1K 871530BL. 3=>25==>ABL >70@5=8O O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 A0<KE >H5;><8B5;L=KE 53> G5@B. 8 A G5< >=> =0 A@02=8BAO B0: E>@>H>, :0: A >A;5?8B5;L=>9 2A?KH:>9 A25B0 2 =>G=>< <@0:5, ?>72>;ONI59 OA=> C2845BL A:@KBK9 4>A5;5 ;0=4H0DB. @56=89 E0@0:B5@ G5;>25:0, 2E>4OI53> 2 =>2CN 687=L, A>AB02;O5B 206=K9 M;5<5=B 2 :064>< A;CG05. "0: 65 8 A 2>7@0AB><, :>340 ?@>8AE>48B >70@5=85. A;8, =0?@8<5@, <K CA;KH0;8 1K > A;CG05 >A<8G5A:>3> !>7=0=8O, ?@>8AH54H5< 2 20 ;5B, B> ?>=0G0;C CA><=8;8AL 1K 2 4>AB>25@=>AB8 A>>1I5=8O > =Q<, 0 5A;8 1K =0< ?@8H;>AL 2 =53> ?>25@8BL, B> 1K;8 1K A:;>==K ?@87=0BL, GB> MB>B G5;>25: (1C4L >= 682 4> A8E ?>@) O2;O5BAO 2 :0:><-B> A<KA;5 =0AB>OI8< 4CE>2=K< 3830=B><. 5?@5<5==CN, =04> ?>;030BL, >B;8G8B5;L=CN G5@BC A>AB02;O5B ?@8102;5=85 ;8G=>AB=>3> H0@<0 C G5;>25:0, 4>AB83H53> >A<8G5A:>3> !>7=0=8O. 2B>@C ?@54AB02;O5BAO 4>AB0B>G=> >G5284=K<, GB> 2> 2@5<O 0:BC0;L=>3> ?@8ACBAB28O >A<8G5A:>3> !>7=0=8O 8 2 B5G5=85 :@0B:>3> ?5@8>40 ?>A;5 (:>340 >=> ?>AB5?5==> CE>48B), 8<55B <5AB> 87<5=5=85 2=5H=53> >1;8:0 C B>3>, :B> ?5@568205B >70@5=85. -B0 ?5@5<5=0 ?>E>60 =0 B>, :0: 87<5=O5BAO 2=5H=>ABL G5;>25:0 ?@8 1>;LH>9 @04>AB8, => 8=>340 (0 8<5==>, 2 O2=> 2K45;ONI8EAO A;CG0OE) >=0, ?>60;C9, 5I5 O@G5. @8 25;8:8E A;CG0OE 8=B5=A82=>3> >70@5=8O 40==0O ?5@5<5=0 2> 2=5H=5< >1;8:5 B>65 8=B5=A82=0 8 <>65B AB0BL =0AB>OI8< "?@5>1@065=85<". 0=B5 3>2>@8B, GB> >= 1K; "?@52@0IQ= 87 G5;>25:0 2 >30". >-2848<><C 5ABL 1>;LH0O 25@>OB=>ABL B>3>, GB>, 4>2548AL :><C-;81> C2845BL 53> 2 B>B <><5=B, >= O28; 1K A>1>N B>, GB> 548=AB25==> <>6=> 1K;> 1K =0720BL "?@5>1@065=85<". IX 5@5E>4 >B !0<>-!>7=0=8O : >A<8G5A:><C !>7=0=8N, @0AA<0B@8205<K9 A ?>78F88 8=B5;;5:B0, ?@54AB02;O5BAO D5=><5=><, AB@>3> ?0@0;;5;L=K< ?5@5E>4C >B @>AB>3> !>7=0=8O : !0<>-!>7=0=8N. 0: 2 ?>A;54=5<, B0: 8 2 ?5@2>< =01;N40NBAO 420 3;02=KE M;5<5=B0: >?>;=8B5;L=>5 A>7=0=85. >?>;=8B5;L=0O A?>A>1=>ABL. >340 >@30=87<, >1;0402H89 B>;L:> @>ABK< !>7=0=85<, ?@8>1I05BAO : !0<>-!>7=0=8N, >= 2?5@2K5 =0G8=05B >A>7=020BL A51O >B45;L=K< A>740=85<, O, :>B>@>5 ACI5AB2C5B 2 >B45;L=>< >B =55 <8@5. "> 5ABL, A ?@8102;5=85< =>2>9 A?>A>1=>AB8, >@30=87< ?>;CG05B 8=AB@C:F88 157 :0:>3>-;81> =>2>3> >?KB0 8;8 ?@>F5AA0 >1CG5=8O.  B> 65 2@5<O >= >1@5B05B :>;>AA0;L=> 2>7@>AH85 A8;K 0::C<C;OF88 7=0=8O 8 8=8F80F88 459AB28O.  :>340 G5;>25:, 1K2H89 B>;L:> !0<>-!>7=0=85<, 2E>48B 2 >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85, B>340: = 7=05B >?@545;5==K5 25I8, =5 CG0AL (?@>AB> 2 A8;C D0:B0 >70@5=8O), :0:, =0?@8<5@: (1) GB> A5;5==0O MB> =5 <5@B20O <0H8=0, 0 682>5 ?@8ACBAB285; (2) GB> ?> A2>9 ACI=>AB8 8 B5=45=F88 >=0 15A:>=5G=> 4>1@0; (3) GB> 8=48284C0;L=>5 ACI5AB2>20=85 ?@>4>;605BAO 70 ?@545;0<8 B>3>, GB> =07K205BAO A<5@BLN. = ?>;CG05B =58<>25@=> 2>7@>AHCN A?>A>1=>ABL 8 : >1CG5=8N 8 : ?@>O2;5=8N 8=8F80B82K. X 0@0;;5;L A>E@0=O5BAO 8 A B>G:8 7@5=8O =@02AB25==>9 ?@8@>4K. ;O 682>B=>3> A @>ABK< !>7=0=85< =5B 2>7<>6=>AB8 7=0BL GB>-;81> > G8AB>< C4>2>;LAB288 ?@>AB>9 687=8, :>B>@CN 2545B (G0ABL 2@5<5=8, ?> <5=LH59 <5@5) :064K9 74>@>2K9, ?@028;L=> @07282H89AO G5;>25: <>;>4>3> 8;8 A@54=53> 2>7@0AB0. "5 8<55B 2>7<>6=>AB8", ?>B><C GB> B0:>5 7=0=85 7028A8B >B !0<>-!>7=0=8O 8 157 =53> =5 >1;0405B =8:0:8< ACI5AB2>20=85<. >H04L 8;8 A>10:0 @04C5BAO 687=8, :>340 8A?KBK205B ?@8OB=>5 >ICI5=85 8;8 AB8<C;8@C5BAO ?@8OB=>9 0:B82=>ABLN (2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 MB> >4=> 8 B> 65), => =5 A?>A>1=0 ?>=OBL B> :064>4=52=>5 CA?>:>5=85 2 =0A;0645=88 687=LN, =57028A8<>9 >B GC2AB2 8 ?@82E>4OI8E 25I59, :>B>@>5 ?@8=04;568B : =@02AB25==>9 ?@8@>45 (0 MB> 459AB28B5;L=> O2;O5BAO >A=>2>?>;030NI8< D0:B>< ?>78B82=>9 53> AB>@>=K) 8 =0G8=05BAO, <>6=> A:070BL, A F5=B@0;L=>3> ?@>F25B0=8O >@30=87<5==>9 687=8 (A >ICI5=8O bien-etre  1;03>?>;CG8O), :>B>@>5 ?@8ACI5 G5;>25:C 8<5==> :0: G5;>25:C 8 ?>8AB8=5 O2;O5BAO G0ABLN 53> 4@03>F5==>3> =0A;548O. => A>AB02;O5B =5:89 ?;0= 8;8 ?;0B> 2 >1;0AB8 =@02AB25==>9 ?@8@>4K, =0 :>B>@>9 682>5 ACI5AB2> 2ABC?05B 2> 2@5<O ?5@5E>40 >B @>AB>3> : !0<>-!>7=0=8N.  A>>B25BAB288 A MB8< =@02AB25==K< 2>AE>645=85< ?> 2KH5?5@5G8A;5==K<8 ABC?5=O<8, ?> :>B>@K< 8=B5;;5:B 2>AE>48B >B @>AB>3> : !0<>-!>7=0=8N 8 >B !0<>-!>7=0=8O : >A<8G5A:><C !>7=0=8N, A;54C5B @0AA<0B@820BL 8 =@02AB25==K9 ?>4J5<, ?@8ACI89 ?5@5E>4C >B !0<>-!7=0=8O : >A<8G5A:><C !>7=0=8N. 3> A?>A>1=K ?>AB8GL, 0 7=0G8B 8 >?8A0BL, ;8HL B5, :B> ?@>H5; G5@57 40==K9 >?KB. 'B> 65 >=8 3>2>@OB >1 MB><? K <>65< ?@>G5ABL, GB> A:070=> > 8@20=5 0CB0<>9 [C44>9] 8 4@C38<8 1C4489A:8<8 ?@>A25B;Q==K<8  GB> >=0 5ABL "2KA>G09H55 AG0ABL5".  2>B GB> 3>2>@8B =58725AB=K9, => 157CA;>2=> >70@5==K9 02B>@ 2 0E01E0@0B5: "@540==K9, GL5 AG0ABL5 2 =5< A0<>< 8 G59 A25B [7=0=8O] B>65 2 =5< A0<><, AB0=>28BAO >4=8< F5;K< A @0E<0=>< 8 >1@5B05B 1;065=AB2> @0E<0=0". 1@0B8B5 2=8<0=85 =0 87@5G5=8O 8ACA0 > F5==>AB8 "&0@AB28O 515A=>3>", 70 >1@5B5=85 :>B>@>3> G5;>25:C =04> >B40BL 2A5, GB> C =53> 5ABL; 2A?><=8B5 > 1>30BAB25, :>B>@>5 025; ?@8?8AK205B "%@8ABC", 8 > B><, :0: >= 1K; 2>7=5A5= =0 B@5BL8 =515A0; ?>@07<KH;O9B5 > 40=B>2A:>< "?@52@0I5=88" 87 G5;>25:0 "2 >30" 8 >1 8<5=8, :>B>@>5 >= 40; >A<8G5A:><C 'C2AB2C: "50B@8G5"  "0@OI0O AG0ABL5". ABL B0:65 8 5I5 >4=> ?@8=04;560I55 5<C GQB:>5 2K@065=85 @04>AB8: "">, GB> C7@5; O, :070;>AL <=5 C;K1:>9 A5;5==>9, 254L <>5 >?LO=5=85 ?@8H;> G5@57 A;CE 8 G5@57 7@5=85. , @04>ABL! , =5A:070==0O 1;03>40BL! , 687=L, 8A?>;=5==0O ;N128 8 <8@0! , A>:@>28I0, 40@>20==K5 157 2AO:>9 0;G=>AB8!" >A<>B@8<, GB> 3>2>@8B Q<5 > B>< 65 A0<><: "5<=>3> O7K:0 =8A:>;L:> =54>AB0B>G=> GB>1K >?8A0BL 2A5 B> @04>AB=>5, AG0AB;82>5 8 ?@5:@0A=>5, G5< ?>;=OBAO 2=CB@5==85 GC45A0 >30. 065 5A;8 25G=0O 520 >B>1@078B 8E 2 =0H8E C<0E, 2A5 @02=>, AB@>5=85 G5;>25:0 A;8H:>< E>;>4=> 8 <@0G=> GB>1K 2K@078BL E>BO 1K 8A:@C 8E 2 A2>5< O7K:5". ;0E0=5< 157 :>=F0 2>A:;8F05B: "!0=4>A80<, !0=4>A80< -??>B0<"  " 04>ABL, 2A5340 @04>ABL!"  A=>20 -420@4 0@?5=B5@: ">=5F 2A5< ?5G0;O<", ";C1>:89, 3;C1>:89 >:50= @04>AB8 2=CB@8", "0?>;=8BLAO @04>ABLN, 2>A?520BL @04>ABL 157 :>=F0". @><5 2A53> ?@>G53>, =5 701K209B5 > A2845B5;LAB25 #>;B0 #8B<5=0  A2845B5;LAB25, 40==>< =0 2A52>7<>6=KE O7K:0E, => =587<5==>< 8 2AB@5G0NI5<AO ?>GB8 =0 :064>9 AB@0=8F5 "8ABL52", ?>:@K20NI8E A>@>: ;5B 687=8: "/ 4>2>;5=  O 286C, B0=FCN, A<5NAL, ?>N". "!B@0=AB2CN, 87C<;OOAL A2>5<C A>1AB25==><C A25BC 8 ;8:>20=8N". ", @04>ABL <>53> 4CE0  2K?CI5==0O 87 :;5B:8, >=0 <G8BAO ?>4>1=> A25BC". "/ =02>4=ON MBC ?5A=L @04>ABLN, @04>ABLN 4;O B51O, >, A<5@BL".  > ?@54A:070=88 1C4CI53> 87 3;C18=K 53> A>1AB25==>3> A5@4F0  B>3> 1C4CI53>, ":>340 G5@57 MB8 A>AB>O=8O ?@>945B A>B=O <8;;8>=>2 25;8:>;5?=KE ;N459"  ;N459, 2;045NI8E >A<8G5A:8< 'C2AB2><.  =0:>=5F: ":50=, ?5@5?>;=5==K9 @04>ABLN  2AO 0B<>AD5@0 @04>AB=0! 04>ABL, @04>ABL, 2 A2>1>45, ?>G8B0=88, ;N128! 04>ABL 2 M:AB075 687=8: 4>AB0B>G=> ?@>AB> 1KBL! >AB0B>G=> ?@>AB> 4KH0BL! 04>ABL, 04>ABL! AN4C @04>ABL!" XI "C, ;04=>,  A:065B :B>-=81C4L,  5A;8 MB8 ;N48 284OB, 8 7=0NB, 8 GC2AB2CNB B0: <=>3>, >BG53> 1K 8< =5 2K@078BL MB> =0 ?>=OB=>< O7K:5 8 =5 40BL <8@C MB8< 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO?" >B GB> "@5GL" A:070;0 #8B<5=C: "#>;B, 2 B515 =01@0;>AL 4>AB0B>G=>, ?>G5<C 65 BK =5 2K?CA:05HL MB>?" > >= >B25G05B: ">?KB02H8AL 2KA:070BL ;CGH55 87 =0945==>3> <=>9, O =5 A<>3, /7K: <>9 =5 A>2;040; A MB8<, KE0=85 =5 ?>4G8=8;>AL 53> >@30=0<, / AB0; =5<K<". "0: 65 8 025;, "2>7=5A5==K9 2 @09", A;KH0; "=5A:070==K5 A;>20".  0=B5 =5 A<>3 @0AA:070BL > 25I0E, C2845==KE =0 =515A0E. ">5 2845=85,  3>2>@8B >=,  1K;> 1>;LH8<, G5< =0H0 @5GL, :>B>@0O CABC?05B B0:><C 7@5;8IC". "0: 8 A> 2A5<8 >AB0;L=K<8. !CBL 45;0 ?>=OBL =5B@C4=>; @5GL (:0: ?>4@>1=> @07JOA=5=> 2KH5) O2;O5BAO >B@065=85< 8=B5;;5:B0 !0<>-!>7=0=8O 8 ?>B><C A?>A>1=0 2K@060BL 53> 8 B>;L:> 53>, >=0 =5 2>A?@>872>48B 8 =5 <>65B 2K@078BL >A<8G5A:>5 'C2AB2>  8;8 C6 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05 B>;L:> B>340, :>340 >=> <>65B 1KBL ?5@540=> 2 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE B5@<8=0E !0<>-!>7=0=8O. XII ;O ?>;L7K G8B0B5;O E>@>H> 1C45B ?@825AB8 745AL A60B> 8 G5B:> (G0AB8G=> 2 :@0B:>< ?>2B>@5) ?@87=0:8 >A<8G5A:>3> 'C2AB20. >B >=8: !C1J5:B82=> ?5@568205<K9 A25B. @02AB25==K9 ?>4J5<. =B5;;5:BC0;L=>5 >70@5=85. 'C2AB2> 15AA<5@B8O. #B@0B0 AB@0E0 ?5@54 A<5@BLN. #B@0B0 GC2AB20 3@5E>2=>AB8. =570?=>ABL, <3=>25==>ABL ?@>1C645=8O. @56=85 E0@0:B5@=K5 >A>15==>AB8 G5;>25:0 -8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5, =@02AB25==K5 8 D878G5A:85. >7@0AB >70@5=8O. 8G=>5 >G0@>20=85: >70@5==K9 G5;>25: ?@82;5:05B : A515 ;N459. @5>1@065=85 AC1J5:B0 ?@8 273;O45 =0 =53> A> AB>@>=K, 2 B> 2@5<O, :>340 >A<8G5A:>5 'C2AB2> =5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@568205BAO 8<. * * * "... 2AQ 2 MB>9 A5;5==>9, 2 :064K9 <><5=B  8<5==> B0<, 345 >=> 4>;6=> 1KBL; >=> <>65B =5 ?>4E>48BL =0<, >=> <>65B 1KBL =5C4>1=> 4;O =0A, => MB> D0:B, :>B>@K9 20< =C6=> ?@8=OBL: MB> 1>65AB25==0O >;O, :>B>@0O 2;0455B 2A5< 8 B0: 4>AB8305B A2>59 F5;8. >340 2K A<>B@8B5 =0 >48= 8;8 420 <><5=B0 2 1>;LH>< ?@>F5AA5, 25I8 <>3CB ?>:070BLAO 20< 48A30@<>=8G=K<8. > A 4@C3>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, 2A5 >=8 @0AB2>@5=K 2 >4=>< :>B;5; 2A5 >=8 2 ?@>F5AA5, 8 2 =C6=K9 <><5=B >=8 2>7=8:0NB 87 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> ?0BB5@=0. A5 4C0;L=>AB8, 2A5 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8 2> A5;5==>9  B>;L:> 2@5<5==K5 >1@07>20=8O; 8 =0< =5 =C6=> >?@024K20BLAO ?5@54 >3><, :@8B8:CO ACI5AB2>20=85 AB@040=8O, 1>;8 8 7;0  >=8 A;CG09=K, >=8 B>65 ;8HL 2@5<5==K5 >1@07>20=8O. 'C2AB2> 7;0, =5A?@0254;82>AB8, AB@040=8O =5 ACI5AB2>20;8 4> B>3>, :0: =0 AF5=5 ?>O28;AO G5;>25G5A:89 C<.  2AQ MB> =5 1C45B ACI5AB2>20BL ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: G5;>25: 2K945B 70 ?@545;K A2>53> C<0, A2>53> -3> 8 65;0=89. AQ MB> 2@5<5==K5 D5=><5=K, :>B>@K< ;N48 A:;>==K C45;OBL B0: <=>3> 2=8<0=8O.  ACI5AB2>20=85 MB8E 2@5<5==KE D5=><5=>2 =5 <>65B 2>A?@5?OBAB2>20BL ACI5AB2>20=8N 5745ACI59 50;L=>AB8". 04E02 . 0=48B  ;0= #>BA -"  5:>B>@K5 ;N48 >H81>G=> ?>;030NB, GB> ?>8A: ?@>A25B;5=8O  MB> ;81> 8=D0=B8;L=0O @53@5AA8O, ;81> ?@>AB> 153AB2> >B 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 2 =5:85 "8=K5 <8@K". > MB> =5 B0:. @>A25B;5=85, :0: ?8H5B ;0= #>BA, A>AB02;O5B A0<CN ACBL B>3>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B ?@O<> 745AL 8 A59G0A 2> 2A5< :>A<>A5. => 2:;NG05B 2 A51O 2A5 C@>2=8 1KB8O 8 2A5 <8@K  >B =081>;55 ?;>B=KE, <0B5@80;L=KE 4> 2>72KH5==KE, MD8@=KE, => 2 B> 65 A0<>5 2@5<O >=> 70 ?@545;0<8 2A53> MB>3>. @>A25B;5=85  MB> B> >A>1>5 A>AB>O=85 >A>7=0=8O, :>B>@>5 >70@O5B 2A5 B2>@5=85, 45;0O 53> OA=K< 8 ?>=OB=K<, 4>ABC?=K< 4;O 2=CB@5==53> 27>@0.  B>, GB> 2848B 2=CB@5==89 27>@, >:07K205BAO A;54CNI8<: /  MB> 2AO A5;5==0O, O ?@8ACBAB2CN 25745. -B> ?0@04>:A0;L=>, => ?@>A25B;5==K9, ?@51K20O 2 A2>5< A>7=0=88 70 ?@545;0<8 2@5<5=8, ?@>AB@0=AB20 8 ?@8G8==>AB8, 2 B> 65 2@5<O 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 =0E>48BAO 2 @50;L=>< <8@5, G5< :B>-;81> 4@C3>9. >340 2K ?>AB8305B5 2 A515 A2>N ACI=>ABL, 25G=CN 8 15A:>=5G=CN, ?@51K20O 745AL 8 A59G0A, 20< 1>;LH5 =5:C40 84B8 8 =5G53> 8A:0BL  2K "745AL 8 B5?5@L" 2 =081>;55 DC=40<5=B0;L=>< A<KA;5 8 GC2AB2C5B5 A51O 2> A5;5==>9 :0: 4><0.  >B>1@0==>< 4;O 40==>9 :=838 >B@K2:5 #>BA >1AC6405B 2708<>>B=>H5=8O <564C >1K45==K< 8 :>A<8G5A:8< A>7=0=85<, 0 B0:65 ?>:07K205B, GB> ?@>A25B;5=85 5ABL =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: ?>;=0O >B40G0 A51O A>AB>O=8N 745AL-8-A59G0A. 0: >4=064K A:070; >48= <C4@K9 9>38=, 2 A0<>< >:@C60NI5< <8@5 =5B =8G53> =5?@028;L=>3>, >=>  2 =0H5< >B=>H5=88 : =5<C. >?@>A > B><, :0: 4>AB8GL ?@>A25B;5=8O, 70:;NG05BAO 3;02=K< >1@07>< =5 2 B><, "GB> <=5 A;54C5B 45;0BL 2 1C4CI5<, GB>1K 4>AB8GL 53>?", 0 2 B><, "GB> 87 B>3>, GB> O 45;0N 2 =0AB>OI89 <><5=B, <5H05B <=5 ?>AB8GL 53> ?@O<> A59G0A?" B25B B0:>2: 2A5 B> 2 =0A, GB> >A=>2K205BAO =0 -3>, C?>@AB2C5B 2 CB25@645=88 =0H59 A>1AB25==>9 >B45;5==>AB8 8 A>?@>B82;O5BAO ?@87=0=8N B>9 @07C<=>AB8, :>B>@0O 6825B 2> 2A5E =0A,  N128, :0: 2K@078;AO 0=B5 2 D8=0;5 ">65AB25==>9 :><5488", ": :>B>@>9 42865BAO 2A5 B2>@5=85". * * * !0<K< 2?5G0B;ONI8< D0:B>< G5;>25G5A:>3> 4CE>2=>3>, 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3> 8 ?>MB8G5A:>3> >?KB0 4;O <5=O 2A5340 1K;> 2A5>1I55 ?@5>1;040=85 C4828B5;L=KE <3=>25=89 8=BC8B82=>3> ?@>7@5=8O, :>B>@>5 8G0@4 Q:: =0720; ">A<8G5A:8< !>7=0=85<". 0 A0<>< 45;5 C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=>3> =0720=8O 4;O B0:>3> B8?0 >?KB0 =5 ?>415@5HL. 0720BL 53> <8AB8G5A:8<  7=0G8B A?CB0BL A 2845=8O<8 8=>3> <8@0 8;8 A 2845=8O<8 1>3>2 8 0=35;>2. 0720BL 53> 4CE>2=K< 8;8 <5B0D878G5A:8<  7=0G8B >B:070BL 5<C 2 ?@545;L=>9 D878G5A:>9 :>=:@5B=>AB8, B>340 :0: A0< B5@<8= ">A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85" >1;0405B =5?>MB8G=K< ?@82:CA>< >::C;LB=>3> 60@3>=0. 4=0:> 2> 2A5 8AB>@8G5A:85 2@5<5=0 8 2> 2A5E :C;LBC@0E <K =0E>48< A2845B5;LAB20 > 2>7=8:=>25=88 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 157>H81>G=>3> GC2AB20, :0: ?@028;>, 2=570?=>3> 8 =5?@54A:07C5<>3>, =5 8<5NI53> :0:>9-;81> G5B:> ?>=8<05<>9 ?@8G8=K. "0:><C ?@>A25B;5==><C G5;>25:C A2>9AB25==0 6820O 8 2A5>1J5<;NI0O C25@5==>ABL 2 B><, GB> A5;5==0O, B0:0O, :0:>9 >=0 O2;O5BAO 2 40==K9 <><5=B, 8 :0: F5;>5, 8 2 :064>9 A2>59 G0AB8 A>25@H5==0 =0AB>;L:>, GB> =5 B@51C5B =8:0:8E >1JOA=5=89 8 >?@0240=89, :@><5 B>3>, GB> ?@>AB> >=0 5ABL. !CI5AB2>20=85 ?5@5AB05B 1KBL ?@>1;5<0B8G=K<, 0 @07C< =0AB>;L:> 70E20G5= A0<>>G5284=>9 8 A0<>4>AB0B>G=>9 A>3;0A>20==>ABLN 25I59 B0:8<8, :0:85 >=8 5ABL, 2:;NG0O 8 B5 87 =8E, :>B>@K5 >1KG=> ?@8=OB> AG8B0BL A0<K<8 =5?@8OB=K<8, GB> =5 A?>A>15= =09B8 :0:>5-;81> A;>2>, 4>AB0B>G=> A8;L=>5, GB>1K 2K@078BL A>25@H5=AB2> 8 :@0A>BC ?5@56820=8O. 3> OA=>ABL ?@8=>A8B 8=>340 >ICI5=85, GB> <8@ A45;0;AO ?@>7@0G=K< 8;8 A8ONI8<, 0 53> ?@>AB>B0  >ICI5=85 B>3>, GB> >= ?@>=870= 8 C?>@O4>G5= 2KAH59 @07C<=>ABLN.  B> 65 2@5<O G5;>25: >1KG=> GC2AB2C5B, GB> 25AL <8@ AB0; 53> A>1AB25==K< B5;>< 8 GB> A0< >= =5 B>;L:> AB0; 2A5<, => 8 2A5340 1K; MB8< 2A5<.  MB> =5 7=0G8B, GB> >= B5@O5B GC2AB2> ;8G=>3> B>645AB20 4> B0:>9 AB5?5=8, GB> A<>B@8B =0 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 4@C38<8 3;070<8, AB02 2 1C:20;L=>< A<KA;5 A;>20 2A5254CI8<, :0: 1C4B> 53> 8=48284C0;L=>5 A>7=0=85 8 ACI5AB2>20=85 ?@8=OBK G5<-B> =587<5@8<> 1>;LH8<, G5< >= A0<, 2 :0G5AB25 2A53> ;8HL >4=>9 87 B>G5: 7@5=8O. !5@4F528=C B0:>3> ?5@56820=8O A>AB02;O5B, =04> ?>;030BL, C15645==>ABL 8;8 8=BC8B82=0O C25@5==>ABL 2 B><, GB> F5;LN 8 >ACI5AB2;5=85< 2AO:>9 687=8 O2;O5BAO =5?>A@54AB25==>5 <3=>25=85 "A59G0A", :0:>20 1K =8 1K;0 53> ?@8@>40. 7 MB>3> >70@5=8O @07;8205BAO M<>F8>=0;L=0O M:AB0B8G=>ABL, GC2AB2> 8=B5=A82=>3> >1;53G5=8O, A2>1>4K 8 ;53:>AB8, 0 G0AB> 8 ?>GB8 =52K=>A8<>9 ;N128 : <8@C, :>B>@0O, B5< =5 <5=55, >AB05BAO 2B>@8G=>9. 5@54:> =0A;0645=85 ?5@56820=85< ?CB0NB A A0<8< ?5@56820=85<, 8=BC8B82=>5 ?@>7@5=85 B5@O5BAO A@548 M:AB070, B0: GB>, ?KB0OAL C45@60BL 2B>@8G=K5 MDD5:BK >?KB0, G5;>25: ?@>?CA:05B 53> ACBL  B>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 8<5==> A59G0A, 4065 5A;8 >=> 8 =5 M:AB0B8G=>. 54L M:AB0B8G=>ABL 2A5340 1C45B A>AB02;OBL ?@5E>4OI89 :>=B@0AB A ?>AB>O==>9 D;C:BC0F859 =0H8E GC2AB2.  >70@5=85 >AB05BAO, 5A;8 >=> 4>AB0B>G=> OA=>; ?>A;5 B>3> :0: >?@545;5==K9 =02K: CA2>5=, A?>A>1=>ABL 53> ?@8<5=OBL A:>@55 2A53> B0:65 A>E@0=8BAO. "5@<8=K, ?@8 ?><>I8 :>B>@KE G5;>25: 8=B5@?@5B8@C5B MB>B >?KB, 872;5:0NBAO 5AB5AB25==K< >1@07>< 87 @5;838>7=KE 8 D8;>A>DA:8E 8459 53> :C;LBC@K, 8 70 8E @07;8G8O<8 G0AB> =5 284=0 8E >A=>2>?>;030NI0O 845=B8G=>ABL. >4>1=> B><C :0: 2>4=K9 ?>B>: CAB@5<;O5BAO ?> ?CB8 =08<5=LH53> A>?@>B82;5=8O, B0: 8 M<>F88 >1;5:0NBAO 2 B5 A8<2>;K, :>B>@K5 >:07K20NBAO ?>4 @C:>9, 0 0AA>F80F88 A =8<8 ?@>8AE>4OB =0AB>;L:> 1KAB@> 8 02B><0B8G5A:8, GB> A8<2>; <>65B ?>:070BLAO A0<>9 ACI=>ABLN ?5@56820=8O. /A=>ABL  8AG57=>25=85 ?@>1;5<  ?>4@07C<5205B A25B, 8 ?>MB><C 2 <3=>25=8O >AB@>3> ?@>OA=5=8O <>65B ?>O28BLAO D878G5A:>5 >ICI5=85 B>3>, :0: 2A5 2>:@C3 ?@>=87K205BAO A25B><. 5@CNI5<C MB> 5AB5AB25==K< >1@07>< ?@54AB028BAO :0: ?@>1;5A: >6L53> ?@8ACBAB28O, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 7=0<5=8B>< A2845B5;LAB25 0A:0;O:  3>4 <8;>AB8 >6L59, 1654-9,  ?>=545;L=8: 23 =>O1@O, 2 45=L A2. ;5<5=B8O... ! ?>;>28=K >48==04F0B>3> 25G5@0 > ?>;>28=K ?5@2>3> =>G8, , >3 2@00<0, >3 A00:0, >3 0:>20, 0 =5 D8;>A>D>2 8 <C4@5F>2. #25@5==>ABL, @04>ABL, C25@5==>ABL, GC2AB2>, @04>ABL, C<8@>B2>@5=85. ;8 65 2 A;CG05, :>B>@K9 ?@82>48B #8;LO< 659<A: !;>2=> A0<8 =515A0 @0A:@K;8AL 8 87;8;8AL ;CG0<8 A25B0 8 A;02K.  =5 =0 <3=>25=85 B>;L:>, => 25AL 45=L 8 2AN =>GL :0: 1C4B> ?>B>:8 A25B0 8 A;02K ?@>B5:0;8 G5@57 <>N 4CHC, 8 O 87<5=8;AO, 8 2A5 :@C3>< AB0;> =>2K<. 7<5=8;8AL ;>H048 <>8, 8 A28=L8, 8 2A5 >AB0;L=>5. > OA=>ABL 1C45B B0:65 ?>4@07C<520BL ?@>7@0G=>ABL, B> 5ABL >ICI5=85, GB> ?@>B82>AB>OI89 =0< <8@ 1>;LH5 =5 O2;O5BAO ?@5?OBAB285<, 0 B5;> 1@5<5=5<.  C<5 1C448AB0 MB> A0<K< 5AB5AB25==K< >1@07>< 1C45B 0AA>F88@>20BLAO A CG5=85< > B><, GB> @50;L=>ABL  MB> =5>ICB8<0O 8 =52K@078<0O ?CAB>B0 (HC=LOB0). / 25@=C;AO 2 70; 8 1K; C65 3>B>2 A5ABL =0 A2>5 <5AB>, :0: 2A5 2>:@C3 87<5=8;>AL. B:@K;AO H8@>:89 ?@>AB>@, 8 75<;O 2K3;O45;0 :0: 1K >A52H59... / >3;O4K20;AO ?> AB>@>=0<, 8 225@E, 8 2=87, 2AO A5;5==0O A> 2A5<8 A2>8<8 <=>3>G8A;5==K<8 >AO705<K<8 ?@54<5B0<8 ?@54AB020;0 B5?5@L A>2A5< ?>-4@C3><C: B>, GB> ?@5645 1K;> >B2@0B8B5;L=K<, 2<5AB5 A =52545=85< 8 AB@0ABO<8, B5?5@L 2845;>AL =5 G5< 8=K<, :0: 8AB5G5=85< <>59 A>1AB25==>9 87=0G0;L=>9" ?@8@>4K, :>B>@0O A0<0 ?> A515 >AB020;0AL A25@:0NI59, ?>4;8==>9 8 ?@>7@0G=>9 [1]. >4>1=> B><C :0: >4=> 8 B> 65 >ICI5=85 1>;8 <>6=> >?8A0BL 8 :0: 3>@OG55, 8 :0: E>;>4=>5, B0: 8 >?8A0=8O 8=B5@5ACNI53> =0A ?5@56820=8O <>3CB ?@8=8<0BL D>@<K, :>B>@K5 :><C-B> ?>:06CBAO 2708<>?@>B82>@5G82K<8. B>-B> <>65B A:070BL, GB> =0H5; @5H5=85 2A59 70304:8 687=8, => ?>G5<C-B> =5 A?>A>15= >1;5GL 53> 2 A;>20. @C3>9 A:065B, GB> =8:0:>9 70304:8 =8:>340 =5 1K;>, 0 7=0G8B, =5B 8 =8:0:>3> 55 @5H5=8O, ?>A:>;L:C 2 53> ?5@56820=88 A >G5284=>ABLN 2KOA=8;0AL =5C<5AB=>ABL 8 8A:CAAB25==>ABL 2A5E =0H8E 2>?@>A>2. 48= 70O2;O5B > A2>59 C15645==>AB8, GB> =5B =8:0:>9 A<5@B8, GB> 53> 8AB8==>5 O B0: 65 25G=>, :0: A5;5==0O. @C3>9 CB25@6405B, GB> A<5@BL ?@>AB> ?5@5AB0;0 8<5BL 4;O =53> 7=0G5=85, 254L =0AB>OI89 <><5=B A>25@H5=5= =0AB>;L:>, GB> =5 B@51C5B =8:0:>3> 1C4CI53>. B>-B> GC2AB2C5B A51O 70E20G5==K< 8 A>548=82H8<AO 2 >4=> F5;>5 A :0:>9-B> 8=>9 687=LN, :>B>@0O 15A:>=5G=> >B;8G05BAO >B 53> A>1AB25==>9. >, ?>4>1=> B><C :0: A5@4F5185=85 <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL 8 :0: B>, GB> A 20<8 ?@>8AE>48B, 8 :0: B>, GB> 2K A0<8 45;05B5,  2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>G:8 7@5=8O,  B0: 65 G5;>25: ?>GC2AB2C5B 2 A2>5< ?5@56820=88 =5 ?>BCAB>@>==53> >30, 0 A>1AB25==CN ?>4;8==CN ?@8@>4C. B>-B> ?>GC2AB2C5B, GB> 53> -3>, 8;8 O, B0: @0AH8@8;>AL, GB> >1J5<;5B A>1>9 F5;CN A5;5==CN, B>340 :0: :B>-B> 4@C3>9 >A>7=05B, GB> A>2A5< ?>B5@O; A51O, 0 B>, GB> =07K20;>AL 53> -3>, 2A5340 1K;> 2A53> ;8HL 01AB@0:F859. 48= 1C45B >?8AK20BL A51O 15A:>=5G=> >1>30B82H8<AO, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 4@C3>9 A:065B, GB> 53> 701@>A8;> 2 B0:CN 01A>;NB=CN 154=>ABL, 345 4065 A>1AB25==K5 B5;> 8 C< 5<C =5 ?@8=04;560B 8 =8:><C 2 <8@5 =5B 4> =53> 45;0. ?8A0=85 ?5@56820=8O @54:> >1E>48BAO 157 <5B0D>@, :>B>@K5, :AB0B8, <>3CB 7025AB8 2 =525@=>< =0?@02;5=88, 5A;8 8E 2>A?@8=8<0BL 1C:20;L=>. 4=0:>, G8B0O "01@>A>:, 4;O 02B>?>@B@5B0* 5@=0@40 5@5=A>=0, O =0B:=C;AO =0 >B@K2>:, O2;ONI89AO =08?@>AB59H8< 8 "=08G8AB59H8<" >?8A0=85< MB>3> ?5@56820=8O 87 2A5E, :>B>@K5 O 7=0N. -B> 1K;> :0:-B> CB@>< 2 =0G0;5 ;5B0. 04 ;8?0<8 <5@F0;0 A5@51@8AB0O 4K<:0.  2>74CE5 3CAB> @07;820;AO 8E 0@><0B. "5<?5@0BC@0 1K;0 ;0A:>2>9. / ?><=N  8 <=5 =5 =C6=> A?5F80;L=> 2A?><8=0BL MB>,  :0: O 27>1@0;AO =0 ?5=L 8 2=570?=> ?>GC2AB2>20; A51O ?>3@C65==K< 2 -B> (Itness). ">340 O =5 =07K20; MB> B0:. # <5=O =5 1K;> =C64K 2 A;>20E. -B> 8 O 1K;8 >4=8< F5;K< [2]. @>AB> "-B>", "=>", :0: 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 <K >1>7=0G05< 3@0<<0B8G5A:CN ?@52>AE>4=CN AB5?5=L, 8;8 B>G=>5 ?>?040=85, 8;8 8=B5=A82=CN @50;L=>ABL, 8;8 B>, G53> <K 2A5340 8A:0;8. 5 ?@>AB> A@54=89 @>4 :0:>3>-B> >1J5:B0, 0 =5GB> 5I5 1>;55 682>5 8 3>@074> 1>;55 >1H8@=>5, G5< =0H5 ?5@A>=0;L=>5; B>, 4;O G53> <K 8A?>;L7C5< ?@>AB59H55 87 A;>2, ?>B><C GB> C =0A =5B 4;O =53> =8:0:>3>- A;>20 2>>1I5. A>15==> B@C4=> =09B8 25@=K5 A@54AB20 4;O 2K@065=8O ?5@56820=8O 2 :C;LBC@=>< :>=B5:AB5 E@8AB80=AB20. %>BO ?@>A25B;5=85 : E@8AB80=0< ?@8E>48B B0: 65 G0AB>, :0: :> 2A5< >AB0;L=K<, ?5@54 E@8AB80=A:>9 <8AB8:>9 2A5340 AB>O;0 >?0A=>ABL :>=D;8:B0 A @52=8B5;O<8 >@B>4>:A88. @825@65=FK E@8AB80=A:>3> 4>3<0B87<0 AB@>3> =0AB0820NB =0 @048:0;L=>< @07;8G88 <564C >3>< 8 A>740==>9 8< A5;5==>9, 0 B0:65 <564C >3>< 8 G5;>25G5A:>9 4CH>9. =8 =0AB0820NB =0 25G=>< ?@>B82>AB>O=88, 8 =0 >B2@0I5=88 >30 : 7;C 8 3@5EC, 0 ?>A:>;L:C 7;> 8 3@5E >AB0NBAO A0<K<8 =0AB>OI8<8 @50;8O<8, 459AB28B5;L=>5 A?0A5=85 <8@0 2>7<>6=>, A 8E B>G:8 7@5=8O, B>;L:> 2 :>=F5 2@5<5=. > 4065 8 B>340 04 =02A5340 >AB0=5BAO A>AB>O=85< ?>AB>O==>3> 70B>G5=8O 8 =0:070=8O 4;O A8; 7;0. "5< =5 <5=55 8 2 MB>9 A8AB5<5 4>:B@8=0 2A5<>3CI5AB20  =8GB> =5 <>65B 1KBL A>25@H5=> 157 >6L53> A>872>;5=8O, 4065 3@5E  ?>72>;O5B E@8AB80=A:><C <8AB8:C 2KA:070BL =52K@078<>5: "=04;568B 3@5H8BL, => 2A5 1C45B E>@>H>, 8 2A5 =5?@5<5==> 1C45B E>@>H>, 8 25AL ?>@O4>: 25I59 1C45B E>@>H" [3]. %@8AB80=A:>5 GC2AB2> @50;L=>AB8 7;0  ?@8 B><, GB> 2@5<O 8 8AB>@8O AG8B0NBAO ?@>F5AA>< ?@5>4>;5=8O 7;0,  =0AB>;L:> :@5?:> 70A5;> 2 =0A, GB> 4065 2 =K=5H=5< ?>AB-E@8AB80=A:>< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>< :;8<0B5 =0< 1K205B B@C4=> ?@8=OBL ">A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85" 2 :0G5AB25 G53>-B> 1>;LH53>, G5< 24>E=>2;ONI0O 30;;NF8=0F8O. => <>3;> 1K AB0BL ?@85<;5<K< :0: 2845=85 =5:>B>@>3> ">B40;5==>3>" 1>65AB25==>3> A>1KB8O" 2 1C4CI5<, => A =0H8< ?@>3@5AA82=K< <8@>2>77@5=85<, =025@=>5, =52>7<>6=> ?@8=OBL 53> :0: 2845=85 25I59 B0:8<8, :0: >=8 5ABL.  4065 2 >?8A0=88 A2>53> A>1AB25==>3> ?5@56820=8O 8G0@4 Q:: B>65 ?>4@07C<5205B =5:>5 1C4CI55 2@5<O: =570?=>, 157 :0:>3> 1K B> =8 1K;> ?@54C?@5645=8O, O ?>GC2AB2>20; A51O ?>3@C65==K< 2 >1;0:> F25B0 ?;0<5=8. 0 <83 ?@8H;0 <KA;L >1 >3=5, > 3830=BA:>< ?>60@5 2 F5;>< 3>@>45 345-=81C4L =5?>40;5:C, => C65 2 A;54CNICN A5:C=4C O 7=0;, GB> >3>=L MB>B 2> <=5 A0<><. !@07C 65 2A;54 70 B5< <5=O >E20B8;> GC2AB2> ;8:>20=8O, =58<>25@=>3> 25A5;LO, =5<54;5==> ?5@5H54H55 2 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>5 >70@5=85, >?8A0BL :>B>@>5 =52>7<>6=>. @><5 2A53> ?@>G53>, O =5 ?@>AB> ?@8H5; : C15645=8N, => C2845;, GB> A5;5==0O 2>2A5 =5 A>AB>8B 87 <5@B2>9 <0B5@88, 0 =0>1>@>B, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 682>5 @8ACBAB285; O AB0; >A>7=020BL 2 A515 25G=CN 687=L. -B> =5 1K;0 C15645==>ABL 2 B><, GB> O >1;040N 25G=>9 687=LN, MB> 1K;> A>7=0=85 B>3>, GB> O >1@5; B>340 25G=CN 687=L; O 2845;, GB> 2A5 ;N48 15AA<5@B=K 8 :>A<8G5A:89 ?>@O4>: B0:>2, GB> 2A5 25I8 157C?@5G=> 459AB2CNB 2<5AB5 2> 1;03> 2A5E 8 :064>3>; 2845;, GB> >A=>2>?>;030NI8< ?@8=F8?>< <8@0, 8;8 2A5E <8@>2, O2;O5BAO B>, GB> <K =07K205< ;N1>2LN, 0 AG0ABL5 :064><C 8 2A5<  2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5  01A>;NB=> >15A?5G5=>. 845=85 ?@>4;8;>AL =5A:>;L:> A5:C=4 8 CH;>, => ?0<OBL > =5< 8 > A<KA;5 @50;L=>AB8, :>B>@K9 1K; 2 =5< ?@5?>40=, >AB0;0AL C <5=O =0 G5B25@BL 25:0, :>B>@K5 ?@>B5:;8 A B>3> 2@5<5=8 [4]. "5< =5 <5=55 "A>7=0=85 B>3>, GB> O >1@5; B>340 25G=CN 687=L" A>>B25BAB2C5B 1C4489A:><C ?>=8<0=8N, GB> "2A5 25I8 ?@51K20NB 2 =8@20=5 A A0<>3> =0G0;0" 8 GB> ?@>A25B;5=85, ?@>1C645=85,  MB> =5 A>7840=85 =>2>3> A>AB>O=8O 45;, 0 C7=020=85 B>3>, :>B>@>5 5ABL 2A5340. "0:>9 >?KB ?>4@07C<5205B ?>MB><C, GB> =0H5 =>@<0;L=>5 2>A?@8OB85 8 >F5=:0 <8@0 O2;ONBAO AC1J5:B82=K< 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O :>;;5:B82=K< :>H<0@><. = ?>4@07C<5205B, GB> =0H5 >1KG=>5 GC2AB2> ?@0:B8G5A:>9 @50;L=>AB8  <8@0, :0:8< >= 2848BAO CB@>< 2 ?>=545;L=8:,  O2;O5BAO :>=AB@C:F859 A>F80;L=>9 >1CA;>2;5==>AB8 8 ?>402;5=8O, A8AB5<>9 8718@0B5;L=>3> =52=8<0=8O, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@>9 <K CG8<AO >B3>@06820BLAO >B 0A?5:B>2 8 >B=>H5=89 2 ?@8@>45, =5 A>3;0ACNI8EAO A ?@028;0<8 83@K F828;87>20==>9 687=8. A5 65 =0H5 2845=85 ?>GB8 =587156=> =5A5B 2 A515 ?>=8<0=85 B>3>, GB> 4065 B0:>5 AC65=85 A>7=0=8O B>65 A>AB02;O5B G0ABL 25G=>9 2708<>?@8A?>A>1;5==>AB8 25I59. > A;>20< 475=A:>3> <0AB5@0 5=H0: A;8 ?>=8<05HL, B> 25I8 B0:85, :0: >=8 5ABL; A;8 =5 ?>=8<05HL, 25I8 B>65 B0:85, :0: >=8 5ABL,  8 MB> ":0: >=8 5ABL" ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?@545;L=> =5A><=5==K9 8 A0<>4>AB0B>G=K9 E0@0:B5@ 25G=>3> "A59G0A", 2 :>B>@><, :0: A:070; '6C0=-F7K: !;8H:>< :>@>B:85 CB8=K5 =>38 =5;L7O C4;8=8BL, =5 ?@8G8=OO CB:5 =5C4>1AB20; A;8H:>< 4;8==K5 6C@02;8=K5 =>38 =52>7<>6=> C:>@>B8BL, =5 4>AB02;OO =5C4>1AB20 6C@02;N. 54L 2 :0:><-B> A<KA;5 2878>=5@A:>5 A>AB>O=85 ?@8E>48B :0: 1K 2A;54AB285 ?@8=OB8O D0:B0, GB> C B51O 53> =5B, 2A;54AB285 3>B>2=>AB8 1KBL B0:8< =5A>25@H5==K<, :0: BK 5ABL,  ?>;=>ABLN =5A>25@H5==K<. "5?5@L ;53:> C2845BL, ?>G5<C B0:>9 A?>A>1 A<>B@5BL =0 25I8 <>65B 1KBL ?@85<;5< 2 :C;LBC@0E 157 GC2AB20 =04564K 8 8AB>@88, 8 :0:8< >1@07>< >= =0 A0<>< 45;5 <>65B 1KBL 548=AB25==K< 1078A>< 4;O B>9 D8;>A>D88, :>B>@0O A?>A>1=0 A45;0BL 687=L B5@?8<>9.  459AB28B5;L=>, 2?>;=5 25@>OB=>, GB> "8AB>@8G5A:89 48=0<87<" E@8AB80=A:>3> 0?040  MB> A@02=8B5;L=> =5402=55 "5>;>38G5A:>5 >B:@KB85, B0: GB> <K C65 =5 <>65< 157 C3@K75=89 A>F80;L=>9 A>25AB8 ?5BL 38<= "Laissez-faire" (5 <5H09B5  D@0=F.), 2 :>B>@>< 3>2>@8BAO: >30G0 2 53> 70<:5, 154=O:0 C A2>59 :0;8B:8 = ?>AB028; 2KA>:> 8;8 =87:>, = @0A?>@O48;AO 8E A>AB>O=85<,  0 70B5< ?5@5E>48BL : 2>A:;8F0=8N: A5 25I8 O@:85 8 ?@5:@0A=K5, 2A5 A>740=8O 25;8:85 8 <0;K5, A5 25I8 <C4@K5 8 C4828B5;L=K5  2A5 8E A>B2>@8; >A?>4L >3!" 065 5A;8 ?>72>;8B5;L=> 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO ?5@56820=85< A B0:8< =0<5@5=85<, A0<> >=> =8 2 :>5< A;CG05 =5 O2;O5BAO D8;>A>D859, ?@54=07=0G5==>9 4;O B>3>, GB>1K >?@0240BL 687=5==K5 =5A?@0254;82>AB8 8;8 ?@8<8@8BLAO A =8<8. "0: 65 :0: 8 2;N1;5==>ABL, >=> 8<55B <8=8<0;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : :0:><C-;81> >B45;L=><C :C;LBC@=><C D>=C 8;8 M:>=><8G5A:><C "A>AB>O=8N. -B> ?5@56820=85 =8AE>48B =0 1>30B>3> 8 =0 154=>3>, =0 =@02AB25==>3> 8 157=@02AB25==>3>, =0 AG0AB;82>3> 8 =0 >BG0O2H53>AO 157 @071>@C. => =5A5B A A>1>9 8AG5@?K20NICN C15645==>ABL 2 B><, GB> <8@ 2> 2A5E >B=>H5=8OE >AB05BAO GC4><, 8 E>BO MB> 4>;6=> 8A:;NG0BL =5>1E>48<>ABL ?>45;8BLAO A 4@C38<8 @57C;LB0B0<8 A2>53> 2845=8O 8 ?@>1C48BL 8E >B :>H<0@0, >1KG=>9 @50:F859 AB0=>28BAO AB@5<;5=85 ?5@540BL 8< A2>9 >?KB 2 A;>20E 8;8 ?>ABC?:0E, => =5 A >ICI5=85< >1O70==>AB8, 0 A >AB@K< C4>2>;LAB285<.  A25B5 MB>9 =>2>9 ?5@A?5:B82K ?@5ABC?;5=8O 8 3;C?>AB8 >1KG=>9 :>H<0@=>9 687=8 G5;>25:0 :06CBAO C65 =5 7;K<8 8;8 15AB>;:>2K<8, 0 ?@>AB> 4>AB>9=K<8 60;>AB8. >O2;O5BAO G@572KG09=> AB@0==>5 >ICI5=85, GB> 2848HL ;N459, 2 8E 1;038E 8 4C@=KE =0<5@5=8OE, ?>E>68<8 2 B> 65 2@5<O =0 1>3>2, :0: 5A;8 1K >=8 1K;8 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 AG0AB;82K, =5 7=0O >1 MB><. 0: 3>2>@8; 8@8;;>2 !B02@>38=C 2 "5A0E" >AB>52A:>3>:  '5;>25: =5AG0AB;82 ?>B><C, GB> =5 7=05B, GB> >= AG0AB;82; B>;L:> ?>B><C. -B> 2A5, 2A5! B> C7=05B, B>BG0A AB0=5B AG0AB;82, A8N <8=CBC. (...) / 24@C3 >B:@K;.   :B> A 3>;>4C C<@5B, 0 :B> >1848B 8 >15AG5AB8B 452>G:C  MB> E>@>H>?  %>@>H>.  :B> @07<>768B 3>;>2C 70 @515=:0, 8 B> E>@>H>; 8 :B> =5 @07<>768B, 8 B> E>@>H>. A5 E>@>H>, 2A5. A5< B5< E>@>H>, :B> 7=05B, GB> 2A5 E>@>H>. A;8 1 >=8 7=0;8, GB> 8< E>@>H>, B> 8< 1K;> 1K E>@>H>, => ?>:0 >=8 =5 7=0NB, GB> 8< E>@>H>, B> 8< 1C45B =5E>@>H>. >B 8 2AO <KA;L, 2AO, 1>;LH5 =5B =8:0:>9! (...) 8@8;;>2 ?@><>;G0;.  =8 =5E>@>H8,  =0G0; >= 24@C3 >?OBL,  ?>B><C GB> =5 7=0NB, GB> >=8 E>@>H8. >340 C7=0NB, B> =5 1C4CB =0A8;>20BL 452>G:C. 04> 8< C7=0BL, GB> >=8 E>@>H8, 8 2A5 B>BG0A AB0=CB E>@>H8<8, 2A5 4> 548=>3>. 1KG=> <>6=> ?>GC2AB2>20BL @57:89 :>=B@0AB <564C 87C<8B5;L=>9 AB@C:BC@>9 G5;>25G5A:>3> >@30=87<0 8 53> <>730, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 8 B5<, 4;O G53> 1>;LH8=AB2> ;N459 55 8A?>;L7C5B, A 4@C3>9.  2A5 65, =025@=>5, <>6=> 4>?CAB8BL B>G:C 7@5=8O, ?> :>B>@>9 5AB5AB25==>5 GC4> >@30=87<0 ?@>AB> 70B<5205B C1>385 B@N:8 ?>25@E=>AB=>3> A>7=0=8O. >4>1=K< >1@07><, B0:>5 AB@0==>5 @0A:@KB85 2845=8O =5 ?>72>;O5B 2=8<0=8N >AB020BLAO AD>:CA8@>20==K< 8A:;NG8B5;L=> =0 45B0;OE 7;0; >=8 >:07K20NBAO <5=55 7=0G8<K<8 2 A@02=5=88 A> 2A5?@>=8:0NI59 @07C<=>ABLN 8 :@0A>B>9 >1I53> CAB@>9AB20. "0:>9 ?@>1;5A: 8=BC8F88 =5 8<55B =8 <0;59H53> >B=>H5=8O =8 : "=5>1>A=>20==><C >?B8<87<C", =8 : AE20BK20=8N A<KA;0 A5;5==>9 2 B5@<8=0E :0:>3>-=81C4L 87OI=>3> D8;>A>DA:>3> C?@>I5=8O. ><8<> MB>3>, 2 ;N1KE D8;>A>DA:8E AC645=8OE 8;8 @0AAC645=8OE 72CG8B GB>-B> 2@>45 CB>=G5==>3> 20@80=B0 45BA:8E 2K:@8:>2: ">B!"  "82>B!", ">B!"  "82>B!"  ?@>4>;60NI53>AO C 45B59 4> B5E ?>@ (5A;8 1K D8;>A>DK A<>3;8 ?>ABC?8BL B0: 65!), ?>:0 >=8 =5 C;>2OB 15AA<KA;5==>ABL MB>3> 8 ?>20;OBAO =075<L A >3;CH8B5;L=K< E>E>B><. >;LH5 B>3>, 1C4CG8 >G5=L 40;5:8< >B G>?>@=>3> @0F8>=0;87<0 <8AB5@0 0=3;>AA0, ?5@56820=85 8<55B B5=45=F8N 2>7=8:0BL 2 A8BC0F8OE 2A5F5;>9 M:AB@5<0;L=>AB8 8;8 >BG0O=8O, :>340 C G5;>25:0 =5 =0E>48BAO =8:0:>9 4@C3>9 0;LB5@=0B82K, :@><5 :0: ?>;=>ABLN A40BLAO. 'B>-B> 2@>45 MB>3> ?@>87>H;> A> <=>9 2> A=5, :>340 <=5 1K;> ;5B 2>A5<L. / 2 B> 2@5<O 1>;5; 8 >B 60@0 ?>GB8 2?0; 2 15A?0<OBAB2>, 8 2 A=>2845=88 >1=0@C68; A51O @0A?@>AB5@BK< ;8F>< 2=87 =0 >3@><=>< AB0;L=>< H0@5, :>B>@K9 2@0I0;AO 2>:@C3 5<;8.  A=>2845=88 O A A>25@H5==>9 C25@5==>ABLN 7=0;, GB> >1@5G5= 2@0I0BLAO 2 MB>< C60A=>< 87=C@8B5;L=>< :@C65=88 =02A5340, 8 C15645==>ABL 2 MB>< 1K;0 B0:>9 B25@4>9, GB> =5 >AB020;>AL =8G53> 4@C3>3>, :@><5 :0: A40BLAO  254L B> 1K;0 A0<0 ?@58A?>4=OO, 8 =8G53>, :@><5 25G=> 4;OI59AO 1>;8, C <5=O =5 >AB020;>AL. > 2 B>B A0<K9 <83, :>340 O A40;AO, <>9 H0@ :0: 1K C40@8;AO > :0:CN-B> 3>@C 8 @0AAK?0;AO 24@515738, 8 A@07C 2A;54 70 B5< O >1=0@C68; A51O A84OI8< =0 ?>;>A:5 B5?;>3> ?5A:0 A@548 8A:>@565==KE AB0;L=KE >1;><:>2 H0@0. -B>, :>=5G=>, =5 1K;> >?KB>< ">A<8G5A:>3> !>7=0=8O", 0 ?@>AB> ?5@56820=85< B>3> D0:B0, GB>, >B?CA:0O A51O 2 M:AB@5<0;L=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E, =0?@02;O5HLAO ?@O<> A:2>7L ?@>1;5<C, 0 =5 2 AB>@>=C >B =55. ">, 4@C3>5 ?5@56820=85 ?@8H;> :> <=5 3>@074> ?>765; >=> 1K;> 242>5 8=B5=A82=55 8 A>?@>2>640;>AL B5<, GB> A:>@55 A;54>20;> 1K =0720BL A8O=85<, 0 =5 1;8AB0NI59 2A?KH:>9. A:>@5 ?>A;5 =0G0;0 <>8E 70=OB89 8=489A:>9 8 :8B09A:>9 D8;>A>D859 O A845; >4=064K =>GLN C >3=O, ?KB0OAL @07>1@0BLAO, 2 G5< A>AB>8B ?@028;L=0O ?@54CAB0=>2:0 C<0 ?@8 <548B0F88, ?@0:B8:C5<>9 2 8=4C8ABA:>9 8 1C4489A:>9 B@048F8OE. =5 :070;>AL, GB> 745AL 2>7<>6=K =5A:>;L:> C<AB25==KE CAB0=>2>:, =>, ?>A:>;L:C 2K3;O45;8 >=8 2708<>8A:;NG0NI8<8 8 ?@>B82>@5G82K<8, O AB0@0;AO A25AB8 8E : >4=>9-548=AB25==>9  157 :0:>3> 1K B> =8 1K;> CA?5E0.  :>=F5 :>=F>2 A ?>;=59H8< >B2@0I5=85< : @57C;LB0B0< A2>8E AB0@0=89 O @5H8; >B:070BLAO >B =8E 2A5E 8 2?@54L =5 CAB0=02;820BL 4;O ?@0:B8:8 2>>1I5 =8:0:>9 CAB0=>2:8 C<0. :070;>AL, GB>, A8;OAL 8E >B1@>A8BL, O >B1@0AK20N 8 A51O A0<>3>, ?>A:>;L:C 2=570?=> BO65ABL <>53> B5;0 8AG57;0. / GC2AB2>20;, GB> =5 >1;040N =8G5<, =5 >1;040N 4065 A2>8< O, 8 GB> A0< 2 A2>N >G5@54L =8G5<C =5 ?@8=04;56C. 5AL <8@ AB0; B0:8< 65 ?@>7@0G=K< 8 15A?@5?OBAB25==K<, :0: <>9 A>1AB25==K9 C<; "?@>1;5<0 687=8" ?@>AB> ?5@5AB0;0 ACI5AB2>20BL, 8 2 B5G5=85 ?>GB8 2>A5<=04F0B8 G0A>2 O A0< 8 2A5 2>:@C3 <5=O 2>A?@8=8<0;>AL :0: ;8ABLO =0 25B@C 2 >A5==5< ?>;5. > 2B>@>9 @07 ?5@56820=85 8<5;> <5AB> =5A:>;L:8<8 3>40<8 ?>765, ?>A;5 ?5@8>40, :>340 O ?KB0;AO ?@0:B8:>20BL B>, GB> 1C448ABK =07K20NB "A>18@0=85<" (smriti), 8;8 =5?@5@K2=K< >A>7=0=85< =5?>A@54AB25==>3> =0AB>OI53> <><5=B0, 2 >B;8G85 >B ?@82KG=>9 G5@54K 15AA2O7=KE >B2;5G5=88 =0 2>A?><8=0=85 ?@>H;>3> 8 ?@542>AE8I5=85 1C4CI53>. > 2>B >4=064K 25G5@>< :B>-B> 87 B5E, A :5< O 53> >1AC640;, A?@>A8;: "0G5< 65 ?KB0BLAO 68BL 2 =0AB>OI5<? 5A><=5==>, <K 2A5340 8 2A5F5;> 2 =0AB>OI5<, 4065 :>340 4C<05< > ?@>H;>< 8;8 > 1C4CI5<". -B> 8 2 A0<>< 45;5 2?>;=5 >G5284=>5 70<5G0=85 A=>20 2K720;> C <5=O 2=570?=>5 >ICI5=85 ?>B5@8 25A0.  B> 65 2@5<O =0AB>OI55 :0: 1K AB0;> A2>5>1@07=>9 4286CI59AO 157<>;2=>ABLN, 25G=K< ?>B>:><, 87 :>B>@>3> =8 O, =8 GB>-;81> 4@C3>5 =5 A<>3;8 1K 2K9B8. / C2845;, GB> 2A5 =0 A25B5, 8<5==> B0:>5, :0: >=> ACI5AB2C5B A59G0A, MB>   B0 B>G:0 ?>;=>BK, 2 :>B>@>9 4>;6=0 1KBL 687=L A5;5==>9. / ?>=O;, GB> :>340 2 #?0=8H040E 3>2>@8BAO: ""K 5ABL ">!" 8 "5AL MB>B <8@ 5ABL @0E<0=", B> ?>4@07C<5205BAO 8<5==> B>, GB> A:070=>. N10O 25IL, ;N1>5 A>1KB85, ;N1>5 ?5@56820=85 2 8E =587156=>< "A59G0A" 8 2> 2A5E 8E A>1AB25==KE G0AB=KE 8=48284C0;L=>ABOE O2;ONBAO 8<5==> B5<, G5< 8< A;54C5B 1KBL, 8 MB> A>>B25BAB285 =0AB>;L:> B>G=>, GB> >=8 ?@8>1@5B0NB 1>65AB25==CN 25A><>ABL 8 >@838=0;L=>ABL. > <5=O 4>H;> A ?>;=59H59 OA=>ABLN, GB> =8 >4=0 25IL =5 7028A8B >B <>53> 2845=8O 55 B0:>9; 25I8 ACI5AB2CNB B0:, :0: >=8 5ABL, ?>=8<0N O 8E 8;8 =5B, 0 5A;8 O 8E =5 ?>=8<0N, B> MB> B>65 .  1>;LH5 B>3>, O GC2AB2>20;, GB> B5?5@L ?>=8<0N, > G5< <>3CB 4C<0BL E@8AB80=5, :>340 3>2>@OB > ;N128 >30, 0 8<5==>, GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 >1I58725AB=>5 =5A>25@H5=AB2> 25I59, >=8 2A5 @02=> ;N18<K >3>< B0:8<8, :0:>2K >=8 5ABL, 8 GB> MB0 ;N1>2L >4=>2@5<5==> >1>65AB2;O5B 8E A0<8E.  B>B @07 682>5 >ICI5=85 A25B0 8 OA=>AB8 A>E@0=8;>AL C <5=O =0 F5;CN =545;N. -B8 ?5@56820=8O, CA8;5==K5 4@C38<8, ?>A;54>202H8<8 70 =8<8, AB0;8 A B5E ?>@ >682;ONI59 A8;>9 2> 2A5E <>8E ?8A0B5;LA:8E 8 D8;>A>DA:8E B@C40E, E>BO O ?@8H5; : ?>=8<0=8N B>3>, GB> ACBL =5 2 B><, :0:8< >1@07>< O GC2AB2CN,  2A5 @02=>, ?@8ACBAB2C5B 459AB28B5;L=>5 GC2AB2> A2>1>4K 8 OA=>AB8 8;8 65 =5B, 81> GC2AB2> BO65AB8 8;8 >3@0=8G5==>AB8  MB> B>65 . > A MB>3> <><5=B0 D8;>A>D AB0;:8205BAO A> AB@0==>9 ?@>1;5<>9 :><<C=8:0F88, >A>15==> 70B@C4=8B5;L=>9, 5A;8 53> D8;>A>D8O ?@>O2;O5B =5:>5 @>4AB2> A @5;83859. N48 ?>440NBAO, =04> ?>;030BL, CAB>9G82><C 2?5G0B;5=8N, GB> >1 MB>< ?@54<5B5 3>2>@8BAO 8;8 ?8H5BAO A F5;LN 8E CA>25@H5=AB2>20=8O 8;8 ?@8=5A5=8O 8< :0:>3>-B> 1;030, 8 ?@54?>;030NB ?@8 MB><, GB> 3>2>@OI89 8;8 ?8HCI89 A0< C65 CA>25@H5=AB2>20;AO 8 A?>A>15= B5?5@L 2KA:07K20BLAO 02B>@8B5B=>. @C38<8 A;>20<8, D8;>A>D =52>;L=> >:07K205BAO 2 @>;8 ?@>?>254=8:0, 8 >B =53> >68405BAO =5?@5<5==>5 2K?>;=5=85 B>9 ?@0:B8:8, :>B>@CN >= ?@>?>254C5B. A;54AB285 MB>3> 8AB8==>ABL B>3>, GB> >= 3>2>@8B, ?@>25@O5BAO ?> 53> E0@0:B5@C 8 =@02AB25==K< :0G5AB20<: ?@>O2;O5B ;8 >= B@52>6=>ABL, 7028A8< ;8 >B "<0B5@80;L=KE :>ABK;59" 2@>45 28=0 8;8 B010:0, =5B ;8 C =53> O72K 65;C4:0, ?@8AB@0AB5= ;8 >= : 45=L30<, A:;>=5= ;8 2?040BL 2 3=52 8;8 2 45?@5AA8N, 2;N1;O5BAO ;8 2 =5?>4>10NI8E >1AB>OB5;LAB20E 8 =5 2K3;O48B ;8 ?>4G0A A;53:0 CAB0;K< 8 ?>B@5?0==K<. A5 MB8 :@8B5@88 <>3;8 1K 1KBL 2?>;=5 ACI5AB25==K<8, 5A;8 1K MB>B D8;>A>D ?@>?>254>20; A2>1>4C >B G5;>25G5A:>3> >1;8:0 8;8 65 5A;8 1K >= ?KB0;AO @048:0;L=> C;CGH8BL A51O A0<>3> 8 4@C38E. 0 ?@>BO65=88 >4=>9 687=8 ?>GB8 C :064>3> G5;>25:0 5ABL, :>=5G=> 65, 2>7<>6=>ABL A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20BLAO  2 ?@545;0E, >?@545;O5<KE M=5@3859, 2@5<5=5<, B5<?5@0<5=B>< 8 B5< C@>2=5< @0728B8O, A :>B>@>3> >= =0G0;. ABL, >G5284=>, 2 MB>< 8 =04;560I55 <5AB> 4;O ?@>?>254=8:>2 8 4@C38E B5E=8G5A:8E :>=AC;LB0=B>2 2 45;0E G5;>25G5A:>3> A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O. 4=0:> ?>4>1=K5 C;CGH5=8O <>3CB ?@>872>48BLAO 2 >?@545;5==KE 3@0=8F0E, 4>AB0B>G=> <0;KE ?> A@02=5=8N A >1H8@=K<8 0A?5:B0<8 =0H59 ?@8@>4K 8 =0H8E >1AB>OB5;LAB2, :>B>@K5 >AB0NBAO B5<8 65 A0<K<8 8 ?;>E> ?>440NI8<8AO A>25@H5=AB2>20=8N, 4065 5A;8 >=> 65;0B5;L=>. >MB><C O AG8B0N, GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 65;0B5;L=>ABL 8 2>7<>6=>ABL C;CGH5=8O A51O 8 4@C38E, @07@5H5=85 ?@>1;5< 8 C<5=85 A?@02;OBLAO A A8BC0F8O<8, MB> A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 =8 :>5< A;CG05 =5 4>;6=> AB0=>28BLAO 548=AB25==K< 8;8 4065 3;02=K< 45;>< 687=8. 5 4>;6=> MB> 1KBL 8 ?@8=F8?80;L=>9 @01>B>9 2 D8;>A>D88. N48 4>1820NBAO 8A?>;=5=8O A2>8E F5;59 2 >3@><=>9 :@C3>2@0I0NI59AO A5;5==>9, :>B>@0O, :0: <=5 :065BAO, =5 8<55B 2>>1I5 =8:0:>9 F5;8 2 =0H5< A<KA;5.  ?@8@>45 3>@074> 1>;LH5 83@>2>3> =0G0;0, G5< F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8, 8 =5 AB>8B C482;OBLAO :0: =5:><C 55 45D5:BC 25@>OB=>AB8 B>3>, GB> C =55 =5B :0:8E-;81> A?5F80;L=KE F5;59 2 1C4CI5<. 0>1>@>B, ?@8@>4=K5 ?@>F5AAK, :0: <K 2848< 8E 8 2 >:@C60NI5< <8@5, 8 2 =5?@>872>;L=KE ?@>O2;5=8OE =0H53> A>1AB25==>3> >@30=87<0, :C40 1>;LH5 =0?><8=0NB 8A:CAAB2>, G5< 187=5A, ?>;8B8:C 8;8 @5;838N. A>15==> ?>E>68 >=8 =0 8A:CAAB2> <C7K:8 8 B0=F0, :>B>@K5 @072>@0G820NBAO 157 =0?@02;5==>AB8 : :0:8<-B> 1C4CI8< @57C;LB0B0<. 8:><C 8 2 3>;>2C =5 ?@845B, GB> A8<D>=88 =04;568B C;CGH0BLAO 2 A2>5< :0G5AB25 ?> E>4C 8A?>;=5=8O 8 GB> 2A5 45;> 4;O 8A?>;=8B5;59 70:;NG05BAO 2 4>AB865=88 55 D8=0;0. !CBL <C7K:8 @0A:@K205BAO 2 :064>< <3=>25=88 55 8A?>;=5=8O 8 A;CH0=8O  B>G=> B0: 65, O ?>;030N, >1AB>8B 45;> A =081>;LH59 G0ABLN =0H59 687=8, 8 C B5E, :B> G@57<5@=> ?>3;>I5= 55 C;CGH5=85<, 1K205B, GB> >=8 701K20NB 55 ?@>68BL. C7K:0=B, GL59 3;02=>9 701>B>9 AB0=>28BAO 2 :064>< 2KABC?;5=88 AK3@0BL ;CGH5, G5< 2 ?@54K4CI5<, =0AB>;L:> ;8H05B A51O CG0AB8O 2 A>1AB25==>9 <C7K:5 8 C4>2>;LAB28O >B =55, GB> 2?5G0B;OBL 0C48B>@8N 5<C ?@845BAO ;8HL B@52>6=K< B@5?5B>< A2>59 B5E=8G=>AB8. B0:, @01>BC D8;>A>D0 2 3;02=>< 55 A>45@60=88 =8 2 :>5< A;CG05 =5 A;54C5B AB028BL 2 >48= @O4 A 45OB5;L=>ABLN <>@0;8AB>2 8 @5D>@<0B>@>2.  4CE5 EC4>6=8:0 ?@8ACBAB2C5B B0:0O 25IL, :0: D8;>A>D8O, ;N1>2L : <C4@>AB8 3> D8;>A>D8O =8:>340 =5 1C45B ?@>?>254>20BL 8 ?@87K20BL : :0:8<-;81> 2840< ?@0:B8:8, 254CI59 : A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8N. 01>B0 D8;>A>D0-0@B8AB0, =0A:>;L:> O 55 ?>=8<0N, A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K >B:@K20BL 8 2>AA;02;OBL 25G=K9 8 15AF5;L=K9 ?@>F5AA G5;>25G5A:>9 687=8. @>AB> >B 871KB:0 ?5@56820=89 8 >B 87C<;5=8O >= E>G5B @0AA:070BL 4@C38< > B>9 B>G:5 7@5=8O, A :>B>@>9 <8@ =52>>1@078<> E>@>H B0:8<, :0:>2 >= 5ABL, 8 ;N48 E>@>H8 B0:8<8, :0:>2K >=8 5ABL. 57028A8<> >B B>3>, =0A:>;L:> <>65B >:070BLAO A;>6=>9 ?>?KB:0 2K@078BL B0:CN B>G:C 7@5=8O 8 =5 2?0ABL ?@8 MB>< 2 =52=OB8FC, =5 2K3;O45BL 157=0456=K< <5GB0B5;5<, :0:0O-B> ?>4A:07:0 >1O70B5;L=> =0945BAO, 5A;8 D8;>A>DC ?>AG0AB;828;>AL 8A?KB0BL ?>4>1=>5 A0<><C ;O B5E, :B> C?@O<> 2848B 2 ;N1>< 2845 45OB5;L=>AB8 >4=> ;8HL AB@5<;5=85 : F5;8, MB> <>65B ?@>72CG0BL :0: =0<5@5=85 8 65;0=85 C;CGH8BLAO 540 2 B><, GB> =0H 70?04=K9 74@02K9 A<KA; >AB05BAO =5381:8<, 0@8AB>B5;52A:8<, 8 <K ?>MB><C C15645=K, GB> 2>;O =8:>340 =5 459AB2C5B :@><5 :0: @048 :0:>3>-B> 1;030 8;8 C4>2>;LAB28O. > ?@8 0=0;8B8G5A:>< @0AA<>B@5=88 MB>3> C15645=8O ?@>OA=O5BAO, GB> <K 45;05< =5 1>;55 B>3>, GB> 45;05<. 54L 5A;8 <K 2A5340 45;05< B>, GB> =0< =@028BAO (4065 A>25@H0O A0<>C189AB2>), =5B =8:0:>3> A?>A>10 C:070BL =0 B>, GB> 4>AB02;O5B =0< C4>2>;LAB285, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, GB> <K 45;05< @8<5=OO ?>4>1=CN ;>38:C, O ;8HL 1@>A0N :0<5=L >1@0B=> BC40, >B:C40 >= ?>O28;AO, 254L O >BG5B;82> A>7=0N, GB> 2K@065=85 <8AB8G5A:>3> >?KB0 =5 2K45@68205B ;>38G5A:>9 ?@>25@:8 4=0:>, =5 2 ?@8<5@ ?>A;54>20B5;N @8AB>B5;O, <8AB8: =5 ?@5B5=4C5B =0 ;>38G=>ABL !D5@>9 53> >?KB0 O2;O5BAO =587JOA=8<>5  B5< =5 <5=55 MB0 ?>B@51=>ABL >7=0G05B =5 1>;55 B>3>, GB> @5GL 845B > AD5@5 D878G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K, > B><, GB> O2;O5BAO =5 ?@>AB> >B2;5G5==K<8 ?>=OB8O<8, G8A;0<8 8;8 A;>20<8. A;8 >?KB ":>A<8G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O" =587JOA=8<, B> >:07K205BAO, GB>, ?KB0OAL >1;5GL 53> 2 A;>20, G5;>25: =5 "3>2>@8B" =8G53> 2 A<KA;5 >1<5=0 8=D>@<0F859 8;8 2KA:07K20=8O CB25@645=89 5GL, 2K@060NI0O ?>4>1=K9 >?KB, 1>;LH5 ?>E>60 =0 2>A:;8F0=85. ;8, ;CGH5 A:070BL, MB> @5GL ?>MB8G5A:0O, 0 =5 ;>38G5A:0O  ?@8G5< ?>MB8G5A:0O =5 2 >154=ONI5< A<KA;5 ;>38:0-?>78B828AB0, 0 2 A<KA;5 45:>@0B82=>9 8 ?@5:@0A=>9 15AA<KA;8FK. !CI5AB2C5B @07=>284=>ABL @5G8, :>B>@0O A?>A>1=0 A>>1I8BL > G5<-B>, 1C4CG8 =5 A?>A>1=>9 >1 MB>< A:070BL. ! MB>9 B@C4=>ABLN AB>;:=C;AO >681A:89 [5], :>340 ?KB0;AO 2K@078BL ?@>ABCN :0: 1C4B> <KA;L > B><, GB> 25I8 =5 5ABL B>, G5< >=8 O2;ONBAO 2 A:070==>< > =8E, 8 GB>, =0?@8<5@, A;>2> "2>40" A0<> ?> A515 =5;L7O 2K?8BL. = D>@<C;8@>20; MB> 2 "70:>=5 =5845=B8G=>AB8": "5IL =5 O2;O5BAO =8G5< 87 B>3>, G5<, :0: 2K 3>2>@8B5, >=0 O2;O5BAO". > 87 MB>3> ?>A;54C5B, GB> >=0 8 25ILN B>65 =5 O2;O5BAO, 254L 5A;8 O 3>2>@N, GB> 25IL 5ABL 25IL, B> >=0 =5 5ABL 25IL.  G5< B>340 <K 3>2>@8<? >681A:89 ?KB0;AO ?@87=0BL, GB> <K 3>2>@8< > =587JOA=8<>< <8@5 D878G5A:>9 A5;5==>9, > <8@5, :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO 8=K<, G5< A;>20. !;>20 ?@54AB02;ONB 53>, => 5A;8 <K E>B8< C7=0BL 53> =0?@O<CN, B> =0< A;54C5B 45;0BL MB> G5@57 =5?>A@54AB25==K9 A5=A>@=K9 :>=B0:B. ">, GB> <K =07K205< 25I0<8, D0:B0<8 8;8 A>1KB8O<8, 5ABL ?@5645 2A53> =5 1>;55 G5< C4>1=K5 548=8FK 2>A?@8OB8O, C7=0205<K5 25H0;:8 4;O =0720=89, >B>1@0==K5 87 15A:>=5G=>3> <=>65AB20 >:@C60NI8E =0A ;8=89 8 ?>25@E=>AB59, F25B>2 8 B5:ABC@, ?@>AB@0=AB2 8 ?;>B=>AB59. "0:>9 A?>A>1 @0745;5=8O 15AG8A;5==KE 20@80F89 =0 >B45;L=K5 25I8 O2;O5BAO =5 1>;55 CAB>O2H8<AO 8 >:>=G0B5;L=K<, G5< ?@8=F8? 3@C??8@>2:8 72574 2 A>725748O. 7 MB>3> ?@8<5@0, 2?@>G5<, =5A><=5==> OA=>, GB> <K A?>A>1=K C:070BL =0 =587JOA=8<K9 <8@ 8 4065 2K@078BL 845N 53> ACI5AB2>20=8O, 1C4CG8 =5 2 A>AB>O=88 A:070BL B>G=>, GB> >= B0:>5 K =5 7=05<, GB> MB> B0:>5. K 7=05< ;8HL, GB> MB> 5ABL. 'B>1K 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL A:070BL, GB> >= B0:>5, <K 4>;6=K 1KBL A?>A>1=K :;0AA8D8F8@>20BL 53>; >4=0:> >G5284=>, GB> B> "2A5", 2 :>B>@>< >G5@G8205BAO ?>;=>5 <=>3>>1@0785 25I59, =5 ?>4405BAO :;0AA8D8:0F88. / ?>;030N, GB> AD5@0 ":>A<8G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O"  MB> B> 65 A0<>5, GB> "=587JOA=8<>ABL <8@0" C >681A:>3> 8 4@C38E ?@54AB028B5;59 A5<0=B8:8. "0< =5B =8G53> "4CE>2=>3>" 2 >1KG=>< 01AB@0:B=>< 8;8 8450F8>==>< A<KA;5. =0 :>=:@5B=> D878G=0 8 2<5AB5 A B5< ?> B>9 65 A0<>9 ?@8G8=5 =52K@078<0 (8;8 =587JOA=8<0) 8 =5>?@545;8<0. ">A<8G5A:>5 A>7=0=85"  MB> >A2>1>645=85 >B A0<>A>7=0=8O, B> 5ABL >B B>3> D8:A8@>20==>3> C15645=8O 8 GC2AB20, GB> B2>9 >@30=87< O2;O5BAO 01A>;NB=>9 8 >B45;L=>9 25ILN, >B;8G=>9 >B A>>B25BAB2CNI59 548=8FK 2>A?@8OB8O. 54L 5A;8 AB0=>28BAO >G5284=K<, GB> @0745;5=85 =0<8 <8@0 ;8=8O<8 8 ?>25@E=>ABO<8 =0 548=8G=K5 ?@54<5BK ?@>872>48BAO ;8HL 4;O C4>1AB20, B> 2A5, GB> O =0720; A>1>9, 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 =5>B45;8<> =8 >B G53> 4@C3>3>. -B> 8<5==> B>, GB> 8A?KBK205HL 2 8=B5@5ACNI85 =0A M:AB@0>@48=0@=K5 <><5=BK 2@5<5=8.  B5 :>=BC@K 8 >G5@B0=8O, :>B>@K5 <K =07K205< 25I0<8 8 8A?>;L7C5< 4;O >?8A0=8O 25I59, 2>2A5 =5 8AG570NB 2 :0:>9-B> ;CG570@=>9 ?CAB>B5. @>AB> AB0=>28BAO OA=>, GB>, E>BO 8E <>6=> 8A?>;L7>20BL 2 :0G5AB25 @0745;ONI8E, =0 A0<>< 45;5 >=8 =8G53> =5 @0745;ONB. 0: 1K A8;L=> =8 1K; O 2?5G0B;5= @07;8G85< <564C 72574>9 8 B5<=K< ?@>AB@0=AB2>< 2>:@C3 =55, <=5 =5 A;54C5B 701K20BL, GB> 2845BL B> 8 4@C3>5 O <>3C B>;L:> 1;03>40@O A>>B=>H5=8N B>3> 8 4@C3>3>, 0 MB> A>>B=>H5=85 =5@0745;8<>. !0<>9, 2?@>G5<, C4828B5;L=>9 G5@B>9 B0:>3> >?KB0 O2;O5BAO C15645==>ABL 2 B><, GB> 25AL MB>B =587JOA=8<K9 <8@ "?@028;5=", =0AB>;L:> ?@028;5=, GB> =0H5 =>@<0;L=>5 15A?>:>9AB2> 45;05BAO A<5E>B2>@=K<, GB> 5A;8 1K ;N48 AC<5;8 C2845BL MB>, >=8 >157C<5;8 1K >B @04>AB8.  :>@>;L 1K >1@570; :CABK,  A2OI5==8:  @20; F25BK. !>25@H5==> >B45;L=> >B B@C4=>AB8 A>>B=5A5=8O MB>3> <8@>>ICI5=8O A ?@>1;5<>9 7;0 8 1>;8 2AB05B 2>?@>A > A0<>< A<KA;5 CB25@645=8O "A5 1C45B E>@>H>: 8 2A5 1C45B E>@>H>, 8 25AL ?>@O4>: 25I59 1C45B E>@>H". !0< O <>3C ;8HL A:070BL, GB> A<KA; CB25@645=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 ?5@56820=88 A0<>< ?> A515. =5 MB>3> A>AB>O=8O A>7=0=8O >=> =5 8<55B =8:0:>3> A<KA;0, B0: GB> 2 =53> 4065 ?>25@8BL :0: 2 >B:@>25=85 B@C4=> 157 =0AB>OI53> A>1AB25==>3> >?KB0. 54L 2 =0AB>OI5< ?5@56820=88 45;05BAO A>25@H5==> >G5284=K<, GB> 2AO A5;5==0O  MB> 83@0 ;N128 2 ?>;=>< A<KA;5 A;>20 8 2 ;N1>< >BB5=:5 A;>2>C?>B@51;5=8O  >B 682>B=>9 ?>E>B8 4> 1>65AB25==>3> <8;>A5@48O. 0:8<-B> >1@07>< AN40 2:;NG05BAO 4065 3815;L=>ABL 18>;>38G5A:>3> <8@0, 345 :0640O B20@L 6825B B5<, GB> ?>68@05B 4@C38E B20@59. @82KG=0O 4;O =0A :0@B8=0 MB>3> <8@0 >1>@0G8205BAO B0:, GB> B5?5@L :0640O 65@B20 ?@54AB05B :0: ?@8=>H5=85 A51O 2 65@B2C. A;8 1K =0A A?@>A8;8, 8AB8==> ;8 B0:>5 <8@>2845=85, <K >B25B8;8 1K 4;O =0G0;0, GB> =5B B0:>9 25I8, :0: 8AB8=0 A0<0 ?> A515,  8AB8=0 2A5340 A>>B=5A5=0 A B>G:>9 7@5=8O. 3>=L 63CG ?> >B=>H5=8N : :>65. !B@C:BC@0 <8@0 O2;O5B A51O B0:>9, :0: >=0 =0< ?@54AB05B ?> >B=>H5=8N : =0H8< >@30=0< GC2AB2 8 <>73C. >MB><C >?@545;5==K5 87<5=5=8O 2 >@30=87<5 G5;>25:0 <>3CB ?@52@0B8BL 53> 2 =5:89 284 AC1J5:B0 2>A?@8OB8O, 4;O :>B>@>3> <8@ 1C45B B0:8<, :0:8< >= 2K3;O48B 2 MB>< <8@>2845=88. 4=0:> :0:85-B> 4@C385 87<5=5=8O 2 G5;>25G5A:>< >@30=87<5 A @02=K< CA?5E>< 404CB =0< 8AB8=C <8@0 B0:>9, :0:8< >= 2848BAO H87>D@5=8:C 8 @07C<C, ?>3;>I5==><C 45?@5AA859. !CI5AB2C5B, B5< =5 <5=55, 2>7<>6=>5 2>7@065=85 ?@>B82 =082KAH59 8AB8=K ":>A<8G5A:>3>" ?5@56820=8O. A=>2K205BAO >=> ?>?@>ABC =0 B><, GB> =8:0:0O M=5@35B8G5A:0O A8AB5<0 =5 A?>A>1=0 =0 A>25@H5==K9 A0<>:>=B@>;L, 5A;8 =5 ?@5:@0B8B 42865=85. >=B@>;L  MB> >3@0=8G5=85 2 42865=88, 0 ?>A:>;L:C ?>;=K9 :>=B@>;L 1C45B, =04> ?>;030BL, ?>;=>9 >3@0=8G5==>ABLN, B> 2>7<>6=>ABL :>=B@>;O 2A5340 4>;6=0 >AB020BLAO <5=55 7=0G8<>9, G5< 2>7<>6=>ABL 42865=8O, 5A;8 42865=85 4>;6=> 1KBL 2>>1I5. 'B> :0A05BAO -G5;>25:0, B> ?>;=0O >3@0=8G5==>ABL 2 42865=88 @02=>7=0G=0 B>B0;L=><C A><=5=8N, >B:07C 2 4>25@88 A>1AB25==K< GC2AB20< 8 >ICI5=8O< 2> 2A5E >B=>H5=8OE. 025@=>5, 2>?;>I5=85< 55 O2;O5BAO M:AB@5<0;L=0O :0B0B>=8O A >B:07>< >B 2AO:>3> 42865=8O 8 2AO:>9 :><<C=8:0F88. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 42865=85 8 A=OB85 >3@0=8G5==>AB8 @02=>7=0G=K 4>25@8N, 225@5=8N A51O =5:>=B@>;8@C5<><C 8 =58725AB=><C.  :@09=59 D>@<5 MB> 4>;6=> >7=0G0BL >B40GC A0<>3> A51O ?@545;L=><C =5?>AB>O=AB2C, 8, =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4, 687=L 2>B B0: =5@071>@G82> 4>25@82H53>AO 59 :0: 1C4B> A>>B25BAB2C5B 2845=8N <8@0, 2 :>B>@>< "2A5 ?@028;L=>". A5 65 B0:0O B>G:0 7@5=8O 4>;6=0 8A:;NG0BL ;N1>9 :>=B@>;L :0: =5?@028;L=>ABL, 0 7=0G8B, 2 =59 =5B <5AB0 8 4;O ?@028;L=>AB8 >3@0=8G5=8O. !CI5AB25==CN G0ABL ":>A<8G5A:>3>" ?5@56820=8O A>AB02;O5B, B5< =5 <5=55, B>, GB> =>@<0;L=0O >3@0=8G5==>ABL A>7=0=8O 2 @0<:0E GC2AB20 -3> B>65 ?@028;L=0, => =5 2A5340 8 B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> >=0 8<55B <5=LHCN 7=0G8<>ABL, G5< >BACBAB285 >3@0=8G5=89 2 42865=88 8 4>25@88. 5;> ?@>AB> 2 B><, GB>, 5A;8 5ABL :0:0O 1K B> =8 1K;> 687=L 8 :0:>5-;81> 42865=85, >A=>2>?>;030NI59 4>;6=0 1KBL CAB0=>2:0 =0 25@C (70:;NG8B5;L=0O 8 DC=40<5=B0;L=0O CAB0=>2:0), 0 CAB0=>2:0 =0 A><=5=85 4>;6=0 >AB020BLAO 2B>@8G=>9 8 <5=55 7=0G8<>9. -B> 5I5 >48= A?>A>1 A:070BL > B><, GB> D8;>A>D-0@B8AB, 70=8<0NI89AO =5>1JOB=K< 8 2A5>1J5<;NI8< D>=>< G5;>25G5A:>9 687=8, 4>;65= 2A5F5;> ?>4B25@640BL 8 ?@8=8<0BL MB>B D>=. =0G5 C =53> =5 1C45B 2>>1I5 =8:0:8E >A=>20=89 4;O ?@54CA<>B@8B5;L=>AB8 8 :>=B@>;O ?> >B=>H5=8N : 45B0;O<, 2KABC?0NI8< =0 ?5@54=89 ?;0=. 4=0:> A;8H:>< ;53:> >:070BLAO =0AB>;L:> 2BO=CBK< 2 MB8 45B0;8, GB> ?@>?045B 2AO:>5 GC2AB2> A>@07<5@=>AB8, 8 A;8H:>< ;53:> A28E=CBLAO 2 AB@5<;5=88 2A5 =0 A25B5 ?>AB028BL ?>4 A2>9 :>=B@>;L. K AB0=>28<AO 157C<=K<8, =52<5=O5<K<8 8 ;8H5==K<8 >A=>20B5;L=>AB8, :>340 B5@O5< 4>25@G82>5 >A>7=0=85 B>3> =5:>=B@>;8@C5<>3> 8 =5C;>28<>3> D>=>2>3> <8@0, :>B>@K9 2 ?@545;L=>< A<KA;5 8 5ABL B>, G5< O2;O5<AO <K A0<8.  5A;8 8 5ABL :0:0O-B> @07=8F0 <564C A>25@H5==K< A>7=0B5;L=K< 4>25@85< 8 ;N1>2LN, B> >=0 >G5=L <0;0. * * * 'C2AB2>, :>B>@>5 ;N48 8A?KBK20;8 2 ?@8ACBAB288 C44K, A>AB>O;> 2 B><, GB> >=8 4>;6=K 1KBL G5<-B> 1>;LH8<, G5< ?@>AB> ;N4L<8.  "K >3?  A?@0H820;8 >=8.  5B,  >B25G0; C440.  "K 0=35;?  5B.  ">340 :B> 65 BK?  A?@0H820;8 >=8.  / ?@>1C64Q==K9. (%LNAB>= !<8B. " 5;8388 G5;>25:0") "K A0< 4>;65= ?@8;>68BL CA8;85 0AB5@ B>;L:> C:07K205B ?CBL. (C440) "5, :B>... 1C45B A25B8;L=8:>< 4;O A0<8E A51O, 4>;6=K ?>;030BLAO B>;L:> =0 A0<8E A51O, 0 =5 =0 :0:CN-B> 2=5H=NN ?><>IL, @0A:@K20OAL 8AB8=5, :0: A2>5<C A25B>GC, 8 8I0 A?0A5=8O B>;L:> 2 8AB8=5; B5 =5 1C4CB 640BL ?><>I8 =8 >B :>3>. -B> B5... :B> 4>AB83=5B =082KAH59 B>G:8. > >=8 4>;6=K ?>701>B8BLAO > A2>5< CG5=8G5AB25. C440 (C<8@0O)  [1] .0= '>C (C<. 2 1287 3.). &8B. ?>: Suzuki. Essays in Zen Buddhism. Vol. 2. P. 92. [2] Bernard Berenson. Sketch for a Self-Portrait. New York: Pantheon Books, 1949. P. 18. [3] Dame Julian of Norwich (1342-1414). Revelations of Divine Love. XXVII. Ed. Grace Warrack. London, 1949. "04;568B 3@5H8BL" >7=0G05B "83@05B >1O70B5;L=CN @>;L". !@. A> 7=0<5=8BK< ?0AA065< 87 8<A:>9 ;8BC@388 =0 !B@0AB=CN AC11>BC: ", 2>8AB8=C =5>1E>48<K9 3@5E 40<0, :>B>@K9 8A:C?;5= 1K; A<5@BLN %@8AB0! , AG0AB;820O >H81:0, GB> B0: F5==0, 8 B0: 25;8: 8A:C?8B5;L!". [4] &8B. ?>: William James. Varietes of Religious Experience. London, 1929. P. 399. [5] . >681A:89 (Korzibski,  )  >A=>20B5;L >1I59 A5<0=B8:8 4=0 87 >A=>2=KE 53> @01>B  Science and Sanity An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics. The international Non-Aristotelian Library Publishing Co , Lakeville, CT, 1933  @8<. ?5@52.  ;4>A %0:A;8 '/ $!$/ ;>4>28B>5 ?5@> ;4>A0 %0:A;8 70<5G0B5;L=> ?>A;C68;> =0 ?>;L7C G5;>25G5AB2C, => 4065 5A;8 1K >= =5 =0?8A0; =8G53>, :@><5 "5G=>9 D8;>A>D88", 53> 2A5 @02=> 2A?><8=0;8 1K A 1;03>40@=>ABLN. >;>AA0;L=0O >1@07>20==>ABL 8 M@C48F8O %0:A;8 ?>425;8 53> : 7040G5 A>25@H8BL >17>@ <8@>2KE @5;838>7=KE 8 4CE>2=KE B5:AB>2, GB> 8 1K;> CA?5H=> A45;0=> A ?><>ILN 53> C<0, 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 >70@5==>3> A25B>< 8AB8=K. KH54H0O 2 A25B 2 1944 3>4C :=830 AB0;0 ?5@2K< ?>?C;O@=K< 8740=85<, ?>-=0AB>OI5<C 2K@0782H59 B>, GB> ?@>A25B;5=85  MB> ACI=>AB=0O 8AB8=0 2A5E <8@>2KE A2OI5==KE B@048F89. -B0 :=830 ?>:070;0 548=AB2> 8 C=825@A0;L=>ABL MB>9 ACI=>AB=>9 8458 70 2A5< <=>3>>1@0785< =08<5=>20=89 8 D>@<, :>B>@K5 >=0 ?@8=8<0;0 =0 ?@>BO65=88 8AB>@88. >;55 B>3>, ?>A:>;L:C G5;>25G5AB2> 1K;> 2>2;5G5=> 2 :@>202K5 2>9=K =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A59 8AB>@88, 0 4C<0NI85 ;N48 2 MB> 2@5<O ?@54?@8=8<0;8 157=0456=K5 ?>?KB:8 ?>8A:0 157>?0A=>AB8 8 74@02>3> A<KA;0, 2KA>:0O @5?CB0F8O %0:A;8 :0: 8=B5;;5:BC0;0, ?@82;5:;0 >1I5AB25==>5 2=8<0=85 : B5<5 ?@>A25B;5=8O 8 A45;0;0 53> ?>8A:8 1>;55, 5A;8 <>6=> B0: 2K@078BLAO, "@5A?5:B015;L=K<8". > 22545=88 %0:A;8 >B<5B8;, GB> :=830 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 0=B>;>38N 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88 2 B>< A<KA;5, GB> 2 =59 A>1@0=K 2K45@6:8 87 B5:AB>2 2A5E @5;838>7=KE B@048F89, =0?8A0==KE =0 >A=>2=KE O7K:0E 788 8 2@>?K. B>1@0==K5 D@03<5=BK @07<5I5=K ?>4 @07;8G=K<8 703>;>2:0<8 8, ?> 2K@065=8N %0:A;8, 2:;NG5=K 2 53> :><<5=B0@88, ?@54=07=0G5==K5 4;O 8E 8;;NAB@0F88, 2708<=>9 C2O7:8 8 @07JOA=5=8O. 57C;LB0B MB>3> B@C40 <>65B 1KBL G@572KG09=> ?>;575= 4;O 4CE>2=KE 8A:0B5;59. B1>@ B5:AB>2 25;8:>;5?5= 8 1;5ABOI, :><?>=>2:0 @0745;>2 ?> B5<0<, B0:8<, :0: A0<>?>7=0=85, 1;03>40BL 8 A2>1>40 2>;8, 8<55B ?@0:B8G5A:CN ?>;57=>ABL, 8, :0: 8 2A5 >AB0;L=K5 A>G8=5=8O %0:A;8, 53> :><<5=B0@89 >B;8G05BAO 87OI=K< AB8;5<, ?@82;5:0NI8< G8B0B5;O =0 2A5E C@>2=O. * * * K@065=85 "Philosophia Perennis"  "5G=0O $8;>A>D8O"  225; 2 >1@0I5=85 591=8F. -B> <5B0D878:0, ?@87=0NI0O 1>65AB25==CN 50;L=>ABL AC1AB0=F8>=0;L=>9 4;O <8@0 25I59, 687=59 8 C<>2, 0 B0:65 ?A8E>;>38O, >1=0@C6820NI0O 2 4CH5 GB>-B> AE>655 8;8 4065 845=B8G=>5 A >65AB25==>9 50;L=>ABLN; MB8:0, 284OI0O :>=5G=CN F5;L G5;>25:0 2 7=0=88 8<<0=5=B=>9 8 B@0=AF5=45=B=>9 ?5@2>>A=>2K 1KB8O. 45O ?5@2>>A=>2K 2A53> 1KB8O C=825@A0;L=0 8 ACI5AB2C5B A =570?0<OB=KE 2@5<5=. 0G0;0 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88 <>6=> =09B8 A@548 B@048F8>==KE 7=0=89 C ?5@2>1KB=KE =0@>4>2 ?> 2A5<C <8@C, 0 ?>;=>ABLN @0728BK5 55 D>@<K 5ABL 2 :064>9 87 2KA>:>@0728BKE @5;8389. 4=0 87 25@A89 MB>3> 082KAH53> 1I53> $0:B>@0 2> 2A5E ?@54H5AB2>202H8E 8 ?>A;54CNI8E B5>;>38OE 1K;0 70D8:A8@>20=0 ?8AL<5==> 1>;55 25 AB>;5B89 B><C =0704, 8 A B5E ?>@ 2A5. @5;838>7=K5 B@048F88 A=>20 8 A=>20 >1@0I0;8AL : MB>9 =58AB>I8<>9 B5<5 A> A2>8E A>1AB25==KE ?>78F89 =0 2A5E >A=>2=KE O7K:0E 788 8 2@>?K... =0=85  MB> DC=:F8O 1KB8O. >340 5ABL 87<5=5=85 2 1KB88 7=0NI53>, 5ABL 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI55 87<5=5=85 2 ?@8@>45 8 <5@5 ?>7=0=8O. 0?@8<5@, 1KB85 @515=:0 70 AG5B @>AB0 8 2>A?8B0=8O B@0=AD>@<8@C5BAO 2 1KB85 27@>A;>3> G5;>25:0; A@548 @57C;LB0B>2 MB>9 B@0=AD>@<0F88  @52>;NF8>==0O ?5@5<5=0 2 A?>A>15 ?>7=0=8O, 2 :>;8G5AB25 8 E0@0:B5@5 ?>7=0==>3>. 0: B>;L:> 8=48284C0;L=>ABL 2K@>A;0, 55 7=0=85 AB0=>28BAO 1>;55 :>=F5?BC0;L=K< 8 A8AB5<0B8G=K< ?> D>@<5, =587<5@8<> C25;8G8205BAO 2 CB8;8B0@=>< A>45@60=88. 4=0:> MB8 ?@8>1@5B5=8O A>?@>2>640NBAO >?@545;5==K< CEC4H5=85< :0G5AB20 =5?>A@54AB25==>3> 2>A?@8OB8O, ?@8BC?;5=85< 8 ?>B5@59 8=BC8F88. 0AA<>B@8< 87<5=5=85 2 8=48284C0;L=>< 1KB88, :>B>@>5 CG5=K9 <>65B 2=5AB8 <5E0=8G5A:8 ?@8 ?><>I8 A2>8E 8=AB@C<5=B>2. A=0I5==K9 A?5:B@>A:>?>< 8 60-4N9<>2K< @5D;5:B>@><, 0AB@>=>< AB0=>28BAO A25@EG5;>25G5A:8< ACI5AB2><  ?> :@09=59 <5@5 2 B><, GB> :0A05BAO A8;K 53> 7@5=8O; 8, :0: 5AB5AB25==> A;54>20;> 1K >6840BL, 7=0=85, :>B>@K< >1;0405B MB> A25@EG5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2>, >G5=L >B;8G05BAO 8 :0G5AB25==>, 8 :>;8G5AB25==> >B 7=0=8O, >1@5B05<>3> :0:8<-=81C4L 72574>G5B>< A =8:0: =5 <>48D8F8@>20==K<8, ?@>ABK<8 G5;>25G5A:8<8 3;070<8. > =5 >4=8 ;8HL 87<5=5=8O 2 D878>;>38G5A:>< 8;8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>< 1KB88 ?>7=0NI53> >:07K20NB 2>7459AB285 =0 53> 7=0=85. ">, GB> <K 7=05<, 7028A8B B0:65 >B B>3>, G5< <K, :0: =@02AB25==K5 ACI5AB20, E>B8< AB0BL ?> A>1AB25==><C 2K1>@C. "@0:B8:0,  ?> A;>20< #8;LO<0 659<A0,  <>65B 87<5=8BL =0H B5>@5B8G5A:89 3>@87>=B, ?@8G5< 42>O:>: >=0 <>65B 25AB8 2 =>2K5 <8@K, 0 <>65B ?@84020BL =>2K5 2>7<>6=>AB8. =0=85, :>B>@>3> <K =8:>340 1K =5 >1@5;8, >AB020OAL B0:8<8, :0:85 <K 5ABL, 1C45B >1@5B5=> 70 AG5B :0:8E-B> 2KAH8E A?>A>1=>AB59 8 2KAH59 687=8, :>B>@KE <>6=> 4>AB8GL =@02AB25==>".  1>;55 A60B>9 D>@<5 > B>< 65 A:070=>: ";065==K G8ABK5 A5@4F5<, 81> >30 C7@OB". ...5G=0O $8;>A>D8O 70=8<05BAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> 548=>9 >65AB25==>9 50;L=>ABLN, AC1AB0=F8>=0;L=>9 4;O <=>3>?;0=>2>3> <8@0 25I59, 687=59 8 C<>2. 4=0:> ?@8@>40 MB>9 548=>9 50;L=>AB8 B0:>20, GB> ?>AB8GL 55 ?@O<> 8 =5?>A@54AB25==> =5 40=> =8:><C, :@><5 B5E, :B> 2K1@0; 4;O A51O A>1;N45=85 >?@545;5==KE CA;>289  AB0BL ;N1OI8<8, G8ABK<8 A5@4F5< 8 "=8I8<8 4CE><". >G5<C 4>;6=> 1KBL B0:? K =5 7=05<. -B> ?@>AB> >48= 87 D0:B>2, :>B>@K5 =0< A;54C5B ?@8=OBL, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, =@02OBAO >=8 =0< 8;8 =5 =@02OBAO 8 =0A:>;L:> =5?@024>?>4>1=K<8 8;8 =5?@8OB=K<8 <>3CB >=8 2K3;O45BL. 8GB> 2 =0H5< ?>2A54=52=>< >?KB5 =5 405B =0< >A=>20=89 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 2>40 A>AB>8B 87 2>4>@>40 8 :8A;>@>40, >4=0:>, :>340 <K ?@>45;K205< A 2>4>9 >?@545;5==K5 <0=8?C;OF88, ?@8@>40 A>AB02;ONI8E 55 M;5<5=B>2 AB0=>28BAO O2AB25==>9. ">G=> B0: 65 =8GB> 2 =0H5< ?>2A54=52=>< >?KB5 =5 405B =0< 25A:8E >A=>20=89 ?@54?>;030BL, GB> C< 2 A@54=59 AB5?5=8 >40@5==>3> G5;>25:0 8<55B >4=>9 87 A2>8E A>AB02;ONI8E GB>-B> AE>655 8;8 845=B8G=>5 A B>9 50;L=>ABLN, :>B>@0O AC1AB0=F8>=0;L=0 4;O <=>3><5@=>3> <8@0; >4=0:> :>340 MB>B C< ?>425@305BAO >?@545;5==><C A5@L57=><C 2>7459AB28N, 1>65AB25==0O AB8E8O, 87 :>B>@>9 >=, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 G0AB8G=>, A>AB>8B, AB0=>28BAO O2AB25==>9, ?@8G5< =5 B>;L:> 4;O A0<>3> MB>3> C<0, => 8  G5@57 A2>5 >B@065=85 2> 2=5H=5< ?>2545=88  4;O C<>2 4@C38E. 8HL 2 D878G5A:8E M:A?5@8<5=B0E <K <>65< >1=0@C68BL A>:@>25==CN ?@8@>4C <0B5@88 8 55 ?>B5=F80;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8.  B>;L:> 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8 <>@0;L=KE M:A?5@8<5=B0E  A>:@>25==CN ?@8@>4C C<0 8 53> ?>B5=F80;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8.  >1KG=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB20E 687=8 A@54=53> G5;>25:0 MB8 2>7<>6=>AB8 C<0 >AB0NBAO ;0B5=B=K<8, =5?@>O2;5==K<8. A;8 <K 70E>B8< @50;87>20BL 8E, =C6=> 1C45B 2K?>;=8BL >?@545;5==K5 CA;>28O 8 ?>4G8=8BLAO >?@545;5==K< ?@028;0<, 459AB25==>ABL :>B>@KE 4>:070=0 M<?8@8G5A:8.  B> 65 :0A05BAO =5<=>38E ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE D8;>A>D>2 8 ?8A0B5;59, B> =5B =8:0:8E 4>:070B5;LAB2 B>3>, GB> >=8 45;0;8 GB>-;81> 7=0G8B5;L=>5 ?> A>1;N45=8N CA;>289, =5>1E>48<KE 4;O >1@5B5=8O =5?>A@54AB25==>3> 4CE>2=>3> 7=0=8O. >340 ?>MBK 8;8 <5B0D878:8 3>2>@OB > =5?>A@54AB25==>9 B5<5 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88, B>, :0: ?@028;>, 3>2>@OB =5 >A=>2K20OAL =0 A>1AB25==><. >?KB5. 4=0:> 2> 2A5 M?>E8 1K;8 B0:85 <C6G8=K 8 65=I8=K, :>B>@K5 8718@0;8 4;O A51O ?CBL A>1;N45=8O MB8E CA;>289, 8 =5A><=5==K< D0:B>< O2;O5BAO B>, GB> 8< C4020;>AL 4>AB8GL =5?>A@54AB25==>3> 7=0=8O. -B8 =5<=>385 >AB02;O;8 =0< A2>8 A>>1I5=8O > B>9 50;L=>AB8, :>B>@CN 8< C40;>AL ?>GC2AB2>20BL 8 :>B>@CN >=8 ?KB0;8AL 2K@078BL 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 A8AB5<5 <KA;8. $0:B =0;8G8O C =8E B0:>3> >?KB0 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> C =8E 1K; =5 B>;L:> MB>B >?KB. <52H8< 7=0=85 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88 "87 ?5@2KE @C:", 2 =5?>A@54AB25==>< >?KB5 >:@C602H85 8E ;N48, 7=02H85 >1 MB><, 4020;8 =0720=8O "A2OBKE", "?@>@>:>2", "<C4@5F>2" 8;8 "?@>A25B;5==KE"... K >3@0=8G8<AO 745AL @0AA<>B@5=85< ;8HL =5:>B>@KE 0A?5:B>2 MB>9 B@048F8>==>9 ?A8E>;>388  =081>;55 206=KE, =081>;55 ?>4G5@:8202H8EAO 2A5<8 ?@54AB028B5;O<8 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88 8, 4>1028<, 2 =08<5=LH59 <5@5 O2;ONI8EAO ?A8E>;>38G=K<8. ;O CG5=89, :>B>@K5, :0: MB> ?>:070=> 2 MB>< @0745;5, >B=>AOBAO 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 : 0CB>;>388, G5< : ?A8E>;>388,  : =0C:5 =5 > ;8G=>AB=>< -3>, 0 > 25G=>9 !CI=>AB8 (Self) 8=48284>2 8 B>645AB25 (8;8, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, 1;87:>< @>4AB25) MB>9 ACI=>AB8 A >65AB25==>9 5@2>>A=>2>9. A=>20==>5 =0 =5?>A@54AB25==>< >?KB5 B5E, :B> 2K?>;=8; CA;>28O, =5>1E>48<K5 4;O >1@5B5=8O B0:>3> 7=0=8O, MB> CG5=85 =081>;55 ;0:>=8G=> 8 G5B:> 2K@065=> 2 A0=A:@8BA:>9 D>@<C;8@>2:5 "B0B B20< 0A8" ("BK 5ABL ">")  B<0=, 8<<0=5=B=0O 25G=0O !CI=>ABL, 548=0O A @0E<0=><, 1A>;NB=K< @8=F8?>< 2A53> ACI5AB2>20=8O; 8 :>=5G=>9 F5;LN 2AO:>3> G5;>25G5A:>3> ACI5AB20 O2;O5BAO >B:@KB85 MB>3> D0:B0 4;O A0<>3> A51O 8 =0E>645=85 ">3>, :B> B>;L:> 8 ACI5AB2C5B =0 A0<>< 45;5.  B0:>9 65 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 >3  2> 2A5E 25I0E, 2 B0:>9 65 <5@5 = 8 70 ?@545;0<8 2A5E 25I59.  B0:>9 65 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 = 2=CB@8, 2 B0:>9 65 <5@5 = 8 A=0@C68. 59AB5@ -:E0@B ">;L:> B>, GB> B@0=AF5=45=B=>, ?>;=>ABLN 8=>5, <>65B 1KBL 8<<0=5=B=K< 8 =5 ?>425@65==K< 87<5=5=8O<, 2>7=8:0NI8< 2 ?@>F5AA5 AB0=>2;5=8O 2A53> B>3>, 2 G5< MB> B@0=AF5=45=B=>5 ?@51K205B. 5G=0O $8;>A>D8O CG8B > B><, GB> 65;0==K< 8 =5>1E>48<K< O2;O5BAO =09B8 4CE>2=CN 5@2>>A=>2C 2A5E 25I59 =5 B>;L:> 2=CB@8 A>1AB25==>9 4CH8, => 8 2 3;C18=5 2A53> >:@C60NI53> <8@0, 0 B0:65 70 ?@545;0<8 8 <8@0, 8 4CH8, 2 B@0=AF5=45=B=>< 8=>1KB88 MB>9 5@2>>A=>2K  =0 "=515A0E". >A:>;L:C >3 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 25745, B> = ?@8ACBAB2C5B 8 2 B515, 2 3;C1>G09H59, =081>;55 F5=B@0;L=>9 G0AB8 B2>59 4CH8. AB5AB25==K5 >@30=K GC2AB2 =5 <>3CB C;>28BL >30 8;8 B2>5 548=AB2> A 8<; 1>;55 B>3>, 2=CB@5==89 40@ ?>=8<0=8O, 2>;8 8 ?0<OB8 <>65B 1KBL ?> =0AB>OI5<C 4>AB83=CB B>;L:> ?>A;5 ?>AB865=8O >30, => MB> =5 <>65B 1KBL <5AB><, 345 >18B05B >3 2 B515. > 745AL 5ABL :>@5=L B2>59 3;C18=K, 87 :>B>@>9 2A5 MB8 A?>A>1=>AB8 2>7=8:0NB, :0: ;8=88 87 F5=B@0 8;8 :0: 25B:8 87 AB2>;0 45@520. -B0 3;C18=0 8 =07K205BAO ?5@2>>A=>2>9, 8;8 A0<K< 3;C1>:8< 4=>< 4CH8. -B0 3;C18=0 -548=AB2>, 25G=>ABL (O 5420 =5 A:070; "15A:>=5G=>ABL") 4CH8. -B0 3;C18=0 B0: 15A:>=5G=0, GB> =8GB> =5 <>65B =0?>;=8BL 55 8;8 CA?>:>8BL 55 :@><5 15A:>=5G=>AB8 >30. #8;LO< >C -B>B >B@K2>: ?>:07K205B B> ?@>B82>@5G85, > :>B>@>< <K C65 3>2>@8;8 2KH5; => MB>, :>=5G=>, =5 =0AB>OI55 ?@>B82>@5G85. >3 2=CB@8 8 >3 A=0@C68  MB> ;8HL 420 01AB@0:B=KE ?>=OB8O, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL ;N1>?KB=K 4;O 8E ?>=8<0=8O 8 2K@065=8O 2 D>@<5 A;>2. > B5 D0:BK, : :>B>@K< >B=>AOBAO MB8 ?>=OB8O, =5 <>3CB 1KBL @50;87>20=K 8 ?5@568BK 8=0G5, :@><5 :0: "2 3;C1>G09H59 8 A0<>9 F5=B@0;L=>9 G0AB8 4CH8".  MB> 8AB8==> 2 B0:>9 65 <5@5 4;O ">30 2=CB@8", :0: 8 4;O ">30 A=0@C68". > 5A;8 420 01AB@0:B=KE ?>=OB8O <>3CB 1KBL @50;87>20=K (3>2>@O <5B0D>@8G5A:8) 2 >4=>< 8 B>< 65 <5AB5, B> B>340 ACI=>AB=0O ?@8@>40 @50;870F88 >30 2=CB@8 4>;6=0 :0G5AB25==> >B;8G0BLAO >B @50;870F88 >30 A=0@C68, 8 B>340 8 ?5@2>5 8 2B>@>5 >B;8G05BAO >B @50;870F88 5@2>>A=>2K :0: >4=>2@5<5==> ?@8ACBAB2CNI59 8 2=CB@8 8 A=0@C68  :0: ACI=>AB8 2>A?@8=8<0NI53> 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O (A>3;0A=> E03020438B5) :0: B>3>, "G5< ?@>=870= 25AL MB>B <8@". '5;>25:, AB@5<OI89AO ?>7=0BL MB> "">", :>B>@>5 5ABL "BK A0<", <>65B ?KB0BLAO A45;0BL MB> >4=8< 87 B@5E A?>A>1>2. = <>65B =0G0BL ?KB0BLAO 703;O4K20BL 2A5 3;C165 2 A51O, 8 2 ?@>F5AA5 "C<8@0=8O 4> A0<>9 ACI=>AB8"  ACI=>AB8 A<KA;0, ACI=>AB8 2>;8, ACI=>AB8 GC2AB20  ?@89B8 =0:>=5F : ?>AB865=8N A2>59 3;C1>G09H59 !CI=>AB8, &0@AB20 >6L53>, :>B>@>5 2=CB@8. =>9 ?CBL =0G8=05BAO 2> 2=5H=5< ACI5AB2>20=88 8 A>AB>8B 2 ?>?KB:5 ?>AB8GL ACI=>AB=>5 548=AB2> MB>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O A >3><, 53> 548=AB2> A 4@C38< G5;>25:>< 8;8 53> 548=AB2> A A0<8< A>1>9. ;8 65, =0:>=5F (8 MB>, =5A><=5==>, ;CGH89 ?CBL), G5;>25: <>65B 8A:0BL ?>4E>4K : ?@545;L=><C ""><C" >4=>2@5<5==> 8 2=CB@8 8 A=0@C68, ?>:0 =5 ?@845B 2 =5?>A@54AB25==>< ?5@56820=88 : ?>AB865=8N >30 :0: 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 ?@8=F8?0 A2>53> A>1AB25==>3> ""K" 8 2A5E 4@C38E "BK", >4CH52;5==KE 8 =5>4CH52;5==KE. >;=>ABLN >70@5==>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2> 7=05B, :0: ?8H5B #8;LO< >C, GB> ">3 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 2 3;C1>G09H59 8 =081>;55 F5=B@0;L=>9 G0AB8 53> A>1AB25==>9 4CH8", => MB>B G5;>25: O2;O5BAO 2 B> 65 2@5<O >4=8< 87 B5E, :B> ?> A;>20< ;>B8=0: ...A<>B@8B =0 2A5 25I8 =5 2 ?@>F5AA5 87 AB0=>2;5=8O, 0 2 KB88 8 2848B 2A5 8E 2> 2A5E 4@C38E 25I0E. 064>5 ACI5AB2> A>45@68B 2 A515 25AL <KA;8<K9 <8@. "0:8< >1@07>< A5 5ABL ?>2AN4C. 064K9 O2;O5BAO MB8< A5<, 8 MB> A5  2 :064><. '5;>25: =5 ?5@5AB05B 1KBL MB8< A5< 2 :064K9 <><5=B =0AB>OI53>.  :>340 >= ?5@5AB05B 1KBL 8=48284C0;L=>ABLN, >= A=>20 2>72KH05BAO 4> B>3>, GB> ?@>=87K205B A>1>9 25AL <8@. -B> B> 2 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 <5@5 A:@KB>5 8=BC8B82=>5 2>A?@8OB85 548=AB20, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO >A=>2>9 8 ?@8=F8?>< 2A53> B>3> <=>3>>1@078O, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO 8AB>G=8:>< D8;>A>D88.  4065 =5 B>;L:> D8;>A>D88, => 8 5AB5AB25==KE =0C:. AO =0C:0, :0: 3>2>@8; 595@A>=, O2;O5BAO A2545=85< <=>3>>1@078O : 548=AB2C. 0E>4O >65AB25==>5 48=>5 :0: 2=CB@8 A51O, B0: 8 70 ?@545;0<8 =0A, <K =0E>48< 2=CB@5==55 ?>4B25@645=85 2A5 B>3> 65 ?> @07=><C 2K@065==>3> 2 @07=KE ?>=OB8OE 548=>3> ?@8=F8?0. $8;>A>D8O #?0=8H04 ?>O2;O5BAO A=>20, @0728B0O 8 >1>30I5==0O, 2 E03020438B5 8 ?>;CG05B >:>=G0B5;L=CN A8AB5<0B870F8N 2 IX 25:5 =.M. C (0=:0@K. #G5=85 (0=:0@K (>4=>2@5<5==> 8 B5>@5B8G5A:>5 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>5, :0: MB> 1K;> 2> 2A5E 20@80=B0E 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88) =081>;55 ?>;=> 2K@065=> 2 53> B@0:B0B5 825:0-'C40<0=8. 865?@82545==K5 F8B0BK 27OBK 87 MB>3> ;0:>=8G=>3>, =5 O2;ONI53>AO B5E=8G5A:8< @C:>2>4AB2>< B@0:B0B0: "B<0=  MB> B>, GB> ?@>=87K205B 2AN A5;5==CN, => 53> =5 ?@>=87K205B =8GB>; GB> >70@O5B A>1>9 2A5 25I8, => A0<> =5 <>65B 1KBL >70@5=> =8:0:8<8 25I0<8..." "@8@>40 548=>9 50;L=>AB8 <>65B 1KBL ?>7=0=0 B>;L:> ;8HL G8AB> 4CE>2=K< 2>A?@8OB85< G5;>25:0; >=0 =5 <>65B 1KBL C7=0=0 >B :0:>3>-;81> ?0=48B0 (CG5=>3> G5;>25:0). -B> ?>4>1=> B><C, :0: ;C=C <>6=> C2845BL B>;L:> A2>8<8 A>1AB25==K<8 3;070<8. 0: <>6=> ?>7=0BL 55 A ?><>ILN 4@C38E ;N459?.." "A2>1>645=85 =5 <>65B 1KBL 4>AB83=CB> B>;L:> ;8HL A ?><>ILN 2>A?@8OB8O B>645AB20 8=48284C0;L=>3> 4CE0 A> 2A5>1I8< CE><. A2>1>645=8O =5 4>AB8GL =8 A ?><>ILN >38 (D878G5A:8E C?@06=5=89), =8 A ?><>ILN !0=:EL8 (A?5:C;OB82=>9 D8;>A>D88), =8 ?@0:B8:>9 @5;838>7=KE F5@5<>=89, =8 >1CG5=85<..." ">;57=L =5 2K;5G8205BAO >4=8< ;8HL B>;L:> ?@>87=5A5=85< =0720=8O ;5:0@AB20, 0 ?@8=OB85< MB>3> ;5:0@AB20. "0: 8 >A2>1>645=85 4>AB8305BAO =5 ?@>87=5A5=85< A;>20 "@0E<0=", 0 B>;L:> ;8HL =5?>A@54AB25==K< ?5@56820=85< @0E<0=0..." "C4@K9  MB> B>B, :B> ?>=8<05B, GB> ACI=>ABLN 8 @0E<0=0, 8 B<0=0 O2;O5BAO '8AB>5 !>7=0=85, 8 :B> ?>=8<05B 8E 01A>;NB=>5 B>645AB2>. ">645AB2> @0E<0=0 8 B<0=0 CB25@6405BAO 2 A>B=OE A2OI5==KE B5:AB>2..." "0AB0, 25@>CG5=85, A5<LO, B@048F88  2A5 MB> =5 ACI5AB2C5B 2 @0E<0=5. @0E<0= =5 8<55B =8 8<5=8, =8 D>@<, >= 70 ?@545;0<8 B0:8E 25I59, :0: 4>AB>9=>5 8 =54>AB>9=>5, 70 ?@545;0<8 2@5<5=8, ?@>AB@0=AB20 8 >1J5:B>2, :>B>@K5 <>6=> 2>A?@8=8<0BL A ?><>ILN GC2AB2. "0:>2 @0E<0=, 8 "BK  MB> ". 548B8@C9 =04 MB>9 8AB8=>9, :>B>@0O =0E>48BAO 2 B2>5< A>7=0=88." "KAH89 @0E<0=, :>B>@>3> =5 <>65B 2K@078BL 2AO A8;0 @5G8, <>65B 1KBL C;>2;5= B>;L:> 27>@>< G8AB>3> >70@5=8O. G8AB0O, 01A>;NB=0O 8 25G=0O 50;L=>ABL  B0:>2 @0E<0=, 8 "BK  MB> ". 548B8@C9 =04 MB>9 8AB8=>9, :>B>@0O =0E>48BAO 2 B2>5< A>7=0=88..." ""5< =5 <5=55 48=>5, @0E<0=, O2;O5BAO ?@8G8=>9 <=>65AB25==>AB8. 5B 4@C3>9 ?@8G8=K. > @0E<0= =5 7028A8B >B 70:>=0 ?@8G8==>AB8. "0:>2 >=. @0E<0=, 8 ""K 5ABL =". 548B8@C9 =04 MB>9 8AB8=>9, :>B>@0O =0E>48BAO 2 B2>5< A>7=0=88..." "52545=85 A;C68B ?@8G8=>9 B>3>, GB> <K >B>645AB2;O5< A51O A> A2>8< B5;><, A -3>, A GC2AB20<8, 8;8 A G5<-;81> 5I5, GB> =5 O2;O5BAO B<0=><. C4@K9 B>B, :B> ?@5>4>;5205B MB> =52545=85 ?@540==>ABLN B<0=C..." (0=:0@0  40>AA:>9 25@A88 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88 2A5>1I55 ?@8ACBAB285 B@0=AF5=45=B=>9 4CE>2=>9 5@2>>A=>2K 2A53> ACI5AB2CNI53> CB25@6405BAO A =5 <5=LH59 =0AB>9G82>ABLN, G5< 2 #?0=8H040E, 8B5 8 B@C40E (0=:0@K. !;54CNI89 >B@K2>: 27OB 87 :;0AA8:8 40>AA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K, =838 '6C0=-F7K, =0?8A0==>9 =0 @C1565 G5B25@B>3> 8 B@5BL53> AB>;5B89 4> =0H59 M@K: 5 A?@0H8209, =0E>48BAO ;8  2 B>< 8;8 2 4@C3><,  >=> 2> 2A5E ACI5AB20E. >MB><C <K 3>2>@8< > =5< :0: > 2KAH5<, C=825@A0;L=><, 2A5>1I5<... A5 25I8 >3@0=8G5=K, => -" =5>3@0=8G5==>, 15A:>=5G=>. >4>1=> B><C, GB> >B=>A8BAO : ?@>O2;5=8O<, -" ?>@>6405B ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL D07, MB>3> ?@>O2;5=8O, => A0<> =5 O2;O5BAO MB>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABLN.   8AB>: ?@8G8= 8 A;54AB289, => =5 O2;O5BAO A0<> =8 ?@8G8=0<8, =8 A;54AB28O<8.   8AB>: 2A5E A3CI5=89 8 @0AA5820=88 (@>645=8O, A<5@B8 8 2AO:>3> 87<5=5=8O A>AB>O=89), => A0<>  =5 O2;O5BAO =8 A3CI5=85<; =8 @0AA5820=85<. A5 ?@>8AE>48B 87 -", 8 2A5 =0E>48BAO ?>4 53> 2;8O=85<.  ?@51K205B 2> 2A5E 25I0E, => =5 B>645AB25==> =8 >4=>9 25I8, =8G5< =5 >3@0=8G5=> 8 =5 48DD5@5=F8@>20=>... '6C0=-F7K B 40>A87<0 <K ?@5945< : 1C4487<C 0E0O=K, :>B>@K9 =0 40;L=5< >AB>:5 2>A?@8=8<0;AO :0: 1;87:89 : 40>A87<C 8 :>B>@K9, ?@>=8:0O BC40, >1@07>20; 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 B> CG5=85, :>B>@K5 <K 7=05< ?>4 =0720=85< 475=. 0=:020B0@0 !CB@0, >B:C40 27OB A;54CNI89 >B@K2>:, O2;O5BAO B5< B@0:B0B><, :>B>@K9 >A=>20B5;L 475= >A>15==> @5:><5=4>20; A2>8< ?5@2K< ?>A;54>20B5;O<: ">B, :B> ?@5405BAO =0?@0A=K< @0AAC645=8O< 157 ?>=8<0=8O 8AB8=K 8 :B> 701;C48;AO 2 46C=3;OE 846=0= (@07;8G=K5 D>@<K >B=>A8B5;L=>3> 7=0=8O), B>B ;8HL 15305B BC40-AN40 2>:@C3, ?KB0OAL >?@0240BL B>G:C 7@5=8O A2>53> A>1AB25==>3> -3>. !CI=>ABL 65 @50;87C5BAO 2 B2>5< =081>;55 2=CB@5==5< A>7=0=88, :>340 >=> 4>AB8305B A2>59 G8AB>BK. -B>  "0BE030B0-30@1E0 (1C:20;L=>: "70@>4KH "0BE030BK", B.5. C44K), :>B>@K9 =5 >B=>A8BAO : >1;0AB8 B>3>, GB> <>65B 1KBL ?>AB83=CB> @0AAC4:><... '8ABK9 2 A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 ?@8@>45 8 A2>1>4=K9 >B ?>=OB89 :>=5G=>3> 8 15A:>=5G=>3>, A5>1I89 #< O2;O5BAO B5< 70@>4KH5< C44K, :>B>@K9 ;8HL ?> >H81:5 7045@60;AO =0 2@5<O 2 682KE ACI5AB20E. 0=:020B0@0-!CB@0 48=0O @8@>40, A>25@H5==0O 8 2A5?@>=8:0NI0O, F8@:C;8@C5B 2> 2A5E ?@>O2;5=8OE ?@8@>4K, 48=0O @50;L=>ABL  2A5>1J5<;NI0O 8 A>45@60I0O 2 A515 2A5 @50;L=>AB8. 4=0 C=0 >B@0605BAO 2 @07=KE <5AB0E =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 2>4K, 8 2A5 ;C=K, >B@060NI85AO 2 2>45, A>548=ONBAO 2 548=>9 C=5. "5;> E0@<K (1A>;NB) 2A5E C44 2E>48B 2 <>5 A>1AB25==>5 1KB85.  <>5 1KB85 >:07K205BAO 2 548=AB25 A 4@C38<8... =CB@5==89 !25B 70 ?@545;0<8 2A5E ?>E20; 8;8 C?@5:>2; >4>1=> ?@>AB@0=AB2C, C =53> =5B 3@0=8F,  B5< =5 <5=55 >= 745AL, 2 =0A, 2A5340 A>E@0=ONI89 A2>N 157<OB56=>ABL 8 ?>;=>BC. = 5ABL B>;L:> B>340, :>340 BK 8I5HL 53>, CB@0B82; "K =5 <>65HL C45@60BL 53> 2A5340 @0A:@KBK<, => 2 B0:>9 65 <5@5 BK =5 <>65HL 8 871028BLAO >B =53>,  2A5, GB> BK <>65HL 45;0BL,  MB> A;54>20BL 53> A>1AB25==K< ?CB5<. "K >AB05HLAO 2 157<>;288, 8 B>340 MB>B A25B 3>2>@8B 2 B515; >340 65 BK A0< ?KB05HLAO 3>2>@8BL, B> MB> ?>4>1=> =5<>B5. 5;8:85 2@0B0 <8;>A5@48O H8@>:> @0A:@KBK, 8 =5B ?5@54 =8<8 =8:0:8E ?@5?OBAB289. .=L-'8 "0-(8 / =5 =0AB>;L:> :><?5B5=B5=,... GB>1K >1AC640BL 4>:B@8=0;L=K5 @07;8G8O <564C 1C4487<>< 8 8=4C87<><. >AB0B>G=> 1C45B ?@>AB> >B<5B8BL MB>, 8 :>340 C440 CB25@640;, GB> G5;>25G5A:85 ACI5AB20 O2;ONBAO ?> ?@8@>45 "=5-B<0=><", B> >=, ?>-2848<><C, 3>2>@8; > ;8G=>< O, 0 =5 > 2A5>1I59 !CI=>AB8. @0E<0= C?><8=05BAO 2 =5:>B>@KE ?0;89A:8E <0=CA:@8?B0E, => =5 =0AB>;L:> G0AB>, :0: 2 C?><O=CB>< 2KH5 CG5=88 540=BK, ?>;=>ABLN ?>A2OI5==>< 8455 B>645AB20 B<0=0 8 >65AB25==>3> 8 =5B>645AB25==>AB8 B<0=0 8 -3>. ">, GB> >=8 CB25@640;8, 8 B>, GB> 0CB0<0 C440 >?@>25@30;, O2;O5BAO ACI=>AB=>9 8 25G=>9 ?@8@>4>9 8=48284C0;L=>9 4CH8. ""0: 65 :0: 3;C?K9 G5;>25: 8I5B 8AB>G=8: <C7K:8 2 A0<>< :>@?CA5 ;NB=8, B0: 65 >= 8I5B 4CHC 2=CB@8 A:0=4E (<0B5@80;L=KE 8 ?A8E8G5A:8E A>AB02;ONI8E, 87 :>B>@KE A>AB>8B 4CH0 8 B5;>).  ACI5AB2>20=88 B<0=0, :>B>@K9 8 5ABL @0E<0=, B0: 65 :0: 8 > 4@C38E <5B0D878G5A:8E 25I0E, C440 >B:07K20;AO 3>2>@8BL, ?>B><C GB> B0:85 A?>@K =5 A?>A>1AB2>20;8 4CE>2=><C ?@>3@5AAC A@548 G;5=>2 <>=0H5A:>3> >@45=0, :>B>@K9 >= >A=>20;. -B8 48A:CAA88 A>45@60;8 2 A515 >?0A=>ABL 8 <>3;8 ?>;=>ABLN ?>3;>B8BL 2 A515 =081>;55 A5@L57=KE 8 4>AB>9=KE 8A:0B5;59, B0: :0: <5B0D878G5A:85 A?>@K, O2;ONI85AO, 2 ACI=>AB8, ;8HL @072;5G5=85<, :06CBAO 206=K<8 8 =5>1E>48<K<8. A5 MB8 8458 1K;8 AD>@<C;8@>20=K ?@825@65=F0<8 %8=0O=K, 0 70B5< @0728BK ?>A;54>20B5;O<8 0E0O=K 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?@0:B8:>9 @5;8388 1C4487<0, A 55 1;5ABOI59 8 8<?>70=B=>9 A8AB5<>9 :>A<>;>38G5A:>9, MB8G5A:>9 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 <KA;8. -B0 A8AB5<0 1078@>20;0AL =0 ?>ABC;0B0E AB@>3>3> 8450;87<0 8 ?@O<> ?@>2>73;0H0;0 >B:07 >B 8458 >30. > <>@0;L=K9 8 4CE>2=K9 >?KB 1K; A;8H:>< A8;5= 4;O D8;>A>DA:>9 B5>@88, 8 ?>4 2;8O=85< =5?>A@54AB25==>3> >?KB0, 02B>@K ACB@ 1C4487<0 0E0O=K 8A?>;L7>20;8 25AL A2>9 B0;0=B 4;O >1JOA=5=8O B>3>, ?>G5<C "0BE030B0 8 >44E8A0BB2K 70>AB@O;8 2=8<0=85 =0 =5>1E>48<>AB8 15A:>=5G=>3> <8;>A5@48O :> 2A5< 682K< ACI5AB20<, :>B>@K5 2@>45 1K =0 A0<>< 45;5 8 =5 ACI5AB2CNB, 8;;N7>@=K.  B> 65 2@5<O >=8 @0AH8@8;8 3@0=8FK AC1J5:B82=>3> 8450;87<0 =0AB>;L:>, GB> =0H;>AL <5AB> 8 4;O A5>1I53> #<0; <>6=> A>>B=5AB8 845N >BACBAB28O 4CH8 A CG5=85<, CB25@640NI8<, 5A;8 @0AA<>B@5BL 53> 2 53> G8AB>< 2845, GB> 8=48284C0;L=K9 C< <>65B >B>645AB2;OBL A51O A A5>1I8< #<>< "70@>4KH0 C44K", 8, E>BO ?@>2>73;0H0;>AL >BACBAB285 >30, 2 B> 65 2@5<O CB25@640;>AL, GB> A5>1I89 #<, :>B>@K9 <>65B 1KBL @50;87>20=, O2;O5BAO A>7=0=85< 25G=>3> C44K 8 GB> MB>B "C< C44K" 0AA>F88@C5BAO A "25;8:8< A>AB@040B5;L=K< A5@4F5<", :>B>@>5 65;05B >A2>1>645=8O 2A5E 682KE ACI5AB2 8 :>B>@>5 40@C5B 1>65AB25==CN 1;03>40BL 2A5<, :B> ?@54?@8=8<05B 4>AB0B>G=> A5@L57=K5 CA8;8O 4;O 4>AB865=8O 2KAH53> G5;>25G5A:>3> ?@545;0. "0:8< >1@07><, ;CGH85 87 ACB@ 1C4487<0 0E0O=K, =5A<>B@O =0 =5 A>2A5< C40G=K5 B5@<8=K, A>45@60B 2 A515 0CB5=B8G=CN D>@<C;8@>2:C 8458 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88  D>@<C;8@>2:C, :>B>@0O 2 =5:>B>@KE >B=>H5=8OE (:0: <K <>3;8 MB> 2845BL 2 @0745;5 ">3 2 <8@5") O2;O5BAO 1>;55 ?>;=>9, G5< :0:85-;81> 4@C385.  =488, B0: 65 :0: 8 2 5@A88, <CAC;L<0=A:0O <KA;L 1K;0 >1>30I5=0 CG5=85< > B><, GB> >3 8<<0=5=B5= 2 B0:>9 65 <5@5, :0: 8 B@0=AF5=45=B5=, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: <CAC;L<0=A:0O ?@0:B8:0 4>1028;0 <>@0;L=K5 CG5=8O 8 "4CE>2=K5 C?@06=5=8O", ?>=8<0=85< :>B>@KE 4CH0 3>B>28;0AL : A>75@F0=8N >1J548=ONI53> 7=0=8O > 1>65AB25==><. 725AB5= 70<5G0B5;L=K9 8AB>@8G5A:89 D0:B, GB> ?>MB 018@ 1K; ?@>2>73;0H5= A2OBK< :0: <CAC;L<0=0<8, B0: 8 8=4C8AB0<8. >;8B8:0 B5E, GL8 F5;8 =0E>4OBAO 70 ?@545;0<8 2@5<5=8, 2A5340 <8@=0O; MB> 84>;>?>:;>==8:8 ?@>H;>3> 8 1C4CI53>, @50:F8>==>9 ?0<OB8 8 CB>?8G5A:>9 <5GBK, A>25@H02H85 ?@5A;54>20=8O 8 @0768302H85 2>9=K 2> 8<O 8458. !<>B@8, E>BO 48=>5 8 2> 2A5E 25I0E, => 5ABL 2B>@>5  B>, GB> ?@82>48B B51O : 701;C645=8O<. 018@ "0: MB>B 8=A09B 2 ?@8@>4C 25I59 8 2 ?@>8AE>645=85 4>1@0 8 7;0 =5 >3@0=8G8205BAO B>;L:> ;8HL A2OBK<8, >= <>65B 1KBL =0945=, A:@KBK9 2 :064>< G5;>25G5A:>< ACI5AB25, GB> ?>4B25@6405BAO A0<>9 AB@C:BC@>9 =0H53> O7K:0. /7K:0, :>B>@K9, :0: 402=> C65 >B<5B8; 8G0@4 "@5=G, G0AB> "1>;55 <C4@ =5 B>;L:>, G5< >1K45==0O 2C;L30@=0O @5GL, => 4065 8 G5< A0<K5 <C4@K5 87 B5E, :B> 3>2>@8B =0 MB>< O7K:5. =>340 >= A:@K205B 8AB8=K, :>B>@K5 1K;8 :>340-B> E>@>H> 8725AB=K, 0 ?>B>< AB0;8 701KBK.  8=KE A;CG0OE >= @0A:@K205B 70G0B:8 8AB8=, :>B>@K5 =8:>340 O2AB25==> =5 1K;8 70<5G5=K, 8 35=80;L=>ABL 53> CAB@>9AB20 A>45@68BAO 2 B5E ?@>1;5A:0E 8AB8=K, :>B>@K5 >B:@K20NBAO 2 AG0AB;82K5 <><5=BK ?@8:>A=>25=8O >65AB25==>3>". 0?@8<5@, E0@0:B5@=> B>, GB> 2 8=4>52@>?59A:8E O7K:0E, :0: MB> >B<5B8; 0@<AB5B5@ (?5@52>4G8: "5=4 25ABK".  ?@8<. ?5@52.), :>@5=L A;>20 "420" A>45@68B 2 A515 7=0G5=85 G53>-B> ?;>E>3>. @5G5A:89 ?@5D8:A "48A" (:0: 2 A;>25 "48A?5?A8O"  "=5-A20@5=85") 8 ;0B8=A:>5 "48A" (:0: 2 0=3;89A:>< A;>25 "dishonorable"  "15A-G5AB85") 2 >1>8E A;CG0OE ?@>8AE>48B >B "duo". >4>1=> MB><C "420" ?@8405B C=8G868B5;L=K9 A<KA; B0:8< A>2@5<5==K< A;>20<, :0: D@0=FC7A:>5 bevue ("256;82K9", 1C:20;L=>: "8<5NI89 425 B>G:8 7@5=8O", 42C;8G=K9). !;54K MB>3> "2B>@>3>, :>B>@>5 ?@82>48B : 701;C645=8N" <>3CB 1KBL =0945=K 2 A;>20E "dubious", "doubt"  "A><=8B5;L=K9", "A><=520BLAO" 8 2 =5<5F:>< die Zweifel (A><=5=85), B0: :0: A><=520NI89AO  MB> B>B, G59 C< 42>9AB25=5=. <5NI89 A:@KBCN 3;C18=C 8 ?>4A>7=0B5;L=> <C4@K9, =0H O7K: ?>4B25@6405B >B:@KB8O, A45;0==K5 <8AB8:0<8, 8 ?@>2>73;0H05B B>, GB> 2A5 @0745;5=8O 2 ACI=>AB8 A2>59 ?;>E8 -A;CG09=K5 A;>20, 2 :>B>@KE =0H AB0@K9 2@03 "420" <>65B A=>20 @5H8B5;L=> ?>O28BLAO. >6=> >B<5B8BL 745AL B>, GB> :C;LB 548=AB20 =0 ?>;8B8G5A:>< C@>2=5  MB> 2A53> ;8HL D>@<0 84>;>?>:;>=AB20, M@70F 4;O @5;838>7=>9 8458 548=AB20 =0 ?5@A>=0;L=>< 8 4CE>2=>< C@>2=OE. ">B0;8B0@=K5 @568<K >?@024K20NB A2>5 ACI5AB2>20=85, >1@0I0OAL : ?>=OB8O< D8;>A>D88 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> <>=87<0, A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C A>AB>O=85 >30 =0 75<;5  MB> C=8D8:0F8O, CB25@645=85 548=>1@078O ?>4 1>65AB25==>9 ?OB>9, GB> ?@82>48B : >A2>1>645=8N 8 GB> O:>1K 2A5 A>AB>O=8O B0:>9 C=8D8:0F88, ?CABL 4065 2 ACI=>AB8 ?;>E85, O2;ONBAO ?@028;L=K<8 8 <>3CB 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=K 157 2AO:>3> A><=5=8O. 0 ?@0:B8:5 B0:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:89 <>=87< 2545B : 8A:;NG8B5;L=K< ?@828;538O< 8 =5>3@0=8G5==>9 2;0AB8 =51>;LH>3> G8A;0 ;N459 70 AG5B ?>402;5=8O 2A5E >AB0;L=KE, : =0@0AB0=8N =54>2>;LAB20 2=CB@8 AB@0=K 8 : 2>9=0< 2> 2=5H=59 ?>;8B8:5. > MB8 8A:;NG8B5;L=K5 ?@828;5388 8 2;0ABL C45@6820NBAO =0 3>@4>AB8, 604=>AB8, BI5A;0288 8 65AB>:>AB8, GB> 8<55B A2>8< @57C;LB0B>< AB@0E 8 7028ABL; 2>9=K C<=>60NB =5=028ABL, =8I5BC 8 GC2AB2> 157=0456=>AB8. A5 MB8 =530B82=K5 M<>F88 3C18B5;L=K 4;O 4CE>2=>9 687=8. ">;L:> G8AB>B0 2 A5@4F5 8 ?@>AB>B0, "=8I5B0" 4CE0 <>65B ?@825AB8 : >1J548=ONI5<C 7=0=8N >30. !;54>20B5;L=>, ?>?KB:8 =02O70BL >1I5AB2C 548=AB2> 1>;LH55, G5< B>, =0 :>B>@>5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 3>B>2K 53> 8=48284C0;L=K5 G;5=K, ?@82>48B : =52>7<>6=>AB8 4;O MB8E 8=48284>2 @50;87>20BL A2>5 548=AB2> A 5@2>>A=>2>9 8 4@C38<8 8=482840<8. !@548 E@8AB80= 8 A@548 ACD852, : B@0:B0B0< :>B>@KE <K A59G0A >1@0I05<AO, CB25@6405BAO 845O 1>65AB25==>9 ACI=>AB8 G5;>25G5A:>3> C<0. >5, =5  MB> >3, 8 =5 <>3C O ?@87=0BL =8:0:>3> 4@C3>3> "=5", :@><5 A0<>3> >30 <>53>. !2. :0B5@8=0 5=CM7A:0O  B5E >B=>H5=8OE, 2 :>B>@KE 4CH0 =5 ?>4>1=0 >3C, >=0 B0:65 =5 ?>4>1=0 8 A0<>9 A515. !2. 5@=0@4 / E>48; >B >30 : >3C, 0 >=8 :@8G0;8 <=5: ", BK  MB> /!" 09O784 87 8AB0=0 25 87 B5E 8AB>@89, :>B>@K5 1K;8 70?8A0=K >1 MB>< ACD89A:>< A2OB><, 70A;C6820NB B>3>, GB>1K ?@825AB8 8E 745AL. ">340 09O7840 A?@0H820;8, A:>;L:> 5<C ;5B, >= >B25G0;: "'5BK@5 3>40".  "0: MB> <>65B 1KBL?"  A?@0H820;8 53>. 0 MB> >= >B25G0;: ">3 1K; A:@KB >B <5=O 7025A>9 <8@0 A5<L45AOB ;5B, 0 ?>A;54=85 G5BK@5 3>40 O 286C 3>. "> 2@5<O, :>B>@>5 >3 1K; A:@KB >B <5=O, <>6=> 2KG5@:=CBL 87 687=8".  4@C3>< A;CG05 =5:B> =0G0; ABCG0BL 2 425@L 09O7840 8 A?@0H820BL: "09O784 745AL?" 09O784 >B25B8; =0 MB>: "ABL ;8 745AL :B>-;81> :@><5 >30?" 'B>1K 87<5@8BL 4CHC, =0< ?@845BAO 87<5@8BL >30, ?>A:>;L:C 5@2>>A=>20 >30 8 5@2>>A=>20 4CH8 >4=0 8 B0 65. 59AB5@ -:E0@B CE 2 A2>59 G8AB>9, =8G5< =5 ?@8:@KB>9 ?@8@>45 >1;0405B >3><, 0 >3  4CE><. 59A1@C: =0NI89 8 7=0=85  548=K. -B> ?@>AB> ;N48 ?@54AB02;ONB A515, GB> >=8 <>3CB C2845BL >30 B0:, :0: 1C4B> >= AB>8B 345-B> B0<, 0 >=8 -745AL. > MB> =5 B0:.  7=0=88  8 >3, 8 /; <K  >4=> 8 B> 65. 59AB5@ -:E0@B "/ 682C, 8 4065 =5 /, 0 %@8AB>A 2> <=5". ;8, <>65B 1KBL, ;CGH5 1K;> 1K C?>B@518BL 3;03>; "?@>E>4OI89" (G5@57 <5=O) 8 A:070BL B0:: "/ 682C, 8 4065 =5 /, 0 >3>A, :>B>@K9 6825B ?>A@54AB2>< <5=O, 6825B 2> <=5, B0:, :0: 0:B5@ 268205BAO 2 A2>N @>;L.  B0:>< A;CG05 0:B5@, :>=5G=> 65, 15A:>=5G=> ?@52>AE>48B >3@0=8G5==>ABL A2>59 @>;8. 'B> 65 :0A05BAO @50;L=>9 687=8, B> 2 =59 =5 ACI5AB2C5B H5:A?8@>2A:8E 35@>52, 0 5ABL ;8HL ?5@A>=068 B8?0 048AA>=>2A:>3> 0B> 8;8, G0I5, 3@>B5A:=K5 D83C@K 2@>45 <AL5 5@8H>=0 8;8 "B5BCH:8 '0@;8", :>B>@K5 ?>;030NB, GB> >=8  .;88 &570@8 8;8 @8=FK 0BA:85. 4=0:> ?> <8;>AB82><C >6L5<C A>872>;5=8N B0:85 ;8B5@0BC@=K5 ?5@A>=068 8<5NB ?@02> =0 B>, GB>1K 8E =87:>?@>1=K5 3;C?K5 @5G8 1K;8 ?@>87=5A5=K 8 4> =5C7=0205<>AB8 ?5@58=0G5=K ?> 1>65AB25==><C 1;03>2>;5=8N 0@@8:0... , <>9 >3, :0: <>3;> A;CG8BLAO 2 MB>< 154=>< AB0@>< <8@5, GB>, E>BO "K B0: 25;8:, =8:B> =5 <>65B =09B8 "51O; "K 7>25HL : A515 B0: 3@><:>, => =8:B> =5 A;KH8B "51O; "K AB>;L 1;87>:, => =8:B> =5 GC2AB2C5B "51O; "K 405HL A51O :064><C, => =8:B> =5 7=05B "2>53> 8<5=8? N48 153CB >B "51O 8 3>2>@OB ?@8 MB><, GB> >=8 =5 <>3CB =09B8 "51O; >=8 ?>2>@0G820NBAO : "515 A?8=>9 8 3>2>@OB, GB> =5 <>3CB C2845BL "51O; >=8 70:@K20NB A2>8 CH8 8 3>2>@OB ?@8 MB><, GB> =5 <>3CB CA;KH0BL "51O. 0=A 5=: 564C :0B>;8G5A:8<8 <8AB8:0<8 XIV-XV 25:0 8 :20:5@0<8 XVII 25:0 ;568B 4>AB0B>G=> 1>;LH>9 ?@><56CB>: 2@5<5=8, 70?>;=5==K9 <564>CA>1=K<8 2>9=0<8 8 ?@5A;54>20=8O<8. > G5@57 MBC ?@>?0ABL 1K; ?@>;>65= <>AB A ?><>ILN B5E ;N459, :>B>@KE CDCA 6>=A 2 548=AB25==>9 87 4>ABC?=KE =0 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 @01>B, ?>A2OI5==>9 8E 687=O< 8 CG5=8O<, =0720; "4CE>2=K<8 @5D>@<0B>@0<8". 5=:, $@0=:, 0AB5;;8>, 5935;L, 25@0@4, :5<1@846A:85 ?;0B>=8:8  A@548 7;>1K, C189AB2 8 157C<8O 0?>AB>;LA:0O ?@55<AB25==>ABL A>E@0=8;0AL =5=0@CH5==>9. AB8=K, 2KA:070==K5 2 Teologia Germanica  :=835, :>B>@CN NB5@ ?@87=020; A2>59 87;N1;5==>9 8 87 :>B>@>9, 5A;8 <K ?>?KB05<AO >F5=820BL 53> :0@L5@C, >= ?>G5@?=C; G@572KG09=> <0;>, -?>B>< A=>20 1K;8 2K@065=K 0=3;8G0=0<8 2> 2@5<O @0640=A:>9 2>9=K 8 ?@8 48:B0BC@5 @><25;O. 8AB8G5A:0O B@048F8O, C25:>25G5==0O ?@>B5AB0=BA:8<8 4CE>2=K<8 @5D>@<0B>@0<8, AB0;0 ?>AB5?5==> @0AA5820BLAO 2 @5;838>7=>9 0B<>AD5@5 B>3> 2@5<5=8, :>340 C 6>@460 $>:A0 A;CG8;>AL 53> ?5@2>5 25;8:>5 "@0A:@KB85" 8 >= ?>7=0; =5?>A@54AB25==K9 >?KB 8 B>, GB> ?@54AB02;5=> 2 A;54CNI5< >B@K2:5: 064K9 G5;>25: 1K; ?@>A25B;5= 1>65AB25==K< A25B>< %@8AB0, 8 O 2845; A8O=85 MB>3> A25B0 2> 2A5<.  B>, GB>, :0: <K 25@8<, ?@>87>H;> 87 AC645=8O 8 2>H;> 2 !25B 87=8, AB0;> 5BL<8 MB>3>; => >=8 =5=0284OB MB> 8 =5 25@OB 2 MB>, E>BO >=8 8 A>740;8 25@C %@8AB>2C. -B> O 2845; 2 G8AB>< 0A:@KB88 !25B0, 157 ?><>I8 :>3>-;81> 87 ;N459, 8 O =5 7=0N, 345 <>6=> 1K;> 1K =09B8 MB> 2 8A0=88, 4065 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: O 87CG8; 8A0=8O. , B5< =5 <5=55, O =0H5; MB>. 7 "=52=8:0" $>:A0 #G5=85 > 2=CB@5==5< A25B5 4>AB83;> =081>;55 G8AB>3> 2K@065=8O 2> 2B>@>< ?>:>;5=88 :20:5@>2. "-B>,  ?8A0; #8;LO< 5==,  B> =5GB>, >G5=L 1;87:>5 =0<, GB> 8A0=85 =07K205B B5< !;>2>< 2 A5@4F5, 87 :>B>@>3> 2>7=8:;8 2A5 8A0=8O". 5<=>3> ?>765 >15@B 0@:;M9 ?KB0;AO 2K@078BL A2>9 =5?>A@54AB25==K9 >?KB "B0B B20< 0A8" ("BK 5ABL ">") 2 B5@<8=0E B5>;>388 23CAB8=0, :>B>@K5 1K;8, :>=5G=>, 7=0G8B5;L=> @0AH8@5=K 8< 2 A2>8E 7=0G5=8OE 8 C?>@O4>G5=K, ?@5645 G5< >=8 AB0;8 ?@83>4=K<8 4;O >?8A0=8O MB>3> D0:B0. '5;>25:, :0: ?@>2>73;0A8; 0@:;M9 2 A2>8E 7=0<5=8BKE B578A0E,  MB> ?04H55 ACI5AB2>, =5 A?>A>1=>5 =8 : 4>1@C, =8 : A>548=5=8N A >65AB25==K< !25B><. >65AB25==K9 !25B  MB> %@8AB>A 2 G5;>25G5A:>9 4CH5, 8 MB>B A25B AB>;L 65 C=825@A0;5=, :0: 8 A5<5=0 3@5E>2. A5 ;N48, :0: O7KG=8:8, B0: 8 E@8AB80=5, =045;5=K MB8< =CB@5==8< !25B><, 4065 5A;8 >=8 =5 7=0NB =8G53> >1 8AB>@88 687=8 %@8AB0. -B> >?@0240=85 4;O B5E 87 =8E, :B> =5 A>?@>B82;O5BAO =CB@5==5<C !25BC 8 ?>72>;O5B A2OB>AB8 @>48BLAO 2=CB@8 A51O. >65AB25==>AB8 =5B =5>1E>48<>AB8 2E>48BL 2 4CHC  >=0 8 B0: 2A5340 ?@8ACBAB2C5B B0<, =52>A?@8=8<05<0O. Theologia Germanica ">340 45AOBL BKAOG 25I59 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO 2 8E 548=AB25, B>340 <K 2>72@0I05<AO : 5@2>8AB>:C 8 >AB05<AO B0<, 345 <K, 2 ACI=>AB8, 2A5340 1K;8." !M=-F0=L -B> >BB>3>, GB> <K =5 7=05<, :5< <K 5ABL =0 A0<>< 45;5, >BB>3>, GB> <K =5 >A>7=05<, GB> &0@AB285 515A=>5 2=CB@8 =0A, <K >1KG=> 2545< A51O 3;C?>, 8 G0AB> 157C<=>, 8=>340 ?@5ABC?=>,  8 MB> B0: E0@0:B5@=> 4;O G5;>25:0. K A?0A5=K, <K >A2>1>645=K 8 ?@>A25B;5=K 2>A?@8OB85< 8 ?>=8<0=85< B>3> 4>1@0, :>B>@>5 2A5340 2=CB@8 =0A, :>B>@>5 4> A8E ?>@ 1K;> =5 2>A?@8=OB> 8 =5 ?>=OB>; ?@>A25B;5=K 2>72@0I5=85< : =0H59 25G=>9 5@2>>A=>25, GB>1K >AB0BLAO B0<, ?CABL 4065 157 ?>7=0=8O MB>9 5@2>>A=>2K. -B> 8<5; 2 284C ;0B>=, :>340 >= 3>2>@8; 2 " 5A?C1;8:5", GB> "4>1@>45B5;L <C4@>AB8 2 1>;LH59 <5@5, G5< GB>-;81> 8=>5, A>45@68B 2 A515 1>65AB25==>5 =0G0;>, :>B>@>5 2A5340 ?@51K205B B0<".  2 "$54@5" >= >B<5G0;, 2KABC?0O ?@>B82 B5E, :B> ?@0:B8:>20; 4CE>2=CN @5;838N, GB>, B>;L:> AB02 ?>4>1=K< >3C, <K A<>65< C7=0BL >30; 0 AB0BL ?>4>1=K<' >3C  MB> 7=0G8B >B>645AB28BL A0<8E A51O A 1>65AB25==K< =0G0;><, :>B>@>5 8 A>AB02;O5B =0HC ACI=>AB=CN ?@8@>4C 8 :>B>@>5 <K, ?> ?@8G8=5 =0H53> =52545=8O, G0AB> ?@54?>G8B05< =5 >A>7=020BL. 0 ?CB8 : 8AB8=5 =0E>4OBAO B5, :B> ?@54GC2AB2C5B >30 G5@57 ?>=8<0=85 >65AB25==>3>, !25B0 A25B>2. $8;>= ;5:A0=4@89A:89 $8;>= 1K; ?@54AB028B5;5< M;;8=8AB8G5A:>9 @5;8388 <8AB5@89, :>B>@0O 2>7=8:;0, :0: ?8H5B ?@>D5AA>@ C45=0D, A@548 8C4552 2> 2@5<O 8E @0AA5820=8O ?> <8@C, <564C II 25:>< 4> =.M. 8 I 25:>< =.M. =B5@?@5B8@CO ?>-=>2><C OB8:=8685 2 B5@<8=0E <5B0D878G5A:>9 A8AB5<K, ?@>8AE>4OI59 87 ?;0B>=87<0, =5>?8D03>@587<0 8 AB>8F87<0, $8;>= B@0=AD>@<8@>20; ?>;=>ABLN B@0=AF5=45=B=>3> 8 5420 ;8 =5 0=B@>?><>@D=>3> ;8G=>3> 25BE>7025B=>3> >30 2 8<<0=5=B=>-B@0=AF5=45=B=K9 1A>;NB=K9 #< 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88. > 2 @02=>9 <5@5 2 >@B>4>:A0;L=KE ?8A0=8OE 8 CG5=88 D0@8A552, @52=8B5;59 0:>=0 MB>3> 206=>3> 25:0, :>B>@K5 5I5 4> @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O CG5=8O $8;>=0 1K;8 A2845B5;O<8 2>7=8:=>25=8O ?5@2KE =0G0; E@8AB80=AB20 8 @07@CH5=8O 85@CA0;8<A:>3> E@0<0, <K =0E>48< <=>3>7=0G8B5;L=K5 <8AB8G5A:85 2KA:07K20=8O. %8;;5;L, 25;8:89 @0228=, CG82H89 > <8;>A5@488 8 ;N128 >30 : G5;>25:C, 1K;, 2848<>, 7=0:>< A :0:8<-B> B5:AB>< B8?0 @0==59, =5>1@01>B0==>9 25@A88 520=35;LA:8E ?@>?>25459, ?>A:>;L:C >=, :0: A>>1I05BAO, ?@>87=>A8; ?>4>1=K5 A;>20 =0 A>1@0=88 E@0<0. "A;8 1K / 1K; 745AL (8<55BAO 2 284C 53>20, 3>2>@OI89 CAB0<8 A2>53> ?@>@>:0), B> :064K9 1K; 1K 745AL. A;8 / =5 745AL, B> =8:B> =5 745AL". >7;N1;5==K9 O2;O5BAO 2A5< 2> 2A5<; ;N1OI89 ;8HL A:@K205B 3> 7025A>9; >7;N1;5==K9  MB> 2A5 B>, GB> 6825B, 0 ;N1OI89  MB> <5@B20O 25IL. 65;0;M448= C<8 -B>  4CE 2 4CH5, =5 70B@038205<K9 =8 2@5<5=5<, =8 ?;>BLN, 8AE>4OI89 87 A5>1I53> CE0 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O >AB0NI89AO ?>;=>ABLN 2 MB>< CE5, A0< 1C4CG8 ?>;=>ABLN 4CE>2=K<.  MB>< 8 5ABL >3, 2A5340 75;5=5NI89, 2A5340 @0AF25B0NI89 2> 2AO:>9 @04>AB8 8 A;025 3> ?>4;8==>9 !CI=>AB8. =>340 O =07K20; MB>B ?@8=F8? A>AC4><, E@0<>< 4CH8, 8=>340  4CE>2=K< A25B><, :>B>@K9 O 286C :0: A:@C. > A59G0A 3>2>@N, GB> >= 1>;55 2>72KH5=, G5< 2A5 MB>, =0AB>;L:> 65, :0: 8 =515A0 2>72KH5=K =04 75<;59.  A59G0A O =07K20N MB> 1>;55 4>AB>9=K< >1@07><... -B> A2>1>4=> >B 2A5E 8<5= 8 >B 2A5E D>@<. => 548=>, >=> ?@>AB> 8 =5A;>6=>, B0: 65 :0: >3 548= 8 ?@>AB, => =5B B0:>3> G5;>25:0, A:>;L 1K <C4@ >= =8 1K;, :>B>@K9 1K <>3 C2845BL MB>." 59AB5@ -:E0@B 0:85-B> =57025@H5==K5 D>@<C;8@>2:8 =5:>B>@KE 4>:B@8= 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88 <>3CB 1KBL =0945=K 8 2 CG5=8OE =5F828;87>20==KE 8 B0: =07K205<KE ?@8<8B82=KE =0@>4>2 ?> 2A5<C <8@C. 0?@8<5@, C <0>@8 :064>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2> AG8B05BAO A>AB>OI8< 87 G5BK@5E M;5<5=B>2  25G=>3> 1>65AB25==>3> ?@8=F8?0, =07K205<>3> B>9>@0; -3>, :>B>@>5 8AG5705B A> A<5@BLN; 4CE0-B5=8, 8;8 ?A8EM, :>B>@>5 ?5@568205B A<5@BL, 8, =0:>=5F, B5;0. !@548 8=459F52 >30;0 1>65AB25==>5 =0G0;> 2 G5;>25:5 =07K205BAO A8:0=, 8 >=> B>645AB25==> B><C, GB> =07K205BAO A;>2>< B>=, 1>65AB25==>9 ACI=>ABLN <8@0. @C385 M;5<5=BK, 87 :>B>@KE A>AB>8B G5;>25:,  MB> =038, ;8G=>ABL, 8 =89O, 28B0;L=0O 4CH0. >A;5 A<5@B8 A8:0= 2>AA>548=O5BAO A 1>65AB25==>9 5@2>>A=>2>9 2A5E 25I59, =038 >AB05BAO 68BL 2 <8@5 4CE>2, <8@5 ?A8E8G5A:8E D5=><5=>2, 0 =89O 8AG5705B 2 <0B5@80;L=>9 A5;5==>9. >65< ;8 <K 8A:;NG8BL 2;8O=85 8;8 708<AB2>20=85 A> AB>@>=K =5:>9 2KAH59 :C;LBC@K ?> >B=>H5=8N : "?@8<8B82=>9" :C;LBC@5 XX 25:0? !;54>20B5;L=>, C =0A =5B =8:0:>3> ?@020 A?>@8BL A ?@>H;K< A B>G:8 7@5=8O =0AB>OI53>. %>BO <=>385 A>2@5<5==K5 "48:0@8" 8<5NB M7>B5@8G5A:CN D8;>A>D8N, O2;ONICNAO <>=>B58AB8G5A:>9, >A=>20==CN =0 2A5 B>< 65 CB25@645=88 ""K  MB> ", <K =5 8<55B ?@020 45;0BL A:>@>?>AB86=K5 2K2>4K > B><, GB> G5;>25: M?>E8 =5>;8B0 8;8 ?0;5>;8B0 2;045; ?>4>1=K<8 65 2>77@5=8O<8. >;55 70:>==K< 8 1>;55, 2 ACI=>AB8, ?@024>?>4>1=K< 1C45B 2K2>4, A45;0==K9 87 B>3>, GB> <K 7=05< > =0H59 A>1AB25==>9 D878>;>388 8 ?A8E>;>388. K 7=05<, GB> C< G5;>25:0 A?>A>15= =0 2A5  >B :@09=59 3;C?>AB8 4> :20=B>2>9 B5>@88, >B "09= 0<?D" 8B;5@0 8 A0487<0 4> A2OB>AB8 $8;8??0 5@8, >B <5B0D878:8 4> @5H5=8O :@>AA2>@4>2 8 ?>;8B8:8 A ?>78F88 A8;K. K 7=05< 8 B>, GB> G5;>25G5A:89 C< >?@545;5==K< >1@07>< 0AA>F88@C5BAO A G5;>25G5A:8< <>73><, 8 C =0A 5ABL 2A5 >A=>20=8O ?@54?>;030BL, GB> 2 G5;>25G5A:>< <>735 =5 ?@>8AE>48;> ?@8=F8?80;L=KE 87<5=5=89 70 ?>A;54=85 <=>3> BKAOG ;5B. !;54>20B5;L=>, <>6=> A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> 2 ?@>H;>< G5;>25G5A:89 C< 1K; A?>A>15= =0 BC 65 AB5?5=L 0:B82=>AB8, GB> 8 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O. >6=>, :>=5G=>, A C25@5==>ABLN A:070BL, GB> 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 5ABL B0:85 D>@<K C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, :>B>@KE =8:>340 =5 1K;> 2 ?@>H;><. ;O B0:>3> CB25@645=8O 5ABL 2?>;=5 >G5284=K5 ?@8G8=K. 5:>B>@K5 <KA;8 ?@>AB> =52>7<>6=> 2K@078BL 2 B5@<8=0E A>>B25BAB2CNI53> O7K:0 8 2 ?@545;0E 3@0=8F A>>B25BAB2CNI59 :;0AA8D8:0F88. "0<, 345 MB8 =5>1E>48<K5 8=AB@C<5=BK 4;O 2K@065=8O =5 ACI5AB2CNB, <KA;8 =5 2K@060NBAO 2 2845 2>?@>A>2 8 =5 2>7=8:0NB 2 C<5. > MB> =5 2A5: ?>1C645=85, <>B820F8O : @0728B8N 8=AB@C<5=B>2 =5:>B>@KE D>@< <KH;5=8O ?@8=04;568B =5 B>;L:> =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8. 0 ?@>BO65=88 4;8B5;L=KE ?5@8>4>2 8AB>@88 8 ?@54KAB>@88 <>6=> 2845BL, GB> ;N48, 8 <C6G8=K 8 65=I8=K, >:07K20;8AL A?>A>1=K<8 45;0BL MB>, ?@>AB> =5 65;0O C45;OBL 2=8<0=85 B5< ?@>1;5<0<, :>B>@K5 8E ?>B><:0< ?@54AB02;ONBAO AB>;L 8=B5@5A=K<8. 0?@8<5@, =5B >A=>20=89 ?@54?>;030BL, GB> <564C XIII 25:>< 8 XX G5;>25G5A:89 C< ?@5B5@?5; :0:85-;81> M2>;NF8>==K5 87<5=5=8O, A@02=8<K5, A:065<, A 87<5=5=85< CAB@>9AB20 =>38 ;>H048 =0 ?@>BO65=88 =5A@02=5==> 1>;55 4;8B5;L=>3> ?5@8>40 35>;>38G5A:>3> 2@5<5=8. 'B> 65 B0:>5 ?@>87>H;>, GB> ?5@525;> 2=8<0=85 ;N459 A >4=8E 0A?5:B>2 @50;L=>AB8 =0 =5:>B>@K5 4@C385? 57C;LB0B>< MB>3>, ?><8<> ?@>G53>, O28;>AL @0728B85 5AB5AB25==KE =0C:. 0H5 2>A?@8OB85 8 =0H5 ?>=8<0=85 2 4>AB0B>G=> H8@>:8E <0AHB010E C?@02;O5BAO =0H59 2>;59. K >A>7=05< B5 8;8 8=K5 25I8 8 4C<05< > =8E, <K 65;05< 2845BL 8 ?>=8<0BL B5 8;8 8=K5 25I8. "0<, 345 5ABL 2>;O,  MB> 2A5340 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K9 ?CBL. !?>A>1=>AB8 G5;>25G5A:>3> C<0 =5>1KG09=> 25;8:8. 'B> 1K <K =8 70E>B5;8 A45;0BL  1C4L B> 65;0=85 4>AB8GL >1J548=ONI53> 7=0=8O >65AB25==>3> 8;8 65;0=85 873>B>28BL A0<>2@0I0NI89AO @0AA5:0B5;L ?;0<5=8,  2A5 MB> <K A?>A>1=K A45;0BL, 2A5340 4>1820OAL B>3>, GB> A45;0==>5 >:07K205BAO 4>AB0B>G=> MDD5:B82=K< 8 ?@>G=K<. >=OB=>, GB> <=>385 87 B5E 25I59, =0 :>B>@K5 >1@0B8;8 2=8<0=85 A>2@5<5==K5 ;N48, 83=>@8@>20;8AL 8E ?@54H5AB25==8:0<8. !>>B25BAB25==>, 4065 A0<0 845O > B><, GB>1K OA=> 8 ?;>4>B2>@=> 4C<0BL >1 MB8E 25I0E, >AB020;0AL =5>BG5B;82>9 =5 B>;L:> 2 4>8AB>@8G5A:85 2@5<5=0, => 8 4> A0<>3> =0G0;0 A>2@5<5==>9 M?>E8. BACBAB285 ?>4E>4OI8E B5@<8=>2 8 4065 ?@>AB> 045:20B=>3> C?><8=0=8O >1 MB><, 0 :@><5 B>3>, >BACBAB285 A0<>3> 65;0=8O >B:@KBL MB8 =5>1E>48<K5 8=AB@C<5=BK <KH;5=8O  2>B 425 >A=>2=K5 ?@8G8=K, ?> :>B>@K< 15A:>=5G=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 G5;>25G5A:>3> C<0 >AB0;8AL =5?@>O2;5==K<8 =0 ?@>BO65=88 AB>;L 4>;3>3> ?5@8>40 2@5<5=8. =0O, =0 A2>5< C@>2=5 M:2820;5=B=0O, ?@8G8=0 A>AB>O;0 2 B><, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 =081>;55 >@838=0;L=KE 8 ?;>4>B2>@=KE 2 <8@5 <KA;8B5;59 1K;8 D878G5A:8 =5<>I=K ;81> 8<5;8 =5?@0:B8G5A:89 A:;04 C<0. >A:>;L:C MB> B0: 8 1K;> 8 ?>A:>;L:C F5==>ABL G8AB>9 <KA;8, 0=0;8B8G5A:>9 8;8 8=B53@8@CNI59, 25745 1K;0 2 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 <5@5 A> 2A59 >BG5B;82>ABLN ?@87=0=0, B> 2A5 4>AB0B>G=> F828;87>20==K5 >1I5AB20 >15A?5G820;8 <KA;8B5;O< >?@545;5==CN 70I8BC >B >1KG=>9 =0?@O65==>AB8 8 AB@5AA>2 A>F80;L=>3> 1KB8O. #1568I5 >BH5;L=8:0, <>=0ABK@L, :>;;546, 0:045<8O, 8AA;54>20B5;LA:0O ;01>@0B>@8O, =8I5=A:0O G0H0, ?>:@>28B5;LAB2> 1>30BKE 8 A>2@5<5==K5 3@0=BK  MB> B5 <5@K, :>B>@K5 ?@54?@8=8<0;8AL, GB>1K A>E@0=8BL MBC @54:>AB=CN ?B8FC  @5;838>7=>5, D8;>A>DA:>5, EC4>65AB25==>5 8;8 =0CG=>5 A>75@F0=85. > <=>38E ?5@2>1KB=KE >1I5AB20E CA;>28O 687=8 1K;8 BO65;K<8 8 =8 > :0:>< 87;8H:5 1>30BAB20 3>2>@8BL =5 ?@8E>48;>AL. 0@>645=85 A>75@F0B5;L=>3> C<0 8<5;> A2>59 ;8F52>9 AB>@>=>9 1>@L1C 70 ACI5AB2>20=85 8 A>F80;L=>5 A0<>CB25@645=85 157 2AO:>9 ?@>B5:F88. 57C;LB0B>< 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 1K;> B>, GB> B0:>9 8=48284 ;81> ?>3810; 2 @0==5< 2>7@0AB5, ;81> 1K; =0AB>;L:> ?>3;>I5= B5<, GB>1K ?@>AB> >AB0BLAO 2 682KE, GB> C =53> =5 >AB020;>AL 2>7<>6=>AB8 >1@0I0BL 2=8<0=85 =0 GB>-;81> 8=>5. >340 65 MB> A;CG0;>AL, B> ?@5>1;040;0 D8;>A>D8O 3@C1>3> 8 65AB:>3>, M:AB@025@B8@>20==>3> G5;>25:0 459AB28O. A5 MB> ?@>;8205B =5:>B>@K9 A25B  4>AB0B>G=> A;01K9, ?@0240,  =0 ?@>1;5<C 25G=>AB8 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88.  =488 ?8A0=8O ?>G8B0;8AL =5 :0: >B:@>25=85, 40==>5 2 B>B 8;8 8=>9 <><5=B 8AB>@88, 0 :0: 25G=>5 1>65AB25==>5 ?>A;0=85, ACI5AB2CNI55 =57K1;5<> AB>;L:> 65 2@5<5=8, A:>;L:> ACI5AB2C5B A0< G5;>25: 8;8 4065 2>>1I5 2A5 B5;5A=K5 8;8 15AB5;5A=K5 ACI5AB20, >1;040NI85 @0AAC4:><. "0:0O 65 B>G:0 7@5=8O 2KA:07K20;0AL @8AB>B5;5<, :>B>@K9 AG8B0; DC=40<5=B0;L=K5 @5;838>7=K5 8AB8=K =5?@5E>4OI8<8 8 =5@07@CH8<K<8. K;8 27;5BK 8 ?045=8O, ?5@8>4K (1C:20;L=>: "84CI85 ?> :@C3C 4>@>38", 8;8 F8:;K) ?@>3@5AA0 8 @53@5AA0, => 25;8:89 D0:B ACI5AB2>20=8O >30 :0: B>3>, :B> ?@840; 5@2>5 2865=85 A5;5==>9, :>B>@0O A0<0 O2;O5BAO G0ABLN 3> 1>65AB25==>3> =0G0;0,  MB>B D0:B <K >1=0@C68205< 2A5340. 'B> <K 7=05< > 4>8AB>@8G5A:>< G5;>25:5 (8 GB> <K <>65< 7=0BL > =5<, 5A;8 >B =53> =5 >AB0;>AL =8G53>, :@><5 :0<5==KE >@C489, =5A:>;L:8E @8AC=:>2, 87>1@065=89 8 A:C;L?BC@), 5A;8 2A5 =0H8 2K2>4K > =5< 1K;8 A45;0=K =0 >A=>25 4@C38E, 1>;55 4>:C<5=B8@>20==KE >1;0AB59 7=0=8O?  GB> <K 4C<05< >1 MB8E B@048F8>==KE CG5=8OE? K 7=05<, GB> 2>7=8:=>25=85 A>75@F0B5;L=>AB8 :0: 2 >1;0AB8 0=0;8B8G5A:>9, B0: 8 8=B53@0;L=>9 <KA;8 ?@>8AE>48;> 4>AB0B>G=> G0AB> C >B45;L=KE ;N459 =0 2A5< ?@>BO65=88 8AB>@88. >MB><C 5ABL 2A5 >A=>20=8O ?>;030BL, GB> MB> 65 ?@>8AE>48;> 8 2 4>8AB>@8G5A:85 2@5<5=0. =>385 87 B0:8E ;N459 C<5@;8 2 @0==5< 2>7@0AB5 8;8 1K;8 =5 A?>A>1=K ?@>O28BL A2>8 B0;0=BK. > =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E 2A5 65 2K68;8.  MB>< :>=B5:AB5 25AL<0 70<5G0B5;L=> B>, GB> A@548 <=>38E A>2@5<5==KE ?@825@65=F52 "?5@2>1KB=>3>" <>6=> =09B8 420 ?0BB5@=0 <KA;8: M:7>B5@8G5A:89 4;O =5D8;>A>DA:>3> 1>;LH8=AB20 8 M7>B5@8G5A:89 (>= G0AB> <>=>B58AB8G5=, A 25@>9 2 >30 =5 B>;L:> :0: 2 A8;C, => :0: 2 4>1@>BC 8 <C4@>ABL) 4;O ?>A2OI5==KE.  =5B =8:0:8E >A=>20=89 ?>;030BL, GB> 4;O 4>8AB>@8G5A:>3> G5;>25:0 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 1K;8 1>;55 BO65;K<8, G5< 4;O <=>38E A>2@5<5==KE 48:0@59. > 5A;8 M7>B5@8G5A:89 <>=>B587< B>3> @>40, :>B>@K9, 5AB5AB25==>, ?@82>48B : @>645=8N <KA;8B5;O, 2>7<>65= 2 A>2@5<5==KE ?5@2>1KB=KE >1I5AB20E, 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 G;5=>2 :>B>@KE ?@8=8<0NB ?>;8B58AB8G5A:CN D8;>A>D8N, ?@82>4OICN, @07C<55BAO, : ?>O2;5=8N G5;>25:0 459AB28O, B> ?>4>1=K5 M7>B5@8G5A:85 4>:B@8=K <>3;8 ACI5AB2>20BL 8 2 4>8AB>@8G5A:8E >1I5AB20E. !>2@5<5==K5 M7>B5@8G5A:85 CG5=8O O2;ONBAO ?@>872>4=K<8 2KA>:>@0728BKE :C;LBC@. > >AB05BAO B>B E0@0:B5@=K9 8 <=>3>7=0G8B5;L=K9 D0:B, GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 B0:>5 A2>5 ?@>8AE>645=85, MB8 M7>B5@8G5A:85 4>:B@8=K <>3CB 8<5BL 7=0G5=85 8 4;O =5:>B>@KE G;5=>2 ?@8<8B82=>3> >1I5AB20, 8 >=8 AG8B0NBAO =0AB>;L:> F5==K<8, GB> 701>B;82> A>E@0=ONBAO. K <>65< 2845BL, GB> <=>385 8458 >:07K20NBAO =5<KA;8<K<8 2=5 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> O7K:0 8 :>=B5:AB0. > DC=40<5=B0;L=K5 8458 5G=>9 $8;>A>D88 <>3CB 1KBL AD>@<C;8@>20=K 4>AB0B>G=> ?@>ABK<8 A;>20<8, 8 ?5@56820=85 MB8E 8459 459AB28B5;L=> <>65B ?@>8AE>48BL <3=>25==>, =57028A8<> =8 >B :0:>3> O7K:0. 5>1KG09=K5 >B:@KB8O 8 1>65AB25==>5 24>E=>25=85 ?@8E>48B 8=>340 : <0;5=L:8< 45BO<, G0AB> >:07K20O =0 =8E 3;C1>:>5 8 =04>;3> A>E@0=ONI55AO 2?5G0B;5=85. # =0A =5B >A=>20=89 ?>;030BL, GB> 5A;8 MB> ?@>8AE>48B A59G0A A 45BL<8, 8<5NI8<8 >3@0=8G5==K9 A;>20@=K9 70?0A, B> MB>3> =5 <>3;> ?@>8AE>48BL 2 4@52=>AB8.  A>2@5<5==>< <8@5 (:0: 3>2>@8;8 =0<, ?><8<> ?@>G8E, >3M=, "@5E5@= 8 >@4A2>@B) @515=>: 8<55B B5=45=F8N @>AB0 70 ?@545;K A2>53> =5?>A@54AB25==>3> >A>7=0=8O ?> =0?@02;5=8N : 5@2>>A=>25 25I59; 0 ?@5>1;040=85 0=0;8B8G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O >:07K205BAO D0B0;L=K< :0: 4;O 8=BC8B82=>3> 8 8=B53@0;L=>3> <KH;5=8O, B0: 8 4;O "?0@0?A8E8G5A:>3>" 8 4CE>2=>3> C@>2=59. >3@C65==>ABL 2 "?0@0?A8E8G5A:>5" <>65B 1KBL  8 G0AB> O2;O5BAO  >A=>2=K< ?@5?OBAB285< =0 ?CB8 ?>4;8==>9 4CE>2=>AB8.  ?5@2>1KB=KE >1I5AB20E A53>4=O (8, ?@54?>;>68B5;L=>, 2 >B40;5==>< ?@>H;><) 8<5==> A MB8< 2 >A=>2=>< A2O7K20;0AL A?>A>1=>ABL : "?0@0?A8E8G5A:><C" >1@07C <KA;8. > =5:>B>@K5 ;N48 <>3CB 2K@010BK20BL A2>8 ?CB8 G5@57 >1;0AB8 "?0@0?A8E8G5A:>3>" : ?>4;8==><C 4CE>2=><C >?KBC, B0: 65 :0: 8 2 A>2@5<5==>< 8=4CAB@80;L=>< >1I5AB25 =5:>B>@K5 ;N48 =0E>4OB A2>8 ?CB8 G5@57 ?@5>1;040NICN >701>G5==>ABL <0B5@80;L=K<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 8 G5@57 ?@825@65==>ABL : 0=0;8B8G5A:><C <KH;5=8N, : =5?>A@54AB25==><C ?5@56820=8N 4CE>2=>9 5@2>>A=>2K 2A5E 25I59. "0:>2K 2:@0BF5 ?@8G8=K, ?> :>B>@K< <K <>65< ?@54?>;030BL, GB> 8AB>@8G5A:85 B@048F88 (:0: 2>AB>G=K5, B0: 8 =0H59 :;0AA8G5A:>9 4@52=>AB8) <>3CB 1KBL 8AB8==K<8. =B5@5A=>, GB> >48= 87 2K40NI8EAO A>2@5<5==KE MB=>;>3>2 >:07K205BAO 2 A>3;0A88 A @8AB>B5;5< 8 2540=B8AB0<8. "@B>4>:A0;L=0O MB=>;>38O,  ?8A0; 4-@ >; 048= 2 A2>59 :=835 "5@2>1KB=K9 G5;>25: :0:. D8;>A>D",  1K;0 =5 G5< 8=K<, :0: >A=>20==>9 =0 M=BC7807<5 =5:@8B8G5A:>9 ?>?KB:>9 ?@8<5=8BL B5>@8N M2>;NF88 0@28=0 : D0:B0< A>F80;L=>3> >?KB0". 0;55 >= 4>102;O5B, GB> "2 MB=>;>388 =5 1C45B 4>AB83=CB ?@>3@5AA 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 8AA;54>20B5;8 =5 87102OB =0:>=5F A51O A0<8E 8 2A5E >AB0;L=KE >B AB@0==>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O, GB> 2A5 >1;0405B 8AB>@859; 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 >=8 =5 ?>9<CB, GB> >?@545;5==K5 8458 8 ?>=OB8O O2;ONBAO ?@545;L=K<8 4;O G5;>25:0 :0: A>F80;L=>3> ACI5AB20, B0: 65 :0: A?5F8D8G5A:85 D878>;>38G5A:85 @50:F88 O2;ONBAO ?@545;L=K<8 4;O =53> :0: 4;O 18>;>38G5A:>3> ACI5AB20". !@548 MB8E ?@545;L=KE ?>=OB89, ?> <=5=8N 4-@0 048=0, =0E>48BAO 8 <>=>B587<, B0: :0: <>=>B587< G0AB> O2;O5BAO =5 1>;55 G5< ?@87=0=85< =5:>9 >4=>9 A:@KB>9 8 =>C<5=0;L=>9 !8;K, :>B>@0O ?@028B <8@><. > 8=>340 <>=>B587< <>65B 1KBL 459AB28B5;L=> MB8G5A:8< 8 4CE>2=K<. AB>@8G5A:0O <0=8O XIX 25:0 8 53> ?@>@>G5A:89 CB>?87< 8<5;8 B5=45=F8N  4065 2 A;CG05 =081>;55 ?@>=8F0B5;L=KE <KA;8B5;59 -70:@K20BL 3;070 =0 2=52@5<5==K9 D0:B 25G=>AB8. "0:, 2 B@C40E ". @8=0 (".-. Green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nitive Life). -B> E0@0:B5@=> 4;O <8AB8G5A:>3> 2>AE>645=8O : 1>65AB25==><C, :>340 2=CB@5==89 >?KB 2A5 1>;LH5 8 1>;LH5 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2> 2=5H=5< ?>2545=88, B0: :0: <8AB8: 2848B, GB> 2 @50;L=>AB8 =0 A0<>< 45;5 =5B @0745;5=89 =0 "2=CB@5==55" 8 "2=5H=55".  B> 8 4@C3>5  MB> B>;L:> @07;8G=K5 0A?5:BK 48=>9 5;8:>9 AB8=K !CI5AB2>20=8O. '5;>25:, ?>AB83=C2H89 >30, 2848B, GB> "B:0=L KB8O =5 8<55B H2>2" 8, 284O MB> 548=AB2>, =0G8=05B 5AB5AB25==>, ?@82>48BL A2>N 45OB5;L=>ABL 2> 2A5 1>;LH55 8 1>;LH55 A>>B25BAB285 A> A2>59 ?@>1C645==>ABLN. > 2A5< <=>3>>1@0788 459AB289, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL A>25@H5=K, 4;O =53> ?@8ACBAB2C5B >3, ?>B><C GB> 2A5 5ABL >3, 8 B>;L:> ;8HL >3. -25;8= =45E8;; 2 A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 <8AB8G5A:>3> ?CB8 2K45;O5B ?OBL AB0489 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@52>AE>645=8O A51O 8 2>72@0I5=8O : 5@2>8AB>:C: 1) ?@>1C645=85; 2) >G8I5=85; 3) >70@5=85; 4) "B5<=0O =>GL 4CH8"; 8 5) 687=L 2 548=5=88. 1 MB>< 70:;NG8B5;L=>< A>AB>O=88, :>B>@>5 2KABC?05B 8AB8==>9 F5;LN <8AB8G5A:>3> ?>8A:0, =45E8;; 3>2>@8B B0:: "1A>;NB=0O 687=L =5 B>;L:> >ICI05BAO 8 ?>=8<05BAO 4CH>9, 2K7K20O 2 =59 =0A;0645=85, :0: ?@8 >70@5=88, => AB0=>28BAO 548=>9 A =59".  MB> =587156=> ?>=C6405B G5;>25:0 459AB2>20BL 2 <8@C =5 >B <8@0. >2;5:0OAL 2 <8@A:CN 0:B82=>ABL, B0:85 ;N48 >G8I0NB 8 >A2OI0NB A2>N 45OB5;L=>ABL, A0<>>B25@65==> ?@8=>AO A51O 2 65@B2C A;025 >6859 8 45;C >A2>1>645=8O G5;>25G5AB20.  ?@82>48<>< =865 B5:AB5 02B>@ <0AB5@A:8 >?8AK205B, :0: "2=CB@5==55" 8 "2=5H=55" 2 CA;>28OE 687=8 2 548=5=88 459AB2CNB A>>1I0, 8 :0:>20 "=03@040" =0 ?CB8 4CE>2=KE 8A:0=89 B><C, :B> AB0=>28BAO ?@>A25B;5==K< =0 25@H8=5 ?@>F5AA0 A0<>?@52>AE>645=8O. CAA:89 ?5@52>4 MB>9 3;02K 27OB 87 :=838 -.=45@E8;;. 8AB8F87<. 74-2> "!>D8O". 852, 2000. !AK;:8 >?CI5=K  .. * * * 'B> B0:>5 687=L 2 548=5=88?  E>45 =0H53> 8AA;54>20=8O <K =5 @07 ?>;L7>20;8AL MB8< ?>=OB85<, 8 2>B B5?5@L ?@8H;0 ?>@0 ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 B>G=> >?@545;8BL 53> A<KA;. 1KG=> G5;>25: 7=05B >G5=L <0;> > A515 A0<><, B> 5ABL > A2>59 ?>4;8==>9 8=48284C0;L=>AB8, 8 A>2A5< =8G53> =5 7=05B > >65AB25. >MB><C 1;8609H55 >?@545;5=85 687=8 2 548=5=88 :0: "687=8, 2 :>B>@>9 2>;O G5;>25:0 A>2?0405B A 2>;59 >30", 2 ACI=>AB8, =5 >B25G05B =0 =0H 2>?@>A, 0 2>72@0I05B 53> 65, ;8HL A;53:0 ?5@58=0G82. A;8 4065 ACBL =0H59 >1KG=>9 G5;>25G5A:>9 687=8, :0: >=0 ?>AB8305BAO :064K< =0 A>1AB25==>< >?KB5, ?>GB8 =5 ?>4405BAO 2K@065=8N, B> B5< 1>;55 =52K@078<0 687=L 2 548=5=88, >?KB ?>AB865=8O :>B>@>9 A >1KG=K< >?KB>< =5A@02=8<: 254L 2 40==>< A;CG05 <K 8<55< 45;> A 25;8G09H8< 4CE>2=K< A25@H5=85<, 0?>D5>7>< <8AB8F87<0, B>@65AB25==K< D8=0;L=K< 0::>@4>< A8<D>=88 G5;>25G5A:>3> 1KB8O. <5==> MB> A25@H5=85 A A0<>3> =0G0;0 ?@54?>;0305B B0 A>75@F0B5;L=0O 687=L <8AB8:0, :>B>@0O <>65B 1KBL ?>4;8==>9 ;8HL :0: 2A5>E20BK20NI0O 8 ?>AB>;L:C B@51CNI0O ?>AB>O==KE CA8;89.  2>B ?5@54 =0<8 <0;>G8A;5==0O, => =5?@5@K2=> ?>?>;=ONI0OAO 3@C??0 35@>52  >18B0B5;59 B@0=AF5=45=B0;L=>3> C@>2=O @50;L=>AB8, :>B>@K9 AB>;L 157=0456=> 40;5: >B =0A, 60;:8E ?;5==8:>2 75<=>3> <8@0 8;;N789. ">, GB> >B:@K;>AL MB8< 35@>O<->48=>G:0<, B> A>AB>O=85, 2 :>B>@>< >=8 ?@51K20NB ?>AB>O==>,  MB> A>:@>28I5, F5==>ABL :>B>@>3> =0H5<C ?>=8<0=8N =54>ABC?=0. 45AL, :0: 8 =0 4@C38E MB0?0E 87CG5=8O 4CE>2=>3> A>7=0=8O, <K <>65< >?8@0BLAO ;8HL =0 A2845B5;LAB20 A0<8E <8AB8:>2: B>;L:> A 8E A;>2 <K <>65< A>AB028BL :0:>5-B> ?>=OB85 >1 >B:@K2H59AO 8< "687=8 2 ?@587>18;88", 687=8 25G=>9. ?@>G5<, MB> =5 548=AB25==K9 8AB>G=8: A2545=89, :>B>@K<8 <K <>65< @0A?>;030BL. 4=0 87 >A>15==>AB59 687=8 2 548=5=88 2 B><, GB> 2 A0<KE A2>8E 2>72KH5==KE 8 A>25@H5==KE ?@>O2;5=8OE, :0: 55 8;;NAB@8@CNB ?@8<5@K 87 687=5>?8A0=89 <8AB8:>2, >=0 AB0=>28BAO 4>ABC?=>9 27>@0< <=>38E. >2;5NI89 =04 B5;>< 70:>= "?@0E 2>72@0B8BAO 2 ?@0E", :>B>@K< 2 8B>35 >?@545;O5BAO 2A5 =0H5 75<=>5 ACI5AB2>20=85, @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO B0:65 =0 687=L 4CH8, >4=0:> 2 =59 ?>;CG05B A>25@H5==> 8=>5 ?@>GB5=85, ?@8>1@5B0O, :0: =8 ?0@04>:A0;L=>, A<KA; ?@O<> ?@>B82>?>;>6=K9. CE G5;>25:0, ?>7=02 @50;L=>ABL 2 ?>;=>< >1J5<5, 7025@H05B F8:; KB8O 8, 2>72@0I0OAL =0 75<;N, >1;03>@068205B 8 >4CE>B2>@O5B BC AD5@C ACI5AB2>20=8O, 87 :>B>@>9 >= 2KH5;. >MB><C B5 :@8B8:8 <8AB8F87<0, :>B>@K5 B>@>?OBAO A ?;>A:8<8 =07840=8O<8 >B=>A8B5;L=> "15A?@>A25B=> C=K;>9, =03>=ONI59 B>A:C A2>59 >157;8G5==>ABK>" 687=8 A>75@F0B5;59 =0 @0==8E, "?>43>B>28B5;L=KE" AB048OE 8AB8G5A:>3> CB8, ?@54?>G8B0NB C<0;G820BL > B><, GB> A;54C5B ?>A;5 8 ?@O<> ?@>B82>@5G8B 8E 2K2>40<. 54L =0 MB0?5 687=8 2 548=5=88 2 <8AB8:5 @0A:@K205BAO AB>;L =570C@O4=0O ;8G=>ABL, GB> =0 D>=5 >:@C65=8O 53> O@:0O D83C@0 ?@>AB> 1@>A05BAO 2 3;070: 2 =5< <>65B >B:@KBLAO 35=80;L=K9 EC4>6=8:, 8;8 ?5@2>>B:@K20B5;L, 8;8 @5D>@<0B>@, @5;838>7=K9 8;8 ?>;8B8G5A:89, 8;8 =0F8>=0;L=K9 35@>9, 8;8 2>>1I5 "25;8:89 ?>4286=8:" 2 A>=<5 A2OBKE. /2=> A25@EG5;>25G5A:0O ?@8@>40 B>3>, GB> MB8 ;N48 A>25@H0NB, <>65B 8<5BL A2>8< >1JOA=5=85< ;8HL A25@EJ5AB5AB25==K5 8AB>G=8:8 8E 24>E=>25=8O. !22. 5@=0@4, "5@570, 0B5@8=0 !85=A:0O, 3=0B89 >9>;0, 6>@46 $>:A 8 0==0 4'@:  2A5 8E 45O=8O, :>B>@K<8 ?>15640;8AL A0<K5, :070;>AL 1K, D0B0;L=K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, O2=> =5 C:;04K20NBAO 2 =0H8 ?@54AB02;5=8O > 3@0=8F0E G5;>25G5A:8E A8;, 5A;8 =5 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 4;O MB8E ?>154 :064K9 87 =8E G5@?0; A8;K 2 A2>5< A>:@>25==59H5<  2 ?@>G=>9 8 =5@07@K2=>9 A2O78 A B>9 87=LN, :>B>@0O "A25B G5;>25:>2". B0:, ?5@54 =0<8 >B:@K20NBAO 420 =0?@02;5=8O 8AA;54>20=89. >-?5@2KE, <K <>65< ?>?KB0BLAO 2KO28BL ACBL B@0=AF5=45=B=KE ?5@56820=89 ?>A@54AB2>< 0=0;870 2A53>, GB> 3>2>@OB > =8E <8AB8:8.  2>-2B>@KE, <>6=> >1@0B8BLAO : 87CG5=8N 18>3@0D88 :064>3> 2K40NI53>AO <8AB8:0 2 ?>8A:0E 4>AB>25@=KE A2845B5;LAB2 53> ?@8G0AB=>AB8 : =575<=K< 8AB>G=8:0< M=5@388, 53> 3;C18==>3> :>=B0:B0 A =5?@>O2;5==K<8 C@>2=O<8 1KB8O. @><5 B>3>, 2 =0H5< @0A?>@O65=88 25AL 0=0;8B8G5A:89 0??0@0B ?A8E>;>388,  B>;L:> 2 40==>< A;CG05, 8<5O 45;> A B5<8, :>3> =5 157 >A=>20=89 8<5=CNB "B8B0=0<8 4CE0", <K 4>;6=K 8< ?>;L7>20BLAO A :@09=59 >AB>@>6=>ABLN. %>BO 687=L 2 548=5=88 =5@54:> ?@>E>48B A@548 ;N459, >=0 =8:>340 =5 1K205B >B <8@0 A53>. =0 ?@8=04;568B 8=K< C@>2=O< 1KB8O, :>B>@K5 =54>ABC?=K 4;O A;>25A=KE >?8A0=89 ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C 2>>1I5 =54>ABC?=K ?>AB865=8N G5;>25G5A:8< @07C<><. K, >18B0B5;8 "N4>;8 75<=>9", <>65< C;>28BL ;8HL >B1;5A:8 687=8 B5E =5A:>;L:8E 871@0==KE, :B> ?@5>1@078; A51O =0 25@H8=5. =8 2KA>:> >BAB>OB >B =0A 8 4KH0B 8=K< 2>74CE><, >=8 4;O =0A =54>AB868<K. 4=0:> 7=0G5=85 8E >?KB0 4;O G5;>25G5AB20 ?>8AB8=5 =587<5@8<>. =8 ACBL =0H8 ?>A;0==8:8 : 1A>;NBC. !2>8<8 45O=8O<8 8 AC4L10<8 >=8 4>:07K20NB >ACI5AB28<>ABL ?@8720=8O G5;>25G5AB20 : ?>A;54>20B5;L=><C ?>AB865=8N 50;L=>AB8 8 ?@54>AB02;ONB =0< >AO705<K5 A2845B5;LAB20 B@0=AF5=45=B=>9 687=8. K@060OAL A;>20<8 -9:5=0, <>6=> A:070BL, GB> >=8 >;8F5B2>@ONB A>1>9 "?@8H5AB285 2 =0H <8@ CE>2=>9 !8;K :0: 2A5?>15640NI59, ?@52KH0NI59 2AO:>5 A@02=5=85 A B>9, :>B>@0O ?@>AB> ?>;0305B >A=>20=8O 687=8 8;8 ?@5?OBAB2C5B 8E @07@CH5=8N".  ACI=>AB8, =0 8E ?@8<5@5 <K 2848< =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: >15I0=85 8 A2845B5;LAB2> ?@5>1@065=8O 2AO:>9 4CH8, 5A;8 B>;L:> >=0 A2>5N 2>;59 >B:@>5BAO 682>B2>@=>9 N128 >6L59. B0:, =0G=5< A B>3>, GB> 3>2>@OB >1 MB>< A0<8 <8AB8:8. 5@2>5, GB> 1@>A05BAO 2 3;070 ?@8 0=0;875 8E >?8A0=89 687=8 2 548=5=88,  MB> =0AB>9G82>5 ?>2B>@5=85 2 =8E 0AA>F80B82=>-A8<2>;8G5A:8E @O4>2 42CE B8?>2.  B><, A:>;L 25;8: @8A: =5?@028;L=>3> B>;:>20=8O >158E @07=>284=>AB59, A2845B5;LAB2CNB <=>3>G8A;5==K5 :@8B8G5A:85 2K?04K ?@5427OBKE 8AA;54>20B5;59, 4;O :>B>@KE ;N1K5 O2;5=8O ?> 254><AB2C <8AB8F87<0  =5GB> 70254><> ?>4>7@8B5;L=>5 8 ?@54>AC48B5;L=>5. K C65 7=0:><K A A8<2>;8:>9, :>B>@0O 8A?>;L7C5BAO A>75@F0B5;O<8 8 2>>1I5 B5<8, :B> 1;03>40@O A2>5<C A:;04C =0BC@K A:;>==K : M:AB0B8G5A:8< ?5@56820=8O<. > 0=0;>388 A MB8<, >?8A0=8O 687=8 2 548=5=88 B0:65 <>6=> @0745;8BL =0 A2845B5;LAB20 <5B0D878:>2-B@0=AF5=45=B0;8AB>2 8 A2845B5;LAB20 <8AB8:>2 >B ?@8@>4K, B> 5ABL 2?5G0B;8B5;L=KE 8 GCB:8E :> 2A5<C =5>1KG=><C =0BC@ A M<>F8>=0;L=K< B5<?5@0<5=B><. #65 >4=> MB> >1AB>OB5;LAB2> <>65B ?@8 ?>25@E=>AB=>< @0AA<>B@5=88 A>740BL 2848<>ABL ?@>B82>@5G8O. (1) 8AB8:-<5B0D878:, 4;O :>B>@>3> 1A>;NB O2;O5BAO 157;8G=>AB=K< C65 2 A8;C A2>59 B@0=AF5=45=B=>AB8, >?8AK205B >:>=G0B5;L=>5 ?>AB865=85 1A>;NB0 :0: >1>65=85, B> 5ABL ?>;=>5 ?@5>1@065=85 4CH8 2 >35. (2) 0?@>B82, B>B <8AB8:, 4;O :>B>@>3> 8<5==> A>:@>25==>5 ;8G=>5 >1I5=85 A 1A>;NB>< AB0;> >A=>2=K< A@54AB2>< ?>AB865=8O 50;L=>AB8, 3>2>@8B > A>25@H5==>< 8 =5?@5E>4OI5< 4>AB865=88 MB>3> 548=5=8O :0: > 4CE>2=>< 1@0:>A>G5B0=88 4CH8 A >3><. G5284=>, GB> 8 B>B 8 4@C3>9 >1@07 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 0;;53>@88 2>7<>6=KE <>4CA>2 ?@>O2;5=8O ?@8@>4K 4CH8 :0: 87=0G0;L=> F5;>AB=>9, B> 5ABL >1;040NI59 B5< 548=AB2>< A 1A>;NB><, :>B>@>5 ?>AB8305BAO A:>@55 GC2AB2>< 8;8 8=BC8F859, =565;8 @0AAC4>G=K< 0=0;87><. >MB><C 8E >?8A0=8O 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 8<5NB B0:>5 65 >B=>H5=85 : =587@5G5==><C ?5@56820=8N 548=5=8O, :0:>5 =0H8 =52@07C<8B5;L=K5 B5>@88 8 4><KA;K >B=>A8B5;L=> ?@>8AE>645=8O 687=8 8 55 =07=0G5=88 8<5NB : <8@C 682>9 ?@8@>4K. 0: 1K B> =8 1K;>, MB8 >?8A0=8O ?>4;560B 87CG5=8N, >4=0:> A;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> 8E ?>4;8==K9 A<KA; 1C45B A:@KB >B =0A 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 <K =5 87CG8< 687=L, :>B>@CN >=8 ?KB0NBAO >1JOA=8BL. B0:, 2K1>@ >?8A0=8O 4CE>2=>3> >?KB0 2 B5@<8=0E >1>65=8O 8;8 65 2 B5@<8=0E 4CE>2=>3> 1@0:>A>G5B0=8O 2 @5H0NI59 AB5?5=8 7028A8B >B B5<?5@0<5=B0 B>3>, :B> 87;0305B MB>B >?KB, B> 5ABL A:>@55 AC1J5:B825=, G5< >1J5:B825=. "0:85 >4=>AB>@>==5 >@85=B8@>20==K5 >?8A0=8O 548=5=8O ?@5645 2A53> D8:A8@CNB C482;5=85 8E 02B>@>2 ?> ?>2>4C @048:0;L=>AB8 ?5@5<5=, ?@>8AE>4OI8E A 8=48284C0;L=>ABLN <8AB8:0  B@0=A<CB0F88 "A>;8, A5@K 8 @BCB8" 2 CE>2=>5 >;>B>,  B>340 :0: A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K MB8 >?8A0=8O >B@060NB 548=5=85 2 M:AB075 ;N128 A 55 1J5:B><. !;54>20B5;L=>, ?>A@54AB2>< 2KO2;5=8O >1I8E G5@B MB8E 0;;53>@8G5A:8E B>;:>20=89 <K, 25@>OB=>, A<>65< ?@81;878BLAO : ?>=8<0=8N B>9 01A>;NB=>9 @50;L=>AB8, :>B>@CN <8AB8:8 ?KB0NBAO 70?5G0B;5BL. @><5 B>3>, COA=8BL <5E0=8:C 8 ?@8@>4C 548=5=8O =0< ?><>3CB >?8A0=8O B5E 8;8 8=KE ?5@56820=89, :>B>@K5 2 B>;:>20=88 <8AB8:>2 =5?>A@54AB25==> A2O70=K A MB8< A>AB>O=85<, 0 8<5==> ;81> ?@5420@ONB 53>, ;81> O2;ONBAO 53> E0@0:B5@=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 8 A;54AB28O<8. ;02=>9 8 A>1AB25==> @5H0NI59 ?@54?>AK;:>9 548=5=8O O2;O5BAO B0 157>3>2>@>G=0O A40G0 M3>F5=B@8G5A:8E ?>78F89, B> A0<>>?CAB>H5=85 4CH8, :>B>@>5 =0ABC?05B ?>A;5 8A?KB0=8O 3;CE>9 =>GLN. ">B ?>G5<C,  3>2>@8B .;80=0 >@28GA:0O,  4CH0 =5 7=05B ?>:>O, ?>:0 =5 >A2>1>48BAO >B 2A5E A>B2>@5==KE 25I59.  ;8HL :>340 >=0 >?CAB>H8B A51O @048 ;N128 : "><C, B> 5ABL 2A5, A<>65B >=0 >1@5AB8 4CE>2=K9 ?>:>9". 8HL ?>;=>ABLN >B@5H5==0O, "?CAB0O" 4CH0 <>65B 1KBL A2>1>4=>9, 3>2>@8B "5@F0;> :@>B:8E 4CH", 8 ?>MB><C 548=5=85  MB> ?@5645 2A53> A>AB>O=85 A2>1>4=>9 8 A<8@5==>9 ?@8G0AB=>AB8 5G=>9 87=8. %0@0:B5@=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 MB>3> A>AB>O=8O O2;ONBAO (1) ?>;=0O ?5@5>@85=B0F8O 2A59 4CH52=>9 687=8 2 AB>@>=C 5A:>=5G=>3>, ?>4 :0:8< 1K 284>< =8 ?>AB830;0 3> 4CH0; (2) >A>7=0=85 ?@8G0AB=>AB8 : 3> <>3CI5AB2C 8 45OB5;L=>ABL 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 3> 25;5=8O<8, GB> 405B 4CH5 2>7<>6=>ABL GC2AB2>20BL A51O A>25@H5==> A2>1>4=>9, 2=CH05B 59 25;8:>5 A?>:>9AB285 8 ?>1C6405B : 35@>8G5A:8< CA8;8O< 8 A>7840B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; 0 B0:65 (3) ?@8=OB85 =0 A51O G5;>25:>< @>;8 "24>E=>28B5;O", 8AB>G=8:0 M=5@388 8 4CE>2=>3> =0AB02=8:0 4@C38E ;N459. !8AB5<0B878@CO 8 87CG0O A ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O ?5@5G8A;5==K5 745AL >A>15==>AB8, :>B>@K5 E0@0:B5@=K 4;O A>AB>O=8O F5;>AB=>AB8, 2=>2L >1@5B05<>9 2 548=5=88, 0 B0:65 8E C?><8=0=8O 2 18>3@0D8OE <8AB8:>2, 345 >=8 ?@>O2;ONBAO A =081>;LH59 >G5284=>ABLN, <K <>65< ?>;CG8BL ?CABL D@03<5=B0@=>5, => 2A5 65 =5:>B>@>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > B@0=AF5=45=B=KE >A=>20=8OE 1KB8O. 0;LH5 MB>3> =5 <>3 ?>9B8 4065 0=B5: @5G5;>25G5=L5 2<5AB8BL 2 A;>20 5;L7O. "0:8< >1@07><, <K 4>;6=K @0AA<>B@5BL 687=L 2 548=5=88 (1) B0:>9, :0: >=0 2848BAO A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?A8E>;>30, 8 (2) B0:>9, :0: 55 >?8AK20NB <8AB8:8 =0 A8<2>;8G5A:>< O7K:5 (0) >1>65=8O 8;8 (1) 4CE>2=>3> 1@0:>A>G5B0=8O. , =0:>=5F, (3) <K >1@0B8<AO : A2845B5;LAB20< B5E, :B> 68; B0:>9 687=LN, 8 =0 MB>< <0B5@80;5 ?>?KB05<AO, =0A:>;L:> 2>7<>6=>, 2KO28BL 55 >@30=8G=>ABL 8 A0<>4>AB0B>G=>ABL. (1) B0:, GB> 2 A>2>:C?=>AB8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 @07=>>1@07=K5 D5=><5=K 687=8 2 548=5=88, 5A;8 8E @0AA<0B@820BL A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?A8E>;>30? 3> 2K2>4K A2>48;8AL 1K 2 >1I5< : B><C, GB> D5=><5=K B0:>3> @>40 A2845B5;LAB2CNB > ?>;=>< 8 =5>1@0B8<>< 4>AB865=88 =5:8E 2KAH8E C@>2=59 A>7=0=8O, :>B>@K5 2A5 1>;55 ?@>O2;ONBAO 2 G5;>25:5 ?> <5@5 53> ?@>42865=8O ?> 8AB8G5A:><C CB8. !0<K5 3;C1>:85 C@>2=8 G5;>25G5A:>9 8=48284C0;L=>AB8, B0OI85 2 A515 =5872540==K5 1>30BAB20, >70@8;8AL A25B>< 8 >1@5;8 A2>1>4C. @5>1@065==0O 8 >1=>2;5==0O 4CH0 =0:>=5F >1@5;0 A>25@H5=AB2> 8 F5;>AB=>ABL, 2 =59 ?@5:@0B8;8AL =5A:>=G05<0O B@52>30 8 AC5B0, 8 55 M=5@38O CAB@5<8;0AL 2 =>2>5 @CA;>. "! ?@8>1I5=85< : <8AB8G5A:>9 687=8,  3>2>@8B 5;0:@C0,  4CH52=CN 687=L G5;>25:0 ?>?>;=ONB 8 >1>30I0NB A>AB>O=8O, :>B>@K5 8<5NB >?@545;5==K5 E0@0:B5@=K5 G5@BK 8 >1@07CNB A2>53> @>40 A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN AB@C:BC@C.  @57C;LB0B5 ?>A;54CNI53> @0728B8O MB>9 AB@C:BC@K >1KG=>5 / G5;>25:0 2KB5A=O5BAO =>2>9 8=48284C0;L=>ABLN, :>B>@>9 ?@56=85 AB5@5>B8?K <KH;5=8O 8 459AB28O =5 A2>9AB25==K. 0728B85 AB@C:BC@K ?@82>48B : ?@5>1@065=8N 2A53> 2=CB@5==53> <8@0 G5;>25:0, 2 :>B>@>< 8AG5705B ?@56=OO M3>8AB8G5A:0O CAB0=>2:0 8 ?@>8AE>48B =5>1@0B8<>5 @0AH8@5=85 A>7=0=85. "0:8< >1@07><, >65AB2> ?>3;>I05B 2 G5;>25:5 02B>=><=>5 "O", ?@8<8B82=>5 M3>, 8 =0 A<5=C ?@8E>48B / >65AB25==>5". "0:0O AE5<0B8G5A:0O M:A?;8:0F8O ?>;CG8B :>=:@5B=>5 D8;>A>DA:>5 A>45@60=85, 5A;8 <K C?><O=5< > B><, GB>, <5=OO 2 A>AB>O=88 548=5=8O "?@8<8B82=>5" / =0 / 1>65AB25==>5, G5;>25: =0:>=5F >1@5B05B ?>4;8==CN A2>1>4C, 2 :>B>@>9 5<C >B:@K205BAO "=0A;0645=85 @50;L=>ABLN". =K<8 A;>20<8, 5<C >B:@K20NBAO =>2K5 ?CB8 ?@>O2;5=8O A5?>15640NI59 !8;K :0: >A=>2K 50;L=>AB8 1>65AB25==>9, A>AB02;ONI59 A0<C 55 B:0=L. ;03>40@O 3;C18==><C >1=>2;5=8N, :>B>@>5 5ABL =587156=K9 @57C;LB0B @0728B8O A>7=0=8O, >= >:07K205BAO "2=54@5==K< 2> A5;5=A:CN 87=L, :>B>@0O =5 GC640 5<C, => 8A:>=8 ?@8ACI0".  MB>9 CB25@482H59AO 8 =5>1@0B8<>9 A>?@8G0AB=>AB8 A5;5=A:>9 87=8 8 "!>7840NI5<C !;>2C >6L5<C, :>B>@>5 =8G5< =5 A2O70=> 8 25G=> A2>1>4=>", =0 MB8E 3;C1>G09H8E C@>2=OE KB8O, 4>AB83=CBKE 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 8=48284C0;L=>ABLN ?> <5@5 55 @0728B8O 8 A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O, 4CH0 ?>;CG05B C4828B5;L=CN A8;C, =57K1;5<K9 ?>:>9 8 ?@5645 70:@KBCN 4;O =55 A?>A>1=>ABL : B2>@G5A:><C ?@5>1@065=8N <8@0, GB> 8 A>AB02;O5B 5420 ;8 =5 >A=>2=CN G5@BC 687=8 2 548=5=88. >4;8==>5 8 25G=>5 5AB5AB2> G5;>25:0  "B09=0O 8 ?@52KH5 2AO:8E ?5@5<5= ;8G=>ABL 2KAH53> ?>@O4:0"  ?>AB>O==> 4020;> 7=0BL ?>25@E=>AB=><C / > A2>5< 25G=>< 1KB88, ?@8G5< ?> <5@5 <8AB8G5A:>3> @0728B8O MB8 =0?><8=0=8O AB0=>28;8AL 2A5 1>;55 =0AB>9G82K<8.  2>B B5?5@L MB> 5AB5AB2> 4>AB83;> ?>;=>3> >A>7=0=8O G5;>25:>< A2>59 AC4L1K 8 =0G0;> 1KBL 2 ?>;=>< >1J5<5.  E>45 8A?KB0=89 3;CE>9 =>GLN >=> 8A?>42>;L 70?>;>=8;> 25AL 2=CB@5==89 <8@ G5;>25:0 8 ?>4G8=8;> A515 2A5 =081>;55 8=5@B=K5 G5@BK 53> E0@0:B5@0. @>O2;5=8O ?>4;8==>3> 5AB5AB20 G5;>25:0 1>;LH5 =5 >3@0=8G5=K >B45;L=K<8 <3=>25=8O<8 3;C18==>3> 2>A?@8OB8O 8 >A;5?8B5;L=K<8 ?@>1;5A:0<8 1A>;NB0. 'B>1K G5@?0BL 87 B@0=AF5=45=B=>9 @50;L=>AB8, <8AB8:C 2>2A5 =5 >1O70B5;L=> ?>3@C60BLAO 2 A>75@F0=85 8;8 ?5@56820BL M:AB07. =8<0 8 0=8<CA A;8;8AL 2>548=> (*). 8AB8: 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 @07@5H8; 4;O A51O ?0@04>:A !B825=A>=0 (**) 8 >B=K=5 >;8F5B2>@O5B A>1>N =5 42>9AB25==>ABL, 0 548=AB2>. ------------------------------ (*) !2845B5;LAB2> 7=0:><AB20 =45@E8;; A =>259H8<8 4>AB865=8O<8 A>2@5<5==>9 59 =0C:8  A 845O<8 B. =07. "0=0;8B8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388", >A=>2K :>B>@>9 1K;8 2 B5 3>4K 5420 ;8HL AD>@<8@>20=K ...=3><. !>3;0A=> CG5=8N .=30, 2A5 >B?@02;5=8O ?A8E8:8 8=482840 >@30=87CNB, :0: @>AB :@8AB0;;0 53> =52848<K5 >A8, B.=07. "0@E5B8?K", A@548 :>B>@KE, 2 :0G5AB25 8450;L=>3> >1@070 ?0@B=5@0 2 ;N128, "0=8<0" (;0B. "4CH0") 4;O <C6G8= 8;8 "0=8<CA" (;0B. "4CE") 4=O 65=I8= =5ACB >A=>2=CN DC=:F8N AB8<C;8@>20=8O 4CE>2=>9 M2>;NF88.  @8<. ?5@52. (**) @54?>;>68B5;L=> AAK;:0 =0 7=0<5=8BCN ?>25ABL . !B825=A>=0 "!B@0==0O 8AB>@8O 4>:B>@0 65:8;0 8 <8AB5@0 %0940", 35@>9 :>B>@>9, 4>:B>@ 65:8;, AB02 65@B2>9 >?0A=KE M:A?5@8<5=B>2 =04 A>1>9, 2 8B>35 381=5B, 2 :0G5AB25 @0A?;0BK 70 ?@5ABC?=CN BO3C : =0A;0645=8N 70?@5B=K< =5>1@0B8<> A;82H8AL A 8E @57C;LB0B><  >;8F5B2>@ONI8< 45<>=8G5A:85 A8;K 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> "<8AB5@>< %094><", 42>9=8:><-0=B8?>4><, ""5=LN" 2 B5@<8=>;>388 .=30.  @8<. ?5@52. (2) 04> ?>;030BL, <8AB8: =5 AB0; 1K 2>7@060BL ?@>B82 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >?8A0=89 2 ?@8=F8?5, >4=0:> A:>@55 2A53> >= ?>?KB0;AO 1K 2K@078BL A<KA; 687=8 2 548=5=88 A2>8<8 A;>20<8 8 2 A>?@>2>645=88 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E ?>OA=5=89,  ?>OA=5=89 =0 O7K:5 <8AB8F87<0, :>B>@K5 =8:0: =5 C:;04K20NBAO 2 ?@545;K :><?5B5=F88 ?A8E>;>388.  ?@>B82>25A >B2;5G5==K< ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< >?8A0=8O< <8AB8: A:070; 1K, GB> 5<C C40;>AL 4>AB8GL 548=5=8O A >3>< 8 CAB0=>28BL :>=B0:B A "@0=AF5=45=B=>9 50;L=>ABLN, :>B>@>3> >= 402=> 8A:0;; GB> 53> 4CH0 >AB0;0AL ?> ACB8 =587<5==>9, => ?>3@C78;0AL 2 :50= 87=8 8 ?@>?8B0;0AL N1>2LN :0: 3C1:0 <>@A:>9 2>4>9. "#65 =5 O 682C, => >3 6825B 2> <=5", :0: 2K@078;AO >1 MB>< A2. 025;. B>@O 5<C, <8AB8: A:070; 1K, GB> =0:>=5F-B> 871028;AO >B ?>A;54=8E A;54>2  8;8, =0 O7K:5 ?A8E>;>388, @C48<5=B>2  A2>59 ?@56=59 >1>A>1;5==>AB8 8 :0:8<-B> B08=AB25==K< >1@07>< AB0; B5<, GB> 1K;> O2;5=> 5<C 2 A>75@F0=88. 45AL C<5AB=> 2=>2L =0?><=8BL A;>20 ACD89A:>3> ?>MB0, GB> <8AB8: AB@0=AB2C5B =5 : >3C, 0 2 >35. = 745AL-8-A59G0A 4>AB83 5G=>9 0@<>=88 [Eternal Order]  A>AB>O=8O, 2 :>B>@>< &5=B@ A5;5==>9, :0: <03=8B, ?@8BO38205B : A515 :064>5 682>5 ACI5AB2>.  ?@>F5AA5 ?@>1C645=8O A2>53> 4CE>2=>3> /, ?>>G5@54=> ?5@56820O ?5@8>4K @04>AB8 8 C=K=8O, :>340 AB@5<;5=85 : 548=5=8N =018@0;> 2 =5< A8;C, ?>425@30O 53> 70:0;:5 2 ?;0<5=8 ;N128 8 AB@040=8O, >= =5 B>;L:> 8=AB8=:B82=> GC2AB2>20;, GB> 42865BAO : =5:>B>@>9 F5;8, => 8 ?>=8<0;, ?>A:>;L:C >= <8AB8:, GB> MB0 F5;L =5 8<55B =8G53> >1I53> A ?@8>1@5B5=85< 7=0=89, > :0:8E 1K 206=KE 8, <>65B 1KBL, ;N1>?KB=59H8E, 4@03>F5==59H8E A2545=8OE =8 H;0 @5GL. -B0 F5;L ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5:>5 :0@48=0;L=>5 CA;>285 1KB8O, @50;87C5<>5 2 A25@H5=88 ;N128, :>B>@0O =5>B2@0B8<> 2;5:;0 53> : A515. >2>@O >1@07=K< O7K:>< 0;E8<8:>2, ?> 7025@H5=88 MB>3> ?@>F5AA0 3>=L N128 A45;0; A2>5 45;>: <8AB8G5A:0O " BCBL C4@5F>2"  A:@KB>5 2 =5< A>:@>28I5, "3>@G8G=>5 75@=>" 50;L=>AB8  ?>;=>ABLN B@0=A<CB8@>20;0 "A>;L 8 A5@C"  53> @07C< 8 GC2AB20. 065 15@56=> E@0=8<0O 65<GC68=0 ?>;CG5==>3> =5:>340 >70@5=8O  8 B0 1K;0 >B?@02;5=0 <8AB8:>< 2 ?;028;L=K9 B835;L. B0:, 5;8:>5 5;0=85 ?>4>H;> : :>=FC, ?>A;54=85 A;54K =5A>25@H5=AB20 8AG57;8, 8 <8AB8: >1=0@C68; 2 A515 "1;03>@>4=CN AC1AB0=F8N"  4CE>2=>5 7>;>B> G5;>25:0. () 0: <K C65 >B<5G0;8, <8AB8:8 157;8G=>AB=>9 >@85=B0F88  8A:0B5;8 "@0=AF5=45=B=>3> 1A>;NB0  A25@H5=85 A2>53> ?>8A:0 A:;>==K >?8AK20BL =0 O7K:5 >1>65=8O. 87=L 2 548=5=88 =587156=> >7=0G05B 2 8E ?>=8<0=88 =5GB>. 15A:>=5G=> ?@52>AE>4OI55 ?@>ABCN A>2>:C?=>ABL 2A5E 55 ?@87=0:>2, C:07K205<KE >?KB><, =5GB> A>25@H5==> =5?>AB868<>5 4;O >1KG=KE ;N459. > A;>20< <8AB8:>2, 687=L 2 548=5=88 ?>4@07C<5205B "=5?>A@54AB25==CN ?@8G0AB=>ABL >65AB25==>9 @8@>45" 8 >1@5B5=85 2 =59 A2>1>4K. >A:>;L:C 2 A>75@F0=88 ;8HL >B:@K205BAO "B>, GB> <K 5ABL", 87 A0<>9 MB>9 :>=AB0B0F88 5AB5AB25==> 2KB5:05B CG5=85 >1 >1>65=88 :0: 55 ;>38G5A:>5 A;54AB285. ">3CB A?@>A8BL,  3>2>@8BAO 2 "Theologia Germanica",  GB> >7=0G05B 1KBL ?@8G0AB=K< >65AB25==>9 @8@>45, 8;8 >3>?>4>1=><C [vergottet, 1C:20;L=> ">1>65==><C"] G5;>25:C? B25G0N: :B> =0?8B0= 8 ?@>A25B;5= 5G=K<, >65AB25==K< !25B>< 8 :B> 2>A?;0<5=5= 8 ?>3;>I5= 5G=>9, >65AB25==>9 N1>2LN,  B>B >1>65= 8 ?@8G0AB5= >65AB25==>9 @8@>45". AB5AB25==>, A0<> A;>2> ">1>65=85" =8:0: =5 <>65B A;C68BL 2 :0G5AB25 =0CG=>3> ?>=OB8O. "5@<8=K B0:>3> @>40 ACBL ?>?@>ABC 8=>A:070=8O 8 <5B0D>@K, A<KA; :>B>@KE 2 B><, GB>1K 40BL, 2 2845 =0<5:0, :>A25==>5 C:070=85 =0 B@0=AF5=45=B=CN @50;L=>ABL, A>25@H5==> =54>ABC?=CN >1KG=><C G5;>25G5A:><C ?>=8<0=8N 8 ?>B><C =5 8<5NICN >1>7=0G5=89 2 G5;>25G5A:>< O7K:5.  "=86=5< :@C35" MB>9 @50;L=>AB8 0=B5 ?>25AB2C5B 2 M?87>45, 2 E>45 :>B>@>3> >= ;8F57@5; A2OBKE 2 2845 ;5?5AB:>2 5G=>9 >7K. >A:>;L:C KB85 >6L5, :0: B0:>2>5, 70:@KB> 4;O =0H53> ?>7=0=8O, CB25@645=85 > B><, GB> 4CH0 ?@5>1@0605BAO 2 >35 8 3> KB88, 25@>OB=>, <>65B 4>=5AB8 4> =0A @0725 ;8HL 40;L=85 >B1;5A:8 M:AB070, => =8:>340 =5 404CB =0< A0<> 7=0=85  70 8A:;NG5=85< @0725 B5E =5<=>38E, :><C ?>AG0AB;828;>AL =0 A>1AB25==>< >?KB5 8A?KB0BL B>, > G5< @5GL. > 8 >=8  B>G=55, A:070BL, 1>;LH0O 8E G0ABL -?@8=8<0NB B0:>3> @>40 CB25@645=85 :0: 25@=>5 ;8HL >BG0AB8. 0;L=>284=K5 <8AB8:8 2A5340 A;54OB 70 B5<, GB>1K 1K;0 8A:;NG5=0 2>7<>6=>ABL 8=B5@?@5B0F88 8E A;>2 2 :;NG5 ?0=B587<0, 0 A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K  GB>1K >=8 =5 4020;8 ?>2>40 4;O 87<KH;5=89 B5E :@8B8:>2, ?> <=5=8N :>B>@KE <8AB8F87< ?>4@07C<5205B 8AG57=>25=85 4CH8 2 55 =5>1@0B8<>< A;8O=88 A >65AB2><.  2A5 65 >B:@>25=8O <8AB8:>2 2?>;=5 >4=>7=0G=> A2845B5;LAB2CNB > B><, GB> 8<, :0: 8 <=>38< 4@C38<, GB>1K 4>AB8GL 2KA>:8E C@>2=59 4CE>2=>3> @0728B8O, =C6=> 1K;> ?@>9B8 G5@57 2?>;=5 :>=:@5B=K5 8 =587156=K5 4;O :064>3> ?5@56820=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, : ?>=OB8N >1>65=8O ?@81530NB ?@5645 2A53> B5 <8AB8:8, :>B>@K< 50;L=>ABL >B:@K205BAO :0: A>AB>O=85 8;8 <5AB> [place], 0 =5 :0: 8G=>ABL, G5< 8 >1JOA=O5BAO 8A?>;L7>20=85 8<8 A8<2>;8:8 =>2>3> @>645=8O 8 B@0=A<CB0F88 4;O >?8A0=8O =0G0;0 AB@0=AB28O : >3C. "5E, :B> GC64 <8AB8G5A:8< =0AB@>5=8O<, C65 A0< ?> A515 @83>@8AB8G5A:8-?@O<>;8=59=K9 O7K:, :>B>@K< MB8 A>75@F0B5;8 3>2>@OB >1 >1>65=88, >BB0;:8205B 1>;LH5, G5< 2A5 ?@>G85 2KA:07K20=8O (:0: ?@028;>, 1570?5;;OF8>==K5) 8 ?@0:B8G5A:85 @5:><5=40F88 MB8E A>75@F0B5;59. 07C<55BAO, =5A;>6=> >3@0=8G8BLAO :>=AB0B0F859 ?>25@E=>AB=>3> A<KA;0 MB8E 2KA:07K20=89 8 :;0AA8D8F8@>20BL 8E :0: A2OB>B0BAB2>, GB> 8 A;CG0;>AL C65 =5>4=>:@0B=>. 564C B5<, 5A;8 ?>AB0@0BLAO 2=8:=CBL 2 MB8 ?>AB@>5=8O, >=8 ?@>;820NB A25B =5 B>;L:> =0 ACBL 2A53> <8AB8F87<0, => 8 =0 A0<8 >A=>20=8O D8;>A>D88 8 @5;8388, 4>2>4O A0<8 ?@8=F8?K <8AB8F87<0 4> 8E ;>38G5A:>3> 7025@H5=8O.  >A=>25 E@8AB80=A:>3> <8AB8F87<0, ?> A?@0254;82><C 70<5G0=8N 5;0:@C0, 2A5 B> 65 "AB8E89=>5 8, <>6=> A:070BL, ?>;C48:0@A:>5 AB@5<;5=85 : >1>65=8N, :>B>@>5 ;568B 2 >A=>25 ;N1>3> @5;838>7=>3> ?>8A:0". -B> >A>15==> =03;O4=> 2 ?@02>A;0288, 345 B0:>9 ?>4E>4 70:@5?;5= 2 F5@:>2=>9 @8BC0;L=>9 ?@0:B8:5. ""5;> >A?>4=5  <>5 >1>65=85 8 =0AKI5=85,  3>2>@8BAO =0 ;8BC@388 ?5@54 ?@8G0AB85<, 2 <>;8B25 !8<5>=0 5B0D@0AB0.  => 2>72KH05B : >3C <>9 4CE [spirit] 8 =0AKI05B <>N 4CHC [soul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ui adhaeret Deo, unus spiritus est cum illo, B> 5ABL: "B> 1K =8 ?@81;878;AO : >3C 8AB8==><C ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: 53> :>A=C;0AL B0:0O 1;03>3>259=0O ;N1>2L, 2 4CE5 ?@51C45B 548= A 8<". -B> 7=0G8B, GB> E>BO >= 8 >3 1C4CB 42C<O @07;8G=K<8 ?> A2>9AB2C, ?> <8;>AB8 >6L59 >=8 >:06CBAO B0: B5A=> ?5@5?;5B5=K, GB> ?@51C4CB 548=K 2 4CE5, ?@8G5< MB> 548=AB2> 8E 1C45B 2>72KH5=> ;N1>2LN 8 CB25@645=> 2>;59.  MB>< 548=AB25 A25@H05BAO 1@0:>A>G5B0=85 4CH8 8 >30, :>B>@>5 =8:>340, :@><5 :0: 3@5E><, =5 1C45B @0AB>@3=CB>, 4065 5A;8 2A5 25;8:85 45O=8O :0=CB 2 70125=85.  MB>< 4CE>2=>< 548=AB25 <>65B 4CH0 2>A?520BL 8 87@5:0BL, 5A;8 B>3> ?>65;05B, A2OI5==K5 A;>20 5A=8 5A=59: Dilectus meus mihi et ego illi, GB> 7=0G8B: ">9 >7;N1;5==K9 4;O <5=O, 8 O 4;O 53>". -B> A;54C5B ?>=8<0BL B0:, GB> >A?>4L :0: 1K ?@8;5?8B : !515 !2>N AC65=CN 4CE>2=K< :;55< 1;03>40B8, 8 B>340 2>F0@8BAO <564C =8<8 ;N1>2L 8 A>3;0A85". C<0N, =8:B> =5 1C45B >B@8F0BL, GB> A@02=5=85 C7, A>548=ONI8E 4CHC 8 1A>;NB, A "4CE>2=K< :;55<" A>25@H5==> =528==>, E>BO 8 =5A:>;L:> 3@C1>20B>. @8ACBAB285 2 ?@>F8B8@>20==>< >B@K2:5 MB>3> >1@070, @02=> :0: 8 >1@070 1@0:>A>G5B0=8O, <>65B ?>A;C68BL ?>2>4>< 4;O :@8B8G5A:8E 70<5G0=89 A> AB>@>=K B5E, :B> >3C;L=> >B<5B05B 2AN "A5:AC0;L=CN" A8<2>;8:C. ">, GB> B0:0O A8<2>;8:0 <8AB8:0< :070;0AL 2?>;=5 ?>4E>4OI59, ?>4B25@6405BAO 55 =0;8G85< 2 @01>B5 25;8:>3> A>75@F0B5;O, 682H53> 2 A;54CNI5< 25:5. ""K A?>;=0 8 157@0745;L=> >B40HL <=5 !51O,  3>2>@8B 4CH0 2 >?8A0=88 5B5@A5=0,  ;8HL B>340, :>340 O A?>;=0 8 157@0745;L=> 1C4C "2>59.  :>340 O 1C4C 2A5F5;> "2>59, "K 1C45HL 25G=> ;N18BL <5=O, :0: "K 25G=> ;N18HL !51O. 1> MB> 7=0G8B ;8HL B>, GB> "K =0A;06405HLAO !>1>9 2> <=5 8 GB> O ?> "2>59 <8;>AB8 =0A;0640NAL ">1>N 2 A515 8 A>1>N 2 "515.  :>340 2 "515 O ;N1;N A51O, O =5 ;N1;N =8G53>, :@><5 "51O, 254L "K ?@51K205HL 2> <=5, 0 O 2 "515, A;82H8AL 2 548=>5 F5;>5, :>B>@>5 =5 1C45B @0745;5=> 2> 25:8 25:>2". B MB>3> O7K:0 4> O7K:0 4CE>2=>3> 1@0:>A>G5B0=8O, :0: 53> ?>=8<0NB ?>4;8==K5 <8AB8:8, 2A53> ;8HL >48= H03. =8 2>A?@8=8<0NB 4CE>2=>5 1@0:>A>G5B0=85 =5 :0: @04>AB8 =515A=>3> M:AB070 8 =5 :0: A><=8B5;L=CN 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@82=5AB8 4CE>2=>ABL 2 75<=>9 M:AB07, 0 :0: ?>687=5==K5 C7K, ":>B>@K5 =8:>340 =5 1C4CB CB@0G5=K 8;8 @0AB>@3=CBK", A>:@>25==>5 ;8G=>AB=>5 548=5=85 2>;8 8 A5@4F0 A2>1>4=>9 4CH8 A B>9 "/A=>9 @0A>B>9", >B>@CN >=0 ?>7=0;0 2 A>75@F0=88. 8AB8G5A:89 CBL ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 8 @>AB 2 ;N128, >A>7=0==>5 A;54>20=85 3;C18==><C BO3>B5=8N 4CH8 : 55 8AB>:C 8 ?@5>4>;5=85 15A?>@O4>G=KE CAB@5<;5=89 : "?@5E>4OI8< 1;030<". 4=0:> ?>4;8==>5 A25@H5=85 ;N128 5ABL 548=5=85: "A>25@H5==>5 A;8O=85, >1J548=5=85 2>7;N1;5==KE 2 >4=> F5;>5". ;O D8;>A>D0 MB> ">1J548=ONI55 =0G0;>"  <>3CG0O ?@5>1@07CNI0O A8;0 =0 2A5E C@>2=OE 1KB8O. >;55 B>3>, ?>4>1=> B><C :0: 75<=>5 1@0:>A>G5B0=85 @0AA<0B@8205BAO <>@0;LN =5 :0: A?>A>1 C4>2;5B2>@8BL ;8G=K5 65;0=8O, 0 :0: G0ABL 25;8:>3> ?@>F5AA0, :0: A;8O=85 42CE 4CH 2> 8<O ?@5B2>@5=8O 2 687=L G53>-B> =>2>3>, 4CE>2=>5 1@0:>A>G5B0=85 B0:65 ?@54?>;0305B A>>B25BAB2CNI85 701>BK 8 >1O70==>AB8. ! 4>AB865=85< 2KA>G09H8E C@>2=59, A =52840==K< @0=55 ?@8;82>< 687=5==KE A8; ?@8E>48B =>20O >B25BAB25==>ABL 8 =5>1E>48<>ABL ?@8;030BL CA8;8O 4;O @5H5=8O 7040G 4@C3>3> <0AHB010. 5GL 845B =5 > :>=:@5B=KE A25@H5=8OE, 0 > A0<>< ?@51K20=88 2 =5:>5< 2?>;=5 :>=:@5B=>< A>AB>O=88. '5;>25: =0G8=05B 68BL =>2>9 687=LN, :>B>@0O ?@8=>A8B 2 53> ACI5AB2>20=85 A>25@H5=AB2>, C =53> >B:@K20NBAO =>2K5 B2>@G5A:85 2>7<>6=>AB8. >4=OB0O =0 1>65AB25==K5 C@>2=8 4CH0 B5?5@L ?@>O2;O5B 1>65AB25==CN A>7840B5;L=>ABL, >=0 AB0=>28BAO M=5@35B8G5A:8< F5=B@><, 8AB>G=8:>< B@0=AF5=45=B=>9 687=8. "!>B2>@5==>5 ACI5AB2> 4>AB8305B 2KAH53> A>25@H5=AB20,  3>2>@8B A2. $><0 :28=A:89,  :>340 >=> AB0=>28BAO ?@8G8=>9 4@C38E 25I59 [other things]. "0:8< >1@07><, :>340 A>B2>@5==>5 ACI5AB2> 2> <=>38E >B=>H5=8OE C?>4>1;O5BAO >3C, ?5@54 =8< >B:@K205BAO ?>A;54=OO 2>7<>6=>ABL  8A:0BL 1>65AB25==>5 ?>4>185 2 B><, GB>1K 1KBL ?@8G8=>9 4@C38E 25I59, GB> A>>B25BAB2C5B A;>20< ?>AB>;0: Dei enim sumus adjutores" (1> <K A>@01>B=8:8 >3C  I >@ 3:9).  459AB28B5;L=>, 87CG0O 8AB>@8N 687=8 <8AB8:>2, <K >1=0@C68205<, GB> =5?@5@K2=>5 A>AB>O=85 548=5=8O, 8;8 4CE>2=>5 1@0:>A>G5B0=85, 4;O B5E, :B> 53> 4>AB8305B, ?@5645 2A53> >7=0G05B B0:>9 871KB>: A>7840B5;L=>9 M=5@388. => ?>4@07C<5205B =0?>;=5=85 8 ?@5>1@065=85 :@>H5G=>9 <8@A:>9 687=8 G5;>25:0 25;8:>9 1A>;NB=>9 687=LN, > G5< A2845B5;LAB2C5B ?>O2;5=85 2 G5;>25G5A:>9 8AB>@88 2K40NI8EAO ;8G=>AB59, 45O=8O :>B>@KE :06CBAO A25@EG5;>25G5A:8<8, 5A;8 > =8E AC48BL 2 :0B53>@8OE ?>25@E=>AB=>3> A>7=0=8O. "0:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, B0:>5 O2;5=85 <8@C "40@>2 CE0" <>65B ?@8=8<0BL @07;8G=K5 D>@<K, >4=0:> 8=>340 >=> >BACBAB2C5B 8 <K 8<55< 45;> A ;8G=K< C4>2;5B2>@5=85<, ;8G=K<8  ?>@>9 25AL<0 CB>=G5==K<8 8 >4CE>B2>@5==K<8  2845=8O<8 8 M:AB070<8, :>B>@K5 2KAB02;ONBAO :0: ?@8<5BK ?CB8 548=5=8O, :0: :>=5G=0O F5;L ?>8A:0 50;L=>AB8. AO:89 @07, :>340 B0:>5 ?@>8AE>48B, <K <>65< 1KBL C25@5=K, GB> A>H;8 A "?@O<>3> 8 C7:>3> ?CB8", :>B>@K9 2545B =5 : 25G=><C ?>:>N, 0 : 5G=>9 87=8. "'5B25@B0O ABC?5=L ;N128 5ABL ?;>4>=>H5=85 4CE0",  A:070; 8H0@ !5=-8:B>@A:89. AB@5G0OAL A 2KE>;>I5==>9 ;N1>2LN, "A2OB>9 ?0AA82=>ABLN", <K 8<55< 45;> =5 A 687=LN 2 548=5=88, 0 A 5@5ALN 2 4CE5 :285B87<0. "/ AG8B0N =5A><=5==>9 8AB8=>9 B>,  >B<5G05B A2. "5@570,  GB>, =8A?>AK;0O =0 =0A MB8 <8;>AB8, :0: O C65 =5>4=>:@0B=> 3>2>@8;0, >A?>4L 65;05B, GB>1K <K A?@028;8AL A> A2>8<8 A;01>ABO<8 8 <>3;8 AB@040BL AB>;L:> 65, A:>;L:> 8 =... B:C40 A2. 025; G5@?0; A8;K 4;O A25@H5=8O A2>8E 25;8:8E 45O=89?  =5< <K 2>8AB8=C 2848< O2;5==K<8 40@K 2845=89 8 A>75@F0=89, :>B>@K5 40NBAO >B >A?>40 =0H53>, 0 =5 ?@8E>4OB : =0< >B 4LO2>;0 8;8 ?> 2>;5 2>>1@065=8O. B> ?>A<55B CB25@640BL, GB> A2. 02;C B>;L:> 8 45;0 1K;>  =0A;0640BLAO 4CE>2=K<8 40@0<8 8 CB5H5=8O<8 240;8 >B 3;07 G5;>25G5A:8E? 0?@>B82: <K 7=05<, GB> >= =8 >4=>3> 4=O =5 1K; ?@0745= 8 B@C48;AO 2 ?>B5 ;8F0 A2>53>, GB>1K >B@01>B0BL E;51 A2>9...  A5AB@K! !:>;L =5?@82O70==>9 : ;53:>9 687=8, A:>;L @02=>4CH=>9 : 75<=K< 1;030< 8 ?>G5ABO< 4>;6=0 1KBL B0 4CH0, :>B>@CN >3 8715@5B !2>59 >18B5;LN! 1> 5A;8 @07C< 55 A>A@54>B>G5= =0 5<, :0: 8 ?>4>105B, >=0 =587156=> 701K205B A51O 8 2A5 55 ?><KA;K >1@5B0NBAO 2>:@C3 B>3>, :0: ;CGH5 A;C68BL <C, :0: ?@>O28BL : 5<C 25;8:CN A2>N ;N1>2L. <5==> 2 MB>< ?>4;8==0O F5;L 8 A25@H5=85 <>;8B2K; 8<5==> MB> 5ABL F5;L 4CE>2=>3> 1@0:0, 45BL<8 :>B>@>3> 2A5340 O2;ONBAO 4>1@K5 45O=8O. 54L 8<5==> 45O=8O O2;ONBAO ;CGH8< 4>:070B5;LAB2>< B>3>, GB> <K ?>;CG05< MB8 40@K >B >30". "'B>1K >:070BL >A?>4C =0H5<C 2KAH55 3>AB5?@88<AB2>,  3>2>@8B >=0 2 B>9 65 3;025,  0@8O 8 0@D0 4>;6=K AB0BL >4=8<". >340 <K A<>B@8< =0 687=8 1>3>;N182KE <8AB8:>2, ?>;CG82H8E ?>4;8==>5 ?>A2OI5=85 2 5G=>AB8 -:0:8<8 1K 1573;03>;L=K<8 =8 :070;8AL =0< ?>@>9 MB8 ;N48,  <K >:07K205<AO 2 ?@8ACBAB288 C4828B5;L=>9 682>B2>@OI59 A8;K, "2A5?>15640NI53> ?>@K20", ?5@54 :>B>@K< 15AA8;L=K ;N1K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20. >AB>O==>5 A25@H5=85 4>1@KE 45;  2>B F5;L, :>B>@CN AB028B ?5@54 A>1>9 CE, ?@58A?>;=82H89 8E 2=CB@5==89 42>@5F. K 2848< A2. 02;0, :>B>@K9 2=570?=> 1K; >157>@C65= 8 A2O70= 48=AB25==> @5:@0A=K< 8 =5 A:@K;AO 4;O B>3>, GB>1K =0A;0640BLAO 2845=85< 50;L=>AB8, => ?@8=O;AO 2 >48=>G:C 2>742830BL A5;5=A:CN &5@:>2L. K A?@0H8205<, :0: ?>;CG8;>AL, GB> MB>B 15725AB=K9, ?@>7O10NI89 2 =8I5B5 3@0640=8= 8<A:>9 8<?5@88 A<>3 157 45=53, 157 ?>:@>28B5;LAB20 2;0ABL 8<CI8E >A=>20BL B0:CN 3@0=48>7=CN >@30=870F8N, 8 A;KH8< 2 >B25B 53> A;>20: "5 O, => %@8AB>A 2> <=5". K 2848< A2. 0==C 4'@:, ?@>ABCN :@5ABLO=A:CN 452CH:C, :>B>@0O ?>:8=C;0 703>= 4;O >25F, GB>1K 2>73;028BL D@0=FC7A:CN 0@<8N. K A?@0H8205<, :0: <>3CB A;CG0BLAO AB>;L =525@>OB=K5 A>1KB8O, 8 ?>;CG05< 55 >B25B: ""0: <=5 25;5;8 3>;>A0". ">;G>:, <>3CG89 8 =5?@5>4>;8<K9 8<?C;LA ?@8H5; 87 A25@EGC2AB25==>3> <8@0, =>2K5 A8;K ?@58A?>;=8;8 55, 8 >=0 A0<0 =5 7=0;0, :0: MB> AB0;> 2>7<>6=K< 8 ?>G5<C. =0 >1@5;0 548=5=85 A 5A:>=5G=>9 87=LN 8 AB0;0 5 ?@>O2;5=85<, A@54AB2>< ?@>O2;5=8O 5 A8;K, "B5< 65, GB> 4;O G5;>25:0 53> A>1AB25==0O @C:0". K 2848< A2. $@0=F8A:0, "B@C104C@0 >A?>4=O", >B<5G5==>3> 3> @0=0<8 8 >70@5==>3> 3> @04>ABLN, 0 7=0G8B, ?>7=02H53> 425 AB>@>=K B>9 <>=5BK 70 B@C4K, :>B>@0O 5ABL 70;>3 687=8 25G=>9. K 2848< A2. 3=0B8O >9>;C, 2>8=AB2CNI53> 8 @><0=B8G5A:>3> @KF0@O >3>@>48FK, :>B>@K9 >B:@K; =>2CN AB@0=8FC 4CE>2=>9 8AB>@88 2@>?K. B:C40 : =8<  @>645==K< 8 2>A?8B0==K< 4;O >1KG=KE 75<=KE 45; 2 >1AB0=>2:5, 40;5:>9 >B 4CE>2=KE ?>8A:>2,  ?@8E>48B =58AG5@?05<0O M=5@38O, A?>A>1=>ABL 4>1820BLAO B@8C<D0;L=>3> CA?5E0 2 A0<KE 157=0456=KE A8BC0F8OE? $@0=F8A: 2?5@2K5 ?>;CG8; 55 C @0A?OB8O 2 !0=-0<80=>, 0 70B5< ?>4B25@48; 2 =587@5G5==>< ?5@56820=88 2 0-5@=5, 345 "4CH52=0O >45@68<>ABL 8 2>AB>@3 ?@5>1@078;8 53> 2 >30". 3=0B89 =0H5; 55 2 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>< A>75@F0=88 8 BO6:8E 8A?KB0=8OE 2 ?5I5@5 0=@5A0 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: C2845; A2>9 C45; 2 @KF0@A:>< A;C65=88 >6L59 0B5@8. K 2848< A@548 MB8E ?@8@>645==KE @><0=B8:>2 A2. "5@57C, :>B>@0O 4>AB83;0 A>AB>O=8O 548=5=8O ?>A;5 4;8B5;L=>9 8 BO65;>9 1>@L1K <564C =87H59 8 2KAH59 AB>@>=0<8 A2>59 =0BC@K. 0 H5AB>< 45AOB:5 ;5B, :>340 55 74>@>2L5 1K;> >A;01;5=> 4;8B5;L=K<8 1>;57=O<8 8 87=C@8B5;L=K< C<5@I2;5=85< ?;>B8 =0 ?CB8 >G8I5=8O, ?>28=COAL 2=CB@5==5<C >;>AC, >=0 A>7=0B5;L=> <5=O5B E>4 A2>59 687=8, ?>:8405B <>=0ABK@L 8 =0G8=05B =>2CN 687=L, ?CB5H5AB2CO ?> A?0=88 8 ?@>2>4O @5D>@<K 2 25;8:>< @5;838>7=>< >@45=5 2>?@5:8 65;0=8N :>=A5@20B82=>3> 4CE>25=AB20. 4=0:> =081>;55 87C<8B5;L=K9 ?@8<5@ 405B =0< A2. 0B5@8=0 !85=A:0O, =53@0<>B=0O ?@54AB028B5;L=8F0 ?@>AB>3> =0@>40, :>B>@0O ?>A;5 B@5E ;5B 2 C548=5=88 4>AB8305B <8AB8G5A:>3> 1@0:>A>G5B0=8O 8, ?>:8=C2 "G5@B>38 A0<>?>7=0=8O", =0G8=05B 2;8OBL =0 ?>;8B8G5A:CN 687=L B0;88. 0: <>3;> A;CG8BLAO B0:, GB> MB8 =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4 ?>A@54AB25==K5 ;N48, :>B>@K5 ?>425@30;8AL 2;8O=8N =54>1@>65;0B5;L=>3> >:@C65=8O, =5 >B;8G0;8AL :@5?:8< 74>@>2L5< 8 1K;8 154=K, 4>AB83;8 AB>;L 2K40NI8EAO CA?5E>2? 1JOA=5=85 <>65B 1KBL B>;L:> 2 B><, GB> 2A5 >=8 1K;8 25;8:8<8 <8AB8:0<8 8 25;8 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 1>3>;N182CN 687=L.  :064>< 87 =8E 4020; > A515 7=0BL 35@>8G5A:89 E0@0:B5@, =58AG5@?05<K5 687=5==K5 A8;K, 25;8:89 M=BC7807< 8 =5A>:@CH8<0O 2>;O, :>B>@K5 1K;8 2>74283=CBK =0 4CE>2=K5 C@>2=8 8 ?@5>1@065=K 2KAH8<8 ?@>O2;5=8O<8 A>7=0=8O. A5 MB8 ;N48 >B25@3;8AL A2>53> AC5B=>3> "O", >A>7=0;8 A2>N ?@8G0AB=>ABL : 25;8:8< AC4L10< <8@0 8 B5< A0<K< ?@>1C48;8 2 A2>59 4CH5 =5>4>;8<CN BO3C : 5A:>=5G=><C, :>B>@0O ?><>3;0 8< ?@5>4>;5BL 2A5 >3@0=8G5=8O G5;>25G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K. >MB><C >=8 4>AB83;8 A2>1>4K 8 2 =59 A;54>20;8 548=AB25==><C CAB@5<;5=8N ">?CAB>H5==>9 4CH8"  "1KBL 4;O 5G=>3> ;030 B5< 65, GB> 4;O G5;>25:0 53> A>1AB25==0O @C:0". 065 5AB5AB25==0O A:;>==>ABL 3-68 89>= : ?0AA82=K< A>AB>O=8O< >BABC?05B, :>340 >=0 AB0=>28BAO =0 ?CBL 548=5=8O.  E>BO 55 70B@C4=8B5;L=> ?@8G8A;8BL : 25;8G09H8< ?>A2OI5==K<, >=0 B0:65 8A?KB0;0 =0 A515 ?@5>1@07CNI55 2;8O=85 548=5=8O, 1K;0 2K=C645=0 ?@5>4>;5BL A2>5 "A2OB>5 15AAB@0AB85" 8 B5< A0<K<, :0: 1K 2>?@5:8 A2>8< ?@54@0A?>;>65==>ABO<, ?>4G8=8;0AL =>2>9 2=CB@5==59 >@85=B0F88. "CH0 GC2AB2C5B, :0: A :064K< 4=5< 2A5 A8;L=55 >2;045205B 5N B09=0O A8;0,  3>2>@8B 3-60 89>= > 4CH5, ?@8>1I82H59AO : 548=5=8N, 8 <K <>65< =5 A><=520BLAO, GB> >=0, ?> >1K:=>25=8N, 2=>2L >?8AK205B A2>8 A>1AB25==K5 "A>AB>O=8O".  CH0 >A>7=05B, GB> <0;>-?><0;C ?>;CG05B =>2CN 687=L, :>B>@0O =8:>340 =5 1C45B ?>B5@O=0, 4CH0 C25@5=0 2 MB>< =0AB>;L:>, =0A:>;L:> 2>>1I5 <>6=> 1KBL C25@5==K< 2 G5<-=81C4L 2 MB>9 687=8... -B0 =>20O 687=L =5 ?>E>60 =0 BC, :>B>@>9 >=0 68;0 @0=LH5. -B> 687=L 2 >35, 687=L A>25@H5==0O. CH0 1>;LH5 =5 6825B 8 =5 B@C48BAO 4;O A51O, => >3 6825B, 459AB2C5B 8 A>78405B 2 =59. "0: ?@>4>;605BAO 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 >=0 <0;>-?><0;C =5 AB0=>28BAO ?@8G0AB=>9 : A>25@H5=AB2C >30, 3> I54@>AB8 8 ;N128..." -B0 =>20O, 1>;55 3;C18==0O 8 ?>4;8==0O 687=L >1;0405B 5I5 >4=8<, 4065 1>;55 206=K< A2>9AB2><, G5< A:;>==>ABL "A25@H0BL 25;8:85 B@C4K" 8 "=5?@5AB0==> B2>@8BL 4>1@K5 45;0". 50;L=0O 687=L 2 548=5=88, :0: =0?><8=05B =0< 8H0@ !5=-8:B>@A:89, =5 ?@>AB> 45OB5;L=0: >=0 AB0=>28BAO B2>@G5A:>9 8 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 ?;>4>B2>@=>9. 0 G5B25@B>9 ABC?5=8 ;N128 4CH0 @>6405B ?>B><AB2>, ?>A:>;L:C >B=K=5 O2;O5BAO ?>AB>O==K< 8AB>G=8:>< 682>B2>@=>9 M=5@388 2 <8@5, A;C3>9 "@0=AF5=45=B=>9 50;L=>AB8 8 <0B5@LN =>2>3> 4CE>2=>3> ?>:>;5=8O. 064K9 25;8:89 <8AB8:, 4>AB83H89 A>AB>O=8O 548=5=8O, AB0=>28BAO @>4>=0G0;L=8:>< F5;>3> 4CE>2=>3> A5<59AB20, F5=B@><, :>B>@K9 87;CG05B B@0=AF5=45=B=CN 687=L. "LNI89AO A25B 8:0 >6L53>" A>A@54>B>G5= 2 =5<, :0: 2 D>:CA5 ;8=7K. ">;L:> ?@>94O G5@57 =53>, A25B =0G8=05B @0A?@>AB@0=OBLAO 2> 2A5E =0?@02;5=8OE. 5;8:89 2878>=5@ 8 <KA;8B5;L AB0=>28BAO =5 B>;L:> 02B>@>< A2>8E ?@>872545=89, => 8 4CE>2=K< >BF>< F5;>9 ?;5O4K ?>A;54>20B5;59, :>B>@K5 ?5@5=8<0NB 8 ?@8=8<0NB 53> 2845=85 8AB8=K 8 :@0A>BK. "0:, 4CE "@0=AF5=45=B=>9 50;L=>AB8 F0@8B B0<, 345 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2;8O=85 A2. 02;0, A2. $@0=F8A:0 8 A2. "5@57K. >AB5?5==> =0 MB>9 ?>G25 2K@0AB0NB =>2K5 4CE>2=K5 8=48284C0;L=>AB8, :>B>@K5 ?@>4>;60NB =0G0B>5 >A=>2>?>;>6=8:0<8 B@048F88. >4;8==K<8 A2845B5;O<8 M:AB0B8G5A:>9 687=8 A2. 02;0 2 >35 O2;ONBAO 2A5 E@8AB80=A:85 >1I8=K, :>B>@K5 1K;8 >A=>20=K B0<, 345 ?@>;530; 53> ?CBL. 5745, 345 ?@>E>48; A2. $@0=F8A:, ?>A;5 =53> >AB020;8AL "1;03>CE02H85 GC4>B2>@=K< 4CE><" D@0=F8A:0=FK, E>BO 4> MB>3> 8E B0< =5 1K;>. > 2A59 020@88 8 =0 75<;OE 59=0 2>7=8:0;8 >1I8=K "4@C759 >30", :0640O 87 :>B>@KE AB0=>28;0AL @0AH8@ONI59AO AD5@>9 B@0=AF5=45=B=>9 687=8, 70@>4KH5< =>2>9 4CE>2=>9 A5<L8. >4>1=> A2>5<C 0AB02=8:C, >=8 ?@8BO3820;8 : A515 ;N459, GB>1K >B:@KBL 8< ?>;=>?@02=CN 4CE>2=CN 687=L, 81> G@57 =8E >=0 =5A5B 2 <8@ <8AB8G5A:CN M=5@38N. >B 5I5 ?@8<5@: 3=0B89 ?>:8405B 0=@5AC 2 >48=>G5AB25, =5<>I=K<, 87<>645==K<, B5@705<K< A><=5=8O<8, =8:><C =5 8725AB=K<, 0 2 8< >= ?@8E>48B ?@58A?>;=5==K9 24>E=>25=8O, 2 >:@C65=88 <=>38E ?>A;54>20B5;59. >8AB8=C >=8  53> 45B8, :>B>@KE >= @>48; 8 >40@8; ?>;=>B>9 687=8. "5@570 =0E>48B >@45= >@K 0@<5; 2 157=0456=>< 70?CAB5=88, 53> <>=0E8 8 <>=0E8=8 ?>3@O7;8 2 AC5B5 8 ?>701K;8 > A2>5< ?@8720=88, >1 8AB8==>9 F5;8 70B2>@=8G5A:>9 687=8. !2OB>9 CE ?>428305B 55 =0 B>, GB>1K ?>:8=CBL A2>9 <>=0ABK@L 8 =0G0BL 2 15725AB=>AB8 8 C60A0NI59 =8I5B5 2>72>48BL =>2K5 740=8O, :>B>@K5 2?>A;54AB288 AB0=CB F8B045;LN G8AB>3>, 2>72KH5==>3> 8 AB@>609H53> A>75@F0=8O. =0 15@5BAO 70 MBC @01>BC, 2AB@5G0O ;8HL =5?>=8<0=85 8 =0A<5H:8. 4=0:> :0:8<-B> =5?>AB868<K< >1@07><, AB>8;> 59 =0G0BL MB> 45;>, :0: 2>:@C3 =55 ?>O2;ONBAO 8 A>18@0NBAO 8A:0B5;8 =>2>9 4CE>2=>9 687=8. 8:B> =5 7=05B, :0: >=8 >:070;8AL 2>7;5 =55 2 MB8E 1>;55 G5< =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>28OE, >4=0:> >=8 2A5 4> >4=>3> ?5@5=O;8 4CE A2. "5@57K. =8 8A?>;=8;8AL 55 1LNI59 G5@57 :@09 687=5==>9 M=5@3859 8 A @04>AB=>9 3>B>2=>ABLN =0G0;8 35@>8G5A:CN 687=L @5D>@<0B>@>2, 8 2 :>=F5 687=5==>3> ?CB8 A2. "5@57K C =55 2 :064>< 3>@>45 A?0=88 1K;8 4CE>2=K5 45B8. -B> 1K; F5;K9 >@45= A>75@F0B5;59, @>645==KE >B =55 A;>2=> :@>2=K5 AK=>2LO 8 4>G5@8. !?@0254;82> 3>2>@OB 0;E8<8:8, GB> 8AB8==K9 D8;>A>DA:89 :0<5=L 5ABL :0<5=L ?@5>1@060NI89, :>B>@K< ;N1K5 =51;03>@>4=K5 <5B0;;K, :0:85 1K =8 ?>425@3;8AL 53> 2;8O=8N, >1@0I0NBAO 2 7>;>B>. -B0 A?>A>1=>ABL 2>A?@>872545=8O [reproductive power] O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 >B;8G8B5;L=KE G5@B 1>3>;N182>9 687=8, ?>4;8==K< <8AB8G5A:8< 1@0:>A>G5B0=85< 548=8G=>9 8 >1>A>1;5==>9 4CH8 A 55 AB>G=8:><. "5 @54:85 8=48284C0;L=>AB8, 2 :>B>@KE >=0 ?@>O2;O5BAO, AB0=>2OBAO A@54>9, G5@57 :>B>@CN A5?>15640NI0O CE>2=0O 87=L, ;560I0O 2 >A=>25 ?@>O2;5==>3> <8@0, 2KE>48B =0 C@>25=L 2@5<5=8 8 @>6405B ?>B><AB2>, =0A;54CNI55 =58AG5@?05<CN M=5@38N <8@0 B@0=AF5=45=B=>3>. 4=0:> 687=L 2 548=5=88 5ABL =5GB> 1>;LH55, =565;8 A>2>:C?=>ABL 55 ?@>O2;5=89, =565;8 ?>42838 "25;8:8E 45OB5;59" =0 =825 0?>AB>;LA:>3> ?@>A25I5=8O, =565;8 ?@>?8B0=85 1>65AB25==K< A;>2>< 8 45;>< =>2KE "AK=>2 8 4>G5@59 1A>;NB0". A5 MB8 ?@>O2;5=8O ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 ;8HL 2=5H=85, 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25 8 2@5<5=8, ?@87=0:8 687=8 2 548=5=88. / >A>1> ?>4G5@:820N MBC <KA;L, ?>B><C GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> :@8B8:>2, 0 B0:65 =5:>B>@K5 ?8B0NI85 A8<?0B8N : <8AB8F87<C, A:;>==K 701;C640BLAO 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88. !0<0 A?>A>1=>ABL A>75@F0B5;O 68BL 8=B5=A82=>9 B2>@G5A:>9 687=LN 2 AD5@5 2@5<5=8 >1JOA=O5BAO B5<, GB> >=0 B5A=> A2O70=0 A 4@C3>9 687=LN, 2 :>B>@>9 >=, >B:@K2H8AL ?>B>:C =515A=>9 M=5@388, =0E>48BAO 2 ?>AB>O==>9 =5@07@K2=>9 A2O78 A 2=52@5<5==K< 1A>;NB><. 1AC640O A>>B=>H5=85 <8AB8G5A:>3> >?KB0 8 G8AB>9 D8;>A>D88, <K 2845;8, GB> F5;>AB=>5 <8AB8G5A:>5 A>7=0=85, :0: 8 25AL >B:@K20NI89AO <8AB8:C <8@, 8<55B 42>9AB25==K9 E0@0:B5@, :>B>@K9 5420 ;8 ?@02><5@=> ?KB0BLAO 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL 2 <>=8AB8G5A:>< :;NG5. 54L >=> >E20BK205B BC 50;L=>ABL, :>B>@0O A >1I5G5;>25G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O :065BAO >4=>2@5<5==> AB0B8G5A:>9 8 48=0<8G5A:>9, B@0=AF5=45=B=>9 8 8<<0=5=B=>9, 25G=>9 8 2@5<5==>9; >=> ?@8=8<05B 8 01A>;NB=K9 8@ '8AB>3> KB8O, 8 ?@51K20NI89 2 =5?@5AB0==>< ?>B>:5 87<5=5=89 8@ !B0=>2;5=8O :0: =5>1E>48<K5 A>AB02;ONI85 53> 548=>3> 2845=8O AB8=K, 4>ABC?=>9 75<=><C 7@5=8N ;8HL 2 >1;8:5 42>9AB25==>AB8. 0 :064>< MB0?5 8AB8G5A:>3> CB8 <K C;02;820;8 ?@>1;5A:8 C3;C1;5=8O 8 @0728B8O MB>3> 42>9AB25==>3> ?>AB865=8O 50;L=>AB8. "0:, <8AB8:, :>B>@K9, GB>1K A>AB>OBLAO :0: ;8G=>ABL, A?>;=0 @0728; 2 A515 <8AB8G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8, ?@>E>48B G5@57 >G8I5=85 >@30=>2 GC2AB2 8 4CE0 8 ?>;CG05B 4>ABC? : 40@0< CE0. @8 MB>< >= =5 ?@>AB> AB0=>28BAO ?@8G0AB=K< >65AB25==><C ;03C, AB8=5 8 @0A>B5, 70=8<0O A2>5 <5AB> 2 " >75 5G=>9", 8;8 ?@>O2;O5B A>7840B5;L=CN A8;C A;C68B5;O 5G=>9 C4@>AB8, ?>3@C65==>3> 2 5:C 87=8: <8AB8: >1@5B05B >10 MB8 :0G5AB20 8 6825B 42>9AB25==>9 687=LN 4CE>2=>3> G5;>25:0, ?@8720==>3> "2> 2@5<5=8 2>?;>I0BL 5G=>ABL". K@060OAL O7K:>< AE>;0AB>2, <>6=> A:070BL, GB> >= O2;O5BAO >4=>2@5<5==> 2>A?@8=8<0NI8< AC1J5:B>< 8 0:B82=K< 459AB2CNI8< ;8F><: >= ?0AA825= 2 >B=>H5=88 >30 8 0:B825= 2 >B=>H5=88 <8@0.  3;C1>G09H5< A<KA;5 > =5< <>6=> A:070BL, GB> >= B5?5@L 2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 ?@8G0AB5= 1>3>G5;>25G5A:>9 687=8, :>B>@0O A2O7C5B G5;>25:0 A 5G=>ABLN 8 5ABL 70;>3 "A?0A5=8O <8@0". >MB><C, E>BO 2=5H=OO 35@>8G5A:0O A>7840B5;L=>ABL 8 ?@58A?>;=5==>ABL >3>< 8 <>65B ?>:070BLAO =0< >A=>2=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 8 ?>:070B5;5< 53> A>AB>O=8O, 30@0=B859 01A>;NB=>9 687=8 4;O =53> O2;O5BAO 8<5==> 3;C18==>5 >A>7=0=85 <8AB8G5A:>3> AK=>2AB20, 1;03>40@O :>B>@><C "?@52KH5 2A53> >= GC2AB2C5B 2 A515 687=L 25G=CN". -B>B >A=>2>?>;030NI89 D0:B, 25;8:>5 >A>7=0=85 B@0=AF5=45=B=>AB8, :>B>@>5 C68205BAO 2 =5< A 3;C1>G09H8< A<8@5=85<, <>65B 1KBL >?8A0=> @07;8G=K<8 A?>A>10<8. =>340 >= 3>2>@8B, GB> 2 ;CGH85 <><5=BK A2>59 687=8 2 <8@C 1K; 2A53> ;8HL "25@=K< A;C68B5;5<" 25G=KE AD5@ 1KB8O, =0 ?CB8 >70@5=8O AB0; 8E "B09=K< 4@C3><" 8, =0:>=5F, B5?5@L, =0 70:;NG8B5;L=>< MB0?5 A2>8E 8A:0=89, ?@8>1I8;AO : =081>;55 B08=AB25==><C A>AB>O=8N 8 AB0; 8E "B09=K< G04><". "0: 25;8:> @07;8G85 <564C B09=K< 4@C3>< 8 B09=K< G04><!  2>A:;8F05B 59A1@C:.  @C3 A>25@H05B ;8HL @54:85 ;N1>2=K5 2>7=5A5=8O : >3C, B>340 :0: @515=>: 2 A2>59 =528==>AB8 AB@5<8BAO : B><C, GB>1K =0 25@H8=5 ?>B5@OBL A2>N 687=L, 2 B>9 ?@>AB>B5, :>B>@0O =5 7=05B A51O... >340 <K >AB02;O5< A51O 8 2 A2>5< 2>7=5A5=88 : >3C >1@5B05< B0:CN ?@>AB>BC, GB> =0A <>65B C2;5GL ;8HL G8AB0O 2KAH0O ;N1>2L, B>340 =0H5 ACI5AB2>20=85 ?@5:@0I05BAO 8 <K 2<5AB5 A> 2A5< A2>8< >A;5?;5=85< A>1>9 C<8@05< 2 >35.  MB>9 A<5@B8 <K AB0=>28<AO B09=K<8 45BL<8 >6L8<8 8 >1@5B05< =>2CN 687=L". %>BO 2 A2>59 687=8 2 <8@C <8AB8:-?>4286=8: ?@>O2;O5B A25@EG5;>25G5A:>5 CA5@485 8 2545B =5?@5AB0==CN 1>@L1C A> 7;>< 8 2@06451=>ABLN, ?>4;8==0O 687=L 53> 4CH8 2A5 2@5<O ?@>B5:05B =0 2KAH8E C@>2=OE, 2 A>25@H5==>< 1;065=AB25, > :>B>@>< >= <>65B ;8HL =0<5:=CBL =0< A ?><>ILN ?0@04>:A0;L=KE A8<2>;>2 =52545=8O 8 ?CAB>BK. = 3>A?>4AB2C5B =04 A2>8< ACI5AB2>20=85<, ?>B><C GB> >= 2KH5; 70 53> ?@545;K. = O2;O5BAO B5?5@L AK=>< >6L8<, ?@54AB028B5;5< 25G=KE AD5@, =>A8B5;5< B@0=AF5=45=B=>9 687=8. "57<OB56=>ABL 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 3> ACI=>ABLN, A>7840B5;L=>ABL 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 3> ?@8@>4>9: A>25@H5==K9 ?>:>9 8 A>25@H5==0O A>7840B5;L=>ABL",  2>B :0: 59A1@C: >?@545;O5B 42>9AB25==K9 E0@0:B5@ 8:0 >6L53>. "09=>5 48BO 1A>;NB0 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 ?@8G0AB=> MB>9 42>9AB25==>9 50;L=>AB8, "81> 4;O MB>3> 25;8G8O 1K; A>B2>@5= G5;>25:". #:070==K5 420 0A?5:B0 8AB8=K, :>B>@K5 2 87;>65=88 59A1@C:0 ?@54AB0NB :0: AB0B8G5A:89 8 48=0<8G5A:89. KB85 8 !B0=>2;5=85, B5?5@L =0E>4OB 7025@H0NI55 2>?;>I5=85 2 A>1AB25==>< 5AB5AB25 <8AB8:0, ?>A:>;L:C MB> 5AB5AB2> 4>AB83;> A0<>A>7=0=8O :0: F5;>AB=>5, >1J548=5==>5 2>:@C3 A2>8E 2KAH8E F5=B@>2. '5;>25G5AB2> 2 B5G5=85 2A59 53> 8AB>@88 ?@5A;54C5B =5>1JOA=8<>5 AB@5<;5=85 : A>25@H5==><C ?>:>N, : 4>1@>2>;L=><C A0<>70125=8N 8 ?>3;>I5=8N 5;8:>9 87=LN, ?@52>AE>4OI59 53> A>1AB25==CN <0;5=L:CN 687=L. -B> AB@5<;5=85 =0H;> A2>5 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 A>25@H5==>5 2K@065=85 2> 2A5E 25@>8A?>2540=8OE, 8 @50;L=>ABL 53> F5;8 C4>AB>25@5=0 2A5<8 <8AB8G5A:8<8 M:AB070<8. "5?5@L 65 <8AB8: ?@>A;568205B 53> 4> A0<>3> 8AB>:0 8 =0E>48B 2 =5< 70:>=><5@=>5 ?@>O2;5=85 8=AB8=:B0, :>B>@><C >= >1O70= 2A5<, GB> >1@5; =0 8AB8G5A:>< CB8. >=0G0;C MB>B 8=AB8=:B ?@>O2;O5BAO =5A>25@H5==K< >1@07>< 8 <>65B 225AB8 2 701;C645=8O. # =5:>B>@KE >= >:07K205BAO 38?5@B@>D8@>20==K<. @><5 B>3>, A8<2>;8G5A:85 >?8A0=8O =5 2KO2;ONB 53> =0?@02;5==>AB8. >MB><C, =0?@8<5@, 8=489A:><C <8AB8F87<C A2>9AB25==> 2845=85 687=8 2 548=5=88 :0: 70254><> ?0AA82=>3> ?@>F5AA0, :0: ?>;=>3> A0<>C=8GB>65=8O 8 @0AB2>@5=8O 2 1574=5 8:0 >6L53>. "0:>5 ?>=8<0=85, ?> <>5<C <=5=8N, O2;O5BAO 8A:065=85< 8AB8=K. >AB>G=K9 <8AB8: AB@5<8BAO "?>B5@OBL A2>N 687=L =0 25@H8=5", ?>A;5 G53> C65 =5B =5>1E>48<>AB8 2>72@0I0BLAO, GB>1K ?@8=5AB8 A2>8< 1;87:8< 687=5CB25@640NI55 A2845B5;LAB2> B>3>, GB> >= @048 ;N459 ?@5=51@53 A>1AB25==K< A?0A5=85<. "5<?5@0<5=B 70?04=KE <8AB8:>2, :0: ?@028;>, >15@5305B 8E >B B0:>3> >4=>AB>@>==53> ?>4E>40, B0: GB> C =8E 687=L 2 548=5=88 8<5==> :0: "42C548=AB2> A>7840B5;L=>AB8 8 ?>:>O" @50;87C5BAO 2 =081>;55 ?>;=>F5==>< 8 1;03>@>4=>< 2845. !@548 70?04=KE <8AB8:>2 =8:B> =5 >?8A0; 42>9AB25==>ABL ?@8@>4K >B=>H5=8O G5;>25:0 : 50;L=>AB8 1>;55 O@:> 8 2K@078B5;L=>, G5< 59A1@C:.  A>G8=5=8OE 59A1@C:0 A>A@54>B>G5=0 A0<0O ACBL 53> 2845=8O 8AB8=K. >72@0I0OAL : =59 2=>2L 8 2=>2L, >= 2KA:07K205BAO AB>;L >?@545;5==>, GB> C G8B0B5;O =5 >AB05BAO A><=5=89: @5GL 845B > O@:8E, @04>AB=KE 8 =5873;048<KE ?5@56820=8OE, 0 =5 > D8;>A>DA:8E 10=0;L=>ABOE. <5AB5 A 0=B5, A2>8< ?@54B5G59 A@548 =51>68B5;59, 59A1@C: <>3 1K A:070BL: / A0<>5 =0G0;> 8E A;8O=LO, >;6=> 1KBL, 2845;, 81> 2=>2L ?>7=0;, "0: 3>2>@O, >3@><=>ABL ;8:>20=LO. >MB><C 4;O 8;;NAB@0F88 87;0305<>3>, 0 8<5==> 87 A>>1@065=89 53> <0:A8<0;L=>9 =03;O4=>AB8, :065BAO, =5 =09B8 02B>@0 1>;55 ?>4E>4OI53>, G5< 59A1@C:, 8 5A;8 F8B0BK 87 53> A>G8=5=89 ?>:06CBAO A;8H:>< 3@><>74:8<8 8 70B@C4=8B5;L=K<8 4;O ?>=8<0=8O, B> 40==K9 2K1>@ <>6=> >?@0240BL 8E 8A:;NG8B5;L=>9 F5==>ABLN :0: <0B5@80;0 4;O 87CG5=8O 4CE>2=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 G5;>25:0. B0:, 2=0G0;5  > 2845=88 >30: ">65AB25==K5 ?>AB0A8, >B>@K5 ACBL 548=K9 >3, 2 ?;>4>B2>@OI8E 3;C18=0E !2>59 ?@8@>4K 25G=> A>7840NB, 0 2 ?@>AB>B5 !2>59 ACI=>AB8 >1@07CNB 8: >689 8 25G=>5 1;065=AB2>. >A5<C >3 2 !2>8E ?>AB0AOE 5ABL 5G=>5 5;0=85, B>340 :0: 2 !2>59 ACI=>AB8 8 5 =5?@5E>4OI59 157<OB56=>AB8 = 5ABL 5G=K9 >:>9. 0<5BL, GB> 2 MB>9 A>7840B5;L=>AB8 8 2 MB>< ?>:>5 ?@51K20NB ;N1>2L 8 1;065=AB2>. N1>2L 25G=> A>78405B, 81> 55 ?@8@>40 5ABL 25G=>5 ?@5ACI5AB2;5=85 2 >35; 1;065=AB2> 65 25G=> ?@51K205B 2 ?>:>5, 81> >=> ?@52KH5 2>;8 8 65;0=89 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>N >1JOB85 2>7;N1;5==KE 2 548=>< ?>@K25 ;N128 2=5 ?>4>189.  MB>< ?>@K25 B5F A !K=>< >1J5<;NB !2>8E 2>7;N1;5==KE 2 ?;>4>B2>@OI5< ;>=5 !2OB>3> CE0, >B>@K9 2KH5 2AO:>9 5AB5AB25==>9 ?@>87@>640NI59 ?>;=>BK. B5F 5ABL ">B, B> A 15A:>=5G=>9 4>1@>B>9 8 ;N1>2LN 3>2>@8B :064>9 4CH5: ""K  >O, 0 /  B2>9; /  B2>9, 0 BK  >O, 81> 871@0=0 =>N >B 25:0"". 0;55  > AC4L15 4CH8: "0H0 45OB5;L=>ABL  2 ;N128 : >3C, 0 =0H5 1;065=AB2>  2 >B:@KB>AB8 <C, GB>1K 3> ;N1>2L ?@>=8:0;0 2 =0A. 07;8G85 <564C ;N1>2LN 8 1;065=AB2>< B> 65, GB> @07;8G85 <564C >3>< 8 3> 1;03>40BLN. >340 2 ;N128 <K A>548=O5<AO A >3><, B>340 <K ACBL 4CE, 0 :>340 <K >E20G5=K 8 ?@5>1@065=K 3> CE><, =0 =0A =8AE>48B 1;065=AB2>. 0<8 42865B CE >689, :>340 <K 8AE>48< 87 >30, GB>1K ;N18BL 8 B2>@8BL 45;0 ;N128, 0 70B5< = 2=>2L ?@82;5:05B =0A : !515, GB>1K <K =0H;8 >B4>E=>25=85 2 1;065=AB25. -B> 8 5ABL 87=L 5G=0O, :>B>@0O ?>4>1=0 =0H59 A<5@B=>9 687=8 2 B><, GB> 24>E 2 =59 A;54C5B 70 2K4>E><, 0 2K4>E 70 24>E><". "#@07C<59,  A=>20 3>2>@8B 59A1@C:,  GB> >3 ?@8E>48B : =0< =5?@5AB0==>, :0: G5@57 2848<>ABL, B0: 8 157 55 ?>A@54AB20. = B@51C5B >B =0A A>7840B5;L=>AB8 8 157<OB56=>AB8 2 B0:>< 2845, GB>1K =8 459AB285 =5 =0@CH0;> ?>:>O, =8 ?>:>9 =5 ?@5?OBAB2>20; 459AB28N, => GB>1K >=8 @02=> ?8B0;8 4@C3 4@C30. >B ?>G5<C 2=CB@5==89 G5;>25: [B. 5. A>75@F0B5;L] 2 A2>59 687=8 @C:>2>4AB2C5BAO MB8<8 42C<O =0G0;0<8: ?@51K20O 2 A>25@H5==>< ?>:>5, 459AB2C5B, 8 4>AB8305B A>25@H5==>3> 459AB28O, ?@51K20O 2 ?>:>5, 157@0745;L=> ?@8ACBAB2CO 2 B>< 8 4@C3><, 81> 1;03>40@O A2>5<C <8@><C 1;065=AB2C 2A5F5;> ?@51K205B 2 >35, 0 1;03>40@O A2>59 45OB5;L=>9 ;N128 2A5F5;> >1@5B05BAO 2 A515.  >1I5=88 A B5<, :B> 4>AB83 A53>. >3 25G=> ?>1C6405B 53> : =>2><C 459AB28N 8 2 MB>< 459AB288 =8A?>AK;05B 5<C 1;065=AB2>.  ?>A:>;L:C 4CH0 ?@0254=0, >=0 2 :064>5 <3=>25=85 >B:;8:05BAO =0 2A5, G53> 1K =8 ?>B@51>20; >B =55 >3. >B ?>G5<C, 8AE>4O 87 >30, GB>1K ?@51K20BL A>7840B5;L=>9 8 1;065==>9, >=0 >1@0I05BAO 2=CB@L 8 B0< 2=>2L >1@5B05B 2A5 A2>8 4>1@>45B5;8 8 5I5 3;C165 ?>3@C605BAO 2 1;065==K9 ?>:>9... =0 A>7840B5;L=0 2> 2A5E 45O=8OE A2>59 ;N128, 81> 2 =8E =0E>48B ?>:>9. =0 5ABL AB@0==8:, :>B>@><C AB@0=0 53> >B:@KB0 2 2845=88. > 8<O ;N128 >=0 AB@5<8BAO : ?>1545, 81> ?>1540  55 25=5F. #B5H5=85, 157<OB56=>ABL, @04>ABL, :@0A>B0 8 ?@587>18;85  2A5, GB> ?@82>48B 2 2>AB>@3,  405BAO >3>< >70@5==><C @07C<C 2 4CE>2=>< ?>4>188 8 ?@52KH5 2AO:>9 <5@K.  2> 2A5E MB8E 1>65AB25==KE 2845=8OE 8 ?@8:>A=>25=8OE ?@>4>;605B A>7840BL ;N1>2L. 1> B>B, :B> 4>AB83 A53>, 2 ?>:>5 8 A>7840=88 B5< A0<K< 2>74283 2 A2>59 4CH5 687=L ?>4;8==CN, :>B>@0O ?@51C45B 25G=>, 8 ?> >:>=G0=88 687=8 75<=>9 ?@5>1@078BAO 2 5I5 1>;55 2>72KH5==CN. >A:>;L:C >= ?@02545=, 2 25G=KE B@C40E A2>8E >= CAB@5<;O5BAO : >3C, ?>28=COAL A2>59 ;N128, 8 ?@51K205B 2 25G=>< ?>:>5 2 >35, A;54CO A2>5<C 1;065=AB2C. = ?@51K205B 2 >35, => 2KE>48B =02AB@5GC B20@O< 2 4CE5 ;N128 :> 2A5< 25I0<, 2 4>1@>45B5;8 8 2 45O=8OE A2>59 ?@0254=>AB8.  A85 5ABL 2KA>G09H0O 25@H8=0 2=CB@5==59 687=8". !;>20 59A1@C:0, :065BAO, 40NB ?@>AB59H89 :;NG : 687=5>?8A0=8O< 1>3>;N182KE <8AB8:>2, 4;O :>B>@KE "45O=85 =5 ?@8=>A8B =8:0:>3> CI5@10 1;065==><C ?>:>N, @02=> :0: 8 1;065==K9 ?>:>9  45O=8N" 8 :>B>@K< :0:8<-B> B09=K< A?>A>1>< C40;>AL "?@>68BL 687=L 2 B@C45 8 ?>:>5", =5 =0=>AO CI5@10 2=CB@5==59 @04>AB8 8 ?>@>6405<><C 5N B@C4>;N18N. 5@5G8BK20O >B@K2>:, 2 :>B>@>< 59A1@C: AB@5<8BAO 4>=5AB8 4> =0A ?>4;8==>5 548=AB2> >30 8 A>B2>@5==>3> 4CE0 G5;>25:0, 2A?><8=05BAO 25;8:>5 A;C65=85 ;N4O<, :>B>@><C ?>A2OB8;0 A51O A2. 0B5@8=0 !85=A:0O. !D5@0 55 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@>AB8@0;0AL >B >?5:8 =04 65@B20<8 GC<K 4> @5D>@<K ?0?AB20, ?@8G5< 2> 2A5E A2>8E 45;0E >=0 =587<5==> ?@51K20;0 2 1;065==>< A>AB>O=88 2=CB@5==53> ?@8ACBAB28O %@8AB0. A?><=8< 1>;55 A:@><=K5, => =5 <5=55 7=0G8<K5 70A;C38 55 B57:8 87 5=C8, 2A?><=8< <=>3>B@C4=K5 AC4L1K A22. $@0=F8A:0 AA87A:>3>, 3=0B8O, "5@57K. -B8 A2OBK5 "2 1;065==>< ?>:>5 >1@5B0;8AL 2 >35", B>340 :0: 8E 2=5H=OO 687=L 1K;0 ?@8=5A5=0 2 65@B2C A;C65=8N ;N4O<, 2K?>;=5=8N <=>65AB20 4>:CG=KE 68B59A:8E 45;, A>AB02;5=8N <>=0ABK@A:8E CAB02>2 A 15AG8A;5==K<8 ?@54?8A0=8O<8, >A=>20=8N =>2KE >@30=870F89  8 2A5 MB> A =5>BABC?=>9 701>B>9 > 4>AB865=88 B>3>, GB> 30@0=B8@>20;> 1K CA?5E 2 ?@0:B8G5A:8E =0G8=0=8OE. 5 O2;O5BAO ;8 A0<0 687=L B0:>9 4CH8 A> 2A5<8 55 45O=8O<8 :@0A=>@5G82K< A2845B5;LAB2>< B>3>, GB>, ?>7=02 50;L=>ABL 8 ?@5>1@0782H8AL 2 =59, >=0 2>72@0I05BAO 2 <8@ ;8HL GB>1K C?;0B8BL A2>9 4>;3? 8 A>7840=85 2 <8@C, =8 701>B0 > ;8G=>< A?0A5=88 =5 O2;ONBAO 1>;55 55 548=AB25==>9 F5;LN: >=0 ?@52>AE>48B B> 8 4@C3>5 687=LN 2 ?@587>18;88, :>B>@>9 B5?5@L 6825B; 8 B> 8 4@C3>5  ;8HL :@K;LO, =0 :>B>@KE >=0 ?B8F59 ;5B8B ><>9. 0AA<0B@820O =0 ?@8<5@0E 25;8:8E <8AB8:>2 AB>;L <=>3>@07;8G=K5 8 AB>;L AE>685 A?>A>1K 687=8 2 548=5=88, <K =5 4>;6=K 701K20BL, GB> MB> A>AB>O=85 ?> A2>59 ACB8 5ABL A25@H5=85 ;N128, >ACI5AB2;5=85 "A>:@>25==>9 <5GBK". 0: 8 75<=>5 1@0:>A>G5B0=85, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO >B40;5==K< ?>4>185< 1@0:>A>G5B0=8O 4CE>2=>3>, MB> 4>AB865=85  2>7=5A5=85 4CH8 4> A2>1>4=>3> A;8O=8O A 50;L=>ABLN  7=0<5=C5B A>1>9 =0G0;> =>2>9 687=8, A2O70==>9 A =>2>9 >B25BAB25==>ABLN. > MB> 5I5 =5 2A5. "@8 >A=>2=KE ?@>O2;5=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8 4CH8  M<>F88, 8=B5;;5:B 8 2>;O,  E>BO 8 :06CBAO =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4 A;8BK<8 B5?5@L 2>548=>, 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >:07K20NBAO ?>4=OBK<8 =0 1>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L. 5AA?>@=>, >=8 A>AB02;ONB 548=>5 F5;>5, >4=0:> 2 MB>< F5;>< ;53:> 2KG;5=8BL :064>5 87 =8E 2 >B45;L=>AB8. 0: M<>F88, B0: 8 2>;O 8 8=B5;;5:B B@51CNB ?>;=>9 @50;870F88 8 4>AB830NB @0AF25B0 2 30@<>=8G5A:>< F5;><, :>340 A0< 8E =>A8B5;L 4>AB8305B "?>4;8==>3> 25;8G8O, 4;O :>B>@>3> 1K; A>740=". "0:, 8=B5;;5:B >:07K205BAO ?>3@C65==K< 2 MB> 25;8:>5 2845=85 8AB8=K, 7=0<5=CNI55 4;O =53> 2>72@0I5=85 4><>9.  E>45 ?>4>1=>3> ?5@56820=8O A2. 025; 2845; "25I8 =587@5G5==K5", A2. "5@570 >1@5;0 "=5?@5E>4OI55 2845=85 ;065==>9 "@>8FK", 0 0=B5, :>B>@K9 8A?KB0; 53> 2A53> ;8HL =0 >4=> <3=>25=85, 1K; >A;5?;5= 2A?KH:>9 5A>B2>@5==>3> !25B0 8 @07@5H8; 8B>3>2K9 ?0@04>:A 50;L=>AB8  ?>AB83 548=AB2> cerchio 8 imago (:@C3 8 >1@07  ;0B.), 15A:>=5G=>3> 8 ;8G=>AB=>3> 0A?5:B>2 >30. >;O, AB02H0O =5A>:@CH8<>9 2 ?>4G8=5=88 >@30=87CNI5<C 55 "@0=AF5=45=B=><C, CAB@5<;O5BAO : >A2>5=8N 8=KE <8@>2, ?>;CG05B =>2K5 A8;K 4;O ?@5B2>@5=8O 2 687=L A2>53> 25;8:>3> ?@54=0G5@B0=8O.  A5@4F5 ?@8 MB>< B>65 >B:@K205BAO =>20O 2A5;5==0O, ?@58A?>;=ONI0O 53> 25;8:>9 @04>ABLN. ""0:0O 4CH0, 3>2>@8B N1>2L, ?;5I5BAO 2 >:50=5 @04>AB8, 2 <>@5 2>AB>@30, 2 ?>B>:5 1>65AB25==>9 1;03>40B8". Amans volat, currit et laetatur: liber est et non tenetur (*),  A:070; $><0 5<?89A:89.  MB>< :;0AA8G5A:>< 87@5G5=88 =025:8 70?5G0B;5=K 4;O =0A @04>ABL 8 >A2>1>645=85 A2OBKE. E 25;8:85 CA5@4=K5 4CH8 "2>7=>AOBAO, ?0@OB 8 ;8:CNB". @8G5< MB> >B=>A8BAO 8<5==> : B5<, :B> ?@>H5; G5@57 AC@>2K5 C<5@I2;5=8O ?;>B8, :B> ?>A2OB8; A2>N 687=L 2K?>;=5=8N =5A:>=G05<KE, BO6:8E 8 87=C@8B5;L=KE @01>B. "=8 A2>1>4=K, 8 =8GB> =5 <>65B ?><5H0BL 8E A2>1>45", E>BO <8@C :065BAO, GB> >=8 A> 2A5E AB>@>= A2O70=K 15AA<KA;5==K<8 >15B0<8 8 70?@5B0<8 8 ;8H5=K B>3> ?@87@0G=>3> >B4>E=>25=8O, :>B>@>5 ?> =54><KA;8N =07K20NB A2>1>4>9. ------------------------------ (*) N1OI89 ;5B8B, 1568B 8 @04C5BAO; >= A2>1>45= 8 53> =8GB> =5 C45@68B  ;0B. 04>AB=>5 C4>2;5B2>@5=85, > :>B>@>< AB>;L B>@65AB25==K< A;>3>< 3>2>@8B 59A1@C: 8 :>B>@>5 A>AB02;O5B 2=CB@5==NN 687=L ?>3@C65==KE 2 1A>;NB <8AB8G5A:8E 4CH, 5ABL =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: M<>F8>=0;L=>5, 4> ?@545;0 =0AKI5==>5 2845=85 @09A:>3> 1;065=AB20. 5@54:> <8AB8:0 ?>A5I05B A>:@>25==>5 ?5@56820=85 MB>3> 1;065=AB20, :>B>@>5 2>A?@8=8<05BAO 8< :0: =5?@5E>4OI89 40@ 45BA:>9 =5?>A@54AB25==>AB8 8 =5C30A8<>5 4CH52=>5 25A5;L5. @5>1@065==K5 4CH8 4286CBAO 2 @8B<5 ";N1>2=>3> B0=F0", :>B>@><C 2>?@5:8 ;N1K< 2=5H=8< ?@5?OBAB28O< 8 =5273>40< 2A5340 A>?CBAB2C5B A25B;0O @04>ABL. =8 >B;8G0NBAO A0<K< 35@>9A:8-2>72KH5==K< @0A?>;>65=85< 4CE0, :>B>@>5 2?>;=5 A>>B25BAB2C5B >1@5B5==K< 8<8 2KA>B0< 4CE>2=>AB8, 8 C482;ONB <8@ A2>8< >AB@>C<85< 8 25A5;L5< 2>?@5:8 E>4OG5<C ?@54AB02;5=8N > ?>AB=KE D878>=><8OE A2OB>H, =587<5==> ?>3@C65==KE 2 <@0G=>5 C=K=85, :0: 8 ?>;>65=>, ?> >1I5<C <=5=8N, 2A5<, :B> 6825B "4CE>2=>9 687=LN". "0:, E>BO =0 4>;N A2. 0B5@8=K !85=A:>9 2K?0;> <=>3> AB@040=89, >=0 "1K;0 682>3> =@020 8 2A5340 ?@51K20;0 2 @04>AB=>< @0A?>;>65=88 4CE0". 065 :>340 55 >4>;520;0 1>;57=L, >=0 1K;0 ?@58A?>;=5=0 @04CH8O 8 25A5;LO, "C482;OO 2A5E ;8:CNI8< A<5E>< 8 =5?@5AB0==> 1;03>40@O >A?>40". >;55 B>3>, A0<K5 ?@>=8F0B5;L=K5 87 <8AB8:>2 CB25@640NB, GB> B0:0O @04>ABL 5ABL =5>BJ5<;5<K9 0B@81CB 50;L=>AB8. "0:, 0=B5, :>340 2 2845=88 5<C >B:@K;AO 09, C7@5;, :0: 2AO A5;5==0O 2>AB>@65==> A<55BAO, 2>7=>AO E20;C >3C. I5 >4=> 87 53> 2845=89  25;8G5AB25==K9 ;8: !>25@H5==>9 N128, >70@O5<K9 C;K1:0<8. "0:, 4CH8 25;8:8E B5>;>3>2 B0=FCNB ?>4 <C7K:C AD5@ 8 A<5E 2 !>;=5G=>< 0N, 0 ;8:CNI85 0=35;K ?0@OB 2>:@C3 AB5AB20 >30. , 5G=K9 !25B, :>B>@K9 ;8HL A>1>9 7;8B 8 ?>AB868< 8, ?>AB830O, >AB83=CBK9, ;5;55B >1@07 A2>9!  2>A:;8F05B AB@0==8:, :>340 5<C 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 O2;O5BAO >65AB25==0O -AA5=F8O 8 >= ?>AB8305B ;N1>2L 8 @04>ABL :0: 7025@H0NI85 0B@81CBK "@8548=>3> >30. "0:, 50B@8G5 A suoi occhi ridenti (55 A<5NI85AO 3;070  8B0;.) A<55BAO, ?>4=8<0OAL ?> ;5AB=8F5 : 725740<  ?@8 2A5< 2848<>< ?@>B82>@5G88 @0AE>68< ?@54AB02;5=8O< >1 8450;5  > B><, :0: 4>;6=0 1K;0 1K A51O 25AB8 ?CB52>48B5;L=8F0 4CH8! K <>65< A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> 5A;8 >1>65==0O 4CH0 2 A2>5< @0728B88 459AB28B5;L=> >?5@5605B 4CHC >1KG=>3> G5;>25:0 8 "2 2>AB>@35 2>7=>A8BAO =0 =515A0", >=0, ?>4>1=> A2. $@0=F8A:C, 1C45B 25A5;0, @04>AB=0 8 1;065==0, ?@8A>548=OOAL : 2>AB>@65==><C B0=FC 2A5;5==>9 2>:@C3 48=>3>. "A;8,  3>2>@8B MB<>@,  25@8BL A2545=8O<, A>45@60I8<AO 2 68B8OE A2OBKE, ;N1>2L 2>7=>A8B 4CE 87 AD5@K 1;03>3>25=8O 8 ?>:;>=5=8O 2 AD5@C ?@074=8G=>3> 25A5;LO, 345 4CH0 3>2>@8B:  "2>5< ;CG5 B0=FCNI0O <>H:0  >A<5N ;8 O 1KBL ?>GB8B5;L=K< : "515?" G5=L B>G=>5 2K@065=85 MB><C ;8:CNI5<C "4CEC ?@074=>AB8" =0H5; 8G0@4 >;;. "!@548 2A5E @04>AB59, :>B>@K5 2:CH05B >= 2 A;04>AB=>< ?;0<5=8 ;N128,  3>2>@8B >;; >1 "8AB8==> 2;N1;5==><", :>B>@>3> "C70<8 ;N128 ?@>G=> A2O70;0 @52=>ABL : >3C",  ?@>1C6405BAO 2 53> 4CH5 8AB>G=8: =515A=>9 1;03>40B8, :>B>@0O =5254><0 B><C, :B> 55 =5 A?>4>18;AO. "5< A0<K< =>A8B >= 2 A515 =5:89 10;L70<, 8AF5;ONI89 AB@040=8O 8 40@CNI89 @04>ABL 2A5< 2>7;N1;5==K< 8ACA>2K<, :>B>@K5 2 G5@B>30E =515A=KE =5 CAB0NB 2:CH0BL CA;04C A2>8< "2>@F><. !N40, =0 682>?8A=K5 @09A:85 ?@>AB>@K, ?>4;8==> AB@5<OBAO 8E CA5@4=K5 4CH8, :>B>@K5, >70@82H8AL 2=CB@5==8< ?;0<5=5<, A;>2=> =0 :@K;LOE ;5BOB 2 MB>B ;CG570@=K9 A25B.  B>340 8E >A5=O5B A;04>AB=0O ;N1>2L, 8 2A5 8E 5AB5AB2> B05B 2 2>AB>@65==>< ?5=88... 4=0:> <8;>ABL MB0 =5 405BAO 2A5< 8 :064><C, >=0 2E>48B ;8HL 2 A2OB59H85 4CH8, =045;5==K5 40@>< A>:@>25==59H8<. -B8 4CH8 A8ONB A>25@H5=AB2>< 8 =5CAB0==> 2>A?520NB ?5A=L 2>AB>@65==>9 ;N128, :> %@8ABC >1@0I5==CN. E <>6=> C?>4>18BL 35@>;L40< ;N128, :>B>@K5, ?>7=02 =587@5G5==>ABL <8;>AB8 >A?>4=59, A2>59 B>@65AB2CNI59 <C7K:>9 >3;0H0NB =515A=K5 AD5@K.  5A;8 4CH0 ?>7=0;0 B09=C ;N128, >=0, ;8:CO, 2>7=>A8BAO : =59, ?@58A?>;=O5BAO A>25@H5==K<8 ?>7=0=8O<8 8 CB>=G5==K<8 GC2AB20<8, >4=0:> 6 =5 2>2;5:05BAO 2 45;0 <8@0 A53>, => CAB@5<;O5BAO : >3C 8 405B >15B A =570?OB=0==>9 A>25ABLN ?@540==> A;C68BL "><C, >3> 4>;6=> 59 ;N18BL 8 ><C =04;568B >B4020BL A51O A?>;=0. >8AB8=C G5< G8I5 ;N1>2L B0:>2>3> 2;N1;5==>3>, B5< 1;865 8 B5< 5<C 4>ABC?=59 >3.  ?>A5<C 2 >35 157>1;0G=0 @04>ABL 53> 8 A0<>5 G8AB>5 254><> 5<C 1;065=AB2> 87 2A5E, GB> >B:@K20NBAO 2>7;N1;5==K<, GB>1K =0?>;=8BL :@>B:85 8E A5@4F0 @04>ABLN =5>?8AC5<>9". ;0<5==0O ;N1>2L, 2 :>B>@>9, ?> A;>20< >;;0, A>75@F0B5;L =081>;55 1;87>: : 2845=8N 50;L=>AB8, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 2>7=5A5=85 E20;K 2 A0<>70125==>< ?5A=>?5=88.  MB>< A>AB>O=88 @04>AB=0O <C7K:0 ?5@5?>;=O5B :@>B:CN 4CHC, 8 G5;>25: 8A?KBK205B 1;065=AB2>, :>B>@>5 =5 <>65B 1KBL >?8A0=> A@54AB20<8 =0H59 :>A=>9 @5G8.  @04>AB=KE @8B<0E MB>9 ?@5425G=>9 <C7K:8 >= <>65B A;KH0BL >B3>;>A:8 B09=, :>B>@KE =5 =09B8 2 B5>;>38G5A:8E A?>@0E 8 >B2;5G5==KE D8;>A>DA:8E ?>AB@>5=8OE. @><5 B>3>, 4;O =515A=KE <5;>489 E0@0:B5@=0 =5:0O 45BA:0O =5?>A@54AB25==>ABL, >=8 GC64K :0:>9-;81> ?><?57=>AB8 8 ACBL 2K@065=85 B>9 3;02=>9 >A>15==>AB8, 3;02=>9 F5==>AB8 4CE>2=>9 687=8, :>B>@>9 =0A;0640NBAO 25G=> N=K5 4CE><  "B09=K5 G040" "@0=AF5=45=B=KE #@>2=59. "E <>6=> C?>4>18BL 35@>;L40< ;N128", :>B>@K5 ?@8 2845 >30 "A2>59 B>@65AB2CNI59 <C7K:>9 >3;0H0NB =515A=K5 AD5@K". -B> 8 5ABL <C7K:0 AD5@, 1>65AB25==K5 <5;>488, 8A?>;=O5<K5 ;8:CNI8<8 4CH0<8. ""0:>20O A;04>ABL,  3>2>@8B >;;,  2>8AB8=C 5ABL 2>AE8B8B5;L=K9 ?>:>9, :>B>@K9 >1@5B05B 4CH0, :>340 1;03>72CG=K5 <5;>488 =8AE>4OB =0 =55.  B>340 @07C< 2>AB>@305BAO MB8<8 ?5A=O<8 =515A=K<8 8 =0G8=05B 2B>@8BL 8< 2 MB>9 25G=>9 ;N128". >7=0:><82H8AL A 687=5>?8A0=8O<8 <8AB8:>2, <K >1=0@C68205<, GB> >=8 "2>A?520NB ?5A=L 2>AB>@65==>9 ;N128" 2AO:89 @07, :>340 1K <K 8E =8 70AB0;8. K 2848<, GB> 70 35@>8G5A:8<8, 2;5:CI8<8 70 A>1>N AB>;L 206=K5 ?>A;54AB28O 459AB28O<8 <8AB8:0-@5D>@<0B>@0, =0AB02=8:0 8;8 ?@542>48B5;O AB>8B vie intime (A>:@>25==0O 687=L  D@0=F.), ?@>B5:0NI0O C >G030 N128. "B> B0:85 A;C38 >A?>4=8, :0: =5 3> B@C104C@K?"  A:070; A2. $@0=F8A:, :>B>@K9 =5 2845; =8:0:>9 @07=8FK <564C =515A=>9 <C7K:>9 8 @0=0<8 %@8AB0. >;55 B>3>, ?5A=8 MB8E B@C104C@>2 =5 B>;L:> 1;03>72CG=K, => 8 8A?>;=5=K 25A5;LO. 5;8:85 <8AB8:8, 2A5340 ?@51K20NI85 2 B>< A25B5, > :>B>@>< <K =5 <>65< 4065 ?><KA;8BL 157 1;03>3>259=>3> B@5?5B0, =5 1>OBAO =8:0:8E ?@>O2;5=89 A2>59 @04>AB8, 81> 8E 4><  4> :@052 2A5;5==>9. AO 687=L A2. $@0=F8A:0 AA87A:>3>, G59 4CE 1K; ?@5>1@065= 2 >35 8 :B> "?@52KH5 2A5E ?B8F ;N18; <0;5=L:CN ?B8G:C, :>B>@CN 8<5=CNB 602>@>=:><", ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 >4=> 25;8:>5 2>AE>645=85 : <C7K:5. 5=85 4;O =53> 1K;> >4=8< 87 3;02=KE ?@>O2;5=89 4CE0. 5@=K< 5<C <>=0E0< >= 4020; =0AB02;5=85, GB>1K >=8 2 ?@>?>254OE ?@87K20;8 ?0AB2C : ?5=8N. <C :070;>AL 2?>;=5 C<5AB=K< 8A?>;L7>20=85 @><0=B8G5A:>3> O7K:0 B@C104C@>2 4;O 2>A?520=8O A>25@H5==>9 N128, :>B>@0O =025:8 A45;0;0 53> A2>8< A;C3>9. "@58A?>;=5==K9 ;N128 8 A>AB@040=8O :> %@8ABC, 1;065==K9 $@0=F8A: 2 B5 2@5<5=0 A>25@H0; <=>3> AB@0==>3> 2 3;070E =5?>A2OI5==KE. 1> A;04G09H85 4CE>2=K5 <5;>488, ?@87K2=> 72CG02H85 2=CB@8 =53>, G0AB> 87;820;8AL D@0=FC7A:>9 @5GLN, 0 A;KH=K9 5<C >4=><C =52=OB=K9 H5?>B ?@>@K20;AO 2A?KH:0<8 2>AB>@65==>3> G8AB> D@0=FC7A:>3> ;8:>20=8O. =>340 >= ?>4=8<0; A 75<;8 25B>G:C, :;0; A515 =0 ;52CN @C:C, 70B5< 4@C3>9 25B>G:>9, :>B>@CN 45@60; 2 ?@02>9 @C:5, A;>2=> A<KG:><, 2>48; ?> ?5@2>9. "0: 87>1@060; >= A:@8?0G0, 0 ?>@>9 5I5 :0:>3>-;81> <C7K:0=B0, 8, 45;0O =04;560I85 65ABK, A;028; ?>-D@0=FC7A:8 >A?>40 8ACA0 %@8AB0". ><0=B8:0 687=8 2 548=5=88150; 8 A>?CBAB2CNI85 59 A2>1>40, 25A5;L5, C25@5==>ABL 8 @04>ABL  =5@54:> "A;820NBAO 2 2>AB>@65==>5 ;8:>20=85", :>B>@>5 >B?C38205B >1KG=KE ;N459. -B> ;8:>20=85 ?@54AB02;O5BAO =0< 5I5 1>;55 =5;5?K<, :>340 <K 2848<, GB> G5;>25: ?@5405BAO 5<C ?@8 40;5:> =5 A0<KE 1;03>?@8OB=KE 2=5H=8E >1AB>OB5;LAB20E. !0= %C0= 45 ;0 @CA A>G8=O; ?5A=8 4;O A2>59 N128. !2. >70 8<A:0O ?5;0 4CMB>< A ?B8F0<8. !2. "5@570 2 ?5@2>9 >A=>20==>9 5N >18B5;8, 345 <>=0E8=8 68;8 2 :@09=59 154=>AB8, 157 :>;510=89 ?@8=O;0AL A;030BL =0 4@52=5:0AB8;LA:>< =0@5G88 =570<KA;>20BK5 38<=K 8 ?5A=8 4;O A2>8E 4CE>2=KE 4>G5@59. >4>1=> A2. $@0=F8A:C, >=0 =5 2K=>A8;0 =8:0:>9 B>@65AB25==>AB8, =8:0:>9 D0;LH8. 5;8:85 @5D>@<0B>@K &5@:28 AG8B0;8, GB> 2KA?@5==>ABL ?>4 AB0BL ;8HL ;8F5<5@0<. A:5B8G=59H0O, AB@>609H0O 687=L 2 <>;8B20E 8 ?>:0O=88 =0 >@5 0@<5; 2>A?@8=8<0;0AL A2. "5@57>9 8 55 ?>A;54>20B5;L=8F0<8 @04>AB=>, ?>4 72C:8 <=>38E ?5A5=. "0:, 25;8:0O =0AB>OB5;L=8F0 =5 70<54;8;0 >BG8B0BL =5:CN 4CE>2=CN A5AB@C, :>B>@0O 2 A2>59 70=>AG82>AB8 "1K;0 B>3> <=5=8O, GB> A>75@F0BL 1>;55 4>AB>9=>, =565;8 ?5BL". !0<0 A2. "5@570, :0: MB> 2845;8 =5>4=>:@0B=>, A C4>2>;LAB285< 70<5B0;0 :>@84>@ <>=0ABK@A:>3> 740=8O, =0?520O ?@8 MB>< ?>GB8 45BA:CN ?5A5=:C >1 >4=>< 87 A2>8E A0<KE 2>72KH5==KE 4CE>2=KE ?5@56820=89 -=587@5G5==>9 B@0=A25@15@0F88 [transverberation], :>340 >3=5==0O AB@5;0 A5@0D8<0 2>=70;0AL 2 55 A5@4F5. 4=0:> A0<>5 682>5 8 @50;8AB8G=>5, A0<>5 ?>-G5;>25G5A:8 B@>30B5;L=>5 87 2A5E >?8A0=89 @04>AB=>3> ?@>1C645=8O : 687=8 25G=>9, :>B>@>5 A;54C5B 70 <8AB8G5A:8< >B25@65=F5< A51O, 405B =0< AB>;L 65 157KA:CA=>5, A:>;L ?>@078B5;L=>5 ?@87=0=85 A2. 0B5@8=K 5=CM7A:>9. 0@<>=8G5A:0O F5;>AB=>ABL 55 2=5H=59 8 2=CB@5==59 687=8 <>3CB A;C68BL >1@07F>< CA?5H=>3> H5AB2>20=8O ?> 8AB8G5A:><C CB8.  A2845B5;LAB25 A2. 0B5@8=K >B@078;0AL 3;C18==0O ACBL 687=8 2 548=5=88, ?@8G5< 53> 405B B0, GB> ?@>O28;0 ?>4;8==K9 4CE>2=K9 35@>87<, >AB020OAL 8 2 A>7840=88 8 2 <>;8B25, 8 2 B@C40E 8 =0 4>AC35 =5 ?@>AB> 25;8:8< ?>4286=8:>< 8 35=85< M:AB070, => 8 >4=>9 87 ;8:0 B5E 871@0==KE 2 8AB>@88 E@8AB80=A:>3> <8AB8F87<0, :B> 1K; ?>A2OI5= 2 B09=K 5G=>9 N128. ">340 1;03>40BLN >6L59 4CH0 ?@87K205BAO ?>:8=CBL <8@,  3>2>@8B A2. 0B5@8=0 2 >4=>< 87 A2>8E 480;>3>2, 8 E>BO 53> B>= ?>4G5@:=CB> 15AAB@0AB=K9, >G5284=>, GB> @5GL 845B > 55 A>:@>25==KE ?5@56820=8OE,  >3 2848B 55 8A?>;=5==>9 ?>@>:>2 8 3@5E>2. >MB><C A=0G0;0 = 405B 59 ?>=8<0=85 4>1@>45B5;8, 70B5< ?>1C6405B 55 : A>25@H5=AB2>20=8N, 70B5< >18;85< <8;>AB8 !2>59 CAB@5<;O5B 55 : A0<>>?CAB>H5=8N, 8 =0:>=5F, ?>;=>ABLN ?@5>1@0605B 55. '@57 MB8 1;03>@>4=K5 A25@H5=8O >3 2545B 4CHC ?> CB8, >4=0:> :>340 4CH0 >:07K205BAO >?CAB>H5==>9 8 ?@5>1@065==>9, B>340 A0<0 ?> A515 >=0 =5 A>78405B, =5 3>2>@8B 8 =5 65;05B, =5 GC2AB2C5B, =5 A;KH8B 8 =5 ?>=8<05B, @02=> :0: 8 =5 >AB05BAO C =55 =8 GC2AB20, :>B>@K< >=0 @07;8G0;0 1K, GB> 2>2=5, 0 GB> 2=CB@8, =8 @07C<5=8O, :C40 >=0 42865BAO. @8G5< 2> 2A5< MB>< !0< >3 =0?@02;O5B 55 8 @C:>2>48B 5N, B0: GB> =5B <564C 4CH>N 8 >3>< =8:0:>9 B20@8 8 =8:0:>3> ?>A@54=8:0.  B>340 2 4CH5 2>F0@ONBAO <8@ 8 157<OB56=>ABL, 8 :065BAO 59, GB> 55 15AB5;5A=0O ACI=>ABL 8 B5;5A=>5 >18B0;8I5 25745, 87=CB@8 8 A=0@C68, ?>3@C65=K 2 >:50= =5@CH8<>3> ?>:>O, :>B>@K9 >=0 =5 ?>:8=5B, GB> 1K =8 A;CG8;>AL A =59 2 MB>9 687=8. =0 25G=> >AB05BAO =542868<>9, =52>7<CB8<>9, =5?@8ABC?=>9. >;55 B>3>, 2 A2>59 G5;>25G5A:>9 8 4CE>2=>9 ?@8@>45, :0: 2=CB@8, B0: 8 A=0@C68, >=0 =5 <>65B GC2AB2>20BL =8G53>, :@><5 A;04G09H53> ?>:>O, 8 4> B>3> ?@58A?>;=O5BAO 8<, GB> 4065 5A;8 ?@8E>48B 2 42865=85 55 ?;>BL, =5@2K 8 :>AB8, =8GB> :@><5 ?>:>O 59 =5 254><>.  B>340 >=0 2 @04>AB=>< 2>71C645=88 25AL 45=L A>G8=O5B =0 E>4C AB8H:8 2@>45 MB>3>: %>G5HL BK, GB>1 >30 ACBL / B515 O28;0 BCB? He =09B8 ?>:>O 8<, B> =5 E>48B 2<5AB5 A 8<. " B>340 2 @04>AB=>< 2>71C645=88 >=0 25AL 45=L A>G8=O5B =0 E>4C AB8H:8", :>B>@K5 <>6=> 1K;> 1K =0720BL 45BA:8<8 ?@810CB:0<8  AB>;L >=8 =082=K 8 AB>;L =5C:;N65 70@8D<>20=K. B> 1K <>3 ?>4C<0BL, GB> B09=>5 >1I5=85 A >3>< 2>AB>@65==>9 4CH8 0B5@8=K C25=G05BAO A>G8=5=85< B0:8E AB8E>2? =>385 2845;8, :0: MB0 25;8:0O 8 =5CB><8<0O ?>4286=8F0 F5;K<8 4=O<8 @01>B05B 2 3>A?8B0;5, <=>385 A;KH0;8, :0: MB0 65=I8=0, 3;C18=>9 A2>8E ?@>7@5=89 ?>@0782H0O 1K ;0B>=0, 2 =0AB02;5=8OE A2>8< ?>A;54>20B5;O< ?@>2>73;0H05B ?@8=F8?K 2A5>1I59 A0<>>B25@65==>9 ;N128. =>385 >B=>A8;8AL : =59 :0: : questa santa benedetta ("MB>9 1;065==>9 A2OB>9" - ;0B.), >=0 :070;0AL 8< ?>GB8 =575<=K< ACI5AB2><, :>B>@>5 4>AB>9=> A0<KE B>@65AB25==KE A;02>A;>289 8 3;C1>G09H53> ?>G8B0=8O. 4=0:> <=>385 ;8 4>304K20;8AL, GB>, 70=8<0OAL 75<=K<8 45;0<8, 2<5AB> B>3>, GB>1K ?@8 MB>< ?@54020BLAO 2>72KH5==K< @07<KH;5=8O< > 5G=>AB8 8 ;5;5OBL 2 A515 <8AB8G5A:CN AB@0ABL : 1A>;NBC, >=0, ?>4>1=> AG0AB;82><C @515=:C, "2 @04>AB=>< 2>71C645=88 25AL 45=L A>G8=O5B =0 E>4C AB8H:8", 25A5;K5 8 3;C?K5 ?5A5=:8 > A2>59 N128? K 2845;8, GB> A2. 0B5@8=0 AB>8B =0 B>9 2KAH59 ABC?5=8 <8AB8G5A:>9 ;5AB=8FK, =0 :>B>@CN <>65B ?>4=OBLAO 2 <8@5 ?@>AB@0=AB20 8 2@5<5=8 4CE G5;>25:0, 8 >BAN40, >3;O4K20OAL =0 A2>N 687=L, >78@05B <54;5==K9 ?@>F5AA 4CH52=>9 0;E8<88, 2A5 "1;03>@>4=K5 A25@H5=8O" ?@>F5AA0 5AB5AB25==>3> ?@5>1@065=8O, 1;03>40@O :>B>@K< >=0 871028;0AL >B =5A>25@H5=AB2 8 27>H;0 =0 2KAH85 C@>2=8, 345 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 2 548=>< ?>@K25 1572>72@0B=>3> >B25@65=8O A51O A40;0AL =0 <8;>ABL 2A5>1J5<;NI59, 2A5A8;L=>9 "@0=AF5=45=B=>9 50;L=>AB8.  2>B >=0 45;8BAO A =0<8 A2>8< <=5=85< >1 >B=>A8B5;L=>< 8 01A>;NB=>< 0A?5:B0E <8AB8G5A:>9 687=8. K ?>4@>1=> @0AA<>B@5;8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL "1;03>@>4=KE A25@H5=89" 4CE>2=>3> @0728B8O  @>AB 4CH8 8 ?5@5AB@>9:C 55 E0@0:B5@0, 2845=8O 8 M:AB07K, @04>AB8 ?@>A25B;5=8O 8 A>?CBAB2CNI85 8< 3>@L:85 AB@040=8O  8 B5?5@L <>65< A:070BL, GB> "8E 548=AB25==>5 =07=0G5=85  1KBL ?@>2>4=8:0<8 4CH8".  E>45 25;8:>9 ?5@5>F5=:8 F5==>AB59, :>B>@>9 7025@H05BAO ?@>E>645=85 55 ?CB8, MB8 ">B:@KB8O 8 ?>B@OA5=8O" AB0=>2OBAO A>2A5< =57=0G8B5;L=K<8. 0<, =>AB0;L38G5A:8 2A<0B@820NI8<AO 2 CE>4OI89 4> A0<>3> 3>@87>=B0 ?CBL : 50;L=>AB8, B0:>3> @>40 A25@H5=8O 459AB28B5;L=> :06CBAO 25;8:8<8 25E0<8, :>B>@K5 40NB 2>7<>6=>ABL AC48BL, 4>;3> ;8 5I5 AB@0=AB2>20BL AB@0==8:C : 53> ><C. 8:B> =5 1C45B >A?0@820BL 8A:;NG8B5;L=CN F5==>ABL MB8E 25E 4;O B>3>, :B> 65;05B 87CG8BL 25AL ?CBL 87 MB>3> <8@0 2 <8@ 8=>9. 4=0:>, :>340 <8AB8: >:07K205BAO 2 1;03>40B=>9 B8H8=5, 2 :>B>@>9 2;N1;5==K5 701K20NB A51O 8 2 :>B>@>9 >=, ">1;>1K702H8AL A "5<, B> 5<C =02AB@5GC 2KH5;", 1>;LH5 =5 2A?><8=05B > B><, GB> A =8< 1K;>.  @0730@ A2>8E B@C4>2 8 4CE>2=KE A25@H5=89 >= 8A?>;=5= @04>AB8 8 157<OB56=>AB8. "5?5@L 5<C 1>;LH5 =5B =C64K @072820BL 8 C3;C1;OBL 8=BC8F8N, ?>A:>;L:C >= 6825B 2 "A>25@H5==59H5< A>75@F0=88", :>B>@>5 5ABL =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: "B5A=59H0O 8 ?>AB>O==0O A2O7L ACI=>AB8 4CH8 A ACI=>ABLN >65AB20". 45AL :>;5A> 687=8 A45;0;> A2>9 ?>A;54=89 :@C3, 2 :>B>@>< 2AB@5B8;8AL :@09=OO C<C4@5==>ABL 8 :@09=OO ?@>AB>B0. 2830OAL ?> MB><C :@C3C, 4CH0 <8AB8:0 ?@>E>48;0 G5@57 ?5@8>4K 8A?KB0=89, ?>28=COAL =5871K2=><C AB@5<;5=8N ?@>=8:=CBL =0 =>2K5 C@>2=8 @50;L=>AB8, 60645 >1@5AB8 A2>1>4C, CB>;O5<>9 ;8HL 87 "AB>G=8:0 687=8 25G=>9". 8AB8: 2>72@0I05BAO 87 MB>3> 4>;3>3>, ?>;=>3> GC45A AB@0=AB28O 2 ?>8A:0E A51O 8 >B=K=5, 1C45B ;8 >= 2 B@C45 8;8 >B4KE5, AB0=>28BAO ?>4>1=K< <0;5=L:><C @515=:C =0 :>;5=OE A2>53> BF0.  MB>< A0<>< A>:@>25==>< >1I5=88 M<>F88, 2>;O 8 <KA;8 4>AB830NB A2>53> 25=F0. "5?5@L >= 871028;AO >B AC5B=KE 8 =5A:>=G05<KE B@52>3 8 @07@5H8; 2A5 A;>6=>AB8 687=8, 8<5NI85 A2>59 ?@8G8=>9 ;8HL >1>A>1;5==>ABL >B <8@0. >MB><C 4;O =53> 1>;LH5 =5B =5>1E>48<>AB8 2 :@0A>G=KE 2845=8OE, >BG0O==KE 45@70=8OE 8 35@>8G5A:8E 65@B20E.  B08=AB25==>9 A<5@B8 <0;5=L:>3> "O" =0 25@H8=5, 345 4CH0 ?@8>1I8;0AL 5G=>9 87=8, 2AB@5B8;8AL 3>@K 8 4>;K: 2KAH55 ?>AB865=85 8 3;C1>:>5 A<8@5=85 A;8;8AL 2>548=>.  ?>A;54=5< :@0B:>< 2845=88, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO AB>;L 65 >A;5?8B5;L=K< 4;O =0H53> @07C<0, A:>;L 25;8:>;5?=K< 1K;> >:>=G0B5;L=>5 ?>AB865=85 50;L=>AB8 4;O >B206=>9 8 2>72KH5==>9 4CH8 0=B5, =0< >B:@K205BAO, :0: B>@65AB25==> H5AB2CNI89 2?5@548 G5;>25G5AB20 <8AB8G5A:89 35=89, A0<0 A>;L 75<;8, >AB0=02;8205BAO 8 A;0305B A A51O 2A5 0B@81CBK <C4@>AB8 8 2;0AB8. >AB83=C2 25@H8=K <8@>740=8O, >= 70=8<05B <5AB> C 53> ?>4=>68O. @8>1I82H8AL : 5G=>AB8, A=8A:02 548=5=8O A 1A>;NB><, ?>7=02, =0:>=5F, 87=L 2> 2A59 ?>;=>B5, >?CAB>H5==0O 4CH0 <8AB8:0 AB0=>28BAO ?>E>659 =0 <0;>5 48BO  "81> B0:>2KE 5ABL &0@AB2> 515A=>5". * * * / C<5@ :0: <8=5@0; 8 AB0; @0AB5=85<. / C<5@ :0: @0AB5=85 8 AB0; 682>B=K<. / C<5@ 8 :0: 682>B=>5, 8 AB0; G5;>25:><. >G5<C O 4>;65= 1>OBLAO? 'B> O B5@O;, :>340 C<8@0;?  :>340 >4=064K O C<@C :0: G5;>25:, O 2>A?0@N A ?@51K20NI8<8 2 1;065=AB25 0=35;0<8. > 4065 8 0=35;LA:>5 A>AB>O=85 B>65 ?@>945B. A5, 70 8A:;NG5=85< >30, =587156=> ?>38105B. >340 O ?@8=5AC 2 65@B2C A2>N 0=35;LA:CN 4CHC, / AB0=C B5<, G53> C< ?>AB8GL =8:>340 =5 A<>65B. , ?CABL <5=O =5 1C45B! > 8<O 51KB8O O ?@>2>73;0H0N: "K 2>72@0B8<AO : 5<C". >38 <@8B 5A08 "N1>2L :0: A>;=F5" >;L ACI5AB2C5B B>;L:> 2 A>?@>B82;5=88, 04>ABL ACI5AB2C5B B>;L:> 2 ?@8=OB88. CG8B5;L=K5 A8BC0F88, :>340 <K ?@8=8<05< 8E A >B:@KBK< A5@4F5<, AB0=>2OBAO @04>AB=K<8. 04>AB=K5 A8BC0F88, :>B>@KE <K =5 ?@8=8<05<, AB0=>2OBAO <CG8B5;L=K<8. 5B ?;>E8E ?5@56820=89. ;>E>5 ?5@56820=85  MB> ;8HL A>?@>B82;5=85 B><C, GB> 5ABL. 65;0;M448= C<8, ?5@A84A:89 ?>MB XII 25:0 %LNAB>= !<8B !/) !!", >=OB85 "A2OI5==>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5" 1K;> ?@54;>65=> %LNAB>=>< !<8B>< 4;O B>3>, GB>1K >1>7=0G8BL AC1AB@0B G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O. >340 <K 42865<AO >B ?>25@E=>AB=KE C@>2=59 : B>645AB2C A A0<8<8 A>1>9, G5@57 8=48284C0;L=>5 8 A>F80;L=>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5, G5@57 :>;;5:B82=>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 8 4@C385 ?@><56CB>G=K5 AB@C:BC@K : B><C 1>65AB25==><C A>AB>O=8N A2>59 ACI=>AB8, 2 :>B>@>< 8 5ABL ?@545;L=K9 C@>25=L =0H53> 1KB8O, GB>, A?@0H8205B !<8B, <K 1C45< 8A?KBK20BL? 'B> 1C45B 8A?KBK20BL G5;>25:, 5A;8 >= 1C45B 68BL 2=5 A2OI5==>3> 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>? B25B, :>B>@K9 >= 405B, O2;O5BAO >?8A0=85< 46820=<C:BK, A0<>>ACI5AB2;5==>3> G5;>25:0. @82>48<K9 =865 B5:AB O2;O5BAO :@0B:8< 8AA;54>20=85< ?A8E>;>388 ?@>A25B;5==>3> ACI5AB20.  AB0BLN >465@0 #>;H0 A:;NG8B5;L=>5 4CH52=>5 74>@>2L5, ?><5I5==CN 2 MB>9 0=B>;>388, <>6=> 2>A?@8=8<0BL :0: @0AH8@5==K9 20@80=B ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 !<8B0, ?>A2OI5==KE 4CE>2=> >A2>1>645==><C G5;>25:C. 10 >=8 >B<5G0NB, GB> 87<5=5==K5 A>AB>O=8O A>7=0=8O ?@82>4OB : 87<5=5=8N =5:>B>@KE E0@0:B5@=KE G5@B A>7=0=8O. >340 =0H5 >A>7=0=85 @0AH8@O5BAO, <K 845< : 1>;55 3;C1>:8< C@>2=O< A2>59 ACI=>AB8, : >1@5B5=8N A2>53> ?>=8<0=8O 687=8, : A2>8< F5==>ABO<, : A2>5<C GC2AB2> B>3>, :0: =C6=> 87<5=8BL =0H8 >B=>H5=8O, 8 :0: A;54AB285 MB>3> =0H5 ?>2545=85. A5 1>;55 8 1>;55 <K 8I5< B>3>, :0: 68BL F5;>AB=>9, =5 @0745;5==>9 =0 G0AB8 687=LN, =0?@02;5==>9 : 8AB8=5 8 ;N128. 4=064K 2 ?C1;8G=>9 ;5:F88 %LNAB>= !<8B >?8AK20; A0<>>ACI5AB2;5==CN ;8G=>ABL 2 ?>=OB8OE, :>B>@K5 5<C 40; 53> CG8B5;L 475=. @>A25B;5==>5 ACI5AB2>, <0AB5@ 475=, 3>2>@8; !<8BC > 15A:>=5G=>9 1;03>40@=>AB8 B5<, :B> 1K; @0=LH5, > 15A:>=5G=>< A>AB@040=88 : B5<, :B> 5ABL A59G0A, 8 15A:>=5G=>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 B5E, :B> ?@845B. -B> 1K;> <>I=59H55 ?>A;0=85 2A53> 87 =5A:>;L:8E A;>2, 8 >=> AB0;> >A=>2>9 8AA;54>20=89 8 ?@0:B8:8 2A59 53> 687=8. * * *  :=835 "!;54CNI55 <8;;8>=>;5B85", >?C1;8:>20==>9 2> 2@5<O AB>;5B=53> N18;5O 0@28=0 53> 2=C:><, '0@;L7>< 0;B>=>< 0@28=><, >1AC640NBAO ?5@A?5:B82K 35=5B8G5A:>9 8=65=5@88. 0?8A0==0O A?5F80;8AB>< 2 >1;0AB8 35=5B8:8, :=830 A>45@68B 2K2>4, GB> B@C4=>AB8, A2O70==K5 A 35==>9 8=65=5@859, >G5=L 25;8:8, => >=8 @07@5H8<K. 'B> 459AB28B5;L=> =5 8<55B, ?> 53> <=5=8N, @07@5H5=8O, MB> ?@>1;5<0 F5;8 B0:>9 8=65=5@88, ?@>1;5<0 4>AB865=8O >1I53> A>3;0A8O 2 B><, :0:>9 65 B8? G5;>25:0 <K E>B5;8 1K A>740BL. 8FH5 8 0=->3 1K;8 35=80;L=K<8, => >=8 70:>=G8;8 157C<85<  E>B8< ;8 <K 8<5BL 8 8E 35=K 2 =0H5< 35=5B8G5A:>< D>=45? -B> E>@>H89 2>?@>A. = C:07K205B =0< =0 A0<C ACI=>ABL MB>9 :=838, ?KB0NI59AO >?@545;8BL, GB> 65 O2;O5BAO 2KAH8< 1;03>< 4;O G5;>25:0. >72>;LB5 <=5, :0: D8;>A>DC 8 A?5F80;8ABC 2 >1;0AB8 8AB>@88 @5;8388, @8A:=CBL >?8A0BL A2>5 2>A?@8OB85 B>3>, GB> ";CGH5" 4;O G5;>25:0. 0@:A 2A:@K; =0H5 A>F80;L=>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5, 0 $@594 -=0H5 ;8G=>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5.  B> 8 4@C3>5 ?@>=870=K =5:8<8 AC?5@AB@C:BC@0<8, 8;8, B>G=55, AC1AB@C:BC@0<8, :>B>@K5 A:@K20NB ?>4;8==K5 ?@8G8=K 8 <>B82K, 8 2KAH0O 2>7<>6=>ABL G5;>25:0  =09B8 2 A515 ?>:>9, 1>;55 3;C1>:89, G5< MB8 AB@C:BC@K, 8 >A>7=0BL "A2OI5==>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5", :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO 3;C1>G09H8< C@>2=5< =0H53> O. / 745AL =5 1C4C 24020BLAO 2 ?@8G8=K 2>7=8:=>25=8O ?@54?>;>65=8O > B><, GB> MB>B ?@545;L=K9 C@>25=L 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> ACI5AB2C5B; =5:>B>@K5 87 MB8E ?@8G8= O >1AC640; 2 <>59 :=835 "01KB0O 8AB8=0: 87=0G0;L=0O B@048F8O", 345 O 8A?>;L7>20; A;>2> "4CE", 2<5AB> :>B>@>3> O A59G0A C?>B@51;ON 2K@065=85 "A2OI5==>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5". 5 AB02;N O 745AL 8 F5;L ?@54;030BL :0@BC G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O, ?>:07K20NICN >B=>H5=85 MB>3> 3;C1>G09H53> C@>2=O : 4@C38<, ?@8<K:0NI8< : =5<C. -B> O C65 ?KB0;AO A45;0BL 2 4@C3>< @0745;5 A2>59 :=838, 2 3;025 #@>2=8 / A2>59 :=838. <5AB> MB>3>, O ?>?KB0NAL 2KA:070BL A2>8 4>304:8 > B><, G5< 1K;0 1K =0H0 687=L, 5A;8 1K =0H5 3;C1>G09H55 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 1K;> =5?>A@54AB25==> 4>ABC?=> =0<. 'B> ?@54AB02;O;> 1K 87 A51O G5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2>, :>B>@>5 4>AB83;> 2KAH53> ?>AB865=8O; G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 >A>7=0; 1K A2>5 "A2OI5==>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5"? 0: 1K MB> G5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2> 2K3;O45;> A B>G:8 7@5=8O 4@C38E 8 :0:85 GC2AB20 >=> A0<> 8A?KBK20;> 1K : 4@C38< ;N4O<? K;> 1K ?@>I5 A:070BL, G5< 1K B0:>9 G5;>25: =5 1K;, G5< >1@8A>20BL 53> ?>78B82=K9 0A?5:B, > G5< =0?><8=05B =0< B5>@8O "B@038G5A:8E ?>@>:>2", ACI5AB2CNI0O 2 8A:CAAB25. 5B B0:>3> ?8A0B5;O, :>B>@K9 =5 ?KB0;AO 1K 8;8, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, =5 <5GB0; A>740BL >1@07 A>25@H5==>3> 35@>O; => 2A5 >=8 8=AB8=:B82=> <>3;8 GC2AB2>20BL, GB> B0:0O D83C@0 <>3;0 1K ?>:070BLAO ?>;=>ABLN-D8:B82=>9  :0: 2K@570==0O 87 :0@B>=0. >=5G=>, ?CABL 02B>@K =045;ONB A2>8E 35@>52 A8;L=K<8 E0@0:B5@0<8 A B@038G5A:8<8 A:;>==>ABO<8  :>;510=8O 0<;5B0 <>3CB 1KBL B8?8G=K< ?@8<5@>< MB>3>,  0 =0H5 2>>1@065=85 <>3;> 1K 8A?@02;OBL MB8 =54>AB0B:8; 1>;55 B>3>, >A>7=020BL, GB> <K ?5@5=>A8< >BACBAB2CNI85 4>1@>45B5;8 2 E0@0:B5@ ;8G=>AB8, =5A>25@H5=AB20 :>B>@>9 45;0NB 55 :0: @07 ?@024>?>4>1=>9. "0:>9 65 ?@8=F8? 8A?>;L7C5BAO, :>340 <K ?KB05<AO, :0: 745AL, >1@8A>20BL G5;>25G5A:CN F5;>AB=>ABL =5 :>=:@5B=>, :0: MB> 45;0NB EC4>6=8:8, 0 01AB@0:B=>: <K =0E>48<AO =0 =0456=>9 >A=>25, :>340 :>=AB0B8@C5< B>B 8;8 8=>9 A;CG09 2 =530B82=KE 2K@065=8OE. !AK;0OAL =0 8AB>@8G5A:89 ?@8<5@, <>6=> 2A?><=8BL > A45;0==>9 C44>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:5 ?@>A25B;5=8O, :0: A>AB>O=8O >BACBAB28O =5=028AB8, 0;G=>AB8 8 =52545=8O, ?>A:>;L:C ?@>A25B;5=85 >B2;5:05B A8;C MB8E =530B82=KE :0G5AB2 >B B>3> ACI5AB20, :>B>@>5 B25@4> C:>@5=8;>AL 2 @50;L=>AB8 687=8: 53> :;NG52K5 ?>=OB8O >B=>AOBAO : B5< =0H8< G5@B0<, A :>B>@K<8 <K 6825< 2A5 2@5<O. "5< =5 <5=55, 5A;8 <K ?KB05<AO A=>20 2K@078BL D>@<C;C ?@>A25B;5=8O 2 ?>78B82=KE 2K@065=8OE 8 3>2>@8<, GB> ?@>A25B;5=85  MB> =0?>;=5==>ABL ;N1>2LN, <C4@>ABLN 8 15A?@8AB@0AB=K< ?@8=OB85< 2A53>, =0H5 >?8A0=85 AB0=>28BAO A>25@H5==> 01AB@0:B=K<. G5284=>, GB> <K 7=0:><K A MB8<8 4>1@>45B5;O<8, => 7=0:><AB2>  MB> =5 B>, GB> 2 40==>< A;CG05 <>65B 1KBL 25A><K< 0@3C<5=B><. &5;L  1KBL ?>;=>ABLN >1;0G5==K< MB8<8 4>1@>45B5;O<8, 1KBL A>25@H5==> ?>;=K< 8<8. 5 ?@8E>48BAO 3>2>@8BL, GB> <K 8<55< ;8HL A;01>5 ?>=OB85 > B><, GB> MB8 ?>78B82=K5 B5@<8=K >7=0G0NB, :>340 >=8 2K@0AB0NB 4> A2>53> <0:A8<C<0. 5@54 =0<8 5ABL ?@8<5@ 42CE <C4@KE ;N459, 45;02H8E =0< ?@54C?@5645=85: 0@28=0, summum bonum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factum  "B>, GB> A>740=>". -B>  ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 B@N87<. K 2ABC?05< 2 1>;55 8=B5@5A=CN >1;0ABL, :>340 >B<5G05<, GB> 3;C1>G09H89 C@>25=L <KA;59 8 GC2AB2, :>B>@K5 :>=B@>;8@CNB B>, GB> <K 2848<, A0<8 >3@0=8G5=K B5<, GB> C440 =07K20; "@5<O B@020<8: 65;0=8O<8 (?>E>BL, 604=>ABL, AB@5<;5=85 : >1;040=8N), >B2@0I5=85 (AB@0E, =5=028ABL, 3=52) 8 =52545=85 (*). 5;8G09H59 >B@02>9 O2;O5BAO =52545=85. >A:>;L:C MB> 8<5==> =52545=85, B> MB> =57=0=85 A:@K205B =0H5 8AB8==>5 B>645AB2>, A:@K205B B>, :5< <K =0 A0<>< 45;5 5ABL, O2;OOAL ?@8G8=>9 B>3>, GB> <K @0745;O5< <8@ =0 B>, GB> =0< ?@8OB=>, 8 B>, GB> =0< =5?@8OB=>. C<0O, GB> <K O2;O5<AO >B45;L=K<8 ;8G=>ABO<8 [1], <K 8I5< B>, GB> C:@5?;O5B =0H5 >1>A>1;5==>5 O, 8 8715305< B>3>, GB> C3@>605B 59. > B>, GB> <K =07K205< A2>8< >B45;L=K< O, O2;O5BAO A<5ALN =0H8E 65;0=89 8 >B2@0I5=89, :>B>@K5 >1@07CNB 2>:@C3 =0A >1>;>G:C, ?>4>1=CN @578=>2><C <OGC, 8 MB0 >1>;>G:0 ?;>B=> >1;5305B A5@4F528=C =0H53> >1>A>1;5==>3> O, O2;ONI53>AO =0H8< F5=B@><. ------------------------------ (*) / <>3 1K 4>AB8GL A2>59 F5;8, >1@0B82H8AL : ;N1>9 87 25;8:8E B@048F89, => O =0G0; A 1C4487<0, 8 O 1C4C ?@>4>;60BL AAK;0BLAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> =0 1C4487<, 8458 :>B>@>3> :06CBAO <=5 2 MB>< A;CG05 25AL<0 ?>;57=K<8. -B> 2K720=> 5I5 8 B5<, GB> 87=0G0;L=0O >@85=B0F8O <>59 :=838 ("0 ?@545;0<8 74>@>2LO 8 =>@<0;L=>AB8")  ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O, 0 87 2A5E 25;8:8E B@048F89 8<5==> 1C4487< 87;>68; A2>Q ?>A;0=85 2 =081>;55 ?A8E>;>38G=>9 D>@<5. -B0 =5?@>=8F05<0O 8 ?;>B=> A68<0NI0O =0A, :0: M;0AB8G=K9 H0@, >1>;>G:0 O, =5>1E>48<0 2 A;CG05 2A52>7<>6=KE BO65;KE ?>B@OA5=89, =>, GB> :0A05BAO >1KG=>9 A@54=59 A8BC0F88, B> 2 =0;8G88 B0:>9 >1>;>G:8 =5B =8G53> E>@>H53>. 0;8G85 55 :@052 A>7405B 15A?>:>9AB2>. => <>65B >ICI0BLAO :0: <CG8B5;L=>5, 8 B>340 1C45B 2>7@0AB0BL >7;>1;5==>ABL. "0: <>6=> ;53:> AB0BL @07>G0@>20==K< 8 =5CAB>9G82K<. ;O 4@C38E MB> G0AB> :065BAO =5 AB>;L C6 =5?@8OB=K<, :0: MB> >ICI05BAO A0<8< A>1>9: 1KBL <5;>G=K<, 70=OBK< A>1>9, >4=>>1@07=K< 8 A:CG=K<. / =0<5@5==> ?@54;030N >B1@>A8BL MBC, ?>4>1=CN @578=>2><C <OGC, >1>;>G:C 2>:@C3 O, ?>B><C GB> <K E>B8< 2845BL, :0: 2KA>:> <>65B 2>7=5AB8AL =0H5 F5;>:C?=>5 O, 8 :0: 40;5:> ?> =0?@02;5=8N : =515A0< <K <>65< ?>4=OBLAO. > <5@5 MB>3> ?>4=OB8O =0H5 O 4>;6=> @07>@20BL MB8 M;0AB8G=K5, :0: @578=0, ?CBK, :>B>@K<8 >=> >1KG=> ABO=CB>,  MB> B>, GB> ;0= #>BA =07K20; "-3> 2 >1>;>G:5 87 :>68". A;8 <K 87<5=8< =0H8 >1@07K 8 2<5AB> @578=>2KE ?CB 1C45B AB5:;>, B> B>340 "@8 B@02K, > :>B>@KE 3>2>@8; C440, 1C4CB ?>4>1=K B@5< ;8=70<, :>B>@K5 1C4CB 8A:060BL ;CG8 A25B0 2 A>>B25BAB288 A =0H8<8 G0AB=K<8 <=>3>G8A;5==K<8 70?@>A0<8. A2>1>645=85 >B B0:8E M3>F5=B@8G5A:8E 8A:065=89 ?@845B >B ?>AB5?5==>3> C<5=LH5=8O :@8287=K MB8E =0H8E ;8=7  C<5=LH5=8O 8E 2K?C:;>AB8. >38G5A:8< 7025@H5=85< MB>3> 4>;6=> 1KBL G8AB>5 AB5:;>. '5@57 MB> AB5:;> <K A<>65< 2845BL 25I8 >1J5:B82=>, B0:8<8, :0:85 >=8 5ABL =0 A0<>< 45;5. -B> G8AB>5 AB5:;>, :>B>@>5 A B>G:8 7@5=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 2845=8O <>6=> A@02=8BL A >BACBAB285< AB5:;0 2>>1I5, O2;O5BAO =0H8< A2OI5==K< 15AA>7=0B5;L=K<. 1@07 >BACBAB28O AB5:;0 ?>;575=, ?>B><C GB> >=>, ?>4>1=> AB5:;C 2 >:=5, 2K?>;=O5B A2>N DC=:F8N ;CGH5 2A53> B>340, :>340 =5 ?@82;5:05B : A515 2=8<0=8O. CGH5 2A53> 1K;> 1K, 5A;8 1K AB5:;0 2>>1I5 =5 1K;>, GB> A45;0;> 1K <8@ 4>ABC?=K< 4;O =0A. "#<5=LH5=85 53>  MB> C<5=LH5=85 O, C25;8G5=85 53>  C25;8G5=85 O", :0: 3>2>@8; >1 MB>< -:E0@B. "0: >B >1@070 G8AB>3> AB5:;0 <K ?>AB5?5==> ?5@5E>48< : >1@07C >BACBAB28O AB5:;0 2>>1I5  CAB@0=5=8N 2A53>, GB> <>65B >B45;OBL AC1J5:B >B >1J5:B0, O >B <8@0.  475= 8A?>;L7C5BAO >1@07 >;LH>3> @C3;>3> 5@:0;0. >340 "@8 B@02K C40;ONBAO, :0: 3@O7L A 75@:0;0, B> >=> =0G8=05B >B@060BL <8@ B0:8<, :0:>2 >= 5ABL. #B25@645=85, GB> G5;>25G5A:>5 A>7=0=85 <>65B ?>AB>O==> ?@51K20BL 2 MB>< A>AB>O=88, <>65B 7025AB8 >G5=L 40;5:>, => 42865=85 24>;L :@8287=K, 8<5NI59 =0?@02;5=85 A2>53> =0:;>=0, OA=> >ICB8<>. >340 MB8 =0H8 ;8=7K B>;ABK 8 2K?C:;K ?>GB8 4> ?>;CAD5@8G5A:>3> ?@545;0, 4> =0A <0;> GB> 4>E>48B B0:8< ?CB5<. >=5G=>, B0:0O 2;0ABL MB8E ";8=7" >1CA;>2;5=0 =0H8<8 65;0=8O<8, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO B>;L:> ;8HL "2K?C:;>9 AB>@>=>9 2>3=CB>AB8 =0H53> >B2@0I5=8O", 8 MB> 8A:0605B 2AN =0HC A8AB5<C F5==>AB59 2 =0?@02;5=88 =0H8E A>1AB25==KE M3>8AB8G5A:8E 8=B5@5A>2 8 C<5=LH05B =0HC A?>A>1=>ABL ?>=8<0BL 25I8 B0:8<8, :0:85 >=8 5ABL =0 A0<>< 45;5. !;>20 #8;LO<0 ;59:0, ?@54;030NI85 0;LB5@=0B82C MB><C A0<>70F8:;5==><C <8@>2>A?@8OB8N, AB0;8 :;0AA8G5A:8<8: "A;8 2@0B0 2>A?@8OB8O 1C4CB >G8I5=K, 2A5 25I8 1C4CB 2>A?@8=8<0BLAO G5;>25:>< B0:8<8, :0:>2K >=8 5ABL, 15A:>=5G=K<8". >;=>ABLN A0<>>ACI5AB2;5==>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2> O2;O5BAO B5<, GL8 425@8 2>A?@8OB8O >G8I5=K. -B8 425@8, :>B>@K5 O 2KH5 A@02=820; A >:=><, O ?@54AB02;ON 745AL :0: ?>A;54>20B5;L=K5 A;>8 =0H53> 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> C<0 [2]. "5 87 =8E, :>B>@K5 =0E>4OBAO 1;865 : ?>25@E=>AB8, 25AL<0 >B;8G0NBAO C @07=KE ;N459, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 O2;ONBAO >B;>65=8O<8 =0H53> 45BA:>3> >?KB0. 0 =5:>B>@KE C@>2=OE <K 2AB@5G05<AO A "@5<O B@020<8 (O ?5@5G8A;N 8E A=>20: 65;0=8O, >B2@0I5=85 8 =52545=85), :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO >1I8<8 8 4;O G5;>25G5AB20, 8, 2>7<>6=>, 2 =5:>B>@>9 AB5?5=8 ACI=>AB=K<8 4;O =0H53> G5;>25G5A:>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O. >=5G=>, A0<K5 3;C1>:85 A;>8, :0: <K <>65< 2845BL, 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 A;>O<8 =5 O2;ONBAO, 1C4CG8 ?@8>B:@KB>9 AB5:;O==>9 425@LN 8;8 75@:0;><, ?>:07K20NI8< A:>@55 4@C385 25I8, G5< A0<> A51O. > 5A;8 MB> 75@:0;> 459AB28B5;L=> 5ABL 2 3;C18=5 =0A, B> 2 :0:>9 <5@5 <K <>65< =07K20BL 53> A2>8<? 54L :>340 <K A<>B@8< 2 =53>, <K 2848< ?@>AB> >:@C60NI89 <8@. B:@KB85 =0@C6C, 2 15A:>=5G=>ABL <8@0,  C65 >4=>3> MB>3> 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K =07K20BL MB>B 3;C1>G09H89 A;>9 G5;>25G5A:>3> 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> A2OI5==K<. -B>B ?@>E>4 2 A0<>9 3;C18=5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> 2545B =0A : F5;>AB=>AB8 2A53>, 0 :>=:@5B=>ABL A;>2 ;59:0 <>65B 2>A?@8=8<0BLAO :0: =5:0O 8=AB@C:F8O. = =5 3>2>@8; =0<, GB> >G8I5==>5 2>A?@8OB85 @0A:@K205B =0< A0<C 15A:>=5G=>ABL. > MB0 15A:>=5G=>ABL >1=0@C68205BAO 2> 2A5E 25I0E, :>B>@KE <K :0A05<AO, 8 MB> =0?><8=05B B5 1C4489A:85 8AB>@88, :>B>@K5 3>2>@OB, GB> =081>;55 A2OI5==>9 G0ABLN ?8A0=89 O2;ONBAO 8E =5=0?8A0==K5 AB@0=8FK  AB0@0O A>A=0, 8A:@82;5==0O 25B@>< 8 =5?>3>4>9, 8;8 ?>;5B 3CAO 2 >A5==5< =515. "0: O >?@545;ON ?@8@>4C B>3>, GB> =07K205BAO 46820=<C:B0; >AB05BAO B>;L:> >?8A0BL B0:>3> G5;>25:0. 'B> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 687=L B0:>3> G5;>25:0 8 :0: >=0 2>A?@8=8<05BAO 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8? @5645 2A53>, MB> =587<5==>5 ?@8ACBAB285, =5:0O =>C<5=0;L=>ABL. -B> =5 >7=0G05B, GB> B0:>9 G5;>25: O2;O5BAO :0:-B> ?> >A>15==><C 2>71C645==K< 8;8, =0>1>@>B, C=K;K<; 53> A>AB>O=85 =5 8<55B =8G53> >1I53> A A>45@60=85< 04@5=0;8=0 2 :@>28 8;8 A <0=80:0;L=K<8 A>AB>O=8O<8, :>B>@K5 2K7K20NBAO 45?@5AA859 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 2K@>2=OBL M<>F8>=0;L=K9 10;0=A. -B> 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 =0?><8=05B B>, GB> 8<5; 2 284C 8?;8=3, :>340 >= 3>2>@8; >1 >4=>< 87 A2>8E ?5@A>=0659: "= 25@8;, GB>, :>340 G5;>25: 7=05B, :0: <=>3> >= 7=05B > B><, :C40 5<C 84B8, 2A5 25I8 O2;ONBAO >4=8< 1>;LH8< GC4><". @>B82>?>;>6=>ABLN GC2AB20 A2OI5==>3> O2;O5BAO >BACBAB285 157<OB56=>3> ?>:>O 8 B@572>AB8. -B> >4=>>1@0785, >BACBAB285 8=B5@5A>2, 10=0;L=>ABL 8 ?@>708G=>ABL. A5 4@C385 ?@87=0:8 46820=<C:B0 1C4CB >B=>A8B5;L=K ?> A@02=5=8N A >4=8< 01A>;NB=K< ?@87=0:><: GC2AB2>< ?>@078B5;L=>9 <8AB5@80;L=>AB8, B08=AB25==>AB8 2A53> ACI5AB2CNI53> [3]. A5 >AB0;L=>5, GB> <K <>3;8 1K A:070BL > B0:>< G5;>25:5, 4>;6=> 1K;> 1K 8<5BL ?>;>68B5;L=>5 8;8 >B@8F0B5;L=>5 :0G5AB2>. /2;O5BAO ;8 B0:>9 G5;>25: 2A5340 AG0AB;82K<? 0, 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O =5B. 0 >4=>< 87 C@>2=5=  M<?0B8G5A:8 =5B; 5A;8 1K >= =5 1K; A?>A>15= "?;0:0BL 2<5AB5 A B5<8, :B> ?@51K205B 2 3>@5", B> >= 1K; 1K ?@>AB> 15AGC2AB25==K< <>=AB@><, 3@C1K< 8 65AB>:8<. !0<>>ACI5AB2;5==0O 4CH0 =0E>48BAO 2 1>;LH5< A>?@8:>A=>25=88 A 3>@5< 8 AB@040=85<, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO =587156=>9 G0ABLN G5;>25G5A:>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O, :>B>@>5 =C6=> ?@8=OBL 8 ?@>68BL, B0: 65 :0: =0< =C6=> ?@>68BL 2AN =0HC 687=L. B25@30BL B5=52CN AB>@>=C 687=8, ?@>E>48BL <8<> A =55 A> 273;O4><, 8A?>;=5==K< >B2@0I5=8O, >B:07K20OAL @0745;OBL >1I85 AB@040=8O, => @0AAG8BK20O 2 B> 65 2@5<O =0 B>, GB>1K @0745;OBL >1ICN @04>ABL,  MB> ?>@>6405B =58768BK5, >B25@3=CBK5 B5=52K5 0A?5:BK =0A A0<8E, A:@KBK5 2 3;C18=5, B0:85, :0: AB@0E, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 AB@0E A<5@B8. AB>@8O, @0AA:070==0O (0:C !>5=>< (Shaku Soen), A>2@5<5==K< <0AB5@>< 475=, >1@0I05B 2=8<0=85 =0 480;5:B8G=>ABL A0<>>ACI5AB2;5==>9 4CH8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : AG0ABLN, 2 :>B>@>< <K O2;O5<AO B>;L:> ;8HL "=8G5<". >340 C =53> 1K;0 2>7<>6=>ABL, >= ?@54?@8=8<0; 25G5@=85 ?@>3C;:8 : 1;8609H5<C A5;5=8N. 4=064K 25G5@>< >= CA;KH0; ?@8G8B0=8O 2 4><5, <8<> :>B>@>3> ?@>E>48;, 8, :>340 >= 2>H5; 2 =53>, >= C7=0;, GB> E>7O8= 4><0 C<5@. !5<LO 8 @>4AB25==8:8 >?;0:820;8 53>. 0AB5@ =5<54;5==> A5; 8 =0G0; ?;0:0BL 2<5AB5 A =8<8. >68;>9 3>A?>48=, ?>B@OA5==K9 B0:8< ?@>O2;5=85< M<>F89 A> AB>@>=K 8725AB=>3> <0AB5@0, 70<5B8;: " O ?>;030;, GB> 2K C65 =0E>48B5AL 70 ?@545;0<8 2A53> MB>3>".  "-B> :0: @07 B>, GB> 45;05B <5=O =0E>4OI8<AO 70 ?@545;0<8 2A53> MB>3>",  >B25B8; <0AB5@ A:2>7L A2>8 @K40=8O [4]. !;57K <0AB5@0 <K <>65< ?>=OBL; => GC2AB2>, 2 :>B>@>< >= 1K; "70 ?@545;0<8" 2A53> MB>3>, 1>;55 B@C4=> 4;O ?>AB865=8O, ?>4>1=> ?>:>N, ?@52>AE>4OI5<C =0H5 ?>=8<0=85. >:>9, :>B>@K9 =0ABC?05B, :>340 G5;>25:, 1K2H89 3>;>4=K<, =0E>48B =0:>=5F 54C, 8;8 65 :>340 >48=>:89 G5;>25: 2AB@5G05B 4@C30,  ?>:>9 B0:>3> @>40 ;53:> ?>=OB5=; => ?>:>9, ?@52>AE>4OI89 ?>=8<0=85, ?@8E>48B B>340, :>340 87=0G0;L=0O 1>;57=5==>ABL 687=8 =5 >1;53G05BAO. -B>B ?>:>9 >:07K205BAO @0A?OBK< =0 :@5AB5 1>;8; MB> >AB@85 D@CAB@8@>20==>AB8, :>B>@>5 ?@52@0I05BAO 2 @C:>OBL A25B0. K40=8O <0AB5@0 1K;8 @50;L=K<8, E>BO ?0@04>:A0;L=K< >1@07>< >=8 =5 =0@CH0;8 A>AB>O=8O 2A5?@8OB8O, 2K@060NI53>AO =0 >AB>:5 2 A;>20E "2A5 ?@>8AE>48B B0:, :0: 4>;6=> ?@>8AE>48BL", 0 =0 0?045  A;>20<8 "0 1C45B 2>;O "2>O!".  =0H8E CA8;8OE ?>AB8GL ;CGH55 2 G5;>25:5 2A5 A=>20 8 A=>20 >1@0I05B =0A : CB25@645=8N, :>B>@>5 ?@>:;04K205B ?CBL <564C F8=87<><, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 8 A5=B8<5=B0;L=>ABLN  A 4@C3>9. !0<>>ACI5AB2;5==K9 8=48284 =5 O2;O5BAO =587<5==K< =5 B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> <K ?>4>7@5205< =5:>B>@CN ?@5B5=F8>7=>ABL 2 =587<5==>9 C;K1:5, => B0:65 8 ?>B><C, GB> <K ?@82K:;8 2>A?@8=8<0BL 2A5 ?> :>=B@0ABC. 0;5:> =5 :0640O :><=0B0, 2 :>B>@CN 70E>48B 46820=<C:B0 70?>;=5=0 A>;=5G=K< A25B><: C =53> <>3CB 1KBL 2A?KH:8 =53>4>20=8O 8 53> <>3CB @0AAB@0820BL 45=56=K5 2>?@>AK. 5 =587<5==>ABL, 0 A>>B25BAB285  2>B 53> >B;8G8B5;L=K9 ?@87=0:; A>>B25BAB285, A>45@60I55 2 A515 25AL @5?5@BC0@ M<>F89 8 :><0=4. 0B>;8G5A:0O F5@:>2L 1K;0 ?@020, A2O7K20O A8O=85 A> A2OB>ABLN, => ?0@04>:A0;L=K< >1@07><, ": ?@525;8:>9 4>A045", A0< E0@0:B5@ MB>3> A8O=8O B0:>2, GB> >=> 4>;6=> 2K7K20BL ?>B@OA5=85. 87=L  MB> 7040=85, :>B>@>5 =C6=> 8A?>;=8BL, :0: @>;L, 8 ?> <5@5 B5G5=8O ?@>F5AA0 1KB8O 40@ 1C45B ?>;CG5=. 45?B 8A?>;=O5B MBC @>;L: GB> 1K 53> @C:8 =8 =0G8=0;8 45;0BL, >= 4>;65= 45;0BL MB>, 2:;04K20O 2 MB> 2AN A2>N A8;C.  4065 5A;8 >= 2KBO38205B 6@5189 ?@>9B8 G5@57 687=L, :0: G5@57 ?CABK=N, >= A:>@55 1C45B ?@>4>;60BL 84B8, G5< A;5?> ?>;030BLAO =0 :0:CN-;81> 0;LB5@=0B82C. !G0ABL5 1C45B >1@5B5=> 8< :0: ?>1>G=K9 ?@>4C:B. ;O >35=0, <0AB5@0 475=, :>B>@K9 =5 CAB020; =8 >B G53>, 3;02=K< 1K;> ?>72>;OBL 2A5<C ?@>8AE>48BL. A;8 46820=<C:B0 =5 1C45B 2A5340 87;CG0BL 1;03>ABL 8 A25B, >= =5 A<>65B 8A?CA:0BL 8<?C;LAK M=5@388. = <>65B 1KBL 8A?>;=5==K< A8;K, :>340 MB> =C6=>; <K =0E>48<, GB> 2 53> ?@8ACBAB288 1C45B ?@>8AE>48BL A:>@55 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 A8;, G5< 8E 8AB>I5=85, 8 >= 8<55B @575@2K, >B:C40 G5@?05B MB8 A8;K.  >1I5<, B0:>9 G5;>25:, =0A:>;L:> <K <>65< 53> A515 ?@54AB028BL, 1C45B A:>@55 @0AA;01;5==K< 8 A?>:>9=K<, G5< 2>71C645==K<,  >1@07 B0:>9 48=0<8G=>9 8 <03=5B8G5A:8 ?@8BO3820NI59 : A515 ;8G=>AB8 8<55B A:;>==>ABL : C<5=LH5=8N 2 A515 @>;8 -3>. A5 >1;53G05B 045?BC 4>ABC? : 2=CB@5==8< <8@0<, : "7>;>B><C ?@>AB@0=AB2C", :0: O =07K20N A2OI5==>5 15AA>7=0B5;L=>5. A;8 B0:>9 G5;>25: 8<55B ?@8720=85 1KBL ;845@><, B> >= 845B 2?5@548 4@C38E; E>BO 2 B> 65 2@5<O >= AG0AB;82 ?@>AB> A;54>20BL 70 :5<-B>. = =5 >B:07K205BAO >B B>3>, GB>1K 1KBL 3C@C, => 2 B0:>9 65 <5@5 >= 8 =5 =C6405BAO 2 MB><: 5<C =5 =C6=K CG5=8:8, GB>1K ?>445@6820BL A2>5 -3>. KBL 2 D>:CA5 8;8 =0 ?5@8D5@88, =0 O@:> >A25I5==>9 AF5=5 8;8 2 B5=8  MB> 4;O =53> =5 8<55B 7=0G5=8O.  B> 8 4@C3>5 8<55B A2>8 ?@58<CI5AB20, B0: 65 :0: 8 A2>8 =54>AB0B:8. A5 MB8 >B=>H5=8O, :>B>@K5 O C?><O=C;  AG0ABL5, M=5@38O, 8725AB=>ABL, 2;8O=85,  A2>9AB25==K >3@0=8G5==><C O 46820=<C:BK, >B :>B>@>3> >= 2> 2A5 1>;LH59 <5@5 >B:07K205BAO ?> <5@5 B>3>, :0: A>25@H05B A2>9 ?CBL ?> =0?@02;5=8N : 53> D8=0;C, A2OI5==><C 15AA>7=0B5;L=><C. >A:>;L:C 53> F5;L 2=5;8G=>AB=0, B> >B>645AB2;5=85 A =59 ?@82>48B : A<5@B8 >3@0=8G5==>3>, :>=5G=>3> O. -B0 G0ABL 53> ACI5AB20 2>2;5:05BAO 2 B>B 0:B 8AG57=>25=8O, :>B>@K9 8<5; 2 284C C<0@0A20<8, :>340 ?8A0;: ";065= B>B G5;>25:, =0 <>38;5 :>B>@>3> <>6=> =0?8A0BL: "Hic jacet nemo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omfort, A. I and That. New York: Crown Publishers, 1979. !59G0A <=>385 8AA;54>20=8O :0A0NBAO MB>3> 2>?@>A0 :0: 2 B5@<8=0E 0780BA:>9, B0: 8 2 B5@<8=0E 70?04=>9 <KA;8, => ;8HL =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E ?@82;5:0NB 40==K5 A>2@5<5==>9 =0C:8 4;O CG0AB8O 2 MB>9 48A:CAA88. [2] M=85; @0C= >B:@K; =5GB>, GB> O2;O5BAO 8=B5@5A=K< 8, 2>7<>6=>, 206=K< (5=4@>9 !<8B 1K; >B<5G5= MB>B <><5=B, B0: 65 :0: 8 2KA:070=K ?>;57=K5 ?@54;>65=8O ?@8 <>59 @01>B5 =04 MB>9 3;02>9, 70 GB> O 2K@060N ?@87=0B5;L=>ABL), 2 AB0BL5, >?C1;8:>20==>9 2 International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (October 1977, 24, 4), 345 >B<5G05BAO, GB> MB0?K ?CB8 2 B0=B@8G5A:>< 1C4487<5 >1@0B=K AB048O< ?5@F5?B82=>3> 8 :>3=8B82=>3> @0728B8O, >?8A0==K< :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>9 H:>;>9 45BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 (8065, 5A5;;, 030=, C8A 5@D8, @C==5@ 8 4@). # 45B59 A=0G0;0 2>7=8:05B GC2AB2> A51O, 2>:@C3 :>B>@>3> >@30=87C5BAO 8E >?KB, 70B5<  AB@C:BC@K, :>B>@K5 >@30=87CNB 2>A?@8OB85, 8 ;8HL ?>A;5 MB>3>  <KH;5=85. @8 B0=B@8G5A:>9 <548B0F88 MB>B ?CBL ?@>E>48BAO 2 >1@0B=>< ?>@O4:5. >A;5 =0G0;L=>9 AB0488, 2 :>B>@>9 ;0<0 B@5=8@C5B A2>5 8=B@>A?5:B82=>5 =0<5@5=85, 2B>@0O AB048O @07@CH05B AB@C:BC@K 53> <KA;59, 2>72@0I0O 53> 2 <8@ G8AB>3> 2>A?@8OB8O. "@5B89 H03 @07@CH05B AB5@5>B8?K 2>A?@8OB8O, ?@8>1@5B5==K5 2 45BAB25. '5B25@B0O (8 D8=0;L=0O) AB048O  MB> ?@>@K2 G5@57 B>B <5E0=87<, :>B>@K9 A>740; C @515=:0 GC2AB2> -3>, 8 MB>B ?@>@K2 405B ;0<5 2>7<>6=>ABL ?5@56820BL <8@ 157 <5H0NI53> GC2AB20 A2>53> "/". A?>;L7CO 2K@065=8O, :>B>@K5 <K ?@8<5=O5< 745AL, <>6=> A:070BL, GB> B0:0O <548B0F8O ?><>305B ?@>9B8 ?@><56CB>G=K5 A;>8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3> 8 2>9B8 2 =5?>A@54AB25==>5 A>?@8:>A=>25=85 A =0H8< "A2OI5==K< 15AA>7=0B5;L=K<". [3] >6=> 1K;> ?@825AB8 <>9 87;N1;5==K9 ?@8<5@ A A00:>< LNB>=><. 'B> <>65B 1KBL 1>;55 ?>2A54=52=K<, G5< A8;0 BO3>B5=8O, 45;0NI0O 2>7<>6=K< 2AO:>5 =0H5 459AB285 8 C?@02;ONI0O 8<? LNB>= ?@5>4>;5; =0H5 ?@82KG=>5 2>A?@8OB85, GB>1K C2845BL B>, GB> ">4=> B5;> <>65B 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 4@C3>5 B5;> =0 @0AAB>O=88, G5@57 ?CAB>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2>, 157 ?>A@54AB20 G53>-B> 5I5", :0: ?8A0; >= 2 ?8AL<5 A2>5<C 4@C3C. " MB> 4;O <5=O AB>;L 65 25;8G5AB25==>,  ?@87=020;AO >=,  A:>;L 8 01AC@4=>... =5B B0:>3> G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 1K; 1K A254CI 2 D8;>A>D88 8 <>3 1K @02=>4CH=> >B=>A8BLAO : MB><C". &8B. ?>: Zukav, Q. Dancing Wu Li Master, N.Y.: Morrow, 1979, p.49. [4] Shioegl, I. The Wisdom of the Zen Masters. N.Y.: New Directions, 1975, p. 21. [5] Coomaraswamy, Hinduism and Buddism. Westport, Conn.,: Greenwood Press, 1943, p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isten, Humanity, p. 151. [2] Meher Baba. Discourses, 3 vols. San Francisco. 1967. 2:13-15. [3] Ibid. pp. 18-19. [4] Listen, Humanity, p. 152 [5] A=>2=>9 @01>B>9 5E5@ 010 ?> MB><C 2>?@>AC O2;O5BAO: God Speaks, 2-nd ed. New York. 1973. #?@>I5==>5 22545=85 40=> 2 :=835 828 LNA0: Duce I. . What Am I Doing Here? New York. 1972. [6] Discourses, 2:139. [7] &8B. ?>: Barbazon F. Stay with God. Sydney. 1959. p. 107. [8] Discourses, 2:144-145 [9] Meher Baba. The Everything and the Nothing. Berkeley (Cal). 1971. p. 78. [10] Meher Baba. Sparks from Meher Baba. Myrtle Beach (S.Car). 1962. p. 9-10. [11] Ibid. p. 13. [12] The Awakener. Vol. 10. No.1 (1964). p. 29. [13] Discourses, 2:41. [14] Ibid. 1:20-21. [15] Ibid. 2:12. [16] Ibid. p. 191. [17] Divya Vani. Vol. 1. No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oB <56=0F8>=0;L=KE 3@0=8F? @8H=0<C@B8: 5@=>. K 2A5 ?@8>1I5=K : MB><C ?>B>:C. >MB><C A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?A8E>;>388 =5B =8:0:>9 8=48284C0;L=>AB8... @>AB> ?>A<>B@8B5. K 545B5 2 =48N 8 2848B5 B0< 154=>ABL, =58<>25@=CN 154=>ABL, :>B>@0O CAC3C1;O5BAO 8 ?@8G8=O5B ;N4O< AB@040=85.  MB> AB@040=85  >1I55 4;O 2A53> G5;>25G5AB20. "0: GB> 2K 8 5ABL G5;>25G5AB2>, 0 =5 <8AB5@ !<8B 8;8 <8AA8A 6>C=A. =CB@5==5, ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 <K  G5;>25G5A:85 ACI5AB20. K  G5;>25G=>ABL. #09B:  2K 3>2>@8B5 ;N4O<: "!<>B@8B5, >A>7=0209B5 20HC G5;>25G5A:CN 2A5>1I=>ABL". @8H=0<C@B8: 0, AM@.  :>340 2K @50;L=> ?>AB8305B5 G5;>25G=>ABL, A<>B@8B5, GB> A 20<8 ?@>8AE>48B. #09B: /2;O5BAO ;8 MB> >BG0AB8 20H8< >B25B>< =0 <>9 2>?@>A ":0:"? "> 5ABL A<>B@5BL =0 >1I57=0G8<CN G5;>25G=>ABL 2 A515, >B:07K20BLAO >B ;N1KE O@;K:>2? @8H=0<C@B8: 73;O=8B5 =0 =55 A=0G0;0, ?>GC2AB2C9B5 55, C284LB5 55 A2>8<8 3;070<8, 2A;CH09B5AL 2 MBC 25IL: 2 B>, GB> 2K 2>2A5 =5 8=48284C0;L=0O 18B20 70 A51O A0<>3>, E>BO 2A5 @5;8388 3>2>@OB 20<, GB> 2K  8=48284C0;L=0O 4CH0. #09B: 4=0:> <=>385 @5;8388 ?@>2>73;0H0NB >1I57=0G8<CN G5;>25G=>ABL >A=>20=85< A?>:>9AB28O 2 <8@5. @8H=0<C@B8: > >=8 65 =5 682CB 5N. #09B:  28=>20B0 2 MB>< @5;838O 8;8 65 ;8G=>ABL? @8H=0<C@B8: 45AL >4=>2@5<5==> 28=0 8 @5;8388 8 ;N459. 54L GB> 8<55B 7=0G5=85, AM@? >=5G=>, =5 B>, GB> =0?5G0B0=>, 8 =5 B>, GB> :B>-B> A:070;. #09B:  B>;L:> 682>9 >?KB. @8H=0<C@B8: 0. ">;L:> 687=L 157 AB@0E0. #09B: K 3>2>@8;8, GB> =8:0:>3> 3C@C, =8:0:>9 D8;>A>D8O, =8:0:>3> <5B>40 5I5 =54>AB0B>G=> 4;O ?>=8<0=8O 8=BC8B82=>3> 7=0=8O, A2>1>4K  4;O ?>=8<0=8O A51O A0<>3>. @8H=0<C@B8: @52=85 3@5:8 A:070;8: ">7=09 A0<>3> A51O", 0 4> =8E B> 65 A0<>5 3>2>@8;8 4@52=85 8=4CAK. > =8:B> =5 3>2>@8;: "C-:0, A59G0A O 2> 2A5< @0715@CAL". #09B: =>385 :0: @07 3>2>@8;8 B0:. @8H=0<C@B8: 4=0:> =5 A45;0;8 MB>3>. #09B: , => MB> A>2A5< 4@C30O B5<0. @8H=0<C@B8: / 3>2>@N > =01;N45=88 70 A0<8< A>1>9  70 AB@0E0<8, >48=>G5AB2><, @52=>ABLN, B@52>3>9; 0 284O MB> 2 A515, 2K >A2>1>6405B5AL >B MB>3>. 0D! #09B: =>385 ;N48 2 A>AB>O=88 ?@54?@8=OBL ?CB5H5AB285 2 ?>8A:0E ?>B05==>3> A>:@>28I0. >;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E 53> =5 >BKI5B. > ?@54?>;>68<, >48= 8;8 =5A:>;L:> ?CB=8:>2 =0E>4OB 53>. >65B5 ;8 2K =0720BL 8AB>@8G5A:85 ;8G=>AB8, :>B>@K< 2K... @8H=0<C@B8: / =5 <>3C =0720BL =8:>3> ;8G=>. #09B: %>BL :>3>-=81C4L 2K 2848B5... @8H=0<C@B8: 025@=>5, 40. > MB> =5 8<55B =8:0:>3> 7=0G5=8O. #09B: 30, => 8E ?@8<5@... @8H=0<C@B8: E ?@8<5@. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> 2K A;54C5B5 :0:><C-B> >1@07FC. #09B: > =5>1O70B5;L=> 2 65AB:>9, 02B>@8B0@=>9 D>@<5. @8H=0<C@B8: K A0<8  2>B GB> 206=55, G5< GB>-;81> 8=>5, G5< ;N1K5 >1@07FK 8 ;N1K5 A?0A8B5;8. >9<8B5 A0<>3> A51O 8 1C4LB5 A2>1>4=K >B AB@0E0. #09B: 4=0:>, 5A;8 ACI5AB2C5B >1I57=0G8<0O G5;>25G=>ABL 8 :B>-B> ?>AB83 55 ACI=>ABL, B> >B =8E <>6=> =0CG8BLAO. @8H=0<C@B8: '5<C 2K <>65B5 =0CG8BLAO? !<>B@8B5, AM@. >B C <5=O 2K CG8B5AL? 59AB28B5;L=> CG8B5AL? ;8 ?@>AB> ?@8=8<05B5 : A2545=8N? #09B: 0, O ?>=8<0N B>, GB> 2K 3>2>@8B5. @8H=0<C@B8: %>@>H>. G5=L =5<=>38< MB> C405BAO. >=0E, :>B>@K9 ?>4=8<05BAO =0 <>;8B2C 2 B@8 G0A0 CB@0, B0: 65 >1CA;>2;5=, :0: G5;>25: A C;8FK. #09B: =0455B5AL ;8 2K, GB> 40==K9 20<8 C@>: CA;KH0=, GB> 53> 2K?>;=ONB 8 8< 682CB? @8H=0<C@B8: !M@, O 3>2>@N C65 H5ABL45AOB ;5B 8;8 4065 4>;LH5. #09B: 0: 2K C7=05B5 > B5:CI8E 45;0E 2 <8@5? 0:8< 2K =0E>48B5 A53>4=OH=89 <8@? 0G0;>AL ;8 E>BL :0:>5-=81C4L ?@>1C645=85 : ;N128? @8H=0<C@B8: # =5:>B>@KE ;N459 =0G0;>AL. B>-B> ?@845@68205BAO ?CB8 =0?>;>28=C.  ;8HL >G5=L =5<=>385 ?>;=>ABLN >B40;8AL ?CB5H5AB28N. #09B: 0: 2K 4C<05B5, <>65B 1KBL, 538?BO=5 70 4000 ;5B 4> %@8AB0 8;8 =50=45@B0;LFK 50 000 ;5B =0704 A 1>;LH59 ?>78B82=>ABLN >B:;8:=C;8AL 1K =0 20H5 >1@0I5=85, G5< =0H8 A>2@5<5==8:8? =K<8 A;>20<8, <8@ A:0BK20;AO ?> =0:;>==>9, 8;8 65 5ABL 2A5-B0:8 M2>;NF8>==>5 ?@>42865=85 2 =0H59 A?>A>1=>AB8 : 8=BC8B82=><C ?>AB865=8N 8 ;N128? @8H=0<C@B8: C<0N, A59G0A MB> AB0=>28BAO 2A5 B@C4=55. !;8H:>< 25;8:> 2=5H=55 402;5=85. #09B: > 254L MB> <>65B ?>A;C68BL >A=>20=85< 4;O 25;8:>;5?=>3> ?@>@K20. 0: 2K 4C<05B5, 2>7<>65= ;8 B0:>9 ?@>@K2 2 3;>10;L=>< <0AHB015? @8H=0<C@B8: 025@=>5, 40. #09B: N48 3>2>@OB > ?@8E>45 A5<8@=>3> #G8B5;O 8 > @0728B88 2A5<8@=>3> >1I5AB20, >A=>20==>3> =0 ;N128 8 <C4@>AB8. 848B5 ;8 2K B0:>5 A59G0A? @8H=0<C@B8: >60;C9, MB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 <54;5==><, <0;>< <0AHB015.  >G5=L->G5=L <0;>< <0AHB015. >;LH0O 65 G0ABL <8@0 3>B>28BAO : 2>9=5. #09B: > 5ABL 65 8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 B5G5=85, :>B>@>5 ?KB05BAO =0;048BL <8@. @8H=0<C@B8: =8 =5 2KABC?0NB ?@>B82 2>9=K 2>>1I5  >=8 2KABC?0NB ?@>B82 :0:>9-B> 2>9=K 2 G0AB=>AB8. >=8<05B5, GB> MB> 7=0G8B? =8 =5 3>2>@OB: "0209B5 ?@5:@0B8< 2>9=K 8 2>5==K5 ?@83>B>2;5=8O". AO ?@><KH;5==>ABL >A=>20=0 =0 2>9=0E. -B> 8 >7=0G05B B>, GB> ;N4O< A;54>20;> 1K ?@>1C48BLAO. #09B:  O A?@0H820N, 2848B5 ;8 2K A<KA; 2 B><, GB>1K ?@>4>;60BL MB> ?>2AN4C 2 <8@5 A 4>AB0B>G=>9 A8;>9 8 =0AB>9G82>ABLN. @8H=0<C@B8: !?>@048G=> B0: 8 ?@>8AE>48B. #09B: K =0455B5AL, GB> ?@>F5AA CA8;8205BAO? @8H=0<C@B8: 0. #09B:  5ABL ;8 C 20A >ICI5=85, GB> MB> 459AB28B5;L=> B0:? 'B> =0ABC?05B >20O -?>E0, -?>E0 >4>;5O? @8H=0<C@B8: 5 C25@5=. >A<>B@8B5 =0 B5E, :B> >1 MB>< 3>2>@8B: 8E A>1AB25==K5 687=8 =5 A;C60B B><C 4>:070B5;LAB2><.  8E 687=OE =5B C<8@>B2>@5=8O. / =5 C25@5=, AM@, GB> G5;>25G5A:89 <>73 =5 8A?>@G5=.  MB>9 AB@0=5, 2 <5@8:5, 5ABL A?5F80;8ABK 8 M:A?5@BK ?> 2A5<C, GB> E>B8B5. !?5F80;8ABK ?> A5:AC, A?5F80;8ABK ?> B><C, :0: >4520BLAO, ?> B><C, :0: 25AB8 2>9=C 8 :0: C1820BL. #09B: K 8<55B5 2 284C, GB> =0H0 687=L 2A5 1>;LH5 8 1>;LH5 @0A?0405BAO =0 D@03<5=BK? @8H=0<C@B8: <5@8:0=F52 CAB@0820NB MB8 A?5F80;8ABK. A;8 8< E>G5BAO A51O ?@8C:@0A8BL, >=8 >1@0I0NBAO : A?5F80;8ABC: "!:068B5 <=5 :0:, 8 O MB> A:>?8@CN". 'B> 65 A;CG8;>AL A ;N4L<8, :>B>@K<8 70?@02;ONB A?5F80;8ABK, :0: 2 MB>9 AB@0=5? =8 ?>B5@O;8 A2>N A2>1>4C. #09B:  E>@>H> ;8 B>340, GB> 2K 3>2>@8B5 ;N4O<: "N18B5, 1C4LB5 A2>1>4=K<8, => =5 A?@0H8209B5 :0:  @0715@8B5AL 2 MB>< A0<8"? @8H=0<C@B8: 5B, =5B! 0AG5B ":0:" <=5 2A5 402=> ?>=OB=>. / 254L A:070;: "5B =8:0:8E ":0:". 01;N409B5. !<>B@8B5 =0 MB>. AB0209B5AL A MB8<. #284LB5 MB>  A> 2A5<8 G0AB=>ABO<8  8 =5 CAB@0=O9B5AL". ;O <5=O ":0:" >7=0G05B A8AB5<C, <5B>4.  ;N1>9 A8AB5<5 ?@8ACI0 2=CB@5==OO CI5@1=>ABL. 5206=>, :0:>9 8<5==> A8AB5<5  845>;>38G5A:>9, 4CE>2=>-?@0:B8G5A:>9, ?>;8B8G5A:>9. N10O A8AB5<0 >1O70B5;L=> =5A5B 2 A515 A>1AB25==CN ?>3815;L. -B> 70:>=, MB> >G5284=>ABL. #09B: >6=> <=5 =5<=>3> @0AA?@>A8BL 20A >1 MB><? @8H=0<C@B8: 0. #09B: !CI5AB2CNB 18>;>38G5A:85 8 D878G5A:85 A8AB5<K, :>B>@K5 C25;8G820NB A2>N M=5@38N 8 A2>N A;>6=>ABL. @8H=0<C@B8: >=5G=>. /-B> 3>2>@N 3;02=K< >1@07>< > ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E A8AB5<0E. $8@<0 IBM >?8@05BAO =0 3@><04=CN A8AB5<C. -B> >4=0 87 25;8G09H8E A8AB5< 2 <8@5, =0@O4C A 8<A:>9 0B>;8G5A:>9 &5@:>2LN.  <8@5, AM@, >G5=L->G5=L <0;> ;N459, 4>182H8EAO <CB0F88 2 CA;>28OE A2>53> ACI5AB2>20=8O, => 8<5==> >=8 87<5=ONB A>7=0=85 G5;>25G5AB20. '5< 1>;LH5, B5< 4>AB>9=55  2K ?>=8<05B5? #09B: 0: @07 MB> <5=O 8=B5@5AC5B. @8H=0<C@B8: E >G5=L->G5=L <0;>, => >=8 A?>A>1=K ?>2;8OBL =0 A>7=0=85 G5;>25G5AB20 2 F5;><. #09B:  5A;8 C =8E =8G53> =5 ?>;CG8BAO, : G5<C <K ?@845<? @8H=0<C@B8:  A0<><C <@0G=><C. K <>65B5 2845BL, GB> ?@>8AE>48B. >A<>B@8B5 2 3075B0E, 6C@=0;0E. #09B: @C385 284OB A:@KBK5 25O=8O 8 ?>4A?C4=K5 B5G5=8O, :>B>@K5, ?> 8E >6840=8O<, >G5=L A:>@> ?@8=5ACB 40;L=59H85 ?5@5<5=K 8 B@0=AD>@<0F8N 2 3;>10;L=>< <0AHB015. =8 =07K20NB MB> 03>2>@>< >4>;5O, -?>E>9 >4>;5O, 8;8 B@0=AD>@<0F859 A>7=0=8O. @8H=0<C@B8: !M@, A;>2> "B@0=AD>@<0F8O" >7=0G05B ?@5>1@07>20=85 >4=>9 D>@<K 2 4@C3CN. K A 20<8 3>2>@8< =5 > B@0=AD>@<0F88, 0 > @048:0;L=>< 87<5=5=88, ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< 87<5=5=88  =5 > 42865=88 >B B>3> : MB><C, 0 >1 >:>=G0=88 G53>-B> >4=>3> 8 =0G0;5 G53>-B> A>2A5< =>2>3>. #09B: ;O >B45;L=>9 ;8G=>AB8; => 2 3;>10;L=>< <0AHB015... @8H=0<C@B8: 5B! / A:070;, GB> 5A;8 5ABL =5A:>;L:> ;N459, B> >=8 1C4CB 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 A>7=0=85 2 F5;><. #09B: >;CG05BAO, GB> @5GL 1C4B> 1K 845B > GC45A=>< A?0A8B5;5/:>B>@K9 A45;05B MB> 70 =0A. @8H=0<C@B8: 5B, =5B, =5B! K B>;L:> GB> A>H;8AL =0 B><, GB> C =0A 5ABL >1I55 G5;>25G5A:>5 A>7=0=85, B0: 254L? A;8 =5A:>;L:> ;N459 A?@02;ONBAO A 154>9, B> MB8< 70B@038205BAO 2A5 A>7=0=85. #09B: 0 AG5B B>3>, GB> >AB0;L=K5 C7=0NB >1 MB><, 87CG0NB MB>, ?>B>< CG0BAO MB><C? @8H=0<C@B8: 0. #09B: > MB> 65 ?>AB5?5==K9 ?@>F5AA. @8H=0<C@B8: 5B. <5==> 2 MB>< A;CG05 2@5<O  2@03 G5;>25:C. !59G0A <K =5 1C45< 24020BLAO 2 B>, GB> B0:>5 2@5<O. #09B:  <>6=> =5<=>3> 7045@60BLAO =0 MB>< <><5=B5? K 65 H5ABL45AOB ;5B ?>B@0B8;8 =0 B>, GB>1K ?@>1C48BL G5;>25G5A:CN @0AC : 8AB8=5. @8H=0<C@B8: !=0G0;0 : >?0A=>AB8, ?>B>< C65 : 8AB8=5. #09B: ABL 8 4@C385, 70O2;ONI85, GB> 45;0NB B> 65 A0<>5, 8 5ABL B5, :B> AG8B05B, GB> 2K 8 4@C385 CG8B5;O ?@8=8<0NB 70 459AB28B5;L=CN ?5@5<5=C B>, GB> =5 O2;O5BAO =5?>A@54AB25==> >G5284=K<. @8H=0<C@B8: >65B 1KBL. #09B: "0: 2K, AB0;> 1KBL, =5 AB>@>==8: ?@54AB02;5=8O, GB> ?@O<> A59G0A 2 <8@5 ?>4A?C4=> ?@>8AE>48B B@0=AD>@<0F8O A>7=0=8O? @8H=0<C@B8: =05B5 ;8 2K, AM@, GB> ?@>8AE>48B A 52@>?59F0<8? E :C;LBC@0 8AG5705B, 8E ?@><KH;5==>ABL 8AG5705B, 2A5 C =8E 2 C?04:5. #09B:  GB>, 2 <5@8:5 B> 65 A0<>5? @8H=0<C@B8: 5 2 B0:>9 AB5?5=8. "5< =5 <5=55 <0B5@80;87<  65;0=85 45=53, ?>;>65=8O  AB0; >G5=L 7=0G8<K<. #09B: # =0A MB> ?@>O2;O5BAO A 402=8E ?>@, => O 2A5 65 286C 7=0:8 B>3>, GB> C 7=0G8B5;L=>3> G8A;0 ;N459 =0G0;>AL ?@5>4>;5=85 <0B5@80;87<0. @8H=0<C@B8: 0:85 MB> 7=0:8? #09B: 0BL "5@570 0;L:CBBA:0O, =0?@8<5@. @8H=0<C@B8: =5 =5 E>B5;>AL 1K >1AC640BL ;8G=>AB8. #09B: 04=>. 5 C?><8=0O 8<5=, O ?@>AB> A:06C, GB> 5ABL <=>3> 3C<0==> =0AB@>5==KE ;N459 8 >@30=870F89, :>B>@K5 :>@<OB 3>;>4=KE, ;5G0B 1>;L=KE, >4520NB 154=KE 8 B0: 40;55. @8H=0<C@B8: C<0=87<  MB> =5 87<5=5=85 G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O. #09B: =0G8B ;8 MB>, GB> >B 1;03>B2>@8B5;L=>9 @01>BK =5B =8:0:>9 ?>;L7K? @8H=0<C@B8: 5B, >=0 ?><>305B G0AB8G=> >1;53G8BL GL8-B> AB@040=8O. > >=0 =5 87<5=O5B A>7=0=85 ;N459.  <K A 20<8 3>2>@8< > @048:0;L=>9 <CB0F88 2 A>7=0=88. #09B: -B> 8<5==> B>, GB> <=5 8=B5@5A=> 8 > G5< O 6064C CA;KH0BL 20H8 :><<5=B0@88. >7<>6=0 ;8 B0:0O <CB0F8O, 8 5A;8 40, B> :0:8< >1@07><? @8H=0<C@B8: / 3>2>@8; 20<, AM@, >1 MB><: ?CB5< >A2>1>645=8O G5;>25G5A:>3> <>730 >B >1CA;>2;5==>AB8; 0 MB> 7=0G8B =5 B5@OBL >A>7=0=8O, 1KBL 2=8<0B5;L=K<8 : MB><C CA;>2=><C A>AB>O=8N, >A>7=020BL, GB> 2A5 G5;>25G5A:85 ACI5AB20 1K;8 >1CA;>2;5=K @07;8G=K<8 25I0<8, 8 >A2>1>640BLAO >B >1CA;>2;5==>AB8, ?>;=>ABLN  4>1820BLAO =5 G0AB8G=>9 A2>1>4K, BCB 8 B0<, 0 A>25@H5==>9 A2>1>4K. =0G5 <K 2>B-2>B =0G=5< A0<8 A51O @07@CH0BL. 0254><>5 1>;LH8=AB2> G5;>25G5AB20 >1> 2A5< MB>< =5 701>B8BAO. N48 :>5-GB> A;CH0NB, :>5-GB> ?>G8BK20NB, => <0;> :B> C45;O5B MB><C 2=8<0=85. "5< =5 <5=55 MB8 =5<=>385 A?>A>1=K 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 2A5 A>7=0=85 G5;>25G5AB20. > B0:85 ;N48 2AB@5G0NBAO 2A5 @565 8 @565. 8@ A;8H:>< 25;8:. 8@C B@51C5BAO A;8H:>< <=>3>. #09B: #G8BK20O, GB> <8@ B@51C5B A;8H:>< <=>3>3>... @8H=0<C@B8: 8@  MB> O, B@51CNI89. 8@ =5 >B;8G05BAO >B <5=O. / E>GC C4>2>;LAB28O, E>GC ?>;>65=8O 2 >1I5AB25, E>GC AB0BCA0, E>GC 8<5BL <0H8=C, E>GC B>3>, E>GC MB>3>. K ?>=8<05B5? #09B: 0, => 2K 3>2>@8B5 > 4@C38E 0A?5:B0E "E>B5=8O" "65;0=8O".  :>340 MB8 65;0=8O 8A?>;=ONBAO, :0: >=8 8A?>;=O;8AL 745AL, 2 !>548=5==KE (B0B0E, =0 D878G5A:><, <0B5@80;L=>< ?;0=5... @8H=0<C@B8: 0, 2K 3>2>@8B5, GB> 2>7=8:05B ?>B@51=>ABL 2 G5<-B> 1>;LH5<. #09B: 0, 8 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 65;0=85 @0AH8@O5BAO ?> 2A5<C <0B5@80;L=><C ?;0=C, B0: 8 =5 =0E>4O A515 C4>2;5B2>@5=8O. >B B>340 ?@8@>40 70AB02;O5B B51O 8A:0BL 2KH5. @8H=0<C@B8: "0:>3> =5 A;CG0;>AL 70 ?>A;54=85 50 000 ;5B. #09B: B>-B> A 20<8 =5 A>3;0A8;AO 1K, 8 O 2 B>< G8A;5. "0:>5 A;CG05BAO 8 A;CG05BAO ?@O<> A59G0A. 57C;LB0BK =5:>B>@KE >?@>A>2 8 0=0;870 >1I5AB25==>3> <=5=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> 0<5@8:0=FK =0G8=0NB AB028BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 C4>2;5B2>@5=85 2KH5 <0B5@80;L=KE 2K3>4. @8H=0<C@B8: 045NAL, GB> B0:, AM@. %>B5;>AL 1K, GB>1K MB> 1K;> B0:.  =0 MB>B AG5B C <5=O =5B >3>@G5=89. / 3>2>@8; >1 MB>< 60 ;5B. / 1@>A0; A5<5=0 =0 4>1@CN ?>G2C 8 =0 EC4CN. 0:85-B> A5<5=0 27@>A;8 F25B0<8, 4@C385 8AA>E;8 8 ?>381;8. "0:>20 687=L.  !0B?@5< !"  #' (  #  48= 87 4CE>2=KE 3830=B>2 =0H53> 25:0  B0: 65 :0: 8 2A5E 25:>2  G5;>25:, G59 2:;04 2 =0H <8@ =0G0;AO 2 BN@L<5 2 8=489A:>< 3>@>45 ;8?>@5. 0B5< (@8 C@>18=4> 1KAB@> 4>AB83 25@H8=K A0<>@50;870F88. ;C18=0 8 2A5>1J5<;5<>ABL 53> 4>AB865=8O ?>8AB8=5 2K40NI85AO; MB> >4=0 87 2KAH8E B>G5: A>2@5<5==KE 4CE>2=KE ?>?KB>: ?@>7>=48@>20BL 2KAHCN, ?@545;L=CN @50;L=>ABL 8 ?@52@0B8BL G5;>25G5A:CN 687=L 2 "1>65AB25==CN 687=L", ?> 0=0;>388 A =0720=85< >A=>2=>3> B@C40 (@8 C@>18=4>. 3> 687=L 8 53> CG5=85 ?@54;030NB <5B>4 A0<>?@5>1@065=8O, E>@>H> ?>4E>4OI89 4;O =0H53> 2@5<5=8. >A;5 A2>53> ?5@56820=8O 2 ;8?>@5 (@8 C@>18=4> ?>GC2AB2>20;, GB> A>25@H5=AB2> G5;>25:0 <>65B 1KBL 4>AB83=CB> B>;L:> ?>A;5 :0@48=0;L=>3> 87<5=5=8O A>7=0=8O 2A53> <8@0  87<5=5=8O, 4>?CA:0NI53> 548=AB2> 2A53> ACI5AB2>20=8O, ?@>O2;ONI53>AO 2> 2A5E >B45;L=KE D>@<0E, :>B>@KE MB> 48=>5 :0A05BAO. ;O 4>AB865=8O MB>3> (@8 C@>18=4> A>740; A2>N 9>3C B@0=AD>@<0F88, :>B>@0O A53>4=O @0A?@>AB@0=8;0AL ?> 2A5<C 75<=><C H0@C 87 53> 0H@0<0 2 >=48H5@@8 (=48O) 8 @0A?>;>65==>3> =5?>40;5:C >@>40 0AA25B0, =0720==>3> C@>28;5<, :>B>@K9 1K; >A=>20= 2 1968 3>4C 0B5@LN, A>@0B=8F59 (@8 C@>18=4>, GB>1K 2K@078BL MB8< 53> =0A;5485. 3> 2845=85 =5>B@078<>, 8 >=> ?>4:@5?;O5BAO ?@0:B8G5A:8<8 8=AB@C:F8O<8 8 <5B>40<8 4>AB865=8O <>I=KE M2>;NF8>==KE 87<5=5=89 2 G5;>25G5A:>< >1I5AB25.  >B;8G85 >B <=>38E 53> ?@54H5AB25==8:>2, CG8B5;59 9>38, :>B>@K5 ?@54;030;8 ?>:8=CBL <8@ 8 A>25@H8BL "?@K6>: 2 =8@20=C", (@8 C@>18=4> ?KB0;AO ?@82=5AB8 1>65AB25==K9 ?>B5=F80; G5;>25:0 2 53> ?>2A54=52=CN 687=L 8 B0:8< >1@07>< 2>?;>B8BL >30 2 <8@5. (@8 C@>18=4> =5 B>;L:> =5 >B2>@0G820;AO >B 5<;8 8 >B '5;>25:0, 0 8A:0; ?CB8 B@0=AD>@<8@>20BL 8E  8 5<;N, 8 '5;>25:0. CAA:89 ?5@52>4 MB>9 3;02K 27OB 87 :=838 !0B?@5<. (@8 C@>18=4> 8;8 ?CB5H5AB285 A>7=0=8O. 74-2> 5=8=3@04A:>3> C=-B0. ., 1989.  .. * * * (@8 C@>18=4> ?@54AB>O;> ?@>25AB8 2 0;8?>@A:>9 BN@L<5 F5;K9 3>4 2 >6840=88 ?@83>2>@0. = =5 1K; 70<5H0= 2 =5C402H5<AO ?>:CH5=88; >@30=870F8O 2>AAB0=8O =5 8<5;0 =8G53> >1I53> A >B45;L=K<8 0:B0<8 B5@@>@87<0. >340 <5=O 0@5AB>20;8 8 ?>A048;8 2 ?>;8F59A:89 CG0AB>: 2 0; 070@5, <>O 25@0 =0 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O 1K;0 ?>:>;51;5=0, 81> O =5 <>3 2845BL ACB8 3> =0<5@5=8O. >MB><C 2 :0:>9-B> <><5=B O 70:>;510;AO 8 2>7720; : 5<C 2 A5@4F5 A2>5<: "'B> 6 MB> B0:>5? / 25@8;, GB> <>O <8AA8O  @01>B0BL 4;O =0@>40 <>59 AB@0=K 8 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 MB0 @01>B0 =5 >:>=G5=0, O ?>4 "2>59 70I8B>9. >G5<C 65 B>340 O 745AL, 40 5I5 A B0:8< >128=5=85<?" @>H5; 45=L, 70B5< 2B>@>9 8 B@5B89, :>340 O CA;KH0; 3>;>A 87=CB@8: "48 8 A<>B@8". ">340 O CA?>:>8;AO 8 AB0; 640BL; 87 0; 070@0 <5=O ?5@525;8 2 ;8?>@ 8 ?><5AB8;8 =0 <5AOF 2 >48=>G=CN :0<5@C, >B45;L=> >B 2A5E >AB0;L=KE. "0< 45=L 8 =>GL 640; O 3;0A0 >68O 2=CB@8 A51O, GB>1K C7=0BL B>, GB> = 4>;65= 1K; <=5 A:070BL, C7=0BL B>, GB> O 4>;65= 1K; 45;0BL. ...0B5< O 2A?><=8;, GB> 345-B> >:>;> <5AOF0 4> <>53> 0@5AB0 O A;KH0; 7>2, :>B>@K9 =0AB0820; =0 B><, GB>1K >AB028BL 2A5 45;0, C548=8BLAO 8 273;O=CBL 2=CB@L A51O, GB>1K 2>9B8 2 1>;55 B5A=>5 >1I5=85 A 8<. / 1K; A;01 8 =5 ?>A;CH0;AO 7>20. >O @01>B0 (?> >A2>1>645=8N =488.  ?@8<. ?5@.) 1K;0 >G5=L 4>@>30 <=5, 8 2 3>@4K=5 A5@4F0 A2>53> O ?>;030;, GB> 157 <5=O >=0 ?>AB@0405B 8;8 ?@5:@0B8BAO, 8;8 4065 ?@>20;8BAO A>2A5<, ?>MB><C O =5 >AB028; 55. =5 ?>:070;>AL, GB> = 2=>2L 703>2>@8; A> <=>N 8 A:070;: "/ @07>@20; 70 B51O ?CBK, ?>@20BL :>B>@K5 BK 1K; =5 2 A8;0E, 81> =5 2 B>< 2>;O <>O 8 =8:>340 MB> 2 ?@><KA5; <>9 =5 2E>48;>  ?@>4>;60BL MB> 45;>. # <5=O 5ABL 4;O B51O 4@C3>5, 8 8<5==> @048 MB>3> O ?@825; B51O AN40  =0CG8BL B51O B><C, G5<C BK =5 A<>3 =0CG8BLAO A0<, 8 ?>43>B>28BL B51O : <>59 @01>B5 [1]. -B>9 "@01>B>9" 1K;> ?>AB865=85 :>A<8G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O, 8;8 48=AB20, 8 8AA;54>20=85 ?;0=>2 A>7=0=8O, ;560I8E 2KH5 >1KG=>3> @07C<0, B.5. ?;0=>2 !25@EA>7=0B5;L=>3>.  MB> ?@82545B (@8 C@>18=4> =0 ?CBL 5;8:>9 "09=K. / =5 1C4C 3>2>@8BL >1> 2A5<, GB> ?@>8AE>48;> A> <=>9 2 B5G5=85 MB>3> 2@5<5=8,  A:06C ;8HL B>, GB> 45=L 70 4=5< = @072>@0G820; ?5@54> <=>9 A2>8 GC45A0. ...5=L 70 4=5< 2 B5G5=85 425=04F0B8 <5AOF52 <>53> 70:;NG5=8O 4020; = <=5 MB> 7=0=85 [2]. !'! ! &5;K5 <5AOFK 68; (@8 C@>18=4> 2 :0:><-B> D0=B0A<03>@8G5A:>< A=5, 2 ?CAB>B5, 8 ?@>8AE>48;> MB> =0 548=AB25==>< D>=5  =0 D>=5 AB0B8G5A:>9 50;L=>AB8 "@0=F5=45=B=>3>. 4=0:> 4>2>;L=> AB@0==>, GB> 8<5==> 2 MB>9 CAB>B5, :0: 1K 2>7=8:0O 87 =55, 2=>2L ?>:070;AO <8@, :>B>@K9 >1@5; =>2>5 ;8F>. G5=L G0AB> 2A5 ?@>8AE>48B B0:,  B0: 1K;> 8 2 40==>< A;CG05,  :0: 1C4B> :064K9 @07 =5>1E>48<> 2A5 ?>B5@OBL 4;O B>3>, GB>1K >1@5AB8 2A5 A=>20, => =0 2KAH5< C@>2=5: >:>@5==K9 8 ?>15645==K9, CA?>:>5==K9, >A2>1>645==K9 >B A0<>3> A51O @07C< ?@8=8<05B A0<> 57<>;285 :0: KAH55. > 70B5< 8ICI89 >B:@K205B, GB> 2A5 C65 70:;NG5=> 4;O =53> 2 MB>< 157<>;288 8;8 A>7405BAO 70=>2>... 8 B>340 ?CAB>B0 =0G8=05B 70?>;=OBLAO, 87 =55 2>7=8:05B 8;8 2 =55 AB@5<8B5;L=> =8725@305BAO 2AO <=>3>;8:0O AB8=0 >65AB25==>3>, 48=0<8G5A:>5 5A:>=5G=>5 A> 2A5<8 A2>8<8 0A?5:B0<8, ?@>O2;5=8O<8 8 <=>65AB25==>ABLN ?;0=>2 [3]. >340 <K 2848< B>;L:> AB0B8G5A:>5 5A:>=5G=>5, ?5@54 =0<8 >48= ;8HL >1;8: >30, :>B>@K9 2 B0:>< 2845=88 ?@51K205B 2=5 MB>3> <8@0 (8, 2>7<>6=>, <8@ "157 >30" ;CGH5, G5< <8@, 2 :>B>@>< ?@028B AB@>389 >3-AC4LO), => :>340 57<>;285 A<K205B 2A5 =0H8 ?@5B5=F8>7=>-B>@65AB25==K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O, =0?>;=OO =0A G8AB>9 15;87=>9, <K >1=0@C68205<, GB> <8@ 8 >3  A=>20 2<5AB5, 2> 2A5E B>G:0E 8 =0 2A5E C@>2=OE, :0: 1C4B> 8E =8:>340 =8GB> =5 @0745;O;>  :@><5 :@09=53> <0B5@80;87<0 8;8 A?8@8BC0;87<0. "0:>5 2>B =>2>5 87<5=5=85 A>7=0=8O ?@>87>H;> 2> 42>@5 0;8?>@A:>9 BN@L<K 2> 2@5<O >4=>9 87 ?@>3C;>:: / A<>B@5; =0 BN@L<C, >B45;O2HCN <5=O >B ;N459, 8 O C65 =5 1K; 70:;NG5= 2 55 2KA>:8E AB5=0E, =5B  <5=O >:@C60; 0AC4520. / 3C;O; ?>4 25B2O<8 45@520, @0ABCI53> ?@>B82 <>59 :0<5@K, => >=> =5 1K;> 45@52><, O 7=0;, GB> MB>  0AC4520, MB>  (@8 @8H=0  O 2845;, :0: >= AB>8B, ?@>AB8@0O A2>N B5=L =04> <=>9. / A<>B@5; =0 70?>@K <>59 :0<5@K, =0 BC A0<CN @5H5B:C, :>B>@0O A;C68;0 425@L<8, 8 2=>2L O 2845; 0AC452C. 8 :B> 8=>9, :0: 0@0O=0, AB>@>68; <5=O, AB>O; ?@8 <=5 =0 G0A0E. ;8, :>340 O ;>68;AO =0 3@C1K5 >45O;0, A;C682H85 <=5 ?>AB5;LN, O GC2AB2>20; @C:8 (@8 @8H=K, >1=8<02H85 <5=O, @C:8 <>53> @C30 8 >7;N1;5==>3>... / A<>B@5; =0 70:;NG5==KE  2>@>2, C189F, <>H5==8:>2  8 :>340 O A<>B@5; =0 =8E, O 2845; 0AC452C, O =0E>48; 0@0O=C 2 MB8E 70B5<=5==KE 4CH0E 8 =5?@028;L=> 8A?>;L7C5<KE B5;0E [4]. -B> >ICI5=85 C65 =8:>340 =5 ?>:8=5B (@8 C@>18=4>. (5ABL <5AOF52 4;8;>AL A;54AB285, 345 D83C@8@>20;8 425AB8 A ;8H=8< A2845B5;59 8 G5BK@5 BKAOG8 C;8:; :064K9 45=L (@8 C@>18=4> 70?8@0;8 2 65;57=CN :;5B:C, :>B>@0O ?><5I0;0AL 2 70;5 AC40, => >= C65 =5 2845; 2>:@C3 A51O =8 2@06451=>9 B>;?K, =8 AC459: >340 =0G0;AO ?@>F5AA, <5=O ?@5A;54>20; 2A5 B>B 65 2=CB@5==89 3>;>A. = 3>2>@8; <=5: ">340 B51O 1@>A8;8 2 B5<=8FC, =5 >BG0O;>AL ;8 A5@4F5 B2>5 8 =5 27K20; ;8 BK :> <=5: '45 B2>O 70I8B0?' 73;O=8 B5?5@L =0 AC4LN, 273;O=8 B5?5@L =0 ?@>:C@>@0". / ?>A<>B@5; =0 AC4LN  MB> 1K; 0AC4520, MB> 1K; 0@0O=0, A8452H89 2 AC45. / ?>A<>B@5; =0 ?@>:C@>@0 8 C2845; =5 ?@>:C@>@0  MB> 1K; (@8 @8H=0, :>B>@K9 A845; 8 C;K10;AO. ">8HLAO ;8 BK B5?5@L?  3>2>@8; >=,  O  2> 2A5E ;N4OE 8 @C:>2>6C 8E 45;0<8 8 A;>20<8"0r r t v ѼѩѐѩkѩRѩ0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^JphhN90JOJQJ^J0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph$jhN9B*OJQJU^Jph)hN9hN9B*OJQJ^JmH phsH hN9B*OJQJ^JphhN9B* OJQJ^JphfhN95B* \phfhN9CJ(aJ(0r j%''l(p(r((.1B122029h=gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9 [$\$gdN9 [$\$gdN9gdN90 DF^`HJLZ\z|dfhԷԷԷԷԷԷlԷԷS0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph0jrh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph0jLh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^JphhN9B*OJQJ^JphhN90J5OJQJ\^J$jhN9B*OJQJU^Jph0j&h=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph <>VX@BD޶޶޶sZ޶0jV h=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph!hN95B*OJQJ\^JphdP0j0 h=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph0j h=Rh=RB*OJQJU^JphhN90J5OJQJ\^J0j h=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph$jhN9B*OJQJU^JphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph!XZvx`bdfhnprԷԷōԷԷtōԷԷ[ԷԷ0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph!hN95B*OJQJ\^JphdP0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^JphhN9B*OJQJ^JphhN90J5OJQJ\^J$jhN9B*OJQJU^Jph0j|h=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph  @B* , . \ ^ x z b!d!f!!!!!"""""""#ŴԦԦԦԦtԦԦ[ԦԦ0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph0j`h=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph0j:h=Rh=RB*OJQJU^JphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph!hN95B*OJQJ\^JphdPhN90J5OJQJ\^J$jhN9B*OJQJU^Jph0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph###$ $($*$%%%d%f%j%l%T&V&X&&&&t'v'x''''ԷԷԷԷykԷRyԷ0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^JphhN9B*OJQJ^JphdPhN90JOJQJ^J0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^JphhN9B*OJQJ^JphhN90J5OJQJ\^J$jhN9B*OJQJU^Jph0jh=Rh=RB*OJQJU^Jph''l(n(r((1>122202]^^ ^"j4j8jJjLj|joouv0l 6pλ̿޿ 2FLVb|߷ߤߑߑ߉ߑ߉߉ߑ߉߉ߑ߉ߑߑ߉ߑ߉ߑߑߑhN9B*ph%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^Jph$jhN9B*OJQJU^Jph!hN95B*OJQJ\^JphhN9$jDhN9B*OJQJU^JphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph#hN9B*CJ$OJQJ^JaJ$ph6h=DJNY]^ ^g"j8jJjLj|juv0lD6p`ܵgdN9$a$gdN9gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9ܵ rL$r6L $ ^,b!6)$a$gdN9gdN9$a$gdN9 $(jr6(Llp ,b6))77PJJ~SS X"X&XdXjX8YNY[[^^___ _r_ppޱ̇̚̚̚̚ăhN9$jhN9B*OJQJU^Jph-hN96@(B*CJOJQJ]^JaJph$j|hN9B*OJQJU^JphhN9B*ph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^Jph16))8/77>B>PJJOW X$X&XrXTY[__ _r_bpp&{,{$a$gdN9gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9gdN9pp&{,{ҍҘؘjr $$++22&D,DLLPQYYYYYYZZ8iLiƆ؇˝ˊݴ˴$jhN9B*OJQJU^Jph-hN96@(B*CJOJQJ]^JaJphhN9%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^Jph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhN9B*phhN9B*OJQJ^JphhN9B*CJaJph/,{ҍ̓Ҙؘjr  .j$ & Fdd[$\$a$gdN9gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9n !,$$$2&D,DLLMPM|MMM$ & Fdd[$\$a$gdN9$ & Fdd[$\$a$gdN9$a$gdN9gdN9$ & Fdd[$\$a$gdN9MNTNNTOzOOPQYYYYZZb8iLiolyƆ$a$gdN9gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9gdN9$ & Fdd[$\$a$gdN9؇R\Ģ|~X4xp|Q,R.R^R:rNrHtt uuwwwʷؠʷʷʷʐ{ؠؠؠhN9!hN96B*OJQJ]^JphhN90JB*OJQJ^Jph-hN96@(B*CJOJQJ]^JaJph%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^JphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph)hN95B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph+R\$|~X4x66$a$gdN9$a$gdN96,H%,F5DBEOQdRVY^^i:rNrJsHtt uuww$a$gdN9$a$gdN9gdN9$a$gdN9wwwwwxDxdxy{| ||||||||||}}}}"}$},}.}2}4}D}F}L}N}X}^}~~~ʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹ-hN96@(B*CJOJQJ]^JaJph5hN9hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH 1hN9hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH #hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph$jPhN9B*OJQJU^Jph'wwdxy{|~~~~ Pd”ԝl`":$a$gdN9$a$gdN9gdN9gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9~~~~~~~~ Pdl`"6:,D>LPʱnnnnn[n[[[nn[%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^Jph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhN9hN9B*phh" hN9B*OJQJ^Jph$jhN9B*OJQJU^Jph1hN9hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH -hN96@(B*CJOJQJ]^JaJph;hN9hN96@(B*CJOJQJ]^JaJmH phsH #:V^n >P%*$a$gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9d<H*h+r+v+11z44*6@6D@EpE F6FFFF"KKLLLXNtNxNOPTnXXX\\`pdddf gllXZ\$a$gdN9$a$gdN9ȵz(Hv>  r t  &Vz%%%%%%)))))))))))".w1hN9hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH )hN9hN9B*OJQJ^JmH phsH -hN9hN90JB*OJQJ^JmH phsH hN90JB*OJQJ^Jph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^JphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph,\)-.7T;<B6C^PlYt_hrxv؍B ,gdN9$a$gdN9 $^a$gdN9$a$gdN9".$.(....T;<j==BBB6C[[*hJh6tVtjvvv$$B ,tLPRl͹ߧߔߧ}ߔߔߔߔߧߔߔyee]hN9B*ph'hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJphhN9-hN96@(B*CJOJQJ]^JaJph%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^Jph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph'hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph$,xPRlx~,t,,  $^a$gdN9$a$gdN9gdN9gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9l2Hj"4 :Npܱ||j#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^JphhN90JB*OJQJ^Jph'hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJph-hN96@(B*CJOJQJ]^JaJph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhN9B*OJQJ^JphhN9(" ''-.?.?EENMdMYZdddbeveJiivvv w˸˸˸˸˸˨˕˃ooVV1hN9hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH 'hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph$j hN9B*OJQJU^JphhN90JB*OJQJ^Jph%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^JphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph'hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJph, h|!&"(-x<zBDMURZcddPgdrlwxxxxxxygdN9gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9 w2www6x^xxxxxxxyy^DH\Njnj P\˸zfzSSSS%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^Jph'hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhN9B*phhN9hN9B*OJQJ^Jph$j$!hN9B*OJQJU^Jph1hN9hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH 5hN9hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH  yy{~^H\<Nj .n"ұܷ jgdN9gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9\~$f$ 8   : N  ~          eee5hN9hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH 1hN9hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH $j!hN9B*OJQJU^Jph'hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJphhN9hN9B*ph%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^JphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph'$Df@ $ 8   $a$gdN9$a$gdN9$a$gdN9gdN9gdN9$a$gdN9        2 4 8 b          & B `         , 0 @ D R V e o     $      ! ! 8" P" (# ԹԹԹԹԹԹԹԹԹԹԹԹԹԵ!hN95B*OJQJ\^JphhN9B*OJQJ^JphhN9B*phhN95hN9hN90JB*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH 1hN9hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH #hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph8   M   $    j   ! 8" (# p# ' T( ) ) * ~+ . . r0 $a$gdN9gdN9gdN9$a$gdN9(# 2# p# # ' ' T( l( ) ) ) ) * * ~+ + . . . . r0 |0 0 0 0 0 ^1 v1 2 2 3 3 v4 4 5 5 5 5 46 L6 8 *8 8 8 8 8 : $: $< .< < < = = 0> H> B $B B B C C D .D zD D E *E F F &G >G J J (K @K 2N B B C D zD E F &G J (K 2N $a$gdN92N N LP 2R R S U _ _ z` ` ha a a c c jd d &e e e (f g (h $a$gdN9U U _ H_ _ ` z` ` ` a ha ra a a a b c (c c c jd d d d &e >e e e e e (f 2f g g (h 2h h h l l l l 6m @m m m n n n n no xo o p p p rq q q q tr r s s t t :u Du xu u w x y z N| X| v| |  hN9B*OJQJ^Jph!hN95B*OJQJ\^JphX(h h l l 6m m n n no o p rq q tr s t :u xu w y N| v|  . 4 j $a$gdN9  . F 4 >  j t ΄ ~ x    &  f p  : D $ . V n  Γ $ . t V `  6 N ~ 8 B  0 \ f ( @ Ο  * & > ޤ N f ԥ ޥ L d hN9B*OJQJ^Jph!hN95B*OJQJ\^JphXj ~ x   f : $ V $ t V 6 ~ 8  \ ( $a$gdN9 Ο  & ޤ N ԥ L Ĭ j ` , < D 8 ֽ $a$gdN9 Ĭ ά j  ` x  , B F T < T D N  8 P ֽ ޽ & >  & > : D H R 8 B X p   r | " , t ~ v %hN96@(B*OJQJ]^JphhN9B*OJQJ^Jph!hN95B*OJQJ\^JphQֽ & & : H 8 X  r " t v H T B  $a$gdN9 H R T l , : B L   ( < F n   Z r 8 P V n p z   P Z  . n x , 6 8 P < T 8 8 B X b %hN96@(B*OJQJ]^Jph!hN95B*OJQJ\^JphhN9B*OJQJ^JphQ < n  Z 8 V p  P  n , 8 < 8 $a$gdN98 X |  R d     $ t  4   ~    2 x ~   $a$gdN9 |  R j d n  ,       $ < t ~   4 >  &   ~        2 < x  ~          ! ! " " t$ ~$ <% T% % % % & ' ' H' `' ' ' ( ( ** 4* r* * * * + "+ <, F, . hN9B*OJQJ^Jph!hN95B*OJQJ\^JphX   ! " t$ <% % % ' H' ' ( ** r* * + <, . p. . 8/ p/ 0 r0 1 v2 3 $a$gdN9. ,. p. z. . . 8/ B/ p/ / 0 0 r0 0 1 1 v2 2 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 $6 .6 ,7 D7 :8 D8 : : |; ; < < < < = = > ? ? ? A A B B C (C zC C C C jD D ZG dG H H J J K &K N N O $O 0O :O P P R R :S RS S T lT T 2U ? A B C zC C jD ZG H J K N O 0O P R $a$gdN9R :S S lT 2U W  ,   , \ l Ƭ ֬ p Я   ( Բ > > > @ rA E E E ĴĴĚĴĴĴĴĴą%hN96@(B*OJQJ]^JphUhN9B*ph#hN90J@(B*OJQJ^JphhN90JB*OJQJ^JphhN9B*OJQJ^JphhN9-hN96@(B*CJOJQJ]^JaJph#hN9B*CJOJQJ^JaJph2 A F H N_ j { {   ` p 2 < @ d $a$gdN9$a$gdN9 $^a$gdN9$a$gdN9gdN9 [5]. >8AB8=5 >3 =5 =0E>48BAO 2=5 !2>53> <8@0. = =5 "A>B2>@8;" <8@, 0 AB0; MB8< <8@><, :0: 3>2>@OB #?0=8H04K: "= AB0; 7=0=85< 8 =52545=85<, = AB0; 8AB8=>9 8 ;>6LN... = AB0; 2A5<, GB> 1K B> =8 1K;>" ("08BB8@8O #?0=8H040 II.6). "5AL MB>B <8@ ?>;>= ACI5AB2, :>B>@K5 ACBL 53> G;5=K",  3>2>@8B (25B0H20B0@0 #?0=8H040 (IV.10). ;O 3;07, :>B>@K5 284OB, 2A5 5ABL 48=>5; 2 1>65AB25==>< ?5@56820=88 2A5 2>:@C3  MB> 548=0O 3;K10 >65AB25==>3> [6]. K <>65< ?>4C<0BL, GB> MB>  01A>;NB=> <8AB8G5A:>5 2845=85 2A5;5==>9, :>B>@>5 8<55B <0;> >1I53> A =0H59 ?>2A54=52=>9 @50;L=>ABLN; <K =0B0;:8205<AO =0 7;> 8 157>1@0785 =0 :064>< H03C, 25AL <8@ ?>402;5= AB@040=8O<8 8 ?>;>= :@8:>2 2> BL<5. 45 65 B>340 >65AB25==>5 2> 2A5< MB><? 5C65;8 >65AB25==>5  MB> 20@20@AB2>, 2A5340 3>B>2>5 >B:@KBL A2>8 ;035@O ?KB>:; =5C65;8 65 MB>B 2A5?@>=8:0NI89 M3>87<, MB0 <5@7>ABL, A:@KB0O 8;8 O2=0O  B>65 >65AB25==>5? >3 =570?OB=0= 2A5<8 MB8<8 ?@5ABC?;5=8O<8. =, =5A><=5==>, A>25@H5=5=, = ?>?@>ABC =5 <>65B 1KBL G0ABLN MB>3>  =5B8, =5B8 (*)  >3 =0AB>;L:> G8AB, GB> =  =5 >B <8@0 A53>, 4;O =53> ?@>AB> =5B <5AB0 2 MB>9 3@O78, 345 <K 704KE05<AO! ------------------------------ (*) "5B8, =5B8"  "=5 B>, =5 B>!"  D>@<C;0, ?@8<5=O5<0O >1KG=> 2 8=4C8ABA:8E B@0:B0B0E 4;O >?8A0=8O =5>?8AC5<>3> @0E<0=0, 1A>;NB0, > :>B>@>< <>6=> A:070BL B>;L:>, GB> >= "8 =5 B> 8 =5 MB>".  @8<. ?5@. K 4>;6=K 273;O=CBL ACI5AB2>20=8N 2 ;8F>, 5A;8 =0H0 F5;L  ?@89B8 : ?@028;L=><C @5H5=8N, :0:8< 1K MB> @5H5=85 =8 1K;>.  ?>A<>B@5BL 2 ;8F> ACI5AB2>20=8N  7=0G8B ?>A<>B@5BL 2 ;8F> >3C, ?>A:>;L:C 8E =52>7<>6=> @0745;8BL. ...-B>B <8@ =0H59 18B2K 8 B@C40  65AB>:89, >?0A=K9, @07@CH8B5;L=K9, ?>68@0NI89 <8@, 2 :>B>@>< 687=L ?>;=0 =5>?@545;5==>AB8, 0 4CH0 8 B5;> G5;>25:0 4286CBAO A@548 >3@><=KE >?0A=>AB59, <8@, 2 :>B>@>< A :064K< H03>< 2?5@54, E>B8< <K B>3> 8;8 =5B, GB>-B> ;><05BAO 8 @07@CH05BAO, 2 :>B>@>< :064>5 4KE0=85 687=8 O2;O5BAO 8 4KE0=85< A<5@B8. >7;>68BL >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 2A5, GB> :065BAO =0< 4C@=K< 8 C60A=K<, =0 ?;5G8 ?>;C2A5<>3CI53> LO2>;0, A?8A0BL 55 =0 AG5B @8@>4K, A>74020O B5< A0<K< =5?@8<8@8<>5 ?@>B82>@5G85 <564C ?@8@>4>9 <8@0 8 ?@8@>4>9 >30, :0: 1C4B> ?@8@>40 =5 7028A8<0 >B >30, 8;8 65 A20;8BL MBC >B25BAB25==>ABL =0 G5;>25:0 8 =0 53> 3@5E8, :0: 1C4B> 5<C ?@8=04;560; @5H0NI89 3>;>A 2 A>740=88 MB>3> <8@0 8;8 >= <>3 A>B2>@8BL E>BL GB>-=81C4L ?@>B82 2>;8 >30  2A5 MB> C4>1=K5, => =5C:;N685 2K4C<:8. ...K A>7405< >30 N128 8 8;>A5@48O, >30 4>1@0, >30 A?@0254;82>3>, ?@0254=>3> 8 4>1@>45B5;L=>3> 2 A>>B25BAB288 A =0H8<8 <>@0;L=K<8 ?>=OB8O<8 > A?@0254;82>AB8, 4>1@>45B5;8 8 ?@0254=>AB8, 0 2A5 >AB0;L=>5, 3>2>@8< <K, MB> =5 = 8;8 =5 3>, 0 1K;> A>740=> =5:>9 4LO2>;LA:>9 !8;>9, :>B>@>9 >= ?>72>;8; ?> :0:>9-B> ?@8G8=5 ?@>O28BL A2>N 7;CN 2>;N, 8;8 =5:8< B5<=K< @8<0=><, 459AB2CNI8< 2 ?@>B82>25A =0H5<C 4>1@><C @<C74C, 8;8, =0:>=5F, 2A5 MB> 1K;> A;54AB285< >H81:8 A51O;N182>3> G5;>25:0-3@5H=8:0, :>B>@K9 8A?>@B8; B>, GB> 1K;> A>740=> >3>< A>25@H5==K<. ...K 4>;6=K A<5;> ?>A<>B@5BL @50;L=>AB8 2 ;8F> 8 C2845BL, GB> 8<5==> >3, 8 =8:B> 4@C3>9, A>B2>@8; MB>B <8@ 2 !2>5< 1KB88 8 GB> = A>740; 53> B0:8<, :0:>2 >= 5ABL. K 4>;6=K 2845BL, GB> @8@>40, ?>68@0NI0O A2>8E 45B59, @5<O, ?>3;>I0NI55 687=8 682KE ACI5AB2, !<5@BL 2A5>1I0O 8 =5>B2@0B8<0O 8 =58AB>2>ABL A8; C4@K 2 G5;>25:5 8 @8@>45  MB> B>65 2KAH55 >65AB2> 2 >4=>9 87 A2>8E :>A<8G5A:8E 8?>AB0A59. K 4>;6=K 2845BL, GB> >3, I54@K9 B2>@5F, B2>@5F 87>18;8O, >3, CG0AB;82K9, A8;L=K9 8 <8;>AB82K9 >E@0=8B5;L, 5ABL B0:65 >3 ?>68@0B5;L 8 @07@CH8B5;L. C:8 =0 ;>65 AB@040=8O 8 7;0, 345 =0A ?KB0NB  MB> B>65 53> ?@8:>A=>25=85 B0: 65, :0: 8 AG0ABL5, =56=>ABL 8 =0A;0645=85.  ;8HL B>340, :>340 <K C2848< 2A5 A B>G:8 7@5=8O 01A>;NB=>3> 548=AB20 8 ?>GC2AB2C5< MBC 8AB8=C 2 3;C18=0E =0H53> ACI5AB20, A<>65< <K @07;8G8BL 8 70 MB>9 <0A:>9 ?>:>9=K9 8 ?@5:@0A=K9 ;8: 2A51;065==>3> >65AB20, 0 2 MB>< ?@8:>A=>25=88, :>B>@>5 8A?KBK205B =0H5 =5A>25@H5=AB2>, ?>GC2AB2>20BL ?@8:>A=>25=85 4@C30 8 AB@>8B5;O 4CE0 2 G5;>25:5. 8AA>=0=AK <8@0  MB> 48AA>=0=AK >30, 8 ;8HL ?@8=8<0O 8E 8 ?@>E>4O A:2>7L =8E <>65< <K 4>AB8GL 1>;55 25;8:8E A>72CG89 53> 2KAH59 30@<>=88, 25@H8= 8 B@5?5B=>9 1571@56=>AB8 53> B@0=AF5=45=B=>9 =0=4K, =0=4K :>A<8G5A:>9. ...1> 8AB8=0  MB> >A=>20=85 ?>4;8==>9 4CE>2=>AB8, 0 >B2030  55 4CH0 [7].  B>340 70682;O5BAO @0=0, :>B>@0O, :070;>AL, 25G=> @0745;O;0 <8@ =042>5 <564C !0B0=>9 8 515A0<8 B0:, :0: 5A;8 1K =5 ACI5AB2>20;> =8G53> 4@C3>3>  B>;L:> >1@> 8 ;>, 8 A=>20 >1@> 8 ;>, 0 ?>A5@548=5 =0E>48;8AL 1K <K, ?>4>1=K5 8710;>20==><C @515=:C, :>B>@>3> =0AB02;ONB =0 ?CBL 8AB8==K9 [8]. AO:0O 42>9AB25==>ABL  MB> 2845=85, >A=>20==>5 =0 52545=88. 54L 25745  ;8HL >4=>: =58AG8A;8<>5 48=>5 [9]  0 "48AA>=0=AK >30" A;C60B @>ABC 1>65AB20 2=CB@8 =0A. > 4065 5A;8 8 B0:, B> ?>-?@56=5<C A>E@0=O5BAO @07@K2 <564C MB8<, ?CABL 1>65AB25==K<, =5A>25@H5=AB2>< 8 2KAH8< >:>=G0B5;L=K< !>25@H5=AB2><. 5 O2;O5BAO ;8 MB> :>A<8G5A:>5 >65AB25==>5 CA5G5==K< >65AB25==K<? 5 A;54C5B ;8 =0< ?>?KB0BLAO >BKA:0BL 345-B> 2 4@C3>< <5AB5 =570?OB=0==>5, B@0=AF5=45=B=>5 8 A>25@H5==>5 >65AB25==>5? A;8 <564C 4CE>2=>9 687=LN 8 687=LN <8@0 ACI5AB2C5B ?@>B82>@5G85, B> 8<5==> G5@57 MBC ?@>?0ABL 5<C {8ICI5<C 2 8=B53@0;L=>9 9>35} ?@54AB>8B 2>725AB8 <>AB, 8<5==> MB> ?@>B82>@5G85 >= 4>;65= ?@52@0B8BL M45AL 2 30@<>=8N. A;8 <8@>< 4286CB ?;>BL 8 4LO2>;, B> B5< 1>;55 =5>1E>48<> 45BO< 5AA<5@B8O 1KBL 745AL  GB>1K ?>:>@8BL <8@ 4;O >30 8 4;O CE0. A;8 687=L - MB> 157C<85, B>340 AB>;L:8< <8;;8>=0< 4CH =C65= A25B 1>65AB25==>3> @07C<0; 5A;8 687=L  MB> 3@57K, B> 2A5-B0:8 2=CB@8 A0<8E A51O >=8 @50;L=K 4;O <=>38E 3@57OI8E, :>B>@KE 8;8 =C6=> ?@825AB8 : 1>;55 2>72KH5==K< 3@570<, 8;8 ?@>1C48BL; 5A;8 65 687=L  MB> >1<0=, B> =5>1E>48<> 40BL >1<0=CBK< ?@024C [10]. > <K 2A5-B0:8 GC2AB2C5< =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL. K <>65< ?@8=OBL, GB> >3 =0E>48BAO 2> 2A5< MB>< 7;5, 2> 2A5E AB@040=8OE, <K <>65< ?>=OBL, GB> B5<=K9 @03, <CG0NI89 =0A, 5ABL =0 A0<>< 45;5 A>7840B5;L =0H59 A8;K, A:@KB> D>@<8@CNI89 =0H5 A>7=0=85, 8 2?>;=5 2>7<>6=>, GB> <K  "2>8B5;8 !25B0" 2 MB>< AC<@0G=>< <8@5, ?>4>1=> @8H8 4@52=>AB8. > B>340 ?>G5<C ?>2AN4C  ?@5645 2A53> BL<0? 0G5< ">B, :>3> <K AG8B05< 25G=> G8ABK< 8 A>25@H5==K<, AB0; MB8< <8@><, :>B>@K9, :065BAO, B0: 40;5: >B 1>65AB25==>3>; 4;O G53> <C =C6=K 1K;8 !<5@BL, >6L 8 !B@040=85? A;8 MB> B>;L:> <0A:0, B> 4;O G53> >=0? A;8 MB> B>;L:> 8;;N78O, B> 70G5< =C6=0 MB0 65AB>:0O 83@0?  2A5 65 B>, GB> >A?>4L =5 A>B2>@8; MB>B <8@ 2 A>>B25BAB288 A =0H8<8 ?@54AB02;5=8O<8 > A>25@H5=AB25  MB> 1;03>A;>25=85, ?>B><C GB> C =0A 5ABL AB>;L:> 2AO:8E 8459 > B><, GB> O2;O5BAO A>25@H5==K<, 0 GB>  =5B, > B><, :0:8< 4>;65= 1KBL >3 8 >A>15==> :0:8< >= 1KBL =5 4>;65=, GB> ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: <K >B1@>A8;8 1K 2A5, GB> =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B MB8< ?@54AB02;5=8O<, 2 =0H5< <8@5 =5 >AB0;>AL 1K =8G53>, :@><5 8;8 >4=>3> 1>;LH>3> =C;O, :>B>@K9 C65 =8:0: =5 ?>B5@?5; 1K =5G8AB>BK =0H53> A>1AB25==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O, 8;8 >4=>9 1>;LH>9 :070@<K. >1@>45B5;L,  3>2>@8;0 0BL,  2A5340 AB@5<8;0AL GB>-=81C4L ?>4028BL 2 MB>9 687=8; 5A;8 A;>68BL 2<5AB5 A@07C 4>1@>45B5;8 2A5E AB@0= <8@0, B> 5420 ;8 >B 687=8 GB>-;81> >AB0=5BAO. 54L ?>:0 =0< 8725AB5= B>;L:> >48= 284 A>25@H5=AB20  B>B, :>B>@K9, A:>@55, AB@5<8BAO 8A:;NG8BL GB>-B>, 0 =5 >E20B8BL 2A5 2 F5;><; 0 A>25@H5=AB2>  MB> ?>;=>B0. 54L <K <>65< C;>28BL ;8HL >4=> <3=>25=85 5G=>AB8, 0 MB> <3=>25=85 =5 A>45@68B 2A53> B>3>, GB> <K E>B5;8 1K 2845BL 8 8<5BL, 8 2>B <K 60;C5<AO, 70O2;OO, GB> <8@ MB>B 4C@=> CAB@>5=; :>340 65 <K 2>72KH05<AO =04 <3=>25=85< 8 2KE>48< 2 >;=>BC, 2A5 <5=O5BAO, 8 <K AB0=>28<AO ?@8G0AB=K<8 !>25@H5=AB2C 2 AB0=>2;5=88. -B>B <8@ =5 70:>=G5=, >= =0E>48BAO 2 AB0=>2;5=88, MB> ?>AB5?5==>5 ?>:>@5=85 >65AB25==>3> >65AB25==K< 4;O >65AB25==>3> =0 53> ?CB8 : AB0=>2;5=8N 15A:>=5G=> 1;LH8<,  B5<, G5< =0< 4>;6=> AB0BL [11]. 0H <8@ =0E>48BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 M2>;NF88, 0 M2>;NF8O 8<55B 4CE>2=>5 7=0G5=85: 58AG8A;8<>AB8 75<=KE ?CB59, GB> @2CBAO : 1>65AB2C. [12] 'B> <K 7=05< > 25;8:>< 75<=>< ?CB5H5AB288? => :065BAO =0< <CG8B5;L=K<, 65AB>:8<, =5G8ABK<, => <K 254L B>;L:> @>6405<AO! K C65 2KH;8 87 0B5@88  3@O7=K5, 60;:85, ?>402;5==K5 1>;LN  2AB0;8, :0: 1>3 87 <>38;K, :>B>@K9 C65 =8G53> =5 ?><=8B, =5 7=05B, 345 ?@02>, 0 345 ;52>, 1@545B >IC?LN, =0 2A5 ?><8=CB=> =0BK:0OAL. > :B> 7=05B, :0:>5 8=>5 @>645=85, :0:0O >1=>2;5==0O ?0<OBL, :0:0O A8;0, :>B>@CN <K 2=>2L >1@5B05<, >6840NB =0A =0 =0H5< ?CB8? -B>B <8@ =0E>48BAO 2 AB0=>2;5=88; <K 5I5 =5 7=05< 2A59 8AB>@88 4> :>=F0. "K =0 75<;5 8I8 3>... "K = 5A8, > &0@L. 8HL =>I8 BL<>9 CH0 B2>O >1JOB0  > B> 1K;0 B2>O ;8HL 2>;O. "0: A1@>AL 65 A59 ?>:@>2 8 2>72@0B8 "C F5;L=>ABL OA=CN, ! :>B>@>9 2K 2>8AB8=C >4=>. [13] &" , !#)!". !)/ '!", ""K 5ABL ="  B0:>20 25G=0O 8AB8=0: "0B B20< 0A8  BK "> 5A8. "0:>20 AB8=0, :>B>@>9 CG8;8 4@52=85 8AB5@88 8 :>B>@CN 701K;8 1>;55 ?>74=85 @5;8388. #B5@O2 3;02=CN B09=C, >=8 2?0;8 2 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> @>40 4C0;87<  8AB>G=8: 701;C645=8O, 8 B>340 <8AB5@88, C65 ;8H5==K5 8AB8==>3> A25B0, 2<5=8;8 25;8:CN 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O ?@>ABCN 8AB5@8N. "/ 8 B5F <>9  >4=>",  3>2>@8; 8ACA %@8AB>A (>0==, 10, 30), "/  MB> =",  3>2>@OB <C4@5FK =488: A>'E0<  81> B0:>20 8AB8=0, :>B>@CN >B:@K20NB 2A5 ;N48 A2>1>4=>3> 4CE0  A >AB>:0 ;8 >=8 8;8 A 0?040, 87 ?@>H;>3> 8;8 87 =0AB>OI53>. -B> 25G=K9 $0:B, :>B>@K9 2A5 <K 4>;6=K >B:@KBL.  MB> "O", CB25@640NI55 A2>5 B>645AB2> A >3><, =5 O2;O5BAO ?@8=04;56=>ABLN :0:>9-;81> ?@828;538@>20==>9 ;8G=>AB8.  459AB28B5;L=>, @0725 <>65< ACI5AB2>20BL 2> 2A5< MB>< 1571@56=>< =5C45@68<>< @0A?CA:0=88, @0AF25B0=88 E>BO 1K >4=> 60;:>5 >1>A>1;5==>5 "O", =5C65;8 65 548=5=85 A >3><  C45; ;8HL <C4@5F>2 #?0=8H04, @8H8 54 8;8 %@8AB0? 0 A0<>< 45;5 MB> 3>;>A0 2A5E ;N459, A;8BK5 2 548=>< :>A<8G5A:>< A>7=0=88. K 2A5  45B8 >6L8. ABL 420 ?CB8 : MB><C B:@KB8N, 8;8 425 ABC?5=8. 5@20O  MB> =09B8 4CHC, ?A8E8G5A:>5 ACI5AB2>, :>B>@>5 25G=> 548=> A >65AB25==K<, <0;K9 A25B MB>3> 25;8:>3> !25B0: "CE, :>B>@K9 =0E>48BAO 745AL, 2 G5;>25:5, 8 CE, :>B>@K9 =0E>48BAO B0<, 2 !>;=F5  273;O=8: MB> 48=K9 CE 8 =5B =8:0:>3> 4@C3>3>",  3>2>@OB #?0=8H04K ("08BB8@8O #?0=8H040 X); ":B> 4C<05B 'O  MB> >4=>, 0 >=  4@C3>5', B>B =5 7=05B" (@8E040@0=LO:0 #?0=8H040 I.4.10). (5ABL 8;8 A5<L BKAOG ;5B B><C =0704 54K =0720;8 B0:>5 >B:@KB85 CE0 2 G5;>25:5 "@>645=85< !K=0": "84=0 53> :@0A=0O A25@:0NI0O AC1AB0=F8O: 25;8:89 1>3 2KA2>1>6405BAO 87 <@0:0" ( 83 540 V.1.2); A8;L=K< <>I=K< O7K:>< CB25@640;8 @8H8 54 25G=>5 B>645AB2> !K=0 8 BF0 8 1>65AB25==CN B@0=A<CB0F8N G5;>25:0: "A2>1>6409 >BF0 B2>53>, 7=0=85< A2>8< >E@0=O9 53>  >BF0 B2>53>, :>B>@K9 AB0=>28BAO B2>8< AK=>< 8 ?>445@68205B B51O" ( 83 540 V.3.9).  B>B <><5=B, :>340 <K @>6405<AO, <K 2848<, GB> MB0 4CH0 2 =0A O2;O5BAO B0:>9 65 8 2> 2A5E G5;>25G5A:8E ACI5AB20E. =0 A:@KB0, =5 ?@>O2;5=0 =5 B>;L:> 2 ACI5AB20E, => 8 2 ?@54<5B0E: "-B> 48BO 2>4, 48BO ;5A>2, 48BO ?@54<5B>2 =5?>4286=KE 8 ?@54<5B>2, :>B>@K5 4286CBAO. = ?@8ACBAB2C5B 4065 2 :0<=5" ( 83 540 I.70.20). A5 548=>, ?>B><C GB> 2A5  MB> 48=>5. 0725 =5 3>2>@8; %@8AB>A: "-B>  B5;> <>5, MB>  :@>2L <>O" > 42CE A0<KE <0B5@80;L=KE, A0<KE 75<=KE A8<2>;0E  E;515 8 28=5,  GB>1K ?>:070BL, GB> 8 0B5@8O  MB> B5;> 48=>3>, :@>2L >30? A;8 1K 53> =5 1K;> C65 2 :0<=5, B> :0: 1K = ?@>=8: 2 G5;>25:0, :0:8< 2>;H51=K< 2<5H0B5;LAB2><? K ?@54AB02;O5< A>1>N @57C;LB0B M2>;NF88, 0 =5 ?@>4C:B 70<KA;>20B>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 ?@>872>;L=KE GC45A: "0< (2 =0H59 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?@8@>45) 70:;NG5=> 2A5 ?@>H;>5 75<;8... A0<0 ?@8@>40 G5;>25G5A:>3> ACI5AB20 8 ?@54?>;0305B =0;8G85 <0B5@80;L=>9 8 28B0;L=>9 AB0489, :>B>@K5 ?>43>B02;820NB ?>O2;5=85 @07C<0 2 G5;>25:5, 0 B0:65 =0;8G85 >?@545;5==>3> 682>B=>3> ?@>H;>3>, :>B>@>5 D>@<8@>20;> ?5@2K9 M;5<5=B 53> A;>6=>9 G5;>25G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@K.  40209B5 =5 1C45< 3>2>@8BL, GB> MB> B0: 87-70 B>3>, GB> <0B5@80;L=0O @8@>40 2 ?@>F5AA5 M2>;NF88 A=0G0;0 A>740;0 687=L G5;>25:0, 53> B5;> 8 682>B=K9 @07C<, 8 ;8HL 70B5< 4CH0 =87>H;0 2 MBC >1>;>G:C, B0:8< >1@07>< A>740==CN, ...B0: :0: MB> ?@54?>;0305B =0;8G85 ?@>?0AB8 <564C 4CH>9 8 B5;><, <564C 4CH>9 8 687=LN, <564C 4CH>9 8 @07C<><  ?@>?0AB8, :>B>@>9 =5 ACI5AB2C5B; =5B B5;0 157 4CH8, =5B B5;0, :>B>@>5 A0<> 1K =5 O2;O;>AL D>@<>9 4CH8; A0<0 0B5@8O  MB> AC1AB0=F8O 8 A8;0 4CE0  8 =5 <>3;0 1K ACI5AB2>20BL, 5A;8 1K 1K;0 G5<-=81C4L 8=K<, 81> =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8G53>, GB> =5 O2;O5BAO AC1AB0=F859 8 A8;>9 5G=>3> [14] ...;CE>5, A;5?>5 8 3@C1>5 (0 =5 B>;L:> CB>=G5==>5, <5=B0;L=> A>7=0B5;L=>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 8;8 682>B=>5 ACI5AB2>20=85  B>65 ">. A5 MB> 15A:>=5G=>5 AB0=>2;5=85  MB> @>645=85 CE0 2 D>@<C [15]. ! >B:@KB85< 425@59 ?A8E8G5A:>3> @072>@0G8205BAO ?5@20O AB048O :>A<8G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O. > @0ABCI55 ?A8E8G5A:>5, A>7=0=85-A8;C, :>B>@>5 AB0=>28BAO 2A5 1>;55 8 1>;55 682K<, ?;>B=K< 8 A8;L=K<, C65 =5 CAB@08205B MB0 >3@0=8G5==0O 8=48284C0;L=0O D>@<0. 'C2AB2CO A2>5 548=AB2> A "5<, >=> AB@5<8BAO AB0BL B0:8< 65 1571@56=K<, :0: ">, B0:8< 65 2A5>1I8< 8 2=>2L >1@5AB8 ?@8ACICN 5<C 2@>645==CN >;=>BC. KBL 8 1KBL 2> 2A59 ?>;=>B5  MB> F5;L @8@>4K, :>B>@CN >=0 AB@5<8BAO @50;87>20BL 2 =0A..., 0 1KBL 2> 2A59 ?>;=>B5  7=0G8B 1KBL 2A5< ACI8< [16]. K >ICI05< =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 ?>;=>B5 1KB8O ?>B><C, GB> <K 8 5ABL MB0 >;=>B0. 450;, :>B>@K9 ?@8BO38205B =0A, F5;L, :>B>@0O >?@545;O5B =0H5 42865=85, =0E>4OBAO =0 A0<>< 45;5 =5 2?5@548  >=8 =5 2;5:CB =0A : A515, 0 B>;:0NB =0A; F5;L =0E>48BAO ?>7048 =0A, 0 B0:65  8 2?5@548 =0A, 8 2=CB@8 =0A. -2>;NF8O  MB> 25G=>5 @0A?CA:0=85 F25B:0, :>B>@K9 2A5340 1K; F25B:><. 5 1C4L MB>3> A5<5=8 2=CB@8, =8GB> 1K =5 B@>=C;>AL A <5AB0, ?>B><C GB> =8GB> =5 8A?KBK20;> 1K ?>B@51=>AB8 =8 2 G5<. "0:>20 >B@51=>ABL <8@0. -B> =0H5 F5=B@0;L=>5 ACI5AB2>. -B> =0H 1@0B A25B0, :>B>@K9 8=>340 ?>O2;O5BAO 2 B5 <8=CBK, :>340 2A5 :065BAO ?>B5@O==K<, MB> ?@>=870==0O A>;=5G=K< A25B>< ?0<OBL, :>B>@0O =5CAB0==> B>@<>H8B, 1C4>@068B =0A 8 =5 >AB028B =0A 2 ?>:>5 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 <K =5 @0A:@>5<, =5 >1@5B5< 2=>2L =0H5 !>;=F5. -B>  =0H :>A<8G5A:89 F5=B@ B0: 65, :0: ?A8E8G5A:>5  MB> =0H F5=B@ 8=48284C0;L=K9. > F5=B@0;L=>5 ACI5AB2> ?@51K205B =5 2 :0:>9-B> :>=:@5B=>9 B>G:5, >=>  2> 2A5E B>G:0E A@07C; =5?>AB868<K< >1@07>< =0E>48BAO >=> 2 A5@4F5 :064>9 25I8 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O >E20BK205B 2A5. 5@E>2=> ?@51K205B >=> 2=CB@8 B0: 65, :0: 8 =025@EC, 2=87C 8 25745  MB> 8A?>;8=A:0O B>G:0 [17]. >340 <K =0E>48< 55, B> A =5N =0E>48< 2A5, 81> 2A5 2 =59 70:;NG5=>. 7@>A;0O 4CH0 2=>2L =0E>48B A2>9 8AB>G=8:. !K= 2=>2L AB0=>28BAO BF><, 8;8, 25@=55, B5F, :>B>@K9 AB0; !K=><, 2=>2L AB0=>28BAO !0<8< !>1>9. 0742830NBAO 8 @0A:0;K20NBAO, @CH0BAO AB5=K, :>B>@K5 45@60;8 2 70B>G5=88 =0H5 A>7=0B5;L=>5 ACI5AB2>; B5@O5BAO 2AO:>5 >ICI5=85 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 8 ;8G=>AB8, >ICI5=85 @>AB@0=AB20 8 @5<5=8, A>1AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8, =0:>=5F, 2>>1I5 2AO:>3> 70:>=0 @8@>4K; =5B 1>;LH5 M3>, ;8G=>AB8 >?@545;5==>9 8;8 >?@545;8<>9  B>;L:> A>7=0=85, B>;L:> ACI5AB2>20=85, B>;L:> <8@ 8 1;065=AB2>; AB0=>28HLAO 15AA<5@B85<, AB0=>28HLAO 25G=>ABLN, AB0=>28HLAO 15A:>=5G=>ABLN. A5, GB> >AB05BAO >B 8=48284C0;L=>9 4CH8,  MB> 38<= <8@0, A2>1>4K 8 1;065=AB20, 281@8@CNI89 345-B> 2 25G=>AB8 [18]. K AG8B0;8 A51O 60;:8<8, >B45;5==K<8 4@C3 >B 4@C30  >48= G5;>25: ?;NA 4@C3>9 A@548 >B45;L=KE ?@54<5B>2. "0:>5 @0745;5=85 1K;> =5>1E>48<> =0< 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 2K@0AB8 ?>4 A2>59 A:>@;C?>9  2 ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 <K >AB0;8AL 1K =548DD5@5=F8@>20==>9 [=5@07;8G8<>9] G0ABLN 2A5;5=A:>9 ?;07<K, G;5=0<8 AB08, =5 >1;040NI8<8 A>1AB25==>9 687=LN. ;03>40@O MB><C @0745;5=8N <K AB0;8 A>7=0B5;L=K<8. > 4> A8E ?>@ <K A>7=0B5;L=K =5 ?>;=>ABLN  8 <K AB@0405<, AB@0405< >B A2>59 >B45;5==>AB8  >B45;5==>AB8 >B 4@C38E, >B45;5==>AB8 >B A0<8E A51O, >B45;5==>AB8 >B ?@54<5B>2, >B O2;5=89  >B 2A53>, ?>B><C GB> <K =0E>48<AO 2=5 B0:>9 B>G:8, 345 2A5 2AB@5G05BAO. 48=AB25==K9 A?>A>1 2A5 8A?@028BL  2=>2L AB0BL A>7=0B5;L=K<8; 8 MB> >G5=L ?@>AB>. ABL ;8HL >48= 8AB>G=8:  A>25@H5=AB2> AB8=K, ?>A:>;L:C MB> 548=AB25==>5, GB> 459AB28B5;L=> ACI5AB2C5B. @>O2;OO A51O 2>2=5 8 @0AA5820O, >=> A>740;> B>, GB> <K 2848<, 8 <=>65AB2> :@>E>B=KE C<>2, ?@5:@0A=KE 8 1;8AB0B5;L=KE, 4;O ?>8A:0 B>3>, G53> >=8 ?>:0 =5 =0H;8; => <>3CB =09B8, 81> B>, GB> >=8 8ICB  2=CB@8 =8E. !@54AB2> 8AF5;5=8O  2 F5=B@5 7;0. 0BL 2 >4=>9 87 15A54 A 45BL<8 H@0<0.  >340 <K 4>AB0B>G=> =0B5@?5;8AL ?>A;5 15AG8A;5==KE 687=59 MB>9 4;8==>9 M2>;NF88, :>340 <K 4>@>A;8 4> B>3>, GB>1K ?>=OBL 8 ?@87=0BL, GB> 2A5 ?@8E>48B : =0< 872=5  87 87=8 1>;55 25;8:>9, G5< =0H0 687=L, 87 07C<0 8 0B5@88 1>;55 >1H8@=KE, G5< =0H8,  87 2A5>1I8E,  B>340 ?@8E>48B 2@5<O A>7=0B5;L=> AB0BL B5<, :5< <K, =5 A>7=020O B>3>, 1K;8 2A5340  2A5>1I59 8G=>ABLN: 0G5< B515 >3@0=8G820BL A51O? 'C2AB2C9, GB> BK =0E>48HLAO 8 2 <5G5, :>B>@K9 ?>@0605B B51O, 8 2 @C:0E, :>B>@K5 B51O >1=8<0NB, 2 A25@:0=88 A>;=F0 8 2 B0=F5 75<;8 ... 2> 2A5<, GB> ?@>H;>, 2> 2A5<, GB> ?@>8AE>48B A59G0A 8 2> 2A5<, GB> ?@>:;04K205B A515 4>@>3C : AB0=>2;5=8N. 1> BK  15A:>=5G5=, 8 2AO MB0 @04>ABL 4>ABC?=0 B515 [19].  '  "!" >7<>6=>, <K 4C<05<, GB> :>A<8G5A:>5 A>7=0=85  MB> A2>53> @>40 ?>MB8G5A:0O 8 <8AB8G5A:0O A25@ED0=B078O, =5GB> 01A>;NB=> AC1J5:B82=>5, =5 8<5NI55 =8:0:>3> ?@0:B8G5A:>3> 7=0G5=8O. > 4;O =0G0;0 =0< A;54C5B ?>?KB0BLAO CB>G=8BL, GB> <K ?>=8<05< ?>4 A;>20<8 ">1J5:B82=>5" 8 "AC1J5:B82=>5", ?>B><C GB> 5A;8 <K =0AB08205< =0 B><, GB>1K 8A?>;L7>20BL B0: =07K205<>5 ">1J5:B82=>5" 2 :0G5AB25 548=AB25==>3> :@8B5@8O 8AB8=K, B>, 25@>OB=>, 25AL MB>B <8@ <>65B ?>;=>ABLN CA:>;L7=CBL >B =0A  8 MB> 4>:07K20NB =0H5 8A:CAAB2>, 682>?8AL 8 4065 =0H0 =0C:0 =0 ?@>BO65=88 ?>A;54=8E ?OB845AOB8 ;5B, :>340 2 8A:CAAB25 8 =0C:5 >B <8@0 >AB0NBAO ;8HL 60;:85 :@>E8 B>3>, GB> <>6=> AG8B0BL =57K1;5<K< 8 15AA?>@=K<. >=5G=>, 2 ACI5AB2>20=88 18DHB5:A0 ;53:> C1548BLAO, 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, 18DHB5:A 1>;55 >1J5:B825=, G5< @04>ABL 2 ?>A;54=8E :20@B5B0E 5BE>25=0; => MB> 65 >154=O5B <8@, 0 2>2A5 =5 @0A:@K205B 53> A>:@>28I. 0 A0<>< 45;5 MB> ;>6=>5 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85. !C1J5:B82=>ABL  MB> 8 1>;55 2KA>:0O, 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O ?>43>B>28B5;L=0O AB048O >1J5:B82=>AB8. A;8 1K :064K9 2:CA8; :>A<8G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O 8;8 ?@>AB> @04>AB8 2 :20@B5B0E 5BE>25=0, B>, <>65B 1KBL, >1J5:B82=> C =0A 2> 2A5;5==>9 1K;> 1K <5=LH5 20@20@AB20. (@8 C@>18=4> 1K; =5 B5< G5;>25:><, :>B>@K9 <>3 1K C4>2;5B2>@8BLAO :>A<8G5A:8<8 <5GB0=8O<8.  ?>4;8==>AB8 ?5@56820=8O 8 53> ?@0:B8G5A:>< A>>B=>H5=88 A 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN <>6=> =5<54;5==> C1548BLAO =0 >G5=L ?@>AB>< D0:B5  =0 ?>O2;5=88 =>2>3> A?>A>10 ?>7=0=8O, ?>7=0=8O G5@57 >B>645AB2;5=85: <K ?>7=05< =5:CN 25IL ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C <K A0<8 C65 8 5ABL B0 25IL. !>7=0=85 <>65B ?5@5<5AB8BLAO 2 ;N1CN B>G:C 2A5>1I59 @50;L=>AB8, >=> <>65B AD>:CA8@>20BLAO =0 ;N1>< ACI5AB25 8;8 A>1KB88 8 ?>7=0BL 8E B0< 2 B>B 65 <><5=B  ?>7=0BL B0: 1;87:>, :0: 185=85 A>1AB25==>3> A5@4F0, 81> 2A5 B5?5@L ?@>8AE>48B 2=CB@8, =8G53> C65 =5B 2>2=5, =8GB> C65 =5 @0745;5=>. #65 #?0=8H04K 3>2>@8;8 >1 MB><: ">340 ?>7=0=> ">, ?>7=0=> 2A5" ((0=48;LO #?0=8H040, II.2). 5@2K5 ?@87=0:8 MB>3> =>2>3> A>7=0=8O 2?>;=5 >ICB8<K: '5;>25: =0G8=05B >ICI0BL 8 4@C38E :0: G0ABL A0<>3> A51O 8;8 :0: @07;8G=K5 ?>2B>@5=8O A51O  B>3> 65 A0<>3> "O", 284>87<5=5==>3> @8@>4>9 2 4@C38E B5;0E. ;8, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, :0: 682CI53> 2 1>;55 H8@>:>< 2A5>1I5< "O", :>B>@>5 B5?5@L AB0=>28BAO 53> A>1AB25==>9 25;8:>9 @50;L=>ABLN. $0:B8G5A:8 2A5 25I8 =0G8=0NB <5=OBL A2>N ?@8@>4C 8 2=5H=89 284; 2A5 2>A?@8OB85 <8@0 B0:8< G5;>25:>< @048:0;L=> >B;8G05BAO >B 2>A?@8OB8O B5E, GB> 70<:=CB 2 A2>5< ;8G=>< "O". = =0G8=05B ?>7=020BL 25I8 =0 >A=>25 8=>3> >?KB0  1>;55 =5?>A@54AB25==>3>, =5 7028AOI53> >B 2=5H=53> C<0 8 GC2AB2.  E>BO 2>7<>6=>ABL >H81:8 =5 CAB@0=O5BAO  MB>3> =5 <>65B ?@>87>9B8 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 C< ;N1>3> @>40 >AB05BAO >@C485< ?5@540G8 7=0=8O,  ?@>AB> ACI5AB2C5B =>2K9, H8@>:89 8 3;C1>:89 A?>A>1 ?5@56820=8O, 2845=8O, ?>7=0=8O, A>?@8:>A=>25=8O A 25I0<8; 8 3@0=8FK ?>7=0=8O <>3CB 1KBL @07428=CBK ?>GB8 4> 15A?@545;L=>AB8 [20]. -B>B =>2K9 A?>A>1 ?>7=0=8O 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 =5 >B;8G05BAO >B =0H53>.  A0<>< 45;5: ;N1>5 ?5@56820=85, ;N1>5 7=0=85 :0:>3> 1K B> =8 1K;> ?>@O4:0  >B G8AB> D878G5A:>3> C@>2=O 4> <5B0D878G5A:8E 2KA>B  =5O2=> 5ABL ?>7=0=85 G5@57 >B>645AB2;5=85: <K 7=05< GB>-B> ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C <K A0<8 C65 8 5ABL B>, GB> <K ?>7=05<. AB8==>5 7=0=85 4>AB8305BAO =5 @07<KH;5=85<,  3>2>@8; (@8 C@>18=4>.  => 5ABL B>, G5< 2K O2;O5B5AL; >=> 5ABL B>, G5< 2K AB0=>28B5AL [2]. 5 1C4L MB>9 A:@KB>9 B>645AB25==>AB8, MB>3> B>B0;L=>3> 548=AB20, ;560I53> 2 >A=>25 2A53> ACI53>, <K 1K;8 1K =5 A?>A>1=K >1;040BL E>BL :0:8<-=81C4L 7=0=85< > <8@5 8 > ACI5AB20E. 0<0:@8H=0, :@8G0I89 >B 1>;8 8 8AB5:0NI89 :@>2LN ?@8 2845 @0= 1C92>;0, :>B>@>3> E;5AB0;8 18G>< C =53> =0 3;070E, <548C<, :>B>@K9 >?@545;O5B <5AB>?>;>65=85 A?@OB0==>3> ?@54<5B0, 9>38=, 87;5G820NI89 1>;57=L CG5=8:0, :>B>@K9 C40;5= =0 A>B=8 <8;L >B CG8B5;O, 8;8 (@8 C@>18=4>, =5 ?>72>;ONI89 F8:;>=C ?@>=8:=CBL 2 53> :><=0BC,  MB> ;8HL =5A:>;L:> ?>@078B5;L=KE 8;;NAB@0F89 5AB5AB25==>3> O2;5=8O, 81> 5AB5AB25==K< O2;O5BAO =5 @0745;5=85, =5 @07;8G8O, 0 =545;8<>5 548=AB2> 2A5E 25I59. A;8 1K ACI5AB20 8 ?@54<5BK >B;8G0;8AL 1K >B =0A, 1K;8 1K 459AB28B5;L=> >B45;5=K >B =0A, 5A;8 1K <K 2 ACI=>AB8 A2>59 =5 1K;8 1K MB8< F8:;>=>< 8;8 1C92>;><. A?@OB0==K< ?@54<5B>< 8;8 1>;L=K< CG5=8:><, B> <K =5 B>;L:> =5 A<>3;8 1K 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 =8E, GC2AB2>20BL 8E 8;8 ?>7=020BL, => >=8 ?@>AB> 1K;8 1K =52848<K 8 =5 ACI5AB2>20;8 1K 4;O =0A. ">;L:> ?>4>1=>5 <>65B 7=0BL 8 >ICI0BL ?>4>1=>5, B>;L:> ?>4>1=>5 <>65B 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 ?>4>1=>5. K <>65< ?>7=0BL ;8HL B>, G5< <K O2;O5<AO: 07C< =5;L7O =0CG8BL =8G5<C, GB> 1K C65 =5 1K;> 70:;NG5=> 2 :0G5AB25 ?>B5=F80;L=>3> 7=0=8O 2 @072>@0G820NI59AO 4CH5 B2>@5=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, 8 2A5 A>25@H5=AB2>, =0 :>B>@>5 A?>A>15= 2=5H=89 G5;>25:,  MB> B>;L:> @50;870F8O 25G=>3> A>25@H5=AB20 CE0 2=CB@8 =53>. K ?>7=05< >65AB25==>5 8 AB0=>28<AO >65AB25==K< ?>B><C, GB> C65 O2;O5<AO 8< ?> A2>59 A:@KB>9 ?@8@>45. AO:>5 >1CG5=85  MB> @0A:@KB85, 2AO:>5 AB0=>2;5=85  MB> @0725@BK20=85. 1@5B5=85 A51O  MB> B09=0; A0<>?>7=0=85 8 @0ABCI55 A>7=0=85  MB> A@54AB2> 8 ?@>F5AA [22].  B5G5=85 BKAOG5;5B89 =0H59 M2>;NF88 <K >B45;8;8AL >B <8@0 8 >B 4@C38E ACI5AB2. K AD>@<8@>20;8 MB>, A>740;8 87 =5A:>;L:8E 0B><>2 25;8:>3> "5;0 65AB:CN D>@<C 8 ?@>2>73;0A8;8 "O-<K" ?@>B82 2A5E >AB0;L=KE, :>B>@K5, ?>4>1=> =0<, >:>AB5=5;8 ?>4 :>@:>9 M3>. C4CG8 >B45;5==K<8, <K C65 =5 <>3;8 2845BL =8G53>, GB> ?5@2>=0G0;L=> 1K;> =0H8< "O" 2 25;8:>< 0B5@8=A:>< 48=AB25. >MB><C <K 87>1@5;8 3;070, @C:8, >@30=K GC2AB2, C<  GB>1K >1I0BLAO A B5<, GB> <K 8A:;NG8;8 87 =0H53> 25;8:>3> "5;0, 0 B5?5@L <K 4C<05<, GB> 157 MB8E 3;07, ?0;LF52 8;8 3>;>2K <K =5A?>A>1=K ?>7=020BL. > MB> ;8HL =0H0 8;;N78O, :>B>@0O 2>7=8:;0 2 @57C;LB0B5 >B45;5=8O. 0H5 ?@82KG=>5 :>A25==>5 ?>7=020=85 ?>:@K205B 8 A:@K205B >B =0A ?>7=020=85 =5?>A@54AB25==>5, 157 :>B>@>3> =0H8 3;070, ?0;LFK, 3>;>20 8 4065 <8:@>A:>?K =5 <>3;8 1K 2>A?@8=8<0BL, ?>=8<0BL 8;8 459AB2>20BL. 0H8 3;070  MB> =5 >@30= 2845=8O, 0 >@30= @0745;5=8O; :>340 2 =0A >B:@K205BAO ;07 AB8=K, B> 2> 2A5E MB8E ;8=70E 8 4@C38E ":>ABK;OE" =5B C65 =8:0:>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8. 0H5 M2>;NF8>==>5 ?CB5H5AB285  MB> <54;5==>5 >B2>52K20=85 B>3>, GB> <K 873=0;8, 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 0<OB8. 0H ?@>3@5AA 87<5@O5BAO =5 :>;8G5AB2>< =0H8E 87>1@5B5=89, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO ;8HL 8A:CAAB25==K<8 A@54AB20<8 2>72@0I5=8O B>3>, GB> <K C40;8;8, => B>9 G0ABLN 2>AA>548=5==>3> <8@0, :>B>@CN <K <>65< AG8B0BL A0<8<8 A>1>9.  MB0 @04>ABL  =0=40  ?>B><C GB> 1KBL 2A5< ACI8<  7=0G8B >1;040BL @04>ABLN 2A53> ACI53>. ;065=AB2> <8@804 <8@804, :>B>@K5 ACBL >4=>. [23] "B:C40 ?@845B : =5<C ?5G0;L, :0: 1C45B >= >1<0=CB  B>B, :B> ?>2AN4C 2848B 48=AB2>?" (H0 #?0=8H040 7). 5@52>4 A D@. ..(52G5=:>, ..0@0=>20 * * * '5;>25:  MB> ?@5E>4OI55 ACI5AB2>.  A0<>< G5;>25:5 8 2KA>:> 70 53> ?@545;K 2>AE>4OB A8ONI85 ABC?5=8, ?> :>B>@K< <>6=> ?>4=OBLAO : 1>65AB25==>9 A25@EG5;>25G=>AB8. "0< =0H C45; 8 :;NG : >A2>1>645=8N 87 =0H53> >3@0=8G5==>3> 8 8A?>;=5==>3> B@C4=>AB59 75<=>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O. (@8 C@>18=4>. "'0A >30" 0 ?@545;0<8 C<0 =0E>48BAO A25@E<5=B0;L=0O, 3=>AB8G5A:0O A8;0 A>7=0=8O, :>B>@0O  2 25G=>< >1;040=88 AB8=>9. !25@E@07C< 2 A2>5< ?5@2>8AB>G=8:5 O2;O5BAO 48=0<8G5A:8< A>7=0=85<, 8 >= ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45 =5>B45;8< >B 15A:>=5G=>9 <C4@>AB8, 15A:>=5G=>9 2>;8 8 1>65AB25==>3> 7=0=8O =0NI53> 8 "2>@F0. !25@E@07C<  MB> A25@EG5;>25:. -B>  3=>AB8G5A:0O A25@EG5;>25G=>ABL, 2 A2>5< A;54CNI5< B@8C<D0;L=>< M2>;NF8>==>< H035 4>AB830NI0O 75<=>9 ?@8@>4K. (03 >B G5;>25:0 : A25@EG5;>25:C  MB> A;54CNI55 4>AB865=85 75<=>9 M2>;NF88. -B>B H03 =5871565=, ?>B><C GB> MB>  =0<5@5=85 2=CB@5==53> CE0 8 ;>38:0 A0<>3> ?@>F5AA0 @0728B8O @8@>4K. (@8 C@>18=4>. "'0A >30"  [1] Speeches, p.54 [2] Ibid., @. 61 [3] The Synthesis of Yoga, p. 133 [4] Speeches, p. 57 [5] Ibid., @. 58 [6] The Synthesis of Yoga, p. 341 [7] Essays on Gita, pp.59,616 [8] The Life Divine, p. 960 [9] Savitri. p. 76 [10] The Synthesis of Yoga, p. 374 [11] Savitri, p. 296 [12] Ibid., @. 702 [13] Collected Poems and Plays, p. 162 [14] The Life Divine, p.677 [15] The Problem of Rebirth, p.65 [16] The Life Divine, p. 1217 [17] Savitri, p. 29 [18] The Synthesis of Yoga, p. 415 [19] The Superman, p. 27 [20] On Yoga, vol. 1, p. 237 [21] Evening Talks with Sri Aurobindo, (A.B. Purani, 1959) p. 180 [22] The Synthesis of Yoga, p. 60 [23] Savitri, p. 369  6>= #09B  !"  #% !"!/ " &/ >7=8:=>25=85 2KAH59 G5;>25G=>AB8  MB> 25G=0O B5<0. 1@07K, A2O70==K5 A MB>9 B5<>9, @07;8G=K ?> A2>8< D>@<0< 8 G8AB>B5, >B 24>E=>25==KE 2845=89 <8AB8:>2, B0:8E, :0: (@8 C@>18=4>, 4> D0=B0789 B0:8E 157C<F52, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 4>;LD 8B;5@. #G5=85 8FH5 > A25@EG5;>25:5 1K;> 8A:065=> 2 B@5BL5< @59E5 8 ?@8=O;> D>@<C 4>:B@8= @0A>2>3> ?@52>AE>4AB20; 8 B0 65 845O AB0;0 >A=>2>9 >1@070 !C?5@<5=0, 8725AB=>3> 35@>O :><8:A>2. $@0=FC7A:89 857C8BA:89 D8;>A>D L5@ "59O@ 45 (0@45= ?8A0; > 2>7=8:=>25=88 MB>9 2KAH59 G5;>25G=>AB8 2 :2078=0CG=KE B5@<8=0E; 8=489A:89 9>38= 8 CG5=K9-D8;>A>D >?8 @8H=0 >1@0I0;AO : MB>9 65 B5<5 1>;55 AB@>38< >1@07>< 2 A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 1C4CI53> M2>;NF8>==>3> @0728B8O G5;>25:0, :>B>@>5 >= A2O7K20; A >?KB>< ?@>1C645=8O :C=40;8=8; B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=K9 ?A8E>;>3 5==5B 8=3 =0H5; 4>:070B5;LAB20 MB>3> 65 2 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5==>< D5=><5=5 >:>;>A<5@B=>3> >?KB0. ::C;LB=K5 B@048F88, B0:85, :0: B5>A>D8O, 0=B@>?>A>D8O, @>75=:@59F5@AB2>, <0A>=AB2>, 0;E8<8O, :0110;0 8 4@C385 ?>4;8==> <8AB8G5A:85 H:>;K, B0:65 A>45@60B 2 A515 845N M2>;NF88 G5;>25G5AB20 : 1>;55 2KA>:8< A>AB>O=8O<. 4=> 87 =081>;55 70?><8=0NI8EAO 2KA:07K20=89 >1 MB>< ?@8=04;568B :0=04A:><C ?A8E80B@C 8G0@4C . Q::C 8 <>65B 1KBL =0945=> =0 ?>A;54=59 AB@0=8F5 53> :;0AA8G5A:>9 :=838 ">A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85". ...">G=> B0: 65 402=K<-402=> A0<>A>7=0=85 ?>O28;>AL C ;CGH8E ?@54AB028B5;59 =0H59 @0AK =0 70@5 55 8AB>@88, AB0=>2OAL A> 2@5<5=5< 1>;55 2A5>1I8<, ?>O2;OOAL 2 8=482840E 2> 2A5 1>;55 8 1>;55 @0==5< 2>7@0AB5, ?>:0 >=>, :0: <K <>65< 2845BL, =5 AB0;> >1I8< 4>AB>O=85<, 2>7=8:0O C 2A5E 2 A@54=5< 2 2>7@0AB5 B@5E ;5B. "0:65 8 >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85 AB0=>28BAO 2A5 1>;55 8 1>;55 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5==K< 2 687=8 8=48284>2, ?>:0 :>340-=81C4L >=> =5 AB0=5B 4>ABC?=K< 4;O 2A59 G5;>25G5A:>9 @0AK. > @0A0, :>B>@0O 1C45B >1;040BL >A<8G5A:8< !>7=0=85<, 1C45B C65 =5 B>9 @0A>9, :>B>@0O ACI5AB2C5B A53>4=O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: ACI5AB2CNI0O A59G0A G5;>25G5A:0O @0A0  MB> 2A5-B0:8 B0 65 A0<0O @0A0, :>B>@0O C65 ?>O28;0AL 4> =0G0;0 M2>;NF88 A0<>A>7=0=8O. @>AB0O 8AB8=0 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> ?@54AB028B5;8 MB>9 =>2>9 @0AK C65 682CB =0 75<;5, "?5@8>48G5A:8 ?@>O2;OOAL" A 8=B5@20;0<8 2 BKAOG8 ;5B A@548 >1KG=KE ;N459. -B> ?5@2K5, ?>:0 5I5 A;01K5 =0G0;0 8=>9 @0AK, :>B>@K5 4KH0B 8=K< 2>74CE><, > :>B>@>< <K 7=05< A>2A5< <0;>, 8;8 4065 2>>1I5 =8G53>, 8 :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO ACI=>ABLN =0H59 4CE>2=>9 687=8, 0 >BACBAB285 53>  MB> =0H0 4CE>2=0O A<5@BL. -B0 =>20O @0A0 =0E>48BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 @>645=8O 87 =0A, 8 2 A:>@>< 1C4CI5< >=0 1C45B 2;045BL 2A59 75<;59. ;O 1>;LH8=AB20 70?04=KE ;N459, :>=5G=> 65, =081>;55 1;87:8<8 O2;ONBAO B5 2K@065=8O 4;O >?8A0=8O MB>3> >?KB0, :>B>@K5 1K;8 40=K 425 BKAOG8 ;5B =0704 8ACA>< 87 070@5B0. >340 8ACA 3>2>@8; > A0<>< A515, ?>G5<C >= ?@8=F8?80;L=> 8A?>;L7>20; 2K@065=85 "!K= '5;>25G5A:89"? @C385 =07K20;8 53> !K=>< >6L8<, => A0< 8ACA G0I5 =07K20; A0<>3> A51O !K=>< '5;>25G5A:8<, >B?@KA:>< G5;>25G5AB20. >;55 B>3>, >= 3>2>@8; B5<, :B> 53> >:@C60;, GB> >=8 <>3;8 1K 1KBL 2KH5, G5< 0=35;K, 8 GB> B5 25I8, :>B>@K9 >= A>25@H0;, >=8 <>3;8 1K A45;0BL B>65, 8 4065 1>;55 B>3> (>0=. 14:12), B0: :0: MB> ?@8ACI5 G5;>25:C. !<KA; MB>3> 2KA:07K20=8O 8ACA0 1K; 2 B><, GB> >= >A>7=020; A51O :0: 7025@H5==>3> ?@54AB028B5;O =>2>3> G5;>25G5AB20, :>B>@>5 4>;6=> ?@89B8, B>3> =>2>3> G5;>25G5AB20, :>B>@>5 =0A5;8B 5<;N 8 CB25@48B &0@AB285 >685, 2E>4O 2 >2CN -?>EC. 3> <8AA8O 8 53> CG5=85 2 A2>59 ACI=>AB8 A>45@60;8 845N > @0728B88 =>2>3>, 1>;55 2KA>:>3> A>AB>O=8O A>7=0=8O C 1>;LH53> :>;8G5AB20 ?@54AB028B5;59 G5;>25G5AB20, G5< B5 =5<=>385 A;CG08, :>B>@K5 <K <>65< 2845BL @0=55 2 8AB>@88, :>340 MB>3> 4>AB830;8 @54:85 045?BK 8;8 020B0@K, B0:85, :0: C440 8;8 @8H=0. #=8:0;L=>5 <5AB> 8ACA0 2 8AB>@88 >A=>20=> =0 53> 15A?@5F545=B=>< ?>AB865=88 2KAH53> C<0, 1>65AB25==>AB8, A=>2K KB8O, 2>?;>I5==>9 2 =5<,  B>9 >A=>2K, :>B>@0O O2;O5BAO 8AB>G=8:>< 2A53> AB0=>2;5=8O. !;>2> 0@0<59A:>3> O7K:0, A>>B25BAB2CNI55 3@5G5A:><C "%@8AB>A",  MB> M'shekha, >B :>B>@>3> ?@>87>H;> A;>2> "<5AA8O". -B> =5 8<O, 0 B8BC;, 8, E>BO >= >1KG=> ?5@52>48BAO :0: "?><070==8: >689", 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 MB> >7=0G05B "A>25@H5==K9", "?@>A25B;5==K9" 8;8 "8450;L=0O D>@<0 G5;>25G=>AB8". 8ACA 1K; 8AB>@8G5A:>9 ;8G=>ABLN, G5;>25G5A:8< ACI5AB2><, 682H8< 425 BKAOG8 ;5B =0704; => 2 ACI=>AB8 "%@8AB>A", "5AA8O"  MB> B> 25G=>5 B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>5 A>AB>O=85 1KB8O, : :>B>@K< 2A5 <K 4>;6=K :>340-B> ?@89B8. 8ACA =5 3>2>@8;, GB> MB> 2KAH55 A>AB>O=85 A>7=0=8O <>3;> 2>?;>B8BLAO B>;L:> 2 =5<. 5 3>2>@8; >= =0< 8 B>3>, GB>1K <K ?>:;>=O;8AL 5<C. !:>@55, >= ?@87K20; =0A A;54>20BL 5<C  A;54>20BL 53> H030<, CG8BLAO C =53>, =0 53> ?@8<5@5, :0: 68BL F5=B@8@>20==>9 =0 >35 687=LN, A0<>>B25@65==>9 687=LN, A>AB@040B5;L=> A;C60 <8@C B0:, :0: 5A;8 1K <K 1K;8 A0<8< 8ACA><. = ?@87K20; =0A 2>9B8 2 =>2K9 <8@, A =>2K<8 CA;>28O<8, 1KBL 548=K< A A25@E<5=B0;L=K< A>7=0=85<, :>B>@>5 B>;L:> 8 <>65B @0AA5820BL BL<C =0H53> C<0 8 >1=>28BL =0HC 687=L. = =5 ?@87K20; =0A 1KBL E@8AB80=0<8, >= ?@87K20; =0A "1KBL 2> %@8AB5". =K<8 A;>20<8, >= AB028; A515 F5;LN ?>2B>@8BL A51O 4;O CA:>@5=8O @0728B8O G5;>25:0 8 ?>O2;5=8O <=>38E 5<C ?>4>1=KE. 3> F5;LN 1K;>, :0: ?@>2>73;0H05B >2K9 025B, A45;0BL 2A5E 548=K<8 2> %@8AB5. > :B> 5ABL %@8AB>A? ?>AB>; 025; 3>2>@8; =0<, GB> %@8AB>A  MB> 2B>@>9 40<, >A=>20B5;L =>2>9 @0AK. &0@AB285 >685  2=CB@8 =0A. >65AB25==>ABL  MB> =0H5 2@>645==>5 ?@02>, =0H5 =0A;54AB2>, 1>;55 1;87:>5 : =0<, G5< 4065 =0H8 @C:8 8 =>38, => 3;07 =5 <>65B 2845BL 8 CE> =5 <>65B A;KH0BL 53>. 8ACA ?@87K20; ;N459 ?@>1C48BLAO, 87<5=8BL A2>8 ?CB8, ?>:0OBLAO. !0<K5 ?5@2K5 53> A;>20, >1@0I5==K5 : G5;>25G5AB2C, 1K;8: "...?>:09B5AL, 81> ?@81;878;>AL &0@AB285 515A=>5" (0BD. 4.17) -B> 1K;0 ACBL 53> CG5=8O 8 =0AB02;5=89  :5@838=0. 1@0B8< 2=8<0=85 =0 A;>2> "?>:09B5AL". 0 ?@>BO65=88 AB>;5B89 >=> =5?@028;L=> ?5@52>48;>AL 8 =5?@028;L=> ?>=8<0;>AL, 8 4> A8E ?>@ ;N48 ?>;030NB, GB> >=> >7=0G05B A>60;5=85, @0A:0O=85 2 A2>8E 3@5E0E. -B>  ?@8A:>@1=>5 A=865=85 :0G5AB20 CG5=8O 8ACA0. @0<59A:>5 A;>2>, :>B>@>5 C?>B@518; 8ACA,  tob. => >7=0G05B ">1@0I0BLAO", "?@52@0I0BLAO", "2>72@0I0BLAO =0704 : >3C". !<KA; MB>3> ;CGH5 2A53> ?5@5405BAO B5< 3@5G5A:8< ?>=OB85<, :>B>@>5 1K;> 8A?>;L7>20=> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?5@525AB8 53>. -B> A;>2> <5B0=>9O, :>B>@>5, B0: 65 :0: 8 tob, >7=0G05B =5GB> 3>@074> 1>;LH55, G5< @0A:0O=85, >ICI5=85 A>60;5=8O 70 A2>5 =5?@028;L=>5 ?>2545=85. -B8<>;>38G5A:8 A;>2> <5B0=>9O 8<55B 420 :>@=O. 5B0 >7=0G05B "70 ?@545;0<8" 8;8 "2>72KH5=85 =04 G5<-;81>", 0 =>9O ?@>8AE>48B >B =CA (nous), GB> >7=0G05B "C<". -B> B>B 65 :>@5=L, >B :>B>@>3> ?@>8AE>48B A;>2> "=>>AD5@0", 8725AB=K9 B5@<8= "59O@0 45 (0@45=0, 8 >B :>B>@>3> ?@>8AE>48B A;>2> "=>MB8G5A:89" (noetic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summum bonum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e ligare: 2>AAB0=>28BL A2O7L, 8;8 CAB0=>28BL 55 70=>2>. -B> 8AB8==>5 ?>:0O=85, :>340 <K >1@0I05<AO : "@5;8388" 2 A<KA;5 AB0=>2;5=8O >A>7=0NI8<8 =0HC =587156=CN A2O7L A >3><, "2>@F><, >E@0=8B5;5< 8 A?0A8B5;5< :>A<>A0. >340 <K 2>AAB0=02;8205< A2O7L A >3><, B>340 >G5284=K< AB0=>28BAO 8 8AB8==>5 ?>=8<0=85 3@5E0. !0<> A;>2> "3@5E" (0=3;.  sin) 1C:20;L=> >7=0G05B "=5?@028;L=K9 7=0:". "@5E"  MB> =5 ?@>AB> =5?@028;L=>5 ?>2545=85, MB> =0@CH5=85 1>65AB25==>3> 70:>=0, :>A<8G5A:>3> ?@8=F8?0. -B> =5C40G0 2 ?>?KB:5 F5=B@8@>20=8O =0 >35  "=5 ?>?040=85 2 F5;L".  @5;838O 2 A2>5< =081>;55 8AB8==>< A<KA;5 O2;O5BAO 8=AB@C<5=B>< ?@>1C645=8O =0A : M2>;NF8>==><C ?@>F5AAC @>AB0 ?> =0?@02;5=8N : 1>65AB25==><C, GB> O2;O5BAO F5;LN 2A53> :>A<8G5A:>3> AB0=>2;5=8O. A;8 <K 8 ?>28==K 2 3@5E5, B> MB> DC=40<5=B0;L=0O CB@0B0 7=0:0 1>65AB25==>3> 87-70 =5C40G=KE ?>?KB>: >1@5AB8 1>65AB25==>5 A>7=0=85 8 2A5, GB> 87 MB>3> A;54C5B 4;O =0H8E <KA;59 8 =0H53> ?>2545=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, <8@ 459AB28B5;L=> ?@51K205B 2 3@5E5, 8 =5B 4@C3>3> A@54AB20 ?@>B82 MB>3>, :@><5 87<5=5=8O A2>53> A>7=0=8O. >8AB8=5, >3 =5 >AC6405B =0A 70 =0H8 3@5E8; A:>@55 <K >AC6405< A0<8E A51O =0H8<8 65 3@5E0<8.  ?>MB><C =5B =5>1E>48<>AB8 2 :0:><-;81> ?@>I5=88 >B >30: >=> 5ABL 2A5340, 8 MB> B0 157CA;>2=0O ;N1>2L, :>B>@0O ?@8E>48B A@07C 65, :0: B>;L:> <K 2 A2>5< A5@4F5 >1@0I05<AO : >3C. 0: >B<5G05BAO 2 "C@A5 GC45A", ?@>I5=85 4>;6=> 8AE>48BL >B =0A A0<8E :> 2A5<C <8@C 70 2A5 =0H8 >184K, @50;L=K5 8;8 2>>1@0605<K5, :>B>@K5 <K =0:>?8;8 2 =0H5< A5@4F5 2<5AB5 A> 7;>1>9, 3>@5GLN 8 AB@5<;5=85< : <5AB8. -B> ?>2>@>B=K9 <><5=B, =0ABC?0NI89, :>340 459AB28B5;L=> =0G8=05BAO ?@52>AE>645=85 -3> 8 A;020 >30 =0G8=05B @0A:@K20BLAO ?5@54 =0<8. >=OBL 2A5  7=0G8B ?@>AB8BL 2A5. >3 ?>=8<05B 2A5, 2A5 ?@>I05B 8 2A5 ;N18B. >340 <K ;N18< B0: 65, :0: ;N18B >3  157CA;>2=>  B> <K 70 ?@545;0<8 ?>=8<0=8O B5E, :B> =5 8A?KBK205B B0:>9 ;N128.  4CE5 =0< =8GB> =5 <>65B =8 ?@8G8=8BL 1>;L, =8 >1845BL, 8 ?>MB><C <K 2A5340 AG0AB;82K. >MB><C ;N1>2L  MB> 25;8G09H89 "@520=H", :>B>@>3> <K <>65< 4>AB830BL ?> >B=>H5=8N : =0H8< 2@030< 8 B5<, :B> >B=>A8BAO : =0< 7;>1=> 8 ?;>E>. 5 MB> ;8 8<5==> B>, G5<C CG8; 8ACA? 8:>340 =5 1C45B =8:0:>3> ;CGH53> <8@0, ?>:0 A0<8 ;N48 2 =5< =5 AB0=CB ;CGH5, 8 ?>=8<0=85 MB>3> 45<>:@0B8G5A:8 4>ABC?=> 4;O :064>3> ?>A@54AB2>< 157CA;>2=>9 ;N128 >30 8 53> <8;>A5@4=>9 1;03>40B8. A;8 1K MB8 ;N1>2L 8 1;03>40BL ?>G5<C-;81> ?5@5AB0;8 1K 4>AB830BL <8@0, B> 25AL :>A<>A @07@CH8;AO 1K. !B0BL >A>7=02H8< MB>B D0:B 2 A2>5< =5?>A@54AB25==>< >?KB5  =5;53:0O 7040G0, => MB> =5 70<5=O5B A>1>9 @>AB0 : 2KAH5<C A>7=0=8N: : ?>7=0=8N B>3>, GB> 2A5 5ABL >3 8 GB> 5ABL B>;L:> ;8HL >3. >340 ?@>F5AA <5B0=>98 7025@H05BAO, 53> @57C;LB0B>< O2;O5BAO B> A>AB>O=85 >A>7=0=8O, :>B>@K< >1;040; A0< 8ACA, :>340 >= 3>2>@8;: "/ 8 B5F  >4=>". -B> B>, G5<C 8ACA CG8; 8 GB> >= ?>AB>O==> ?>:07K20;,  >A<8G5A:>5 !>7=0=85, A>AB>O=85 %@8AB0, B>B ?>:>9, :>B>@K9 ?@52>AE>48B =0H5 ?>=8<0=85; =5?>A@54AB25==>5 ?5@56820=85 1>65AB25==>3>, ?@51K20NI53> 2 =0A 8 2> 2A5E 25I0E A59G0A 8 2A5340; A>7402H53> =0A, 682CI53> 2 =0A, ?>1C640NI53> =0A AB@5<8BLAO, =02A5340 >AB020BLAO 2 B0:8E 2KA>:8E A>AB>O=8OE 1KB8O. "...5@CNI89 2 5=O, 45;0, :>B>@K5 B2>@N /, 8 >= A>B2>@8B, 8 1>;LH5 A8E A>B2>@8B..." -B>  G5;>25G5A:89 ?>B5=F80;, ?>B5=F80; @>AB0 : 1>65AB25==><C. '5;>25G5A:89 ?>B5=F80;, 8 B>;L:> ;8HL >=,  MB> B>, GB> <>65B 87<5=8BL CA;>28O 1KB8O G5;>25:0 8 A?0AB8 25AL <8@ >B ?@51K20=8O 2> 3@5E5.  MB> =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: 2A5?@8ACBAB2CNI55 1>65AB25==>5 87<5@5=85 2A53> ACI5AB2>20=8O, 2 :>B>@><, :0: 3>2>@8; 0?>AB>; 025;, <K 6825<, 42865<AO 8 8<55< =0H5 1KB85. =AB8BCF8>=0;L=0O %@8AB80=A:0O &5@:>2L 3>2>@8B =0<, GB> 8ACA 1K; 548=AB25==K< !K=>< >30 8 GB> >= 2>?;>B8;AO :0: G5;>25: A F5;LN C<5@5BL =0 :@5AB5 4;O 8A:C?;5=8O =0H8E 3@5E>2 8 B0:8< >1@07>< A?0AB8 <8@. > MB>  ?5G0;L=0O :0@8:0BC@0, 1;54=>5 >B@065=85 459AB28B5;L=>9 8AB>@88, ?@52@0I0NI55 8ACA0 2 35@>O 2>;H51=>9 A:07:8, 0 E@8AB80=AB2>  2 2K@>482H89AO :C;LB ;8G=>AB8. 0: >B<5G0; -<5@A>= 5I5 AB>;5B85 =0704, 8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>5 E@8AB80=AB2> AB0;> A:>@55 @5;83859 >1 8ACA5, G5< @5;83859 A0<>3> 8ACA0.  @5;838O A0<>3> 8ACA0 ?@87K205B :064>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2> @0AB8 2 A2>5< >A>7=0=88 4> B>3> 65 A>AB>O=8O :>A<8G5A:>3> 548=AB20 8 F5;>AB=>AB8, :>B>@>5 ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20; =0< A0< 8ACA. 8ACA =5 "A?0A0;" ;N459, 0 >A2>1>640; 8E >B C7 M3>. =0G5=85 2>?;>I5=8O 8 2>A:@5H5=8O =5 B>;L:> 2 B><, GB> 8ACA 1K; G5;>25:><, :0: 8 <K 2A5, => A:>@55 2 B><, GB> 2A5 <K 1>38, ?>4>1=> 5<C, 8;8, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, 8<55< ?>B5=F80;L=CN 2>7<>6=>ABL 1KBL 8<8. %@8AB80=A:0O B@048F8O, ?@028;L=> ?>=OB0O, 8I5B A?>A>1 A45;0BL 2A5E =0A 8ACA0<8, 548=K<8 2> %@8AB5  70 ?@545;0<8 2A59 B>9 BL<K =0H53> C<0, @57C;LB0B>< :>B>@>9 O2;O5BAO 7;> 8 AB@040=85, AB>;L H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5==>5 2 <8@5. !0< 8ACA >B<5G0;, GB> 2 A;>20E "5 =0?8A0=> ;8 2 70:>=5 20H5<: / A:070;: 2K 1>38?" (>0=. 10.34), 2K@060;0AL 2AO B@048F8O 8C4087<0, :>B>@CN >= A?>;=0 2>?;>I0; 2 A515. 8ACA ?>:070; =0< ?CBL. = ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20; 53> A2>59 687=LN 8 >1JOA=8; A2>8< CG5=85<, GB> 2A5 <K 8<55< >3>< 40==>5 =0< ?@02> 2>9B8 2 &0@AB285 >685 8 1KBL 8AF5;5==K<8 B0< >B =0H53> GC2AB20 @0745;5==>AB8 8 >BGC645==>AB8, ?@527>9B8 3@5E 8 AB@0E A<5@B8  2A5 B>, GB> :>@5=8BAO 2 M3>8AB8G5A:>< A0<>>ICI5=88,  8 AB0BL F5;>AB=K<8 8 A2OBK<8. A5 <K 8<55< MBC ?>B5=F80;L=CN 2>7<>6=>ABL, 40==CN =5 "<>8<" BF><, 0, :0: 3>2>@8B <>;8B20 >A?>4C, =0H8< BF><. 8ACA ?>:070; A2>59 687=LN, A2>59 A<5@BLN 8 2>A:@5H5=85<, GB> <K 25G=K5 =515A=K5 ACI5AB20, G59 4><  2> A5;5==>9. = ?>:070;, GB> 515A0  MB> C65 ACI5AB2CNI0O A59G0A @50;L=>ABL, 0 =5 1C4CI55 2>7=03@0645=85. = ?>:070;, GB> A<5@BL B5;0 =5 O2;O5BAO @07@CH5=85< =0H53> A>7=0=8O 8 GB> A>7=0=85 %@8AB0, 2>?;>B82H55AO 2 G5;>25:5 ?> 8<5=8 8ACA, 2KE>48B 70 ?@545;K D0:B>2 D878:8 8 18>;>388 8 459AB28B5;L=> 2;0AB2C5B =04 D878:>9 8 18>;>3859 2 8E >1KG=>< ?>=8<0=88. = ?>:070;, GB> A>7=0=85 %@8AB0 1K;>, 5ABL 8 2A5340 1C45B ?@8ACBAB2>20BL A@548 =0A, ?@87K20O =0A : 2>AA>548=5=8N, : <8@C 157 :>=F0, B0: :0: MB> A>7=0=85 O2;O5BAO 8AB>G=8:>< 2A53> B2>@5=8O.  ?>MB><C 1K;> 1K ?@028;L=55 3>2>@8BL, GB> =5 8ACA 1K; %@8AB><, 0 GB> %@8AB>A 1K; 8ACA><. =0G5=85 8ACA0 =5 B>;L:> 2 B><, GB> >= 1K; =>A8B5;5< A?0A5=8O, => 2 B><, GB> >= 1K; <>45;LN A>25@H5=AB20. >MB><C 8 ?@028;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : =5<C  ?>GB5=85, 0 =5 ?>:;>=5=85. 8ACA ?>:070; =0< ?CBL : 2KAH5<C A>AB>O=8N 1KB8O 8 ?@8720; =0A >ACI5AB28BL 53>, A45;0BL @50;L=K<, ?@>O2;5==K<  :0: 8=48284C0;L=>, B0: 8 4;O 2A59 G5;>25G5A:>9 @0AK. -B> 8AB8==>5 ?>=8<0=85 B>3>, GB> 7=0G8B 1KBL @>645==K< 70=>2>: C<5@5BL 4;O ?@>H;>3> 8 4;O AB0@>3> >ICI5=8O A2>53> O, GB>1K >1@5AB8 H0=A =0 =>2>5 A>7=0=85. 'B>1K 2>9B8 2 &0@AB285 >685, <K 4>;6=K C<5@5BL 8 @>48BLAO 70=>2>, 4>;6=K AB0BL ?>4>1=K<8 <0;K< 45BO<. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O ?5@A?5:B82K <5B0=>98 7=0G5=85 =0AB02;5=89 8ACA0 ?>=OB=>. E>4O A=>20 2 A>AB>O=85 =528==>AB8, ?@8ACI55 <;045=FC, <K =5 @53@5AA8@C5< : 8=D0=B8;L=><C C@>2=N, ;8H0OAL =0H8E 7@5;KE A?>A>1=>AB59. 5B, <K ?@>3@5AA8@C5< A ?><>ILN ?@52>AE>645=8O 8;;N7>@=>3> -3> 8 2A5E 53> ;>6=KE F5==>AB59, >B=>H5=89 8 ?@82KG5:. K 4>AB8305< ?@>AB>4CH=>3> A>AB>O=8O C<0 157 >B1@0AK20=8O ?>78B82=KE :0G5AB2, ?@8ACI8E 27@>A;>AB8. !B0=>2OAL ?>4>1=K<8 <0;K< 45BO<, <K =5 ?@5C25;8G8205< 7=0G5=8O 45BA:>3> A>AB>O=8O, 0 A:>@55 >?B8<878@C5< MB> A>AB>O=85, B0: :0: <K AB0=>28<AO 2A5-B0:8 =5 45BL<8, 0 ;8HL ?>4>1=K<8 45BO<. >25@E=>AB=K5 8 =5?>AB>O==K5 F5==>AB8 CE>4OB, ?>A:>;L:C <K DC=:F8>=8@C5<, A;C60 70?@545;L=K< F5;O<, ?@8=>AO @01>BC =0H59 687=8 >3C 2 :064>5 <3=>25=85, =5 8I0 A0<>?@>A;02;5=8O 8;8 CB5H0NI53> 40;5:>3> 2>7=03@0645=8O =8 2 MB>< <8@5, =8 2 8=>< <8@5. K >1=0@C68205<, GB> 515A0 8 4  MB> =5 :0:85-B> >B40;5==K5 <5AB0, 0 A>AB>O=8O A>7=0=8O. 515A0  MB> 548=AB2> A >3><, 4  >B45;5==>ABL >B >30, 8 @0AAB>O=85 <564C 515A0<8 8 4>< 87<5@O5BAO =5 2 <8;OE, 0 2 AB5?5=8 >B:070 >B -3> 8 A0<>F5=B@8@>20=8O. 8ACA ?>:070; =0< ?CBL : &0@AB28N >6L5<C, => >= =5 8<5; 2>7<>6=>AB8 =5:8< 2>;H51=K< >1@07>< 27OBL :>3>-;81> BC40  >= 459AB28B5;L=> =5 <>3 A45;0BL MB>3>. >?040=85 BC40 7028A8B >B =0H8E A>1AB25==KE CA8;89 8 3>B>2=>AB8 ?>65@B2>20BL A>1>9  ?>65@B2>20BL =0H8< ;>6=K< M3>8AB8G5A:8< O (*). @5<O, :>340 <K A<>65< ?>?0ABL BC40, =58725AB=>. 8;>ABL >30 >AB05BAO @5H0NI8< D0:B>@>< 2 =0H5< ?@>E>645=88 G5@57 C@>2=8 A>7=0=8O, =>, B5< =5 <5=55, =0< =C6=> ?@54?@8=8<0BL CA8;8O, >=8 4>;6=K ?@54?@8=8<0BLAO. >4>1=> G5;>25:C, ?>4=8<0NI5<CAO =0 25@H8=C -25@5AB0 B>;L:> ;8HL ?>B><C, GB> MB0 25@H8=0 ACI5AB2C5B, :064>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2> B>65 @0=LH5 8;8 ?>765 ?>GC2AB2C5B ?@87K2 87 :>A<>A0 A>25@H8BL 2>AE>645=85 : 1>65AB25==><C. 1> C =0A ACI5AB2CNB 402=85 ;N1>2=K5 >B=>H5=8O A 1>65AB25==K<. , :0: 3>2>@8; 8ACA, 5A;8 2K ?@>A8B5 E;51, 2K =5 ?>;CG8B5 :0<5=L. !BCG8B5 8 20< >B:@>5BAO. ------------------------------ (*)  MB>< >B=>H5=88 O =5 A><=520NAL, GB> CG5=85 8ACA0 %@8AB0 ?>;=>ABLN A>3;0AC5BAO A CG5=85< 0CB0<K C44K, :>B>@K9 ?@87K20; A2>8E ?>A;54>20B5;59 @01>B0BL =5 4;O F5;8 A>1AB25==>3> A?0A5=8O, 0 4;O =5C:;>==>3> ?>8A:0 8AB8=K. 1>, :0: 3>2>@8; 8ACA, "8AB8=0 A45;05B 20A A2>1>4=K<8". 5B 4@C3>3> ?CB8 2>9B8 2 &0@AB285 >685, :@><5 2>AE>645=8O 2 A>7=0=88 : BFC, : B>9 157CA;>2=>9 ;N128 :> 2A5< B2>@5=8O<, :>B>@CN ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20; =0< 8ACA. -B> B>, G5<C ?>A2OI5=0 E@8AB80=A:0O B@048F8O 8, 2 ACI=>AB8, ?>A2OI5=0 :0640O ?>4;8==0O @5;838O: A8AB5<0 CG5=89 (:0: B5>@5B8G5A:8E, B0: 8 ?@0:B8G5A:8E) > @>AB5 : 2KAH5<C A>7=0=8N. > :064K9 87 =0A =C6405BAO 2 ?5@A>=0;L=>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 B>, A;54>20BL ;8 8ACAC =0 53> ?CB8. -B> :;NG >B &0@AB28O >6L53>. @52>AE>645=85 A51O, A2>53> -3>, B@51C5B G5AB=>AB8, >1O70B5;L=>AB8 8 4CE>2=>9 ?@0:B8:8 4;O :C;LB828@>20=8O 2 A515 >A>7=0=8O. 57C;LB0B>< MB>9 48AF8?;8=K O2;O5BAO 459AB28B5;L=K9 ?5@A>=0;L=K9" >?KB ?5@56820=8O B>3> D0:B0, GB> 87<5=5=85 A>7=0=8O <>65B 25AB8 : @048:0;L=>9 B@0=AD>@<0F88 A>7=0=8O, B@048F8>==> =07K205<>9 ?@>A25B;5=85<. > MB> >AB05BAO 70 ?@545;0<8 ?>=8<0=8O A>2@5<5==>3> E@8AB80=AB20. <5AB> MB>3> 8ACA 8 81;8O ?@52@0I5=K 2 :C<8@>2, 0 > 515A0E 3>2>@OB, GB> >=8 @0A?>;>65=K 345-B> 2 :>A<8G5A:>< ?@>AB@0=AB25. 45O > =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?@>1C645=8O 2=CB@5==53> ?@>AB@0=AB20  ?@>AB@0=AB20 A>7=0=8O  8 ?>B@51=>ABL 2 :C;LB828@>20=88 53>, : A>60;5=8N, >BACBAB2CNB 2 A>2@5<5==>< E@8AB80=AB25. "0:, =0?@8<5@, ?5@2>=0G0;L=0O D>@<0 :@5I5=8O =5A><=5==> 1K;0 ?>A2OB8B5;L=>9 ?@0:B8:>9, 2 :>B>@>9 G5;>25:  =>2>>1@0I5==K9 27@>A;K9, ?@5420@8B5;L=> ?>43>B>2;5==K9 87CG5=85< 4CE>2=KE 48AF8?;8=,  ?>3@C60;AO 2 2>4C =0AB>;L:>, GB> >:07K20;AO =0 3@0=8 CB>?;5=8O. -B> >:>;>A<5@B=>5 A>AB>O=85 <>3;> 2K720BL "2KE>4 87 B5;0", ?>4>1=K9 B><C, > :>B>@>< A>>1I0NB A53>4=O <=>385 ;N48, ?5@5682H85 >:>;>A<5@B=K5 A>AB>O=8O. '5;>25:, :>B>@>3> :@5AB8;8 B0:8< >1@07><, ?@8>1@5B0; =5?>A@54AB25==K9 >?KB 2>A:@5H5=8O  >= ?5@56820; ?@52>AE>645=85 A<5@B8, @50;L=>ABL <5B0D878G5A:8E <8@>2 8 ?@52>AE>4AB2> CE0. = ?@8>1@5B0; 4@0<0B8G5A:CN 8 157>H81>G=CN 45<>=AB@0F8N @50;L=>AB8 4CE>2=>3> 8;8 =515A=>3> B5;0, > :>B>@>< 0?>AB>; 025; 3>2>@8; 2 5@2>< ?>A;0=88 :>@8=DO=0< (15:40-44)  MB> =5A><=5==> >B=>A8;>AL : 53> A>1AB25==><C >?KBC 2KE>40 87 B5;0. K@>482H85AO D>@<K :@5I5=8O, ?@0:B8:C5<K5 A53>4=O  B5, :>B>@K5 2:;NG0NB 2 A51O ?>3@C65=85 B5;0 2 2>4C,  O2;ONBAO ?@8A:>@1=K< ?@8=865=85< ?5@2>=0G0;L=>3> 70<KA;0 8 A<KA;0 :@5I5=8O 2 8C45>-E@8AB90=A:>9 B@048F88. (>=5G=>, O =5 70I8I0N 157>3>2>@>G=> 2>72@0I5=85 : MB8< <5B>40<, ?>A:>;L:C A53>4=O 4>ABC?=K 1>;55 157>?0A=K5 8 <5=55 @8A:>20==K5 <5B>4K 2KE>40 87 B5;0. !>2@5<5==>5 A8<2>;8G5A:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 :@5I5=8O <>65B 1KBL >?@0240=>, 5A;8 >=> A>?@>2>6405BAO ?>=8<0=85< 53> 8AB8==>3> M7>B5@8G5A:>3> 7=0G5=8O.)  20=35;88 >B 0BD5O (11:29-30) ?@54;0305BAO 4@C30O 4CE>2=0O ?@0:B8:0, :>B>@>9 8ACA CG8; A2>8E ?>A;54>20B5;59 2=CB@5==53> :@C30. ">7L<8B5 83> <>5 =0 A51O... 1> 83> <>5 1;03>, 8 1@5<O <>5 ;53:>". !;>2> "83>" >1KG=> ?>=8<05BAO :0: "1@5<O", "BO65;0O @01>B0". > 1>;55 C40G=>5 ?>=8<0=85 405B >1@0I5=85 : A0=A:@8BA:><C 53> :>@=N yug, >1>7=0G0NI55 "70?@O30BL 2 >1ICN C?@O6:C", "?@8A>548=OBLAO". -B> B>B :>@5=L, >B :>B>@>3> ?@>87>H;> A;>2> "9>30", A8AB5<0 4CE>2=>9 ?@0:B8:8, :>B>@0O ?@54=07=0G5=0 4;O CA:>@5=8O 8=48284C0;L=>3> @>AB0 8 @0728B8O, D878G5A:>3>, <5=B0;L=>3> 8 4CE>2=>3>, ?>:0 9>38= =5 4>AB8305B A>548=5=8O A >65AB25==K<. "0:>5 A>548=5=85 A >3>< 8 O2;O5BAO F5;LN CG5=8O 8ACA0. >MB><C M7>B5@8G5A:>5 E@8AB80=AB2> ?>=8<05B MB8 A;>20 87 20=35;8O >B 0BD5O :0: "?@0:B8:C, :>B>@CN O ?@54?8AK20N 20<, GB>1K 2K 2K@>A;8 4> A>7=0=8O %@8AB0". > B5E ?>@, ?>:0 ;N48 1C4CB 25@8BL 2 ACI5AB2>20=85 =5?@>E>48<>9 ?@>?0AB8 <564C =8<8 8 B5<, GB> ?>:070; 8ACA, 8 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 2=8<0=85 1C45B D>:CA8@>20BLAO =0 =082=><, @><0=B878@>20==>< >1@075 8AB>@8G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8 8ACA0 :0: &0@O 515A=>3>  701>B;82>3> ">;LH>3> 0?>G:8 2 515",  0 =5 =0 B><, GB> >= ?>:070;, :0: <>6=> A>740BL <>AB G5@57 ?@>?0ABL <564C >3>< 8 G5;>25:><, E@8AB80=AB2> =5 A<>65B 2K?>;=8BL A2>N <8AA8N. %@8AB80=AB2> =5 A>E@0=8;> 2 A515 MB>3> ?5@2>=0G0;L=>3> =0<5@5=8O 53> >A=>20B5;O.  "254L A>7840=85 <>AB>2" <>3;> 1K 1KBL >A=>2=K< 8<?C;LA>< E@8AB80=AB20. =B5@5A=>, GB> MB> =542CA<KA;5==> ?@87=05BAO 2 8<A:>-:0B>;8G5A:>9 &5@:28, 25@E>2=K9 02B>@8B5B :>B>@>9, 0?0 8<A:89, ?>;=>ABLN 8<5=C5BAO Pontifex Maximus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ohn ". Chirban, Developmental Stages in Eastern Orthodox Christianity, 2 A1>@=8:5 Transformations of Consciousness, ed. by Ken Wilber (Shambhala Publications, 1986). 6>= %8@10= 2K45;O5B A;54CNI85 AB0488: 1) >1@07 (?>4>185); 2) <5B0=>9O (?@52@0I5=85); 3) 0?0B59O (>G8I5=85 8;8 B@0=AD>@<0F8O); 4) A25B (>70@5=85) 8 5) B5>A8A (A>548=5=85 A >3><). -B> 1>;55 B>G=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 B5@<8=0 <5B0=>9O O2;O5BAO 25AL<0 F5==K< ?@>OA=ONI8< <><5=B><. 0@0=>9O  MB> B> =5?@5<5==>5 CA;>285 4CE>2=>3> @>AB0, :>B>@>5 E>@>H> ?>=8<05<> <8AB8G5A:8<8 8 A2OI5==K<8 B@048F8O<8. "5 48AF8?;8=K, :>B>@K5 ;N48 ?@0:B8:>20;8 ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< 3C@C, <0AB5@0 8;8 4CE>2=>3> @C:>2>48B5;O, ?><>30;8 >1;53G8BL ?5@5E>4 G5@57 ?0@0=>9N B0:, GB>1K ?@0:B8:CNI89 =5 >:070;AO ?>B5@O==K< 2 ;018@8=B5 2=CB@5==8E ?@>AB@0=AB2 8 =5 ?>AB@040; B0<. >A:>;L:C A>AB>O=85 <5B0=>98, 3>2>@O ?> 1>;LH><C AG5BC, =5 8A?KBK20;8 >A=>20B5;8 70?04=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88, ?0@0=>9O B0:65 =5 ?>;CG8;0 ?>;=>3> ?>=8<0=8O 2 =0H59 :C;LBC@5. =0 >H81>G=> 2>A?@8=8<05BAO A:>@55 :0: A<5@B5;L=K9 :>=5F 2A53>, G5< :0: =5>1E>48<>5 CA;>285 4;O 4>AB865=8O 2KAH53> A>7=0=8O. 5B ?>=8<0=8O B>3>, GB> 48A:><D>@B 8 AB@040=85, 8A?KBK205<K5 ?@8 ?0@0=>95 >B=>AOBAO 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 : @07@CH5=8N 8;;N789, @07@CH5=8N -B>.  <K AB@0405< 2 B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 <K ?@82O70=K : MB>9 8;;N788. 5;8:85 <8@>2K5 4CE>2=K5 A8AB5<K, :>=5G=> 65, ?>=8<0;8 ?A8E>;>38N MB>9 A8BC0F88 >G5=L E>@>H> 8 @07@01>B0;8 ?@>F54C@K 4;O 55 ;5G5=8O A ?><>ILN >A2>1>645=8O ;N459 >B 8E ;>6=>3> >1@070 A0<8E A51O, 8E ;>6=>3> >B>645AB2;5=8O.  =5 A;CG09=> ACI5AB2CNI0O 2 A>F8C<5 <>45;L 8450;L=>3> G5;>25G5A:>3> ACI5AB20 2:;NG05B 2 A51O <=>38E A2OBKE ;N459. =48284K, :>B>@K5 ?@527>H;8 A2>5 -3> 8 ?>AB83;8 >30, ?>G8B0;8AL ?> <=>38< ?@8G8=0<: 70 8E A>AB@040B5;L=>ABL, ?@540==>ABL 8 157<OB56=CN A25B;>ABL, 70 8E 24>E=>2;ONI85 A;>20 <C4@>AB8, 70 8E 4>1@>45B5;L=>5 A;C65=85 <8@C. 0:>2K 1K;8 8E <>B82K? 064K9 87 =8E A2>8< A>1AB25==K< ?CB5< 2K@>A 87 B@048F88 A2>59 :C;LBC@K, >B:@K; 4;O A51O B09=C 2A5E 25:>2, 8AB8=C A;>2 "48B5 8 >1@5B8B5 >30". >340 GC2AB2> -B> @0AB2>@O5BAO 8 :>340 GC2AB2> 15A:>=5G=>3> 8 25G=>3> 70<5=O5B =0H5 >1KG=>5 8 >3@0=8G5==>5 A0<>F5=B@8@>20=85 A> 2A5<8 53> ?@5E>4OI8<8 8 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==K<8 D0=B078O<8, =5 >AB05BAO 1>;LH5 <5=B0;L=>9 >A=>2K 4;O AB@0E0, =5=028AB8, 15A?>:>9AB20, 3=520, ?@82O70==>AB59, 65;0=89. 70<5= MB>3> A>25@H5==>5 8 30@<>=8G=>5 DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 :>A<>A0 =0G8=05B 459AB2>20BL G5@57 =0A  0 :>A<>A 2A5340 2 C@02=>25H5==>AB8, 2A5340 2 <8@5 A A0<8< A>1>9.  A2>59 ACI=>AB8 ?>A;0=85 E@8AB80=AB20  MB> ?@87K2 1KBL C=825@A0;L=K<, ?@87K2 AB0BL :>A<8G5A:8 A>7=0B5;L=K<. -B> ?@87K2 ?><5AB8BL >30 2 A0<K9 F5=B@ =0H59 ACI=>AB8  =5 A ?><>ILN A;5?>9 25@K, 0 A ?><>ILN >70@ONI53> >A>7=0=8O, =5 ?>A@54AB2>< 65AB:>9 ?@825@65==>AB8 @8BC0;0< 8 4>3<0<, 0 A ?><>ILN 2>?;>I5=8O 2 A515 :>A<8G5A:8E ?@8=F8?>2. -B> ?@87K2 "1C4LB5 :0: 1>38". 0, 8ACA <>3 3>2>@8BL > B><, GB> =07K205BAO "B>@K< @8H5AB285<" 2 :>=F5 2@5<5=, 2 :>=F5 8AB>@88, 2 :>=F5 <8@0. @>1C645=85 >B 8;;N789 -3>, >B A=0 <8@A:>9 687=8 2 @50;L=>ABL 1>65AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O  MB> 459AB28B5;L=> :>=5F <8@0.  MB> :>=5F <8@0 =5 :0: 3;>10;L=>5 @07@CH5=85, => :0: 2KE>4 70 ?@545;K ?@>AB@0=AB20, 2@5<5=8 8 ?@8G8==>AB8. %>BO 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 =8:0:>3> B>@>3> @8H5AB28O 2>>1I5 =5B. 81;8O =5 3>2>@8B > 42CE ?@8H5AB28OE. AA;54>20B5;L 0@0<59A:8E B5:AB>2 (*) 4>:B>@ >::> -@@8:> 3>2>@8B >1 8AB8==>< 7=0G5=88 D@07K > "?@8H5AB288 %@8AB0". -B> ?>4B25@6405BAO A;>20<8 87 20=35;8O >B 0BD5O, 2 :>B>@KE 3>2>@8BAO, GB> %@8AB>A =8:>340 =5 ?>:840; G5;>25G5AB2>: "/ A 20<8 2> 2A5 4=8 4> A:>=G0=8O 25:0" (0BD. 28:20). "0:8< >1@07><, D8=0;L=>5 O2;5=85 %@8AB0 >7=0G05B 2A5<8@=>5 O2;5=85 4CE>2=>AB8, A2>1>4=>5 >B 2A5E D878G5A:8E >3@0=8G5=89. -@@8:> ?8H5B: " MB> 2@5<O A>7=0=85 G5;>25G5AB20 1C45B ?>4=OB> =0 4CE>2=K9 C@>25=L, B0: GB> :064>5 >:> 1C45B 2845BL =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: B>;L:> ;8HL 4>1@>. '5;>25: 1C45B >ACI5AB2;OBL 4CE>2=CN 687=L 8 &0@AB285 >685, 8 ?@8 ?@8H5AB288 %@8AB0 25AL <8@ ?@87=05B 53>. 3> &0@AB2> 1C45B CB25@645=>, 8 <8@ 1C45B 3>B>2 ?>;CG8BL 53>" (Rocco Errico, "Light from the Language of Jesus", Science of Mind, June 1981, p. 39.). * * * !53>4=O <8@ =0E>48BAO :@8B8G5A:8 1;87:> : 3;>10;L=>9 :0B0AB@>D5.  MB0 ?@>1;5<0 =5 <>65B 1KBL @07@5H5=0 =0 B>< C@>2=5, =0 :>B>@>< >=0 2>7=8:05B. B25B>< =0 MBC :@878A=CN A8BC0F8N <>65B 1KBL ;8HL 2>7=8:=>25=85 G53>-B> =>2>3>. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> @07@5H5=85 ?@>1;5< 8AB>@88 =5 <>65B 1KBL =0945=> 2 A0<>9 8AB>@88  2 B5E A>AB>O=8OE A>7=0=8O, :>B>@K5 ?>@>6405B 2@5<O, A>1;07=K 8 70B@C4=5=8O, A>AB>O=8OE, :>B>@K5 ?>@>640NBAO -3>. 48=AB25==K9 ?CBL, 548=AB25==K9 2KE>4 87 MB>9 =5=0456=>9 <8@>2>9 A8BC0F88  2KE>4 2 >2CN -?>EC  MB> 87<5=5=85 A>7=0=8O, >A2>1>645=85 >B ;>6=>3> GC2AB20 O, 87 :>B>@>3> 2>7=8:05B 2A5 45AB@C:B82=>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 ?>2545=85. ">;L:> <5B0=>9O  2>7=8:=>25=85 %@8AB0-2-=0A  A<>65B >15A?5G8BL 2>7<>6=>ABL OA=>3> 2845=8O @50;L=>AB8, 8 B>340 AB0=5B 2>7<>6=>9 ?@>A25B;5==0O 3;>10;L=0O :C;LBC@0.  MB> 8<5==> B>, GB> !K= '5;>25G5A:89 ?>:07K20; =0<. * * * K <>65< >?@545;8BL 4CE>2=>ABL =0 @07=KE C@>2=OE @50;L=>AB8 B0:: 0 D878G5A:>< C@>2=5  MB> 2>A?@8OB85 B08=AB25==>AB8 8 GC45A=>AB8 B2>@OI53> 8AB>G=8:0, ?@54H5AB2>202H53> <0B5@88. 0 18>;>38G5A:>< C@>2=5  MB> >A>7=0=85 ?@8ACBAB28O 1>65AB25==>3> @07C<0, ;560I53> 70 2A5<8 87<5=5=8O<8 687=8, 70 M2>;NF859 2A53> B2>@5=8O :> 2A5 1>;55 25;8:8< AB048O< F5;>AB=>AB8 8 A>25@H5=AB20. 0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< C@>2=5  MB> >B:@KB85 2 A515 ?@545;L=>3> 8AB>G=8:0 7=0G8<>AB8 8 AG0ABLO. 0 A>F8>;>38G5A:>< C@>2=5  MB> A0<>>B40G0 2 A;C65=88 4@C38<, 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B @0AK, F25B0, ?>;0, :0ABK 8;8 =0F8>=0;L=>AB8. 0 M:>;>38G5A:>< C@>2=5  MB> ?@>O2;5=85 C2065=8O :> 2A5< F0@AB20< 2 A>>1I5AB25 687=8  <8=5@0;L=><C F0@AB2C, @0AB8B5;L=><C, 682>B=><C, G5;>25G5A:><C 8 F0@AB2C 4CE>2. 0 :>A<>;>38G5A:>< C@>2=5  MB> 1KB85 2 548=AB25 A> A5;5==>9, 2 A>=0AB@>5==>AB8 A 15A:>=5G=K<, 2 548=>< B5G5=88 A 40>. 0 B5>;>38G5A:>< C@>2=5  MB> 2845=85 >30 2> 2A5E 25I0E, A>1KB8OE 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20E, ?@51K20NI53> 2 =8E :0: 15A:>=5G=K9 A25B 8 157CA;>2=0O ;N1>2L. 6>= #09B  5:A %8:A>= !/",  H  !"/: ! ! +  >?8A0==KE 745AL 4@52=8E 475=A:8E @8AC=:0E, ?>A2OI5==KE ?>8A:0<, 1K:0, ?@>A25B;5==K9 87>1@0605BAO, :0: 3>2>@8B =0< 5:A %8:A>=, "B>;ABK< 8 @04>AB=K< ?@>ABK< A5;LA:8< 68B5;5<"  :065BAO, GB> MB> A;8H:>< 1KAB@> 2K@>AH89 ?>;=K9 <0;5=L:89 <0;LG8:. >4>1=K< >1@07>< 4@52=85 40>AA:85 A2OBK5 87>1@060;8AL B>;ABK<8 8 A 1>;LH8<8 682>B0<8, 8<5NI8<8 2 A2>5< A5@4F5 <0;5=L:>3> @515=:0, 0 8ACA B0:65 3>2>@8;, GB> =5>1E>48<> AB0BL ?>4>1=K< @515=:C, GB>1K 2>9B8 2 "515A0" ?@>A25B;5=8O. > 5ABL DC=40<5=B0;L=>5 @07;8G85 <564C 45BAB2>< 8 B5<, GB>1K "1KBL ?>4>1=K< @515=:C". -B> @07;8G85 A>AB>8B 2 -3>. !2OBK5 8 45B8 AB>;L ?@82;5:0B5;L=K 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> C =8E =5B -3>. # 45B59 -3> 5I5 =5 AD>@<8@>20;>AL, 8 8E 4>;8G=>AB=>5 AG0ABL5 ?@>AB> =082=>, >=> 2 157701>B=>AB8 =52545=8O. 0: 3>2>@8; A2. 23CAB8=, =528==>ABL 45BAB20 2K7K205BAO 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 A;01>ABLN B5;0, 0 >B=N4L =5 G8AB>B>9 A5@4F0. !2OBK5 65 AG0AB;82K =04;8G=>AB=K<, B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=K< AG0ABL5<. => ?@>H;8 G5@57 2A5 AB0488 -3> 8 ;8G=>AB=>3> C@>2=O @0728B8O 8 ?@527>H;8 8E 4;O B>3>, GB>1K >B:@KBL 4;O A51O KAH55 ">645AB2>. ;065=AB2> ?@>A25B;5==>3>  MB> 2K@065=85 53> M:AB0B8G5A:>3> >A2>1>645=8O >B 2A5E C7 A>7=0=8O, 8 MB> 459AB28B5;L=> 8AB8==0O =528==>ABL. 8GB> 87 MB>3> =5 <>65B 1KBL 2>7<>6=> 157 ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> >1@07>20=8O -3> 8 >1>A>1;5=8O A2>53> "O", :>B>@>5 >ACI5AB2;O5B :>=B@>;L =04 ;8G=>ABLN 8 ?>1C6405B 55 : 40;L=59H5<C @0728B8N. 25 25I8 4>;6=K 1KBL ?>=OBK. >-?5@2KE, -3> 2 ?@545;L=>< A<KA;5  MB> 40@ =0< >B >30, MB> 5AB5AB25==K9 MB0? =0H53> @0728B8O 8 A@54AB2> ?@52>AE>645=8O ?>A;54=53>. >-2B>@KE, ?@>A25B;5=85 =5 B@51C5B, GB>1K 2K >B1@>A8;8 C<AB25==K9 >?KB 8 @53@5AA8@>20;8 : 45BA:><C C@>2=N. 0< =5 =C6=> >B1@0AK20BL 7=0=8O 8 B>, G5<C 2K =0CG8;8AL,  >A2>1>48BLAO =C6=> B>;L:> ;8HL >B D0;LH82>3> >B>645AB2;5=8O A -3>, :>B>@>5 7;>C?>B@51;O5B 20H8< C<><. 0< =C6=> =5 AB>;L:> CA8;8BL 2 A515 45BA:85 :0G5AB20, A:>;L:> >?B8<878@>20BL 8E. >;=>B0 C<0, 0 =5 >BACBAB285 C<0  2>B 45287 ?@>A25B;5=8O. 75= =07K205B MB> >;LH8< #<><.  MB> ?@8OB=59H0O 83@0  1KBL B0:8<, :0: MB>B B>;ABK9, @04>AB=K9 A5;LA:89 68B5;L, ?0ACI89 1K:0. * * * @>A25B;5=85 =5 O2;O5BAO B>;L:> ;8HL 4>AB865=85< 4@52=8E 8 ;535=40@=KE A2OBKE, 0 ?@>F5AA><, ?@>B5:0NI8< A@548 G;5=>2 ;N1>9 :C;LBC@K, ?@>F5AA><, 2 :>B>@>< =0H5 A>7=0=85 ?>AB5?5==> AB0=>28BAO ?>;=>ABLN ?@>7@0G=K<, 4> A0<>9 A2>59 ACI=>AB=>9 ?@8@>4K. 07;8G=K5 B@048F88 @0728;8 A2>8 20@80=BK B>=:>3> O7K:0 4;O >?8A0=8O D07 MB>3> ?@>F5AA0.  MB8 ?>?KB:8 2K45;8BL AB0488 ?@>A25B;5=8O =5 O2;ONBAO B>;L:> ;8HL AE>;0AB8G5A:>9 ?@>5:F859  >=8 >B@060NB :><?;5:A=CN F5;>AB=>ABL >A>7=0=8O 2 55 ?>AB5?5==>< AB0=>2;5=88, >G8I5==CN 8 ?@>OA=5==CN A0<8< 65 >A>7=0=85<. '5;>25:, 70=8<0NI89AO ?>8A:0<8 ?@>A25B;5=8O, 4>;65= AB0BL B0:8< 65 ?@82KG=K< : =01;N45=8O< 70 A2>8< A>7=0=85<, :0: MA:8<>A ?@82KG5= : A=56=K< CA;>28O<. > ?@>A25B;5=85 =5 O2;O5BAO ?@>AB> ?@>AB8@0NI59AO 2> 2A5 AB>@>=K 15;87=>9 8 B5< 1>;55 =5 ?>4>1=> A=53C; MB> ?@>F5AA, :>B>@K9 ?@>E>48B G5@57 @07;8G=K5 MB0?K, ?>4>1=> A<5=0< 2@5<5= 3>40. 1@07 "45AOB8 2@5<5= ?@>A25B;5=8O" 1K; =025O= <=5 @8AC=:0<8, 87>1@060NI8<8 2K?0A 1K:0, :>B>@K5 2?5@2K5 ?>O28;8AL 2 XII 25:5 2 8B05 8 2 :>B>@KE 4CE>2=K5 ?>8A:8 A8<2>;8G5A:8 87>1@065=K :0: ?>8A:8 =5C;>28<>3> K:0, :>B>@K9 1@>48B 2 ;5AC. K: A8<2>;878@C5B 2=CB@5==NN ?@8@>4C A>7=0=8O, B09=>9 :>B>@>9 O2;O5<AO <K A0<8. !>3;0A=> CG5=8N 1C4487<0, :>340 =0H0 2=CB@5==OO ?@8@>40 @0A:@K205BAO, B> >:07K205BAO GB> C =0A =0 A0<>< 45;5 =5B =8:0:>9 2=CB@5==59 ?@8@>4K 8 GB> ACI=>ABLN =0H53> A>7=0=8O O2;O5BAO ?CAB>B0, A2>1>4=0O >B 2A53>. -B0?K ?@>A25B;5=8O, :>B>@K5 ?@54?>;030NBAO 2 MB8 45AOB8 @8AC=:0E, O2;ONBAO ?>AB5?5==K< ?@>O2;5=85< MB>9 ACI=>AB8 A>7=0=8O, :>B>@CN <0AB5@0 475= =07K20;8 "AB8==>9 @8@>4>9" 8 :>B>@0O ?>AB5?5==> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2A5 1>;55 8 1>;55 O2AB25==>. 5@2K9 @8AC=>:, ?>A2OI5==K9 ?>8A:0< K:0, 8;8, 0;;53>@8G5A:8, MB0?0< ?@>A25B;5=8O, B0: 8 =07K205BAO  ">8A:8 K:0". = >B<5G05B B>B <><5=B, :>340 <K =0G8=05< >A>7=020BL B>, GB> ACI5AB2C5B ?@>F5AA ?@>A25B;5=8O. 0 MB>< MB0?5 <K ?@54AB02;O5< A515 B09=C =0H59 AB8==>9 @8@>4K :0: =5GB>, GB> <>65B 1KBL >1J5:B>< ?@>8A:>2. > B>3>: :0: =0G0;8AL ?>8A:8 K:0, =0H 4CE>2=K9 @>AB ?@>8AE>48; 70<0A:8@>20==K9 ?>2A54=52=>ABLN 687=8, 345 2> 2A5E 65;0=8OE ?@>O2;O;>AL, 2 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 <5@5, AB@5<;5=85 : ?@545;L=><C A0<>>ACI5AB2;5=8N  ?@>A25B;5=8N. !59G0A <K D>@<0;L=> AB0;8 4CE>2=K<8 8A:0B5;O<8, AB0;8 =0 ?CBL B>3> @0728B8O, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO =5>1E>48<K< 4;O B>3>, GB>1K AD>:CA8@>20BL M=5@38N =0H53> A>7=0=8O =0 =0H59 AB8==>9 @8@>45. %>BO MB> @0728B85 2:;NG05B 2 A51O 8 DC=40<5=B0;L=CN 8;;N78N, :>B>@CN B@048F8O 475= 2A:@K;0 A0<K< 15A:><?@><8AA=K< >1@07><. K G8B05< 2 B5:AB5 B@048F8>==>3> :><<5=B0@8O : @8AC=:0<, 87>1@060NI8< ?>8A:8 1K:0, A;54CNI55: " 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 K: =5 B5@O;AO. 0G5< 65 B>340 53> 8A:0BL?" ! F5;LN ?>8A:0 =0H59 >4;8==>9 @8@>4K <K A>7405< 8;;N7>@=K9 4C0;87< <564C B5<, :B> 8I5B, 8 >1J5:B>< 53> ?>8A:>2. 0G5< 8A:0BL AB8==CN @8@>4C, :>B>@0O 2A5340 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 2 =0A, :0: A0<> B> A>7=0=85, A ?><>ILN :>B>@>3> G5;>25: ?@54?@8=8<05B A2>8 ?>8A:8? 0H0 AB8==0O @8@>40 =8:>340 =0<8 =5 CB@0G820;0AL 8 ?>MB><C =8:>340 =5 <>65B 1KBL =0945=0. K =5. <>65< =09B8 C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=K9 >B25B =0 2>?@>A "0G5< 8A:0BL?", 8 MB0 =52>7<>6=>ABL =09B8 >B25B ?@82>48B : ?>AB5?5==><C ?@5:@0I5=8N ?>8A:>2, GB> 8 ?@82>48B : @0AF25B0=8N @>A25B;5=8O. @52=89 :><<5=B0@89 ?@>4>;605B: "065 ?>25@=C2H8AL : A2>59 AB8==>9 @8@>45, G5;>25: =5 <>65B C2845BL 55. > ?@8G8=5 A2>59 703@O7=5==>AB8 >= ?5@5AB0; 2845BL K:0. =570?=> >= >1=0@C68205B A51O ?5@54 ;018@8=B>< ?5@5:@5I820NI8EAO ?CB59". A:0B5;L 87>1@065= ?@>18@0NI8<AO G5@57 3>@=K5 46C=3;8. 0?CB0==>ABL 2>7<>6=KE ?CB59 ?@54AB02;O5B :><?;5:A 2>7<>6=>AB59 4;O <KA;8 8 459AB28O :064>3> 8=482840 2 ;N1>9 87 :C;LBC@. A:0B5;L 45;05B 2K2>4, GB> K: "871@0; >48= 87 MB8E ?CB59, => =0A:>;L:> 1K 8A:@5==5 8A:0B5;L =8 H5; ?> @07;8G=K< ?CBO<, >= 2A5 @02=> =8:>340 =5 A<>65B =09B8 K:0 AB8==>9 @8@>4K =8 =0 :0:>< 87 ?CB59.  :>=F5 :>=F>2 ?@8E>48B ?>=8<0=85, GB> K: O2;O5BAO AC<<>9 2A5E ?CB59, 2:;NG0O 8 46C=3;8, 8 8A:0B5;O, ?@>18@0NI53>AO G5@57 =8E. 0H0 AB8==0O @8@>40 O2;O5BAO =5 G5< 8=K<, :0: DC=40<5=B0;L=K< ?@8=F8?>< KB8O, > :>B>@>9 <0AB5@0 475= 3>2>@8;8 :0: >1 "7=0G0;L=>< #<5". ><<5=B0@89 >?8AK205B 8;;N7>@=K9 ?>8A: B>3> 7=0G0;L=>3> #<0, :>B>@K9 =0 A0<>< 45;5 =8:>340 =5 1K; CB@0G5= 8 >B :>B>@>3> <K =8:C40 =5 CE>48;8. "48=>:89 8 =0?C30==K9, ?@>18@05BAO >= G5@57 ;5A0 8 46C=3;8 2 ?>8A:0E K:0, :>B>@>3> >= =5 <>65B =09B8. >:@C3 AC<5@:8, H8@>:> @07;82H85AO @5:8, 2KA>:85 3>@K, 8 <=>65AB2> ?CB59, 254CI8E G5@57 70@>A;8". =>385 ?@8:;NG5=8O ?@>8AE>4OB =0 MB>< MB0?5 ?CB8, => 2<5AB5 A MB8< @0AB5B GC2AB2> >48=>G5AB20 8 157=0456=>AB8. A:0B5;L >:07K205BAO ?5@54 @07;8G=K<8 ?>2A54=52=K<8 65;0=8O<8, GB>1K ?>B>< >AB028BL 8E 2> 8<O 70?@545;L=>3>. -B> ?>8A: =52>7<>6=>3>, B0: :0: A0<> ?>=OB85 ?>8A:0 A:@K205B AB8==CN @8@>4C, :>B>@CN <K ?KB05<AO 8A:0BL 8 :>B>@0O =8:>340 =5 1K;0 345-B> 70 ?@545;0<8 B>3> 2>A?@8OB8O, :>B>@>5 C65 5ABL C =0A. ><<5=B0@89 =0 MB>B ?5@2K9 @8AC=>: 7025@H05BAO B0:: "5G5@>< >= CA;KH0; F8:04, AB@5:>GCI8E =0 45@52LOE". -B0 <C7K:0 F8:04 AB0=>28BAO 4;O 8A:0B5;O B>=:>9 ?CB52>4=>9 =8BLN, 254CI59 : 53> AB8==>9 @8@>45. -B>B 72C: ?@>=87K205B 46C=3;8 B0: 65, :0: 7=0G0;L=K9 #< ?@>=87K205B 2A5 AB@C:BC@K A>7=0=8O. A:0B5;L 8AA;54C5B ;8H5==CN ?CB59 ?CABK=N, C=K;CN 8 CB><8B5;L=CN, => CA?>:0820NI0O ?5A=O F8:04 ?@8ACBAB2C5B ?>2AN4C, ?@>=87K20O 53> C< 8 GC2AB20. B>@>9 @8AC=>:, 87>1@060NI89 ?@>4>;65=85 ?>8A:>2 K:0, 8;8, 0;;53>@8G5A:8, A;54CNI89 MB0? @>A25B;5=8O, =07K205BAO "0E>645=85 A;54>2". ><<5=B0@89 3;0A8B: "!@548 2A5E CG5=89 8 !CB@ >= @0A?>7=0; A;54K K:0. A:0B5;L 7=05B, GB> 5A;8 27OBL 420 >B45;L=KE 7>;>BKE A>AC40, B> >10 >=8 A>AB>OB 87 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 7>;>B0. "0: 8 2A5 25I8 O2;ONBAO ;8HL ?@>O2;5=85< 548=>9 !CI=>AB8. A:0B5;L 5I5 =5 2>H5; 2> 2@0B0, => >= C65 C2845;, :C40 254CB A;54K K:0". -B8 A;54K  MB> CG5=8O <C4@>AB8, 87;0302H85AO @07;8G=K<8 ?@>A25B;5==K<8 ACI5AB20<8; MB> 65 A8<2>;878@C5B 8 72C: F8:04.  70 2A5<8 @07=>>1@07=K<8 D5=><5=0<8 <>65B 1KBL >B:@KB B>B 65 A0<K9 A25B 7=0G0;L=>3> #<0, A25B AB8==>9 @8@>4K. A:0B5;L A59G0A AB0; =0H54H8<, =>, B0: 65 :0: ACI5AB2C5B 8;;N78O ?>8A:>2, B0: ACI5AB2C5B 8 8;;N78O =0E>645=8O. !;54K K:0 O2;ONBAO =5 G5< 8=K<, :0: A>1AB25==K<8 A;540<8 8A:0B5;O, 254CI8<8 G5@57 53> A>1AB25==>5 A>7=0=85. "= 2848B 15AG8A;5==K5 A;54K 2 ;5AC 8 =0 15@53C @5:8. 5 B0< ;8 70<5B=0 ?@8<OB0O K:>< B@020?" !;54K ?@8ACBAB28O K:0 70<5B=K 25745. 5A 1>;LH5 =5 2K3;O48B ?CABK==K<. > 5A;8 ?>9B8 ?> MB8< A;540<, B> >=8 =8:C40 =5 ?@82>4OB, ?>A:>;L:C, :0: 3;0A8B :><<5=B0@89, "=8 3;C1>G09H85 CI5;LO, =8 2KA>G09H85 3>@K. =5 <>3;8 1K. A:@KBL 4065 =>A MB>3> K:0, 4>AB830NI53> 4> A0<KE 515A". K:  MB> >1;0AB8 A>7=0=8O, :>B>@K5 8AA;54C5B 8A:0B5;L =0 ?5@2>< MB0?5 8 =0G8=0NI89 ?@0:B8:CNI89 =0 2B>@>< MB0?5, >AB02;OO A2>8 A>1AB25==K5 A;54K ?>2AN4C. >=5G=>, 5A;8 ?>9B8 ?> MB8< A;540<, B> MB> A>7405B ?;>4>B2>@=CN 8 =5>1E>48<CN 8;;N78N, 157 :>B>@>9 8A:0B5;L =5 A<>3 1K 84B8 2A5 3;C165 8 3;C165 2 A2>59 ?@0:B8:5 <548B0F88 2> 2=CB@5==NN ?@8@>4C 2A5E O2;5=89, :>B>@K5  ;8HL ?@>O2;5=8O 7=0G0;L=>3> #<0. 5B8 G0AB> =C640NBAO 2 =0;8G88 =57025@H5==>3> @8AC=:0, GB>1K <>6=> 1K;> 4>@8A>20BL 53> B0:, :0: 8< E>G5BAO. "@5BLO :0@B8=:0, ?>A2OI5==0O ?>8A:0< K:0, =07K205BAO "5@20O 2AB@5G0 A K:><". ><<5=B0@89 >1JOA=O5B B>, =0 GB> 1K; 40= ?5@2K9 =0<5: 2 ?5A=5 F8:04: "A;8 >= 1C45B =0AB>9G82> ?@8A;CH820BLAO : ?>2A54=52=K< 72C:0<, >= ?@845B : >A>7=0=8N 8 A<>65B ?>AB8GL A0< 5@2>8AB>G=8:". (C< 3>@>4A:8E C;8F  MB> B>65 <KG0=85 K:0. "0:0O 2AB@5G0 A K:>< =5 A<>65B ?@>87>9B8 >B A;CH0=8O M7>B5@8G5A:8E CG5=89 8;8 >B 01AB@0:B=>3> A>A@54>B>G5=8O =0 ACB@0E, => B>;L:> A ?><>ILN =5?>A@54AB25==>3> >?KB0; 5B =5>1E>48<>AB8 1>;LH5, ?@54AB02;OBL K:0, :0: =0E>4OI53>AO 345-B> 2 46C=3;OE. 0: 3>2>@8B :><<5=B0@89: "(5ABL GC2AB2 =5 >B;8G0NBAO >B A2>53> 8AB8==>3> AB>G=8:0". 064>5 87 =0H8E GC2AB25==KE 2>A?@8OB88, :0640O <KA;L <>65B AB0BL 2845=85< K:0. 0: 3>2>@8BAO 40;55 2 :><<5=B0@88, "2 ;N1>< 459AB288 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 5@2>8AB>G=8:. >340 2=CB@5==55 2845=85 D>:CA8@C5BAO ?@028;L=K< >1@07><, G5;>25: ?@8E>48B : ?>AB865=8N B>3>, GB> 2>A?@8=8<05BAO :0: B>645AB2> A 8AB8==K< 5@2>8AB>G=8:><". @0:B8:CNI89, :>B>@K9 C2845; K:0, 4>AB8305B @>A25B;5=8O, 8 >= 1>;LH5 =5 70=8<05BAO ?>8A:0<8 K:0 8;8 =0E>645=85< 53> A;54>2. K: >A>7=05BAO :0: ?@8ACBAB2CNI89 2> 2A5<, 8 =5 2 01AB@0:B=>< A>75@F0=88, 0 2 ?@O<>< ?5@56820=88. >B GB> 3>2>@8B :><<5=B0@89: "!>;>259 ?>5B =0 25B:5, A>;=F5 1;5AB8B =0 =5@>2=>ABOE AB2>;0 82K.  MB>< ?@8ACBAB2C5B K:. 45 >= <>65B 1KBL A:@KB?" 5@2>8AB>G=8: =5 <>65B 1KBL A:@KBK<, ?>A:>;L:C >= ACI5AB2C5B 2> 2A5E D>@<0E, A:>;L 1K =8 1K;8 >=8 @07;8G=K ?> A2>59 AB@C:BC@5 8 2=5H=5<C 284C: A>;=F5, A>;>2L8, 82K... 4=0:> MB>B MB0? ?@>A25B;5=8O O2;O5BAO ;8HL >?LO=ONI8< ?@>1;5A:><, M:AB0B8G5A:8< ?5@56820=85<, :>B>@>5 ?@8E>48B 8 1KAB@> CE>48B. 0;L=59H0O 1>@L10 8 A0<>48AF8?;8=0 B@51CNBAO 4;O B>3>, GB>1K @0AH8@8BL 8 AB018;878@>20BL B0:CN 2A?KH:C 8=A09B0. 0 G5B25@B>< @8AC=:5, =07K20NI5<AO ">8<:0 K:0", K: AE20G5=. "!53>4=O ?@>87>H;0 2AB@5G0 8A:0B5;O A K:><, :>B>@K9 1>;LH5 =5 =>A8BAO 2 48:8E ?>;OE, 0 459AB28B5;L=> AE20G5=. K: B0: 4>;3> ?8@>20; =0 2>;5, GB> @07@CH8BL 53> AB0@K5 ?@82KG:8 =5;53:>. = ?@>4>;605B B>A:>20BL ?> A;04>AB=><C 0@><0BC B@02: >= >AB05BAO =5?>:>@=K< 8 =5>1C740==K<. ;O B>3> GB>1K ?>;=>ABLN ?@8@CG8BL 53>, G5;>25:C =C6=> 8A?>;L7>20BL :=CB. = 4>;65= :@5?:> 45@60BL 25@52:C 8 =5 >B?CA:0BL 55, ?>:0 C K:0 =5 >A;015NB 53> =5>1C740==K5 A:;>==>AB8". =CB@5==89 E0@0:B5@ ?5@56820=8O K:0 =0 MB>< MB0?5 2K@065= 2 O?>=A:>< O7K:5 A;>20<8, :>B>@K5 1C:20;L=> <>6=> ?5@525AB8 :0: "48:0O A8;0". -B> =0G0;L=0O, 5I5 =5 @0D8=8@>20==0O M=5@38O ?@>A25B;5=8O, 4;O :>B>@>9 =8GB> =5 O2;O5BAO ?@5?OBAB285< 8 :>B>@0O <>65B ?@825AB8 :0: : A>7840=8N B0: 8 : @07@CH5=8N. -B0 M=5@38O 4>;6=0 1KBL A<O3G5=0 8 >G8I5=0, 8 2 MB>< A>AB>8B DC=:F8O ?@>428=CBKE 4CE>2=KE 48AF8?;8=, :>B>@K5 =5 <>3CB 1KBL =0G0BK 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 2 G5;>25:5 =5 2>7=8: 3;C18==K9 8=A09B 2> 2A5?@8ACBAB2CNI89 7=0G0;L=K9 #<. CE>2=K5 48AF8?;8=K, :>B>@K5 ?@54H5AB2>20;8 MB><C 8=A09BC, 1K;8 ?@>AB> 2K@065=85< 8;;N788 ?>8A:>2. !59G0A <K 4>;6=K ?>9<0BL 8 AE20B8BL K:0, ?>445@60BL =0H5 2>A?@8OB85 AB8==>9 @8@>4K B0:8<8 D>@<0<8 4CE>2=>9 ?@0:B8:8, :0: A>AB@040=85, ?>;=>5 =5=0A8;85 8 =5C:;>==0O ?@02482>ABL. -B> B>, GB> 0;;53>@8G5A:8 =0720=> ":=CB><" 8 "25@52:>9". C6=> =0CG8BLAO C?@02;OBL 48:>9 A8;>9 K:0, :>B>@0O <>65B 1KBL >?0A=>9. 0 MB>< MB0?5 <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL 8A:065=8O 4CE>2=>AB8. A;8 CG5=8G5AB2> 8 ?@0:B8:0 1C4CB ?@56452@5<5==> >AB02;5=K, M=5@38O ?@>A25B;5=8O <>65B @0AA5OBLAO 2 ?@>872>;L=>9 8 A0<>?@>872>;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. ">, GB> K: ?>:0 >AB05BAO "=5?>:>@=K< 8 =5>1C740==K<, B>A:CO ?> 0@><0BC B@02", >B@0605B B>B D0:B, GB> ?5@28G=>5 >A>7=0=85 25G=> ?@51K205B 2 A2>59 83@5 2 15A:>=5G=>< ?@>AB@0=AB25, :>B>@>5 =5 >3@0=8G5=> G5;>25G5A:8<8 >1KG0O<8. >=25=F8>=0;L=>5 ?>25@E=>AB=>5 <KH;5=85, C?@02;ONI55 =0H59 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=LN, @0728205BAO :0: 2B>@>AB5?5==K9 A?>A>1 2>A?@8OB8O, >B45;5==K9 >B >B:@KB>3> ?>;O AB8==>9 @8@>4K. >340 MB0 8;;N7>@=0O >B45;5==>ABL @07@CH05BAO 8 48:89 K: 2B>@305BAO 2 :>=25=F8>=0;L=>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 >A>7=0=85, B> A8AB5<0 F5==>AB59 ?@0:B8:CNI53> 8 4065 53> D878G5A:0O =5@2=0O A8AB5<0 4>;6=K ?5@5AB@>8BLAO, GB>1K ?@825AB8 2 30@<>=8N M=5@38N ?@>A25B;5=8O A ?5@A>=0;L=K< 8 :C;LBC@0;L=K< 1KB85< G5;>25:0. OBK9 @8AC=>:, "@8@CG5=85 K:0", >B@0605B 1>;55 8=B5=A82=K5 8 1>;55 B5A=K5 >B=>H5=8O A AB8==>9 @8@>4>9. @54K4CI0O D070, ">8<:0 K:0", A>AB>O;0 2 ?>445@6:5 4CE>2=>3> 8=A09B0 8 C?@02;5=88 8< 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B ;N1KE CA;>289. @8@CG5=85 K:0  1>;55 B>=:89 MB0?. !59G0A CB25@640NBAO 1;87:85 8 4@C65AB25==K5 >B=>H5=8O A K:><, 4;O :>B>@KE C65 =5 B@51C5BAO =8:0:8E CA8;89. A5 42865=8O <KA;8 8=B53@8@CNBAO 2 ?>AB865=88 AB8==>9 @8@>4K. A5 D5=><5=K ?@8@CG0NBAO A ?><>ILN ?>8AB8=5 45BA:>3> 4@C65;N18O B>3>, :B> ?5@5AB05B 1KBL "?@>428=CBK< @0:B8:CNI8<" 8 AB0=>28BAO >70@5==K< <C4@5F><. >B GB> 3>2>@8BAO 2 :><<5=B0@88: ">O2;5=85 >4=>9 <KA;8 2;5G5B 70 A>1>9 ?>O2;5=85 =>2KE 8 =>2KE. @>A25B;5=85 ?@8=>A8B ?>AB865=85 B>3>, GB> 2A5 MB8 <KA;8 =5@50;L=K, 4065 5A;8 >=8 8 2>7=8:0NB 87 =0H59 AB8==>9 @8@>4K. -B> B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> >AB05BAO 8;;N78O, GB> >=8 ?@54AB02;ONBAO :0: =5@50;L=K5". K <>65< ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> "@8@CG5=85 K:0" <>3;> 1K =0G0BL C=8GB>65=85 <KA;59, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 B5E 87 =8E, : :>B>@K< <K >B=>A8<AO :0: : =530B82=K<, =5G8ABK< 8;8 =5?>4;8==K<. > MB> =5 ?CBL ?@>A25B;5=8O, :>B>@K9 A2O70= A:>@55 A ?@8=OB85< 2A53>, G5< A 8A:;NG5=85< G53>-;81>. @8@CG5=8N K:0 ?@0:B8:CNI89 =5 <>65B =0CG8BLAO, ?>B><C GB> MB> =5 >B=>A8BAO : 48AF8?;8=5, >G8I5=8N 8;8 :0:8<-;81> >3@0=8G5=8O<, GB> 1K;> 206=K< =0 =0G0;L=KE MB0?0E ?@0:B8:8. >340 <K A;54C5< ?>A;540< K:0, :>B>@K5 A8<2>;878@CNB CG5=8O @07;8G=KE A2OI5==KE B@048F89, <K ?@8>1@5B05< C<5=85 45;0BL @073@0=8G5=85 <564C @50;L=K< 8 =5@50;L=K<, <564C =0H8<8 70:>@5=5;K<8 G5;>25G5A:8<8 8;;N78O<8 8 <C4@>ABLN A2OBKE. !59G0A <K >1=0@C68205<, GB> 2 A2>59 2=CB@5==59 ACI=>AB8 2A5 =0H8 <KA;8 O2;ONBAO >4=8< 8 B5< 65 8 GB> 2A5 >=8 2>7=8:0NB 87 7=0G0;L=>3> #<0.  B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> >AB0NBAO A;54K 8;;N788, ;N10O 87 <KA;59 ?@54AB02;O5BAO G5<-B>, GB> >B;8G05BAO >B ?@8@>4K ?@>A25B;5=8O. %>BO 157 MB>3> 2@5<5==>3> @073@0=8G5=8O <564C ?@545;L=>9 8AB8=>9 8 8AB8=>9 >B=>A8B5;L=>9, <564C 8=A09B>< 8 =52545=85< =5 A<>65B ?@>87>9B8 >G8I5=85 AB8==>9 @8@>4K, 0 1C45B ;8HL E0>A >1KG=KE 65;0=89. @8@CG5=85 K:0 =0G8=05B @0AA5820BL MB> 8;;N7>@=>5 @073@0=8G5=85 <564C 4CE>2=>9 8 >1K45==>9 687=LN, MB> @0745;5=85, :>B>@>5 1>;LH5 =5 O2;O5BAO ?>;57=K<. '5;>25:, AB02H89 B0:8< <C4@5F><, A:>@55 1C45B CAB0=02;820BL 4@C65AB25==K5 >B=>H5=8O A >3@0=8G5==K< >1K45==K< -3>, G5< ?>;=>ABLN >B:07K20BLAO >B =53>, CE>4O 2 70?@545;L=>5 -3>, :0: MB> 45;0NB 4CE>2=K9 8A:0B5;L 8;8 ?@>428=CBK9 ?@0:B8:CNI89. -B>  ?5@2K9 =0<5: =0 B08=AB25==>ABL >1K45==>AB8, 2 :>B>@>9 <C4@5F ?>B>< ?>AB5?5==> 8AG5705B. ?8AK20O K:0 =0 MB>< MB0?5, :><<5=B0@88 3>2>@OB: "@028;L=> =0?@02;O5<K9. K: AB0=>28BAO A<8@=K< 8 B8E8<. 5 1C4CG8 ?@82O70==K<, >= >E>B=> A;54C5B 70 A2>8< E>7O8=><". !CBLN ?@8@CG5=8O K:0 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> B5?5@L 53> C65 <>6=> =5 ?@82O7K20BL. -B> A8<2>;8G5A:8 >7=0G05B 2KA2>1>645=85 87=0G0;L=>3> >A>7=0=8O, :>B>@>5 4> B>3> 1K;> AD>:CA8@>20=> =0 B5;5 8 =0 C<5. "5?5@L 65 K: AB0=>28BAO A2>1>4=K< B>20@8I5<, 0 =5 8=AB@C<5=B>< 4;O 2A?0E820=8O ?>;O ?@>A25B;5=8O. -B> =56=K9 8 <O3:89 ?@>F5AA, 0 =5 =0A8;LAB25==>5 2KA2>1>645=85 M=5@388. A5 42865=8O AB0=>2OBAO C@02=>25H5==K<8. (5AB>9 @8AC=>:, >B@060NI89 A;54CNI89 MB0? ?@>A25B;5=8O, 87>1@0605B G5;>25:0 25@E>< =0 K:5. @>428=CBK9 ?@0:B8:CNI89 AB0; A59G0A >70@5==K< <C4@5F><. ">@L10 7025@H5=0. @8>1@5B5=8O 8 CB@0BK =5 70B@03820NB 1>;LH5 53>. = =0?5205B ?@>ABK5 <5;>488 ;5A>@C10 8 ?5A=8 A5;LA:8E 45B59. 5@E>< =0 A?8=5 K:0, >= 157<OB56=> 278@05B =0 >1;0:0 =04 =8<".  :;0AA8G5A:>< O?>=A:>< D8;L<5 ""@8;>38O A0<C@0O" 4CE>2=K9 2>8= 3>B>28BAO : A2>5<C 206=59H5<C ?>548=:C, AB0=>2OAL ?@>ABK< :@5ABLO=8=><. "O65;> B@C4OAL F5;K9 45=L 2 ?>;OE, >= ?> 25G5@0< 2K@5705B 45@52O==>3> C44C ?@8 A25B5 >3=O.  :>=F5 :>=F>2 >= 2K83@K205B A2>9 A0<C@09A:89 ?>548=>:, 2K94O 70 ?@545;K @>;8 :0: 2>8=0, B0: 8 ?@0:B8:CNI53>. !2>9 ?>548=>: >= 2K83@0; A ?><>ILN <5G0 =5 87 AB0;8, 0 87 45@520, :>B>@K9 >= 1KAB@> 8 C25@5==> 2K@570;, 8A?>;L7CO 2 MB>< ?>548=:5 BC A8;C 8 C25@5==>ABL, :>B>@K5 >= ?@8>1@5; 2 2K@570=88 45@52O==>3> C44K. = A45;0; C44C 8 <5G 87 45@520 ?>B><C, GB> 45@52> @0AB5B =5?>A@54AB25==> 87 75<;8. -B> 75<=>5 :0G5AB2> <C4@5F0 =5 >7=0G05B, GB> >= 2A5340 ?>4>15= ?@>AB><C 45@525=A:><C 68B5;N. 45AL MB> A8<2>;878@C5B 5AB5AB25==>ABL 8 A?>=B0==>ABL. C4@5F, 1KB85 :>B>@>3> =8G5< =5 A2O70=>, :0: 8 1KB85 2A5E D5=><5=>2, =0G8=05B A<5H820BLAO A B5G5=85< ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8. = 87>1@065= C4>1=> A84OI8< =0 K:5. "= 545B A2>1>4=K9, :0: 25B5@, 2>72@0I0OAL 4><>9 G5@57 25G5@=89 BC<0= 2 ?;0I5 8 H8@>:>9 A>;><5==>9 H;O?5. C40 1K >= =8 ?>H5;, >= 2AN4C A>7405B A2>8< ?>O2;5=85< A25655 4C=>25=85, B0: :0: 2 53> A5@4F5 ?@5>1;0405B 3;C18==K9 ?>:>9". C4@5F =0G8=05B A?>=B0==> 87;CG0BL ?@>A25B;5==>ABL, :>B>@0O B5?5@L C65 O2;O5BAO =5 ?@>AB> 8=A09B><, 682CI8< B>;L:> ;8HL 2 =5< A0<><, 0 =5:8< :0A0=85< 1;03>A;>25=8O, :>B>@>5 GC2AB2C5BAO 2A5<8, :B> =0E>48BAO 2 53> ?@8ACBAB288. #65 =5B 1>;LH5 =8:0:8E ?@>1;5<, A2O70==KE A ?>8A:0<8, ?>8<:>9 8;8 ?@8@CG5=85< K:0 AB8==>9 @8@>4K, => =5:>B>@0O B>=:0O 8;;N78O 2A5 5I5 >AB05BAO =0 MB>< MB0?5. C4@5F ?@>4>;605B 2>A?@8=8<0BL K:0 :0: =5:>5 >B45;L=>5 ACI5AB2>, ?CABL 4065 8 AB>;L 1;87:>5, GB> =0 =5< <>6=> 5E0BL 25@E><, =5 ?@8;030O : MB><C =8:0:8E CA8;89 8 =5 >1@0I0O >A>1>3> 2=8<0=8O =0 B>, :C40 MB> ACI5AB2> 845B. K: :0: >B45;L=0O ACI=>ABL 4>;65= ?>;=>ABLN 8AG57=CBL 8 AB0BL ?>;=>ABLN 2K@065==K< 2 =0H59 A>1AB25==>9 ;8G=>AB8. !54L<>9 @8AC=>: =07K205BAO "K: 701KB, / A0< ?> A515". C4@5F =0:>=5F =0G8=05B >B=>A8BLAO : A0<><C A515 ?>;=>ABLN :0: : ?@>O2;5=8N AB8==>9 @8@>4K. ""5?5@L =5B 42>9AB25==>AB8. K: O2;O5BAO 53> 7=0G0;L=>9 @8@>4>9, 8 MB> >= A59G0A 2848B... ">;L:> =0 K:5 >= <>3 25@=CBLAO 4><>9. > A59G0A K: 8AG5705B, 8 G5;>25: >AB05BAO A0< 2 157<OB56=>AB8... "0<, ?>4 A>;><5==K< =025A><, ;560B :=CB 8 25@52:0, =5 =C6=K5 1>;LH5". N1K5 4CE>2=K5 ?@0:B8:8 8 ?>=OB8O B5?5@L C65 =5 =C6=K. 5 >AB05BAO 1>;LH5 =8:0:8E 2>?@>A>2 > B><, GB> 8<5==> =C6=> 4>AB8GL, 8;8 > 48AF8?;8=5. CBL A>75@F0=8O AB0=>28BAO =5>B;8G8<K< >B ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8. 548B0F8O, =5 O2;ONI0OAO B5?5@L C65 G5<-B> 1>;55 2KA>:8<, G5< E>4L10 8;8 4KE0=85, AB0=>28BAO 5AB5AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN <C4@5F0, 8 =5B 1>;LH5 =8:0:>3> GC2AB20 >B45;5==>AB8, :0: =5B 8 <>B820F88. "">;L:> =0 K:5 C =53> 1K;0 2>7<>6=>ABL 4>1@0BLAO ><>9". -B0 42>9AB25==>ABL <564C ?@0:B8:CNI8< 8 53> AB8==>9 @8@>4>9 1K;0 =5>1E>48<0 =0 2A5< ?CB8 2?;>BL 4> MB>3> MB0?0 >72@0I5=8O ><>9. 45AL 65 2>7=8:05B =>2K9 >1@07. K: A8<2>;878@>20; AB8==CN @8@>4C =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A53> ?5@8>40 8;;N7>@=>3> ?>8A:0, 48AF8?;8=K 8 4>AB865=8O, => >1@07 ><0 C65 =5 A>45@68B 2 A515 2A5E MB8E 8;;N789. 4=0:>, E>BO K:0 :0: >B45;L=>9 ACI=>AB8 C65 =5B, A0< ?@>A25B;5==K9 <C4@5F >AB05BAO G0AB=K< 2>?;>I5=85< AB8==>9 @8@>4K. = =0A;06405BAO 157<OB56=>ABLN 8 >48=>G5AB2><. ">=:0O 42>9AB25==>ABL, A>740205<0O A0<8< >B45;L=K< 1KB85< <C4@5F0, <>65B 1KBL ?>3;>I5=0 B>;L:> 2 A>25@H5==>9 548=AB25==>AB8 7=0G0;L=>3> #<0. "0: 65 :0: ?>AB5?5==> 8AG57;8 @>;8 8A:0B5;O 8 ?@0:B8:CNI53>, B0: 4>;6=0 8AG57=CBL 8 @>;L <C4@5F0, 4>AB83H53> >3@0=8G5==>3> >70@5=8O. >AL<>9 @8AC=>: =07K205BAO " K: 8 / 701KBK". @5>4>;5= D8=0;L=K9 8;;N7>@=K9 10@L5@: "2A5 8;;N7>@=K5 GC2AB20 8AG570NB, :0: 8 A0<0 845O A2OB>AB8". C4@5F =0 ?@54K4CI5< C@>2=5 =5 8<5; >ICI5=8O A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 A2OB>AB8, => 1K; 70=OB GC2AB2>< ?>GB5=8O : AB8==>9 @8@>45, ?@>O2;ONI59 A51O G5@57 53> =045;5==>5 A>7=0=85< ACI5AB2>. <5AB> ?>;=>3> A<5H820=8O A 7=0G0;L=>9 @8@>4>9, >= >AB05BAO 2 A>75@F0B5;L=>< =0AB@>5=88 8 ?5@568205B 1;065=AB2>, 2A5 5I5 A>E@0=OO A;54K 42>9AB25==>AB8. > =0 2>AL<>< C@>2=5, 87>1@065==>< 2 2845 ?CAB>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20, >AB05BAO B>;L:> ?@>1C645==>5 ?@>A25B;5=85: =5B 1>;LH5 A>75@F0B5;O 8 =5B 1>;LH5 A>75@F0=8O, =5B 157<OB56=>AB8, :0: =5B 8 15A?>:>9AB20. = =5 7045@68205BAO 4>;3> 2 A>AB>O=88 C44K, 8 1KAB@> ?@>E>48B G5@57 A>AB>O=85 =5-C44K. @>1C482H55AO ?@>A25B;5=85 A0<> ?> A515 =5 <>65B CB25@640BL: "/ C440", :0: =5 <>65B >=> CB25@640BL: "/ =5 C440". N1>5 B0:>5 CB25@645=85 =0<5:05B =0 ACI5AB2>20=85 :>3>-B>, :B> >3@0=8G5= @0<:0<8 CB25@645=8O.  745AL =5B =8:>3>, 4065 <C4@5F0. -B>B MB0?, 345 701K20NBAO 8 K:, 8 A0< 8A:0B5;L, MB> ?@54AB02;5=> >1@07>< B@048F8>==>3> 475=A:>3> :@C30, :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO ;8=859, >AB02;5==>9 =0 1C<035 >4=8< 27<0E>< :8AB8 8 ?>AB5?5==> 70:0=G820NI59AO B>G:>9. A;8 MB>B :@C3 =5 @07><:=CB, B> 40;L=59H89 @>AB =5 <>65B ?@>8AE>48BL 8 ?@>F5AA ?@>A25B;5=8O 70ABK205B 2 ?CAB>< ?@>AB@0=AB25. -B> 3;C1>:>5 A>AB>O=85 ?CAB>BK =C6405BAO 2 B><, GB>1K @0A:@KBLAO 2 ?>;=>BC. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, B0:>9 :@C3 8A:;NG05B B5G5=85 687=8 70 A2>8<8 ?@545;0<8, 8 <>65B 2>7=8:=CBL 4@C3>9 284 8;;N7>@=>3> GC2AB20 B>=:>9 42>9AB25==>AB8. CAB>9 :@C3 <>65B A>45@60BL 2 A515 F5;K9 ?59706. >B>: D>@< 687=8 ?@>4>;605B B5GL 2 2845 45@52L52, @K1, =0A5:><KE. 87=L 2> 2A5E 55 =5 >B1@0AK205BAO ?@>A25B;5=85<. 52OBK9 @8AC=>: =07K205BAO ">72@0I5=85 : 5@2>8AB>:C". >@K 8 A>A=K @0ABCB 225@E, >1;0:0 8 2>;=K ?>O2;ONBAO =58725AB=> >B:C40. B:@KB>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2> ?CAB>BK 2=CB@8 :@C30 B05B 25A=>9: 15AD>@<5==>5 >A>7=0=85 2>72@0I05BAO =0704, ?@>@0AB05B 2 D>@<K, =5 CB@0G820O ?@8 MB>< A2>59 15AD>@<5==>AB8, A2>59 A>25@H5==>9 548=>9 ?@8@>4K. @>A25B;5==>5 ACI5AB2> =5 =C6405BAO 1>;LH5 2 8;;N788 ?@>A25B;5=8O: "! A0<>3> =0G0;0 745AL =5 1K;> =8 <0;59H53> ?OB=KH:0, =8 >4=>9 ?K;8=:8, :>B>@K5 703@O7=O;8 1K ACI=>AB=CN G8AB>BC". >A;5 B>3> :0: >= 2?5@2K5 C2845; K:0, ?@0:B8:CNI89 2>A?@8=8<0; 2AO:CN 0:B82=>ABL :0: 2>7=8:0NICN =5?>A@54AB25==> 87 5@2>8AB>:0, >4=0:> >= 4>;65= 1K; ?@>E>48BL @07;8G=K5 B>=:85 C@>2=8 @0728B8O, =0?@02;OOAL : A0<><C MB><C 5@2>8AB>:C.  D0:B 2>72@0I5=8O <C4@5F0 4><>9 @0AB2>@O5BAO 2 :@C35 ?CAB>BK, ?@5645 G5< >= A<>65B ?>;=>ABLN 8AG57=CBL 8 ?@>AB> 1KBL A0<8< 5@2>8AB>:>< 2A53>. > MB> =5 C=8GB>65=85, =5 0==838;OF8O. !59G0A 2A5 ?@>O2;5=8O 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO ?@>1C482H8<AO ?@>A25B;5=85<, :0: 53> 65 A>1AB25==K5 M<0=0F88: "-B> ?@51K20=85 8 C1K20=85 687=8 (?>4>1=>5 ?@51K20=8N 8 C1K20=8N ;C=K) =5 O2;O5BAO =8 ?@87@0G=K<, =8 8;;N7>@=K<; MB> ?@>O2;5=8O 5@2>8AB>:0 2A53>. 0G5< B>340 AB@5<8BLAO : G5<C 1K. B> =8 1K;>? >40 8 B0: 3>;C10O, 0 3>@K 8 B0: 75;5=K5".  ?@>A25B;5=85  MB> ?@>AB> 3>;C1>5 >75@> 8 75;5=K5 3>@K. 0 ?5@2KE MB0?0E ?CB8 5I5 1K;> 4@0<0B8G5A:>5 :0G5AB2> ?@>1;5<K ?>AB865=8O, => A59G0A, =0 452OB>< MB0?5, MB>B 4@0<0B87< 8AG5705B, >AB02;OO ;8HL GC2AB2> A2565AB8 8 ?@>AB>9 OA=>AB8: "2>4K 3>;C1K5, 0 3>@K 75;5=K5"... > 345 2> 2A5< MB>< G5;>25G5A:85 ACI5AB20? @8 MB>< 2>72@0I5=88 : 5@2>8AB>:C >AB05BAO ;8HL =5:89 B>=:89 A25@EG5;>25G5A:89 0@><0B, =5:89 ?@82:CA G5;>25G=>AB8. @>F5AA ?@>A25B;5=8O C65 CH5; =0AB>;L:> 40;5:>, G5@57 AB>;L <=>385 AB5?5=8 C?@>I5=8O, GB> B5?5@L C65 B@C4=> 2>A?@8=8<0BL 8 ?@8=8<0BL :>=AB@C:F88 G5;>25G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8 8 >1I5AB20. "-B> ?>4>1=> B><C, :0: 1C4B> A59G0A 8A:0B5;L A;5? 8 3;CE. = A848B 2 A2>59 H;O?5, 8 53> =5 ?@82;5:0NB =8:0:85 2=5H=85 25I8". 45AL 5ABL B>=:0O 42>9AB25==>ABL <564C 5@2>8AB>:>< 2A53>, @0AF25B0NI8< 2 2845 A>A=K 8;8 28H=52>3> 45@520, 8 B0:8<8 53> ?@>O2;5=8O<8, :0: E@>=8G5A:85 8;;N788 8 AB@040=8O G5;>25G5A:>9 F828;870F88.  A0<> 2>72@0I5=85 : 5@2>8AB>:C 4>;6=> 2:;NG0BL 2 A51O 8 2>72@0I5=85 : ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8. 5AOBK9 @8AC=>:, >B@060NI89 BC AB048N, =0 :>B>@>9 8AG5705B :0: 42>9AB25==>ABL, B0: 8 548=AB2>, =07K205BAO "@8E>4 =0 1070@=CN ?;>I04L A @C:0<8, 3>B>2K<8 ?><>30BL". @>1C482H55AO ?@>A25B;5=85 ?@8=8<05B D>@<C B>;AB>3>, 687=5@04>AB=>3> 8 ?@>AB>3> G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 E>48B >B A5;5=8O : A5;5=8N, >B >4=>9 ?>2A54=52=>9 A8BC0F88 : 4@C3>9. 3> B5;> ?5@5?>;=5=> 687=5==>9 M=5@3859. 3> ACI5AB2> ?>;=> A>AB@040B5;L=>9 ;N128. 3> @0A:@KBK5 @C:8 2K@060NB A>25@H5==CN ?CAB>B=>ABL. ">@>B0 53> 4><0 70:@KBK, 8 4065 A0<K9 <C4@K9 87 <C4@5F>2 C65 =5 A<>65B =09B8 53>". = CH5; 2 70?@545;L=>5, ?>;=>ABLN CH5; 2 70?@545;L=>5, => =5 2 A<KA;5 CE>40 5I5 40;LH5 >B G5;>25G=>AB8, 0 ?>;=>ABLN 2>72@0B82H8AL 2 G5;>25G5A:89 <8@. = ?>:8=C; 5@2>8AB>:, 345 ?@>A25B;5=85 <>3;> ?@51K20BL 2 =5:>9 B>=:>9 A0<>87>;OF88. "065 A0<K9 <C4@K9 87 <C4@5F>2 =5 A<>65B =09B8 53>", ?>B><C GB> 53> A0<>3> C65 =5B, 8 MB> =5 >= AB@0=AB2C5B ?> <8@C, 0 B>;L:> ;8HL ?@>1C482H55AO ?@>A25B;5=85 ?@>O2;O5B A2>N 0:B82=>ABL. = =5 >ICI05B =8:>9 ACI=>AB=>9 @07=8FK <564C A>1>9 8 A5;5=8O<8, G5@57 :>B>@K5 >= ?@>E>48B, 8 ?597065<, :>B>@K9 >:@C605B 53>. "3> <5=B0;L=0O ?0=>@0<0 A59G0A C65 ?>;=>ABLN 8AG57;0. = 845B A2>8< ?CB5<, =5 ?@54?@8=8<0O =8:0:8E ?>?KB>: A;54>20BL B5< H030<, :>B>@>5 >= A>25@H0; =0 ?@54H5AB2CNI8E MB0?0E". @>428=CBK9 ?@0:B8:CNI89 8 4065 <C4@5F GC2AB2>20;8 A8;L=>5 ?>GB5=85 : 4@C38< <C4@5F0<, 1K2H8< 4> =8E, 8 ?>MB><C >B=>A8;8AL : A0<8< A515 :0: : =5:8< B>=:8< >1@07>< >B;8G0NI8<AO >B MB8E 5;8:8E C4@5F>2. > ?@>A25B;5=85 =0 MB>< 45AOB>< MB0?5 =8G5< =5 >B;8G05BAO >B ?@>A25B;5=8O 2A5E C44, ?@>H;KE, =0AB>OI8E 8 1C4CI8E. B> 745AL 70 :5< A;54C5B? 5A5;K9 8 @04>AB=K9 G5;>25:, ?>;=>ABLN ?@>O282H89 2 A515 ?@>A25B;5=85, =5 845B =8 ?> :0:><C ?CB8. = =5A5B A45;0==K9 87 BK:2K A>AC4 A 28=><, A8<2>;>< B0=B@8G5A:>3> M:AB070, :>B>@K9 A?>A>15= B@0=AD>@<8@>20BL O4 28=0 8;;N7>@=>3> G5;>25G5A:>3> <8@0 2 =5:B0@. " >1=8<:C A A>AC4>< >= ?@>3C;8205BAO ?> 1070@C. = 2545B 70 A>1>9 ?> ?CB8 C44K B>@3>2F52 @K1>9. >A>9, A 3>;>9 3@C4LN, >= ?@8E>48B =0 1070@. @O7=K9 8 ?>:@KBK9 ?K;LN, :0: H8@>:> >= C;K105BAO! = =5 >1@0I05BAO : <8AB8G5A:8< A8;0<, => >= ?>4>15= ACE><C 45@52C, :>B>@>5 1KAB@> ?>:@K205BAO F25B0<8". >A?@8=8<05<K5 :0: ?>B5=F80;L=K5 C44K, 0 =5 B>;L:> :0: B>@3>2FK @K1>9 8;8 ?@>AB> ?>:C?0B5;8 =0 1070@=>9 ?;>I048, <5AB5 65;0=89, 2A5 MB8 ;N48 2 53> ?@8ACBAB288 1KAB@> 4>AB830NB @0AF25B0. >465@ #>;H !.'", #(  , 4@52=85 >1@07K 8 A>2@5<5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O @>A25B;5=85 405B 2845=L5 A:@KB>3> 548=AB20 2A5E 25I59, AB@5<8BAO @0AB2>@8BL 2A5 3@0=8FK 8 ?@545;K, 345 1K >=8 =8 1K;8,  @0AB2>@8BL 2 B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 >=8 >A=>20=K =0 -3> 8 =52545=88. => AB@5<8BAO 8A:;NG8BL =5 @0AE>645=85 8 @07;8G85, 0 B>;L:> @0745;5=85.  MB>< 4CE5 >465@ #>;H, B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=> >@85=B8@>20==K9 ?A8E80B@, A>?>AB02;O5B 2>AB>G=CN ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN A8AB5<C (>?8A0==CN =0 >A=>25 1C4487<0 "E5@0204K) A 70?04=K<8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 8 A>F80;L=K<8 :>=F5?F8O<8.  E>BO ACI5AB2CNB 7=0G8B5;L=K5 @07;8G8O <564C 70?04=K< 8 2>AB>G=K< ?>=8<0=85< G5;>25G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K, B0:85 H8@>:> <KA;OI85 8=48284C0;L=>AB8, :0: #>;H, =02>4OB <564C =8<8 <>ABK. >4>1=K5 ?>?KB:8 :>@@5:B=K 8 @0AH8@ONB @0<:8 70?04=KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E A8AB5<. 284C B>3> GB> ?@52>AE>645=85 =0;8G=>3> C@>2=O  ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ACI5AB25==K9 <><5=B 2 ?@>F5AA5 4CE>2=>3> @>AB0 ?> =0?@02;5=8N : ?@>A25B;5=8N 8 2284C B>3> GB> ?@52>AE>645=85 =5 B>;L:> >B@8F05B, => 8 2:;NG05B 2 A51O =87H85 C@>2=8, >G8I0O 8 :>@@5:B8@CO 8E, 8AA;54>20=8O, ?>4>1=K5 MB><C, O2;ONBAO <>I=K< ?@>B82>O485< ?@>B82 =5:>@@5:B=>AB8 8 70C65==>AB8 >1I5?@8=OBKE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E <>45;59  B> 65 2@5<O >=8 A>E@0=ONB 8 15@CB 87 MB8E <>45;59 B>, GB> 045:20B=> 8 ?>4;8==>, =0<5G0O =>2K5 =0?@02;5=8O 4;O 40;L=59H53> 87CG5=8O 8 ?@8;>65=8O 0?@8<5@, #>;H F8B8@C5B 40==K5 8AA;54>20=89 ?> 87CG5=8N <548B0F88, :>B>@K5 2>7=8:;8 =0 >A=>25 70?04=>3> =0CG=>3> <5B>40 8 A>2@5<5==>3> 8=B5@5A0 : 2>AB>G=K< D5=><5=0< -B8 8AA;54>20=8O, 3>2>@8B >=, C:07K20NB =0 BC >1;0ABL, 345 =5 "@01>B0NB" DC=40<5=B0;L=K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 70?04=>9 ?A8E>;>388  ?@54?>AK;:8, :0A0NI85AO 2KAH8E AB0489 G5;>25G5A:>3> @0728B8O 8 >B@8F0NI85 A0<C 2>7<>6=>ABL ACI5AB2>20=8O MB8E AB0489. A;8 <K 7=05< 8AB>@8G5A:85 ?@8<5@K ;N459, 0:BC0;878@>202H8E 25AL A2>9 G5;>25G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; 8 >ACI5AB282H8E 2 A515 "45AOBL A>25@H5=AB2", 745AL C?><8=05<KE; 5A;8 MB8 107>2K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 459AB28B5;L=> 25@=K 8 ACI5AB2CNB <5B>4K 8 B5E=8:8 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?><>GL G5;>25:C 4>AB8GL ?>4>1=>3> C@>2=O, B> 2 @C:0E ?A8E>B5@0?52B>2 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;>2 >:07K20NBAO <>I=K5 A@54AB20 4;O ?><>I8 ;N4O< 2 >ACI5AB2;5=88 A>1AB25==>9 ACI=>AB8 8 4;O 3@><04=>3> M2>;NF8>==>3> A:0G:0 2 G5;>25G5A:>< @0728B88. * * * "'B> :0A05BAO ?A8E>;>388 >A2>1>645=8O,  A5BC5B 2K40NI89AO ?A8E>;>3 >@4>= ;;?>@B,  B> C =0A =5B =8G53>" [1] 3> A5B>20=85 >B=>A8BAO : 70?04=>9 :;8=8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 ?A8E80B@88 2 F5;><, B0: :0: >=8 >@85=B8@>20=K ?@5645 2A53> =0 ?0B>;>38N 8 <0;> GB> 7=0NB ?> ACI5AB2C > ?A8E8G5A:>< 74>@>2L5, 2 G0AB=>AB8 > B><, GB> O2;O5BAO B5<>9 MB>9 :=838,  > ?@>A25B;5=88. 59AB28B5;L=>, MB8 B5<K, :0: ?@028;>, ?>=8<0NBAO ?@52@0B=> =>385 ?A8E>;>38-?@>D5AA8>=0;K 4> A8E ?>@ @0AA<0B@820NB B0:85 D5=><5=K, :0: ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O 7@5;>ABL, 2=5 2AO:8E :C;LBC@=KE =>@<, <8AB8G5A:8E ?5@56820=89 8 ?@>A25B;5=8O  :0: 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 <8D>;>38G5A:85, 0 2 EC4H5<  ?0B>;>38G5A:85; >48= 87 8725AB=KE ?A8E80B@8G5A:8E B5:AB>2 >?8AK205B 8E :0: "M:AB@5<0;L=CN ?A8E>;>38G5A:CN @53@5AA8N" [2] -B0 ?>78F8O ?>=OB=0. > =5402=53> 2@5<5=8 1K;> >G5=L <0;> 4>ABC?=>9 @50;8AB8G5A:>9 8=D>@<0F88 > 2>AB>G=KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B@048F8OE, 2 :>B>@KE 0:F5=B 45;0;AO =0 8455 ?@>A25B;5=8O  B><C 65 4>ABC?=0O 8=D>@<0F8O G0AB> 1K;0 8A:065=0 70 AG5B ;8=328AB8G5A:8E, :C;LBC@=KE 8 ?0@0483<0B8G5A:8E 10@L5@>2 [3, 4] 4=0:> 2 ?>A;54=85 45AOBL ;5B ?>O28;AO @O4 B5>@5B8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 8 A2845B5;LAB2 B>3>, GB> <K 4>;6=K A5@L57=> ?5@5A<>B@5BL A2>5 >B=>H5=85 : 2>AB>G=K< ?A8E>;>38O< 8 ?@8=OBL @O4 8E F5==KE 8 7=0G8<KE <><5=B>2 0G0;0AL 8=B53@0F8O 2>AB>G=>9 8 70?04=>9 ?A8E>;>388  2 MB>< >B=>H5=88 A53>4=O =081>;55 3;C1>:8<8 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 A>45@60B5;L=K<8 O2;ONBAO @01>BK 5=0 #8;15@0, ?>;CG82H85 4>;6=>5 ?@87=0=85 [5-9]. 0@O4C A MB8< 2>7@>A 8AA;54>20B5;LA:89 8=B5@5A : ?@>1;5<5 ?A8E8G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ?>;=>F5==>AB8 [10, 11]. %>BO ?0B>;>38O >AB05BAO 3;02=K< D>:CA>< 70?04=>9 18E528>@8ABA:>9 =0C:8, 2A5 1>;LH55 ?>=8<0=85 =0G8=05B =0E>48BL B>B D0:B, GB> 74>@>2L5  MB> =5GB> 1>;LH55, G5< ?@>AB> "=5 1>;57=L". 725AB=K5 <KA;8B5;8, B0:85, :0: 1@0E0< 0A;>C [12], -@8E $@><< [13], >@5=A >;15@3 [14] 8 5= #8;15@ [5-7], C:070;8, ?><8<> 2A53> ?@>G53>, A>>B25BAB2CNI85 C@>2=8 <>B820F88, >B=>H5=8O, <KH;5=8O, <>@0;8 8 :>3=8B82=KE A?>A>1=>AB59, =0E>4OI85AO 70 ?@545;0<8 B>3>, GB> B@048F8>==> AG8B0;>AL "=>@<0;L=K<", @0AH8@82, B0:8< >1@07><, ?>=8<0=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 7@5;>AB8. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 2>AB>G=K5 ?A8E>;>388 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 ?>GB8 75@:0;L=>5 >B@065=85 70?04=KE A8AB5<. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 8=4C8ABA:85, 1C4489A:85, ACD89A:85 A8AB5<K, 2>7=8:;8 2 :>=B5:AB5 2?>;=5 ?@03<0B8G5A:8E 701>B > ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< A>25@H5=AB2>20=88 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 CAB>9G82>AB8. !;54>20B5;L=>, >=8 ?>GB8 =5 70B@03820NB A8AB5<0B8G5A:89 0=0;87 ?A8E>?0B>;>388, => 40NB A;>6=CN AE5<C AB0489 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> @0728B8O, :>B>@>5 2KE>48B 70 ?@545;K B@048F8>==KE 70?04=KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E <>45;59. !53>4=O >1I5?@8=OB>, GB>, :0: MB> >B<5G05B %LNAB>= !<8B 2 A2>5< MAA5, ?><5I5==>< 2 MB>9 :=835, "87 2A5E 4CE>2=KE B@048F89 8<5==> 1C4487< =081>;55 ?A8E>;>38G5= 2 A?>A>15 ?5@540G8 A2>53> CG5=8O" [15].  1C4487<5 <K =0E>48< A>45@60B5;L=K5 >?8A0=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO 8 A>AB>O=89 A>7=0=8O. 0: 8 2A5 25;8:85 @5;838>7=K5 B@048F88, 1C4487< @074@>18;AO =0 <=>3>G8A;5==K5 H:>;K. 081>;55 4@52=OO 8E =8E  "E5@02040, ACI5AB2CNI0O A53>4=O 2 >A=>2=>< 2 .6=>9 788. "E5@02040 4>AB0B>G=> :>=A5@20B82=0, B0: :0: >=0 >?8@05BAO 2 >A=>2=>< =0 02B>@8B5B @0==8E 1C4489A:8E B5:AB>2 1>;55 G5< 42CEBKAOG5;5B=59 402=>AB8. =K5 H:>;K 1C4487<0 B0:65 >?8@0NBAO =0 MB8 B5:ABK, => 2 =8E 1K;8 @07@01>B0=K <=>385 =>2K5 :>=F5?F88. "@048F8O 8 8458 "E5@0204K @0745;ONBAO, 25@>OB=>, 2A5<8 A>2@5<5==K<8 H:>;0<8 1C4487<0, :>B>@K5, >4=0:>, ?@840NB 8< @07;8G=CN 7=0G8<>ABL 8 45;0NB @07=K5 0:F5=BK. ?8AK205<0O =865 <>45;L :0G5AB2 01A>;NB=>3> 4CH52=>3> 1;03>?>;CG8O A>740=0 =0 >A=>25 B@048F88 "E5@0204K. -B0 <>45;L >?8AK205B 45AOBL G5@B, :0G5AB2 8;8 >A>15==>AB59, :>B>@K5, :0: AG8B05BAO, E0@0:B5@=K 4;O 74>@>2KE ;N459. 0: ?>;030NB ?>A;54>20B5;8 "E5@0204K, C ?@>A25B;5==>3> G5;>25:0 MB8 :0G5AB20 @0728BK 4> 8E ?@545;L=>3> A>25@H5=AB20 8 ?>B><C =07K20NBAO "45AOBLN A>25@H5=AB20<8" (*). A5 <K >1;0405< MB8<8 :0G5AB20< 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 <5@5, 8 2A5 <K A?>A>1=K A>25@H5=AB2>20BL 8E, ?@0:B8:CO <548B0F8N, MB8G5A:89 >1@07 687=8 8 @072820O A2>N <C4@>ABL. ------------------------------ *  1C4489A:8E B5:AB0E >=8 =07K20NBAO "5AOBLN 0@0<8B0<8". "0@0<8B0" =0 A0=A:@8B5 4>A;>2=> 7=0G8B "?5@5?@020". C4489A:85 8AB>G=8:8 8<5NB 2 284C =5 B>;L:> A>25@H5==K5 2=CB@5==85 :0G5AB20, => 8 M=5@38N, A?>A>1=>ABL, A8;C "4>AB8GL 4@C3>3> 15@530".  @8<. ?5@52. "5, :B> 87CG05B @07;8G=K5 @5;8388 8 @5;838>7=K5 ?@0:B8:8, C7=0NB 2 "45AOB8 A>25@H5=AB20E" F5;8, >1I85 4;O 2A5E 25;8:8E @5;838>7=>-D8;>A>DA:8E CG5=89, 8<5NI8E 45;> A G5;>25G5A:8< A>7=0=85<. 5 ACI5AB2C5B 8AG5@?K20NI53> A?8A:0 2A5E :0G5AB2, :>B>@K5 AB@5<OBAO @072820BL ?>A;54>20B5;8 B>9 8;8 8=>9 B@048F88, => 2A5 B@048F88 459AB28B5;L=> C:07K20NB =0 >4=C 8 BC 65 25@H8=C G5;>25G5A:>3> @0728B8O. >72>;LB5 B5?5@L ?@8ABC?8BL : >?8A0=8N MB8E :0G5AB2, ?5@5G8A;82 8E 4;O =0G0;0: @5H8B5;L=>ABL, M=5@38G=>ABL, MB8G=>ABL, ?@02482>ABL, =5?@82O70==>ABL (>B@5H5==>ABL), B5@?5=85, =52>7<CB8<>ABL, I54@>ABL, 4>1@>B0 8 <C4@>ABL. 1. (",!", C4487< CB25@6405B A>25@H5==> >?@545;5==>, GB> AB5?5=L =0H8E 4>AB865=89 8 3;C18=0 ?>AB865=8O 7028A8B >B =0A A0<8E. -B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2> ?>4G5@:8205BAO, =0 =53> ?>AB>O==> >1@0I05BAO 2=8<0=85. C4487< ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> =5B =8:0:8E 2=5H=8E 035=B>2, 1>3>2 8;8 3C@C, :>B>@K5 ?@>45;0;8 1K 70 =0A =0HC @01>BC, 8 GB> 4>AB865=85 ?>4;8==>3> <5=B0;L=>3> 74>@>2LO B@51C5B @5H8B5;L=>AB8 8 ?>AB>O==>3> CA8;8O. C440 3>2>@8;, GB> 53> ?CBL =8 2 :>59 <5@5 =5 1K; ;53:8<, => GB> >= 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 AB0; 2>7=03@0640NI8< 70 2A5 BO3>BK 8 GB> @5H8B5;L=>ABL =0 ?CB8 =5>1E>48<0 4;O CA?5E0 [16,17,18].  AG0ABLN, 45AOBL A>25@H5=AB2  MB> >4=>2@5<5==> 8 A@54AB20 8 F5;8, >=8 @0ABCB ?> <5@5 B>3>, :0: @0AB5B G5;>25:; B0: 65 8 @5H8B5;L=>ABL @0728205BAO ?> <5@5 ?@0:B8:8. 2. - '!", ! :0G5AB2>< @5H8B5;L=>AB8 B5A=> A2O70=> :0G5AB2> M=5@38G=>AB8, :>B>@>5 B>65 ?@54?>;0305B CA8;85 8 AB@5<;5=85. 59AB28B5;L=>, C440 1>;LH5 G5< > G5<-;81> 8=>< 3>2>@8; > =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?>AB>O==>3> CA8;8O [18]. 0G5AB2> M=5@38G=>AB8, M=5@38G=K5 CA8;8O AG8B0NBAO ACI5AB25==K<8 4;O ?@5>4>;5=8O >4=>3> 87 ?OB8 3;02=KE ?@5?OBAB289 : @>ABC  8=5@F88 8 ;5=8, ?>=865==>9 0:B82=>AB8, B>9 B5=45=F88, :>B>@CN 1C448ABK =07K20NB ";5=>ABL 8 0?0B8O". >;030NB, GB> MB> >1KG=>5 ?@5?OBAB285 4;O =0G8=0NI8E; =5402=85 M=F5D0;>3@0D8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8 G0AB>5 A=865=85 C@>2=O 0:B82=>AB8 <>730 8 2>7=8:=>25=85 =0G0;L=KE AB0489 A=0 2 ?@0:B8:5 =0G8=0NI8E <548B8@CNI8E [19,20]. 3. -"'!", A;8 2848HL A51O 2 4@C38E, 0: A<>65HL ?@8=5AB8 8< 1>;L? 0: A<>65HL 8< ?>2@548BL? C440 [17] -B8G=>ABL, :0: >=0 ?>=8<05BAO 2 1C4487<5 8 4@C38E 48AF8?;8=0E A>7=0=8O, 2> <=>3>< =5?@028;L=> 8=B5@?@5B8@C5BAO ?>?C;O@=K< <KH;5=85< 8 >@30=87>20==>9 @5;83859.  48AF8?;8=0E A>7=0=8O MB8G=>ABL @0AA<0B@8205BAO 2 DC=:F8>=0;L=>< 0A?5:B5 :0: A?>A>1 8 A@54AB2>, =5>1E>48<K5 4;O <5=B0;L=>3> A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O, 8 =5 O2;O5BAO >1I5?@8=OB>9 <>@0;LN 8;8 A8AB5<>9 2=5H=8E A0=:F89. 8 >48= G5;>25:, 3;C1>:> 2>2;5G5==K9 2 8=B5=A82=K9 B@5=8=3 A>7=0=8O, =5 A<>65B 4>;3> >AB020BLAO 2 =52545=88 >B=>A8B5;L=> 2@54=KE MDD5:B>2 =5MB8G=>3> ?>2545=8O, :>B>@K5 BCB 65 A:07K20NBAO =0 <5=B0;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8 8 :>=B@>;5. @0:B8:CNI85 1KAB@> >A>7=0NB, GB> =5MB8G=>5 ?>2545=85 2K7K205BAO <>I=K<8 M<>F8O<8, B0:8<8, :0: 3=52, 604=>ABL 8;8 =5=028ABL, :>B>@K5 702;04520NB C<>< 8 45;0NB :>=B@>;L =04 =8< =52>7<>6=K< [18,21,22]. 5MB8G=>5 ?>2545=85 2>7=8:05B 87 ?>4>1=>9 65 <>B820F88, 82 B> 65 2@5<O >=> >1CA;>2;8205B 8 CA8;8205B ?>4>1=K5 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 ?@>O2;5=8O, 2>2;5:0O B0:8< >1@07>< C< 2 1>;55 3;C1>:85 ?@>B82>@5G8O 8 A<OB5=85. -B>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 2545B : 5I5 1>;55 @07@CH8B5;L=K< A>AB>O=8O<, B0:8<, :0: B@52>6=>ABL 8 GC2AB2> 28=K. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ?@0:B8:0 MB8G=>AB8 2545B : >1@0I5=8N MB>3> ?@>F5AA0, : C=8GB>65=8N MB>9 =530B82=>9 2>2;5G5==>AB8 8 B5E M<>F89, :>B>@K5 55 ?>@>640NB. >=5G=K< @57C;LB0B>< ?>4>1=>9 ?@0:B8:8 O2;O5BAO C< 0@E0B0 (?>;=>ABLN ?@>1C645==>3> 8=482840), :>B>@K9 AG8B05BAO ?>;=>ABLN A2>1>4=K< >B MB8E A>AB>O=89 8 ?>MB><C ?> A0<>9 ACB8 A2>59 =5 <>65B ?@82>48BL : =5MB8G=><C ?>2545=8N [22,23]. -B8G=>ABL  O@:89 ?@8<5@ A0<>A>3;0A>20==>9 ?@8@>4K A>25@H5==>3> :0G5AB20. 59AB28B5;L=>, >=0 A;C68B >4=>2@5<5==> 8 A0<><C ?@0:B8:CNI5<C, 8 4@C38<, B0: GB> 2A5 48E>B><88 B8?0 "M3>87<-0;LB@C87<", "/-"K", "?>1540-?>@065=85", "G0ABL-F5;>5" CB@0G820NB A<KA;. 4.  !", >2>@OB, GB> C440 ?@54>AB5@530; A2>53> AK=0: "8:>340 =5 ;38, 4065 2 HCB:C". -B>B AB@>389 A>25B, 25@>OB=>, >B@0605B 3;C1>:>5 ?>=8<0=85 C44>9 <>I=>3> 2>7459AB28O @5G8 =0 =0H5 <5=B0;L=>5 DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 8 ?>2545=85. >4>1=> =5MB8G=><C ?>2545=8N, 1C4CG8 53> G0ABLN, ;>6L CA8;8205B ?>B0:0=85 A515, AB@0E 8 4@C385 =530B82=K5 A>AB>O=8O, A;54AB285< :>B>@KE >=0 O2;O5BAO, ?@82>4O : 2>7=8:=>25=8N 8 CA8;5=8N @07@CH8B5;L=KE M<>F89, B0:8E, :0: GC2AB2> 28=K, B@52>6=>ABL 8 3=52. 0 >4=>9 ;>6LN G0AB> A;54C5B 4@C30O, 2>7=8:0NI0O 4;O 70I8BK 8;8 >?@0240=8O ?5@2>9. 57C?@5G=0O ?@0:B8:0 ?@02482>AB8, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 2K?>;=O5B =5A:>;L:> DC=:F89. =0 2>>4CH52;O5B G5;>25:0 25AB8 A51O MB8G=>, B@51C5B @50;L=>3> >A>7=0=8O @5G8 8 <>B820F88, ?@>OA=O5B 2>A?@8OB85 8 ?0<OBL > ?@>H;KE A>1KB8OE, :>B>@K5 2 8=>< A;CG05 8A:060NBAO ;>6LN, >A2>1>6405B C< >B AB@0E0 @50;L=> A<>B@5BL =0 25I8, >B GC2AB20 28=K 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, A=8605B 15A?>:>9AB2> 8 GC2AB2> B@52>38. >;=>ABLN ?@>A25B;5==K9 G5;>25:, A2>1>4=K9 >B 604=>AB8, 3=520 8 4@C38E =530B82=KE A>AB>O=89 C<0, =5 8<55B =8 65;0=8O, =8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 A:@K20BL ?@024C 8;8 ?>ABC?0BL =5MB8G=>. "5<, :B> 4> :>=F0 MB8G5=, =5G53> A:@K20BL; AG8B05BAO, GB> ?@02482>ABL, :0: 8 2A5 4@C385 A>25@H5=AB20, 2 2KAH5< A2>5< ?@>O2;5=88 AB0=>28BAO A?>=B0==K< 8 ?>AB>O==K< 2K@065=85< ACI=>AB=>9 ?@8@>4K 0@E0B0. >4>1=K ?@5:@0A=><C F25B:C, !2565<C 8 8AB>G0NI5<C 0@><0B, @02482K5 8 OA=K5 A;>20 G5;>25:0, >2>@OI53> B>, GB> >= 4C<05B. C440 [17] 5.  /!", (" (!",) B@5H5==>ABL 8 =5?@82O70==>ABL  =5GB> GC64>5 =0H5<C 70?04=><C <KH;5=8N; >=8 2K7K20NB >1@07K 0A:5B87<0, 65@B25==>AB8 8 >B:070 >B 2AO:>3> C4>2>;LAB28O. 4=0:> 1>;55 3;C1>:>5 ?>=8<0=85 B>3> A<KA;0, :>B>@K9 >=8 8<5NB 2 1C4489A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, ?>:07K205B, GB> 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 @5GL 845B > A>7=0B5;L=>< >B:075 >B >4=>3> 87 8AB>G=8:>2 =0A;0645=8O 4;O B>3>, GB>1K =09B8 4>ABC? : =0A;0645=8O< 1>;55 3;C1>:8< 8 ?>AB>O==K<.  >B;8G85 >B =0H8E B@048F8>==KE 70?04=KE <>45;59, 1C4489A:0O ?A8E>;>38O @0AA<0B@8205B G5BK@5 B8?0 C4>2>;LAB28O: GC2AB25==>5 C4>2>;LAB285; C4>2>;LAB285, 2>7=8:0NI55 2 A>AB>O=8OE ?>;=>9 <5=B0;L=>9 :>=F5=B@0F88; C4>2>;LAB285 >B 8=A09B0, B.5. >B OA=>AB8, 2>7=8:0NI59 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?>=8<0=8O 8 ?@>=8:=>25=8O 2 ACBL, 8 C4>2>;LAB285 >B 4>AB865=8O =8@20=K [18]. -B8 C4>2>;LAB28O, :0: ?>;030NB 1C448ABK, @07;8G0NBAO ?> AB5?5=8 G8AB>BK, A5=A8B82=>AB8 8 3;C18=K, :>B>@0O ?>AB5?5==> 2>7@0AB05B >B A5=A>@=>3> C4>2>;LAB28O : C4>2>;LAB28N >B 4>AB865=8O =8@20=K.  70?04=KE 65 <>45;OE @0AA<0B@8205BAO B>;L:> ?5@2K9 B8? C4>2>;LAB28O, >1;0ABL GC2AB25==KE 2>A?@8OB88, :>B>@0O 2 1C4489A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 2:;NG05B C<AB25==K5 =0A;0645=8O, B0:85, :0: ?0<OBL 8 D0=B078O, A0<0 ?@8@>40 :>B>@KE, :0: ?>;030NB 1C448ABK, 8<55B GC2AB25==K9 E0@0:B5@. B@5H5==>ABL, B0:8< >1@07><, <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: >B:07 >B ?@82KG:8 : GC2AB25==K< C4>2>;LAB28O< A F5;LN A>25@H5=AB2>20BL B@8 4@C38E B8?0 =0A;0645=8O. -B>B 2K1>@ <>6=> ?>=8<0BL 8 2 B5@<8=0E 85@0@E88 ?>B@51=>AB59 ?> 0A;>C. >B@51=>AB8 =87H53> ?>@O4:0 A2O70=K A <0B5@80;L=K<8 >1J5:B0<8 8 A5=A>@=>9 AB8<C;OF859, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: ?>B@51=>AB8 2KAH53> ?>@O4:0 A2O70=K A 2=CB@5==59 A0<>0:BC0;870F859 8 ACI=>AB=K< C4>2;5B2>@5=85< 8=48284C0;L=>AB8, 8E 8A?KBK20NI59 [12,24,25]. >MB><C >B@5H5==>ABL-=5?@82O70==>ABL <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: A>7=0B5;L=K9 >B:07 >B =87H8E ?>B@51=>AB59 4;O @0728B8O 2KAH8E: B@5H5==>ABL A?>A>1AB2C5B B0:65 2K@01>B:5 687=5==>3> AB8;O A>7=0B5;L=>9 ?@>AB>BK [26]. ! @0728B85< 8 C3;C1;5=85< A5=A8B82=>AB8 8 A?>A>1=>AB8 2>A?@8OB8O, :0: >B<5G0NB ;N48, :>B>@K5 ?@0:B8:CNB 48AF8?;8=K, A2O70==K5 A A>7=0=85<, 2>7=8:05B 1>;55 OA=>5 2845=85 @07@CH8B5;L=>3> 459AB28O 604=>AB8 8 ?@82O70==>AB8.  B> 65 2@5<O >=8 AB0=>2OBAO 1>;55 CAB>9G82K<8 2 >ICI5=88 4CH52=>3> 1;03>?>;CG8O, :>B>@>5 B5?5@L ?5@5AB05B 7028A5BL >B 2=5H=8E AB8<C;>2 8 D0:B>@>2, 8 2 ?5@56820=88 ?>78B82=KE M<>F89. A5 1>;LH55 =0A;0645=85 B5?5@L 8A?KBK205BAO 2 C3;C1;5=88 A5=A8B82=>AB8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : >?KBC 8 ?5@56820=8N, B5:CI5<C >B <><5=B0 : <><5=BC, 8 :064K9 <83, 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, G5< G5;>25: 70=8<05BAO, AB0=>28BAO 8AB>G=8:>< 1>30BKE 8 @07=>>1@07=KE AB8<C;OF89. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 MB>9 ?5@A?5:B825 >B@5H5==>ABL 2>A?@8=8<05BAO =5 :0: ?@0:B8:0 0A:5B87<0, B@51CNI0O 65@B25==>AB8 8 AB@040=8O, 0 A:>@55 :0: @50;L=>5 A@54AB2> ?5@5:;NG5=8O 2=8<0=8O =0 C@>2=8 1>;55 B>=:>3> 8 3;C1>:>3> =0A;0645=8O. >;030NB, GB> 2 ;N4OE, :>B>@K5 4>AB83;8 A>25@H5=AB20 MB>3> :0G5AB20, C< AB0=>28BAO A2>1>4=K< >B ?@82O70==>AB59 8 0=B8?0B89 8 ?>MB><C A?>A>15= ?@8=OBL ;N1>5 ?5@56820=85. ;8, 3>2>@O 8=K<8 A;>20<8, 2A5 A8BC0F88 8 AB8<C;K 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO =52>7<CB8<>, GB> O2;O5BAO 5I5 >4=8< A>25@H5=AB2><, 0 GC2AB2> CAB>9G82>AB8 8 1;03>?>;CG8O C G5;>25:0 1>;LH5 C65 =5 7028A8B >B >:@C65=8O. A;8 2K ?>;=K 65;0=89, 0H0 ?5G0;L @0AB5B, 0: B@020 ?>A;5 4>64O. > 5A;8 2K ?>:>@8;8 65;0=8O, 0H0 ?5G0;L A?0405B A 25:, 0: :0?;O 2>4K A F25B:0 ;>B>A0. C440 [17] 6. "   :>=F5 ?CB8  A2>1>40. > MB8E 65 ?>@  B5@?5=85. C440 [17] 5B5@?5=85 >B@0605B =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 0:BC0;L=K< ?5@56820=85< 8 ?@82K:0=85 : =5?@8OB=K< ?5@56820=8O<. 57C;LB0B>< O2;O5BAO, :0:, =025@=>5, 2A5 <K 7=05<, B@52>6=>5 A>AB>O=85 C<0, E0@0:B5@87C5<>5 48A:><D>@B>< 8 D0=B07859.  MB>< =0?@02;5=88 B@5=8=3 C<0 4>;65= 1KBL =0?@02;5= =0 B>, GB>1K 1KBL >B:@KBK<, ?@8=8<0BL 8 3;C1>:> >A>7=020BL A>1AB25==>5 ?5@56820=85 >B <><5=B0 : <><5=BC. 5 A>?@>B82;OOAL B><C, GB> 5ABL 2 =0AB>OI5< <><5=B5, =5 D0=B078@CO > B><, GB> <>3;> 1K 1KBL, 8 =5 A@02=820O MB> A B5<, GB> 5ABL [13]. ""5@?5=85"  MB> =54>AB0B>G=> ?>;=K9 8 B>G=K9 ?5@52>4 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> 1C4489A:>3> ?>=OB8O, :>B>@>5 >7=0G05B B0:65 B5@?8<>ABL, B>;5@0=B=>ABL 8 ?@>I5=85 4@C38E. "5@?5;82K9 C< <54;5==> =0?>;=O5BAO 3=52>< 8 1KAB@> ?@>I05B, ?@>O2;O5B A51O MB8G=> 8 A>AB@040B5;L=>, 2 B> 65 2@5<O ?@>I0O B5E, :B> A51O B0: =5 2545B; 8=K<8 A;>20<8, B5@?5=85 8<55B 45;> =5 B>;L:> A8BC0F8O<8, A>1KB8O<8 8 25I0<8, => B0:65 8 A ;N4L<8, 8 A 8E =54>AB0B:0<8. 7. #"!", #<, >1CA;>2;5==K9 >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8 8 M<>F8O<8, 02B><0B8G5A:8 ;N18B 8;8 =5 ;N18B; 2 =5< 4><8=8@CNB @50:F88 =0 2=5H=89 AB8<C;  C4>2>;LAB285 8;8 1>;L. "0:>9 C< =0E>48BAO 2 ?>;=>9 7028A8<>AB8 >B >:@C65=8O; 1C448ABK AG8B0NB, GB> >= 15A?>:>5=, 53> B@C4=> :>=B@>;8@>20BL 8 :>=F5=B@8@>20BL, >= =5?>AB>O=5= 2 F5;OE 8 >@85=B0F88, =52>A?@88<G82 : 8=A09BC [16]. > <5@5 B@5=8@>2:8 @50:F88, >1CA;02;820NI85 A8;L=K5 A>AB>O=8O 0DD5:B0, 8AG570NB, 8 C< ?>AB5?5==> AB0=>28BAO 2A5 1>;55 A?>:>9=K<. "0:>9 C< ;53G5 :>=B@>;8@>20BL, >= 2 A>AB>O=88 >AB020BLAO A?> :>9=K< ?5@54 ;8F>< ;>6=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2, =5>6840==KE 8;8 =5?@8OB=KE ?5@56820=89.  :>=5G=>< 8B>35, :0: AG8B0NB, >= A?>A>15= =52>7<CB8<> ?@8=OBL ;N1>5 ?5@56820=85 8 ?>72>;8BL "BKAOG5 ?@5:@0A=KE 8 BKAOG5 C60A=KE 2845=89" ?@>9B8 ?5@54 =8<, =5 =0@CH82 53> A?>:>9AB28O. >2>@OB, GB> 4;O B0:>3> C<0 "2>A5<L ?@52@0B=>AB59"  #4>2>;LAB285 8 1>;L, 2>AE20;5=85 8 ?>@8F0=85, A;020 8 ?>7>@, ?>B5@O 8 ?@8>1@5B5=85  ACBL >4=> 8 B> 65. 8. ) !", C440 3>2>@8;, GB> 5A;8 <K ?>AB83=5< A8;C I54@>AB8 AB>;L 65 3;C1>:>, :0: ?>AB83 >= A0<, B.> <K =5 AO45< 70 AB>;, =5 @0745;82 A :5<-;81> B@0?57C. )54@>ABL 87402=0 AG8B0;0AL >4=>2@5<5==> 8 A@54AB2>< 8 F5;LN 2> 2A5E 48AF8?;8=0E A>7=0=8O 8 25;8:8E @5;838OE. =0 >:07K205BAO <>I=K< 8=3818B>@>< B0:8E =530B82=KE <5=B0;L=KE ?@82KG5:, :0: 604=>ABL, ?>B0:0=85 A515 8 =5=028ABL. =B5@5A=> >B<5B8BL, GB> A>2@5<5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O >1=0@C68;8, GB> ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 7@5;K5 ;N48 >B40NB =0 1;03>B2>@8B5;L=>ABL =0<=>3> 1>;LH5, G5< =57@5;K5 [10], 8 GB> 8E 687=L 1>;LH5 >@85=B8@>20=0 =0 A;C65=85. C4487< >?8AK205B B@8 C@>2=O I54@>AB8; =8I5=A:CN, 1@0BA:CN 8 :>@>;52A:CN. )54@>ABL =8I53> >B405B GB>-;81> A 1>;LH8<8 :>;510=8O<8, 2KAG8BK20O, A:>;L:> 65 >AB0=5BAO. @0BA:0O I54@>ABL 45;8B ?>@>2=C, 0 :>@>;52A:0O >B405B 4@C38< B>, GB> <K A0<8 F5=8;8 1>;LH5 2A53> [18]. >;=>ABLN ?@>A25B;5==K9 G5;>25:, :0: AG8B0NB 1C448ABK, =5 @C:>2>4AB2C5BAO 1>;55 M3>F5=B@8G5A:8<8 <>B820<8 :0:>3>-;81> B8?0. 3> ?>2545=85 >?@545;O5BAO A?>=B0==K<8 ?5@56820=8O<8 ;N1>9 A8BC0F88 8 ?>8A:>< 2>7<>6=>AB8 =081>;55 MDD5:B82=>3> A;C65=8O 4@C38<. G8I5==0O >B =574>@>2KE <5=B0;L=KE D0:B>@>2, I54@>ABL AB0=>28BAO 4;O B0:>3> 8=482840 548=AB25==> 2>7<>6=K< A?>A>1>< ?>2545=8O. )54@>ABL 8 >B40G0 :0: B0:>2K5 1>;55 =5 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO :0: 65@B25==>ABL, => A:>@55 :0: 5AB5AB25==>5 8 @04>AB=>5 2K@065=85 ;N128 8 4>1@>BK, >B@5H5==>AB8 8 MB8G=>AB8, :>B>@K5 >1KG=> 55 A>?@>2>640NB. 9.  " C4489A:0O ?A8E>;>38O >?8AK205B =5A:>;L:> D>@< ?@0:B8:8 4;O @0728B8O MB>3> :0G5AB20. 5:>B>@K5 87 =8E O2;ONBAO 0=0;>30<8 8725AB=KE B5E=8:, >B2;5:0NI8E 2=8<0=85 >B M<>F89. 4=0:>, 2<5AB> B>3> GB>1K 70<5=OBL =0?@O65=85 A?>:>9AB285<, GB> >1KG=> ?@54?>;0305B >B2;5G5=85 2=8<0=8O >B M<>F89, 1C4489A:85 ?@0:B8:8 4>1@>BK 70<5=ONB =530B82=K5 M<>F88, B0:85, :0: 3=52 8 =5=028ABL, ?>78B82=K<8 A>AB>O=8O<8 4>1@>3> >B=>H5=8O [16, 29]. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> =5:>B>@K5 87 ?@8=F8?>2 87<5=5=8O ?>2545=8O 1K;8 CAB0=>2;5=K =0 425 A ?>;>28=>9 BKAOG8 ;5B @0=LH5, G5< MB> >1KG=> AG8B05BAO [29]. 48= 87 B8?>2 ?@0:B8:8 4;O @0728B8O MB>3> :0G5AB20 ?@54=07=0G5= 4;O ?@>428=CBKE ?@0:B8:CNI8E, A?>A>1=KE : <>I=>9 :>=F5=B@0F88. !G8B05BAO, GB> B0:85 ;N48 A?>A>1=K =0?>;=OBL A>7=0=85 ?5@56820=85< 4>1@>3> >B=>H5=8O 8;8 8=KE ?>78B82=KE :0G5AB2. !@548 B0:8E :0G5AB2, ?><8<> ;N128-4>1@>BK, =07K20NB 2A5>1J5<;NI55 A>AB@040=85 8;8 M<?0B8G5A:CN @04>ABL (@04>ABL 70 1;03>?>;CG85 4@C38E), 0 B0:65 5I5 >4=> 87 45AOB8 A>25@H5=AB2  =52>7<CB8<>ABL [18]. !G8B05BAO, GB> :>340 C< ?>;=>ABLN :>=F5=B@8@C5BAO =0 >4=>< 87 B0:8E :0G5AB2, 2 @57C;LB0B5 2>7=8:05B >G5=L ?>78B82=>5 8 ?>;57=>5 A>AB>O=85. >340 ?@545;L=0O :>=F5=B@0F8O >A;01;O5BAO, MB8 :0G5AB20 =0G8=0NB @0AA5820BLAO, => 70 2@5<O :>=F5=B@0F88 >=8 2K?>;=ONB A2>N DC=:F8N, <5=OO G5@BK E0@0:B5@0 G5;>25:0, 0 2 1C4CI5< 8E AB0=>28BAO ;53G5 >ACI5AB2;OBL, >A;01;OO B5< A0<K< 2;8O=85 =530B82=KE D0:B>@>2, B0:8E, :0: 3=52. 0G5AB2> ;N1OI59 4>1@>BK, :>340 >=> 4>2545=> 4> A>25@H5=AB20, =5 =C6405BAO 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ?@0:B8:5, 0 2>7=8:05B A?>=B0==>. 10. # !", 0: 8 4@C385 A>25@H5=AB20, <C4@>ABL 8<55B <=>3> C@>2=59, 8 >?@545;5==0O <C4@>ABL =5>1E>48<0 4065 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 2>>1I5 =0G0BL B@5=8=3 C<0.  ?@>F5AA5 MB>3> B@5=8=30 C< ?>AB5?5==> AB0=>28BAO 2A5 1>;55 C?@02;O5<K<, 8 8A:065==>5 2>A?@8OB85, 2@54=K5 ?@82KG:8, @07@CH8B5;L=K5 0DD5:BK 8 =530B82=K5 B8?K ?>2545=8O <54;5==> CE>4OB ?@>GL. -B> 2545B : 1>;55 OA=><C 2>A?@8OB8N 8 1>;LH59 :>=F5=B@0F88, :>B>@K5, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?>72>;ONB @0A?>7=0BL 1>;55 B>=:85 C@>2=8 =530B82=KE A>AB>O=89, >B?040NI8E ?> <5@5 @0A?>7=020=8O. !G8B05BAO, GB> 2 @57C;LB0B5 2>7=8:05B ?>78B82=0O >1@0B=0O A2O7L, :>340 <C4@>ABL 2545B : @0A?>7=020=8N =530B82=KE A>AB>O=89 8 :C;LB828@>20=8N ?>78B82=KE, GB>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?@82>48B : 5I5 1>;LH59 <C4@>AB8. 4=8< 87 @57C;LB0B>2 O2;O5BAO 3;C1>:89 8=A09B 8 @>645==>5 87 682>3> ?5@56820=8O ?>=8<0=85 B>3>, GB> 2 1C4487<5 =>A8B =0720=85 "B@5E ?@87=0:>2 ACI5AB2>20=8O": 4C::0, 0==8:0, 0==0B0 [18]. C::0  >A>7=0=85 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>AB8 8 AB@040=8O, ?@8ACI8E G5;>25G5A:><C 1KB8N 8 =0?>;=ONI8E C< >1KG=>3> G5;>25:0; ?>=OB85 4C::0 C:07K205B =0 B>, GB> =8:0:>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 >1;040=85 8;8 AB8<C;OF8O =5 <>3CB ?>;=>ABLN 8 >:>=G0B5;L=> C=8GB>68BL =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 8 AB@040=85. -B> >A>7=0=85 0=0;>38G=> B><C, GB> 2 M:78AB5=F80;87<5 8<5=C5BAO >?KB>< ?5@56820=8O angst (=5<.  B>A:0, AB@0E 687=8  ?@8<. ?5@52.). ==8:0  >A>7=0=85 =5?>AB>O=AB20 1KB8O, B>3>, GB> 2A5 ?@51K205B 2 ?>AB>O==>< ?>B>:5, 2 87<5=5=88, GB> =8GB> =5 >AB05BAO B5< 65 A0<K<, 8 ?>B><C 2 <8@5 =5 ACI5AB2C5B 8AB>G=8:0 157>?0A=>AB8, =0 :>B>@K9 <K <>3;8 1K ?>;>68BLAO. ==0B0 >B@0605B ?>AB865=85 B>3>, GB> =5 ACI5AB2C5B ?>AB>O==>3>, =587<5==>3> "O", 8;8 "M3>", 8 GB> M<?8@8G5A:>5 "O" MD5<5@=> 8 =5?>AB>O==>. A8E8G5A:0O @50;L=>ABL, :>B>@CN ?5@56820NB ?@>428=CBK5 ?@0:B8:CNI85,  MB> 8<?5@A>=0;L=K9, ?>AB>O==> <5=ONI89AO ?>B>: <KA;59, >1@07>2 8 M<>F89 [17]. 5B@5=8@>20==K9 C< >B>645AB2;O5BAO A MB8<8 <5=B0;L=K<8 :><?>=5=B0<8 8 8;;N7>@=> 2>A?@8=8<05B 8E :0: A2845B5;LAB2> 8 4>:070B5;LAB2> ACI5AB2>20=8O "/", GB> ?>4>1=> B><C, :0: :8=>7@8B5;L 2>A?@8=8<05B ?>AB>O==>5 42865=85 =0 M:@0=5, E>BO 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 =0 ?;5=:5 ACI5AB2CNB ;8HL >B45;L=K5 :04@K. !G8B0NB, GB> @0A?>7=0=85 8 3;C1>:>5 ?>=8<0=85 MB8E B@5E ?@87=0:>2 ACI5AB2>20=8O ?@82>48B : @048:0;L=><C 87<5=5=8N :>3=8B82=>9 A8AB5<K G5;>25:0. A>7=020O 8 ?5@56820O ?>AB>O==CN 8 ?@5E>4OICN ?@8@>4C GC2AB25==KE C4>2>;LAB289, :>B>@K5 =5 <>3CB 40BL ?>;=>3> C4>2;5B2>@5=8O, 8 8;;N7>@=CN ?@8@>4C A2>8E >1KG=KE M3>8AB8G5A:8E >B>645AB2;5=89, 254CI8E : M3>F5=B@8G5A:>9 <>B820F88, G5;>25: B0:8< >1@07>< =0E>48B >?>@C 4;O ?@0:B8:8 >B@5H5==>AB8 8 15A?@8AB@0AB=>AB8. 7 MB>9 <C4@>AB8 2>7=8:05B A>AB@040B5;L=>5 ?>=8<0=85 ?@>B82>@5G82>AB8 8 =5A>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 B5E A@54AB2 8 A?>A>1>2, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@KE ;N48 >1KG=> 8ICB AG0ABLO, => A;8H:>< G0AB> =0E>4OB ;8HL @07>G0@>20=8O 8 B@52>3C. -B>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, AB8<C;8@C5B 65;0=85 A;C68BL 4@C38<, >1;53G0BL AB@040=85, 345 B>;L:> MB> 2>7<>6=>, 8 2545B : >A>7=0=8N B>3>, GB> :C;LB828@>20=85 45AOB8 A>25@H5=AB2 <>65B 1KBL AB@0B538G5A:8< ?CB5< 4;O ACI=>AB=>3> C4>2;5B2>@5=8O 3;C1>G09H53> 2=CB@5==53> 70?@>A0. >AB83=C2 MB>, G5;>25: AB0=>28BAO >4E8A0BB2>9, ?>;=>ABLN ?@>A25B;5==K< 8 ";8H5==K< M3>" ACI5AB2><, >AB0NI8<AO 2 MB>< <8@5 ;8HL 4;O A;C65=8O 4@C38<. !# 5AOBL A>25@H5=AB2, 27OBK5 2<5AB5, C:07K20NB =0 C@>25=L <5=B0;L=>3> 74>@>2LO, =0<=>3> ?@52>AE>4OI89 B>B, :>B>@K9 >1KG=> @0AA<0B@8205BAO B@048F8>==K<8 <>45;O<8 70?04=>9 ?A8E>;>388. >;55 B>3>, MB8 A>25@H5=AB20 >?8AK20NBAO :0: F5;8 A?5F80;L=>9 ?@0:B8:8. 7 MB>3> A;54C5B =5 B>;L:> B>, GB> <K =0 0?045 =54>>F5=820;8 ?>B5=F80; G5;>25G5A:>3> @0728B8O, => 8 GB> A@54AB20 >ACI5AB2;5=8O MB>3> ?>B5=F80;0 4>ABC?=K ;N1><C, :B> 65;05B 8A?KB0BL =0 A515 MB8 ?@0:B8:8. -B> >B=>H5=85, ;CGH5 2A53> 2K@065==>5 2 1C4487<5, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 2K7>2 =5:>B>@K< =081>;55 DC=40<5=B0;L=K< ?>;>65=8O< 70?04=>9 ?A8E>;>388. >;55 B>3>, B> =51>;LH>5 G8A;> M<?8@8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89, :0A0NI8EAO <548B0F88 8 B.?., :>B>@>5 <K 8<55< =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L, E>BO >=8 8 O2;ONBAO M?87>48G5A:8<8, A2845B5;LAB2CNB 2 ?>;L7C B>3> ?>4E>40, :>B>@K9 ?@54;0305B 1C4487< 8 4@C385 4@52=85 B@048F88. 4=0:>, A:>;L 1K 8=B5@5A=K<8 B5>@5B8G5A:8 =8 1K;8 ?>4>1=K5 8AA;54>20=8O, =081>;55 206=K5 0A?5:BK 4@52=8E ?>4E>4>2  ?@0:B8G5A:89 8 >?KB=K9. 8 >4=0 B5>@5B8G5A:0O @01>B0 > 74>@>2L5 8 1;03>?>;CG88 =5 <>65B 1KBL B0: 7=0G8<0, :0: 8E =5?>A@54AB25==>5 ?5@56820=85, 8 =081>;55 206=K< O2;O5BAO B>, GB> ?>4E>4K 2>AB>G=KE ?A8E>;>388 <>3CB ?@82=5AB8 <5=B0;L=>5 74>@>2L5 2 =0HC 687=L. K A0<8 O2;O5<AO A0<K< 3;02=K< 8A?KB0B5;L=K< ?>;5< 4;O MB8E ?@0:B8:, 8 =8:0:>5 :>;8G5AB2> ?@>G8B0==KE :=83 8 =0?8A0==KE AB0B59 =5 70<5=OB ?@0:B8:8. >2>@O A;>20<8 4@52=53> 1C4489A:>3> <C4@5F0, ";O B>3> GB>1K C2845BL, 8AB8==> ;8 MB>, 273;O=8 A>1AB25==K< C<><". >AB>G=K5 ?A8E>;>388 8 CG5=85 > 45AOB8 A>25@H5=AB20E <>3CB B0:65 8<5BL 206=K5 A>F80;L=K5 8 3;>10;L=K5 ?@8;>65=8O. !53>4=O >G5284=>, GB> G5;>25G5AB2> 4>AB83;> :@8B8G5A:>9 B>G:8 8 <K 2ABC?8;8 2 ?5@8>4 2@5<5=8, :>B>@K9 <>65B >?@545;8BL AC4L1C ?;0=5BK 8 2A53> @>40 G5;>25G5A:>3>. 0H5 1;03>?>;CG85 8 A0<0 687=L =0E>4OBAO ?>4 C3@>7>9 2>7@0AB0NI53> M:>;>38G5A:>3> :>;;0?A0, :@878A0 @5AC@A>2, 8AB>G=8:>2 AK@LO 8 O45@=>9 >?0A=>AB8. >GB8 ?OB=04F0BL <8;;8>=>2 87 =0A 5653>4=> C<8@0NB >B =54>540=8O; @0AB5B 703@O7=5=85 2>4K 8 0B<>AD5@K; 8AG5@?K20NBAO A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==K5 8 5AB5AB25==K5 @5AC@AK, 0 >1I0O <0AA0 O45@=>3> 2>>@C65=8O A>AB02;O5B C65 4204F0BL <8;;80@4>2 B>== (2 B@>B8;>2>< M:2820;5=B5), 8 2 >4=> <3=>25=85 MB> <>65B >1@CH8BLAO =0 G5;>25G5AB2> [30]. -B8 3;>10;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K C=8:0;L=K =5 B>;L:> 2284C A2>53> <0AHB010, A;>6=>AB8 8 =0ACI=>AB8, => 8 ?>B><C, GB> 2?5@2K5 2 8AB>@88 G5;>25G5AB20 >A=>2=K5 C3@>7K 687=8 8 1;03>?>;CG8N >?@545;5=K A0<8< G5;>25:><. "> 5ABL MB> >7=0G05B, GB> 2A5 >=8 2>7=8:;8 :0: @57C;LB0B =0H53> 8=48284C0;L=>3> 8 :>;;5:B82=>3> ?>2545=8O 8, 7=0G8B, O2;ONBAO ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45 [30]. 04=>ABL, =5=028ABL, AB@0E, 3=52, =52565AB2>, ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O =57@5;>ABL  MB> 8 <=>3>5 4@C3>5 O2;ONBAO >A=>2=K<8 ?@8G8=0<8 B5?5@5H=53> :@878A0. -B> 7=0G8B, GB> 5A;8 <K 459AB28B5;L=> E>B8< ?@5>4>;5BL MB>B :@878A, <K 4>;6=K =5 B>;L:> @07@5H8BL A0<8 ?@>1;5<K, B0:85, :0: =54>540=85, => 8 C:@>B8BL B5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 A8;K, :>B>@K5 8E A>740;8.  ?>:0 >G5=L 8 >G5=L @54:> MB8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 D0:B>@K ?@8=8<0NB 2 @0AG5B, 2 G0AB=>AB8, ?>B><C GB> ACI5AB2C5B >G5=L <0;> ?>=8<0=8O, :0: @50;L=> 8<5BL A =8<8 45;>. >MB><C >G5=L 206=K< O2;O5BAO B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, GB> 2>AB>G=K5 ?A8E>;>388 >1;040NB <5B>40<8 8 B5E=8:0<8 4;O @0728B8O B0:8E <5=B0;L=KE :0G5AB2, :0: 45AOBL A>25@H5=AB2, :>B>@K5 :06CBAO MDD5:B82=K< ?@>B82>O485< ?@>B82 2A5E =530B82=KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E D0:B>@>2. A;8 5ABL E>BO 1K <0;0O 25@>OB=>ABL B>3>, GB> MB8 2>AB>G=K5 <5B>4K 25@=K 8 <>3CB @50;L=> @01>B0BL, B>, CG8BK20O 2AN >AB@>BC A8BC0F88, <K 4>;6=K C45;8BL 8< 4>;6=>5 2=8<0=85 ?@0:B8G5A:8  :0: ;8G=>, B0: 8 2 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E @01>B0E. K6820=85 G5;>25G5AB20 B@51C5B 3@><04=KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E @5AC@A>2 8 7@5;>AB8; B5E=8:8, :>B>@K5 8E @072820NB, <>3CB >:070BLAO @5H0NI8< D0:B>@><.  [1] Allport, G. In H.Smith. Forgotten Truth. The Primordial Tradirion. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1976. [2] Kaplan, H. I. and Sadock B.J. (Eds.) (1981) Modern Symopsis of the Comprehesive Textbook of Psychiatry. (3 ed.) Baltimore, MD.: Williams and Wilkins. [3] Walsh, R. (1980). The consciousness disciplines and the behavioral sciences: Questions of comparison and assessment. American Journal of Psychiatry. 137, 6. 1980. 663-373. [4] Walsh, R. and Vaughan, F. (Eds.). (1980). Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimension in psychology. Los Angeles: Tarcher. [5] Wilber, K. (1977). The spectrum of consciousness. Wheaton: Quest, Theosophical publishing house. [6] Wilber, K. (1979). No Boundary. Eastern and Western approaches to personal growth. L.A.: Center Publications. (1979). [7] Wilber, K. (1980). The Atman Project. Wheaton, Ill.: Quest /Theosophical publishing house. [8] Wilber, K. (1983a). A sociable God. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill. [9] Wilber, K. (1983b). Eye to eye. The Quest of the New Paradigm. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday /Anchor. [10] Heath, D. The maturing person. In R. Walsh and D. Shapiro. (1983). Beyond Health & Normality. Exploration of Exceptional Psychological well-being. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 152-205. [11] Walsh, R. and Shapiro, D. (1983). Beyond Health & Normality. Exploration of Exceptional Psychological well-being. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. [12] Maslow, A. (1971). The Farter Reaches of Human Nature. New York: Viking. [13] Fromm, E. (1978). Wellbeing of Man and Society. N.Y.: Seaburg. [14] Kohlberg, L. The Philosophy of Moral Development. San Francisco. CA: Harper & Row, 1981. [15] Smith, H. The sacred unconsciousness. In Walsh, R. and Shapiro, D. (1983). Beyond Health & Normality. Exploration of Exceptional Psychological well-being. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 265-271. [16] Buddhagosa. (1975). The Path of Purity. (P.M. Tin, Trans.). London: Pali Text Society. (Original work published 1923). [17] Byrom, T. (Trans.) (1976). The Dhammapada: The Saying of the Buddha. New York: Vintage. [18] Goldstein, J. (1983). The Experience of Insight. Boston: Shambhala Press. [19] Shapiro, D. (1980) Meditation: Self Regulation Strategy and Altered State of Consciousness. N.Y.: Aldine. [20] Shapiro, D. and Walsh, R. (Eds.) (1984) Meditation: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives. N.Y.: Aldine. [21] Walsh, R. (1977). Initial meditative experience. Part 1. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. 9, 2, 151-192. [22] Goleman, D. (1977). The Warietes of Meditative Experience. N.Y.: E.P.Dutton. [23] Goleman, D. and Epstein, M. (1983). Meditation and well-being. An eastern model of psychological health. In Walsh, R. and Shapiro, D. Beyond Health & Normality. Exploration of Exceptional Psychological well-being. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 229-252. [24] Roberts, T. (1978). Beyond self-actualization. ReVision. 1, 42-46 [25] Walsh, R. and Vaughan, F. (1983). Towards an integrative psychology of well-being. In Walsh, R. and Shapiro, D. Beyond Health & Normality. Exploration of Exceptional Psychological well-being. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 388-431. [26] Elgin, D. (1981). Voluntary Simplicity. N.Y.: William Morrow. [27] Waterman, A. (1981). Individualism and independence. American Psychologist. 36, 762-773. [28] Goleman, D. (1980). Mental healh in classical Buddhist psychology. In Walsh, R. and Vaughan, F. (Eds.). (1980). Beyond Ego: Transpersonal Dimension in psychology. Los Angeles: Tarcher. pp. 131-134. [29] Shapiro, D. (1978). Precision Nirvana. Englewood Cliffs, HJ: Prentice-Hall [30] Walsh, R. (1984). Staying Alive: The Psychology of Human Survival. Boston: Shambhala\New Science Library.  >?8 @8H=0 !"/ &,  >30  =5 @5;838O, 0 A2OI5==0O B@048F8O. >?8 @8H=0 C:07K205B, GB> A0=A:@8BA:89 :>@5=L MB>3> A;>20  "9C46" 8;8 "9C3" >7=0G05B "A>548=5=85". &5;L G5;>25:0, ?@0:B8:CNI53>, 9>3C  A>548=5=85 A> A5;5==>9 ?CB5< 4>AB865=8O 70?@545;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O, :>B>@>5 =07K205BAO "A0<04E8" 8;8 "<>:H0". "0:8< >1@07><, 9>30 >4=>2@5<5==> O2;O5BAO :0: A@54AB2><, B0: 8 F5;LN. =0 8<55B <=>3> @07=>284=>AB59 8 D>@< 2 >B=>H5=88 A2>59 <5B>4>;>388, => 2A5 >=8, 2 ?@8=F8?5, 254CB : >4=><C 8 B><C 65 A>AB>O=8N >A2>1>645=8O. >30 <>65B 1KBL 040?B8@>20=0 : ;N1>9 :C;LBC@=>9 8;8 @5;838>7=>9 A8BC0F88, : ;N1>9 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 : ;N1><C AB8;N 687=8. ABL 8=4C8ABA:85 D>@<K 9>38, E@8AB80=A:85, 1C4489A:85, 40>AA:85; 5ABL 9>38G5A:85 ?@>3@0<<K 2 ?A8E80B@8G5A:8E :;8=8:0E, BN@L<0E, 2>AAB0=>28B5;L=KE F5=B@0E. 0: 3>2>@8; (@8 C@>18=4>, "AO 687=L  MB> 9>30". = ?>4@07C<520;, GB> 5A;8 2K E>B8B5 AB0BL ?@>A25B;5==K< ACI5AB2><, B> 2A5, GB> 2K 45;05B5 2 A2>59 687=8, <>65B 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=> 4;O @0AH8@5=8O A>7=0=8O, B.5. 4;O 4>AB865=8O "9>38" (A>548=5=8O, 548=AB20).  A;>20 %@8AB0 > B><, GB> "1@5<O <>5 ;53:>" (0BD. 11:30) 8<5NB 1>;55 3;C1>:>5 7=0G5=85 G5< B>, 2 :>B>@>< 53> >1KG=> 2>A?@8=8<0NB. -:7>B5@8G5A:>5 E@8AB80=AB2> 8=B5@?@5B8@C5B MB> 2KA:07K20=85 > "1@5<5=8" 2 A<KA;5 BO65;>9 =>H8, BO6:8E B@C4>2, => M7>B5@8G5A:>5 E@8AB80=AB2> ?@8405B MB8< A;>20< 8=>5 7=0G5=85  "?@0:B8:8, :>B>@K5 O ?@54;030N 4;O >1@5B5=8O A>7=0=8O %@8AB0".  2>7@0AB5 >:>;> A>@>:0 ;5B >?8 @8H=0 ?5@568; C4828B5;L=CN B@0=AD>@<0F8N A>7=0=8O. ! B5E ?>@ >= >ICI0; 2 A515 B>B D5=><5=, :>B>@K9 8725AB5= 2 9>38G5A:8E B5:AB0E ?>4 =0720=85< :C=40;8=8, 8 ?KB0;AO ?@82;5GL : =5<C 2=8<0=85 =0C:8, AG8B0O 53> :;NG>< : ?>=8<0=8N M2>;NF88 8 ?@>A25B;5=8O.  A2>8E 8AA;54>20=8OE >= ?>:07K205B, GB> 4@52=85 B5:ABK A2OI5==KE B@048F89 8 :C;LBC@ 2> 2A5< <8@5 3>2>@OB > D5=><5=5 :C=40;8=8. >;55 B>3>, ;8G=K9 >?KB ?@825; 53> : C15645=8N, GB> MB>B D5=><5= 8<55B 18>;>38G5A:>5 >A=>20=85 8 ?>B><C O2;O5BAO 4>ABC?=K< 4;O =0CG=>3> 87CG5=8O.  AD5@C @5;8388 8 =0C:8 >?8 @8H=0 ?@82=5A =>2>5 7=0=85 > 2>7<>6=>ABOE B@0=AD>@<0F88 G5;>25:0  7=0=85, :>B>@>5 ?> 0=0;>388 A B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>3859 <>65B 1KBL =0720=> B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>9 D878>;>3859. >?8 @8H=0 A0< ?> A515 O2;O5BAO ?@5:@0A=K< ?@8<5@>< =>A8B5;O <=>38E 87 B5E :0G5AB2, > :>B>@KE >= 745AL 3>2>@8B :0: > A>?CBAB2CNI8E ?@>A25B;5=8N. / 2AB@5G0;AO A =8< ?> @07=K< ?>2>40< =0 ?@>BO65=88 1>;55 G5< A5<8;5B=53> ?5@8>40, 8 >= 2A5340 ?@>872>48; =0 <5=O 2?5G0B;5=85 ?@8OB=>3> 8 4065 A2OB>3> G5;>25:0. @><5 B>3>, >= 1K; 70<5G0B5;L=> M@C48@>20==K< G5;>25:><, B5< 1>;55 5A;8 ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85 B>, GB> C =53> =5 1K;> D>@<0;L=>3> 2KAH53> >1@07>20=8O. 3> B5@?5;82K5, A0<>>B25@65==K5 8AA;54>20=8O 8 53> ;8B5@0BC@=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 2K40NB 2 =5< :0G5AB20 A>7=0=8O; A2>9AB25==K5 35=8N, :>B>@K5 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 70A;C6820NB 87CG5=8O. * * * AO 4@52=58=489A:0O ;8B5@0BC@0 C45;O5B 045?B0< 9>38 1>;LH5 2=8<0=8O, G5< :><C-;81> 5I5. >;8G5AB2> 9>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K >3@><=>. 8HL =51>;LH0O 55 G0ABL ?5@52545=0 =0 70?04=K5 O7K:8, 8 >4=8< 87 @57C;LB0B>2 AB>;L =54>AB0B>G=>9 8=D>@<8@>20==>AB8 > ?@54<5B5 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> @50;L=>5 7=0G5=85 9>38 2A5 5I5 =5 ?>=OB>. >2>@O 2 F5;><, 2A5 2<5AB5 27OBK5 A8AB5<K 9>38 2 =488 <>6=> @0745;8BL =0 425 :0B53>@88: =0 @0460-9>3C 8 E0BE0-9>3C. !0=A:@8BA:>5 A;>2> "@0460" >7=0G05B ":>@>;L", 0 "E0BE0"  "A8;0". 0460-9>30 ?@54;0305B :>@>;52A:89, 8;8 ;53:89 ?CBL, A0<>@50;870F88, 0 E0BE09>30  1>;55 B@C4>5<:89 8 =0A8;LAB25==K9. 15 >=8 1078@CNBAO =0 540E 8 #?0=8H040E. A=>2=K5 ?@0:B8:8 8 48AF8?;8=K O2;ONBAO >1I8<8 4;O >158E A8AB5<.  E0BE0-9>35 4KE0B5;L=K5 C?@06=5=8O 1>;55 =0A8;LAB25==K 8 >B;8G0NBAO =5>1KG=K<8 ?>;>65=8O<8 ?>41>@>4:0, 480D@03<K, O7K:0 8 4@C38E G0AB59 B5;0, CA;>6=ONI8<8 24>E 8 2K4>E 2>74CE0 A F5;LN 2K720BL A>AB>O=85 70B>@<>65==>3> 4KE0=8O. -B> <>65B 2 A8;L=>9 AB5?5=8 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 =5@2=CN A8AB5<C 8 <>73, 8 ?>MB><C >G5284=>, GB> B0:0O ?@0:B8:0 <>65B 1KBL >G5=L >?0A=>9. 065 2 =488 B>;L:> ;8HL B5, :B> 3>B>2 2AB@5B8BLAO ;8F>< : ;8FC A> A<5@BLN, @5H0NBAO A;54>20BL M:AB@5<0;L=K< ?CB5< E0BE0-9>38. 4=0:> =5 A;54C5B ?>;030BL, GB> 9>30 2 B0:8E A2>8E D>@<0E O2;O5BAO 548=AB25==K< A@54AB2>< A0<>@50;870F88.  540E  A0<KE 4@52=8E 2 <8@5 @5;838>7=KE B5AB0E  <K 2@O4 ;8 =0945< C?><8=0=85 > 9>35. 065 2 >A=>2=KE #?0=8H040E  B>< ?5@2>8AB>G=8:5, 87 :>B>@>3> 15@CB A2>5 =0G0;> 2A5 D8;>A>DA:85 8 4CE>2=K5 =0?@02;5=8O =488, > 9>35 C?><8=05BAO ;8HL 2A:>;L7L 2 B@5E A0<KE 4@52=8E :=830E. 0: =081>;55 8725AB=K9 2 =488 A2OI5==K9 B5:AB E03020438B0, B0: 8 25;8G09H85 87 4CE>2=KE CG8B5;59 @5:><5=4CNB 8=K5 <5B>4K 4>AB865=8O. -B>, =0?@8<5@, =8H:0<0 :0@<0  A0<>>B25@65==>5 459AB285 :0: A;C65=85 >3C; 1E0:B8  1573@0=8G=0O ?@540==>ABL 1>65AB25==>9 A8;5; 48A?0=0  C?@06=5=85 8=B5;;5:B0 =0 @07;8G5=85 8AB8==>3> 8 ;>6=>3>; C?0A0=0  ?>G8B0=85  8 8=K5 D>@<K @5;838>7=>9 ?@0:B8:, ?>4>1=K5 B5<, :>B>@K5 1K;8 @07@01>B0=K ?>GB8 2> 2A5E <8@>2KE @5;838OE. "5< =5 <5=55 9>30 8<55B A2>N A>1AB25==CN F5==>ABL 8 7=0G5=85. =0 A>G5B05B 2 A515 @O4 <5B>4>2 8=B5=A82=>9 ?@0:B8:8 A F5;LN 4>AB8GL 4CE>2=>3> ?@>A25B;5=8O =0 ?@>BO65=88 >4=>9 75<=>9 687=8.  =488 B@048F8>==> AG8B05BAO, GB> G5;>25G5A:0O 4CH0 ?@>E>48B G5@57 4;8==K9 @O4 ?>A;54>20B5;L=KE @>645=89 8 A<5@B59, 2>72@0I0OAL A=>20 8 A=>20 2 MB>B <8@ A:>@18, GB>1K ?>68=0BL ?;>4K ?>ABC?:>2, A45;0==KE 2 ?@54K4CI8E 687=OE. &8:; ?@>4>;605BAO 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 G5;>25:, ?@0:B8:CNI89 @5;838>7=CN 48AF8?;8=C, =5 A<>65B =0:>=5F @07>@20BL F5?L ?@8G8==>AB8 8 4>AB8GL A>AB>O=8O >:>=G0B5;L=>3> 548=AB20 A> 2A5>E20BK20NI59, 2A57=0NI59 5@2>?@8G8=>9 A5;5==>9. 081>;55 02B>@8B5B=K9 B@0:B0B ?> @0460-9>35  MB> >30-!CB@0 0B0=460;8, =0?8A0==0O >:>;> 42CE BKAOG ;5B =0704 8 O2;ONI0OAO 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 F5==>9. 2B>@8B5B=K5 B@0:B0BK ?> E0BE0-9>35  MB> %0BE0->30 @048?8:0, (820 !0<E8B0 8 4@C385, :>B>@K5 1078@CNBAO =0 "0=B@0E. > B0=B@8G5A:>9 D8;>A>D88 8 B0=B@8G5A:8< :C;LB0< ACI5AB2CNB A>B=8 :=83. >30 2 87;>65=88 0B0=460;8 A>AB>8B 87 2>AL<8 AB0489, 8;8 G0AB59, 8 ?>MB><C =07K205BAO 0HB0=30-9>30  2>AL<8ABC?5=G0B0O 9>30. %0BE0-9>30 B0:65 8<55B B5 65 2>A5<L G0AB59, A =57=0G8B5;L=K<8 >B;8G8O<8 2 45B0;OE. >A5<L ABC?5=59 9>38 B0:>2K: 90<0, 8;8 2>745@60=85 >B 2A5E 284>2 ?;>E8E <KA;59 8 459AB289; =890<0  :064>4=52=>5 A;54>20=85 @5;838>7=K< ?@54?8A0=8O<, B0:8<, :0: G8AB>B0, ?@>AB>B0, C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL, 87CG5=85 !2OI5==KE 8A0=89, ?@540==>ABL >3C 8 B.?. "@5BLO ABC?5=L  0A0=0, GB> >7=0G05B ?>7C 8;8, 4@C38<8 A;>20<8, =081>;55 C4>1=K9 4;O 9>38G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:8 A?>A>1 A845=8O. '5B25@B0O ABC?5=L  ?@0=0O<0, GB> >7=0G05B @53C;OF8N 8 :>=B@>;L 4KE0=8O. OB0O ABC?5=L  ?@0BLOE0@0  ?>4G8=5=85 A2>8E GC2AB2, A B5< GB>1K ?>AB028BL 8E ?>4 :>=B@>;L C<0 4;O =5>1E>48<>9 ?>43>B>2:8 : :>=F5=B@0F88. (5AB>9 ABC?5=LN O2;O5BAO :>=F5=B@0F8O 2=8<0=8O, =07K205<0O 4E0@0=0. !54L<0O ABC?5=L  4E80=0  CAB>9G820O :>=F5=B@0F8O 2 B5G5=88 >?@545;5==>3> 2@5<5=8, B.5. 3;C1>:0O <548B0F8O. >AL<0O ABC?5=L  A0<04E8, M:AB0B8G5A:>5 ?>AB865=85 ?@8@>4K 2=CB@5==59 @50;L=>AB8. "0:8< >1@07>< <K 2848<, GB> 9>30  MB> =5GB> 1>;55 5<:>5 8 A;>6=>5, G5< 8=>340 ?>=0G0;C ?@54AB02;O5BAO. -B> =5 B>;L:> 0A0=K, 8;8 ?>7K, :>B>@K5, ?> ACB8 45;0, ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 ;8HL A?>A>1 ?>445@60=8O B5;0 2 ?@O<>< 8 CAB>9G82>< ?>;>65=88 2> 2@5<O ?@0:B8:8 <548B0F88. @0:B8:0 @07;8G=KE 0A0= O2;O5BAO C?@06=5=85< 4;O A>E@0=5=8O E>@>H53> 74>@>2LO, 8 1K;> 1K =525@=> 3>2>@8BL, GB> G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 2K?>;=O5B =5A:>;L:> 0A0=, C65 ?@0:B8:C5B B5< A0<K< 9>3C. @028;L=55 1C45B A:070BL, GB> MB>B G5;>25: ?@>AB> 2K?>;=O5B MB8 C?@06=5=8O 4;O ?>445@60=8O A2>53> B5;0 2 74>@>2>< 8 381:>< A>AB>O=88. @8G8=>9 B0:>3> @07=>>1@078O 0A0=, >?8A0==KE 2 :=830E ?> E0BE09>35, O2;O5BAO B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, GB> =5>D8B 4>;65= 1K; G0A0<8 A845BL 2 8=B5=A82=>9 :>=F5=B@0F88. ?@545;5==K5 C?@06=5=8O 1K;8 2 MB>< A;CG05 =5>1E>48<K 4;O ?>445@60=8O 53> B5;0 2 E>@>H59 D>@<5. =838 ?> @0460-9>35 >1KG=> ?@54>AB02;ONB CG5=8:C A0<><C 2K1@0BL 4;O A51O 0A0=C, :>B>@CN >= ?@54?>G8B05B. 081>;55 G0AB> C?>B@51;O5BAO ?04<0A0=0 8;8 A844E0A0=0. >4>1=K< 65 >1@07>< >4=0 ;8HL :>=F5=B@0F8O 8;8 65 :>=F5=B@0F8O A 8A?>;L7>20=85< 0A0=K 8 ?@0=0O<K 5I5 =5 5ABL 9>30.  =488 5ABL 0A:5BK, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 2 A>25@H5=AB25 2K?>;=OBL 2A5 2>A5<L45AOB G5BK@5 0A0=K 8 ?@>4>;60NB ?@0:B8:>20BL 8E 2AN A2>N 687=L, => >=8 =8:>340 =5 4>AB830NB =8:0:>3> ?@>A25B;5=8O. ABL B0:85 0A:5BK :>B>@K5 <>3CB >AB0=02;820BL A2>5 4KE0=85 =0 <=>3> 4=59, 8, 1C4CG8 2 B0:>< A>AB>O=88 ?>E>@>=5==K<8 ?>4 75<;59 8;8 ?><5I5==K<8 2 35@<5B8G5A:8 70:@KBK5 :0<5@K =0 F5;K5 4=8 8;8 =545;8, >=8 =5 C<8@0NB >B C4CHLO. 5A<>B@O =0 B0:85 AC@>2K5 <5B>4K, >=8 ?@>1C640NBAO B0: 65, :0: 8 2K ?@>1C6405B5AL >B A2>53> >1KG=>3> 3;C1>:>3> A=0 8;8 ?@8E>48B5 2 A51O ?>A;5 >1<>@>:0 157 :0:>3>-;81> @0AH8@5=8O A>7=0=8O 8;8 8=A09B0 2 AD5@C 70?@545;L=>3>. -B> =07K205BAO 46040A0<04E8  15AA>7=0B5;L=>5 A0<04E8, 8 MB>, 2 ACI=>AB8, O2;O5BAO @07=>284=>ABLN 2@5<5==>9 >AB0=>2:8 687=5==>3> ?@>F5AA0, ?>4>1=> 78<=59 A?OG:5 <5425459 8;8 ;O3CH5:.  =488 5ABL B0:85 0A:5BK, :>B>@K5 A84OB 2 ?>75 4;O <548B0F88 ?> 4204F0BL G5BK@5 G0A0 2 ACB:8. =8 B0: 8 A?OB, A84O, 0 ?@>1C482H8AL ?>A;5 =5A:>;L:8E G0A>2 A=0, ?@>4>;60NB A2>N <548B0B82=CN ?@0:B8:C. =8 682CB 0A:5B8G5A:>9 687=LN, ?>A2OI0O 2A5 2@5<O <548B0F88 8;8 ?>2B>@5=8N <0=B@, ?@54?8A0==KE 8< 8E 3C@C, 8 ?@>4>;60NB ?>4>1=CN ?@0:B8:C 45AOB:8 ;5B, =8:>340 ?@8 MB>< =5 ?>4=8<0OAL 2KH5 >1KG=>3> C@>2=O G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O 8 ?>=8<0=8O 1>65AB25==>3>. ABL 2 =488 8 0A:5BK, :>B>@K5 ?@81530NB : :@09=8< A0<>8ABO70=8O< 8 4065 =0=>AOB A515 C25GLO, GB>1K CB>;8BL A2>N ?;0<5==CN 6064C 4CE>2=>3>. =8 ;560B >1=065==K<8 =0 ;>65, CBK:0==>< 32>74O<8, 8;8 ?>AB>O==> 45@60B >4=C @C:C ?>4=OB>9, ?>:0 >=0 =5 0B@>D8@C5BAO 8 =5 8AA>E=5B, AB02 157687=5==>9. 5:>B>@K5 28AOB =0 25B:5 45@520 2=87 3>;>2>9, 24KE0O 54:89 4K< 3>@OI53> 2=87C :>AB@0. @C385 AB>OB =0 >4=>9 =>35 4=O<8 8 =545;O<8, 0 5ABL 8 B0:85, :>B>@K5 ?@8AB0;L=> A<>B@OB =0 A8ONI55 A>;=F5 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 =5 >A;5?=CB. ABL 2 =488 B0:85 0A:5BK, :>B>@K5 :C@OB 8;8 ?>540NB :>=>?;8 (30H8H 8;8 <0@8EC0=C) 2 >3@><=KE :>;8G5AB20E, G0AB> ?@51K20O ?>4 2>7459AB285< =0@:>B8:0 45=L 8 =>GL. >4>1=K5 ?@0:B8:8 1K;8 ?>?C;O@=K 2 =488 =0 ?@>BO65=88 <=>38E AB>;5B89, => =5 ?@825;8 : ?>O2;5=8N E>BO 1K >4=>3>-548=AB25==>3> ?@>A25B;5==>3> 4CE0. BH5;L=8:>2, ?@8=8<0NI8E =0@:>B8:8, A>B=8 BKAOG, 8 >=8 O2;ONBAO =0AB>OI8< =5AG0ABL5< 4;O A0<8E A51O 8 4;O 4@C38E. 0@:>B8:8, 30;;NF8=>35==K5 25I5AB20 8 >?LO=ONI85 =0?8B:8 O2;ONBAO =5 ?><>ILN, 0 =5?@5>4>;8<K< 10@L5@>< =0 ?CB8 : 1>3>?>7=0=8N. =B5@5A=>, GB> A;>2> "9>30" ?@>8AE>48B >B A0=A:@8BA:>3> :>@=O "9C46"  "A;820BLAO", "A>548=OBLAO". "0:8< >1@07><, 9>30 >7=0G05B A>548=5=85 8=48284C0;L=>9 4CH8 A :>A<8G5A:8< 4CE><, :>A<8G5A:8< A>7=0=85<. !>3;0A=> 2A5< 02B>@8B5B0<, A>AB>O=85 >:>=G0B5;L=>3> A>548=5=8O A 1>65AB25==K< G@572KG09=> B@C4=>4>AB868<>. "8HL B>;L:> ?>A;5 <=>38E @>645=89,  A:070=> 2 E03020438B5,  8A:0B5;L ?@8E>48B :> <=5 8 3>2>@8B, GB> 2A5 MB>, 25AL <8@  MB> >3. "@C4=> =09B8 B0:CN 25;8:CN 4CHC". !>3;0A=> B0=B@0<, 87 BKAOG B5E, :B> ?@0:B8:C5B E0BE0-9>3C, ;8HL @54:85 548=8FK 4>AB830NB CA?5E0. 0209B5 >AB0=>28<AO =0 B@C4=>ABOE B0:>3> "A>548=5=8O" 1>;55 ?>4@>1=>. !?@>A8< A51O: "7 B5E <8;;8>=>2, :>B>@K5 ?@0:B8:CNB =0 0?045 <548B0B82=K5 <5B>4K 9>38, <=>3> ;8 5ABL B0:8E ;N459, :>B>@K5 4>AB83;8 :0:>3>-;81> @50;L=>3> @>AB0 A>7=0=8O?" =>385 ;8 >1@5;8 MB> A>AB>O=85 F25B5=8O 2=CB@5==59 :@0A>BK 8 A?>=B0==>9 2KAH59 <C4@>AB8, :>B>@>5 A =570?0<OB=KE 2@5<5= 0AA>F88@C5BAO A CA?5E>< MB>3> A2OI5==>3> ?>8A:0? =>385 ;8 >?C1;8:>20;8 @57C;LB0BK A2>8E 4CE>2=KE >?KB>2, GB>1K ?>:070BL ?@>1;5A: 70?@545;L=>3> 4@C38< 8A:0B5;O< 8 24>E=>2;OBL 8E, ?>:0702 ?CBL?  =488 :>;8G5AB2> 4>AB83H8E ?@>A25B;5=8O 70 ?>A;54=85 AB> ;5B <>65B 1KBL A>AG8B0=> =0 ?0;LF0E >4=>9 @C:8.  4@52=>AB8 >B:@KB85 A2>53> >?KB0 4;O 4@C38E O2;O;>AL ?5@2K< B5AB>< 4;O ?>4B25@645=8O @50;L=>AB8 4CE>2=>3> ?@>A25B;5=8O. =0<5=8BK5 ?@>@>:8 #?0=8H04, 8 4065 C440, 4>;6=K 1K;8 ?@54>AB02;OBL 4>:070B5;LAB20 ?>4;8==>AB8 A2>53> >?KB0. B0:, F5;LN 9>38 O2;O5BAO 548=AB2> A >3><, @0E<0=><, A 4CE>2=K<8 ACI=>ABO<8, B0:8<8, :0: %@8AB>A, @8H=0, A >A<8G5A:8< !>7=0=85<, A B<0=><, A >65AB25==K<...  2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 25@>20=89 8ICI53>.  4>:C<5=B0;L=> 70A2845B5;LAB2>20==>< >?KB5 E@8AB80=A:8E <8AB8:>2, B0:8E, :0: 0?>AB>; 025;, A2. $@0=F8A: AA87A:89, A2. "5@570, 8>=8A89 @5>?038B, A2. :0B5@8=0 !85=A:0O 8 4@C38E, 0 B0:65 ACD89A:8E <0AB5@>2, B0:8E, :0: (0<A "01@87, C<8, 1C /A84, ;LC@8, ;L-6C=084, B0: 65 :0: 8 045?B>2 9>38, B0:8E, :0: 018@, C@C 0=0:, (0=:0@0G0@LO, 0<0:@8H=0, 0<0=0 0E0@H8 8 <=>38E 4@C38E, A >G5284=>ABLN A;54C5B, GB> DC=40<5=B0;L=K5 :0G5AB20 B0:>3> >?KB0 2A5340 >4=8 8 B5 65. > 2@5<O M:AB070 8;8 B@0=A0 A>7=0=85 B@0=AD>@<8@C5BAO 8 9>38=, ACD89 8;8 <8AB8: >1=0@C6820NB A51O 2 =5?>A@54AB25==>< :>=B0:B5 A 2A570?>;=ONI8< @8ACBAB285<. -B> B5?;>5, 682>5 A>7=0B5;L=>5 ?@8ACBAB285 70?>;=O5B A>1>9 2A5, ?>;=>ABLN 70B>?;O5B A>1>9 A>7=0=85 8A:0B5;O, 8 >= @0AB2>@O5BAO 2 <548B0F88, 701K20O > 2=5H=5< <8@5. 8AB8G5A:89 >?KB <>65B 1KBL F5=B@8@>20= =0 >1>65AB2;O5<>9 ?5@A>=0;L=>AB8, B0:>9, :0: A?0A8B5;L, ?@>@>:, 2>?;>I5=85 >65AB20; =0 8GB>, ?CAB>B5, ;81> =0 >35, ?@51K20NI5< 2 A>7=0=88 8ICI53>; 8;8 65 >= <>65B 1KBL F5=B@8@>20= =0 >:50=8G5A:>< GC2AB25 15A:>=5G=>9 ?@>BO65==>AB8 <8@0 1KB8O, =5 8<5NI53> :>=F0. > 2 <8AB8G5A:>< >?KB5 206=> =5 B>, :0: >D>@<;5=> 2845=85. 'B> :0A05BAO 2845=89 :0: B0:>2KE, B> >=8 2>7=8:0NB 8 ?@8 A>AB>O=88 ?5@5E>40 >B 1>4@AB2>20=8O :> A=C, 8 ?@8 8AB5@88, ?>4 2>7459AB285< 38?=>70, 1>;57=8 8;8 ?@8 ?@85<5 =0@:>B8:>2 8 >?LO=ONI8E =0?8B:>2. 5;> A>AB>8B 2 ACI=>AB8 2845=8O, 2 B>< GC2AB25 1;03>3>25=8O 8 GC40, :>B>@>5 2>7=8:05B ?@8 A>75@F0=88 7@5;8I0, ?@52>AE>4OI53> 2A5, GB> 8725AB=> ?> 75<=>9 687=8. 0AH8@5=85 8=48284C0;L=>3> 1KB8O, GC2AB2> 15A:>=5G=>AB8, 2E>4OI59 2 8=48284C0;L=>5 A>7=0=85, ;81> GC2AB2> @8ACBAB28O 8 =0?>;=ONI59 ;N128, 4>25@8O 8 B>B0;L=>9 "A40G8" >?@545;ONB A>1>9 >?KB 8 45;0NB 53> 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 7=0G8<K< 2 :0G5AB25 682>3> :>=B0:B0 A A>AB>O=85< 1KB8O, :>B>@>5 =5 ?@8=04;568B MB>9 75<;5. 065 4;OI89AO >4=> <3=>25=85 :>=B0:B A 1>65AB25==K< O2;O5BAO C4828B5;L=K< ?5@56820=85<. 5:>B>@K5 87 =081>;55 7=0<5=8BKE ;N459 =0 75<;5  25;8:8E <KA;8B5;59, ?8A0B5;59, B0:8E :0: ;0B>=, ;>B8=, 0@<5=84, 0=B5, >@4A2>@B 8 "5==8A>=, 8<5;8 B0:>9 >?KB. -<5@A>= 8 <=>385 4@C385 >1;040;8 B0:8< <3=>25==K< ?5@56820=85<, "=02O70==K<" 8<, : 8E 1;03>40@=><C 87C<;5=8N. >;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E =5 ?@0:B8:>20;> =8:0:8E 4CE>2=KE 48AF8?;8=, 0 =5:>B>@K5 4065 =5, 8<5;8 B25@4>9 25@K 2 >30. >, 4065 1C4CG8 2?>;=5 =5>6840==K<, B0:>9 >?KB =0:;04K205B ?>AB>O==K9 >B?5G0B>: =0 2AN 687=L, 2>72KH0O G5;>25:0 8 40@CO 5<C ?@>7@5=85 2 ACBL 25I59, :>B>@>5 =54>ABC?=> B5<, :B> =8:>340 =5 703;O4K20; 70 7025AC. -B>B >?KB 2A5340 8<55B AE>4=K5 >A=>2>?>;030NI85 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8.  MB> :065BAO =525@>OB=K<, GB> AB>;L 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> >1@07>20==KE ;N459  CG5=KE 8 8AA;54>20B5;59,  83=>@8@CNB AB>;L H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5==K9 D5=><5=, :0:8< O2;O5BAO <8AB8G5A:89 >?KB. -B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2> B5< 1>;55 C4828B5;L=>, 5A;8 ?@8=OBL : A2545=8N B>, GB> 2A5 25;8:85 >A=>20B5;8 @5;8389, =5:>B>@K5 87 25;8:8E D8;>A>D>2, ?8A0B5;59 8 EC4>6=8:>2 8<5;8 ?>4>1=K5 1;065==K5 2845=8O. A5 >=8 2>A?@8=O;8 MB>B D5=><5= B0:8<, :0: >= 5ABL, :0: <3=>25==>5 ?@8:>A=>25=85 4@C3>9 687=8 8 4@C3>3> <8@0. >30 >7=0G05B <3=>25==K9 ?@>1;5A: =0H59 A0<>B>645AB25==>AB8, A2>1>4=>9 >B C7 B5;0 8 >B 75<=>3> ?;5=0. 0 :>@>B:>5 2@5<O <K =52848<K, 25G=K, =5CO728<K 4;O @0A?040, 1>;57=8, =5C40G, 3>@O; <K  MB> B>;L:> :0?;8 2 >:50=5 A>7=0=8O, 2 :>B>@>< 1CHCNI0O A5;5==0O A> 2A5<8 55 >3@><=K<8 A>;=F0<8 8 ?;0=5B0<8 2K3;O48B 2A53> ;8HL :0: >B@065=85, =5 8<5NI55 01A>;NB=> =8:0:>9 A8;K :0:-;81> 70B@>=CBL MBC =52K@078<CN B8H8=C, <8@ 8 1;065=AB2>, 70?>;=ONI85 2AN 1573@0=8G=CN ?@>BO65==>ABL 1KB8O. K  MB> GC4>, 70304:0. 065 B5, :B> ?@8E>48; : MB><C 2 :0:85-B> <><5=BK A2>59 687=8, =5 2 A>AB>O=88 >?8A0BL A2>9 <8AB8G5A:89 >?KB B0:, GB>1K 8E ?>=O;8 4@C385. >B><C GB> 4CH0 ?@8=04;568B 8=><C <8@C, 8=><C 'A>AB>O=8N 1KB8O, 8=><C C@>2=N ACI5AB2>20=8O, =565;8 B>B, 2 :>B>@>< =0H8 GC2AB20, C< 8 8=B5;;5:B 1;C640NB 2> <@0:5. >30 B0:65 >7=0G05B ?>AB865=85 B>3> D0:B0, GB> <K  =5 B>;L:> :>AB8 8 ?;>BL, => 8 <KA;OI0O, GC2AB2CNI0O, 7=0NI0O ACI=>ABL, 8AB8==0O ?@8@>40 :>B>@>9 2A5 5I5 A>:@KB0 >B CG5=KE =0H53> 2@5<5=8, B>G=> B0: 65, :0: >=0 1K;0 A>:@KB0 >B <C4@5F>2 ?@>H;>3>. !>7=0=85  MB> =5GB>, =54>ABC?=>5 =0H8< GC2AB20< 8 =0H5<C @07C<C. 5B8, =5B8  "=5 B>, =5 B>",  3>2>@8BAO 2 #?0=8H040E, B0: :0: MB> =5 <>65B 1KBL 2K@065=> 2 :0:8E-;81> A;>20E, 2>A?@8=OB> =0H8<8 GC2AB20<8 8;8 ?>=OB> =0H8< C<><. >65B5 ;8 2K >B25B8BL A515, G5< 8;8 :5< <K O2;O5<AO? 0:>20 ?@8@>40 MB>3> <KA;OI53>, 7=0NI53>, GC2AB2CNI53> ACI5AB20 2 20A, :>B>@>5 >A>7=05B >:@C60NI89 <8@, => =8:>8< >1@07>< =5 <>65B >B25B8BL, >B:C40 >=> ?@8H;> 8 :C40 70B5< C945B. 0B5@80;L=K9 ?@>3@5AA  D070, ?@54H5AB2CNI0O 4CE>2=><C ?@>1C645=8N.  :064>9 87 F828;870F89 ?@>H;>3>, :>340 4K< 8 3@O7L 18B2 8 1>@L1K 70 3>A?>4AB2> @0AA58205BAO, 25G=K9 2>?@>A "B> O 8 GB> 70 B09=0 A:@K205BAO 70 MB8< <8@>740=85<?" =0G8=05B 2>;=>20BL @0728BCN 8 <KA;OICN G0ABL =0A5;5=8O. B25BK, ?@54;>65==K5 538?5BA:8<8, 2028;>=A:8<8, 8=4>0@89A:8<8, :8B09A:8<8, ?5@A84A:8<8, 3@5G5A:8<8 8 @8<A:8<8 <C4@5F0<8, 8<5NBAO 2 70?8AOE, 87 :>B>@KE >G5284=>, GB> 8<5==> MB0 =5C30A8<0O 60640 4CH8 =09B8 A0<C A51O :0: @07 8 O28;0AL >A=>2=K< ?>1C48B5;5< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>3>, =0CG=>3> 8 EC4>65AB25==>3> @0728B8O G5;>25:0. 5A><=5==>, GB> =0G0;> 2AO:>3> 7=0=8O 2>AE>48B : 402;5=8N @5;838>7=>9 6064K G5;>25:0.  =5B =8G53> 1>;55 >H81>G=>3>, =565;8 CB25@645=8O, 2KA:070==K5 =5:>B>@K<8 8AA;54>20B5;O<8 8 CG5=K<8, A>3;0A=> :>B>@K< @5;838>7=K9 >?KB O2;O5BAO O:>1K ?0B>;>38G5A:8< A>AB>O=85< C<0 ;81> :0:8<-B> =020645=85< 87 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>. "0:85 157>B25BAB25==K5 70O2;5=8O @07@CH0NB A0<8 >A=>20=8O B>3> 4@03>F5==>3> 8<?C;LA0, :>B>@K9 :0: @07 8 >B25BAB25=5= 70 ?@>3@5AA G5;>25G5AB20. &5;L 9>38  40BL =0 MB8 206=K5 2>?@>AK B0:85 >B25BK, :>B>@K5 : =5 <>3CB 1KBL 40=K =8 ?CB5< A:5?B8G5A:>3> >B@8F0=8O, =8 8A?>;L7>20=85< =0@:>B8:>2, =8 ?@0:B8:>9 0A0=, <0=B@, 4KE0B5;L=KE C?@06=5=89 8;8 <548B0F88, 5A;8 4@C385 4CE>2=K5 :0G5AB20 83=>@8@CNBAO. 'B>1K 1KBL MDD5:B82=>9, 9>30 4>;6=0 ?@0:B8:>20BLAO 2> 2A59 ?>;=>B5 55 2>AL<8 G0AB59 8 D07. ">B, :B> AB@5<8BAO : 2KAH5<C >?KBC, 4>;65= AB@5<8BLAO : A>25@H5=AB2C; >= 4>;65= =0G8=0BL A @0728B8O A2>59 8=48284C0;L=>AB8. "/ =07K20N 1@0E<0=>< B>;L:> B>3>, :B> O2;O5BAO 4CE>2=> ?@>1C645==K<,  3>2>@8; C440,  GL8 2>645;5=85, 3=52, 3>@4>ABL 8 7028ABL C<5@;8, :0: 3>@G8G=>5 75@=> =0 >AB@85 83;K". @>AB>5 ?>2B>@5=85 8725AB=>9 <0=B@K "< <0=8 ?04<5 EC<", ?>?C;O@=>9 A@548 1C448AB>2 "815B0,  4065 ?>2B>@5=85 55 <8;;8>=K @07 2 ?@>F5AA5 <>;8B2K  =5 405B =8:0:>3> @57C;LB0B0 4;O B>3>, :B> =5 A;54C5B 4@C38< AB>@>=0< CG5=8O 0CB0<K C44K. "@03548O A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> ;N48 @54:> ?>=8<0NB, GB>, A>1AB25==> 3>2>@O, >7=0G05B "?@>A25B;5=85", 8;8 "A0<>@50;870F8O". -B>  >3@><=>5 4>AB865=85. A;8 8AE>48BL 87 A>E@0=82H8EAO ?8AL<5==KE 8AB>G=8:>2, B> :>;8G5AB2> ;N459, 8<52H8E ?>4;8==K9 >?KB, 1C45B =5 1>;55 =5A:>;L:8E A>B5= 70 2AN 8AB>@8N G5;>25G5AB20. E :>;8G5AB2> =0<=>3> <5=LH5, G5< :>;8G5AB2> B0;0=B>2 8 35=852 2> 2A5E 4@C38E >1;0ABOE 7=0=8O 8 8A:CAAB20, => 8<5==> >=8 ?@>872>48;8 @52>;NF88 2 <KH;5=88, :>B>@K5 8<5NB 2;8O=85 =0 687=L <8@0 4> =0AB>OI53> 2@5<5=8. > MB>9 ?@8G8=5 @5;838>7=K9 045?B 8;8 4CE>2=K9 35=89  MB> G@572KG09=> @54:>5 O2;5=85. "@>A25B;5=85"  MB> B@0=AD>@<0F8O A>7=0=8O, >B:@KB85 =>2>3> :0=0;0 2=CB@5==53> 2>A?@8OB8O, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@>3> 15AA<5@B=K9 8 1573@0=8G=K9 C=825@AC< AB0=>28BAO 4>ABC?=K< 2845=8N 4CH8. "0: 65 :0: :064K9 <0B5@80;L=K9 0B>< O2;O5BAO 548=8F59 =5:>9 107>2>9 M=5@388, D>@<8@CNI59 A5;5==CN, B0: 8 G5;>25G5A:0O 4CH0 O2;O5BAO :0?;59 2 15A:>=5G=>< >:50=5 A>7=0=8O, =5 8<5NI5< =8 =0G0;0, =8 :>=F0. 1KG=K9 G5;>25:, ?>;=>ABLN 701K2H89 A2>N 1>65AB25==CN ACI=>ABL 8 =5 >A>7=0NI89 A2>5 8AB8==>5 25;8G85, 2 A8;C >3@0=8G5==>AB8 G5;>25G5A:>3> C<0 6825B 2 ?>AB>O==KE A><=5=8OE. = ?@51K205B 2 @0AB5@O==>AB8 8 ?5G0;8 ?5@54 ;8F>< A<5@B8 8 >B =0G0;0 4> :>=F0 >B>645AB2;O5B A51O A B5;><. = =5 >A>7=05B B>3>, GB> 53> ACI5AB2>20=85 GC45A=>, 1573@0=8G=> 8 25G=>. A5 A8AB5<K 9>38 8 2A5 @5;838>7=K5 CG5=8O 8<5NB A2>59 F5;LN ?@>8725AB8 B0:85 ?A8E>A><0B8G5A:85 87<5=5=8O 2 B5;5, :>B>@K5 =5>1E>48<K 4;O B@0=AD>@<0F88 A>7=0=8O. >2K9 F5=B@  2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O C >1KG=>3> G5;>25:0 A?OI89  4>;65= 1KBL ?@82545= 2 459AB285 8 <>I=K9 ?>B>: ?A8E8G5A:>9 M=5@388 4>;65= ?>4=OBLAO 2 3>;>2C 87 >A=>20=8O ?>72>=>G=8:0, GB>1K A>7=0=85 G5;>25:0 ?@527>H;> A2>8 >1KG=K5 >3@0=8G5=8O. -B>  D8=0;L=0O D070 B5:CI53> M2>;NF8>==>3> F8:;0 G5;>25:0. !?8==><>73>20O A8AB5<0 G5;>25:0 4>;6=0 ?@5B5@?5BL @048:0;L=K5 87<5=5=8O, ?>72>;82 B5< A0<K< A>7=0=8N 4>AB8GL 87<5@5=89, ?@52>AE>4OI8E >3@0=8G5=8O 4065 =081>;55 @0728B>3> 8=B5;;5:B0. 45AL @0AAC4>: "A405BAO" 8=BC8F88 8 2>7=8:05B >B:@>25=85, C:07K20NI55 G5;>25:C ?CBL. !;>3 "0C<" 2K@0605B A>1>9 <C7K:C 4CH8. -B0 <5;>48O A;KH=0 G5;>25:C B>;L:> B>340, :>340 2 =5< ?@>1C645= F5=B@ >65AB25==>9 !8;K. ">340 87;CG5=85 2KA>:8E M=5@389 70B>?;O5B <>73 ?>4>1=> ?>B>:C 7>;>B>3> =5:B0@0, >A25I0O B>, GB> @0=LH5 1K;> 2> <@0:5. > <5@5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O A25G5=8O, 4CH0 =0?>;=O5BAO =52K@078<K< AG0ABL5< 8 >ICI05B A51O @0ABCI59, @0A?@>AB@0=OOAL 2>2=5, ?>4>1=> A>;=5G=K< ;CG0<. "0: >=0 4>AB8305B 1;87;560I8E >1J5:B>2, 70B5< @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO 2H8@L 8 240;L, ?>:0 =5 4>AB83=5B 3>@87>=B0 8 =5 70?>;=8B A>1>9 25AL 2848<K9 <8@. @8 MB>< =5B A<OB5=8O 8;8 8A:065=8O 2>A?@8OB8O, :0: MB> 1K205B 2 A;CG05 8A?>;L7>20=8O =0@:>B8:>2, 8 =5B ?0<OB8, :0: MB> 1K205B ?@8 ?@8<5=5=88 38?=>70. =B5;;5:B >AB05BAO =570B@>=CBK<, 8 =5B =8:0:8E 53> =0;>65=89. =CB@5==89 8 2=5H=89 <8@K >AB0NBAO =0 A2>8E <5AB0E, A >4=8< ;8HL ACI5AB25==K< @07;8G85<: A B>G:8 7@5=8O A>7=0=8O 4CH0 :065BAO @07;8B>9 ?>2AN4C 8 25745 >ICI05BAO ?@8ACBAB285 =52K@078<>3> 8 =5C;>28<>3> C<0. &5;LN 9>38 O2;O5BAO MB> 548=AB2> A <8@>< A>7=0=8O, ?>72>;ONI55 G5;>25:C ?>=OBL A2>8 8AB>:8 8 AC4L1C 4;O B>3>, GB>1K A>>B25BAB25==> D>@<8@>20BL A2>N 687=L 8 <8@ 2>:@C3 A51O. -B> >G5=L B@C4=>5 4>AB865=85, ?CBL : :>B>@><C =0?>;=5= @8A:><, ?@8:;NG5=8O<8 8 2>;=5=8O<8 2 1>;LH59 <5@5, G5< A0<>5 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>5 ?CB5H5AB285 2 >B:@KB>< :>A<>A5. -B> 25;8G09H55 45;> ?@54=0G5@B0=> ?@8@>4>9 4;O =081>;55 A8;L=KE 8 C<=KE ?@54AB028B5;59 G5;>25G5AB20 B>340, :>340 4>AB8305BAO 75=8B <0B5@80;L=>3> ?@>F25B0=8O. <5==> ?> ?@8G8=5 8A:;NG8B5;L=>9 B@C4=>AB8 MB>9 7040G8 C440 ?@54?8A0; 1571@0G85 8 <>=0H5A:CN 687=L 4;O 8A:0B5;59.  &0@AB285 515A=>5, > :>B>@>< 3>2>@8; %@8AB>A, A<>3CB 2>9B8 B>;L:> G8ABK5 A5@4F5<. "/ B>;L:> B>3> =07K20N 1@0E<0=><,  3>2>@8; C440,  :B> ?@>H5; MB>B B@C4=K9 ?CBL, MB>B =5?@>E>48<K9 8 >1<0=G82K9 F8:; ACI5AB2>20=8O; :B> ?@>H5; G5@57 =53> 8 4>AB83 4@C3>3> 15@530; :B> <548B0B825=, A2>1>45= >B 65;0=89, A><=5=89 8 ?@82O70==>AB59 8 4>AB83 B0:8< >1@07>< A25@EG5;>25G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O A>7=0=8O".  A2>5< 7=0=88 4CE>2=KE 8 M2>;NF8>==KE ?>B@51=>AB59 G5;>25G5AB20 >= 4>;65= ?>4=OBLAO =04 25;8G09H8<8 C<0<8 M?>E8. "">B, :B> 4>AB83 A>548=5=8O A 1>65AB25==K<,  A:070; 8=489A:89 <C4@5F,  =5 70E>G5B ?><5=OBLAO <5AB0<8 4065 A F0@5<". "-B> B> A>AB>O=85, :>B>@>5 8 5ABL 9>30,  A:070=> 2 8B5.  >AB83H89 53> =5 AG8B05B 1>;LH8<, G5< MB>, =8GB> 8=>5, 8 ?@51K20NI53> 2 MB>< A>AB>O=88 G5;>25:0 =5 A<>65B ?>B@52>68BL 4065 1>;LH>5 3>@5".  8ACA 3>2>@8; ;N4O<: "/ 5ABL A25B <8@C. 8 >48= 87 <>8E ?>A;54>20B5;59 =5 1C45B 1;C640BL 2> <@0:5, 8 A =8< 1C45B A25B 687=8". "/ F0@L, > !5;0,  A:070; C440 1@0E<0=C, =>A82H5<C MB> 8<O, -O F0@L F0@59 ?> ?@02C. !2>5 ?@02;5=85 O >ACI5AB2;ON A2>8< CG5=85<, :>B>@>5 =5>?@>25@68<>". " MB>< A>AB>O=88, :>B>@>5 O2;O5BAO A>AB>O=85< ?@545;L=>9 ;N128,  3>2>@8; A2. >0== @5AB0,  4CH0 ?>4>1=0 :@8AB0;;C, G8AB><C 8 ?@>7@0G=><C, 8 G5< 1>;LH5 A25B0 >=0 ?>;CG05B, B5< 1>;LH5 :>=F5=B@8@C5B 53> 2 A515. -B> ?>AB5?5==>5 ?@>A25B;5=85 2>7@0AB05B 4> B0:>9 AB5?5=8, GB> =0ABC?05B B0:>9 <><5=B, :>340 A25B :>=F5=B@8@C5BAO 2 4CH5 2 B0:>< >18;88, GB> >=0 A0<0 B5?5@L ?>;=>ABLN O2;O5BAO A25B>< 8 A0<0 C65 =5>B;8G8<0 >B A25B0, ?>A:>;L:C >70@5=0 4> ?@545;>2 2>7<>6=>3> 8 ?>MB><C A0<0 C65 ?>4>1=0 ;8HL A25BC". %@8AB>A 8 C440 3>2>@8;8 ?@024C. =8 A0<8 1K;8 MB8< !25B><. AB8==>5 ?@>A25B;5=85 ?@54?>;0305B 2>72KH5=85 =04 2KA>G09H8<8 C<0<8 A2>53> 2@5<5=8 GB>1K C;>28BL 8 ?@>2>73;0A8BL 8AB8=C. 45AL =5B <5AB0 =8 4;O =5C25@5==>AB8, =8 4;O :>;510=89, ?>A:>;L:C 4;O B>3>, :B> ?>8AB8=5 ?@>A25B;5=, B5 2KAH85 8AB8=K, :>B>@K5 >B:@K;8AL 5<C, B0: 65 >G5284=K, :0: 4;O >1KG=>3> 2>A?@8OB8O >G5284=0 @50;L=>ABL >1K45==>3> <8@0. <5==> ?>MB><C C440 A:070;, GB> 53> CG5=85 =5>?@>25@68<>. AB8=K, >B:@K20NI85AO ?@>A25B;5==><C A>7=0=8N, 254CB : @5H5=8N M2>;NF8>==KE ?@>1;5< G5;>25G5AB20, ?>A:>;L:C 2 MB>< A;CG05 AB0=>28BAO 2>7<>6=K< 703;O=CBL 2 1C4CI55 8 @0A?>7=0BL 87381K 8 ?>2>@>BK ?@54=0G5@B0==>3> ?CB8. > MB>9 ?@8G8=5 ?@>A25B;5==K5 8 ?@>1C645==K5 2A5340 1K;8 8 1C4CB 4CE>2=K<8 ;845@0<8 G5;>25G5AB20. AB>@8G5A:8< D0:B>< O2;O5BAO B>, GB> 70:>=K, ?@>2>73;0H5==K5 C44>9, %@8AB>< 8 E03020438B>9 >AB0NBAO 459AB25==K<8 C65 425 BKAOG8 ;5B 8 ?> A59 45=L ?>G8B0NBAO <8;;8>=0<8. 0C:0 65 >1=0@C68;0 B@5I8=K =0 A2>5< D0A045 ?>A;5 2A53> ;8HL AB>;5B8O A2>53> 3>A?>4AB20. !;54C5B B0:65 ?><=8BL 8 B>, GB> 845O, 8=BC8F8O 8 24>E=>25=8O O2;ONBAO 2 B0:>9 65 <5@5 "40@><" 2A5;5=A:>3> A>7=0=8O, :0: 8 >B:@>25=8O "?@>A25B;5==KE".  >1>8E A;CG0OE 687=5==0O A8;0, AB8<C;8@CNI0O <>73,  MB> C=40;8=8. 48= 8 B>B 65 18>;>38G5A:89 F5=B@ M=5@388 2 B5;5 >B25BAB25=5= :0: 70 <8AB8G5A:89 >?KB, B0: 8 70 ?@>O2;5=8O 35=80;L=>AB8. CE>2=K9 G5;>25: ?@>AB> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 1>;55 2KA>:CN AB048N @0728B8O, G5< B0;0=B;82K9 G5;>25: =0C:8 8;8 >40@5==K9 ?@54AB028B5;L 8A:CAAB20. @8@>40 B0: 65 ?>A;54>20B5;L=0 2 <8@5 A>7=0=8O, :0: 8 2 D878G5A:>< <8@5. !B@>385 ?A8E>A><0B8G5A:85 70:>=K C?@02;ONB M2>;NF859 G5;>25:0, 8 >=8 1C4CB >AB020BLAO 2=5 53> ?>=8<0=8O, ?>:0 =5 1C4CB >A=>20B5;L=> 87CG5=K 2 =0CG=KE ;01>@0B>@8OE. @>A25B;5==K5 ?@>@>:8 8 ?@>284FK 2A5E =0@>4>2 ?>O2;ONBAO 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 =5 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?@>AB>3> A;CG0O, => A>3;0A=> B>9 65 70:>=><5@=>AB8, :>B>@0O C?@02;O5B ?>O2;5=85< 25;8:8E B0;0=B>2 8 35=852. =8 O2;ONBAO ?>@>645=8O<8 :>;;5:B82=>3> A>7=0=8O G5;>25G5AB20, :>B>@>5 C?@02;O5B 2K6820=85< 8 M2>;NF859 2A5E G5;>25G5A:8E ACI5AB2. 58725AB=K5 18>;>38G5A:85 70:>=K @53C;8@CNB ?>2545=85 8 :>;;5:B82=CN >@30=870F8N C ?G5;, <C@02L52, <KH59, 101C8=>2, ?5@5;5B=KE ?B8F, A;>=>2 8 4@C38E D>@< 687=8. -B8 70:>=K >AB0NBAO =58725AB=K<8 ?>B><C, GB> 687=L >AB05BAO 70304:>9, 8 CG5=K5 @0AE>4OBAO 2> <=5=88 >B=>A8B5;L=> 55 ?@8@>4K 8 AB0BCA0 2> A5;5==>9.  1;03>?@8OB=K5 2@5<5=0 ;81> 2 :@8B8G5A:85 <><5=BK 8AB>@8G5A:8E ?5@5E>4>2 ?@>A25B;5==K5 ?>;CG0NB 8=A09B 2 ACI=>ABL 1>65AB25==>3> 70:>=0, B0: 65 :0: 35=8O< 2 =0C:5 >B:@K205BAO 7=0=85 > 70:>=0E, C?@02;ONI8E <0B5@80;L=K< <8@><. "@0:B8:>9 !0<LO<K =0 2=CB@5==5< A25B5 >1@5B0NB 7=0=85 =52848<>3>, A:@KB>3> 8 C40;5==>3>", -3>2>@8B <C4@5F 0B0=460;8 2 >30-!CB@5. !0<LO<0  MB> A>AB>O=85 A>7=0=8O =0 ?>A;54=8E B@5E AB048OE 0HB0=30-9>38, :>=F5=B@0F8O, ?5@5E>4OI0O 2 M:AB0B8G5A:>5 A>75@F0=85. #65 BKAOG8 ;5B 8725AB=>, GB> 2 2KAH5< A>AB>O=88 A>7=0=8O A:@KB>5 7=0=85 <>65B 2>9B8 2 AD5@C >A>7=0=8O 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B ACI5AB2CNI53> >?KB0, >1@07>20=8O 8;8 AB5?5=8 ?>=8<0=8O. @0:C;K 2 @52=5< 38?B5, 2 @5F88 8 8<5 :0: @07 8 1K;8 ?@8720=K >ACI5AB28BL MB> ?>;>65=85 =0 ?@0:B8:5. !?>A>1=>ABL 2E>48BL 2 A?>=B0==K9 :>=B0:B A MB8< 8A?>;=5==K< 1;065=AB20 >:50=>< A>25@H5==>3> 7=0=8O 8 1574>==>9 <C4@>AB8 O2;O5BAO :>=5G=K< 4>AB865=85< 9>38. ABL <=>3> MB0?>2 9>38, =>, ?>:0 =5 4>AB83=CB MB>B 7025@H0NI89, ?@0:B8:CNI89 =5 <>65B AG8B0BLAO CB25@482H8<AO 2 9>35, >= 2A5 5I5 ?@8=04;568B : >1KG=><C B8?C G5;>25G5A:8E ACI5AB2. ">;L:> B>340, :>340 >= >1@5B05B 4>ABC? : A25@EG5;>25G5A:8< C@>2=O< A>7=0=8O 8 AB0=5B 2>A?@88<G82 : >B:@>25=8N, >= A<>65B AG8B0BLAO "?@>A25B;5==K<". CH0 :064>3> <C6G8=K 8 65=I8=K A?>A>1=0 =0 MB>B GC45A=K9 ?@K6>: >B G5;>25G5A:>3> : A25@EG5;>25G5A:><C 7=0=8N, 5A;8 <>73 1C45B ?@028;L=> =0AB@>5=. > A=5, 2 <5GB0E, 2 <548B0F88 8;8 ?@>AB> 2> 2@5<O A;CH0=8O <C7K:8, ?@8 <>;8B25, ?@>3C;:5 8;8 4065 @01>BK >:=> 4CH8 <>65B =5>6840==> @0A?0E=CBLAO. '0AB> MB> ;8HL :>@>B:89 ?@>1;5A: 70?@545;L=>3>, 8 <=>385 ;N48 >:07K20NBAO ;8F>< : ;8FC A =52K@078<K<, => B0: =8:>340 8 =5 >1@5B0NB ?>=8<0=8O ACB8 MB>3> >?KB0. >38G5A:85 C?@06=5=8O <>3CB 1KBL =0?@02;5=K 8 =0 <8@A:85 F5;8. ABL C?@06=5=8O, A?>A>1AB2CNI85 74>@>2LN B5;0 8 C<0, 4@C385 254CB : @0A:@KB8N >A>1KE ?A8E8G5A:8E A?>A>1=>AB59, 5ABL 8 B0:85, :>B>@K5 C:@5?;ONB 2>;N 8 CA8;820NB A?>A>1=>ABL : @5H5=8N ?@>1;5<. 4=0:> =8 >4=> 87 4>AB865=89 MB>3> @>40 (8;8 4065 =5A:>;L:> B0:8E 4>AB865=89, 27OBKE 2<5AB5) =5 O2;O5BAO 9>3>9. !;54>20B5;L=>, 9>30  MB> A25@EG5;>25G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85 A>7=0=8O, >1@5B05<>5 2A;54AB285 A>2>:C?=>3> MDD5:B0 2A5E <5B>4>2, ?@0:B8:C5<KE 3>40<8, 2 8E 548=AB25, ?;NA 2>7459AB285 >65AB25==>9 1;03>40B8. :=> 4CH8 =5 <>65B 1KBL >B:@KB> ?@8=C48B5;L=>. A:0B5;L, 45;0O ;CGH55 87 B>3>, GB> <>65B, 3>4 70 3>4><, 4>;65= B5@?5;82> >6840BL 1;03>40B8. :=> 4>;6=> 1KBL >B:@KB> 87=CB@8. %@0=8B5;8 >:=0  2 2845 A:@KBKE <5E0=87<>2 <>730  B>G=> 7=0NB, :>340 AB02=8 4>;6=K 1KBL >B2>@5=K. >MB><C 2>AE>645=85 =0 1>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L A>7=0=8O AB>;L B@C4=>. "5, :B> =5 4>AB83 2KAH59 ABC?5=8 9>38 8 =5 CB25@48; B0:8< >1@07>< A2>9 >?KB, =5 <>3CB AG8B0BLAO 9>30<8, 045?B0<8 8;8 ?@>A25B;5==K<8. =8 O2;ONBAO B>;L:> ;8HL 84CI8<8 ?> ?CB8, ?@0:B8:CNI8<8 9>3C, A04E0:0<8. 0AB>OI8< 65 9>3>< O2;O5BAO B>B, :B> 4>AB83 A>AB>O=8O 548=AB20 A >:50=>< 1>65AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O,  =07K209B5 MB> @0E<0=><, B<0=><, 8@20=>9, ;;0E><, H20@>9 8;8 :0: 20< C3>4=>. = 4>;65= ?@>=8:=CBL 70 7025AC 8 >1@5AB8 7=0=85, =5?>AB868<>5 4;O 8=B5;;5:B0. =K5 ;N48 <>3CB 1KBL ?@>@>:0<8, B@5=5@0<8 ?> D878G5A:><C @0728B8N, 0:@>10B0<8, <0AB5@0<8 70:;8=0=89 8 G0@, A?5F80;8AB0<8 2 >1;0AB8 <0=B@, GC4>B2>@F0<8, <030<8, F5;8B5;O<8, OA=>284OI8<8, <548C<0<8, 0AB@0;L=K<8 ?CB5H5AB25==8:0<8, >::C;LB8AB0<8 8 B.?., => >=8 =5 <>3CB AG8B0BLAO 9>30<8 8;8 "?@>1C645==K<8", ?>:0 >=8 =5 ?@527>H;8 G5;>25G5A:89 C@>25=L A>7=0=8O, ?@54JO2;OO <8@C A2>8 4>AB865=8O. "0:85 ;N48 ?>-A2>5<C ?>;57=K, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 A?>A>1=K C4>2;5B2>@8BL 8=B5@5AK B5E, :B> >G0@>20= 9>3>9, >::C;LB=K<8 7=0=8O<8 8 >1;0ABLN 4CE>2=>3>, B5E, :B> E>G5B @0728BL A2>8 "?A8E8G5A:85" A?>A>1=>AB8 8;8 C4>2;5B2>@8BL A2>5 ;N1>?KBAB2>, =0?@02;5==>5 =0 A25@EJ5AB5AB25==>5. > =5 A;54C5B ?CB0BL MB> 65;0=85 A>?@8:>A=CBLAO A> A25@EJ5AB5AB25==K< A A0<8< A0<>?>7=0=85<, <8AB8G5A:8< >?KB>< 8;8 548=5=85< A >3><. , 3;02=>5, =5 A;54C5B ?CB0BL MB> A =082KAH8< >?KB><, >B:@K20NI8< 25;8G85 15A:>=5G=>3> A>7=0=8O 8 15AA<5@B=>9 ?@8@>4K 4CH8. ABL A>B=8 BKAOG <C6G8= 8 65=I8= 2 MB>< <8@5, :>B>@KE A8;L=> ?@82;5:05B >::C;LB=>5 8 A25@EJ5AB5AB25==>5. ABL B0:65 A>B=8 BKAOG, 4;O :>B>@KE B09=0 ACI5AB2>20=8O >1;0405B =5?@5>4>;8<>9 ?@82;5:0B5;L=>ABLN, 8 <=>3> 4@C38E, 8<5NI8E =5C45@68<>5 65;0=85 >1@5AB8 >::C;LB=K5 A8;K 8 "?A8E8G5A:85" A25@EA?>A>1=>AB8. -B8 8A:0B5;8 >1@0I0NBAO : 9>35, A?8@8B87<C, ?A8E8G5A:8< 8AA;54>20=8O<, >::C;LB=K< ?@0:B8:0< 8 4CE>2=K< 48AF8?;8=0<, GB>1K C4>2;5B2>@8BL A2>8 AB@5<;5=8O. -B> 5AB5AB25==> 8, A 8E B>G:8 7@5=8O, ?@028;L=>, => G0AB> 2>7=8:05B ?CB0=8F0 2 8=B5@?@5B0F88 A0<8E AB@5<;5=89, 8 MB0 ?CB0=8F0 C25;8G8205BAO, :>340 2 =55 2<5H820NBAO ?@>D5AA8>=0;K, A?5F80;878@CNI85AO 2 MB8E =0?@02;5=8OE. &5;LN 9>38, :0: 8 2AO:>9 @5;838>7=>9 48AF8?;8=K, O2;O5BAO ?;>4>B2>@=0O, ?@0254=0O 687=L 8 4>AB865=85 548=AB20 A >3><. >AB865=85 MB>9 F5;8 ?@82>48B : A25@E@0F8>=0;L=><C 7=0=8N 8 : 2KAH5<C A>AB>O=8N A>7=0=8O. 878>=5@A:89 >?KB, :0: MB> ?>4B25@640NB ?>GB8 :064K9 87 <8AB8:>2, 9>3>2 8 ACD852 ?@>H;>3>, O2;O5BAO 8AB>G=8:>< =52K@078<>3> AG0ABLO. -B>B >?KB 405B 8A:0B5;N =5?>:>;518<CN A8;C 8 25@C, =5?>:>;518<CN C15645==>ABL 2 15AA<5@B88, 70?@545;L=>5 7=0=85 8 1;065==>5 548=5=85 A >:50=>< 687=8, :@0A>BK, 25;8:>;5?8O, A>AB@040=8O, ;N128, <8@0 8 A?>:>9AB28O. -B><C =5B @02=>3> =0 75<;5. "N48 A0BB28G5A:85 (G8ABK5) ?>G8B0NB 1>3>2,  A:070=> 2 E03020438B5,  ;N48 @0460A8G5A:85 (AB@0AB=K5) ?>G8B0NB ?@8@>4=KE 4CE>2 8 45<>=>2, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: B0<0A8G5A:85 (B5<=K5, =5A?>A>1=K5 : @07;8G5=8N) ;N48 ?>G8B0NB 15A?;>B=K5 4CH8 8 ?@87@0:>2". 07;8G85 <564C 8AB8==K< AB@5<;5=85< 4CH8 : >3C 8 6064>9 GC45A 8 ?A8E8G5A:8E D5=><5=>2 >BG5B;82> @0A?>7=020;>AL ?@>A25B;5==K<8 A =570?0<OB=KE 2@5<5=. @0:B8:0 ?@54A:070=89, "2KE>40 2 0AB@0;", ?A8E8G5A:>3> F5;8B5;LAB20, :>;4>2AB20 8 B.?. ACI5AB2>20;0 A A0<>3> =0G0;0 70@>645=8O :C;LBC@K 2 (C<5@5 8 38?B5, 1>;55 ?OB8 BKAOG ;5B =0704. ! B>3> 2@5<5=8 15AG8A;5==>5 <=>65AB2> ;N459 2> 2A5E G0ABOE <8@0 ?KB0;8AL 872;5GL 87 MB8E <5B>4>2 :0:CN-;81> 2K3>4C. =>385 ?KB0;8AL AB0BL 8A:CA=K<8 2 MB><, 2 =045645 >1@5AB8 A8;C, C40GC 2 687=8, A?>A>1=>ABL >1I0BLAO A 4CE0<8, ?>15640BL 2@03>2, B2>@8BL GC45A0, ?@>4;520BL 687=L 8 ?>15640BL A<5@BL. > 5ABL ;8 :>=:@5B=K5 ?@8<5@K, ?>4B25@640NI85, GB> MB8 ;N48 ?@5CA?5;8 2 A2>8E =0<5@5=8OE 8 <>3CB 1KBL >1@07F>< 4;O 4@C38E? 'C45A0, ?@8?8AK205<K5 %@8ABC, <>3;8 >:070BL ?><>IL =5A:>;L:8< BKAOG0< G5;>25: 2 53> 2@5<O, => B>;L:> 53> 4@03>F5==>5 CG5=85 8 687=L, :>B>@>9 >= 68;, 8<5NB 2;8O=85 =0 G5;>25G5AB2> 8 ?> A59 45=L. 'C45A0, :>B>@K5, :0: 3>2>@OB, >= A>25@H0;, 8 B5, :>B>@K5 A2O70=K A 53> @>645=85<, 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O <>6=> AG8B0BL >4=8< 87 >A=>2=KE D0:B>@>2, >B25BAB25==K< 70 B5 A><=5=8O, :>B>@K5 A59G0A 5ABL >B=>A8B5;L=> A0<>3> D0:B0 ACI5AB2>20=8O %@8AB0. A5 B>, GB> =5 =0E>48BAO" 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 1>65AB25==K<8 70:>=0<8, =5 <>65B 2K68BL 4>;3>5 2@5<O. #G5=85 %@8AB0 1K;> 2 A>3;0A88 A MB8<8 70:>=0<8 8 ?>MB><C 2K68;> 2 F5;>AB8 8 A>E@0==>AB8. 3> GC45A0 =5 A>>B25BAB2>20;8 MB8< 70:>=0<8, 8 ?>MB><C 8E 7=0G5=85 >AB0;>AL 2 ?@>H;><; 8E =5 ?@87=05B @0F8>=0;L=K9 8=B5;;5:B =0H53> 2@5<5=8. -B> >B=>A8BAO =5 B>;L:> ;8HL : %@8ABC. A5 GC45A0, ?@8?8AK205<K5 C445, 045?B0< 9>38, E@8AB80=A:8< <8AB8:0< 8 4@C38< 4CE>2=K< CG8B5;O<, =5 B>;L:> ?>;=>ABLN >B@8F0NBAO =081>;55 8=D>@<8@>20==K<8 ;N4L<8, =>, :@><5 B>3>, 8A?>;L7CNBAO A:5?B8:0<8 2 :0G5AB25 >@C68O, >1@0I5==>3> =0 A0<8 >A=>20=8O B>9 25@K, :>B>@CN MB8 GC45A0 :0: 1C4B> ?@8720=K C:@5?;OBL. =>385 87 GC45A, ?@8?8AK205<KE A2OBK<, B0:85, :0: ?>;5BK ?> 2>74CEC, =5 B>;L:> =5 1K;8 ?>2B>@5=K =8:5<, => 8 1K;8 ?@527>945=K A>2@5<5==>9 =0C:>9.  4@52=8E B@0:B0B0E, ?>A2OI5==KE GC45A=K< 8 2>;H51=K< 4>AB865=8O< 4CE>2=KE ;N459, =5B =8G53> B0:>3>, GB> <>3;> 1K E>BO 1K ?@81;878BLAO : B5< GC45A0<, :>B>@K5 4>AB83=CBK A53>4=O 1;03>40@O 8=B5;;5:BC. 48=AB25==>5 GC4>, :>B>@>5 2K68;> 8 >AB0;>AL =5?@527>945==K<, =5A<>B@O =0 =0B8A: 2@5<5=8,  MB> GC4> ?@>A25B;5=8O, GC4> ?@5>1@065=8O, 2>A?@8=8<05<>5 :0: 25;8G09H0O @52>;NF8O 2 <KA;OE 8 ?>2545=88 4;O ?>:>;5=89 8 ?>:>;5=89 G5;>25G5A:8E ACI5AB2. -B> B>, GB> 405B CB5H5=85 8 A8;C 4CH5, A2845B5;LAB2C5B > ?@5>4>;5=88 3>@O 8 AB@040=8O ?>A@54AB2>< 25@K 8 405B =04564C =0 A25B;>5 1C4CI55 2 ?5@8>4K A0<>3> BO65;>3> >BG0O=8O. A5 MB> A;C68B =5>1E>48<K<8 A@54AB20<8 4;O G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O, ?>72>;ONI8<8 ?>445@60BL 4>25@85 8 <C65AB2>, =5A<>B@O =0 2A5 BO3>BK M2>;NF8>==>3> 2>AE>645=8O. -B>  548=AB25==>5 GC4>, :>B>@>5 =0C:0 =8:>340 =5 A<>65B 2>A?@>8725AB8. 5;0=85 @07@5H8BL 70304:C ACI5AB2>20=8O, ?@>=8:=CBL 2 B5<=>5 8 B08=AB25==>5 8 703;O=CBL 70 7025AC :>@5=8BAO 2 3;C18==>< M2>;NF8>==>< ?>1C645=88 G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O. >A@54AB2>< MB>3> ?>1C645=8O ?@8@>40 2>2;5:05B 8=B5;;5:B 2 8AA;54>20=85 A25@EJ5AB5AB25==>3> 8 =>C<5=0;L=>3>, 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 254CI53> : >B:@KB8N A25@ED878G5A:8E A8;, C?@02;ONI8E A5;5==>9. A=>2=0O F5;L  2>2;5GL 2 4CHC 8AA;54>20=85 55 A>1AB25==>9 B09=K A B5<, GB>1K =09B8 >B25B =0 2>?@>AK, 2>7=8:0NI85 2 A>7=0=88 ?>GB8 :064>3> G5;>25:0  2>?@>AK > ?@>1;5<5 A>1AB25==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O. 025@H5=85< MB>3> 8AA;54>20=8O O2;O5BAO >A2>1>645=85, B> 5ABL >1@5B5=85 4CH>9 7=0=8O A51O. CH0 O2;O5BAO 15A:>=5G=K< 8 25G=K< >:50=>< 1;065=AB20, 548=K< A A>;=F5<, 725740<8 8 ?;0=5B0<8, => =570B@>=CBK< 8E =5?@5AB0==K< 42865=85<. =0  MB> A25B <8@0, A2>1>4=K9 >B ;N1KE F5?59, :>B>@K5 ?@8:>2K20NB G5;>25G5A:>5 B5;> : 75<;5. &5;L MB>3> M2>;NF8>==>3> 8<?C;LA0  ?@825AB8 G5;>25:0 : >A>7=0=8N A0<>3> A51O. ! MB8< 2KA>:8< 7=0=85< >= 1C45B A?>A>15= CAB@>8BL A2>N 687=L :0: @07C<=>5 G5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2>, A2>1>4=>5 >B M3>87<0, =0A8;8O, 604=>AB8, G5AB>;N18O 8 =5C<5@5==KE AB@0AB59. !;54>20B5;L=>, F5;LN ?@8@>4K O2;O5BAO B>, GB>1K :064K9 @515=>:, @>482H89AO =0 75<;5, 8<5; 2>7<>6=>ABL >1@5AB8 2KAH55 A>7=0=85 8 68BL ?@5:@0A=>9 687=LN, >A>7=020O A2>N 15AA<5@B=CN 1>65AB25==CN 2=CB@5==NN ACI=>ABL 8 ?@51K20O 2 <8@5 8 30@<>=88 A :064K< G5;>25G5A:8< ACI5AB2><. >340 <0B5@80;L=>5 ?@>F25B0=85 4>AB8305B A2>53> 75=8B0  0 A59G0A MB> 8<5==> B0: 1;03>40@O 4>AB865=8O< =0C:8,  B>340 =0G8=05BAO ?>2>@>B 2 AB>@>=C 2>AE>645=8O : 4CE>2=K< 2KA>B0<. !>2@5<5==>5 7=0=85 ?>GB8 7025@H8;> A2>5 8AA;54>20=85 D878G5A:>3> <8@0 8 ?@51K205B =0 3@0=8 B>3>, GB>1K =09B8 2KE>4 2 4CE>2=CN @50;L=>ABL. -B>B 2KE>4 A:@KB 2 18>;>38G5A:>< <5E0=87<5 M2>;NF88, ?@8ACBAB2CNI5< 2 B5;5 :064>3> G5;>25:0. -B>B <5E0=87< 8725AB5= 8 ?>G8B05BAO C65 BKAOG5;5B8O. :B820F8O MB>3> <5E0=87<0 ?>A@54AB2>< 9>38 8;8 8=>9 @5;838>7=>9 48AF8?;8=K 2545B : 18>E8<8G5A:8< 87<5=5=8O<, 8 MB> =0G8=05B ?8B0BL =5@2=CN A8AB5<C 8 <>73, GB> 8 8<55B A2>8< @57C;LB0B>< B@0=AD>@<0F8N A>7=0=8O. -B0 B@0=AD>@<0F8O 8<55B =0AB>;L:> M:AB@0>@48=0@=CN ?@8@>4C, GB> 8=48284, 8A?KB02H89 MB>B >?KB 2> 2A59 53> ?>;=>B5, ?>4=8<05BAO =04 C@>2=5< A<5@B=KE 2 AD5@C 1>3>2. :B820F8O MB>3> <5E0=87<0 4>AB8305BAO ?>A@54AB2>< 9>38, 0 =5:>B>@K5 <8AB8:8, <C4@5FK 8 ?@>@>:8 8<5NB MB>B 1>65AB25==K9 >@30= 2 0:B828@>20==>< A>AB>O=88 A A0<>3> @>645=8O 8;8 65 4>AB830NB MB>9 0:B820F88 ?>A@54AB2>< A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 48AF8?;8= 8 ?@0254=>9 687=8. 0H0 687=L 8 MB> 4C<0NI55, GC2AB2CNI55, 7=0NI55 G5;>25G5A:>5 ACI5AB2>, > :>B>@>< <K ?>;0305<, GB> >=> @>6405BAO, AB0@55B 8 C<8@05B,  2A5 MB> =0 A0<>< 45;5 ;8HL ?5=0 =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 >:50=0 <8@>740=8O. -B>  8A:@0 1573@0=8G=>3> >:50=0 >3=O, ;CG 682>3> A>;=F0 15A:>=5G=KE 87<5@5=88, 1573@0=8G=>5 7=0=85 8 =52K@078<>5 1;065=AB2>. -B>  15AA<5@B=K9 0B>< 15A:>=5G=>3> <8@0 A>7=0=8O. = 4>;65= ?>7=0BL A51O, GB>1K ?>=OBL A2>N ACI=>ABL, GB>1K ?@>68BL 2 C<8@>B2>@5=88 8 1;065=AB25 >B2545==K9 5<C ?@><56CB>: 75<=>9 687=8. / 4C<0N, GB> MB> O2;O5BAO F5;LN :064>3> 87 =0A, F5;LN, ?@54>?@545;5==>9 ?@8@>4>9, 8 F5=>9 70 :0:>5-;81> C:;>=5=85 >B MB>9 F5;8 O2;O5BAO 15A:>=5G=>5 AB@040=85 8 =5AG0ABL5. 0H0 M2>;NF8>==0O =0?@02;5==>ABL ?@54>?@545;5=0.  =0H8 3@5E8 <>3CB ;8HL 70<54;8BL MB> 1;065==>5 A25@H5=85, => 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 =8:>8< >1@07>< =5 <>3CB =8G53> 87<5=8BL. -B>, O 25@N, O2;O5BAO B>9 F5;LN, @048 :>B>@>9 8 2K, 8 O =0E>48<AO 745AL,  ?>AB830BL A51O. K 4>;6=K 7=0BL 8AB8=C: MB>B >3@><=K9 <0B5@80;L=K9 <8@ =5 1>;55 G5< @O1L =0 ?>25@E=>AB8 >:50=0, : :>B>@><C <K ?@8=04;568<. > MB>9 ?@8G8=5 :064K9 25;8:89 4CE>2=K9 02B>@8B5B 45;0; =081>;LH55 C40@5=85 =0 8AB8==>AB8 ?@0254=>9 687=8. -B> CA;>285 =5 ?@54>?@545;5=> G5;>25:><. -B> ?@54?8A0=85 8AE>48B 87 :>;;5:B82=>3> A>7=0=8O G5;>25G5AB20; MB> 70:>=, ?@54?8A0==K9 ?@8@>4>9 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 40BL =0< 2>7<>6=>ABL ?5@5A5GL 3@0=8FC, >B45;ONICN =0A >B 2KAH53> A>7=0=8O. ">340 2845=8O ?@8 =87H5< C@>2=5 A0<04E8 ?>402;ONBAO CA8;85< A>7=0B5;L=>3> :>=B@>;O 8 2 C<5 1>;LH5 =5 >AB05BAO =8:0:8E <KA;59 8 2845=89,  3>2>@8B 0B0=460;8 2 >30-!CB@5,  MB> O2;O5BAO 4>AB865=85< :>=B@>;O =04 <KA;5==K<8 2>;=0<8, 2>7=8:0NI8<8 2 C<5... :>340 MB> ?>402;5=85 <KA;5==KE 2>;= AB0=>28BAO 4;8B5;L=K<, 4>AB8305BAO A?>:>9AB285 C<0". >GB8 2A5 25;8:85 4CE>2=K5 CG8B5;O C:07K20;8 =0 >?0A=>ABL ?>440BLAO A>1;07=C ?A8E8G5A:8E A8; =0 0AB@0;L=>< 8;8 <5=B0;L=>< ?;0=5, B0: :0: MB> A>7405B 457>@85=B8@CNI85 ?@82O70==>AB8 4;O 4CH8, >B :>B>@KE B0: 65 B@C4=> >A2>1>48BLAO, :0: 8 >B 75<=KE ?@82O70==>AB59. "!> 2@5<5=5<,  3>2>@8B 40>AA:89 <0AB5@ '0> 8 '5=,  45<>=8G5A:85 A>AB>O=8O 1C4CB ?>A5I0BL ?@0:B8:CNI53> 2 2845 2845=89 0O 2> 2A5< 53> 25;8G88, A ?@5:@0A=K<8 A040<8 8 ?@C40<8, 8;8 40 A =0A5;ONI8<8 53> C60A=K<8 45<>=0<8 A> AB@0H=K<8 3>;>20<8 8 ;8F0<8, ?>AB>O==> 87<5=ONI8<8 A2>8 >B2@0B8B5;L=K5 D>@<K. A;8 >= =5 2 A>AB>O=88 873=0BL MB8 2845=8O, 2K720==K5 ?OBLN GC2AB20<8, B0: 65 :0: 8 15A?>:>OI85 53> 2845=8O 65=I8= 8 452CH5:, >= 4>;65= CA?>:0820BL A2>9 C<, :>B>@K9 4>;65= 1KBL G8ABK< :0: 2=CB@8, B0: 8 A=0@C68". 5@60BL C< G8ABK< 87=CB@8 8 A=0@C68 A>25@H5==> =5>1E>48<>, GB>1K A>75@F0BL 25;8G85 4CH8. C440 5I5 1>;55 :0B53>@8G5= 2 ?@54?8A0=88 ?>402;OBL AB@5<;5=85 : A25@EJ5AB5AB25==K< A?>A>1=>ABO<. 5;0=85 2845=89, "?A8E8G5A:8E" A?>A>1=>AB59 8;8 A25@EJ5AB5AB25==KE A8; ?>@>6405B 65;0=85 ?@>4>;68BL ?>4 M384>9 -3>, C<0 8 GC2AB2 ?5@56820=8O ?>2A54=52=>3>, 75<=>3> B8?0, ?@>AB> ?5@5=>AO 8E =0 1>;55 B>=:85 C@>2=8. >4>1=>5 AB@5<;5=85 >1@5AB8 C<5=85 C?@02;OBL =52848<K<8 ?A8E8G5A:8<8 8;8 4@C38<8 :>A<8G5A:8<8 A8;0<8 A=>20 ?@82>48B : A=865=8N =0 75<=>9 C@>25=L. &5;LN M2>;NF8>==>3> 8<?C;LA0, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, O2;O5BAO D>@<8@>20=85 A>AB>O=8O, ?@O<> ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> MB><C, 0 8<5==> ?@82545=85 4CH8 : OA=><C ?>=8<0=8N A2>59 1>65AB25==>9 ?@8@>4K, 70?@545;L=>9 2A5<C B><C, GB> 0AA>F88@C5