ࡱ> #`=bjbjmm:a Z7mr(  RRR8|  FF $hd^ ''' '* '  p++R@ A0FC  mBK W^F'''' R R  !5@359 & !# ! , !" #" "@048F88 A:5?B8F87<0 2 A>2@5<5==>9 D8;>A>D88 8 B5>@88 ?>7=0=8O (A ?5@52>40<8 >@838=0;L=KE @01>B /. 0BF;028:0, -. D>= ;075@AD5;L40, X. D>= $Q@AB5@0, #. 0BC@0=K, $. 0@5;K 8 . >B0) PHREN e.V. Gesellschaft zur Forderung von Unternehmungen aus Kunst und Wissenschaft im interdisziplinaren Rahmen Sitz: Munchen Vorstand: Helmut Bcrninger, Nymphenburger Sir. 121 80636 Munchen Tel. 089/ 186283 Dr. Michael Kopfermann, Pfarrstr. 10 80538 Munchen Tel. 089 / 297095 Prof. Dr. Ulrich Wolf, Johann-von-Weerth-Str. 6 79100 Freiburg Tel. 0761 / 404631 Sekretariat und Schriftfuhrung: Carmen Nagel-Berninger, Nymphenburger Sir. 121 80636 Munchen Tel. 089 / 186283 Veranstaltungsraume und Galeric: Schraudolphstr. 38, Rgb. 80799 Munchen PHREN - Verlag Munchen, Erscheinungsjahr 2000 PHREN ist als gemeinniitziger Verein ancrkannt Spendenkonto: Phren Gesellschaft e.V. 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E>BO ?5@20O 53> <>=>3@0D8O, ?>A2OI5==0O B5<5 :>=AB@C8@>20=8O @50;L=>AB8 C2845;0 A25B 5I5 2 1976 3>4C 2 !( (?>4 =0720=85< 0A:>;L:> @50;L=>ABL @50;L=0?), 0 > @048:0;870F88 :>=AB@C:B8287<0 8065 ;075@AD5;L4 3>2>@8; 5I5 2 A5@548=5 70-E 3>4>2, A2>5 >:>=G0B5;L=>5 A<KA;>2>5 72CG0=85 @048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< >1@5B05B ;8HL A 2KE>4>< 2 A25B C:070==>3> A1>@=8:0.  ?@548A;>288 0BF;028: @07JOA=O5B, GB> B0:>5 :>=AB@C:B8287<, 0 2 3;025 2545=85 2 @048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< D>= ;075@AD5;L4 405B 8AG5@?K20NI55 >1>A=>20=85 =5B@048F8>==><C =0?@02;5=8N 2 M?8AB5<>;>388 -@048:0;L=><C :>=AB@C:B8287<C. >B GB> 0BF;028: 3>2>@8B > A0<>< B5@<8=5 :>=AB@C:B8287<: 'B> :0A05BAO B@5BL53> 2KH5 C?><O=CB>3> 0A?5:B0 > B><, GB> <K O:>1K >B:@K205< 459AB28B5;L=>ABL, B> 4;O 2K@065=8O ?@>B82>?>;>6=>9 ?>78F88 [> B><, GB> ;N10O 459AB28B5;L=>ABL O2;O5BAO A0<K< =5?>A@54AB25==K< >1@07>< :>=AB@C:F859 B>3>, :B>, :0: >= ?>;0305B, MBC 459AB28B5;L=>ABL >B:@K205B 8 8AA;54C5B] 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K ?>;CG8;> @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 =5C40G=>5 2K@065=85, ?@>8AE>4OI55 87 0=3;>0<5@8:0=A:>9 O7K:>2>9 A@54K, 0 8<5==> - :>=AB@C:B8287<. 5C40G=>5 ?>B><C, GB>, 2>-?5@2KE, >=> C65 2AB@5G0;>AL 2 C?>B@51;5=88 2 >1;0AB8 "@048F8>==>9 D8;>A>D88 A =5A:>;L:> 4@C38< A<KA;>2K< >BB5=:><; 2>-2B>@KE, 2 =0G0;5 4204F0BKE 3>4>2 >=> >1>7=0G0;> ACI5AB2CNI55 2 !>25BA:>< !>N75 2 B5G5=85 =5?@>4>;68B5;L=>3> 2@5<5=8 42865=85 2 >1;0AB8 87>1@078B5;L=>3> 8A:CAAB20 8 0@E8B5:BC@K; 8, 2-B@5BL8E - 87-70 A2>53> GC64>3> =5<5F:><C O7K:C 72CG0=8O.  5A;8 1K @>482H55AO 48BO : MB><C 2@5<5=8 C65 =5 =>A8;> 40==>3> 8<5=8, B> >1>7=0G5=85 B8?0 ?0C:8 > 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 (Wirklichkeilsforschung) 1K;> 1K ?@54?>GB8B5;L=55 [Watzlawick 1998, S.10].  A60B>9 D>@<5 F5=B@0;L=0O ?0@0483<0 @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0 <>65B 1KBL ?5@540=0 A;54CNI59 F8B0B>9 87 @01>BK ;075@AD5;L40: (0) 7=0=85 =5 >1@5B05BAO ?0AA82=K< >1@07><, >=> 0:B82=> :>=AB@C8@C5BAO ?>7=0NI8< AC1J5:B><; (,) DC=:F8O ?>7=0=8O =>A8B 040?B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ 8 A;C68B 4;O >@30=870F88 >?KB=>3> <8@0, 0 =5 4;O >B:@KB8O >=B>;>38G5A:>9 @50;L=>AB8 [Glasersfeld 1996, @. 18]. 4=0:> 70 MB>9 D@07>9 - 25@H8=>9 09A15@30 :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>3> 48A:C@A0 A:@K205BAO >3@><=K9 ?;0AB @07;8G=KE :>=F5?F89, B5>@89, CG5=89, M<?8@8G5A:8E >1>1I5=89 87 A0<KE @07=>>1@07=KE >1;0AB59 G5;>25G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 5 A;CG09=> 83D@84 (<84B - >48= 87 254CI8E :>=AB@C:B828AB>2 2 5@<0=88 - >1>7=0G05B @048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< :0: AB0=>2OI89AO 48A:C@A, :0: <5648AF8?;8=0@=K9 :>=B5:AB: ... 048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< - MB> =5 3><>35==0O 4>:B@8=0, 0 G@572KG09=> 48=0<8G=K9 <5648AF8?;8=0@=K9 :>=B5:AB [Schmidt 1996, S.7].  ?@548A;>288 : H8@>:> 8725AB=>9 @01>B5 . 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A=>2=0O 3@C??0 8740=89 2:;NG05B 2 A51O @01>BK 02B>@>2, @0728B85 8459 :>B>@KE ?@825;> : AB0=>2;5=8N 8 D>@<C;8@>20=8N :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>9 M?8AB5<>;>388.  =8< >B=>AOBAO @01>BK P. Watzlawick, E. von Glasersfeld, H. von Foerster, H. Maturana, F. Varela, S. Schmidt, G. Roth, H. Schwegler, M. Hejl, G. Rusch, N. Luhmann, P. Janich (M@;0=3A:89 :>=AB@C:B8287<), H. R. Fischer 8 4@C38E. 01>BK C:070==KE 02B>@>2 =0@O4C A 4@C38<8 A>AB02;ONB A>45@60=85 :>=AB@C:B828ABA:8E A1>@=8:>2, @53C;O@=> ?5@58740NI8EAO =0 0=3;89A:>< 8;8 =5<5F:>< O7K:5.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O @01>BK >A=>2=KE 02B>@>2 :>=AB@C:B8287<0 B0:65 A>1@0=K 2 548=K5 A1>@=8:8-<>=>3@0D88, B0: GB> 70G0ABCN =5B =5>1E>48<>AB8 >BKA:820BL >@838=0;L=K5 ?C1;8:0F88, @071@>A0==K5 ?> @07=K< 6C@=0;0<, 8740205<K< 2 B5G5=85 45AOB8;5B89. >;55-<5=55 ?>;=K9 A?8A>: :;NG52KE @01>B, A>AB02;ONI8E A>1>9 :>=AB@C:B828ABA:89 48A:C@A, ?@82545= 2 A?5F80;L=>< 181;8>3@0D8G5A:>< ?@8;>65=88 2 :>=F5 :=838.  4@C3>9 3@C??5 8740=89 A;54C5B >B=5AB8 @01>BK 02B>@>2, @0728B85 8459 :>B>@KE B0:65 ?@825;> : 2>7=8:=>25=8N 8 AB0=>2;5=8N :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>9 D8;>A>D88, 8 GL8 273;O4K 8 B5>@88 ?> ?@02C <>3;8 1K 1KBL =0720=K :>=AB@C:B828ABA:8<8 (8;8 ?@5:>=AB@C:B828ABA:8<8), => :>B>@K5 =5 2>H;8 2 :>=AB@C:B828ABA:89 48A:C@A 2 O2=>< 2845 ;81> 2284C 2@5<5=8 8E ?>O2;5=8O (:0: 2 A;CG05 D8;>A>DA:8E ?@54H5AB25==8:>2), ;81> 2284C A?5F8D8G=>AB8 8E :>=F5?F89 8 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 : >1;0AB8 :>=:@5B=KE =0C: 8;8 4@C38E 48A:C@A>2 (:0: 2 A;CG05 ?@54AB028B5;59 B5>@88 A0<>>@30=870F88). $8;>A>DA:85 8 :815@=5B8G5A:85 ?@54H5AB25==8:8 ?5@5G8A;5=K 2KH5, :0: 8 ?@54AB028B5;8 A8=5@35B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0. 45AL O ?@8254C @O4 8<5= A>2@5<5==KE 02B>@>2, GL8 @01>BK 2?>;=5 <>3CB 1KBL >B=5A5=K : :>=AB@C:B828ABA:><C 48A:C@AC: A. Andrew, H. Allan, F. Benseler, . Breidbach, F. Capra, H. Fischer, C. Fosnot, U. an der Heiden, E. Keller, W. Kock, L. Margulis, M. Namiki, S. Oyama, J. Probst, J. Richards, V. Riegas, P. Schuster, G. Teubner, J. Todd, W. Thompson, H. Ulrich, N. Vaz, M. Zeleny 8 <=>385 4@C385. &8B8@C5<K5 8740=8O Glasersfeld E. von (1996) Radical Constructivism. Palmer Press, London. Glasersfeld E. von (1998) Einfuhrung in den radikalen Konslruktivismus. In: Watzlawick P. (Hrsg.) Die erfundene Wirklichkeit. Piper Verlag Mimchen, 10. Aufl., S. 16-38. Knodt E. (1995) Foreword. In: Luhmann N. Social Systems. Stanford University Press, Stanford. Krohn W., Kuppers G. (Hrsg.) (1990) Selbstorganisation. Aspekte einer wissenschaftlichen Revolution. Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden. Schmidt S. (1996) Der Diskurs des Radikalen Konstruklivismus. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 7. Aufl. Watzlawick P. (1998) Die erfundene Wirklichkeit. Piper Verlag Munchen 10. Aufl. ;020 1 ><<C=8:0F8>==K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< >;0 0BF;028:0 0: B>;L:> AB0=>28BAO ?>=OB=K<, GB>, 2>?@5:8 >1I5?@8=OB><C <=5=8N, ?>@O4>: 8 E0>A =5 5ABL >1J5:B82=K5 8AB8=K, 0, :0: 8 <=>3>5 4@C3>5 2 =0H59 687=8, CAB0=02;8205BAO A0<8< =01;N40B5;5<, ?5@54 =0<8 >B:@K205BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL C2845BL D5=><5= >1I5=8O 8 53> ?@>1;5<0B8:C 2 A>25@H5==> 4@C3>< A25B5.  <K 4>;6=K 1KBL 3>B>2K : B><C, GB> B>, GB> <K C2848<, <>65B ACI5AB25==K< >1@07>< >B;8G0BLAO >B >1I5?@8=OBKE 2>77@5=89 2 ?A8E>;>388, D8;>A>D88 8 4065 B5>;>388 [Watzlawick 1977, @.57-58] 1. ">645AB25==>ABL ?>=OB89 @50;L=>ABL 8 ?@54AB02;5=85 > @50;L=>AB8.  A2>59 :=835 ?> 8AB>@88 D8;>A>D88 %0=A (BQ@83 (Hans Storig) A2O7K205B 2>7=8:=>25=85 :>=AB@C:B8287<0, ?@5645 2A53>, A 8<5=5< . 0BF;028:0, =0@O4C A 4@C38<8 02B>@0<8 87402H53> 2 1981 3>4C A1>@=8: =0 =5<5F:>< O7K:5 7>1@5B5==0O 459AB28B5;L=>ABL (Die erfundene Wirklichkeit). <5==> 2 MB>9 @01>B5 0BF;028: 2?5@2K5 ?@54;0305B 8A?>;L7>20=85 B5@<8=0 :>=AB@C:B8287< 2 B>< D8;>A>DA:>< 7=0G5=88, :>B>@>5 ;53;> 2 >A=>2C 2A53> 48A:C@A0. 4=0:>, 5I5 2 1976 3>4C 2 !( 2KH;0 :=830 0BF;028:0 ?>4 =0720=85< 0A:>;L:> @50;L=>ABL @50;L=0?, :>B>@0O D0:B8G5A:8 AB0;0 ?@54B5G59 D8;>A>DA:>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0 D>= ;075@AD5;L40. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> A0< B5@<8= :>=AB@C:B8287< 2 40==>9 @01>B5 5I5 =5 C?>B@51;O5BAO, 87;>65==K9 2 =59 <0B5@80;, B5< =5 <5=55, ?>72>;O5B AD>@<C;8@>20BL :>=F5?BC0;L=>5 O4@> D8;>A>D88 :>=AB@C:B8287<0 (2 40;L=59H5< AB02H53>, 1;03>40@O ;075@AD5;L4C, 1>;55 8725AB=K< :0: @048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287<).  A60B><, => 2 B> 65 2@5<O 2 ?>;=>< 2845 >A=>2=CN 845N ?5@5405B A;54CNI0O F8B0B0: 5@0 2 ACI5AB2>20=85 >4=>9 548=AB25==>9 @50;L=>AB8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A0<>5 >?0A=>5 701;C645=85. 48=AB25==>5, GB> ACI5AB2C5B - MB> <=>65AB2> @07;8G=KE 25@A89 @50;L=>AB8, =5:>B>@K5 87 :>B>@KE <>3CB 2E>48BL 2 ?@>B82>@5G85 4@C3 A 4@C3><; 2A5 >=8 O2;ONBAO @57C;LB0B>< :><<C=8:0F88, => =5 >B@065=8O<8 =5:>59 8725G=>9, >1J5:B82=>9 8AB8=K [Watz.1 1977, p.xi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B> AB@0405B 4CH52=K< @0AAB@>9AB2><, AB@0405B =5 AB>;L:> >B "459AB28B5;L=>9" 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, A:>;L:> >B A>1AB25==>9 :0@B8=K 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. > MB0 :0@B8=0 8 O2;O5BAO 4;O =53> 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN... [Watz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atz. 1977,p.xiii]. 2. 59AB28B5;L=>AB8 ?5@2>3> 8 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:>2. B>@>9 ?@>1;5<=K9 D0:B>@ 2 :><<C=8:0F88 - MB> A<5H5=85 B0: =07K205<KE 459AB28B5;KNAB59 ?5@2>3> 8 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:0. $0:B8G5A:8, @0745;5=85 0BF;028:>< :0@B8=K <8@0 =0 459AB28B5;L=>ABL ?5@2>3> 8 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:0 O2;O5BAO :@05C3>;L=K< :0<=5< 53> B5>@88 8 70A;C68205B 1>;55 45B0;L=>3> @0AA<>B@5=8O: G5=L G0AB>, >A>15==> 2 ?A8E80B@88, 345 AB5?5=L "040?B0F88 : @50;L=>AB8" 40==>3> 8=48284CC<0 83@05B >A>1CN @>;L 2 :0G5AB25 ?>:070B5;O 53> =>@<0;L=>AB8, 8<55B <5AB> A<5H5=85 42CE 25AL<0 @07;8G0NI8EAO 0A?5:B>2 B>3>, GB> <K =07K205< @50;L=>ABLN. 5@2K9 8<55B 45;> A AC3C1> D878G5A:8<8, >1J5:B82=> CAB0=02;8205<K<8 A2>9AB20<8 ?@54<5B>2 8 A2O70= A ?@028;L=K< A5=A>@=K< 2>A?@8OB85<, 0 B0:65 A 2>?@>A0<8 B0: =07K205<>3> 74@02>3> A<KA;0, A >1J5:B82=>9, 2>A?@>872>48<>9, =0CG=>9 25@8D8:0F859. B>@>9 0A?5:B - MB> A<KA;>2>9 8 F5==>AB=K9 0B@81CB MB8E ?@54<5B>2, >A=>20==K9 =0 :><<C=8:0F8>==>< :>=B5:AB5 [Watz. 1977, @. 140-141].  4@C3>9 @01>B5 1>;55 ?>4@>1=>: >340 <K 3>2>@8< > 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, B> 4>?CA:05<, G0I5 2A53> =5 >B4020O A515 2 MB>< >BG5B, >?@545;5==CN 42CA<KA;5==>ABL. @5645 2A53>, <K 2>A?@8=8<05< D878G5A:85 2>9AB20 >1J5:B>2 - D>@<C, F25B, AB@C:BC@C 8 B.4. 07>25< MB> 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN ?5@2>3> ?>@O4:0 8 ?@8<5<, GB> 2 40==>< A;CG05 @07;8G8O 2> <=5=8OE - ?> :@09=59 <5@5, B5>@5B8G5A:8 - 2A5340 8<5NB >1J5:B82=K5 >A=>20=8O. 8B - MB> =5 @K10, B0: :0: >=, ?><8<> ?@>G53>, ?8B05BAO <0B5@8=A:8< <>;>:>< 8 4KH8B ?@8 ?><>I8 ;53:8E. /2;O5BAO ;8 ?@54<5B :@0A=K< 8;8 75;5=K<, <>6=> >4=>7=0G=> CAB0=>28BL ?@8 ?><>I8 A?5:B@>D>B><5B@0 ?> B><C, A25B A :0:>9 4;8=>9 2>;=K >= >B@0605B. @0240, A0<> A>1>9 @07C<55BAO, GB> MB> 2>7<>6=> ;8HL 2 >B=>H5=88 ;N459, 4;O :>B>@KE 72C:8 B8?0 "@K10", ":8B", ":@0A=K9", "75;5=K9", ;81> 8E A8<2>;8G5A:>5 2>A?@>872545=85 ?>A@54AB2>< ?8AL<5==KE 7=0:>2 8<55B >48=0:>2>5 7=0G5=85, B.5. 2 >B=>H5=88 ;N459, 3>2>@OI8E =0 >4=>< 8 B>< 65 O7K:5. [...] 4=0:>, ?><8<> AC3C1> D878G5A:8E A2>9AB2 >1J5:B>2 =0H53> 2>A?@8OB8O >1=0@C68205BAO 5I5 >48= 0A?5:B 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, A>AB>OI89 87 A<KA;>2, 7=0G5=89 8 F5==>AB59, :>B>@K5 <K ?@8?8AK205< 40==K< >1J5:B0<. <5==> MB>B <8@ ?@8A2>5==KE >1J5:B0< 7=0G5=89, A<KA;>2 8 F5==>AB59, <K 1C45< =07K20BL 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:0.  745AL, 2 MB>< <8@5, :0: C65 C?><8=0;>AL 2 A2O78 A B5<>9 > 2708<>7028A8<>AB8, =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8:0:8E >1J5:B82=KE :@8B5@852. 59AB28B5;L=>ABL 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:0 O2;O5BAO @57C;LB0B>< 1>;55 A;>6=KE :><<C=8:0F8>==KE ?@>F5AA>2 [Watz. 1997, S.61]. !;54C5B 70<5B8BL, GB> 3;02=K< B578A>< :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>9 M?8AB5<>;>388 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> ;N10O 459AB28B5;L=>ABL, 0 =5 B>;L:> 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:0 :>=AB@C8@C5BAO =01;N40B5;5<. >78F8O ?;N@0;8AB8G5A:>9 8=B5@?@5B0F88 8 ?@840=8O A<KA;>2 8 F5==>AB59 =5:>59 >1J5:B82=>9 40==>AB8 2545B =5 : :>=AB@C:B8287<C, 0 : @5;OB8287<C, 4>?CA:0NI5<C ACI5AB2>20=85 >1J5:B82=>9 @50;L=>AB8.  A2O78 A MB8< ?>4G5@:=5<, GB> 0BF;028: O2;O5BAO :>=AB@C:B828AB><, B0: :0: ?@87=05B :>=AB@C8@>20=85 =5 B>;L:> @50;L=>AB8 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:0, => 8 @50;L=>AB8 ?5@2>3> ?>@O4:0 - >1J5:B82=>, =0CG=> 25@8D8F8@C5<>9. 5 A;54C5B 2?040BL 2 701;C645=85, 1C4B> 1K @0745;5=85 0BF;028:>< 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 =0 420 0A?5:B0 0=0;>38G=> 45;5=8N =0 >1J5:B82=K5 8 AC1J5:B82=K5 8AB8=K 2 :>@@5A?>=45=BA:8E B5>@8OE ?>7=0=8O, =0 <8@-:0:->=-5ABL 8 <8@-:0:->8-=0<-:065BAO. 5;> 2 B><, GB> A0<0 =0C:0, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ;8HL >4=C 87 @07=>284=>AB59 :0@B8= <8@0, 0 =5 >B@065=85 548=AB25==> 2>7<>6=>9 @50;L=>AB8. ">, GB> =8:0:0O =0CG=0O B5>@8O 8;8 >1JOA=5=85 =5 <>65B 1KBL G5<-B> 1>;LH8<, G5< ?@54AB02;5=85< > <8@>740=88, :0:>9-B> >?@545;5==>9 8=B5@?@5B0F859 <8@0, => =5 A0<>9 @50;L=>ABLN :0: B0:>2>9, ?>4G5@:820;>AL =5>4=>:@0B=> =5:>B>@K<8 <KA;8B5;O<8 A> 2@5<5= 60<10B8AB0 8:>... [Watz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atz. 1997, S.223]. ".5. D0:B8G5A:8, C 0BF;028:0, :0: 8 C 4@C38E :>=AB@C:B828AB>2, >1J5:B82=>ABL >7=0G05B ?>2B>@O5<>ABL ?@0:B8G5A:>3> >?KB0, >48=0:>2CN @57C;LB0B82=>ABL >48=0:>2KE ?>ABC?:>2. 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atz. 1997, S.202]. 0<5B8<, GB> ?@825@65=FK B>9 8;8 8=>9 845>;>388 >B MB>3> =5 AB@040NB, ?>A:>;L:C D5=><5= >1JOA=5=8O >1JOA=5=8O (>1JOA=5=8O 2 :204@0B5) A@>4=8 D5=><5=C A;5?>3> ?OB=0 2 =0H5< 7@8B5;L=>< ?>;5, B.5. 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8 <K 53> ?@>AB> =5 70<5G05<. 4=0:> MB> =5 >7=0G05B, GB> 53> =5B (=5>1E>48<>ABL 53> ACI5AB2>20=8O 48:BC5BAO B5< >1AB>OB5;LAB2><, GB> 2 A0<>9 A5BG0B:5 4>;6=> ACI5AB2>20BL :0:>5-B> D878G5A:>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2>, 2 :>B>@>< AE>4OBAO =59@>==K5 >:>=G0=8O >B >B45;L=KE 7@8B5;L=KE @5F5?B>@>2, >1@07CO 7@8B5;L=K9 =5@2; 5AB5AB25==>, 2 MB>< <5AB5 7@5=85 =52>7<>6=>).  A;CG05, 5A;8 24@C3 <K 2A5 65 >1=0@C68205< 45D8F8B B0:>3> >1JOA=5=8O >1JOA=5=8O (:0: ?@8 ?><>I8 A?5F80;L=>3> M:A?5@8<5=B0 >1=0@C68205< MDD5:B A;5?>3> ?OB=0 (A<. AB@.165 40==>3> 8740=8O)), B> 2 A8;C 2ABC?0NB B0:>3> @>40 4>2>4K, :0: 2KA:07K20=85 "5@BC;;80=0: Credo, quia absurdum est, 8;8 A5=B5=F8O 535;O B5< EC65 4;O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. >:070BL 8AB8==>ABL 845>;>38G5A:>9 A8AB5<K, =5 2KE>4O 70 55 ?@545;K, B.5. =5 ?@82;5:0O 4>2>4K (?>ABC;0BK, 4>3<K) 872=5, =52>7<>6=>. 4=0:> MB> 2>2A5 =5 >7=0G05B, GB> 8AB8==>ABL >4=>9 (<5=LH59) 845>;>38G5A:>9 A8AB5<K <>65B 1KBL >:>=G0B5;L=> 4>:070=0 2 @0<:0E 4@C3>9 (1>;LH59) >1JOA=8B5;L=>9 A8AB5<K.  :>=5G=>< AG5B5, <K C?8@05<AO 2 =5>1E>48<>ABL 4>:07K20BL 8AB8==>ABL 2=5H=59 A8AB5<K, GB> =52>7<>6=> A45;0BL, =5 2KE>4O, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 70 55 ?@545;K. 0==K9 D5=><5= E>@>H> 8725AB5= 2 D8;>A>D88 =0C:8 ?>4 =0720=85< ?0@04>:A0 0AA5;0.  AB@>3>9 D>@<5 B0:>3> @>40 70<:=CB>ABL >1JOA=8B5;L=KE A8AB5< ?@>0=0;878@>20=0 (4>:070=0) . Q45;5< 2 >B=>H5=88 D>@<0;L=KE A8AB5< A 0@8D<5B8G5A:8<8 A2>9AB20<8. B=K=5 4;O =0A A> 2A59 =0CG=>9 >G5284=>ABLN, :>B>@0O ?@8ACI0 <0B5<0B8:5, ?@5645 2A53>, 1;03>40@O E>@>H> 8725AB=K< M?>E0;L=K< @01>B0< Q45;O (1931) > D>@<0;L=> =5@07@5H8<KE ?@54;>65=8OE, O2;O5BAO 4>:070==K< B>B D0:B, GB> =8 >4=0 A8AB5<0, GLO A;>6=>ABL A>>B25BAB2C5B ?> :@09=59 <5@5 A;>6=>AB8 0@8D<5B8:8, =8:>8< >1@07>< 2 A2>59 ;>38G5A:>9 70:@KB>AB8 8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 =5 <>65B 1KBL 2K2545=0 A0<0 87 A51O (B.5. 157 @5:C@A82=>3> >1@0I5=8O : =54>:07C5<K< 2 55 ?@545;0E B5>@5<0<, ?@8=04;560I8< =5:>59 1>;55 >1I59 A8AB5<5) [Watz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atz. 1997, S.225]. 5. ><<C=8:0F8>==0O 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 8 ?@8@>40 >1I5=8O. >=AB@C:B828ABA:89 ?>4E>4 : 2>?@>AC > B><, GB> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 @50;L=>ABL, ?>72>;8; 0BF;028:C =5 B>;L:> >1>7=0G8BL 420 :;NG52KE 0A?5:B0 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, C:0702 ?@8 MB>< =0 8E <=8<K9 E0@0:B5@, => 8 2=5AB8 >?@545;5==K9 2:;04 2 ?>=8<0=85 D5=><5=0 :><<C=8:0F88, H8@>:> >1AC6405<>3> 2 :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>< 48A:C@A5. 07K20O 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:0 :><<C=8:0F8>==>9 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN, =5 <KA;8<>9 2=5 :>=B5:AB0 >1I5=8O 42CE 8;8 1>;55 ACI5AB2, >1;040NI8E :>3=8B82=K<8 A?>A>1=>ABO<8 (@5GL 845B =5 B>;L:> > G5;>25G5A:>< >1I5AB25, => 8 > 682>B=KE A>>1I5AB20E, >1 >1I5=88 <564C 682>B=K<8 8 G5;>25:>< 8 4065 > :>=B0:B5 A 38?>B5B8G5A:8<8 2=575<=K<8 ?@8H5;LF0<8), 0=0;878@CO ?@>1;5<K MB>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 0BF;028: D0:B8G5A:8 ?KB05BAO ?>=OBL ?@8@>4C >1I5=8O :0: B0:>2>3>.  G5< 65 ACBL 107>2KE B578A>2 53> :>=F5?F88 :><<C=8:0F89?  B@048F8>==> >@85=B8@>20==KE B5>@8OE >1I5=8O, >A=>2K20NI8EAO =0 :>@@5A?>=45=B=KE ?@54AB02;5=8OE >1 8AB8=5, 8=D>@<0F88, A<KA;>>1@07>20=88, >1I5=85 (8 ?>=8<0=85) <564C 42C<O 8=48284CC<0<8 2>7<>6=> ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C >15 AB>@>=K >48=0:>2> ?@028;L=> >B@060NB >:@C60NICN 8E >1J5:B82=CN 459AB28B5;L=>ABL.  A;CG05 :>=D;8:B0 2A5340 <>6=> 2KOA=8BL, :B> 87 A>15A54=8:>2 ?@02, 0 :B> - 701;C6405BAO. ;O MB>3> 4>AB0B>G=> ?@8720BL 2 AC4L8 MBC A0<CN >1J5:B82=CN 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 8 ?>A<>B@5BL, GL5 <=5=85 A>>B25BAB2C5B 59 2 1>;LH59 <5@5.  A>60;5=8N, =0 ?@0:B8:5 MB>B @5F5?B >:07K205BAO =5MDD5:B82=K< 8<5==> 2284C >BACBAB28O :0:>9-;81> @5D5@5=B=>9 A8AB5<K, @50;L=>AB8, 2=5H=59 ?> >B=>H5=8N : :>=B0:B8@CNI8< AB>@>=0<. N10O A8AB5<0 >F5=>:, A<KA;>2, 8=B5@?@5B0F89 :>=AB@C8@C5BAO A0<8<8 8=48284CC<0<8 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I5=8O, >1@07CO B0: =07K205<CN >1I5G5;>25G5A:CN @50;L=>ABL (zwischenmenschliche Wirklichkeit [Watz. 1997, S.21]). !CBL G5;>25G5A:8E >B=>H5=89, :0: C65 1K;> C?><O=CB> 2 =0G0;5, - MB> G8AB>5 :>=AB@C8@>20=85, ;560I55 2 >1;0AB8 ?@54AB02;5=89, :>B>@K5 2 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8 A>2?040NB C :>=B0:B8@CNI8E AB>@>= [Watz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atz. 1977, @.55-56]. @>4>;60O <KA;L 0BF;028:0, 704048<AO 2>?@>A><, >48=0:>2> 8;8 ?>-@07=><C 1C4CB 2845BL <8@ ACI5AB20, ?@840NI85 @07;8G=K9 A<KA; 8 7=0G5=85 @07;8G=K< ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABO< :0@B, O2;5=89, A>1KB89? #?>@O4>G820O ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 B5< 8;8 8=K< >1@07><, <K A>7405< B>, GB> 157 2AO:>3> ?@5C25;8G5=8O <>65B 1KBL =0720=> @07=K<8 @50;L=>ABO<8 [Watz. 1977, @.62]. 5GB> ?>4>1=>5 ?@>8AE>48B 8 2 >B=>H5=88 A<KA;>>1@07>20=8O, B.5. ?@8ACI ;8 <8@C =5:89 0?@8>@=K9 A<KA;, :>B>@K9 =0< ?@54AB>8B ;8HL ?>AB830BL? -B>B 2>?@>A =>A8B 2>72@0B=K9 E0@0:B5@, B0: :0: A0<0 53> ?>AB0=>2:0 - MB> A;54AB285 C65 ACI5AB2CNI53> >B25B0, B.5. A;54AB285 ?@8?8AK20=8O, ?@840=8O A<KA;0, GB> 2>>1I5 45;05B 2>7<>6=K< 25AB8 @5GL (A?@0H820BL) > A<KA;5 [Watz. 1997, S.169].  40;55: ...8@ =5 A>45@68B 8;8 =5 A>45@68B :0:>9-B> A<KA; 2>>1I5, - A0<0 ?>AB0=>2:0 2>?@>A0 > A<KA;5 O2;O5BAO 15AA<KA;5==>9 [Watz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atz. 1977, @.93,94].  B> 2@5<O, :>340 0BF;028: @01>B0; =04 :=83>9 0A:>;L:> @50;L=>ABL @50;L=0? (2 A5@548=5 70-E 3>4>2), :>=AB@C:B8287< 5I5 =5 1K; AB>;L ?>?C;O@=K< 8 =5 2K7K20; B0:8E >AB@KE 48A:CAA89, :>B>@K5 ?@>E>48;8 2 ?>A;54CNI85 45AOB8;5B8O. 4=>9 87 :;NG52KE B5<, 4> A8E ?>@ 0:BC0;L=KE 2 D8;>A>DA:8E A?>@0E > @048:0;L=>< :>=AB@C:B8287<5, O2;O5BAO 2>?@>A > B><, :0: 871560BL >128=5=8O 2 A>;8?A87<5, 5A;8 :>=AB@C:B828ABA:85 02B>@K CB25@640NB, GB> @50;L=>ABL ACI5AB2C5B ;8HL 2 3>;>25 =01;N40B5;O? >4@>1=K9 0=0;87 MB>3> 2>?@>A0 40= 2 A;54CNI8E 3;020E, ?>A2OI5==KE 4@C38< :>=AB@C:B828AB0<. 45AL 65 E>B5;>AL 1K >B<5B8BL B>, :0: 0BF;028: 5I5 =0 70@5 70@>645=8O :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>3> 48A:C@A0 AD>@<C;8@>20; 40==CN D8;>A>DA:CN ?@>1;5<C 2 B5@<8=0E ?@8ACI8E 5<C @0AAC645=89 > =0;8G88 8;8 >BACBAB288 =5:>53> 0?@8>@=>3> ?>@O4:0: K 2848<, GB> 2>?@>A > B><, 8<55B ;8 =0H0 @50;L=>ABL :0:>9-B> ?>@O4>:, O2;O5BAO 2>?@>A>< ?5@2>AB5?5==>9 206=>AB8. 0 =53> ACI5AB2C5B B@8 2>7<>6=KE >B25B0: 1. 50;L=>ABL =5 8<55B ?>@O4:0.  B0:>< A;CG05 @50;L=>ABL ?@54AB02;O5BAO @02=>7=0G=>9 =5@0715@8E5 8 E0>AC, 0 687=L - ?A8E>45;8G5A:8< :>H<0@><. 2. K A?@02;O5<AO A =0H8< M:78AB5=F80;L=K< A>AB>O=85< =52545=8O ?CB5< ?@84C<K20=8O ?>@O4:0, 701K20O > B><, GB> <K A0<8 53> 87>1@5B05<, 0 70B5< ?5@568205< :0: =5GB> "?> BC AB>@>=C", 8<5=C5<>5 =0<8 @50;L=>ABLN. 3. >@O4>: ACI5AB2C5B, O2;OOAL B2>@5=85< =5:>53> 2KAH53> !CI5AB20, >B :>B>@>3> <K 7028A8<, => :>B>@K9 A0< >B =0A =5 7028A8<. 1I5=85 A MB8< !CI5AB2>< AB0=>28BAO, B0:8< >1@07><, A0<>9 206=>9 7040G59 G5;>25:0. >;LH8=AB2> 87 =0A 2 A>AB>O=88 >B25@3=CBL 20@80=B 1. 4=0:> =8:><C 87 =0A =5 C405BAO 871560BL ?@8=OB8O @5H5=8O - =5 8<55B 7=0G5=8O, =0A:>;L:> =5O2=>, =5>A>7=0==> - 2 ?>;L7C 20@80=B0 2 8;8 3 [Watz. 1977, @.212-213]. !>25@H5==> >G5284=>, GB> 20@80=B 2 - MB> ?>78F8O :>=AB@C:B8287<0, @0A?>;>65==0O, ?> 2K@065=8N 0BC@0=K, <564C %0@814>9 A>;8?A87<0 (20@80=B 1) 8 !F8;;>9 @5?@575=B0F8>=87<0 (20@80=B ). &8B8@C5<K5 8740=8O Watzlawick P. (1977) How Real is Real? Vintage Books, N. Y. Watzlawick P. (1997) Mtinchhamens Zopf. Piper Verlag, Munchen, 3. Aufl. Watzlawick P. (1998) Selbslerfullende Prophezeiungen. In: Watzlawick P. (Hrsg.) Die erfundene4yirklichkeit. Piper Verlag, Munchen, 10. Aufl., S.91-110. \   : ;025 1: . 0BF;028: 40?B0F8O : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8;8 040?B8@>20==0O @50;L=>ABL? >=AB@C:B8287< 8 ?A8E>B5@0?8O 0:-B> >4=0 87 ?0F85=B>:, <>;>40O 65=I8=0, ?>A;5 CA?5H=>3> 7025@H5=8O :@0B:>2@5<5==>3> :C@A0 ;5G5=8O @5H0NI85 87<5=5=8O 2 :>=D;8:B=KE >B=>H5=8OE A> A2>59 <0B5@LN ?>OA=8;0 A;54CNI8<8 A;>20<8:  B><, :0: O @0=LH5 2845;0 ?>;>65=85 25I59, 459AB28B5;L=> 1K;0 ?@>1;5<0; B5?5@L 65, :>340 O A<>B@N =0 MB> ?>-4@C3><C, ?@>1;5<K 1>;LH5 =5 ACI5AB2C5B.  >B=>H5=88 40==>3> 2KA:07K20=8O <>6=> 70<5B8BL, GB> >=>, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 2K@0605B ACI=>ABL B5@0?52B8G5A:8E 87<5=5=89; A 4@C3>9 65 AB>@>=K, =0 MB> <>6=> 2>7@078BL, GB> =8:0:8E @50;L=KE 87<5=5=89 =5 ?@>87>H;>, @0725-GB>, 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05, 2 >1;0AB8 AC1J5:B82=KE >F5=>: 8;8 B>G:8 7@5=8O. 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"0:8< 65 206=K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO 8 B>, GB> :>=AB@C:B8287<C :>340-=81C4L C40ABAO =025AB8 <>AB <564C 5AB5AB25==K<8 8 3C<0=8B0@=K<8 =0C:0<8. 0:>=5F, 2 >B=>H5=88 :064>3> 87 =0A :>=AB@C:B8287< >B:@K205B H8@>:85 ?5@A?5:B82K ;8G=>3> E0@0:B5@0.  >4=>< 87 ?8A5< 8B35=HB59=0, =0?8A0==>< 8< 2 1917 3>4C A2>5<C 4@C3C >;C -=35;L<0=C, <>6=> ?@>G5ABL D@07C, :>B>@0O >?8A0==CN 745AL >A=>2=CN <0:A8<C =0H59 687=8 ?>OA=O5B ;CGH5, G5< <>5 B@C4>5<:>5 8AA;54>20=85: 0ABC?8B 2@5<O 8 <K ?@>A=5<AO =0AB>;L:>, GB> >A>7=05<, GB> 2A5 =0< A=8BAO [2]. 8B5@0BC@0 1. Allport, Gordon W.:  Mental Health: A Generic Attitude" Journal of Relegion and Health 4, 7-21, 1964. 2. Engelmann, Paul: Letters from Ludwig Wittgenstein, With a Memoir. B. F. McGuiness (Hrsg.), ubersetzt von L.Furtmuller. Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1967, S. 9. 3. Glasersfeld, Ernst von: Einfuhrung in den radikalen Konstruktivismus". In: Die erfundene Wirklichkeit, Paul Watzlawick (Hrsg.). Munchen, Piper, 1981,S. 16-38. 4. Kolakowski, Leszek: Leben trotz Geschichte. Munchen, Piper, 1977, S. 143. 5. Musil, Robert: Die Verwirrungen des Zoglings Tb'rless. In: Prosa und Stucke. Reinbek, Rowohlt, 1978, S. 74. 6. Piaget, Jean: La construction du reel chez Fenfant. Neauschatel, Delachaux et Niestle, 1937. 7. Rosenhan, David: Gesund in kranker Umgebung". In: Die erfundene Wirklichkeit, Paul Watzlawick (Hrsg.). Munchen, Piper, 1981, S. 111-137. 8. Vaihinger, Hans: Die Philosophic des Als Ob. Berlin, Reuther & Reichard, 1911. 9. Watzlawick, Paul: Selbsterfullende Prophezeiungen". In: Die erfundene Wirklichkeit, Paul Watzlawick (Hrsg.). Munchen, Piper, 1981, S. 91-110. 10. Watzlawick, Paul: Die Moglichkeit des Anderesseins. Bern, Hans Huber, 1977. 11. Wittgenstein, Ludwig: Uber GewiBheit. G. E. M. Anscombe und G. H. von Wright (Hrsg.). Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1969. ;020 2. $8;>A>D8O @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0 -@=AB0 D>= ;075@AD5;L40 048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< @048:0;5=, ?@5645 2A53>, 2 B><, GB> @5H8B5;L=K< >1@07>< ?>@K205B A B@048F8>==>9 M?8AB5<>;>3859 8 @0728205B A2>N B5>@8N ?>7=0=8O, 2 :>B>@>9 7=0=85 1>;LH5 =5 O2;O5BAO G5<-B> >B@060NI8< ">1J5:B82=CN", >=B>;>38G5A:CN 459AB28B5;L=>ABL [Glasersfeld 1998, S.23] 1. 'B> B0:>5 @048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287<? -@=AB D>= ;075@AD5;L4 ?> ?@02C AG8B05BAO >A=>2=K< :;0AA8:>< @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0. ><8<> B>3>, GB> >= 225; 2 C?>B@51;5=85 A0< B5@<8= @048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< 8 >1>7=0G8; ACI5AB2>20=85 :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>3> 48A:C@A0 :0: B0:>2>3>, >= 2?5@2K5 A2O70; A>2@5<5==K5 :>=F5?F88 5AB5AB25==KE 8 @O40 3C<0=8B0@=KE =0C: 8 4>1KBK9 8<8 M<?8@8G5A:89 <0B5@80; A 4@52=59 D8;>A>DA:>9 B@048F859 A:5?B8F87<0 2 548=CN M?8AB5<>;>38N @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0. 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O4 2KA:07K20=89 4>A>:@0B8:>2 A2845B5;LAB2C5B, ?> <=5=8N 02B>@0, > 70@>645=88 A><=5=89 2 2>7<>6=>AB8 @0AA<0B@820BL 7=0=85 :0: >B>1@065=85 =5:>59 @50;L=>AB8 5I5 =0 70@5 2>7=8:=>25=8O D8;>A>D88 :0: B0:>2>9. >B =5:>B>@K5 87 ?@82>48<KE 8AB>G=8:>2: A5=>D0= (>:.570 - >:.478 4> =.M.) 54>ABC?=0 G5;>25:C 8 =8:>340 =5 1K;0 4>ABC?=0 8AB8=0 > >35 8 <8@5; 4065 B>340, :>340 G5;>25: =01@5405B =0 01A>;NB=CN 8AB8=C, A0< C7=0BL >1 MB>< >= =5 <>65B. 8HL 2848<>ABL AC645=0 =0< [F8B. ?> Glas. 1998, S.24]. @82545==0O F8B0B0 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: :;NG520O 2 >1I59 F5?8 D8;>A>DA:8E ?@54H5AB25==8:>2, 2KAB@08205<>9 ;075@AD5;L4><, 0 A5=>D0= - :0: ?5@2K9 87 @52=8E, :B> CA><=8;AO 2 2>7<>6=>AB8 4>AB>25@=>3> 7=0=8O.  8AB>@88 D8;>A>D88 A5=>D0=C 1>;LH8=AB2>< 8AA;54>20B5;59 >B2>48BAO <5AB> >4=>3> 87 ?5@2KE ?@54B5G A:5?B8F87<0: =>A5>;>38G5A:85 2KA:07K20=8O A5=>D0=0 -?5@20O 2 8AB>@88 3@5G5A:>9 <KA;8 ?>AB0=>2:0 2>?@>A0 > 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 3@0=8F0E ?>7=0=8O [$-!, A.292]. %0@0:B5@=>, GB> 8;;N7>@=>ABL 7=0=8O A5=>D0= A2O7K205B A 0=B@>?>F5=B@8G=>ABK> G5;>25G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O, =5A?>A>1=>ABLN 2K9B8 70 ?@545;K A>1AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O. 1 MB>< O@:> A2845B5;LAB2CNB 53> @0AAC645=8O >1 >B=>A8B5;L=>AB8 1>65AB25==KE 87>1@065=89 A2>8<8 ?>:;>==8:0<8: A;8 1K C :>@>2, ;>H0459 8;8 ;L2>2 1K;8 @C:8, :>B>@K<8 >=8 <>3;8 1K, ?>4>1=> ;N4O<, @8A>20BL 8;8 A>74020BL A2>8 ?@>872545=8O, B> ;>H048 @8A>20;8 1K ;>H045-?>4>1=K5, 0 :>@>2K - :>@>2>-?>4>1=K5 87>1@065=8O 1>3>2, A>74020O ?@8 MB>< B0:85 >1@07K, :>B>@K5 8<5NB A0<8. [...] -D8>?K ?@54AB02;ONB A515 A2>8E 1>3>2 G5@=>:>68<8 8 A :C@=>AK<8 =>A0<8, D@0:89FK 65, =0?@>B82, - 3>;C1>3;07K<8 8 @K652>;>AK<8 [Capelle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las. 1996b, p.27]. !:5?B8:8. =>3>G8A;5==K5 :>=:@5B=K5 B578AK ?@>B82 2>7<>6=>AB8 4>AB>25@=>3> 7=0=8O (2 G0AB=>AB8, B@>?K -=5A845<0 8 3-@8??K), :0:, 2?@>G5<, 8 A0<0 ?>AB0=>2:0 2>?@>A0, ?>72>;8;8 ;075@A-D5;L4C 2:;NG8BL A:5?B8:>2 2 G8A;> ?@54H5AB25==8:>2 @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0. AB8=K @048 A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> B@048F88 A:5?B8F87<0 2 D8;>A>D88 =0AB>;L:> 3;C1>:8 8 7=0G8<K, GB>, A:>@55, =5 A:5?B8:8 O2;O5BAO ?@54B5G0<8 :>=AB@C:B8287<0, 0 :>=AB@C:B8287< O2;O5BAO @07=>284=>ABLN A>2@5<5==>3> A:5?B8F87<0.  ?>4B25@645=85 ?@8254C F8B0BC 87 >4=>9 87 8725AB=KE @01>B ?> 8AB>@88 >1I59 D8;>A>D88: !:5?B8:8, GB> >7=0G05B A><=520NI85AO, B.5. B5, :B> AG8B05B 8AB8==>5 7=0=85 ?@8=F8?80;L=> =52>7<>6=K<, ACI5AB2>20;8 2> 2A5 2@5<5=0 - >B A>D8AB>2, G5@57 >=B5=O 8 M2840 .<0, 4> ;L15@B0 0<N 8 :>=AB@C:B828AB>2 =0H53> AB>;5B8O - 8 2A5340 1C4CB ACI5AB2>20BL [Storig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elferich 1992, S.61]. ;NG52>5 A;>2> 2 A:5?B8F87<5 -A><=5=85, >4=0:> ?>=8<05<>5 =5 2 A<KA;5 A><=520NAL, GB>1K ?@89B8 : 8AB8==><C 7=0=8N, 0 2 A<KA;5 A><=520NAL, B0: :0: 8AB8==>5 7=0=85 =52>7<>6=>. 8:>340 =5 A;54C5B 3>2>@8BL O 7=0N, ?@028;L=> 3>2>@8BL <=5 :065BAO. 1>A=>20=85 B0:>9 ?>78F88 =081>;55 ?>4@>1=> 87;>65=> !5:AB>< -<?8@8:>< 2 2845 B@>?>2, 02B>@0<8 :>B>@KE ?@87=0NBAO -=5A845< 8 3@8??0. 04> A:070BL, GB> =5:>B>@K5 87 MB8E B@>?>2 =5 ?>B5@O;8 A2>59 D8;>A>DA:>9 0:BC0;L=>AB8 ?> =0AB>OI55 2@5<O. 06=> >B<5B8BL, GB> C65 2> 2@5<5=0 0=B8G=KE A:5?B8:>2 2>7=8: 2>?@>A, :>B>@K9 ?>AB>O==> A>?CBAB2>20; ;N1>9 A:5?B8G5A:>9 ?>78F88 2 M?8AB5<>;>388 2 B5G5=85 2A59 8AB>@88 D8;>A>D88: =5 O2;O5BAO ;8 ?@8=F8?80;L=0O 0=B84>3<0B8G5A:0O ?>78F8O A:5?B8F87<0 A0<0 4>3<>9? >B :0: =0 MB> >B25G05B !5:AB -<?8@8:: 06=59H8<, >4=0:>, O2;O5BAO B>, GB> ?@>87=>AO MB8 :;NG52K5 A;>20 ["B0:8< MB> :065BAO" 8 "O =8G53> =5 CB25@640N"], :B>-;81> 70O2;O5B ;8HL > B><, GB> 5<C A0<><C :065BAO, :0: MB> 2K3;O48B A ?>78F88 ;8HL 53> A>1AB25==>3> >?KB0, =8G53> 4>AB>25@=>3> > 2=5H=5< ?>;>65=88 25I59 >= ?@8 MB>< =5 CB25@6405B [Helferich 1992, S.61]. @C38<8 A;>20<8, A:5?B8F87< =5 <>65B 1KBL 4>3<>9, ?>A:>;L:C =8G53> =5 CB25@6405B 2 :0G5AB25 8450;0 7=0=8O, =5 4>3<0B878@C5B. 0: ?>4G5@:8205B 2 A2>59 @01>B5 %5;LD5@8E: #G5=85 A:5?B8:>2 - MB> B>65 CG5=85, CB25@6405B >= [!5:AB -<?8@8:], => =5 2 A<KA;5 =5:>59 A8AB5<K 4>3<, 0 ;8HL :0: >4=0 87 D>@< 687=5==>9 ?@0:B8:8 (?@>6820=8O) [Ibid., S.62]. 2B>@0<-:>=AB@C:B828AB0< ?>AB>O==> ?@8E>48BAO AB0;:820BLAO A 0=0;>38G=K< C?@5:>< 2 B><, GB> @048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< O2;O5BAO 2=CB@5==5 ?@>B82>@5G82>9 4>:B@8=>9 (4>:B@8=>9, :>B>@0O A0<0 65 A51O 8 >B25@305B [Schmidt 1996, A<. S.39-41]). ><8<> C:070==KE 2KH5 <KA;8B5;59 4@52=>AB8, ;075@AD5;L4 C?><8=05B ;:<5>=0 8 5@0:;8B0.  ;0B>=5 3>2>@8BAO :0: > D8;>A>D5, :>B>@K9 >48= 87 ?5@2KE A8AB5<0B8G5A:8 ?>AB028; 2>?@>A > A>>B=>H5=88 >1J5:B0 8 53> 2>A?@8OB8O [Glas. 1997, S.12] 8 ?>?KB0;AO ?@>B82>?>AB028BL A:5?A8AC ?8@@>=8AB>2 >1>A=>20=85 2>7<>6=>AB8 8AB8==>3> 7=0=8O [Glas. 1996b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las. 1997, S.10-11]. @5645 G5< ?@>2>73;0H0BL 8AB8==>5 7=0=85 > <8@5, 20< A;54C5B C1548BLAO 2 B><, GB> B0 :0@B8=0, :>B>@CN 2K AB@>8B5, >?8@0OAL =0 A>1AB25==K5 >ICI5=8O 8 ?@54AB02;5=8O, O2;O5BAO 2> 2A5E >B=>H5=8OE 8AB8==>9 @5?@575=B0F859 <8@0 2 B>< 2845, 2 :0:>< >= 459AB28B5;L=> ACI5AB2C5B. 4=0:>, 4;O B>3> GB>1K 1KBL C25@5==K< 2 B><, GB> MB> AE>4AB2> 4>AB>25@=>5, 20<" =5>1E>48<> 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL A@02=8BL 40==>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 A B5<, GB> >=>, :0: ?@54?>;0305BAO, ?@54AB02;O5B. > 8<5==> MB> 2K 8 =5 <>65B5 A45;0BL, B0: :0: =5 <>65B5 2K9B8 70 ?@545;K A2>53> G5;>25G5A:>3> A?>A>10 2>A?@8OB8O 8 <KH;5=8O [Glas. 1996b, p.26]. 48=AB25==K< >1@07>< ?@542>AE8B82 >B25B =0 2>?@>A > ?@8@>45 7=0=8O, B@048F8>==0O M?8AB5<>;>38O ?>AB028;0 A51O ?5@54 =5@07@5H8<>9 48;5<<>9. A;8 ?>7=0=85 8 53> @57C;LB0B - 7=0=85 O2;ONBAO >1O70B5;L=> >?8A0=85<, 87>1@065=85< <8@0 :0:>5 >= 5ABL (die Welt an sich), B> 2 B0:>< A;CG05 =0< =5>1E>48< :@8B5@89, ?> :>B>@><C <K <>3;8 1K AC48BL > "?@028;L=>AB8", "8AB8==>AB8" =0H8E >?8A0=89 8 87>1@065=89 [Glas. 1998, S.25]. A=>2=>5 ?@>B82>@5G85 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>, >1JO2;OO 7=0=85 >B>1@065=85< 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, <K 2 B> 65 2@5<O =5 8<55< 2>7<>6=>AB8 =8 ?@>25@8BL A>>B25BAB285 >B@065=8O (7=0=8O) A2>5<C ?@>B>B8?C (>1J5:BC), =8, A>1AB25==> 3>2>@O, ACI5AB2>20=85 MB>3> ?@>B>B8?0 2>>1I5. <5==> =0 ?>?KB:5 >BKA:0BL @5H5=85 ?@>1;5<K ;075@AD5;L4 AB@>8B D8;>A>DA:CN ?;0BD>@<C @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0. 3.  G5< @048:0;L=>ABL @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0? >;L A:>@> >A=>2=>5 M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:>5 ?@>B82>@5G85 <564C 7=0=85< 8 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN 2 B@048F8>==KE :>@@5A?>=45=B0 KE =0?@02;5=8OE >AB05BAO =5@07@5H8<K<, >G5284=>, A;54C5B ?@>8725AB8 :0:85-B> @048:0;L=K5 87<5=5=8O 2 A0<>9 ?>AB0=>2:5 2>?@>A0, =07@5;0 =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 @048:0;L=> =>2>< ?>4E>45 : ?@>1;5<0< ?>7=0=8O [Glas. 1996b, @.25]. 0: AG8B05B ;075@AD5;L4, 5<C C405BAO >ACI5AB28BL =5>1E>48<K5 ?5@5<5=K, GB>, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, ?@82>48B : @07@5H5=8N ?0@04>:A0 ?@8=F8?80;L=>9 =525@8D8F8@C5<>AB8 7=0=8O ?CB5< ?@>25@:8 53> A>>B25BAB28O 2=5H=59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 0 A 4@C3>9, >B:@K205B 4>@>3C 4;O 70@>482H59AO B0:8< >1@07>< =>2>9 M?8AB5<>;>388. 5A<>B@O =0 >18;85 @07;8G=KE ?@54AB028B5;59 8 ?@54H5AB25==8:>2 @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0 (=0G8=0O A 0=B8G=KE A:5?B8:>2 8 70:0=G820O :>=AB@C:B828AB>< 8065), 2A5 >=8, :0: AG8B05B ;075@AD5;L4, 2 G5<-B> =54>BO3820;8 4> @5H0NI53> @048:0;L=>3> H030 .  G5< ACBL 40==>3> H030, 284=> 87 A;54CNI59 F8B0BK:  40==>< :@0B:>< >?CA5 O 2K=C645= 1C4C >AB0=>28BLAO ;8HL =0 A0<>< 3;02=>< B578A5, ?>72>;ONI5< :>=AB@C:B8287<C, :>B>@K9 O ?@54AB02;ON, >B3@0=8G820BL A51O A0<K< @048:0;L=K< >1@07>< >B 4@C38E 87<>2 3>A?>4AB2CNI53> ?>=OB89=>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20. 048:0;L=>5 >B;8G85 :>@5=8BAO 2> 273;O45 =0 2>?@>A > A>>B=>H5=88 7=0=8O 8 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. "0:, 5A;8 2 B@048F8>==>9 B5>@88 ?>7=0=8O, 0 @02=> 2 :>3=8B82=>9 ?A8E>;>388 MB> A>>B=>H5=85 B@0:BC5BAO :0: 2 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 <5@5 >1@07=>5 (8:>=8G5A:>5) A>>B25BAB285, B> @048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< ?@8405B 5<C 7=0G5=85 ?@8A?>A>1;5==>AB8 (Anpassung) 2 DC=:F8>=0;L=>< A<KA;5 [Glas. 1998, S. 19].  40;55: "0:8< >1@07><, @048:0;L=>ABL @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0 A>AB>8B, ?@5645 2A53>, 2 B><, GB> >= ?>@K205B A >1I5?@8=OB>9 B@048F859 8 ?@54;0305B B5>@8N ?>7=0=8O, 2 :>B>@>9 ?>=OB85 7=0=8O 1>;LH5 =5 A>>B=>A8BAO A ">1J5:B82=>9", >=B>;>38G5A:>9 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN, 0 >?@545;O5BAO 548=AB25==K< >1@07>< :0: CAB0=02;8205<K9 ?>@O4>: 8 >@30=870F8O >?KB=>3> <8@0, D>@<8@C5<>3> 2 ?@>F5AA5 687=8 (?@>6820=8O) [Glas. 1998, S.23]. #65 ?> B>9 ?@8G8=5, GB> @048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< ?@54?>;0305B @048:0;L=K9 ?5@5A<>B@ ?>=OB89 7=0=8O, 8AB8=K, >1I5=8O 8 ?>=8<0=8O, >= =5 <>65B 1KBL 2?8A0= =8 2 >4=C 87 B@048F8>==KE M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:8E B5>@89 [Glas. 1996b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erwunschten Ziel [Glas. 1997, S.30], gewcihllen Zweck [Glas. 1998, S.31], chosen goals [Glas. 1996b, p. 118]), > :>B>@>< =5>4=>:@0B=> C?><8=05B ;075@AD5;L4 2 A2>8E >1JOA=8B5;L=KE AE5<0E.  ?@>F5AA5 A2>59 687=545OB5;L=>AB8 (687=5?>445@60=8O), GB> 2 @02=>9 AB5?5=8 >B=>A8BAO :0: : 18>;>38G5A:><C ACI5AB2>20=8N, B0: 8 : A>F80;L=K< 0A?5:B0< 2K6820=8O, >@30=87< AB0;:8205BAO A D0:B>@0<8 2=5H=59 A@54K (?@5?OBAB28O<8), :>B>@K5 2 @07=>9 AB5?5=8 2;8ONB =0 53> 687=5A?>A>1=>ABL 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, 2K7K20NB @07;8G=K5 ?>2545=G5A:85 @50:F88. A;8 >B25B=0O @50:F8O =0 2>7459AB285 2=5H=59 A@54K O2;O5BAO 045:20B=>9, B> 5ABL ?>72>;O5B >@30=87<C ?@>4>;68BL A2>5 ACI5AB2>20=85 (G5@57 C4>2;5B2>@5=85 ?>B@51=>AB59 - 65;05<KE F5;59), B> >@30=87< >:07K205BAO ?@83>4=K< 4;O 687=8 2 40==>9 A@545, O2;O5BAO 687=5A?>A>1=K< (viable). !CI5AB25==> B>, GB> ?>=OB85 687=5A?>A>1=>AB8 ;075@AD5;L4 2K=>A8B 87 AC3C1> 18>;>38G5A:>3> :>=B5:AB0 2 >1;0ABL M?8AB5<>;>388. < 65 22545= 8 A0< B5@<8= 687=5A?>A>1=>ABL, :>B>@K9 2 >@838=0;5 72CG8B :0: viability 8 =5 8<55B AB@>3>9 A<KA;>2>9 ?@82O7:8 : 18>;>38G5A:><C ?>=8<0=8N 687=8:  >@838=0;L=>< ?>=8<0=88 A;>2> "viability" >7=0G05B "?@>E>48<>ABL" :0:>3>-B> ?CB8 8 2 >B=>H5=88 8=48284C0;L=>3> @0728B8O ?@8<5=O5BAO 4;O E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 687=5A?>A>1=>AB8 284>2, 8=48284CC<>2 8 <CB0F89. -B> - 8<5==> B> 7=0G5=85, 2 :>B>@>< O C?>B@51;ON 40==>5 A;>2> 2 M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:>< :>=B5:AB5 [Glas. 1997, S.I8]. 5@2>=0G0;L=0O B@C4=>ABL 2 ?>=8<0=88 :;NG52>3> B5@<8=0 viability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de facto 745AL 8 A59G0A, ;81> =5ACI5AB2>20=85: ...8>;>38G5A:85 >@30=87<K, :>B>@K5 682CB 2 40==K9 <><5=B, O2;ONBAO 687=5A?>A>1=K<8 (viable), ?>A:>;L:C 4> MB>3> <><5=B0 8< C40;>AL 2K68BL [Glas. 1996b, @.73]. 8:0:8E 0?@8>@=KE ?@54=07=0G5=89 8;8 F5;59 C 682>3> >@30=87<0 =5B, A>>B25BAB25==>, 15AA<KA;5==> 3>2>@8BL > 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 ?@8A?>A>1;5==>AB8 : G5<C-B>, A>>B25BAB28O G5<C-B>. "0:8< >1@07><, 18>;>38G5A:89 D5=><5= 040?B0F88 @0AA<0B@8205BAO ;075@AD5;L4>< 8 4@C38<8 02B>@0<8 :0: 4>?CAB8<>ABL, ?@83>4=>ABL, 0 =5 :0: AB@>3>5 A>>B25BAB285 8;8 F5;5?>;030=85: >6=> 1K;> 1K A:070BL, GB> 5AB5AB25==K9 >B1>@ =0?@02;5= ?@>B82 =54>AB0B:>2, 8A:CAAB25==K9 65, =0?@>B82, AB@5<8BAO A>74020BL ?@58<CI5AB20. >=OB85 687=5A?>A>1=>AB8 2 40==>9 A2O78 ?>4@07C<5205B >BACBAB285 =54>AB0B:>2, >4=0:>, =8 2 :>59 <5@5 =5 CB25@6405B 2K68205<>ABL 2 :0G5AB25 F5;8. @30=87< O2;O5BAO "687=5A?>A>1=K<" ;8HL ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C 5<C C405BAO 2K6820BL 8 @07<=>60BLAO 2 >:@C60NI59 53> A@545 [Glas. 1997, S.24-25]. !> AAK;:>9 =0 70<5G0=85 09F75::5@0 (!. f. Weizsacker) 8 @01>BC 8BB5=4@0O (Pit-tendrigh !. Adaptation, natural selection, and behavior. In: Roe A., Simpson G. (Eds.) Behavior and evolution, New Haven, 1958, p.390-416). #:070==0O B>G:0 7@5=8O =5 O2;O5BAO =>2>22545=85< ;075@A-D5;L40, ?> MB><C ?>2>4C ACI5AB2CNB A?5F80;L=K5 @01>BK 8 48A:CAA88. 4=0:> C ;075@AD5;L40, :0: 8 C 4@C38E :>=AB@C:B828AB>2, B0:0O 8=B5@?@5B0F8O 040?B0F88, >B:07 >:@C60NI59 A@545 2 0:B82=>< =0G0;5 2 ?@>F5AA5 @0728B8O O2;O5BAO ?@8=F8?80;L=>9 ?>78F859, A;C60I59 DC=40<5=B>< 4;O M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:8E ?>AB@>5=89. >=OB85 040?B0F88, ?@8A?>A>1;5==>AB8, :>B>@>5 B5?5@L A;54C5B ?>=8<0BL 8A:;NG8B5;L=> :0: 687=5A?>A>1=>ABL, ?@83>4=>ABL (fitness) A;C68B :;NG52K< A2O7CNI8< 725=>< <564C M2>;NF8>==>9 B5>@859 2 18>;>388 8 @048:0;L=K< :>=AB@C:B8287<>< 2 M?8AB5<>;>388: <5==> 2 B@0:B>2:5 ?>=OB8O "fitness" A>2?040NB >A=>2=K5 ?@8=F8?K B5>@88 ?>7=0=8O @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0 8 B5>@88 M2>;NF88: B>G=> B0: 65, :0: A@540 CAB0=02;8205B 3@0=8FK 2K6820=8O 4;O 682KE >@30=87<>2 (>@30=8G5A:8E AB@C:BC@), M;8<8=8@CO 20@80=BK, 2KE>4OI85 70 ?@545;K 2>7<>6=>AB59 2K6820=8O, B0: 8 >?KB=K9 <8@ - 1C4L B> 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8 8;8 2 ;01>@0B>@88 - >?@545;O5B :@8B5@89 ?@028;L=>AB8 ("Prufstein") =0H8E 8459 (:>3=8B82=KE AB@C:BC@) [Glas. 1998, S.20-21]. "0:8< >1@07><, ?>=OB8O 687=5A?>A>1=>AB8 (viability, Viabilitat) 8 ?@83>4=>AB8 (fitness, Passen) 70<5I0NB A>1>9: 2 18>;>388 - ?>=OB85 040?B0F88 (adaptation, Anpassung), 2 M?8AB5<>;>388 - ?>=OB85 A>>B25BAB28O (correspondence, Ubereinstim-mung): @8B8G5A:89 <><5=B 2 =0H59 B5>@88 ?>7=0=8O A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> 845O A>>B25BAB28O @50;L=>AB8 70<5I05BAO 84559 ?@83>4=>AB8. =0=85 O2;O5BAO E>@>H8< 7=0=85<, 5A;8 >=> 2?8AK205BAO 2 @0<:8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, =5 2ABC?0O A =59 2 ?@>B82>@5G85. "0:>3> @>40 ?@83>4=>ABL 4>;6=0 4>AB830BLAO =5 B>;L:> C45@6820=85< 687=5A?>A>1=>AB8 :>3=8B82=>9 AB@C:BC@K, AE5<K, B5>@88 ?5@54 ;8F>< =>2>3> >?KB0 8;8 =>2KE M:A?5@8<5=B>2, => 8 B5<, GB>1K 4>:070BL A2>N A>2<5AB8<>ABL A 4@C38<8 @01>B0NI8<8 AE5<0<8 8 B5>@8O<8 [Glas. 1996b, p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las. 1996,,@.14]. ;075@AD5;L4 C45;O5B =5<0;> 2=8<0=8O 2>?@>AC >1 0=0;>388, 5A;8 =5 A:070BL ?>;=>9 B>645AB25==>AB8, 42CE M2>;NF88 - 18>;>38G5A:>9 8 :>3=8B82=>9 - 8, GB> >A>15==> F5==>, 2 D8;>A>DA:>-8AB>@8G5A:>< :>=B5:AB5. 0: B>;L:> M2>;NF8>==0O B5>@8O '0@;L70 0@28=0 AB0;0 4>AB>O=85< H8@>:>9 =0CG=>9 >1I5AB25==>AB8, BCB 65 =0G0;8 ?@54?@8=8<0BLAO ?>?KB:8 ?@8<5=8BL 55 >1JOA=8B5;L=K9 ?>B5=F80; 70 ?@545;0<8 18>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 >1;0AB8 M?8AB5<>;>388.  MB>9 A2O78 ;075@AD5;L4 C?><8=05B > @01>B0E #. 659<A0 8 . 8<<5;O. 4=0:> 1>;55 206=K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO 0=0;87 A ?>78F89 :>=AB@C:B8287<0 >A=>2=KE ?>;>65=89 M2>;NF8>==>9 M?8AB5<>;>388. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, @O4 8459, 2KA:070==KE 2 @0<:0E 40==>3> =0?@02;5=8O, =0?@O<CN A?>A>1AB2>20; D>@<8@>20=8N :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>9 ?>78F88 8, B0:8< >1@07><, 2:;NG05BAO 2 A?8A>: 53> ?@54H5AB25==8:>2; A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ACI5AB2CNI85 @0AE>645=8O 2> 273;O40E ?> =5:>B>@K< :;NG52K< 2>?@>A0< 70AB02;ONB AG8B0BL M2>;NF8>==CN M?8AB5<>;>38N >4=8< 87 1;8609H8E >??>=5=B>2 @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0. ;8609H8< 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> >10 :>=F5?BC0;L=KE =0?@02;5=8O M?8AB5<>;>388 2K@>A;8 87 >4=>3> :>@=O - B578A0 >B>645AB2;5=8O 18>;>38G5A:>9 8 :>3=8B82=>9 M2>;NF88 8 8<5NB >1I8E ?@54AB028B5;59 - :0: 2 1>;55 @0==89 ?5@8>4 (. 8065), B0: 8 A@548 A>2@5<5==KE 8AA;54>20B5;59 (: ?@8<5@C, A>2@5<5==K5 CG5=K5 87 C=825@A8B5B0 8;5D5;L40 . @>=, . N??5@A, . 0A;0:). ;02=>5 8459=>5 ?@>B82>@5G85 A>AB>8B 2 2>77@5=88 =0 >A=>2=>9 M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:89 2>?@>A > A>>B=>H5=88 7=0=8O 8 @50;L=>AB8. "0:, 5A;8 @048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< ?>;=>ABLN >B25@305B :0:>5-;81> A>>B=>H5=85 <564C 7=0=85< 8 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN 2284C C65 A0<>9 =52>7<>6=>AB8 ?>AB0=>2:8 B0:>3> 2>?@>A0, B> 2 M2>;NF8>==>9 M?8AB5<>;>388 ACI5AB2C5B >?@545;5==0O ?>78F8O, ?>72>;ONI0O AB028BL 8 2 ?>;>68B5;L=>< :;NG5 @5H0BL 2>?@>A > A>>B25BAB288 7=0=8O 2=5H=59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. 0: =8 1K;0 1K 1;87:0 ?>78F8O M2>;NF8>==>9 M?8AB5<>;>388 ?>78F88 @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0, >=0 ;8H5=0 3;02=>3> - B>9 @048:0;L=>AB8, 157 :>B>@>9 2A5340 1C45B >AB020BLAO, A B>G:8 7@5=8O :>=AB@C:B828AB>2, 2 ;>=5 B@048F8>==>9 M?8AB5<>;>388. > A;>20< . >@5=F0: 40?B0F8O : :0:><C-;81> D0:B>@C >:@C60NI59 A@54K M:2820;5=B=0 >1@5B5=8N 8=D>@<0F88 >1 MB>< D0:B>@5 [Lorenz 1979, @. 167].  8=B5@?@5B0F88 >@5=F0 A0<0 AB@C:BC@0 682>3> >@30=87<0 O2;O5BAO =5:8< =5?@O<K< =>A8B5;5< 8=D>@<0F88 >1 >:@C60NI59 A@545, D878G5A:8E O2;5=8OE 8 70:>=><5@=>ABOE. >4>1=>3> @>40 2KA:07K20=8O ;075@AD5;L4 =0E>48B 8 C 4@C38E ?@54AB028B5;59 M2>;NF8>==>9 M?8AB5<>;>388 - . M<?15;;0 8 . >??5@0: 0A0B5;L=> @0728B8O :>3=8B82=KE AB@C:BC@ M<?15;; 8715305B ?@8<5=OBL ?>=OB85 ?@83>4=>AB8 4;O E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 :>=25=F8>=0;L=>3> A>>B=>H5=8O <564C 7=0=85< 8 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN. "0:, =0?@8<5@, >= 3>2>@8B, GB> 53> B5>@8O >?8AK205B ?@>F5AA, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@>3> >@30=87< ?@8A?>A01;8205BAO : =57028A8<>9 >:@C60NI59 A@545, ?>-4@C3><C - >1@5B05B 7=0=85 > =59 [A<. Campbell I960]. #?><8=0=85 > =5:>59 "=57028A8<>9" >B 682CI53> >@30=87<0 >:@C60NI59 A@545, 0 B0:65 > 7=0=88 ">1" MB>9 A@545 2KO2;O5B DC=40<5=B0;L=CN M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:CN ?>78F8N, @0745;O5<CN M<?15;;>< B0:65 2> 2A5E 4@C38E 53> @01>B0E, 8 :>B>@0O A>3;0AC5BAO A ?>78F859 >??5@0. 10 02B>@0 =0AB0820NB =0 B><, GB> 2 B5>@88 ?>7=0=8O "2KE>48BL 70 ?@545;K [M<?8@8G5A:8E] 40==KE" O2;O5BAO =5>1E>48<>ABLN, ?>;030O B5< A0<K< =5 B>;L:> =5:89 "@50;L=K9" <8@, => B0:65 2>7<>6=>ABL MB>B @50;L=K9 <8@ ?>7=020BL, >1@5B0BL "7=0=85 > =5<" [A<. Campbell 1974] [Glas. 1997, S.27-28]. 1I55 2>7@065=85 ?@54AB028B5;O< M2>;NF8>==>9 M?8AB5<>;>388 72CG8B C ;075@AD5;L40 A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 8>;>38G5A:>5 ?>=8<0=85 ?@83>4=>AB8, 8;8 687=5A?>A>1=>AB8, 2>2A5 =5 ?>4@07C<5205B B@51>20=85 B>3>, GB>1K >@30=87<K 8;8 284K >1;040;8 8=D>@<0F859 8;8 @0745;O;8 :0:8<-B> >1@07>< A2>9AB20 =57028A8<>9 "40==>9" >:@C60NI59 A@54K. 40?B0F8O ?@54?>;0305B ;8HL, GB> 8< C405BAO >1E>48BL >AB@K5 C3;K ?@>B82>@5G89 8 :>;;8789. A5, GB> 1K =8 ?@>A>G8;>AL A:2>7L A8B> 5AB5AB25==>3> >B1>@0, 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5, <>65B C7=0BL, GB> >=> ?@>H;> A:2>7L =53>, >4=0:> MB>B D0:B =8G53> =5 3>2>@8B > AB@>5=88 A0<>3> A8B0. 0: 2 B5>@88 M2>;NF88, B0: 8 2 :>=AB@C:B8287<5, "A>>B25BAB2>20BL" >7=0G05B =5 1>;55 G5< ?@>9B8 A:2>7L :0:85-B> ?@5?OBAB28O A>25@H5==> 157>B=>A8B5;L=> : B><C, GB> MB8 ?@5?OBAB28O <>3CB A>1>9 ?@54AB02;OBL [Glas. 1996b,p.44-45]. 5. =0=85 :0: >1@07 459AB28O. KB0OAL A45;0BL ?@545;L=> ?>=OB=>9, A2>N M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:CN ?>78F8N ;075@AD5;L4 ?>OA=O5B @O4>< <5B0D>@, =081>;55 O@:8<8 A@548 :>B>@KE O2;ONBAO <5B0D>@K > :>@01;5 2 B5<=>B5, > A;5?>< ?CB=8:5 2 ;5AC [Glas. 1997, S.I9,20], > A8B5 [Glas. 1996b, @.44-45] 8 4@C385.  >1>1I5==>< 2845 B578A, :>B>@K9 40==K5 <5B0D>@K ?@8720=K ?@>OA=8BL, <>65B 1KBL AD>@<C;8@>20= A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>7=0=8O ?>7=0NI89 =5 872;5:05B ?>78B82=>5 7=0=85 (8=D>@<0F8N) > 25I0E 8 O2;5=8OE 87 2=5H=53> <8@0, :0: >=8 5ABL, 0 >@30=87C5B 2 BC 8;8 8=CN A2O7=CN :0@B8=C B>B =530B82=K9 >?KB >B =5C402H8EAO 459AB289, :>B>@K9 A0< 65 @5:C@A82=> MB8 ?@5?OBAB28O 2=5H=59 A@54K :>3=8B82=> >?@545;O5B. 0?8B0= (:0: =5:89 01AB@0:B=K9 >1@07 G5;>25:0, :>B>@><C =54>ABC?=K =8:0:85 A?>A>1K 2>A?@8OB8O >:@C60NI59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8 :>B>@K9 ;8H5= ;>F<0=A:8E :0@B) =5 <>65B ?@8=F8?80;L=> 7=0BL =8G53> > AC4>E>4=>AB8 8 AB@C:BC@5 <>@A:>3> D0@20B5@0 :@><5 B5E ?@5?OBAB289, =0 :>B>@K5 >= =0B>;:=C;AO ?@8 ?@>42865=88. ">G=> B0: 65 ?CB=8: 7=05B > ;5A5 @>2=> =0AB>;L:>, =0A:>;L:> MB> ?>72>;ONB 5<C B5 ?@5?OBAB28O, :>B>@K5 >= ?>2AB@5G0; =0 A2>5< ?CB8. A;8 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 MB> =5 70:>=G8;>AL 3815;LN =8 B>3>, =8 4@C3>3>, B> 7=0=8O :0?8B0=0 > <>@5 1C4CB A2>48BLAO : B><C >1@07C 459AB289, :>B>@K9 ?>72>;8; 5<C =5 @0718BLAO > A:0;K, 0 7=0=8O ?CB=8:0 > ;5A5 - >1@07C 459AB289 4;O CA?5H=>3> ?@>E>645=8O 40==>3> :>=:@5B=>3> ?CB8. ..."> >:@C65=85, :>B>@>5 =0 A2>5< >?KB5 ?5@568205B A;5?>9 ?CB=8:, =5 A>45@68B =8 ;5A0, =8 45@52L52, :0: MB> <>3 1K C2845BL AB>@>==89 =01;N40B5;L. => A>AB>8B B>;L:> 87 H03>2, :>B>@K5 ?CB=8: ?@>H5; CA?5H=>, 0 B0:65 87 H03>2, :>B>@K5 =5 C40;8AL 2A;54AB285 AB>;:=>25=8O A ?@5?OBAB285< [Glas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las. 1996b, @.73-74]. >;55 B>3>, =8 GB>-;81> >?@545;5==>5 > ACI5AB2>20=88 G53>-B> 70 ?@545;0<8 40==>3> >?KB0, =8 >ICI5=8O 45D8F8B0, =54>AB0B:0 G53>-B> 2 >1I59 :0@B8=5 7=0=8O C ?CB=8:0 =5 2>7=8:=5B 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 >= =5 =0G=5B A=>20 459AB2>20BL, =0BK:0BLAO =0 ?@5?OBAB28O. ...N1>5 >?KB=>5 7=0=85 A>AB>8B 87 ?@028;, C:07K20NI8E =0 B>, :0:85 8<5==> 459AB28O >:07K20NBAO CA?5H=K<8 4;O CAB@0=5=8O 40==KE ?@5?OBAB289, =8:0:>5 7=0=85 > =57028A8<>9 2=5H=59 @50;L=>AB8 ?@8 MB>< =5 ?@8>1@5B05BAO, =8:0:>5 ?>4>1=>3> @>40 7=0=85 4;O MB>3> 8 =5 =C6=> [Glas. 1996b, p. 155]. "5>@5B8G5A:>5 >A<KA;5=85 ?@8=F8?80;L=>9 >3@0=8G5==>AB8 ;N1>3> 7=0=8O, ;N1>3> <8@>2>77@5=8O A ?>78F89 ?>7=0NI53>, 1C4L B> G5;>25:, :>H:0 8;8 <CE0, 405BAO /:>1>< D>= .M:A:N;5< 2 53> 8725AB=>9 @01>B5 -:A:C@A 2 >:@C60NICN A@54C 682>B=KE 8 G5;>25:0 (Uexkuli, 1933), =5>4=>:@0B=> C?><8=05<>9 ;075@AD5;L4><.  MB>< <5AB5 <K ?>4E>48< : G@572KG09=> 206=><C B578AC 2 :>=F5?F88 ;075@AD5;L40 8 4@C38E :>=AB@C:B828AB>2 > DC=:F8>=0;L=>9 =5>B45;8<>AB8 459AB28O 8 ?>7=0=8O. 8 2 D8;>A>DA:><, =8 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:><, =8 2 18>;>38G5A:>< 0A?5:B0E MB>B B578A =5 =>2. "5< =5 <5=55, 8<5==> 53> ?;N@0;8AB8G-=>ABL 70AB02;O5B =0A >AB0=>28BLAO =0 =5< =5A:>;L:> ?>4@>1=55, 401K 871560BL @07=>GB5=89 8 =5?@028;L=KE 8=B5@?@5B0F89.  >A=>25 459AB25==>3> ?>=8<0=8O 7=0=8O ;075@AD5;L4>< ;568B ?5@28G=>5 ?>=8<0=85 :>3=8B82=>9 0:B82=>AB8 @515=:0 :0: <5B>40 ?@>1 8 >H81>: (D>@<8@>20=85 >?5@0F8>==KE AE5< ?> 8065). 8 @515=>:, =8 >4=> 682>5 ACI5AB2> =5 =0G=5B ?>7=020BL 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 =5 =0G=5B 0:B82=> 459AB2>20BL, ?@>1>20BL.  4@C3>5 CA;>285 - 459AB2CNI89 >@30=87< =5 =0G=5B ?>7=020BL 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 =5 =0B:=5BAO =0 ?@5?OBAB285. 5@20O =5C402H0OAO ?>?KB:0 7=0<5=C5B A>1>9 ?5@28G=K9 0:B ?>7=0=8O. @8G5< MB> ?5@28G=>5 7=0=85 2>7=8:05B =5 :0: >B>1@065=85 ?>;57=KE 8;8 2@54=KE A2>9AB2 ?@5?OBAB28O, 0 :0: 70?><8=0=85 >1@070 459AB28O, ?@8254H53> : =565;0B5;L=><C @57C;LB0BC (8;8 =5 ?@8254H53> : 65;0B5;L=><C @57C;LB0BC).  ?@54<5B0E 8;8 >1J5:B0E =0 ?5@2KE AB048OE ?>7=0=8O 3>2>@8BL 2>>1I5 =5 ?@8E>48BAO. A5 ?@>8AE>48B =0 C@>2=5 459AB289, ?>ABC?:>2, AB5@5>B8?>2 ?>2545=8O. >B :0: >1 MB>< 3>2>@8B ;075@AD5;L4: AE>4=K< A;54C5B AG8B0BL ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> ?>7=0=85 (8 7=0=85) =5 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO 2 :0G5AB25 =5:>53> :>=45=A0B0, >1@07C5<>3> 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?0AA82=>3> 2>A?@8OB8O, 0 O2;O5BAO @57C;LB0B>< 0:B82=>AB8 AC1J5:B0. "0:>3> @>40 0:B82=>ABL - MB> 2>2A5 =5 <0=8?C;OF88 A "25I0<8-2-A515", B.5. >1J5:B0<8, :>B>@K5 8<5;8AL 1K 2> 2=5M<?8@8G5A:>< <8@5 8 4>;6=K 1K;8 1K <KA;8BLAO AB@C:BC@8@>20==K<8 2 3>B>2>< 2845 ?@54<5B0<8, :0:>2K<8 >=8 :06CBAO ?>7=0NI5<C. :B82=>ABL, >B25BAB25==CN 70 ?>AB@>5=85 7=0=8O, <K =07K205< ">?5@8@>20=85<" ("operieren"), GB> O2;O5BAO A2>9AB2>< ;N1>9 :>3=8B82=>9 ACI=>AB8, :>B>@0O, ?> <5B:><C 2K@065=8N 8065, >@30=87C5B :0: A0<0 A51O, B0: 8 A2>9 >?KB=K9 <8@ [Glas. 1998, S.30]. 0B53>@8G=>ABL B578A0 ?>7=0=85 5ABL >1@07 459AB28O ;075@AD5;L4 =5>4=>:@0B=> CA8;8205B ?@O<K<8 AAK;:0<8 =0 @01>BK 8065: >2>;L=> G0AB> 2 A2>8E @01>B0E (=0?@. 1937, @. 10; 19670, @. 10; 19700, @. 15) 8065 CB25@6405B, GB>, =0 53> 273;O4, 7=0=85 2>7=8:05B 2 @57C;LB0B5 0:B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 AC1J5:B0, 1C4L >=0 D878G5A:>9 8;8 <5=B0;L=>9. ;02=>5, GB> ?@8405B 7=0=8N >@30=87>20==>ABL, - MB> F5;5=0?@02;5==K9 E0@0:B5@ 40==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. "...N1>5 7=0=85 ?@82O70=> : 459AB28N; 7=0BL >1J5:B 8;8 A>1KB85 >7=0G05B 8A?>;L7>20BL 53> 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 45OB5;L=>9 AE5<5..."(Piaget 19670, @.14-15) [Glas. 1996b, @.56] >3=8B82=K5 AB@C:BC@K, > G5< 2A5340 =04> ?><=8BL, =5>B45;8<K >B 459AB28O, >B 8E 8A?>;L7>20=8O. 59AB285 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 -MB> =5GB> 1>;LH55, G5< A;CG09=K5 42865=8O 8;8 87<5=5=8O - >=8 >1@5B0NB A2>5 <5AB> ;8HL 2 :>=B5:AB5 "0:B82=>AB=KE AE5<". "0:>5 ?>;>65=85 @048:0;L=> >B;8G05B ?>4E>4 8065 :0: >B 18E528>@8ABA:>9 <>45;8 AB8<C;->B25B, B0: 8 >B ;8=59=>9 ?@8G8==>-A;54AB25==>9 F5?8, ?@8=OB>9 2 D878:5, 3;02=K< >1@07><, 2284C B>3>, GB> 0:B82=>AB=K5 AE5<K O2;ONBAO 2A5340 F5;5=0?@02;5==K<8 [Glas. 1996b, p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der erste echte Konstruktivist) [Glas. 1998, S.16], 0 53> @01>BC 1710 3>40 De antiqissima Italorum sapientia - ?5@2K< O2=K< D>@<C;8@>20=85< :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>9 ?>78F88 [Glas. 1996b, p.6]: ">, GB> <K >1KG=> =07K205< "D0:B0<8", - MB> =5 M;5<5=BK =57028A8<>3> >B =01;N40B5;O <8@0, 0 A>AB02;ONI85 53> 687=5==>3> >?KB0. 0: 70<5B8; 8:> 2 1710 3>4C, A;>2> factum =0 ;0BK=8 >7=0G05B ?@8G0AB85 ?@>H54H53> 2@5<5=8 3;03>;0 "45;0BL". 0==>5 >1AB>OB5;LAB2> AB0;> >4=8< 87 D0:B>@>2, ?>72>;82H8E 5<C AD>@<C;8@>20BL M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:89 ?@8=F8? > B><, GB> ;N4O< 40=> 7=0BL ;8HL B>, GB> MB8 ;N48 A0<8 ?>AB@>8;8, A>548=82 2<5AB5 4>ABC?=K5 8< M;5<5=BK [Glas. 1996b, @.4]. ...>65B 1KBL, 5I5 206=55 B>, GB> >= ?@54;>68; A?>A>1 >B;8G0BL O7K: <8AB8:8 A 53> =5?@5>4>;8<K<8 <5B0D>@0<8 >B O7K:0 @07C<0, CE>4OI53> :>@=O<8 2 ?@0:B8G5A:89 >?KB [Glas. 1996b, p.49]. >A:>;L:C 8:> 1>;LH5 8725AB5= :0: 8AB>@8: 8 D8;>A>D 8AB>@88, 8<55B A<KA; C?><O=CBL > 53> :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>9 ?>78F88 2 >B=>H5=88 8AB>@8G5A:>3> <0B5@80;0, =5 ?>B5@O2H59 A2>53> 7=0G5=8O ?> ?@>H5AB288 25:>2. > A;>20< ;075@AD5;L40: 0: 70<5B8; 8B0;LO=A:89 D8;>A>D 60<10BB8AB0 8:> (1668-1744), <K =5 <>65< @5:>=AB@C8@>20BL ?@>H;>5 B>G=> B0:8<, :0:8< >=> 1K;>, B0: :0: <K =5 2 A>AB>O=88 871560BL 8=B5@?@5B0F88 8 >A<KA;5=8O =0H8E 2>A?><8=0=89 2 :>=B5:AB5 B5E :>=F5?F89, :>B>@K5 2;045NB =0<8 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O [Glas. 1996b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ego solus ipse); 2A5 B>, GB> MB> M3> AG8B05B 2=5H=8< <8@>< ACBL ?;>4 53> 2>>1@065=8O.  2B>@0O - 8<?;8F8B=>, => 40;5:> =5 2A5340 >1>A=>20==> 2K2>48<0O 87 ?5@2>9 3;0A8B > B><, GB> 2>>1@0605<K9 <8@ ACBL ?@>872>;L=0O D0=B078O M3>, 53> ?>@>640NI53>. > 2B>@>< A;CG05 ?@>8AE>48B ?>4<5=0 8AB8==>3> A<KA;0 A>;8?A87<0. !>;8?A87< ?>4@07C<5205B 548=AB25==>ABL ACI5AB2>20=8O 7=0NI53> O, => =8G53> =5 3>2>@8B > ?@>872>;L=>AB8 ?@>F5AA0 ?>7=0=8O.  ?@8<5@C, A=>2845=85 AB@>8BAO 87 <0B5@80;0, =5 2KE>4OI53> 70 ?@545;K B>3>, GB> C65 8<55BAO ad hoc 2 A>7=0=88 A?OI53>.  A=>2845=88 A>1KB8O ?5@56820NBAO :0: @50;L=K5, E>BO =8 2 :0:>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 MB> =5 ?@>8AE>48B, B.5. A=>2845=85 A>;8?B8G=>. "5< =5 <5=55, A>1KB8O, ?5@568205<K5 2 A=>2845=88, 2A5 53> 7=0=8O 8 >1@07K ACBL =5 ?@>872>;L=K5 D0=B0788 A?OI53>, 0 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 <5@5 45B5@<8=8@>20=K 8 ?>4G8=5=K >?@545;5==K< ?A8E>-=52@>;>38G5A:8< ?@>F5AA0<.  B0:>9 65 <5@5 ?> :0:8<-B> 70:>=><5@=>ABO< (0 2>2A5 =5 ?@>872>;L=>) <>65B AB@>8BLAO 38?>B5B8G5A:89 2>>1@0605<K9 <8@ M3>. ! A0<>3> =0G0;0 ;075@AD5;L4 CB25@6405B, GB> 7=0=85 =5 :>=AB@C8@C5BAO ?@>872>;L=K< >1@07><. >;55 B>3>, 2>?@>A > AB018;L=>AB8, A8AB5<0B8G=>AB8 7=0=8O >1JO2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 >A=>2=KE 2>?@>A>2 2 @048:0;L=>< :>=AB@C:B8287<5: ;02=K9 2>?@>A 72CG8B A;54CNI8< >1@07><: ?>G5<C 65 <K 6825< 2 >B=>A8B5;L=> AB018;L=>< 8 =0456=>< <8@5, 5A;8 <K =5 8<55< =8:0:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 =8 AB018;L=>ABL, =8 @53C;O@=>ABL, =8 ;N1>5 GC2AB25==> 2>A?@8=8<05<>5 :0G5AB2> ?@8?8AK20BL A C25@5==>ABLN >1J5:B82=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8? [Glas. 1998, S.28]. B0:, ?>G5<C 65 2A5-B0:8 =0H5 7=0=85 =5 O2;O5BAO ?@>872>;L=>9 D0=B07859 8 GB> A;C68B 8AB>G=8:>< 53> >B=>A8B5;L=>9 AB018;L=>AB8, 8=20@80=B=>AB8? >?KB05<AO 2=0G0;5 >B25B8BL =0 2>?@>A, 87 :0:>3> <0B5@80;0 7=0=85 :>=AB@C8@C5BAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>7=0=8O? B25B8BL =0 =53> ?><>305B AAK;:0 :>=AB@C:B828AB>2 =0 >4=C 87 25B259 A2>8E ?@54H5AB25==8:>2 2 ;8F5 1@8B0=A:8E M<?8@8AB>2 (6. >::0, 6. 5@:;8, . .<0). 48= 87 :;NG52KE B578A>2 1@8B0=A:8E D8;>A>D>2 > B><, GB> @07C<C =8G53> =5 ?@54AB02;5=> :@><5 2>A?@8OB89, 8 GB> =8:0:0O >?KB=0O 40==>ABL =5 ?>72>;O5B @07C<C >1>7@5BL =5?>A@54AB25==CN A2O7L MB8E 2>A?@8OB88 A >1J5:B0<8 [Hume 1742], 405B :>=AB@C:B828AB0< 2>7<>6=>ABL >AB0=>28BL 2>?@>A > 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 =0 @C1565 M<?8@8G5A:>9 40==>AB8: ...@54?>;0305<0O >=B>;>38G5A:0O 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 2A5340 ?@51K205B ?> 4@C3CN AB>@>=C =0H53> >?KB=>3> 2708<>459AB28O... [Glas. 1996b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las. 1996b, p. 150].  :B>, :0: =5 A0< ?>7=0NI89 AC1J5:B >ACI5AB2;O5B MBC >@30=870F8N, C?>@O4>G5=85, :><C, :0: =5 5<C ?@8=04;568B 3;025=AB2CNI0O @>;L 2 D>@<8@>20=88 8=20@80=B 7=0=8O? ">B ?5@28G=K9 <0B5@80;, :>B>@K9 ?>4;568B >@30=870F88 8 =0 :>B>@K9 MB8 8=20@80=BK =0:;04K20NBAO, >?@545;O5BAO :>=AB@C:B828AB0<8 :0: A5=A>@=K9 >?KB. >6=> A:070BL, GB> >?KB -MB> 548=AB25==0O @50;L=>ABL, > :>B>@>9 :>=AB@C:B828ABK 3>2>@OB, :0: > G5<-B> 2=5H=5< ?> >B=>H5=8N : AC1J5:BC, : 2=CB@5==5<C 7=0=8N: 0CG=>5 7=0=85 >15A?5G8205B 1>;55-<5=55 =0456=K9 A?>A>1 >1@0I5=8O A >?KB>< - 548=AB25==>9 @50;L=>ABLN, 4>ABC?=>9 =0H5<C 7=0=8N [Glas. 1996b, p. 117]. =B5@5A=> 2 40==>9 A2O78 >B<5B8BL ?>78F8N 8:>, :0: 55 >?8AK205B ;075@AD5;L4: 8:> =5 405B ?@O<>3> >B25B0, >4=0:> 5<C C405BAO >AB028BL 2 AB>@>=5 A0< 2>?@>A, >1@0I0O 53> 2 15AA<KA;8FC: 5A;8 <8@, 2 :>B>@>< <K 6825< 8 :>B>@K9 ?>7=05<, A =5>1E>48<>ABLN :>=AB@C8@C5BAO =0<8 A0<8<8, B>340 =5B =8G53> C4828B5;L=>3> 2 B><, GB> =0< 65 A0<8< :065BAO >= 8 >B=>A8B5;L=> AB018;L=K< [Glas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a priori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viability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irklichkeit") O :>=AB@C8@CN ?> ?@8=F8?C ?@83>4=>AB8 <>8E ?@54?>;>65=89.  G5< 0:B82=55, O, B0: A:070BL, A=0160N A2>8<8 ?@54?>;>65=8O<8, ?>=OB8O<8 @07;8G=K5 0A?5:BK <>53> >?KB=>3> <8@0, B5< A;>6=55 >:07K205BAO <>O :0@B8=0 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ("Wirklichkeitsbild")... [Richards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las. 1996b, p. 137]. >=AB@C:B8287<... =8G53> =5 3>2>@8B 8 3>2>@8BL =5 4>;65= > B><, GB> <>65B 8;8 =5 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL [Glas. 1996b, p. 113,114]. >=AB@C:B8287<... =5 70=8<05BAO =8 70I8B>9, =8 >?@>25@65=85< :0:8E-;81> CB25@645=89 <5B0D878G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0 [Glas. 1996b, @.51]; >= [:>=AB@C:B8287<] 1K; ?@54;>65= 2 :0G5AB25 B5>@88 ?>7=0=8O, 0 =5 :0: CG5=85 > 1KB88 [Glas. 1996b, p. 113]. !0< ;075@AD5;L4 =5 1>8BAO 4065 >?@545;OBL A2>N ?>78F8N :0: M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:89 A>;8?A87<: 048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287< =8 2 :>59 <5@5 =5 O2;O5BAO @07=>284=>ABLN >=B>;>38G5A:>3> A>;8?A87<0 (8;8 >1J5:B82=>3> 8450;87<0), 0 <>65B 1KBL >E0@0:B5@87>20= :0: A>;8?A87< M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:8..)) [Schmidt 1996, S.35], ...@8G5< E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 "M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:89" 4>;6=0 1KBL ?>4G5@:=CB0 >A>1>. "5< A0<K< O >B<5652K20N A2>5 ?>=8<0=85 A>;8?A87<0 >B A>;8?A87<0 2 B@048F8>==>< A<KA;5, :>B>@K9 ?>4@07C<5205B :0:CN-B> >=B>;>38N [Glas. 1996a, S.404].  70:;NG5=85 >B<5B8<, GB> 2A5 A:070==>5 >B=>A8B5;L=> =52>7<>6=>AB8 ?@>=8:=>25=8O 2 >1J5:B82=CN 459AB28B5;L=>ABL O2;O5BAO A?@0254;82K< 8 2 >B=>H5=88 =52>7<>6=>AB8 ?@>=8:=>25=8O 2 <8@ AC1J5:B82=KE :>=AB@C:F89 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0. >;CG5=85 8;8 ?5@540G0 7=0=8O 2>2A5 =5 >7=0G05B :0:>9-B> B@0=A;OF88 8=D>@<0F88 > G5<-B> 87 >4=>9 3>;>2K 2 4@C3CN. 5@540G0 7=0=8O, ?>=8<0=85, >1I5=85 - MB> 2B>@8G=K5 D5=><5=K, 2>7=8:0NI85 ?@8 A>2?045=88 ?@>F5AA>2 :>=AB@C8@>20=8O C :>=B0:B8@CNI8E AC1J5:B>2: N1K5 8=B5@?@5B0F88 GC68E :>=F5?F89 =587156=> =>AOB ?@54?>;>68B5;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. 8:><C =5 40=> ?@>=8:=CBL 2 A>7=0=85 4@C3>3>, GB>1K 2>>G8N ?@>25@8BL, :0:>3> @>40 :>=F5?BC0;L=K5 AB@C:BC@K 0AA>F88@CNBAO C =53> A B5<8 8;8 8=K<8 A;>20<8 [Glas. 1996b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las. 1996b, p. 158]. &8B8@C5<K5 8740=8O $-!: ;L8G52 . $., $54>A552 . ., >20;52 !. ., 0=>2 . . (;. @54.) $8;>A>DA:89 M=F8:;>?548G5A:89 A;>20@L. !>25BA:0O M=F8:;>?548O, >A:20, 1983. Capelle W. (1968) Die Vorsokratiker. Stuttgart. Glasersfeld E. von (1996a) Siegener Gesprdche iiber Radikalen Komlruktivismus. Im Gesprach mil NIKOL (1982, 1984). In: Schmidt S. (Hrsg.) Der Diskurs des Radikalen Konstruktivismus, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 7. Aufl, S.401-440. Glasersfeld E. von (1996b) Radical Constructivism. Palmer Press, London. Glasersfeld E. von (\99T)Konslruktion der Wirklichkeit unddes Begriffs der Objeklivitdt. In: Einfuhrung in den Konstruktivismus, Piper Verlag, Munchen, 3. Aufl., S.9-39. Glasersfeld E. von (1998) Einfuhrung in den radikalen Konstruktivismus. In: Watzlawick P. (Hrsg.) Die erfundene Wirklichkeit. Piper Verlag, Munchen, 10. Aufl., S.16-38. Helferich C. (1992) Geschichle der Philosophic. Verlag J. B. Metzler, Stuttgart, 2. Aufl. Hume D. (1742) Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding. London, Millar, Essay XII, Parti. Lorenz K. (1979) Kommunikation bei Tieren. In: Peisl A., Mohler A. (Hrsg.) Der Mensch und seine Sprache, Propylaen Verlag, Wien, S.I 67-180. $8;>A>D8O @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0 -. D>= ;075@AD5?L40 Richards J., Glasersfeld E. von (1984) Die Konlmlle von Wahrnehmung und die Konstruktion von Realilal. In: DELFIN, 1984, H.II1. Schmidt S. (1996) Der Radikale Konstruktivismus: Ein neues Paradigma itn interdisziplindren Diskurs. In: Schmidt S. (Hrsg.) Der Diskurs des Radikalen Konstruktivismus, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 7 Aufl S.I 1-88. StorigH. (!992) Kliene Weltgeschichte der Philosophic. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main.    : ;025 2: -. 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Open Court, La Salle (Illinois) 1963, S.32. 3 Campbell, Donald ".: "Evolutionary Epistemology". In P.A.Scilpp (Hrsg): 7'/7e Philosophybof Karl Popper. Open Court, La Salle (Illinois) 1974. 4 Ceccato, Silvio: Un tecnico fra i filosofi. Vol.1 und 2. Marsilio, Mantua 1964/1966. 5 McCulloch, Warren S.: Embodiments of Mind. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge (Mass.) 1965, S. 154. 6 Diels, Hermann: Die Fragmente der Vorsokraliker. Rowohl, Hamburg 1957, S. 39. 7 Diels: op. cit, S. 20. 8 Empiricus, Sextus (ca. 200 n. Chr.): Outlines of Pyrrhonism. (Obersetzt von R. G. Bury). Heinemann, London 1967, S. 57,1, 94-95. 9 Glasersfeld, Ernst von: "Cybernetics, experience, and the concept of self. In M. N. Ozer (Hrsg.): A Cybernetic Approach to the Assessment of Children: Towards a more Humane Use of Humane Beings. Westview Press, Boulder (Colorado) 1979. 10 Hume, David (1750): An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Washington Square Press, New Yortk, S. 47. 11 Kant, Immanuel (1783): Prolegomena zu jeder kunfligen Metaphysik. Werke, Bd. IV. Konigliche PreuBische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1911,8.294. 12 Kant: op. cit., S. 295. 13 Kant: op. cit., S. 295. 14 Kant, Immanuel: Krilikder reinen Vernunfl. Werke, Bd. 111. 2. Auflage 1787,8.27. 15 Kelly, George A.: A Theory of Personality. Norton, New York 1963, S.8. 16. Lorenz, Konrad: "Kants Lehre vom Apriorischen im Lichte gegenwartiger Biologic". Blatter fur deutsche Philosophic 15, 1941, S.94-125. 17 Maturana, Humberto R.: Biology of Cognition. (Report 9.0), Biological Computer Laboratory, Urbana (Illinois) 1970, S. 2. 18 cm. Mays, Wolfe: "The epistemology of Professor Piaget". Minutes of the Aristotelian Society, London, Dec. 7, 1953, S.m54-55. 19 Piaget, Jean: La construction du reel chez I'enfant. Delachaux et Niestle, Neuchatel 1937,8.311. 20 Piaget: op. cit. 21 Putnam, Hilary: Reason and History. (In press) 22 cm. Richards, John, und von Glasersfeld, Ernst: "The control of perception and the construction of reality". Dialectica 33, 1979, S. 37-58. 23 cm. Rubinoff, Lionel: "Vico and the Verification of Historical Interpretation". In Tagliacozzo, G., M. Mooney und D. P. Verene (Hrsg.): Vico and Contemporary Thought. Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands 1976. 24 Skagestad, Peter: "Taking evolution seriously: Crotical comments on D.T.CampbeH's evolutionary epistemology". The Monist 61, 1978, S.611-624. 25 Spinner, Helmut F.: Begriindung, der Kritik und Rationalitcit. Bd. 1. Vieweg. Braunschweig 1977, S. 61. 26 Uexkull, Jakob von (mil Georg Kriszat, 1933): Slrei/zuge durch die Umwellen von Tieren und Menschen. Fischer, Frankfurt a.M. 1970. 27 Vico, Giambattista (1710): De Anliquissima Italorum Sapientia. Stamperia de'Classici Latini, Neapel 1858, Kapetel I, 1,5-6. 28 Vico: op. cit., Kapitel I, III, 2. 29 Vico: op. cit., Kapitel VII, III, 5. 30 Vico: op. cit., Kapitel III, 1,2. 31 Vico: op. cit., Kapitel III, 1,3.    : ;025 2: -. D>= ;>75@AD5;L4 >=AB@C:B828ABA:0O M?8AB5<>;>38O . 8065 (;020 3 87: -. D>= ;075@AD5;L4 048:0;L=K9 :>=AB@C:B8287<: <>45;L ?>7=0=8O 8 =0CG5=8O) KG;5=8BL 87 <=>3>G8A;5==KE @01>B 8065 548=CN 70:>=G5==CN B5>@8N :>3=8B82=>3> @0728B8O - 7040G0 =5 87 ?@>ABKE. 0 ?5@8>4 A2KH5 A5<845AOB8 ;5B 8065 >?C1;8:>20; 2>A5<L45AOB 2>A5<L :=83 8 A>B=8 AB0B59, >B@540:B8@>20; 15AG8A;5==>5 :>;8G5AB2> 4>:;04>2 ?> 8AA;54>20=8O<, ?@>2545==K< ?>4 53> @C:>2>4AB2><'. 3> 8459=>5 B2>@G5AB2> =8:>340 =5 >AB0=02;820;>AL 2 A2>5< @0728B88, @0725B2;OOAL 8 2K;820OAL 2 =>2K5 D>@<C;8@>2:8, :>B>@K5, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, =5?@5AB0==> >1>30I0;8 8 <>48D8F8@>20;8 B>, GB> 1K;> C65 2KA:070=> 2 1>;55 @0==8E @01>B0E. 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B=>A8B5;L=> 87;0305<>9 745AL 25@A88 <=5 E>B5;>AL 1K ?>4G5@:=CBL >A=>2=CN ?>AK;:C, 87 :>B>@>9 O 8AE>6C, - 0 8<5==> B>, GB> 3;02=>9 F5;LN 8065 1K;> ?>AB@>5=85 C1548B5;L=>9 8 OA=>9, =0A:>;L:> MB> 2>7<>6=>, <>45;8 @0728B8O 8 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>7=0=8O. %>BO A A0<>3> =0G0;0 C =53> 1K;> G5B:>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > B>< =0?@02;5=88, 2 :>B>@>< >= A>18@0;AO 42830BLAO, 2A5 65 ?@542845BL 2A5 MB0?K >= =5 <>3. 0728B85 53> <>45;8 =5 1K;> ?@O<>;8=59=K<, 0 =0?><8=05B A:>@55 45@52>, 25B28 :>B>@>3> C2O40NB, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: F5=B@0;L=K9 AB2>; ?@>4>;605B @072820BLAO. <5==> ?>MB><C O >B1@0AK20N B5 2KA:07K20=8O 2 53> @0==8E @01>B0E, :>B>@K5, ?>-2848<><C, A;54C5B ?@87=0BL ?@>B82>@5G0I8<8 1>;55 ?>74=8< B5:AB0<.3  >4=>< 87 =5A:>;L:8E A2>8E 02B>18>3@0D8G5A:8E 2>A?><8=0=89 8065 ?8H5B, GB> @5H8; ?>A2OB8BL A2>N 687=L 18>;>38G5A:><C >1JOA=5=8N ?@>1;5<K 7=0=8O (Piaget 1952b, @.240). 06=>ABL MB>3> 70O2;5=8O B@C4=> ?5@5>F5=8BL. 1JO28BL ?>7=0=85 18>;>38G5A:>9 DC=:F859, 2<5AB> B>3> GB>1K AG8B0BL 53> @57C;LB0B>< =04?5@A>=0;L=>3>, 2A5;5=A:>3>, 2=58AB>@8G5A:>3> @07C<0, - 7=0G8B ?>9B8 =0 @048:0;L=K9 @07@K2 A M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:>9 B@048F859 2 70?04=>9 D8;>A>D88. 0==K9 H03 =5<54;5==> ?@82>48B : A<5I5=8N D>:CA0 2> 273;O45 =0 <8@>740=85 - >B >=B>;>38G5A:>3> <8@0, 2 B>< 2845, :0:>2 >= <>3 1K 1KBL, : B><C <8@C, :>B>@K9 ?5@568205BAO >@30=87<>< =0 A>1AB25==>< >?KB5. 0A:>;L:> <=5 8725AB=>, <564C 8065 8 /:>1>< D>= .M:A:N;5< =5 1K;> =8:0:8E :>=B0:B>2, 2A5 65 2 845OE MB8E 42CE <KA;8B5;59 <>6=> 70<5B8BL >?@545;5==>9 AE>4AB2>. ">, GB> =5<5F:89 18>;>3 =07K20; Merkwelt - <8@>< GC2AB2>20=8O 8 Wirkwell - <8@>< 459AB28O (von Uexkull and Kriszat 1993) A>45@68BAO 2 ?@54AB02;5=88 8065 > A5=A><>B>@=>< C@>2=5. 10 02B>@0 =0E>48;8AL ?>4 @5H0NI8< 2;8O=85< <KA;8 0=B0 > B><, GB>, GB> 1K <K =8 =07K20;8 7=0=85<, 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5, 5A;8 =5 ?>;=>ABLN, >?@545;O5BAO A?>A>1>< 2>A?@8OB8O 8 C<>?>AB865=8O, ?@8ACI53> ?>7=0NI5<C. >B :0: A0< 8065 3>2>@8B > F5;8 ?@54?@8=8<05<KE 8< CA8;89 2> 22545=88 : @01>B5 ;02=>5 87 8065 (The Essential Piaget) (Gruber,Vonechel977): >8A: <5E0=87<>2 18>;>38G5A:>9 040?B0F88 8 0=0;87 B>9 2KAH59 D>@<K 040?B0F88, :>B>@>9 O2;O5BAO =0CG=0O <KA;L, 55 [040?B0F88] M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:0O B@0:B>2:0 - 2A5340 1K;> <>59 3;02=>9 F5;LN (Piaget, 2 Gruber, Voneche 1977, p.xii). KA;L > B><, GB> ?@>F5AA >1@5B5=8O 7=0=8O 040?B825=, 5I5 =0 @C1565 AB>;5B89 2KA:07K20;0AL 659<A><, 8<<5;5< 8 4@C38<8, >4=0:> 8<5==> 8065 70<5B8;, GB> 040?B0F8O 2 :>3=8B82=>9/:>=F5?BC0;L=>9 ?;>A:>AB8 A>2A5< =5 B> 65 A0<>5, GB> D878>;>38G5A:0O 040?B0F8O 18>;>38G5A:>3> >@30=87<0. = >A>7=0;, GB> =0 :>3=8B82=>< C@>2=5 040?B0F8O =5 A2>48BAO : 2>?@>AC 2K6820=8O 8;8 2K<8@0=8O, 0 <>65B 1KB ?>=OB0 :0: ?@>1;5<0 :>=F5?BC0;L=>3> @02=>25A8O. "0:8< >1@07><, 206=> ?><=8BL, GB> 2A5340, :>340 8065 =8 3>2>@8; 1K >1 MB>9 2KAH59 D>@<5 040?B0F88, @5GL 845B > DC=:F8OE A>7=0=8O, 0 2>2A5 =5 > 18>;>38G5A:8E <5E0=87<0E, :0: ?@8 >1KG=>< C?>B@51;5=88 40==>3> B5@<8=0. <5==> AB@5<;5=85 @0A:@KBL <5E0=87< ?>7=0=8O >1CA;>28;> 8=B5@5A 8065 : 8AA;54>20=8O< 45BA:>9 ?A8E8:8. 01;N40O 2708<>459AB28O <0;KH59 8 45B59 AB0@H53> 2>7@0AB0 A 8E >:@C65=85<, >= =0<5@520;AO CAB0=>28BL ?@>O2;5=8O :>3=8B82=KE ?@>F5AA>2, A B5< GB>1K ?>AB@>8BL >1>1I5==CN <>45;L ?>7=0=8O 2 53> >=B>35=575. ! 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"0:8< >1@07><, 1>;LH8=AB2> D8;>A>D>2 GC2AB2>20;> 2?>;=5 >?@0240==K< ?@>AB> 83=>@8@>20BL B>, > G5< 3>2>@8; 8 ?8A0; 8065,  B> 65 2@5<O, :0: 2 A@545 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE ?A8E>;>3>2, B0: 8 H8@>:>9 >1I5AB25==>ABLN, 8065 2>A?@8=8<0;AO B>;L:> 2 :0G5AB25 45BA:>3> ?A8E>;>30 =0 B>< >A=>20=88, GB> <=>385 53> @01>BK >1@0I5=K : D5=><5=>;>388 45BA:>3> @0728B8O. 5 C4828B5;L=>, GB> ?@8 B0:>< 2>A?@8OB88 45;0;>AL 2A5 2>7<>6=>5 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 2B8A=CBL 53> 8458 2 @0<:8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B@048F88. >-2848<><C, 8<5==> B0:>3> @>40 CA8;8O, 70G0ABCN =5>A>7=0==K5, ?>A;C68;8 3;02=>9 ?@8G8=>9 3@><04=>3> :>;8G5AB20 GC4>28I=KE 8A:065=89, :>B>@K<8 ?5AB@8B ;8B5@0BC@0. :B82=>5 :>=AB@C8@>20=85 "8?8G=K9 ?@8<5@ 2K3;O48B A;54CNI8< >1@07><. >2>;L=> G0AB> 2 A2>8E @01>B0E (=0?@. 1937, @. 10; 19670, @. 10; 19700, @. 15) 8065 CB25@6405B, GB>, =0 53> 273;O4, 7=0=85 2>7=8:05B 2 @57C;LB0B5 0:B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 AC1J5:B0, 1C4L >=0 D878G5A:>9 8;8 <5=B0;L=>9. ;02=>5, GB> ?@8405B 7=0=8N >@30=87>20==>ABL, - MB> F5;5=0?@02;5==K9 E0@0:B5@ 40==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8: ...N1>5 7=0=85 ?@82O70=> : 459AB28N; 7=0BL >1J5:B 8;8 A>1KB85 >7=0G05B 8A?>;L7>20BL 53> 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 45OB5;L=>9 AE5<5... (Piaget 19670, @.14-15), ...=0=85 >1J5:B0 ?>4@07C<5205B 53> 2:;NG5=85 2 45OB5;L=CN AE5<C; MB> >AB05BAO >48=0:>2> 25@=K<, :0: =0 =081>;55 M;5<5=B0@=>< A5=A><>B>@=>< C@>2=5, B0: 8 =0 2A5< ?CB8, 254CI5< 225@E : A0<K< @0728BK< ;>38:>-<0B5<0B8G5A:8< >?5@0F8O< (Ibid, @. 17). >=F5?F8O 45OB5;L=>9 AE5<K (action scheme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iaget 1970b, p.57-8). 57 CG5B0 MB>3> @52>;NF8>==>3> CB25@645=8O =52>7<>6=> ?>;=>ABLN @07>1@0BLAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 =8 2 >4=>9 @01>B5 8065. "5< 1>;55, GB> D0:B MB>B =5 >G52845=, ?>A:>;L:C 8065 G@572KG09=> @54:> >1@0I05BAO =0?@O<CN : 2>?@>AC A>>B=>H5=8O <564C 7=0=85< 8 @50;L=>ABLN, =0?><8=0O G8B0B5;N > B><, GB> 2 53> <>45;8 @50;L=>ABL 2A5340 >1>7=0G05B >?KB=K9 <8@. 0 ?@>BO65=88 2A59 4>;3>9 687=8 2>?@>A ?>AB@>5=8O ?@85<;5<>9 (viable) <>45;8 B>3>, :0:8< >1@07>< =0< C405BAO :>=AB@C8@>20BL >B=>A8B5;L=> AB018;L=CN 8 A2O7=CN :0@B8=C 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 87 M<?8@8G5A:>3> ?>B>:0, 2A5340 >AB020;AO 4;O 8065 2 D>:CA5 =0CG=KE 8=B5@5A>2.  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'B>1K >?C1;8:>20BL 157 ?>AB>@>==59 ?><>I8 (A?5F80;8ABK 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 - @54:>ABL) F5;CN A5@8N AB0B59 > <>;;NA:0E (259F0@88, !02>98, @5B0=8, 4065 >;C<188. =>340 O ?>?040; 2 70102=K5 A8BC0F88. 5:>B>@K5 70@C156=K5 :>;;538 E>B5;8 1K ?>7=0:><8BLAO A> <=>9, => ?>A:>;L:C O 1K; ;8HL H:>;L=8:><, B> =5 A<5; ?@54JO2;OBL A51O 8 2K=C645= 1K; >B:;>=OBL AB>;L ;5AB=K5 ?@83;0H5=8O. 8@5:B>@ <C75O 8AB>@88 5AB5AB2>7=0=8O 5=52K, :>B>@K9 >?C1;8:>20; =5:>B>@K5 87 <>8E AB0B59 2 6C@=0;5 "Revue Suisse de Zoologie ", ?@54;>68; <=5 <5AB> E@0=8B5;O :>;;5:F88 <>;;NA:>2 2 A2>5< <C755,., =0 GB> O 2K=C645= 1K; >B25B8BL, GB> O ?>:0 =5 O2;ONAL 4065 ABC45=B>< 8 <=5 =C6=> 5I5 420 3>40 4;O 7025@H5=8O CG51K 4> ?>;CG5=8O AB5?5=8 10:0;02@05 (Piaget 1952b, p.238-9). 3;O4K20OAL =0704, <>6=> A:070BL, GB> 8<5==> 87CG5=85 <>;;NA:>2 ?@54>?@545;8;> 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=CN :0@L5@C 8065.  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"5< =5 <5=55, 53> G0AB> :@8B8:CNB 70 B>, GB> >= O:>1K C45;O5B =54>AB0B>G=> 2=8<0=8O A>F80;L=K< 0A?5:B0<. @8B8:8 >1KG=> =0AB0820NB =0 B><, GB> 27@>A;K5 8;8 CG8B5;O ?5@540NB 7=0=8O 45BO<, CG5=8:0< ?CB5< ?@O<>3> >1I5=8O A =8<8, GB> >?@545;5==K5 D>@<K 7=0=8O O2;ONBAO 87=0G0;L=> ?@8ACI8<8 40==><C >1I5AB2C 8 ?5@540NBAO =5?>A@54AB25==> >B A>F8C<0 : 8=48284CC<C. 4=0:> <5E0=87<, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@>3> 1K;0 1K 2>7<>6=0 B0:>3> @>40 ?5@540G0 7=0=8O =5?>A@54AB25==> >B ;8G=>AB8 : ;8G=>AB8, B0: 8 =5 1K; ?@54;>65=. ("578A > B><, GB> O7K: A0< ?> A515 =5 <>65B 2K?>;=OB B0:CN DC=:F8N, @0718@0;AO A >?>@>9 =0 0=0;87 45 !>AAN@0 2 ?@54K4CI59 3;025 8 1>;55 ?>4@>1=> 1C45B @0AA<>B@5= 2 3;025 7) >=F5?F8O @02=>25A8O >=OB85 0::><>40F88 ?>72>;O5B @0728BL 4>2>;L=> >@838=0;L=CN B5>@8N =0CG5=8O, 2 >A=>25 :>B>@>9 ;568B :>=F5?F8O @02=>25A8O -:>=F5?F8O, 2 >1I5< A<KA;5 ?>4@07C<520NI0O :><?5=A0F8N (M;8<8=0F8N) 2>7<CI5=89. <5==> 8=B5@5A 8065 : :>=F5?F88 @02=>25A8O, ?@>O282H89AO 2 1>;55 ?>74=8E @01>B0E, ?>A;C68; ?@8G8=>9 53> >1@0I5=8O : :815@=5B8:5 (A<. Cellerier et al. 1968; Piaget 1977b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equilibration majorante). >4 MB8< B5@<8=>< 8065 ?>4@07C<520; C25;8G5=85 0<?;8BC4K >B:;>=5=8O, A :>B>@K< >@30=87< 2 A>AB>O=88 A?@028BLAO. 48= 87 0A?5:B>2 40==>3> ?>=OB8O @0AH8@5=8O @02=>25A8O ?@54AB02;O5B >A>1K9 8=B5@5A 4;O D8;>A>D88 =0C:8, 0 B0:65, 2 G5< O C25@5=, 4;O 55 ?@5?>4020=8O. 064K9 @07, :>340 :>3=8B82=><C AC1J5:BC C405BAO A?@028BLAO A >G5@54=K< 2>7<CI5=85<, AB0=>28BAO 2>7<>6=K9 A8BC0F8O, ?@8 :>B>@>9 0::><>40F8O, ?@8254H0O : 2>AAB0=>2;5=8N 40==>3> @02=>25A8O, >4=>2@5<5==> 2545B : D>@<8@>20=8N :>=F5?F88 8;8 >?5@0F88, :>B>@0O >:07K205BAO =5A>2<5AB8<>9 A :>=F5?F8O<8 8;8 >?5@0F8O<8, CAB0=>2;5==K<8 @0=55 8 >:0702H8<8AO ?@83>4=K<8 (viable) 4;O :><?5=A0F88 4@C38E ?5@BC@10F89. 0: B>;L:> B0:>3> @>40 =5A>>B25BAB285 0:BC0;878@C5BAO, >=> A0<> AB0=>28BAO ?@8G8=>9 2>7<CI5=8O, => =0 1>;55 2KA>:>< :>=F5?BC0;L=>< C@>2=5, 0 8<5==> =0 C@>2=5, =0 :>B>@>< ?@>8AE>48B @5D;5:B82=0O @52878O 8<5NI8EAO 2 =0;8G88 AE5<.10 "0:8< >1@07><, 4;O 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O 65;05<>3> @02=>25A8O ?>A;5 2>7<CI5=8O =0 2KAH5< C@>2=5 <>3CB ?>B@51>20BLAO ?5@5AB@>9:8 =0 =86=5< C@>2=5. 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K2>4 0==0O ?>?KB:0 87;>68BL =5:>B>@K5 :;NG52K5 <><5=BK <>45;8 ?>7=0=8O 8 :>3=8B82=>3> @0728B8O 8065 =5 <>65B AG8B0BLAO 8AG5@?K20NI59. / ?>?KB0;AO AD>:CA8@>20BL 2=8<0=85 =0 B5E ?>;>65=8OE, :>B>@K5, :0: <=5 :065BAO, O2;ONBAO =081>;55 206=K<8, E>BO 70G0ABCN =525@=> ?>=8<0NBAO 8 87;030NBAO. 0: 1K;> C:070=> A A0<>3> =0G0;0, @01>BK 8065 A>45@60B >?@545;5==K5 ?@>B82>@5G8O. "5< =5 <5=55, 5A;8 ?@54AB028BL 53> @01>BC 2 2845 548=>9 <>45;8 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>7=0=8O, B> AB0=>28BAO >G5284=K<, GB> B5 A?>@048G5A:85 D@03<5=BK B5:AB0, 2 :>B>@KE GC2AB2C5BAO ?@8ACBAB285 @50;L=>AB8, O2;ONBAO =5 1>;55 G5< ?@>AB> =5A>25@H5==K<8 <><5=B0<8 2 87;>65=88. 5 C4828B5;L=>, GB> 2 A2>5< =>20B>@AB25 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 8065 2?0405B 2 >1@07 @5G8, ?@8=04;560I89 B@048F8>==>9 M?8AB5<>;>388, :>B>@CN >= ?KB0;AO ?@5>4>;5BL. 8B5@0BC@0 ", E.W. and PIAGET, J. (1961) Epistemoligie mathematique et psychologic, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France. BR1NGUIER, J-C (1977) Conversations libres avecJean Piaget, Paris, Robert Laffont. 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(1981) Oven'iew and Critique ofPiagel's Genetic Epislemology, Vol. 1 and 2. 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A5, GB> <K <>65< A:070BL > <8@5, > A0<KE B>G=KE 8 4>AB>25@=KE 53> 70:>=0E 8 ?@>O2;5=8OE (B0:8E :0:, : ?@8<5@C, 70:>= 2A5<8@=>3> BO3>B5=8O) - 2A5 MB> :>=AB@C:F88 =0H53> A>7=0=8O, :>B>@K5 <K 87>1@5B05<, 0 =5 ?>;CG05< 872=5 2A;54AB285 =0CG=KE >B:@KB89. !2>N <KA;L $Q@AB5@ ?>OA=O5B ?@8<5@>< 87 5B0;>-388 . M9BA>=0 [Bateson 1972], 87 :>B>@>3> 2KOA=O5BAO, GB> ;N1>5 2KA:07K20=85 <>65B 1KBL >1JO2;5=> >1JOA=8B5;L=K< ?@8=F8?><, :>B>@K9, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, =8G53> >1JOA=8BL =5 <>65B, ?>A:>;L:C A0< O2;O5BAO 87>1@5B5=85< 53> 02B>@0: >GL'. 0?0, =5 E>G5HL ;8 BK MB8< A:070BL, GB> AM@ A00: LNB>= 4>?CA:0;, GB> ;N1K5 38?>B57K ?@>AB> 87>1@5B0NBAO, 2K4C<K20NBAO, :0: @0AA:07K? B5F\ <5==> B0:! : > =8 >B:@K; ;8 >= 3@028B0F8N, ?@8 ?><>I8 O1;>:0? '. 5B, <>O 4>@>30O, >= 55 87>1@5;. : E... "[Foer. 1996,8.144]. "0:8< >1@07><, A0< ?> A515 <8@ =5 A>45@68B =8:0:>9 8=D>@<0F88, :>B>@0O <>3;0 1K 872;5:0BLAO 87 =53> ?>7=0NI8< AC1J5:B><.  MB>< A>AB>8B >48= 87 3;02=KE 2K2>4>2 M?8AB5<>;>388 $Q@AB5@0: >3=8B82=K5 ?@>F5AAK A>740NB >?8A0=8O >:@C60NI59 A@54K, B.5. 8=D>@<0F8N > =59. !0<0 >:@C60NI0O A@540 =5 A>45@68B =8:0:>9 8=D>@<0F88. 8@ 5ABL, :0:>2 >= 5ABL [Foer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oer. 1998, S.70]. >B :0: D>@<C;8@C5B $Q@AB5@ A2>9 35@<5=52B8G5A:89 ?@8=F8?: !;CH0NI89, 0 =5 3>2>@OI89 >?@545;O2? A<KA; A:070==>3>. 1KG=> AG8B05BAO, GB> 3>2>@OI89 CAB0=02;8205B, GB> >7=0G05B 40==>5 ?@54;>65=85, A;CH0NI89 65 4>;65= ?>=OBL, GB> A:070; 3>2>@OI89.  MB>< 70:;NG05BAO DC=40<5=B0;L=>5 701;C645=85. !;CH0B5;L - MB> B>B, :B> 8=B5@?@5B8@C5B B5 E0@0:B5@=K5 72C:8, :>B>@K5 O 8;8 :B>-B> 4@C3>9 2>A?@>872>48B ?@8 ?><>I8 3>;>A>2KE A2O7>:, ?@84020O 8< B>B 8;8 8=>9 A<KA; [Foer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oer. 1997, S.44]. >=F5?F8N =01;N40B5;O, MB8G5A:85 ?>;>65=8O, 0 B0:65 B>, :0:>9 A<KA; 2:;04K205B $Q@AB5@ 2 ?>=OB85 >1J5:B82=>AB8, <K @0AA<>B@8< =5A:>;L:> ?>765. 0: 284=>, ?@82545==K5 B578AK AE>4=K A B5<8, :>B>@K5 2K42830NB 4@C385 :>=AB@C:B828ABK. B;8G85 A>AB>8B 2 8E >1>A=>20=88. 865 <K @0715@5< :>=:@5B=K5 <>45;8, :815@=5B8G5A:85 :>=F5?F88 8 A>>1@065=8O 1>;55 >1I53> - D8;>A>DA:>3> 8 MB8G5A:>3> - E0@0:B5@0, :>B>@K5 ;53;8 2 >A=>2C :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>9 M?8AB5<>;>388. $Q@AB5@ 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> ?@>1;5<0 ?>7=0=8O @0A:;04K205BAO =0 420 0A?5:B0: M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:89 8 2KG8A;8B5;L=K9 [Foer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elos), :>B>@>9, : ?@8<5@C, <>65B 1KBL 3020=L. #A8;8O HBC@<0=0, 2KABC?0NI85 2 :0G5AB25 ?@8G8=K, ?>@>640NB A;54AB285 - :>@@5:B8@>2:C :C@A0. -B> 65 A;54AB285 2=>2L >1@0I05BAO 2 ?@8G8=C, ?@82>48B : =>2><C >B:;>=5=8N >B :C@A0.  A2>N >G5@54L, MB> ?@82>48B : A;54AB28N, 0 8<5==>, : 40;L=59H59 :>@@5:B8@>2:5 :C@A0. ?8A0==K5 ?@>F5AA C?@02;5=8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 25;8:>;5?=K9 ?@8<5@ :@C3>2>9 ?@8G8==>AB8 [Foer. 1998, S. 106,107]. 7 ?@82545==>9 F8B0BK 284=>, GB> ACI5AB2C5B, ?><8<> B5E=8G5A:>9, 8 4@C30O - D8;>A>DA:0O - AB>@>=0 :@C3>>1@07=>AB8, D>@<C;8@C5<0O :0: ?@8=F8? :@C3>2>9 ?@8G8==>AB8. 1I0O :0@B8=0 F8@:C;8@CNI53> ?@>F5AA0, >1J548=ONI0O 2 A515 >10 0A?5:B0, 2K3;O48B A;54CNI8< >1@07><: ... => >B:;>=5=85 >B :C@A0 2?@02> ?@8G8=0 => A;54AB285 :>@@5:B8@>2:0 40==>3> >B:;>=5=8O ?@8G8=0 => A;54AB285 >B:;>=5=85 >B :C@A0 2;52> ?@8G8=0 =i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causa finalis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effectiver) 8 :>=5G=>9 (finaler), <564C ?>1C645=85< 8 F5;LN [Foer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oer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oer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utput), 8A?>;L7C5B A=>20 2 :0G5AB25 8AE>4=>3> <0B5@80;0 (Input), B> 2 @57C;LB0B5 CAB0=02;8205BAO =5:0O D>@<0 :@C3>>1@07=>AB8. A;8 65 B0:0O :@C3>>1@07=>ABL CAB0=>2;5=0 8 <0H8=0 C65 @01>B05B =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O, B> ?@>8AE>48B =5GB> G@572KG09=> 8=B5@5A=>5 [Foer. 1998,8.60]. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> ?>=OB85 <0H8=K 2 40==>< A;CG05 2>2A5 =5 ?>4@07C<5205B :0:>9-;81> 459AB2CNI89 <5E0=87< 8;8 A8AB5<C. 5GL 845B > B0: =07K205<KE <0H8=0E "LN@8=30, ?@54AB02;ONI8E A>1>9 01AB@0:B=K5 >?5@0B>@K 8 A;C60I8E $Q@AB5@C 8=AB@C<5=B>< D>@<0;870F88 F8:;8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2. AE>4=>5 =07=0G5=85 ?>=OB8O ">?5@0B>@" A>AB>O;> 2 ?@840=88 =5:>B>@K< =01;N405<K< ACI=>ABO<, B0:8< :0: >@30=87<K, A8AB5<K, <0H8=K 8 B.4., D>@<0;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0. ;0= "LN@8=3... ?>;C25:0 =0704 87<5=8; 53> A<KA;. !>3;0A=> "LN@8=3C, 5A;8 <K 3>2>@8< >1 >?5@0B>@5, B> 2A5340 ?>4@07C<5205< =5:>5 53> 0:B82=>5 2>?;>I5=85: GB>-B> 4>;6=> G5<-B> >?5@8@>20BL (?@>872>48BL =04 =8< >?5@0F8N). ;O =53> B0:>9 >?5@0B>@ 1K; @02=>7=0G5= ?>=OB8N "<0H8=K", ?@8G5< 157@07;8G=>, O2;O5BAO ;8 MB0 <0H8=0 2KG8A;8B5;L=>9 8;8 ?0@>2>9. 3> ?>A;54>20B5;8 AB0;8 =07K20BL B0:8< >1@07>< 22545==K5 8< >?5@0B>@K "<0H8=0<8 "LN@8=30" [Foers. 1997, S.59]. 07=8F0 <564C B@8280;L=K<8 8 =5B@8280;L=K<8 <0H8=0<8 A>AB>8B 2 A;54CNI5<: "@8280;L=0O <0H8=0 (") >4=>7=0G=> 8 157>H81>G=> A2O7K205B ?>A@54AB2>< A2>8E >?5@0F89  @" >?@545;5==K5 ?@8G8==K5 A>1KB8O (2E>4=K5 25;8G8=K, E) A >?@545;5==K<8 A;54AB28O<8 (2KE>4=K<8 25;8G8=0<8, C); @(E) -> C [Foers. 1997, S.60]. "@8280;L=0O <0H8=0 O2;O5BAO G@572KG09=> AB018;L=>9, 55 2=CB@5==85 A>AB>O=8O >AB0NBAO 2A5340 >4=8<8 8 B5<8 65, 55 @01>B0, A8=B5B8G5A:8 8 0=0;8B8G5A:8 >4=>7=0G=> >?@545;O5<0O, =5 7028A8B >B 2E>4=KE 40==KE [Foers. 1998, S.55]. !CI5AB25==0O @07=8F0 <564C B@8280;L=K<8 8 =5B@8280;L=K<8 <0H8=0<8 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> >?5@0F88, ?@>872>48<K5 MB8<8 [=5B@8280;L=K<8] <0H8=0<8 2 :064>< A;CG05 7028AOB >B 8E "2=CB@5==8E A>AB>O=89" z, :>B>@K5 A0<8, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 7028AOB >B ?@54H5AB2CNI8E >?5@0F89. "5< A0<K< @07;8G0NB 420 B8?0 >?5@0F89: 2 ?5@2>< A;CG05 <564C 459AB285< (E) 8 MDD5:B>< (C) CAB0=02;8205BAO A2O7L, 7028A8<0O >B 2=CB@5==53> A>AB>O=8O, :>B>@0O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 "DC=:F8N 0:B82=>AB8" ("Wirkungsfunktion"): Opz(x) ->" C, 345 8=45:A  z" >1>7=0G05B B> 8;8 8=>5 A>AB>O=85 <0H8=K; 2> 2B>@>< 65 A;CG05 >?5@0F88 @53C;8@CNB 87<5=5=8O 2=CB@5==8E A>AB>O=89. "0:0O 7028A8<0O >B 8AE>4=KE 87<5=5=89 "DC=:F8O A>AB>O=8O" ("Zustandsfunktion") ?@5>1@07>2K205B ?@54?8A0==K< >1@07>< A>AB>O=85 z 2 A;54CNI55 70 =8< A>AB>O=85 z': Opx(z) -> z', 345 8=45:A E >1>7=0G05B B> 8;8 8=>5 8AE>4=>5 2>7459AB285 (2E>4=CN 25;8G8=C) [Foers. 1997, S.62-63].  A;CG05 =5B@8280;L=KE <0H8= @07@5H8BL ?@>1;5<C 55 0=0;870, :0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL, ?@8=F8?80;L=> =52>7<>6=>. @028;0, ?>-:>B>@K< >ACI5AB2;ONBAO 55 ?@5>1@07>20=8O, =0E>4OBAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B ?@54H5AB2CNI8E A>1KB89, >B 55 8AB>@88; 2KG8A;8BL 8E =5 ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2>7<>6=K<... [Foer. 1998, S.56]. 4=0:>, 4;O ?>;CG5=8O A8AB5< A> A2>9AB20<8 >@30=870F8>==>9 70<:=CB>AB8 =5>1E>48<> ?@>45;0BL 5I5 >48= H03, 0 8<5==> - A>548=8BL 2KE>4=>9 8 2E>4=>9 A83=0;K =5B@8280;L=>9 <0H8=K 2 548=K9 F8:; B0:, GB>1K 2KE>4=>9 A83=0; C ?@54K4CI59 >?5@0F88 AB0=>28;AO 2E>4=K< A83=0;>< E ?>A;54CNI59. "0:>3> @>40 >?5@0F88 $Q@AB5@ =07K205B @5:C@A82=K<8 8 70?8AK205B 2 A;54CNI8E A8<2>;0E: %> = @ (E ), 8;8 @ () = -t__ @0D8G5A:8 MB> 2K3;O48B A;54CNI8< >1@07>< :  8A. 1. "@8280;L=0O <0H8=0  8A. 2. 5B@8280;L=0O  8A. 3. 0<:=CBK9 ?@8G8==>-<0H8=0 A 2=CB@5==8< A;54AB25==K9 F8:;, A>AB>O=85< z 8AC=:8 27OBK 87 @01>BK [Foers. 1997, S.60,62,71]. 0: AG8B05B $Q@AB5@, 845O >@30=870F8>==>9 (>?5@0F8>==>9) 70<:=CB>AB8 <0B5<0B8G5A:8 2>?;>I5=0 2 ?>=OB88 A>1AB25==KE 25;8G8= (Eigenwerte) . 8;L15@B0. $>@<0;L=> 40;5:> =5 ;N10O 25;8G8=0 EE <>65B C4>2;5B2>@OBL CA;>28N E*, = @ (%>>), B.5. ?> A;>20< $Q@-AB5@0, A0<0 A51O 2>AAB0=02;820BL G5@57 40==K9 >?5@0B>@ @. "5 25;8G8=K (8;8 1>;55 H8@>:> - ?>=OB8O), :>B>@K5 >1;040NB C:070==K< A2>9AB2><, =07K20NBAO A>1AB25==K<8. ;0AA8G5A:8< ?@8<5@>< A;C68B >?5@0B>@ - 872;5G5=85 :204@0B=>3> :>@=O, 4;O :>B>@>3> A>1AB25==>9 25;8G8=>9 O2;O5BAO G8A;> 1. 0:>5 1K <K =8 27O;8 ?>;>68B5;L=>5 G8A;> 2 :0G5AB25 8AE>4=>9 25;8G8=K xq, 2A5340 2 @57C;LB0B5 :0:>3>-B> :>;8G5AB20 F8:;>2 @ = V <K ?@845< : 40;55 =587<5==>9 25;8G8=5 1, B.5. E40 = Vxoo, ?@8 E,, = 1. ?8@0OAL =0 ?@82545==K9 ?@8<5@, $Q@AB5@ 45;05B A2>9 3;02=K9 2K2>4 >B=>A8B5;L=> >@30=870F8>==> 70<:=CBKE A8AB5< (2 40==>< A;CG05 A>AB>OI8E 87 >?5@0B>@>2 8 A>1AB25==KE 25;8G8=): >6=> 1K;> 1K <=>3>5 A:070BL > 70<5G0B5;L=KE A2>9AB20E B0:>3> @>40 A>1AB25==KE 25;8G8=, O 65 E>B5; 1K ?>4G5@:=CBL >48= C65 <=>N C?><8=02H89AO 0A?5:B, 0 8<5==>, D0:B >BACBAB28O 70<5B=>3> 2;8O=8O ?5@28G=>3> 459AB28O (Ur-Sache) xq =0 :>=5G=K9 @57C;LB0B.  40;55, @0A?@>AB@0=OO 40==K9 ?@8=F8? =0 682K5 >@30=87<K, $Q@AB5@ 3>2>@8B: A;8 <K 2 MB>< 2=>2L 1C45< 8A:0BL A2O7L ?> ;8=88 "?@8G8=0/A;54AB285", B> 2 ?0@5 "AB8<C;/@50:F8O" >1=0@C68BL 55 =5 C40ABAO, >=0 - 2 55 >?5@0B>@=>9 ?@8=04;56=>AB8, B.5. 2 ?0@5 @/E>, 8;8, 2 A;>25A=>9 D>@<C;8@>2:5, 2 ?0@5 ">@30=87</<>45;L ?>2545=8O". <5==> =0 >@30=87<5, 0 =5 =0 ?5@28G=>< AB8<C;5 ;568B >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 >1@07 459AB28O (?>2545=8O) [Foers. 1997, S.73-74]. 1 >@30=870F8>==>9 70<:=CB>AB8 682>3> >@30=87<0 8 53> :>3=8B82=>9 A8AB5<K @5GL ?>945B ?>765, 745AL <K 2K=C645==> C?><8=05< >1 MB><. 5;> 2 B><, GB> 87;>65=85 $Q@AB5@>< A2>59 M?8AB5<>;>388 ?>AB@>5=> B0:8< >1@07><, GB> 107>2K5 ?@8=F8?K, ?@8 ?><>I8 :>B>@KE 45;05BAO ?>?KB:0 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL D5=><5=>;>38N 687=8 8 ?>7=0=8O, A0<8 4;O A2>53> >1JOA=5=8O B@51CNB ?>=8<0=8O MB>9 D5=><5=>;>388. ! B0:>3> @>40 MDD5:B0<8 <K B0:65 AB0;:8205<AO 2 @01>B0E 0BC@0=K ?> 0CB>?>M7C, 345 >= =0?@O<8: C:07K205B =0 :@C3>>1@07=>ABL, 70<:=CB>ABL A2>8E B5:AB>2. 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BAN40 A;54C5B, GB> B0:>3> @>40 B5>@8O 4>;6=0 @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: AB@>OI0O A0<0 A51O: "((")) [Foers. 1985, S.21]. ...'B> B0:>5 "B5>@8O ?>7=0=8O"? /A=>, GB> ;N10O B5>@8O ?>7=0=8O -MB> B5>@8O ?>=8<0=8O. > B5>@8O > G5<-B>, ?@5645 2A53>, 4>;6=0 MB> GB>-B> A45;0BL ?>=OB=K<. @C38<8 A;>20<8, 2 :>=B5:AB5 B5>@88 ?>7=0=8O =5>1E>48<> ?>=OBL ?>=8<0=85 [Foers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oers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circulus creativus 2 :>=AB@C8@>20=88 7=0=8O 2 F5;><. !;54CNI0O F8B0B0 87 @01>BK $Q@AB5@0 2KA25G8205B :;NG52>5 725=> ?5@5E>40 >B B@048F8>==>9 ;>38:8 @8AB>B5;O : =5AB0F8>=0@=>9 ;>38:5 :@C3>>1@07=>AB8: @8AB>B5;L CG8;, GB> 8<5NI55 A<KA; ?@54;>65=85 <>65B 1KBL ;81> 8AB8==K<, ;81> ;>6=K<: B@5BL59 2>7<>6=>AB8 =5 ACI5AB2C5B (lerlium ?>? dalur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ussel 1951).  <564C B5<, B0:>3> @>40 ?0@04>:A0;L=>ABL 4>2>;L=> 87OI=> C40;>AL @07@5H8BL, ?@8G5< =5 ?CB5< ?@O<>3> 55 70?@5B0, GB>, :0: AG8B0; 0AA5;, =5>1E>48<> A45;0BL, 0 B5<, GB> ?@8=F8?80;L=0O 48=0<8:0 (Brown 1972) B0:8E ?0@04>:A>2: 8AB8==K9  > ;>6=K9  > 8AB8==K9  > ;>6=K9  > 8AB8==K9  > ;>6=K9 > 8AB8==K9  > ... 8 B0: 40;55, ;81> 1>;55 =03;O4=>  1K;0 ?>;>65=0 2 >A=>2C =5AB0F8>=0@=>9 ;>38:8. >6=> 70<5B8BL, GB> =0 ?@0:B8:5 B0:>3> @>40 ;>38:0 ?@8<5=O5BAO ?>GB8 2> 2A5E 2KG8A;8B5;L=KE <0H8=0E. =CB@5==85 G0AK, A8=E@>=878@CNI85 >?5@0F88, ?@>B5:0NI85 2 MB8E <0H8=0E, @01>B0NB ?> ?@8=F8?C @53C;O@=KE ?5@5<5==KE I5;G:>2 ("Flip-Flops"), :>B>@K5 B0: 65, :0: 2 A;CG05 ?0@04>:A0 > ;3C=5, 345 87 8AB8==>3> A;54C5B ;>6=>5, 0 87 ;>6=>3> - 8AB8==>5, A <3=>25==>9 A:>@>ABLN 87 "1" 2KG8A;ONB "", 0 87 "" 2KG8A;ONB "1" [Foers. 1997, S.52] (A<. B0:65 [Foers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summum ,>?8B. !>3;0A=> ?@>2545==K< M:A?5@8<5=B0<, ;N48, 2K18@0NI85 87 =5A:>;L:8E 2>7<>6=KE 20@80=B>2, =8:>340 =5 @C:>2>4AB2CNBAO 2 A2>5< 2K1>@5 :0:>9-;81> >?@545;5==>9 85@0@E859 F5==>AB59, :>B>@0O 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 ?>4G8=O;0AL 1K =5:>5<C summum bonum. E >F5=>G=>5 ?>2545=85 =5 8<55B =8:0:>9 ;>38:>-85@0@E8G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@K.  ?@8<5@C, ?@54;>68< :><C-=81C4L 2K1@0BL <564C O1;>:>< 8 3@CH59. 0 2>?@>A: "0:>9 D@C:B 1>;LH5 B515 =@028BAO?" - >= 2KA:07K205BAO 2 ?>;L7C 3@CH8. "5< A0<K< 3@CH0 ?>;CG05B =082KAHCN >F5=:C.  >1>1I5==>< 2845 <>6=> A:070BL, GB>  ;CGH5, G5< . "5?5@L 53> ?@>AOB 2K1@0BL <564C 3@CH59 8 ;8<>=><, A2>9 2K1>@ >= >AB0=02;8205B =0 ;8<>=5; MB> >7=0G05B, GB> ;8<>= 2 40==K9 <><5=B >:07K205BAO >F5=5==K< 2KH5 4@C38E; ! ;CGH5, G5< . 0:>=5F, 5<C ?@54;030NB 2K1@0BL <564C O1;>:>< 8 ;8<>=><. A;8 8A?KBC5<K9 :>340-;81> 87CG0; ;>38:C 8 C25@5==> <KA;8B ;>38G5A:8, >= 4>;65= 2K1@0BL ;8<>=. 4=0:> 2 M:A?5@8<5=B5 >= ?@8=8<05B @5H5=85 - : C60AC ;>38:>2 - 2 ?>;L7C O1;>:0. -B> >7=0G05B, GB>  ;CGH5, G5< ', ! ;CGH5, G5< ',  ;CGH5, G5< !. 7 >158E ?@54?>AK;>: - " ;CGH5, G5< " 8 "! ;CGH5, G5< " - A;54>20;> 1K 70:;NG8BL, GB> 87 B@5E 20@80=B>2 (, , !) ! O2;O5BAO =08;CGH8<, 0  - =08EC4H8<... F5=>G=>5 ?>2545=85 ;N459 =>A8B :@C3>>1@07=K9 E0@0:B5@, G53>, >4=0:> 65, =8:>340 =5 4>;6=> 1K;> 1K ?@>8AE>48BL, 5A;8 A;54>20BL B@048F8>==K< B5>@8O<, >A=>2K20NI8<AO =0 ACI5AB2>20=88 >?@545;5==>9 85@0@E88 F5==>AB59. "0:>9 8AE>4 2K1>@0, A>>B25BAB25==>, 2K3;O48B :0: 0=><0;8O >F5=>G=>3> ?>2545=8O.  2A5 65, =025@=>5, <>6=> 1K;> 1K A:070BL, GB> ;>38:0, ?@54?8AK20NI0O B0:CN [85@0@E8G5A:CN] D>@<C ?@8=OB8O @5H5=8O 8 2K1>@0, A0<0 O2;O5BAO 0=><0;859 8 =5 8<55B =8G53> >1I53> A G5;>25G5A:8< ?>2545=85< [Foer. 1998, S.85-86]. 5@54 B5<, :0: ?@8ABC?8BL : @071>@C :>=:@5B=KE <>45;59 >@30=870F88 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, 2>?;>I0NI8E ?@8=F8? :@C3>>1@07=>AB8 2 <0B5@80;L=KE AB@C:BC@0E, =5>1E>48<> A45;0BL 2K2>4K M?8AB5<>;>38-G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0, :>B>@K5 A;54CNB =5?>A@54AB25==> 87 @0AA<>B@5==>9 D5=><5=>;>388 70<:=CB>3> A>7=0=8O. ;02=K9 2K2>4 A;>20<8 $Q@AB5@0 <>65B 1KBL AD>@<C;8@>20= A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 5H0NI8< O2;O5BAO B>, GB> A ?>78F89 :815@=5B8:8 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:0 <5=O5BAO 25AL ?>=OB89=K9 0??0@0B; @5D5@5=B=0O A8AB5<0, >A=>20==0O =0 ACI5AB2>20=88 =57028A8<>3> >B =01;N40B5;O <8@>740=8O, 70<5I05BAO A>1AB25==>9 @5D5@5=B=>9 A8AB5<>9 40==>9 ;8G=>AB8. ...!B0=>28BAO >G5284=K< B>B D0:B, GB> ?>AB02;5==K9 2>?@>A C65 87=0G0;L=> A>45@68B 2 A515 2>7<>6=K9 >B25B, :>B>@K9 =0 =53> <>6=> ?>;CG8BL [Foer. 1998, S.I 15]. ;NG52>5 ?>=OB85 2 40==>9 F8B0B5 - A>1AB25==0O @5D5@5=B=0O A8AB5<0 ;8G=>AB8, GB> ?>-4@C3><C D>@<C;8@C5BAO :0: A><>@5D5@5=B-=>ABL. 'B> MB> 7=0G8B? @5645 2A53>, B>, GB> 2> 2=5H=5<, >1J5:B82=><, @50;L=><, =57028A8<>< >B =01;N40B5;O <8@5 =5 A>45@68BAO =8G53> B0:>3>, GB> A;C68;> 1K MB0;>=><, AB0=40@B><, 8=AB@C<5=B>< 25@8D8:0F88 =0H8E 7=0=89, : G5<C <>6=> 1K;> 1K >1@0B8BLAO A 2>?@>A>< >1 8AB8==>AB8 8;8 ;>6=>AB8 =0H8E ?@54AB02;5=89 8 ?>;CG8BL >4=>7=0G=K9 >B25B.  @02=>9 <5@5 =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8 8AB8= 2 ?>A;54=59 8=AB0=F88, =8 2KAH53> 1;030 summum bonum :0: >1J5:B82=>3> <5@8;0 F5==>AB59, =8 =57028A8<KE MB8G5A:8E :0B53>@89, @53;0<5=B8@CNI8E ?>2545=85 G5;>25:0, =8 85@0@E88 MAB5B8G5A:8E =0A;0645=89. 1J5:B82=K9 <8@ =5 <>65B A;C68BL @5D5@5=B=>9 A8AB5<>9 =8 2 :0:>< 7=0G5=88. @C3>>1@07=0O >@30=870F8O A>7=0=8O =5 ?>72>;O5B 2K9B8 70 ?@545;K A>1AB25==KE ?@54AB02;5=89, >F5=>:. K A0<8 B2>@8< A<KA;K 8 7=0G5=8O 25I59, :0:, A>1AB25==>, 8 A0<8 25I8, =045;OO 8E A2>9AB20<8 F5;>AB=>AB8, 02B>=><=>AB8, A0<>B>645AB25==>AB8. !CI5AB25==K< A2>9AB2>< A0<>@5D5@5=B=>AB8 A>7=0=8O O2;O5BAO 53> A0<>4>AB0B>G=>ABL: G5;>25: =5 <>65B >ICI0BL 45D8F8B0 :0:>3>-B> @>40 @50;L=>AB8, :>B>@CN >= 5I5 =5 A:>=AB@C8@>20;, B.5. ?>-4@C3><C -704020BL A515 2>?@>AK, =0 :>B>@K5 =5 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL >B25B>2. 065 :>340 =0< :065BAO, GB> B>;L:> ?@8 >1@0I5=88 : >1J5:B82=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 <K <>65< ?>;CG8BL >4=>7=0G=K9 >B25B ?> D>@<C;5 40-=5B, <K 701K205< > B><, GB> 4> B>3>, :0: 1K; ?>AB02;5= 2>?@>A, 25AL :>=B5:AB, =07K205<K9 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN 1K; C65 703>4O A:>=AB@C8@>20= =0H8< A>7=0=85<. K A<>45;8@>20;8 2AN A8BC0F8N 2 :0B53>@8OE =0H53> 65 A>7=0=8O, 7=0=8O. 0H 480;>3 A 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN A:>@55 =0?><8=05B M:70<5= 2 , 345 =5>1E>48<> 2K1@0BL >48= ?@028;L=K9 >B25B 87 =5A:>;L:8E =5?@028;L=KE (=> B0: 65 E>@>H> AD>@<C;8@>20==KE). @>B82>?>;>6=K< ?@8<5@>< - ?@8<5@>< 2K?045=8O 87 :>=B5:AB0 - <>65B A;C68BL @073>2>@ A @515=:><, :>B>@K9 70G0ABCN D>@<C;8@C5B A2>8 2>?@>AK A>25@H5==> =5?@54A:07C5<K< 8 0;>38G=K< (:0: =0< :065BAO) >1@07><. > B5@<8=>;>388 $Q@AB5@0, >= 5I5 =5 4>AB0B>G=> B@8280;878@>20= >1I5AB25==K< A>7=0=85<, B.5. :>=AB@C8@C5<K9 8< <8@ 5I5 =5 4>AB0B>G=> A>2?0405B A <8@>< 27@>A;KE. /@:>9 8;;NAB@0F859 A0<>4>AB0B>G=>AB8 A>7=0=8O A;C68B =5>4=>:@0B=> ?@82>48<0O $Q@AB5@>< 2 A2>8E @01>B0E <5B0D>@0 A;5?>5 ?OB=>, :>B>@0O >?8A0=0 2 ?@8;0305<>< ?5@52>45 (A<. AB@. 165). KA;L, 2K@0605<0O 40==>9 <5B0D>@>9, 2 2845 <0:A8<K 72CG8B A;54CNI8< >1@07><: G5;>25: =5 2848B B>3> D0:B0, GB> >= =5 2848B [Foer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oer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oer. 1985, S.29]. >4@>1=>5 22545=85 40==>3> ?@8=F8?0 A ?@82;5G5=85< M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> <0B5@80;0 <>6=> =09B8 2 ?@54;0305<>< ?5@52>45 @01>BK  :>=AB@C8@>20=88 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 (>B:C40 27OB> 8 40==>5 >?@545;5=85). >;L A:>@> =5@2=0O A8AB5<0 8 <73, 2 G0AB=>AB8, ?>=8<05B B>;L:> :>;8G5AB25==K5 87<5=5=8O 2 A>1AB25==>9 =59@>==>9 A5B8, 8 :>;L A:>@> ;N1K5 A83=0;K, 8AE>4OI85 >B @5F5?B>@>2, 8<5NB A>25@H5==> >48=0:>2K9 284 (1C4L B> @5F5?B>@K A;CE>2K5, 7@8B5;L=K5, 1>;52K5 8;8 3>@<>=0;L=K5), B> =5 ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2>7<>6=K< ?5@540G0 8 ?>;CG5=85 :0:8E-;81> :0G5AB25==KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: 872=5, 87 >:@C60NI59 A@54K. !;54>20B5;L=>, ;N1>5 7=0=85 :>=AB@C8@C5BAO (2KG8A;O5BAO) =5@2=>9 A8AB5<>9 2 @57C;LB0B5 70<:=CBKE :>3=8B82=KE F8:;>2. #65 87 >?@545;5=8O 0:-0;;>:0 AB0=>28BAO ?>=OB=K<, > :0:>3> @>40 :@C3>>1@07=>AB8 845B @5GL, B.5C 4@C38<8 A;>20<8, 2 :0:>< 8<5==> <5AB5 =5>1E>48<> 1K;> 70<:=CBL :>3=8B82=K9 F8:;, GB>1K >1@07>20;0AL 548=0O ?5B;O, 0 8<5==>, A>548=8BL A5=A>@=K9 2E>4=>9 A83=0; A <>B>@=K< 2KE>4=K< A83=0;><. !> AAK;:>9 =0 @01>BC C0=:0@5, $Q@AB5@ ?@82>48B 3;02=CN AE5<C :>3=8B82=>3> F8:;0 (@8A.4):  >1>1I5==>< 2845 ?>78F8O C0=:0@5 >7=0G05B, ?> ACI5AB2C, :@C3>>1@07=CN >@30=870F8N :>3=8B82=KE ?@>F5AA>2: 2K720==K5 <>B>@=>9 0:B82=>ABLN 87<5=5=8O 2 A5=A>@=>< ?>;5 ?@82>4OB A=>20 : 87<5=5=8O< MB>9 <>B>@=>9 0:B82=>AB8 8 B0: 40;55 [Foer. 1997, S.68].  8A. 4. !E5<0 2708<>459AB28O A5=A>@=>3> 8 <>B>@=>3> ?>;59 $Q@AB5@ =5 >AB0=02;8205BAO =0 A5=A><>B>@=>< 70<K:0=88 F8:;0 8 ?@54;0305B 87OI=CN <>45;L 42>9=>9 70<:=CB>AB8, 87>1@0605<>9 2 2845 B>@0: 1@0B8B5 2=8<0=85 =0 42>9=CN 70<:=CB>ABL A8AB5<K, :>B>@0O @5:C@A82=> >?5@8@C5B =5 B>;L:> B5<, GB> >=0 "2848B", => 8 A0<8<8 >?5@0B>@0<8 [Foer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circulus creativm. !<KA; 8<55B B>;L:> B>, GB> O A0< 2 A>AB>O=88 ?>AB83=CBL [Foer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oer. 1998, S.16-17].  >1I5< A<KA;5 >B25B B0:>2: ...0G5AB20 2>7=8:0NB 2 F5=B@0;L=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<5. <5==> B0< >=8, :0: O C65 3>2>@8;, 2KG8A;ONBAO [Foer. 1998, S.I7]. @>1;5<5 2KG8A;5=8O 7=0=8O $Q@AB5@ C45;O5B 4>AB0B>G=> <=>3> 2=8<0=8O 2 A2>8E @01>B0E. 4=0:>, 2A5340 =04> ?><=8BL > B><, GB> 2KG8A;5=85 7=0=8O ?> $Q@AB5@C - MB> =5 >?5@8@>20=85 3>B>2K<8 25;8G8=0<8, 7=0G5=8O<8, ?>=OB8O<8, 0 8E ?>AB>O==>5 =5?@5@K2=>5 :>=AB@C8@>20=85, 2>AA>740=85 2 :064K9 :>=:@5B=K9 <><5=B, :>340 2>7=8:05B 2 MB>< =5>1E>48<>ABL: >=OB85 2KG8A;5=8O 2 <>8E @01>B0E =5 8<55B =8G53> >1I53> A D5=><5=>;>3859 G8A5;. >-0=3;89A:8 A>>B25BAB2CNI55 2K@065=85 72CG8B "to compute". 0B8=A:>5 A;>2> compulare ?>4@07C<5205B @0AA<>B@5=85 25I59 2 =5:>59 A>2<5AB=>9 A2O78. !>B >7=0G05B "2<5AB5", puiare - "@0AA<0B@820BL, CAB0=02;820BL". >=OB85 2KG8A;5=8O O C?>B@51;ON 2 G@572KG09=> H8@>:>< A<KA;5: MB> - B5 2>71C645=8O 8 2?5G0B;5=8O, :>B>@K5 ?@>=8:0NB 2=CB@L, A>18@0OAL 2 ?@545;0E =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K 2 =5:>5 548=AB2>. =5 65 MB> 405B >A=>20=85 @0AA<0B@820BL A>1KB8O, ?@>B5:0NI85 2 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<5, 2 :0G5AB25 ?@>F5AA0 2KG8A;5=8O [Foer. 1998, S.17-18] (A<. B0:65 >1JOA=5=85 AG5B=>3> 0A?5:B0 2 ?0@03@0D5 !5<0=B8G5A:85 2KG8A;8B5;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK [Foer. 1985, S.48-52]). =0=85 2>7=8:05B 2 @57C;LB0B5 8=B53@0B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, :>B>@0O C?>@O4>G8205B, >@30=87C5B, CAB0=02;8205B A2O78 2 >1I5< =548DD5@5=F8@>20==>< ?>B>:5 2>A?@8OB89 8 >?KB0. >;L A:>@> 40==K9 ?@>F5AA O2;O5BAO 70:@KBK<, :@C3>>1@07=K<, B> 8B>3>20O :0@B8=0 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> 7=0=8O, :0:, A>1AB25==>, 8 2A53> <8@>740=8O, :>B>@>5 :>=AB@C8@C5BAO, >?@545;O5BAO =5 ?>B>:>< 872=5, =5 AB@C:BC@0<8 8 A2>9AB20<8 25I59, 0 8A:;NG8B5;L=> B5<8 A2O7O<8 8 :>@@5;OF8O<8, :>B>@K5 :064K9 @07 2>7=8:0NB de novo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oer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al(pf) - >?5@0F8O ?> 53> 40;L=59H5<C @0A?@545;5=8N, ;81> >10 MB8 D0:B>@0 >?@545;ONB 53> "A5=A>@=CN <>40;L=>ABL" [Foer. 1985, S. 107]. "0:, : ?@8<5@C, ACI5AB2>20=85 :>3=8B82=>9 0;LB5@=0B82K 40-=5B >:07K205BAO A;54AB285< 18=0@=>AB8 42865=8O, :>B>@>5 >B=>A8B5;L=> A0<>3> >@30=87<0 2A5340 >:07K205BAO ;81> ?@81;865=85<, ;81> >B40;5=85<: >38G5A:0O AB@C:BC@0 >?8A0=89 2>7=8:05B :0: A;54AB285 ;>38G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@K 42865=8O; "?@81;865=85" 8 ">B40;5=85" - 2>B ?5@2>?@8G8=K ?>=OB89 "40" 8 "=5B" [Foer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oer. 1985, S.39]. "0:8< 65 >1@07>< 2>7=8:05B ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?@54<5B0E 8 >B45;L=KE >1J5:B0E: ">, GB> <K =07K205< ?@54<5B><, : ?@8<5@C, :C18:><, ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45 >B=>A8BAO : >1;0AB8 :><?5B5=F88 =0H59 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, :>B>@0O 8 >15A?5G8205B 2>7<>6=>ABL 2KG8A;5=8O 8=20@80=B. @54<5B 8 2>>1I5 2A5, GB> >1KG=> >1>7=0G05BAO 2 :0G5AB25 >1J5:B0, ?@8 2=8<0B5;L=>< @0AA<>B@5=88 >:07K205BAO A8<2>;8G5A:8< 2K@065=85< =0H59 A?>A>1=>AB8 2KG8A;OBL 8=20@80=BK [Foer. 1998, S.20]. !<KA; B0:>3> @>40 0:B82=>AB8 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K $Q@AB5@ 2848B 2 CAB0=>2;5=88 @02=>25A8O 682>3> >@30=87<0 A =5C?>@O4>G5==K<8 ?@>F5AA0<8 8 2708<>459AB28O<8 A >:@C60NI59 A@54>9. >-4@C3><C, 2K@060OAL O7K:>< $Q@AB5@0, MB> <>6=> >1>7=0G8BL :0: ?>?KB:C B@8280-;878@>20BL <8@, :>B>@K9 ?> A2>59 ACB8 2A5340 O2;O5BAO =5B@8280;L=>9 <0H8=>9. @C38<8 A;>20<8, A8AB5<0 7=0G8B5;L=> ?>=8605B AB5?5=L =5=0456=>AB8 A2>59 >:@C60NI59 A@54K 1;03>40@O A?>A>1=>AB8 : :;0AA8D8:0F88 8 01AB@0:F88.  40==>< A;CG05 MB> 8 >7=0G05B 845=B8D8:0F8N >B45;L=KE >1J5:B>2 [Foer. 1985, S.I70]. 06=K< 2 B0:>9 8=B5@?@5B0F88 >1J5:B82=>AB8 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> >=0 :>=AB@C8@C5BAO A0<8< >@30=87<><, 8<55B DC=:F8>=0;L=>5 (2 @0<:0E 40==>9 :>=:@5B=>9 A8AB5<K) 7=0G5=85 8 =5 <>65B =8 2 :>59 <5@5 A;C68BL =8 >=B>;>38G5A:8< DC=40<5=B><, =8 @5D5@5=B=>9 A8AB5<>9 4;O <5B0D878G5A:8E ?>AB@>5=89 D8;>A>D>2, 0 B0:65 4;O 7=0=8O 2 F5;><. 6. 1J5:B82=>ABL :0: 8;;N78O =57028A8<>AB8 =01;N45=8O >B =01;N40B5;O. !CI5AB25==>9 G0ABLN M?8AB5<>;>388 $Q@AB5@0 O2;O5BAO B5>@8O =01;N40B5;O [Foer. 1985, S.81], .:>B>@CN >= D>@<C;8@C5B 2 2845 ?>ABC;0B0 A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 01;N40NI89 >@30=87< O2;O5BAO >4=>2@5<5==>, :0: G0ABLN, B0: 8 A>CG0AB=8:>< =01;N405<>3> 8< <8@0 [Foer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oer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oer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esamtumwelt"), B> AB0=>28BAO ?>=OB=K<, GB> ?@>25AB8 @07;8G85 <564C "2=5H=59" 8 "2=CB@5==59" A@54>9 >@30=87<0 4>ABC?=> ;8HL AB>@>==5<C =01;N40B5;N. -B> ?@828;538O, 2 :>B>@>9 A0<><C >@30=87<C >B:070=>, 5<C 8725AB=0 ;8HL >4=0 A@540: B0, :>B>@CN >= 2>A?@8=8<05B 2 >ICI5=8OE. "0:, : ?@8<5@C, >= =5 2 A>AB>O=88 >B;8G8BL ?5@56820=8O 30;;NF8=0B>@=>3> ?;0=0 >B =530;;NF8=0B>@=KE [Foer. 1985, S.77]. 0==0O F8B0B0 ?>:070B5;L=0 5I5 8 B5<, GB> 22>48B ?>=OB85 2=5H=53> =01;N40B5;O. ! 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(0: 70B5< >B<5B8B 0BC@0=0, =01;N405<K9 >@30=87< 8 53> >:@C60NI0O A@540 O2;ONBAO 2 B0:>9 65 <5@5 =5>B45;8<K< =01;N45=85< 4;O 2=5H=53> =01;N40B5;O, :>B>@K9 B5?5@L ?5@5AB05B 1KBL 2=5H=8<). "0:8< >1@07><, 459AB28B5;L=>ABL ?>@>6405BAO =0H8<8 A>2<5AB=K<8 CA8;8O<8 2 :0G5AB25 2=5H=8E =01;N40B5;59: >38G5A:8< ?@>4>;65=85< <8@>2>77@5=G5A:8E ?@8=F8?>2, 2KB5:0NI8E 87 40==>3> ?>ABC;0B0 ("?>ABC;0B0 2>2;5G5==>AB8"), A;C68B ?>78F8O ><=8?A87<0. -B> >7=0G05B (>B ;0B8=A:>3> omnis - "2A5" 8 ipse - "A0<", "A0<8"), GB> AC1J5:B, 682CI89 2 :0:>9-B> 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, ?>@>6405B MBC 459AB28B5;L=>ABL B>;L:> A>2<5AB=> A 4@C38<8 AC1J5:B0<8: "A5 <K ACI5AB2C5< 4@C3 G5@57 4@C30!" [Foer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oer. 1998, S.I 16]. ...815@=5B8:0 ?5@2>3> ?>@O4:0 >B45;O5B AC1J5:B >B >1J5:B0, >=0 AAK;05BAO =0 =5:89 ?@54?>;0305<K9 =57028A8<K< <8@ "?> BC AB>@>=C". 815@=5B8:0 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:0, 8;8 :815@=5B8:0 :815@=5B8:8 =>A8B :@C3>>1@07=K9 E0@0:B5@: G5;>25: CG8BAO 2845BL A51O G0ABLN B>3> <8@0, :>B>@K9 >= =01;N405B [Foer. 1998, S.I 14-115].  ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL :;0AA8G5A:>9 ?>AB0=>2:5 2>?@>A0, AD>@<8@>20==>9 2 @0<:0E =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89, 8 ?>ABC;8@CNI59, ?@5645 2A53>, =5>1E>48<>ABL >4=>7=0G=> >?8AK205<>3> ">1J5:B82=>3> <8@0" (53> ACI5AB2>20=8O), 8 B5< A0<K< AB02OI59 A2>59 7040G59 53> >?8A0=85, A53>4=O <K ?KB05<AO 8<5BL 45;> A >4=>7=0G=> >?8AK205<K< "AC1J5:B82=K< <8@><", B.5. <8@><, :>B>@K9 2:;NG05B 2 A51O =01;N40B5;O [Foer. 1985,8.82]. ">B D0:B, GB> :>=F5?F8O =01;N40B5;O 70=8<05B 2 :>=AB@C:B8287<5 >4=C 87 :;NG52KE ?>78F89, ?>72>;O5B $Q@AB5@C =07K20BL :>=AB@C:B8287< M?8AB5<>;>3859 =01;N40B5;O [Foer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oer. 1998, S. 118]. >;L A:>@> ;N1K5 :0G5AB20 8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 <8@0, 2 :>B>@>< <K 6825<, B2>@8< <K A0<8, B> =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8:0:8E >1J5:B82=KE 45B5@<8=0=B =0H53> ?>2545=8O. B25BAB25==>ABL 70 ?>ABC?:8 ;568B 8A:;NG8B5;L=> =0 =0A A0<8E. 1J5:B82=>ABL - MB> A?>A>1 C:;>=5=8O >B >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 A2>5 MB8G5A:>5 ?>2545=85'. 4=0 87 87;N1;5==KE 83@ =0H53> >1I5AB20 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K 871028BLAO >B >B25BAB25==>AB8: =5 O, 0 :B>-B> 4@C3>9, GB>-B> 4@C3>5 =5A5B >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 <>8 459AB28O. A;8 A;54>20BL ?@028;0< 83@K A:8==5@>2A:>3> 18E528>@87<0, B> >:@C60NI0O A@540 O2;O5BAO B5<, =0 GB> O 2A5340 <>3C A>A;0BLAO 2 A2>5 >?@0240=85; 5A;8 ?@8=OBL B>G:C 7@5=8O A>F8>18>;>3>2, B> 2 B0:>9 @>;8 2KABC?0NB <>8 35=K! > A0<>9 35=80;L=>9 AB@0B53859 871028BLAO >B >B25BAB25==>AB8 O2;O5BAO ?@87=0=85 ">1J5:B82=>AB8" [Foer. 1997, S.44]. =0;>38G=K< >1@07>< $Q@AB5@ E0@0:B5@87C5B :>=F5?F8N 8AB8=K: >=OB85 8AB8=K ?@8 4>AB0B>G=> 2=8<0B5;L=>< @0AA<>B@5=88 <>6=> A@02=8BL A E0<5;5>=>< 2 8AB>@88 D8;>A>D88, 2A5340 8<5NI53> - 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, :B> 53> 8A?>;L7C5B, - @07;8G=CN >:@0A:C. [...] >O 7040G0 2K3;O48B 1>;55 @048:0;L=>9: C=8GB>68BL A0<> ?>=OB85 8AB8=K, ?>A:>;L:C 53> C?>B@51;5=85 ?@82>48B : C60A=K< ?>A;54AB28O<. => ?>@>6405B ;>6L, >=> 45;8B ;N459 =0 B5E, :B> ?@02, 8 B5E, :B> - :0: 3>2>@OB  701;C6405BAO. AB8=0, :0: O C65 3>2>@8;, - MB> 87>1@5B5=85 ;3C=>2 [Foer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oer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oer. 1985, S.40]), $Q@AB5@ ?5@5E>48B : ?>78F88 8>;KA>;8?A87<0, 8;8 A>;8?A87<0 :><<C=8:0B82=>3>, :>B>@K9, ?5@5D@078@CO 53> ?@54K4CI55 2KA:07K20=85, <>65B 1KBL AD>@<C;8@>20= A;54CNI8< >1@07><: MB>B <8@ ACBL =5 1>;55 G5< ?0H5 2>>1@065=85, 0 548=AB25==>9 @50;L=>ABLN O2;O5BAO D0=B078@CNI55 "<K; ;81>, A;>20<8 $Q@AB5@0: 50;L=>ABL = !>>1I5AB2> [Foer. 1985, S.41]. "0: 65, :0: 8 4@C385 :>=AB@C:B828ABK, $Q@AB5@ >B:07K205BAO =0?@O<CN >1AC640BL 2>?@>A > :0:>9-;81> 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 70 ?@545;0<8 =0H53> A>7=0=8O, =07K20O MB> >=B>;>3859 - 70?@5B=K< A;>2>< 2> 2A5< :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>< 48A:C@A5. KB0OAL >E0@0:B5@87>20BL D8;>A>DA:CN ?>78F8N $Q@AB5@0, 5@=E0@4 Q@:A5= 2 E>45 8=B5@2LN 3>2>@8B > A5@548==>< ?>;>65=88 M?8AB5<>;>388 :>=AB@C:B8287<0 <564C =082=K< @50;87<>< 8 A>;8?A87<><: >60;C9, <>6=> A:070BL, GB> 0H0 M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:0O ?>78F8O @0A?>;>65=0 <564C 42C<O ?>;O@=K<8 B>G:0<8 7@5=8O: A >4=>9 AB>@>=K AB>8B =082=K9 @50;87< 8 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> ?@54<5BK, 45@52LO, ;N48, 2>>1I5 2AQ 2 <8@5 2KAB@08205BAO =0 G8AB>< ?>;>B=5 <>53> A>7=0=8O B0:8< >1@07><, :0: 1C4B> 1K 2AQ MB> ACI5AB2CNB 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. ! ?@>B82>?>;>6=>9 AB>@>=K AB>8B A>;8?A87< 8 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> 2AQ MB> - E8<5@K, =0H8< 65 A>1AB25==K< A>7=0=85< 8 ?>@>645==K5. , :0: O ?>;030N, 345-B> <564C A>;8?A87<>< 8 =082=K< @50;87<>< @0A?>;>65=0 0H0 845O: B>, GB> <>65B 1KBL =0720=> 459AB28B5;L=K< 2 :0:><-B> 01A>;NB=>< A<KA;5, =02A5340 >AB0=5BAO =52KOA=5==K<, => B>, GB> GB>-B> 2A5-B0:8 ACI5AB2C5B, =5 2K7K205B A><=5=89 [Foer. 1998, S.25]. (0==0O D>@<C;8@>2:0 =0?><8=05B 0;;53>@8G5A:>5 87>1@065=85 :>=AB@C:B828AB:>9 M?8AB5<>;>388 87 :=838 0BC@0=K 8 0@5;K @52> ?>7=0=8O ) 4=0:>, B0:0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 2K7K205B C $Q@AB5@0 =530B82=CN @50:F8N: 0H0 ?>?KB:0 ?@8G8A;8BL <5=O : :0:>9-B> >?@545;5==>9 :0B53>@88, 40 8 2>>1I5 2AO MB0 B5@<8=>;>38O B5>@88 ?>7=0=8O, :>B>@CN K C?>B@51;O5B5 A B0:8< 7=0=85< 45;0, =5A:>;L:> <5=O >3>@G05B. @8G8=0 B><C 2 B><, GB> B0 ?>78F8O, :>B>@CN K <=5 ?@8?8AK205B5, A=>20-B0:8 >AB02;O5B >B:@KB>9 ;0759:C, G5@57 :>B>@CN MB0 C60A=0O 845O >=B>;>388  CG5=85 > 459AB28B5;L=> ACI5AB2CNI5< - 2E>48B >1@0B=> 2 >1=>2;5==>< 2845. A;8 A;54>20BL B0:>9 ?>78F88, B> 2?>;=5 4>?CAB8<> 8 40;LH5 ?@>4>;60BL 3>2>@8BL > ACI5AB2>20=88 2=5H=53> <8@0 [Foer. 1998, S.25]. >:070B5;L=>, GB> B01C =0 ACI5AB2>20=85 2=5H=53> <8@0 $Q@AB5@ =0:;04K205B ?> MB8G5A:8< A>>1@065=8O<, 0 2>2A5 =5 87-70 8E ;>38G5A:>9 =5A>AB>OB5;L=>AB8: !AK;:0 =0 2=5H=89 <8@ 8 53> 40==>ABL ?>72>;O5B, O C25@5=, 1C4CG8 C40G=> ?@8<5=O5<>9, A=8<0BL A A51O 2AO:CN >B25BAB25==>ABL.  MB>< A>AB>8B 25AL C60A >=B>;>388 [Foer. J998, S.25]. @C3>9 206=K9 <><5=B - $Q@AB5@ >B>645AB2;O5B B578A > 2>7<>6=>AB8 ACI5AB2>20=8O 2=5H=53> <8@0 A B578A>< > 2>7<>6=>AB8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 53> 2 :0G5AB25 @5D5@5=B=>9 A8AB5<K. 4=0:> 70<5B8<, GB> >B@8F0=85 2B>@>3> B578A0 2>2A5 =5 ?>4@07C<5205B 02B><0B8G5A:8 =525@=>AB8 ?5@2>3>. 5>4=>:@0B=> 8 2 A0<KE @07=KE :>=B5:AB0E $Q@AB5@ 4>?CA:05B 2KA:07K20=8O >=B>;>38G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0, ?CABL 70G0ABCN 2 =530B82=>9, 0?>D0B8G5A:>9 D>@<5. >B =5:>B>@K5 ?@8<5@K: - 0:A8<0 <8@ =5 A>45@68B 8=D>@<0F88: <8@ B0:>2, :0:>2 >= 5ABL ?>OA=O5BAO A;54CNI8< >1@07><: =838 8 3075BK, 0C48>- 8 2845>70?8A8, C;8G=K5 2K25A:8 8 B.?. =5 A>45@60B 2 A515 =8:0:>9 8=D>@<0F88, >=8 O2;ONBAO =>A8B5;O<8 ?>B5=F80;L=>9 8=D>@<0F88, GB> ACI5AB25==> =5 >4=> 8 B> 65. "><C, :B> =5 2;0455B :8B09A:8< O7K:><, 85@>3;8D8G5A:0O ?8AL<5==>ABL ?>:065BAO 2A53> ;8HL A>1@0=85< :0:8E-B> AB@0==KE :0@0:C;59 =0 15;>9 1C<035 [Foer. 1998, S.98]. KA:07K20=85 <8@, :0:>2 >= 5ABL 8 ?@87=0=85 ACI5AB2>20=8O =>A8B5;59 ?>B5=F80;L=>9 8=D>@<0F88 8 =5>?>7=0==KE AB@0==KE :0@0:C;59 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > =52>7<>6=>AB8 871560BL 2KA:07K20=89, =>AOI8E >=B>;>38G5A:89 E0@0:B5@. - 8@ - =5B@8280;L=0O <0H8=0. >7=8:05B 2>?@>A: :0: 25AB8 A51O 2 >B=>H5=88 <8@0, :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO 0=0;8B8G5A:8 =5>?@545;8<K<, 7028A8<K< >B ?@54H5AB2CNI8E A>AB>O=89 8 =5?@54A:07C5<K<? [Foer. 1997, S.66]. 8@ =5B@8280;5= - 2 MB>< 53> =5?>7=0205<>ABL, => =5 0=-B8>=B>;>38G=>ABL. - ... 'B> 8<5==> ?@82>48B : 8E [=0H8E >@30=>2 GC2AB2] 2>71C645=8N, <K =8:>8< >1@07>< 7=0BL =5 <>65<; <K 7=05< ;8HL B>, GB> >@30=K GC2AB2 2>AA>740NB 87 MB8E 2>71C645=89 [Foer. 1998, S. 15]. A5, GB> <K 7=05<, B0: MB> B>;L:> B>, GB> <K GB>-B> 2>A?@8=8<05<, 1>;55 =8G53> [Foer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(1943) >2545=85, F5;5=0?@02;5==>ABL 8 B5;5>;>38O. : 8=5@ . 815@=5B8:0, 8;8 C?@02;5=85 8 A2O7L 2 682>B=>< 8 <0H8=5. 74-2> 0C:0, >A:20, 1983, ?@8;>65=85 I, A.297-307. 8=5@ . (1983) 815@=5B8:0, 8;8 C?@02;5=85 8 A2O7L 2 682>B=>< 8 <0H8=5. 74-2> 0C:0, >A:20, A.41-250. Bateson G. (1972) Metalogue: What is an Instinct? In: Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Ballantine Books, N.Y., p.38-60. Foerster . von (1985) Sicl und Einsichl. Versuche zur einer operaliven Erkennlnistheorie. Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden. Foerster H. von (1995), Franchi S., Guzeldere G., Minch E. Interview. In: Stanford Humanities Review, V.4, issue 2: Constructions of Mind; Web site. Foerster H. von (1996) Erkennlnislheorien und Se/bslorganisation. In: Schmidt S. (Hrsg.) Der Diskurs des Radikalen Konstruktivismus, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 7. Aufl, S. 133-158. Foerster H. von (1997) Entdecken oder Erfinden. Wie laBt sich Verstehen verstehen? In: Einfuhrung in den Konstruktivismus, Piper Verlag, Munchen, 3. Aufl., S.41-88. Foerster II. von, Porksen B. (1998) Wahrheil ist die Erfindung eines Lugners. Gesprachefur Skeptiker. Carl-Auer-Systeme Verlag, Heidelberg. Schmidt S. (1996) Der Radikale Konslruklivismus: Ein neuex Paradigma im interdisziplinaren Diskurs. In: Schmidt S. (Hrsg.) Der Diskurs des Radikalen Konstruktivismus, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 7. Aufl, S.I 1-88.   : ;025 3: X. D>= $Q@AB5@  :>=AB@C8@>20=88 @50;L=>AB8 @>2548 @07;8G85! 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alerie Lament 8 Sluart Umpleby, :>B>@K5 ?@8=8<0;8 CG0AB85 2 D>@<8@>20=88 =5:>B>@KE 87 2KA:070==KE 745AL 8459 ?@8 A>459AB288 3@0=B0 GY10766 0F8>=0;L=>3> 0CG=>3> $>=40, 0 B0:65 >B45;5=8N -;5:B@8G5A:>9 =65=5@88, :>B>@>5 ;N157=> @07@5H8;> <=5 ?>;L7>20BLAO A2>8< >1>@C4>20=85<. Lebbeus Woods, Rodney Clough 8 Gordon Pask O >1O70= 70 M:A?;C0B0F8N 8E EC4>65AB25==>3> B0;0=B0, GB> ?>72>;8;> A=0148BL 40==CN @01>BC 8;;NAB@0F8O<8( 8A. 7, 8, 9, 16, 17; 8A.18, 19 8 8A. 20 A>>B25BAB25==>), 0 B0:65 Kathy Roberts, GL5 GC2AB2> :@0A>BK, :><?5B5=B=>ABL 8 B5@?5=85 ?>72>;8;8 AB0BL MB>9 AB0BL5 B5<, G5< >=0 5ABL. 8B5@0BC@0 1. Brown, G. S., LAWS OF FORM, New York, Julian Press, p. 3, 1972. 2. Teuber, H. L., "Neuere Betrachtungen iiber Sehstrahlung und Sehrinde" in Jung, R. Kornhuber, H. (Eds.) DAS VISUELLE SYSTEM, Berlin, Springer, pp. 256-274, 1961. 3. Naeser, M. A., and Lilly, J. C.,  The Repeating Word Effect: Phonetic Analysis of Reported Alternates", JOURNAL OF SPEECH AND HEARING RESEARCH, 1971. 4. Worden, F. G.,  EEC Studies and Conditional Reflexes in Man", in Brazier, Mary . ., THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND BEHAVIOR, New York, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, pp. 270-291, 1959. 5. Maturana, H. R., "Neurophysiology of Cognition" in Garvin, P., COGNITION: A MULTIPLE VIEW, New York, Spartan Press, pp. 3-23, 1970. 6. Maturana, H. R., BIOLOGY OF COGNITION, University of Illinois, 1970. 7. Shell, D. A., THE ORGANIZATION OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX, London, Methuen, 1956. 8. Descartes, R., L'HOMME, Paris, Angot, 1664. Reprinted in OUERVRES DE DESCARTES, XI, Paris, Adam and Tannery, pp. 119-209, 1957. 9. Skinner, B. F., BEYOND FREEDOM AND DIGNITY, New York, Knopf, 1971. 10. Maturana, H. R., "A Biological Theory of Relativistic Colour Coding in the Primate Retina", ARCH. BIOLOGIA Y MEDICINA EXPER., SUPPL. No. 1, Soc. Biologia de Chile, Santiago, Universidad de Chgile, 1968. ;020 4 CB>?>MB8G5A:85 8 :>3=8B82=K5 A8AB5<K #<5@B> 0BC@0=K 8 $@0=F8A:0 0@5;K "5>@8O 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5< 0BC@0=K-0@5;K A;C68B 18>;>38G5A:8< DC=40<5=B>< M?8AB5<>;>388 @048:0;L=>3> :>=AB@C:B8287<0.  B> 65 2@5<O >=0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A0<>4>AB0B>G=CN <5648AF8?;8=0@=CN :>=F5?F8N, :>B>@CN A CA?5E>< ?@8<5=ONB, :0: <8=8<C<, 2 B@5E >1;0ABOE: 2 >1;0AB8 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 18>;>388 4;O >1JOA=5=8O 8 :>=F5?BC0;870F88 D5=><5=>;>388 687=8, 2 B5>@88 A0<>>@30=870F88 - 4;O D>@<0;870F88 =5:>B>@KE :;NG52KE A2>9AB2 A0<>>@30=87CNI8EAO A8AB5< (?@8G5< =5 B>;L:> 18>;>38G5A:8E, => B0:65 E8<8G5A:8E, 35>?;0=8B0@=KE, A>F80;L=KE, ;8=328AB8G5A:8E 8 B.4.), 8, =0:>=5F, 2 M?8AB5<>;>388 - 4;O >1>A=>20=8O :>=AB@C:B828ABA:>9 ?>78F88. $0:B8G5A:8 @01>B0 #. 0BC@0=K ?> A1>@C M<?8@8G5A:>3> <0B5@80;0 8 B5>@5B8G5A:><C >A<KA;5=8N :>3=8B82=>9 DC=:F88 682>3> >@30=87<0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?@O<>5 ?@>4>;65=85 B5E CA8;89, :>B>@K5 1K;8 ?@54?@8=OBK 2 50-70-E 3>40E 2 ;01>@0B>@8OE 8 ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< %09=F0 D>= $Q@AB5@0. 4=0:> D>@<8@>20=85 :;NG52>3> ?>=8<0=8O 70<:=CB>AB8 :0: 70:@KB>3> <>;5:C;O@=>3> 2>A?@>872>4AB20 8 53> ?@8=F8?80;L=>9 A<KA;>2>9 1;87>AB8 : ?>=OB8N :@C3>>1@07=>AB8 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K ?@>8AE>48;>, ?> A;>20< 0BC@0=K, 2 ?5@2>9 ?>;>28=5 H5AB845AOBKE 3>4>2 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B =5?>A@54AB25==>3> 2;8O=8O 8459 $Q@AB5@0, 2> 2@5<O 53> @01>BK 2 C=825@A8B5B5 !0=BLO3> 45 '8;8. ?5@2K5 65 2 70:>=G5==>< 2845 >A=>2=0O 845O 0CB>?>-M70, ?>:0 157 22545=8O A0<>3> MB>3> B5@<8=0, 1K; 87;>65=0 ?> 70:07C $Q@AB5@0 2 @01>B5 1969 3>40 ?>4 =0720=85< 59@>D878>;>38O ?>7=0=8O. >765 : 0BC@0=5 ?@8A>548=8;AO $@0=F8A: 0@5;0 (?>A;5 A2>53> 2>72@0I5=8O 2 '8;8 87 0@20@40 2 1970 3>4C). 5@20O @01>B0, A>45@60I0O 2 A515 B5@<8= 0CB>?>M7 A 45B0;L=K< ?>OA=5=85< B>3>, GB> MB> 7=0G8B, 2KH;0 2 A>02B>@AB25 0BC@0=K, 0@5;K 8 #@815 2 1973 3>4C =0 8A?0=A:>< O7K:5, 0 2 1974 3>4C - =0 0=3;89A:>< 2 Biosystems [Mat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at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at. 1992, @.48].  A2>N >G5@54L, ...:;NG : ?>=8<0=8N <8@0 18>;>38G5A:8E D5=><5=>2 ;568B 2 ?>=8<0=88 >@30=870F88 8=48284CC<>2. ...-B0 65 >@30=870F8O 5ABL 0CB>?>MB8G5A:0O >@30=870F8O [Mat. 1985, S.218].  A0<>< >1I5< 2845 AB@0B538O ?>AB@>5=8O 0BC@0=>9 A2>59 :>=F5?F88 2K45@60=0 A>3;0A=> A;54CNI59 AE5<5: - @07@01>B:0 045:20B=>3> :0B53>@80;L=>3> 0??0@0B0 2 @0<:0E A8AB5<=>3> ?>4E>40; - CG5=85 > 682KE A8AB5<0E :0: >1 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5<0E; - B578A: 687=L = ?>7=0=85; 0CB>?>MB8G5A:85 A8AB5<K = :>3=8B82=K5 A8AB5<K. B25B =0 2>?@>A > :>3=8B82=>5"! B@51C5B >?@545;5=8O B>3>, GB> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 :>=AB8BCF8O 8 A?>A>1 0:B82=>AB8 682KE A8AB5<. @><5 B>3>, =0< A;54C5B ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85 =5:>B>@K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:>3> 8 >=B>;>38G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0 > B5E CA;>28OE, :>B>@K< 4>;6=> C4>2;5B2>@OBL =0H5 ?>=8<0=85 A8AB5<K [Mat. 1992, @.68]. '0ABL I. #"-"'! !"+ 820O A8AB5<0 - MB> 0CB>?>MB8G5A:0O A8AB5<0 2 D878G5A:>< ?@>AB@0=AB25 [Mat. 1987a, S.95] 2. 'B> B0:>5 687=L? "5>@8O 0CB>?>M70 87=0G0;L=> 704C<K20;0AL 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 2 @0<:0E 18>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8, :0: >B25B =0 2>?@>A: 'B> B0:>5 687=L?. A5 M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:85 >1>1I5=8O 8 2K2>4K > :>3=8B82=>-AB8 682KE >@30=87<>2 1K;8 A45;0=K ?>74=55, :0: ?@>872>4=K5 8E 18>;>38G5A:>9 ACI=>AB8. >?@>A > B><, GB> A>AB02;O5B ACI5AB2> 687=8, 55 3;02=K9 :@8B5@89 O2;O5BAO 107>2K<, ?5@28G=K<, =0 :>B>@K9 0BC@0=5 A;54>20;> =09B8 >B25B, ?@5645 G5< ?@8ABC?8BL : 70I8B5 A2>53> >A=>2=>3> M?8AB5<>;>38G5A:>3> B578A0 > 548=AB25 687=8 8 ?>7=0=8O.  @0<:0E A8AB5<=>3> ?>4E>40 548=AB25==K9 A?>A>1 >E0@0:B5@87>20BL 682>5 - MB> A2O70BL 40==>5 ?>=OB85 A >?@545;5==>3> 2840 A8AB5<0<8. 0BL >?@545;5=85 :;0AAC A8AB5< 7=0G8B >1=0@C68BL C MB8E A8AB5< B0:85 A2>9AB20, :>B>@K5 >B;8G0;8 1K 8E >B 4@C3>3> :;0AA0 A8AB5< 8 >4=>2@5<5==> >1J548=O;8 1K 8E 2A5E (157 2AO:8E 8A:;NG5=89) 2 @0<:0E 40==>3> :;0AA0. 0BC@0=0 ?KB05BAO =09B8 8 >E0@0:B5@87>20BL B0:85 A2>9AB20-:@8B5@88. 4=0:>, 745AL ACI5AB2C5B B@C4=>ABL 2>B :0:>3> ?;0=0. 5A<>B@O =0 4>AB0B>G=> CAB0=>282H89AO ?>=OB89=K9 DC=40<5=B :815@=5B8:8 (B5>@88 A8AB5<), 3>2>@8BL > ACI5AB2>20=88 :0:>9-B> 548=>9, C=825@A0;L=>9 :;0AA8D8:0F8>==>9 :0@B8=K, 2 :>B>@CN >AB020;>AL 1K B>;L:> 2?8AK20BL @07=K5 284K ?@8@>4=KE 8 8A:CAAB25==KE A8AB5<, =5 ?@8E>48BAO. 82K5 A8AB5<K =5 <>3CB ?@>AB> B0: E0@0:B5@87>20BLAO 2 1>;55 >1I8E ?>=OB8OE, A2>1>4=> @0A?@>AB@0=ONI8EAO =0 4@C385 B8?K A8AB5<, ?>A:>;L:C 6820O A8AB5<0  MB> C65 A0<> ?> A515 =>2>5 ?>=OB85, =>20O :0B53>@8O, =>2K5 O2;5=8O 8 D5=><5=K. KB0OAL 40BL >?@545;5=85 ACI5AB25==K< AB>@>=0< 682KE A8AB5<, <K 2K=C645=K 2KE>48BL =0 >1I5:815@=5B8G5A:89 C@>25=L 8 4020BL, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 MB8< E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<.  ?@8<5@C, 0BC@0=0 E0@0:B5@87C5B 682K5 A8AB5<K :0: DC=:F8>=0;L=> 70:@KBK5, 3><5>AB0B8G5A:85, AB@C:BC@=>->?@545;O5<K5, =0:>=5F, :0: 0CB>?>MB8G5A:85. > 2A5 MB8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 8<5NB A<KA; ;8HL 2 >B=>H5=88 682KE A8AB5<.  :@><5 682KE A8AB5< =8:0:85 4@C385 A8AB5<K 40==K<8 A2>9AB20<8 =5 >1;040NB (?>?KB:8 ?>OA=8BL, GB> 8<55BAO 2 284C ?>4 B5< 8;8 8=K< A2>9AB2>< =0 B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?@8<5@0E (<0B5<0B8:0, 0;351@0) 8 018>B8G5A:8E D5=><5=0E (D878:0) - AC3C1> <5B0D>@8G=K, ;81> ?@54?@8=8<0NBAO A F5;LN ?@840=8O ?@>1;5<5 D>@<0;L=K9 E0@0:B5@). 0BC@0=0 =5 3>2>@8B =0?@O<CN > 682KE A8AB5<0E, >1;040NI8E B0:8<8-B> A2>9AB20<8. =0G0;5 >= 22>48B 01AB@0:B=>5 ?>=OB85 :0:8E-B> A8AB5< A B0:8<8-B> A2>9AB20<8, 70B5< >?8AK205B MB8 A2>9AB20 :0: 1K ?> >B45;L=>AB8, 8, :0: 70:;NG8B5;L=K9 H03, >1JO2;O5B > B>645AB25 @07>1@0==KE B5>@5B8G5A:8E A8AB5< A 682K<8 A8AB5<0<8. B0:, A;54CNI89 H03 - MB> ?>ABC;8@>20=85 0BC@0=>9 (8 0@5-;>9): 0) ACI5AB2>20=85 0CB>?>MB8G5:8E A8AB5< 8 1) >B>645AB2;5=85 MB>3> :;0AA0 A8AB5< A 682K<8 A8AB5<0<8 (820O A8AB5<0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 0CB>?>MB8G5A:CN A8AB5<C 2 D878G5A:>< ?@>AB@0=AB25 [Mat. 1987a, S.95]).  @01>B5 1970 3. 0BC@0=0 A;>2> 0CB>?>M7 =5 C?>B@51;O5B, >4=0:> E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 682KE A8AB5< C65 2545BAO 2 B5@<8=0E 1C4CI53> 1>;55 >1I53> :815@=5B8G5A:>3> ?>=OB8O 0CB>?>M70. B0:, ?>:0 157 @0AH8D@>2:8 :;NG52>3> ?>=OB8O 0CB>?>M70 >B25B =0 ?>AB02;5==K9 2 =0720=88 40==>3> ?0@03@0D0 2>?@>A ?> 0BC@0=5 <>65B 72CG0BL A;54CNI8< >1@07><: 687=L - MB> A2>9AB2> 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5<, B.5. 2A5 A:070==>5 >1 0CB>?>M75 B0:65 459AB28B5;L=> 2 >B=>H5=88 682KE A8AB5< 8 2A5 A:070==>5 > 682KE A8AB5<0E 2 @02=>9 <5@5 >B=>A8BAO : 0CB>?>M7C. 3. ?@545;5=85 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5<. >4@>1=>5 8 >@838=0;L=>5 22545=85 ?>=OB8O 0CB>?>M70 ?@82545=> 2 ?@8;0305<>< ?5@52>45. @54?>;0305BAO, GB> 4;O ;CGH53> COA=5=8O A:070==>3> 40;55, A 40==>9 @01>B>9 F5;5A>>1@07=> >7=0:><8BLAO 8<5==> B5?5@L.  40;L=59H5< ?@8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:5 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5< 8 8E A2>9AB2 O ?>AB0@0NAL ?@82>48BL F8B0BK 87 4@C38E ;8B5@0BC@=KE 8AB>G=8:>2. >=OB85 0CB>?>M70 =5@07@K2=> A2O70=> A ?>=OB85< :@C3>2>9 >@30=870F88, 8;8, ?@>I5, :@C3>>1@07=>AB8. AB>@8G5A:8 ?5@2K< 1K;> 22545=> ?>=OB85 :@C3>>1@07=>AB8, :>B>@>5 0BC@0=0 B@0=AD>@<8@>20; 2 ?>=OB85 0CB>?>M70, A45;02 0:F5=B =0 A2>9AB25 :@C3>>1@07=>AB8 8<5==> 682KE A8AB5<.  G5< 55 A<KA;? CABL :0:0O-B> A8AB5<0 A>AB>8B 87 M;5<5=B>2. 0==K5 M;5<5=BK >1;040NB =5:>59 0:B82=>ABLN 8 2708<>459AB2CNB <564C A>1>9. :B82=>ABL 8 2708<>459AB285 M;5<5=B>2 >@30=87>20=K B0:8< 8 B>;L:> B0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K >15A?5G8BL 8E ACI5AB2>20=85 8 A=>20-B0:8 MBC 0:B82=>ABL 8 2708<>459AB285. 0==>5 >?@545;5=85 - :28=BMAA5=F8O ?>=OB8O :@C3>>1@07=>AB8, A0<>5 >1I55, A0<>5 :@0B:>5 87 2A5E 2>7<>6=KE (157 C?><8=0=8O > @>;8 >:@C60NI59 A@54K, > AB@C:BC@=KE >A>15==>ABOE 682KE >@30=87<>2 8 4@C38E, AF5?;5==KE A 40==K<, ?>=OB89 B8?0 02B>=><=>AB8, 70:@KB>AB8, F5;>AB=>AB8 8 B.?.). @8254C =5:>B>@K5 ?>OA=5=8O. -;5<5=BK ACI5AB2CNB 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 DC=:F88, 0 MB0 DC=:F8O ACI5AB2C5B 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 M;5<5=B>2, :>B>@K5 ACI5AB2CNB 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 DC=:F88 8 B0: 40;55 4> 15A:>=5G=>AB8 ?> 70<:=CB><C :@C3C (:@C3>>1@07=>).  B5@<8=0E ?>2A54=52=>3> O7K:0 B0:CN A8AB5<C <>6=> =0720BL ?@545;L=> M3>8AB8G=>9, ?>A:>;L:C 548=AB25==>9 F5;LN 55 ACI5AB2>20=8O 8 0:B82=>AB8 5ABL 55 ACI5AB2>20=85 8 0:B82=>ABL. "0:8< >1@07><, 0CB>?>MB8G5A:85 A8AB5<K - MB> A8AB5<K, :>B>@K5 A0<8 A51O 2>AA>740NB (3@5G. autos = A0<>; poiein = 45;0BL): "5< A0<K<, 3;02=0O >A>15==>ABL 682KE ACI5AB2 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> 548=AB25==K< ?@>4C:B>< 8E >@30=870F88 O2;ONBAO >=8 65 A0<8, MB> 7=0G8B, =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8:0:>9 @07=8FK <564C ?@>872>48B5;5< 8 ?@>4C:B><. !CI5AB2>20=85 8 0:B82=>ABL ;N1>9 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 548=8FK =5@0745;8<K, GB> 8 A>AB02;O5B >A>15==>ABL 55 >@30=870F88 [Mat. 1987b, S.56]. 0BC@0=>2A:0O :@C3>>1@07=>ABL ?>72>;O5B 871028BLAO >B H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5==>3> 701;C645=8O > B><, GB> 6820O A8AB5<0 ACI5AB2C5B 4;O A2>53> ?@8A?>A>1;5=8O : >:@C60NI59 A@545. 4=0:>, B0:>5 4;O <>65B A?@>2>F8@>20BL 4@C3>5 701;C645=85 D8;>A>DA:>3> ?>@O4:0.  8<5==> - :0: 1C4B> 1K C 682KE >@30=87<>2 5ABL :0:0O-B> F5;L A>1AB25==>3> 2K6820=8O, ACI5AB2>20=8O. 4=0:>, =5 A;54C5B 701K20BL 3;02=>3>: 2A5, GB> 6825B, ACI5AB2C5B - 6825B 8 ACI5AB2C5B :0: 1K A;CG09=>. 8:0:0O 6820O A8AB5<0 =8 : :0:>9 F5;8 =5 AB@5<8BAO, =8:0:>3> 45;0 =5 ?@>4>;605B (=0?@8<5@, A>E@0=5=85 2840) 8 =8G53> =5 2>?;>I05B 8 =5 @50;87C5B. 9 :0: 1K ?>257;> 8 ?@>4>;605B 257B8 >AB020BLAO 2 682KE 2284C B>3>, GB> 2 40==>< <5AB5 8 2 40==>5 2@5<O >1AB>OB5;LAB20 >:@C60NI53> 55 =5GB> >AB0NBAO I04OI8<8 2 >B=>H5=88 55 F5;>AB=>AB8. (@>F5AA @0728B8O 682KE A8AB5<  MB> 8AB>@8O A<5@B8, 2K<5@H8E 284>2 3>@074> 1>;LH5, G5< 682CI8E. "8BL" 2 C:070==>9 8=B5@?@5B0F88 >7=0G05B =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: 2K6820BL.  B0:>< A<KA;5 687=L =5 @50;87C5BAO 2 =5:>5< >B40;5==>< 1C4CI5<, 0 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 45AL 8 !59G0A, 2 A8N<8=CB=>< ?>B>:5 A>AB>O=89 [Mat. 1997, S.81]) >B =5:>B>@K5 F8B0BK > ACB8 :@C3>>1@07=>AB8 8 0CB>?>M70: ...@C3>20O >@30=870F8O >1@07C5B 3><5>AB0B8G5A:CN A8AB5<C A DC=:F859 ?@>872>4AB20 8 ?>445@60=8O A0<>9 MB>9 :@C3>2>9 >@30=870F88, @50;87CNI59AO 1;03>40@O B><C, GB> :><?>=5=BK, :>B>@K5 55 A?5F8D8F8@CNB, O2;ONBAO B5<8 A0<K<8 :><?>=5=B0<8, A8=B57 8;8 ?>445@60=85 :>B>@KE >15A?5G8205BAO MB>9 :@C3>2>9 >@30=870F859 [0B. 1996, A.99]. 820O >@30=870F8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 :@C3>2CN >@30=870F8N, >15A?5G820NICN ?@>872>4AB2> 8;8 A>E@0=5=85 :><?>=5=B>2, A?5F8D8F8@CNI8E 55 B0:8< >1@07><, GB> ?@>4C:B>< 8E DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O >:07K205BAO A0<0 B0 >@30=870F8O, :>B>@0O 8E ?@>872>48B [0B. 1996, A. 130]. 06=K9 ?@8=F8?, > :>B>@>< 2A5340 =5>1E>48<> ?><=8BL ?@8 DC=:F8>=0;L=>< 0=0;875 :>=:@5B=KE 682KE A8AB5<, 8E A>AB02=KE G0AB59 8 ?@>F5AA>2: 2A5, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<5, ?@>8AE>48B 4;O 0CB>?>M70, 1;03>40@O 0CB>?>M7C 8, 1>;55 B>3>, A0<> O2;O5BAO 0CB>?>M7><. N1K5 >B:;>=5=8O 2 0:B82=>AB8 A8AB5<K >B B0:>9 AE5<K ?@82>4OB : ?@5:@0I5=8N ACI5AB2>20=8O A8AB5<K, 0 7=0G8B 8 A0<>9 0:B82=>AB8. A5, GB> ?@>8AE>48B (8;8 4065 =5 ?@>8AE>48B) 2 682>< >@30=87<5, AB@>3> AC1>@48=8@>20=> ?> >B=>H5=8N : 53> 0CB>-?>M7C. A5, GB> ?@>8AE>48B 2 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<5, ?>4G8=5=> 0C-B>?>M7C, 2 ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 B0:0O A8AB5<0 @07@CH05BAO [Mat. 1987a, S.95]. N1K5 (48=0<8G5A:85) A>AB>O=8O 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K ACBL A>AB>O=8O 0CB>?>M70, : 0CB>?>M7C 65 ?@82>4OI85.  B0:>< A<KA;5 0CB>?>MB8G5A:85 A8AB5<K O2;ONBAO 70:@KBK<8 A8AB5<0<8, 8E D5=><5=>;>38O =587156=> ?>4G8=5=0 8E 0CB>?>M7C. 0:>5-;81> O2;5=85 <>65B =07K20BLAO 18>;>38G5A:8< O2;5=85< ;8HL ?>AB>;L:C, ?>A:>;L:C >=> 70B@038205B 0CB>?>M7 E>BO 1K >4=>9 682>9 A8AB5<K [Mat. 1985,8.142]. !<KA; 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5< AB0=>28BAO 1>;55 ?>=OB=K< ?@8 A@02=5=88 8E A =5:>B>@K<8 :;0AA0<8 =5C0B>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5<.  >4=>9 87 A2>8E @01>B 0BC@0=0 ?@82>48B 4;O A@02=5=8O 420 :;0AA0 A8AB5<, :>B>@K5 8<5NB @O4 >1I8E E0@0:B5@8AB8: A 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8<8, B5< =5 <5=55, ACI5AB25==> >B;8G0OAL >B =8E. 5@2K9 :;0AA A>AB02;ONB 8A:CAAB25==K5 <0H8=K, A>740==K5 G5;>25:><, 1C4L B> 02B><>18;8, B5@<>AB0BK 8;8 :><?LNB5@K. 1I55 A 682K<8 >@30=87<0<8 C =8E B>, GB> 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A2>5< >=8 O2;ONBAO 3><5>AB0B8G5A:8<8 A8AB5<0<8, ?>445@6820NI8<8 2 ?@>F5AA5 A2>59 @01>BK B5 8;8 8=K5 25;8G8=K =0 ?>AB>O==>< 7040==>< C@>2=5. 4=0:>, :>=AB0=B=>ABL, 8=20@80=B=>ABL 3><5>AB0B8G5A:8E ?>:070B5;59 =5 O2;O5BAO >@30=8G5A:8< A2>9AB2>< A0<>9 A8AB5<K, >=0 70405BAO G5;>25:><, 55 A:>=AB@C8@>202H8<. "> 5ABL, 2K?>;=O5<K5 8A:CAAB25==>9 <0H8=>9 ?@>F5AAK =0?@02;ONBAO 872=5.  B0:>9 65 <5@5 =8 >4=0 87 8A:CAAB25==KE <0H8= =5 O2;O5BAO ?@>4C:B>< A0<>>@30=870F88, 0 AB@>8BAO, A>7405BAO G5;>25:>< ?> 70@0=55 2K@01>B0==><C ?;0=C.  B0:>< A<KA;5 8A:CAAB25==K5 A8AB5<K 7028AOB >B >BGC645==KE >B 8E A>1AB25==>9 AB@C:BC@K D0:B>@>2, GB> ?>72>;O5B =07K20BL B0:85 A8AB5<K 0;;>?>MB8G5A:8<8 (3@5G. allos = GC6>9; poiein = 45;0BL): &5;L, A :>B>@>9 <0H8=0 A>7405BAO G5;>25:><, =5 O2;O5BAO A2>9AB2>< >@30=870F88 40==>9 <0H8=K, 0 0B@81CB>< B>9 >1;0AB8, 2 :>B>@>9 MB0 <0H8=0 @01>B05B. AO oifa ?@8=04;568B =0H5<C >?8A0=8N <0H8=K 2 CAB0=02;8205<>< =0<8 :>=B5:AB5 [Mat. 1985, S.183]. @30=870F8O ;N1>9 A>740==>9 G5;>25:>< <0H8=K 2 D878G5A:>< ?@>AB@0=AB25, ?>4>1=>9, : ?@8<5@C, 02B><>18;N, 70405BAO ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABLN ?@>F5AA>2, >4=0:> MB8 ?@>F5AAK =5 O2;ONBAO ?@>F5AA0<8 ?@>872>4AB20 A>AB02=KE G0AB59, :>B>@K5 >?@545;O;8 1K 02B><>18;L 2 :0G5AB25 =5:>59 F5;>AB=>AB8, ?>A:>;L:C 2A5 A>AB02=K5 G0AB8 02B><>18;O ?@>872545=K 2 @57C;LB0B5 =57028A8<KE >B >@30=870F88 02B><>18;O 8 A?>A>10 53> @01>BK ?@>F5AA>2. 0H8=K B0:>3> B8?0 O2;ONBAO =50CB>?>MB8G5A:8<8 48=0<8G5A:8<8 A8AB5<0<8 [Mat. 1985,8.185]. B<5B8<, GB> 2 A25B5 ?@54AB02;5=89 > 3><5>AB078A5 0CB>?>MB8G5A:85 A8AB5<K E0@0:B5@87CNBAO B0:8< >1@07><, GB>, 2 >B;8G85 >B 8A:CAAB25==KE 3><5>AB0B8G5A:8E A8AB5< 8E 8=20@80=BK ?@>48:B>20=K A?>A>1>< >@30=870F88 40==>9 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, 3;02=K9 ?>:070B5;L, :>B>@K9 4>;65= C45@6820BLAO :>=AB0=B=K< - MB> A0<0 >@30=870F8O (F5;>AB=>ABL) 40==>9 A8AB5<K, 157 :0:8E-;81> F5;59 8 ?@54=07=0G5=89, ?@>48:B>20==KE 872=5: N10O 0CB>?>-MB8G5A:0O <0H8=0 O2;O5BAO 3><5>AB0B8G5A:>9 (8;8, ;CGH5 A:070BL, AB0B8G=>9 ?> 2=CB@5==8< A2O7O<) A8AB5<>9, :>B>@0O 2 :0G5AB25 >A=>2=>3> 8=20@80=B=>3> ?>:070B5;O C45@68205B A2>N A>1AB25==CN >@30=870F8N (B.5. A?5F8D8F8@CNICN 55 A5BL 2708<>A2O759) [Mat. 1985, S.185]. 45AL C<5AB=> ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> ;N1K5 ?>=OB8O > F5;OE ?@8=04;560B =01;N40B5;N, 0 =5 A0<>9 A8AB5<5, :0: 1K =0:;04K20NBAO =0 =55 2 ?@>F5AA5 >?8A0=8O: 8 F5;8, =8 ?@54=07=0G5=8O... =5 O2;ONBAO A2>9AB20<8 >@30=870F88 B5E 8;8 4@C38E <0H8=, 1C4L >=8 0;;>?>MB8G5A:8<8 8;8 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8<8. "0:>3> @>40 ?@54AB02;5=8O ?@8=04;560B >1;0AB8 48A:C@A0, ?>@>6405<>3> =0H8<8 65 459AB28O<8, B.5. >=8 ?@8=04;560B >1;0AB8 =0H8E A>1AB25==KE >?8A0=89... [Mat. 1985,8.190]. B>@>9 :;0AA A8AB5<, A :>B>@K<8 0BC@0=0 A@02=8205B 0CB>?>MB8G5A:85 A8AB5<K - MB> :;0AA A8AB5< 5AB5AB25==>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O, >B;8G0NI85AO >?@545;5==>9 >@30=870F859, =>, 2 >B;8G85 >B 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5<, =5 ?>445@6820NI85 0:B82=> MBC >@30=870F8N. 5GL 845B > :@8AB0;;0E. !B@C:BC@0 :@8AB0;;0 <>65B A:>;L C3>4=> 4>;3> >AB020BLAO ?>AB>O==>9, => 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 =5 1C45B @07@CH5=0 2=5H=8< 2>7459AB285<. ! CB@0B>9 40==>9 AB@C:BC@K :@8AB0;; CB@0G8205B 8 A2>N >@30=870F8N, >?@545;ONICN 53> ?@8=04;56=>ABL : MB><C, 0 =5 8=><C :;0AAC A8AB5<. 'B> :0A05BAO 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K, B> >=0 A?>A>1=0 87<5=8BL A2>N AB@C:BC@C 157 CB@0BK A2>8E >@30=870F8>==KE >A>15==>AB59, B.5. >AB0BLAO B>9 65 A0<>9 A8AB5<>9. >;55 B>3>, A?>A>1=>ABL 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5< : ?>AB>O==K< 87<5=5=8O< O2;O5BAO CA;>285< A>E@0=5=8O 55 >@30=870F88. "0:8< >1@07><, :@8AB0;;8G5A:0O >@30=870F8O >B=>A8BAO : 4@C3>9 >1;0AB8, =565;8 0CB>?>MB8G5-A:0O: : >1;0AB8 >B=>H5=89 <564C A>AB02=K<8 G0ABO<8, => =5 >B=>H5=89 <564C ?@>F5AA0<8 ?@>872>4AB20 A>AB02=KE G0AB59; : >1;0AB8 ?@>F5AA>2, => =5 : >1;0AB8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 ?@>F5AA>2. 1KG=> B0:>5 ?>;>65=85 25I59 <K 2K@0605<, 3>2>@O, GB> :@8AB0;;K O2;ONBAO AB0B8G=K<8 [Mat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at. 1985, S.140] (A<. B0:65 A ?>OA=5=8O<8 8 ?@8<5@0<8 2 @01>B0E [Mat. 1987a, S.92-94], [Mat. 1987b, S.54], [Mat. 1992, @.59-60]). !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 2 A2>8E @01>B0E 0BC@0=0 G0AB> 8A?>;L7C5B B5@<8=K A8AB5<0 8 F5;>AB=>ABL 2 :0G5AB25 A8=>=8<>2 (=0?@8<5@, 2 [Mat. 1987a]: A8AB5<0 (A>AB02=0O F5;>AB=>ABL) [S.93], A>AB02=0O F5;>AB=>ABL (A8AB5<0) [S.94]). "5< =5 <5=55, MB8 ?>=OB8O 40;5:> =5 >4=> 8 B> 65.  MB> >G5284=> 87 :>=B5:AB0 @01>B >1 0CB>?>M75. > ACB8 45;0, F5;>AB=>ABL - MB> ACI5AB28B5;L=>5, >1>7=0G0NI55 B>;L:> B5 A8AB5<K, :>B>@K5 >1;040NB A2>9AB2>< F5;>AB=>AB8. "0:8< >1@07><, > F5;>AB=>AB8 <>6=> 3>2>@8BL, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, :0: > 548=AB25, A>2>:C?=>AB8, >1>7=0G0O MB8< B5@<8=>< A0<C A8AB5<C, 0 A 4@C3>9 - :0: > ?@>F5AA5, A2>9AB25: > ?@>F5AA5 02B>=><870F88, >1>A>1;5=88, > A2>9AB25 1KBL >B;8G=K< >B D>=0, >B 2A53> >AB0;L=>3>, GB> =5 2E>48B 2 40==CN F5;>AB=>ABL (0:0O-;81> F5;>AB=>ABL (:>=:@5B=0O 8;8 2>>1@0605<0O) O2;O5BAO F5;>AB=>ABLN 2 B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 >=0 2 @57C;LB0B5 :>=:@5B=>9 8;8 <KA;5==>9 >?5@0F88 @07;8G5=8O >B3@0=8G8205BAO >B A2>53> >:@C65=8O [Mat. 1985, S. 139]) >=OB85 F5;>AB=>AB8 2 B5>@88 0CB>?>M70 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 :;NG52KE, ?>A:>;L:C F5;>AB=>ABL - MB> 8 5ABL B>, GB> A>E@0=O5BAO 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<>9 2 B5G5=85 55 ACI5AB2>20=8O. @30=870F8O - MB> :>=:@5B=K9 A?>A>1 2>?;>I5=8O A2>9AB20 F5;>AB=>AB8 (B0: 65, :0: AB@C:BC@0 - MB> A?>A>1 2>?;>I5=8O >@30=870F88). !>E@0=OO 40==CN >@30=870F8N, A8AB5<0 >AB05BAO A0<>845=B8G=>9, F5;>AB=>9, >4=0:> ;N10O 40==0O :>=:@5B=0O >@30=870F8O  =5 >1O70B5;L=> 548=AB25==0O 2 A2>5< @>45, :>B>@0O >1;0405B A2>9AB2>< F5;>AB=>AB8, 8;8 ?>?@>ABC - F5;>AB=>ABLN. 'B> 65 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 F5;>AB=>ABL :0: :0B53>@8O 2 :>=B5:AB5 CG5=8O >1 0CB>?>M75, 8 :0: MB> ?>=OB85 ?@8<5=ONB 4;O E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 682KE (0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E)A8AB5<? !CI5AB2C5B 425 ?@8=F8?80;L=> >B;8G=K5 B>G:8 7@5=8O =0 B>, :0:8< >1@07>< =5:0O A8AB5<0, >1J5:B, M;5<5=B >1@5B05B A2>9AB2> F5;>AB=>AB8, 02B>=><878@C5BAO, >1>A>1;O5BAO >B >:@C60NI59 53> A@54K. 5@2CN B>G:C 7@5=8O =07>25< >?8A0B5;L=>9, 2B>@CN - 0B@81CB82=>9. !>3;0A=> ?5@2>9 B>G:5 7@5=8O, =8:0:>9 >1J5:B82=>9 F5;>AB=>AB8 =5 ACI5AB2C5B. &5;>AB=>ABL (548=AB2>) 5ABL 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ?>@>645=85 =01;N40B5;O, B5>@5B8G5A:89 :>=AB@C:B. >=OB85 F5;>AB=>AB8, 2 2845 >1J5:B0 ;8, ?@54<5B0, ;81> A8AB5<K, 2>7=8:05B :0: A;54AB285 >?@545;5==>9 <KA;5==>9 (?A8E8G5A:>9) >?5@0F88 2 ?@545;0E A>7=0=8O. !CBL 40==>9 >?5@0F88 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> G5;>25: (=01;N40B5;L) 02B>=><878@C5B :0:CN-B> A>2>:C?=>ABL A2>9AB2, 0:B>2, M;5<5=B>2 (B0: 65 2 A2>N >G5@54L 02B>=><878@>20==KE) >B 8E >:@C65=8O, 2K45;O5B 8E 2 =5:>5 548=AB2> 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ?> A2>59 2>;5 (=5 206=> - A>7=0B5;L=> 8;8 15AA>7=0B5;L=>).  7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, :0:>5 :>;8G5AB2> M;5<5=B>2 (1>;LH55 8;8 <5=LH55) 2:;NG05BAO =01;N40B5;5< 2 ?>;5 53> A8N<8=CB=>3> @0AA<>B@5=8O, 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 1C45B 8 >?8AK205<0O 8< F5;>AB=>ABL, 548=AB2> M;5<5=B>2 8 2708<>459AB289. 8:0:8E 8<<0=5=B=KE 3@0=8F F5;>AB=>AB8 =5 ACI5AB2C5B, 8E ?>;0305B =01;N40B5;L, >= 65 8 ?>@>6405B BC 8;8 8=CN F5;>AB=>ABL (GB>1K 2?>A;54AB288 :0:-B> A =59 >?5@8@>20BL, @07;030BL =0 M;5<5=BK -<5=LH85 F5;>AB=>AB8 8 2:;NG0BL 2 <5B0A8AB5<K - 1>;LH85 F5;>AB=>AB8): 01;N40B5;L <>65B >?@545;8BL ACI=>ABL [F5;>AB=>ABL], A?5F8D8F8@>202 4;O =55 =5:>B>@CN >1;0ABL [548=AB2>] 2708<>459AB289. "0:8< >1@07><, =01;N40B5;L <>65B >1@0I0BL 2 548=AB20 2708<>459AB289 (ACI=>AB8) G0ABL :0:>9-;81> ACI=>AB8, 3@C??C ACI=>AB59 8;8 65 8E >B=>H5=8O [0B. 1996, A.98]. ?8A0B5;L=0O ?>78F8O 2 2>?@>A5 >1 CAB0=>2;5=88 F5;>AB=>AB8 1;87:0 :>3=8B82=>9 ?A8E>;>388, 35=5B8G5A:>9 M?8AB5<>;>388 8065 8, :>=5G=> 65, @048:0;L=><C :>=AB@C:B8287<C ;075@AD5;L40.  C:070==KE >1;0ABOE =5C:;>==> ?@54?@8=8<0NBAO ?>?KB:8 2KOA=5=8O :>=:@5B=KE <5E0=87<>2 :>=AB@C8@>20=8O =01;N40B5;5< @07=>3> @>40 F5;>AB=>AB59.  G0AB=>AB8, ;075@AD5;L4 (2A;54 70 8065, K3>BA:8< 8 4@.) 3>2>@8B > @>;8 2=8<0=8O 2 ?>@>645=88 F5;>AB=>AB8. &5;0O >1;0ABL ?A8E>;>388 8 >4=>2@5<5==> :815@=5B8:8, =07K205<0O B5>@859 @0A?>7=020=8O >1@07>2, 70=8<05BAO B5< 65. =B5@5A=> >B<5B8BL, GB> 2>?@>A 2KOA=5=8O :>=:@5B=KE <5E0=87<>2 D>@<8@>20=8O (2>A?@8OB8O) F5;>AB=>AB59 (?>-@07=><C =07K205<KE >1@070<8, :>=F5?B0<8, @5?@575=B0F8O<8 8;8 @5-?@575=B0F8O<8) =0 C@>2=5 =59@>D878>;>388 8;8 2KG8A;8B5;L=>9 B5E=8:8 2>2A5 =5 ?@82>48B 02B><0B8G5A:8 : 2>?@>AC > B><, >B>1@060NB 40==K5 <5=B0;L=K5 F5;>AB=>AB8 :0:85-;81> >1J5:BK 87 2=5H=53> <8@0, 8;8 O2;ONBAO :>=AB@C:B0<8 de novo, C65 2B>@8G=> A?@>5:B8@>20==K<8 2> 2=5H=89 <8@. B>@0O B>G:0 7@5=8O - 0B@81CB82=0O - ?@54?>;0305B 2>7<>6=>ABL =0;8G8O 8;8 >BACBAB28O A2>9AB20 (0B@81CB0) F5;>AB=>AB8 C A8AB5<K 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B =01;N40B5;O, >?8AK20NI53> 40==CN A8AB5<C. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> A8AB5<0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 F5;>AB=>ABL =5 ?>B><C, GB> <K (=01;N40B5;8) 55 B0:>2>9 ?>;0305< 2 =0H5< A>7=0=88, 0 ?>B><C, GB> B0:>2>9 55 ?>72>;O5B =07K20BL A>2>:C?=>ABL 55 A>1AB25==KE A2>9AB2, A>AB02=KE G0AB59.  3>A?>4AB25 B0:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 2 B5>@88 0CB>?>M70 3>2>@8B E>BO 1K B>B D0:B, GB> ;N1K5 0CB>?>MB8G5-A:85 A8AB5<K (8 =5 B>;L:> 0CB>?>MB8G5A:85) >?@545;ONBAO 0BC@0=>9 :0: AB@C:BC@=>-A?5F8D8F8@C5<K5: A;8 AB@C:BC@=K5 87<5=5=8O, :>B>@K5 A8AB5<0 (:0: A>AB02=>5 F5;>5) ?@5B5@?5205B, 2 :064>< A;CG05 >?@545;ONBAO A0<>9 55 AB@C:BC@>9,4 55 ?>2545=85 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO :0: ?>2545=85 AB@C:BC@=>-A?5F8D8F8@C5<>9 A8AB5<K [Mat. 1987a, S.93]. ".5. B5 87<5=5=8O, :>B>@K5 ?@>87>94CB 2 A8AB5<5 2 >B25B =0 =5:>5 2>7459AB285 A> AB>@>=K 2=5H=53> 035=B0 (2 G0AB=>AB8, :><?5=A0F88 ?5@BC@10F89), A?5F8D8F8@CNBAO AB@C:BC@>9 40==>9 A8AB5<K, => =8:0: =5 035=B0.  40==><C 2>?@>AC <K 25@=5<AO =5A:>;L:> ?>74=55, 745AL 65 206=> ?>4G5@:=CBL A0< D0:B =57028A8<>AB8 A8AB5<=KE 87<5=5=89 >B =01;N40B5;O. A;8 3>2>@8BL =5 > ;N1KE A2>9AB20E A8AB5<K, 0 >1 0B@81CB5 F5;>AB=>AB8, B> 8 0BC @0=0, 8 0@5;0 ?@87=0NB ACI5AB2>20=85 8<<0=5=B=>9 F5;>AB=>AB8 8A:;NG8B5;L=> C B0: =07K205<KE 02B>=><=KE, 2 1>;55 H8@>:>< A<KA;5, 8 C 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E, 2 1>;55 C7:>< A<KA;5, A8AB5<. <5==> =0;8G85 8;8 >BACBAB285 8<<0=5=B=>9 F5;>AB=>AB8 (2 >B;8G85 >B F5;>AB=>AB8 >?8A0B5;L=>9, :>B>@0O <>65B 1KBL ?@8?8A0=0 ;N1>9 A>2>:C?=>AB8 M;5<5=B>2) E0@0:B5@87C5B 0CB>?>MB8G5A:85 A8AB5<K: &5;>AB=>ABL CAB0=02;8205BAO ?@8 ?><>I8 0:B0 @07;8G5=8O.  A;CG05 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K 0:B @07;8G5=8O, >?@545;ONI89 40==CN A8AB5<C, D>@<8@C5BAO 55 65 0CB>?>M7><; B5< A0<K< 55 ?@>8AE>645=85 :0: A8AB5<K A>2?0405B A CAB0=>2;5=85< 0:B82=>AB8 @07;8G5=8O [Mat. 1985,8.199]. !0<>9 ACI5AB25==>9 >A>15==>ABLN 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K O2;O5BAO B>, GB> >=0, B0: A:070BL, 2KB0A:8205B A0<0 A51O 70 CH8, B.5. ?>A@54AB2>< A>1AB25==KE 48=0<8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2 >1>A>1;O5B A51O >B >:@C60NI59 A@54K [Mat. 1987b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arela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uhmann, Beer, Zeleny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"0: 22>48BAO 0@5;>9 ?>=OB85 >@30=870F8>==>9 70:@KB>AB8'. >;L, :>B>@CN 682K5 A8AB5<K 83@0NB ?@8 >?8A0=88 >@30=870F8>==>9 70:@KB>AB8, =>A8B ?0@0483<0;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. ...>-2848<><C, 2> 2A5E ?@8@>4=KE A8AB5<0E, 87CG5==KE =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L 4> <5;LG09H8E 45B0;59, >1=0@C68205BAO @5:C@A82=0O 2708<>7028A8<>ABL ?@>B5:0NI8E 2 =8E ?@>F5AA>2. 4=0:>, GB>1K 4>:070BL 40==>5 CB25@645=85, =5 4>AB0B>G=> ?@>AB>3> ?5@5G8A;5=8O M<?8@8G5A:8E D0:B>2 87 @07=KE >1;0AB59. 5;> 2 B><, GB> A?>A>1 >@30=870F88 M<?8@8G5A:>3> <0B5@80;0 A0< O2;O5BAO DC=:F859 107>2KE B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?@8=F8?>2, ?@8=OBKE 87=0G0;L=>. "0:8< >1@07><, =0H ?>4E>4 ?@54?>;0305B 42865=85 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>< =0?@02;5=88: <K ?@52@0B8< 8<5NI89AO 10306 7=0=89 2 B5>@5B8G5A:>5 CB25@645=85, 0 70B5< ?@8<5=8< 53> : =5:>B>@K< >1;0ABO< 8 ?>4B25@48< 53> 4>AB>25@=>ABL ?CB5< 45<>=AB@0F88 53> MDD5:B82=>AB8. -B> 107>2>5 B5>@5B8G5A:>5 CB25@645=85 72CG8B A;54CNI8< >1@07><: "578A 0:@KB>AB8 0640O 02B>=><=0O A8AB5<0 O2;O5BAO >@30=870F8>==> 70:@KB>9. >4 40==K< B578A>< O ?>4@07C<520N =5GB> B8?0 M2@8AB8G5A:>3> ?@>2>4=8:0, >A=>2K20NI53>AO =0 M<?8@8G5A:8E D0:B0E 8 ?@840NI53> =5:89 B>G=K9 A<KA; 8=BC8B82=><C ?>=8<0=8N.  B0:>< A<KA;5 MB> AB0=>28BAO A@>4=8 B578AC 'Q@G0 87 B5>@88 8AG8A;5=89, A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C A<CB=>5 ?>=OB85 8AG8A;O5<>AB8 ?@>2>73;0H05BAO M:2820;5=B=K< =5:>59 @5:C@A82=>9 DC=:F88, >A=>20==>9 =0 B>< D0:B5, GB> 2A5, ?@8=8<05<>5 ?> A>3;0A8N =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L 2 :0G5AB25 MDD5:B82=>3> 459AB28O, O2;O5BAO 2K@078<K< 2 B5@<8=0E @5:C@A82=KE DC=:F89. "0: 65 8 745AL, >?8@0OAL =0 =0H8 7=0=8O > ?@8@>4=KE A8AB5<0E, =5OA=>5 ?>=OB85 02B>=><=>AB8 <K ?@>2>73;0H05< M:2820;5=B=K< >@30=870F8>==>9 70:@KB>AB8 [Varela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t_________ >B :0: MB> >?8AK205B 0BC@0=0: ...57>:A8@81>=C:;58=>20O :8A;>B0 () ?@8=8<05B CG0AB85 2 A8=B575 15;:0, ?>;CG5==K9 65 15;>:, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, CG0AB2C5B 2 :0G5AB25 D5@<5=B0 2 A8=B575 =C:;58=>2KE :8A;>B. 0: B>;L:> O =0@8A>20; 2B>@CN AB@5;:C, <5=O ?@>=78;>, A;>2=> <>;=859 [Mat. 1997, S.35].  :;5B:5 B0:85 >B=>H5=8O [>B=>H5=8O, 2 @57C;LB0B5 :>B>@KE ?@>872>4OBAO A>AB02=K5 G0AB8, :>B>@K5 MB8 65 >B=>H5=8O 8 C45@6820NB] CAB0=02;820NBAO 2 @57C;LB0B5 A8=B570 =C:;58=>2KE :8A;>B 8 ?@>B58=>2, :>B>@K5 8 >1CA;>2;820NB F5;>AB=>ABL 2A53> ?@>F5AA0 :;5B>G=>3> ?@>872>4AB20. @>8AE>48B MB>, A>25@H5==> >G5284=>, 1;03>40@O, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, A2>9AB20< A?5F8D8G=>AB8 <564C ,  8 15;:0<8, 0 A 4@C3>9 - D5@<5=B-AC1AB@0B=>9 A?5F8D8G=>AB8 [Mat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at. 1987b, S.54]. 06=>ABL =0;8G8O <5E0=87<0 >B3@0=8G5=8O (<5<1@0=K) 0CB>?>-MB8G5A:>9 548=8FK >B >:@C60NI59 A@54K E>@>H> ?@>A<0B@8205BAO 2 ?>AB@>5=88 B0: =07K205<>9 <8=8<0;L=>9 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 <>45;8, ?@82545==>9 2 ?@8;0305<>< ?5@52>45 @01>BK 0BC@0=K. =48284C0;L=>ABL :0: 3;02=>5 A;54AB285 0CB>?>M70 682>3> >@30=87<0. 284C B>3>, GB> 0) 682K5 >@30=87<K >1;040NB A2>9AB2>< F5;>AB=>AB8 8 1) O2;ONBAO 8AB>@8G5A:8<8 (>=B>35=5B8G5A:8<8) A8AB5<0<8, 682K5 A8AB5<K - MB> 8=48284C0;L=K5 A8AB5<K. !CBL 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 2 40==>< A;CG05 A>AB>8B 2 =5?>2B>@8<>AB8, C=8:0;L=>AB8 :064>9 682>9 A8AB5<K, 2 =5A2>48<>AB8 0CB>?>M70 >4=>9 A8AB5<K : 0CB>?>M7C 4@C3>9. >-4@C3><C <>6=> A:070BL, GB> 2 ;N1KE ?@>O2;5=8OE 18>;>38G5A:>9 D5=><5=>;>388 01A>;NB=K9 ?@8>@8B5B ?@8=04;568B 8=48284C0;L=K< 682K< >@30=87<0<. 081>;55 ?>;=> A<KA; 40==>3> CB25@645=8O @0A:@K205BAO ?CB5< A@02=8B5;L=>3> 0=0;870 D5=><5=>;>388 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 A D5=><5=0<8, =>AOI8<8 3@C??>2>9 E0@0:B5@. "578A 1. A;8 <K 3>2>@8< > @5?@>4C:F88 682KE >@30=87<>2 :0: >1 >4=>< 87 :@8B5@852 687=8, 2A5340 =04> ?><=8BL > B><, GB> MB>B :@8B5@89 O2;O5BAO 2B>@8G=K<, ?@>872>4=K< >B :@8B5@8O 8=48284C0;L=>AB8: 5?@>4C:F8O ?>4@07C<5205B =0;8G85 =5:>59 548=8FK, :>B>@0O 2>A?@>872>48BAO; 8<5==> ?>MB><C @5?@>4C:F8O O2;O5BAO DC=:F8>=0;L=> 2B>@8G=>9 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 0:BC0;870F88 F5;>AB=>AB8 8, B0:8< >1@07><, =5 <>65B ?@8=8<0BLAO 2 :0G5AB25 >?@545;ONI59 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 >@30=870F88 682KE A8AB5< [Varela 1979, @.]. 0==K9 B578A >B;8G05B 0CB>?>MB8G5A:CN <>45;L 0BC@0=K 8 0@5;K >B <>45;59 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8 ACI5AB2>20=8O 687=8 4@C38E 8AA;54>20B5;59: =0 [<>45;L 0CB>?>M70] ?@8=F8?80;L=> >B;8G05BAO >B 4@C38E <>708G=KE <>45;59, B0:8E :0: E>@>H> 8725AB=0O 83@0 687=L >=2MO (Gardner,!971), 0 B0:65 4@C385 =03;O4=K5 83@K, ?@54;>65==K5 -935-=>< 8 8=:;5@>< (1976), ?@5645 2A53>, ?>B><C, GB> 2 MB8E <>45;OE 3;02=>5 8AA;54C5<>5 A2>9AB2> - MB> @5?@>4C:F8O 8 M2>;NF8O, => =8:0: =5 8=48284C0;L=0O A0<>0:BC0;870F8O. @C38<8 A;>20<8, ?@>F5AA, ;560I89 2 >A=>25 A0<>0:BC0;870F88 F5;>AB=>AB8, DC=40<5=B0;L=K< >1@07>< >B;8G05BAO >B ?@>F5AA0, ?@8 ?><>I8 :>B>@>3> MB0 F5;>AB=>ABL B5< 8;8 8=K< A?>A>1>< 4C?;8F8@C5BAO. @>872>4AB2> :0: B0:>2>5 2>2A5 =5 ?>4@07C<5205B 2>A?@>872>4AB2>, 8, =0?@>B82, 2>A?@>872>4AB2> >1O70B5;L=> ?>4@07C<5205B =0;8G85 A0<>0:BC0;870F88, ;81> F5;>AB=>AB8 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 D>@<5.  <>45;OE D>= 59<0=0, >=2MO 8 -935=0 2>?@>A > F5;>AB=>AB8 8;8 A0<>0:BC0;870F88 B5E 548=8F, :>B>@K5 >=8 =01;N40NB 2 ?@>F5AA5 2>A?@>872>4AB20 8 M2>;NF88, >AB02;5= 157 2=8<0=8O, B.5. >=0 ?@54?>;0305BAO 40==>9 87=0G0;L=>; ?> ACB8, MB8 02B>@K 7040NBAO 2>>1I5 4@C38<8 2>?@>A0<8 [Varela 1979, @.22]. "578A 2. 48=8F59 (:20=B><) 687=8 O2;O5BAO 682CI0O (2K6820NI0O) 8=48284C0;L=0O >A>1L, 0 =5 M2>;NF8>=8@CNI89 284: ...!>3;0A=> 70:>=0< 5AB5AB25==>3> >B1>@0, B5 8=48284CC<K, :>B>@K5 >1;040NB A5;5:B82=> ?@54?>GB8B5;L=K<8 A2>9AB20<8, 2K6820NB, ;81> 8<5NB >?@545;5==K5 ?@58<CI5AB20 2 A2>5< 2>A?@>872>4AB25; B5 65 - 4@C385 >A>18, :>B>@K5 =5 2 A>AB>O=88 2K68BL, ;81> <5=55 CA?5H=K 2 A2>5< 2>A?@>872>4AB25, =8G53> =5 ?@82=>AOB, ;81> ?@82=>AOB >G5=L <0;> 2 8AB>@8G5A:>5 ?@54=07=0G5=85 40==>3> 2840. "0:8< >1@07><, A B>G:8 7@5=8O 40@28=87<0 >:07K205BAO, GB> @>;L 8=48284CC<0 (>B45;L=>9 >A>18) A2>48BAO : 55 2:;04C 2 ?@>4>;65=85 ACI5AB2>20=8O 40==>3> 2840. [...] 4=0:>, :0: =0<8 ?>:070=>, B0:0O 0@3C<5=B0F8O =5 O2;O5BAO MDD5:B82=>9 4;O >1>A=>20=8O ?>4G8=5==>AB8 8=48284CC<0 284C, ?>A:>;L:C 2AO 18>;>38G5A:0O D5=><5=>;>38O >?@545;O5BAO 02B>=><=>ABLN 8=48284CC<>2, 157 8=48284CC<>2 =5 <>65B 1KBL 8 @5G8 > :0:>9-;81> D5=><5=>;>388 687=8. [...] >@0 ?5@5AB0BL 8A?>;L7>20BL 18>;>38G5A:CN =0C:C 4;O >?@0240=8O ?@5=51@565=8O 8=48284CC<0<8 2> 8<O 2840, >1I5AB20 8;8 G5;>25G5AB20 =0 B>< >A=>20=88, GB> 548=AB25==>5 8E ?@54=07=0G5=85 A>AB>8B 2 ?>445@60=88 ACI5AB2>20=8O ?>A;54=8E. =48284CC<0<8, A ?>78F88 18>;>388, //54>?CAB8<> ?@5=51@530BL =8 2 :0:>< A<KA;5 [Mat. 1985, S.220]. "578A 3. 1I5AB2> 4;O 8=48284CC<>2, 0 =5 8=48284CC<K 4;O >1I5AB20. 0==K9 B578A B5A=> A2O70= A ?@54K4CI8<, => >B=>A8BAO =5 : M2>;NF8>==><C, 0 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 : A>F80;L=><C :>=B5:ABC. !CBL 53> A2>48BAO : B><C, GB> =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8:0:>3> B0:>3> 2A5>1I53> 1;030, 2> 8<O :>B>@>3> <>6=> 1K;> 1K 65@B2>20BL (?@5=51@530BL) 687=O<8 >B45;L=KE ;N459. 1I5AB2> 157 8=48284CC<>2 - MB> 01AC@4, => 8<5==> B0: ?@54AB02;O5BAO 4>2545==K9 4> :@09=>AB8 B578A AQ 2> 8<O G5;>25G5AB20 [Mat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at. 1987b, S.216-217].  4>?>;=5=85 : @07>1@0==K< B578A0< ?@82545< 2KA:07K20=85 0@5;K > @>;8 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 2 ?>=8<0=88 D5=><5=>;>388 687=8 2>>1I5: AO 18>;>38G5A:0O D5=><5=>;>38O =5>1E>48<> 70405BAO 8 0:BC0;878@C5BAO ?>A@54AB2>< 8=48284C0;L=>AB59 (B> 5ABL, ?>A@54AB2>< 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E 548=AB2 2 D878G5A:>< ?@>AB@0=AB25), 0 B0:65 A>?CBAB2C5B ;N1K< ?@5>1@07>20=8O<, :>B>@K< >=8 ?>425@30NBAO - ?> >48=>G:5 8;8 3@C??0<8 - 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>E@0=5=8O 8=20@80=B=K<8 >?@545;ONI8E 8E A2O759.  2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, A>740NB ;8 MB8 0C-B>?>MB8G5A:85 548=AB20 2 @57C;LB0B5 2708<>459AB28O 4@C3 A 4@C3>< 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 A8AB5<K, 18>;>38G5A:0O D5=><5=>;>38O 2A5340 1C45B ?>4G8=5=0 ?@>F5AAC ?>445@60=8O F5;>AB=>AB8 8=48284CC<>2 [Varela 1979, @.31]. 0<:=CB>ABL 8 02B>=><=>ABL 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K. 0A;C30 2 @07@01>B:5 :>=F5?F88 02B>=><=>AB8 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K ?@8=04;568B 3;02=K< >1@07>< 0@5;5 8 53> A>B@C4=8:0<, @01>B0NI8< 2 >1;0AB8 8<<C=>;>388. 072820O 8 C3;C1;OO 273;O4 =0 8<<C==CN A8AB5<C :0: A5BL 2708<>7028A8<KE A>1KB89, 2?5@2K5 AD>@<C;8@>20==K9 . @=5 (N. Jerne), 0@5;0, CA?5H=> ?@8<5=OO @07@01>B0==K5 8< A>2<5AB=> A 0BC@0=>9 D>@<0;L=>-B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@54AB02;5=8O >1 02B>=><=KE A8AB5<0E, AB@>8B :>=F5?F8N 70<:=CB>9 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, >1;040NI59 0B@81CB0<8 F5;>AB=>AB8 8 8=48284C0;L=>AB8. !CBL 55 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> ...8<<C==0O A8AB5<0 @0AA<0B@8205BAO 2 :0G5AB25 70<:=CB>9 A5B8 2708<>459AB289, :>B>@0O A0<0 4;O A51O >?@545;O5B ?>445@68205<K9 5N ?0BB5@= AB018;L=>AB8, 0 B0:65 A2>8 2>7<>6=K5 :>=B0:BK A >:@C60NI59 A@54>9. "0:8< >1@07><, ;N1K5 8<<C==K5 A>1KB8O @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: B0 8;8 8=0O D>@<0 A0<>-@0A?>7=020=8O; 2A5 >AB0;L=>5, GB> =8 ?@>8AE>48;> 1K 70 ?@545;0<8 MB>9 >1;0AB8 - 2 35=5B8G5A:>< ;8, >=B>35=5B8G5A:>< ;8 @CA;5 - ?@>AB> =5 8<55B 7=0G5=8O. 0==0O ?0@0483<0, 15@CI0O A2>5 =0G0;> 2 845OE @=5, D0:B8G5A:8 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ;>38G5A:CN ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL 8458 5@=5B0 (. Burnet) > 48DD5@5=F8@>2:5 A2>53> 8 GC6>3> [Vaz,Varela 1978, @.231]. 0<:=CB>ABL 8 02B>=><=>ABL =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K. B<5B8<, GB> 8<5==> >@30=870F8>==0O 70<:=CB>ABL =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K ;568B 2 >A=>25 18>;>38G5A:>3> >1>A=>20=8O A0<>@5D5@5=B=>AB8 8 :>3=8B82=>9 70<:=CB>AB8 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>7=0=8O. >;55 ?>4@>1=>: GB> B0:>5 A0<>@5D5@5=B=>ABL 8 ?>G5<C <K :>=AB@C8@C5<, 0 =5 ?@8>1@5B05< 7=0=85, <K @0AA<>B@8< 2 ?>A;54CNI8E ?0@03@0D0E. 45AL 65 :>A=5<AO 2>?@>A0 > B><, :0:85 >A>15==>AB8 18>;>38G5A:>3> AB@>5=8O ?@840NB =5@2=>9 A8AB5<5 A2>9AB2> 02B>=><=>AB8. >B :0: MB> >?8AK20NB 02B>@K B5>@88 0CB>?>M70: $C=:F8>=0;L=> =5@2=0O A8AB5<0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 70<:=CBCN A5BL 2708<>459AB2CNI8E =59@>=>2, >@30=87>20==CN B0:8< >1@07><, GB> 87<5=5=85 0:B82=>AB8 :0:>3>-;81> =59@>=0 2A5340 2545B : 87<5=5=8N 0:B82=>AB8 4@C38E =59@>=>2, 1C4L B> =5?>A@54AB25==> G5@57 A8=0?B8G5A:85 :>=B0:BK, ;81> :>A25==> ?@8 ?>A@54=8G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8 B5E 8;8 8=KE D878G5A:8E 8;8 E8<8G5A:8E ?@><56CB>G=KE M;5<5=B>2. "0:8< >1@07><, >@30=870F8O =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K :0: :>=5G=>9 =59@>==>9 A5B8 >?@545;5=0 2 >1;0AB8 =59@>==KE 2708<>459AB289, =>AOI8E 70<:=CBK9 E0@0:B5@. 8 A5=A>@=K5, =8 MDD5:B>@=K5 =59@>=K, :0:>2K<8 >=8 >?8AK20NBAO =01;N40B5;5<, @0AA<0B@820NI8< >@30=87< 2 53> >:@C60NI59 A@545, 2 40==>< A;CG05 =5 O2;ONBAO 8A:;NG5=85<, B0: :0: ;N10O A5=A>@=0O 0:B82=>ABL >@30=87<0 ?@82>48B : 0:B82=>AB8 53> MDD5:B>@=KE ?>25@E=>AB59, 0 ;N10O MDD5:B>@=0O 0:B82=>ABL - : 87<5=5=8O< A5=A>@=KE ?>25@E=>AB59. [...] >;L A:>@> =59@>==0O A5BL O2;O5BAO 70:@KB>9, 5Q D5=><5=>;>38O - MB> D5=><5=>;>38O 70:@KB>9 A8AB5<K, B.5. =59@>==0O 0:B82=>ABL 2A5340 ?@82>48B : =59@>==>9 65 0:B82=>AB8. !:070==>5 >AB05BAO 2 A8;5 8 2 B>< A;CG05, :>340 >:@C60NI0O A@540 >:07K205B =0 =5@2=CN A8AB5<C 2>7459AB285, 87<5=O5B 55 A>AB>O=85, 8 2 :0G5AB25 =57028A8<>3> 035=B0 2>71C6405B :0:CN-B> >1;0ABL 55 =59@>==>9 @5F5?B>@=>9 ?>25@E=>AB8. "5 87<5=5=8O, :>B>@K5 =5@2=0O A8AB5<0 <>65B ?@5B5@?520BL, =5 @07@CH82H8AL ?@8 MB>< (B.5. C45@6820O A>AB>O=85 70:@KB>9 =59@>=0;L=>9 A5B8 CAB0=>2;5==KE A2O759), 8 :>B>@K5 >:07K20NB >1@0B=>5 2;8O=85 =0 B5 8;8 8=K5 2>7459AB28O, >?@545;ONBAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 55 2=CB@5==8<8 A2O7O<8. 'B> :0A05BAO 2=5H=53> 035=B0 2>7459AB28O, B> >= ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ;8HL =5:89 8AB>@8G5A:8 >1CA;>2;5==K9 ?CA:>2>9 D0:B>@, 8=8F88@CNI89 40==K5 87<5=5=8O. 0: 70:@KB0O =59@>==0O A5BL =5@2=0O A8AB5<0 =5 8<55B =8 2E>40, =8 2KE>40; =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8:0:8E >A>15==>AB59 55 >@30=870F88, :>B>@K5 ?>72>;O;8 1K 59 2 ?@>F5AA5 87<5=5=89 A>AB>O=8O ?@>2>48BL :0:>5-;81> @07;8G85 <564C 2=CB@5==8<8 8 2=5H=8<8 ?@8G8=0<8 MB8E 87<5=5=89 [Mat. 1985, S.228-229]. !>3;0A=> B578AC >1 8<?5@0B82=>AB8 0CB>?>M70 682KE A8AB5<, =5@2=0O A8AB5<0 2 A2>59 70<:=CB>AB8 8 02B>=><=>AB8, B5< =5 <5=55, AC1>@48=8@>20=0 2 A2>59 0:B82=>AB8 0CB>?>M7C B>3> 682>3> >@30=87<0, 2 :>B>@>< >=0 ACI5AB2C5B: >A:>;L:C A2>9AB20 =59@>=>2 ?>425@65=K 87<5=5=8O< 2 ?@>F5AA5 >=B>35=570 40==>3> >@30=87<0, :0: 2 @57C;LB0B5 A2>8E 2=CB@5==8E 45B5@<8=0F89, B0: 8 2 @57C;LB0B5 8E 2708<>459AB289 2 :0G5AB25 :><?>=5=B>2 548=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, A5BL >B=>H5=89 2 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<5 87<5=O5BAO 2 >=B>35=575 >@30=87<0 2 @5:C@A82=>9 7028A8<>AB8 (?>4G8=5==>AB8) >B ?@>E>645=8O 40==>3> >=B>35=570.  40;55 - ?>A:>;L:C >=B>35=57 ;N1>3> >@30=87<0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 8AB>@8N 53> 0CB>?>M70, A5BL 2708<>A2O759 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K (G5@57 A>AB02;ONI85 55 =59@>=K) =0E>48BAO 2 48=0<8G5A:>< ?>4G8=5=88 C 0CB>?>M70 B>3> >@30=87<0, G0ABLN :>B>@>3> >=0 O2;O5BAO [Varela 1979, @.241-242]. !>F80;L=K5 A8AB5<K - >1J548=5=8O 682KE A8AB5<. 0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL, @5:C@A82=>5 8 A>3;0A>20==>5 2708<>459AB285 =5A:>;L:8E 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5< <>65B ?@825AB8 : 2>7=8:=>25=8N =5:>59 <5B0A8AB5<K, >1;040NI59 A2>9AB2>< 02B>=><=>AB8, F5;>AB=>AB8.  A;CG05 682KE >@30=87<>2 0BC@0=0 3>2>@8B > F5;>AB=>AB8 B@5BL53> ?>@O4:0 : A5 65 O2;O5BAO 2>7<>6=K< B>, GB> 2708<>459AB28O <564C >@30=87<0<8 2 ?@>F5AA5 8E >=B>35=57>2 ?@8>1@5B0NB @5:C@A82=K 8 E0@0:B5@. -B> =587156=> ?@82>48B : A>2<5AB=K< AB@C:BC@=K< B@0=AD>@<0F8O< 40==KE >@30=87<>2: :>->=B>35=57C, 2 :>B>@>< >10 >@30=87<0 ?@8=8<0NB CG0AB85 ?>A@54AB2>< AB@C:BC@=>9 AF5?;5==>AB8 4@C3 A 4@C3><, A?>A>1AB2CO B5< A0<K< :064K9 A2>59 2K68205<>AB8 8 A>E@0=5=8N A>1AB25==>9 >@30=870F88. 0: B>;L:> MB> ?@>8AE>48B, A>2<5AB=> ACI5AB2CNI85 >@30=87<K ?>@>640NB =>2CN D5=><5=>;>38G5A:CN >1;0ABL, :>B>@0O >:07K205BAO >A>15==> A;>6=>9 ?@8 =0;8G88 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K. 5GL 845B > O2;5=8OE, 2>7=8:0NI8E 2 @57C;LB0B5 B0:>3> @>40 AB@C:BC@=>9 AF5?;5==>AB8 B@5BL53> ?>@O4:0 [Mat. 1987b, S.I96]. 1@07>20==0O B0:8< >1@07>< F5;>AB=>ABL B@5BL53> ?>@O4:0 8 55 D5=><5=>;>38O 5ABL =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: A>F80;L=0O D5=><5=>;>38O:  A>F80;L=K< D5=><5=0< <K >B=>A8< D5=><5=K, 8<5NI85 >B=>H5=85 : ?>AB@>5=8N >@30=87<0<8 F5;>AB=>AB59 B@5BL53> ?>@O4:0 ?>A@54AB2>< @5:C@A82=KE 2708<>459AB289 - B0:8E 2708<>459AB289, :>B>@K5 A0<8 A51O 70<K:0NB, CAB0=02;820O DC=:F8>=0;L=K5 >B3@0=8G5=8O [Mat. 1987b, S.210]. 7;8H=5 3>2>@8BL, GB>, ?><8<> H8@>:> ?@54AB02;5==KE 2 682>B=>< <8@5 A>>1I5AB2, : A>F80;L=K< A8AB5<0< ?@8=04;568B B0:65 G5;>25G5A:>5 >1I5AB2>. 'B> :0A05BAO A>F80;L=>9 D5=><5=>;>388, B> : =59 >B=>A8BAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 2AO =0H0 G5;>25G5A:0O 0:B82=>ABL, A2O70==0O A >1I5AB25==>9 687=LN, 0 8<5==>: O2;5=8O :><<C=8:0F88 (:><<C=8:0B82=>3> ?>2545=8O), :C;LBC@K, O7K:0, 0 B0:65 D5=><5=K =01;N40B5;O 8 A5<0=B8G5A:8E >?8A0=89. #:070==K5 O2;5=8O 4>AB0B>G=> ?>4@>1=> 0=0;878@CNBAO 0BC@0=>9 8 0@5;>9 2 A25B5 CG5=8O >1 0CB>?>M75. 5:>B>@KE 87 =8E <K :>A=5<AO 2> 2B>@>9 G0AB8 40==>9 3;02K. O4 8AA;54>20B5;59 B0:65 =0AB08205B =0 ?@87=0=88 ACI5AB2>20=8O 02B>=><89 2KAH8E ?>@O4:>2, 2 A>AB02 :>B>@KE G5;>25G5A:>5 >1I5AB2> 2E>48B 2 :0G5AB25 >4=>3> 87 :><?>=5=B>2. 8>=5@>< B0:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O AG8B05BAO . M9BA>=, ?>E>6CN ?>78F8N 70=8<05B :>=F5?F8O Gaia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arela 1979, @.270]. 025@H0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5<, C:065< 5I5 =0 >4=> A2>9AB2>, :>B>@>5 ?@54AB02;O5B >?@545;5==K9 8=B5@5A 2 <5B>4>;>38G5A:>< 8 D8;>A>DA:>< ?;0=5. > <=5=8N 02B>@>2 B5>@88 0C-B>?>M70, D5=><5= >@30=870F8>==>9 F5;>AB=>AB8 =>A8B :20=B>2K9 E0@0:B5@. @>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K =5 <>65B =>A8BL 3@0485=B=K9 E0@0:B5@: ;81> A8AB5<0 0CB>?>MB8G5A:0O, ;81> -=5B.  459AB28B5;L=>, 55 D>@<8@>20=85 =5 <>65B 1KBL 3@0485=B=K<, ?>A:>;L:C 0CB>?>MB8G5A:0O A8AB5<0 >?@545;5=0 :0: A8AB5<0, B.5. :0: B>?>;>38G5A:>5 548=AB2>, ?>A@54AB2>< A2>59 >@30=870F88. "0:8< >1@07><, ;81> =5:0O B>?>;>38G5A:0O F5;>AB=>ABL O2;O5BAO 2>?;>I5=85< A2>59 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 >@30=870F88 8 ?5@54 =0<8 - 0CB>?>MB8G5A:0O A8AB5<0, ;81> =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8:0:>9 B>?>;>38G5A:>9 F5;>AB=>AB8 8;8 65 >=0 AD>@<8@>20=0 ?> 4@C38< ?@8=F8?0< - B>340 =5 ACI5AB2C5B 8 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K, 0 <K 8<55< 45;> A G5<-B> 4@C38<. !>>B25BAB25==>, =8:0:8E ?@><56CB>G=KE A8AB5< =5 1K205B 8 1KBL =5 <>65B. K 2 A>AB>O=88 >?8A0BL =5:CN A8AB5<C 8 3>2>@8BL > =59 :0: > A8AB5<5, :>B>@0O ?@8 =57=0G8B5;L=KE 87<5=5=8OE <>3;0 1K ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 0CB>?>MB8G5A:CN, 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> <>65< ?@54AB028BL A515 @07;8G=K5 A8AB5<K, A;C60I85 4;O A@02=5=8O. "5< =5 <5=55, B0:0O A8AB5<0 2K3;O48B ?@><56CB>G=>9 ;8HL 2 >1;0AB8 =0H53> >?8A0=8O, => =8 2 :0:>< >@30=870F8>==>< A<KA;5 >=0 =5 <>65B AG8B0BLAO ?5@5E>4=>9 [Varela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at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at. 1987b, S.216]. '0ABL //. "+ !"+ ...82K5 A8AB5<K O2;ONBAO :>3=8B82=K<8 A8AB5<0<8, 0 68BL 7=0G8B ?>7=020BL [Mat. 1992, @.89] 7. >3=8B82=>ABL 0CB>?>MB8G5A:8E A8AB5<, B>645AB25==>ABL ?@>F5AA>2 687=8 8 ?>7=0=8O. >;L A:>@> <K ?@87=05< ACI5AB2>20=85 =5:8E A8AB5<, :>B>@K5 >?@545;ONBAO B5<, GB> ACI5AB2CNB 2 A2>59 02B>=><=>AB8 :0: F5;>AB=>AB8, B> 1C45B 5AB5AB25==K< ?@87=0BL ACI5AB2>20=85 8 B>3> =5GB>, >B :>B>@>3> MB0 F5;>AB=>ABL >B45;5=0, 02B>=><878@>20=0.  >1I5< A<KA;5 MB> =5GB>, >B :>B>@>3> 02B>=><878@>20=0 F5;>AB=>ABL, 8 5ABL >?@545;5=85 A@54K 40==>9 A8AB5<K. ">G=> B0:65 :0: CAB0=>2;5=85 02B>=><=>AB8 A8AB5<K 2>7<>6=> >ACI5AB28BL 42C<O A?>A>10<8 (>E0@0:B5@87>20==K<8 :0: >?8A0B5;L=K9 8 0B@81CB82=K9), B0: 65 42C<O A?>A>10<8 <>6=> 40BL >?@545;5=85 >:@C60NI59 A@54K 40==>9 F5;>AB=>AB8. !0<> A>1>9 @07C<55BAO, GB> 2 B0:>< A;CG05 @5GL 845B > 42CE >:@C60NI8E A@540E, 8<5NI8E =5>48=0:>2K9 A<KA;. ;O >1>7=0G5=8O C:070==>3> @07;8G8O 0BC@0=0 ?@8<5=O5B @07;8G=K5 B5@<8=K 4;O :064>3> A;CG0O: A@540 (Medium) 8 >:@C65=85 (Umwelt, Umgebung, environment). !@540 A?5F8D8F8@C5BAO 40==>9 A8AB5<>9, 55 8<<0=5=B=>9 F5;>AB=>ABLN: !@540 =5:>59 F5;>AB=>AB8 2A5340 >?@545;5=0 A0<>9 MB>9 F5;>AB=>ABL 8 =8:>340 - =01;N40B5;5<, :0: >1;0ABL, 2 :>B>@>9 >=0 @50;87C5B A51O :0: 548=>5 F5;>5 [Mat. 1987a, S. 100]; >:@C65=85 65 >?@545;O5BAO =01;N40B5;5<: 1;0ABL, 2 :>B>@>9 =01;N40B5;L >?@545;O5B =5:CN F5;>AB=>ABL 2 :0G5AB25 B0: 8;8 8=0G5 >1>A>1;O5<>3> 548=AB20, O =07K20N >:@C65=85< 40==>9 F5;>AB=>AB8 [Mat. 1987a, S. 100]. 4=0:>, 2 1>;55 >1I55 ?>=OB85 >:@C60NI59 A@54K 2E>48B 5I5 ?>=OB85 =8HK (Nische, niche, Milieu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at. 1992, @.68]. 7 ?@82545==KE >?@545;5=89 OA=>, GB> <564C 0CB>?>MB8 G5A:>9 A8AB5<>9 8 55 2=5H=59 A@54>9 ?>AB>O==> ?@>8AE>4OB 0:B82=K5 2708<>459AB28O. 06=> ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> >=8 =>AOB 8<5==> 0:B82=K9 E0@0:B5@, ?>A:>;L:C ;N1>5 A>AB>O=85 <0B5@80;L=>3> 8;8 M=5@35B8G5A:>3> (B5@<>48=0<8G5A:>3>) ?>:>O =5 A>2<5AB8<> A ACI5AB2>20=85< 0C-B>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K. !>3;0A=> B5@<>48=0<8G5A:8< :@8B5@8O< 687=8, ;N10O 6820O (0CB>?>MB8G5A:0O) A8AB5<0 O2;O5BAO >B:@KB>9 4;O <0B5@80;L=>3> >1<5=0 A >:@C60NI59 A@54>9 8 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO A>AB>O=85<, 40;5:8< >B B5@<>48=0<8G5A:>3> @02=>25A8O. ;O ?>445@60=8O B0:>3> A>AB>O=8O B@51C5BAO ?>AB>O==K9 ?@8B>: M=5@388, :>B>@0O ?>ABC?05B, 5AB5AB25==>, 87 2=5H=59 A@54K, GB> 8 >1CA;>2;8205B =5>1E>48<>ABL =5?@5@K2=>3> 2708<>459AB28O A MB>9 2=5H=59 A@54>9. 82K5 A8AB5<K ACBL 548=AB20 2708<>459AB289, 8 ACI5AB2CNB >=8 2 B>< 8;8 8=>< >:@C65=88 [0B. 1996, A.98]. 4=0:>, =5 2A5 2708<>459AB28O A B5<8 8;8 8=K<8 D0:B>@0<8 2=5H=59 A@54K 8<5NB 4;O 40==>9 A8AB5<K >48=0:>2>5 7=0G5=85. > ACB8 45;0, 7=0G8<>ABL B>3> 8;8 8=>3> D0:B>@0 A@54K, 8 B>, ?@>87>945B ;8 2>>1I5 :0:>5-;81> 2708<>459AB285, >?@545;O5BAO AB@C:BC@>9 8 0CB>?>M7>< A8AB5<K, >1CA;>2;5=> 55 :@C3>2>9 >@30=870F859. >A@54AB2>< A2>59 >@30=870F88 6820O A8AB5<0 >?@545;O5B >1;0ABL 2A5E 2708<>459AB289, 2 :>B>@K5 >=0 <>65B 2ABC?0BL 157 CB@0BK A>1AB25==>9 845=B8G=>AB8... [0B. 1996, A.99]. 82K5 A8AB5<K =5 <>3CB 2ABC?0BL 2 B0:85 2708<>459AB28O, :>B>@K5 =5 A?5F8D8F8@>20=K 8E [:@C3>>1@07=>9] >@30=870F859... [0B. 1996, A.99-100].  :>=B5:AB5 CG5=8O >1 0CB>?>M75 2708<>459AB285 A8AB5<K A> A@54>9 2 >1I5< 2845 <>65B 1KBL ?@54AB02;5=> A;54CNI8< >1@07><. >445@60=85 F5;>AB=>AB8 A8AB5<K - MB>, D0:B8G5A:8, A>E@0=5=85 =0 :0:><-B> >?@545;5==>< C@>2=5 @O40 3><5>AB0B8G5A:8E :>=AB0=B.  @57C;LB0B5 2708<>459AB28O A8AB5<K A B5<8 8;8 8=K<8 D0:B>@0<8 2=5H=59 A@54K <>65B ?@>87>9B8 A<5I5=85 :0:>3>-;81> @02=>25A8O >B >?B8<0;L=KE 7=0G5=89. "0:>3> @>40 A<5I5=8O =07K20NBAO 2>7<CI5=8O<8 2 A8AB5<5, 8;8 ?5@BC@10F8O<8. ">, GB> ?@>8AE>48B ?>A;5 2708<>459AB28O 2 A8AB5<5 (682>< >@30=87<5), E0@0:B5@87C5BAO :0: :><?5=A0F8O 2>7<CI5=89, 2K720==KE 2=5H=59 A@54>9. $0:B>@K 2=5H=59 A@54K 2KABC?0NB 2 @>;8 ?CA:>2KE <5E0=87<>2 2=CB@8A8AB5<=KE ?@>F5AA>2, >4=0:>, 40==K5 ?@>F5AAK >=8 =5 A?5F8D8F8@CNB, 8E =0?@02;5=8O =5 >?@545;ONB. AB5AB25==>, 3>2>@8BL > D0:B>@0E 2=5H=59 A@54K :0: >1 8=8F80B>@0E ?5@BC@10F89 8<55B A<KA; B>;L:> 2 B5E ?@545;0E, 2 :>B>@KE 40==>5 2708<>459AB285 =5 ?@82>48B : @0A?04C 0CB>?>-MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K.  A;CG05 CB@0BK A8AB5<>9 A2>9AB20 0CB>?>MB8G=>-AB8, F5;>AB=>AB8, 02B><0B8G5A:8 B5@O5B A<KA; ;N1>5 >?@545;5=85 =8HK, A@54K, >:@C65=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, A B>G:8 7@5=8O =01;N40B5;O, ;N1K5 2>7<>6=K5 2708<>459AB28O <564C A8AB5<>9 8 55 2=5H=59 A@54>9 @071820NBAO =0 420 >A=>2>?>;030NI8E :;0AA0 2708<>459AB289. 5@2K9 2:;NG05B 2 A51O B5 2708<>459AB28O, :>B>@K5 254CB : 87<5=5=8O< 2 3><5>AB0B8G5A:8E @02=>25A8OE, : 2>7<CI5=8O<, 4@C3>9 - : ?>B5@5 A8AB5<>9 A>1AB25==>9 F5;>AB=>AB8, B.5. : 55 @0A?04C, A<5@B8. @0=8F0 CAB>9G82>AB8 40==>9 A8AB5<K :0: 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K O2;O5BAO >4=>2@5<5==> 3@0=8F59 55 :>3=8B82=>AB8: :>3=8B82=>9 >1;0ABLN 40==>9 A8AB5<K =07K205BAO >1;0ABL 2708<>459AB289, :>B>@K5 4>?CAB8<K 4;O 40==>9 A8AB5<K, B.5., :>B>@K5 =5 254CB : 55 @07@CH5=8N, C=8GB>65=8N, CB@0B5 40==>9 A8AB5<>9 A2>53> 0CB>?>M70 8;8 02B>=><=>AB8: !B@C:BC@0 02B>=><=>9 A8AB5<K A?5F8D8F8@C5B >1;0ABL 2>7<>6=KE 2708<>459AB289 A 2=5H=59 A@54>9. -B8 2708<>459AB28O <>3CB 1KBL B0:8<8 8 B>;L:> B0:8<8, :>B>@K5 A?5F8D8F8@CNBAO :><?>=5=B0<8 A8AB5<K, 8 :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO A>2<5AB8<K<8 A @50;870F859 A2>9AB20 70<:=CB>AB8. #:070==CN >1;0ABL 2708<>459AB289 <K =07K205< :>3=8B82=>9 >1;0ABLN [Varela 1979, @.231]. 1;0ABL 2A5E 2708<>459AB289 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K, 2 :>B>@K5 >=0 <>65B 2ABC?0BL 157 CB@0BK A>1AB25==>9 F5;>AB=>AB8, O2;O5BAO 55 :>3=8B82=>9 >1;0ABLN', 8;8 4@C38<8 A;>20<8, :>3=8B82=0O >1;0ABL 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K - MB> >1;0ABL 2A5E 2>7<>6=KE >?8A0=89, :>B>@K5 >=0 <>65B ?@>872>48BL. !>>B25BAB25==>, 2 >B=>H5=88 ;N1>9 0CB>?>MB8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K 8<5==> A?>A>1 55 0