ࡱ> #`Tbjbjmm4T*...8f$4*.L(tttttt. . . . . . .$/h2XD.9 tt  D.tt}.f+f+f+ : tt.f+ .f+f+f+t PS.D&0f+-4.0.f+s2t*s2f+f+Xs2-,thf+nTHtttD.D.+Xttt.    ***.***.*** (0?>20;>2..  038G5A:89 3@81 <CE><>@ (: 2>?@>AC >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 ?A8E>B@>?=KE A@54AB2 2 H0<0=A:>9 ?@0:B8:5)  3;02;5=85  HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/trans/mugmuh/gl1.shtm" CE><>@ 8 A><0: @>645=85 =0CG=>3> <8D0.   HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/trans/mugmuh/gl2.shtm" >8A: 0@E5>;>38G5A:8E A2845B5;LAB2 2 !818@8.   HYPERLINK "file:///D:\\!%/\\!"+\\>>:0@\\bookap_by.dpd\\bookap.by.ru\\trans\\mugmuh\\gl3.shtm.htm" >B@51;5=85 <CE><>@0 C =0@>4>2 A525@0 !818@8.   HYPERLINK "file:///D:\\!%/\\!"+\\>>:0@\\bookap_by.dpd\\bookap.by.ru\\trans\\mugmuh\\gl4.shtm.htm" CE><>@ 2 <8D5 8 @8BC0;5.   HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/trans/mugmuh/gl5.shtm" 0;;NF8=>35=K 2 H0<0=A:>9 ?@0:B8:5.   HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/trans/mugmuh/gl6.shtm"  A=>20 <CE><>@K.   HYPERLINK "http://bookap.by.ru/trans/mugmuh/gl7.shtm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asson, 1968; 0::5=0, 1995; 659A<, ">@?, 1997). @8G5<, ?>B@51;5=85 <CE><>@>2 >1O70B5;L=> A2O7K20NB A A818@A:8< H0<0=87<><, =0E>4O <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?0@0;;5;8 H0<0=A:>9 ?A8E>45;88 2 3@81=KE F5@5<>=8OE 4@52=8E 8 A>2@5<5==KE =0@>4>2 <8@0. > B0: ;8 MB> =0 A0<>< 45;5, 1K;8 ;8 AB>;L H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=K 2 !818@8 30;;NF8=>35==K5 3@81K; A:>;L ?@>G=K A2O78 <564C A818@A:8< H0<0=87<>< 8 ?A8E>B@>?=K<8 A2>9AB20<8 <CE><>@>2; 8 :0: 2>>1I5 8A?>;L7>20;8 =0@:>B8G5A:85 A@54AB20 A818@A:85 H0<0=K? >?KB:>9 @07>1@0BLAO 2 MB8E 2 MB8E 2>?@>A0E O2;O5BAO 40==0O AB0BLO.  CE><>@ 8 A><0: @>645=85 =0CG=>3> <8D0. ?5@2K5 2=8<0=85 : @>;8 =0@:>B8G5A:8E 3@81>2, 8 2 B>< G8A;5 <CE><>@>2, 2 @8BC0;L=>->1@O4>2>9 ?@0:B8:5 ?@82;5:;8 A>740B5;8 MB=><8:>;>388[1] >@4>= 8 0;5=B8=0 #>AA>=K. =8 >1=0@C68;8 <=>65AB2> ?@8<5@>2 ACI5AB2>20=8O 3@81=KE :C;LB>2 2 <5@8:5 8 2 4@52=59 2@0788, GB> ?>72>;8;> 8< 4065 @0745;8BL 2A5 =0@>4K <8@0 =0 <8:>D8;>2 8 <8:>D>1>2.  A2>5< A>2<5AB=>< B@C45 AC?@C38 2K428=C;8 5I5 >4=C >@838=0;L=CN 38?>B57C, A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 7=0<5=8B0O A><0 254>2, 3>B>28;0AL =0 >A=>25 3@81>2 A :@0A=>9 H;O?:>9 8 15;K<8 ?OB=KH:0<8, B> 5ABL 87 <CE><>@>2 (Avanita muscaria) [Wosson, Wosson, 1957]. 081>;55 ?>;=> ?>A;54=NN 845N @0725@=C; .#>AA>= 2 A2>59 :=835 "!><0: 1>65AB25==K9 3@81 15AA<5@B8O", 345 4065 C:070; 2>7<>6=>5 2@5<O 8 <5AB> ?@>8AE>645=8O B@048F88 ?@83>B>2;5=8O MB>3> =0?8B:0 - !818@L @C1560 III - II BKA. 4> =.M., A2O702 53> ?>O2;5=85 2 =488 A ?5@5A5;5=85< 0@852 [Wosson, 1968]. 8?>B570 . . #>AA>=0 2K720;0 H8@>:89 @57>=0=A. 0 =55 >B:;8:=C;8AL 254CI85 8AA;54>20B5;8 <8D>;>388 [Levi-Strauss, 1970; ;870@5=:>20, ">?>@>2, 1970]. @8B8:CO >B45;L=K5 A?>@=K5 ?>;>65=8O, 38?>B57C 2 F5;>< ?@8=O;8, =8<0;> =5 CA><=82H8AL 2 B><, GB> <CE><>@ G@572KG09=> 0:B82=> 8A?>;L7C5BAO 2 H0<0=A:>9 ?@0:B8:5 =0@>4>2 !818@8. "./.;870@5=:>20 8 ..">?>@>2 4065 @0728;8 MBC <KA;L, A2O702 ?@54AB02;5=8O > <CE><>@0E A A5<0=B8:>9 H0<0=A:>3> (<8@>2>3>) 45@520, 8 =0E>4O =570<5G5==K5 .#>AA>=>< 20@80=BK ?>4B25@645=8O A2O78 <CE><>@0 8 A><K [;870@5=:>20, ">?>@>2, 1970]. !B0=>2;5=85 MB=><8:>;>388 8 @0725@=C2H85AO 2>:@C3 =55 48A:CAA88, ?><8<> 15AA?>@=> ?;>4>B2>@=>3> @57C;LB0B0 - ?@82;5G5=8O 2=8<0=8O : @>;8 3@81>2 2 <8D>;>388, 8<5;8 =5A:>;L:> 2708<>A2O70==KE ?>A;54AB289, ?@5645 2A53>, 4;O 87CG5=8O !818@8. >-?5@2KE - A;>68;>AL B25@4>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > <CE><>@5, :0: > H0<0=A:>< 3@815; 2> 2B>@KE - =0G0;8AL ?>8A:8 ?>4B25@645=8O ACI5AB2>20=8O 3@81=KE F5@5<>=89 2 :C;LBC@0E 4@52=53> =0A5;5=8O 2 !818@8; 2 B@5BL8E - ?>B@51;5=85 2A5E =0@:>B8G5A:8E 8 30;;NF8=>35==KE A@54AB2 =0@>40<8 !818@8 AB0;8 A2O7K20BL 8A:;NG8B5;L=> A H0<0=87<><. 0?><=8<, GB> 2A5 MB> ?@>8AE>48;> =0 D>=5 =53;0A=>3> 70?@5B0 =0 8AA;54>20=85 =0@:>B8:>2 2 !!! .  >8A: 0@E5>;>38G5A:8E A2845B5;LAB2 2 !818@8. 45O > ACI5AB2>20=88 2 4@52=>AB8 3@81=KE F5@5<>=89 ?>GB8 ?0@0;;5;L=> ?>O28;0AL 2 !818@8 C 0@E5>;>3>2 - 8AA;54>20B5;59 ?5@2>1KB=>3> 8A:CAAB20.  1971 3. .. 8:>2, >?C1;8:>20; =0A:0;L=K5 87>1@065=8O 53BK<5;O =0 'C:>B:5, 40B8@>20==KE 2 ?@545;0E I BKA. 4> =.M. - I BKA. =.M., G0ABL :>B>@KE A>45@60;0 "3@81=K5" AN65BK: 0=B@>?><>@D=K5 D83C@K 2 3@81>284=KE H;O?0E 8 ?@54<5BK, ?>E>685 =0 3@81K. 2B>@ 8=B5@?@5B8@>20; 8E :0: G5;>25:>-<CE><>@K 8 <CE><>@K, =0E>4O ?>4B25@645=85 ACI5AB2>20=8O A?5F8D8G5A:8E 3@81=KE F5@5<>=89 4@52=>AB8, ?@5645 2A53>, 2 MB=>3@0D8G5A:8E ?0@0;;5;OE 87 =0@:>B8G5A:8E A50=A>2 =0@>4>2 :@09=53> A525@>-2>AB>:0 788 [8:>2, 1971; 1979] (158-159). A;54 70 ..8:>2K<, 2 MB>< 65 :;NG5 B@0:B>20;0 0=B@>?><>@D=K5 87>1@065=8O 2 H8@>:8E "3@81>284=KE" H;O?0E 2 ?5B@>3;8D0E !0O=A:>3> :0=L>=0 =8A5O .. M2;5B, A2O7K20O 8E A :C;LB>< O4>28BKE 3@81>2 2 !818@8. 0B8@>2:0 MB8E 87>1@065=89 B0:65 >G5=L H8@>:0 - II - I BKA. 4> =.M. (M2;5B, 1975, 1976). 5A<>B@O =0 >BACBAB285 A:>;L 1K B> =8 1K;> A5@L57=KE 0@3C<5=B>2, 38?>B570 =0H;0 02B>@8B5B=KE AB>@>==8:>2. ..$>@<>7>2 ?@54;>68; A2O70BL MB8 87>1@065=8O A ?>;CG5=85< 7=0<5=8B>3> >?LO=ONI53> =0?8B:0 A><K, H8@>:> 8725AB=>3> 2 788 ($>@<>7>2, 1973, A.264 - 265).  MB>< <5AB5 0@E5>;>38G5A:0O 8 <8D>;>38G5A:0O ;8=88 8AA;54>20=89 >:>=G0B5;L=> A><:=C;8AL. 081>;55 @0725@=CB> >15 ?@54AB02;5=K 2 :=835 .. >=30@4-528=0 8 -..@0=B>2A:>3> "B !:8D88 4> =488". !AK;0OAL =0 <=5=85 . .#>AA>=0, 02B>@K B0:65 @0AA<0B@820;8 <CE><>@ :0: >4=> 87 25@>OB=KE @0AB5=89, 87 :>B>@>3> <>3;8 3>B>28BL A><C 4@52=85 8=4>8@0=FK 8 4065 2KAB@>8;8 87OI=CN :>=F5?F8N > ACI5AB2>20=88 2 @5;838>7=>9 B@048F88 8=4>8@0=A:8E =0@>4>2 "A>2>:C?=>AB8 F5;>3> @O40 ACI5AB25==KE >A>15==>AB59 8<5==> A525@=>3> H0<0=87<0" (>=30@4-528=, @0=B>2A:89, 1983, A.119-121). A>1K9 8=B5@5A 2K7K205B B>B D0:B, GB> 845O, @>645==0O 8AA;54>20B5;O<8 <8D>;>388, @8:>H5B>< 25@=C;0AL : =8< 65 >B 0@E5>;>3>2. "0: ..5;5B8=A:89, ?@82>4O <8D>;>38G5A:89 AN65B > <CE><>@=KE 452CH:0E C 8B5;L<5=>2, 8I5B ?>4B25@645=8O 2 ?5B@>3;8D0E 53BK<5;O (5;5B8=A:89, 1988). 2B>@8B5B 2KH5 =0720==KE 8AA;54>20B5;59 AB>;L 2KA>:, 0 38?>B570 B0: <0AHB01=0 8 2K@078B5;L=0, : B><C 65 ?>4B25@6405BAO MB=>3@0D8G5A:8<8 0=0;>38O<8, ?>4B25@640NI8<8 H8@>G09HCN M@C48F8N 02B>@>2, GB> A;54CNI55 ?>:>;5=85 0@E5>;>3>2, ?>E>65, >B1@>A8;> 2AO:85 A><=5=8O.  40;L=52>AB>G=>9 0@E5>;>388 ?>O28;0AL B5=45=F8O 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL 2A5 ?>E>685 =0 3@81K ?@54<5BK 8<5==> :0: <CE><>@K 8 A2O7K20BL 8E A :C;LB0<8 30;;NF8=>35==KE @0AB5=89, AAK;0OAL =0 ?@87=0==K5 02B>@8B5BK 8 ?@82>4O A0<K5 H8@>:85 0=0;>388 8E ?@8<5=5=8O C =0@>4>2 D@8:8, 788 8 <5@8:8. "0: ..8@LO: 2848B 87>1@065=8O 3@81>2 2 3@0D8:5 =0 :0<=OE 87 0@E5>;>38G5A:8E ?0<OB=8:>2 70?04=>9 'C:>B:8 (8@LO:, 1998, !. 106-109, @8A. 1, 2); .. 0@:>28: 2 3;8=O=>< ?@54<5B5 87 ?>A5;5=8O 2AB0D89-4 2 @8<>@L5 (0@:>28:, 1988, A. 50-54, @8A. 1). 5>A?>@8<K< 4>AB>8=AB2>< MB8E @01>B O2;ONBAO 4>AB0B>G=> B>G=K5 40B8@>2:8: 2 ?5@2>< A;CG05 @048>C3;5@>4=0O 40B0 - 2500 ;.=., 0 2> 2B>@>< ?> 40B8@>2:5 :C;LBC@=>3> A;>O - 2B>@0O ?>;>28=0 - :>=5F III BKA. 4> =.M. >A;54=OO 40B0 O2;O5BAO A0<>9 @0==59, => 8 3;8=O=K9 ?@54<5B, ?@54AB02;5==K9 :0: D@03<5=B H;O?:8 D83C@:8 <CE><>@0, 8<55B ;8HL >B40;5==>5 AE>4AB2> A ?@>B>B8?><. -B> 65 :0A05BAO, :AB0B8, 8 >AB0;L=KE 87>1@065=89. 28=BMAA5=F8O 3@81=KE 87KA:0=89 8AA;54>20B5;59 4@52=53> 8A:CAAB20 AB0; @0745; 2 :=835 .. 8@LO: (8:>2>9) (8@LO:, 2000). 45AL, :0: 8 2 4@C38E ?>4>1=>3> @>40 @01>B0E, ?@82>4OBAO <=>3>G8A;5==K5 AAK;:8 =0 ?@54H5AB25==8:>2, G0AB> =0E>4O 3@81K 4065 2 B@C40E, 02B>@K :>B>@KE > =8E =5 ?>4>7@520;8 (:;04=8:>2, 1976; :;04=8:>2, 0?>@>6A:0O, 1969, 1972; "820=5=:>, 1990), 15AA8AB5<=> 87;030NBAO 3@81=K5 <8D>;>35<K 87 @01>B ..">?>@>20 (">?>@>2, 1987), :>B>@K5 2 8=B5@?@5B0F88 =5 B>;L:> =5 ?>4B25@640NB 0@E5>;>38G5A:85 AN65BK, => G0AB> ?@>B82>@5G0B 8<, >1O70B5;L=K5 A=>A:8 =0 .. #>AA>=0, :0G5AB2> :>B>@KE =5 >AB02;O5B A><=5=89 2 B><, GB> >=8 ?5@5?8A0=K C ..M2;5B (>4=8 8 B5 65 >H81:8 2 =0720=88 2>>1I5-B> A2845B5;LAB2CNB > B><, GB> 02B>@K :=83C =5 2845;8), 8 3;02=>5 - ?>;=>5 >BACBAB285 C 02B>@0 ?@54AB02;5=89 > @0==8E D>@<0E 25@>20=89, > :>B>@KE, B5< =5 <5=55, ?>AB>O==> C?><8=05BAO.  @O4C ?>?KB>: 0@E5>;>3>2 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL ?@54<5BK 3@81>284=>9 D>@<K >A>1=O:>< AB>8B 38?>B570 =>2>A818@A:>3> 8AA;54>20B5;O ..>@>4>2A:>3>, :>B>@K9 =0H5; 1>;55 @0F8>=0;L=K9 A?>A>1 >1JOA=5=8O =07=0G5=8O ?OB8 3;8=O=KE 8745;89, >1=0@C65==KE 2 ?0<OB=8:0E 1>;LH5@5G5=A:>9 :C;LBC@K @0==53> 65;57=>3> 25:0. = AG8B05B 8E =0:>20;5=:0<8, 8A?>;L7>202H8<8AO 2 :5@0<8G5A:>< ?@>872>4AB25 4;O 703;06820=8O AB5=>: A>AC4>2.  >B;8G85 >B :>;;53, 2 ?>4B25@645=85 ..>@>4>2A:89 ?@82>48B =5 C<>7@8B5;L=K5 <=5=8O 8 40;5:85 0=0;>388, 0 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 40==K5, @57C;LB0BK :>B>@KE 2?>;=5 >AO705<K. %>BO :0: @07 "3@81>284=>ABL" MB8E <0B5@80;>2 <5=55 2A53> 2K7K205B A><=5=8O, B0: :0: MB> 459AB28B5;L=> ?>E>685 =0 3@81K ?@54<5BK: C =8E 2K?C:;0O 8;8 C?;>I5==0O A 28AOI8<8 :@0O<8 H;O?:0 =0 :>@>B:>9 =>6:5 A >B25@AB85<, =0 2=CB@5==59 AB>@>=5 H;O?:8 =51>;LH85 (A>25@H5==> =5DC=:F8>=0;L=K5) >B25@AB8O.  F5;><, 8<5==> MB8 ?@54<5BK 87 2A5E 2KH5 C?><O=CBKE 1>;LH5 2A53> ?>E>68 =0 <CE><>@K. AB0B8, 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 8E >1=0@C65=8O B>65 <5=55 2A53> ?>4E>4OB 4;O 8E DC=:F8>=0;L=>9 8=B5@?@5B0F88. '5BK@5 87 ?OB8 =0:>20;5=>: >1=0@C65=K 2 ?>3@515=8OE, ?@8G5<, 2A5 - 2 <C6A:8E ("@>8F:0O, >@>4>2A:89, 1994, A. 119, 121, 126), E>BO 3>=G0@AB2>< 2 A>>1I5AB20E, 345 254CICN @>;L 2 E>7O9AB25 83@0;> A:>B>2>4AB2>, A:>@55 2A53>, 4>;6=K 1K;8 70=8<0BLAO 65=I8=K.  B><C 65, >4=0 =0:>20;5=:0 =0945=0 2<5AB5 A :0<5==>9 :C@8;L=8F59, :CA>G:0<8 <5;0 8 1@>=7>2K< 75@:0;>< - MB0:8< <038:>-@8BC0;L=K< :><?;5:A>< ("@>8F:0O, >@>4>2A:89, 1994, A. 121). 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"@048F8O ?>B@51;5=8O <CE><>@>2 (manita muscaria) E>@>H> 8725AB=0 C =0@>4>2 A525@>-2>AB>:0 !818@8. ..>3>@07 AG8B0;, GB> >4C@<0=820NI85 8 2>71C640NI85 A2>9AB20 <CE><>@0 1K;8 >B:@KBK "BC75<F0<8 !525@>->AB>G=>9 788" (>3>@07, 1991, A.139).  1787 3. >48= 87 G;5=>2 A525@>-2>AB>G=>9 35>3@0D8G5A:>9 M:A?548F88 =01;N40; 55 C 8B5;L<5=>2: "...2<5AB> 28=0 C?>B@51;ONB 3@81K :@0A=K5, =07K205<K5 <CE><>@0<8, A :>B>@KE 1K20NB ?LO=K 8;8 ;CGH5 A:070BL 15H5=K 4> :@09=>AB8, :>9 65 =5 ?>BG520=K <CE><>@><, <>65B, ?> =58<5=8N >=KE, B5 AB0@0NBAO ?8BL C@8=C >B 2715A82H8EAO, 8 >B B>3> 5I5 1>;LH5 15H5=K, =565;8 ?5@2K5" (=52=0O <5<>@8O...A. 170). 725AB=>, GB> ?>B@51;5=85 <CE><>@>2 >A>15==> H8@>:> 1K;> @0A?@>AB@0=5=> A@548 :>@O:>2, 8A?>;L7>20;8 8E B0:65 N6=K5 B8E>>:50=A:85 GC:G8 8 3@C??K N6=KE 8B5;L<5=>2. 4=0:> 8 745AL ?>B@51;5=85 MB8E 3@81>2 2 MB=>3@0D8G5A:>5 2@5<O 1K;> >3@0=8G5=> B5<, GB> ?A8E>B@>?=K<8 A2>9AB20<8 >1;040;8 40;5:> =5 2A5 284K <CE><>@0, : B><C 65 ?@>87@0AB0NB >=8 B>;L:> 2 B056=KE >1;0ABOE 8 <>3CB 4>1K20BLAO 2 :@09=5 >3@0=8G5==KE :>;8G5AB20E. > >1 >?LO=ONI8E A?>A>1=>ABOE MB8E 3@81>2 7=0;8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5 >18B0B5;8 A525@>-2>AB>:0 !818@8. 065 B5 3@C??K, :>B>@K5 A0<8 =5 8A?>;L7>20;8 <CE><>@, A>18@0;8 53> 4;O ?@>4068 A2>8< A>A54O< - BC=4@>2K< >;5=52>40<. 'C:G8 8A?>;L7>20;8 <CE><>@ G0I5 2A53> 2 ACH5=>< 2845. @81K 703>B02;820;8 2?@>:, 2KACH820O 8 =0=87K20O ?> B@8 HBC:8 =0 =8B:C. @8 C?>B@51;5=88 >B@K20;8 <0;5=L:85 :CA>G:8, BI0B5;L=> ?5@5652K20;8 8 3;>B0;8, 70?820O 2>4>9. # :>@O:>2 1K; @0A?@>AB@0=5= >1KG09, :>340 65=I8=0 @07652K205B 3@81 8 >B405B <C6G8=5 ?@>3;>B8BL 620G:C (>3>@07, 1991, A. 139-140). B<5B8<, GB> =0 A525@>-2>AB>:5 !818@8 > D5@<5=B0F88, B.5. >1 873>B>2;5=88 =0?8B:>2 87 3@81>2 =5 7=0;8, B0: GB> ?@O<0O A2O7L A> A?5F80;L=> 873>B02;8205<>9 A><>9 :@09=5 A><=8B5;L=0. !C4O ?> 2A5<C, 4> ?@8E>40 @CAA:8E =0@:>B8G5A:85 A2>9AB20 <CE><>@>2 1K;8 H8@>:> 8725AB=K =5 B>;L:> =0@>40< A525@>-2>AB>G=>9 !818@8. ABL A2545=8O, GB> 8E C?>B@51;O;8 O:CBK, N:038@K 8 >1A:85 C3@K. @8G5< 2 0?04=>9 !818@8 <CE><>@K 5;8 AK@K<8 8;8 ?8;8 >B20@ 87 ACH5=KE 3@81>2. ?8A0=85 ?>B@51;5=8O 8 ?@>872545==>3> =0@:>B8:>< MDD5:B0 C E0=B>2 ?@82>48B .. 5>@38: "CE><>@0<8 C?820NBAO 8 <=>385 4@C385 A818@A:85 =0@>4K, 0 >A>1;82>, 682CI85 >:>;> 0@K<0 >ABO:8. >340 :B> AJ5AB 70 >4=8< @07>< A25689 <CE><>@, 8;8 2K?L5B C20@, A B@5E >=KE, 2KACH5==KE, B> ?>A;5 A53> ?@85<C, AB0=>28BAO A?5@20 3>2>@;82, 0 ?>B>< 45;05BAO, 87 ?>4>2>;8, B0: @57>2, GB> ?>5B, A:0G5B, 2>A:;8F05B, A;0305B ;N1>2=KO, >E>B=8GLO 8 1>30BK@A:8O ?5A=8, ?>:07K205B =5>1K:=>25==CN A8;C 8 ?@>G., 0 ?>A;5 =8G53> =5 ?><=8B. @>2>4O 2 B0:>< A>AB>O=88 >B 12 4> 16 G0A>2, =0 ?>A;54>: 70AK?05B; 0 :0: ?@>A=5BAO, B> >B A8;L=>3> =0?@O65=8O A8;, ?>E>48B =0 ?@818B>3>, => 2 3>;>25 =5 GC2AB2C5B B0:>9 BO3>AB8, :>340 28=>< =0?8205BAO, 0 8 ?>A;5 =5 1K205B 5<C >B B>3> =8 :0:>3> 2@540" (5>@38, G. 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