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aturane nobis, inquit, datum dicam, an errore quodam, ut, cum ea loca videamus, in quibus memoria dignos viros acceperimus multurn esse versatos, magis moveamur, quam siquando eorum ipsorum aut facta audiamus, aut scriptum aliquod legamus? Velut ego nunc moveor. Venit enim mihi Plato in mentem, quern accepimus primum hie disputare solitum: cujus etiam illi hortuli propinqui non memoriam solum mihi afferunt, sed ipsum videntur in conspectu meo hie ponere. Hic Speusippus, hic Xenocrates, hic ejus auditor Polemo; cujus ipsa illa sessio fuit, quam videamus. Equidem etiam curiam nostram, Hostiliam dico, non hanc novarn, quae mihi minor esse videtur postquam est major, solebarn intuens, Scipionern, Catonern, Laelium. nostrum vero in primis avum cogitare. Tanta vis admonitionis est in locis; ut non sine causa ex his memoriae deducta sit disciplina".  Cicero. De Finibus. Lib. V, 2. 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A;8 @0AAC640BL a priori, GB> C3>4=> <>65B ?>:070BLAO A?>A>1=K< ?@>8725AB8 GB> C3>4=> 4@C3>5. 045=85 :0<=O <>65B, ?>60;C9, ?>BCH8BL A>;=F5, 0 65;0=85 G5;>25:0  C?@02;OBL >1@0I5=85< ?;0=5B ?> 8E >@18B0<. 48= B>;L:> >?KB 7=0:><8B =0A A ?@8@>4>9 8 3@0=8F0<8 ?@8G8= 8 459AB289 8 ?>72>;O5B =0< 2K2>48BL ACI5AB2>20=85 >4=>3> >1J5:B0 87 ACI5AB2>20=8O 4@C3>3>.* "0:>2K >A=>20=8O <>@0;L=KE C<>70:;NG5=89, A>AB02;ONI8E 1>;LHCN G0ABL G5;>25G5A:>3> 7=0=8O 8 O2;ONI8EAO 8AB>G=8:>< 2A5E G5;>25G5A:8E ?>ABC?:>2 8 459AB289. * 5G5AB82K9 ?@8=F8? 4@52=59 D8;>A>D88 Ex nihilo nihil fit, [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\M284%20.<%20AA;%20>%20G5;%20@07C<5=88\\refer.htm" \l "s52" \t "_blank" 52] 8A:;NG0NI89 2>7<>6=>ABL A>B2>@5=8O <0B5@88, =5 ?@87=05BAO ?@8=F8?>< 2 B0:>9 D8;>A>D88. 5 B>;L:> 2>;O 5@E>2=>3> !CI5AB20, =>, =0A:>;L:> <K <>65< ?>;030BL a priori, 8 2>;O 2AO:>3> 4@C3>3> ACI5AB20 <>65B A>B2>@8BL :0: <0B5@8N, B0: 8 ;N1CN 4@C3CN ?@8G8=C, :0:CN B>;L:> <>65B 2K4C<0BL A0<>5 ?@8E>B;82>5 2>>1@065=85. >@0;L=K5 C<>70:;NG5=8O :0A0NBAO 8;8 G0AB=KE, 8;8 >1I8E D0:B>2; : ?5@2><C 284C ?@8=04;560B 2A5 @07<KH;5=8O 2 >1K45==>9 687=8, 0 B0:65 2A5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 >1;0AB8 8AB>@88, E@>=>;>388, 35>3@0D88 8 0AB@>=><88. 1I8<8 D0:B0<8 70=8<0NBAO A;54CNI85 =0C:8: ?>;8B8:0, 5AB5AB25==0O D8;>A>D8O, D878:0, E8<8O 8 B.4.  2A5 =0C:8, 8AA;54CNI85 :0G5AB20, ?@8G8=K 8 459AB28O F5;>3> :;0AA0 >1J5:B>2. >3>A;>285, 8;8 B5>;>38O, 4>:07K20NI0O ACI5AB2>20=85 >30 8 15AA<5@B85 4CH8, A>AB>8B 87 @0AAC645=89, :0A0NI8EAO :0: G0AB=KE, B0: 8 >1I8E D0:B>2. "5>;>38O 8<55B >A=>20=85 2 @07C<5, ?>A:>;L:C >=0 78645BAO =0 >?KB5. > 55 ;CGH8< 8 =081>;55 ?@>G=K< >A=>20=85< O2;ONBAO 25@0 8 1>65AB25==>5 >B:@>25=85. @02AB25==>ABL 8 :@8B8:0 ACBL >1J5:BK =5 AB>;L:> C<0, A:>;L:> 2:CA0 8 GC2AB20. @0A>B0, :0: =@02AB25==0O, B0: 8 D878G5A:0O, A:>@55 GC2AB2C5BAO, =565;8 ?>AB8305BAO. 07<KH;OO 65 > =59 8 AB0@0OAL CAB0=>28BL 55 :@8B5@89, <K ?@8=8<05< 2 @0AG5B =5GB> =>2>5, 0 8<5==> 2:CA, >1I89 2A5<C G5;>25G5AB2C, 8;8 :0:>9-=81C4L ?>4>1=K9 65 D0:B, :>B>@K9 <>65B 1KBL >1J5:B>< @07<KH;5=8O 8 8AA;54>20=8O. A;8, C4>AB>25@82H8AL 2 8AB8==>AB8 MB8E ?@8=F8?>2, <K ?@8ABC?8< : >A<>B@C 181;8>B5:, :0:>5 >?CAB>H5=85 ?@845BAO =0< 745AL ?@>8725AB8! >7L<5< 2 @C:8, =0?@8<5@, :0:CN-=81C4L :=83C ?> 1>3>A;>28N 8;8 H:>;L=>9 <5B0D878:5 8 A?@>A8<: A>45@68B ;8 >=0 :0:>5-=81C4L 01AB@0:B=>5 @0AAC645=85 > :>;8G5AB25 8;8 G8A;5? 5B. !>45@68B ;8 >=0 :0:>5-=81C4L >A=>20==>5 =0 >?KB5 @0AAC645=85 > D0:B0E 8 ACI5AB2>20=88? 5B. "0: 1@>ALB5 55 2 >3>=L, 81> 2 =59 =5 <>65B 1KBL =8G53>, :@><5 A>D8AB8:8 8 701;C645=89!  @8<5G0=8O 01>B0 .<0 "AA;54>20=85 > G5;>25G5A:>< @07C<5=88" ("An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding") 1K;0 2?5@2K5 >?C1;8:>20=0 2 1748 3.  =0AB>OI5< 8740=88 405BAO ?5@52>4, A45;0==K9 !.. &5@5B5;8 ?> 8740=8N: "Essays Moral, Political and Literary by D.Hume". Vol.II. L., 1898. Ed. by T.H.Green and T.H. Grose: .< . AA;54>20=85 > G5;>25G5A:>< C<5. 2-5 874. 3., 1916. 5@52>4 A25@5= ..0940<0:0 A 0=3;89A:8< B5:AB>< 8740=8O: Enquiries concerning the human understanding and concerning the principles of morals by David Hume. Second edition. 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