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C, =5 EC65 <=>38E, :>=5G=>... => @K=>: MB>B A5@L57=K9 8 A8;L=> :>=:C@5=B5=. # =0A MB> 2K@0605BAO 2 AB@5;L15 ?> <5=5465@0< 87 :0@018=>2; 2 2@>?5  2 @07>@5=88 <=>38E =5<5F:8E (!!!) ?82>20@5=, @01>B02H8E A>B=8 ;5B 8 =5 2K45@602H8E =>2KE CA;>289. >, C2K, =5 <K 8E @07>@8;8  0 40BG0=5, BC@:8, H254K. 5 4C<0N, GB> 70 >AB02H85AO 10 40 ;5B ?82> A<>65B 70<5=8BL 2 @>AA89A:>< B>@3>2>< 10;0=A5 =5DBL 8 307. 065 5A;8 :>=:C@5=B>A?>A>1=>5 ?82> 1C45B ?>445@60=> :>=:C@5=B>A?>A>1=K< 9>3C@B><, :>B>@K9, ?> A>>1I5=8O< ?@5AAK, >B =0A =0G0;8 M:A?>@B8@>20BL. >>1I5 GC45A0: 425 B@5B8 <>;>:0 C =0A 8<?>@B=K5, 87 2@>?K; 45;0BL 9>3C@B 8 257B8 >1@0B=> 2 2@>?C  >B:C40 2K3>40? ;8, <>65B, >= =5 87 <>;>:0? >@>G5: 5A;8 4>:B>@ A:070;  2 <>@3  7=0G8B 2 <>@3. 0H B>20@>>1<5= A 2=5H=8< <8@>< 45@68BAO =0 =5DB8 8 3075.  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"0:8< >1@07><, <>6=> ?@54?>;030BL, GB> 2 1990 3>4C, .?@8 B>340H=5< C@>2=5 4>1KG8 516 <;= B>==, ?>4B25@645==K5 70?0AK 8AG8A;O;8AL 2 15 <;@4 B>==. 0 ?@>H54H85 A B>3> 2@5<5=8 12 ;5B 4>1KB> >:>;> 4 <;@4 B>==, ?@8@>AB 65 70?0A>2 1K; =57=0G8B5;L=K<. !;54>20B5;L=>, <>6=> AG8B0BL, GB> A>2@5<5==K5 70?0AK =5DB8 2 >AA88 A>AB02;ONB >:>;> 11 <;@4 B>==. >A25==K< ?>4B25@645=85< MB><C A;C60B A2545=8O > 70?0A0E =5DBO=KE :><?0=89, ?>45;82H8E =0A;54AB2> >AA88, AB02H85 4>AB>O=85< 3;0A=>AB8 2 A5@548=5 1990-E 3>4>2. 081>;LH8<8 ?>4B25@645==K<8 70?0A0<8 =5DB8 (=0 =0G0;> 1995 3>40) @0A?>;030;8 ! (3,2 <;@4 B>==), .! (1,6 <;@4 B>==), # (1,51 <;@4 B>=8), !C@3CB-=5DB5307 (1,49 <;@4 B>==). >, 2> <=>38E >B=>H5=8OE, ?5@8>4 1985 1991 3>4>2 <>6=> >B=>A8BL :  A>25BA:8< 2@5<5=0< A 1>;LH>9 =0BO6:>9, :>340 65;57=K5 3>A?;0=>2A:85 ?>@O4:8 C65 =5 A>1;N40;8AL. 8H=NN @01>BC B>340 =8:B> 45;0BL =5 A>18@0;AO, ?>MB><C <>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 30-;5B=89  =5A=8605<K9 @575@2 1K; C =0A B>;L:> 2 =0G0;5 1980-E, 0 70B5< =0G0;>AL ?045=85.  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"0: 2>B, M:A?5@B=K9 >?@>A 40; >F5=:C: 7 8 <;@4 B>== (=0 =0G0;> 2002 3>40). 5A<>B@O =0 A5:@5B=>ABL, >D8F80;L=K5 8AB>G=8:8 =8 A B>3>, =8 A A53> 70O28;8 2 8N=5 2002 3>40 > 20-;5B=5< A@>:5 8AG5@?0=8O =K=5 ACI5AB2CNI8E 70?0A>2, GB> ?@8 A>2@5<5==>9 4>1KG5 >:>;> 400 <;= B>== >?OBL-B0:8 405B >F5=:C <5=55 10 <;@4 B>==, 1;865 : 8. 0<5BLB5, GB> 8 7 8, 8 11 <;@4 B>== =8:0: =5 A>AB02;ONB 13 % <8@>2KE 70?0A>2. >;CG05BAO 5 8 %, =8:0: =5 2B>@>5 <5AB> 2 <8@5, E>BO 8<5==> B0: 70G0ABCN 3>2>@OB. 728=8B5, MB>, 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05, H5AB>5, 5A;8 =5 A54L<>5, 70 5=5ACM;>9.  >A>15==> =5?@8OB=>, GB> 8=>AB@0==K5 >F5=:8 =5DBO=>3> ?>B5=F80;0 >AA88 G0I5 2A53> 1;87:8 : <8=8<C<C (4 %), 0 ?@0:B8:0 ?>:07K205B, GB> 8E >F5=:8 =0H8E 45; =5@54:> >?@024K20NBAO. >A;5 >B=>A8B5;L=>3> ?8:0 4>1KG8 2 1990 3>4C (01A>;NB=K9 ?8: 1K; 4>AB83=CB 2 :>=F5 1960-E) 4>1KG0 2 >AA88 =5A:>;L:> ;5B ?040;0 4> C@>2=O >:>;> 300 <;= B>==.  2 2001 3>4C =0G0;AO @57:89 8 =5>1JOA=8<K9 @>AB. !59G0A 4>1KG0 2 >AA88 ?@81;878;0AL : A>25BA:><C C@>2=N, => MB> A2O70=> 1>;LH5, =0 <>9 273;O4, =5 A @>AB>< ?>B@51;5=8O, 0 A @0AH8@5=85< 2>7<>6=>AB59 B@0=A?>@B8@>2:8 =5DB8 87 AB@0=K. !>2A5< =5402=>, 2 2000 3>4C, @>AB 4>1KG8 E>BO 1K 4> 360 <;= B>== ?;0=8@>20;AO B>;L:> : 2020 3>4C, 8 ;8HL ?> A0<><C >?B8<8AB8G5A:><C ?@>3=>7C (-=5@35B8G5A:0O ?@>3@0<<0). > 2K@>A;8 <8@>2K5 F5=K =0 =5DBL  8 4>1KG0 ?5@5<0E=C;0 400-<8;;8>==>B>==K9 @C156, 0 >AA8O AB0;0 ?5@2K< 2 <8@5 M:A?>@B5@><. 0: >:070;>AL, @57:>5 ?045=85 4>1KG8 2 A5@548=5 1990-E (?>GB8 242>5 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 1990-<C) >1JOA=O;>AL 2A5 65 =5 8AG5@?0=85< <5AB>@>645=89. !>25BA:89 7045; 1K; 2?>;=5 ?@8;8G=K<. @>1;5<0 1K;0 2 @50;870F88 =5DB8: ?@>?CA:=0O A?>A>1=>ABL  B@C1K =5 4>AB830;0 8 125 <;= B>==, 5I5 :>5-GB> -<>6=> 1K;> 2K2>78BL <5=55 C4>1=K<8 2840<8 B@0=A?>@B0, => =5 2A5, GB> <>6=> 1K;> 4>1KBL.  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