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A?>;L7CO 8<52HCNAO B5>@5B8G5A:CN ;8B5@0BC@C, >= @07@01>B0; G5B:CN ?@>3@0<<C 8AA;54>20=8O, ?>AB0282 2 :0G5AB25 3;02=>3> 2>?@>A >1 CA;>28OE A?>A>1AB2CNI8E ;81>, =0?@>B82, ?@5?OBAB2CNI8E @0728B8N 75<A:8E CG@5645=89.  70:;NG5=88 >= AD>@<C;8@>20; >A=>2=K5 8B>38 8AA;54>20=8O.  @30=870F8O 75<A:>3> ?@54AB028B5;LAB20 2 !;>1>4A:>< C5745 1>;55 1;87:0 : B5>@5B8G5A:8< B@51>20=8O<, =565;8 2 08H52A:>< C5745, GB> >1JOA=O5BAO @07;8G85< 2 ;8G=>< M;5<5=B5 >1>8E C574>2 . 5=>@<0;L=>ABL ?>;>65=8O  ?> ?@>4>2>;LAB25==>9 G0AB8 2 !;>1>4A:>< C5745 2K720=0  M:>=><8G5A:>9 =5A>AB>OB5;L=>ABLN 1>;LH8=AB20 =0A5;5=8O, 2 08H52A:>< - =5=04;560I8< >B=>H5=85< 75<A:8E CG@5645=89 : >@30=870F88 ?@>4>2>;LAB25==>3> 45;0. ;O !;>1>4A:>3> C5740 1>;55 E0@0:B5@=>  AB@5<;5=85 : C;CGH5=8N 687=8 , B0: :0: 75<AB2> 8<55B :@5ABLO=A:89 A>AB02, =565;8 4;O 75<A:>42>@O=A:>3> 08H52A:>3> (20=>2A:89, 1881, 313-314).  :=835 !.@>:>?>28G0  5AB=K5 ;N48 > =C640E >AA88 (@>:>?>28G, 1904) ?@54AB02;5=K <0B5@80;K A5@88 >?@>A>2 (?8AL<5==KE), ?@>2>482H8EAO A@548 75<F52 1>;LH8=AB20 75<A:8E 3C15@=89, 0 B0:65 ?@>0=0;878@>20=> 1>;55 1000 ?>AB0=>2;5=89 75<A:8E :><8B5B>2 ?> H5AB8 2>?@>A0< 75<A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8.  @57C;LB0B5 0=0;870 >B25B>2 =0 ?@>3@0<<C >?@>A0 8 @071>@0 ?>AB0=>2;5=89 - 2A5 2K:;04:8 8 MB0?K 8=B5@?@5B0F88 :>;8G5AB25==KE 40==KE ?@82>4OBAO 2 70:;NG5=88 @01>BK - 1K;0 ?@>872545=0 >F5=:0 G8A;0 1N@>:@0B8G5A:8E, ;815@0;L=KE 8 :>=A5@20B82=KE :><8B5B>2.  A2O78 A B5<, GB> >:>;> ?>;>28=K :>=A5@20B82=KE @5H5=89 (106 87 233) ?@8H;0AL =0 @01>G89 2>?@>A (>48= 87 H5AB8) 02B>@ 45;05B 2K2>4 > =0;8G88  C7:>:;0AA>2>9 B5=45=F88 2 :><8B5B0E, =5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A2>5< >=8 ;815@0;L=K (1061 ?>AB0=>2;5=85 - ;815@0;L=>5, 233 - :>=A5@20B82=K5). A=>2=>9 8B>3 @01>BK -  AC@>2K9 ?@83>2>@ =04 1N@>:@0B8G5A:>9 A8AB5<>9 . > 2 >B;8G85 >B ;815@0;L=KE ?C1;8F8AB>2, ?@845@68202H8EAO B>3> 65 <=5=8O, 02B>@ >?8@0;AO =0 M<?8@8G5A:89 <0B5@80;, ?@8<5=OO =0CG=K5 <5B>4K 2 53> 8=B5@?@5B0F88. .!25H=8:>2 (!25H=8:>2, 1892), 8A?>;L7CO A>?>AB028B5;L=K9 <5B>4 (>= A0< >B;8G05B 53> >B A@02=8B5;L=>3>) 8 >?8@0OAL =0 40==K5, ?>;CG5==K5 8< 2> 2@5<O >1CG5=8O 8 ?@5?>4020=8O 2 5@<0=88 8 ?>A;54CNI8E 75<A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 2 >AA88, A>7405B =5:89 ?@>>1@07 <564C=0@>4=>3> handbook ?> <5AB=><C C?@02;5=8N, >4=>2@5<5==> ?>4@>1=> @0AA<0B@820O 1C:20;L=> 2A5 B5>@5B8G5A:85 2>77@5=8O =0 ?@54<5B 2 F5;>< 8 53> 206=59H85 0A?5:BK. A?>;L7C5B >= 8 AB0B8AB8G5A:85 <5B>4K - A>AB02;5==K5 8< B01;8FK 40==KE > A>AB025 75<A:>3> ?@54AB028B5;LAB20 2 34 3C15@=8OE 40NBAO 2 ?@8;>65=88 : A>G8=5=8N. >AA89A:0O ?@>B>?>;8B>;>38O, 8<5O A2>59 206=>9 G0ABLN <5AB=CN ?@>1;5<0B8:C, =5 O2;O;0AL G5<-B> 2K45;5==K< 87 >1I53> :C;LBC@=>3>, =0CG=>3> 8 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0, =5A><=5==>, =0E>4OAL 2 F5=B@5 >1I5AB25==>9 687=8. >;8B8G5A:85 48A:CAA88, ;8B5@0BC@=0O 15;;5B@8AB8:0 8 :@8B8:0, 75<A:0O ?C1;8F8AB8:0, 8=B5@5A : 8AB>@88 8 =0@>4=><C 1KBC 8 >1KG0O< 1K;8 C4828B5;L=> A2O70=K <564C A>1>9. 8A0B5;L, ?C1;8F8AB .>@4>2F52 ?8H5B @><0=K 87 @CAA:>9 8AB>@88, =0@>4=8G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:8, 8 - ?>42>48B 8B>38 45AOB8;5B8O 75<AB2 (>@4>2F52, 1877), 4020O H8@>:CN ?0=>@0<C 75<A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 1>;55 G5< 2 45AOB8 3C15@=8OE - :0: ?> 2B>@8G=K< 8AB>G=8:0<, B0: 8 ?> A>1AB25==K< =01;N45=8O<. "@C4=> 871560BL <>45@=878@CNI59 015@@0F88, :>340 7=0:><8HLAO A >?8A0=85< 8 0=0;87><  @0A:;040 A8; 8 8=B5@5A>2, <5AB=>9 ?>;8B8:8 2 F5;>< 2 B0:>< ?>;8B8:>-E>7O9AB25==>< =0G8=0=88 1860-70 33. :0: AB@>8B5;LAB2> A0@0B>2A:8< 75<AB2>< 65;57=>9 4>@>38, A2O702H59 B>340H=NN  AB>;8FC >2>;6LO A >A:2>9 (A. 179-184). 5<A:89 45OB5;L, ?@02>254 .57>1@07>2 =0@O4C A> AB0BLO<8, 2 :>B>@KE 0=0;878@CNBAO 75<A:85 ?@02>2K5 8=AB8BCBK, 2:;NG05B 2 A1>@=8: A2>8E @01>B ?8AL<0, >?C1;8:>20==K5 2 3075B5  5: , A>G5B0NI85 ;8@8:C 8 <>=8B>@8=3>2>5 >?8A0=85 ?@0:B8:8 >@30=870F88 75<AB20 =0 C574=>< 8 2>;>AB=>< C@>2=5 (57>1@07>2, 1882). .'8G5@8= 2KABC?05B :0: ;815@0;L=K9 ?C1;8F8AB, :@C?=K9 75<A:89 45OB5;L, 2545B =0CG=CN ?>;5<8:C ?> 75<A:8< 2>?@>A0< ('8G5@8=, 1903). @02>254K .>@:C=>2, .5AA5= 2K?CA:0NB :=838 A2>8E AB8E>B2>@5=89, 0 .>;>28= - 12-5 B><=>5 A>1@0=85 A2>8E ?@>708G5A:8E 8 4@0<0B8G5A:8E ?@>872545=89, 8 B.4. @><5 B>3>, @0728205BAO >@838=0;L=0O 75<A:0O 6C@=0;8AB8:0, 2 :>B>@>9 2>?@>AK ?@020, 8AB>@88, ?>;8B8:8, M:>=><8:8, A>F80;L=K5 8 :C;LBC@=K5 O2;5=8O @0AA<0B@820;8AL, :0: ?@028;>, 2 :><?;5:A5. "2>@G5AB2> >4=>3> 87 2K40NI8EAO 75<A:8E 6C@=0;8AB>2 (2 1880-82 3>4C - @540:B>@ 3075BK  5<AB2> ) .!:0;>=0 <>65B A;C68BL ?@8<5@>< A>G5B0=8O =0CG=>9 4>1@>A>25AB=>AB8 8 >1AB>OB5;L=>AB8 ?@8 0=0;875 B5:CI8E A>1KB89 (!:0;>=, 1882; 1907).  B> 65 2@5<O 2 >1I5AB25==KE =0C:0E 845B ?@>F5AA A?5F80;870F88.  1970-5 33. 3>AC40@AB2>254K 5I5 AG8B0NB =C6=K< >BAB0820BL =5>1E>48<>ABL ACI5AB2>20=8O A0<>AB>OB5;L=>3> 3>AC40@AB25==>3>, 04<8=8AB@0B82=>3>, >1I5AB25==>3> ?@020, >B;8G=>3> >B 3@0640=A:>3>, G0AB=>3> (5H:>2, 1865, 1872), 0 2 1880-5-1900-5 ?>O2;ONBAO :C@AK @CAA:>3> 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 8 04<8=8AB@0B82=>3> ?@020, 2:;NG0NI85, 5AB5AB25==>, @0745;K > <5AB=>< C?@02;5=88 8 CG@5645=8OE (>@:C=>2, 1892-93; 20=>2A:89, 1896-98; C?;520A:89, 1894; 070@52A:89, 1910; >;L4M, 1911). !>740NBAO B@C4K ?> 8AB>@88 <5AB=>3> C?@02;5=8O 8 CG@5645=89 (=4@552A:89, 1864; @04>2A:89, 1903; ;8=>2, 1905, 1911; 87525BB5@, 1910). 8B5@0BC@0 87 2@>?K, ?@5645 2A53> 87 5@<0=88, A@07C 65 @5F5=78@C5BAO (5H:>2, 1873). 0AA<0B@820NBAO ?@>1;5<K 04<8=8AB@0B82=>-B5@@8B>@80;L=>3> CAB@>9AB20 2 ?>;8B8:>-?@02>2>9 ?5@A?5:B825 (070@52A:89, 1906: >@D, 1908, 1917). 0 A>@>: ;5B 75<A:0O 8 A0<>C?@02;5=G5A:0O ?@>1;5<0B8:0 O2=K< >1@07>< 2K45;O5BAO 2 A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN =0CG=CN 48AF8?;8=C, >AB020OAL 2 B>65 2@5<O 2 B5A=>9 A2O78 A 8AB>@8G5A:>9 =0C:>9 8 3>AC40@AB2>2545=85< (5A5;>2A:89, 1909-1911; 5AA5=, 1904). >O2;ONBAO <>=>3@0D8G5A:85 @01>BK: ?> ?@>1;5<0< 3>@>4A:>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O (8BOB8=, 1872; (@5945@, 1902; 5AA5=, 1912), >B=>H5=89 3C15@=A:>3> 8 C574=>3> 75<AB2 (28=>2, 1904; (8?>2, 1899), >B45;L=K< 0A?5:B0< 75<A:>9 @01>BK (0@KH52, 1900; >28:>2, 1905), >B45;L=K< 3C15@=8O< 8 C5740< (20=>2A:89, 1881; >@8A>2, 1881; >;N?0=>2, 1876-77; D@5<>2, 1905; !5<8=, 1907); 8718@0B5;L=><C ?@02C (>@=8;>2, 1906). >A;5 @04>2A:>3> : ?@>1;5<0<, 3>AC40@AB20 8 >1I5AB20, ?@028B5;LAB25==>3> C?@02;5=8O (1N@>:@0B88) 8 A0<>C?@02;5=8O, 4286CI8E A8; 8 8=B5@5A>2 @07;8G=KE A>F80;L=KE 3@C??, @0AA<>B@5==K< 8< DC=40<5=B0;L=> 8 A8AB5<0B8G5A:8, 8AA;54>20B5;8 >1@0I0NBAO ?>AB>O==>, 8A?>;L7CO 70;>65==K5 8< 65 :;0AA8D8:0F8>==K5 8 >?8A0B5;L=K5 AB0=40@BK. >;8B8G5A:85 A?>@K 70G0ABCN >:07K20NBAO B>;L:> 2=5H=59 AB>@>=>9 =0CG=>3> >1AC645=8O. A;8 A@02=8BL 420 A>G8=5=8O ?>;8B8G5A:8 B0:8E ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE 02B>@>2 :0: .>;>28= (>;>28=, 1884) 8 .5A5;>2A:89 (5A5;>2A:89, 1905), B> >:065BAO, GB> =0CG=K9 ?>4E>4, >A=>20==K9 =0 A>A;>2=>-8<CI5AB25==><, :;0AA>2>< 0=0;875 @0728B8O 75<AB2, ;815@0;L=K< 5A5;>2A:8< =0A;54C5BAO C :>=A5@20B82=>3> >;>28=0. 5@2K9, 8A?>;L7CO B5 65 ?@85<K 8=B5@?@5B0F88, GB> 8 53> ?@54H5AB25==8:, ?>:07K205B, :0: =5 A>AB>O;>AL 4><8=8@>20=85 2 75<AB25 :@C?=>3> 42>@O=AB20 ?@8 B><, GB> 75<AB2> 2A5 65 AB0;> 4>AB0B>G=> MDD5:B82=K<. >;>28= 65 2 A2>5 2@5<O A2O7K20; ?5@A?5:B82C ?>2KH5=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 75<AB2 A C?@>G5=85< 2 C?@02;5=88 8< :@C?=>3> 42>@O=AB20. =AB8BCF8>=0;L=0O ?@>1;5<0 2 ?@545;L=> 70>AB@5==>9 D>@<5 1K;0 AD>@<C;8@>20=0 2 >4=>< 87 A0<KE  @50:F8>==KE 0=B875<A:8E A>G8=5=89 02B>@0  >=D845=F80;L=>9 70?8A:8 , ?>40==>9 <8=8AB@C 2=CB@5==8E 45; >B 8<5=8 <8=8AB@0 D8=0=A>2 !. 8BB5 2 1899 3. 8 >703;02;5==>9  !0<>45@60285 8 75<AB2> .  =59 ?>4@>1=> 1K; @0AA<>B@5= 2>?@>A > A2O78 A8AB5<K <5AB=>3> C?@02;5=8O A ?>;8B8G5A:8< AB@>5< 8  :>=AB8BCF8>==K< @568<>< . 0 <0B5@80;5 8AB>@88 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 8 C?@02;5=8O =0 0?045 8 2 >AA88 AB028;AO 2>?@>A > B><, O2;O5BAO ;8 >AA8O AB@0=>9 04<8=8AB@0B82=> C?@02;O5<>9 8;8 AB@0=>9 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 8 0@3C<5=B8@>20==> 4>:07K20;0AL, GB> A0<>45@60285 :0: 8=AB8BCB (D>@<0;L=>-N@848G5A:89 8 8AB>@8G5A:8-B@048F8>==K9), >ACI5AB2;ONI89 2A5 ?>;8B8G5A:85 8 04<8=8AB@0B82=K5 DC=:F88, =5A>2<5AB8<> A <5AB=K< A0<>C?@02;5=85< :0: >1I5AB25==K< 8=AB8BCB><, >1;040NI8< 2;0AB=K<8 ?>;=><>G8O<8. (8BB5, 1903). !>25BA:89 ?5@8>4 25@8D8F8@>20; ?>AB@>5=8O 02B>@0  >=D845=F80;L=>9 70?8A:8. 081>;55 B8?8G=K<8 =0CG=K< A>G8=5=85< M?>E8 <>6=> AG8B0BL :;0AA8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O .;8=>20 (;8=>2, 1905, 1911). 3> A>G8=5=85  C15@=0B>@K O2;O5BAO  8AB>@8:>-N@848G5A:8< >G5@:>< .  =5< ?@>A;565=0 8AB>@8O 8=AB8BCB0 @>AA89A:>3> 3C15@=0B>@AB20 A <><5=B0 53> CG@5645=8O 2 ?5@8>4 ?5B@>2A:8E @5D>@< 4> 1890-E 33. XIX 2. A>1K9 8=B5@5A 4;O =0A ?@54AB02;ONB B5>@5B8:>-<5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?@8=F8?K 8 >A=>20==K5 =0 =8E ?@85<K >1>1I5=8O 8 8=B5@?@5B0F88 40==KE.  >A=>25 @01>BK ;568B =5A:>;L:> 18=0@=KE >??>78F89: 1) 2708<>>B=>H5=8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 >1I5AB20; 2) A>>B=>H5=85 D>@<0;L=>3> ?@020 8 =5D>@<0;L=KE ?@0:B8:; 3) 42>9AB25==>ABL ?@8@>4K 3C15@=0B>@A:>9 4>;6=>AB8; 4) =047>@=K5 >B=>H5=8O ?> ;8=8O<: F5=B@-3C15@=0B>@ 8 3C15@=0B>@-75<AB2> (?>A;5 @5D>@<K 1864 3.); 5) ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85 @CB8==KE ?5@8>4>2 8 @5D>@<. !>E@0=5=85 ?>AB>O==>9 AB@C:BC@K ?5@2KE G5BK@5E >B=>H5=89 =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A53> @0AA<0B@8205<>3> ?5@8>40 70AB02;O5B 02B>@0 45;0BL 2K2>4 > =587<5==>AB8 ACI=>AB8 8 DC=:F89 B>9 G0AB8 >1I53>AC40@AB25==>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> @568<0, :>B>@0O :0A05BAO <5AB=KE CG@5645=89 8 CAB0=>2;5=89, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 8E >B=>H5=88 : F5=B@C. ;O :064>3> 87 @0AA<0B@8205<KE ?5@8>4>2 >= :>=AB0B8@C5B:  >BACBAB285 A0<>45OB5;L=>AB8 >1I5AB20 2 ?@>28=F88 ,  ?@028;L=55 A:070BL - >BACBAB285 A0<>3> >1I5AB20 (A. 145),  ?@028B5;LAB2> ?@>4>;60;> @01>B0BL 70 >1I5AB2> (A. 151); 8 1C4CI55 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=85 7028A8B >B B>3>, 2 :0:85 >B=>H5=85 1C4CB ?>AB02;5=K >@30=K A0<>C?@02;5=8O : ?@028B5;LAB25==K< 2;0ABO<, >A>15==> 3C15@=0B>@0<; =0;8G85  A;8H:>< 1>;LH8E ?>;=><>G89 C 3C15@=0B>@0, 3C15@=0B>@ D0:B8G5A:8 >1;040;  5I5 1>;LH59 2;0ABLN, =565;8 ?> 70:>=C (A. 145); ACI5AB2>20=85  D0:B8G5A:8E , 0 =5 B>;L:> N@848G5A:8E >B=>H5=89 (A. 186); 3C15@=0B>@ -  ;8F>, >1;5G5==>5 =0470:>==>9 2;0ABLN (151); ?@52KH5=85 2;0AB8 3C15@=0B>@0<8 (A.302; 3C15@=0B>@ -  E>7O8= 3C15@=88 8  04<8=8AB@0B82=K9 >@30=  (A. 160); =07=0G5=85 3C15@=0B>@0 7028A8B >B  A;CG0O 8 ?@>B5:F88 - (A. 165); ACI5AB2C5B =5?@5>4>;8<K9 0=B03>=87< <564C A0<>C?@02;5=85< 8 3C15@=0B>@0<8; =047>@ 70 3C15@=0B>@0<8 157459AB25=, 8, =0?@>B82, A 1892 3>40 22545= =047>@ 70 F5;5A>>1@07=>ABLN (0 =5 B>;L:> 70:>==>ABLN) 75<A:8E @5H5=89 A> AB>@>=K 3C15@=0B>@0 065 @5D>@<0 1864 3., ?>2;5:H0O, :070;>AL 1K, AB>;L ACI5AB25==K5 87<5=5=8O 2 4>;6=>AB=KE >1O70==>ABOE 3C15@=0B>@>2 - =5 70B@>=C;0 107>2>9 AB@C:BC@K.  B0: =07K205<K5  :>=B@@5D>@<K 1889-92 3>4>2 5I5 1>;LH5 C:>@5=8;8 55. "0:>9 E0@0:B5@ @0728B8O <5AB=KE CG@5645=89 1K; >1CA;>2;5= 8AB>@8G5A:8, 0 70B5< ?>445@6820;AO 8 A>E@0=O;AO 2 A8;C A0<>45@602=>AB8 2;0AB8, =5708=B5@5A>20==>9 2 55 C<0;5=88, 0 B0:65 A>F8>:C;LBC@=KE B@048F89.  N18;59=K9 4;O 75<A:>9 @5D>@<K 1914 3>4 2KE>48B  @0B:0O M=F8:;>?548O 75<A:>3> 45;0 2 53> 8AB>@8G5A:>< @0728B88 ( CA>2, 1914) 8  .18;59=K9 75<A:89 A1>@=8: (.18;59=K9, 1914).  ?>A;54=5< 1K;8 ?@54AB02;5=K 0=0;8B8G5A:85 >17>@K ;CGH8E 75<A:8E ?8A0B5;59. 06=>5 >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, :>B>@>5 ?@8E>48BAO >A<KA;820BL 2 A2O78 A 4>@52>;NF8>==>9 ;8B5@0BC@>9 ?> <5AB=K< ?@>1;5<0< - MB> 55 A0<> A>1>9 @07C<5NI55AO F5=B@0;L=>5, =0@O4C A ;8B5@0BC@>9 ?> >1I53>AC40@AB25==K< ?@>1;5<0<, ?>;>65=85 2 >1I5AB25==KE =0C:0E. >AA89A:0O ?>;8B8:0 @0AA<0B@820;0AL :0: 548=AB2> A0<>45@602=>-8<?5@A:8E 8 <5AB=KE 8=AB8BCB>2 8 ?@>F5AA>2. > ;>38:5 @0728B8O <5AB=KE 8AA;54>20=89 2 @0<:0E >1I5AB25==KE =0C: 2 4>@52>;NF8>==>9 >AA88, CG8BK20O @0728B>ABL 8E 8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=KE D>@< (C=825@A8B5BA:85 F5=B@K, 75<A:85 8 ?@028B5;LAB25==K5 0=0;8B8G5A:85 AB@C:BC@K, <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?5@8>48G5A:85 8740=8O 8 B.?.), <5B>4>;>38G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; 8 ?> 0=0;>388 A @0728B85< ?>;8B8G5A:>9 =0C:8 2 70@C156=KE AB@0=0E, A;54C5B ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 2 1920-30-5 33. 2 >AA88 4>;6=0 1K;0 A;>68BLAO >B5G5AB25==0O H:>;0 ?>;8B>;>388. 4=0:> ?@>F5AA @0728B8O >1I5AB25==KE =0C: 1K; =04>;3> ?@5@20=. AB02H85AO 2 >AA88 8AA;54>20B5;8 8 8E CG5=8:8 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 70=8<0;8AL B5>@5B8:>->@30=870F8>==K<8 2>?@>A0<8 :><<C=0;L=>3> E>7O9AB20 (5A5;>2A:89 8 (59=8A, 1927). >A;54=8< 7=0G8B5;L=K< A>1KB85< 75<A:>9 B@048F88, A;54C5B, 2848<>, AG8B0BL :=83C .5;8E>20  A=>2K 3>@>4A:>3> E>7O9AB20 , 2KH54HCN 2 1928 3>4C (5;8E>2, 1928). 2. ! / "'!/ !": "  !"'  "  !!"+ '!" !>25BA:89 ?5@8>4 @0728B8O @>AA89A:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 =0C:8 2>>1I5 8 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> @538>=0;8AB8:8 2 G0AB=>AB8 =5 70A;C68205B 2=8<0=8O. >;8B>;>388 2 !!!  =5 1K;> - =8 45-N@5, 81> B>340 =5 ACI5AB2>20;> A0<>9 AD5@K ?C1;8G=>9 ?>;8B8:8 2 A>1AB25==>< A<KA;5 ?>=OB8O, 0 2;0ABL =C640;0AL 2 >A<KA;5=88 ?>;8B8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2 ;8HL 2 AC3C1>  ?>;8F59A:>< 0A?5:B5, =8 45-D0:B>, ?>A:>;L:C (70 8A:;NG5=85<, ?>60;C9, <564C=0@>4=KE 8AA;54>20=89) ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> @01>B A>25BA:>3> ?5@8>40 >B;8G0;>AL 845>;>38G5A:>9 A5@28;L=>ABLN. 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AA;54>20=8O D545@0B82=KE >B=>H5=89 A2O70=K A @0AA<>B@5=85< @07;8G=KE 0A?5:B>2 2708<>459AB289 @>AA89A:>3> &5=B@0 8 @538>=>2 - ?>;8B8G5A:8E, ?@02>2KE, M:>=><8G5A:8E. -B8 @07@01>B:8, =0?@>B82, >1KG=> >B;8G05B =5 M:A:;N782=K9, 0 ?C1;8G=K9 E0@0:B5@, 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O - =081>;LH0O AB5?5=L 845>;>38G5A:>9 0=3068@>20==>AB8 8 7028A8<>ABL >B ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :>=JN=:BC@K.  ?@8<5@C, 2> <=>38E @01>B0E A?5F80;8AB>2 87 070=8 GC2AB2C5BAO 2;8O=85 B5>@88 0A8<<5B@8G=>3> D>@0;8AB8G5A:>3> D545@0;87<0, >D8F80;L=> ?@8=OB>9 2;0ABO<8 "0B0@AB0=0 70 >A=>2C 3>AC40@AB25==>9 845>;>388 ($545@0;87<, 1993, $545@0;87<, 1994): 2 @07=>5 2@5<O ?> 40==>9 ?@>1;5<0B8:5 2KA:07K20;8AL 70<5B=K5 ?>;8B8:8 - .14C;0B8?>2, C.01C@8=, .KA5=:>, . 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"0:8< >1@07><, <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > B><, GB> ?@54<5B=>5 ?>;5 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 @538>=0;8AB8:8 2 >AA88 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 >A2>5=>; :>;8G5AB2> @01>B A?5F80;8AB>2 @07=KE 48AF8?;8= ?> 40==>9 ?@>1;5<0B8:5 AB@5<8B5;L=> @0AB5B, 8 =5 ?@8E>48BAO A><=520BLAO, GB> ?@>4>;60NI85AO F8:;K 2K1>@>2 3C15@=0B>@>2 8 ?@54AB028B5;L=KE >@30=>2 2;0AB8 @538>=>2, 0 B0:65 >@30=>2 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O ?>2;5:CB 70 A>1>9 =>2K5 8AA;54>20=8O 8 ?C1;8:0F88. ;O =0A 7=0G8<> 4@C3>5 - 2 :0:>9 <5@5 @>AB 8=B5@5A0 : @>AA89A:8< @538>=0< 2;8O5B =0 :0G5AB25==>5 @0728B85 =0CG=>3> 7=0=8O ? ABL ;8 C ?>;8B8G5A:>9 @538>=0;8AB8:8 :0:85-;81> 4>AB865=8O 2 :>=F5?BC0;L=>< ?;0=5 8;8 @5GL 845B 2A53> ;8HL > =>2KE M<?8@8G5A:8E 40==KE? >7=8:0NB ;8 =>2K5 :><?;5:A=K5 ?>4E>4K : 8AA;54>20=8N @538>=0;L=KE ?@>F5AA>2? ;O >B25B>2 =0 MB8 2>?@>AK @0AA<>B@8< >A=>2=K5 :>=F5?F88, 0 B0:65 MB0?K 8 =5:>B>@K5 B5=45=F88 @0728B8O A>2@5<5==>9 @>AA89A:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 @538>=0;8AB8:8. 3.  + ( (1990-1993) -:>=><8G5A:85 8 ?>;8B8G5A:85 ?@5>1@07>20=8O ?5@8>40 ?5@5AB@>9:8, A2O70==K5 A 87<5=5=85< <5E0=87<>2 C?@02;5=8O =0 2A5E C@>2=OE, 70B@>=C;8 8 3>AC40@AB25==CN @538>=0;L=CN ?>;8B8:C (B>340 5I5 - @538>=>2 !!! ).  1987 3>4C =0 8N=LA:>< ?;5=C<5 & !! 1K; 2K428=CB ;>7C=3 A0<>C?@02;5=8O - :0: ?@>872>4AB25==>3>, B0: 8 B5@@8B>@80;L=>3>, 4>?>;=5==K9 3>4 A?CABO =0 XIX A5A>N7=>9 ?0@B:>=D5@5=F88 ?@87K2>< : B5@@8B>@80;L=><C E>7@0AG5BC; @5D>@<0 A8AB5<K !>25B>2, =0G0B0O 2 1988 3>4C, B0:65 ?@54?>;030;0 7=0G8B5;L=CN 45F5=B@0;870F8N 2;0AB=KE ?>;=><>G89. 5@5<5=K 4>AB83;8 8 =0CG=>9 A@54K: AB>;8G=K5 3>AC40@AB2>254K 3>B>28;8 =>2K5 70:>=>?@>5:BK, 0 <>A:>2A:85 8 @538>=0;L=K5 M:>=><8ABK ?@82;5:0;8AL : @07@01>B:5 B5@@8B>@80;L=KE M:>=><8G5A:8E ?@>3@0<<, A>740=8N =>2KE C?@02;5=G5A:8E AB@C:BC@. @8 MB><, 5A;8 4;O A?5F80;8AB>2 AB@0= 0;B88 ?@87K2 : A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 1K; A2>53> @>40  7>=B8:>< 4;O :>=A>;840F88 2 1>@L15 70 =57028A8<>ABL, B> 8E @>AA89A:85 :>;;538 >3@0=8G820;8AL 845O<8 A>740=8O A2>1>4=KE M:>=><8G5A:8E 7>= 8 >1JO2;5=85< A>1AB25==>AB8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E @538>=>2 =0 ?@8@>4=K5 @5AC@AK. $>@<8@>20=85 2 !!!  AD5@K ?C1;8G=>9 ?>;8B8:8 2 E>45 2K1>@>2 8 ?>A;54CNI59 45OB5;L=>AB8 !J574>2 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 2K720;> 8=B5@5A : 8 @538>=0;L=><C 0A?5:BC 2K1>@>2. 0B5@80;K 4;O =0CG=>3> >A<KA;5=8O M;5:B>@0;L=KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 8E @57C;LB0B>2 (2 B>< G8A;5 8 2 @538>=0E) 40;0 8718@0B5;L=0O :0<?0=8O 1989 3>40 ?> 2K1>@0< =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 !!! . 081>;55 3;C1>:>5 87CG5=85 B5@@8B>@80;L=KE 0A?5:B>2 2K1>@>2 1989 3>40 1K;> ?@>2545=> A?5F80;8AB0<8 ?> ?>;8B8G5A:>9 35>3@0D88, 8<52H8<8 ?@54AB02;5=85 > 70@C156=>9 ?@0:B8:5 B0:8E 8AA;54>20=89.  =0G0;5 1990 3>40 2 8740B5;LAB25  @>3@5AA C2845; A25B :>;;5:B82=K9 B@C4  K1>@K-89. 5>3@0D8O 8 0=0B><8O ?0@;0<5=BA:8E 2K1>@>2 (5@57:8= 8 4@., 1990). >=>3@0D8O A>45@60;0 ?>;8B8:>-35>3@0D8G5A:89 0=0;87 :0<?0=88 =0 @07;8G=KE 55 MB0?0E (=0@57:0 >:@C3>2, 2K42865=85 :0=4840B>2, B0:B8:0 ?@54AB028B5;59 B5E 8;8 8=KE A>F80;L=>-?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE 3@C??, ?@>2545=85 42CE BC@>2 3>;>A>20=8O 8 ?>2B>@=KE 2K1>@>2), 0 B0:65 >G5@:8 E>40 8718@0B5;L=>9 :0<?0=88 2 @O45 @538>=>2 B>340H=53> !!!  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MB>9 @01>B5, =0@O4C A 0=0;87>< @538>=0;L=KE D0:B>@>2 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0 (45<>3@0D8G5A:8E, M:>=><8G5A:8E, :C;LBC@=KE 8 4@.), =0<5G0;8AL ?>4E>4K : 2KO2;5=8N @538>=0;L=KE <>45;59 M;5:B>@0;L=>3> ?>2545=8O. , E>BO MB> 8AA;54>20=85 2K1>@>2 1989 3>40 1K;> =5 548=AB25==K< (A<., =0?@8<5@: 0?? 8 @81K;>2A:89, 1993), 8<5==> 40==CN <>=>3@0D8N <>6=> AG8B0BL  B>G:>9 >BAG5B0 2>7@>645=8O ?>;8B8G5A:>9 @538>=0;8AB8:8 2 >AA88. 06=59H8< A>1KB85<, ?>;>682H5< =0G0;> :0: @538>=0;L=K< ?>;8B8G5A:8< ?@>F5AA0<, B0: 8 8E 8AA;54>20=8O<, AB0;8 2K1>@K <5AB=KE !>25B>2 2 <0@B5 1990 3>40. 0G0;> 45OB5;L=>AB8 =>2KE >@30=>2 2;0AB8, A>?@>2>6402H55AO AB@5<8B5;L=K<8 ?>;8B8G5A:8<8 87<5=5=8O<8, B@51>20;> >A<KA;5=8O, 2 @57C;LB0B5 G53> 8 ?>O28;>AL 1>;LH8=AB2> @01>B 1990-91 3>4>2 ?> ?@>1;5<0< @538>=>2. 0?@8<5@, H8@>:89 ?C1;8G=K9 @57>=0=A ?@8>1@5;8 8AA;54>20=8O ?>8<5==KE 3>;>A>20=89 =0 !J5745 =0@>4=KE 45?CB0B>2 !$! , ?@>2545==K5 .!>1O=8=K< 8 ..@L52K<, :>B>@K5 ?>72>;8;8 2KO28BL B5@@8B>@80;L=CN 48DD5@5=F80F8N 45?CB0BA:>3> :>@?CA0 >AA88 ( ?>;8B8G5A:0O B5<?5@0BC@0 @538>=>2 ) (!>1O=8= 8 .@L52, 1991, 1992). A=>2=>9 <0AA82 @01>B B>3> 2@5<5=8, 2K?>;=5==KE 8 2 &5=B@5, 8 2 @538>=0E <>6=> >E0@0:B5@87>20BL :0: :@09=5 ?>;8B878@>20==K9 0=0;87 A8BC0F88: A53>4=O <=>3>5 87 =0?8A0==>3> 5-6 ;5B =0704 2K3;O48B =>=A5=A>< - => @>;L ?>4>1=>3> @>40 <0B5@80;>2 2 D>@<8@>20=88 A@54K @538>=0;L=>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0 8 2 =0;06820=88 :><<C=8:0F89 <564C ?>;8B8:0<8, 6C@=0;8AB0<8 8 CG5=K<8 1K;0 25AL<0 70<5B=>9. A5 65 > @538>=0;8AB8:5 :0: > A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 AD5@5 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E 8=B5@5A>2 2 B>B ?5@8>4 3>2>@8BL B@C4=>. > :>=F0 1991 3>40 >AA8O 1K;0 G0ABLN !!! , 8 ?@>1;5<K 55 @538>=>2 7=0G8;8 =5A>87<5@8<> <5=LH5, =565;8 2>?@>AK CAB@>9AB20 A0<>3> !!! . 5:>B>@K9 2A?;5A: ?C1;8G=>3> 8=B5@5A0 : ?>;8B8G5A:8< ?@>F5AA0< 2 @538>=0E >AA88 1K; >B<5G5= ;8HL 2 A2O78 A 45OB5;L=>ABLN @538>=0;L=KE 8 <5AB=KE >@30=>2 2;0AB8 2 :@8B8G5A:8E CA;>28OE 023CAB0 1991 3>40 (CBG, 1991).  B> 65 2@5<O 25AL<0 >AB@0O ?>;5<8:0 2>:@C3 2K1>@>2 8;8 =07=0G5=8O 3;02 <5AB=KE 04<8=8AB@0F89 >AB0;0AL 70 ?@545;0<8 >1I5AB25==>3> 2=8<0=8O, E>BO 8<5==> B0:85 M?87>4K @>AA89A:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 8AB>@88 25AL<0 7=0G8<K :0: 4;O @0728B8O >AA88, B0: 8 4;O ?>=8<0=8O @>;8 ?>;8B8G5A:8E 0=0;8B8:>2 2 ?@8=OB88 @5H5=89. 6 A5=BO1@O 1991 3>40 @57848C< 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 !$!  ?@8=O; @5H5=85 > ?@>2545=88 24 =>O1@O 1991 3>40 2K1>@>2 3;02 @538>=0;L=KE 8 <5AB=KE 04<8=8AB@0F89. 4=0:> B>340 2 >:@C65=88 .;LF8=0 >BACBAB2>20;> 548=AB2> 273;O4>2 =0 MBC ?@>1;5<C; 2 G0AB=>AB8, >1;0402H85 =5<0;K< 2;8O=85< .C@1C;8A 8 !.(0E@09 =0AB>O;8 =0 ?@57845=BA:>< 25B> =0 70:>=   2K1>@0E 3;02 04<8=8AB@0F89 . 5 ?>A;54=8< 0@3C<5=B>< 2 40==>9 ?>;5<8:5 AB0;0 0=0;8B8G5A:0O 70?8A:0, ?>43>B>2;5==0O 3@C??>9 .!>1O=8=0 (!>1O=8= 8 4@., 1991), A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 AB>@>==8:8 ;LF8=0 =0 <5AB0E <>3;8 @0AAG8BK20BL =0 CA?5E =5 1>;55 G5< 2 10-12 @538>=0E 8 4>;6=K 1K;8 ?@>83@0BL 2 36. 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"0:8< >1@07><,  F8:; 70<K:05BAO. 0?@>B82, ?> <=5=8N >;>A>20, 87CG5=85 =54>AB0B>G=> B5>@5B8G5A:8 >?8A0==KE D5=><5=>2 (:0:>2K< O2;O5BAO ?>;8B8:0 2 @538>=0E >AA88) <>65B ?@54?>;030BL 0;LB5@=0B82=CN ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL MB0?>2 @0728B8O 8AA;54>20=89.  87CG5=88 @>AA89A:8E @538>=>2 2>7<>65= ?5@5E>4 >B  0B5>@5B8G=KE , AC3C1> >?8A0B5;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89 : <>=>3@0D8G5A:8<  B>;ABK< >?8A0=8O< B5E 8;8 8=KE A;CG052, 70B5< =0ABC?05B G5@54 A@02=8B5;L=> >@85=B8@>20==KE 87CG5=89 >B45;L=KE A;CG052 (comparative-oriented case studies) (Lijphart, 1971, 1975), 40;55 -  A8AB5<0B8G5A:8E A@02=8B5;L=KE 8;;NAB@0F89 (Smelser, 1976), 8, =0:>=5F, <>65B =0ABC?8BL <><5=B, :>340 ?0@0;;5;L=> AD>@<8@>20==K5 ?> E>4C MB>3> @0728B8O <0AA82 40==KE, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 8 :>@?CA B5>@89 - A 4@C3>9, AB0=>2OBAO 4>AB0B>G=K<8 4;O AB0B8AB8G5A:>9 ?@>25@:8. >:0 @0728B85 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 @538>=0;8AB8:8 >AA88 ?>4B25@6405B MBC <>45;L. 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B> 65 2@5<O 4825@A8D8:0F8O @538>=0;L=KE ?>;8B8G5A:8E @568<>2 (5;L<0=, 1998b) AB028B =0 ?>25AB:C 4=O 8AA;54>20=89 2>?@>AK > ?@8G8=0E AE>4AB2 8 @07;8G89 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 2 @538>=0E >AA88. "0:, 8AA;54>20=85  >B:>;=ONI53>AO A;CG0O @0728B8O @538>=0;L=>9 ?0@B89=>9 A8AB5<K 2 !25@4;>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 ?>72>;8;> AD>@<8@>20BL <>45;L  >1CA;>2;5==>3> ?CB8 ?0@B89=>3> @0728B8O 2 @538>=0E >AA88 (5;L<0= 8 >;>A>2, 1998). =0;87 48=0<8:8 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 B@0=AD>@<0F88 2 @538>=0E >AA88 40; >A=>20=8O 2K428=CBL 38?>B57C 2;8O=8O E0@0:B5@0 2KE>40 87 =5>?@545;5==>AB8 =0 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 @538>=0;L=KE ?>;8B8G5A:8E @568<>2 (5;L<0=, 1998A). "5< =5 <5=55, 5I5 ?@54AB>8B ?@>25@8BL M<?8@8G5A:8 MB8 8 4@C385 :>=F5?F88 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : @0AA<>B@5=8N @538>=0;L=KE ?@>F5AA>2 2 >AA88. AA;54>20=8O <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 2 !!!  1K;8 ?>4G8=5=K 845>;>38G5A:8< 7040G0< ACI5AB2>202H53> @568<0. 0@B8=0 <5AB=>3> C?@02;5=8O (=0?><=8<, GB> =0 AC1=0F8>=0;L=>< C@>2=5 ACH5AB2>20;> B>;L:> <5AB=>5 C?@02;5=85) 2 !!! , ?8A02H0OAO >B5G5AB25==K<8 :2078AA;54>20B5;O<8, A?5F80;8AB0<8 ?> A>25BA:><C AB@>8B5;LAB2C, @078B5;L=> >B;8G0;0AL >B 2>AA>740205<>9 2 @0<:0E comparative local government (A<. Humes, 1991). > 2 A2O78 A =5>1E>48<>ABLN 040?B0F88 A8AB5<K <5AB=>3> C?@02;5=8O : =>2K< ?>;8B8G5A:8< CA;>28O< 2 ?5@8>4 ?5@5AB@>9:8 8 ?>AB?5@5AB@>9:8 ?@>8AE>48B 1KAB@>5 @0725@BK20=85 =0CG=KE 48AF8?;8=, >1J5:B>< :>B>@KE B@048F8>==> O2;O5BAO <5AB=>5 C?@02;5=85 8 A0<>C?@02;5=85.  :>=F5 1980-E - =0G0;5 1990-E 3>4>2 CG5=K5 8 3>AC40@AB25==K5 45OB5;8 A>2<5AB=> 8A:0;8 20@80=BK 87<5=5=89 ACI5AB2CNI53> ?>;>65=8O 25I59 ?CB5< A>G5B0=8O >1I5?@8=OBKE 2 <8@>2>9 ?@0:B8:8 N@848G5A:8E =>@< 8 A;>682H59AO ?@0:B8:8. 57C;LB0B>< MB>9 =0CG=>-?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 AB0;> ?>O2;5=85 70:>=>2 !!!  8 !$!  > <5AB=>< A0<>C?@02;5=88. 5<=>3>G8A;5==K5 =0CG=K5 ?C1;8:0F88 70D8:A8@>20;8 E0@0:B5@ 48A:CAA89 8 ?@54AB02;5=8O B>3> 2@5<5=8, A2O70==K5 2 >A=>2=>< A :>=:@5B=K<8 70:>=0<8 8;8 8E >B45;L=K<8 ?>;>65=8O<8. @02>254K, A?5F80;8ABK ?> A>25BA:><C AB@>8B5;LAB2C 8 CAB@>9AB2C <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 2 70?04=KE AB@0=0E, >1;040O 7=0=85< A8AB5<K <5AB=>3> C?@02;5=8O A>25BA:>3> ?5@8>40 8 E>@>H59 B5>@5B8G5A:>9 ?>43>B>2:>9, AC<5;8 0@B8:C;8@>20BL =>2K5 ?>B@51=>AB8 <5AB=>3> C?@02;5=8O, ?>AB0282 2>?@>AK > =5>1E>48<>AB8 >1@5B5=8O =5:>B>@>9 AB5?5=8 >@30=870F8>==>9 8 D8=0=A>2>9 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, ?@54<5B0E 2545=8O 8 :><?5B5=F88 <5AB=KE >@30=>2 2;0AB8, @0745;5=88 ?>;=><>G89 <564C 55 C@>2=O<8 (0@010H52, 1990, 1991; 57C3;>2, 1991; 0A8;L52, 1991; 8;LO<A:89, 1991; >@=85=:>, 1991; >AB>2>9, 1991).  1991-93 3>40E 2 A2O78 A CE>4>< !! A ?>;8B8G5A:>9 AF5=K, @0A?04>< !!!  3;02=K< 2 AD5@5 <5AB=>3> C?@02;5=8O AB0=>28BAO 2>?@>A > =5>1E>48<>AB8 8 2>7<>6=KE ?CBOE @5D>@<K A8AB5<K <5AB=>3> C?@02;5=8O.  MB>B ?5@8>4 107>2K< AB0=>28BAO 0=0;87 70:>=>40B5;LAB20, ?@02>?@8<5=8B5;L=>9 ?@0:B8:8, 2 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8 - ?>;8B8G5A:8E CA;>289 @0728B8O <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O. 0: 8 =0 ?@54K4CI5< MB0?5, ?@>1;5<0B8:0 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O @07@010BK20;0AL, ?@5645 2A53>, 2 @01>B0E ?@02>254>2. 0<5B8;AO ?5@5E>4 >B >1AC645=8O B5:CI53> <><5=B0 8 1;8609H8E ?5@A?5:B82 : ?>AB0=>2:5 1>;55 :>=F5?BC0;L=KE 2>?@>A>2 - > ?@8@>45 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O, > 107>2KE ?@8=F8?0E >@30=870F88 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O (@O6:>2, 1992; 2G8==8:>2, 1992; @>E>@>2 8 0H>, 1992; !;820, 1993; !B@>=G8=0, 1993). 0G8=0NB >1AC640BLAO 2>?@>AK B5>@88 (/:C1>2A:89, 1992; 5;>@0<5=A:89, 1993) 8 8AB>@88 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O (D@5<>20 8 0?B520, 1993), ?>O28;8AL >17>@=K5 1@>HN@K (6052, 1993; 5AB=K5 1993; (;5<8= 8 $04552, 1993). !>>B=>H5=85 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 8 >1I5AB25==>3> =0G0; 2 A8AB5<5 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O ?>AB5?5==> AB0=>2OBAO F5=B@0;L=>9 B5<>9 (0A8;L52, 1993; 0@<>;8F:89, 1993).  MB> 65 2@5<O ?@>8AE>4OB ?5@2K5 ?>?KB:8, 2?8A0BL ?@>F5AA @5>@30=870F88 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 2 >AA88 2 @0<:8 2>AB>G=>52@>?5A:>3> B@0=AD>@<0F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0 (Lysenko, 1993). > E0@0:B5@ 8=AB8BCB0 <5AB=>3> C?@02;5=8O 8 A0<>C?@02;5=8O B0: 8 =5 >?@545;8;AO =8 N@848G5A:8, =8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 2 MB>B ?5@8>4. 7CG5=85 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 2 >AA88 2 MB>B ?5@8>4 1K;> 2> <=>3>< ?>4G8=5=> 7040G0< 70:>=>?@>5:B=>9 8 ;>118ABA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 @07;8G=KE 3@C?? 2 >@30=0E 2;0AB8, A2O70==>9 A ?>43>B>2:>9 70:>=>?@>5:B>2 > <5AB=>< A0<>C?@02;5=88. >A:>;L:C 65 2 >=AB8BCF88 >AA88 1993 3>40 >G5@B0=8O A8AB5<K <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 1K;8 C65 40=K, B> MB> >1AB>OB5;LAB2> 2KABC?0;> 5AB5AB25==K< >3@0=8G5B5;5< B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?>8A:>2.  B> 65 2@5<O >BACBAB285 ;538B8<=KE 45<>:@0B8G5A:8 871@0==KE 8 MDD5:B82=KE >@30=>2 2;0AB8 =0 AC1@538>=0;L=>< C@>2=5, 8=8F80B820 =5:>B>@KE @538>=>2 ?> A0<>AB>OB5;L=><C >1CAB@>9AB2C 2 AD5@5 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O B@51>20;8 A>740=8O @50;8AB8G5A:8E ?>4E>4>2 : @5D>@<5. "0:8< >1@07><, CG5=K5-?@02>254K 1K;8 A A0<>3> =0G0;0 ?>AB02;5=K 2 CA;>28O, :>340 MDD5:B82=>ABL 8E 45OB5;L=>AB8 87<5@O;0AL C<5=85< B>;:>20BL @0A?;K2G0BK5 8 ?@>B82>@5G82K5 ?>;>65=8O >=AB8BCF88 8 8A:0BL D>@<K 8E @50;870F88 2 :>=:@5B=>< 70:>=>?@>5:B5, => ?@8 MB>< A>>B=>A8BL A2>8 ?>8A:8 A ?@0:B8G5A:8<8 =C640<8 C?@02;5=8O. =830 .$045520  C=8F8?0;L=>5 ?@02> >AA88 ($04552, 1994) AB0;0 =081>;55 ?>;=K< 8 C=825@A0;L=K< 22545=85< 2 ?@>1;5<C.  =59 G5@57 ?@87<C N@848G5A:>9 =0C:8 1K;8 @0AA<>B@5=K ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5 ?@>1;5<K >@30=870F88 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O, 2:;NG0O =5:>B>@K5 ?>;8B8G5A:85 ?>4E>4K ($04552, 1994).  1994-96 3>40E ?>O2;ONBAO AB0BL8, ?>A2OI5==K5 ?>;8B8:>-?@02>2><C 0=0;87C ?@>5:B0< 8 70:>=>40B5;L=K< 0:B0< > <5AB=>< A0<>C?@02;5=88 (20:LO=, 1995, 19960, 1996b; >;B5=:>20, 1995; 0A8;L52, 1994a, 1994b, 1996; $04552, 1995; A0520, 1996). KH;8 2 A25B @01>BK :0: >17>@=>3> (0@0=B88, 1994), B0: 8 :>=F5?BC0;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0 ($04552, 1994b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b, 1994c; 1995, 1996). 0CG=K<8 F5=B@0<8 87CG5=8O 8 ?@02>2>3> ?@>5:B8@>20=8O @5D>@<K AB0=>2OBAO =AB8BCB 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020 , =AB8BCB 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 8 A@02=8B5;L=>3> ?@02>2545=8O ?@8 @028B5;LAB25 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. !>740NBAO =>2K5 6C@=0;K ?> <5AB=><C A0<>C?@02;5=8N, 2 G0AB=>AB8, >1=8=A:89  >@>4 . >;8B>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 2 >AA88 2>7=8: A =5:>B>@K< >?>740=85<. >;LH8=AB2> ?>;8B>;>38G5A:8E @07@01>B>: MB>3> ?5@8>40, >ACI5AB2;5==KE :0: ?@02>2540<8, B0: 8 ?>;8B>;>30<8, ;81> =5 >A=>2K20;8AL =0 M<?8@8G5A:8E 40==KE, ;81> =>A8;8 E0@0:B5@  E@>=8:8 A>2@5<5==>AB8 (A<., 2 G0AB=>AB8: D0=0AL52, 1994a; 8;LG5=:>, 19950, 1995b, 1996; 0@G5=:>, 1995; #<=>20, 1994).  @54:8E A;CG0OE ?>;8B8:>-?@02>2>9 0=0;87 ?@52@0I0;AO 2 ?>;8B8:>-?@02>2>9 0=0;87 (Lapteva and Lipman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d).  1997 3>4C 2>?@>A > A>>B=>H5=88 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 8 >1I5AB25==>3> =0G0; 2 <5AB=>< A0<>C?@02;5=88 AB0=>28BAO 2 ?@0:B8G5A:CN ?;>A:>ABL - :B> 8 :0:85 >@30=K 2?@025 CG@5640BL, :0:8< >1@07>< 4>;6=K 1KBL >@30=87>20=K <561N465B=K5 >B=>H5=8O A CG5B>< :>=AB8BCF8>==>3> B@51>20=8O A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 >@30=>2 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 2 ?@545;0E A2>8E ?>;=><>G89, 8 B.4. 0G8=05BAO =>2K9 MB0? @5D>@<K <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O (8;LG5=:> 1997; >@>=8=, 1997) 8 55 =0CG=>3> >A<KA;5=8O, 2:;NG0O 0=0;87 ?>;8B8G5A:8E 8 ?@02>2KE :>=D;8:B>2 2>:@C3 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O - =0?@8<5@,  C4<C@BA:>3> 45;0 2 >=AB8BCF8>==>< !C45 $ ( K65=:>2, 1998). 538>=0;L=0O A?5F8D8:0 @5D>@<K <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O, 70 @54:8< 8A:;NG5=85<, =5 2K720;0 ?>O2;5=8O A>1AB25==> 8AA;54>20=89, ?@>2>48<KE =5?>A@54AB25==> 2 @538>=0E. !?5F80;8ABK, @01>B0NI85 2 ?@>28=F88, ?@54?>G8B0NB 8;8 2K=C645=K 70=8<0BLAO C<>7@8B5;L=>-;>38G5A:8<8 ?>AB@>5=8O<8, 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 8A?>;L7CO <0B5@80; A2>8E @538>=>2 2 :0G5AB25 8;;NAB@0F89 (0@L:8=0, 1993; >;3>2, 1994; >=F5?F8O, 1995), ;81> 0?>;>3859 B5E 8;8 8=KE =515AA?>@=KE @5H5=89 @538>=0;L=>3> @C:>2>4AB20, A2O70==KE A @5D>@<>9 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O (>;C1 8 4@., 1997; =AB8BCF8>=0;L=K5, 1996; 538>=0;L=0O, 1995; $><8=KE, 1997; (0E>2, 1994). <5AB5 A B5< 2 @538>=0E 2KE>48B @O4 CG51=>-?5403>38G5A:8E (!02G5=:> 8 4@., 1997; (C3@8=0, 1995, 19970, 1997b; (C3@8=0 8 4@., 1996; >=40@L 8 '5@=KH52, 1996) 8;8 ?@>5:B=>-<5B>48G5A:8E (O;:8=0, 19960; 1996b) <0B5@80;>2, => >=8, :0: ?@028;>, =5 >?8@0NBAO =0 ?>;8B>;>38G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O. ;02=K< @57C;LB0B>< =K=5H=53> ?5@8>40 8AA;54>20=89 A;54C5B AG8B0BL ?>O2;5=85 @01>B, 2 :>B>@KE ?@54?@8=OBK ?>?KB:8 >1>1I5=8O <0B5@80;0 8 >A<KA;5=85 >?KB0, =0:>?;5==KE =0 ?@54K4CI8E AB048OE. "0:, @O4 @01>B 3>2>@OB > B><, GB> AB0=>2;5=85 <C=8F8?0;L=>3> ?@020 2 @>AA89A:>< ?@02>2545=88 - A25@H82H89AO D0:B (0A8;L52 8 4@., 1997; CB0D8= 8 $04552, 1997; !02@0=A:0O, 1997; 0?B520, 1997; :BC0;L=K5, 1997). >6=> AB0;> 3>2>@8BL 8 > ?@>OA=5=88 ?5@A?5:B82 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 0=0;870 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O (5;L<0=, 1998d; 8B@>E8=, 19970, 1997b; K65=:>2, 1998). 0G0; ?@8>1@5B0BL >A<KA;5==>ABL B@048F8>==K9 4;O >AA88 8AB>@8:>-35=5B8G5A:89 ?>4E>4 : ?@>1;5<0< <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O (1@0<>2, 1997; 5<5=BL52, 1996). >O2;ONBAO =>2K5 =0?@02;5=8O 8AA;54>20=89, 2 G0AB=>AB8, A>F8>;>38O (!B0=>2;5=85, 1997; ">I5=:> 8 &25B:>20, 1997), 8 0:A8>;>38O (>@>4:8=, 1997) <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O.  B> 65 2@5<O =5>1E>48<> :>=AB0B8@>20BL, GB> ?5G0;L=K<8 ?>A;54AB28O<8 3>A?>4AB20 ?@02>254G5A:>3> ?>4E>40 : ?@>1;5<0< <5AB=>3> C?@02;5=8O 2 >AA88 AB0; @07@K2 0=0;870 <C=8F8?0;L=>3> 8 @538>=0;L=>3> C@>2=59 2;0AB8 (2 >B;8G85 >B 0=0;870 @538>=0;L=>3> C?@02;5=8O, 345 1>;LHCN @>;L AK3@0;8 ?>;8B>;>38G5A:85 ?>4E>4K).  B> 65 2@5<O >G5284=>, GB> 2 D545@0B82=>< 3>AC40@AB25 ?>;8B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O ;560B 2 AD5@5 2708<>459AB28O ?> 2>?@>AC > <5AB=>< A0<>C?@02;5=88 @538>=0;L=KE >@30=>2 3>AC40@AB25==>9 2;0AB8 8 >@30=>2 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O, 0 B0:65 D545@0;L=KE 8 @538>=0;L=KE >@30=>2 2;0AB8. @><5 B>3>, A@548 ?@02>254>2 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5= @O4 =5:@8B8G5A:8E 845>;>38G5A:8E ?@54AB02;5=89 > E0@0:B5@5 A>2@5<5==>9 @5D>@<K <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O, 8A?>;L7C5<KE ?@8 >1@0I5=88 : AD5@0<, 2KE>4OI8< 70 @0<:8 :><?5B5=F88 N@848G5A:>9 =0C:8 (A<., =0?@8<5@: >20;5=:> 8 4@., 1997, )5@10:>20 8 3>@>20, 1996).  A>45@60B5;L=>< 8 <5B>4>;>38G5A:>< ?;0=5 @>AA89A:8< 8AA;54>20B5;O< 5I5 B>;L:> ?@54AB>8B =09B8 A>1AB25==K9 ?CBL. !59G0A, 2 CA;>28OE, :>340 ?>GB8 :064>5 :>=:@5B=>5 8AA;54>20=85 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=85 O2;O5BAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 ?8>=5@A:8<, 2>7<>6=>ABL :>@@5:B=KE B5>@5B8G5A:8E >1>1I5=89 25AL<0 =52KA>:0 (E>BO =5>1E>48<>ABL B0:>2KE C65 >G5284=0). > 2A59 2848<>AB8, 2 @57C;LB0B5 G0AB=KE 8AA;54>20=89 8AA;54>20=8O <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 2 >AA88 1C4CB, 25@>OB=>, 2?8A0=K 2 <564C=0@>4=K9 48AF8?;8=0@=K9 AB0=40@B local government studies (Norton, 1994; Batley, 1991; Gunlicks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b, 19970, 8E09;>2, 1998). >AA89A:85 48A:CAA88 ?> ?@>1;5<0< D545@0B82=>3> CAB@>9AB20, =0G8=0O A 1991 3>40 >B;8G0NBAO 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< ?>;8B870F88.  1991-93 3>40E >A=>2=>5 A>45@60=85 MB8E 4510B>2 A>AB02;O;8 ?@>1;5<K A>>B=>H5=8O =0F8>=0;L=>9 8 B5@@8B>@80;L=>9 D>@< D545@0;87<0, A8<<5B@8G=>9 8 0A8<<5B@8G=>9 D545@0F88, 0 B0:65 48709= B5@@8B>@80;L=>3> CAB@>9AB20 3>AC40@AB20. 0?@8<5@, 70:;NG5=85 $545@0B82=>3> 4>3>2>@0 2K720;> : 687=8 @07;8G=K5 ?@>5:BK ?> C<5=LH5=8N G8A;0 AC1J5:B>2 $545@0F88 (2?;>BL 4> 2>;N=B0@8ABA:>3> ?@>5:B0 :>=AB8BCF88 >AA89A:>3> 42865=8O 45<>:@0B8G5A:8E @5D>@<, ?@54?>;0302H53> A2545=85 2A5E B5@@8B>@89 >AA88 : 10-15 75<;O<); MB8 8458 ?>445@6820;8AL, 2 G0AB=>AB8, B>340H=8< 3;02>9 >A:><=0F0 ."8H:>2K< ("8H:>2, 1992). >A;5 1993 3>40 8=B5@5A 8AA;54>20B5;59 A<5AB8;AO 2 AB>@>=C 0=0;870 ?@>1;5< F5=B@0;870F88 8 45F5=B@0;870F88 3>AC40@AB25==>3> CAB@>9AB20 8 @073@0=8G5=8O ?>;=><>G89 <564C $545@0F859 8 55 AC1J5:B0<8. %0@0:B5@=>, GB> ?>;8B8:0 &5=B@0 2 >1;0AB8 D545@0B82=KE >B=>H5=89 2AB@5G0;0 @57:CN :@8B8:C A> AB>@>=K :0: 8AA;54>20B5;59 ;815@0;L=>9 >@85=B0F88, 28452H8E C3@>7C 548=AB2C 3>AC40@AB20 2 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :>=JN=:BC@=>AB8 &5=B@0, AB@5<OI53>AO : @0745;C ?>;=><>G89 2 >1<5= =0 ?>;8B8G5A:CN ;>O;L=>ABL @538>=0;L=KE ;845@>2 (KA5=:>, 19950, 1995b, 1997, 48=0O, 1994, 8E0;520, 1995, '8=0@8E8=0, 1996), B0: 8 AB>@>==8:>2  45@602=>3> ?>4E>40, >701>G5==KE @>AB>< =0F8>=0;87<0 2 @5A?C1;8:0E 8 D@03<5=B0F859 @>AA89A:>9 45@602K (;L8= 8 8< !0= >=, 1997). O4 70?04=KE 02B>@>2, @01>B0NI8E 2 @0<:0E B5>@88 @0F8>=0;L=>3> 2K1>@0, >B<5G0; =5@0F8>=0;L=K9 E0@0:B5@ ?>;8B8:8 &5=B@0 ?> >B=>H5=8N : AC1J5:B0< $545@0F88, GB> ?@82>48;> :0: : A>740=8N :>0;8F89 @5A?C1;8:, 708=B5@5A>20==KE 2 ?@8A2>5=88 @5=BK 1;03>40@O A2>5<C AB0BCAC 8 =0;8G8N @5AC@A>2 (!>;=8:, 19950, 1995b), B0: 8 : C3@>75 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 45AB018;870F88 (@45HC: 8 (52F>20, 1995, Hughes, 1996, Mommen, 1997). !E>4=K5 2K2>4K 45;05B 8 !.8B@>E8=, 0=0;878@CNI89 @0728B85 2 >AA88  85@0@E8G5A:>3> D545@0;87<0 , 2 @0<:0E :>B>@>3> :0: &5=B@, B0: 8 @538>=K ?KB0NBAO <0:A8<878@>20BL A>1AB25==K5 ?>;=><>G8O ?CB5<  B>@30 70 ?5@5@0A?@545;5=85 @5AC@A>2 (8B@>E8=, 1997b).  :0G5AB25 ?@8G8= B0:>3> ?>;>65=8O 45; >B<5G0;8AL :0: 845>;>3878@>20==>ABL ?>;8B8:8 2 >1;0AB8 D545@0B82=KE >B=>H5=89 (!5=0B>20 8 0A8<>2, 1994), B0: 8 A;01>ABL @>AA89A:>3> 3>AC40@AB20, =5 A?>A>1=>3> >15A?5G8BL :>=B@>;L 70 A8BC0F859 2 @538>=0E (C1>2, 1996). ;LB5@=0B82=K9 273;O4 =0 @0728B85 D545@0;87<0 2 >AA88 1K; ?@54;>65= M:>=><8AB>< !.02;5=:>, :>B>@K9 @0AA<0B@820; 2708<>>B=>H5=8O &5=B@0 8 @538>=>2 2 @0<:0E @5?@575=B0F88 >1I5@>AA89A:8E 8 @538>=0;L=KE 3@C?? M:>=><8G5A:8E 8=B5@5A>2 8, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A MB8<, 2KAB@0820; 0=0;87 @538>=0;L=>9 ?>;8B8:8 &5=B@0. 286CI8< :>=D;8:B>< @538>=0;L=>9 ?>;8B8:8 02;5=:> ?>;0305B ?@>B82>AB>O=85 @538>=0;L=KE M;8B 8 >1I5@>AA89A:8E D8=0=A>2>-?@><KH;5==KE 3@C?? 2 1>@L15 70 :>=B@>;L =04 @5AC@A0<8 B5@@8B>@89 (02;5=:>, 1994, 1997).  M2>;NF88 2>77@5=89 =0 ?@>1;5<C @0745;5=8O 2;0AB8 <564C &5=B@>< 8 @538>=0<8 <>6=> 2K45;8BL 425 B5=45=F88: >4=0 87 =8E A2O70=0 A AB@5<;5=85< : <>45;8 A8<<5B@8G=>9 D545@0F88 8 70:>=>40B5;L=>9 ?@>F54C@5 @0745;5=8O :><?5B5=F89 &5=B@0 8 @538>=>2. .KA5=:>, 2>73;02;ONI89 ?>4:><8B5B ?> D545@0B82=K< >B=>H5=8O< 2 >AC<5, 1K; 8=8F80B>@>< ?@8=OB8O 70:>=0 > ?>@O4:5 @073@0=8G5=8O :><?5B5=F88 <564C $545@0F859 8 55 AC1J5:B0<8 (KA5=:>, 1995b, 19970, $545@0;87<, 19970), 0 B0:65 ?>;030; 4>?CAB8<K< M;5<5=BK D545@0;L=>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 (=5 2 A8;>2KE D>@<0E) 4;O >15A?5G5=8O :>=AB8BCF8>==>9 70:>==>AB8 2 @538>=0E. !>1AB25==CN ?@>3@0<<C D545@0B82=KE >B=>H5=89 8 @538>=0;L=>9 ?>;8B8:8 ?>4 =0720=85<  538>=0;L=0O AB@0B538O 4;O >AA88 (82H8F 8 4@., 1994) 2K428=C;8 8 ?@57845=BA:85 0=0;8B8:8. 7;>65==K5 2 =59 273;O4K =0 ?>;8B8G5A:>5 CAB@>9AB2> @538>=>2 2 >A=>2=>< 1;87:8 ?>78F88 .KA5=:>, => 2 =8E 1>;LH55 2=8<0=85 >B2>48BAO 0=0;87C 2>7<>6=>9 @>;8 @57845=B0 :0: ?>A@54=8:0 2> 2708<>459AB288 &5=B@0 A @538>=0<8 8 <56@538>=0;L=KE >B=>H5=89 (MB>B B578A ?@54AB02;O5BAO 25AL<0 A><=8B5;L=K<, B0: :0: O2=> ?@>B82>@5G8B @>AA89A:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:5). !>3;0A=> 4@C3>9 B>G:5 7@5=8O, ?>?C;O@=>9 C ?@54AB028B5;59 @538>=0;L=KE M;8B (A<., =0?@8<5@: $545@0;87<, 1993, 1994, %0:8<>2, 1997), <=>3>>1@0785 >A>15==>AB59 @>AA89A:8E @538>=>2 =5 ?>4405BAO A8AB5<0B870F88, 8 548=AB25==K9 ?CBL =0;048BL 2708<>>B=>H5=8O &5=B@0 A :064K< 87 =8E A2O70= A ?@54>AB02;5=85< 8=48284C0;L=KE ?>;=><>G89 (">I5=:>, 1997).  70?04=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 B0:>9 ?>4E>4 =>A8B =0720=85  D>@0;8AB8G5A:89 D545@0;87< (-;5975@, 1995, A<. 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(1996). >3>2>@ :0: A?>A>1 @073@0=8G5=8O ?>;=><>G89 8 ?@54<5B>2 2545=8O <564C AC1J5:B0<8 D545@0B82=KE >B=>H5=89 2 >AA88. ;0ABL, N9, !.20-25. '8@:8= . (1995). !>2@5<5==K9 D545@0;87<: A@02=8B5;L=K9 0=0;87. .:  . '8@:8= . (1997). !>2@5<5==>5 D545@0B82=>5 3>AC40@AB2>. : 740B5;LAB2> . '8G5@8= . (1903). >?@>AK ?>;8B8:8. !1. (01C=8= . (1997). !B0=>2;5=85 3>AC40@AB25==>AB8 8 :>=AB8BCF8>==K9 ?@>F5AA 2 'C20HA:>9 5A?C1;8:5 2 80-5 - 90-5 33.  0 ?CBOE ?>;8B8G5A:>9 B@0=AD>@<0F88 (?>;8B8G5A:85 ?0@B88 8 ?>;8B8G5A:85 M;8BK ?>ABA>25BA:>3> ?5@8>40). .: $, K?CA: 8, '0ABL 1, !.158-176. (0B8;>2 . 8 .5G052 (19970). C15@=0B>@A:85 2K1>@K 1996 3>40: ?@>3=>7K 8 @50;88. @54AB028B5;L=0O 2;0ABL, N2-3, !.5-11. (0B8;>2 . 8 .5G052 (1997b). 538>=0;L=K5 2K1>@K. !2>1>4=0O <KA;L, N6, !.58-69. (0E>2 (. (1994). 5AB=>5 A0<>C?@02;5=85 :0: >4=0 87 D>@< >1CAB@>9AB20 =0@>4>2 $. 538>=>;>38O, N4. (8@>:>2 . (1996). $545@0;L=>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> >AA88 > <5AB=>< A0<>C?@02;5=88. . (8?>2 . 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A2O78 A C?><8=0=85< MB>3> 8740=8O, 2 F5=B@5 2=8<0=8O :>B>@>3> =0E>4OBAO ?@>1;5<K <5=546<5=B0 <5AB=>3> A0<>C?@02;5=8O 8 <C=8F8?0;L=>3> (3>@>4A:>3>) @0728B8O, A;54C5B A?5F80;L=> >3>2>@8BL, GB> <K =5 2:;NG05< 2 >17>@ =0?@02;5=8O, @072820NI85AO 2 B@048F88 Public administration, Urban politics, Organisation theory, 8AA;54>20=89  B@5BL53> A5:B>@0 8 B.4.   1995 3>4C $ 2K45;8; 2 3@0=B0 ?> ?>;8B8G5A:>9 @538>=0;8AB8:5 (1 - >A:20, 1 - 0;8=8=3@04), 2 1996 3>4C - 4 3@0=B0 (3 - >A:20, 1 - ;0482>AB>:, 1 - ;048:02:07), 2 1997 3>4C - 3 3@0=B0 (!0=:B-5B5@1C@3, 5<5@>2>, /@>A;02;L). !<. 5AB=8: $, 1995, N1; 1996, N2, 1997, N2.  7 >B25B>2 .03><54>20 =0 2>?@>AK CG0AB=8:>2 A5<8=0@0 8653>@>4A:>3> 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>3> D>=40  538>=0;L=K5 M;8BK 2 A>2@5<5==>9 >AA88: 48=0<8:0 8 B5=45=F88 (86=89 >23>@>4, 29.IX.1995).  7 2KABC?;5=8O .0;;O<>20 =0 A5<8=0@5  >2K5 ?>;8B8G5A:85 M;8BK 8 ?>;8B8G5A:85 8=AB8BCBK 2 ! (>23>@>4, 25-30.I.1996).  !<.: >8A:, 1994, !12-13, !23; 1995, !12, !29-30; 1996, !15, !29. 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