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A>1CN B@52>3C 2K7K205B A>F80;L=> >1CA;>2;5==K9 @>AB ?> A@02=5=8N A 1990 3. 701>;520=89 BC15@:C;57>< - 2 1,7 @070, A8D8;8A>< - 2 40 @07, =0@:><0=859 - 2 5 @07, 0;:>3>;L=K< ?A8E>7>< 2 - 5 @07, >B@02;5=89 - 2 2 @070. 0G0;>AL 1KAB@>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 M?845<88 !0, G8A;> 65@B2 :>B>@>3> B>;L:> 70 1996 3>4 C25;8G8;>AL 2 8 @07 8 ?@>4>;605B @0AB8 B5<8 65 B5<?0<8 [5].  1997 3. G8A;> 2=>2L 2KO2;5==KE A;CG052 '-8=D5:F88 2K@>A;> 2 3 @070 ?> A@02=5=8N A 1996 3. 8 2 1,6 @07 ?@52KA8;> G8A;> A;CG052 '-8=D5:F88, 2KO2;5==KE 70 25AL ?@54K4CI89 45AOB8;5B=89 ?5@8>4 [7,8]. 5 2K7K205B A><=5=89, GB> B5=45=F88 45?>?C;OF88 8 2K@>645=8O A2O70=K A @57:8< A=865=85< 4>E>4>2 =0A5;5=8O, 0 B0:65 A> A25@BK20=85< A8AB5<K A>F80;L=KE 30@0=B89 =0A5;5=8N 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?@>2>482H59AO M:>=><8G5A:>9 ?>;8B8:8. > 40==K< >A:><AB0B0, @50;L=K5 45=56=K5 4>E>4K =0A5;5=8O 70 1992-1996 33. A=878;8AL ?@8<5@=> =0 43% (2 G0AB=>AB8, @50;L=0O 70@?;0B0 - =0 52%, ?5=A88 - =0 45%). >;55 30 <;=. 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(40;55 - 2B>@>5), :>B>@K5 ACI5AB25==> CA8;OB 2=5H=NN 7028A8<>ABL >AA88 ?@8 40;L=59H5< >A;01;5=88 55 M:>=><8:8 [40, 41]. 081>;55 ACI5AB25==K5 87 2K7K20NI8E B@52>3C 8 =54>C<5=85 ?>;>65=89 0O2;5=89 ?@028B5;LAB20 8 &5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0 :0A0;8AL 2>?@>A>2 2=5H=59 B>@3>2;8, 45=56=>-:@548B=>9 ?>;8B8:8, 8A?>;=5=8O 1N465B0 8 ?@820B870F88 3>AC40@AB25==>9 A>1AB25==>AB8. > MB8< :;NG52K< =0?@02;5=8O< M:>=><8G5A:>9 ?>;8B8:8 2 4>:C<5=B0E ?@54CA<0B@820;8AL <5@K, ?@>B82>@5G82H85 =5 B>;L:> 70O2;5=8O< ?@028B5;LAB20, => 8 459AB2CNI8< 2 >AA88 70:>=0<, A5@L57=> @0AE>482H85AO A =0F8>=0;L=K<8 8=B5@5A0<8 AB@0=K 8 70O2;5==>9 @57845=B>< ?>;8B8:>9 M:>=><8G5A:>3> @>AB0. "0:, 2 G0AB8 2=5H=5B>@3>2>9 ?>;8B8:8 2 ?5@2>< 70O2;5=88 :>=AB0B8@>20;>AL: " B5G5=85 1998 3>40 @028B5;LAB2> >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 =0<5@5=> @072820BL CA?5E8, 4>AB83=CBK5 2 A>740=88 @568<0 >B:@KB>9 B>@3>2;8, 8 2>745@6820BLAO >B ?@8=OB8O ?@>B5:F8>=8ABA:8E <5@. @028B5;LAB2> >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 =5 1C45B >ACI5AB2;OBL >1I55 ?>2KH5=85 22>7=KE ?>H;8= 8 2 F5;>< =5 1C45B 22>48BL =8:0:85 >3@0=8G5=8O =0 8<?>@B 8;8 M:A?>@B... > 31 45:01@O 1998 3>40 1C4CB A=865=K 4> 20 ?@>F5=B>2 AB02:8 22>7=KE ?>H;8= =5 <5=55 G5< =0 >4=C B@5BL B>20@>2, : :>B>@K< 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O ?@8<5=O5BAO ?>H;8=0 2 @07<5@5 30 ?@>F5=B>2..." [40, A. 14]. 15I0=85 ?@028B5;LAB20 =5 22>48BL :>;8G5AB25==KE >3@0=8G5=89 =0 8<?>@B 8 M:A?>@B >7=0G05B, GB> ?>;>65=8O ?@8=OB>3> =5402=> $545@0;L=K< !>1@0=85< 8 ?>4?8A0==>3> @57845=B>< $545@0;L=>3> 70:>=0 " <5@0E ?> 70I8B5 M:>=><8G5A:8E 8=B5@5A>2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 ?@8 >ACI5AB2;5=88 2=5H=59 B>@3>2;8 B>20@0<8" =5 1C4CB ?@8<5=5=K =0 ?@0:B8:5. "5< A0<K< ?@028B5;LAB2> C:;>=O5BAO >B 8A?>;=5=8O 70:>=>40B5;L=> CAB0=>2;5==KE >1O70B5;LAB2 ?@028B5;LAB20 ?> 70I8B5 >B@0A;59 @>AA89A:>9 M:>=><8:8 8 >B45;L=KE E>7O9AB2CNI8E AC1J5:B>2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 >B =51;03>?@8OB=>3> 2>7459AB28O 8=>AB@0==>9 :>=:C@5=F88, >15A?5G5=8N CA;>289 4;O MDD5:B82=>9 8=B53@0F88 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 2 <8@>2CN M:>=><8:C [43].  ?5@2>< 0O2;5=88 2 04@5A $ ?@028B5;LAB2> ?@O<> ?8H5B, GB> "2 F5;>< =5 =0<5@5=> 22>48BL :>;8G5AB25==K5 <5@K, ?@54CA<>B@5==K5 C:070==K< 70:>=><" [40, A.14]. 5 A>18@05BAO ?@028B5;LAB2> 2K?>;=OBL 8 CAB0=>2;5==CN 4@C38< 70:>=>< =>@<C > :>;8G5AB25==>< >3@0=8G5=88 8<?>@B0 0;:>3>;O.  70O2;5=88 A:070=>, GB> "...1C45B ?@>2545= BI0B5;L=K9 0=0;87 A8AB5<K ;8F5=78@>20=8O 8<?>@B0 2>4:8 8 MB8;>2>3> A?8@B0 A F5;LN 55 C?>@O4>G5=8O B0:8< >1@07><, GB>1K >15A?5G8BL 02B><0B8G5A:>5 ?>;CG5=85 ?@020 =0 8<?>@B ?>A;5 C?;0BK 8<?>@B5@0<8 020=A>2KE ?;0B5659 ?> 8<?>@B=K< ?>H;8=0<" [40, A. 14]. 0<5B8<, GB> 70:>= " <5@0E ?> 70I8B5 M:>=><8G5A:8E 8=B5@5A>2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 ?@8 >ACI5AB2;5=88 2=5H=59 B>@3>2;8 B>20@0<8", ?>;=>ABLN A>>B25BAB2C5B ?@028;0< A5<8@=>9 B>@3>2>9 >@30=870F88 (") 8 >1I5<8@>2>9 ?@0:B8:5 70I8BK =0F8>=0;L=KE 8=B5@5A>2 2> 2=5H=59 B>@3>2;5. @0:B8G5A:8 2A5 @0728BK5 AB@0=K MB8 <5@K ?@8<5=ONB 2 F5;OE 70I8BK A2>8E B>20@>?@>872>48B5;59 >B =54>1@>A>25AB=>9 :>=:C@5=F88. >AA89A:><C 65 <0@8>=5B>G=><C ?@028B5;LAB2C 70I8I0BL @K=>: 70?@5I0NB, =5A<>B@O =0 53> GC4>28I=CN 703@O7=5==>ABL 8<?>@B=K< D0;LA8D8:0B><. > 40==K< @>4>2>;LAB25==>9 :><8AA88 , =5:>B>@K5 70?04=K5 D8@<K @0AH8@ONB ?@>872>4AB2> 8 M:A?>@B 2 >AA8N =5 B>;L:> M:>;>38G5A:8 >?0A=KE, => 8 ?@O<> 70?@5I5==KE : ?>B@51;5=8N 2 @0728BKE AB@0=0E ?@>4>2>;LAB25==KE ?@>4C:B>2.  MB>9 :0B53>@88 B>20@>2 >B=>A8BAO ?@8<5@=> 80% ?@>4C:B>2 ?8B0=8O, A830@5B, =0?8B:>2, 8<?>@B8@C5<KE =0<8 87 AB@0= !525@=>9 <5@8:8 8 0?04=>9 2@>?K. "0:, 2 1995 3>4C 87 ?@>25@5==KE 8<?>@B=KE B>20@>2 701@0:>20=> :>;10A=KE 8745;89 8 ?>;CD01@8:0B>2 <OA=KE - 58%, :>=A5@2>2 @07=KE 284>2 - 57%, <0A;0 - 36%, 0;:>3>;L=>9 8 1570;:>3>;L=>9 ?@>4C:F88 - 55%, GB> ?>GB8 2 420 @070 1>;LH5 2K1@0:>2>: 8<?>@B0 2 1994 3>4C. > <=5=8N A?5F80;8AB>2, >B C?>B@51;5=8O =5:0G5AB25==>9 ?@>4C:F88 70 MB>B 3>4 2 >AA88 ?>381;> 1>;55 43 BKAOG G5;>25:. 0==0O B5=45=F8O A>E@0=8;0AL 8 2 1996 3., :>340 2K1@0:>2:0 ?@>4C:F88, =5 >B25G0NI59 B@51>20=8O< 157>?0A=>AB8, ?>GB8 2 420 @070 ?@52KA8;0 C@>25=L 1995 3. [50, A. 21, 22]. N1>?KB=>, GB> @53C;8@>20=85 <564C=0@>4=>9 B>@3>2;8 =5 2E>48B 2 ?@5@>30B82C $, MB> AD5@0 45OB5;L=>AB8 4@C3>9 <564C=0@>4=>9 >@30=870F88 - ", A :>B>@>9 254CBAO ?5@53>2>@K >1 CA;>28OE ?@8A>548=5=8O : =59 >AA88. >;CG05BAO, GB> $ O2=> 2KE>48B 70 ?@545;K A2>8E ?>;=><>G89, A2O70==KE 3;02=K< >1@07>< A D8=0=A>2>-1N465B=>9 AD5@>9, D0:B8G5A:8 2K?>;=OO @>;L :>;>=80;L=>9 04<8=8AB@0F88, ?@54?8AK20NI59 <0@8>=5B>G=><C ?@028B5;LAB2C ?@>872>;L=K5 B@51>20=8O 2 8=B5@5A0E <564C=0@>4=>3> :0?8B0;0.  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A>AB>O=88 70:>==>AB8 2 AD5@5 ?@820B870F88 3>AC40@AB25==>9 A>1AB25==>AB8. - 5=5@0;L=0O ?@>:C@0BC@0 $. - 1997. - 24 0?@5;O;  A>AB>O=88 70:>==>AB8 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@820B870F88 3>AC40@AB25==>9 A>1AB25==>AB8. - 5=5@0;L=0O ?@>:C@0BC@0 $. - 1996. - 26 45:01@O;  A>AB>O=88 8A?>;=5=8O 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 2 AD5@5 ?@820B870F88 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 8<CI5AB20 2 $$. - 5=5@0;L=0O ?@>:C@0BC@0 $. - 1998. - 26 O=20@O. 26. !>AB>O=85 70:>==>AB8 2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 (1996 - 1997 3>4K). - >:;04 0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>3> 8=AB8BCB0 ?@>1;5< C:@5?;5=8O 70:>==>AB8 8 ?@02>@>@O4:0 ?@8 5=5@0;L=>9 ?@>:C@0BC@5 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. - ., 1998. 27. ;07L52 !... 0 :@8B8G5A:>9 G5@B>9. ( :>=F5?F88 <0:@>M:>=><8G5A:>9 ?>;8B8:8 2 A25B5 >15A?5G5=8O M:>=><8G5A:>9 157>?0A=>AB8 AB@0=K). - .: >AA89A:89 M:>=><8G5A:89 6C@=0;, 1996. 28. 8=>2L52 . CAA:89 M:A?5@8<5=B. - . : 0H 4>< - D'age d'Homme, 1995. 29. (259F5@ . >1540: @>;L B09=>9 AB@0B5388 04<8=8AB@0F88 !( 2 @0A?045 !>25BA:>3> !>N70 8 A>F80;8AB8G5A:>3> ;035@O. - 8=A:: ! 25AB, 1995. 30. 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Long Waves, Depression and Innovation // Economist. - 1986. N 1. 61. (C<?5B5@ . "5>@8O M:>=><8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. - .: @>3@5AA, 1982. 62. Glaziev S., arirnov I., uznetzova I. Innovation Activity of Industrial Enterprises in Russia. - IIASA, 1996. 63. =25AB8F88 8 A>AB>O=85 >A=>2=KE D>=4>2 2 ?@><KH;5==>AB8. - .: &5=B@ M:>=><8G5A:>9 :>=JN=:BC@K ?@8 @028B5;LAB25 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88, 1996. 64. 1 8=25AB8F8OE 2 M:>=><8:C >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 2 1995 3>4C 8 I ?>;C3>488 1996 3>40. - .: >AC40@AB25==K9 :><8B5B >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 ?> AB0B8AB8:5, 1996. 65. >3>2 !.. =5H=85 C3@>7K 8 2>5==K9 D0:B>@. - .: =AB8BCB !( 8 0=04K , 1996. 66. -:>=><8G5A:85 GC45A0: C@>:8 4;O >AA88 / 1I. @54. .. 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