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Palazzoli et al., 1980) > 2@5<O 70:;NG5=8O ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> :>=B@0:B0 ?A8E>;>3 >1@0B8;0 2=8<0=85 A5<L8 =0 2KH5?5@5G8A;5==K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20:  / =5 15@CAL A45;0BL B0:, GB>1K 0BO ?5@5AB0;0 E>B5BL 1KBL >;59. =5 :065BAO, GB> MB> >48= <0;5=L:89 D@03<5=B >1I59 :0@B8=K >A>15==>AB59 20H53> A5<59=>3> >1I5=8O. / <>3;0 1K 2<5AB5 A 20<8 ?>@01>B0BL =04 AB8;5< 20H53> A5<59=>3> 2708<>459AB28O. A;8 1K 2A5 B5?;K5 GC2AB20, :>B>@K5 5ABL C 20A 4@C3 : 4@C3C, 2A5 =0?@O65=8O 8 >184K ;53:> 8 157>?0A=> 2K@060;8AL, 20< 2A5< 1K;> 1K ;53G5 ?>=8<0BL 4@C3 4@C30. >340 C;CGH8BAO 20H :>=B0:B, 0BO, 2>7<>6=>, C2848B ?@58<CI5AB20 65=A:>9 @>;8. 9 ;53G5 1C45B =0E>48BL >1I89 O7K: 2 H:>;5. 0 MB>< D>=5 MDD5:B82=55 1C45B @01>B0 A :>=:@5B=K<8 0B8=K<8 A;>6=>ABO<8, 5A;8 >=8 >AB0=CBAO. / ?>;030N, GB> 4;O @5H5=8O MB>9 7040G8 =0< ?>B@51C5BAO 4;O =0G0;0 =5 <5=LH5 G5BK@5E <5AOF52 @01>BK . "0:8< >1@07><, 70?@>A  ><>38B5 =0H5<C @515=:C 1K; ?5@5D>@<C;8@>20= :0: ?><>IL 2A59 A5<L5. >340 @>48B5;8 8 0BO A>3;0A8;8AL ?>9B8 ?> ?@54;>65==><C ?CB8, A =8<8 >1AC48;8 G0AB>BC 2878B>2, 2@5<O 8 45=L ?@8E>40, @07<5@ >?;0BK. 5. @54?8A0=85. -B> ?>A;54=89 MB0? ?5@28G=>3> ?@85<0, :>340 A5<L5 ?@54;0305BAO ?@O<>5 8;8 ?0@04>:A0;L=>5 ?@54?8A0=85 ?>2545=G5A:>3> @8BC0;0, :>B>@K9 >=8 4>;6=K 2K?>;=OBL 2 B5G5=85 2@5<5=8 4> A;54CNI53> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> A50=A0. 5@54:> ?@54?8A0=85 405BAO A5<L5 2 ?8AL<5==>< 2845 4;O 8A:;NG5=8O MDD5:B0  8A?>@G5==>3> B5;5D>=0 . 0 ?>A;54CNI8E 2AB@5G0E A ?><>ILN 2KH5>?8A0==KE B5E=8: @01>BK A A5<L59 >1AC640NBAO A>1KB8O, ?@>H54H85 <564C 2AB@5G0<8, >A>15==>AB8 2K?>;=5=8O ?@54?8A0=89, ?@>H;K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, 45BA:85 2>A?><8=0=8O 27@>A;KE G;5=>2 A5<L8, ?@028;0, <8DK, A5<59=0O 8AB>@8O, AB5@5>B8?K >1I5=8O 8 <=>3>5 4@C3>5. >340 8 :0: 70:0=G820BL @01>BC A A5<L59 -B> >48= 87 A0<KE A;>6=KE 2>?@>A>2 ;N1>3> ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> ?>4E>40, =5 B>;L:> A8AB5<=>9 A5<59=>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88.  >1I5< 2845 >B25B B0:>9: A5<59=0O A8AB5<0 4>;6=0 AB0BL DC=:F8>=0;L=>9. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> A5<LO AB0=>28BAO A?>A>1=>9 @5H0BL 687=5==K5 ?@>1;5<K. 0?@8<5@, A5<LO, A>AB>OI0O 87 B@5E ?>:>;5=89 >48=>:8E 65=I8=-0;:>3>;8:>2, AB0;0 DC=:F8>=0;L=>9, :>340 65=I8=K 1@>A8;8 ?8BL, AB0;8 @53C;O@=> ?>A5I0BL 70=OB8O 3@C??K 0=>=8<=KE 0;:>3>;8:>2, <;04H0O  ABC45=B:0  2>AAB0=>28;0AL 2 2C75, AB0@H85 65=I8=K AB0;8 @01>B0BL. AG57=>25=85 A8<?B><0, 2>7=8:=>25=85 2=CB@5==53> >ICI5=8O C4>2;5B2>@5=8O, @04>AB8 687=8 =5 O2;ONBAO =5>1E>48<K<8 ?@87=0:0<8 B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> MDD5:B0 2 MB>< ?>4E>45. 5>1E>48<K9 8 4>AB0B>G=K9 ?@87=0:  2=5H=85 ?>2545=G5A:85 87<5=5=8O. !5<LO, 60;>202H0OAO =0 45?@5AA8N >BF0, AB0;0 DC=:F8>=0;L=>9 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: >B5F, =5A<>B@O =0 A2>5 A>AB>O=85, 25@=C;AO : @01>B5, 65=0, :>B>@0O ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 70=8<0;0AL B>;L:> <C65<, AB0;0 C45;OBL 2@5<O 8 4>G5@8. 0;>1K =0 45?@5AA8N ?@8 MB>< >AB0;8AL, => 45?@5AA8O ?5@5AB0;0 8A?>;L7>20BLAO A8AB5<>9. 5?@5AA8O AB0;0 ;8G=K< 45;>< >BF0, 0 =5 7=0:>< >1I59 154K, 48=0<8:0 53> A>AB>O=8O ?5@5AB0;0 2?@O<CN >?@545;OBLAO A5<59=K<8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8, ?>2545=85< 65=K 8 4>G5@8. 0 MB>< D>=5 <548:0<5=B>7=>5 ;5G5=85 40;> 1KAB@K9 MDD5:B, 8 2 B5G5=85 42CE ;5B 45?@5AA8O =5 2>72@0I0;0AL, E>BO @0=LH5, =5A<>B@O =0 <0AA82=>5 ;5G5=85, A5<LO C7=020;0 > B><, GB> =0ABC?8;0 >A5=L 8;8 25A=0, ?> A>AB>O=8N >BF0. 81;8>3@0D8O 8=CE8= !., $8H<0= '. 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