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(!0<0 2>7<>6=>ABL ACI5AB2>20=8O 2 @0<:0E >4=>9 8 B>9 65 >1J5:B82=>9 A8BC0F88 @07;8G=KE 2>A?@8=8<05<KE A8BC0F89, O2;O5BAO ?>4B25@645=85< AC1J5:B82=>3> E0@0:B5@0 >?@545;5=8O A8BC0F88.) @8<5=8B5;L=> : :>=D;8:B0< MB> >7=0G05B, GB> <>3CB 1KBL 2K45;5=K B0:85 G5;>25G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 ;N459, :>B>@K5 ?@82>4OB : B><C, GB> ;N48 A:;>==K 2>A?@8=8<0BL B5 8;8 8=K5 A8BC0F88 A2>53> 2708<>459AB28O A  3 Argyle M, Furham A, Graham J, Social Situations. C., 1981, - P. 111-112 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8 :0: :>=D;8:B=K5. >4>1=>5 O2;5=85 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : 0=0;87C 03@5AA88 .. 50= A2O7K205B A A>F80;L=>-?5@A5?B82=K< :><?>=5=B>< 03@5AA82=>AB8, :>B>@K9, A 53> B>G:8 7@5=8O, 70:;NG05BAO 2 3>B>2=>AB8 2>A?@8=8<0BL 8 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL ?>2545=85 4@C3>3> :0: 2@06451=>5.  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( ?@>B82>25A M:AB5@=0;0<  =5C25@5==K< 2 A515, =C640NI8<AO 2 ?>>I@5=8OE, 1>;57=5==> @5038@CNI8E =0 ?>@8F0=8O, ?>;030NI8EAO =0 A;CG09, =0 AC4L1C).5  8AA;54>20=8OE . %>@>28F0 8 53> :>;;53 @5A?>=45=B0< ?@54;030;8AL CA?5H=K5 8 =5CA?5H=K5 A8BC0F88 (=0?@8<5@, 2K ?>A5B8;8 25G5@ 4;O ?5@2>:C@A=8:>2, => 20< =5 C40;>AL 7025AB8 =>2KE 4@C759) 8 ?5@5G5=L 2>7<>6=KE ?@8G8=, >1JOA=ONI8E 8E CA?5H=>ABL 8;8 =5CA?5H=>ABL. >;CG5==K5 @57C;LB0BK ?>:070;8, GB> >48=>:85 ;N48 AG8B0NB A51O <5=55 A?>A>1=K<8 : <56;8G=>AB=><C >1I5=8N: 5A;8 =5>48=>:85 ;N48 A:;>==K 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL A;CG0NI85AO =5C40G8 2@5<5==K<8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8, B> >48=>:85 >1JOA=O;8 8E A>1AB25==>9 =5A?>A>1=>ABLN : >1I5=8N, AG8B0;8, GB> ?@8;030BL CA8;8O 2 ?>4>1=KE A8BC0F8OE 15A?>;57=>. 5B@C4=> ?@>3=>78@>20BL, GB> ?>4>1=K9 AB8;L >1JOA=5=8O A2>8E >B=>H5=89 A 4@C38<8  4 50= .., >;><8=A:89 /. . !>F80;L=0O ?5403>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. !.1., 1998. - !. 37 5 8B052-!<K:, 1983 <>65B ?@82>48BL G5;>25:0 : 871530=8N A8BC0F89 <56;8G=>AB=>3> :>=B0:B0. 0 >A=>20=88 MB>3> 02B>@K 45;0NB 2K2>4, GB> ?>4>1=0O A0<>87>;OF8O ;8H05B 53> 2>7<>6=>AB8 @0728B8O =02K:>2 >1I5=8O, GB> >?OBL 65 2545B : =5C40G0<, : 5I5 1>;55 =530B82=K< A0<>>F5=:0< 8 5I5 1>;LH5<C >BGC645=8N. -B>B ?@8<5@ 8;;NAB@8@C5B =0;8G85 C ;N459 8<?;8F8B=KE :>=F5?F89, ;560I8E 2 >A=>25 8E 8=B5@?@5B0F89 A>F80;L=>3> 2708<>459AB28O A 4@C38<8. >6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> C =5:>B>@KE ;N459 MB8 :>=F5?F88 >A=>2K20NBAO =0 ?@54AB02;5=8OE, =5 ?>72>;ONI8E 8< 4>25@OBL 4@C38< 8 @072820BL ?0@B=5@A:85 >B=>H5=8O A >:@C60NI8<8.  @01>B5 #. ;0@0 8 53> :>;;53 ?@>1;5<0 8718@0B5;L=>3> 2>A?@8OB8O A8BC0F88 @0AA<0B@8205BAO A B>G:8 7@5=8O =0;8G8O 8 4>ABC?=>AB8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E :>3=8B82=KE AE5<. !E5<K <>3CB ?@8ACBAB2>20BL 8;8 >BACBAB2>20BL 2 GL5<-B> 8=48284C0;L=>< @5?5@BC0@5, 0 4>ABC?=>ABL >?@545;O5BAO 3>B>2=>ABLN, A :>B>@>9 40==0O AE5<0 ?@8<5=O5BAO. 2B>@K ?@82>4OB 8725AB=K5 40==K5, GB> ;N48, >F5=820NI85 A51O :0: A>@52=>20B5;59, G0I5, G5< :>>?5@0B>@K 8<5NB B5=45=F8N @0AA<0B@820BL =57=0:><K5 ;01>@0B>@=K5 83@K :0: 83@K A> AB@>38< A>?5@=8G5AB2>< (A =C;52>9 AC<<>9); >=8, A>>B25BAB25==>, G0I5 1C4CB 45<>=AB@8@>20BL A>?5@=8G0NI55 ?>2545=85. > <=5=8N 8AA;54>20B5;59, MB8 40==K5 <>3CB 1KBL >1JOA=5=K A B>G:8 7@5=8O 4>ABC?=>AB8 AE5<K: AE5<0 AB@>3>3> A>?5@=8G5AB20 (=5A>2<5AB8<>AB8 F5;59) 1>;55 4>ABC?=0 A>@52=>20B5;O< 8 ?>B><C 55 ?@>O2;5=85 2 =>2>9 A8BC0F88 1>;55 25@>OB=>.6 ><8<> A>@52=>20B5;L=KE ACI5AB2CNB 8 4@C385 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ;8G=>AB8, ?@82>4OI85 G5;>25:0 : >?@545;5=8N 2=5H=59 A8BC0F88 :0: :>=D;8:B=>9. 1K45==>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > :>=D;8:B=>9 ;8G=>AB8 A2O70=> A G5;>25:><, :>B>@K9 G0I5 4@C38E >:07K205BAO CG0AB=8:>< :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F89, B.5. >1;0405B ?>2KH5==>9 A:;>==>ABLN : 2>A?@8OB8N A8BC0F89 :0: :>=D;8:B=KE 8;8 :>=D;8:B=><C @5038@>20=8N =0 B5 8;8 8=K5 2=5H=85  6 Klar Y., Bar-Tal D., Kruglanski A., 1988. >1AB>OB5;LAB20. @8<5@K =0CG=>3> >?8A0=8O CAB>9G82KE ;8G=>AB=KE B5=45=F89 : B><C 8;8 8=><C B8?C A>F80;L=>3> ?>2545=8O <>6=> =09B8 2 @01>B0E ?A8E>;>3>2, BO3>B5NI8E : ?>8A:C ;8G=>AB=KE B8?>2.  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Klar Y., Bar-Tal D., Kruglanski A., 19883. %>@=8 . 52@>B8G5A:0O ;8G=>ABL =0H53> 2@5<5=8. !0<>0=0;87. ., 19933. A8E>0=0;87. >?C;O@=0O M=F8:;>?548O =.@54. .!. C@528G ., 19983. 095@A . !>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. !.1., 19973. >;><8=A:89 /.., 87=52A:89 .. !>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 :>=D;8:B>2 <564C 45BL<8 2 83@>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 19903. -945<8;;5@ -.., .AB8F:8A . A8E>;>38O 8 ?A8E>B5@0?8O A5<L8, !.1., 19993. 52:>28G .., CAL:>20 .-. !>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:89 ?>4E>4 : 87CG5=8N AC?@C65A:8E :>=D;8:B>2, ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0; !3 19853. "0I520 .. B@81CB82=K5 ?@>F5AAK 2 AC?@C65A:8E :>=D;8:B0E. ., 19873. 8H8=0 ".. A8E>;>38G5A:>5 8AA;54>20=85 AC?@C65A:8E >B=>H5=89 ?@8 =52@>70E. ., 19783. !>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O ;8G=>AB8. ., 19793. NB=5@ . 8BL A 03@5AA82=K<8 45BL<8. ., 19913. @03C=>20 ".. @>1;5<0 :>=D;8:B0 2 ?>4@>AB:>2>< 2>7@0AB5 // >?@>AK ?A8E>;>388, 19723. !2 "@C=>2 .. A8E>;>38G5A:85 0A?5:BK :>=D;8:B=KE 2708<>>B=>H5=89 <564C @>48B5;O<8 8 45BL<8 =0 @5;838>7=>9 ?>G25. 5@<L, 19943. Prasow P. Conflict and Cooperation in Labor. Los Angeles, 19743. Kats D., Kahn R. The Social Psychology of Organizations. 19673. @8H8=0 .. 0:>=><5@=>AB8 2>7=8:=>25=8O <56;8G=>AB=KE ?@>872>4AB25==KE :>=D;8:B>2. ., 19783. ><>2 .$. 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 8 B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K ?A8E>;>388. ., 19843. 0A8;N: $.. 87=5==K9 <8@ 8 :@878A: B8?>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 :@8B8G5A:8E A8BC0F89. A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0;, 19953. 8=CE8= $., $8H<0= '., "5E=8:8 A5<59=>9 B5@0?88. ., 19983. 0:0@5=:> .!.  27@K25 // A1>@=8: A>G. ".5., 19583. M9 . A:CAAB2> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=AC;LB8@>20=8O, ., 19943. 0A8;N: $.. A8E>;>38O ?5@56820=8O. ., 19843. CH ./. 80;>38:0 8 B2>@G5AB2>. 830, 19853. 5@<0=>20 .., !84>@5=:> .. 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