ࡱ> 9 bjbj!vh,l(<<<P^^^8DP.0000007 WD!<00000V<<00;VVV0<0<0V0VVrh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he Rise of the Network Society ), 0 B0:65 BC G0ABL B><0  >=5F BKAOG5;5B8O ( End of Millennium ), 345 02B>@ @0AA<0B@8205B ?@8G8=K 8 ?>A;54AB28O @0A?040 !!! . >:0 @CAA:><C G8B0B5;N =54>ABC?5= 2B>@>9 B>< B@8;>388  ;0ABL 845=B8G=>AB8 ( The Power of Identity ). -B>B B>< ?>A2OI5=  A>F80;L=K< 42865=8O< 8 ?>;8B8:5, 2 =5< 87CG05BAO @50:F8O ;N459 2A53> <8@0 =0 3;>10;870F8N 8 8A:;NG0NI55 B5E=>;>38G5A:>5 @0728B85 [1, A. 23]. ;O ?>=8<0=8O B>3>, ?>G5<C 8<5==> A>F8>;>3 . 0AB5;LA >1@0B8;AO : @5H5=8N B0:>9 A;>6=>9 7040G8, :0:>9 O2;O5BAO 8AA;54>20=85 ?@>F5AA0 2ABC?;5=8O G5;>25G5AB20 2 =>2CN M?>EC, =5>1E>48<> >1@0B8BLAO : 53> ;8G=>9 8 =0CG=>9 18>3@0D88. !53>4=O . 0AB5;LA0 AG8B0NB >4=8< 87 02B>@8B5B=KE A>F8>;>3>2 2 <8@5. 3> =5;L7O @0AA<0B@820BL B>;L:> :0:  :018=5B=>3> CG5=>3>-8AA;54>20B5;O . = CG0AB2C5B 2 @01>B5 :@C?=KE <564C=0@>4=KE >@30=870F89, O2;OOAL >4=8< 87 035=B>2 >?8AK205<KE 2 53> :=835 <8@>2KE ?@>F5AA>2. . 0AB5;LA @>48;AO 2 1942 3. 2 A?0=88, =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O 1K; CG0AB=8:>< 0=B8D@0=:8AB:>3> 42865=8O. > ?>;8B8G5A:8< <>B820< 2 2>7@0AB5 4204F0B8 ;5B >= M<83@8@>20; 2> $@0=F8N 8 >1>A=>20;AO 2 0@865. "0< >= CG8;AO A>F8>;>388 C ;5=0 "C@5=0, 0 70B5< 2 B5G5=85 12 ;5B ?@5?>4020; A>F8>;>38N 3>@>40 2 KAH59 H:>;5 A>F80;L=KE =0C: (0@86). ! 1979 3. . 0AB5;LA O2;O5BAO ?@>D5AA>@>< 0;8D>@=89A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 (5@:;8). 4=>2@5<5==> @01>B0; 48@5:B>@>< =AB8BCB0 A>F8>;>388 =>2KE B5E=>;>389 ?@8 2B>=><=>< C=825@A8B5B5 2 04@845 (1988-1994), 2 @07=>5 2@5<O G8B0; ;5:F88 2 C=825@A8B5B0E >=@50;O, 5E8:>, 0@0:0A0, 5=52K, ">:8>, >AB>=0, >=:>=30, !8=30?C@0, "0920=O, <AB5@40<0 8 4@. [1, A. 10-18]. @>D5AA8>=0;L=K5 8 ;8G=K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 B5A=> A2O7K20NB . 0AB5;LA0 A >AA859: A 1984 3. >= =5>4=>:@0B=> 1K20; 2 !!! - >AA88. 5A=>9 1992 3. @C:>2>48; 3@C??>9 M:A?5@B>2, ?@83;0H5==KE @028B5;LAB2>< >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. 5=0 . 0AB5;LA0  87 >AA88, 8 MB8< >BG0AB8 >1JOA=O5BAO 53> 8=B5@5A 8 2>2;5G5==>ABL 2 @>AA89A:85 ?@>1;5<K. 0: B5>@5B8: >= =0G8=0; A 8A?>;L7>20=8O <0@:A8ABA:>3> ?>4E>40 : 2>?@>A0< C@10=870F88 ( The Urban Qu5stion (1977) (D@0=FC7A:>5 8740=85  1972.)). 0B5< ?>A;54>20;8 :=838  The City and the Grassroots (1983),  The Informational City (1989),  The Collaps of Soviet Communism: a View from the Information Society (1995) 8 4@. >AB5?5==> ?@54<5B>< =0CG=>3> 8=B5@5A0 . 0AB5;LA0 AB0=>28;8AL 3;>10;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK, ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 A>2@5<5==>< <8@5 ?>4 2;8O=85< 27@K2=>3> @0728B8O 2A5E 284>2 8=D>@<0F8>==KE B5E=>;>389. 57C;LB0B>< B0:>3> 8=B5@5A0 8 AB0;> DC=40<5=B0;L=>5 8AA;54>20=85  Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture Vol. I-III. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers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information society) 8 A>1AB25==>9 :>=F5?F859  8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>3> >1I5AB20 (informational society). A;8 2 ?5@2>< A;CG05 ?>4G5@:8205BAO >?@545;ONI0O @>;L 8=D>@<0F88 2 >1I5AB25, B> ?> <=5=8N, . 0AB5;LA0 8=D>@<0F8O 8 >1<5= 8=D>@<0F859 A>?@>2>640;8 @0728B85 F828;870F88 =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A59 8AB>@88 G5;>25G5AB20 8 8<5;8 :@8B8G5A:CN 206=>ABL 2> 2A5E >1I5AB20E.  B> 65 2@5<O 70@>640NI55AO  8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>5 >1I5AB2> AB@>8BAO B0:8< >1@07><, GB>  35=5@8@>20=85, >1@01>B:0 8 ?5@540G0 8=D>@<0F88 AB0;8 DC=40<5=B0;L=K<8 8AB>G=8:0<8 ?@>872>48B5;L=>AB8 8 2;0AB8 [1, A. 42-43]. 4=>9 87 :;NG52KE G5@B 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>3> >1I5AB20 O2;O5BAO A5B520O ;>38:0 53> 107>2>9 AB@C:BC@K.  B><C 65 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>5 >1I5AB2> @0728205BAO =0 D>=5 CA:>@ONI8EAO 8 ?@>B82>@5G82KE ?@>F5AA>2 3;>10;870F88, ?@>F5AA>2, 70B@03820NI8E 2A5 B>G:8 75<=>3> H0@0, 2>2;5:0O 8;8 8A:;NG0O 87 >1I53> A>F80;L=>3>, A8<2>;8G5A:>3> 8 M:>=><8G5A:>3> >1<5=0. >4G5@:820N, GB> F5;L A2>59 :=838 . 0AB5;LA 2848B 2 8AA;54>20=88 A>45@60=8O ?5@5E>40 G5;>25G5AB20 : 8=D>@<0F8>==><C >1I5AB2C. 0:8< 65 >1@07>< 02B>@ @5H05B 7040GC? 01>B0 . 0AB5;LA0   MB> =5 :=830 > :=830E [1, A. 46]. A?>;L7CO >1H8@=K9 B5>@5B8G5A:89, AB0B8AB8G5A:89 8 M<?8@8G5A:89 <0B5@80;, >A=>2K20OAL =0 A>1AB25==>< >?KB5 8 =01;N45=8OE, 0?5;;8@CO : <=5=8N CG5=KE, ?@87=0==KE M:A?5@B>2 2 A2>8E >1;0ABOE, >= ?@54;0305B  =5:>B>@K5 M;5<5=BK 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 :@>AA:C;LBC@=>9 B5>@88 M:>=><8:8 8 >1I5AB20 2 8=D>@<0F8>==CN M?>EC, :>=:@5B=> 3>2>@OI59 > 2>7=8:=>25=88 A>F80;L=>9 AB@C:BC@K . !>45@60=85 :=838 ?>@0605B >18;85< F8B0B 8 AAK;>: =0 @07=K5 8AB>G=8:8: 70 ?>4B25@645=85< A2>8E 8459 02B>@ >1@0I05BAO : 8725AB=K< 8AA;54>20=8O<, AB0@0OAL =5 ?@52@0I0BL A2>N @01>BC 2 =0CG=>-?>?C;O@=K9 B@C4 DCBC@>;>38G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0. =>340 53> M@C48F8O 8 ?540=B8G=>ABL 2>AE8I05B, 8=>340 70B@C4=O5B 2>A?@8OB85 3;02=>9 <KA;8, => =8 >4=C 87 2K428=CBKE . 0AB5;LA>< 8459 8;8 38?>B57 =5;L7O =0720BL 3>;>A;>2=K<8. 0==0O @01>B0 =5 B>;L:>  M=F8:;>?548O 687=8 2 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>< >1I5AB25 , >=0 O2;O5BAO 8 ?CB52>48B5;5< ?> ;CGH8< >1@07F0< A>2@5<5==>9 A>F8>;>38G5A:>9 <KA;8. =D>@<0F8>==K5 B5E=>;>388 >?@545;ONB :0@B8=C =0AB>OI53> 8 2 5I5 1>;LH59 <5@5 1C4CB >?@545;OBL :0@B8=C 1C4CI53>.  A2O78 A MB8< . 0AB5;LA ?@8405B >A>1>5 7=0G5=85 8AA;54>20=8N B>3>, :0: @072820;8AL B0:85 B5E=>;>388 2 ?>A;52>5==K9 ?5@8>4.  =8E CG5=K9 2:;NG05B  A>2>:C?=>ABL B5E=>;>389 2 <8:@>M;5:B@>=8:5, A>740=88 2KG8A;8B5;L=>9 B5E=8:8 (<0H8= 8 ?@>3@0<<=>3> >15A?5G5=8O), B5;5:><<C=8:0F88/25I0=88 8 >?B8:>-M;5:B@>==>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 [1, A. 50]. "0:8< >1@07><, O4@> B@0=AD>@<0F89, :>B>@K5 ?5@568205B A>2@5<5==K9 <8@, A2O70=> A B5E=>;>38O<8 >1@01>B:8 8=D>@<0F88 8 :><<C=8:0F859. . 0AB5;LA ?@54;0305B A>F8>;>38G5A:>5 >?8A0=85 8 ?>=8<0=85 >A=>2=KE <><5=B>2 8AB>@88 AB0=>2;5=8O ?>4>1=>3> @>40 B5E=>;>389, C45;OO <=>3> 2=8<0=8O @>;8 !8;8:>=>2>9 4>;8=K 2 @0728B88 :><?LNB5@=>9 8=4CAB@88. CE A2>1>4=>3> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB20, C=825@A8B5BA:89 8=B5;;5:BC0;87< 8 ?@028B5;LAB25==K5 70:07K A45;0;8 !8;8:>=>2CN 4>;8=C ;845@>< :><?LNB5@=>9 >B@0A;8. ?8@0OAL =0 @01>BK @O40 B5>@5B8:>2, A>F8>;>3 >G5@G8205B 3@0=8FK 8=D>@<0F8>==>-B5E=>;>38G5A:>9 ?0@0483<K, 8<5NI59 =5A:>;L:> 3;02=KE G5@B. >-?5@2KE, 8=D>@<0F8O 2 @0<:0E ?@54;0305<>9 ?0@0483<K O2;O5BAO AK@L5< B5E=>;>388 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L B5E=>;>38O 2>7459AB2C5B =0 8=D>@<0F8N, => =8:0: =5 =0>1>@>B. >-2B>@KE, MDD5:BK =>2KE B5E=>;>389 >E20BK20NB 2A5 284K G5;>25G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. -B@5BL8E, 8=D>@<0F8>==0O B5E=>;>38O 8=8F88@C5B A5B52CN ;>38:C 87<5=5=89 A>F80;L=>9 A8AB5<K. -G5B25@BKE, 8=D>@<0F8>==>-B5E=>;>38G5A:0O ?0@0483<0 >A=>20=0 =0 381:>AB8, :>340 A?>A>1=>ABL : @5:>=D83C@0F88 AB0=>28BAO  @5H0NI59 G5@B>9 2 >1I5AB25 [1, A. 77]. -?OBKE, 206=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 8=D>@<0F8>==>-B5E=>;>38G5A:>9 ?0@0483<K AB0=>28BAO :>=25@35=F8O :>=:@5B=KE B5E=>;>389 2 2KA>:>8=B53@8@>20==>9 A8AB5<5, :>340, =0?@8<5@, <8:@>M;5:B@>=8:0, B5;5:><<C=8:0F88, >?B8G5A:0O M;5:B@>=8:0 8 :><?LNB5@K 8=B53@8@>20=K 2 8=D>@<0F8>==K5 A8AB5<K. 7OBK5 2A5 2<5AB5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 8=D>@<0F8>==>-B5E=>;>38G5A:>9 ?0@0483<K O2;ONBAO DC=40<5=B>< 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>3> >1I5AB20. "0:65 :0: 40==0O @01>B0 . 0AB5;LA0 =5 O2;O5BAO :=83>9 > :=830E, >=0 =5 O2;O5BAO 8 :=83>9 > 3;>10;870F88. 4=0:> @0AA<>B@5=85 ?@>F5AA0 3;>10;870F88 8 53> 2;8O=8O =0 >1I5AB2> AB0=>28BAO 55 206=59H8< AN65B><. ;O CG5=>3> 3;>10;870F8O A2O70=0, ?@5645 2A53>, A 3;>10;870F859 M:>=><8:8. >=OB85  3;>10;L=0O M:>=><8:0 2 B@0:B>2:5 . 0AB5;LA0 >7=0G05B, GB>  >A=>2=K5 284K M:>=><8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (?@>872>4AB2>, ?>B@51;5=85 8 F8@:C;OF8O B>20@>2 8 CA;C3), 0 B0:65 8E A>AB02;ONI85 (:0?8B0;, B@C4, AK@L5, C?@02;5=85, 8=D>@<0F8O, B5E=>;>38O, @K=:8) >@30=87CNBAO 2 3;>10;L=>< <0AHB015, =5?>A@54AB25==> ;81> A 8A?>;L7>20=85< @0725B2;5==>9 A5B8, A2O7K20NI59 M:>=><8G5A:8E 035=B>2 [1, A.81]. ;>10;L=0O M:>=><8:0  MB> M:>=><8:0, A?>A>1=0O @01>B0BL :0: 548=0O A8AB5<0 2 @568<5 @50;L=>3> 2@5<5=8 2 <0AHB015 2A59 ?;0=5BK. . 0AB5;LA 8AA;54C5B ?@8G8=K 55 2>7=8:=>25=8O, ?5@A?5:B82K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O @0728B8O.  8AA;54>20=88 ?@>F5AA0 3;>10;870F88 B5>@5B8: >1@0I05BAO : A>F8>-M:>=><8G5A:><C 0=0;87C <5AB0 @07;8G=KE @538>=>2 2 3;>10;L=>< M:>=><8G5A:>< 8 8=D>@<0F8>==>< ?@>AB@0=AB25. !>3;0A=> . 0AB5;LAC 40==K9 ?@>F5AA =5 AB>;L >4=>7=0G5=: =5:>B>@K5 @538>=K (=0?@8<5@, "8E>>:50=A:89) 0:B82=> 2>2;5:0NBAO 2 3;>10;L=K9 M:>=><8G5A:89 >1<5= 8 >4=>2@5<5==> 4@C385 :@C?=K5 @538>=K (D@8:0) 8A:;NG0NBAO 87 3;>10;L=>9 A8AB5<K. 5;>2>5 ?@54?@8OB85, 2:;NG5==>5 2 A5B52K5 >1<5=K, AB0=>28BAO >A=>2=K< 0:B>@>< 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>9 M:>=><8:8. . 0AB5;LA ?>4@>1=> 8AA;54C5B B@0=AD>@<0F88 >@30=870F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@K :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>3> ?@54?@8OB8O. = ?>;0305B, GB> 2 1970-5 3>4K =0G0;8AL :0G5AB25==K5 87<5=5=8O 2 >@30=870F88 ?@>872>4AB20 8 @K=:>2 2 3;>10;L=>9 M:>=><8:5. -B8 87<5=5=8O ?@>8AE>48;8 ?>4 2>7459AB285< :0: <8=8<C< B@5E D0:B>@>2. 5@2K< D0:B>@>< A>F8>;>3 AG8B05B 4>AB865=8O 8=D>@<0F8>==>9 B5E=>;>388, 2B>@K<  =5>1E>48<>ABL 45;>2KE >@30=870F89 @5038@>20BL =0 2AQ 1>;55 =5>?@545;5==CN 1KAB@><5=ONICNAO 2=5H=NN A@54C; 2 :0G5AB25 B@5BL53> D0:B>@0 2KABC?05B ?5@5A<>B@ B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=89, ?@54CA<0B@820NI89 M:>=><8N B@C4>2KE 70B@0B 8 22545=85 02B><0B878@>20==KE @01>G8E <5AB. . 0AB5;LA @0AA<0B@8205B 87<5=5=8O 2 ?@>872>4AB25 8 C?@02;5=88 ?@54?@8OB85<, =0?@02;5==K5 =0 A>740=85 381:>9 >@30=870F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@K, A?>A>1=>9 CG0AB2>20BL 2 A5B52KE <56D8@<5==KE >1<5=0E.  A2O78 A MB8<, 4;O .0AB5;LA0 ?>:070B5;L=K< O2;O5BAO >17>@ >@30=870F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@K 187=5A0 2 .3>->AB>G=>9 788. >@?>@0B82=K5 :>=3;><5@0BK /?>=88 ( kabushiki mochiai ), .6=>9 >@58 ( G51>;K ), 8B0O (jiazuqiye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ag the dog ( %2>AB :@CB8B A>10:>9 ). 0@O4C A B5;52845=85< @0728B85 M;5:B@>==KE :><?LNB5@=KE A5B59 (Minitel, Internet) AB0=>28BAO B5< D0:B>@><, :>B>@K9 <>6=> AG8B0BL D>@<>>1@07CNI8< 4;O :C;LBC@K 28@BC0;L=>9 @50;L=>AB8. =B5@=5B, :0: 8 <=>385 4@C385 D5=><5=K A>2@5<5==>AB8 ?> ?@02C <>6=> AG8B0BL 45B8I5< H5AB845AOBKE 3>4>2 ?@>H;>3> 25:0. AB>@8O =B5@=5B ?>:07K205B, :0: @0728B85 :><?LNB5@=KE B5E=>;>389, 3>AC40@AB25==K5 8=B5@5AK 8 =57028A8<K9 4CE C=825@A8B5B>2 1K;8 70459AB2>20=K 4;O A>740=8O =>2>3> A8<2>;8G5A:>3> :>A<>A0. . 0AB5;LA 8AA;54C5B MB0?K AB0=>2;5=8O =B5@=5B0, B.5. 53> ?@52@0I5=8O 87 ;>:0;L=>9 :><?LNB5@=>9 A5B8 2>5==>3> =07=0G5=8O 2 =>2CN 3;>10;L=CN @50;L=>ABL 8=D>@<0F8>==>9 M?>E8. ?@>G5<, >= =5 AG8B05B, GB> =B5@=5B @01>B05B B>;L:> =0 3;>10;870F8N. = ?>;0305B, GB>  :><?LNB5@=0O :><<C=8:0F8O =5 5ABL 2A5>1I55 A@54AB2> :><<C=8:0F88 8 =5 1C45B B0:>2K< 2 >1>7@8<>< 1C4CI5< [1, A. 339].  >2K5 M;5:B@>==K5 A@54AB20 =5 >B45;ONBAO >B B@048F8>==KE :C;LBC@  >=8 8E 01A>@18@CNB [1, A. 349 ]. @8 MB>< =01;N405BAO H8@>:0O A>F80;L=0O 8 :C;LBC@=0O 48DD5@5=F80F8O, 254CI0O : D>@<8@>20=8N A?5F8D8G5A:8E 28@BC0;L=KE A>>1I5AB2. ';5=K 40==KE A>>1I5AB2 <>3CB 1KBL @07J548=5=K 2 D878G5A:>< ?@>AB@0=AB25, >4=0:> 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25 28@BC0;L=>< >=8 <>3CB 1KBL B0:65 B@048F8>==K, :0: >1I8=K =51>;LH8E 3>@>4>2. . 0AB5;LA 4>;3>5 2@5<O 2>A?@8=8<0;AO :0: A>F8>;>3, 70=8<0NI89AO 87CG5=85< ?@>1;5< C@10=870F88 8 A>F80;L=>9 AB@C:BC@K A>2@5<5==>3> 3>@>40. 5 701KB0 B5<0 3>@>40 1K;0 8 2 MB>9 :=838. 2B>@ @0AA<0B@8205B, :0:8< >1@07>< <5=O5BAO ;8F> 3>@>40 2 E>45 2ABC?;5=8O 2 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>5 >1I5AB2>. = 8A?>;L7C5B B5>@8N A5B59 4;O 0=0;870 87<5=5=89, ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2 3>@>4A:>9 A@545 8=D>@<0F8>==>3> >1I5AB20. !5B52K5 AB@C:BC@K 2>A?@>872>4OBAO :0: =0 2=CB@83>@>4A:>< C@>2=5, B0: 8 =0 C@>2=5 >B=>H5=89 <564C 3;>10;L=K<8 3>@>40<8. !5B520O AB@C:BC@0 =5 >7=0G05B @0A?045=85 2=CB@83>@>4A:>9 85@0@E88: 2 3;>10;L=KE 3>@>40E ?>O2;ONBAO 8=D>@<0F8>==>-2;0AB=K5 C7;K, :>B>@K5 70<K:0NB =0 A515 >A=>2=K5 ?>B>:8 8=D>@<0F88, D8=0=A>2KE @5AC@A>2 8 AB0=>2OBAO B>G:0<8 ?@8=OB8O C?@02;5=G5A:8E @5H5=89. 564C MB8<8 C7;0<8 :C@A8@CNB @5AC@A=K5 ?>B>:8, 0 A0<8 C7;K =0E>4OBAO 2 15A?@5@K2=>9 :>=:C@5=F88 <564C A>1>9. ;>10;L=K5 C7;K A>A@54>B>G5=K 2 <530?>;8A0E, :>B>@K5  ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 >G5=L 1>;LH85 03;><5@0F88 ;N459 [1, A. 339]. ?@545;ONI59 G5@B>9 <530?>;8A>2 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> >=8 :>=F5=B@8@CNB 04<8=8AB@0B82=K5, ?@>872>4AB25==K5 8 <5=5465@A:85 2KAH85 DC=:F88 =0 2A59 ?;0=5B5. 530?>;8AK 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 >B@060NB ?@>B82>@5G8O 48E>B><88  3;>10;L=>5-;>:0;L=>5 : 2>2;5G5==K5 2 3;>10;L=K5 45;>2K5 8 :C;LBC@=K5 A5B8, >=8 8A:;NG0NB 87 =8E <5AB=K5 ?>?C;OF88, :>B>@K5 AB0=>2OBAO DC=:F8>=0;L=> 15A?>;57=K<8. . 0AB5;LA ?>;0305B, GB> <0@38=0;870F8O <5AB=KE A>>1I5AB2 ?@>8AE>48B 2A;54AB285 M:>=><8G5A:>9, ?>;8B8G5A:>9 8 :C;LBC@=>9 M:A?0=A88 <530?>;8A>2. = @0AA<0B@8205B <530?>;8AK 2 :0G5AB25 <0AHB01=KE F5=B@>2  3;>10;L=>3> 48=0<87<0 , :C;LBC@=>9 8 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 8==>20F88 8 A2O7CNI8E ?C=:B>2 2A5E 284>2 3;>10;L=KE A5B59. "0:8< >1@07><, .0AB5;LA 405B @5;L5D=>5 >?8A0=85 ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E 2 AB@C:BC@5 3>@>4>2 2 ?5@8>4 ?5@5E>40 : 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>9 M?>E5. 7CG5=85 ?@>AB@0=AB25==KE B@0=AD>@<0F89 =5 >3@0=8G8205B 0=0;87>< 3>@>4A:>9 A@54K, >?8@0NI8<AO =0 1>30BK9 M<?8@8G5A:89 <0B5@80;  G8B0B5;N ?@54;0305BAO A>F80;L=0O B5>@8O ?@>AB@0=AB20 8 B5>@8O ?@>AB@0=AB20 ?>B>:>2. !>F80;L=0O B5>@8O ?@>AB@0=AB20 @0728205BAO 87 :><18=0F88 B@5E D0:B>@>2: D878G5A:>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20, A>F80;L=>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20 8 2@5<5=8. > . 0AB5;LAC  ?@>AB@0=AB2> 5ABL 2K@065=85 >1I5AB20 [1, A. 384] 8  ?@>AB@0=AB2> 5ABL :@8AB0;;87>20==>5 2@5<O . ! A>F80;L=>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, :>B>@>9 ?@845@68205BAO 02B>@,  ?@>AB@0=AB2> O2;O5BAO <0B5@80;L=>9 >?>@>9 A>F80;L=KE ?@0:B8: @0745;5=8O 2@5<5=8 [1, A. 385]. 1I5AB2>, B> 5ABL A>F80;L=>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2> ?>AB@>5=> 2>:@C3 ?>B>:>2 :0?8B0;0, 8=D>@<0F88, B5E=>;>389, >@30=870F8>==>3> 2708<>459AB28O, 87>1@065=89, 72C:>2 8 A8<2>;>2. >4 ?>B>:0<8 . 0AB5;LA ?>=8<05B  F5;5=0?@02;5==K5, ?>2B>@ONI85AO, ?@>3@0<<8@C5<K5 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 >1<5=>2 8 2708<>459AB289 <564C D878G5A:8 @07J548=5==K<8 ?>78F8O<8, :>B>@K5 70=8<0NB A>F80;L=K5 0:B>@K 2 M:>=><8G5A:8E, ?>;8B8G5A:8E 8 A8<2>;8G5A:8E AB@C:BC@0E >1I5AB20 [1, A. 386]. "0:8< >1@07><,  ?@>AB@0=AB2> ?>B>:>2 5ABL <0B5@80;L=0O >@30=870F8O A>F80;L=KE ?@0:B8: 2 @0745;5==>< 2@5<5=8, @01>B0NI5< G5@57 ?>B>:8 [1, A. 386]. @>AB@0=AB2> ?>B>:>2 2848BAO 02B>@C 2 2845 B@5E A;>52 <0B5@80;L=>9 ?>445@6:8: ?5@2K9 A;>9 A>AB>8B 87 F5?8 M;5:B@>==KE 8<?C;LA>2, A>A@54>B>G5==KE 2 <8:@>M;5:B@>=8:5, B5;5:><<C=8:0F8OE :><?LNB5@=>9 >1@01>B:5, A8AB5<5 25I0=8O, 2KA>:>A:>@>AB=>3> B@0=A?>@B0; 2B>@>9 A;>9 A>AB>8B 87 C7;>2 8 :><<C=8:0F8>==KE F5=B@>2, :>B>@K5 >15A?5G820NB 3;04:>5 2708<>459AB285 M;5<5=B>2, 8=B53@8@>20==KE 2 3;>10;L=K5 M;5:B@>==K5 A5B8; B@5B89 A;>9 >B=>A8BAO : ?@>AB@0=AB25==>9 >@30=870F88 4><8=8@CNI8E <5=5465@A:8E M;8B, >ACI5AB2;ONI8E C?@02;5=G5A:85 DC=:F88.  48E>B><88  3;>10;L=>5-;>:0;L=>5 M;8BK >B=>AOBAO : B5<, :B> 708=B5@5A>20= 2 @0728B88 3;>10;L=>3> 2;0AB=>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20, :>B>@>5 ?>72>;8B :>=B@>;8@>20BL =5>@30=87>20==K5 ;>:0;878@>20==K5 =0@>4K. -;8BK 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>3> >1I5AB20 <>3CB @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: ?@>AB@0=AB25==> >3@0=8G5==0O A5B520O AC1:C;LBC@0, 2 :>B>@>9 D>@<8@C5BAO AB8;L 687=8, ?>72>;ONI89 8< C=8D8F8@>20BL A>1AB25==>5 A8<2>;8G5A:>5 >:@C65=85 ?> 2A5<C <8@C. !:;04K20NI85AO 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25 ?>B>:>2 A;>8 <0B5@80;L=>9 ?>445@6:8 D>@<8@CNB 8=D@0AB@C:BC@C B>3> >1I5AB20, :>B>@>5 . 0AB5;LA =07K205B 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=K<. =D>@<0F8>=0;L=>5 >1I5AB2> <5=O5B 2>A?@8OB85 2@5<5=8. 0?><=N, GB> >4=8< 87 206=59H8E ?@87=0:>2 =0G02H59AO <>45@=870F88 0?04=>3> >1I5AB20 AB0;> 87<5=5=85 >B=>H5=8O :> 2@5<5=8.  !@54=525:>2L5 2@5<O =>A8B A>1KB89=K9 E0@0:B5@, :>340 ACI5AB2>20;> 2@5<O 4=O, 2@5<O =>G8, 2@5<O ?@074=8:>2 8 2@5<O 1C45=. 7>1@5B5=85 G0A>2>3> <5E0=87<0 8 ?0@0;;5;L=K5 A>F80;L=K5 ?5@5<5=K A45;0;8 :>;8G5AB25==>5 87<5@5=85 2@5<5=8 =5>1E>48<K<. ">340 65 C =0@>640NI59AO 1C@6C0788 2>7=8:;0 ?>B@51=>ABL 2  1>;55 B>G=>< 87<5@5=88 2@5<5=8, >B :>B>@>3> 7028A8B 8E ?@81K;L [3, A. 55]. "0: 2@5<O >:07K205BAO 2 @C:0E 2;0ABL ?@545@60I8E. ">340 65 2@5<O =0G8=05B A5:C;O@878@>20BLAO 8 @0F8>=0;878@>20BLAO. > MB> 5I5 =5 1K;> 2@5<O ?@><KH;5==>9 M?>E8. => 2AQ 5I5 1K;> 1;87:8< :  5AB5AB25==><C 18>;>38G5A:><C @8B<C. C@6C07=0O M?>E0 >:>=G0B5;L=> ?@52@0B8;0 2@5<O 2 M:>=><8G5A:89 @5AC@A, 0 A>?CBAB2CNI85 59 B5E=>;>38G5A:85 87<5=5=8O ?>4G8=8;8 2@5<O <5E0=8G5A:><C @8B<C @01>B0NI8E <0H8=. 4=0:> 3@O4CI0O M?>E0 <>65B 87<5=8BL 2>A?@8OB85 2@5<5=8:  ;8=59=>5, =5>1@0B8<>5, ?@54A:07C5<>5 2@5<O 4@>18BAO =0 :CA:8 2 A5B52>< >1I5AB25 [1, A. 402]. >20O :>=F5?F8O B5<?>@0;L=>AB8, ?@54;>65==0O .0AB5;LA><, =>A8B =0720=85 2=52@5<5==>3> 2@5<5=8. =52@5<5==>5 2@5<O >7=0G05B, GB> =0 A<5=C 87<5@5=8O 2@5<5=8 ?@8E>4OB <0=8?C;OF88 A> 2@5<5=5<. -B8 <0=8?C;OF88 =5>1E>48<K 4;O B>3>, GB>1K A45;0BL @50;L=>9  A2>1>4C :0?8B0;0 >B 2@5<5=8 8 87102;5=85 :C;LBC@K >B G0A>2 [1, A. 403]. A2>1>645=85 3;>10;L=>3> >1I5AB20 >B 2@5<5==>9 7028A8<>AB8 CA:>@O5BAO  =>2K<8 8=D>@<0F8>==K<8 B5E=>;>38O<8 8 2AB@>5=> 2 AB@C:BC@C A5B52>3> >1I5AB20 [1, A. 403]. >259H0O 8AB>@8O >AA88 A>7405B ?;>4>B2>@=CN ?>G2C 4;O @07=>>1@07=KE 0=0;8B8G5A:8E :><<5=B0@852. 0 ?>A;54=55 45AOB8;5B85 B>;L:> ;5=82K9 =5 2KA:070; A2>53> 02B>@8B5B=>3> <=5=8O, :0A0NI53>AO ?@8G8=, ?@>F5AA0 8 ?>A;54AB289 @0A?040 !>25BA:>3> !>N70. '8B0B5;L 402=> C65 =5 8A?KBK205B >AB@>9 ?>B@51=>AB8 2 >B:@>25=8OE ?> ?>2>4C B>3>, :C40 8 70G5< <K 42865<AO. . 0AB5;LA A>740; DC=40<5=B0;L=K9 A>F80;L=>-B5>@5B8G5A:89 B@C4, ?>A2OI5==K9 ?5@5E>4C G5;>25G5AB20 : 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>9 M?>E5.  A2>5< B@C45 >= ?>425@305B 8AA;54>20=8N 2A5 <0;>-<0;LA:8 7=0G8<K5 A>1KB8O 2 ?>;8B8:5, M:>=><8:5, B5E=>;>388, :C;LBC@5 8 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8, :>B>@K5 8<5NB >B=>H5=85 : 02B>@A:><C 0=0;87C. AB5AB25==>, GB> A030 A>25BA:>-@>AA89A:>9 8AB>@88 =5 <>3;0 CA:>;L7=CBL >B 2=8<0=8O A>F8>;>30.  @878A 8=4CAB@80;L=>3> MB0B87<0 8 :>;;0?A !>25BA:>3> !>N70  B0: 2 @CAA:>< ?5@52>45 =07K205BAO 3;020, ?>A2OI5==0O =0H8< @50;8O<.  G5< 65 MB0 3;020? 2B>@ @5H05B  8AB>@8G5A:CN 70304:C : ?>G5<C 2 1980-E 3>40E A>25BA:85 ;845@K ?>GC2AB2>20;8 =0AB>OB5;L=CN =5>1E>48<>ABL 2:;NG8BLAO 2 ?@>F5AA ?5@5AB@>9:8, :>B>@0O, 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5, ?@825;0 : @0A?04C !>25BA:>3> 3>AC40@AB20? @5645 G5< ?5@59B8 : 87;>65=8N >B25B0 0AB5;LA0 =0 MB>B 2>?@>A, 40< =5:>B>@K5 B5@<8=>;>38G5A:85 >1JOA=5=8O, >B=>AOI85AO : ?>=OB8N  8=4CAB@80;L=K9 MB0B87< . >4 MB0B87<>< >= ?>=8<05B  A>F80;L=CN A8AB5<C, >@30=87>20==CN 2>:@C3 ?@8A2>5=8O M:>=><8G5A:>3> 87;8H:0, ?@>872545==>3> 2 >1I5AB25, 45@60B5;O<8 2;0AB8 2 3>AC40@AB25==>< 0??0@0B5, 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL :0?8B0;87<C, 2 :>B>@>< 87;8H5: ?@8A208205BAO B5<8, :B> >ACI5AB2;O5B :>=B@>;L 2 M:>=><8G5A:8E >@30=870F8OE [1, c. 438]. -B0B87< >@85=B8@>20= =0 <0:A8<870F8N 2;0AB8, B> 5ABL =0 C25;8G5=85 2>5==>9 8 845>;>38G5A:>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 0??0@0B0 =02O7K20BL A2>8 F5;8 >1I5AB2C. !>25BA:>5 3>AC40@AB2> AG8B0;> 3;02=K< D0:B>@>< M:>=><8G5A:>3> ?@>F25B0=8O @0728B85 BO65;>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 <0H8=>AB@>5=8O, GB> 8 >?@545;8;> 8=4CAB@80;L=K9 E0@0:B5@ A>25BA:>3> MB0B87<0. > >?@545;5==>3> <><5=B0 ?@>3@5AA8ABA:0O ?>;8B8:0 1>;LH8E A:0G:>2 >?@024K20;0 A51O: . 0AB5;LA A?@0254;82> 70<5G05B, GB> !>25BA:89 !>N7 2 @5:>@4=> :>@>B:85 A@>:8 ?@52@0B8;AO 87 03@0@=>9 AB@0=K 2 <>I=CN 8=4CAB@80;L=CN 45@602C, E>BO B0:0O B@0=AD>@<0F8O 8 1K;0 >?;0G5=0 <8;;8>=0<8 687=59. 59AB28B5;L=>, 2 1980-E 3>4K !!!  2 @O45 A5:B>@>2 BO65;>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 ?@>872>48; ACI5AB25==> 1>;LH5, G5< !(, >4=0:> : B><C 2@5<5=8 A0< D0:B =0;8G8O <>I=>9 ?@>872>4AB25==>9 107K C65 =5 30@0=B8@>20; M:>=><8G5A:>3> ?@>F25B0=8O. 0: ?>;0305B . 0AB5;LA, !>25BA:89 !>N7  ?@>?CAB8; @52>;NF8N 2 8=D>@<0F8>==KE B5E=>;>38OE, :>B>@0O AD>@<8@>20;0AL 2 <8@5 2 A5@548=5 1970-E 3>4>2 [1, A. 455].  :0:>9-B> <><5=B A>25BA:>5 @C:>2>4AB2> 4>?CAB8;> AB@0B538G5A:CN >H81:C, ?@8=O2 @5H5=85 A>:@0B8BL A>1AB25==CN ?@>3@0<<C 8AA;54>20=89 2 AD5@5 :><?LNB5@=KE B5E=>;>389. <5AB> =55 2 687=L ?@>2>48;0AL ?>;8B8:0  3>=:8 70 ;845@>< , :>340 CA8;8O <=>3>G8A;5==KE  =0?@02;O;8AL =0 :>?8@>20=85 0<5@8:0=A:>9 8 O?>=A:>9 0@E8B5:BC@K :><?LNB5@=KE A8AB5<. 57C;LB0B>< MB>9 ?>;8B8:8 AB0;> 2AQ C25;8G820NI55AO B5E=>;>38G5A:>5 >BAB020=85 2 :;NG52>9 >B@0A;8.  B><C 65 65AB:89 ?>;8B8G5A:89 8 ?>;8F59A:89 :>=B@>;L 70 687=LN A>25BA:8E 3@0640= B>@<>78; @0728B85 8=D>@<0F8>==KE B5E=>;>389, :>B>@K5 A?>A>1AB2>20;8 15A?@5?OBAB25==><C @0A?@>AB@0=5=8N 8=D>@<0F88. "0:, ?0@04>:A0;L=K< >1@07>< A>F80;L=0O @50;L=>ABL, 2 :>B>@>9 >BACBAB2>20;> >B:@KB>5 3@0640=A:>5 >1I5AB2> A> A2>1>4>9 A;>20, >:070;0 ACI5AB25==>5 2;8O=85 =0 B5E=>;>38G5A:>5 @0728B85, =5 ?>72>;82 8=D>@<0F8>==K< B5E=>;>38O< 70=OBL B> <5AB>, :>B>@>5 8< >B2>48BAO 2 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>9 M?>E5. !;54C5B >B40BL 4>;6=>5 . 0AB5;LAC: 2 A2>8E 0=0;8B8G5A:8E 2K:;04:0E >= =5 70<K:0;AO B>;L:> =0 B5E ?@8G8=0E @0A?040 !!! , :>B>@K5 ;560B 2 ?;>A:>AB8 AB0=>2;5=8O 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>9 M?>E8; 02B>@ @0AA<0B@8205B @O4 4@C38E M:>=><8G5A:8E 8 35>?>;8B8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2, ?@81;8782H8E :>=5F 3>AC40@AB20  @50;L=>3> A>F80;87<0 .  ?>;8B8G5A:8< D0:B>@0< <>6=> >B=5AB8 70:@KB>ABL A>25BA:>3> >1I5AB20, =5?@5:@0I0NI89AO ?>8A: 2=CB@5==8E 8 2=5H=8E 2@03>2, :>@@>78N >A=>2=KE 845>;>38G5A:8E ?@8=F8?>2 2 3;070E >1KG=KE 3@0640=, 0 B0:65 CA8;820NICNAO :>@@C<?8@>20==>ABL 8 157>B25BAB25==>ABL A>25AB=>3> 8 ?0@B89=>3> @C:>2>4AB20.  :0G5AB25 M:>=><8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 2KABC?0NB A25@E<8;8B0@870F8O M:>=><8:8, AB@C:BC@=K9 ?5@5:>A 2 AB>@>=C BO65;>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 <0H8=>AB@>5=8O, ?>GB8 ?>;=>5 >BACBAB285 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 C E>7O9AB2CNI8E AC1J5:B>2 2 ?@8=OB88 @5H5=89 > A>1AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0 B0:65 A:;>==>ABL : @50;870F88 M:>=><8G5A:8 =5>?@0240==KE <530?@>5:B>2   AB@>5: 25:0 . K2>4K . 0AB5;LA0, :0A0NI85AO =0AB>OI53> 8 1C4CI53> >AA88 =5CB5H8B5;L=K. = ?>;0305B, GB> =0A;5485 A>25BA:>3> MB0B87<0, ?><=>65==>5 =0 ?>;8B8G5A:85 8 M:>=><8G5A:85 A?5:C;OF88 M;8BK, 0 B0:65 =0 2>;N=B0@8ABA:85 @5:><5=40F88 564C=0@>4=>3> 20;NB=>3> D>=40 ?@825;8 >AA8N 8 4@C385 AB@0=K 1K2H53> !!!  : @07@CH5=8N >A=>2 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20. >;;0?A A>25BA:>9 A8AB5<K A>740; >1H8@=K9 :C;LBC@=K9 8 8=D>@<0F8>==>-M:>=><8G5A:89 ?CABK@L, :>B>@><C 1C45B 4>2>;L=> A;>6=> ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 >4=C 87 AB@>8B5;L=KE ?;>I04>: 8=D>@<0F8>=0;L=>3> >1I5AB20. # :=838 . 0AB5;LA0 5ABL :0: <8=8<C< 420 4>AB>8=AB20: 2>-?5@2KE, 02B>@C C40;>AL ?>425AB8 A>F80;L=K5 8 M:>=><8G5A:85 8B>38 CH54H53> AB>;5B8O, >4=>2@5<5==>, ?5@5:8=C2 <>ABK 2 =0ABC?0NICN M?>EC; 2>-2B>@KE, E>@>H> B>, GB> @>AA89A:89 G8B0B5;L 7=0:><8BAO A 02B>@A:8<8 845O<8 8 ?@>3=>70<8 =5 G5@57 420 45AOB:0 ;5B ?>A;5 8E ?5@2>9 ?C1;8:0F88 (:>340 <=>3>5 87 =0?8A0==>3> 02B>@>< ?>B5@O5B A2>N 0:BC0;L=>ABL), 0 8<5==> A53>4=O.  B> 65 2@5<O G@57<5@=> 2>AB>@65==>5 >B=>H5=85 : 845O< 02B>@0 B08B 2 A515 =5:>B>@K5 >?0A=>AB8 4;O =0H53> A>F8>;>38G5A:>3> 8 M:>=><8G5A:>3> =0CG=>3> A>>1I5AB20. @5645 2A53>, ?@8ACBAB2C5B @50;L=0O 2>7<>6=>ABL 2A?KH:8  A5B52>9 M?845<88 , :>340 ?>4E>4  0AB5;LA0 : 0=0;87C >1I5AB20 :0: A>2>:C?=>AB8 A5B59 ?>425@3=5BAO 01A>;NB=>9 C=825@A0;870F88 8 A ?><>ILN 53> 1C45B >1JOA=OBLAO 4065 B>, GB> B0:8< >1@07>< >1JOA=5=> 1KBL =5 <>65B. 54CF8@>20=85 8 2C;L30@870F8O 02B>@A:>9 :>=F5?F88 <>65B, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2, ?@825AB8 : 48A:@548B0F88 <=>38E 206=KE 8459, 87;>65==KE 2 @01>B5 . 0AB5;LA0. 59AB28B5;L=>, >= @8AC5B <>=C<5=B0;L=CN :0@B8=C A>2@5<5==>3> <8@0.  =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4, MB0 :0@B8=0 =5?@>B82>@5G820 8 ?>;=>ABLN 045:20B=0 @50;L=><C ?>;>65=8N 25I59. 4=0:>, =5 A;54C5B 701K20BL, GB> ACI5AB2CNB 8 4@C385 >?8A0=8O 8 >1JOA=5=8O >:@C60NI59 =0A @50;L=>AB8. >MB><C 65;0B5;L=> 871530BL A>1;07=0 A<>B@5BL =0 =0HC M?>EC B>;L:> 3;070<8 .0AB5;LA0: ;CGH5 2A53> 8<5BL A>1AB25==K9 273;O4. !! " "# + 0AB5;LA . =D>@<0F8>==0O M?>E0: M:>=><8:0, >1I5AB2> 8 :C;LBC@0 (5@. A 0=3;. ?>4 =0CG=. @54. .. (:0@0B0=0). .: # (-, 2000. !<. "5?;8F ".. AQ 4;O 2A5E. 0AA>20O :C;LBC@0 8 A>2@5<5==K9 G5;>25:, .:  , 1996; 070@>2 .. 0AA>20O :><<C=8:0F8O 2 A>2@5<5==>< <8@5: <5B>4>;>38O 0=0;870 8 ?@0:B8:0 8AA;54>20=89. .: # !!, 1999. 5 >DD . @C3>5 !@54=525:>2L5: 2@5<O, B@C4 :C;LBC@0 0?040. :0B5@8=1C@3: 874-2> #@0;. C=-B0, 2000.  A:;NG0NI55 @0728B85  @0728B85, ?@82>4OI55 : B0: =07K205<><C A>F80;L=><C 8A:;NG5=8N >?@545;5==KE >1I5AB25==KE A;>52 8 B5@@8B>@89 87 =>2>9, 3;>10;L=>9 A8AB5<K 8=D>@<0F8>==KE A2O759 8 M:>=><8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89.  @8<5G0=85 ?5@52>4G8:>2 40==>9 :=838.   ;0AA8G5A:0O B5>@8O ?>AB8=4CAB@80;87<0 >1J548=O5B B@8 CB25@645=8O 8 ?@54A:070=8O: 1. AB>G=8: ?@>872>48B5;L=>AB8 8 @>AB0 =0E>48BAO 2 7=0=88, @0A?@>AB@0=O5<>< =0 2A5 >1;0AB8 M:>=><8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5@57 >1@01>B:C 8=D>@<0F88; 2. -:>=><8G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL A<5I05BAO >B ?@>872>4AB20 B>20@>2 : ?@54>AB02;5=8N CA;C3; 3.  =>2>9 M:>=><8:5 1C45B @0AB8 7=0G5=85 ?@>D5AA89, A2O70==KE A 2KA>:>9 =0AKI5==>ABLN 8E ?@54AB028B5;59 8=D>@<0F859 8 7=0=8O<8 (0AB5;LA . =D>@<0F8>==0O M?>E0: M:>=><8:0, >1I5AB2> 8 :C;LBC@0. A. 201.; A<. B0:65 5;; . @O4CI55 ?>AB8=4CAB@80;L=>5 >1I5AB2>. ?KB A>F80;L=>3> ?@>3=>78@>20=8O. .: Academia, 1999.; 5;1@59B 6. >2>5 8=4CAB@80;L=>5 >1I5AB2>. .: @>3@5AA, 1969.; =>75<F52 .. 0 ?@545;0<8 M:>=><8G5A:>3> >1I5AB20. >AB8=4CAB@80;L=K5 B5>@88 8 ?>ABM:>=><8G5A:85 B5=45=F88 2 A>2@5<5==>< <8@5. .:Academia-0C:0, 1998.  !8;8:>=>20O 4>;8=0 PAGE  PAGE 16 PAGE  30599 DFdfV X   J L  LNpr ~lRT V!X!!!####$$%%n&p&@CJNHmH sH @CJmH sH j0J@CJU 5@CJ 6@CJ @CJNH@CJO:TVDFf $1N58CK"Sd[e8z$Ъ $dh`a$$dh$d&dNP`a$$dha$$dha$p&''(())++8,:,,, -&---//F0H000r1t122334455v6x677::;;;;;;2<4<6<L<N<\<<<b=d===>>????H@J@rAtAB BBB8C:CLDNDDDzE|E6G8GGG`HbH@CJNHmH sH j0J@CJU@CJmH sH  @CJNH@CJTbHHH J"JRKTKKKNNNN^P`PPPQQQQRRSSSSSS6THTTTUUVV>VPVVVVW"W$WWWg@ggglhnhhiiin 6@CJj0J@CJU @CJNH@CJYn$n&n4nznnnnooppqqsszt|tuuuu8v:vvvwwxx y"yyyR{T{{{||~|}}8~:~~~prȁʁ*,xڇ܇,.46VXЎҎ46^`02 @CJNH@CJ@CJmH sH ]BDОҞhj68ʡ̡fh"$<>إڥrt6L.0Ȩʨfh֩Z\\^|~>@βв*,DFJLvx 6@CJ @CJNH@CJ^ЪL:@BJ\h]h&`#$$a$ $ & Fdha$$dha$ $hdh`ha$ $dh`a$>@,.DFJLrt68>@hjDFJLtvTV@Bbdz|:@CJmH sH  @CJNH@CJ]:FH^` "@Rhxzxz8:tv:<|(D,BL\^Ƚ0JmHnHu0J j0JU 6mH sH mH sH 6NH j0JU @CJNH 6@CJ@CJCJNHCJJ $ & Fdha$$a$h]h&`#$@CJCJ0J j0JU 0. A!"S#n$n% i2@2 1KG=K9_HmHsHtH88 03>;>2>: 1$@&5CJ44 03>;>2>: 2$@&CJ:A@: A=>2=>9 H@8DB 0170F04B@4 A=>2=>9 B5:ABCJ,@, "5:AB A=>A:8*&@* =0: A=>A:8H*>+"> "5:AB :>=F52>9 A=>A:8<*@1< =0: :>=F52>9 A=>A:8H*>PB> A=>2=>9 B5:AB 2$a$CJB @RB 86=89 :>;>=B8BC;  9r ,)@a, ><5@ AB@0=8FKD@rD 5@E=89 :>;>=B8BC;  9r e&r{Qgjr{*+fgg h#'+0;}@wELhS`Y[P`dio u u!uuuvvw.{D{E{P{\{]{g{h{i{o{s{0000000000000000000000000   0@0@0 @@0  $$$+.p&bHn:~Ъ  .!!t!gB eZ c     ( R  / 8       # $ ' ( / 1 4 6 g 5Ur o2@B$)2h13 !##G##i$q$$%-&5&|)*++,,,]...I/U/l////1171?1334446<8P89Y:;;+<={>>?AAAgBoBMCYC[CIDzEEH[IIJJJJJ]KLLLMNOMQhS-TUUUUUULWWtXX`YYZZ(Z2ZZ[G]O]^^_r_Q`w```+b2b|cccce+ffgik$lmmmmmooqrrzsstt!u)ujunutuyuuuuuuuivmvvvxvvw/xyz=z`zzz{.{D{E{M{P{[{^{f{p{s{)v.{C{E{i{n{p{s{@83>@89 5;=>2D:\work\1@0<>2 ...doc@83>@89 5;=>2%C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\2B>:>?8O 1@0<>2 .@83>@89 5;=>2%C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\2B>:>?8O 1@0<>2 .@83>@89 5;=>2%C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\2B>:>?8O 1@0<>2 .@83>@89 5;=>2%C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\2B>:>?8O 1@0<>2 .@83>@89 5;=>2A:\1@0<>2 ...docUser)C:\>8 4>:C<5=BK\"0BLO=0\1@0<>2 ...docUserA:\1@0<>2 ...docUserA:\1@0<>2 ...doc516HC:\WINDOWS\ 01>G89 AB>;\OtSocis\SocIsArticles02\2002_03\1@0<>2 ...docm|db;Acosw hh^h`OJQJo(hh^h`.hh^h`.hh^h`o(.wb;Am|cos vD{E{p{s{@ r{PPUnknownGTimes New Roman5Symbol3& Arial"1eaESkkcS&1b2"m7Y20d\x4socissocis516 Oh+'0|  , 8 D P\dltsocisfocisocisfocioci Normal.dot51656Microsoft Word 9.0@F#@5@B`N@,1b ՜.+,0 hp|   2\x socis    !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry F@SE1TableWordDocument!SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjjObjectPool@SE@SE  F Microsoft Word MSWordDocWord.Document.89q Oh+'0|  , 8 D P\dltsocisfocisocisfocioci Normal.dot51666Microsoft Word 9.0@F#@5@B`N@1b ՜.+,0 hp|   2[x socis   0. A!"S#n$n% 15 $*, $ & Fdha$$a$h]h&`#$ $(*,0JmHnHu@CJCJ0J j0JU  i2@2 1KG=K9_HmHsHtH88 03>;>2>: 1$@&5CJ44 03>;>2>: 2$@&CJ:A@: A=>2=>9 H@8DB 0170F04B@4 A=>2=>9 B5:ABCJ,@, "5:AB A=>A:8*&@* =0: A=>A:8H*>+"> "5:AB :>=F52>9 A=>A:8<*1< =0: :>=F52>9 A=>A:8H*>PB> A=>2=>9 B5:AB 2$a$CJB @RB 86=89 :>;>=B8BC;  9r ,)@a, ><5@ AB@0=8FKD@rD 5@E=89 :>;>=B8BC;  9r d&q{Qgjq{*eff g#'+0;|@vELgS_Y[O`dio uu uutvvw-{C{D{M{N{O{[{\{]{f{g{h{n{o{r{000000000000000000000000000000   0@0@0@0 @0@0@0@0@0@0@0@@@0@0 $$$+.p&bHn:,~Ъ,  .!!t!))**eefAdY b      ' Q  . 7      " # & ' . 0 3 5 f 4Tq n1?A#(1g02 ! ##F##h$p$$%,&4&{)*++,,,\...H/T/k////1161>1334446;8O89X:;;*<=z>>?AAAfBnBLCXCZCHDyEEHZIIJJJJJ\KLLLMNOLQgS,TUUUUUUKWWsXX_YYZZ'Z1ZZ[F]N]^]_q_P`v```*b1b{cccce*ffgik#lmmmmmooqrrysstt u(uiumusuxuuuuuuuhvlvuvwvvvw.xyz@89 5;=>2%C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\2B>:>?8O 1@0<>2 .@83>@89 5;=>2%C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\2B>:>?8O 1@0<>2 .@83>@89 5;=>2%C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\2B>:>?8O 1@0<>2 .@83>@89 5;=>2%C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\2B>:>?8O 1@0<>2 .@83>@89 5;=>2A:\1@0<>2 ...docUser)C:\>8 4>:C<5=BK\"0BLO=0\1@0<>2 ...docUserA:\1@0<>2 ...docUserA:\1@0<>2 ...doc516HC:\WINDOWS\ 01>G89 AB>;\OtSocis\SocIsArticles02\2002_03\1@0<>2 ...doc516CC:\WINDOWS\ 01>G89 AB>;\OtSocis\SocIsArticles02\2002_03\Abramov.docm|db;Acosw hh^h`OJQJo(hh^h`.hh^h`.hh^h`o(.wb;Am|cos vC{D{o{r{@pNH)*e vvC{D{W{Y{o{p{q{:RVn1p1"$(UnknownGTimes New Roman5Symbol3& Arial"1ea\k&kcS&1b2"m7Y24d[x4socissocis516313#_Toc48821776533#_Toc48821776633#_Toc48821776833#_Toc48821776933#_Toc48821777039 bjbjvh,l(<<<P8DPDD.rrrrrr$ D<rrrrr<<rrr<r<rrrT<<r8 @ %$PPf,0t@PP<<<<Root Entry F@ %$1TableWordDocumentSummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8 CompObjjObjectPool@SE@SE0Table   F Microsoft Word MSWordDocWord.Document.89q ՜.+,0 hp|   2[x socis   Oh+'0|  , 8 D P\dltsocisfocisocisfocioci Normal.dot51666Microsoft Word 9.0@F#@5@B`N@1b  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~