ࡱ> ܥh]e؛4{ؘrrrrrrrdUzdDDDDDRRR5z7z7z7z7z7z7zzX{#Uzr DRUzzrrDDzzzurDrD5z@{(X>rrrrR5zz3z 1 - , . , , . , . ; , 2 - . , , , . - , . 3 , : "LISP" ( ), "Looking at LISP" ( ). - , : , , . , . . 1.1 : - lists - - symbols - - strings - - real numbers - - integers - - file descriptors - - AutoCAD entity "names" - "" - AutoCAD selection-sets - - subrs (build-in functions) - ( ) - 16- -32768 +32767. . , . . , : 2D points - (X Y): (3.400000 7.520000 ) - X, - Y. 3D points - (X Y Z ): (3.400000 7.520000 1.000000) - X, -Y, -Z. (, ) , . 1.2 . , . : - , ; ; ; - ; - - ; - - , : ( ); , . (subrs); subr subr. "Command:" , . "Command:" . , : n> n - , . , n , . - (") ; n. , , n . 1.3 . : ; ASCII . : - , : ( ) . ' " ; - : ( ) ' " ; () ( ) - ; - . , ; - (subrs) . ; - "+" "-". , -32768 +32767; - , , , ".4" , "0.4". ,"5." , - "5.0". .. "" "", ; - - , . , , (\) . : \\ "\" \e \n \r \t \nnn , - nnn , : (prompt "\nEnter first point: ") - QUOTE. , 'foo (quote foo) - , , . . , :This entire line is a comment : - (setq area (* pi r r )) :Compute area of circle : 1.4 . , (moo ...) , . , , , . "moo" : . ("...") , . , . "moo" ; "moo" : (moo "Hello" 5) (moo "Hi" 1 2 3 ) : (moo 1 2 3 ) ( ) (moo "Hello") ( ) (moo "do" '(1 2)) ( , ) , , ("[]"): (foo []) "foo" . , "foo" : (foo "catch") (foo "catch" 22) : (foo 44 13) ( ) (foo "foe" 44 13) ( ) 1.5 , : error:text text - . "ERROR" ( ), , , ("text"- ). "ERROR" , , , 100 . 2 2.1 . . "acadl.ovl" . "readme.doc". ; . 2.2 - "acad.lsp" , "acad.lsp" ( ). . . DEFUN 4 . 3 . , , , , . , , . , . - - , . - . , - , . , ( ). . , . , , , , , - , . 3.1 , - .. . , , ASCII . , . . . 3.2 - , . : COMMAND: PATH () Start point of path: start point ( : ) End point of path: end point ( : ) Half point of path: number ( : ) Radius of tiles: number ( : ) Spacing between tiles: number ( : ) . . , . , , " " . 3.3 ( ). . , , . 0 2'PL. , , . , GP.LSP. : : Convert angle in degree to radians (defun dtr (a) (*pi (/a 180.0)) ) , . , DEFUN. DR ( "degrees to radians" (" ")). "" - . - : PI * (a / 180.0) : " PI, , 180 ". PI 3.1459...; , ,- - , . , ( , .. ). "Command:", , : Command: (load "gp") , "DR". , : " ", . , . , 0 ; : Command: (dtr 0) , , . DIR, , - . , ; : 0.000000 180 . Command: (dtr 180) : 3.141593 , 180 PI . , , . : Command: QUIT Really want to discard all changes to drawing? Y ( ? ) 0 DOS . " " . 3.4 garden path ( ) : , , . , , , . , GP.LSP ( ). : Convert angle in degrees to radians (defun dtr (a) ('pi (/ a 180.0)) ) | :Acquire information for garden path | (defun gpuser () | (setq sp (getpoint "\nStart point of path:")) | (setq ep (getpoint "\nEnd point of path:")) | (setq hwidth (getdist "\nHalf width of path:"sp)) | (setq trad (getdist "\nRadius of tiles:"sp)) | (setq pangle (angle sp ep )) | (setq plength (distance sp ep )) | (setq width (' 2 hwidth)) | (setq angp90 (+pangle (dtr 90))) : Path angle +90 deg | (setq angm90 (-pangle (dtr 90))) : Path angle -90 deg , . . , . , , , . , GPUSER. , . SETQ . SETQ SP ( ) GETPOINT. GETPOINT. , . "\n" . GETPOINT , . GETPOINT , SP, " " . , , , . . PANGLE . ANGLE . PLENGTH . DISTANCE , . , , . , , - 90 ANGP90 ANGM90 (.. , DTR ). , . , , . , : Command: (gpuser) : : 2,2 : 9,8 : 2 : .2 : .1 GPUSER ( - 0,826169, ANGM90 ). , GPUSER (!) . . , : Command: !sp (2.000000 2.000000) Command: !ep (9.000000 8.000000) Command: !hwidth 2.000000 Command: !width 4.000000 Command: !trad 0.200000 Command: !tspac 0.100000 Command: !pangle 0.708626 Command: !plength 9.219544 Command: !angp90 2.279423 Command: !angm90 -0.862169 , PANGLE, ANGP90 ANGM90 . , GP.LSP. 3.5 , . C:XXX , (, ) . PATH, C:PATH, GP.LSP PATH garden path . GP.LSP, . C:PATH, PATH . , : : PATH : 2,2 : 9,8 : 2 : .2 : .1 3.6 PATH , , , / (). , , . GETVAR , BLIPMODE CMDECHO. SETQ SBLIP SCMDE. SETVAR , ; . , GPUSER. , . , , SETVAR . , PATH. , , . 3.7 . : , , . , . . PATH, . . , , , , . . . , , . , . , . "" , . 4 . ( ) , ( ) . . . , , . , . . 4.1 (+ ...) <>. . <> - , ; - , . : (+1 2) 3 (+1 2 3 4.5) 10.500000 (+1 2 3 4.0) 10.000000 4.2 (- < number > ...) <> . <>, . <>, . , . : (-50 40) 10 (-50 40.0 2) 8.000000 (-50 40.0 2.5) 7.500000 (-8) -8 4.3 (* ...) <>. . : (* 2 3) 6 (* 2 3 4.0) 8.000000 (* 3 -4.5) -13.500000 4.4 (/ ...) <> . <>, <> . : (/100 2) 50 (/100 2.0) 50.000000 (/100 20 2.0) 2.500000 (/100.0 20 2) 2.500000 (/100 20 2) 2 (/135 360) 0 (/135 360.0) 0.375000 4.5 (= ...) " -". T, <> , . . : (=4 4.0) T (=20 388) nil (=2.4 2.4 2.4) T (=499 499 500) nil (="me" "me") T (="me" "you") nil 4.6 (/= ) " -". T, < 1> < 2>, nil. , . : (/=10 20) T (/=5.43 5.43) nil (/=5.43 5.44) T 4.7 (< ...) ", ". T, <> , nil . <>, T , , <> . : (< 10 20) T (< 4 4) nil (< 357 33.2) nil (< 2 3 88) T (< 2 3 4 4) nil 4.8 (<= ...) " ". T, <> nil . <>, T , <>, . : (<= 10 20) T (<= 4 4) T (<= 357 33.2) nil (<= 2 9 9) T (<= 2 9 4 5) nil 4.9 (> ...) ", " . T, <> , nil, . <>, T , . : (> 120 17) T (> 57 57) nil (> 3.5 1792) nil (> 77 4 2) T (> 77 4 4) nil 4.10 (>= ...) " ". T, <> , nil . <>, T , <> . : (>= 120 17) T (>= 57 57) T (>= 3.5 1792) nil (>= 77 4 4) T (>= 77 4 9) nil (- ) (NOT) (- ) <>. <> . : (-3) -4 (-100) -101 (- -4) 3 4.12 (1+ ) <>, (). <> . : (1+ 5) 6 (1+ -17.5) -16.500000 4.13 (1- ) <>, (). <> . : (1- 5) 4 (1- -17.5) -18.500000 4.14 (abs ) <>. <> . : (abs 100) 100 (abs -100) 100 (abs -99.25) 99.250000 4.15 (and ...) (AND) . , , T. , : (setq a 103) (setq b nil) (setq c "string") : (and 1.4 a c) T (and 1.4 a b c) nil 4.16 (angle ) ( ) 2D , 2D - . : (angle '(1.0 1.0) '(1.0 4.0)) 1.570796 (angle '(5.0 1.33) '(2.4 1.33)) 3.141593 4.17 (angtos [ []]) <> (, ) - . /<> - ; : ANGTOS ------------ --------------------- 0 1 // 2 3 4 /<> - , . <> <> AUNITS AUPREC . , AUNITS AUPREC. , : (setq pt1 '(5.0 1.33)) (setq pt2 '(2.4 1.33)) (setq a (angle pt1 pt2)) : (angtos a 0 0) "180" (angtos a 0 4) "180.0000" (angtos a 1 4) "180d0'0" (angtos a 3 4) "3.1416r" (angtos a 4 2) "W" 4.18 (append ...) (/<>) . (append '(a b) '(c d)) (A B C D) (append '((a)(b)) '((c)(d)) ((A)(B)(C)(D)) APPEND , . 4.19 (apply ) , /<> , /<>. : (apply ' + '(1 2 3)) 6 (apply 'stract' ("a" "b" "c")) "abc" APPLY (subrs), ( DEFUN, LAMBDA) . 4.20 (ascii ) <> ASCII ( ). , ASC . : (ascii "A") 65 (ascii "a") 97 (ascii "BIG") 66 4.21 (assoc ) () . , ASSOC . , , "al" : ((name box) (width 3) (size 4.7263) (depth 5)) : (assoc 'size al) (SIZE 4.7263) (assoc 'weight al) nil , "". . SUBST, , , . 4.22 (atan []) , ATAN . , -pt +pt . : (atan 0.5) 0.463647 (atan 1.0) 0.785398 (atan -1.0) -0.785398 (angtos (atan -1.0) 0 4) "-45.0000" ( ), / . - , 1.570796 (90 -90 ) . : (atan 2.0 3.0) 0.588002 (angtos (atan 2.0 3.0) 0 4) "33.6901" (atan 2.0 -3.0) 2.553590 (angtos (atan 2.0 -3.0) 0 4) "146.3099" (atan -2.0 3.0) -0.588002 (atan -2.0 -3.0) -2.553590 (atan 1.0 0.0) 1.570796 (angtos (atan 1.0 0.0) 0 4) "90.0000 (atan -0.5 0.0) -1.570796 (angtos (atan -0.5 0.0) 0 2) "-90.00" 4.23 (atof ) . : (atof "97.1") 97.100000 (atof "3") 3.000000 4.24 (atoi ) . (atoi "97") 97 (atoi "3") 3 (atoi "3.9) 3 4.25 (atom ) , - , T. , , atom. , : (setq a '(x y z)) (setq b 'a) : (atom 'a) T (atom a) nil (atom 'b) T (atom b) T (atom '(a b c)) nil ATOM, . 4.26 (Boole ...) . - 0 15, 16 . () , : Int1 Int2 Func bit --------------------- 0 0 8 0 1 4 1 0 2 1 1 1 , . , 1, , . , 1, - 0. AND, OR, XOR NOT. : 1,... ------------------------------------------------------- 1 AND - 1 6 XOR - 1 7 OR 8 NOT - 0 (- ) : (Boole 1 12 5) AND 12 5. 4. : (Boole 6 6 5) XOR 6 5, - 3. , . , - 4 , , , . : (Boole 4 3 14) 12. 4.27 (boundp ) T, , ( ). , ( ), . , : (setq a 2) (setq b nil) : (boundp 'a) T (doundp 'b) nil 4.28 caar, cadr, cddr, cadar, etc. CAR CDR . , : (setq x '((a b) c d)) : (caar x ) (car (car x)) A (cdar x) (cdr (car x)) (B) (cadar x) (car (cdr (car x))) B (cadr x) (car (cdr x)) (cddr x) (dr (dr x)) (D) (caddr x) (car (cdr (cdr x))) D CADR Y 2D 3D ( ). , CADDR Z 3D. : (setq pt2 '(5.2 1.0 (2D ) (setq pt3 '(5.2 1.0 3.0) (3D ) : (car pt2) 5.200000 (cadr pt2) 1.000000 (caddr pt2) nil (car pt3) 5.200000 (cadr pt3) 1.000000 (caddr pt3) 3.000000 4.29 (car ) <> . <> , . : (car '(a b c)) A (car '((a b) c)) (A B) (car '()) nil 4.30 (cdr ) <>, . <> , . : (cdr '(a b c)) (B C) (cdr '((a b) c)) (C) (cdr '()) nil <> - (. CONS), CDR . : (cdr '(a . b) B (cdr '(1 . "Text") "Text" 4.31 (chr ) , ASCII, ( CHRS ). : (chr 65) "A" (chr 66) "B" (chr 97) "a" 4.32 (close ) . - (), OPEN. CLOSE , . , , - , (close x ) . 4.33 (command ...) . , , , . , 2D 3D . "Command". : (setq pt1 '(1.45 3.23)) (setq pt2 (getpoint "Enter a point: ")) (command "line" pt1 pt2) (command "") , "Command" , "pt1", "pt2" LINE . COMMAND , , - . ("") . COMMAND CTR C ; . , COMMAND, , CMDECHO ( SETVAR GETVAR) . COMMAND - . "GETxxx" (GETANGLE, GETSTRING, GETINT, GETPOINT) . , : ": " . , GETxxx, , COMMAND. , ("/"), COMMAND, ( ). , . , , , . , COMMAND , . , ZOOM PAN COMMAND. , . : (command "circle" "5,5" "r" "\\" "line" "5,5" "7,5" "") CIRCLE, 5,5 -, . ( ), , 5,5 7,5. . COMMAND , . , . , COMMAND, . 4.34 (cond ( ...) . ( ) , . , , . (, ), . COND - . , COND : (cond (minusp a) (-a)) (t a) ) "" -10, 10. , COND "case". T ( ) <> . , . "s", 1, "Y" "y" 0, "N" "n", -nil (). (cond (( = s "Y") 1) (( = s "y") 1) (( = s "N") 0) (( = s "n") 0) ( t nil) ) 4.35 (cons ) . (< >) (<>), . : (cons 'a '(b c d)) (A B C D) (cons '(a) '(b c d)) ((A) B C D) , . CONS <>, , dotted pair ( ). , . , ; CDR . : (cons 'a 'b) ( A . B) (car (cons 'a 'b)) A (cdr (cons 'a 'b)) B 4.36 (cons ) <>, <> . : (cos 0.0 ) 1.000000 (cos pi ) -1.000000 4.37 (defun ...) DEFUN ( , , ). ( ), , . ( ) . , , . : (defun myfunc (x y)...) ( 2 ) (defun myfunc (/a b)...) ( 2 ) (defun myfunc (x/temp)...) ( ) (defun myfunc ()...) ( ) . DEFUN . , () . . , . . DEFUN . : (defun add (x y) (+ x y) ) (add 10 5) 15 (add -7 . 4) 2,60000 (defun dots ( x y/temp) (setq temp (strcat x "...")) (strcat temp y) ) (dots "a" "b" ) "...b" (dots "from" "to") "from...to" , . 4.37.1. LOAD ( ). "acad.lsp", ; . 4.37.2. : - , DEFUN , . , , : 1. : ":", - . "" , "" , , , . 2. ( ). , : : (defun C:PSQUARE ('pt1 pt2 pt3 pt4 len) (setq pt1 (getpoint "Lower left corner:")) (setq len (getdist pt1 "Length of one side:")) (setq pt2 (polar pt1 0.0 len)) (setq pt3 (polar pt2 ('PI 2.0) len)) (setq pt4 (polar pt3 PI len)) (Command "PLINE" pt1 pt2 pt3 pt4 "C") ) , , "" , "Command:". "" - , ":" . , C:PSQUARE : ommand: PSQUARE Lower left corner: (enter a point) : ( ) Length of one side: (enter a distance) : ( ) PLINE : . - . , , . , , , . 4.38.(distance ) 2D , 2D - . : (distance '(1.0 2.5) '(7.7 2.5)) 6.700000 (distance '(1.0 2.5) '(3.0 4.0)) 2.828427 4.39. (eq ) , , , (,SETQ). EQ T, , . . , : (setq f1 '(a b c)) (setq f2 '(a b c)) (setq f3 f2) : (eq f1 f2) (f1 f2 - !) (eq f3 f2) T (f3 f2 - !) . EQUAL. 4.40 (equal ) , , .. . , : (setq f1 '(a b c)) (setq f2 '(a b c)) (setq f3 f2) : (equal f1 f2) T (f1 f2 ) (equal f3 f2) (f2 f3 ) , , , , , , . , , , . 4.41.(eval ) (), - . , : (setq a 123) (setq b 'a) : (eval 4.0) 4.000000 (eval (abs - 10 )) 10 (eval a) 123 (eval b) 123 4.42.(exp ) , <> ( (antilog)). . , (exp 1.0) 2.718282 (exp 2.2) 9.025013 (exp -0.4) 0.670320 4.43. (expt ) <>, <>. , . , . : (expt 2 4) 16 (expt 3.0 2.0) 9.000000 4.44. (fix ) <> . <> , . , . : (fix 3) 3 (fix 3.7) 3.000000 4.45.(float ) <> . <> , . : (float 3) 3.000000 (float 3.7) 3.700000 4.46.(foreach ) <>, <> < >. < > . FOREACH <>. : (foreach n'(a b c)(print n)) (print a) (print b) (print c) FOREACH . 4.47.(gcd ) <1> <2>. <1> <2> . : (gcd 81 57) 3 (gcd 12 20) 4 4.48.(getangle [][] . <> - , , - 2D. , . , , .., . "" , 2D . , . GETANGLE ( ) , "" " , . GETANGLE : (setq ang (getangle)) (setq ang (getangle '(1.0 3.5)) (setq ang (getangle "Which way?") (setq ang (getangle '(1.0 3.5)"Which way?") GETANGLE. "Can't reenter Autolisp" ( "). . GETORIENT INITGET. 4.49. (getcorner []) GETCORNER , GETPOINT. , GETCORNER <> <> . . GETPOINT INITGET. GETCORNER, . 4.50.(getdist [][]) . <> - , , - . , . , , (), . "" , . , . GETDIST ( ) , "" , . GETDIST. (setq dist (getdist)) (setq dist (getdist '(1.0 3.5)) (setq dist (getdist "How far?") (setq dist (getdist '(1.0 3.5)"How far?") GETDIST. . INITGET. 4.51.(getint[]) . <> - , . : (setq num (getint)) (setq num (getint "Enter a number:")) ( ) GETINT. . INITGET. 4.52.(getkword []) GETKWORD . GETKWORD, , INITGET ( ). GETWORD , . , . () ( ). , . : (initgent 1 "Yes N") (setq x (getkword "Are you sure? (Yes or No)")) "Yes", "No", . , , . GETKWORD. . INITGET. 4.53.(getorient [][]) , - ( ) , . , , - INITS ANGBASE ANGDIR. GETORIENT GETANGLE, - -, GETANGLE. GETANGLE , ( ), GETORIENT ( ). , INITS - 90 () - . , GETANGLE GETORIENT ( ) ( ). Input (degrees)GETANGLEGETORIENT0 0.0000001.57079690 1.5707963.1415931803.1415934.71238990 (-90 270?)  4.7123890.000000 , GETANGLE , - . , GETANGLE / , - . , GETORIENT - , . , GETORIENT , . , UNITS, 90 . GETORIENT. . GETANGLE INITGET. 4.54. (getpoint [] []) . - , - , . . , . : (setq p (getpoint)) (setq p (getpoint "Where?")) "?" (setq p (getpoint '(1.5 2.0) "Second point:") GETPOINT 2D ( ). INITGET ".3D", GETPOINT 3D ( ). GETPOINT. . GETCORNER INITGET. 4.55.(getreal []) . <> - , . : (setq val (getreal) (setq val (getreal " :") GETREAL. . INITGET. 4.56.(getstring [][]) . , ( RETURN). RETURN. <> - , . : (setq s (getstring)) (setq s (getstring "What's your first name?")) (setq s (getstring T "What's your full name?")) ( ), GETSTRING GETKWORD. GETSTRING. 4.57.(getvar ) . "". , , 0.25 : (getvar "FILLETRAD") 0.250000 . . SETVAR. 4.58.(graphscr) GRAPHSCR - ( "Flip screen" ). GRAPHSCR . . TEXTSCR. 4.59.(if ) . , , . () - . IF ; , , IF . : (if (=1 3)"Yes!!" "No") "No" (if (=2 (+1 1)) "Yes!!") "Yes!!" (if (=2 (+3 4)) "Yes!!") nil 4.60.(initget [][]) GETxxx ( GETSTRING GETVAR). INTGET . - : INITGET Bits 1  2  4  8  , limcheck16  3D , 2D 0 31. (, , ), . : (initget (+ 1 2 4)) (setq age (getint "How old are you?") : " ?" , , , . , ( ). GETxxx, ( ): INITGET control bits honored ( INITGET)No nullNo zerroNo neg.No limits3D hointsGETINT(((GETREAL(((GETDIST (((GETANGLE(((GETORIENT(((GETPOINT(((GETCORNER(((GETKWORD(GETSTRINGGETVAR INITGET , GETxxx, (, GETPOINT). , GETxxx STRING. . , . : "KEY1 KEY2 KEY3 ABBREV3". . () , . , - ; , . , . - , . ( - , - ). : "LTYPE,LT" "LType" - . , "LTYPE", "LTYP", "LTY" "LT" , "L"- , "LTSCALE" "LTYPEX" . , (defun getnum (ix) (initget 1 "Pi Two-pi") (setq x (getreal "Pi/Two-pi/:")) (cond((eqx "Pi") pi) ((eq x "Two-pi")(*2.0 pi)) (T x) ) ) INITGET "Pi" "TWO-Pi". GETREAL , "Pi/Two-pi/:", . , GETNUM. , "Pi" ( "P"), GETPOINT "Pi". COND , , Pi. "Two-pi" . INITGET GETxxx , . . 4.61.(inters []) INTERS , , . - , - . , , INTERS . - , INTERS . , : (setq a'(1.0 1.0) b'(9.0 9.0)) (setq c'(4.0 1.0) d'(4.0 2.0)) : (inters a b c d) nil (inters a b c d T) nil (inters a b c d nil) (4.000000 4.000000) 4.62.(itoa ) . : (itoa 33) "33" (itoa -17) "-17" 4.63 (lambda ...) LAMBDA "" . . , . LAMBDA <> APPLY / MAPCAR . : (apply '(lambda (x y z) (* x (-y z) ) '(5 20 14) ) 30 : (mapcar '(lambda (x) (setq counter (1 + counter)) (* x 5) ) '(24 -6 10.2) ) (10 20 -30 51.000000) 4.64.(last) <>. <> . : (last '(a b c d e)) E (last '(a b c (d e))) (DE) , LAST , . , LAST- Y . 2D ( ), LAST Z 3D . , , 2D 3D, CADR Y CADDR Z. 4.65.(length ) , <>. : (length '(a b c d) 4 (length '(a b (c d)) 3 (length '()) 0 4.66.(list ...) () , . : (list 'a 'b 'c) (A B C) (list 'a '(d c) 'd) (A (B C) D) (list 3.9 6.7) (3.90000 6.70000) 2D 3D ( ). 4.67. (listp ) T, - , nil . : (listp '(a b c)) T (listp 'a) nil (listp 4.343) nil 4.68.(load ) . - , ( ".lsp" ). , "/function/test1" ("/ 1"). MS-DOS/PC-DOS (, a: c:) ( , "\\" ). , LOAD . , LOAD . , , "/fred/test1.lsp" DEFUN MY-FUN, "test2.lsp" : (load "/fred/test1") MY-FUNC (load "test2" "test" LOAD . ( , /script file/), . , , "acad.lsp", . , , . 4.69.(log ) log <>. : (log 4.5) 1.504077 (log 1.22) 0.198850 4.70.(logand ...) AND/ <>. <> , . : (logand 7 15 3) 3 (logand 2 3 15) 2 (logand 8 3 4) 0 4.71.(logior ) OR/ <>. <> , . : (logior 1 2 3) 7 (logior 9 3) 11 4.72.(lsh ) . <1> < > , . < > , <1> , - . "" , , , (shift in/shift out). "" (into/out) (16- ) , . : (lsh 2 1) 4 (lsh 2 -1) 1 (lsh 40 2) 160 (lsh 16384 1) -32768 4.73.(mapcar ...) MAPCAR <> <1> < n>, <>. <> , <>. : (mapcar '1+'(10 20 30) (11 21 31) (1 + 10) (1 + 20) (1 + 30) MAPCAR . : (mapcar '+'(10 20 30)'(4 3 2) (14 23 32) : (+10 4) (+20 3) (+30 2) LAMBDA "" , MAPCAR. , - . : (mapcar '(lambda (x)(+ x 3))'(10 20 30) (13 23 33) (mapcar '(lambda (x y z) (* x (-y z) ) '(5 6)'(20 30)'(145.0) ) (30 150.000000) 4.47.(max ...) <>. <> . : (max 4.07 -144) 4.070000 (max -88 19 5 2) 19 4.75.(member ) <> <> <>, , <>. <> <>, MEMBER . : (member 'c '(a b c d e) (C D E) (member 'q '(a b c d e) nil 4.76.(menucmd ) MENUCMD . , , , /. <> MENUCMD : section - submenu ( - ) section / . : S - (SCREEN) B - (BUTTONS) T1-T4 - (TABLET) 1 4 A1 - AUXI . submenu . / ( "**") , . . 5. , "S", , . : (menucmd "S = OSNAP") "OSNAP" (, ). : (menucmd "B" = "MY-BUTTONS") "MY-BUTTONS" . MENUCMD nil. 4.77.(min ...) <>. <> . : (min 683 -10.0) -10.000000 (min 73 2 48 5) 2 4.78.(minusp ) T, - , nil. . : (minusp -1) T (minusp -4.293) T (minusp 830.2) nil 4.79.(not ) T, - . , NULL , NOT . , : (setq a 123) (setq b "string") (setq c nil) : (not a) nil (not b) nil (not c) T (not '()) T 4.80.(nth ) "nth" <>, - ( - ). , <>, nil. : (nth 3 '(a b c d e)) D (nth 0 '(a b c d e)) A (nth 5 '(a b c d e) nil 4.81.(null ) , , nil. , : (setq a 123) (setq b "string") (setq c nil) : (nul a) nil (nul b) nil (nul c) T (nul '()) T 4.82.(numberp ) T, - , . , : (setq a 123) (setq b 'a) : (numberp 4 ) T (numberp 3.8348) T (numberp "Howdy") nil (numberp 'a) nil (numberp a) T (numberp b) nil (numberp (eval b)) T 4.83.(open ) I/O . , I/O , setq. : (setq a(open "file.ext" "r")) - , . - /. , . mode : PEN mode"r" . , "w"  . , . , ."a" . , . , , , , . DOS, - (CTRL Z, ASCII 26) . DOS -, CTRL Z , . "a" OPEN , , CTRL Z . , : (setq f(open "new.tst" "w")) (setq f(open "nouch.fil" "r")) nil (setq f(open "logfile" "a")) , "test/func3" MS-DOS ; ( , "\\" ). : (setq f(open "/x/new.tst" "w") (setq f(open nosuch.fil" "r") nil 4.84.(or ..) OR/ . , . : (or nil 'a '()) T (or nil '()) nil 4.85.(osnap ) , (snap) , . - , , "midpoint", "center" .., . : (setq pt2 (osnap pt1 "midp")) (setq pt2 (osnap pt1 "midp,endp,center") - 2D ( ), 2D. 3D ( ), 3D. , /, , . 4.86. pi , pi. 3,1415926. 4.87.(polar ) . - , . : (polar '(1.0 1.0) 0.785398 1.414214) (2.000000 2.000000) 4.88. (prin1[]) . , . ( , ), <> , . <>, . , : (setq a 123) (setq b '(a)) (prin1 'a) A A (prin1 a) 123 123 (prin1 b) (A) (A) (prin1 "Hello") "Hello" "Hello" , < >. , F - , : (prin1 "Hello" f) "Hello" "Hello". - , , PRIN1 " ". \e escape \n newline \r return , \t tab \nnn , nnn : (prin1 (chr 2)) "\002" "\002" (prin1 (chr 10)) "\n" "\n" 4.89.(princ []) , PRIN1, , . , PRIN1 , LOAD , PRINC READ-LINE . 4.90. (print []) , PRIN1, , , . 4.91. (progn ...) <> . PROGN , . : (if (=a b) (progn (setq a (+a 10) (setq b (-b 10) ) IF "then", - . PROGN . 4.92.(prompt ) / . - . , PROMPT PRINC. : (prompt "New value:") "New value:" . 4.93.(quote ) <>. : 'expr : (quote a) A (quote cat) CAT (quote (a b)) (A B) 'a A 'cat CAT '(a b) (A B) 4.94. (read ) , <>. <> . : (read "hello") HELLO (read "hi") HI (read "(a)") (A) 4.95.(read-char []) , . ( ) ASCII , . , , READ-CHAR , - ( RETURN !). , , : (read-char) , - . "A B C", RETURN, READ-CHAR 65 ( ASCII "A"). READ-CHAR 66, 67 10 ( ) . READ-CHAR, . 4.96. (read-line []) , . , READ-LINE , , . , F - : (read-line f) , , . 4.97 (redraw [[]]) . , (redraw) , REDRAW. , (redraw ) . GRCLEAR . REDRAW : () - , , - : Redraw Mode Action/1  2  ( )3  ( )4  ( ) - ( ), , . , REDRAW . , REDRAW . 4.98.(rem ...) ( ). mod mod - . REM . : (rem 42 12) 6 (rem 12.0 16) 12.000000 (rem 60 3) 0 4.99.(repeat ...) <> . . , : (setq a 10) (setq b 100) : (repeat 4 (setq a(+ a 10))) (setq b(+ b 10))) ) 140 4.100.(reverse ) <> . : (reverse '((a)b c)) (C B (A)) 4.101. (rtos []) , <> () / / , DIMZIN. <> <> - , . <>: RTOS  1 2 3 ( )4 ( )5   LUNITS LUPREC . , LUPREC LUNITS. RTOS: (rtos 17.5 1 4) "1.7500E+01" (rtos 17.5 2 2) "17.50" (rtos 17.5 3 2) "1'-5.50"" (rtos 17.5 4 2) "1'-5 1/2"" (rtos 17.5 5 2) "17 1/2" 5. 5.1. . . . .mnu. .mnx. LISP- .mnl. LISP-, . .mnd. , . mc, SAMPLE. .mnu , .mnx, , . , -, . . menu (). ; . menu : Command: MENU . .mnu, , .mnx, MNX- , MNU-, . MNU- MNX-. MNU- , MNX-. MNX- , , . FILEDIA, : Command: MENU : (: ) Menu file name or . for none : : ( . < >: . , , . . MENU. 5.2. , , , , . : ***SCREEN - ; ***BUTTONSn - , n - 1 4; ***AUXn - , n - 1 4; ***POPn - , n - 1 16; ***ICON - ; ***TABLETn - , n - 1 4. , . : ***SCREEN [Help]help [Bye]end ***BUTTONS erase oops Help Bye , erase oops - . ***SCREEN, , ***SCREEN . 5.3. , , . , ARC DRAW , ARC. . . . . : ** < > <> . 31 , , , $, - (), _ ( ). . , : **MOVE 3 [MOVE:]^C^CMOVE Window Last Previous Crossing Remove Add Undo **MOVE MOVE. [MOVE:] , MOVE. , , . , , 20 . . , , , . . , **MOVE 3 * * * *, MOVE:. , : $<>=<> , <> - . : S - SCREEN; P1 - P16 - POP 1 16; I - ICON; B1 - B4 - BUTTONS; T1 - T4 - TABLET1 - TABLET4; A1 - A4 - AUX1. <> - ** , . , EDIT MOVE $S=MOVE: **EDIT 3 ... [MOVE:]^C^C$S=MOVE ... , , , . , , $S=. , LAST , : [_LAST_]^C^C$S= , , . . , . , .. , COLOR $=X $S=LACOLOR: [COLOR:]^C^CCOLOR $S=X $S=LACOLOR ... **X 3 ... [_LAST]$S= $S= [DRAW]^C^C$S=X $S=DR [EDIT]^C^C$S=X $S=ED ... **LACOLOR 3 [COLOR] red yellow green cyan blue magenta white ... COLOR, X LACOLOR COLOR. , . . . , SNAP 0.01 SNAP 0.0. , [ ]. . . , , : [MYSNAP]SNAP 0.01 . . , . , , . . , +. + , . . \ . , [CIRCLE-3]circle \3 [erase 1]erase \; CIRCLE-3 , , 3. ERASE 1 , ; . : , ; , ; SELECT (); ; ( ), ( , ). , , (, ), (_): [, , ]^C^C_arc;_c;\\_l ^C^C. . ^C, ^C^C Command: (, DIM); ^C^C. , , , , , . MENUECHO. - , ^P . . . : ;, ENTER. - \, ; +, . ASCII ^ . , ^ , /. - . *^C^C ( ), Command: , . ^C , *^C^C, .. . : *** - ; ** - ; [] - , , , , , ; ; - ; ^M - ; ^I - ; \ - ; _ - ; + - , =* - , ; *^C^C - ; $ - , ; ^B - ; ^C - ; ^D - ; ^E - ; ^G - ; ^H - ; ^O - ; ^P - MENUECHO; ^Q - , ; ^T - ; ^V - . , , S- . , S-, : [BOX](setq a (getpoint Enter first corner:));\+ (setq b (getpoint Enter second corner:));\+ pline !a (list (car a) (cadr b)) !b (list (car b) (cadr a)) c; 255 - . 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