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(EU Association Agreements), 1991  1993 >;30@8O, '5E8O ,5=3@8O, >;LH0, C<K=8O, !;>20:8O, -AB>=8O, 0B28O, 8B20, !;>25=8O =8F80B820 @54?@8OB85 4;O 2A59 <5@8:8 (Enterprise for the American Initiative  EAI) 1990!(, 1>;LH8=AB2> ;0B8=>0<5@8:0=A:8E 8 F5=B@0;L=>0<5@8:0=A:8E 3>AC40@AB2>=K A2>1>4=>9 B>@3>2;8 (!")2@>?59A:0O 0AA>F80F8O A2>1>4=>9 B>@3>2;8  EACT (European Free Trade Association  EFTA)? 1960 2AB@8O, $8=;O=48O, A;0=48O, 8EB5=HB59=, >@2538O, (25F8O 2@>?59A:0O M:>=><8G5A:0O 7>=0 (European Economic Area  EEA), 1994 !B@0=K 2@>?59A:>3> A>N70, A;0=48O, 8EB5=HB59= 0;B89A:0O !" (Baltic FTA)? 1993 -AB>=8O, 0B28O, 8B20 &5=B@0;L=>52@>?59A:0O !" (Central European FTA), 1992 '5E8O, 5=3@8O, >;LH0, !;>20:8O !525@>0<5@8:0=A:0O !" (North American Free Trade Agreement  NAFTA), 1994 0=040, 5:A8:0, !(!>3;0H5=85 > A2>1>45 B>@3>2;8 AB@0= ! (ASEAN Free Trade Agreement  AFTA), 1992 @C=59, =4>=578O, 0;0978O, $8;8??8=K, !8=30?C@, "08;0=42B@0;89A:> - >2>75;0=4A:>5 B>@3>2>5 A>3;0H5=85 >1 C3;C1;5=88 M:>=><8G5A:8E A2O759 (Australia  New Zeland Closer Economic Relation Trade Agreement ANZCERTA ) 1983 2AB@0;8O, >20O 5;0=48O0=3:>:A:>5 A>3;0H5=85 (Bangkog Agreement), 19930=3;045H, =48O, 5A?C1;8:0 >@5O, 0>A, (@8 0=:0 "0<>65==K5 A>N7K ("!)AA>F80F8O ! A "C@F859 (Turkey Association Agreement  EU), 1963 !, "C@F8O@01A:89 >1I89 @K=>: Arab Common Market  ACM), 196438?5B, @0:, >@40=8O, 828O, 02@8B0=8O, !8@8O, 5<5= &5=B0;L=>0<5@8:0=A:89 >1I89 @K=>: (Central American Common Market  CACM), 1961 >AB0 8:0, !0;L204>@, 20B5<0;0, >=4C@0A, 8:0@03C0!" <564C >;C<1859, -:204>@>< 8 5=5ACM;;>9 (Colombia, Ecuador? Venezuela  FTA), 1992 >;C<18O, -:204>@, 5=5ACM;;0@30=870F8O 2>AB>G=>-:0@81A:8E 3>AC40@AB2 (Organizzation of East Caribbean States), 1992=B83C0 8 0@1C40, ><8=8:0, @5=040, >=BA5@@0B, !5=B-8BA 8 528A, !5=B-NA8O, !5=B-8=A5=B 8 @5=048=K 1I89 @K=>:  )!>25B A>B@C4=8G5AB20 0@01A:8E AB@0= 5@A84A:>3> 70;820 (The Gulf Cooperation Council), 1981 0E@59=, C259B, <0=, 0B0@, !0C4>2A:0O @028O=4A:89 >1I89 @K=>: (Andean Common Market, Andean Pact), 1990 >;828O, >;C<18O, -:204>@, 5@C, 5=5ACM;;00B8=>0<5@8:0=A:0O 8=B53@0F8->==0O 0AA>F80F8O   (Latin American Integration Association  LAIA), 1960 @35=B8=0, >;828O, @078;8O, '8;8, >;C<18O, -:204>@, 5:A8:0, 5@C, #@C3209, 5=5ACM;;01I89 @K=>: N6=>3> :>=CA0  !#  (Southern Cone Common Market  MERCOSUR) @35=B8=0, @078;8O, 0@03209, #@C32090@81A:>5 A>>1I5AB2> 8 0@81A:89 >1I89 @K=>:    (Carribian Community and Market  CARICOM), 1973@35=B8=0 8 0@1C40, 030<A:85 >AB@>20, 0@104>A, 5;87, ><8=8:0, @5=040, 090=0, /<09:0, >=BA5@@0B,!5=B-8BA 8 528A, !5=B-NA8O 8 @5=048=K, "@8=8404 8 ">103>-:>=><8G5A:85 A>N7K (-!)2@>?59A:>5 A>>1I5AB2> (European Communites  EC), 1957, ?>765 2@>?59A:89 A>N7  ! (European Union  EU), 19932B@8O, 5;L38O, 5;8:>1@8B0=8O, 0=8O, 5@<0=8O, @5F8O, @;0=48O, A?0=8O, B0;8O, N:A5<1C@3, 845@;0=4K, >@BC30;8O, $8=;O=48O, $@0=F8O, (25F8O -:>=><8G5A:89 A>N7  5=8;N:A (Belgium? Netherland? Luxemburg Economic Union _ BENILUX), 1948 5;L38O, 845@;0=4K, N:A5<1C@3!>4@C65AB2> =57028A8<KE 3>AC40@AB2 (Commonwealth of Independent States), 1992@<5=8O, 75@109460=, 5;0@CAL, @C78O, 070EAB0=, 8@3878O, >;4028O, >AA8O, "0468:8AB0=, "C@:<5=8O, #:@08=0, #715:8AB0= !>N7 0@01A:>3> 03@810 (Arab Maghreb Union), 1989 ;68@, 828O, 02@8B0=8O, 0@>::>, "C=8A56AB@0=>20O 8=8F80B820 (Cross  Border Initiative), 1993C@C=48, ><>@A:85 AB@>20, 5=8O, 04030A:0@, 0;028, 02@8B0=8O, 0<818O, C0=40, !59H5;LA:85 AB@>20, "0=70=8O, #30=40, 0<18O, 8<10125 03>AA:89 ?;0= 459AB289 (Lagos Plan of Action), 1973 A5 AB@0=K D@8:8 : N3C >B !0E0@K!>N7 @5:8 0=C (Manu River Union), 1973 28=5O, 815@8O, !L5@@0-8>=50?04=>0D@8:0=A:89 M:>=><8G5A:89 8 20;NB=K9 A>N7 (West African Economic and Monetary Union), 19945=8=, C@:8=0-$0AA>,>5-4 2C0@, 0;8, 835@, !5=530;, ">3> AB>@8G5A:8 =081>;55 G5B:> 8=B53@0F8>==K5 ?@>F5AAK ?>;CG8;8 @0728B85 2 0?04=>9 2@>?5, 345 2> 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=5 %% AB>;5B8O A:;04K205BAO E>7O9AB25==>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2>, 2 @0<:0E :>B>@>3> D>@<8@CNBAO >1I85 CA;>28O ?@>872>4AB20 8 A>7405BAO <5E0=87< 53> @53C;8@>20=8O. 45AL 8=B53@0F8O 4>AB83;0 =081>;55 7@5;KE D>@<.  =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8 2 2@>?59A:>< A>N75 ?@0:B8G5A:8 A>740=K >A=>2K 548=>3> @K=:0, A8AB5<0 <564C=0@>4=>3> C?@02;5=8O, 8 AB@0=K 2?;>B=CN ?>4>H;8 : >:>=G0B5;L=><C >D>@<;5=8N M:>=><8G5A:>3> 20;NB=>3> 8 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> A>N70 2@>?59A:89 M:>=><8G5A:89 A>N7. >@=8 MB>3> A>N70 CE>4OB 2 2@>?59A:>5 >1J548=5=85 C3;O 8 AB0;8 (#!), :>B>@>5 1K;> >1@07>20=> 2 1951-1952 33. 8<A:8< 4>3>2>@>< 1957 3>40 1K;> A>740=> 2@>?59A:>5 M:>=><8G5A:>5 A>>1I5AB2>, :>B>@>5 1>;LH5 1K;> 8725AB=> :0: 2@>?59A:89 1I89 @K=>:. CBL : M:>=><8G5A:><C A>N7C 70=O; =5 >4=> 45AOB8;5B85. &5=B@0;L=>9 8, ?>60;C9, A0<>9 A;>6=>9 ?@>1;5<>9 53> A>740=8O 1K;> D>@<8@>20=85 548=>9 20;NB=>9 A8AB5<K. -B0 ?@>1;5<0 1K;0 >1>7=0G5=0 5I5 8<A:8< 4>3>2>@><, :>B>@K9 ?@54CA<0B@820;, GB> 20;NB=0O ?>;8B8:0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 AD5@C >1I8E 8=B5@5A>2, >4=0:> A>740=8O ?>;=>F5==>3> M:>=><8G5A:>3> 8 20;NB=>3> A>N70 =5 ?@54?>;030;>AL. 0G02H89AO 2 :>=F5 60-E 33. :@878A 20;NB=>9 A8AB5<K, >A=>20==>9 =0 7>;>B>-4>;;0@>2>< AB0=40@B5, 70AB028; AB@0=K ! ?>AB028BL =0 ?>25AB:C 4=O 2>?@>A > A>740=88 ?>;=>F5==>3> 52@>?59A:>3> 20;NB=>3> A>N70. 4>1@5==K9 3;020<8 3>AC40@AB2 8 ?@028B5;LAB2 ! 2 1969 3. B0: =07K205<K9 ?;0= 5@=5@0 ?@54CA<0B@820; D>@<8@>20=85 A>N70 2 B@8 MB0?0, GB> 4>;6=> 1K;> ?@825AB8 : ?>O2;5=8N 2 1980 3. 548=>9 52@>?59A:>9 20;NBK. >A;54>202H89 70B5< >:>=G0B5;L=K9 @0720; @5BB>=-2C4A:>9 20;NB=>9 A8AB5<K, <8@>2>9 M:>=><8G5A:89 :@878A 8 @57:>5 ?>2KH5=85 F5= =0 =5DBL =5 ?>72>;8;8 AB@0=0< ! ?5@59B8 : ?@0:B8G5A:>9 @50;870F88 ?;0=0 5@=5@0. B =53> >AB0;0AL B>;L:> 4>3>2>@5==>ABL > A8AB5<5 2708<=>3> :>;510=8O >1<5==KE :C@A>2. 0<5B82H0OAO 2 A5@548=5 80-E 33. B5=45=F8O : >74>@>2;5=8N M:>=><8G5A:>9 :>=JN=:BC@K A>740;0 1;03>?@8OB=K5 CA;>28O 4;O D>@A8@>20=8O 8=B53@0F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0.  1985 3. 3>AC40@AB20 ! ?@8=O;8 48=K9 52@>?59A:89 0:B, ?@54CA<0B@8202H89 A>740=85 4> :>=F0 1992 3. 548=>3> 2=CB@5==53> @K=:0 !. 0725@=C2H0OAO @01>B0 ?> 53> D>@<8@>20=8N 4>AB0B>G=> 1KAB@> ?>:070;0, GB> >= <>65B 1KBL ?>;CG5= ;8HL ?@8 ?0@0;;5;L=>< D>@<8@>20=88 ?>;=>F5==>3> 20;NB=>3> A>N70. "578A 5B 548=>3> @K=:0 157 548=>9 20;NBK ?>;CG8; ?>445@6:C ?>402;ONI53> 1>;LH8=AB20 AB@0= !, :>B>@K5 =0 A2>5< 30==>25@A:>< 2@>A>25B5 (8N=L 1988 3.) ?@8=O;8 @5H5=85 > @07@01>B:5 ?;0=0 ?>MB0?=>3> D>@<8@>20=8O M:>=><8G5A:>3> 8 20;NB=>3> A>N70 (-!). B>3>< AB0; >3>2>@ > 2@>?59A:>< A>N75, A>3;0A>20==K9 =0 2@>A>25B5 2 00AB@8EB5 9-11 45:01@O 1991 3. 8 ?>4?8A0==K9 B0< 65 2 D52@0;5 1992 3. 00AB@8EBA:89 4>3>2>@ ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?>?@02:8 8 4>?>;=5=8O : 8<A:><C 4>3>2>@C 1957 3. >1 CG@5645=88 2@>?59A:>3> M:>=><8G5A:>3> A>>1I5AB20. >A;5 @0B8D8:0F88 00AB@8EA:>3> 4>3>2>@0 2@>?59A:>5 A>>1I5AB2> AB0;> >D8F80;L=> 8<5=>20BLAO 2@>?59A:8< A>N7><. -B>B 4>:C<5=B A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> >A=>2=>9 70:>=><5@=>ABLN 8=B53@0F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0 O2;O5BAO 53> ?>AB5?5==>5 2>AE>645=85 >B 7>=K A2>1>4=>9 B>@3>2;8 G5@57 B0<>65==K9 A>N7 8 548=K9 2=CB@5==89 @K=>: : 20;NB=>-M:>=><8G5A:><C 8 ?>;8B8G5A:><C A>N7C. $>@A8@>20=85 8=B53@0F88, ?>?KB:8 >1>9B8 BC 8;8 8=CN 55 AB048N :>=B@?@>4C:B82=K. 00AB@8EBA:89 4>3>2>@ ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 C65 B@5BLN ?>?KB:C A>740=8O 2 0?04=>9 2@>?5 20;NB=>3> 8 M:>=><8G5A:>3> A>N70. 5@2K5 425 ?>?KB:8 ?@54?@8=8<0;8AL 2 CA;>28OE, :>340 =5 1K;0 4>AB83=CB0 =5?>A@54AB25==> ?@54H5AB2CNI0O -! AB048O 8=B53@0F88  548=K9 2=CB@5==89 @K=>:, 8 >:070;8AL 157CA?5H=K<8. $C=40<5=B>< 65 00AB@8EBA:>3> 4>3>2>@0 2KABC?05B ?@>3@0<<0 548=>3> 2=CB@5==53> @K=:0, 2 >A=>2=KE A2>8E M;5<5=B0E 7025@H5==0O : =0G0;C 1993 3. 8 >15A?5G82H0O ACI5AB2>20=85 =0 B5@@8B>@88 ! G5BK@5E A2>1>4  42865=85 B>20@>2, CA;C3, :0?8B0;>2 8 @01>G59 A8;K. !>740=85 548=>3> @K=:0, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 40;> AB8<C; D>@A8@>20=8N ?@>F5AA0 20;NB=>9 8=B53@0F88, ?>A:>;L:C AB0;> >G5284=K<, GB> <0:A8<0;L=K5 ?@58<CI5AB20 >B 548=>3> @K=:0 <>3CB 1KBL 872;5G5=K ?@8 CA;>288 22545=8O 548=>9 20;NBK. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K  548=K9 @K=>: AB0; B>9 <0B5@80;L=>9 107>9, =0 :>B>@>9 <>65B AB@>8BLAO ?>;=>F5==K9 M:>=><8G5A:89 A>N7.  A>>B25BAB288 A 00AB@8EBA:8< 4>3>2>@>< M:>=><8G5A:89 8 20;NB=K9 A>N7 A>7405BAO 2 B@8 MB0?0, A@>:8 8 A>45@60=85 :>B>@KE >D8F80;L=> 70D8:A8@>20=K. 5@2K9 MB0? =0G0;AO, :0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL 2KH5, 1 8N;O 1990 3., 8 53> >A=>2=K< A>45@60=85< O2;ONBAO C:@5?;5=85 20;NB=>9 A8AB5<K 8 >15A?5G5=85 ;815@0;870F88 42865=8O :0?8B0;>2. B>@>9 MB0? DC=:F8>=8@C5B A 1 O=20@O 1994 3. = >7=0<5=>20;AO A>740=85< 2@>?59A:>3> 20;NB=>3> 8=AB8BCB0, ?@54B5G8 1C4CI53> F5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0 !. "@5B89 MB0?, >7=0G0NI89 22545=85 548=>9 20;NBK 8 548=>3> 10=:0, 2ABC?8; 2 A8;C A 1 O=20@O 1999 3. 0@O4C A 2@>?59A:8< A>N7>< 2 2@>?5 ACI5AB2C5B 5I5 >4=0 AC3C1> M:>=><8G5A:0O >@30=870F8O  2@>?59A:0O 0AA>F80F8O A2>1>4=>9 B>@3>2;8 (!"). =0 A>740=0 2 1960 3.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O G;5=0<8 !" O2;ONBAO 2AB@8O, A;0=48O, >@2538O, $8=;O=48O, (25F8O 8 (259F0@8O. >3>2>@ !" @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO 8 =0 8EB5=HB59=. -B0 >@30=870F8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 7>=C A2>1>4=>9 B>@3>2;8. > @568< A2>1>4=>3> 15A?>H;8==>3> B>20@>>1>@>B0 2 @0<:0E !" 459AB2C5B B>;L:> 2 >B=>H5=88 ?@><KH;5==KE B>20@>2 8 =5 @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =0 A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==CN ?@>4C:F8N.  >B;8G85 >B ! 745AL 70 :064>9 AB@0=>9 A>E@0=O5BAO 2=5H=5B>@3>20O 02B>=><8O 8 A>1AB25==K5 B0<>65==K5 ?>H;8=K 2 B>@3>2;5 A B@5BL8<8 AB@0=0<8, 548=>3> B0<>65==>3> B0@8D0 =5 ACI5AB2C5B. !>25B, :C40 2E>4OB ?@54AB028B5;8 2A5E AB@0= - G;5=>2 !", =5 O2;O5BAO =04=0F8>=0;L=K< >@30=>< 8 <>65B ?@8=8<0BL @5H5=8O ;8HL =0 >A=>25 548=>3;0A8O. 564C 42C<O MB8<8 >@30=870F8O<8 =01;N405BAO B5=45=F8O : 2708<>459AB28N 8 A>B@C4=8G5AB2C.  1977 3. >1@07>20;0AL 7>=0 A2>1>4=>9 B>@3>2;8 ?@><KH;5==K<8 B>20@0<8 AB@0= ! 8 !", 2 @0<:0E :>B>@>9 ;8:2848@>20;8AL B0<>65==K5 ?>H;8=K 8 C<5=LH0;8AL =5B0@8D=K5 >3@0=8G5=8O 2708<=>9 B>@3>2;8.  1991 3. 1K;> ?>4?8A0=> A>3;0H5=85 <564C AB@0=0<8 42CE 3@C??8@>2>: > A>740=88 548=>3> 52@>?59A:>3> M:>=><8G5A:>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20.  A>>B25BAB288 A MB8< A>3;0H5=85< AB@0=K-G;5=K !" =0G8=0O A 1993 3., 2:;NG0NB 2 A2>8 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 A>B=8 ?@02>2KE 0:B>2 !, :0A0NI8EAO A2>1>4=>3> 42865=8O B>20@>2, :0?8B0;>2, CA;C3, 0 B0:65 ?>;8B8:8 2 >1;0AB8 :>=:C@5=F88. @54CA<0B@8205BAO 22545=85 548=>9 20;NBK, 2K@01>B:0 >1I59 2=5H=59 ?>;8B8:8, ?>2KH5=85 @>;8 2@>?0@;0<5=B0, 22545=85 548=>3> 3@0640=AB20, A>B@C4=8G5AB2> 2 >1;0AB8 157>?0A=>AB8 8 B.4. =B53@0F88 @K=:>2 03@0@=>9 ?@>4C:F88 =5 ?@54?>;0305BAO, B0: :0: A5;LA:>5 E>7O9AB2> AB@0= !" =5 A<>3;> 1K 2K45@60BL :>=:C@5=F8N A> AB>@>=K AB@0= !.  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