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N@> ?CB5H5AB289 "><0A C: 8 AK=. >7=8:=>25=85 BC@8ABA:8E 1N@> 8 D8@< 2> 2B>@>9 ?>;>28=5 XIX 2. A=>20=85 2 1898 3. 564C=0@>4=>9 ;838 BC@8ABA:8E >@30=870F89. "5<0 3. # 8AB>:>2 >B5G5AB25==>3> BC@87<0 :0B5@8=0 II  ?5@20O ?>:@>28B5;L=8F0 ;N18B5;59 ?CB5H5AB289 2 >AA88. 0;>20==0O 3@0<>B0 42>@O=AB2C 1765 3>40. >A5I5=85 2>4>?040 <0B@0 :0B5@8=>9 II 2 1772 3>4C. ;0= ?@54?@85<;5<>3> ?CB5H5AB28O 2 GC685 :@0O 5=80<8=0 5=H0 (1777). 5@2K5 @>AA89A:85 ?CB52>48B5;8 =4@5O >340=>20 (1779), >30==0 >B;810 5>@38 (1790) 8 4@C385. !>740=85 ?5@2>9 A?5F80;878@>20==>9 D8@<K :F8>=5@=>5 >1I5AB2> <0B@0 4;O >1A;C6820=8O @>AA89A:8E ?CB5H5AB25==8:>2 ?@8 ;5:A0=4@5 II. #B25@645=85 ;5:A0=4@>< II CAB020 >1I5AB20 (28 D52@0;O 1871 3.). 5@2>5 2 >AA88 ?@54?@8OB85 4;O >1I5AB25==KE ?CB5H5AB289 2> 2A5 AB@0=K A25B0 5>?>;L40 8?A>=0 (1885). 1O70B5;LAB20 ?@8 CAB@>9AB25 >1I5AB25==KE ?CB5H5AB289: &5;LN 2AO:>3> ?CB5H5AB28O O2;O5BAO :0: C4>2>;LAB285, B0: 8 ?>CG8B5;L=>ABL. 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"C@87< 8 >1@07>20B5;L=K5 M:A:C@A88 2 4>@52>;NF8>==>9 >AA88 "C@87< 8 M:A:C@A8>==>5 45;> 2 CG51=KE 702545=8OE >AA88. -:A:C@A8>==0O 45OB5;L=>ABL ;5:A0=4@>2A:>9 CG8B5;LA:>9 H:>;K. 2545=85 M:A:C@A89 2 ?@>3@0<<K >1CG5=8O :0: MDD5:B82=>9 D>@<K ?@8>1@5B5=8O 7=0=89 8 206=>3> A@54AB20 ?0B@8>B8G5A:>3> 2>A?8B0=8O. ><8AA8O >1@07>20B5;L=KE M:A:C@A89 >AA88 ?@8 >A:>2A:>< >B45;5=88 >AA89A:>3> >1I5AB20 BC@8AB>2. >:C<5=BK, 8E A>45@60=85: 70O2;5=85, >?@>A=K9 ;8AB, <0@H@CBK M:A:C@A89 =0 1911 3. !8AB5<0 M:A:C@A8>==>9 @01>BK 8 ?@>2545=8O <=>3>4=52=KE ?CB5H5AB289 2 !0=:B-5B5@1C@3A:>9 75<A:>9 CG8B5;LA:>9 H:>;5 2 1912 1913 33. @>5:B A>740=8O CAA:>3> >1I5AB20 BC@87<0 8 >BG87=>2545=8O 2 1915 3>4C, :>B>@>5 =0<5@520;>AL A>548=8BL ?CB5H5AB28O ?> >AA88 A 0:B82=K< 87CG5=85< 8AB>@88 8 35>3@0D88 AB@0=K. "5<0 7. "C@8ABA:>-M:A:C@A8>==0O @01>B0 2 ?5@2K5 3>4K A>25BA:>9 2;0AB8 (1918 1925) . . 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A5A>N7=K9 BC@8ABA:89 ?>E>4 >@>30<8 >BF>2-35@>52 (1965 1987). 3> 2;8O=85 =0 @0728B85 BC@87<0 1@0I5=85 8E08;0 C48=0 : <>;>4568 23 D52@0;O 1965 3. > A>740=88 5;5=>3> :>;LF0 A;02K =0 @C1560E 1;>:04K. >AB0=>2;5=85 & ! >B 25 <0O 1965 3.  A5A>N7=>< BC@8ABA:>< ?>E>45 ?> <5AB0< A;02K A>25BA:>3> =0@>40. I A5A>N7=K9 A;5B CG0AB=8:>2 ?>E>40 2 @5AB5 (A5=BO1@L 1965 3.). =>3>AB>@>==89 A;54>?KBA:89 ?>8A:, ;035@L, 2KAB02:0. >A;54CNI85 MB0?K ?>E>40: 1966  >A:20, 1967  5=8=3@04, 1968  852, 1970  #;LO=>2A:, 1973  >A:20, 1975  >;3>3@04, 1977  20=>2>, 1980  8=A:, 1982  @520=, 1985  "C;0, 1987  5=8=3@04 (A5A>N7=K9 A;5B :><A><>;LF52 8 <>;>4568). A>15==>AB8 :064>3> 87 MB0?>2. @8G8=K C30A0=8O 42865=8O. "5<0 15. !8AB5<0 ?>43>B>2:8 8 ?5@5?>43>B>2:8 :04@>2 2 BC@87<5 (AB>@8G5A:89 0A?5:B) @8=OB85 @5H5=8O &5=B@0;L=K< A>25B>< ?> BC@87<C 8 M:A:C@A8O< (&!"8-) > A>740=88 A8AB5<K ?>43>B>2:8 8 ?5@5?>43>B>2:8 :04@>2 4;O BC@8ABA:>-M:A:C@A8>==>9 @01>BK (1969). B:@KB85 2 ?>A5;:5 !E>4=O, ?>4 >A:2>9, &5=B@0;L=KE BC@8ABA:8E :C@A>2. >=0;L=K5 >B45;5=8O 2 5=8=3@045, @0A=>O@A:5, 8525. B:@KB85 D0:C;LB5B0 ?> ?>43>B>2:5 :04@>2 4;O BC@8ABA:>-M:A:C@A8>==KE CG@5645=89 ?@8 KAH59 H:>;5 ?@>D42865=8O (>A:20, 1973). 2545=85 A?5F80;870F88 ?> :@052545=8N 8 M:A:C@A8>==>9 @01>B5 2 C=825@A8B5B0E 8=A:0 8 >AB>20-=0->=C =0 35>3@0D8G5A:8E D0:C;LB5B0E. >;L !525@>-0?04=KE :C@A>2. !>740=85 =AB8BCB0 ?>2KH5=8O :20;8D8:0F88 @01>B=8:>2 BC@8ABA:>-M:A:C@A8>==KE >@30=870F89 =0 1075 :C@A>2. !>740=85 564C=0@>4=>9 0:045<88 BC@87<0 CG51=>3> ?@>D8;O (1992). @5>1@07>20=85 !0=:B-5B5@1C@3A:>3> D8;80;0 0:045<88 2 0;B89A:89 <564C=0@>4=K9 8=AB8BCB BC@87<0 (1992). "5<0 16. 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"5<0 17. 5>@30=870F8O BC@87<0 2 1990 3. #G@5645=85 "C@8ABA:>-A?>@B82=>3> A>N70 (>:C<5=BK 8 ?@8=F8?K 45OB5;L=>AB8) "C@87< 2 A>2@5<5==>< >1I5AB25. 1989 3>4  >BACBAB285 G5B:>9 AB@C:BC@K, <=>3>>1@0785 8 @074@>1;5==>ABL. BACBAB285 A8AB5<=>3> ?>4E>40, >B25G0NI53> 7040G0< @0728B8O C@>2=O BC@87<0 8 AB@C:BC@K C?@02;5=8O. 54>AB0B>G=>5 ?@82;5G5=85 ?>B5=F80;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 >1I5AB25==>AB8. 5>1E>48<>ABL @5>@30=870F88 BC@87<0 2 !!! . >AB0=>2;5=85 &!"8- >B 28 >:BO1@O 1990 3.  A>740=88 "C@8ABA:>-A?>@B82=>3> A>N70 !!! . 01>B0 AJ5740 "C@8ABA:>-A?>@B82=>3> A>N70 !!! . #AB02 8 45:;0@0F8O CG@548B5;L=>3> AJ5740. K1>@K @C:>2>4OI8E >@30=>2. !>740=85 5=8=3@04A:>3> BC@8ABA:>-A?>@B82=>3> A>N70 (15.05.91) 8 7025@H5=85 53> 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 A2O78 A @0A?04>< !>N70. 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