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GPS Receiver Architecture Effects on Controlled Reception Pattern Antennas for JPALS

GPS Receiver Architecture Effects on Controlled
Reception Pattern Antennas for JPALS
David S. De Lorenzo, Stanford University
Jennifer Gautier, Stanford University
Per Enge, Stanford University
Dennis Akos, University of Colorado at Boulder
David De Lorenzo is a member of the Stanford University
GPS Laboratory, where he is pursuing a Ph.D. degree in
Aeronautics and Astronautics. He received a Master of
Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from the
University of California, Davis, in 1996. David has
worked previously for Lockheed Martin and for the Intel
Dr. Jennifer Gautier is a Research Associate in the GPS
Laboratory at Stanford University, where she leads the
Lab’s research program for the Joint Precision and
Approach Landing System (JPALS). She received the
Bachelor’s degree in Aerospace Engineering from
Georgia Tech and completed the Master’s and Ph.D.
degrees in Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford
University. Dr. Gautier has worked for Lockheed,
Honeywell Labs, and Trimble Navigation, Ltd.
Dr. Per Enge is a Professor of Aeronautics and
Astronautics at Stanford University, where he is the
Kleiner-Perkins, Mayfield, Sequoia Capital Professor in
the School of Engineering. He directs the GPS Research
Laboratory, which develops satellite navigation systems
based on the Global Positioning System. Dr. Enge has
received the Kepler, Thurlow, and Burka Awards from
the Institute of Navigation for his work. He is a Fellow of
the Institute of Navigation and the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers.
Dr. Dennis M. Akos is an Assistant Professor with the
Aerospace Engineering Science Department at the
University of Colorado at Boulder. He also has served as
a faculty member with the Luleå Technical University,
Sweden, and as a Research Associate in the GPS
Laboratory at Stanford University. Dr. Akos completed
the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering at Ohio
University within the Avionics Engineering Center.
Stanford University is developing a controlled reception
pattern antenna (CRPA) array with beamsteering/
adaptive-null-forming capabilities as part of a
research testbed to evaluate CRPA algorithms and
software tools, and their effects on GPS signals and
satellite tracking performance. The correlation power
peak ratio (CPPR), defined as the ratio of the largest
correlation peak to the next-highest peak (more than 1-
chip away), is used to evaluate tradeoffs between
characteristics of multi-element GPS antenna systems.
Based on this signal-quality-based metric, a trade-space
was identified and simulations were developed to evaluate
trades in front-end architecture for the steered-beam
testbed. Specifically, the order of beam-forming and
correlation operations was found to not introduce
appreciable differences in the CPPR. However, the
number of analog-to-digital (A/D) quantization levels and
the A/D converter (ADC) dynamic range vs. signal
amplitude (e.g., the signal variance for white-noisedominated
signals) would cause changes in the CPPR –
signals were degraded for fewer numbers of A/D
quantization bits (most notably for a 1-bit ADC) and for
sub-optimal ADC dynamic range. The conclusion was
that the CRPA front-end hardware and A/D conversion
plan are feasible with integrated components and postcorrelation
beam-forming, even given the limitations in
sampling frequency and numbers of A/D quantization
levels in off-the-shelf components. Finally, a further
program of numerical simulations is proposed which will
lead to additional system design improvements and
development of a software-defined radio.

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