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Van Dijk) /:>10 ">@D8=30 (Jacob Torfing), 0@80==5 .>@35=A5= 8 C87K $8;;8?A ( Marianne Jorgensen and Louise Phillips). ;O B>3>, GB>1K 225AB8 G8B0B5;O 2 ACI5AB2CNICN 8AA;54>20B5;LA:CN A8BC0F8N 2 >1;0AB8 :;0AA8D8:0F8>==>3> 0=0;870 B5>@89 48A:C@A0, <K ?@54;0305< :@0B:89 >17>@ E0@0:B5@8AB8:, >?8A0=89 8 2K2>4>2, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@KE C:070==K5 =0<8 02B>@K >ACI5AB2;ONB 2 A2>8E @01>B0E A8AB5<0B870F8N 8 A@02=8B5;L=K9 0=0;87 =081>;55 2;8OB5;L=KE B5>@89 48A:C@A0. ;0AA8D8:0F8O 0= 59:0.  >A=>25 :;0AA8D8:0F88 B5>@89 48A:C@A0 0= 59:0 ;568B 48AF8?;8=0@=>--35=5B8G5A:89 ?>4E>4, :>B>@K9 1K; AD>@<C;8@>20= 2 22>4=>9 AB0BL5 : ?5@2><C B><C @540:B8@C5<>3> 8< G5BK@5EB><=8:0 !?@02>G=8: ?> 48A:C@A-0=0;87C(1985).  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B<5G05BAO, 2>-?5@2KE, GB> @0==89 8=B5@5A : ?@>2545=8N A8AB5<0B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A-0=0;870 1K; ?>-?@58<CI5AB2C AB@C:BC@0;8ABA:8< ?@54?@8OB85<, A2O70==K< A ?@8<5=5=85< AB@C:BC@0;8ABA:>3> ?>4E>40 2 ;8=328AB8G5A:8E 8 0=B@>?>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=8OE. @54<5B>< 87CG5=8O AB0=>28;8AL =5 B>;L:> =0@>4=K5 60=@K 8 <8DK, => B0:65 8 @8BC0;L=K5 8=B5@0:B82=K5 2708<>459AB28O. >-2B>@KE, 2 1960-E 48A:C@A-0=0;87 >1>30B8;AO A5<8>B8G5A:8<8 <5B>40<8 8AA;54>20=8O B5:AB>2, A@54AB2 <0AA>2KE :><<C=8:0F89 8 :><<C=8:0B82=KE A>1KB89. -B@5BL8E, ?>O2;5=85 =>2KE 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E =0?@02;5=89 2 @0<:0E ;8=328AB8:8 A?>A>1AB2>20;> 40;L=59H5<C @0728B8N 48A:C@A-0=0;870 :0: 2 @0<:0E ;8=328AB8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89, B0: 8 70 8E ?@545;0<8. >O2;5=85 =0 A25B 48A:C@A-0=0;870 2 AB0BCA5 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 48AF8?;8=K, ?> 0= 59:C, ?@8E>48BAO =0 ?5@8>4 1972-1974 33.  =0G0;5 1970-E ?>O2;ONBAO ?5@2K5 <>=>3@0D88 8 :>;;5:B82=K5 @01>BK, ?>;=>ABLN 8;8 G0AB8G=> ?>A2OI5==K5 48A:C@A-0=0;87C :0: >A>1>9 <5648AF8?;8=0@=>9 >B@0A;8 7=0=8O.  =0G0;5 1970-E 3>4>2 2 @0<:0E A>F8>;8=328AB8:8 2>7=8:;8 B5>@88 ?>2A54=52=>3>, @073>2>@=>3> 48A:C@A0 (Labov, Sacs, Schegloff, Jefferson), 0 2 @0<:0E D8;>A>D88 O7K:0  B5>@8O @5G52KE 0:B>2 (Austin, Grice, Searle), 2 :>B>@KE >A=>2=>5 2=8<0=85 AB0;> D8:A8@>20BLAO =0 M:AB@0;8=328AB8G5A:8E 87<5@5=8OE 48A:C@A0, 0 8<5==> - =0 8=B5=F8OE 3>2>@OI53>, 25@>20=8OE, F5==>AB=KE >@85=B0F8OE, >B=>H5=8OE <564C 3>2>@OI8< 8 A;CH0NI8<. 4=>2@5<5==> >1;0ABL ?>2A54=52=>3> 48A:C@A0 AB0=>28BAO ?@54<5B>< 87CG5=8O =>2KE A>F8>;>38G5A:8E 48AF8?;8=: <8:@>A>F8>;>388 8 D5=><5=>;>38G5A:>9 A>F8>;>388 (Goffman, Garfinkel 8 4@.). AB5AB25==K9 8 A?>=B0==K9 O7K: @073>2>@=>3> >1I5=8O AB0; @0AA<0B@820BLAO A:2>7L ?@87<C ;8=328AB8G5A:>9 ?@03<0B8:8 8 A>F80;L=KE A8BC0F89. 8A:C@A-0=0;87 ?@8>1@5; 480;>38G5A:>5 8 A8BC0B82=>5 87<5@5=8O (A8BC0B82=K9 :>=25@A0F8>==K9 48A:C@A- 0=0;87). @54<5B>< 8=B5@5A0 AB0;8 @07=>3> @>40 8=AB8BCF8>=0;L=K5 480;>38G5A:85 48A:C@AK, : ?@8<5@C, @073>2>@K CG5=8:>2 2 H:>;L=>< :;0AA5 (Sinclair and Coulthard). I5, ?> :@09=59 <5@5, 425 48AF8?;8=K, ?> <=5=8N 0= 59:0, 2=5A;8 A2>9 ACI5AB25==K9 2:;04 2 ?>O2;5=85 =>2KE B5>@89 48A:C@A0 2 1970-5 3>4K. -B> :>3=8B82=0O ?A8E>;>38O 8 8=D>@<0B8:0. 0728B85 :>3=8B82=>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@825;> : 70@>645=8N ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B5>@89 48A:C@A0 8;8 48A:C@A82=>9 ?A8E>;>388 (Kintsch, Bower, Rumelhart, Charniak). 0728B85 8=D>@<0B8:8 >1>30B8;> 48A:C@A-0=0;87 =>2K< :0B53>@80;L=K< 0??0@0B><, >?8AK20NI8< 2>A?@>872>4AB2> 7=0=8O 2 8A:CAAB25==>9 ?0<OB8.  B5G5=85 ?>A;54CNI53> 45AOB8;5B8O (1974-198533.), ?> <=5=8N 0= 59:0, CA8;8205BAO 48AF8?;8=0@=0O 8=B53@0F8O 2 AD5@5 48A:C@A-0=0;870. 5648AF8?;8=0@=K9 ?@>F5AA 87CG5=8O 48A:C@A0 AB0=>28BAO 2A5 1>;55 >4=>@>4=K< 8 02B>=><=K<. 8A:C@A-0=0;87 ?@52@0I05BAO 2 AC?5@48AF8?;8=C, 2 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2> :>B>@>9 2>2;5:0NBAO 2A5 =>2K5 8 =>2K5 >1J5:BK. 8A:C@A-0=0;87 ?@>=8:05B 2 N@848G5A:>5 ?@>AB@0=AB2>, 45;0O ?@54<5B>< A2>53> 8AA;54>20=8O N@848G5A:85 4>:C<5=BK 8 >B=>H5=8O, 8<5NI85 B5:ABC0;L=CN 8 480;>38G5A:CN ?@8@>4C. 7CG5=85 <0AA>2KE :><<C=8:0F89 M2>;NF8>=8@C5B >B :>=B5=B-0=0;870 : 1>;55 A;>6=><C 48A:C@A-0=0;87C <5480-B5:AB>2 8 <5480-2KABC?;5=89. 45AL B0:65 :0: 8 2 A5<8>B8:5 ?>425@30NBAO A8AB5<0B8G5A:><C 0=0;87C =5 B>;L:> 25@10;L=K5, => 8 287C0;L=K5 48A:C@AK  D>B>3@0D88, D8;L<K, :><8:AK 8 B. 4. ;8=8G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O >1@0I05BAO : 87CG5=8N B5@0?52B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0, A>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O  : 2708<>459AB28N :>3=8B82=KE 8 A>F80;L=KE 0A?5:B>2 ?>1C48B5;L=>9 :><<C=8:0F88, : A8BC0B82=><C 0=0;87C 25@10;L=KE 2708<>459AB289, >?A@54>20==KE 48A:C@A><. ! 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"0:8< >1@07><, 0=0;87 2708<>459AB28O 0C48B>@88 8 ! :0: A5<0=B8G5A:>9 35@8;L8 48A:C@A82=KE ?@0:B8:, ?>@>6405B A5@8N =5CAB@0=8<KE ?0@04>:A>2 8 ?@>B82>@5G89, ?@5>4>;5BL :>B>@K5 :C;LBC@=K< 8AA;54>20=8O< ?>:0 =5 C405BAO. @8<5G0=8O: 1. =0G5 MB> =0CG=>5 =0?@02;5=85 =07K20NB 8@<8=35<A:>9 H:>;>9, ?>A:>;L:C >=> A;>68;>AL 2 &5=B@5 ?> A>2@5<5==K< :C;LBC@=K< 8AA;54>20=8O<8 8@<8=35<A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 (BSCS). 2 . On Postmodernism and Articulation. In interview with Stuart Hall. Ed. By L. Grossberg// Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies. L.; N.Y.: Routledge, 1996. . 137. AB0B8, !. %>;; 1K; =5 2 2>AB>@35 8 >B ?@>2545==>3> . $C:> @07;8G8O <564C 48A:C@A>< 8 845>;>3859 3. @0<H8 ."N@5<=K5 B5B@048. '. 1. . >;8B8740B, 1991. !. 332. 4. @0<H8 .. #:07. A>G. !. 43. 5. !<.: @0<H8 .. "N@5<=K5 B5B@048. '. 1. !. 34 - 35. 6. @82545< >?@545;5=85 @5?@575=B0F88, 40==>5 !. %>;;>< 2 CG51=KE F5;OE:  >A=>25 ?@>872>4AB20 7=0G5=89 2 O7K:5 ;568B >B=>H5=85 <564C 25I0<8, :>=F5?F8O<8 8 7=0:0<8. @>F5AA, :>B>@K9 A2O7K205B MB8 B@8 M;5<5=B0 2>548=>, 8 5ABL B>, GB> <K =07K205< @5?@575=B0F859 (Hall S. The Work of Representation // Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. L., Thousand Oaks, New Dehli: SAGE Publications , 1997. . 19). 7. Hall S. The Work of Representation. . 23. 8.>;>H8=>2 . $8;>A>D8O 8 A>F8>;>38O 3C<0=8B0@=KE =0C:. !1.: AB0-@5AA, 1995. !. 236. 5AL<0 ?>:070B5;L=>, GB> 87 2A5E @01>B 10EB8=A:>3> :@C30 1@8B0=A:85 CG5=K5 2K1@0;8 =081>;55 >@B>4>:A0;L=CN A <0@:A8ABA:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O. 9."0< 65. !.236 10. Hall S. Encoding/Decoding // Media and Cultural Studies. Key Works. L., Blackwell Publishers. 2001. . 173. 11. Fiske J. Television Culture.L.;N.Y.: Methuen &Co Ltd, 1987. . 51. 12.Hall S. Encoding/ Decoding , . 175. 13. B<5B8< 1;87>ABL 40==>3> CB25@645=8O : >4=><C 87 >A=>2=KE B578A>2 A>F80;L=>9 D5=><5=>;>388 > A8BC0B82=>AB8 ?>2A54=52=>3> <KH;5=88.. 14. >;>H8=>2 . $8;>A>D8O 8 A>F8>;>38O 3C<0=8B0@=KE =0C:. !. 222. 15.Hall S. Encoding/Decoding in the Television Discourse. Birmingham, 1973. . 3. 16. Hartley J. Understanding New. L.: Routledge, 1995. . 62. 17 Hall S. Encoding/Decoding // Media and Cultural Studies, . 174. 18. Morley D. Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies. L.,N.Y.: Routledge, 1992. . 121. 19. Fiske J. Popularity and the Politics of Information// Journalism and Popular Culture. L., 1992. . 54. .$. 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"5>@88 03@5AA82=>AB8 8 03>=0;L=>AB8 O2;ONBAO 4>AB0B>G=> 8==>20F8>==K< =0?@02;5=85< 2 8AA;54>20=88 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0 8 2?>;=5 0:BC0;878@>20=K 2 =0H8 4=8. 45AL O7K: ?>;8B8:8 O2;O5BAO AD5@>9 ?@8<5=5=8O 2K@065=89 A A5<0=B8:>9 :>=D;8:B0, 25AL M:A?@5AA82=K9 A;>20@L 8 <5B0D>@8:0 :>B>@KE @0728;8AL 87 >1@070 2>>@C65==>9 1>@L1K [0940=>20, <8@>2, $54>B>2A:8E 1997].  40==>9 AB0BL5 02B>@ A>7=0B5;L=> =5 :>=:@5B878@C5B >B45;L=K5 ?@54<5B=K5 >1;0AB8 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0, ?>A:>;L:C ?@54AB02;5==K5 B5>@88 ?@54?>;030NB >?@545;5==CN <5B0?>;8B8G=>ABL 48A:C@A-0=0;870. >2>@8< ;8 <K > ;815@0;L=>< 8;8 :>=A5@20B82=>< 48A:C@A5, > ?>;8B8G5A:>< <5480-48A:C@A5, > 2=5H=5?>;8B8G5A:>< 48A:C@A5, > 48A:C@A5 >1I5AB25==>-?>;8B8G5A:>3> ?@>B5AB0 - B0: 8;8 8=0G5, =0< =5>1E>48<> 70=OBL >?@545;5==CN <5B>4>;>38G5A:CN ?>78F8N 4;O 0=0;870 MB8E 48A:C@A82=KE >1;0AB59.  B> 65 2@5<O A0<> @07=>>1@0785 <5B>4>;>38G5A:8E ?>4E>4>2 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> ?>;8B8G5A:89 48A:C@A =5 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO 2 :0:>9-B> >4=>9 ?;>A:>AB8, 157 CG5B0 2708<>?@>=8:=>25=8O >B45;L=KE 48A:C@A82=KE M;5<5=B>2. 0: 8725AB=>, ?8>=5@>< 2 >1;0AB8 87CG5=8O 48A:C@A>2 2KABC?0;0 ;8=328AB8:0.  A2O78 A MB8< ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==K<, GB> >A>7=0=85 A?5F8D8:8 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0 ?@825;> : ?>O2;5=8N 8 02B>=><=><C @0728B8N ?>;8B8G5A:>9 ;8=328AB8:8. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> >1J5:B>< MB>9 =>2>9 48AF8?;8=K O2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> ?>;8B8G5A:89 48A:C@A :0: B0:>2>9, => 8 O7K:>2K5 0A?5:BK >B=>H5=89 2;0AB8-?>4G8=5=8O, 0 B0:65 O7K:>20O ?>;8B8:0 [5@0A8<>2, ;L8= 2002; 02@8;>20 2004]. 040G0 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A-0=0;870 70:;NG05BAO 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 2 B><, GB>1K ?@>A;548BL A2O7L <564C ;8=328AB8G5A:8< 8 ?>;8B8G5A:8< ?>2545=85<. !8=B0:A8A 8 ;5:A8:0 2 48A:C@A5 8=B5@5A=K =5 A0<8 ?> A515, => 2 :0G5AB25 A@54AB2 2K@065=8O 3>2>@OI8< @07=>>1@07=KE A;>6=KE 7=0G5=89, :>B>@K5 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO A;CH0B5;O<8. 5 A;CG09=> ?@8 ?@>2545=88 48A:C@A-0=0;870 ?@54<5B>< 8AA;54>20=8O 2KABC?0NB ?@5645 2A53> >B45;L=K5 A;>20 8 2K@065=8O, 81> 8<5==> 2 =8E 70:;NG5=K B5 7=0G5=8O, :>B>@K5 @0AH8D@>2K205B 8 8=B5@?@5B8@C5B A;CH0B5;L, A>>B=>AO A> A2>8<8 687=5==K<8 F5==>ABO<8 8 C15645=8O<8. >;LH0O G0ABL ?0@0483<0B8G5A:8E 87<5=5=89, ?@>87>H54H8E 2 @07;8G=KE O7K:>2KE 48AF8?;8=0E, ACI5AB25==> @0AH8@8;0 2>7<>6=>AB8 B5>@5B8G5A:>3> >A<KA;5=8O ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0. "5< A0<K< 1K;8 A>740=K CA;>28O 4;O :0G5AB25==>3> A:0G:0 2 =0CG=>< 0=0;875 40==>3> D5=><5=0. ______________________ 07K;52 .. 1998.  87CG5=8N ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0 2 >AA88 8 @>AA89A:>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0.  >;8B8G5A:89 48A:C@A 2 >AA88, ! 2. 0@0=>2 .. (@54.) 2004. >;8B8G5A:89 48A:C@A: <5B>4K 0=0;870 B5<0B8G5A:8E AB@C:BC@ 8 <5B0D>@8:8. . 02@8;>20 .. 2004. >;8B8G5A:89 48A:C@A :0: >1J5:B ;8=328AB8G5A:>3> 0=0;870.  >;8A, ! 2. 5@0A8<>2 .., ;L8= .. 2002. >;8B8G5A:89 48A:C@A-0=0;87.  >;8B8G5A:0O =0C:0, ! 3. 0@0A8: .. 2004. /7K:>2>9 :@C3: ;8G=>ABL, :>=F5?BK, 48A:C@A. . 0@0C;>2 ..., 0@0=>2 .. 1991. CAA:0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O <5B0D>@<0 (<0B5@80;K : A;>20@N). . >G:8= ... 2003. >;8B8G5A:89 A:0=40; :0: ;8=32>:C;LBC@=K9 D5=><5=. 2B>@5D5@0B. >;3>3@04. 0940=>20 .., <8@>2 .., $54>B>2A:8E ".. 1997. 38B0F8>==K5 B5:ABK  5G520O 03@5AA8O 8 3C<0=870F8O >1I5=8O 2 A@54AB20E 8=D>@<0F88. :0B5@8=1C@3. 8;52A:0O ".., 0A5=:> .. 2004. >;8B8G5A:0O A2>1>40: >?KB 48A:C@A-0=0;870.  :BC0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K B5>@88 :><<C=8:0F88. !1. ><0=>2 .., '5@5?0=>20 ... 1998. /7K:>20O AC335AB8O 2 ?@542K1>@=>9 :><<C=8:0F88. "25@L. !;KH:8= .. 2000. B B5:AB0 : A8<2>;C: ;8=32>:C;LBC@=K5 :>=F5?BK ?@5F545=B=KE B5:AB>2 2 A>7=0=88 8 48A:C@A5. . #H0:>20 ".., 02;>20 .. (@54.) 2000. !;>2> 2 459AB288: =B5=B-0=0;87 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0. !1. 'C48=>2 .. 2001. >AA8O 2 <5B0D>@8G5A:>< 75@:0;5: :>3=8B82=>5 8AA;54>20=85 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 <5B0D>@K (1991  2000). :0B5@8=1C@3. (5930; .. 2004. !5<8>B8:0 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 48A:C@A0. . ...5=:>20 VISUAL STUDIES  " ,/ !", !&,-#"  !# !- ">< 8BG5;;, >48= 87 254CI8E =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L B5>@5B8:>2 Visual Studies >B<5G05B, GB> ?@8<5@=> 2 :>=F5 A5<845AOBKE 2 3C<0=8B0@=KE =0C:0E ?@>87>H5; 287C0;L=K9 ?>2>@>B, :>B>@K9 >7=0<5=>20;AO ?>O2;5=85< <=>3>G8A;5==KE @01>B, ?>A2OI5==KE 287C0;L=>9 :C;LBC@5. 87C0;L=K9 ?>2>@>B, :0:8< 1K ?0@04>:A0;L=K< =8 :070;>AL MB> CB25@645=85, 1K; 2K720= =5 2 ?>A;54=NN >G5@54L ;8B5@0BC@=>9 :@8B8G5A:>9 B5>@859, >1>7=0G82H593@0=8FK 25@10;L=>3> 2 >A<KA;5=88 =5;8B5@0BC@=KE D5=><5=>2. 8BG5;; (Mitchell, 1995b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rary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flaneur), >?8A0==K9 2?5@2K5 >4;5@><, 1K; ?>4E20G5= 5=LO<8=><, 2 :>=F5?F8OE :>B>@>3> MB>B B8?06 AB0; >?@545;ONI59 D83C@>9 4;O B8?0 =0H59 A>F80;L=>AB8, 8 2?>A;54AB288 >= 1K; ?>425@3=CB 35=45@=>9 :@8B8:5 60=5B >;;LD. #B25@645=85 > B><, GB> =0H5 2@5<O O2;O5BAO 1>;55 287C0;L=> 3@0<>B=K< ?5@8>4>< B0:65 A>>B=>A8BAO A ;>38:>9 @0AAC645=8O 0@B8=0 65O (Jay 1988), 53> A:>?8G5A:8<8 @568<0<8, ?>B><C :0: =0G0;> 21 25:0 <>65B 1KBL 845=B8D5F8@>20=> :0: 38?5@B@>D8@>20==>5 @0AH8@5=85 @568<0, :>B>@K9 =0720= :0@B5780=A:8< ?5@A?5:B8287<><, A?>A>1=>3> 0AA8<8;8@>20BL 15A?@5F545=B=> 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> 8=D>@<0F88.  B> 65 2@5<O, ?8H5B 659, A>2@5<5==0O A?>A>1=>ABL 2>A?@8=8<0BL 287C0;L=CN 8=D>@<0F8N, <>65B 1KBL @0AA<>B@5=0 :0: 10@>G=K9 B8? =01;N45=8O, A 53> 15A?>@O4:>< 8 CA;>6=5==>ABLN. >38G5A:8 @0AAC640O, :C;LBC@K, :>B>@K5 2:;NG5=K 2 :>=F5?F8N A:>?8G5A:>3> @568<0, B0:65 O2;ONBAO A>45@60I8<8 1>;LH5 7=0=89 > 287C0;L=>AB8, 4065 5A;8 8 2K7K205B A><=5=85 CB25@645=85 > B><, GB> >=8 O2;ONBAO 1>;55 287C0;L=> 3@0<>B=K<8. @C30O 25@A8O >B=>A8B5;L=> CB25@645=8O > 2KH5C?><O=CB>9 287C0;L=>9 3@0<>B=>AB8, ?@>8AE>48B 87 48E>B><88 <564C 287C0;L=K< 8 25@10;L=K<. 0?@8<5@, 8:>;0A 8@7>5DD (Mirzoeff 1999b) ?8H5B: 0?04=0O D8;>A>D8O 8 =0C:0 A59G0A 8A?>;L7C5B A:>@55 87>1@078B5;L=CN, G5< B5:ABC0;L=CN, <>45;L <8@0, >1>7=0G0O 7=0G8<K9 2K7>2 CB25@645=8N, GB> <8@ ?>4>15= =0?8A0==><C B5:ABC 8 <>65B 1KBL 87CG5= :0: B5:AB. ;0CA 0:A-><10E 8 ;0CA 5E:0<?5@ (Sachs-Hombach, Rehkamper, 1998) =0G8=0NB A2>N :=83C, ?>A2OI5==CN D8;>A>D88 682>?8A8, A CB25@645=8O > B><, GB> <K 6825< 2 287C0;L=K9 25:: 2 25: 87>1@065=89. 7>1@065=8O @5?@575=B8@CNB 8=D>@<0F8N, A;C60B A2O7CNI8< 725=>< <564C 8=D>@<0F859, 45;0NB 55 ?>AB868<>9, O2=>9, ?>=OB=>9. 081>;55 A8AB5<0B8G5A:0O 25@A8O 40==>3> CB25@645=8O ?@8=04;568B M284C '59=8 (Chaney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artwright, Sturken 2001) =0G8=0NB A2>N :=83C @0:B8:8 =01;N45=8O A CB25@645=8O > B><, GB> 2 ?>A;54=85 420 25:0, 70?04=0O :C;LBC@0 ?@8H;0 : 4><8=8@>20=8N ?>A@54AB2>< 287C0;L=>3> A:>@55 G5< >@0;L=KE 8;8 B5:ABC0;L=KE <5480. >4@89O@ 8 0@B 2KA:07K20;8 ?>4>1=K5 AC645=8O, => 2 =5A:>;L:> 8=>< :>=B5:AB5. 4=0:>, 2KA:07K205BAO 8 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>5 <=5=85, :@8B8G5A:8 >B=>AOI55AO : 2KH5C?><O=CBK< 0@3C<5=B0< 8, =0?@>B82, 53> AB>@>==8:8 CB25@640NB, GB> 4204F0BK9 25: =04> AG8B0BL 01A>;NB=> =5287C0;L=K<, ?> B>9 ?@8G8=5, GB> :;NG52K5 D8;>A>DA:85 :>=F5?F88, @0728202H85AO 2 MB> 2@5<O ;81> =0?@O<CN =5 >1@0I0;8AL : 287C0;L=>AB8, ;81>, 1>;55 B>3>, O2=> ?@>B82>?>AB02;O;8 A51O :C;LBC@5 287C0;L=>AB8. -B>B 0@3C<5=B ?@54AB02;5= 4>AB0B>G=> C1548B5;L=> 2 :=835 0@B8=0 65O (Jay 1994), 2 :>B>@>9 >= 0=0;878@C5B AB@C:BC@0;8ABA:85 8 ?>ABAB@C:BC@0;8ABA:85 B5:ABK, 70B@03820NI85 8458 =01;N45=8O 8 287C0;L=>AB8. "@C4=> =5 A>3;0A8BLAO A 0=0;87>< 65O - %0945335@, 0:0=, 5@@840 8 4065 5@;>->=B8, :>B>@K5 :@8B8:>20;8 >:C;O@F5=B@87< 70?04=>-52@>?59A:>3> <KH;5=8O, 2 >?@545;5==>< A<KA;5 0=B8287C0;L=K. "0:65, 2 @0<:0E B0: =07K205<>9 ?>AB>:C;O@=>9 B5>@88 ?>O28;8AL <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?>?KB:8 ?@>8725AB8 A4283 2 AB>@>=C >B 4><8=8@>20=8O 287C0;L=KE <5B0D>@. >4>1=K5 ?@>5:BK <>3CB 1KBL ?@54AB02;5=K :@8B8:>9 <5B0D>@K 75@:0;0 8G0@40 >@B8 2 70?04=>9 D8;>A>D88 8 @07;8G=K<8 ;8B5@0BC@=K<8 B5>@8O<8 >B N42830 8B35=HB59=0 4> 8E08;0 0EB8=0. B MB>9 H8@>:>9 ?5@A?5:B82K, 0=B8>:C;O@87< <>3 1K AB0BL 2 =5:>B>@>< @>45 =5>1E>48<K< ?@>5:B>< @01>B0NI8< ?@>B82 >:C;O@=>9 <5B0D>@K, :>B>@0O ?@825;0 : 70?04=>9 <5B0D878:5 8 :0?8B0;87<C. !;54CNI89 B578A, 2K@060NI89 A><=5=85 2 B><, GB> =0H0 M?>E0 O2;O5BAO 1>;55 287C0;L=>9 ?> A@02=5=8N A ?@54K4CI8<8, 8, B5< 1>;55, O2;O5BAO 1>;55 287C0;L=> 3@0<>B=>9, <>65B 1KBL >1>A=>20= 8AE>4O 87 :>=F5?F88 >4@89O@0, > :>B>@>9 C65 C?><8=0;>AL 2 A2O78 A ?@>B82>?>;>6=>9 B5>@859. -B>B B578A 2K428305B 8 >1>A=>2K205B 0@010@0 !B0DD>@4 (Stafford 1996). 0CG82H8AL 4>2>;L=> CA?5H=> ?>=8<0BL 1KAB@> <5=ONI85AO :0@B8=:8, CB25@6405B >=0, <K ?>B5@O;8 B8? 287C0;L=>9 3@0<>B=>AB8, B@51CNI59 ?>=8<0=8O 1>;55 <54;5==>3> 8 1>;55 A;>6=KE 287C0;L=KE >1@07>2, :>B>@K5 4;O =0A AB0=>2OBAO :0: 1K =5-287C0;L=K<8. 0H0 =>2>?@8>1@5B5==0O A?>A>1=>ABL GB5=8O 8 45:>48@>20=8O B0:8E >1@07>2 =5 :><?5=A8@C5B @07@CH5=85 =0H59 A?>A>1=>AB8 ?>=8<0=8O 1>;55 8=48284C0;878@>20==KE (02B>@A:8E) 8 8=>340 1>;55 =5?>40B;82KE B2>@5=89 ?@>H;KE 25:>2. 0: >B<5G05B 0@10@0 !B0DD>@4, 4;O 4><>45@=>9 3@0D8:8 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==> =5 1KBL 4>ABC?=>9 4;O 1KAB@>3> ?@>GB5=8O, 2>A?@8OB85 1K;> @0AAG8B0=> =0 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O: 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 8=:@CAB8@>20BL =525@10;L=K<8 >AB0B:0<8, :>B>@K5 =5 <>3;8 1KBL @07;>65=K =0 ?@>ABK5 A>>1I5=8O 8;8 7=0G5=8O.  :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 0@10@0 !B0DD>@4 ?@82>48B @01>BK 5=@8E0 C=@0B0, 87>1@060NI85 <8AB8G5A:85 459AB20 2 0;E8<8G5A:>< B50B@5 - ;01>@0B>@88 17 25:0. 0 =8E ?@54AB02;5=0 845O B>3>, :0: <>6=> 2G8BK20BLAO 8;8 45:>48@>20BL 87>1@065=8O, 2>72@0I0OAL : =8< 2=>2L ?><=>3C @07, <54;5==> >14C<K20O >B45;L=K5 45B0;8, 2KAB@0820O A<KA;K 157 =04564K :>340-=81C4L ?>=OBL 2A5, GB> 87>1@065=> =0 :0@B8=5 4> :>=F0. -B> 459AB28B5;L=> ?@54AB02;5=85 ;01>@0B>@88 ?> A2>59 ACI=>AB8: 2 B@048F8>==>< B>;:>20=88, <5AB> 4;O @01>BK, ?@>872>4AB20 A<KA;0 8 <5AB> 4;O A;C65=8O, >1@07 E@8AB80=AB20, 35@<5=52B8G5A:8 ?@54AB02;5==>3> EC4>6=8:><, B@51C5B 87CG5=8O :0@B8=K <5AOFK 8 3>4K, 872;5G5=8O 8459 8 0AA>F80F89 87 =55, ?@>872>4O B5< A0<K< =5GB> ?>E>655 =0 0;E8<8G5A:CN @01>BC. >78F8N 0@10@K !B0DD>@4 =5 A;54C5B ?>=8<0BL 2 A<KA;5 B>3>, GB> =0H0 A>2@5<5==0O 287C0;L=0O :C;LBC@0 <5=55 287C0;L=0, ?> >B=>H5=8N : ?@54K4CI8<. >7<>6=>, 55 ?>78F8O 5ABL =5GB> A@54=55 <564C CB25@645=85<, :>B>@>5 <K @0AA<0B@820;8 2=0G0;5, > ?>3@C65=88 A>2@5<5==>AB8 2 <8@ 287C0;L=>9 8=D>@<0F88, 8 2B>@K<, CB25@6402H8< > 55 ?@8=F8?80;L=> =5287C0;L=>< E0@0:B5@5.  7025@H5=88 >17>@0 ?>78F89 :@8B8:CNI8E 845N 287C0;L=>AB8 =0H59 :C;LBC@K, >1@0B8<AO : ?>78F88 0C@K 0@:A (A<. Elkins 2003, A.136), :>B>@0O CB25@6405B, GB> M@0 287C0;L=>AB8 C65 70:>=G8;0AL, 8 C4828B5;L=> B>, GB> 8<5==> 55 7025@H5=85 >7=0<5=>20;>AL ?>O2;5=85< AB>;L 1>;LH>3> 8=B5@5A0 : =59 8 ?>O2;5=85 Visual Studies. "0: :0: 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 8=D>@<0F8O, 3>2>@8B >=0, 2A5 G0I5 O2;O5BAO =52848<>9  MB> D>@<0 AB0=>28BAO ?@5>1;040NI8< B8?>< 8=D>@<0F88, ?@8G5< B>9, :>B>@0O =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L =081>;55 206=0 2 =0H59 687=8, >?@545;ONI59, :>=AB8BC8@CNI59 4;O A>2@5<5==>3> A>F8C<0  8=D>@<0F88 > 10=:>2A:8E AG5B0E :><?0=89 8 20H8E ;8G=KE 10=:>2A:8E AG5B>2, 20H 845=B8D8:0F8>==K9 =><5@, D8=0=A>2K9 AB0BCA 8 B.4.. 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'B>1K 1>;55 G5B:> >?@545;8BL 3@0=8FK 287C0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89 =5>1E>48<> ?5@5G8A;8BL B5 48AF8?;8=K, A2O7L A :>B>@K<8 =081>;55 7=0G8<0. !CI5AB2C5B >?@545;5==0O =0F8>=0;L=0O A?5F8D8:0 2 D>@<8@>20=88 287C0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89 2 :0G5AB25 C=825@A8B5BA:>9 48AF8?;8=K. =AB8BCF8>=0;L=> 2 !( >B45;5=8O 8 D0:C;LB5BK 287C0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89, :0: ?@028;>, 2K@0AB0NB 87 D0:C;LB5B>2 8AB>@88 8A:CAAB2, 2 =3;88 8 .6=>9 788 Visual Studies =081>;55 B5A=> A2O70=K A =0?@02;5=85< Cultural Studies, 2 :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 2@>?5 Visual Studies =0E>4OBAO 2 B5A=>9 A2O78 A A5<8>B8G5A:8<8 8 :><<C=8:0B82=K<8 B5>@8O<8. (Elkins 2003) >;55 ?>4@>1=> =5>1E>48<> A:070BL >1 >B=>H5=88 B@5E 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E =0?@02;5=89, ?>B><C :0: ACI5AB2C5B 206=>5, => =5 2A5340 G5B:> >?@545;O5<>5 @07;8G85 <564C =8<8 - MB> 8AA;54>20=8O :C;LBC@K (Cultural Studies), 287C0;L=0O :C;LBC@0 (Visual Culture) 8 287C0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O (Visual Studies). AA;54>20=8O :C;LBC@K (Cultural Studies) ?>;CG8;8 =0G0;> 2 =3;88 8 :>=F5 1950-E. -B> A>1KB85 G0AB> 0AA>F88@C5BAO A =51>;LH8< G8A;>< B5:AB>2 8G0@40 %>330@B0 (Hoggart 1957), 09<>=40 8;LO<A0 (Williams 1958), 8 !BN0@B0 %>;;0 (Hall 1980). 5@20O 2>;=0 B5:AB>2 >B:@K20NI8E A>2>:C?=>ABL 8AB>@8G5A:8E D0:B>2 8 A>F80;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O ?@>4>;68;0AL  G0AB> G5@57 >A;01;5==CN 8 ?>;8B8G5A:8 8=5@B=CN D>@<C  4> =0H53> 2@5<5=8.  70-E 8AA;54>20=8O :C;LBC@K (Cultural Studies) ?@>H;8 G5@57 red-brick universities 2 =3;88 (?>;8B5E=8G5A:85 #K, ?5@5:20;8D8F8@>20==K5 ?@028B5;LAB2>< 0@30@5B "5BG5@ 2 C=825@A8B5BK A2>1>4=KE 8A:CAAB2), =0:0?;820OAL 8 708<AB2COAL 87 ?>@O4:0 A>A54AB2CNI8E 48AF8?;8=, 2:;NG0O 8AB>@8N 8A:CAAB2, 0=B@>?>;>38N, A>F8>;>38N, EC4>65AB25==CN :@8B8:C, :8=>8AA;54>20=8O, 35=45@ 8 D5<8=8AB8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O, 8 >1I5:C;LBC@=CN :@8B8:0, 2:;NG0O 6C@=0;8AB8:C.  80-E 1@8B0=A:85 8AA;54>20=8O :C;LBC@K (Cultural Studies) ?5@5H;8 2 <5@8:C, 2AB@0;8N, 0=04C 8 =48N, A59G0A ACI5AB2CNB @07;8G=K5 =0G8=0=8O 8 :0D54@K :C;LBC@=KE 8AA;54>20=89 2 =5:>B>@KE 8E MB8E AB@0= MB8E AB@0=. 87C0;L=0O :C;LBC@0 (Visual culture), :0: A0<>AB>OB>OB5;L=0O 48AF8?;8=0, O2;O5BAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> 0<5@8:0=A:8< =0G8=0=85<, ?>O282H8<AO A?CABO =5A:>;L:> 45AOB8;5B89 ?>A;5 Cultural Studies. "5@<8= 1K; 8A?>;L7>20=, =025@=>5, 2?5@2K5, 2 8AB>@8:>-EC4>65AB25==>< B5:AB5 09:;0 M:A5=45;;0, ?>A2OI5==>3> 8B0;LO=A:>9 682>?8A8 15 2. (Baxandall 1972), => visual culture ?>O28;0AL :0: 48AF8?;8=0 B>;L:> 2 1990 E 3>40E. > 2@5<O ?@>E>645=8O G5@57 70?04=CN A8AB5<C >1@07>20=8O, 2>7=8:0;> 2A5 1>;LH5 <5AB=KE ?>2A54=52=KE A?>@>2 > <=8<KE 48AF8?;8=0@=KE A2O7OE 8 D>@<C;8@>2:0E.  F5;><, <>6=> A:070BL, GB> visual culture 1>;LH5 1K; >1O70= A2>5<C ?@>8AE>645=8N >;0=4C 0@BC 8 0;LB5@C 5=LO<8=C, G5< ?5@2>=0G0;L=><C 0=3;89A:><C cultural studies. = 1K; 1;865 : A>F8>;>388 2 52@>?59A:>< ?>=8<0=88  0 8<5==>, :0G5AB25==K< <5B>40<, >@85=B8@>20==K< =0 A>F8>;>38N :C;LBC@K.  A5@548=5 1990-E ?>O28;>AL 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> @01>B ?> 287C0;L=>9 :C;LBC@5, ?@54;030NI8E @07=>>1@07=K5 >?@545;5=8O 287C0;L=>9 :C;LBC@K (Visual Culture 1994, Victor Burgm 1996, Malcolm Barnard,1998). -B> ?>A;C68;> 0@3C<5=B>< 4;O 2K?CA:0 CG51=8:>2 ?> =>2>9 48AF8?;8=5 (Visual Culture, 1995, Mirzoeff 1999b, Sturken and Cartwnght, 2001).  2001 3>4C ?>O2;O5BAO ?5@20O 48AA5@B0F8>==0O @01>B0, ?>A2OI5==0O 287C0;L=>9 :C;LBC@5, 02B>@>< :>B>@>9 AB0;0 0@30@8B0 8:>28F:0O, GB> O28;>AL O2=K< 7=0:>< ?@8=OB8O =>2>9 >1;0AB8 7=0=8O 0:045<8G5A:8< A>>1I5AB2><. 87C0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O (Visual Studies) - A0<0O <>;>40O 87 B@5E 2KH5?5@5G8A;5==KE 48AF8?;8=, :>B>@0O, 2>7<>6=>, 1K;0 8=A?8@8@>20=0 ?@>3@0<<>9 Visual and Cultural Studies, @07@01>B0==>9 2 #=825@A8B5B5 >G5AB5@0.  1995 ">< 8BG5;; 8A?>;L7>20; B5@<8= 287C0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O :0: =0720=85 4;O A;8O=8O EC4>65AB25==>9 8AB>@88, :C;LBC@=KE 8AA;54>20=89 8 ;8B5@0BC@=>9 B5>@88. >340 0;8D>@=89A:89 #=825@A8B5B 2 @28=5 ?@54AB02;O; 53> ?@>3@0<<C Visual Studies 2 1998, G;5=K 53> :><8B5B0 @5H8;8, GB> ?>=OB85 287C0;L=0O :C;LBC@0 1K;> 70?OB=0=> >1I5AB25==K< D>@C<>< 2 6C@=0;5 October 2 1996 8 GB>1K 871560BL =5=C6=KE 0AA>F80F89, >=8 2K1@0;8 B5@<8= 287C0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =0720=85 287C0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O, GB>, 2 G0AB=>AB8, >?8A0=> 2 48AA5@B0F8>==>9 @01>B5 8:>28F:>9, ?@8<5=O5BAO 4>AB0B>G=> H8@>:>, GB> 2 >?@545;5==>< A<KA;5 <>65B 1KBL ?>=OB> :0: @07<K20=85 ?@54<5B0 40==>9 48AF8?;8=K. 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aclau & Mouffe, 1985). ! ?>78F89 B5>@88 48A:C@A0 :><<C=0;L=K5 <5480 <>6=> >?@545;8BL :0: 8B>3>2K9 @57C;LB0B ?>?KB>: A>740BL 0;LB5@=0B82C H8@>:><C A?5:B@C 3535<>=8ABA:8E 48A:C@A>2, 4><8=8@CNI8E 2 AD5@0E :><<C=8:0F88, <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88, M:>=><8:8, >@30=870F8>==KE AB@C:BC@, ?>;8B8:8 8 45<>:@0B88. '5BK@5 ?>4E>40 1C4CB 8A?>;L7>20=K B0:65 4;O 0=0;870 2A53> MB>3> A?5:B@0 0;LB5@=0B82=KE 8 3535<>=8ABA:8E 48A:C@A>2. 0<8 45;05BAO 2K2>4, GB> 0=B03>=87< ?> >B=>H5=8N : 3>AC40@AB2C 8 @K=:C 8 A>?@>B82;5=85 2A5<C <=>3>>1@078N 3535<>=8ABA:8E 48A:C@A>2 ?@82>48B 42865=85 70 @0728B85 :><<C=0;L=KE <5480 : ?>78F88 48A:C@A82=>9 87>;OF88. 5E20B:0 AB@0B538G5A:8E A>N7=8:>2 A>7405B CA;>28O, 2 :>B>@KE 8<5NBAO 2A5 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 703;CH8BL 45<>:@0B8G5A:89 <5480-48:C@A, @0A?@>AB@0=O5<K9 ?>A@54AB2>< :><<C=0;L=KE <5480. @30=870F8>==K5 B5;0 (2 DC:>;LB80=A:>< A<KA;5), ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@KE MB>B 48A:C@A B>;L:> 8 <>3 1K @50;87>20BLAO, C65 8AG57;8. 4=0:>, >?8@0OAL 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L =0 G5B25@BK9, @87><0B8G5A:89 ?>4E>4, <K A<>3;8 ?5@5>A<KA;8BL 0=B>3>=8AB8G5A:CN ?>78F8N 8 ?@52@0B8BL 55 2 03>=8AB8G5A:CN (Mouffe, 1999a, p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aclau & Mouffe, 1985) 2KABC?05B :0: >1I0O B5>@5B8G5A:0O @0<:0, 2:;NG0I0O :0: MAA5=F80;8ABA:85, B0: 8 @5;OB828ABA:85 ?>4E>4K. ">;L:> 2<5AB5 >=8 ?>72>;ONB >?8A0BL 2A5 M;5<5=BK, ?>A@54AB2>< :>B>@KE :>=AB@C8@C5BAO 845=B8G=>ABL :><<C=0;L=KE <5480. 5A<>B@O =0 8A?>;L7>20=85 MAA5=F80;8ABA:8E ?>4E>4>2, 845=B8G=>ABL 2A;54 70 0:;> 8 CDD @0AA<0B@8205BAO =0<8 2 >A=>2=>< @5;OB828ABA:8, :0: @57C;LB0B @50;870F88 0@B8:C;OF8>==KE ?@0:B8: 2 @0<:0E >?@545;5==>3> 48A:C@A0. A>1>5 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO :>=F5?F88 0=B03>=87<0, :>B>@K9 0:;> 8 CDD ?>=8<0NB :0: 3@0=8FC ;N1>9 >1J5:B82=>AB8 8 =52>7<>6=>ABL ?>;=>3> :>=AB8BC@8@>20=8O >1I5AB20 (Laclau & Mouffe, 1985, p. 125).  B> 2@5<O :0: B@048F8>==> A>F80;L=K9 0=B03>=87< @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: AB>;:=>25=85 0:B>@>2 A ?>;=>ABLN AD>@<8@>20==K<8 845=B8G=>ABO<8, 0:;> 8 CDD CB25@640NB, GB> 0=B03>=87< >4=>2@5<5==> C3@>605B @07@CH8BL 845=B8G=>AB8 8 :>=AB@C8@C5B 8E.  A8BC0F88 0=B03>=87<0 ?@8ACBAB285 4@C3>3> ?@5?OBAB2C5B <=5 ?>;=>ABLN 1KBL A>1>9. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> 2 B0:>9 A8BC0F88 O =5 <>3C 1KBL 4;O A0<>3> A51O ?>;=K< ?@8ACBAB285< (Laclau & Mouffe, 1985, p. 125).  B> 65 2@5<O 0=B03>=87< 2K?>;=O5B 2 >B=>H5=88 845=B8G=>AB8 (8 >1I5AB20 2 F5;><) :>=AB8BC8@CNICN @>;L, B0: :0: 4@C3>9 AB0=>28BAO G8AB> =530B82=>9 >?>@>9 4;O 845=B8D8:0F88, B.5. 2=5H=59 :>=AB8BC8@CNI59 >A=>2>9. %>20@B (Howarth, 2000, p. 106), 2 G0AB=>AB8, >B<5G05B, GB> B0:8< >1@07>< 0=B>3>=87<K 83@0NB @5H0NICN @>;L 2 :>=AB8BC8@>20=88 A>F80;L=>9 >1J5:B82=>AB8, B0: :0: AB@C:BC@0 >1I5AB20 7028A8B >B :>=AB@C8@>20=8O 0=B03>=8AB8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89 <564C A>F80;L=K<8 035=B0<8, =0E>4OI8<8AO 2=CB@8 8 70 ?@545;0<8 40==>3> >1I5AB20. 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"@5B89 ?>4E>4 @0AA<0B@8205B :><<C=0;L=K5 <5480 :0: G0ABL 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> >= 8AE>48B 87 DC=40<5=B0;L=KE @07;8G89 <564C 8=AB8BCB0<8 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20, @K=:>< 8 3>AC40@AB2><, 2 =5< 1>;LH>5 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO 2708<>7028A8<>AB8 8E 845=B8G=>AB59.  @0<:0E MB>3> ?>4E>40 A>E@0=O5BAO B5>@5B8G5A:0O CAB0=>2:0 =0 =0;8G85 C 8=AB8BCB>2 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20 A>1AB25==>9 845=B8G=>AB8. ;O B>3>, GB>1K 8A?>;L7>20BL 1>;55 @5;OB828ABA:85 ?>4E>4K : 0=0;87C 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20 (=0?@., Walzer, 1998), >=8 1K;8 A>2<5I5=K A B>9 :@8B8:>9 0;LB5@=0B82=KE <5480, :>B>@CN >ACI5AB28;8 0C=8=3 (Downing, 2000) 8 >4@835A (Rodriguez, 2001), @048:0;878@>20=K 8 >1>1I5=K, GB> 8 ?>72>;8;>, >A=>2K20OAL =0 ?@54;>65==>9 5;Q7>< <5B0D>@5 @87><K, AD>@<C;8@>20BL =0H G5B25@BK9 ?>4E>4. -B>B ?>4E>4 2 =081>;LH59 <5@5 ?>72>;O5B CG5ABL ?@8 0=0;87 :><<C=0;L=KE <5480 B0:85 8E >A>15==>AB8, :0: A;CG09=>ABL, B5:CG5ABL 8 >BACBAB285 >?@545;5==KE 3@0=8F. A5 G5BK@5 ?>4E>40 ?@54AB02;5=K =0 !E5<5 1. !E5<0 1. 0A?@545;5=85 G5BK@5E B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?>4E>4>2 ><<C=0;L=K5 <54805480F5=B@87<!>F8>F5=B@87<0;8G85 A>1AB25==>9 845=B8G=>AB8 (MAA5=F80;87<)>4E>4 1: !;C60B 8=B5@5A0< <5AB=>3> A>>1I5AB20>4E>4 3: /2;ONBAO G0ABLN 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB2045=B8G=>ABL 2>7=8:05B 2> 2708<>459AB288 A 4@C38<8 845=B8G=>ABO<8 (@5;OB8287<)>4E>4 2: /2;ONBAO 0;LB5@=0B82=>9 4><8=0=B=K< <5480 >4E>4 4: 87><0 ><18=0F8O B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?>4E>4>2 5AL<0 ?5@A?5:B82=>9 8AE>4=>9 B>G:>9 4;O 0=0;870 =0< ?@54AB02;O5BAO @01>G55 >?@545;5=85 :><<C=0;L=>3> @048>, ?@8=OB>5 2  -2@>?0 - 52@>?59A:>9 G0AB8 A5<8@=>9 AA>F80F88 ><<C=0;L=KE 048>25I0B5;59. -B0 >@30=870F8O 2:;NG05B H8@>:89 A?5:B@ @048>AB0=F89 A> 2A5E :>=B8=5=B>2.  0B8=A:>9 <5@8:5 ?@54AB028B5;59   =07K20NB =0@>4=K<8 @048>AB0=F8O<8, >1@07>20B5;L=K<8 @048>AB0=F8O<8, H0EB5@A:8< 8;8 :@5ABLO=A:8< @048>.  D@8:5 8E ?@8=OB> =07K20BL <5AB=K< 45@525=A:8< @048>, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 2@>?5 > =8E G0AB> C?><8=0NB :0: >1 0AA>F88@>20==KE @048>AB0=F8OE, A2>1>4=>< @048>, A>A54A:>< @048> 8;8 :><<C=0;L=>< @048>.  788 3>2>@OB > @048> 4;O @0728B8O 8 > :><<C=0;L=>< @048>, 2 :50=88  > @048> 01>@835=>2, ?C1;8G=>< @048> 8 :><<C=0;L=>< @048> (Servaes, 1999, p. 259). ;O B>3>, GB>1K 871560BL =02O7K20=8O >1O70B5;L=>3> >?@545;5=8O  -2@>?0 (AMARC-Europe, p. 4) =07K205B :><<C=0;L=K5 @048>AB0=F88 =5:><<5@G5A:8<8 25I0B5;L=K<8 >@30=870F8O<8, :>B>@K5 >1A;C6820NB 8=B5@5AK A>>1H5AB20, 2 :>B>@>< @0A?>;>65=K, 8;8 =0 :>B>@>5 >=8 25I0NB, >4=>2@5<5==> A?>A>1AB2CO CG0AB8N G;5=>2 A>>1I5AB20 2 @01>B5 @048>. 5@2K9 ?>4E>4: 1A;C6820=85 8=B5@5A>2 A>>1I5AB20. @8=OB>5   @01>G55 >?@545;5=85 45;05B A8;L=K9 0:F5=B =0 :>=F5?F88 A>>1I5AB20. => ?>=8<05BAO ?@5645 2A53> 2 35>3@0D8G5A:>< 0A?5:B5 (2 :>B>@>< [>=8] @0A?>;>65=K), E>BO C?><8=05BAO 8 4@C3>9 B8? A2O78 <564C A@54AB2>< 8=D>@<0F88 8 A>>1I5AB2>< (=0 :>B>@>5 >=8 25I0NB). >=F5?F8O A>>1I5AB20 8<55B 4;8B5;L=CN B@048F8N 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2 A>F8>;>388 8 0=B@>?>;>38N.  ?@>H;>< 25:5 ">==L5 (TQnnies, 1963) ?@>25; G5B:CN @0745;8B5;L=CN ;8=8N <564C A>>1I5AB2>< 8 >1I5AB2><: 4;O A>>1I5AB20 E0@0:B5@=K B5A=K5 8 :>=:@5B=K5 A2O78 <564C ;N4L<8 8 :>;;5:B82=0O 845=B8G=>ABL, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 3;02=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8A:>9 >1I5AB20 O2;O5BAO >BACBAB285 845=B8D8F8@CNI8E 3@C??>2KE >B=>H5=89 (Martin-Barbero, 1993, p.29). >@@8A 8 >@BM= (Morris & Morten, 1998, p. 12  13) ?@>8;;NAB@8@>20;8 @07;8G85, 22545==>5 ">==L5, A ?><>ILN :>=F5?F88 A>N70 8 0AA>F80F88: A>>1I5AB2>, ?> 8E <=5=8N, >BAK;05B : ?@54AB02;5=8N > 1>;LH>9 A5<L5, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: >1I5AB2> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 1>;55 E>;>4=K9, A45@60==K9 8 D@03<5=B8@>20==K9 >1@07 687=8, ;8H5==K9 A>B@C4=8G5AB20 8 :@5?:8E A>F80;L=KE A2O759. N48 87>;8@>20=K 8 C =8E >BACBAB2C5B GC2AB2> A>A54AB20. 0: 4>:07K205B 59=8AA5= (Leunissen, 1986), :>=F5?BC0;870F8O A>>1I5AB20 1078@C5BAO 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L =0 35>3@0D88 8 MB=8G=>AB8 :0: :0B53>@8OE, AB@C:BC@8@CNI8E :>;;5:B82=CN 845=B8G=>ABL 8 2=CB@83@C??>2K5 >B=>H5=8O. !B@C:BC@=0O :>=F5?BC0;870F8O A>>1I5AB20 2?5@2K5 1K;0 >ACI5AB2;5=0 ?CB5< 22545=8O ?@54AB02;5=8O >1 >1I=>AB8 8=B5@5A>2, :>B>@0O ?>4G5@:8205B 206=>ABL 4@C38E D0:B>@>2 2 AB@C:BC@8@>20=88 A>>1I5AB20. %>BO ?@54?>;030BL 70@0=55, GB> C =5:>59 3@C??K ;N459 2A5340 5ABL >1I85 8=B5@5AK, =5;L7O (A@.: Clark, 1973, p. 411f), >1I=>ABL 8=B5@5A>2 A>7405B 2>7<>6=K5 CA;>28O 4;O ?>O2;5=8O 8;8 ACI5AB2>20=8O A>>1I5AB20.  G0AB=>AB8, 0=0;87 2;8O=8O 8=D>@<0F8>==>-:><?LNB5@=KE B5E=>;>389 =0 ?>2A54=52=CN 687=L ?>:070;, GB> A>>1I5AB20 <>65B D>@<8@>20BLAO =5 B>;L:> =0 35>3@0D8G5A:8 >?@545;5==>9 B5@@8B>@88, => 8 2 :815@?@>AB@0=AB25, >1J548=OO 3@C??K ?>;L7>20B5;59. 6>=A (Jones, 1995) ?>:070;, GB> B0:85 28@BC0;L=K5 8;8 >=-;09=>2K5 A>>1I5AB20 >1;040NB B5<8 65 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8, GB> 8 ;>:0;L=K5 B5@@8B>@80;L=K5 >1I=>AB8. >2K5 A>>1I5AB20 A8;L=> ?>2;8O;8 =0 ?@82KG=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O > ?@>AB@0=AB25 8 <5AB5 (Casey, 1997), C1548B5;L=> ?@>45<>=AB@8@>202, GB> B5@@8B>@80;L=0O 1;87>ABL 40;5:> =5 2> 2A5E A;CG0OE O2;O5BAO =5>1E>48<K< CA;>285< 8 =5>1E>48<>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 A>>1I5AB20. 0: 70<5G05B LN8A (Lewis, 1993, p. 13) >1I=>ABL 8=B5@5A>2 <>65B ?@5>4>;520BL 3@0=8FK :>=C@10F89, =0F89 8 :>=B8=5=B>2.  B> 65 2@5<O CA8;820NI55AO 2;8O=85 (3;>10;L=>3>) ?@>AB@0=AB20, C3@>60NI55 48A:C@A82=K< C=8GB>65=85< ;>:0;L=KE ?@>AB@0=AB2, 2K=C48;> =5:>B>@KE 8AA;54>20B5;59 2KABC?8BL 2 70I8BC <5AB, E>BO 8 157 8E @><0=B870F88 (A<., =0?@., Escobar, 2000). ;;0=45@ (Hollander, 2000, p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indlof, 1988) 8 C >M=0 2 :>=F5?F88 A>>1I5AB20 7=0G5=89 (Cohen, 1989). %>BO ?>AB@>5=8O 8=4;>D0 =0?@O<CN =0?@02;5=K =0 B>, GB>1K >?@545;8BL 0C48B>@8N :0: A>>1I5AB2>, >15 B5>@88 >A=>20=K =0 ?>4E>45 : A>>1I5AB2C 87=CB@8.  A>>B25BAB288 A MB8<, >M= 4>:07K205B =5>1E>48<>ABL ?5@5E>40 >B 0=0;870 AB@C:BC@K A>>1I5AB20 : 0=0;87C 53> A8<2>;8G5A:>3> :>=AB@C8@>20=8O; 0 GB>1K A45;0BL MB>, 70 8AE>4=K9 ?C=:B 0=0;870 A;54C5B ?@8=OBL =5 AB@C:BC@C, 0 :C;LBC@C (Cohen, 1989, p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errigan, 1979, p. 7). 0: 45<>=AB@8@C5B ?@8=OB>5   @01>G55 >?@545;5=85 (>A>15==> B0 53> G0ABL, 345 CB25@6405BAO, GB> :><<C=0;L=K5 <5480 4>;6=K A?>A>1AB2>20BL CG0AB8N G;5=>2 A>>1I5AB20), >B=>H5=8O <564C 25I0B5;5< 8 A>>1I5AB2>< O2;ONBAO 42CAB>@>==8< :><<C=8:0B82=K< ?@>F5AA><. 0;8G85 2>7<>6=>AB59 4>ABC?0 8 CG0AB8O 4;O G;5=>2 A>>1I5AB2 AB0=>28BAO 3;02=K< >?@545;ONI8< D0:B>@><. 0: :@0A=>@5G82> D>@<C;8@C5B 5@@830= (Berrigan, 1979, p. 8), [:><<C=0;L=K5 <5480]  MB> <5480, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE G;5=K A>>1I5AB20 8<5NB 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>;CG0BL 8=D>@<0F8N, CG8BLAO, 8 @072;5:0BLAO 2A5340, :>340 >=8 2 MB>< =C640NBAO. -B> <5480, 2 45OB5;L=>AB8 :>B>@KE G;5=K A>>1I5AB20 ?@8=8<0NB CG0AB85 :0: >@30=870B>@K, ?>AB0=>2I8:8 8 8A?>;=8B5;8. =8 O2;ONBAO A@54AB2>< A0<>2K@065=8O A>>1I5AB20, 0 =5 ACI5AB2CNB 4;O A>>1I5AB20 (Berrigan, 1979, p. 18). !AK;0OAL =0 A>AB>O2H55AO 2 1977 3. 15;3@04A:>5 A>25I0=85, 5@@830= (Berrigan, 1979, p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ewis, 1993, p. 12). 10 ?>4E>40  8 A ?>78F89 ?@>872>4AB20 ?>A;0=89, 8 A ?>78F89 8E 2>A?@8OB8O  8AE>4OB 87 B>3>, GB> 4>ABC?=>ABL O2;O5BAO 4;O :><<C=0;L=KE <5480 7=0G8<>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 (A<. !E5<C 2). A;54 70 M9B<5=>< (Pateman, 1972, p. 71), CG0AB85 @0AA<0B@8205BAO =0<8 :0: ?@>F5AA, 2 :>B>@>< 8=48284C0;L=K5 G;5=K A>>1I5AB20 @0A?>;030NB >?@545;5==>9 4>;59 2;0AB8 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 2;8OBL =0 MB>B ?@>F5AA 8 >?@545;OBL 53> @57C;LB0BK. ><<C=0;L=K5 <5480 =5 B>;L:> 4>?CA:0NB, => 8 A?>A>1AB2CNB CG0AB8N G;5=>2 A>>1I5AB20 :0: 2 ?@>872>4AB25 ?>A;0=89, B0: 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 >@30=870F89, :>B>@K5 70=OBK MB8< ?@>872>4AB2><. @5= ?>OA=O5B MBC <KA;L A;54CNI8< >1@07><: CG0AB85 ?>4@07C<5205B H8@>:>9 =01>@ 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8, =0?@02;5==KE =0 =5?>A@54AB25==>5 2>2;5G5=85 ;N459 2 ?@>3@0<<8@>20=85, C?@02;5=85 8 ?>;8B8G5A:CN 0:B82=>ABL @048>AB0=F88 (Prehn, 1991, p. 259).  @0<:0E ?5@2>3> ?>4E>40 =0 ?5@54=89 ?;0= 2KE>4OB >B=>H5=8O 25I0B5;O 8 A>>1I5AB20. >340 :>=:@5B=>5 A>>1I5AB2> 2K18@05BAO 2 :0G5AB25 F5;52>9 0C48B>@88, B5< A0<K< ?@>8AE>48B 70:@5?;5=85 8 CA8;5=85 (:>=F5?F88) MB>3> A>>1I5AB20. 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B25B =0 MB>B 2>?@>A <>65B 1KBL =0945B 2 B@5BL5< B8?5 @048>, 2KABC?0NI8< 0;LB5@=0B82>9 :><<5@G5A:><C 8 3>AC40@AB25==><C. 081>;55 E0@0:B5@=0O G5@B0 MB>3> @048>, G0AB> =07K205<>3> :><<C=0;L=K<, - 53> ?@540==>ABL 8455 3@0640=A:>3> CG0AB8O =0 2A5E C@>2=OE. !;CH0B5;8 :><<5@G5A:>3> @048> <>3CB CG0AB2>20BL 2 ?@>3@0<<8@>20=88 B>;L:> >3@0=8G5==K< >1@07>< (=0?@., 4>72>=82H8AL 2> 2@5<O B>:-H>C 8;8 70:0702 ;N18<CN ?5A=N), 2 B> 2@5<O :0: A;CH0B5;8 :><<C=0;L=>3> @048> 2KABC?0NB :0: ?@>4NA5@K, @C:>2>48B5;8, @568AA5@K 8 4065 2;045;LFK AB0=F88 (Girard, 1992, p. 2). 0 8AE>4=K9 ?C=:B 4;O >?@545;5=8O :><<C=0;L=>3> @048> :0: (G0AB8) 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20 <>6=> ?@8=OBL <>45;L "><?A>=0 (Thompson, 1995), >?8AK20NICN ?C1;8G=CN 8 G0AB=CN AD5@K A>2@5<5==>3> 70?04=>3> >1I5AB20. > "><?A>=C, 3>AC40@AB25==K5 >@30=870F88 >1@07CNB ?C1;8G=CN AD5@C, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: M:>=><8G5A:85 >@30=870F88, >@85=B8@>20==K5 =0 ?>;CG5=85 ?@81K;8, 0 B0:65 ;8G=K5 8 A5<59=K5 A2O78 D>@<8@CNB G0AB=CN AD5@C. ">340 3@0640=A:>5 >1I5AB2> <>6=> >?@545;8BL :0: 3@C??C ?@><56CB>G=KE >@30=870F89, >B45;5==KE :0: >B =0E>4OI8EAO 2 G0AB=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 M:>=><8G5A:8E >@30=870F89, >?5@8@CNI8E =0 @K=:5, B0: 8 >B ;8G=KE 8 A5<59=KE >B=>H5=89, 0 B0:65 >B 3>AC40@AB25==KE 8 :20783>AC40@AB25==KE >@30=870F89. 0 !E5<5 3 ?>:070=> <5AB> 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20 <564C ?C1;8G=>9 8 G0AB=>9 AD5@>9. !E5<0 3. C1;8G=0O 8 G0AB=0O AD5@0 2 A>2@5<5==>< 70?04=>< >1I5AB25 '0AB=0O AD5@0 C1;8G=0O AD5@00E>4OI85AO 2 G0AB=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 M:>=><8G5A:85 >@30=870F88, >?5@8@CNI85 2 @K=>G=>9 M:>=><8:5 8 >@85=B8@>20==K5 =0 872;5G5=85 ?@81K;8 8G=K5 8 A5<59=K5 >B=>H5=8O0E>4OI85AO 2 3>AC40@AB25==>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 M:>=><8G5A:85 >@30=870F88 (B.5. =0F8>=0;878@>20==K5 >B@0A;8 8 ?@8=04;560I85 3>AC40@AB2C ?C1;8G=K5 A;C61K) >AC40@AB25==K5 8 :20783>AC40@AB25==K5 >@30=870F88 (2:;NG0O >@30=K A>F80;L=>9 70I8BK)! @><56CB>G=K5 >@30=870F88 (1;03>B2>@8B5;L=K5 D>=4K, ?>;8B8G5A:85 ?0@B88, 3@C??K 2;8O=85, :>>?5@0B82=K5 ?@54?@8OB8O 8 B.?.) %>BO ?@8@>4K 8 AB@C:BC@0 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20 @07;8G0NBAO ?> @538>=0< 8 :>=B8=5=B0<, MB> 2>7=8:H0O =0 0?045 <>45;L ?>:070;0 A2>N ?@8<5=8<>ABL =0 1>;LH8=AB25 :>=B8=5=B>2, B>GB> B0:65 :0: =5>;815@0;L=0O @K=>G=0O M:>=><8:0 ?@52@0B8;0AL 2 ?@5>1;040NICN D>@<C >@30=870F88 >1I5AB20. 065 2 B5E >1I5AB20E, 345, :0: AG8B05BAO, ?C1;8G=0O AD5@0 A:;>==0 ?>402;OBL 3@0640=A:>5 >1I5AB2>, 2>7=8:0NB @07;8G=K5 D>@<K B>3>, GB> LN8A (Lewis, 1993, p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ng, 1991), GB> >@85=B8@C5B 25H0B5;L=K5 :><?0=88 ?@5645 2A53> =0 >1I5AB2> 2 F5;><, 0 =5 =0 A>>1I5AB20. 0 !E5<5 4 ?>:070=>, :0: MB0 ?5@5>@85=B0F8O ?>72>;8;0 @K=>G=K< ?>4E>40<8 ?@>=8:=CBL 2 >1I5AB25==CN AD5@C. !E5<0 4. !, @K=>: 8 3>AC40@AB2> '0AB=0O AD5@0 K=>:C1;8G=0O AD5@0 >AC40@AB2>  SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT   @0<:0E B@5BL53> ?>4E>40 :><<C=0;L=K5 <5480 >?@545;ONBAO :0: G0ABL 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20, B>B 53> A53<5=B, :>B>@K9 AG8B05BAO :@8B8G5A:8 206=K< 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 45<>:@0B8O >AB020;0AL 687=5A?>A>1=>9. %>BO ?@8@>40 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20 A8;L=> 20@L8@C5BAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B =0F88 8 :>=B8=5=B0, <K, 2A;54 70 >M=>< 8 @0B> (Cohen & Arato, 1992, p. vii-viii), <>65< A C25@5==>ABLN CB25@640BL, GB> MB0 :>=F5?F8O A>E@0=O5B 7=0G8<>ABL 4;O 1>;LH8=AB20 B8?>2 A>2@5<5==>3> >1I5AB20, 0 A0<> 3@0640=A:>5 >1I5AB2> O2;O5BAO 206=K< 8AB>G=8:>< @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8 C3;C1;5=8O 45<>:@0B88 1;03>40@O ?>2KH5=8N C@>2=O CG0AB8O. >-?5@2KE, :><<C=0;L=K5 <5480 <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL :0: @O4>2CN G0ABL 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20. =8  B>;L:> >4=8 87 <=>38E >@30=870F89, :>B>@K5 0:B82=> 459AB2CNB 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20. 5<>:@0B870F8O <5480 (Wasko & Mosko, 1992, p. 7), ?>72>;O5B 3@0640=0< ?@>O2;OBL 0:B82=>ABL 2> <=>38E (<8:@>-) AD5@0E, 8<5NI8E 7=0G5=85 4;O ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8, 8 8A?>;L7>20BL A2>5 ?@02> =0 :><<C=8:0F8N. >-2B>@KE, :0: C:07K20;8 A0<K5 @07=K5 ?>;8B8G5A:85 <KA;8B5;8 (=0G8=0O A CAA>, 6>=0 !BN0@B0 8;;O 8 M@8 #>;AB>=:@0DB), B0:85 D>@<K <8:@>CG0AB8O 206=K ?@5645 2A53> ?>B><C, GB> ?>72>;ONB ;N4O< 87CG8BL 8 >A2>8BL 45<>:@0B8G5A:85 8 3@0640=A:85 F5==>AB8, B5< A0<K< CA8;820O (2>7<>6=>5) <0:@>CG0AB85. 5@10 8 8 (Verba & Nie, 1987, p.3) AD>@<C;8@>20;8 MB> A;54CNI8< >1@07><: ?>;8B8G5A:85 CG0AB85 >A=>20=> =0 >1I5AB25==>< CG0AB88. %5;L4 (Held, 1987, p. 280) 8A?>;L7>20; 4@C3CN C40G=CN D>@<C;8@>2:C: <K CG8<AO CG0AB2>20BL, CG0AB2CO. >340 2 @0AG5B ?@8=8<05BAO A?5F8D8:0 25I0=8O 8 @>;L A@54AB2 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 :0: (>4=>3> 87) >A=>2=KE M;5<5=B>2 ?C1;8G=>9 AD5@K, :><<C=0;L=K5 <5480 >?@545;ONBAO =5 :0: @O4>20O G0ABL 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20, 0 :0: 206=59H89 53> M;5<5=B, ?>A:>;L:> >=8 A?>A>1AB2CNB B><C, GB> 0A:> 8 >A:> (Wasko & Mosko, 1992, p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owning, 2000, p. ix) :@8B8:C5B MB> ?>=OB85 :0: >:AN<>@>=: ;N1>5 O2;5=85 2A5340 G5<C-=81C4L 0;LB5@=0B82=>. "5< A0<K< >= ?@8405B 70:>==>ABL A2>5<C @5H5=8N @0AA<0B@820BL 8A:;NG8B5;L=> @048;L=> 0;LB5@=0B82=K5 <5480, 8A:;NG0O 87 0=0;870 C7:>A?5F80;878@>20==K5 B>@3>2K5 :0B0;>38 8 :>@?>@0B82=K5 1N;;5B5=8.  B> 65 2@5<O >= ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> @048:0;L=> 0;LB5@=0B82=K5 <5480 >B;8G0NBAO :@09=8< <=>3>>1@0785< 8 <>3CB ACI5AB2>20BL 2 :>;>AA0;L=>< @07=>>1@0788 D>@<0B>2 (Downing, 2000, p. xi). "5< =5 <5=55 2A5 >=8 @5H0NB 425 >A=>2=K5 7040G8: B@0=A;8@>20BL >??>78F8>==K5 273;O4K 225@E ?> 25@B8:0;8 8 AB@>8BL 2>:@C3 A51O A5B8. >4@835A (Rodrigues, 2001, p. 20) 2KA:07K205B ?>E>655 <=5=85, :>340 ?@54;0305B >B:070BLAO >B A;>2>A>G5B0=8O 0;LB5@=0B82=K5 <5480, 8 2<5AB> MB>3> 3>2>@8BL > 3@0640=A:8E <5480, B0: :0: 2 ?>=OB88 0;LB5@=0B82=K5 <5480 70;>65=> ?@54?>;>65=85, GB> >=8, :0: A@54AB20 8=D>@<0F88, G5<C-B> 0;LB5@=0B82=K. -B> >?@545;5=85 ;53:> ?@82>48B 2 ;>2CH:C 18=0@=>3> <KH;5=8O: 5ABL 4><8=0=B=K5 <5480 8 8E 0;LB5@=0B820, B.5. 0;LB5@=0B82=K5 <5480. /@;K: 0;LB5@=0B82=K5 <5480, :@><5 B>3>, ?@54>?@545;O5B, :0:>9 B8? <KH;5=8O AG8B05BAO >??>78F8>==K<, GB> AC6405B ?>B5=F80; MB8E <5480 4> 8E A?>A>1=>AB8 A>?@>B82;OBLAO >BGC6405I59 2;0AB8 4><8=0=B=KE <5480. >C;4@8 (Couldry, 2000, p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ohen & Arato, 1992, p. 423). "578A > A;8O=88 3>AC40@AB20 8 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20 (A@548 ?@>G8E, 2K428302H89AO (<8BB>< 8 %015@<0A><) ?>72>;O5B <=>38<8 A?>A>10<8 >?8AK20BL B>B0;87CNI89 8;8 :>;>=87CNI89 MDD5:B 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 8=B5@25=B8>=87<0. 0?@8<5@, (<8BB (Schmitt, 1980, p. 96), CB25@640;, GB> ?;N@0;8AB8G5A:>5 3>AC40@AB2> AB0=>28BAO B>B0;L=K< =5 >B A8;K, 0 >B A;01>AB8; >=> 2B>@305BAO 2> 2A5 AD5@K 687=8, ?>B><C GB> 4>;6=> C4>2;5B2>@8BL 2A5 708=B5@5A>20==K5 AB>@>=K. 5=55 @048:0;L=K9 @5;OB828ABA:89 ?>4E>4 <>6=> >1=0@C68BL C 0;LF5@0 (Walzer, 1980, p. 138). = 8AE>48B 87 B578A0 > ?0@04>:A0;L=>9 ?@8@>45 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20: >AC40@AB2> =5 ?>E>65 =0 4@C385 >@30=870F88. => >4=>2@5<5==> 70405B 3@0640=A:><C >1I5AB2C 3@0=8FK 8 >::C?8@C5B ?@>AB@0=AB2> 2=CB@8 =53>. => 70405B 3@0=8G=K5 CA;>28O 8 107>2K5 ?@028;0 4;O ;N1>9 >1I5AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (2:;NG0O ?>;8B8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL). 0;55 A;54C5B 53> A0<>5 F8B8@C5<>5 8 >A?0@8205<>5 CB25@645=85: ">;L:> 45<>:@0B8G5A:>5 3>AC40@AB2> <>65B A>740BL 45<>:@0B8G5A:>5 3@0640=A:>5 >1I5AB2>; B>;L:> 45<>:@0B8G5A:>5 >1I5AB2> <>65B 1KBL >?>@>9 45<>:@0B8G5A:>3> 3>AC40@AB2> ((Walzer, 1980, p. 140). 5;OB828ABA:89 0A?5:B B5>@88 3@0640=A:>3> >1I5AB20 8 (:@8B8:0) :>=F5?F88 0;LB5@=0B82=KE <5480 @048:0;878@>20=K 8 >1J548=5=K 2 G5B25@B>< ?>4E>45, >A=>20==>< =0 B5>@88 @87><K 5;Q70 8 20BB0@8 (Deleuze & Guatarri, 1987). 5B0D>@0 @87><K ?>AB@>5=0 =0 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=88 @87><=>3> 8 :>@=52>3> (0@1>;8G5A:>3>) ?>4E>40. >@=52>5 ;8=59=>, 85@0@E8G=> 8 <0;>?>4286=>. 3> <>6=> 87>1@078BL :0: 4@52>?>4>1=CN 35=50;>38G5A:CN AB@C:BC@C, 25:2B8 :>B>@>9 ?@>4>;60NB 45;8BLAO =0 2A5 1>;55 8 1>;55 4@>1=K5 >B@>AB:8 (Wray, 1998, p. 3). !>3;0A=> 5;Q7C 8 20BB0@8, 8<5==> B0:0O D8;>A>D8O E0@0:B5@=0 4;O 3>AC40@AB20. 87><=>5, =0?@>B82, =5;8=59=>, 0=0@E8G=> 8 =>A8B :>G52>9 E0@0:B5@.  >B;8G85 >B 45@52L52 A 8E :>@=O<8, @87><0 A2O7K205B ;N1>9 ?C=:B A ;N1K< 4@C38< ?C=:B>< (5;Q7 8 20BB0@8, p. 19). -B0 <5B0D>@0 =5 B>;L:> ?>72>;O5B ?@>OA=8BL @>;L :><<C=0;L=KE <5480 :0: B>G:8 ?5@5A5G5=8O 4;O >@30=870F89 8 42865=89, 2E>4OI8E 2 3@0640=A:>5 >1I5AB2>, >=0 B0:65 ?>72>;O5B CG5ABL BC 2KA>:CN AB5?5=L A;CG09=>AB8, :>B>@0O E0@0:B5@87C5B MB8 <5480. 7-70 C:>@5==>AB8 2 ?>AB>O==> 87<5=ONI5<AO 3@0640=A:>< >1I5AB25 (G0ABLN :>B>@>3> >=8 O2;ONBAO) 8 0=B03>=8G5AB8G5A:8E >B=>H5=89 A 3>AC40@AB2>< 8 @K=:>< (2 :0G5AB25 0;LB5@=0B82K 4><8=0=B=K< <5480 8 :><<5@G5A:8< <5480) 845=B8G=>ABL :><<C=0;L=KE <5480 AB0=>28BAO B@C4=> C;>28<>9.  @0<:0E 40==>3> ?>4E>40 <>6=> CB25@640BL, GB> =5C;>28<>ABL 8 A;CG09=>ABL, :0: MB> 8 5ABL 2 A;CG05 A @87><>9, O2;ONBAO 8E >?@545;ONI59 E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9. 0: @87><K, :><<C=0;L=K5 <5480 <>3CB ?5@5A5:0BL 3@0=8FK 8 2KAB@0820BL <>ABK ?>25@E ACI5AB2>202H8E 4> MB>3> @07@K2>2: @87><0 =5?@5@K2=> CAB0=020;8205B A2O78 <564C A5<8>B8G5A:8<8 F5?O<8, 2;0AB=K<8 >@30=870F8O<8 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8, 8<5NI8<8 >B=>H5=85 : 8A:CAAB2C, =0C:5 8 A>F80;L=>9 1>@L15 ((Deleuze & Guatarri, 1987, p. 7).  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