ŠĻą”±į>ž’ $&ž’’’      !"#’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’ģ„Į9 ųæ¾sbjbjżĻżĻ.ōŸ„Ÿ„ß7 ’’’’’’l.\`¤.Ӈ¶!ˆ˜$˜$˜$˜$˜$˜$˜$ö…ų…ų…ų…ų…ų…ų…$‰ˆ ©ŠŒ†q˜$˜$˜$˜$˜$†F‚˜$˜$‡F‚F‚F‚˜$N4˜$˜$ö…F‚˜$ö…F‚lF‚²‚²‚˜$! Š0!\3Ą.ÖęX®(²‚²‚D£‡0Ӈ²‚5‹”²5‹²‚F‚..Ł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«!>=8 :>@?>@59H=».  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonypred.htm" \t "_blank" !B0=>2;5=85 B@0=A=0F8>=0;L=>3> :>=F5@=0 (ABC?8B5;L=0O AB0BLO)   HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sony001.htm" \t "_blank" ABC?;5=85  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sony002.htm" \t "_blank" . !?0A5=85 8 =045640   HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sony005.htm" \t "_blank"  . 0G8=05BAO =>20O 687=L   HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sony010.htm" \t "_blank" " # ! !  . / =018@0NAL >?KB0   HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sony017.htm" \t "_blank"  ". K 2A5 >4=0 A5<LO   HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sony020.htm" \t "_blank"  !  /! !",. 07;8G8O   HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sony024.htm" \t "_blank" # &/. 286CI0O A8;0 O?>=A:>3> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LAB20   HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sony028.htm" \t "_blank" "%/. >@L10 70 2K6820=85   HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sony032.htm" \t "_blank" //   . @0640 8 4@C610   HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sony034.htm" \t "_blank"  / " /. @54>B2@0I5=85 :@878A0   HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm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«!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» ?5@2>9 70?CAB8;0 2 <0AA>2>5 ?@>872>4AB2> B@0=78AB>@=K9 @048>?@85<=8: 8 A>740;0 ?5@2K9 2 <8@5 4><0H=89 2845><03=8B>D>=. >@B0B82=K9 :0AA5B=8: A =0CH=8:0<8  =5?@5<5==K9 0B@81CB A>2@5<5==>9 <>;>456=>9 :C;LBC@K  B>65 45B8I5 «!>=8», 8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L ;8G=> . >@8BK. !>2<5AB=> A 3>;;0=4A:8< :>=F5@=>< «$8;8?A» D8@<0 @07@01>B0;0 8 2=54@8;0 ?@8=F8?80;L=> =>2CN ;075@=CN B5E=>;>38N 72C:>70?8A8, 8 A5@51@8ABK5 :><?0:B-48A:8 C65 A59G0A ?>B5A=8;8, 0 2 90-5 3>4K >:>=G0B5;L=> 70<5=OB ?@82KG=K5 4>;3>83@0NI85 ?;0AB8=:8. 0:>=5F, 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O «!>=8» 1;865 4@C38E :><?0=89 ?>4>H;0 : A>740=8N B5E=>;>388 B5;52845=8O A 2KA>:>9 G5B:>ABLN 87>1@065=8O (A8AB5<0 «HDTV»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«8AB>@8O CA?5E0» ("Success story"). '5;>25:, 4>182H89AO <=>3>3> 2 687=8, ?8H5B =5 E>;>4=K5 >1J5:B82=K5 <5<C0@K, 0 AB0@05BAO ?>:070BL, 1;03>40@O :0:8< :0G5AB20< >= 4>AB83 ?>154K. > >F5=8BL A>45O==>5 <>6=> B>;L:> A@02=820O. 0H :><<5=B0@89 8 1C45B 2 >A=>2=>< ?>A2OI5= A>?>AB02;5=8O<: AC4L1K «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» =0 D>=5 B>3>, GB> >1KG=> ?@>8AE>48B A> A@54=59 D8@<>9, 8 AB8;O . >@8BK :0: @C:>2>48B5;O «!>=8» 2 A@02=5=88 A @0A?@>AB@0=5==K<8 <5B>40<8 C?@02;5=8O :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8<8 ?@54?@8OB8O<8. 1. $8@<0 8 @K=>: 0: 65 DC=:F8>=8@C5B A>2@5<5==K9 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:89 @K=>:? 0:>2K B5 CA;>28O, 2 :>B>@KE A<>3;0 2>7=8:=CBL 8 >G5=L CA?5H=>  =5 B>;L:> 4;O A51O, => 8 4;O M:>=><8:8 2 F5;><  @0728BL A2>N 45OB5;L=>ABL D8@<0 «!>=8»? >?@>A MB>B 5I5 >B=>A8B5;L=> =5402=> <>3 1K 708=B5@5A>20BL ;8HL C7:89 :@C3 A?5F80;8AB>2. K=5 65 >= ?@8>1@5; =5>6840==CN >AB@>BC. 5@A?5:B82K ?@8=F8?80;L=>3> 87<5=5=8O AB@C:BC@K A>25BA:>3> @K=:0 70AB02;ONB 2=8<0B5;L=55 ?@83;O45BLAO : 2708<>459AB28N =0 70?04=>< @K=:5 <>3CI5AB25==KE AB8E89: <>=>?>;88 8 :>=:C@5=F88. #?@>I5==K9 273;O4 =0 25I8 A2>48B @K=>G=K9 <5E0=87< : >4=>9 87 42CE :@09=>AB59: «70A8;8N <>=>?>;89» 8;8 «?>;=>9 A2>1>45 :>=:C@5=F88». 10 MB8E ?>4E>40 (:0: =8 AB@0==>, >=8 ;53:> A>G5B0NBAO <564C A>1>9: M:>=><8:0 ?>?5@5<5==> @0AA<0B@8205BAO B> :0: G8AB> :>=:C@5=B=0O, B> :0: <>=>?>;878@>20==0O) =5?@>4C:B82=K. 0;> B>3>, >=8 =5 >B@060NB @50;L=>3> ?>;>65=8O 2 A>2@5<5==>< <8@5. I5 EC65 4@C3>5. @8 B0:>9 =0?@02;5==>AB8 8AA;54>20=8O >B =53> CA:>;L705B A0<>5 206=>5  <5E0=87< A>ACI5AB2>20=8O 8 2708<>4>?>;=5=8O >1>8E =0G0;, @02=> =5>1E>48<KE =K=5H=59 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>9 M:>=><8:5.  A2>5< AB@5<8B5;L=>< @0728B88 «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» ?@>H;0 B@8 206=59H85 AB0488: <5;:>3> ?@>872>48B5;O, A?5F80;878@>20==>9 :><?0=88 8 :@C?=>9 <>=>?>;88. $8@<K 2A5E MB8E B8?>2 ?>AB>O==> 459AB2CNB =0 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>< @K=:5 8 2K?>;=ONB =0 =5< 206=K5 DC=:F88. @>A;548< 65 70 8AB>@859 «!>=8» 8 70 B5<8 B@51>20=8O<8, :>B>@K5 ?@54JO2;O; : =59 @K=>: 2 :064>< =>2>< :0G5AB25.   ",. 0G0;> D8@<5 «!>=8», B>340 5I5 =07K202H59AO «">:8> B5;5:><LN=8:59H5=7 8=68=8@8=3 :>@?>@59H=», ?>;>68;0 >A=>20==0O 2 1946 3>4C <0AB5@A:0O ?> ?5@545;:5 @048>?@85<=8:>2. 0;> :B> <>3 ?@542845BL 1>;LH>5 1C4CI55 MB>3> ?@54?@8OB8O, AB@0402H53> >B =5E20B:8 D8=0=A>2KE @5AC@A>2, =5 8<52H53> ?@82;5:0B5;L=KE B>20@>2 2 A2>59 ?@>872>4AB25==>9 ?@>3@0<<5 8 ?>AB>O==> >?0A02H53>AO 2KB5A=5=8O A @K=:0 1>;55 <>I=K<8 :>=:C@5=B0<8. "KAOG8 :><?0=89, 459AB2CNI8E 2 ;N1>9 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>9 AB@0=5 2 AD5@5 <5;:>3> 187=5A0, 8 ?> A59 45=L ACI5AB2CNB 2 B0:8E :06CI8EAO =570284=K<8 CA;>28OE. "5< =5 <5=55 8E G8A;> =5 C<5=LH05BAO, 0 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K 4065 @0AB5B. A;8 ?>?KB0BLAO 2 :@0B:8E A;>20E ?5@540BL A>45@60=85 B01;. 1, B> >=> A2>48BAO : 45<>=AB@0F88 >3@><=>9 @>;8 <5;:>3> 187=5A0. ">, GB> <>=>?>;88 =5 ?>;=>ABLN 2KB5A=ONB =51>;LH85 ?@54?@8OB8O, 8725AB=> 4>AB0B>G=> H8@>:>. > F8D@K 3>2>@OB > 1>;LH5<.  8<5==> > B><, GB> <5;:85 ?@54?@8OB8O, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 2 G8AB> :>;8G5AB25==>< >B=>H5=88, ?@54AB02;ONB A0<K9 :@C?=K9 A5:B>@ M:>=><8:8. 59AB28B5;L=>, 87 40==KE B01;8FK A;54C5B, GB> 2 1>;LH8=AB25 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0= =5 <5=55 ?>;>28=K 2A5E 70=OBKE @01>B0NB =0 <5;:8E 8 <5;LG09H8E ?@54?@8OB8OE. ;O =5:>B>@KE AB@0= MB0 4>;O 7=0G8B5;L=> 2KH5. "0:, =0 @>48=5 «!>=8»  2 AC?5@A>2@5<5==>9 /?>=88  ?>;>28=0 2A5E B@C4OI8EAO 70=OB0 =0 >4=8E B>;L:> <5;LG09H8E D8@<0E, 0 <5;:85 8 <5;LG09H85 ?@54?@8OB8O 2<5AB5 40NB @01>BC B@5< G5B25@BO< O?>=F52. "01;8F0 I 0A?@545;5=85 70=OBKE ?> ?@54?@8OB8O< @07=KE @07<5@>2 (2 % :> 2A5< 70=OBK< 2 M:>=><8:5) !B@0=0 07<5@ ?@54?@8OB8O  <5;LG09H55 <5;:>5 A@54=55 :@C?=>52AB@8O 33,6 27,9 23,1 15,4 5;L38O 22,1 22,6 26,0 29,0 5;8:>1@8B0=8O 26,1 22,6 26,1 25,2 B0;8O 43,4 30,4 14,2 12,1 $@0=F8O 32,1 28,0 23,4 16,5 !( 26,1 28,4 24,0 21,5 /?>=8O 49,4 27,7 14,6 8,2 <5;LG09H8< >B=5A5=K D8@<K A G8A;>< 70=OBKE >B 1 4> 19 G5;>25:, <5;:8<  >B 20 4> 99, A@54=8<  >B 100 4> 499, :@C?=K<  1>;55 500.  5;8:>1@8B0=88 8 B0;88 : ?5@2K< 42C< :0B53>@8O< >B=5A5=K D8@<K A>>B25BAB25==> A 1 24 8 24 99, 1 9 8 9 99 70=OBK<8. AB>G=8: "Midland Bank Review", Spring 1987, p. 17. >;L <5;:>3> 187=5A0 25;8:0 =5 B>;L:> :>;8G5AB25==>, => 8 DC=:F8>=0;L=>, B> 5ABL ?> B5< 7040G0<, :>B>@K5 >= @5H05B 2 M:>=><8:5.  A>60;5=8N, :0: 25@=> >B<5G05B A>25BA:89 M:>=><8AB . . ":0G5=:>, «2 8<5NI59AO M:>=><8G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 2A5 DC=:F8>=8@CNI85 2 AD5@5 <0B5@80;L=>3> ?@>872>4AB20 =51>;LH85 :><?0=88 =5@54:> @0AA<0B@820NBAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=> :0: ?@840B>: <>=>?>;89, ?>;=>ABLN 8 2A5F5;> 7028AOI89 >B 8=B5@5A>2 8 F5;59 :@C?=59H8E B>@3>2>-?@><KH;5==KE :>@?>@0F89. >4>1=>5 AB02H55 C65 @0AE>68< <=5=85, ?>G5<C-B> 8715602H55 =5>1E>48<>AB8 AB@>3>3> D0:B>;>38G5A:>3> 4>:070B5;LAB20, =0 ?@0:B8:5 B@C4=> A>3;0AC5BAO A =K=5H=8<8 @50;8O<8» [ !<. «>AC40@AB25==>-<>=>?>;8AB8G5A:89 :0?8B0;87< !(: <>=>?>;8AB8G5A:89 :0?8B0;» (?>4 @54. ..N18<>20). ., «0C:0», 1989, A. 63.]. >=5G=>, 7028A8<K9 <5;:89 187=5A ACI5AB2C5B (?> >F5=:0<, >:>;> 1/3 8, ?>- 2848<><C, =5 1>;55 1/2 2A5E <5;:8E D8@<). > MB> =5 7=0G8B, GB> <>6=> ?@5=51@530BL @>;LN A0<>AB>OB5;L=KE <5;:8E :><?0=89 8;8 ?>;030BL, GB> 7028A8<K5 01A>;NB=> ;>O;L=K ?> >B=>H5=8N : A2>8< «AN75@5=0<». 0 =0H 273;O4, =51>;LH85 D8@<K >1@07CNB A2>53> @>40 DC=40<5=B, =0 :>B>@>< 2K@0AB0NB 1>;55 2KA>:85 «MB068» E>7O9AB20 8 :>B>@K9 2> <=>3>< ?@54>?@545;O5B 0@E8B5:BC@C 740=8O.  ?5@2CN >G5@54L MB> >B=>A8BAO : :>=:C@5=B=K< >B=>H5=8O< 2 M:>=><8:5. ;O <5;:>3> 187=5A0 65AB>:0O :>=:C@5=B=0O 1>@L10 O2;O5BAO 5AB5AB25==K< A>AB>O=85<, ?@O<> 2KB5:0NI8< 87 53> >B;8G8B5;L=KE A2>9AB2. 5;> 2 B><, GB> A8;L=K5 AB>@>=K <5;:8E :><?0=89 A2O70=K A 8E A?>A>1=>ABLN ?@0:B8G5A:8 <3=>25==> @5038@>20BL =0 B@51>20=8O @K=:0 8 CG8BK20BL A?5F8D8G5A:85 70?@>AK :>=:@5B=>3> ?>B@518B5;O. -B> A2>53> @>40 A>ABO70=85 2 381:>AB8, 84CI55 2 CA;>28OE 65AB:>3> >B1>@0.  5;8:>1@8B0=88, =0?@8<5@, 2 ?5@2>9 ?>;>28=5 80-E 3>4>2 5653>4=> ?@5:@0I0;> ACI5AB2>20=85 >48==04F0BL ?@>F5=B>2 2A5E 70@538AB@8@>20==KE D8@< [ Midland Bank Review, Spring 1987, p. 18.]. A;8 CG5ABL, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> ;8:2848@>20==KE D8@< <5;:85, B> ;53:> ?>4AG8B0BL, GB> 70 ?OBL A5<L ;5B 2AO A>2>:C?=>ABL <5;:8E :><?0=89 ?@0:B8G5A:8 ?>;=>ABLN >1=>2;O5BAO. ;O >B45;L=>9 =51>;LH>9 D8@<K AB>;:=>25=85 A <>=>?>;859 G0I5 2A53> :>=G05BAO 3815;LN, 7=0<5=8BK< «C4CH5=85< 0CBA0945@0». > 2708<>>B=>H5=8OE 2A53> <5;:>3> 187=5A0 8 :@C?=>3> :0?8B0;0 @>;8 @0A?@545;ONBAO 8=0G5. B0:0NI59 AB>@>=>9 G0AB> 2KABC?0NB <5;:85 D8@<K. N1>5 C?CI5=85 2 ?@>872>4AB25==>9 ?@>3@0<<5 254CI59 :>@?>@0F88 3@>78B ?>O2;5=85< :>=:C@5=B0, :>B>@K9 C4>2;5B2>@8B A>>B25BAB2CNICN ?>B@51=>ABL. A;8 3830=B =5 87<5=8B A2>53> ?>2545=8O, =>2>O2;5==K9 A>?5@=8: 1C45B @0AB8 8 <>65B ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 @50;L=CN >?0A=>ABL. 5>A?>@8<K9 ;845@ 2 <8@>2>< ?@>872>4AB25 :><?LNB5@>2  0<5@8:0=A:89 :>=F5@= «» =54>>F5=8; 7=0G5=8O ?5@A>=0;L=KE - 8 A>740; 4;O A51O <>I=KE :>=:C@5=B>2 («-??;» 8 4@.), A :>B>@K<8 =K=5 2K=C645= AG8B0BLAO. 5A:>;L:> ?>765 8 «», 8 254CI85 O?>=A:85 M;5:B@>==K5 :><?0=88 @5H8;8, GB> 2 25: <8:@>- AC?5@:><?LNB5@K, ?>4>1=> 48=>702@0<, >1@5G5=K =0 2K<8@0=85. 0:CC< 70?>;=8;0 D8@<0 «@59 @8AQ@G», :>B>@0O : 1988 3>4C 4>AB83;0 ?>;=>3> 3>A?>4AB20 =0 <8@>2>< @K=:5 (?OBL45AOB 452OBL ?@>F5=B>2 2A5E 459AB2CNI8E AC?5@:><?LNB5@>2) [ Wirtschaftswoche, vom 3.03.1989, S. 152.]. A?><=8< 8 >?KB A0<>9 «!>=8». 'B> ?@54AB02;O; 87 A51O ?5@2K9 B@0=78AB>@=K9 ?@85<=8:, ?@>4C:B, 70AB0282H89 3>2>@8BL > <>;>4>9 O?>=A:>9 D8@<5? >AB0B>G=> 273;O=CBL =0 53> A=8<>:, GB>1K ?>=OBL: 53> 72CG0=85 ?> :0G5AB2C O2=> =5 <>3;> BO30BLAO A 10@E0B=K< B5<1@>< A>2@5<5==KE 5<C AB0F8>=0@=KE «D8;8?A>2» 8;8 «B5;5DC=:5=>2». G5284=>, 8<5=8BK5 @048>B5E=8G5A:85 D8@<K >B=5A;8AL : =>28=:5 :0: : :C@L57C. >=F5@=K =5 A>G;8 206=K< ?@527>9B8 4>AB865=85 =58725AB=>9 D8@<K. 3@><=K9 D8=0=A>2K9 8 B5E=8G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; =5 1K; ?@82545= 2 459AB285, =0:>?;5==K9 8E 8=65=5@0<8 >?KB =5 1K; 8A?>;L7>20=. >28G:C 40;8 2>7<>6=>ABL 70:@5?8BLAO =0 @K=:5. &5=0 MB>9 >H81:8  AB0=>2;5=85 <>I=>9 «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=»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«>;LH0O @>;L <5;:8E D8@< 2 O?>=A:>9 M:>=><8:5 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: >4=0 87 3;02=KE ?@8G8= B>3>, GB> O?>=A:0O ?@><KH;5==>ABL 2 F5;>< O2;O5BAO G@572KG09=> 381:>9 8 C<5NI59 1KAB@> ?@8A?>A01;820BLAO : :@C?=K< A42830< 2 <8@>2>9 M:>=><8:5»[Midland Bank Review, Spring 1987, p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«=0:070=85» MB8 CG0AB:8, :0: ?@028;>, AB0=>2OBAO >1C7>9 4;O :@C?=>9 D8@<K: :>=F5@= >1@0AB05B <0AA>9 =5C?@02;O5<KE <5;:8E ?@>872>4AB2, A;01> A2O70==KE A >A=>2=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN :><?0=88. @54>AB02;5==0O A2>59 AC4L15 <5;:0O D8@<0 ?5@2>3> B8?0 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL 4>;3>, CA?5H=> :>=:C@8@CO 8 A @02=K<8 ?> @07<5@0<, 8 A :@C?=K<8 :><?0=8O<8. > >=0 ?>GB8 >1O70B5;L=> =02A5340 >AB0=5BAO <5;:>9. "5 65 D0:B>@K, :>B>@K5 ?><>30NB 2K6820BL, ?@5?OBAB2CNB 55 7=0G8B5;L=><C C25;8G5=8N. 54L C:@C?=OOAL, >=0 =5 AB0=>28BAO MDD5:B82=59. @C3>9 ?CBL @0728B8O A2O70= A B0: =07K205<>9 «=8-H52>9»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«=8HC» 4>AB0B>G=> B@C4=>. 5A;>6=K5 8745;8O ?@>872>4OBAO «?>?CB=>» D8@<0<8 >1I53> ?@>D8;O. A>1K5 70?@>AK >B45;L=KE 3@C?? ?>B@518B5;59 CG8BK20NBAO A ?><>ILN <>48D8:0F89 A5@89=>9 ?@>4C:F88. !;8H:>< A?5F8D8G5A:85 70:07K  A2>53> @>40 ?@8E>B8 >B45;L=KE :;85=B>2  =5 >1@07CNB CAB>9G82>3> @K=:0. >MB><C 2 >A=>25 CA?5H=>9 «=8H52>9» AB@0B5388 >1KG=> ;568B B5E=>;>38G5A:>5 ?@52>AE>4AB2> =04 :>=:C@5=B0<8.  MB>< A;CG05 <5;:0O D8@<0 AB0=>28BAO =570<5=8<>9. <5==> : =59 >1@0I0NBAO, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL B>20@ >A>1> 2KA>:>3> :0G5AB20, =5>1KG=KE ?>B@518B5;LA:8E A2>9AB2 8 B. 4. K3>4=>5 ?>;>65=85, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, A?>A>1AB2C5B @>ABC ?@54?@8OB8O 8 53> ?@52@0I5=8N 2 A?5F80;878@>20==CN :><?0=8N. !& / /.  :>=F5 50-E 3>4>2 «!>=8» 1K;0 548=AB25==K< 2 /?>=88 ?@>872>48B5;5< <03=8B>D>=>2 8 >4=8< 87 =5<=>38E 873>B>28B5;59 B@0=78AB>@=KE ?@85<=8:>2 2> 2A5< :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>< <8@5. 0G0; A:;04K20BLAO B>B 4CE D8@<K-=>20B>@0, :>B>@K< 2?>A;54AB288 B0: 3>@48;0AL :>@?>@0F8O. 0:>=5F, 2 I960 3>4C 1K;0 >1@07>20=0 «!>=8 :>@?>@59H= >D <5@8:0»  7@8<>5 2K@065=85 2KE>40 =0 <8@>2>9 @K=>:. @8 MB>< :><?0=8O @5H8B5;L=> H;0 ?> ?CB8 A?5F80;870F88. 5 ?@>872>4AB25==>5 ;8F> 8 2 B5 40;5:85 3>4K, 8 A59G0A >?@545;O5B ?>B@518B5;LA:0O M;5:B@>=8:0. «8H52K9» 2K1>@ 1K; A>7=0B5;L=K<. «0: =>20O :><?0=8O <K 4>;6=K 1K;8 A>740BL A>1AB25==CN =8HC =0 O?>=A:>< @K=:5», ?8H5B . >@8B0 (A<. 3;. 3). B>@>9 87 >A=>20B5;59 «!>=8», . 1C:0, >1JOA=OO D8;>A>D8N :><?0=88, 2K@078;AO =5 <5=55 >?@545;5==>: «0H5 42865=85 =0G0;>AL B>340, :>340 <K ?>=O;8, GB> <K =5 B5 ;N48, :>B>@K5 <>3CB :>=:C@8@>20BL A C65 ACI5AB2CNI8<8 :><?0=8O<8 2 2K?CA:5 B>20@>2, =0 :>B>@KE >=8 A?5F80;878@CNBAO. K 871@0;8 ;8=8N =0 ?@>872>4AB2> B0:8E 25I59, :>B>@K5 =8 >4=0 D8@<0 =5 45;0;0 4> B>3>»[&8B. ?>: R. L e s s e m. The Global Business. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. "Prentice-Hall", 1987, p. 127.]. 5A><=5==>, 2A5 MB> A2845B5;LAB2>20;> > :@C?=KE CA?5E0E D8@<K.  =>2>< :0G5AB25 ?5@54 :><?0=859 >B:@K20;8AL =54>ABC?=K5 59 ?@5645 ?5@A?5:B82K 4>AB0B>G=> AB018;L=>3> 8 4>;3>2@5<5==>3> @>AB0. 59AB28B5;L=>, :><?0=88, ?@845@6820NI85AO ?0B85=B=>9 AB@0B5388, 2> <=>38E >B=>H5=8OE 70=8<0NB 1>;55 CAB>9G82>5 ?>;>65=85, G5< <5;:85 =5A?5F80;878@>20==K5 ?@54?@8OB8O. 0 A2>5< @K=:5 >=8 O2;ONBAO «<8=8-<>=>?>;8O<8»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anager Magazin, 1989, ! 2, S. 104 113] . #=8:0;L=>ABL 8AA;54>20=8O A>AB>O;0 2 B><, GB> 2 =5< 0=0;878@>20;>AL A>AB>O=85 D8@< >B@0A;8 ?5@54 70@0=55 70?@>3@0<<8@>20==K< :@878A><. 5;> 2 B><, GB> ?@5645 >?;0BC >G5=L 4>@>38E =0 0?045 ;5:0@AB2 A@54=89 68B5;L $  ?@>872>48; =5 87 A2>53> :0@<0=0, 0 70 AG5B D8=0=A8@C5<>9 ?@>DA>N70<8 8 3>AC40@AB2>< 1>;L=8G=>9 :0AAK. "5?5@L :0AA0 >?;0G8205B B>;L:> =5>1E>48<K5 4;O ;5G5=8O :>=:@5B=>9 1>;57=8 ?@5?0@0BK, 70 2A5 65 ;5:0@AB20 1>;55 2KA>:>3> :0G5AB20 8;8 ;5:0@AB20, =5 O2;ONI85AO AB@>3> >1O70B5;L=K<8, ?@8E>48BAO ?;0B8BL A0<><C. ;O D0@<0F52B8G5A:8E :><?0=89 MB> @02=>A8;L=> =587156=><C ?045=8N A?@>A0 =0 8E ?@>4C:F8N.  :0:>< 65 A>AB>O=88 ?>4E>4OB @07=K5 3@C??K D8@< : :@878A=>9 ?>;>A5? X. $@87528=:5;L 8AA;54>20; :><?0=88 >B@0A;8 ?> B@84F0B8 42C< ?>:070B5;O< 8 ?@8H5; : 2K2>4C, GB> ACI5AB2C5B ?OBL >A=>2=KE B8?>2 D8@<. ;O =03;O4=>AB8 >= =0720; 8E «3>@4K<8 ;L20<8», «<>3CG8<8 A;>=0<8», «=5?>2>@>B;82K<8 1535<>B0<8», «E8B@K<8 ;8A0<8» 8 «A5@K<8 <KH0<8».  B@5< ?5@2K< 3@C??0< <K 25@=5<AO =5A:>;L:> ?>765. !C4L10 65 «E8B@KE ;8A» 8 «A5@KE <KH59» 8<55B ?@O<>5 >B=>H5=85 : ?@>1;5<5 A?5F80;870F88 :><?0=89. «%8B@K5 ;8AK» (?> $@87528=:5;N, «?@54?@8OB8O, ?@>2>4OI85 CA?5H=CN =8H52CN ?>;8B8:C») 1;03>?>;CG=> ?5@5=5ACB :@878A. 0: ?@028;>, :0640O 87 «;8A» O2;O5BAO ;845@>< ?> 2K?CA:C 42CE-B@5E ?@5?0@0B>2 8 : B><C 65 8<55B 4>AB0B>G=K5 D8=0=A>2K5 @5AC@AK. =>5 1C4CI55 >68405B «A5@KE <KH59». ;O <5;:>9 8;8 A@54=59 D8@<K =87:89 C@>25=L A?5F80;870F88 2 B@C4=K5 2@5<5=0 3C18B5;5=. 5 8<5O «:>@>==KE» ?@>4C:B>2, >=0 A@07C AB>;:=5BAO A ?045=85< 2K@CG:8, 0 =5E20B:0 45=53, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ;8H8B 55 H0=A>2 @07@01>B0BL B0:85 ?@>4C:BK 2?>A;54AB288. « ACI=>AB8 MB>B 187=5A ?>4>15= 687=8 101>G:8->4=>4=52:8, :>B>@0O C65 702B@0 1C45B 4@>60BL, @07<KH;OO, >AB0=5BAO ;8 >=0 6820 ?>A;5702B@0», ?8H5B 8AA;54>20B5;L.  8B>35 A?5F80;878@>20==0O D8@<0 7=0G8B5;L=> 687=5A?>A>1=59 @02=>9 8;8 4065 1>;LH59 ?> @07<5@0< C=825@A0;L=>9 :><?0=88. 7 A5<845AOB8 H5AB8 «<KH59» ?OB=04F0BL 2K45;5=K >A>1>, :0: ?@0:B8G5A:8 >1@5G5==K5. %0@0:B5@=>, GB> 70<5B=0O G0ABL 8E (>48==04F0BL) 1K;0 :@C?=59 =5:>B>@KE ?5@A?5:B82=KE «;8A».  A0<0O 1>;LH0O «<KHL» 2 @0AG5B0E X. $@87528=:5;O 2 G5BK@5 @070 :@C?=55 A0<>9 <5;:>9 «;8AK». ?@>G5<, MB> =5 ?>2KH05B H0=A>2 «<KH8-?5@5@>AB:0». $8@<K, ?@845@6820NI85AO «=8H52>9» A?5F80;870F88, A;54>20B5;L=>, A@02=8B5;L=> ;53:> A?@02;ONBAO A> <=>38<8 ?@>1;5<0<8, B8?8G=K<8 4;O <5;:>3> 187=5A0.  B5< =5 <5=55 8<5==> =0 MB>9 AB0488 @0728B8O «!>=8», 25@>OB=>, =0E>48;0AL =0 =081>;55 >?0A=>< MB0?5 A2>59 8AB>@88. 5;> 2 B><, GB> :0: @07 A@54=OO ?> @07<5@0< :><?0=8O, 8<5NI0O 4>AB865=8O 2 >?@545;5==>9 >1;0AB8, O2;O5BAO 8450;L=K< >1J5:B>< ?>3;>I5=8O. "0:, : 1965 3>4C «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» 1K;0 >4=8< 87 ;845@>2 2 ?@>872>4AB25 B@0=78AB>@=KE @048>?@85<=8:>2, <03=8B>D>=>2, A>740B5;5< ?5@2>3> ?>@B0B82=>3> B5;5287>@0 8 AB>O;0 =0 ?>@>35 2K?CA:0 ABC489=>3> 2845><03=8B>D>=0 (?@>872>4AB2> =0G0;>AL 2 1969 3>4C). @8 MB>< >1>@>B :><?0=88 A>AB02;O; 2A53> >:>;> A5<845AOB8 <8;;8>=>2 4>;;0@>2. ;O A@02=5=8O A:065<, GB> 2 1987 3>4C >= 4>AB83 7 956,4 <8;;8>=0 4>;;0@>2 [ R. Lessem. Op. cit., @. 130; Fortune, Aug. 1, 1988, p. 89. 14], B> 5ABL 70 4204F0BL 420 3>40 C25;8G8;AO 2 114 @07. 0E20B «!>=8» >4=8< 87 M;5:B@>B5E=8G5A:8E 3830=B>2, 5A;8 1K >= 1K; >ACI5AB2;5= 2 60-5 3>4K, =5A><=5==>, >:070;AO 1K 3>;>2>:@C68B5;L=>9 C40G59, A:>;L:> 1K =8 ?@8H;>AL B>340 70?;0B8BL 70 5I5 =51>;LHCN D8@<C. 0:- =8:0: 1C4CI89 CA?5E «!>=8» C65 1K; ?@54>?@545;5= 55 ?@>@K2>< 2 B5E=>;>38G5A:>9 >1;0AB8.  M:A?5@BK, 25@>OB=>, <>3;8 CAB0=>28BL MB> ?> ?@>4C:F88 :><?0=88. «!>=8» =5 AB0;0 65@B2>9 70E20B0. 0 B> ACI5AB2>20; F5;K9 @O4 ?@8G8=, A2O70==KE :0: A =59 A0<>9, B0: 8 A O?>=A:>9 M:>=><8:>9 B5E ;5B [B<5B8<, 2 G0AB=>AB8, ?@0:B8G5A:CN 70:@KB>ABL O?>=A:>3> @K=:0 4;O 8=>AB@0==>3> :0?8B0;0 (B>, A :0:8<8 B@C4=>ABO<8 AB>;:=C;0AL «65=5@0; <>B>@c», <=>3> ?>765 @5H82H0O ?@8>1@5AB8 >4=C O?>=A:CN D8@<C, :@0A>G=> >?8AK205B . >@8B0); N@848G5A:>5 >3@0=8G5=85 ?@02 AB0@KE O?>=A:8E :>=F5@=>2 ?@>2>48BL 70E20BK; >BACBAB285 2 O?>=A:>9 45;>2>9 ?@0:B8:5 B@048F88 B0: =07K205<KE «2@06451=KE», B> 5ABL =0A8;LAB25==KE, 70E20B>2.]. > 4;O <=>38E A?5F80;878@>20==KE D8@< CA?5E A;C68B ?@5;N4859 ?>3;>I5=8O. 0==K5 =0CG=KE @07@01>B>: =AB8BCB0 M:>=><8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 2 N=E5=5, =0?@8<5@, C:07K20NB =0 ACI5AB2>20=85 =5:>53> :@8B8G5A:>3> @07<5@0 ?@54?@8OB8O (>B 42CEA>B 4> ?OB8A>B 70=OBKE), ?@8 :>B>@>< >=> 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8, G5< <5;:85 8;8, =0?@>B82, :@C?=K5 D8@<K, CO728<> ?> >B=>H5=8N : 70E20B0< [Wirtschaftswoche vom 3.03.1989, S 164]. @O4 ;8 A;CG09=K< A>2?045=85< <>6=> AG8B0BL, GB> :0: @07 MB>B :@8B8G5A:89 @07<5@ B8?8G5= 4;O A@54=8E D8@< «=8H52>9» >@85=B0F88. 5;> 2 4@C3><. 0B85=B=0O :><?0=8O C65 4>AB0B>G=> 25;8:0, GB>1K ?@82;5:0BL : A515 >?0A=>5 2=8<0=85 :@C?=KE :>@?>@0F89.  B><C 65 >=0 >1;0405B F5==K< >?KB><, 8 55 70E20B <>65B 1KBL 548=AB25==K< ?CB5< ?>;CG5=8O 4>ABC?0 : ?0B5=B0<, «=>C-E0C», : A?5F80;878@>20==>9 A1KB>2>9 A5B8. 0: =8 AB@0==>, ?>3;>I5=8N <>65B A?>A>1AB2>20BL 8 A0<0 65@B20. @8 2A5E A2>8E 4>AB>8=AB20E «=8H520O» AB@0B538O 8<55B 2AB@>5==K9 =54>AB0B>:: >3@0=8G5==>ABL @07<5@0 «=8H8», B> 5ABL @K=:0, =0 :>B>@K9 @01>B05B A?5F80;878@>20==0O :><?0=8O. @81;865=85 : MB><C ?@545;C AB028B D8@<C ?5@54 B@C4=K< 2K1>@><. >6=> A>E@0=8BL A2>N ?@>872>4AB25==CN ?@>3@0<<C, => B>340 ?@845BAO >B:070BLAO >B 40;L=59H53> @>AB0. >6=> >A2>8BL =>2K5 B>20@K 8;8 2K9B8 A ?@56=8<8 =0 =>2K5, =0?@8<5@ 70@C156=K5, @K=:8. 4=0:> MB> A2O70=> A :@C?=K<8 :0?8B0;>2;>65=8O<8 8 1>;LH8< @8A:><. 0 ?@545;0<8 A2>59 «=8H8» :><?0=8O =5 8<55B ?@82KG=KE ?@58<CI5AB2. AA;54>20B5;8 >B<5G0NB, GB> C A@54=8E ?@54?@8OB89 G0AB> ?@5>1;0405B =5 «AB@0E ?5@54 ?>3;>I5=85<, 0 8=B5@5A : <564C=0@>4=>9 :>>?5@0F88» 2 @0<:0E B@0=A=0F8>=0;L=>9 :>@?>@0F88 [Ibid]. 5 A;54C5B 701K20BL > B><, GB> 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 =57028A8<>ABL =5 O2;O5BAO A0<>F5;LN 4;O :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>3> ?@54?@8OB8O. =>385 ?@54?>G8B0NB 2;8BLAO =0 2K3>4=KE CA;>28OE 2 <>I=CN :>@?>@0F8N, 0 =5 >1@5:0BL D8@<C =0 70AB>9 @048 A>E@0=5=8O A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 8;8 =5 84B8 =0 7=0G8B5;L=K9 @8A:. A;8 273;O=CBL =0 MBC A8BC0F8N A 1>;55 H8@>:8E >1I5M:>=><8G5A:8E ?>78F89, B> >1=0@C68BAO A2O7L DC=:F89 A?5F80;878@>20==KE D8@< =0 @K=:5 8 8E AC4L1K. !2>8< 2>7=8:=>25=85< >=8 >1O70=K A;>6=>AB8 8 <=>3>>1@078N M:>=><8G5A:8E ?>B@51=>AB59, 2 B>< G8A;5 ACI5AB2>20=8N @54:8E 8 =5B8?8G=KE, => >B MB>3> =5 <5=55 206=KE. $8@<K, ?@8A?>A>182H85AO : 8E C4>2;5B2>@5=8N, ?@>F25B0NB. @0240, >4=>2@5<5==> >=8 B5@ONB 381:>ABL 8 A?>A>1=>ABL <5=OBL @>4 45OB5;L=>AB8. «!>=8» 871@0;0 8=>9 ?CBL.  MB><C B>;:0; ?>@078B5;L=K9 CA?5E 55 ?@>4C:B>2, :064K9 @07 A>740202H89 =>2K9 @K=>: B>20@>2 <0AA>2>3> A?@>A0. =0G0;5 G5@57 3>4, 70B5< G5@57 ?>;3>40, 0 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O G5@57 =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 ?>A;5 ?5@2>3> ?>O2;5=8O =0 @K=:5 8E =0G8=0;8 :>?8@>20BL :>=:C@5=BK. ><?0=8O 4>;6=0 1K;0 ?@>2>48BL 2 687=L =0ABC?0B5;L=CN AB@0B538N: >B:@K20BL =>2K5 @K=:8 8 70E20BK20BL =0 =8E <0:A8<0;L=CN 4>;N.  B0:8E :>@?>@0F8OE 3>2>@OB, GB> >=8 «?@>AB> 2K=C645=K 1K;8 AB0BL 3830=B0<8».  #(/ /.  :>=F5 60-E - =0G0;5 70-E 3>4>2 «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=»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«!>=8», 2=5 2AO:>3> A><=5=8O, 2 8E G8A;5  ?@54AB02;ONB, 25@>OB=>, =081>;55 O@:>5 ?@>O2;5=85 MB>9 70:>=><5@=>AB8. 725AB=>, GB> <564C=0@>4=CN A?5F80;870F8N /?>=88 A@02=820NB A ;CG>< ;075@0. 0: 8 ?>A;54=89, >=0 >B;8G05BAO C4828B5;L=>9 :>=F5=B@0F859. >;LH8<8 A5@8O<8 (B0:, «!>=8» 2K?CA:05B G5BK@5 <8;;8>=0 F25B=KE B5;5287>@>2 2 3>4) 873>B02;8205BAO A@02=8B5;L=> C7:89 =01>@ ?@>4C:B>2. 0AA>2>5 ?@>872>4AB2> ?><>305B «>1:0B0BL» 8745;85, 871028BL 53> >B :>=AB@C:B82=KE =54>AB0B:>2 8 2<5AB5 A B5< ?@>4020BL :0G5AB25==K9 ?@>4C:B ?> C<5@5==K< F5=0<. >4>1=K9 ?CBL A=0165=8O @K=:0 4>ABC?5= ;8HL 4;O D8@<, CAB>9G82> 70=8<0NI8E ;848@CNI55 ?>;>65=85. '8B0B5;L, =5A><=5==>, >1@0B8B 2=8<0=85 =0 M?87>4 A ?@>40659 ?5@2>9 ?0@B88 B@0=78AB>@=KE ?@85<=8:>2 =0 @K=:5 !(. >;>4>9 . >@8B0, @C:>2>48B5;L B>340 5I5 A>2A5< <0;5=L:>9 D8@<K «!>=8», ?>@078; A2>53> 0<5@8:0=A:>3> :>=B@035=B0 B@51>20=85< ?;0B8BL 70 :064K9 @048>?@85<=8: 4>@>65, 5A;8 70:07 ?@52KA8B 45AOBL BKAOG HBC:.  45;>2>9 ?@0:B8:5 >1KG=> 2A5 =0>1>@>B: G5< 1>;LH5 70:07, B5< =865 F5=0. > ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : =51>;LH>9 :><?0=88 . >@8B0 @0AAC640; A>25@H5==> ?@028;L=>. ;O 2K?>;=5=8O 3830=BA:>3> :>=B@0:B0 ?@8H;>AL 1K AB@>8BL =>2K9 702>4. 'B> 1C45B 45;0BL D8@<0, 5A;8 70:07 >:065BAO @07>2K<? 0:@K20BL 702>4? @>4020BL 53> >1>@C4>20=85 ?> G0ABO<? 0 B0:>9 @8A: <>6=> ?>9B8 B>;L:>, 5A;8 >= :><?5=A8@>20= 2KA>:8<8 F5=0<8. =>5 45;> :@C?=0O D8@<0. =0 >1;0405B =5>1E>48<K<8 ?@>872>4AB25==K<8 <>I=>ABO<8 8 1>;LH>9 @07<5@ 70:070 =5 2K=C48B 55 ?>2KH0BL F5=K. >;55 B>3>, >A=>2=0O ?@>1;5<0, AB>OI0O ?5@54 :@C?=>9 D8@<>9, :0: @07 8 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K ?>;=>ABLN 703@C78BL 2KA>:>?@>872>48B5;L=>5 >1>@C4>20=85. %>@>H> 8725AB=>, GB> :064K9 G0A ?@>AB>O 4>@>38E <0H8= >7=0G05B :@C?=K5 C1KB:8. >A;54=55 B0:65 70AB02;O5B ?@>O2;OBL A45@60==>ABL ?@8 ?>2KH5=88 F5=: G5@5AGC@ 4>@>385 B>20@K =5 =094CB <0AA>2>3> A?@>A0, 8E =5;L7O 873>B>2;OBL 1>;LH>9 A5@859. "0:8< >1@07><, 2>?@5:8 @0AE>65<C <=5=8N :@C?=K5 <>=>?>;88 70=8<0NBAO =5 B>;L:> 2728=G820=85< F5= (@07C<55BAO, 8 MB> >=8 45;0NB, ?@0240, 5A;8 ?>72>;ONB :>=:C@5=BK). 4=>2@5<5==> 8<5==> :@C?=59H85 :>@?>@0F88 =02>4=ONB 70?04=K9 @K=>: <0AA>2K<, AB0=40@B=K<, :0G5AB25==K< B>20@>< ?> 4>ABC?=K< F5=0<. "5>@5B8G5A:8 B0:>5 ?>;>65=85 >1KG=> A2O7K205BAO A «?@54@0A?>;>65==>ABLN» ;N1>3> :@C?=>3> ?@>872>4AB20 : 02B><0B870F88. >A;54=OO >15A?5G8205B =87:89 C@>25=L 8745@65: 8 >4=>2@5<5==> 2KA>:>5 :0G5AB2>. «KB>2>5» 65 4>:070B5;LAB2> @50;L=>AB8 MB>9, CA;>2=> =07>25< 55 ?>78B82=>9, AB>@>=K 45OB5;L=>AB8 <>=>?>;89 E>@>H> 8725AB=> G8B0B5;O<, =>, : A>60;5=8N, @54:> >A>7=05BAO 2 :0G5AB25 B0:>2>3>. 5;> 2 B><, GB> ?>GB8 2A5 22>78<K5 2 !!!  87 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0= B>20@K ?@>872545=K <>=>?>;8O<8.  8E =5?;>E85 ?0@0<5B@K, 2:;NG0NI85 2 B>< G8A;5 8 45H5287=C (A>25BA:85 2=5H=5B>@3>2K5 >1J548=5=8O 70:C?0NB ?@58<CI5AB25==> =54>@>385 8745;8O), E0@0:B5@87CNB :0: @07 ?@>4C:F8N <>=>?>;89. B0:, 4;O 22545=8O <0AA>2>3> ?@>872>4AB20 :@C?=K5 D8@<K 4>;6=K >15A?5G8BL A515 CAB>9G82>5 3>A?>4AB2> =0 @K=:5. ;8 4@C38<8 A;>20<8: 4>;6=0 A;>68BLAO 8 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O ACI5AB2>20BL 157 :>@5==KE 87<5=5=89 A2>53> A>AB020 C7:0O 3@C??0 =5>A?>@8<KE ;845@>2. $0:BK, 459AB28B5;L=>, ?>72>;ONB 2K45;8BL B0:85 M;8B=K5 3@C??K :@C?=59H8E ?@54?@8OB89. 7 40==KE B01;. 2 >BG5B;82> 284=>, GB> A>2@5<5==K9 45;>2>9 <8@ AB@>3> 85@0@E8G5=. 1KG=>, G5< 1>;55 :@C?=>9 O2;O5BAO B0 8;8 8=0O :>@?>@0F8O, B5< 7=0G8B5;L=55 55 >B@K2 >B 1;8609H8E :>=:C@5=B>2.  >A=>2C B01;8FK ?>;>65=K 40==K5 > @07<5@5 >1>@>B0 254CI8E :><?0=89 B@5E AB@0=  !(, $  8 (25F88. K;> ?>4AG8B0=>, =0 A:>;L:> ?@>F5=B>2 >1>@>B A0<>9 :@C?=>9 D8@<K 1>;LH5 >1>@>B0 2B>@>9 ?> 25;8G8=5 :><?0=88. 0B5< 2B>@0O ?> @07<5@0< D8@<0 1K;0 A>?>AB02;5=0 A B@5BL59, B0 A G5B25@B>9 8 B. 4. "01;8F0 2 !@02=8B5;L=K5 @07<5@K D8@< 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 8E <5AB0 2 A?8A:5 :@C?=59H8E :>@?>@0F89 5AB> 2 A?8A:51>@>B D8@<K ?@52KH0; >1>@>B A;54CNI59 ?> @07<5@0< :><?0=88 =0 (%) 2 $  2 (25F88 2 !(1 10 11,64 17,08 15,21 41 50 1,94 2,20 1,49 91 100 1,12 1,53 0.71 101 200  2,22 0,74 491 500   0,49 0AAG8B0=> ?> A?8A:0< :@C?=59H8E :>@?>@0F89, >?C1;8:>20==K< Fortune, April 25, 1988; Veckans affaerer, 5 maj, 1988; "Aniageband zum Siebenten Hauptgutachten der Mono- polkomission". Deutscher Bundestag 11. Wahlperiode. Ducksache 11/2678 vom 19.07. 1988. 57C;LB0BK @0AG5B>2 25AL<0 E0@0:B5@=K.  ?5@2>9 45AOB:5 @07=8F0 2 @07<5@0E :><?0=89 >G5=L 7=0G8B5;L=0.  A@54=5< :0640O D8@<0 ?@52>AE>48B A;54CNICN ?> 25;8G8=5 1>;55 G5< =0 45AOBL ?@>F5=B>2. 07@K2 <564C :>@?>@0F8O<8, 70<K:0NI8<8 A?8A>: 50 8 100 :@C?=59H8E :><?0=89, ACI5AB25==> <5=LH5 (A>>B25BAB25==> >:>;> 42CE 8 >4=>3> ?@>F5=B0). 0:>=5F, >1>@>BK D8@<, 70=8<0NI8E ?>A;54=85 <5AB0 2 ?5@5G=5 200 8 500 :@C?=59H8E, >B;8G0NBAO 4@C3 >B 4@C30 4>;O<8 ?@>F5=B0. !;54AB285< B0:>9 AB@C:BC@K @K=:0 O2;O5BAO 1>;LH0O 87<5=G82>ABL 2 =87C 85@0@E8G5A:>9 ?8@0<84K 8 ?>GB8 ?>;=0O =5?>4286=>ABL =0 55 25@H8=5.  A0<>< 45;5, 1C4L >1>@>B 0<5@8:0=A:>9 D8@<K, 70=8<0NI59 ?OB8A>B>5 <5AB>, =0 ?OBL ?@>F5=B>2 1>;LH5, G5< 1K; 2 @50;L=>AB8, >=0 ?5@5<5AB8;0AL 1K =0 490-5 <5AB>, >1>94O 45AOBL :><?0=89. ;O A>B>9 D8@<K 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 ?OBL ?@>F5=B>2 >1>@>B0 2 A@54=5< >7=0G0;8 1K ?>4J5< =0 H5ABL ABC?5=59, 0 4;O ?OB845AOB>9  =0 B@8. $8@<0 2 ?5@2>9 45AOB:5 A:>@55 2A53> ?@>AB> =5 87<5=8;0 1K A2>53> <5AB0. 59AB28B5;L=>, 70 G5BK@=04F0B8;5B=89 ?5@8>4 (1972 1986 3>4K) 2 45AOB:C :@C?=59H8E :>@?>@0F89 $  2>H;0 ;8HL >4=0 =>20O :><?0=8O, :AB0B8, C65 2 1972 3>4C 70=8<02H0O >48==04F0B>5 <5AB>.  0<5@8:0=A:>9 «45AOB:5» 70 1969 1987 3>4K ?>O28;>AL 420 =>2KE 8<5=8. 065 @57:85 A:0G:8 >1>@>B0 ?@>406 ?@5>1;040NI8E 2 =59 =5DBO=KE <>=>?>;89 (:0: A;54AB285 :>;510=89 F5= =0 =5DBL) ACI5AB25==> =5 >B@078;8AL =0 55 A>AB025. «">B, :B> @5H8BAO ?>B@0B8BL 2@5<O =0 A>?>AB02;5=85 =0H53> A?8A:0 :@C?=59H8E ?@54?@8OB89 (259F0@88 70 <=>3> ;5B, 1C45B ?>@065=, :0:85 8=B5@5A=K5 A@02=5=8O 2>7<>6=K 8 : :0:8< 2K2>40< >=8 ?@82>4OB. 5@20O =5>6840==>ABL: =0 25@H8=5 A?8A:>2 254CI8E ?> >1>@>BC 8 ?@81K;8 D8@< <0;> GB> <5=O5BAO» [ Schweizerische Handelszeitung vom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«70?0A ?@>G=>AB8». >40<8, 0 B> 8 45AOB8;5B8O<8 <>;>40O 03@5AA82=0O D8@<0 <>65B, :070;>AL 1K, CA?5H=> 0B0:>20BL 8E ?>78F88 8 2A5 65 =5 4>18BLAO @5H0NI59 ?>154K. 48= 87 =081>;55 @078B5;L=KE ?@8<5@>2 B0:>3> @0728B8O A>1KB89 405B 2B>@65=85 O?>=A:8E :><?0=89 =0 02B><>18;L=K9 @K=>: !(. !8BC0F8O ?@8=O;0 =51;03>?@8OB=K9 4;O 0<5@8:0=A:8E :>=F5@=>2 >1>@>B =5 <5=55 4204F0B8 ;5B =0704. ! B5E ?>@ ?@52>AE>4AB2> <5=LH8E ?> @07<5@0<, => 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 MDD5:B82=> 459AB2CNI8E O?>=A:8E ?@>872>48B5;59 ?@>A<0B@8205BAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 ?> 2A5< ?0@0<5B@0< (B5E=8G5A:>5 A>25@H5=AB2> 02B><>18;59  :0G5AB2>  F5=K). "5< =5 <5=55 ?>;>65=85 254CI8E :>=F5@=>2 !( >AB05BAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ?@>G=K<. «65=5@0; <>B>@c», =0?@8<5@, ?>;CG8; 2 1988 3>4C >:>;> ?OB8 <8;;80@4>2 4>;;0@>2 ?@81K;8, A0<CN 1>;LHCN AC<<C 70 2AN 8AB>@8N :>=F5@=0, 1>;55 G5< 2 420 @070 ?@52KH0NICN 4>E>4K 1;8609H53> O?>=A:>3> :>=:C@5=B0 (D8@<K «">QB0»). 081>;55 ?@8<5G0B5;L=> 2 ?@82545==>< ?@8<5@5, =0 =0H 273;O4, B>, GB> >1>@>=8B5;L=0O AB@0B538O «65=5@0; <>B>@c» >B=N4L =5 1K;0 8450;L=>9. ;8OB5;L=0O "8@B-H0DBA2>E5" ?>AB028;0 2 28=C 3;025 :>=F5@=0 . !<8BC F5;K9 A?8A>: >H81>:, 2:;NG02H89 B0:85 A5@L57=K5, :0: >H81>G=K5 :0?8B0;>2;>65=8O 2 AC<<5 H5AB845AOB8 <8;;80@4>2 4>;;0@>2, =5C<5=85 @01>B0BL A ;N4L<8, =5A?>A>1=>ABL A>:@0B8BL A0<K5 2KA>:85 2 02B><>18;5AB@>5=88 !( 8745@6:8 8 B. 4.  F5;>< 6C@=0; =0720; . !<8B0 A0<>9 A?>@=>9 D83C@>9, :>340-;81> AB>O2H59 2> 3;025 «65=5@0; <>B>@c» [Wirtschaftswoche vom 17.02.1989, S. 116 120. 20].  =5A<>B@O =0 2A5 MB8 >H81:8, 02B><>18;L=K9 3830=B 2KAB>O;, >AB0;AO ?@81K;L=K< 8 2 1C4CI5<, 2848<>, A<>65B ?5@59B8 2 :>=B@0B0:C. "0:>20 AB5?5=L 682CG5AB8 =081>;55 <>I=KE <>=>?>;89. #AB>9G82>ABL 25@ECH:8 <>=>?>;8AB8G5A:>3> 187=5A0 =5 @02=>A8;L=0 ?>;=><C >BACBAB28N 87<5=5=89 2 55 @0<:0E. KH5 C65 C?><8=0;>AL 2K45;5=85 H259F0@A:8< M:A?5@B>< X. $@87528=:5;5< B@5E B8?>2 :@C?=KE :>@?>@0F89, =0720==KE 8< «3>@4K<8 ;L20<8», «<>3CG8<8 A;>=0<8» 8 «=5?>2>@>B;82K<8 1535<>B0<8». 5B>48:0 2K45;5=8O MB8E 3@C?? 1K;0 4>AB0B>G=> A;>6=0 (:;0AB5@=K9 0=0;87), 0 >1A;54>20==K9 <0B5@80; >B=>A8;AO B>;L:> : D0@<0F52B8:5. > >1>7=0G5==K5 MB8<8 70?><8=0NI8<8AO MB8:5B:0<8 :><?0=88 >B;8G0NBAO @07;8G=>9 AB5?5=LN 48=0<87<0 @0728B8O, 0 MB> =01;N405BAO 2> <=>38E >B@0A;OE. !@02=8B5;L=> =51>;LH0O 3@C??0 3830=BA:8E :>@?>@0F89, =5A<>B@O =0 A2>8 @07<5@K, =5 CB@0G8205B A?>A>1=>AB8 : 1KAB@><C @>ABC. <5==> 48=0<8G=K5 «;L2K» 40NB =081>;55 O@:85 ?@8<5@K 03@5AA82=>9 :>=:C@5=F88 2 25@E=5< MH5;>=5. A>15==>AB8 8E ?>78F89 =0 @K=:5 G0AB> A2O70=K A >1;040=85< B5E=8G5A:8<8 8;8 >@30=870F8>==K<8 ?@58<CI5AB20<8 2 :>=:@5B=>9 >1;0AB8. !B@5<;5=85 ?>;=>ABLN 8A?>;L7>20BL 2K3>4K 70AB02;O5B MB8 D8@<K 2KABC?0BL 2>7<CB8B5;O<8 A?>:>9AB28O, 45;05B <5=55 708=B5@5A>20==K<8 2 A3>2>@0E A 4@C38<8 3830=B0<8. «!>=8» 4>;385 3>4K 70=8<05B =0 <8@>2>< @K=:5 8<5==> B0:CN ?>78F8N 8, 5A;8 >?@0240NBAO @0AG5BK =0 CA?5E @07@01>B:8 A8AB5<K B5;52845=8O A 2KA>:>9 G5B:>ABLN 87>1@065=8O, B> A>E@0=8B 55 8 2 1;8609H5< 1C4CI5<. %>4 0:B82=>9 M2>;NF88 :@C?=>9 D8@<K, >4=0:>, :0: ?@028;>, 70:0=G8205BAO =5 A>AB>O=85< «3>@4>3> ;L20», 0 ?>78F859 «<>3CG53> A;>=0»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«A;>=K» 2?>;=5 A>7=0B5;L=> 871530NB G5AB8 1KBL ?5@2K<8. 8A: ?5@2>?@>E>4F0 2A5340 25;8:. =8 ?CA:0NB 2 E>4 A2>8 3830=BA:85 2>7<>6=>AB8, B>;L:> :>340 CA?5E C65 =0<5B8BAO, 8 =5@54:> ?@8 MB>< >BB5A=ONB =>20B>@0. «K ?@>872>48< =>2K9 ?@>4C:B; ?@><KH;5==K5 3830=BK 64CB, >:065BAO ;8 >= C40G=K<; 8, 5A;8 2K945B 8<5==> B0:, >=8 2K1@0AK20NB =0 @K=>: 0=0;>38G=K9 ?@>4C:B 8 ?>;CG0NB 2K3>4C >B =0H8E CA8;89», 60;C5BAO . >@8B0 =0 <=>3>:@0B=> ?>2B>@5==CN C;>2:C :>=:C@5=B>2 (A<. 3;. 3). "5=45=F8O : ?5@5@>645=8N «;L2>2» 2 «A;>=>2» 459AB2C5B, >4=0:>, 8 =57028A8<> >B 65;0=8O @C:>2>4AB20 D8@<K.  >4=>< 8=B5@2LN 28F5-?@57845=B «» . . 0AA8=8 70<5B8;, GB>, :>340 @5GL 845B > @>AB5, <=>3>5 7028A8B >B B>3>, ?@>8AE>48B ;8 >= 2 >B=>A8B5;L=> C7:>9 =8H5 8;8, :0: 2 A;CG05 A «», >E20BK205B 25AL @K=>:. >340 @>AB 845B >B 8AE>4=>9 107K, ?@52KH0NI59 ?OBL45AOB <8;;80@4>2 4>;;0@>2, B> @>AB =5 <>65B 1KBL AB>;L A5=A0F8>==K<, :0: C =51>;LH>9 :><?0=88, :>B>@0O DC=:F8>=8@C5B 2 C7:>9 =8H5 8 B0< 4>18205BAO C42>5=8O >1>@>B0 ?@>406 [Wirtschaftswoche vom 8.07.1988, S. 55. 22]. "0: GB> 2 >B40;5==>9 ?5@A?5:B825 «!>=8», 2848<>, >68405B AC4L10 <>=>?>;8AB8G5A:>3> «A;>=0». 0:0B <>=>?>;88 A2O70= A A>AB>O=85< «=5?>2>@>B;82>3> 1535<>B0». !>E@0=OO 3830=BA:89 >1>@>B, :>@?>@0F8O ?>AB5?5==> CB@0G8205B A?>A>1=>ABL 4>1820BLAO A>@07<5@=>9 ?@81K;8, 0 B> 8 =0G8=05B ?@8=>A8BL C1KB:8. @8G8=K B0:>3> @0728B8O A>1KB89  @0A?K;5=85 0:B82=>AB8 ?> A;8H:>< H8@>:><C :@C3C =0?@02;5=89, CA;>6=5=85 >@30=870F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@K, ><5@B2;5=85 7=0G8B5;L=>9 G0AB8 :0?8B0;0 2 CB@0B82H8E ?5@A?5:B82K ?@>872>4AB20E. > A8BC0F8O =5 O2;O5BAO 157=0456=>9. KE>4 A>AB>8B, :0: ?@028;>, 2 4578=25AB8F8OE, 2 15760;>AB=>< 87102;5=88 >B C1KB>G=KE ?@>872>4AB2 8 A=865=88 8745@65: =0 A>E@0=O5<KE ?@54?@8OB8OE. #<5=LH82 A2>8 @07<5@K, :>@?>@0F8O D8=0=A>2> 74>@>255B. ?KB «.. !. AB8;» (=K=5 «.. !. M:A») 8 «$8;8? >@@8A» (>15  !() 8;8 «"8AA5=» ($ ) 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> A0=0F8O 4065 2 B@C4=KE CA;>28OE AB0@KE >B@0A;59 <>65B ?@>9B8 CA?5H=> 8 >B:@KBL ?CBL : =>2><C @>ABC. %>BO, @07C<55BAO, 45;> =5 2A5340 :>=G05BAO 1;03>?>;CG=>. >?02H0O 2 ?>;>AC B@C4=>AB59 :><?0=8O <>65B CB@0B8BL A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL 8;8 B8E> ?5@59B8 =0 2B>@>AB5?5==K5 @>;8. * * * AB>@8O D5=><5=0;L=>3> CA?5E0 «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» =02>48B =0 >?@545;5==K5 <KA;8. >- ?5@2KE, >=0 <5=55 =5>1KG=0 8 8A:;NG8B5;L=0, G5< <>65B ?>:070BLAO ?@8 ?>25@E=>AB=>< @0AA<>B@5=88. >=5G=>, «!>=8» @072820;0AL G@572KG09=> 1KAB@>. > ?CBL, :>B>@K9 >=0 ?@>45;0;0, O2;O5BAO AB0=40@B=K< ?CB5<. B <5;:>9 D8@<K : A?5F80;878@>20==>9 :><?0=88, 0 >B =55 : <>=>?>;88  B0: @072820;8AL <=>385 :>@?>@0F88, ?>?>;=82H85 @O4K 3830=B>2 2 ?>A;52>5==K5 3>4K. @8B>: «A25659 :@>28» 2 25@E=85 MH5;>=K 187=5A0 2>7<>65= ?>B><C, GB> ?@8 2A5< A2>5< <>3CI5AB25 <>=>?>;88 2 8725AB=>< A<KA;5 15AA8;L=K ?5@54 <5;:8<8 8;8 A?5F80;878@>20==K<8 D8@<0<8. > B5E ?>@, ?>:0 ?>A;54=85 459AB2CNB 2 A2>8E @0<:0E, =5 2B>@30NBAO 2 AD5@C, 4>ABC?=CN 4;O <0AA>2>3> A5@89=>3> ?@>872>4AB20, ;N10O ?>?KB:0 8E 2KB5A=5=8O M:>=><8G5A:8 =52K3>4=0 <>=>?>;88.  8B>35 <>;>40O :>@?>@0F8O CA?5205B ?>4@0AB8, =0:>?8BL >?KB 8 D8=0=A>2K5 @5AC@AK, ?@5645 G5< 2ABC?8B 2 ?@O<CN 1>@L1C A <>=>?>;859.  MB> 405B 59 H0=AK =0 CA?5E. >-2B>@KE, >G5284=K 1;03>?@8OB=K5 ?>A;54AB28O 4;O M:>=><8:8 B0:>3> ?>;>65=8O 45;. "5E=>;>38G5A:85 8 >@30=870F8>==K5 =>2>22545=8O, ?@82=>A8<K5 <>;>4K<8 3830=B0<8, A:07K20NBAO =0 >1I5< C@>2=5 @0728B8O E>7O9AB20.  B> 65 2@5<O 8E 402;5=85 =0 AB0@CN M;8BC 2K=C6405B ?>A;54=NN A;548BL 70 ?5@54>2K< >?KB>< 8 ?@5?OBAB2C5B @0728B8N B5=45=F88 : 70AB>N, ?@8ACI59 <>=>?>;88. -B@5BL8E, 2KO2;O5BAO @>;L =>2>22545=89 4065 =5 ?@>AB> :0: 206=>3>, 0 ?@0:B8G5A:8 8 548=AB25==>3> A@54AB20, >?8@0OAL =0 :>B>@>5 =51>;LH0O :><?0=8O <>65B ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 254CICN <>=>?>;8N. 5;:0O D8@<0 2 A>2@5<5==KE CA;>28OE AB0=>28BAO :@C?=>9 =5 2 E>45 ?>AB5?5==>3> @0AH8@5=8O ?@>872>4AB20 B@048F8>==>9 ?@>4C:F88. "0:>9 «M2>;NF8>==K9» ?CBL 4;O =55 70:@KB. 54L A0<> ACI5AB2>20=85 D8@<K, B>, GB> 55 4> A8E ?>@ =5 2KB5A=8;0 A @K=:0 B0 8;8 8=0O <>=>?>;8O, <>65B >7=0G0BL ;8HL >4=>  2 871@0==>9 5N AD5@5 45OB5;L=>AB8 :@C?=>5 ?@>872>4AB2> =5 8<55B @5H0NI8E ?@58<CI5AB2 =04 <5;:8<. @8 ?>?KB:5 <5E0=8G5A:8 @0AH8@8BL 2K?CA: B>20@>2 >=0 AB>;:=5BAO 8 A >65AB>G5==K< ?@>B82>459AB285< =8G5< =5 CABC?0NI8E 59 <5;:8E ?@>872>48B5;59, 8 A 402;5=85< 3830=B>2, 5420 B>;L:> 55 ?@>872>4AB25==0O ?@>3@0<<0 2B>@3=5BAO 2 8E AD5@C 45OB5;L=>AB8. ">;L:> 8==>20F88 >B:@K20NB 2>7<>6=>ABL @>AB0. ">;L:> =>2K5, =8:5< =5 70=OBK5 A53<5=BK @K=:0 <>3CB A;C68BL 53> 4>;3>2@5<5==>9 107>9. B0:, AB@C:BC@0 A>2@5<5==>9 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>9 M:>=><8:8 2 ?@8=F8?5 >AB02;O5B 2>7<>6=>ABL 4;O 1KAB@>3> 2>72KH5=8O <>;>4>9 8 ?@54?@88<G82>9 :><?0=88. > ;8HL >G5=L =5<=>385 >:07K20NBAO A?>A>1=K<8 ?@>9B8 F5;8:>< MB>B ?CBL. K;> 1K =082=K< ?>;030BL, GB> <>6=> G8AB> B5>@5B8G5A:8 @073040BL 2A5 A5:@5BK CA?5E0, «2KG8A;8BL», ?>G5<C >= 2K?0; 8<5==> =0 4>;N «!>=8». > >48= A>AB02;ONI89 M;5<5=B CA?5E0 1C:20;L=> 1@>A05BAO 2 3;070  MB> ;8G=K9 B0;0=B @C:>2>48B5;O D8@<K. 2. @54?@8=8<0B5;L 2> 3;025 :><?0=88 ABL >A>10O ?@5;5ABL 2 :=830E, =0?8A0==KE > A2>8E 45;0E. 2B>@ >ICI05B BC A2>1>4C >1@0I5=8O A <0B5@80;><, :>B>@>9 =8:>340 =5 8<5NB :><<5=B0B>@K 8 0=0;8B8:8. ">;L:> >= 2?@025 @5H0BL, GB> 4>AB>9=> C?><8=0=8O, 0 GB> =5B. >MB><C @8AC5<K5 A>1KB8O ?>;CG0NBAO C4828B5;L=> 682K<8 8 >1J5<=K<8. '8B0B5;L :=838 «!45;0=> 2 /?>=88» (:AB0B8, B8BC; >@838=0;0 "Made in Japan" MB8<8 A;>20<8 ?5@5405BAO =5B>G=>. "5@ONBAO 0AA>F80F88, 2K7K205<K5 O?>=A:8< B>@3>2K< :;59<><: :0G5AB2>, 4>ABC?=>ABL, =0456=>ABL ?@>4C:F88. ">, GB> 0AA>F80F88 B5?5@L B0:85, 0 =5 ?@56=85  «45H52>, => ?;>E>», =5 2 ?>A;54=NN >G5@54L 70A;C30 D8@<K «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=») ?>7=0:><8BAO A ;8G=>9 687=LN 8 A5<L59 . >@8BK, 53> 2:CA0<8 8 ?@8AB@0AB8O<8. =>385 87 MB8E «<5;>G59» 8<5NB ?@O<>5 >B=>H5=85 : MDD5:B82=><C @C:>2>4AB2C :><?0=859. !:065<, ?5@5574 2 <5@8:C 2A59 A5<L59  D0:B 18>3@0D88 =5 B>;L:> ;8G=> . >@8BK, => 8 «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=». 5 >4=0 B@0=A=0F8>=0;L=0O :>@?>@0F8O 4>@>3> 70?;0B8;0 8<5==> 70 =57=0=85 8E @C:>2>4AB2>< 1KB>2KE @50;89 GC6>9 AB@0=K. 065 >B4KE0O 2 0<5@8:0=A:8E A:0CBA:8E ;035@OE, <0;>;5B=85 AK=>2LO . >@8BK @01>B0;8 =0 <>3CI5AB2> «!>=8». @0:B8G5A:89 8=B5@5A ?>4>1=KE «<0;5=L:8E E8B@>AB59» >3@><5=. "@8 :@C?=KE A;0305<KE 45OB5;L=>AB8 . >@8BK 2> 3;025 «!>=8» 70A;C6820NB, >4=0:>, >A>15==> ?>4@>1=>3> @0AA<>B@5=8O. K 8<55< 2 284C 2K@01>B0==K5 ?@8 53> @5H0NI5< CG0AB88 ?@85<K C?@02;5=8O :><?0=859, AB@0B538N <0@:5B8=30 8 >1I85 273;O4K =0 <8@>2>9 M:>=><8G5A:89 ?>@O4>: 8 <5AB> 2 =5< «!>=8». !#!!" # /", $ . :8> >@8B0  =5 4>:B@8=5@. AB>@8O «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» 2 53> 87;>65=88 ?@54AB02;O5BAO F5?LN :>=:@5B=KE ?@>1;5<, A :>B>@K<8 ?@8H;>AL AB>;:=CBLAO :><?0=88 =0 >B45;L=KE MB0?0E @0728B8O.  >?8A0=85< ?CB59 2KE>40 87 B@C4=>AB59, =0945==KE A0<8< . >@8B>9 8;8 53> :>;;530<8. 0: A;54>20;> ?>ABC?8BL 2 B>< 8;8 8=>< A;CG05, ?>G5<C >4=8 8 B5 65 ?@54;>65=8O 2 >4=>9 >1AB0=>2:5 4020;8 @57C;LB0BK, 0 2 4@C3>9 =5 >?@024K20;8 A51O  2>B GB> 1>;55 2A53> 70=8<05B O?>=A:>3> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;O. "5< =5 <5=55 70 2A59 MB>9 :>=:@5B8:>9 =5 <>3CB =5 AB>OBL =5:>B>@K5 >1I85 ?@85<K C?@02;5=8O.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 =5>1JOA=8<K< ?0@04>:A>< 1K;8 1K CA?5E8 «!>=8». 5AOB8;5B8O<8 =0E>48BAO >=0 =0 >AB@85 =0CG=>-B5E=8G5A:>3> ?@>3@5AA0 >B@0A;8 8 70 MB8 3>4K >1>30B8;0 1KB A>2@5<5==>3> G5;>25:0 1>;LH8< G8A;>< =>28=>:, G5< 8=K5 AB@0=K A 8E <>3CG8<8 8AA;54>20B5;LA:8<8 8=AB8BCB0<8 8 ;01>@0B>@8O<8. 07C<55BAO, >1>1I0BL GC6>9 ?@0:B8G5A:89 >?KB, 40 5I5 ?@54?>AK;0O A2>8 @0AAC645=8O A>1AB25==K< <KA;O< 53> B2>@F0, 45;> :@09=5 =51;03>40@=>5.  2A5 65 MB>, 2848<>, A;54C5B A45;0BL, GB>1K ;CGH5 @07>1@0BLAO 2 8AB>:0E CA?5E>2 «!>=8». !>2@5<5==0O «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 3830=BA:89 >@30=87<. =0 25;8:0 ?> @07<5@0< (2 1987 3>4C 47 583 70=OBKE), A;>6=0 ?> AB@C:BC@5 (1>;55 B@84F0B8 >A=>2=KE ?@>872>4AB25==KE D8;80;>2, G0ABL 87 :>B>@KE =0E>48BAO : B><C 65 2 A>2<5AB=>< A 4@C38<8 D8@<0<8 2;045=88), 459AB2C5B ?@0:B8G5A:8 2> 2A5E AB@0=0E <8@0 8 C?@02;O5BAO 8=B5@=0F8>=0;L=K< :>;;5:B82>< <5=5465@>2 (B0:, 3;020 2A5E 70?04=>52@>?59A:8E ?@54?@8OB89 :><?0=88  H259F0@5F 6. (<C:;8). "5=45=F8O : >:>AB5=5=8N, 1N@>:@0B870F88, 2708<=><C =5?>=8<0=8N 8 >BGC645==>AB8 @07;8G=KE ?>4@0745;5=89 8 C@>2=59 C?@02;5=8O :><?0=859 2 B0:8E CA;>28OE 2>7=8:05B A>25@H5==> =587156=>. 5=5465@K D8@<K ?@>B82>?>AB02;ONB 59 F5;CN A5@8N ?@85<>2 0=B81N@>:@0B8G5A:>3> C?@02;5=8O. !0< ?> A515 B0:>9 ?>4E>4 =5 =>2. 3> 8A?>;L7CNB <=>385 :@C?=K5 :><?0=88. !?5F8D8:0 «!>=8» A>AB>8B 2 >A>1>< @07<0E5 53> ?@8<5=5=8O 8 >@838=0;L=>9 @0AAB0=>2:5 0:F5=B>2. ;NG52K<8 4;O «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=»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«D8;>A>D8N» =028=:8: B@0=78AB>@=K9 ?@85<=8: ?>A;54C5B 70 E>7O8=>< 2 ;N1>5 <5AB>; «#>:<M=»  =51>;LH>9 <03=8B>D>= A =0CH=8:0<8  70<5=8B 3@>E>B 8 HC< 1>;LH>3> 3>@>40 =0 2K1@0==CN 20<8 <C7K:0;L=CN A@54C; 2845><03=8B>D>= ;8:2848@C5B B8@0=8N B5;5:><?0=89, 70AB02;ONI8E 2A5E A<>B@5BL ?5@540G8 B>;L:> 2 B> 2@5<O, :>340 >=8 B@0=A;8@CNBAO. !F5=0 4. =65=5@K «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» 15@CBAO 70 45;> 8 @5H0NB A;>6=CN 7040GC, ?@>872>4AB25==8:8 >15A?5G820NB 157C?@5G=>5 :0G5AB2>, 0 A1KB>2K5 >B45;K  >3;CH8B5;L=K9 @K=>G=K9 CA?5E =>28=:8. 0 A>@>:0;5B=NN 8AB>@8N «!>=8» B0:>9 F8:; ?>2B>@8;AO =5 <5=55 ?OB8 @07, ?@8G5< A B>20@0<8, AK3@02H8<8 @5H0NICN @>;L 2 2>72KH5=88 D8@<K. =0;878@CO MB>B >?KB, <>6=> A:>=F5=B@8@>20BL 2=8<0=85 =0 B5E=8G5A:>9 AB>@>=5 4>AB865=89. =0 15AA?>@=0, => =5 O2;O5BAO >A=>2=>9.  :>=F5 :>=F>2 8 B@078AB>@=K9 @048>?@85<=8:, 8 B5;5287>@, 8 2845><03=8B>D>= 87>1@5B5=K =5 «!>=8». ><?0=8O ;8HL G@572KG09=> C40G=> @0728;0 C65 8725AB=K5 B5E=8G5A:85 8458. >60;C9, =5 3;02=K< 745AL 1K;> 8 <0@:5B8=3>2>5 @5H5=85. >=OBL, GB> 2A5 ?5@5G8A;5==K5 B>20@K =C6=K ;N4O< 8 ?>B><C 8E 645B 1;5ABOI0O @K=>G=0O AC4L10, 157CA;>2=>, <>3;8 B>;L:> B0;0=B;82K5 ;N48. > 4;O ?@>D5AA8>=0;0 B0:>3> B8?0 =0E>4:8 4>AB0B>G=> >1KG=>5 45;>. 54L ?>GB8 2A5 =>2>22545=8O «!>=8» ?@54AB02;O;8 A>1>9 ?>@B0B82=K5 25@A88 C65 ACI5AB2>202H8E B>20@>2.  >48= 87 AB0=40@B=KE ?@85<>2 <0@:5B8=30 (<>@D>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87) :0: @07 8 ?@54CA<0B@8205B ?>8A: =>2KE ?5@A?5:B82=KE ?@>4C:B>2 ?CB5< <>48D8:0F88 >4=>3> 8;8 =5A:>;L:8E A2>9AB2 8725AB=KE B>20@>2. >4;8==K< >B:@KB85< «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» 1K;>, =0 =0H 273;O4, C?@02;5=G5A:>5 >B:@KB85: ?>AB0=>2:0 :@C?=>9 8, GB> =5 <5=55 206=>, ?>=OB=>9 2A5<, 2?;>BL 4> @O4>2>3> @01>G53>, F5;8. -B> B>65 A2>53> @>40 <5B>4 C?@02;5=8O. = A?;0G820; ?5@A>=0; D8@<K 2 :>;;5:B82 548=><KH;5==8:>2. C@A ?@>2>48;AO ?>A;54>20B5;L=>, 4;O ?>2KH5=8O =03;O4=>AB8 8A?>;L7>20;8AL A0<K5 @07=>>1@07=K5 A@54AB20, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?>GB8 B50B@0;L=K5. "0:, A>74020O «:0@<0==K9» @048>?@85<=8:, D8@<0 E>B5;0, GB>1K >= ?><5I0;AO 2 :0@<0= <C6A:>9 @C10H:8. >340 C;>68BLAO 2 B0:85 @07<5@K =5 C40;>AL, «!>=8» ?@54?>G;0 AH8BL @C10H:8 A 1>;LH8<8 :0@<0=0<8, => =5 ?@87=020BL ?>@065=8O. $8@<0 A;54>20;0 ?@8=F8?C: :064K9 =>2K9 ?@>4C:B «!>=8» 4>;65= ?@54AB02;OBL A>1>9 =5GB> M:AB@0>@48=0@=>5.  D8@<5 A:;04K20;0AL 0B<>AD5@0 2A5>1I59 =0AB@>5==>AB8 =0 @5H5=85 F5=B@0;L=>9 7040G8, =0 4>AB865=85 F5;8, :>B>@>9 ?>4G8=5=> 2A5. -B>B =0AB@>9  >3@><=0O F5==>ABL. 5 A;CG09=>, 53> ;53:> >1=0@C68BL 8 2 :>;;5:B820E, >ACI5AB2;ONI8E 4@C385 =>20B>@A:85 ?@>5:BK =0H53> 25:0: ?5@2K5 :>A<8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O, O45@=K9 <0=E5BB5=A:89 ?@>5:B 8 B. 4. <5==> MB>B 4CE, 25@>OB=>, 8 ?><>30; >1>3=0BL 4@C385 :><?0=88 2 @07@01>B:5 «M;5:B@>==KE 15ABA5;;5@>2». 5 A;CG09=>, . >@8B0 ?>4@>1=59H8< >1@07>< >1>A=>2K205B, :070;>AL 1K, B0:CN <5;:CN 45B0;L AB8;O C?@02;5=8O «!>=8», :0: ?@02> <;04H53> ?> 4>;6=>AB8 =5 A>3;0H0BLAO A> AB0@H8<. =B5@5AK 45;0 8<5NB 2 D8@<5 2KAH89 ?@8>@8B5B. 048 =8E A;54C5B ?>ABC?0BLAO =5 B>;L:> ;8G=K<8 0<18F8O<8, => 8 B@048F8O<8 (2 O?>=A:>9 :C;LBC@5 AB@>30O ?>GB8B5;L=>ABL : AB0@H8< ?> ?>;>65=8N O2;O5BAO =5?@5<5==K< B@51>20=85<). @C3>9 254CI89 «845>;>3» «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» !835@C >10OA8, ?> =5 2?>;=5 ?>=OB=K< ?@8G8=0< =5 C?><O=CBK9 2 :=835 . >@8BK, ?>;0305B, GB> C?@02;5=85 :><?0=859 MDD5:B82=> 1;03>40@O AB@>3><C A;54>20=8N 475=1C448ABA:><C ?@8=F8?C My, :>B>@K9 B>;:C5BAO ?@8<5@=> :0: «=5>?@54<5B;820=85», «=5>25I5AB2;5=85» [ @82>48BAO ?>: R. Lessem. Op. cit., p. 130. ]. @8<5=8B5;L=> : ?@0:B8:5 D8@<K >= >7=0G05B A>7=0B5;L=K9 >B:07 >B A>AB02;5=8O 65AB:8E ?;0=>2. >;6=>AB=>5 ;8F> «!>=8» >1O70=> 2A5340 459AB2>20BL ?> >1AB0=>2:5, AB@5<OAL =5 C?CAB8BL =5>6840==K5 2K3>4K 8 =5 C?>@AB2CO 2 >ACI5AB2;5=88 ?;0=>2, 5A;8 >=8 AB>;:=C;8AL A =5?@54CA<>B@5==K<8 8 =5?@5>4>;8<K<8 ?@5?OBAB28O<8. G5284=>, GB> 157 ?@8=F8?0 My :@C?=K5 ?@>5:BK «!>=8» 1K;> 1K A;>6=> >ACI5AB28BL. 5 A;54C5B 701K20BL, GB> ?>4>1=K5 =0G8=0=8O 2A5340 2> <=>3>< «5740 2 =5254><>5», 0 <5E0=8G5A:0O 8A?>;=8B5;L=>ABL, 2?>;=5 B5@?8<0O ?@8 @CB8==KE @01>B0E, <>65B ?@825AB8 8E B>;L:> : ?@>20;C. 5=5465@, @C:>2>4AB2CNI89AO ?@8=F8?>< My 8 AB@5<OI89AO 2 A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 : <0:A8<0;L=>9 381:>AB8, =5 <>65B 1KBL 1N@>:@0B><, 0 D8@<0, 2 :>B>@>9 >= @01>B05B, ?>;CG05B H0=A 871560BL >:>AB5=5=8O =5A<>B@O =0 A2>8 >3@><=K5 @07<5@K. 52>;L=> =0?@0H8205BAO ?0@0;;5;L A <5B>40<8 C?@02;5=8O 4@C3>9 CA?5H=> @01>B0NI59 :><?0=88 =0H53> 2@5<5=8  0<5@8:0=A:>9 «». «>A:>;L:C «» ?@87=05B, GB> ?;0=K ACI5AB2CNB 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 8E 87<5=OBL, MB> ?><>305B :><?0=88 2 F5;>< 8;8 :0:><C-=81C4L >4=><C ?>4@0745;5=8N @5038@>20BL A C4828B5;L=>9 4;O B0:>9 1>;LH>9 D8@<K AB5?5=LN 381:>AB8», >B<5G0;0 2 A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 >?KB0 :><?0=88 0<5@8:0=A:0O 6C@=0;8AB:0 . $>9 [ N. F > C. "The IBM World". London, "Eyre Methnen", 1974, p. 59. 28]. =B81N@>:@0B8G5A:89 AB8;L C?@02;5=8O «!>=8 :>@-?>@59H=»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«!>=8» =5 B>;L:> =5 >BB>@305B M=BC780AB0, => 8<5==> 5<C ?>@CG05B 2>73;028BL A>>B25BAB2CNI89 ?@>5:B. #A?5E8 A0<>3> . >@8BK 2 MB>< :0G5AB25 (?@>5:B «#>:<M=») 8;8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> <C7K:0=B0 . E38, A>7402H53>, ?>-2848<><C, C=8:0;L=CN A;C61C <C7K:0;L=>9 M:A?5@B87K B>20@>2, 2K?CA:05<KE «!>=8», ;8HL =5<=>385 87 ?>4B25@645=89 ?@>4C:B82=>AB8 MB>3> ?CB8.  C?@02;5=88 «!>=8» 2>>1I5 <=>3> M;5<5=B>2, =0?><8=0NI8E <0;CN D8@<C. '53> 1>;LH5, =0?@8<5@, 2 >1@0I5=88 :8> >@8BK : 5@15@BC D>= 0@0O=C ?> ?>2>4C C;CGH5=8O :>=AB@C:F88 «#>:<M=0»? >@4>AB8 3;02K 254CI59 D8@<K, GC2AB2CNI53> ?@02> >1@0B8BLAO 70 A>25B>< : 25;8G09H5<C 48@865@C =0H53> 2@5<5=8, 8;8 AB@5<;5=8O 8=48284C0;L=> @01>B0BL A ?>B@518B5;5< 2 4CE5 =51>;LH>3> A5<59=>3> ?@54?@8OB8O? I5 >4=8< 8A?>;L7C5<K< «!>=8» ;5:0@AB2>< >B 2=CB@8D8@<5==>3> 1N@>:@0B87<0 O2;O5BAO ?0B5@=0;87<  2>A?8B0=85 C 70=OBKE =0 D8@<5 GC2AB20, GB> >=8 G;5=K >4=>9 A5<L8. 0: 8725AB=>, A2>8< 2>7=8:=>25=85< ?0B5@=0;87< >1O70= AB@5<;5=8N 1C@6C0788 A18BL =0:0; :;0AA>2>9 1>@L1K, 70BCH520BL ?@>B82>@5G8O 8=B5@5A>2 :0?8B0;8AB0 8 @01>G53>. K;> 1K C?@>I5=85<, >4=0:>, B>;:>20BL 53> B>;L:> :0: A>7=0B5;L=K9 >1<0= B@C4OI8EAO. 0B5@=0;87< =0:;04K205B =0 1C@6C078N 8 =5:>B>@K5 @50;L=K5 >3@0=8G5=8O.  A5<L5 =5 2A5 ?>72>;5=>, 4065 87 D>@<0;L=> =5=0:07C5<KE 459AB289.  AB@5<OAL 2>A?8B0BL 4CE 548=>9 A5<L8, ?@54?@8=8<0B5;8 2K=C645=K 8 A0<8 ?>ABC?0BL A 4@C38<8 ?>-G5;>25G5A:8. ! C?@02;5=G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O ?0B5@=0;87< ?>;575= 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L B5<, GB> >1;53G05B :>=B0:BK <564C @07=K<8 MB060<8 85@0@E8G5A:>9 ?8@0<84K A>2@5<5==>9 3830=BA:>9 :>@?>@0F88. 'C2AB2CO 701>BC > A515 (. >@8B0 ?@82>48B <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?@8<5@K 55 ?@>O2;5=8O  >B :@C?=KE, A:065<, ?>687=5==>3> =09<0, 4> <5;>G59, 2@>45 ?@>5:B8@>20=8O C=8D>@<K «!>=8» <>45;L5@>< <8@>2>3> :;0AA0), @O4>2>9 @01>B=8: =5 2545B A51O >BGC645==> ?> >B=>H5=8N : D8@<5.  B><C 65 >= <=>3> >1I05BAO A @C:>2>4AB2>< 2 =5>D8F80;L=>9 >1AB0=>2:5 («!>=8-:;01»), <>65B 2K@078BL =54>2>;LAB2> A2>8< =0G0;LAB2><, =5 2ABC?0O A =8<, 0 B5< 1>;55 A> 2A59 04<8=8AB@0F859 2 :>=D;8:B (2=CB@8D8@<5==0O 18@60 B@C40).  8B>35 2>?@>AK 2=CB@8 A0<>9 D8@<K @5H0NBAO ;53:> 8 ?@>AB> =0 1075 G5;>25G5A:8E >B=>H5=89. 0 ?@545;0<8 :><?0=88 >15A?5G8BL 8=B5@5AK «!>=8»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«<0@:5B8=3-<8:A»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«?>;>9», 8;8 «>1>;>G5==>9», :>@?>@0F88 ("hollow corporation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«>1>;>G5==>9 :>@?>@0F88» <>6=> >B=>A8BLAO ?>-@07=><C. >6=> 2845BL 2 =5< ?@>O2;5=85 >4@OE;5=8O :0?8B0;87<0 AB0@KE @0728BKE 3>AC40@AB2. >6=> @0AA<0B@820BL :0: 70:>=><5@=K9 @57C;LB0B 42865=8O : ?>AB8=4CAB@80;L=><C >1I5AB2C (2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 C65 A59G0A B@8 G5B25@B8 70=OBKE 2 M:>=><8:5 !( @01>B0NB 2 AD5@5 CA;C3 8 B>20@>2 =5 ?@>872>4OB). >6=> B0:65 AG8B0BL 53> D0=B07859 B5>@5B8:>2 8 25@8BL, GB> 2 G8AB>< 2845 ?>4>1=K5 D8@<K =8:>340 =5 2>7=8:=CB. 5AA?>@=K<8 65 O2;ONBAO 420 D0:B0. >-?5@2KE, 42865=85 2 =0?@02;5=88 «>1>;>G5==>9 :>@?>@0F88»  @50;L=>ABL. =>385 8725AB=K5 :><?0=88 A1K20NB ?>4 A2>8<8 B>20@=K<8 7=0:0<8 GC6CN ?@>4C:F8N (:AB0B8, . >@8BC ?>4>1=0O ?@0:B8:0 2>7<CI05B).  B>@3>2K5 4><0 A>740NB 4065 «8A:CAAB25==KE» ?@>872>48B5;59, 4020O >4=C 8 BC 65 <0@:C B>20@0< @07=KE D8@< 8 2KAB@0820O 87 =8E ?>;=CN «?@>872>4AB25==CN ?@>3@0<<C» >B 45H52KE 4> A0<KE 4>@>38E B>20@>2 MB>9 <0@:8. >-2B>@KE, =0720==0O B5=45=F8O A2845B5;LAB2C5B > @57:>< 2>7@0AB0=88 @>;8 <0@:5B8=30 2 A>2@5<5==>< <8@5. !0< ?> A515, 4065 2=5 A2O78 A ?@>872>4AB2><, >= >:07K205BAO A?>A>1=K< A>AB028BL >A=>2C ?@81K;L=>3> 187=5A0. 0?@>B82, 4;O :8> >@8BK, :0: 8 4;O <=>38E ?@54?@8=8<0B5;59 AB0@>9 70:0;:8, 8AE>4=K< 8 >?@545;ONI8< ?C=:B>< 2A59 @K=>G=>9 AB@0B5388 O2;O5BAO ?@>872>48<K9 53> D8@<>9 B>20@. 0?><=8<, GB> ?> A2>5<C >1@07>20=8N 3;020 «!>=8» M;5:B@>B5E=8:, B> 5ABL G5;>25:, A?>A>1=K9 ?>=OBL A:>@55 B5E=8G5A:CN AB>@>=C :>=AB@C:F88 B>20@0 8 2 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8 3>B>2K9 : >F5=:5 M:>=><8G5A:8E ?@>1;5<. @0240, 45;> =5 B>;L:> 2 >1@07>20=88. ">, GB> . 1C:0 8 . >@8B0 A=0G0;0 70?CAB8;8 2 ?@>872>4AB2> ?5@2K9 2 /?>=88 <03=8B>D>= 8 B>;L:> ?>B>< =0G0;8 8A:0BL, :><C 8 4;O :0:8E F5;59 >= <>65B 1KBL =C65=, A B>G:8 7@5=8O B5>@88 <0@:5B8=30 ?@54AB02;O;> 3@C1CN >H81:C. > 3@5E 1K; 2A5 65 =525;8:. 8A:  =587156=K9 M;5<5=B 45OB5;L=>AB8 <5;:>9 D8@<K. >2545=85 . >@8BK, AB@5<82H53>AO >@30=87>20BL ?>AB02:8 B@0=78AB>@=KE @048>?@85<=8:>2 2 !(, => 4065 ?@81;878B5;L=> =5 7=02H53> <0AHB01K @K=:0 MB8E B>20@>2 (28;:0 53> >F5=>: :>;510;0AL >B ?OB8 4> AB0 BKAOG HBC:), 2848<>, >1JOA=O;>AL B>9 65 ?@8G8=>9. > 8AB>@8O ?>@B0B82=>3> B5;5287>@0 8 >A>15==> 7=0<5=8B>3> «#>:<M=0», :>340 C65 7@5;K9 . >@8B0 ?@>B82>?>AB028; A2>N 8=BC8F8N <=5=8N M:A?5@B>2, 3>2>@8B >1 8725AB=>9 A8AB5<5 273;O4>2. 0 8 2K1>@ A1KB>2KE 035=B>2, =5>4=>:@0B=> :>=G02H89AO =5>1E>48<>ABLN AC48BLAO A =8<8, 2@O4 ;8 <>65B 1KBL >F5=5= :0: :@C?=0O ?>1540 2 AD5@5 <0@:5B8=30. !0<>5 8=B5@5A=>5, 2?@>G5<, A>AB>8B, ?>60;C9, 2 B><, GB> 2> 2A5E MB8E A;CG0OE «=5?@028;L=K<» 459AB28O< ?@54?@8=8<0B5;O A>?CBAB2>20; CA?5E. «!>=8» 2> <=>3>< ?>E>60 =0 A2>53> 3;02C. 5@54>20O 2 B5E=>;>38G5A:>< >B=>H5=88, >=0 ?> >@30=870F88 A2>53> 187=5A0 =0?><8=05B 70?04=>52@>?59A:CN 8;8 0<5@8:0=A:CN :><?0=8N 4204F0B8-, B@84F0B8;5B=59 402=>AB8. @0:B8G5A:8 =5 4825@A8D8F8@>20==0O, 459AB2CNI0O 2 <0;>?5@A?5:B82=>9 >B@0A;8, :0:>2>9 AG8B05BAO ?>B@518B5;LA:0O M;5:B@>=8:0, 70=OB0O 2K?CA:>< <0AA>2>9 AB0=40@B=>9 ?@>4C:F88 2 CA;>28OE >AB@>9 :>=:C@5=F88 8 >1CA;>2;5==>3> 5N A=865=8O F5=, 4>;3> =5 8A:02H0O «2=5H=53> @>AB0», B> 5ABL 70E20B>2 4@C38E, >A>15==> 8=>AB@0==KE D8@<, >=0 @57:> 2K45;O5BAO =0 D>=5 ?@>G8E :><?0=89.  B5< =5 <5=55 459AB2C5B CA?5H=>, E>BO 8 =0@CH05B GCBL ;8 =5 2A5 <>4=K5 @5F5?BK ?@>F25B0=8O. «!>=8» 5A;8 A>2A5< =5 >B:070;0AL, B> ?> <5=LH59 <5@5 A25;0 =0 C@>25=L 2B>@>AB5?5==KE 1>;LH8=AB2> ?@85<>2 >15A?5G5=8O A2>53> ?>;>65=8O, :@><5 B5E 87 =8E, :>B>@K5 >B=>AOBAO =5?>A@54AB25==> : B>20@C (=>287=0  :0G5AB2>  =87:0O A515AB>8<>ABL). -B>B 15A:><?@><8AA=K9 ?CBL 2> <=>3>< 1K; 2K=C645==K<. >3 ;8 . >@8B0 ?> 2A5< ?@028;0< @0AAG8B0BL >1J5< @K=:0 4;O B>20@0, :>B>@>3> 5I5 =5 ACI5AB2>20;> 2 ?@8@>45? >3;0 ;8 «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» A>ABO70BLAO A> AB0@K<8 M;5:B@>B5E=8G5A:8<8 3830=B0<8 <5@8:8 8 0?04=>9 2@>?K 2 >ACI5AB2;5=88 70E20B>2? 0254><> >B@8F0B5;L=K5 >B25BK =0 ?>4>1=K5 2>?@>AK =5 4>;6=K @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: 84CI85 2@07@57 A >1I5?@8=OB>9 B5>@859 <0@:5B8=30. -DD5:B82=0O A1KB>20O A5BL, 459AB25==0O @5:;0<0, >1I89 1;03>?@8OB=K9 >1@07 :><?0=88, A;>682H89AO C ?C1;8:8, O2;ONBAO 206=K<8 ?@54?>AK;:0<8 @K=>G=>3> CA?5E0. ">G=> B0: 65 ?@5CA?5O=8N :><?0=88 A?>A>1AB2C5B ?@028;L=K9 2K1>@ ?@>D8;O 45OB5;L=>AB8: C<5;0O 4825@A8D8:0F8O, ?@8ACBAB285 =0 =081>;55 ?@81K;L=KE A53<5=B0E @K=:0, 2:;NG5=85 2 A8AB5<C :>=F5@=0 @0=55 =57028A8<KE D8@<, 4>?>;=ONI8E 8 >1>30I0NI8E 53> ?@>872>4AB25==CN ?@>3@0<<C. 540 2 B><, GB> ?@58<CI5AB2> 2 MB8E >?5@0F8OE G0I5 2A53> 8<5NB AB0@K5, 402=> ACI5AB2CNI85 :><?0=88. 3@5AA82=><C =>28G:C, :0:8< 4>;385 3>4K 1K;0 «!>=8», :0:, 2?@>G5<, 8 <=>385 4@C385 O?>=A:85 D8@<K, =04> 8<5BL 270<5= :>7K@8, A2O70==K5 A A0<8< B>20@><. K=5 MB>B MB0? >AB0;AO 4;O «!>=8» 2 ?@>H;><. >3CI5AB25==0O :>@?>@0F8O <>65B ?>72>;8BL A515 <0AHB01=K5 70E20BK. 59AB28B5;L=>, 2 1988 3. >=0 70 420 <8;;80@40 4>;;0@>2 ?@8>1@5;0 «!8-18-MA @5:>@4», 0 2 1989 3. 3>@4>ABL 0<5@8:0=A:>9 :8=>?@><KH;5==>AB8 «>;0<18O ?8:G5@7». >A;54=55 ?>3;>I5=85 >1>H;>AL «!>=8» 2 3,4 <;@4. 4>;;. 8 AB0;> A0<K< :@C?=K< 70E20B><, >ACI5AB2;5==K< :>340- ;81> O?>=A:>9 D8@<>9. > 8 2 MB8E ?@8>1@5B5=8OE >BG5B;82> 2845= «4CE» «!>=8», 70:;NG0NI89AO 2 ?@545;L=>9 :>=F5=B@0F88 =0 ?>2KH5=88 ?@82;5:0B5;L=>AB8 ?@>872>48<KE B>20@>2. >340-B> ?5@2K9 1KB>2>9 2845><03=8B>D>= «!>=8» (A8AB5<0 «15B0») =5 8<5; :><<5@G5A:>3> CA?5E0 ?>B><C, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> D8;L<>2 8 2845>?@>3@0<<, ?>ABC?02H8E =0 @K=>:, 1K;8 70?8A0=K 2 A8AB5<5 «8-M9G-MA». «!>=8» CG;0 C@>:. 0E20B :@C?=59H8E ?@54AB028B5;59 «8=4CAB@88 @072;5G5=89» >157>?0A8B 55 >B ?>2B>@5=8O ?>4>1=KE M:AF5AA>2 2 1C4CI5<. B=K=5 >=8 AB0=CB 2K?CA:0BL A2>N ?@>4C:F8N 2 A>>B25BAB288 A B5E=8G5A:8<8 B@51>20=8O<8 «!>=8». ?KB :8> >@8BK A2845B5;LAB2C5B, GB> =5 B>;L:> A25@E@0D8=8@>20==K5 <5B>4K A>2@5<5==>3> <0@:5B8=30 254CB : CA?5EC. 87=5A?>A>1=0 8 AB0@0O 8=4CAB@80;L=0O B@048F8O, B@51CNI0O >B ?@54?@8=8<0B5;O A>A@54>B>G5=8O 2A5E @5AC@A>2 =0 4>AB865=88 ?@52>AE>4AB20 =04 :>=:C@5=B0<8 2 AD5@5 >A=>2=>3> ?@>872>4AB20 D8@<K. 5A:>;L:> A;>2 AB>8B A:070BL > ?@>1;5<5, ;8HL <5;L:>< 70B@038205<>9 2 :=835, => 8=B5@5A=>9 B5<, GB> ?> =59 2KA:07K205BAO B0:>9 7=0B>: B>20@0, :0: . >@8B0. 5GL 845B > A>740=88 A>2<5AB=KE ?@54?@8OB89 8 8A?>;L7>20=88 70?04=>9 B5E=>;>388 2 8B05 (A<. 3;. 6). 1@0I5=85 : 70?04=><C >?KBC O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 A>AB02=KE G0AB59 ?>;8B8:8 <>45@=870F88 2   8 2=>A8B 2 =55 =5A><=5==K9 2:;04. >2>;L=> 1KAB@> ?>O28;>AL, >4=0:>, 8 @07>G0@>20=85, A2O70==>5 ?@58<CI5AB25==> A 42C<O <><5=B0<8. >-?5@2KE, 70?04=0O B5E=8:0 =5 40;0 >68402H53>AO 8<?C;LA0 @0728B8N 2=CB@5==59 M:>=><8:8. >- 2B>@KE, =5 >?@0240;8AL =04564K =0 <0AA>2K9 M:A?>@B 873>B02;8205<>9 =>2K<8 702>40<8 ?@>4C:F88 2 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:85 AB@0=K. :8> >@8B0 A45;0; 8A:;NG8B5;L=> B>=:>5 =01;N45=85, GB> 8AB>:8 =5C40G G0AB> 1K;8 A2O70=K A, :070;>AL 1K, 5AB5AB25==K< AB@5<;5=85< :8B09F52 ?>;CG8BL =0 0?045 =>259HCN B5E=>;>38N. >:C?:0 B5E=8:8 A0<>3> ?>A;54=53> >1@07F0 ?@5AB86=0. >, @5H0OAL =0 =55, A;54C5B G5B:> ?@54AB02;OBL, G53> 8<5==> >B =55 >6840BL. ">20@, 873>B02;8205<K9 4;O =54>AB0B>G=> @0728B>3> :8B09A:>3> @K=:0, 4>;65= >1;040BL @O4>< A2>9AB2: >= 4>;65= 1KBL 45H52, ?@>AB 2 873>B>2;5=88, 2 G0AB=>AB8, ?@>872>48BLAO 87 AK@LO AB0=40@B=>3> <5AB=>3> :0G5AB20, =5?@8E>B;82 2 M:A?;C0B0F88 =5 2A5340 4>AB0B>G=> 0::C@0B=K< ?>B@518B5;5<, ?>44020BLAO @5<>=BC 2 >1KG=KE <0AB5@A:8E =0 @O4>2>< >1>@C4>20=88 8 B. 4. G5284=>, GB> C;LB@0A;>6=0O 8 A25@EA>2@5<5==0O B5E=>;>38O B0:>3> B>20@0 =5 405B. 5 ?@>40NB =5>E>B=> 8, 5A;8 84CB =0 MB>, B> 70?@0H820NB 702KH5==CN F5=C. !;54>20B5;L=>, 8 ?@>872>48<K9 =0 MB>< >1>@C4>20=88 B>20@ =5 1C45B 45H52K<. KA>:0O B5E=>;>38O, :0: ?@028;>, ?@54JO2;O5B >G5=L 65AB:85 B@51>20=8O : >@30=870F88 ?@>872>4AB20. 0 <5AB=>< AK@L5, 40 5I5 157 2KA>:>9 :20;8D8:0F88 @01>G8E >=0 ;81> 2>>1I5 =5 AB0=5B @01>B0BL, ;81> =5 2K945B =0 ?;0=>2K5 ?>:070B5;8. @>4C:B 2KA>:>9 B5E=>;>388 ?@8A?>A>1;5= : A?5F8D8G5A:8< 70?@>A0< 70?04=>3> @K=:0.  <=>385 53> 4>AB>8=AB20 =0 :8B09A:>< >15@=CBAO =54>AB0B:0<8. "0:, ?>B5@O =5?@8E>B;82>AB8 2 M:A?;C0B0F88, =5=C6=>9 2 70?04=KE CA;>28OE, <>65B >15AF5=8BL 25AL ?@>5:B, 4065 5A;8 70?04=K5 8=65=5@K ?>H;8 =0 =55 @048 C;CGH5=8O 4@C38E E0@0:B5@8AB8: B>20@0. . >@8B0 =5 405B ?> MB><C ?>2>4C @5:><5=40F89, => >=8 >G5284=K. @8 70:C?:5 >1>@C4>20=8O =5>1E>48<> >@85=B8@>20BLAO =5 =0 ?@5AB86=>5 AB@5<;5=85 70?>;CG8BL «A0<>5-A0<>5», 0 =0 @50;L=K5 ?>B@51=>AB8 8, GB> 5I5 1>;55 206=>, =0 2>7<>6=>AB8 A2>59 M:>=><8:8. > 2B>@>9 ?@>1;5<5, 0 8<5==> ?> ?@>1;5<5 B>3>, :0: 871560BL =5C40G 2 M:A?5@B=>9 M:A?0=A88, O?>=A:89 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;L 2KA:07K205B :>=:@5B=K5 ?@54;>65=8O. 0<0=G820O 845O A>740=8O 702>40, A:065<, A>2<5AB=>3> ?@54?@8OB8O, :>B>@>5 2 >A=>2=>< 1C45B ?>AB02;OBL B>20@K =0 :8B09A:89 @K=>:, 0 B0:65 M:A?>@B8@>20BL :>5-:0:CN ?@>4C:F8N, 8<55B ACI5AB25==K9 87JO=. A;8 ?@8A?>A>1;5==K9 : 70?04=><C @K=:C B>20@ =5 2A5340 8450;L=> ?>4E>48B 4;O :8B09A:>3>, B> 5I5 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 25@=> >1@0B=>5. 8B09A:0O 25@A8O B>20@0 8<55B <8=8<C< H0=A>2 =0 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>< @K=:5. >MB><C ?@54?@8OB8O =5 4>;6=K 1KBL C=825@A0;L=K<8, 873>B>2;ONI8<8 B>20@K 8 =0 M:A?>@B 8 4;O 2=CB@5==53> ?>B@51;5=8O. C6=K ?@>872>4AB20 G8AB> M:A?>@B=>9 >@85=B0F88. @8 MB>< =0 ?5@2KE ?>@0E >=8 4065 <>3CB @01>B0BL =0 ?@8=F8?0E 0=:;02=>3> ?@>872>4AB20.  MB>< A;CG05 70?04=K9 ?0@B=5@ ?>;=>ABLN ?@82>78B 2 AB@0=C AK@L5 8 ?>;=>ABLN C2>78B 3>B>2CN ?@>4C:F8N, 8A?>;L7CO =0 <5AB5 B>;L:> @01>GCN A8;C 8 @5AC@AK, C65 4>AB83H85 <8@>2>3> AB0=40@B0, ?>;L7C5BAO B0<>65==K<8 8 D8=0=A>2K<8 ;L3>B0<8. !B@0=0 65 ?>;CG05B 20;NBC. -  "  !. @C?=K5 CG5=K5, 2KA:07K20OAL ?> 2>?@>A0<, 40;5:8< >B 8E ?@>D5AA88, G0AB> ?>@060NB ?C1;8:C M:AB@02030=B=K<8, 0 B> 8 2>2A5 A><=8B5;L=K<8 273;O40<8. 848<>, MB> ?>1>G=K9 ?@>4C:B =5>@48=0@=>AB8 <KH;5=8O, AB>;L =5>1E>48<>9 8< 2 >A=>2=>9 AD5@5 45OB5;L=>AB8. "0;0=B ?@54?@8=8<0B5;O D>@<8@C5B 8=K5 A2>9AB20 ;8G=>AB8. @03<0B87< 8 A?>A>1=>ABL ?@8A?>A01;820BLAO : >1I5?@8=OB><C <=5=8N 70=8<0NB A@548 =8E =5 ?>A;54=55 <5AB>. KBL <>65B, 2 A8;C 8<5==> MB8E ?@8G8= A0<>1KB=K9 . >@8B0 2 A2>8E >1I8E @0AAC645=8OE > <8@>2>9 ?>;8B8:5 8 M:>=><8:5 ?@845@68205BAO 4>AB0B>G=> B8?8G=KE 4;O O?>=A:>3> 187=5A<5=0 273;O4>2. !>25BA:><C G8B0B5;N, 25@>OB=>, 1C45B 8=B5@5A=>, E>BO 8 =5 2> 2A5E >B=>H5=8OE ?@8OB=>, ?>7=0:><8BLAO A =8<8. "5< 1>;55, GB> :=830 ?8A0;0AL =5 4;O =0A (5A;8 :0:>9-B> 8=>AB@0==K9 G8B0B5;L 8 8<5;AO 02B>@>< 2 284C, B> A:>@55 2A53> 0<5@8:0=A:89), 0 ?>78F8O =5 ?>425@30;0AL A>7=0B5;L=>9 @5BCH8. &5=B@><, 2>:@C3 :>B>@>3> 2@0I0NBAO ?@54AB02;5=8O . >@8BK > A>2@5<5==>< <8@5, O2;O5BAO, 157CA;>2=>, 273;O4 =0 /?>=8N :0: =0 >A>1CN, ?@>F25B0NICN, 2K7K20NICN 7028ABL 8 2<5AB5 A B5< =5>BJ5<;5<CN G0ABL 70?04=>3> A>N70. >AB0B>G=> 70<5B=> ?@8 MB>< ?@>A:0;L7K20NB =>B:8 ?@52>AE>4AB20 8 4065 >184K =0 ?0@B=5@>2 70 B>, GB> >=8 =54>>F5=820NB 53> @>48=C. "0:, >1JOA=5=8O ?@8G8= 48A10;0=A0 2 >1<5=5 42CE AB@0= B5;5:><<C=8:0F8>==K< >1>@C4>20=85<, :>B>@K5 02B>@ :=838 4020; A?5F80;L=><C ?@54AB028B5;N !( ?> 2>?@>A0< B>@3>2;8, 5A;8 >B1@>A8BL 256;82CN D>@<C, A2>4OBAO : B><C, GB> O?>=FK 45;0NB E>@>H85, 0 0<5@8:0=FK ?;>E85 ?@81>@K (A<. 3;. 8).  MB> >1 >B@0A;8, 345 =0 2K1>@ ?>:C?0B5;O <>6=> 2;8OBL =5 B>;L:> :0G5AB2><, => 8 G5@57 A8AB5<C CAB>9G82KE B>@3>2KE A2O759, =5A>2<5AB8<>ABL AB0=40@B>2, =0:>=5F ?@>AB> G5@57 3>AC40@AB25==K5 70:C?:8. B:@>25==> ?@>O?>=A:>9, 157 :0:8E-;81> ?@8<5A59 >1J5:B8287<0 O2;O5BAO 8 >1I0O B@0:B>2:0 ?@>1;5< A2>1>4K B>@3>2;8 8 ?@>B5:F8>=87<0. >=5G=>, «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=»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«>=8», «<K» 65 >B =53> AB@0405< 8 ;8HL 2K=C645==> ?@815305< : >B25B=K< <5@0<. ?@545;8BL, :B> ?@02 2> 2A59 A>2>:C?=>AB8 A8BC0F89, ?@0:B8G5A:8 =52>7<>6=>. 848<>, 1>;LH0O 8;8 <5=LH0O 4>70 ?@>B5:F8>=87<0 2A5 65 =C6=0 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8< AB@0=0< 2 B5E AD5@0E, 345 >=8 A8;L=> CABC?0NB :>=:C@5=B0<.  ?@825@65==>ABL A>2@5<5==>9 /?>=88 ?@8=F8?0< «>B:@KB>9 M:>=><8:8» A;54C5B 2K2>48BL =5 AB>;L:> 87 45<>:@0B8G5A:8E B@048F89 AB@0=K 8;8 701>BK >1 >1I5< 1;035 «A2>1>4=>3> <8@0» (?@8<5@=> B0: C . >@8BK), A:>;L:> 87 B5?5@5H=59 A8;K 55 E>7O9AB20 8 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8 2 A2O7OE A 4@C38<8 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8<8 AB@0=0<8. >MB><C 5AB5AB25==>, GB> =54>2>;LAB2> ?@>B5:F8>=87<>< 0?040 =8 2 :>59 <5@5 =5 A;C68B 4;O . >@8BK >A=>20=85< ?@87K20BL : A25@BK20=8N M:A?0=A88 «!>=8» 2 MB>< =0?@02;5=88. 0: >B<5G0;0 2 1987 3>4C "(209F5@8H5 E0=45;LAF09BC=3", =5A<>B@O =0 A;>6=K9 E0@0:B5@ @0728B8O 45;>2>9 0:B82=>AB8, «!>=8»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«!>=8»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«70I8B5 70?04=KE F5==>AB59»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«!>=8 :>@?>@59H=».  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" > ABC?;5=85  !>@>: ;5B =0704, 25G5@>< 7 <0O 1946 3>40 >:>;> 4204F0B8 G5;>25: A>1@0;8AL =0 G5B25@B>< MB065 >13>@5;>3> C=825@<030 2 >?CAB>H5==>< 2>9=>9 F5=B@5 ">:8>, GB>1K CG@548BL =>2CN :><?0=8N «">:8> B5;5:><<LN=8:59H=7 8=68=8@8=3 :>@?>@59H=», :>B>@>9 ?>74=55 1K;> AC645=> ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=». A=>20B5;N MB>9 :><?0=88, 0A0@5 1C:5, 1K;> 38 ;5B, <=5  25. =0:><AB2> A =8< >:070;>AL 4;O <5=O >4=8< 87 A0<KE 1>;LH8E ?>40@:>2 AC4L1K, 8 @01>B0 A =8< 4>AB02;O;0 >3@><=>5 C4>2>;LAB285. !2>8< ?>O2;5=85< =0 A25B MB0 :=830 >1O70=0 <>59 4>;3>9 4@C615 A 0A0@C 1C:>9. >GB8 G5@57 =545;N ?>A;5 A>@>:>2>9 3>4>2I8=K «!>=8» <K A 65=>9 >A8:> >B?@074=>20;8 B@84F0BL ?OBCN 3>4>2I8=C =0H59 A204L1K. >A8:> 83@05B 1>;LHCN @>;L, 2KABC?0O 2 :0G5AB25 <>53> 48?;><0B8G5A:>3> ?@54AB028B5;O 8 ?0@B=5@0, 8 2<5AB5 A AK=>2LO<8 %84M> 8 0A0>, 0 B0:65 4>G5@LN 0>:> ?>445@68205B 8 ?>=8<05B <5=O, GB> ?>72>;O5B <=5 ?>;=>ABLN >B4020BL A51O @01>B5. =5 =5 E20B05B A;>2, GB>1K 2K@078BL 1;03>40@=>ABL <>8< @>48B5;O<, <>8< =0AB02=8:0<, 0 B0:65 <=>3>G8A;5==K< 4@C7LO< 8 :>;;530< :0: 2 «!>=8», B0: 8 70 55 ?@545;0<8, :>B>@K5 ?><>3;8 A>740BL B2>@G5A:CN 8 1;03>65;0B5;L=CN >1AB0=>2:C. / 3;C1>:> 1;03>40@5= -28=C 59=3>;4C 8 8FC:> !8<><C@5, :>B>@K5 A =58AB>I8<K< B5@?5=85< 8 M=BC7807<>< 2KA;CH820;8 <>8 @07<KH;5=8O 8 4;8==K5 8AB>@88. 57 =8E O 1K =5 <>3 7025@H8BL MBC :=83C. =5 B0:65 E>B5;>AL 1K 2K@078BL 8A:@5==NN 1;03>40@=>ABL <=>38< 4@C38< ;N4O<, ?@5645 2A53> <>8< ?><>I=8:0< M3C<8 >A88 8 8488 0@CO<0, 70 8E 206=CN @01>BC 2 ?>43>B>2:5 <0B5@80;>2 4;O =0AB>OI59 :=838.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" > . !?0A5=85 8 =045640.  I / >1540; A <>8<8 A>A;C682F0<8-<>@O:0<8, :>340 ?@8H;0 =525@>OB=0O 25ABL >1 0B><=>9 1><10@48@>2:5 %8@>A8<K. =D>@<0F8O 1K;0 >B@K2>G=>9  =0< =5 A>>1I8;8 4065 > B><, :0:0O 1><10 1K;0 A1@>H5=0, => :0: 2>5==K9 8=65=5@, B>;L:> GB> >:>=G82H89 :>;;546 A 48?;><>< D878:0, O ?>=8<0;, GB> MB> 1K;0 70 1><10 8 GB> MB> >7=0G0;> 4;O /?>=88 8 4;O <5=O. C4CI55 =8:>340 5I5 =5 1K;> AB>;L BC<0==K<  254L /?>=8O =8:>340 5I5 =5 ?@>83@K20;0 2>9=  8 B>;L:> <>;>4K5 ;N48 <>3;8 A>E@0=OBL >?B8<87<. A5 65 4065 B>340 O 25@8; 2 A51O 8 2 A2>5 1C4CI55. @>H;> C65 =5<0;> <5AOF52 A B5E ?>@, :0: O ?>=O;  /?>=8O ?@>83@K205B 2>9=C 8 ?@>4>;60BL 55 15A?>;57=>, => O B0:65 7=0;, GB> 2>5==K5 E>BOB 2>520BL 4> ?>A;54=53> A>;40B0. =5 1K;> 24 3>40, O >:>=G8; <?5@A:89 A0:A:89 C=825@A8B5B 8 @01>B0; 2 <56>B@0A;52>9 3@C??5 CG5=KE 8 8=65=5@>2, :>B>@>9 ?@54AB>O;> A>25@H5=AB2>20BL >@C685 A B5?;>2>9 3>;>2:>9 A0<>=02545=8O 8 =>G=K5 ?@8F5;K. >5==K5 2;0AB8 =045O;8AL, GB> O?>=A:0O B5E=8:0 ?>72>;8B 87<5=8BL E>4 2>9=K, => E>BO <K >G5=L <=>3> @01>B0;8, <K 7=0;8, GB> C65 ?>74=> 8 GB> =0H8 ?@>5:BK =5 1C4CB 8<5BL CA?5E. 0< =5 E20B0;> A@54AB2 8 2@5<5=8.  B5?5@L, ?>A;5 %8@>A8<K, <=5 AB0;> OA=>  2@5<O 8AB5:;>.  >B;8G85 >B 3@0640=A:>3> =0A5;5=8O, :>B>@>5 2 B> 2@5<O =0E>48;>AL ?>4 =5CAK?=>9 A;56:>9 8 =01;N45=85< ?>;8F88 8 0@<88, O 8<5; 4>ABC? : 2>5==>-<>@A:>9 8=D>@<0F88 8 <>3 A;CH0BL :>@>B:>2>;=>2K5 @048>?5@540G8, E>BO 4065 >D8F5@0< ! 2=5 A;C61K MB> 1K;> 70?@5I5=>. / 5I5 4> 6 023CAB0 1945 3>40 7=0;, GB> 0<5@8:0=FK =0<=>3> A8;L=55 =0A 8 2>9=0 C65, <>6=> A:070BL, ?@>83@0=0. > B5< =5 <5=55 A>>1I5=85 >1 0B><=>9 1><10@48@>2:5 >:070;>AL 4;O <5=O =5>6840==K<. ><10 70E20B8;0 2@0A?;>E.  B>B 7=>9=K9 2;06=K9 ;5B=89 45=L <K 5I5 =5 7=0;8, :0:8< AB@0H=K< >@C685< >:070;0AL A1@>H5==0O 1><10.  8=D>@<0F8>==>< 1N;;5B5=5, :>B>@K9 ;560; 2 >D8F5@A:>9 AB>;>2>9 C =0A =0 AB>;5, 1K;> A:070=> ;8HL, GB> MB0 1><10 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 «=>2K9 284 >@C68O, :>B>@>5 405B >A;5?8B5;L=CN 2A?KH:C», => B0:>5 >?8A0=85 =5 >AB02;O;> C =0A =8:0:8E A><=5=89 2 B><, GB> MB> 1K;> 0B><=>5 CAB@>9AB2>. ?@>G5<, O?>=A:85 2>5==K5 2;0AB8 >G5=L 4>;3> A:@K20;8 :>=:@5B=K5 A2545=8O > ?@>8AH54H5< 2 %8@>A8<5, 8 =5:>B>@K5 >D8F5@K =5 25@8;8 2 B>, GB> C 0<5@8:0=F52 5ABL 0B><=0O 1><10. K =54>AB0B>G=> 40;5:> ?@>428=C;8AL 2 =0H8E B5>@5B8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=8OE, GB>1K 7=0BL <0AHB01K @07@CH8B5;L=>9 <>I8 B0:>3> >@C68O 8 ?@54AB02;OBL, :0:>5 >3@><=>5 G8A;> ;N459 <>3;> ?>381=CBL 2 @57C;LB0B5 53> 27@K20. K 5I5 =5 7=0;8, :0:8< AB@0H=K< O2;O5BAO 0B><=>5 >@C685, => O 2845; C60A=K5 ?>A;54AB28O >1KG=KE 706830B5;L=KE 1><1, 254L O ?@85760; 2 ">:8> =0 4@C3>9 45=L ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: 2 =>GL A 9 =0 10 <0@B0 >4=0 70 4@C3>9 MA:04@8;L8 A0<>;5B>2 «-29» A1@0AK20;8 706830B5;L=K5 1><1K, 2K7202 >3=5==K9 A<5@G, 2 :>B>@>< 2A53> 70 =5A:>;L:> G0A>2 ?>381;8 AB> BKAOG G5;>25:. =5 ?@8H;>AL 1KBL 8 A2845B5;5< AB@0H=>9 1><10@48@>2:8 <>53> @>4=>3> 3>@>40 03>9. A5 1>;LH85 ?@><KH;5==K5 3>@>40 /?>=88, 8A:;NG0O 8>B>, 2 1945 3>4C G0AB8G=> ?@54AB02;O;8 A>1>9 2K665==K5 ?CABK=8, C=K;K5 >1C3;82H85AO @C8=K  2A5, GB> >AB0;>AL >B 4><>2 <8;;8>=>2 O?>=F52. 'B> 0B><=0O 1><10 <>65B 1KBL 5I5 AB@0H=55, :070;>AL =525@>OB=K<. %>BO 1><10 1K;0 A1@>H5=0 6 023CAB0 2 8.15 CB@0, <K CA;KH0;8 >1 MB>< ;8HL 2 ?>;45=L 7 023CAB0. >O @50:F8O =0 A>>1I5=85 > E8@>A8<A:>9 1><15 1K;0 @50:F859 CG5=>3>. =5 C65 1K;> =5 4> @8A0 =0 AB>O2H59 ?5@54> <=>9 B0@5;:5, E>BO 2> 2@5<O 2>9=K 2 /?>=88, MB> 1K;> 1>;LH>9 @>A:>HLN. / >125; 273;O4>< <>8E :>;;53, A8452H8E 70 AB>;><, 8 A:070;: «! MB>3> <><5=B0 <K 2?>;=5 <>65< >B:070BLAO >B =0H8E 8AA;54>20=89. A;8 0<5@8:0=FK A<>3;8 A>740BL 0B><=CN 1><1C, 7=0G8B, <K A;8H:>< A8;L=> >BAB0;8 2> 2A5E >1;0ABOE, GB>1K 8E 4>3=0BL». >9 =0G0;L=8: >G5=L @0AA5@48;AO =0 <5=O. / 7=0; :>5-GB> > ?>B5=F80;L=KE 2>7<>6=>ABOE 0B><=>9 M=5@388, => <=5 :070;>AL, GB> 4;O A>740=8O 0B><=>9 1><1K ?>B@51C5BAO =5 <5=55 4204F0B8 ;5B 8 O 1K; ?>B@OA5=, C7=02, GB> 0<5@8:0=FK C65 A45;0;8 MB>. K;> OA=>, GB>, 5A;8 0<5@8:0=FK CH;8 B0: 40;5:>, =0H0 B5E=8:0 ?> A@02=5=8N A 8E 1K;0 ?@>AB> ?@8<8B82=0. / A:070;, GB> :0:>5 1K >@C685 <K =8 87>1@5;8, >=> 1C45B 3>@074> EC65, 8 <=5 :070;>AL, GB> <K =8G53> =5 CA?55< A>740BL 2>2@5<O, 2 ?@>B82>25A MB>9 1><15  =8 =>2>3> >@C68O, =8 70I8B=KE A@54AB2. 725AB85 > %8@>A8<5 1K;> 4;O <5=O G5<-B> A>25@H5==> =525@>OB=K<. "5E=8G5A:>5 >BAB020=85, > :>B>@>< >=> A2845B5;LAB2>20;>, 1K;> :>;>AA0;L=K<. K 7=0;8, <564C 0<5@8:0=A:>9 8 O?>=A:>9 B5E=8:>9 ACI5AB2CNB @07;8G8O. 4=0:> <K AG8B0;8 =0HC B5E=8:C >G5=L E>@>H59. "0: >=> 8 1K;>, => <K 5I5 ?>2AN4C AB0@0;8AL =09B8 :0: <>6=> 1>;LH5 =>2KE 8459. 4=064K, =0?@8<5@, <K ?>;CG8;8 >1>@C4>20=85 A> A18B>3> 1><10@48@>2I8:0 «-29» 8 >B<5B8;8, GB> 0<5@8:0=FK 8A?>;L7CNB 1>;55 A>25@H5==CN B5E=8:C 8 4@C3CN M;5:B@8G5A:CN AE5<C, => 2A5 MB> 1K;> =5 =0<=>3> ;CGH5, G5< C =0A. >B ?>G5<C, :>340 O 2?5@2K5 CA;KH0; >1 0B><=>9 1><10@48@>2:5 %8@>A8<K, <5=O ?>@078;>, GB> 8=4CAB@80;L=0O <>IL <5@8:8 >:070;0AL 1>;LH5, G5< <K ?@54?>;030;8, ?@>AB> =5A>87<5@8<> 1>;LH5.  254L 4;O <5=O MB> =5 4>;6=> 1K;> 1KBL AB>;L =5>6840==K<. I5 <0;LG8:><, :>340 O CG8;AO 2 H:>;5, O 2845; D8;L< > AB@>8B5;LAB25 :><?;5:A0 825@- C6 :><?0=88 «$>@4 <>B>@» 2 8@1>@=5, HB0B 8G830=. 0<KA5; MB>9 3830=BA:>9 AB@>9:8 ?@825; <5=O 2 2>AB>@3. $8;L< ?>:07K20; :@C?=K5 AC40, 4>AB02;O2H85 65;57=CN @C4C 87 40;5:8E @C4=8:>2 =0 D>@4>2A:89 <5B0;;C@38G5A:89 702>4 2 825@- C6, 345 >=0 ?@52@0I0;0AL 2 @07;8G=K5 A>@B0 8 ?@>D8;8 AB0;8. >B>20O AB0;L ?>ABC?0;0 =0 4@C3>9 702>4 :><18=0B0, 345 87 =55 >B;820;8 8;8 HB0<?>20;8 @07;8G=K5 45B0;8 4;O 02B><>18;59, 0 2 A;54CNI59 G0AB8 B>3> 65 702>40 87 45B0;59 A>18@0;8 <0H8=K.  B> 2@5<O C /?>=88 =5 1K;> :><?;5:A=>3> ?@>872>4AB20 ?>4>1=>3> B8?0. >;5N AC4L1K <=>3> ;5B A?CABO, :>340 /?>=8O 2>AAB0=02;820;0AL ?>A;5 2>9=K 8 A>74020;0 =>2CN ?@><KH;5==>ABL, AB@>8;0 =0 ?>15@56L5 =>2K5 MDD5:B82=> @01>B0NI85 702>4K 8 A>74020;0 :><?;5:AK =0?>4>185 702>4>2 $>@40, :>B>@K5 <K 2845;8 4> 2>9=K, <=5 ?@54AB028;0AL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>1K20BL =0 :><18=0B5 825@- C6. / 1K; C482;5=, >7040G5= 8 @07>G0@>20=, C28452 B5 ;55 A0<K5 :0@B8=K, :>B>@K5 O ?><=8; ?> D8;L<C, A=OB><C ?>GB8 70 4204F0BL ;5B 4> B>3>. 070;>AL, GB> B0< A B5E ?>@ =5 <5=O;0AL B5E=8:0. ">340 O ?>4C<0; > B><, GB> 1C45B A 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>ABLN 8 3;025=AB2CNI8< ?>;>65=85<, :>B>@>5 >=0 70=8<0;0 =0 7028ABL 2A5<C <8@C. > 2 023CAB5 1945 3>40 O =8:0: =5 <>3 ?@89B8 2 A51O, :>340 >A>7=0;, A:>;L 4@0<0B8G5A:85 ?5@5<5=K >6840NB /?>=8N 8 <5=O. / 4>;3> 4C<0; > A2>5< 1C4CI5<. 48= >D8F5@ C3>2>@8; <5=O ?>ABC?8BL =0 A;C61C 2 ! 8 @01>B0BL 2 :>;;5465 ?> ?@>3@0<<5, :>B>@0O ?>72>;8;0 1K <=5 ?@>4>;68BL =0CG=K5 8AA;54>20=8O 8 =5 ?>381=CBL 2 =8:><C =5 =C6=>< <>@A:>< 1>N 70 BKAOG8 <8;L >B 4><0.  70B5<, ?>A;5 %8@>A8<K, 0 B0:65 ?>A;5 2B>@>9 0B><=>9 1><10@48@>2:8, =0 MB>B @07 3>@>40 030A0:8, O ?>;=>ABLN >A>7=0;, GB> /?>=88 ?>B@51CNBAO 2A5 B0;0=BK, :>B>@K5 59 C40ABAO A?0AB8 4;O 1C4CI53>. / <>3C 4065 A:070BL, GB> C65 B>340, 1C4CG8 <>;>4K< G5;>25:><, O GC2AB2>20;, GB> 4>;65= AK3@0BL :0:CN-B> @>;L 2 MB>< 1C4CI5<. > =5 7=0;, =0A:>;L:> 1>;LH>9 >:065BAO MB0 @>;L.  B> 2@5<O O B0:65 5I5 =5 7=0;, :0: 2 1>;55 ?>74=85 3>4K 1C4C >B4020BL G0AK, =545;8 8 <5AOFK 8 5748BL 70 BKAOG8 <8;L 2 1C:20;L=>< A<KA;5 A;>20, GB>1K A?>A>1AB2>20BL A1;865=8N /?>=88 A !(, :0:, 2?@>G5<, 8 A 4@C38<8 AB@0=0<8 0?040. / 1K; ?5@25=F5< 8 =0A;54=8:>< 2 ?OB=04F0B>< ?>:>;5=88 >4=>3> 87 A0<KE 1;03>@>4=KE 8 AB0@8==KE A5<59AB2, 873>B>28B5;59 A0:M, 2 /?>=88. !0:M  MB> =5 B>;L:> =0F8>=0;L=K9 =0?8B>: /?>=88, => B0:65 >48= 87 A8<2>;>2 :C;LBC@K 4;O O?>=A:>3> =0@>40. => 4065 A;C68B >4=8< 87 M;5<5=B>2 <=>38E @5;838>7=KE @8BC0;>2  =0 B@048F8>==KE A20451=KE F5@5<>=8OE <>;>4K5 AC?@C38 2K?820NB 2<5AB5 1>:0; A0:M. !5<59AB2> >@8B0 2 45@52=5 >AC30O, =540;5:> >B ?@><KH;5==>3> F5=B@0 03>9, 2>B C65 B@8AB0 ;5B 20@8B A0:M, 8725AB=>5 ?>4 <0@:>9 «5=>E8<0FC». "0:>5 =0720=85 >=> ?>;CG8;> ?> 703>;>2:C AB8E>B2>@5=8O, ?><5I5==>3> 2 «0=JQA8», 7=0<5=8B>9 0=B>;>388 O?>=A:>9 ?>M788, A>AB02;5==>9 2 2>AL<>< 25:5. -B> =0720=85 B@048F8>==>3> >1KG0O  2 ?5@2K9 45=L >40 @KAK ?> 2>AB>G=><C :0;5=40@N =04> 1K;> 5E0BL 2 45@52=N, GB>1K 2K1@0BL A5O=5F A>A=K, ?@8257B8 4><>9 8 ?>A048BL 2 A04C. !>A=0 A8<2>;878@C5B 4>;3>;5B85 8 AG0ABL5, 8, A060O A>A=>2>5 45@52> 2 =0G0;5 =>2>3> 3>40, ;N48 65;0;8 A515 74>@>2LO 8 ?@>F25B0=8O 2 B5G5=85 2A53> 3>40. ><?0=8O «>@8B0» ?@>872>48;0 B0:65 A>52K9 A>CA 8 ?0ABC «<8A>», >1O70B5;L=CN ?@8?@02C O?>=A:>9 :CE=8, :>B>@0O 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?@8 20@:5 AC?>2 8 2 :0G5AB25 30@=8@0 4;O 4@C38E 1;N4. >A:>;L:C 45;> A5<59AB20 >@8B0 8<5;> B0:>5 206=>5 7=0G5=85 4;O =0A5;5=8O, >=> B0:65 2A5340 70=8<0;> ?>;>65=85 3@0640=A:>3> @C:>2>48B5;O >1I8=K. >9 >B5F 1K; >G5=L E>@>H8< 187=5A<5=><, => >= C=0A;54>20; AB0@>5 ?@54?@8OB85, :>B>@>5 ?5@56820;> A5@L57=K5 D8=0=A>2K5 B@C4=>AB8. >8 454 8 ?@0454 1K;8 MAB5B0<8, C2;5:02H8<8AO 87OI=K<8 8A:CAAB20<8 8 @5<5A;0<8 /?>=88 8 8B0O, 8 >10 >=8 B@0B8;8 <=>3> 2@5<5=8 8 45=53 =0 >1I5AB25==CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 8 =0 ?><>IL EC4>6=8:0<, <0AB5@0< 8 B>@3>2F0< ?@>872545=8O<8 8A:CAAB20. ">=:0O :5@0<8:0 8 ?>AC40 4;O G09=KE F5@5<>=89, :@0A820O <515;L, :0@B8=K 8 4@C385 ?@54<5BK, A>?@>2>6402H85 @8BC0;K >1I5AB25==>9 687=8 O?>=A:>9 0@8AB>:@0B88, 2A5340 2KA>:> F5=8;8AL  8 >G5=L 4>@>3> AB>8;8.  B5G5=85 <=>38E ;5B /?>=8O =03@0640;0 720=85< «<0AB5@0 =0F8>=0;L=>3> 8A:CAAB20» ;CGH8E <0AB5@>2 8 EC4>6=8:>2, ?@>4>;602H8E B@048F88 O?>=A:>9 =0F8>=0;L=>9 :C;LBC@K, 682>?8AF52, 3>@H5G=8:>2, B5:AB8;LI8:>2, :C7=5F>2, B:0G59, :0;;83@0D>2 8 4@C38E. @>872545=8O MB8E 25;8:>;5?=KE <0AB5@>2 2A5340 ?>;L7>20;8AL 1>;LH8< A?@>A>< C ;N18B5;59 :@0A>BK.  =5AG0ABLN, 2:CAK 3;02 42CE ?>:>;5=89 A5<59AB20 >@8B0 1K;8 AB>;L CB>=G5==K<8, 0 8E AB@0ABL :0: :>;;5:F8>=5@>2  B0:>9 A8;L=>9, GB> ?>:0 >=8 ?@54020;8AL A2>8< C2;5G5=8O<, >AB02;OO ?@54?@8OB85 =0 ?@>872>; AC4L1K, 8;8, 25@=55, >B4020O 53> 2 GC685 @C:8, AB@040;> 45;>. =8 =045O;8AL, GB> =05<=K5 C?@02;ONI85 AC<5NB @C:>2>48BL :><?0=859 «>@8B0». 4=0:> 4;O B5E MB0 :><?0=8O A;C68;0 ;8HL 8AB>G=8:>< A@54AB2 : 687=8, 8 5A;8 45;0 H;8 ?;>E>, MB> 1K;> 4>AB>9=> A>60;5=8O, => =5 1K;> 4;O =8E 2>?@>A>< 687=8 8 A<5@B8.  :>=5G=>< AG5B5, 2A5, GB> C3@>60;> C?@02;ONI8<, MB> ?>B5@O @01>BK. =8 =5 =5A;8 >B25BAB25==>AB8 ?5@54 ?>:>;5=8O<8 70 ?>445@60=85 F5;>AB=>AB8 8 ?@>F25B0=8O ?@54?@8OB8O, 0 B0:65 70 D8=0=A>2>5 1;03>A>AB>O=85 A5<59AB20 >@8B0. >MB><C, :>340 45;> ?5@5H;> 2 @C:8 <>53> >BF0 :0: AB0@H53> AK=0, ?5@54 =8< 2AB0;0 =5>B;>6=0O 7040G0 A45;0BL :><?0=8N A=>20 ?@81K;L=>9 8 2>AAB0=>28BL A>AB>O=85 A5<L8 >@8B0. 8:0:>9 C?@02;ONI89 A> AB>@>=K =5 A45;0; 1K MB>3> 70 =53>. -B> 1K;> =5?@>ABK< 45;><. >340 <>53> >BF0, N470M<>=C >@8BC, >B>@20;8 >B CG51K, GB>1K >= 2>73;028; :><?0=8N, >= 1K; ABC45=B>< D0:C;LB5B0 C?@02;5=8O ?@54?@8OB8O<8 2 C=825@A8B5B5 «M9>» 2 ">:8>. ><?0=88 C3@>60;> 10=:@>BAB2>, 8 >B5F ?>=8<0;, GB>, E>BO 5<C ?@8H;>AL 1@>A8BL B5>@5B8G5A:85 70=OB8O, M:70<5=>20BL 53> 1C4CB :@878AK @50;L=>9 687=8  =5 ?@>1;5<K 87 CG51=8:0 8;8 CG51=K5 ?@8<5@K, 0 1C4CI55 A5<59AB20 >@8B0. = 25@=C;AO 4><>9 8, 27O2 :><?0=8N 2 A2>8 @C:8, =0G0; AB028BL 55 =0 =>38. > 8@>=88 AC4L1K, 8 : AG0ABLN 4;O 2A59 =0H59 A5<L8, >= @074>1K; 45=L38, GB>1K 2K?;0B8BL 4>;38 :><?0=88 8 2=>2L ?@825AB8 701@>H5==CN D01@8:C 2 E>@>H55 A>AB>O=85, ?@>402 <=>385 87 ?@54<5B>2 8A:CAAB20, :C?;5==KE 53> >BF>< 8 454><. !B>8<>ABL 25I59 A 3>40<8 2>7@>A;0, 8 ?>MB><C E>BO :0?8B0;>2;>65=8O A5<L8 2 ?@>872545=8O 8A:CAAB20 8 =5 1K;8 >G5=L <C4@K< 70=OB85< A B>G:8 7@5=8O C?@02;5=8O ?@54?@8OB85<, >=8 >:070;8AL ?@81K;L=K<8 8 4065 AK3@0;8 @5H0NICN @>;L 4;O A?0A5=8O :><?0=88. !@548 A>:@>28I, :>B>@K5 5<C ?@8H;>AL ?@>40BL, 1K;8 B@8 >A>15==> F5==KE ?@54<5B0: :8B09A:89 <0=CA:@8?B, 1@>=7>2>5 75@:0;> 87 8B0O 8 4@52=55 C:@0H5=85 87 =5D@8B0, A>740==>5 2 /?>=88 2 ?5@8>4 ?@81;878B5;L=> A 350 3>40 4> =>2>9 M@K 4> 250 3>40 =>2>9 M@K. >9 >B5F 1K; A5@L57=K< 8 :>=A5@20B82=K< G5;>25:>< 8 >= 7=0;, :0: <=>3> 7=0G8;8 MB8 ?@54<5BK 4;O 53> >BF0, ?>MB><C >= ?>:;O;AO 2K:C?8BL 8E, :0: B>;L:> MB> ?>72>;OB 4>E>4K A5<L8.  459AB28B5;L=>, G5@57 =5A:>;L:> ;5B >=8 1K;8 «2K:C?;5=K» 8 A=>20 ?>?>;=8;8 A5<59=CN :>;;5:F8N.  B><C 2@5<5=8, :>340 @>48;AO O, AB0@H89 AK= N470M<>=0 8 !N:> >@8B0, :><?0=8O A=>20 ?@>G=> AB>O;0 =0 =>30E, 8 @515=:>< <=5 =5 ?@8E>48;>AL 8A?KBK20BL 4><0 =8:0:8E ;8H5=89. 0?@>B82, O 2A5340 1K; 2 ?@828;538@>20==>< ?>;>65=88. 0H0 A5<LO 1K;0 1>30B>9, 8 <K 68;8 2 >3@><=>< (?> O?>=A:8< AB0=40@B0<) 15A?>@O4>G=> 2KAB@>5==>< 4><5 =0 !8@0:015G>, >4=>9 87 :@0A8259H8E C;8F 03>9.  =0@>45 55 =07K20;8 C;8F59 1>30G59. 0 =0H5< CG0AB:5 1K; B5==8A=K9 :>@B, B0:>9 65 :>@B 1K; C A5<59AB20 ">Q40 =0 4@C3>9 AB>@>=5 C;8FK, 0 B0:65 8 C 4@C38E =0H8E A>A5459 ?> >15 AB>@>=K C;8FK.  B> 2@5<O =0< =C65= 1K; 1>;LH>9 4><, ?>B><C GB> ?>4 >4=>9 1>;LH>9 G5@5?8G=>9 :@KH59 =0A 1K;> >G5=L <=>3>: O, <>8 1@0BLO  047C0:8, :>B>@K9 =0 420 3>40 <>;>65 <5=O, 0A00:8, :>B>@K9 <>;>65 <5=O =0 H5ABL ;5B, 8 <>O A5AB@0 8:C:>, :>B>@0O <>;>65 <5=O =0 B@8 3>40. 0;55, B0<, @07C<55BAO, 68;8 <>8 >B5F 8 <0BL, B5BO, <C6 :>B>@>9 C<5@ <>;>4K<, =5 >AB0282 59 45B59, <;04H89 1@0B >BF0, :>B>@K9 G5BK@5 3>40 CG8;AO 682>?8A8 2> $@0=F88, @>48B5;8 >BF0, 0 B0:65 H5AB5@> A;C3 8 B@8-G5BK@5 <>;>4KE G5;>25:0 87 =0H59 @>4>2>9 45@52=8, :>B>@K< <>O A5<LO ?><>30;0 >:>=G8BL H:>;C 2 >1<5= 70 @01>BC ?> 4><C. 070;>AL, GB> 2 4><5 2A5340 GB>-B> ?@>8AE>48;>, 8 MB>, =025@=>5 =5C4828B5;L=>, 5A;8 2A?><=8BL, A:>;L:> =0@>40 B0< 68;>. @0240, C =0A 1K;8 A2>8 :><=0BK, 8 <>8 @>48B5;8 A 45BL<8 >1KG=> >1540;8 >B45;L=> >B >AB0;L=KE 4><>G04F52. > 2 >A>1KE A;CG0OE, =0?@8<5@, :>340 ?@074=>20;AO G59-=81C4L 45=L @>645=8O, <K @0742830;8 2A5 425@8 <564C :><=0B0<8 8 CAB@0820;8 B>@65AB25==K9 C68=, =0 :>B>@K9 A>18@0;8AL 4204F0BL-B@84F0BL G;5=>2 =0H59 A5<L8 8 =0H8E 4@C759.  45=L @>645=8O >1KG=> CAB@0820;8 25G5@8=:C 8 ?@>2>48;8 ;>B5@5N. 064K9 2K83@K20; :0:>9-=81C4L ?@87, 8 1K;> <=>3> A<5E0, HCB>: 8 54K. #?@02;5=85 B0:8< 1>;LH8< E>7O9AB2>< 8 C;06820=85 A?>@>2 8 AA>@, 2A?KE8202H8E <564C 45BL<8, 0 B0:65 <564C <>;>4K<8 A;C30<8 8 CG0I8<8AO, :>B>@K5 68;8 C =0A, =5 4020;8 <>59 <0B5@8, C<=>9 65=I8=5, >1;0402H59 1>;LH8< B5@?5=85<, =8 <8=CBK ?>:>O. >59 <0B5@8 1K;> 2A53> A5<=04F0BL ;5B, :>340 >=0 2KH;0 70<C6 70 <>53> >BF0, 8 >=8 A=0G0;0 1>O;8AL, GB> C =8E =5 1C45B 45B59. ">340, :0: 8 A59G0A, 2 /?>=88 AG8B0;>AL >G5=L 206=K< 8<5BL AK=0 8 =0A;54=8:0. > : B><C 2@5<5=8, :>340 O, : 8E 25;8:><C >1;53G5=8N, ?>O28;AO =0 A25B, ?@>H;> A5<L ;5B. >O <0BL 1K;0 A?>:>9=>9, 0@B8AB8G=>9 8 <O3:>9 65=I8=>9, 8A:;NG8B5;L=> A5@L57=> >B=>A82H59AO : A2>59 >1O70==>AB8 ?> C?@02;5=8N E>7O9AB2><. =0 25G=> 1K;0 70=OB0, A;54O 70 B5<, GB>1K 2A5 @01>BK 2K?>;=O;8AL 8 GB>1K >B=>H5=8O <564C 2A5<8 MB8<8 ;N4L<8 1K;8 E>@>H8<8 8;8 E>BO 1K 256;82K<8. ;O O?>=A:>9 4><>E>7O9:8 >=0 1K;0 >G5=L C25@5==>9 2 A515 65=I8=>9, GB> 2 B5 4=8 1K;> 25AL<0 =5>1KG=K< O2;5=85<. # =55 1K;8 B25@4K5 C15645=8O, >A>15==> 2 B><, GB> :0A0;>AL <>53> >1@07>20=8O, E>BO >=0 =8:>340 =5 ?>E>48;0 =0 =K=5H=8E ?@>182=KE «<0<0H-@5?5B8B>@H», :>B>@K5 70AB02;ONB A2>8E 45B59 ?>A5I0BL A?5F80;L=K5 :C@AK, 345 8E =0B0A:820NB, GB>1K >15A?5G8BL 8< ?>ABC?;5=85 2 «?@5AB86=K5» H:>;K 8 C=825@A8B5BK. =5 :065BAO, GB> >=0 2A5 ?>=8<0;0, 8 A =59 1K;> ;53:> 3>2>@8BL, 157CA;>2=>, ;53G5, G5< A >BF><. ;O =53> 3;02=K< 45;>< 687=8 1K;0 :><?0=8O, :>B>@CN >= 4>;65= 1K; A?0A0BL, ?5@5AB@0820BL 8 @072820BL, 8 ?>MB><C O >1@0I0;AO : <0B5@8 70 A>25B>< 8 ?><>ILN 3>@074> G0I5, G5< : >BFC. >O <0BL 87<5=8;0 <=>385 B@048F88 2 =0H59 A5<L5. %>BO <0<0 ?> >4=>9 ;8=88 ?@>8AE>48;0 87 A5<59AB20 A0<C@052 8 7=0;0 B>;: 2 B@048F8OE  :8<>=> 1K;> 55 ?>2A54=52=>9 >4564>9, >=0 2>A?@8=8<0;0 2A5 =>2>5. >=5G=>, <K, 45B8, G0AB> AA>@8;8AL 8 4@0;8AL, => :>340 O AB0; AB0@H5  <=5 1K;> >:>;> 45AOB8 ;5B, C <5=O ?>O28;8AL A>1AB25==K5 8=B5@5AK 8 O 2A5 G0I5 8 G0I5 >1@0I0;AO : =59 70 A>25B><. =0 C?@02;O;0 2A5<8 45;0<8 2 4><5 8 2K45;8;0 <=5 :><=0BC A> AB>;><. >340 O =0G0; ?@>2>48BL >?KBK, O ?>;CG8; 2B>@>9 AB>;, ?>A:>;L:C <=5 ?>=04>18;AO 25@AB0:. =0 B0:65 :C?8;0 <=5 :@>20BL, ?>MB><C <=5 =5 ?@8H;>AL A?0BL ?>4 AB530=K< >45O;>< =0 B0B0<8, :0: A?0;8 ?>GB8 2A5 2 =0H5< 4><5. 5=O 2>A?8BK20;8 2 A>2@5<5==>< 4CE5, 4065 :>340 O 1K; <0;5=L:8<. >O <0BL 8 >B5F E>B5;8 MB>3>, ?>B><C GB> >=8 @0AB8;8 <5=O :0: =0A;54=8:0 A5<59=>9 :><?0=88 8 :0: A;54CNI53> 3;02C A5<59AB20 >@8B0, >@8BC XV, :>B>@K9 4>;65= 1K; 27OBL 8<O N470M<>=.  =0H59 A5<L5 ACI5AB2>20;0 B@048F8O, GB> :>340 AK= AB0=>28BAO 3;02>9 A5<L8, >= >B:07K205BAO >B A2>53> 8<5=8 8 ?>;CG05B 8<O N470M<>=. >GB8 2A5 ?5@25=FK =0 ?@>BO65=88 ?OB=04F0B8 ?>:>;5=89 ?>;CG0;8 ?@8 @>645=88 ?>>G5@54=> ;81> 8<O C=MAC:M, ;81> %8:>B0@>. > B5E ?>@ ?>:0 <>9 >B5F =5 27O; =0 A51O @>;L 3;02K A5<59AB20 8 =5 AB0; N470M<>=>< XIV, 53> =07K20;8 %8:>B0@> >@8B0. 3> >B5F, :>B>@K9 ?>;CG8; ?@8 @>645=88 8<O C=MAC:M >@8B0, AB0; N470M<>=>< >@8B0, :>340 2>73;028; :><?0=8N, 0 :>340 >= >B>H5; >B 45; 8 ?5@540; A2>8 DC=:F88 8 >1O70==>AB8 <>5<C >BFC, >= 27O; A515 4@C3>5 ?5@2>5 8<O, AB02 >1CE84M >@8B>9. > :>340 @>48;AO O, <>9 >B5F @5H8;, GB> C3>B>20==>5 <=5 8<O C=5AC:M 72CG8B A;8H:>< AB0@><>4=> 4;O XX 25:0, ?>MB><C >= ?@83;0A8; ?>GB5==>3> O?>=A:>3> CG5=>3>, A?5F80;8AB0 ?> 8B0N 8 :8B09A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5, GB>1K ?>A>25B>20BLAO A =8< > B><, :0:>5 8<O 40BL <=5. -B>B G5;>25: 1K; 8725AB=K< CG5=K<, 0 B0:65 4@C3>< <>53> 4540, 8 >= @5:><5=4>20; 8<O :8>, :>B>@>5 87>1@060;>AL 85@>3;8D><, >1>7=0G02H8< A;>2> «?@>A25I5==K9» 8 ?@>87=>A82H8<AO :0: «0:8». -B>B 85@>3;8D D83C@8@>20; B0:65 2 8<5=8 <>53> 4540. 8B09A:85 85@>3;8DK >1KG=> 8<5NB =5A:>;L:>, =5:>B>@K5 4065 45AOB:8, ?@>87=>H5=89.  ?>MB><C <>5 ?5@2>5 8<O <>6=> 8AB>;:>20BL :0: «?@>A25I5==K9» 8;8 «=5>1KG=K9», 0 2 A>G5B0=88 A D0<8;859 >@8B0 MB> 8<O >7=0G05B «1>30B>5 @8A>2>5 ?>;5». => 72CG0;> >?B8<8AB8G=> 8 >1=0456820NI5, 8 B0:>5 8<O <>6=> 1K;> =>A8BL 2AN 687=L. >8< @>48B5;O< B0: ?>=@028;>AL <>5 8<O, GB> >=8 8A?>;L7>20;8 53> 2 :0G5AB25 >4=>3> 87 A;>3>2, 4020O 8<5=0 42C< <>8< 1@0BLO<, 0A00:8 8 047C0:8. &0@AB2>20=8O 8<?5@0B>@>2 2 /?>=88 =07K20NBAO M@0<8 ?> >D8F80;L=><C :0;5=40@N, AG5B ;5B 2 :064>9 M@5 =0G8=05BAO 70=>2>. >340 %8@>E8B> ?>A;5 A<5@B8 A2>53> >BF0 AB0; 2 1926 3>4C 8<?5@0B>@><, 8<?5@0B>@A:0O A5<LO :>=AC;LB8@>20;0AL A B5< 65 8725AB=K< CG5=K<-:8B08AB><, 65;0O =09B8 1;03>?@8OB=>5 =0720=85 4;O 53> F0@AB2>20=8O. = =0720; MBC M@C «!520», GB> 7=0G8;> «?@>A25I5==K9 <8@», 8A?>;L7>202 B>B 65 A0<K9 85@>3;8D, :>B>@K9 >7=0G05B A;>3 «0:8» 2 <>5< 8<5=8, => ?@>87=>A8BAO :0: «A>». (1986 3>4 >D8F80;L=> =07K205BAO «!Q20-61», B> 5ABL H5ABL45AOB ?5@2K9 3>4 8<?5@A:>9 M@K, ?>;CG82H59 =0720=85 «!520».) >8 @>4=K5 ?@54;030NB <=5, GB>1K B5?5@L O 2A5 65 27O; 8<O N470M<>=. >6=> ?>9B8 2 A5<59=K9 AC4 8 87<5=8BL A2>5 8<O, 5A;8 C405BAO 4>:070BL 8AB>@8G5A:89 ?@5F545=B, => O 4C<0N, GB> 4;O <5=O MB> 1K;> 1K >H81:>9, ?>B><C GB> >G5=L <=>3> ;N459 2> 2A5< <8@5 7=0NB <5=O :0: :8>. > 8=>340 O ?>4?8AK20NAL 8=8F80;0<8 , GB> >7=0G05B :8> N470M<>= >@8B0, 8 <>O <0H8=0 «8=:>;L= :>=B8=5=B0;L» 2 !( 8<55B ;8G=K9 =><5@ «-15». >340-=81C4L <>9 AB0@H89 AK= %84M> A<5=8B <5=O 2 :0G5AB25 3;02K A5<59AB20, => AB0=5B ;8 >= N470M<>=>< 8;8 =5B, 1C45B @5H0BL >= A0<, E>BO <K A 65=>9 E>B5;8 1K, GB>1K >= =>A8; MB> 8<O. > O 459AB28B5;L=> 701560; =5<=>3> 2?5@54 2 A2>59 8AB>@88. ! A0<>3> @0==53> 45BAB20 O 7=0; > B@048F8OE A2>59 A5<L8 8 > A2>8E ?@54:0E. >59 A5<L5 ?>257;> =0 2KA>:>>1@07>20==KE ;N459 8 ;N18B5;59 8A:CAAB20, :0:8<8 1K;8 <>9 454 8 ?@0454. >8 ?@54:8 1K;8 3@0640=A:8<8 @C:>2>48B5;O<8 8 4>;6=>AB=K<8 ;8F0<8 2 =0H59 45@52=5 5I5 2 M@C ">:C302K !Q3C=0BM 2 XVII 25:5. =8 ?@54AB02;O;8 A>1>9 M;8BC, 8 2 B5 4=8 8< 1K;0 ?@54>AB02;5=0 ?@828;538O 8<5BL D0<8;8N 8 =>A8BL <5G. AO:89 @07, :>340 @>48B5;8 1@0;8 <5=O A A>1>9 2 >AC30N, :>340 5E0;8 BC40 2 3>AB8 8;8 ?@>AB> =0 >48= 45=L, 55 68B5;8 =>A8;8AL A> <=>9, GB> A?>A>1AB2>20;> @>ABC <>53> A0<><=5=8O. @0454 <>53> >BF0, N470M<>= XI, ;N18; =>2K5 25I8 8 =>2K5 8458, 8 2> 2@5<O M@K M9478 [ -?>E0 M9478, >B:@K2H0OAO 1C@6C07=>9 @52>;NF859 1867 1868 33., 1K;0 ?5@8>4>< 1KAB@>3> ?@>42865=8O /?>=88 ?> :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:><C ?CB8, 0:B82=>3> 708<AB2>20=8O AB@0=>9 =0CG=>-B5E=8G5A:8E 4>AB865=89 70?04=>9 F828;870F88. @8<. @54.], =0:0=C=5 =K=5H=53> AB>;5B8O, >= ?@83;0A8; 2 /?>=8N D@0=FC70, :>B>@K9 4>;65= 1K; ?><>GL 5<C >ACI5AB28BL 53> 70B5N A @072545=85< 28=>3@040 8 ?@>872>4AB2>< 28=0. = C65 ?@84C<0; =0720=85 28=0 8 3>@5; 65;0=85< ?@>872>48BL =5 B>;L:> A0:M, => 8 28=> ?> 70?04=><C >1@07FC.  B> 2@5<O, ?>A;5 1>;55 G5< 42CEA>B?OB845AOB8 ;5B 4>1@>2>;L=>9 87>;OF88, /?>=8O ?>2>@0G820;0AL ;8F>< : <8@C.  <>4C 2E>48;8 =>2K5 25I8, 8 8<?5@0B>@ M9478 ?>>I@O; O?>=F52 CG8BLAO C 0?040, >1@0I0O >A>1>5 2=8<0=85 =0 70?04=K9 >1@07 687=8 8 70?04=CN B5E=8:C.  ">:8> CAB@0820;8AL 10;L=K5 B0=FK ?> 2A5< ?@028;0<, O?>=FK :>?8@>20;8 52@>?59A:CN >4564C 8 ?@8G5A:8, 0 B0:65 ?@>1>20;8 70?04=CN ?8IC, 4065 2> 42>@F5. ;O ?>?KB>: 45;0BL 28=> 1K;8 8 4@C385 ?@8G8=K. @028B5;LAB2> 8<?5@0B>@0 M9478 ?@542845;> =5E20B:C @8A0 2 1C4CI5<, 0 @8A 1K; 3;02=K< AK@L5< 4;O A0:M. 072545=85 28=>3@04=8:>2 8 70<5=0 A0:M 28=>< B0<, 345 MB> 2>7<>6=>, ?><>3;8 1K ?5@568BL =5C@>609=K5 3>4K, =0ABC?;5=85 :>B>@KE :>5-:B> ?@54A:07K20;. AB>@8:8 B0:65 CB25@640NB, GB> ?@028B5;LAB2> 8A:0;> @01>BC 4;O <=>3>G8A;5==KE 2>8=>2-A0<C@052, :>B>@K5 ?@8 =>2>< ?@028B5;LAB25 >:070;8AL 157 @01>BK. # =0A 1K;> <=>3> 75<;8, 8 2 1880 3>4C ?@8 ?>445@6:5 ?@028B5;LAB20 M9478 87 $@0=F88 1K;8 4>AB02;5=K G5@5=:8 28=>3@040, :>B>@K5 1K;8 B0< ?>A065=K. >9 ?@54>: CAB0=>28; 4028;L=K9 ?@5AA, ?>AB@>8; 28=>:C@5==K9 702>4 8 ?@8257 ;N459 87 A>A54=8E @09>=>2 4;O @01>BK =0 28=>3@04=8:0E. '5@57 G5BK@5 3>40 1K;> ?@>872545=> =51>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> 28=0 8 ?>O28;8AL =04564K, GB> =>2>5 45;> 1C45B ?@>F25B0BL. > MB><C =5 AC645=> 1K;> A1KBLAO. -B> 1K;> 2@5<O, :>340 D@0=FC7A:85 28=>3@04=8:8 381;8  2=0G0;5 >B «<CG=8AB>9 @>AK», ?>B>< >B D8;;>:A5@K, <5;:8E =0A5:><KE, ?>E>68E =0 2H59, >?CAB>H02H8E 28=>3@04=8:8. >-2848<><C, G5@5=:8, 4>AB02;5==K5 87 $@0=F88, 1K;8 70@065=K, 8 =5A<>B@O =0 2A5 BI0B5;L=K5 ?@83>B>2;5=8O, 70B5O >:070;0AL =5C40G=>9.  1885 3>4C =0 28=>3@04=8:0E N470M<>=0 1K;0 >1=0@C65=0 D8;;>:A5@0 8 8E ?@8H;>AL C=8GB>68BL. N470M<>=C ?@8H;>AL ?@>40BL 75<;N, GB>1K 2K?;0B8BL 4>;38. 8=>3@04=8:8 1K;8 ?@52@0I5=K 2 H5;:>28G=K5 ?;0=B0F88, 4;O @072545=8O H5;:>28G=>3> G5@2O. > 4@C385 B@048F8>==K5 B>20@K D8@<K «>@8B0», =0?@8<5@, A>52K9 A>CA 8 A0:M, 2 1899 3>4C ?>?0;8 =0 0@86A:CN <564C=0@>4=CN 2KAB02:C, 8 >48= 87 =8E 702>520; 7>;>BCN <540;L, 2 B5 4=8 MB> 1K;> 1>;LH8< A>1KB85< 4;O O?>=A:>9 :><?0=88. 0: 1K B> =8 1K;>, MB>B <>9 ?@54>: >1;040; AB@5<;5=85< 8A?KBK20BL GB>-B> =>2>5, 8 >= >1;040; A8;>9 8 A<5;>ABLN, GB>1K =5 A4020BLAO, 5A;8 :0:>9-B> 53> ?@>5:B >:065BAO =5C40G=K<. 3> ?@54H5AB25==8:, AB02 3;02>9 A5<L8, =0G0; ?@>872>4AB2> ?820, =0=O2 :8B09A:>3> ?82>20@0, :>B>@K9 =0CG8;AO A2>5<C @5<5A;C 2 =3;88. = B0:65 >A=>20; E;51>?5:0@=N (B5?5@L MB0 :><?0=8O =07K205BAO «0A:>»), :>B>@0O ?@>F25B0;0 8 A53>4=O 8<55B D8;80;K 70 @C156><. #?>@AB2>, =0AB>9G82>ABL 8 >?B8<87<  2>B G5@BK E0@0:B5@0, :>B>@K5 ?5@54020;8AL <=5 G5@57 A5<59=K5 35=K. C<0N, GB> <>9 >B5F C7=020; 8E 2> <=5. @0454 <>53> >BF0 C<5@ 2 1894 3>4C, 0 2 1918 3>4C 2 7=0: ?@87=0=8O 53> 70A;C3 ?5@54 >1I8=>9 2 >AC305 1K;0 CAB0=>2;5=0 53> 1@>=7>20O AB0BCO. 0 A>1AB25==K5 45=L38 >= AB@>8; 4>@>38, 70=8<0;AO 1;03>CAB@>9AB2>< 8 A25@H8; B0: <=>3> ?>;57=KE 45;, GB> 8<?5@0B>@ M9478, >4=064K ?>1K202H89 =540;5:> >B =0H59 45@52CH:8, =03@048; 53>.  A>60;5=8N, 2> 2@5<O 2>9=K 53> AB0BCO 1K;0 ?5@5?;02;5=0 4;O 2>5==KE =C64, => A =55 1K; A=OB A;5?>: 8 A45;0= D0@D>@>2K9 1NAB, :>B>@K9 2A5 5I5 AB>8B 2 ;5AC ?5@54 E@0<>< 2 >AC305. %>BO 8AB>@8O =0H59 A5<L8, ?>-2848<><C, 2@0I05BAO 2>:@C3 >AC308, <>8 @>48B5;8 ?5@55E0;8 87 MB>9 B8E>9 45@52CH:8 2 03>N, 3;02=K9 3>@>4 =0H59 ?@5D5:BC@K, 8 O B0< @>48;AO 26 O=20@O 1921 3>40. 5@5574 2 03>N, HC<=K9 8=4CAB@80;L=K9 3>@>4, AB>;8FC ?@5D5:BC@K 9-B8, 1K; A2O70= A ?;0=0<8 >BF0 <>45@=878@>20BL :><?0=8N «>@8B0» 8 2A5;8BL =>2K9 4CE 2 AB0@CN D8@<C. @><5 B>3>, MB>B 3>@>4 1K; 1>;55 ?>4E>4OI8< <5AB>< 4;O C?@02;5=8O A>2@5<5==K< ?@54?@8OB85<, G5< >G0@>20B5;L=0O 45@52CH:0. >MB><C O 2K@>A 2 3>@>45, 0 =5 2 45@52=5 A2>8E ?@54:>2, E>BO <K 2A5 5I5 AG8B05<, GB> =0H8 :>@=8 2 >AC305. 5402=> <K >1=0@C68;8 <=>65AB2> 4@52=8E 70?8A59 > 45@52=5 2 =0H8E A5<59=KE 0@E820E, 8 >=8 ?>:070;8AL =0< =0AB>;L:> 8=B5@5A=K<8, GB> O CG@548; D>=4 4;O E@0=5=8O 8 87CG5=8O MB>3> A>1@0=8O 8AB>@8G5A:8E 4>:C<5=B>2. -B8 <0B5@80;K A>45@60B 25AL<0 ?>4@>1=K5 A2545=8O, :0:>9 1K;0 687=L 2 O?>=A:>< A5;5 B@8AB0 ;5B =0704 A G8AB> ?@0:B8G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O. K A>AB028;8 :0B0;>3 MB8E 4>:C<5=B>2 8 @07>A;0;8 53> ?5@5?;5B5==K5 M:75<?;O@K 2 3;02=K5 181;8>B5:8 8 C=825@A8B5BK /?>=88. K A?@OB0;8 ?>4 AB5:;> AB0@K5 :;04>2K5 8 B@5EMB06=K5 740=8O :0: G0ABL >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 AB@>5=8O, 8 B5?5@L BC40 ?@8E>4OB CG5=K5 87CG0BL MB8 4>:C<5=BK, :>B>@K5 <K ?>-?@56=5<C E@0=8< 2 :;04>2KE, B0<, 345 <K 8E =0H;8. / G0AB> 4C<0N > B><, GB> 5A;8 O :>340-=81C4L C94C 2 >BAB02:C, O A<>3C 5I5 2 B5G5=85 <=>38E ;5B 87CG0BL 8AB>@8N 8 @01>B0BL =04 MB8<8 8AB>@8G5A:8<8 4>:C<5=B0<8 2 >AC305. >9 >B5F 1K; >G5=L 4>1@K< :> <=5, => 254L O =5A 1@5<O AB0@H53> AK=0, 8 >= @5H8; CG8BL <5=O :><<5@F88 A A0<KE @0==8E ;5B <>59 687=8. B5F 1K; G5;>25:>< A2>53> 2@5<5=8. >A:>;L:C 5<C :0: AB0@H5<C AK=C ?@8H;>AL >B:070BLAO >B CG51K, GB>1K A?0AB8 A>AB>O=85 A5<L8, >= AB0; 25AL<0 ?@0:B8G=K< 8, ?>-2848<><C :>=A5@20B82=K<, 4065 A;8H:>< :>=A5@20B82=K<, :0: <=5 B>340 :070;>AL, 187=5A<5=><, :>340 =04> 1K;> ?@8=8<0BL @5H5=8O > A>740=88 =>2KE ?@54?@8OB89 8;8 A45;0BL GB>-=81C4L =5>1KG=>5. 070;>AL, GB> >= A;8H:>< 4>;3> ?@8=8<05B @5H5=8O, 8 >= 2A5340 1K; G5<-B> >15A?>:>5=. / 4C<0;, GB> 8=>340 53> B@52>68;> 4065 B>, GB> 5<C =5 > G5< 15A?>:>8BLAO. / G0AB> A?>@8; A =8< 87-70 =5:>B>@KE >1O70==>AB59, :>B>@K5 ;>68;8AL =0 <5=O, 8 O ?>;030N, GB> >= ;N18; MB8 <0;5=L:85 A?>@K :0: A?>A>1 40BL <=5 2>7<>6=>ABL 2KA:070BL A2>5 <=5=85, =0CG8BL <5=O @0AAC640BL 8 ?@82>48BL ;>38G5A:85 4>2>4K. = ?@52@0I0; 2 CG51C 4065 <>9 3=52. >340 O AB0; AB0@H5, O ?>-?@56=5<C G0AB> A?>@8; A =8< 87-70 53> :>=A5@20B87<0. 4=0:> MB>B :>=A5@20B87< A>A;C68; =0H59 A5<L5 E>@>HCN A;C61C. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> >= 1K; A5@L57=K< 8 >AB>@>6=K< 45;LF><, >= 1K; AB@0AB=K< 8 4>1@K< >BF><. = ?@>2>48; A 45BL<8 2A5 A2>1>4=>5 2@5<O, 8 C <5=O >AB0;>AL <=>3> 2>A?><8=0=89 > B><, :0: >B5F CG8; =0A ?;020BL, ;>28BL @K1C 8 E>48BL 2 BC@8AB8G5A:85 ?>E>4K. > 187=5A >AB020;AO 4;O =53> 187=5A><, 8 BCB =5 1K;> <5AB0 701020<. >340 <=5 1K;> 45AOBL 8;8 >48==04F0BL ;5B, >= 2?5@2K5 27O; <5=O A A>1>9 2 :>=B>@C 8 =0 A0:M20@=N. = CG8; <5=O C?@02;OBL ?@54?@8OB85<, 8 O 4>;65= 1K; A845BL @O4>< A >BF>< =0 4>;38E 8 A:CG=KE 70A540=8OE ?@02;5=8O. = CG8; <5=O 3>2>@8BL A ;N4L<8, :>B>@K5 @01>B0NB =0 <5=O, 8 5I5 CG0AL 2 ?5@2KE :;0AA0E, O 7=0;, :0: ?@>E>4OB 45;>2K5 48A:CAA88. "0: :0: <>9 >B5F 1K; E>7O8=>< ?@54?@8OB8O, >= <>3 ?@83;0H0BL A2>8E C?@02;ONI8E : A515 4><>9 4;O 4>:;04>2 8 15A54, 8 >= 2A5340 B@51>20;, GB>1K O 8E A;CH0;. '5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O MB> AB0;> <=5 =@028BLAO. =5 2A5340 3>2>@8;8: «"K E>7O8= A A0<>3> @>645=8O. "K AB0@H89 AK= 2 A5<L5. ><=8 >1 MB><». =5 =5 ?>72>;O;8 701K20BL > B><, GB> :>340-=81C4L O A<5=N >BF0 :0: @C:>2>48B5;O =0H59 :><?0=88 8 3;02C A5<59AB20. =5 :065BAO >G5=L 206=K<, GB> :>340 O 1K; <>;>4K<, <5=O B> 8 45;> ?@54>AB5@530;8: «5 4C<09, GB> 5A;8 BK =025@EC, BK <>65HL :><0=4>20BL 2A5<8 2>:@C3. "K 4>;65= >G5=L E>@>H> @07>1@0BLAO 2 45;5, ?@5645 G5< ?@8=8<0BL @5H5=8O 8 ?@>A8BL 4@C38E GB>-B> A45;0BL, 0 B0:65 1@0BL =0 A51O 2AN >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 A2>5 @5H5=85». 5=O CG8;8, GB> 15A?>;57=> 1@0=8BL ?>4G8=5==KE 8 8A:0BL 28=>20BKE, :>340 2>7=8:0NB B@C4=>AB8, 8A:0BL :>7;>2 >B?CI5=8O. !>3;0A=> O?>=A:><C >1@07C <KH;5=8O, :>B>@><C <5=O CG8;8 4><0, GB>1K A45;0BL B>, GB> 2K3>4=> 4;O >158E AB>@>=, =04> 8A?>;L7>20BL >1I85 <>B82K. A5 AB@5<OBAO : CA?5EC. >340 O CG8;AO @01>B0BL A @01>G8<8, O ?>=O;, GB> C?@02;ONI89 4>;65= 2>A?8BK20BL 2 A515 B0:85 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0, :0: B5@?5=85 8 GCB:>ABL. 5;L7O 25AB8 A51O M3>8AB8G=> 8;8 =5G5AB=> ?> >B=>H5=8N : ;N4O<. -B8 ?>=OB8O 2>H;8 2 <>N ?;>BL 8 :@>2L 8 ?><>3;8 <=5 2K@01>B0BL D8;>A>D8N C?@02;5=8O, :>B>@0O >G5=L E>@>H> ?>A;C68;0 <=5 2 ?@>H;>< 8 ?@>4>;605B A;C68BL <=5 8 <>59 :><?0=88 ?> A59 45=L. >O A5<LO B0:65 @C:>2>4AB2>20;0AL 70?>254O<8 ?@54:>2, CE>4OI8<8 A2>8<8 :>@=O<8 2 1C4487<. >O A5<LO 1K;0 =01>6=>9, 8 >1KG=K5 @5;838>7=K5 A;C61K <K ?@>2>48;8 4><0. 0<, 45BO<, 4020;8 A1>@=8: ACB@ 8 B@51>20;8, GB>1K <K G8B0;8 MB8 =5?>=OB=K5 85@>3;8DK 2<5AB5 A> 27@>A;K<8. / =5 AG8B0N A51O @5;838>7=K< G5;>25:><, => MB8< >1KG0O< 8 B@048F8O< 2 <>59 A5<L5 ?@8405BAO 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85, 8 <K 2A5 5I5 ?@845@68205<AO 8E.  1>;55 ?>74=85 3>4K, :>340 <K ?@85760;8 4><>9 =025AB8BL >BF0 8 <0BL, <K 2A5340 ?@5645 2A53> H;8 : 4><0H=5<C 0;B0@N 8 :;0=O;8AL 5<C. >340 O CG8;AO 2 A@54=59 H:>;5, 2A5 <>8 :0=8:C;K 70=8<0;> 45;>, 45;> 8 5I5 @07 45;>. B5F >1KG=> 1@0; <5=O 2 :>=B>@C, :>340 C =53> 1K;8 70A540=8O, 8 O A845; =0 =8E 8;8 A;CH0; 4>:;04K. @><5 B>3>, ?@>2>48;8AL 8=25=B0@870F88. K >1KG=> =07K20;8 8E ?5@5CG5B>< 8 8A?>;L7>20;8 4;O MB>3> AB0@8==K9, B@048F8>==K9 8 >G5=L B>G=K9 A?>A>1: <K H;8 =0 702>4 A ?@54A540B5;5< :><?0=88, :>B>@K9 A<>B@5; =0< G5@57 ?;5G>, 8 2A5 ?5@5AG8BK20;8. 0B5< 2 A5@548=5 78<K =04> 1K;> ?@>1>20BL A0:M 87 1>G5:, GB>1K ?@>25@8BL, :0: 845B A;>6=K9 ?@>F5AA 53> A>7@520=8O 8 @0D8=8@>20=8O. =5 G0AB> ?@8E>48;>AL CG0AB2>20BL 2 MB><. 5=O CG8;8 ?@>25@OBL, :0: 845B ?@>F5AA ?@83>B>2;5=8O A0:M, ?>B>< 1@0BL =51>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> A0:M 2 @>B, GB>1K ?>GC2AB2>20BL 0@><0B, 8 2K?;52K20BL 53>. 5A<>B@O =0 MB>, 0 1KBL <>65B, 1;03>40@O MB><C C <5=O =5 2>7=8:;> ?@8AB@0AB8O : 0;:>3>;N. %>BO <>9 >B5F ?> A2>5<C E0@0:B5@C 1K; >G5=L :>=A5@20B82=K< G5;>25:><, >= AG8B0;, GB> C G;5=>2 53> A5<L8 4>;6=> 1KBL 2A5, GB> 8< =C6=> 8 GB> >=8 E>BOB 8<5BL. = 2A5340 ?@>O2;O; 8=B5@5A : =>2>9 8<?>@B=>9 B5E=8:5 8 : 8=>AB@0==K< B>20@0<. >340 =0H0 A5<LO 5I5 68;0 2 >AC305, >= >A=>20; B0:A><>B>@=CN 8 02B>1CA=CN A;C61C, 8<?>@B8@>202 BC@8ABA:89 02B><>18;L <0@:8 «$>@4». 5@2K< H>D5@>< :><?0=88 >= 27O; 25;>@8:HC. 0=LH5 B>B 2>78; ;N459 =0 :>;OA:5 A 42CE:>;5A=K< 25;>A8?54><, :>B>@K5 1K;8 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5K 2 /?>=88. 7 45BA:8E 2>A?><8=0=89 C <5=O >AB0;8AL 2 ?0<OB8 2>A:@5A=K5 703>@>4=K5 M:A:C@A88, 5740 =0 =51>;LH>9 A:>@>AB8 2 >B:@KBKE <0H8=0E B8?0 «$>@4 "» 8;8 «$>@4 », ?>4A:0:8202H8E =0 87@KBKE C7:8E 8 ?K;L=KE 4>@>30E, <>O <0BL =0 704=5< A845=L5, 2 25AL<0 25;8G5AB25==>9 ?>75 45@602H0O 25@B8:0;L=> 2 @C:0E 7>=B8:, GB>1K 70I8B8BL A51O >B A>;=F0. >74=55 >B5F =0G0; 5748BL =0 @01>BC =0 «1LN8:5» A H>D5@><. ><0 C =0A 1K;0 AB8@0;L=0O <0H8=0 D8@<K «65=5@0; M;5:B@8:» 8 E>;>48;L=8: «5AB8=30C7». @0240, =0H0 A5<LO 1K;0 2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 52@>?5878@>20=0.  2A5 65 O 4C<0N, GB> 2?5@2K5 703@0=8F0 >:070;0 =0 <5=O A8;L=>5 2>7459AB285, :>340 <>9 4O4O M947> 25@=C;AO 4><>9 87 0@860 ?>A;5 G5BK@5E ;5B ?@51K20=8O 70 @C156><, 8 A 53> ?@8574>< 2 =0H5< 4><5 459AB28B5;L=> ?>25O;> 0?04><. = 1K; 2 2KAH59 AB5?5=8 A25BA:8< G5;>25:><, 3>@074> 1>;55 A25BA:8<, G5< 2A5 <K. 5=O 8 4> 53> ?@85740 =8:>340 =5 70AB02;O;8 =>A8BL :8<>=>, 0 <>9 >B5F =>A8; =0 @01>BC 70?04=K5 :>ABN<K, =>, ?@84O 4><>9, ?5@5>4520;AO 2 B@048F8>==CN >4564C; 70?04=K5 :>ABN<K G0AB> =>A8; 4065 53> >B5F. >9 454 A ;N1>?KBAB2>< >B=>A8;AO : 0?04C  5<C =@028;8AL 0<5@8:0=A:85 D8;L<K, 8 O ?><=N, GB> >= 1@0; <5=O A A>1>9 =0 D8;L< «8=3->=3», :>340 O 1K; 5I5 >G5=L <0;5=L:8<. C, 0 4O4O 5947> @0AA:07K20; =0< > B><, GB> >= A0< 2845; 70 @C156><, 8 2A5< =0< MB> 1K;> >G5=L 8=B5@5A=>. = ?@8257 A2>8 :0@B8=K, 87>1@0602H85 0@86; D>B>3@0D88 A 2840<8 $@0=F88 8 A=8<:8, A45;0==K5 2> 2@5<O 53> ?>574>: 2 >=4>= 8 LN->@:, 8 >= B0:65 ?>:07K20; =0< D8;L<K, :>B>@K5 >= A=8<0; :8=>:0<5@>9 «0B5» =0 9,5-<< ?;5=:C.  0@865 C =53> 1K; 02B><>18;L « 5=>», :>B>@K9 >= 2>48; A0<, 8 >= ?>:07K20; D>B>3@0D88, ?>4B25@6402H85 MB>. %>BO <=5 1K;> 2A53> 2>A5<L ;5B, MB8 @0AA:07K ?@>8725;8 =0 <5=O B0:>5 A8;L=>5 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> O 70CG820; 2A5 CA;KH0==K5 8=>AB@0==K5 A;>20  ?;>I04L >=:>@4, >=<0@B@, >=8-9;5=4. >340 >= @0AA:07K20; =0< > >=8-9;5=4, O A;CH0;, 70B082 4KE0=85.  <=>3> ;5B A?CABO, :>340 O 2 1953 3>4C 2?5@2K5 ?@85E0; 2 LN->@:, ?>4 2;8O=85< MB8E @0AA:07>2 O 2 A0<>5 ?5@2>5 2>A:@5A5=L5 >B?@028;AO =0 >=8-9;5=4. / GC45A=> ?@>25; 2@5<O, O :0B0;AO =0 @CAA:8E 3>@:0E 8 4065 ?>?@>1>20; ?@K3=CBL A ?0@0HNB=>9 2KH:8. >9 >B5F A;54>20; ?@8<5@C A2>53> >BF0. = G0AB> 3>2>@8;, GB> =8:0:85 45=L38 2 <8@5 =5 <>3CB 40BL G5;>25:C >1@07>20=85, 5A;8 B>;L:> >= A0< =5 70E>G5B A5ABL 70 :=838 8 ?@8;56=> CG8BLAO. > 45=L38 ?>72>;ONB ?>;CG8BL >48= 87 284>2 >1@07>20=8O  MB> >1@07>20=85, :>B>@>5 40NB ?CB5H5AB28O. >B B0:>5 >1@07>20=85 8 ?>;CG8; <>9 4O4O, :>B>@K9 ?> 2>72@0I5=88 CAB@>8; 2 =0H5< 4><5 A2>N ABC48N 8 5I5 4>;3>5 2@5<O 68; A =0<8, ?>:0 =5 65=8;AO. >9 454 ?><>30; 5<C B5 G5BK@5 3>40, :>340 >= CG8;AO 70 3@0=8F59. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> ;5B <>9 >B5F 40; <=5 45=L38 =0 ?CB5H5AB285 2> 2@5<O H:>;L=KE :0=8:C;, 8 O 2<5AB5 A >4=8< 87 >4=>:;0AA=8:>2 ?>1K20; 2> <=>38E 3>@>40E /?>=88. # =0A 1K; @>4AB25==8: 2 >@55, :>B>@0O 1K;0 >::C?8@>20=0 O?>=F0<8 2 1904 3>4C 8 ?@8A>548=5=0 : /?>=88 2 1910 3>4C, 8 O ?>5E0; BC40, 0 ?>1K202 2 >@55, >B?@028;AO 2 0=LG6C@8N. =5 ?@8H;>AL 5E0BL BC40 =0 ?5@2>< ?>;=>ABLN >1>@C4>20==>< :>=48F8>=5@0<8 M:A?@5AA5, :>B>@K9 =07K20;AO «78O», MB> 1K;> 2 1939 8;8 1940 3>4C. >74=55 O 4>;65= 1K; ?>5E0BL 2 !(, => 2>9=0 >B;>68;0 MBC ?>574:C 1>;55 G5< =0 45AOBL ;5B. 0H 4>< 1K; =5>1KG09=> A>2@5<5==K<. >O <0BL >G5=L ;N18;0 70?04=CN :;0AA8G5A:CN <C7K:C, >=0 ?>:C?0;0 <=>3> ?;0AB8=>: 4;O =0H59 AB0@>9 «8:B@>;K». >9 454 G0AB> 1@0; 55 =0 :>=F5@BK, 8 O 4C<0N, GB> <>9 8=B5@5A : M;5:B@>=8:5 8 2>A?@>872545=8N 72C:0 70@>48;AO ?>4 55 2;8O=85<. K 2=>2L 8 2=>2L A;CH0;8 A:@8?CG85 3@0<<>D>==K5 ?;0AB8=:8 A 70?8AO<8 25;8:8E <C7K:0=B>2 2@>?K. ! ?><>ILN 0??0@0BC@K <5E0=8G5A:>9 70?8A8, 8<52H59AO 2 @0A?>@O65=88 <0AB5@>2 2 B5 3>4K, 1K;> B@C4=> 2>A?@>8725AB8 72CG0=85 2A53> >@:5AB@0, ?>MB><C ;CGH8<8 ?;0AB8=:0<8 1K;8 70?8A8 A>;8AB>2 2>:0;L=>9 8 8=AB@C<5=B0;L=>9 <C7K:8. >O <0BL, :0: O ?><=N, >G5=L ;N18;0 -=@8:> 0@C7> 8 A:@8?0G0 D@5<0 &8<10;8AB0. >340 1K 7=0<5=8BK5 0@B8ABK =8 ?@85760;8 2 03>N, <K 2A5340 E>48;8 8E A;CH0BL. / ?><=N, :0: ?5; 25;8:89 @CAA:89 ?525F $54>@ (0;O?8=, :0: 83@0; =5<5F:89 ?80=8AB 8;L35;L< 5<?D, :>B>@K9 1K; B>340 5I5 >G5=L <>;>4K<.  B5 4=8 2;045;5F >4=>3> <5AB=>3> <03078=0 3@0<?;0AB8=>: 8<?>@B8@>20; ?;0AB8=:8 D8@<K «8:B>@ 54 !8;», 8 :064K9 <5AOF, :>340 ?>ABC?0;0 =>20O ?0@B8O, >= ?>AK;0; <>59 <0B5@8 ?> >4=>9 ?;0AB8=:5 :064>3> =08<5=>20=8O, GB>1K >=0 2KA:070;0 A2>5 <=5=85. / 5I5 ?><=N, :0:, 1C4CG8 <0;5=L:8< @515=:><, M=5@38G=> :@CB8; @CG:C AB0@>3> ?0B5D>=0. >B><, :>340 O C65 CG8;AO 2 =0G0;L=>9 H:>;5, /?>=8O AB0;0 8<?>@B8@>20BL 87 !( @048>;K, 8 <K, :>=5G=>, ?>;CG8;8 >4=C 87 =8E. >9 >B5F AG8B0;, GB> C6 5A;8 ;N18HL <C7K:C, =04> >15A?5G8BL E>@>H55 72CG0=85. @><5 B>3>, :0: >= 3>2>@8; =0< ?>74=55, >= 1>O;AO, GB> «8:B@>;0» A 55 65AB:8< 72CG0=85< 2@54=0 4;O =0H8E CH59 8 4;O =0H53> ?>=8<0=8O <C7K:8. # =53> =5 1K;> =8 EC4>65AB25==>3>, =8 B5E=8G5A:>3> 8=B5@5A0 : <C7K:5, => >= E>B5;, GB>1K 53> 1;87:85 8<5;8 ?@5:@0A=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 A;CH0BL <C7K:C 2 55 >@838=0;L=>< 72CG0=88. = AG8B0;, GB> 548=AB25==K9 A?>A>1 =0CG8BLAO ?>=8<0BL E>@>HCN <C7K:C 8 E>@>H89 72C:  MB> A;CH0BL ?;0AB8=:8 A0<>3> 2KA>:>3> :0G5AB20. >MB><C :>340 2 /?>=8N ?@81K;8 ?5@2K5 =>2K5 ?@>83@K20B5;8, >B5F ?>B@0B8; :CGC 45=53, GB>1K :C?8BL >48= 87 ?5@2KE ?>ABC?82H8E 2 AB@0=C 8;8, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, 2 =0H 3>@>4. / ?><=N, GB> MB0 =>20O 0??0@0BC@0, B>65 D8@<K «8:B>@», AB>8;0 1>;LH85 45=L38  600 85=.  B5 4=8 O?>=A:89 02B><>18;L <>6=> 1K;> :C?8BL 2A53> 70 1500 85=. / =8:>340 =5 701C4C, :0: ?@5:@0A=> 72CG0;0 =>20O @048>;0, @07C<55BAO, ?> A@02=5=8N A> AB0@K< 3@0<<>D>=><. -B> 1K;> A>25@H5==> 4@C3>5 72CG0=85, 8 O 1K; ?@>AB> ?>@065=. 5@20O ?;0AB8=:0, :>B>@CN <K ?>;CG8;8 ?>A;5 ?@8>1@5B5=8O @048>;K, 1K;0 «>;5@>» 025;O. / >G5=L ;N18; «>;5@>», ?>B><C GB> >=> 2K7K20;> C <5=O 4CH52=K9 >B:;8:, 8, :>340 O CA;KH0; 53> 2 =>2><, 1>;55 B>G=>< 2>A?@>872545=88, O 1K; ?>B@OA5=. / A;CH0; =0H8 ?;0AB8=:8 2=>2L 8 2=>2L  >F0@B0, 0E0, 5BE>25=0, @0<A0, ?>;=K9 2>AB>@30 8 C482;5=8O, GB> B0:>5 M;5:B@8G5A:>5 CAB@>9AB2>, :0: @048>;0<?0, <>65B 70AB028BL B0: GC45A=> 72CG0BL B5 A0<K5 AB0@K5 A:@8?CG85, H8?OI85 ?;0AB8=:8, :>B>@K5 <K B0: E>@>H> 7=0;8. / 1K; >45@68< MB>9 =>2>9 0??0@0BC@>9 8 2A5<8 B5<8 2>?@>A0<8, :>B>@K5 >=0 C <5=O 2K7K20;0. 48= 87 <>8E @>4AB25==8:>2 1K; 8=65=5@><, 8, :>340 O CA;KH0;, GB> >= A0< A45;0; @048>;C, <=5 >G5=L 70E>B5;>AL 55 C2845BL. / ?@8H5; : =5<C, 8 >= ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20; <=5 55. =0 1K;0 A>1@0=0 87 @07;8G=KE 45B0;59 8 AB>O;0 =0 ?>:@KB>< A>;><5==K< <0B>< ?>;C. 070;>AL ?@>AB> GC4><, GB> B0:85 25I8 <>3CB 45;0BL =5 B>;L:> 1>;LH85 702>4K, => 8 ;N18B5;8.  459AB28B5;L=>, @048>;N18B5;LAB2> AB0=>28;>AL ?>?C;O@=K< E>118, 8 =5:>B>@K5 3075BK 8 6C@=0;K ?C1;8:>20;8 F5;K5 :>;>=:8 A> AE5<0<8, ?5@5G=O<8 45B0;59, 0 B0:65 8=AB@C:F8O<8, GB>1K ?>:070BL G8B0B5;O<, :0: MB> =04> 45;0BL. -B8< O 8 70=O;AO. / =0G0; ?>:C?0BL :=838 ?> M;5:B@>=8:5 8 ?>4?8A0;AO =0 O?>=A:85 8 8=>AB@0==K5 6C@=0;K, ?C1;8:>202H85 =>259H85 A2545=8O > 2>A?@>872545=88 72C:0 8 @048>B5E=8:5. A:>@5 O AB0; ?>A2OI0BL M;5:B@>=8:5 B0: <=>3> 2@5<5=8, GB> MB> AB0;> <5H0BL <>8< 70=OB8O< 2 H:>;5. / >B4020; <>5<C =>2><C E>118 ?>GB8 2A5 A2>1>4=>5 >B H:>;K 2@5<O, <0AB5@O M;5:B@>0??0@0BC@C ?> AE5<0< 87 O?>=A:>3> 6C@=0;0  #09@;5A M=4 M:A?5@8<5=Bc . / <5GB0; ?>AB@>8BL M;5:B@>D>=>3@0D 8 70?8A0BL A>1AB25==K9 3>;>A. / @0AH8@O; A2>8 >?KBK ?> <5@5 B>3>, :0: 2A5 1>;LH5 8 1>;LH5 C7=020; > =>2>9 B5E=8:5. =5 ?@8E>48;>AL CG8BLAO A0<><C, ?>B><C GB> ?@54<5BK, :>B>@K5 <5=O 459AB28B5;L=> 8=B5@5A>20;8, 2 B> 2@5<O 2 H:>;5 =5 ?@>E>48;8. > O AC<5; A0<>AB>OB5;L=> A45;0BL ?@>AB59H89 M;5:B@>D>=>3@0D 8 @048>?@85<=8:. / 4065 A45;0; ?@8<8B82=CN 70?8AL A2>53> 3>;>A0 8 2>A?@>8725; 55 =0 D>=>3@0D5. / B0: C2;5:AO @048>B5E=8:>9, GB> <5=O GCBL =5 2K3=0;8 87 H:>;K. >N <0BL G0AB> 2K7K20;8 2 H:>;C 4;O 15A54K > <>59 ?;>E>9 CA?5205<>AB8. 8@5:B>@ 1K; >15A?>:>5= 8 =54>2>;5= >BACBAB285< C <5=O 8=B5@5A0 : >1KG=K< 70=OB8O<. / ?><=N, GB> =0A, :0: ?@028;>, @0AA06820;8 2 :;0AA5 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B =0H8E >B<5B>:.  =0H5< :;0AA5 1K;> 425AB8 ?OBL45AOB G5;>25:, @0745;5==KE =0 ?OBL 3@C?? ?> ?OBL45AOB CG0I8EAO 2 :064>9. CGH53> CG5=8:0 2 :064>9 3@C??5 =07=0G0;8 AB0@>AB>9, 8 <5AB0 @0A?@545;O;8AL >B ?>A;54=53> @O40 : CG8B5;N 2 =8AE>4OI5< ?>@O4:5 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B CA?5E>2. %>BO <5AB0 2 :;0AA5 ?5@5@0A?@545;O;8AL :064K9 3>4, O 2A5340 A845; ?5@54 CG8B5;5< 2<5AB5 A A0<K<8 BC?K<8 CG5=8:0<8. =5 =5 E>B5;>AL 1K 1KBL 745AL A;8H:>< AC@>2K< : A515, ?>MB><C A:06C, GB> O E>@>H> CA?520; ?> <0B5<0B8:5, D878:5 8 E8<88. > C <5=O 2A5340 1K;8 ?;>E85 >B<5B:8 ?> 35>3@0D88, 8AB>@88 8 O?>=A:><C O7K:C. 5=O G0AB> 2K7K20;8 : 48@5:B>@C, GB>1K ?>3>2>@8BL > <>59 =5@>2=>9 CG515. >340 45;0 AB0=>28;8AL A>2A5< ?;>E8, @>48B5;8 1@0=8;8 <5=O 8 70?@5I0;8 <=5 70=8<0BLAO <>8<8 M;5:B@>==K<8 83@CH:0<8. / ?>28=>20;AO 8< 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 <=5 =5 C4020;>AL =5<=>3> 8A?@028BL >B<5B:8, 0 ?>B>< A=>20 2>72@0I0;AO : B><C, GB> <=5 =@028;>AL 1>;LH5 2A53>.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" > . !?0A5=85 8 =045640.  II >340 O CG8;AO 2 A@54=59 H:>;5, 2 6C@=0;5  #09@;5A M=4 M:A?5@8<5=Bc O 2?5@2K5 ?@>G8B0; > <03=8B=>9 72C:>70?8A8.  B> 2@5<O ;8HL >G5=L =5<=>385 2 /?>=88 8<5;8 E>BO 1K M;5:B@8G5A:85 ?@>83@K20B5;8 A ?;0AB8=:0<8 =87:>3> :0G5AB20 87 H5;;0:0 8;8 0;N<8=8O, 0 AB0;L=K5 83>;:8 4020;8 ?;>E>5 72CG0=85 8 1KAB@> 87=0H820;8 ?;0AB8=:8. > 70B5< -=-M9G-:59, /?>=A:0O @048>25I0B5;L=0O :>@?>@0F8O, =0G0;0 8<?>@B8@>20BL =5<5F:>5 CAB@>9AB2> 4;O 70?8A8 =0 <03=8B=CN AB0;L=CN ;5=BC. -B0 0??0@0BC@0 ?@54AB02;O;0 A>1>9 A>25@H5==> =>2>5 87>1@5B5=85.  =59 2 :0G5AB25 =>A8B5;O 70?8A8 8A?>;L7>20;0AL AB0;L=0O ;5=B0, :>B>@0O >15A?5G820;0 3>@074> 1>;55 2KA>:CN B>G=>ABL 72C:>2>A?@>872545=8O, G5< @048>;K B8?0 =0H53> =>2>3> «8:B>@0». @8<5@=> 2 B> 65 A0<>5 2@5<O AB0;> 8725AB=> > B><, GB> 4>:B>@ M=47> 0308 87 #=825@A8B5B0 ">E>:C A:>=AB@C8@>20; 0??0@0B 4;O 70?8A8 =0 <03=8B=CN ?@>2>;>:C. / <5GB0; > B><, GB> 1C4C 70?8AK20BL A2>9 A>1AB25==K9 3>;>A, 8 @5H8; A45;0BL ?@>2>;>G=K9 <03=8B>D>= A0<. / A>25@H5==> =8G53> =5 7=0;, => C <5=O 1K; 157>3;O4=K9 M=BC7807< <>;>4>AB8, 8 ?>B><C O :C?8; B>=:CN ?@>2>;>:C 8 ?@8=O;AO 70 @01>BC. 5@20O 8 A0<0O 3;02=0O B@C4=>ABL A>AB>O;0 2 B><, GB>1K ?@84C<0BL 8 A45;0BL 72C:>70?8AK20NICN 3>;>2:C. / @01>B0; =0 =59 F5;K9 3>4, 8A?KBK20O >48= 20@80=B 70 4@C38<, => C <5=O =8G53> =5 ?>;CG0;>AL. >74=55 O ?>=O;, ?>G5<C O B5@?5; =5C40G8: <03=8B=K9 707>@ =0 3>;>2:5, <5AB>, 345 72C: ?5@5405BAO =0 ?@>2>;>:C 2 D>@<5 M;5:B@8G5A:>3> A83=0;0, ?>;CG0;AO A;8H:>< 1>;LH8< 8 A83=0; ?@>AB> B5@O;AO. / =8G53> =5 7=0; =8 > 7=0G5=88 B>:0 ?>4<03=8G820=8O, :>B>@K< 2 A>25@H5=AB25 >2;045; 0308, =8 > B><, :0: 53> 35=5@8@>20BL.  :=830E 8 6C@=0;0E, :>B>@K5 O <>3 4>AB020BL 2 B5 4=8, MB> =5 >1JOA=O;>AL, 0 <>8 A>1AB25==K5 7=0=8O 1K;8 ?@8<8B82=K<8.  2>B, =5 7=0O =8G53> :@><5 =5A:>;L:8E >A=>2=KE ?@8=F8?>2 8 ?@>ABKE ?@0:B8G5A:8E <5B>4>2, O ?@>4>;60; C?>@=> @01>B0BL. 5C40G8 @07>G0@>2K20;8 <5=O 8 >3>@G0;8, => >=8 =5 <>3;8 <5=O >AB0=>28BL. >340 O ?5@5H5; 2 ?>A;54=89 :;0AA A@54=59 H:>;K, O A>>1I8; @>48B5;O< 8 CG8B5;O<, GB> 1C4C A4020BL M:70<5=K =0 >B45;5=85 5AB5AB25==KE =0C: >AL<>9 2KAH59 H:>;K.  B>340H=59 /?>=88 70=OB8O 2 H:>;5 1K;8 ?>2KH5==>3> B8?0, 8 ?@>3@0<<0 2KAH59 H:>;K A>>B25BAB2>20;0 ?@>3@0<<5 42CE ?5@2KE :C@A>2 0<5@8:0=A:8E :>;;54659. >5 @5H5=85 C4828;> 8E 2A5E, ?>B><C GB>, E>BO <>8 >B<5B:8 ?> 5AB5AB25==K< =0C:0< 8 <0B5<0B8:5 1K;8 E>@>H8<8, <>9 A@54=89 10;; 1K; 4>2>;L=> =87:8<, 8 >=8 =0?><=8;8 > B><, GB> 4;O ?>ABC?;5=8O =0 >B45;5=85 5AB5AB25==KE =0C: <=5 ?@845BAO A40BL =5A:>;L:> B@C4=KE M:70<5=>2 ?> ?@54<5B0<, :>B>@K<8 O =5 70=8<0;AO. / 7=0; MB>, => O C65 ?@8=O; @5H5=85. B0:, O AB0; «@>=8=><».  AB0@8=C B0: =07K20;8 A0<C@0O, :>B>@K9 =5 8<5; 3>A?>48=0 8;8 ?>B5@O; A2>N 75<;N, 0 A53>4=O B0: 2A5 5I5 =07K20NB ABC45=B0, :>B>@K9 >BAB0; 2 CG515 8 4>;65= A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 70=8<0BLAO, 3>B>2OAL : ?5@5M:70<5=>2:5. 5AL 3>4 O :>@?5; =04 CG51=8:0<8 8 70=8<0;AO 1>;LH5, G5< :>340-;81>. # <5=O 1K;8 @5?5B8B>@K, ?><>302H85 <=5 2 70=OB8OE 0=3;89A:8< O7K:><, 2KAH59 <0B5<0B8:>9, 0 B0:65 O?>=A:>9 8 :8B09A:>9 :;0AA8:>9. &5;K9 3>4 O B>;L:> 70=8<0;AO.  O 4>18;AO A2>53>. =5 >G5=L E>G5BAO A:070BL, GB> 1;03>40@O A2>5<C C?>@AB2C O ?5@5A5; 2 B>< 3>4C =0 <5AB> ?5@2>3> CG5=8:0, => O =5 <>3C MB>3> A45;0BL. 4=0:> O 70A;C68; 4@C3>5 >B;8G85: O AB0; ?5@2K< 87 70=8<02H8E B0:>5 =87:>5 <5AB> CG5=8:>2 =0H59 H:>;K, :>B>@K9 1K; ?@8=OB =0 >B45;5=85 5AB5AB25==KE =0C: >AL<>9 2KAH59 H:>;K. I5 =8 >48= CG5=8:, 70=O2H89, :0: O, AB> 2>AL<845AOB>5 <5AB> 2 :;0AA5, =5 1K; ?@8=OB =0 >B45;5=85 5AB5AB25==KE =0C:. > O 4>AB83 MB>3> 1;03>40@O CA?5H=K< 70=OB8O< 2 B5G5=85 3>40 8 B25@4>AB8 E0@0:B5@0, 0 B0:8< >= 1K; C <5=O 2A5340. 0=OB8O 2 2KAH59 H:>;5, :>=5G=>, 1K;8 =5;53:8< 45;><, 8 O >1=0@C68;, GB> 4065 2 ?@>3@0<<5 5AB5AB25==>3> >B45;5=8O >G5=L <=>3> A:CG=KE 8 =58=B5@5A=KE ?@54<5B>2  <8=5@0;>38O, 1>B0=8:0 8 4@C385 ?@54<5BK, :>B>@K5 <5=O =5 8=B5@5A>20;8. 0:>5-B> 2@5<O <=5 C3@>60;0 >?0A=>ABL ?@>20;8BLAO =0 M:70<5=0E. > =0 B@5BL5< :C@A5, :>340 <K ?>;CG8;8 2>7<>6=>ABL A?5F80;878@>20BLAO, O 2K1@0; D878:C, ?> :>B>@>9 C <5=O 2A5340 1K;8 >B;8G=K5 >F5=:8. $878:0 <=5 >G5=L =@028;0AL, 8 ?@5?>4020B5;8 MB>3> ?@54<5B0 1K;8 <>8<8 :C<8@0<8. (5; 1940 3>4. 5A<>B@O =0 25AL <>9 >?B8<87< 8 M=BC7807<, 1C4CI55 =8:>340 5I5 =5 ?@54AB02;O;>AL <=5 1>;55 <@0G=K<. 8@ 1K; 2 >3=5.  2@>?5 $@0=F8O :0?8BC;8@>20;0 ?5@54 =5<5F:8<8 0@<8O<8. =3;8O ?>425@3;0AL =0;5B0< =5<5F:8E 1><10@48@>2I8:>2, 0 #8=AB>= '5@G8;;L 2 2KABC?;5=8OE 3>2>@8; > B><, GB> =0@>4 2 1C4CI5< >6840NB B>;L:> «:@>2L, BO6:89 B@C4, A;57K 8 ?>B». /?>=8O 1K;0 =0 ?CB8 : :0B0AB@>D5, E>BO 2 AB@0=5 ?5@54020;8AL B>;L:> 1;03>?@8OB=K5 8725AB8O 8 2A5 ?>425@30;>AL AB@>3>9 F5=7C@5. C4CG8 ABC45=B0<8, <K =5 >G5=L-B> 704C<K20;8AL > 3;>10;L=KE ?@>1;5<0E 8;8 E>BO 1K > 2=CB@5==59 ?>;8B8:5, => 2 1938 3>4C 2>5==K5, :>B>@K5 ?@028;8 AB@0=>9, >1JO28;8 70:>= > <>18;870F88.  B> 2@5<O, :>340 O =0G0; CG8BLAO 2 :>;;5465, /?>=8O 70=8<0;0 =0 :0@B5 788 3>A?>4AB2CNI55 ?>;>65=85. A5 AB0@K5 ?>;8B8G5A:85 ?0@B88 2 /?>=88 1K;8 @0A?CI5=K. >4 M:>=><8G5A:8< 402;5=85< !( 8 A>N7=8G5A:8E AB@0=, 0 B0:65 2284C C3@>7K >:070BLAO >B@570==K<8 >B 8AB>G=8:>2 AK@LO 8 =5DB8, 1K;> ?@8=OB> @5H5=85, 5A;8 ?>B@51C5BAO, 2ABC?8BL 2 2>9=C A !(, GB>1K A>E@0=8BL /?>=8N 8 55 2;0ABL =04 AB@0=0<8, :>B>@K5 >=0 70AB028;0 2>9B8 2 B0: =07K205<CN «5;8:CN 2>AB>G=>0780BA:CN AD5@C A>?@>F25B0=8O». @>8AE>48;8 206=K5 8AB>@8G5A:85 A>1KB8O, => 2 B> 2@5<O <5=O 8=B5@5A>20;0 B>;L:> D878:0. 48= 87 <>8E ;N18<KE CG8B5;59 2 AB0@H8E :;0AA0E, 0:C47C= %0BB>@8, 1K; >G5=L 4>1@ :> <=5 8 >:070; 1>;LH>5 2=8O=85 =0 <>N 687=L. / E>@>H> CA?520; ?> D878:5, 8 ?@>D5AA>@ %0BB>@8, :>B>@K9 A;548; 70 <>8<8 CA?5E0<8 A 3;C1>:8< C4>2;5B2>@5=85<, 7=0;, GB> O E>GC ?@>4>;60BL @01>B0BL 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 8 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O KAH59 H:>;K. >340 ?@8H;> 2@5<O @074C<89 >1 CG515 2 C=825@A8B5B5, O >1AC48; A =8< MB>B 2>?@>A. / 7=0;, GB> =0 D878G5A:>< D0:C;LB5B5 A0:A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 @01>B0NB B0:85 70<5G0B5;L=K5 CG5=K5, :0: %845FC3C /38, :>B>@K9 87>1@5; 48@5:B>@=CN 0=B5==C, =0720==CN 53> 8<5=5< 8 AK3@02HCN AB>;L 206=CN @>;L 2 A>740=88 A>2@5<5==KE @048>;>:0B>@>2. 0 MB>< D0:C;LB5B5 @01>B0; B0:65 ?@>D5AA>@ . :01M, 87>1@5B0B5;L <03=5B@>=0, CAB@>9AB20, :>B>@>5 2?5@2K5 ?>72>;8;> 35=5@8@>20BL M=5@38N A25@E2KA>:8E G0AB>B (!'). 4=064K ?@>D5AA>@ %0BB>@8 A:070; <=5: «>@8B0, >48= 87 <>8E >4=>:C@A=8:>2 87 ">:89A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 B5?5@L B>65 ?@5?>405B 2 A0:5, 53> 7>2CB &C=5A01C@> A040. = A0<K9 2K40NI89AO CG5=K9 2 >1;0AB8 ?@8:;04=>9 D878:8. A;8 BK E>G5HL 70=OBLAO 8<5==> MB8<, ?@>D5AA>@ A040 :0: @07 B>B G5;>25:, A :>B>@K< B515 A;54C5B 2AB@5B8BLAO. >G5<C 1K B515 =5 ?>7=0:><8BLAO A =8< 2> 2@5<O ;5B=8E :0=8:C;? / <>3C MB> CAB@>8BL 4;O B51O». / CE20B8;AO 70 MBC 2>7<>6=>ABL 8 =0 A;54CNI85 :0=8:C;K >B?@028;AO ?@O<> 2 A0:C, GB>1K =0=5AB8 2878B ?@>D5AA>@C A045. / ?>;N18; 53> 2 BC A0<CN <8=CBC, :>340 2>H5; 2 53> 703@><>645==K9 25I0<8 :018=5B. @>D5AA>@ >:070;AO :>@5=0ABK< ?>;=K< G5;>25:>< A 8A:@OI8<8AO 3;070<8, :>B>@K9 3>2>@8; 2 =>A A A8;L=K< >A0:A:8< 0:F5=B><. K;> OA=>, GB> >= ;N18B 8 ?>=8<05B HCB:8, 8 E>BO >= 1K; :@C?=K< A?5F80;8AB><, >= 4065 =5 ?KB0;AO 83@0BL @>;L AB@>3>3> 8;8 >G5=L 206=>3> ?@>D5AA>@0. "0:85 ;N48 1K;8 @54:8< O2;5=85< 2 /?>=88, 345 ?@5?>4020B5;59 >G5=L C2060;8 8 ?>G8B0;8, 8, ?>-2848<><C, >=8 A5@L57=> >B=>A8;8AL : A2>5<C 2KA>:><C A0=C. @>D5AA>@0 A04C, :070;>AL, A>2A5< =5 8=B5@5A>20;0 <8HC@0, A2O70==0O A 53> 2KA>:8< ?>;>65=85<. K ?>;048;8 A =8< A A0<>3> =0G0;0. <5==> 1;03>40@O 2AB@5G5 A MB8< 70<5G0B5;L=K< G5;>25:>< O @5H8; CG8BLAO 2 A0:5, 0 =5 2 1>;55 8725AB=KE C=825@A8B5B0E ">:8> 8;8 8>B>.  2 ">:8>, 8 2 8>B> 1K;8 E>@>H85 D878G5A:85 D0:C;LB5BK, 8 B0< @01>B0;8 ?@>D5AA>@0, ?>;L7>202H85AO >1I5=0F8>=0;L=>9 8725AB=>ABLN, => 1>;55 4>3<0B8G=K5 8 AB0@K5. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, B0: <=5 :070;>AL 2 B> 2@5<O. @>D5AA>@ A040 ?>:070; <=5 A2>N ;01>@0B>@8N, 8 <K 4>2>;L=> 4>;3> @073>20@820;8 2 B>B 45=L. = CAB@>8; <=5 GB>-B> 2@>45 CAB=>3> M:70<5=0: >= E>B5; 1KBL 2 :C@A5 B>3>, GB> O 7=0N, :0:85 >?KBK O ?@>2>48;, GB> O :>=AB@C8@>20; 8 G5< 8=B5@5ACNAL. >B>< >= @0AA:070; <=5, G5< 70=8<05BAO 53> ;01>@0B>@8O, 8 MB> @5H8;> 45;>. @>D5AA>@ A040 >G5=L A5@L57=> 70=8<0;AO ?@8:;04=K<8 =0C:0<8, 8 2 G0AB=>AB8 @01>B0; =04 ?@>1;5<>9 ?5@540G8 A25B>2>3> ;CG0 ?> B5;5D>=C ?@8 ?><>I8 @BCB=KE ;0<? 2KA>:>3> 402;5=8O. = ?>:070;, :0: A ?><>ILN 72C:>2>9 G0AB>BK <>4C;8@>20BL A25B>2K5 ;CG8 2KA>:>9 8=B5=A82=>AB8. =5 E>B5;>AL @01>B0BL A MB8< 1;5ABOI8<, C25@5==K< 8 C4828B5;L=> @0A:>20==K< 8 >1I8B5;L=K< CG5=K<.  >1;0AB8 A>2@5<5==>9 D878:8 A0:A:89 C=825@A8B5B AB0; 5::>9 4;O A5@L57=KE ABC45=B>2 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0B>@>2. $878G5A:89 D0:C;LB5B C=825@A8B5B0 1K; A0<K< =>2K< 2 /?>=88, 8 ?>MB><C 53> >A=0AB8;8 A0<K< A>2@5<5==K< >1>@C4>20=85<. @><5 B>3>, ?>A:>;L:C C=825@A8B5B 1K; =>2K<, <=>385 ?@>D5AA>@0 8 ?@5?>4020B5;8 1K;8 <>;>4K<8 ;N4L<8, 0 =5 @5B@>3@040<8, ?@540==K<8 CAB0@52H8< 845O<. >9 >B5F 1K; @07>G0@>20= B5<, GB> O 2K1@0; 4;O CG51K 2 :>;;5465 =5 M:>=><8:C, 0 5AB5AB25==K5 =0C:8. = AG8B0;, GB>, C6 5A;8 O ?>H5; =0 >B45;5=85 5AB5AB25==KE =0C:, O <>3 1K 87CG0BL 03@>E8<8N, :>B>@0O 8<5;0 1K E>BL :0:>5-B> >B=>H5=85 : A0:M20@5=8N, => 2<5AB> MB>3> O 70=O;AO A0<>9 >A=>2>9 5AB5AB25==KE =0C:  D878:>9. =5 E>B5;>AL 7=0BL, :0: CAB@>5= <8@. B5F =5 ?KB0;AO 2;8OBL =0 <>5 @5H5=85, => O C25@5=, GB> >= 2A5 5I5 ?>;030;, GB>, :>340 ?@845B 2@5<O, O 5I5 2>7L<C =0 A51O @>;L, C3>B>20==CN <=5 2 A5<59=>9 :><?0=88. = 1K; C15645=, GB> 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 D878:0 1C45B 4;O <5=O B>;L:> E>118, 8 ?>@>9 O A0< 1>O;AO, GB> B0: 8 A;CG8BAO. @0240, :>340 O ?>ABC?8; 2 C=825@A8B5B, <K C65 2>520;8, 8 ;01>@0B>@88 ?@>D5AA>@0 A04K ?@8H;>AL ?@>2>48BL =0CG=K5 8AA;54>20=8O 4;O !. / ?@>4>;60; M:A?5@8<5=B8@>20BL, => ?@>?CA:0; ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 ;5:F88, GB>1K 8<5BL 1>;LH5 2@5<5=8 4;O @01>BK 2 ;01>@0B>@88. >;LH8=AB2> ?@>D5AA>@>2 1K;8 A:CG=K<8 ;5:B>@0<8, 8, ?>A:>;L:C C 2A5E C =8E 1K;8 :=838 8 1@>HN@K, O 2A5340 <>3 =09B8 2A5, GB> >=8 3>2>@8;8, G8B0O 8E :=838. "0: :0: O ?@>?CA:0; ;5:F88, O <>3 ?@>2>48BL 2 ;01>@0B>@88 1>;LH5 2@5<5=8, G5< 4@C385 ABC45=BK. @>D5AA>@ A040 2A5 1>;LH5 8 1>;LH5 ?><>30; <=5, 8 2A:>@5 O <>3 C65 ?><>30BL 5<C 2 =5:>B>@KE =51>;LH8E 7040=8OE 4;O !, 3;02=K< >1@07>< 2 >1;0AB8 M;5:B@>=8:8, :>B>@0O 1K;0 1;865 : =0AB>OI59 D878:5, G5< @01>B0 A> AB0@K<8 M;5:B@8G5A:8<8 8;8 M;5:B@><5E0=8G5A:8<8 AE5<0<8.  C=825@A8B5B5 ?@>D5AA>@0 A04C AG8B0;8 A?5F80;8AB>< ?> ?@8:;04=>9 D878:5, 8 3075BK G0AB> 1@0;8 C =53> 8=B5@2LN ?> 5AB5AB25==>=0CG=K< 2>?@>A0<. !> 2@5<5=5< >= =0G0; 25AB8 =51>;LH>9 @0745; 2 3075B5, 2 :>B>@>< >= @07 2 =545;N ?>4@>1=> @0AA:07K20; > ?>A;54=8E 4>AB865=8OE =0C:8 8 B5E=8:8, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, > B5E, :>B>@K5 =5 1K;8 70A5:@5G5=K. '8B0B5;8 3075BK ?8A0;8 5<C, GB>1K C7=0BL 53> <=5=85 >1 8E =0CG=KE 845OE. 3> :>;>=:0 AB0;0 :@09=5 8=B5@5A=>9 8 ?>?C;O@=>9. / G0AB> ?><>30; ?@>D5AA>@C A045 2 53> =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE, 8 2@5<5=0<8, :>340 >= 1K; >G5=L 70=OB, ?8A0; AB0BL8 4;O MB>9 :>;>=:8. / ?><=N, GB> 2 >4=>9 87 =8E O @0AA:07K20; > B5>@88 0B><=>9 M=5@388 8 2KA:070; <KA;L > B><, GB> «?@8 >?@545;5==>< 2>7459AB288 0B><=CN M=5@38N <>6=> ?@52@0B8BL 2 8A:;NG8B5;L=> <>I=>5 >@C685».  B> 2@5<O 845O 8A?>;L7>20=8O 0B><=>9 M=5@388 8;8 ?@>872>4AB20 0B><=>3> >@C68O :070;0AL 25AL<0 >B40;5==>9.  /?>=88 1K;> 420 F8:;>B@>=0, 8 ?@>3@5AA =0 ?CB8 : >ACI5AB2;5=8N 0B><=>9 @50:F88 1K; >G5=L <54;5==K<. ">340 O?>=A:0O B5E=8:0, =0A:>;L:> <=5 8725AB=>, ?>72>;O;0 ?>;CG0BL 2A53> =5A:>;L:> <8;;83@0<<>2 C@0=0-235 2 45=L, 8 O ?>4AG8B0;, GB> ?@8 B0:8E B5<?0E 4;O B>3>, GB>1K =0:>?8BL 4>AB0B>G=>5 :>;8G5AB2> C@0=0 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 1><1K, ?>B@51C5BAO 4204F0BL ;5B. >=5G=>, O =5 7=0;, :0: 40;5:> CH;8 CG5=K5 !( 8 5@<0=88.  /?>=88 =8:B> =8G53> =5 7=0; > <0=EMBB5=A:>< ?@>5:B5. '0ABL @01>BK ?@>D5AA>@0 A04K A>AB02;O;8 =0CG=K5 8AA;54>20=8O 4;O 8<?5@A:>3> O?>=A:>3> D;>B0, 8 O ?><>30; 5<C 2 MB><. @8=8<0O CG0AB85 2 =8E, O ?>7=0:><8;AO A =5A:>;L:8<8 >D8F5@0<8 D;>B0 87 &5=B@0 0280F8>==>9 B5E=8:8, :>B>@K9 1K; @0A?>;>65= 2 >:>AC:5 1;87 >:>30<K. @81;860;8AL 2K?CA:=K5 M:70<5=K, 0 O 5I5 =5 1K; ?@8720= 2 0@<8N.  MB> 2@5<O >48= >D8F5@ A:070; <=5, GB> 2K?CA:=8:8 D878G5A:>3> D0:C;LB5B0 <>3CB ?>4020BL 70O2;5=85 A ?@>AL1>9 > 70G8A;5=88 2> D;>B 2 :0G5AB25 2>5==KE 8=65=5@>2 8 ?>;CG8BL MB> 720=85, A402 2A53>-=02A53> >48= M:70<5=. 5=O =5 >G5=L C2;5:0;0 845O AB0BL 2>5==>-<>@A:8< >D8F5@><, E>BO <=5 :070;>AL, GB> 1K;> 1K @07C<=55 ?>9B8 A;C68BL 4>1@>2>;L=> 8 2K1@0BL A515 =07=0G5=85, G5< 1KBL ?@8720==K< 2 0@<8N 8;8 D;>B, 1C4CG8 ;8H5==K< 2>7<>6=>AB8 2K1>@0. @C3>9 >D8F5@, :0?8B0=, ?@8H5; :0:-B> 2 ;01>@0B>@8N 8 A>>1I8; <=5, GB> 5ABL 5I5 >4=0 2>7<>6=>ABL.  B> 2@5<O 2 ! ACI5AB2>20;0 ?@>3@0<<0, ?> :>B>@>9 2>5==>A;C60I8E >B:><0=48@>2K20;8 2 C=825@A8B5BK. !BC45=B 2B>@>3> :C@A0 <>3 ?>4020BL 70O2;5=85 A ?@>AL1>9 > 70G8A;5=88 53> 2 ! 2 :0G5AB25 >D8F5@0 8 >AB0BLAO A;C68BL 2 2>5==>-<>@A:>< D;>B5 =0 2AN 687=L. -B> ?>A;54=55 CA;>285 <5=O >G5=L 15A?>:>8;>  O =5 E>B5; AB0=>28BLAO :04@>2K< <>@A:8< >D8F5@><, => <>9 8=B5@5A 2>7@>A, :>340 :0?8B0= >?8A0; <=5 0;LB5@=0B82C. = A:070;, GB> >D8F5@K, 7025@1>202H85AO =0 :>@>B:89 A@>: 8 8<5NI85 >1@07>20=85 D878:0, ?>;CG0NB =07=0G5=85 =0 459AB2CNI85 :>@01;8, 345 >=8 @01>B0NB =0 =>2KE @048>;>:0B>@0E, :>B>@K5 B>340 =0G0;8 ?@8<5=OBLAO, 0 MB> >7=0G0;> =07=0G5=85 2 7>=C 2>5==KE 459AB289 8, 2>7<>6=>, :>=5F CG51K, 0 B> 8 3815;L. "0:8< >1@07><, =04> 1K;> 2K18@0BL  ;81> 640BL 45<>18;870F88 8 =07=0G5=8O, :C40 C3>4=>, ;81> ?>40BL 70O2;5=85 A ?@>AL1>9 > 70G8A;5=88 =0 2@5<5==CN A;C61C 8 84B8 2 <>@5, ;81> 70?8A0BLAO 2 ! =0 2AN 687=L 8 ?@>4>;60BL CG51C. = @5:><5=4>20; <=5 A40BL M:70<5=K =0 15AA@>G=CN A;C61C 2 :0G5AB25 >D8F5@0 2 ! 8 ?>;CG5=85 AB8?5=488, GB>1K O <>3 ?@>4>;60BL A2>N @01>BC 2 <>59 65 ;01>@0B>@88 8 ?>;CG8BL AB5?5=L. = A:070;, GB> ?@>B82 B>3>, GB>1K B0:8E ?@8@>645==KE 8AA;54>20B5;59, :0: O, >B?@02;O;8 2 <>@5. <5==> >= =0?><=8; <=5, GB> ?>A;5 B>3> :0: <5=O 4>?CABOB : CG0AB8N 2 @01>B5 =04 ?@>3@0<<>9, <=5 ?@845BAO ;8HL ?@>9B8 :C@A >A=>2=>9 2>5==>9 ?>43>B>2:8, ?>A;5 G53> O A<>3C @01>B0BL 2 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>< F5=B@5. «-B> A0<K9 =0456=K9 ?CBL 4;O 20A, A:070; >= <=5. K A<>65B5 ?@>4>;60BL A2>N =0CG=CN @01>BC, 0 <K A<>65< ?@>4>;60BL 20A 8A?>;L7>20BL». 54>;3> 4C<0O >1 MB><, O @5H8;, GB> 15AA@>G=0O A;C610 2 ! ?> B5< 2@5<5=0< 1K;0 ?@54?>GB8B5;L=59  =8:B> =5 7=0;, GB> 1C45B 40;LH5, ?>MB><C O ?>H5; =0 M:70<5=K 8 A40; 8E. ! ?;0B8;8 <=5 30 85= 2 <5AOF, 2K40;8 7>;>BK5 =0H82:8 A O:>@O<8, C:@0A82H85 <>9 2>@>B=8:. "0: O AB0; A;C60I8< !, ?@8:><0=48@>20==K< : C=825@A8B5BC, 8 <>O @01>B0 A>AB>O;0 2 B><, GB>1K ;@>4>;60BL 70=8<0BLAO D878:>9. > MB> 4;8;>AL =54>;3>. >340 O 1K; =0 B@5BL5< :C@A5, 2>9=0 @073>@5;0AL 5I5 1>;LH5, 8 <K, ABC45=BK D878G5A:>3> D0:C;LB5B0, :0: 8 2AO AB@0=0, >:070;8AL 2 =5?>A@54AB25==>< ?>4G8=5=88 C 2>5==KE.  =0G0;5 1945 3>40 O 1K; =07=0G5= 2 #?@02;5=85 0280F8>==>9 B5E=8:8 2 >:>AC:5. > MB> 1K;> A>2A5< =5 B>, GB> O >6840;. 5=O ?>A5;8;8 2 >1I568B85 4;O @01>G8E, 8 2 ?5@2>5 CB@> O 2<5AB> B>3>, GB>1K 84B8 2 ;01>@0B>@8N, :0: ?@54?>;030;, >B?@028;AO =0 702>4 2<5AB5 A <>18;87>20==K<8 @01>G8<8. B>-B> AC=C; <=5 2 @C:8 =0?8;L=8: 8 =0?@028; <5=O 2 <5E0=8G5A:89 F5E. 064K9 45=L O 4> 87=5<>65=8O @01>B0; 2 F5EC, >1@010BK20O AB0;L=K5 45B0;8. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> 4=59 O ?>4C<0;, GB> 5A;8 O =5 C94C >BBC40 2 1;8609H55 2@5<O, B> A>94C A C<0. > 2A59 /?>=88 CG0I8EAO 7018@0;8 87 CG51=KE 702545=89, GB>1K >A2>1>48BL @01>G8E >B =5:20;8D8F8@>20==>9 @01>BK, 402 8< 2>7<>6=>ABL @01>B0BL =0 2>9=C, 8 ABC45=BK C=825@A8B5BA:8E D0:C;LB5B>2 5AB5AB25==KE =0C: B5?5@L, ?>-2848<><C, B>65 =5 1K;8 8A:;NG5=85<. >A8:> 0<M8, :>B>@0O ?>765 AB0;0 <>59 65=>9, 1K;0 2K=C645=0 A<5=8BL :>;;546 =0 D01@8:C, 345 >=0 45;0;0 45@52O==K5 45B0;8 4;O :@K;L52 CG51=KE A0<>;5B>2 «@0A=0O AB@5:>70». ;03>40@O MB>9 @01>B5 >=0 4> A8E ?>@ C<55B ?>;L7>20BLAO ?;>B=8F:8<8 8=AB@C<5=B0<8. >340 702>4 0280F8>==KE 45B0;59 @071><18;8, 55 =0?@028;8 =0 D01@8:C, =0 :>B>@>9 H8;8 1>;L=8G=K5 E0;0BK 4;O @0=5=KE A>;40B, 0 ?>B>< ?5@525;8 2 B8?>3@0DA:89 F5E, 345 ?5G0B0;8AL 1C<06=K5 45=L38 4;O >::C?8@>20==KE B5@@8B>@89 788.  1>;LH8=AB25 H:>; =0 ?>A;54=8E MB0?0E 2>9=K 70=OB8O ?@>2>48;8AL B>;L:> @07 2 =545;N, 0 2 =5:>B>@KE H:>;0E 70=OB89 =5 1K;> 2>>1I5.  AB@0=5 =5 E20B0;> <>;>4KE <C6G8= 4;O MB8E @01>B, ?>B><C GB> ;N4A:85 @575@2K 2 0@<88 /?>=88 1K;8 @071@>A0=K =0 1>;LH>9 B5@@8B>@88 8 8AB>I5=K. K A >A8:> 2AB@5B8;8AL B>;L:> 2 1951 3>4C 8 B>340 65 ?>65=8;8AL. >A;5 B>3> :0: O ?@>1K; =0 702>45 =5A:>;L:> =545;L, 70=8<0OAL BO65;>9 @01>B>9, :B>-B>, 4>;6=> 1KBL, ?>=O;, GB> <5=O =0?@028;8 =5 BC40, :C40 =04>, ?>B><C GB> =5>6840==> 8 157 2AO:>3> >1JOA=5=8O <5=O ?5@525;8 2 >?B8G5A:CN ;01>@0B>@8N, 8 O ?>GC2AB2>20;, GB> 2>72@0I0NAL 2 B>B <8@, :>B>@K9 7=0N ;CGH5 2A53>. "0< 1K;8 >D8F5@K, 0 B0:65 @01>G85, >:>=G82H85 CG8;8I5 D>B>3@0D>2, => O 1K; 548=AB25==K< ABC45=B>< C=825@A8B5B0, A?5F80;878@>202H8<AO 2 D878:5, ?>MB><C <=5 >AB02;O;8 2A5 B@C4=K5 B5E=8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K. >8< ?5@2K< 7040=85< 1K;> =09B8 ?CB8 ?@54>B2@0I5=8O CI5@10, =0=>A8<>3> 0M@>D>B>A=8<:0< @07@O40<8 AB0B8G5A:>3> M;5:B@8G5AB20, >1@07CNI53>AO 2 ACE>9 0B<>AD5@5 =0 1>;LH>9 2KA>B5. =5 =C6=> 1K;> ?>;CG8BL 4>ABC? 2 E>@>HCN 181;8>B5:C, GB>1K 87CG8BL MBC ?@>1;5<C, 8 O A>AB028; ?;0=. / ?@8H5; : 25AL<0 8725AB=><C ?@>D5AA>@C =AB8BCB0 D878G5A:8E 8 E8<8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 2 ">:8> 78@> &C478 8, A:0702, GB> O B>;L:> GB> A :>@01;O, ?>?@>A8; 53> @07@5H8BL <=5 ?>;L7>20BLAO =0CG=>9 181;8>B5:>9 8=AB8BCB0. = ;N157=> >15I0; >:07K20BL <=5 2AOG5A:CN ?><>IL. 0B5< O >1@0B8;AO : @C:>2>4AB2C <>59 G0AB8 A ?@>AL1>9 @07@5H8BL 5748BL 2 ">:8> :064K9 45=L 4;O ?@>2545=8O <>8E 8AA;54>20=89. >;6=> 1KBL, O ?8A0; >G5=L C1548B5;L=>, ?>B><C GB> ?>GB8 A@07C 65 ?>;CG8; @07@5H5=85. > ?>574:8 87 >:>30<K 2 ">:8> =0 428302H8EAO A G5@5?0HL59 A:>@>ABLN ?5@5?>;=5==KE ?>5740E 2>5==>3> 2@5<5=8, >B=8<02H85 1>;LH5 G0A0, AB0;8 >G5=L CB><8B5;L=K, 8 O ?5@51@0;AO 2 4>< A2>53> 4@C30 8 >4=>:;0AA=8:0 87 =0G0;L=>9 H:>;K, :>B>@K9 CG8;AO =0 N@848G5A:>< D0:C;LB5B5 ">:89A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0, :>340 53> 701@0;8 2> D;>B.  1C4=85 4=8 O E>48; 2 8=AB8BCB, 0 ?> AC11>B0< 2>72@0I0;AO 2 >1I568B85 4;O @01>G8E 8 ?@>2>48; A> A2>8<8 :>;;530<8 2KE>4=K5 4=8. "0: O CG8;AO <0E8=0F8O< =0 2>5==>9 A;C615. > O =5 C28;820; >B @01>BK. / 8A:0; A?>A>1K ?@54>B2@0I5=8O 2>7459AB28O AB0B8G5A:>3> M;5:B@8G5AB20. / 7=0;, GB> ?@8 0M@>D>B>AJ5<:5 A ?><>ILN :0@B>3@0D8G5A:8E D>B>:0<5@, 2 :>B>@KE 8A?>;L7CNBAO >G5=L 1>;LH85 :0BCH:8 ?;5=:8, AB0B8G5A:>5 M;5:B@8G5AB2> G0AB> 2K7K205B 8A:@K, ?>@BOI85 A=8<>:. ;03>40@O GB5=8N 8 >?KB0< C <5=O AB0;8 2>7=8:0BL :>5-:0:85 8458. / ?5@51@0;AO 2 B5<=CN :><=0BC, 345 1K;> >G5=L <=>3> ?;5=:8, 8 ?KB0;AO ?>;CG8BL 8A:@K 2 ;01>@0B>@=KE CA;>28OE. / ?@>?CA:0; G5@57 :0<5@C 8 ?;5=:C B>: A @07=K< =0?@O65=85< 8 <5=O; 53> =0?@02;5=85. A:>@5 <=5 C40;>AL ?>4>9B8 2?;>B=CN : 2>A?@>872545=8N MB>3> O2;5=8O 2 ;01>@0B>@=KE CA;>28OE.  A2>5< ?5@2>< >BG5B5 O >B<5B8;, GB>, E>BO <=5 C40;>AL 2 :0:>9-B> AB5?5=8 A<>45;8@>20BL MB> O2;5=85, <=5 5I5 =04> B>G=> CAB0=>28BL, G5< >=> 2K720=> 8 :0: 53> CAB@0=8BL. 4=0:> O =5 <>3C ?@>4>;60BL MB8 M:A?5@8<5=BK, ?>B><C GB> >B45;5=85 >?B8:8 =5 8<55B A>>B25BAB2CNI8E ?@81>@>2. >=5G=>, A0<K< ?>4E>4OI8< <5AB>< A ?@5:@0A=K< >1>@C4>20=85< 1K;0 ;01>@0B>@8O ?@>D5AA>@0 A04K, 8 O ?>?@>A8; 2@5<5==> >B:><0=48@>20BL <5=O 2 ;01>@0B>@8N A04K. / ?>AB0@0;AO >1;53G8BL ?@8=OB85 @5H5=8O <>8< =0G0;L=8:0< 8 A:070; 8<, GB> <=5 =5 =C6=K :><0=48@>2>G=K5 8 GB>, ?>A:>;L:C ;01>@0B>@8O =0E>48BAO 2 C=825@A8B5B5, 345 O CG8;AO, O 7=0N, 345 <>6=> ?>A5;8BLAO 15A?;0B=>. A5, GB> <=5 ?>B@51C5BAO >B =8E, A:070; O, MB> @07@5H5=85 @01>B0BL 2 ;01>@0B>@88. E 548=AB25==K<8 @0AE>40<8 1C45B 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> ?;5=:8, ?>A:>;L:C ?;5=:0 1K;0 2 B5 4=8 45D8F8B>< 8 <=5 1>;LH5 =5345 1K;> 55 4>AB0BL. / =045O;AO, GB> 1;03>40@O 8E @07@5H5=8N O A<>3C 2K?>;=8BL 7040=85 A ?><>ILN =>259H8E ?@81>@>2 2 C=825@A8B5BA:>9 ;01>@0B>@88. , :0: O 8 >6840;, O =5 B>;L:> 2K?>;=8; 7040=85, => B0:65 8A?>;L7>20; A2>9 >D8F80;L=K9 >BG5B > =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 @01>B5 4;O ! 2 :0G5AB25 48AA5@B0F88. =8 A>3;0A8;8AL A> <=>9, 2K40;8 <=5 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> ?;5=:8, :>B>@CN O C?0:>20; 2 @N:70: 8 >B?@028;AO 2 C=825@A8B5B. "0:, 2 B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E <5AOF52, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 4@C385 ?5@56820;8 BO65;K5 2@5<5=0, O 68; 2 B>< 65 4><5, :>B>@K9 <>8 @>48B5;8 A=8<0;8 4;O <5=O, :>340 O 1K; ABC45=B><, ?>;L7>20;AO F5==K<8 A>25B0<8 ?@>D5AA>@0 A04K 8 B>;L:> @07 2 =545;N ?>AK;0; >BG5B > ?@>45;0==>9 @01>B5. -B> ?>72>;O;> <=5 25AB8 =0CG=K5 8AA;54>20=8O =081>;55 C4>1=K<8 4;O <5=O B5<?0<8, 8, @07C<55BAO, O ?@>4>;60; CG8BLAO C ?@>D5AA>@0 A04K. !>@>: ;5B A?CABO, 2 1985 3>4C O ?@8H5; =0 2AB@5GC A>B@C4=8:>2 >?B8G5A:>9 ;01>@0B>@88 8 2KABC?8; A @5GLN, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@87=0;AO, ?> :0:8< <>B820< O B>340 C5E0;. / A:070;, GB> ?>ABC?8; >G5=L M3>8AB8G=> 8 ?>?@>A8; ?@>I5=8O, 5A;8 <>9 M3>87< ?@8G8=8; =5C4>1AB20 4@C38< A>B@C4=8:0< ;01>@0B>@88. A5 >=8 ?>E;>?0;8 <=5. 0B5< 2AB0; <>9 1K2H89 =0G0;L=8: 8 A:070;, GB> >= B>65 E>G5B A45;0BL ?@87=0=85. = ?>2540; > B><, GB> 2 B>B 45=L, :>340 O >B?@028;AO 2 A0:C, ?>;CG82 8 ?;5=:C, 8 A2>1>4C, >= A>>1I8; >1 MB>< 2KH5AB>OI5<C >D8F5@C, 04<8@0;C: «4<8@0; 1K; 2715H5=! = AC@>2> >B@C30; <5=O, 70O282, GB> <>9 ?>ABC?>: =5 8<55B ?@5F545=B0». -B0 3>;>2><>9:0 ?@>4>;60;0AL 420 G0A0, ?>A;5 G53> <>53> =0G0;L=8:0 >B?CAB8;8 A ?@8:07>< >B?@028BLAO 2 A0:C 8 4>AB028BL >@8BC >1@0B=>. 0 A;54CNI55 CB@> >= ?@54AB0; ?5@54 04<8@0;>< 8 4>;>68; 5<C, GB> >B1K205B, GB>1K 25@=CBL <5=O. > 04<8@0; =5B5@?5;82> 70<0E0; @C:>9 8 A:070;, GB>1K >= 701K; >1 MB><. "0: <=5 @07@5H8;8 >AB0BLAO 2 A0:5. > 2 B5G5=85 A>@>:0 ;5B O =8G53> =5 7=0; >1 MB>9 =5?@8OB=>AB8 87-70 <5=O, 8 B5?5@L O AG5; =5>1E>48<K< 8728=8BLAO 70 MB> 5I5 @07. A5 <K 704=8< G8A;>< 4@C6=> ?>A<5O;8AL =04 A;CG82H8<AO 402=K<-402=>. :>=G82 C=825@A8B5B, O 02B><0B8G5A:8 AB0; 2>5==>-<>@A:8< 8=65=5@><, 0 MB> >7=0G0;>, GB> O 4>;65= ?@>9B8 =0AB>OICN 2>5==CN ?>43>B>2:C, 8 <5=O >B?@028;8 =0 107C :>@?CA0 <>@A:>9 ?5E>BK 2 %0<0<0?C, =540;5:> >B 03>9, 345 O ?@>H5; >1KG=K5 G5BK@5E<5AOG=K5 >D8F5@A:85 :C@AK 845>;>38G5A:>9 8 2>5==>9 ?>43>B>2:8. !;C610 1K;0 B@C4=>9, => <=5 1K;> >G5=L ?@8OB=>, GB> O >:070;AO D878G5A:8 :@5?:8<.  B5 3>4K B>;L:> ABC45=BK 5AB5AB25==KE D0:C;LB5B>2 2@>45 <5=O ?>;CG0;8 2@5<5==>5 >A2>1>645=85 >B ?@87K20 2 0@<8N. >9 1@0B 047C0:8, :>B>@K9 87CG0; M:>=><8:C 2 #=825@A8B5B5 0AM40, =5 8<5; ?@020 =0 >BA@>G:C 8 53> ?@8720;8 2 ! =0 :C@AK ?8;>B>2 42CE<>B>@=KE 1><10@48@>2I8:>2. >340 O A@07C ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O C=825@A8B5B0 =0E>48;AO =0 1075 %0<0<0FC, >= A;C68; =0 02801075 ! ">QE0A8, @0A?>;>65==>9 A>2A5< @O4><, 8 :064K9 45=L A>25@H0; CG51=K5 ?>;5BK =04 <>59 :070@<>9. <C ?>257;>, GB> 53> =07=0G8;8 2 MA:04@8;LN =>G=KE 1><10@48@>2I8:>2, ?>B><C GB> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K =0CG8BLAO ;5B0BL =0 =8E, B@51>20;>AL 1>;LH5 2@5<5=8, 8 2>9=0 7025@H8;0AL @0=LH5, G5< >= 70:>=G8; CG51C. 5:>B>@K5 87 53> >4=>:;0AA=8:>2 1K;8 ?@8720=K 2 8AB@518B5;L=CN 0280F8N, 345 A@>:8 >1CG5=8O 1K;8 3>@074> :>@>G5, A@548 =8E 1K;8 ;5BG8:8-:0<8:047M, 2K?>;=O2H85 A<5@B5;L=K5 7040=8O 8, :>=5G=>, =5 25@=C2H85AO A 2>9=K. >9 <;04H89 1@0B 0A00:8 CG8;AO 2 A@54=59 H:>;5, 0 2>5==K5 ?>>I@O;8 N=F>2 84B8 2 0@<8N 4>1@>2>;LF0<8. &5;K5 :;0AAK 2ABC?0;8 2 0@<8N. /?>=8O 1K;0 >E20G5=0 2 B> 2@5<O 2>5==>9 ;8E>@04:>9, 8 E>BO B>B 8;8 4@C3>9 N=>H0, 2>7<>6=>, 8 =5 E>B5; 84B8 4>1@>2>;LF5<, 53> ?>425@3;8 1K >AB@0:87<C, 5A;8 1K >= =5 ?>H5;. 0A00:8 1K;> 2A53> G5BK@=04F0BL ?OB=04F0BL ;5B, :>340 25AL 53> :;0AA @5H8; ?>9B8 =0 D;>B. >8 @>48B5;8 1K;8 2 C60A5 8 =5 E>B5;8 53> >B?CA:0BL, => >= =0AB>O; =0 A2>5<, 8 O ?><=N, :0: ?;0:0;0 <0BL, :>340 >= CE>48; 87 4><0. / ?@>2>48; 53> 4> ?>5740 8 B>65 ?;0:0;. = ?>ABC?8; =0 :C@AK ;5BG8:>2 <>@A:>9 0280F88.  AG0ABLN, 2>9=0 :>=G8;0AL, :>340 >= B>;L:> ?@8ABC?8; : 70=OB8O<. >;CG8;>AL B0:, GB> 2A5 <K, B@8 1@0B0, 2 B> 8;8 8=>5 2@5<O ;5B0;8 =0 A0<>;5B0E <>@A:>9 0280F88. @>2>4O M:A?5@8<5=BK, O =5@54:> CG0AB2>20; 2 =>G=KE ?>;5B0E 2 :0G5AB25 ?0AA068@0, 8A?KBK20O ?@81>@K, :>B>@K5 <K 8A?>;L7>20;8 2 =0H8E ?>?KB:0E A>740BL >@C685 B5?;>2>3> =02545=8O, 8 <>8 :>;;538 CG8;8 <5=O 2>48BL A0<>;5B, :>=5G=>, =5>D8F80;L=>. 0:>5-B> 2@5<O 2A5 B@8 1@0B0 ;5B0;8, 8 <>O <0BL =5 =045O;0AL, GB> <K 25@=5<AO A 2>9=K.  AG0ABLN, 2A5 <K 25@=C;8AL F5;K<8 8 =52@548<K<8. >9=0 A !( 1K;0 B@0354859, >=0 70E20B8;0 2@0A?;>E 1>;LH8=AB2> O?>=F52 8 ?>25@3;0 8E 2 A>AB>O=85 H>:0, =5A<>B@O =0 2A5 CB25@645=8O ?@>?030=4K > B><, GB> 70?04=K5 AB@0=K 2ABC?8;8 2 703>2>@ ?@>B82 /?>=88. C4CG8 @515=:><, O, :>=5G=>, =5 7=0; > 2A5E B5E ?>;8B8G5A:8E A>1KB8OE, :>B>@K5 8<5;8 <5AB> 2 4204F0BKE 8 2 =0G0;5 B@84F0BKE 3>4>2. > 2 1934 3>4C, :>340 <=5 1K;> B@8=04F0BL ;5B, C =0A 225;8 2>5==>5 >1CG5=85  420 G0A0 2 =545;N.  B5G5=85 2A5E MB8E ;5B 2 =0A 2>A?8BK20;8 >B=>H5=85 : !>25B0< :0: : ?>B5=F80;L=><C 2@03C 8 B25@48;8 > 2>7<>6=>AB8 2>9=K A !>25BA:8< !>N7><. 0A CG8;8, GB> :><<C=87< >G5=L >?0A5= 8 GB> /?>=8O 2ABC?8;0 =0 B5@@8B>@8N 0=LG6C@88, GB>1K >157>?0A8BL 3@0=8FK 8 A>740BL 1CD5@=CN 7>=C 4;O 70I8BK /?>=88 >B :><<C=8AB>2. >B5@O2H85 3>;>2C C;LB@0=0F8>=0;8ABK, D0H8ABK 8 =5:>B>@K5 <;04H85 >D8F5@K A?@>2>F8@>20;8 2 B5 4=8 =5A:>;L:> A5@L57=KE 8=F845=B>2 2 AB@0=5 8 70 @C156><, 8 B0:85 ;N48, :0: <>9 >B5F, 15A?>:>8;8AL > 1C4CI5<.  1932 3>4C 3@C??0 C;LB@0=0F8>=0;8AB>2, 2 :>B>@CN 2E>48;8 A>@>: 420 <;04H8E >D8F5@0, AB0;0 A>25@H0BL =0?045=8O =0 ?@54AB028B5;59 B0: =07K205<KE ?@828;538@>20==KE :;0AA>2, C182 <8=8AB@0 D8=0=A>2 .==>AC:M =>CM 8 284=>3> 187=5A<5=0 10@>=0 "0:C<C 0=0, :>B>@K9 2>73;02;O; 3830=BA:89 :>=F5@= «8FC8». >74=55, 2 B>< 65 3>4C 15 <0O >=8 C18;8 ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@0 CQA8 =C:08 8 =0?0;8 =0 4>< >4=>3> :@C?=>3> 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 45OB5;O, 0 B0:65 =0 :>=B>@K =5:>B>@KE 3830=BA:8E E>;48=3>2KE :><?0=89. =8 B0:65 HBC@<>20;8 /?>=A:89 10=: 8FC18A8. N48 =0H53> :;0AA0 1K;8 2AB@52>65=K MB8<8 A>1KB8O<8. %>BO <OB56=8:8 AB028;8 A2>59 F5;LN CAB0=>2;5=85 D0H8ABA:>9 48:B0BC@K, <=>385 :>=A5@20B82=K5 3@0640=5 2>A?@8=8<0;8 MB8 A>1KB8O :0: ?@>O2;5=8O :><<C=8AB8G5A:>3> 703>2>@0. 0B5< 26 D52@0;O 1936 3>40 ?@>87>H5; 5I5 >48= =045;02H89 <=>3> HC<0 8=F845=B, :>340 5I5 >4=0 3@C??0 <OB56=8:>2 87 0@<88 70E20B8;0 >D8F80;L=CN @57845=F8N ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@0 8 2>5==>5 <8=8AB5@AB2>, C182 1K2H53> ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@0 0:>B> !08B>, 35=5@0;0, 25402H53> 2>5==>9 ?>43>B>2:>9, 8 1K2H53> <8=8AB@0 D8=0=A>2. =8 @0=8;8 C?@02;ONI53> 8<?5@0B>@A:8< 2>@>< 8 =02;5:;8 =0 A51O 3=52 2>@0. ;O ?>402;5=8O <OB56=8:>2 1K;8 8A?>;L7>20=K 2>>@C65==K5 A8;K, 8 ?OB=04F0BL >D8F5@>2, 0 B0:65 =5A:>;L:> 8E 3@0640=A:8E ?>4@CG=KE 1K;8 :07=5=K. %>BO 2>AAB0=85 70:>=G8;>AL =5C40G59, AB0=>28;>AL 2A5 1>;55 >G5284=K<, GB> =0;5BK 70?C30;8 ?>;8B8G5A:8E 45OB5;59 8 :@C?=KE 187=5A<5=>2. !B@0=0 =0E>48;0AL 2 BO65;>< M:>=><8G5A:>< ?>;>65=88, 8 E>BO <>;>4K5 >D8F5@K-D0H8ABK H;8 ?> ;>6=><C ?CB8, >=8 AC<5;8 C <=>38E 2K720BL A>GC2AB285.  /?>=88 2A5340 A>GC2AB2CNB B5<, :B> 1>@5BAO ?@>B82 ?@52>AE>4OI8E A8; ?@>B82=8:0, 4065 5A;8 >= ?@5A;54C5B >H81>G=K5 8450;K 8;8 F5;8. =>385 87 =0@>4=KE 35@>52 /?>=88  MB> ;N48, :>B>@K5 ?>381;8, ?KB0OAL A>25@H8BL =52>7<>6=>5. ! A5@548=K B@84F0BKE 3>4>2 2>5=I8=0 CA8;8;0 A2>N 2;0ABL =04 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 687=LN AB@0=K 8 D0H8ABK AB0;8 >ACI5AB2;OBL ?>;8B8G5A:89 48:B0B.  MB>9 0B<>AD5@5 ;N4O< 1K;> B@C4=> A2>1>4=> 2KA:07K20BL A2>5 <=5=85. 065 2 O?>=A:>< ?0@;0<5=B5 <0;> :><C 87 871@0==KE 45?CB0B>2 E20B0;> A<5;>AB8 2KABC?0BL ?@>B82 <8;8B0@8AB>2, 0 B5, :B> E>BO 1K @07 A45;0; MB>, 1K;8 ;8H5=K 2>7<>6=>AB8 2KA:070BLAO 5I5 @07. "0:, <8;8B0@8ABK >45@60;8 25@E. 064K9 @07, :>340 >B5F 2AB@5G0;AO A> A2>8<8 4@C7LO<8, >=8 3>2>@8;8 > 3@>7OI8E >?0A=>ABOE. -B> 1K;8 :><<5@A0=BK, =0AB@>5==K5 1>;55 ;815@0;L=>, G5< D0H8ABK, => >=8 =8G53> =5 <>3;8 87<5=8BL 8 >B:@KB> =5 2KABC?0;8. (:>;L=8:8 7=0;8 ;8HL B>, GB> 8< 3>2>@8;8, 0 8=D>@<0F8O 2 B5 2@5<5=0 =>A8;0 >4=>AB>@>==89 E0@0:B5@. 59AB28O O?>=A:8E 2>>@C65==KE A8;, 2B>@3H8EAO 2 8B09, 2AOG5A:8 ?@52>7=>A8;8AL. @0240, 4> =5:>B>@KE 4>E>48;8 A;CE8 > =0?045=8OE =0 :8B09A:85 3>@>40, > B><, GB> A;CG8;>AL 2 0=:8=5, 8 O ?>;030N, GB> <>9 >B5F 7=0; 1>;LH5, G5< 3>2>@8;, => <>;>456L =5 >1@0I0;0 2=8<0=8O =0 ?>4>1=K5 25I8. / 7=0;, GB> >B=>H5=8O <564C !( 8 /?>=859 CEC4H0NBAO, => 2>9=0 B5< =5 <5=55 >:070;0AL 4;O <5=O =5>6840==>9. / A<0AB5@8; B09<5@, :>B>@K9 A>548=8; A @048>?@85<=8:><, 8 >= :064>5 CB@> 1C48; <5=O 2 H5ABL G0A>2. / >G5=L E>@>H> ?><=N CB@> 8 45:01@O 1941 3>40  2 !( 5I5 1K;> 7 45:01@O, :>340 <>9 B09<5@ 2:;NG8; ?@85<=8: 8 O CA;KH0; A>>1I5=85 > B><, GB> O?>=A:85 2>>@C65==K5 A8;K =0?0;8 =0 5@;-%0@1>@. / 1K; ?>B@OA5=. A5 2 =0H5< 4><5 1K;8 >H5;><;5=K MB8< 8725AB85<, 8 C <5=O <5;L:=C;0 <KA;L, GB> MB> >G5=L >?0A=>. / A 45BAB20 1K; C15645= 2 B><, GB> 0?04 =0<=>3> ?@52>AE>48B =0A 2 B5E=8:5. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 B5 2@5<5=0 <5B0;;8G5A:85 M;5:B@>20:CC<=K5 ;0<?K <>6=> 1K;> :C?8BL B>;L:> 2 <5@8:5, B0:8E 25I59 C =0A 2 /?>=88 =5 1K;>. ;O A2>8E M:A?5@8<5=B>2 O ?>:C?0; ;0<?K D8@<K « M948> :>@?>@59H= >D <5@8:0» ( ). =0O > B5E=8G5A:8E 2>7<>6=>ABOE <5@8:8 ?> D8;L<0< 8 ?> B0:>9 ?@>4C:F88, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 02B><>18;8 8 D>=>3@0DK, 0 B0:65 ?> @0AA:070< 4O48, O 1K; >15A?>:>5= B5<, GB> <K A>25@H8;8 >H81:C. > 2 B5 4=8, A@07C ?>A;5 =0?045=8O =0 5@;-%0@1>@, =0H8 3075BK >1@CH8;8 =0 =0A ;028=C @04>AB=KE 25AB59 > 2>5==KE ?>1540E /?>=88  =0H8 2>9A:0 ?>B>?8;8 420 0=3;89A:8E ;8=:>@0, «@8=A >D #M;;A» 8 « 8?0;A»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«?5@52>A?8BK20;8» 2 A?5F80;L=KE ;035@OE, 0 B5E, :B> ?@>4>;60; A>?@>B82;OBLAO, =0?@02;O;8 =0 A0<K5 BO65;K5 @01>BK. A5 ;52K5 8 :><<C=8ABK 1K;8 1@>H5=K 2 BN@L<K. > 2>B <>9 G5BK@5E<5AOG=K9 A@>: 2>5==>9 ?>43>B>2:8 70:>=G8;AO, O ?>;CG8; 720=85 ;59B5=0=B0, 8 <5=O A=>20 >B?@028;8 2 >B45;5=85 >?B8:8 2 >:>AC:5. A:>@5 <5=O =07=0G8;8 ?><>I=8:>< @C:>2>48B5;O A?5F80;L=>3> ?>4@0745;5=8O, :>B>@>5 1K;> M20:C8@>20=> 2 45@52=N 4;O @01>BK =04 >@C685< B5?;>2>3> =02545=8O 8 8=D@0:@0A=K<8 ?@8F5;0<8. K ?>A5;8;8AL 2 1>;LH>< AB0@>< 45@525=A:>< 4><5 2 7CA8, <0;5=L:>< ?>A5;:5 : N3C >B 0<0:C@K, A 284>< =0 70;82 !030<8. 0H8< ?>4@0745;5=85< :><0=4>20; :0?8B0=, 2 53> A>AB02 2E>48;8 5I5 =5A:>;L:> AB0@H8E >D8F5@>2, 420-B@8 ;59B5=0=B0 2@>45 <5=O 8 =5A:>;L:> <;04H8E ;59B5=0=B>2. !B0@H89 ;59B5=0=B 8A?>;=O; >1O70==>AB8 456C@=>3> >D8F5@0, A2>53> @>40 <0AB5@0 =0 2A5 @C:8. 3@0BL MBC @>;L 2K?0;> <=5. 0 1>@BC :>@01;O O 1K =07K20;AO ?0;C1=K< >D8F5@><. / 4>;65= 1K; 70=8<0BLAO 2A5<8 2>?@>A0<8 =0H59 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8, 2:;NG0O >15A?5G5=85 ?>4@0745;5=8O ?8I59. >?@5:8 >1O70==>ABO<, :>B>@K5 <=5 ?@8E>48;>AL 8A?>;=OBL, <=5 =@028;0AL B5@@8B>@8O, =0 :>B>@>9 =0E>48;AO 4><. 8;;0 1K;0 ?>AB@>5=0 2 70?04=>< AB8;5, C:@0H5=0 ;5?:>9 8 >:@C65=0 A04><. 8=>:><?0=88 G0AB> A=8<0;8 55, 254L 8< =C6=K 1K;8 45:>@0F88 4;O D8;L<>2 > 0?045. >< AB>O; C ?>4=>68O A:0;K, GCBL ?>2KH5 ?;O60, 8 O ?>A5;8;AO 2 @0A?>;>65==>9 =5?>40;5:C 3>AB8=8F5 «038A0», :>B>@CN B0:65 A=O;8 4;O >D8F5@>2 !, 8 :064>5 CB@> H5; =0 @01>BC >B 3>AB8=8FK 4> 4><0 ?> ?;O6C. -B> :070;>AL =525@>OB=K<, ?>B><C GB> 2@5<5=0<8 MB>B ?;O6 2K3;O45; AB>;L 65 <8@=K<, :0: ;N1>9 :C@>@B, => :0: @07 =04 =8< ?@>;530; <0@H@CB, ?> :>B>@><C 2>72@0I0;8AL =0 A2>8 107K 1><10@48@>2I8:8 «-29», ?>GB8 :064K9 45=L <5B>48G5A:8 A1@0AK202H85 =0 ">:8>, 020A0:8 8 >:>30<C 706830B5;L=K5 8 DC30A=K5 1><1K. %>BO O 1K; >G5=L <>;>4, O C65 ?@>H5; 4><0 E>@>HCN ?>43>B>2:C :0: C?@02;ONI89 8 <>3 ?>701>B8BLAO > A2>5< ?>4@0745;5=88. 0< =5 E20B0;> 54K 8 ?@8E>48;>AL 8A?>;L7>20BL 2AN =0HC A<5:0;:C, GB>1K 1K;> GB> ?>AB028BL =0 AB>;. 48= >G5=L ;>2:89 <;04H89 ;59B5=0=B, =0E>482H89AO ?>4 <>8< :><0=4>20=85<, 702O70; 4@C61C A 2;045;LF5< @K1=>9 ;02:8 2 7CA8, :>B>@K9 G0AB> ?@8E>48; =0 ?;O6. 0< :0: <>@O:0< ?>;030;0AL =51>;LH0O ?>@F8O A0:M, 8 <K >1<5=820;8 A0:M, O2;O2HCNAO 45D8F8B><, =0 A256CN @K1C. > 4;O <>;>4KE ;N459 54K 2A5 65 =5 E20B0;>, 8 <=5 ?@8H;0 2 3>;>2C =>20O <KA;L. / ?>A;0; 2>5==>9 ?>GB>9 ?8AL<> 4><>9 A ?@>AL1>9 ?@8A;0BL <=5 1>G:C A>52>3> A>CA0 8 1>G:C A>52>9 ?0ABK A =04?8ALN «4;O !».  B> 2@5<O :><?0=8O «>@8B0» ?@>872>48;0 4;O 0@<88 ?>@>H>: 4;O A>52>9 ?0ABK  O?>=FK <>3CB >1>9B8AL ?>GB8 157 2A53>, => B>;L:> =5 157 A>52>3> A>CA0, 0 B0:65 A?8@B=K5 =0?8B:8 4;O !. "0:0O ?>AK;:0 =5 4>;6=0 1K;0 ?@82;5:0BL 2=8<0=85. >=5G=>, <=5 1K;> >G5=L =5?@8OB=> 45;0BL MB>, => E>BO O B25@4> 7=0;, GB> MB>  =0@CH5=85 ?@028;, 2 B5 4=8 =0< ?@8E>48;>AL 2K:@CG820BLAO A0<8<, 8 O AG8B0N, GB> AC<5; 1K >?@0240BLAO, 5A;8 1K <=5 B>340 ?@54JO28;8 >128=5=85. >340 <K ?>;CG8;8 <8A> 8 A>52K9 A>CA, <K A;>68;8 2A5 MB> 2 ?>420;, 8, :>340 =0< ?@8=>A8;8 @K1C, <K <5=O;8 55 =0 =0H8 4@03>F5==K5 B09=K5 70?0AK. >B ?>G5<C =0H5 =51>;LH>5 ?>4@0745;5=85 1K;> AKBK< 8 4>2>;L=K<, =5A<>B@O =0 ACI5AB2>202H85 B@C4=>AB8. / 1K; G;5=>< A?5F80;L=>9 ?@>5:B=>9 3@C??K, A>AB>O2H59 87 CG5=KE  ?@54AB028B5;59 0@<88, ! 8 3@0640=A:>3> A5:B>@0, 2A5 <K @01>B0;8 =04 ?@81>@0<8 B5?;>2>3> =02545=8O. K >@30=87>20;8 =0AB>OICN «<>73>2CN 0B0:C» =0 MBC ?@>1;5<C, AB0@0OAL 2K42830BL =5AB0=40@B=K5 8 A<5;K5 8458. 48= 87 2>;L=>=05<=KE 2 =0H59 3@C??5 1K; 1;5ABOI8< 8=65=5@><-M;5:B@>=I8:>< 8 8<5; 2 B5 4=8 A>1AB25==CN :><?0=8N. -B> 1K; G5;>25:, :>B>@><C 1K;> AC645=> >:070BL 1>;LH>5 2;8O=85 =0 <>N 687=L. 0A0@C 1C:0 AB0@H5 <5=O =0 B@8=04F0BL ;5B, => >= AB0; <>8< >G5=L 1;87:8< 4@C3><, :>;;53>9, ?0@B=5@>< 8 >4=8< 87 >A=>20B5;59 :><?0=88, :>B>@CN <K A>740;8: «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=». 01>B0 2 B0:>9 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 3@C??5 >?LO=O;0 <5=O. / 1K; <>;>4 8 A0<>C25@5=, => O ?@82K:0; @01>B0BL A> AB0@H8<8. A5E =0A 1@>A8;8 =0 ?@>5:B, :>B>@K9 >?5@560; A2>5 2@5<O. 0H0 <0;5=L:0O 3@C??0 ?@>2>48;0 2<5AB5 2A5 4=8, ?>MB><C <K E>@>H> C7=0;8 4@C3 4@C30. 4=0:> A ?@81>@>< B5?;>2>3> =02545=8O 45;> B0: 8 =5 H;>. (<5@8:0=A:0O @0:5B0 «!094C8=45@» A 3>;>2:>9 A0<>=02545=8O, :>B>@CN <K ?KB0;8AL 87>1@5AB8, 1K;0 A>740=0 G5@57 <=>3> ;5B ?>A;5 2>9=K.) / 1K; 2A53> ;8HL 2K?CA:=8:>< C=825@A8B5B0. 0 =0H8E A>25I0=8OE O A845; =0?@>B82 8725AB=KE ?@>D5AA>@>2 8 >D8F5@>2 0@<88, :>B>@K5, ?5@53=C2H8AL :> <=5 G5@57 AB>;, A?@0H820;8: «0:>2> <=5=85 D;>B0 ?> MB><C 2>?@>AC?» 0 MB> O A> 2A59 A5@L57=>ABLN >B25G0;: «0, 3>A?>40, A B>G:8 7@5=8O D;>B0...»  B0:85 <8=CBK O 1K; >G5=L 1;03>40@5= >BFC 70 53> CG51C. 1C:0 2=5A 1>;LH>9 2:;04 2 @01>BC =0H59 3@C??K.  A2>59 :><?0=88 «60?0= <565@8=3 8=AB@C<5=B» >= A:>=AB@C8@>20; <>I=K9 CA8;8B5;L, :>B>@K9 8A?>;L7>20;AO 2 ?@81>@5, >1=0@C68202H8< ?>F2>4=K5 ;>4:8 =0 3;C18=5 30 <5B@>2 ?CB5< 87<5@5=8O >B:;>=5=89 <03=8B=KE A8;>2KE ;8=89 75<;8. -B>B ?@81>@ 2K25H820;AO 87 A0<>;5B0, 8 53> 3;02=K< M;5<5=B>< 1K; CA8;8B5;L 1C:8, 4>AB0B>G=K5 <>I=K9 4;O B>3>, GB>1K >1=0@C6820BL 8 CA8;820BL =87:85 G0AB>BK 2A53> >48=-420 F8:;0 2 A5:C=4C ?>GB8 4> H5AB8A>B F8:;>2. / G8B0;, GB> 2> 2@5<O ?>;=><0AHB01=KE 8A?KB0=89 A ?><>ILN MB>3> ?@81>@0 2 @09>=5 $>@<>7K 1K;8 >1=0@C65=K 4204F0BL H5ABL ?>42>4=KE ;>4>: ?@>B82=8:0. > : B><C 2@5<5=8, :>340 45B5:B>@ 1K; 3>B>2 : M:A?;C0B0F88, 2>9=0 ?>4E>48;0 : :>=FC 8 C =0A =5 E20B0;> A0<>;5B>2 4;O MB8E ?@81>@>2. <5@8:0=A:85 2>9A:0 ?>AB5?5==> ?@81;860;8AL : 3;02=K< O?>=A:8< >AB@>20<, 45A0=BK 2KA06820;8AL =0 N6=K5 >AB@>20. 5A?@5@K2=K5, :064>4=52=K5 1><156:8 C=8GB>60;8 =0H8 0280F8>==K5 702>4K, /?>=8O ?>B5@O;0 ?@52>AE>4AB2> 2 2>74CE5. !> 2@5<5=5< 2>74CH=K5 =0;5BK =0 ">:8> 8 25AL 2>5==>-?@><KH;5==K9 @09>= 020A0:8 8 >:>30<K, GCBL A525@=55 =0H53> ?>@B0 =0 ?>;C>AB@>25 8C@0, AB0=>28;8AL 2A5 1>;55 G0ABK<8. AO:89 @07, :>340 =0G8=0;8AL =0;5BK, @074020;AO A83=0; B@52>38, 8 E>BO =0A =8:>340 =5 1><18;8, <K 2A5340 =0E>48;8AL 2 A>AB>O=88 1>52>9 3>B>2=>AB8. / AG8B0;, GB>, ?>A:>;L:C <K @0A?>;>65=K C ?>4=>68O A:0;K, 1><15 1C45B B@C4=> ?>?0ABL 2 =0A, 40 8 :><C ?>=04>18BAO =0A 1><18BL? K =5 1K;8 459AB2CNI59 0@<859, 8 O 1K; C25@5=, GB> 0<5@8:0=FK 4065 =5 ?>4>7@520NB > =0H5< ACI5AB2>20=88. / @0AAC640; =5 :0: 2>5==K9, => 70B> ;>38G=>. / AG8B0;, GB> 5A;8 2 =0A 8 ?>?045B 1><10, B> B>;L:> A;CG09=>. >MB><C O A>720; 2A5E, GB>1K 2KA:070BL A2>5 <=5=85. / 87;>68; A2>8 <KA;8 ?@545;L=> ?@>AB>. «!>3;0A=> CAB02C !, A:070; O, <K 4>;6=K 2A:0:820BL 2AO:89 @07 ?@8 A83=0;5 B@52>38, =04520BL D>@<C 8 1560BL : >3=5BCH8B5;O<, => ?>A:>;L:C 2>7<>6=>ABL B>3>, GB> MB> <5AB> 1C4CB 1><18BL, ?>GB8 8A:;NG5=0, O =5 1C4C 1C48BL 20A, 4065 5A;8 @0740ABAO A83=0; > 2>74CH=>< =0?045=88». !:070==>5, ?>-2848<><C, 2A5< ?>=@028;>AL. «<5AB5 A B5<, ?@>4>;60; 3>2>@8BL O, 5A;8 1><10 2A5 65 AN40 C?045B, <K 2A5 @02=> =8G53> =5 A<>65< A45;0BL. "0: 8;8 8=0G5, MB> 1C45B :>=5F». >8 :>;;538 A >1;53G5=85< 2KA;CH0;8 <>8 @0AAC645=8O. 'B>1K ?>:070BL 8<, GB> O >B25G0N 70 A2>8 A;>20, O 2K5E0; 87 3>AB8=8FK 8 B>@65AB25==> ?@8=5A A2>8 ?>68B:8 =0 2B>@>9 MB06 =0H59 28;;K. -B> 2>2A5 =5 1K;> A<5;K< ?>ABC?:><. / ?>=8<0;, GB> 0<5@8:0=F0< =5 1K;> =8:0:>3> A<KA;0 1><18BL B0:>5 <5AB>, :0: =0H5.  :>=F5 :>=F>2, <K =5 ?@>2>48;8 B0< =8:0:8E 459AB28B5;L=> 206=KE 8AA;54>20=89, 8 <=5 :070;>AL, GB> ;CGH5 A?0BL 2AN =>GL, G5< 2A:0:820BL ?@8 :064>9 B@52>35 8 ?>B>< <K:0BLAO 25AL 45=L, AB@040O >B =54>AK?0=8O.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" > . !?0A5=85 8 =045640.  III  8N;5 8 023CAB5 1945 3>40 0<5@8:0=FK A>25@H0;8 =0;5BK =0 B5@@8B>@8N ">:8> 8 >:030<K ?>GB8 5654=52=>, 8 4=5< 8 =>GLN. K 2845;8, :0: 1>;LH85 A5@51@8ABK5 1><10@48@>2I8:8 «-29» ?@>;5B0;8 C =0A =04 3>;>2>9 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: >=8 1><18;8 F5=B@0;L=K5 @09>=K AB@0=K, 8 :0: =0E>482H85AO ?>1;87>AB8 75=8B=K5 10B0@58 >B:@K20;8 ?> =8< >3>=L. >@>9 <K 2845;8 87 =0H8E >:>=, :0: A18BK9 «-29» ?040; 2 <>@5. "@0AA8@CNI85 A=0@O4K @0AA5:0;8 =51>, 2AO 75<;O 1K;0 CA5O=0 >A:>;:0<8. > 2@5<O =0;5B>2 4@>60;0 75<;O, => <K =0:>=5F C65 <>3;8 A?>:>9=> A?0BL. 025@=>5, <=5 =5 A;54>20;> 1K MB> 3>2>@8BL, => 45;> 1K;> <=>3> ;5B =0704 8 A@>: 402=>AB8 C65 8AB5:.  B> 2@5<O O 1>O;AO, GB> 2>5==K5 =5 :0?8BC;8@CNB 2 MB>9 2>9=5, :0: 1K ?;>E8 =8 1K;8 =0H8 45;0, 8 GB> ?>;C>AB@>2 8C@0, 345 <K =0E>48;8AL, AB0=5B 4;O D0=0B8:>2 ?>;5< 65AB>G09H8E A@065=89, 2545=8O 2>9=K 4> ?>A;54=59 :0?;8 :@>28. "5?5@L =0< 8725AB=>, GB> ACI5AB2>20; ?;0= 2B>@65=8O ?>4 =0720=85< «;8<?8:», :>B>@K9 ?@54CA<0B@820; 2KA04:C =0 A0<>< N6=>< 87 >A=>2=KE >AB@>2>2 /?>=88, =0 >AB@>25 NAN. > 2A5 <K 7=0;8, GB> :>=F5=B@0F8O 2>5==KE >1J5:B>2 2 =0H5< @09>=5 G5@5AGC@ 25;8:0, GB>1K 2>9=0 ?@>H;0 <8<> =53>, 8 5A;8 A;CG8BAO A0<>5 EC4H55, =0 ?CB8 : ">:8> ?@>94CB A8;L=K5 1>8. >A;5 B>3>, :0: 1K;0 A1@>H5=0 0B><=0O 1><10, O ?>=8<0;, GB> <K 845< : :@0EC. >A;5 0B><=>9 1><10@48@>2:8 <=>385 2>5==K5 @5H8;8 >B?@028BLAO 2 «>D8F80;L=K5»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«59B5=0=B >@8B0, > G5< 2K 3>2>@8B5? A;8 2K =5 25@=5B5AL, 20< 1C45B ?@54JO2;5=> >128=5=85 2 4575@B8@AB25!» -B> 1K;0 A0<0O AB@0H=0O C3@>70, :>B>@CN >= <>3 2>>1@078BL. / ?>25@=C;AO : =5<C 8 A?>:>9=> A:070;: «>340 MB0 2>9=0 70:>=G8BAO, ;59B5=0=B, 4575@B8@AB2> C65 =5 1C45B AG8B0BLAO ?@5ABC?;5=85<». >:>=G82 A> A2>8<8 45;0<8 2 03>5, O ?>A?5H8; 2 4>< =0H8E ?@54:>2 2 >AC305, 345 2=>2L ?>A5;8;0AL <>O A5<LO. 03>O 8 1>;LH0O G0ABL ?@5D5:BC@K 9B8 AB0;8 >1J5:B>< 1><10@48@>2>: 0<5@8:0=A:8E !, B0: :0: B0< =0E>48;8AL ?@><KH;5==K5 ?@54?@8OB8O, 2 B>< G8A;5 0280F8>==K9 702>4  2 03>5 AB@>8;8 E>@>H> 8725AB=K5 8AB@518B5;8 «5@>», 0 B0:65 702>4K ?> ?@>872>4AB2C 75=8B=KE >@C489.  8N;N 2 @57C;LB0B5 1><10@48@>2>: 1K;0 ?>;=>ABLN @07@CH5=0 8;8 BO65;> ?>AB@040;0 ?>;>28=0 ?@><KH;5==KE ?@54?@8OB89 2 03>5 8, A>3;0A=> AB0B8AB8G5A:8< 40==K<, >?C1;8:>20==K< ?>74=55, 32 ?@>F5=B0 =0A5;5=8O >AB0;>AL 157 :@>20. 8B5;O< 1K;> ?@>AB> >?0A=> B0< =0E>48BLAO, ?>MB><C <=>385 ;N48, :>B>@K< =5 1K;> =5>1E>48<>AB8 >AB020BLAO 2 3>@>45, B0: 65 :0: 8 <>8 @>48B5;8, C5E0;8. ><1K >1@0B8;8 2 1565=F52 <8;;8>=K ;N459. $0:B8G5A:8 03>O ?>AB@040;0 <5=LH5, G5< >:>30<0, 345 69 ?@>F5=B>2 =0A5;5=8O >AB0;>AL 157 :@>20, >1M, 345 MB> G8A;> A>AB028;> 58 ?@>F5=B>2, 8;8 ">:8> (46 ?@>F5=B>2). -B> AB0;> BO65;K< 1@5<5=5< 4;O 68B5;59 <0;5=L:8E ?>A5;:>2, 345 1565=FK 8A:0;8 A515 ?@8NB0. >O 1C4CI0O 65=0 >AB020;0AL 2 ">:8> A >BF>< 8 1@0B><, 0 >AB0;L=K5 G;5=K 55 A5<L8 C5E0;8 : @>4AB25==8:0< 2 45@52=N.  ">:8> >=8 A?0A0;8AL >B 1><1565: 2 <0;5=L:>< C1568I5 2> 42>@5, => 2 >4=C =>GL 8E ?@5:@0A=K9 AB0@K9 4>< A3>@5; >B 706830B5;L=KE 1><1, 8 >=8 =5A:>;L:> =545;L NB8;8AL 2 C1568I5 @O4>< A @0720;8=0<8, :>B>@K5 :>340-B> 1K;8 8E 4><><. -B>B 4><, 18B:>< =018BK9 :=830<8, B;5; B0: A8;L=> 8 B0: 4>;3>, GB> >A8:> 2 B5G5=85 <=>38E 4=59 3>B>28;0 ?8IC =0 B;52H8E :@0A=KE C3;OE. 5G5@>< 14 023CAB0 O 1K; 4><0, 2 A2>59 A5<L5. -B> 1K;0 ?@5:@0A=0O 2AB@5G0, => <>9 >B5F 1K; >15A?>:>5=. = @07<KH;O; =04 B5<, :0: 70:>=G8BAO 2>9=0. 0: 1>;LH8=AB2> O?>=F52 B>3> 2@5<5=8, >= 402=> C65 ?>=8<0;, GB> 2>9=0 ?@>83@0=0, => >= =5 ?@54AB02;O; A515, :0: >=0 :>=G8BAO 8 GB> 1C45B ?>B><. = ?@87=0;AO <=5, GB> ?>4C<K205B > ?5@55745 2 :0:>5-=81C4L 4@C3>5 1>;55 >B40;5==>5 <5AB5G:>. / A:070; 5<C, GB> 2 MB>< =5B =8:0:>3> A<KA;0, ?>B><C GB>, =0A:>;L:> O 7=0N 8 ?>=8<0N, >=8 745AL 2 =081>;LH59 157>?0A=>AB8. 54L =58725AB=>, GB> 1C45B A> 2A5<8 =0<8. 8:B> =5 7=0;, G53> 640BL >B 0<5@8:0=F52. / A:070; >BFC, GB>, ?> <>5<C <=5=8N, 2>9=0 2A:>@5 70:>=G8BAO. K ?@>3>2>@8;8 40;5:> 70 ?>;=>GL, 0 70B5< O 2 ?>;=>< 87=5<>65=88 CA=C;. 0=> CB@>< <5=O @071C48;0 <0BL. =5 :070;>AL, GB> O ?>GB8 =5 A?0;. 0BL 1K;0 2>71C645=0 8 A 1>;LH8< 2>;=5=85< A>>1I8;0, GB> 2 ?>;45=L ?> @048> 2KABC?8B 8<?5@0B>@ %8@>E8B>. K;> 15 023CAB0. #65 A0<> A>>1I5=85 > B><, GB> 8<?5@0B>@ >1@0B8BAO : =0@>4C, 1K;> >H5;><;ONI8<. >;6=> 1K;> ?@>87>9B8 =5GB> G@572KG09=>5. /?>=A:89 =0@>4 =8:>340 =5 A;KH0; 3>;>A0 8<?5@0B>@0, ?@>ABK< ;N4O< 4065 =5 @07@5H0;>AL A<>B@5BL =0 =53>, 8 :>340 >= ?@>5760; =0 <0H8=5 8;8 =0 ?>5745, B5, :B> 2AB@5G0;AO =0 53> ?CB8, 4>;6=K 1K;8 >B25@=CBLAO. A5 <K ?>=8<0;8, GB> ?5@568205< 8AB>@8G5A:89 <><5=B. >A:>;L:C O 2A5 65 1K; <>@A:8< >D8F5@><, O =045; A2>9 <C=48@, =0F5?82 4065 <5G, 8 AB>O; ?> :><0=45 «A<8@=>» 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 <K A;CH0;8 ?5@540GC ?> @048>. > 2@5<O @5G8 8<?5@0B>@0 1K;> <=>3> ?><5E 8 HC<>2, => 2KA>:89 B>=:89 3>;>A 3> 25;8G5AB20 1K; E>@>H> A;KH5=. %>BO O?>=FK =8:>340 ?@5645 =5 A;KH0;8 53> 3>;>A0, <K 7=0;8, GB> MB> 8<?5@0B>@. = 3>2>@8; 2KA>:>?0@=K< AB0@><>4=K< O7K:>< 2>@0, 8 E>BO <K =5 <>3;8 @0AA;KH0BL 2A5 A;>20, <K ?>=O;8 A<KA; B>3>, GB> >= 3>2>@8; =0<, 8 8A?KBK20;8 AB@0E 8 >1;53G5=85. >9=0 :>=G8;0AL.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" >  . 0G8=05BAO =>20O 687=L.  I 0H <8@ 2=570?=> ?@5>1@078;AO. <?5@0B>@, :>B>@K9 4> B5E ?>@ =8:>340 =5 >1@0I0;AO =5?>A@54AB25==> : =0@>4C, A:070; =0<, GB> =0H5 1;8609H55 1C4CI55 1C45B <@0G=K<. = >1JO28;, GB> <K, «2>7<>6=>, ?@>;>68< ?CBL : ?@>G=><C <8@C 4;O 2A5E 3@O4CI8E ?>:>;5=89», => =0< ?@845BAO ?@8 MB>< «2K=5AB8 =52K=>A8<K5 AB@040=8O». = C15640; /?>=8N A<>B@5BL 2?5@54. «1J548=O9B5 2A5 A2>8 A8;K 2> 8<O A>7840=8O 4;O 1C4CI53>», A:070; >=.  >= ?@8720; AB@0=C «84B8 2 =>3C A ?@>3@5AA>< 2> 2A5< <8@5»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«0: 1K B> =8 1K;>, O 4>;65= 25@=CBLAO», 8 ?>?@>A8; 55 ?@83>B>28BL <=5 54K =0 4>@>3C. =0 A20@8;0 @8A>2K5 :;5F:8 8 7025@=C;0 8E, GB>1K O <>3 ?>;>68BL 8E 2 AC<:C. / 4C<0;, GB> 5A;8 02B>1CAK 8 ?>5740 =5 E>4OB, <=5 ?@845BAO 4>18@0BLAO 4> 107K B@8 4=O. / AG8B0;, GB> 7=0G8B5;L=0O G0ABL <5AB=>3> B@0=A?>@B0 ?0@0;87>20=0 8 GB> <=5, 2>7<>6=>, ?@845BAO 5E0BL BC40 =0 25;>A8?545. >5ABL 345-=81C4L ?> ?CB8 <=5 1K;> 1K ?@>AB> =5345. / ?@>5E0; =0 25;>A8?545 4> 2>:70;0 ?@8<5@=> G5BK@5 <8;8, 8 ?>A:>;L:C O 1K; >D8F5@><, B> 157 B@C40 :C?8; 18;5B =0 =>G=>9 ?>574. 0 2>:70;5 O CA5;AO 2 >6840=88 ?>5740, 3>B>2K9 : 4>;3><C 145=8N, =>, : <>5<C C482;5=8N, ?>574 ?@81K; B>G=> ?> @0A?8A0=8N  G8AB> ?>-O?>=A:8, ?>4C<0; O. / ?>4=O;AO 2 203>=, =5 =045OAL ;53:> =09B8 A2>1>4=>5 <5AB>, => 2 ?>5745 >:070;>AL >G5=L <0;> ?0AA068@>2.  ?>5745 1K;> G8AB> 8 C4>1=>, ?>MB><C <>O ?>574:0 2 7CA8 =0 AB0=F8N >:070;0AL ;53:>9. # <5=O 5I5 >AB0;AO ?>GB8 25AL B@5E452=K9 70?0A @8A>2KE :;5F>:. >O <8AA8O >:070;0AL ;53G5, G5< O AG8B0;, 8;8, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, 8=>9. 0=8:0 8 AB@0E >E20B8;8 2AN /?>=8N. @0240, O A0< =5 1K; A2845B5;5< B>3>. 0: O 8 >6840;, 8<5;8 <5AB> ?>?KB:8 2>5==KE A>@20BL :0?8BC;OF8N, ?@8G5< >4=0 87 =8E 1K;0 ?@54?@8=OB0 >G5=L 1;87:> >B =0A, 2 FC38, 345 :0?8B0= ! /AC=0 >47>=>, :><0=48@ MA:04@8;L8, A>1@0; A2>8E ;N459 8 70O28;, GB> :0?8BC;OF8O  MB> 87<5=0. 5A:>;L:> MA:04@8;89 2 MB>< @09>=5 C3@>60;8 A>25@H8BL =0;5B :0: :0<8:047M =0 0<5@8:0=A:89 D;>B, :>340 >= 2>945B 2 ">:89A:89 70;82, GB>1K ?@8=OBL CA;>28O :0?8BC;OF88. >5==>5 C?@02;5=85 B>B G0A 65 ?@8=O;> <5@K ?@54>AB>@>6=>AB8, >B402 ?@8:07 @07>@C68BL 2A5 A0<>;5BK 8 2K;8BL 3>@NG55 87 10:>2. 0: O 8 >6840;, 2>7=8:0;8 8 4@C385 8=F845=BK. > =8 >48= 87 =8E =5 AB0;, :0: O >?0A0;AO, 18B2>9 ! 4> ?>A;54=59 :0?;8 :@>28. >@074> ?>765 <K C7=0;8, GB> ?@54?@8=8<0;8AL ?>?KB:8 A>@20BL 2KABC?;5=85 8<?5@0B>@0 ?> @048>. 5A:>;L:> <>;>4KE >D8F5@>2 =0<5@520;8AL 70E20B8BL 8<?5@0B>@A:89 42>@5F 8 ?@82;5GL 0@<8N : CG0AB8N 2 8E <OB565 ?@>B82 :0?8BC;OF88. 51>;LH>9 >B@O4 <OB56=8:>2 =0?0; =0 >D8F80;L=CN @57845=F8N ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@0 0=B0@> !C47C:8, :>B>@><C C40;>AL A?0AB8AL B>;L:> 1;03>40@O 1KAB@>9 @50:F88: >= 1560; G5@57 70?0A=>9 2KE>4. OB56=8:8 B0:65 8A:0;8 ;>@40 E@0=8B5;O ?5G0B8 <0@:870 84>, => >= =0E>48;AO 2 8<?5@0B>@A:>< 42>@F5, 345 1K; 2 ?>;=>9 157>?0A=>AB8. 5:>B>@K5 ;5BG8:8 0@<59A:>9 8 <>@A:>9 0280F88 4065 ;5B0;8 =04 ">:8>, A1@0AK20O ;8AB>2:8, ?@87K202H85 3@0640= A>?@>B82;OBLAO 8 >1JO2;O2H85 70O2;5=85 8<?5@0B>@0 =5 8<5NI8< A8;K. O4 >D8F5@>2 O?>=A:>9 0@<88 ?>:>=G8;8 687=L A0<>C189AB2>< 2 7=0: ?@>B5AB0 ?@>B82 :0?8BC;OF88, ?>B><C GB> 0@<8O 5I5 =5 1K;0 C=8GB>65=0, E>BO 8 ?>=5A;0 BO65;K5 ?>B5@8  2 MB>9 2>9=5 ?>381;8 =5 <5=55 2 750 000 O?>=A:8E A>;40B, <>@O:>2 8 ;5BG8:>2.  :>=5G=>< AG5B5 4065 2>5==K< D0=0B8:0< ?@8H;>AL ?>:>@8BLAO =587156=><C, 8;8, :0: A:070; 8<?5@0B>@, «2K=5AB8 =52K=>A8<K5 AB@040=8O». / 25@=C;AO =0 AB0=F8N 16 023CAB0, 8 =5:>B>@K5 87 <>8E :>;;53 C4828;8AL, C28452 <5=O, >A>15==> B>B >D8F5@, =04 :>B>@K< O ?>4HCB8;, A:0702, GB> =5 25@=CAL =0 AB0=F8N, 5A;8 1C45B >B40= ?@8:07 > A0<>C189AB25. C<0N, GB> >= ?;>E> 7=0; <5=O. A5 >D8F5@K, ?>-2848<><C, =0E>48;8AL 2 A>AB>O=88 3;C1>:>3> ?>B@OA5=8O. =>385 O?>=A:85 A>;40BK 2A:>@5 =0G0;8 2>72@0I0BLAO 4><>9 A> A2>8E 107, @071@>A0==KE ?> 2A59 /?>=88, ?5@5?>;=OO ?>5740 8 02B>1CAK. 5:>B>@K< 87 =8E 1K;> B@C4=> ?>=OBL :0?8BC;OF8N. %>BO 1>;LH0O G0ABL 459AB2CNI59 O?>=A:>9 0@<88 =5 1K;0 @0718B0, >=0 1K;0 @071@>A0=0 ?> 2A59 788. &5?L C60A=KE ?>B5@L 2 59BM, 2>-M9<5, !09?0=5 8 =0 :8=025, 0 B0:65 ?@52>AE>4OI0O <>IL 0<5@8:0=A:>9 0280F88, =0F5;5==>9 =0 =0H8 >AB@>20, 8 ?@8<5=5=85 O45@=>3> >@C68O A;C68;8 4>AB0B>G=K<8 4>:070B5;LAB20<8 B>3>, GB> MBC 2>9=C =5;L7O 2K83@0BL.  ?>B><, ?>A;5 B>3> :0: =0 %8@>A8<C 1K;0 A1@>H5=0 1><10, 2 2>9=C ?@>B82 /?>=88 2ABC?8; !>25BA:89 !>N7. =>385, :>=5G=>, >G5=L 1>O;8AL, GB> =0H AB0@K9 38?>B5B8G5A:89 2@03 2>A?>;L7C5BAO =0H59 A;01>ABLN 8 ?>?KB05BAO =0A 70E20B8BL. !>25BK >::C?8@>20;8 N6=CN ?>;>28=C >AB@>20 !0E0;8= 8 G5BK@5 >AB@>20 : A525@C >B %>::094>  B>B 87 =8E, :>B>@K9 @0A?>;>65= 1;865 : =0<, G5< 4@C385, 2845= A O?>=A:>9 B5@@8B>@88  8 45@60B 8E 5I5 8 A53>4=O. !( 2 1972 3>4C 25@=C;8 /?>=88 :8=02C, :>B>@CN >=8 70E20B8;8 2 1945 3>4C.  1945 3>4C @CAA:85 2>H;8 2 0=LG6C@8N, A;C682HCN =0< 1CD5@=>9 7>=>9 >B =8E 2 B5G5=85 <=>38E ;5B, :>340 =0H8 2>9A:0 1K;8 A@02=8B5;L=> <0;>G8A;5==K 8 >15A:@>2;5=K, 0 ?>B><C =5 <>3;8 70I8I0BLAO >B =0ABC?;5=8O <0AA8@>20==KE @CAA:8E 1@>=5B0=:>2KE 2>9A:. >340 O?>=A:85 3@0640=5 8 A>;40BK ?>?KB0;8AL 1560BL >B @CAA:8E, 2>7=8: E0>A.  @57C;LB0B5 ?>GB8 ?OBLA>B BKAOG O?>=A:8E A>;40B >:070;8AL 2 ?;5=C, 8E >B?@028;8 2 ;035@O 2 !818@8 8 2 4@C38E <5AB0E !>25BA:>3> !>N70. 5:>B>@K5 87 =8E >AB020;8AL 2 70:;NG5=88 =0 ?@>BO65=88 F5;KE 425=04F0B8 ;5B. > 2@5<O 2>7=8:H59 ?0=8:8 <=>385 O?>=FK, ?@>68202H85 2 0=LG6C@88, ?>B5@O;8 A2>8E 1;87:8E. 5B59-A8@>B 1@0;8 : A515 :8B09FK, 8 1K;8 A;CG08, :>340 O?>=FK, :>B>@K5 =5 <>3;8 1560BL, C?@0H820;8 :8B09F52 27OBL 8E 45B59 8 A?0AB8 8E. I5 8 A53>4=O, A?CABO A>@>: ;5B ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 2>9=K, :8B09A:8E 3@0640=, :>B>@K5 AG8B0NB A51O O?>=A:8<8 45BL<8, ?>B5@O2H8<8AO 2> 2@5<O >BABC?;5=8O, :064K9 3>4 ?@82>7OB 2 /?>=8N 8 ?><>30NB 8< 2 ?>8A:0E 402=> ?>B5@O==KE @>4AB25==8:>2. #4828B5;L=>, GB> =5:>B>@K< 87 =8E 2A5 5I5 C405BAO =09B8 A2>8E ?@5AB0@5;KE @>48B5;59 8;8 4@C38E 1;87:8E, ?>@>9 1;03>40@O @0AA:070< > B>< =5<=>3><, GB> C =8E >AB0;>AL 2 ?0<OB8 > A2>59 687=8 4> :0B0AB@>DK 8;8 ?> @07;8G=K< H@0<0< 8;8 4@C38< >B<5B8=0<. >, :>=5G=>, A 3>40<8 B0:8E @>48B5;59 >AB05BAO 2A5 <5=LH5 8 <5=LH5. ABL ;N48, :>B>@K5 ?> A59 45=L 3>2>@OB, GB> @5H5=85 8<?5@0B>@0 > :0?8BC;OF88 1K;> 2K720=> =5 B>;L:> C60A=K<8 A>1KB8O<8 2 %8@>A8<5 8 030A0:8, => 8 AB@0E>< ?5@54 !>25B0<8, AB@0E>< ?5@54 B5<, GB> >=8 2B>@3=CBAO =0 =0H8 >AB@>20 8;8 @0745;OB AB@0=C, :0: ?@>87>H;> A 5@<0=859. ;O 1>;LH8=AB20 O?>=F52 ?@5:@0I5=85 2>9=K 1K;> =5 B>;L:> =0F8>=0;L=>9 B@0354859, => 8 1>;LH8< >1;53G5=85<. /?>=A:85 3075BK A>>1I0;8 > ?5@2KE 4=OE >::C?0F88 2 70E20BK20NI8E 4CE AB0BLOE, 2 :>B>@KE >1 >::C?0=B0E @0AA:07K20;8AL C4828B5;L=K5 25I8. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 8=D>@<0F8>==>5 035=BAB2> ><M9 ?8A0;> >1 >4=>9 3@C??5 0<5@8:0=A:8E <>@A:8E ;5BG8:>2, GB> MB> «>G5=L 25A5;K5 8 ?@8OB=K5 ?0@=8; =8 @073>2>@0<8, =8 A2>8< ?>2545=85< >=8 =5 E20AB0;8 A2>59 ?>154>9... B=K=5 2A5 O?>=FK 4>;6=K ?>AB>O==> ?><=8BL > 1;03>65;0B5;L=>< >B=>H5=88 MB8E ;5BG8:>2, 2ABC?0O 2 :>=B0:BK A 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 >::C?0F8>==K<8 2>9A:0<8». 5:>B>@K5 O?>=FK 4065 ?@>2>73;0H0;8 B>ABK 70 74>@>2L5 0<5@8:0=F52, => 1>;LH8=AB2> 3;O45;> =0 =8E A> AB@0E>< 8 ?>4>7@5=85<. 564C B5< <K =5 ?>;CG0;8 =8:0:8E ?@8:07>2. K 640;8 C65 <=>3> 4=59, 8 =0< =8G53> =5 >AB020;>AL 45;0BL, :0: ?8BL A0:M.  ?5@2>< ?>ABC?82H5< : =0< ?@8:075 >B =0A B@51>20;8 A65GL 2A5 206=K5 4>:C<5=BK, 8 O 8=>340 4C<0N, GB> <K A;8H:>< AB0@0B5;L=> 2K?>;=8;8 MB>B ?@8:07. / A653 2A5 A2>8 1C<038, 2 B>< G8A;5 2A5 A2>8 >BG5BK 8 2A5 40==K5 =0H8E M:A?5@8<5=B>2. # <5=O 1K;8 ;8G=K5 B5B@048 8 70?8A8, 8 O 8E B>65 A653, E>BO A B5E ?>@ O G0AB> 4C<0N, GB> A59G0A 1K;> 1K >G5=L 8=B5@5A=> ?>A<>B@5BL 8E 8 GB> O =0?@0A=> 8E A653. >74=55 <K ?>;CG8;8 ?>A;0=85, 2 :>B>@>< =0< ?@8:07K20;8 A>E@0=8BL =5:>B>@K5 >A>1K5 A2545=8O, => 1K;> C65 ?>74=>  2A5 402=> A3>@5;>. > 2A59 /?>=88 2 B5 4=8 <=>385 A6830;8 A2>8 4>:C<5=BK, ?>B><C GB> =8:B> =5 7=0;, :0: 0<5@8:0=FK 1C4CB >B=>A8BLAO : =0<. C4CB ;8 >=8 ?>A;5 ?>154K 8A:0BL :><?@><5B8@CNI85 4>:070B5;LAB20 8;8 GB>-;81> 5I5. 075BK A6830;8 A2>8 D>B>0@E82K; G0ABL :><?0=89 C=8GB>60;0 A2>N 4>:C<5=B0F8N.  2A5 7@O. B>-B> 4065 70:0?K20; 206=K5 4>:C<5=BK 8 A5<59=K5 1C<038 2 75<;N C A51O 2 A04C. -B> ?>:07K205B, :0:0O =5@0715@8E0 F0@8;0 2> 2A59 AB@0=5, =5 B>;L:> 2 HB01-:20@B8@5 !. 0< B0:65 ?@8:070;8 C=8GB>68BL 2A5 206=>5 >1>@C4>20=85, => C =0A =5 1K;> =8:0:>9 A?5F80;L=>9 0??0@0BC@K. # =0A =5 1K;> 4065 >@C68O.  2>B =0:>=5F ?@8H5; ?@8:07, GB>1K O >B?@028; ?> 4><0< 3@0640=A:8E A;C60I8E. -B> 1K; ?@8:07, :>B>@>3> O >6840;. 4=0:> 2K?>;=8BL 53> 1K;> 3>@074> B@C4=55, G5< =0?8A0BL. ;O @O4>2KE @01>B=8:>2 =5 E20B0;> B@0=A?>@B0. !5<L8 =5:>B>@KE =0H8E A>B@C4=8:>2 1K;8 M20:C8@>20=K 8 =0E>48;8AL 40;5:> >B A2>53> 4><0. >MB><C <=5 =04> 1K;> 1KAB@> A>AB028BL ?;0= 2K2>70 2A5E MB8E ;N459. 0: A45;0BL MB>, =5 8<5O =8 B@0=A?>@B0, =8 ?@>4>2>;LAB28O? ;04H89 ;59B5=0=B, =0H54H89 B>@3>2F0, ?@>40202H53> =0< @K1C 70 A0:M 8 A>52CN ?0ABC, ?@8H5; :> <=5 A =>2>9 84559. K ?>=8<0;8, GB> :>=B>@A:0O <515;L 8 ;01>@0B>@=>5 >1>@C4>20=85 2 CA;>28OE =5E20B:8 2>5==>3> 2@5<5=8 ?@54AB02;ONB 1>;LHCN F5==>ABL, 1KBL <>65B, 4065 4>@>65 45=53. 0< ?@8:070;8 2A5 MB> C=8GB>68BL.  >B45;L=KE G0ABOE A>;40BK 7018@0;8 2A5 MB8 25I8 4><>9 8 ?@>4020;8 8E =0 «G5@=>< @K=:5». !;54CO ?@8<5@C MB8E A?5:C;O=B>2, <K ?>H;8 2 :@C?=59HCN 02B>B@0=A?>@B=CN :><?0=8N 2 =0H5< @09>=5 8 ?@54;>68;8 <=>65AB2> 70?0A=KE 10B0@55:, :>B>@K5 <K 8A?>;L7>20;8 2 =0H8E M:A?5@8<5=B0E, 70 4>AB02:C 4><>9 103060 =0H8E A;C60I8E. -B0 :><?0=8O :@09=5 =C640;0AL 2 B0:8E 10B0@59:0E 4;O 3@C7>28:>2, 8 <K 1K;8 @04K, GB> =0< C40;>AL A>25@H8BL ?>4>1=K9 >1<5=. K 2:;NG8;8 2 A45;:C G0ABL :>=B>@A:>3> >1>@C4>20=8O, E>;>48;L=8:8 8 ?8AL<5==K5 AB>;K 70 E>@>HCN ?;0BC. 0G0;L=8: AB0=F88 7CA8 0F8>=0;L=>9 65;57=>9 4>@>38 B>65 1K; >G5=L @04 ?>;CG8BL 1K2HCN 2 C?>B@51;5=88 :>=B>@A:CN <515;L ! 2 >1<5= =0 18;5BK =0 M:A?@5AA 8 =0 ?5@52>7:C 103060 =0H8E 3@0640=A:8E A;C60I8E. 5@2K<8 O >B?@028; 4><>9 CG0I8EAO AB0@H8E :;0AA>2 8 452CH5:. >2AN4C E>48;8 A;CE8, GB> =0A, >D8F5@>2 !, >1JO2OB 2>5==K<8 ?@5ABC?=8:0<8, 0 3@0640=A:8E A;C60I8E, 25@>OB=>, 0@5ABCNB. / AG8B0;, GB> MB> <0;>25@>OB=> 8 =5;>38G=>, ?>A:>;L:C <K =5 2>520;8 A 0<5@8:0=F0<8. > B0:85 AB@0E8 1K;8 B8?8G=K<8 2 CA;>28OE A<OB5=8O B>3> 2@5<5=8, 8 O ?>;030;, GB> A0<>5 ;CGH55 1KAB@> >B?@028BL =0H8E ;N459 4><>9, GB>1K =0 2AO:89 A;CG09 >157>?0A8BL 8E. # =0A =5 1K;> =8 <0;59H53> ?@54AB02;5=8O > B><, :0: 1C4CB 25AB8 A51O 0<5@8:0=A:85 A>;40BK, ?>MB><C <K E>B5;8 >B>A;0BL 65=I8=. >A:>;L:C 2> 2@5<O 2>9=K =5 E20B0;> 8=65=5@>2, 2 =0HC G0ABL 1K;8 =0?@02;5=K CG0I85AO B@5BL8E :C@A>2 A@54=8E H:>; A 5AB5AB25==>=0CG=K< C:;>=><, ?@8<5@=> 4204F0BL G5;>25:, 8 MB8E <0;LG8:>2 O E>B5; 25@=CBL 4><>9 >4=8<8 87 ?5@2KE. > 42>8< 87 =8E =5:C40 1K;> 2>72@0I0BLAO, ?>A:>;L:C 8E @>48B5;8 68;8 2 >@55 8;8 0=LG6C@88, =5 ?><=N, 345 8<5==>, ?>MB><C O >B?@028; 8E : A515 4><>9. / 2@CG8; 8< ?8AL<> 4;O <0B5@8 A;54CNI53> A>45@60=8O: «/ =5 7=0N, :0: 4>;3> =0A 1C4CB 745AL 45@60BL. KBL <>65B, 0<5@8:0=FK 4065 C1LNB =0A, ?>MB><C ?>701>BLAO, ?>60;C9AB0, >1 MB8E 42CE <0;LG8:0E». >74=55 <0BL 1@0=8;0 <5=O, 3>2>@O: «0G5< 65 BK ?@8A;0; : =0< 42CE @51OB, :>B>@K5 B0: <=>3> 54OB? 54L C =0A =5 1K;> @8A0». K A845;8 <=>3> 4=59 =8G53> =5 45;0O, >6840O =>2KE ?@8:07>2. >A;5 B>3> :0: <K >B?@028;8 ?> 4><0< 2A5E <0;LG8:>2 8 452>G5:, C =0A =5 1K;> =8:0:>9 @01>BK. ! ?><>ILN >?B8G5A:>3> B5;5A:>?0 <K @0AA<0B@820;8 0<5@8:0=A:85 :>@01;8, :>B>@K5 ?>AB>O==> ?>O2;O;8AL 2 70;825 !030<8, 5I5 4> B>3> :0: >B?@028BLAO 2 ">:89A:89 70;82, 345 =0 1>@BC 0<5@8:0=A:>3> :>@01;O «8AAC@8» 4>;65= 1K; 1KBL ?>4?8A0= 4>:C<5=B > :0?8BC;OF88. -B> 1K;> 70<5G0B5;L=>5 7@5;8I5. 070;>AL, GB> 25AL 0<5@8:0=A:89 D;>B CAB@5<8;AO 2 1CEBC, @0A?>;>65==CN ?@O<> =0?@>B82 =0A. =5 AB@0AB=> E>B5;>AL 2K1@0BLAO >BBC40, 8, :>340 ?@8H;> 2@5<O, O =0 ?5@2>< 65 ?>5745 C5E0; 4><>9. -B> 1K; =0AB>OI89 A1>@, ?>B><C GB> ?@8<5@=> 2 B> 65 2@5<O, : 25;8:>9 @04>AB8 >BF0 8 <0B5@8, 25@=C;8AL 4><>9 >10 <>8E 1@0B0, F5;K5 8 =52@548<K5. K 2K?>;=8;8 A2>9 4>;3 8 25@=C;8AL 4><>9 157 548=>9 F0@0?8=K. 0< B0:65 C40;>AL =5 2?0ABL 2 D0=0B87<, :>B>@K9, :070;>AL, >E20B8; 2 B5 4=8 ?>402;ONICN G0ABL O?>=A:>9 <>;>4568, :>B>@>9 1K; ?@828B :C;LB 8<?5@0B>@0 8 845O 35@>8G5A:>9 A<5@B8.  /?>=88 <K G0AB> 3>2>@8< > ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< :;8<0B5 8;8 0B<>AD5@5, 2 :>B>@KE >:07K205BAO ?>@>9 25AL =0@>4 8 :>B>@K5 ?>1C640NB 53> : >48=0:>2K< <KA;O< 8 459AB28O<, A;>2=> 2A5 4KH0B >4=8< 8 B5< 65 >A>1K< 2>74CE><. > 2@5<O 2>9=K 2;0AB8 2>A?>;L7>20;8AL MB>9 >A>15==>ABLN, >@30=87>202 42865=8O 4>1@>2>;LF52, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 :;0AA5 A@54=59 H:>;K, 345 CG8;AO <>9 1@0B. =>38E 3>@OG8E <>;>4KE O?>=F52 70E20B8;0 MB0 0B<>AD5@0, 8 >=8 ?>H;8 2>520BL 4>1@>2>;LF0<8, => <=>385 <>;>4K5 ;5BG8:8-:0<8:0475, :>B>@K5 3>@520;8 87-70 B>3>, GB> 8< =5 4>25;>AL A>25@H8BL ?>A;54=89 ?>;5B, ?>B>< 1K;8 1;03>40@=K 70 B>, GB> 8< =5 2K?0;0 B0:0O 2>7<>6=>ABL. >340 8<?5@0B>@ 3>2>@8; A =0@>4>< 8 A>25@H8; ?>A;5 2>9=K ?>574:C ?> AB@0=5, 2KABC?0O 2 @>;8 A8<2>;0 =0F88, ?>G8B05<>3> >BF0 AB@0=K, 0 =5 1>30, : ;N4O< =0G0; 2>72@0I0BLAO 74@02K9 A<KA;. "5?5@L, :>340 2>9=0 >:>=G8;0AL, :070;>AL, GB> AB@0=0 ?5@5=5A;0 3830=BA:>5 AB8E89=>5 154AB285. >2K9 <8@=K9 ?5@8>4 1K; =5?@82KG5=. ><10@48@>2I8:8 1>;LH5 =5 ?@8;5B0;8, => 2> <=>38E 3>@>40E, ?>E>65, =5G53> 1K;> 1><18BL.  F5=B@0E B0:8E 3>@>4>2, :0: A0:0, 03>O, >:>30<0 8 ">:8>, >AB0;8AL B>;L:> ?@>G=K5 15B>==K5 8;8 :0<5==K5 740=8O. >4 3@04>< 706830B5;L=KE 1><1, A1@0AK202H8EAO 3830=BA:8<8 3@>74LO<8 A 1><10@48@>2I8:>2 «-29», =5?@>G=K5 4><0, <03078=K A3>@0;8, :0: ACE>9 E2>@>AB. @>B82>?>60@=K5 ?>;>AK, A>740==K5 2 =5:>B>@KE :20@B0;0E, GB>1K >3@0=8G8BL CI5@1, >:070;8AL 15A?>;57=K<8, ?>B><C GB> ?>4=OBK5 25B@>< 3>@OI85 C3;8 ;53:> 8E ?5@5;5B0;8. >A;5 B>3> :0: =0G0;8AL 1><156:8, 2 ">:8> >AB0;>AL <5=55 ?>;>28=K 4>2>5==>3> =0A5;5=8O, =0AG8BK202H53> A5<L <8;;8>=>2 G5;>25:. >GB8 G5BK@5 <8;;8>=0 C5E0;8 2 45@52=8 8;8 2 <0;5=L:85 3>@>40. ;O ">:8> MB> 154AB285 1K;> 1>;55 BO65;K<, G5< 75<;5B@OA5=85 1923 3>40, => >?CAB>H5=85 >B >3=O 1K;> =5 <5=LH8<. >MB><C =5:>B>@K< B>:89F0< ?@8H;>AL 42064K 2 B5G5=85 A2>59 687=8 2845BL A2>9 3>@>4 2 @0720;8=0E.  :>=FC 2>9=K 2 3>@>45 E>48;> B>;L:> 45AOBL ?@>F5=B>2 B@0<2052. @83>4=K<8 : M:A?;C0B0F88 >:070;>AL 2A53> H5ABL45AOB 02B>1CA>2 8 =5A:>;L:> 02B><>18;59 8 3@C7>28:>2. >340 :>=G8;>AL 684:>5 3>@NG55, 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E 1K;8 ?5@5>1>@C4>20=K A B0:8< @0AG5B><, GB>1K >=8 <>3;8 @01>B0BL =0 C3;5 8 4@>20E. !28@5?AB2>20;8 1>;57=8, 8 >:>;> 4204F0B8 42CE ?@>F5=B>2 =0A5;5=8O 1K;8 1>;L=K BC15@:C;57><.  1>;L=8F0E :0B0AB@>D8G5A:8 =5 E20B0;> <548:0<5=B>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?5@52O7>G=KE A@54AB2, 20BK 8 4578=D8F8@CNI8E A@54AB2. >;:8 C=825@<03>2 1K;8 ?CABK 8;8 =0 =8E ;560;8 =8:><C =5 =C6=K5 B>20@K, =0?@8<5@ A<KG:8 4;O A:@8?>: 8;8 B5==8A=K5 @0:5B:8 157 AB@C=. 5:>B>@K5 :8=>B50B@K 5I5 1K;8 >B:@KBK, B0< H;8 D8;L<K, 8 =0 A50=AK A>18@0;>AL <=>65AB2> ;N459, :>B>@K< =5G53> 1K;> 1>;LH5 45;0BL, =5:C40 1K;> 84B8 8 E>B5;>AL E>BO 1K =0 ?0@C G0A>2 ?>;=>ABLN 701KBLAO. !5<59AB2C >@8B0 ?>257;>, ?>B><C GB> <K =8:>3> =5 ?>B5@O;8 2 MB>9 2>9=5, 8 :>=B>@K A 702>4>< :><?0=88 2 03>5, 8 4065 =0H 4>< >AB0;8AL F5;K, ?>GB8 =5 ?>AB@0402 >B 1><10@48@>2>:. B4>E=C2 =5A:>;L:> 4=59 2 :@C3C A5<L8, <K =0G0;8 >1AC640BL 1C4CI55, 2 G0AB=>AB8 <>5 1C4CI55 :0: AB0@H53> AK=0. B5F 5I5 1K; 74>@>2K< 8 :@5?:8< <C6G8=>9, >= @C:>2>48; :><?0=859, ?>MB><C =0 D8@<5 «>@8B0» 2> <=5 2 B> 2@5<O ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 =C640;8AL. > 2@5<O 2>9=K 702>4 ?@>4>;60; @01>B0BL, 2K?>;=OO 2>5==K5 70:07K, >= ?@>872>48; ?>@>H>: <8A> 8 A?8@B=K5 =0?8B:8, B0: GB> =0H5 ?@54?@8OB85 1K;> 2 @01>G5< A>AB>O=88. >:0 O =0E>48;AO 4><0, O A45;0; =5A:>;L:> ?@54;>65=89 >1 C;CGH5=8OE, => ?@O<>9 =C64K 2> <=5 =0 702>45 =5 1K;>. "0< 1K;> 4>AB0B>G=> C?@02;ONI8E  <>9 >B5F 8 53> :20;8D8F8@>20==K5 A>B@C4=8:8. @><5 B>3>, <=5 1K;> B>;L:> 4204F0BL G5BK@5 3>40, 8 2A5 1K;8 A>3;0A=K A B5<, GB> 2?5@548 C <5=O 5I5 <=>3> 2@5<5=8 8 O CA?5N 2>9B8 2 :><?0=8N ?>74=55.  ?5@2K5 =545;8 <>53> ?@51K20=8O 4><0 O ?>;CG8; ?8AL<> >B ?@>D5AA>@0 %0BB>@8, ?@5?>4020B5;O D878:8, :>B>@K9 <=>3> ?><>30; <=5 A2>8<8 A>25B0<8, :>340 O CG8;AO 2 :>;;5465. = ?8A0;, GB> ?5@5H5; =0 D878G5A:89 D0:C;LB5B "5E=>;>38G5A:>3> 8=AB8BCB0 2 ">:8> 8 CG0AB2C5B 2 A>740=88 A?5F80;L=>3> >B45;5=8O 4;O 45<>18;87>20==KE ABC45=B>2 5AB5AB25==>=0CG=KE D0:C;LB5B>2, CG51C :>B>@KE ?@5@20;0 2>9=0. 3> B@C4=>AB8 70:;NG0;8AL 2 =5E20B:5 ?@5?>4020B5;59, 8 >= ?@83;0H0; <5=O  ?@83;0H0; =0AB>9G82>  ?>9B8 @01>B0BL 2 MB>< >B45;5=88. / ?>4C<0;, GB> MB> ?@5:@0A=0O 845O, ?>B><C GB> MB> 45;> ?>72>;8;> 1K <=5 ?@>4>;60BL 70=OB8O D878:>9 8 ?>5E0BL 2 ">:8>, 345, :0: O =045O;AO, ?>A;5 B>3> :0: ! 8 2AO O?>=A:0O 2>5==0O 25@ECH:0 1K;8 ;8:2848@>20=K, B5?5@L <>6=> 1C45B =09B8 4@C3CN 8=B5@5A=CN @01>BC. / ?>;CG8; A>3;0A85 @>48B5;59 @01>B0BL ?@5?>4020B5;5<, 8, : AG0ABLN, :>340 O 5I5 =0E>48;AO 4><0, <=5 2=>2L C40;>AL 2>AAB0=>28BL :>=B0:BK A 1C:>9, 1;5ABOI8< 8=65=5@><, A :>B>@K< O @01>B0; 2 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 ?@>5:B=>9 3@C??5. = ?8A0;, GB> >B:@K205B 2 ">:8> =>2CN ;01>@0B>@8N.  ?>A;54=85 <5AOFK 2>9=K O @54:> 2AB@5G0;AO A 1C:>9. >340 2>9=0 ?>4E>48;0 : :>=FC, 5<C AB0=>28;>AL 2A5 B@C4=55 5748BL =0 =0HC 28;;C, ?>B><C GB> >= ?5@525; A2>9 702>4 2 ?@5D5:BC@C 030=>, : A525@>-70?04C >B ">:8>, 2 =5A:>;L:8E G0A0E 574K =0 ?>5745. 5;> 2 B><, GB> 53> B>:89A:89 702>4 8 ;01>@0B>@8O 1K;8 @0A?>;>65=K 2 @09>=5, :>B>@K9 AB0; >1J5:B>< 1><10@48@>2>: 8 345 =0E>48;>AL <=>3> <5;:8E 702>4>2 8 D01@8:. = =5A:>;L:> @07 ?@85760; 2 <>N ;01>@0B>@8N 2 7CA8, 0 O B0:65 5748; 2 O1;>=52K9 A04 2 030=>, 345 1K; @0A?>;>65= 53> =>2K9 702>4. 4=064K, =0E>4OAL 2 030=>, O 1;03>40@O @048>?5@540G0< =0 :>@>B:>9 2>;=5 ?>=O;, GB> 2>9=0 ?@>83@0=0. >B ?>G5<C O 703>2>@8; A 1C:>9 > B><, GB> =0< =C6=> 1C45B 45;0BL ?>A;5 2>9=K. 1C:0 >1;040; 5I5 >4=8< A5:@5B=K< 8AB>G=8:>< 8=D>@<0F88. 3> 7OB5< 1K; "0<>= 0M40, ?@020O @C:0 ?@8=F0 $C<8<0@> >=>M. >=>M =5A:>;L:> @07 1K; ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@>< /?>=88 8 1>@>;AO A <8;8B0@8ABA:>9 :;8:>9, :>B>@0O 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 >45@60;0 25@E =04 ?@028B5;LAB2>< 8 225@3;0 /?>=8N 2 2>9=C. >74=55 0M4C =07=0G8;8 ?5@2K< ?>A;52>5==K< <8=8AB@>< ?@>A25I5=8O /?>=88, => G5@57 H5ABL <5AOF52 >= AB0; 65@B2>9 >4=>9 87 G8AB>: 8 1K; 2K=C645= C9B8 2 >BAB02:C :0: G;5= ?@028B5;LAB20 2>5==>3> 2@5<5=8.  :>=F5 2>9=K 4>< 0M4K 2 ">:8> 1K; @07@CH5= 1><10<8 8 >= ?5@55E0; 2 :C@>@B=K9 3>@>4>: 2 3>@0E 0@C84702C, =540;5:> >B 030=>. 1C:0 G0AB> =025I0; 53> B0<. > 2@5<O B0:8E 2AB@5G 5<C C4020;>AL <=>3>5 C7=0BL > B><, GB> ?@>8AE>48B =0 48?;><0B8G5A:>< 8 2>5==>< D@>=B0E. ><?0=8O 1C:8 =07K20;0AL «8??>= A>:CBM9:8», 8;8 /?>=A:0O :><?0=8O 87<5@8B5;L=KE ?@81>@>2, 8 =0 53> 702>45 2 ?@5D5:BC@5 030=> @01>B0;8 1500 G5;>25:, 2K?CA:02H8E =51>;LH85 <5E0=8G5A:85 M;5<5=BK, @53C;8@CNI85 G0AB>BC :>;510=89 2 ?@81>@0E @048>;>:0B>@>2. -B8 :><?>=5=BK 4>;6=K 1K;8 4020BL :>;510=8O A G0AB>B>9 @>2=> 1 :8;>35@F, 8 1C:8 ?@8H;0 2 3>;>2C >AB@>C<=0O <KA;L: =0=OBL ABC45=B>2 <C7K:0;L=KE CG51=KE 702545=89, >1;0402H8E B>=:8< A;CE><, GB>1K ?@>25@8BL B>G=>ABL MB8E M;5<5=B>2 ?CB5< A@02=5=8O ?>A;54=8E A ?@>ABK< :0<5@B>=><, 45;0NI8< BKAOGC :>;510=89 2 A5:C=4C. / C?><O=C; MB> 2 :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 >@838=0;L=>AB8 8 87>1@5B0B5;L=>AB8 53> C<0, :>B>@K5 ?@>8725;8 =0 <5=O AB>;L A8;L=>5 2?5G0B;5=85 8 2K720;8 C <5=O 65;0=85 @01>B0BL A MB8< G5;>25:><. > 1C:0 =5 8A?KBK20; ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> C4>2;5B2>@5=8O, @01>B0O 70 3>@>4><, 345 >= ;8HL ?@>872>48; 45B0;8 2 1>;LH8E :>;8G5AB20E. 1C:0 A>>1I8; "08478 #M<C@5, :>B>@K9 1K; ?@57845=B>< 53> :><?0=88, GB> E>G5B 25@=CBLAO 2 ">:8>, 8 B>B =5>E>B=> >B?CAB8; 53>. @0240, ?>74=55 >= ?@54;>68; ?><>GL 5<C =0G0BL B>@3>2>5 45;>. # 1C:8 1K; 5I5 >48= 4@C3, 2;0452H89 2 ">:8> B5<, GB> >AB0;>AL >B C=825@<030 «!8@>:8O» 2 8E>=10A8, :>B>@K9 =0E>48;AO 2 A0<>< F5=B@5 ">:8>, @07@CH5==>< 2> 2@5<O 1><10@48@>2>:. -B> 740=85 AB0;> <8H5=LN 1><10@48@>2>:, ?>B><C GB> 2 ?>420;5 =0E>48;AO 702>4 M;5:B@>==KE ;0<?.  MB>< ?CAB>< AB0@>< 740=88, 345 01A>;NB=> =8G53> =5 1K;>, AB>O2H5< A@548 @C8=, A>665==KE 4><>2 8 <03078=>2 2 :>340-B> ?@>F25B02H5< F5=B@0;L=>< @09>=5 ">:8>, 1C:0 >B:@K; «">:8> FCA8= :M=:NAQ», 8;8 ">:89A:85 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:85 ;01>@0B>@88 B5;5:><<C=8:0F89, 345 @01>B0;8 A5<L G5;>25: A> AB0@>3> B>:89A:>3> 702>40, :>B>@K5 4> B>3> 2<5AB5 A =8< ?5@55E0;8 2 030=>. =8 B5A=8;8AL 2 AB0@>9 1C4:5 B5;5D>=8AB0 =0 G5B25@B>< MB065, 0 70B5< 70=O;8 ?;>I04L =0 2>AL<>< MB065. 1C:0 >4=064K A:070; <=5, GB> >AB0;L=K5 @01>G85, :>B>@K5 C5E0;8 87 ">:8>, 2=0G0;5 =5 E>B5;8 2>72@0I0BLAO, ?>B><C GB> 2 ">:8> =5345 1K;> 68BL 8 =5 E20B0;> ?@>4C:B>2 ?8B0=8O. =8 B0:65 7=0;8, GB> :><?0=8O @0A?>;030;0 =51>;LH8< :>;8G5AB2>< 45=53 8 GB> > 1C4CI5< =>2>9 :><?0=88 ?>:0 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05 B@C4=> GB>-=81C4L A:070BL. A5 @5AC@AK 1C:8 ?><5I0;8AL C =53> 2 :0@<0=5 8 2 3>;>25. (51>;LH8< 8AB>G=8:>< =0;8G=KE A@54AB2 A;C68;0 ?@>4060 2>;LB<5B@>2, 2K?CA:02H8EAO 53> AB0@>9 :><?0=859.) -B0 =51>;LH0O 3@C??0 ?@>2>48;0 A>25I0=8O 2 3=5BCI59 >1AB0=>2:5 A3>@52H53> C=825@<030 8 =0 ?@>BO65=88 <=>38E =545;L ?KB0;0AL 2KOA=8BL, G5< A;54C5B 70=OBLAO =>2>9 :><?0=88, GB>1K @074>1KBL 45=L38 8 ?CAB8BL 8E 2 >1>@>B.  B5 4=8 ?@>F25B0; B>;L:> «G5@=K9 @K=>:», 8 MB> 1K;> 548=AB25==>5 <5AB>, 345 <>6=> 1K;> =09B8 =5:>B>@K5 45B0;8. @56=85 :@C?=K5 M;5:B@>==K5 :><?0=88 B>;L:> =0G8=0;8 @01>B0BL, 8 >=8 =5 1K;8 708=B5@5A>20=K 2 B><, GB>1K ?@>4020BL 45B0;8 :>=:C@5=BC. 45O 1C:8 A>AB>O;0 2 B><, GB>1K ?@>872>48BL GB>-B> =>2>5, => A=0G0;0 :><?0=8O 4>;6=0 1K;0 70;>68BL D8=0=A>2CN 107C. 0 ?5@2KE A>25I0=8OE 2K42830;>AL <=>65AB2> AC<0AH54H8E 8459. "0:, =0?@8<5@, >48= 87 CG0AB=8:>2 3@C??K A:070;, GB> ?>A:>;L:C 1>;LH0O G0ABL F5=B@0 ">:8> A3>@5;0 8 A@>2=5=0 A 75<;59, :><?0=8O <>3;0 1K 0@5=4>20BL ?CABCNICN 75<;N 8 >B:@KBL =51>;LH85 ?;>I04:8 4;O 83@K 2 3>;LD. 0@>4C, @0AAC640; >=, =C6=K @072;5G5=8O. 8=>B50B@K 2 B5 4=8 1K;8 ?5@5?>;=5=K. A5< =C6=0 1K;0 :0:0O-B> >B4CH8=0. @C385 >B<5G0;8, GB> 25@=K< 8AB>G=8:>< A@54AB2 <>65B AB0BL B>@3>2;O ?@>4C:B0<8 ?8B0=8O, 0 2K?5G:0 A;04:8E ?8@>6:>2 87 A>52>3> B5AB0 B0:65 1K;0 1K 2K3>4=K< 45;><. 59AB28B5;L=>, 2A5 4C<0;8 > 545, 8 ?>MB><C 3@C??0 =0:>=5F @5H8;0 70=OBLAO ?@>872>4AB2>< ?@>ABKE @8A>20@>:. ?@>G5<, >=0 B0: 8 =5 4>25;0 MB> 45;> 4> :>=F0, E>BO 1K;> A>740=> <=>3> >?KB=KE >1@07F>2. -B> 1K; ?@>AB>9 45@52O==K9 G0=, =0 4=5 :>B>@>3> C;>68;8 A?8@0;L=K5 M;5:B@>4K. >:@K9 @8A, >1;040O M;5:B@>?@>2>48<>ABLN, 70<K:0; M;5:B@8G5A:CN F5?L. >7=8:02H89 B>: =03@520; @8A. 45O A>AB>O;0 2 B><, GB> :>340 @8A 1K; 3>B>2 8 =0G8=0; A>E=CBL, >= ?5@5AB020; ?@>?CA:0BL B>:, M;5:B@8G5A:0O F5?L 02B><0B8G5A:8 @07<K:0;0AL 8 AG0AB;82K9 >1;040B5;L @8A>20@:8 <>3 A048BLAO 70 AB>;. > AB>9:8E @57C;LB0B>2 ?>;CG8BL =5 C40;>AL. 1C:0 8 53> A>B@C4=8:8 ?@>1>20;8 MB> 20@52>, => @8A 1K; B> ?5@520@5=, B> =54>20@5=. =8 1@>A8;8 MBC 70B5N. =8 4065 ?>4C<K20;8 > A>740=88 ?5G:8 4;O E;510, >A=>20==>9 =0 B>< 65 ?@8=F8?5 ?@>2>48<>AB8  2;06=>5 B5AB> 70<K:05B F5?L <564C <5B0;;8G5A:8<8 AB5@6=O<8 2 45@52O==>< OI8:5, => B0: 8 =5 A45;0;8 =8 >4=>3> B0:>3> ?@81>@0. 0:>=5F, ?@8H;>AL ?@82;5GL : @01>B5 65=, :>B>@K5 ?><>30;8 45;0BL M;5:B@>3@5;:8, ?@8H820O ?@>2>40 : B:0=8. -B8 M;5:B@>3@5;:8 ?>;L7>20;8AL CA?5E>< =0 C;8G=KE @K=:0E 8 4020;8 :@09=5 =5>1E>48<K5 =0;8G=K5 45=L38 A5<LO< @01>B=8:>2 :><?0=88. 4=0:> 1C:0 ?5@55E0; 2 ">:8> =5 4;O B>3>, GB>1K @07<5=820BLAO =0 >@30=870F8N @072;5G5=89, ?@>872>4AB2> ?@>4C:B>2 ?8B0=8O 8;8 ?@>406C A0<>45;L=KE M;5:B@>3@5;>:. # =53> 1K;0 1>;55 8=B5@5A=0O <KA;L: ?>A:>;L:C 2> 2@5<O 2>9=K :>@>B:>2>;=>2K5 ?@85<=8:8 1K;8 AB@>3> 70?@5I5=K, ?>O28;AO 1>;LH>9 8=B5@5A : ?@>A;CH820=8N ?5@540G =0 :>@>B:8E 2>;=0E. "5?5@L, :>340 70?@5B0 1>;LH5 =5 ACI5AB2>20;>, MB>B A?@>A, ?>-2848<><C, <>6=> 1K;> C4>2;5B2>@8BL. 1C:0 ?@84C<0;, :0: MB> A45;0BL. >A:>;L:C 2> 2@5<O 2>9=K @048> 8<5;> 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85, B0: :0: ?> =5<C ?5@54020;8AL A83=0;K 2>74CH=>9 B@52>38 8 4@C30O 206=0O 8=D>@<0F8O, =0A5;5=85 BI0B5;L=> 15@53;> A2>8 @048>?@85<=8:8. @0240, >=8 <>3;8 ?@8=8<0BL ?5@540G8 O?>=A:>3> @048> =0 A@54=8E 2>;=0E. 1C:0 A?@>5:B8@>20; :>@>B:>2>;=>2CN ?@8AB02:C, A>AB>O2HCN 87 =51>;LH>3> 45@52O==>3> OI8G:0 8 ?@>AB>9 @048>AE5<K 2A53> A >4=>9 @048>;0<?>9. 5 >G5=L ;53:> <>6=> 1K;> ?>4A>548=8BL : ;N1><C AB0=40@B=><C @048>?@85<=8:C 8 ?@8A?>A>18BL 53> 4;O ?@85<0 :>@>B:>2>;=>2KE ?5@540G. 01>B=8:0< :><?0=88 ?@8H;>AL ?>18@0BLAO =0 «G5@=>< @K=:5», GB>1K @074>1KBL @048>;0<?K. 5:>B>@K5 87 =8E AB>8;8 >G5=L 8 >G5=L 4>@>3>, => B>20@ AB0; ?>;L7>20BLAO 1>;LH8< A?@>A><, 8 MB> ?>4=O;> C25@5==>ABL C 2A5E A>B@C4=8:>2 «">:8> FCA8= :M=:NAQ». # 0M4K 1K; 4@C3 2 :@C?=59H59 3075B5 /?>=88 «A0E8 A8<1C=», 8 MB>B G5;>25:, N47> 0478, 25; ?>AB>O==K9 @0745; ?>4 =0720=85< «!8=89 :0@0=40H».  B5 4=8 3075B0 «A0E8 A8<1C=» 87-70 =5E20B:8 3075B=>9 1C<038 ?5G0B0;0AL 2A53> =0 >4=>< ;8AB:5. !B0BLO, >?C1;8:>20==0O 6 >:BO1@O 1945 3>40, >:070;0 =>2>9 :><?0=88 F5==CN ?><>IL. «ABL E>@>H0O =>2>ABL > B><, GB> ?@85<=8:8, :>B>@K5 <=>385 C65 8<5NB, <>6=> ;53:> =0;048BL 4;O ?@85<0 ?5@540G =0 :>@>B:8E 2>;=0E. 0A0@C 1C:0, 1K2H89 ?@5?>4020B5;L D0:C;LB5B0 5AB5AB25==KE =0C: 8 8=65=5@=>3> 45;0 2 C=825@A8B5B5 0AM40 8 7OBL <8=8AB@0 ?@>A25I5=8O "0<>=0 0M4K, =5402=> >B:@K; =0 B@5BL5< MB065 <03078=0 «!8@>:8O» 2 8E>=10A8 ">:89A:CN =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:CN ;01>@0B>@8N B5;5A2O78. C:>2>4AB2COAL 15A:>@KAB=K<8 <>B820<8, >= @5H8; @0AH8@8BL ?@8<5=5=85 :>@>B:>2>;=>2KE ?@85<=8:>2 ?CB5< ?5@545;:8 >1KG=KE ?@85<=8:>2 8;8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE CAB@>9AB2. A;8 C 20A 5ABL AC?5@35B5@>48==K9 ?@85<=8: 4>2>;L=> 2KA>:>3> :;0AA0, 2K ;53:> <>65B5 ?5@545;0BL 53> 2 ?@5:@0A=K9 :>@>B:>2>;=>2K9 ?@85<=8:. A?>;L7CO 4>?>;=8B5;L=>5 CAB@>9AB2>, 2K A<>65B5 ?@8=8<0BL :>@>B:85 2>;=K 2KA>:>9 G0AB>BK».  AB0BL5 40;55 ?@54A:07K20;>AL, GB> A> 2@5<5=5< >::C?0F8>==K5 2;0AB8 @07@5H0B G0AB=K5 @048>?5@540G8, 8 <>45@=870F8O ACI5AB2CNI8E @048>?@85<=8:>2 AB0=5B =5>1E>48<>9, ?>A:>;L:C >6840;>AL, GB> A =0G0;>< 25I0=8O <=>3>G8A;5==KE =>2KE AB0=F89 2 MD8@5 2>7=8:=5B E0>A. 0;55 2 =59 3>2>@8;>AL, GB> «A ?><>ILN ?@8AB02>: <>6=> 1C45B @0AH8@8BL 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?@85<=8:>2 =0AB>;L:>, GB> E>@>H> 1C4CB A;KH=K 4065 ?5@540G8 =>2KE AB0=F89». %0@0:B5@87CO 1C:C, 02B>@ AB0BL8 ?8A0;, GB> >= «@C:>2>48; >@C659=>9 :><?0=859, => >B=K=5 >= E>G5B 8A?>;L7>20BL B5E=8:C, A :>B>@>9 >= B0: E>@>H> 7=0:><, 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 ?>;57=KE 25I59. =>2L ?@8ABC?0O : @01>B5 2 :0G5AB25 CG5=>3>, >= 3>2>@8B, GB> 1C45B ?@8=8<0BL ;N1K5 70O2:8, 2 B>< G8A;5 70O2:8 =0 @5<>=B >1KG=KE ?@85<=8:>2». 0: >:070;>AL, 0478 ?@>AB> GB>-B> =5?@028;L=> ?>=O;. 1C:0 =8:>340 =5 70=8<0;AO ?@>872>4AB2>< >@C68O 8 2>2A5 =5 60640; @5<>=B8@>20BL AB0@K5 ?@85<=8:8.  C6, :>=5G=>, 5A;8 MB> 45;> >:070;>AL =5?@81K;L=K<, B> =5 87-70 53> 15A:>@KAB8O; 1C:5 :@09=5 =5>1E>48<K 1K;8 45=L38, 254L 5<C =C6=> 1K;> ?;0B8BL A2>8< A>B@C4=8:0<. =5 ?>AG0AB;828;>AL :C?8BL =03>9A:>5 8740=85 MB>9 3075BK >B 1 >:BO1@O, 8 O >1@04>20;AO, ?>;CG82 «65;0==CN 25AB>G:C» > <>5< AB0@>< 4@C35 1C:5. / A@07C 65 =0?8A0; 5<C ?8AL<>, 2 :>B>@>< 3>2>@8;, GB> 65;0; 1K ?>A5B8BL 53> 2 ">:8>. / ?8A0;, GB> E>GC ?><>30BL 5<C 2 53> =>2>< 45;5 8 3>B>2 >:07K20BL 5<C 2AOG5A:CN ?>445@6:C. = 3CB 65 <=5 >B25B8;, ?@83;0A82 <5=O ?@85E0BL, GB>1K 2AB@5B8BLAO A =8< 8 ?>7=0:><8BLAO A =>2>9 :><?0=859. 4=0:> ?@54C?@548;, GB> ?>;>65=85 >G5=L BO65;>5, GB> >= ?;0B8B A2>8< A>B@C4=8:0< 87 A>1AB25==>3> :0@<0=0 8 5<C =C6=K 45=L38. / ?5@55E0; 2 ">:8>, GB>1K =0G0BL @01>B0BL 2 :0G5AB25 ?@5?>4020B5;O, 8 CAB@>82H8AL 2 4><5 >4=>3> 87 A2>8E 4@C759 =0 70?04=>9 >:@08=5 ">:8>, 345 1><10@48@>2:8 ?@8G8=8;8 <5=LH89 CI5@1, G5< 2 F5=B@5 3>@>40, O, =5 B5@OO 2@5<5=8, >B?@028;AO : A2>5<C 4@C3C 1C:5 2 8E>=10A8. >=B>@0 53> =>2>9 :><?0=88 2 ?>GB8 ?>;=>ABLN 2K3>@52H5< 740=88 C=825@<030 ?@54AB02;O;0 A>1>9 ?5G0;L=>5 7@5;8I5. > ;8F> 1C:8 A25B8;>AL M=BC7807<><, 8 >= 8 53> A>B@C4=8:8 1K;8 @04K, GB> <>3CB @01>B0BL 2 B> 2@5<O, :>340 =5<=>385 87 ;N459 7=0;8, GB> A =8<8 40;LH5 1C45B. >A:>;L:C O ?>=8<0;, GB> 1C:5 B@C4=> ?;0B8BL 70@01>B=CN ?;0BC, O @5H8; @01>B0BL 2 =>2>9 :><?0=88 ?> A>2<5AB8B5;LAB2C A @01>B>9 ?@5?>4020B5;O. ;03>40@O MB><C 1C:5 =5 =04> 1K;> 1K <=5 <=>3> ?;0B8BL, B0: :0: O ?>;CG0; 60;>20=L5 ?@5?>4020B5;O 8 <K >10 C65 <>3;8 B0:8< >1@07>< A2>48BL :>=FK A :>=F0<8. K A 1C:>9 4>;3> 3>2>@8;8 > A>740=88 =0H59 A>1AB25==>9 :><?0=88  <K >10 704C<0;8AL >1 MB>< 2A:>@5 ?>A;5 =0H59 ?5@2>9 2AB@5G8, 8 2 <0@B5 1946 3>40 <K @5H8;8 >:>=G0B5;L=> A45;0BL MB>, :>340 ?@>4C<05< 2A5 4> :>=F0.  2>B O, ?@5?>4020B5;L C=825@A8B5B0, ?>;CG0O 60;>20=L5 C 3>AC40@AB20, AB0; @01>B0BL =0 ?>;AB02:8 2 =>2>9 :><?0=88 1C:8 2 :0G5AB25 :>=AB@C:B>@0, ?;0=8@CO A>740BL =0HC A>1AB25==CN =>2CN :><?0=8N. K >10 ?>=8<0;8, GB>, ?@5645 G5< 459AB28B5;L=> CG@5640BL =>2CN D8@<C, =C6=> 1C45B @5H8BL A;>6=K9 2>?@>A > <>8E >1O70B5;LAB20E ?5@54 A5<L59. >MB><C <K 2<5AB5 A 1C:>9 8 0M4>9, :>B>@K9 CH5; 2 >BAB02:C A ?>AB0 <8=8AB@0 ?@>A25I5=8O, 2 0?@5;5 1946 3>40 A5;8 =0 =>G=>9 ?>574, 84CI89 2 >AC30N. @C7LO =0<5@520;8AL ?@>A8BL <>53> >BF0 ?><>GL =>2>9 :><?0=88, @07@5H82 <=5 2ABC?8BL 2 =55. =8 7=0;8, GB> 8< ?@54AB>8B ?@>O28BL C2065=85 : <>5<C >BFC, ?>B><C GB> ?@5:@0A=> ?>=8<0;8, GB> 7=0G8B 701@0BL AB0@H53> AK=0 87 A5<59=>3> ?@54?@8OB8O.  /?>=88 AG8B0;>AL 25AL<0 A5@L57=K< 45;>< 701@0BL AK=0, >A>15==> AB0@H53>, 87 4><0 8 A5<L8, ?><5AB82 53> =025G=> 2 =>2CN 0B<>AD5@C <8@>2>9 :><<5@F88. =>340 MB> 1K;> >G5=L ?>E>65 =0 CAK=>2;5=85. @0:B8:0 >D8F80;L=>3> >1AC645=8O B0:8E ?;0=>2 A @>48B5;O<8 ?>@>9 8<55B <5AB> 8 A53>4=O 2 =5:>B>@KE 45;>2KE :@C30E, >A>15==> =0 <5;:8E ?@54?@8OB8OE. > 4065 2 :@C?=KE :><?0=8OE, :>340 <>;>4>9 G5;>25: 2ABC?05B 2 =>2CN ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:CN A5<LN, B@51C5BAO C:070BL A5<59=K5 A2O78 8 @5:><5=40F88, 0 B0:65 =53;0A=K5 >1O70B5;LAB20 >158E AB>@>= 2 8A:@5==>AB8. -B> G5AB=K5 >1O70B5;LAB20, 81> >=8 :0A0NBAO 2A59 B@C4>2>9 687=8, 0 =5 ?@>AB> A;CG09=>9 @01>BK =0 =5A:>;L:> ;5B, :0: 2 =5:>B>@KE AB@0=0E A 3>@074> 1>;LH59 B5:CG5ABLN :04@>2. / 459AB28B5;L=> ?5@5E>48; 2 4@C3CN A5<LN 8 1@0; =0 A51O 4@C385, A>25@H5==> 8=K5 >1O70B5;LAB20. 0H0 ?>574:0 1K;0 BO65;>9. :=0 2 AB0@>< 203>=5 1K;8 @0718BK, 8 <K A845;8 2AN 4>@>3C =0 E>;>4=>< 25B@C, 2 4K<C 8 :>?>B8, 70B> 2 4><5 >@8BK 2 >AC305 =0A 2AB@5B8;8 >G5=L B5?;>. 1C:0 =5402=> A:070; <=5, GB> >= 2A5 5I5 ?><=8B, :0: E>@>H> <>8 @>48B5;8 ?@8=O;8 53> 8 0M4C, «E>BO =0 AB>;5 1K; B>;L:> E;51  254L A5<59AB2> >@8B0 2;045;> ?5:0@=59 8 E;51 1K; >G5=L 2:CA=K<, <0A;>, 465< 8 G09». >A;5 2>9=K 4065 MB> :070;>AL @>A:>HLN. 5 E20B0;> 4065 ?@54<5B>2 ?5@2>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8. /?>=FK 4020;8 A0<K< <0;5=L:8< 45BO< ?> 75@=KH:C @8A0, :>B>@>3> =5 E20B0;>. =>385 4065 =5 <>3;8 4>AB0BL @8A. > 2@5<O 2>9=K 87-70 =C64K ;N48 =0CG8;8AL ?>4<5H820BL : 3>@AB:5 @8A0, :>B>@CN 8< C4020;>AL 4>AB0BL, OG<5=L 8;8 4065 :0@B>H:C. >9=0 @07>@8;0 8 45<>@0;87>20;0 =0@>4, 8 2 B5 ?>A;54=85 55 4=8 <8;;8>=K ;N459 ?@8;030;8 2A5 A8;K, GB>1K :0:-B> A25AB8 :>=FK A :>=F0<8. >A;5 =0H53> 7=0:><AB20 1C:0 8 0M40 @0AA:070;8 <>5<C >BFC > =>2>< ?@54?@8OB88 8 > A2>8E ?;0=0E, 4>10282, GB> O 01A>;NB=> =5>1E>48< 2 MB>< =>2>< 45;5. >340 >=8 :>=G8;8, 2A5 <K A> AB@0E>< 640;8 >B25B0. B5F, >G5284=>, 1K; 3>B>2 : MB><C. >GB8 =5 :>;51;OAL, >= A:070;, GB> 2>7;030; =0 <5=O =04564K :0: =0 A2>53> ?@55<=8:0 2 :0G5AB25 3;02K A5<59AB20, 0 B0:65 >6840;, GB> O 2>73;02;N A5<59=>5 ?@54?@8OB85. 0B5< >= ?>25@=C;AO : 0M45 8 1C:5: «> 5A;8 <>9 AK= E>G5B 70=OBLAO G5<-=81C4L 5I5, GB>1K @50;87>20BL A51O 8;8 =09B8 ?@8<5=5=85 A2>8< A?>A>1=>ABO<, O =5 1C4C 5<C <5H0BL». = A C;K1:>9 ?>A<>B@5; =0 <5=O. «5;09, GB> B515 1>;LH5 =@028BAO», A:070; >=. / 1K; 2 2>AB>@35. 1C:0 1K; ?>@065=. >74=55 >= 3>2>@8; <=5: «/ 4C<0;, GB> 70?>;CG8BL B51O 1C45B B@C4=55». >9 A@54=89 1@0B 047C0:8, :>B>@K9 2 B> 2@5<O CG8;AO 2 #=825@A8B5B5 0AM40 2 ">:8>, 4>1@>2>;L=> ?@54;>68; 70<5=8BL >BF0 2 :0G5AB25 2;045;LF0 A0:M20@5==>3> 702>40 A5<59AB20 >@8B0, :>340 >B5F >B>945B >B 45;. A5 2>:@C3 C;K10;8AL. A5 8A?KBK20;8 >1;53G5=85 8 1K;8 AG0AB;82K. 5@=C2H8AL 2 ">:8>, <K >1J548=8;8 =0H8 @5AC@AK, GB>1K CG@548BL =>2CN :><?0=8N «">:8> FCA8= :>3Q», 8;8 ">:89A:CN :><?0=8N B5;5A2O78. 01@0;>AL >:>;> 500 4>;;0@>2. -B> =5;L7O 1K;> =0720BL =5 B>;L:> F0@A:>9, => 8 4>AB0B>G=>9 AC<<>9. K 1KAB@> ?>B@0B8;8 MB8 45=L38, 8 2 B5 4=8 <K G0AB> 1@0;8 45=L38 2709<K C <>53> >BF0. = 25@8; 2 =0A 8 2 =0HC =>2CN :><?0=8N8 =5 B@51>20; 2>72@0B0 4>;3>2. >MB><C O @5H8; 40BL 5<C ?09 2 :><?0=88. -B> >:070;>AL <C4@K< :0?8B0;>2;>65=85<, ?>B><C GB> 53> 25@0 1K;0 E>@>H> 2>7=03@0645=0. 3> ?09 C25;8G820;AO, 8 >= AB0; >4=8< 87 3;02=KE 0:F8>=5@>2 =0H59 :><?0=88. %>BO O 2KA>:> F5=8; 2>7<>6=>ABL 8<5BL A0<>AB>OB5;L=K9 8AB>G=8: 4>E>4>2, :>B>@K< A;C68;0 4;O <5=O ?@5?>4020B5;LA:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 2 ">:89A:>< B5E=>;>38G5A:>< 8=AB8BCB5, 4CH>9 O 1K; =5 B0<. / 60640; ?>;=>ABLN >B40BLAO @01>B5 2 =0H59 =>2>9 :><?0=88. >MB><C O 459AB28B5;L=> 1K; >G5=L 8 >G5=L @04, :>340 ?@>G8B0; >4=064K 2 3075B5 > @5H5=88 >::C?0F8>==KE 2;0AB59 2K3=0BL 87 O?>=A:8E CG51=KE 702545=89 2A5E ?@5?>4020B5;59, :>B>@K5 1K;8 :04@>2K<8 2>5==>A;C60I8<8 0@<88 8 !. / ?>=O;, GB> MB> :0A05BAO <5=O, ?>A:>;L:C O 1K; :04@>2K< 2>5==K< 8=65=5@>< 8 2 A>>B25BAB288 A <>8< >D8F5@A:8< 720=85< 4>;65= 1K; 2AN 687=L A;C68BL 2 =5ACI5AB2CNI5< 1>;LH5 8<?5@0B>@A:>< O?>=A:>< D;>B5.  >A=>25 ?@8:070 5=5@0;L=>3> HB010 A>N7=8G5A:8E 2>9A:, C?@02;ONI53> >::C?0F8>==>9 B5@@8B>@859, > G8AB:5 ;560;0 <KA;L > B><, GB> :04@>2K5 2>5==>A;C60I85, 1K2H85 3;02=K<8 28=>2=8:0<8 2>9=K 8 48:B>202H85 A2>N 2>;N ?@028B5;LAB2C, =5 4>;6=K ?@5?>4020BL, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 <>3CB >:070BL >B@8F0B5;L=>5 2>7459AB285 =0 2>A?@88<G82KE H:>;L=8:>2 ?>A;52>5==>9 /?>=88. ;O <5=O MB> 1K;> @04>AB=>9 25ABLN, ?>B><C GB> B5?5@L C <5=O ?>O28;AO ?@54;>3 >A2>1>48BLAO >B >1O70B5;LAB2 ?5@54 C=825@A8B5B>< 8 O <>3 1K ?>A2OB8BL @01>B5 2 =>2>9 :><?0=88 2A5 A2>5 2@5<O. / ?@8H5; : ?@>D5AA>@C %0BB>@8 8 70O28; 5<C, GB>, E>BO O 2KA>:> F5=N ?@5?>4020B5;LA:CN @01>BC, 87-70 MB>3> @0A?>@O65=8O O =5 A<>3C 1>;LH5 55 ?@>4>;60BL. = >1@0B8;AO : 04<8=8AB@0F88 A ?@>AL1>9 ?@>25@8BL MB>, => B0< 5<C A:070;8, GB> =8:0:>9 >D8F80;L=>9 @5:><5=40F88 >B <8=8AB5@AB20 ?@>A25I5=8O =5B 8 ?>MB><C >=8 =5 7=0NB, GB> A;54C5B 45;0BL. C:>2>4AB2> >B45;5=8O ?@>A8;> <5=O ?@>4>;60BL @01>BC 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 C=825@A8B5B =5 ?>;CG8B >D8F80;L=>3> C254><;5=8O. >B ?>G5<C <=5 ?@8H;>AL ?@>4>;60BL G8B0BL ;5:F88 5I5 <5AOF0 420. / >G5=L E>B5; C9B8, => AG8B0; A51O >1O70==K< >:07K20BL 8 40;LH5 ?><>IL <>5<C AB0@><C =0AB02=8:C ?@>D5AA>@C %0BB>@8. @>AB> B0: O =5 <>3 1@>A8BL @01>BC. >A:>;L:C C254><;5=85 2A5 5I5 =5 ?>ABC?0;>, <=5 ?@8H;0 2 3>;>2C A<5;0O <KA;L. / ?>:070; A>>B25BAB2CNICN 3075B=CN AB0BLN 45:0=C >@>:C 04M 8 2K@078; A2>5 15A?>:>9AB2> ?> ?>2>4C B>3>, GB>, 5A;8 O 1C4C ?@>4>;60BL ?@5?>4020BL 8 MB> >1=0@C68BAO, C=825@A8B5B <>3CB =0:070BL 8;8 >HB@0D>20BL 70 B>, GB> A0< «=5 >G8AB8; A2>9 4><». « A>>B25BAB288 A MB8<, A:070; O 5<C, O 4>;65= 1KBL 2KG8I5=, => 20H0 04<8=8AB@0F8O 3>2>@8B, GB>1K O B5< =5 <5=55 >AB020;AO. / 1>NAL, GB> 5A;8 O 1C4C @01>B0BL 8 40;LH5, C 20A <>3CB 2>7=8:=CBL =5?@8OB=>AB8, 0 O =5 E>GC 1KBL B><C ?@8G8=>9». 5:0= >14C<0; <>8 A;>20 8 =0:>=5F >B25B8;: «C, E>@>H>, K <>65B5 ?@5:@0B8BL @01>B0BL A A53>4=OH=53> 4=O». "0: 70:>=G8;0AL <>O ?@5?>4020B5;LA:0O :0@L5@0. / B5?;> ?>?@>I0;AO A ?@>D5AA>@>< %0BB>@8 8 A @04>ABLN CH5; 2 A2>N =>2CN :><?0=8N. (;8 <5AOFK, => >D8F80;L=>3> C254><;5=8O > B><, GB> <5=O 2KG8AB8;8 87 C=825@A8B5B0, B0: 8 =5 ?>ABC?8;>, 8 :064K9 <5AOF 87 >B45;5=8O <=5 72>=8;8 8 ?@>A8;8 <5=O ?@89B8 8 ?>;CG8BL 60;>20=L5, ?>B><C GB> ?> :0:8<-B> ?@8G8=0< O >AB020;AO 2 ?;0B56=>9 254><>AB8.  E>BO O =5 ?@5?>4020;, <>5 60;>20=L5 C25;8G820;>AL :064K5 420-B@8 <5AOF0, 1;03>40@O =04102:5 =0 8=D;OF8N. "0: ?@>4>;60;>AL 4> >:BO1@O 1946 3>40, :>340 <8=8AB5@AB2> ?@>A25I5=8O =0:>=5F A>1@0;>AL >B?@028BL C254><;5=85 > <>5< C2>;L=5=88. / 1K; @04 MB>9 AC1A8488, ?>:0 <=5 55 ?;0B8;8, ?>B><C GB> 2 B5 4=8 =0H0 :><?0=8O =5 >B;8G0;0AL 5I5 D8=0=A>2K<8 CA?5E0<8.  023CAB5 1946 3>40 C=825@<03 «!8@>:8O» 1K;> @5H5=> 2>AAB0=>28BL, 8 =0A C254><8;8 > B><, GB> 2 MB>< 740=88 4;O =0A =5 1C45B <5AB0. K 2@5<5==> ?5@55E0;8 2 4@C3>5 ?><5I5=85, 2 8B847Q478, >48= 87 AB0@KE @09>=>2 ">:8>. ?@>G5<, >=> =5 C4>2;5B2>@O;> =0A. 0:>=5F <K >1>A=>20;8AL 2 >G5=L 45H52>9 ?>;C@07@CH5==>9 45@52O==>9 ;0GC35 =0 >BM=O<5, E>;<5, :>340-B> A;0282H5<AO :@0A>B>9 F25BCI8E 28H5=, 2 !8=03025, =0 N6=>9 >:@08=5 3>@>40. %>;< >BM=O<0 1K; C:@5?;5= :0: G0ABL >1>@>=8B5;L=KE A>>@C65=89 ">:89A:>3> 70;820 5I5 2 1853 3>4C. @0240, :>340 <K E>;>4=K< 4=5< 2 O=20@5 1947 3>40 ?5@55E0;8 2 =0H 28402H89 284K AB0@K9 4><, >BM=O<0 =8G5< =5 =0?><8=0; :@5?>ABL; ?>2AN4C 2>:@C3 =0A <>6=> 1K;> 2845BL 4>:070B5;LAB20 =0H53> ?>@065=8O. C40 1K <K =8 1@>A0;8 273;O4, 25745 70<5G0;8 1>;LH>9 CI5@1, ?@8G8=5==K9 1><10@48@>2:0<8. @KH0 ?@>B5:0;0, 8 ?>@>9 =0< ?@8E>48;>AL >B:@K20BL 7>=B8:8 =04 =0H8<8 AB>;0<8.  E>BO <K 68;8 40;5:> >B 3>@>4A:>3> F5=B@0, <K 1K;8 745AL 2 1>;LH59 =57028A8<>AB8 8 C =0A 1K;> 1>;LH5 <5AB0, G5< 2 740=88 C=825@<030, 'B>1K ?@>1@0BLAO 2 ?><5I5=85, 345 @0A?>;>68;0AL :><?0=8O «">:8> FCA8= :>3Q», =04> 1K;> ?@83=C2H8AL ?@>9B8 ?>4 15;L52>9 25@52:>9, =0 :>B>@>9 A>A548 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 @0725H820;8 45BA:85 ?5;5=:8, GB>1K 2KACH8BL 8E =0 25B@C. >340 @>4AB25==8:8 =025I0;8 <5=O, 8E =0AB>;L:> ?>B@OA0;8 60;:85 CA;>28O, 2 :>B>@KE O =0E>48;AO, GB> >=8 4C<0;8, GB> O AB0; 0=0@E8AB><, 8 A>>1I8;8 >1 MB>< <>59 <0B5@8. =8 =5 <>3;8 A515 ?@54AB028BL, GB>, E>BO O ?@54?>G5; @01>BC 2 B0:>< <5AB5 >15A?5G5==>9 687=8 2 03>5 2 :0G5AB25 AK=0 ?@57845=B0 402=> 8725AB=>9 :><?0=88, O =5 1K; @048:0;><.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm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«<>73>2K< B@5AB><», :>B>@K9 1C45B >@838=0;L=K<8 A?>A>10<8 ?@>872>48BL =>259H85 B5E=>5<:85 B>20@K. @>AB>5 ?@>872>4AB2> @048>?@85<=8:>2 =5 A>>B25BAB2>20;> =0H5<C ?@54AB02;5=8N > ?CBOE 4>AB865=8O MB8E 8450;>2. K ?@>25;8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 =5=0CG=>5 >1A;54>20=85 1KB0 CF5;52H8E O?>=A:8E A5<59. ><?0=8O ?@>40;0 C65 4>2>;L=> <=>3> :>@>B:>2>;=>2KE ?@8AB02>: : A@54=52>;=>2K< @048>?@85<=8:0<, :>B>@K5 <=>385 O?>=FK 15@56=> E@0=8;8 2AN 2>9=C, 8 2>B B5?5@L <K >1=0@C68;8, GB> 2 4><0E A>E@0=8;>AL 4>2>;L=> <=>3> 2KH54H8E 87 AB@>O ?@>83@K20B5;59. > 2@5<O 2>9=K 4>AB0BL =>2K5 42830B5;8 8 <03=8B=K5 72C:>A=8<0B5;8 1K;> =52>7<>6=>, ?>MB><C AB0;> OA=>, GB> 5ABL @K=>: 4;O 45B0;59, =5>1E>48<KE 4;O ?>G8=:8 8 A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O AB0@KE ?@>83@K20B5;59 2>5==>3> 8 4>2>5==>3> >1@07F0. >O2;O;8AL ?;0AB8=:8 A =>2K<8 ?>?C;O@=K<8 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 A28=30<8 8 4607><, 8 ;N48 60640;8 8E 8<5BL. <5@8:0=FK ?@82>78;8 A A>1>9 A2>N <C7K:C, 8 2 ?5@8>4 >::C?0F88 =0G0;AO ?@>F5AA @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 2 /?>=88 8=D>@<0F88 > !( 8 > B><, :0: 6825B 0<5@8:0=A:89 =0@>4. ::C?0F8>==K5 2;0AB8 27O;8 @048>AB0=F88 2 A2>8 @C:8 ?>A;5 70?@5B0 2>5==KE ;5B, 8 0=3;89A:89 O7K:, 70?@5I5==K9 2> 2@5<O 2>9=K, 2=>2L <>6=> 1K;> ?@5?>4020BL 2 H:>;0E 8 8A?>;L7>20BL 53> 2 @048>?5@540G0E. >A;5 AB>;L 4>;38E ;5B ?>402;5=8O <KA;8 8 2>5==>9 48:B0BC@K =0A06402H85AO 8458 45<>:@0B88, A2>1>4K ;8G=>AB8 8 @025=AB20 ?040;8 =0 ?;>4>@>4=CN ?>G2C. > 2@5<O >::C?0F88 2A5 1K;> 45D8F8B>< 8 2A5< ?@8E>48;>AL ?>;L7>20BLAO «G5@=K< @K=:><». 0H59 =>2>9 :><?0=88  >D8F80;L=> <K 70@538AB@8@>20;8 «">:8> FCA8= :>3Q» 7 <0O 1946 3>40  C40;>AL :C?8BL =51>;LH>9, 1K2H89 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O 2 M:A?;C0B0F88 3@C7>28G>: «0BAC=», :>B>@K9 AB>8; 2 ?5@5AG5B5 >:>;> AB0 4>;;0@>2. :070;>AL, GB> B>;L:> 1C:0 8 O, 420 AB0@H8E @C:>2>48B5;O :><?0=88, 8<5;8 2>48B5;LA:85 ?@020, ?>MB><C =0< ?@8E>48;>AL 4>AB02;OBL =0H B>20@, 0 B0:65 5748BL 70 ?>:C?:0<8 8 ?@82>78BL =0 D01@8:C 45B0;8 8 <0B5@80;K. K 2K?>;=O;8 =0HC @01>BC «C?@02;ONI8E», ?><>30;8 3@C78BL B>20@K 4;O 4>AB02:8, 702>48;8 <>B>@, @072>78;8 B>20@K 8 1K;8 =0 ?>AK;:0E. 0 C;8F0E ">:8> 2 B> 2@5<O F0@8;8 E0>A, HC<, 30@L 8 7;>2>=85. 5=78= 1K; 2 45D8F8B5 8 AB>8; >G5=L 4>@>3>. =>385 ;53:>2K5 02B><>18;8, 3@C7>28:8 8 02B>1CAK >:070;8AL ?5@545;0==K<8, 254L =04> 1K;> 8A?>;L7>20BL 2 :0G5AB25 3>@NG53> >BE>4K =5DB8, 4@525A=K9 C3>;L 8 4@C385 284K B25@4>3> B>?;820, 2:;NG0O <CA>@ 8 C3>;L=CN ?K;L. >A;5 2>9=K >=8 2A5 5I5 1K;8 2 M:A?;C0B0F88. 0 C;8F0E A;CG0;>AL 2845BL 4065 ?>2>7:8, 70?@O65==K5 >A;0<8. 0< 2A5340 C4020;>AL 4>AB020BL 15=78= 4;O =0H53> 3@C7>28:0 2A5<8 70:>==K<8 8 =570:>==K<8 A@54AB20<8. =>65AB2> 0<5@8:0=A:8E A>;40B ?@>4020;8 15=78=, ?5@5:0G820O 53> 87 A2>8E «468?>2» 8 3@C7>28:>2, =5:>B>@K5 4065 ?@>4020;8 53> 1>G:0<8. >5==K5 2;0AB8 ?>?KB0;8AL ?>;>68BL MB><C :>=5F, ?>4<5H820O 2 15=78= :@0A=CN :@0A:C. >@>38 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 ?5@5:@K20;8AL. >5==0O ?>;8F8O >AB0=02;820;0 <0H8=K 8 ?>;8F59A:89 2AB02;O; 4;8==CN AB5:;O==CN B@C1>G:C 2 15=7>10:, 70BK:0; 55 ?0;LF5< 8 2KB0A:820; 55, GB>1K ?@>25@8BL =0 F25B. A;8 >= >:07K20;AO :@0A=K<, ?@8E>48;>AL 4>;3> >1JOA=OBLAO. >AB5?5==> ?>;8F8O 2K;02;820;0 2A5 <5=LH5 8 <5=LH5 ;N459, ?>B><C GB> E8B@K5 O?>=FK >1=0@C68;8, GB> <>6=> >BD8;LB@>20BL :@0A=CN :@0A:C A ?><>ILN C3;O, 8 70=O;8AL 2K3>4=K< 45;>< «>B<K2:8» 15=78=0, :C?;5==>3> =0 «G5@=>< @K=:5». K 7=0;8, GB> :@C?=K5 M;5:B@>B5E=8G5A:85 :><?0=88 =5 ?@>O2;ONB 8=B5@5A0 : ?@>872>4AB2C 70?0A=KE 45B0;59. =8 45;0;8 8 ?@>4020;8 =>2K5 ?@>83@K20B5;8.  E>BO ?@>872>4AB2> 45B0;59, 157CA;>2=>, =5 1K;> B5< 8450;L=K< 45;><, :>B>@>5 1K;> A2O70=> A =>259H59 B5E=>;>3859 8 : :>B>@><C <K H;8, 1C:0 7=0;, GB> 45;05B.  B5 4=8 =5 1K;> 42830B5;59 8 72C:>A=8<0B5;59 ;CGH5 =0H8E 8 >=8 ?>72>;O;8 :><?0=88 A2>48BL :>=FK A :>=F0<8 2 D8=0=A>2>< >B=>H5=88. ! 45=L30<8 1K;> >G5=L BC3>, 8 AB@>385 <5@K 1>@L1K A 8=D;OF859 A>74020;8 4;O =0A ?@>1;5<K, ?>B><C GB> 7=0G8B5;L=0O G0ABL 45=53, =0E>482H8EAO 2 >1@0I5=88, 1K;0 70<>@>65=0. ;0AB8 >3@0=8G820;8 45=56=CN AC<<C, :>B>@CN @07@5H0;>AL 27OBL 2 10=:5 >B45;L=><C 3@0640=8=C 8;8 :><?0=88. -B> 8 ?>A;C68;> ?5@2>=0G0;L=>9 ?@8G8=>9 ?@82;5G5=8O 2A5E A>B@C4=8:>2 : @01>B5 =04 M;5:B@>3@5;:0<8  =04> 1K;> GB>-B> ?@>4020BL =5?>A@54AB25==> =0A5;5=8N, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL =0;8G=K5. > 1C:0 ?>AB028; A2>59 F5;LN ?@>872>48BL A>25@H5==> =>2K5 ?>B@518B5;LA:85 B>20@K  =5 ?@>AB> A>25@H5=AB2>20BL B>, GB> 1K;> =0 4>2>5==>< @K=:5, 0 A45;0BL GB>-B> A>25@H5==> =>2>5 4;O /?>=88, CAB@>9AB2> 4;O 70?8A8 =0 <03=8B=CN ?@>2>;>:C. K 2845;8 ?@>2>;>G=K5 <03=8B>D>=K, A45;0==K5 2 5@<0=88, 0 2 #=825@A8B5B5 ">E>:C =0 A525@5 /?>=88 ?@>2>48;8AL =0CG=K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?> 2K?CA:C A?5F80;L=>9 AB0;L=>9 ?@>2>;>:8 4;O B0:8E CAB@>9AB2. #G5=K5 C65 @07@01>B0;8 2 A2>8E ;01>@0B>@8OE ?@5:@0A=CN =>2CN B5E=>;>38N =0<03=8G820=8O AB0;8. 1C:0 C7=0;, GB> :><?0=8O «!C<8B><> <5B0;7» <>65B ?@>872>48BL =C6=K9 =0< A>@B AB0;L=>9 ?@>2>;>:8, A?5F80;L=CN ?@>2>;>:C 480<5B@>< @>2=> 0,1 <<, :>B>@CN 1K;> >G5=L B@C4=> 45;0BL. 1C:0 ?>5E0; 2 A0:C 4;O ?5@53>2>@>2 A «!C<8B><>» > ?@>872>4AB25 ?@>2>;>:8 4;O =>2>3> <03=8B>D>=0, => :><?0=8O =5 ?@>O28;0 8=B5@5A0 : MB><C 70:07C. 1C:0 ?@54AB02;O; =>2CN =51>;LHCN :><?0=8N, 65;02HCN ?>;CG8BL =>259H89 ?@>4C:B, ?@>872>4AB2> :>B>@>3> 4>@>3> AB>8B 8 :>B>@K9 =C65= B>;L:> >4=><C 70:07G8:C. @C385 :><?0=88, :>B>@K5 <>3;8 ?@>872>48BL B0:CN ?@>2>;>:C, @5038@>20;8 B>G=> B0: 65. > :0: MB> 8=>340 A;CG05BAO, 8E >B:07 >15@=C;AO 4;O =0A 1;03><. K =5 A<>3;8 ?@>872>48BL ?@>2>;>G=K9 <03=8B>D>=, GB> =0A >3>@G8;>. > 70B> 2 1C4CI5< =0< ?@54AB>O;> ?@>872>48BL 4@C3>5, 3>@074> ;CGH55 72C:>70?8AK20NI55 CAB@>9AB2>  A>2@5<5==K9 <03=8B>D>=, E>BO 2 B> 2@5<O <K MB>3> 5I5 =5 7=0;8. ::C?0F8>==K5 2;0AB8 27O;8 2 A2>8 @C:8 /?>=A:CN @048>25I0B5;L=CN :><?0=8N %, O?>=A:89 0=0;>3 8-18-A8. < =C6=> 1K;> =>2>5 B5E=8G5A:>5 >1>@C4>20=85, =0?@8<5@ <8:H5@K 8 4@C30O 0??0@0BC@0 4;O ABC489 8 @048>25I0=8O, A :>B>@>9 1C:0 1K; 7=0:><. 1C:0 ?>40; 70O2:C =0 :>=B@0:B =0 ?@>872>4AB2> 1>;LH>3> <8:H5@0 4;O %, 8 25402H89 MB8<8 45;0<8 0<5@8:0=A:89 >D8F5@, 1@8304=K9 35=5@0;, ?@8H5; 2 =0HC ;0GC3C =0 >BM=O<5, GB>1K >7=0:><8BLAO A MB8< =58725AB=K< 702>4>< 8 53> 04<8=8AB@0F859, 0 B0:65 >1AC48BL B5E=8G5A:85 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8. @C3 1C:8, !83M> !8<0, >B25G0; 70 ;8:2840F8N 2>5==>3> CI5@10, ?@8G8=5==>3> B5E=8:5 %, 8 !8<0 @5:><5=4>20; ?@54>AB028BL :>=B@0:B 1C:5. !8<0 ?@85E0; : =0< 2<5AB5 A 35=5@0;><, A>25@H02H8< 8=A?5:F8>==CN ?>574:C, => :>340 35=5@0; C2845; =0H F5E, >= 1K; ?>@065= 53> ?@8<8B82=>ABLN 8 ?>:0G0; 3>;>2>9. = =5 <>3 ?>=OBL, ?>G5<C ?@54AB028B5;L % @5:><5=4C5B MBC <0;5=L:CN =58725AB=CN :><?0=8N, @01>B0NICN 2 AB>;L ?@8<8B82=KE CA;>28OE. @C3 1C:8 <>3 ;8HL ?@>A8BL 35=5@0;0 4>25@8BLAO 53> <=5=8N  8 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 35=5@0;0 C1548;8 ?@8=OBL MBC @5:><5=40F8N. > ?>A;54=89 1K; B0: >15A?>:>5=, C28452 C60A=>5 740=85, 2 :>B>@>< <K =0E>48;8AL, GB> 25;5; =0< @0AAB028BL ?>2AN4C 254@0 A ?5A:>< 8 2>4>9 =0 A;CG09 ?>60@0. >340 70:070==>5 >1>@C4>20=85 1K;> 4>AB02;5=> 2 :>=B>@C %, =0E>482HCNAO B>340 2A53> 2 ?>;C<8;5 >B HB010 35=5@0;0 0:0@BC@0 2 F5=B@5 ">:8>, 2A5 2>AE8I0;8AL 53> :0G5AB2><, >A>15==> B>B =54>25@G82K9 35=5@0;, :>B>@K9 2A5 5I5 =5 <>3 ?>=OBL, :0: =>20O =51>;LH0O :><?0=8O <>65B 873>B>2;OBL =0 2@5<5==>9 D01@8:5 B0:>9 B5E=>5<:89 ?@>4C:B. A5 =0A ?>74@02;O;8 8 C;K10;8AL =0<, 35=5@0; 1K; 25AL<0 4>2>;5=. / 4C<0N, GB> <K ?>;CG8;8 =>2K5 70:07K >B @048>A;C61K 0<5@8:0=A:8E 2>>@C65==KE A8; 8 >B 40;L=52>AB>G=>9 2>74CH=>9 0@<88 1;03>40@O B><C, GB> <K 702>520;8 4>25@85, ?@>45<>=AB@8@>202 :0G5AB2> =0H59 @01>BK ?@8 2K?>;=5=88 ?5@2>3> 70:070. >340 1C:0 4>AB028; 2 % <8:H5@ 8 ?@8=8<0; ?>74@02;5=8O, >= C2845; 2 >4=>< 87 :018=5B>2 <03=8B>D>= «8;:>:A 3M9»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«<?5:A» 2 !( >4=>9 87 ?5@2KE 70=O;0AL MB8< =>2K< 45;>< A@07C ?>A;5 2>9=K, ?@8ABC?82 : ?@>872>4AB2C A0<8E <03=8B>D>=>2. A=>2=K< 65 ?@>872>48B5;5< ;5=BK AB0;0 :><?0=8O «8==5A>B0 <09=8=3 M=4 <M=K>DM:GC@8=3», :>B>@CN B5?5@L =07K20NB « :><?0=8» (). "5E=>;>38O @072820;0AL 8 A>25@H5=AB2>20;0AL. <5==> B0:CN 0??0@0BC@C, 0 =5 ?@>2>;>G=K5 <03=8B>D>=K, 8 4>;6=0 1K;0 ?@>872>48BL, ?> <=5=8N 1C:8, =0H0 :><?0=8O.  MB><C 2@5<5=8 1C:0 C65 @0A?8A0; B0: <=>3> B>20@>2, :>B>@K5 <K <>3;8 1K ?@>872>48BL, GB> 53> :>;;530< 8 >A>15==> 1CE30;B5@C MB> C65 AB0;> =04>540BL. = 7=0;, GB> 5<C 1C45B B@C4=> 702>520BL 4>25@85. = @5H8; A:>=AB@C8@>20BL =>2K9 <03=8B>D>= 4;O /?>=88, 8 5<C =04> 1K;> C1548BL A2>8E :>;;53, 0 B0:65 =0H53> ?@868<8AB>3> :07=0G5O 2 687=5A?>A>1=>AB8 MB>9 8458. 1C:0 ?>15A54>20; A 0<5@8:0=A:8< >D8F5@>< 2 % 8 ?>?@>A8; @07@5H5=8O 27OBL =5=04>;3> <03=8B>D>=, GB>1K ?>:070BL 53> A2>8< A>B@C4=8:0<. D8F5@ 4>;3> =5 @5H0;AO, => 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 A>3;0A8;AO ;8G=> 4>AB028BL <03=8B>D>= 2 :><?0=8N, GB>1K ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL 53>. A5 <K AB>;?8;8AL 2>:@C3 <03=8B>D>=0. > 2>B ?>:07 <>45;8 >:>=G5=. K 2A5 1K;8 C15645=K 2 B><, GB> MB> AB>OI89 4;O :><?0=88 ?@>5:B. 0, 2A5, 70 8A:;NG5=85< =0H53> 1CE30;B5@0 .=8B8 %0A5302K, G5;>25:0, :>B>@>3> <>9 >B5F >B?@028; : =0< 87 A2>59 A5<59=>9 :><?0=88, GB>1K >= ?><>30; =0< 45@60BL 2 ?>@O4:5 D8=0=A>2K5 45;0 =0H59 <0;5=L:>9 D8@<K. %0A53020 8 !C4701C@> "0B8:020, 3;02=K9 C?@02;ONI89 =0H59 :><?0=88, E>;>4=K< 8 :@8B8G5A:8< 27>@>< =01;N40;8 70 2A5<, GB> <K 45;0;8, 8 AG8B0;8, GB> =>20O 845O ?>B@51C5B A;8H:>< 1>;LH8E 70B@0B 8 =5 AC;8B CA?5E0. =8 1K;8 ?@>B82 B>3>, GB>1K <K 2:;04K20;8 45=L38 2 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:85 8 >?KB=>-:>=AB@C:B>@A:85 @07@01>B:8 MB>3> ?@>5:B0. >20O 845O A>740=8O ;5=B>G=>3> <03=8B>D>=0 2>>4CH528;0 =0A A 1C:>9: <K 1K;8 B25@4> C25@5=K 2 B><, GB> MB>  =0H ?@>5:B. >MB><C <K @5H8;8 =0A5ABL =0 %0A5302C 8 >1@0B8BL 53> 2 =0HC 25@C. K ?@83;0A8;8 53> ?>>1540BL 2 @5AB>@0=5 =0 «G5@=>< @K=:5», 345 CAB@>8;8 25;8:>;5?=K9 ?8@, 4>25@H82 53> ?82><, :>B>@>5 B>340 1K;> @54:>ABLN. K 5;8 8 ?8;8 4> 3;C1>:>9 =>G8. K @0AA:070;8 5<C 2A5 > 4>AB>8=AB20E ;5=B>G=>3> <03=8B>D>=0, > B><, GB> MB> 1C45B @52>;NF8O F5;>9 >B@0A;8 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 GB> <K <>3;8 1K 2ABC?8BL 2 MBC =>2CN >1;0ABL ?5@2K<8 8 ?>1548BL 2A5E <54;5==> H54H8E :>=:C@5=B>2 87 3830=BA:8E :><?0=89, 5A;8 A@07C 65 ?@8ABC?8< : 45;C, => GB> <K 4>;6=K 459AB2>20BL @07C<=> 8 ?@>G=> AB>OBL =0 =>30E. K, ?>-2848<><C, 74>@>2> @07@5:;0<8@>20;8 5<C =0H8 ?;0=K, ?>B><C GB> >= ?@O<> B0< =0 AKBK9 65;C4>: >4>1@8; =0H ?@>5:B. B=K=5 4>@>30 ?5@54 =0<8 1K;0 >B:@KB0. > MB> =0< B>;L:> :070;>AL. K 2A:>@5 ?>=O;8, GB> =0H0 3;02=0O 1540 2 B><, GB> <K A>25@H5==> =5 7=05<, :0: 45;0BL A0<CN 206=CN G0ABL MB>9 A8AB5<K, 72C:>70?8AK20NICN ;5=BC. 5=B0 1K;0 A5@4F5< =>2>3> ?@>5:B0, 8 8<5==> ;5=B0 1K;0 4;O =0A 70304:>9. ;03>40@O =0H8< ?@56=8< @01>B0< =04 ?@>2>;>G=K<8 <03=8B>D>=0<8 <K GC2AB2>20;8 A51O 2?>;=5 C25@5==> 2 B><, GB> :0A0;>AL <5E0=8G5A:8E 8;8 M;5:B@>==KE :><?>=5=B>2 =>2>3> <03=8B>D>=0. > A0<0 ;5=B0 ?@54AB02;O;0 A>2A5< 8=CN ?@>1;5<C. 8:B> 2 /?>=88 =5 8<5; =8:0:>3> >?KB0 @01>BK A <03=8B=>9 ;5=B>9, 0 8<?>@B8@>20BL 55 <K =5 <>3;8, ?>MB><C <K ?>=8<0;8, GB> =0< ?@845BAO ?@>872>48BL A>1AB25==CN ;5=BC. 0H0 AB@0B538O A A0<>3> =0G0;0 70:;NG0;0AL 2 B><, GB>1K =5 B>;L:> ?@>872>48BL <03=8B>D>=K, => B0:65 45;0BL 8 ?@>4020BL 72C:>70?8AK20NICN ;5=BC. K E>@>H> 7=0;8, GB> B5, :B> :C?8B <03=8B>D>=, >1@07CNB ?>AB>O==K9 @K=>: 8 4;O ;5=BK. A;8 <K 1C45< ?@>4020BL <03=8B>D>=K 157 ;5=BK, <K A0<8 >B4048< 2K3>4=>5 45;> 2 @C:8 =0H8E 1C4CI8E :>=:C@5=B>2. 0H0 ?5@20O 8 A0<0O B@C4=0O ?@>1;5<0 A>AB>O;0 2 B><, GB>1K 4>AB0BL 8;8 A45;0BL A0<8< 8AE>4=K9 <0B5@80;. # =0A =5 1K;> ?;0AB8:>2. # =0A 1K; B>;L:> F5;;>D0=. > =0< 1K;> 8725AB=>, GB> >= =5 3>48BAO, <K 1K;8 2K=C645=K 1@0BL B>, GB> <>6=> 1K;> 4>AB0BL. 1C:0, O 8 1;5ABOI89 <>;>4>9 8=65=5@ >1CB>A8 8E0@0 @01>B0;8 >4=>9 1@8304>9, @07@570O F5;;>D0= =0 4;8==K5 ?>;>AK H8@8=>9 2 G5B25@BL 4N9<0 8 ?>:@K20O 8E @07;8G=K<8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K<8 <0B5@80;0<8. A:>@5 =0< AB0;> OA=>, GB> 87 MB>3> =8G53> =5 2K945B, ?>A:>;L:C 4065 A0<K5 ;CGH85 8 A0<K5 ?@>G=K5 A>@B0 F5;;>D0=0 <>6=> 1K;> ?@>3>=OBL G5@57 ;5=B>?@>BO6=K9 <5E0=87< B>;L:> >48=-420 @070, ?>A;5 G53> ;5=B0 @0ABO3820;0AL, 157=0456=> B5@OO D>@<C, GB> 8A:060;> 72C:. K =0=O;8 E8<8:>2, GB>1K >=8 ?@84C<0;8 A?>A>1 A45;0BL F5;;>D0= 1>;55 C?@C38<, => MB> B>65 =5 40;> =8:0:8E @57C;LB0B>2. K ?>?@>1>20;8 1>;55 ?;>B=K9 F5;;>D0=. 57CA?5H=>. 0:>=5F, O A?@>A8; A2>53> 42>N@>4=>3> 1@0B0 >@> >45@C, @01>B02H53> 2 :><?0=88 «%>=AN ?M9?5@», <>6=> ;8 ?@>872>48BL >G5=L ?@>G=CN, >G5=L B>=:CN 8 >G5=L 3;04:CN :@0DB-1C<03C, :>B>@0O <>3;0 1K A;C68BL >A=>2>9 4;O =0H59 ;5=BK. = >B25B8;, GB>, ?> 53> <=5=8N, AB>8B ?>?@>1>20BL, 8 2A:>@5 ?@8=5A =0< 1C<03C >G5=L E>@>H53> :0G5AB20, 8 2>B <K, 2>>@C682H8AL 1@8B20<8, >?OBL ?@8=O;8AL 70 @01>BC. 09B8 E>@>H89 <03=8B=K9 <0B5@80; 4;O ?>:@KB8O ;5=BK 2 B> 2@5<O 45D8F8B>2 1K;> ?>GB8 =52>7<>6=>. "5?5@L 4065 <=5 2A5 MB> :065BAO =525@>OB=K<, => B5 ?5@2K5 ;5=BK 8E0@0, 1C:0 8 O 45;0;8 2@CG=CN. K =0@570;8 4>AB0B>G=>5 4;O =51>;LH>9 :0BCH:8 :>;8G5AB2> ;5=BK. !:;55==CN 4;8==CN ?>;>AC @07;>68;8 =0 ?>;C ;01>@0B>@88. 0H8 ?5@2K5 ?>?KB:8 4>AB0BL =5>1E>48<K9 <03=8B=K9 <0B5@80; 70:>=G8;8AL =5C40G59. AE>4=K5 <0B5@80;K =5 3>48;8AL, ?>B><C GB> <03=8BK, :>B>@K5 <K AB8@0;8 2 ?>@>H>:, 1K;8 A;8H:>< <>I=K<8. ;O =0H59 ;5=BK =0< =C65= 1K; B>;L:> A;01K9 <03=8B=K9 <0B5@80;.  A2>8E ?>8A:0E 8E0@0 =0B>;:=C;AO =0 >:A0;0B 65;570, :>B>@K9 ?@8 A6830=88 ?@52@0I05BAO 2 >:8A5; 65;570. -B> 1K;> :0: @07 B>, GB> =04>. > 345 53> 4>AB0BL? / AE20B8; 8E0@C, 8 <K ?>H;8 2 B>B @09>= ">:8>, 345 =0E>48;8AL D0@<0F52BK->?B>28:8, 8 B0< 459AB28B5;L=> =0H5;AO B>;L:> >48= <03078=, :>B>@K9 B>@3>20; MB8< E8<8:0;85<. K :C?8;8 425 1CBK;:8 >:A0;0B0 65;570 8 ?@8=5A;8 8E 2 ;01>@0B>@8N. # =0A =5 1K;> M;5:B@8G5A:>9 ?5G8, GB>1K =0:0;8BL MBC A>;L, ?>MB><C <K 4>AB0;8 A:>2>@>4:C 8, ?><5H820O A>;L 45@52O==>9 ;>6:>9, 60@8;8 55 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 >=0 =5 AB0;0 A=0G0;0 :>@8G=52>9, 0 70B5< G5@=>9. >@8G=52>5 25I5AB2> 1K;> >:8A;>< 65;570, 0 G5@=>5  B5B@0>:8A;><. 8E0@0 >G5=L ;>2:> >?@545;O; F25B ?>@>H:0 8 AAK?0; 53> A> A:>2>@>4K :0: @07 B>340, :>340 >= ?@8>1@5B0; =C6=K9 F25B. K A<5H820;8 53> A G8ABK< O?>=A:8< ;0:><, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL =C6=CN :>=A8AB5=F8N, ?>72>;O2HCN =0=>A8BL A>AB02 =0 ;5=BC A ?><>ILN ?C;L25@870B>@0. > A ?C;L25@870B>@>< =8G53> =5 ?>;CG0;>AL, ?>MB><C <K 8A?@>1>20;8 2A5 2>7<>6=K5 A@54AB20 8 :>=G8;8 B5<, GB> AB0;8 =0=>A8BL ?>:@KB85 2@CG=CN B>=:8<8 :8ABO<8, A45;0==K<8 87 <O3:>9 I5B8=K A 1@NH:0 5=>B0.  =0H5<C C482;5=8N, <K >1=0@C68;8, GB> MB> 40;> A0<K5 ;CGH85 @57C;LB0BK. -B8 ?5@2K5 1C<06=K5 ;5=BK 1K;8, :>=5G=>, C60A=K<8. 1C:0 3>2>@8;, GB> :0G5AB2> 1K;> =0AB>;L:> ?;>E8<, GB> 5420 <>6=> 1K;> @0AA;KH0BL A;>20 «<>A8-<>A8»  B0: O?>=FK ?@825BAB2CNB 4@C3 4@C30 ?> B5;5D>=C. > <K 1K;8 3>@4K MB8<.  B> 2@5<O =0 =0A @01>B0;8 A>@>: ?OBL G5;>25: 8 1>;55 B@5B8 87 =8E 1K;8 2K?CA:=8:8 :>;;54659. !?5F80;8ABK A 3>;>2>9 A>AB02;O;8 A@548 =0A 1>;LH8=AB2>, => <K =5 <>3;8 ?@>8725AB8 2KA>:>:0G5AB25==K9 ?@>4C:B, :>B>@K9 =0< 1K; =5>1E>48<, =5 8<5O ?;0AB8:0 4;O ;5=BK. >340 <K AC<5;8 4>AB0BL ?;0AB8:, <K @07@01>B0;8 A>1AB25==CN B5E=>;>38N 55 ?@8<5=5=8O. "5E=>;>38O C =0A 1K;0 3>B>20, 8 <K A:>@> 2KH;8 A ;5=B>9 =0 @K=>:. (1C:0 B0: 0:B82=> AB@5<8;AO 70:@5?8BL A2>8 ?>78F88 =0 @K=:5 <03=8B=>9 ;5=BK, GB> =0< ?@8H;>AL 2;>68BL <=>3> 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE CA8;89 2 MB> 45;>, 8 =5A:>;L:> ;5B A?CABO, 2 =>O1@5 1965 3>40, >=, :0: 8 2A5 <K, 8A?KB0; C4>2;5B2>@5=85, :>340  ?@54?>G;0 =0HC ;5=BC 4;O 70?><8=0NI53> CAB@>9AB20 2 A2>8E :><?LNB5@0E. >340 =0H0 :><?0=8O =0G0;0 A=0160BL :><?0=8N  B5E=>;>3859 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 <03=8B=>9 ;5=BK, CAB0=>28;0 B0< A2>N 0??0@0BC@C 8 =0?@028;0 =0 ?@54?@8OB85  2 >C;45@5, HB0B >;>@04>, A2>8E B5E=8G5A:8E A?5F80;8AB>2, MB> AB0;> 2>;=CNI8< A>1KB85< 4;O 2A5E =0A.)  B5 ?5@2K5 4=8 >B ;5=BK 7028A5;0 AC4L10 =0H53> ?@54?@8OB8O. 'B> :0A05BAO A0<>9 0??0@0BC@K, B> <K CA>25@H5=AB2>20;8 <5E0=87< <03=8B>D>=0 4> A>2@5<5==>3> C@>2=O. 03=8B>D>=, :>B>@K9 <K A>740;8 2 1950 3>4C, 1K; 3@><>74:8< 8 BO65;K<, => >=, ?> =0H5<C C15645=8N, ?@5:@0A=> @01>B0;, 8 O 1K; 01A>;NB=> C25@5= 2 B><, GB> ?>A;5 2A5E =0H8E B@C4>2 <K =0:>=5F =0 ?CB8 : 3@0=48>7=><C CA?5EC. >340 =0H <03=8B>D>= 1K; 3>B>2 4;O. ?@>4068, <K =5 A><=520;8AL 2 B><, GB> AB>8B B>;L:> ?>B@518B5;O< C2845BL 8 CA;KH0BL 53>, :0: >=8 A@07C 65 7020;OB =0A 70:070<8. 0A 640;> 3>@L:>5 @07>G0@>20=85. 03=8B>D>= 1K; =0AB>;L:> =>2K< B>20@>< 4;O /?>=88, GB> ?>GB8 =8:B> =5 7=0;, GB> MB> B0:>5, 0 1>;LH8=AB2> B5E, :B> 2A5 65 7=0;, GB> B0:>5 <03=8B>D>=, =5 ?@54AB02;O;8, 70G5< 53> ?>:C?0BL. N48 =5 8A?KBK20;8 2 =5< =8:0:>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8. K =5 <>3;8 53> ?@>40BL.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" >  . 0G8=05BAO =>20O 687=L.  III 3;O4K20OAL =0704 A ?>78F89 A53>4=OH=53> 4=O, O 4>2>;L=> G5B:> >A>7=0N, 2 G5< A>AB>O;8 =5:>B>@K5 87 4@C38E =0H8E ?@>1;5<. 5@2K9 1>;LH>9 <03=8B>D>=, 8<52H89 D>@<C OI8:0, 25A8; 35 :8;>3@0<<>2, 8 <K CAB0=>28;8 =0 =53> F5=C 2 170 BKAOG 85=.  ?5@8>4 >::C?0F88, :>340 =>20O 85=0 >D8F80;L=> :>B8@>20;0AL ?> :C@AC 360 85= 70 1 4>;;0@, MB> 1K;0 2 /?>=88 1>;LH0O AC<<0. 0;> C :>3> 2 /?>=88 1K;> B0: <=>3> 45=53, GB>1K ?>B@0B8BL 8E =0 25IL, :>B>@0O =58725AB=> =0 GB> <>65B ?@83>48BLAO. ( B5 4=8 2K?CA:=8: C=825@A8B5B0, @01>B02H89 2 ?@><KH;5==>AB8, 70@010BK20; <5=LH5 10 BKAOG 85= 2 <5AOF.) K ?@>8725;8 ?OBL45AOB B0:8E <03=8B>D>=>2 4;O @K=:0, :>B>@K9, ?>-2848<><C, =5 ACI5AB2>20;. 8 1C:0, =8 O =5 8<5;8 =8 =0AB>OI59 ?>43>B>2:8 2 >1;0AB8 A1KB0, =8 :0:>3>-;81> @50;L=>3> >?KB0 2 ?@>872>4AB25 ?>B@518B5;LA:8E B>20@>2 8;8 2 8E ?@>4065. 1C:0 ?@>872>48; B>20@K B>;L:> ?> 3>AC40@AB25==K< 70:070< 8;8 4;O @048>25I0=8O, 5A;8 =5 AG8B0BL 53> ?5@2K5 :>@>B:>2>;=>2K5 @048>?@8AB02:8 8 70?0A=K5 G0AB8 4;O ?@>83@K20B5;59. / 2>>1I5 5I5 =8G53> =5 45;0; 4;O ?@>4068.  E>BO O 2 45BAB25 ?@>H5; C <>53> >BF0 E>@>HCN ?>43>B>2:C 2 >1;0AB8 <5=546<5=B0, :>B>@CN O A<>3 8A?>;L7>20BL 2> 2@5<O A;C61K =0 D;>B5, C <5=O =5 1K;> =8:0:>3> >?KB0 2 >1;0AB8 ?;0=8@>20=8O A1KB0 8;8 C<5=8O B>@3>20BL. 8 1C:0, =8 O =8:>340 =5 704C<K20;8AL =04 B5<, ACI5AB2C5B ;8 :0:0O-=81C4L ?>B@51=>ABL 2 MB>9 0??0@0BC@5. 1C:0 1K; B25@4> C15645= 2 B><, GB> 2A5, GB> <K 4>;6=K 45;0BL, MB> ?@>872>48BL E>@>H85 B>20@K, 70:07K 1C4CB. / 1K; A =8< ?>;=>ABLN A>3;0A5=. 0< 1K; ?@5?>4=5A5= E>@>H89 C@>:. K 1K;8 8=65=5@0<8 8 <5GB0;8 > 1>;LH>< CA?5E5. K ?>;030;8, GB>, A45;02 C=8:0;L=K9 B>20@, <K, :>=5G=>, @071>30B55<. / 1K; ?@58A?>;=5= @5H8<>AB8 >15A?5G8BL CA?5E MB><C <03=8B>D>=C. >340 >= 1K; 3>B>2, O 45<>=AB@8@>20; 53> :064K9 45=L ?>2AN4C, 345 <=5 C4020;>AL =0E>48BL 0C48B>@8N. / ?>:07K20; 53> D8@<0<, C=825@A8B5B0<. / :064K9 45=L 1@0; 53> 2 3@C7>28:, 2>78; 53> 4@C7LO< 8 70?8AK20; 8E 3>;>A0, :>340 >=8 3>2>@8;8 8;8 ?5;8. / 2KABC?0; 2 @>;8 70B59=8:0, CAB0=02;820O <03=8B>D>=, 70?8AK20O 3>;>A0 ;N459 8 2>A?@>872>4O 8E 2=>2L : 8E 2>AB>@3C 8 C482;5=8N. 03=8B>D>= 2A5< =@028;AO, => =8:B> =5 E>B5; 53> ?>:C?0BL. A5 >=8 =0 @07=K5 ;04K 3>2>@8;8 >4=> 8 B> 65: «-B> 701020, => 4;O 83@CH:8 MB0 25IL A;8H:>< 4>@>3> AB>8B». ">340 O ?>=O;, GB> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 45;> ?>H;>, =54>AB0B>G=> 8<5BL C=8:0;L=CN B5E=>;>38N 8 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@>872>48BL C=8:0;L=CN ?@>4C:F8N. K 4>;6=K ?@>40BL A2>9 B>20@, 0 4;O MB>3> =04> ?>:070BL ?>B5=F80;L=><C ?>:C?0B5;N @50;L=CN F5==>ABL B>3>, GB> 2K ?@>405B5. / 24@C3 >A>7=0;, GB> <=5 ?@845BAO AB0BL ?@>402F>< =0H59 <0;5=L:>9 :><?0=88. 0< ?>257;>, GB> C =0A 1K; B0:>9 35=89, :0: 1C:0, :>B>@K9 <>3 ?>;=>ABLN A>A@54>B>G8BLAO =0 @07@01>B:5 8 ?@>872>4AB25 =>2>3> B>20@0, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: O 70=O;AO ?@>1;5<0<8 A1KB0 =0H59 D8@<K. !G0AB;82K9 A;CG09 ?><>3 <=5 C2845BL A25B. / 2A5 5I5 AB0@0;AO ?>=OBL, 2 G5< 1K;0 >H81:0, 87-70 :>B>@>9 =0H8 ?>?KB:8 ?@>40BL <03=8B>D>=K >:070;8AL 157CA?5H=K<8. 4=064K O A;CG09=> ?@>E>48; <8<> 0=B8:20@=>9 ;02:8 2 ">:8>, =540;5:> >B <>53> 4><0. / =5 >G5=L 8=B5@5A>20;AO 0=B8:20@80B>< 8 =5 <>3 B>340 >F5=820BL AB>8<>ABL 0=B8:20@=KE 25I59. >340 O >AB0=>28;AO B0<, @0AA<0B@820O MB8 ?@54<5BK AB0@8=K 8 C482;OOAL 8E 2KA>:8< F5=0<, O C2845; G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 ?>:C?0; AB0@8==CN 207C. 57 :>;510=89 >= 2KB0I8; 1C<06=8: 8 ?5@540; 0=B8:20@C 1>;LHCN ?0G:C 10=:=>B. &5=0 1K;0 2KH5, G5< <K ?@>A8;8 70 =0H <03=8B>D>=. >G5<C, 4C<0; O, ;N48 ?;0BOB B0: <=>3> 45=53 70 AB0@K9 ?@54<5B, =5 8<5NI89 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 F5==>AB8, 0 B0:>5 =>2>5 8 206=>5 87>1@5B5=85, :0: =0H <03=8B>D>=, =5 <>65B ?@82;5GL ?>:C?0B5;59? =5 :070;>AL 2?>;=5 >G5284=K<, GB> F5==>ABL <03=8B>D>=0 3>@074> 2KH5 F5==>AB8 ;N1>3> 0=B8:20@=>3> ?@54<5B0, ?>B><C GB> >= <>65B >1>30B8BL 687=L <=>38E ;N459, :>B>@K5 A<>3CB 8< ?>;L7>20BLAO. 0;> :B> <>65B >F5=8BL 87OI=K5 :>=BC@K 207K, => 5420 ;8 <=>3> ;N459 70E>BOB 27OBL 2 @C:8 B0:>9 4>@>3>9 ?@54<5B 87 AB@0E0 53> @0718BL. 0H 65 <03=8B>D>= <>65B A;C68BL A>B=O< 8 4065 BKAOG0< ;N459, >= <>65B 70=OBL 8 @072;5GL 8E, <>65B CG8BL 8E 8 ?><>30BL 8< 2 ?@>F5AA5 A0<>A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O. 8G=> C <5=O =5 1K;> =8:0:8E A><=5=89  <03=8B>D>= 1>;55 2K3>4=0O ?>:C?:0, => O ?>=8<0;, GB> 2070 8<55B AC1J5:B82=CN F5==>ABL 4;O :>;;5:F8>=5@0 0=B8:20@=KE 25I59 8 GB> C =53> 1K;8 A>1AB25==K5 25A:85 ?@8G8=K, ?>1C6402H85 2:;04K20BL B0: <=>3> 45=53 2 B0:>9 ?@54<5B. 5:>B>@K5 87 <>8E ?@54:>2, :0: 2?>A;54AB288 8 O, 45;0;8 B> 65 A0<>5. > 2 B>B <><5=B O ?>=O;, GB>, 5A;8 <K E>B8< ?@>40BL =0H8 <03=8B>D>=K, <K 4>;6=K CAB0=>28BL :@C3 ;N459 8 >@30=870F89, :>B>@K5, ?> 2A59 25@>OB=>AB8, ?>9<CB F5==>ABL =0H53> B>20@0. K, 8;8 A:>@55 "0<>= 0M40, 70<5B8;8, GB> 2 =0G0;5 ?>A;52>5==>3> ?5@8>40 =5 E20B0;> AB5=>3@0D8AB>2, ?>B><C GB> <=>385, =54>CG82H8AL, 1K;8 1@>H5=K =0 2>5==K5 @01>BK. >:0 MB0 =5E20B:0 ACI5AB2>20;0, O?>=A:85 AC4K AB0@0;8AL >1E>48BLAO >G5=L =51>;LH8< G8A;>< ?5@53@C65==KE @01>B>9 AB5=>3@0D8AB>2, @01>B02H8E B0<. ! ?><>ILN 0M4K =0< C40;>AL ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL =0H 0??0@0B 2 5@E>2=>< AC45 /?>=88  8 <K GCBL =5 2 >48= <83 ?@>40;8 4204F0BL <03=8B>D>=>2! -B8 ;N48 157 B@C40 ?>=O;8, :0:>2> ?@0:B8G5A:>5 ?@8<5=5=85 =0H53> 87>1@5B5=8O. =8 A@07C 65 C2845;8 F5==>ABL <03=8B>D>=0. ;O =8E >= =5 1K; 83@CH:>9. =5 :070;>AL ;>38G=K< H03>< ?>A;5 AC4>2 ?>9B8 2 O?>=A:85 H:>;K. 0 >4=>< 87 <=>3>G8A;5==KE A>25I0=89, :>B>@K5 <K ?@>2>48;8 ?> 2>?@>AC > ?@>4065, 1C:0 C:070; =0< =0 B>, GB> 2 A8AB5<5 O?>=A:>3> >1@07>20=8O F5=B@0;L=>5 <5AB> ?> B@048F88 70=8<0NB GB5=85, ?8AL<> 8 AG5B. > 0<5@8:0=FK, :>B>@K5 ?@8H;8 2 :>=F5 2>9=K, ?>=8<0;8, GB> A;>25A=>5 >1I5=85 8 0C48>287C0;L=>5 >1CG5=85 8<5NB >G5=L 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85.  2>B O?>=A:>5 <8=8AB5@AB2> ?@>A25I5=8O ?>A;54>20;> 8E ?@8<5@C. > 2 /?>=88 1K;> <0;> CG51=KE ?>A>189, ;8HL =5A:>;L:> 16-<8;;8<5B@>2KE D8;L<>2 =0 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5, >B :>B>@KE 1K;> ?@>AB> <0;> ?@>:C, ?>B><C GB> 2 3>4K 2>9=K 0=3;89A:89 O7K: 8 53> ?@5?>4020=85 1K;8 70?@5I5=K.  @57C;LB0B5 B>3> <0;> :B> 87 ?@5?>4020B5;59 >1;040; 4>AB0B>G=K< 7=0=85< O7K:0, GB>1K ?>=8<0BL MB8 D8;L<K. "5< 1>;55 8E =5 <>3;8 ?>=8<0BL CG0I85AO. 45O 8A?>;L7>20=8O <03=8B>D>=>2 4;O ?@>83@K20=8O <03=8B>D>==KE ;5=B A 70?8ALN @5G8 =0 8=>AB@0==>< O7K:5 8 70B5< ?@8<5=5=8O 8E 4;O ?@0:B8:8 1K;0 1KAB@> CA2>5=0 8 2A:>@5 @0A?@>AB@0=8;0AL =0 H:>;K 2A59 AB@0=K. A5 ?@5D5:BC@K 2 /?>=88 >B:@K;8 A2>8 :8=>F5=B@K, => 2A5 <0B5@80;K 1K;8 =0 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5. 04> 1K;> =09B8 A?>A>1 40BL CG51=K9 B5:AB =0 O?>=A:>< O7K:5. >38G5A:8< A@54AB2>< 4;O MB>3> AB0;8 <03=8B>D>=K. K ?>=8<0;8, GB> 5A;8 >1CG5=85 1C45B 84B8 =0 C@>2=5 ?@5D5:BC@, B> :064>9 H:>;5 2A:>@5 ?>B@51C5BAO <03=8B>D>=. 1C:0 >1=0@C68;, GB> C H:>; 5ABL A@54AB20 4;O ?@8>1@5B5=8O B0:>3> >1>@C4>20=8O, ?>MB><C <K ?>?@>1>20;8 A?@>5:B8@>20BL <03=8B>D>=K <5=LH8E @07<5@>2 A?5F80;L=> 4;O H:>;, =0 :>B>@K5 <K <>3;8 1K CAB0=>28BL 4>ABC?=K5 4;O H:>; F5=K. 0H59 ?5@2>9 C40G59 AB0; <03=8B>D>= A@54=8E @07<5@>2, 1>;LH5, G5< G5<>40= «48?;><0B», => <5=LH5 4>@>6=>3> G5<>40=0. K =0720;8 53> <03=8B>D>=>< B8?0 «». -B> 1K; ?@>AB>9  A >4=>9 A:>@>ABLN 7,5 4N9<0 2 A5:C=4C  8 ?@>G=K9 0??0@0B.  :0G5AB25 A20451=>3> ?>40@:0 :>;;538 ?>40@8;8 <>59 =525AB5 >A8:> 8 <=5 2 1951 3>4C ?5@2CN ?@>872>4AB25==CN <>45;L <03=8B>D>=0, :>B>@0O H;0 ?>4 8=45:A>< «». K =0G0;8 ?@>872>48BL ?>@B0B82=K5 <03=8B>D>=K A 1>;55 8=B5@5A=K< 48709=>< 8 AB0;8 >1@5B0BL C25@5==>ABL. 0H0 :><?0=8O =0G0;0 @0AH8@OBLAO, 8 <K ?5@55E0;8 2 A>A54=89, 1>;55 A>;84=K9 4>< =0 >B5=O<5. >2K5 8458 =0:>=5F AB0;8 702>52K20BL ?@87=0=85, =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E, 1KBL <>65B, A;8H:>< 0:B82=>, => /?>=8O A>74020;0 =>2>5 >1I5AB2>, >=0 =5 ?5@5AB@0820;0 AB0@>5. >340 <K A>7@5;8, <K 2A:>@5 22O70;8AL 2 2>9=C =>2>3> B8?0, <=>3><C =0CG82HCN <5=O 2 45;5 <564C=0@>4=>3> 187=5A0, :>B>@K< =0< ?@54AB>O;> 70=OBLAO. 'B>1K ?>;CG8BL 2KA>:>:0G5AB25==CN 70?8AL =0 ?;5=:0E =0H8E <03=8B>D>=>2, <K 8A?>;L7>20;8 A8AB5<C 2KA>:>G0AB>B=>3> ?>4<03=8G820=8O ?5@5<5==K< B>:><, 70?0B5=B>20==CN 4>:B>@>< M=47> 0308. -B0 A8AB5<0 @07<03=8G820;0 ?;5=:C ?5@54 B5<, :0: >=0 4>AB830;0 72C:>70?8AK20NI59 3>;>2:8, ?>4020;0 ?5@5<5==K9 B>: 2 70?8AK205<K9 A83=0;, 8 2 @57C;LB0B5 2 72C:>70?8A8 1K;> 3>@074> <5=LH5 HC<>2 8 8A:065=89, G5< @0=LH5 A A8AB5<0<8 ?>4<03=8G820=8O ?>AB>O==K< B>:><. K 1K;8 =0AB>;L:> ?@540=K ?@>3@5AAC B5E=8:8 72C:>70?8A8, GB> @5H8;8 :C?8BL ?0B5=B, ?@8=04;5602H89 B>340 :><?0=88 «=@8FC M;5:B@8:», :>B>@0O 2 B> 2@5<O, :0: 8 A59G0A, 1K;0 D8;80;>< «8??>= M;5:B@8: :><?0=8», 8725AB=>9 :0: -. K =5 <>3;8 A515 ?>72>;8BL :C?8BL 25AL ?0B5=B ?>;=>ABLN, => :C?8;8 2 1949 3>4C ?>;>28=C MB>3> ?0B5=B0, @0745;82 53> A -. >:B>@ 0308 70@538AB@8@>20; MB>B ?0B5=B 2 /?>=88, 8 ?>74=55 <K C7=0;8, GB> >= B0:65 ?>4020; 70O2:C =0 ?0B5=B 2 !( ?5@54 A0<K< =0G0;>< 2>9=K, 2 45:01@5 1941 3>40, 0 =5A:>;L:> @0=LH5, 2 B>< 65 3>4C, >= ?>A;0; 40==K5 > A2>5< 87>1@5B5=88 2 81;8>B5:C 0<5@8:0=A:>3> :>=3@5AA0 8 4@C385 <5AB0. 0: O 4>304K20NAL, 53> ?0B5=B B0: 8 =5 1K; 70@538AB@8@>20= 2 !(, B0: :0: 1K;> B@C4=> 2K1@0BL <5=55 ?>4E>4OI89 4;O MB>3> <><5=B. ?@>G5<, 708=B5@5A>20==K5 ;8F0 2 !( <>3;8 >7=0:><8BLAO A 53> =0CG=K<8 @01>B0<8. >340 <K :C?8;8 MB>B ?0B5=B, <K @07>A;0;8 ?8AL<0 ?@>872>48B5;O< <03=8B>D>=>2 2> 2A5< <8@5, 8=D>@<8@CO 8E > B><, GB> C =0A 5ABL ?0B5=B =0 A8AB5<C ?>4<03=8G820=8O ?5@5<5==K< B>:><, 8 ?@54;030O ;8F5=78N =0 =55. K B0:65 C254><8;8 8E > B><, GB>, 5A;8 >=8 70E>BOB ?@>4020BL 2 /?>=88 <03=8B>D>=K, 2 :>B>@KE 8A?>;L7C5BAO =0H0 A8AB5<0, 8< ?@845BAO :C?8BL C =0A ;8F5=78N. K ?>;CG8;8 >B25B=K5 ?8AL<0 >B =5A:>;L:8E :><?0=89, A>>1I02H8E, GB> >=8 =5 A>18@0NBAO ?@>4020BL <03=8B>D>=K 2 /?>=88 8 ?>MB><C =5 284OB =8:0:>3> A<KA;0 2 ?@8>1@5B5=88 C =0A ;8F5=788. K 7=0;8, GB> MB0 A8AB5<0 8A?>;L7C5BAO 70 @C156>< ?@>872>48B5;O<8, =5 8<5NI8<8 =0 =55 ;8F5=788, => <K =5 2845;8 =8:0:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 1>@>BLAO A MB8<. 4=064K >D8F5@ 87 45?0@B0<5=B0 ?> ?0B5=B0< 2 HB015 2>5==>3> :><0=4>20=8O ?>72>=8; 1C:5 8 A:070;, GB> E>G5B 53> 2845BL.  B5 4=8, 5A;8 20A 2K7K20;8 2 HB01 2>5==>3> :><0=4>20=8O, C 20A 1K;8 2A5 >A=>20=8O 1>OBLAO, :0: 1K 20A =5 ?>A048;8 2 BN@L<C 70 =0@CH5=8O, > :>B>@KE 2K, 1KBL <>65B, 4065 =5 7=05B5, 8;8 70 :0:85-B> ?@>ABC?:8 2 ?@>H;><. 1C:0 1K; B0: 2AB@52>65=, GB> 4065 ?>72>=8; A2>59 65=5 8 A>>1I8; 59 >1 MB>< 2K7>25, B>;L:> GB>1K 55 ?>43>B>28BL. = 27O; A A>1>9 0M4C 2 :0G5AB25 ?5@52>4G8:0. D8F5@ E>B5; 7=0BL 2A5, GB> A2O70=> A =0H59 ?@5B5=7859 =0 ?0B5=B. 1C:0 1K; =0AB>;L:> 40;L=>2845=, GB> ?@8=5A A A>1>9 2A5 4>:C<5=BK, :0A0NI85AO =0H53> ?@8>1@5B5=8O ?0B5=B0, :>B>@K5 5<C C40;>AL A>1@0BL. > <5@5 B>3> :0: >D8F5@ @0AA<0B@820; MB8 4>:C<5=BK, =0?@O65=85 =0@0AB0;>, 8 :>340 >= ?@>A<>B@5; 2A5, >= >B:8=C;AO =0704 8 A C;K1:>9 ?>4B25@48;, GB> A ?0B5=B><, ?>-2848<><C, 2A5 2 ?>@O4:5. >:@C3 2A5 70C;K10;8AL, 8A?KBK20O >1;53G5=85, 8 >D8F5@ A @04>ABLN 70:>=G8; 45;>, C3>AB82 =0A :>D5. A:>@5 ?>A;5 MB>3> <K C7=0;8, GB> B>:89A:0O :><?0=8O «0;:>< B@5948=3 :><?0=8» 8<?>@B8@C5B 87 !( <03=8B>D>=K, 8 <K ?>A;0;8 59 ?8AL<>, ?@54C?@5640O > =0H59 ;8F5=788 =0 A8AB5<C 72C:>70?8A8, 8A?>;L7C5<CN 2 MB8E <03=8B>D>=0E. =0 >AB028;0 53> 157 2=8<0=8O, 8 ?>MB><C <K @5H8;8 >1@0B8BLAO 2 AC4 A ?@>AL1>9 2K=5AB8 ?>AB0=>2;5=85 ?@>B82 MB>9 B>@3>2>9 :><?0=88. -B> 1K;> 206=K< @5H5=85< 4;O =0A, ?>B><C GB> 2 O?>=A:8E AC40E 8AB5F, ?>40NI89 3@0640=A:89 8A:, 4>;65= ?;0B8BL 1>;LHCN 8 1572>72@0B=CN @538AB@0F8>==CN ?>H;8=C, =0G8A;O5<CN 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 45=56=>9 AC<<K, 70 :>B>@CN >= AC48BAO. -B> >48= 87 A?>A>1>2 >B18BL >E>BC : ;53:><KA;5==K< AC451=K< 8A:0<. A;8 <K ?@8=8<05< @5H5=85 >1@0B8BLAO 2 AC4, =0< ?@845BAO 2;>68BL 2 MB> >G5=L 1>;LH85 A@54AB20. > <K 1K;8 4>AB0B>G=> A<5;K<8 8 C25@5==K<8 2 ?@02>B5 =0H53> 45;0. @><5 B>3>, =0H ?0B5=B ?>;CG8; B5?5@L, 5A;8 =0 B> ?>H;>, ?>4B25@645=85 >::C?0F8>==KE 2;0AB59. !C4 2KA;CH0; =0H8 4>2>4K 8 ?@8=O; A>>B25BAB2CNI55 ?>AB0=>2;5=85. <5AB5 A A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 G8=>2=8:0<8 <K ?>H;8 =0 B0<>65==K9 A:;04 8 A<5;> >?5G0B0;8 425@L, 70?@5B82 :><?0=88 «0;:><» 1@0BL >BBC40 A2>8 <03=8B>D>=K 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 2>?@>A =5 1C45B @5H5=. 5AB=K5 3075BK A>G;8 MB> ?@5:@0A=K< <0B5@80;><  8 >= AB0; A5=A0F859. 075BK 2845;8 2 MB>< @54:89 A;CG09 ?@>O2;5=8O =57028A8<>AB8 /?>=88  <0;5=L:0O O?>=A:0O :><?0=8O >B:@KB> 1@>A05B 2K7>2 :@C?=K< 0<5@8:0=A:8< ?@>872>48B5;O<. !>B@C4=8:8 «0;:><», @07C<55BAO, 1K;8 @07JO@5=K, ?>B><C GB> >=8 ?5@540;8 =0H5 70O2;5=85 ?@>872>48B5;N 2 !(, 0 >= >B25B8;, GB> :><?0=8O :C?8;0 ;8F5=78N =0 A2>N A8AB5<C C :><?0=88 «@<>@ @8A5@G», 8<5NI59 A>1AB25==K9 ?0B5=B =0 A8AB5<C ?>4<03=8G820=8O ?5@5<5==K< ?>;5<. A5 1K;8 @0AA5@65=K. «@<>@ @8A5@G» =0?@028;0 2 /?>=8N A2>53> N@8AB0 >=0;L40 !8<?A>=0. -B> 1K;0 <>O ?5@20O 2 687=8 2AB@5G0 A 0<5@8:0=A:8< N@8AB><, 8 >= ?@>8725; 1>;LH>5 2?5G0B;5=85 =0 <5=O :0: A8;L=K9 A>?5@=8:. > <K 4>:070;8, GB> ?5@52>4 @01>BK 4>:B>@0 0308 =0 0=3;89A:89 O7K: 8<5;AO 2 !( 4> B>3>, :0: «@<>@ @8A5@G» ?5@540;0 A2>9 ?0B5=B. A;8 1K A8AB5<C 4>:B>@0 0308 <>6=> 1K;> AG8B0BL >1I58725AB=>9, B> A8AB5<0 ?>4<03=8G820=8O ?5@5<5==K< B>:>< 2 !(, ?>-2848<><C, AB0;0 1K >1I5AB25==K< 4>AB>O=85< 8, =025@=>5, =5 70A;C6820;0 1K 1>;LH5 =8:0:>3> ?0B5=B0. / C3@>60;, GB> ?>54C 2 !( 8 4>1LNAL, GB> ?0B5=B :><?0=88 «@<>@ @8A5@G» >1JO2OB =5459AB28B5;L=K<. 0 A0<>< 45;5 O =5 7=0;, :0: MB>3> 4>18BLAO. > 8< MB>, 4>;6=> 1KBL, ?>:070;>AL 2>7<>6=K<, ?>B><C GB>, :>340 <K ?@54AB028;8 =0H8 4>2>4K, >=8 ?@87=0;8 ?0B5=B 4>:B>@0 0308 70:>==K<. -B>B A?>@ BO=C;AO B@8 3>40, 8 =0H0 ?>1540 2 <0@B5 1954 3>40 >7=0G0;0, GB> 2A5 ?@>40==K5 2 /?>=88 <03=8B>D>=K A A8AB5<>9 ?>4<03=8G820=8O ?5@5<5==K< B>:><, 4065 >3@><=K9 <03=8B>D>= «<?5:A», ?@>40==K9 >4=>9 @048>AB0=F88, 1C4CB 4020BL =0< 4>E>4. / ?>4?8A0; A>3;0H5=85 > B><, GB> <K =5 1C45< 1>;LH5 ?>425@30BL =0?04:0< «@<>@ @8A5@G». K ?>;CG8;8 ?@02> 8A?>;L7>20BL ?0B5=B «@<>@ @8A5@G» 2 !(, 8 ?>MB><C <K <>3;8 M:A?>@B8@>20BL 2 !(, =5 ?>:C?0O ;8F5=78N. >;55 B>3>, <K <>3;8 ?@>4020BL AC1;8F5=78N =0 =0HC B5E=>;>38N 4@C38< O?>=A:8< ?@>872>48B5;O<, 8, 5A;8 1K >=8 70E>B5;8 M:A?>@B8@>20BL A2>9 B>20@ 2 !(, <K ?>;CG8;8 1K ?>;>28=C AB>8<>AB8 ;8F5=788. K A>E@0=O;8 MB8 ?@020 2 B5G5=85 <=>38E ;5B. -B> 1K;8 <>8 ?5@2K5 ?5@53>2>@K A 0<5@8:0=F0<8, 8 >=8 70:>=G8;8AL B0: E>@>H>, GB> O ?>GC2AB2>20; C25@5==>ABL 2 1C4CI5<. E 40, ?>74=55 O 27O; >=0;L40 !8<?A>=0 : =0< =0 @01>BC.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" >  . 0G8=05BAO =>20O 687=L.  IV 45O A>740=8O <564C=0@>4=>3> @K=:0 4;O «">:8> FCA8= :>3Q» A A0<>3> =0G0;0 70=8<0;0 =0A, 8 <=5 A 1C:>9 =587156=> =04> 1K;> >B?@028BLAO 2 4>@>3C.  1952 3>4C B>@3>2;O <03=8B>D>=0<8 H;0 ?@5:@0A=>, 8 1C:0 @5H8; AJ5748BL 2 !(, GB>1K ?>A<>B@5BL, :0: 8A?>;L7CNBAO <03=8B>D>=K, 8 ?>1>;LH5 C7=0BL > ?@>872>4AB25 A0<>9 ;5=BK. = ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 3>2>@8; ?>-0=3;89A:8, => 2A5 65 5<C C40;>AL ?>5748BL ?> AB@0=5 8 <=>3>5 C2845BL. >574:0 53> @07>G0@>20;0, ?>B><C GB>, E>BO >= =0H5; =5A:>;L:> ;8=30D>==KE :018=5B>2, 8A?>;L7CNI8E <03=8B>D>=K, >= 2845;, GB> <K 8A?>;L7C5< 8E 2 =0H8E H:>;0E H8@5, G5< 0<5@8:0=FK 2 !(. 1C:0 1K; @07>G0@>20= B0:65 B5<, GB> =8 >48= 87 ?@>872>48B5;59 <03=8B=>9 ;5=BK =5 ?CAB8; 3>AB59 =0 A2>8 702>4K. > MB0 ?>574:0 >:070;0AL 4;O =0A >G5=L 2K3>4=>9.  1948 3>4C <K >10 G8B0;8 > @01>B5 #8;LO<0 (>:;8 8 4@C38E A>B@C4=8:>2 «5;; ;M1>@MB@87» 2 1N;;5B5=5 «5;; ;M1>@MB@8 @5:>@4» 8 A B5E ?>@ ?@>O2;O;8 1>;LH>9 8=B5@5A : 8E >B:@KB8O<.  B>B 3>4 2 0<5@8:0=A:>9 8 ?@>G59 ?5G0B8 AB0;8 ?>O2;OBLAO =51>;LH85 AB0BL8 >1 87>1@5B5=88 «5;; ;M1>@MB@87» ?>4 =0720=85< «B@0=78AB>@», 8 2> 2@5<O A2>59 ?>574:8 1C:0 ?@5645 2A53> C7=0;, GB> 2A:>@5 <>6=> 1C45B ?@8>1@5AB8 ;8F5=78N =0 MBC 70<5G0B5;L=CN B5E=8G5A:CN =>28=:C. = =0G0; AB@>8BL ?;0=K. -B>B B25@4>B5;L=K9 ?@81>@ 1K; A>25@H5==> =>2K< 4;O =0A, 8, 4;O B>3> GB>1K C7=0BL GB>-B> > =5<, 0 B0:65 @5H8BL, GB> <K <>65< A =8< 45;0BL, >4=>3>-42CE 8=65=5@>2-M;5:B@>=I8:>2 1K;> <0;>. > 2@5<O >4=>9 87 15AA>==KE =>G59 2 HC<=>< =><5@5 2 AB0@>< =LN-9>@:A:>< >B5;5 «"0DB» 1;87 ?;>I048 "09<A-A:25@ 1C:0 ?>4C<0; > B><, GB> 2 =0H59 :><?0=88 B5?5@L @01>B0;8 >:>;> AB0 4204F0B8 G5;>25:, ?@8<5@=> B@5BL 87 =8E 8=65=5@K A 2KAH8< >1@07>20=85<  A?5F80;8ABK ?> M;5:B@>=8:5, <5B0;;C@388, E8<88, <5E0=8:5, 8 @07@01>B:0 B@0=78AB>@>2 4;O =0H8E F5;59 ?>B@51>20;0 1K 2A53> 8E <0AB5@AB20. = B>340 5I5 =5 7=0;, GB> <K AB0=5< 45;0BL A B@0=78AB>@0<8, :>340 =0;048< B5E=>;>38N 8E ?@>872>4AB20, => 53> 24>E=>2;O; B5E=8G5A:89 ?@>3@5AA, :>B>@K9 ?@825; : @>645=8N MB>3> B@0=78AB>@0. 0 A;54CNI89 45=L 1C:0 ?>?KB0;AO ?>;CG8BL 8=B5@2LN C @C:>2>48B5;O ?0B5=B=>9 A;C61K :><?0=88 «#MAB5@= M;5:B@8:», B0: :0: «#MAB5@= M;5:B@8:» 1K;0 45@60B5;5< ?0B5=B>2 «5;; ;M1>@MB@87»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«#MAB5@= M;5:B@8:» 3>2>@8;8 <=5, GB> 5A;8 <K E>B8< 8A?>;L7>20BL B@0=78AB>@K 2 ?>B@518B5;LA:8E B>20@0E, B> 8E <>6=> CAB0=02;820BL B>;L:> =0 A;CE>2K5 0??0@0BK.  B5 4=8 B@0=78AB>@>2 4;O @048>?@85<=8:>2 5I5 =5 ACI5AB2>20;>. K=>: A;CE>2KE 0??0@0B>2, :>B>@K9 1K; 25AL<0 >3@0=8G5=, =0A, :>=5G=>, =5 8=B5@5A>20;. K E>B5;8 ?@>872>48BL B>20@K, :>B>@K5 <>3;8 1K 8A?>;L7>20BL 2A5, 8 C =0A 1K;8 ?;0=K ?>A048BL =0H8E CG5=KE 8 B5E=8G5A:8E A?5F80;8AB>2 70 @07@01>B:C A>1AB25==KE 2KA>:>G0AB>B=KE B@0=78AB>@>2 4;O @048>?@85<=8:>2. K =0G0;8 4C<0BL > B><, :0:85 @048>?@85<=8:8 <K <>3;8 1K ?@>872>48BL A B@078AB>@0<8.  B> 2@5<O 2 >1;0AB8 @048> =0G0;0 D>@<8@>20BLAO =>20O <564C=0@>4=0O B5=45=F8O.  <>4C 2A:>@5 2>H5; =>2K9 >1>@>B: «2KA>:0O B>G=>ABL 72C:>2>A?@>872545=8O»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«3@><:>3>2>@8B5;L 4;O 2>A?@>872545=8O =86=8E 8 25@E=8E 72C:>2KE G0AB>B», «8A:065=8O», «>1@0B=0O A2O7L». !G8B0;>AL, GB> CA8;8B5;8, 2 :>B>@KE 8A?>;L7C5BAO <=>65AB2> @048>;0<?, 40NB A0<K9 G8ABK9 72C:. K @5H8;8 A>740BL B@0=78AB>@, :>B>@K9 70<5=8; 1K 3@><>74:85, A8;L=> =03@520NI85AO 8 =5=0456=K5 @048>;0<?K. -B> ?>72>;8;> 1K =0< =5 B>;L:> >ACI5AB28BL <8=80BN@870F8N M;5:B@>==KE ?@81>@>2, => 8 C<5=LH8BL ?>B@51;5=85 M=5@388. K AG8B0;8, GB>, 5A;8 =0< C40ABAO 87>1@5AB8 B@0=78AB>@, :>B>@K9 <>3 1K 35=5@8@>20BL 4>AB0B>G=> 2KA>:CN G0AB>BC, <K AC<5;8 1K A>740BL :@>E>B=K9 @048>?@85<=8:, @01>B0NI89 =0 10B0@59:0E. K =045O;8AL 4>18BLAO B>G=>3> 2>A?@>872545=8O 72C:0 ?@8 <8=8<0;L=>< 8A?>;L7>20=88 M=5@388. 8=80BN@870F8O 8 :><?0:B=>ABL 2A5340 8<?>=8@>20;8 O?>=F0<. 0H8 :>@>1:8 <>6=> 2AB02;OBL 4@C3 2 4@C30, C =0A A:;04=K5 255@0, =0H8 :0@B8=K A2>@0G820NBAO 2 0::C@0B=K5 A28B:8; H8@<K A EC4>65AB25==K< 87>1@065=85< F5;>3> 3>@>40 <>6=> 0::C@0B=> A;>68BL 8 A?@OB0BL 8;8 65 @0AAB028BL 4;O =0H53> C4>2>;LAB28O, @072;5G5=8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O, 0 B> 8 ?@>AB> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?5@53>@>48BL :><=0BC.  <K ?>AB028;8 A2>59 F5;LN A>740BL @048>?@85<=8:, 4>AB0B>G=> <0;5=L:89 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?><5AB8BLAO 2 :0@<0=5. 5 ?@>AB> ?>@B0B82=K9, 0 «:0@<0==K9». ><?0=8O  5I5 ?5@54 2>9=>9 =0G0;0 ?@>872>48BL ?>@B0B82=K5 @048>?@85<=8:8 A@54=8E @07<5@>2, @01>B02H85 =0 <0;5=L:8E @048>;0<?0E, => ?>;>28=C ?@>AB@0=AB20 2 =8E 70=8<0;0 4>@>3>AB>OI0O 10B0@59:0, @01>B02H0O ;8HL >:>;> G5BK@5E G0A>2. "@0=78AB>@K <>3;8 1K @5H8BL ?@>1;5<C M=5@3>>15A?5G5=8O 8 C<5=LH5=8O 3010@8B>2. K 2A5 3>@5;8 65;0=85< =0G0BL @01>BC =04 B@0=78AB>@><, 8 :>340 ?@8H;> 8725AB85 > B><, GB> <>6=> :C?8BL ?0B5=B =0 MBC B5E=>;>38N, O 2 1953 3>4C >B?@028;AO 2 LN->@:, GB>1K 7025@H8BL MBC A45;:C. / B0:65 E>B5; ?>A<>B@5BL <8@ 8 2KOA=8BL, :0:>5 <5AB> <>3;0 1K 70=OBL =0H0 =>20O :><?0=8O. >MB><C ?>A;5 7025@H5=8O 45; 2 LN->@:5 O ?;0=8@>20; ?>A5B8BL 2@>?C. / 1K; >G5=L 272>;=>20=, :>340 ?>4=8<0;AO =0 1>@B «!B@0B>:@C75@0» 2 B>:89A:>< 0M@>?>@BC %0=M40 A <0;5=L:8< G5<>40=G8:>< 2 @C:5 8 A AC<:>9 G5@57 ?;5G>. "5?5@L O 4>;65= ?@87=0BL, GB> 2=0G0;5 <5=O ?>4028;8 A0<8 <0AHB01K !(. A5 1K;> B0:8< >3@><=K<, @0AAB>O=8O 1K;8 B0: 25;8:8, >B:@KBK5 ?@>AB@0=AB20 AB>;L >1H8@=K, 0 @538>=K AB@0=K B0: A8;L=> >B;8G0;8AL 4@C3 >B 4@C30. =5 :070;>AL =52>7<>6=K< ?@>4020BL 745AL =0H8 B>20@K. -B0 AB@0=0 ?@>AB> C3=5B0;0 <5=O. -:>=><8:0 !( ?@>F25B0;0, 8 :070;>AL, GB> 2 MB>9 AB@0=5 5ABL 2A5. >340 O ?>A;0; 1C:5 ?> ?>GB5 A>3;0H5=85 > ?0B5=B5, 70:;NG5==>5 A «#MAB5@= M;5:B@8:»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«">FC:>»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«$>;L:A2035=», «5@A545A» 8 «!8<5=A», 0 B0:65 <=>3> <5;:8E :><?0=89, =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E 2 ?>A;54CNI85 3>4K 8AG57;8.  :>=5G=>, 2 >1;0AB8 M;5:B@>=8:8 <=5 E>B5;>AL ?>A5B8BL :>=F5@= «$8;8?A» 2 >;;0=488, M;5:B@>==CN :><?0=8N, 8725AB=CN 2> 2A5< <8@5. <5==> ?>A5I5=85 :><?0=88 «$8;8?A» 40;> <=5 A<5;>ABL 8 =>2CN 8=BC8F8N. >340 O C5760; 87 5@<0=88, O 1K; =5<=>3> @0AAB@>5=. 5A<>B@O =0 @07>@5=85, :>B>@>5 2>9=0 ?@8=5A;0 8 5@<0=88, ?>;>65=85 2 AB@0=5 1KAB@> C;CGH0;>AL, 8 =0 MB>< D>=5 ?>A;52>5==K9 ?@>3@5AA /?>=88 :070;AO <54;5==K<. 4=064K O 70:070; 2 4NAA5;L4>@DA:>< @5AB>@0=5 =0 Q=83HB@0AA5 <>@>65=>5, 8 >D8F80=B ?@8=5A <=5 ?>@F8N A 2>B:=CBK< 2 =55 2 :0G5AB25 C:@0H5=8O <8=80BN@=K< 1C<06=K< 7>=B8:><. «-B> 87 20H59 AB@0=K», A:070; >=, C;K10OAL 8, ?>-2848<><C, 65;0O A45;0BL <=5 :><?;8<5=B. / ?>4C<0;, GB> MB> 2A5, GB> >= 7=05B > /?>=88 8 55 2>7<>6=>ABOE, 8, 25@>OB=>, MB> 1K;> B8?8G=>. 0:>9 65 1>;LH>9 ?CBL =0< ?@54AB>O;> ?@>9B8! / A5; =0 ?>574 NAA5;L4>@D--9=4E>25=, 8 :>340 ?5@5A5: 3@0=8FC <564C $  8 845@;0=40<8, :0@B8=0 @57:> 87<5=8;0AL. 5A<>B@O =0 B> GB> ?>A;5 2>9=K ?@>H;> B0: <0;> 2@5<5=8, 5@<0=8O AB0=>28;0AL 2KA>:><5E0=878@>20==>9 AB@0=>9: «$>;L:A2035=» C65 2K?CA:0; 700 02B><>18;59 2 45=L, 8 2A5, :070;>AL, >G5=L 1KAB@> ?@>2>48;8 @5:>=AB@C:F8N 8 ?@>872>48;8 B>20@K 8 =>2K5 ?@>4C:BK.  845@;0=40E <=>385 ;N48 5748;8 =0 25;>A8?540E. -B> 1K;0 G8AB> A5;LA:>E>7O9AB25==0O AB@0=0, : B><C 65 <0;5=L:0O. >2AN4C <>6=> 1K;> 2845BL AB0@K5 <5;L=8FK, B>GL-2-B>GL :0: =0 AB0@KE 3>;;0=4A:8E :0@B8=0E. A5 2K3;O45;> B0: =5>1KG=>. >340 O, =0:>=5F, ?@81K; 2 -9=4E>25=, O 1K; C482;5=, C28452, :0: 25;8:0 :><?0=8O «$8;8?A», E>BO O 7=0;, GB> >=0 4>AB83;0 >G5=L 1>;LH8E CA?5E>2, ?@>4020O A2>8 M;5:B@>B>20@K 2 .3>->AB>G=>9 788 8 2> 2A5< <8@5. 5 7=0N, GB> O 4C<0; C2845BL, => 4;O <5=O >:070;>AL =5>6840==>ABLN, GB> 3@><04=0O D8@<0 <>59 <5GBK «$8;8?A»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«A;8 «$8;8?A» <>65B MB> 45;0BL, =025@=>5, MB> AC<55< 45;0BL 8 <K».  B> 2@5<O O >G5=L ?;>E> 3>2>@8; ?>-0=3;89A:8 8 ?>A5I0; MB8 702>4K ?@>AB> :0: BC@8AB. -B> =5 1K; 2878B 206=>3> ;8F0, 8 O =5 2AB@5B8;AO =8 A >4=8< 87 C?@02;ONI8E. / ?@54AB02;O; B>340 =58725AB=CN D8@<C, => 2 ?>A;54CNI85 G5BK@5 45AOB8;5B8O «!>=8» 8 «$8;8?A», 425 :><?0=88 87 <0;5=L:8E 8, :070;>AL 1K, 87>;8@>20==KE <5AB, A>B@C4=8G0;8 2 @07@01>B:5 ?@>5:B=>-:>=AB@C:B>@A:8E AB0=40@B>2 8 A>2<5AB=>9 @01>B5, GB> ?@825;> :> <=>38< B5E=8G5A:8< 4>AB865=8O< >B AB0=40@B=>9 :><?0:B-:0AA5BK 4> =>259H53> M?>E0;L=>3> 4>AB865=8O 2 >1;0AB8 2>A?@>872545=8O 72C:0 2 4><0H=8E CA;>28OE  :><?0:B-48A:0 (48A: 4;O F8D@>2>9 72C:>70?8A8), 2 :>B>@KE <K A>548=8;8 =0H8 2>7<>6=>AB8 2 8AA;54>20=8OE 2 >1;0AB8 8<?C;LA=>-:>4>-2>9 <>4C;OF88 A ?@5:@0A=>9 ;075@=>9 B5E=8:>9 :><?0=88 «$8;8?A». 0 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 8 >?KB=>-:>=AB@C:B>@A:>9 AB0488 C =0A 5ABL 5I5 8 4@C385 A>2<5AB=K5 @01>BK. A:>@5 ?>A;5 <>53> 2>72@0I5=8O 87 2@>?K 2 =0H59 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 ;01>@0B>@88 =0 1075 B5E=8:8 8 B5E=>;>388 «#MAB5@= M;5:B@8:», =0 :>B>@CN <K :C?8;8 ?0B5=B, =0G0;8AL BO65;K5 @01>BK ?> A>740=8N B@0=78AB>@0 =>2>3> B8?0. 0< =04> 1K;> ?>4=OBL <>I=>ABL B@0=78AB>@0, 8=0G5 53> =5;L7O 1K;> 1K 8A?>;L7>20BL 4;O @048>?@85<=8:>2. -B> 1K;0 >G5=L A;>6=0O @01>B0, 8 =0H8 ?@>5:B8@>2I8:8 ?@>H;8 4>;389 ?5@8>4 <CG8B5;L=KE ?@>1 8 >H81>:, 8A?>;L7CO =>2K5 8;8 E>BO 1K 4@C385 <0B5@80;K, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL =5>1E>48<CN =0< ?>2KH5==CN G0AB>BC. < ?@8H;>AL ?5@5AB@>8BL 8 D0:B8G5A:8 87>1@5AB8 B@0=78AB>@ 70=>2>.  ?5@2>< B@0=78AB>@5 «5;; ;M1>@MB@87» 8A?>;L7>20;0AL ?;0AB8=:0 87 35@<0=8O, :>B>@0O A >158E AB>@>= 1K;0 A?;02;5=0 A 8=485<. 5@<0=89 A;C68; ?>;C?@>2>4=8:>< >B@8F0B5;L=>3> B8?0 (), 0 8=489  ?>;>68B5;L=>3> B8?0 (). > <K @0AAC48;8, GB>, ?>A:>;L:C >B@8F0B5;L=> 70@O65==K5 M;5:B@>=K 42830NBAO 1KAB@55, G5< ?>;>68B5;L=K5 G0AB8FK, <K A<>65< ?>;CG8BL 1>;55 2KA>:CN G0AB>BC, <5=OO ?>;O@=>ABL. "> 5ABL @0A?@545;5=85 70@O4>2 ?> B8?C -- <K ?KB0;8AL 70<5=8BL @0A?@545;5=85< ?> B8?C --. # =0A, ?>-2848<><C, =5 1K;> 4;O MB>3> =5>1E>48<KE <0B5@80;>2. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 8=489 8<5; A;8H:>< =87:CN B>G:C ?;02;5=8O 4;O =0H8E F5;59, ?>MB><C <K >B:070;8AL >B AB0@KE <0B5@80;>2 8 =0G0;8 M:A?5@8<5=BK, 8A?>;L7CO 30;;89 8 AC@L<C, => MB> B>65 =5 40;> E>@>H8E @57C;LB0B>2. 4=> 2@5<O 2A5< :070;>AL, GB> <K ?>?0;8 2 BC?8:, 8 <K ?>4C<0;8 >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 D>AD>@0 2<5AB> AC@L<K, => 2> 2@5<O >4=>9 87 =0H8E <=>3>G8A;5==KE «<>73>2KE 0B0:» :B>-B> A:070;, GB> «5;; ;M1>@MB@87» C65 ?@>1>20;0 B0:>9 20@80=B, => C =55 =8G53> =5 2KH;>. C:>2>48B5;L =0H59 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 ;01>@0B>@88 0:>B> 8:CB8, 254CI89 A?5F80;8AB 2 >1;0AB8 ?>;C?@>2>4=8:>2, 2A?><8=05B, GB> 2 B5 4=8 C@>25=L =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89 8 8=65=5@=>3> 8A:CAAB20 !( 1K; =0AB>;L:> 2KA>:, GB> «3>;>A «5;; ;M1>@MB@87» :070;AO 3;0A>< 1>6L8<». "5< =5 <5=55, >48= 87 ?@>5:B8@>2I8:>2 ?@>4>;60; >?KBK A <5B>4>< D>AD>@=>3> ?>:@KB8O, 2A5 1>;LH5 C25;8G820O 4>7C D>AD>@0 2 MB>< ?@>F5AA5, 8, =0:>=5F, 5<C ?>:070;>AL, GB> C65 5ABL @57C;LB0BK. 0 >4=>< 87 A>25I0=89 >= 2 >AB>@>6=>9 D>@<5 A>>1I8; > A2>8E >B:@KB8OE. 8:B> 1>;LH5 =5 A<>3 A>>1I8BL > :0:8E-;81> CA?5E0E, 0 @C:>2>48B5;L 3@C??K ?> @07@01>B:5 B@0=78AB>@>2, <>9 ?>:>9=K9 HC@8= 047C> 20<0, :>B>@K9 ?>74=55 AB0; ?@57845=B>< =0H59 :><?0=88, A0< 1K; CG5=K< 8 7=0; E0@0:B5@ CG5=KE. = A:070; MB><C 8AA;54>20B5;N: «'B> 65, 5A;8 20< :065BAO, GB> C 20A ?>;CG0NBAO 8=B5@5A=K5 @57C;LB0BK, ?>G5<C 1K 20< =5 ?@>4>;68BL @01>BC 8 =5 ?>A<>B@5BL, GB> 87 MB>3> 2K945B?» $>AD>@=K9 <5B>4 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 >:070;AO MDD5:B82=K<, 8 =0 53> >A=>25 <K 4>AB83;8 A2>59 F5;8, A>7402 2KA>:>G0AB>B=K9 B@0=78AB>@. >4>< ?>765 <K C4828;8 A>B@C4=8:>2 «5;; ;M1>@MB@87»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biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" >  . 0G8=05BAO =>20O 687=L.  V > 2@5<O A2>59 ?5@2>9 ?>574:8 70 3@0=8FC 2 1953 3>4C O ?@8H5; : 2K2>4C, GB> ?>;=>5 =0720=85 =0H59 :><?0=88  «">:8> FC38= :>3Q :01CA8:8 :09A0»  =5 3>48BAO 4;O =08<5=>20=8O B>20@0. 1 =53> <>6=> A;><0BL O7K:. 065 2 /?>=88 <K 55 ?>@>9 A>:@0I5==> =07K20;8 «">FC:>». >340 O 1K; 2 !(, O ?>=O;, GB> =8:B> =5 A<>65B ?@>87=5AB8 =8 >4=> 87 MB8E =0720=89. 0720=85 :><?0=88 2 ?5@52>45 =0 0=3;89A:89  «">:8> B5;5:><LN=8:59H=7 8=468=8@8=3 :><?0=8»  1K;> A;8H:>< 3@><>74:8<. 5:>B>@>5 2@5<O <K AB0;8 =07K20BL 55 «">:8> B5;5B5:», => 70B5< <K C7=0;8, GB> =0720=85 «"5;5B5:» C65 =>A8B >4=0 0<5@8:0=A:0O :><?0=8O. =5 :070;>AL, GB>, 5A;8 <K =5 ?@54;>68< >@838=0;L=>5 =0720=85 4;O :><?0=88, C =55 5420 ;8 1C45B H0=A =0 B>, GB> 55 70<5BOB. / B0:65 AG8B0;, GB>, :0:>5 1K =>2>5 =0720=85 <K =8 ?@84C<0;8, >=> 4>;6=> 1C45B =5AB8 42>O:CN DC=:F8N, 8=K<8 A;>20<8, >=> 4>;6=> 1C45B A;C68BL 8 =0720=85< :><?0=88, 8 <0@:>9 =0H8E B>20@>2. ;03>40@O MB><C =0< =5 ?@845BAO ?;0B8BL 42>9=CN F5=C 70 @5:;0<C 8 :><?0=88 8 55 ?@>4C:F88. 4=> 2@5<O <K 8A?>;L7>20;8 2 :0G5AB25 A8<2>;0 ?5@525@=CBCN ?8@0<84C 2=CB@8 :@C30, A >158E AB>@>= :>B>@>9 1K;8 2K@570=K =51>;LH85 :;8=LO B0:8< >1@07><, GB> ?>;CG0;0AL AB8;87>20==0O 1C:20 «"». K E>B5;8, GB>1K =0H8 ?5@2K5 B@0=78AB>@K 8 =0H ?5@2K9 B@0=78AB>@=K9 @048>?@85<=8: =>A8;8 <0@:C, :>B>@0O 72CG0;0 1K :0: A>1AB25==>5 8<O 8 1K;0 C4>1=>9, GB>1K >=0 ;53:> 70?><8=0;0AL. K @5H8;8, GB> =0H ?5@2K9 B@0=78AB>@=K9 ?@85<=8: AB0=5B ?5@2K< ?>B@518B5;LA:8< B>20@><, :>B>@K9 ?>ABC?8B 2 ?@>406C ?>4 =0H59 <0@:>9. / <=>3> 4C<0; >1 MB><, :>340 =0E>48;AO 2 !(, 345 70<5B8;, GB> <=>385 :><?0=88 8A?>;L7CNB 2 :0G5AB25 M<1;5<K 011@5280BC@K 87 B@5E 1C:2, :0:, =0?@8<5@, -9-18-A8, -=-18-A8;  8 "". 5:>B>@K5 :><?0=88 8A?>;L7>20;8 B0:65 2 :0G5AB25 D8@<5==>3> 7=0:0 A2>5 ?>;=>5 =0720=85. ;O <5=O MB> 1K;> =>2>ABLN. I5 @515=:>< O =0CG8;AO C7=020BL =0720=8O 8<?>@B=KE 02B><>18;59 ?> 8E A8<2>;0<: B@5E:>=5G=0O 725740  «<5@A545A», A8=89 >20; A> A;>2>< « >30» 2=CB@8, :>@>=0  «:048;;0:», AB@5;0  «?8@A 0@@>C», :@K;LO ?>154K  «@>;;A-@>9A». >74=55 <=>385 02B><>18;L=K5 :><?0=88, =0?@8<5@ «(52@>;5», «$>@4», «LN8:» 8 4@C385, =0G0;8 4>102;OBL : A8<2>;0< A2>8 8<5=0, 8 O C7=020; 8E, 5I5 =5 C<5O G8B0BL. / 2725H820; 2A5 20@80=BK. K A 1C:>9 4>;3> 2K18@0;8 =0720=85. K 1K;8 A>3;0A=K A B5<, GB> =0< =5 =C65= A8<2>;. !8<2>;>< 1C45B A0<> =0720=85, 8 ?>MB><C >=> 4>;6=> 1KBL :>@>B:8<, =5 1>;LH5 G5< 87 G5BK@5E-?OB8 1C:2. # 2A5E O?>=A:8E :><?0=89 5ABL M<1;5<0 8 7=0:, :>B>@K9 =>AOB =0 ;0F:0=5, >1KG=> 2 D>@<5 A8<2>;0 :><?0=88, => 70 8A:;NG5=85< =5A:>;L:8E =081>;55 8725AB=KE M<1;5<, =0?@8<5@ B@5E @><1>2 «8FC18A8», ?>AB>@>==5<C G5;>25:C B@C4=> >B;8G8BL 8E 4@C3 >B 4@C30. "0: 65 :0: 8 02B><>18;L=K5 :><?0=88, :>B>@K5 2A5 <5=LH5 ?>;030;8AL =0 A8<2>;K 8 2A5 1>;LH5 =0 =0720=8O, <K AG8B0;8, GB> =0< 459AB28B5;L=> =C6=> 8<O, :>B>@>5 A>>B25BAB2>20;> 1K =0H59 ACB8. 064K9 45=L <K 70?8AK20;8 2A52>7<>6=K5 20@80=BK 8 >1AC640;8 8E, :0: B>;L:> 2K?040;> A2>1>4=>5 2@5<O. K E>B5;8, GB>1K =>2>5 =0720=85 ;53:> 70?><8=0;>AL 2 ;N1>9 B>G:5 75<=>3> H0@0, GB>1K >=> >48=0:>2> ?@>87=>A8;>AL =0 ;N1>< O7K:5. K 8A?@>1>20;8 =5 >48= 45AOB>: =0720=89. <5AB5 A 1C:>9 <K @K;8AL 2 A;>20@OE 2 ?>8A:0E 72CG=>3> A;>20 8 =0B>;:=C;8AL =0 ;0B8=A:>5 A;>2> «A>=CA», >7=0G0NI55 72C:. !0<> MB> A;>2>, :070;>AL, 1K;> =0?>;=5=> 72C:><. 0H 187=5A 1K; B5A=> A2O70= A> 72C:><, ?>MB><C <K =0G0;8 ?@>1>20BL 20@80=BK A> A;>2>< «A>=CA».  B> 2@5<O 2 /?>=88 @>A;0 ?>?C;O@=>ABL A;>2 8 ?@>728I, 708<AB2>20==KE 87 0=3;89A:>3> A;M=30, =5:>B>@K5 AB0;8 =07K20BL A>>1@078B5;L=KE 8 >@838=0;L=KE <>;>4KE ?0@=59 «A>==8» 8;8 «A>==8-1>9» (GB> >7=0G0;> 2 ?5@52>45 A 0=3;89A:>3>  AK=>:).  :>=5G=>, 8 A;>2> «A0==8» (A>;=5G=K9), 8 A;>2> «A>==8» 72CG0;8 >?B8<8AB8G=> 8 @04>AB=>, B0: 65 :0: 8 8E ;0B8=A:89 :>@5=L, A :>B>@K< <K @01>B0;8.  B5 4=8 <K B>65 AG8B0;8 A51O «A>==8-1>97».  A>60;5=8N, A0<> A;>2> «A>==8» A>740;> 1K =0< 2 /?>=88 B@C4=>AB8, ?>B><C GB> 2 CA;>28OE ?5@52>40 O?>=A:>9 3@0D8:8 =0 ;0B8=A:CN A;>2> «A>==8» ?@>87=>A8;>AL 1K :0: «A>=-=8», GB> >7=0G0;> «?>B5@OBL 45=L38». "0:>5 =0720=85 =5 3>48;>AL 4;O =>2>3> B>20@0. K =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O >14C<K20;8 MBC ?@>1;5<C, 8 2 >48= ?@5:@0A=K9 45=L <=5 ?@8H;> 2 3>;>2C @5H5=85: ?>G5<C 1K ?@>AB> =5 2KG5@:=CBL 1C:2C 8 =5 =0720BL :><?0=8N «!>=8»? !;>2> 1K;> =0945=>! >2>5 =0720=85 8<5;> B> ?@58<CI5AB2>, GB> =8 2 >4=>< O7K:5 MB> A;>2> =8G53> =5 >7=0G0;>. => ;53:> 70?><8=0;>AL 8 2K7K20;> 65;0B5;L=K5 =0< 0AA>F80F88. >;55 B>3>, O >1@0B8; 2=8<0=85 1C:8 =0 B>, GB>, ?>A:>;L:C MB> A;>2> 1C45B ?8A0BLAO ;0B8=A:8<8 1C:20<8, 2> <=>38E AB@0=0E MB> =0720=85 1C45B 2>A?@8=8<0BLAO :0: A;>2> 87 8E O7K:0. > 2A5< <8@5, 2 G0AB=>AB8 8 2 /?>=88, ?@028B5;LAB20 B@0BOB 45=L38, GB>1K =0CG8BL ;N459 G8B0BL ?>-0=3;89A:8 8 ?>;L7>20BLAO ;0B8=A:8< 0;D028B><.  G5< 1>;LH5 1C45B ;N459, 7=0NI8E 0=3;89A:89 O7K: 8 ;0B8=A:89 0;D028B, B5< 1>;LH5 ;N459 157 :0:8E-;81> =0H8E 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE 70B@0B 1C4CB C7=020BL =0720=85 =0H59 :><?0=88 8 =0H59 ?@>4C:F88. >A;5 B>3> :0: <K =0G0;8 AB028BL D8@<5==K9 7=0: «!>=8»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«:0@<0==K9»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« 8465=A8» A ?><>ILN «"5:A0A 8=AB@C<5=BA» 8 55 B@0=78AB>@>2 2K?CAB8;0 ?@85<=8:8 A B>@3>2>9 <0@:>9 « 8465=A8» =0 =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 @0=LH5 =0A, => MB0 :><?0=8O 2KH;0 87 83@K, =5 ?@8;>682 1>;LH8E CA8;89 4;O 8E A1KB0. C4CG8 ?5@2K<8 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8, >=8 <>3;8 1K 2K3>4=> 8A?>;L7>20BL A2>5 ?>;>65=85 8 A>740BL :>;>AA0;L=K9 @K=>: 4;O A2>59 ?@>4C:F88, :0: MB> A45;0;8 <K. > >=8, ?>-2848<><C, >H81>G=> @5H8;8, GB> C MB>3> 45;0 =5B 1C4CI53>, 8 >B:070;8AL >B 40;L=59H53> ?@>872>4AB20. 0H 2KA>:>:0G5AB25==K9 <0;5=L:89 ?@85<=8: =>A8; =>2CN B>@3>2CN <0@:C =0H59 :><?0=88 «!>=8», 8 <K AB@>8;8 1>;LH85 ?;0=K 2 >B=>H5=88 1C4CI53> B@0=78AB>@=>9 M;5:B@>=8:8, ;5;5O =04564K =0 B>, GB> CA?5E =0H53> <0;5=L:>3> «:0@<0==>3>» ?@85<=8:0 AB0=5B ?@542>725AB=8:>< 1C4CI8E CA?5E>2.  8N=5 1957 3>40 <K CAB0=>28;8 ?5@2K9 @5:;0<=K9 I8B A 8<5=5< «!>=8» =0?@>B82 2J5740 2 <564C=0@>4=K9 B>:89A:89 0M@>?>@B %0=M40, 0 2 :>=F5 B>3> 65 3>40 ?><5AB8;8 5I5 >48= I8B 2 F5=B@5 B>:89A:>3> @09>=0 8=470.  O=20@5 1958 3>40 <K >D8F80;L=> A<5=8;8 =0720=85 =0H59 :><?0=88 =0 «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» 8 2 45:01@5 1K;8 2:;NG5=K 2 A?8A>: B>:89A:>9 D>=4>2>9 18@68. K 70@538AB@8@>20;8 =0720=85 «!>=8» 2 AB0 A5<845AOB8 AB@0=0E 8 B5@@8B>@8OE ?> @07;8G=K< :0B53>@8O<, 0 =5 B>;L:> 2 >1;0AB8 M;5:B@>=8:8, GB>1K ?@54>B2@0B8BL 53> 708<AB2>20=85 4@C38<8 :><?0=8O<8 4;O A2>8E B>20@>2, GB>1K 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO 8E AE>4AB2><. > 2A:>@5 <K C7=0;8, GB> =5 AC<5;8 70I8B8BLAO >B =5:>B>@KE ?@54?@8=8<0B5;59 2 A>1AB25==>9 AB@0=5, 2 /?>=88.  >48= ?@5:@0A=K9 45=L =0< AB0;> 8725AB=>, GB> :0:0O-B> :><?0=8O ?@>405B H>:>;04 «!>=8». K >G5=L 3>@48;8AL =>2K< =0720=85< =0H59 :><?0=88, 8 O ?>-=0AB>OI5<C 1K; @0AAB@>5=, C7=02, GB> :B>-B> ?KB05BAO =068BL =0 =5< :0?8B0;. ><?0=8O, :>B>@0O ?@8A2>8;0 =0H5 8<O, @0=LH5 =07K20;0 A2>9 B>20@ A>25@H5==> 8=0G5 8 87<5=8;0 53> =0720=85 ;8HL B>340, :>340 =0H5 8<O AB0;> ?>?C;O@=K<. =0 70@538AB@8@>20;0 =0720=85 «!>=8» 4;O =5A:>;L:8E A>@B>2 H>:>;040 8 4@C38E ?8I52KE ?@>4C:B>2 8 4065 ?5@5<5=8;0 =0720=85 A2>59 :><?0=88 =0 «!>=8 DC47». ;O A2>59 B>@3>2>9 <0@:8 >=0 8A?>;L7>20;0 1C:2K B0:>9 65 D>@<K, :0: 8 <K.  B5 4=8 <K 8=>340 8A?>;L7>20;8 2 =0H59 @5:;0<5 @8AC=>: 70102=>3> G5;>25G:0 ?>4 =0720=85< «!>=8 1>9». 0 A0<>< 45;5 MB>B G5;>25G5: =07K20;AO «G0=» 8 53> A>740; :0@8:0BC@8AB $CNE8:> :01M 87 O?>=A:>9 3075BK «A0E8 A8<1C=». ">@3>2FK H>:>;04>< «!>=8» =0G0;8 8A?>;L7>20BL B0:>9 65 @8AC=>:. >340 O 2845; MB>B H>:>;04 2 ?@>4065 2 1>;LH8E <03078=0E, O :8?5; >B =53>4>20=8O. K ?@82;5:;8 A0<>720=F52 : AC4C, ?@83;0A82 8725AB=KE ;N459  ?@54?@8=8<0B5;59, 3075BG8:>2 8 :@8B8:>2, GB>1K 4>:070BL, GB> =0< 1K; ?@8G8=5= CI5@1. 48= 87 A2845B5;59 A:070;, GB>, C28452 H>:>;04 «!>=8», >= ?>4C<0;, GB> «!>=8 :>@?>@59H=» 8A?KBK205B D8=0=A>2K5 B@C4=>AB8, 5A;8 >=0 AB0;0 ?@>4020BL H>:>;04 2<5AB> =>259H8E M;5:B@>==KE ?@81>@>2. @C30O A2845B5;L=8F0 A:070;0, GB>, ?>A:>;L:C «!>=8»  MB> 2A5 65 B5E=8G5A:0O :><?0=8O, 59 :070;>AL, GB> 8 H>:>;04, 25@>OB=>, 1C45B A8=B5B8G5A:8<. K 1>O;8AL, GB> 5A;8 MB>B H>:>;04 1C45B ?@>4>;60BL 70?>;=OBL @K=>:, >= ?>;=>ABLN ?>4>@25B 4>25@85 : =0H59 :><?0=88. / 2A5340 1K; C15645= 2 B><, GB> B>@3>20O <0@:0  A0<>5 206=>5 4;O ?@54?@8OB8O 8 GB> 55 =04> A<5;> 70I8I0BL. ">@3>20O <0@:0 8 =0720=85 :><?0=88  MB> =5 ?@>AB> E8B@>C<=K5 2K25@BK, >=8 >7=0G0NB >B25BAB25==>ABL 8 30@0=B8N :0G5AB20 ?@>4C:B0. >340 :B>-;81> ?KB05BAO 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO @5?CB0F859 8 A?>A>1=>ABO<8 B>3>, :B> =5<0;> ?>B@C48;AO, GB>1K 702>520BL 4>25@85 >1I5AB25==>AB8, MB> =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: 2>@>2AB2>. K =5 1K;8 ?>;LI5=K B0:8< 2>@>2AB2><. 5;0 2 O?>=A:8E AC40E @0718@0NBAO >G5=L 4>;3>, 8 =0H5 45;> BO=C;>AL ?>GB8 G5BK@5 3>40, => <K 53> 2K83@0;8.  2?5@2K5 2 8AB>@88 /?>=88 AC4, >A2>1>640O =0A >B >B25BAB25==>AB8, ?@8<5=8; 70:>= > =5G5AB=>9 :>=:C@5=F88, 0 =5 70:>= > ?0B5=B0E 8;8 @538AB@0F88 B>@3>2>9 <0@:8. 5@=>, ?@>872>48B5;8 H>:>;040 70@538AB@8@>20;8 =0720=85, => B>;L:> ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: =0H5 8<O AB0;> ?>?C;O@=K<. 'B>1K 4>:070BL, GB> B0:>5 =0720=85 <>3 2K1@0BL ;N1>9, 8E N@8ABK >B?@028;8AL 2 :@C?=59H85 181;8>B5:8 AB@0=K, =045OAL ?@>45<>=AB8@>20BL, GB> B0:>5 A;>2>  MB> 2A5>1I55 4>AB>O=85, => 8E ?>4AB5@530; C40@. =8 >AB0;8AL =8 A G5<, ?>B><C GB>, 2 :0:>9 1K A;>20@L >=8 =8 703;O4K20;8, >=8 =8345 =5 <>3;8 =09B8 A;>2> «A>=8». K 7=0;8 MB> 70@0=55, 81> ?@>45;0;8 MBC @01>BC 704>;3> 4> =8E. -B> 8<O C=8:0;L=>, 8 >=> =0H5. >340 <K >B<5G0;8 =0HC B@84F0BL ?OBCN 3>4>2I8=C, <K ?>4C<0;8, GB> =0< A;54C5B 87<5=8BL =0HC B>@3>2CN <0@:C. 5=O;8AL AB8;8 8 <>4K 2 >45645, 48709=5, ?@0:B8G5A:8 2> 2A5<, ?>MB><C =0< ?@8H;0 2 3>;>2C <KA;L, GB>, 1KBL <>65B, =0< A;54C5B ?>4C<0BL >1 87<5=5=88 D>@<K =0G5@B0=8O 1C:2 2 =0H5< =0720=88. K CAB@>8;8 <564C=0@>4=K9 :>=:C@A 8 ?>;CG8;8 A>B=8 ?@54;>65=89, 0 B0:65 A>B=8 ?@>AL1 >B =0H8E B>@3>2F52 >AB028BL 2A5 157 87<5=5=89. 0AA<>B@52 2A5 ?@54;>65=8O, <K @5H8;8 =8G53> =5 <5=OBL. =0: «!>=8» =0< ?>-?@56=5<C >G5=L =@028BAO, 8 <K ?>=O;8, GB>, :0: 3>2>@8BAO, «>B 4>1@0 4>1@0 =5 8ICB» (=5B A<KA;0 G8=8BL B>, GB> =5 A;><0;>AL).  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" > " # ! !  . / =018@0NAL >?KB0.  I %>BO =0H0 :><?0=8O 2A5 5I5 >AB020;0AL =51>;LH>9 8 <K AG8B0;8 /?>=8N 4>2>;L=> 1>;LH8< 8 ?>B5=F80;L=> 0:B82=K< @K=:><, O?>=A:85 ?@><KH;5==8:8 1K;8 548=>4CH=K 2 B><, GB> ;N10O O?>=A:0O :><?0=8O, GB>1K CF5;5BL, 4>;6=0 M:A?>@B8@>20BL A2>8 B>20@K. >A:>;L:C C /?>=88 =5B =8:0:8E ?@8@>4=KE @5AC@A>2, :@><5 M=5@388 =0@>40, C =0A =5B 8=>9 0;LB5@=0B82K.  ?>MB><C 1K;> 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==>, GB> <K AB@5<8;8AL 2K9B8 =0 70@C156=K5 @K=:8. 4>102>:, ?> <5@5 B>3> :0: 45;> @>A;>, <=5 AB0=>28;>AL OA=>, GB>, 5A;8 <K =5 ?>AB028< A2>59 F5;LN A1KB B>20@>2 70 3@0=8F59, B> =5 A<>65< AB0BL B0:>9 :><?0=859, > :>B>@>9 <5GB0;8 <K A 1C:>9. K E>B5;8 87<5=8BL ?@54AB02;5=85 > O?>=A:8E B>20@0E, B>20@0E =87:>3> :0G5AB20. >, :0: <K AG8B0;8, B5<, :B> A>18@05BAO ?@>4020BL 2KA>:>:0G5AB25==CN 4>@>3>AB>OICN ?@>4C:F8N, =C65= H8@>:89 @K=>:, 0 MB> ?>4@07C<5205B ACI5AB2>20=85 1>30B>9, 2KA>:>@0728B>9 AB@0=K. !53>4=O A2KH5 99 ?@>F5=B>2 2A5E O?>=A:8E A5<59 8<5NB F25B=K5 B5;5287>@K, 1>;55 98 ?@>F5=B>2  E>;>48;L=8:8 8 AB8@0;L=K5 <0H8=K, =0AKI5==>ABL <03=8B>D>=0<8 8 AB5@5>A8AB5<0<8 :>;51;5BAO 2 ?@545;0E 60 70 ?@>F5=B>2. > 2 1958 3>4C, =0 A;54CNI89 3>4 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: <K 2K?CAB8;8 A2>8 «:0@<0==K5» B@0=78AB>@=K5 @048>?@85<=8:8, B>;L:> >48= ?@>F5=B O?>=A:8E A5<59 8<5; B5;5287>@K, ;8HL C ?OB8 ?@>F5=B>2 1K;8 AB8@0;L=K5 <0H8=K 8 2A53> 425 45AOBKE ?@>F5=B0  8<5;8 E>;>48;L=8:.  AG0ABLN, 2 A5@548=5 50-E 3>4>2 =0G0;AO 1C@=K9 @>AB O?>=A:>9 M:>=><8:8. >AB 20;>2>3> =0F8>=0;L=>3> ?@>4C:B0 (), 2K@0602H89AO 42C7=0G=>9 F8D@>9, 8 =87:85 B5<?K 8=D;OF88 ?>A;C68;8 A8;L=K< B>;G:>< 4;O @>AB0 ?>B@518B5;LA:8E @0AE>4>2. =>385 3>2>@OB, GB> ?>A;52>5==0O M@0 =0G0;0AL 2 /?>=88 2 1955 3>4C, B>340, :>340 <K ?@54AB028;8 =0 AC4 O?>=A:>9 >1I5AB25==>AB8 ?5@2K9 B@0=78AB>@=K9 @048>?@85<=8:. "5<?K ?>AB0  AB@0=K 4>AB83;8 ?>@078B5;L=KE <0AHB01>2  10,8 ?@>F5=B0 2 3>4. /?>=A:85 A5<L8 =C640;8AL 2> 2A5<, 8 ?@8 =0;8G88 2KA>:>9 =>@<K A15@565=89 [>@<0 A15@565=89  >B=>H5=85 =0:0?;8205<>9 G0AB8 4>E>40 :> 2A5<C ;8G=><C 4>E>4C. @8 20%-=>9 =>@<5 A15@565=89 87 :064KE 100 85= A15@530;>AL 20. @8<. @54.], :>B>@0O A>AB02;O;0 2 B5 4=8 A2KH5 20 ?@>F5=B>2, =0@>4 <>3 ?>72>;8BL A515 45;0BL ?>:C?:8. >MB><C 1;03>40@O ACI5AB2>20=8N E>@>H8E 8 @0ABCI8E @K=:>2 2 AB@0=5 8 ?>B5=F80;L=KE @K=:>2 70 @C156><, 2 <8@5 2>7=8:0;8 1;03>?@8OB=K5 4;O =0A CA;>28O. 0< :0: =>2>9 :><?0=88 =04> 1K;> =09B8 A>1AB25==CN =8HC =0 O?>=A:>< @K=:5. !B0@K5 @5=><8@>20==K5 D8@<K 2=>2L =0G8=0;8 DC=:F8>=8@>20BL ?>4 7=0:><K<8 B>@3>2K<8 <0@:0<8. 0< =04> 1K;> A45;0BL ?>?C;O@=K< A2>5 8<O. K 4>AB83;8 MB>3> A ?><>ILN =>2KE B>20@>2, <K 4065 ?@84C<0;8 =>2K5 =0720=8O 4;O =5:>B>@KE 87 =8E, =0?@8<5@ «"59?:>@45@», => >1=0@C68;8, GB> 4065 C =>28=>: B0:>3> @>40 5ABL >1@0B=0O AB>@>=0. >340 <K ?@54AB028;8 =0 @K=>: A2>8 ?5@2K5 <03=8B>D>=K, >=8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 1K;8 8725AB=K 2 /?>=88. >A:>;L:C <K, >G5284=>, =5 <>3;8 70@538AB@8@>20BL =0720=85 «B59? @5:>@45@» («<03=8B>D>=»), :0: =0H5 A>1AB25==>5 =0720=85, <K =0720;8 53> «"59?:>@45@». 0720=85 «"59?:>@45@» GCBL ;8 =5 A@07C AB0;> >1>7=0G0BL <03=8B>D>=K 2>>1I5, ?>B><C GB> =0 @K=:5 1K; B>;L:> =0H <03=8B>D>=, => ?>74=55, :>340 =0H8 :>=:C@5=BK AB0;8 ?@>872>48BL <03=8B>D>=K, MB> AB0;> A><=8B5;L=K< 1;03><, ?>B><C GB> «B59?:>@45@0<8» AB0;8 =07K20BL <03=8B>D>=K ;N1>9 D8@<K. ! B5E ?>@ <K ?@84020;8 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 B><C, GB> =0720=85 =0H59 :><?0=88 1K;> E>@>H> 284=> =0 =0H8E B>20@0E, 4065 5A;8 <K 4020;8 8< ?@84C<0==K5 8<5=0, =0?@8<5@ «#>:<M=», B> 5ABL B>@3>20O <0@:0, =0720=85 :><?0=88 8 B>20@0 4>;6=K 1KBL >BG5B;82K<8. 5A<>B@O =0 @>AB 4>AB0B:0 2 /?>=88 2 :>=F5 50-E 3>4>2, <K AB0;:820;8AL A 1>;LH8<8 B@C4=>ABO<8, :>340 =0< =04> 1K;> ?>;CG8BL AAC4C. 0< ?@8E>48;>AL ?>;030BLAO =0 4@C759, 0 B0:65 =0 8E ?>?KB:8 ?@54AB028BL =0A ;N4O<, :>B>@K5 <>3;8 1K AB0BL =0H8<8 8=25AB>@0<8.  MB>< >B=>H5=88 =0< ?>257;>, ?>B><C GB> C =0A 1K; :>=AC;LB0B82=K9 A>25B, G;5=K :>B>@>3> ?>;L7>20;8AL 459AB28B5;L=> 1>;LH8< 02B>@8B5B><. =8 <>3;8 ?@54AB02;OBL =0A ?>B5=F80;L=K< 8=25AB>@0<, A :>B>@K<8 <K =5 <>3;8 1K ?>7=0:><8BLAO A0<8. 0H8< ?@54A540B5;5< A 1953 ?> 1959 3>4 1K; .=A8@> 0=408, 1K2H89 ?@54A540B5;L 10=:0 «8FC8», 0 2 G8A;5 =0H8E A>25B=8:>2 1K; B5ABL 1C:8, 1K2H89 <8=8AB@ :018=5B0 "0<>= 0M40; 8478 "0478<0, :>B>@K9 AB0; 35=5@0;L=K< 48@5:B>@>< «<?5@8M; E0C7E>;4 M9465=A8»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«8FC8» ?@54;>68; 5<C AB0BL ?@57845=B>< :><?0=88 «">:8> A810C@0 M;5:B@8: :><?0=8» («">A810»), ?>B><C GB> >=0 ?5@56820;0 B@C4=>AB8 A D8=0=A0<8 8 @01>G59 A8;>9.  B> 2@5<O 459AB2>20;8 ?>A;52>5==K5 0=B8B@5AB>2A:85 70:>=K, 8 ?>MB><C >= AG8B0;, GB> E>BO «">A810» 1K;0 3830=BA:>9 :>@?>@0F859, 0 «!>=8»  >G5=L <0;5=L:>9, >= =5 <>3 45@60BL 0:F88 2 4@C3>9 :><?0=88, ?@>872>4OI59 B>20@K B>3> 65 B8?0. = ?5@540; ?09 A2>59 4>G5@8, "><>:>. >A;5 B>3> :0: «">A810» 2K?CAB8;0  3>@074> ?>765, G5< =0H0 :><?0=8O  A>1AB25==K9 <0;5=L:89 B@0=78AB>@=K9 @048>?@85<=8:, >= @5:><5=4>20; A2>59 4>G5@8 ?@>40BL 0:F88. = 3>2>@8; 59, GB> =8 >4=0 <0;5=L:0O :><?0=8O =5 <>65B BO30BLAO B5?5@L A 3830=B>< O?>=A:>9 M;5:B@>B5E=8G5A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8, :>340 >=8 =0G0;8 ?@>872>48BL B> 65 A0<>5, GB> 8 <K. >GL A8470:8  <>9 E>@>H89 4@C3, 6825B =540;5:> >B <5=O. =0 G0AB> 2 HCB:C 3>2>@8;0: «>9 >B5F  ?@>F25B0NI89 187=5A<5= 8 206=0O H8H:0 2 M940=@M=5, => >= =5 C<55B 45;0BL 45=L38 4;O A51O». 0: ?>A;CH=0O 4>GL, >=0 ?@>40;0 0:F88 «!>=8», :0: A>25B>20; >=, 8 C?CAB8;0 2>7<>6=>ABL @071>30B5BL =0 MB><. 0=408, =0H ?@54A540B5;L, 1K; >4=8< 87 :@C?=KE 10=:8@>2 /?>=88. > 2>9=K >= 2>73;02;O; 10=: «8FC8»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«8FC8», >:07K202H53> =0< A A0<>3> =0G0;0 ?><>IL. 4=064K 0=408 27O; <5=O 8 1C:C 2 A2>9 1K2H89 10=:, GB>1K ?>3>2>@8BL A =5:>B>@K<8 A>B@C4=8:0<8 10=:0 > =0H59 :><?0=88. K ?KB0;8AL B>340 2K?CAB8BL 0:F88 8 =045O;8AL, GB> 0=408, 2>7<>6=>, ?@>AB> C?><O=5B >1 MB>< 2 10=:5.  =0H5<C C482;5=8N, :>340 <K ?@8H;8 2 10=:, 0=408 02B>@8B5B=K< B>=>< 3>2>@8; 2A5<: «>O :><?0=8O @5H8;0 2K?CAB8BL 1>;LH5 0:F89, 8 O <>3 1K ?><>GL 20< ?@8>1@5AB8 8E».  CAB0E B0:>3> 1>;LH>3> G5;>25:0 MB> 72CG0;> ?>GB8 :0: :><0=40. 5A:>;L:> C?@02;ONI8E 10=:0 ?>74=55 @0AA:07K20;8 <=5, :0: 8< 1K;> B@C4=> @074>1KBL 4>AB0B>G=> 45=53, GB>1K :C?8BL MB8 0:F88. =8 AG8B0;8, GB> 4>;6=K :C?8BL 8E, ?>B><C GB> 0=408 D0:B8G5A:8 ?@8:070; 8< A45;0BL MB>. @0240, O =5 7=0N =8 >4=>3>, :B> 1K ?>60;5; >1 MB><. 5:>B>@K5 87 =8E @071>30B5;8 =0 MB8E ?5@2KE 0:F8OE, 8 O, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, 7=0N G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 2 >G5=L A:>@>< 2@5<5=8 ?>AB@>8; 4>< =0 A2>8 ?5@2K5 482845=4K. K ?@>F25B0;8, E>BO 5I5 25;8 65AB>:CN 1>@L1C, 4>1820OAL B>3>, GB>1K =0H5 8<O AB0;> 8725AB=> 2 /?>=88, 345 C2065=85 : B>@3>2>9 <0@:5 8 25@=>ABL 59 >G5=L 2KA>:8. 0 @C156>< <K 2A5 1K;8 2 @02=>< ?>;>65=88. , 1KBL <>65B, C =0A B0< 1K;> =5A:>;L:> ;CGH55 ?>;>65=85, G5< C 4@C38E. > 2>9=K 2KA>:>:0G5AB25==K5 O?>=A:85 ?>B@518B5;LA:85 B>20@K 1K;8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =58725AB=K. 5?CB0F8O B>20@>2 A <0@:>9 «!45;0=> 2 /?>=88», :>B>@K5 ?>AB02;O;8AL 70 3@0=8FC 4> 2>9=K, 1K;0 :@09=5 ?;>E>9. / C7=0;, GB> C 1>;LH8=AB20 ;N459 2 !( 8 2@>?5 /?>=8O 0AA>F88@>20;0AL A 1C<06=K<8 7>=B8:0<8, :8<>=>, 83@CH:0<8 8 45H52K<8 15745;CH:0<8. K18@0O A515 8<O, <K =5 AB0@0;8AL =0<5@5==> A:@KBL =0HC =0F8>=0;L=>ABL, :0:-=8:0: <564C=0@>4=K5 ?@028;0 B@51CNB C:07K20BL =0 B>20@0E AB@0=C ?@>8AE>645=8O. 4=0:> <K, 157CA;>2=>, =5 AB@5<8;8AL ?>4G5@:820BL MB> 8 @8A:>20BL B5<, GB> =0A >B25@3=CB 5I5 4> B>3>, :0: <K A<>65< ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL :0G5AB2> =0H8E B>20@>2. / 4>;65= ?@87=0BLAO, GB> 2 B5 ?5@2K5 4=8 <K ?5G0B0;8 A;>20 «!45;0=> 2 /?>=88» :0: <>6=> 1>;55 <5;:8<8 1C:20<8, :>B>@K5 >4=064K >:070;8AL A;8H:>< <5;:8<8 4;O 0<5@8:0=A:>9 B0<>6=8, 70AB0282H59 =0A C25;8G8BL 8E. #65 87 A2>53> A0<>3> ?5@2>3> >?KB0 ?@>4068 <03=8B>D>=>2 O ?@8H5; : ?>=8<0=8N B>3>, GB> <0@:5B8=3  MB> ?> ACI5AB2C D>@<0 >1I5=8O. !>3;0A=> B@048F8>==>9 O?>=A:>9 A8AB5<5 @0A?@545;5=8O ?>B@518B5;LA:8E B>20@>2, ?@>872>48B5;8 45@60BAO =0 @0AAB>O=88 >B ?>B@518B5;59. 1I5=85 <564C =8<8 =52>7<>6=>. &5;K9 @O4 ?5@28G=KE, 2B>@8G=KE 8 B@5B8G=KE >?B>28:>2 8<5NB 45;> A B>20@><, ?@5645 G5< >= 4>AB83=5B @>7=8G=>3> B>@3>2F0, >4=0 70 4@C3>9 A;54CNB H5@5=38 ?>A@54=8:>2, AB>OI8E <564C ?@>872>48B5;5< 8 :>=5G=K< ?>B@518B5;5< ?@>4C:B0. "0:0O A8AB5<0 @0A?@545;5=8O 8<55B >?@545;5==K9 A>F80;L=K9 A<KA;  >=0 >15A?5G8205B 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> @01>G8E <5AB, => >=0 4>@>30 8 =5MDD5:B82=0. > <5@5 ?@>E>645=8O B>20@>2 >B >4=8E >?B>28:>2 : 4@C38< F5=K =0 =53> @0ABCB, E>BO =5:>B>@K5 87 ?>A@54=8:>2, 1KBL <>65B, =8 @07C ?0;LF5< =5 :>A=C;8AL MB>3> B>20@0. -B0 A8AB5<0, 2>7<>6=>, 8 ?@83>4=0 4;O B>20@>2 H8@>:>3> ?>B@51;5=8O 8 ?@8<8B82=KE 2 B5E=8G5A:>< >B=>H5=88 B>20@>2, => <K A A0<>3> =0G0;0 ?>=8<0;8, GB> >=0 =5 <>65B C4>2;5B2>@8BL =C64K =0H59 :><?0=88 8 =5 3>48BAO 4;O 55 =>2KE B>20@>2, A>740==KE ?> =>259H59 B5E=>;>388. >A@54=8:8 =0 B@5BL5< 8;8 G5B25@B>< MB0?0E ?@>AB> =5 A<>3CB 8<5BL B0:>9 65 8=B5@5A 8;8 M=BC7807< ?> >B=>H5=8N : =0H59 ?@>4C:F88 8 =0H8< 845O<, :0: <K. 0< =04> 1K;> =0CG8BL =0H8E :;85=B>2 >1@0I0BLAO A B0:8<8 B>20@0<8. ;O MB>3> =0< ?@8H;>AL >B:@KBL A>1AB25==K5 <03078=K 8 A>740BL A2>8 ?CB8 ?>AB02:8 B>20@>2 =0 @K=>:. K 2K?CA:0;8 B>20@K, :>B>@K5 =8:>340 ?@5645 =5 1K;8 2 ?@>4065, :>B>@K5 D0:B8G5A:8 =8:>340 ?@5645 =5 ?@>872>48;8AL, =0?@8<5@ B@0=78AB>@=K5 @048>?@85<=8:8 8 4><0H=85 B5;5287>@K, 8 =0G0;8 ?@8>1@5B0BL A;02C ?5@2>>B:@K20B5;59. 5:>B>@K5 4065 =07K20;8 =0A «<>@A:8<8 A28=:0<8» M;5:B@>==>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8. K ?@>872>48;8 =>2K5 B>20@K, 0 ?@><KH;5==K5 3830=BK 2K6840;8, ?KB0OAL >?@545;8BL, 1C45B ;8 =0H B>20@ 8<5BL CA?5E.  5A;8 >= 8<5; CA?5E, >=8 1KAB@> 2K?CA:0;8 =0 @K=>: B0:>9 65 B>20@, ?@8A20820O =0H8 4>AB865=8O. -B> 4;8;>AL <=>385 3>4K. 0< 2A5340 1K;> =C6=> 84B8 2?5@54. K =01;N40;8 MB> =0 ?@8<5@5 1>;LH8=AB20 =0H8E >A=>2=KE =>28=>:  >B <8=80BN@=KE B@0=78AB>@=KE @048>?@85<=8:>2 8 B5;52878@>2 (A0<K9 ?5@2K9 B0:>9 B5;5287>@ A>740;8 <K) 4> A53>4=OH=53> ?>@B0B82=>3> AB5@5>?@>83@K20B5;O «#>:<M=», ?;>A:>3> B5;5287>@0 «#>G<M=» 2 2845 =0@CG=KE G0A>2 8 ?@>83@K20B5;O =0 :><?0:B-48A:0E «8A:<M=». K 2=54@8;8 AB5@5>A8AB5<K 2 /?>=88. K A>740;8 A0<K9 ?5@2K9 2 <8@5 1KB>2>9 :0AA5B=K9 2845><03=8B>D>=, 87>1@5;8 A8AB5<C «"@8=8B@>=», =>2K9 <5B>4 ?@>5F8@>20=8O F25B=>3> 87>1@065=8O =0 :8=5A:>?K B5;52878@>2 8 CA>25@H5=AB2>20;8 3,5-4N9<>2K9 381:89 48A: 4;O :><?LNB5@>2, :>B>@K9 8<55B A59G0A A0<CN 2KA>:CN 2 <8@5 5<:>ABL ?0<OB8 A@548 48A:>2 53> @07<5@>2. K >ACI5AB28;8 @52>;NF8N 2 <5B>40E A1>@0 8=D>@<0F88 4;O B5;52845=8O 8 55 ?5@540G8 2> 2A5< <8@5, 2K?CAB82 =0H8 ?5@5=>A=K5 2845>:0<5@K 8 <0;5=L:85 2845><03=8B>D>=K. K ?5@2K<8 A>740;8 15A?;5=>G=CN :0<5@C «028:0», A8AB5<C :><?0:B-48A:>2 8 AB0=40@B «845>-8». -B> ?@>AB>9 ?5@5G5=L =0H59 =081>;55 8725AB=>9 ?@>4C:F88.  A0<>< =0G0;5, :>340 <K 5I5 =5 70@5:><5=4>20;8 A51O :0: :><?0=8O, B>20@K :>B>@>9 =587<5==> ?>;L7CNBAO CA?5E><, =0H8 :>=:C@5=BK 70=8<0;8 25AL<0 >AB>@>6=K5, 2K6840B5;L=K5 ?>78F88, ?>:0 <K A1K20;8 8 A>25@H5=AB2>20;8 =>2K9 B>20@.  ?5@2>5 2@5<O, ?>:0 4@C385 :><?0=88 =5 C15640;8AL 2 B><, GB> 40==K9 B>20@ 1C45B 8<5BL CA?5E, <K 70G0ABCN 2 B5G5=85 3>40 8 1>;LH5 1K;8 ?>;=K<8 <>=>?>;8AB0<8 =0 @K=:5.  ?>:0 25AL @K=>: 1K; 2 =0H8E @C:0E, <K ?>;CG0;8 1>;LH85 ?@81K;8. > ?> <5@5 B>3>, :0: =0H8 CA?5E8 @>A;8 8 =0H8 4>AB865=8O AB0=>28;8AL 2A5 1>;55 70<5B=K<8, A>:@0B8;>AL 2@5<O 2K6840=8O C >AB0;L=KE. "5?5@L 1K20NB A;CG08, :>340 4@C385 :><?0=88 2KE>4OB =0 @K=>:, :>=:C@8@CO A =0<8 A2>8<8 20@80=B0<8 =0H53> ?@>4C:B0, <5=55 G5< G5@57 B@8 <5AOF0.  AG0ABLN, =0< C40;>AL 2 B5G5=85 F5;>3> 3>40 ;848@>20BL 2 ?@>872>4AB25 ?>@B0B82=KE ?@>83@K20B5;59 =0 :><?0:B-48A:0E «8A:<M=» 8 ?>GB8 H5ABL <5AOF52  2 ?@>872>4AB25 «#>:<M=>2». -B>, :>=5G=>, ;5AB=>, => >1E>48BAO :@09=5 4>@>3>. K =5 <>65< >B:070BLAO >B 4>?>;=8B5;L=>9 2K@CG:8 70 =>20B>@AB2>. =>385 3>4K <K 2:;04K205< =0<=>3> 1>;55 H5AB8 ?@>F5=B>2 >1>@>B0 2 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:85 8 >?KB=>-:>=AB@C:B>@A:85 @01>BK, 0 =5A:>;L:> ;5B <K 8=25AB8@>20;8 4065 ?> 45AOBL ?@>F5=B>2. 0H0 AB@0B538O A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K 25AB8 70 A>1>9 ?>B@518B5;59, A>74020O =>2K5 ?@>4C:BK, 0 =5 A?@0H820BL 8E, :0:85 B>20@K 8< E>B5;>AL 1K 8<5BL. >B@518B5;8 =5 7=0NB, :0:85 2>7<>6=>AB8 ACI5AB2CNB, <K 65 7=05< MB>. >MB><C 2<5AB> B>3>, GB>1K ?@>872>48BL <=>3>G8A;5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O @K=:0, <K :>=F5=B@8@>20;8 A2>8 B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 =0 A>740=88 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?@>4C:B0 8 53> ?@8<5=5=88, AB0@0;8AL A>740BL 4;O =53> @K=>:, @5:;0<8@CO 53> ?>B@518B5;O< 8 ?>445@6820O A =8<8 :>=B0:B. >@>9 845O A>740=8O =>2>3> ?@>4C:B0 ?@8E>48;0 <=5 2 3>;>2C A0<0 A>1>9.  :0G5AB25 ?@8<5@0 O <>3C ?@825AB8 25IL, :>B>@0O =025@=O:0 8725AB=0 2A5<, «#>:<M=». KA;L A>740BL MB>B AB5@5>?@>83@K20B5;L ?>O28;0AL, :>340 >4=064K 1C:0 ?@8B0I8; 2 <>9 :018=5B >48= 87 =0H8E ?>@B0B82=KE AB5@5><03=8B>D>=>2 8 ?0@C =0H8E =0CH=8:>2 AB0=40@B=KE @07<5@>2. # =53> 1K; =5AG0AB=K9 284, 8 >= ?>60;>20;AO =0 B>, GB> B0A:0BL MB> >G5=L BO65;>. / A?@>A8; 53>, GB> >= 8<55B 2 284C. = >B25B8;: «/ E>GC A;CH0BL <C7K:C, => =5 E>GC =8:>3> 15A?>:>8BL. / =5 <>3C A845BL F5;K9 45=L C <03=8B>D>=0. >MB><C O 15@C 53> A A>1>9. > MB> A;8H:>< BO65;>». / C65 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O >14C<K20; >4=C 845N. "5?5@L 65, :>340 1C:0 3>2>@8;, >=0 ?@8=O;0 G5B:85 D>@<K. > =01;N45=8O< 2 A>1AB25==>9 A5<L5 O 7=0;, GB> <>;>456L, ?>-2848<><C, =5 <>65B 68BL 157 <C7K:8. >GB8 C 2A5E 5ABL AB5@5>A8AB5<K 8 4><0 8 2 <0H8=5.  LN->@:5 8 4065 2 ">:8> O 2845; ;N459 A 1>;LH8<8 <03=8B>D>=0<8 8 ?@85<=8:0<8, 3@5<52H8<8 C =8E =0 ?;5G0E. / 2A?><=8;, :0: >4=064K <>O 4>GL 0>:>, 25@=C2H8AL 4><>9 87 ?>574:8, ?@5645 G5< ?>74>@>20BLAO A <0B5@LN, 271560;0 : A515 =025@E 8 ?5@2K< 45;>< 2AB028;0 :0AA5BC 2 <03=8B>D>=. 0;>10 1C:8 ?>A;C68;0 4;O <5=O B>;G:><. / A:070; =0H8< 8=65=5@0<, GB>1K >=8 27O;8 >48= 87 =0H8E =0456=KE ?>@B0B82=KE :0AA5B=KE <03=8B>D>=>2, :>B>@K5 <K =07K20;8 «@5AA<M=», 2K=C;8 87 =8E CAB@>9AB2> 4;O 72C:>70?8A8 8 3@><:>3>2>@8B5;L 8 70<5=8;8 8E AB5@5>CA8;8B5;5<. / =0720; 4@C385 45B0;8, :>B>@K5 <=5 1K;8 =C6=K, 2 G0AB=>AB8 >G5=L ;53:85 3>;>2=K5 B5;5D>=K, :>B>@K5 >:070;8AL >4=>9 87 A0<KE B@C4=KE 45B0;59 2 ?@>5:B5 «#>:<M=0». -B> 1K;> BO65;>5 4;O <5=O 2@5<O. 070;>AL, GB> <>O 845O =8:><C =5 ?>=@028;0AL. 0 >4=>< 87 =0H8E A>25I0=89, ?>A2OI5==KE ?;0=8@>20=8N =>2KE 8745;89, >48= 87 8=65=5@>2 A:070;: «45O, 2848<>, E>@>H0, => 1C4CB ;8 ?>:C?0BL <03=8B>D>=K 157 CAB@>9AB20 4;O 72C:>70?8A8? C<0N, GB> =5B». 0 MB> O 2>7@078;: «8;;8>=K ;N459 ?>:C?0NB AB5@5><03=8B>D>=K 4;O 02B><>18;59 157 CAB@>9AB20 4;O 72C:>70?8A8 8 4C<0N, GB> <8;;8>=K 70E>BOB :C?8BL =>2K9 <03=8B>D>=». B:@KB> =04> <=>9 =8:B> =5 A<5O;AO, => O, =025@=>5, B0: 8 =5 C1548; A2>8E ?@>5:B8@>2I8:>2, E>BO >=8 ?@>B82 2>;8 AB0;8 2K?>;=OBL <>8 C:070=8O. / 4065 CAB0=>28; ?@>406=CN F5=C, 4>ABC?=CN 4;O <>;>4>3> G5;>25:0, 5I5 4> B>3>, :0: <K A45;0;8 ?5@2K9 <03=8B>D>=. >=>D>=8G5A:89 <03=8B>D>= «@5AA<M=» AB>8; 4>2>;L=> 4>@>3> 8 ?@>4020;AO 2 /?>=88 ?> F5=5 49 BKAOG 85=, 8 O 2K@078; ?>65;0=85, GB>1K ?5@2K5 <>45;8 =0H53> =>2>3> M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> AB5@5>D>=8G5A:>3> <03=8B>D>=0 ?>ABC?8;8 2 @>7=8G=CN ?@>406C 2 @>7=8FC ?> F5=5 =5 2KH5 30 BKAOG 85=. CE30;B5@8O ?@>B5AB>20;0, => O =0AB>O; =0 A2>5<. / 2K@078; A2>N C25@5==>ABL 2 B><, GB> <K 1C45< ?@>872>48BL =>2K9 B>20@ 2 >G5=L 1>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25 8 ?> <5@5 @>AB0 >1J5<0 ?@>406 =0H8 8745@6:8 1C4CB A=860BLAO. =8 AG8B0;8, GB> =0< A;54C5B 27OBL 70 >A=>2C 1>;55 45H52K9 <03=8B>D>=, G5< «@5AA<M=», => O ?@54?>G5; >A=>2=CN AE5<C «@5AA<M=0», ?>B><C GB> <=>385 45B0;8 4;O MB>3> <03=8B>D>=0 <>6=> 1K;> :C?8BL 2> 2A5< <8@5 2 =0H8E F5=B@0E >1A;C6820=8O, 8 <K 7=0;8, GB> MB0 A8AB5<0 @01>B05B =0456=>. >MB><C <K <>3;8 ?@8ABC?8BL : 45;C 157 >?0A5=8O, GB> <03=8B>D>= 1C45B 2KE>48BL 87 AB@>O 87-70 <5E0=8G5A:8E 45D5:B>2.  A:>@>< 2@5<5=8 <=5 ?@8=5A;8 ?5@2K9 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K9 <03=8B>D>= A =>2K<8 <8=80BN@=K<8 =0CH=8:0<8, 8 O 2>AE8I0;AO 53> =51>;LH8<8 @07<5@0<8 8 2KA>:8< :0G5AB2>< 72CG0=8O.  >1KG=KE AB5@5>A8AB5<0E A 1>;LH8<8 3@><:>3>2>@8B5;O<8 7=0G8B5;L=0O G0ABL M=5@388, =5>1E>48<>9 4;O 2>A?@>872545=8O 72C:0, B5@O5BAO 2?CABCN, ?>A:>;L:C B>;L:> G0ABL 72C:>2KE 2>;= 4>AB8305B CH59 A;CH0B5;59. AB0;L=0O M=5@38O 72C:0 CE>48B =0 A>B@OA5=85 AB5= 8 >:>=. 0H5<C :@>H5G=><C <03=8B>D>=C 1K;> 4;O @01>BK 4>AB0B>G=> =51>;LH>3> :>;8G5AB20 M=5@388, ?>ABC?0NI59 >B 10B0@59:8 : CA8;8B5;N <0;5=L:8E =0CH=8:>2. ">G=>ABL 72C:>2>A?@>872545=8O <0;5=L:8E 3>;>2=KE B5;5D>=>2 1K;0 B0:>9 2KA>:>9, :0: O 8 >6840;, 8;8 4065 ;CGH5. ! ?5@2K< «#>:<M=><» O ?>1560; 4><>9 8 ?@>83@0; =0 =5< @07=CN <C7K:C.  O 24@C3 70<5B8;, GB> <>9 M:A?5@8<5=B @074@0605B <>N 65=C, :>B>@0O 1K;0 =54>2>;L=0 B5<, GB> >=0 =5 <>65B ?@8=8<0BL 2 MB>< CG0AB8O. @5:@0A=>, @5H8; O, =0< =04> CAB0=>28BL 425 ?0@K =0CH=8:>2. 0 A;54CNI59 =545;5 ?@>872>4AB25==>5 >B45;5=85 873>B>28;> 5I5 >4=C <>45;L A 42C<O ?0@0<8 =0CH=8:>2. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> 4=59 O ?@83;0A8; ?>83@0BL 2 3>;LD A2>53> ?0@B=5@0 ?> 3>;LDC ?8A0B5;O 0>@C !5478, 8 :>340 <K A5;8 2 <0H8=C, GB>1K >B?@028BLAO 2 <>9 :;C1, O 40; 5<C ?0@C =0CH=8:>2 8 2:;NG8; <03=8B>D>=. / =045; 2B>@CN ?0@C =0CH=8:>2 8 =01;N40; 70 2K@065=85< 53> ;8F0. = 1K; C482;5= 8 >1@04>20=, CA;KH02, :0: 53> 65=0 ?80=8AB:0 %8@>:> 0:0<C@0 8A?>;=O5B :>=F5@B @830 4;O D>@B5?80=>. = @0A?;K;AO 2 C;K1:5 8 E>B5; GB>-B> A:070BL, => =5 A<>3 MB>3> A45;0BL, ?>B><C GB> <K >10 A845;8 2 =0CH=8:0E. / 2845; 2 MB>< ?>B5=F80;L=CN ?@>1;5<C. / @07@5H8; MBC ?@>1;5<C, ?>?@>A82 A2>8E A>B@C4=8:>2 4>1028BL : <03=8B>D>=C :=>?>G=K9 <8:@>D>=, GB>1K 420 G5;>25:0 <>3;8 3>2>@8BL 4@C3 A 4@C3><, =5 2K:;NG0O <C7K:8, B0: A:070BL, ?> «3>@OG59 ;8=88 A2O78». / AG8B0;, GB> <K A>740;8 ?>B@OA0NI89 ?@>4C:B, 8 1K; ?>;>= M=BC7807<0. > =0H8 A?5F80;8ABK ?> A1KBC 2>2A5 =5 1K;8 2 2>AB>@35. =8 3>2>@8;8, GB> B>20@ =5 1C45B ?>;L7>20BLAO CA?5E><, 8 <5=O 15A?>:>8;>, GB> O B0: @04CNAL <03=8B>D>=C, :>B>@K9, ?> <=5=8N 1>;LH8=AB20, =8:><C =5 =C65=. > O 1K; B0: C25@5=, GB> <03=8B>D>= =0945B =0AB>;L:> E>@>H89 A1KB, GB> 27O; =0 A51O ;8G=CN >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 MB>B ?@>5:B. # <5=O =8:>340 =5 1K;> ?@8G8= A>60;5BL >1 MB><. >O 845O >:070;0AL 25@=>9, 8 «#>:<M=» A A0<>3> =0G0;0 8<5; 1;5ABOI89 CA?5E. =5 =8:>340 =5 =@028;>AL =0720=85 «#>:<M=», => >=>, ?>-2848<><C, 25745 ?@828;>AL. / 1K; 2 >BJ5745, :>340 =5A:>;L:> <>;>4KE ;N459 87 =0H59 :><?0=88 ?@84C<0;8 B0:>5 =0720=85, 8 :>340 O 25@=C;AO, O 25;5; 8< A<5=8BL =0720=85 =0 GB>-B> 2@>45 «#>:8=3 AB5@5>» 8;8 ;N1>5 4@C3>5, 1>;55 ?@028;L=>5 A B>G:8 7@5=8O 3@0<<0B8:8, => >=8 >B25B8;8, GB> O >?>740;: @5:;0<=K5 >1JO2;5=8O C65 3>B>2K, 8 <03=8B>D>=K A B0:8< =0720=85< C65 ?CI5=K 2 ?@>872>4AB2>. ><?0=88 «!>=8 <5@8:0» 8 «!>=8 .» >?0A0;8AL, GB> =5 A<>3CB ?@>40BL B>20@ A B0:8< 1573@0<>B=K< =0720=85<, :0: «#>:<M=», => <K >AB028;8 53>. >74=55 <K ?@>1>20;8 70 3@0=8F59 4@C385 =0720=8O  «!B>CM259» 2 =3;88 8 «!0C=4 M10CB» 2 !(, :>B>@K5, >4=0:>, B0: 8 =5 ?@828;8AL.  =0720=85 «#>:<M=» ?>H;>.  2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 O ?>72>=8; @C:>2>48B5;O< «!>=8 <5@8:0» 8 «!>=8 .» 8 A:070;: «>B =0H5 @0A?>@O65=85: <03=8B>D>= 1C45B =07K20BLAO "#>:<M="!» "5?5@L <=5 3>2>@OB, GB> MB> 70<5G0B5;L=>5 =0720=85. A:>@5 <K C65 5420 ?>A?520;8 70 A?@>A><, 8 =0< ?@8H;>AL A:>=AB@C8@>20BL =>2K9 02B><0B 4;O :>=B@>;O 70 ?>B>:>< 70:07>2. 07C<55BAO, <K A?>A>1AB2>20;8 @>ABC ?@>406 A ?><>ILN H8@>:>9 @5:;0<K, 0 2 /?>=88 <K =0=O;8 <>;>4KE ;N459, :>B>@K5 ?0@0<8 @073C;820;8 ?> 2>A:@5A5=LO< ?> 8=475 8 ">:8>, A;CH0O A2>8 «#>:<M=K» 8 45<>=AB@8@CO 8E. =0G0;5 O ?>;030;, GB> G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 1C45B >48= A;CH0BL <C7K:C, A>GBCB =5256;82K<. 4=0:> ?>:C?0B5;8 AG8B0;8 A2>8 <0;5=L:85 ?>@B0B82=K5 AB5@5><03=8B>D>=K ?@54<5B0<8 8=48284C0;L=>3> ?>;L7>20=8O.  E>BO O >6840;, GB> ;N48 1C4CB A;CH0BL A2>8 <03=8B>D>=K 242>5<, <K >1=0@C68;8, GB> 2A5, ?>-2848<><C, E>BOB A;CH0BL A>1AB25==K9 <03=8B>D>=, ?>MB><C <K C1@0;8 «3>@OGCN ;8=8N», 0 ?>74=55 A=O;8 >4=> 87 42CE 3=574 4;O ?>4:;NG5=8O 3>;>2=KE B5;5D>=>2 =0 1>;LH8=AB25 <>45;59. / 1K; C15645=, GB> «#>:<M=» 1C45B ?>?C;O@=K<, => 4065 O =5 1K; 3>B>2 : B0:>9 @50:F88. <5AB5 A> A2>59 :>340-B> A:5?B8G5A:8 =0AB@>5==>9 ?@>5:B=>9 3@C??>9 O 1K; >7040G5=, :>340 <K ?@>40;8 ?OBL <8;;8>=>2 <03=8B>D>=>2, 8 ?@54A:07K20;, GB> MB> B>;L:> =0G0;>. ! B5E ?>@ :0: ?5@2K9 «#>:<M=» ?>ABC?8; 2 ?@>406C, <K @50;87>20;8 1>;55 425=04F0B8 <8;;8>=>2 <03=8B>D>=>2 A5<845AOB8 A ;8H=8< @07;8G=KE <>45;59.  B><C 65 <K 2K?CAB8;8 2>4>- 8 ?K;5=5?@>=8F05<CN <>45;8 8 1C45< ?@>4>;60BL 2K?CA:0BL =>2K5. =B5@5A=>, GB>, A>74020O «#>:<M=», <K 2=0G0;5 C1@0;8 G0ABL 45B0;59 87 1>;LH>3> <03=8B>D>=0, 8<5NI53> A8AB5<C 72C:>70?8A8 8 2>A?@>872545=8O, 0 B5?5@L :@C3 ?>GB8 70<:=C;AO. K >AB028;8 8;8 ?CAB8;8 2 ?@>406C ?@8AB02:8, 2@>45 <0;5=L:8E 3@><:>3>2>@8B5;59, 2A5 B5 45B0;8, :>B>@K5 A=0G0;0 C1@0;8, 4>10282 4065 =>2K5 45B0;8, =0?@8<5@ CAB@>9AB2> 4;O ?5@5?8A8 A ?;5=:8 =0 ?;5=:C. !<KA; 2A59 MB>9 8AB>@88 ?@>AB. / =5 25@N, GB> :0:85-B> 8AA;54>20=8O @K=:0 <>3;8 1K ?>4A:070BL =0<, GB> «!>=8 #>:<M=» 1C45B 8<5BL A5=A0F8>==K9 CA?5E, :>B>@K9 ?@527>945B 2A5 >6840=8O 8 ?>@>48B <=>65AB2> ?>4@060B5;59.  2A5 65 MB>B :@>H5G=K9 ?@54<5B 2 1C:20;L=>< A<KA;5 A;>20 87<5=8; ?@82KG:8 2 A;CH0=88 <C7K:8 C <8;;8>=>2 ;N459 2> 2A5< <8@5. =>385 87 <>8E 4@C759 2 <C7K:0;L=>< <8@5, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 48@865@K 5@15@B D>= 0@0O=, C18= 5EB0 8 >@M= 0075;L, 0 B0:65 28@BC>7K-8A?>;=8B5;8, =0?@8<5@ 975: !B5@=, ?@>A8;8 C <5=O 2A5 =>2K5 8 =>2K5 «#>:<M=K», ?@5:@0A=>5 ?>4B25@645=85 ?@52>AE>4AB20 8458 A0<>3> ?@>4C:B0.  @57C;LB0B5 A>740=8O =51>;LH8E ;53:8E 20@80=B>2 4;O A5@89 «#>:<M=» <K A<>3;8 >ACI5AB28BL <8=80BN@870F8N 8 ?>2KA8BL :0G5AB2> =0H8E AB0=40@B=KE 3>;>2=KE B5;5D>=>2, 0 B0:65 2=54@8BL 45AOB:8 =>2KE <>45;59, AB02, B0:8< >1@07><, >4=8< 87 :@C?=59H8E 2 <8@5 ?@>872>48B5;59 3>;>2=KE B5;5D>=>2.  /?>=88 =0< ?@8=04;568B ?>GB8 ?OBL45AOB ?@>F5=B>2 @K=:0. <5==> B0:85 =>2>22545=8O 8<5; 2 284C 1C:0, :>340 <K 2 A0<>< =0G0;5 ?8A0;8 A2>53> @>40 ?@>A?5:B 8 D8;>A>DA:CN 45:;0@0F8N 4;O =0H59 :><?0=88: «A;8 1K C40;>AL A>740BL CA;>28O, 2 :>B>@KE ;N48 <>3;8 1K >1J548=8BLAO A B25@4K< =0<5@5=85< A>2<5AB=> B@C48BLAO 8 8A?>;L7>20BL A2>8 B5E=8G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 4;O >ACI5AB2;5=8O A2>8E A>:@>25==KE 65;0=89, B> B0:0O >@30=870F8O <>3;0 1K ?@8=5AB8 >3@><=>5 =0A;0645=85 8 ?>;L7C». = 8<5; 2 284C B5E=8G5A:>5 B2>@G5AB2>, A>2<5AB=CN @01>BC A F5;LN A>740=8O =>2KE F5==KE ?@>4C:B>2. 0H8=K 8 :><?LNB5@K =5 <>3CB 1KBL B2>@G5A:8<8 A0<8 ?> A515, ?>B><C GB> 4;O B2>@G5AB20 B@51C5BAO =5GB> 1>;LH55, G5< >1@01>B:0 8<5NI59AO 8=D>@<0F88. => B@51C5B G5;>25G5A:>9 <KA;8, 8=BC8F88 8 1>;LH>9 A<5;>AB8.  :>340 <K =0G8=0;8, <K >1;040;8, 40 8 A59G0A >1;0405< MB8< 2 871KB:5.  ?>MB><C <K =0G0;8 A>74020BL =0HC A>1AB25==CN A5BL 4;O A1KB0 8 @0A?@545;5=8O. -B> 1K; A?>A>1 4>=5AB8 =0HC 845N =5?>A@54AB25==> 4> ?>B@518B5;O. K ?>;L7>20;8AL AB0@>9 A8AB5<>9 ?@>4068 B0<, 345 MB> ?@8=>A8;> E>@>H85 @57C;LB0BK. > B0<, 345 MB> 1K;> 2>7<>6=>, <K A>74020;8 A>1AB25==K5 <03078=K 8 2ABC?0;8 2 :>=B0:B =5?>A@54AB25==> A B>@3>2K<8 035=B0<8. "0:>9 ?CBL ?>72>;8; =0< 7=0:><8BLAO A =8<8 ;8G=> 8 @07JOA=OBL 8<, 2 G5< F5==>ABL =0H8E B>20@>2, 0 B0:65 2>7<>6=>AB8 8E 8A?>;L7>20=8O. 0H8 B>@3>2K5 035=BK AB0=>28;8AL =0H8<8 ?>A@54=8:0<8 8 ?>>I@O;8 : MB><C @>7=8G=KE B>@3>2F52.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" > " # ! !  . / =018@0NAL >?KB0.  II 0H ?5@2K9 B@0=78AB>@=K9 @048>?@85<=8: 1955 3>40 1K; =51>;LH8< ?> @07<5@0< 8 ?@0:B8G=K<, E>BO 8 =5 AB>;L <0;5=L:8<, :0: =5:>B>@K5 87 =0H8E 1>;55 ?>74=8E <>45;59. K >G5=L 3>@48;8AL 8<. / AG8B0; !( 5AB5AB25==K< @K=:><. -:>=><8:0 B0< ?@>F25B0;0, C@>25=L 70=OB>AB8 1K; 2KA>:8<, =0@>4  ?5@54>2>9, A 1>;LH8< 8=B5@5A>< :> 2A5<C =>2><C, 40 8 ?>574:8 2 4@C385 AB@0=K AB0=>28;8AL 2A5 4>ABC?=55. / ?>5E0; 2 LN->@:, 27O2 A A>1>9 <0;5=L:89 ?@85<=8:, AB>82H89 29,95 4>;;0@0, 8 >1>H5; 2>7<>6=KE @>7=8G=KE B>@3>2F52. 0 <=>38E 87 =8E <>9 ?@85<=8: =5 ?@>8725; 2?5G0B;5=8O. «0G5< 2K 45;05B5 B0:85 <0;5=L:85 ?@85<=8:8?  A?@0H820;8 >=8.  <5@8:5 2A5 E>BOB 8<5BL 1>;LH85 ?@85<=8:8. # =0A 1>;LH85 4><0, >G5=L <=>3> <5AB0. ><C =C6=K B0:85 <8=80BN@=K5 25I8?» / >1JOA=8; 8<, GB> O C7=0;, 7=0:><OAL A !>548=5==K<8 (B0B0<8. « >4=>< B>;L:> LN->@:5 ACI5AB2C5B 1>;55 4204F0B8 @048>AB0=F89, 8 20H8 4><0, :>=5G=>, 1>;LH85. =8 4>AB0B>G=> 25;8:8 4065 4;O B>3>, GB>1K :064K9 G;5= A5<L8 8<5; >B45;L=CN :><=0BC, 345 >= 8;8 >=0 <>3;8 1K 2:;NG8BL B0:>9 <0;5=L:89 ?@85<=8: 8 A;CH0BL 2A5, GB> 70E>G5BAO, =8:><C 1>;LH5 =5 <5H0O 8 =8:>3> =5 15A?>:>O. >=5G=>, B>G=>ABL 2>A?@>872545=8O 72C:0 =5 B0: 2KA>:0, :0: 2 1>;LH8E ?@85<=8:0E, => 4;O ?@85<=8:>2 B0:8E @07<5@>2 >=0 25;8:>;5?=0». =>385 ?>=8<0;8 ;>38G=>ABL <>8E 4>2>4>2, 8 O 1K; @04, :>340 <=5 ?@54;030;8 2K3>4=K5 A45;:8, => O 1K; >AB>@>65= 8 =5 @07 >B25@30; ?@54;>65=8O, :>B>@K5 AC;8;8 1>;LH85 ?@81K;8. >:C?0B5;8 AG8B0;8 <5=O =5=>@<0;L=K<.  E>BO =0H0 :><?0=8O 1K;0 <>;>40 8 O 1K; =5>?KB5=, 2@5<O ?>:070;>, GB> <>8 @5H5=8O 1K;8 ?@028;L=K<8.  «N;>25» @048>?@85<=8: >G5=L ?>=@028;AO, 8 8E 035=B ?> 70:C?:0< =5 704C<K20OAL A:070;: «K, 157CA;>2=>, E>B8< 8<5BL B0:85 ?@85<=8:8. K :C?8< AB> BKAOG HBC:». !B> BKAOG! / 1K; ?>@065=. -B> 1K; =525@>OB=K9 70:07, 53> AB>8<>ABL 2 =5A:>;L:> @07 ?@52KH0;0 >1I89 :0?8B0; =0H59 :><?0=88. K C65 =0G0;8 >1AC640BL 45B0;8, <>9 <>73 @01>B0; >G5=L 1KAB@>. 5>6840==> MB>B 035=B A:070; <=5, GB> 5ABL >4=> CA;>285: «=0< ?@845BAO ?>AB028BL =0 ?@85<=8:0E =0720=85 :><?0=88 "N;>20"». -B> <5=O >AB0=>28;>. / 40; 70@>:, GB> <K =5 1C45< ?@>872>48BL >@838=0;L=CN B5E=8:C 4;O 4@C38E :><?0=89. K E>B5;8 A>740BL 8<O =0H59 :><?0=88, 4>182H8AL MB>3> 1;03>40@O 2KA>:><C :0G5AB2C =0H8E B>20@>2. / A:070; 5<C, GB> E>GC ?>A>25B>20BLAO A> A2>59 :><?0=859, 8 459AB28B5;L=> ?>A;0; 2 ">:8> B5;53@0<<C A A>>1I5=85< >1 MB>< ?@54;>65=88. B25B 3;0A8;: «@8=8<09B5 70:07». =5 =5 1K;0 ?> 4CH5 MB0 845O 8 =5 ?>=@028;AO >B25B. >A;5 ?@>4>;68B5;L=KE @07<KH;5=89 O @5H8;, GB> >B25GC «=5B», <K =5 AB0=5< ?@>4020BL ?@85<=8:8 ?>4 =0720=8O<8 4@C38E :><?0=89. >340 O 2=>2L ?>72>=8; ?@54AB028B5;N D8@<K «N;>20», >= A=0G0;0, :070;>AL, =5 ?@8=O; <5=O 2A5@L57. 0: <>6=> >B25@30BL B0:>9 70:07? = 1K; C25@5=, GB> O A>3;0HCAL. >340 O =5 CABC?8;, >= AB0; @57:> 3>2>@8BL A> <=>9. «0@:0 =0H59 :><?0=88  MB> H8@>:> 8725AB=0O B>@3>20O <0@:0, 8 GB>1K >=0 AB0;0 B0:>9, ?>B@51>20;>AL 1>;55 ?OB845AOB8 ;5B, A:070; >=.  20H59 B>@3>2>9 <0@:5 =8:B> =8G53> =5 A;KH0;. >G5<C 1K 20< =5 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO ?@58<CI5AB20<8 =0H59 <0@:8?» / ?>=8<0; 53> ;>38:C, => C <5=O 1K;0 A2>O B>G:0 7@5=8O. «OBL45AOB ;5B =0704, A:070; O, 8<O 20H59 :><?0=88 1K;>, =025@=>5, B0:8< 65 =58725AB=K<, :0: 8<O =0H59 :><?0=88 A53>4=O. / ?@85E0; AN40 A =>2>9 ?@>4C:F859, 8 A59G0A O 45;0N ?5@2K9 H03 =0 ?OB845AOB8;5B=5< ?CB8 A2>59 :><?0=88. 15I0N 20<, GB> G5@57 ?OBL45AOB ;5B =0H0 <0@:0 1C45B =5 <5=55 8725AB=>9, G5< <0@:0 20H59 :><?0=88 A53>4=O»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«N;>20». >, 25@=C2H8AL 2 3>AB8=8FC, O =0G0; @07<KH;OBL > 2>7<>6=KE ?>A;54AB28OE AB>;L :@C?=KE 70:07>2 4;O =0H59 =51>;LH>9 ?@>872>4AB25==>9 107K 2 ">:8>. K 7=0G8B5;L=> @0AH8@8;8 =0H 702>4 A B5E ?>@, :0: =0< AB0;> B5A=> 2 =5:@0H5=>9, A ?@>B5:0NI59 :@KH59 ;0GC35 =0 >BM=O<5. K ?5@55E0;8 2 1>;55 ?@>AB>@=>5 8 ?@>G=>5 740=85 @O4>< A =0H8< ?5@2K< 4><>< 8 C65 ?>4KA:820;8 A515 =>2>5 ?><5I5=85. > C =0A =5 1K;> 2>7<>6=>AB8 2K?CA:0BL AB> BKAOG B@0=78AB>@=KE @048>?@85<=8:>2 2 3>4 8 @O4 4@C38E B>20@>2 =0 =0H5< <0;5=L:>< ?@>872>4AB25==>< CG0AB:5. K <>3;8 ?@>872>48BL =5 1>;55 45AOB8 BKAOG ?@85<=8:>2 2 <5AOF. A;8 1K <K ?>;CG8;8 70:07 =0 AB> BKAOG ?@85<=8:>2, =0< ?@8H;>AL 1K =0=OBL 8 >1CG8BL =>2KE @01>G8E 8 5I5 1>;LH5 @0AH8@8BL ?@>872>4AB25==K5 ?;>I048. -B> ?>B@51C5B 1>;LH8E :0?8B0;>2;>65=89, 7=0G8B5;L=>3> @0AH8@5=8O ?@>872>4AB20 8 C25;8G5=8O @8A:0. / 1K; =5>?KB=K< 8 2A5 5I5 =5<=>3> =082=K<, => C <5=O 1K;0 3>;>20 =0 ?;5G0E. / @0AA<>B@5; 2A5 ?>A;54AB28O, :0:85 B>;L:> <>3 A515 2>>1@078BL, 0 ?>B>< A5; 8 =0G5@B8; :@82CN, :>B>@0O =0?><8=0;0 ?5@5:>H5==CN 1C:2C Y [ 0AA:070==0O 8AB>@8O  ?@8<5@ 8=BC8B82=> 25@=>3> ?>4E>40 . >@8BK : ?@>1;5<0< B5>@88 D8@<K. "Y->1@07=K5 :@82K5 >B@060NB B8?8G=K9 E>4 @0728B8O <=>38E ?@>F5AA>2 2 M:>=><8:5. "0:, @>AB >1J5<0 ?@>872>4AB20 ?>;>68B5;L=> A:07K205BAO =0 45;0E D8@<K (2545B : A=865=8N B@C4>2KE, <0B5@80;L=KE 70B@0B 8 B. 4.) ;8HL 4> 8725AB=>3> <><5=B0, ?>B>< 65 ?@>F5AA ?>2>@0G8205B 2A?OBL. @8<. @54.]. &5=C ?OB8 BKAOG ?@85<=8:>2 O 27O; 70 >A=>2C, >=0 AB0;0 8AE>4=>9 B>G:>9 :@82>9. 5AOBL BKAOG ?@85<=8:>2 1C4CB ?@>40=K A> A:84:>9, 8 8E F5=0 AB0;0 =86=59 B>G:>9 :@82>9. @8 70:075 =0 B@84F0BL BKAOG F5=0 =0G8=0;0 @0AB8. @8 70:075 =0 ?OBL45AOB BKAOG F5=0 ?@85<=8:0 1K;0 1K 2KH5, G5< ?@8 70:075 =0 ?OBL BKAOG, 0 ?@8 70:070E =0 AB> BKAOG F5=0 ?@85<=8:0 1K;0 1K 3>@074> 2KH5, G5< ?@8 70:075 =0 ?5@2K5 ?OBL BKAOG. / ?>=8<0N, 2A5 MB> 72CG8B AB@0==>, => O @0AAC640; B0:. A;8 =0< ?@845BAO C25;8G8BL 242>5 =0H8 ?@>872>4AB25==K5 2>7<>6=>AB8, GB>1K 2K?>;=8BL 70:07 =0 AB> BKAOG ?@85<=8:>2, 8 5A;8 <K =5 A<>65< ?>;CG8BL 2B>@>9 B0:>9 70:07 =0 A;54CNI89 3>4, <K >:065<AO 2 B@C4=>< ?>;>65=88, 1KBL <>65B, 4065 >10=:@>B8<AO, ?>B><C GB> <K =5 A<>65< 40BL @01>BC 2A5< 4>?>;=8B5;L=> =0=OBK< @01>G8< 8 ?;0B8BL 70 2A5 =>2K5 =58A?>;L7>20==K5 ?@>872>4AB25==K5 <>I=>AB8. -B> 1K; :>=A5@20B82=K9 8 >AB>@>6=K9 ?>4E>4. > O 1K; C15645=, GB> 5A;8 <K 2>7L<5< 1>;LH>9 70:07, =0< =C6=> 1C45B ?>;CG8BL 4>AB0B>G=CN ?@81K;L, GB>1K 2>7<5AB8BL 8745@6:8 ?> =>2K< ?@>872>4AB25==K< <>I=>ABO< 70 AG5B 2K?>;=5=8O MB>3> 70:070. #25;8G5=85 ?@>872>4AB25==KE <>I=>AB59 =5 B0:>5 ?@>AB>5 45;>  ?>;CG8BL =>2K5 45=L38 1C45B B@C4=>, 8 O =5 AG8B0;, GB> >48= 70:07 <>65B >?@0240BL B0:>5 C25;8G5=85.  /?>=88 <K =5 <>65< ?@>AB> B0: =0=8<0BL 8 C2>;L=OBL ;N459 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B ?>ABC?;5=8O 70:07>2. K 15@5< =0 A51O 4>;3>A@>G=K5 >1O70B5;LAB20 ?5@54 =0=OBK<8 @01>G8<8, 0 >=8 8<5NB >1O70B5;LAB20 ?5@54 =0<8. >=5G=>, O 1K; B>65 =5A:>;L:> >15A?>:>5= 8 B5<, GB>, 5A;8 O =07=0GC A;8H:>< =87:CN F5=C 70 AB> BKAOG ?@85<=8:>2, ?>:C?0B5;L <>65B A:070BL, GB> >= 2>7L<5B AB> BKAOG, => A=0G0;0 70:065B =0 ?@>1C B>;L:> 45AOBL BKAOG ?> F5=5 <03=8B>D>=0 :0: ?@8 70:075 =0 AB> BKAOG 8 =5 A45;05B 1>;LH5 =8:0:8E 70:07>2. / 25@=C;AO =0 A;54CNI89 45=L A ?@54;>65=85< > F5=5. >:C?0B5;L ?>A<>B@5; =0 =53> 8 70<>;G0;, A;>2=> =5 ?>25@82 A>1AB25==K< 3;070<. B;>682 1C<03C 2 AB>@>=C, >= AB0; <=5 B5@?5;82> >1JOA=OBL: «>A?>48= >@8B0, O @01>B0N 2 :0G5AB25 B>@3>2>3> 035=B0 ?>GB8 B@84F0BL ;5B, 8 2K  ?5@2K9 G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 ?@8H5; AN40 8 70O28; <=5, GB> G5< 1>;LH5 O :C?;N, B5< 2KH5 1C45B AB>8BL <03=8B>D>=. -B> 65 =5;>38G=>!» / >1JOA=8; 5<C ?@8G8=C MB>3>, 8 >= 2=8<0B5;L=> 2KA;CH0; <5=O. >340 >= A?@028;AO A> A2>8< H>:><, >= =5<=>3> ?>4C<0;, C;K1=C;AO 8 70:070; 45AOBL BKAOG ?@85<=8:>2  ?> A>>B25BAB2CNI59 F5=5, GB> CAB@0820;> 8 53>, 8 <5=O.  B5 4=8 <=5 257;>. # <5=O =5 1K;> 1>;LH>3> >?KB0 2 :><<5@G5A:8E 45;0E, 8 =04> <=>9 =5 1K;> =8:0:>3> =0G0;LAB20, :>B>@>5 :>=B@>;8@>20;> 1K <5=O. >MB><C, :>340 O @5H8; ?@54;>68BL B0:CN F5=C, =8:B> 2 :><?0=88 =5 <>3 A:070BL <=5 «=5B». / @07@010BK20; ?>;8B8:C :><?0=88 =0 E>4C. >74=55 <K, @07C<55BAO, A>3;0H0;8AL =0 :@C?=K5 70:07K.  A5@548=5 ?OB845AOBKE 3>4>2 O 1K; =5 548=AB25==K< O?>=F5<, 254CI8< 45;0 2 LN->@:5. =>385, 5A;8 =5 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E, >?8@0;8AL =0 ?><>IL 3830=BA:8E O?>=A:8E B>@3>2KE :><?0=89, E>@>H> 7=02H8E 8=>AB@0==K5 @K=:8 8 8<52H8E A2>8 :>=B>@K 70 @C156><. -B> =5 3>48;>AL 4;O <5=O, ?>B><C GB> =8 >4=0 87 MB8E B>@3>2KE D8@< =5 7=0;0 <>8E B>20@>2 8 <>59 D8;>A>D88 :><<5@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. > 8@>=88 AC4L1K 0<5@8:0=A:85 187=5A<5=K A59G0A 60;CNBAO [ 5GL 845B > B>9 <=>3>ABC?5=G0B>9 A8AB5<5 O?>=A:>9 B>@3>2;8:, > :>B>@>9 GCBL @0=LH5 3>2>@8; A0< . >@8B0. =>AB@0==K5 :><<5@A0=BK @0AA<0B@820NB 55 :0: >4=> 87 A5@L57=59H8E ?@5?OBAB289 4>ABC?0 : @K=:0<. @8<. @54.] =0 A;>6=>ABL O?>=A:>9 A8AB5<K @0A?@545;5=8O 8 A1KB0. 4=0:>, :>340 O 2?5@2K5 =0G0; @07@010BK20BL ?;0=K M:A?>@B0 B>20@>2 2 !(, O 1K; ?>@065= 8 ?>402;5= A;>6=>ABLN <0@:5B8=30 2 <5@8:5. >340 O @0AA:07K20N >1 MB>< 0<5@8:0=A:8< 187=5A<5=0<, MB> ?>AB>O==> 2K7K205B C =8E C482;5=85. > 2 B5 4=8 >1KG=K9 ?CBL M:A?>@B0 O?>=A:8E B>20@>2 2 !( =0G8=0;AO A ?5@540G8 A2>8E B>20@>2 O?>=A:>9 B>@3>2>9 :><?0=88, >1;040NI59 >?KB>< 8 8<5NI59 A2>8 ?@54AB028B5;LAB20 2 !(. >A;54=OO 4>AB02;O;0 B>20@K 2 0<5@8:0=A:89 ?>@B, 345 8E 035=B >?;0G820; B0<>65==K5 ?>H;8=K, ?>A;5 G53> ?5@54020; 8E A1KB>2>9 :><?0=88, 0 B0 2 A2>N >G5@54L @0A?@545;O;0 8E <564C >?B>28:0<8, :>B>@K5 70B5< =0?@02;O;8 B>20@K @>7=8G=K< B>@3>2F0<. 5=O >H5;><;O;>, :0: <=>3> 2@5<5=8 CE>48;> =0 4>AB02:C B>20@>2 8 ?>A;54CNI89 A5@28A 2 B0:>9 1>;LH59 AB@0=5. ?@>G5<, O =8:>340 =5 AG8B0; :>;>AA0;L=K5 <0AHB01K <5@8:8 8;8 0=3;89A:89 (0 B0:65 D@0=FC7A:89 8;8 =5<5F:89) O7K: =5B0@8D=K<8 10@L5@0<8. / <>3C ?>=OBL @07>G0@>20=85 0<5@8:0=F52 8 4@C38E 8=>AB@0==KE 187=5A<5=>2, AB0;:820NI8EAO A O?>=A:>9 A8AB5<>9 A1KB0 8 B@C4=K< O?>=A:8< O7K:><, B0: :0: 4;O =8E MB> 4>;6=> 1KBL =5 <5=55 B@C4=>, G5< 0<5@8:0=A:0O A8AB5<0 8 0=3;89A:89 O7K: 4;O <5=O =5A:>;L:> 45AOB:>2 ;5B B><C =0704. > <=>385 87 =8E CA?5H=> =0E>4OB ?CB8, GB>1K @01>B0BL 2=5 @0<>: A;>682H59AO B@048F8>==>9 A8AB5<K. / AG8B0; =5>1E>48<K< 459AB2>20BL 2 !( 8<5==> B0:8< >1@07><. 0< =C65= 1K; B0:>9 :0=0; A1KB0, ?> :>B>@><C <K <>3;8 1K 3>@074> 1KAB@55 4>=5AB8 ?@54AB02;5=8O > =0H59 =>2>9 B5E=8:5 8 55 ?@58<CI5AB20E =5?>A@54AB25==> ?>B@518B5;O<. 0< ?@54AB>O;8 4>;385 ?>8A:8. 0 =0HC 4>;N 2K?0;> =5A:>;L:> AC@>2KE C@>:>2. =5 ?>257;>, GB> <>9 AB0@K9 O?>=A:89 4@C3 !84> /<040 ?@54AB028; <5=O 4>;LDC @>AAC, :>B>@K9 O2;O;AO ?@54AB028B5;5< >4=>9 ?@><KH;5==>9 D8@<K 8 8<5; A2>N :><?0=8N «3@>4 :><?0=8», =0E>482HCNAO =0 @>4255 514. >340 O @0AA:070; @>AAC > A2>59 :><?0=88 8 > B><, GB> <K ?KB05<AO 45;0BL, >= 70<5B8;, GB> 5<C =@028BAO :0G5AB2> 72C:0 =0H59 0??0@0BC@K. "CB 65 ?>A;54>20;> 53> A>3;0A85 ?@54AB02;OBL =0A. = 4065 ?@54;>68; <=5 :018=5B 2 A2>59 :>=B>@5. # =0A A;>68;8AL =5 B>;L:> 45;>2K5, => 8 4@C65A:85 >B=>H5=8O: >= 1K; <=5 E>@>H8< 4@C3>< 8 CG8B5;5<. -B> AG0ABL5, GB> 2 !( O 2AB@5B8; =5A:>;L:8E E>@>H8E CG8B5;59. ! >4=8< 87 =8E O ?>7=0:><8;AO 2 ">:8>. -B> 1K; 0<5@8:0=A:89 3@0640=8= A8=>1C 03020, O?>=5F 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O, @>482H89AO =0 020OE, :>B>@K9 ?@85E0; 2 /?>=8N 2 :0G5AB25 N@8AB0 2 A>AB025 M:>=><8G5A:>3> >B45;0 >::C?0F8>==KE 2>9A:. >340 2 1952 3>4C >::C?0F8>==K5 2>9A:0 CH;8, >= @5H8; >AB0BLAO 2 /?>=88 8 ?@54AB02;O; @O4 O?>=A:8E :><?0=89, 2 G0AB=>AB8 :8=>:><?0=8N «">E>». / ?>?@>A8; 53> AB0BL :>=AC;LB0=B>< <>59 D8@<K, 8 2> 2@5<O <>8E ?5@2KE ?>574>: 2 !( >= A>?@>2>640; <5=O. B0:, C <5=O 1K;8 E>@>H85 CG8B5;O  4>;LD @>AA, «4>:»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«>O ?@5:@0A=0O ;548», :>B>@K9 B>;L:> GB> =0G0; 84B8 =0 @>4255 8 C65 AB0; 32>745< A57>=0. «>=5G=>, 4>;LD, <=5 1K E>B5;>AL ?>A<>B@5BL MB>B A?5:B0:;L, >B25B8; O, => 18;5B>2, =025@=>5, =5 4>AB0BL. 54L 2A5 18;5BK ?@>40=K!» «5 15A?>:>9AO», >B25B8; >= 8 2A:>@5 4>AB0; 420 18;5B0. =8, 25@>OB=>, >1>H;8AL 5<C 2 A>B=N 4>;;0@>2 :064K9, GB> =5<0;> 70 <5AB> 2 B50B@5. "5< =5 <5=55 2 1957 3>4C O AG8B0; MB> C40G59.  45=L A?5:B0:;O <K 7045@60;8AL =0 @01>B5 8, =5 70E>4O 4><>9, >B?@028;8AL 2 B50B@ 0@:0 %5;;8=465@0. =5 1K;> >G5=L 8=B5@5A=> 8 2 =>28=:C ?>1K20BL 2 B0:>< >1I5AB25 =0 A0<>< 2K40NI5<AO ?@54AB02;5=88 A57>=0. 4>;LD 65 1K; ?@5AKI5= 2A5< MB8<. 0: B>;L:> ?>30A A25B 8 >@:5AB@ 7083@0; C25@BN@C, 4>;LD ?>25@=C;AO :> <=5 8 A:070;: «!?>:>9=>9 =>G8, :8>».  A2>5< AB>4>;;0@>2>< :@5A;5 >= ?@>A?0; 25AL MB>B 2>AE8B8B5;L=K9 <K>78:;. >340 4>;LD @>AA 2 1958 3>4C 2=570?=> C<5@ 2 >=4>=5 >B A5@45G=>3> ?@8ABC?0, 2A5 <K 1K;8 ?>B@OA5=K. / =8:>340 =5 701K20N > B><, A:>;L <=>38< O >1O70= 5<C, 8 2A5 4C<0N > =5< :0: > ?@5:@0A=>< >BF5. >A?>60 @>AA 2A5 5I5 ?>445@68205B >G5=L B5A=K5 A2O78 A A5<L59 «!>=8», 8 <K 2A5340 ?@83;0H05< 55 =0 2A5 3>4>2I8=K «!>=8 <5@8:0». / ?>7=0:><8;AO A -420@4>< >78=8, N@8AB>< @>AA0, ?>A;5 B>3> :0: <K ?>B5@O;8 @>AA0.  B>340 65 O ?>7=0:><8;AO A @28=3>< !593>@><, @01>B02H8< C . @>AA0 1CE30;B5@><. / <=>3>5 C7=0; >1 0<5@8:0=A:>9 A8AB5<5 CG5B0 :><<5@G5A:8E >?5@0F89 8 > 70:>=0E :><<5@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >B MB8E ?@5:@0A=KE ;N459. >340 O AB0; ?>4C<K20BL > A>740=88 «!>=8 <5@8:0», <=5 ?>=04>18;AO G5;>25:, :>B>@><C O <>3 1K 4>25@OBL, 8 >=8 AB0;8 <>8<8 A0<K<8 ;CGH8<8 CG8B5;O<8 8 ?><>I=8:0<8. 0: 1CE30;B5@, !593>@ <>3 ?@>A;548BL 70 ?@028;L=K< =0G8A;5=85< =0;>3>2. K A -448 >78=8 AB0;8 :0: 1@0BLO, <K 2<5AB5 @01>B0;8, 2<5AB5 >1540;8, 83@0;8 2 3>;LD (>= <5=O 2>78; 2 A2>9 703>@>4=K9 :;C1 2 !?@8=3-M;;8, HB0B LN->@:), 2<5AB5 @5H0;8 45;>2K5 ?@>1;5<K. -4F8, 2 G0AB=>AB8, >1JOA=O; <=5 A8AB5<C 0<5@8:0=A:8E 45;>2KE :>=B0:B>2, :>B>@0O ?>GB8 =58725AB=0 2 /?>=88. =0G0;5, ?@85760O 2 LN->@:, O A=8<0; =><5@ 2 45H52>< >B5;5, 8, ?>A:>;L:C O ?;>E> 3>2>@8; ?>-0=3;89A:8, 0 45=53 C <5=O 1K;> <0;>, O >1540; 2 70:CA>G=KE-02B><0B0E 8;8 :0D5B5@8OE, 345 <=5 =5 =04> 1K;> =8 A :5< 3>2>@8BL =0 ;><0=>< 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5. >340 O 2?5@2K5 ?@85E0; 2 !( A 4>:>< 0302>9 8 2>48; 53> 2 :0D5-02B><0BK 8 70:07K20; <5AB0 2 =54>@>38E >B5;OE, >= 40; <=5 ?>=OBL, GB> MB> =8:C40 =5 3>48BAO, GB> 4;O ?>445@6:8 =0H59 A>1AB25==>9 3>@4>AB8, 0 B0:65 4>AB>8=AB20 8 ?@5AB860 8<5=8 =0H59 :><?0=88 <K 4>;6=K 45<>=AB@8@>20BL 1>;55 2KA>:89 C@>25=L 687=8. = C1548; <5=O, GB> ;CGH5 A=8<0BL A0<K9 45H52K9 =><5@ 2 ;CGH5< >B5;5, G5< ;CGH89 =><5@ 2 A0<>9 45H52>9 3>AB8=8F5. = =0AB0820; =0 B><, GB>1K O >1540; 2 E>@>H8E @5AB>@0=0E 8 =0CG8;AO ?>=8<0BL B>;: 2 545 8 >1A;C6820=88. >340 <K @07J5760;8 ?> !( =0 A2>8 A:C4=K5 A@54AB20, B> ?>@>9 68;8 2 >4=>< =><5@5, => 2A5340 >AB0=02;820;8AL 2 ;CGH8E >B5;OE.  LN->@:5 O ?5@5AB0; >1540BL 2 701530;>2:0E «>@= M=4 %0@40@» 8 ?5@51@0;AO 2 @5AB>@0= «!B>CDD5@».  B> 2@5<O 740=85 666 =0 OB>9 025=N 1K;> B>;L:> GB> ?>AB@>5=>, 8 @5AB>@0= «!B>CDD5@» =0E>48;AO =0 25@E=5< MB065. (>340 <K 68;8 2 LN->@:5 8 <>O 4>GL 0>:> 1K;0 5I5 @515=:><, >=0 ?>;N18;0 MB>B @5AB>@0= 8 >B:@K20NI89AO 87 =53> 284 =0 LN->@:. >340 O =5A:>;L:> ;5B =0704 A=O; =><5@ =0 A>@>: 2>AL<>< MB065 «LN785 B@0C@», ?5@2>5, GB> >=0 C2845;0 87 =0H8E >:>=, 1K; 4>< 666, 345 <K :>340-B> B0: G0AB> 8 B0: 2:CA=> >1540;8. =0 70<5B8;0, GB> 87 >:>= =0H59 10H=8 >=0 A<>B@8B =0 MB>B 4>< A25@EC 2=87, 0 :>340 >=0 1K;0 <0;5=L:>9, 59 :070;>AL, GB> :@KH0 740=8O A:@K205BAO 345-B> 2KA>:> 2 >1;0:0E, 8 25AL LN->@: =0E>48BAO ?>4 =59.) =0G5=85 B0:8E ?@5:@0A=KE CG8B5;59, :0: 4>: 03020, B@C4=> ?5@5>F5=8BL. >;LH8=AB2> O?>=A:8E 187=5A<5=>2, :>B>@K5 2 B> 2@5<O ?@85760;8 2 !(, >1KG=> 1K;8 >3@0=8G5=K :;0=>2K<8 ?@54@0AAC4:0<8 8 ?>;CG0;8 8=D>@<0F8N > AB@0=5 >B 4@C38E O?>=A:8E 157=5A<5-=>2, ?@81K2H8E 2 !( @0=LH5 8E. > GB>1K ?>=OBL =5F5;5A>>1@07=>ABL B0:>3> ?>4E>40, =5 B@51C5BAO 3;C1>:>3> 0=0;870. @>682 ?0@C ;5B 2 GC6>9 AB@0=5, MB8 O?>=A:85 187=5A<5=K 2A5 5I5 >AB020;8AL GC60:0<8. "5, :B> A;54>20; 8E A>25B0<, =0?><8=0;8 A;5?KE, :>B>@KE 254CB A;5?K5. / C7=020; >1 <5@8:5 >B ;N459, 4;O :>B>@KE <5@8:0 1K;0 @>4=K< 4><>< 8 :>B>@K5 >1;040;8 H8@>:8< :@C3>7>@><. # <5=O, :0: 8A?>;=8B5;L=>3> 28F5-?@57845=B0 =0H59 :><?0=88 2 ">:8>, 1K;> <=>3> 45;, 8 70=8<0BLAO 5I5 ?@>40659 =0H8E B>20@>2 2 !( 1K;> ?@>AB> 2KH5 <>8E 2>7<>6=>AB59. -B> =0?><8=0;> 1K B50B@ >4=>3> 0:B5@0. / >1AC48; MBC ?@>1;5<C A @>AA>< 8 ?> 53> A>25BC ?>@CG8; A1KB =0H8E ?@85<=8:>2 :><?0=88 «5;L<>=8:> 8=B5@=MH=;». B=>H5=8O A «5;L<>=8:>» 2=0G0;5 1K;8 ?@5:@0A=K<8, => 2A:>@5 >=8 =0G0;8 <5=O B@52>68BL. > <5@5 B>3> :0: =0H5 8<O ?@8>1@5B0;> 2A5 1>;LHCN 8725AB=>ABL 8 >1J5< ?@>406 @>A, A>B@C4=8:8 «5;L<>=8:>», :0: <=5 :070;>AL, AB0;8 ?@>O2;OBL 1>;LHCN 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 2 =87:8E F5=0E, 0 =5 2 :0G5AB25. 5;> 4>H;> 4> B>3>, GB> =0< ?@8H;>AL B>@3>20BLAO > AB>8<>AB8 DCB;O@0 87 8A:CAAB25==>9 :>68, 0 B0:65 > B><, =5;L7O ;8 A45;0BL 53> =0 ?OBL F5=B>2 45H52;5. =8 G0AB> ?@>A8;8 =0A 2K?CA:0BL =54>@>385 ?@85<=8:8, :>B>@K5 >=8 <>3;8 1K ?@>4020BL 1>;LH8<8 ?0@B8O<8 A> 7=0G8B5;L=>9 A:84:>9. -B> 1K; =5 <>9 AB8;L @01>BK. / B0: 8 A:070; 8<. @>872>4AB2> B>20@>2 =87:>3> :0G5AB20 ;8HL 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 70@010BK20BL 45=L38, =5 ?@54AB02;O;> 4;O =0A 8=B5@5A0. >340 2 :>=F5 1959 3>40 <K >1JO28;8 2A5<C <8@C, GB> =0< C40;>AL A45;0BL ?5@2K9 2 <8@5 B@0=78AB>@=K9 B5;5287>@, «5;L<>=8:>» 157 :0:8E-;81> :>=AC;LB0F89 A =0<8 =0G0;0 4020BL @5:;0<=K5 >1JO2;5=8O, 2 :>B>@KE A>>1I0;0, GB> 1C45B ?@>4020BL MB8 B5;5287>@K. 5=O MB> >15A?>:>8;>, ?>B><C GB> <=5 =5 =@028;>AL, :0: 84CB 45;0, 8 O GC2AB2>20;, GB>, 5A;8 <K =5 ?@5@25< =0H8 >B=>H5=8O, ?@>87>945B :0B0AB@>D0. I5 =5 CA?5;8 2KA>E=CBL G5@=8;0 =0 MB8E @5:;0<=KE >1JO2;5=8OE, :0: O 70O28; «5;L<>=8:>», GB> =5 =0<5@5= ?@>4020BL B5;5287>@K A 8E ?><>ILN. / 1>O;AO, GB> =0H8 >B;8G=K5 B5;5287>@K  ?5@2K5 B0:85 B5;5287>@K 2 <8@5  1C4CB ?@>4020BLAO ?> 45H52:5 8;8 4065 A> A:84:>9. / E>B5; >15A?5G8BL =0H8< B>20@0< @5?CB0F8N 8745;89 2KA>:>3> :;0AA0 8 :0G5AB20, :0:>2K<8 >=8 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8 1K;8. > MB><C 2>?@>AC =0< ?@8H;>AL 2K45@60BL =0AB>OI89 1>9. ;03>40@O -448 >78=8 <K 871560;8 4>;3>9 70BO6=>9 18B2K 2 AC45, => =0< 2A5 65 ?@8H;>AL 4>2>;L=> 4>;3> 25AB8 ?5@53>2>@K, GB> AB>8;> =0< =545H52>. K C:070;8 :><?0=88 «5;L<>=8:>» =0 B>, GB>, C65 ?>4?8AK20O A =59 :>=B@0:B > ?@>4065 @048>?@85<=8:>2, ?@5:@0A=> 7=0;8, GB> 1C45< ?@>872>48BL B5;5287>@K.  A0<>< 45;5 B>340 <K 459AB28B5;L=> @01>B0;8 =04 B5;5287>@0<8, => =5 ?@54AB02;O;8, :>340 A<>65< ?CAB8BL 8E 2 ?@>406C.  MB>< :>=B@0:B5 <K >B45;L=> =5 C?><8=0;8 > B5;5287>@0E. / 7=0;, GB> :>340-=81C4L <K =0G=5< ?@>4020BL B5;5287>@K, ?>MB><C O A>A;0;AO =0 40BC 70O2:8 =0 ?0B5=B, GB>1K ?>4B25@48BL <>8 4>2>4K. -B> >7=0G0;>, GB> <K =5 4020;8 :><?0=88 «5;L<>=8:>» ?@020 =0 ?@>406C =0H8E B5;5287>@>2 8 4065 A>7=0B5;L=> 8A:;NG8;8 ?C=:B > B5;5287>@0E 87 :>=B@0:B0 A «5;L<>=8:>» > A1KB5 [!CBL 45;0 2 B><, GB> A1KB>20O D8@<0 AG8B0;0 A51O 35=5@0;L=K< ?@54AB028B5;5< «!>=8» 2 <5@8:5, B> 5ABL ?>;030;0, GB> 8<55B 8A:;NG8B5;L=>5 ?@02> =0 A1KB 2A5E ?@>4C:B>2 :><?0=88 2 MB>9 AB@0=5. . >@8B0 65 AB@5<8BAO 4>:070BL, GB> :>=B@0:B ?@54CA<0B@820; A1KB G5@57 A8AB5<C «5;L<>=8:>» B>;L:> @048>?@85<=8:>2. !C4O ?> B><C, GB> «!>=8» 2A5 65 ?@8H;>AL 2K?;0B8BL >BABC?=K5, 0<5@8:0=FK =5 1K;8 AB>;L =5 ?@02K, :0: MB> A;54C5B 87 @0AA:070 . >@8BK. @8<. @54.]. C:>2>48B5;O< «5;L<>=8:>» MB> =5 ?>=@028;>AL. K @5H8;8, GB> 548=AB25==K9 A?>A>1 ?@5>4>;5BL MB8 B@C4=>AB8  MB> ?@5@20BL =0H8 >B=>H5=8O. =8 ?>B@51>20;8 1>;LHCN :><?5=A0=F8N 70 @0AB>@65=85 :>=B@0:B0  300 BKAOG 4>;;0@>2, 8 ?>A:>;L:C <K A>?@>B82;O;8AL, >=8 ?>AB5?5==> =5A:>;L:> A=878;8 A2>8 B@51>20=8O. / C65 =5 @07 1K; 3>B>2 C4>2;5B2>@8BL 8E B@51>20=8O. / 4C<0;, GB> >=8 1>;LH5 =5 CABC?OB. > -448 >78=8 =5 A>3;0H0;AO =0 <8@>2CN, 8 O A;54>20; 53> A>25B0<. «09 <=5 5I5 >48= 45=L, 3>2>@8; >=, 8 O 4>1LNAL A=865=8O 8E B@51>20=89 4> 100 BKAOG 4>;;0@>2». 0 A0<>< 45;5 5<C C40;>AL 4>18BLAO A=865=8O :><?5=A0F88 4> 75 BKAOG 4>;;0@>2. / A?@>A8; 53>, A:>;L:> O 5<C 4>;65=.  >= >B25B8;: «25 BKAOG. / 2>7L<C A2>9 3>=>@0@ 87 8E 45=53!» >A;5 MB>3> O ?>;N18; 53> 5I5 1>;LH5.  B> 2@5<O MB> 1K;0 4;O =0A 1>;LH0O AC<<0, => <=5 1K; 2065= A0< ?@8=F8?, 8 O 1K; @04, GB> <>8 0<5@8:0=A:85 CG8B5;O B0: 65, :0: 8 O, AG8B0;8, GB> <K 4>;6=K @0AB>@3=CBL MBC A45;:C, :0: 1K 4>@>3> =0< MB> =8 AB>8;>.  :>=F5 :>=F>2 <K 2K:C?8;8 C «5;L<>=8:>» 2 AG5B =0H59 :><?5=A0F88 25AL 70?0A =0H8E @048>?@85<=8:>2, >:>;> 30 BKAOG HBC:. A;8 G8B05HL 40==K5 >1 >1J5<0E ?@>872>4AB20, 0 B0:65 A2545=8O > 5653>4=KE ?>AB02:0E 8 ?@>4060E, B> F8D@0 30 BKAOG 8745;89 =0 @K=:5 1KB>2>9 M;5:B@>=8:8 =5 ?@>872>48B 1>;LH>3> 2?5G0B;5=8O. > 2 D52@0;LA:85 <>@>7K 1960 3>40 2 LN->@:5 =51>;LH>9 3@C??5 ;N459, 2A:>@5 2>H54H59 2 HB0B «!>=8 :>@?>@59H= >D <5@8:0», ?@8H;>AL @073@C60BL =5A:>;L:> 3@C7>28:>2 A @048>?@85<=8:0<8, :>B>@K5 : B><C 65 1K;8 C?0:>20=K 2 :@0A82K5 :0@B>==K5 :>@>1:8, GB>, :>=5G=>, 5I5 1>;LH5 C25;8G820;> 8E >1J5<. -B8 30 BKAOG ?@85<=8:>2 ?>:070;8AL =0< F5;K< <8;;8>=><. K =5 ?>4C<0;8 > B><, :0:>3> B@C40 MB> ?>B@51C5B, 8 =8:>3> =5 =0=O;8 A515 2 ?><>IL. @28=3 !593>@ ?@54;>68; =0< 8A?>;L7>20BL 4;O E@0=5=8O ?@85<=8:>2 A:;04 :><?0=88 «3@>4», 8 :>340 <>@>7=K< D52@0;LA:8< CB@>< BC40 ?@85E0;8 3@C7>28:8, =0< =5 >AB020;>AL =8G53> 4@C3>3>, :0: =045BL @01>G85 E0;0BK 8 B0I8BL ?@85<=8:8 =0 A:;04. OB5@> 87 =0A @01>B0;8 ?>GB8 :@C3;K5 ACB:8.  B><C <><5=BC, :0: =0H8 30 BKAOG ?@85<=8:>2 1K;8 0::C@0B=> C;>65=K =0 ?>;:0E, <K 1K;8 C65 2 ?>;=>< 87=5<>65=88 8 5;5 4>?>;7;8 4> :>=B>@K, GB>1K 2K?8BL G0H5G:C :>D5. 0254CNI89 A:;04>< '0@;8 $0@@, 2A5 5I5 >AB0202H89AO A =0<8, >B:070;AO >B :>D5 8 ?>5E0; 4><>9 2 @C:;8=, GB>1K =5<=>3> >B4>E=CBL. 48= 87 =0A 274C<0; 5I5 @07 ?@>25@8BL HB015;8 :>@>1>: A ?@85<=8:0<8 8 25@=C;AO 87 :>=B>@K =0 A:;04. 5@5AG8B02 2A5 ?@85<=8:8, >= 2>72@0B8;AO 2 :>=B>@C. @0240, >B:@K20O 425@L, =5G0O==> 2:;NG8; A83=0; B@52>38.  :>=B>@C 2>@20;8AL A>B@C4=8:8 >E@0=K 8 AE20B8;8 =0A A ?>;8G=K<, :>340 <K ?8;8 :>D5. E 3;070< ?@54AB0;0 «H09:0» 3@O7=KE 8 87<CG5==KE O?>=F52 8 A@548 =8E 5I5 0<5@8:0=5F. "0:0O :0@B8=0 5420 ;8 1K;0 ?>E>60 =0 :@06C A> 27;><><, :>B>@CN >=8 >6840;8 C2845BL.  2A5 65 >=0 ?>:070;0AL 8< ?>4>7@8B5;L=>9. @28=3 !593>@ 2E>48; 2 =0HC :><0=4C G5@=>@01>G8E-C?@02;ONI8E, 8 ?>A:>;L:C >= 1K; 2 =59 548=AB25==K< 0<5@8:0=F5<, >= ?>?KB0;AO >1JOA=8BL A>B@C4=8:0< >E@0=K, GB> <K  @C:>2>48B5;8 :><?0=88. E@0==8:8 A ?>4>7@5=85< ?>A<>B@5;8 =0 =0H8 3@O7=K5 @01>G85 >4564K 8 =5 ?>25@8;8 5<C. K =5 <>3;8 A2O70BLAO A $0@@><, :>B>@K9 7=0; :>4 A83=0;870F88, ?>B><C GB> >= 5I5 =5 ?@85E0; 4><>9. >MB><C <K A845;8, 3;O4O 4@C3 =0 4@C30, ?>:0 !593>@C =5 ?@8H;0 2 3>;>2C <KA;L >B:@KBL A59D. -B0 845O 15A?>:>8;0 =0H8E AB@0659 F5;CN <8=CBC, ?>:0 !593>@ =5 ?>:070; 8<, GB> >= 459AB28B5;L=> 7=05B H8D@. = >B:@K; A59D 8 4>AB0; 4>:C<5=BK :><?0=88, :>B>@K5 ?>72>;O;8 CAB0=>28BL 53> ;8G=>ABL 8 =0HC 45OB5;L=>ABL. E@0==8:8 =5E>BO ?@87=0;8 =0H8 4>:070B5;LAB20 8 CH;8, ?>:0G820O 3>;>20<8, => 1;03>40@O MB>9 8AB>@88 2A5 <K 5I5 1>;LH5 ?>GC2AB2>20;8 A51O G;5=0<8 >4=>9 A5<L8.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm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«!>=8 :>@?>@59H= >D <5@8:0».  ">:8> 1C:0 8 047C> 20<0, AB02H89 ?>74=55 ?@57845=B>< :><?0=88, 1K;8 =0AB@>5=K A:5?B8G5A:8, =5 3>2>@O C65 > =51>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25 @01>B=8:>2 8 C?@02;ONI8E 4;O «!>=8», :>B>@KE <K =01@0;8 2 LN->@:5. / 1K; C15645= 2 A2>59 ?@02>B5, 8 =8:B> =5 <>3 A:070BL =8G53> C1548B5;L=>3> ?@>B82. K A>740;8 A>1AB25==CN A5BL A1KB0, A0<8 AB0;8 ?@>4020BL A2>8 B>20@K, =0:0?;820BL A2>9 >?KB 2 <0@:5B8=35. >8 :>;;538 2 ">:8> @5H8;8, GB>, ?>A:>;L:C O ;CGH5 7=0N >1AB0=>2:C 2 <5@8:5, >=8 ?@54>AB02OB MB> 45;> <=5. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, MB> 1K; 4>;3>640==K9 ?@>5:B, 8 ?>MB><C <K @5H8;8 70=OBLAO 8<, :>340 =0ABC?8B ?>4E>4OI89 <><5=B. > >1AB>OB5;LAB20 A;>68;8AL B0:, GB> <=5 =5 ?@8H;>AL 4>;3> 640BL. K 70?@>A8;8 C <8=8AB5@AB20 D8=0=A>2 @07@5H5=85 =0 ?5@52>4 2 !( 500 BKAOG 4>;;0@>2 4;O 40;L=59H53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O. 0<, >4=0:>, =5 1K;> 8725AB=>, 40AB ;8 MB> @07@5H5=85 <8=8AB5@AB2>, 0 5A;8 40AB, B> :>340. 5>6840==> @07@5H5=85 1K;> ?>;CG5=> :0: @07 B>340, :>340 <K >1AC640;8 2>?@>A > A>740=88 0<5@8:0=A:>9 :><?0=88.  2>B 2 D52@0;5 1960 3>40 <K >D8F80;L=> CG@548;8 :><?0=8N «!>=8 :>@?>@59H= >D <5@8:0», 8<5O :0?8B0; 2 500 BKAOG 4>;;0@>2. !?CABO 3>4 8 G5BK@5 <5AOF0 <K 2K?CAB8;8 =0 0<5@8:0=A:89 @K=>: 420 <8;;8>=0 >1K:=>25==KE 0:F89 :><?0=88 «!>=8» 2 2845 0<5@8:0=A:8E 45?>78B=KE A5@B8D8:0B>2 (!). -B> 1K; 25AL<0 ?>CG8B5;L=K9 >?KB 4;O <5=O. %>BO «">:8> M;5:B@8: ?0CM@ :><?0=8» 2K?CA:0;0 >1;830F88 =0 0<5@8:0=A:>< @K=:5 5I5 4> 2>9=K, <K ?5@2K<8 87 O?>=A:8E :><?0=89 ?@54;>68;8 2 !( A2>9 0:F8>=5@=K9 :0?8B0;, 8 MB> AB0;> 2>7<>6=K< 1;03>40@O =>2>9 B>340 A8AB5<5 !. > MB>9 A8AB5<5 0:F88 E@0=OBAO 2 B>9 AB@0=5, 345 >=8 1K;8 2K?CI5=K, => A5@B8D8:0BK 0:F89, 2K?CI5==KE 2 ?@>406C, @07<5I0NBAO 2 0<5@8:0=A:>< 10=:5, 8 8E <>6=> ?@>4020BL 2 !( B>G=> B0: 65, :0: >1KG=K5 2=CB@5==85 0:F88 [!8AB5<0 ! ?@82>48B :0: 1K : @0742>5=8N 0:F88 =0 A0<C 0:F8N 8 A5@B8D8:0B =0 ?@02> 2;045=8O 5N. ;03>40@O MB><C =5 2>7=8:05B N@848G5A:8E 8 M:>=><8G5A:8E A;>6=>AB59, A2O70==KE A ?@O<K< 22545=85< 8=>AB@0==KE 0:F89 2 >1@0I5=85 =0 =LN-9>@:A:>9 18@65. @8<. @54.]. 0H 10=:, 0 B0:65 AB@0E>20O :><?0=8O «><C@0 A5:LN@8B87», C?@02;ONI85 :>B>@>9 E>@>H> =0A 7=0;8, 0<5@8:0=A:0O D8@<0 «!<8B 0@=8» 8 55 ?@57845=B 5@=5B #>:5@ AG8B0;8, GB> <K 4>;6=K 2K9B8 =0 0<5@8:0=A:89 @K=>:, 8 =0A 708=B5@5A>20;0 2>7<>6=>ABL A>1@0BL :0?8B0;, ?@54;030O A2>8 0:F88 2 !(. K >1AC48;8 MB>B 20@80=B 2 ">:8> >A5=LN 1960 3>40. ><?0=8O «!<8B 0@=8» A>3;0A8;0AL AB0BL ?>@CG8B5;5<-30@0=B>< 2<5AB5 A «><C@0 A5:LN@8B87»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«!>=8» <K A:>;>B8;8 =5?;>ECN :><0=4C, G;5=>< :>B>@>9 1K; 8 O.  =55 B0:65 2>H;8 -@=5AB (20@F5=10E 87 :><?0=88 «!<8B 0@=8», ?@54AB02;O2H89 30@0=B>2; 6>= !B825=A>= 87 N@848G5A:>9 D8@<K «!0;;82M= M=4 @><25;;», :>B>@CN >= B5?5@L 2>73;02;O5B; >A8> "5@0A020 87 «><C@0 A5:LN@8B87», :>B>@K9 2 D52@0;5 1961 3>40 B>;L:> GB> 25@=C;AO ?>A;5 <54>2>3> <5AOF0 (8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 A;>68;8AL B0:, GB> >= 1K; =0AB>;L:> 70=OB MB8< ?@>5:B><, GB> =5 2845; A2>N <>;>4CN 65=C F5;KE G5BK@5 <5AOF0!). K @01>B0;8 =04 ?@5420@8B5;L=K< ?@>5:B><. 0< 1K;> >G5=L B@C4=> >1JOA=8BL =0H <5B>4 2545=8O 45; B0:, GB>1K C4>2;5B2>@8BL ><8AA8N ?> 45;0< D>=4>2KE 18@6 8 :>=B@>;N 70 >?5@0F8O<8 A F5==K<8 1C<030<8. 0< ?@8H;>AL 45;0BL <=>65AB2> 25I59, :>B>@K5 1K;8 =>28=:>9 4;O <5=O. "0:, =0?@8<5@, <K 1K;8 2K=C645=K 87<5=8BL =0H8 <5B>4K 1CE30;B5@A:>3> CG5B0 2 A>>B25BAB288 A A8AB5<>9 >BG5B=>AB8, ?@8<5=O5<>9 =0 0?045, 8 A;54>20B5;L=>, 2?5@2K5 :>=A>;848@>20BL =0H 10;0=A. >A;5 B>3> :0: O C2845;, :0:85 @57C;LB0BK 405B MB0 A8AB5<0, O =5 <>3 =5 A>3;0A8BLAO A >4=8< 87 =0H8E 0<5@8:0=A:8E :>;;53, :>B>@K9 A?@>A8;: «B:C40 65 2K 7=05B5, :0:>2> D8=0=A>2>5 A>AB>O=85 20H59 :><?0=88, 5A;8 2K =5 :>=A>;848@C5B5 10;0=A?»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«0: 65 <>6=> 25AB8 45;0 =0 >A=>25 B0:>3> 1>;LH>3> :>;8G5AB20 :@0B:>A@>G=KE 709<>2? A;8 10=: ?>B@51C5B 8E C?;0BK, 2K @07>@8B5AL». K >1JOA=8;8, GB> 10=: =5 ?>B@51C5B 8E C?;0BK, GB> MB> B@048F8>==K9 A?>A>1 ?>;CG5=8O A0<KE 45H52KE :@548B>2. -B> >15A?5G8205B O?>=A:8< D8@<0< 1>;LHCN 381:>ABL. 09<K <>6=> ?@>4;8BL 2 A;CG05 =5>1E>48<>AB8 8;8 C?;0B8BL 8E, 5A;8 45=L38 1>;LH5 =5 =C6=K. 0=:8 C45;ONB A0<>5 1>;LH>5 2=8<0=85 :><?0=8O<, :>B>@K5 >=8 ?>445@6820NB, 8 AB0@0NBAO ?@54>AB02;OBL 8< 709<K 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L. > =0H8 0<5@8:0=A:85 :>;;538 E>B5;8 ?>;CG8BL 2 ?8AL<5==>< 2845 30@0=B88 10=:0, ?>4B25@640NI85, GB> 709<K 1C4CB ?@>4;5=K. / 3>2>@8; 8<, GB> <564C 10=:>< 8 :><?0=859 ACI5AB2C5B 4>25@85, => >=8 >B25G0;8, GB> ?@54?>G8B0NB 70<5=8BL 4>25@85 4>:C<5=B><.  :>=F5 :>=F>2 >=8 ?>=O;8 8 ?@87=0;8 =0H8 <5B>4K 2545=8O 45;. K B>65 <=>3><C =0CG8;8AL. "@8 <5AOF0 <K @01>B0;8 45=L 8 =>GL, ?>A;5 G53> ?@8H;8 : 2K2>4C, GB> 2 A2>59 :>=B>@5 2 ">:8> <K A45;0;8 2A5, 8 >B?@028;8AL 2 LN->@: 4;O 7025@H5=8O ?>A;54CNI8E ?>43>B>28B5;L=KE <5@ ?> @538AB@0F88 :><?0=88. ">:89A:0O D>=4>20O 18@60 70:@K20;0AL 2 B@8 G0A0 4=O, 2 MB> 2@5<O 2 LN->@:5 1K;> 420 G0A0 =>G8. K 4>;6=K 1K;8 2=8<0B5;L=> A;548BL 70 ">:89A:>9 D>=4>2>9 18@659, ?>B><C GB>, 5A;8 1K :C@AK 0:F89 =0G0;8 A;8H:>< A8;L=> :>;510BLAO, C =0A 2>7=8:;8 1K B@C4=>AB8 A ><8AA859 ?> 45;0< D>=4>2KE 18@6 8 :>=B@>;N 70 >?5@0F8O<8 A F5==K<8 1C<030<8, ?>MB><C <K :064K9 25G5@ @01>B0;8 <8=8<C< 4> 42CE G0A>2 =>G8 2 =LN-9>@:A:>9 :>=B>@5 «><C@0 A5:LN@8B87», 345 =0H8< ?>A;54=8< 45;>< 1K; @073>2>@ A ">:8> 8 >17>@ ?>;>65=8O =0 18@65. 0B5< O H5; 2 <5B@> 8 2>72@0I0;AO 2 BC 3>AB8=8FC, 2 :>B>@>9 >AB0=>28;AO. =0 =0E>48;0AL =0 >AB>G=>9 56-9 025=N, G5@57 C;8FC >B :;C10 «0A;093 :;01», 8 :064CN =>GL, :>340 O ?@8<5@=> 2 ?>;>28=5 B@5BL53> ?@8E>48; 4><>9, CAB0;K9 8 87<CG5==K9, ?0@04=0O 425@L 1K;0 70?5@B0 8 <=5 =04> 1K;> 72>=8BL ?@82@0B=8:C. >A:>;L:C <>5 ?@51K20=85 70BO3820;>AL =0 <=>3> =545;L, >= =0G0; 2>AE8I0BLAO <>59 2K=>A;82>ABLN 8 A B09=K< 2>AE8I5=85< A<>B@5; =0 <5=O, :>340 O 3;C1>:>9 =>GLN, 5;5 2>;>G0AL, 2>72@0I0;AO 4><>9. 0:>=5F >4=064K =>GLN >= <=5 A:070;: «/ ?@>AB> =5 <>3C ?>=OBL, >B:C40 2K 15@5B5 A8;K, GB>1K :064K9 25G5@ A845BL 4> ?>;>28=K B@5BL53> =>G8 2 MB>< :;C15?»  B><C 2@5<5=8, :>340 45;> 1K;> 70:>=G5=>, <K =0AB>;L:> CAB0;8, GB> 5;5 45@60;8AL =0 =>30E.  2>B ?@8H5; 45=L, :>340 =0< =C6=> 1K;> CAB0=>28BL :C@A 0:F89. >A;54=55 >7=0G0;>, GB> =0< A;54>20;> C7=0BL :C@A 0:F89 2 ">:8> ?@8 70:@KB88 18@68, :>340 2 LN->@:5 1K;> 420 G0A0 =>G8, ?>;CG8BL A>3;0A85 30@0=B>2, B> 5ABL -@=8 (20@F5=10E0, C:070BL :C@A 0:F89 2 ?@>A?5:B5 8 BCB 65 >B?5G0B0BL 8E 2 B8?>3@0D88. 0B5< N@8AB 4>;65= 1K; A5ABL =0 ?>574, >B?@02;ONI89AO 2 H5ABL G0A>2 CB@0 2 0H8=3B>= (2 B5 4=8 5I5 =5 1K;> @0==8E CB@5==8E @59A>2 A0<>;5B>2 <564C LN->@:>< 8 0H8=3B>=><), GB>1K 2 452OBL G0A>2 CB@0 ?>40BL 70O2:C 2 ><8AA8N ?> 45;0< D>=4>2KE 18@6 8 :>=B@>;N 70 >?5@0F8O<8 A F5==K<8 1C<030<8. >A;5 B>3> :0: 70O2:0 1C45B ?@8=OB0 8 >4>1@5=0, N@8ABC A;54>20;> ?>72>=8BL 87 ?><5I5=8O :><8AA88 2 LN->@:, 8 <K 4>;6=K 1K;8 2K?CAB8BL A5@B8D8:0BK ! =0 @K=>:. > : :>=FC ?>A;54=53> 4=O -@=8 (20@F5=10E 1C:20;L=> ?040; >B CAB0;>AB8. >A:>;L:C >AB020;>AL CAB0=>28BL B>;L:> :C@A 0:F89 8 D>@<C;0 4;O MB>3> C65 1K;0 A>3;0A>20=0, >= @5H8; ?>9B8 4><>9 8 =5<=>3> >B4>E=CBL. «>G5<C 1K 20< =5 ?>72>=8BL <=5, :>340 2K CAB0=>28B5 :C@A 0:F89, A:070; >=. / <>3C 40BL A>3;0A85 87 4><C, 2<5AB> B>3> GB>1K B><8BLAO 745AL 2 >6840=88». -B> ?>:070;>AL =0< E>@>H59 <KA;LN. (20@F5=10E ?>5E0; 4><>9 8 C;53AO =0 4820=5, ?>AB0282 @O4>< B5;5D>=, 8 BCB 65 CA=C;. > :>340 <K AB0;8 5<C 72>=8BL, >= B0: :@5?:> A?0;, GB> <K =5 <>3;8 4>1C48BLAO. K 72>=8;8 8 72>=8;8. 8:0:>3> >B25B0. @5<O CE>48;>. «><C@0 A5:LN@8B87», ">:8> 8 O C65 4>3>2>@8;8AL > :C@A5 =0H8E 0:F89. / =8:>340 =5 701C4C, GB> >= A>AB028; 17,5 4>;;0@0 70 >48= A5@B8D8:0B, 40202H89 ?@020 =0 45AOBL 0:F89. 0< >AB020;>AL ;8HL ?>;CG8BL A>3;0A85 (20@F5=10E0. "5;5D>= 2A5 72>=8; 8 72>=8;, => >= ?>-?@56=5<C A?0; C A51O 2 3>AB8=>9 2 @59B-5:5, 0 <K 2A5 A<>B@5;8 =0 G0AK, ?KB0OAL GB>-=81C4L ?@84C<0BL. !M<C %0@BCM;;C, ?><>I=8:C -@=8, ?@8H;0 2 3>;>2C <KA;L, GB>, ?>A:>;L:C (20@F5=10E 1K; B0:65 <M@>< @59B-5:0, <K <>65< ?>72>=8BL 2 ?>;8F59A:>5 C?@02;5=85 3>@>40 8 ?>?@>A8BL ?@8A;0BL 456C@=CN <0H8=C : =5<C 4><>9, GB>1K 53> @071C48BL. K @5H8;8, GB> MB> 1;5ABOI0O 845O. > >:070;>AL, GB> 2A53> 70 =545;N 4> MB>3> :0:>9-B> ?A8E 2 @59B-5:5 =0G0; 872>48BL <M@0 8 =0G0;L=8:0 ?>;8F88 =04>54;82K<8 B5;5D>==K<8 72>=:0<8, 8 ?>MB><C, :>340 %0@BCM;; ?>72>=8;, 5<C >B25B8;8 >G5=L ACE>. KA;CH02 ?@>AL1C !M<0, >=8 A=0G0;0 4065 @0AA<5O;8AL. >B@51>20;>AL 2@5<O, GB>1K >1JOA=8BL 8<, GB> A;CG8;>AL, ?>:0 >=8 =0:>=5F ?>25@8;8 5<C 8 ?>A;0;8 ?>;8F59A:>3>, GB>1K @071C48BL <M@0. >340 2A5 :>=G8;>AL, C <5=O C65 =5 >AB020;>AL =8:0:8E A8;, => O 1K; ?@8OB=> >1@04>20= @57C;LB0B><: G5:>< =0 G5BK@5 <8;;8>=0 4>;;0@>2 >B =0H53> ?5@2>3> 2K?CA:0 0:F89 70 @C156><. / =8:>340 5I5 =5 2845; B0:>3> :@C?=>3> G5:0. >340 O =0:>=5F 4>1@0;AO 4> 4><0, O ?>GB8 425 =545;8 =5 <>3 ?@89B8 2 A51O 8 =5 2K;570; 87 ?>AB5;8. >74=55 <K >?C1;8:>20;8 25AL<0 ?>4@>1=CN :=83C, AB02HCN 181;859 4;O O?>=A:8E :><?0=89, 65;0NI8E 2K?CA:0BL 0:F88 =0 0<5@8:0=A:>< @K=:5, 8 >=0 ?@8>1@5;0 1>;LHCN ?>?C;O@=>ABL. >340 (20@F5=10E 2 1966 3>4C CH5; 87 :><?0=88 «!<8B 0@=8» =0 ?5=A8N, O 2>A?>;L7>20;AO MB>9 2>7<>6=>ABLN, GB>1K A45;0BL 53> ?@57845=B>< «!>=8 <5@8:0» 2<5AB> A51O, O 65 AB0; ?@54A540B5;5< B>9 65 :><?0=88. >A;5 =0H59 A>2<5AB=>9 @01>BK, A2O70==>9 A 2K?CA:>< 0:F89, >= @0718@0;AO 2 45;0E «!>=8» =5 EC65 <5=O 8 70=8<0; MB>B ?>AB 4> A0<>9 A2>59 A<5@B8, ?>A;54>202H59 2 1968 3>4C.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" > " # ! !  . / =018@0NAL >?KB0.  IV  1960 3>4C O >B:@K; 2 @09>=5 8=47K 2 ">:8> 45<>=AB@0F8>==K9 A0;>=, 345 ?>B5=F80;L=K5 70:07G8:8 <>3;8 1K >7=0:><8BLAO A =0H8<8 B>20@0<8 157 ?><>I8 ?@>402F>2, :>B>@K5 ?KB0;8AL 1K 8< GB>-;81> ?@>40BL.  >= AB0; >G5=L ?>?C;O@=K<. 3> 7=0G5=85 4;O @5:;0<K =0H8E B>20@>2 1K;> >3@><=K<. >A:>;L:C <K 1K;8 =>28G:0<8, =0< =04> 1K;> ?@54AB028BL =0HC :><?0=8N O?>=F0< B>G=> B0: 65, :0: =0< ?@8H;>AL 70B5< ?@54AB02;OBL 55 0<5@8:0=F0<, 0 ?>74=55 8 52@>?59F0<. B:@KBL 45<>=AB@0F8>==K9 A0;>= 2 LN->@:5 AB0;> =0H59 7040G59. / 87CG8; 3>@>4 8 ?>=O;, GB>, 5A;8 O E>GC ?@82;5GL ;N459, C :>B>@KE 5ABL 45=L38 8 :>B>@K5 <>3CB ?>72>;8BL A515 ?>:C?0BL =0H8 4>2>;L=> 4>@>385 B>20@K, A0<K< ?>4E>4OI8< <5AB><, GB>1K =09B8 8E, 1C45B OB0O 025=N. / 8AE>48; MBC C;8FC 2 F5=B@5 0=EMBB5=0 24>;L 8 ?>?5@5:, @073;O4K20O ;N459 8 <03078=K. =8 ?@>872>48;8 A8;L=>5 2?5G0B;5=85: «"8DD0=8», «0@BL5», «!0:A ?OB0O 025=N», «5@34>@D-C4<M=». / >3@0=8G8; A2>8 ?>8A:8 2>AB>G=>9 AB>@>=>9 OB>9 025=N, CG0AB:>< <564C 45-9 8 56-9 025=N, ?>B><C GB> MB>B @09>= ?>:070;AO <=5 B>340 A0<>9 M;530=B=>9 G0ABLN C;8FK. >:0 O 8A:0; ?>4E>4OI55 ?><5I5=85 =0 ?5@2>< MB065 4;O 0@5=4K, O 70<5B8;, GB> =0 C;8F5 28AOB D;038 @07=KE AB@0=, ?@0240, O?>=A:89 D;03 B0< >BACBAB2>20;. / @5H8;, GB>, :>340 <K >B:@>5< =0H 45<>=AB@0F8>==K9 A0;>=, <K ?5@2K<8 2K25A8< O?>=A:89 D;03 =0 OB>9 025=N. @>H;> 420 3>40, ?@5645 G5< O =0H5; 459AB28B5;L=> ?>4E>4OI55 <5AB>, 8 =0< ?@8H;>AL >1>A=>20BLAO 2 4>2>;L=> <0;5=L:>< ?><5I5=88. 0B5< O A0< ?@84C<0; >@838=0;L=K9 48709= 4;O MB>3> ?><5I5=8O, A45;02 >4=C 87 AB5= 75@:0;L=>9, GB>1K ?><5I5=85 :070;>AL 1>;55 ?@>AB>@=K<. >340 <=5 ?@8H;>AL @01>B0BL =04 ?@>5:B>< 45<>=AB@0F8>==>3> A0;>=0 8 O ?KB0;AO 2?8B0BL 2 A51O @8B< 0<5@8:0=A:>9 687=8, O ?>4C<0;, GB>, 5A;8 O 459AB28B5;L=> E>GC ?>=OBL, :0:>20 687=L 2 <5@8:5, 8 5A;8 <K E>B8< 8<5BL CA?5E :0: :><?0=8O =0 3830=BA:>< 0<5@8:0=A:>< @K=:5, =0< =5;L7O >3@0=8G820BLAO ;8HL A>740=85< =0H59 :><?0=88 =0 0<5@8:0=A:>9 75<;5. / 4>;65= ?5@5257B8 A2>N A5<LN 2 !( 8 ?>?@>1>20BL 68BL B0:, :0: 682CB 0<5@8:0=FK. >340 O 68; >48= 2 LN->@:5, O ?>;CG0; <=>3> ?@83;0H5=89 8 ?>7=0:><8;AO A> <=>38<8 ;N4L<8. > O 7=0;, GB>, 5A;8 O 1C4C 68BL 2 <5@8:5 A A5<L59, O >1>30IC A2>9 >?KB, ?>B><C GB>, 345 1K O =8 1K20;  2 703>@>4=KE :;C10E, =0 ?@85<0E 8;8 >1540E 2 :>=F5 =545;8, 0<5@8:0=A:85 A5<L8 2A5340 1K;8 2<5AB5. =>385 ?@83;0H5=8O ?@8E>48;8 =0 8<O 3>A?>48=0 8 3>A?>68 >@8B0, 8 O ?>=O;, GB> >48=>:89 <C6G8=0 70G0ABCN ?@54AB02;O5B ?@>1;5<C 4;O E>7O52. A;8 1K O 68; 2 <5@8:5 A A5<L59, <K <>3;8 1K ?>=OBL 0<5@8:0=F52, G53> =5 <>3CB A45;0BL 8=>AB@0=FK, ?@85760NI85 AN40 =0 =5?@>4>;68B5;L=>5 2@5<O. / =8:><C =5 3>2>@8; >1 MB><. 564C B5< 2@5<O H;>, 8 O 2A5 1>;LH5 8 1>;LH5 C15640;AO 2 B><, GB> 4>;65= MB> A45;0BL. !( 1K;8 >B:@KB>9 8 ?@>3@5AA82=>9 AB@0=>9, 8 LN->@: AB0; <564C=0@>4=K< ?5@5:@5AB:><. / ?@8257 65=C >A8:> 2 LN->@: 2 >:BO1@5 1962 3>40 =0 >B:@KB85 45<>=AB@0F8>==>3> A0;>=0, 8 2 @0730@ ?@074=8:0 ?> A;CG0N >B:@KB8O A0;>=0 O ?>=O;, GB> =0ABC?8; ?>4E>4OI89 <><5=B, 8 ?@O<> A:070;: «>A8:>, <K ?5@557605< 2 LN->@:». =0 7=05B <5=O >G5=L E>@>H> 8 =5 2K@078;0 1>;LH>3> C482;5=8O. / 7=0;, GB> :0: 3>@>60=:0, @>482H0OAO 2 ">:8>, >=0 A<>65B A?@028BLAO A ?5@5574>< 2 4@C3>9 1>;LH>9 3>@>4 8 A 87<5=5=85< >1@070 687=8, E>BO >=0 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 3>2>@8;0 ?>-0=3;89A:8. =0 @5H8;0 :0: <>6=> ;CGH5 8A?>;L7>20BL <>9 ?;0=. =0 C482;O;0 2A5E A2>8<8 45;0<8, >@30=87>202 ?>A;5 ?5@55740 4065 A>1AB25==K9 187=5A. / 7=0;, GB> >=0 A?@028BAO A MB8<, ?>B><C GB> G0AB> >AB02;O; 55 2 ">:8> >4=C 2> 2@5<O A2>8E 45;>2KE ?>574>:, 8 >=0 =5 B>;L:> 701>B8;0AL > 4><5 8 45BOE, => 8 83@0;0 @>;L <>53> 4>25@5==>3>, 0 B0:65 ?>445@6820;0 <>8 45;>2K5 A2O78, :>340 <5=O =5 1K;> 2 3>@>45. / G0AB> 72>=8; 59, GB>1K A>>1I8BL =>2>AB8 8 ?5@540BL GB>-=81C4L 2 :>=B>@C 8;8 :C40-;81> 5I5, 8 A>25B>20;AO A =59.  !( 687=L 2> <=>3>< >B;8G0;0AL >B 687=8 2 /?>=88, => O 7=0;, GB> 1;03>40@O A2>5<C E0@0:B5@C 8 A2>59 @5H8B5;L=>AB8 >=0 4>1L5BAO CA?5E0. # =55 B5?5@L <=>3> 4@C759 70 3@0=8F59, ?>B><C GB> >=0 =045;5=0 8A:;NG8B5;L=K< 40@>< ?@8=>@02;820BLAO : =>2K< ;N4O< 8 =>2K< <5AB0< 8 >1;0405B A?>A>1=>ABO<8 : =5>D8F80;L=>9 48?;><0B88. / AG8B0N, GB> MB> B5< 1>;55 4>AB>9=> 2>AE8I5=8O, GB> >A8:> =8:>340 =5 ?@>O2;O;0 1>;LH>3> 8=B5@5A0 : 4@C38< AB@0=0< 8 =5 8A?KBK20;0 >A>1>3> 65;0=8O ?CB5H5AB2>20BL, E>BO >=0 ?@5:@0A=> 3>B>28;0 D@0=FC7A:85 1;N40. =0 ?@>8AE>48;0 87 A5<59AB20 A0<C@052, :>B>@>5 2 :>=F5 M@K ">:C3020 70=O;>AL ?@>40659 :=83 8 8740B5;LA:8< 45;>< 8 A>740;> H8@>:CN A5BL :=86=KE <03078=>2. ><?0=8O «!0=AM94>» 87405B A53>4=O ?>?C;O@=CN A5@8N 8=>AB@0==KE A;>20@59 «>=A097». -B> 1K;0 845O, :>B>@CN ?@54;>68; 55 >B5F. !;>20@8 «>=A097»  MB> B0:65 A0<0O ?>?C;O@=0O A5@8O C CG0I8EAO AB0@H8E :;0AA>2 8 :>;;54659. ! N=>AB8 >A8:> 1K;0 0:B82=>9 8 45OB5;L=>9 65=I8=>9; >1@07 687=8 55 A5<L8 2 ">:8> =5 >G5=L >B;8G0;AO >B >1@070 687=8 =0H59 A5<L8 2 03>5, 2>:@C3 B0:65 AC5B8;8AL <=>3>G8A;5==K5 A;C38 8 @>4AB25==8:8, 0 A5AB@K 8 1@0BLO 25A5;8;8AL 8 AA>@8;8AL. =0 2A?><8=05B, GB> 4><0 ?>AB>O==> 3>2>@8;8 > 187=5A5, B>G=> B0: 65 :0: C =0A. !0<>5 «70?04=>5» <5AB>, :C40 >=0 42064K 2K5760;0 2 45BAB25, 1K; :C@>@B=K9 3>@>4>: %0:>=M, 1;87 3>@K $C478. >A;5 B>3> :0: <K ?>7=0:><8;8AL 2 1951 3>4C, >=0 ?@87=0;0AL, GB> AG8B0;0, GB> <>9 @>4=>9 3>@>4 03>O, @0A?>;>65==K9 70?04=55 %0:>=M, =0E>48BAO 345-B> =0 :@0N 75<;8. > 55 >B5F >4520;AO =0 70?04=K9 <0=5@ 8 25; 52@>?59A:89 >1@07 687=8. = ;N18; >1540BL A A5<L59 2 @5AB>@0=0E. 4=8< 87 8E ;N18<KE @5AB>@0=>2 1K; @5AB>@0= «K> 3@0=4» =0 8=475. >8 @>48B5;8 2>48;8 <5=O 2 B>B 65 @5AB>@0=, 8 ?>74=55 <K A >A8:> >1=0@C68;8, GB> ?><=8< A 45BAB20 >3@><=CN 2K25A:C =0 :@KH5 740=8O 87 :@0A=KE 8 A8=8E =5>=>2KE B@C1>:. K 7=0;8, GB> 42C< =0H8< <0;LG8:0<, %84M> 8 0-A0>, 0 B0:65 4>G5@8 0>:> 1C45B B@C4=> ?@82K:=CBL : =>2><C >1@07C 687=8 2 <5@8:5. > >=8 5I5 1K;8 <0;5=L:8<8 8 <>3;8 ;53:> ?@8A?>A>18BLAO : =>2K< CA;>28O<. %84M> 1K;> 45AOBL ;5B, 0A0>  2>A5<L, 0 <0;5=L:>9 0>:> 2A53> H5ABL. / AG8B0;, GB> MB>B >?KB 1C45B 4;O =8E ?>;57=K<, 4065 5A;8 2=0G0;5 2A5< ?@845BAO B@C4=>. > 1C:0, >AB02H89AO 2 ">:8>, 1K; =0AB@>5= A:5?B8G5A:8. ;02=>5 53> 2>7@065=85 A>AB>O;> 2 B><, GB> 8A?>;=8B5;L=K9 28F5-?@57845=B 1C45B =0E>48BLAO B0: 40;5:>, 0 MB> 5<C =5 =@028;>AL. ">340 O ?@54;>68;, GB> 1C4C ?@85760BL 2 ">:8> @07 2 420 <5AOF0 8 =0E>48BLAO B0< ?@8<5@=> =545;N. / B0:65 1K; 8 4> A8E ?>@ >AB0NAL 1>;LH8< ?@825@65=F5< B5;5D>=0 8 A:070; 5<C, GB> <K <>65< A2O70BLAO 2 ;N1>5 2@5<O. 0: O 8 ?@54?>;030;, >= A>3;0A8;AO, 8 O =0G0; >ACI5AB2;OBL A2>9 ?;0=. >;8G5AB2> <>8E ?>574>: G5@57 "8E89 >:50= C<5=LH8;>AL =5 =0<=>3>, O 7=0; MB>. / ?5@5AB0; 25AB8 AG5B A2>8< ?>574:0< >G5=L 402=>, :>340 8E G8A;> 4>AB83;> C65 AB0 B@84F0B8 ?OB8.  LN->@:5 O C65 ?>@CG8; =0H8< A;C60I8< ?>4KA:0BL 4>< 4;O A2>59 A5<L8. =8 >G5=L 1KAB@> =0H;8 4;O =0A ?@5:@0A=CN :20@B8@C. 0B0= 8;AB09=, 25;8:89 A:@8?0G, 68; 2 :20@B8@5 =0 B@5BL5< MB065 2 4><5 1010 =0 OB>9 025=N, =0?@>B82 <C75O 8A:CAAB2 «5B@>?>;8B5=», =0E>482H53>AO =0 82-9 AB@8B. = @5H8; =0 420 3>40 C5E0BL 2 0@86, 8 MB0 :20@B8@0 A> 2A59 >1AB0=>2:>9 A4020;0AL 2=05<. 20@B8@0 AB>8;0 4>2>;L=> 4>@>3>, 8;8, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, 1K;0 4>@>3>9 2 B5 4=8 4;O =0H8E O?>=A:8E :>H5;L:>2, 1200 4>;;0@>2 2 <5AOF. @0240, MB0 :20@B8@0 1K;0 ?@5:@0A=>9 ?> 2A5< ?0@0<5B@0<. =0 =0E>48;0AL 2 ?@5AB86=>< @09>=5, 8 =0< =5 =04> 1K;> 257B8 2 LN->@: <515;L 8;8 4065 >B45;K20BL :20@B8@C. :CA <0MAB@> 8;AB09=0 =0A 2?>;=5 CAB@0820;. K <>3;8 A@07C ?5@55760BL.  MB>9 :20@B8@5 1K;> 425=04F0BL :><=0B. ;O =0A, ?@82K:H8E : >G5=L <0;5=L:8< 4><0< 2 /?>=88, MB> 1K; 42>@5F.  =59 1K;> =5 <5=LH5 G5BK@5E A?0;5=, 40 5I5 :><=0BK 4;O A;C3, >3@><=0O 3>AB8=0O, >B45;L=0O AB>;>20O 8 :018=5B. A5 :><=0BK 1K;8 >G5=L ?@>AB>@=K 8 >1AB02;5=K A 1>;LH8< 2:CA>< 8 :><D>@B><. 5G5@0<8 706830;8AL >3=8 <C75O, >A25I0O D0A04, 8 <K <>3;8 2>>1@078BL, GB> =0E>48<AO 2 0@865, E>BO <K >G5=L ;N18;8 LN->@:. / ?5@55E0; 2 0?@5;5. > ?>A:>;L:C 70=OB8O 2 H:>;5 5I5 ?@>4>;60;8AL, 65=0 8 45B8 A<>3;8 ?5@55E0BL B>;L:> 2 8N=5. / 68; >48=, 2?@>G5<, C <5=O 1K;> <=>3> @01>BK. / :064K9 45=L 5748; 2 :>=B>@C =0 02B>1CA5 2<5AB5 A =LN9>@:F0<8, ?@8A;CH820OAL : 8E @073>2>@0<, =01;N40O 70 8E ?@82KG:0<8, A;>2=> O 1K; A>F8>;>3><. / B0:65 70=8<0;AO ?@>40659 =0H8E B>20@>2, ?>A5I0; :;85=B>2 8, :>340 C <5=O 2K4020;>AL A2>1>4=>5 2@5<O, >1E>48; H:>;K 2 0=EMB-B5=5 2 ?>8A:0E ?>4E>4OI53> <5AB0 4;O 45B59. !M< %0@BCM;; 87 D8@<K «!<8B 0@=8» >:070; <=5 A0<CN 1>;LHCN ?><>IL 2 ?>8A:0E H:>;K. 3> 45B8 CG8;8AL 2 MB>< 3>@>45, 8 >= E>@>H> 7=0; LN->@:. = 40; <=5 15AF5==K5 A>25BK, 4065 ?>43>B>28; 4;O <5=O 2>?@>A=8:8 8 8=>340 A>?@>2>640; <5=O. =5 ?@8H;>AL 704020BL A2>8 2>?@>AK 2 4204F0B8 H:>;0E, GB>1K =09B8 ?>4E>4OICN, :>B>@0O <>3;0 1K ?@8=OBL B@5E <0;5=L:8E O?>=F52, A>25@H5==> =5 C<5NI8E 3>2>@8BL ?>-0=3;89A:8. =5 =C6=0 1K;0 H:>;0, :>B>@0O <>3;0 1K ?@8=OBL 8E ?> <5=LH59 <5@5 =0 420 3>40, ?>B><C GB> ?5@2>=0G0;L=> O ?@54?>;030; ?@>1KBL 2 LN->@:5 8<5==> AB>;L:> 2@5<5=8.  H:>;0E =5 ?@>O28;8 1>;LH>3> 8=B5@5A0 : <>59 ?@>AL15.  1>;LH8=AB25 87 =8E A;>68;8AL 52@>?59A:85 B@048F88. 0:>=5F 48@5:B>@ H:>;K «!59=B-5@=0@4» A:070;, GB> >= E>B5; 1K, GB>1K 2 53> H:>;5 CG8;8AL ?@54AB028B5;8 87 1>;LH53> G8A;0 AB@0=, 8 A>3;0A8;AO ?@8=OBL <>8E AK=>259. ;O 0>:> O =0H5; H:>;C «09B8=359;-0<D>@4», 8 B5?5@L, :>340 H:>;L=0O ?@>1;5<0 1K;0 @5H5=0, <KA;L > ?5@55745 A5<L8 2 <5@8:C C65 =5 2K7K20;0 C <5=O 15A?>:>9AB20. 0B5< =0< =C6=> 1K;> A>>1I8BL MBC =>2>ABL 45BO<, 8 O 2K;5B5; 2 ">:8>. K 2A59 A5<L59 >B?@028;8AL 2 =>2K9 >B5;L «0;0A», 345 O A=O; =><5@ =0 2KE>4=K5 4=8. (5; 1963 3>4, 8 3>@>4 3>B>28;AO : ;5B=8< ;8<?89A:8< 83@0<, :>B>@K5 4>;6=K 1K;8 A>AB>OBLAO 2 1964 3>4C. !B@>8;0AL F5;0O A8AB5<0 A:>@>AB=KE 02B><038AB@0;59, <=>3> =>2KE >B5;59 8 4@C38E >1I5AB25==KE A>>@C65=89.  B> 2>;=CNI55 2@5<O ?@51K20=85 2 >4=>< 87 =>259H8E >B5;59 ">:8> 1K;> 4;O 65=K 8 45B59 1>;LH8< ?@074=8:><. 0;LG8:8 E>@>H> 70?><=8;8 MB>B >B5;L, ?>B><C GB> >=8 2?5@2K5 >:070;8AL 2 3>AB8=8F5 70?04=>52@>?59A:>3> B8?0, 8 %84M> ?>@078;>, GB> 5<C =5 =04> 1K;> A=8<0BL >1C2L C 425@59 =><5@0.  B>B AC11>B=89 25G5@ C =0A 1K; 1>;LH>9 >154 2 M;530=B=>< @5AB>@0=5 «@>C=» =0 25@E=5< MB065 >B5;O, 2>72KH0NI53>AO =04 B5@@8B>@859 8<?5@0B>@A:>3> 42>@F0. >B><, :>340 <K 25@=C;8AL 2 =><5@, O 2K;>68; 8< =>2>ABL, GB> <K ?>545< 2 !(. / >15I0; 8< ?>574:C 2 8A=59;5=4. 5B8 =5 7=0;8, GB> MB> B0:>5, => 0A0>, :>B>@><C 1K;> 2>A5<L ;5B, >G5=L 70E>B5; 5E0BL. >74=55 >= @0AA:070; =0<, GB> ?>A:>;L:C 2A5 70?04=K5 D8;L<K, ?5@540202H85AO ?> B5;52845=8N, 4C1;8@>20;8AL =0 O?>=A:89 O7K:, >= AG8B0;, GB> 2 <5@8:5 2A5 3>2>@OB ?>-O?>=A:8. %84M>, :>B>@K9 1K; AB0@H5, >B=5AAO : ?5@5574C 157 M=BC7807<0, ?>B><C GB> 5<C =5 E>B5;>AL @0AAB020BLAO A> A2>8<8 4@C7LO<8. > <K 2A5 65 ?>5E0;8 2 8A=59;5=4, >AB0=>28;8AL 2 3>AB8=8F5, @0A?>;>65==>9 ?@O<> 2 ?0@:5, 8 40;8 45BO< 2>7<>6=>ABL A>25@H8BL ?CB5H5AB285 ?> 8A=59;5=4C ?> ?>;=>9 ?@>3@0<<5, ?@5645 G5< <K ?>5E0;8 2 LN->@:. K 2A5 4> A8E ?>@ A 1>;LH8< C4>2>;LAB285< 2A?><8=05< >1 MB>9 ?>574:5. / ?>=8<0;, :0:85 @57:85 ?5@5<5=K 1C45B >7=0G0BL MB>B ?5@5574 2 687=8 =0H59 A5<L8. > O 25@8; 2 B5>@8N ?>;=>3> ?>3@C65=8O, 8 ?>MB><C G5@57 =545;N ?>A;5 =0H53> ?@85740 2 LN->@:, 5I5 4> B>3>, :0: <K CAB@>8;8AL =0 =>2>< <5AB5, <K 70?8A0;8 <0;LG8:>2 2 ;035@L «8=>=0» 2 HB0B5 M=. / AG8B0;, GB> MB> A0<K9 1KAB@K9 A?>A>1 ?@82K:=CBL : 687=8 2 <5@8:5. !>3;0A=> ?@028;0< MB>3> ;035@O, =0< =5 @07@5H0;>AL ?>A5I0BL 8E 2 ?5@2K5 425 =545;8, ?>MB><C >=8 459AB28B5;L=> 1K;8 ?@54>AB02;5=K A0<8< A515 8 4>;6=K 1K;8 1KAB@> ?@8A?>A>18BLAO : =>2>9 687=8. 0: B>;L:> <K CAB@>8;8 <0;LG8:>2 2 ;035@L, O ?@54;>68; >A8:> ?>9B8 =0 :C@AK, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 0<5@8:0=A:85 2>48B5;LA:85 ?@020, ?>B><C GB>, A:070; O 59, 2 <5@8:5 2A5 4>;6=K C<5BL 2>48BL <0H8=C.  :@><5 B>3>, 59, 2>7<>6=>, ?@845BAO 5748BL ?> 45;0<.  B><C 65 B5?5@L, :>340 <0;LG8:8 =0E>4OBAO 2 M=5 (4;O 0>:> <K =0H;8 4=52=>9 ;035@L 2 0=EMBB5=5), 0 <=5 =5 =04> 1K;> 5748BL, 59 1K;> 206=> =0CG8BLAO >1E>48BLAO A0<>AB>OB5;L=>. / ?>=8<0;, GB> =0< =5>1E>48<> 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>A5I0BL 4@C759 2 ?@83>@>40E 8 A>25@H0BL 2>A:@5A=K5 ?@>3C;:8 =0 <0H8=5. >B>2OAL : ?8AL<5==><C M:70<5=C, >=0 B0: 1>O;0AL, GB> =5 2K45@68B 53> 87-70 ?;>E>3> 7=0=8O 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0. =0 4065 70CG8;0 =087CABL 2A5 M:70<5=0F8>==K5 <0B5@80;K, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 A>B=N 2>7<>6=KE 2>?@>A>2, E>BO 8 =5 ?>=8<0;0 1>;LH8=AB20 87 =8E. =0 A40;0 M:70<5= =0 «>B;8G=>» 8 157 B@C40 2K45@60;0 8A?KB0=8O =0 2>48B5;LA:85 ?@020. @0240, =0< ?@8H;>AL 0@5=4>20BL 4;O =55 «D>;L:A2035=» A >1KG=>9 B@0=A<8AA859, ?>B><C GB> «:048;;0:»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«94;-C094;». >@>9 87-70 ?;>E>9 ?>3>4K 8;8 ?> :0:8<-;81> 4@C38< ?@8G8=0< A0<>;5BK A048;8AL 2 K>0@-:5, 8 59 ?@8E>48;>AL 5E0BL 87 94;-C90;40 2 K>-65@A8, GB>1K 2AB@5B8BL A0<>;5B.  0=EMBB5=5 >=0 ?>AB>O==> 2>78;0 =0A =0 =0H8 2AB@5G8 2 F5=B@5 3>@>40, =0 #>;;-AB@8B 8 2 4@C385 <5AB0. =>340 >=0 2>78;0 ?> 2A5< ?@83>@>40< :0:>3>-=81C4L 8=65=5@0, ?>:0 B>B ?@>25@O; GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL =0H8E ?@85<=8:>2, A83=0;>2 G0AB>B=>9 <>4C;OF88, B> 5ABL :>340 5<C =04> 1K;> CAB0=>28BL, =0 :0:>< @0AAB>O=88 >B 740=8O «-<?09@-AB59B18;48=3» 2 B>< 8;8 8=>< =0?@02;5=88 A83=0; =0G8=05B >A;01520BL. 0;LG8:0< 2 ;5B=5< ;035@5 =0 ?5@2KE ?>@0E ?@8E>48;>AL B@C4=>. "0< =5 1K;> 1>;LH5 O?>=A:8E 45B59, >=8 1K;8 @0A?@545;5=K 2 @07=K5 3@C??K 8 A?0;8 2 @07=KE ?0;0B:0E. 8@5:B>@ ;035@O :C?8; 0=3;>-O?>=A:89 A;>20@L, GB>1K 2KCG8BL =5A:>;L:> A;>2 ?>-O?>=A:8 8 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>3>2>@8BL A @51OB0<8, GB>1K >=8 =5 GC2AB2>20;8 A51O >B@570==K<8 >B 2A5E. >574=55 =0< @0AA:070;8, GB> <0;LG8:8 =5<=>3> ?;0:0;8 ?> =>G0<, GB> 1K;> 2?>;=5 ?>=OB=>. K >AB028;8 8< 70?8A:C A> A;>20<8 «>60;C9AB0, ?>72>=8B5 <>5<C >BFC» 8 A:070;8, GB>1K >=8 8A?>;L7>20;8 55, 5A;8 A =8<8 GB>-B> ?@>87>945B 8 >=8 =5 1C4CB 7=0BL, GB> 45;0BL. 4=0:> 8< =5 ?@8H;>AL 59 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO. >=5G=>, <=5 1K;> 3@CAB=>, => O AG8B0;, GB> B0:>9 >?KB ?>945B 8< =0 ?>;L7C. >340 <K A >A8:> 2 B>B ?5@2K9 45=L >AB028;8 8E, <K A B@C4>< A45@6820;8 A;57K. 0A0> 3>2>@8;, GB> 2 ?5@2>5 2@5<O AB0@0;AO 45;0BL B>, GB> 45;0;8 4@C385, =5 ?>=8<0O 8 =5 A>7=020O ?>=0G0;C, ?>G5<C >= MB> 45;05B.  ;035@5 «8=>=0» 1K; 1>;LH>9 2K1>@ 70=OB89, G5< >= @57:> >B;8G0;AO >B O?>=A:>3> ;5B=53> ;035@O, 345 2A5 2K?>;=ONB >4=C 8 BC 65 ?@>3@0<<C. 0A0> 45;0; B>, GB> 45;0;> 1>;LH8=AB2>. 7-70 @07=8FK 2 2>7@0AB5 %84M> 1K; 2 ;035@5 4;O 45B59 A@54=53> 2>7@0AB0, 0 0A0>  2 ;035@5 4;O 45B59 <;04H53> 2>7@0AB0. >MB><C >=8 2845;8AL ;8HL 2> 2@5<O >1540, 420 O?>=A:8E <0;LG8:0, =5 C<52H8E 3>2>@8BL ?>-0=3;89A:8: >=8 CG8;8AL 83@0BL 2 159A1>;, ?;020BL 8 ;070BL ?> A:0;0< A 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 <0;LG8H:0<8, 3>2>@82H8<8 =0 B@5BL5< O7K:5, =0 0<5@8:0=A:>< A;5=35. "5< =5 <5=55 >=8 ?>4@C68;8AL A 4@C38<8 45BL<8, <K A 65=>9 AB0@0;8AL ?>A5I0BL 8E 2 2KE>4=K5 4=8 :0: <>6=> G0I5. %84M>, ;N182H89 E>@>H> ?>5ABL, 1K; 2 2>AB>@35 >B 1>;LH8E ?>@F89, >B A0<KE @07=>>1@07=KE A>@B>2 <>@>65=>3>, 1>;LH8E :CA:>2 4K=8 8 D@C:B>2>3> A>:0. 0A0> =5 >G5=L =@028;>AL 2 ;035@5, =>, :>340 ?@8H;> 2@5<O 5E0BL BC40 =0 A;54CNI55 ;5B>, >= >G5=L @20;AO BC40, 0 :>340 53> ?@8H;>AL 701@0BL 87 ;035@O, 1K; @0AAB@>5=. 5B8 CG8;8AL =57028A8<>AB8 8 0<5@8:0=A:><C >1@07C 687=8.  2A5 MB> H;> 8< =0 ?>;L7C. =8 2845;8 @07=8FC <564C 0<5@8:0=F0<8 8 O?>=F0<8 8 =0CG8;8AL 3>@48BLAO A2>59 AB@0=>9 8 A2>8< D;03><. =8 ?>=O;8, :0: ?@5:@0A=> :064>5 CB@> ?5BL =0F8>=0;L=K9 0<5@8:0=A:89 38<= 8 ?>4=8<0BL D;03. >74=55, :>340 <K ?>AB@>8;8 2 ">:8> =>2K9 4><, <K CAB0=>28;8 D;03HB>:, 8 :064>5 CB@>, 4> B5E ?>@ ?>:0 <0;LG8:8 =5 C5E0;8 2=>2L CG8BLAO 70 3@0=8FC, >=8 ?>4=8<0;8 O?>=A:89 D;03. 0 2A5E 702>40E =0H59 :><?0=88 «!>=8» A53>4=O 28A8B O?>=A:89 D;03, D;03 «!>=8» 8 D;03 AB@0=K ?@51K20=8O.  :>=F5 :>=F>2 <K, :0: >;8<?89A:85 A?>@BA<5=K, 2 :>=:@5B=>9 D>@<5 ?@54AB02;O5< /?>=8N 8 4>;6=K 3>@48BLAO A2>8< =0F8>=0;L=K< D;03><. 0>:> 2 B>B 3>4 1K;0 A;8H:>< <0;0, GB>1K >B?@02;OBL 55 2 ;035@L, ?>MB><C <K ?><5AB8;8 55 2 4=52=>9 3>@>4A:>9 ;035@L 882C4. =0 1KAB@> ?@82K:;0 : =>2>9 687=8, A 040?B82=>ABLN, A2>9AB25==>9 <0;5=L:8< 45BO<. >A;5 3>40 CG51K 2 ?5@2>< :;0AA5 2 LN->@:5 >=0, :070;>AL 1K, 1K;0 ?>43>B>2;5=0 : 687=8 2 ;5B=5< ;035@5 8, =0A;CH02H8AL @0AA:07>2 1@0BL52 > ;035@5 «8=>=0», B>65 B0: AG8B0;0. >340 <K =0 A;54CNI89 3>4 2?5@2K5 ?@85E0;8 : =59 ?>A;5 42CE=545;L=>3> A@>:0, >=0 ?>25;0 =0A : >75@C 8 A0<0 :0B0;0 =0A =0 ;>4:5, 3>@4OAL A2>8<8 CA?5E0<8 2 3@51;5. >74=55 O A?@>A8; 55, :0: >=0 A51O B0< GC2AB2>20;0. =0 ?@87=0;0AL, GB> =>G0<8, :>340 2K:;NG0;8 A25B, 59 1K;> >G5=L >48=>:> 8 >=0 ?;0:0;0. 'B>1K CA?>:>8BLAO, >=0 706830;0 ?>4 >45O;>< :0@<0==K9 D>=0@8:. -B0 8AB>@8O A D>=0@8:>< >1JOA=8;0 <0;5=L:CN B09=C 8AG57=>25=8O 55 :0@<0==KE 45=53. =0 B@0B8;0 2A5 45=L38, :>B>@K5 <K 59 4020;8, =0 10B0@59:8 4;O D>=0@8:0, :>B>@K5 >=0 ?>:C?0;0 2 ;035@=>< <03078=5. >A;5 ?5@2>3> ;5B0 2 ;035@5 <0;LG8:8 25@=C;8AL 87 M=0 ?>A25652H8<8 8 >:@5?H8<8. 5@2>5, GB> >=8 70<5B8;8 2 LN->@:5 8 GB> 8< =5 ?>=@028;>AL, 1K; 70?0E 2KE;>?=KE 307>2 8 A<>3 =04 3>@>4><. >340 =0G0;8AL 70=OB8O 2 H:>;5, CG0I85AO «!59=B-5@=0@40» 2=0G0;5 A<>B@5;8 =0 =0H8E @51OB A ;N1>?KBAB2><. < 1K;> B@C4=> ?@>87=>A8BL 8E 8<5=0. %84M> 2A?><8=05B, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> >4=>:;0AA=8:>2 =07K20;8 53> «%0948». >74=55 2 H:>;5-8=B5@=0B5 2 =3;88 45B8 =07K20;8 53> 6>, GB> 1K;> A>:@0I5=85< >B 8<5=8 ">47Q, 548=AB25==>3> O?>=A:>3> 8<5=8, :>B>@>5, ?>-2848<><C, A;KH0;8 53> B>20@8I8. 0A0> @0AA:07K20;, :0: BO65;> 5<C 1K;> A 53> >3@0=8G5==K< 70?0A>< 0=3;89A:8E A;>2 ?>=8<0BL, GB> ?@>8AE>48;> =0 C@>:0E D@0=FC7A:>3> O7K:0. = CG8; 0=3;89A:89 :0: 2B>@>9 O7K:, 0 B5?5@L 5<C ?@8E>48;>AL CG8BL B@5B89 O7K:, 8A?>;L7CO ?@8 MB>< 2B>@>9, :>B>@K9 >= B>;L:> =0G8=0; ?>=8<0BL. >A8:> 3>2>@8;0 ?>-0=3;89A:8 C60A=>, => B5< =5 <5=55 >=0 @5H8;0 3>2>@8BL ?>-0=3;89A:8, 0 B0:65 CG8BL O7K: 8 A;CH0BL 0=3;89A:CN @5GL, 8 >=0 1KAB@> ?@8>1@5;0 ?>4@C3. >340 O 1K; 2 >BJ5745 8 :>340 >=0 1K;0 =5 >G5=L 703@C65=0 45;0<8 :><?0=88, >=0 2<5AB5 A <0;LG8:0<8 >B?@02;O;0AL :0B0BLAO =0 ;K60E 2 3>@K 0BA:8;; 8;8 : =0H8< 4@C7LO<, 682CI8< 2 ?@83>@>40E LN->@:0. > 2KE>4=K< 4=O<, :>340 O 1K; 2 LN->@:5, <K 8=>340 5748;8 =0 ?8:=8:8, ?@8G5< >A8:> 2>48;0 <0H8=C, 0 O, @0AAB5;82 :0@BC =0 :>;5=OE, 2K?>;=O; @>;L HBC@<0=0. =0 1KAB@> =0CG8;0AL E>@>H> ?@8=8<0BL 3>AB59, 4020BL >154K 8 :>:B59;8, 8<5O B>;L:> >4=C ?><>I=8FC-O?>=:C, A;C60=:C, :>B>@CN <K ?@8257;8 A A>1>9. > 2@5<O =0H53> ?@51K20=8O 2 LN->@:5 <K ?@8=O;8 2 =0H59 :20@B8@5 1>;55 G5BK@5EA>B G5;>25:, 8 >A8:> B0: ?@5CA?5;0 2 MB><, GB>, :>340 <K 25@=C;8AL 2 /?>=8N, =0?8A0;0 :=83C ?>4 703>;>2:>< «>8 <KA;8 > ?@85<5 3>AB59», :>B>@0O A@07C 65 AB0;0 15ABA5;;5@><. /?>=FK, ?@8=8<0NI85 8=>AB@0==KE 3>AB59 8;8 ?>A5I0NI85 8=>AB@0=F52, 4> A8E ?>@ ?>;L7CNBAO 5N 2 :0G5AB25 A?@02>G=8:0 =0 MBC B5<C.  /?>=88 8 A53>4=O 5I5 =5 ?@8=OB> ?@8=8<0BL 3>AB59 4><0, E>BO B5, :><C 4>25;>AL 68BL 70 3@0=8F59 8;8 C :>3> 4><0 ;CGH5, G5< 2 A@54=5< ?> AB@0=5, B5?5@L G0I5 ?@83;0H0NB 8=>AB@0=F52. >A8:> A=0G0;0 ?@8E>48;>AL B@C4=>, ?>B><C GB> 55 G0AB> ?@83;0H0;8 =0 >D8F80;L=K5 702B@0:8 65=K 0<5@8:0=A:8E 187=5A<5=>2.  2 B5 2@5<5=0 C =0A 2 LN->@:5 1K; 2A53> >48= ?5@52>4G8:, <C6G8=0, 8 >A8:> AG8B0;0 =5C4>1=K< 2>78BL 53> 70 A>1>9 =0 702B@0:8 4;O 40<. @><5 B>3>, 2 /?>=88 <C6LO =8:>340 =5 15@CB A A>1>9 65= =0 ?8:=8:8, :>B>@K5 CAB@0820NBAO 4;O 45;LF>2, 0 2 4@C38E A;CG0OE, :>340 A>18@0NBAO 425 ?0@K 8;8 1>;LH5, <C6LO 8 65=K A84OB 2<5AB5. 0 0?045, :>=5G=>, ?@8=OB>, GB>1K E>7O8= A060; ?>G5B=CN 3>ABLN @O4>< A A>1>9, 70G0ABCN 40;5:> >B 55 <C60, ?>MB><C >A8:> 459AB28B5;L=> 1K;> =5>1E>48<> =0CG8BLAO 3>2>@8BL.  A2>59 :=835 >A8:> ?8H5B > B><, :0: ?@8>1>4@8;> 55, O?>=:C, :>B>@0O =5 <>3;0 153;> 3>2>@8BL ?>-0=3;89A:8, :>340 =0 25G5@8=:0E 2 LN->@:5 >=0 ?>7=0:><8;0AL A D@0=FC65=:0<8 8 8A?0=:0<8, 3>2>@82H8<8 ?>-0=3;89A:8 =5 ;CGH5 55.  A2>59 :=835 >=0 40;0 <=>65AB2> ?@0:B8G5A:8E A>25B>2. "0:, =0?@8<5@, >=0 ?@54C?@56405B O?>=A:8E 65=I8= =5 =>A8BL =5 : <5ABC :8<>=>: «@85<K =04> CAB@0820BL B0:, GB>1K 3>AB8 E>@>H> ?@>2>48;8 2@5<O 8 ?>;CG0;8 C4>2>;LAB285 >B 54K 8 @073>2>@>2 <564C A>1>9. >340 2A5 >45BK ?@8<5@=> >48=0:>2>, MB> A?>A>1AB2C5B 30@<>=88. A;8 E>BO 1K >48= G5;>25: 1C45B >45B A;8H:>< @>A:>H=>, 2A5 >AB0;L=K5 ?>GC2AB2CNB A51O =5;>2:>, 8 ?@85< ;8H8BAO 65;0==>9 B5?;>BK». =0 =0CG8;0AL M;530=B=> 8 ?@>AB> ?@8=8<0BL 3>AB59, 0 B0:65 A>74020BL B0:CN >1AB0=>2:C, 2 :>B>@>9 >=8 GC2AB2>20;8 A51O A2>1>4=>. I5 2 /?>=88 >=0 ?>=O;0, GB> =5:>B>@K5 8=>AB@0==K5 3>AB8 >?0A0;8AL, GB> 8E AB0=CB C3>I0BL O?>=A:8<8 1;N40<8 A ?0;>G:0<8 4;O 54K, E>BO C =0A 1K; A>2@5<5==K9 4>< 2 70?04=>< AB8;5. A;8 : =0< ?@8E>48;8 B0:85 3>AB8, >=0 70@0=55 >B:@K20;0 425@8 AB>;>2>9, :>340 =0< 5I5 ?>4020;8 :>:B59;8, A B5< GB>1K 3>AB8 <>3;8 2845BL AB>;, =0:@KBK9 A5@51@O=K<8 ?@81>@0<8, :0: =0 0?045. =0 25;0 A?8A:8 ;N459, ?>A5I02H8E =0H 4><, 8 70?8AK20;0, GB> 8< =@028BAO. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 55 70?8AOE 1K;> >B<5G5=>, GB> 10@8B>=C 8B@8EC $8H5@-8A:0C 87 $  =@028BAO ?@>AB>5 60@5=>5 <OA>; <0BL ?80=8AB0 =4@55 #>BB0 =5 ;N18B @K1K, 0 48@865@ 5>=0@4 5@=AB09= ?@54?>G8B05B ACA8 8 A0A8<8. 5 ?@5:@0A=K5 <0=5@K =@028;8AL 0<5@8:0=F0<, A :>B>@K<8 >=0 7=0:><8;0AL, 8 ?>@>9 ?@82>48;8 2 70<5H0B5;LAB2> O?>=F52, :0: 8 <5=O A0<>3>, ?>A:>;L:C O B8?8G=K9 O?>=5F. 4=064K 2 LN->@:5 <>9 4@C3 <>45;L5@ AA59 8O:M @0AA:070; <=5, :0: >= 1K; >15A?>:>5= B5<, GB> >A8:> 8 090=0 @8;M=4, 1K2H0O 53> ?@8OB5;L=8F59, «AB@0H=> ?>AA>@8;8AL». @0240, >G5=L A:>@> 090=0 ?>72>=8;0 8 ?>?@>A8;0 : B5;5D>=C >A8, :0: 2A5 55 =07K20;8. 'B> 70 AA>@0? 0 =8:0:>9 AA>@K =5 1K;>, ?@>AB> A?>@, 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==K9 4;O 68B5;59 0?040, => 1>;LH8=AB2> O?>=F52 AB0@0NBAO MB>3> 871530BL. 0 O?>=A:>< O7K:5 >G5=L B@C4=> A?>@8BL, 87-70 53> AB@C:BC@K 8 E0@0:B5@0 8 2 A8;C B>3>, GB> MB>B O7K: =5 4>?CA:05B @57:8E 2K@065=89 8 =5=02O7G82> 70AB02;O5B 20A 1KBL 256;82K<, 5A;8 B>;L:> 2K =0<5@5==> =5 E>B8B5 1KBL 3@C1K<. >;LH8=AB2> O?>=F52, AB02 A2845B5;O<8 :0:>3>-;81> A?>@0 =0 0?045, >1KG=> =5045:20B=> @5038@CNB =0 =53>. >A8:> 2A5340 8=B5@5A>20;0AL <>40<8 8 A ?><>ILN ?>4@C3 8 4@C759, :>B>@KE >=0 7025;0 2 LN->@:5, >=0 =0G0;0 8=D>@<8@>20BL O?>=F52 > =>28=:0E <>4K. A?>;L7CO =0H ?>A;54=89 2845><03=8B>D>= «.<0B8:», >=0 1@0;0 8=B5@2LN C B0:8E 8725AB=KE <>45;L5@>2, :0: 8;; ;0A, A:0@ 45 ;0 5=B0, ?>:>9=K9 5@@8 -;;8A 8 4@C385, 8 70?8AK20;0 =0 2845>?;5=:C 8E <>45;8. >340 <K 25@=C;8 2 /?>=8N, >=0 ?@8<5@=> 2 B5G5=85 45AOB8 ;5B 1K;0 254CI59 B5;52878>==>9 ?@>3@0<<K > <>40E, ?>A5I0;0 F5=B@K <>4K 70 @C156>< 8 ?@82>78;0 4><>9 70?8A8 A 8=B5@2LN, 0 B0:65 ?@>?030=48@>20;0 =>2K5 8458 2 /?>=88, :>B>@0O B>340 A8;L=> >BAB020;0 ?> G0AB8 <>4K 8 =5 O2;O5BAO ;845@>< 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 4065 A53>4=O. %>BO <K ?;0=8@>20;8 ?@>68BL 2 LN->@:5 420 3>40, A@>: =0H53> ?@51K20=8O ?@8H;>AL @57:> A>:@0B8BL 87-70 2=570?=>9 A<5@B8 <>53> >BF0. >A;5 2>9=K >= >A2>1>48; <5=O >B >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 A5<59=>5 45;>, => O >AB020;AO AB0@H8< AK=><. "5?5@L 65 O AB0; 3;02>9 A5<59AB20 >@8B0 8 E>7O8=>< 2A53> 53> 8<CI5AB20, 8 ?>MB><C O 4>;65= 1K; 25@=CBLAO 2 ">:8>. / BCB 65 C5E0; 87 LN->@:0, 0 >A8:> 2 B5G5=85 4=O >A2>1>48;0 =0HC :20@B8@C, ?><G0;0AL 2 ;035@L «8=5=0», ?@8257;0 45B59 2 LN->@:, 70:>=G8;0 2A5 45;0, >B?@028;0 10306 8 G5@57 =545;N 1K;0 2 /?>=88. 5B8 =5 E>B5;8 C5760BL 87 ;035@O 8 87 !(. =8 3>2>@8;8, GB> 8< ?>=@028;AO ;035@L, 8 >=8 AB0;8 GC2AB2>20BL A51O B0< :0: 4><0. 5@=C2H8AL =0 @>48=C, 45B8 ?@>4>;68;8 A2>N CG51C. >74=55 <K =0H;8 4;O =8E H:>;K 70 @C156><, %84M> 8 0A0> C5E0;8 2 =3;8N, 0>:>  2 (259F0@8N. !<5@BL >4=>3> 87 @>4=KE 2A5340 70AB02;O5B 704C<0BLAO > 687=8 8 > 1C4CI5< A5<L8. A;8 8<5BL 2 284C <>8E 45B59, B> O 1K; C25@5= 2 B><, GB> =>2>9 ?>A;52>5==>9 A8AB5<5 >1@07>20=8O 2 /?>=88 =5 E20B0;> 48AF8?;8=K. #G8B5;O, 70 =51>;LH8< 8A:;NG5=85<, =5 8<5;8 B>3> GC2AB20 A>1AB25==>3> 4>AB>8=AB20, :>B>@>5 C =8E :>340-B> 1K;>, 8 1K;8 ;8H5=K B>3> AB0BCA0, :>B>@K9 >=8 4>;6=K 8<5BL 2 >1I5AB25. 5OB5;L=>ABL ;52>3> ?@>DA>N70 CG8B5;59 8 402;5=85 A> AB>@>=K >@30=870F88 «"» ?@825;8 : A=865=8N :0G5AB20 >1@07>20=8O, 8 CG510 4;O A40G8 M:70<5=>2 ?@52@0B8;0AL 2 G8ABCN 7C1@56:C. >340 O CG8;AO 2 A@54=59 H:>;5, 48AF8?;8=0 1K;0 >G5=L AB@>3>9. -B> :0A0;>AL =5 B>;L:> @0728B8O =0H8E C<AB25==KE A?>A>1=>AB59, => 8 D878G5A:>9 ?>43>B>2:8.  =0H8E :;0AA0E 78<>9 1K;> >G5=L E>;>4=>.  ?><5I5=88 =5 1K;> 4065 10B0@58, 8 =0< =5 @07@5H0;>AL =>A8BL 4>?>;=8B5;L=CN >4564C. > 2@5<O A;C61K 2> D;>B5 2>5==0O ?>43>B>2:0 1K;0 8A:;NG8B5;L=> BO65;>9. / ?@>25; 2 CG51=>< ;035@5 2A53> G5BK@5 <5AOF0, => :064>5 CB@> <K 4>;6=K 1K;8 ?@>1530BL 4> 702B@0:0 1>;LH85 48AB0=F88. ">340 O =5 AG8B0; A51O D878G5A:8 A8;L=K<, 8 2A5 65 ?@8 AB>;L AC@>2KE B@5=8@>2:0E O ?>=O;, GB> =5 B0: C6 A;01, 0 >ICI5=85 A>1AB25==KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 ?@84020;> <=5 C25@5==>ABL 2 A515, :>B>@>9 C <5=O ?@5645 =5 1K;>. "> 65 A0<>5 <>6=> A:070BL > 48AF8?;8=5 C<0. A;8 20A =5 1C4CB 70AB02;OBL 4C<0BL, 20H C< AB0=5B ?@074=K<, 8 2K =8:>340 =5 @50;87C5B5 70;>65==KE 2 20A ?>B5=F80;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59. K20O G0AB> 70 3@0=8F59, O AB0; OA=> ?>=8<0BL, GB> 2 =3;88 5I5 ?@>4>;60NB ACI5AB2>20BL B0:85 B@048F8>==K5 H:>;K.  1>;LH8=AB25 0<5@8:0=A:8E H:>;, A <>59 B>G:8 7@5=8O, 1K;0 H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=0 87;8H=OO 2A54>72>;5==>ABL. =5 ;8G=> >G5=L B@C4=> 4020;AO 0=3;89A:89 O7K:. > O 7=0;, GB> 2 1C4CI5<, ?> <5@5 B>3> :0: A0<>;5BK AB0=CB ;5B0BL 2A5 1KAB@55 8 A@54AB20 A2O78 1C4CB A>25@H5=AB2>20BLAO, @07<5@K =0H53> <8@0 :0: 1K C<5=LH0BAO. >MB><C O E>B5;, GB>1K 2A5 <>8 45B8 3>2>@8;8 ?>-0=3;89A:8 8 =0CG8;8AL @01>B0BL, A>1;N40O AB@>3CN A0<>48AF8?;8=C. / 704C<K20;AO =04 MB8< A> 2@5<5=8 <>59 ?5@2>9 ?>574:8 2 !( 8 2@>?C, :>B>@CN ?@54?@8=O; >48==04F0BL ;5B =0704. >340 O C5760; 87 !( 2 2@>?C, O =5 @5H0;AO 3>2>@8BL ?>-0=3;89A:8. 4=0:> ?@85E02 =0 :>=B8=5=B, O >1=0@C68;, GB> <=>385 ?@857602H85 87 <5@8:8 8 4@C38E AB@0= =5 7=0NB O7K:>2 B5E 52@>?59A:8E AB@0=, :>B>@K5 >=8 ?>A5I0NB, 8 MB> ?@840;> <=5 A<5;>AB8 3>2>@8BL ?>-0=3;89A:8. / 2AB@5G0; 2 ?>5740E <=>38E ;N459, :>B>@K5 =5 7=0;8 =8 >4=>3> 87 <5AB=KE O7K:>2 8;8 7=0;8 8E 5I5 EC65, G5< O 0=3;89A:89.  O ?>=O;, GB> =5C<5=85, A:065<, 153;> 3>2>@8BL ?>-=5<5F:8 >1J548=O5B =0A 2A5E. B0:, O =0G0; 8A?>;L7>20BL 7=0=8O 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0, ?>;CG5==K5 2 H:>;5, 8 B5 =5<=>385 =5<5F:85 8 D@0=FC7A:85 A;>20, :>B>@K5 O 7=0;. =5 AB0;> OA=>, GB> <>3C >1I0BLAO. 0:-B> ?0AA068@K, 5E02H85 2 >4=>< 203>=5, >1=0@C68;8, GB> C =8E C 2A5E >4=8 8 B5 65 ?@>1;5<K. @0240, =0H8< >1I8< O7K:>< 1K; 0=3;89A:89, 8 E>BO <>8 7=0=8O O7K:0 1K;8 M;5<5=B0@=K<8, MB>3> 1K;> 2?>;=5 4>AB0B>G=>, GB>1K <5=O ?>=8<0;8. >340 O ?>A;5 ?>574:8 2 2@>?C 25@=C;AO 2 LN->@:, O, : 2A5>1I5<C C482;5=8N, 703>2>@8; ?>-0=3;89A:8. >9 4@C3 !84> /<040, 1K2H89 <>8< ?5@52>4G8:><, >G5=L 87C<8;AO, :>340 O ?5@54 >BJ574>< 2 2@>?C 70:;NG0; A45;:C > ?>:C?:5 ;8F5=788 =0 B@0=78AB>@K. > >BJ5740 87 !( O 3>2>@8; A =8< 8 2> 2@5<O 2A5E ?5@53>2>@>2 B>;L:> ?>-O?>=A:8.  B5?5@L 2A53> G5@57 <5AOF O 3>2>@8; ?>-0=3;89A:8! = :0:>5-B> 2@5<O AG8B0;, GB> 2 B5G5=85 <5AOF0, :>340 O =0E>48;AO 2 =50=3;>O7KG=KE AB@0=0E 2@>?K, O CG8; 0=3;89A:89 O7K:. 0 A0<>< 65 45;5, 3>2>@8; O 5<C, 2A5 45;> 1K;> ;8HL 2 ?@8>1@5B5=88 4>AB0B>G=>9 C25@5==>AB8, 8 B0:CN C25@5==>ABL 40;0 <=5 ?>574:0 2 2@>?C. >340 O 8A:0; H:>;C 4;O 45B59, <=>385 87 <>8E 0=3;89A:8E 4@C759 @5:><5=4>20;8 <=5 ?>43>B>28B5;L=CN H:>;C ?@8 B;0=B8G5A:>< :>;;5465, 8 O @5H8; ?>A;0BL BC40 AB0@H53> AK=0 %84M>. 7 MB>3>, ?@0240, =8G53> =5 2KH;>, ?>B><C GB> >= C65 1K; =0 3>4 AB0@H5 CG5=8:>2 ?>43>B>28B5;L=>9 H:>;K. > 2>72@0I5=88 45B59 4><>9 87 <5@8:8 <K @5H8;8 >B40BL 8E 2 O?>=A:CN H:>;C =0 :;0AA =865, GB>1K 1KBL C25@5==K<8 2 B><, GB> >=8 CA2>8;8 2A5 >A=>2=K5 ?@54<5BK, O?>=A:89 O7K:, 8AB>@8N /?>=88 8 B. 4. K A 65=>9 ?>B@0B8;8 2 =3;88 =5<0;> 2@5<5=8 =0 ?>8A:8 H:>;K 4;O %84M>, :>B>@K9 CG8;AO B>340 2> 2B>@>< :;0AA5. >A8:> ?@52@0B8;0 MB> 2 F5;CN =0C:C, @07J5760O ?> 2A59 =3;88 A> A2>59 ?>4@C3>9, 65=>9 >4=>3> 87 =0H8E C?@02;ONI8E, ?@>68202H53> 2 >=4>=5, 84>@8 0<8:8, :>B>@0O >4=> 2@5<O 1K;0 2 /?>=88 8725AB=>9 0:B@8A>9 B5;52845=8O, :>340 1K;0 ?5@2>9 254CI59 45BA:>9 ?@>3@0<<K, ?@54AB02;O2H59 >A>1K9 O?>=A:89 20@80=B ?5@540G8 «5BA:0O :><=0B0». (0102=>, GB> 8<5==> 84>@8 8 55 <C6 0A0 0<8:8 A>?@>2>640;8 =0A 2> 2@5<O ?>8A:>2 H:>;K 2 =3;88. 5;> 2 B><, GB>, :>340 <K A>74020;8 F25B=>9 B5;5287>@ «%@><0B@>=», «5BA:0O :><=0B0» 1K;0 548=AB25==>9 4=52=>9 ?@>3@0<<>9 O?>=A:>3> B5;52845=8O, :>B>@0O ?5@54020;0AL 2 F25B5. '5< 1K <K 2 B5 4=8 =8 70=8<0;8AL, AB>8;> :><C-=81C4L :@8:=CBL «5AOBL G0A>2!», :0: 2A5 1@>A0;8AL 2 ;01>@0B>@8N, GB>1K ?>A<>B@5BL, :0: @01>B0NB =0H8 >?KB=K5 B5;5287>@K. >;CG8BL ?>-=0AB>OI5<C 5AB5AB25==K9 F25B, >A>15==> F25B ;8F0, 1K;> >G5=L 206=>, 8 ?>MB><C O @0AA<0B@820N F25B0 A 1>;LH>9 BI0B5;L=>ABLN. / 87CG8; ;8F> 3>A?>68 0<8:8 4> <5;LG09H8E 45B0;59 8 3>2>@8; 2 HCB:C 55 <C6C, GB>, 25@>OB=>, @0AA<0B@820; 55 1>;55 2=8<0B5;L=>, G5< >= A0<, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05, :>340 >=0 2KABC?0;0 ?> B5;52845=8N.) C<0N, GB> >A8:> 8 84>@8 ?>1K20;8 =5 2 >4=>< 45AOB:5 H:>;-?0=A8>=>2 2 =3;88, ?@5645 G5< =0H;8 B>, GB> 8A:0;8, 42CE;5B=NN H:>;C-8=B5@=0B, 2 :>B>@>9 CG8;8AL 2A53> ?OBL45AOB 45B59. %84M> 3>2>@8;, GB> B0< >G5=L B@C4=> CG8BLAO, => >= ?>AB0@0;AO 8 =0 2B>@>9 3>4 AB0; ?5@2K< CG5=8:><. = A40; M:70<5= =0 0BB5AB0B «» (A2845B5;LAB2> >1 >1I5< >1@07>20=88 «>1KG=>3> C@>2=O») 8 =0 0BB5AB0B «» (A2845B5;LAB2> >1 >1I5< >1@07>20=88 «?>2KH5==>3> C@>2=O») 8 1K; ?@8=OB 2 420 0=3;89A:8E C=825@A8B5B0. > ?>A:>;L:C >= 1K; A;01 ?> B0:8< ?@54<5B0<, :0: 52@>?59A:0O 8AB>@8O 8 ;8B5@0BC@0, 53> ?@8=O;8 B>;L:> =0 D0:C;LB5BK 5AB5AB25==KE =0C:, 0 >= =5 E>B5; CG8BLAO B0<. «/ =5 E>GC :>=:C@8@>20BL A >BF><», A:070; >=. 3> 1>;LH5 8=B5@5A>20;0 M:>=><8:0. 0A0> 2 HCB:C 3>2>@8B, GB> 53> 2K=C48;8 ?>9B8 2 B;0=B8G5A:89 :>;;546. 8@5:B>@ :>;;5460 04<8@0; %>;; =0E>48;AO 2 /?>=88 A 2878B><, 8 53> =0?@028;8 :> <=5, B0: :0: 5<C =C6=K 1K;8 :@548BK. !;CG8;>AL B0:, GB> 0A0> 2 B>B 45=L =5 CG8;AO 8 ?@8H5; :> <=5 2 :018=5B, :>340 B0< =0E>48;AO 04<8@0; %>;;. «/ ?>?0; 2 ;>2CH:C», 3>2>@8B B5?5@L 0A0>. 4<8@0; %>;; BCB 65 ?>15A54>20; A =8<, ?@>M:70<5=>20; 53> 8 ?@8=O; 2 0=3;89A:89 :>;;546. B;0=B8G5A:89 :>;;546  8=B5@5A=>5 <5AB>. = @0A?>;>65= 2 =51>;LH>< 8<5=88 2 !5=B->=0B5 =0 N35 3@0DAB20 ;0<>@30=H8@, #M;LA, ?@8<5@=> 2 ?OB845AOB8 <8;OE >B 0@48DD0, 2 70<:5, =0AG8BK20NI5< AB> B@84F0BL ?OBL :><=0B. = 1K; ?>AB@>5= 2 XI 25:5, 8 53> 2;045;LFK ?>AB>O==> @0AH8@O;8 53>. <5@8:0=A:89 3075B=K9 <03=0B #8;LO< M=4>;LD %5@AB, :C?82 MB>B 70<>: ?@8<5@=> 2 1934 3>4C, ?>AB@>8; B5==8A=K5 :>@BK 8 1>;LH>9 ?;020B5;L=K9 10AA59=. 8=>0:B@8A0 M@8>= 528A, ;N1>2=8F0 %5@AB0, >4=064K @0AA:070;0, GB> :>340 >=0 A #. ., B0: >=0 53> =07K20;0, ?@85760;0 BC40 2 >48= 87 A2>8E @54:8E 2878B>2, >:>;> A>@>:0 CM;LA:8E ?528F 2 2KA>:8E H5;:>2KE H;O?0E 8 :@C652=KE ?;0BLOE 2KAB@0820;8AL 24>;L 4>@>6:8 8 ?@825BAB2>20;8 8E ?5A=O<8.  1938 3>4C %5@AB >1JO28; > ?@>4065 70<:0, => 0=3;89A:0O 0@<8O @5:2878@>20;0 53> 2> 2@5<O 2>9=K 4;O ?>43>B>2:8 >D8F5@>2.  1960 3>4C 70<>: :C?8; 1>30BK9 <5F5=0B 8 ?>40@8; 53> H:>;5. 0A0> ?@>25; B0< 420 3>40, >:>=G8; :>;;546 8 1K; ?@8=OB 2 6>@46B0C=A:89 C=825@A8B5B 2 0H8=3B>=5. %84M> 25@=C;AO 2 :>;;546 2 /?>=8N. 5:>B>@>5 2@5<O O ?>4C<K20; > B><, GB>1K 7025AB8 @0=G> 2 @078;88, 8 %84M> ?@>O28; 8=B5@5A : B><C, GB>1K C?@02;OBL 8<. >MB><C >= ?5@5H5; 2 0;8D>@=89A:89 C=825@A8B5B 2 M28A5, 345 >= 420 3>40 87CG0; M:>=><8:C A5;LA:>3> E>7O9AB20, ?>A;5 G53> 25@=C;AO 2 /?>=8N 8 >:>=G8; C=825@A8B5B A8O. @0240, O B0: 8 =5 :C?8; @0=G>. # 0>:> ?CBL >1@07>20=8O >:070;AO A;>6=55, G5< C <0;LG8:>2. =0G0;5 >=0 70O28;0, GB> =5 E>G5B CG8BLAO 2 :>;;5465, 2 G5< G0AB8G=> 1K;0 <>O 28=0, ?>B><C GB> O =0?8A0; :=83C ?>4 =0720=85< «5 >1@0I09B5 2=8<0=8O =0 H:>;L=K5 >B<5B:8», A2>53> @>40 B@0:B0B ?@>B82 B>3> G@57<5@=>3> 7=0G5=8O, :>B>@>5 2 45;>2>< <8@5 /?>=88 ?@8405BAO A2O7O<, ?>;CG5==K< 2 :>;;5465.  A2>59 :><?0=88 O ?@>2>48; ?>;8B8:C, =0?@02;5==CN =0 83=>@8@>20=85 H:>;L=KE >B<5B>: ?@8 ?@85<5 =0 @01>BC: > G5;>25:5 A;54C5B AC48BL =5 ?> 53> >B<5B:0< 8 CG51=><C 702545=8N, :>B>@>5 >= >:>=G8;, 0 ?> ?@>O2;5==K< A?>A>1=>ABO< 8 CA?5E0< 8;8 ?> 53> ?>B5=F80;L=K< 2>7<>6=>ABO<. -B> >1JOA=O;>AL B5<, GB> 2 /?>=88 A;8H:>< 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 ?@8405BAO A0<><C =0720=8N C=825@A8B5B0, 2 :>B>@>< ?>;CG5=> >1@07>20=85. 0>:> 87CG0;0 2 H:>;5 D@0=FC7A:89 O7K:, 0 ?>B>< <K =0H;8 4;O =55 H:>;C 2 >70==5, 2 (259F0@88, 345 >=0 4>;6=0 1K;0 CG8BLAO 2 ?>A;54=8E :;0AA0E. %>BO >=0 >G5=L E>@>H> CG8;0AL (>=0 B0:65 ?>;CG8;0 ?@87 :0: ?@5:@0A=0O 2>;591>;8AB:0 8 10A:5B1>;8AB:0), >=0 ?>=8<0;0, GB> D@0=FC7A:89 O7K:, =0 :>B>@>< 3>2>@OB H259F0@FK, MB> =5 G8ABK9 ?0@86A:89 480;5:B, =0 :>B>@>< >=0 E>B5;0 =0CG8BLAO 3>2>@8BL. 0< ?@8H;>AL ?>A;0BL 55 2 0@86, 345 >=0 ?@>1K;0 3>4 8 ?@8>1@5;0 65;05<>5 ?@>87=>H5=85. !;54CNI8< 55 O7K:>< AB0; 0=3;89A:89, ?>MB><C >=0 >B?@028;0AL 2 0H8=3B>= 8 ?>ABC?8;0 =0 O7K:>2K5 :C@AK 2 6>@46B0C=5, 345 2 B> 2@5<O CG8;AO 0A0>. >74=55 >=0 87CG0;0 8A:CAAB2> <>45;8@>20=8O 2 >A-=465;5A5 8 25@=C;0AL 4><>9 =0AB>OI59 :>A<>?>;8B:>9. >340 0>:> C5760;0, >=0 1K;0 >G5=L @>1:>9 452>G:>9, 0 25@=C;0AL 687=5@04>AB=>9, 25A5;>9 8 C25@5==>9 2 A515. =0 8 55 <C6, 8=65=5@ >B45;0 A1KB0 :><?0=88 «8>B> A5@0<8:A» («8>A5@0»), =5402=> 1K;8 ?5@52545=K 87 0;8D>@=88 2 ">:8>. =5 B>65 <=>3>5 40; >?KB CG51K <>8E 45B59. @5645 2A53> O ?@8H5; : 2K2>4C > B><, GB> :>=B0:BK A 4@C38<8 :C;LBC@0<8 ?>:07K20NB >AB@>28BO=8=C-O?>=FC, GB> >=, O?>=5F, =0E>48BAO =0 75<;5 2 <5=LH8=AB25. = CG8BAO =5 B>;L:> F5=8BL A2>8 E0@0:B5@=K5 G5@BK O?>=F0, => 8 ?>=8<0BL, GB> 8<5==> 5<C A;54C5B ?@8A?>A01;820BLAO : >AB0;L=><C <8@C, 0 =5 <8@ 4>;65= ?@8A?>A01;820BLAO : =5<C. >A8:> 3>2>@8B, GB> >4=C 87 206=KE 25I59 =5>1E>48<> ?>=OBL 8 CA2>8BL: «8=>AB@0=FK» =5 >48=0:>2K, >=8 ?>445@6820NB @07=K5 8458, 8A?>254CNB @07=K5 @5;8388, C =8E @07=>5 ?@>H;>5. "0:8< >1@07><, =0H0 ?>574:0 70 3@0=8FC 871028;0 A5<59AB2> >@8B0 >B ?@54@0AAC4:>2, 8 <K ?@5:@0A=> A51O GC2AB2C5< 2 ;N1>9 G0AB8 <8@0, E>BO =0H =0AB>OI89 4><  /?>=8O.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" > " # ! !  . / =018@0NAL >?KB0.  V >;LH5 2A53> ?>574>: ?@8E>48BAO C <5=O =0 A5@548=C H5AB845AOBKE 3>4>2. K 2 «!>=8» 2>2AN 70=O;8AL 2845>A8AB5<0<8 5I5 4> B>3>, :0: O ?>A5;8;AO 2 !(. K C65 3>40 420 =>A8;8AL A 84559 ?@>872>4AB20 1KB>2KE 2845><03=8B>D>=>2 8 @01>B0;8 =04 8E ?@>5:B0<8. "5;5287>@K, ?>:0 5I5 G5@=>-15;K5, ?>2AN4C ?>;L7>20;8AL 1>;LH8< A?@>A><, 8 <K AB0@0;8AL <0:A8<0;L=> C25;8G8BL 8E ?@>406C. ><?0=8O «<?5:A» 2 <5@8:5 45;0;0 1>;LH85 2845><03=8B>D>=K 4;O B5;5ABC489, 8 <K A 1C:>9 704C<0;8AL =04 B5<, GB>, =025@=>5, ;N48 E>B5;8 1K 8<5BL C A51O 4><0 4;O ;8G=>3> ?>;L7>20=8O =5 B>;L:> ?@>ABK5 <03=8B>D>=K, => 8 2845><03=8B>D>=K. 0H5 ?@54?>;>65=85 ?>445@60;8 =5:>B>@K5 25AL<0 ?@>3@5AA82=K5 <>;>4K5 A>B@C4=8:8 8 7=0:><K5. 4=8< 87 =8E 1K; >@8> E30. = CG8;AO 2 ">:89A:>< C=825@A8B5B5 8A:CAAB2 =0 2>:0;L=>< >B45;5=88, :>340 2 1950 3>4C C2845; =0H ?5@2K9 0C48><03=8B>D>=. A5 MB8 3>4K O =5 C?CA:0; 53> 87 284C, ?>B><C GB> >= A<5;> @0A:@8B8:>20; =0H ?5@2K9 <03=8B>D>=. C4CG8 O@K< ?>1>@=8:>< <03=8B>D>=>2, >= :@09=5 AB@>3> >B=>A8;AO : =8<, ?>A:>;L:C AG8B0;, GB> =0H ?5@2K9 0??0@0B 1K; =54>AB0B>G=> E>@>H. = >1@0B8; =0H5 2=8<0=85 =0 A;8H:>< A8;L=CN 281@0F8N. , @07C<55BAO, 1K; ?@02: =0H8 ?5@2K5 <03=8B>D>=K 1K;8 4>2>;L=> ?@8<8B82=K<8. K ?@83;0A8;8 53> 2 :0G5AB25 HB0B=>3> :@8B8:0, :>340 >= 5I5 CG8;AO 2 H:>;5. E30 ?@54JO2;O; >G5=L 2KA>:85 B@51>20=8O. = 3>2>@8; B>340: «0;5@8=5, GB>1K A>25@H5=AB2>20BL A2>9 AB8;L, A2>N B5E=8:C, =C6=> 75@:0;>. 52F0< =C6=> B> 65 A0<>5  72C:>2>5 75@:0;>». (E30 B5?5@L ?@57845=B «!>=8».) 45O 75@:0;0 1K;0 >G5=L C40G=>9. 4=> 75@:0;>, >1KG=K9 <03=8B>D>=, C =0A C65 1K;>, 0 A45;02 2845><03=8B>D>=, <K ?>;CG8;8 1K 1>;55 A>25@H5==>5 75@:0;>, G5< 0C48>-<03=8B>D>=, 5A;8 B>;L:> =0< C40ABAO MB> A45;0BL. 5@2K5 2845><03=8B>D>=K D8@<K «<?5:A» 4;O @048>- 8 B5;5AB0=F89 1K;8 >3@><=K<8, >=8 70?>;=O;8 A>1>9 ?>GB8 2AN :><=0BC 8 AB>8;8 1>;55 AB0 BKAOG 4>;;0@>2.  =8E 8A?>;L7>20;0AL 42CE4N9<>20O ;5=B0 =0 :0BCH:0E, 8 >=8 459AB28B5;L=> 1K;8 25AL<0 3@><>74:8<8. 0< =04> 1K;> A?@>5:B8@>20BL =51>;LHCN A8AB5<C, :>B>@CN <>6=> 1K;> 1K CAB0=>28BL 4><0, 8 <K 7=0;8, GB> 4;O MB>3> ?>B@51C5BAO <=>3> 2@5<5=8. K @07@01>B0;8 =5A:>;L:> <>45;59, ?@8G5< :0640O =>20O <>45;L 1K;0 <5=LH5 ?@54K4CI59. 0G0;> 1K;> ?>;>65=> A 42CE4N9<>2>9 ;5=BK =0 :0BCH5G=KE <03=8B>D>=0E, :>B>@K5 <K 2 =0G0;5 H5AB845AOBKE 3>4>2 CAB0=02;820;8 =0 A0<>;5B0E «0= <5@8:M=» 8 «<5@8:M= M9@;09=7» 4;O @072;5G5=8O ?0AA068@>2. 0B5< <K C<5=LH8;8 H8@8=C ;5=BK 4> B@5E G5B25@B59 4N9<0 8 A45;0;8 :0AA5BK 4;O ;5=BK, ?>E>685 =0 :0AA5BK =0 >1KG=KE <03=8B>D>=0E, => 3>@074> 1>;LH5. K =0720;8 MB>B 2845><03=8B>D>= «.-<0B8:», 8 A B5E ?>@, :0: <K 2 1969 3>4C 2K?CAB8;8 53> =0 @K=>:, >= AB0; AB0=40@B>< 4;O 2A53> <8@0, 70<5=82 >3@><=K5 42CE4N9<>2K5 <03=8B>D>=K =0 @048>-8 B5;5AB0=F8OE. «.-<0B8:» =0H5; ?@8<5=5=85 8 2 ?@><KH;5==>AB8. ><?0=8O «$>@4 <>B>@» 70:C?8;0 ?OBL BKAOG «.-<0B8:>2» 4;O >1CG5=8O <5E0=8:>2 8 ?@>402F>2. "KAOG8 B0:8E 2845><03=8B>D>=>2 1K;8 8A?>;L7>20=K 2 4@C38E :><?0=8OE 4;O >1CG5=8O B5E=8:>2 8 ?@>402F>2. !53>4=O 8E 2A5 5I5 ?@>872>4OB, ?@>40NB 8 8A?>;L7CNB 2> 2A5< <8@5. -B> A0<0O ?>?C;O@=0O =0 B5;52845=88 A8AB5<0 B0:>3> @>40. 0A 4065 =5A:>;L:> C4828;>, A :0:>9 A:>@>ABLN =0H8 2845><03=8B>D>==K5 :0<5@K 8 A8AB5<K «.-<0B8:» 2KB5A=8;8 =0 @048>- 8 B5;5AB0=F8OE H5AB=04F0B8<8;;8<5B@>2K5 ;5=BK. -B8 <03=8B>D>=K 1K;8 25AL<0 ?@0:B8G=K<8. 0==>5 >1AB>OB5;LAB2> A45;0;> 2>7<>6=K< A1>@ 8=D>@<0F88 A ?><>ILN M;5:B@>=8:8. 845>:0<5@K =525;8:8 8 ;53:8 2 >1@0I5=88: 2845>;5=B0 8A:;NG05B ?>B5@8 2@5<5=8 =0 >1@01>B:C ?;5=:8 <564C AJ5<:>9 8 ?@>A<>B@><. B?040NB B0:65 1>;LH85 @0AE>4K =0 AB@>8B5;LAB2> 8 M:A?;C0B0F8N ;01>@0B>@89 4;O >1@01>B:8 ?;5=:8. > 1C:0 1K; =54>2>;5=. "0:>9 2845><03=8B>D>=, CB25@640; >=, =8:>340 =5 AB0=5B 4><0H=8<, ?>B><C GB> >= 2A5 5I5 4>@>3 8 >G5=L 25;8:. A?>;L7>202 ?>;C4N9<>2CN ;5=BC, <K A>740;8 ?5@2K9 2 <8@5 2845><03=8B>D>= =0 B@0=78AB>@0E 4;O 1KB>2>3> ?@8<5=5=8O 8 ?@>4>;60;8 2K?CA:0BL =>2K5 <>45;8, => 1C:5 2A53> MB>3> 1K;> =54>AB0B>G=>. <C E>B5;>AL 8<5BL 459AB28B5;L=> ?>@B0B82=K9 0??0@0B A >G5=L C4>1=>9 :0AA5B>9. 4=064K >= ?@8H5; =0 @01>BC ?>A;5 ?>574:8 2 !( 8 A>720; 2AN 3@C??C ?> @07@01>B:5 2845><03=8B>D>=>2. = ?>4G5@:=C;, GB> 4><0H=89 2845><03=8B>D>=  MB> A0<K9 206=K9 87 =0H8E ?@>5:B>2 8 GB> A0<>5 3;02=>5  53> 3010@8BK. 1C:0 70AC=C; @C:C 2 :0@<0=, 2KB0I8; >BBC40 :0@<0==CN :=86:C, :>B>@CN >= :C?8; 2 =LN-9>@:A:>< 0M@>?>@BC, 8 ?>;>68; 55 =0 AB>;. «>B :0:>3> @07<5@0 4>;6=0 1KBL :0AA5B0, A:070; >=. -B> 20H0 7040G0. / E>GC, GB>1K =0 :0AA5B5 B0:>3> @07<5@0 <>6=> 1K;> 70?8A0BL ?> <5=LH59 <5@5 G0A>2CN ?@>3@0<<C». K?>;=5=85 MB>9 7040G8 ?@825;> : A>740=8N >@838=0;L=>9 A8AB5<K «5-B0<0:A».  B5;52845=88 3;02=>5  F25B. # =0A =0:>?8;AO 1>;LH>9 >?KB A G5@=>-15;K<8 B5;5287>@0<8. 'B> :0A05BAO F25B=KE B5;5287>@>2, B> >=8 1K;8 4;O =0A A>25@H5==> =>2K< 45;><.  =0G0;5 H5AB845AOBKE 3>4>2 2 >1;0AB8 F25B=>3> B5;52845=8O 25;8AL 1>;LH85 @01>BK, 8 E>BO F25B=>9 :8=5A:>? A B5=52>9 <0A:>9 D8@<K « M948> :>@-?>@59H= >D <5@8:0» (« ») AB0; AB0=40@B><, ?@8=OBK< $545@0;L=>9 :><8AA859 ?> A2O78 ($!), 1C:0 AG8B0;, GB> <K 4>;6=K A0<8 70=>2> 87>1@5AB8 F25B=>9 B5;5287>@. > F25B=K< B5;5287>@0< <K >BAB020;8 >B <=>38E =0H8E :>=:C@5=B>2, 8 <K E>B5;8 A45;0BL GB>-B> =>2>5 8 ;CGH55. 1C:0 E>B5; 87CG8BL B5;52878>==>5 45;> A A0<KE >A=>2=KE ?@8=F8?>2. 0< =5 =@028;0AL =8 A8AB5<0 2@0I0NI53>AO D8;LB@0 !8-18-MA, =8 :8=5A:>? A B5=52>9 <0A:>9 D8@<K . !CI5AB2>20;0 5I5 >4=0 A8AB5<0, 87>1@5B5==0O ?@>D5AA>@>< 0;8D>@=89A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 -@=5AB>< . >C@5=A><, :>B>@0O :070;0AL 8=B5@5A=>9. >C@5=A  MB> B>B D878:, :>B>@K9 87>1@5; F8:;>B@>=. 3> F25B=>9 :8=5A:>?, ?>;CG82H89 =0720=85 «%@><0B@>=», ACI5AB25==> >B;8G0;AO >B 4@C38E <>45;59. -B0 845O 1K;0 >G5=L 8=B5@5A=>9 2 B5E=8G5A:>< >B=>H5=88, E>BO 8 A;>6=>9, 8, :>340 MB0 A8AB5<0 1K;0 A>>B25BAB2CNI8< >1@07>< 4>@01>B0=0, >=0 >:070;0AL 25AL<0 MDD5:B82=>9. K A45;0;8 2K1>@ 2 55 ?>;L7C 4>2>;L=> 402=>, :C?82 2 1962 3>4C ;8F5=78N C «0@0<0C=B ?8:-G5@A», :>B>@>9 ?@8=04;560; MB>B ?0B5=B, E>BO <K 7=0;8, GB> 8745@6:8, A2O70==K5 A ?@>872>4AB2>< :8=5A:>?0, 1C4CB 2KA>:8<8 8 GB> 2>7=8:=5B <=>3> B5E=8G5A:8E ?@>1;5<. K >4=8 2K?CAB8;8 B@8=04F0BL BKAOG «E@><0B@>=>2». A5 >=8 1K;8 ?@>40=K 2 /?>=88 5I5 4> B>3>, :0: 8E A=O;8 A ?@>872>4AB20. "5< 2@5<5=5< <K @07@010BK20;8 =0H A>1AB25==K9 :8=5A:>?  =0H0 =>20O 845O, :>B>@K9 =0720;8 «"@8=8B@>=><». 0H8 :>=:C@5=BK 8A?>;L7>20;8 A8AB5<C, 2 :>B>@>9 B@8 >B45;L=> 27OBK5 M;5:B@>==K5 ?CH:8, CAB0=>2;5==K5 =0 704=59 ?0=5;8 :8=5A:>?0, ?5@54020;8 B5;52878>==>5 87>1@065=85 2 D>@<5 @O40 :@0A=KE, 75;5=KE 8 A8=8E M;5:B@>==KE ;CG59, AD>:CA8@>20==KE A ?><>ILN ;8=7 =0 B5=52>9 <0A:5  ?;0AB8=5 A> <=>38<8 >B25@AB8O<8, @07<5I5==>9 70 M:@0=>< :8=5A:>?0. -;5:B@>==K5 ;CG8 =C6=> 1K;> AD>:CA8@>20BL =0 >B25@AB8OE 2 70I8B=>< M:@0=5. =8 4>;6=K 1K;8 ?>?0ABL =0 M:@0= :8=5A:>?0, =0 :>B>@>< A>74020;>AL 87>1@065=85 ?CB5< 0:B82870F88 ;N<8=>D>@0 =0 2=CB@5==59 AB>@>=5 M:@0=0. !8AB5<0 «%@><0B@>=», 2 :>B>@>9 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 B@5E M;5:B@>==KE ;CG59 8A?>;L7>20;0AL >4=0 ?CH:0 2<5AB> B@5E, 8 A8AB5<0 B>=:8E ?@>2>4>2 2<5AB> B5=52>9 <0A:8 ?>72>;O;8 C25;8G8BL :>;8G5AB2> M;5:B@>==KE ;CG59, 4>AB830NI8E M:@0=0 :8=5A:>?0, 345 2<5AB> B>G5: 8A?>;L7>20;8AL ;N<8=>D>@=K5 ?>;>AK. -B0 A8AB5<0 4020;0 1>;55 O@:>5 87>1@065=85, G5< ;N10O 4@C30O. KA>:>5 =0?@O65=85 ?>405BAO =0 MBC A8AB5<C B>=:8E ?@>2>4>2. '5@57 =55 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO B0:65 ?5@5:;NG5=85 :0=0;>2.  A2O78 A MB8< C =0A A A0<>3> =0G0;0 2>7=8:;8 B@C4=>AB8 A >15A?5G5=85< =0456=>9 @01>BK A8AB5<K. KB0OAL :0: A;54C5B >B@01>B0BL 55, <K ?@>4>;60;8 «:>;4>20BL» =04 =0H59 =>2>9 A8AB5<>9. # 1C:8 =8:>340 =5 1K;> 65;0=8O @50;87>2K20BL :0:>9-B> 4@C3>9 ?@>5:B. 065 B>340, :>340 <K 4>2>48;8 «%@><0B@>=» 4> =C6=>9 :>=48F88, >= 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O =0E>48;AO 2 ;01>@0B>@88, @01>B0O 1>: > 1>: A 8=65=5@0<8 =04 «%@><0B@>=><», 0 B0:65 =04 =>2>9 A8AB5<>9, :>B>@CN <K =0<5@520;8AL A>740BL. K 87<5=8;8 B@5E?CH5G=CN A8AB5<C «5;LB0», >1J548=82 B@8 ?CH:8 2 >4=C, 8A?CA:02HCN B@8 M;5:B@>==KE ;CG0, :0: 2 :8=5A:>?5 «%@><0B@>=»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«"@8=8B@>=K». >=5G=>, >=8 1K;8 4>@>38<8. 0H0 ?>;8B8:0 A>AB>O;0 :0: @07 2 B><, GB>1K ?>;CG0BL 068> (;06) 70 =0H8 B>20@K. 0 5653>4=>< A>1@0=88 « » ?@57845=BC >15@BC !0@=>DDC 7040;8 2>?@>A > =0H59 =>2>9 :>=:C@8@CNI59 <>45;8 :8=5A:>?0. = >B25B8;, GB> B>;L:> A8AB5<0 <0A>G=>3> M:@0=0 « » «2K45@60;0 @5H0NI55 8A?KB0=85, >:0702H8AL ?@83>4=>9 : <0AA>2><C ?@>872>4AB2C =0 M:>=><8G5A:>9 >A=>25». >340 <5=O A?@>A8;8 >1 MB8E :><<5=B0@8OE, O =5 <>3 A45@60BL C;K1:8. «-B> =>@<0;L=0O A8BC0F8O, A:070; O :>@@5A?>=45=BC 6C@=0;0  87=5A C8: . =8 A<5O;8AL, :>340 <K B>;L:> ?@8ABC?0;8 : ?@>872>4AB2C :0: B@0=78AB>@=>3> @048>?@85<=8:0, B0: 8 ?>@B0B82=>3> B5;5287>@0».  >1;0AB8 ?>@B0B82=KE F25B=KE B5;5287>@>2 C =0A =5 1K;> :>=:C@5=F88.  B> 2@5<O 4204F0B8B@5E4N9<>2K9 G5@=>-15;K9 B5;5287>@, CAB0=02;8202H89AO 2 !( 2 1>;LH8E :018=5B0E, AB>8; 400 4>;;0@>2, B> 5ABL AB>;L:>, A:>;L:> <K 1@0;8 70 =0H =51>;LH>9 F25B=>9 B5;5287>@. ">340 O ?@54A:07K20;, GB> : :>=FC 3>40, 0 H5; 1968 3>4, 45AOBL <8;;8>=>2 0<5@8:0=A:8E A5<59 1C4CB 8<5BL F25B=K5 B5;5287>@K, ?@8G5< 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E 1C45B AB>OBL 2 3>AB8=KE. / 1K; C15645=, 8 :0: >:070;>AL  A ?>;=K< >A=>20=85<, GB> ;N48 70E>BOB 8<5BL 8=48284C0;L=K9 B5;5287>@, :>B>@K9 >=8 A<>3CB ?5@5=>A8BL 2 :CE=N 8;8 A?0;L=N, 0 2 4=52=>5 2@5<O 4065 1@0BL 53> A A>1>9, 2KE>4O 87 4><0. 'B>1K B5;5287>@ <>6=> 1K;> 2K=5AB8 2> 2=CB@5==89 42>@8: 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 4><0 2> 2@5<O ?@85<0 =0 >B:@KB>< 2>74CE5 8;8 >B4KE0 2 30<0:5 A ?@>A<>B@>< B5;5?5@540G, >= 4>;65= 1KBL ?>@B0B82=K< 8 8<5BL O@:>5 87>1@065=85. 0< C40;>AL 4>AB8GL 8 B>3> 8 4@C3>3>. 0H0 AB@0B538O ?@>872>4AB20 =51>;LH8E F25B=KE B5;5287>@>2 =5 1K;0 =>2>9. 5@2K5 B@0=78AB>@=K5 G5@=>-15;K5 B5;5287>@K, A45;0==K5 =0<8 2 1959 3>4C, ?> <=5=8N <=>38E, H;8 2@07@57 A @K=>G=>9 B5=45=F859 2 ?>;L7C 1>;LH8E B5;5287>@>2. ! =0G0;>< ?@>872>4AB20 8=B53@0;L=KE AE5< 4;O =0H59 ?@>4C:F88 <K 2K?CAB8;8 <8=80BN@=K9 @048>?@85<=8: 25A>< 2 B@8 C=F88, :>B>@K9 <>6=> 1K;> ?>425A8BL : F5?>G:5 4;O :;NG59. K 4065 <>=B8@>20;8 ?@85<=8:8 2 G0AK. 4=0:> MB> 45;0;>AL B>;L:> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?>:070BL, GB> B0:>5 2>>1I5 2>7<>6=>. , @07C<55BAO, =>20O B5E=>;>38O 4;O B5;5287>@>2 ?>72>;O5B =0< B5?5@L 873>B>2;OBL B5;5287>@K, :>B>@K5 <>6=> 70AC=CBL 2 :0@<0=. 'B> 65 :0A05BAO =0H8E CA8;89 2 @01>B5 =04 ?@>5:B>< =0H53> A>1AB25==>3> F25B=>3> B5;5287>@0, B> <K 1K;8 >G5=L @04K, :>340 0F8>=0;L=0O 0:045<8O B5;52845=8O =03@048;0 D8@<C «!>=8» 2 1972 3>4C 70 A>740=85 «"@8=8B@>=0» ?@5<859 «-<<8». ?5@2K5 ?@5<8O «-<<8» 2K4020;0AL 70 3>B>2K9 ?@>4C:B.  1976 3>4C «!>=8» ?>;CG8;0 2B>@CN ?@5<8N «-<<8», 70 2845><03=8B>D>= «.-<0B8:».  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm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c , O CA;KH0; 70 >:=>< 2>9 ?>60@=KE <0H8=. / 2K3;O=C; 87 >:=0 8 C2845;, GB> 87 =0H53> ?>420;0 20;8B 4K<. "CB O AE20B8; :0<5@C 8 70A=O;, :0: ?@81K20;8 ?>60@=K5. 0B5< BCB 65 ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20; 70A=OBK5 :04@K :>@@5A?>=45=BC. -B> 1K;0 <>O A0<0O C1548B5;L=0O 45<>=AB@0F8O B>20@0.) >74=55 <K AB0;8 ?@>4020BL A?5F80;L=CN <>45;L :0;L:C;OB>@0 «!!», ?@54AB02;ONICN A>1>9 B@0=78AB>@=K5 AG5BK. > 2A:>@5 O C7=0;, GB> 2 ?@>872>4AB2> :0;L:C;OB>@>2 2:;NG8;>AL =5A:>;L:> 45AOB:>2 O?>=A:8E :><?0=89. / ?>=8<0;, GB> 2 @57C;LB0B5 65AB>:>9 2>9=K F5= @0=> 8;8 ?>74=> =0ABC?8B @07>@5=85. "0:>20 B5=45=F8O =0 O?>=A:>< @K=:5, 8 8<5==> MB>3> <K 2A5340 AB@5<8;8AL 871530BL. >340 AB0;> OA=>, GB> 4@C385 =0G8=0NB >?0A=> A=860BL F5=K, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL 4>;N =0 @K=:5, <K >B:070;8AL >B ?@>872>4AB20 :0;L:C;OB>@>2. >8 ?@>3=>7K >:070;8AL 25@=K<8. 4=8 ?@>872>48B5;8 :0;L:C;OB>@>2 >10=:@>B8;8AL, 0 4@C385 1K;8 2KB5A=5=K A @K=:0 8 ?>=5A;8 1>;LH85 C1KB:8. !53>4=O ACI5AB2CNB B>;L:> B@8 :@C?=KE ?@>872>48B5;O :0;L:C;OB>@>2, GB> ?>4B25@6405B ?@028;L=>ABL <>53> @5H5=8O.  >1;0AB8 ?@85<=8:>2, B5;5287>@>2 8 2845>0??0@0BC@K 5I5 ACI5AB2>20;> <=>65AB2> =5 @5H5==KE =0<8 7040G. <5;0AL >?0A=>ABL, GB> =0< 1@>AOB 2K7>2 :>=:C@5=BK. >MB><C <K 2A5340 8A:0;8 =>2K5 ?CB8 ?@8<5=5=8O =0H59 B5E=8:8. >, ?> @07<KH;5=88, O 4>;65= 745AL A:070BL, GB> O, ?>-2848<><C, G5@5AGC@ ?>A?5H=> ?@8=O; @5H5=85 >B:070BLAO >B ?@>872>4AB20 :0;L:C;OB>@>2. !53>4=O O <>3C ?@87=0BLAO, GB> MB>, ?> <>5<C <=5=8N, A2845B5;LAB2>20;> > =5E20B:5 C <5=O B5E=8G5A:>3> ?@542845=8O, B> 5ABL 8<5==> B>3>, GB>, :0: <=5 :065BAO, O2;O5BAO A59G0A =0H59 A8;L=>9 AB>@>=>9. A;8 1K <K =5 CH;8 87 MB>9 >1;0AB8, <K, 2>7<>6=>, @0=LH5 ?@8>1@5;8 1K >?KB 2 F8D@>2>9 B5E=>;>388 4;O 40;L=59H53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2 ?5@A>=0;L=KE :><?LNB5@0E, 0 B0:65 2 72C:>-2845>70?8AK20NI59 0??0@0BC@5 8 <>3;8 1K >?5@548BL A2>8E :>=:C@5=B>2. > B0: ?>;CG8;>AL, GB> <K ?@8>1@5;8 MBC B5E=>;>38N ?>765, E>BO :>340-B> C =0A 1K;0 A>740=0 1070 4;O =55 2 =0H59 65 :><?0=88. "0:8< >1@07><, A 45;>2>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O <K ?>ABC?8;8 2 B>B <><5=B ?@028;L=>. @0240, 5A;8 3>2>@8BL > 4>;3>A@>G=>9 ?5@A?5:B825, <K 4>?CAB8;8 >H81:C.  AG0ABLN, O ?@8=O; =5 A;8H:>< <=>3> AB>;L >H81>G=KE, =540;L=>284=KE @5H5=89.  1964 3>4C =0H8 45;0 H;8 =0AB>;L:> E>@>H>, GB> =0< ?@8H;>AL >B:@KBL =>2K9 702>4 ?> A1>@:5 B5;5287>@>2, GB>1K C4>2;5B2>@8BL A?@>A =0 F25B=K5 B5;5287>@K, ?>B><C GB> 2 B>B 3>4 2 /?>=88 4>;6=K 1K;8 A>AB>OBLAO ;5B=85 ;8<?89A:85 83@K. 070;>AL, GB> :0640O A5<LO 2 AB@0=5 E>B5;0 :C?8BL F25B=>9 B5;5287>@, GB>1K A<>B@5BL 70 8E E>4><. 0 =5A:>;L:> ;5B 4> MB>3> ?5@540G0 ?> B5;52845=8N A204L1K =0A;54=>3> ?@8=F0 :8E8B> 8 ?@8=F5AAK 8B8:> AB8<C;8@>20;0 ?@>406C G5@=>-15;KE B5;5287>@>2.  A0<>< 45;5, M=BC7807<, 2K720==K9 ;8<?89A:8<8 83@0<8, ?>AB028; ?5@54 2A59 AB@0=>9 A2>53> @>40 548=CN >1I5=0F8>=0;L=CN F5;L. ;8<?89A:85 83@K ?>4AB53=C;8 AB@0=C, ?>1C482 55 ?@>8725AB8 <=>65AB2> 206=KE 8 =C6=KE 87<5=5=89. 5>1E>48<>ABL 2 A:>@>AB=KE <038AB@0;OE 2 ">:8> 8 2 ?>5740E-@0:5B0E =07@5;0 704>;3> 4> ?@8=OB8O @5H5=89 > ?@>2545=88 2 /?>=88 ;8<?89A:8E 83@. >340 65 /?>=8O ?>40;0 70O2:C =0 ?@>2545=85 MB8E 83@ 8 1K;0 C4>AB>5=0 B0:>9 G5AB8, AB0;> OA=>, GB> 4>@>6=0O A8AB5<0 =5 A?@028BAO A @0ABCI8< B@0=A?>@B=K< 42865=85<, 0 4;O /?>=88 1K;> 1K A;8H:>< C=878B5;L=K< B5@?5BL =0 B5;52878>==KE M:@0=0E 2> 2A5< <8@5 7@5;8I0 ;535=40@=KE 4>@>6=KE ?@>1>: /?>=88, :>B>@K5 BO=C;8AL ?> 3>@>4A:8< C;8F0< =0 <=>385 <8;8 8 >B :>B>@KE ?>@>9 =5 C4020;>AL 871028BLAO =0 ?@>BO65=88 G0A>2. !8AB5<0 A:>@>AB=KE 02B><>18;L=KE 4>@>3 1K;0 ?>AB@>5=0 2 @5:>@4=K5 A@>:8. 0H8 ?;0=>28:8 B0:65 ?>;030;8, GB> A@548 <=>65AB20 BC@8AB>2, :>B>@K5 ?@854CB =0 ;8<?89A:85 83@K 8;8 ?>A;5 =8E, BKAOG8 ;N459 ?>A5BOB AB@0=C 2?5@2K5 8 70E>BOB ?>A<>B@5BL 4@52=NN AB>;8FC 8>B>, :><<5@G5A:89 F5=3@ A0:8 8 4@C385 3>@>40 2 @09>=5 "8E>>:50=A:>3> :>@84>@0 =0 70?04 >B ">:8> 4> %8@>A8<K, 0 B0:65 N6=K9 >AB@>2 NAN. -B8 BC@8ABK A>7404CB G@57<5@=CN =03@C7:C 4;O ACI5AB2CNI59 65;57=>4>@>6=>9 A5B8, :>B>@0O B0: 8;8 8=0G5 =C6405BAO 2 @5:>=AB@C:F88. >MB><C A ?><>ILN =>259H59 B5E=>;>388 1K;0 A>740=0 >A=0I5==0O :><?LNB5@0<8, 2KA>:>A:>@>AB=0O 65;57=>4>@>6=0O A8AB5<0, ?>;CG82H0O =0720=85 «!8=:0=AM=». !53>4=O MB8 B0: =07K205<K5 ?>5740-@0:5BK CE>4OB A ">:89A:>3> 2>:70;0 :064K5 4204F0BL <8=CB. >AB8 2A5 5I5 ?@>4>;60NB 2>AE8I0BLAO ?;02=K< E>4>< ?>574>2, :>B>@K5 =5ACBAO A> A:>@>ABLN 155 <8;L 2 G0A, E>BO MB0 A8AB5<0 =0E>48BAO 2 M:A?;C0B0F88 C65 1>;55 4204F0B8 ;5B. K;8 >B:@KBK =>2K5 ;8=88, A2O7K20NI85 ">:8> A A525@=K<8 @09>=0<8 AB@0=K, 254CBAO @01>BK =04 A;54CNI8< ?>:>;5=85< 2KA>:>A:>@>AB=KE ?>574>2, ?>574>2 =0 <03=8B=>9 ?>425A:5 A ;8=59=K< 42830B5;5<, :>B>@K5 1C4CB E>48BL A> A:>@>ABLN, 2 420 @070 ?@52KH0NI59 A:>@>ABL ?>574>2-@0:5B, 8 7=0G8B5;L=> 1KAB@55 D@0=FC7A:8E 2KA>:>A:>@>AB=KE ?>574>2. @><5 B>3>, 2 E>45 MB>9 ?@54>;8<?89A:>9 :0<?0=88 1K; B0:65 <>45@=878@>20= 8 @0AH8@5= B>:89A:89 0M@>?>@B %0=M40, ?>AB@>5=K =>2K5 >B5;8, 1K;8 ?@>2545=K @01>BK ?> 1;03>CAB@>9AB2C 3>@>40, <=>385 G0AB=K5 ;8F0 8 :><?0=88 @07@010BK20;8 ?@>5:BK 8 A>74020;8 =>2K5 B>20@K, ?@54=07=0G5==K5 4;O ;8<?89A:8E 83@. ;0AB8 ?>=O;8, GB> HC< =0 C;8F0E >B 3C4:>2 02B><>18;59 8 3@C7>28:>2 ?@54AB02;O5B A5@L57=CN ?@>1;5<C, A>740202HCN B@C4=>AB8 8 4;O /?>=88, 8 ?>MB><C >=8 8A?>;L7>20;8 MBC >1I5=0F8>=0;L=CN :0<?0=8N ?5@5<5= 8 C;CGH5=89 :0: H0=A =025AB8 2 3>@>45 B8H8=C, 70?@5B82 =5=C6=K5 02B><>18;L=K5 3C4:8. "0:0O :0<?0=8O 70 <>45@=870F8N, A2O70==0O A :0:8<-B> >1I5=0F8>=0;L=K< A>1KB85<, =5 @54:>ABL 2 /?>=88. > >=0 40;0 8A:;NG8B5;L=> E>@>H85 @57C;LB0BK.  1972 3>4C, :>340 2 3>@>45 !0??>@> =0 >AB@>25 %>::094> ?@>2>48;8AL 78<=85 ;8<?89A:85 83@K, MB>B 3>@>4 >ACI5AB28; AB>;L 65 H8@>:CN ?@>3@0<<C <>45@=870F88, 2:;NG02HCN AB@>8B5;LAB2> ?5@2>9 ;8=88 <5B@>. >AB8, ?>1K202H85 2 MB>< 3>@>45 2 E>45 78<=8E 83@, 2>AE8I0;8AL ?@>8AH54H8<8 ?5@5<5=0<8. <5AB5 A <>45@=870F859 2 MB>< 3>@>45, :>B>@K9 2ABC?8; 2 A>2@5<5==CN M@C, >AB0282 ?>7048 A2>5 ?@>28=F80;L=>5 ?@>H;>5, 2K@>A;> GC2AB2> 3@0640=A:>9 3>@4>AB8. 8B5;8 !0??>@> B>65 AB0;8 1>;55 A>2@5<5==K<8, 0 8E 273;O4K =0 A2>N AB@0=C 8 <8@ AB0;8 1>;55 H8@>:8<8. 'B> :0A05BAO <5=O, B> ?>AB>O==K5 ?>574:8 70 @C156 2 :>=F5 H5AB845AOBKE 3>4>2, 0 B0:65 ?>A5I5=85 =0H59 @0ABCI59 A5B8 ?@>872>4AB25==KE 8 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:8E ?@54?@8OB89 2 /?>=88 ?@8>1@5B0;8 2A5 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85. 070;>AL, GB> 2 ACB:0E A;8H:>< <0;> G0A>2, 8 ?>MB><C @5H5=85 =0H59 :><?0=88 ?@8>1@5AB8 A0<>;5B, 0 70B5< 8 25@B>;5B 1K;> 2?>;=5 ;>38G=K<. -B>  @54:>5 O2;5=85 2 /?>=88 4065 A53>4=O, ?>A:>;L:C 3@0640=A:0O 0280F8O 2 /?>=88 =0<=>3> >BAB05B >B 0<5@8:0=A:>9. > 2A:>@5 <=5 ?@54AB028;0AL 2>7<>6=>ABL @5H0BL, GB> MDD5:B82=55  5748BL =0 ?>5745 8;8 ;5B0BL. !53>4=O C <5=O 2 ">:8> 5ABL :><D>@B015;L=K9 3>;C1>9 «<5@A545A 380 !», 0 «!>=8» 8<55B 25@B>;5BK «M@>A?0ALO;L-350» 8 «M@>A?0ALO;L-355». (K O2;O5<AO B>@3>2K<8 035=B0<8 D8@<K «M@>A?0ALO;L» 2 /?>=88.) / <>3C A5ABL =0 @50:B82=K9 A0<>;5B «$0;L:>=», GB>1K ;5B5BL 2 8B09 8;8 :C40-=81C4L 5I5.  /?>=88 <K B0:65 O2;O5<AO B>@3>2K<8 035=B0<8 D8@<K «$0;L:>=». (>340 O =0E>6CAL 2 !(, O 8=>340 ;5B0N =0 A0<>;5B0E «$0;L:>=-50» 8;8 «$0;L:>=-100»). %>BO O 402=> C65 ?5@5AB0; AG8B0BL A2>8 ?5@5;5BK G5@57 "8E89 >:50=, ?@>4>;68B5;L=K5 ?>;5BK =5 B0: CB><8B5;L=K 4;O <5=O, :0: 4;O <=>38E 4@C38E. / ?@5:@0A=> A?;N 2 A0<>;5B0E, ?>@>9 O 2KAK?0NAL 2 2>74CE5 4065 ;CGH5, G5< 2 >B5;5. / 15@C A A>1>9 2 A0<>;5B =51>;LHCN :>@>1>G:C A ACA8, ?@>AB>9 <0@8=>20==K9 @8A 8 AK@CN @K1C 8 2K?820N =51>;LHCN 1CBK;:C A0:M. >B>< O 702>@0G820NAL 2 ?;54, ?@>HC ABN0@45AAC =5 1C48BL <5=O, GB>1K O ?>5; 8;8 ?>A<>B@5; :8=>, 8 BCB 65 70AK?0N, ?>GB8 :0: 4>;LD @>AA =0 A?5:B0:;5 «>O ?@5:@0A=0O ;548». / >1KG=> 2K;5B0N 87 ">:8>, :>340 =0ABC?0NB AC<5@:8 8 2 B>B 65 45=L 25G5@>< ?@81K20N 2 LN->@: (B0: ?>;CG05BAO 87-70 @07=8FK 2> 2@5<5=8, E>BO ?>;5B ?@>4>;605BAO >:>;> 425=04F0B8 G0A>2). > ?@81KB88 2 LN->@: O AB0@0NAL ?>83@0BL G0A0 ?>;B>@0 2 B5==8A, ?>B>< O A=>20 ;>6CAL A?0BL ?@8<5@=> 4> G5BK@5E G0A>2 CB@0. >A;5 MB>3> 2AB0N 8 =0G8=0N G8B0BL 45;>2K5 1C<038, GB>1K 1KBL 3>B>2K< : @01>B5, :>340 >B:@>5BAO :>=B>@0. / 2A5340 =5<=>3> AB@040N >B =0@CH5=8O @8B<0 >@30=87<0 2 A2O78 A ?5@5;5B>< G5@57 =5A:>;L:> G0A>2KE ?>OA>2, ?>MB><C O AB0@0NAL A?0BL :0: <>6=> 1>;LH5, B0: <=5 =8:>340 =5 C405BAO ?@8A?>A>18BLAO : @07=8F5 2> 2@5<5=8 4> >G5@54=>3> ?5@5;5B0. / 4C<0;, GB> <>O 45OB5;L=>ABL :0: ?@54A540B5;O AA>F80F88 M;5:B@>B5E=8G5A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 (-) /?>=88 =5A:>;L:> 70B>@<>78B <>8 ?>574:8 2 1985 3>4C, => <=5 2A5 65 C40;>AL 2B8A=CBL 2 A2>9 3@0D8: =5A:>;L:> AB@5<8B5;L=KE ?5@5;5B>2. >;5B 87 ">:8> 2 LN->@:, 2 >=4>=, 87 >=4>=0 2 >A-=465;5A, 0 ?>B>< =0 02098, 70B5< >?OBL 2 >A-=465;5A 8 2 0@86 8 >?OBL 2 ">:8>, 8 2A5 MB> <5=55, G5< 70 425 =545;8, =5 ?@54AB02;O5B 4;O <5=O =8G53> =5>1KG=>3>. "0:85 ?>574:8 A;C68;8 <=5 A?>A>1><, ?>72>;ONI8< A?@028BLAO A <>59 @01>G59 =03@C7:>9. 7-70 B>3>, GB> ?>;>28=0 =0H8E ?@54?@8OB89 =0E>48BAO 70 3@0=8F59, 0 B0:65 AB8;O @01>BK =0H59 :>@?>@0F88 :0: =>20B>@0, A>740NI53> =>2K5 B>20@K, C <5=O =5 1K;> ?@8<5@0, :>B>@><C O <>3 1K A;54>20BL, ?>MB><C <=5 ?@8H;>AL @07@01>B0BL A8AB5<C, :>B>@0O CAB@0820;0 1K <5=O 8 4020;0 2>7<>6=>ABL 68BL. "5?5@L, :>340 A8AB5<K A2O78 ?>AB>O==> A>25@H5=AB2CNBAO, <>6=> ?>445@6820BL :>=B0:BK, 345 1K 2K =8 =0E>48;8AL, 8 <5=O =07K20NB «B5;5D>==K< D0=0B8:><», ?>B><C GB> O ?@>2>6C C B5;5D>=0 >G5=L <=>3> 2@5<5=8. >A:>;L:C =0H0 :><?0=8O 8<55B D8;80;K 2> 2A5< <8@5, B> :>340 O, =0?@8<5@, =0E>6CAL 2 LN->@:5 8 ?@>AK?0NAL 2 G5BK@5 G0A0 CB@0, C @C:>2>48B5;O :0:>3>-=81C4L D8;80;0 «!>=8» @01>G89 45=L C65 2 @0730@5, 8 O 2A5340 <>3C 5<C ?>72>=8BL. /  G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 2;N1;5= 2 A2>N @01>BC. =5 =@028BAO B0:65 A?>@B. / =0G0; 70=8<0BLAO B5==8A><, :>340 <=5 1K;> ?OBL45AOB ?OBL ;5B, 8 2 H5ABL45AOB O 2AB0; =0 3>@=K5 ;K68, 0 2 H5ABL45AOB G5BK@5 A=>20 70=O;AO 2>4=K<8 ;K60<8. @0240, MB> 405B >G5=L 1>;LHCN =03@C7:C =0 154@0. / ?>GB8 A>@>: ;5B 83@0N 2 3>;LD 8 4> A8E ?>@ ?>;CG0N 1>;LH>5 C4>2>;LAB285 >B MB>9 83@K. 064K9 2B>@=8: <K ?@>2>48< CB@>< 2 ">:8> 70A540=85 8A?>;=8B5;L=>3> :><8B5B0, 8 5A;8 O =0E>6CAL 2 /?>=88, O AG8B0N =5>1E>48<K< ?@8ACBAB2>20BL =0 =5<. > 2=0G0;5  A A5<8 4> 452OB8 G0A>2 CB@0  O 83@0N =5A:>;L:> A5B>2 2 B5==8A 2 70:@KB>< 70;5 1;87 =0H59 :>=B>@K. >9 1@0B 0A00:8, O2;ONI89AO 70<5AB8B5;5< ?@57845=B0 «!>=8», B>65 ;N18B MBC 83@C. =>340 O 83@0N A =8<, :0:, 2?@>G5<, 8 A 4@C38<8 C?@02;ONI8<8 «!>=8». / ;N1;N 83@0BL 2 A?>@B82=K5 83@K A <>;>4K<8 ;N4L<8, ?>B><C GB> >=8 40NB <=5 =>2K5 8458 8 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>A<>B@5BL ?>GB8 =0 2A5 ?@>1;5<K ?>4 =>2K< C3;>< 7@5=8O. / AG8B0N, GB> >1I5=85 A M=5@38G=K<8 <>;>4K<8 ;N4L<8 ?>;57=> <=5 4;O ?>445@60=8O 1>4@>AB8 4CE0. / 70<5B8;, GB> A B5E ?>@, :0: AB0; 83@0BL 2 B5==8A, <>O @50:F8O AB0;0 1>;55 1KAB@>9. -B> <5=O @04C5B, ?>A:>;L:C 2 AB0@>AB8 @50:F8O >1KG=> 70<54;O5BAO. -B>, 2>7<>6=>, >7=0G05B, GB> @07C< B>65 >A;0155B, E>BO O =045NAL, GB> MB> =5 B0:. >340 O AB0; 83@0BL, O ?@>83@K20; >G5=L <=>3> <OG59. "5?5@L 65 O <>3C >B1820BL 1KAB@>;5BOI85 <OG8. / 70<5B8;, GB>, :>340 O =0G0; :0B0BLAO =0 ;K60E, GC2AB2> @02=>25A8O C <5=O 1K;> =54>AB0B>G=> @0728B>. !> 2@5<5=5< >=> B>65 C;CGH8;>AL. 064K9 C?@02;ONI89 4>;65= A>7=020BL =5>1E>48<>ABL M=5@38G=KE C?@06=5=89 B0:>3> @>40 4;O C:@5?;5=8O =5 B>;L:> A5@4F0, => 8 C<0, 0 B0:65 @048 GC2AB20 C25@5==>AB8 2 A2>8E A8;0E, :>B>@>5 >=8 40NB.  ?>445@6820BL GC2AB2> C25@5==>AB8 2 A2>8E A8;0E 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 206=>. >4E>4OI8< ?@8<5@>< <>65B A;C68BL ?8;>B8@>20=85. > 2@5<O >4=>3> 87 <>8E ?5@2KE ?>;5B>2 =0 25@B>;5B5 :><?0=88, O >1@0B8; 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, GB> ?8;>B 1K; AB0@H5 <5=O, 8 O ?>4C<0;, GB>, 5A;8 2> 2@5<O ?>;5B0 A =8< GB>-=81C4L A;CG8BAO, <K @07>1L5<AO. / ?>4C<0;, GB> A <>59 AB>@>=K 1C45B 3;C?> A845BL =0 704=5< :@5A;5 8 =5@2=8G0BL. >MB><C O ?>;CG8; ?@020 CG5=8:0 ?8;>B0, ?5@5A5; 2 :@5A;> 2B>@>3> ?8;>B0 8 =0 2AO:89 A;CG09 AB0; CG8BLAO 2>48BL A0<>;5B. A;8 O ;5GC A ?8;>B><, :>B>@K9 B0:65 8<55B ;8F5=78N 8=AB@C:B>@0 ?8;>B>2 25@B>;5B>2 8;8 A0<>;5B>2, O <>3C =0 70:>==KE >A=>20=8OE 1@0BL 2 @C:8 @KG038 C?@02;5=8O, =5 8<5O ?@02 ?8;>B0. >MB><C 2A5 =0H8 ;5BG8:8 O2;ONBAO 8=AB@C:B>@0<8. / ?>4B25@640N A2>8 ?@020 :064K9 3>4, =5 ?>B><C GB> O E>GC :>340-=81C4L 2>48BL 25@B>;5B, 0 ;8HL =0 B>B A;CG09, 5A;8 <=5 ?@845BAO 27OBL C?@02;5=85 =0 A51O. / =5 E>GC >:070BLAO 15A?><>I=K<. =5 ?@8OB=> 8A?KBK20BL C25@5==>ABL >B A>7=0=8O B>3>, GB> O A<>3C ?>A048BL A0<>;5B. 4=064K, :>340 O ;5B5; 87 5=52K =0 25@B>;5B5 «M@>A?0ALO;L-350», O A:070; ;5BG8:C: «-B> B0:>9 65 25@B>;5B, :0: =0H». = >B25B8;: «/ 2845; 20A =0 0M@>4@><5 2 0@865 8 @5H8;, GB> 2K =5 B>;L:> C?@02;ONI89, => 8 ;5BG8:. >60;C9AB0, 15@8B5 C?@02;5=85 2 A2>8 @C:8». / =5 E>B5; A0< >ACI5AB28BL 27;5B A 65=52A:>3> 0M@>4@><0, ?>MB><C O ?>?@>A8; 53> 27;5B5BL, 0 ?>B>< =5<=>3> A0< 25; 25@B>;5B. 5@B>;5BK <=5 =@02OBAO. 0 =8E B@C4=55 ;5B0BL, G5< =0 >1KG=KE A0<>;5B0E, A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?>445@60=8O @02=>25A8O 8 CAB>9G82>AB8, => ;5B0BL =0 =8E ?>-=0AB>OI5<C ?@8OB=>, B0: :0: 25@B>;5BK >1;040NB 1>;LH59 <0=52@5==>ABLN ?> A@02=5=8N A >1KG=K<8 A0<>;5B0<8. 064K9 45=L <>8 A5:@5B0@8 40NB <=5 @01>BC =0 4><. !> <=>9 2A5340 425 :>@>1:8 87 D81@>2>3> :0@B>=0  >4=0 G5@=0O, 4@C30O :@0A=0O.  G5@=>9 :>@>1:5 =0E>4OBAO 2A5 <5AB=K5 <0B5@80;K ?> /?>=88, :>B>@K5 O 4>;65= ?>A<>B@5BL, 0 2 :@0A=>9  <0B5@80;K 87-70 @C1560. # <5=O G5BK@5 A5:@5B0@O. 2>5 87 =8E >1@010BK20NB 8=>AB@0==K5 <0B5@80;K 8 42>5  O?>=A:85.  B5G5=85 4=O O =5 8<5N 2@5<5=8 G8B0BL :0:85-;81> 4>:C<5=BK, ?>B><C GB> <=5 ?@8E>48BAO <=>3> 3>2>@8BL ?> B5;5D>=C, ?@8=8<0BL ?>A5B8B5;59 8 ?@>2>48BL A>25I0=8O. >2>@OB, GB> ?@>2545=85 A>25I0=8O  3;02=>5 70=OB85 O?>=A:8E C?@02;ONI8E. >:C<5=BK 8 ?8AL<0 84CB 8 84CB, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, CA?520N ;8 O 8E ?@>A<0B@820BL 8;8 =5B. >MB><C ?@5645 G5< C9B8 4><>9, O 4>;65= 5654=52=> ?@>A<>B@5BL >15 MB8 :>@>1:8.  G5@=>9 <>3CB ;560BL <0B5@80;K > A>AB>O=88 45; «!>=8», >BG5BK > 55 ?@>872>4AB25 8 A1KB5, 0 B0:65 70?@>AK 8;8 65 1C<038, A2O70==K5 A <>59 @01>B>9 2 AA>F80F88 M;5:B@>B5E=8G5A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 /?>=88, A <>59 45OB5;L=>ABLN 2 M940=@M=5, =0?@8<5@ <0B5@80;K > <564C=0@>4=KE :0?8B0;>2;>65=8OE 8 > B5E=8G5A:8E :><8B5B0E, :>B>@K5 O 2>73;02;ON :0: ?@54A540B5;L.  <564C=0@>4=>9 :>@>1:5 <>3CB ;560BL ?@83;0H5=8O 2KABC?8BL 2 !( 8;8 2@>?5, 8;8 345-=81C4L 5I5, :0:0O-;81> 8=D>@<0F8O ?> B5< 8;8 8=K< ?@>1;5<0< 8;8 =>2K5 ?;0=K >B=>A8B5;L=> A1KB0 8;8 @5:;0<K, ?@5420@8B5;L=K5 A@>:8 =>2>9 ?>574:8, ?8AL<0 >B 4@C759 8 45;>2KE ?0@B=5@>2 70 @C156><. @><5 B>3>, C =0A 2 «!>=8» 5ABL >B45;, ?>;CG82H89 =0720=85 >B45;0 2=5H=8E A2O759, :>B>@K9 @01>B05B ?>GB8 8A:;NG8B5;L=> =0 <5=O.  MB>< >B45;5 C =0A @01>B0NB A?5F80;8ABK ?> :064>9 87 >1;0AB59, : :>B>@K< O 8<5N >B=>H5=85, =0?@8<5@ ?> AA>F80F88 M;5:B@>B5E=8G5A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 /?>=88, M940=@M=C, >=D5@5=F88 O?>=>-0<5@8:0=A:8E 187=5A<5=>2 8 ?> @07;8G=K< A>25B0<, 2 A>AB02 :>B>@KE O 2E>6C. 48= 87 =8E 25405B <>8<8 45;0<8 2 M940=@M=5, 4@C3>9  2 -, B@5B89  :>=B0:B0<8 A ?@028B5;LAB2><. # <5=O 5ABL B0:65 ?><>I=8:, ?><>30NI89 <=5 A>AB02;OBL @5G8, E>BO O @54:> 3>2>@N ?> 1C<06:5.  <>8E :>@>1:0E =0E>4OBAO B0:65 70?8A:8 8 70O2;5=8O <>8E A>B@C4=8:>2, 4065 3075B=K5 2K@57:8. >8 A5:@5B0@8 7=0NB, :0: A2O70BLAO A> <=>9, 2 :0:>9 1K B>G:5 <8@0 O =8 =0E>48;AO. >8 A5:@5B0@8 2 LN->@:5 8 ">:8> 2A5340 <>3CB <5=O =09B8. 4=064K O :0B0;AO =0 ;K60E 2 3>@0E 1;87 0@C84702K 2 /?>=88, 27O2 B@8 2KE>4=KE 4=O ?>4@O4. > 87 <>53> >B?CA:0 =8G53> =5 2KH;>. 0 E>;<0E 3@><:> ?@>72CG0;> <>5 8<O. (1KG=> <>8 A>B@C4=8:8 AB0@0NBAO @5H0BL ?@>1;5<K 157 <5=O. =8 ?>ABC?8;8 B0: B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> =5 <>3;8 2<5AB> <5=O 40BL >B25B.) =>340 <=5 72>=OB 87 !(, GB>1K A>>1I8BL > 2>?@>A0E, :>B>@K5 >1AC640NBAO 2 :>=3@5AA5 8 :>B>@K5 <>3CB 7045BL 8=B5@5AK «!>=8», 72>=OB B0:65 ?> ;8G=K< 2>?@>A0<. # <5=O 2 4><5 ?OBL B5;5D>=>2, 420 87 =8E 70@575@28@>20=K B>;L:> =0 <5=O. # <5=O 5ABL B0:65 >B45;L=K5 B5;5D>=K 2 <>59 :20@B8@5 =0 0209OE, 2 :20@B8@5 2 «K>78M= B0CM@» 2 LN->@:5, 0 B0:65 2 =0H5< 703>@>4=>< 4><5 =0 >75@5 A8, =540;5:> >B 3>@K $C478. >B@51=>ABL 2 A?5F80;L=KE B5;5D>=0E 2?5@2K5 2>7=8:;0, :>340 ?>4@>A;8 45B8. >?>;=8B5;L=K5 B5;5D>=K C =0A 2A5 5I5 AB>OB, ?>B><C GB> =5 40;5:> B> 2@5<O, :>340 8<8 AB0=CB ?>;L7>20BLAO =0H8 2=C:8. <5BL 420 A?5F80;L=KE B5;5D>=0 <=5 =5>1E>48<>, ?>A:>;L:C ?> >4=><C B5;5D>=C O <>3C ?>;CG8BL =C6=CN 8=D>@<0F8N, ?>:0 3>2>@N ?> 4@C3><C. / B>;L:> GB> CAB0=>28; 2B>@>9 B5;5D>= C A51O 2 <0H8=5. / B0:65 =0AB0820N =0 B><, GB>1K :064K9 C?@02;ONI89 :><?0=88, 70=O2 MB>B ?>AB, CAB0=>28; C A51O 4><0 A?5F80;L=CN ;8=8N :@C3;>ACB>G=>9 «3>@OG59 A2O78», GB>1K A =8< 2A5340 <>6=> 1K;> A2O70BLAO. %>BO O ?>AB>O==> 70=OB @01>B>9, O AB0@0NAL ?@8 :064>< C4>1=>< A;CG05 1@0BL :>@>B:89 >B?CA:. 8<>9 O :0B0NAL ?> 2KE>4=K< =0 ;K60E, 0 ;5B>< 83@0N 2 B5==8A.  =>2>3>4=85 ?@074=8:8 O >1KG=> A5<L-2>A5<L 4=59 ?@>2>6C =0 0209OE, 83@0O 2 3>;LD 8 B5==8A. K G0AB> 5748< =0 ?0AE0;L=K5 <C7K:0;L=K5 D5AB820;8 2 0;LF1C@3, 0 B0:65 =0 03=5@>2A:85 D5AB820;8 2 09@>9B. 1KG=> O 15@C 2 N=E5=5 =0?@>:0B «<5@A545A», GB>1K 4>1@0BLAO 2 MB8 3>@>40. 09@>9B =0E>48BAO ?@8<5@=> 2 155 <8;OE >B N=E5=0, 8 8=>340 65=0 A<5=O5B <5=O C @C;O. / ;N1;N 1KAB@CN 574C, E>BO =5 AG8B0N A51O ;8E0G><. 4=064K, :>340 <K A >A8:> ?@85E0;8 2 09@>9B =0 03=5@>2A:89 D5AB820;L, >?5@=K9 ?525F 5B5@ %>D<0= ?>:070; <=5 ?@54<5B A2>59 3>@4>AB8 8 @04>AB8  <>B>F8:; «%>=40». -B>9 >3@><=>9 8 <>I=>9 <0H8=K 2 /?>=88 =5B, => >=0 ?>;L7C5BAO 1>;LH8< A?@>A>< 2 $ , 345 =0 02B>10=0E =5B >3@0=8G5==>9 A:>@>AB8. = ?@54;>68; <=5 A5ABL 70 @C;L, => O >B:070;AO, A:0702, GB> ?@54?>G8B0N 5E0BL 2<5AB5 A =8<, 8 <K ?>5E0;8. @8 A:>@>AB8 140 <8;L 2 G0A <=5 GC4>< C40;>AL C45@60BLAO, E>BO O :@5?:> >1E20B8; 53> @C:0<8. -B> 1K;0 70E20BK20NI0O ?>574:0. >340 <K 25@=C;8AL 8 A;57;8 A <>B>F8:;0, >= A?@>A8; <5=O, =5 E>GC ;8 O ?>:0B0BLAO =0 A?>@B82=>< A0<>;5B5. >=5G=> 65, O A>3;0A8;AO, 254L <=5 =8:>340 =5 4>2>48;>AL 45;0BL MB>3> ?@5645. K 2A5 A5;8 2 <0H8=C 8 >B?@028;8AL =0 0M@>4@><, 345 ?>7=0:><8;8AL A 53> 4@C3><, >4=8< 87 G5<?8>=>2 $  ?> 2KAH5<C ?8;>B06C. = ?@54;>68; <=5 ?>;5B0BL 2<5AB5 A =8<, 8 O, @07C<55BAO, =5 C?CAB8; B0:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8. >A;5 B>3> :0: O CA5;AO 2 :018=5, >= ?@54C?@548;: «/ 1C4C A;548BL 70 20<8, 8 5A;8 20< AB0=5B ?;>E>, <K ?@875<;8<AO». 5=O =8:>340 =5 C:0G8205B 2 A0<>;5B0E, ?>MB><C O B>;L:> :82=C; =0 53> A;>20. 420 <K 27;5B5;8, >= ?5@540; <=5 HBC@20; 8 ?>?@>A8; <5=O ?>4=OBL A0<>;5B =0 2KA>BC G5BK@5 BKAOG8 DCB>2, GB> O 8 A45;0;. >340 O 2K@>2=O; A0<>;5B, >= 27O; C?@02;5=85 8 157 :0:>3>-;81> ?@54C?@5645=8O =0G0; 2K?>;=OBL A2>N ?@>3@0<<C  2=CB@5==85 8 2=5H=85 ?5B;8, HB>?>@=K5 8 C?@02;O5<K5 1>G:8, A2>1>4=>5 ?045=85, HB>?>@K 8 B. 4. 070;>AL, GB> <K =0E>48<AO 2 2>74CE5 =5A:>;L:> G0A>2, 8 O ?>AB>O==> =5?@>872>;L=> E20B0;AO 70 @5<5=L 157>?0A=>AB8, GB>1K E>BL 70 GB>-=81C4L 45@60BLAO. # <5=O :@5?:89 65;C4>:.  2A5 65 O 1K; @04, :>340 >= ?@>A83=0;8;, GB> <K 845< =0 ?>A04:C. =5 ?>:070;>AL, GB> <K A45;0;8 ?>A;54=89 70E>4, 8 O C65 2845; >A8:> 8 5B5@0 %>D<0=0, :>B>@K5 640;8 =0A =0 15B>=8@>20==>9 ?;>I04:5, C;K10OAL 8 <0E0O =0< @C:0<8. > ?>4;5B0O : :@0N 27;5B=>-?>A04>G=>9 ?>;>AK, >= =0 2KA>B5 ?@8<5@=> ?OBL45AOB DCB>2 ?5@525@=C; A0<>;5B 8 40; ?>;=K9 307. K =0E>48;8AL B0: =87:>, GB> O GCBL =5 :>A=C;AO 3>;>2>9 0AD0;LB0. >O 65=0 3>2>@8;0, GB> >=0 2845;0 <>8 A25A82H85AO 2=87 2>;>AK, :>340 <K A> A28AB>< ?@>=5A;8AL <8<>. / ?>;CG0N C4>2>;LAB285 >B «@CAA:8E 3>@>:» 8 B><C ?>4>1=KE @072;5G5=89, ?@>4>;60NI8EAO >:>;> B@5E <8=CB. K A >A8:> :0B0;8AL =0 «@CAA:8E 3>@0E» =0 2KAB02:5 «-!-85» 2 /?>=88. > B@84F0BL <8=CB 2KAH53> ?8;>B060 >:070;8AL A0<K<8 4>;38<8 A8;L=K<8 >ICI5=8O<8 2 <>59 687=8, ?>60;C9, =5A:>;L:> 1>;55 4>;38<8, G5< =C6=>. >;65= ?@87=0BLAO, GB>, :>340 O =0:>=5F 2K;57 87 A0<>;5B0, C <5=O A8;L=> 4@>60;8 =>38 8 A;>20 1;03>40@=>AB8 ?@>72CG0;8 =5 A>2A5< 8A:@5==5. / ;N1;N 1K20BL 2 2@>?5, >A>15==> 87-70 <C7K:8 8 25;8:>;5?=KE <C7K:0=B>2, A> <=>38<8 87 :>B>@KE O ?>7=0:><8;AO 1;03>40@O =0H59 ?@>4C:F88 8 >1I8< 4@C7LO< :0: 2 <8@5 187=5A0, B0: 8 2 8A:CAAB25. ! <0MAB@> 5@15@B>< D>= 0@0O=>< <K AB0;8 1;87:8<8 4@C7LO<8 2 1966 3>4C, :>340 >= 48@868@>20; 2 ">:8>. = =5 ?><=8;, GB> <K 2AB@5B8;8AL A =8< @0=LH5, => 2 1953 3>4C 2> 2@5<O ?>574:8 2 2@>?C O ?>A5B8; 53>, :>340 ?@85E0; 2 5=C.  B> 2@5<O >=0 5I5 1K;0 >::C?8@>20=0 A>N7=8G5A:8<8 45@6020<8, 8 4;O ?>574:8 BC40 O 4>;65= 1K; ?>;CG8BL A?5F80;L=>5 @07@5H5=85 2 >=4>=5. ">340 O B>;L:> GB> ?>A<>B@5; D8;L< «"@5B89», 2 :>B>@>< @0AA:07K205BAO > A>1KB8OE, ?@>8AE>482H8E 2 5=5. =5 1K;> >G5=L 8=B5@5A=> C2845BL MB>B 3>@>4 8=B@83 8 B09=. / 70:070; =><5@ 2 >B5;5 G5@57 =LN-9>@:A:>3> 035=B0 1N@> ?CB5H5AB289 8, ?@85E02 2 3>@>4 =>GLN, >B?@028;AO 2 >B5;L. #B@><, :>340 O A?CAB8;AO 2 AB>;>2CN ?>702B@0:0BL, O C2845; ?>GB8 =0 2A5E AB>;8:0E :@0A=K5 D;06:8. 0:0=C=5 25G5@>< O 8E =5 70<5B8;, => B5?5@L <=5 AB0;> OA=>, GB> O 2 A>25BA:>< A5:B>@5, 8 2 MB>< >B5;5 68;8 3;02=K< >1@07>< A>25BA:85 >D8F5@K. >9 4@C3 O?>=A:89 :><?>78B>@ !8=478 ">O<0 2 B> 2@5<O CG8;AO 2 5=5 8 ?@8H5; 2 >B5;L, GB>1K 2AB@5B8BLAO A> <=>9. = O2=> 1K; 272>;=>20=. «>G5<C BK >AB0=>28;AO 2 @CAA:>< A5:B>@5?»  ?@>H5?B0; >=, =5@2=> >78@0OAL ?> AB>@>=0<. / ?>60; ?;5G0<8 8 ?@>45@60;AO B0< 5I5 ?0@C 4=59. ><5@ 2 >B5;5 70:070; <=5 035=B 87 1N@> ?CB5H5AB289, 8 O =5 7=0;, :0: ?>?@028BL 45;>. 5B@4>B5;L ?>A048; <5=O 70 C3;>2>9 AB>;8:, :>B>@K9 <5=O >G5=L CAB@0820;; <=5 =8 A :5< =5 =04> 1K;> 3>2>@8BL, O <>3 B>;L:> =01;N40BL. / >B?@028;AO 2 5=A:CN D8;0@<>=8N 8 ?>7=0:><8;AO B0< A 25;8:8< D>= 0@0O=><, :>B>@K9, :>=5G=>, C65 1K; ?@>A;02;5==K< 48@865@><. = A?@>A8; <5=O: «'5< 2K 70=8<05B5AL, 3>A?>48= >@8B0?» / >1JOA=8; 5<C =0 ;><0=>< 0=3;89A:><, GB> O 70=8<0NAL ?@>872>4AB2>< 8 ?@>40659 M;5:B@>=8:8 8 45;0N <03=8B>D>=K. «@5:@0A=>, A:070; >=. K 7=0:><K A 0:A>< @N=483><? 0A A;54>20;> 1K ?>A5B8BL 53>». 5B, >B25B8; O 5<C, O =5 7=0:>< A 0:A>< @N=483><, => 1K20; =0 7=0<5=8B>< M;5:B@>==>< 702>45 «@N=483» 2 5@<0=88, 4> B>3> :0: ?>5E0; 2 5=C. > <5=O =5 ?@54AB028;8 25;8:><C G5;>25:C =5<5F:>9 @048>?@><KH;5==>AB8.  A>60;5=8N, <=5 =5 C40;>AL ?>1K20BL B0< 5I5 @07, => O ?>7=0:><8;AO A @N=483>< G5@57 =5A:>;L:> ;5B. 0@0O= G0AB> ?@857605B 2 /?>=8N, 8 >= =5@54:89 3>ABL 2 =0H5< 4><5.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" > " # ! !  . / =018@0NAL >?KB0.  VII >?C;O@=>ABL 45<>=AB@0F8>==KE A0;>=>2 «!>=8» 2 ">:8> 8 LN->@:5 C1548;0 <5=O 2 =5>1E>48<>AB8 8<5BL ?>AB>O==>5 ?@54AB028B5;LAB2> 2 F5=B@0;L=>< @09>=5 ">:8>, ?>B><C GB> =0H8 :>=B>@K 8 702>4K =0E>48;8AL 40;5:> >B <=>3>;N4=KE C;8F. >MB><C <K :C?8;8 B5@@8B>@8N =0 CG0AB:5 2 @09>=5 8=47K =0 >4=>< 87 A0<KE >682;5==KE ?5@5:@5AB:>2 3>@>40, 8 2>725;8 2>AL<8MB06=>5 740=85, 1>;55 2KA>:>5 740=85 =0< =5 @07@5H0;>AL AB@>8BL ?> 70:>=C > AB@>8B5;LAB25. %>BO <K =5 <>3;8 2>725AB8 1>;55 2KA>:>5 740=85, =8GB> =5 <5H0;> =0< A?CAB8BLAO =0 H5ABL MB0659 2=87, GB> <K 8 A45;0;8. K ?>AB@>8;8 B>@3>2K9 F5=B@ 8 ?>4A>1=K5 ?><5I5=8O. 0A?>;030O 1>;LH>9 ?;>I04LN, O @5H8;, GB> <K <>65< 8A?>;L7>20BL 420 ?>475<=KE MB060 2 >A>1KE F5;OE.  =0< 2 ">:8> ?@85760;8 <=>3> 3>AB59, 8 <=5 ?@8H;> 2 3>;>2C, GB> =0< 1K;> 1K =5?;>E> 8<5BL A>1AB25==K9 @5AB>@0= 2 MB>< 740=88 4;O 3>AB59, 8 :@><5 B>3>, <K <>3;8 70@01>B0BL =0 MB>< 45=L38, ?>B><C GB> O?>=F0< =@028BAO >1540BL 8 @072;5:0BLAO 2 @5AB>@0=0E. 0< ?>B@51>20;>AL 4>2>;L=> <=>3> 2@5<5=8, GB>1K @5H8BL, :0:>9 65 @5AB>@0= =0< =C65=. / >B:;>=8; ?@54;>65=85 A>740BL @5AB>@0= 2 O?>=A:>< AB8;5, E>BO >=> 8 2K3;O45;> ;>38G=K<. ">340 O B>;L:> GB> 25@=C;AO 87 >@58, 345 <5=O 87> 4=O 2 45=L C3>I0;8 :>@59A:>9 :CE=59, 8 O ?>=O;, GB> 70@C156=K9 3>ABL <>65B 8=>340 70E>B5BL ?>?@>1>20BL <5AB=CN :CE=N, => =5 :064K9 45=L. @><5 B>3>, =0< 1K;> 1K B@C4=> :>=:C@8@>20BL A :@C?=K<8 AB0@K<8 O?>=A:8<8 @5AB>@0=0<8. B:@KBL :8B09A:89 @5AB>@0=, ?>4C<0; O, B>65 =5 >G5=L E>@>H0O 845O, B0: :0: 2 ">:8> 1K;> >G5=L <=>3> :8B09A:8E @5AB>@0=>2, 8 8E H5D-?>20@0 >G5=L G0AB> ?5@5E>48;8 A >4=>3> <5AB0 =0 4@C3>5.  B> 2@5<O 2 ">:8> 1K;> >G5=L <0;> D@0=FC7A:8E @5AB>@0=>2, 8 =8 >48= 87 =8E =5 1K; ?>4;8==> D@0=FC7A:8<. / G0AB> ?>A5I0; $@0=F8N 8 E>@>H> 7=0; ?0@86A:89 @5AB>@0= «0:A8<», 0 B0:65 53> 2;045;LF0 C8 >401;O. =5 1K;> 8725AB=>, GB> 2 B5 4=8 >= ?>AB02;O; ?5@2>:;0AA=CN 54C :><?0=88 «0= <5@8:M=», B0: GB> >= <>3 1K 708=B5@5A>20BLAO :0:8<-B> =>2K< 45;><. / >1@0B8;AO : =5<C A ?@54;>65=85< >B:@KBL 2 ">:8> @5AB>@0=, :>B>@K9 1K; 1K :>?859 «0:A8<0», A B0:8< 65 45:>@><, A D@0=FC7A:8<8 H5D-?>20@0<8, A B0:8<8 65 <5=N, 28=0<8, >1A;C6820=85< 8 2 B0:>< 65 AB8;5, :0: 2 0@865. = A:070;, GB> MB> ?@5:@0A=0O <KA;L, 8 O ?>A;0; A2>53> 0@E8B5:B>@0 2 0@86. K >B25;8 4;O @5AB>@0=0 420 F>:>;L=KE MB060 740=8O «!>=8» 8 2>AA>740;8 @5AB>@0= «0:A8<», :>B>@K9 8 A53>4=O AB>;L 65 ?>?C;O@5=, :0: 2 45=L 53> >B:@KB8O. =5 ?@8OB=> 4C<0BL > B><, GB> <K AB8<C;8@>20;8 D>@<8@>20=85 1>;LH>3> 8=B5@5A0 : D@0=FC7A:>9 :CE=5 C @5AB>@0B>@>2 ">:8>, ?>:0702 8<, GB> >=0 =5 O2;O5BAO G5<-B> =54>AO305<K<.  1984 3>4C :><?0=8O «0 BC@ 4'@60=» >B:@K;0 2 >4=>< 87 B>:89A:8E >B5;59 A2>9 D8;80;, 8 :>;8G5AB2> D@0=FC7A:8E @5AB>@0=>2 8 <0;5=L:8E 18AB@> 2 ">:8> A59G0A C65 25;8:> 8 ?@>4>;605B @0AB8. >AB8 87 $@0=F88 C482;ONBAO, >1=0@C682 745AL B0:CN ?@5:@0A=CN D@0=FC7A:CN :CE=N. ABL 4065 >4=0 O?>=A:0O ?5:0@=O, :>B>@0O 8<55B D8;80; 2 0@865, 345 >=0 ?@>405B D@0=FC70< D@0=FC7A:85 1C;>G:8. / @5H8;, GB> =0< =C65= A0;>= 2 0@865 8, :0: <=5 :070;>AL, >= 4>;65= 1K; =0E>48BLAO =0 ;8A59A:8E ?>;OE, :>B>@K5 O AG8B0N, ?>60;C9, A0<>9 8725AB=>9 C;8F59 2 <8@5, 5I5 1>;55 7=0<5=8B>9 8 25G5@0<8 5I5 1>;55 >682;5==>9, G5< OB0O 025=N. >74=> 25G5@>< OB0O 025=N 157;N4=0, 5A;8 =5 AG8B0BL =5A:>;L:8E :=86=KE <03078=>2. > =0 ;8A59A:8E ?>;OE ?>;=> ;N459 GCBL ;8 =5 2 ;N1>5 2@5<O ACB>:. K >B:@K;8 D8;80; «!>=8 >25@A87, !. .» («!!» :0: <K 53> =07K205<) =0 A;54CNI89 3>4 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: <K CG@548;8 «!>=8 <5@8:0» 2 :0=B>=5 &C3, 2 (259F0@88, ?> A>25BC >4=>3> 87 4@C759, :>B>@K9 >1@0B8; =0H5 2=8<0=85 =0 25AL<0 1;03>?@8OB=>5 =0;>3>2>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2> 2 &C35. K AB0;8 ?5@2>9 O?>=A:>9 :><?0=859, >1>A=>202H59AO 2 &C35, 2 B> 2@5<O, :>340 B0< =0E>48;AO C65 F5;K9 @O4 0<5@8:0=A:8E D8@<.  >=4>=5 8 0@865 C =0A 1K;8 <5AB=K5 035=BK ?> ?@>4065 =0H8E B>20@>2. ! B>9 C25@5==>ABLN, :>B>@CN <K ?@8>1@5;8, 70=8<0OAL A1KB>< 8 <0@:5B8=3>< =0H8E B>20@>2 2 !(, <K @5H8;8 459AB2>20BL 8 2 2@>?5. :070;>AL, GB> MB> ;53G5 A:070BL, G5< A45;0BL. 5@53>2>@K > @0AB>@65=88 A>3;0H5=89 A <5AB=K<8 035=B0<8 ?>3;>I0;8 A;8H:>< <=>3> 2@5<5=8 8 1K;8 B@C4=K< 45;><. 7<5=8BL 4>3>2>@5==>ABL A =0H8< ;>=4>=A:8< 035=B>< >:070;>AL 4>2>;L=> ;53:>, E>BO <K 4>;3>5 2@5<O B5@?5;8 C1KB:8. >9 :>;;530 >4=064K 2 HCB:C ?@54;>68;, GB> <K <>3;8 1K 70@01>B0BL 45=L38, >B:@K2 O?>=A:CN 10=N 4;O BC@8AB>2, ?>B><C GB> <K ?>;CG05< 15A?;0B=> 3>@OGCN 2>4C 8 ?>GB8 =8G53> =5 ?@>405<. > :>340 <K ?@85E0;8 2> $@0=F8N, O =0G0; ?>=8<0BL, GB> «/?>=8O 8=:>@?>@59B54»  B0: <=>385 0<5@8:0=FK 8 52@>?59FK =07K20NB /?>=8N, 8<5O 2 284C B5A=K5 A2O78 <564C ?@028B5;LAB2>< 8 187=5A>< 2 /?>=88, >BABC?05B 40;5:> =0 2B>@>9 ?;0= ?5@54 A;8O=85< 3>AC40@AB20 8 187=5A0 2> $@0=F88 8 4065 2 =3;88. >-?5@2KE, O =8:>340 =5 A;KH0;, GB>1K 3;020 O?>=A:>3> 3>AC40@AB20 8;8 ?@028B5;LAB20 ?KB0;AO GB>-;81> ?@>4020BL 8=>AB@0==K< :><?0=8O<, A>25@H0O ?>574:8 70 @C156, 8;8 70=8<0BLAO 187=5A><, :0: MB> 45;0;0 ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@ 0@30@5B "MBG5@. @8 ;N1>9 2>7<>6=>AB8, 4065 2> 2@5<O 2AB@5G =0 2KAH5< C@>2=5, >=0 >:07K20;0 A>459AB285 =3;88, A?@0H820O, :>340 «8AA0= <>B>@c» 8;8 :0:0O-;81> 4@C30O :><?0=8O A>18@05BAO ?>AB@>8BL 702>4 2 =3;88. 'B> :0A05BAO =0A, B> 4065 ?@8=F #M;LA:89 ?@8=8<0; 0:B82=>5 CG0AB85 2 ?>?KB:0E A>459AB28O 8=B5@5A0< =3;88. = 1K; 3>AB5< =0 2KAB02:5 «-!-70», 8 0=3;89A:89 ?>A>; ?>?@>A8; <5=O ?>AB028BL B5;5287>@K «!>=8» 2 3>AB8=>9 2 53> 0?0@B0<5=B0E 2 0=3;89A:>< ?>A>;LAB25 2 ">:8>. >74=55, :>340 O 1K; ?@54AB02;5= ?@8=FC 2> 2@5<O ?@85<0 2 @57845=F88 ?>A>;LAB20, >= ?>1;03>40@8; <5=O 70 4>AB02:C B5;5287>@>2 8 70B5< A?@>A8;, =5 E>B8< ;8 <K ?>AB@>8BL 702>4 2 =3;88. / >B25B8; 5<C, GB> C =0A ?>:0 =5B B0:8E ?;0=>2, 8 >= A C;K1:>9 A:070;: «'B> 65, 5A;8 2K 2A5 65 @5H8B5 ?>AB@>8BL 702>4 2 =3;88, =5 701C4LB5 <>N B5@@8B>@8N». >340 <K 2A5 65 ?@85E0;8 2 =3;8N, =0< ?>:070;>AL @07C<=K< ?>7=0:><8BLAO A #M;LA><. ?@>G5<, <K B0:65 >A<>B@5;8 <=>385 4@C385 @09>=K, GB>1K 87CG8BL 2A5 2>7<>6=>AB8. 0:>=5F, 8AE>4O 87 =0H8E B@51>20=89 2 >B=>H5=88 @0A?>;>65=8O <5AB=>AB8, C4>1AB2, >:@C60NI59 A@54K 8 B. 4., <K 2K1@0;8 #M;LA 8 ?>AB@>8;8 702>4 2 @8465=45.  :>340 2 1974 3>4C 2A5 1K;> 3>B>2> : >B:@KB8N, O A2O70;AO A 0=3;89A:8< ?>A;><, :>B>@K9 2 B> 2@5<O =0E>48;AO 2 =3;88, 8 ?>?@>A8; 53> ?@83;0A8BL ?@8=F0 #M;LA:>3> =0 >B:@KB85 702>40. @8=F ?@8=O; ?@83;0H5=85 8 ?@85E0;.  >7=0<5=>20=85 MB>3> A>1KB8O CAB0=>28;8 C 2E>40 =0 702>4 1>;LHCN <5<>@80;L=CN 4>A:C =0 0=3;89A:>< 8 20;;89A:>< O7K:5, => =5 =0 O?>=A:><.  A2>5< 2KABC?;5=88 =0 >B:@KB88 O =0?><=8; 5<C > =0H59 15A545 =0 «-!-70». «-B>B 702>4 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 1>;LH>9 H03 2 <564C=0@>4=>9 ?>;8B8:5, :>B>@CN =0H0 :><?0=8O ?@>2>48B A> 2@5<5=8 A2>53> >A=>20=8O, A:070; O. 450; «!>=8»  A;C68BL 2A5<C <8@C A ?><>ILN A2>59 C=8:0;L=>9 B5E=8:8 =0 >A=>25 <564C=0@>4=>3> @0745;5=8O B@C40. @8<5@ B><C <K 2848< 745AL, 345 @01>G85, 8=65=5@K 8 ?>AB02I8:8 A<>3CB @01>B0BL 2<5AB5 A =0<8, ?@>872>4O 2KA>:>:0G5AB25==K5 B>20@K 4;O 27KA:0B5;L=>3> @K=:0». 0;55 O 2K@078; =04564C =0 B>, GB> =0H 702>4 2 1C4CI5< AB0=5B ?>AB02;OBL ?@>4C:F8N =5 B>;L:> =0 0=3;89A:89 @K=>:, => 8 2 AB@0=K :>=B8=5=B0;L=>9 2@>?K. "0: >=> 8 ?@>87>H;>. >74=55 ?@8=F 40; 8=B5@2LN 3075B5 !0CB #M;LA M:>C 8 @0AA:070; 2 =5< > =0H59 2AB@5G5 2 ">:8>. «/ 1K; C482;5= 1>;LH5 2A5E, 3>2>@8; >= 2 8=B5@2LN, :>340 G5@57 420 3>40 C;K1:0 =0 =5?@>=8F05<>< ;8F5 ?@54A540B5;O O?>=A:>9 :><?0=88 >15@=C;0AL @50;L=K< 702>4>< 2 .6=>< #M;LA5». / =8:>340 =5 4C<0;, GB> 2K3;O6C =5?@>=8F05<K<, => =5 AB0; A?>@8BL A ?@8=F5<. >74=55 :>@>;520 ;87025B0 ?>A5B8;0 A >D8F80;L=K< 2878B>< /?>=8N. / 1K; C4>AB>5= G5AB8 1KBL 59 ?@54AB02;5==K< =0 ?@85<5 2 0=3;89A:>< ?>A>;LAB25. =0 A?@>A8;0 <5=O, ?@0240 ;8, GB> ?@8=F '0@;L7 @5:><5=4>20;, 345 ?>AB@>8BL 702>4. / >B25B8;, GB> MB> ?@0240, 8 >=0 1K;0 >G5=L 4>2>;L=0. >340 G5@57 =5A:>;L:> ;5B O ?@85E0; 2 >=4>= =0 >D8F80;L=>5 >B:@KB85 O?>=A:>9 2KAB02:8 2 C755 8:B>@88 8 ;L15@B0, O 2=>2L 2AB@5B8;AO A :>@>;52>9 8 8<5; 2>7<>6=>ABL @0AA:070BL 59 > =0H8E CA?5E0E. >74=55 =0A =03@048;8 ?@5<859 :>@>;52K 70 =0HC @01>BC. :>;> ?>;>28=K =0H59 ?@>4C:F88 2 =3;88 <K M:A?>@B8@>20;8 =0 :>=B8=5=B 8 2 D@8:C. =0 A>AB02;O;0 >:>;> B@84F0B8 ?@>F5=B>2 2A53> 0=3;89A:>3> M:A?>@B0 F25B=KE B5;5287>@>2.  1981 3>4C, :>340 <K @0AH8@8;8 =0H 702>4 2 @8465=45, ?>AB@>82 B0< ?@54?@8OB85 ?> ?@>872>4AB2C F25B=KE :8=5A:>?>2, <K 5I5 @07 ?@83;0A8;8 ?@8=F0. 4=0:> >= >B:070;AO, A>A;02H8AL =0 A2>N 70=OB>ABL, => >15I0; ?@8A;0BL 80=C, ?@8=F5AAC #M;LA:CN. =0 1K;0 2 B> 2@5<O 15@5<5==0 ?@8=F5< #8;LO<><.  <K 1K;8 2 2>AB>@35, C7=02, GB> >=0 ?@8545B. >A:>;L:C =0 702>45 AB5:;> ?>425@30;>AL 402;5=8N, 2A5, :B> ?>A5I0; 53>, 4>;6=K 1K;8 =04520BL H;5< 8 70I8B=K5 >G:8. K 40;55 ?>A;0;8 H;5< 8 >G:8, ?@54=07=0G5==K5 4;O ?@8=F5AAK, 2 >=4>= =0 ?@>25@:C. >340 ?@8=F5AA0 ?@85E0;0, >=0 E>48;0 ?> 702>4C 2 MB>< H;5<5, =0 :>B>@>< 1>;LH8<8 1C:20<8 1K;> =0?8A0=> «!>=8», 0 D>B>3@0DK 55 A=8<0;8. @87=0NAL, O 1K; =5A:>;L:> A<CI5= B5<, GB> MB> 2K3;O45;> :0: :><<5@G5A:>5 <5@>?@8OB85, =>, ?>-2848<><C, =8:B> 1>;LH5 =5 4C<0; >1 MB><, 8 <5=LH5 2A5E 4C<0;0 >1 MB>< 80=0. =0 1K;0 >G0@>20B5;L=0, 25A5;0, 4@C65;N1=0 8 >G5=L A5@45G=0. >=5G=> 65, <K CAB0=>28;8 5I5 >4=C <5<>@80;L=CN 4>A:C 2 ?0<OBL MB>3> A>1KB8O. / =5 60;CNAL =0 B>, GB> :>@>;52A:>5 A5<59AB2> =3;88 8=B5@5AC5BAO CA?5E0<8 <>59 :><?0=88, 2>2A5 =5B. / 25AL<0 @04 8 G@572KG09=> ?>;LI5= MB8< 8 @0AA:07K20N >1 MB><, GB>1K ?>:070BL, GB> 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==> 8 ?>;57=>, :>340 ?@028B5;LAB2> ?@>O2;O5B 8=B5@5A : M:>=><8:5 8 A>459AB2C5B @>ABC 70=OB>AB8 2 A2>59 AB@0=5.  !(, ?>-2848<><C, 2A5 5I5 ?>;030NB, GB> ?@028B5;LAB2> 4>;6=> >B=>A8BLAO : 187=5AC 2@06451=> 8;8, ?> <5=LH59 <5@5, =59B@0;L=>. > <=5 ?> 4CH5 0:B82=0O @>;L 0=3;89A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20. =3;8G0=5 1K;8 4>1@K :> <=5 2> <=>38E >B=>H5=8OE.  1982 3>4C O ?>5E0; 2 >=4>=, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL <540;L ;L15@B0, ?@8AC645==CN >@>;52A:8< >1I5AB2>< 8A:CAAB2 «0 2K40NI89AO 2:;04 2 @0728B85 B5E=8:8 8 <5=546<5=B 2 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 ?@><KH;5==K9 48709=, ?@>872>4AB25==K5 >B=>H5=8O 8 2845>A8AB5<K, 0 B0:65 70 @0728B85 <564C=0@>4=>9 B>@3>2;8». / ?>GC2AB2>20; A51O <0;5=L:8< G5;>25:><, :>340 C7=0;, GB> <540;LN ;L15@B0 1K;8 =03@0645=K B0:85 ?@>A;02;5==K5 CG5=K5, :0: "><0A ;20 -48A>=, 0@8O N@8 8 C8 0AB5@. > 4>1@>B5 A2>59 G;5=K >1I5AB20 4065 2K40;8 <=5 A5@B8D8:0B, ?>4B25@640NI89 <>8 A?>A>1=>AB8 3>2>@8BL ?>-0=3;89A:8, GB> 1K;> =>2K< @5:>@4>< 25;8:>4CH8O A 8E AB>@>=K. -B> ?@>87>H;> B0:: ?>A;5 F5@5<>=88 =03@0645=8O <5=O <540;LN ;L15@B0 2 >@>;52A:>< >1I5AB25, O CAB@>8; ?@85< 4;O 53> G;5=>2.  A2>5< ?@825BAB288 O A:070;, GB> :><?0=8O «!>=8» 8 O 2A5340 1K;8 =>20B>@0<8, 8 GB> O 87>1@5B0; =5 B>;L:> =>2K5 B>20@K, => 4065 225; =>2K5 0=3;89A:85 A;>20.  :0G5AB25 4>:070B5;LAB20 MB>3> O =0?><=8; 8< =0720=85 AB5@5>?@>83@K20B5;O «#>:<M=», 0 B0:65 C=8:0;L=>5 =0720=85 =0H59 :><?0=88. =8 =03@048;8 <5=O 1C@=K<8 0?;>48A<5=B0<8, 8 53> @C:>2>4AB2> A>AB028;> >G5B=K9 A5@B8D8:0B 70 @0728B85 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0 8 2@CG8;> 53> <=5. AB>@8O =0H8E >B=>H5=89 A «$@0=F859 8=:>@?>@59B54» A:;04K20;0AL A>2A5< 8=0G5. 'B>1K 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL A>740BL D8;80; «!>=8 $@0=A», =0< ?@8H;>AL =5A:>;L:> ;5B 25AB8 ?5@53>2>@K > @0AB>@65=88 =0H53> :>=B@0:B0 A B>@3>2K< 035=B>< 2> $@0=F88. 0: >:070;>AL, =0H 035=B 1K; 1;87:8< 4@C3>< <8=8AB@0 D8=0=A>2 8 70O4;K< >E>B=8:><, 8<52H8< A>1AB25==K9 A0<>;5B. = G0AB> 1@0; A A>1>9 <8=8AB@0 2 A2>8 >E>B=8GL8 ?>574:8. >340 <K ?>?KB0;8AL @0AB>@3=CBL =0H5 A>3;0H5=85 A MB8< 035=B>< 8 A>740BL A>1AB25==K9 D8;80;, <8=8AB5@AB2> D8=0=A>2 =5 40;> =0< @07@5H5=8O. K 4>;3>5 2@5<O 70=8<0;8AL MB8< 45;><, ?@81530O : ?><>I8 =0H8E N@8AB>2, 8, =0:>=5F, ?@028B5;LAB2> ?@>B82 2>;8 40;> =0< @07@5H5=85, ?@0240, ;8HL =0 A>740=85 A>2<5AB=>3> ?@54?@8OB8O A A>>B=>H5=85< :0?8B0;>2 50 X 50. K A>3;0A8;8AL =0 MB> 8 @5H8;8 27OBL ?0@B=5@>< «0=: 45 !CMF» 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 <K =0:>=5F =5 ?>;CG8< @07@5H5=8O 2K:C?8BL 4>;N ?0@B=5@0. > ?@54AB028B5;L MB>3> 10=:0 2A5 5I5 >AB05BAO 2 =0H5< ?@02;5=88. !>740BL =0H D8;80; 2 $  ?> A@02=5=8N A D@0=FC7A:>9 M?>?559 1K;> ;53:>. 4=0:>, ?>A:>;L:C O =5 E>B5;, GB>1K =0H0 :><?0=8O 8 55 A>B@C4=8:8 2@0I0;8AL 2 O?>=A:>9 >1I8=5, :>B>@0O 1K;0 2 >A=>2=>< A>A@54>B>G5=0 2 NAA5;L4>@D5, <K >B:@K;8 =0H D8;80; «!>=8 <1%» 2 Q;L=5, :C40 1K;> ;53:> 4>1@0BLAO ?> 02B>10=C, => 4>AB0B>G=> 40;5:> >B NAA5;L4>@D0. -B> ?>72>;O;> =0H8< A>B@C4=8:0< 1>;LHCN G0ABL A2>53> 2@5<5=8 ?@>2>48BL A =5<F0<8, 0 =5 A O?>=F0<8, =0E>4OI8<8AO 70 @C156><. / 2A5340 ?>4G5@:820;, GB> =0H8 ;N48 4>;6=K >B4020BL 2A5 A2>5 2@5<O 8 A8;K =0@>4C B>9 AB@0=K, 345 >=8 =0E>4OBAO. / 225; B0:>5 65 ?@028;> 2 A2>59 A5<L5, :>340 <K ?5@55E0;8 2 !(. K ?>5E0;8 BC40, GB>1K C7=0BL <5@8:C 8 0<5@8:0=F52. / A:070; >A8:>, GB> >=0 4>;6=0 871530BL :>=B0:B>2 A O?>=F0<8; 254L > /?>=88 >=0 C65 2A5 7=0;0. >MB><C, E>BO >1I0BLAO A A>>B5G5AB25==8:0<8 1K;> 7=0G8B5;L=> ;53G5, O =0AB0820; =0 B><, GB>1K =0H0 :><?0=8O 8 <>O A5<LO ?@8>1@5;8 459AB28B5;L=> 8=B5@=0F8>=0;L=K9 E0@0:B5@.  1971 3>4C <K =0:>=5F >B:@K;8 45<>=AB@0F8>==K9 A0;>= «!>=8» 2 0@865 =0 ;8A59A:8E ?>;OE, :0: O 8 E>B5;, 8 : B><C <><5=BC <K B0:65 C65 >A=>20;8 «!>=8 02098», «!>=8 0=0<0», «!>=8 .. .». K B0:65 ?@>25;8 ?5@53>2>@K 8 >B:@K;8 :><?0=8N «!8-18-MA  !>=8 @5:>@4c» 8 ?>AB@>8;8 =>2K9 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:89 F5=B@ 2 /?>=88.  1960 3>4C <5=O ?@83;0A8;8 AB0BL G;5=>< <564C=0@>4=>3> A>25B0 «>@30= 3M@0=B8 B@0AB :><?0=8», 345 <K E@0=8;8 2 !( =0H8 0:F88 ! (0<5@8:0=A:85 45?>78B=K5 A5@B8D8:0BK). 0:>=5F <K @5H8;8, GB> ?@8H;> 2@5<O >B:@KBL 702>4 2 !(. !45;0BL MB>B H03 >:070;>AL =5;53:>. I5 2 1963 3>4C, :>340 O ?@85E0; 2 !(, >4=0 O?>=A:0O E8<8G5A:0O :><?0=8O ?>65;0;0 >B:@KBL 2 !( 702>4, 8 O 70?8A0; 480;>3 A ?@57845=B>< MB>9 :><?0=88, :>B>@K9 1K; >?C1;8:>20= 2> 2;8OB5;L=>< 565<5AOG=>< 6C@=0;5 2 ">:8>  C=3M9 AN=47N .  MB>< 8=B5@2LN O CB25@640;, GB> 1K;> 1K >H81:>9 >B:@K20BL 70 3@0=8F59 702>4, =5 A>7402 A=0G0;0 A8AB5<K A1KB0 8 <0@:5B8=30 8 =5 87CG82 4>A:>=0;L=> @K=>:. >O B>G:0 7@5=8O 70:;NG0;0AL 2 B><, GB> ?5@2>-=0?5@2> =04> 87CG8BL @K=>:, ?>=OBL, :0: =04> ?@>4020BL B>20@K =0 MB>< @K=:5, 8, ?@5645 G5< 1@0BL =0 A51O >1O70B5;LAB20, C:@5?8BL C25@5==>ABL :>@?>@0F88 2 A2>8E A8;0E. >340 B0:0O C25@5==>ABL 5ABL, <>6=> A<5;> 1@0BL =0 A51O >1O70B5;LAB20. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> ;5B MB0 E8<8G5A:0O :><?0=8O «!M:8AN» ?>:8=C;0 !(. =0 =5 AC<5;0 =0;048BL C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=K9 A1KB A2>8E B>20@>2 8 ?@8H;0 : 2K2>4C, GB> =0 @K=:5 65AB>:0O :>=:C@5=F8O. 5H5=85 :><?0=88 1K;> ?>A?5H=K<. / 2A5340 <5GB0; >B:@KBL ?@>872>4AB2> 2 !(. > O AG8B0;, GB> MB> A;54C5B 45;0BL B>;L:> B>340, :>340 C =0A 1C45B 459AB28B5;L=> 1>;LH>9 @K=>:, :>340 <K 1C45< 7=0BL, :0: ?@>4020BL B>20@ =0 MB>< @K=:5 8 A<>65< >15A?5G8BL B5E=8G5A:>5 >1A;C6820=85 ?@>40==>9 ?@>4C:F88. ">;L:> B>340, :>340 2A5 MB> 1C45B 4>AB83=CB>, 1;87>ABL ?>AB02I8:0 ?@>4C:F88 : <5ABC @0A?>;>65=8O D8;80;0 =0H59 :><?0=88 40AB =0< ?@58<CI5AB2>. -B> 2@5<O =0ABC?8;> 2 1971 3>4C. 1J5< =0H8E ?@>406 1K; 2KA>:8<, 8 <K B5?5@L ?>AB02;O;8 2 !( B5;5287>@K 1>;LH8E @07<5@>2. =5 ?@8H;> 2 3>;>2C, GB> ?@8 ?5@52>7:0E 3@C7>2 <K ?;0B8< 70 >1J5<, 0 A0<0O 1>;LH0O 45B0;L 2 B5;5287>@5  MB> :8=5A:>?, :>B>@K9 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 20:CC< 2 AB5:;O==>9 C?0:>2:5. "0:8< >1@07><, <K ?;0B8;8 1>;LH85 45=L38 70 B@0=A?>@B8@>2:C 20:CC<0 G5@57 "8E89 >:50=, GB> A MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 2K3;O45;> 15AA<KA;5==K<. @><5 B>3>, 2?>;=5 >G5284=K 8 4@C385 ?@58<CI5AB20, A2O70==K5 A 1;87>ABLN : 1>;LH><C @K=:C: <K <>3;8 =0;048BL ?@>872>4AB2> 2 ?>;=>< A>>B25BAB288 A B5=45=F8O<8 @K=:0, 8 =0< 1K;> 3>@074> ;53G5 1KAB@> <5=OBL =0H8 <>45;8 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B ?>B@51=>AB59 @K=:0.  B> 2@5<O MBC 845N ?>445@6820; <>9 HC@8= 047C> 20<0. = 1K; B>340 ?@57845=B>< «!>=8 <5@8:0», 68; 2 LN->@:5 8 ?>4KA:0; =5A:>;L:> <5AB 4;O AB@>8B5;LAB20 702>40, >4=> 87 :>B>@KE <K, =0:>=5F, 2K1@0;8 2 0=G>  5@=0@4>, ?@><KH;5==>< ?0@:5 2 !0=-853>. K =0G0;8 A> A1>@:8 45B0;59, 4>AB02;O2H8EAO A =0H8E 702>4>2 2 /?>=88. "5?5@L 65 <K ?@8AK;05< 87 /?>=88 ;8HL M;5:B@>==K5 ?CH:8 8 =5A:>;L:> A?5F80;L=KE 8=B53@0;L=KE AE5<. 'B>1K 4>18BLAO <0:A8<0;L=>3> CG0AB8O !( 2 ?@>872>4AB25 =0H8E B5;5287>@>2, <K 2A5340 AB0@05<AO ?>:C?0BL :0: <>6=> 1>;LH5 45B0;59 2 !(.  @57C;LB0B5 =0H8 B5;5287>@K 1>;55 0<5@8:0=A:85, G5< =5:>B>@K5 8725AB=K5 =>2K5 0<5@8:0=A:85 B5;5287>@K, :>B>@K5 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ?@>872>4OBAO 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 :><?0=8O<8 8 8E AC1?>4@O4G8:0<8 =0 0;L=5< >AB>:5 8 4>AB02;ONBAO 2 !(. 48= 87 ?0@04>:A>2 =K=5H=59 A8BC0F88 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> =0G8=:0 2A5E «0<5@8:0=A:8E» B5;5287>@>2 <8=8<C< =0 2>A5<L45AOB ?@>F5=B>2 O?>=A:0O, 0 =0H8 B5;5287>@K 1>;55 0<5@8:0=A:85, G5< B5;5287>@K 0<5@8:0=F52.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" >  ". K 2A5 >4=0 A5<LO.  I # ;CGH8E O?>=A:8E :><?0=89 =5B =8:0:8E A5:@5B>2 8;8 B09=KE @5F5?B>2 CA?5E0. 8:0:0O B5>@8O, ?@>3@0<<0 8;8 ?@028B5;LAB25==0O ?>;8B8:0 =5 <>3CB A45;0BL ?@54?@8OB85 CA?5H=K<; MB> <>3CB A45;0BL B>;L:> ;N48. !0<0O 206=0O 7040G0 O?>=A:>3> <5=5465@0 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K CAB0=>28BL =>@<0;L=K5 >B=>H5=8O A @01>B=8:0<8, A>740BL >B=>H5=85 : :>@?>@0F88 :0: : @>4=>9 A5<L5, AD>@<8@>20BL ?>=8<0=85 B>3>, GB> C @01>G8E 8 <5=5465@>2 >4=0 AC4L10. ><?0=88, :>B>@K5 4>AB83;8 2 AB@0=5 =081>;LH53> CA?5E0, MB> B5 :><?0=88, :>B>@K5 AC<5;8 A>740BL 25@C 2 548=CN AC4L1C C 2A5E @01>B=8:>2 8 0:F8>=5@>2. <5@8:0=FK =07K20NB MB> >B=>H5=8O<8 <564C B@C4>< 8 04<8=8AB@0F859. / =5 AG8B0N, GB> B0:CN ?@>ABCN A8AB5<C <5=546<5=B0 <>6=> ?@8<5=OBL 2> 2A5< <8@5.  2A5 65 O =045NAL, GB> <K C1548B5;L=> ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20;8 55 MDD5:B82=>ABL. ;O 4@C38E O?>=A:0O A8AB5<0 <>65B >:070BLAO =5?@85<;5<>9, ?>B><C GB> >=8, 2>7<>6=>, A;8H:>< B5A=> A2O70=K A B@048F8O<8 8;8 >G5=L =5@5H8B5;L=K. 5;0BL AB02:C =0 ;N459 =04> 8A:@5==5, ?>@>9 MB> B@51C5B 1>;LH>9 A<5;>AB8 8 <>65B >:070BLAO @8A:>20==K< 45;><. > 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2  8 O ?>4G5@:820N MB>  :0: 1K 2K =8 1K;8 E>@>H8 8;8 C40G;82K 8 :0: 1K 2K =8 1K;8 C<=K 8;8 ;>2:8, 20H5 45;> 8 53> AC4L10 =0E>4OBAO 2 @C:0E B5E ;N459, :>B>@KE 2K =0=8<05B5.  =5A:>;L:> 1>;55 4@0<0B8G=>9 D>@<5 <>6=> A:070BL, GB> AC4L10 20H53> 45;0 D0:B8G5A:8 =0E>48BAO 2 @C:0E 20H53> A0<>3> <>;>4>3> =>28G:0. >B ?>G5<C O AG8B0N =5>1E>48<K< ;8G=> 2KABC?0BL :064K9 3>4 ?5@54 =>2K< ?>?>;=5=85< 2K?CA:=8:>2 87 :>;;54659.  /?>=88 CG51=K9 3>4 70:0=G8205BAO 2 <0@B5, 8 :><?0=88 =018@0NB @01>B=8:>2 2> 2@5<O ?>A;54=53> A5<5AB@0, B0: GB> 5I5 4> 7025@H5=8O CG51K CG0I85AO C65 7=0NB, 345 8< ?@54AB>8B @01>B0BL. =8 ?@8E>4OB =0 @01>BC 2 0?@5;5. / 2A5340 A>18@0N =>28G:>2 2 HB01-:20@B8@5 :><?0=88 2 ">:8>, 345 <K ?@>2>48< F5@5<>=8N 7=0:><AB20 8;8 >@85=B0F88.  MB>< 3>4C, 23;O4K20OAL 2 ;8F0 A5<8A>B <>;>4KE M=5@38G=KE 2K?CA:=8:>2, O 2KABC?8; ?5@54 =8<8 A =0AB02;5=8O<8, GB> O 45;0N C65 ?>GB8 A>@>: ;5B. «>-?5@2KE, A:070; O 8<, 2K 4>;6=K ?>=OBL @07=8FC <564C H:>;>9 8 :><?0=859. >340 2K E>48B5 2 H:>;C, 2K ?;0B8B5 H:>;5 70 >1CG5=85, => B5?5@L =0H0 :><?0=8O 1C45B ?;0B8BL 70 >1CG5=85 20<, 8 ?>:0 2K 1C45B5 >2;04520BL 20H59 ?@>D5AA859, 2K 1C45B5 BO65;K< 1@5<5=5< 4;O :><?0=88. >-2B>@KE, 5A;8 2 H:>;5 2K E>@>H> A4020;8 M:70<5=K, B> ?>;CG0;8 AB> >G:>2. -B> ?@5:@0A=>. > 5A;8 2K =8G53> =5 A<>3;8 =0?8A0BL 2 20H59 :>=B@>;L=>9, 2K ?>;CG0;8 =>;L.  <8@5 187=5A0 20< ?@845BAO A4020BL M:70<5=K :064K9 45=L, 8 2K <>65B5 ?>;CG8BL =5 AB>, 0 BKAOGC >G:>2 8;8 2A53> ?OBL45AOB. @0240, 2 187=5A5, 5A;8 2K 45;05B5 >H81:C, 2K ?>;CG8B5 =5 ?@>AB> =>;L >G:>2. A;8 2K 4>?CAB8;8 >H81:C, MB> 2A5340 1C45B :0:0O-B> >B@8F0B5;L=0O 25;8G8=0 8 ?@545;0 ?>B5@O< =5B. >MB><C >H81:0 <>65B AB0BL C3@>7>9 4;O :><?0=88». >28G:8 ?>;CG0;8 ?5@2>5 =5?>A@54AB25==>5 8 >B@572;ONI55 ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> B0:>5 <8@ 187=5A0. / @0AA:07K20; 8< > B><, GB>, ?> <>5<C <=5=8N, 8< 206=> 7=0BL > :><?0=88 8 > A0<8E A515. KABC?0O ?5@54 CG0I8<8AO AB0@H8E :;0AA>2, O >1KG=> 3>2>@N: «K =5 <>18;87C5< 20A. -B> =5 0@<8O, MB> >7=0G05B, GB> 2K 4>1@>2>;L=> 2K1@0;8 ?@54?@8OB85 «!>=8». -B> 20H5 @5H5=85, 8 <K =0455<AO, GB>, 5A;8 2K ?>ABC?8B5 =0 @01>BC 2 =0HC :><?0=8N, 2K 1C45B5 @01>B0BL C =0A 4204F0BL  B@84F0BL ;5B. 8:><C =5 40=> ?@>68BL 42064K, 8 1;8609H85 4204F0BL-B@84F0BL ;5B MB> A0<K9 ;CGH89 ?5@8>4 2 20H59 687=8. = 405BAO 20< >48= @07. / =5 E>GC, GB>1K G5@57 B@84F0BL ;5B, :>340 2K ?>:8=5B5 =0HC :><?0=8N, 8;8 2 :>=F5 A2>59 687=8 2K A>60;5;8 > B><, GB> ?@>25;8 745AL 2A5 MB8 3>4K. -B> 1K;> 1K B@0354859. 52>7<>6=> A;8H:>< A8;L=> ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> 2K =5A5B5 >B25BAB25==>ABL ?5@54 A>1>9, ?>MB><C O 3>2>@N 20<, GB> A0<>5 206=>5, GB> 20< A;54C5B A45;0BL 2 ?@54AB>OI85 =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52, MB> @5H8BL, 1C45B5 ;8 2K AG0AB;82K C =0A 8;8 =5B. 54L E>BO <K 27O;8 20A =0 @01>BC, <K, 04<8=8AB@0F8O A> AB>@>=K, =5 <>65< A45;0BL 4@C38E ;N459 AG0AB;82K<8. !G0ABL5 4>;6=K A>740BL 2K A0<8»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«8FC8», «!C<8B><>» 8 «8FC18A8», >ACI5AB2;O; :>=B@>;L 70 B@5<OAB0<8 :><?0=89. ;03>40@O :>;>AA0;L=>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 <>I8 «470910FC», :0: =07K20;8 MB8 :>=3;><5@0BK, >1;040;8 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 2;0ABLN. =8 <>3;8 >:07K20BL A2>5<C ?>;8B8G5A:><C AB02;5==8:C D8=0=A>2CN ?><>IL, >15A?5G820BL 5<C 2AOG5A:CN ?>445@6:C =0 2K1>@0E 8;8 >:07K20BL ;N1CN 4@C3CN ?><>IL. @0240, 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: 470910FC >:070;8 ?>445@6:C 2>5==K<, AB02H8< ?>;8B8G5A:8<8 45OB5;O<8, 8 B5 2>73;028;8 ?@028B5;LAB2>, «E2>AB =0G8=0; 25@B5BL A>10:>9». # 470910FC A>740;>AL 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> >=8 =0=O;8 A515 >E@0=C. > 4>2>;L=> A:>@> «>E@0==8:8» AB0;8 :><0=4>20BL 470910FC, 8 ?>A;54=85 2 >?@545;5==>9 AB5?5=8 >:070;8AL ?;5==8:0<8 A8AB5<K, :>B>@>9, :0: 8< :070;>AL, >=8 C?@02;O;8. >A;5 >:>=G0=8O 2>9=K >::C?0F8>==K5 2;0AB8 >1JO28;8, GB> AB@0=0 =5 <>65B 1KBL 45<>:@0B878@>20=0 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 A>E@0=O5BAO A8AB5<0 470910FC, B> 5ABL A8AB5<0 3830=BA:8E E>;48=3-:><?0=89. ><8AA8O ?> ;8:2840F88 E>;48=3>2KE :><?0=89 ?>GB8 A@07C 65 @074@>18;0 ?OB=04F0BL 470910FC. E 02C0@K 1K;8 70<>@>65=K, 8 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 =0F8>=0;878@>20= 0:F8>=5@=K9 :0?8B0; 2>AL<845AOB8 B@5E E>;48=3>2KE >1I5AB2. I5 G5BK@5< BKAOG0< ?OB8AB0< :><?0=8O< >3@0=8G8;8 AD5@C 45OB5;L=>AB8. < =5 @07@5H0;>AL 2:;04K20BL A2>9 :0?8B0; 2 :0:CN-;81> 4@C3CN :><?0=8N, 0 8E @01>B=8:0< 70?@5I0;>AL @01>B0BL =0 :0:CN-;81> 4@C3CN :><?0=8N, :>340-B> 2E>482HCN 2<5AB5 A 8E D8@<>9 2 AB0@K9 :>=3;><5@0B. 48= 87 M:>=><8AB>2, CG0AB2>202H8E 2 @50;870F88 ?;0=>2 @>A?CA:0 470910FC, -;8=>@ %M4;8, 2KABC?0O =5402=> 2 ">:8> =0 A5<8=0@5 > ?5@8>45 >::C?0F88, A:070;0, GB> MB0 ?@>3@0<<0 «?@>2>48;0AL 3@C1> 8 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>. K 1K;8 C4@CG0NI5 =52565AB25==K 2 2>?@>A0E O?>=A:>9 M:>=><8:8 8 B@048F89 AB@0=K. > 4065 O?>=FK =5 7=0;8, :0:>2 <5E0=87< 45OB5;L=>AB8 470910FC ?> B>9 ?@>AB>9 ?@8G8=5, GB> ?>A;54=85 2A5340 2A5 45@60;8 2 A5:@5B5». >?KB:0 @07@CH8BL 2708<>A2O78 470910FC >:070;0AL CA?5H=>9. > MB> ?@825;> : 2>7=8:=>25=8N =5>1KG=KE A8BC0F89. 0?@8<5@, =5;L7O 1K;> >B:@K20BL D8;80; :><?0=88 8;8 =>2K9 >B45; D8@<K, 45OB5;L=>ABL :>B>@>9 >3@0=8G5=0. >MB><C @C:>2>4AB2> A>740==>9 2 1950 3>4C :><?0=88 «">QB0 <>B>@ A59;A», D8;80;0 ?> A1KBC :><?0=88 «">QB0 <>B>@ :><?0=8», >ACI5AB2;O;>AL A>25@H5==> =57028A8<> >B «">QB0 <>B>@ :><?0=8», ?@>872>482H59 02B><>18;8. $0:B8G5A:8 MB8 425 :><?0=88 A;8;8AL ;8HL 2 1984 3>4C, B@84F0BL ?OBL ;5B A?CBAO. !0<K5 1>30BK5 A5<59AB20 B0:65 1K;8 ;8H5=K 1>30BAB20 8 2;0AB8. ><?5=A0F8O 1K;0 >3@0=8G5==>9. K;8 22545=K =>2K5 10=:>2A:85 70:>=K, 2>7=8:;0 =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 >ACI5AB2;5=88 AB@>3>3> :>=B@>;O, ?>A:>;L:C B5<?K 8=D;OF88 1K;8 2KA>:8<8.  1947 3>4C >=0 4>AB830;0 AB0 ?OB845AOB8 ?@>F5=B>2. >2CN :>=AB8BCF8N, 4> A8E ?>@ >AB0NICNAO >A=>2=K< 70:>=>< /?>=88, =0?8A0;8 HB018ABK 3;02=>3> :><0=4>20=8O =0 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5. 5 ?5@525;8 =0 O?>=A:89. =0 1KAB@> ?@>H;0 >4>1@5=85 2 ?0@;0<5=B5. -B>B 4>:C<5=B ?@54>AB02;O; @02=K5 ?@020 65=I8=0< 8 <5=LH8=AB20<, 70;>682 >A=>2K 4;O 70:>=>2 > 1@0:0E 8 @072>40E, 0 B0:65 4;O ?@02 3@0640=. @8AB>:@0B8O ?5@5AB0;0 ACI5AB2>20BL, 8 55 85@0@E8G5A:0O A8AB5<0 1K;0 ;8:2848@>20=0. >, ?>60;C9, A0<>9 206=>9 ?@8G8=>9 4;O ?@5>1@07>20=8O A>F80;L=>9 AB@C:BC@K ?>A;5 2>9=K AB0;0 75<5;L=0O @5D>@<0. # <=>38E A5<59 (2 B>< G8A;5 8 C <>59), :>B>@K5 2;045;8 1>;LH8< :>;8G5AB2>< 75<;8, 8A?>;L7>202H59AO 4;O 2545=8O A5;LA:>3> E>7O9AB20 8 40202H59 70=OB>ABL <5AB=><C =0A5;5=8N, 75<;O 1K;0 :>=D8A:>20=0. 5<;52;045;LF0< 1K;> @07@5H5=> A>E@0=8BL B>;L:> A2>8 4><0 8 ?@8=04;5602H85 8< ;5A0. >B ?>G5<C B5 ;N48, :><C 2 B> 2@5<O ?@8=04;560;8 1>;LH85 ;5A=K5 <0AA82K, =5 ?>4?02H85 ?>4 ?@>3@0<<C 75<5;L=>9 @5D>@<K, A53>4=O 2 G8A;5 A0<KE 1>30BKE ;N459 /?>=88. -:>=><8ABK 8 A>F8>;>38 0<5@8:0=A:>3> «=>2>3> :C@A0» A45;0;8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =52>7<>6=K<8 C2>;L=5=8O; >=8 A>740;8 8 CA;>28O  (8 4065 8E A>740=85 ?>>I@O;8)  D>@<8@>20=8O ?@>DA>N7>2, :>B>@K5 2 2>5==K5 3>4K 1K;8 70?@5I5=K, 70 8A:;NG5=85< >1I5=0F8>=0;L=>3> ?@>DA>N70, >@30=87>20==>3> ?> 8=8F80B825 ?@028B5;LAB20 ?> B8?C :><?0=88. @5645 3;02=>9 F5;LN ;N1>9 >@30=870F88 @01>G8E 1K;> A>1;N45=85 25@=>AB8 470910FC. 2B>@K 70:>=>2 > B@C45 7=0;8, GB> 2>7=8:=5B ?@>1;5<0 A :><<C=8AB0<8, :>B>@K5 B5?5@L, :>340 A ?0@B88 1K;8 A=OBK 2A5 70?@5BK, =025@=O:0 2=54@OBAO 2 @01>G85 >@30=870F88. <5@8:0=A:85 A?5F80;8ABK ?> B@C4C 7=0;8, GB> MB> 1K; @8A:. > >=8 ?>;030;8, GB> :0:85 1K B@C4=>AB8 =8 2>7=8:0;8, >=8 ?>A;C60B <0B5@80;><, =0 :>B>@>< /?>=8O 1C45B CG8BLAO 45<>:@0B88.  :0:>9-B> <5@5 B0:0O ?>78F8O >::C?0F8>==KE 2;0AB59 A2845B5;LAB2>20;0 >1 8E 25@5 2 A2>59 >A=>25 :>=A5@20B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ O?>=A:>3> =0@>40. > :0:>9 >:070;0AL MB0 CG510! 0: B>;L:> 1K;8 ?@8=OBK =>2K5 70:>=K > B@C45, 2>7=8:;8 4204F0BL ?OBL BKAOG ?@>DA>N7>2, 2 :>B>@K5 2ABC?8;8 ?OBL <8;;8>=>2 O?>=A:8E @01>G8E. -B> 1K;> 3>;>2>:@C68B5;L=>5 2@5<O 4;O ;815@0;>2, A>F80;8AB>2 8 :><<C=8AB>2, :>B>@K< B0: 4>;3> =5 4020;8 ?>4=OBL 3>;>2C, 8 >=8, =5 B5@OO 2@5<5=8, AB0;8 A>74020BL >@30=870F88. =>385 ?@>DA>N7K >:070;8AL ?>4 2;8O=85< ><<C=8AB8G5A:>9 ?0@B88 /?>=88 (/), 8 2 <05 1946 3>40 >=8 ?@>25;8 45<>=AB@0F8N ?5@54 42>@F>< A :@0A=K<8 7=0<5=0<8, D;030<8 8 ?;0:0B0<8. 5<>=AB@0F8O 2K;8;0AL 2 =0AB>OI89 <OB56, :>340 G0ABL 45<>=AB@0=B>2 1@>A8;0AL =0 HBC@< 42>@F0. !B@0=0 1K;0 ?>B@OA5=0. !>AB>O;0AL <0AA0 7010AB>2>: 2 ?>445@6:C ?@02 @01>G8E, 1K;> <=>3> ?@>B5AB>2 2 04@5A ?@028B5;LAB20 8 B@51>20=89 ?>2KA8BL 70@01>B=CN ?;0BC. >340 :><<C=8AB8G5A:85 ?@>DA>N7K AB0;8 C3@>60BL >1I5=0F8>=0;L=>9 2A5>1I59 7010AB>2:>9, B@51CO >BAB02:8 ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@0 !83M@C >A84K 8 4>1820OAL 7=0G8B5;L=>3> C25;8G5=8O 70@01>B=>9 ?;0BK, ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@ 8 3;02=>5 :><0=4>20=85 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 ?@8=O;8 ?@>B82 =8E AC@>2K5 <5@K. >A840, :>B>@K9 2A5340 A ?>4>7@5=85< >B=>A8;AO : :><<C=8AB0< 8 8E <>B820< 8 2A5340 2KABC?0; ?@>B82 ;530;870F88 /, ?8A0; 2 1957 3>4C 2 A2>8E <5<C0@0E «!;CG09=K5 <KA;8 87 8A>» (53> 703>@>4=K9 4>< =0E>48;AO 2 3>@>4:5 8A>), GB> «A@07C 65 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 2>9=K !>25BA:89 !>N7 :0: A>N7=8G5A:0O 45@6020 >B:@K; 2 ">:8> A2>N <8AA8N, 345 @01>B0;8 1>;55 ?OB8A>B E>@>H> ?>43>B>2;5==KE ?@>?030=48AB>2 8 B09=KE 035=B>2, @C:>2>482H8E 8 =0?@02;O2H8E 45OB5;L=>ABL /, :>B>@0O >@30=87>2K20;0 7010AB>2:8, ?>4AB@5:0;0 :>@59F52 : <OB560< 8 ?@>2>F8@>20;0 2A52>7<>6=K5 15A?>@O4:8 ?> 2A59 AB@0=5» [ !. >A840  >48= 87 =081>;55 :>=A5@20B82=KE ?>;8B8:>2 ?>A;52>5==>9 /?>=88, 70=8<02H89 2 ?5@8>4 «E>;>4=>9 2>9=K» 65AB:CN 0=B8A>25BA:CN ?>;8B8:C. @8<. @54.]. @8 ?>445@6:5 25@E>2=>3> :><0=4CNI53> A>N7=8G5A:8E 45@602 35=5@0;0 C3;0A0 0:0@BC@0 >A840 2=5A 2 ?0@;0<5=B5 70:>=>?@>5:B, 70?@5I02H89 7010AB>2:8 @01>B=8:>2 3>AC40@AB25==KE CG@5645=89 8 ?@54?@8OB89. -B> ?>A;C68;> ?@54>AB5@565=85< :><<C=8AB0<, 8 >=8 >B:070;8AL >B >1JO2;5=8O 2A5>1I59 7010AB>2:8. 4=0:> A>F80;L=>5 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>, :>B>@>5 ?><8<> =>2KE 70:>=>2 > B@C45 2:;NG0;> ?C=:BK > A>F80;L=>< AB@0E>20=88 8 4@C38E A>F80;L=KE 1;030E, C =0A >AB0;>AL. >2K5 70:>=K, ?5@5A<>B@ =0;>3>2>9 A8AB5<K 8 C=8GB>65=85 :>=3;><5@0B>2 470910FC 4>;6=K 1K;8 2?5@2K5 A45;0BL /?>=8N >1I5AB2>< @02=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59. N48 A 1>;55 =87:8<8 4>E>40<8 ?>;CG8;8 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>2KH0BL C@>25=L 687=8 C65 A53>4=O; 5A;8 2K ?@8545B5 2 /?>=8N, 2K C2848B5, GB> B0< ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5B 154=KE, :>B>@K5 5ABL 2> 2A5< <8@5. K 5420 ;8 =0945B5 2 F5;>< <8@5 @02=>?@02=>5 >1I5AB2>, 0=0;>38G=>5 B><C, :>B>@>5 ?>;CG8; O?>=A:89 =0@>4. 0 ?@>BO65=88 25:>2 =0@>4C ?@>AB> G0AB> ?@8E>48;>AL B5@?5BL ;8H5=8O 8 4065 3>;>40BL. 54=>ABL 2 3>@>45 8 2 45@52=5 1K;0 >1KG=K< O2;5=85<. 59AB28B5;L=>, =0 ?@>BO65=88 <=>38E ?>:>;5=89 687=L O?>=F52 =87H8E :;0AA>2 1K;0 2A53> ;8HL >BG0O==>9 1>@L1>9 70 ACI5AB2>20=85. !53>4=O C =0A =5B 154=>AB8, => =5B B0:65 A5<59=KE 1>30BAB2, :0: ?@5645. 064K9 3>4 :0=F5;O@8O ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@0 ?@>2>48B >?@>A =0A5;5=8O, 8 2>B C65 1>;55 45AOB:0 ;5B 4>;O B5E, :B> >B=>A8B A51O : A@54=5<C A>A;>28N, A>AB02;O5B 1>;55 452O=>AB0 ?@>F5=B>2. !>2@5<5==K< O?>=F0< =5 A2>9AB25==K ?@54AB02;5=8O > ?@828;538OE.  E>BO 2 =5:>B>@KE 87 =0H8E ?>574>2 5ABL 203>=K ?5@2>3> :;0AA0, C =0A C65 <=>3> ;5B =5B A0;>=>2 ?5@2>3> :;0AA0 =0 A0<>;5B0E, ;5B0NI8E =0 2=CB@5==8E ;8=8OE. / 2A?><8=0N, :0: >=>AC:M 0FCA8B0, ?0B@80@E O?>=A:>9 M;5:B@>==>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8, :>340 53> 2>7@0AB ?5@520;8; 70 452O=>AB> ;5B, A048;AO =0 ?0AA068@A:89 A0<>;5B 8 ;5B5; 87 A0:8, 345 =0E>48;0AL HB01-:20@B8@0 53> :><?0=88, 2 ">:8> 2<5AB5 A A>B=O<8 ?@>ABKE A;C60I8E. 8:B> B5?5@L =5 704C<K205BAO >1 MB><. G5=L <0;> :><?0=89 8<5NB ;8G=K5 A0<>;5BK 8;8 25@B>;5BK, :0: «!>=8». > B5 :><?0=88, C :>B>@KE >=8 5ABL, 8A?>;L7CNB 8E =5 4;O 4>AB02:8 @C:>2>48B5;59 :><?0=88 =0 A;53:0 702C0;8@>20==K5 G0AB=K5 ?8:=8:8, :0: MB> 45;05BAO 2 >B45;L=KE AB@0=0E, 0 4;O 45;>2KE ?>574>: 8 ?>2KH5=8O MDD5:B82=>AB8 2 @01>B5. ;03>40@O ?>A;52>5==K< CA?5E0< /?>=88, <=>385 :>=5G=>, @071>30B5;8, => A53>4=O C =0A =8:B> =5 8<55B B0:8E C=0A;54>20==KE 1>30BAB2 [01;N45=85 . >@8BK :0A0B5;L=> B>3>, GB> 2 /?>=88 :>=B@0AB <564C 154=>ABLN 8 1>30BAB2>< =5 B0: 1@>A05BAO 2 3;070, :0: 2 4@C38E AB@0=0E 0?040, =5 ;8H5=> >A=>20=89. > 3830=BA:85 A>AB>O=8O >B=N4L =5 O2;ONBAO B0:8< 8A:;NG5=85<, :0: CB25@6405B 02B>@.  ?5@2CN >G5@54L A;54C5B =0720BL :@C?=KE 0:F8>=5@>2, =525@>OB=> @071>30B52H8E =0 ?>A;52>5==>< 1C<5 O?>=A:8E :><?0=89, 8 2;045;LF52 75<;8, F5=K =0 :>B>@CN 2 /?>=88 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 2KA>:8. @8<. @54.], :0: 75<;52;045;LG5A:85 A5<L8 =3;88 8;8 4@C38E 52@>?59A:8E AB@0=, 1>30BAB2, :>B>@K5, :065BAO, A?>A>1=K ?5@568BL ;N1K5 ?>B@OA5=8O, A<5=K ?@028B5;LAB2 8 4065 2>9=K. 5A:>;L:> ;5B =0704 O 1K; 2 0@865, 8 =0 >4=>< 87 ?@85<>2 O 2K@078; 2>AE8I5=85 1@8;;80=B>2K< >65@5;L5< =0 >G0@>20B5;L=>9 ;548 >BH8;L4. 5 <C6 BCB 65 25AL<0 25;8:>4CH=> ?@54;>68; 40BL <=5 D0<8;8N 53> N25;8@0, GB>1K >= 873>B>28; B0:>5 65 A:07>G=>5 >65@5;L5 4;O >A8:>. / ?>1;03>40@8; 53>, A:0702, GB> =5 <>3C ?>72>;8BL A515 B0:>9 4>@>3>9 ?>:C?:8. = A C482;5=85< ?>4=O; 1@>28. «> 254L 2K 1>30BK, A:070; >=, O C25@5=, GB> 2K <>65B5 A515 ?>72>;8BL MB>». «564C 20<8 8 <=>9 ACI5AB2C5B >4=> 1>;LH>5 @07;8G85, >B25B8; O 5<C. 0, O 1>30B, => 2K 1>30BK =0 ?@>BO65=88 C65 <=>38E ?>:>;5=89. >B ?>G5<C 2K <>65B5 :C?8BL B0:>5 >65@5;L5, 0 O =5 <>3C».  /?>=88 =5B 1>;LH5 A5<59, >1;040NI8E 1>30BK< =0A;54AB2><, :0: 2 1K;K5 2@5<5=0, A5<59 A :>;>AA0;L=K<8 02C0@0<8 8 =5A<5B=K<8 1>30BAB20<8. 0;>38 =0 =0A;54AB2>, @02=>A8;L=K5 :>=D8A:0F88, A?>A>1AB2>20;8 C=8GB>65=8N ?>4;8==KE A5<59=KE 1>30BAB2. -B> =0?><8=0;> >B<5=C 0@8AB>:@0B8G5A:8E B8BC;>2 ?>A;5 2>9=K. !53>4=O A0<0 <KA;L > ?>4>1=KE 1>30BAB20E 1>;LH8=AB2C O?>=F52 ?@54AB02;O5BAO =5C<5AB=>9. @8>1@5B5=85 1>;LH>3> :>;8G5AB20 75<5;L 8 >ACI5AB2;5=85 :>=B@>;O =04 <=>38<8 :@C?=K<8 :><?0=8O<8 A59G0A ?@>AB>-=0?@>AB> =52>7<>6=K, 0 254L MB> A;C68;> >A=>2>9 =0A;54AB25==>3> 1>30BAB20, :>B>@>5 :>340-B> ACI5AB2>20;> 2 /?>=88. > 2>9=K B0:85 A5<L8, :0: =0H0, 1K;8 25AL<0 1>30BK. K 25;8 A>25@H5==> 8=>9 >1@07 687=8, G5< :B>-;81> 2 A>2@5<5==>9 /?>=88.  03>5, 345 O 2K@>A, 2A5 =0H8 A>A548 1K;8 A0<K<8 1>30BK<8, =0A;54AB25==> 1>30BK<8 ;N4L<8. K 2;045;8 B5==8A=K<8 :>@B0<8, 0 MB> =0AB>OI0O @>A:>HL 2 AB@0=5, 154=>9 75<;59. # =0A 1K;8 3>@=8G=K5, 42>@5F:85, 0 B0:65 ;8G=K5 02B><>18;8 A H>D5@0<8. >O A5<LO 8<5;0 2A5: 8=>AB@0==K5 02B><>18;8 8 B>, GB> <K E>B5;8. 0 2A5 MB> ?;0B8; <>9 >B5F, C :>B>@>3> 1K;8 1>;LH85 4>E>4K. 0;>38 1K;8 =87:8<8, 8 ?>MB><C =8:B> 4065 =5 4C<0; > B><, GB>1K ?>;L7>20BLAO 02B><>18;5<, 70 :>B>@K9 ?;0B8B :><?0=8O, 8;8 > @072;5G5=8OE 70 55 AG5B. /?>=A:85 G09=K5, 345 ?@>2>48;8 4>AC3 ?@54AB028B5;8 45;>2KE :@C3>2, @07 2 H5ABL <5AOF52 8;8 2 3>4 ?>AK;0;8 AG5B0, 0 1>30BK5 ;N48, :0:, =0?@8<5@, <>9 >B5F, >?;0G820;8 8E A>1AB25==K<8 G5:0<8, 0 =5 G5:0<8 :><?0=88. >A;5 2>9=K A8BC0F8O 2 :>@=5 87<5=8;0AL, ?>B><C GB> ?@8 =>2KE 70:>=0E, :>340 2>A5<L45AOB ?OBL ?@>F5=B>2 4>E>4>2 CE>48;> =0 >?;0BC =0;>3>2, 1K;> B@C4=> ?>72>;8BL A515 8<5BL 02B><>18;L, =0=8<0BL H>D5@0 8 >?;0G820BL 4@C385 45;>2K5 @0AE>4K. >B ?>G5<C C :><?0=89 ?>AB5?5==> 2>H;> 2 ?@82KG:C >?;0G820BL B0:85 @0AE>4K A2>8E C?@02;ONI8E. >59 A5<L5 ?>257;>, ?>B><C GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 65AB>:85 1><10@48@>2:8 03>9, =0H5 ?@54?@8OB85 8 =0H 4>< A>2A5< =5 ?>AB@040;8, 8 <K, <>6=> A:070BL, 1K;8 8A:;NG5=85<. > ?>A;5 2>9=K C =0A 1>;LH5 =5 1K;> 3>@=8G=KE 8;8 42>@5F:8E, 8 <>59 <0B5@8 ?@8H;>AL =0G0BL 70=8<0BLAO 4><0H=8< E>7O9AB2><. =0 3>2>@8;0, GB> MB> ?>;57=> 4;O 55 74>@>2LO, 8 O C25@5=, GB> >=0 1K;0 ?@020. K 1K;8 2K=C645=K ?;0B8BL >3@><=K9 ?>8<CI5AB25==K9 =0;>3, 8 <K ?>B5@O;8 7=0G8B5;L=CN G0ABL =0H59 A>1AB25==>AB8 2 @57C;LB0B5 75<5;L=>9 @5D>@<K. >GB8 2AN =0HC 75<;N <K A4020;8 2 0@5=4C :@5ABLO=0<, :>B>@K5 2K@0I820;8 @8A 8 ?@>4020;8 53> A5<59=>9 :><?0=88 >@8BK. "0: <K ?>B5@O;8 ?>GB8 2A5. ?@>G5<, =5 2 MB>< 45;>. K 1K;8 1;03>40@=K 70 B>, GB> <K, B@8 AK=0, 25@=C;8AL A 2>9=K F5;K<8 8 =52@548<K<8, 8 C =0A 5I5 >AB020;>AL =0H5 A5<59=>5 ?@54?@8OB85. > ?@>87>H;8 1>;LH85 ?5@5<5=K. > 2@5<O 2>9=K <>5<C >BFC ?@8E>48;>AL 5748BL =0 @01>BC =0 25;>A8?545, 0 B5?5@L =5 1K;> =8:0:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 8<5BL 02B><>18;L A H>D5@><.  A>2@5<5==>9 /?>=88 3>2>@OB, GB> C=0A;54>20==>3> 1>30BAB20 =5 E20B8B 8 =0 B@8 ?>:>;5=8O, 5A;8 G;5=K A5<L8 =5 1C4CB @01>B0BL, ?@8C<=>60O 53>, ?>B><C GB> =0;>38 =0 =0A;54AB2> 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 25;8:8. <5@8:0=A:>5 :><0=4>20=85 8740;> =>2K5 70:>=K, GB>1K C25;8G8BL ?@020 @01>B0NI8E ?> =09<C 8 =5 40BL 2>7<>6=>AB8 1>30BK< ;N4O< ?>4=OBLAO 2=>2L. => AG8B0;>, GB> 1>30BK5 A5<59AB20, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L ?@8<5@=> 45AOB>: 3;02=KE A5<59AB2 470910FC, A2O70=K A 2>5==>-?@><KH;5==K< :><?;5:A><.  8< MB8 A5<L8 A;54C5B >A;018BL, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 A>B@C4=8G0;8 A 2>5=I8=>9. =8 ?>G5<C-B> AG8B0;8, GB> 2A5 1>30BK5 ;N48 =5ACB >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 2>9=C, GB>, @07C<55BAO, 1K;> >H81:>9. =>385 2 B> 2@5<O C65 ?>=8<0;8, GB> 470910FC AB0;8 ?;5==8:0<8 2>5=I8=K, E>BO ?>;030;8, GB> A<>3CB 45@60BL 55 ?>4 :>=B@>;5<. >, ?> 8@>=88 AC4L1K, 1;03>40@O ?@8:070< 0<5@8:0=A:>3> :><0=4>20=8O O?>=A:0O ?@><KH;5==>ABL 2=>2L AB0;0 A8;L=>9. 48= 87 ?>;>68B5;L=KE 0A?5:B>2 G8AB:8 A>AB>O; 2 B><, GB> 87 2KAH53> MH5;>=0 :><?0=89 1K;8 2K1@>H5=K ;N48 A CAB0@52H8<8 273;O40<8, 70=8<02H85 >B25BAB25==K5 ?>ABK, E>BO A@548 =8E 1K;> <=>3> E>@>H8E ;N459.  A>AB02 @C:>2>4AB20 1K;8 22545=K ?@54AB028B5;8 2B>@>3> 8 B@5BL53> MH5;>=0 04<8=8AB@0F88, :>B>@K5 @01>B0;8 ?@0:B8G5A:8 8=65=5@0<8 8 B5E=8G5A:8<8 A?5F80;8AB0<8, 0 B0:65 <>;>4K5 <5=5465@K A =>2K<8 845O<8. -B> A?>A>1AB2>20;> 2>7@>645=8N AB0@KE :><?0=89 8 ?>72>;8;> A>740BL =>2K5, :0:, =0?@8<5@, =0H0 8 «%>=40 <>B>@5». / ?@82>6C B>;L:> 420 ?@8<5@0. !B0;> >G5284=>, GB> AB0@K5 3830=BA:85 :><?0=88 =5 <>3CB 1>;LH5 2A5 45@60BL 2 A2>8E @C:0E. > 4065 2 :@C?=KE AB0@KE :><?0=8OE 2 @57C;LB0B5 G8AB:8 2 A>AB02 @C:>2>4AB20 2>H;8 1>;55 <>;>4K5 8 0:B82=K5, B5E=8G5A:8 1>;55 ?>43>B>2;5==K5 C?@02;ONI85. >=OB85 > ?>687=5==>< =09<5 2>7=8:;>, :>340 O?>=A:85 <5=5465@K 8 @01>B0NI85 ?> =09<C >A>7=0;8, GB> C =8E <=>3> >1I53> 8 GB> 8< A;54C5B 8<5BL 4>;3>A@>G=K5 ?;0=K. 0:>=K 45;0;8 C2>;L=5=8O B@C4=>9 2 N@848G5A:>< >B=>H5=88 8 4>@>3>AB>OI59 70B559. >=OB85 65 ?>687=5==>3> =09<0 =5 :070;>AL B0:>9 C6 ?;>E>9 84559, ?>A:>;L:C @01>G8< >G5=L =C6=0 1K;0 @01>B0, 0 1>@NI8<AO 70 ACI5AB2>20=85 :><?0=8O< =C6=K 1K;8 ?@540==K5 @01>G85. 5A<>B@O =0 ?@>?030=4C :><<C=8AB8G5A:>9 8 A>F80;8AB8G5A:>9 ?0@B89, O?>=FK, :>B>@K5 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 >4=>@>4=K9 =0@>4, AC<5;8 A>B@C4=8G0BL 157 :;0AA>2>9 1>@L1K, GB>1K 4>18BLAO >1I53> 1;03>A>AB>O=8O. / G0AB> 3>2>@N, GB> O?>=A:85 :><?0=88 2 >G5=L 1>;LH>9 AB5?5=8 AB0;8 >@30=870F8O<8 A>F80;L=>3> AB@0E>20=8O.  ?>A;52>5==CN M@C 70:>=K > =0;>30E A45;0;8 15AA<KA;5==>9 2K?;0BC 2KA>:8E >:;04>2 C?@02;ONI8< :><?0=89, ?>B><C GB> ?@>3@5AA82=K9 =0;>3 >G5=L 1KAB@> 8 @57:> 2>7@0AB05B. ?;0G8205<K5 :><?0=859 C4>1AB20, =0?@8<5@, >1I568B8O 4;O @01>G8E 8;8 =04102:0 =0 B@0=A?>@B, ?><>30NB @01>G8< :><?5=A8@>20BL =0;>38.  /?>=88 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5B 2>7<>6=>AB59 C:@KBLAO 8;8 C:;>=8BLAO >B C?;0BK =0;>3>2. !53>4=O 70@01>B=0O ?;0B0 ?@54AB028B5;59 2KAH53> @C:>2>4AB20 :><?0=89 @54:> ?@52KH05B 1>;55 G5< 2 A5<L-2>A5<L @07 70@01>B=CN ?;0BC B>;L:> GB> ?>ABC?82H53> =0 ?@54?@8OB85 CG5=8:0. -B> >7=0G05B, GB> 2 /?>=88 =5B 25@ECH:8 <C;LB8<8;;8>=5@>2, 8 :><?0=88 =5 ?@0:B8:CNB @07=>>1@07=KE 2K?;0B C?@02;ONI8< 2 >3@><=KE @07<5@0E. >MB><C :0: ?A8E>;>38G5A:89, B0: 8 @50;L=K9 @07@K2 <564C @01>B0NI8<8 ?> =09<C <5=LH5, G5< 2 4@C38E AB@0=0E. >7<>6=>, 87 MB>3> >1I53> ?@028;0 ACI5AB2CNB 8A:;NG5=8O, => O C25@5=, GB> 8E =5<=>3>. 0F8>=0;L=>5 =0;>3>2>5 C?@02;5=85 :064K9 3>4 ?C1;8:C5B A?8A>: :><?0=89 A =081>;LH8<8 4>E>40<8, 8 >= 2A5340 ?5G0B05BAO 2 >1I5=0F8>=0;L=KE 3075B0E 4;O 2A5>1I53> >1>7@5=8O.  1982 3>4C C?@02;5=85 A>>1I8;>, GB> B>;L:> 4204F0BL 452OBL BKAOG O?>=A:8E 3@0640= 8<5NB 70@01>B:8, ?@52KH0NI85 2>A5<L45AOB ?OBL BKAOG 4>;;0@>2.  2A5 65 O?>=A:89 @01>G89, 70=OBK9 2 >1@010BK20NI59 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 8<5NI89 42CE 45B59 8 =5@01>B0NICN 65=C, A>3;0A=> 40==K< @30=870F88 M:>=><8G5A:>3> A>B@C4=8G5AB20 8 @0728B8O (-! ), 70@010BK205B 2 3>4 4> 2KG5B0 =0;>3>2 ?@8<5@=> B>;L:> 425 B@5B8 B>3>, GB> 70@010BK20; B0:>9 65 0<5@8:0=A:89 @01>G89 2 1983 3>4C. > 4>;O 4>E>4>2 ?>A;5 2KG5B0 =0;>3>2 C =53> 2KH5, ?>A:>;L:C =0 MB>< C@>2=5 >= ?;0B8B <5=LH5 =0;>3>2, G5< 0<5@8:0=FK. /?>=A:89 @01>G89 @01>B05B 1>;LH5 2@5<5=8, GB>1K 70@01>B0BL A2>8 45=L38, 81> 70@01>B=0O ?;0B0 C =53> 5I5 =865, G5< C 0<5@8:0=A:>3> @01>G53>. > <K 2 /?>=88 =5 AG8B05<, GB> 70 =0HC 70@01>B=CN ?;0BC =5 AB>8B B@C48BLAO.  >4=>< 87 ?@028B5;LAB25==KE >17>@>2 2 1985 3>4C >B<5G0;>AL 4065, GB> <=>385 O?>=A:85 @01>G85 =5 8A?>;L7CNB 2A5 >B?CA:=>5 2@5<O, :>B>@>5 8< ?>;>65=>. 01>B0O 2 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 A ;N4L<8, <K ?>=O;8, GB> >=8 B@C4OBAO =5 B>;L:> @048 45=53 8 GB> 5A;8 2K E>B8B5 8E AB8<C;8@>20BL, 45=L38 =5 A0<>5 MDD5:B82=>5 A@54AB2>. 'B>1K AB8<C;8@>20BL ;N459, =04> A45;0BL 8E G;5=0<8 A5<L8 8 >1@0I0BLAO A =8<8, :0: A 55 C20605<K<8 G;5=0<8. >=5G=>, 2 =0H59 >4=>@>4=>9 2 =0F8>=0;L=>< >B=>H5=88 AB@0=5 MB>, 25@>OB=>, ;53G5 A45;0BL, G5< 345-;81> 5I5, => ?@8 >?@545;5==>< C@>2=5 :C;LBC@K =0A5;5=8O MB> 2A5 65 2>7<>6=>. =B5@5A : >1@07>20=8N 2>7=8: 2 M@C ">:C302K, ?>A;5 B>3> :0: AB@0=0 ?>GB8 B@8AB0 ;5B, =0G8=0O A A5<=04F0B>3> 25:0, 1K;0 70:@KB0 4;O 2=5H=53> <8@0.  B5G5=85 MB>3> ?5@8>40 >1I5AB2> 1K;> ?>;=>ABLN 87>;8@>20=>, 70 8A:;NG5=85< =51>;LH>9 G0AB8 030A0:8, 345 8=>AB@0=F0< @07@5H0;>AL B>@3>20BL.  B5G5=85 MB>3> 2@5<5=8  2>?@5:8 B><C, GB> <=>385 <>3;8 2845BL =5A:>;L:> ;5B =0704 2 ?>?C;O@=>< 0<5@8:0=A:>< B5;5A5@80;5 «!Q3C=»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«0740» =0G0; @01>B0BL 2 MB>9 :><?0=88 2 :0G5AB25 8=65=5@0 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 8=AB8BCB0 8 ?>4=O;AO A> A2>59 ?5@2>9 4>;6=>AB8 F5E>2>3> <0AB5@0 4> 3;02K MB>9 :><?0=88, =07K202H59AO B>340 «">Q :>3Q».  1985 3>4C, :>340 53> :><?0=8O @5H8;0 ?>AB@>8BL 2 !( 02B><>18;L=K9 702>4, >= A0< A5; 2<5AB5 A >D8F80;L=K<8 ?@54AB028B5;O<8 1J548=5==>3> ?@>DA>N70 @01>G8E 02B><>18;L=>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 4;O ?5@53>2>@>2 > B@C4>2>< A>3;0H5=88. = <>3 25AB8 ?5@53>2>@K, ?>B><C GB> 2A5AB>@>==5 7=0; A2>5 45;>. =>3> ;5B =0704 >= 1K; 4065 ?@54A540B5;5< ?@>DA>N70 @01>B=8:>2 «074K» 8 ?>MB><C <>3 =09B8 >1I89 O7K: A G;5=0<8 ?@>DA>N70.  =0H8E B@C4>2KE >B=>H5=8OE <K 4>AB83;8 B0:>9 AB5?5=8 @025=AB20, :0:>9 =8345 1>;LH5 =5B. # =0A 2 «!>=8» <K =5 2848< 1>;LH>9 @07=8FK <564C A8=8<8 8 15;K<8 2>@>B=8G:0<8.  5A;8 :B>-=81C4L 4>AB830; CA?5E0 2 :0G5AB25 ?@>DA>N7=>3> @C:>2>48B5;O, <K ?@>O2;O;8 : =5<C 1>;LH>9 8=B5@5A, ?>B><C GB> ;N459 8<5==> B0:>3> B8?0 <K ?>418@05< =0 4>;6=>ABL <5=5465@>2, ;N459, :>B>@K5 C<5NB C15640BL 4@C38E, :>B>@K5 <>3CB ?@>1C48BL 65;0=85 A>B@C4=8G0BL A =8<8. #?@02;5=85 ?@54?@8OB85<  <5=546<5=B  MB> =5 48:B0BC@0. KAH55 @C:>2>4AB2> :><?0=88 4>;6=> >1;040BL A?>A>1=>ABLN C?@02;OBL ;N4L<8, 254O 8E 70 A>1>9. K ?>AB>O==> 8I5< A?>A>1=KE ;N459, >1;040NI8E B0:8<8 :0G5AB20<8. K1@0:>2K20BL ;N459 87-70 B>3>, GB> B5 =5 CG8;8AL 2 ?@5AB86=>9 H:>;5 8;8 87-70 4>;6=>AB8, :>B>@CN 8< A;CG8;>AL ?>;CG8BL, ?@>AB> =540;L=>284=>.  =0H8E :><?0=8OE ?>GB8 =5B 4CE0 A>?5@=8G5AB20 8 65;0=8O 70@010BK20BL A@54AB20 =0 687=L =0 1>@L15 A G5<-B> =52>7<>6=>. / =5 E>GC, GB>1K A>740;>AL 2?5G0B;5=85, 1C4B> >B=>H5=8O <564C @01>G8<8 8 04<8=8AB@0F859 2 /?>=88 2A5340 >G5=L E>@>H85, B0: :0: MB> =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. ><?0=8O «">5B0» ?5@568;0 2 1950 3>4C A5@L57=CN 7010AB>2:C, :>B>@0O ?@825;0 : >BAB02:5 2KAH59 04<8=8AB@0F88. >A;5 >:>=G0=8O 2>9=K 2 >4=>< A5:B>@5 70 4@C38< 2A?KE820;8 :@C?=K5, E>BO 8 :@0B:>2@5<5==K5 7010AB>2:8. 010AB>2:8 ?@>8AE>4OB 2 /?>=88 ?>GB8 :064K9 45=L, E>BO, :>=5G=>, :@0B:>2@5<5==K5, 8 45<>=AB@0=BK 2K42830NB A2>8 B@51>20=8O ?5@54 04<8=8AB@0F859. 4=0:> G8A;> 4=59, ?>B5@O==KE 2 @57C;LB0B5 B@C4>2KE :>=D;8:B>2, 4>AB83=C2 @5:>@4=KE ?>:070B5;59 2 1974 3>4C, ?>A;5 22545=8O M<10@3> =0 =5DBL, B5?5@L C<5=LH05BAO.  1974 3>4C /?>=8O ?>B5@O;0 2 @57C;LB0B5 :>=D;8:B>2 <564C @01>G8<8 8 04<8=8AB@0F859 9 663 BKAOG8 @01>G8E 4=59; !( 70 B>B 65 ?5@8>4 ?>B5@O;8 47 991 BKAOGC 4=59, 0 =3;8O  14 750 BKAOG. >;>65=85 2 AB@0=5 C;CGH8;>AL, 8 @07@K2 A 4@C38<8 AB@0=0<8 AB0; 5I5 1>;LH5.  1984 3>4C O?>=A:0O ?@><KH;5==>ABL ?>B5@O;0 87-70 B@C4>2KE :>=D;8:B>2 B>;L:> 354 BKAOG8 @01>G8E 4=59, 0 !(  8 348 BKAOG 4=59, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 =3;88 :>;8G5AB2> ?>B5@O==KE 4=59 ?>4A:>G8;> 4> 26 564 BKAOG. >=5G=>, !( 3>@074> 1>;55 :@C?=0O 8 <5=55 >4=>@>4=0O AB@0=0, => B0:>5 A>?>AB02;5=85 :>;8G5AB20 ?>B5@O==KE 4=59 2 42CE AB@0=0E A :@C?=59H59 2 A2>1>4=>< <8@5 M:>=><8:>9 ?@54AB02;O5B 8=B5@5A. C 0 ?>:070B5;8 =3;88 ?@>AB> >H5;><;ONB. !2>9 ?5@2K9 8 548=AB25==K9 >?KB, A2O70==K9 A @50;L=>9 7010AB>2:>9, O ?@8>1@5; 2 1961 3>4C, 2 ?OB=04F0BCN 3>4>2I8=C =0H59 :><?0=88. ">340 ?5@54> <=>9 2AB0;0 7040G0 =09B8 A?>A>1 55 C@53C;8@>20BL. 0H ?5@2K9 ?@>DA>N7 =0E>48;AO ?>4 A8;L=K< 2;8O=85< ;52KE, 8 2 B>B 3>4 ;52K5 871@0;8 ?@54?@8OB85 «!>=8» A2>59 <8H5=LN. =8 1@>A8;8 =0< 2K7>2, :>340 ?>B@51>20;8 22545=8O A8AB5<K 70:@KB>3> F5E0, B> 5ABL ?@85<0 =0 @01>BC B>;L:> G;5=>2 ?@>DA>N70. / ?@8=O; 2K7>2 ?@>DA>N70, 70O282, GB>, ?> <>5<C <=5=8N, A>74020BL 70:@KBK9 F5E =5A?@0254;82>. «0:@KBK9 F5E  MB> =0@CH5=85 ?@02 G5;>25:0, A:070; O. A;8 @01>G85 70E>BOB A>740BL 4@C3>9 ?@>DA>N7, MB> 8E ?@02>. -B>  A2>1>40 8 MB>  45<>:@0B8O». -B> 1K; =0AB>OI89 2K7>2, => O ?>GC2AB2>20;, GB> ?@>DA>N7=K5 @C:>2>48B5;8 AB0=>2OBAO A8;L=K<8 8 E>BOB @074CBL MB> 45;>. / @5H8; ?>ABC?8BL B0: 65. @>DA>N7=K5 ;845@K 7=0;8, GB> <K E>B8< >B<5B8BL =0HC 3>4>2I8=C 7 <0O 8 C3@>60;8 =0G0BL 7010AB>2:C 2 MB>B 45=L. =8 ?>;030;8, GB> >4=0 MB0 C3@>70 70AB028B =0A ?>9B8 =0 CABC?:8, ?>B><C GB> 8< 1K;> 8725AB=>, :0: <=>3> MB0 3>4>2I8=0 7=0G8;0 4;O =0A. / 65 2845; ?@>8AE>4OI55 2 4@C3>< A25B5. / 7=0; =0H8E @01>G8E, 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E  ;8G=>. / 7=0;, GB> C =0A <=>3> @01>G8E, >1;040NI8E 74@02K< A<KA;><, :>B>@K5 70 >B:@KBK9 F5E 8 :>B>@K5 3>B>2K 2K9B8 87 MB>3> ?@>DA>N70, =0E>4OI53>AO ?>4 ?>;8B8G5A:8< 2;8O=85<, 8 2ABC?8BL 2 ?@>DA>N7, 70=8<0NI89 1>;55 >B25BAB25==K5 ?>78F88. / 25@8; 2 =0H8 4>1@K5 >B=>H5=8O A @01>G8<8 8 =5 E>B5;, GB>1K MB8E ;N459, AG8B02H8E A51O =5@07@K2=> A2O70==K<8 A =0H59 :><?0=859, ?>25;0 70 A>1>9 :CG:0 M:AB@5<8AB>2. / ?@8=O; >G5=L :@CBK5 <5@K. E ;845@ 4C<0;, GB> O 1;5DCN, GB> 2 ?>A;54=NN <8=CBC O CABC?;N, ?>B><C GB> O E>B5;, GB>1K B>@65AB20 ?@>H;8 CA?5H=>. K A>18@0;8AL ?@>25AB8 MBC F5@5<>=8N 2 740=88 =0H59 HB01-:20@B8@K 8 ?@83;0A8;8 =5A:>;L:> 8725AB=KE ;N459, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@0 %0OB> :M4C.  ?5@8>4 ?5@54 3>4>2I8=>9 C =0A A>AB>O;>AL <=>3> 2AB@5G A ?@>DA>N7><, 8 :070;>AL, GB> A :064K< 4=5< >=8 AB0=>2OBAO 2A5 1>;55 45@7:8<8, A;>2=> >=8 =5 708=B5@5A>20=K 2 C@53C;8@>20=88. =8 AG8B0;8, GB> <K 1C45< 2K=C645=K >BABC?8BL, GB> :><?0=8O ?>B5@O5B ?@5AB86, 5A;8 2> 2@5<O B>@65AB20, ?>A2OI5==>3> 3>4>2I8=5, 8 ?@85<0 =0 C;8F5 1C45B ?>;=K<-?>;=> ?8:5BG8:>2. / =5 @0A:@K20; 8< A2>8E :0@B, => AB>O; =0 A2>59 ?>78F88 =0 ?5@53>2>@0E 4> ?>A;54=59 <8=CBK. 0ABC?8; :0=C= 3>4>2I8=K, => =8:0:>3> A>3;0A8O =5 1K;> 4>AB83=CB>. @>DA>N7=K5 ;845@K H;8 =0 HBC@<. #B@>< 2 45=L =0H59 3>4>2I8=K 7010AB>2I8:8 >:@C68;8 =0H5 F5=B@0;L=>5 740=85 2 !8=030@5. #;8FK 1K;8 701;>:8@>20=K 7010AB>2I8:0<8 87 =0H53> ?@>DA>N70 8 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8, :>B>@KE ?@825;8, GB>1K C25;8G8BL G8A;5==>ABL B>;?K. 5:>B>@K5 =5A;8 ?;0:0BK, >AC640NI85 =5 B>;L:> «!>=8», => 8 :M4C.  B> 65 A0<>5 2@5<O =5:>B>@K5 87 =0H8E 8=65=5@>2 @5H8;8 >@30=87>20BL A2>9 ?@>DA>N7, 8 <=>385 87 =8E 2KH;8 A A>1AB25==K<8 B@0=A?0@0=B0<8 2 =0HC ?>445@6:C, A>B=8 25@=KE «!>=8» @01>G8E B>65 2KH;8 =0 C;8FC, 2A;54 70 7010AB>2I8:0<8 8 8=65=5@0<8. / ?>:070;AO 2 >:=5 2 2878B:5, 3>B>2K9 : CG0AB8N 2 B>@65AB20E. K 2K25A8;8 B@0=A?0@0=BK, A>>1I02H85 > =0H59 3>4>2I8=5. > :M40 8 4@C385 3>AB8 =5 ?@8H;8 =0 N18;59 : 740=8N «!>=8», 8 7010AB>2I8:8 =5:>B>@K5 4C<0;8, GB> 8< C40;>AL 70AB028BL =0A >B<5=8BL ?@074=8:. > >G5=L A:>@> >=8 ?>=O;8, GB> >H81;8AL. 0:0=C=5 ?>74=> 25G5@>< <=>385 87 =0A, 04<8=8AB@0B>@>2, :>B>@K5 =0E>48;8AL 2 F5=B@0;L=>< 740=88 45=L 8 =>GL 2> 2@5<O ?5@53>2>@>2, >172>=8;8 2A5E B@8AB0 ?@83;0H5==KE 3>AB59 8 A>>1I8;8 8< > ?5@5=>A5 <5@>?@8OB8O 2 >B5;L «@8=A», =0E>482H89AO ?@8<5@=> 2 <8;5 >B =0A. @5<L5@-<8=8AB@ 15A?@5?OBAB25==> ?@81K; =0 =0H ?@074=8:, 8 ?@85< ?@>H5; A 1>;LH8< CA?5E><. B 8<5=8 «!>=8» 2KABC?0; 1C:0. >340 7010AB>2I8:8 >A>7=0;8, GB> 8E ?5@5E8B@8;8, >=8 ?>=O;8, GB> ?>B5@?5;8 ?>@065=85. / 2KA:>;L7=C; G5@57 G5@=K9 E>4, 8 <=5 C40;>AL ?>?0ABL =0 ?@85< 2 >B5;L 4> 53> >:>=G0=8O. >340 O 2>H5; 2 70;, <5=O 2AB@5B8;8 1C@=K<8 0?;>48A<5=B0<8, 8 ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@ 70O28;, GB> ?>78F88 «!>=8» 2 1>@L15 A M:AB@5<8AB0<8 70A;C6820NB 2KA>:>9 >F5=:8. @>DA>N7 >B:070;AO >B 7010AB>2:8, 8 1K; A>740= 2B>@>9 ?@>DA>N7. !53>4=O 2 <0B5@8=A:>9 :><?0=88 «!>=8» ACI5AB2CNB 420 ?@>DA>N70, 2:;NG0O ?5@2K9, A :>B>@K< ?>@>9 >G5=L B@C4=> 8<5BL 45;>. 07C<55BAO, C =0A 8<55BAO <=>3> @01>G8E  =5G;5=>2 ?@>DA>N70. $0:B8G5A:8 1>;LH8=AB2> =0H8E @01>G8E =5 2E>4OB =8 2 >48= ?@>DA>N7, => <K ?>445@68205< >G5=L E>@>H85 >B=>H5=8O A> 2A5<8 -=0H8<8 @01>G8<8. 0< C405BAO ?>445@6820BL E>@>H85 >B=>H5=8O A =0H8<8 @01>G8<8 ?>B><C, GB> >=8 7=0NB, :0: <K : =8< >B=>A8<AO.  /?>=88, 5A;8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;L A>740; :><?0=8N, 8A?>;L7CO @01>G8E 2 :0G5AB25 >@C48O, MB> 5I5 =5 >7=0G05B, GB> >= =0G0; 45;>. = CG@56405B :><?0=8N 8 =0=8<05B ;N459, GB>1K @50;87>20BL A2>N 845N. > 5A;8 >= =0=O; @01>G8E, >= 4>;65= AG8B0BL 8E A2>8<8 :>;;530<8 8 ?><>I=8:0<8, 0 =5 B>;L:> 8=AB@C<5=B>< 4;O ?>;CG5=8O ?@81K;59. 5=5465@0< A;54C5B ?>701>B8BLAO > B><, GB>1K 8=25AB>@ ?>;CG8; E>@>HCN ?@81K;L, => >=8 4>;6=K B0:65 ?><=8BL > A2>8E @01>G8E, 8;8 :>;;530E, :>B>@K5 4>;6=K ?><>30BL 5<C ?>445@6820BL 687=L :><?0=88, 8 2>7=03@0640BL 8E @01>BC. =25AB>@ 8 @01>G89 =0E>4OBAO 2 >48=0:>2>< ?>;>65=88, => ?>@>9 @01>G89 8<55B 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85, ?>B><C GB> >= 1C45B @01>B0BL 4>;3>, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 8=25AB>@ G0AB>, =5 704C<K20OAL, 2ABC?05B 2 :><?0=8N 8;8 2KE>48B 87 =55, 65;0O ?>;CG0BL ?@81K;L. 040G0 @01>G53> A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K 2 B5G5=85 2A59 A2>59 B@C4>2>9 687=8 87> 4=O 2 45=L A?>A>1AB2>20BL 1;03>A>AB>O=8N :><?0=89 8 A2>5<C A>1AB25==><C. 01>G89 459AB28B5;L=> =5>1E>48<. ><?0=88 70=8<0NB @07=K5 ?>78F88 2 MB>< 2>?@>A5 40;55 2 /?>=88. 4=0:> 2 >A=>25 4>;6=> ACI5AB2>20BL 2708<=>5 C2065=85 8 GC2AB2>, GB> :><?0=8O ?@8=04;568B @01>G8<, 0 =5 B>;L:> =51>;LH>9 :CG:5 @C:>2>48B5;59. >;3 ;N459, 2>73;02;ONI8E :><?0=8N, A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K G5AB=> @C:>2>48BL A5<L59 @01>B=8:>2 :><?0=88 8 701>B8BLAO > 55 G;5=0E. 0H0 ?>;8B8:0 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>, 345 1K 2 <8@5 <K =8 =0E>48;8AL, <K >B=>A8<AO : ;N4O<, :>B>@KE <K =0=O;8, :0: : G;5=0< A5<59AB20 «!>=8», :0: : 4>@>38< :>;;530<, 8 ?>MB><C 5I5 4> B>3>, :0: <K >B:@K;8 2 =3;88 =0H 702>4, <K ?@8257;8 2 ">:8> <5=5465@>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 8=65=5@>2, 40;8 8< 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>@01>B0BL A =0<8, 8 >1CG0;8 8E, >B=>AOAL : =8< :0: : G;5=0< =0H59 A5<L8. A5 >=8 =>A8;8 >48=0:>2K5 :C@B:8 8 5;8 2 =0H5< :0D5B5@88, 345 =5B @0745;5=8O =0 :;0AAK. "0:8< >1@07><, 8< 4020;8 ?>=OBL, GB> : ;N4O< =5;L7O >B=>A8BLAO 48DD5@5=F8@>20==>. K =5 4020;8 >B45;L=>3> :018=5B0 =8 >4=><C C?@02;ONI5<C, 4065 48@5:B>@C 702>40. K B@51>20;8, GB>1K C?@02;ONI85 A845;8 2<5AB5 A> A2>8<8 A;C60I8<8 2 >4=8E 8 B5E 65 CA;>28OE.  F5E0E <0AB5@ :064>5 CB@> ?5@54 @01>B>9 ?@>2>48B =51>;LHCN 15A54C A> A2>8<8 :>;;530<8 8 @0AA:07K205B 8< > B><, GB> >=8 4>;6=K A53>4=O 45;0BL. = 70G8BK205B A2>4:C > 2G5@0H=59 @01>B5, >4=>2@5<5==> 2=8<0B5;L=> @0AA<0B@820O @01>G8E. A;8 :B>-=81C4L ?;>E> 2K3;O48B, <0AB5@ A?@0H8205B, GB> A;CG8;>AL, GB>1K 2KOA=8BL, =5 1>;5= ;8 @01>G89, =5B ;8 C =53> :0:8E-;81> ?@>1;5<, GB> 53> 15A?>:>8B. / AG8B0N MB> 206=K<, 81>, 5A;8 @01>G89 1>;5=, ?>402;5= 8;8 >15A?>:>5=, >= =5 <>65B E>@>H> @01>B0BL. K205B, GB> @01>B0 8;8 @01>G0O >1AB0=>2:0 =5 CAB@08205B G5;>25:0.  /?>=88 ?5@5E>4 =0 4@C3CN @01>BC AB0=>28BAO 2A5 1>;55 >1KG=K< O2;5=85<. > 2A5 65 MB> 5I5 ?@>8AE>48B @54:> ?> A@02=5=88 A !(. / ?@8H5; : 2K2>4C, GB>, ?>A:>;L:C =0H0 A8AB5<0 =5 405B B0:>9 <>18;L=>AB8, :>B>@>9 ?>;L7C5BAO 0<5@8:0=A:89 @01>G89, 345 ;53:> ?5@59B8 A @01>BK =0 @01>BC, <K 4>;6=K GB>-B> A45;0BL 2 =0H59 :><?0=88, GB>1K ?@5>4>;5BL B0:CN A8BC0F8N. K E>B8<, GB>1K =0H0 :><?0=8O >AB020;0AL MDD5:B82=> @01>B0NI59, 0 55 @01>B=8:8 1K;8 AG0AB;82K. K B0:65 E>B8<, GB>1K >=8 ?@>4>;60;8 C =0A @01>B0BL 8 GB>1K 8E @01>B0 1K;0 ?@>4C:B82=>9. A5E =0H8E 8=65=5@>2 <K 2=0G0;5 =0?@02;O5< =0 @01>BC =0 ?@>872>4AB25==>< :>=2595@5, 345 >=8 ?@51K20NB 4>AB0B>G=> 4>;3> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?>=OBL, :0: ?@>872>4AB25==0O B5E=>;>38O A>3;0AC5BAO A B5<, GB> >=8 45;0NB. 5:>B>@K5 87 8=>AB@0==KE 8=65=5@>2 =5 ;N1OB MB>9 @01>BK, => O?>=A:85 8=65=5@K, ?>-2848<><C, @04K 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?>;CG8BL >?KB =5?>A@54AB25==> =0 ?@0:B8:5.  !( <0AB5@ <>65B >AB020BLAO <0AB5@>< 2AN A2>N 687=L, 8 2 MB>< =5B =8G53> ?;>E>3>, 5A;8 MB> C4>2;5B2>@O5B 53> 8 :><?0=8N. =5 :065BAO, >4=0:>, GB> ;CGH5 ?5@52>48BL ;N459 =0 4@C3CN @01>BC, 0 =5 >AB02;OBL 8E G5@5AGC@ 4>;3> =0 >4=>< @01>G5< <5AB5, 345 >=8 <>3CB >BC?5BL. 'B>1K C:@5?;OBL =0H8 @01>G85 >B=>H5=8O :0: :>;;53 8 ?>445@6820BL :>=B0:BK, O >1KG=> ?>GB8 :064K9 25G5@ >1540N A <>;>4K<8 C?@02;5=F0<8 =86=53> 725=0 8 4>?>74=0 15A54CN A =8<8. 4=064K 25G5@>< O 70<5B8;, GB> >4=>3> 87 MB8E <>;>4KE ;N459 GB>-B> 15A?>:>8B. = 1K; =525A5;, @0AAB@>5=, 8 O AC<5; ?>1C48BL 53> A:070BL, 2 G5< 45;>. >A;5 =5A:>;L:8E @N<>: C =53> @072O70;AO O7K:. «> B>3>, :0: O ?@8H5; 2 MBC :><?0=8N, A5@L57=> 3>2>@8; >=, O 4C<0;, GB> MB> A>25@H5==> 70<5G0B5;L=0O :><?0=8O. / E>B5; @01>B0BL B>;L:> 745AL. > O @01>B0N =0 =0G0;L=8:0 =0H53> >B45;0, 8 2 <>59 <0;5=L:>9 4>;6=>AB8, O @01>B0N =0 MB>3> G5;>25:0, 0 =5 =0 «!>=8». = ?@54AB02;O5B :><?0=8N. > >= 3;C?, 0 2A5, GB> O 45;0N 8;8 ?@54;030N, 4>;6=> ?@>E>48BL G5@57 =53>. / :@09=5 @07>G0@>20= B5<, GB> MB>B 3;C?K9 =0G0;L=8: >B45;0 4;O G5;>25:0 2 <>5< ?>;>65=88 >;8F5B2>@O5B "!>=8"». / AG5; MBC <KA;L ?@028;L=>9. / ?>4C<0;, GB> 2 =0H59 :><?0=88, 2>7<>6=>, 5ABL <=>3> @01>B=8:>2, 8A?KBK20NI8E B0:85 65 ?@>1;5<K, 8 <K 4>;6=K 7=0BL, GB> 8E 2>;=C5B. / =0G0; 874020BL 565=545;L=CN 3075BC :><?0=88, 345 <K ?C1;8:C5< >1JO2;5=8O > 20:0=A8OE. -B> 405B @01>B=8:0< 2>7<>6=>ABL B09=> ?>?KB0BLAO ?5@59B8 =0 4@C3CN @01>BC. K AB0@05<AO ?5@52>48BL =0H8E @01>B=8:>2 =0 =>2CN @01>BC ?@8<5@=> @07 2 420 3>40. > M=5@38G=K<, @0ABCI8< @01>B=8:0< =04> 4020BL 2>7<>6=>ABL @0=LH5 <5=OBL @01>BC 2 @0<:0E :><?0=88, A B5< GB>1K >=8 =0H;8 A515 <5AB>, A>>B25BAB2CNI55 8E C@>2=N. K ?>;CG05< >B MB>3> 42>9=CN 2K3>4C: G5;>25: >1KG=> =0E>48B @01>BC, :>B>@0O 1>;LH5 53> C4>2;5B2>@O5B, 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O >B45; :04@>2 <>65B 2KO28BL ?>B5=F80;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K C?@02;ONI8E, >B :>B>@KE ?>4G8=5==K5 AB@5<OBAO C9B8. # =0A 1K;8 A;CG08, :>340 <K >1=0@C6820;8 =5?@83>4=>ABL B>3> 8;8 8=>3> C?@02;ONI53>, ?>B><C GB> <=>385 87 B5E, :B> @01>B0; ?>4 53> =0G0;><, ?@>A8;8 ?5@525AB8 8E =0 4@C3CN @01>BC. K ?@8=8<0;8 @5H5=8O > ?5@52>45 B0:8E @C:>2>48B5;59 =0 B0:CN 4>;6=>ABL, 345 C =8E 1K;> <5=LH5 ?>4G8=5==KE, 8 MB> >1KG=> ?>72>;O;> @5H0BL ?@>1;5<C. K <=>3>5 C7=05<, 2KA;CH820O =0H8E @01>B=8:>2, ?>B><C GB> 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 <C4@>ABL =5 O2;O5BAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=>9 ?@5@>30B82>9 04<8=8AB@0F88. @C3>9 206=K9 0A?5:B A8AB5<K <>18;L=>AB8 2=CB@8 :><?0=88 70:;NG05BAO 2 A;54CNI5<. =>340 G5;>25:, :>B>@>3> <K =0=O;8 =0 @01>BC :0: AB>@>60 8;8 =0 :0:CN-;81> 4@C3CN @01>BC, =5 B@51CNICN :20;8D8:0F88, ?@>G8B02 >1JO2;5=85 > 20:0=A88, ?@>A8B 40BL 5<C 4>;6=>ABL A>AB028B5;O @5:;0<=KE >1JO2;5=89 8;8 :0:CN-;81> 8=CN @01>BC B0:>3> 65 E0@0:B5@0.  ?>A;5 ?@>25@:8 <K >1=0@C68205<, GB> >= ?>4E>48B 4;O B0:>9 @01>BK 8 45;05B 1>;LH85 CA?5E8 =0 =>2>< <5AB5. K G0AB> ?C1;8:C5< >1JO2;5=8O > 20:0=A8OE <0H8=8AB:8, H>D5@0 8;8 AB>@>60, 8 ;N48 ?>40NB 70O2;5=8O A ?@>AL1>9 > ?@85<5, =5 4C<0O > A2>8E ?>4;8==KE A?>A>1=>ABOE, ?>B><C GB> 8< ?@>AB> =C6=0 @01>B0. =0G0;5 =>28G:>2 @0A?@545;O5B =0 @01>BC >B45; :04@>2. @0240, >B45; :04@>2 8;8 C?@02;ONI85 =5 2A5254CI8, 8 <5=5465@K =5 2A5340 A?>A>1=K ?>AB028BL =C6=>3> G5;>25:0 =0 =C6=>5 <5AB>. !:>@55, @01>B=8: A0< 4>;65= AB@5<8BLAO =09B8 ?>4E>4OICN @01>BC, 2>B ?>G5<C O A:070; >4=><C <>;>4><C @01>G5<C, :>B>@K9 ?>60;>20;AO =0 A2>53> =0G0;L=8:0: «A;8 2K =54>2>;L=K 20H59 @01>B>9, C 20A 5ABL ?@02> 8A:0BL 1>;55 ?>4E>4OICN @01>BC. >G5<C 2K MB>3> =5 45;05B5?» A;8 G5;>25: 2K18@05B @01>BC ?> 4CH5, MB> 40QB 5<C >?@545;5==K9 AB8<C;, B0: :0: >= ?>;CG8; @01>BC, :>B>@CN E>B5;, 8, ?> 2A59 25@>OB=>AB8, 1C45B >G5=L AB0@0BLAO =0 =>2>< <5AB5. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, B0:>2 =0H >?KB. # =0A <=>3> @01>G8E <5AB 8 <=>3> @01>B=8:>2, B0: ?>G5<C 1K =0< =5 =09B8 =0 :064>5 @01>G55 <5AB> G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 459AB28B5;L=> E>G5B =0 =5< @01>B0BL. -B>, : A>60;5=8N, =5 E0@0:B5@=> 4;O O?>=A:8E :><?0=89. > O 402=> @5H8;, GB> <=5 =C6=0 4@C30O A8AB5<0, A8AB5<0, 2 :>B>@>9 ?CBL : 87<5=5=8O< 8 C;CGH5=8O< 2A5340 1C45B >B:@KB. A5, GB> <>65B ?@53@048BL MB>B ?CBL, O AG8B0N >H81:>9, 2>B ?>G5<C O CAB0=>28; B0:>9 ?>@O4>:, GB> :0: B>;L:> <K ?@8=O;8 G5;>25:0 =0 @01>BC, <K 4>;6=K 701KBL > 53> H:>;L=KE >B<5B:0E 8 =5 2A?><8=0BL > =8E, >F5=820O 53> @01>BC 8;8 ?@8=8<0O @5H5=85 > 53> ?@>42865=88. =830, :>B>@CN O =0?8A0; =0 MBC B5<C, 2K720;0 H8@>:85 >B:;8:8.  /?>=88 1K;> ?@>40=> 425AB8 ?OBL45AOB BKAOG M:75<?;O@>2  ?>:070B5;L >B=>H5=8O >1I5AB25==>AB8 : A8AB5<5, :>B>@0O ACI5AB2C5B 2 1>;LH8=AB25 4@C38E :><?0=89 4065 A53>4=O.  B5G5=85 :0:>3>-B> 2@5<5=8 ?>A;5 2KE>40 :=838 C =0A 1K;8 B@C4=>AB8 A =09<>< 2K?CA:=8:>2 ?@5AB86=KE C=825@A8B5B>2, ?>B><C GB> >=8 ?>;030;8, GB> C =0A ?@5427OB>5 >B=>H5=85 : =8<. > <K AC<5;8 >1JOA=8BL, GB> MB> =5 B0:, GB> <K 8I5< A?>A>1=KE ;N459, 0 =5 ?@>AB> >:>=G82H8E ?@5AB86=K5 CG51=K5 702545=8O. "5?5@L <K 15@5< ;N459 87> 2A5E 2KAH8E CG51=KE 702545=89, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 87 ?@5AB86=KE. >340 =0H0 :><?0=8O 5I5 B>;L:> AB0=>28;0AL =0 =>38, <K 1K;8 =>28G:0<8 2 2>?@>A0E C?@02;5=8O, ?>MB><C =0< =5 >AB020;>AL =8G53> 4@C3>3>, :0: 45;0BL 2A5 ?>-A2>5<C. 0 ?5@2KE ?>@0E <K 1K;8 4>AB0B>G=> <0;5=L:>9 :><?0=859, B0: GB> <K <>3;8 >1AC640BL ;N1CN ?@>1;5<C 2A5 2<5AB5 8 0?@>18@>20BL =>2K5 ?>4E>4K 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 =5 ?>;CG0;8 C4>2;5B2>@5=8O 8;8 ?@>1;5<0 =5 >:07K20;0AL @5H5==>9. / C15645=, GB> >4=0 87 ?@8G8= 1KAB@>3> @>AB0 =0H59 :><?0=88 2 B>B ?5@8>4 70:;NG0;0AL 2 B><, GB> C =0A 1K;0 A>740=0 0B<>AD5@0 A2>1>4K 48A:CAA89. K =8:>340 =5 ?KB0;8AL 871028BLAO >B =55. 1C:0  MB> G5;>25:, >1;040NI89 206=K<8 :0G5AB20<8 @C:>2>48B5;O. = C<55B ?@82;5:0BL ;N459, 8 >=8 2A5340 3>B>2K A =8< @01>B0BL. > ACI5AB2C, 8AB>@8O =0H59 :><?0=88  MB> 8AB>@8O 3@C??K ;N459, AB@5<OI8EAO ?><>GL 1C:5 >ACI5AB28BL 53> <5GBK. = =8:>340 =5 25@8; 2 2>7<>6=>ABL 548=>;8G=>3> @C:>2>4AB20. 5;> 1K;> =5 B>;L:> 2 35=80;L=>AB8 8 >@838=0;L=>AB8 1C:8 2 B5E=8G5A:8E >1;0ABOE 8;8 2 53> C<5=88 703;O4K20BL 2 1C4CI55 8 B>G=> ?@54A:07K20BL 53> =0<, GB> B0: A8;L=> 2A5E ?>@060;>, => B0:65 2 53> A?>A>1=>AB8 1@0BL 3@C??C <>;>4KE 8 45@7:8E 8=65=5@>2 8 ?@52@0I0BL 55 2 :><0=4C <5=5465@>2, :>B>@K5 C<5NB A>B@C4=8G0BL 2 0B<>AD5@5, ?>1C640NI59 :064>3> 2KA:07K20BL A2>5 <=5=85. >340 1>;LH8=AB2> O?>=A:8E :><?0=89 3>2>@8B > A>B@C4=8G5AB25 8;8 548=>4CH88, MB> >1KG=> >7=0G05B ?>402;5=85 ;8G=>AB8.  =0H59 :><?0=88 <K =5 <>65< =5 2KA:07K20BL >B:@KB> =>2K5 8458. A;8 >=8 AB0;:820NBAO A 4@C38<8 845O<8, B5< ;CGH5, ?>B><C GB> MB> <>65B 40BL E>@>H85 @57C;LB0BK =0 1>;55 2KA>:>< C@>2=5. =>385 O?>=A:85 :><?0=88 ;N1OB C?>B@51;OBL A;>2> «A>B@C4=8G5AB2>» 8 «A>3;0A85», ?>B><C GB> 8< =5 ?> 4CH5 @01>B=8:8, =5 ?>E>685 =0 4@C38E. >340 <5=O A?@0H820NB, 0 8=>340 8 :>340 =5 A?@0H820NB, O CB25@640N, GB> C?@02;ONI89, :>B>@K9 A;8H:>< <=>3> 3>2>@8B > A>B@C4=8G5AB25, MB> G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 B5< A0<K< 70O2;O5B, GB> >= =5 <>65B =09B8 ?@8<5=5=85 =570C@O4=K< ;8G=>ABO< 8 8E 845O<, 30@<>=8G=> A>548=8BL MB8 8458. A;8 <>O :><?0=8O 4>AB83;0 CA?5E0, B> 3;02=K< >1@07>< ?>B><C, GB> =0H8 C?@02;ONI85 B0:>9 A?>A>1=>ABLN >1;040NB. =5 ?@8H;>AL 4>;3> 8 3@><:> 4>:07K20BL MBC B>G:C 7@5=8O 4065 2 A2>59 :><?0=88. 5A:>;L:> ;5B =0704, :>340 O 1K; 70<5AB8B5;5< ?@57845=B0 :><?0=88, 0 8B8478 "0478<0  ?@54A540B5;5< ?@02;5=8O, <564C =0<8 ?@>87>H;> AB>;:=>25=85, :>B>@>5 8;;NAB@8@C5B, GB> O E>GC A:070BL. "0478<0 1K; ?@5:@0A=K< G5;>25:><, =0AB>OI8< 465=B;L<5=>< AB0@>9 H:>;K, :>B>@K9 70=8<0; ?@5645 ?>AB 35=5@0;L=>3> 48@5:B>@0 #?@02;5=8O ?> 45;0< 8<?5@0B>@A:>3> 2>@0, 70=8<0NI53>AO 45;0<8 <>=0@H59 A5<L8. / 2KA:070; A2>5 <=5=85, GB> 53> @0AA5@48;>. > O =0AB0820; =0 A2>5<, E>BO 2845;, GB> "0478<0 1K; ?@>B82. ! B5E ?>@ ?@>H;> B0: <=>3> ;5B, GB> O C65 =5 <>3C 2A?><=8BL, 2 G5< 1K;> 45;>. > O =5 >BABC?8;, 8 AB0;> OA=>, GB> 53> 2>7<CI5=85 @0AB5B, =0:>=5F, >= =5 <>3 C65 1>;LH5 B5@?5BL 8 70O28;: «>@8B0, C =0A A 20<8 @07=K5 273;O4K. / =5 E>GC >AB020BLAO 2 B0:>9 :><?0=88, :0: 20H0, ?>A:>;L:C C 20A 4@C385 8458, G5< C <5=O, C =0A 2>7=8:=CB :>=D;8:BK». / >B25B8; 5<C >G5=L A<5;>, ?>B><C GB> 1K; B>340 C25@5= 2 A2>59 ?@02>B5 B0: 65, :0: 8 A59G0A. / A:070;: «!M@, 5A;8 1K C 20A 8 C <5=O 1K;8 1K A>25@H5==> >48=0:>2K5 <=5=8O ?> 2A5< 2>?@>A0<, 70G5< 1K;> 1K 45@60BL =0A >1>8E 2 MB>9 :><?0=88 8 ?;0B8BL =0< 70@?;0BC.  B0:>< A;CG05 ;81> 20<, ;81> <=5 ?@8H;>AL 1K C9B8 2 >BAB02:C. <5==> ?>B><C, GB> C 20A 8 C <5=O @07=K5 <=5=8O, =0H0 :><?0=8O <5=LH5 @8A:C5B A45;0BL >H81:C. >60;C9AB0, >14C<09B5 <>5 <=5=85 157 4>A04K =0 <5=O. A;8 2K A>18@05B5AL C9B8 2 >BAB02:C, ?>B><C GB> C <5=O 4@C3>5 <=5=85, 2K 45<>=AB@8@C5B5 A2>N =5;>O;L=>ABL ?> >B=>H5=8N : =0H59 :><?0=88». -B> 1K; =>2K9 >1@07 <KH;5=8O 4;O O?>=A:>9 :><?0=88, 8 "0478<0 2 ?5@2K5 <3=>25=8O 1K; >H5;><;5=. > >=, @07C<55BAO, >AB0;AO. ?@>G5<, <>9 4>2>4 =5 1K; 459AB28B5;L=> =>2K< 4;O =0H59 :><?0=88  A0<>< =0G0;5 C =0A, :0: O C65 3>2>@8;, =5 1K;> 38<=0 :><?0=88 (=8:B> =5 <>3 1K 2>>1@078BL 704C<G82>3>, ?>3@C65==>3> 2 A2>8 <KA;8 1C:C ?>NI8<).  2A5 65 <K =0?8A0;8 <0=8D5AB ?>4 =0720=85< «CE "!>=8"», 70O2;5=85, 2 :>B>@>5 <K 25@8;8.  =0G0;5 <0=8D5AB0 <K >B<5G0;8, GB> "!>=8"  MB> ?8>=5@ 8 =8:>340 =5 1C45B A;54>20BL 70 4@C38<8. «ACI5AB2;OO ?@>3@5AA, "!>=8" E>G5B A;C68BL 2A5<C <8@C», 3>2>@8;8 <K, CB25@640O 40;55, GB>, 2K?>;=OO MB>, :><?0=8O «2A5340 1C45B AB@5<8BLAO : =5872540==><C». K B0:65 70O2;O;8: «CBL ?8>=5@0 ?>;>= B@C4=>AB59, =>, =5A<>B@O =0 <=>3>G8A;5==K5 BO3>BK 8 ?@5?OBAB28O, @01>B=8:>2 "!>=8" 2A5340 1C45B 30@<>=8G=> 8 B5A=> A2O7K20BL @04>ABL >B CG0AB8O 2 B2>@G5A:>< B@C45 8 3>@4>ABL B5<, GB> >=8 2:;04K20NB A2>8 C=8:0;L=K5 B0;0=BK 2 4>AB865=85 MB>9 F5;8. @8=F8? "!>=8"  C2060BL 8 ?>>I@OBL A?>A>1=>AB8 :064>3> (G5;>25: =0 A2>5< <5AB5), 8 >=0 2A5340 AB@5<8BAO 2KO28BL ;CGH55 2 G5;>25:5, 25@8B 2 =53> 8 ?>AB>O==> 405B 5<C 2>7<>6=>ABL @072820BL A2>8 A?>A>1=>AB8.  MB>< 687=5==0O A8;0 "!>=8"». 0H0 845O 70:;NG0;0AL 2 B><, GB> 2 >A=>25 2A53>, GB> <K ?KB05<AO 45;0BL, AB>OB ;N48. >340 <K A<>B@5;8 =0 4@C385 O?>=A:85 :>@?>@0F88, <K 2845;8, GB> >G5=L <0;> :><?0=89 ?>ABC?0;8 B0:, :0: <K, ?>B><C GB> >B45;K :04@>2 25;8 A51O B0:, A;>2=> >=8 A0<8 1>38, =07=0G0O ;N459, ?5@51@0AK20O 8E A @01>BK =0 @01>BC 8 ?@52@0I0O 8E 2 ?@840B:8 : @01>G5<C <5ABC. / 2A5340 AG8B0; >G5=L 206=K< 7=0BL =0H8E @01>B=8:>2, ?>A5I0BL 2A5 ?@54?@8OB8O =0H59 :><?0=88, AB0@0BLAO ?>7=0:><8BLAO 8 C7=0BL :064>3> @01>B=8:0. > <5@5 =0H53> @>AB0 45;0BL MB> AB0=>28;>AL 2A5 B@C4=55 8 ?@>AB> =52>7<>6=> 459AB28B5;L=> 7=0BL ;8G=> 1>;55 A>@>:0 BKAOG G5;>25:, @01>B0NI8E 4;O =0A. > O AB0@0NAL. / ?@87K20N 2A5E =0H8E C?@02;ONI8E 7=0:><8BLAO A> 2A5<8 A2>8<8 ?>4G8=5==K<8, 0 =5 A845BL 25AL 45=L 2 :018=5B5. / ;N1;N ?@85760BL =0 702>4 8;8 2 :>=B>@C D8;80;0 8 15A54>20BL A ;N4L<8, :>340 ?@54AB02;O5BAO B0:0O 2>7<>6=>ABL. 5 B0: 402=>, :>340 O 1K; 2 F5=B@5 ">:8>, 2 <>5< @0A?8A0=88 >:070;>AL =5A:>;L:> A2>1>4=KE <8=CB, 8 O C2845; =51>;LHCN :>=B>@C BC@8AB8G5A:>3> 1N@> «!>=8». / 5I5 =8 @07C B0< =5 1K;, 8 2>B O B>;L:> 70H5; BC40 8 ?@54AB028;AO. «/ ?@8H5; AN40, GB>1K 2K C2845;8 <5=O 2 ;8F>, A:070; O. / C25@5=, GB> 2K 2845;8 <5=O =0 M:@0=0E B5;5287>@>2 8;8 2 3075B0E, ?>MB><C <=5 :065BAO, GB> 20< 1K;> 1K 8=B5@5A=> C2845BL 682>3> >@8BC». A5 @0AA<5O;8AL, O >1>H5; :>=B>@C, 15A54CO A ?5@A>=0;><, 8 2 MB8 =5A:>;L:> <8=CB =0< 2A5< 1K;> E>@>H> >B A>7=0=8O B>3>, GB> 2A5 <K 45;05< >1I55 45;>. 4=064K, :>340 O ?@85E0; 2 =51>;LHCN ;01>@0B>@8N «!>=8» 1;87 0;>-;LB>, =0H C?@02;ONI89, 0<5@8:0=5F, ?>?@>A8; <5=O ?>?>78@>20BL 4;O =5A:>;L:8E D>B>3@0D89. / A:070;, GB> 1C4C @04 A45;0BL MB>. 5=55 G5< 70 G0A O AD>B>3@0D8@>20;AO A :064K< 87 B@84F0B8 A>@>:0 A>B@C4=8:>2 8 A:070; C?@02;ONI5<C: «=5 =@028BAO 20H0 ?>78F8O. K ?@028;L=> ?>=8<05B5 ?>;8B8:C "!>=8", A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 55 A>B@C4=8:8  MB> >4=0 A5<LO».  4204F0BL ?OBCN 3>4>2I8=C «!>=8 >D <5@8:0» <K A >A8:> 2K;5B5;8 2 !(, CAB@0820;8 B0< ?8:=8:8 8;8 >154K 4;O 2A5E A>B@C4=8:>2. A5 1K;> >@30=87>20=> B0:, GB>1K <K <>3;8 CAB@>8BL ?8:=8: 4;O =0H53> =LN-9>@:A:>3> ?5@A>=0;0 8 ?>A845BL 70 >154>< A @01>G8<8 B@5E A<5= =0H53> 702>40 <03=8B=>9 ;5=BK 2 >B0-=5, HB0B ;010<0, 0 B0:65 =0H53> 702>40 2 !0=-853>. K >1540;8 8 B0=F520;8 A =0H8<8 @01>B=8:0<8 2 '8:03> 8 >A-=465;5A5. -B> 4>AB02;O;> <=5 1>;LH>5 C4>2>;LAB285, 8 O 4C<0N, GB> >=8 B>65 1K;8 @04K 2845BL <5=O 8 <>N 65=C. -B> 1K;> =5 B>;L:> <>59 @01>B>9; O ;N1;N MB8E ;N459. =8 A>AB02;ONB 548=CN A5<LN.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" >  ". K 2A5 >4=0 A5<LO.  II ><?0=8O =8G53> =5 4>AB83=5B, 5A;8 2720;8B 2AN C<AB25==CN @01>BC =0 @C:>2>4AB2>.  :><?0=88 :064K9 4>;65= 2=>A8BL A2>9 ?>A8;L=K9 2:;04, 8 2:;04 @01>B=8:>2 =86=53> 725=0 =5 4>;65= >3@0=8G820BLAO B>;L:> D878G5A:8< B@C4><. K =0AB08205< =0 B><, GB>1K 2A5 =0H8 @01>B=8:8 2:;04K20;8 A2>9 C<. !53>4=O <K ?>;CG05< 2 A@54=5< >B :064>3> 87 =0H8E @01>B=8:>2 2>A5<L ?@54;>65=89 70 3>4, 8 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 =8E  MB> ?@54;>65=8O > B><, :0: >1;53G8BL 8E A>1AB25==CN @01>BC, :0: A45;0BL 55 1>;55 =0456=>9, 0 B>B 8;8 8=>9 ?@>F5AA  1>;55 MDD5:B82=K<. 0 0?045 :>5-:B> >A<58205B B0:CN A8AB5<C 2=5A5=8O ?@54;>65=89, CB25@640O, GB> MB> 70AB02;O5B ;N459 ?>2B>@OBL 10=0;L=K5 8AB8=K 8;8 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> 04<8=8AB@0F8O =5 C<55B @C:>2>48BL. "0:>5 >B=>H5=85 3>2>@8B > =5?>=8<0=88 ACB8 45;0. K =5 70AB02;O5< @01>B=8:>2 2=>A8BL ?@54;>65=8O, <K A5@L57=> : =8< >B=>A8<AO 8 2=54@O5< 2 687=L ;CGH85 87 =8E.  ?>A:>;L:C 1>;LH8=AB2> ?@54;>65=89 =5?>A@54AB25==> A2O70=K A @01>B>9 8E 02B>@0, <K =0E>48< 8E @07C<=K<8 8 ?>;57=K<8. B>, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2, <>65B ;CGH5 ?>4A:070BL =0<, :0: ?>AB@>8BL BC 8;8 8=CN @01>BC, G5< ;N48, :>B>@K5 55 2K?>;=ONB? / C65 3>2>@8; > A2>5< A?>@5 A ?@54A540B5;5< ?@02;5=8O "0478<>9 > @0AE>645=88 <=5=89 8 > :>=D;8:B5 8459.  <8@5 =5 ACI5AB2>20;> 1K =8:0:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O ?@>3@5AA0, 5A;8 1K <K 45;0;8 B>G=> B> 65, GB> 8 =0H8 =0G0;L=8:8. / 2A5340 3>2>@N =0H8< @01>B=8:0<, GB>1K >=8 =5 ?@84020;8 A;8H:>< 1>;LH>3> 7=0G5=8O B><C, GB> 3>2>@OB 8< 8E @C:>2>48B5;8. / 3>2>@N: «59AB2C9B5, =5 >6840O 8=AB@C:F89». #?@02;ONI8< O >1JOA=ON, GB> MB> 206=K9 M;5<5=B 2 2>A?8B0=88 A?>A>1=>AB59 8 B2>@G5A:8E 2>7<>6=>AB59 8E ?>4G8=5==KE. # <>;>4KE ;N459 381:89 8 B2>@G5A:89 C<, ?>MB><C <5=5465@K =5 4>;6=K 240;1;820BL 8< 3>B>2K5 8458, ?>A:>;L:C MB> <>65B ?>4028BL 8E ;8G=>ABL 5I5 4> B>3>, :0: >=0 ?>;CG8B 2>7<>6=>ABL @0A:@KBLAO.  /?>=88 @01>G85, :>B>@K5 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O @01>B0NB 2<5AB5, A>740NB 0B<>AD5@C A0<><>B820F88 8 A0<>AB8<C;8@>20=8O, 8 8<5==> <>;>4K5 @01>B=8:8 40NB @50;L=K9 8<?C;LA B><C. #?@02;ONI85, 7=0O, GB> ?>2A54=52=K<8 45;0<8 :><?0=88 70=8<0NBAO M=5@38G=K5 8 ?>;=K5 M=BC7807<0 <>;>4K5 @01>B=8:8, <>3CB ?>A2OB8BL A2>5 2@5<O 8 A8;K ?;0=8@>20=8N 1C4CI53> D8@<K. <5O MB> 2 284C, <K AG8B05< =5F5;5A>>1@07=K< 8 =5=C6=K< A;8H:>< G5B:> >?@545;OBL :@C3 >1O70==>AB59 :064>3>, ?>B><C GB> 2A5E CG0B 459AB2>20BL :0: 2 A5<L5, 345 :064K9 3>B>2 45;0BL B>, GB> =5>1E>48<>. A;8 345-B> 2>7=8:05B 1@0:, AG8B05BAO 4C@=K< B>=><, 5A;8 C?@02;ONI89 =0G=5B 2KOA=OBL, :B> 4>?CAB8; MBC >H81:C. -B> <>65B ?>:070BLAO >?0A=K< 8 4065 3;C?K<, => 4;O =0A MB> 206=>. ;02=>5, A <>59 B>G:8 7@5=8O, =5 2 B><, GB>1K =09B8 28=>2=>3> 2 >H81:5, 0 A:>@55 2 B><, GB>1K 2KO28BL ?@8G8=K >H81:8. <5@8:0=A:89 48@5:B>@ >4=>9 87 A>2<5AB=KE :><?0=89 2 ">:8> ?>60;>20;AO <=5, GB> =5 <>65B =09B8 28=>2=8:0 2 >4=>9 020@88 2 53> :><?0=88, 8 >= A?@>A8; <5=O, 2 G5<, ?> <>5<C <=5=8N, ?@8G8=0, GB> >= =5 <>65B CAB0=>28BL 8<O 28=>2=8:0, :0: >= =8 AB0@05BAO. / >1JOA=8; 5<C, GB> 4>AB>8=AB2> 53> :><?0=88 70:;NG05BAO 8<5==> 2 B><, GB> :064K9 ?@87=05B A2>N >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 MBC 020@8N 8 GB>, 5A;8 >= ?@87=05B 28=>2=K< :0:>3>-B> >4=>3> @01>B=8:0, MB> <>65B ?@825AB8 : <>@0;L=><C @07;>65=8N 2A53> :>;;5:B820. 064K9 87 =0A <>65B A>25@H8BL >H81:C. K A 1C:>9 =045;0;8 =5<0;> >H81>:. K ?>B5@O;8 45=L38 =0 F25B=KE B5;5287>@0E «%@><0B@>=», <K ?>B5@?5;8 =5C40GC A M;-:0AA5B0<8, 0C48>:0AA5B0<8 1>;LH>3> @07<5@0 A H8@>:>9 ;5=B>9, :>B>@0O >15A?5G820;0 1>;55 2KA>:CN B>G=>ABL 2>A?@>872545=8O 72C:0, G5< G5B25@BL4N9<>20O ;5=B0 2 AB0=40@B=KE :><?0:B-:0AA5B0E.  =0< A;54>20;> ?@8;>68BL 1>;LH5 CA8;89, GB>1K >1J548=8BL 1>;LH5 :><?0=89 2 «>4=C A5<LN» 2 ?>445@6:C D>@<0B0 A8AB5<K «5B0<0:A». 0H5<C A>?5@=8:C 2 1>@L15 70 D>@<0B 2845><03=8B>D>=>2 C40;>AL A45;0BL MB>, 8 2 @57C;LB0B5 1>;LH5 :><?0=89 AB0;8 ?@>872>48BL 2845><03=8B>D>=K 53> D>@<0B0, 0 =5 =0H53>, E>BO :0G5AB2> =0H8E ;5=B 1K;> ;CGH5. (! B5E ?>@ =0< C40;>AL C1548BL :@C?=K5 :><?0=88 2 /?>=88 8 70 @C156>< 70:;NG8BL A>3;0H5=85 > AB0=40@B0E 2 >B=>H5=88 =0H8E =>2KE 2>AL<8<8;;8<5B@>2KE 2845><03=8B>D>=>2, 0 B0:65 =0H8E 3,5-4N9<>2KE 381:8E 48A:>2 2KA>:>9 ?;>B=>AB8 4;O <8=8-:><?LNB5@>2.) , :0: O C65 3>2>@8;, =0H >B:07 >B ?@>872>4AB20 :0;L:C;OB>@>2, ?>-2848<><C, 70B>@<>78; =0H8 @01>BK ?> @0728B8N A>1AB25==>9 2KG8A;8B5;L=>9 B5E=8:8. > 3;02=>5, GB> O E>GC MB8< A:070BL, MB> B>, GB> MB8 >H81:8 8;8 ?@>AG5BK A2>9AB25==K G5;>25:C, GB> >=8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 =>@<0;L=>5 O2;5=85 8, 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5, =5 ?@8G8=8;8 CI5@10 :><?0=88. / 3>B>2 =5AB8 >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 ;N1>5 @5H5=85, :>B>@>5 O ?@8=O; :0: @C:>2>48B5;L. > 5A;8 G5;>25:0, :>B>@K9 A>25@H8; >H81:C, >?>7>@8BL 8 ;8H8BL 53> 2>7<>6=>AB8 A45;0BL :0@L5@C, >= <>65B ?>B5@OBL AB8<C; =0 2AN >AB02HCNAO B@C4>2CN 687=L, 0 :><?0=8O ;8H8BLAO 2A53>, GB> >= <>3 1K 59 2?>A;54AB288 40BL. A;8 65, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 2KOA=8BL ?@8G8=K >H81:8 8 A>>1I8BL > =8E, G5;>25:, 4>?CAB82H89 >H81:C, =8:>340 55 =5 701C45B 8 =5 ?>2B>@OB 4@C385. / 2A5340 3>2>@N =0H8< ;N4O<: «@>4>;609B5 @01>B0BL 8 45;09B5 B>, GB> AG8B05B5 ?@028;L=K<. A;8 2K >H815B5AL, 2K 872;5G5B5 87 >H81:8 C@>:. ">;L:> =5 4>?CA:09B5 >4=C 8 BC 65 >H81:C 42064K». @><5 B>3>, 3>2>@8; O <>5<C 0<5@8:0=A:><C 4@C3C, 5A;8 2K 8 =0945B5 B>3>, :B> A>25@H8; >H81:C, 8<, ?> 2A59 25@>OB=>AB8, >:065BAO G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 @01>B05B 2 :><?0=88 :0:>5-B> 2@5<O, 8 4065 5A;8 53> 70<5=8BL, MB> 5420 ;8 :><?5=A8@C5B ?>B5@N :><?0=859 53> 7=0=89 8 >?KB0. A;8 65 >= =>28G>: 2 20H59 :><?0=88, 3>2>@8; O, B> =5;L7O >B:07K20BLAO >B @515=:0 70 B>, GB> >H81AO. >@074> 206=55 ?>?KB0BLAO =09B8 ?@8G8=C, GB>1K 871560BL MB>9 ?@>1;5<K 2 1C4CI5<.  B><C 65, 5A;8 OA=> ?>:070BL, GB> 2K ?KB05B5AL =09B8 ?@8G8=K >H81:8 =5 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 8A?>@B8BL :><C-B> 687=L, 0 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?><>GL 2A5< @01>B=8:0< =0CG8BLAO =0 MB>9 >H81:5, @57C;LB0B>< 1C45B F5==K9 C@>:, 0 =5 ?>B5@O. 0 2A5 3>4K <>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 :0: 187=5A<5=0 O <>3C ?@8?><=8BL >G5=L <0;> A;CG052, :>340 O B@51>20; C2>;L=5=8O 70 >H81:8. A:>@5 ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: <K CG@548;8 =0HC 0<5@8:0=A:CN :><?0=8N, =0< A@>G=> ?>B@51>20;>AL <=>65AB2> ;N459, GB>1K A>740BL >@30=870F8N A1KB0, ?>B><C GB> 45;> H;> >G5=L E>@>H> 8 >G5=L 1KAB@>. 4=8 87 =0H8E =>2KE @01>B=8:>2 >:070;8AL >B;8G=K<8, 0 4@C38E, :0: <K ?>=O;8 ?>74=55, 2>>1I5 =5 A;54>20;> =0=8<0BL. # =0A 1K;8 B@C4=>AB8 A >4=8< G5;>25:><, O 1K; 2 >BG0O=88, >= ?>AB>O==> 2K7K20; C <5=O 15A?>:>9AB2>. 0:>=5F, O @5H8; >1AC48BL MB> A <>8<8 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 :>;;530<8. «'B> =0< 45;0BL A MB8< ?0@=5<?»  A?@>A8; O >4=064K. =8 ?>A<>B@5;8 =0 <5=O :0: =0 A;01>C<=>3>. «0: GB>? #2>;8BL, :>=5G=>», A:070;8 >=8. -B> ?@54;>65=85 <5=O ?>@078;>. / =8:>340 =8:>3> =5 C2>;L=O;, 8 4065 2 MB>< A;CG05 B0:0O 845O =8:>340 =5 ?@8E>48;0 <=5 2 3>;>2C. > @5H5=85 ?@>1;5<K ?>A@54AB2>< C2>;L=5=8O 2?>;=5 A>>B25BAB2C5B 0<5@8:0=A:>9 A8AB5<5. -B> :070;>AL AB>;L OA=K<, ?>=OB=K< 8 ;>38G=K<. / =0G0; 4C<0BL, GB> <5@8:0  MB> @09 4;O C?@02;ONI8E, >=8 <>3CB 45;0BL 2A5, GB> C3>4=>. > G5@57 =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 O C2845; >1@0B=CN AB>@>=C MB>9 <540;8. # =0A 1K; C?@02;ONI89 @09>==K< >B45;>< A1KB0, :>B>@K9 :070;AO >G5=L ?5@A?5:B82=K<, =0AB>;L:> ?5@A?5:B82=K<, GB> O 4065 ?>A;0; 53> 2 ">:8> 2 4;8B5;L=CN :><0=48@>2:C, GB>1K >= ?>7=0:><8;AO A> 2A5<8 2 B>:89A:>9 :>=B>@5 8 CA2>8; D8;>A>D8N 8 4CE =0H59 >@30=870F88. = ?@5:@0A=> @01>B0;, ?@>8725; E>@>H55 2?5G0B;5=85 =0 2A5E 2 ">:8>. 5@=C2H8AL 2 (B0BK, >= ?@>4>;60; @01>B0BL 8 @04>20BL =0A 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 2 >48= ?@5:@0A=K9 45=L 157 2AO:>3> ?@54C?@5645=8O ?@8H5; :> <=5 2 :018=5B 8 A:070;: «>A?>48= >@8B0, 1;03>40@N 20A 70 2A5, => O CE>6C». / =5 25@8; A2>8< CH0<. > MB> =5 1K;> HCB:>9. 48= :>=:C@5=B ?@54;>68; 5<C >:;04 2 420 8;8 B@8 @070 1>;LH5, 8 >= ?@8=O; MB> ?@54;>65=85. / ?>=O;, GB> MB> 8 5ABL 0<5@8:0=A:89 >1@07 459AB289. -B>B M?87>4 >G5=L @0AAB@>8; 8 >3>@G8; <5=O 8, >B:@>25==> 3>2>@O, O ?@>AB> =5 7=0;, GB> <=5 45;0BL. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 O ?>H5; =0 2KAB02:C M;5:B@>==KE B>20@>2, 8 B0< 2 ?028;L>=5 >4=>3> 87 =0H8E :>=:C@5=B>2 A845; MB>B ?@540B5;L. / 4C<0;, GB> >= 1C45B 871530BL 2AB@5G8 A> <=>9, => 2<5AB> B>3> GB>1K A?@OB0BLAO >B <5=O, >= 1@>A8;AO <=5 =02AB@5GC 8 =5?@8=C645==> 703>2>@8; A> <=>9, A;>2=> 5<C =5G53> 1K;> ABK48BLAO. = A M=BC7807<>< ?>:07K20; <=5 2KAB0:C 8 ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20; A2>9 =>2K9 ?@>4C:B, A;>2=> >= =5 A>25@H8; ?> >B=>H5=8N :> <=5 15AG5AB=K9 ?>ABC?>:. >B>< O >A>7=0;, GB> A 53> B>G:8 7@5=8O 8 A B>G:8 7@5=8O 0<5@8:0=A:>9 A8AB5<K 53> CE>4, E>BO >= 8<5; 8=D>@<0F8N > =0H5< <0@:5B8=35 8 7=0; A5:@5BK =0H59 D8@<K, =5 ?@54AB02;O; A>1>9 =8G53> 4C@=>3>. G5284=>, B0:>5 A;CG05BAO 745AL :064K9 45=L 8 MB> 40;5:> =5 @09 4;O C?@02;ONI8E. / ?>:;O;AO, GB> <>O :><?0=8O ?@8;>68B 2A5 A8;K, GB>1K =5 4>?CAB8BL CA2>5=8O MB>3> 0A?5:B0 0<5@8:0=A:8E <5B>4>2 C?@02;5=8O. / B0:65 2A:>@5 >1=0@C68;, GB> 2 70?04=KE AB@0=0E 04<8=8AB@0F8O C2>;L=O5B @01>G8E, :>340 =0G8=05BAO A?04. -B> B>65 1K;> H>:><, ?>B><C GB> <K 2 /?>=88 845< =0 MB>, ;8HL 5A;8 >:07K205<AO =0 :@0N ?@>?0AB8. >A;5 22545=8O M<10@3> =0 =5DBL /?>=8O ?>=5A;0 1>;LH>9 CI5@1, ?>B><C GB> <K ?>;=>ABLN 7028A8< >B 8=>AB@0==KE 8AB>G=8:>2 =5DB8. 0 >48= 1973/1974 3>4 B5<?K 8=D;OF88 ?@52KA8;8 C =0A 4204F0BL ?OBL ?@>F5=B>2, 8 =5:>B>@K5 :><?0=88 ?@>AB> =5 <>3;8 >15A?5G8BL @01>BC A2>8E ?@54?@8OB89, ?>MB><C 8< ?@8H;>AL >B?@028BL ;N459 4><>9. > MB8 ;N48 ?@>AB> =5 <>3;8 A845BL 4><0, :>340 8E :><?0=8O 2 1545. K;8 A;CG08, :>340 @01>G85 2>72@0I0;8AL 2 :><?0=8N, G8AB8;8 ?><5I5=8O, ?>4AB@830;8 307>=K, 1@0;8AL 70 ;N1CN A;CG09=CN @01>BC. 4=0 :><?0=8O M;5:B@>1KB>2KE ?@81>@>2 ?>A;0;0 @01>G8E 2 <5AB=K5 <03078=K M;5:B@>B>20@>2 ?>@01>B0BL 15A?;0B=> 2 ?><>IL @>7=8G=K< B>@3>2F0<, :>B>@K5 B0:65 =5A;8 C1KB:8. 45O MB>3> 8AE>48;0 2>2A5 =5 >B 04<8=8AB@0F88. =0 8AE>48;0 >B A0<8E @01>G8E, :>B>@K5 ?>=8<0;8, GB> 8E @01>G85 <5AB0 7028AOB >B AC4L1K :><?0=88. =5 @0AA:07K20;8 >1 >4=>< C2>;5==>< @01>G5< 87 A0:8, :>B>@K9 25@=C;AO =0 A2>9 702>4 8 ?@87=0;AO :>@@5A?>=45=BC, GB> 53> ?@8ABK48;0 65=0: «0: BK <>65HL A845BL 25AL 45=L 4><0, A;>60 @C:8, A:070;0 >=0, :>340 B2>O :><?0=8O 2 1545?» >=5G=>, B0: 1K;> =5 2A5340.  M?>EC M9478, :>340 470910FC 1K;8 M:>=><8G5A:8<8 ?@028B5;O<8 AB@0=K, ;N1CN ?>?KB:C >@30=870F88 @01>G8E :;59<8;8 :0: @048:0;L=CN 8;8, 5I5 EC65, :0: :><<C=8AB8G5A:CN, 0 :><<C=8ABK 1K;8 >1JO2;5=K 2=5 70:>=0. > 2>9=K =5 1K;> ?>4;8==>9 45<>:@0B88. (0EB5@K, <5B0;;C@38 8 D01@8G=K5 @01>G85 ?>425@30;8AL 65AB>:>9 M:A?;C0B0F88. !8AB5<0 ?>687=5==>3> =09<0 =>A8;0 2 B5 4=8 >4=>AB>@>==89 E0@0:B5@. -B> 7=0G8B, GB> >B @01>G8E B@51>20;8 A>E@0=OBL 25@=>ABL ?@8=F8?C «A;C68BL B>;L:> >4=><C E>7O8=C». > ?@54?@8=8<0B5;L 2A5340 <>3 C2>;8BL ;N1>3> 87 A2>8E @01>G8E. N459 <>6=> 1K;> C2>;L=OBL 157 ?@54C?@5645=8O. !8AB5<0 CG5=8G5AB20 B>65 ?>;L7>20;0AL ?5G0;L=>9 A;02>9. 0;> :B> 87 <>;>4KE ;N459 <>65B A53>4=O 55 ?@54AB028BL. >340 CG5=8: =0=8<0;AO 2 CA;C65=85 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;N, 5<C =5A:>;L:> ;5B ?@8E>48;>AL @01>B0BL 15A?;0B=>. #G5=8:8 @01>B0;8 ?> 45AOBL-425=04F0BL G0A>2 2 45=L 8 8<5;8 2 A@54=5< >48=-420 2KE>4=KE 4=O 2 <5AOF. !@07C ?>A;5 2>9=K, :>340 2ABC?8;8 2 A8;C =>2K5 ;815@0;L=K5 70:>=K > B@C45, <=>385 187=5A<5=K 1>O;8AL, GB> MB8 70:>=K ?@8254CB O?>=A:CN ?@><KH;5==>ABL : :@0EC. >MB><C, E>BO A8AB5<0, =5 ?>72>;ONI0O C2>;L=OBL @01>G8E, 2>7<>6=>, :070;0AL >?0A=>9, O?>=A:85 187=5A<5=K ?@>H;8 B@C4=K9 ?5@8>4, ?KB0OAL 8A?>;L7>20BL A8BC0F8N 2 A2>8E 8=B5@5A0E. =8 4>AB83;8 MB>3>, @072820O 845N ?@54?@8OB8O :0: A5<L8 8 872;5:0O ;CGH55 87 B>3>, GB> >=8 AG8B0;8 ?;>E8<. =8 A>740;8 =>2CN 8 ?@>G=CN A8AB5<C. 4=>2@5<5==> ?@>8AE>48;> B0:65 8 ?@5>1@07>20=85 04<8=8AB@0F88. "5?5@L, :>340 470910FC ?5@5AB0;8 ACI5AB2>20BL, 0 A5<59=K5 A>AB>O=8O ?@0:B8G5A:8 ;8:2848@>20=K, 2A5 AB0;8 B@C4OI8<8AO. 5A<>B@O =8 =0 GB>, =0< ?>257;>, GB> ?>A;5 2>9=K =0< =02O70;8 =>2K5 8458 2 >B=>H5=88 @01>G59 A8;K. 458, :>B>@K5 70?04=K5 AB@0=K CA2>8;8 B>;L:> ?>A;5 45AOB8;5B89 M:A?;C0B0F88 @01>G8E 8 1>@L1K B@C4OI8EAO.  B> =54>1@>5 AB0@>5 2@5<O =5 2A5 187=5A<5=K 1K;8 M:A?;C0B0B>@0<8, => AB0@><>4=K9 ?0B5@=0;87< >B;8G05BAO >B 8458 >1I59 AC4L1K 8 M30;8B0@=>9 A8AB5<K, :>B>@0O ACI5AB2C5B A53>4=O. / =5 286C =8G53> E>@>H53> 2 C2>;L=5=88 ;N459. A;8 04<8=8AB@0F8O 845B =0 @8A: 8 15@5B =0 A51O >B25BAB25==>ABL, =0=8<0O @01>G8E, B> 55 4>;3 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K >15A?5G8BL 8< @01>BC. 0=OBK9 @01>G89 =5 =5A5B >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 ?@8=OB>5 @5H5=85, ?>G5<C 65 2> 2@5<O A?040 >= 4>;65= AB@040BL 87-70 @5H5=8O 04<8=8AB@0F88 27OBL 53> =0 @01>BC? >MB><C 2> 2@5<5=0 1C<0 <K ?@>O2;O5< 1>;LHCN >AB>@>6=>ABL 2 45;5 C25;8G5=8O G8A;5==>AB8 =0H53> ?5@A>=0;0. A;8 C6 <K =0=O;8 ;N459, <K AB0@05<AO >1JOA=8BL 8< =0HC 845N :><?0=88, A2O70==>9 548=>9 AC4L1>9, 8 3>2>@8< 8<, GB> 2 A;CG05 A?040 :><?0=8O ?>65@B2C5B ?@81K;O<8, GB>1K A>E@0=8BL A2>8E @01>G8E. < B>65, 2>7<>6=>, ?@845BAO ?>65@B2>20BL C25;8G5=85< 70@01>B=>9 ?;0BK 8 ?@>G8<8 4>?>;=8B5;L=K<8 2K?;0B0<8, ?>B><C GB> <K 2A5 4>;6=K 45;8BL B@C4=>AB8. =8 7=0NB, GB> 04<8=8AB@0F8O =5 B@0B8B MB8 45=L38 =0 A51O.  =0H59 A8AB5<5 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 2K?;0BK ?>;CG0NB B>;L:> @01>G85. , :0: O C65 3>2>@8; ?@5645, C?@02;ONI85 =5 ?>;CG0NB 1>;LH>3> 2KE>4=>3> ?>A>18O, 5A;8 =5 AG8B0BL ?>687=5==>3> 30@0=B8@>20==>3> =09<0 8 2>7<>6=>AB8 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 B5G5=85 2A59 687=8.  :>340 :><?0=8O 2 1545, 70@01>B=CN ?;0BC A=860NB ?@5645 2A53> C?@02;ONI8<, 0 ?>B>< C65 @01>B=8:0< <;04H53> 725=0. / =5 E>GC, GB>1K <>8 C?@02;ONI85 AG8B0;8 A51O ;N4L<8 2KAH53> A>@B0, 871@0==K<8 1>3><, GB>1K 25AB8 3;C?KE ;N459 : GC45A0<. 8@ 187=5A0 8<55B A2>8 >A>15==>AB8. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 <8@5 8A:CAAB20 =8:B> =5 ?@87=05B G5;>25:0 0@B8AB><, 5A;8 B>B =5 >:065BAO 2K40NI8<AO, 1;5ABOI8< <0AB5@><, 28@BC>7><. 8:B> =5 AB0; 1K ?;0B8BL 45=L38, GB>1K ?>A;CH0BL 83@C >@>28F0, 5<?D0 8;8 !5@:8=0, 5A;8 1K MB8 ;N48 =5 1K;8 2K40NI8<8AO 8A?>;=8B5;O<8. 5 1C45B ?@5C25;8G5=85< =0720BL B0:8<8 65 <0AB5@0<8 :0=0B>E>4F0 2 F8@:5 8;8 ?8;>B0-0A0. A5 >=8 >1;040NB 2KA>G09H59 B5E=8:>9, ?@8>1@5B5==>9 ;8HL ?>A;5 4>;38E 8 C?>@=KE B@5=8@>2>:.  A0<>5 206=>5, >=8 7=0NB, GB> 7@8B5;8 A@07C 65 70<5BOB 8E ;N1CN, 4065 =57=0G8B5;L=CN >H81:C. -B> <>65B ?>3C18BL 2AN 8E :0@L5@C, 0 4;O F8@:0G0 >H81:0 <>65B >:070BLAO D0B0;L=>9. A;8 65 3>2>@8BL > <5=546<5=B5, B> C4828B5;L=>5 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> <5=5465@ <>65B 3>40<8 A>25@H0BL >H81:8, :>B>@K5 =8:B> =5 A>7=05B. -B> >1JOA=O5BAO B5<, GB> 8A:CAAB2> <5=546<5=B0, =5A<>B@O =0 @01>BC 0@20@4A:>9 H:>;K 187=5A0 8 4@C38E 702545=89, 0 B0:65 @0ABCI55 G8A;> >1;040B5;59 2KA>:8E AB5?5=59 2 45;5 C?@02;5=8O 187=5A><, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5GB> =5C;>28<>5, > G5< =5 2A5340 <>6=> AC48BL ?> 8B>30< A;54CNI53> :20@B0;0. 5=5465@K <>3CB 45<>=AB@8@>20BL ?@5:@0A=K5 8B>38 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O ?>3C18BL 2AN :><?0=8N, 5A;8 >=8 =5 45;0NB :0?8B0;>2;>65=89 @048 1C4CI53>. / AG8B0N, GB> > :0G5AB20E <5=5465@0 =04> AC48BL ?> B><C, :0: E>@>H> >= <>65B >@30=87>20BL 1>;LH>5 G8A;> ;N459 8 =0A:>;L:> MDD5:B82=> >= <>65B 4>1820BLAO =08;CGH8E @57C;LB0B>2 >B :064>3> 87 =8E, A;820O 8E 2 548=>5 F5;>5. >B GB> B0:>5 <5=546<5=B. = =0G8=05BAO =5 A 8B>3>2 2 10;0=A>2>< >BG5B5, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL A2545=K A53>4=O A 0:B82=K< A0;L4>, 0 702B@0 A 45D8F8B><, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, GB> 2K 45;05B5. / =5402=> A:070; <>8< C?@02;ONI8<: «K =5 4>;6=K 87>1@060BL ?5@54 A2>8<8 @01>G8<8 0@B8AB0, :>B>@K9 E>48B ?> =0BO=CB>9 ?@>2>;>:5 ?>4 :C?>;>< F8@:0. K 4>;6=K ?>:070BL 8<, :0: 2K AB0@05B5AL C1548BL 1>;LH>5 G8A;> ;N459 4>1@>2>;L=> 8 A M=BC7807<>< A;54>20BL 70 20<8, GB>1K A>459AB2>20BL CA?5EC :><?0=88. A;8 2K A<>65B5 4>AB8GL MB>3>, E>@>H85 8B>38 ?>;CG0BAO A0<8». !CI5AB2C5B <=>3> AB8;59 C?@02;5=8O, 8 =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E 40NB ?@5:@0A=K5 @57C;LB0BK B>;L:> 2 B5E CA;>28OE, 2 :>B>@KE >=8 A;>68;8AL. "0:, =0?@8<5@, «!>=8 <5@8:0» A 1972 ?> 1978 3>4 =0E>48;0AL ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< %0@28 (59=0, 8 ?@8 =5< =0H0 0<5@8:0=A:0O :><?0=8O 459AB28B5;L=> ?@>F25B0;0. 3> ?>4E>4 =5 1K; O?>=A:8<, => >= >A=>2K20;AO =0 G8AB>9, 65;57=>9, ?@O<>9 8 OA=>9 ;>38:5. 025@=>5, 8<5==> MB> ?>=@028;>AL <=5 2 =5<, :>340 O 25; A =8< ?5@53>2>@K > A>740=88 A>2<5AB=>3> ?@54?@8OB8O «!8-18-MA  !>=8». 4=0:> ?@>1;5<0 ;>38G5A:8E 83@ 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> 2 =8E =5B <5AB0 4;O G5;>25G5A:>3> D0:B>@0. 0H0 AB0@><>4=0O :><?0=8O A5<59=>3> B8?0 2K3;O45;0 2 !( =5>1KG=> 8;8 AB@0==>, E>BO ">< #>BA>= ?@52@0B8;  " 2 8=4CAB@80;L=K9 3830=B, 8A?>;L7CO =5:>B>@K5 87 <5B>4>2 =0H59 ?>;8B8:8 >@85=B0F88 =0 @01>B=8:>2. !@548 =51>;LH8E :>=F5@=>2 2 !( 1K;> 5I5 =5A:>;L:> B0:8E :><?0=89. > X. (59= =5 25@8;, GB> C?@02;585 B0:>3> B8?0 1C45B A?>A>1AB2>20BL @>ABC «!>=8 <5@8:0». K <=>3> 3>2>@8;8 >1 MB><, 8 O 40; 5<C @07@5H5=85 =0 @0F8>=0;870F8N :><?0=88. / AG8B0;, GB> MB> 1C45B 8=B5@5A=K9 8 4>?CAB8<K9 M:A?5@8<5=B. = ?>;=>ABLN 0<5@8:0=878@>20; :><?0=8N 8 ?@5:@0A=> A?@028;AO A MB8< 45;><. = =01@0; =>2CN 3@C??C AB0@H8E 04<8=8AB@0B>@>2, C2>;82 =5:>B>@KE 87 ?@56=59 3@C??K, 8 225; 1N465B=CN A8AB5<C, :>B>@0O ?>72>;O;0 45@60BL 2A5 ?>4 65AB:8< D8=0=A>2K< :>=B@>;5<.  ?@545;0E !( >= 4065 A0< ;5B0; BC@8AB8G5A:8< :;0AA><. = CG8BK20; 2A5 8745@6:8, 0 GB> :0A05BAO ?>;CG5=8O ?@81K;59, B> 2 MB>< 5<C =5 1K;> @02=KE.  1975 3>4C, :>340 <K 1K;8 3>B>2K 2K9B8 =0 @K=>: A «5B0<0:A><», :>B>@K9 4>;65= 1K; AB0BL 2 1C4CI5< =0H8< «8AB>G=8:>< =0;8G=KE», O =0<5B8; H8@>:CN @5:;0<=CN :0<?0=8N 2 AB@0=5, :>B>@CN ?@54?>;030;>AL >ACI5AB28BL, =5 4C<0O > @0AE>40E. / AG8B0;, GB> 4;O >7=0:><;5=8O ?C1;8:8 A MB8< ?5@2K< 4><0H=8< :0AA5B=K< 2845><03=8B>D>=>< =5>1E>48<0 H8@>:0O :0<?0=8O, ?>B><C GB> MB> 1K;0 ?5@20O A8AB5<0 B0:>3> @>40, 8 =04> 1K;> ?>:070BL, :0: 53> 8A?>;L7>20BL 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8 8 :0: A45;0BL 53> ?>;57=K< ?@54<5B><, 0 =5 ?@>AB> 83@CH:>9. > <>9 ?@57845=B «!>=8 <5@8:0» («!>-=0<») =5 E>B5; B@0B8BL 45=L38. = 3>2>@8;, GB> 5A;8 <K ?>B@0B8< 1>;LH85 A@54AB20 =0 @5:;0<C 8 5A;8 >= =5 A<>65B >15A?5G8BL 4>AB0B>G=> H8@>:89 A1KB, <K ?>B5@O5< 45=L38. / 2=>2L 8 2=>2L 3>2>@8; 5<C: «%0@28, =04> 65 B0:65 4C<0BL >1 >B40G5, :>B>@CN <K ?>;CG8< G5@57 ?OBL-45AOBL ;5B, 0 =5 B>;L:> A59G0A». # =53> 1K;8 A>1AB25==K5 ?;0=K 22545=8O =>2>3> B>20@0 =0 @K=>: 8 >= AG8B0; 8E C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=K<8, O 65 =5B. > <5@5 B>3> :0: ?@81;860;0AL 40B0 451NB0 =>2>3> B>20@0, <5=O =0G0; 15A?>:>8BL 2>?@>A > B><, :0:>9 1C45B MB0 :0<?0=8O 8 :0:>2K 1C4CB 55 @57C;LB0BK. '5< 1>;LH5 O C7=020; > =59, B5< 1>;LH5 @>A;0 <>O B@52>30. / AG8B0;, GB> :0<?0=8O =5 ?@>872545B 4>AB0B>G=> A8;L=>3> 2?5G0B;5=8O, >B25G0NI53> =>20B>@A:>9 ACB8 MB>9 =>28=:8. "5< ;5B>< O >B4KE0; 2<5AB5 A A5<L59 2 =0H5< :>BB5465 2 0@C847025 8 =8:0: =5 <>3 2K1@>A8BL 87 3>;>2K <KA;8 > 451NB5 «5B0<0:A0». / E>B5;, GB>1K >= ?@>H5; >H5;><;ONI5, 70E20B8; 2>>1@065=85 0<5@8:0=F52 8 ?>:070; 8<, :0: MB0 0??0@0BC@0 <>65B 87<5=8BL 8E 687=L.  2 MB><-B> O 1K; C25@5=.  BC =>GL O ?>H5; A?0BL 2 2>;=5=88. / =5 <>3 70A=CBL, :@CB8;AO 8 25@B5;AO 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 B5@?5BL C65 =5 1K;> A8;.  A5@548=5 =>G8 O AE20B8;AO 70 B5;5D>= 8 ?>72>=8; %0@28. = =0E>48;AO =0 :0:><-B> A>25I0=88 2 LN->@:5. / 2KB0I8; 53> >BBC40 8 702>?8; 2 B@C1:C: «A;8 2K 2 1;8609H85 420 <5AOF0 =5 ?>B@0B8B5 >48=-420 <8;;8>=0 4>;;0@>2 =0 @5:;0<C «5B0<0:A0», O 20A C2>;N». / =8:>340 =5 3>2>@8; =8G53> ?>4>1=>3>, 8 >= =8:>340 =5 A;KH0;, GB>1K O B0: :@8G0;. -B> ?@>8725;> 2?5G0B;5=85, 8 <=5 AB0;> ;53G5. = ?>B@0B8; MB8 45=L38, 8 «5B0<0:A» 1K; ?@54AB02;5= ?>4>10NI8< >1@07><. > ?>74=55 O >1=0@C68;, GB> 2 «!>=0<5» ?@>AB> 27O;8 45=L38 87 4@C38E >B45;>2 :><?0=88, B0: GB> =0H8 >1I85 @0AE>4K =0 @5:;0<C =5 1K;8 ?@52KH5=K. -B> >7=0G0;> A>:@0I5=85 1N465B0 =0 @5:;0<C 0C48>A8AB5< 8 B5;5287>@>2, ?@>4060 :>B>@KE H;0 B>340 >G5=L 0:B82=>. KBL <>65B, 5A;8 1K 1N465B =0 8E @5:;0<C =5 1K; C@570= 4;O @5:;0<K «5B0<0:A0», 8E A1KB 1K; 5I5 1>;55 0:B82=K<. > O MB>3> =8:>340 =5 C7=0N. ;02=0O B@C4=>ABL A 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 @C:>2>48B5;O<8 :><?0=88 «!>=0<» 2 ?5@2K5 4=8 55 ACI5AB2>20=8O ?@8 %0@28 (59=5, 70:;NG0;0AL 2 B><, GB> 8E 3;02=>9 F5;LN 1K;> ?>;CG5=85 ?@81K;59. ! <>59 B>G:8 7@5=8O, AB>;L 2KA>:85 ?@81K;8 =5 =C6=K, ?>B><C GB> 0:F8>=5@K O?>=A:8E :><?0=89 =5 B@51CNB =5<54;5==>9 >B40G8. 0?@>B82, >=8 ?@54?>G8B0NB 4;8B5;L=K9 @>AB 8 C25;8G5=85 ?@81K;59 2 1C4CI5<. 0H8 10=:8 ?@54>AB02;ONB A>;84=K5 709<K ?>4 2K3>4=K5 ?@>F5=BK. 07C<55BAO, <K 4>;6=K ?>;CG0BL ?@81K;L, => <K 4>;6=K ?>;CG0BL ?@81K;L 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O, 0 =5 B>;L:> 2 B5G5=85 :>@>B:>3> ?5@8>40, 0 MB> 7=0G8B, GB> <K 4>;6=K >ACI5AB2;OBL :0?8B0;>2;>65=8O 2 =0CG=K5 8AA;54>20=8O 8 >?KB=>-:>=AB@C:B>@A:85 @01>BK  >=8 ?>AB>O==> A>AB02;ONB >:>;> H5AB8 ?@>F5=B>2 >B >1J5<0 ?@>406 «!>=8», 0 B0:65 2 B5E=8G5A:>5 >1A;C6820=85. !;8H:>< G0AB> ?@>2>73;0H0;0AL <KA;L > B><, GB> B5E=8G5A:>5 >1A;C6820=85 =5 =C6=>, 8 :>340 MB0 D8;>A>D8O >45@60;0 25@E, :0G5AB2> >1A;C6820=8O @57:> C?0;>. %@0=5=85 45B0;59 >7=0G05B 70<>@06820=85 :0?8B0;0 2 B>20@=KE 70?0A0E, =587156=CN ?>B5@N ?@>F5=B>2. >MB><C, 3>2>@8;8 <=5, A>3;0A=> 65;57=>9 ;>38:5 0@20@4A:>9 H:>;K 187=5A0 =04> ?@5645 2A53> C<5=LH8BL 70?0AK 45B0;59 4;O B5E=8G5A:>3> >1A;C6820=8O. >340 <K ?;0=8@>20;8 >B:@KBL 1>;LH>9 F5=B@ >1A;C6820=8O 2 0=70A-!8B8, GB>1K A>740BL H8@>:CN A5BL >1A;C6820=8O, <=5 1K;> >G5=L B@C4=> C1548BL @C:>2>4AB2> «!>=0<» 2 B><, GB> MB> =C6=0O 8 E>@>H0O 845O. / 2=>2L 8 2=>2L 4>:07K20; %0@28 (59=C 8 4@C38<, GB>, M:>=><O 45=L38 2<5AB> B>3>, GB>1K 2:;04K20BL 8E 2 45;>, <>6=> ?>;CG0BL ?@81K;L ;8HL 2 B5G5=85 :>@>B:>3> A@>:0, => D0:B8G5A:8 2K B5< A0<K< ?@52@0I05B5 2 =0;8G=K5 =0:>?;5=8O, A45;0==K5 2 ?@>H;><. >;CG0BL ?@81K;L 206=>. > =5>1E>48<> 2:;04K20BL 45=L38, GB>1K 45;0BL =0:>?;5=8O, :>B>@K5 <>6=> 1C45B ?@52@0B8BL 2 =0;8G=K5 2 1C4CI5<. !53>4=O 2 M;5:B@>==>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 2A5 <5=O5BAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 1KAB@>. 48=AB25==>5, 2 G5< <K <>65< 1KBL C25@5=K, B0: MB> 2 B><, GB> =0H 187=5A =8:>340 =5 >AB0=>28BAO. 564C :><?0=8O<8 2 /?>=88 845B >65AB>G5==0O :>=:C@5=F8O. B ?@>ABKE <03=8B>D>=>2 <K ?5@5H;8 : 2845><03=8B>D>=0< 8 :><?0:B-48A:0<, >B @048>;0<? : B@0=78AB>@0<, ?>;C?@>2>4=8:0<, 8=B53@0;L=K< AE5<0<, A25@E1>;LH8< 8=B53@0;L=K< AE5<0<, 0 2 1C4CI5< <K <>65< 70=OBLAO 18>G8?0<8. -B> ?>ABC?0B5;L=>5 @0728B85 B5E=8:8 :>340-=81C4L ?>72>;8B ;N4O< 8<5BL 4><0 B0:CN 0??0@0BC@C, :>B>@CN A53>4=O ?@>AB> B@C4=> A515 ?@54AB028BL. C4CI55 AC;8B <=>3> 8=B5@5A=>3>. >65B ?>:070BLAO AB@0==K<, => O ?@8H5; : 2K2>4C, GB> 2@03>< MB8E =>2>22545=89 <>65B >:070BLAO 20H5 A>1AB25==0O >@30=870F8O ?> A1KBC, 5A;8 40BL 59 A;8H:>< <=>3> 2>;8, ?>A:>;L:C >G5=L G0AB> MB8 >@30=870F88 B>@<>7OB ?@>3@5AA. A;8 2K ?@>872>48B5 ?@8=F8?80;L=> =>2K5 B>20@K, 20< A;54C5B ?>2B>@OBL @01>BC A ?@>402F0<8 A B5<, GB>1K >=8 <>3;8 @5:;0<8@>20BL 8E ?C1;8:5, 0 MB> B@51C5B 70B@0B. !:070==>5 >7=0G05B >ACI5AB2;5=85 8=25AB8F89 2   8 =>2K5 702>4K, 0 B0:65 2 @5:;0<C 8 AB8<C;8@>20=85 A1KB0. > MB> B0:65 >7=0G05B, GB> =5:>B>@K5 ?>?C;O@=K5 8 ?@81K;L=K5 B>20@K CAB0@520NB, ?@8G5< 70G0ABCN 8<5==> B5 B>20@K, :>B>@K5 4020;8 20< =081>;LHCN ?@81K;L, ?>B><C GB> 8745@6:8 =0 8E A>740=85 C65 >:C?8;8 A51O 8 20H8< ?@>402F0< ;53:> 8E ?@>4020BL. > 5A;8 2K AB0=5B5 4C<0BL B>;L:> > ?@81K;OE, 2K =5 C2848B5 >B:@K20NI8EAO 2?5@548 2>7<>6=>AB59.  B0<, 345 :><?5=A0F8O A2O70=0 A ?@81K;O<8, :0: 2 1>;LH8=AB25 0<5@8:0=A:8E :><?0=89, C?@02;ONI89 >G5=L G0AB> 3>2>@8B: «0G5< <=5 65@B2>20BL A53>4=O A>1AB25==K<8 ?@81K;O<8 @048 ?0@=O, :>B>@K9 G5@57 =5A:>;L:> ;5B A<5=8B <5=O =0 MB>< ?>ABC?»  !( 8 2@>?5 <5=5465@K A;8H:>< G0AB> 1@>A0NB @01>BC =04 ?5@A?5:B82=K< B>20@><, ?>B><C GB> 8745@6:8 =0 >?KB=>-:>=AB@C:B>@A:85 @01>BK :06CBAO 8< G5@5AGC@ 2KA>:8<8. -B> 25AL<0 1;87>@C:0O ?>;8B8:0, :>B>@0O <>65B ?@825AB8 : ?>B5@5 :>=:C@5=B>A?>A>1=>AB8. =>340 ?@>402FK AB>OB ?5@54 ?C1;8:>9, => D0:B8G5A:8 =5 @C:>2>4OB 5N. >340 <K 2?5@2K5 2K?CAB8;8 =0 @K=>: =0H ?>@B0B82=K9 G5@=>-15;K9 2845><03=8B>D>= «.<0B8:», <K ?>GB8 BCB 65 ?>;CG8;8 >B >4=>3> 0<5@8:0=A:>3> >?B>28:0 70:07 =0 ?OBL BKAOG 2845><03=8B>D>=>2. / A:070; 5<C, GB> B0:>9 70:07, ?>-2848<><C, 1K; A;8H:>< 25;8: 4;O B>340H=53> @K=:0. 0;> :B> 1K; B>340 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 3>B>2 :C?8BL B0:CN B5E=8:C. / A:070;, GB> :>340 8<55HL 45;> A B0:8< ?@8=F8?80;L=> =>2K< B>20@><, :0: «.<0B8:», =5>1E>48<0 ?>43>B>28B5;L=0O @01>B0: ?@5645 G5< =045OBLAO =0 CA?5E =0 @K=:5, =04> ?>43>B>28BL 4;O =53> 107C, @01>B0O A 70:07G8:0<8. # O?>=A:8E A04>2>4>2 5ABL >A2OI5==K5 2@5<5=5< ?@85<K ?>43>B>2:8 45@520 : ?5@5A04:5 ?>A@54AB2>< ?>AB5?5==>3> 8 >AB>@>6=>3> ?5@52O7K20=8O :>@=59 =0 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O, GB>1K ?>AB5?5==> ?@8A?>A>18BL 45@52> : @57:8< ?5@5<5=0<, :>B>@K5 5<C ?@54AB>8B 8A?KB0BL. -B>B ?@>F5AA, :>B>@K9 =07K205BAO =M<020A8, B@51C5B 2@5<5=8 8 B5@?5=8O, => 5A;8 2K 2A5 A45;0;8 ?@028;L=>, 20H8< 2>7=03@0645=85< AB0=5B 74>@>2>5 ?5@5A065==>5 45@52>. 5:;0<0 8 AB8<C;8@>20=85 A1KB0 ?@8=F8?80;L=> =>2>3> B>20@0 8<55B B0:>5 65 206=>5 7=0G5=85. 'B> :0A05BAO ?5@2KE «.<0B8:>2», B> 4;O ?>43>B>2:8 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?C1;8:8 : MB><C =>2><C 87>1@5B5=8N ?>GB8 =8G53> =5 1K;> A45;0=>, 8 O =5 1K; C482;5=, GB> MB>B >?B>28: 8 @>7=8G=K5 B>@3>2FK =5 A<>3;8 8E ?@>40BL. 0B5< @07>G0@>20==K9 MB>9 =5C40G59 >?B>28: A>25@H8; A0<CN 3@C1CN, A =0H59 B>G:8 7@5=8O, >H81:C. = 7=0G8B5;L=> CF5=8; 8E, GB>1K ?@>40BL, =0=5AO C40@ ?> =0H59 @5?CB0F88. 5=O 8=>340 >128=ONB 2 B><, GB> O A;8H:>< 1KAB@> 42830NAL, A;8H:>< =5B5@?5;82 (<>8 A>B@C4=8:8 87 =LN-9>@:A:>3> D8;80;0 >4=064K ?@5?>4=5A;8 <=5 2 ?>40@>: :@0A=CN :0A:C ?>60@=8:0, ?>B><C GB>, ?> 8E A;>20<, O 2A5340 A?5HC). > C <5=O 5ABL B0:65 A2>53> @>40 H5AB>5 GC2AB2> =0 ;N459 8 B>20@K, :>B>@>5 ?>A@0<;O5B ;>38:C. 'B>-B> ?>4A:07K20;> <=5, GB> 4;O H8@>:>9 ?@>4068 ?>@B0B82=KE 2845><03=8B>D>=>2 @K=>: 5I5 =5 A>7@5;, 8 O >:070;AO ?@02. 4=0 B>;L:> @5:;0<0 8 <5@K ?> A>459AB28N A1KBC =5 A<>3CB ?><>GL ?;>E><C B>20@C 8;8 B>20@C, 4;O :>B>@>3> 5I5 =5 =0ABC?8;> 2@5<O. ><0H=85 2845><03=8B>D>=K >:070;8AL =C6=K< B>20@>< 8 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O ?>;L7CNBAO CA?5E><, => 8E 2@5<O ?@8H;> =5<=>3> ?>765. 045NAL, GB> =0 ;N459 C <5=O B0:>5 65 GCBL5, :0: =0 B>20@K. C<0N, GB> A@548 ;N459, :>B>@KE O ?@8=O; =0 @01>BC, 1>;LH5 B2>@G5A:8 >40@5==KE @01>B=8:>2, G5< ?>A@54AB25==>AB59. =8 =5 2A5340 A>3;0A=K A> <=>9, => MB>, :>=5G=>, ?@5:@0A=>. 4=8< 87 ;CGH8E ?@8<5@>2 MB>3> <>65B A;C68BL >@8> E30, <>;>4>9 ABC45=B <C7K:0;L=>3> D0:C;LB5B0, :>B>@K9 7040; 2 1947 3>4C B0: <=>3> 45@7:8E 2>?@>A>2 =0H8< ?@>402F0<, GB> >=8 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 4>AB028;8 53> 2 :><?0=8N, GB>1K >= ?>3>2>@8; A 8=65=5@0<8. E30 <=>3> ;5B :>=AC;LB8@>20; =0A :0: <C7K:0=B, ?@5645 G5< 2>H5; 2 :><?0=8N «!>=8». = A45;0; >4=C 87 =0H8E ?5@2KE 70?8A59 =0 <03=8B>D>==CN ;5=BC :>=F5@B0 >@:5AB@0 ">:89A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 8A:CAAB2, 2 :>B>@>< >= A0< A>;8@>20;, 8A?>;=OO ?0@B8N 10@8B>=0 2 «5<5F:>< @5:285<5» @0<A0. / ?@8;030; 1>;LH85 CA8;8O, GB>1K ?@82;5GL 53> : @01>B5 2 04<8=8AB@0F88 «!>=8», => >= A>?@>B82;O;AO 87> 2A5E A8;. >340 >= 5I5 ABC45=B>< 2?5@2K5 ?@8H5; 2 «!>=8», >= =0G0; A?>@8BL A> <=>9, =5 7=0O B>G=>, :B> O 8;8 :0:>5 ?>;>65=85 O 70=8<0N. !>B@C4=8:8 C482;O;8AL 53> 45@7>AB8, 8 :>340 O 2KH5; 87 :><=0BK, >= A?@>A8; 8E, :B> O. =8 >B25B8;8: «-B> >@8B0, <8AB5@ «">:8> FCA8= :>3Q». = 3>2>@8B, GB> >= B>340 1K; >G5=L A<CI5=, => O A><=520NAL 2 MB><. -B> O2=> =5 87<5=8;> 53> AB8;L. = C5E0; 2 $  CG8BLAO, 8 <K ?@>A8;8 53> ?8A0BL =0< > B><, GB> B0< 45;05BAO 2 >1;0AB8 M;5:B@>=8:8. / ?>A;0; 5<C >48= 87 =0H8E ?5@2KE B@0=78AB>@=KE @048>?@85<=8:>2, GB>1K ?>E20AB0BLAO, 8 <K ?>445@6820;8 A =8< :>=B0:BK, ?>:0 >= CG8;AO 8 ?5; A2>8 ;N18<K5 @>;8  >;LD@0<0 2 «"0=35975@5», 0 B0:65 703;02=CN @>;L 2 «>= C0=5» 8 @>;L 3@0D0 ;L<0282K 2 «!204L15 $830@>». 0:>=5F, >= 25@=C;AO 2 /?>=8N, 65=8;AO 8 AB0; 4020BL :>=F5@BK 2<5AB5 A 65=>9, ?80=8AB:>9 84>@8 0FC10@>9.  1959 3>4C O ?>?@>A8; 53> ?>5E0BL A> <=>9 2 2@>?C, GB>1K =09B8 =>2KE 035=B>2 4;O ?@>4068 B@0=78AB>@=KE @048>?@85<=8:>2. -B> 1K;0 ?@5:@0A=0O ?>574:0, 8 O =5 ?>4=8<0; @073>2>@0 > 3;02=>9 B5<5, :>B>@CN O 8<5; 2 284C, ?>:0 <K =5 A5;8 =0 ?0@>E>4 «.=09B54 !B59BA», 345 O 2 B5G5=85 G5BK@5E 4=59 8 45AOB8 G0A>2  2> 2@5<O ?;020=8O 87 !0CB3M<?-B>=0 2 LN->@:  70<0=820; 53> 2 ;>2CH:C. > 2@5<O MB>9 ?>574:8 <K <=>3> E>48;8, <=>3> 5;8, 70=8<0;8AL A?>@B>< 8, :>=5G=>, <=>3> 3>2>@8;8. E30, 74>@>2K9 ?0@5=L A 1>G:>>1@07=>9 3@C4=>9 :;5B:>9 8 72CG=K< 3>;>A><, :@8B8:>20; «!>=8», 8 <=5 1K;> >G5=L 8=B5@5A=>, GB> >= A:065B. = =5 AB5A=O;AO 2 2K@065=8OE. « 20H59 :><?0=88 ?>;=> 8=65=5@>2, A:070; >=, 8 ?> B>=C 53> 3>;>A0 O ?>=O;, GB> >= 3>2>@8B MB> =5 :0: :><?;8<5=B. >A:>;L:C MB8 8=65=5@K CG@548;8 :><?0=8N, >=8 ?>;030NB, GB> >=8 4>;6=K ?@>4>;60BL @C:>2>48BL 5N. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O G5;>25:0 A> AB>@>=K, MB0 :><?0=8O AB0@><>4=0 8 5N ?;>E> C?@02;ONB». -B> 1K;0 A2560O B>G:0 7@5=8O 8 =5>6840==0O, ?>A:>;L:C <K 2A5 5I5 2>>1@060;8 A51O A<5;K<8 8 >@838=0;L=K<8 <5=5465@0<8. 0< =5 40=> 1K;> 2845BL B>, GB> >= C2845; A> AB>@>=K, GB> <K, =025@=>5, ?>G8;8 =0 ;02@0E, GB> ?>A;5 45AOB8 ;5B ?@51K20=8O C 2;0AB8 2 :><?0=88 <K CAB0@5;8. = 3>2>@8; 4>2>;L=> 4>;3>, 8 =0:>=5F O A:070;: «@5:@0A=>, ?@8E>48 : =0<, 8 BK 1C45HL >4=8< 87 <5=5465@>2»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«!>=8», =5A<>B@O =0 :@8B8:C E38, 2A5 5I5 >B:07K20;0AL AG8B0BL A51O B@048F8>==>9 :><?0=859.  A2>9 ?5@2K9 3>4 @01>BK 2 :><?0=88 >= ?@8=O; <=>3> =5B@048F8>==KE @5H5=89, 2 G0AB=>AB8 ?5@5<0=8; ?>GB8 A>@>: G5;>25: 87 4@C38E :><?0=89. >340 «!>=8» 1K;0 =>2>9 8 <0;5=L:>9 :><?0=859, =0< A;CG0;>AL ?5@5<0=820BL ;N459 C 4@C38E D8@<, => B5?5@L, :>340 <K B0: @07@>A;8AL, AG8B0;>AL, GB> <K =5 4>;6=K MB>3> 45;0BL, E>BO <K ?@>4>;60;8 8A:0BL B0;0=BK. @><5 B>3>, B0:0O ?>;8B8:0 ?>4@K205B ?@540==>ABL A>B@C4=8:>2 20H59 :><?0=88, ?>A:>;L:C >7=0G05B ?@5=51@568B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : ;N4O<, :>B>@K5 AB0@0NBAO ?@>428=CBLAO. >340 O A>74020; «!>=8», O =0H5; <=>38E @01>B=8:>2 A@548 B>20@8I59 ?> H:>;5, GB> A;C68B >4=8< 87 B@048F8>==KE 8AB>G=8:>2. / 4065 >1@0I0;AO : ;N4O<, A :>B>@K<8 CG8;AO 2 =0G0;L=>9 H:>;5, ?>B><C GB> O 7=0; 8E 8 8E A5<L8. > MB>B 8AB>G=8: 4@C759 8 7=0:><KE 402=> 8AAO:, 8 <=5 ?@8E>48;>AL =0=8<0BL ;N459 4@C38<8 ?CBO<8. E30 2 ?5@2K5 4=8 @01>BK A =0<8 >1KG=> ?@>A<0B@820; A?8A:8 =>2KE 2K?CA:=8:>2 2 :064>9 H:>;5 8 >B<5G0; =0< ?5@A?5:B82=KE CG0I8EAO, :>B>@KE A;54>20;> 27OBL =0 @01>BC.  HYPERLINK "\\MAIL03\biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" >  ". K 2A5 >4=0 A5<LO.  III >340 C 20A C65 5ABL HB0B, A>AB>OI89 87 ?>43>B>2;5==KE, C<=KE 8 M=5@38G=KE ;N459, 2 :0G5AB25 A;54CNI53> H030 =04> AB8<C;8@>20BL 8E B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8. >;3>5 2@5<O =0 O?>=F0E ;560;> :;59<>, GB> >=8 A:>@55 ?>4@060B5;8, G5< B2>@FK. > O AG8B0N >G5284=>9 =5;5?>ABLN CB25@645=85 > B><, GB> 2A5 4>AB865=8O O?>=A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 70 ?>A;54=85 A>@>: ;5B =5 1K;8 B2>@G5A:8<8. 01>BK 2 >1;0AB8 18>B5E=>;>388, B0:8E =>2KE <0B5@80;>2, :0:, =0?@8<5@, :5@0<8:0 8 2>;>:=0, 2 >1;0AB8 >?B>M;5:B@>=8:8 8 4@C38E >1;0ABOE 3>2>@OB A0<8 70 A51O. , @07C<55BAO, =0H 2:;04 2 B5E=>;>38N ?@>872>4AB20 8 :>=B@>;L 70 :0G5AB2>< B>65 1K; B2>@G5A:8<. A5 <K, 1C4CG8 45BL<8, ABC45=B0<8, =>28G:0<8 2 <8@5 187=5A0, CG8<AO, ?>4@060O, 0 ?>B>< <K 2K@0AB05< 8 CG8<AO A>548=OBL =0H8 ?@8@>645==K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 A ?@028;0<8 8 ?@8=F8?0<8, :>B>@K5 <K CA2>8;8. -@ 0:>B> 8:CB8, 48@5:B>@ =0H53> =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>3> F5=B@0, ;N18B =0?><8=0BL > B><, GB> ?>4@060=85  ?5@2K9 H03 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1CG5=8O @515=:0 8 GB> ?5@2>=0G0;L=>5 7=0G5=85 O?>=A:>3> A;>20 «<0=01C» (CG8BLAO)  MB> «<0=M1C» (?>4@060BL). >340 /?>=8O ?>A;5 1>;55 42CE AB>;5B89 87>;OF88 AB0;0 CAB0=02;820BL :>=B0:BK A <8@><, >G5=L <=>3>5 87 B>3>, GB> 1K;> >B:@KB> 8 A>740=> 70 MB8 25:0 70 3@0=8F59, O?>=F0< =5 1K;> 8725AB=>. !;54CO 70 ?@028B5;LAB2>< 8 ?@>A25I5==K< @C:>2>4AB2>< 8<?5@0B>@0 M9478, /?>=8O CAB0=02;820;0 :>=B0:BK A> 2A5< <8@>< 2 ?>8A:0E MB8E «=>2KE» 8459 8 B5E=>;>389.  8725AB=>< A<KA;5 MB> 45;0;>AL 2 F5;OE A0<>>1>@>=K, ?>B><C GB>, :>340 70?04=K5 AB@0=K B@51>20;8, GB>1K /?>=8O >B:@K;0 A2>8 425@8, >=8 B0:65 =02O7K20;8 59 =5@02=>?@02=K5 4>3>2>@K, ?0:BK, :>B>@K5 =5 ?>72>;O;8 /?>=88 70I8I0BL A2>N M:>=><8:C 8 =0E>482HCNAO 2 70G0B>G=>< A>AB>O=88 ?@><KH;5==>ABL. !>740=85 A8;L=>9 ?@><KH;5==>9 107K 2<5AB5 A A8;L=>9 0@<859 :070;>AL 548=AB25==K< A?>A>1>< 2K68BL 2 :0G5AB25 G;5=0 4>2>;L=> 0;G=>3> 8 E8I=>3> <564C=0@>4=>3> A>>1I5AB20. >5-:B> AG8B05B, GB> A?>A>1=>ABL /?>=88 A>740BL =K=5H=NN ?@><KH;5==CN 107C AB@0=K 1K;0 ?@8>1@5B5=0 70 G5BK@5 45AOB8;5B8O, ?@>H54H85 ?>A;5 2B>@>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K, => >=8 ?@>AB> =5 7=0NB 8AB>@88 /?>=88. /?>=8O =0G0;0 A2>9 ?CBL ?@52@0I5=8O 2 8=4CAB@80;L=CN 45@602C 87 3;CE>9 03@0@=>9 87>;OF88 2 ?>A;54=59 B@5B8 452OB=04F0B>3> 25:0, 8 : 1905 3>4C  ?@8 687=8 2A53> >4=>3> ?>:>;5=8O  8=4CAB@80;L=0O 8 M:>=><8G5A:0O <>IL AB@0=K ?>4=O;0AL 4> B0:8E 2KA>B, GB> <0;5=L:0O /?>=8O A =0A5;5=85< >:>;> B@84F0B8 <8;;8>=>2 G5;>25: A<>3;0 =0=5AB8 ?>@065=85 2 2>9=5 :0: 8B0N (1894 1895 3>4K), B0: 8 >AA89A:>9 8<?5@88 (1904 1905 3>4K) . >340 2 2@>?5 =0G0;0AL ?5@20O <8@>20O 2>9=0, /?>=8O 1K;0 :@C?=59H59 2>5==>9 8 8=4CAB@80;L=>9 45@602>9 2 788. "0:>20 8AB>@8O, 8 O =0?><8=0N > =59 B>;L:> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> M:>=><8G5A:>5 GC4>, A>25@H5==>5 /?>=859 ?>A;5 1945 3>40, A;54C5B @0AA<0B@820BL 2 @5B@>A?5:B825.  A0<>< =0G0;5 ?@>F5AA0 @0728B8O ?@028B5;LAB2> M9478 ?>=O;>, GB> >=> <>65B @07@010BK20BL M:>=><8G5A:85 ?;0=K 8 AB028BL F5;8 ?5@54 ?@><KH;5==>ABLN, GB>1K 2K?>;=8BL MB8 ?;0=K. > @C:>2>48B5;8 ?@028B5;LAB20 2A:>@5 >A>7=0;8, GB> >=8 =5 <>3CB @C:>2>48BL 702>40<8 8 D01@8:0<8 8 ?@>872>48BL B>20@K.  ?>MB><C ?@028B5;LAB2> 8 ?@><KH;5==>ABL @07@01>B0;8 A8AB5<C A>B@C4=8G5AB20 8 ?>445@6:8 2 8=B5@5A0E 2A59 AB@0=K. 5:>B>@K5 M;5<5=BK MB>9 A8AB5<K 45<>=B8@CNBAO ;8HL A53>4=O. !@02=820BL MB8 420 ?5@8>40  M@C M9478 8 M@C ?>A;5 B8E>>:50=A:>9 2>9=K  15A?>;57=>. "5< =5 <5=55 A;54C5B >B<5B8BL >48= @078B5;L=K9 D0:B: ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 2>9=K 2A5 O?>=FK 2=5A;8 A2>9 2:;04 2 2>AAB0=>2;5=85 AB@0=K 8 55 <8@=>9 ?@><KH;5==>9 107K.  >=8 2?5@2K5 2 8AB>@88 @0745;8;8 ?;>4K A2>8E CA?5E>2, B0: :0: C@>25=L 687=8 O?>=F52 4>AB83 2KAH8E <8@>2KE C@>2=59. >=5G=>, 2 B5G5=85 MB8E ?>A;54=8E A>@>:0 ;5B /?>=8O 2=>2L 8A:0;0 =>2CN B5E=>;>38N, GB>1K ;8:2848@>20BL A2>5 >BAB020=85 2 >B45;L=KE >1;0ABOE, 8 <K ?>:C?0;8 B5E=8:C 8 B5E=>;>38N 4;O ?@O<>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O, 0 B0:65 4;O 40;L=59H8E @01>B =0 MB>9 >A=>25. /?>=A:85 AB0;5?;028;LI8:8 :C?8;8 B5E=>;>38N :8A;>@>4=>3> ?5@545;0 GC3C=0 2 AB0;L C A>7402H8E 55 02AB@89A:8E :><?0=89. 5 ?@>H;> 8 45AOB8 ;5B, :0: O?>=A:85 :><?0=88 AB0;8 ?@>4020BL MB8< 65 :><?0=8O< CA>25@H5=AB2>20==CN B5E=>;>38N ?@>872>4AB20 AB0;8. >6=> ?@825AB8 8 4@C3>9 ?@8<5@. K 2 «!>=8» 27O;8 >A=>2=>9 B@0=78AB>@ 8 ?5@545;0;8 53> 4;O =0H8E F5;59, :>B>@K5 =5 A<>3;8 ?@542845BL 87>1@5B0B5;8 B@0=78AB>@0. K A45;0;8 A>25@H5==> =>2K9 B@0=78AB>@, 8 2 E>45 =0H8E >?KB=>-:>=AB@C:B>@A:8E @01>B >48= 87 =0H8E CG5=KE, 5> -A0:8, ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20; BC==5;L=K9 MDD5:B, :>B>@K9 ?@825; : A>740=8N BC==5;L=>3> 48>40, 70 GB> >= A5<=04F0BL ;5B A?CABO, ?>A;5 B>3> :0: ?5@5H5; 2 «», ?>;CG8; >15;52A:CN ?@5<8N. / 1K; 2 ?@02;5=88 « C>@;4 B@594», :>340 AB0;> 8725AB=> >1 MB>9 ?@5<88, 8 :0: @07 2 B> 2@5<O ?@8ACBAB2>20; =0 70A540=88 ?@02;5=8O «» 2 0@865. 48= 87 ?><>I=8:>2 ?5@540; MB> A>>1I5=85 ?@54A540B5;N ?@02;5=8O «» $@M=:C M@8 2> 2@5<O =0H53> 70A540=8O, 8 M@8 A 3>@4>ABLN A>>1I8; G;5=0< ?@02;5=8O, GB> CG5=K9 87 «» 2?5@2K5 702>520; >15;52A:CN ?@5<8N. =, :>=5G=>, 25AL A8O;, 8 2A5 :@C3>< 0?;>48@>20;8. ">340 : =5<C ?>4>H5; @C:>2>48B5;L >B45;0 =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89 «» 4>:B>@ -<0=CM;L 8>@8 8 ?>B8E>=L:C >1JOA=8; 8AB>@8N MB>9 ?@5<88. >340 $. M@8 ?>4>H5; :> <=5, O A:070; B>;L:>: «K >G5=L 4>2>;L=K». >=5G=>, O <=>3>5 <>3 A:070BL. >15;52A:0O ?@5<8O -A0:8 1K;0 ?5@2>9 >15;52A:>9 ?@5<859 O?>=A:><C CG5=><C, @01>B0NI5<C 2 ?@><KH;5==>AB8. A5 ?@>G85 ;0C@50BK 1K;8 ?@>D5AA>@0<8.  «!>=8» 1K;0 A@02=8B5;L=> >G5=L <>;>4>9 :><?0=859 2 O?>=A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8. >:B>@ 8:CB8, 48@5:B>@ =0H53> =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:>3> F5=B@0, 3>2>@8B, GB>, :0:85 1K =8 2K42830;8AL 0@3C<5=BK 2 ?>445@6:C CB25@645=8O >1 «040?B82=KE, ?> 53> A;>20<, B2>@G5A:8E A?>A>1=>ABOE», :>B>@K5, O?>=A:85 CG5=K5 8 B5E=8G5A:85 A?5F80;8ABK 8A?>;L7>20;8 2 ?5@8>4 ?@5>4>;5=8O >BAB020=8O 2 @0728B88 /?>=88, 8 B0: =07K205<>3> «=57028A8<>3> B2>@G5AB20», ?@0:B8:C5<>3> A53>4=O, =5B =8:0:8E A><=5=89 2 B><, GB> /?>=8O O2;O5BAO A59G0A ?>;=>?@02=K< G;5=>< <8@>2>3> B5E=8G5A:>3> A>>1I5AB20. /?>=8O, !( 8 0?04=0O 2@>?0 254CB B5?5@L ?5@53>2>@K =0 @02=KE. >340 2 /?>=88 ?@>2>4OBAO @07;8G=K5 B5E=8G5A:85 A>25I0=8O, :0:, =0?@8<5@, A>25I0=85 ?> B0: =07K205<>9 :><?LNB5@=>9 B5E=>;>388 ?OB>3> ?>:>;5=8O, A>AB>O2H55AO 2 ">:8> 2 1984 3>4C, :@C?=59H85 CG5=K5 A> 2A53> <8@0 ?@85760NB =0 =53>, GB>1K >7=0:><8BLAO A B5E=8G5A:8< ?@>3@5AA>< 2 /?>=88. 0 MB>< A>25I0=88, A>AB>O2H5<AO 2 1984 3>4C, >48= 8=>AB@0==K9 >@0B>@ 70 4@C38< >B<5G0;, :0: O?>=A:89 ?@>5:B, :>B>@K9 ;53:> A>3;0A8;>AL D8=0=A8@>20BL ?@028B5;LAB2> 8 2 :>B>@>< ?@8=O;8 CG0AB85 <=>385 O?>=A:85 :><?0=88, AB8<C;8@>20; 8E ?@028B5;LAB20 2;>68BL A@54AB20 2 ?@>5:BK A>740=8O 8A:CAAB25==>3> 8=B5;;5:B0, =0 :>B>@K5 >=8 =5 >1@0I0;8 2=8<0=8O 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 =5 ?>ABC?8;8 A>>1I5=8O > O?>=A:>< ?@>5:B5. 0: >B<5G05B 8:CB8, ACI5AB2CNB @07;8G=K5 284K B2>@G5A:8E A?>A>1=>AB59. KABC?0O =0 2AB@5G5 52@>?59F52 8 0<5@8:0=F52, A>AB>O2H59AO 2 B;0=B8G5A:>< 8=AB8BCB5 2 0@865 2 45:01@5 1985 3>40, O A:070;, GB> 3;02=K< D0:B>@>< 2 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 O2;ONBAO B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8. / A:070;, GB> ACI5AB2CNB B@8 2840 B2>@G5A:8E A?>A>1=>AB59: B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 2 B5E=8:5, 2 ?;0=8@>20=88 ?@>872>4AB20 =>2KE B>20@>2 8 2 >1;0AB8 A1KB0. 1;040BL B>;L:> >4=8< 87 MB8E B0;0=B>2 2 :><<5@G5A:>< 45;5 @02=>A8;L=> A0<>C189AB2C. 'B>1K @0AA5OBL <8DK, :>B>@K5 2A5 5I5 >:CBK20NB 2>?@>A > B2>@G5A:8E A?>A>1=>ABOE O?>=F52, O 4>;65= ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> C=8:0;L=0O >A>15==>ABL B5E=8G5A:>3> @0728B8O AB@0=K A>AB>8B 2 53> =57028A8<>AB8 >B 2>5==>9 B5E=8:8. %>@>H> 8725AB=>, GB> 7=0G8B5;L=0O G0ABL 0<5@8:0=A:>9 8 52@>?59A:>9 B5E=8:8 8 B5E=>;>388 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?>1>G=K9 @57C;LB0B @07@01>B:8 2>5==KE ?@>5:B>2, D8=0=A8@C5<KE ?@028B5;LAB2><. -B>, :>=5G=>, 2K3>4=>. > 2 /?>=88, 345 =5B E>BL A:>;L:>-=81C4L @0728B>9 2>5==>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8, <K ?>AB>O==> ?@>872>48< 87<5=5=8O =0 ?>B@518B5;LA:>< @K=:5, 22>4O 2 4><0H=89 >18E>4 =>259H85 B5E=8G5A:85 4>AB865=8O ?>A@54AB2>< 8A?>;L7>20=8O B5E=8:8 2 :><<5@G5A:8E F5;OE.  8=B5@5A=>, GB> B5?5@L, 2>?@5:8 ?@56=59 B5=45=F88, 2>5==K5 D8@<K !( 8 2@>?K AB@5<OBAO ?@8>1@5AB8 =52>5==K5 A5:@5BK ?@>872>4AB20 O?>=A:8E D8@<. $0:B8G5A:8 ;N1>5 A>3;0H5=85 <564C /?>=859 8 !( >1 >1<5=5 B5E=>;>3859 :0A05BAO B5E=>;>388 ?>;CG5=8O 87>1@065=8O, 8A?>;L7CNI59 87>1@5B5==K5 2 /?>=88 ?@81>@K A 70@O4>2>9 A2O7LN, :>B>@K5 ?@52@0I0NB 0=0;>3>2CN 8=D>@<0F8N 2 F8D@>2CN, GB> ?>72>;O5B ?>;CG0BL 1>;LHCN B>G=>ABL, 0 B0:65 1>;55 H8@>:>5 ?@8<5=5=85 8 040?B0F8N 87>1@065=89. @><5 B>3>, <=5 :065BAO, 70A;C68205B 2=8<0=8O B>B D0:B, GB> 2 /?>=88 7=0G8B5;L=0O G0ABL =>259H8E 8=65=5@=KE 8 =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 3>AC40@AB25==K<8, 0 =5 G0AB=K<8 C=825@A8B5B0<8. >AC40@AB25==K5 C=825@A8B5BK >1KG=> 871530NB 2;8O=8O 872=5 8 @52=>AB=> >E@0=ONB A2>N =57028A8<>ABL, >A>15==> >B G0AB=>3> 187=5A0. >B ?>G5<C A>B@C4=8G5AB2> <564C ?@><KH;5==K<8 :><?0=8O<8 8 C=825@A8B5B0<8 745AL 1>;55 B@C4=>5 45;>, G5< 345-;81> 5I5.  !( 65 >1<5= :04@0<8 8 =0CG=>-8AA;54>20B5;LA:8<8 @5AC@A0<8 <564C C=825@A8B5B0<8 8 G0AB=K< A5:B>@><  >1KG=>5 O2;5=85.  /?>=88 >A=>2=>5 1@5<O =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89 =5A5B G0AB=0O ?@><KH;5==>ABL, GB> 845B 2@07@57 A ?@54AB02;5=85< > B><, GB> A>B@C4=8G5AB2> <564C 187=5A>< 8 ?@028B5;LAB2>< 2 /?>=88 A;C68B 3;02=>9 ?@8G8=>9 O?>=A:>3> :><<5@G5A:>3> CA?5E0.  A0<>< 45;5, 2 1984 3>4C A5<L45AOB A5<L 8 A5<L 45AOBKE ?@>F5=B0   2 /?>=88 1K;8 >?;0G5=K G0AB=K<8 ?@54?@8OB8O<8 8 B>;L:> 4204F0BL 420 ?@>F5=B0  ?@028B5;LAB2><. 5:>B>@K5 87 =0A, ?@54AB028B5;59 187=5A0, ?>;030NB, GB> ?@028B5;LAB2> 2>2A5 =5 ?><>305B, 0 ;8HL A>7405B ?><5E8 =>20B>@A:8< 87<5=5=8O< 8 87>1@5B5=8O< A2>8< G@57<5@=K< 2<5H0B5;LAB2>< 8 CAB0@52H8<8 C:070<8. KA>:>:20;8D8F8@>20==0O @01>G0O A8;0 2 /?>=88 ?>-?@56=5<C ?>4B25@6405B A2>5 7=0G5=85 2 >1;0AB8 B2>@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8.  ?5@8>4 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O ?>A;5 2>9=K =87:0O AB>8<>ABL MB>9 :20;8D8F8@>20==>9 @01>G59 A8;K 1K;0 ?@58<CI5AB2>< 4;O @0728202H59AO 107>2>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 /?>=88. "5?5@L, :>340 ?>O28;0AL ?>B@51=>ABL 2 @0728B88 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 =>259H59 B5E=>;>388, /?>=8O 8<55B, : AG0ABLN, 2KA>:>:20;8D8F8@>20==CN @01>GCN A8;C, :>B>@0O <>65B A?@028BLAO A =>2K<8 7040G0<8.  =5A<>B@O =0 2KA>:CN AB>8<>ABL @01>G59 A8;K, 55 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K9 C@>25=L O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 D0:B>@>2, :>B>@K5 ?>-?@56=5<C >15A?5G820NB ?@58<CI5AB20 O?>=A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8.  /?>=88 A53>4=O @0AB5B =54>2>;LAB2> =K=5H=59 A8AB5<>9 >1@07>20=8O, :>B>@0O 2K=C6405B CG0I8EAO B@0B8BL A;8H:>< <=>3> 2@5<5=8 =0 =0B0A:820=85 : M:70<5=0<, GB>1K ?>?0ABL 2 ?@5AB86=K5 H:>;K. "0:0O A8AB5<0 =5 >AB02;O5B 8< 4>AB0B>G=> 2@5<5=8 4;O M:A?5@8<5=B8@>20=8O 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=KE @07<KH;5=89. -B0 A8AB5<0 E>@>H> A;C68;0 =0< 4> A8E ?>@, => A59G0A 87CG0NBAO ?CB8, ?>72>;ONI85 A45;0BL 55 1>;55 MDD5:B82=>9 8 1>;55 A>>B25BAB2CNI59 =>2><C 2@5<5=8, 2 :>B>@>5 <K 6825<. K 2A5340 B@51>20;8 >B =0H8E @01>B=8:>2 C<5=8O A0<>AB>OB5;L=> <KA;8BL 8 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 4>1820;8AL MB>3>. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O 04<8=8AB@0F88, >G5=L 206=> 7=0BL, :0: @0A:@5?>AB8BL ?@8@>4=K5 B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 ;N459. !>3;0A=> <>59 :>=F5?F88, B2>@G5A:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 5ABL C 2A5E, => >G5=L <0;> :B> 7=05B, :0: 8E 8A?>;L7>20BL. >9 A?>A>1 @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<K @0A:@5?>I5=8O B2>@G5A:8E A?>A>1=>AB59 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K AB028BL F5;8. CGH8< ?@8<5@>< MB>3> <>65B A;C68BL 0<5@8:0=A:0O ?@>3@0<<0 «?>;;>=». >340 !>25BA:89 !>N7 70?CAB8; ?5@2K9 2 <8@5 8A:CAAB25==K9 A?CB=8:, 0 70B5< 2?5@2K5 >B?@028; 2 :>A<>A G5;>25:0, MB> 1K;> H>:>< 4;O !(. =>385 AB@0=K, :>B>@K5 2A5340 A<>B@5;8 =0 !( :0: =0 25;8:>3> =>20B>@0 8 B2>@F0, =5 <>3;8 ?>25@8BL, GB> :0:0O-B> 4@C30O AB@0=0 A<>3;0 ?5@2>9 2K9B8 2 :>A<>A. <5@8:0 @07@01>B0;0 ?@>3@0<<C, GB>1K 4>3=0BL !>25BA:89 !>N7. 4=0:>, :>340 ?@57845=B 5==548 ?>AB028; :>=:@5B=CN F5;L  G5@57 45AOBL ;5B A>25@H8BL ?>A04:C =0 C=C, 2A5 87<5=8;>AL. -B0 F5;L ?@54AB02;O;0 A>1>9 G5B:CN 7040GC. =0 >7=0G0;0, GB> =C65= :>;>AA0;L=K9 A:0G>: 2?5@54. 8:B> =5 7=0;, :0: MB> A45;0BL, 1K;8 B>;L:> B5>@88. 04> 1K;> =5<54;5==> ?@8ABC?8BL : 8AA;54>20=8O<. !:>;L:> ?>B@51C5BAO M=5@388? 0:0O =02830F8>==0O A8AB5<0 =C6=0? 0:85 :><?LNB5@K A;54C5B @07@010BK20BL? 0B5< ?>B@51>20;8AL =>2K5 <0B5@80;K. K;> A>740=> C3;52>;>:=>. -B0 ?@>3@0<<0 40;0 4065 B0:85 ?@>ABK5, => ?>;57=K5 25I8, :0: «25;:@>»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«!2OBK< ?>:@>28B5;5<» O?>=A:>3> :>=B@>;O :0» G5AB20, ?> 8@>=88 AC4L1K, >:070;AO 0<5@8:0=5F -420@45 5<8=3, :>B>@K9 =5 1K; 8725AB5= 2 A>1AB25==>9 AB@0=5 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 53> 8458 :>=B@>;O :0G5AB20 =5 >:070;8 AB>;L 3@><04=>5 2>7459AB285 =0 O?>=A:85 :><?0=88. <5@8:0=FK >A>7=0;8 7=0G5=85 CB25@645=89 MB>3> ?@>@>:0, => =5 >B=5A;8AL : =8< A B0:>9 65 A5@L57=>ABLN, :0: O?>=FK.  A0<>< 45;5, ?@5<8O 5<8=30 70 :0G5AB2>  MB> >4=0 87 2KAH8E =03@04, :>B>@CN <>65B ?>;CG8BL O?>=A:0O :><?0=8O. K 2 «!>=8» 2A5340 1K;8 D0=0B8:0<8 :0G5AB20. @>AB> G5< 2KH5 :0G5AB2> B>20@0, B5< <5=LH5 ?@>1;5< A B5E=8G5A:8< >1A;C6820=85<. K 1K;8 >G5=L @04K 8 3>@4K  8 70E20G5=K 2@0A?;>E, :>340 C7=0;8, GB> :0AA5B=K9 <03=8B>D>= «!>=8» 1K; 4>AB02;5= =0 C=C =0 1>@BC :>A<8G5A:>3> :>@01;O «?>;;>=-11» 8 8A?>;L7>20;AO 4;O B@0=A;OF88 <C7K:8 =0 5<;N. %>BO ! ?>B@0B8;> >G5=L <=>3> 45=53 =0 30@0=B88 =0456=>AB8 2 CA;>28OE =525A><>AB8 :064>3> M;5<5=B0, 8A?>;L7C5<>3> 2 ?@>3@0<<5, 2?;>BL 4> B0:8E ?@54<5B>2, :0: <5E0=8G5A:85 :0@0=40H8, MB>B <03=8B>D>=, :>B>@K9 8A?>;L7>20;8 0AB@>=02BK, 1K; AB0=40@B=>9 <>45;LN, =0E>482H59AO 2 ?@>4065. = 2K45@60; 8A?KB0=8O 8 1K; ?@87=0= ?@83>4=K<, B0: GB> 8< 4065 =5 ?@8H;>AL >1@0I0BLAO : =0< 70 ?><>ILN. K =5 7=0;8 >1 MB>< 70@0=55, 8 :>340 <=5 AB0;> 8725AB=> >1 MB><, O 2 HCB:C 1@0=8; =0H8E 8=65=5@>2 70 B>, GB> >=8, >G5284=>, ?5@5AB0@0;8AL, ?@>5:B8@CO MB>B <03=8B>D>=. «54L 5<C =5 B@51>20;>AL @01>B0BL 2 CA;>28OE =525A><>AB8, 3>2>@8; O. = 4>;65= @01>B0BL B>;L:> =0 5<;5». A;8 ?5@54 8=65=5@>< 8;8 CG5=K< ?>AB028BL G5B:CN F5;L, >= ?@8;>68B 2A5 A8;K, GB>1K 4>AB8GL 55, =>, :>340 F5;8 =5B, 5A;8 20H0 :><?0=8O 8;8 >@30=870F8O ?@>AB> 40AB 5<C :CGC 45=53 8 A:065B: «7>1@5B8 GB>-=81C4L»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«=5;L7O ?@87=0BL 045:20B=K<»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«C45< 45;0BL <03=8B>D>=». -B> 1K;> A:070=> 5I5 4> B>3>, :0: <K C7=0;8, 87 G53> 45;05BAO <03=8B=0O ;5=B0, G5< 55 ?>:@K20NB 8 4065 :0: >=0 2K3;O48B. K @5H8;8 ?@>872>48BL >?@545;5==CN, A>25@H5==> =>2CN ?@>4C:F8N, 0 =5 ?@54020BLAO G8AB>9 =0C:5. > ?> <5@5 =0H53> @>AB0 =0< ?@8E>48;>AL 2A5 1>;LH5 C3;C1;OBLAO 2 MBC AD5@C, GB>1K A>74020BL =0H8 B>20@K 8 8E :><?>=5=BK, GB>1K 45;0BL =0H8 A>1AB25==K5 70?0B5=B>20==K5 87>1@5B5=8O, :0:, =0?@8<5@, B@0=78AB>@K, ?>;C?@>2>4=8:8, 8=B53@0;L=K5 AE5<K 8 ?@81>@K A 70@O4>2>9 A2O7LN. >AB5?5==> @07;8G=K5 >1;0AB8 =0H8E 8AA;54>20=89 =0G8=0NB A>2?040BL. K =8:>340 =5 >1@0I0;8AL : ?@028B5;LAB2C 70 ?><>ILN. 0H0, 1KBL <>65B, G8AB> O?>=A:0O @50:F8O, :>340 <K C7=05< > :0:8E-B> =>2KE 87>1@5B5=8OE 8;8 AB0;:8205<AO A =>2K< O2;5=85<, =587<5==0: «0: O <>3C MB> 8A?>;L7>20BL? 'B> O <>3C A MB8< A45;0BL? 0: MB> <>6=> 8A?>;L7>20BL 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 ?>;57=>3> ?@>4C:B0?» >340 2 !( :@C?=K5 @048>AB0=F88 ?@8<5=O;8 2845>70?8AL, <K ?>;030;8, GB> ;N48 4>;6=K 8<5BL B0:85 65 2>7<>6=>AB8 C A51O 4><0. 3@><=K5 2845><0H8=K, :>B>@K5 AB>O;8 =0 AB0=F8OE, 1K;8 3@><>74:8<8 8 >G5=L 4>@>38<8. K =0G0;8 @01>B0BL, GB>1K 4>AB8GL A2>59 F5;8  2=5AB8 MB8 2845><03=8B>D>=K 2 4><. >340 <K 87>1@5B0;8 >G5@54=CN =>2CN <>45;L, =0< :070;>AL 2A5 <5=55 25@>OB=K<, GB> <K A<>3;8 A>740BL B0:>9 <0;5=L:89 8 B0:>9 E>@>H89 2845><03=8B>D>=. > 4;O 1C:8 >=8 1K;8 =54>AB0B>G=> <0;5=L:8<8.  2A5 65 =8:B> =5 7=0; B>G=>, :0:>20 =0H0 F5;L, 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 >= 1@>A8; =0 AB>; 2> 2@5<O A>25I0=8O <0;5=L:CN :=86:C 2 1C<06=>< ?5@5?;5B5 8 =5 A:070;, GB> MB> 8 5ABL =0H0 F5;L  2845>:0AA5B0 @07<5@>< A :=83C, =0 :>B>@>9 <>6=> 70?8A0BL ?> <5=LH59 <5@5 G0A>2CN F25B=CN ?@>3@0<<C. -B> 40;> =0?@02;5=85 2A5< =0H8< @07@01>B:0<. 5;> 1K;> =5 ?@>AB> 2 A>740=88 <0;5=L:>9 :0AA5BK, =C6=0 1K;0 A>25@H5==> =>20O :>=F5?F8O 70?8A8 8 AG8BK20=8O A ;5=BK. 0H 2K40NI89AO 8AA;54>20B5;L >1CB>A8 8E0@0 ?@54;>68; A8AB5<C, ?>72>;O2HCN CAB@0=8BL ?CABK5 ?@>AB@0=AB20 <564C 4>@>6:0<8 A 70?8ALN =0 >1KG=>9 2845>;5=B5. -B8 ?CABK5 4>@>6:8 (=07K205<K5 70I8B=K<8 ?>;>A0<8) >AB02;O;8AL 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 871560BL ?><5E 8;8 ?@85<0 ?0@078B=KE A83=0;>2 2> 2@5<O 70?8A8 ?@>3@0<<=>3> <0B5@80;0 =0 4>@>6:C 8 53> 2>A?@>872545=8O. > MB> >7=0G0;>, GB> ?>;>28=0 ;5=BK =5 8A?>;L7C5BAO, 5A;8 =5 AG8B0BL B>3>, GB> >=0 A;C68B 4;O @0745;5=8O 4>@>65: A 70?8ALN. 8E0@0 704C<0;AO =04 B5<, ?>G5<C 1K =5 ?@>872>48BL 70?8AL =0 A2>1>4=>5 <5AB>, 7=0G8B5;L=> C25;8G820O B5< A0<K< 5<:>ABL, 8 =5 CAB@0=8BL ?><5E8 ?>A@54AB2>< 8A?>;L7>20=8O 42CE C=825@A0;L=KE 3>;>2>: 70?8A8  2>A?@>872545=8O 8 ?>AB0=>2:8 3>;>2>: ?>4 C3;>< 4@C3 : 4@C3C ?@8<5@=> 2 452O=>AB> 3@04CA>2, A B5< GB>1K =8 >4=0 87 3>;>2>: =5 <>3;0 AG8BK20BL 70?8AL A A>A54=59 4>@>6:8 8;8 A>74020BL 4;O =55 ?><5E8. 04> 1K;> 87>1@5AB8 =>2K9 2@0I0NI89AO 10@010= A 3>;>2:0<8 8 A>740BL =>2K9 ;5=B>?@>BO6=K9 <5E0=87<. >A;5 <=>3><5AOG=KE 8A?KB0=89 53> 3@C??0 A>740;0 ?@5:@0A=> @01>B0NICN A8AB5<C, 8 <K ?>AB@>8;8 A>25@H5==> =>2CN 2845>CAB0=>2:C 4;O 4><0H=53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O, :>B>@0O 4020;0 =08;CGH55 87>1@065=85, :>B>@>5 B>;L:> <>6=> 1K;> 4>AB8GL. K ?> ?@02C 3>@48;8AL «5B0<0:A><». 0 O?>=A:>< O7K:5 A;>2>, :>B>@>5 72CG8B :0: «1MB0», >7=0G05B 2 682>?8A8 8;8 :0;;83@0D88 A>G=CN 8 A?;>H=CN ;8=8N, ?@>2545==CN :8ABLN, =5 >AB02;ONICN :0:8E-;81> ?@>?CA:>2 8;8 ?@>15;>2. 8E0@0 C?>B@518; MB> A;>2>, 8<5O 2 284C 8A?>;L7>20=85 2A59 ;5=BK, =0 :>B>@>9 =5 >AB05BAO <5AB0 4;O 70I8B=KE ?>;>A. -B> A;>2>, «1MB0», 1K;> B0: A>72CG=> A 3@5G5A:>9 1C:2>9 «15B0», 2K7K20NI59 >?@545;5==K5 0AA>F80F88 A =0C:>9, GB> <K >1@07>20;8 87 =53> =0720=85 B>@3>2>9 <0@:8  «5B0<0:A»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«8B5@, <K  A?5F80;8ABK ?> 2845>70?8A8, A:070; O 5<C. K C65 402=> @01>B05< =04 <03=8B=>9 2845>70?8ALN 8 >=0 405B >B;8G=K5 @57C;LB0BK. K =5 AG8B05<, GB> MB> ?5@A?5:B82=K9 A?>A>1». = 1K; @07>G0@>20=, => O A:070; 5<C, GB>, :0: <=5 :065BAO, D>B>E8<8G5A:89 <5B>4 A;8H:>< A;>65=; >= =5 3>48BAO 4;O G5@5AGC@ <=>38E A8AB5<. ><?0=8O !8-18-MA ?@>4>;68;0 @01>BC =04 MB>9 A8AB5<>9 (55 =0720;8 «-»  M;5:B@>==0O 2845>70?8AL) 8 70B@0B8;0 =0 =55 <=>3> 45=53 4> B>3>, :0: >:>=G0B5;L=> >B:070BLAO >B =55. %>BO MB> 1K;0 A>25@H5==> =>20O A8AB5<0, >=0 >:070;0AL =5?@83>4=>9 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 2 :><<5@G5A:>9 :><?0=88. I5 >48= ?@8<5@. « » 70=O;0AL 2845>48A:0<8 A <5E0=8G5A:>9 A8AB5<>9 5<:>AB8, => 2 @57C;LB0B5 59 ?@8H;>AL A?8A0BL =5A:>;L:> <8;;8>=>2, ?>B><C GB> MB0 A8AB5<0 >:070;0AL =5C40G=>9.  G5< 1K =8 1K;0 >H81:0  2 ?@>5:B5, 2 B5E=>;>388, 2 A1KB5 8;8 2 @5:;0<5, MB> >H81:0 <5=5465@>2. 5=5465@K, :>B>@K5 =5A?>A>1=K AC48BL A B5E=8G5A:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, >ACI5AB28<> ;8 A>740=85 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?@>4C:B0 8;8 =5B, =0E>4OBAO 2 :@09=5 =52K3>4=>< ?>;>65=88. / 2A5340 AG8B0; >?0A=K< ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> <5=5465@0 <>6=> ?5@51@0AK20BL 87 >4=>9 >B@0A;8 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 2 4@C3CN. 065 :>340 E>@>H> >A2>8HL :0:>5-;81> 45;> 8 1C45HL 8<5BL ?@54AB02;5=85 > =5<, =5B =8:0:>9 30@0=B88, GB> 2A5 2>7<>6=>AB8 1C4CB 8A?>;L7>20=K 8 =5 1C45B 4>?CI5=> =8:0:8E >H81>:, => ?> :@09=59 <5@5 C 20A A>E@0=OBAO >?@545;5==K5 H0=AK. «"5:A0A 8=AB@C<5=Bc» ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20;0 40@ ?@542845=8O, :>340 ?@>8725;0 2KA>:>G0AB>B=K9 B@0=78AB>@ 2 B> A0<>5 2@5<O, :>340 <K B0:65 18;8AL =04 =8< (>=8 B0:65 :C?8;8 ;8F5=78N =0 B@0=78AB>@ C :>=F5@=0 «#MA-B5@= M;5:B@8:»). «"» AB0;0 3;02=K< ?>AB02I8:>< B@0=78AB>@>2 4;O «» 8 4@C38E ?@><KH;5==KE :><?0=89, :0: @02=> 8 4;O <=>38E :><?0=89, 2K?>;=ONI8E 0<5@8:0=A:85 2>5==K5 70:07K. >74=55 55 @01>B=8:8 87>1@5;8 8=B53@0;L=CN AE5<C, 206=>5 4>AB865=85 2 >1;0AB8 ?>;C?@>2>4=8:>2>9 B5E=>;>388. «"5:A0A 8=AB@C<5=Bc» B0:65 >:07K20;0 ?><>IL :><?0=88 « 8465=A8», :>B>@0O 2K?CAB8;0 =0 @K=>: B@0=78AB>@=K5 @048>?@85<=8:8 =0 =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 @0=LH5 =0A. "5< =5 <5=55 «"» =5 ?@54?@8=O;0 =8:0:8E H03>2, GB>1K 70:@5?8BL A2>9 CA?5E 8 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO ?@58<CI5AB20<8 1>;LH>3> @K=:0, :>B>@K9 >=0 <>3;0 1K ?>;CG8BL C ?>B@518B5;59. 048>?@85<=8:8 « 8465=A8», :0: O C65 8 3>2>@8;, =0E>48;8AL =0 @K=:5 >G5=L :>@>B:>5 2@5<O. =8 <>3;8 1K 5I5 4>;3> ?>;L7>20BLAO A2>8< ?@58<CI5AB2><, 5A;8 1K >AB020;8AL =0 @K=:5. ?@>G5<, 1>@L1K B0: 8 =5 1K;>, ?>B><C GB> «"», >G5284=>, =5 AG8B0;0, GB> C <0;5=L:8E ?@85<=8:>2 5ABL 1C4CI55. K 65 1K;8 C25@5=K 2 MB><. >6=> 8<5BL ?@5:@0A=CN 845N, A45;0BL 70<5G0B5;L=>5 87>1@5B5=85, => B5< =5 <5=55 C?CAB8BL 2>7<>6=>AB8. >MB><C 4;O ?;0=8@>20=8O =>2>9 ?@>4C:F88, GB> >7=0G05B ?@8=OB85 @5H5=89 >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 B5E=8:8 8 B5E=>;>388 2 40==>< ?@>4C:B5, =5>1E>48<0 87>1@5B0B5;L=>ABL.  :>340 2K ?@>8725;8 :0G5AB25==K9 ?@>4C:B, =5>1E>48<0 87>1@5B0B5;L=>ABL 4;O 53> A1KB0. ">;L:> ?@8 =0;8G88 MB8E B@5E D>@< 87>1@5B0B5;L=>AB8  2 B5E=>;>388, 2 ?;0=8@>20=88 ?@>4C:F88 8 2 A1KB5  =0A5;5=85 A<>65B 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO ?@58<CI5AB20<8 =>2>9 B5E=8:8. A;8 65 =5B >@30=870F88, :>B>@0O ?>72>;O5B 4@C6=> @01>B0BL, ?>@>9 >G5=L 4>;3>5 2@5<O, B@C4=> C2845BL ?;>4K =>2KE ?@>5:B>2. >2>@OB, GB> ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:>9 87>1@5B0B5;L=>AB8 2 /?>=88 1>;LH5 =5 ACI5AB2C5B, B0: :0: 2 AB@0=5 >G5=L <=>3> 3830=BA:8E :><?0=89. > :0?8B0; 4;O A>740=8O =>2KE ?@54?@8OB89 A59G0A 4>ABC?=55, G5< :>340-;81> ?@5645, 8 ?>MB><C <K C2848< @57C;LB0BK 45OB5;L=>AB8 =>2KE <5;:8E :><?0=89, @01>B0NI8E 2 =>2KE >1;0ABOE. K @0728205< ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:85 A?>A>1=>AB8 2 A2>59 65 1>;LH>9 :><?0=88 1;03>40@O <5B>40< C?@02;5=8O. # =0A ACI5AB2C5B A8AB5<0 >B45;>2, ?@8 :>B>@>9 2 :064>< 87 =8E, =0?@8<5@ 2 >B45;5 B5;5287>@>2, 2845>B5E=8:8, <03=8B=>9 70?8A8, 0C48>B5E=8:8, 8<55BAO A>1AB25==>5 @C:>2>4AB2>, =5ACI55 ?>;=CN >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 2A5, GB> >=> 45;05B. =CB@8 2A5E >B45;>2 C :064>3> 87 =0G0;L=8:>2 5ABL >1;0ABL, 70 :>B>@CN >= >B25G05B. "0:, :>340 >= 8;8 53> A>B@C4=8:8 2K42830NB =>2CN 845N, ?@54;030NB =>2>5 87>1@5B5=85, =>2K5 B5E=>;>38G5A:85 A@54AB20 8;8 ?@>F5AA, >= 8<55B ?@02> ?@54AB028BL MB> =0 @0AA<>B@5=85 @C:>2>4AB2C :><?0=88. A;8 <5=5465@K, :>B>@K5 @0718@0NBAO 2 B5E=8:5, 1;03>?@8OB=> >F5=820NB MB8 2>7<>6=>AB8, <K 405< @07@5H5=85 ?@>4>;60BL @01>BC. A;8 <K =5 405< B0:>3> @07@5H5=8O, B> 8=>340 2>7<>6=K 8 4@C385 ?CB8 ?><8<> ?@>AB>3> >B:070 >B ?@>5:B0. 48= <>;>4>9 CG5=K9 87 :><?0=88 «!>=8»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«!>=8»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biblioteka$\books\Books-text-full\>@8B0 :8>\sonysod.htm" :8> >@8B0 "!45;0=> 2 /?>=88" >  !  /! !",. 07;8G8O.  I / :0:-B> ?>60;>20;AO >4=><C 0<5@8:0=A:><C 4@C3C, GB> B5?5@L AB0=>28BAO 2A5 B@C4=55 =09B8 B>20@, :>B>@K9 1K; 1K ?>;=>ABLN ?@>872545= 2 !(, 0 >= A:070;: «>7L<8B5 =5:>B>@KE 87 =0H8E N@8AB>2, G8AB> 0<5@8:0=A:89 ?@>4C:B!» K >10 ?>A<5O;8AL MB>9 HCB:5, => =0 A0<>< 45;5 MB> =5 A<5H=>. .@8ABK 2 <>8E 3;070E AB0;8 >4=8< 87 3;02=KE A8<2>;>2 :0: @07;8G8O <564C 0<5@8:0=A:8< 8 O?>=A:8< AB8;O<8 2 187=5A5 8 2 C?@02;5=88, B0: 8 A;01>AB8 0<5@8:0=A:>9 A8AB5<K.  A2>8E 2KABC?;5=8OE 2 !(, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 H:>;5 C?@02;5=8O 8<5=8 6>=0 $. 5==548 ?@8 0@20@4A:>< C=825@A8B5B5, O A>25@H5==> >B:@>25==> 2KA:07K20; A2>5 <=5=85 > N@8AB0E. <5@8:0=FK 7=0NB, GB> ?>GB8 2A5 >B=>H5=8O <564C >B45;L=K<8 :><?0=8O<8, 0 B0:65 >B=>H5=8O <564C :><?0=8O<8 8 ?@028B5;LAB2>< A> 2A5<8 53> 254><AB20<8, :0:, =0?@8<5@, :><8AA8O ?> >?5@0F8O< A F5==K<8 1C<030<8 8 18@65 8 :><<8AA8O ?> A?@0254;82K< CA;>28O< B>@3>2;8, 2A5340 A2O70=K A N@848G5A:8<8 ?@>1;5<0<8. <5@8:0=FK, ?>-2848<><C, AG8B0NB, GB> MB> 2 ?>@O4:5 25I59, => O =5 <>3C B0: A?>:>9=> : MB><C >B=>A8BLAO. -B8 N@848G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K >:07K20NB A5@L57=>5 2>7459AB285 =0 2545=85 45; 8, GB> 5I5 EC65, =0 B>, :0: ?@54?@8=8<0B5;8 2 <5@8:5 ?>=8<0NB A2>N @>;L. <5@8:0=A:85 187=5A<5=K, ?>-2848<><C, AG8B0NB 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==K<, GB> 8< 2A5340 ?@8E>48BAO >3;O4K20BLAO, GB>1K ?>A<>B@5BL, =5 AB>8B ;8 :B>-=81C4L 70 =8<8 A 3>B>2K< AC451=K< 8A:><. < ?@8E>48BAO ?>AB>O==> 4C<0BL > A2>59 70I8B5 >B =0?045=8O A7048, 2<5AB> B>3> GB>1K 42830BLAO 2?5@54 8 A<>B@5BL 2 1C4CI55. B>@65=85 N@8AB>2 8 N@848G5A:>3> >1@070 <KH;5=8O 2 A0<K5 @07=>>1@07=K5 >1;0AB8 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 187=5A0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 @57:>5 >B;8G85 >B AB8;O 8 D8;>A>D88 O?>=A:>3> <5=546<5=B0, => ?>A:>;L:C O?>=A:89 187=5A ?@8>1@5B05B 2A5 1>;55 8=B5@=0F8>=0;L=K9 E0@0:B5@, <K, O?>=FK, 4>;6=K 2A5 1>;55 2=8<0B5;L=> >B=>A8BLAO : N@8AB0<. / =045NAL, GB> <K =8:>340 =5 ?>945< ?> ?CB8 0<5@8:0=F52 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88. %>BO O CA2>8; <=>3>5 87 0<5@8:0=A:>9 A8AB5<K, O ?@54?>G8B0N O?>=A:CN A8AB5<C. / =5 4C<0N, GB> 2A5, GB> <K 45;05< 2 /?>=88, E>@>H>. >B><C GB> MB> 459AB28B5;L=> =5 B0:. > O ?>;030N, GB> 1>;55 OA=>5 ?>=8<0=85 @07;8G89 <>65B CAB@0=8BL =5:>B>@K5 =5?@028;L=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O. / ?>7=0:><8;AO A 45:0=>< H:>;K C?@02;5=8O 8<5=8 5==548 @M<>< -;;8A>=>< =0 !8<>4A:>9 :>=D5@5=F88, ?5@8>48G5A:8 ?@>E>4OI59 2 /?>=88 2AB@5G5 0<5@8:0=A:8E 8 O?>=A:8E CG5=KE, 187=5A<5=>2 8 4@C38E, ?>;CG82H59 A2>5 =0720=85 ?> 8<5=8 3>@>40, 345 =0E>48;>AL ?5@2>5 0<5@8:0=A:>5 :>=AC;LAB2> 2 /?>=88. -B8 :>=D5@5=F88 40NB 1>;LH85 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O >1I5=8O, 4;O 2708<=>3> 87CG5=8O, 4;O 87;>65=8O A2>8E <=5=89 2 F5;OE A>459AB28O @>ABC 2708<>?>=8<0=8O 8 ?@>AB> 4;O CAB0=>2;5=8O =>2KE :>=B0:B>2.  A2>8E 15A540E A 45:0=>< -;;8A>=>< O, 4>;6=> 1KBL, A 1>;LH8< GC2AB2>< 2KA:070;AO =0 B5<C > N@8AB0E, ?>B><C GB> >= ?@83;0A8; <5=O 2KABC?8BL 2 A2>59 H:>;5, 8 2 ?8AL<5==>< ?@83;0H5=88 >= >?@545;8; «?@>2>:0F8>==>5» =0720=85 <>59 @5G8: « >;L N@8AB>2 2 >A;01;5=88 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:8E CA8;89 2 !(». >340 O =0G0; 8AA;54>20=8O ?> A2>59 B5<5, O >1=0@C68;, GB> 5ABL 4@C385 187=5A<5=K, :>B>@K5 >15A?>:>5=K ?@>1;5<0<8, A>740205<K<8 N@8AB0<8 4;O ?@54?@8=8<0B5;59 8 4;O 0<5@8:0=A:>3> >1I5AB20 2 F5;><. >9 4@C3 6>= ?5;L 87 «» =5A:>;L:> ;5B =0704 =0?8A0; AB0BLN ?>4 703>;>2:>< «0H5 ACBO6=8G5A:>5 >1I5AB2>», B0: GB> O ?>=O;, GB> O =5 >48=>: 2 A2>5< <=5=88 > B><, GB> N@8ABK 8 BO61K AB0;8 A5@L57=K< ?@5?OBAB285< 4;O 187=5A0, 0 B> 8 EC65. 48= 0<5@8:0=A:89 4@C3 :0:-B> @0AA:070; <=5, GB> 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE, :>340 N@8ABK 2<5H820NBAO 2 4>@>6=K9 8=F845=B, >=8 ?>@>9 7018@0NB H5ABL45AOB ?OBL ?@>F5=B>2 AB@0E>2:8 8;8 ?@8AC645==KE AC4>< 45=53, >AB02;OO 65@B25 2A53> B@84F0BL ?OBL ?@>F5=B>2. -B> =5=>@<0;L=0O A8BC0F8O, A =0H59 B>G:8 7@5=8O.  !( 1>;55 ?OB8A>B BKAOG N@8AB>2, 8, :0: O A;KH0;, :064K9 3>4 1>;55 B@84F0B8 452OB8 BKAOG G5;>25: A40NB M:70<5=K =0 ?@02> 70=8<0BLAO 042>:0BA:>9 ?@0:B8:>9, B0: GB> G8A;> N@8AB>2 ?>AB>O==> @0AB5B.  !( <=>385 ;N48 ?>;CG0NB N@848G5A:>5 >1@07>20=85, E>BO >=8 =5 =0<5@5=K @01>B0BL N@8AB0<8. # =0A 2 /?>=88 ?@8<5@=> A5<=04F0BL BKAOG N@8AB>2, 8 8E G8A;> C25;8G8205BAO ?@8<5@=> ;8HL =0 B@8AB0 G5;>25: 2 3>4. -:70<5=K =0 ?@02> 70=8<0BLAO 042>:0BA:>9 ?@0:B8:>9 B0: A;>6=K, GB> 8E 2K45@6820NB <5=55 B@5E ?@>F5=B>2, ?@8H54H8E =0 M:70<5=. "5, :B> 2K45@60; M:70<5=, ?>ABC?0NB 2 =0F8>=0;L=K9 8=AB8BCB N@848G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:8, 345 >=8 2K18@0NB >4=C 87 B@5E >B@0A;59 N@848G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8: 3>AC40@AB25==CN A;C61C 2 :0G5AB25 ?@>:C@>@0 8;8 AC4L8 8;8 65 G0AB=CN ?@0:B8:C. "@8AB0 5653>4=KE 2K?CA:=8:>2 8=AB8BCB>2 >1KG=> ?>GB8 ?>@>2=C 45;OBAO =0 ?@>:C@>@>2, AC459 8 G0AB=KE N@8AB>2. >=5G=>, 5ABL BKAOG8 <>;>4KE ;N459, :>B>@K5 87CG0NB 70:>=K, ?>;CG0NB AB5?5=8 8 70B5< ?>ABC?0NB 2 G0AB=K5 :><?0=88, 345 >=8 70=8<0NBAO N@848G5A:8<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 :>@?>@0F88, ?>GB8 B0: 65, :0: 0<5@8:0=A:85 N@8ABK, => >=8 =5 <>3CB @01>B0BL 2 AC45. @C385 ;8F0 A N@848G5A:8< >1@07>20=85< 8=>340 @01>B0NB 2 :0G5AB25 0@18B@>2. # =0A 2 /?>=88 =5B B0:8E :@C?=KE N@848G5A:8E D8@<, :0: 2 !(, 345 ?0@04=K5 425@8, 0 8=>340 8 D@>=B>=K 740=89 C:@0H0NB B01;8G:8 A 8<5=0<8 45AOB:>2 N@8AB>2. @><5 B>3>, :>340 2 /?>=88 :B>-;81> ?>405B 8A: 2 3@0640=A:89 AC4, >= 4>;65= C?;0B8BL 1572>72@0B=CN AC<<C, @07<5@K :>B>@>9 7028AOB >B AC<<K, > :>B>@>9 845B @5GL 2 8A:5. A;8 >= ?@>83@05B 45;>, 5<C ?@845BAO B0:65 70?;0B8BL AC451=K5 8745@6:8. -B> >4=0 87 ?@8G8=, ?>G5<C 2 =0G0;5 ACI5AB2>20=8O =0H59 :><?0=88 <K A@07C =5 @5H8;8AL ?>40BL 2 ">:8> 2 AC4 ?@>B82 :><?0=88 «0;:>< B@5948=3», :>B>@CN <K >128=O;8 2 =0@CH5=88 =0H53> ?0B5=B=>3> ?@020 =0 <03=8B>D>=; <K =5 <>3;8 ?>72>;8BL A515 B5@OBL 45=L38, 5A;8 45;> 1C45B BO=CBLAO 4>;3>5 2@5<O, GB> ?@82>48B : C25;8G5=8N AC451=KE 8745@65:. %>BO <K 2 /?>=88 =5 ?;>48< N@8AB>2, =0H8 AC4K 2A5 65 ?5@53@C65=K 45;0<8, =0 @071>@ :>B>@KE ?>B@51CNBAO 4>;385 3>4K, GB> G0AB8G=> >1JOA=O5BAO B5<, GB> 2 AB@0=5 <0;> N@8AB>2. "0:>5 ?>;>65=85 B0:65 8<55B B5=45=F8N >B1820BL >E>BC : =5A5@L57=K< BO610<, ?>B><C GB>, :>340 ;N48 84CB 2 AC4, >=8 7=0NB, GB> 4;O @5H5=8O 2>?@>A0 ?>B@51C5BAO >G5=L <=>3> 2@5<5=8. >MB><C 1>;LH8=AB2> ?@>ABKE :>=D;8:B>2 <564C ;N4L<8 8 4065 <=>385 :>=D;8:BK <564C :><?0=8O<8 C;06820NB A ?><>ILN 0@18B@>2. >, :0: 1K =8 1K;8 ?5@53@C65=K O?>=A:85 AC4K, MB> =8GB> ?> A@02=5=8N A A8BC0F859 2 <5@8:5, 345, ?> @0AG5B0< ?5;O, 2 2010 3>4C =0 0?5;;OF8N 1C45B ?>40= ?>GB8 <8;;8>= 45;.  B> 2@5<O :0: !( 2> 2AN ?@>872>4OB N@8AB>2, <K 5I5 1>;55 M=5@38G=> ?@>872>48< 8=65=5@>2. # =0A 2 420 @070 1>;LH5 8=65=5@>2 A 2KAH8< >1@07>20=85<, GB> >7=0G05B, 5A;8 ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85 A>>B=>H5=85 G8A;5==>AB8 =0A5;5=8O =0H8E AB@0= (G8A;5==>ABL =0A5;5=8O !( ?>GB8 2 420 @070 ?@52KH05B G8A;5==>ABL =0A5;5=8O /?>=88), GB> C =0A 8=65=5@>2 2 G5BK@5 @070 1>;LH5. ">;L:> 2 M;5:B@>B5E=8G5A:>9 >1;0AB8 <K 2K?CA:05< :064K9 3>4 >:>;> 4204F0B8 G5BK@5E BKAOG 8=65=5@>2 ?@>B82 ?@8<5@=> A5<=04F0B8 BKAOG 2 !(. ><=O >1 MB>9 A8BC0F88, 2 >48= 8N=LA:89 45=L 1982 3>40 O ?@8;5B5; 2 >AB>=, GB>1K 2KABC?8BL B0< A @5GLN, 8 ?>5E0; 2 0@20@4A:89 C=825@A8B5BA:89 3>@>4>:, 345 <5=O 2AB@5B8; 45:0= ;;8A>=. >340 O ?>A<>B@5; =0 A;CH0B5;59, A>1@02H8EAO 2 $M=LN8;-E>;;5, O ?>4C<0;, GB> 2 70;5, =025@=>5, A848B >G5=L <=>3> N@8AB>2 8 GB> MB> 2A5-B0:8 <5@8:0, ?>MB><C <=5 ;CGH5 2A53> =0G0BL A 8728=5=89. «>72>;LB5 <=5 ?@5645 2A53> >B<5B8BL, =0G0; O, GB> 2A5, GB> O A59G0A A:06C, MB> <>5 ;8G=>5 =01;N45=85, 0 =5 <=5=85, 8<5NI55 :0:>5-;81> N@848G5A:>5 7=0G5=85. / =5 E>GC 8<5BL =8:0:8E N@848G5A:8E ?@>1;5<». C48B>@8O 2>2A5 =5 1K;0 2@06451=> =0AB@>5=0, 8 ?>A;5 <>53> 2ABC?8B5;L=>3> 70<5G0=8O @0740;AO A<5E. > O =5 <>3 =5 A:070BL 2A5, GB> C <5=O =0:>?8;>AL 2 A5@4F5 8 2 3>;>25. / @0AA:070; > A2>5< ?5@2>< >?KB5 A 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 N@848G5A:8<8 ?@>F54C@0<8 2 A2O78 A A>740=85< =0H59 :><?0=88, 0 B0:65 > B><, GB> O <=>3><C B>340 =0CG8;AO. %>BO 2 ?5@2K9 ?5@8>4 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0H59 :><?0=88 O 7=0; 70:>=K 4>AB0B>G=> E>@>H> 4;O O?>=F0, 2A5 <>8 7=0=8O 25@B5;8AL 3;02=K< >1@07>< 2>:@C3 ?@>1;5<K ?0B5=B>2 8 4@C38E ?@>1;5<, 8<52H8E ?@O<>5 >B=>H5=85 : =0H59 ?@>4C:F88. K =8G53> =5 7=0;8 > :>=B@0:B0E, ?@8=F8?0E :>=A>;840F88 10;0=A0 8 > 4@C38E A;>6=KE 2>?@>A0E, =0?@8<5@ >1 >B=>H5=8OE A 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 ?@028B5;LAB25==K<8 254><AB20<8, 2 :>B>@K5 2K =5 <>65B5 >1@0I0BLAO A0<8, 0 B>;L:> G5@57 A2>53> N@8AB0. / A:070;, GB> A53>4=O C =0A 2 :><?0=88 @01>B05B <=>3> N@8AB>2, GB> <K A2O70=K A> <=>38<8 N@848G5A:8<8 D8@<0<8 2 <5@8:5 8 2 4@C38E AB@0=0E 8 GB> >=8 40NB =0< F5==K5 A>25BK. «> 5A;8 <K 1C45< G5@5AGC@ ?@8A;CH820BLAO : N@8AB0<, A:070; O, <K =5 A<>65< 70=8<0BLAO 45;><. >;L N@8AB0 4;O 187=5A<5=0 >G5=L 206=0, => O B0:65 AG8B0N, GB> 2 MB>< 70:;NG05BAO >?0A=>ABL. 065 5A;8 N@8ABK ?>4C<0NB > 2A5E 2>7<>6=KE @8A:0E, <>65B ?@>87>9B8 GB>-B> =5?@54A:07C5<>5». / @0AA:070; > A2>5< 0<5@8:0=A:>< 4@C35, :>B>@K9 B0: 1>O;AO C?0ABL 2 20==>9 8 CH818BLAO, GB> ?>:@K; 55 @578=>9, 0 ?>B>< >4=064K =>GLN >= C?0; 2 A2>59 A?0;L=5 8 A;><0; =>3C. >A;5 B0:>9 @07<8=:8 O ?5@5H5; : B5<5 8 A:070;: «>A:>;L:C C 20A B0: <=>3> N@8AB>2, >=8 4>;6=K =09B8 A515 45;>. =>340 >=8 A>740NB 53> A0<8. / 7=0N, GB> 745AL A84OB A?5F80;8ABK. 4=0:> O 2A5 65 AG8B0N, GB> 45;> >1AB>8B 8<5==> B0:. >@>9 N@8ABK A>G8=ONB 15AA<KA;5==K5 8A:8, 2 20H59 AB@0=5 2A5 AC4OBAO A> 2A5<8. 5;0, 70 :>B>@K5 N@8AB ?>;CG05B 3>=>@0@ 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 8E 8AE>40, 2K7K20NB 2 /?>=88 >AC645=85 [ AC645=85 A8AB5<K, ?@8 :>B>@>9 N@8AB ?>;CG05B 3>=>@0@, B>;L:> 2K83@02 45;> 8 B>;L:> 2 2845 G0AB8 ?@8AC645==>9 5N =0=8<0B5;N AC<<K, A?>@=>. =0 8<55B 8 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 AB>@>=K. 0?@8<5@, 2 !( 8<5==> =0 MB>9 >A=>25 DC=:F8>=8@C5B MDD5:B82=0O A8AB5<0 70I8BK ?@02 ?>B@518B5;59. B45;L=K9 ?>B@518B5;L, :C?82H89 =5:0G5AB25==K9 B>20@, G0AB> 15A?><>I5=, 5A;8 D8@<0-873>B>28B5;L =5 65;05B ?@87=0BL 53> ?@02. 5 AC48BLAO 65 A =59 87-70, A:065<, A;><02H59AO @0=LH5 2@5<5=8 1@8B2K. .@8ABK, ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=> 254CI85 ?>4>1=K5 45;0, 3>@074> ;53G5 4>1820NBAO >B AC40 1;03>?@8OB=>3> @5H5=8O.  MB> =5 AB>8B ?>B@518B5;N =8 F5=B0: N@8ABC 845B ;8HL G0ABL ?@8AC645==>9 :><?5=A0F88, B>9 :><?5=A0F88, :>B>@>9 157 ?><>I8 N@8AB0 >= 2>>1I5 =8:>340 =5 ?>;CG8; 1K A :><?0=88-873>B>28B5;O. @8<. @54.], 2 !( 65 MB>  >1KG=>5 O2;5=85.  O 7=0N, GB> A59G0A =0 @0AA<>B@5=88 2 0<5@8:0=A:8E AC40E =0E>4OBAO 45;0, A2O70==K5 A 1>;LH8<8 45=56=K<8 AC<<0<8, :>B>@K5, :0: <=5 :065BAO, 1K;8 8A:CAAB25==> ?@84C<0=K N@8AB0<8. <5@8:0=A:85 :><?0=88 254CB 8E ?>B><C, GB> 2 >?;0BC N@8ABC ?>945B G0ABL 2K83@0==>9 AC<<K 8 ?;0B8BL ?@845BAO, B>;L:> 5A;8 45;> 1C45B 2K83@0=>. I5 EC65, ?> <>5<C <=5=8N, B>, GB> 2 MB>9 0B<>AD5@5 ACBO6=8G5AB20, A>740==>9 2 !(, ?>-2848<><C, =8:B> =8:><C =5 4>25@O5B. / G0AB> 3>2>@N A2>8< ?><>I=8:0<: «8:>340 =8:><C =5 4>25@O9B5». > ?@8 MB>< O 8<5N 2 284C, GB> =5 A;54C5B 4>25@OBL A2>N @01>BC 4@C3><C 8 =045OBLAO, GB> >= 2K?>;=8B 55 B0:, :0: 2K E>B8B5. >MB><C =5 =04> 2720;820BL =0 :>3>-B> 1@5<O 2K?>;=5=8O A2>8E 65;0=89.  /?>=88 <K >1KG=> 4>25@O5< 4@C3 4@C3C, 2>B ?>G5<C ?@028B5;LAB2C 8 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 C405BAO B0: E>@>H> ;048BL <564C A>1>9 A> 2@5<5=8 >:>=G0=8O 2>9=K, E>BO <564C =8<8 4>2>;L=> G0AB> 2>7=8:0NB A?>@K.  !( 187=5A<5=K 70G0ABCN =5 4>25@ONB A2>8< :>;;530<. A;8 2K 4>25@8B5AL 20H5<C :>;;535 A53>4=O, 702B@0 >= <>65B AB0BL 20H8< A>?5@=8:><, ?>B><C GB> ;N48 G0AB> ?5@5E>4OB 87 >4=>9 :><?0=88 2 4@C3CN.  B0:>9 A8BC0F88 2A5>1I55 =54>25@85 4@C3 : 4@C3C AB0=>28BAO ?>GB8 =587156=K<. #?@02;ONI85 =5 4>25@ONB @01>B=8:0<, 0 @01>B=8:8 =5 4>25@ONB C?@02;ONI8<. @028B5;LAB2> =5 4>25@O5B ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:8< >@30=870F8O< 8;8 ?@><KH;5==8:0<, 0 ?@><KH;5==8:8 =5 25@OB ?@028B5;LAB2C. K205B, GB> 8 2 A5<L5 <C6 =5 4>25@O5B 65=5, 0 65=0 =5 4>25@O5B <C6C, E>BO MB> A2>9AB25==> =5 B>;L:> 0<5@8:0=F0<. >60;C9, 548=AB25==K9 G5;>25:, :>B>@><C 2K <>65B5 2 <5@8:5 4>25@OBL, MB>, ?>-2848<><C, 20H N@8AB. "09=0 15A54 8 ?5@5?8A:8 <564C N@8AB>< 8 53> :;85=B>< >E@0=O5BAO 70:>=><. A5 >AB0;L=>5 <>65B AB0BL 2 AC45 8725AB=K<, B0: :0: 65 20< 4>25@8BLAO :><C-;81> 5I5? # <5=O 1K;> <=>3> B@C4=>AB59 A 0<5@8:0=A:>9 N@848G5A:>9 A8AB5<>9, ?>MB><C O AG8B0N, GB> E>@>H> ?>43>B>2;5= 4;O 15A54K > =59. K A>740;8 =0HC :><?0=8N 2 !( :0: :><?0=8N «!>=8 <5@8:0», 0<5@8:0=A:CN :><?0=8N, 8 <K O2;O5<AO 4>1@K<8 3@0640=0<8 45;>2>3> <8@0 <5@8:8. 0< A@07C 65 ?@8H;>AL ?>7=0:><8BLAO A 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 254><AB20<8 8 N@848G5A:8<8 ?@>F54C@0<8, 8 <=5 >G5=L ?>257;>, GB> <>8< CG8B5;5< 1K; B0:>9 N@8AB, :0: -420@4 >78=8. =5 B@C4=> 1K;> ?>=OBL =5>1E>48<>ABL =5:>B>@KE 25I59, => O =0CG8;AO ?>4G8=OBLAO 15A:>=5G=K< N@848G5A:8< B@51>20=8O<. 4=0:> O AG8B0N, GB> 2 <5@8:5 ACI5AB2C5B B0:>5 O2;5=85, :0: N@848G5A:85 ?@5A;54>20=8O, 8 O ?@8254C 745AL O@:89 ?@8<5@ MB>3>.  1968 3>4C AA>F80F8O M;5:B@>==>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 ?>40;0 60;>1C 2 <8=8AB5@AB2> D8=0=A>2, CB25@640O, GB> O?>=A:85 :><?0=88, ?@>872>4OI85 B5;5287>@K, ?@>40NB 8E 2 !( ?> 1>;55 =87:8< F5=0<, G5< 2 /?>=88, :>@>G5 3>2>@O, 2K1@0AK20NB 8E ?> 45<?8=3>2K< F5=0<, ?@8G8=OO C1KB:8 <5AB=K< ?@>872>48B5;O<.  :><?0=88 «!>=8» 1K;> ?@>2545=> @0AA;54>20=85 8 =8:0:8E ?>4B25@645=89 >128=5=89 2 ?@>4065 ?> 45<?8=3>2K< F5=0< >1=0@C65=> =5 1K;>, => ?>A:>;L:C 2A5 O?>=A:85 :><?0=88 =0E>48;8AL ?>4 ?>4>7@5=85<, «!>=8» 5I5 =5A:>;L:> ;5B ?>425@30;0AL =525@>OB=> CB><8B5;L=K<, =5MDD5:B82=K<, ?>3;>I02H8< <=>3> 2@5<5=8 8 45=53 @0AA;54>20=8O<. 0:>=5F, 2 1975 3>4C =0A 2KG5@:=C;8 87 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O AC40 > ?@>4065 B5;5287>@>2 ?> 45<?8=3>2K< F5=0<, 2:;NG0BL 2 :>B>@>5 =0A =5 1K;> =8:0:8E >A=>20=89. > ?> B5E=8G5A:8< ?@8G8=0<, GB>1K 70:@KBL MB> 45;>, ?>B@51>20;>AL 5I5 2>A5<L ;5B.  1970 3>4C, :>340 MB8 @0AA;54>20=8O 5I5 ?@>4>;60;8AL, O?>=A:85 ?@>872>48B5;8 B5;5287>@>2, 2 B>< G8A;5 «!>=8», 1K;8 ?>8<5=>20=K >B25BG8:0<8 2 G0AB=>< 0=B8B@5AB>2A:>< 8A:5, ?>40==>< 0<5@8:0=A:>9 :><?0=859, ?@>872>4OI59 B5;5287>@K, «MH=; N=8>= M;5:B@8:» («.-»), :>B>@0O 2K?CA:0;0 B5;5287>@K «-<5@A>=».  MB>< 8A:5 B>65 A>45@60;>AL >128=5=85 2 45<?8=35. 5:>B>@K< 87 <>8E ;CGH8E HB0B=KE N@8AB>2, 0 B0:65 N@8AB>2 A> AB>@>=K, ?@8H;>AL BO65;> ?>B@C48BLAO 2 B5G5=85 45AOB8 ;5B, ?@5645 G5< D545@0;L=K9 >:@C6=>9 AC4 2 $8;045;LD88 2K=5A @5H5=85 2 =0HC ?>;L7C, >B<5B82, 2 G0AB=>AB8, GB> 2284C ?>78F88 «!>=8» :0: :><?0=88, ?@>40NI59 B>20@K =0 0<5@8:0=A:>< @K=:5 ?> A0<K< 2KA>:8< F5=0<, «=5;>38G=>» ?>4>7@520BL 55 2 CG0AB88 2 45<?8=3>2>< 703>2>@5. "5< =5 <5=55 ?>B@51>20;>AL 5I5 420 A ?>;>28=>9 3>40, GB>1K MB> @5H5=85 ?>4B25@48; 0?5;;OF8>==K9 AC4. / 4C<0;, GB> A MB8< 45;>< C65 ?>:>=G5=>, => O >H810;AO. 4=> >1J548=5=85 0<5@8:0=A:8E ?@>872>48B5;59 F25B=KE B5;5287>@>2 8 8E ?@>DA>N7K ?>40;8 ?5B8F8N 2 :><8AA8N ?> 45;0< <564C=0@>4=>9 B>@3>2;8, CB25@640O, GB> >=8 B5@?OB C1KB:8 87-70 C25;8G5=8O M:A?>@B0 O?>=A:8E F25B=KE B5;5287>@>2. @57845=B 68<<8 0@B5@ =5 ?>445@60; @5:><5=40F8N >1 C25;8G5=88 ?>H;8= =0 4204F0BL ?@>F5=B>2, => 70:;NG8; A O?>=A:8< ?@028B5;LAB2>< A>3;0H5=85 >1 C?>@O4>G5=88 A1KB0, >3@0=8G8202H55 M:A?>@B =0 B@8 3>40. -B> A>3;0H5=85 @0A?@>AB@0=O;>AL 8 =0 <>N :><?0=8N, E>BO =5 1K;> =8:0:8E ?@87=0:>2 C25;8G5=8O >1J5<0 =0H8E ?@>406 2 !( 2 @07<5@0E, :>B>@K5 <>3;8 1K ?@8G8=8BL CI5@1 0<5@8:0=A:8< ?@>872>48B5;O< B5;5287>@>2.  A;>2=> MB>3> 1K;> <0;>, GB>1K >:>=G0B5;L=> 87<>B0BL =0A, ?>ABC?8;8 5I5 425 ?5B8F88, B@51CNI85 =0;>68BL 1>;55 2KA>:85 ?>H;8=K =0 =0HC ?@>4C:F8N.  40;55 :>340 <8=8AB5@AB2> D8=0=A>2 !( ?@8 @071>@5 MB8E 45; ?@8H;> : 2K2>4C, GB> ?@>872>4AB2> M;5:B@>=8:8 =5 AC1A848@C5BAO O?>=A:8< ?@028B5;LAB2><, :><?0=8O «5=8B» ?>40;0 8A: ?@>B82 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 87-70 MB>3> ?>AB0=>2;5=8O! =8 >A?>@8;8 MB> ?>AB0=>2;5=85 8 70O28;8, GB> 2>72@0B ?5@5?;0G5==>9 AC<<K O?>=A:>3> =0;>30 A >1>@>B0 ?@8 M:A?>@B5 B>20@>2 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A:@KBCN D>@<C AC1A8489 [5:>B>@K5 8;8 2A5 2=CB@5==85 =0;>38, C?;0G5==K5 ?@>872>48B5;5< B>20@0, 2>72@0I0NBAO D8@<5, 5A;8 B>20@ =0?@02;O5BAO =0 M:A?>@B. /?>=8O 2 40==>< A;CG05 A;54C5B >1KG=>9 <564C=0@>4=>9 ?@0:B8:5. @8<. @54.]. '5@57 B@8 3>40 5@E>2=K9 AC4 >B:;>=8; 8A: «5=8B0». / 4>;65= A:070BL, GB> 2A5 MB>  8 5ABL 5I5 <=>3>5, > G5< O =5 E>GC 3>2>@8BL, A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> 0<5@8:0=A:85 :><?0=88 8A?>;L7CNB 70:>=K