ࡱ> ybjbj4{{%m$Y*Y*Y*m*m*m*8*A0\m*]l2^2"3(E3E3y4Q5d54]]]]]]]7`b]Y*5y4y455]Y*Y*E3E34]ccc5dY*E3Y*E3]c5]ccP~UE3Wߧߚ.vSP\]0]Sucuc~UucY*~Up55c55555]]555]5555uc555555555? Y:&, . ' / #  V<5=V / ! #  0 ?@020E @C:>?8AC  ,   =45:A # 347.218.3  " /   !!" !?5FV0;L=VABL 12.00.03  F82V;L=5 ?@02> V F82V;L=89 ?@>F5A; AV<59=5 ?@02>; <V6=0@>4=5 ?@820B=5 ?@02> 8A5@B0FVO =0 74>1CBBO =0C:>2>3> ABC?5=O :0=4840B0 N@848G=8E =0C: 0C:>289 :5@V2=8:: !?0A81>-$0BTT20 ==0 0;5=B8=V2=0, 4>:B>@ N@848G=8E =0C:, ?@>D5A>@, G;5=-:>@5A?>=45=B :045<VW ?@02>28E =0C: #:@0W=8 %0@:V2-2005 !" !"# 3  1. .@848G=0 ?@8@>40 V 2848 <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 10 030;L=V 70A048 @53C;N20==O 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV 10 !CB=VABL <56 V >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 34 848 <56 V >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 72  2. 5G>2V, 4>3>2V@=V B0 :>@?>@0B82=V >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 98 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >1C<>2;5=V @5G>28<8 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8 98 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >1C<>2;5=V 4>3>2V@=8<8 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8 138 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >1C<>2;5=V :>@?>@0B82=8<8 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8 159 ! 195 !!  !"%   205 !"# :BC0;L=VABL B5<8 7C<>2;5=0 5:>=><V:>-?@02>28<8 7<V=0<8, I> 2V41C20NBLAO 70 >AB0==V G0A8 2 #:@0W=V. @>F5A @5D>@<C20==O C:@0W=AL:>3> 70:>=>402AB20, ?>2 O70=89 V7 30@<>=V70FVTN ?C1;VG=>-?@02>28E B0 ?@820B=>?@02>28E 70A04, =0A0<?5@54 AB>ACTBLAO 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV. #O2;5==O ?@> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV O: 01A>;NB=5 V =5>1<565=5 ?@02> =8=V =5<>6;825. @> F5 A2V4G8BL =5 ;8H5 22545==O 4> =>2>3> & #:@0W=8 =>@< ?@> @5G>2V ?@020 =0 GC65 <09=>, 0 9 =03>;>H5==O =0 2;0AB82V 9><C <56V B0 70?@>20465==O @V7=><0=VB=8E 70A>1V2 9>3> >1<565=L. >730;C65=V ?V4E>48 4> 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?>:;8:0=V ?>T4=0B8 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L V7 ?@020<8 B0 V=B5@5A0<8 V=H8E >AV1. <V=8 C ?@02>2><C @53C;N20==V 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV 70 B0:8E C<>2 T =5<8=CG8< =0A;V4:>< 2?;82C =0 =L>3> :><?;5:AC ?@02>28E <5E0=V7<V2, ?5@5410GC20=8E AC<V6=8<8 V=AB8BCB0<8 4>3>2V@=>3>, :>@?>@0B82=>3>, :>=:C@5=B=>3>, ?@8@>4>@5AC@A>2>3> ?@020 B0 1030BL>E V=H8E. &5 28:;8:0;> =5>1EV4=VABL ?5@5>A<8A;5==O O: ?>=OBBO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV C FV;><C, B0: V @>7C<V==O B0:8E ?@02>28E D5=><5=V2, O: <56V B0 >1<565==O, I> 2?;820NBL =0 =L>3>. 8=8:;0 =030;L=0 ?>B@510 C 7 OAC20==V WE ACB=>ABV B0 @V7=>284V2, 70AB>AC20==V :><?;5:A=>3> ?V4E>4C 4> WE 0=0;V7C V7 =040==O< 2V4?>2V4=8E @5:><5=40FV9 I>4> 24>A:>=0;5==O F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20. 07=0G5=8< ?8B0==O< 2 F82V;VAB8G=V9 =0CFV ?@0:B8G=> =5 ?@84V;O;>AO C2038. V4><0 ?@0FO .. @810=>20 ;8H5 7030;L=8< G8=>< AB>AC20;0AO F8E ?8B0=L B0 I5 9 70 @04O=AL:8E G0AV2. # <>=>3@0DVW ACG0A=>3> @>AV9AL:>3> 4>A;V4=8:0 .. 0<8H0=AL:>3> ?8B0==O <56 B0 >1<565=L 4>A;V46CNBLAO, 0;5 40;5:> =5 ?>2=>N <V@>N, 0 2 48A5@B0FV9=><C 4>A;V465==V C:@0W=AL:>3> 2G5=>3> .. 8E09;5=:> (2003 @.) ?@>0=0;V7>20=> @5G>2>-?@02>2V >1<565==O ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV 2 :>=B5:ABV ?>@V2=O==O 402=L>@8<AL:>3> B0 ACG0A=>3> WE ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O. =0A;V4>: FL>3> FV;89 A?5:B@ 203><8E G8==8:V2 B0 <5E0=V7<V2, 70A04 B0 ?V4AB02, A?>A>1V2 B0 70A>1V2, ?>:;8:0=8E AB@8<C20B8 2;0A=8:0 2 9>3> 01A>;NB87>20=8E ?@02><>G=>ABOE, 70;8H82AO ?>70 <560<8 4>A;V465=L 2 C:@0W=AL:V9 F82V;VAB8FV, G8< V 7C<>2;NTBLAO 0:BC0;L=VABL FVTW @>1>B8. 2 O7>: @>1>B8 7 =0C:>28<8 ?@>3@0<0<8, ?;0=0<8, B5<0<8. 1@0=89 48A5@B0=B:>N =0?@O<>: 4>A;V465==O T A:;04>2>N G0AB8=>N :><?;5:A=>W FV;L>2>W ?@>3@0<8 #4>A:>=0;5==O ?@02>2>3> <5E0=V7<C 45@602=>3> 2?;82C =0 @8=:>2V 2V4=>A8=8 (?C1;VG=>-?@02>2V B0 ?@820B=>?@02>2V 0A?5:B8) ! 0186.0.070869. 5B0 V 7040GV 4>A;V465==O. 5B>N 4>A;V465==O T 7 OAC20==O ACB=>ABV <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@02>28E O28I, 28O2;5==O =5>1EV4=>ABV 2 WE 70?@>20465==V, @>7@>1;5==O =0C:>2>-B5>@5B8G=8E ?@>?>78FV9, A?@O<>20=8E =0 24>A:>=0;5==O ?V4E>4V2 4> ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV. ;O 4>AO3=5==O 2:070=>W <5B8 C 48A5@B0FV9=><C 4>A;V465==V 1C;8 ?>AB02;5=V B0:V >A=>2=V 7040GV: ?@>0=0;V7C20B8 =0C:>2V ?V4E>48 4> ?>=OBL <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 28O28B8 WE 2?;82 =0 ?>=OBBO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, ?@02><>G=>ABV 2;0A=8:0, WE 74V9A=5==O B0 70E8AB; 70?@>?>=C20B8 A8AB5<C <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 287=0G8B8 WE 2848; @>7:@8B8 @V7=V 2848 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 AD5@V @5G>28E, 4>3>2V@=8E B0 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=. 1 T:B>< 4>A;V465==O T ?@02>25 @53C;N20==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 9 WE ?@>O2 C F82V;L=>-?@02>28E 2V4=>A8=0E, I> A:;040NBLAO ?@8 74V9A=5==V 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L. @54<5B>< 4>A;V465==O T <56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@02>2V :0B53>@VW, WE N@848G=0 ?@8@>40, 28O2;5==O E0@0:B5@C B0 =0A;V4:V2 WE 2?;82C =0 >1AO3 ?>2=>2065=L 2;0A=8:0 V 70157?5G5==O 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV ?@02>28< @53C;N20==O< V7 2BV;5=8<8 2 =L><C >1<56C20;L=8<8 <5E0=V7<0<8. 5B>48 4>A;V465==O, I> 28:>@8AB>2C20;8AO 2 ?@>F5AV =0?8A0==O 48A5@B0FV9=>W @>1>B8: ?>@V2=O;L=>-?@02>289, 70 4>?><>3>N O:>3> ?@>AB565=0 ?>A;V4>2=VABL @>728B:C 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV C ACG0A=><C C:@0W=AL:><C A5@54>28IV =0 ?V4AB02V B8E B5>@5B8G=8E =0410=L V ?@0:B8G=8E <5E0=V7<V2, O:V 28?@0FL>2C20;8AO 2 V=HV G0A8 B0 2 V=H8E :@0W=0E; 4V0;5:B8G=89, O:89 2?;8=C2 =0 ?>3;O4 =0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV O: ?>ABC?>25 72C65==O >1AO3C <>6;82>AB59 AC1 T:BV2 G5@57 =5>1EV4=VABL 2@0EC20==O ?@8@>4=8E <56 FL>3> ?@020 B0 C73>465==O 4V9 9>3> =>AVO 7 ?@020<8 B0 V=B5@5A0<8 V=H8E 2;0A=8:V2, ACA?V;LAB20 2 FV;><C, =>@<0<8 <>@0;V; A8AB5<=>-AB@C:BC@=89, O:89 =0402 <>6;82VABL 287=0G8B8 2848 <56 B0 >1<565=L 7 WE 270T<=8< 2?;82>< =0 2V4=>A8=8 2;0A=>ABV; ;>3VG=89 <5B>4 7C<>282 ?>A;V4>2=VABL 28A;>2;5=8E AC465=L B0 C<>282>4V2. (;OE>< ?@>2545==O 0=0;V7C B0 A8=B57C 28O2;O;8AO 7030;L=V 70A048 ?@02>2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV. # ?@>F5AV 4>A;V465==O 28:>@8AB>2C20;8AO B0:>6 V=HV 7030;L=>=0C:>2V B0 A?5FV0;L=V <5B>48 =0C:>2>3> ?V7=0==O. 0C:>2>-B5>@5B8G=>N >A=>2>N 4>A;V465==O B0 7@>1;5=8E C 48A5@B0FVW 28A=>2:V2 AB0;8 ?@0FV 2VBG87=O=8E B0 70@C1V6=8E 2G5=8E 4>@52>;NFV9=>3>, @04O=AL:>3> B0 ACG0A=>3> ?5@V>4V2, O:V 725@B0;8AO 4> ?8B0=L, I> 0=0;V7C20;8AO 2 @>1>BV, 7>:@5<0 .. 30@:>20, .. '5@5?0EV=0, '.. 7V<>20, !.!. ;5:ATT20, !.. @0BCAO, .. @810=>20, .. 75@8, .!. >DD5, .. 8;V=:>2>W, .. 0<8H0=AL:>3>, . . V15=:>, .!. C7=TF>2>W, .. CFO, .. 0940=8:0, .. 8E09;5=:>, .. V4>?@83>@8, .. >:@>2AL:>3>, .. !:;>2AL:>3>, .. !?0A81>-$0BTT2>W, .. !CE0=>20, .. %0@8B>=>20, /.. (52G5=:>, .$. (5@H5=528G0, . B. )5==8:>2>W B0 V=. 0C:>20 =>287=0 >45@60=8E @57C;LB0BV2 ?>;O30T C 74V9A=5==V =>2>3> :><?;5:A=>3> 4>A;V465==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 2 ?@>F5AV O:>3> 2?5@H5 AD>@<C;L>20=>, >1@C=B>20=>, 4>2545=> 01> 4>40B:>2> 0@3C<5=B>20=> =87:C ?>;>65=L B0 28A=>2:V2, O:V 28=>AOBLAO =0 70E8AB. 1. 02545=> =>2V 4>40B:>2V 0@3C<5=B8 I>4> <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:V T @V7=8<8 ?@02>28<8 :0B53>@VO<8. 56V T 2;0AB82VABN ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 >1 T:B82=><C @>7C<V==V, N@848G=>N E0@0:B5@8AB8:>N 9>3> AB0B8G=>3> AB0=C, O:8< >:@5A;NTBLAO H8@>:5 :>;> <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0, 0;5 7 4>45@60==O< ?52=8E ?@8?8AV2 4VOB8 2V4?>2V4=8< G8=><, I> <0NBL 7030;L=89 E0@0:B5@ V 4VNBL 2V4=>A=> 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2. 1<565==O<8 T 7>2=VH=V9 2?;82 =0 AC1 T:B82=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV :>=:@5B=>W >A>18, I> 2BV;NTBLAO C 2V4?>2V4=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 7 WW CG0ABN, BO3=5 70 A>1>N AB8A=5==O, 7<5=H5==O <>6;82>AB59 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L V ?>;O30T C :>=:@5B=8E ?@8?8A0E 2;0A=8:C 74V9A=8B8 ?52=V 4VW 01> CB@8<0B8AO 2V4 ?52=8E 4V9. 2. @>1;5=> =>289 28A=>2>: ?@> B5, I> >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV VA=CNBL C ?>42V9=><C @V2=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=: 2>=8 2BV;NNBLAO 2 >:@5<V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 (=0?@8:;04, ?@8 A5@2VBCBV) V F8< A0<8< 2?;820NBL =0 7<VAB ?@02>2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV, 72C6CNG8 9>3> >1AO3. 3. 0AB>A>20=> =>289 ?V4EV4 I>4> A?V22V4=>H5==O ?>=OBL >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, =0 ?V4AB02V G>3> AB25@46CTBLAO, I> >18420 70 A2>TN ACB=VABN T >1<565==O<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >4=0: V7 @V7=>N A?@O<>20=VABN. C4CG8 4>40B:>28< BO30@5< 4;O 2;0A=8:0, >1BO65==O O2;ONBL A>1>N ?@020 V=H8E >AV1 =0 9>3> @VG (A5@2VBCB8, 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9, ?@020 7 4>3>2>@V2 >@5=48, =09<C B>I>). 1<565==O 6 =5 ?@8?CA:0T ?@02 V=H8E >AV1 =0 @VG 2;0A=8:0, 0;5 2V= 7 WE 2AB0=>2;5==O< =5 2 7<>7V 27030;V 74V9A=8B8 A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV (?@8 =0:;045==V 0@5HBC =0 9>3> <09=> 01> 701>@>=V 2V4GC65==O). 4. @>1;5=> =>2V 28A=>2:8 I>4> =0?@O<:V2 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV AB>A>2=> 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O O: C :>6=V9 7 F8E ?@02><>G=>AB59, B0: V 2 WE :><1V=0FVOE, 0 B0:>6 C 2AVE ?@02><>G=>ABOE @07><. # 72 O7:C 7 F8< ?@8<CA>25 ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV >4=>G0A=> T 9>3> >1<565==O<, >A:V;L:8 ?>7102;OT 2;0A=8:0 <>6;82>ABV =0 A2V9 @>7AC4 2V;L=> @>7?>@O460B8AO A2>W< <09=><. 5. >-=>2><C >E0@0:B5@87>20=> A?>A>18 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:8<8 T 701>@>=8, ?@8?8A8 B0 7>1>2'O7C20==O, I> 2AB0=>2;NNBL >1>2 O7:8 2;0A=8:0. >=8 <>6CBL 1CB8 7030;L=8<8 B0 :>=:@5B=8<8, VA=CNG8<8 2 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E <V6 ?52=8<8 >A>10<8 (?@8 A5@2VBCB0E B0 V=H8E @5G>28E ?@020E). 6. ?5@H5 70?@>?>=>20=> 28@V7=OB8 B@8 ABC?5=O AB8A=5==O 2;0A=8:0: =091V;LH 203><89, A5@54=V9 B0 <V=V<0;L=89. 7. ?5@H5 70?@>?>=>20=> :;0A8DV:0FVW <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. ;0A8DV:0FVO <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?@>2048BLAO 70;56=> 2V4: 1) @>7C<V==O A0<>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@8@>4=>3> V O: ?>78B82=>3> ?@020; 2) <5B8 WE=L>3> 2AB0=>2;5==O - 2 ?C1;VG=><C 01> ?@820B=><C V=B5@5AV; 3) AD5@8 70:>=>402G>3> @53C;N20==O; 4) N@848G=>W G8==>ABV ?@8?8AV2; 5) ?@02>2>3> @568<C ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 6) ?52=8E >1'T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 7) AC1'T:BV2, =0 O:8E ?>H8@NNBLAO FV <56V. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL :;0A8DV:C20B8AO 70;56=> 2V4: 1) 465@5;0, O:8< 2>=8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO; 2) =0O2=>ABV 01> 2V4ACB=>ABV 2>;V 2;0A=8:0; 3) N@848G=>W G8==>ABV ?@8?8AV2; 4) >1AO3C <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0 ?> 74V9A=5==N A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59; 5) ?@02>2V4=>A8=, 2 O:8E 2>=8 @50;V7CNBLAO. 8. ?5@H5 4>2>48BLAO =5>1EV4=VABL C=V25@A0;L=>3> ?V4E>4C 4> 2@53C;N20==O >A>18AB8E A5@2VBCBV2 O: 4>2VG=8E ?@02, O:I> 2>=8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 70 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0 <09=0 (=0?@8:;04, C 70?>2VBV), 0 B0:>6 7 V=H8E ?V4AB02 (2=0A;V4>: AV<59=8E AB>AC=:V2, A5@2VBCBC 4VB59 =0 <09=> 10BL:V2). 1@C=B>2CTBLAO, I> 70AB>AC20==O B0:>W ?V4AB028 ?@8?8=5==O A5@2VBCBC, O: ?@8?8=5==O >1AB028=8, O:0 1C;0 ?V4AB02>N 4;O 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBC <0T AB>AC20B8AO ;8H5 75<5;L=8E A5@2VBCBV2. =0A;V4>: FL>3> 70?@>?>=>20=> 7<V=8 4> &82V;L=>3> V 8B;>2>3> :>45:AV2 #:@0W=8, 70:>=V2 @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L, @> V?>B5:C. 9. ?5@H5 0=0;V7CTBLAO ?>42V9=VABL >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=8:0 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V AC?5@DVFVN, ?>-?5@H5, B8<, I> 28=8:0T V=H5 @5G>25 ?@02> (AC?5@DVFV9); ?>-4@C35, 2=0A;V4>: @50;V70FVW ?@020 =0 701C4>2C 2 AC1 T:B0 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 28=8:0T ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 F59 >1 T:B =5@CE><>ABV. 10. 02545=> 4>40B:>2C 0@3C<5=B0FVN I>4> =5?@8?CAB8<>ABV @>73;O4C =09<C (>@5=48) O: @5G>2>3> ?@020, >A:V;L:8 ?@8 FL><C 702648 <0T <VAF5 4>3>2V@ 7 2;0A=8:><, O:8< V 287=0G0NBLAO ?@020 =09<0G0 (>@5=40@O). %0@0:B5@ V 7<VAB @5G>28E ?@02 287=0G0TBLAO 157?>A5@54=L> 70:>=><, V WE=T 28=8:=5==O =5@V4:> 2V41C20TBLAO ?>70 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0. 11. =09H;> ?>40;LH>3> @>728B:C ?>;>65==O ?@> 2?;82 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02 =0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV ?52=>3> AC1 T:B0. >2>48BLAO, I> :>@?>@0B82=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 <V6 0:FV>=5@>< B0 " >1<56CNBL >1>E F8E AC1 T:BV2, E>G0 9 AB>A>2=> @V7=8E >1'T:BV2. @8 FL><C " O: 2;0A=8: <09=0 >1<56CTBLAO 2 ?@020E 2 V=B5@5A0E 0:FV>=5@V2, 0 0:FV>=5@8 O: 2;0A=8:8 0:FV9 >1<56CNBLAO 2 A2>WE ?@020E 2 V=B5@5A0E V=H8E 0:FV>=5@V2 B0 ". @0:B8G=5 7=0G5==O >45@60=8E @57C;LB0BV2 ?>;O30T C <>6;82>ABV 28:>@8AB0==O 2=5A5=8E 48A5@B0=B:>N C @57C;LB0BV 4>A;V465==O ?@>?>78FV9 B0 28A=>2:V2: C 70:>=>B2>@GV9 4VO;L=>ABV - 2 ?@>F5AV C4>A:>=0;5==O F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20, 7>:@5<0 H;OE>< 2=5A5==O 7<V= B0 4>?>2=5=L 4> 8B;>2>3> :>45:AC, 70:>=V2 #:@0W=8 @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L, @> V?>B5:C; C ?@02>70AB>A>2=V9 4VO;L=>ABV  2 ?@>F5AV 74V9A=5==O B0 70E8ABC 2;0A=8:0<8 A2>WE ?@02; C =02G0;L=>-<5B>48G=V9 @>1>BV  ?@8 ?V43>B>2FV B0 28:;040==V =02G0;L=8E 48AF8?;V= &82V;L=5 ?@02> B0 :BC0;L=V ?@>1;5<8 F82V;L=>3> ?@020. ?@>10FVO @57C;LB0BV2 4>A;V465==O. 8A5@B0FVN 28:>=0=> V >13>2>@5=> =0 70AV40==V :0D54@8 F82V;L=>3> ?@020 0FV>=0;L=>W N@848G=>W 0:045<VW #:@0W=8 V<5=V /@>A;020 C4@>3>. A=>2=V ?>;>65==O 4>A;V465==O >?@8;N4=N20;8AO B0:>6 =0 =0C:>2>-?@0:B8G=8E :>=D5@5=FVOE, 7>:@5<0  >25 70:>=>402AB2> #:@0W=8 B0 ?8B0==O 9>3> 70AB>AC20==O (<. %0@:V2, 0FV>=0;L=0 N@848G=0 0:045<VO #:@0W=8 V<5=V /@>A;020 C4@>3>, 26-27 3@C4=O 2003 @.);  >2V &82V;L=89 B0 >A?>40@AL:89 :>45:A8 #:@0W=8 B0 ?@>1;5<8 WE 70AB>AC20==O (<. %0@:V2, 0FV>=0;L=0 N@848G=0 0:045<VO #:@0W=8 V<5=V /@>A;020 C4@>3>, 23 :2VB=O 2003 @.);  2>;NFVO F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20 (<. %0@:V2, 0FV>=0;L=0 N@848G=0 0:045<VO #:@0W=8 V<5=V /@>A;020 C4@>3>, 29-30 :2VB=O 2004@.). C1;V:0FVW. 57C;LB0B8 4>A;V465==O 28:;045=V 2 H5AB8 =0C:>28E ?@0FOE, B@8 7 =8E >?C1;V:>20=V C D0E>28E 2840==OE, ?5@5;V: O:8E 70B25@465=>  #:@0W=8, 0 B0:>6 C B@L>E =04@C:>20=8E B570E 4>?>2V459 =0 =0C:>2>-?@0:B8G=8E :>=D5@5=FVOE.  1 .@848G=0 ?@8@>40 B0 2848 <56 V >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 1.1. 030;L=V 70A048 @53C;N20==O 2;0A=>ABV @>F5A8 ?5@51C4>28 C:@0W=AL:>3> ACA?V;LAB20, 7<V=8 2 5:>=><VFV #:@0W=8, I> 2V41C20NBLAO 7 ?>G0B:C 90-E @>:V2 <8=C;>3> AB>@VGGO, 7=0G=>N <V@>N 2?;8=C;8 =0 10G5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. !B0=>2;5==O =>28E 5:>=><VG=8E 2V4=>A8= =0 @8=:>28E 70A040E, @>728B>: ?V4?@8T<=8FB20, ?@>3>;>H5==O @V2=>?@02=>ABV CAVE 2;0A=8:V2 ?>7=0G8;8AO =0 @>7C<V==V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: =091V;LH H8@>:>3> B0 01A>;NB=>3> <09=>2>3> ?@020. "><C 7 OAC20==O <56 V >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =5@>7@82=> ?>2 O70=5 7 A0<8< ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV, ?@02>20 ?@8@>40 O:>3> 9 7C<>2;NT ?52=V 9>3> <56V B0 <>6;82VABL 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L I>4> =L>3>. ;O FVTW <5B8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV <0T 0=0;V7C20B8AO 7 >3;O4C @V7=8E 9>3> @0:C@AV2, 0 A0<5 O: ?@8@>4=5 V ?>78B82=5 ?@02>. =>4V =03>;>HCNBL B0:>6 =0  A>FV0;L=><C ?@02V , O:5 @>7C<VNBL =5>4=>7=0G=>: V O: 0=0;>3 ?@820B=>3> ?@020, :>B@5 A2>3> G0AC =5 287=020;>AO @04O=AL:>N ?@02>2>N =0C:>N, V O: A>FV0;L=V 0A?5:B8 @53C;N20==O ?@820B=8E 2V4=>A8=, 45O:>N <V@>N 72C6CNG8 >AB0==V, V O: B0:V, I> @53C;NNBL B>@3>289 >1V3 B0 45O:V AC<V6=V 2V4=>A8=8 [211] . /: ?@8@>4=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV ?@8B0<0==5 2AV< ;N4O< [215], >A:V;L:8 2>=> 28=8:0T 7 ?@8@>48 ;N48=8, ;N4AL:>3> @>7C<C [203]. )5 C $@0=FC7L:V9 5:;0@0FVW ?@02 ;N48=8 V 3@><04O=8=0 1789 @. 1C;> ?@>3>;>H5=>, I> 74V9A=5==O ?@8@>4=8E ?@02 ;N48=8 >1<565=> ;8H5 4;O 70157?5G5==O V=H8< G;5=0< ACA?V;LAB20 :>@8ABC20==O F8<8 6 ?@020<8 (AB. 4).  ?>78FVW ?@8@>4=>3> ?@020 ?>4V1=89 ?V4EV4 @>73;O40TBLAO O: 7030;L=>?@89=OB0 =>@<0 ?>254V=:8, O: ACBL V=482V4C0;L=>W 2>;V, V45O @V2=8E <>6;82>AB59, @V2=8E AB0@B>28E C<>2 [203].  E>G0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =5 T B0:8< ?@8@>4=8<, O: 2>;O V @V2=VABL, >A:V;L:8 2>=> =5 40TBLAO 2V4 ?@8@>48, 0 74>1C20TBLAO ;N48=>N, 9>3> ACB=VABL B0:>6 <VAB8BL C A>1V B0:V 0=0;>3VG=V E0@0:B5@8AB8:8, O: ?@02> =0 2>;N V 157?5:C, I> 28?;820T 7V AB. 2 5:;0@0FVW [124]. 57<V==0 28<>30 ?@8@>4=>3> ?@020 ?>;O30T 2 B><C, I> 7>2=VH=O 2>;O >A>18AB>ABV 702648 1C;0 >1<565=0 2>;5N V=H8E >AV1 BVTN 6 A0<>N <V@>N, 2 O:V9 FL>3> 28<030T 4>1@> [227]. @8@>4=V <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?@8?CA:0NBL =0O2=VABL C 2;0A=8:0 <>6;82>ABV 74V9A=N20B8 1C4L-O:V ?@02><V@=V 4VW 2V4=>A=> A2>3> <09=0, >4=0: 70 28=OB:>< B8E, C @57C;LB0BV O:8E 70?>4VN20;0AO 1 H:>40 <09=C V=H8E >AV1. 50;V70FVO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2V41C20TBLAO 2 ACA?V;LAB2V, I> B0:>6 =0:;040T 2V418B>: =0 =L>3>, 28:;8:0T =5>1EV4=VABL 4>45@60==O 2;0A=8:>< ?52=8E ?@028; ?>254V=:8. > FL>3> 7>1>2'O7CT =5@>7@82=89 72'O7>: ;N48=8 V ACA?V;LAB20: BV;L:8 2 ACA?V;LAB2V, 2 @0<:0E :>=:@5B=8E A>FV0;L=8E CB2>@5=L ;N48=0 @50;V7CTBLAO O: >A>18ABVABL V ?5@51C20T C 7030;L=8E 72'O7:0E 7 V=H8<8 ;N4L<8 [182]. @02> 2;0A=>ABV =0?>2=NTBLAO A>FV0;L=8< ?@87=0G5==O<, I>, =0 4C<:C !.. @0BCAO, T 9>3> A>FV0;L=>N <5B>N [21]. >728B>: AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2V4 =5>1<565=>3>, 01A>;NB=>3> 4> ?@020 >1<565=>3> ?>@>48;> ?>B@51C 2 B5>@5B8G=8E 4>A;V465==OE V ?>HC:0E =>28E :>=AB@C:FV9 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 091V;LH>3> ?>H8@5==O >45@60;0 :>=F5?FVO 2;0A=>ABV O: A>FV0;L=>W DC=:FVW. /. 070@ ?8A02, I> A>FV0;L=0 DC=:FVO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 70157?5GCTBLAO >1<565==O<8 ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0 A>FV0;L=8<8 V=B5@5A0<8 [120] . 2V4A8 28=8:0T ;>3VG=89 72'O7>: <V6 A>FV0;L=8< ?@87=0G5==O< ?@020 V 9>3> <560<8, I> F8< ?@87=0G5==O< 7C<>2;5=V. !0<5 B><C ?>2AN4=> ?@89=OB=8< T B25@465==O ?@> =5>1EV4=VABL 74V9A=5==O ?@020 2V4?>2V4=> 4> 9>3> ?@87=0G5==O. "0:, =0 4C<:C . !. >DD5, ?V4 <560<8 74V9A=5==O F82V;L=8E ?@02 ?>B@V1=> @>7C<VB8 <56V, I> 28?;820NBL 7 WE=L>3> FV;L>2>3> ?@87=0G5==O [105]. @>B5 =5 A;V4 72>48B8 <56V ?@020 BV;L:8 4> 9>3> 74V9A=5==O 2V4?>2V4=> WE=L><C ?@87=0G5==N, >A:V;L:8 VA=CT V 1030B> V=H8E :@8B5@VW2 4;O 2AB0=>2;5==O B0:8E <56. 70T<>72'O7>: ?@8@>4=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV V A>FV0;L=8E C<>2 9>3> VA=C20==O B0 @50;V70FVW T B8< G8==8:><, O:89 7C<>2;NT 28<>38 4> <56 FL>3> ?@020: 1) <>@0;L=>3>, 2) 728G09=>3> V 3) ?@02>2>3> (?>78B82=>3>) E0@0:B5@C. AB0==V 70DV:A>20=V 2 70:>=V V <0NBL 7030;L=>>1>2'O7:>289 E0@0:B5@.  WE=L>N 4>?><>3>N =>@<0 ?@020 =040T 2;0A=8:>2V ?@02> 01> 701>@>=OT I>-=51C4L @>18B8, 7>1>2'O7CT 9>3> CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 ?52=8E 4V9 2V4=>A=> >1'T:B0 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. &V ?@8?8A8 28E>4OBL V7 ?@8@>4=>ABV ?@02 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2 C ACA?V;LAB2V B0 =5>1EV4=>ABV WE 30@<>=V70FVW. /: 707=0G02 .$. (5@H5=528G, ?@8 B8E 7=0G=8E ?@02><>G=>ABOE, :>B@V <0T 2;0A=8:, <>6=0 =5?>:>WB8AO, I> 74V9A=5==O ?@020, =VG8< =5 >1<565=5, 740B=5 2V418B8AO 25;L<8 =530B82=> =0 V=B5@5A0E V=H8E G;5=V2 B>3> 6 ACA?V;LAB20, =0 V=B5@5A0E A0<>3> ACA?V;LAB20 [221] . 030;L=>?@89=OB>N T 28<>30 70:>=C 4> 74V9A=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 @0<:0E 4>72>;5=>W ?>254V=:8.  FL>3> ?>3;O4C 4>72>;5=>N T ?>254V=:0 7 C@0EC20==O< B0:8E 28<>3 4> =5W, O: @>7C<=VABL V AC<;V==VABL, >E>@>=0 4>2:V;;O, 4>45@60==O <>@0;L=8E 70A04 ACA?V;LAB20. !0<5 ?@8@>4=5 ?@02> O: <>@0;L=V V ?@02>2V V45W, ?@8=F8?8, V450;8 B>I> 7C<>2;NT ?@02>A2V4><VABL >A>18AB>ABV, :>B@0, VA=CNG8 2 ACA?V;LAB2V, ?>28==0 2@0E>2C20B8 9>3> <>@0;L=V ?V420;8=8 O: ?@8@>4=V ?@028;0 ?>254V=:8, V B0:5 ?>;>65==O T 15770AB5@56=8< [204]. &O 28<>30 70:@V?;5=0 2 AB. 320 &82V;L=>3> :>45:AC #:@0W=8 (40;V - &) [217]. A>10 ?>28==0 4>B@8<C20B8AO V 728G09=8E 28<>3, O:8<8 T 728G0W O: ?@028;0 ?>254V=:8, I> =5 2AB0=>2;5=V 0:B0<8 F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20, 0;5 @07>< 7 B8< T CAB0;5=8<8 C ?52=V9 AD5@V F82V;L=8E 2V4=>A8=.  E>G0 728G0W 7030;L=>@53C;OB82=>W 7=0GCI>ABV =5 <0NBL, 2>=8 B0:>6 2V4V3@0NBL ?52=C @>;L C @53C;N20==V ACA?V;L=8E 2V4=>A8= (AB.7 &) 2 B><C G8A;V AB>A>2=> 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. &V <56V <0T :>6=5 ?@02>, O: V ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV [160] . 8<>38 4> 2;0A=8:V2, O:V 2ABC?0NBL <V6 A>1>N C 2V4=>A8=8, 28AC20NBLAO 9 ?>78B82=8< ?@02>< (70:>=><). :>=><VG=V 70:>=8, O: V 70:>=8 ?@8@>48, <0NBL >1'T:B82=89 E0@0:B5@, B>1B> VA=CNBL 2AC?5@5G 2>;V, A2V4><>ABV, CO2;5=L V 1060=L ;N459 [204]. >78B82=5 ?@02> (N@848G=V 70:>=8), =02?0:8, T 2>;L>28<8 0:B0<8. 4=0: 2>=8 2BV;NNBL 2 N@848G=V :>=AB@C:FVW 5:>=><VG=V 70:>=8 B0 ?@8@>4=V ?@020.  ?>3;O4C ?>78B82=>3> ?V4E>4C 1C4L-O:0 =>@<0 =040T 2;0A=8:>2V ?@02> 01> 701>@>=OT I>-=51C4L @>18B8, 7>1>2'O7CT 9>3> CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 ?52=8E 4V9 I>4> 9>3> <09=0 01> 4>B@8<C20B8AO ?52=>3> ?>@O4:C 74V9A=5==O =8< A2>WE ?@02. B65, =>@<0 ?@020, ?5@5410G0NG8 2>;N CG0A=8:V2 ACA?V;L=8E 2V4=>A8=, I> @53C;NNBLAO =5N, 2AB0=>2;NT >4=>G0A=> V <56V WE 2V;L=>W ?>254V=:8. &5 AB>ACTBLAO <>6;82>ABV 4;O AC1'T:B0 A2V4><> >18@0B8 B>9 01> V=H89 20@V0=B ?>254V=:8 B0 2BV;N20B8 9>3> 2 A2>WE 4VOE, >G5284=8E 4;O V=H8E >AV1, C@0E>2CNG8 WE V=B5@5A8 B0 ?@8?8A8 ?@020. >78B82=5 ?@02> 70728G09 @>7<56>2CT ?>=OBBO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 >1'T:B82=><C B0 AC1'T:B82=><C @>7C<V==OE. 8O2;5==O ACB=>ABV :0B53>@V9 <56 V >1<565=L ;568BL C ?5@HC G5@3C 2 ?;>I8=V F8E ?>=OBL. @02>< 2;0A=>ABV 2 >1'T:B82=><C @>7C<V==V T AC:C?=VABL =>@<, :>B@V @53C;NNBL ACA?V;L=V 2V4=>A8=8 I>4> ?>@O4:C =01CBBO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 9>3> 74V9A=5==O G5@57 ?@02><>G=>ABV I>4> 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O, ?@8?8=5==O B0 70E8ABC [216].  >1'T:B82=><C @>7C<V==V ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 10G8BLAO ?>-@V7=><C: 0) O: V=AB8BCB F82V;L=>3> ?@020 [215; 42] , 1) O: :><?;5:A=89 V=AB8BCB [200; 216]  . AB0==O B>G:0 7>@C 2840TBLAO 1V;LH A;CH=>N, >A:V;L:8 =>@<8 ?@> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV <VABOBLAO O: C F82V;L=><C, B0: V 2 V=H8E 30;C7OE 70:>=>402AB20 (68B;>2><C, 75<5;L=><C, 3>A?>40@AL:><C, AV<59=><C, B@C4>2><C). 2V4A8 28?;820T, I> <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO =5 BV;L:8 F82V;L=8<, 0 9 V=H8<8 30;C7O<8 70:>=>402AB20. 030;L=5 @>7C<V==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O: ?@028;>, ?>2'O7CTBLAO 7 :0B53>@VTN ?@8A2>T==O, I>, C A2>N G5@3C, T 28@07=8:>< ACB=>ABV 2;0A=>ABV, 9 C B><C G8A;V 2 :>=B5:ABV WW <56 B0 >1<565=L. @02> 2;0A=>ABV T N@848G=8< A?>A>1>< @>7?>4V;C <09=0 2 ACA?V;LAB2V H;OE>< =04V;5==O >AV1 AC1'T:B82=8<8 ?@020<8 =0 =L>3>. 04V;5==O >AV1 <09=>< A2V4G8BL ?@> 9>3> ?@8A2>T==O, I> T 42>WAB8< O28I5<: O: AB02;5==O ;N48=8 4> ?@8@>48, I> V 28ABC?0T C ?52=V9 D>@<V V O: 2V4=>A8=8 <V6 ;N4L<8, B>1B> O: ACA?V;L=>-28@>1=8GV 2V4=>A8=8 [104] . !CB=VABL ?@8A2>T==O ?>;O30T C AB02;5==V 4> ?@82;0A=5=>3> <09=0 O: 4> A2>3> 2;0A=>3>. @8 FL><C ?@8A2>T==O <09=0 (@5GV) >4=VTN >A>1>N, ?>T4=0=0 7 =5>1EV4=VABN =5A5==O BO30@O 9>3> CB@8<0==O, =5<8=CG5 BO3=5 70 A>1>N 2V4AB>@>=5==O 2V4 FL>3> <09=0 (CAC=5==O 2V4 ?@02 =0 =L>3>) 2AVE V=H8E >AV1.  FL>3> 28?;820T, I> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 40T <>6;82VABL 287=0G8B8AO 7 B8<, :><C 70 70:>=>< =0;568BL <09=> 2 @57C;LB0BV ?@8A2>T==O, V B8< A0<8< 40T 7<>3C 2AB0=>28B8 2V4<56C20==O <09=0 >4=VTW >A>18AB>ABV (2;0A=8:0) 2V4 <09=0 V=H8E >AV1 (=52;0A=8:V2). @8A2>T==O >?>A5@54:>2CT @>7C<V==O 2;0A=>ABV O: AB02;5==O >A>18AB>ABV 4> =0;56=>W W9 @5GV O: 4> A2>TW. ;0A=VABL A?8@0TBLAO =0 @>7@V7=5==O <>3> V B2>3>, I> <>6;82> ;8H5 70 C<>28, O:I> EB>AL AB028BLAO 4> @5G59 O: 4> A2>WE, 0 EB>AL  O: 4> GC68E [104]. "8< A0<8< <>T A?>;CG0TBLAO 7 ?>=OBBO< 4;O A515, 0 GC65 265 T 2AB0=>2;5==O< <56 4;O 2AVE V=H8E, I> 40T ?@82V4 22060B8 F59 ?>42V9=89 @0:C@A 2;0A=>ABV BVTN ?@8G8=>N, O:0 7C<>2;NT 4VW 2;0A=8:0 B0 V=H8E >AV1. ">4V AB0T 7@>7C<V;8<, I> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV (<>T) <0T A2>W <56V, 1> 2;0A=8:0 >B>GCNBL V=HV =5G8A;5==V 2;0A=8:8 7 B0:8< 65 A0<8< 10G5==O< <>3> 2V4=>A=> 265 4> A2>3> <09=0. ;5 <>T 4;O :>6=>3> <>65 1CB8 B0:8< V @50;V7C20B8AO O: B0:5 ;8H5 2 B><C @07V, :>;8 :>65= @>7C<VT, I> C =L>3> B0:V 6 ?@020, O: V 2 V=H8E I>4> A2>WE >1 T:BV2.  O:I> :>65= 2;0A=8: ?>2060B8<5 ?@020 V=H8E 2;0A=8:V2, B> B8< A0<8< >4=>G0A=> 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO V <56V 9>3> ?@020, V <56V ?@02 V=H8E, B0:8E 65, O: 2V=, 2;0A=8:V2, V <>6;82VABL =0;56=>W @50;V70FVW ?@020 :>6=8< 7 =8E. @02> 2;0A=>ABV 2 AC1'T:B82=><C @>7C<V==V 728G09=> B;C<0G0BL O: N@848G=> 70:@V?;5=C 70 2;0A=8:>< <>6;82VABL ?52=>W ?>254V=:8 01> 70157?5G5=C 70:>=>< <V@C ?>254V=:8 2;0A=8:0 2V4=>A=> =0;56=>3> 9><C <09=0, AD5@C 7>2=VH=L>W 2>;V, I> =040TBLAO 2;0A=8:>2V =>@<0<8 >1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 [108]. &5 B0:>6 A2V4G8BL ?@> B5, I> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV :>=:@5B=>W >A>18AB>ABV =5 157<56=5 V =02VBL I5 72C6CTBLAO, =V6 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 2 >1'T:B82=><C @>7C<V==V, >A:V;L:8 2>=> ?>E>48BL 2V4 >AB0==L>3>. B65, :@V< 7030;L=>3> B25@465==O ?@> ?>2'O70=VABL ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 >1'T:B82=><C V AC1'T:B82=><C @>7C<V==OE, <0T <VAF5 V 157?>A5@54=V9 72'O7>: <56 B0 >1<565=L, 70:;045=8E C A0<><C WE=L><C @>7C<V==V. @8 ?@>=8:=5==V 2 ACB=VABL :>6=>3> 7 F8E ?>=OBL 28@07=VH8< AB0T V 10G5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. !C1'T:B82=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV <VAB8BL 1030B> 287=0G5=L, :>6=5 7 O:8E =5<0T A5=AC =02>48B8, B8< 1V;LH, I>, O: A;CH=> ?><VB82 .$. (5@H5=528G, B0:V 287=0G5==O 157:>@8A=V [223], 0;5 4;O <5B8 FL>3> 4>A;V465==O 73@C?CT<> @V7=V ?V4E>48 V 284V;8<> BV 0:F5=B8, =0 O:V 725@B0NBL C203C =0C:>2FV ?@8 9>3> E0@0:B5@8AB8FV. B65, ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@02> AC1 T:B82=5  F5 :>=:@5B=5 ?@02> >A>18AB>ABV, I> 287=0G0TBLAO G5@57 B0:V :0B53>@VW, O: 2;040 [25; 119; 27]   ; 1) 2>;O [6; 108] ; 2) V=B5@5A [99; 221; 222]   ; 3) @>7AC4 [124];  ) <V@0 4>72>;5=>W ?>254V=:8 [34; 22; 199]. # 7030;L=>?@89=OB><C @>7C<V==V FV :0B53>@VW BVA=> ?>2'O70=V O: <V6 A>1>N, B0: V 7 ?>=OBBO< <56 B0 >1<565=L FL>3> ?@020. "0:, 70 . 0;5<, ?@02> - F5 40=0 :8<-=51C4L, 01> 287=0=0 728G0T< 2;040, A8;0, 2>;O, 2>;O 4VW; 2;040 V 2>;O 2 C<>2=8E <560E [46] . 2V4A8 28?;820T, I> ?@02> DV:ACT 2;04C V 2>;N AC1'T:B0 V >1<56CT 9>3> @>7AC4, AB@8<CT 9>3> 2>;N, =5 4>72>;OT ?>2=>N <V@>N @50;V7C20B8 9>3> V=B5@5A. "8< A0<8< 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO >1<565==O O: 4;O 2;0A=8:0 I>4> 9>3> 4V9 7 @VGGN 2 V=B5@5A0E V=H8E >AV1, B0: V 4;O >AB0==VE  2 V=B5@5A0E 2;0A=8:0 (=5?@8?CAB8<VABL ?>AO30=L =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0). ;0A=8: 28:>@8AB>2CT =0;56=V 9><C @5GV A2>TN 2;04>N V 2 A2>T<C V=B5@5AV, I> T 284>28<8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8 ?@8A2>T==O. 0B53>@VN 2;040 =5 <>6=0 @>73;O40B8 O: 28=OB:>2> ?C1;VG=>-?@02>2C BV;L:8 G5@57 B5, I> =5N =0A0<?5@54 >?5@CT ?C1;VG=5 ?@02>. 0B53>@VO 2;048, O:0 E0@0:B5@87CT ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 01> B0: G8 V=0:H5 28O2;OTBLAO 2 =L><C, >7=0G0T, I> 2>=> A?8@0TBLAO: 1) =0 2>;N 2;0A=8:0 V 9>3> CO2;5==O ?@> 2?;82 =0 @VG, 2) 157?>A5@54=L> =0 70:>= V 3) =0 =570;56=VABL VA=C20==O (FL>3> ?@020) 2V4 G8TWAL 2;048 =0 FN @VG. &8< ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 2V4@V7=OTBLAO 2V4 7>1>2'O70;L=8E ?@02, I> 40NBL 7<>3C C?@02><>G5=8< >A>10< 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 @5GV, 0;5 2;04>N, =040=>N W< 2;0A=8:><, B>1B> ?>EV4=8< G8=>< 2V4 2;048 2;0A=8:0. "5@<V= A2>TN 2;04>N 2:07CT =0 01A>;NB=VABL (B>1B> 1572V4=>A=VABL) ?@02><>G=>AB59 C ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV, =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 2V4=>A=>3> E0@0:B5@C ?@02><>G=>AB59 C 7>1>2'O70;L=><C ?@02V [161] , I>, >4=0:, =5 >7=0G0T 157<56=>ABV FVTW 2;048. /: A;CH=> 2V47=0G0T #. 0BB5V, 1C4L-O:89 V=AB8BCB E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO <560<8 9>3> 4VW. # 2V4><8E <560E 2;0A=8: 4V9A=> T =>AVT< AC25@5==>W 2;048 [134]. A=>2=0 2V4<V==VABL 2;0A=8:0 2V4 V=H8E AC1'T:BV2 ?@020 ?>;O30T 2 B><C, I> 2V= <0T A0<>ABV9=C V 28=OB:>2C 2;04C. .. C@4V=>2A:89 4V9H>2 28A=>2:C ?@> B5, I> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV T 2;04>N ;8H5 =04 A2>TN, 0 =5 =04 A2>TN 9 C 2V4><><C AB02;5==V =04 GC6>N @VGGN [119] . ;040 702648 28O2;OTBLAO 2 74V9A=5==V 4V9, A?@O<>20=8E =0 @50;V70FVN =040=8E <>6;82>AB59, B><C =5>1EV4=> ?>:070B8, O: 2;0A=8: WE 28:>@8AB>2CT, 74V9A=NNG8 A2>T AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02>  ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV. !B>A>2=> 2;048 2;0A=8:0 T G8A;5==V 28A;>2;N20==O F82V;VABV2. @>1;5<0 2;048 4>A;V46C20;0AO 2 @>1>B0E 1030BL>E CG5=8E, =0?@8:;04, ... <8B@VT20 [50] , .. %2>AB>20 [213] , . 5@=1C@30 [49] , I> 4>72>;OT ?@8?CAB8B8 @>7C<V==O 2;048 7 B@L>E ?>78FV9: ?>-?5@H5, O: @50;L=>W <>6;82>ABV AC1'T:B0 ?@825AB8 >1'T:B 2;04=>3> 2?;82C 2 O:89-=51C4L =>289, 70740;53V4L 287=0G5=89 V 70?@>3@0<>20=89 AB0=; ?>-4@C35, O: =091V;LH ?>2=5 ?0=C20==O =04 @VGGN, :>B@5 4>?CA:0TBLAO 27030;V >1'T:B82=8< ?@02><. &V ?>78FVW T A?V@=8<8, >A:V;L:8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV O: ?0=C20==O =04 @VGGN =5 <>6=0 287=0G8B8 O: 157<56=5. "><C 70A;C3>2CT =0 C203C B@5BO ?>78FVO - ?0=C20==O 2;0A=8:0 <0T A2>N ?@8@>4=C <56C B0<, 45 ?@8?8=OTBLAO 4;O ;N48=8 <>6;82VABL 28O2;OB8 A2>N 2;04C. B65, 1C4L-O:0 2;040, I> =040TBLAO AC1'T:B82=8< F82V;L=8< ?@02><, <0T A2>W <56V, O:I> B0:V T =5>1EV4=8<8 2 V=B5@5A0E V=H8E CG0A=8:V2 F82V;L=>3> >1>@>BC. C4L-O:0 2;040, I> =040TBLAO AC1'T:B82=8< F82V;L=8< ?@02><, =5 <>65 1CB8 157<56=>N V 28<030T 2@0EC20==O V=B5@5AV2 V=H8E CG0A=8:V2 F82V;L=>3> >1>@>BC [214] . /: 707=0G0T !.!. ;5:ATT2, A0<5 2 ?@02V A2>1>40 ;N459 >45@6CT @50;L=89 B0 >1 T:B82=89 E0@0:B5@, =52V4 T<=89 2V4 2;0A=>3> 7<VABC ?@020, 9>3> AB@C:BC@8, I> 702648 VA=CT C ?52=8E <560E. &5 40T 7<>3C 2V4AV:B8 2V4 A2>1>48 B0 0:B82=>ABV ;N48=8 WE :@09=V, =530B82=V ?@>O28, 2 ?5@HC G5@3C B0:V, O: A202V;;O [5] . >=OBBO 2;048 B0 2>;V O: ?52=8E 28@07=8:V2 ACB=>ABV ?@020 2;0A=>ABV BVA=> 270T<>?>2 O70=V. &5 OA:@02> ?@>AB56CTBLAO C 28@07V . V=4H5940 ?@> F5 ?@02> O: =040=5 ?@02>28< ?>@O4:>< ?0=C20==O 2>;V 01> 2>;L>20 2;040 [27] . ">1B> ?V4 2;04>N A;V4 @>7C<VB8 74V9A=5==O AC1'T:B>< 2;0A=>W 2>;V. )>4> 2>;V 2;0A=8:0, B> A;V4 28E>48B8 7 B>3>, I> 2AV AC1'T:B82=V ?@020 70;560BL 2V4 2>;V WE=VE =>AVW2 4VOB8 ?52=8< G8=>< V 28<030B8 2V4 V=H8E ?52=>W ?>254V=:8, I> V AB0=>28BL ACB=VABL 1C4L-O:>3> AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020. >@V==O 2>;L>2>W B5>@VW <>6=0 7=09B8 C DV;>A>DVW, ?>G8=0NG8 265 7 @>7C<V==O 2>;>4V==O, I> ?>2 O70=5 7 2>;5N >A>18AB>ABV V 70;568BL 2V4 =5W. "0:, 3535;V2AL:89 ?>3;O4 =0 A?V2AB02;5==O ?@020 V A2>1>4=>W 2>;V ?>;O30T 2 A?@89=OBBV 2>;>4V==O O: D0:B8G=>3> ?0=C20==O >A>18ABVABN =04 BV;5A=>N @VGGN, ?>T4=0=>3> 7 9>3> 2>;5N <0B8 @VG 4;O A515 [33] . @02> 2;0A=>ABV O: 7<VF=5=5 2>;>4V==O 70A=>20=5 =0 ?@02V V B8< 1V;LH5 ?@8?CA:0T 2>;N >A>18AB>ABV =0 ?@8410==O 9 715@565==O FL>3> ?@020. >;O T =52V4'T<=8< ?>:07=8:>< 1C4L-O:>3> ?@020, O: >1 T:B82=>3>, B0: V AC1 T:B82=>3>. 1'T:B82=5 (?>78B82=5) ?@02>, I> T AC1AB@0B>< 45@602=>W 2>;V (2>;V 70:>=>402FO), 2BV;NTBLAO 2>;5N :>=:@5B=>W >A>18AB>ABV 2 AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02>, I> 28=8:0T =0 >A=>2V >1 T:B82=>3> ?@020 B0 2>;L>28E 4V9 >A>18AB>ABV. 2V4A8 V 28A=>2>: ?@> ?@8@>4C <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 70:;045=8E 2>;5N 70:>=>402FO 2 >1'T:B82=><C ?@02V V B0:8E, I> =5 ?V440NBLAO 2?;82C 2>;V 2;0A=8:0  =>AVO AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. !C1'T:B82=5 ?@02> BV;L:8 V <>65 28=8:=CB8 2 B8E <560E, O:V 4;O =L>3> 2AB0=>2;5=V 2>;5N 70:>=>402FO.  265 2 F8E <560E AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> 2BV;NT 2>;N V A0<>ABV9=VABL >AV1, 2 V=B5@5A0E O:8E CAB0=>2;NNBLAO 2V4?>2V4=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8, 2 G><C V ?>;O30T 7=0G5==O AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 2 <5E0=V7<V ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O [6] . 5G>2V ?@020, O: V 1C4L-O:V AC1'T:B82=V ?@020, O2;ONBL A>1>N AD5@C 2>;V 01> 2;048, 70157?5G5=C 70 AC1'T:B>< =>@<0<8 >1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 4;O B>3>, I>1 2V= <V3 704>2>;L=8B8 ?52=89 287=0=89 ?@02>< V=B5@5A [42] . 5B>N =01CBBO AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 T <>6;82VABL 704>2>;5==O V=B5@5AC C?@02><>G5=>3> [5] . "><C =0ABC?=8< 5;5<5=B>< E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T V=B5@5A. 091V;LH GVB:> B5>@VO V=B5@5AC 1C;0 @>7@>1;5=0 . T@8=3><, O:89 210G02 70240==O ?@020 2 70157?5G5==V V=B5@5AC V 4V9H>2 28A=>2:C, I> AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02>  F5 N@848G=> 70E8I5=89 V=B5@5A. # FV;><C 6 ?@02>, =0 9>3> 4C<:C, VA=CT 4;O B>3>, I>1 A;C68B8 V=B5@5A0< V FV;O< F82V;L=>3> >1>@>BC [100] . .. 5=548:B>2 28A;>2;N202AO ?@> ACB=VABL ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:0 ?>;O30T 2 B><C, I> WW =>AV9 4VT C A2>T<C V=B5@5AV. "8< A0<8< =8< B0:>6 704VN20;0AO <5B0, >A:V;L:8 V=B5@5A T A?>=C:0;L=8< <>B82>< 4;O 2AB0=>2;5==O B8E G8 V=H8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, I> 2 A2>N G5@3C ?@82>4OBL 4> 4>AO3=5==O AC1 T:B>< ?52=>W <5B8  =01CB8 ?@02> [25] . !;V4, >4=0: 2V47=0G8B8, I> C A2>T<C V=B5@5AV 4VT =5 BV;L:8 2;0A=8:, 0 9 =>AV9 1C4L-O:>3> V=H>3> AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 . 572060NG8 =0 @V7=V ?V4E>48 4> E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 7 =02545=8E ?>78FV9, D>@<C20==O @V7=8E B5>@V9, >G5284=8< T ?>2 O70=VABL @>73;O=CB8E ?>=OBL 2;048, 2>;V 9 V=B5@5AC 2;0A=8:0, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> 1C;0 70?@>?>=>20=0 :><?@><VA=0 B5>@VO, 70 O:>N AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> 287=0G0;>AO :><1V=0FVTN 2>;V 9 V=B5@5AC 7 @V7=8<8 CE8;0<8 2 B>9 G8 V=H89 1V: 70;56=> 2V4 :>=:@5B=>3> AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020. >;>2=89 ?@54AB02=8: :><1V=0FV9=>W B5>@VW ;;V=5: 220602, I> AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> T 287=0=5 V 70E8I5=5 ?@02>?>@O4:>< ?0=C20==O ;N4AL:>W 2>;V, A?@O<>20=5 =0 1;03> 01> V=B5@5A [222] . 2V4A8 28?;820T, I> V=B5@5A, 1C4CG8 A0<>ABV9=8< ?>=OBBO<, =5 B>B>6=V< 7 AC1'T:B82=8< ?@02><, 28ABC?0T 9>3> ?5@54C<>2>N V <5B>N. $>@<C20==O 2>;V >A>18AB>ABV 2V41C20TBLAO ?V4 2?;82>< O: >1'T:B82=8E, B0: V AC1'T:B82=8E (AE8;L=VABL, 728G:0 V B.?>4.) G8==8:V2, I> 7C<>2;NNBL 9 @V7=V V=B5@5A8 >AV1. 8@VH0;L=5 7=0G5==O <0NBL >1'T:B82=V G8==8:8, B><C I> 728G:8 ;N459, WE=V AE8;L=>ABV, =0AB@>W, 1060==O B>I> D>@<C;NNBLAO ?V4 2?;82>< >1'T:B82=8E C<>2 WE=L>3> 68BBO.  A2>N G5@3C, A0<5 2>=8 D>@<CNBL 9 V=B5@5A8 >AV1. BV<, 2V4 F8E :@8B5@VW2 =5 <>6CBL 70;560B8 <56V AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 >A>18AB>ABV O: 2;0A=8:0 <09=0. =B5@5A ?>2 O7CT 2;0A=8:0 7 9>3> <09=><. # @07V 2B@0B8 V=B5@5AC 4> <09=0 2;0A=8: <>65 ?@8?8=8B8 A2>T ?@02> =0 =L>3>. ;5 2V= <0T 1CB8 >1V7=0=89 ?@> BV <56V, 2 O:8E 28O2;OTBLAO 9>3> V=B5@5A, I>1 28E>48B8 7 =8E ?@8 >1@0==V A?>A>1V2 V 70A>1V2 @50;V70FVW V=B5@5AC 70 4>?><>3>N 74V9A=5==O A2>3> ?@020. 06;828< 4;O <5B8 FL>3> 4>A;V465==O T >A=>2>?>;>6=5 7=0G5==O V=B5@5AC O: 7030;L=>287=0=>3> :@8B5@VN ?>4V;C ?@020 =0 ?@820B=5 V ?C1;VG=5. /: =0A;V4>: FL>3> V=B5@5A 7C<>2;NT V 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV C F8E 42>E AD5@0E. @8 FL><C 206;828< T 270T<>72'O7>: ?C1;VG=8E V ?@820B=8E V=B5@5AV2, O:89 2?;820T, 2 A2>N G5@3C, =0 270T<>4VN =>@< ?C1;VG=>3> V ?@820B=>3> ?@020. 18420 2848 =>@< A;C60BL 157?>A5@54=L> 01> >?>A5@54:>20=> V=B5@5A0< >:@5<8E ?@820B=8E >AV1. 2V4A8 V 72'O7>: <V6 <560<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 2AB0=>2;N20=8<8 4;O 704>2>;5==O O: ?C1;VG=>3>, B0: V 2 :V=F52><C @57C;LB0BV ?@820B=>3> V=B5@5AC.  B0:><C @07V :0B53>@8G=5 B25@465==O ?@> B5, I> 70:>==V <56V 2AB0=>2;NNBL ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 28:;NG=> ?C1;VG=>3> E0@0:B5@C [224] , =02@O4 G8 T ?@028;L=8<, >A:V;L:8 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 4;O 2;0A=8:0 74V9A=NTBLAO =5 BV;L:8 2 ?C1;VG=><C, 0 9 C ?@820B=><C V=B5@5AV, B>1B> 2 V=B5@5AV :>6=>3> 2;0A=8:0. @V< B>3>, D>@<0;L=89 :@8B5@V9 ?>4V;C ?@020 =0 ?@820B=5 V ?C1;VG=5 40T 7<>3C AB25@46C20B8, I> V=VFV0B820 70E8ABC ?@8 ?>@CH5==V <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV :>=:@5B=>N >A>1>N <>65 28E>48B8 =5 ;8H5 2V4 V=H8E 2;0A=8:V2 O: ?@820B=8E >AV1, 0 9 7 V=VFV0B828 45@6028, B>1B> 2 ?C1;VG=8E V=B5@5A0E (=0?@8:;04, ?@8 ?>@CH5==V 2;0A=8:>< ?@028; >E>@>=8 4>2:V;;O B>I>). 0 4C<:C $. NH5@0, 2;0A=8: 7>1>2'O70=89 74V9A=N20B8 A2>T ?@02> 2 V=B5@5A0E CAVE 3@><04O=, V 6>4=>N <V@>N =5 <0T ?@02> ?>AO30B8 =0 ACA?V;L=V V=B5@5A8 [124] . B65, 28=8:0NBL 420 ?@>B8;56=V ?>;NA8: 2;040 70=04B> 25;8:0  =5>1<565=0, =5:>=B@>;L>20=0 V 4>2V;L=0; 2;040 70=04B> <0;0, ?V440=0 G8A;5==8< ACA?V;L=8< 2?;820< V =5 A?@><>6=0 28:>=C20B8 2V4?>2V4=V >@30=V70FV9=V DC=:FVW [13]. "0:89 :>=B@0AB=89 ?V4EV4 =5?@8?CAB8<89. !;V4 3>2>@8B8 ?@> 30@<>=V9=5 ?>T4=0==O ?@820B=8E V ?C1;VG=8E ?@02 B0 V=B5@5AV2 V 2V4?>2V4=> 4> FL>3>  ?@> WE 2?;82 =0 2AB0=>2;5==O <56, B>1B> 7C<>2;5=VABL <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?@820B=8<8 (?@020<8 V=H8E 2;0A=8:V2) V ?C1;VG=8<8 V=B5@5A0<8. B65, :0B53>@VW 2;048, 2>;V B0 V=B5@5AC 270T<>70;56=V 9 CAV @07>< E0@0:B5@87CNBL ?>@O4 V7 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV 9>3> <56V. G5284=8< T 9 V=H89 @0:C@A WE=L>W 270T<>70;56=>ABV, 7C<>2;5=89 @>7AC4>< 2;0A=8:0. "0:89 28@07 AB>A>2=> E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T 7030;L=>?>H8@5=8< V >7=0G0T, I> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 74V9A=NTBLAO 7 >3;O4C O: CAB0=>2;5=L 70:>=C, B0: V =0 @>7AC4 2;0A=8:0. V4AB02>N ?5@H8E T 2>;528O2;5==O 70:>=>402FO, 4@C3>3>  2>;528O2;5==O 2;0A=8:0 [24]. $C=:FVW V=B5@5AC ?@8 FL><C 28O2;ONBLAO B0: A0<>, >A:V;L:8 V=B5@5A =5@>7@82=> ?>2 O70=89 7 2>;5N, 1> 2>;O >A>18AB>ABV 4VOB8 2V4><8< >1@07>< C :V=F52><C @57C;LB0BV 287=0G0TBLAO V=B5@5A0<8 FVTW >A>18AB>ABV.  V=H>3> 1>:C, V=B5@5A ?>2 O70=89 2V4=>A=> =0;56=>3> 2;0A=8:C <09=0 70 9>3> @>7AC4><. 0B53>@VO @>7AC4C 2;0A=8:0, O: V 9>3> 2>;O, V 2;040, V V=B5@5A ?V4A8;NNBL A?@89=OBBO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: =091V;LH 01A>;NB=>3> V H8@>:>3> 7 CAVE ?@02, >4=0: V F5 =5 @>18BL 9>3> 157<56=8<. 07>< 7 B8<, =5 <>6=0 4>?CAB8B8, I>1 C=0A;V4>: <56, CAB0=>2;N20=8E 70:>=>< 4;O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 2;0A=8: 28O282AO 1 =5 2 7<>7V 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 2;0A=5 <09=> 70 A2>W< @>7AC4><. =0;V7 @50;V70FVW 2;048, 2>;V B0 V=B5@5AC <>6;8289 H;OE>< WE=L>3> 4>7C20==O :@V7L ?@87<C @>7AC4C 2;0A=8:0, I> 4>72>;OT 287=0G8B8AO C D>@<0E WE=L>3> 28@065==O C 281>@V 2;0A=8:0. /:I> @>7C<VB8 ?V4 2;04>N ?@>2545==O 2;0A=>W 2>;V AC1'T:B0 [24] , B> AB>A>2=> :0B53>@VW  @>7AC4C 2>=0 28O2;OTBLAO O: ?@>F5A V O: @57C;LB0B @>7AC4;82>W 4VO;L=>ABV 2;0A=8:0. =B5;5:BC0;L=>-2>;L>289 E0@0:B5@ @>7AC4C ?@8 74V9A=5==V ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0 ?@8?CA:0T =5>1EV4=VABL 281>@C =091V;LH ?@89=OB=>3> 9 >1@C=B>20=>3> :>=:@5B=>3> @VH5==O, I> 2V4?>2V40T 9>3> V=B5@5A0< B0 V=B5@5A0< ACA?V;LAB20 2 FV;><C. B65, ?@>AB56CTBLAO 72'O7>: <V6 @>73;O=CB8<8 ?>=OBBO<8 V @>7AC4><, O:89 B0:>6 =5 157<56=89 V <0T A2>N <V@C. "><C G0ABVH5 AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> E0@0:B5@87CNBL O: B0:5, :>B@5 2AB0=>2;NT <V@C 4>72>;5=>W ?>254V=:8 C?@02><>G5=>W V <V@C =0;56=>W ?>254V=:8 7>1>2'O70=>W >A>18AB>ABV. 2V4A8 28?;820T, I>, O: B0:5, AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> 40T 7<>3C AC1 T:BC 2 ?52=8E <560E 4VOB8 ?> A2>W9 2>;V V 70 A2>W< @>7AC4><, 0 B0:>6 28<030B8 2V4?>2V4=>W ?>254V=:8 2V4 V=H8E, I> C AC:C?=>ABV 704>2>;L=OT 9>3> V=B5@5A8. # AC465==OE 45O:8E 2G5=8E C10G0NBLAO T4=VABL V @>7E>465==O 2 ?V4E>40E 4> ?>=OBBO <V@8 4>72>;5=>W ?>254V=:8 [34; 22; 199]   , I> ?@8?CA:0T =0O2=VABL C =L><C B@L>E 5;5<5=BV2: <V@0, 4>72V;, ?>254V=:0. !B>A>2=> ?5@H>3> 5;5<5=B0 - <V@8 VA=CNBL 42V B>G:8 7>@C, I> 70A;C3>2CNBL =0 C203C: 2>=0 @>7C<VTBLAO O: ?52=0 <>6;82VABL, VA=CNG0 C <560E, ?5@5410G5=8E 70:>=>< [18]  V O: <V@0 4>72>;5=>W ?>254V=:8 A0<>3> =>AVO AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 [34] . # ?5@H><C 28?04:C B5@<V= <V@0 70<V=5=89 =0 <56V, I> A2V4G8BL ?@> 270T<>72'O7>: F8E ?>=OBL. @>B5, 2>=8 =5 T B>B>6=8<8, >A:V;L:8 :0B53>@VO <560 T >1'T:B82=>N 2=0A;V4>: B>3>, I> 2>=0 =>@<0B82=> 2AB0=>2;5=0. 0B53>@VO 6 <V@0 T AC1'T:B82=>N, 1> 2>=0 287=0G0T 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 <>6;828E 4V9 =5 BV;L:8 V =5 ABV;L:8 2;0A=8:0, 0 9 A0<8< 2;0A=8:><. "><C B0:>6 725@B0T =0 A515 C203C B5, I> AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> @>73;O40TBLAO 7 42>E ?>78FV9: O: <V@0 <>6;82>W (4>72>;5=>W) ?>254V=:8 A0<>3> =>AVO AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 V O: AC<V@=VABL 7 28<>3>N 2V4?>2V4=>W ?>254V=:8 2V4 V=H8E. "0:8< G8=><, 28=8:0T ?>42V9=89 0A?5:B <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV  <V@0 V 4>72V;. @C38< 5;5<5=B>< T 4>72V; (01>, V=0:H5, <>6;82VABL ?>254V=:8). /:I> 25AB8 <>2C ?@> 4>72>;5=C ?>254V=:C C?@02><>G5=>W >A>18, B> B0:89 4>72V; 28E>48BL 2V4 70:>=>402FO 70 4>?><>3>N 28@065==O 2>;V, 2BV;5=>W 2 70:>=V.  O:I> 3>2>@8B8 ?@> =0;56=C ?>254V=:C 7>1>2'O70=>W >A>18, B>, :@V< 70:>=>402G8E @>7?>@O465=L ?@> F5, 206;828<8 T 28<>38, O:V 28AC20NBLAO 2;0A=8:><, =0;56=>W ?>254V=:8 2V4 CAVE V=H8E >AV1, ?@> =5?@8?CAB8<VABL ?>@CH5==O 9>3> ?@02 B0 V=B5@5AV2. "@5BV9 5;5<5=B  4>72>;5=0 ?>254V=:0 - 28<030T 287=0G5=>ABV B>3>, C AB02;5==V :>3> 01> G>3> 945BLAO ?@> ?>254V=:C. @8 FL><C 20@B> 28E>48B8 7 B>3>, I>, 2AB0=>2;NNG8 ?@020 9 >1>2'O7:8, =>@<0 ?@020 @53C;NT 2V4=>A8=8 <V6 2;0A=8:>< 9 V=H8<8 >A>10<8, 0 ?@8 =0O2=>ABV ?52=8E N@848G=8E D0:BV2 A;C68BL ?V4AB02>N 4;O 28=8:=5==O ?@02>2V4=>A8=. B65, 28=8:0NBL ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 2;0A=>ABV V @07>< 7 =8<8  48A:CAV9=5 ?8B0==O ?@> B5, EB> 1C45 9>3> AC1'T:B0<8 01> <V6 :8< A:;040NBLAO FV 2V4=>A8=8 V B><C  EB>, 2;0A=5, 4>72>;OT? @>0=0;V7CT<> ?8B0==O ?@> B5, <V6 :8< A:;040NBLAO 2V4=>A8=8 7 ?@82>4C @5GV (<09=0). >254V=:>20 <>45;L >A>18AB>ABV 7 ?@82>4C @5GV, C B><C G8A;V WW ?@8A2>T==O, @>73;O=CB0 G5@57 :0B53>@VW 2;048, 2>;V, V=B5@5AC, ?@8?CA:0T =0O2=VABL 72'O7:V2 B8?C 2;0A=8:  @VG, 2;0A=8: - V=HV >A>18 7 ?@82>4C @5GV. &V 72'O7:8 >45@60;8 28@065==O C 2AB0=>2;5==V 2V4=>A8= >A>18 V ?@8A2>T=>ABV <09=0 O: 4> A2>3>, 0 7 V=H>3> 1>:C (O: 0=B8?>4 V =5>1EV4=0 C<>20 4;O FL>3>)  O: AB02;5==O V=H8E >AV1 4> FVTW @5GV O: 4> GC6>W. "0:0 CA:;04=5=0 :>=AB@C:FVO 2V4=>A8= ?>AB028;0 ?@>1;5<C E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?@02>2V4=>A8=, I> A:;040NBLAO 70 CG0ABN 2;0A=8:0, >A:V;L:8 A0<5 FO :;NG>20 DV3C@0 >4=>7=0G=> ?52=0 2 :>=AB@C:FVW F8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=. &5 =5>1EV4=> V 4;O 7'OAC20==O <56 9>3> 4V9 01> 4V9 V=H8E >AV1, 2BO3=CB8E C FV ?@02>2V4=>A8=8. #AB0;5=8< T ?>=OBBO 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV O: 2V4=>A8= <V6 ;N4L<8 7 ?@82>4C ?52=>3> <09=0 [20] , [145] . >=8 28@060NBLAO 2 ?@8A2>T==V FL>3> <09=0 :>=:@5B=>N >A>1>N V =5?@8?CAB8<>ABV ?>AO30=L =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0 7 1>:C B@5BVE >AV1. ">1B> ?@8 @>73;O4V F8E 2V4=>A8= 20@B> 28E>48B8 7 42>E 0:F5=BV2: ?@02 2;0A=8:0 9 >1>2'O7:V2 V=H8E >AV1. 4=>G0A=> A;V4 2@0E>2C20B8, I> VA=CNBL <56V, 70:;045=V O: C ?@020E 2;0A=8:0, B0: V, =02?0:8, 4> FL>3> 7<CHCNBL ?@020 V=H8E >AV1. V4=>A8=8 <V6 2;0A=8:>< V V=H8<8 AC1'T:B0<8 7 ?@82>4C @5G59 28O2;ONBL AB0= 7@V;>ABV 2AL>3> ACA?V;LAB20, 740B=>ABV 4> A?V2VA=C20==O 2 =L><C G8A;5==8E >AV1 V A0<>>1<565==O. &5 V ?>28==> 70157?5GC20B8 A8AB5<C 270T<=8E >1<565=L V 10;0=A V=B5@5AV2 2;0A=8:0, B@5BVE >AV1 B0 ACA?V;LAB20 2 FV;><C.  >4=>3> 1>:C, ?@02> AB@8<CT ?@8B0<0==89 2;0A=8:>2V 53>W7< V ?@03=5==O 4> 01A>;NB=>W 2>;V ?@8 28:>@8AB0==V A2>3> <09=0, 0 7 V=H>3>  4;O =52;0A=8:V2 E0@0:B5@=5 =52B@CG0==O 2 AD5@C N@848G=>3> ?0=C20==O 2;0A=8:0 =04 @VGGN. "><C ?@02> 287=0G0T 2 ?5@HC G5@3C 4VW 2;0A=8:0 V <5E0=V7< WE 74V9A=5==O. V4=>A8=8 2;0A=>ABV 10G0BLAO V O: AB02;5==O >A>18 4> ?@82;0A=5=>3> <09=0 O: 4> A2>3> 2;0A=>3>. &O :>=AB@C:FVO C 287=0G5==V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 70 25;8:8< @0EC=:><, 287=0G0T E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 01A>;NB=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, >4=0: ?>@>46CT =5>4=>7=0G=VABL B>3>, I> @>7C<VTBLAO ?V4 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV: 2V4=>A8=8 <V6 ;N4L<8 (7 ?@82>4C ?@8A2>T==O @5GV) 01> AB02;5==O ;N48=8 4> @5GV (O: 157?>A5@54=V9 2?;82 =0 =5W). # ?5@H><C 28?04:C 206;828< T 287=0G5==O AC1'T:B=>3> A:;04C, :>;0 7>1>2'O70=8E >AV1, >A>1;82> 2 72'O7:C 7 B8<, I> AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02>  F5 ?@02> 28<>38 9>3> =>AVO 4> ?52=>W >A>18, 70157?5G5=0 <>6;82VABN ?@5B5=4C20==O [34] .  4@C3><C 28?04:C 28<030T ?>OA=5==O B5, O: @>7C<VB8 72'O7>: <V6 >A>1>N V @VGGN, :>B@89 =5 <>65 1CB8 ?@02>28<.  287=0G5==O 2;0A=>ABV 28?;820T, I> 2>=0 <0T <0B5@V0;L=89 AC1AB@0B C 283;O4V @5GV [42] . )5 .. >:@>2AL:89 707=0G02, I> <V6 >A>1>N V @VGGN 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO 45O:89 V450;L=89 72'O7>:: @VG =040TBLAO C ?0=C20==O ?52=>W >A>18AB>ABV, 2V440TBLAO 2 WW 2>;N, =0;568BL W9 [151]. 2V4A8 =5<>6;82> 70?5@5GC20B8 72'O7>: <V6 2;0A=8:>< V 9>3> @VGGN, O:89, =5 1C4CG8 ?@02>28<, 7C<>2;NT >AB0==V9 (B>1B> 7C<>2;NT, 2 A2>N G5@3C, 28=8:=5==O ?@02>2>3> 72 O7:C). "><C <>6=0 7@>18B8 28A=>2>: ?@> B5, I> >18420 ?V4E>48 2 @>7C<V==V 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL ?@02> =0 VA=C20==O. E=T >1'T4=0==O <>6=0 ?>10G8B8 C 287=0G5=V ... ">;AB>3>, O:89 AB25@46CT, I>, E>G0 2;0A=VABL  F5 AB02;5==O ;N48=8 4> @5GV, >4=0: 4> FL>3> 7<VAB 2;0A=>ABV =5 72>48BLAO, 0 :>=AB@C:FVO 2V4=>A8= <V6 ;N4L<8, 157AC<=V2=>, ?5@52060T =04 :>=AB@C:FVTN AB02;5==O 4> @5GV [106] . A:V;L:8 2;0A=VABL =5<8A;8<0 157 B>3>, I>1 V=HV >A>18AB>ABV, O:V =5 T 2;0A=8:0<8 40=>W @5GV, AB028;8AO 4> =5W O: 4> GC6>W, 2;0A=VABL >7=0G0T 2V4=>A8=8 <V6 ;N4L<8 7 ?@82>4C @5G59. 0 >4=><C ?>;NAV F8E 2V4=>A8= 28ABC?0T 2;0A=8:, O:89 AB028BLAO 4> @5GV O: 4> A2>TW, =0 4@C3><C  =52;0A=8:8, B>1B> 2AV >A>18AB>ABV, O:V 7>1>2'O70=V AB028B8AO 4> =5W O: 4> GC6>W. &5 7=0G8BL, I> 2>=8 <0NBL CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 O:8E 18 B> =V 1C;> ?>AO30=L =0 GC6C @VG, 0, 2V4B0:, V =0 2>;N 2;0A=8:0.  FL>3> ?@82>4C ... C@7V= A;CH=> 2V47=0G82, I> ACB=VABL ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 28@060TBLAO 2 CAC=5==V 2AVE V=H8E >AV1 2V4 >1 T:BV2 FL>3> ?@020, 0 2;0A=8: 287=0G0T ?>254V=:C (<>6;82>ABV) V=H8E >AV1 2V4=>A=> FL>3> <09=0: 01> CAC20T WE 2V4 2?;82C =0 =L>3>, 01> 4>?CA:0T 9>3>, 01> 28<030T G5@57 AC4 CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 74V9A=5==O 4V9, I> 702060NBL 9><C 2>;>4VB8, :>@8ABC20B8AO B0 @>7?>@O460B8AO A2>W< <09=>< [142] . /: =0A;V4>:, ?>B@51CT 2@0EC20==O B5, G8 VA=CT AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> 2 <560E ?@02>2V4=>A8= 01> ?>70 =8<8. 0 4C<:C !.. @0BCAO, AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> >4=VTW >A>18AB>ABV V 2V4?>2V4=89 N@848G=89 >1>2'O7>: V=H>W >A>18AB>ABV 01> V=H8E >AV1 T 5;5<5=B0<8 ?@02>2V4=>A8= V <>6CBL VA=C20B8 BV;L:8 2 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E [20]. @02> 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@02> 01A>;NB=5 74V9A=NTBLAO 2 01A>;NB=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, I> B@048FV9=> @>7C<VNBLAO O: B0:V, 2 O:8E 2;0A=8:>2V ?@>B8AB>WBL =5>1<565=0 V 157?>A5@54=L> =5287=0G5=0 :V;L:VABL >AV1, :>B@8< 701>@>=OTBLAO ?>@CHC20B8 AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> 2;0A=8:0 V AB2>@N20B8 ?5@5H:>48 4;O 9>3> 74V9A=5==O [41; 221]  . 8A;>2;5=0 1C;0 B0:>6 4C<:0 ?@> B5, I> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV O: 01A>;NB=5 AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> >4=VTW >A>18AB>ABV V 2V4?>2V4=89 N@848G=89 >1>2'O7>: CAVE V=H8E >AV1 T 5;5<5=B>< =5287=0G5=>3> G8A;0 ?@02>2V4=>A8= 7 =5287=0G5=8< :>;>< 7>1>2'O70=8E AC1'T:BV2 [102] . !:;0;8AO 9 V=HV B>G:8 7>@C =0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV O: VA=CNG5 ?>70 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8 [171] , 0 B0:>6 =0 F5 ?@02> O: =0 5;5<5=B ?@02>2V4=>A8= ;8H5 ?@8 ?>@CH5==V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV [12]. 5@CG8 4> C2038 B0:V CO2;5==O ?@> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, A;V4 2V4<VB8B8, I> :>6=0 7 70?@>?>=>20=8E ?>78FV9 T A:;04=>N 4;O ?>7=0G5==O 9>3> <56. &V <56V 2 =091V;LH 7030;L=><C WE=L><C @>7C<V==V >7=0G0NBL =54>?CI5==O ?@>B84V9 7 1>:C 1C4L-:>3> 2V4=>A=> VA=C20==O V @50;V70FVW 2;0A=8:>< A2>3> ?@020, 0 B0:>6 =54>?CI5==O =530B82=8E 2?;82V2 2V4 @50;V70FVW 2;0A=8:>< A2>3> ?@020 =0 =5?52=5 :>;> >AV1.  FL>3> 28?;820T, I> <56V 1C4L-O:>3> AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 T WE =52V4'T<=>N 2;0AB82VABN, B><C I> 70 2V4ACB=>ABV B0:8E <56 ?@02> ?5@5B2>@NTBLAO =0 A2>N ?@>B8;56=VABL, C A202V;;O, V B8< A0<8< C7030;V ?5@5AB0T 1CB8 ?@02>< [45] . "><C <56V T =52V4 T<=8< ?>=OBBO< 2V4 A0<>3> ?>=OBBO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV V =5 VA=CNBL 2V4>:@5<;5=> 2V4 =L>3>. 1<565==O 6 O2;ONBL A>1>N 7>2=VH=V9 2?;82 =0 AC1 T:B82=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV O: =0 <V@C A2>1>48 2;0A=8:0. >=8 G0AB> <0NBL 28@07 A0<>ABV9=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, VA=C20==O O:8E 2V41820TBLAO =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV, 72C6CNG8 9>3>. 0?@8:;04, =0O2=VABL A5@2VBCBC (>B65, @5G>28E A5@2VBCB=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=) 28<CHCT 2;0A=8:0 2@0E>2C20B8 FN >1AB028=C ?@8 74V9A=5==V A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L. @V< FL>3> 0A?5:BC, =5 <5=H 206;828< T ?8B0==O ?@> B5: 0) O: 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO <56V ?>254V=:8 4;O 2;0A=8:0 V 4;O 2AVE V=H8E >AV1, =5<>2 18 ?@>B8AB02;5=8E 9><C; 1) O: 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 0 B0:>6 2) 2V4=>A=> G>3> 2>=8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO. V4?>2V4L =0 ?5@H5 ?8B0==O @C=BCTBLAO =0 01A>;NB=><C E0@0:B5@V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, I> 28:;NG0T 7=0E>465==O 2;0A=8:0 2 :>=:@5B=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E 7 ?52=8<8 >A>10<8. "><C 2V4?>2V4=V 28<>38 4> 4V9 2;0A=8:0, B>1B> ?52=V <56V I>4> FL>3>, 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 2 70:>=V. )>4> 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L 4;O 2;0A=8:0 F5 ?>2 O70=> 7 9>3> CG0ABN 2 B8E G8 V=H8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E (@5G>28E, 7>1>2 O70;L=8E, :>@?>@0B82=8E), O:V 9 =0:;040NBL 2V418B>: =0 72C65==O <>6;82>AB59 4;O 2;0A=8:0 I>4> 2V;L=>3>, =0 A2V9 @>7AC4 74V9A=5==O A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L. )> AB>ACTBLAO B@5BL>3> ?8B0==O, B> >A:V;L:8 I>4> 2;0A=8:0 70 >A=>2C 15@5BLAO =0;56=89 9><C ?52=89 >1AO3 ?@02 I>4> A2>3> <09=0, I> V AB0=>28BL 7<VAB ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, B> A0<5 4;O FL>3> >1AO3C ?@02 <>6CBL 1CB8 2AB0=>2;5=V <56V. 1AO3 ?@02, =040=89 2;0A=8:>2V, AB>ACTBLAO =0A0<?5@54 9>3> <09=0, 2V4=>A=> O:>3> 2;0A=8: 74V9A=NT ?52=V 4VW. @8 FL><C A;V4 <0B8 =0 C207V 9 B5, I> AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> <0T ?52=V <56V O: C A2>T<C 7<VABV, B0: V 70 E0@0:B5@>< 9>3> 74V9A=5==O, O: A;CH=> 2V47=0G02 .. @810=>2 [44] . B65, <56V ?@8B0<0==V AB0B8G=><C AB0=C ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: ?5@51C20==O <09=0 C ?52=>W >A>18AB>ABV (@53C;N20==O =0;56=>ABV, ?@8A2>T=>ABV FL>3> <09=0), 0 >1<565==O - 48=0<VG=><C 9>3> AB0=C (74V9A=5==N 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L O: 2;0A=8<8 4VO<8, B0: V H;OE>< 70;CG5==O 4;O FL>3> V=H8E >AV1 V7 2ABC?>< 4> 2V4?>2V4=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= V7 =8<8). &82V;L=5 ?@02>, =040NG8 AC1'T:B0< ?52=V F82V;L=V ?@020, @07>< 7 B8< 70157?5GCT 9 WE=T @50;L=5 74V9A=5==O. 87=0G0NG8 @>7E>465==O <V6 7<VAB>< AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 V 9>3> 74V9A=5==O<, <>6=0 2AB0=>28B8 :V;L:0 ?>78FV9. "0:, A;V4 ?>3>48B8AO 7 B8<, I> A?V2AB02;5==O <V6 ?>254V=:>N, O:0 AB0=>28BL 7<VAB AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020, V ?>254V=:>N, O:0 AB0=>28BL 7<VAB 74V9A=5==O ?@020, <>6=0 @>7C<VB8 O: A?V2AB02;5==O <V6 <>6;82VABN V 4V9A=VABN [17] . @8 FL><C A;V4 2@0E>2C20B8 B5, O: A;CH=> 707=0G82 .$. (5@H5=528G, I> @V7=8FO <V6 7<VAB>< AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 V 9>3> 74V9A=5==O< ?>;O30T =0A0<?5@54 C B><C, I> ?5@H5, 1C4CG8 AB0B8G=>N <>45;;N, 2V4@V7=OTBLAO 2V4 :>=:@5B=8E 4V9, 70 4>?><>3>N O:8E FO <>45;L @50;V7CTBLAO V O:V =07820NBLAO 74V9A=5==O< ?@020 [221] . @V< FL>3>, O: 2V4<VG02 .. 5=:V=, 20@B> 2@0E>2C20B8 B5, I> ?@02> 2V4>1@060T O: AB0B8:C (=0O2=VABL), B0: V 48=0<V:C (@CE) 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV (:>@8ABC20==O, @>7?>@O460==O) [34] . AB0==T, C A2>N G5@3C, 157?>A5@54=L> ?>2 O70=> 7 2>;528O2;5==O< >A>18AB>ABV O: WW ?A8E>DV7V>;>3VG=>N O:VABN. 50;V70FVO @5G>2>3> ?@020 2V41C20TBLAO 70 2>;5N >4=>3> AC1'T:B0  9>3> =>AVO. # B>9 65 G0A 2>;O V=H8E >AV1 <>65 2?;820B8 =0 A0<5 ?@02> 2;0A=8:0, B>1B> 9>3> >1AO3, =0?@8:;04, ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02, 70?5@5GC20==V 4V9 2;0A=8:0, O:89 ?>@CHCT 7030;L=V 701>@>=8, B>I>.  >3;O4C =0 28:;045=5 ?@> 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0A0<?5@54 C 70:>=V B@510 2AB0=>28B8 270T<>70;56=VABL 2>;V 70:>=>402FO V 2>;528O2;5==O 2;0A=8:0 ?@8 @50;V70FVW A2>3> ?@020. 8=0<V:0 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?>2 O70=0 7V 74V9A=5==O< 2;0A=8:>< =040=8E 9><C ?>2=>2065=L. >;528O2;5==O 2;0A=8:0 ?@8 FL><C T 4>AB0B=L>N <V@>N 2V;L=8<, >A:V;L:8 9><C =040=5 ?@02> ?>2>48B8AO 7 <09=>< 70 A2>W< @>7AC4><. 4=0:, O: C65 707=0G0;>AO, 70:>=>< ?>7=0G5=V V <56V FL>3> - 2AB0=>2;5==O< 7030;L=>W 28<>38 ?@> =5>1EV4=VABL 4>45@60==O ?@02 V 70:>==8E V=B5@5AV2 V=H8E >AV1, 0 B0:>6, O: ?@028;>, 28<>38 2@0EC20==O 2;0A=8:>< A?>682G8E 2;0AB82>AB59 <09=0. &V 28<>38 28=8:0NBL 7V 728G09=8E ?@>O2V2 4V9 ;N48=8 2 A>FVC<V V =02:>;8H=L><C A5@54>28IV, 7>:@5<0, 2>=8 28O2;ONBLAO C 28<>30E 4> =04V9=>ABV V O:>ABV 28@>1;5=8E B>20@V2, :C;LBC@8 A?>6820==O B>I>. &V 28<>38 ?@8?CA:0NBL ?52=C <V@C 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV 70 2G8=5=V 2V4=>A=> A2>3> <09=0 4VW, >A:V;L:8 B0: G8 V=0:H5 2>=8 2?;820NBL =0 V=H8E >B>GCNG8E 2;0A=8:0 >AV1. VW, O:V 2;0A=8: <>65 74V9A=N20B8 2V4=>A=> A2>3> <09=0, C A0<><C 7030;L=><C 283;O4V ?>7=0G5=V 2 AB. 317 &. >=8 AB>ACNBLAO 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O V @>7?>@O460==O <09=><. # 72'O7:C 7 F8< 48A:CAV9=8< T ?8B0==O ?@> B5, I> A0<> ?> A>1V 2AB0=>2;5==O 70:>=>< 2V4?>2V4=>W B@V048 ?>2=>2065=L 2;0A=8:0 (2:;NG5==O WE 4> >1AO3C AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV) O2;OT A>1>N <56V FL>3> ?@020. 5O:V 02B>@8 22060NBL, I> AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV FV;:>< 287=0G0TBLAO ?@02><>G=>ABO<8 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O V @>7?>@O460==O [34; 6]  , 7 G>3> 28?;820T WE=V9 >1<56CNG89 F5 ?@02> 2?;82. 0 4C<:C V=H8E 2G5=8E, A0<0 ?> A>1V B@V040 ?@02><>G=>AB59 =54>AB0B=O 4;O E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 7<VABC ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, B>1B> 2>=0 =5 ?>28==0 @>7C<VB8AO O: <56V 4;O 2;0A=8:0 [200; 170; 25; 22]    . !B>A>2=> FL>3> ?8B0==O 20@B> 2:070B8 =0 2V4><V ?>78FVW 2G5=8E ?@> H8@>BC ?5@5;V:C ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0, I> 2:;NG0NBL <0:A8<0;L=> <>6;82V WE=V :><1V=0FVW. "0:, ?@54AB02=8: 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=AL:>W F82V;VAB8G=>W =0C:8 . %0@= C XIX AB. 70?@>?>=C202 2:;NG0B8 4> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, :@V< 2V4><8E B@L>E ?@02><>G=>AB59, B0:>6 ?@02> =0 @>7B@0BC, ?@02> =0 @>7?>@O460==O 2;0A=VABN ?@8 68BBV V ?VA;O A<5@BV, =0 =54>?CI5==O 2B@CG0==O B@5BVE >AV1 B0 V=. [139] . .. =>@5 284V;OT >48=04FOBL ?@02><>G=>AB59 C A:;04V 2;0A=>ABV, 0 . 5::5@ =02>48BL ?V4@0EC=:8, I> 40NBL 7<>3C 2:070B8 1500 20@V0=BV2 ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0 [120] . # ACG0A=V9 C:@0W=AL:V9 F82V;VAB8G=V9 =0CFV F5 ?8B0==O, 7>:@5<0, ?5@5;><;NTBLAO C AB02;5==V ?@020 =0 C?@02;V==O, AB>A>2=> O:>3> VA=CNBL @V7=V B>G:8 7>@C  2V4 =5>1EV4=>ABV 2V4<>28 2V4 9>3> 28:>@8AB0==O 4;O E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: =5?@89=OB=>W 4;O F82V;VAB8:8, >A:V;L:8 F5 :0B53>@VO ?C1;VG=>3> ?@020, O:0 <CA8BL 70AB>A>2C20B8AO 4> 45@602=>3> C?@02;V==O [48], 01> O: 7092>W 4;O E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV [202], 4> WW 2:;NG5==O 4> A:;04C ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0 [98; 28]   G8 O: :0B53>@VW, 70 4>?><>3>N O:>W FV ?@02><>G=>ABV 2;0A=8: <>65 74V9A=N20B8AO 2 @V7=8E WE=VE :><1V=0FVOE, A?>A>10<8 V 70 4>?><>3>N ?5@5410GC20=8E C?@02;V==O< >1<565=L [187] . >4V1=V B5=45=FVW @>7H8@5==O 7<VABC ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:V 70A;C3>2CNBL =0 C203C, 265 A0<V ?> A>1V A2V4G0BL ?@> 2V4ACB=VABL =5>1EV4=>ABV @>7C<V==O ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0 O: AB@8<CNG8E <5E0=V7<V2 01> <56 9>3> ?@020. &V <56V 20@B> HC:0B8 2 A0<8E ?@02><>G=>ABOE 2;0A=8:0, O:8<8 1 2>=8 =5 1C;8. A:V;L:8 <56V E0@0:B5@=V 4;O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 FV;><C, B> 2>=8 28O2;ONBLAO 9 C <560E, 2AB0=>2;N20=8E 4;O >:@5<8E ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0. "0:, <56V I>4> 2>;>4V==O <09=>< E0@0:B5@87CNBL =0O2=VABL 01> <>6;82VABL 4>2V;L=>3> 2AB0=>2;5==O DV78G=>3> B@8<0==O @5GV V :>=B@>;N =04 =5N. # A0<V9 ACB=>ABV :>@8ABC20==O V @>7?>@O460==O B0:>6 70:;045=> <56V. >=8 7C<>2;5=V ?@8?8A0<8, I> AB@8<CNBL 2>;N, 2;04C, V=B5@5A8 2;0A=8:0  =5 ?>@CHC20B8 ?@02 V=H8E >AV1, ACA?V;LAB20; 4VOB8 C ?52=><C @568<V (4>45@6C20B8AO ?52=8E <5E0=V7<V2 74V9A=5==O ?@02, =0?@8:;04, ?@028; 1C4V2=8FB20, A0=VB0@=>-5?845<V>;>38G=>3> AB0=C, 5:>;>3VG=8E A8BC0FV9). &V <56V 2AB0=>2;5=V 70:>=>< V 7 C@0EC20==O< FV;L>2>3> ?@87=0G5==O <09=0 (=0?@8:;04, >A>18AB>ABV, I> <0NBL C 2;0A=>ABV 68B;>289 1C48=>: (:20@B8@C), 7>1>2'O70=V 70157?5GC20B8 9>3> AE>@>==VABL, ?@>2>48B8 70 A2V9 @0EC=>: ?>B>G=89 V :0?VB0;L=89 @5<>=B, CB@8<C20B8 2 ?>@O4:C ?@81C48=:>2C B5@8B>@VN, 1@0B8 CG0ABL C 28B@0B0E =0 C?@02;V==O V CB@8<0==O <09=0, 2 >?;0BV ?>40B:V2, 71>@V2 (>1>2'O7:>28E ?;0B56V2), 0 B0:>6 =5AB8 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL ?5@54 B@5BV<8 >A>10< 70 7>1>2'O70==O<8, ?>2'O70=8<8 7 F8< <09=><). # @07V 28=8:=5==O A?>@V2 I>4> =040==O G8 =5=040==O 4>72>;C =0 1C4V2=8FB2> 2>=8 28@VHCNBLAO 2 AC4>2><C ?>@O4:C. @8 FL><C AC4 ?@89<0T @VH5==O ?@> =040==O 4>72>;C G8 =0:;045==O 701>@>=8 28:>=0==O ?52=8E @>1VB. "0:, !#, @>73;O=C2H8 :0A0FV9=C A:0@3C "  ">@3>289 4V<  &# =0 ?>AB0=>2C %0@:V2AL:>3> 0?5;OFV9=>3> AC4C C A?@02V 70 ?>7>2>< "  ">@3>289 4V<  &# 4> 28:>=02G>3> :><VB5BC >;B02AL:>W <VAL:>W @048 B0 >;>2=>3> C?@02;V==O C A?@020E <VAB>1C4C20==O B0 0@EVB5:BC@8 (<. >;B020) ?@> 7>1>2 O70==O ?@89=OB8 @VH5==O ?@> 4>72V; =0 ?@>5:BC20==O @5:>=AB@C:FVW &#C, 707=0G82 B0:5. V4<>20 >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O C ?@89=OBBO @VH5==O 4> 70B25@465==O 2V4?>2V4=>W 4>:C<5=B0FVW <VAB>1C4V25;L=>N @04>N ?@> @>7@>1;5==O F5=B@0;L=>W G0AB8=8 <VAB0 <0T >D>@<;OB8AO =530B82=8< 28A=>2:><. >72V; =0 @5:>=AB@C:FVN <0T >D>@<;OB8AO @VH5==O< <VAL:28:>=:><C >4=>G0A=> 7 70B25@465==O< ?@>5:B=>W 4>:C<5=B0FVW. V4?>2V4=> 4> G. 14 AB. 24 # @> ?;0=C20==O V 701C4>2C B5@8B>@V9 [87]  4>72V; =0 1C4V2=8FB2> >1 T:B0 <VAB>1C4C20==O =5 40T ?@020 =0 ?>G0B>: 28:>=0==O 1C4V25;L=8E @>1VB 157 >45@60==O 4>72>;C <VAF52>W V=A?5:FVW 45@602=>3> 0@EVB5:BC@=>-1C4V25;L=>3> :>=B@>;N [9] . 02545 A2V4G8BL ?@> B5, I> 2;0A=8: <09=0 =5 <>65 A0<>ABV9=> =0 A2V9 @>7AC4 28@VHC20B8 FV ?8B0==O. B65, <>6=0 AB25@46C20B8, I> G8< F82V;V7>20=VH8< T ACA?V;LAB2>, B8< 1V;LH5 28=8:0T <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, B><C I> 7 1V;LH8< ABC?5=5< 2>;V 28=8:0T 1V;LH5 ?>2 O70=>ABV. 5:;0@C20==O ?@> 2>;N B0 @>7AC4 C @50;V70FVW ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =52V4@82=> ?>2 O70=> 7 2AB0=>2;5==O< CA5 1V;LH>W =5>1EV4=>ABV WE <56, I> 7C<>2;5=> @>728B:>< @8=:>28E 2V4=>A8= B0 ?V4?@8T<=8FL:8E AB@C:BC@, 7 O:8<8 ?>2 O70=89 2;0A=8: [108] . 1.2. !CB=VABL <56 V >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV @02> 2;0A=>ABV O: =091V;LH 01A>;NB=5 @5G>25 ?@02> B8< =5 <5=H =5 =040T 2;0A=8:>2V 157<56=8E 70 >1AO3>< <>6;82>AB59 4VOB8 =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4. /: 702648, B0: V =8=V ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV >1<56CTBLAO H;OE>< 70?@>20465==O 045:20B=8E ?@02>28E <5E0=V7<V2 9>3> @53C;N20==O. # 70:>=>402AB2V V ?@02>2V9 =0CFV 2V4=>A=> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 945BLAO ?@> 9>3> <56V B0 >1<565==O. @8 FL><C 28=8:0T ?8B0==O ?@> B>B>6=VABL 01> 2V4<V==VABL F8E ?>=OBL.  N@848G=V9 ;VB5@0BC@V XIX-XX AB>;VBL =5 A:;0;>AO CAB0;5=>W 4C<:8 7 FL>3> ?8B0==O. E >B>B>6=N20;8 .. !8=09AL:89 [172], .. @810=>2 [44], .. 0;L:> [131], #. 0BB5V [134]. >7<56>2CNBL <56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV B0:V 4>@52>;NFV9=V B0 ACG0A=V ?@02=8:8, O: .. C@48=>2AL:89 [119], .. @CAA [158], .. 03>@=0 [158], .. 8E09;5=:> [137]. 8A;>2;5=5 9 V=H5 10G5==O FL>3> ?8B0==O. "0:, . !:;>2AL:89 22060T, I> 2 A0<><C ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV =5 70:;045=> =VO:8E <56, O:V 1 <>3;8 9>3> >1<568B8. AV >1<565==O 2;0A=>ABV <>6;82V BV;L:8 77>2=V V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 70:>=>< [174]. ><C 2B>@8BL 9 C:@0W=AL:89 ?@02=8: .!>;>29>2 [181]. V9A=>, A;V4 ?>3>48B8AO 7 B8<, I> <56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T AE>68<8 ?@02>28<8 :0B53>@VO<8. E AE>6VABL C B><C, I> 2>=8 O2;ONBL A>1>N ?52=V 3@0=V, C @0<:0E O:8E AC1'T:B8 ?>28==V 4VOB8. 4=0: WE =5 A;V4 7<VHC20B8. &5 3@0=V, O:V @>7C<VNBLAO C H8@>:><C B0 2C7L:><C 7=0G5==OE. @0=L 2 H8@>:><C 7=0G5==V O2;OT A>1>N 2AV G8==8:8 O: ?@02>2>3>, B0: V =5?@02>2>3> E0@0:B5@C, I> 2?;820NBL =0 @50;V70FVN ?@020 (5:>=><VG=V, A>FV0;L=V, 5:>;>3VG=V, ?>;VB8G=V). >=OBBO 3@0=V C 2C7L:><C 7=0G5==V - F5 2;0A=5 ?@02>2V 3@0=V. !E>68< T CO2;5==O ?@> >1<565==O, O:8<8 22060NBL 3@0=L, <56C, @C1V6; CB@8<0==O C 2V4><8E @0<:0E; ?@028;>, I> >1<56CT O:V-=51C4L ?@020, 4VW; AB8A=5==O ?52=8<8 C<>20<8; ;V<VBC20==O AD5@8 4VO;L=>ABV, 72C65==O <>6;82>AB59 V B.?>4. >7C<V==O >1<565==O 40T <>6;82VABL 2:;NG8B8 2 =L>3> 2AV V=HV ?>=OBBO, I> >1<56CNBL 4VO;L=VABL AC1'T:BV2 (>1>2'O7:8, 701>@>=8 B>I>). @V< B5@<V=V2 <56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV >AB0==V< G0A>< C =>@<0B82=>-?@02>28E 0:B0E V ;VB5@0BC@V AB02 70AB>A>2C20B8AO B5@<V= >1BO65==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. &5 I5 4>40;> =5287=0G5=>ABV N@848G=>W ?@8@>48 F8E B5@<V=V2 B0 WE 2?;82C =0 >1AO3 ?>2=>2065=L 2;0A=8:0. =:>;8 >1<565==O B0 >1BO65==O 26820NBL O: B>B>6=V ?>=OBBO, V=:>;8  @>7<56>2CNBL. @8G><C 2 >AB0==L><C @07V @>7<56C20==O 2V41C20TBLAO O: 157 2AB0=>2;5==O :@8B5@VW2 4;O FL>3>, B0: V 7 ?>ABV9=>N 70<V=>N >4=>3> V=H8<. @> 2V4ACB=VABL T48=>3> ?V4E>4C 4> 7 OAC20==O WE A?V22V4=>H5==O A2V4G0BL =0C:>2V ?@0FV B0 =>@<0B82=>-?@02>25 @53C;N20==O. 5O:V ?>78FVW, I> AB>ACNBLAO A?V22V4=>H5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L, 265 =02>48;8AO @0=VH5. )>4> A?V22V4=>H5==O F8E 42>E :0B53>@V9 V7 >1BO65==O<8, B> 4>A;V4=8:8: - 01> ?>T4=CNBL >1<565==O 7 >1BO65==O<8, =5 210G0NG8 <V6 =8<8 @V7=8FV. "0:, .. 0<8H0=AL:89, @>7<56>2CNG8 <56V B0 >1<565==O, 4> >AB0==VE 2V4=>A8BL ?5@5410G5=V 70:>=>< ?@020 B@5BVE >AV1 =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0, 2 B><C G8A;V A5@2VBCB8 [108] B>I>, B>1B> =5 10G8BL 2V4<V==>AB59 <V6 >1<565==O<8 B0 >1BO65==O<8; - 01> <V=ONBL WE <VAFO<8 (O: F5 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO 2 70:>=0E #:@0W=8 @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L [68] B0 @> 70157?5G5==O 28<>3 :@548B>@V2 B0 @5TAB@0FVN >1BO65=L [69] ; - 01> ?>T4=CNG8 <56V 7 >1<565==O<8 (E>G0 V 2V47=0G0NG8 WE @V7=V @V2=V), 2:07CNBL =0 VA=C20==O >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L [4]  V =5 284V;ONBL >:@5<> <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; - 01>, 4>2>4OG8 A2V9 ?>3;O4 ?@> B>B>6=VABL <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 27030;V =5 2@0E>2CNBL VA=C20==O >1BO65=L [181] , I> <>65 A2V4G8B8 ?@> B5, I> ?@>?>=CTBLAO 1C4L-O:89 2?;82 =0 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59 @>73;O40B8 O: >1<565==O, G8 ?@> B5, I> >1BO65==O ?@>AB> 28?CI5=V 7 :>;0 4>A;V465==O. "0:, 0:>= #:@0W=8 (40;V - #) 2V4 01.07.2004 @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L (68( =5<>218 28E>48BL V7 B>B>6=>ABV >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 B0:5 <09=>, O:V @>7C<VNBLAO O: >1<565==O 01> 701>@>=8 @>7?>@O460B8AO =8<, CAB0=>2;5=V 2V4?>2V4=> 4> ?@02>G8=C (4>3>2>@C), 70:>=C 01> 0:BV2 >@30=V2 45@602=>W 2;048, >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, WE ?>A04>28E >AV1, ?@89=OB8E C <560E ?>2=>2065=L, 287=0G5=8E 70:>=><. # B>9 65 G0A 2 FL><C 0:>=V 28>:@5<;NNBLAO >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV (H;OE>< 2AB0=>2;5==O V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0) B0 >1BO65==O (701>@>=0 2V4GC65==O, 0@5HB). 5I> ?>-V=H><C @>7C<VNBLAO >1BO65==O 2 # @> 70157?5G5==O 28<>3 :@548B>@V2 B0 @5TAB@0FVN >1BO65=L (69(, O:8<, ?>-?5@H5, 2@53C;L>2CNBLAO O: >1BO65==O ?@020 >1BO6C20G0 =5 =0 2A5, 0 ;8H5 =0 @CE><5 <09=> 1>@6=8:0 (AB. 3); ?>-4@C35, 70157?5GC20;L=8<8 >1BO65==O<8 2 FL><C 0:>=V =07820NBLAO 70AB020 B0 ?@8B@8<0==O @CE><>3> <09=0 (AB. 21), 0 V=H8<8 4>3>2V@=8<8 >1BO65==O<8 - ?5@540G0 @CE><>3> <09=0 ?>2V@5=><C 01> :><VAV>=5@C 73V4=> 7 4>3>2>@>< 4>@CG5==O 01> 7 4>3>2>@>< :><VAVW, 0 B0:>6 =09<0G52V, C?@028B5;52V, :C?V2;O-?@>406 @CE><>3> <09=0 7 ?@02>< 01> 7>1>2'O70==O< 72>@>B=>3> 28:C?C B0 V=. (AB. 34). >2AV< V=0:H5 287=0G0NBLAO >1<565==O C AB. 111 5<5;L=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 (40;V - ) [97] AB>A>2=> ?@02 =0 75<5;L=C 4V;O=:C, 2 O:V9 2:07CTBLAO, I> F5 ?@02> <>65 1CB8 >1<565=> 70:>=>< 01> 4>3>2>@>< H;OE>< 2AB0=>2;5==O: 0) 701>@>=8 =0 ?@>406 01> V=H5 2V4GC65==O ?52=8< >A>10< ?@>BO3>< CAB0=>2;5=>3> AB@>:C; 1) 701>@>=8 =0 ?5@540GC 2 >@5=4C (AC1>@5=4C); 2) ?@020 =0 ?5@5206=C :C?V2;N C @07V WW ?@>406C; 3) C<>28 ?@89=OBBO A?04I8=8 BV;L:8 287=0G5=8< A?04:>T<F5<; ) C<>28 @>7?>G0B8 V 7025@H8B8 701C4>2C 01> >A2>T==O 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 ?@>BO3>< 2AB0=>2;5=8E AB@>:V2; 4) 701>@>=8 =0 ?@>20465==O >:@5<8E 284V2 4VO;L=>ABV; 5) 701>@>=8 =0 7<V=C FV;L>2>3> ?@87=0G5==O 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, ;0=4H0DBC B0 7>2=VH=L>3> 284C =5@CE><>3> <09=0; T) C<>28 74V9A=8B8 1C4V2=8FB2>, @5<>=B 01> CB@8<0==O 4>@>38, 4V;O=:8 4>@>38; 6) C<>28 4>45@60==O ?@8@>4>>E>@>==8E 28<>3 01> 28:>=0==O 287=0G5=8E @>1VB; 7) C<>28 =04020B8 ?@02> ?>;N20==O, 28;>2C @818, 718@0==O 48:>@>A;8E @>A;8= =0 A2>W9 75<5;L=V9 4V;O=FV 2 CAB0=>2;5=89 G0A V 2 CAB0=>2;5=><C ?>@O4:C; 8) V=H8E 7>1>2'O70=L, >1<565=L 01> C<>2. B65, 2 C:@0W=AL:><C 70:>=>402AB2V, ?>-?5@H5, >1<565==O B0 >1BO65==O ?@8=F8?>2> =5 @>7<56>2CNBLAO. >-4@C35, FV ?>=OBBO 2 @V7=8E 70:>=0E 26820NBLAO 7 @V7=8< 7=0G5==O<; ?>-B@5BT, 70AB>AC20==O >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L AB028BLAO 2 70;56=VABL 2V4 :;0A8DV:0FVW @5G59 =0 @CE><V B0 =5@CE><V. 1<565==O 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 73V4=> V7 707=0G5=8<8 70:>=0<8 I>4> =5@CE><8E @5G59, 0 >1BO65==O  I>4> @CE><8E. >-G5B25@B5, >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV AB>ACNBLAO =0A0<?5@54 701>@>=8 @>7?>@O460==O =8<, 0 >1BO65==O  :>@8ABC20==O 9 @>7?>@O460==O.  FL>3> ?@82>4C 725@B0NBL =0 A515 C203C B0:V ?V4E>48 70:>=>402FO 4> >1BO65=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV: - WE VA=C20==O 7C<>2;5=> C:;045==O< 2;0A=8:>< @V7=8E 4>3>2>@V2, 2=0A;V4>: O:8E 9>3> @VG >?8=OTBLAO C V=H>W >A>18, I> 74V9A=NT :>@8ABC20==O =5N. &5 4>3>2>@8 4>@CG5==O, :><VAVW, =09<C, C?@02;V==O <09=>< 2;0A=8:0. "><C >1BO65==O @>7C<VTBLAO O: =5<>6;82VABL 4;O 2;0A=8:0 :>@8ABC20B8AO A2>TN @VGGN; - >1BO65==O V=>4V ?>2 O7CNBLAO =5 ?@>AB> 7 D0:B>< C:;045==O 2V4?>2V4=>3> 4>3>2>@C, 28:>=0==O O:>3> ?>B@51CT ?5@540==O 2;0A=8:>< @5GV C :>@8ABC20==O V=HV9 >A>1V, 0 9 2AB0=>2;5==O< A?>A>1C 70157?5G5==O =0;56=>3> 28:>=0==O (70AB020, ?@8B@8<0==O @CE><>3> <09=0); - 0:>= =5 ?>A;V4>2=> 2:07CT 2 >4=><C 28?04:C =0 28=8:=5==O >1BO65=L 2=0A;V4>: 70AB028 <09=0 2;0A=8:0, 0 2 V=H><C  =0:;045==O 701>@>=8 =0 9>3> 2V4GC65==O, I>, O: 2V4><>, T @V7=8<8 N@848G=8<8 D0:B0<8; - >1BO65==O ?@>?>=CTBLAO ?>4V;OB8 =0 BV, I> 28=8:;8 2=0A;V4>:: 0) =>@<0;L=>3> 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>TW ?@02><>G=>ABV ?> @>7?>@O465==N <09=>< H;OE>< C:;045==O B8E G8 V=H8E 4>3>2>@V2 - 4>3>2V@=V >1BO65==O; 1) 70157?5G5==O 7>1>2 O70=L (70157?5GC20;L=V >1BO65==O), O:V B0:>6 @>73;O40NBLAO O: @V7=>284 4>3>2V@=8E >1BO65=L (AB. 4 # @> 70157?5G5==O 28<>3 :@548B>@V2 B0 @5TAB@0FVN >1BO65=L); 2) ?>@CH5=L 7>1>2 O70=L (0@5HB); 0 B0:>6 3) A?5F8DVG=>W ?V4AB028, O:C <>6=0 =0720B8 28:>@8AB0==O< A2>3> ?@020 01> 28:>=0==O< >1>2'O7:C, ?5@5410G5=>3> 4>3>2>@>< (:C?V2;O-?@>406 @CE><>3> <09=0 7 ?@02>< 01> 7>1>2'O70==O< 72>@>B=>3> 28:C?C). 0 V=H>N ?V4AB02>N >1BO65==O ?>4V;ONBLAO =0 ?@820B=V, 2AB0=>2;5=V =0 ?V4AB02V 4>3>2>@C B0 ?C1;VG=V, O:V 28=8:0NBL 2V4?>2V4=> 4> 70:>=C 01> @VH5==O AC4C. AB0==V<8 287=0NBLAO: 1) ?>40B:>20 70AB020; 2) =0:;045==O 0@5HBC =0 @CE><5 <09=> =0 ?V4AB02V @VH5==O AC4C 4;O 70157?5G5==O F82V;L=>3> ?>7>2C 01> ?@8 ?>@CH5==V ?@>20465==O 2 A?@02V ?@> 10=:@CBAB2> 3@><04O=8=0-?V4?@8T<FO; 3) 725@=5==O ABO3=5==O =0 @CE><5 <09=> 2V4?>2V4=> 4> @VH5==O AC4C, 28=5A5=>3> 70 ?>7>2><, O:89 AB>ACTBLAO 28:>=0==O =570157?5G5=8E 7>1>2'O70=L 1>@6=8:0; 4) 70AB020 @CE><>3> <09=0 73V4=> V7 AB0BB5N 1541 @8<V=0;L=>-?@>F5AC0;L=>3> :>45:AC #:@0W=8 [116]; 5) =0:;045==O 0@5HBC =0 @CE><5 <09=> =0 ?V4AB02V @VH5=L C?>2=>2065=8E >@30=V2 C 28?04:0E, 2AB0=>2;5=8E 70:>=><; 6) V=HV >1BO65==O @CE><>3> <09=0, O:V :20;VDV:CNBLAO ?C1;VG=8<8 (AB. 37 # @> 70157?5G5==O 28<>3 :@548B>@V2 B0 @5TAB@0FVN >1BO65=L [69]); - >1BO65==O <>6CBL 2V41820B8AO =0 ?@02V O: :>@8ABC20==O, B0: V @>7?>@O460==O @VGGN 2;0A=8:><. ;5 2 >1>E 28?04:0E WE 2AB0=>2;5==O ?@82>48BL 4> =5<>6;82>ABV 4;O 2;0A=8:0 WE 74V9A=5==O. "0:89 ?V4EV4 T =5 ?@>AB> AC?5@5G;828<, 0 9 ?5@54CAV< =5?@>4C<0=8<. !:;040TBLAO 2@065==O, I> 70:>=>4025FL =5 287=0G82AO 7 ACB=VABN ?>=OBL >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L 4> B>3>, O: =04020B8 W< =>@<0B82=>-?@02>25 @53C;N20==O.  F5 I5 @07 45<>=AB@CT =5>1EV4=VABL 4>A;V465==O F8E ?>=OBL ?>@O4 V7 <560<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 0 =0HC 4C<:C, >1<565==O B0 >1BO65==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T AE>68<8 ?@02>28<8 :0B53>@VO<8, >A:V;L:8: 0) AB>ACNBLAO AC1 T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 1) 72C6CNBL <>6;82>ABV 2;0A=8:0 I>4> 74V9A=5==O A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4; 2) ?>G0AB8 71V30NBLAO ?V4AB028 WE 2AB0=>2;5==O, >4=VTN 7 O:8E T =0A0<?5@54 4>3>2V@. "><C A;V4 ?>3>48B8AO 7 ?>78FVTN @>AV9AL:8E ?@02=8:V2, 73V4=> 7 O:>N 70 N@848G=8< 7=0G5==O<, D>@<>N B0 =0A;V4:0<8 2AB0=>2;5==O WE <>6=0 ?@8@V2=OB8 >4=5 4> 4@C3>3> [4] . @>B5 2>=8 <0NBL V @>71V6=>ABV, 4;O 28O2;5==O O:8E A;V4 28E>48B8 7 ACB=>ABV F8E ?>=OBL. !CB=VABL >1BO65=L <0T 287=0G0B8AO A0<8< B5@<V=>< >1BO65==O O: 4>40B:>28< BO30@5< 4;O 2;0A=8:0, 7 O:8< 2V= <CA8BL @0EC20B8AO. V4B0:, =8<8 T B0:V CA:;04=5==O 4;O =L>3>, O:V 70;56=V 2V4 9>3> ?@020 V O2;ONBL A>1>N 4>40B:>2V ?@020 V=H8E >AV1 =0 9>3> @VG. 0?@8:;04, 4>40B:>28< BO30@5< 1C4CBL A5@2VBCB, ?@020 =09<0G0 (>@5=40@O), C?@028B5;O 9>3> <09=><, :><VAV>=5@0 B>I>. @8 B8E G8 V=H8E >1BO65==OE ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2;0A=8: <>65 74V9A=N20B8 2AV A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV, 0;5 2@0E>2CNG8 ?@020 V=H8E >AV1 =0 9>3> <09=>. 0?@8:;04, ?@8 A5@2VBCBV 2V= <>65 V 2>;>4VB8, V :>@8ABC20B8AO, V @>7?>@O460B8AO =8<. 5I> ?>-V=H><C F5 ?8B0==O 2@53C;L>20=5 2 G. 2 AB. 414 & AB>A>2=> AC?5@DVFVN: 2;0A=8: 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 <0T ?@02> 2>;>4VB8, :>@8ABC20B8AO =5N 2 >1AO7V, 2AB0=>2;5=><C 4>3>2>@>< V7 75<;5:>@8ABC20G5<.  FL>3> <>6=0 7@>18B8 28A=>2>:, ?@>B5 I> 70 2V4ACB=>ABV B0:>3> ?>7=0G5==O 2 4>3>2>@V 2;0A=8: 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 ?@020 =0 :>@8ABC20==O =5N =5 715@V30T. @02> =0 @>7?>@O460==O A2>W< <09=>< 70;8H0TBLAO 70 2;0A=8:>< 157 70AB5@565=L. 1<565==O 6 =5 ?>28==> ?@8?CA:0B8 ?@02 V=H8E >AV1 =0 @VG 2;0A=8:0. ">1B> =0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 2 FL><C @07V =5 2?;820NBL ?52=V >A>18, O:V =04V;5=V 2V4?>2V4=8<8 ?@020<8 2V4=>A=> <09=0 2;0A=8:0. V6 B8< 2;0A=8: C FL><C @07V =5 2 7<>7V 27030;V 74V9A=8B8 A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV. "0:5 AB0=>28I5 28=8:0T ?@8 =0:;045==V 0@5HBC =0 9>3> <09=> 01> 701>@>=V 2V4GC65==O. AB0==O, O: 2V4><>, =0:;040TBLAO =>B0@VCA><, 70 ?>2V4><;5==O< CAB0=>28 10=:C, N@848G=>W >A>18 ?@> 2840GC 3@><04O=8=C ?>78:8 =0 1C4V2=8FB2>, :0?VB0;L=89 @5<>=B G8 :C?V2;N 68B;>2>3> 1C48=:C; ?@8 ?>A2V4G5==V 4>3>2>@C 4>2VG=>3> CB@8<0==O; ?@8 ?>A2V4G5==V 4>3>2>@C ?@> 70AB02C 68B;>2>3> 1C48=:C, :20@B8@8, 40GV, A04>2>3> 1C48=:C, 30@06C, 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, V=H>3> =5@CE><>3> <09=0; 70 ?>2V4><;5==O< V?>B5:>45@60B5;O, O:I> F5 ?5@5410G5=> V?>B5G=8< 4>3>2>@>< (AB. 55 # @> =>B0@V0B [82] ); 2 CAVE V=H8E 28?04:0E, ?5@5410G5=8E 70:>=>< (AB. 73 # @> =>B0@V0B [82]). /: 284=>, 701>@>=0 2V4GC65==O T =0A;V4:>< C:;045==O 2;0A=8:>< V=H8E 4>3>2>@V2 (70AB028, V?>B5:8, ?>78:8). 4=0:, =572060NG8 =0 B5 I> 2;0A=8: ?5@51C20T C 4>3>2V@=8E 2V4=>A8=0E 7 V=H>N >A>1>N, ?>-?5@H5, F8<8 AB>AC=:0<8 9>3> ?@02> =5 >1<56CTBLAO. ">1B> A0<V ?> A>1V =V 4>3>2V@ ?>78:8, =V 4>3>2V@ 70AB028 =5 >1<56CNBL 2;0A=8:0. >-4@C35, >1<565==O 28=8:0T 7 V=H>W ?V4AB028  701>@>=8 2V4GC65==O, O:0 =0:;040TBLAO =0 9>3> <09=>. >-B@5BT, B0:0 701>@>=0 =5 T >1>2 O7:>28< =0A;V4:>< C:;045==O F8E 4>3>2>@V2. >-G5B25@B5, 2AB0=>2;5==O 701>@>=8 2V4GC65==O <09=0 =5 ?>7102;OT 2;0A=8:0 <>6;82>ABV 9>3> 2V4GC65==O, O:5 <>65 74V9A=N20B8AO 70 4><>2;5=VABN 7 9>3> :>=B@035=B>< ?> 4>3>2>@C (AB. 38 # @> V?>B5:C [77]). B65, 701>@>=0 2V4GC65==O <09=0 T >:@5<8< >1<56CNG8< ?@02>28< <5E0=V7<>< 2?;82C =0 >1AO3 ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0. 0 2V4<V=C 2V4 701>@>=8 2V4GC65==O <09=0 0@5HB>< T 725@=5==O ABO3=5==O =0 <09=> 1>@6=8:0, O:5 ?>;O30T 2 9>3> >?8AC, 28;CG5==V B0 ?@8<CA>2V9 @50;V70FVW, I> 74V9A=NTBLAO 2 ?@>F5AV 28:>=02G>3> ?@>20465==O, O:89 ?@8?CA:0T <>6;82VABL =0:;040B8 0@5HB =0 <09=> 1>@6=8:0, 28;CG0B8, ?5@54020B8 B0:5 <09=> =0 715@V30==O B0 @50;V7>2C20B8 9>3> 2 ?>@O4:C, 2AB0=>2;5=><C 70:>=>402AB2>< (AB.AB. 5, 24, 50 # @> 28:>=02G5 ?@>20465==O [61]  ; ?. 2.1. "8<G0A>2>3> ?>;>65==O ?@> ?>@O4>: ?@>2545==O ?@8;N4=8E B>@3V2 7 @50;V70FVW 0@5HB>20=>3> =5@CE><>3> <09=0, 70B2. =0:07>< V=VAB5@AB20 NAB8FVW #:@0W=8 2V4 27 6>2B=O 1999 @. N 68/5 [206] ). 3V4=> 7 AB. 55 707=0G5=>3> 0:>=C 0@5HB <09=0 ?>;O30T C ?@>2545==V 9>3> >?8AC, >3>;>H5==V 701>@>=8 @>7?>@O460B8AO =8<, 0 C @07V ?>B@518 - 2 >1<565==V ?@020 :>@8ABC20==O <09=>< 01> 9>3> 28;CG5==V C 1>@6=8:0 B0 ?5@540GV =0 715@V30==O V=H8< >A>10<. 848, >1AO38 V AB@>: >1<565==O 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 45@602=8< 28:>=02F5< C :>6=><C :>=:@5B=><C 28?04:C 7 C@0EC20==O< 2;0AB82>AB59 <09=0, 9>3> 7=0G5==O 4;O 2;0A=8:0 G8 2>;>4V;LFO, =5>1EV4=>ABV 28:>@8AB0==O B0 V=H8E >1AB028=. @5HB 70AB>A>2CTBLAO: 1) 4;O 70157?5G5==O 715@565==O <09=0 1>@6=8:0, I> ?V4;O30T =0ABC?=V9 ?5@540GV ABO3C20G52V 01> @50;V70FVW; 2) 4;O 28:>=0==O @VH5==O ?@> :>=DVA:0FVN <09=0 1>@6=8:0; 3) ?@8 28:>=0==V CE20;8 AC4C ?@> =0:;045==O 0@5HBC =0 <09=>, I> =0;568BL 2V4?>2V40GC V 7=0E>48BLAO C =L>3> G8 2 V=H8E >AV1. V4B0:, 0@5HB <09=0 T AE>68< V7 701>@>=>N 2V4GC65==O 70A>1>< >1<565==O ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0, O:89 157?>A5@54=L> =5 @C=BCTBLAO =0 4>3>2>@V V =5 ?>@>46CT ?@02 ?@820B=8E >AV1 I>4> 74V9A=5==O ?@02><>G=>AB59 ?> 2>;>4V==N, :>@8ABC20==N B0 @>7?>@O460==N <09=>< 2;0A=8:0. 2060T<>, I> WE 7<VHC20==O 2 70:>=>402AB2V #:@0W=8 <0T 1CB8 CAC=5=8< 22545==O< GVB:>3> @>7C<V==O >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV B0 2V4?>2V4=8E 7<V= C 70:>=0E #:@0W=8 @> 70157?5G5==O 28<>3 :@548B>@V2 B0 @5TAB@0FVN >1BO65=L [69] V @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L [68].  F8E 70:>=0E B5@<V=8 >1BO65==O AB>A>2=> 701>@>=8 2V4GC65==O B0 0@5HBC ?>B@51CNBL 70<V=8 =0 >1<565==O, V 2V4?>2V4=> B5@<V= >1<565==O AB>A>2=> A5@2VBCBV2, 4>3>2>@V2 >@5=48, C?@02;V==O <09=><, :><VAVW B>I>  =0 >1BO65==O. V4AC<>2CNG8 A:070=5, 28E>48BL, I> 2 F82V;VAB8G=V9 =0CFV B0 70:>=>402AB2V 2V41C;>AO 7<VH0==O, ?>-?5@H5, <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 0 ?>-4@C35, >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. ;O WE ?>40;LH>3> 0=0;V7C 2 @>1>BV 1C45<> 28E>48B8 7 ACBBT2>ABV @>71V6=>AB59 <V6 <560<8 B0 >1<565==O<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV V ?>@V2=O=> 7 F8< 7=0G=> 28I>3> ABC?5=O AE>6>ABV ?>=OBL >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. !;V4 2@0E>2C20B8 B0:>6 B5, I>: 0) 0@5HB B0 701>@>=0 2V4GC65==O <09=0 2V41C20NBLAO =5 2 F82V;L=>-?@02>28E 2V4=>A8=0E, 0 T ?C1;VG=8<8 ?@02>28<8 :0B53>@VO<8; 1) 4;O C:@0W=AL:>W F82V;VAB8G=>W 4>:B@8=8 T CAB0;5=8< 70AB>AC20==O B5@<V=0  >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV AB>A>2=> B>3>, I> ?> ACBV O2;OT A>1>N >1BO65==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 2) 4;O =0C:>2>3> 4>A;V465==O =5>1EV4=5 70AB>AC20==O 5<?V@8G=>W 1078 (=0C:>2>W B0 70:>=>402G>W), 2 O:V9 >7=0G5=V B5@<V=8 ?><V=O=V <VAFO<8 01> 27030;V ?@> >1BO65==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =5 945BLAO. =0A;V4>: B0:>3> A:;04=>3> AB0=>28I0 4;O 70?>1V30==O ?;CB0=8=8 ?@8 0=0;V7V :0B53>@V9  >1<565==O B0  >1BO65==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <8 28<CH5=V 2 ?>40;LH><C 0=0;V7C20B8 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: T48=5 ?>=OBBO, I> 2:;NG0T 4> A2>3> A:;04C V >1BO65==O. B65, ?>@V2=NNG8 <56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, A;V4 707=0G8B8 B0:5. 56V E0@0:B5@87CNBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 2 >1 T:B82=><C @>7C<V==V, 0 >1<565==O 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO I>4> AC1 T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. =0A;V4>: FL>3> <56V T 2;0AB82VABN ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 9>3> =52V4'T<=>N E0@0:B5@8AB8:>N, 287=0G0NBL A0<> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, 0 >1<565==O T =0A;V4:>< 7>2=VH=L>3> 2?;82C =0 =L>3> O: =0 AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02>. 56V 2AB0=>2;NNBL H8@>:89 A?5:B@ <>6;82>AB59 4;O 2;0A=8:0 4VOB8 =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4, 0;5 7 4>45@60==O< 28<>3 70:>=C (7>:@5<0, 28:;045=8E C AB. 319 &), 0 >1<565==O B0 >1BO65==O 9>3> AB8A:0NBL, 7<5=HCNBL <>6;82>ABV 2;0A=8:0 01> =02VBL C=5<>6;82;NNBL 74V9A=5==O =8< B8E G8 V=H8E 4V9, O:V ?>B5=FV9=> 9><C =040=V. "><C ?@8 >1<565==V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 9>3> 7<VAB ?> 2>;>4V==N, :>@8ABC20==N V @>7?>@O460==N <09=>< 715@V30TBLAO, >4=0: WE=T 74V9A=5==O 2 ?>2=><C >1AO7V ?@>BO3>< 287=0G5=>3> AB@>:C AB0T =5<>6;828<, 06 4> CAC=5==O >1<565=L. 56V <0NBL 7030;L=89 E0@0:B5@ V 4VNBL 2V4=>A=> 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2, 0 >1<565==O 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO AB>A>2=> ?@020 :>=:@5B=>3> AC1'T:B0 (:0B53>@V9 AC1 T:BV2). 56V E0@0:B5@87CNBL 70:@V?;5=VABL ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 9>3> AB0B8G=89 AB0=, 0 >1<565==O 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO ?@8 @50;V70FVW (74V9A=5==V) 2;0A=8:>< ?>2=>2065=L, B>1B> 2 48=0<VFV ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T =04B> H8@>:8<8, ?@> I> A2V4G0BL B0:V :@8B5@VW WE 2AB0=>2;5==O, O: <>@0;L=V 70A048 ACA?V;LAB20, =5<>6;82VABL 28:>@8AB0==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?@02 =0 H:>4C ?@020< V=H8E >AV1 B>I>. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0:A8<0;L=> :>=:@5B=V. 8<8 T 287=0G5=V ?@8?8A8 2;0A=8:C 74V9A=8B8 ?52=V 4VW 01> CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 287=0G5=8E 4V9 (>45@60B8 73>4C 01> 4>72V; =0 =8E 2V4 707=0G5=8E >AV1 01> >@30=V2, 701>@>=0 2V4GC65==O @5GV B>I>). 56V O: 2;0AB82VABL ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =5 VA=CNBL O: >:@5<V ?@020 G8 ?@02>2V4=>A8=8, =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 >1<565=L, O:V 28=8:0NBL 7 ?52=8E ?V4AB02 V 2BV;NNBLAO C 2V4?>2V4=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8. ">1B>, VA=CNG8 O: >:@5<V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8, 2>=8 B8< =5 <5=H ?>2 O70=V 7 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8 2;0A=>ABV. 0?@8:;04, A5@2VBCB T @5G>28< ?@02><, I> VA=CT C 2V4?>2V4=8E @5G>28E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, V >4=>G0A=> 2AV< A2>W< VA=C20==O< 2V= 2?;820T =0 ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 2;0A=>ABV  ?@02> =0 75<5;L=C 4V;O=:C 01> V=H5 <09=>, =0 O:5 9>3> 1C;> 2AB0=>2;5=>. 02545=5 A2V4G8BL ?@> VAB>B=C 2V4<V==VABL <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2V4 9>3> >1<565=L.  FL>3> ?@82>4C A;CH=> 28A;>282AO .. @810=>2, 2:07CNG8, I> 287=0G5==O <56 ?@020 =5 T 9>3> >1<565==O<, 0 O2;OT A>1>N N@848G=89 28@07 VA=CNG>3> 5:>=><VG=> @V2=>3> AB0=>28I0 ;N459 2 ACA?V;LAB2V, ?@02>28< 70157?5G5==O<, N@848G=>N 30@0=BVTN FVTW 4V9A=>W @V2=>ABV [44]. 1 T:B82=5 ?@02> =5 <>65 1CB8 >1<565=5. # A2>N G5@3C, >1<565==O ?@8B0<0==V AC1'T:B82=><C ?@02C >A>18, O:0 <>65 >1<56C20B8AO 2 ?52=8E =0?@O<:0E 9>3> 74V9A=5==O [158] . B65, 70 >4=>:>@V==8<8 A;>20<8 <56V V >1<565==O AB>OBL @V7=V ?@02>2V O28I0. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 702648 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO 4;O 70E8ABC ?@02 V 70:>==8E V=B5@5AV2 :>=:@5B=8E >AV1 =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 28?04:V2 CAB0=>2;5==O <56 ?@020 (287=0G5==O 9>3> 7<VABC), I> 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 2 V=B5@5A0E CAL>3> ACA?V;LAB20 V <0NBL =0 <5BV 70E8AB >A=>2 :>=AB8BCFV9=>3> ;04C, <>@0;L=>ABV, 70157?5G5==O >1>@>=8 V 157?5:8 45@6028, ?@02 B0 V=B5@5AV2 3@><04O=. !0<5 ?@> 28?04:8 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV A;V4 3>2>@8B8 B>4V, :>;8 ABC?V=L 01AB@0:FVW T =0ABV;L:8 28A>:>N, I> =5 ?5@5410G0TBLAO :>=:@5B=8E >1<565=L =0 :>@8ABL :>=:@5B=8E >AV1. @> 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 ?@020 I5 ?8A02 .$. (5@H5=528G, =07820NG8 WE >1<565==O<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 A8;C 70:>=C, 2V4@V7=ONG8 WE 2V4 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2=0A;V4>: CAB0=>2;5==O @5G>2>3> 01> 7>1>2'O70;L=>3> ?@020. # ?5@H><C 28?04:C, 220602 2V=, @VG, I> AB0=>28BL >1'T:B ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, =5 A;C68BL >1'T:B>< O:>3>-=51C4L ?@020 =0 =5W V=H>W >A>18, =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 28?04:C >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV @5G>28< 01> 7>1>2'O70;L=8< ?@02>< V=H>W >A>18. AB0=>2;5==O <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0T =0 <5BV BV;L:8 AB8A=5==O 2;0A=8:0 G5@57 AB>@>==VE >AV1 C 74V9A=5==V 9>3> ?@020, 0;5 =5 =01CBBO AB>@>==V<8 >A>10<8 ?@02 =0 GC6C @VG [221] . "0:8< G8=><, <56V T 2;0AB82VABN ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 >1 T:B82=><C @>7C<V==V, N@848G=>N E0@0:B5@8AB8:>N 9>3> AB0B8G=>3> AB0=C, O:8< >:@5A;NTBLAO H8@>:5 :>;> <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0, 0;5 7 4>45@60==O< ?52=8E ?@8?8AV2 4VOB8 2V4?>2V4=8< G8=><, I> <0NBL 7030;L=89 E0@0:B5@ V 4VNBL 2V4=>A=> V 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2. 1<565==O<8 T 7>2=VH=V9 2?;82 =0 AC1 T:B82=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV :>=:@5B=>W >A>18, I> 2BV;NTBLAO C 2V4?>2V4=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 7 WW CG0ABN, BO3=5 70 A>1>N AB8A=5==O, 7<5=H5==O <>6;82>AB59 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L V ?>;O30T C :>=:@5B=8E ?@8?8A0E 2;0A=8:C 74V9A=8B8 ?52=V 4VW 01> CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 =8E. "0:5 @>7C<V==O <56 B0 >1<565=L 28<030T 287=0G8B8AO 7 B8<, G8 2E>4OBL 2>=8 4> 7<VABC ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: AC1 T:B82=>3> ?@020. /: 2V47=0G0T . . V:VBV=0 [180], 2:07V2:0 2 70:>=V =0 <56V 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59 T =5 >1<565==O< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 0 287=0G5==O< 9>3> 7<VABC. @H8 6 AB25@46C202 [117], I> >1<565==O AB0NBL =52V4'T<=8< 5;5<5=B>< 7<VABC ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. !:;04=VABL ?@8 FL><C ?>;O30T =5 ;8H5 2 B><C, I> 2 >4=><C 28?04:C 4> 7<VABC ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?@>?>=CTBLAO 2:;NG8B8 9>3> <56V, 0 2 4@C3><C  >1<565==O, 0 2 B><C, =0A:V;L:8 F5 2V4?>2V40T 9>3> ACB=>ABV. > B>3> 6, O: A?V22V4=5AB8 2 B0:><C @07V >1<565==O :>B@V T 7>2=VH=V<8 2V4=>A=> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 7 WE @>7C<V==O< O: 9>3> 2=CB@VH=L>3> 5;5<5=BC? BV<, F5 ;8H5 =0 ?5@H89 ?>3;O4 2840TBLAO AC?5@5G=VABN. <VAB ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T 287=0G5==O< ?52=8E <>6;82>AB59 4;O :>=:@5B=>W >A>18. /:I> 2>=0 >1<56CTBLAO 2 A2>T<C ?@02V, B> C =5W 2=0A;V4>: FL>3> =5<0T 9 B8E G8 V=H8E <>6;82>AB59, O:V VA=CNBL C V=H8E 2;0A=8:V2. ">1B> 7<VAB :>6=>3> AC1 T:B82=>3> ?@020 <>65 @V7=8B8AO 70;56=> 2V4 =0O2=>ABV G8 2V4ACB=>ABV >1<565=L. V4><>, I> :>@8ABC20==O V @>7?>@O460==O <09=>< 74V9A=NNBLAO 2;0A=8:>< O: A0<>ABV9=>, B0: V =0 ?V4AB02V 4>3>2>@C 7 V=H8<8 >A>10<8. /:I> 2;0A=8: C:;040T 4>3>2V@ :>@8ABC20==O A2>TN @VGGN, B>, O: 707=0G02 .. 595@, F5 =5 >7=0G0T ?5@540GV =8< :>@8ABC20G52V =V ?@02><>G=>ABV :>@8ABC20==O, =V ?@02><>G=>ABV 2>;>4V==O [135]  2 B><C @>7C<V==V, I> 2;0A=8: 715@V30T FV ?@02><>G=>ABV. B65, 2;0A=8: ?5@540G5N <09=0 2 :>@8ABC20==O =5 2AB0=>2;NT <56 A2>T<C ?@02C, 28:;NG0NG8 7 =L>3> ?@02><>G=VABL :>@8ABC20==O. @>B5 =5 <>6=0 =5 2V4<VB8B8, I> 7 C:;045==O< 4>3>2>@C =09<C (>@5=48) 2;0A=8: =5 2 7<>7V 1C45 :>@8ABC20B8AO A2>W< <09=><, >A:V;L:8 :>@8ABC20==O =8< 74V9A=NT =09<0G (>@5=40@). V4B0:, :>@8ABC20==O >4=8< V B8< A0<8< <09=>< >4=>G0A=> 9 2;0A=8:><, 9 =09<0G5< (>@5=40@5<) 1C45 =5<>6;828<. "><C 7V 715@V30==O< 3V?>B5B8G=>W <>6;82>ABV :>@8ABC20==O <09=>< 2;0A=8:>< 2V= 7 C:;045==O< 4>3>2>@C >1<56CT A515 2 74V9A=5==V FVTW ?@02><>G=>ABV. >65 ?>AB0B8 9 ?8B0==O ?@> B5, =0A:V;L:8 ?@02><V@=8< 1C45 C:;045==O 2;0A=8:>< I5 >4=>3> 4>3>2>@C =09<C (>@5=48) B>3> 6 A0<>3> <09=0, O:5 265 1C;> ?5@540=5 2 =09< (>@5=4C) V=HV9 >A>1V. /:I> 28E>48B8 7 B>3>, I> 2;0A=8: 715@V30T ?@02> @>7?>@O460==O A2>W< <09=><, B> 2V= <>65 9 24@C35, 9 2B@5BT C:;040B8 B0:V 4>3>2>@8. ;5 O: 2 4V9A=>ABV F5 2?;8=5 =0 ?@02> ?5@H>3> B0 =0ABC?=8E =09<0GV2 (>@5=40@V2), 7 O:8<8 2V= C:;02 4>3>2>@8 ?  ;VB5@0BC@V 7 ?@82>4C FL>3> 707=0G0;>AO, I> 4>3>2>@8, C:;045=V ?VA;O ?5@540==O 2 =09< (>@5=4C) <09=0 2;0A=8:0, <0NBL ?V4AB028 4;O @>7V@20==O, >A:V;L:8 >@5=4>4025FL (2;0A=8:) =5 2 7<>7V WE 28:>=0B8. 4=>G0A=> 6 2:07CTBLAO =0 B5, I> 2 FV;><C =5<>6;82> AB25@46C20B8 ?@> =570:>==VABL F8E 4>3>2>@V2, O:0 ?>A;C3C20;0 1 ?V4AB02>N WE =54V9A=>ABV [4]. G5284=>, FO ?>78FVO @C=BCTBLAO =0 B><C, I> 2;0A=8: F8E ?>2=>2065=L =5 ?>7102;OTBLAO, O: 707=0G0;>AO 28I5 (<56V 9>3> ?@020 =5 72C6CNBLAO). 4=0: 2 FL><C <VAB8BLAO 9 AC?5@5G=VABL =02VBL 2 A0<V9 ?>78FVW, 28A;>2;5=V9 =02545=8<8 02B>@0<8, O:V 2:07CNBL, I> >@5=4>N >1<56CTBLAO ?@02><>G=VABL @>7?>@O460==O, >A:V;L:8 2;0A=8: ?>7102;OTBLAO <>6;82>ABV ?>2B>@=>3> ?5@540==O FL>3> <09=0 2 >@5=4C [4]. /:I> B0:, B> 2V4ACB=VABL C 2;0A=8:0 B0:>W <>6;82>ABV <>65 >7=0G0B8 ;8H5, I> 2V= 74V9A=82 4VN, =0 O:C =5 <02 ?@020.  B0:><C @07V ?>A8;0==O =0 ?@8=F8?>25 VA=C20==O C =L>3> ?@020 =0 @>7?>@O460==O, O:>3> =VEB> 9>3> =5 ?>7102;O2, 1C45 ;8H5 7092>N :07CWAB8:>N. 0 =0HC 4C<:C, B0:V 4>3>2>@8 A;V4 287=020B8 =54V9A=8<8 O: DV:B82=V (AB. 234 &), >A:V;L:8 2>=8 2G8=ONBLAO 157 =0<V@C AB2>@5==O ?@02>28E =0A;V4:V2, O:V 7C<>2;NNBLAO F8< ?@02>G8=><. "0:>3> =0<V@C =5<0T C 2;0A=8:0 O: >@5=4>402FO, O:89 7=0T, I> ?5@540B8 <09=> C :>@8ABC20==O =09<0GC (>@5=40@N) 2V= =5 7<>65, 1> 2>=> 265 ?5@540=5 V=H><C =09<0GC (>@5=40@N). "0:>6, =0?@8:;04, 2840G5N 4>@CG5==O =0 74V9A=5==O 4V9 V7 ?@>406C <09=0 2;0A=8: =5 CAB0=>282 <56V A2>T<C ?@02C, =5 28:;NG82 4;O A515 ?@02><>G=VABL @>7?>@O460==O V 2?@02V FN ?@02><>G=VABL 74V9A=N20B8 9 A0<. 4=0: 2 FL><C @07V >4=>G0A=0 @50;V70FVO FVTW <>6;82>ABV V 2;0A=8:><, V ?>2V@5=8< 7=>2-B0:8 1C45 =5 =0 :>@8ABL >AB0==L><C. "><C 2 4>3>2>@0E 4>@CG5==O G0AB> 707=0G0TBLAO, I> 2;0A=8: 1C45 CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 A0<>ABV9=>W @50;V70FVW A2>3> ?@020 =0 @>7?>@O460==O <09=><. ">1B> V 2 FL><C @07V 210G0NBLAO >1<565==O 2;0A=8:>< C 74V9A=5==V A2>TW ?@02><>G=>ABV. &V ?@8:;048 A2V4G0BL ?@> @>71V6=>ABV 2 ?>=OBBOE <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 5<>6;82VABL 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 A2>T<C ?@02C =5 ?5@5H:>460T 2;0A=8:C >1<56C20B8 9>3> C:;045==O< 2V4?>2V4=8E 4>3>2>@V2. # B>9 65 G0A <56V 4;O :>@8ABC20==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O <09=>< CAB0=>2;5=V 70:>=>< V AB>ACNBLAO, =0?@8:;04, 701>@>=8 28:>@8AB0==O A2>3> ?@020 =0 H:>4C ?@020<, A2>1>40< B0 3V4=>ABV 3@><04O=, V=B5@5A0< ACA?V;LAB20, ?>3V@HC20B8 5:>;>3VG=C A8BC0FVN B0 ?@8@>4=V O:>ABV 75<;V, 701>@>=8 7=8I5==O ?0<'OB=8:V2 VAB>@VW B0 :C;LBC@8 B>I>. !B02;5==O 4> B@V048 ?>2=>2065=L 2;0A=8:0 O: ?52=8E >1<565=L 28@0602 I5 .. >1T4>=>AF52, :>B@89 =03>;>HC202 =0 B0:8E >1<565==OE ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, ?> A8;V O:8E 7 A0<>3> <09=0 284V;OTBLAO O:0AL >4=0 2;0AB82VABL, 2V4=>A=> 4> O:>W 4>?CA:0TBLAO CG0ABL AB>@>==L>W >A>18, 0 B0:>6 >1<565==OE, I> AB>ACNBLAO 2=CB@VH=L>3> 7<VABC A0<>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. > >AB0==VE 2V= 2V4=>A82 BV 28?04:8, O:V 2V= =078202 AB0=0<8, 45 A:;04>2V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 28>:@5<;NNG8AL >4=0 2V4 V=H>W, <>6CBL VA=C20B8 C 283;O4V >:@5<>3> ?@020 (2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O 01> @>7?>@O465==O). V= 707=0G02, I> <>6;82> 2AB0=>2;5==O B0: 720=>3> 157?5@5@2=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 7 ?@02>< 2>;>4V==O B0 :>@8ABC20==O, >4=0: 2V4 O:>3> 28;CG0TBLAO ?@02> @>7?>@O465==O. AB0==T, =0 9>3> 4C<:C, 70;8H0TBLAO 2 ?>:>W [149] . G5284=>, I> B0:89 ?V4EV4 1V;LH 2V4?>2V40T ACB=>ABV <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, =V6 =04C<0=0 :>=AB@C:FVO 715@V30==O <>6;82>ABV 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< BVTW ?@02><>G=>ABV, O:0 B8<G0A>2> 28;CG0TBLAO C =L>3> (70<>@>6CTBLAO). V= T FV;:>< ?@89=OB=8< V 4;O ?@0:B8:8, 1> ?>71028BL =5>1EV4=>ABV 2BO3C20B8AO C 7092V AC4>2V A?>@8. B65, ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV >A>18 <>65 >1<56C20B8AO ?52=8< G8=><, 7>:@5<0 70 2>;5N A0<>3> 2;0A=8:0 H;OE>< 28=8:=5==O C V=H>W >A>18 ?@020 74V9A=N20B8 :>@8ABC20==O B0/01> @>7?>@O460==O 9>3> <09=><. BV<, =5 28:;NG0NBLAO 9 28?04:8 B0:8E >1<565=L ?>70 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0, :>;8 70:>= 4>?CA:0T 28;CG5==O 9>3> <09=0 2=0A;V4>: B8E G8 V=H8E ?>@CH5=L 01> 2 72'O7:C 7 ?52=8<8 >1AB028=0<8 (?@8 :>=DVA:0FVW, @5:2V78FVW, =0FV>=0;V70FVW). # B0:8E 28?04:0E 3>2>@OBL ?@> B5, I> F5 ?@82>48BL 4> >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV [108] .  F8< A;V4 ?>3>48B8AO, 1> 1C4L-O:V ?5@5H:>48 C 74V9A=5==V 2;0A=8:>< ?>2=>2065=L I>4> A2>3> <09=0 <>6=0 ?>7=0G0B8 O: >1<565==O 9>3> ?@020. %>G0 AB2>@NTBLAO 2@065==O, I> ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 ?@8<CA>2><C ?>@O4:C <0T V=HC ?@02>2C ?@8@>4C, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> O: >1<565==O 2 ?>2=><C @>7C<V==V FL>3> B5@<V=0 9>3> ?>7=0G8B8 =5 <>6=0.  70:>=>402AB2V ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2@53C;L>2CTBLAO B0:>6 =5 BV;L:8 >:@5<>, 0 9 B5@<V= ?@8?8=5==O 26820TBLAO ?>@O4 V7 B5@<V=>< >1<565==O. "0:, C G. 6 AB. 4 # @> 2;0A=VABL [63] 707=0G0TBLAO, I> C 28?04:0E V 2 ?>@O4:C, 2AB0=>2;5=8E 70:>=>402G8<8 0:B0<8 #:@0W=8, 4VO;L=VABL 2;0A=8:0 <>65 1CB8 >1<565=> G8 ?@8?8=5=>, 01> 2;0A=8:0 <>65 1CB8 7>1>2'O70=> 4>?CAB8B8 >1<565=5 :>@8ABC20==O 9>3> <09=>< V=H8<8 >A>10<8. ">1B>, 2 =02545=V9 AB0BBV 945BLAO ?@> B0:V =0?@O<:8 72C65==O >1AO3C ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:: 0) 9>3> >1<565==O; 1) ?@8?8=5==O; 2) ?@8<CA>25 >1<565=5 :>@8ABC20==O <09=>< 2;0A=8:0 V=H8<8 >A>10<8. =0A;V4>: FL>3> ?>=OBBO >1<565==O B0 ?@8?8=5==O =5<>218 @>7<56>2CNBLAO. 040T<>, I> B0: AB0;>AO 2=0A;V4>: 204 70:>=>B2>@G>W B5E=V:8, O:V G0AB> A?>AB5@V30;8AO C 70:>=>402AB2V ?>G0B:C 90-@>:V2 %% AB . 25@B0T =0 A515 C203C B0:>6 B5, I> 2 FV9 65 =>@<V 70:>=>4025FL ?@8?CAB82AO 9 V=H>W =5B>G=>ABV 2:07V2:>N =0 2AB0=>2;5==O ?@8<CA>2>3> >1<565=>3> :>@8ABC20==O <09=>< 2;0A=8:0 V=H8<8 >A>10<8 O: >:@5<>3> @V7=>284C >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. ">1B> 2AV 707=0G5=V BCB 28?04:8 T >1<565==O<8. B65, 2@0E>2CNG8 B5, I> ?@02><>G=>ABO<8 2;0A=8:0 T 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O, 2V= <>65 >1<56C20B8AO 2 :>6=><C 7 =8E. ">4V >1<565==O< 2V;L=>3> @>7?>@O460==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>W< <09=>< V 1C45 ?@8<CA>25 ?@8?8=5==O 9>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV (01> 28;CG5==O 9>3> <09=0, 01> 28:C? B>I>). &5 <>6=0 ?>OA=8B8 B8<, I> 2 B0:8E 28?04:0E 2;0A=8: 265 =5 74V9A=NT A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4, F5 =5 70;568BL FV;:>< 2V4 9>3> 2>;V.  206;828< ?@8 FL><C T B5, I> 2V= 2=0A;V4>: FL>3> <>65 >1<56C20B8AO O: C :>6=><C 7 B@L>E A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L, B0: V 2 WE :><1V=0FVOE (=0?@8:;04, C 2>;>4V==V B0 :>@8ABC20==V), 0 B0:>6 C 2AVE F8E ?@02><>G=>ABOE. V4B0:, ?>7102;5==O 2;0A=8:0 <>6;82>ABV @>7?>@O460==O <09=>< 70 A2>TN 2>;5N B0:>6 A;V4 @>73;O40B8 =5 ;8H5 O: ?V4AB02C ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O: B> 70728G09 @>7C<VTBLAO 2 F82V;L=><C ?@02V, 0 9 O: >1<565==O 9>3> ?@020. AB0==T V ?>;O30T 2 B><C, I> =5 2;0A=8:, 0 EB>AL AB>@>==V9 74V9A=NT FN 9>3> ?@02><>G=VABL. 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV @V7=OBLAO 9 70 <5B>N WE 2AB0=>2;5==O B0 DC=:FVO<8. 5B>N <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T >E>@>=0 ?@02 V 70:>==8E V=B5@5AV2 2AVE V=H8E >AV1 B0 ACA?V;LAB20 2 FV;><C 2V4 =54>1@>A>2VA=8E 4V9 2;0A=8:0. &O <5B0 A;C68BL 70157?5G5==N =0;56=>3> AB02;5==O V ?>2038 4> ?@02 V=H8E V 704>2>;5==O A?@0254;828E 28<>3 <>@0;V, ACA?V;L=>3> ?>@O4:C V 7030;L=>3> 4>1@>1CBC 2 ACA?V;LAB2V, 70E8ABC >A=>2 :>=AB8BCFV9=>3> ;04C, >E>@>=8 4>2:V;;O, <>@0;L=>ABV, =54>?CI5==N 7;>26820==O ?@02>< 4VO<8 >AV1, 74V9A=N20=8<8 28=OB:>2> 7 =0<V@>< 70?>4VOB8 H:>4C V=HV9 >A>1V, 0 B0:>6 28:>@8AB0==O< F82V;L=8E ?@02 7 <5B>N >1<565==O :>=:C@5=FVW V 7;>26820==O 4><V=CNG8< AB0=>28I5< =0 @8=:C. 5B>N 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L T 70157?5G5==O :>=:@5B=8E V=B5@5AV2 B0 ?@02, 28=8:=5==O, VA=C20==O B0 ?@8?8=5==O :>=:@5B=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=. 1<565==O <>6CBL A;C68B8 O: 7030;L=>:>@8A=V9 <5BV (=0?@8:;04, ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V 28<>3 4> AC1'T:B0 2V4=>A=> =0;56=>3> 9><C <09=0, I> T :C;LBC@=>N FV==VABN), B0: V 2 V=B5@5A0E :>=:@5B=8E >AV1, =0?@8:;04, ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V A5@2VBCBV2. 06;82>N E0@0:B5@8AB8:>N <56 V >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T 28O2;5==O WE=VE DC=:FV9. $C=:FVW <56  F5 >A=>2=V =0?@O<8 2?;82C ?@02>?@8?8ACNG8E 70A>1V2 =0 V=B5@5A8 V ?@020 2;0A=8:V2. 8<8 T: - ?@02>2AB0=>2;NNG0, 01> @53C;OB82=0, DC=:FVO, A?@O<>20=0 =0 704>2>;5==O V=B5@5AV2 >A>18AB>ABV V ACA?V;LAB20, 2AB0=>2;5==O A>FV0;L=>3> :>=B@>;N. A:V;L:8 <56V T 2;0AB82VABN A0<>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV V =52V4 T<=V 2V4 =L>3>, B> ?>7=0G5==O< 2 70:>=V <56 ?@020 2>=> @53C;NTBLAO O: B0:5; - <>B82CNG0 DC=:FVO, :>B@0 ?>;O30T C 2?;82V 7030;L=>>1>2 O7:>28E ?@8?8AV2 =0 2=CB@VH=V9 A2VB ;N48=8, O:89 D>@<CT WW V=B5@5A8, ?>B@518, 2>;N, 28E>4OG8 7 7030;L=>?@89=OB8E C ;N4AB2V FV==>AB59; - 28E>2=0 DC=:FVO, 157?>A5@54=L> ?>2 O70=0 7 <>B82CNG>N, 28O2;OTBLAO C D>@<C20==V ?@02>A2V4><>ABV, ?@02>2>W :C;LBC@8, >E>@>=8 <>@0;L=>ABV; - :><C=V:0B82=0 DC=:FVO O2;OT A>1>N ?52=C N@848G=C V=D>@<0FVN, I> =04E>48BL 7 1>:C 70:>=>402FO 4> AC1'T:B0 V ?V4B25@46CT ?@8@>4=C =5>1EV4=VABL 4>45@60==O 2 A2>W9 ?>254V=FV ?52=8E <56; >E>@>==0 DC=:FVO <56, O:0 ?>;O30T 2 70157?5G5==V ?@02 AC1'T:BV2. $C=:FVW >1<565=L O2;ONBL A>1>N >A=>2=V =0?@O<:8 2?;82C =0 2;0A=8:V2 ?@02>>1<56CNG8E 70A>1V2. 4=VTN 7 =8E T ?@02>2AB0=>2;NNG0 DC=:FVO, O:0 =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 0=0;>3VG=>W DC=:FVW <56 A?@O<>20=0 =0 2AB0=>2;5==O ?@02 V @50;V70FVN V=B5@5AV2 =5 2;0A=8:0, 0 V=H8E >AV1 2V4=>A=> ?@02 2;0A=8:0. !5@54 V=H8E DC=:FV9 <>6=0 =0720B8 DC=:FVN A>FV0;L=>3> :>=B@>;N, 0;5 1V;LH B25@4C 70 :>@5:FVN ?>@V2=O=> 7 <560<8, >A:V;L:8 >1<565==O 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 701>@>=0<8, >1>2'O7:0<8 V B.?>4.; 72V4A8  701>@>==C V 7>1>2'O7CNGC DC=:FVW; <>B82CNGC DC=:FVN, I> ?@>O2;OTBLAO C 2?;82V >1<565=L =0 2=CB@VH=V9 A2VB ;N48=8. AB0=>2;5==O V 4>45@60==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL 2V4?>2V40B8 7030;L=8< 70A040< F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20, B0:8< O: 4>72V;L=0 A?@O<>20=VABL ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O, @V2=VABL CAVE 2;0A=8:V2, =54>B>@:0==VABL 2;0A=>ABV, 4>1@>A>2VA=VABL, @>7C<=VABL, A?@0254;82VABL B>I>. @8=F8?>2> 206;828<8 T B0:V 70A048 <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV: WE 2AB0=>2;5==O 2 ACA?V;L=8E V=B5@5A0E; 74V9A=5==O ?@02 =0 <09=> 2V4?>2V4=> 4> 9>3> ?@87=0G5==O; 4>45@60==O ?@028; 5B8:8 4V;>28E 270T<>2V4=>A8=; C@0EC20==O =5>1EV4=>ABV >E>@>=8 4>2:V;;O; =54>?CI5==O <>=>?>;VAB8G=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 9 >1<565==O :>=:C@5=FVW. 0A040<8 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T: 30@<>=V9=5 ?>T4=0==O 2>;V 2;0A=8:0 (7>:@5<0, A2>1>48 4>3>2>@C) V ?@8<CAV2; A?@0254;820 :><?5=A0FVO 2;0A=8:>2V <09=>28E CB@0B ?@8 >1<565==V 9>3> 2 ?@020E B>I>. V4AB028 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T @V7=8<8. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL 287=0G0B8AO BV;L:8 2 70:>=V, >A:V;L:8 ;8H5 70:>= =040T ?>78B82=5 @53C;N20==O 2V4=>A8=0< 2;0A=>ABV, 2 B><C G8A;V H;OE>< >:@5A;5==O WE 4>72V;L=8E @0<>:. 5@54CAV< F5 :>=AB8BCFV9=V ?>;>65==O, O:8<8 30@0=BCNBLAO =5?>@CH=VABL ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV B0 9>3> 74V9A=5==O :>6=8< (AB. 41 >=AB8BCFVW #:@0W=8 [114] ). V4?>2V4=V =>@<8 V ?@8=F8?8 F82V;L=>3> ?@020 0=0;>3VG=V :>=AB8BCFV9=8<. >=8 45B0;L=VH5 @53;0<5=B>20=V 2 ABB. 3, 319 B0 V=H8E. & #:@0W=8 [217], AB. 6 8B;>2>3> :>45:AC #:@0W=8 (40;V -  [54] ) I>4> 28:>@8AB0==O 68B;>2>3> ?@8<VI5==O ;8H5 70 ?@87=0G5==O<, B>1B> 4;O ?@>6820==O 2 =L><C, 0 =5 4;O V=H8E FV;59  @>7<VI5==O 2 =L><C <03078=C, >DVAC B>I>, 0 B0:>6 AB. 10  #:@0W=8 [54] I>4> 701>@>=8 28:>@8AB0==O 68B;>28E 1C48=:V2 V 68;8E ?@8<VI5=L =0 H:>4C V=B5@5A0< ACA?V;LAB20 B0 V=. > =8E =0;560BL 9 V=HV ?@8?8A8 70:>=V2 #:@0W=8 I>4> 4>45@60==O 2;0A=8:>< B8E G8 V=H8E 28<>3, =0?@8:;04, ?@8 1C4V2=8FB2V  :@V< 1C4V25;L=8E =>@< V ?@028; B0:>6 =5 7024020B8 H:>48 ?@020< V A2>1>40< 3@><04O=. "0:, ?>@CH5==O<8 7 1>:C 2;0A=8:0 1C45 ?>1C4C20==O 2E>4C 2 A2>T ?@8<VI5==O 157 2V4?>2V4=8E 4>72>;V2 01> E>G V ?@8 WE =0O2=>ABV, 0;5 7 ?>@CH5==O< ?@02 V=H8E >AV1, O:V <>6CBL >A:0@68B8 B0:V 4VW 2 AC4V V7 4>2545==O< ?>@CH5==O A2>WE ?@02. 8<8 <>6CBL 1CB8 O: <5H:0=FV FL>3> 6 1C48=:C, B0: V V=HV >A>18, =0?@8:;04, ?@8 ?>1C4C20==V 2E>4C =0 B@>BC0@V, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> AB@8<CTBLAO @CE ?VH>E>4V2. # B0:><C @07V >A:0@65==N ?V4;O30NBL =5 ;8H5 ?@>B8?@02=V 4VW 2;0A=8:0, 0 9 <>65 287=020B8AO =570:>==8< 0:B >@30=C <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O ?@> C73>465==O 1C4V2=8FB20 B0:>3> 2E>4C =0 ?V4AB02V AB. 21 &. 1<565==O, =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, <>6CBL 28=8:0B8 7 4>3>2>@C, AC4>2>3> @VH5==O, 0:BV2 >@30=V2 45@602=>W 2;048, 2;048 >@30=V2   B0 >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, 0:BV2 =>B0@VCAV2, ?@02>?>@CH5=L, O:8E ?@8?CAB82AO 2;0A=8:. 8=8:=5==O >1<565=L <>65 ?>2 O7C20B8AO 7 >4=8< N@848G=8< D0:B>< (=0?@8:;04, C:;045==O< 4>3>2>@C, =01CBBO< 70:>==>W A8;8 @VH5==O< AC4C) 01> ?52=8< N@848G=8< A:;04>< (=0?@8:;04, =54>1@>A>2VA=V B0/01> ?@>B8?@02=V 4VW 2;0A=8:0 G8 =0O2=VABL ACA?V;L=8E ?>B@51 2 >1<565==V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?>A;C3C20;8 ?V4AB02>N ?@89=OBBO >@30=>< 2;048 0:B0, 2 O:><C DV:ACTBLAO B0 :>=:@5B87CTBLAO >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV). "><C 2840TBLAO =54>AB0B=L> >1@C=B>20=>N ?>78FVO .. 0=C:O= 7 FL>3> ?@82>4C, O:>N 287=0G0TBLAO O: ?V4AB020 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 70:>=, 0 ?V4AB020 >1<565==O =0 >:@5<V 4VW 2;0A=8:0  70:>= B0 V=HV =>@<0B82=>-?@02>2V 0:B8 [132]. @V< B>3>, I> F8< 7<VHCNBLAO <56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >1 T:B82=5 B0 AC1 T:B82=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, 9>3> AB0B8:0 V 48=0<V:0 (74V9A=5==O ?>2=>2065=L), B0:0 ?@>?>78FVO T =5:>@5:B=>N, >A:V;L:8 70:>= 04@5A>20=89 =5287=0G5=><C :>;C >AV1 B0 <>65 ;8H5 ?5@5410G0B8 BV N@848G=V D0:B8, 7 O:8<8 ?>2 O7CTBLAO 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. @02> 2;0A=>ABV >1<56CTBLAO 2 4>1@>2V;L=><C B0 ?@8<CA>2><C ?>@O4:C. @8 4>1@>2V;L=><C ?>@O4:C >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?V4AB02>N WE 2AB0=>2;5==O 1C45 4>3>2V@, O:89 C:;040TBLAO 2;0A=8:>< (=0?@8:;04, ?@> 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBC - 3;020 32 &).  <5B>N 70?>1V30==O ?@02>?>@CH5==O< ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV >1<56CTBLAO 2AB0=>2;5==O< 701>@>=8 2V4GC65==O <09=0. "0:, ?@8 C:;045==V 4>3>2>@C 4>2VG=>3> CB@8<0==O B0 9>3> =>B0@V0;L=><C ?>A2V4G5==V =>B0@VCA =0:;040T 701>@>=C =0 2V4GC65==O 1C48=:C (:20@B8@8) 4> A<5@BV 2V4GC6C20G0 (AB. 754 &, ?. 7 AB. 34 # @> =>B0@V0B [82]). @8 ?@8<CA>2><C ?>@O4:C ?V4AB02>N >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 1C4CBL 2V4?>2V4=V N@848G=V A:;048. @8:;048: 0) 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBC 2 AC4>2><C ?>@O4:C: D0:B ?>B@518 2;0A=8:0 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 2 :>@8ABC20==V GC6>N 75<5;L=>N 4V;O=:>N B0 @VH5==O AC4C; 1) ?@8?8=5==O ?@02>?>@CH5=L: =54>1@>A>2VA=V 01> ?@>B8?@02=V 4VW 2;0A=8:0 B0 @VH5==O AC4C ?@> ?@8<CA>25 ?@8?8=5==O ?>@CH5=L 01> =02VBL A0<>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV (=0?@8:;04, O:I> 2 @57C;LB0BV 4V9 01> 1574VO;L=>ABV 2;0A=8:0 ?0< OB:8 VAB>@VW B0 :C;LBC@8 W9 703@>6CT ?>H:>465==O 01> 7=8I5==O (AB. 352 &); 2) 70?>1V30==O ?@02>?>@CH5==O<: ?@>B8?@02=V 4VW 2;0A=8:0 B0 @VH5==O AC4C ?@> =0:;045==O 0@5HBC =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0; 3) 704>2>;5==O ACA?V;L=>3> V=B5@5AC: D0:B B0:>3> V7 4>2545==O< 9>3> @50;V70FVW 70 @0EC=>: >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV :>=:@5B=>W >A>18 B0 @VH5==O AC4C ?@> ?@8<CA>25 ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV H;OE>< 28:C?C C 2;0A=8:0 9>3> <09=0 (AB.AB. 350, 351 &). B65, ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV >1<56CTBLAO 2 ?@820B=><C 01> ACA?V;L=><C V=B5@5AV. @8:;040<8 >1<565=L C ?@820B=><C V=B5@5AV T: 1) 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBC =0 :>@8ABL :>=:@5B=>W >A>18, 2) =0:;045==O 0@5HBC =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0 01> 3) 701>@>=8 9>3> 2V4GC65==O. @8:;040<8 >1<565=L C ACA?V;L=><C V=B5@5AV T: 1) ?@8<CA>289 28:C? C 2;0A=8:0 9>3> <09=0 (75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, >1 T:BV2 =5@CE><>ABV, ?>1C4>20=8E =0 =V9, ?0< OB>: VAB>@VW B0 :C;LBC@8, 2) 7C?8=5==O 4VO;L=>ABV 2;0A=8:0 ?> 28:>@8AB0==N A2>3> <09=0 (7>:@5<0 2 ?V4?@8T<=8FL:V9 4VO;L=>ABV) B>I>. !?V22V4=>H5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L B0:>6 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO ?@8 @>73;O4V ?V4AB02 WE 2AB0=>2;5==O. 0?@8:;04, 70:>=>< 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO B0:V <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV: 701>@>=0 4VO;L=>ABV, I> AB2>@NT 703@>7C ?0<'OB:0< VAB>@VW B0 :C;LBC@8 01> ?>@CHCT 70:>=>402AB2> C AD5@V >E>@>=8 :C;LBC@=>W A?04I8=8 (?. 19 AB. 1, AB. 30 # @> >E>@>=C :C;LBC@=>W A?04I8=8 [86]). 1<565==O 6 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0B8<5 <VAF5 B>4V, :>;8 2=0A;V4>: 4V9 01> 1574VO;L=>ABV 2;0A=8:0 ?0< OB:8 VAB>@VW B0 :C;LBC@8, O:89 =5 4>45@6C202AO 7030;L=8E ?@8?8AV2, =02545=8E 28I5, FL><C >1 T:BC 703@>6CT ?>H:>465==O 01> 7=8I5==O, V B><C 2V= ?> AC4C ?@8<CA>2> 28:C?0TBLAO C 2;0A=8:0 (AB. 352 &). =H89 ?@8:;04. 0 AB. 24 # @> 70157?5G5==O A0=VB0@=>3> B0 5?V45<VG=>3> 1;03>?>;CGGO =0A5;5==O [70] 2;0A=8: 7>1>2 O7CTBLAO 26820B8 70E>4V2 I>4> =54>?CI5==O 2?@>4>26 4>18 ?5@528I5=L @V2=V2 HC<C, 2AB0=>2;5=8E A0=VB0@=8<8 =>@<0<8, C 287=0G5=8E 2 FL><C 0:>=V ?@8<VI5==OE 01> =0 B5@8B>@VOE (70E8I5=8E >1'T:B0E), 0 B0:>6 2;0A=8:C 701>@>=OTBLAO 2G8=5==O ?52=8E 4V9  ?@>2545==O C @>1>GV 4=V 7 4204FOBL ?5@H>W 4> 2>AL<>W 3>48=8, 0 C A2OB:>2V B0 =5@>1>GV 4=V - FV;>4>1>2> @5<>=B=8E @>1VB, I> AC?@>2>46CNBLAO HC<><. # =VG=89 G0A, V7 4204FOBL 4@C3>W 4> 2>AL<>W 3>48=8 =0 70E8I5=8E >1'T:B0E 701>@>=ONBLAO 3CG=89 A?V2 V 28:@8:8, :>@8ABC20==O 72C:>2V4B2>@N20;L=>N 0?0@0BC@>N B0 V=H8<8 465@5;0<8 ?>1CB>2>3> HC<C, ?@>2545==O A0;NBV2, D5T@25@:V2, 28:>@8AB0==O ?V@>B5E=VG=8E 70A>1V2 (# @> 2=5A5==O 7<V= 4> 45O:8E 70:>=>402G8E 0:BV2 #:@0W=8 I>4> 70E8ABC =0A5;5==O 2V4 2?;82C HC<C [64]; AB.24 # @> 70157?5G5==O A0=VB0@=>3> B0 5?V45<VG=>3> 1;03>?>;CGGO =0A5;5==O [70] B0 V=.). 1<565==O<8 6 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 1C4CBL 70?@>2046C20=V =0 ?V4AB02V AB. 42 707=0G5=>3> 0:>=C 70E>48 I>4> ?@8?8=5==O ?>@CH5==O A0=VB0@=>3> 70:>=>402AB20, 7>:@5<0: 0) >1<565==O, B8<G0A>20 701>@>=0 G8 ?@8?8=5==O 4VO;L=>ABV >AV1 AB>A>2=> >1'T:BV2 1C4L-O:>3> ?@87=0G5==O, B5E=>;>3VG=8E ;V=V9, <0H8= V <5E0=V7<V2, 28:>=0==O >:@5<8E B5E=>;>3VG=8E >?5@0FV9, :>@8ABC20==O ?;020NG8<8 70A>10<8, @CE><8< A:;04>< V ;VB0:0<8 C @07V =52V4?>2V4=>ABV WE 28<>30< A0=VB0@=8E =>@<; 1) B8<G0A>20 701>@>=0 28@>1=8FB20, 701>@>=0 28:>@8AB0==O B0 @50;V70FVW EV<VG=8E @5G>28=, E0@G>28E ?@>4C:BV2, B5E=>;>3VG=>3> CAB0B:C20==O, 1C4V25;L=8E <0B5@V0;V2, 1V>;>3VG=8E 70A>1V2, B>20@V2 =0@>4=>3> A?>6820==O, 465@5; V>=V7CNG8E 28?@><V=N20=L C @07V 2V4ACB=>ABV WE 3V3VT=VG=>W @53;0<5=B0FVW B0 45@602=>W @5TAB@0FVW, 0 B0:>6 O:I> WE 287=0=> H:V4;828<8 4;O 74>@>2'O ;N459; 2) 28;CG5==O 7 @50;V70FVW (:>=DVA:0FVO) =5157?5G=8E 4;O 74>@>2'O E0@G>28E ?@>4C:BV2, EV<VG=8E B0 @04V>0:B82=8E @5G>28=, 1V>;>3VG=8E <0B5@V0;V2 C ?>@O4:C, I> 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO 70:>=>402AB2><, B0 V=. "0:8< G8=><, A?>AB5@V30TBLAO 157?>A5@54=V9 72 O7>: <V6 <560<8 B0 >1<565==O<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 8EV4 70 <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >:@5A;5=V 2 70:>=V, <>6CBL ?>BO3B8 70 A>1>N >1<565==O 2;0A=8:0 2 74V9A=5==V 9>3> ?@02><>G=>AB59. @8 FL><C 28EV4 70 <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV @>7C<VTBLAO O: 7;>26820==O ?@02><.  ?@82>4C :0B53>@VW 7;>26820==O ?@02>< B>G8BLAO 48A:CAVO, >4=8< V7 ?@>O2V2 O:>W T ?8B0==O I>4> @>7FV=5==O 4V9, I> =07820NBLAO 7;>26820==O< ?@020. "0:V 4VW .. 30@:>2 220602 CG8=5=8<8 70 <560<8 ?@020 [3], B>1B> WE =>AV9 4VT ?@>B8?@02=>, 0 =5 7;>26820T ?@02><. =H8<8 A;>20<8, 9>3> 4VW, I> =07820NBLAO 7;>26820==O< ?@020, 2G8=5=V 2 =L><C, O: 28A;>2;N202AO .. 0@C [15], 0465 C?@02><>G5=0 >A>10 4>?CA:0T =54>72>;5=5 28:>@8AB0==O A2>3> ?@020, 0;5 ?@8 FL><C 702648 77>2=V A?8@0TBLAO =0 AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02>. B65, 10G5==O 7;>26820==O ?@02>< C F82V;VAB8FV T =5>4=>7=0G=8<. >3> @>7C<VNBL V O: ?@02><V@=C, V O: =5?@02><V@=C ?>254V=:C. 4=V 2G5=V 2:07C20;8 =0 28:;NG=> ?@02><V@=VABL 74V9A=5==O ?@020 (.!. 0;5W= [129], .. 0;5W=0 [130], .. 30@:>2 [2] , .. !0<>9;>20 [168] ), V=HV - 2V47=0G0;8 =5?@02><V@=VABL 7;>26820==O ?@02>< O: 4VO==O (.. @810=>2 [44], ..>:@>2AL:89 [151], .. OA5=F52 [167] , .. 0@C [15] ). ..!B5D0=GC: 287=0G0T 7;>26820==O ?@02>< O: 2@53C;L>20=C =>@<0<8 ?@020 ?>254V=:C C?@02><>G5=>W >A>18 I>4> 74V9A=5==O A2>3> AC1 T:B82=>3> F82V;L=>3> ?@020, O:>N 1C;> 70240=> H:>48 V=H8< >A>10< V ?@8 FL><C =0;56=8< G8=>< =5 704>2>;5=> 2;0A=8E ?>B@51 [198] . &O ?@>1;5<0B8:0 70A;C3>2CT =0 >:@5<5 4>A;V465==O, 0;5 2 :>=B5:ABV <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6=0 AB25@46C20B8, I> 28=8:0T B0:89 ;0=FN3: <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV  7;>26820==O ?@02>< O: =0A;V4>: WE =54>45@60==O; >1<565==O 2;0A=8:0 O: =0A;V4>: 7;>26820==O =8< A2>W< ?@02><. B65, =02545=5 A2V4G8BL ?@> B5, I> 2;0A=8: =5 <>65 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 <09=> ACB> =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4, =5EBCNG8 ?@8?8A0<8 70:>=C. &8< 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 1<56CTBLAO 6 2;0A=8: C @07V ?>@CH5=L F8E ?@8?8AV2 70:>=C. ">4V 945BLAO ?@> ?@8<CA>2V >1<565==O. >1@>2V;L=VABL >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV @C=BCTBLAO =0 7030;L=8E <560E 4VOB8 2 V=B5@5A0E V=H8E >AV1. "0:8< G8=><: 1) >:@5A;5==O <56 B0 <>6;82VABL 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?5@5410G0NBLAO 70:>=><, 7>:@5<0 G.7 AB. 319 & B0 G.6 AB. 4 # @> 2;0A=VABL [63] ; 2) ?V4AB020<8 4;O 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L :>=:@5B=>3> 2;0A=8:0 C A2>WE ?@020E T O: >:@5<V N@848G=V D0:B8 (4>3>2V@), B0: V N@848G=89 A:;04, 4> O:>3> <>6CBL 2:;NG0B8AO 70;56=> 2V4 A8BC0FVW: 0) =54>1@>A>2VA=V 01> ?@>B8?@02=V 4VW, I> ?>;O30NBL, 7>:@5<0, 2 ?>@CH5==V =8< 2AB0=>2;5=8E <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 7;>26820==O ?@02><; 1) 0:B8 V=482V4C0;L=>W 4VW (?@8?8A8 2;0A=8:C ?@> ?@8?8=5==O ?>@CH5=L 01> ?@> =5>1EV4=VABL 28;CG5==O 9>3> 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 4;O ACA?V;L=8E ?>B@51 B>I>); 2) 0:B =>B0@VCA0 (=0:;045==O 701>@>=8 2V4GC65==O <09=0); 3) @VH5==O AC4C (?@> :>=DVA:0FVN <09=0, ?@> 28:C? ?0< OB>: VAB>@VW B0 :C;LBC@8 B>I>); 3) 2;0A=8: <>65 >1<56C20B8AO 2 74V9A=5==V A2>3> ?@020 V 4;O 70?>1V30==O ?>@CH5=L 7 9>3> 1>:C. ">1B> B0:V >1<565==O <0NBL ?>?5@546C20;L=89 E0@0:B5@. 0?@8:;04: - 4;O 70?>1V30==O ?>@CH5=L ?@02 V=H8E >AV1 2;0A=8: ?@8 74V9A=5==V =0<V@C ?>1C4C20B8 01> ?5@5>1;04=0B8 1C4V2;N <0T C73>48B8 FV ?8B0==O 7 V=H8<8 2;0A=8:0<8 B0 4>45@6C20B8AO 28<>3 I>4> ?>@O4:C @>7?>G0B:C 1C4V2=8FB20 (@5<>=B=8E @>1VB), ?5@5410G5=8E 70:>=>402AB2><; - 70:>=>402AB2>< 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 701>@>=8 2V4=>A=> =5<>6;82>ABV 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< ?52=8E 4V9 (28AV20B8 =0 A2>W9 75<5;L=V9 4V;O=FV <0: 01> :>=>?;N, 283>B>2;N20B8 =0 A2>T<C <09=V ?52=V @5GV  71@>N, =0@:>B8G=V @5G>28=8 01> 715@V30B8 WE C A2>T<C <09=V  1C48=:C, ?@8<VI5==V B>I>); - ?@8 74V9A=5==V C73>465=8E 4V9 2;0A=8:8 <0NBL 4>45@6C20B8AO ?@8?8AV2 70:>=>402AB20 ?@> 5:>=><VG=C :>=:C@5=FVN (ABB. 10,11 # @> 70E8AB 5:>=><VG=>W :>=:C@5=FVW [74] ) B0 V=. !?>A>18 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 70 4>?><>3>N @V7=8E A?>A>1V2. A:V;L:8 <56V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO =0 @V2=V 70:>=C, A;V4 28E>48B8 7 ?>H8@5=>3> 2 =0CFV ?>3;O4C ?@> B5, I> A8AB5<0 ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O ACA?V;L=8E 2V4=>A8= O2;OT A>1>N B@V04C, O:0 2:;NG0T B0:V 5;5<5=B8: 4>72>;8, 701>@>=8, ?>78B82=V 7>1>2'O7C20==O. &8< B@L>< A?>A>10< ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O 2V4?>2V40NBL B@8 @V7=>2848 @53C;OB82=8E =>@<, I> @>7@V7=ONBLAO 70 E0@0:B5@>< 2AB0=>2;5==O =8<8 ?@02 V >1>2'O7:V2 AC1 T:BV2,  =>@<8, I> 701>@>=ONBL, C?@02><>GCNBL B0 7>1>2'O7CNBL. V6 B8< !.!. ;5:ATT2 [5] 287=0G0T, I> @50;V70FVO ?@020 <0T B@8 D>@<8  28:>=0==O, 4>45@60==O, 28:>@8AB0==O, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> >A>10 ?>28==0 4>45@6C20B8AO 701>@>=, 28:>=C20B8 >1>2'O7:8 B0 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 4>72>;8. =>4V 287=0G0NBL B0:V N@848G=V A?>A>18 01> ?@89><8 DV:A0FVW 2 70:>=>402AB2V <56 4>72>;5=>W 2>;V, O: 70AB5@565==O, 701>@>=8, 28:;NG5==O [158] . B65, 701>@>=8 2 1C4L-O:><C @07V T 7030;L=>287=0=8< A?>A>1>< DV:A0FVW <56. )> AB>ACTBLAO 70AB5@565=L, B> 2>=8 T =5<>218 0:F5=B0<8, O:V @>18BL 70:>=>4025FL, ?V4A8;NNG8 BV G8 V=HV =03>;>A8 ?@8 2V4?>2V4=><C @53C;N20==V (4>72V;L=>-701>@>==><C). 8:;NG5==O 6 AB0=>2;OBL ?52=V 28?04:8 4>72V;L=>-701>@>==>3> =0?@O<:C @53C;N20==O. @0E>2CNG8 =02545=V 7030;L=>B5>@5B8G=V 70A048, 0=0;V7C20B8<5<> DV:A0FVW C 70:>=>402AB2V <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV G5@57 2V4><C B@V04C 2AB0=>2;5==O 701>@>=, ?@8?8AV2 B0 >1>2'O7:V2. 01>@>=8. /: 707=0G0T . . 8E09;5=:>, ?V4 701>@>=0<8 A;V4 @>7C<VB8 G8==8: 70:>=>402G>3> 2?;82C, ?>:;8:0=89 7<VAB8B8 70 <56V ?@02>2>3> ?>;O =530B82=V, =51060=V ?@>O28 ACA?V;L=8E 2V4=>A8=, ?5@5H:>460NG8 WE 28=8:=5==N 2 <091CB=L><C, 0 >1<565==O ?@020 A?@O<>20=V =0 @53;0<5=B0FVN ?>78B82=8E 4V9, 70;8H5=8E C <560E ?@02>2>3> ?@>AB>@C, 70 4>?><>3>N 7>1>2'O70==O C?@02><>G5=>W >A>18 4> :>=:@5B=> 287=0G5=>W ?>254V=:8 [137] . !;V4 725@=CB8 C203C =0 B5, I> ?5@5;V: 70:>=>402G> 701>@>=5=8E 4V9 O2;OT A>1>N 2:07V2:8 =0 ACA?V;L=> =51060=C ?>254V=:C. 01>@>==0 =>@<0 702648 A?@O<>20=0 =0 ?>?5@5465==O =5?@02><V@=>W @50;V70FVW 2;0A=8:>< A2>3> <09=0, =54>?CI5==O 7 9>3> 1>:C ACA?V;L=>-=5157?5G=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 01>@>=0<8 <>6CBL CAB0=>2;N20B8AO O: <56V 74V9A=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, B0: V >1<565==O. 8I5 2:07C20;>AO =0 B0:V 701>@>=8, O: 701>@>=0 2V4GC65==O <09=0, :>B@0 =0:;040TBLAO C ?52=8E 28?04:0E, >D>@<;NTBLAO =0;56=8< G8=>< B0 ?V4;O30T 45@602=V9 @5TAB@0FVW, =0?@8:;04, C 28?04:C ?5@540GV <09=0 2 V?>B5:C. @>B5 =5 A;V4 7<VHC20B8 701>@>=8 B0 >1<565==O, O: F5 V=>4V B@0?;OTBLAO, =0?@8:;04, C AB. 15 # @> V?>B5:C [77], 2 O:V9 707=0G0TBLAO, I> 701>@>=8 B0 >1<565==O I>4> 2V4GC65==O V FV;L>2>3> 28:>@8AB0==O 75<5;L=8E 4V;O=>: AV;LAL:>3>A?>40@AL:>3> ?@87=0G5==O, 2AB0=>2;5=V 5<5;L=8< :>45:A>< #:@0W=8, T G8==8<8 ?@8 WE V?>B5FV. '5@57 F5 ?>T4=0=> N@848G=C :>=AB@C:FVN 7 D>@<>N WW 2AB0=>2;5==O 2 70:>=>402AB2V. 01>@>=8 - 0=B8?>4 4>72>;0<, I> T 1V;LH E0@0:B5@=8< 4;O F82V;L=>3> ?@020 A?>A>1>< @53C;N20==O 2V4=>A8=, 2V4B0:, V 4;O @53C;N20==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. >6=0 A:070B8, I> 4>72>;8 2:07CNBL =0 B5, I> B0 O: <>65 @>18B8 AC1'T:B. ;O =8E E0@0:B5@=> =5 ?@>AB5 2AB0=>2;5==O <V@8 <>6;82>W ?>254V=:8, 0 ?5@5206=> B0:>W <V@8, O:0 ?>;O30T C <>6;82>ABV 28O28B8 A2>N 2;0A=C 0:B82=VABL, @50;V7C20B8 A2V9 V=B5@5A. V;LH H8@>:89 ?V4EV4 4> 4>72>;V2 [6], @>73;O=CB89 C T4=>ABV 7 N@848G=8<8 701>@>=0<8, 7C<>2;5=89 B8<, I> 4>72V; <0T <56V B0 A2V4G8BL ?@> 4>?CAB8<VABL 2V4?>2V4=>W ?>254V=:8. >AB0=>2:0 ?8B0==O 4>72>;5=5  =5 4>72>;5=5 T 45:V;L:0 :0B53>@8G=>N. "><C 2V@=VH5 ?>AB028B8 ?8B0==O B0:8< G8=><: 4>72>;5=>, 0;5 7 4>45@6C20==O< ?52=>3> ?>@O4:C. V4?>2V4=> 4> 4>72V;L=>W A?@O<>20=>ABV F82V;L=>-?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O 2;0A=8: 4V9A=> <>65 2G8=OB8 2V4=>A=> A2>3> <09=0 1C4L-O:V 4VW, 0;5 BV;L:8 O:I> 2>=8 =5 AC?5@5G0BL 70:>=C 9 V=H8< 28<>30< (=0?@8:;04, <>@0;V, ACA?V;L=>3> ?>@O4:C B>I>). 2V4A8 28?;820T, I> :@8B5@V9 4;O ?>7=0G5==O >1AO3C 4>72>;5=>W 2;0A=8:>2V ?>254V=:8 T A2>3> @>4C <V@8;><, >FV=:>N 4V9 AC1'T:B0, A?>A>10<8 ?> >:@5A;5==N <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. B65, 4>A8BL H8@>:5 @>7C<V==O 4>72>;C =5 <>65 A?@89<0B8AO 157 >4=>G0A=>3> 2AB0=>2;5==O A2>3> 0=B8?>40  701>@>= 01> <56 4;O 9>3> 4VW. 01>@>=8 G0AB> D>@<C;NNBLAO C 283;O4V ?@8?8AV2. &5 CAB0=>2;5==O ?52=8E @0<>: ?>254V=:8 70 4>?><>3>N 7>1>2'O7CNG8E V 701>@>==8E =>@<, CAB0=>2;NNG8E B5, O: A0<5 ?>28=5= 4VOB8 AC1'T:B. "0:V ?@8?8A8 <>6CBL 1CB8 C 283;O4V @5:><5=40FV9, 28:;045=8E O: D>@<0;L=> >:@5A;5=0 ?@02>20 ?>254V=:0, 0 B0:>6 C 283;O4V V=482V4C0;L=>-:>=:@5B=>W 28<>38. "><C ?@8?8A8 <>6CBL 1CB8 >@VT=B8@=8<8 01> 6>@AB:8<8. @VT=B8@=8<8, 01> ?;020NG8<8, T ?@8?8A8 I>4> 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>3> ?@020 =0 A2V9 @>7AC4, 0;5 7 C@0EC20==O< 701>@>=: 2G8=OB8 4VW 7 <5B>N 70?>4VO==O H:>48 V=HV9 >A>1V; 7;>26820B8 ?@02>< 2 V=H8E D>@<0E; 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 7 <5B>N >1<565==O :>=:C@5=FVW; 7;>26820B8 4><V=CNG8< AB0=>28I5< =0 @8=:C B>I>. >@AB:>N V GVB:> 287=0G5=>N T 701>@>=0 2;0A=8:C, 287=0=><C =54VT740B=8< 01> >1<565=> 4VT740B=8< 74V9A=N20B8 A2>T ?@02> =0 A2V9 @>7AC4 H;OE>< A0<>ABV9=8E 4V9 01> ?5@54020B8 >:@5<V ?@02><>G=>ABV B@5BV< >A>10<. > ACBV 701>@>=>N T 9 ?@87C?8=5==O 28:>@8AB0==O ?52=8<8 >A>10<8 A2>WE ?@02 01> ?@87C?8=5==O 4VW ?@020 [131]. @87C?8=5==O 2V4AC20T =0 ?>40;LH5 @50;V70FVN 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?@02. 07>< 7 B8< ?@87C?8=5==O <VAB8BL ?@8<CA>2V 5;5<5=B8 7 1>:C :>=B@>;NNG>3> >@30=C, I> B8<G0A>2> ?@8?8=OT VA=CNGV ?@02>2V4=>A8=8, AB@8<CNG8 B8< A0<8< =0AB0==O <>6;828E ACA?V;L=> H:V4;828E =0A;V4:V2. @87C?8=5==O <>65 28=8:0B8 O: =0 ?V4AB02V 70:>=C, B0: V ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V ?@02 V=H8E >AV1 =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0 (@5G>28E 01> 7>1>2 O70;L=8E). @8:;04>< ?5@H>3> 284C ?@87C?8=5==O T <>@0B>@V9, A:06V<>, =0 2V4GC65==O >1 T:BV2 ?@020 45@602=>W 2;0A=>ABV (# @> 22545==O <>@0B>@VN =0 ?@8<CA>2C @50;V70FVN <09=0 [60]). @8:;04>< 4@C3>3> T ?5@540G0 <09=0 2 >@5=4C, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> ?@02> :>@8ABC20==O =8< 265 74V9A=N20B8<5 >@5=40@, 0 =5 2;0A=8:, O:89 ?@87C?8=OT 74V9A=5==O FVTW ?@02><>G=>ABV. 1>2 O7:8. 01>@>=8 1;87L:V 4> >1>2'O7:V2, E>G0 2>=8 T @V7=8<8 ?@02>28<8 :0B53>@VO<8, 1> 7030;L=>?@89=OB> 22060B8 701>@>=C V=AB@C<5=B>< =>@<0B82=>-?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O (B>1B> :0B53>@VTN >1 T:B82=>3> ?@020), 0 >1> 2O7>:  5;5<5=B>< 7<VABC AC1 T:B82=>3> ?@020. V6 B8< 70:>=>4025FL, C2>4OG8 701>@>=C, 2AB0=>2;NT >1>2'O7>:, B><C 701>@>=0 @50;V7CTBLAO 70 4>?><>3>N ?52=8E >1>2'O7:V2. "0:, >1>2'O7>: 28:>=0B8 ?52=V 4VW ?@8@V2=NTBLAO 4> 701>@>=8 =5 28:>=C20B8 4VW. V;LHVABL CG5=8E, B0:8E O: ..$. 535;L [33], .$. (5@H5=528G [221], . ;>94 [122], $.. "0@0=>2AL:89 [227], 22060;8, I> N@848G=89 >1>2'O7>: T =530B82=8< G8==8:><. 0?@8:;04, =0 4C<:C .$. (5@H5=528G0, >1>2'O7:8 - F5 =0A0<?5@54 CA2V4><;5=VABL ?@> ?>2 O70=VABL A2>TW 2>;V. A>10 4VT =5 B0:, O: A?>=C:CNBL WW V=B5@5A8, B><C I> 22060T 70 =5>1EV4=5 >1<568B8 A515 2 <>6;82><C 74V9A=5==V V=B5@5AV2 70@048 V=B5@5AV2 V=H8E [221]. 1>2'O7:8 A;V4 @>7<56>2C20B8 =0 7>1>2'O7C20==O O: 7030;L=C =>@<C, I> 4VT 2V4=>A=> 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2 9 2AB0=>2;NT >1>2'O7:8 7030;L=>3> B8?C, B>1B> >1>2 O7:8 01AB@0:B=>3> 2;0A=8:0 B0 :>=:@5B=V >1>2'O7:8 ?52=8E >AV1. # A0<V9 V45W ?@02>2>W =>@<8 2<VI5=89 ?@8@>4=89 ?V4EV4 AB>A>2=> B>3>, I> BV, :><C 2>=0 04@5A>20=0, C ?52=><C @>7C<V==V ?>2 O70=V =5N 01> ?V4:>@ONBLAO ?52=><C 7>1>2'O70==N. !0<5 FO V45O 1CB8 ?>2 O70=8<, 7>1>2'O70=8< 4VOB8 ?52=8< G8=>< (01> CB@8<C20B8AL 2V4 4V9) V ;568BL 2 >A=>2V B5@<V=0 >1>2'O7>: [122] . 06;828< :@8B5@VT< T ?>:;040==O >1>2'O7:C =0 AC1'T:B0 G5@57 CAB0=>2;5==O 4;O =L>3> =097030;L=VH8E 28<>3 4> ?@028; ?>254V=:8. > B0:8E >1>2'O7:V2 =0;560BL: =5 ?>@CHC20B8 ?@020 V A2>1>48 V=H8E >AV1, ACA?V;LAB20; 2@0E>2C20B8 ?@8@>4>>E>@>==V (5:>;>3VG=V) 28<>38 V 701>@>=8 V B. ?>4. 4@5A0FVO >1>2'O7:V2 7030;L=>W 4VW 1C4L-O:>W ?@02>2>W =>@<8 2AV< 157 28=OB:V2 >A>10< ?@8B0<0==0 =5 ;8H5 ?@02C B0 70:>=>402AB2C, 0 9 <>@0;V, @5;V3VW 01> V=H8< 7030;L=>?@89=OB8< C ACA?V;LAB2V C<>2=8< ?@028;0< ?>254V=:8, O:V B0: A0<> 28:>@8AB>2CNBL FN 6 B5@<V=>;>3VN 2V4=>A=> ?>28==>ABV, 7>1>2'O7C20=L V >1>2'O7:V2. "8< A0<8< 2@0E>2CTBLAO =5 BV;L:8 7>2=VH=V9 0A?5:B ?@8 ?V4?>@O4:C20==V =>@<0<, I> ?>:;040NBL 2V4?>2V4=V >1>2'O7:8, 0 9 2=CB@VH=V9 0A?5:B >ABV;L:8, >A:V;L:8 B0:V >A>18 22060NBL A515 @50;L=> ?>2 O70=8<8 F8<8 >1>2'O7:0<8. =0G5==O =02545=>3> 7 ?>3;O4C ?@02>2>3> >1>2'O7:C ?>;O30T 2 B><C, I> >A>10 <0T ?>GC20B8 A515 7>1>2'O70=>N 4>45@6C20B8AO ?@02>28E =>@< =5 ACB> D>@<0;L=>, 0 2 =0A;V4>: B>3>, I> A0<0 ?@02>20 =>@<0 T =09206;82VH>N A:;04>2>N G0AB8=>N ACA?V;L=>W <>@0;V.  FL>3> ?@82>4C /. 070@ =02VBL ?5@51V;LHC202 7=0GCIVABL >1>2 O7:V2, 2V4<VG0NG8, I> C AC1'T:BV2 =5<0T ?@02, 2>=8 7>1>2'O70=V ?V4:>@OB8AO A>FV0;L=8< =>@<0<, 28:>=C20B8 ?>:;045=V =0 =8E A>FV0;L=V DC=:FVW [120]. 4=0: ?@89=OB=8< T CAB0;5=5 10G5==O 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV, 2 O:8E ?@02C 2;0A=8:0 @5GV ?@>B8AB>WBL >1>2'O7>: =5287=0G5=>W :V;L:>ABV =52;0A=8:V2 =5 4>?CA:0B8 2?;82C =0 @VG. =0A;V4>: FL>3> >1>2'O7:8 <0NBL =5 ;8H5 2AV V=HV 2V4=>A=> 2;0A=8:0, 0 A0< 2;0A=8: C65 =5 <0T ?@020 ?>GC20B8 A515 =5>1<565=8< E07OW=>< @5GV, 2>;>4VNG8 ?@8 FL><C =091V;LH8<8 ?@02><>G=>ABO<8 ?>@V2=O=> 7 =52;0A=8:0<8 [117] . 4=>G0A=> 28E>48BL, I> ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V 70:>=>< B0:>3> 7030;L=>3> >1>2'O7:C 2V4?040T ?>B@510 C 28=8:=5==V ?@02>2V4=>A8= 7 :>=:@5B=8<8 >A>10<8. &59 >1>2'O7>:, 1C4CG8 7030;L=8<, =5 <0T ?>B@518 2 ?V4B25@465==V [34]. @>B5 O:I> >1>2'O7>: <0T 0:B82=89 E0@0:B5@ (0 F5 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO B>4V, :>;8 >1>2'O7>: ?>:;040TBLAO =0 :>=:@5B=C >A>1C), 2V= VA=CT 2 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E <V6 :>=:@5B=8<8 >A>10<8, 5;5<5=B0<8 O:8E V T 2V4?>2V4=V AC1 T:B82=V ?@020 9 >1>2'O7:8. &5 ?@>AB56CTBLAO =0 ?@8:;04V >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, I> 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO ?@8 2G8=5==V F82V;L=>-?@02>28E ?@02>G8=V2, O:8<8 AB2>@NNBLAO B0:V >1<565==O, ?@8<CHCNG8 2;0A=8:0 4> 74V9A=5==O 287=0G5=8E 4>3>2>@>< 0:B82=8E 4V9. >=:@5B=V >1>2 O7:8 B0:>6 28=8:0NBL ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> 2;0A=8: 7>1>2'O7CTBLAO 4> CB@8<0==O 2V4 74V9A=5==O ?52=8E 4V9 V 4>?CI5==O AB>@>==L>3> 2?;82C =0 2;0A=5 <09=> [137]. > 7 OAC20==O ACB=>ABV <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =5 <>6=0 >1V9B8 C203>N ?8B0==O ?@> AC1'T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 9>3> >1 T:BV2 B0 7<VABC, >A:V;L:8 FV ?@02>2V :0B53>@VW 70GV?0NBLAO <560<8 B0 >1<565==O<8. # ?5@HC G5@3C =5>1EV4=> 7'OAC20B8, G8W ?@020 <0NBL <56V 01> ?V4;O30NBL >1<565==N, B>1B> O:8E AC1 T:BV2 2>=8 AB>ACNBLAO. 56V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO, O: ?@028;>, 2V4=>A=> 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2, 7 >3;O4C =0 WE=N @V2=VABL ?5@54 70:>=><. 1<565==O ?@02 <>6CBL 1CB8 A?@O<>20=V ?@>B8 :>=:@5B=8E >AV1 01> WE=VE :0B53>@V9, 3@C?. @8@>4=>, I> AB>A>2=> :>6=>3> AC1'T:B0 4VOB8<CBL @V7=V G8==8:8, D>@<8 B0 @V2=V >1<565=L. ">@:0NG8AL ?8B0==O ?@> <56V B0 >1<565==O 2V4=>A=> >1'T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, A;V4 28E>48B8 ?5@54CAV< V7 ?>=OBBO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 >1 T:B82=><C @>7C<V==V O: AC:C?=>ABV =>@<, I> @53C;NNBL ACA?V;L=V 2V4=>A8=8 I>4>: 0) ?>@O4:C =01CBBO ?@020 2;0A=>ABi, 9>3> 1) 74i9A=5==O G5@57 ?@02><>G=>ABV ?> 2>;>4i==N, :>@8ABC20==N B0 @>7?>@O460==N, 2) ?@8?8=5==N B0 3) 70E8ABC [216]. V4B0:, ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV <0T <56V 9 2=0A;V4>: =54>?CI5==O @>7H8@5==O 9>3> >1 T:BV2 01> A?>A>1V2 WE =01CBBO. &5 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO B>4V, :>;8 2;0A=8:C 701>@>=5=> =01C20B8 <09=>, O:5 ?5@528ICT ?52=V >1AO38, 01> ?52=V 2848 <09=0, 01> 9>3> 20@BVABL. B65, >A:V;L:8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV @53C;NT 2V4=>A8=8 ?> 9>3> 28=8:=5==N B0 ?@8?8=5==N, B> 4>@5G=> 3>2>@8B8 ?@> =5<>6;82VABL =01CBBO >:@5<8<8 >A>10<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 BV G8 V=HV >1 T:B8 O: <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. )> 6 AB>ACTBLAO AC1 T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, B>1B> B0:>3> ?@020, I> VA=CT C :>=:@5B=>W >A>18 =0 :>=:@5B=89 >1 T:B, B> 9>3> >1<565=L AB>A>2=> >1 T:BV2 1CB8 =5 <>65, V=0:H5 >A>10 1 =5 AB0;0 WE 2;0A=8:><. 3V4=> 7 G.G. 2 B0 3 AB. 325 &, 70 7030;L=8< ?@028;><, ?@820B=V >A>18 (DV78G=V B0 N@848G=V) 2?@02V 1CB8 2;0A=8:0<8 1C4L-O:>3> <09=0. 4=0: F8<8 =>@<0<8 ?5@5410G0NBLAO 9 28=OB:8 AB>A>2=> >:@5<8E 284V2 <09=0, O:V 2V4?>2V4=> 4> 70:>=C =5 <>6CBL W< =0;560B8. "8< A0<8< & =5 28:;NG0T <>6;82>ABV 2AB0=>2;5==O 701>@>= I>4> ?@02 ?@820B=8E >AV1 <0B8 C 2;0A=>ABV >:@5<5 <09=>. &V 701>@>=8 ?>28==V 1CB8 2AB0=>2;5=V 70:>=><. # 40=89 <><5=B B0:>3> 70:>=C =5 VA=CT, 0 >1<565==O 2V4=>A=> >1'T:BV2, I> <>6CBL <0B8 >A>18, ?5@5410G0NBLAO 2 ?>AB0=>2V 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8 2V4 17 G5@2=O 1992 @. @> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 >:@5<V 2848 <09=0 [155] , O:>N 2AB0=>2;5=>: - ?>-?5@H5, ?5@5;V: 284V2 <09=0, I> =5 <>65 7=0E>48B8AL C 2;0A=>ABV 3@><04O=, 3@><04AL:8E >1'T4=0=L, <V6=0@>4=8E >@30=V70FV9 V N@848G=8E >AV1 V=H8E 45@602 =0 B5@8B>@VW #:@0W=8. > B0:>3> <09=0 =0;560BL 1>9>20 V A?5FV0;L=0 2>T==0 B5E=V:0, 281CE>2V @5G>28=8, 71@>O V B0 V=.; - ?>-4@C35, 707=0G5=>N ?>AB0=>2>N 70?@>2046CTBLAO A?5FV0;L=89 ?>@O4>: ?@8410==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 3@><04O=0<8 =0 >:@5<V 2848 <09=0, B0:V O: 2>3=5?0;L=0 3;04:>AB2>;L=0 71@>O, I> <>65 1CB8 ?@8410=0 70 4>72>;>< >@30=V2 2=CB@VH=VE A?@02 3@><04O=0<8, O:V 4>AO3;8 2V:C 21 @>:V2, 0 =0@V7=0 71@>O - 3@><04O=0<8, O:V 4>AO3;8 2V:C 25 @>:V2. 04V>0:B82=V @5G>28=8 =01C20NBLAO 70 4>72>;>< 5@602=>3> :><VB5BC #:@0W=8 7 O45@=>W B0 @04V0FV9=>W 157?5:8 V B. V=. 0 7030;L=8< ?@028;><, A:;04, :V;L:VABL B0 20@BVABL <09=0, O:5 <>65 1CB8 C 2;0A=>ABV ?@820B=8E >AV1, =5 T >1<565=8<8. >6;82VABL B0:8E >1<565=L AB>ACTBLAO ;8H5 @>7<V@C 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, O:0 <>65 1CB8 C 2;0A=>ABV DV78G=8E B0 N@848G=8E >AV1. '0AB8=0 2 AB. 374 & ?@8?CA:0T <>6;82VABL 2AB0=>2;5==O 4;O V=>75<FV2 B0 >AV1 157 3@><04O=AB20 >1<565=L AB>A>2=> 75<5;L=8E 4V;O=>:, E>G0, 70 7030;L=8< ?@028;><, W< <>65 =04020B8AL 75<5;L=0 4V;O=:0 C 2;0A=VABL. 02?0:8, V=>75<=V N@848G=V >A>18 <>6CBL =01C20B8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 75<;N ;8H5 C 28?04:0E, 2AB0=>2;5=8E 70:>=>< (G. 3 AB. 374 &). "0:, G. 2 AB. 81  #:@0W=8 [97] 2AB0=>2;NT ?@02> V=>75<=8E 3@><04O= B0 >AV1 157 3@><04O=AB20 =01C20B8 C 2;0A=VABL 75<5;L=V 4V;O=:8 =5AV;LAL:>3>A?>40@AL:>3> ?@87=0G5==O 2 <560E =0A5;5=8E ?C=:BV2, 0 B0:>6 75<5;L=V 4V;O=:8 =5AV;LAL:>3>A?>40@AL:>3> ?@87=0G5==O 70 <560<8 =0A5;5=8E ?C=:BV2, =0 O:8E @>7B0H>20=V >1'T:B8 =5@CE><>3> <09=0, I> =0;560B8 W< =0 ?@02V ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV.  G. 4 AB. 22  #:@0W=8 [97] <VAB8BL 701>@>=C ?5@540GV C 2;0A=VABL V=>75<=8< 3@><04O=0<, >A>10< 157 3@><04O=AB20, V=>75<=8< N@848G=8< >A>10< B0 V=>75<=8< 45@6020< 75<5;L AV;LAL:>3>A?>40@AL:>3> ?@87=0G5==O. "CB <>6=0 3>2>@8B8 ;8H5 ?@> 7<VAB >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:5 VA=CT C 2V4?>2V4=8E @5G>28E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, 0 2V4B0: F5 AB>ACTBLAO >1<565=L 2;0A=8:0 2 ?@02><>G=>ABOE B0 ?>:;045==O =0 =L>3> >1>2 O7:V2. 1<565==O 2 ?@02><>G=>ABOE =5 >7=0G0T ?>7102;5==O 2 =8E 2;0A=8:0 27030;V B0 =0702648. >=> 28@060TBLAO 2 AB8A=5==V AC1'T:BV2 ?@8 74V9A=5==V FL>3> :>=:@5B=>3> AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020. @8 FL><C 7<VAB ?@02>740B=>ABV =5 7<5=HCTBLAO, >A:V;L:8 CAC=5==O AB8A=5=L, 28:;8:0=8E >1<565==O<, 40T 7<>3C AC1'T:BC ?@020 157 1C4L-O:8E 4>40B:>28E N@848G=8E D0:BV2 C ?>2=><C >1AO7V @50;V7C20B8 :>=:@5B=5 AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02>. 4=0: ?V4 G0A VA=C20==O >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2>=8 77>2=V <>6CBL 28@060B8AO C @V7=8E D>@<0E V BO3=CB8 70 A>1>N @V7=V =0A;V4:8, I> A2V4G0BL ?@> ABC?V=L B0:>3> AB8A=5==O. 091V;LH 203><>3> AB8A=5==O 2;0A=8: 707=0T: - ?@8 =0:;045==V =0 9>3> <09=> 0@5HBC, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> C =L>3> <09=> 28;CG0TBLAO V 2V= ?>7102;OTBLAO <>6;82>ABV @50;V7C20B8 2AV B@8 A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV; - 2=0A;V4>: 70?@>20465==O ?@8B@8<0==O O: A?>A>1C 70157?5G5==O 28:>=0==O 2;0A=8:>< 7>1>2 O70=L, :>;8 9>3> <09=>< ?@02><V@=> 2>;>4VT V=H0 >A>10, 0 2;0A=8: =5 2 7<>7V W< :>@8ABC20B8AO. @8 B@820;><C ?@8B@8<0==V <09=0 2;0A=8: <>65 9 ?>71CB8AO A2>3> ?@020 =0 =L>3>, >A:V;L:8 2>;>4V;5FL 2?@02V ?>@CH8B8 ?8B0==O ?@> 287=0==O 70 =8< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 F5 <09=> 70 =01C20;L=>N 402=VABN (AB. 344 &); - ?@8 B0:8E A?>A>10E ?@8<CA>2>3> ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O: =0FV>=0;V70FVO, @5:2V78FVO, :>=DVA:0FVO, ?@8<CA>289 28:C? C 2;0A=8:0 9>3> <09=0 C 72 O7:C 7 ACA?V;L=>N =5>1EV4=VABN, 0 B0:>6 C @07V 10=:@CBAB20 2;0A=8:0. AV >7=0G5=V >1<565==O ?@82>4OBL 4> ?@8?8=5==O C >A>18 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?>70 WW 2>;5N. !B8A=5==O A5@54=L>3> ABC?5=O <>6=0 ?>4V;8B8 =0 B@8 3@C?8: 1) ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V =0 9>3> <09=> B0:8E V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02, O:: ?@02> =0 :>@8ABC20==O GC6>N 75<5;L=>N 4V;O=:>N 4;O AV;LAL:>3>A?>40@AL:8E ?>B@51 (5<DVB5278A)  3;. 33 & #:@0W=8; ?@02> =0 701C4>2C (AC?5@DVFV9)  3;. 34 & #:@0W=8; ?@02> =09<C 01> >@5=48 70 2V4?>2V4=8<8 4>3>2>@0<8, 0 B0:>6 ?@020 :>=B@035=BV2 2;0A=8:0 70 4>3>2>@0<8 4>@CG5==O, :><VAVW, C?@02;V==O <09=>< 2;0A=8:0. /: 707=0G0;>AO, 2=0A;V4>: 2AB0=>2;5==O B0:8E ?@02 =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV AB0T ?@0:B8G=> =><V=0;L=8< [150]. @>B5 =02@O4 G8 <>6=0 B0: 287=0G0B8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 2 F8E 28?04:0E, 0465 2;0A=8: 715@V30T ?@02> @>7?>@O460==O A2>W< <09=><, =0 O:5 V=HV >A>18 <0NBL @5G>2V ?@020 (5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9), 01> O:I> <09=> ?5@540=> 70 4>3>2>@>< =09<C G8 >@5=48. >;>4VB8 6 V :>@8ABC20B8AO =8< ?V4 G0A VA=C20==O F8E ?@02 V=H8E >AV1 2V=, O: ?@028;>, =5 2 7<>7V; 2) ?@8 70AB02V (V?>B5FV) 9>3> <09=0 B0 C 28?04:0E =0:;045==O =0 =L>3> 701>@>=8 2V4GC65==O.  F8E 28?04:0E 2;0A=8: 715@V30T ?@02> 2>;>4V==O V :>@8ABC20==O A2>W< <09=>< C ?>2=><C >1AO7V, 0 AB8A:CTBLAO C <>6;82>ABV @>7?>@O460==O =8<. "0:, 73V4=> G. 3 AB. 586 & 2;0A=8: 70AB02;5=>3> <09=0 2?@02V 9>3> 70?>2V40B8, 0 2V4GC6C20B8 ?@54<5B 70AB028 B0 ?5@54020B8 9>3> 2 :>@8ABC20==O V=HV9 >A>1V 2V= <>65, O:I> V=H5 =5 2AB0=>2;5=> 4>3>2>@><; 3) ?@8 70:@V?;5==V 2;0A=8:>< A2>3> <09=0 70 N@848G=>N >A>1>N =0 ?@02V 3>A?>40@AL:>3> 2V40==O 01> >?5@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O. 07=0G5=V ?@020 =5 2@53C;L>2CNBLAO &, 0;5 ?V440=V @53C;N20==N >A?>40@AL:8< :>45:A>< #:@0W=8 (40;V - ) [37] , ?@8 G><C AB>A>2=> =5 ;8H5 ?@02 N@848G=8E >AV1 ?C1;VG=>3> ?@020 =0 <09=>, 70:@V?;5=5 70 =8<8 45@602>N, 0 9 N@848G=8E >AV1 ?@820B=>3> ?@020 (AB.AB. 136, 137  [37]) . 0@5HBV, <V=V<0;L=8< AB8A=5==O< 2;0A=8:0 1C45: - 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBV2 =0 9>3> <09=>, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> 2V= 715@V30T 2AV A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV V7 <>6;82VABN WE 74V9A=5==O, 0;5 9>3> @>7AC4 ?@8 FL><C ?>28=5= 2@0E>2C20B8 ?@020 V=H8E >AV1, =040=V =8< A5@2VBCB0<8. "0:, 2;0A=8: <>65 ?@>40B8 A2>N :20@B8@C 01> 1C48=>:, 2 O:8E ?@>6820NBL G;5=V 9>3> AV< W, 0;5 >AB0==V 715@V30NBL ?@02> =0 ?@>6820==O 2 =V9 (G. 1 AB. 405 &) 9 C @07V =01CBBO ?@02 =0 =5W V=H8< 2;0A=8:><; - 4VO;L=VABL 2;0A=8:0 C A?5FV0;L=8E 5:>=><VG=8E 7>=0E 01> 2 A?5FV0;L=><C @568<V V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, 0 B0:>6 ?@8 ?@02>2><C @568<V A?V;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV, I> 28:;8:0=> 74V9A=5==O< ?>2=>2065=L AB>A>2=> A?V;L=>3> <09=0 BV;L:8 70 A?V;L=>N 73>4>N 2AVE A?V22;0A=8:V2; - 70;56=> 2V4 284C 4VO;L=>ABV 2;0A=8:0, I> 28<030T 4>45@60==O =8< 2V4?>2V4=8E 701>@>=, CAB0=>2;5=8E 70:>=>402AB2>< (=0?@8:;04, 701>@>=8 4;O 10=:C <0B8 C 2;0A=>ABV =5@CE><5 <09=> 7030;L=>N 20@BVABN 1V;LH5 25 2V4A>B:V2 :0?VB0;C 10=:C); - ?5@51C20==O 9>3> C :>@?>@0B82=8E 2V4=>A8=0E O: 0:FV>=5@0. ">1B> 2;0A=8: 0:FVW >1<56CTBLAO @V7=8<8 :>@?>@0B82=8<8 <5E0=V7<0<8 (=0?@8:;04, ?@8 C:;045==V =8< ?@02>G8=V2 V7 70V=B5@5A>20=VABN, ?@02>G8=V2 <V6 ?>2 O70=8<8 >A>10<8 B0 V=.). 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL ?>:;040B8 =0 2;0A=8:0 >1>2'O7>: =5 ;8H5 I>-=51C4L B5@?VB8 01> G>3>-=51C4L =5 @>18B8, 0;5 V I>-=51C4L @>18B8 [49]. "0:, 70:>=>< B@5BV< >A>10< =040TBLAO ?@02> :>@8ABC20==O GC68< <09=><, I> C A2>N G5@3C 7>1>2'O7CT 2;0A=8:0 I>-=51C4L B5@?VB8 01> G>3>-=51C4L =5 @>18B8. 2V4A8, =572060NG8 =0 A?V;L=VABL B0:8E ?@02>28E :0B53>@V9, O: <56V B0 >1<565==O, <V6 =8<8 T 9 VAB>B=V @>7E>465==O, 0 A0<5: 0) <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?>;O30NBL C =040==V 2;0A=8:C >1 T:B82=8< ?@02>< <>6;82>ABV @>18B8 2A5, I> =5 H:>48BL V=H><C. &5 70157?5GCT V=H8< G;5=0< ACA?V;LAB20 74V9A=5==O A2>WE ?@02 2;0A=>ABV, O:V ?@8@>4=> B0 N@848G=> T B0:8<8 6 A0<8<8. AB0=>2;5==O <56 4;O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 28:;8:0=5 =5>1EV4=VABN >E>@>=8 ?@02 V 70:>==8E V=B5@5AV2 B@5BVE >AV1 2V4 =54>1@>A>2VA=8E 4V9 2;0A=8:0, I> BO3=5 70 A>1>N ?>B@51C 2 ?>78B82=><C @53C;N20==V 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV V :>=B@>;V 70 4VO<8 2;0A=8:0. # A2>N G5@3C >1<565==O E0@0:B5@=V 4;O AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 >A>18. >=8 ?>;O30NBL C AB8A=5==V 2;0A=8:0 2 74V9A=5==V 9>3> AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 =0 :>=:@5B=5 <09=> 01> 28;CG5==V C =L>3> ?52=>3> <09=0 V7 ?@8?8=5==O< ?@02 =0 =L>3> 2 =0A;V4>: ?52=8E >1AB028=. ">1B> >1<565==O A?@O<>20=V =0 7<5=H5==O >1AO3C <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0; 1) 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 <>65 <0B8 <VAF5 ;8H5 =0 @V2=V 70:>=C. 56V, 1C4CG8 :0B53>@VTN >1 T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, <VABOBLAO 2 =>@<0E, @>7B0H>20=8E =5 ;8H5 2 :=87V III &, 0 9 2 @>74V;V II, O:I> 945BLAO ?@> 4VT740B=VABL DV78G=>W >A>18, @>74V;V III C @07V 287=0G5==O >1 T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, @>74V;V IV ?@8 C:;045==V ?@02>G8=V2 01> 70AB>AC20==V ?@54AB02=8FB20, 0 B0:>6 2 >:@5<8E =>@<0E ?@> 7>1>2 O70==O. @V< B>3>, >A:V;L:8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV T <V630;C7528< V=AB8BCB>< 70:>=>402AB20, B> 9 <56V <>6CBL ?5@5410G0B8AO 2 V=H8E 30;C7OE 70:>=>402AB20  :>=:C@5=B=><C, 04<V=VAB@0B82=><C, :@8<V=0;L=><C, 75<5;L=><C B>I>. AB0=>2;5==O <56 AB>ACTBLAO B>3>, I> 2;0A=8:, O:8< T 1C4L-O:0 >A>10, =5 <0T ?@020 @>18B8. @8G><C 70:>=>4025FL =0<VG0T BV;L:8 <56V, 2 O:8E ?>28==5 2V41C20B8AO 74V9A=5==O ?@020 [221]. 1<565==O 6 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =V:>;8 =5 ?@8?CA:0NBLAO, 2>=8 <0NBL 1CB8 :>=:@5B=8<8 V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO O: 70:>=><, B0: V V=H8<8 =>@<0B82=>-?@02>28<8 0:B0<8 - 0:B0<8 >@30=V2 45@602=>W 2;048, >@30=V2 2;048   B0 >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, =>B0@VCA0, 0 B0:>6 @VH5==O< AC4C 01> 4>3>2>@><. /: A;CH=> 2V47=0G02 .. ==5=:>2, 1C4L-O:V >1<565==O ?>28==V 1CB8 >1@C=B>20=V [8] ; 2) 7 ?>3;O4C H8@>B8 :0B53>@V9, O:V 0=0;V7CNBLAO, <56V T 1V;LH H8@>:>N :0B53>@VTN, I> 2:;NG0T 2 A515 2AB0=>2;5==O 7030;L=8E 701>@>= V ?@8?8AV2. 1<565==O 6  1V;LH 2C7L:0, >4=0: V 1V;LH :>=:@5B=0, 45B0;L=0 :0B53>@VO 7 CAB0=>2;5==O< 701>@>= V >1>2'O7:V2; 3) <56V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 4;O 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2, 0 >1<565==O <0NBL V=482V4C0;L=89 E0@0:B5@; ) <56V AB>ACNBLAO ?V4AB02 28=8:=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 9>3> >1 T:BV2, ?>@O4:C @50;V70FVW 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59, 0 >1<565==O  ;8H5 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59, 2 B><C G8A;V ?@8<CA>2>3> ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 4) =0A;V4:>< 28E>4C 70 <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T 7;>26820==O ?@02><, O:5 =5 <>6=0 22060B8 ?@02>?>@CH5==O<, >A:V;L:8 F8< =5 ?>@CHCTBLAO =VG8T AC1 T:B82=5 ?@02>. 0A;V4:>< =5EBC20==O >1<565==O<8 T ?@02>?>@CH5==O 7 =0AB0==O< 2V4?>2V4=8E =0A;V4:V2, ?5@5410G5=8E 70:>=>402AB2><. 1.3. 848 <56 V >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?;82 ?@020 =0 ?>254V=:C AC1'T:BV2 C ACA?V;LAB2V <>65 1CB8 ?@>45<>=AB@>20=89 =0 ?@8:;04V 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 V >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. E=O G8A;5==VABL 28<030T ?52=>3> 2?>@O4:C20==O, I> 40ABL 7<>3C 1V;LH 4>:;04=> WE ?@>0=0;V7C20B8, 0 B0:>6 ?>:070B8 WE 7=0GCIVABL 4;O @>7C<V==O 74V9A=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL 1CB8 :;0A8DV:>20=V 70;56=> 2V4: 1) @>7C<V==O A0<>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@8@>4=>3> V O: ?>78B82=>3> ?@020; 2) <5B8 WE=L>3> 2AB0=>2;5==O - 2 ?C1;VG=><C 01> ?@820B=><C V=B5@5AV; 3) AD5@8 70:>=>402G>3> @53C;N20==O; 4) N@848G=>W G8==>ABV ?@8?8AV2; 5) ?@02>2>3> @568<C ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 6) ?52=8E >1'T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 7) AC1'T:BV2, =0 O:8E ?>H8@NNBLAO FV <56V. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL :;0A8DV:C20B8AO 70;56=> 2V4: 1) 465@5;0, O:8< 2>=8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO; 2) =0O2=>ABV 01> 2V4ACB=>ABV 2>;V 2;0A=8:0; 3) N@848G=>W G8==>ABV ?@8?8AV2; 4) >1AO3C <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0 ?> 74V9A=5==N A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59; 5) ?@02>2V4=>A8=, 2 O:8E 2>=8 @50;V7CNBLAO. ;0A8DV:0FVO <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 1.  >3;O4C =0 10G5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@8@>4=>3> 01> ?>78B82=>3> 9>3> <56V 2V4?>2V4=> 1C4CBL ?@8@>4=8<8 01> =>@<0B82=>-?@02>28<8. 57C<>2=> ?@8@>4=8< T ?>;>65==O ?@> B5, I> 2;0A=VABL 7>1>2'O7CT, ?>@>46CT BO30@ (2;0A=>ABV), ?>2'O70=89 7 =5>1EV4=VABN =5A5==O 28B@0B =0 CB@8<0==O, 0 B0:>6 7 @878:>< CB@0B8, 703815;V <09=0. V;LH B>3>, O: ?@028;>, 2;0A=8: ?@03=5 ?V:;C20B8AO 70 A2>T <09=>, 1> F5 T 9>3> ?@8@>4=8< 2V4GCBBO< E07OW=0. "0:>6 ?@8@>4=8< T B5, I> <0NBL >1<56C20B8AO 2 74V9A=5==V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =54VT740B=V, <0;>;VB=V V =5?>2=>;VB=V >A>18, >A:V;L:8 2>=8 =5 <>6CBL ?>2=>N <V@>N CA2V4><;N20B8 7=0G5==O A2>WE 4V9, :5@C20B8 =8<8. @8@>4=> V B5, I> 2;0A=8: =5 <>65 74V9A=N20B8 2V4GC65==O A2>3> <09=0 157 CG0ABV V=H8E >AV1, B>1B> 28E>48BL, I> 2V= C ?52=><C @>7C<V==V >1<56CTBLAO 2 <>6;82>ABV A0<>ABV9=>3> 74V9A=5==O >:@5<8E 284V2 @>7?>@O460==O. "0:, 2;0A=8: ?@>AB> =5 2 7<>7V @50;V7C20B8 A2>T ?@02> =0 2V4GC65==O @5GV, O:I> =VEB> =5 28@078BL 1060==O WW ?@8410B8. @02> 6 =0 7=8I5==O @5GV 01> ?@8?8=5==O WW VA=C20==O 2=0A;V4>: WW 28:>@8AB0==O (A?>682G>3> <09=0, ?@>4C:BV2 E0@GC20==O, ?0;820 B>I>), 2V4<>2C 2V4 <09=0 2;0A=8: 74V9A=NT A0<>ABV9=>. )> AB>ACTBLAO <56, 2AB0=>2;5=8E ?>78B82=8< ?@02><, B> =8<8 T 2BV;5==O 2 ?@02>2V ?@8?8A8 707=0G5=8E ?@8@>4=8E AB0=V2 I>4> AC1 T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV (=0?@8:;04, A?@O<>20=8E =0 70157?5G5==O =5<>6;82>ABV C:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 7 =54VT740B=8<8 H;OE>< 287=0==O F8E ?@02>G8=V2 =V:G5<=8<8, ?>@O4 V7 70AB>AC20==O< <5E0=V7<V2 @50;V70FVW WE ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0 70 4>?><>3>N ?@54AB02=8FB20), 0 B0:>6 C@0EC20==O V=B5@5AV2 <0;>;VB=VE, =5?>2=>;VB=VE B0 =5?@0F5740B=8E 4VB59 ?@8 C:;045==V ?@02>G8=C (G. 6 AB. 203 &), =54>?CI5==O =54>1@>A>2VA=>W :>=:C@5=FVW B>I>. 2.  >3;O4C =0 B0:89 :@8B5@V9 ?>4V;C ?@020 =0 ?@820B=5 V ?C1;VG=5, O: V=B5@5A, <>6=0 3>2>@8B8 ?@> <56V (>1<565==O) ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 2AB0=>2;5=V 2 ?C1;VG=8E B0 ?@820B=8E V=B5@5A0E.  FL>3> ?@82>4C A;V4 2:070B8 =0 B5, I>, =5 @>7<56>2CNG8 27030;V <56V B0 >1<565==O, ?5@HV 287=0G0NBLAO G5@57 ?@02> CG0ABV 7030;L=>3> O: >1<565==O 2 V=B5@5A0E 2AVE V :>6=>3>, B0 ?@02> CG0ABV ?@820B=>3> O: >1<565==O 2 V=B5@5AV >4=>3> 01> :V;L:>E 287=0G5=8E >AV1 [220] . 5@HV 70A=>20=V =0 70:>=V, V 4;O F8E <56 E0@0:B5@=8< T B5, I> 2>=8 28=8:0NBL =570;56=> 2V4 2>;V >AV1. E =07820NBL I5 70:>==8<8 >1<565==O<8. 5A:;04=> ?><VB8B8, I> ?5@HV V T <560<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 0 4@C3V  >1<565==O<8. @>B5 G8 <>6=0 >4=>7=0G=> AB25@46C20B8, I> <56V <0NBL 28:;NG=> ?C1;VG=C ?@8@>4C, 0 >1<565==O  ?@820B=C? 5O:V 02B>@8 =5157?V4AB02=> 22060NBL, I> >1<565==O <VABOBL C A>1V 5;5<5=B8 O: ?C1;VG=>3>, B0: V ?@820B=>3> ?@020 [108] . 3. 0;56=> 2V4 AD5@8 70:>=>402G>3> @53C;N20==O <56V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO O: C ?C1;VG=><C, B0: V C ?@820B=><C ?@02V, G8< 70157?5GCTBLAO 10;0=A V=B5@5AV2 2;0A=8:0 9 V=H8E >AV1 B0 4>AO30TBLAO A?V22V4=>H5==O ?C1;VG=>-?@02>2>3> V ?@820B=>?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV 2 FV;><C. 5@54CAV< A;V4 28E>48B8 7 ?>;>65=L >=AB8BCFVW #:@0W=8 I>4> <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV: 9>3> 74V9A=5==O =5 ?>28==> ?>@CHC20B8 ?@02 V=H8E >AV1, =0=>A8B8 718B:8 4>2:V;;N. >=AB8BCFVO 4>?CA:0T <>6;82VABL ?@8<CA>2>3> 2V4GC65==O <09=0 =5 BV;L:8 O: A0=:FVN 70 =5?@02><V@=C ?>254V=:C 2;0A=8:0, 0 9 C 28?04:0E ACA?V;L=>W =5>1EV4=>ABV. !;V4 2@0E>2C20B8 270T<=C 4VN =>@< F82V;L=>3>, 04<V=VAB@0B82=>3>, <8B=>3>, ?>40B:>2>3>, ?@8@>4>@5AC@A>2>3> B0 V=H8E 30;C759 70:>=>402AB20. @8G><C F82V;L=5 70:>=>402AB2> <VAB8BL 4>A8BL =57=0G=C :V;L:VABL =>@< ?@> <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, =02?0:8, 2 ?C1;VG=><C 70:>=>402AB2V FV <56V G8A;5==V. "0:, O:I> >A=>2=>N F82V;L=>-?@02>2>N =>@<>N, O:0 2AB0=>2;NT <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, T AB. 319 &, B> <>6=0 =025AB8 B0:V ?@8:;048 <56 2 V=H8E 30;C7OE 70:>=>402AB20: - ?C=:B8  T ,  6 ,  7 AB. 111  #:@0W=8, O:8<8 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO <>6;82VABL 28AC20==O 28<>3 4> 2;0A=8:0 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 74V9A=8B8 1C4V2=8FB2>, @5<>=B 01> CB@8<0==O 4>@>38, 4V;O=:8 4>@>38; C<>28 4>45@60==O ?@8@>4>>E>@>==8E 28<>3 01> 28:>=0==O ?52=8E @>1VB; C<>28 =04020B8 ?@02> ?>;N20==O, 28;>2C @818, 718@0==O 48:>@>A;8E @>A;8= =0 A2>W9 75<5;L=V9 4V;O=FV 2 CAB0=>2;5=89 G0A V 2 CAB0=>2;5=><C ?>@O4:C; - AB0BBV 19, 20 # @> 70E8AB 5:>=><VG=>W :>=:C@5=FVW [74]  I>4> 701>@>=8 =5?@02><V@=>3> 28:>@8AB0==O AC1'T:B>< 3>A?>40@N20==O @8=:>2>3> AB0=>28I0, 48A:@8<V=0FVW :>=:C@5=BV2 AC1'T:B0<8 3>A?>40@N20==O; - ?C1;VG=>-?@02>2C ?@8@>4C <0NBL B0:>6 4>72V;L=V <56V, I> 28=8:0NBL <V6 B5@8B>@V0;L=8<8 3@><040<8 V AC1'T:B0<8, O:V 28:>@8AB>2CNBL ?@8@>4=V @5AC@A8, I> 7=0E>4OBLAO 2 :><C=0;L=V9 2;0A=>ABV, 7>:@5<0, 709<0NBLAO @810;LAB2><, ?>;N20==O<. 5<;O, ?@8@>4=V @5AC@A8, I> =0;560BL 4> :><C=0;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV B5@8B>@V0;L=8E 3@><04, AB0=>2;OBL <0B5@V0;L=C V DV=0=A>2C >A=>2C <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O. "5@8B>@V0;L=V 3@><048 28@VHCNBL ?8B0==O @53C;N20==O 75<5;L=8E 2V4=>A8=, CAB0=>2;5==O 4>72>;V2 =0 A?5FV0;L=5 28:>@8AB0==O ?@8@>4=8E @5AC@AV2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, 4> O:8E =0;560BL, =0?@8:;04, @810;LAB2> V ?>;N20==O, 2V4?>2V4=> 4> 70:>=C. ;O >45@60==O ?@020 =0 ?>;N20==O =5>1EV4=> 28:>=0B8 =87:C 28<>3, B0:8E O: >1>2'O7:>25 >45@60==O 2V4?>2V4=>3> ?>A2V4G5==O, @5TAB@0FVO 7=0@O4L ?>;N20==O, >?;0B0 <8B0. 810;LAB2> 74V9A=NTBLAO ?5@5206=> O: 7030;L=5 :>@8ABC20==O >1'T:B0<8 B20@8==>3> A2VBC V, =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 ?>;N20==O, =5 28<030T ?>4V1=8E N@848G=8E D0:BV2. 040NG8 A?5FV0;L=V 4>72>;8, B5@8B>@V0;L=V 3@><048 >1<56CNBL A515 B8<, I> B5@?;OBL 74V9A=5==O ?@020 :>3>-=51C4L, EB> 28:>@8AB>2CT WE=N 2;0A=VABL 4;O @81>;>2;V, ?>;N20==O; - G8A;5==V 7>1>2'O7CNGV =>@<8, I> AB>ACNBLAO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, <VABOBLAO 2 ?>40B:>2><C 70:>=>402AB2V. 4=0: 70 7030;L=8< @>7C<V==O< 2>=8 =5 <>6CBL 1CB8 ?@8;VG5=V 4> <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >A:V;L:8 A?;0B0 ?>40B:V2, <8B0, @V7=8E 71>@V2, ?>2'O70=8E 7 <09=><, =5 <0T =VG>3> A?V;L=>3> 7 <560<8, 1> 2>=8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 7 <5B>N 70157?5G5==O 4>EV4=>W G0AB8=8 2V4?>2V4=>3> 1N465BC. # B>9 65 G0A C =8E 70:;045=> >1<56C20;L=V 70A048, >A:V;L:8 G8< 1V;LH5 ?>40B:V2 >1BO6CT <09=> 2;0A=8:0, B8< <5=H5 <>6;82>ABV 70;8H0TBLAO 2 =L>3> 4;O 704>2>;5==O A2>WE ?>B@51 01> 70157?5G5==O @>7H8@5=>3> B>20@=>3> 28@>1=8FB20. "8< A0<8< A?@02;OTBLAO 2?;82 =0 F82V;L=V 2V4=>A8=8 2;0A=>ABV, I> A0<5 ?> A>1V T >:@5<>N ?@>1;5<>N A?V22V4=>H5==O ?@820B=8E V ?C1;VG=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= [190; 189] . @V< B>3>, A;V4 72068B8 =0 B0:V <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, I> 28=8:0NBL V7 ?@8?8AV2 ?>40B:>2>3> 70:>=>402AB20, O: =5<>6;82VABL 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?@02 =0 3@>H>2V :>HB8, I> 715@V30NBLAO 2 10=:0E 01> =0 482V45=48 (I> =0@0E>20=V B0 ?V4;O30NBL 28?;0BV) 4> A?;0B8 ?>40B:V2 (G. 2 AB. 8 # @> FV==V ?0?5@8 V D>=4>2C 1V@6C; ?. 7.8.7 # @> >?>40B:C20==O ?@81CB:C ?V4?@8T<AB2 [96; 84]  ) B0 V=. 4. 0;56=> 2V4 N@848G=>W G8==>ABV ?@8?8AV2 <>6CBL 1CB8: 0) 7030;L=>>1>2'O7:>2V B0 @5:><5=40FV9=V <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 1) ?@02>2V B0 =5?@02>2V. 030;L=>>1>2'O7:>2V <56V 2AB0=>2;5=V >=AB8BCFVTN, 70:>=0<8, I> 2AB0=>2;NNBL >1>2'O7>: AC1'T:B0 74V9A=N20B8 ?52=V ?@02><V@=V 4VW. =CB@VH=V9 0A?5:B >1>2'O7:>2>ABV ?@8?8AV2 ?>;O30T 2 B><C, I> >A>10, CA2V4><;NNG8 A8;C ?@8<CAC, =0A;V4:V2 9>3> =54>45@60==O, 0 B0:>6 B8?>2VABL, ?>H8@5=VABL, ?@0:B8G=C 4>FV;L=VABL ?52=8E ?@028;, 4>45@6CTBLAO =8E C A2>W9 ?>254V=FV. >2=VH=V9 0A?5:B >1>2'O7:>2>ABV 7C<>2;NTBLAO B0:8<8 G8==8:0<8 2?;82C =0 ?A8EV:C >A>18AB>ABV, O: AB8<C;N20==O, ?5@5:>=0==O V ?@8<CA. 5:><5=40FV9=V <56V [56] , =0?@8:;04, <VABOBLAO 2 @8=F8?0E :>@?>@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O, 70B25@465=8E @VH5==O< 5@602=>W :><VAVW 7 FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 D>=4>2>3> @8=:C 2V4 11 3@C4=O 2003 @. N 571 [162]  . >=8 =5 <0NBL >1>2 O7:>2>3> E0@0:B5@C, 0;5 2=0A;V4>: A2>TW 4>FV;L=>ABV V 2V4?>2V4=>ABV 7030;L=8< ?@02>28< 28<>30< 28:>@8AB>2CNBLAO =0 ?@0:B8FV.  =8E =0 ?V4AB02V 7030;L=>?@89=OB8E <V6=0@>4=8E AB0=40@BV2 :>@?>@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O B0 7 C@0EC20==O< =0FV>=0;L=8E >A>1;82>AB59 V 4>A2V4C 28:;040NBLAO ?@8=F8?8 B0 @5:><5=40FVW, =5>1EV4=V 4;O C4>A:>=0;5==O ?@0:B8:8 :>@?>@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O 2 #:@0W=V. >=8 <0NBL @5:><5=40FV9=89 E0@0:B5@ B0 @>7@0E>20=V =0 4>1@>2V;L=5 70AB>AC20==O. >;>2=8< AB8<C;>< I>4> WE 4>45@60==O B>20@8AB20<8 T 5:>=><VG=0 4>FV;L=VABL B0 >1'T:B82=> VA=CNGV 28<>38 @8=:C I>4> 70;CG5==O V=25AB8FV9. >4V; <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 ?@02>2V B0 =5?@02>2V 7C<>2;5=89 @>71V6=>ABO<8 <V6 ?@02>< B0 70:>=>402AB2><, I> V=>4V ?@>O2;OTBLAO 2 70:>=>B2>@G8E ?><8;:0E, O:V 2?;820NBL =0 <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. B65, ?@02>28<8 1C4CBL B0:V 2AB0=>2;5=V 70:>=>< <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:V @C=BCNBLAO =0 ?@8=F8?0E ?@020, 0 =5?@02>28<8 - BV, I> 7C<>2;5=V 70:>=>B2>@G8<8 ?><8;:0<8 01> C<8A=8<8 4VO<8 70:>=>402FO, O:V =5 2V4?>2V40NBL 7030;L=>?@02>28< 70A040< 70:>=>B2>@G>W 4VO;L=>ABV, =5 @C=BCNBLAO =0 ?@02>2V9 ?@8@>4V ?52=8E 2V4=>A8= V 2=0A;V4>: FL>3> BO3=CBL 70 A>1>N =530B82=V =0A;V4:8 4;O AC1'T:BV2.  <5B>N =54>?CI5==O B0:8E 28?04:V2 70:>=>402F52V B@510 2AB0=>28B8 @>7C<=C A8AB5<C ?@02>28E <56, O:V, 2 A2>N G5@3C, 1C4CBL >A=>2>?>;>6=8<8 4;O 287=0G5==O >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 0A0<?5@54 F5 AB>ACTBLAO ?V470:>==8E =>@<0B82=8E 0:BV2, C O:8E V=>4V DV:ACTBLAO D0:B8G=5 72C65==O :>;0 ?@02>28E <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0 ?>@V2=O=> 7 ?5@5410G5=8<8 2 70:>=V. 5. 0;56=> 2V4 ?@02>2>3> @568<C ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 9>3> <56V <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO 4;O 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2 01> 4;O B8E, <09=> O:8E ?5@51C20T C 2V4?>2V4=><C ?@02>2><C @568<V. "0:, <0NBL <VAF5 <56V C 728G09=><C ?@02>2><C @568<V 2;0A=>ABV 9 >A>1;82><C ?@02>2><C @568<V, 28:;8:0=><C B8<8 G8 V=H8<8 C<>20<8. A>1;8289 @568< ?@8B0<0==89 <560< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV DV78G=8E V N@848G=8E >AV1: 0) 70;56=> 2V4 284C 4VO;L=>ABV; 1) 4VNG8E C A?5FV0;L=8E 5:>=><VG=8E 7>=0E 01> 2 A?5FV0;L=><C @568<V V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV; 2) ?@8 =5?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV V 10=:@CBAB2V; 3) 2AB0=>2;N20=V :>=:C@5=B=8< V :>@?>@0B82=8< 70:>=>402AB2><; ) ?@8 @568<V A?V;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV. . "0:, <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV >AV1 <>6CBL 1CB8 28:;8:0=V B8<8 G8 V=H8<8 2840<8 01> AD5@0<8 4VO;L=>ABV >AV1. # 72'O7:C 7 B8<, I> ?V4?@8T<=8FL:0 4VO;L=VABL 28<030T =5 BV;L:8 ?@02>2>W @53;0<5=B0FVW, 0 9 2A51VG=>W >E>@>=8 7 ?>3;O4C O: 70157?5G5==O C<>2 4;O WW 74V9A=5==O V @>728B:C, B0: V >E>@>=8 2V4 ?>@CH5=L ?@02 V=H8E >AV1, 2AB0=>2;5=> ?52=V ?@028;0 I>4> ;VF5=7C20==O ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV, AB0=40@B870FVW B0 A5@B8DV:0FVW ?@>4C:FVW, @>1VB B0 ?>A;C3 73V4=> V7 70:>=0<8 #:@0W=8 @> ;VF5=7C20==O ?52=8E 284V2 3>A?>40@AL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV [79], @> AB0=40@B870FVN [93], 5:@5BC 01V=5BC V=VAB@V2 #:@0W=8 @> AB0=40@B870FVN V A5@B8DV:0FVN [47]. 0 7030;L=>?@89=OB8< ?V4E>4>< 2AB0=>2;5==O< 707=0G5=8E 28<>3 2V41C20TBLAO @53C;N20==O 2V4?>2V4=>W 4VO;L=>ABV >AV1. 4=>G0A=> B0:V 28<>38 O2;ONBL A>1>N <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV AC1 T:BV2 I>4> 28:>@8AB0==O A2>3> <09=0 C ?V4?@8T<=8FL:V9 4VO;L=>ABV 7 4>45@60==O< 2AB0=>2;5=8E C<>2 (G.2 AB.320 &). V4B0:, 2>=8 =5 2V;L=V C 74V9A=5==V =0 A2V9 @>7AC4 2;0A=8E ?@02><>G=>AB59, 1> ?V4?040NBL ?V4 6>@AB:89 :>=B@>;L 7 1>:C 2V4?>2V4=8E >@30=V2. &V <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 15770?5@5G=>, <0NBL ?C1;VG=89 E0@0:B5@, I> 28?;820T 7 A0<>3> @>7C<V==O ;VF5=7C20==O, AB0=40@B870FVW B0 A5@B8DV:0FVW. 0NBL <VAF5 <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 28:;8:0=V B8<8 G8 V=H8<8 2840<8 01> AD5@0<8 4VO;L=>ABV N@848G=8E >AV1, =0?@8:;04, 2AB0=>2;N20=V 4;O 10=:V2, V=25AB8FV9=8E D>=4V2, AB@0E>28E :><?0=V9. ;O :><5@FV9=8E 10=:V2 <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 7>:@5<0, B0:V: - 701>@>=8 4;O A?5FV0;V7>20=8E 10=:V2 (70 28=OB:>< >I04=>3>) 70;CG0B8 2:;048 (45?>78B8) 2V4 DV78G=8E >AV1 2 >1AO30E, I> ?5@528ICNBL 5 2V4A>B:V2 :0?VB0;C 10=:C, B>1B> B8< A0<8< 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO <560 @>7H8@5==O >1AO3C WE 2;0A=>ABV; - 701>@>=8 4;O 10=:C <0B8 C 2;0A=>ABV =5@CE><5 <09=> 7030;L=>N 20@BVABN 1V;LH5 25 2V4A>B:V2 :0?VB0;C 10=:C, 70 ?52=8<8 28:;NG5==O<8, I> AB>ACNBLAO ?@8<VI5=L 10=:V2 (AB. 4 # @> 10=:8 V 10=:V2AL:C 4VO;L=VABL [59] ) B0 V=. VO;L=VABL V=25AB8FV9=8E D>=4V2 73V4=> V7 # @> V=AB8BCB8 A?V;L=>3> V=25ABC20==O (?09>2V B0 :>@?>@0B82=V V=25AB8FV9=V D>=48) [76] B0:>6 2V41C20TBLAO 7 2AB0=>2;5==O< ?52=8E <56 4;O =8E O: 2;0A=8:V2. &5 AB>ACTBLAO >1>2'O7:>2>3> 715@565==O WE 0:B82V2 C 45?>78B0@VN, 701>@>=8 AB2>@N20B8 =8<8 1C4L-O:V A?5FV0;L=V V @575@2=V D>=48 [31] B0 V=HV >1<565==O, ?5@5410G5=V AB.12 707=0G5=>3> 0:>=C. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV N@848G=8E >AV1 <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO V AB>A>2=> @>7?>4V;C =8<8 ?@81CB:C, =0?@8:;04, :>;8 945BLAO ?@> 28?;0BC 482V45=4V2 2 ", I> <>6;82> ;8H5 ?@8 =0O2=>ABV ?52=8E C<>2: ?@81CB:>2>W @>1>B8 B>20@8AB20 V ?@89=OBBO ?@> F5 @VH5==O 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 0:FV>=5@V2 (AB. 158 & #:@0W=8, AB.41 # @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 [65]). 1<56CT 70:>=>402AB2> V AB@>:8 WE=L>W 28?;0B8, >A:V;L:8 F5 <>6;82>, 70 7030;L=8< ?@028;><, 70 @57C;LB0B0<8 @>1>B8 70 @V:. . 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV N@848G=8E >AV1, I> 74V9A=NNBL A2>N 4VO;L=VABL C 2V;L=V9 5:>=><VG=V9 7>=V (40;V  ) 73V4=> V7 # @> 7030;L=V 70A048 AB2>@5==O V DC=:FV>=C20==O A?5FV0;L=8E (2V;L=8E) 5:>=><VG=8E 7>= [71] 01> 7>=V A?5FV0;L=>3> @568<C V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, =0?@8:;04, 2V4?>2V4=> # @> A?5FV0;L=89 @568< V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV =0 B5@8B>@VW <VAB0 %0@:>20 [92], 7C<>2;5=V A?5F8DV:>N @568<C 2V4?>2V4=>W B5@8B>@VW. >=8 ?>2 O70=V 7 C<>20<8 2545==O 4VO;L=>ABV, 2AB0=>2;N20=8<8 C B0:8E 7>=0E, C B><C G8A;V AB>ACNBLAO 28:>@8AB0==O V @>7?>@O460==O <09=>< >AV1, O:V ?@0FNNBL 70 2AB0=>2;5=8<8 ?@028;0<8. @8 FL><C 2 7030;L=><C @>7C<V==V C<>28 WE=L>W 4VO;L=>ABV, C B><C G8A;V ?@8 74V9A=5==V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, ?5@5410G5=V 2 70:>=>402AB2V, A?@89<0NBLAO O: ?V;L38. 4=0: >4=>G0A=> =040==O F8E ?V;L3 7C<>2;5=> ?52=8<8 28<>30<8, I> 70:;045=V 2 A0<8E F8E ?V;L30E, O:V V O2;ONBL A>1>N <56V ?@02 B8E AC1 T:BV2, :>B@V :>@8ABCNBLAO F8<8 ?V;L30<8. 0?@8:;04, ?V;L38 ?5@5410G0NBLAO 4;O AC1'T:BV2 ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV, I> @50;V7CNBL =0 B5@8B>@VW <VAB0 %0@:>20 V=25AB8FV9=V ?@>5:B8, AE20;5=V 04>N 7 ?8B0=L A?5FV0;L=>3> @568<C V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. @>B5 FV AC1'T:B8 42VGV ?>2 O70=V 7>1>2 O70==O<8  V7 A2>W<8 :>=B@035=B0<8 B0 7 04>N 7 ?8B0=L A?5FV0;L=>3> @568<C V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, =528:>=0==O 01> =5=0;56=5 28:>=0==O O:8E BO3=5 70 A>1>N 4;O =8E C42VGV =530B82=V =0A;V4:8. &5 AB>ACTBLAO 9 =5FV;L>2>3> 28:>@8AB0==O =8<8 CAB0B:C20==O, >1;04=0==O B0 :><?;5:BCNG8E 4> =8E, G0AB:>2>3> 01> ?>2=>3> 2V4GC65==O V=25AB8FVW ?@>BO3>< 72VB=>3> ?5@V>4C B>I>. . A>1;8289 @568< <09=0 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO, B>4V :>;8 >A>10 =5 2 7<>7V 704>2>;L=8B8 28<>38 :@548B>@V2, ?>2 O70=V 7V 74V9A=5==O< =5N ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> WW <>65 1CB8 287=0=> 10=:@CB>< C ?>@O4:C, ?5@5410G5=><C # @> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 01> 287=0==O 9>3> 10=:@CB>< [62] . 0 =0O2=>ABV ?V4AB02 =5?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV B0 ?>@CH5==O ?@> F5 A?@028 2 3>A?>40@AL:><C AC4V >A>10 >1<56CTBLAO C 2V;L=><C :>@8ABC20==V B0 @>7?>@O460==V A2>W< <09=>< H;OE>< ?@87=0G5==O @>7?>@O4=8:0 <09=0, A0=0B>@V2, ;V:2V40B>@V2, 4> ?>2=>2065=L O:8E 2E>4OBL C73>465==O G8A;5==8E ?8B0=L, ?>2 O70=8E 7V 74V9A=5==O< ?>2=>2065=L 2;0A=8:0. "0:89 AC1 T:B (2;0A=8:) >?8=OTBLAO 9 ?V4 :>=B@>;5< 7 1>:C :><VB5BC :@548B>@V2 B0 3>A?>40@AL:>3> AC4C. . #AB0=>2;NT FV;89 A?5:B@ <56 V 70:>=>402AB2> 7 5:>=><VG=>W :>=:C@5=FVW.  >3;O4C =0 AC?5@5G=>ABV, I> 28=8:0NBL <V6 <>=>?>;V7<>< V :>=:C@5=FVTN, V =5157?5:C <>=>?>;V7<C 4;O @>728B:C @8=:>2>W 5:>=><V:8 VA=CT >1'T:B82=0 =5>1EV4=VABL 9>3> >1<565==O, B>1B> >1<565==O ?52=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, @>7FV=N20=>W O: <>=>?>;L=0. @>B5 A0<5 ?> A>1V <>=>?>;L=5 AB0=>28I5 B>3> G8 V=H>3> ?V4?@8T<FO I5 =5 T ?>@CH5==O< :>=:C@5=B=>3> 70:>=>402AB20.  <5B>N 70?>1V30==O 7;>26820==N <>6;82>ABO<8, I> =040NBLAO <>=>?>;VAB>2V, 70:>=>402G> ?5@5410G0NBLAO <56V 28:>@8AB0==O WE <09=0 O: 2;0A=8:V2, 7>:@5<0 2AB0=>2;5==O< 701>@>=8 @>7?>4V;C @8=:V2; 2?;82>< 45@602=>3> @53C;N20==O >1AO3C @8=:C 28@>1=8FB20 B0 V=HV 70A>18, I> AB@8<CNBL WE <>=>?>;VAB8G=V B5=45=FVW O: ?0=CNG>3> =0 @8=:C 2;0A=8:0. &V B0 V=HV =0?@O<:8 <56 WE ?@02 ?5@5410G5=V 70:>=0<8 #:@0W=8 @> 70E8AB 5:>=><VG=>W :>=:C@5=FVW [74], @> =B8<>=>?>;L=89 :><VB5B #:@0W=8 [58] , @> 70E8AB 2V4 =54>1@>A>2VA=>W :>=:C@5=FVW [73]. 0 ?>@CH5==O 707=0G5=8E 28<>3 AC1'T:B =5A5 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL, C @57C;LB0BV O:>W 28;CG0TBLAO WE B>20@, 28?CI5=89 7 =5?@02><V@=> 28:>@8AB0=8< ?>7=0G5==O< 28@>1V2 V=H>3> AC1'T:B0, B>I> [156]. V4?>2V4=> FV 70E>48 265 1C4CBL >1<565==O<8 WE ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. !C4>20 ?@0:B8:0 A2V4G8BL ?@> ?>H8@5=VABL A?>@V2, ?>2 O70=8E 7 70E8AB>< 2V4 =54>1@>A>2VA=>W :>=:C@5=FVW, O:0 7=0E>48BL A2V9 ?@>O2, 7>:@5<0, C 283;O4V =02 O7C20==O B0:8E C<>2 4>3>2>@C, O:V AB02;OBL :>=B@035=BV2 C =5@V2=5 AB0=>28I5. @> B0:5 ?>7=0G0TBLAO, =0?@8:;04, C A?@02V, @>73;O=CBV9 %0@:V2AL:8< 0?5;OFV9=8< 3>A?>40@AL:8< AC4>< 70 ?>7>2>< "  !C<8>1;5=5@3> 4> !C<AL:>3> >1;0A=>3> B5@8B>@V0;L=>3> 2V44V;5==O =B8<>=>?>;L=>3> :><VB5BC #:@0W=8 ?@> 287=0==O ?>AB0=>28 ?@> ?>@CH5==O =8< 0=B8<>=>?>;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20 B0 ABO3=5==O HB@0DC =54V9A=8<. &V ?>@CH5==O <0;8 <VAF5 C 283;O4V =02 O7C20==O B0:8E C<>2 4>3>2>@C, O:V AB02;OBL :>=B@035=BV2 C =5283V4=5 AB0=>28I5, I> ?@8725;> 4> 2AB0=>2;5==O <>=>?>;L=>W FV=8 =0 5;5:B@8G=C 5=5@3VN [10] . &8< A0<8< 2V4?>2V40G O: 2;0A=8: =5 <0T ?@020 ?@8 @>7?>@O460==V A2>W< <09=>< 2V;L=> B0 28:;NG=> =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4 287=0G0B8 C<>28 4>3>2>@C, 7>:@5<0 ?> 287=0G5==N FV=8, >A:V;L:8 9>3> AB0=>28I5 =0 @8=:C O: <>=>?>;VAB0 157 2AB0=>2;5==O 70:>=>< <56 I>4> 74V9A=5==O 9>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?@82545 4> 7;>26820==O =8< A2>W< ?@02><. >@?>@0B82=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 =0:;040NBL =5<8=CG89 2V418B>: V =0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV. 0:>=>4025FL CA5 1V;LH 6>@AB:> ?V4E>48BL 4> @53C;N20==O >1;V:C 0:FV9, WE=L>3> >1>@>BC, 287=0G5==O ?8B0=L, >1>2'O7:>28E 4;O @>73;O4C 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 0:FV>=5@V2, I> T WE 28:;NG=>N :><?5B5=FVTN. &5 28:;8:0=> =5>1EV4=VABN 2AB0=>2;5==O 30@0=BC20==O 4;O 0:FV>=5@0 4>45@60==O 9>3> ?@02 V <>6;82>ABV WE=L>W @50;V70FVW. "0:8< G8=><, CAB0=>2;NNBLAO <56V 74V9A=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: =0 0:FVW, B0: V =0 <09=> ". &V <56V 7C<>2;5=V =5<>6;82VABN 4>?CI5==O 7;>26820==O ?@020<8 >AV1, O:V <0NBL 1V;LHC :V;L:VABL 0:FV9 V 2V4 O:8E C :>@?>@0B82=V9 70;56=>ABV ?5@51C20NBL V=HV 0:FV>=5@8. 4=0:, B0:V <56V =5 <>6CBL 1CB8 V =528?@0240=> 2C7L:8<8, I> =5 40ABL 7<>3C 0:FV>=5@0< 74V9A=8B8 BV 01> V=HV A2>W ?@020 =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4. 5>1EV4=> 2AB0=>28B8 <56V V 2@0E>2C20B8 ?C1;VG=>-?@02>2V V=B5@5A8, 157 O:8E 74V9A=5==O ?@02 <>65 ?@825AB8 4> =530B82=>W 2>;V 7 @C9=V2=8<8 4;O B>20@8AB20 =0A;V4:0<8 [194] . . 56V, 28:;8:0=V ?@02>28< @568<>< A?V;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV, ?>2 O70=V 7 =5>1EV4=VABN 28@VH5==O A?V22;0A=8:0<8 ?8B0=L AB>A>2=> ?>2=>2065=L I>4> A?V;L=>3> <09=0 BV;L:8 70 270T<=>N 73>4>N (G. 1 AB. 358 &). "0:0 C<>20 A0<0 ?> A>1V T AB@8<CNG8< <5E0=V7<>< @50;V70FVW :>6=8< V7 A?V22;0A=8:V2 A2>WE ?@02. 091V;LH >G5284=8<8 T <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 <09=> (3@>H>2V :>HB8), >45@60=V (70@>1;5=V) >4=8< 7 ?>4@C66O, O:5 ?@8 FL><C 70 A0<>N =>@<>N 70:>=C ?V4?040T ?V4 <56V I>4> <>6;82>ABV ?@8410==O A0<5 W< ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV =0 @57C;LB0B8 A2>TW ?@0FV. &5 ?>;>65==O 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO =0 :>@8ABL V=H>W >A>18  V=H>3> 7 ?>4@C66O (G. 3 AB. 368 &). =0:H5 :06CG8, 70<VABL >45@60==O 2AL>3> B0:0 >A>10 >45@6CT ;8H5 9>3> G0AB8=C. B65, C @>73;O=CB><C @0:C@AV A?>AB5@V30TBLAO 45O:0 AC?5@5G;820 ?>3>465=VABL, I> 210G0TBLAO 2 30@<>=V9=><C ?>T4=0==V 2 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV G>;>2V:0 V 6V=:8 ?@8410==O =>28E <>6;82>AB59 7 ?52=8<8 <560<8 4;O :>6=>3> 7 =8E ?>@V2=O=> 7 @568<>< ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV [166] . 6. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL AB>AC20B8AO 9 ?52=8E >1'T:BV2. "0:, C G.2 AB. 325 & 707=0G0TBLAO, I> 70:>=>< <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO >:@5<V 2848 <09=0, O:5 =5 <>65 =0;560B8 DV78G=8< V N@848G=8< >A>10< =0 ?@02V ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV. 3V4=> V7 AB. 324 & =5 <>6CBL ?5@51C20B8 C 2;0A=>ABV ?@820B=8E >AV1 >1'T:B8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV #:@0W=AL:>3> =0@>4C (75<;O, =04@0, ?>2VB@O=89 ?@>ABV@ B0 V=.), I> =5 28:;NG0T <>6;82>ABV ?@8410==O 2 ?@820B=C 2;0A=VABL 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 (AB.AB. 32,33, 35  #:@0W=8 B0 V=.) [97] : 5@5;V:>< ! 1 4> ?>AB0=>28 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8 2V4 17 G5@2=O 1992 @. @> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 >:@5<V 2848 <09=0 [155]  287=0G0TBLAO <09=>, O:5 =5 <>65 7=0E>48B8AO C 2;0A=>ABV ?@820B=8E DV78G=8E B0 N@848G=8E >AV1. # 2;0A=>ABV 45@6028 <>65 1CB8 1C4L-O:5 <09=>, =570;56=> 2V4 B>3>, G8 =040=> 2>=> ?@8@>4>N 01> AB2>@5=> ?@0F5N ;N48=8. 4=0: 70AB>AC20==O :>=F5?BC0;L=>3> ?V4E>4C 4> >1AO3C 45@602=>3> <09=0, 2V4?>2V4=> 4> O:>3> C 2;0A=>ABV 45@6028 ?>28==> 7=0E>48B8AO ;8H5 <09=>, I> AB0=>28BL <0B5@V0;L=C >A=>2C AC25@5=VB5BC #:@0W=8 V 70157?5GCT WW 5:>=><VG=89 B0 A>FV0;L=89 @>728B>:, 28<030T 9>3> A:>@>G5==O. "5@8B>@V0;L=V 3@><048 <0NBL <09=> 4;O 70157?5G5==O WE=L>W 68BBT4VO;L=>ABV. "0:, 73V4=> V7 AB. 142 >=AB8BCFVW #:@0W=8 F5 @CE><5 V =5@CE><5 <09=>, 4>E>48 <VAF52>3> 1N465BC, 75<;O, ?@8@>4=V @5AC@A8, 68B;>289 D>=4, >1'T:B8 68B;>2>-:><C=0;L=>3> 3>A?>40@AB20, <09=> CAB0=>2 >A2VB8, <548F8=8, :C;LBC@8, 0 B0:>6 V=H5 <09=>, =5>1EV4=5 4;O 70157?5G5==O 5:>=><VG=>3> V A>FV0;L=>3> @>728B:C 2V4?>2V4=>W B5@8B>@VW. 7. 0;56=> 2V4 AC1'T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, =0 O:8E ?>H8@NNBLAO <56V, >AB0==V <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO 4;O 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2 01> 4;O >:@5<8E WE :0B53>@V9. > >AB0==VE A;V4 2V4=5AB8 AC1 T:BV2 ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV, =0 O:8E ?>H8@NNBLAO 28<>38 I>4> =54>?CI5==O =54>1@>A>2VA=>W :>=:C@5=FVW. /:I> <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV AC1'T:BV2 2 AB0B8FV ?@02> =5 28AC20T, B> 2 48=0<VFV  =02?0:8. 0:>=>402G> 2AB0=>2;5=> 701>@>=8 74V9A=5==O A2>W<8 4VO<8 ?@02 >A>1>N, O:0 ?>28==0 ?@8 FL><C <0B8 4>AB0B=V9 >1AO3 4VT740B=>ABV. B65, <56V A2>3> ?@020 287=0G0NBLAO @0<:0<8 F82V;L=>W 4VT740B=>ABV AC1'T:BV2 F82V;L=>3> ?@020. @8G><C 2AO:5 AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> <>65 1CB8 @50;V7>20=> ;8H5 B8< AC1'T:B><, O:89 <0T ?>B@V1=89 >1AO3 F82V;L=>W 4VT740B=>ABV [45] . >A8BL GVB:V 28<>38 28AC20NBLAO 70:>=>402F5< V 4> ?@54AB02=8:V2 >AV1, O:V =5 <0NBL 4>AB0B=L>3> >1AO3C 4VT740B=>ABV. 56V 70 AC1'T:B=8< A:;04>< 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO V 70;56=> 2V4 3@><04O=AB20 >A>18. "0:, 70:>=>< CAB0=>2;5=>, I> V=>75<=V 3@><04O=8, >A>18 157 3@><04O=AB20 :>@8ABCNBLAO B8<8 6 ?@020<8 V A2>1>40<8, 0 B0:>6 =5ACBL BV 6 >1>2'O7:8, I> V 3@><04O=8 #:@0W=8, 70 28=OB:>< 28?04:V2, CAB0=>2;5=8E >=AB8BCFVTN #:@0W=8, 70:>=0<8, <V6=0@>4=8<8 4>3>2>@0<8 #:@0W=8. "0:>6 CAO:>3> @>4C <56V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 4;O 2VBG87=O=8E B0 V=>75<=8E N@848G=8E >AV1 V ?C1;VG=8E CB2>@5=L. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV N@848G=8E >AV1 #:@0W=8 ?5@5410G5=V 70;56=> 2V4 WE=L>3> 284C (N@848G=V >A>18 ?C1;VG=>3> V ?@820B=>3> ?@020). =0G5==O B0:>3> ?>4V;C AB0T 7@>7C<V;8<, O:I> 2@0EC20B8, I> 4VO;L=VABL N@848G=8E >AV1 ?C1;VG=>3> ?@020 ?>28==0 2V4?>2V40B8 7030;L=>45@602=8< V=B5@5A0<, G8< V 7C<>2;NTBLAO A?5F8DV:0 WE=L>3> ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O [42]. 572060NG8 =0 B5 I> 2 & #:@0W=8 ?5@5410G5=0 7030;L=0 ?@02>740B=VABL N@848G=8E >AV1 ?@820B=>3> ?@020 (AB. 91), >4=0: >:@5<8<8 70:>=0<8 2AB0=>2;5=> >1<565==O 4;O ?52=8E 284V2 N@848G=8E >AV1, =0?@8:;04 AB@0E>28E :><?0=V9, 10=:V2 B0 V=., I>, 157C<>2=>, ?>7=0G0TBLAO =0 WE=VE ?@020E O: 2;0A=8:V2. 1<56C20B8AO N@848G=V >A>18 <>6CBL C ?@02>740B=>ABV V 70 @VH5==O< AC4C. !?>AB5@V30NBLAO 9 G8A;5==V <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV B8E G8 V=H8E 284V2 N@848G=8E >AV1, I> AB>ACNBLAO 701>@>=8 @>7?>4V;OB8 :>HB8 ?VA;O ;V:2V40FVW <V6 CG0A=8:0<8, G;5=0<8, 70A=>2=8:0<8 (4;O >1 T4=0=L 3@><04O=  G. 5 AB. 21 # @> >1 T4=0==O 3@><04O= [83] ) B0 V=. ;O V=>75<=8E >AV1, =572060NG8 =0 =040==O W< =0FV>=0;L=>3> @568<C, 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO (01> <>6CBL ?5@5410G0B8AO) >A>1;82V <56V WE ?@02 =0 B5@8B>@VW #:@0W=8. "0:, 035=B 48?;><0B8G=>3> ?@54AB02=8FB20 =5 ?>28=5= 709<0B8AO 2 45@602V ?5@51C20==O ?@>D5AV9=>N 01> :><5@FV9=>N 4VO;L=VABN 7 <5B>N >A>18AB>W 283>48. )> AB>ACTBLAO V=>75<=8E 45@602, B> WE=O CG0ABL C 2V4=>A8=0E 2;0A=>ABV B0:>6 >1<56CTBLAO =54>?CAB8<VABN <0B8 =0 B5@8B>@VW #:@0W=8 >1 T:B8, ?5@5410G5=V 2 5@5;V:C ! 1 4> ?>AB0=>28 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8 2V4 17 G5@2=O 1992 @. @> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 >:@5<V 2848 <09=0 [155] . "5 6 AB>ACTBLAO <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <V6=0@>4=8E >@30=V70FV9. B65, <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL 70157?5GC20B8: 1) >E>@>=C 4>2:V;;O, 4>45@60==O ?@8=F8?V2 <>@0;V, >E>@>=C ?@02 V 70:>==8E V=B5@5AV2 V=H8E >AV1, 70E8AB V=B5@5AV2 45@6028 V ACA?V;LAB20 [16] ; 2) A2>1>4C :>=:C@5=FVW <V6 ?V4?@8T<FO<8, 70E8I0NG8 A?>6820GV2 2V4 ?@>O2V2 =54>1@>A>2VA=>W :>=:C@5=FVW V <>=>?>;V7<C 2 1C4L-O:8E AD5@0E ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV [156] ; 3) 5D5:B82=5 28:>@8AB0==O ?@02 A0<8<8 2;0A=8:0<8 B0 V=. ;0A8DV:0FVO >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 1. 0;56=> 2V4 465@5;0, O:8< 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO >1<565==O, 2>=8 <>6CBL <VAB8B8AO 2 0:B0E >@30=V2 45@602=>W 2;048 B0 >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, 0:B0E =>B0@VCA0, 4>3>2>@0E B0 AC4>28E 0:B0E. /: V <56V, 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L <>65 ?5@5410G0B8AO O: ?C1;VG=>-?@02>28<8, B0: V ?@820B=>?@02>28<8 0:B0<8. @8:;04>< ?C1;VG=8E >1<565=L T <>6;82VABL 2840==O 0:BV2 ?@> ?@8<CA>25 ?>7102;5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 ?52=5 <09=>, I> 2@53C;L>2CTBLAO <8B=8< 70:>=>402AB2>< (AB.AB. 322,336,348 8B=>3> :>45:AC #:@0W=8 (40;V - )) [136] , O:8<8 2>=8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO O: A0=:FVW 70 2840GC 157 4>72>;C <8B=>3> >@30=C #:@0W=8 01> 2B@0BC ?@54<5BV2, I> 7=0E>4OBLAO ?V4 <8B=8< :>=B@>;5<; 70 ?>@CH5==O 7>1>2'O70==O ?@> 72>@>B=5 22575==O ?@54<5BV2, 282575=8E 70 :>@4>=; 70 ?>@CH5==O 22575==O <09=0 7 <5B>N B@0=78BC G5@57 B5@8B>@VN #:@0W=8; 70 ?5@5<VI5==O ?@54<5BV2 G5@57 <8B=89 :>@4>= #:@0W=8 7 ?@8E>2C20==O< 2V4 <8B=>3> :>=B@>;N B0 V=. (AB.AB. 53, 331, 332, 334, 348, 352,353  [136] B0 V=.). C1;VG=8< >1<565==O< T B0:>6 0@5HB <09=0 2;0A=8:0 (=0?@8:;04, 73V4=> V7 AB. 9 # @> ?>@O4>: ?>30H5==O 7>1>2'O70=L ?;0B=8:V2 ?>40B:V2 ?5@54 1N465B0<8 B0 45@602=8<8 FV;L>28<8 D>=40<8 [88] , AB. 12 # @> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 01> 287=0==O 9>3> 10=:@CB>< [62]  B0 V=.). /A:@028< ?@8:;04>< >1<565=L 2;0A=8:0 V=AB@C<5=B>< ?C1;VG=>3> ?@020 T ?>40B:>20 70AB020, I> =5 40T 7<>3C 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 <09=> 2;0A=8:>< 70 A2>W< @>7AC4><, 2@53C;L>20=0 707=0G5=8< 0:>=><. =0A;V4>: WW 2AB0=>2;5==O =0 ?V4AB02V ?>40B:>2>3> ?>2V4><;5==O 01> ?>40B:>2>W 28<>38 ?>40B:>2>3> >@30=C 2;0A=8: =5 <0T ?@020 =0 A2V9 @>7AC4 @>7?>@O460B8AO 70AB02;5=8< <09=><, B>1B> ?>40B:>2V ?@>F54C@8, 287=0G5=V F8< 0:>=><, 70AB>A>2CNBLAO 157?>A5@54=L> 4> >1'T:BV2 B0:>W 2;0A=>ABV, O:V ?V4?040NBL ?V4 ?>40B:>2C 70AB02C B0 ?V4;O30NBL ?@>406C 70 ?@028;0<8, 287=0G5=8<8 F8< 0:>=><. 3V4=> V7 ?. 8.6.1 2:070=>3> 0:>=C ?;0B=8: ?>40B:V2, 0:B828 O:>3> ?5@51C20NBL C ?>40B:>2V9 70AB02V, <0T ?@02> 2V;L=> @>7?>@O460B8AO =8<8 ;8H5 70 ?8AL<>28< C73>465==O< 7 ?>40B:>28< >@30=>< ?@8: 0) :C?V2;V G8 ?@>406C, V=H8E 284V2 2V4GC65==O 01> >@5=48 (;V78=3C) =5@CE><>3> B0 @CE><>3> <09=0, <09=>28E G8 =5<09=>28E ?@02, 70 28=OB:>< <09=0, <09=>28E B0 =5<09=>28E ?@02, I> 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO C ?V4?@8T<=8FL:V9 4VO;L=>ABV ?;0B=8:0 ?>40B:V2 (V=H8E 2840E 4VO;L=>ABV, O:V 70 C<>20<8 >?>40B:C20==O ?@8@V2=NNBLAO 4> ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W), 0 A0<5 3>B>2>W ?@>4C:FVW, B>20@V2 V B>20@=8E 70?0AV2, @>1VB B0 ?>A;C3 70 :>HB8 70 FV=0<8, I> =5 T <5=H8<8 70 728G09=V; 1) 28:>@8AB0==V >1'T:BV2 =5@CE><>3> G8 @CE><>3> <09=0, <09=>28E G8 =5<09=>28E ?@02, 0 B0:>6 :>HBV2 4;O 74V9A=5==O ?@O<8E G8 ?>@BD5;L=8E V=25AB8FV9, 0 B0:>6 FV==8E ?0?5@V2, I> 70A2V4GCNBL 2V4=>A8=8 1>@3C, =040==O 30@0=BV9, ?>@CG8B5;LAB2, CABC?;5==O 28<>38 B0 ?5@52545==O 1>@3C, 28?;0BC 482V45=4V2, @>7<VI5==O 45?>78BV2 01> =040==O :@548BV2; 2) ;V:2V40FVW >1'T:BV2 =5@CE><>3> 01> @CE><>3> <09=0, 70 28=OB:>< WE ;V:2V40FVW 2=0A;V4>: >1AB028= =5?5@51>@=>W 4VW (D>@A-<06>@=8E >1AB028=) 01> 2V4?>2V4=> 4> @VH5=L >@30=V2 45@602=>3> C?@02;V==O. :B0<8 =>B0@VCA0 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO B0:5 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O: 701>@>=0 2V4GC65==O <09=0. >3>2>@>< CAB0=>2;NNBLAO A5@2VBCB8, 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9, O:V >1<56CNBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV. >3>2V@=89 E0@0:B5@ <0NBL >1<565==O, I> 28?;820NBL V7 4>3>2>@V2 =09<C, >@5=48, :><VAVW, C?@02;V==O <09=><, 4>2VG=>3> CB@8<0==O. !C4>28< @VH5==O< B0:>6 <>6CBL CAB0=>2;N20B8AO A5@2VBCB8, 0 B0:>6 =0 9>3> ?V4AB02V ?@8?8=OTBLAO ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 2=0A;V4>: :>=DVA:0FVW <09=0, ?@8<CA>2>3> 28:C?C 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 C 72 O7:C 7 ACA?V;L=>N =5>1EV4=VABN. ;0A=8: >1<56CTBLAO C 2V;L=><C 74V9A=5==V A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59 CE20;0<8 B0 ?>AB0=>20<8 3>A?>40@AL:>3> AC4C ?@> ?@87=0G5==O @>7?>@O4=8:0 <09=0 1>@6=8:0, :5@CNG>3> A0=0FVTN, ?@> 287=0==O 1>@6=8:0 10=:@CB>< V 2V4:@8BBO ;V:2V40FV9=>W ?@>F54C@8 (AB.AB. 13, 17, 23 # @> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 01> 287=0==O 9>3> 10=:@CB>< [62]). 2. >2 O70=>N 7 ?>?5@54=L>N T :;0A8DV:0FVO >1<565=L =0 ?@8<CA>2V (=>@<0B82=>-?@02>2V B0 AC4>2V >1<565==O) B0 4>1@>2V;L=V (4>3>2V@=V) 70;56=> 2V4 =0O2=>ABV 01> 2V4ACB=>ABV 2>;V 2;0A=8:0. @8<CA>2V >1<565==O 28=8:0NBL =0 ?V4AB02V 0:BV2 >@30=V2 45@602=>W 2;048, >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, 0:BV2 =>B0@VCA0, AC4>28E 0:BV2. >1@>2V;L=V >1<565==O 2;0A=8: 2AB0=>2;NT 4;O A515 2 @57C;LB0BV A2>WE 2>;L>28E 4V9, =0?@8:;04, C 28?04:C ?5@540GV =0;56=>3> <09=0 >A>1V 70 4>3>2>@>< =09<C (>@5=48), :><VAVW, C?@02;V==O <09=><, 4>2VG=>3> CB@8<0==O. 0 4>3>2V@=><C @V2=V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO >1<565==O 7 >3;O4C =0 2>;N 2;0A=8:0, O:89 CA2V4><;NT, I>, ?5@540NG8 <09=> C 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O V @>7?>@O460==O V=H8< >A>10<, 2V= B8< A0<8< >1<56CT AD5@C 2;0A=>3> @>7AC4C 2 @50;V70FVW A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV >A>18, O:0 =01C;0 <09=> 70 4>3>2>@>< 4>2VG=>3> CB@8<0==O, ?>;O30NBL 2 >1>2'O7:C 2;0A=8:0 <09=0 4>2VG=> 70157?5GC20B8 2V4GC6C20G52V CB@8<0==O V 4>3;O4. 0:>= CAB0=>2;NT ?52=V ?@02>2V >1<565==O I>4> ?@02 2;0A=8:0 2V4=>A=> <09=0, O:5 T ?@54<5B>< ?>7=0G5=>3> 4>3>2>@C. "0:, =01C20G =5 <0T ?@020 4> A<5@BV 2V4GC6C20G0 ?@>4020B8, 40@C20B8, 7<V=N20B8 <09=>, ?5@540=5 70 4>3>2>@>< 4>2VG=>3> CB@8<0==O (4>3;O4C), C:;040B8 2V4=>A=> 9>3> 4>3>2V@ 70AB028, ?5@54020B8 9>3> C 2;0A=VABL V=HV9 >A>1V =0 ?V4AB02V V=H>3> 4>3>2>@C. 0 B0:5 <09=> =5 <>65 1CB8 725@=5=5 ABO3=5==O ?@>BO3>< 68BBO 2V4GC6C20G0. B@0B0 (7=8I5==O) <09=0, I> 1C;> ?5@540=> =01C20G52V, =5 T ?V4AB02>N 4;O ?@8?8=5==O 01> 7<5=H5==O >1AO3C 9>3> >1>2'O7:V2 ?5@54 2V4GC6C20G5< (AB.AB. 749, 750, 754 &). 3. 1<565==O, O: V <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, B0:>6 <>6=0 ?>4V;8B8 =0 ?@02>2V B0 =5?@02>2V. /: C65 707=0G0;>AO, >1<565==O <0NBL @C=BC20B8AO =0 <560E ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. ;O 282065=>ABV WE 2AB0=>2;5==O ?>B@V1=V 45B0;L=0 ?@02>20 @53;0<5=B0FVO ?V4AB02, C<>2, <5E0=V7<C WE 2AB0=>2;5==O, GVB:0 2:07V2:0 ?>2=>2065=L 45@602=8E >@30=V2 V ?>A04>28E >AV1, I> =04V;5=V ?@02>< 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<56CNG8E 2;0A=8:V2 70A>1V2. =0A;V4>: FL>3> ?@02>28<8 287=0NBLAO =5 1C4L-O:V >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV (2:;NG0NG8 BV, I> 28=8:;8 70 2>;528O2;5==O< A0<>3> 2;0A=8:0, B>1B> 4>1@>2V;L=V >1<565==O), >A:V;L:8 2 ?@>B82=><C @07V AB2>@NTBLAO ?>3@>70 >1<565==O ?@02>- V 4VT740B=>ABV >A>18 01> T 9<>2V@=VABL =5?@02>2>3> >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 V=H8E ?V4AB020E [131] . 5?@02>2V >1<565==O  F5 >1<565==O, 7C<>2;5=V =570:>==8<8 4VO<8 45@602=8E >@30=V2, >@30=V2   V >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, O:V =5 2V4?>2V40NBL 70:>=C.  B0:><C @07V 2;0A=8: <>65 28<030B8 045:20B=>3> 70E8ABC A2>3> ?@020, =0?@8:;04, H;OE>< ?@54'O2;5==O ?>7>2C ?@> 287=0==O =570:>==8< 0:B0 >@30=C 45@602=>W 2;048, >@30=C   01> >@30=C <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O (AB. 393 &). A>1;82> 3>AB@> B0:0 =5>1EV4=VABL 28=8:0T 2 AD5@V ?>40B:>2>3>, 75<5;L=>3>, ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>3> ?@020, 45 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO 70920 70@53C;L>20=VABL, 4><V=CNBL 2V425@B> >1<56CNGV @568<8, I> =5 A?@8OT @>728B:>2V ?@02>2>W 0:B82=>ABV 3@><04O=, 7<CHCT HC:0B8 >1EV4=V (=09G0ABVH5 =5?@02><V@=V) A?>A>18 704>2>;5==O A2>WE V=B5@5AV2 [158] . /: =5?@02>2V <>6=0 >E0@0:B5@87C20B8 BV D0:B8G=V >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:V 28=8:0NBL 2=0A;V4>: B8E G8 V=H8E ?>@CH5=L 7 1>:C V=H8E >AV1. @8:;04>< FL>3> <>65 A;C3C20B8 AB0=>28I5 2;0A=8:0 :20@B8@8 2 ?>1C4>20=><C 1C48=:C, O:89 =5 2 7<>7V 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 WW (@5<>=BC20B8, ?@>6820B8), >A:V;L:8 1C48=>: D>@<0;L=> 1C2 >D>@<;5=89 O: 740=89 2 5:A?;C0B0FVN, 0;5 7 ?52=8<8 =54>;V:0<8 B0 7 2V4ACB=VABN ?>2=>3> :><?;5:AC AC?CB=VE ?>A;C3 (2>4>- , 5;5:B@>-, 307>?>AB0G0==O, A8AB5<0 >?0;5==O B>I>). &5 <>65 AB0B8AO 7 28=8 O: 1C4V25;L=>W >@30=V70FVW, B0: V 2;0A=8:V2 V=H8E :20@B8@ 2 FL><C 1C48=:C, I> =5 74V9A=NNBL 4V9, O:V 1 =040;8 <>6;82>ABV I>4> F5=B@0;V7>20=>3> ?V4:;NG5==O 4> =040==O :><C=0;L=8E ?>A;C3. !B>A>2=> =02545=>3> 206;828< T ?8B0==O ?@> <56C A0<8E >1<565=L, CAB0=>2;5=8E =0 B0:8E @V7=8E @V2=OE. G5284=>, A;V4 3>2>@8B8 ?@> B5, I> =5>1EV4=VABL 22545==O 70:>=>402G8E :@8B5@VW2 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 0 ?5@5;V:C >1<565=L C 70:>=V 1CB8 =5 <>65 2=0A;V4>: ?>ABV9=>3> @>728B:C 2V4=>A8= B0 =5>1EV4=>ABV WE @53C;N20==O. !0<0 >=AB8BCFVO  F5 A?>AV1 >1<565==O 45@6028, 45@602=>W 2;048, C B><C G8A;V O: 2;0A=8:0.  FVTW ?>78FVW V <>6=0 @>73;O40B8 9 >:@5<V ?V4E>48 4> <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, I> C =V9 70:;045=V. @020 V A2>1>48 <>6CBL <0B8 <56V BV;L:8 2AB0=>2;5=V 70:>=>< V7 <5B>N 70E8ABC >A=>2 :>=AB8BCFV9=>3> ;04C, <>@0;L=>ABV, 74>@>2'O, ?@02 V 70:>==8E V=B5@5AV2 3@><04O= [158] . 4=>G0A=> >=AB8BCFVO 287=0G0T <56V @>7AC4C 70:>=>402FO V, O: =0A;V4>:, AC4>2>W V 28:>=02G>W 2;048, 2AB0=>2;NNG8 :@8B5@VW 4;O <56 V >1<565=L, >A:V;L:8 2>=8 ?>28==V 1CB8 28?@0240=V ?@8@>4>N 2V4=>A8=, I> A:;040NBLAO. 4. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV I>4> >1AO3C <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0 ?> 74V9A=5==N A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59 <0NBL <VAF5 O: 2=0A;V4>: CAB0=>2;5==O A0<8E ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0, B0: V ?@8 WE=L><C 74V9A=5==V O: AB8A=5==O AC1'T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV [132] . !0< ?> A>1V D0:B 2AB0=>2;5==O 2 & ?@02><>G=>AB59 ?> 2>;>4V==N, :>@8ABC20==N V @>7?>@O460==N 265 A2V4G8BL ?@> ?52=5 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 4=8< V7 ?@>O2V2 >1<565=L 70 7<VAB>< T B0: 720=5 @>7I5?;5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 >48= V B>9 A0<89 >1'T:B, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 265 =5 70157?5GCT 2;0A=8:>2V 2AN ?>2=>BC 2;048 =04 @VGGN [117] , =0?@8:;04 ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV. >4V1=5 >1<565==O 45<>=AB@CTBLAO 22545==O< C 70:>=>402AB2> #:@0W=8 GC6>W 9><C :>=AB@C:FVW ?@020 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV. @8 9>3> 2AB0=>2;5==V 2;0A=8: ?5@5B5@?;N20B8<5 I5 1V;LH5 >1<565=L. >2V@G89 2;0A=8: 74>1C20T D0:B8G=> ?>2=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, 7 >4=>G0A=>N D0:B8G=>N 2B@0B>N FL>3> ?@02>2>3> B8BC;C =><V=0;L=8< 2;0A=8:><, O:89 ?5@540T =0;56=5 9><C =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV <09=> 4;O 4>AO3=5==O :>=:@5B=> 2AB0=>2;5=8E FV;59 2 V=B5@5A0E ?52=8E >AV1. A:V;L:8 =5<>6;82> =025AB8 28G5@?=89 ?5@5;V: ?@02><>G=>AB59 4>2V@G>3> 2;0A=8:0, >1<565==O AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL 1CB8 >:@5A;5=V 70 4>?><>3>N 701>@>= =0 74V9A=5==O B8E 01> V=H8E 4V9 4>2V@G>3> 2;0A=8:0 I>4> <09=0, O:5 9><C ?5@540=5. &8< 7C<>2;NTBLAO =5>1EV4=VABL GVB:>3> @53C;N20==O 2V4=>A8= 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV V :>=B@>;N 70 4VO<8 4>2V@G>3> 2;0A=8:0. 1<565==O =5 28:;NG0NBL >:@5<V ?@02><>G=>ABV 7V 7<VABC ?@020 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV, 0 7402;NNBL, AB@8<CNBL 4>2V@G>3> 2;0A=8:0 2 74V9A=5==V AC1'T:B82=>3> ?@020 7 <5B>N 70157?5G5==O ?@02 V >E>@>=N20=8E 70:>=>< V=B5@5AV2 283>4>=01C20GV2 V ACA?V;LAB20 2 FV;><C [131] . AB0=>2;5==O @568<C 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV A?@8G8=OT 9 >1<565==O ?@02 2;0A=8:0, O:89 ?5@5402 A2>T <09=> C 4>2V@GC 2;0A=VABL V=HV9 >A>1V. 572060NG8 =0 2V4ACB=VABL C ?@02V #:@0W=8 B8E 70A04, O:V ?>@>48;8 ?@02> 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV 2 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=AL:><C ?@02V, I> <0T 28B>:8 C ?@02V A?@0254;82>ABV, F5 ?@02> =8=V 2@53C;L>20=5 2 &. /: 2V@=> 707=0G0NBL =0C:>2FV, FV9 :>=AB@C:FVW C =0A 702060T B@048FV9=89 4C0;VAB8G=89 ?>4V; F82V;L=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= =0 @5G>2V B0 7>1>2 O70;L=V [218]. =0A;V4>: FL>3> C=5<>6;82;NTBLAO >4=>7=0G=0 2V4?>2V4L =0 ?8B0==O, 2 G><C ?>;O30T @V7=8FO <V6 ?>2=>2065==O<8 C?@028B5;O <09=0 B0 4>2V@G>3> 2;0A=8:0 2 FV;><C, 7>:@5<0 2 0A?5:BV >1<565==O F8<8 ?>2=>2065==O<8 ?@02 2;0A=8:0. 0 A2>T@V4=5 @>7I5?;5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6=0 2:070B8 V ?@8 C:;045==V 4>3>2>@V2, =0?@8:;04 >@5=48 01> =09<C, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> >@5=40@52V (=09<0G52V) ?5@5E>4OBL ?@02><>G=>ABV ?> 2>;>4V==N V :>@8ABC20==N, 0 2;0A=8: 70;8H0T 70 A>1>N ?@02> =0 @>7?>@O460==O ?@54<5B>< 4>3>2>@C. @V< B>3>, 4> =01C20G0 <09=0, I> ?5@51C20T 2 >@5=4V (=09<V) @07>< V7 <09=><, =0 O:5 2V= =01C2 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, ?5@5E>4OBL V >1BO65==O B5@?VB8 28:>@8AB0==O 9>3> <09=0 >@5=40@5< (=09<0G5<). 1<565==O, ?>2 O70=V 7 @>7?>@O460==O< 2;0A=8:>< A2>W< <09=><, O: ?@028;>, 72>4OBLAO 4> ?@8<CA>2>3> 2V4GC65==O >1'T:BV2 9>3> ?@020. @8G><C @>7?>@O460==O 74V9A=NTBLAO 01> FV;:>< C ACA?V;L=8E V=B5@5A0E, 01> >A:V;L:8 FL>3> 28<030T ?52=0 A8BC0FVO. 5. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 70;56=> 2V4 ?@02>2V4=>A8=, 2 O:8E 2>=8 @50;V7CNBLAO, <>6CBL :;0A8DV:C20B8AO =0 @5G>2V, 4>3>2V@=V B0 :>@?>@0B82=V. A:V;L:8 FL><C ?8B0==N ?@8A2OG5=> 4@C389 @>74V; FVTW 48A5@B0FVW, BCB =5<0T ?>B@518 45B0;L=> @>7:@820B8 FN ?@>1;5<0B8:C. 8A=>2:8 4> @>74V;C 1 1. 70T<>72'O7>: ?@8@>4=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV V A>FV0;L=8E C<>2 9>3> VA=C20==O B0 @50;V70FVW T B8< G8==8:><, I> 7C<>2;NT 28<>38 4> <56 FL>3> ?@020 <>@0;L=>3>, 728G09=>3> V ?@02>2>3> (?>78B82=>3>) E0@0:B5@C. 2. 030;L=5 @>7C<V==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O: ?@028;>, ?>2'O7CTBLAO 7 :0B53>@VTN ?@8A2>T==O, O:5 T 28@07=8:>< ACB=>ABV 2;0A=>ABV, C B><C G8A;V C :>=B5:ABV WW <56 B0 >1<565=L. >:@5<0 <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 287=0G0NBLAO G5@57 @>7@V7=5==O <>3> V B2>3>. 3. @02> 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@02> AC1 T:B82=5 287=0G0TBLAO G5@57 B0:V :0B53>@VW, O: 2;040, 2>;O, V=B5@5A, @>7AC4, <V@0 4>72>;5=>W ?>254V=:8, :>6=0 7 O:8E 70:;040T ?52=5 >1<565==O FL>3> ?@020. 4. V4=>A8=8 <V6 2;0A=8:>< B0 V=H8<8 AC1'T:B0<8 7 ?@82>4C @5G59 T =5 ?@>AB> 01A>;NB=8<8 70 A2>TN ?@02>2>N ?@8@>4>N, 0 9 28O2;ONBL AB0= 7@V;>ABV 2AL>3> ACA?V;LAB20, 740B=>ABV 4> A?V2VA=C20==O 2 =L><C G8A;5==8E >AV1 V A0<>>1<565==O. &5 V ?>28==> 70157?5GC20B8 A8AB5<C 270T<=8E <56 WE=VE ?@02 V 10;0=A V=B5@5AV2 2;0A=8:0, B@5BVE >AV1 V ACA?V;LAB20 2 FV;><C. 5. 56V T 2;0AB82VABN ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 >1 T:B82=><C @>7C<V==V, N@848G=>N E0@0:B5@8AB8:>N 9>3> AB0B8G=>3> AB0=C, O:8< >:@5A;NTBLAO H8@>:5 :>;> <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0, 0;5 7 4>45@60==O< ?52=8E ?@8?8AV2 4VOB8 2V4?>2V4=8< G8=><, I> <0NBL 7030;L=89 E0@0:B5@ V 4VNBL 2V4=>A=> 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2. 1<565==O<8 T 7>2=VH=V9 2?;82 =0 AC1 T:B82=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV :>=:@5B=>W >A>18, I> 2BV;NTBLAO C 2V4?>2V4=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 7 WW CG0ABN, BO3=5 70 A>1>N AB8A=5==O, 7<5=H5==O <>6;82>AB59 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L V ?>;O30T C :>=:@5B=8E ?@8?8A0E 2;0A=8:C 74V9A=8B8 ?52=V 4VW 01> CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 ?52=8E 4V9. 6.  70:>=>402AB2V #:@0W=8 B0 =0C:>28E 4>A;V465==OE 2V4ACB=V9 T48=89 ?V4EV4 I>4> >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:V <0NBL O: AE>6>ABV, B0: V @>71V6=>ABV. E AE>6VABL ?>;O30T 2 B><C, I> 2>=8: 0) AB>ACNBLAO AC1 T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 1) 72C6CNBL <>6;82>ABV 2;0A=8:0 I>4> 74V9A=5==O A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4; 2) ?>G0AB8 71V30NBLAO ?V4AB028 WE 2AB0=>2;5==O, O:>N T =0A0<?5@54 4>3>2V@. >71V6=>ABV >1C<>2;5=V B8<, I> >1BO65==O<8 T 4>40B:>289 BO30@ 4;O 2;0A=8:0, 0 2V4B0: =8<8 T B0:V CA:;04=5==O 4;O =L>3>, O:V 70;560BL 2V4 9>3> ?@020 V O2;ONBL A>1>N 4>40B:>2V ?@020 V=H8E >AV1 =0 9>3> @VG (A5@2VBCB8, 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9, ?@020 7 4>3>2>@V2 >@5=48, =09<C B>I>). 1<565==O 6 =5 ?@8?CA:0NBL ?@02 V=H8E >AV1 =0 @VG 2;0A=8:0, 0;5 2V= 7 WE 2AB0=>2;5==O< =5 2 7<>7V 27030;V 74V9A=8B8 A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV. "0:5 AB0=>28I5 A:;040TBLAO ?@8 =0:;045==V 0@5HBC =0 9>3> <09=> 01> 701>@>=V 2V4GC65==O.  =0C:>28E 4>A;V465==OE :0B53>@VW  >1<565==O B0  >1BO65==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 0=0;V7CNBLAO O: T48=5 ?>=OBBO - >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 7. <VHC20==O 2 70:>=>402AB2V #:@0W=8 ?>=OBL >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0T 1CB8 CAC=5=8< 2=5A5==O< 2V4?>2V4=8E 7<V= C 70:>=8 #:@0W=8 @> 70157?5G5==O 28<>3 :@548B>@V2 B0 @5TAB@0FVN >1BO65=L V @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L.  F8E 70:>=0E B5@<V=8 >1BO65==O AB>A>2=> 701>@>=8 2V4GC65==O B0 0@5HBC ?>B@51CNBL 70<V=8 =0 >1<565==O, V 2V4?>2V4=> B5@<V= >1<565==O AB>A>2=> A5@2VBCBV2, 4>3>2>@V2 >@5=48, C?@02;V==O <09=><, :><VAVW B>I>  =0 >1BO65==O. 8. 5B>N <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T >E>@>=0 ?@02 V 70:>==8E V=B5@5AV2 CAVE >AV1 V ACA?V;LAB20 2 FV;><C 2V4 =54>1@>A>2VA=8E 4V9 2;0A=8:0. 5B>N 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L T 70157?5G5==O V=B5@5AV2 B0 ?@02 :>=:@5B=8E >AV1. 9. V4AB028 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T @V7=8<8. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL 287=0G0B8AO ;8H5 2 70:>=V, >A:V;L:8 BV;L:8 70:>= =040T ?>78B82=5 @53C;N20==O 2V4=>A8=0< 2;0A=>ABV (>=AB8BCFVO #:@0W=8, &, # @> 2;0A=VABL,  #:@0W=8). 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO ?V470:>==8<8 =>@<0B82=>-?@02>28<8 0:B0<8, 0:B0<8 >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, 0:B0<8 =>B0@VCAV2, AC4>28< @VH5==O<, 4>3>2>@><. 10. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV VA=CNBL =0 ?>42V9=><C @V2=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=: 2>=8 28=8:0NBL 7 ?52=8E ?V4AB02 V 2BV;NNBLAO 2 >:@5<V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8, O:V, 2 A2>N G5@3C, 9 2?;820NBL =0 7<VAB ?@02>2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV. "0:, A5@2VBCB T @5G>28< ?@02><, I> VA=CT C 2V4?>2V4=8E @5G>28E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, V >4=>G0A=> 2?;820T =0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, 72C6CNG8 9>3>. 11.  >3;O4C =0 B5, I> ?@02><>G=>ABO<8 2;0A=8:0 T 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O, 2V= <>65 >1<56C20B8AO O: C :>6=><C 7 B@L>E A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59, B0: V 2 WE :><1V=0FVOE (=0?@8:;04, C 2>;>4V==V B0 :>@8ABC20==V), 0 B0:>6 C 2AVE F8E ?@02><>G=>ABOE. V4B0:, 4> >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV A;V4 2V4=5AB8 9>3> ?@8<CA>25 ?@8?8=5==O (28;CG5==O <09=0 01> 28:C?), >A:V;L:8 2 FL><C @07V 2V4ABC=T 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4 >4=>3> 7 ?@02><>G=>AB59  2V;L=>3> @>7?>@O460==O A2>W< <09=><.  B0:8E 28?04:0E 2;0A=8: 265 =5 74V9A=NT A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4, F5 =5 70;568BL FV;:>< 2V4 9>3> 2>;V. 12. 1<565==O O: 72C65==O AC1 T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL B0:V =0?@O<:8: 0) >1BO65==O (701>@>=0 2V4GC65==O <09=0, 0@5HB), O:V 2?;820NBL =0 ?@02> 2;0A=8:0 I>4> @>7?>@O460==O <09=><; 1) ?@8<CA>25 >1<565=5 :>@8ABC20==O <09=>< 2;0A=8:0 V=H8<8 >A>10<8; 2) ?@8<CA>25 ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: >1<565==O 2 2V;L=><C @>7?>@O460==V A2>W< <09=><. 13. !?>A>10<8 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T 701>@>=8, ?@8?8A8 V 7>1>2'O7C20==O. AB0=>2;5==O< <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T 701>@>=0 74V9A=N20B8 4VW 7 <5B>N 70?>4VO==O H:>48 V=HV9 >A>1V; 7;>26820B8 ?@02>< 2 V=H8E D>@<0E; 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 7 <5B>N >1<565==O :>=:C@5=FVW; 7;>26820B8 4><V=CNG8< AB0=>28I5< =0 @8=:C B>I>. @02> 2;0A=>ABV >1<56CTBLAO, =0?@8:;04, 701>@>=>N 2V4GC65==O <09=0 2;0A=8:0. 01>@>=8 D>@<C;NNBLAO C 283;O4V ?@8?8AV2 (6>@AB:8E 01> >@VT=B>2=8E). 14. 1>2'O7:8 <0NBL =5 BV;L:8 2AV V=HV >A>18 2V4=>A=> 2;0A=8:0, O: B> ?@8?CA:0T :>=AB@C:FVO 01A>;NB=>3> ?@020, 0 9 A0< 2;0A=8: 2=0A;V4>: CAB0=>2;5==O 9>3> >1>2 O7:V2. 1>2 O7:8 2;0A=8:0 <>6CBL <0B8 O: 7030;L=89 E0@0:B5@ 157 9>3> 2ABC?C 4> :>=:@5B=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= (2;0A=VABL 7>1>2 O7CT), B0: V 7C<>2;N20B8AO ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8 2;0A=8:0 7 :>=:@5B=8<8 >A>10<8 (?@8 A5@2VBCB0E B0 V=H8E @5G>28E ?@020E). 15. 1<56CNBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 9 ?@87C?8=5==O O: B8<G0A>20 =5<>6;82VABL 2;0A=8:0 74V9A=N20B8 A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV. > =8E =0;560BL 7030;L=V 7C?8=5==O 4VW ?@020 (=0?@8:;04, <>@0B>@V9) B0 :>=:@5B=V 701>@>=8 =0 28:>@8AB0==O ?52=8<8 >A>10<8 A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59 (=0?@8:;04, ?@8 ?5@540==V <09=0 2 >@5=4C :>@8ABC20==O =8< 265 74V9A=N20B8<5 >@5=40@, 0 =5 2;0A=8:, O:89 ?@87C?8=OT 74V9A=5==O FVTW ?@02><>G=>ABV). 16. !;V4 2V4@V7=OB8: 0) =091V;LH 203><89 ABC?V=L AB8A=5==O 2;0A=8:0 (?@8 =0:;045==V =0 9>3> <09=> 0@5HBC; 70?@>20465==V ?@8B@8<0==O <09=0 2;0A=8:0 O: A?>A>1C 70157?5G5==O 28:>=0==O =8< 7>1>2 O70=L; ?@8 B0:8E A?>A>10E ?@8<CA>2>3> ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O: =0FV>=0;V70FVO, @5:2V78FVO, :>=DVA:0FVO, ?@8<CA>289 28:C? C 2;0A=8:0 9>3> <09=0 C 72 O7:C 7 ACA?V;L=>N =5>1EV4=VABN, 0 B0:>6 C @07V 10=:@CBAB20 2;0A=8:0); 1) AB8A=5==O A5@54=L>3> ABC?5=O, O:V <>6=0 ?>4V;8B8 =0 B@8 3@C?8: ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0 B0:8E V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02, O: 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9, 0 B0:>6 2=0A;V4>: C:;045==O =8< 4>3>2>@V2 =09<C (>@5=48), 4>@CG5==O, :><VAVW, C?@02;V==O <09=><, 4>2VG=>3> CB@8<0==O B0 V=.; ?@8 70AB02V (V?>B5FV) 2;0A=8:>< A2>3> <09=0 B0 C 28?04:0E =0:;045==O =0 =L>3> 701>@>=8 2V4GC65==O; - ?@8 70:@V?;5==V 2;0A=8:>< A2>3> <09=0 70 N@848G=>N >A>1>N =0 ?@02V 3>A?>40@AL:>3> 2V40==O 01> >?5@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O; 2) <V=V<0;L=8< AB8A=5==O< 2;0A=8:0 1C45: 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBV2 =0 9>3> <09=>; 4VO;L=VABL 2;0A=8:0 C A?5FV0;L=8E 5:>=><VG=8E 7>=0E 01> A?5FV0;L=><C @568<V V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, 0 B0:>6 ?@8 ?@02>2><C @568<V A?V;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV; 70;56=> 2V4 284C 4VO;L=>ABV 2;0A=8:0, I> 28<030T 4>45@60==O =8< 2V4?>2V4=8E 701>@>=, 2AB0=>2;5=8E 70:>=>402AB2><; ?5@51C20==O 9>3> C :>@?>@0B82=8E 2V4=>A8=0E. 17. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL 1CB8 :;0A8DV:>20=V 70;56=> 2V4: 1) @>7C<V==O A0<>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@8@>4=>3> V O: ?>78B82=>3> ?@020; 2) <5B8 WE=L>3> 2AB0=>2;5==O - 2 ?C1;VG=><C 01> ?@820B=><C V=B5@5AV; 3) AD5@8 70:>=>402G>3> @53C;N20==O; 4) N@848G=>W G8==>ABV ?@8?8AV2; 5) ?@02>2>3> @568<C ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 6) ?52=8E >1'T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 7) AC1'T:BV2, =0 O:8E ?>H8@NNBLAO FV <56V. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL :;0A8DV:C20B8AO 70;56=> 2V4: 1) 465@5;0, O:8< 2>=8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO; 2) =0O2=>ABV 01> 2V4ACB=>ABV 2>;V 2;0A=8:0; 3) N@848G=>W G8==>ABV ?@8?8AV2; 4) >1AO3C <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0 ?> 74V9A=5==N A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59; 5) ?@02>2V4=>A8=, 2 O:8E 2>=8 @50;V7CNBLAO. >74V; 2 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >1C<>2;5=V 5G>28<8, 4>3>2V@=8<8 B0 :>@?>@0B82=8<8 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8 2.1. 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >1C<>2;5=V @5G>28<8 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8 # ?V4@>74V;V 1.1 @>1>B8 =02545=V :;0A8DV:0FVW <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 70 @V7=8<8 ?@02>28<8 ?V4AB020<8.  <5B>N 2A50A?5:B=>3> 0=0;V7C F8E :0B53>@V9 ?@>2048B8<5<> WE 4>A;V465==O 2 70;56=>ABV 2V4 28=8:=5==O 2V4?>2V4=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, 2 O:8E ?5@51C20T 2;0A=8:. "0:89 :@8B5@V9 =040ABL 7<>3C 2@0EC20B8 2AV B>=:>IV <56 B0 >1<565=L 2 WE G8A;5==8E ?@>O20E, 707=0G5=8E C =02545=8E :;0A8DV:0FVOE, >A:V;L:8 ;8H5 ?5@51C20==O C ?52=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E DV:ACT AB0= B8E G8 V=H8E <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0 AB>A>2=> A2>3> <09=0. V 2AB0=>2;5==O< =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 28=8:0NBL >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV (@5G>2V >1<565==O). 040<> WE 0=0;V7 70 B0:8<8 =0?@O<0<8: 1) 287=0G5==O ?5@5;V:C V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02; 2) WE 7030;L=>W E0@0:B5@8AB8:8; 3) @>73;O4C :>6=>3> 7 V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02. 5@5;V: V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02, =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 7>1>2'O70;L=8E, ?5@5410G5=> 157?>A5@54=L> 70:>=>< (AB. 396 &), O:89 4> =8E 2V4=>A8BL: ?@02> 2>;>4V==O; ?@02> :>@8ABC20==O (A5@2VBCB); ?@02> :>@8ABC20==O 75<5;L=>N 4V;O=:>N 4;O AV;LAL:>3>A?>40@AL:8E ?>B@51 (5<DVB5278A); ?@02> 701C4>28 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 (AC?5@DVFV9). @>B5 F5 =5 A2V4G8BL, I> WE ?5@5;V: T 28G5@?=8<, >A:V;L:8 2 G. 2 AB. 395 & 2:07CTBLAO =0 <>6;82VABL 2AB0=>2;5==O 70:>=>< 9 V=H8E WE 284V2. 4=0:, O: A;CH=> 2V4<VG0TBLAO 2 ;VB5@0BC@V, =0 A2V9 @>7AC4 >A>18 =5 <0NBL ?@020 2AB0=>2;N20B8 =>2V @V7=>2848 @5G>28E ?@02, =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 CG0A=8:0 7>1>2 O70;L=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, O:89 <>65 2ABC?0B8 2 ?@02>G8=8 V =5 ?5@5410G5=V 70:>=>< [112] . @020 =0 GC6V @5GV B@048FV9=> ?V44020;8AO @V7=V9 B5>@5B8G=V9 A8AB5<0B870FVW. "0:, .. >:@>2AL:89 284V;O2 B@8 >A=>2=V 3@C?8 B0:8E ?@02: 1) ?@020 :>@8ABC20==O GC68<8 @5G0<8 (A5@2VBCB, ?@02> 701C4>28 V 5<DVB5278A); 2) ?@020 =0 >45@60==O 2V4><>W FV==>ABV 7 GC6>W @5GV (70AB02=5 ?@02>); 3) ?@020 =0 ?@8410==O 2V4><>W @5GV (?@02> ?5@5206=>W :C?V2;V V 45O:V 2848 A5@2VBCBV2, I> ?5@5410G0;8 ?@8410==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 ?;>48 2V4 28:>@8AB>2C20=>3> <09=0) [151]  . )> AB>ACTBLAO ACG0A=8E 4>A;V465=L V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02, B>, =0?@8:;04, . 0@8=>20 4> =8E 2V4=>A8BL O: ?>9<5=>20=V 2 70:>=V O: @5G>2V (A5@2VBCB8 B0 V=HV), B0: V =5 ?>9<5=>20=V O: B0:V C 70:>=V: ?@02> :>@8ABC20==O 68B;>28< ?@8<VI5==O< G;5=0<8 @>48=8 9>3> 2;0A=8:0; >@5=40; =09< 68B;>2>3> ?@8<VI5==O; 157>?;0B=5 :>@8ABC20==O (?>78G:0); 2AO:5 V=H5 :>@8ABC20==O GC68< <09=>< [14] . B65, 4> =02545=>3> ?5@5;V:C =5 22V9H;8 ?@02> 70AB02>CB@8<C20G0 =0 ?@54<5B 70AB028 V ?@02> C?@028B5;O GC68< <09=>< (01>, O: G0AB> 26820NBL, B5@<V= 4>2V@G>3> C?@028B5;O) 2V4=>A=> <09=0, ?5@540=>3> 2 C?@02;V==O. . )5==8:>20, :@V< B>3>, O: >A>1;825 @5G>25 ?@02>, I> <0T 2AV @8A8 B0:>3> (?@02> A;V4C20==O, 01A>;NB=89 70E8AB) V >1BO6CT <09=>, @>73;O40T 70AB02C [225] . .. V4>?@83>@0 [215] , .. /@>FL:89, .. ><0H5=:> [216]  2:07CNBL =0 70AB02C B0 ?@8B@8<0==O, O:V T @5G>28<8 A?>A>10<8 70157?5G5==O 28:>=0==O 7>1>2 O70=L, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> 70 F8<8 A?>A>10<8 C 70AB02>45@60B5;O B0 :@548B>@0, O:89 ?@8B@8<C202 @VG 1>@6=8:0, 28=8:0NBL ?52=V ?@020 =0 GC6C @VG. V4B0:, ?@02> 70AB02>45@60B5;O =0 ?@54<5B 70AB028 2>=8 22060NBL @5G>28< ?@02>< [109; 23]  . .. /@>FL:89 B0 .. ><0H5=:> [216]  2:07CNBL B0:>6 =0 @5G>2C ?@8@>4C ?@02 3>A?>40@AL:>3> 2V40==O, >?5@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O B0 >?5@0B82=>3> 28:>@8AB0==O <09=0 (AB.AB. 136-138  [37] ). 8=8:0NBL 9 B0:V A:;04=V A8BC0FVW, :>;8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV >1<56CTBLAO ?>42V9=>, =0?@8:;04, :>;8 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO A5@2VBCB =0 68B;>289 1C48=>:, 740=89 2;0A=8:>< C =09< 70 4>3>2>@>< [14] . B65, 28=8:=5==O =87:8 AC1'T:B82=8E ?@02 V=H8E >AV1 (B0:8E, O: A5@2VBCB, 5<DVB5278A B>I>) AB>A>2=> <09=0 2;0A=8:0 >4=>G0A=> >1<56CT ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV >AB0==L>3>. "><C B0:V ?@020 9 >45@60;8 =072C ?@020 =0 GC6C @VG (<09=>), B>1B> ?@020 =0 @VG, I> =0;568BL V=HV9 >A>1V =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV.  ?>40;LH><C B5@<V=8 V=HV @5G>2V ?@020 B0 ?@020 =0 GC6C @VG (<09=>) 1C45<> 26820B8 O: B>B>6=V.  B>9 65 G0A C =0C:>2V9 ;VB5@0BC@V >1@C=B>20=> ?V4EV4, 2V4?>2V4=> 4> O:>3> ?@020 =0 GC6C @VG =5 T >1<565==O<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. "0:89 ?V4EV4 7CAB@VG0T<> 2 @>1>B0E .. 595@0 [135] , .$. (5@H5=528G0 [221] . 0 =5?@8?CAB8<VABL 7<VHC20==O >1<565=L V ?@02 V=H8E >AV1 =0 @VG 2;0A=8:0 2:07C202 .. !V=09AL:89. 0 9>3> 70C2065==O<, >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, E>G0 40NBL <>6;82VABL B@5BV< >A>10< 74V9A=N20B8 B0: G8 V=0:H5 A2>T ?0=C20==O =04 @VGGN 2;0A=8:0, 0;5 F5 ?0=C20==O =5 T WE=V< F82V;L=8< ?@02><, WE=V< <09=>< [172]  HYPERLINK "http://www.vestnik-vas.ru/news.asp?IDD=113" \l "SI*3#SI*3" . BV<, B0:0 ?>78FVO T AC?5@5G;82>N V =5 2V4?>2V40T ?>2=>N <V@>N ACB=>ABV 2V4=>A8=, I> A:;040NBLAO 2=0A;V4>: 28=8:=5==O =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0 ?@02 V=H8E >AV1. &5 =03;O4=> 45<>=AB@CTBLAO 9 ?>40;LH8<8 @>7AC40<8 B>3> 6 .. 595@0, O:89 A;CH=> 2V4<VG02, I> 2 45O:8E 28?04:0E :>@8ABC20==O GC6>N @VGGN T =0ABV;L:8 VAB>B=8< 4;O >A>18, I> 2>=> =5<>218 =5>1EV4=5 4;O 4>?>2=5==O WW ?@020 2;0A=>ABV [135] . .. 595@C 2B>@8BL .. >:@>2AL:89, O:89 =0ABV;L:8 =040T 7=0G5==O V=H8< @5G>28< ?@020<, I> 2:07CT =0 B5, I> >4=8< ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV <>65 704>2>;L=8B8AO ;8H5 =09?@8<VB82=VH89 5:>=><VG=89 ?>1CB [150] . ..!. 0<10@>2 725@B02 C203C 9 =0 V=H89 1V: A?V22V4=>H5==O >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 7 A0<8< F8< ?@02><, 2:07CNG8, I> 2>=8 =5 ;8H5 9>3> >1<56CNBL, 0 9 :>=A5@2CNBL B0 >E>@>=ONBL, 7024O:8 G><C 2;0A=8: =01C20T <>6;82>ABV @V7=>1VG=>3> 2?;82C =0 A2>N @VG V 7024O:8 FL><C 6 C=8:0T <>6;82>ABV ?@>406C WW B>4V, :>;8 1 2V= <CA82 =5<8=CG5 9>3> 74V9A=8B8 [32] . # ?C1;V:0FVOE >AB0==VE @>:V2 28A;>2;5=0 B>G:0 7>@C ?@> <>6;82VABL >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV BV;L:8 @5G>28<8 ?@020<8 HYPERLINK "http://www.vestnik-vas.ru/news.asp?IDD=113" \l "SI*5#SI*5"  [108] . V4B0:, ?@02> =0 GC6C @VG ?>?>2=NT <>6;82>ABV 9>3> AC1 T:B0 (=>AVO V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 =0 @VG 2;0A=8:0) 7 >4=>G0A=8< 7<5=H5==O< <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0 I>4> 2V;L=>3>, =0 A2V9 @>7AC4 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O A2>TN @VGGN. "><C ?@020 =0 GC6V @5GV T >:@5<8<8 ?@020<8, I> 2:;NG0NBLAO 4> A:;04C <09=0 2V4?>2V4=8E AC1 T:BV2, O:8< 2>=8 =0;560BL. &5 >7=0G0T, I> B0:V AC1 T:B8 <>6CBL 2:07C20B8, I> 4> A:;04C WE <09=0 2E>4OBL O: ?52=V @5GV, B0: V ?@020 =0 GC6V @5GV (=0?@8:;04, A5@2VBCB8, 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9).  F5 =5 AC?5@5G8BL, 0 =02?0:8, 2V4?>2V40T ?>=OBBN <09=0 O: @5G59, <09=>28E ?@02 B0 <09=>28E >1>2 O7:V2. B65, A;V4 707=0G8B8 B0:5. >-?5@H5, ?5@5;V: V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 =5 T 28G5@?=8<. >-4@C35, V=HV @5G>2V ?@020, 707=0G5=V C >74V;V II =838 B@5BL>W &, 9<5=CNBLAO ?@020<8 =0 GC65 <09=>, G8< ?V4:@5A;NTBLAO WE=V9 2?;82 =0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. =>4V WE =07820NBL 9 >1<565=8<8 @5G>28<8 ?@020<8 [216]. 4=0: F59 =03>;>A @>18BLAO 704;O 2:07V2:8 =0 WE >1<565=VABL ?>@V2=O=> 7 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV. >-B@5BT, :@V< ?>7=0G5=8E C AB. 395 &, VA=CNBL 9 V=HV 2848 @5G>28E ?@02, 0;5 2>=8 <0NBL 287=0G0B8AO ;8H5 =0 @V2=V 70:>=C. >-G5B25@B5, V=HV @5G>2V ?@020 ?>4V;ONBLAO =0 BV, I> ?@O<> ?>7=0G5=V O: B0:V 2 70:>=V (2>;>4V==O, A5@2VBCB8, 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9), B0: V B0:V, 2V4=>A=> O:8E 2 70:>=V 157?>A5@54=L> =5 2:07CTBLAO =0 WE @5G>289 E0@0:B5@, 0;5 2V= 282>48BLAO 7 WE N@848G=>W ?@8@>48. &5 70AB020, ?@8B@8<0==O, O:V 2V4=>A8;8 4> @5G>28E ?@02 O: 4>@52>;NFV9=V (.. >:@>2AL:89 B0 V=.), B0: V 2V4=>AOBL ACG0A=V (.. V4>?@83>@0, . )5==8:>20 B0 V=.) ?@02=8:8. >-? OB5, @5G>20 ?@8@>40 210G0TBLAO 9 C ACB> 4>3>2V@=8E ?@020E (?@02> >@5=40@O, =09<0G0) =0 7@07>: V7 ?@02>< 70AB028 B0 ?@8B@8<0==O. 4=0: F5 B25@465==O <0T 4>A8BL A?V@=89 E0@0:B5@ V E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 707=0G5=8E ?@02 4>FV;L=VH5 =025AB8 C =0ABC?=><C ?V4@>74V;V, 45 <VABOBLAO 4>3>2V@=V >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. >-H>AB5, 2AV V7 707=0G5=8E ?@02 2 B><C G8 V=H><C ABC?5=V >1<56CNBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV V @>73;O40B8<CBLAO A0<5 2 B0:><C WE @0:C@AV. >-AL><5, ?@020 3>A?>40@AL:>3> 2V40==O, >?5@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O B0 >?5@0B82=>3> 28:>@8AB0==O <09=0 2 FV9 @>1>BV =5 0=0;V7C20B8<CBLAO, >A:V;L:8 2>=8 70;8H0NBLAO 70 <560<8 F82V;VAB8G=>W A?5FV0;V70FVW. @87=0G5==O V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 ?>;O30T C 9>3> 2AB0=>2;5==V 4;O 70157?5G5==O <>6;82>ABV C?@02><>G5=V9 >A>1V :>@8ABC20B8AO GC6>N @VGGN. =0A;V4>: FL>3> 28=8:0T ?@02> =0 GC6C @VG, O:5 T ?@02>< @5G>28<, V :>@8ABC20==O @VGGN T 74V9A=5==O< FL>3> ?@020 [135] . =HV @5G>2V ?@020 (70 28=OB:>< 70AB028, O:I> WW 2A5-B0:V 2V4=5AB8 4> B0:8E) 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 4;O B>3>, I>1 =040B8 >A>1V <>6;82VABL 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 2;0AB82>ABV @5GV, ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 O:C =0;568BL V=HV9 >A>1V (B>1B> :>@8ABC20B8AO GC6>N @VGGN). # :>@8ABC20==V @VGGN V ?>;O30T A5=A VA=C20==O 2AVE @5G>28E ?@02. /:I> C ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV :>@8ABC20==O AB0=>28BL ;8H5 >4=C 7 4>ABC?=8E 9>3> 2;0A=8:>2V ?@02><>G=>AB59, B>, 28E>4OG8 7 =09<5=C20=L 284V2 ?@02 =0 GC65 <09=>, ?5@5410G5=8E &, O:8< 2>=8 ?>4V;ONBLAO =0 ?@02> 2>;>4V==O B0 ?@020 :>@8ABC20==O GC68< <09=><, 7<VAB >AB0==VE <0T 28G5@?C20B8AO :>@8ABC20==O<. 4=0: F5 40;5:> =5 B0:. >-?5@H5, ?>4V; ?@02 =0 GC6V @5GV =0 ?@02> 2>;>4V==O GC68< <09=>< B0 ?@020 :>@8ABC20==O GC68< <09=>< (A5@2VBCB8, 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9) T C<>2=8<, >A:V;L:8 2>;>4V==O GC68< <09=>< =5 28:;NG0T 9 :>@8ABC20==O =8<. ">1B> C @07V, :>;8 >A>10 D0:B8G=> 2>;>4VT <09=><, 2>=0 =5 ;8H5 9>3> B@8<0T C A515, 0 9 :>@8ABCTBLAO =8<, O:I> F5 =5 701>@>=5=>. "0:, 73V4=> 7 AB. 344 & >A>10, O:0 4>1@>A>2VA=> 702>;>4V;0 GC68< <09=>< V ?@>4>26CT 4>1@>A>2VA=>, 2V4:@8B>, 157?5@5@2=> 2>;>4VB8 =8< ?@>BO3>< 2AB0=>2;5=>3> 70:>=>< AB@>:C, 157C<>2=>, <>65 9 :>@8ABC20B8AO =8<, 0 =5 ;8H5 9>3> B@8<0B8 C A515 (01> ?@>AB> 2>;>4VB8 =8<). >-4@C35, ?@020 :>@8ABC20==O GC68< <09=>< ?@8?CA:0NBL V 2>;>4V==O =8<. # ?@>B82=><C 28?04:C 74V9A=5==O :>@8ABC20==O 1C;> 1 =5<>6;828< C=0A;V4>: 157?>A5@54=L>W ?>2 O70=>ABV ?@02 2>;>4V==O B0 :>@8ABC20==O <V6 A>1>N. 5@H5 T C<>2>N 74V9A=5==O 4@C3>3>. >-B@5BT, O:I> 28E>48B8 7 B>3>, I> ?@02> =0 70AB02;5=5 <09=> B0:>6 <0T @5G>2C ?@8@>4C, B> 9>3> =>AV9 (70AB02>45@60B5;L) =5 <0T ?@020 =8< :>@8ABC20B8AO, 0 9>3> ?@02> =0 GC6C @VG 72>48BLAO 4> ?@020 =0 @>7?>@O460==O =5N ?@8 =0AB0==V 2V4?>2V4=8E C<>2. 030;L=0 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 <0T @>7?>G8=0B8AO V7 0=0;V7C ?@02>2V4=>A8=, 2 O:8E FV ?@020 @50;V7CNBLAO. =0A;V4>: VA=C20==O 42>E @5G>28E ?@02  ?@020 2;0A=>ABV B0 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 - <0NBL <VAF5 420 2848 ?@02>2V4=>A8=. &V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 D>@<0;L=> T @V7=8<8 V 2V4>:@5<;5=8<8, 0;5 >4=>G0A=> 9 ?>2 O70=8<8 <V6 A>1>N. &O ?>2 O70=VABL <>65 1CB8 >E0@0:B5@87>20=0 B0:8< G8=><. >-?5@H5, C 2V4ACB=VABL ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 ?52=5 <09=> =5<>6;825 2AB0=>2;5==O V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 =0 F5 6 <09=>. ">1B> V=H5 @5G>25 ?@02> =0 <09=> T 2B>@8==8<, 70;56=8< 2V4 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 157 O:>3> 2>=> =5 VA=CT. /:I> 2V4ACB=T (2 B><C G8A;V ?@8?8=5=>) ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 @VG, B> =5<>6;82> 2AB0=>28B8 01> 715@53B8 =0 =5W >1<565=5 @5G>25 ?@02> (=0?@8:;04 2V4=>A=> 157E07O9=>3> <09=0) [107] . >-4@C35, ?>2 O70=VABL F8E ?@02 ?>;O30T B0:>6 C A;V4C20==V ?@020 =0 GC6C @VG 70 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV. @02> A;V4C20==O T =52V4 T<=>N E0@0:B5@8AB8:>N V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020, I> 70 7030;L=8< ?@028;>< =5 ?@8?8=OT A2>TW 4VW (>1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV) C 72'O7:C 7V 7<V=>N 2;0A=8:0 >1BO65=>W @5GV, 0 A;V4CT 70 =5N [151] . @8 ?5@5E>4V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 <09=> 2V4 >4=VTW >A>18 4> V=H>W 4> >AB0==L>W ?5@5E>48BL 9 >1<565==O FL>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV V=H8< @5G>28< ?@02><. ">1B> V=H5 @5G>25 ?@02> 715@V30TBLAO ?@8 ?5@5E>4V @5GV 4> =>2>3> 2;0A=8:0, 0 2AV >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL 7=0G5==O V ?>28==V 1CB8 2@0E>20=V =>28< 2;0A=8:><. 15@565==O V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02, O:5 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO =02VBL C @07V 7<V=8 2;0A=8:0 2V4?>2V4=>3> <09=0 (V=0:H5 :06CG8, 715@565==O >1BO65=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV), A2V4G8BL ?@> B5, I> FV ?@020 702648 A;V4CNBL 70 <09=><, 0 =5 70 >A>1>N. "0:, 70 4>3>2>@>< :C?V2;V-?@>406C ?@>4025FL 7>1>2'O70=89 ?5@540B8 B>20@ 2V;L=8< 2V4 ?@02 B@5BVE >AV1 =0 =L>3>. 8=OB>: AB0=>28BL 28?04>:, :>;8 ?>:C?5FL ?>3>482AO ?@89=OB8 <09=>, >1BO65=5 ?@020<8 B@5BVE >AV1. 528:>=0==O ?@>402F5< >1>2'O7:C ?@>V=D>@<C20B8 ?>:C?FO ?@> B0:V ?@020 40T V=HV9 AB>@>=V <>6;82VABL 28<030B8 7<5=H5==O FV=8 ?@8410=>3> <09=0 01> @>7V@20==O 4>3>2>@C :C?V2;V-?@>406C. /: 2V47=0G02 .$. (5@H5=528G, C A5@2VBCBV, ?@02> :>@8ABC20==O GC6>N @VGGN ?>2'O7CTBLAO 7 >AB0==L>N, 0 =5 V7 AC1'T:B>< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 0 B><C 4> :>3> 1 V 70 O:8< 18 ?@02>G8=>< @VG =5 ?5@59H;0, FO >1AB028=0 =5 2?;820T =0 A8;C A5@2VBCBC [221]  . "8< A0<8< ?@020 =0 GC65 <09=> >1<56CNBL 2;0A=8:0 FL>3> <09=0, O:89 ?>7102;OTBLAO <>6;82>AB59 2V;L=>3> :>@8ABC20==O =8< (0;5, O: ?@028;>, 715@V30T <>6;82>ABV @>7?>@O460==O, =0?@8:;04, 2V4GC65==O =0 ?V4AB02V 4>3>2>@V2 :C?V2;V-?@>406C, <V=8, 40@C20==O). >-B@5BT, ?@02C >A>18, =0 :>@8ABL O:>W 2AB0=>2;5=5 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, :>@5A?>=4CT >1>2'O7>: 2;0A=8:0 9>3> 4>45@6C20B8AO. !0<5 F8< >1>2 O7:>< V >1<56CTBLAO ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV. 5G>2V >1<565==O <>6CBL <0B8 @V7=5 ?@02>25 ?>E>465==O, >4=0: C 1C4L-O:><C @07V 2>=8 <0NBL @5G>2C ?@8@>4C, 1> 7C<>2;5=V =0O2=VABN V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02, E>G0 1 V 2AB0=>2;5=8E 4>3>2>@><. "0:, A5@2VBCB8 <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO 4>3>2>@><, 70:>=><, 70?>2VB>< 01> @VH5==O< AC4C (G.1 AB. 402 &). /:I> A5@2VBCB 2AB0=>2;5=> 4>3>2>@><, B> <V6 2;0A=8:>< <09=0 B0 V=H>N >A>1>N 28=8:0NBL 4>3>2V@=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8, <5B>N O:8E T 28=8:=5==O @5G>2>3> ?@020  A5@2VBCBC. 465 =570;56=> 2V4 =0O2=>ABV 01> 2V4ACB=>ABV 4>3>2V@=8E 2V4=>A8= <V6 2;0A=8:>< B0 V=H>N >A>1>N 2 >AB0==L>W 28=8:0T =5 7>1>2 O70;L=5 ?@02> :>@8ABC20==O <09=><, 0 @5G>25. "5 6 AB>ACTBLAO 5<DVB5278AC B0 AC?5@DVFVN, O:V 27030;V <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO ;8H5 =0 ?V4AB02V 4>3>2>@C (G. 1 AB. 407) 01> I5 9 70?>2VBC (G. 1 AB. 413 &). 0 2V4<V=C 2V4 F8E 284V2 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2=0A;V4>: C:;045==O V=H8E 4>3>2>@V2 (=0?@8:;04, =09<C, >@5=48, C?@02;V==O GC68< <09=>< B>I>) CAB0;5=8< T ?>3;O4, 2V4?>2V4=> 4> O:>3> @5G>28E ?@02 =0 GC65 <09=> =5 28=8:0T, E>G0 2;0A=8: ?@5B5@?V20T >1<565==O 9 2 FL><C @07V. 4=0: B0:V >1<565==O <0NBL 7>1>2 O70;L=C ?@8@>4C. ">1B> >@5=40@ 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 =5 <0T @5G>2>3> ?@020 =0 =5W, 9>3> ?@02> <0T 7>1>2 O70;L=89 E0@0:B5@.  C FL><C 9>3> ?@02>25 AB0=>28I5 ?@8=F8?>2> @V7=8BLAO 2V4 5<DVB52B8, O:89 <0T @5G>25 ?@02>, E>G0 2>=> B0:>6 ?>;O30T C :>@8ABC20==V GC6>N 75<5;L=>N 4V;O=:>N. @><V6=5 AB0=>28I5 <V6 4>3>2V@=8<8 B0 @5G>28<8 >1<565==O<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?>AV40T V?>B5:0, :>B@0, =572060NG8 =0 A2>T @>7C<V==O O: VA=CNG>W 2 7>1>2 O70;L=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E V7 2V4?>2V4=8< 70:>=>402G8< @53C;N20==O< (AB.AB. 1, 11-14, 16 # @> 70AB02C [72]  , AB0BBV 1,3,9 # @> V?>B5:C [77] ), B8< =5 <5=H ?>@>46CT C 70AB02>45@60B5;O @5G>25 ?@02> =0 ?@54<5B 70AB028. @8 FL><C ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 ?@8 V?>B5FV AB0NBL AE>68<8 7 B8<8, I> A:;040NBLAO C @07V 2AB0=>2;5==O =0 ?V4AB02V 4>3>2>@C V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 (A5@2VBCBC, 5<DVB5278AC, AC?5@DVFVN). ">1B> 4>3>2V@ ?>@>46CT 2AB0=>2;5==O =5 ;8H5 7>1>2 O70;L=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= <V6 AB>@>=0<8, O:V 9>3> C:;0;8, 0 9 @5G>28E. "0:8< G8=><, ?@>AB56CTBLAO A?V22V4=>H5==O 4>3>2V@=8E ?V4AB02 2AB0=>2;5==O 707=0G5=8E >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV (?@8 A5@2VBCBV, 5<DVB5278AV, AC?5@DVFVW, 70AB02V) B0 @5G>2>W ?@8@>48 ?@02, O:V 28=8:0NBL 2=0A;V4>: C:;045==O F8E 4>3>2>@V2 B0 >1<56CNBL 2;0A=8:0 C 9>3> ?@020E. &8< 45<>=AB@CTBLAO 2V4ACB=VABL GVB:8E B0 >4=>7=0G=8E ?V4AB02 4;O @>7<56C20==O @5G>28E V 7>1>2 O70;L=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, I> T >4=8< V7 28?04:V2 ?@>=8:0==O @5G>28E 5;5<5=BV2 C 7>1>2'O70;L=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 [19]. # 72'O7:C 7 F8< 1030BL<0 2G5=8<8, A5@54 O:8E .!. >DD5 [105] , .. 5=:V= [35] , 287=0G5=> ?@>F5A 71;865==O @5G>28E V 7>1>2'O70;L=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, I> 270T<>?@>=8:0NBL. @8G><C 5;5<5=B8 ?@02>2>3> @568<C 7>1>2'O70;L=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= 2:;NG0NBLAO 2 @5G>2V =5 @V4H5, =V6 7>1>2'O70;L=V ?@>=8:0NBL C @5G>2V [52] . 87=0G0;L=8< 7 FL>3> ?@82>4C, =0 =0H ?>3;O4, T 28A;>2;5==O .. 30@:>20 I>4> @V7=8FV A0<5 ?@02>2V4=>A8= (@5G>28E V 7>1>2'O70;L=8E), 0 =5 ?@02>28E V=AB8BCBV2 [1] . .$. (5@H5=528G C:07C202, I> >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV - F5 ?@02> CG0ABV G0AB:>2>W O: 4>:07 <>6;82>ABV B0:8E >1<565=L 70 4>?><>3>N 4>3>2>@C [221] . @>B5 945BLAO =5 ?@> 4>3>2V@=V D>@<8 >1<565==O, O:V 28:;NG0T B0: 720=5 ?@02> ACAV4AB20 (701>@>=0 =0 ?@81C4>2C 4> ABV=8 GC6>3> 1C48=:C, 701>@>=0 ?V4V9<0B8 2>4C 7030B0<8 V B.?>4.). ">1B> 4>3>2V@ <>65 >1<568B8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV BV;L:8 B>4V O:I> 2V= ?@82V2 4> 28=8:=5==O @5G>2>3> ?@020 (=0?@8:;04, A5@2VBCBC). B65, 2 40=8E 28?04:0E ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV >1<56CTBLAO 265 =5 4>3>2>@><, 0 70:>=><, V B0:V >1<565==O <0NBL A8;C 4;O 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2, =570;56=> 2V4 B>3>, C:;040;8 2>=8 4>3>2V@ G8 =01C;8 A5@2VBCB G8 V=H5 @5G>25 ?@02> =0 V=H8E ?V4AB020E. =HV @5G>2V ?@020, =0 4C<:C .. !CE0=>20, =040NBL 70:>==C <>6;82VABL >4=V9 >A>1V 2 B><C 01> V=H><C 2V4=>H5==V 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 @VG, I> =0;568BL V=HV9 >A>1V, B>1B> GC6C, ?@8G><C 2 ?@8=F8?V =570;56=> 2V4 73>48 (2>;V) WW 2;0A=8:0. AB0==O >1AB028=0 T >4=8< V7 :@8B5@VW2, I> 40NBL 7<>3C ?@>25AB8 2V4<56C20==O @5G>28E ?@02 2V4 7>1>2'O70;L=8E (4>3>2V@=8E), B><C I> 28:>@8AB0==O GC6>W @5GV 70 4><>2;5=VABN 7 WW 2;0A=8:><, =0?@8:;04 70 4>3>2>@>< >@5=48, =5 28<030T 287=0==O 70 :>@8ABC20G5< @5G>2>3> ?@020 [201] . .. !CE0=>2 A;CH=> 2V47=0G0T, I> @5G>2V 2V4=>A8=8 28=8:0NBL =5 BV;L:8 7 2>;V WE=VE CG0A=8:V2. V9A=>, V=HV @5G>2V ?@020 <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO 42><0 A?>A>10<8: 7 2>;V 2;0A=8:0 V ?>70 9>3> 2>;5N [14] . 840TBLAO, I> G8A;> V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02, 2AB0=>2;N20=8E ?>70 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0, B>1B> B8E, :>B@V 2;0A=8: 7>1>2'O70=89 =04020B8 2V4=>A=> A2>3> <09=0 V=HV9 >A>1V, 157C<>2=>, <0T 1CB8 >1<565=> 70:>=><, 0 =>AVO< F8E @5G>28E ?@02 2>=8 ?>28==V =04020B8AO ;8H5 2 B><C >1AO7V, O:89 01A>;NB=> =5>1EV4=89 4;O 74V9A=5==O FV;59, 70@048 O:8E 707=0G5=5 ?@02> 2AB0=>2;5=>.  @0:C@AV E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 >1<565=L 725@B0T =0 A515 C203C ?>42V9=89 ?V4EV4 4> E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 V 7=0G5==O V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02.  >4=>3> 1>:C, FV ?@020 A0<V ?> A>1V T 2C6G8<8 ?>@V2=O=> 7 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV, WE G0AB> =07820NBL >1<565=8<8 @5G>28<8 ?@020<8. &59 B5@<V= C:07CT =0 WE=N >1<565=VABL O: @5G>28E ?@02 ?>@V2=O=> 7 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV V B8< A0<8< =0 WE=V9 ?>EV4=89 2V4 FL>3> >A=>2=>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 E0@0:B5@. &O >1AB028=0 AB0=>28BL >4=C 7 =09206;82VH8E E0@0:B5@8AB8: 2AO:>3> >1<565=>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020, I>, 1C4CG8 ?>EV4=8< V 70;56=8< 2V4 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, =5 <>65 VA=C20B8 C 2V4@82V 2V4 FL>3> ?@020, :@V< =L>3>.  FL>3>, 7>:@5<0, 28?;820T =5<>6;82VABL VA=C20==O 1C4L-O:>3> >1<565=>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 =0 157E07O9=C @VG, O:0 =5 <0T 2;0A=8:0. "0:>6 ?@> F5 A2V4G8BL V B5, I> 2>=8 =5 <>6CBL 1CB8 A0<>ABV9=8< ?@54<5B>< :C?V2;V-?@>406C 157 ?>2 O70=>ABV 7 ?@02>< =0 @VG, I>4> O:>W 2>=8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO, 01> 2 O:89-=51C4L V=H89 A?>AV1 ?5@54020B8AO >A>10<, :>B@V =5 T 2;0A=8:0<8 <09=0. "0:, A5@2VBCB, 2AB0=>2;5=89 704;O 28:>@8AB0==O GC6>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, =5 <>65 VA=C20B8 C 2V4ACB=VABL A0<>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8.  4@C3>3> 1>:C, V=HV @5G>2V ?@020 >1BO6CNBL V 2 FL><C 2V4=>H5==V >1<56CNBL V A0<5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV. 528?04:>2> 2 FL><C @>7C<V==V 2>=8 =07820NBLAO @5G>28<8 >1BO65==O<8, >A:V;L:8 C 2V4><><C 7<VABV =5<>2 18 >1BO6CNBL :>=:@5B=C @VG (0 B>G=VH5, ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 =5W), ?52=8< G8=>< 72C6CNG8 =0O2=V C 2;0A=8:0 <>6;82>ABV. V;LH B>3>, AC1'T:B8 V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 <>6CBL C4020B8AO 4> WE 70E8ABC 2V4 =5?@02><V@=8E ?>AO30=L 1C4L-O:8E B@5BVE >AV1, 2:;NG0NG8 V 2;0A=8:0 @5GV, 2V4=>A=> O:>W 2AB0=>2;5=> FV ?@020. @8 ?@8?8=5==V V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 2V4=>2;NTBLAO C ?5@2VA=><C >1AO7V 157 O:8E-=51C4L 4>40B:>28E C<>2, C G><C 28O2;OTBLAO, O: 3>2>@8;8 I5 4>@52>;NFV9=V N@8AB8, 5;0AB8G=VABL, ?@C6=VABL ?@020 2;0A=>ABV [135;108]  . B65, V=HV @5G>2V ?@020, O:V C ?52=8E <560E T =5>1EV4=8<8 V :>@8A=8<8, >4=>G0A=> =5ACBL C A>1V =5157?5:C 4;O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, B><C I> =5@V4:> VAB>B=> 72'O7CNBL, >1BO6CNBL 2;0A=8:0 (>1<56CNBL 9>3> 3>A?>40@AL:5 ?0=C20==O =04 @VGGN) =0 4>A8BL B@820;89, 0 V=>4V =0 =5>1<565=89 AB@>:. /: 707=0G02 .. >:@>2AL:89, VAB8==>N FV=>N, O:>N :C?CTBLAO :>6=5 ?>4V1=5 ?@02> =0 GC6C @VG, T C@V70=5, <>@0;L=> 9 5:>=><VG=> ?V4V@20=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV.  B><C B0:V >1<565==O (>1BO65==O) 2;0A=>ABV 4>?CA:0NBLAO 70:>=>< ;8H5 ?@8 =0O2=>ABV >A>1;828E ?V4AB02, V WE=V :>=:@5B=V 2848 157?>A5@54=L> 287=0G0NBLAO 70:>=>402AB2><, B>4V O: ?@820B=0 02B>=><VO <>65 28O2;OB8AO ;8H5 C WE 281>@V [151] . "0:8< G8=><, ?V4 V=H8< @5G>28< ?@02>< O: @5G>28< 284>< >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV A;V4 @>7C<VB8 ?@02> 9>3> =>AVO 2 B><C 01> V=H><C >1<565=><C, B>G=> 287=0G5=><C 70:>=>< 2V4=>H5==V 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 GC65, O: ?@028;>, =5@CE><5 <09=> C A2>WE V=B5@5A0E 157 CG0ABV 9>3> 2;0A=8:0 (C B><C G8A;V V ?>70 9>3> 2>;5N). 8=8:=5==O V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 T 70:@V?;5==O< >AB0==L>3> 70 ?52=8< AC1'T:B><, ?>@>46CNG8 ?@8 FL><C 01A>;NB=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8, 2 O:8E FL><C AC1'T:B>2V ?@>B8AB>WBL =5>1<565=5 :>;> ?0A82=> 7>1>2'O70=8E >AV1. !0<5 FV 01A>;NB=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 287=0G0NBL causa possessionis >AB0==L>3>. V6 B8< >4=>7=0G=>3> 10G5==O V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 O: 01A>;NB=8E =5 VA=CT. "0:89 ?V4EV4 2V425@B0TBLAO, =0?@8:;04, .!. >DD5, O:89 72060T =0 B5, I> 01A>;NB=89 E0@0:B5@ ?@020 T 2V4>1@065==O< 01A>;NB=>W ?>2=>B8 A2>TW 2;048, O:0 =0;568BL C?@02><>G5=><C. !0<5 B><C, I> ?>2=>B0 A2>TW 2;048 2V4ACB=O C ?@02V 701C4>28 (AC?5@DVFVN) 9 C ?@02V 70AB028, =0 ?@>B8;56=><C ?>;NAV F8E 284V2 ?@02>2V4=>A8= 7'O2;OTBLAO :>=:@5B=0 DV3C@0, ?52=89 AC1'T:B. &O >1AB028=0 ?>@>46CT 70;56=VABL V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 2V4 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV V A2V4G8BL ?@> B5, I> =V 70AB02=5 ?@02>, =V ?@02> 701C4>28 =5 T 01A>;NB=8<8 ?@020<8 [103] . VG =0;568BL 2;0A=8:>2V, V BV;L:8 9><C <>65 =0;560B8 2 WW 2V4=>H5==V 2AO ?>2=>B0 2;048, 0 =>AVT2V V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 =040TBLAO ?0=C20==O =04 @VGGN ;8H5 C ?52=><C 2V4=>H5==V (:>@8ABC20==O). "><C 2 B0:>W >A>18 2V4ACB=O 2;040 =04 @VGGN 2 FV;><C. 5?>2=0 2;0A=VABL, B>1B> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, >1BO65=5 @5G>28<8 ?@020<8 01> V=H8<8 >1<565==O<8, O: 2V47=0G02 .. %2>AB>2, =5 2B@0G0T A2>3> 7=0G5==O 7030;L=>3> ?0=C20==O =04 @VGGN, ?>@V2=O=> 7 O:8< 2AV V=HV ?@020 =0 BC 6 @VG CAB0=>2;NNBL BV;L:8 G0AB:>25 ?0=C20==O. C<>2;5=0 F8< ?>;>65==O< 2;0AB82VABL 2;0A=>ABV ABO30B8 =0704 CAV 2V4=OBV C 2;0A=8:0 ?@02><>G=>ABV, ;8H5 BV;L:8 ?@8?8=8BLAO ?V4AB020, I> 7<CHC20;0 ?>7102;OB8 9>3> O:>W-=51C4L 7 =8E, T I5 >4=8< A2V4G5==O< =5<>6;82>ABV 72545==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 4> AC<8 >:@5<8E ?@02><>G=>AB59 [213]  .  F8<8 @>7AC40<8 A;V4 ?>2=VABN ?>3>48B8AO V I5 @07 ?V4:@5A;8B8, I> 0=V ?@020 =0 GC6V @5GV, 0=V =02VBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =5 T 01A>;NB=8<8 2 B><C @>7C<V==V, ?@> O:5, 7>:@5<0, 3>2>@8BL . !. >DD5. BV<, 1C4L-O:5 ?@02> @50;V7CTBLAO C 2V4?>2V4=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, O:V 728G09=> ?>4V;ONBLAO =0 01A>;NB=V B0 2V4=>A=V. 8=8:0T ?52=0 AC?5@5G=VABL <V6 B8<, I> ?@02>, O:5 =5 <>6=0 >4=>7=0G=> 2V4=5AB8 4> 01A>;NB=8E, VA=CT 2 01A>;NB=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E. 4=0: >A:V;L:8 01A>;NB=8<8 287=0G0NBLAO ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 <V6 C?@02><>G5=>N >A>1>N V 2AV<0 V=H8<8 ?0A82=> 7>1>2'O70=8<8 >A>10<8, B> O: B0:C C?@02><>G5=C >A>1C <>6=0 210G0B8 =5 ;8H5 2;0A=8:0, 0 9 AC1 T:B0 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020, O:><C ?@>B8AB>OBL 2AV V=HV ?0A82=> 7>1>2'O70=V >A>18, 2:;NG0NG8 2;0A=8:0. @>B5 VA=C20==O 01A>;NB=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= =5 28:;NG0T 9 VA=C20==O 2V4=>A=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, A<8A;>25 =020=B065==O O:8E ?>;O30T 28:;NG=> C 2AB0=>2;5==V A?>;CG=>W ;0=:8 <V6 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV 9 V=H8< @5G>28< ?@02><. "0:8< G8=><, >4=0 ?V4AB020 (1C4L B> 70:>=, @VH5==O AC4C, >4=>AB>@>==V9 0:B 2;0A=8:0, 4>3>2V@ B>I>) ?>@>46CT 42>T @V7=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= 7 @V7=8< AC1'T:B=8< A:;04><: 01A>;NB=8E <V6 C?@02><>G5=>N >A>1>N  AC1 T:B>< V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 V 2AV<0 V=H8<8 ?0A82=> 7>1>2'O70=8<8 >A>10<8; 2V4=>A=V <V6 C?@02><>G5=>N >A>1>N V 2;0A=8:><. !?V22V4=>H5==O V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 28O2;OT 4>A8BL =5?@>AB89 ABC?V=L WE 270T<>2?;82C. C4CG8 70 A0<>N A2>TN ?@8@>4>N >1<565=8<8 (?>@V2=O=> 7 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV), V=HV @5G>2V ?@020, 2 A2>N G5@3C, >1<56CNBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV. !0< =>AV9 F8E ?@02 265 1C45 C?@02><>G5=>N >A>1>N, 0 2;0A=8:  7>1>2 O70=>N. ;0A=8: CAC20TBLAO 2V4 @50;V70FVW A2>TW 2;048 2 AD5@V, I> 2V440=0 ?0=C20==N =>AVO V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020, B>1B> 2AO ?>2=>B0 2;048 2;0A=8:0 730=OTBLAO 2 FV9 G0AB8=V ?>2=>B>N 2;048 C?@02><>G5=>3>. ;040 2;0A=8:0, B0:8< G8=><, ?@84CHCTBLAO 2;04>N =>AVO V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 @V2=> 2 B><C ABC?5=V, 2 O:><C FO 2;040 =040=0 >AB0==L><C [103] . ;0A=8: <0T ?>2=>BC A2>TW 2;048 ;8H5 2 @0<:0E, >:@5A;5=8E 70:>=><, B0: A0<> O: V =>AV9 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 <0T ?>2=>BC A2>TW 2;048 2 @0<:0E B>3> ?@020, O:5 9><C =040=5 2V4=>A=> @5GV 2;0A=8:0. "0:0 ?>42V9=0 WE ?@8@>40, 2 A2>N G5@3C, 40T 7<>3C >E0@0:B5@87C20B8 =0ABC?=C A?5F8DV:C ?@02>28E 72 O7:V2: 0) FV 2V4=>A8=8 28=8:0NBL V7 ?@82>4C >4=VTW V BVTW 6 @5GV; 1) 2 F8E 2V4=>A8=0E 15@CBL CG0ABL BV 6 A0<V >A>18  287=0G5=V B0 =5287=0G5=V. 87=0G5=8<8 >A>10<8 T 2;0A=8: B0 =>AV9 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020, 0 =5287=0G5=8<8  2AV B@5BV >A>18; 2) 2;0A=8: C F8E 2V4=>A8=0E AB0T =5 C?@02><>G5=>N, 0 7>1>2'O70=>N >A>1>N. # 2V4=>A=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E (<V6 2;0A=8:>< B0 =>AVT< V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020) 2V= 7>1>2 O70=89 O: 2G8=8B8 ?52=V 4VW (=0?@8:;04, ?5@540B8 @VG 4;O :>@8ABC20==O 5<DVB52BC), B0: V CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 ?52=8E 4V9 (=5 702060B8 AC1 T:BC A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020 9>3> 74V9A=N20B8). =>4V 2;0A=8: 2G8=OT 0:B82=V 4VW =5 2=0A;V4>: ?@8?8AC FL>3> 4;O =L>3> 70:>=><, 0 28:;NG=> 2 A2>WE V=B5@5A0E. 0?@8:;04, :>;8 2V= A0< 70FV:02;5=89 =0;03>48B8 ?@>W74 G8 ?@>EV4 G5@57 A2>N 75<5;L=C 4V;O=:C; 3) 2=0A;V4>: =02545=>3> =>AV9 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 (O: C?@02><>G5=0 >A>10) 15@5 CG0ABL 2 >1>E F8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, >4=V 7 O:8E @5G>2V (01A>;NB=V), 0 4@C3V - 7>1>2'O70;L=V (2V4=>A=V). <VAB ?5@H8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= A:;040NBL @5G>25 ?@02> C?@02><>G5=>W >A>18 V :>@5A?>=4CNG89 9><C >1>2'O7>: CAVE V=H8E >AV1, 0 7<VAB 4@C38E - 270T<=V ?@020 9 >1>2'O7:8 C?@02><>G5=>3> (AC1 T:B0 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020) V 2;0A=8:0 @5GV [14] . "0:8< G8=><, >7=0:0<8, O:V 2;0AB82V @5G>28< ?@020<, T: N@848G=89 72'O7>: (2V4=>H5==O) 7 @VGGN, I> ?V4:>@OT @VG ?0=C20==N C?@02><>G5=>3>; V=B5@5A C?@02><>G5=>3>, O:89 704>2>;L=OTBLAO 9>3> 2;0A=8<8 4VO<8, 157 ?>A5@54=8FB20 V=H8E >AV1; =0 2AVE V=H8E >AV1 70:>=>< ?>:;040TBLAO >1>2'O7>: =5 ?5@5H:>460B8 C?@02><>G5=><C 2 74V9A=5==V 9>3> ?@020. >73;O=5<> 1V;LH 45B0;L=> :>6=5 7 V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02. >;>4V==O O: >:@5<5 @5G>25 ?@02> 287=0G0NBL O: B0:5 AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02>, C A:;04V O:>3> ?@02><>G=VABL 2>;>4V==O <0T AB01V;L=89, 157AB@>:>289 V A0<>ABV9=89 E0@0:B5@ [113] . &8< ?V4:@5A;NTBLAO 7=0GCIVABL 2>;>4V==O. 4=>G0A=> 2>=0 ?>;O30T 9 C <>6;82>ABV VA=C20==O 2>;>4V==O A0<>3> ?> A>1V, B0: V ?>T4=0=> 7 :>@8ABC20==O<, 01> 7 @>7?>@O460==O<, 01> 7 >AB0==V<8 42><0 ?@02><>G=>ABO<8. =0A;V4>: FL>3> 2>;>4V==O <0T A?V@=C ?@8@>4C, 1> 2>=> E>G V =07820TBLAO >:@5<8< AC1 T:B82=8< ?@02><, 0;5 ?@0:B8G=> 702648 T H8@H8<, =V6 F5 28E>48BL 7 9>3> =09<5=C20==O. !:;04=>IV 9>3> E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?V4A8;NT =5157A?V@=5 ?@02>25 @53C;N20==O C &. 3V4=> 7 G. 2 AB. 397 B0 AB. 398 & 2>;>4V==O< 287=0TBLAO: O: D0:B8G=5 B@8<0==O GC6>3> <09=0, B>1B> 157 1C4L-O:8E ?@02>28E ?V4AB02 4;O FL>3>, B0: V B@8<0==O GC6>3> <09=0 =0 ?V4AB02V 4>3>2>@C 7 9>3> 2;0A=8:>< 01> >A>1>N, O:V9 2>=> 1C;> ?5@540=> 2;0A=8:><, 0 B0:>6 B@8<0==O GC6>3> <09=0 =0 V=H8E ?V4AB020E, CAB0=>2;5=8E 70:>=><.  >3;O4C =0 FV AB0BBV, 2>;>4V==O <>65 1CB8 ?@02><V@=8< B0 =5?@02><V@=8<, 70:>==8< B0 =570:>==8<, VA=CNBL D0:B8G=5 2>;>4V==O B0 ?@02> 2>;>4V==O. @02><V@=8< T 2>;>4V==O, :>;8 >A>10 2>;>4VT GC68< <09=>< V 22060T 9>3> A2>W< (=0?@8:;04, 4>1@>A>2VA=89 =01C20G), 01> 7=0T, I> C =5W ?>:8 I> =5<0T ?@02 =0 F5 <09=>, 0;5 2>=0 <0T =0<V@ WE =01CB8 (7 B0:8E ?V4AB02, O: =01C20;L=0 402=VABL, 7=0EV4:0). 5?@02><V@=8< T =570:>==5 2>;>4V==O B0 2>;>4V==O >A>1>N <09=>< 157 4>45@60==O ?@8?8AV2 70:>=C, =0?@8:;04, ?@8E>2C20==O GC6>3> <09=0 7 <5B>N =01CB8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 =L>3> 70 =01C20;L=>N 402=VABN. # G. 3 AB. 397 & ?5@5410G0TBLAO ?@57C<?FVO ?@02><V@=>ABV 2>;>4V==O <09=><. 0:>==8< T 2>;>4V==O, I> 4>?CA:0TBLAO 70:>=><. 8< <>65 1CB8 O: 2>;>4V==O <09=>< =0 ?52=><C B8BC;V, B0: V D0:B8G=5 ?@02><V@=5 2>;>4V==O. 0?@8:;04, 2>;>4V==O <09=><, I> =0;568BL >A>1V =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV, T 70:>==8<, 0;5 =5 T 2>;>4V==O< O: @V7=>284>< V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020, >A:V;L:8 2>=> T ?@02><>G=VABN 2;0A=8:0. 0A=>20=5 =0 4>3>2>@V 7 2;0A=8:>< <09=0, 2>;>4V==O T 70:>==8<, =02VBL B>4V, :>;8 4VO 4>3>2>@C 265 ?@8?8=5=0 2=0A;V4>: A?;82C 9>3> AB@>:C, 0;5 2;0A=8: =5 28<030T ?>25@=5==O <09=0. 570:>==8<8 2>;>4V;LFO<8 T 4>1@>A>2VA=89 B0 =54>1@>A>2VA=89 =01C20GV. $0:B8G=8< T 2>;>4V==O O: ?@>AB89 D0:B B@8<0==O >A>1>N GC6>3> <09=0. $0:B8G=5 2>;>4V==O  F5 2>;>4V==O 157 ?@020 =0 =L>3>, B0: 720=5 157B8BC;L=5 2>;>4V==O, >A:V;L:8 2>=> =5 A?8@0TBLAO =0 1C4L-O:89 ?@02>289 B8BC;. >;>4V==O 6, 70A=>20=5 =0 ?@02V, ?@8?CA:0T O: ?V4AB02C 4;O 2>;>4V==O B5 G8 V=H5 ?@02> >A>18 (2>;>4V;LFO) =0 F5 <09=> (2;0A=>ABV, 4>3>2V@). >;>4V==O O: V=H5 @5G>25 ?@02> T BV;L:8 D0:B8G=8< ?0=C20==O< >A>18 =04 @VGGN, =5 70A=>20=8< =0 ?@02>2><C B8BC;V, =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 2>;>4V==O O: ?@02><>G=>ABV 2;0A=8:0, I> 70A=>20=0 =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV. $0:B8G=5 2>;>4V==O 70 A2>TN ACBBN 2V4>1@060T D0:B8G=89 AB0= <09=0, 0 =5 ?@02> =0 F5 <09=>. 0 =54>A:>=0;VABL ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O 2>;>4V==O 2 & 2:07C202 .. V4>?@83>@0, O:89 220602, I> ?@02> 2>;>4V==O GC68< <09=>< C B><C 283;O4V, 2 O:><C 2>=> 28:;045=> 2 &, =5 4>AO30T A2>TW <5B8, 1> 2>=> 70E8I0T ?@02> 2>;>4V==O, I> V B0: C65 70E8I5=>, 0;5 2>=> =5 70E8I0T D0:B8G=>3> 2>;>4V==O, O:5 ?>28==> 1C;> 1 <0B8 B0:89 70E8AB. &5 ?>2 O70=>, ?>-?5@H5, 7 B8<, I> & 2V4=VA 2>;>4V==O, O:5 =5 T ?@02><, 4> ?@02 =0 GC6V @5GV V =07202 9>3> ?@02>< 2>;>4V==O GC68< <09=><. >-4@C35, 2>;>4VB8 <>6=0 V <09=><, O:5 <>65 V =5 1CB8 GC68<, 2>=> <>65 1CB8 ?@>AB> 157E07O9=8<. >;>4V==O 1C45 V B>4V, :>;8 >A>10 ?@8410;0 <09=> 2 >A>18, O:0 =5 <0;0 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 =L>3> V B><C =5 <0;0 ?@020 =0 9>3> 2V4GC65==O,  :><C =0;568BL F5 <09=>, <>65 1CB8 ?@>AB> =52V4><>. 'C68< 287=0TBLAO <09=>, I> =0;568BL V=HV9 >A>1V  =52;0A=8:C. /:I> >A>10 <0T ?@02> =0 2>;>4V==O GC68< <09=><, =0?@8:;04, =0 ?V4AB02V 4>3>2>@C =09<0, >@5=48, ?>78G:8 V B.?>4., B> B0:5 ?@02> 2>;>4V==O GC68< <09=>< 2V43>@>46CTBLAO 2V4?>2V4=8<8 4>3>2>@0<8 V =5 28<030T O:>3>AL 4>40B:>2>3> 70E8ABC [147; 146]  . 02545=5 ?@> 2>;>4V==O O: ?@02> =0 GC6C @VG 7C<>2;NT 9 9>3> 10G5==O O: >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV.  ?5@H>3> ?>3;O4C, 2>;>4V==O =5<>218 =5 B>@:0TBLAO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >A:V;L:8 ?>ABC?0TBLAO 9><C 7=0G5==O<.  F5 4V9A=> B0:, >4=0: C ?52=8E 28?04:0E ?@02> 2;0A=8:0 =0 <09=> >1<56CTBLAO A0<8< D0:B>< 2>;>4V==O V=H>N >A>1>N F8< <09=><. @8:;04>< FL>3> <>65 A;C3C20B8 B5, I> ?@57C<?FVO ?@02><V@=>ABV 2>;>4V==O 28<030T 4>2545=>ABV =0O2=>ABV ?@020 V=H>W >A>18 =0 A?V@=5 <09=>. "0:, O:I> 2;0A=8: 28O28BL A2>T <09=> 2 V=H>W >A>18 (4>1@>A>2VA=>3> =01C20G0 01> >A>18, O:0 B@8<0T F5 <09=> V AB028BL 70 <5BC =01CB8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 =L>3> 70 =01C20;L=>N 402=VABN), B> 2V= <0T 2 AC4>2><C ?>@O4:C 28<030B8 ?>25@=5==O 9><C FL>3> <09=0. 5@54C<>2>N 6 704>2>;5==O FVTW 28<>38 T 4>2545==O =8< A2>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 B0:5 <09=>. @>BO3>< 65 ?5@51V3C G0AC 70O2;5==O 28<>3 B0 @>73;O4C WE AC4>< 2;0A=8: =5 =01C20T C 2>;>4V==O A2>T <09=>, G8< >1<56CTBLAO 2 A2>WE ?@020E =0 =L>3>. !5@2VBCB C AB. 403 & 287=0G0TBLAO O: ?@02> >1<565=>3> :>@8ABC20==O GC68< <09=><, I> <>65 1CB8 2AB0=>2;5=> AB>A>2=> 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, V=H8E ?@8@>4=8E @5AC@AV2 (75<5;L=89 A5@2VBCB) 01> V=H>3> =5@CE><>3> <09=0 4;O 704>2>;5==O ?>B@51 V=H8E >AV1, O:V =5 <>6CBL 1CB8 704>2>;5=V V=H8< A?>A>1><. B65, A5@2VBCB - F5 @5G>25 ?@02> >1<565=>3> :>@8ABC20==O GC68<8 @5G0<8 (<09=><) ?52=>N <V@>N, B>1B> 2 B><C G8 V=H><C 2V4=>H5==V. "0:5 ?@02> ?>2 O70=5 7 =5>1EV4=VABN 73;048B8 =57@CG=>ABV 9 CA:;04=5==O, I> 28=8:0NBL ?@8 VA=C20==V ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV =0 75<;N 2=0A;V4>: =5@V2=><V@=>ABV @>7?>4V;C ?@8@>4=8E 1;03 <V6 >:@5<8<8 75<5;L=8<8 4V;O=:0<8. !5@2VBCB8 ?>4V;ONBL =0 75<5;L=V (?@54V0;L=V) B0 >A>18ABV, E>G0 >AB0==V 2 F82V;L=><C 70:>=>402AB2V #:@0W=8 B0:>W =0728 =5 <0NBL. 030B> 4>A;V4=8:V2 =0<030NBLAO ?>T4=0B8 A5@2VBCB8 7 2>;>4V==O< V, O: =0A;V4>:, ?>T4=0B8 WE >1<56C20;L=89 2?;82 =0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV. .. >?8;>2 ?@>?>=CT 287=0B8 <>6;82VABL 2>;>4V==O A5@2VBCB0<8, G8< ?>T4=C20;8AO 1 420 ?@020 =0 GC65 <09=> [115] . 4=0: 70:>=>402AB2C #:@0W=8 =52V4><5 2>;>4V==O ?@020<8  juris qausi possessio (2>;>4V==O ?@020<8  ?5@. 7 ;0B.), I> 28:>@8AB>2C20;>AO 2 @8<AL:><C ?@02V 4;O ?>OA=5==O ?>A5A>@=>3> 70E8ABC A5@2VBCB=8E ?@02 [51] . &O :>=AB@C:FVO =09BVA=VH8< G8=>< ?>2'O70=0 7 CO2;5==O< ?@> A5@2VBCB O: ?@> res incorporalis, O:5 =5 ?V4B@8<CTBLAO 2 ACG0A=>ABV. # ;VB5@0BC@V <0NBL <VAF5 A?@>18 =02VBL ?>@20B8 7 @>7C<V==O< A5@2VBCBC O: ?@020, =5 ?>2 O70=>3> 7 2>;>4V==O<, 0;5 ?@8 FL><C 2>;>4V==N =0<030NBLAO =040B8 7>2AV< =>25 7=0G5==O. "0:, .. %2>AB>2 720602 =0 B5, I> O:I> 728G09=5 2>;>4V==O @5G0<8 77>2=V 2840TBLAO =5<>2 18 74V9A=5==O< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 @VG, B> juris qusi possessio O2;OT 2848<VABL 74V9A=5==O O:>3>-=51C4L A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020, =5<>2 18 :>@8ABC20==O =8< [213] . # 40=><C 28?04:C ?@>?>=CTBLAO 10G8B8 74V9A=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =5 C 2>;>4V==V O: A?5F8DVG=8E @5G>28E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, 0 =02?0:8, C 74V9A=5==V 2AO:>3> ?@020 10G8B8 2>;>4V==O, I> T =5 7>2AV< ?@028;L=8< 7 ?>3;O4C ;>3V:8 >?5@C20==O< ?>=OBBO< 2>;>4V==O. .. >=>20;>2 B0:>6 C FL><C :>=B5:ABV 725@B0T C203C =0 B5, I> =>AV9 A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020 =04V;5=89 <>6;82VABN A2>TN 2;04>N 4>23>AB@>:>2> V AB01V;L=> A?@02;OB8 DV78G=89 2?;82 =0 <09=> V 3>A?>40@AL:5 ?0=C20==O =04 =8<, =5E09 V B>G=> 287=0G5=8< A?>A>1><. G5284=>, B0:V =0<030==O ?>T4=0B8 2AV V=HV @5G>2V ?@020 7 2>;>4V==O<, B0 9 =02VBL 725AB8 WE 4> 2>;>4V==O, 28:;8:0=V 10G5==O< >AB0==L>3> T48=8< VA=CNG8< 2 ?@8@>4V @5G>28< ?@02>< [113] . @>B5 F5 =5 7>2AV< B0:, >A:V;L:8 2>;>4V==O B0 A5@2VBCB8 2V4>1@060NBL 45:V;L:0 @V7=V 1>:8 2?;82C V=H8E >AV1 =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0, B>1B> @V7=V @0:C@A8 F8E ?@02, >18420 7 O:8E B8< =5 <5=H T @5G>28<8. /: 2V@=8< T B5, I> 2>;>4V==O =0304CT ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, B0: 2V@=> 9 B5, I> A5@2VBCB ?5@54CAV< ?>;O30T 2 >1<565=><C :>@8ABC20==V GC68< <09=><, 0 =5 C 74V9A=5==V 2V4=>A=> =L>3> ?>4V1=>ABV ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. @V< B>3>, A5@2VBCB =5 ?>2 O70=89 27030;V 7 ?5@540==O< <09=0 2;0A=8:0 C 2>;>4V==O :>@8ABC20G0  =>AVO A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020. 5G>289 7<VAB >AB0==L>3> 28@060TBLAO C :>@8ABC20==V GC68< <09=>< BVTN <V@>N, 2 O:V9 F5 =5>1EV4=> 4;O 70157?5G5==O :>@8ABC20==O =8< O: AC<V6=8< 7 B8<, I> =0;568BL AC1 T:BC A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020 O: 2;0A=8:C. ">1B> 945BLAO ?@> B5, I> AC1 T:B 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC <0T F5 ?@02> O: 2;0A=8: BVTW 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, O:0 <56CT V7 75<5;L=>N 4V;O=:>N, I>4> O:>W 2AB0=>2;5=> A5@2VBCB. =0;V7 ;53VB8<=8E 287=0G5=L A5@2VBCBC A2V4G8BL ?@> 20@V0B82=VABL 70:>=>402G8E ?V4E>4V2 4> =L>3>.  >4=>3> 1>:C, 2 ?. 6 AB. 4 # @> 2;0A=VABL [63] 2:07V2:>N =0 B5, I> 2;0A=8: <>65 1CB8 7>1>2'O70=89 4>?CAB8B8 >1<565=5 :>@8ABC20==O 9>3> <09=>< V=H8<8 >A>10<8, 0:F5=BCTBLAO C2030 =0 9>3> >1BO6C20;L=><C 0A?5:BV, B>1B> A5@2VBCB @>73;O40TBLAO O: >1<565==O (>1BO65==O) ?@020 2;0A=>ABV.  V=H>3> 1>:C, 2V= @>7C<VTBLAO O: AC1'T:B82=5 ?@02> C?@02><>G5=>W >A>18. 840TBLAO, I> 707=0G5=V <><5=B8 =5 T 270T<>AC?5@5G;828<8, >A:V;L:8, ?>-?5@H5, 2 >1>E 28?04:0E =03>;>HCTBLAO =0 VAB>B=8E @8A0E ?@020 A5@2VBCBC, 0 ?>-4@C35, ?@>AB56CTBLAO 7030;L=>A2VB>20 B5=45=FVO ?V4E>4C 4> 9>3> 287=0G5==O O: B0:>3> [137] . @8 FL><C 2 ;VB5@0BC@V V 70:>=>402AB2V @>7@V7=ONBL A5@2VBCB V 70:>==V >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:V B0:>6 =0304CNBL A5@2VBCB8. >@52>;NFV9=V 2G5=V ?>7=0G0;8 VA=C20==O ?@02 CG0ABV 7 284V;5==O< 7030;L=>3> ?@020 CG0ABV V >:@5<>3> ?@020 CG0ABV. 0:>= 287=0202 ?@02> CG0ABV 7030;L=8<, :>;8 283>48 2V4 <09=0 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO =0 :>@8ABL CAVE 157 28=OB:V2. :@5<8< ?@02>< CG0ABV 287=020;>AO ?@02>, 2AB0=>2;5=5 =0 :>@8ABL O:>W-=51C4L :>=:@5B=>W >A>18 [212] . AB0==V< V T A5@2VBCB. 030;L=V 6 ?@020 CG0ABV ;8H5 <0NBL C @O4V 28?04:V2 E0@0:B5@ A5@2VBCBC, 0;5 ?> ACBV =8< =5 T. "0:, =8<8 T ?@8<CH5==O 2;0A=8:0: 1) CB@8<0B8AO 2V4 O:8E-=51C4L 4V9, O:V 2V= <V3 18 74V9A=8B8 =0 >A=>2V A2>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 2) I>-=51C4L B5@?VB8 7 1>:C B@5BVE >AV1. ">1B>, O:I> ?5@HV =5 ?>2=>N <V@>N ?V4?040NBL ?V4 @>7C<V==O A5@2VBCBC, B> 4@C3V, 157?5@5G=>, 2;0AB82V A5@2VBCBC. V7=8FO 6 <V6 F8<8 ?@8<CH5==O<8 2;0A=8:0 V A5@2VBCB>< <VAB8BLAO 2 WE 04@5A=>ABV. /:I> ?5@HV 70:>= CAB0=>2;NT 7 <5B>N 70157?5G5==O ACA?V;L=>W 157?5:8 2 FV;><C, >E>@>=8 74>@>2'O 9 V=H8E ?C1;VG=8E V ?@820B=8E V=B5@5AV2, B> A5@2VBCB8 O: >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 7 <5B>N 70157?5G5==O ?@02 :>=:@5B=8E >AV1. 030;L=V ?@020 CG0ABV 28:;8:0=V =5>1EV4=VABN 2@0EC20==O ?@02 V=H8E >AV1 01> C=8:=5==O ?>3@>78 4;O 74V9A=5==O =8<8 ?@02. "0:, 70:>= ?@>?>=CT 2;0A=8:>2V 4> ?>G0B:C 75<;52?>@O4=8E 01> 1C4V25;L=8E @>1VB C68B8 70E>4V2 I>4> 7<VF=5==O A2>TW 1C4V2;V 01> >3>@>465==O A2>TW 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, I>1 =5 70?>4VOB8 H:>48 ACAV4=V9 1C4V2;V 01> 75<5;L=V9 4V;O=FV ACAV40. ;0A=8: =5 <>65 ?>=04 CAB0=>2;5=V <56V >1BO6C20B8 ACAV4V2 HC<><, 28:840<8 ?8;C, 7>;8, 48<C, ?0@C, 70?0E0<8, B25@48<8 V @V4:8<8 2V4E>40<8, A2VB;><, 70BV=5==O< V 2V1@0FVTN; 4>?CA:0B8 2B>@3=5==O =0 ACAV4=N 4V;O=:C A2V9AL:8E B20@8=; 157 =0;56=>W 4109;82>ABV 2840;OB8 7V A2>TW 75<;V :>@5=V ACAV4AL:8E 45@52 V >1@C1C20B8 :@>=C 45@52, I> 728A0NBL =0 9>3> 4V;O=:C. =0A;V4>: =02545=>3> :;0A8DV:0FVO ?@54V0;L=8E A5@2VBCBV2 =0 ?>78B82=V (O: ?@020 >A>18 74V9A=N20B8 ?52=V 4VW 2V4=>A=> GC6>W =5@CE><>ABV) V =530B82=V (O: ?@020 28<>38 4> 2;0A=8:0 CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 B8E 01> V=H8E 284V2 28:>@8AB0==O <09=0) 2840TBLAO =5?@89=OB=>N O: B0:0, I> ?@82>48BL 4> 7<VH0==O ?>=OBL <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. !?@026=V<8 A5@2VBCB0<8 <>6=0 22060B8 ;8H5 ?>78B82=V. >=8 =5 ?@>AB> AB8A:0NBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 ?0=CNGC 4V;O=:C, 0 9 =040NBL ?@02> @50;L=>3> >1<565=>3> :>@8ABC20==O GC6>N 75<5;L=>N 4V;O=:>N. 01>@>=0 6 2;0A=8:>2V :>@8ABC20B8AO A2>W< <09=>< ?52=8< G8=>< (=0?@8:;04, 1C4C20B8 1C48=>:, I> 70A;>=OT A2VB;> ACAV4>2V) =5 <VAB8BL C A>1V @50;L=>3> :>@8ABC20==O GC6>N 75<5;L=>N 4V;O=:>N. "><C 2>=0 T =5 =530B82=8< :>@8ABC20==O<, 0 2AB0=>2;5==O< <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. V4?>2V4=>, O:I> >4=8< V7 ACAV4V2 70B5<=NTBLAO 4V;O=:0 V=H>3>, A?V@ <V6 =8<8 945 =5 ?@> 287=0G5==O 7<VABC V @0<:8 A5@2VBCBC A2VB;0, 0 ?@> CAC=5==O ?>@CH5=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV.  =02?0:8, :>;8 ?>@CHCTBLAO A?@024V A5@2VBCB=5 ?@02> ACAV40 =0 287=0G5=5 :>@8ABC20==O GC6>N =5@CE><VABN, B> 9B8<5BLAO ?@> ?@54'O2;5==O =5 =530B>@=>3> ?>7>2C, 0 ?>7>2C :>=D5AV9=>3> [118] . 3V4=> 7V AB. 98  #:@0W=8 [97] 7<VAB ?@020 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC ?>;O30T 2 B><C, I> 2;0A=8: (:>@8ABC20G) >4=VTW 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 <0T ?@02> =0 >1<565=5 :>@8ABC20==O AC<V6=>N 75<5;L=>N 4V;O=:>N 7 <5B>N CAC=5==O =54>;V:V2 A2>TW 4V;O=:8. @87=0G5==O ?@54V0;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC  70?>2=N20B8 2V4ACB=V =0 40=V9 4V;O=FV 1;030 (7@CG=>ABV) 01> 2;0AB82>ABV. 2V4A8 28?;820NBL, I> AB02;OBLAO 4> =L>3>: I>1 A5@2VBCB 70 A2>W< 7<VAB>< @>182 praedii meliorem causam, B>1B> ?>;V?HC202 AB0=>28I5 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, ?@8G><C <02 18 causam perpetuam, B>1B> I>1 A5@2VBCB ?>;O302 C :>@8ABC20==V ?>ABV9=>N 2;0AB82VABN 4V;O=:8, I> A;C68BL B0 70157?5GCT B@820;5 704>2>;5==O ?>B@518 [144] . @02> 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO B0:8<8 >7=0:0<8. >-?5@H5, 2V4=>A8=8 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC ?5@5410G0NBL =0O2=VABL 42>E, O: ?@028;>, AC<V6=8E 75<5;L=8E 4V;O=>:, 7 O:8E >4=0 (>1A;C3>2CNG0) >1A;C3>2CT V=HC (?0=CNGC).  @0<:0E 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC >1A;C3>2CNG0 75<5;L=0 4V;O=:0 A2>W<8 7@CG=>ABO<8, ?5@52030<8, ?@8@>4=8<8 @5AC@A0<8 :><?5=ACT =54>;V:8 ?0=CNG>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8. >-4@C35, ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC >1A;C3>2C20==O >4=VTW 4V;O=:8 V=H>N 2V41C20TBLAO =5 157A8AB5<=>, 0 2 <560E ?@02, I> =040NBLAO 2;0A=8:>2V ?0=CNG>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 I>4> :>@8ABC20==O >1A;C3>2CNG>N 4V;O=:>N. 0 A2>TN N@848G=>N ?@8@>4>N B0:V ?@020 T >1<565=8<8 @5G>28<8 ?@020<8 V ?5@5410G0NBL :>@8ABC20==O ;8H5 =525;8:>N G0AB8=>N >1A;C3>2CNG>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 4;O GVB:> 287=0G5=8E ?>B@51. @8 FL><C 2;0A=8: ?0=CNG>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 =5 <0T AB0BCAC :>@8ABC20G0 >1A;C3>2CNG>W 4V;O=:8 ?>2=>N <V@>N [212] . 4=8< V7 ?@02>28E =0A;V4:V2 CAB0=>2;5==O 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC T >1<565==O ?@02 2;0A=8:0 >1A;C3>2CNG>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8. 465 >1'T:B82=5 2AB0=>2;5==O 1C4L-O:>3> 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC ?@82>48BL 4> ?52=>3> 7<5=H5==O :V;L:>ABV <>6;828E 20@V0=BV2 28:>@8AB0==O >1A;C3>2CNG>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 9>3> 2;0A=8:>< (:>@8ABC20G5<). 07>< 7 B8< 75<5;L=89 A5@2VBCB =5 ?@82>48B8<5 4> ?>7102;5==O 2;0A=8:0 >1A;C3>2CNG>W 4V;O=:8 6>4=>W 7 9>3> ?@02><>G=>AB59 I>4> 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O 01> @>7?>@O460==O =5N 2 ?>2=><C >1AO7V. "0:, =0402H8 ACAV4>2V A5@2VBCB =0 ?@02> 28?0AC EC4>18 =0 40=V9 4V;O=FV, 2;0A=8: 4V;O=:8 715@V30T ?@02> 28?0AC V A2>TW EC4>18 =0 BV9 65 4V;O=FV. 4=0: C B8E 28?04:0E, :>;8 >4=>G0A=5 :>@8ABC20==O V 2;0A=8:0, V AC1'T:B0 A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020 2=0A;V4>: @V7=8E ?@8G8= =5<>6;825, B> ?5@5206=5 ?@02> :>@8ABC20==O =0;568BL AC1'T:B>2V A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020. =H8<8 A;>20<8, ?@8 :>;V7VW A5@2VBCBC 7 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV CABC?0T A5@2VBCBC (2;0A=8:, CAB0=>2;NNG8 A5@2VBCB =0 A2>N 75<;N, B8< A0<8< A515 >1<56CT). # @O4V 28?04:V2 CAB0=>2;5==O 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC <>65 70240B8 718B:V2 2;0A=8:C >1A;C3>2CNG>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, O:V <0NBL 9><C 2V4H:>4>2C20B8AO >A>1>N, :>B@0 <0T A5@2VBCB=5 ?@02>, 2 ?>2=><C >1AO7V. ">1B> >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2AB0=>2;5==O< A5@2VBCBC :><?5=ACTBLAO 28?;0B0<8 =0 :>@8ABL 2;0A=8:0 ?52=8E :>HBV2, G8< 4>2>48BLAO 4VT2VABL :><?5=A0FV9=>3> ?@8=F8?C F82V;L=>3> ?@020. /: C65 707=0G0;>AO, A5@2VBCB <>65 1CB8 2AB0=>2;5=89 V 2 ?@8<CA>2><C ?>@O4:C 70 @VH5==O< AC4C. @8 FL><C 28<030TBLAO 7 OAC20==O B>3>, =0A:V;L:8 =5>1EV4=8< T B0:89 A?>AV1 28@VH5==O ?@>1;5< 2;0A=8:0 ?0=CNG>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 B0 <>6;82VABL WE @>72 O70==O 2 V=H89 A?>AV1. "0:, ?@8 @>73;O4V 2V4?>2V4=>W A?@028 ;87=N:V2AL:8< @09>==8< AC4>< %0@:V2AL:>W >1;0ABV 2;0A=8: >1A;C3>2CNG>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 70C206C202 =0 B><C, I> ?@>2545==O 307>?@>2>4C G5@57 9>3> 75<5;L=C 4V;O=:C 70240ABL 9><C ACBBT28E =57@CG=>AB59, O:8E <>6=0 70?>1V3B8 V=H8<8 A?>A>10<8 704>2>;5==O ?>B@518 ACAV40 2 ?@>2545==V 307C. @8 FL><C 2V= ?>A8;02AO =0 G. 4 AB. 98  #:@0W=8, 73V4=> 7 O:>N 75<5;L=89 A5@2VBCB 74V9A=NTBLAO A?>A>1><, =09<5=H >1BO6;828< 4;O 2;0A=8:0 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, I>4> O:>W 2V= 2AB0=>2;5=89. &59 4>2V4 1C;> 2@0E>20=> 0?5;OFV9=8< AC4>< %0@:V2AL:>W >1;0ABV, O:89 ?@02><V@=> 70E8AB82 ?@020 2;0A=8:0 >1A;C3>2CNG>W 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8, A:0AC202H8 A5@2VBCB, 2AB0=>2;5=89 @VH5==O< ;87=N:V2AL:>3> @09>==>3> AC4C. %0@0:B5@87CNG8 >A>18ABV A5@2VBCB8, A;V4 2V4<VB8B8, I> W< 2;0AB820 ?>2 O70=VABL ?@02 V=H>W >A>18 =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0 7 >A>18ABVABN FVTW >A>18. !0<5 2 FL><C N;;V> 45 ;0 >@0=4LT@ 210G02 @>7E>465==O 75<5;L=>3> 9 >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBV2, >A:V;L:8 ?5@H89 ?>2 O70=89 157?>A5@54=L> 7 =5@CE><8< <09=>< V T 157AB@>:>28< 9>3> >1BO65==O<, 0 C7CD@C:B>< T >1<565=5 AB@>:>< 68BBO >A>18 @5G>25?@02>, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> C =8E 4>A8BL @V7=89 7<VAB ?@020 =0 GC65 <09=> V 4> 283>48 7 =L>3> [140] . A>18ABV A5@2VBCB8 <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO, =0?@8:;04, 2=0A;V4>: 70?>2V40;L=>3> 2V4:07C (;530BC) V ?>;O30B8 C ?@02V 4>2VG=>3> ?@>6820==O 2 GC6><C 1C48=:C. V4AB02>N 28=8:=5==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC T B0:V N@848G=V D0:B8, O: 2ABC? 4> H;N1C 7 2;0A=8:>< <09=0, I> BO3=5 70 A>1>N A?V;L=5 ?@>6820==O ?>4@C66O C 68B;V, O:5 =0;568BL >4=><C 7 =8E =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV; =0@>465==O 48B8=8 7 WW ?@>6820==O< 7 10BL:0<8, O:V (01> >48= 7 O:8E) T 2;0A=8:0<8 68B;0. #:@0W=AL:5 70:>=>402AB2> =5 7=0T ?>4V;C >A>18AB8E A5@2VBCBV2 =0 C7CD@C:B, usus (?@02> :>@8ABC20B8AO GC6>N @VGGN 157 ?@020 =0 WW ?;>48, 70 28=OB:>< 704>2>;5==O >A>18AB8E ?>B@51) B0 habitatio (?@02> 4>2VG=>3> ?@>6820==O 2 GC6><C 1C48=:C).  G. 2 AB. 401 & ;8H5 ?>7=0G0TBLAO, I> >A>18AB8< T A5@2VBCB, O:89 =0;568BL :>=:@5B=> 287=0G5=V9 >A>1V. A>18AB8< A5@2VBCB>< T 2AB0=>2;5=5 2 AB. 405 & ?@02> G;5=V2 AV< W 2;0A=8:0 68B;0 =0 :>@8ABC20==O F8< 68B;><. A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB AE>689 7 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8, I> 28=8:0NBL =0 ?V4AB02V 4>3>2>@C =09<C (>@5=48), 1> 2V= B0:>6 O2;OT A>1>N :>@8ABC20==O GC68< <09=><. # A2V9 G0A A?V22V4=>H5==O =09<C (>@5=48) V >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC 4>A;V46C202 .. >1T4>=>AF52, O:89 2V47=0G02 B0:V @>71V6=>ABV <V6 F8<8 V=AB8BCB0<8: 0) >A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB CAB0=>2;NTBLAO =5 BV;L:8 4>3>2>@><, 0 9 70?>2VB>< B0 CAB0=>2G8< 0:B><, C B>9 G0A O: =09< <>65 1CB8 BV;L:8 70 4>3>2>@><; 1) >A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB 1V;LH>N <V@>N 1C20T 157>?;0B=8< 01> 40@G8<, =09< 157>?;0B=8< 1CB8 =5 <>65; 2) >A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB T 4>2VG=8< ?@02><, 0 ?@020 B0 >1>2'O7:8 AB>@V= 70 4>3>2>@>< =09<C ?5@5E>4OBL 4> A?04:>T<FV2; 3) >A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO BV;L:8 V 28:;NG=> 2;0A=8:>< <09=0, 0 2 =09< <>65 ?5@540B8 <09=> V >A>10, O:0 ?@02><V@=> =8< 2>;>4VT (?V4=09<); 4) AC1 T:B >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCB0 =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 =09<0G0 A0< =5A5 @878: 703815;V <09=0; 5) AC1 T:B >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC =5 <0T >1>2'O7:C CB@8<C20B8 <09=> 2 =0;56=><C AB0=V, 0 B0:>6 ?>25@B0B8 9>3> 2 B><C 283;O4V, C O:><C ?@89=O2 V B.V=. [149] . !;V4 2V47=0G8B8 7 FL>3> ?@82>4C, I> O:I> 9 ?>@V2=N20B8 A5@2VBCB8 7V AE>68<8 4>3>2V@=8<8 2V4=>A8=0<8, B> 1V;LH5 AE>6>ABV 210G0TBLAO <V6 A5@2VBCB>< V 4>3>2>@>< ?>78G:8 (3;. 60 &). @8=09<=V 2V4?040T E>G0 1 >4=0 7 ?>7=0G5=8E .. >1T4>=>AF528< @>71V6=>AB59 2 G0AB8=V >?;0B=>ABV. V6 B8< V=HV @>71V6=>ABV T =0ABV;L:8 ACBBT28<8, I> =5 4>72>;ONBL A?;CB0B8 A5@2VBCB 7 2V4=>A8=0<8 =09<C, >@5=48 B0 ?>78G:8.  =093>;>2=VH>N 7 =8E T :>@8ABC20==O =>AVT< A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020 GC68< <09=>< ;8H5 2 B><C 01> V=H><C 2V4=>H5==V, 0 =5 2 FV;><C 287=0G5=8< <09=><, O: B> <0T <VAF5 ?@8 =09<V, >@5=4V B0 ?>78GFV. !;V4 7C?8=8B8AO =0 =54>;V:0E ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC 70 70:>=>402AB2>< #:@0W=8. "0:, ?@8 157C<>2=V9 =54>AB0B=>ABV 4;O FL>3> AB. 405 & ?>AB0T ?8B0==O ?@> B5, =0A:V;L:8 C:@0W=AL:89 >A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB 2V4?>2V40T 7030;L=><C 9>3> @>7C<V==N O: 4>2VG=>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 >A>18. 1> <>6=0 ?>AB028B8 ?8B0==O V=0:H5: G8 <>65 2;0A=8: <09=0 ?@8?8=8B8 >1<565==O A2>3> ?@020 @0=VH, =V6 2>=> ?@8?8=8BLAO 7V A<5@BN C?@02><>G5=>W >A>18?  >3;O4C =0 @V7=V ?V4AB028 28=8:=5==O >A>18AB8E A5@2VBCBV2 WE ?@8?8=5==O B0:>6 <>65 =0AB020B8 7 @V7=8E ?V4AB02. 4=0: >AB0==T 2V4V1 TBLAO =0 10G5==V WE=L>3> 4>2VG=>3> E0@0:B5@C. "0:, 70 7030;L=8< ?V4E>4><, C @07V 2AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC =0 :>@8ABL >A>18 70 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0 <09=0 (=0?@8:;04, C 70?>2VBV) A5@2VBCB=5 ?@02> B0:>W >A>18 T 4>2VG=8<. ;0A=8: 65 <09=0, O:89 =01C2 9>3> C A?04I8=C, 70 A2>TN 2>;5N =5 <>65 ?@8?8=8B8 F5 A5@2VBCB=5 >1<565==O A2>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. @> B0:5 >4=>7=0G=> AB25@46C20B8 =02@O4 G8 <>6=0, :>;8 >A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB 28=8:0T 7 AV<59=8E AB>AC=:V2 (C 4@C3>3> 7 ?>4@C66O, 4VB59 =5 <09=> 10BL:V2). ">1B> O:I> A5@2VBCB=5 ?@02> <0T 4@C35 7 ?>4@C66O, G8 =01C;> 2>=> 9>3> 4>2VG=>? 'VB:>W 2V4?>2V4V =0 F5 ?8B0==O 70:>= =5 40T. /:I> 22060B8 2AV >A>18ABV A5@2VBCB8 4>2VG=8<8, B> 4@C35 ?>4@C66O =01C20T ?@02 :>@8ABC20==O GC68< <09=>< =0702648, 1572V4=>A=> 4> B>3>, G8 70;8H0NBLAO 2>=8 C H;N1=8E AB>AC=:0E. 02?0:8, O:I> 4>2VG=VABL =5 O2;OT A>1>N E0@0:B5@=C @8AC >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC, B> C @07V ?@8?8=5==O H;N1C B0:89 A5@2VBCB <>65 B0:>6 22060B8AO ?@8?8=5=8<.  >AB0==L><C 28?04:C =>AV9 A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020 70;8H0TBLAO =570E8I5=8<, 0 9>3> ?@02> ?>2 O70=> ?5@54CAV< 7 9>3> AB0BCA>< ?>4@C66O, 0 =5 =8< O: >A>18ABVABN.  V=H>3> 1>:C, <>6=0 70?5@5G8B8, I> F5 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV VA=CT C 283;O4V ?@020 =5 1C4L-O:>W >A>18, 0 ;8H5 G;5=V2 AV< W 2;0A=8:0 68B;0.  ?@8?8=5==O< AV<59=8E AB>AC=:V2 (@>7V@20==O< H;N1C) 2V4?040T V ?V4AB020 4;O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC. "0:5 10G5==O =5 28:;NG0TBLAO, 0 =02?0:8, ?V4B25@46CTBLAO ?. 4 G. 1 AB. 406 &, 2 O:><C 2:07CTBLAO O: ?V4AB020 ?@8?8=5==O A5@2VBCBC ?@8?8=5==O >1AB028=8, O:0 1C;0 ?V4AB02>N 4;O 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBC. "0:>N >1AB028=>N V T H;N1 7 2;0A=8:><. 4=0: V ?>4V1=89 ?V4EV4 T =5157?5@5G=8< 7 B0:8E ?V4AB02. >-?5@H5, G;5=8 AV< W B0 ?>4@C66O  ?>=OBBO =5 B>B>6=V. 3V4=> 7 G. 2 AB. 3 !V<59=>3> :>45:AC #:@0W=8 (40;V  !) [173]  AV<'N A:;040NBL >A>18, O:V A?V;L=> ?@>6820NBL, ?>2'O70=V A?V;L=8< ?>1CB><, <0NBL 270T<=V ?@020 B0 >1>2'O7:8. >-4@C35, 287=0G0;L=8< 4;O 2AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC G;5=V2 AV< W T WE A?V;L=5 ?@>6820==O 7 2;0A=8:>< 68B;0. 4=0: ?>4@C66O 22060TBLAO AV<'TN V B>4V, :>;8 4@C68=0 B0 G>;>2V: C 72'O7:C 7 =02G0==O<, @>1>B>N, ;V:C20==O<, =5>1EV4=VABN 4>3;O4C 70 10BL:0<8, 4VBL<8 B0 7 V=H8E ?>206=8E ?@8G8= =5 ?@>6820NBL A?V;L=>. 8B8=0 =0;568BL 4> AV<'W A2>WE 10BL:V2 V B>4V, :>;8 A?V;L=> 7 =8<8 =5 ?@>6820T. >-B@5BT, C AB. 74 ! [173] ?5@5410G0NBLAO <09=>2V ?@020 6V=:8 B0 G>;>2V:0, O:V =5 ?5@51C20NBL C 70@5TAB@>20=><C H;N1V. "0:V >A>18 E>G0 9 =5 9<5=CNBLAO ?>4@C66O<, 0 WE A>N7 =5 T H;N1>< V =5 T ?V4AB02>N 4;O 28=8:=5==O C =8E ?@02 B0 >1>2'O7:V2 ?>4@C66O (AB. 21 ! [173]), >4=0: G. 4 AB. 3 ! [173] =5 28:;NG0T <>6;82>ABV WE 10G5==O O: AV<'W. @8=09<=V F5 =5 AC?5@5G8BL <>@0;L=8< 70A040< ACA?V;LAB20, 1V;LH B>3>, <09=>2V 2V4=>A8=8 <V6 F8<8 >A>10<8 ?V440NBLAO ?@02>2><C @53C;N20==N.  O:I> F5 B0:, B> AB2>@5==O AV<'W 157 @5TAB@0FVW H;N1C <>6;82>, 0 2V4B0: <>6;828< T 9 @>73;O4 G>;>2V:0 01> 6V=:8, EB> 2V4?>2V4=> ?@>6820T 7 2;0A=8:>< 68B;0, G;5=>< AV<'W 2;0A=8:0. # @07V =0@>465==O C F8E >AV1 48B8=8 2>=0 B0:>6 1C45 G;5=>< AV<'W V7 2V4?>2V4=8<8 <09=>28<8 ?@020<8, 2 B><C G8A;V A5@2VBCB=8<8. >-G5B25@B5, ?@02>25 AB0=>28I5 ?>4@C66O, <V6 O:8<8 ?@8?8=5=> H;N1, B0 G>;>2V:0 V 6V=:8, O:V ?@8?8=8;8 D0:B8G=V H;N1=V AB>AC=:8 <V6 A>1>N V 70;8H8;8AL ?@>6820B8 @07><, =5 <>65 1CB8 ?@8=F8?>2> 2V4<V==8<. /:I> ?@8?CAB8B8, I> ?@8?8=5==O H;N1C T BVTN >1AB028=>N, O:0 T ?V4AB02>N ?@8?8=5==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC (?@020 :>@8ABC20==O >4=>3> 7 :>;8H=L>3> ?>4@C66O 68B;>< 2;0A=8:0-4@C3>3> ?>4@C66O), B> 1C45 =5A?@0254;828<, I>1 ?@8?8=5==O D0:B8G=8E AV<59=8E 2V4=>A8= <V6 G>;>2V:>< B0 6V=:>N 7 ?@>4>265==O< ?@>6820B8 @07>< =5 ?>BO3;> 70 A>1>N ?@8?8=5==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC 2 >4=>3> 7 =8E. >-? OB5, C 1C4L-O:><C 28?04:C ?@8?8=5==O AV<59=8E 2V4=>A8= <V6 G>;>2V:>< B0 6V=:>N =5 <>65 BO3=CB8 70 A>1>N ?@8?8=5==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC C 4VB59. "8< 1V;LH, :>;8 <VAF5 ?@>6820==O 48B8=8 287=0G0TBLAO 70 B8< 7 ?>4@C66O, O:5 =5 T 2;0A=8:>< 68B;0, 0 <0T =0<V@ ?@>4>268B8 ?@>6820B8 @07>< V7 48B8=>N C 68B;V, O:5 =0;568BL 2;0A=8:C. =0A;V4>: 28A;>2;5=8E <V@:C20=L A;V4 2:070B8 =0 =5>1EV4=VABL 2=5A5==O 7<V= 4> G. 1 AB. 405 &, 28:;02H8 WW C B0:V9 @540:FVW: ';5=8 AV<'W 2;0A=8:0 68B;0 B0 :>;8H=V G;5=8 AV<'W 2;0A=8:0 68B;0, O:V ?@>6820NBL @07>< 7 =8<, <0NBL 4>2VG=5 ?@02> =0 :>@8ABC20==O F8< 68B;>< 2V4?>2V4=> 4> 70:>=C, O:I> V=H5 =5 ?5@5410G5=> 4>3>2>@>< <V6 =8<8. >7=0G5==O =0 ?@8?8=5==O >1AB028=8, O:0 1C;0 ?V4AB02>N 4;O 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBC <0T AB>AC20B8AO ;8H5 75<5;L=8E A5@2VBCBV2, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> ?. 4 G. 1 AB. 406 & A;V4 4>?>2=8B8 A;>2>< 75<5;L=>3>. A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB =0;568BL A0<5 ?52=V9 >A>1V V =5 ?>2 O70=89 7 >A>1>N 2;0A=8:0. ;0A=8: 68B;0 =0O2=VABN >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC >1<56CTBLAO C ?@02V :>@8ABC20==O A2>W< 68B;><, 1> 28<CH5=89 B5@?VB8 AC1 T:BV2 A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020, 287=0G82H8 W< 68B;>25 ?@8<VI5==O, O:5 2>=8 <0NBL ?@02> 709<0B8 (017. 2 G.1 AB. 405 &). @>B5 2;0A=8: 68B;0 =5 >1<56CTBLAO C ?@02V @>7?>@O460==O =8< B0 C:;045==O 4>3>2>@C 70AB028, ?@54<5B>< O:>W T B0:5 68B;>. &V 28?04:8 B0:>6 =5 2@53C;L>20=V C 70:>=>402AB2V #:@0W=8, G8< ?>@CHCNBLAO ?@020 =>AVW2 A5@2VBCB=8E ?@02 =0 :>@8ABC20==O 68B;><. !B0BBO 40 # @> V?>B5:C [77]  ?5@5410G0T O: ?V4AB02C 4;O 28A5;5==O 2AVE <5H:0=FV2 V7 68B;0 725@=5==O ABO3=5==O =0 ?5@540=5 2 V?>B5:C 68B;>289 1C48=>: G8 68B;>25 ?@8<VI5==O. @8 FL><C 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO 28=OB>: ;8H5 4;O =09<0GV2 B0 G;5=V2 WE AV<59. "0:5 AB0=>28I5 T =5?@02><V@=8< ?>7102;5==O< =>AVW2 >A>18AB8E A5@2VBCBV2 WE ?@02. @8 B0:><C ?V4E>4V 1V;LH 70E8I5=8<8 T >A>18, O:V 7=0E>4OBLAO C 4>3>2V@=8E AB>AC=:0E 7 2;0A=8:>< 68B;0 (=09<0GV), C B>9 G0A :>;8 AC1 T:B8 V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 ?>7102;5=V 1C4L-O:>3> 70E8ABC. &5 A;V4 CAC=CB8 4>?>2=5==O< G. 1 AB. 40 # @> V?>B5:C [77] 2:07V2:>N 9 =0 G;5=V2 AV< W 2;0A=8:0 68B;0 B0 V=H8E AC1 T:BV2 >A>18AB8E A5@2VBCBV2. &N AB0BBN B0:>6 A;V4 4>?>2=8B8 G0AB8=>N B0:>3> 7<VABC: A>18, O:V ?@>6820NBL C 707=0G5=8E ?@8<VI5==OE =0 C<>20E >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC, =5 ?V4;O30NBL 28A5;5==N. '0AB8=C 3 AB. 109 8B;>2>3> :>45:AC #:@0W=8 (40;V  ) [54]  B0:>6 A;V4 4>?>2=8B8 V 28:;0AB8 ?5@H5 @5G5==O B0:8< G8=><: 25@=5==O ABO3=5==O =0 ?5@540=5 2 V?>B5:C 68B;> T ?V4AB02>N 4;O 28A5;5==O 2AVE 3@><04O=, I> <5H:0NBL C =L><C, 70 28=OB:0<8, 2AB0=>2;5=8<8 70:>=><, 7>:@5<0, B8E, =0 :>@8ABL O:8E 1C;> 2AB0=>2;5=> >A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB. B65, AC1 T:B8 >A>18AB8E A5@2VBCBV2 =5 <>6CBL ?>7102;OB8AO A2>WE @5G>28E ?@02 =0 :>@8ABC20==O 68B;>< 0=V 70:>=><, 0=V @VH5==O< AC4C, 0=V 2;0A=8:><. V4AB020<8 ?@8?8=5==O >1<565==O >A>18AB8< A5@2VBCB>< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>65 1CB8 ?5@54CAV< 1060==O A0<>3> AC1 T:B0 >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC, 0 B0:>6 ?>7=0G5=V C ?.?. 1,2,5,6 G. 1 AB. 406 & >1AB028=8.  FL>3> ?@82>4C A;V4 =025AB8 B0:89 ?@8:;04, :>;8 G;5=8 AV< W ?>7102;O;8AO A2>WE ?@02 =0 :>@8ABC20==O 68B;>< 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0 FL>3> 68B;0. @-= . C:;02 4>3>2V@ 70AB028, ?@54<5B>< O:>W 1C2 68B;>289 1C48=>:, :>B@89 =0;5602 9><C =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV.  FL><C 1C48=:C ?@>6820;8 B0:>6 9>3> 4@C68=0 V A8=.  C<>20E 4>3>2>@C 70AB028 2:07C20;>AO, I> C @07V =5?>25@=5==O :@548BC 2 CAB0=>2;5=89 AB@>: 3@-= . @07>< V7 G;5=0<8 A2>TW AV< W 7>1>2 O7CTBLAO 72V;L=8B8 68B;>289 1C48=>:. !0<5 B0: V AB0;>AO  3@-= . =5 ?>25@=C2 :@548BC, V 10=: 28<0302 2V4 9>3> 4@C68=8 B0 A8=0 72V;L=8B8 1C48=>: 4;O 9>3> @50;V70FVW. @C68=0 70?5@5GC20;0, ?>7=0G0NG8 =0 B5, I> 2>=0 =5 4020;0 B0:>3> 7>1>2 O70==O, 0 7>1>2 O7C20==O 70 =5W 2V4 WW V<5=V G>;>2V:>< T =5?@02><V@=8<, >A:V;L:8 2>=0 =5 C?>2=>206C20;0 9>3> =0 F5. @V< B>3>, B0:89 4>3>2V@ C:;045=89 =5 2 V=B5@5A0E WW <0;>;VB=L>3> A8=0, O:89 B8< A0<8< ?>7102;OTBLAO ?@020 =0 68B;>. &8< ?>@CHCTBLAO AB. 48 & # !  (=8=V G. 6 AB. 203 &), I> @>18BL B0:89 4>3>2V@ =54V9A=8<. !C4 A?@89=O2 4>2>48 2V4?>2V40G:8 B0 2 ?>7>2V 3@-=C . 2V4<>282 [11] . 0 2V4ACB=VABN 4> 1 AVG=O 2004 @. 70:>=>402G>3> @53C;N20==O A5@2VBCB=8E ?@02 (>A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC) ?>4V1=V A?>@8 I>4> 28A5;5==O G;5=V2 AV< W 2;0A=8:0 68B;0 AC4>2>N ?@0:B8:>N 28@VHC20;8AO 7 >3;O4C =0 70157?5G5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:5 <0T ?@V>@8B5B. "0:, ?>7>2=V 28<>38 =>2>3> 2;0A=8:0, O:89 ?@8410202 68B;>, 2 O:><C ?@>6820;8 G;5=V AV< W :>;8H=L>3> 2;0A=8:0, D>@<C;N20;8AO B0:8< G8=><: ?@> CAC=5==O ?5@5H:>4 C :>@8ABC20==V 68B;>28< ?@8<VI5==O< B0 28A5;5==O 7 2V4GC65=>W :20@B8@8 (68B;>2>3> 1C48=:C). /: ?@028;>, FV ?>7>2=V 28<>38 AC40<8 704>2>;L=O;8AO. 5>4=>7=0G=VABL @>7C<V==O ?@02 G;5=V2 AV< W =0 68B;> 2 F8E 28?04:0E 28:;8:0;0 =5>1EV4=VABL 725@=5==O 4> >=AB8BCFV9=>3> !C4C #:@0W=8 70 =040==O< >DVFV9=>3> B;C<0G5==O. 4=0: C 2V4:@8BBV :>=AB8BCFV9=>3> ?@>20465==O C A?@02V 70 :>=AB8BCFV9=8< 725@=5==O< 3@-=0 .. 03@VO I>4> >DVFV9=>3> B;C<0G5==O ?>;>65=L G0AB8=8 B@5BL>W AB0BBV 47 >=AB8BCFVW #:@0W=8, G0AB8=8 B@5BL>W AB0BBV 9, AB0BBV 157 , G0AB8=8 4@C3>W AB0BBV 48, AB0BBV 49 0:>=C #:@0W=8 @> 2;0A=VABL [63] 1C;> 2V4<>2;5=> (A?@020 N 2-22/2002 [11] ).  <5B>N 70?>1V30==O ?>@CH5=L ?@02 B0 V=B5@5AV2 70AB02>45@60B5;O A;V4 >4=>G0A=> 2=5AB8 7<V=8 4> G. 3 AB. 6 # @> V?>B5:C [77] , 28:;02H8 ?5@H5 @5G5==O C B0:V9 @540:FVW: ?>B5:>4025FL 7>1>2'O70=89 4> C:;045==O V?>B5G=>3> 4>3>2>@C ?>?5@548B8 V?>B5:>45@60B5;O ?@> 2AV 2V4><V 9><C ?@020 B0 28<>38 V=H8E >AV1 =0 ?@54<5B V?>B5:8, 2 B><C G8A;V ?@> >A>18ABV A5@2VBCB8 B0 V=HV ?@020, I> =5 70@5TAB@>20=V 2 CAB0=>2;5=><C 70:>=>< ?>@O4:C.  ?. 2 G. 2 AB. 4 FL>3> 6 0:>=C A;V4 2=5AB8 4>?>2=5==O, 28:;02H8 9>3> 2 B0:V9 @540:FVW: 2) >?8A ?@54<5B0 V?>B5:8, 4>AB0B=V9 4;O 9>3> V45=B8DV:0FVW, B0/01> 9>3> @5TAB@0FV9=V 40=V, 2 B><C G8A;V 2V4><>ABV ?@> >A>18ABV A5@2VBCB8. !;V4 2:070B8 B0:>6 =0 =54>A:>=0;VABL AB. 402 &, O:>N @53C;NNBLAO ?V4AB028 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBC. @V< ?>7=0G5==O =0 B5, I> A5@2VBCB <>65 1CB8 2AB0=>2;5=89 4>3>2>@><, 70:>=><, 70?>2VB>< 01> @VH5==O< AC4C, 2 =V9 707=0G0TBLAO ;8H5 =0 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN 4>3>2>@C ?@> 2AB0=>2;5==O 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC. @0E>2CNG8 B5, I> 73V4=> 7 AB. 210 & ?@02>G8= ?V4;O30T 45@602=V9 @5TAB@0FVW ;8H5 C 28?04:0E, 2AB0=>2;5=8E 70:>=><, 0 28<>38 70:>=C I>4> 45@602=>W @5TAB@0FVW >A>18AB8E A5@2VBCBV2 2V4ACB=V, 28E>48BL, I> B0:V VAB>B=V >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL 1CB8 =52V4><V V=H8< >A>10<, O:V 2ABC?0NBL C 2V4=>A8=8 7 2;0A=8:>< <09=0. ">4V 70;8H0TBLAO ;8H5 ?>:;040B8AO =0 4>1@>A>2VA=VABL 2;0A=8:0 V 4>45@60==O =8< ?@028; ?@> ?>?5@5465==O ?@> ?@020 V=H8E >AV1 =0 9>3> <09=> C @07V C:;045==O 4>3>2>@V2 ?@> 2V4GC65==O 01> 70AB02C (V?>B5:C). 02@O4 G8 B0:89 ?V4EV4 <>6=0 22060B8 4>A:>=0;8<, 1> ?>@CH5==O 2;0A=8:>< FL>3> ?@8?8AC =530B82=> 2V4V1 TBLAO O: =0 =>AVOE A5@2VBCB=8E ?@02, O:8E 1C4CBL =0<030B8AO 28A5;8B8 7 68B;0, B0: V =0 ?@020E B@5BVE >AV1 (70AB02>45@60B5;O, ?>:C?FO), O:V, 157C<>2=>, 1C4CBL 70FV:02;5=V C 72V;L=5==V AC1 T:B0<8 A5@2VBCB=8E ?@02 ?@8<VI5=L, O:8<8 2>=8 :>@8ABCNBLAO. ;O 70?>1V30==O B0:8E =0A;V4:V2 2 V=B5@5A0E FL>3> :>;0 >AV1 A;V4 ?5@5410G8B8 2 70:>=V =5>1EV4=VABL 2=5A5==O 70?8AC 4> @5TAB@C ?@02 =0 =5@CE><VABL ?@> >A>18ABV A5@2VBCB8. &5 <0T 1CB8 C @07V, O:I> >A>18ABV A5@2VBCB8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 2 70?>2VBV, 4>3>2>@V, @VH5==V AC4C 01> C 28?04:0E 28=8:=5==O F8E ?@02 2=0A;V4>: =0AB0==O ?5@5410G5=8E 2 70:>=V N@848G=8E D0:BV2 (2ABC? 4> H;N1C, =0@>465==O 48B8=8 B>I>). PR. : b d l   6 : F H R T ɿ󦚦ssgXRFhH@CJmH"sH" hZCJh+5@CJ\mH"sH"h &@CJmH"sH"hA@CJmH"sH"h+@CJmH"sH"hAhnQpCJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"hAh+CJaJmH"sH"h)hACJ\h)h)CJ\hA5CJ\mH"sH"hnQph+5CJ\mH"sH"hnQp5CJ\mH"sH"h+5CJ\mH"sH"Rd f h j l ~ $da$gdA$a$gd:1$a$gdA$a$gd)$a$gdA~   2 x   8 F H X $ # hLd^h`La$gd}I$hLd^h`La$ $da$gd &Hd^H`gdAdgdA $da$gdA d`gdAT V > @ D F x~;;;ܲ|j|jX#h((hP@CJ\aJmH"sH"#h((h}I@CJ\aJmH"sH"#h((hnQp@CJ\aJmH"sH"#h((h|@CJ\aJmH"sH"#h((h+@CJ\aJmH"sH"h((@CJmH"sH"h|@CJ\aJmH"sH"h+@CJ\aJmH"sH"h|@CJmH"sH"h+@CJmH"sH"hZ@CJmH"sH""X F Z\v~ $`a$gd &$a$$ # d`a$gd}I$ & F$ # da$gd(($ # d`a$gd &$d`a$gd}I$ & F # da$gdW$ # d^`a$gd}IPRTXZlnptvоvj[vjI:h+5@CJ \mH"sH""hGh+5@CJ \mH sH hGh+@CJmH sH hG@CJmH sH hD@CJmH"sH"h}I@CJmH"sH"h+@CJmH"sH"#h((hD@CJ\aJmH"sH"#h((h}I@CJ\aJmH"sH"#h((h+@CJ\aJmH"sH"#h((hnQp@CJ\aJmH"sH"hGhG@CJ\aJhG@CJ\aJmH"sH"D!!!#####t&|&>)h)**,,,Ͽrh[[QHh+6]aJh+56]aJh+6CJ]mH"sH"hCJmH"sH"h5CJ\]mH"sH"h+56CJ\]mH"sH"h+5CJ\]mH"sH"hJCJmH"sH"hVhVCJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"h+@B*CJmH"phsH""h+5@B*CJmH"phsH"h+5CJ\mH"sH"h}ICJmH"sH"h &mH"sH"D!#%&''l(>)*,49;2A0CG$Cdh-DM ]C`a$gd+ $dh`a$ $ & F dha$ $dh`a$$dh`a$gdJ$a$,2.4.4447 7|7~7T8x8z888888T9`9b9f9999;;;;<<<<<϶ω϶}rnfnfn_Wh+6\] h+6]h+mH"sH"h+h+5CJ\aJh+CJaJmH"sH"h+5CJ\mH"sH"h+B*CJ]mH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJ\mH"sH"h+B*CJmH"phsH"h+CJmH"sH"h+5CJmH"sH"h+CJ\]mH"sH" h+aJh+5\aJ!<<>>>2A"Gt"v`vbvfvhvlvvvvvvvﳢzlZL?lhThx@CJaJh&@CJaJmH"sH"#h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+@CJaJmH"sH" h+6@CJ]aJmH"sH"-jhJh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH" hJh@CJaJmH"sH" hJh&@CJaJmH"sH",hJh+56@CJ\]aJmH"sH"&hJh+6@CJ]aJmH"sH" hJh+@CJaJmH"sH"vvw\w^w`wbw@xLxNx^xxxy yyy"zbzdzfzhzzzzz@{X{0|@|n|p|r|t|v||||||||||}}Z}b}~}}}}}ݰݰݰݰݰϟݰݰݰݰݑݰݰݰݰݰݰݰݰh@CJaJmH sH hQvX@CJaJmH"sH" hh[@CJaJmH"sH"#h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hThT@CJaJh&@CJaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH"3}}}}}}}}}<~>~z~~~~~~~t|"8Pfjldh߯ߠߐta%hBhBB*CJaJmH"phsH"hJB*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+@CJH*aJmH"sH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH"h%@CJaJmH sH hrp@CJaJmH sH h+@CJaJmH"sH"#h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hjln:DLNPR҄T^ PRTXZh|~FP.02ܹܹܹܩܹܹܹܹܹܙܹܹܹܹܹyih,[B*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH phsH hHB*CJaJmH phsH h'B*CJaJmH phsH hC2B*CJaJmH phsH h+CJaJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"%hC2hMwB*CJaJmH"phsH")246VdxƐȐʐ̐”ĔƔȔZ^`bdfژܘ̤̤̕vfZNhyCJaJmH sH hJCJaJmH"sH"hu+jB*CJaJmH phsH h^B*CJaJmH phsH hu+jhu+jCJaJmH"sH"h^h^CJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h{"h{"CJaJhmhmCJaJh+CJaJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"ܘޘšĚƚȚʚܡ TV貣yk_SA#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h7CJaJmH sH hCJaJmH sH h+CJNHaJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"h+6CJaJmH"sH"$jh+0JB*UmH"phsH"h-h-CJaJmH"sH"hhCJaJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h,IVCJaJmH sH jlnrtvxz|~ƤȤʤΤФҤԤTVX\^ʰ䱦䛦pdXhICJaJmH sH h#< CJaJmH sH h4`h4`CJaJmH"sH"hezhezCJaJmH"sH"h+6CJaJmH"sH"h%h%CJaJhUhUCJaJh%hRCJaJ#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h e7h e7CJaJhdQhdQCJaJh+CJaJmH"sH"h+CJOJQJaJmH"sH""Vd~NJ8x d$dh-DM `a$gdJ$dh-DM `a$зXZ  >@Ŷ᧘~sh]hRhHrhHrCJaJh8ch8cCJaJhpQohpQoCJaJh>Qh>QCJaJh+CJaJ"h+B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"hhCJaJmH"sH"h%h80CJaJmH"sH"hjhjCJaJmH"sH"hmofhmofCJaJmH"sH"h+6CJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"@BDFHJLfjprtz|~ 鳨鳝钇ti^h~Nh~NCJaJh~NhCJaJhi3hi3CJaJh+CJaJhi3hCJaJhh CJaJhThTCJaJhTh~qCJaJhvJhvJCJaJh~qh~qCJaJh+0JCJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"hqhqCJaJ""F&2Vjnt  &2V^`P\d~ƶƏ||%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"hVxB*CJaJmH phsH hrB*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hJCJaJmH"sH"0 &d @BDFHLNP\^t8P㢖xhxhxhxhxhxhxhxh+@B*aJmH"phsH"h+@aJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h"ACJaJmH sH h CJaJmH sH ,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"hFhFB*CJaJphh hHB*CJaJphh+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"($JNRT 0248:Z^bd |~8㻱xo`h+6@]aJmH"sH"hwXzhS<CJhyghygCJhUoCJmH sH h|CJmH sH #jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hT ECJmH sH hRCJmH sH h+CJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"hu:@aJmH sH h+@aJmH"sH"h+@B*aJmH"phsH"%8:<@B2 ^v .(*.0\l:<F^bjܺt,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"%h9h9B*CJaJmH"phsH"hJB*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"ha@aJmH sH hf%@aJmH sH -j&,.8<R&(,.046:DF~^`bpﺭ}ﭺj%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h:'h:'B*CJaJphh hxB*CJaJph"h+B*CJH*aJmH"phsH"h+CJ]aJmH"sH""h+B*CJ]aJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"'V^nx|pt<>@DF8ܙ܉yܙh3GB*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH phsH ,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH phsH h B*CJaJmH phsH h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"%h+5B*CJ\aJmH"phsH")nprvx     t v x z @@BDFPִ֨֝ֆzrbVhPCJaJmH sH h+6CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJh=8CJaJmH sH hR;CJaJmH sH h=8hhCJaJheheCJaJhJCJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"hhh2CJaJmH"sH"heh~,CJaJmH"sH"PRVXlv             !!"""""Z#\#`#b#((鷫{l\h+6CJ\]aJmH"sH"h4bhh7CJaJmH"sH"hh7hH$>CJaJmH"sH"hphpCJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hhVCJaJmH sH h+CJaJmH sH h+6CJ]aJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"hhCJaJ!'z( ,800|6:>lDGNQ Z]bd2oyz@Fb$dh-DM `a$gd&$dh-DM `a$((((++Z,l,66(7,7.72747<7>7@7D7F7L7:::::::";,;B;J; <(<0<F<\<^<`<x<0>@>>⧗phGXB*CJaJmH phsH ,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h4bB*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+6CJ\]aJmH"sH"h&CJaJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH""h+56CJ\]aJmH"sH"*>>? ??B?D????@@ARAXAZAlAAAABBB6BBBjBrBC CC"C$C.CCCCCCCCDDXDhDlDǷt,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"hB*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH phsH h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"+h+56B*CJ\]aJmH"phsH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH",lDDDDEEEEEEjEvEEEF2F~FFFFFFF G,G.G>GBGRGTGG HHHIXIIIIIIIJJJJJFK\KnKpKKKLLh&ahg@aJh=Fh=F@aJh[h[@aJmH"sH"hlhl@aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"hxBhxB@aJh$h$@aJh+@B*aJmH"phsH"h+@aJmH"sH"5LvLLLLLLLMvMMNNQQQQQQRRR"T$T&T(TVVVxfWHh4h4CJaJmH"sH"hHrhHrCJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h;Yh;YCJaJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH""h+56CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"h@h&a@aJmH"sH"h'hn@aJmH"sH"h+@B*aJmH"phsH"h+@aJmH"sH"VVVVVVVVXXXXXDYFYHYLYNYZZZZ Z Z*Z6ZFZZZ2[B[D[X[Z[h[[[] ]]]]]^ooooooooooh+@B*aJmH"phsH"h+@aJmH"sH"h+CJaJh?[h?[CJaJhFh3CJaJh*ph*pCJaJmH"sH"h^h^CJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h4h4CJaJmH"sH"h4CJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"+^^^^^^^bbbbcccccd d8dRdTd|l~llllr㪞}n_M#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hQhQCJaJmH"sH"hhCJaJmH"sH""h+56CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h&CJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"hQhN@aJmH"sH"hN@aJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"h+@B*aJmH"phsH"rrrruuuu upvrvvvxvy>{B{| |T|h|j|l|8}J}}}~~~,.8|4<@BDJ诟u)h&h1;s@B*CJaJmH"phsH")h&h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+@B*aJmH"phsH"h+@aJmH"sH"h1;shQCJaJmH"sH"hoKDCJaJmH sH #jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"hQCJaJmH sH )JLNPTVZ  "(*.046:<@BF﫚xhXhhB*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"!h&hLK@B*CJaJph!h&h1;s@B*CJaJph!h&hwo@B*CJaJph)h&h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"6jh&h+0J@B*CJUaJmH"phsH"$h&h+0J@CJaJmH"sH" h&h+@CJaJmH"sH"Š ЌԌ֌lnɹ٪~qdP@hOOB*CJaJmH phsH &jh+0JCJU\aJmH"sH"h>nCJ\aJmH sH h)bCJ\aJmH sH h+0JCJ\aJmH"sH"h+6CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+CJ\aJmH"sH"h+5CJ\aJmH"sH"hxB*CJaJmH phsH h{l,B*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"nprtvF`HJLRVX`ȸߨ߈~obUbAb&jh+0JCJU\aJmH"sH"h-CJ\aJmH sH h+CJ\aJmH"sH"h+5CJ\aJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH phsH h>B*CJaJmH phsH hB*CJaJmH phsH h&B*CJaJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"hQxB*CJaJmH phsH ֑Ph\x8>Ԗޖ<DH^r2hjtNd&8К:J2>~ʣ̣أڣ48<ξξξξξξξξξξξξξξξββΣh|Xh/@aJmH"sH"h&@aJmH"sH"h+@B*aJmH"phsH"h+@aJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH";b dj4\{$0Rrdh-DM ]0^R`ra$$Cdh-DM ]C`a$ $dh`a$$$dh^`$a$$dh-DM ^`a$$dh-DM `a$ <>ĦƦ df^prt ŹŹŹŹŹŹŹŹŹŦŏp]%h+5B*CJ\aJmH"phsH"h+5CJ\aJmH"sH"hwj%B*CJaJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"%hk[hSB*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+@aJmH sH h+@aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH" PR^dPTVXz~Ʈʮ̮ή¯ȯүدܯӵөӵөӵӝӵӍzcӍӍP%h\hT]B*CJaJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"%hWhWB*CJaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"hJGCJaJmH sH h@pCJaJmH sH #jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hk[CJaJmH sH h+CJaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"#h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"ܯޯ ,268:>|*.02>̛̛̉̉zkhVhkCJaJmH"sH"htC>htC>B*CJaJph#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"htC>h8CJaJ%hjhjB*CJaJmH"phsH"%h\h\B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"$\f"(@PV.V $dh`a$$dh`a$gd&$Cdh-DM ]C`a$$0Rrdh-DM ]0^R`ra$$0Rrdh-DM ]0^R`ra$gd&TX\`bfTV"bn6|ӢpdTpdT j]h+CJ\aJmH"sH"huFhuFCJ\aJ j[h+CJ\aJmH"sH"hHghHgCJaJ,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hVhVCJaJmH"sH"h+CJ\aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"&jh+0JCJU\aJmH"sH"|bd~4602^`PR2RTJLPR2賍xlhUNUPURUbUpUVVVVx]]aaddjjmmoprrxxx xJydy||||{kh"B*CJaJmH phsH %h+5B*CJ\aJmH"phsH"h+CJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"%h&~h&~B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"hwhwB*CJaJph*XXaimrz~"ΑxZК~$dh0-DM `a$$dh0-DM `a$$Cdh-DM ]C`a$$Cdh-DM ]C`a$gd&$dh-DM `a$| }}.}4}N}\}v~z~~~~`Ă "Αؑ`hpޒxih+6CJ]aJmH"sH""h+B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h+CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"h&CJaJmH"sH"h/B*CJaJmH phsH ,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h]h]B*CJaJphh+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"),dn26DrzDFlvL`xʙ̙2@BNPprҚ.Bvޟ,:H֡.0>V%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"R*Zªln~Tr$Cdh-DM ]C`a$gd&$Cdh-DM ]C`a$$dh0-DM `a$gd&$ & Fdh0-DM a$$dh0-DM `a$Vb"$Ħ֦.@Ҩ<@ªlPRZD`䕅n,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h2B*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH phsH h+CJ]aJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h&B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"+°fZ\^`ptvx46Ftxz|~LNӵӦӛӵӏӵӃӦӦӃӦwkӦkhCJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH sH h&CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH sH h2h2CJaJh+6CJ]aJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h2CJaJmH sH h+CJaJmH"sH"h2B*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"*lt`t$Cd4-DM ]C`a$gd $dh`a$$Cdh-DM ]C`a$gd$Cdh-DM ]C`a$gd&$Cdh-DM ]C`a$NPRVZlhjznxǺp````p```h+B*CJaJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h"h"CJ\aJmH"sH"&jh+0JCJU\aJmH"sH"h+CJ\aJmH"sH"h"h"CJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH sH h+CJaJmH"sH" $&&*.0RTTVZ\^bRrt8:Rܹܹ܊ܹ~hCJaJmH"sH"hroB*CJaJmH phsH h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJOJQJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"%h"h"B*CJaJmH"phsH". n  Z| %&F-$dh-DM `a$gd$dh-DM `a$ $dh`a$ ]```gd d4`gd$Cd4-DM ]C`a$gdRVZ\n  2 j     V X Z j   , :       <\跠跑}l} h+6@CJ]aJmH"sH"&h+56@CJ\]aJmH"sH"hhB*CJaJph,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH sH (224FLPTVZ6Hz df|  򯣯||j#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h`CJaJmH sH h+CJaJmH sH h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH"h^'yh^'y@CJaJ#h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"(  f!x!!!!!!!#$4$F$$$%%&()^)`)++++....222234777зззЫЙЎЙshJ/CJaJmH sH h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h lVh lVCJaJ#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h lVCJaJmH sH hCJaJmH"sH"h+CJ\aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"'F-603:??? ?2?4???.@>@@@@@.A0A"$fhlnrt|B<D.(*Lb\ȝН$ٹɹ٦ًٚٚٚٚmٚٚٚٚٚٚٚ#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h"CJaJmH sH h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH phsH h"B*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"*$V`ğƟΟП ĠԠ (4jؤ* &(08@BPRhj~ҧԧB^ĩ,2BDVXfr,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h%h%B*CJaJphh+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"Jd,F >F~$dh-DM ^`a$ $dh`a$$dh`a$gd$:dh-DM ]^:`a$` $dh`a$$0Rrdh-DM ]0^R`ra$ >DNP(<>f²вҲ޵^`FJ`fNbdf^Ƚҽ08n|x+h+56B*CJ\]aJmH"phsH""h+B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"(h+6B*CJ\]aJmH"phsH"hCJaJmH"sH"h+5@\aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"-&N$dh`a$gd$dh-DM ]`a$!$:dh-DM ]^:`a$gd$dh-DM ^`a$$dh-DM ^`a$gd  4D@RVZ\^l~t.6߽ߗ߀q߀bh+6CJ]aJmH"sH"htl htl B*CJaJph,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"%htl h6lB*CJaJmH"phsH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"+h+56B*CJ\]aJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"hB*CJaJmH"phsH"&HX$v"4Jn Z\Bt߱ߚߋߋyylh+CJ]aJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hwyhwyB*CJaJph,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h3Vh3VB*CJaJph%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"hB*CJaJmH"phsH"**,.24b(X^rx(6^hHTf~Ndȼh+6CJ]aJmH"sH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"hB*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h;B*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"6fZZ0tR&Z,`$dh-DM ^`a$$5dh+-DM ]5^`a$ $dh`a$V>BFHRbfzfv`lpx ܵܩܩyܩܩܩjܩܩܩܩܩܩܩh+6CJ]aJmH"sH""h+B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hQCJaJmH sH h+CJaJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h%dB*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH")tHNXZ    $ Tfrv| p%h+5B*CJ\aJmH"phsH"hCyCJaJmH sH ,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"hCyhCyCJaJmH"sH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h+CJ]aJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"( "vz~ *,.00bdLPR߹ߦߓ߹߇߇t߹߇eSGhCJaJmH sH "h+56CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"%hvhvB*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"%hvh"KB*CJaJmH"phsH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h(zh(zB*CJaJphh+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h5qB*CJaJmH"phsH"RTLNR<>BDFH6J  &&&&&&b'f''(((B(L(N(R(^(t(²›²›x%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h5qB*CJaJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h"B*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"/t(((((((Z,,,333 3r3v3z3|33333V5Z5\5^5;;.>f>EEEEEEE,FXM\M`MbMxih[&h[&CJaJmH"sH"h[&CJaJmH sH h"CJaJmH sH #jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h"h"CJaJh+6CJ]aJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h"B*CJaJmH phsH h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH")Z,5.>EfMRY[_b ikxmp~pqsxszs$jdh-DM ]j^`a$ $dh`a$$dh-DM ^`a$``gd5qbMdMfMMMMMPQTQXQZQdQQQQJRNRRRTRUUpYY[\\] ]n]]]]R^h^^^^^^^^^^hhB*CJaJphh+CJOJQJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH sH h5qCJaJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH" *h+CJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"*^^____` `x``````bbbccHcJc`cpcrc dd*d4dPdddddddeef"f$f&fVfZffffflgxghٺن%heUheUB*CJaJmH"phsH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH""h+B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"0hhh6hijjkkkk~T~b~d~j~f"4Tڍ680>*.(ĔڔʕԕڕҗܗB^t+h+56B*CJ\]aJmH"phsH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h:B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"hc B*CJaJmH phsH h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"-^™@PhjXhn(0Xbjzڝ0Ơ&,ءt".46:о%hc hc B*CJaJmH"phsH""h+B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"C:<>ΥxĦȦԦ֦ܦަ>^^vƩȩΩЩƯȯrBLǻǻǻǻǻǻǻǻǻǻǻǻǨǕǻǻǻph!h!B*CJaJph+h+56B*CJ\]aJmH"phsH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"%h!h!B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH""h+B*CJH*aJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH",D֩HL6V2$dh-DM `a$``gd:`$dh-DM ]`a$$dh-DM ^`a$$5dh+-DM ]5^`a$ƴִ&T^|Ƶ$.LR (*.06vz~عº̺ܻ8:|,jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h!B*CJaJmH phsH %h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h!CJaJmH sH h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"0:ν:<N@F\n 6F &6^`bprtvt%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"%h=hBB*CJaJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"%hBhBB*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"6BR JTnv<RXj.0&(﹨yh:CJaJmH"sH""h+56CJ\]aJmH"sH" h:5@CJ\aJmH"sH" h+5@CJ\aJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"h+CJ]aJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH".lX .~xx`$Cdh-DM ]C`a$gd:$dh`a$gd:$dh-DM ]`a$$dh`a$gd: $dh`a$ $dh`a$$Cdh-DM ]C`a$ hr &.z 8<$&.468\:xڻڻ꬙ڙ%h+5B*CJ\aJmH"phsH"h+5CJ\aJmH"sH"h:B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"<.Xpj ` r {]$:dh-DM ]^:`a$ $dh`a$$Cdh-DM ]C`a$$dh`a$gd: $dh`a$'$ & F ,@dh-DM ^`a$gd:$`a$$dh-DM `a$ x` < F N p  $,<>@׹sbQ@ h+@CJ\]aJmH"sH" h#~]@CJ\]aJmH"sH" h+5@CJ]aJmH"sH" hZ5@CJ]aJmH"sH" h#~]5@CJ]aJmH"sH"#h+5;@CJ\aJmH"sH"#h#~]5;@CJ]aJmH"sH"#h+5;@CJ]aJmH"sH"h:CJaJmH"sH"hZCJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH" "$&(*,.@8: `gd#~]$^`a$gd#~] $`a$gd#~]`$:dh-DM ]^:`a$( * 0 2 (!H!####&&t())))))))))Ϳ}n_nnMn#h1h1@CJ\aJmH"sH"hm4@CJ\aJmH sH h+@CJ\aJmH"sH" hnhn@CJaJmH"sH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH"hdY@CJaJmH sH h+6@CJaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH" h+5@CJ]aJmH"sH" h+@CJ\]aJmH"sH" h#~]@CJ\]aJmH"sH": #t(),0./2P7B@EQvX>]0_ a b&d>>>>??(@,@4@Ͻޫϙϋyee&jh+@CJU\aJmH"sH"#htht@CJ\aJmH"sH"h~h~@CJ\aJ#h~h~@CJ\aJmH"sH"#jh+@CJUaJmH"sH"#h-h-@CJ\aJmH"sH"h+@CJ\aJmH"sH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"#4@8@:@<@>@B@CCnGtGvGxG|GSSSSSS*Z,Z aNa.g2g4g6g8g??? FFFFFFF F2FDFVFFGGGGPH^HJIXI\IfIvIIIIJвРܐylh+CJ]aJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"hmIoB*CJaJmH phsH #jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h|fh|fCJaJmH"sH"h+CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"%h+B*CJ\]aJmH"phsH"*JJJJJNƆΆԆ4@z|&24`dhjȣԣh#~]CJaJmH"sH"h/M}CJaJmH sH hNxhNxCJaJhJCJaJmH sH #jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH sH h+CJOJQJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH""h+B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"4ԣBDZ(*\^z|dhlptvxz|~{h]RCJaJmH sH h]Rh]RCJaJUhCJaJmH sH %h/M}h/M}B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJOJQJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH".@8 ?@89=OBBV A?04I8=8 V ?5@540==V A?04:>T<F5<, O:89 =01C2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 68B;> 2 :>@8ABC20==O 707=0G5=8< 2 70?>2VBV >A>10< <0T 1CB8 7@>1;5=89 2V4?>2V4=89 70?8A 4> 45@602=>3> @5TAB@C. &5 A;V4 2<V=8B8 2 >1>2 O7>: V A?04:>T<FN, V ?5@54CAV< =>B0@VCAC, O:89 284020B8<5 A2V4>FB2> ?@> ?@02> =0 A?04I8=C. ;O FL>3> ?>B@51CNBL 7<V= 70:>=8 #:@0W=8 @> =>B0@V0B B0 @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L [82; 68]  . @>?>=CT<> AB. 34 # @> =>B0@V0B [82] 4>?>2=8B8 ?. 22 B0:>3> 7<VABC: 22) 26820NBLAO 70E>48 I>4> 2=5A5==O 4> 45@602=>3> @5TAB@C ?@02 =0 =5@CE><VABL 2V4><>AB59 ?@> >1BO65==O =5@CE><>3> <09=0, I> AB0;8 2V4><8<8 =>B0@VCAC ?@8 ?>A2V4G5==V 4>3>2>@V2, 2840GV A2V4>FB20 ?@> ?@02> =0 A?04I8=C B0 7 V=H8E ?V4AB02. @>?>=CT<> G. 1 AB. 18 # @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L [68] 28:;0AB8 C B0:V9 @540:FVW: 1. 5@602=0 @5TAB@0FVO @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> ?@>2>48BLAO =0 ?V4AB02V 70O28 ?@02>2>;>4V;LFO (?@02>=01C20G0), AB>@V= (AB>@>=8) ?@02>G8=C, 70 O:8< 28=8:;> @5G>25 ?@02>, C?>2=>2065=8E =8<8 (=5N) >AV1 01> =>B0@VCA0. 25@B0T =0 A515 C203C 9 B5, I> ?@8?8A8 ?. 2 G.1 AB. 4 # @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L [68] I>4> >1>2'O7:>2>ABV 45@602=>W @5TAB@0FVW @5G>28E ?@02 =0 GC65 =5@CE><5 <09=> =5 70157?5GCNBLAO AB. 19 FL>3> 6 0:>=C, O:>N 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO ?5@5;V: 4>:C<5=BV2 4;O 45@602=>W @5TAB@0FVW ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=>, I> =5 <VAB8BL 01A>;NB=> =VO:8E ?V4AB02 4;O 2=5A5==O 4> @5TAB@C 2V4><>AB59 ?@> B0:V ?@020. V9A=>, ?@8 2A5;5==V G;5=V2 AV< W V7 =01CBBO< =8<8 >A>18AB8E A5@2VBCBV2 =0 68B;>, ?@8 ?5@540GV 68B;0 2 :>@8ABC20==O 70 70?>2V40;L=8< 2V4:07>< B0 7 V=H8E ?V4AB02 =VO:8E 4>:C<5=BV2 ?@8 FL><C =5 C:;040TBLAO V B><C =VG>3> ?>4020B8 4;O 45@602=>W @5TAB@0FVW. "0:5 AB0=>28I5 A;V4 =5309=> CAC=CB8 V ?>7=0G8B8 C AB. 19 # @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L [68] =0 ?@>2545==O B0:>W =0 ?V4AB02V: 70O28 =>B0@VCA0, O:89 28402 A2V4>FB2> ?@> ?@02> =0 A?04I8=C, >1BO65=C >A>18AB8< A5@2VBCB><; 4>3>2>@C <V6 G;5=0<8 AV< W ?@> 2AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC =0 :>@8ABL ?52=8E >AV1, 0 C 2V4ACB=>ABV B0:>3>; 70O28 G;5=0 AV< W ?@8 =0O2=>ABV @5TAB@0FVW V7 ?>7=0G5==O< 9>3> <VAFO ?@>6820==O C 68B;>2><C ?@8<VI5==V, O:5 =0;568BL =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV V=HV9 >A>1V, B0 73>48 2;0A=8:0 68B;>2>3> ?@8<VI5==O =0 F5. @8 2AB0=>2;5==V >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC @VH5==O< AC4C 2>=> <0T 1CB8 B0:>6 ?5@540=5 4;O 2=5A5==O 2V4?>2V4=>3> 70?8AC 4> @5TAB@C. 0 2V4<V=C 2V4 A5@2VBCBV2 ACBBT2>W @>71V6=>ABV <V6 B0:8<8 ?@020<8 =0 GC65 <09=>, O: :>@8ABC20==O =8< ;8H5 2 B><C 01> V=H><C 2V4=>H5=V, 0 =5 2 FV;><C, =5<0T C @07V 2AB0=>2;5==O =0 GC65 <09=> 5<DVB5278AC, O:8< 73V4=> 7 7V AB. 407 & T ?@02> :>@8ABC20==O GC6>N 75<5;L=>N 4V;O=:>N 4;O AV;LAL:>3>A?>40@AL:8E ?>B@51. 030;L=5 ?@028;> 5<DVB5278AC: 9>3> =>AV9 <>65 74V9A=N20B8 V7 75<5;L=>N 4V;O=:>N 1C4L-O:V >?5@0FVW, =5 ?>3V@HCNG8 WW  HYPERLINK "http://esmagina.narod.ru/gl3p6.html" \l "three#three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osevine Enterprises Limited, O:>N ?@8410=89 ?0:5B 0:FV9 " #=V25@A0< !10 5G5@AL:89, B0 53V>=0;L=8< 2V44V;5==O< $>=4C 45@602=>3> <09=0 #:@0W=8 ?> <. 8T2C, O:89 28<0302 ?>25@=5==O ?0:5BC 0:FV9 C 45@602=C 2;0A=VABL C 72 O7:C 7 =528:>=0==O< ><?0=VTN 7 >1<565=>N 2V4?>2V40;L=VABN Rosevine Enterprises Limited V=25AB8FV9=8E 7>1>2 O70=L. V4?>2V40G 70?5@5GC202 ?@>B8 704>2>;5==O ?>7>2C B8<, I> 2V= =5 7=0E>482AO C ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E 7 53V>=0;L=8< 2V44V;5==O< $>=4C 45@602=>3> <09=0 #:@0W=8 ?> <. 8T2C, 0 ?@84102 ?0:5B 0:FV9 2V4 ?>?5@54=L>3> =01C20G0. !# 707=0G82 ?@8 FL><C, I> >A:V;L:8 <09=>, O:5 T ?@54<5B>< :C?V2;V-?@>406C, =0 <><5=B C:;045==O 4>3>2>@C 7 2V4?>2V40G5< 1C;> >1BO65=> ?52=8<8 7>1>2'O70==O<8, FV 7>1>2'O70==O ?5@59H;8 4> 2V4?>2V40G0 @07>< 7 ?5@5E>4>< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 <09=>. &59 28A=>2>: 7@>1;5=> 7 ?>A8;0==O< =0 AB. 27 # @> ?@820B870FVN 45@602=>3> <09=0 [90], O:>N 707=0G0TBLAO, I> ?5@5410G5=V 1V7=5A-?;0=>< G8 ?;0=>< ?@820B870FVW 7>1>2'O70==O 01> 7>1>2'O70==O AB>@V=, O:V 1C;8 287=0G5=V C<>20<8 0C:FV>=C, :>=:C@AC G8 28:C?C, 2:;NG5=V 4> 4>3>2>@C :C?V2;V-?@>406C, 715@V30NBL A2>N 4VN 4;O >AV1, O:V ?@8410NBL >1'T:B C @07V 9>3> ?>40;LH>3> 2V4GC65==O ?@>BO3>< AB@>:C 4VW F8E 7>1>2'O70=L (9( . !;V4 2:070B8 9 =0 B0:89 ?@><V6=89 20@V0=B 2V4=>A8= <V6 2V4GC6C20G5< B0 =01C20G5< <09=0, O:89 28=8:0T =0 ?V4AB02V 4>3>2>@C =09<C-?@>406C (AB.705 &). # @07V 9>3> C:;045==O AB>AC=:8 <V6 AB>@>=0<8 A:;040NBLAO O: 2V4=>A8=8 =09<C 7 ?>40;LH8< 28=8:=5==O< 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV. @8 FL><C <>6;82V @V7=V 20@V0=B8 B0:8E 2V4=>A8= 70;56=> 2V4 C<>2 4>3>2>@C: O: ?5@5EV4 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ?@8 ?>2=V9 >?;0BV B>20@C, B0: V 2 V=H8E 28?04:0E.  B0:><C @07V =01C20G <09=0, O:89 AB0T 9>3> 2;0A=8:><, >4=>G0A=> 715@V30T 9 >1<565==O, I> 7C<>2;NNBLAO 2V4=>A8=0<8 =09<C, =0A;V4:>< O:8E V AB0;0 ?5@540G0 <09=0 C 2;0A=VABL.  ?@82>4C >1<565=L, O:V V=>4V <VABOBLAO 2 4>3>2>@0E 40@C20==O, VA=CNBL @V7=V B>G:8 7>@C. >:@5<0, F5 AB>ACTBLAO B0:>W 2;0AB82>ABV F8E 4>3>2>@V2, O: 157>?;0B=VABL, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> ?>AB0T ?8B0==O ?@> B5, G8 <>6=0 22060B8 WW ?>@CH5==O< 7CAB@VG=C ?5@540GC @5GV (?@020) >140@>20=8< 01> 7CAB@VG=5 7>1>2'O70==O 2V4?>2V4=>3> =040==O 7 9>3> 1>:C. 8A;>2;N20;0AO B>G:0 7>@C, 73V4=> 7 O:>N 2AB0=>2;5==O< B0:>W C<>28 (O:0 ?> A2>W9 ACB=>ABV T >1<565==O< >140@>20=>3>) B0:89 4>3>2V@ =5 1C45 40@C20==O<, 0 <0T @>73;O40B8AO O: C4020=89 ?@02>G8= V 287=0G0B8AO =>@<0<8, I> AB>ACNBLAO 4>3>2>@C <V=8, ?>1CB>2>3> ?V4@O4C B>I> 70;56=> 2V4 :>=:@5B=8E C<>2 4><>2;5=>ABV AB>@V= [40] . 2060NBL B0:>6, I> 7CAB@VG=5 =040==O =5 >1>2'O7:>2> ?>28==> 1CB8 ?5@5410G5=5 B8< 65 A0<8< 4>3>2>@><, I> V ?>40@C=>:, 2>=> <>65 1CB8 ?@54<5B>< >:@5<>3> ?@02>G8=C 9 V=>4V =02VBL 7 V=H>N >A>1>N (=0?@8:;04, C @07V, :>;8 70 >B@8<0=89 01> >1VFO=89 40@C=>: >140@>20=89 28:>=CT >1>2'O7>: 40@C20;L=8:0 ?5@54 B@5BL>N >A>1>N [38] . 2060T<>, I> 2 >7=0G5=8E 28?04:0E 2AB0=>2;N20=V 4>3>2>@>< >1<565==O 2;0A=8:0 (>140@>2C20=>3>) T =5?@02><V@=8<8. 06;828< 2?;82>< =0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV T 9 AB@>:8 ?5@540==O ?@54<5B0 4>3>2>@C. &5 <0T 7=0G5==O >A>1;82> ?@8 A?V2AB02;5==V <><5=BC C:;045==O 4>3>2>@C B0 <><5=BC 28=8:=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. &V <><5=B8 <>6CBL 71V30B8AO, 0 <>6CBL V @V7=8B8AO. "0:, ?@8 C:;045==V @50;L=8E ?@02>G8=V2 FV <><5=B8, O: ?@028;>, 71V30NBLAO. >3>2V@ 22060TBLAO C:;045=8< B0 >4=>G0A=> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 28=8:0T C ?>:C?FO ?> 4>3>2>@C, O:89 ?>B@51CT =>B0@V0;L=>3> ?>A2V4G5==O B0 45@602=>W @5TAB@0FVW. 0 F5 2:07CTBLAO C G.G. 3 B0 4 AB. 334 &. # 28?04:0E, :>;8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 28=8:;>, 0 2;0A=8: =5 2 7<>7V 74V9A=N20B8 A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV, =0?@8:;04 ?@8 ?>AB02FV B>20@V2 =0 C<>20E ?5@5E>4C ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 7 <><5=BC WE 2V420=B065==O 7V A:;04C ?@>402FO, B0:5 9>3> AB0=>28I5 1C45 >1<56C20;L=8< ?>@V2=O=> 7 V=H8<8 2;0A=8:0<8. V4 G0A 4>AB02:8 FL>3> B>20@C 4> =01C20G0 2V= =5 <>65 =8< :>@8ABC20B8AO, E>G0 9 <0T ?@02> @>7?>@O48B8AO =8<. "5 6 AB>ACTBLAO 28?04:V2 >D>@<;5==O :>=>A0<5=BC, :>;8 2;0A=8: B>20@C <>65 9>3> ?@>40B8 H;OE>< 2V4GC65==O :>=>A0<5=BC, 0;5 A0< B>20@ <>65 9 =02VBL =5 >B@8<0B8. 2. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV C:;045==O< 4>3>2>@V2 ?@> ?5@540GC <09=0 C :>@8ABC20==O. /: C65 707=0G0;>AO, ACB=VABN >1<565=>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 T :>@8ABC20==O GC6>N @VGGN. "0:5 H8@>:5 10G5==O V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 =040;> <>6;82>ABV 4;O AB25@465==O, I> 2AO:5 :>@8ABC20==O GC6>N @VGGN T >1<565=8< @5G>28< ?@02><, B>1B> B0:8< ?@>?>=CTBLAO 287=0B8 =09< B0 >@5=4C. "0:, .. '5@54=8:>20 2 >@5=4V 210G0T 42V 3@C?8 ?@02>2V4=>A8=. >-?5@H5, F5 7>1>2'O70==O 7 ?@82>4C =040==O >1'T:B0 >@5=48 7 <5B>N :>@8ABC20==O =8<, 7>1>2'O70==O ?> A?;0BV >@5=4=>W ?;0B8 9 V=., I> T 28:;NG=> 7>1>2'O70;L=8<8. >-4@C35, ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 2 72'O7:C 7 2>;>4V==O< @VGGN. <>2V@=>, <><5=B ?5@540GV >1'T:B0 >@5=48 9 A;V4 22060B8 B8< <><5=B><, :>;8 28=8:0T 4@C389 284 ?@02>2V4=>A8= [219] . ;87L:>N 4> FL>3> T ?>78FVO . 0@8=>2>W, 0;5 2>=0 210G0T 2 FL><C B@0=AD>@<0FVN >4=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= 2 V=HV, B>1B> 72'O7>:, 70 O:8< >@5=40@ <0T ?@02> 28<030B8 =040==O >1'T:B0 (>@5=4>4025FL  >@5=40@), ?5@5B2>@NTBLAO =0 @5G>2>-?@02>289 72'O7>: >@5=40@-@VG [14] . /: >1<565=5 @5G>25 ?@02> .. )5==V:>20 @>73;O40T B0:>6 ?@02> =09<0G0 70 4>3>2>@>< A>FV0;L=>3> =09<C 68B;>2>3> ?@8<VI5==O, 2 O:><C 2>=0 210G0T @8A8, 2;0AB82V 01A>;NB=8< ?@020< (157AB@>:>289 E0@0:B5@, <>6;82VABL 715@565==O 68B;>2>3> ?@8<VI5==O ?VA;O A<5@BV =09<0G0 70 A?V;L=> ?@>6820NG8< G;5=>< 9>3> @>48=8, 01A>;NB=89 E0@0:B5@ 70E8ABC, 0 B0:>6 >1<565=V ?@02><>G=>ABV ?> @>7?>@O460==N C 283;O4V >1<V=C ?@8<VI5==O, 9>3> @>74V;C, 2A5;5==O =>28E <5H:0=FV2 [225]  ). # B>9 65 G0A O: @5G>25 =5 <>65 @>73;O40B8AO, =0 WW ?>3;O4, ?@02> =09<0G0 70 4>3>2>@>< :><5@FV9=>3> =09<C (7>:@5<0, G5@57 =040=V =09<>402F52V <>6;82>ABV 2V4<>28B8AO 2V4 C:;045==O =>2>3> 4>3>2>@C 68B;>2>3> =09<C). 4=0: V45O 2V4=5A5==O =09<C B0 >@5=48 4> :0B53>@VW @5G>28E ?@02 T A?V@=>N. "0:, ?@020 >@5=40@O GC6>3> <09=0 =0 ?5@H89 ?>3;O4 2V4?>2V40NBL 1V;LH>ABV >7=0: @5G>28E ?@02. >=8, 7>:@5<0, =5 ?@8?8=ONBLAO 2 72'O7:C 7V 7<V=>N 2;0A=8:0->@5=4>402FO V 70E8I0NBLAO 2V4 1C4L-O:8E >AV1 O: ?@020 B8BC;L=>3> 2;0A=8:0. 07>< 7 B8< ?@020 =09<0G0 (>@5=40@O), 728G09=>, <0NBL 7>1>2'O70;L=>-?@02>289, 0 =5 @5G>289 E0@0:B5@. >=8 702648 28=8:0NBL C A8;C 4>3>2>@C 7 2;0A=8:>< =09<0=>3> (>@5=4>20=>3>) <09=0, V WE=V9 7<VAB, 2:;NG0NG8 V @V7=V <>6;82>ABV @>7?>@O460==O F8< <09=>< 06 4> 9>3> 2V4GC65==O, 287=0G0TBLAO 28:;NG=> C<>20<8 :>=:@5B=>3> 4>3>2>@C (>1AO3 ?@02 =09<0G0 B0 >@5=40@O 2AO:89 @07 <>65 1CB8 @V7=8<). ;O @5G>28E ?@02 B0:5 ?>;>65==O =5<>6;825. %0@0:B5@ V 7<VAB V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02 287=0G0TBLAO 157?>A5@54=L> 70:>=><, 0 =5 4>3>2>@><, B0 9 WE=T 28=8:=5==O =5@V4:> 2V41C20TBLAO ?>70 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0. "><C 2 70:>=V <0NBL CAB0=>2;N20B8AO 2AV WE=V @V7=>2848 V 287=0G0B8AO :>=:@5B=V ?@02><>G=>ABV WE =>AVO (7<VAB). C<0T<>, 3>2>@8B8 ?@> B@0=AD>@<0FVN 2V4=>A8= 2 F8E 28?04:0E B0:>6 =5 ?@8E>48BLAO, B><C I> ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 ?> =040==N @5GV 715@V30NBLAO E>G0 1 C G0AB:>2> 28:>=0=><C 283;O4V, B>1B> V ?VA;O ?5@540GV (=040==O) >1'T:B0 >@5=40@ ?@>4>26CT 1CB8 7>1>2'O70=8< C B><C 6 A0<><C 7<VABV, 2V=, O: V @0=VH5, 7>1>2'O70=89 V A0<5 70 4>3>2>@><. @8 FL><C A;V4 2@0E>2C20B8 ?>78FVN .. %2>AB>20, O:89 @>74V;O2 D0:B8, I> 254CBL 4> ?@8410==O ?@020, =0 "D0:B8, =0 ?V4AB02V O:8E 28=8:;0 28<>30 ?@> 2AB0=>2;5==O ?@020 - titulus acquirendi, V D0:B8, 70 4>?><>3>N O:8E CG8=8;>AO A0<5 ?@8410==O ?@020 - modus acquirendi" [213] . #7030;L=NNG8 28:;045=5, A;V4 2:070B8, I> ?@8=F8?>28<8 2V4<V==>ABO<8 =09<C (>@5=48) 2V4 @5G>28E ?@02 T ;8H5 ?;0B=VABL V AB@>:>2VABL. ;5 >AB0==V O:>ABV =5 =040NBL <>6;82>ABV 2V4=5AB8 FV ?@020 4> @5G>28E. "0: A0<>, O:, =0?@8:;04, 2>;>4V==O :C?;5=>N @VGGN ?@>BO3>< BV;L:8 4>18 =5 ?5@5B2>@NT ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 I>AL V=H5, 0 2>;>4V==O =09<0G5< (>@5=40@5<) <09=>< ?@>BO3>< 45O:>3> G0AC =5 B@0=AD>@<CT 9>3> ?@02> 7 7>1>2 O70;L=>3> =0 @5G>25. @8@>4=>, I> ?@8 FL><C B@510 ?0<'OB0B8 V ?@> @V7=89 >1AO3 ?@02 2;0A=8:0 4> V ?VA;O ?5@540GV 9>3> <09=0 2 =09< (>@5=4C). 5 703;81;NNG8AL C ?8B0==O ?@> ?@02>2C ?@8@>4C ?@02 =09<C (>@5=48), A;V4 2V4<VB8B8, I> V 2 F8E 28?04:0E, O: V ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V ?@02 =0 GC6V @5GV, 2;0A=8: >1<56CTBLAO 2 A2>T<C ?@02V. &5 ?>;O30T 2 =5<>6;82>ABV 4;O =L>3> 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 A2>T <09=>, O:I> 2>=> ?5@540=5 C :>@8ABC20==O =09<0G52V (>@5=40@52V). ">1B> ?V4AB020 28=8:=5==O F8E >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV (C:;045==O 4>3>2>@C 70 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0-=09<>402FO (>@5=4>402FO)) =5 2?;820T =0 A0< D0:B VA=C20==O F8E >1<565=L. V7=VABL ?@02>2>3> @568<C @5G>28E B0 7>1>2 O70;L=8E ?@02 :>@8ABC20GV2 <09=0, I> =0;568BL 2;0A=8:>2V, =5 2V4V3@0T @>;V 4;O ACB=>ABV ?@02>2>3> @568<C 2;0A=>ABV, O:5 2=0A;V4>: B8E B0 V=H8E ?@02 1C45 2C6G8<, =V6 C WE 2V4ACB=VABL. )> AB>ACTBLAO ?@020 2;0A=8:0 ?@8 C:;045==V 4>3>2>@C C?@02;V==O 9>3> <09=><, B> 2>=> B0:>6 ACBBT2> >1<56CTBLAO. &59 4>3>2V@ C:;040TBLAO B>4V, :>;8 2;0A=8: =5 <0T <>6;82>ABV 01> 22060T =54>FV;L=8< >A>18AB> 4>3;O40B8 01> V=H8< A?>A>1>< 74V9A=N20B8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 2;0A=5 <09=>. =0A;V4>: 2AB0=>2;5==O C?@02;V==O GC68< <09=>< 70157?5GCTBLAO O: <5B0 9>3> 715@565==O (=0?@8:;04, ?@8 C?@02;V==V A?04I8=>N  G. 1 AB. 1285 &), B0: V :@V< FL>3>, ?@8@>I5==O FL>3> <09=0, >A>1;82>, :>;8 945BLAO ?@> C?@02;V==O <09=>< ?V4>?VG=>3> 01> <09=><, I> 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO 2 ?V4?@8T<=8FL:V9 4VO;L=>ABV (AB.AB. 54, 72 &), >45@60==O <09=>2>W 283>48 01> V=H>3> 287=0G5=>3> @57C;LB0BC =0 :>@8ABL 2V4GC6C20G0 01> V=H8E 287=0G5=8E 283>4>>B@8<C20GV2.  70:>=>402AB2V #:@0W=8 B5@<V=8 C?@02;V==O, :5@C20==O V @>7?>@O460==O 26820NBLAO =5>4=>7=0G=>, V <>6;82>ABV, I> 28?;820NBL 7 >7=0G5=8E ?@02, 4>AB0B=L>N <V@>N =5 287=0G0NBLAO. 0:>=>< 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO ;8H5 7030;L=V ?@028;0 ?@> B5, I> C?@028B5;L 4VT 2V4 A2>3> V<5=V, 0;5 2 V=B5@5A0E >A>18, O:0 T 2;0A=8:>< <09=0, B0 <0T 410B8 ?@> 715@565==O 9 28:>@8AB0==O <09=0 2;0A=8:0. V4 >1AO3C ?>2=>2065=L C?@028B5;O <09=0, O:89 <>65 1CB8 @V7=8<, 70;560BL V >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. /: A;CH=> 707=0G0T ..!?0A81>-$0BTT20 [195]  , FV ?>2=>2065==O C ?52=8E 28?04:0E <>6CBL 1CB8 O: B>B>6=8<8, 0 <>6CBL V ACBBT2> 2V4@V7=OB8AO; O: 2C6G8<8 70 7<VAB>< ?>@V2=O=> 7 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV, B0: V H8@H8<8 70 =L>3>. >73;O=5<> B0:V 3@C?8 ?>2=>2065=L C?@028B5;O <09=0. 5@H0, :>;8 C?@028B5;L <0T <0:A8<0;L=V ?>2=>2065==O 2=0A;V4>: =040==O 9><C <>6;82>ABV 74V9A=5==O 2AVE B@L>E ?@02><>G=>AB59 2;0A=8:0 ?> 2>;>4V==N, :>@8ABC20==N B0 @>7?>@O460==N 9>3> <09=><. ;5, =572060NG8 =0 F5, 2AB0=>2;5==O FL>3> ?@020 =5 BO3=5 70 A>1>N ?5@5EV4 4> C?@028B5;O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 <09=>, I> ?5@540=5 9><C 2 C?@02;V==O (70 28=OB:8< 28=8:=5==O ?@020 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV). %>G 2;0A=8: 265 =5 ?>28=5= @50;V7>2C20B8 =0 AB@>: 4VW 4>3>2>@C 7 C?@028B5;5< A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV, ?@>B5 2V= WE =5 2B@0G0T [127] , 1> 2>=8 2V4=>2;NNBLAO O: B0:V, I> 1C;8 ?@87C?8=5=V.  B0:><C @07V 2;0A=8: D0:B8G=> <0T ACB> =><V=0;L=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV V CAC20TBLAO 2V4 9>3> @50;V70FVW A0<>ABV9=8<8 4VO<8. V= 74V9A=NT ;8H5 :>=B@>;L 70 C?@028B5;5<. /:I> 6 2;0A=8:0 =5<0T (?@8 9>3> 1572VA=V9 2V4ACB=>ABV 01> A<5@BV), G8 9>3> =54VT740B=>ABV 01> <0;>;VBAB20, FN DC=:FVN 74V9A=NNBL V=HV >A>18 O: CAB0=>2=8:8 C?@02;V==O (>@30= >?V:8 B0 ?V:;C20==O, =>B0@VCA). 4=0: V 2 F8E 28?04:0E 4VW C?@028B5;O <09=0 E>G V B>B>6=V ?@02><>G=>ABO< 2;0A=8:0, 0;5 :>=B@>;L>20=V 7 1>:C 2;0A=8:0 G8 V=H8E >AV1 V =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 2;0A=8:0, O:89 74V9A=NT A2>T ?@02> A2>TN 2>;5N, =570;56=> 2V4 2>;V V=H8E >AV1 (AB. 316 &), C?@028B5;L @50;V7CT A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV 70;56=> 2V4 2>;V 2;0A=8:0 01> V=H8E >AV1.  FL>3> ?@82>4C A;V4 ?>3>48B8AO 7 4C<:>N ?@> B5, I> 2 F59 ?5@V>4 ?@020 2;0A=8:0 =0G51B> ?5@5B2>@NNBLAO, >15@B0NG8AL V=H8<8 A2>W<8 3@0=O<8 [187] , I> ?V4B25@46CT ?>78FVN ?@02=8:V2 ?@> HBCG=VABL :>=AB@C:FVW ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: ?>1C4>20=>3> 7 B@L>E ?@02><>G=>AB59 [176] . @C30 3@C?0 ?>2=>2065=L C?@028B5;O T 2C6G>N 70 ?5@HC V AB>ACTBLAO 2>;>4V==O B0 70157?5G5==O 28:>@8AB0==O <09=0 2;0A=8:0 O: 2;0A=8<8 A8;0<8, B0: V H;OE>< C:;045==O @V7=8E 4>3>2>@V2 :>@8ABC20==O F8< <09=>< 7 V=H8<8 >A>10<8. !B>@>=>N ?> B0:8E 4>3>2>@0E 265 1C45 =5 2;0A=8:, 0 C?@028B5;L <09=0. =0A;V4>: 2AB0=>2;5==O F8E ?>2=>2065=L C?@028B5;O 2;0A=8: ?>7102;OTBLAO <>6;82>ABV :>@8ABC20B8AO A2>W< <09=><, ?5@5?>=>N 4;O G>3> A;C3CNBL 265 420 4>3>2>@8  C?@02;V==O 9>3> <09=>< V 2V4?>2V4=> =09<C 01> >@5=48, C:;045=8E C?@028B5;5<. "@5BO 3@C?0 ?>2=>2065=L C?@028B5;O <>65 ?>;O30B8 C @>7?>@O460==V <09=>< 2;0A=8:0, =0?@8:;04, C @07V ?@87=0G5==O @>7?>@O4=8:0 <09=0 >A>1>N, 2V4=>A=> O:>W ?>@CH5=> A?@02C ?@> WW =5?;0B>A?@><>6=VABL 73V4=> 7 AB. 13 # @> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 01> 287=0==O 9>3> 10=:@CB><. @>B5 A?V22V4=>H5==O ?>2=>2065=L ?> @>7?>@O460==N 9 C?@02;V==N <09=>< 2;0A=8:0 4>A8BL A2>T@V4=5, >A:V;L:8 A0< @>7?>@O4=8: <09=0 ?>2=>2065=L ?> @>7?>@O460==N =5 =01C20T. /:I> =5?;0B>A?@><>6=>N >A>1>N T N@848G=0 >A>10, B> 7 ?@87=0G5==O< @>7?>@O4=8:0 <09=0 ?@>4>26CNBL 4VOB8 >@30=8 C?@02;V==O FVTW N@848G=>W >A>18, O:V @50;V7CNBL F5 ?>2=>2065==O, O: V @0=VH5, 0;5 70 73>4>N @>7?>@O4=8:0 <09=0. =H0 A?@020, :>;8 ?@87=0G0TBLAO :5@CNG89 A0=0FVTN, O:89 <0T ?@02> A0<>ABV9=> @>7?>@O460B8AO <09=>< 1>@6=8:0 7 C@0EC20==O< >1<565=L, ?5@5410G5=8E 707=0G5=8< 0:>=>< (AB. 17). 0 >A>1;82C C203C 70A;C3>2CT @>7<56C20==O 2 FL><C 0:>=V DC=:FV9 7 C?@02;V==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O <09=>< 10=:@CB0, O:V ?>:;8:0=89 28:>=C20B8 ;V:2V40B>@, I> I5 @07 A2V4G8BL ?@> =5B>B>6=VABL F8E ?>=OBL, E>G0 :>=:@5B=8E =0?@O<:V2 WE @>7<56C20==O 2 0:>=V =5 ?@>2048BLAO. > FVTW 3@C?8 A;V4 2V4=5AB8 9 C?@02;V==O 0:FVO<8 (?0:5B0<8 0:FV9), O:5 =040T C?@028B5;N <>6;82>ABV 1@0B8 CG0ABL 2 C?@02;V==V 0:FV>=5@=8< B>20@8AB2>< V =01C20B8 45O:8E V=H8E <09=>28E ?@02 C 28?04:0E, ?5@5410G5=8E 4>3>2>@>< <V6 C?@028B5;5< V 2;0A=8:>< 0:FV9 (0:FV>=5@><), 0;5 =5 @>7?>@O460B8AO 0:FVO<8. 5@54CAV< ?>2=>2065==O C?@028B5;O B0 WE >1AO3 <0NBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO 2 4>3>2>@V 7 2;0A=8:>< G8 V=H>N >A>1>N, O:0 <0T ?@02> C:;040B8 B0:89 4>3>2V@ (>?V:C=><, =>B0@VCA><, >@30=>< >?V:8 B0 ?V:;C20==O). G5284=>, A;V4 28E>48B8 7 =091V;LH H8@>:>W <>6;82>ABV 4;O C?@028B5;O 74V9A=N20B8 2AV ?@02><>G=>ABV 2;0A=8:0, =02VBL V @>7?>@O460==O, O:I> V=H5 =5 ?5@5410G5=> 70:>=>< 01> C<>20<8 4>3>2>@C [115] . @>B5 VA=CT ?>B@510 C 1V;LH GVB:><C 287=0G5==V F8E ?>2=>2065=L, O:V <>6CBL =5 ;8H5 >1<56C20B8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, 0 =02VBL ?@825AB8 4> 9>3> ?@8?8=5==O. &O ?@>1;5<0 4>AB0B=L> 3>AB@> ?>AB0T C 28?04:0E C?@02;V==O <09=>< ?C1;VG=8E >AV1, ?>2=>2065==O I>4> G>3> G0AB> >4=>7=0G=> =5 287=0G0NBLAO, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> 28=8:0NBL ?@>1;5<8 =5 ;8H5 7V 7<VAB>< ?@020 2;0A=8:0 B0 74V9A=5==O< =8< A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L, 0 9 27030;V 7 VA=C20==O< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. /: ?@8:;04 <>6=0 =025AB8 =>@<C AB. 142 >=AB8BCFVW #:@0W=8, AB. 60 # @> <VAF525 A0<>2@O4C20==O [80] , O:V AB>ACNBLAO <09=0 B5@8B>@V0;L=8E 3@><04, ?5@540=>3> 4> C?@02;V==O @09>==8E 01> >1;0A=8E @04 B0 I>4> G>3> =5 ?>7=0G5=> =02VBL 7030;L=8< G8=>< >1AO3 ?>2=>2065=L C?@028B5;O. =0A;V4>: FL>3> 28=8:;0 ?@>1;5<0 I>4> <>6;82>ABV 4;O @09>==8E 01> >1;0A=8E @04, O:V 74V9A=NNBL C?@02;V==O >1 T:B0<8 :><C=0;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV, @50;V7C20B8 9>3> (G. 4 AB. 60 73040=>3> 0:>=C). G5284=>, I> ?>2=>2065==O @09>==8E V >1;0A=8E @04 ?> C?@02;V==N A?V;L=8< <09=>< B5@8B>@V0;L=8E 3@><04 =5 ?@8?CA:0NBL @>7?>@O460==O =8< [193] . &8< C?@02;V==O, 74V9A=N20=5 F8<8 @040<8, 2V4@V7=OTBLAO 2V4 ?>2=>2065=L >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, O:V =04V;5=V <>6;82>ABO<8 2V4 V<5=V B0 2 V=B5@5A0E B5@8B>@V0;L=8E 3@><04 74V9A=N20B8 ?@02><>G=>ABV I>4> 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O >1'T:B0<8 ?@020 :><C=0;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV (G. 5 AB. 60 0:>=C). :@5A;5=0 ?@>1;5<0 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO =0 ?@8:;04V C?@02;V==O <09=><, I> O2;OT A>1>N A?V;L=C 2;0A=VABL B5@8B>@V0;L=8E 3@><04 >1;0ABV, H;OE>< 9>3> 2=5A5==O C?@028B5;5< 4> AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C 3>A?>40@AL:>3> B>20@8AB20. @8 FL><C CG0A=8:>< FL>3> B>20@8AB20 AB02 C?@028B5;L, O:89 4VO2 2V4 2;0A=>3> V<5=V. =0A;V4>: F8E 4V9 C?@028B5;O 2V41C;>AO ?5@5B2>@5==O :><C=0;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV =0 ?@820B=C 2;0A=VABL V B0:8< G8=><, ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 <09=>, ?5@540=5 2 C?@02;V==O, ?@8?8=8;>AO. 0A:V;L:8 F5 ?@02><V@=>? G5284=>, I> B0:>3> >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, I> ?@82>48BL 4> 9>3> ?@8?8=5==O, =5 ?>28==> 1CB8 [186] . 2.3. 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >1C<>2;5=V :>@?>@0B82=8<8 ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8 >@?>@0B82=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 @>73;O40NBLAO O: >A>1;8289 284 F82V;L=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= ?>@O4 V7 @5G>28<8 B0 7>1>2 O70;L=8<8 [41; 194]  , E>G0 VA=CT 9 WE=T @>7C<V==O O: 7>1>2'O70;L=8E [123; 159]   01> O: @5G>28E [207] . <VAB>< :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= T :>@?>@0B82=V ?@020, I> <0NBL A:;04=C ?@8@>4C [110; 184; 36]   , 1> A:;040NBLAO 7 <09=>28E B0 >A>18AB8E =5<09=>28E ?@02, O:V 7C<>2;NNBLAO >4=5 V=H8<. !B0BBO 167  287=0G0T :>@?>@0B82=V ?@020 O: ?@020 >A>18, G0AB:0 O:>W 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO C AB0BCB=><C D>=4V (<09=V) 3>A?>40@AL:>W >@30=V70FVW, I> 2:;NG0NBL ?@02><>G=>ABV =0 CG0ABL FVTW >A>18 2 C?@02;V==V 3>A?>40@AL:>N >@30=V70FVTN, >B@8<0==O ?52=>W G0AB:8 ?@81CB:C (482V45=4V2) 40=>W >@30=V70FVW B0 0:B82V2 C @07V ;V:2V40FVW >AB0==L>W 2V4?>2V4=> 4> 70:>=C, 0 B0:>6 V=HV ?@02><>G=>ABV, ?5@5410G5=V 70:>=>< B0 AB0BCB=8<8 4>:C<5=B0<8. A=C20==O :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02 2V41820TBLAO =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV ?52=>3> AC1 T:B0. "0:, 0:FV>=5@=5 B>20@8AB2> (40;V  ") T 2;0A=8:>< <09=0, 0 0:FV>=5@  2;0A=8:>< 0:FVW, B>1B> >1'T:B8 WE ?@020 2;0A=>ABV @V7=V. @>B5 0:FV>=5@ B0 " 7=0E>4OBLAO 2 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, I> BO3=5 70 A>1>N >1<565==O >1>E F8E AC1 T:BV2 O: CG0A=8:V2 707=0G5=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, E>G0 9 AB>A>2=> @V7=8E >1'T:BV2. @8 FL><C " O: 2;0A=8: <09=0 >1<56CTBLAO 2 ?@020E 2V4=>A=> =L>3> 2 V=B5@5A0E 0:FV>=5@V2, 0 0:FV>=5@8 O: 2;0A=8:8 0:FV9 >1<56CNBLAO 2 A2>WE ?@020E 2 V=B5@5A0E V=H8E 0:FV>=5@V2 B0 ". 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@02 707=0G5=8E CG0A=8:V2 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO O: C 70:>=V, B0: V 2 ;>:0;L=8E 0:B0E (2=CB@VH=VE 0:B0E "). 0 @V2=V 70:>=C 2@53C;L>20=V <56V :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02, O:8E <0NBL 4>45@6C20B8AO 2AV CG0A=8:8 3>A?>40@AL:8E B>20@8AB2, 0 =0 ;>:0;L=><C @V2=V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO >1<565==O 4;O >AV1, I> ?5@51C20NBL 2 :>=:@5B=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E 7 ?52=8< 3>A?>40@AL:8< B>20@8AB2><. &V <56V B0 >1<565==O <>6CBL ?>;O30B8 C 2AB0=>2;5==V 701>@>=, ?@8?8AV2 B0 AB@8<CNG8E <5E0=V7<V2 @50;V70FVW ?@02 2;0A=>ABV =0 2V4?>2V4=V >1 T:B8. >:@5<0, <56V AB>ACNBLAO 6>@AB:>3> @53C;N20==O >1;V:C 0:FV9, :>=B@>;N 70 4VO<8 2;0A=8:0 ?> 28?CA:C FV==8E ?0?5@V2, WE 1V@6>2><C >1V3C, 287=0G5==N ?8B0=L, >1>2'O7:>28E 4;O @>73;O4C 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 0:FV>=5@V2, I> T WE 28:;NG=>N :><?5B5=FVTN. "8< A0<8< 45@6020 2AB0=>2;NT <56V :>@?>@0B82=>W 2>;V 7 <5B>N =54>?CI5==O 7;>26820==O ?@02>< O: 7 1>:C ?>A04>28E >AV1 ", O:V 4VNBL 2V4 9>3> V<5=V 2V4=>A=> B@5BVE >AV1, B0: V 0:FV>=5@V2 (?5@54CAV< 7=0G=8E), O:V D>@<CNBL 2>;N " H;OE>< CG0ABV 2 7030;L=8E 71>@0E 0:FV>=5@V2. 56V " O: 2;0A=8:0 <09=0 ?5@54CAV< B>@:0TBLAO 74V9A=5==O 4VO;L=>ABV >@30=0<8 C?@02;V==O 2 " (:>@?>@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O) B0 A?@O<>20=5 =0 70?>1V30==O 7;>26820==O< 7 1>:C :5@CNG>3> >@30=C B0 70E8AB ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2, :@548B>@V2 " V B@5BVE >AV1. "0:V <56V AB>ACNBLAO: 0) 2AB0=>2;5==O ?52=8E 28<>3 B0 701>@>= 4> 4V9 >AV1, C?>2=>2065=8E @>7?>@O460B8AO <09=>< "; 1) 7<V= AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C "; 2) ", AB2>@5=8E 2 ?@>F5AV ?@820B870FVW, 3) V=HV. . 56V B0 >1<565==O I>4> @>7?>@O460==O <09=>< " ?>;O30NBL C 28<>30E 4>: 1) C:;045==O 2V4 V<5=V " 7=0G=8E ?@02>G8=V2; 2) C:;045==O 2V4 V<5=V " ?@02>G8=V2 V7 70V=B5@5A>20=VABN; 3) C:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 :5@V2=8:0<8 DV;V9 B0 ?@54AB02=8FB2; 4) C:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 70;56=8<8 B>20@8AB20<8; 5) ?@>F54C@8 ?@8?8=5==O ".  ?@82>4C 707=0G5=8E 28<>3 A;V4 2:070B8 =0 B5, I> C 2V4ACB=VABL 2 #:@0W=V @53C;N20==O :>@?>@0B82=8E 2V4=>A8= 2 0:FV>=5@=8E B>20@8AB20E =0 @V2=V A?5FV0;L=>3> 70:>=C, O:8< 18 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO 2V4?>2V4=V <56V, 28<CHCT " B0:V 701>@>=8, ?@8?8A8 B0 ?@028;0 ?5@5410G0B8 C A2>WE AB0BCB0E B0 2=CB@VH=VE 0:B0E. "8< A0<8<, O: ?@028;>, 2>=8 O2;ONBL A>1>N >1<565==O :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02 (?@02 2;0A=8:V2 0:FV9, ?0W2). >45@60==O 2V4?>2V4=8E 28<>3 ?5@54CAV< 28<030TBLAO 2V4 >AV1, O:V ?@54AB02;ONBL V=B5@5A8 " C 2V4=>A8=0E V7 B@5BV<8 >A>10<8, B>1B> FV 28<>38 04@5ACNBLAO :5@V2=8:C " (O:I> 2 " >4=>>A>1>289 28:>=02G89 >@30=) V 3>;>2V B0 G;5=0< :>;53V0;L=>3> 28:>=02G>3> >@30=C " (?@02;V==O). 4=0: ?@8?8A8 I>4> 2:070=8E 4V9 AB>ACNBLAO 9 V=H8E >AV1 B0 >@30=V2 2 ", 0 A0<5: G;5=V2 =03;O4>2>W @048 B0 2AVE 0:FV>=5@V2 O: CG0A=8:V2 28I>3> >@30=C  7030;L=8E 71>@V2. A:V;L:8 6 2:070=V >A>18 C?>2=>2065=V 28ABC?0B8 2V4 V<5=V " O: 2;0A=8:0, B> <56V 9 >1<565==O 4> WE 4V9 O2;ONBL A>1>N ?> ACBV <560<8 9 >1<565==O<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. #:;045==O 2V4 V<5=V " 7=0G=8E ?@02>G8=V2 G8==8< 70:>=>402AB2>< #:@0W=8 2@53C;L>20=> 4>A8BL AC?5@5G;82> V =5 =0 =0;56=><C @V2=V 70E8I0T V=B5@5A8 0:FV>=5@V2 B0 ", >A:V;L:8 =5 <VAB8BL GVB:>3> B0 282065=>3> <5E0=V7<C WE C:;045==O, =0A;V4:V2 9>3> =54>45@60==O B0 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV 70 ?>@CH5==O. "0:, AB. 41 # @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 [65]  ?5@5410G0T, I> 7030;L=V 71>@8 0:FV>=5@V2 70B25@46CNBL ?@02>G8=8 =0 AC<C, I> ?5@528ICT 707=0G5=C 2 AB0BCBV ". A:V;L:8 ?@> 70B25@465==O <>65 9B8AO ;8H5 AB>A>2=> C:;045=8E ?@02>G8=V2 (B>1B> 70B25@465==N ?V4;O30T D0:B, O:89 265 2V41C2AO), FO =>@<0 =5 <VAB8BL 0=V >1<565=L I>4> 4V9 3>;>28 28:>=02G>3> >@30=C ?> WE C:;045==N, 0=V 70?@>20465==O <5E0=V7<V2, O:V ?5@54C20;8 1 FL><C.  B0:><C @07V D0:B8G=> G8==5 70:>=>402AB2> #:@0W=8 ?@> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 <56 I>4> 2V4GC65==O <09=0 " =5 <VAB8BL, O: =5 <VAB8BL 2>=> 9 5D5:B82=8E 70A>1V2 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV ?>A04>28E >AV1 70 F5, >A:V;L:8 # @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 [65] =5 2AB0=>2;NT B>3>, O: 2V4V1 TBLAO =0 G8==>ABV ?@02>G8=C, C:;045=>3> =5 2 V=B5@5A0E B>20@8AB20, =5AE20;5==O 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 0:FV>=5@V2 FL>3> ?@02>G8=C. G5284=>, B0:89 ?@02>G8= =5 <>65 22060B8AO =54V9A=8< 2 FL><C @07V, O: A;CH=> 2V4<VB82 !# C ?. 9.4 >7 OA=5==O 2V4 12.03.99 @. N 02-5/111 @> 45O:V ?8B0==O ?@0:B8:8 28@VH5==O A?>@V2, ?>2'O70=8E 7 287=0==O< C3>4 =54V9A=8<8 [165] . 5 <>65 F59 ?@02>G8= V @>7FV=N20B8AO O: C:;045=89 ?V4 C<>2>N ?>40;LH>3> AE20;5==O 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 0:FV>=5@V2, >A:V;L:8 F5 =530B82=> 2V4V1 TBLAO =0 B8E >A>10E, O:V C:;040B8<CBL ?@02>G8=8 7 ", 0 2V4B0:, V 2 FV;><C =0 F82V;L=><C >1>@>BV.  G. 4 AB. 92 & 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO, I> 2 B0:8E 28?04:0E G;5=8 28:>=02G>3> >@30=C =5ACBL A>;V40@=C 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL 70 718B:8, 70240=V =8<8 N@848G=V9 >A>1V, B>1B> ". B65, 945BLAO ?@> F82V;L=>-?@02>2C 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL, O:0 ?>;O30T C ?>2=><C 2V4H:>4C20==V 718B:V2 (G. 3 AB. 22 &). &5 ?>;>65==O =5 C73>46CTBLAO 7 ?, 2 O:><C 70?@>2046CTBLAO ?V4EV4 I>4> >1<565=>W 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV ?@0FV2=8:V2 (0 G;5=8 28:>=02G>3> >@30=C " T 9>3> ?@0FV2=8:0<8, >A:V;L:8 7=0E>4OBLAO 2 B@C4>28E 2V4=>A8=0E 7 ")  G. 2 AB. 130, 132-134 ? 70 ?52=8<8 28=OB:0<8. V4?>2V4=> 4> AB. 9 & ?>;>65==O & 70?@>2046CNBLAO 4> B@C4>28E 2V4=>A8=, O:I> 2>=8 =5 2@53C;L>20=V B@C4>28< 70:>=>402AB2><. A:V;L:8 6 B@C4>28< 70:>=>402AB2>< FV ?8B0==O 2@53C;L>20=V, B> V 70AB>AC20==O G. 4 AB. 92 & 4;O ?@8BO3=5==O 4> ?>2=>W F82V;L=>-?@02>2>W 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV G;5=V2 28:>=02G>3> >@30=C " 1C45 =5>4=>7=0G=8<.  FL>3> ?@82>4C A;V4 28A;>28B8 B0:5 10G5==O 28@VH5==O FVTW ?@>1;5<8. >-?5@H5, 2 G.2 AB.130 B0 2 AB.135 ? 945BLAO ?@> 28=OB:8 V7 7030;L=>3> ?@028;0 ?@> >1<565==O 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV ?@0FV2=8:V2, O:I> F5 ?5@5410G5=> 70:>=>402AB2><. @8 FL><C =5 707=0G0TBLAO, I> F5 <0T 1CB8 ;8H5 B@C4>25 70:>=>402AB2>, 0 2V4B0:, =5 ?>28==> 1CB8 ?5@5?>= V 4;O 70AB>AC20==O F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20. >-4@C35, G;5=8 28:>=02G>3> >@30=C " T =5 ;8H5 9>3> ?@0FV2=8:0<8, 0 9 CG0A=8:0<8 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, O:V 70 A2>TN ACB=VABN T F82V;L=>-?@02>28<8 2V4=>A8=0<8, 0 B><C ?V4?040NBL ?V4 F82V;L=>-?@02>25 @53C;N20==O. /: G;5=8 28:>=02G>3> >@30=C ?>A04>2V >A>18 " D>@<CNBL 2>;N >AB0==L>3>. &82V;L=8< 70:>=>402AB2>< 28AC20NBLAO 28<>38 I>4> 4V9 F8E >AV1 2 V=B5@5A0E ", 1> 2>=8 9>3> ?@54AB02;ONBL C 2V4=>A8=0E 7 B@5BV<8 >A>10<8. 0@5HBV, A0<5 F82V;L=5 70:>=>402AB2> 2@53C;L>2CT ?>@O4>: D>@<C20==O F8E >@30=V2, WE 4VO;L=VABL V B><C =5 <>65 =5 <VAB8B8 =>@< I>4> =0A;V4:V2 FVTW 4VO;L=>ABV, B>1B> 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV. 8A;>2;5=5 40T ?V4AB028 AB25@46C20B8, I> G;5=8 28:>=02G>3> >@30=C <0NBL =5AB8 A0<5 F82V;L=>-?@02>2C 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL 70 4VW =5 2 V=B5@5A0E " V, 7>:@5<0, I>4> @>7?>@O460==O 9>3> <09=><. !;V4 2@0E>2C20B8 9 B5, I> :5@V2=8:C B0 G;5=0< 28:>=02G>3> >@30=C " =040NBLAO H8@>:V <>6;82>ABV I>4> ?@54AB02=8FB20 " C 2V4=>A8=0E 7 B@5BV<8 >A>10<8, C:;045==O 4>3>2>@V2 ?> 2V4GC65==N 9>3> <09=0. 0A;V4:8 B0:>W <>6;82>W ?>254V=:8 7 1>:C :5@V2=8:V2 " G0AB> T =530B82=8<8, I> 7=0E>48BL A2V9 ?@>O2 2 C:;045==V 4>3>2>@V2, O:V T =5283V4=8<8 01> 718B:>28<8 4;O ", 01> 27030;V A?@O<>20=V =0 ?@8E>2C20==O 9>3> <09=0 G5@57 A:;04=V AE5<8 ABC?V=G0AB>3> 9>3> ?5@5E>4C 4> V=H8E >AV1 V, =0@5HBV, =02VBL A?@O<>20=V =0 4>2545==O " 4> 10=:@CBAB20. 57C<>2=>, I> :@0I5 C=8:=CB8 F8E =0A;V4:V2, =V6 28O2;OB8 28==8E B0 ?@8BO3C20B8 WE 4> 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV, B8< 1V;LH C A:;04=><C AB0=>28IV =5>4=>7=0G=>3> @53C;N20==O FL>3> ?8B0==O & B0 ?.  <5B>N =5<>6;82>ABV 4>2545==O 4> B0:8E =5157?5G=8E 4;O " =0A;V4:V2 C 2=CB@VH=VE 9>3> 4>:C<5=B0E (@VH5==OE 7030;L=8E 71>@V2, ?>;>65==OE ?@> ?@02;V==O 01> ?@> C:;045==O 7=0G=8E ?@02>G8=V2 B>I>) ?5@5410G0TBLAO <5E0=V7<, 2 O:89 70:;040NBLAO ?52=V >1<565==O 4V9 ?>A04>28E >AV1 ". >=8 ?>;O30NBL C ?>?5@54=L><C C73>465==V ?8B0=L C:;045==O 7=0G=8E ?@02>G8=V2 V7 =03;O4>2>N @04>N ". A:V;L:8 2=CB@VH=V 0:B8 " T >1>2 O7:>28<8 4;O 2AVE CG0A=8:V2 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= V C @07V A?>@C ?>A8;0==O =0 =8E 2 AC4V <0T 28:>@8AB>2C20B8AO O: =0 465@5;> ?@020, WE ?>;>65==O ?> >1<565==N ?@02 I>4> 74V9A=5==N ?>2=>2065=L " O: 2;0A=8:0 T ACBBT28<8. 4=0:, 2@0E>2CNG8 =5=0;56=89 @V25=L ?@02>2>W :C;LBC@8 2 #:@0W=V 27030;V V :>@?>@0B82=>W 7>:@5<0, 28O2;OTBLAO 4>FV;L=8< F5 ?8B0==O 2@53C;N20B8 =0 @V2=V 70:>=C. !?@>10 F5 7@>18B8 74V9A=5=0 C ?@>5:BV # @> 0:FV>=5@=V B>20@8AB20 (?. 20 G. 2 AB. 31, G. 3 AB. 40, ?. 19 G. 2 AB. 49, AB. 65, 67 [57] ), 45 ?5@54CAV< 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO ?>=OBBO 7=0G=>3> ?@02>G8=C, O:8< ?@>?>=CTBLAO @>7C<VB8 ?@02>G8= 01> :V;L:0 270T<>?>2 O70=8E ?@02>G8=V2 (:@V< ?@02>G8=V2 V7 @>7<VI5==O B>20@8AB2>< 2;0A=8E 0:FV9), O:I> @8=:>20 20@BVABL <09=0 (?>A;C3, @>1VB), I> T 9>3> ?@54<5B><, AB0=>28BL 25 V 1V;LH5 2V4A>B:V2 20@B>ABV 0:B82V2 70 40=8<8 >AB0==L>W @VG=>W DV=0=A>2>W 72VB=>ABV ". #:;045==O 7=0G=>3> ?@02>G8=C =0 AC<C 2V4 25 4> 50 2V4A>B:V2 20@B>ABV 0:B82V2 2V41C20TBLAO 70 @VH5==O< =03;O4>2>W @048, 0 C @07V =5?@89=OBBO =5N B0:>3> @VH5==O - 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 0:FV>=5@V2. @02>G8= =0 AC<C, I> ?5@528ICT 50 2V4A>B:V2 20@B>ABV 0:B82V2 ", C:;040TBLAO 70 @VH5==O< 7030;L=8E 71>@V2 70 ?>40==O< =03;O4>2>W @048. ;O B>3>, I>1 =5 AB@8<C20B8 4VO;L=VABL " C @07V =5>1EV4=>ABV C:;045==O 7=0G=8E ?@02>G8=V2 ?@>BO3>< @>:C, B>1B> 2 ?5@V>4 <V6 A:;8:0==O< 7030;L=8E 71>@V2 0:FV>=5@V2, ?@>?>=CTBLAO <5E0=V7< ?>?5@54=L>3> AE20;5==O 7=0G=8E ?@02>G8=V2 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 V7 707=0G5==O< E0@0:B5@C F8E ?@02>G8=V2 B0 WE 3@0=8G=>W 20@B>ABV. @V< B>3>, >1<565==O ?> 2V4GC65==N <09=0 B>20@8AB20 ?>;O30NBL =5 ;8H5 C 28<>30E 4> C:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 9>3> >@30=0<8, 0 9 C =0A;V4:0E, O:V >GV:CNBL B>20@8AB2> C @07V ?@89=OBBO B0:>3> @VH5==O. &8<8 =0A;V4:0<8 T 3>B>2=VABL 4> 704>2>;5==O 28<>3 0:FV>=5@V2, O:V 3>;>AC20;8 ?@>B8 ?@89=OBBO 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 @VH5=L ?@> C:;045==O B>20@8AB2>< 7=0G=>3> ?@02>G8=C, ?@> 28:C? C =8E 0:FV9. #:;045==O 2V4 V<5=V " ?@02>G8=V2 V7 70V=B5@5A>20=VABN <0T <VAB8B8 B0:>6 ?52=V >1<565==O, O:8E =5 ?5@5410G0T G8==5 :>@?>@0B82=5 70:>=>402AB2>, I> B0:>6 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO =54>1@>A>2VA=8<8 >A>10<8 2 A2>WE >A>18AB8E V=B5@5A0E. ;O 70?>1V30==O 2V4GC65==N <09=0 " 2 ?@>5:BV # @> 0:FV>=5@=V B>20@8AB20 =040TBLAO ?>=OBBO >A>18, 70V=B5@5A>20=>W 2 C:;045==V " ?@02>G8=C. 5N T ?>A04>20 >A>10 ", 0:FV>=5@, O:89 >4=>>A>1>2> 01> @07>< V7 A2>W<8 0DV;V9>20=8<8 >A>10<8 2>;>4VT 25 V 1V;LH5 2V4A>B:0<8 ?@>AB8E 0:FV9 ", 01> 0DV;V9>20=0 >A>10 (>A>18), O:I> 2>=0 (01> ?>A04>20 >A>10) T AB>@>=>N B0:>3> ?@02>G8=C; 15@5 CG0ABL 2 ?@02>G8=V O: ?@54AB02=8: 01> ?>A5@54=8: (:@V< ?@54AB02=8FB20 " ?>A04>28<8 >A>10<8); >B@8<CT 28=03>@>4C 2V4 " 01> 2V4 >A>18, O:0 T AB>@>=>N ?@02>G8=C; 2=0A;V4>: B0:>3> ?@02>G8=C ?@8410T <09=> G8 70FV:02;5=0 2 V=H8E @57C;LB0B0E 28:>=0==O ?@02>G8=C. =D>@<0FVO AB>A>2=> ?@02>G8=V2 V7 70V=B5@5A>20=VABN <0T =04020B8AO 28:>=02G8< >@30=>< " =03;O4>2V9 @04V, 7>:@5<0 I>4> 9>3> ?@54<5B0, 20@B>ABV >48=8FV B>20@C 01> ?>A;C3, O:I> 2>=0 ?5@5410G5=0 ?@02>G8=><, 7030;L=>W AC<8 ?@02>G8=C I>4> ?@8410==O, 2V4GC65==O 01> <>6;82>ABV 2V4GC65==O <09=0, 28:>=0==O @>1VB, =040==O 01> >B@8<0==O ?>A;C3. # @07V =54>45@60==O 707=0G5=8E 28<>3 >A>10, 70V=B5@5A>20=0 2 C:;045==V " ?@02>G8=C, =5A5 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL ?5@54 " C @>7<V@V 70240=8E 9><C 718B:V2, 0 B0:>6 <>6;82>ABV 287=0==O FL>3> ?@02>G8=C =54V9A=8<. O:I> >A>10, O:0 C:;0;0 ?@02>G8=, 7=0;0 01> ?>28==0 1C;0 7=0B8 ?@> =54>B@8<0==O 707=0G5=8E 28<>3. ">1B> 2AB0=>2;N20=V >1<565==O I>4> C:;045==O " ?@02>G8=V2, 2 O:8E 28O2;OTBLAO 70V=B5@5A>20=VABL ?52=8E >AV1, ?>28==V 70E8AB8B8 ?@020 B0 V=B5@5A8 " B0 9>3> 0:FV>=5@V2, 0 =0A;V4:8 =54>45@60==O 2:070=8E 28<>3 I>4> >1<565=L 2V41820NBLAO O: =0 ?>@CH=8:0E, B0: V =0 B@5BVE >A>10E, I> C:;0;8 FV ?@02>G8=8 7 ". #:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 :5@V2=8:0<8 DV;V9 B0 ?@54AB02=8FB2 2V41C20TBLAO 2 <560E =040=8E =8< ?>2=>2065=L, O:V <VABOBLAO O: C ?>;>65==OE ?@> FV 2V4>:@5<;5=V ?V4@>74V;8, B0: V C 4>2V@5=>ABOE, O:V 2840NBLAO ?@54AB02=8:0< (:5@V2=8:0<) F8E ?V4@>74V;V2. B65, O:I> F5 ?5@5410G5=> 2V4?>2V4=8<8 ?>2=>2065==O<8 AB@C:BC@=>W >48=8FV, >AB0==O <0T ?@02> C:;040B8 4>3>2>@8 2V4 V<5=V N@848G=>W >A>18. !B>@>=>N 70 4>3>2>@>< C B0:8E 28?04:0E T N@848G=0 >A>10, 0 =5 WW AB@C:BC@=0 >48=8FO. # @07V ?>@CH5==O FVTW C<>28 4>3>2V@, C:;045=89 AB@C:BC@=>N >48=8F5N N@848G=>W >A>18 2V4 A2>3> V<5=V, A;V4 287=0B8 =54V9A=8< (?. 2 >7 OA=5==O !# 2V4 06.10.94 @. N 02-5/706 @> 45O:V ?8B0==O ?@0:B8:8 28@VH5==O A?>@V2, ?>2'O70=8E 7 C:;040==O< B0 28:>=0==O< :@548B=8E 4>3>2>@V2 [164] ). 5@V2=8:8 AB@C:BC@=8E ?V4@>74V;V2, O: ?@028;>, >1<56CNBLAO C ?>2=>2065==OE I>4> @>7?>@O460==O <09=><, 70:@V?;5=8< N@848G=>N >A>1>N 70 F8< ?V4@>74V;><. @8 FL><C ?>;>65==O< ?@> F59 ?V4@>74V; 01> 2=CB@VH=V<8 4>:C<5=B0<8 N@848G=>W >A>18 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO ?@028;0 ?> C73>465==N ?>@O4:C C:;045==O 2V4?>2V4=8E ?@02>G8=V2. #:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 70;56=8<8 B>20@8AB20<8. 0A=>2=8:8 (CG0A=8:8) 70;56=8E B>20@8AB2 ?@8 WE AB2>@5==V B0 70B25@465==V AB0BCBC 7C<>2;NNBL ?52=V >1<565==O I>4> 74V9A=5==O =8<8 ?>2=>2065=L AB>A>2=> <09=0, O:5 1C45 =0;560B8 F8< N@848G=8< >A>10<. "0:V >1<565==O <>6CBL ?>;O30B8 C 701>@>=0E 2V4GC65==O =5@CE><>ABV 157 4>72>;C 70A=>2=8:V2 (CG0A=8:V2), ?>@O4:C C73>465==O 2G8=5==O ?@02>G8=V2 =0 7=0G=V AC<8, ?@8?8=5==O 7 ?@02>=0ABC?=8FB2>< V7 ?5@540G5N <09=0 V=H8< N@848G=8< >A>10< B>I>. !;V4 B0:>6 2@0E>2C20B8 VA=C20==O 2 #:@0W=V 4>GV@=VE ?V4?@8T<AB2, E>G0 C & WE ?>=OBBO 2V4ACB=T =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 , O:89 2@53C;L>2CT 2V4=>A8=8 7 WE CG0ABN. 572060NG8 =0 B0:V AC?5@5G=>ABV, 4>GV@=V ?V4?@8T<AB20, AB2>@5=V 4> =01@0==O G8==>ABV &, VA=CNBL V AB>A>2=> =8E 28=8:0T ?8B0==O ?@> >1<565==O WE O: =>AVW2 ?@02 =0 A2>T <09=> 2 C:;045==V 2V4?>2V4=8E ?@02>G8=V2 B0 74V9A=5==V V=H8E 4V9 AB>A>2=> FL>3> <09=0. A:V;L:8 ?@02>25 AB0=>28I5 4>GV@=VE ?V4?@8T<AB2 1C;> V 70;8H0TBLAO =5287=0G5=8<, F5 V BO3=5 70 A>1>N V=H89 ABC?5=L =5287=0G5=>ABV 2 WE ?@020E =0 A2>T <09=>. /: A;CH=> 707=0G0TBLAO 2 ;VB5@0BC@V, 4>GV@=V ?V4?@8T<AB20 <>6CBL <0B8 O: ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 A2>T <09=>, B0: V ?@02> 3>A?>40@AL:>3> 2V40==O [192; 191]  .  ?5@H><C 28?04:C 4>GV@=V ?V4?@8T<AB20 T ?> ACBV :><?0=VO<8 >4=VTW >A>18, B>1B> WE T48=8< CG0A=8:>< T " 01> V=H5 3>A?>40@AL:5 B>20@8AB2>, O:V 2>;>4VNBL AB> 2V4A>B:0<8 0:FV9 01> G0AB>: FVTW N@848G=>W >A>18 (G. 3 AB. 83 &).  B0:><C @07V 4>GV@=T ?V4?@8T<AB2> =VG8< =5 2V4@V7=OTBLAO 2V4 70;56=>3> B>20@8AB20 O: 2>=> 287=0G0TBLAO C AB. 118 &.  4@C3><C 6 28?04:C 4>GV@=T ?V4?@8T<AB2> <0T >A>1;8289 AB0BCA =0 7@07>: >A>18 7V AB0BCA>< 45@602=>3> ?V4?@8T<AB20. @02>2V4=>A8=8 70A=>2=8:0 B0 4>GV@=L>3> ?V4?@8T<AB20 265 =5 =>AOBL :>@?>@0B82=>3> E0@0:B5@C, >A:V;L:8 70A=>2=8: T 2;0A=8:>< <09=0 4>GV@=L>3> ?V4?@8T<AB20, B>1B> WE 2V4=>A8=8 @C=BCNBLAO ?5@54CAV< =0 @5G>2V9 ?@8@>4V ?@02 =0 <09=>. @>F54C@0 ?@8?8=5==O " B0:>6 ?>2 O70=0 7 ?52=8<8 <560<8 ?@02 " O: 2;0A=8:0, I> ?>2 O70=V 7V 74V9A=5==O< 9>3> :@548B>@0<8 A2>WE ?@02 28<030B8 ?@8?8=5==O 2V4=>A8= 7 B>20@8AB2>< 01> 4>AB@>:>2>3> 28:>=0==O >AB0==V< A2>WE 7>1>2 O70=L ?5@54 F8<8 :@548B>@0<8 (G. 1 AB. 107 &). "0: A0<> 2?;820T =0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV " 74V9A=5==O 0:FV>=5@0<8, O:V =5 73>4=V 7 @VH5==O< ?@> ?@8?8=5==O ", ?@020 =0 28:C? 0:FV>=5@=8< B>20@8AB2>< WE 0:FV9. AB0==T ?5@5410G0TBLAO =0 @V2=V 70:>=C 4;O 0:FV>=5@V2 ", AB2>@5=8E 2 ?@>F5AV ?@820B870FVW (?. 145 # @> 5@602=C ?@>3@0<C ?@820B870FVW [67] ), 0 4;O 0:FV>=5@V2 V=H8E "  =0 @V2=V ?V470:>==>3> =>@<0B82=>-?@02>2>3> 0:B0 (?. 1.7 >;>65==O ?@> ?>@O4>: @5TAB@0FVW 28?CA:C 0:FV9 ?V4 G0A @5>@30=V70FVW B>20@8AB2, 70B25@465=>3> @VH5==O< 5@602=>W :><VAVW 7 FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 D>=4>2>3> @8=:C 2V4 30 3@C4=O 1998 @. N 221 [153] ). G5284=>, I> B0:8E @>71V6=>AB59 C ?@020E 0:FV>=5@V2 =5 ?>28==> 1CB8, V 2AB0=>2;5==O 01A>;NB=> A?@0254;82>3> ?@020 0:FV>=5@V2 C ?V470:>==><C =>@<0B82=>-?@02>2><C 0:BV ?>:;8:0=> 70?>2=8B8 FN ?@>30;8=C. 4=0: 70:>==VABL FL>3> ?>;>65==O AC<=V2=0, >A:V;L:8 ?>4V1=V >1<565==O <0NBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO A0<5 70:>=><. "><C VA=CT =030;L=0 ?>B@510 ?5@5410G8B8 F5 ?@02> 0:FV>=5@V2 C 7030;L=><C 70:>=V ?@> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 01> ?@> 0:FV>=5@=V B>20@8AB20. 07=0G5=V 28I5 ?@020 :@548B>@V2 B0 0:FV>=5@V2 2?;820NBL =0 ?@02> " O: 2;0A=8:0 =0 A2V9 @>7AC4 @>7?>@O460B8AO 2AV< A2>W< <09=>< ?@8 ?@8?8=5==V "  ?5@54020B8 9>3> 2 FV;><C 7=>2 AB2>@5=8< N@848G=8< >A>10<. ?;82 ?@02 :@548B>@V2 B0 0:FV>=5@V2, =5 73>4=8E 7 B0:8< @VH5==O< 28I>3> >@30=C " ?@> ?@8?8=5==O, ?>;O30T 2 B><C, I> " 265 =5 1C45 27<>7V ?5@540B8 2A5 A2>T <09=> ?@02>=0ABC?=8:0<, 0 <0T 2@0E>2C20B8 28<>38 B8E >AV1, O:V =04V;5=V ?@02>< 2?;820B8 2 :V=F52><C @0EC=:C =0 >1AO3 <09=0 ", O:89 70;8H8B8<5BLAO 4;O 2V;L=>3> @>7?>@O460==O =8<. 0NBL <VAF5 9 <56V I>4> 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV 2AV< A2>WE <09=>< C @07V ;V:2V40FVW ". !?@020 2 B><C, I> 4> A:;04C ;V:2V40FV9=>W <0A8 ?@8 FL><C =5 2E>4OBL >1'T:B8 45@602=>3> 68B;>2>3> D>=4C, 2 B><C G8A;V 3C@B>68B:8, 48BOGV 4>H:V;L=V 70:;048 B0 >1'T:B8 :><C=0;L=>W V=D@0AB@C:BC@8, O:V <0NBL ?5@54020B8AO 2 :><C=0;L=C 2;0A=VABL (AB. 26 # @> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 01> 287=0==O 9>3> 10=:@CB>< [62] ). "><C >1AO3 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV 10=:@CB0, O:89 <0T 707=0G5=V >1 T:B8, 72C6CTBLAO ?>@V2=O=> 7 7030;L=8< ?@028;>< ?@> 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL N@848G=8E >AV1 2AV< A2>W< <09=><. A>1;82> OA:@02> 45<>=AB@CNBLAO <56V ?@02 =0 <09=> C @07V ?>@CH5==O @>73;O4C A?@028 2 3>A?>40@AL:><C AC4V ?@> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> >@30=8 " 265 =5 2 7<>7V A0<>ABV9=> ?@89<0B8 @VH5==O ?@> 28:>@8AB0==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O <09=>< ", 4;O G>3> ?>B@51CTBLAO 73>40 @>7?>@O4=8:0 <09=0 01> :5@CNG>3> A0=0FVTN. ) 56V I>4> 7<V=8 AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C " 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO: H;OE>< 22545==O 701>@>= =0 71V;LH5==O AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C " 4;O ?>:@8BBO 718B:V2 (G. 2 AB. 156 &); G5@57 7>1>2 O70==O " 7<5=H8B8 A2V9 AB0BCB=89 :0?VB0; B0 70@5TAB@C20B8 2V4?>2V4=V 7<V=8 4> AB0BCBC C @07V, O:I> ?VA;O 70:V=G5==O 4@C3>3> B0 :>6=>3> =0ABC?=>3> DV=0=A>2>3> @>:C 20@BVABL G8AB8E 0:B82V2 " 28O28BLAO <5=H>N 2V4 AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C (G. 3 AB. 155 &); ?5@5410G5==O< ;8H5 42>E <>6;828E H;OEV2 7<5=H5==O AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C " V7 4>45@60==O< ?@8 FL><C ?52=8E <5E0=V7<V2, A?@O<>20=8E =0 70E8AB ?@02 :@548B>@V2. @8 FL><C 2 >4=><C 7 B0:8E A?>A>1V2 7<5=H5==O AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C  H;OE>< :C?V2;V B0 ?>30H5==O G0AB8=8 0:FV9  " I5 9 ?>42V9=> >1<56CTBLAO 2:07V2:>N C G. 1 AB. 157 & =0 B5, I> F5 4>?CA:0TBLAO ;8H5 2 @07V, O:I> B0:0 <>6;82VABL ?5@5410G5=0 C AB0BCBV ". ) 56V B0 >1<565==O, ?5@5410GC20=V 4;O ", AB2>@5=8E 2 ?@>F5AV ?@820B870FVW, ?>:;8:0=V 2@0E>2C20B8 A?5F8DV:C ?@02>2>3> AB0BCAC F8E N@848G=8E >AV1, I> 28=8:0NBL C A2>T@V4=89 A?>AV1 4;O @>745@602;5==O 2;0A=>ABV, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO ?C1;VG=>-?@820B=89 ?>@O4>: WE AB2>@5==O. "0:8<8 <560<8 T =0ABC?=V: 1) 701>@>=0 ?>40;LH>3> 2V4GC65==O >:@5<8E G0AB8= ?0:5B0 0:FV9 4> ?>2=>3> 28:>=0==O ?>:C?F5< C<>2 4>3>2>@C :C?V2;V-?@>406C >1'T:B0 ?@820B870FVW, 0 B0:>6 ?>40;LH>3> 2V4GC65==O ?@820B87>20=>3> >1'T:B0 157 715@565==O 4;O =>2>3> 2;0A=8:0 7>1>2'O70=L, 287=0G5=8E C<>20<8 :>=:C@AC, 0C:FV>=C G8 28:C?C; 2) 701>@>=0 " B0 45@602=8< >@30=0< ?@820B870FVW 4> 28:>=0==O ?;0=C ?@820B870FVW (@>7<VI5==O 0:FV9), O:I> ?5@5410G0TBLAO 70:@V?;5==O C 45@602=V9 2;0A=>ABV ?0:5BV2 0:FV9 01> 4> @>7<VI5==O 0:FV9 C :V;L:>ABV, I> AB0=>28BL 75 2V4A>B:V2 7030;L=>W :V;L:>ABV 0:FV9: 2V4GC6C20B8 <09=> (=5>1>@>B=V 0:B828), I> =0;568BL ", B0 74V9A=N20B8 >?5@0FVW 7 1>@3>28<8 28<>30<8 B0 7>1>2'O70==O<8 (D0:B>@8=3), O:I> =0 40BC C:;045==O 2V4?>2V4=>3> ?@02>G8=C 10;0=A>20 20@BVABL B0:8E 0:B82V2 01> 7>1>2'O70=L ?5@528ICT AC<C, 5:2V20;5=B=C 14000 EUR 70 :C@A><, 2AB0=>2;5=8< #, 01> ?5@528ICT 10 2V4A>B:V2 ?V4AC<:C 10;0=AC "; ?@89<0B8 @VH5==O ?@> 7;8BBO, ?@8T4=0==O, ?>4V;, 284V;5==O, ?5@5B2>@5==O "; 7<V=N20B8 =><V=0;L=C 20@BVABL 01> :V;L:VABL 0:FV9 157 7<V=8 @>7<V@C AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C "; ?@89<0B8 @VH5==O ?@> 71V;LH5==O 01> 7<5=H5==O AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C, :@V< 28?04:V2 71V;LH5==O AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C =0 AC<C 71V;LH5==O 20@B>ABV 2;0A=>3> :0?VB0;C " (AB. 140 # @> 5@602=C ?@>3@0<C ?@820B870FVW [67] ); 3) ?@8?8A ?@> >1<565==O @>7<V@C ?0:5B0 0:FV9, I> 2=>A8BLAO 4> V=H8E 3>A?>40@AL:8E B>20@8AB2, >1'T4=0=L N@848G=8E >AV1 B0 ?@><8A;>2>-DV=0=A>28E 3@C? 20 2V4A>B:0<8 AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C " C @07V ?@89=OBBO @VH5==O 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 " ?@> CG0ABL C =8E 4> 28:>=0==O ?;0=C ?@820B870FVW (@>7<VI5==O 0:FV9) (AB. 142 # @> 5@602=C ?@>3@0<C ?@820B870FVW [67] ); 4) >1>2'O7>: " 74V9A=8B8 >FV=:C A2>WE 0:B82V2, 28E>4OG8 7 10;0=A>2>W 20@B>ABV, B0 28:C? 0:FV9 0:FV>=5@V2, O:V 28<030NBL FL>3>, 2 @07V, O:I> FV 0:FV>=5@8 3>;>AC20;8 ?@>B8 ?@89=OBBO 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 @VH5=L ?@> C:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 01> :V;L:>E 270T<>?>2'O70=8E ?@02>G8=V2 I>4> 2V4GC65==O <09=0 (=5>1>@>B=8E 0:B82V2) " B0 74V9A=5==O >?5@0FV9 7 1>@3>28<8 28<>30<8 B0 7>1>2'O70==O<8 (D0:B>@8=3), O:I> =0 <><5=B C:;045==O 2V4?>2V4=>3> ?@02>G8=C 10;0=A>20 20@BVABL B0:8E 0:B82V2 01> 7>1>2'O70=L ?5@528ICT AC<C, 5:2V20;5=B=C 14000 EUR 70 :C@A><, 2AB0=>2;5=8< #, 01> ?5@528ICT 10 2V4A>B:V2 ?V4AC<:C 10;0=AC ", C ?>@O4:C, 2AB0=>2;5=><C >@30=>< ?@820B870FVW (AB. 144 # @> 5@602=C ?@>3@0<C ?@820B870FVW [67] ). 1<565==O<8 ?@02 " T: 1) 2AB0=>2;5==O >1>2 O7:C =>2>3> 2;0A=8:0 =0 28:>=0==O 7>1>2'O70=L, 287=0G5=8E 4>3>2>@>< :C?V2;V-?@>406C >1'T:B0 ?@820B870FVW, B0 <>6;82>ABV 70AB>A>2C20==O 4> =L>3> >@30=>< ?@820B870FVW 2 @07V WE =528:>=0==O A0=:FVW 73V4=> 7 V7 70:>=>< (AB. 130 # @> 5@602=C ?@>3@0<C ?@820B870FVW [67]); 2) >1>2 O7>: 287=0G5==O C<>20<8 4>3>2>@C :C?V2;V-?@>406C ?0:5BV2 0:FV9 ?@8 ?@820B870FVW ?>@O4:C 2=5A5==O V=25AB8FV9 7 @>7?>4V;>< 70 @>:0<8 B0 :20@B0;0<8 (AB. 132 # @> 5@602=C ?@>3@0<C ?@820B870FVW [67] ). :070=5 ?@82>48BL 4> 28A=>2:C ?@> =0O2=VABL A?5F8DVG=8E >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV ", AB2>@5=>3> 2 ?@>F5AV ?@820B870FVW, ?@8 =0O2=>ABV C 45@6028 ?0:5B0 0:FV9 ?>@V2=O=> 7V 728G09=8< @568<>< <09=0 ". ) =HV <56V B0:>6 <>6CBL <0B8 <VAF5 V T 6>@AB:8<8 ?@8?8A0<8 28:>=C20B8 ?52=V 28<>38 70:>=C, 0 =5 4VOB8 =0 A2V9 @>7AC4. @8:;04>< <>65 1CB8 2AB0=>2;5==O >1>2 O7:C ", O:V ?@>2>4OBL 2V4:@8BC ?V4?8A:C =0 0:FVW, I>@VG=> ?C1;V:C20B8 4;O 7030;L=>3> 2V4><0 @VG=89 72VB, 1CE30;B5@AL:89 10;0=A, 2V4><>ABV ?@> ?@81CB:8 V 718B:8, 0 B0:>6 V=HC V=D>@<0FVN, ?5@5410G5=C 70:>=>< (G. 5 AB. 152 &). 1<565==O 0:FV>=5@V2 C ?@020E AB>A>2=> WE >1 T:B0 ?@020  0:FVW E E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 7C<>2;NTBLAO 7030;L=>?@89=OB8< ?>4V;>< ?@02 0:FV>=5@0 =0 ?@020 =0 0:FVN B0 ?@020 7 0:FVW. 5@HV T ?@020<8 =0 0:FVN O: =0 ?52=C @VG, B>1B> 0:FV>=5@ O: 2;0A=8: <0T ?@02> 2>;>4VB8, :>@8ABC20B8AO B0 @>7?>@O460B8AO 0:FVTN O: 1C4L-O:8< V=H8< >1 T:B>< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. @C3V 6 O2;ONBL A>1>N BV ?@020, O:V =040NBLAO 0:FVTN. >=8 <0NBL O: <09=>289, B0: V =5<09=>289 E0@0:B5@. > <09=>28E ?@02 =0;560BL ?@02> =0 482V45=48, =0 >45@60==O <09=0 ;V:2V4>20=>3> ", I> 70;8H8;>AO ?VA;O @>7@0EC=:V2 7 9>3> :@548B>@0<8, =0 ?5@5206=5 ?@02> =0 0:FVW 4>40B:>2>3> 28?CA:C B0 =0 28:C? 0:FV9 C ?52=8E 707=0G5=8E 28I5 28?04:0E. 5<09=>28<8 ?@020<8 7 0:FVW T ?@02> =0 CG0ABL 2 C?@02;V==V " B0 ?@02> =0 V=D>@<0FVN. !;V4 2V4<VB8B8, I> 74V9A=5==O ?@02 7 0:FVW V T D0:B8G=> 74V9A=5==O< ?@020 =0 :>@8ABC20==O O: ?@02><>G=VABN 2;0A=8:0, B>1B> A:;04>2>N ?@020 =0 0:FVN [183] . @8 FL><C <8 265 =5 1C45<> B>@:0B8AO ?8B0==O ?@> <56V, 2AB0=>2;N20=V 4;O ?52=8E AC1 T:BV2, O:8< 701>@>=5=> <0B8 C 2;0A=>ABV 0:FVW, =0?@8:;04, @5TAB@0B>@C B0 9>3> CG0A=8:C, O:V =5 <>6CBL ?@O<> G8 >?>A5@54:>20=> 2>;>4VB8 0:FVO<8 5<VB5=B0, @5TAB@ 2;0A=8:V2 V<5==8E FV==8E ?0?5@V2 O:>3> 2545 F59 @5TAB@0B>@ (G. 1 AB. 12 # @> 0FV>=0;L=C 45?>78B0@=C A8AB5<C B0 >A>1;82>ABV 5;5:B@>==>3> >1V3C FV==8E ?0?5@V2 2 #:@0W=V [81] ). @> B0:V 701>@>=8 707=0G0;>AO 28I5. ). 56V B0 >1<565==O 2 ?@020E =0 0:FVN. :FV>=5@ T 2;0A=8:>< 0:FV9, 0;5 ?>AB0T ?8B0==O: 7 O:>3> <><5=BC? V4 2V4?>2V4V =0 =L>3> 70;568BL 9 2V4?>2V4L B0 ?8B0==O ?@> <56V B0 >1<565==O, I> 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 4;O 0:FV>=5@V2. >73;O=5<> F5 ?8B0==O 7 42>E ?>78FV9: 1) ?@8 AB2>@5==V " 01> ?@8410==V 0:FV9 C 2V4:@8BV9 ?V4?8AFV ?@8 4>40B:>28E 5<VAVOE 0:FV9 B0 2) ?@8 ?@8410==V 0:FV9 =0 D>=4>2><C @8=:C. 1) 3V4=> 7 G. 2 AB. 155 & 2AV 0:FVW ?@8 AB2>@5==V " @>7?>4V;ONBLAO <V6 9>3> 70A=>2=8:0<8. @8 FL><C A;V4 2@0E>2C20B8 B0:5: ?>-?5@H5, I> 70A=>2=8:8 " ?VA;O 45@602=>W @5TAB@0FVW >AB0==L>3> AB0=>2;OBLAO 9>3> 0:FV>=5@0<8; ?>-4@C35, >?;0B0 0:FV9 <>65 2V41C20B8AO ?@>BO3>< @>:C ?VA;O 45@602=>W @5TAB@0FVW "; ?>-B@5BT, 2V4:@8B0 ?V4?8A:0 =0 0:FVW <>65 ?@>2048B8AO ;8H5 ?VA;O ?>2=>W A?;0B8 AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C. =0A;V4>: FL>3> <>65 28=8:=CB8 A8BC0FVO, :>;8 0:FVW =5 >?;0G5=V ?>2=VABN 70A=>2=8:0<8 01> >A>10<8, O:V WE ?@8410;8 C 2V4:@8BV9 ?V4?8AFV. "8< =5 <5=H V BV, 9 V=HV 9<5=CNBLAO 0:FV>=5@0<8 [188] . ;5 ?>AB0T ?8B0==O ?@> >1AO3 WE ?@02 B0 ?@> >1<565==O, O:V 28=8:0NBL 2=0A;V4>: FL>3> C 0:FV>=5@V2 B0 C ".  FL>3> ?@82>4C <>6=0 2V4<VB8B8, I> >A>18, O:V =5 ?>2=VABN >?;0B8;8 20@BVABL ?@8410=8E 0:FV9, E>G V 9<5=CNBLAO 0:FV>=5@0<8, 0;5 =5 <0NBL ?>2=>3> >1AO3C ?@02, I> =040NBLAO 0:FVTN. >=8 =5 =01C20NBL ?>2=>FV==8E ?@02 =0 0:FVN O: =0 >:@5<89 >1 T:B, O:89 <0T 1CB8 9 >1>@>B>740B=8< (AB. 178 &). "0 9 0:FVW O: B0:V 9><C =02VBL =5 2840NBLAO 4> WE ?>2=>W >?;0B8, O:I> 2>=8 <0NBL 28?CA:0B8AO 2 4>:C<5=B0@=V9 D>@<V. ">1B> 0:FV>=5@ =5 <>65 @50;V7C20B8 A2>T ?@02> =0 @>7?>@O460==O F8< >1 T:B>< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. @V< FL>3>, VA=CNBL >1<565==O O: =0A;V4>: =54>45@60==O ?@8?8AC ?@> >?;0BC 20@B>ABV 0:FV9 ?@>BO3>< @>:C. >=8 ?>;O30NBL C ?@8?8=5==V :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02 >AV1, O:V =5 ?>2=VABN A?;0B8;8 20@BVABL A2>WE 0:FV9. B65 ?@>BO3>< @>:C 0:FV>=5@8 V B0: =5 <0;8 ?>2=>3> >1AO3C ?@02, 0 7 9>3> A?;82>< 4;O =8E =0AB0NBL I5 =530B82=VHV =0A;V4:8. >=:@5B870FVO F8E =0A;V4:V2 7 ?@89=OBBO< =>2>3> & AB0;0 =5>4=>7=0G=>N ?>@V2=O=> 7 G8==8< # @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20, 2 G0AB8=0E 4@C3V9 B0 B@5BV9 AB.33 O:>3> 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO, I> C @07V =5A?;0B8 C 2AB0=>2;5=89 AB@>: 0:FV>=5@, O:I> V=H5 =5 ?5@5410G5=> AB0BCB>< ", A?;0GCT 70 G0A ?@>AB@>G:8 10 2V4A>B:V2 @VG=8E 2V4 AC<8 ?@>AB@>G5=>3> ?;0B56C. @8 =5A?;0BV ?@>BO3>< 3 <VAOFV2 ?VA;O 2AB0=>2;5=>3> AB@>:C ?;0B56C " <0T ?@02> @50;V7C20B8 FV 0:FVW 2 ?>@O4:C, 2AB0=>2;5=><C AB0BCB>< B>20@8AB20. >4V1=>W =>@<8 & =5 <VAB8BL, 0 AB>A>2=> ?>@CH5==O 0=0;>3VG=>3> >1>2 O7:C CG0A=8:V2 B>20@8AB20 7 >1<565=>N 2V4?>2V40;L=VABN A?;0B8B8 ?@>BO3>< @>:C 20@BVABL 2:;04V2 ?5@5410G0T =0A;V4:>< >3>;>H5==O B>20@8AB2>< ?@> 7<5=H5==O A2>3> AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C V @5TAB@0FVN 2V4?>2V4=8E 7<V= 4> AB0BCBC 01> ?@89=OBBO @VH5==O ?@> ;V:2V40FVN B>20@8AB20 (G. 3 AB. 144 &). /:I> 28E>48B8 7 B>3>, I> ?>4V1=89 <5E0=V7< <0T 70AB>A>2C20B8AO 9 I>4> 0:FV>=5@V2, O:V =5 ?>2=VABN >?;0B8;8 20@BVABL A2>WE 0:FV9 (I> T 28?@0240=8<), B> O: 2V4?>2V4=> 4> # @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 [65] , B0: V 2V4?>2V4=> 4> & 0:FV>=5@ ?>7102;OTBLAO A2>WE ?@02 (70 707=0G5=8< 0:>=><  G5@57 @50;V70FVN 9>3> 0:FV9 V=H8< >A>10<, 0 70 &  WE 0=C;N20==O<). >@V2=O=> 7 @>AV9AL:8< :>@?>@0B82=8< 70:>=>402AB2>< C:@0W=AL:5 1V;LH 6>@AB:> B0 >4=>7=0G=VH5 AB028BLAO 4> 707=0G5=8E A8BC0FV9. "0:, 70 @540:FVTN ?. 4 AB. 34 $545@0;L=>3> 70:>=C $ @> 0:FV>=5@=V B>20@8AB20 [209] , I> 4VO;0 4> 1 AVG=O 2002 @., 0:FVO =5 =04020;0 ?@020 3>;>AC 4> WW ?>2=>W >?;0B8, 70 28=OB:>< 0:FV9, O:V ?@841020;8AO ?@8 AB2>@5==V ". >6;828< 1C;> 9 2V4GC65==O 0:FV9 4> WE >?;0B8. "0:V <>6;82>ABV 7 ?@89=OBBO< 0:>=C  @> 70E8AB ?@02 V 70:>==8E V=B5@5AV2 V=25AB>@V2 =0 @8=:C FV==8E ?0?5@V2 (?. 2 AB. 5) [210]  28:;NG0NBLAO. @8 FL><C 2 ;VB5@0BC@V 2V4<VG0TBLAO =5>1EV4=VABL 4;O ?>:C?FV2 0:FV9 FV:028B8AO =0O2=VABN 4>:07V2 ?>2=>W >?;0B8 0:FV9 [101] .  #:@0W=V 6 >;>65==O ?@> A:;040==O 04<V=VAB@0B82=8E 40=8E I>4> 74V9A=5==O 4VO;L=>ABV 7 2545==O @5TAB@V2 2;0A=8:V2 V<5==8E FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 ?>40==O 2V4?>2V4=8E 4>:C<5=BV2 4> 5@602=>W :><VAVW 7 FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 D>=4>2>3> @8=:C, 70B25@465=>3> @VH5==O< 5@602=>W :><VAVW 7 FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 D>=4>2>3> @8=:C 2V4 24.06.2003 N 290 [154]  27030;V =5 4>?CA:0T B0:8E <>6;82>AB59. >7102;5==O ?@02 =0 0:FVW B0:>6 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO 2 ?@>F5AV 10=:@CBAB20 ", 0:FVW O:>3> <>6CBL ?@>4020B8AO V=H8< >A>10<. ">1B> =572060NG8 =0 B5, I> ?@8 10=:@CBAB2V ?V4;O30T @>7?@>406C <09=> A0<>3> ", 0 0:FV>=5@8 =5 2V4?>2V40NBL 70 9>3> 1>@30<8 A2>W< <09=>< (0 0:FVW ", I> W< =0;560BL, T WE=V< <09=><), B8< =5 <5=H FV 0:FVW >157FV=8;8AO 2=0A;V4>: 10=:@CBAB20 ". A:V;L:8 6 0:FV>=5@8 =5ACBL @878: 718B:>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV ", ?@>O2>< O:>3> V T >157FV=5==O 0:FV9, B> 2>=8 <0NBL 2B@0G0B8 ?@02> =0 =8E. /:I> 6 EB>AL 1060T :C?8B8 =5 <09=> ", 0 9>3> 0:FVW, FN <>6;82VABL 9><C A;V4 =040B8 4;O B>3>, I>1 715@53B8 VA=C20==O N@848G=>W >A>18 V 704>2>;L=8B8 V=B5@5A8 O: WW :@548B>@V2, B0: V ACA?V;L=8E V=B5@5AV2. 4=0: ?@8 FL><C 0:FV>=5@8 1C4CBL ?>7102;5=V A2>WE ?@02 =0 0:FVW. 2) @8 >1>@>BV 0:FV9 A;V4 4>45@6C20B8AO ?52=8E 28<>3 I>4> >D>@<;5==O ?@02 =0 =8E. <5==V FV==V ?0?5@8, 28?CI5=V 2 4>:C<5=B0@=V9 D>@<V (O:I> C<>20<8 5<VAVW A?5FV0;L=> =5 707=0G5=>, I> 2>=8 =5 ?V4;O30NBL ?5@540GV), ?5@540NBLAO =>2><C 2;0A=8:>2V H;OE>< ?>2=>3> V=4>A0<5=BC. @02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 FV==V ?0?5@8 =0 ?@54'O2=8:0, 28?CI5=V 2 4>:C<5=B0@=V9 D>@<V, ?5@5E>48BL 4> =>2>3> 2;0A=8:0 7 <><5=BC ?5@540GV FV==8E ?0?5@V2. # 28?04:C 2V4GC65==O 7=5@CE><;5=8E FV==8E ?0?5@V2 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV ?5@5E>48BL 4> =>2>3> 2;0A=8:0 7 <><5=BC 70@0EC20==O WE =0 @0EC=>: 2;0A=8:0 2 715@V30G0. @02> =0 CG0ABL 2 C?@02;V==V, >45@60==O 4>E>4C B>I>, O:V 28?;820NBL 7 V<5==8E FV==8E ?0?5@V2, <>6CBL 1CB8 @50;V7>20=V 7 <><5=BC 2=5A5==O 7<V= 4> @5TAB@C 2;0A=8:V2 V<5==8E FV==8E ?0?5@V2. @02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 FV==V ?0?5@8, 28?CI5=V 2 1574>:C<5=B0@=V9 D>@<V, ?5@5E>48BL 4> =>2>3> 2;0A=8:0 7 <><5=BC 70@0EC20==O FV==8E ?0?5@V2 =0 @0EC=>: 2;0A=8:0 2 715@V30G0 (AB. 5 # @> 0FV>=0;L=C 45?>78B0@=C A8AB5<C [81] ). =0A;V4>: F8E ?@8?8AV2 28=8:0T >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 V<5==V 0:FVW, O:V =5 <>6CBL 1CB8 ?5@540=V ?@>AB8< 2@CG5==O< 157 4>45@60==O ?52=>W ?@>F54C@8 >D>@<;5==O ?5@540GV C =570;56=>3> @5TAB@0B>@0. &5 28:;8:0=> B8<, I> 0:>= =5 ?>2 O7CT >4=>7=0G=> 28=8:=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 0:FVW 7 2=5A5==O< 2V4?>2V4=8E 2V4><>AB59 4> @5TAB@C, >A:V;L:8 2 =L><C 945BLAO ?@> B5, I> 4> FL>3> <><5=BC ?@841020G5< 0:FVW =5 <>6CBL @50;V7>2C20B8AO ?@020, I> =040NBLAO 0:FVTN. V4B0:, 28E>48BL, I> >A>10, O:0 ?@8410;0 0:FVW, AB0T WE 2;0A=8:><, 0;5 =5 2 7<>7V @50;V7C20B8 ?@020 7 0:FVW. ) 56V B0 >1<565==O 2 ?@020E 7 0:FVW 0 7030;L=8< ?@028;><, I> 2V4?@0FL>20=> 70:>=>402AB2>< #:@0W=8 B0 2V4?>2V40T @8=F8?0< !, 2AV 0:FV>=5@8 <0NBL @V2=V ?@020 (01> V=0:H5: 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO @V2=VABL ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2, @V2=VABL ?@02, I> =040NBLAO 0:FVTN). @8=F8? @V2=>ABV 70:@V?;5=> 2 @C3V9 8@5:B82V !, 7=0G5==O O:>3> 210G0TBLAO 2 B><C, I> 9>3> 70AB>AC20==O 28:;NG0T A202V;;O 1V;LH>ABV, 1> @VH5==O, ?@89=OBV 1V;LHVABN 0:FV>=5@V2, @V2=>N <V@>N ?>28==V 4VOB8 I>4> 2AVE [39]  . 4=0: VA=CNBL 28?04:8 <56 B0 >1<565=L F8E ?@02 70 @V7=8<8 ?V4AB020<8. >6=0 ?>7=0G8B8 ?@02><V@=V B0 =5?@02><V@=V <56V B0 >1<565==O ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2. > ?@02><V@=8E <56 B0 >1<565=L A;V4 2V4=5AB8 >1<565==O, ?5@5410G5=V 70:>=>402AB2>< B0 ;>:0;L=8<8 0:B0<8 ": 1) >1<565==O, 7C<>2;5=V 284>< 0:FV9; 2) >A>1;82>ABO<8 =01CBBO ?@02 =0 0:FVW 2 ?@>F5AV ?@820B870FVW; 3) A8BC0B82=V >1<565==O; 4) >1<565==O O: =0A;V4:8 ?>@CH5=L ?@8?8AV2 70:>=>402AB20; 5) >1<565==O, 28:;8:0=V @878:>20=VABN ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV " V @878:>20=VABN 2:;045=L >AV1 A2>WE :>HBV2 2 0:FVW; 6) >1<565==O ?@02 0:FV>=5@0 I>4> ?5@540GV ?@02 CG0ABV 2 7030;L=8E 71>@0E. > =5?@02><V@=8E >1<565=L =0;560BL =5?@02><V@=V 4VW B8E G8 V=H8E >AV1 (?5@54CAV< >@30=V2 ", @5TAB@0B>@V2), O:V ?5@5H:>460NBL 0:FV>=5@0< 2 74V9A=5==V =8<8 A2>WE ?@02. !;V4 B0:>6 2:070B8 =0 BV <5E0=V7<8, O:V AE>6V 7 >1<565==O<8 ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2, 0;5 B0:8<8 =5 T (?>@O4>: 2V4GC65==O 0:FV9 ", ?>@O4>: 74V9A=5==O ?@02, I> =040NBLAO >4=VTN 0:FVTN WW A?V22;0A=8:0<). 1) 56V, 7C<>2;5=V 284>< 0:FV9. @0E>2CNG8 B5, I> T @V7=V 2848 0:FV9 O: FV==8E ?0?5@V2 (AB. 195 &, AB.AB. 3 B0 4 # @> FV==V ?0?5@8 B0 D>=4>2C 1V@6C [96] ), =8<8 =040TBLAO 9 @V7=89 >1AO3 ?@02 WE 2;0A=8:0<. ">1B> ?@020 7 ?@>AB>W 0:FVW 2V4@V7=OB8<CBLAO 2V4 ?@02 7 ?@82V;59>20=>W. "0:, 2;0A=8:8 ?@82V;59>20=8E 0:FV9 =5 <0NBL ?@020 1@0B8 CG0ABL 2 C?@02;V==V 0:FV>=5@=8< B>20@8AB2><, O:I> V=H5 =5 ?5@5410G5=> 9>3> AB0BCB><. 02?0:8, 2>=8 <0NBL ?5@5206=5 ?@02> =0 >45@60==O 482V45=4V2, 0 B0:>6 =0 ?@V>@8B5B=C CG0ABL C @>7?>4V;V <09=0 " C @07V 9>3> ;V:2V40FVW.  =02?0:8  2;0A=8:8 ?@>AB8E 0:FV9 >1<56CNBLAO 2 ?@02V =0 >45@60==O 482V45=4V2 ?@8 =5?@81CB:>2V9 4VO;L=>ABV ", 0 2;0A=8:8 ?@82V;59>20=8E 0:FV9  =V, >A:V;L:8 2>=8 2 1C4L-O:><C @07V WE >B@8<CNBL.  @0<:0E >4=>3> :;0AC 2AV 0:FV>=5@8 ?>28==V <0B8 >4=0:>2V ?@020 3>;>A0. ">1B> =5?@8?CAB8<>, I>1 >4=V 7 0:FV>=5@V2-2;0A=8:V2 ?@82V;59>20=8E 0:FV9 =5 <0;8 ?@020 3>;>AC, 0 V=HV  <0;8. 2) @C38< 28?04:>< <56 ?@02 7 0:FVW T 7C<>2;5=VABL >A>1;82>ABO<8 ?@>F5AC ?@820B870FVW, I> 28:;8:0NBL =5>1EV4=VABL 4;O 0:FV>=5@V2 ?@>BO3>< ?52=8E AB@>:V2 =5 74V9A=N20B8 A2>W ?@020 CG0ABV 2 C?@02;V==V ". "0:, >A>18 ?@8410NBL 0:FVW 2 ?@>F5AV 0:FV>=C20==O 45@602=>W N@848G=>W >A>18, ?>2=VABN >?;0GCNG8 WE 20@BVABL, B>1B> AB0NBL ?>2=>?@02=8<8 0:FV>=5@0<8. 4=0: 4> A?;82C ?52=>3> AB@>:C, 2:070=>3> 2 ?;0=V @>7<VI5==O 0:FV9 (?;0=V ?@820B870FVW), 2>=8 =5 <>6CBL 74V9A=N20B8 A2>WE ?@02 =0 C?@02;V==O, I> =040NBLAO W< 0:FVO<8, >A:V;L:8 B@820B8<5 AB@>:, ?@>BO3>< O:>3> 1C4CBL @>7<VI5=V 0:FVW, I> =0;560BL 45@602V. 3) "@5BV< 284>< <56 T ?>7102;5==O 45O:8E ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2, O:V =5 ?>2=VABN >?;0B8;8 0:FVW. #:@0W=AL:8< 70:>=>402AB2>< B0:8E >1<565=L =5 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 0:FV>=5@=>3> 70:>=>402AB20 $, O:8< ?5@5410G0TBLAO >1<565==O ?@020 B0:8E 0:FV>=5@V2 3>;>AC20B8 =0 7030;L=8E 71>@0E. &5 AB>ACTBLAO O: B8E >AV1, O:V 28ABC?0;8 70A=>2=8:0<8 ", B0: V B8E, EB> ?@84102 0:FVW 4>40B:>2>W 5<VAVW. ">1B> =02VBL ?@>BO3>< @>:C ?VA;O AB2>@5==O " W< B0:>3> ?@020 =5 =040TBLAO. 0A;C3>2CT =0 C203C 9 B5, I> 2 B0:><C @07V =5 28:;NG0NBLAO A8BC0FVW, :>;8 ?52=V 0:FV>=5@8 >?;0B8;8 20@BVABL 0:FV9 V =01C2H8 ?>2=89 >1AO3 ?@02 7 =8E, 28<030NBL A:;8:0==O 01> A0<V A:;8:0NBL 7030;L=V 71>@8 0:FV>=5@V2 V ?@89<0NBL =0 =8E BV @VH5==O, 2 O:8E 2>=8 70FV:02;5=V. ">1B> 2 B0:><C @07V >1<565==O ?@02 >4=8E 0:FV>=5@V2 <0T <VAF5 ?>@O4 V7 157?V4AB02=8<8 ?5@52030<8 V=H8E. > B>3> 6 O:I> 28=8:=5 =5>1EV4=VABL C ?@89=OBBV ?52=>3> @VH5==O 7030;L=8<8 1>@0<8 ?@>BO3>< @>:C 7 <><5=BC AB2>@5==O ", 0 0:FVW I5 =5 1CB8 ?>2=VABN >?;0G5=8<8, 7@>18B8 F5 1C45 =5<>6;82> (=0?@8:;04, 2V4AB>@>=8B8 28:>=02G89 >@30= 2V4 74V9A=5==O A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L 2=0A;V4>: 28O2;5==O ?>@CH5=L 2 9>3> 4VO;L=>ABV). "0:8< G8=><, ?>4V1=89 ?V4EV4 T E81=8< V 4>2>48BL 4VT2VABL A0<5 ?V4E>4C, 70?@>20465=>3> C:@0W=AL:8< 70:>=>402AB2><. 4=0: 9>3> B0:>6 A;V4 7<V=8B8, =040NG8 <>6;82VABL " @50;V7C20B8 =5A?;0G5=V 0:FVW 4;O 715@565==O ", 7<5=HC20B8 AB0BCB=89 :0?VB0; O:>3> =5 <>6;82>. 4) 56V, 28:;8:0=V @878:>20=VABN ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV " V @878:>20=VABN 2:;045=L >AV1 A2>WE :>HBV2 2 0:FVW (V=25AB8FV9=V @878:8, 0 =5 F82V;L=>-?@02>20 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL CG0A=8:V2 ?> 7>1>2'O70==OE " [110] ), AB>ACNBLAO A8BC0FV9, :>;8 " AB0T =5?;0B>A?@><>6=8<. 3V4=> V7 0:>=C #:@0W=8 @> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 01> 287=0==O 9>3> 10=:@CB>< [62] =0 ?52=8E AB04VOE ?@>F5AC 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 >@30=8 " A?>G0B:C ?>2=VABN ?V4?040NBL ?V4 4>40B:>289 :>=B@>;L AB>@>==VE >AV1 (@>7?>@O4=8:0 <09=0, :5@CNG>3> A0=0FVTN), 0 2 ?>40;LH><C 9 27030;V =5 4VNBL (?VA;O 28=5A5==O ?>AB0=>28 ?@> 287=0==O 1>@6=8:0 10=:@CB><). =0A;V4>: FL>3> 0:FV>=5@8 D0:B8G=> =5 @50;V7CNBL A2>T ?@02> =0 CG0ABL 2 C?@02;V==V ". "0:>6 4> FVTW :0B53>@VW <56 =0;568BL 701>@>=0 28?;0B8 482V45=4V2, 7>:@5<0, ?@8 7<5=H5==V 20@B>ABV G8AB8E 0:B82V2 " 4> @>7<V@C, <5=H>3>, =V6 @>7<V@ AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C V @575@2=>3> D>=4C (G. 3 AB. 158 &). 5) 56V ?@02 0:FV>=5@0 I>4> ?5@540GV ?@020 CG0ABV 2 7030;L=8E 71>@0E A?>AB5@V30TBLAO =0 ?V4AB02V AB. 100 &, O:>N 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO, I> ?@02> CG0ABV 2 B>20@8AB2V =5 <>65 >:@5<> ?5@54020B8AO V=HV9 >A>1V. A:V;L:8 2 AB0BBV =5 2:07CTBLAO ?@> B5, >:@5<> 2V4 G>3> 2>=> =5 <>65 ?5@54020B8AO, =0C:>2FO<8 @>18BLAO 28A=>2>: ?@> B5, I> >G5284=>, >:@5<> 2V4 <09=>28E ?@02. /: =0A;V4>:, 22060TBLAO =5<>6;828< ?5@54020B8 ?@02> CG0ABV 0:FV>=5@0 V=HV9 >A>1V 70 4>2V@5=VABN [196].  F8< =5 ?>3>46CTBLAO . . V15=:>, 2:07CNG8 =0 =5?@02><V@=VABL B0 =54>FV;L=VABL B0:>3> >1<565==O ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2 [111]. .. V==8: ?@>?>=CT =0 70:>=>402G><C @V2=V 2AB0=>28B8 >1<565==O <>6;82>ABV 0:C<C;N20==O 3>;>AV2 0:FV>=5@V2 >4=8< ?@54AB02=8:>< [30]. @>B8;56=0 ?>78FVO [226]  70A=>20=0 =0 B><C, I> 2AB0=>2;N20B8 B0:5 >1<565==O =54>FV;L=>, >A:V;L:8 2>=> ?>71028BL 0:FV>=5@0, I> 2>;>4VT 1V;LH O: 10% 0:FV9, <>6;82>ABV ?5@540GV ?@020 =0 CG0ABL C 7030;L=8E 71>@0E V=H8< >A>10<. &59 0A?5:B ?@>1;5<0B8:8 AB>ACTBLAO =0A0<?5@54 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=, 0;5 WE 3;818=C AB0=>2;OBL 2V4=>A8=8 2;0A=>ABV, >A:V;L:8 0:FVO O: >1 T:B ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0T =04020B8 ?52=89 >1AO3 ?@02 0:FV>=5@C. &V ?@020 AB>ACNBLAO O: ?>254V=:8 7 0:FVTN O: 7 1C4L-O:8< <09=><, B0: V 74V9A=5==O :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02 (<09=>28E V =5<09=>28E), I> =5N =040NBLAO. "VA=0 ?>2 O70=VABL <V6 A>1>N F8E ?@02 40T 7<>3C AB25@46C20B8, I> >1<565==O 2 1C4L-O:><C 7 =8E 2V4V1 TBLAO =0 V=H><C, V B><C WE @>7<56C20==O T ;8H5 ?@89><><, 0 =0A?@024V 2AV 2>=8 <0NBL A2>W 28B>:8 C ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV. B65 =5<>6;82VABL @50;V7C20B8 ?@020 0:FV>=5@0 =5 >A>18AB>, 0 H;OE>< ?5@540==O WE V=HV9 >A>1V T >1<565==O< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 0:FV>=5@0.  FL>3> ?@82>4C A;V4 28A;>28B8 B0:5 10G5==O: 0:FV>=5@8 =5 <0NBL >1<56C20B8AO C A2>WE ?@020E 157?>A5@54=L>W CG0ABV C 7030;L=8E 71>@0E 0:FV>=5@V2. ;O 70157?5G5==O WE ?@02 A;V4 70?@>2046C20B8 70>G=5 3>;>AC20==O 4;O B8E, EB> =5 2 7<>7V 27OB8 CG0ABL C 71>@0E. @54AB02=8:8 6 0:FV>=5@V2 <>6CBL ?@54AB02;OB8 WE=V V=B5@5A8 2 7030;L=8E 71>@0E ;8H5 B>4V, O:I> F8<8 0:FV>=5@0<8 T >A>18 7 =5?>2=8< >1AO3>< 4VT740B=>ABV 01> 287=0=V =54VT740B=8<8. /: >1<565==O ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2 <>6=0 ?>7=0G8B8 B0:V A8BC0FVW, O:V 28<030NBL >4=>@07>2>3> CAC=5==O 0:FV>=5@V2 2V4 @50;V70FVW A2>WE ?@02, I> =040NBLAO W< 0:FVO<8. &5 AB>ACTBLAO 28?04:V2, :>;8 0:FV>=5@ =5 <>65 1@0B8 CG0ABL 2 3>;>AC20==V =0 7030;L=8E 71>@0E 7 ?52=8E ?8B0=L, 0 A0<5: ?@8 28@VH5==V ?8B0==O I>4> 4>72>;C =0 C:;045==O 7=0G=8E ?@02>G8=V2 (O:I> G;5=8 28:>=02G>3> >@30=C T 0:FV>=5@0<8), 0 B0:>6 ?@02>G8=V2 V7 70V=B5@5A>20=VABN (O:I> 2 =8E 70V=B5@5A>20=V ?52=V 0:FV>=5@8 2=0A;V4>: @V7=8E ?@8G8= 4;O FL>3>, 2 B><C G8A;V G5@57 =0;56=VABL WE 4> 0DV;V9>20=8E >AV1 7 B8<8, O:V 1C4CBL AB>@>=>N FL>3> ?@02>G8=C) [197] . 5EB> 7 4>A;V4=8:V2 =03>;>HCT =0 <>6;82VABL >1<565==O ?@020 3>;>AC 0:FV>=5@0 2 >:@5<8E 28?04:0E, O:I> 4;O FL>3> VA=CNBL B0:V ?V4AB028: 0:FV>=5@ =5 ?>28=5= <0B8 ?@02> 3>;>AC ?@8 ?@89=OBBV 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 0:FV>=5@V2 @VH5==O ?@> ?@8410==O 2 =L>3> " 1C4L-O:>3> <09=0 01> ?@8 ?>AV40==V =8< ?>A048 G;5=0 ?@02;V==O; 0:FV>=5@, O:89 C:;02 4>3>2V@ 70AB028 A2>WE 0:FV9, B0:>6 ?>28=5= 1CB8 ?>7102;5=89 ?@020 3>;>AC 4;O 70?>1V30==O ?>@CH5==N ?@02 V=H8E 0:FV>=5@V2 [208] . @8 FL><C 707=0G0TBLAO, I> 2 B0:8E 28?04:0E ?@02> 3>;>AC 0:FV>=5@0 =5 ?@8?8=OTBLAO, 0 ;8H5 B8<G0A>2> 7C?8=OTBLAO :>@8ABC20==O F8< ?@02><. 5@5;VG5=V 28?04:8 =5 2?;820NBL =0 VA=C20==O A0<>3> ?@020 =0 3>;>A C 1C4L-O:>3> 0:FV>=5@0. 5?@02><V@=V >1<565==O, =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 ?@02><V@=8E, 157?V4AB02=> ?>7102;ONBL 0:FV>=5@V2 <>6;82>ABV 74V9A=5==O A2>WE ?@02. /: ?@028;>, 2>=8 72>4OBLAO 4> ?@O<8E 01> ?@8:@8B8E 70A>1V2 CAC=5==O 0:FV>=5@V2 2V4 3>;>AC20==O =0 7030;L=8E 71>@0E ?5@54CAV< H;OE>< =54>?CI5==O WE CG0ABV 2 =8E. &8<8 70A>10<8 T: =5A2>TG0A=5 ?>2V4><;5==O 01> =5?>2V4><;5==O 0:FV>=5@V2 ?@> ?@>2545==O 7030;L=8E 71>@V2; ?5@5=5A5==O <VAFO ?@>2545==O 7030;L=8E 71>@V2 4;O =5<>6;82>ABV >:@5<8E 0:FV>=5@V2 B0/01> WE 3@C? 27OB8 2 =8E CG0ABL; >@30=V70FV9=V =54>;V:8 ?@>2545==O 71>@V2, =0A;V4:>< O:8E AB0T 2V4<>20 C =040==V 2 >@5=4C ?@8<VI5==O, B>I>. !5@54 V=H8E 2V4><8E ?>@CH5=L ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2 ?@8 ?V43>B>2FV V ?@>2545==V 7030;L=8E 71>@V2 =091V;LH FV:028< ?@8:;04>< T ABO3=5==O 7 0:FV>=5@V2 ?;0B8 70 2EV4 4> ?@8<VI5==O, 45 ?@>2>4OBLAO 7030;L=V 71>@8 [226] ; ?><8;:8 ?@8 A:;045==V A?8A:V2 0:FV>=5@V2, O:V <0NBL ?@02> 1@0B8 CG0ABL C 7030;L=8E 71>@0E; =5=040==O V=D>@<0FVW 0:FV>=5@0< ?@> BV G8 V=HV 0A?5:B8 4VO;L=>ABV ", =5>1EV4=>W 4;O 3>;>AC20==O =0 7030;L=8E 71>@0E; ?@8 70?V7=5==V ?>40GV 4>:C<5=BV2 @5TAB@0B>@>2V 2=0A;V4>: =54109;82>ABV 2V4GC6C20G0 01> 9>3> =51060==O F5 @>18B8 <>65 A?@8G8=8B8 =87:C =5A?@8OB;828E =0A;V4:V2 4;O >A>18, O:0 WE ?@8410;0, 1> WW =5 70?@>AOBL =0 71>@8 0:FV>=5@V2 B0 =5 28?;0BOBL 482V45=48 ?> 0:FVOE; 2=0A;V4>: 45=><V=0FVW 0:FV9, ?@>2545=>W 7 ?>@CH5==O<8 ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2, O:V ?>7102;ONBLAO 2=0A;V4>: FL>3> =5 ;8H5 ?@02><>G=>AB59, =040=8E =8< 0:FVO<8, 0 9 A0<8E 0:FV9. /: V;NAB@0FVN >AB0==L>3> <>6=0 =025AB8 ?@8:;04 7 8:>;0W2AL:8< 3;8=>75<=8< 702>4><, =0 O:><C 45=><V=0FVO 0:FV9, I> AC?@>2>46C20;0AO :>=A>;V40FVTN, ?@8725;0 4> B>3>, I> 4@V1=V 0:FV>=5@8 28<CH5=V 1C;8 ?@>40B8 A2>W 0:FVW 2=0A;V4>: 71V;LH5==O WE=L>W =><V=0;L=>W 20@B>ABV 01> 28=8:=5==O ?@020 A?V;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV =0 0:FVW C :V;L:>E 0:FV>=5@V2, 7 B8<, I>1 >1<V=OB8 AC:C?=VABL =0;56=8E W< 0:FV9 =0 >4=C, 2;0A=8:0<8 O:>W 2>=8 AB0=>2;OBLAO [7]  . !;V4 B0:>6 2:070B8 =0 BV <5E0=V7<8, O:V AE>6V 7 >1<565==O<8 ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2, 0;5 B0:8<8 =5 T. > =8E =0;560BL: 1) ?>@O4>: 2V4GC65==O 0:FV9 70:@8B>3> "; 2) ?>@O4>: 74V9A=5==O ?@02, I> =040NBLAO >4=VTN 0:FVTN WW A?V22;0A=8:0<. 1) 0:>=>402AB2> #:@0W=8, O: V @0=VH5, B0: V 7 ?@89=OBBO< =>28E & B0 , =5>4=>7=0G=> 2@53C;L>2CT ?8B0==O <>6;82>ABV 2V;L=>3> >1>@>BC 0:FV9 70:@8B>3> ". > 1 AVG=O 2004 @. ?@>1;5<0 ?>;O30;0 C B><C, I> 70:>= =5 @>7@V7=O2 ?@020 0:FV>=5@V2 70:@8B>3> V 2V4:@8B>3> ". # @540:FVW AB. 28 # @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20, I> 4VO;0 4> 1997 @., <VAB8;>AO ?@028;>, 73V4=> 7 V7 O:8< AB0BCB>< " <>3;8 ?5@5410G0B8AO >A>1;82>ABV @50;V70FVW 0:FV>=5@0<8 A2>WE 0:FV9. # G8==V9 65 @540:FVW 707=0G5=>W AB0BBV 27030;V 945BLAO ?@> ?@02> 0:FV>=5@V2 @50;V7>2C20B8 =0;56=V W< 0:FVW 73V4=> 7 G8==8< 70:>=>402AB2><. # 72 O7:C 7 F8< 28@VH5==O A?>@V2 7 FL>3> ?8B0==O @C=BC20;>AO 01> =0 ?><8;:>2><C CO2;5==V ?@> >B>B>6=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 0:FV>=5@V2 =0 0:FVW V7 ?@02>< A?V;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV, 01> =0 70AB>AC20==V =>@< ?@> A?V;L=C 2;0A=VABL 4;O 0:FV>=5@V2 70:@8B>3> " ?> 0=0;>3VW 70:>=C, O:I> ?>4V1=5 1C;> ?5@5410G5=> 2 AB0BCBV ". AB0==T OA:@02> 45<>=AB@CTBLAO 2V4><8<8 AC4>28<8 A?@020<8 ?> A?>@0E <V6 70:@8B8< " &  >@I03V2AL:89 EV<V:>-D0@<0F52B8G=89 702>4 V 70:@8B8< " $0@<0F52B8G=0 DV@<0 0@=8FO B0 <V6 70:@8B8< " ?82702>40<8 !0@<0B B0 1>;>=L. [177; 133]   . =0A;V4>: FL>3> AC40<8 28=>A8;8AO @VH5==O ?@> 70AB>AC20==O ?>@O4:C 2V4GC65==O 0:FV9 70:@8B>3> " V7 4>45@60==O< ?5@5206=>3> ?@020 V=H8E 0:FV>=5@V2 =0 WE ?@8410==O. A=C20;0 9 ?@>B8;56=0 ?@0:B8:0, O:0 107C20;0AO =0 2V4ACB=>ABV =5>1EV4=>ABV 4;O 0:FV>=5@V2 " 4>45@6C20B8AO ?52=8E ?@8?8AV2 AB0BCBC, >A:V;L:8 F5 >1<56CT WE ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 0:FVW, 0 B0:V >1<565==O AC?5@5G0BL AB. 4 V 13 # @> 2;0A=VABL [63]. "0:>W 6 ?>78FVW 4>45@6CNBLAO D0EV2FV 5@602=>W :><VAVW 7 FV==8E ?0?5@V2 V D>=4>2>3> @8=:C. 8<8 707=0G0TBLAO, I> =5 <>6;82> ?5@5410G0B8 6>4=8E >1<565=L I>4> @50;V70FVW 0:FV>=5@0<8 A2>WE 0:FV9. "0: A0<> =5<>6;82> 2AB0=>2;N20B8 0:FV>=5@0< 9 >1>2 O7:8 ?5@H 70 2A5 70?@>?>=C20B8 A2>W 0:FVW 4;O ?@>406C V=H8< 0:FV>=5@0< FL>3> B>20@8AB20 01> A0<><C ". "0:5 B;C<0G5==O =8<8 AB. 28 # @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 [65] 107CTBLAO =0 701>@>=V 4;O 2;0A=8:V2 2AB0=>2;5==O 1C4L-O:8E >1<565=L.  1 AVG=O 2004 @. A8BC0FVO 7 FL>3> ?8B0==O ?52=>N <V@>N 7<V=8;0AO, >A:V;L:8 2 G.3 AB.81  2V4B5?5@ ?5@5410G5=>, I> 0:FV>=5@8 70:@8B>3> " <0NBL ?5@5206=5 ?@02> =0 ?@8410==O 0:FV9, I> ?@>40NBLAO V=H8<8 0:FV>=5@0<8 B>20@8AB20. & 6 =5 7=0T ?>4V;C " =0 70:@8BV B0 2V4:@8BV V B><C B0:>3> ?@020 0:FV>=5@V2 =5 2AB0=>2;NT. 1AB@03CNG8AL 2V4 >FV=:8 A?V22V4=>H5==O & B0  B0 7>A5@5482H8AL =0 ?@>1;5<V >1<565==O ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2 70:@8B8E " B0:8< ?@028;><, 2V4<VB8<>, I> 2>=> =0A?@024V =5 2AB0=>2;NT =VO:8E >1<565=L 4;O 0:FV>=5@V2. AB0==V =5 ?>7102;5=V V =5 >1<565=V C 2V;L=><C @>7?>@O460==V A2>W< >1 T:B>< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV  0:FVTN. /:I> 0:FV>=5@ E>G5 ?@>40B8 A2>W 0:FVW, 2V= WE 157?5@5H:>4=> ?@>40ABL. 0 4>3>2>@>< :C?V2;V-?@>406C ?@>4025FL <0T =0 <5BV >B@8<0==O :>HBV2 2V4 ?@>406C A2>3> <09=0 V 9><C 1094C65, EB> 9><C FV :>HB8 =040ABL. =H8< 65 0:FV>=5@0< 70:@8B>3> " =5 1094C65, EB> :C?8BL B0:V 0:FVW, >A:V;L:8 4;O B>3> F5 B>20@8AB2> V AB2>@N20;>AO O: 70:@8B5. "><C WE V=B5@5A <>65 704>2>;L=8B8AO 2AB0=>2;5==O< ?5@5206=>3> ?@020 =0 ?@8410==O 2V4GC6C20=8E 0:FV9. 1<565=L ?@8 FL><C 4;O ?@>402FO 0:FV9 =VO:8E =5 210G0TBLAO. !0<5 B0:C ?>78FVN ?V4B@8<02 >=AB8BCFV9=89 !C4 #:@0W=8, O:8< 2 @VH5==V ?> A?@02V ! N 1-11/2005 2V4 11 B@02=O 2005 @>:C 2:070=> =0 <>6;82VABL ?5@5410G0B8 2 CAB0=>2G8E 4>:C<5=B0E 70:@8B>3> 0:FV>=5@=>3> B>20@8AB20 ?5@5206=5 ?@02> 0:FV>=5@V2 B>20@8AB20 =0 ?@8410==O 0:FV9, I> 2V4GC6CNBLAO V=H8<8 0:FV>=5@0<8 B>20@8AB20 [163]. 2) @8 A?V;L=V9 2;0A=>ABV =0 0:FVN ?>@O4>: 74V9A=5==O ?@02, I> =040NBLAO =5N WW A?V22;0A=8:0<, 28<030T C73>465==O WE 4V9 ?> @50;V70FVW ?@02, O:V =040NBLAO 0:FVTN, 7>:@5<0 I>4> CG0ABV 2 7030;L=8E 71>@0E B0 3>;>AC20==V. !?V22;0A=8:8 0:FVW <0NBL 4V9B8 73>48 I>4> 2V4?@0FL>2C20==O WE T48=>W 2>;V, O:C 2>=8 28@060B8<CBL ?@8 28@VH5==V ?8B0=L ?>@O4:C 45==>3>. ;O FL>3> 2>=8 ?>?5@54=L> >13>2>@NNBL FV ?8B0==O B0 =040NBL ?>2=>2065==O >4=><C 7 =8E ?> ?@54AB02;5==N WE A?V;L=8E V=B5@5AV2 =0 71>@0E, >A:V;L:8 4VW 7030;L=5 ?@028;>: >4=0 0:FVO  >48= 3>;>A. /: V 2 ?>?5@54=L><C 28?04:C, ?@8 FL><C =5 28=8:0T =VO:8E >1<565=L, 0 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO ;8H5 ?>@O4>: 74V9A=5==O A?V22;0A=8:0<8 0:FVW A2>WE ?@02. 3) 5 <>65 22060B8AO 9 >1<565==O< ?@020 =0 482V45=48 WE =528?;0B0 0:FV>=5@0< C B0:8E 28?04:0E: O:I> ?@89=OB> @VH5==O 7030;L=8E 71>@V2 0:FV>=5@V2 ?@> A?@O<C20==O 2AL>3> ?@81CB:C =0 @>728B>: "; O:I> " ?@0FN20;> =5?@81CB:>2>; O:I> 71>@8 =5 A:;8:0;8AO 01> 1C;8 =5?@02><>G=V ?@89<0B8 @VH5==O. :FVO =5 <>65 22060B8AO 4>:C<5=B><, O:89 O2;OT A>1>N N@848G=5 >1@C=BC20==O ?@020 =0 ?@81CB>: [121]. "0:>W B>G:8 7>@C 4>B@8<CNBLAO V 45O:V ACG0A=V 02B>@8 [143] . "8< A0<8< ?@8?CA:0TBLAO, I> <>218 ?@02> =0 482V45=4 28=8:0T 2 0:FV>=5@0 V7 A0<>3> D0:BC 9>3> 2;0A=>ABV =0 0:FVN. 4=0: F5 =5 B0:, 1> ?@02> :>6=>3> 0:FV>=5@0 70;568BL 2V4 V=H8E G8==8:V2, B><C I> <>65 1CB8 @50;V7>20=> 2AV<0 0:FV>=5@0<8 70 C<>2 >B@8<0==O " ?@81CB:C 70 @57C;LB0B0<8 3>A?>40@AL:>3> @>:C V A:;8:0==O 7030;L=8E 71>@V2 0:FV>=5@V2 B0 ?@89=OBBO =8<8 @VH5==O ?@> @>7?>4V; G0AB8=8 ?@81CB:C =0 28?;0BC 482V45=4V2. # @07V 2V4ACB=>ABV B0:>3> @VH5==O 0:FV>=5@ =5 =01C20T <>6;82>ABV >B@8<0B8 482V45=48, 0;5 9>3> ?@02> 7 0:FVW (?@02> =0 482V45=48) =5 >1<56CTBLAO, 0 =5 <>65 @50;V7C20B8AO 157 2V4?>2V4=8E ?V4AB02 4;O FL>3>, O:V 28<030NBL 4>45@60==O ?52=8E ?@028; B0 <5E0=V7<V2. =0A;V4>: F8E @>7AC4V2 2840TBLAO =52V@=>N 4C<:0 .. )5@18=8 ?@> B5, I> B0:0 ?@>F54C@0 T >1<565==O<, 4> B>3> 6 F5 T =54>FV;L=8<, >A:V;L:8 ?@02> 0:FV>=5@0 =0 >45@60==O 482V45=4V2 T >A=>2=8< 157C<>2=8< ?@02><, I> =5 70;568BL 2V4 =0O2=>ABV ?@81CB:C " 01> ?@89=OBBO 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 @VH5==O I>4> =0?@02;5==O G0AB8=8 ?@81CB:C =0 28?;0BC 482V45=4V2. @>B5 70 ?52=8E C<>2 0:FV>=5@ 74>1C20T 4>40B:>25 ?@02>  ?@02> 28<030B8 28?;0B8 >3>;>H5=8E 482V45=4V2 [226] . 4) 5 1C45 B0:>6 >1<565==O< ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2 2AB0=>2;5==O 70:>=>402AB2>< AB@>:V2 28?;0B8 482V45=4V2.  AB. 37 # @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 [65] V AB. 9 # @> FV==V ?0?5@8 V D>=4>2C 1V@6C [96] 2AB0=>2;5=>, I> 482V45=48 ?> 0:FVOE 28?;0GCNBLAO 70 ?V4AC<:0<8 @>:C. @8 FL><C ?>AB0T ?8B0==O ?@> <>6;82VABL >B@8<0==O 482V45=4V2 G0ABVH5 >4=>3> @07C =0 @V:. >A;V4=8:8 FL>3> ?8B0==O [55]  22060NBL, I> >1<565=L ?@020 " =0 G0ABVHC 28?;0BC 482V45=4V2 =5<0T, >1@C=B>2CNG8 F5, ?>-?5@H5, B8<, I> 70:>=>402AB2> #:@0W=8 =5 <VAB8BL ?@O<>W 701>@>=8 FL>3>, 0 BV;L:8 707=0G0T =5>1EV4=V 28<>38 4> 7<VABC AB0BCBC B>20@8AB20; 0 ?>-4@C35, 71>@8 0:FV>=5@V2 <0NBL ?@02> ?@89<0B8 @VH5==O ?@> AB@>:8 9 ?>@O4>: 28?;0B8 482V45=4V2 157 1C4L-O:8E >1<565=L. # 70:>=>402AB2V $ 2AB0=>2;5=> <>6;82VABL 28?;0B8 482V45=4V2 I>:20@B0;L=>, @07 =0 ?V2@VGGO 01> @07 =0 @V:. !B0BCB>< " <>6CBL 1CB8 287=0G5=V 9 V=HV AB@>:8 28?;0B8 482V45=4V2, >4=0: 70:>=>< ?@> " @5:><5=4CTBLAO WE 74V9A=N20B8 =5 G0ABVH5 >4=>3> @07C 2 :20@B0; V =5 @V4H5 >4=>3> @07C =0 @V:. VH5==O ?@> 28?;0BC ?@><V6=8E (I>:20@B0;L=8E, ?V2@VG=8E) 482V45=4V2, WE @>7<V@ V D>@<C 28?;0B8 ?@89<0TBLAO @04>N 48@5:B>@V2 (A?>AB5@56=>N @04>N) ". 5) V4:>@5==O 0:FV>=5@0 @VH5==N 1V;LH>ABV =0 7030;L=8E 71>@0E, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> C =L>3> =5 28=8:0T <>6;82>ABV @50;V7C20B8 A2>W ?@020 (=0 482V45=48, ?5@5206=V ?@020) B0:>6 =5 T >1<565==O< 9>3> ?@02 7 0:FVW, 0 T <5E0=V7<>< B0 C<>20<8 WE @50;V70FVW 2 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E. 8A=>2:8 4> @>74V;C 2 1. 8=8:=5==O @5G>28E ?@02 =0 GC65 <09=> (A5@2VBCB8, 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9) >1<56CT ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, >4=>G0A=> 70157?5GCNG8 @50;V70FVN <09=>28E ?@02 287=0G5=8E >AV1. &8< >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:V VA=CNBL 2 @5G>28E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, 2V4@V7=ONBLAO 2V4 7030;L=8E ?@02 CG0ABV, I> ?> ACBV T <560<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV V A;C60BL FV;O< 70157?5G5==O @50;V70FVW V=B5@5AV2 7=0G=>3> :>;0 >AV1 B0 ACA?V;L=8E (?C1;VG=8E) V=B5@5AV2. 2. @8 >1<565==OE ?@020 2;0A=>ABV A:;040NBLAO 42>T @V7=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= 7 @V7=8< AC1'T:B=8< A:;04><: 0) 01A>;NB=V (<V6 C?@02><>G5=>N >A>1>N  AC1 T:B>< V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 V 2AV<0 V=H8<8 ?0A82=> 7>1>2'O70=8<8 >A>10<8, 2:;NG0NG8 2;0A=8:0) V 1) 2V4=>A=V (<V6 C?@02><>G5=>N >A>1>N V 2;0A=8:><). 3. >42V9=0 ?@8@>40 ?@02>2V4=>A8=, I> 28=8:0NBL 7 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 287=0G0T B0:C A?5F8DV:C ?@02>28E 72 O7:V2: 0) FV 2V4=>A8=8 28=8:0NBL V7 ?@82>4C >4=VTW V BVTW 6 @5GV; 1) C F8E 2V4=>A8=0E 15@CBL CG0ABL BV 6 A0<V >A>18  287=0G5=V B0 =5287=0G5=V. 87=0G5=8<8 >A>10<8 T 2;0A=8: B0 =>AV9 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020, 0 =5287=0G5=8<8  2AV B@5BV >A>18; 2) 2;0A=8: AB0T 2 F8E 2V4=>A8=0E =5 C?@02><>G5=>N (I> 702648 2;0AB825 4;O =L>3>), 0 7>1>2'O70=>N >A>1>N. # 2V4=>A=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E (<V6 2;0A=8:>< B0 =>AVT< V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020) 2V= 7>1>2 O70=89 O: 2G8=8B8 ?52=V 4VW (=0?@8:;04, ?5@540B8 @VG 4;O :>@8ABC20==O 5<DVB52BV), B0: V CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 ?52=8E 4V9 (=5 702060B8 AC1 T:BC A5@2VBCB=>3> ?@020 9>3> 74V9A=N20B8). =>4V 2;0A=8: 2G8=OT 0:B82=V 4VW =5 2=0A;V4>: ?@8?8AC FL>3> 4;O =L>3> 70:>=><, 0 28:;NG=> 2 A2>WE V=B5@5A0E. 0?@8:;04, :>;8 2V= A0< 70FV:02;5=89 =0;03>48B8 ?@>W74 G8 ?@>EV4 G5@57 A2>N 75<5;L=C 4V;O=:C, I>1 ?> =V9 =>AV9 A5@2VBCBC =5 E>482 45 7023>4=>; 3) 2=0A;V4>: =02545=>3> 2;0A=8: >1<565=>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 (O: C?@02><>G5=0 >A>10) 15@5 CG0ABL 2 >1>E F8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, >4=V 7 O:8E @5G>28<8, (01A>;NB=8<8), 0 4@C3V - 7>1>2'O70;L=8<8 (2V4=>A=8<8). <VAB ?5@H8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= AB0=>2;OBL @5G>25 ?@02> C?@02><>G5=>W >A>18 V :>@5A?>=4CNG89 9><C >1>2'O7>: 2AVE V=H8E >AV1, 0 7<VAB 4@C38E - 270T<=V ?@020 9 >1>2'O7:8 C?@02><>G5==>3> (AC1 T:B0 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020) V 2;0A=8:0 @5GV . 4. 0:>==8< T 2>;>4V==O, I> 4>?CA:0TBLAO 70:>=><. 8< <>65 1CB8 O: 2>;>4V==O <09=>< =0 ?52=><C ?@02V, B0: V D0:B8G=5 ?@02><V@=5 2>;>4V==O. 0?@8:;04, 2>;>4V==O <09=><, I> =0;568BL >A>1V =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV, T 70:>==8<, 0;5 =5 T 2>;>4V==O< O: @V7=>284>< V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020, >A:V;L:8 2>=> T ?@02><>G=VABN 2;0A=8:0. 0A=>20=5 =0 4>3>2>@V 7 2;0A=8:>< <09=0 2>;>4V==O T 70:>==8< =02VBL B>4V, :>;8 4VN 4>3>2>@C 265 ?@8?8=5=> 2=0A;V4>: 70:V=G5==O 9>3> AB@>:C, 0;5 2;0A=8: =5 28<030T ?>25@=5==O <09=0. 570:>==8<8 2>;>4V;LFO<8 T 4>1@>A>2VA=89 B0 =54>1@>A>2VA=89 =01C20GV. 5. @02><V@=8< T 2>;>4V==O, :>;8 >A>10 2>;>4VT GC68< <09=>< V 22060T 9>3> A2>W< (=0?@8:;04, 4>1@>A>2VA=89 =01C20G), 01> 7=0T, I> C =5W ?>:8 I> =5<0T ?@02 =0 F5 <09=>, 0;5 2>=0 <0T =0<V@ WE =01CB8 (7 B0:8E ?V4AB02, O: =01C20;L=0 402=VABL, 7=0EV4:0). 5?@02><V@=8< T =570:>==5 2>;>4V==O B0 2>;>4V==O >A>1>N <09=>< 157 4>45@60==O ?@8?8AV2 70:>=C, =0?@8:;04, ?@8E>2C20==O GC6>3> <09=0 7 <5B>N =01CB8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 =L>3> 70 =01C20;L=>N 402=VABN. 6. $0:B8G=5 2>;>4V==O 70 A2>TN ACBBN 2V41820T D0:B8G=5 AB0=>28I5 <09=0, 0 =5 ?@02> =0 F5 <09=>. >;>4V==O O: ?@02> =0 GC6C @VG 7C<>2;NT 9 9>3> 10G5==O O: >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. >;>4V==O E>G V =5 B>@:0TBLAO ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >A:V;L:8 ?>ABC?0TBLAO 9><C 7=0G5==O<, >4=0: 2 ?52=8E 28?04:0E ?@02> 2;0A=8:0 =0 <09=> >1<56CTBLAO A0<8< D0:B>< 2>;>4V==O V=H>N >A>1>N F8< <09=><. @8:;04>< <>65 A;C3C20B8 B5, I> ?@57C<?FVO ?@02><V@=>ABV 2>;>4V==O 28<030T 4>2545=>ABV =0O2=>ABV ?@020 V=H>W >A>18 =0 A?V@=5 <09=>. @>BO3>< 65 ?5@51V3C G0AC 70O2;5==O 28<>3 B0 @>73;O4C WE AC4>< 2;0A=8: =5 =01C20T C 2>;>4V==O A2>T <09=>, G8< >1<56CTBLAO 2 A2>WE ?@020E =0 =L>3>. 7. >;>4V==O B0 A5@2VBCB8 2V4>1@060NBL 45:V;L:0 @V7=V 1>:8 2?;82C V=H8E >AV1 =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0, B>1B> @V7=V @0:C@A8 F8E ?@02, >18420 7 O:8E B8< =5 <5=H T @5G>28<8. /: 2V@=8< T B5, I> 2>;>4V==O =0304CT ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, B0: 2V@=> 9 B5, I> A5@2VBCB ?5@54CAV< ?>;O30T C >1<565=><C :>@8ABC20==V GC68< <09=><, 0 =5 C 74V9A=5==V 2V4=>A=> =L>3> ?>4V1=>ABV ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 8. !5@2VBCB T >1<565==O< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV B0 >4=>G0A=> @5G>28< ?@02><. V= O: >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO 7 <5B>N 70157?5G5==O ?@02 :>=:@5B=8E >AV1. ;0A8DV:0FVO ?@54V0;L=8E A5@2VBCBV2 =0 ?>78B82=V (O: ?@020 >A>18 74V9A=N20B8 ?52=V 4VW 2V4=>A=> GC6>W =5@CE><>ABV) V =530B82=V (O: ?@020 28<>38 4> 2;0A=8:0 CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 B8E 01> V=H8E 284V2 9>3> 28:>@8AB0==O A2>3> <09=0) 2840TBLAO =5?@89=OB=>N O: B0:0, I> ?@82>48BL 4> 7<VHC20==O ?>=OBL <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. !?@026=V<8 A5@2VBCB0<8 <>6=0 22060B8 ;8H5 ?>78B82=V. 01>@>=0 6 2;0A=8:>2V :>@8ABC20B8AO A2>W< <09=>< ?52=8< G8=>< (=0?@8:;04, 1C4C20B8 1C48=>:, I> 70A;>=OT A2VB;> ACAV4>2V) =5 <VAB8BL C A>1V @50;L=>3> :>@8ABC20==O GC6>N =5@CE><VABN. "><C 2>=0 T =5 =530B82=8< :>@8ABC20==O<, 0 2AB0=>2;5==O< <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 9. @8 :>;V7VW A5@2VBCBC 7 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV >AB0==T ?>ABC?0TBLAO A5@2VBCBC, >A:V;L:8 9>3> 2AB0=>2;5==O T >1<565==O< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. "0:5 >1<565==O :><?5=ACTBLAO 28?;0B0<8 =0 :>@8ABL 2;0A=8:0 ?52=8E :>HBV2. 10. # @07V 2AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC =0 :>@8ABL >A>18 70 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0 <09=0 (=0?@8:;04, C 70?>2VBV), A5@2VBCB=5 ?@02> B0:>W >A>18 T 4>2VG=8<. ;0A=8: 65 <09=0, O:89 =01C2 9>3> C A?04I8=C, =5 <>65 70 A2>TN 2>;5N ?@8?8=8B8 A5@2VBCB=5 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. @> B0:5 >4=>7=0G=> AB25@46C20B8 =5 <>6=0, O:I> >A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB 28=8:0T 2=0A;V4>: A:;040==O AV<59=8E AB>AC=:V2 (B>1B> A5@2VBCB C 4@C3>3> 7 ?>4@C66O =0 <09=> ?5@H>3>, 4VB59 =0 <09=> 10BL:V2).  ?@8?8=5==O< AV<59=8E AB>AC=:V2 (@>7V@20==O< H;N1C) 2V4?040T V ?V4AB020 4;O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC, I> T =5157?5@5G=8<. @>?>=CTBLAO 2=5AB8 7<V=8 4> G. 1 AB. 405 &, 28:;02H8 WW C B0:V9 @540:FVW: ';5=8 AV<'W 2;0A=8:0 68B;0 B0 :>;8H=V G;5=8 AV<'W 2;0A=8:0 68B;0, O:V ?@>6820NBL @07>< 7 =8<, <0NBL 4>2VG=5 ?@02> =0 :>@8ABC20==O F8< 68B;>< 2V4?>2V4=> 4> 70:>=C, O:I> V=H5 =5 ?5@5410G5=> 4>3>2>@>< <V6 =8<8. >7=0G5==O =0 ?@8?8=5==O >1AB028=8, O:0 1C;0 ?V4AB02>N 4;O 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBC <0T AB>AC20B8AO ;8H5 75<5;L=8E A5@2VBCBV2, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> ?. 4 G. 1 AB. 406 A;V4 4>?>2=8B8 A;>2>< 75<5;L=>3>. 11.  # @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L A;V4 ?5@5410G8B8 =5>1EV4=VABL 2=5A5==O 70?8AC 4> @5TAB@C ?@02 =0 =5@CE><VABL ?@> >A>18ABV A5@2VBCB8. &5 <0T 1CB8 C @07V, O:I> >A>18ABV A5@2VBCB8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 2 70?>2VBV, 4>3>2>@V, @VH5==V AC4C 01> C 28?04:0E 28=8:=5==O F8E ?@02 2=0A;V4>: =0AB0==O ?5@5410G5=8E C 70:>=V N@848G=8E D0:BV2 (2ABC? 4> H;N1C, =0@>465==O 48B8=8 B>I>). @>?>=CTBLAO ?>7=0G8B8 C AB. 19 # @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L =0 ?@>2545==O B0:>W @5TAB@0FVW =0 ?V4AB02V: 70O28 =>B0@VCAC, O:89 28402 A2V4>FB2> ?@> ?@02> =0 A?04I8=C, >1BO65=C >A>18AB8< A5@2VBCB><, 4>3>2>@C <V6 G;5=0<8 AV< W ?@> 2AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC =0 :>@8ABL ?52=8E >AV1, 0 C 2V4ACB=>ABV B0:>3>  70O28 G;5=0 AV< W ?@8 =0O2=>ABV @5TAB@0FVW V7 ?>7=0G5==O< 9>3> <VAFO ?@>6820==O C 68B;>2><C ?@8<VI5==V, O:5 =0;568BL =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV V=HV9 >A>1V, B0 73>48 2;0A=8:0 68B;>2>3> ?@8<VI5==O =0 F5. 12.  <5B>N 4VT2>ABV 70E8ABC AC1 T:BV2 V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02, O:V 28O2;ONBLAO <5=H 70E8I5=8<8, =V6 >A>18, O:V 7=0E>4OBLAO C 4>3>2V@=8E AB>AC=:0E 7 2;0A=8:>< 68B;0 (=09<0GV), ?@>?>=CTBLAO G. 1 AB. 40 # @> V?>B5:C B0 G. 3 AB. 109  #:@0W=8 4>?>2=8B8 2:07V2:>N =0 G;5=V2 AV< W 2;0A=8:0 68B;0 B0 V=H8E AC1 T:BV2 >A>18AB8E A5@2VBCBV2, 0 B0:>6 =>@<>N ?@> 701>@>=C WE 28A5;5==O. 13. ;O 70?>1V30==O ?>@CH5==O< ?@02 B0 V=B5@5AV2 70AB02>45@60B5;O ?@>?>=CTBLAO 2=5AB8 7<V=8 4> G. 3 AB. 6 # @> V?>B5:C, 28:;02H8 ?5@H5 @5G5==O C B0:V9 @540:FVW: ?>B5:>4025FL 7>1>2'O70=89 4> C:;045==O V?>B5G=>3> 4>3>2>@C ?>?5@548B8 V?>B5:>45@60B5;O ?@> 2AV 2V4><V 9><C ?@020 B0 28<>38 V=H8E >AV1 =0 ?@54<5B V?>B5:8, 2 B><C G8A;V ?@> >A>18ABV A5@2VBCB8 B0 V=HV ?@020, I> =5 70@5TAB@>20=V C 2AB0=>2;5=><C 70:>=>< ?>@O4:C. 14. 5 <>6=0 ?>3>48B8AO 7 10G5==O< =54>FV;L=>ABV 2?@>20465==O 5<DVB5278AC B0 AC?5@DVFVN ?@8 =0O2=>ABV B0:8E 70A>1V2 ?5@540==O C :>@8ABC20==O @5GV, O: >@5=40, >A:V;L:8 707=0G5=V @5G>2V ?@020, =572060NG8 =0 WE AE>6VABL 7 >@5=4=8<8, B8< =5 <5=H VAB>B=> 2V4@V7=ONBLAO 2V4 >AB0==VE, =040NG8 WE =>AVO< 1V;LH5 ?@02, =V6 >@5=40@O<, 0 2;0A=8:C  1V;LH5 >1<565=L. 15. @8 2AB0=>2;5==V AC?5@DVFVN ?@02> 2;0A=8:0 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 242VGV >1<56CTBLAO, ?>-?5@H5, B8<, I> 28=8:0T V=H5 @5G>25 ?@02> (AC?5@DVFV9); ?>-4@C35, 2=0A;V4>: @50;V70FVW ?@020 =0 701C4>2C 28=8:0T ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 F59 >1 T:B =5@CE><>ABV C AC1 T:B0 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020. ">1B> >48= V B>9 A0<89 AC1 T:B 2V4=>A=> @V7=8E >1 T:BV2, >4=0: ?>2 O70=8E <V6 A>1>N, 28ABC?0T =>AVT< @V7=8E @5G>28E ?@02, >18420 O:V >1<56CNBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 75<5;L=C 4V;O=:C. 16. @8 5<DVB5278AV B0 AC?5@DVFVW, 2AB0=>2;N20=8E 4>3>2>@>< V @53C;L>20=8E =8<, 2V41C20TBLAO ?>T4=0==O @5G>28E B0 7>1>2 O70;L=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2AB0=>2;5==O< 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV 1C4CBL AE>68<8 7 >1<565==O<8 ?@8 VA=C20==V V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02. 17. 09< B0 >@5=40 =5 <>6CBL 1CB8 2V4=5A5=V 4> :0B53>@VW @5G>28E ?@02, E>G0 ?@020 =09<0G0 (>@5=40@O) O: :>@8ABC20G0 GC6>3> <09=0 <0NBL ?52=V >7=0:8 @5G>28E ?@02 (7>:@5<0, =5 ?@8?8=ONBLAO 2 72'O7:C 7V 7<V=>N 2;0A=8:0->@5=4>402FO V 70E8I0NBLAO 2V4 1C4L-O:8E >AV1 O: ?@020 B8BC;L=>3> 2;0A=8:0). @020 =09<0G0 (>@5=40@O) <0NBL 7>1>2'O70;L=>-?@02>289, 0 =5 @5G>289 E0@0:B5@. >=8 702648 28=8:0NBL C A8;C 4>3>2>@C 7 2;0A=8:>< =09<0=>3> (>@5=4>20=>3>) <09=0, V WE=V9 7<VAB 287=0G0TBLAO 28:;NG=> C<>20<8 :>=:@5B=>3> 4>3>2>@C. %0@0:B5@ V 7<VAB @5G>28E ?@02 287=0G0NBLAO 157?>A5@54=L> 70:>=><, V WE=T 28=8:=5==O =5@V4:> 2V41C20TBLAO ?>70 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0. 18. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV A?>AB5@V30NBLAO ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V AC1'T:B=>3> A:;04C B8E G8 V=H8E 4>3>2V@=8E 2V4=>A8=, 0 B0:>6 >AV1, O:8< 701>@>=5=> C:;040B8 2V4?>2V4=V 4>3>2>@8 2=0A;V4>: B>3>, I> 2>=8 ?>7102;ONBLAO <>6;82>ABV =0 A2V9 @>7AC4 74V9A=N20B8 ?@02><>G=VABL 2;0A=8:0 ?> @>7?>@O460==N A2>W< <09=>< C B0:89 A?>AV1. 19. V7=VABL ?@02>2>3> @568<C @5G>28E B0 7>1>2 O70;L=8E ?@02 :>@8ABC20GV2 <09=0 (=>AVW2 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 B0 >@5=40@V2), I> =0;568BL 2;0A=8:>2V, =5 2V4V3@0T @>;V 4;O ACB=>ABV ?@02>2>3> @568<C 2;0A=>ABV, O:5 2=0A;V4>: B8E B0 V=H8E ?@02 1C45 2C6G8<, =V6 C WE 2V4ACB=VABL. 20. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 28O2;ONBLAO ?@8 =0<V@V 2;0A=8:0 2ABC?8B8 4> 4>3>2V@=8E 2V4=>A8= V 7<5=HCNBL <>6;82VABL 4;O 2;0A=8:0 4VOB8 =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4 ?@8 C:;045==V 4>3>2>@V2. V4?>2V4=V ?@8?8A8 70:>=>402AB20 O2;ONBL A>1>N <56V, 0 =5 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, >A:V;L:8 AB>ACNBLAO 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2, O:V <0NBL WE 2@0E>2C20B8.  O:>ABV B0:8E <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV A;V4 ?>7=0G8B8 =0ABC?=V: 0) I> AB>ACNBLAO ?@>F54C@8 C:;045==O 4>3>2>@C; 1) I>4> 4>45@60==O D>@<8 4>3>2>@C (=>B0@V0;L=>3> ?>A2V4G5==O) B0 45@602=>W @5TAB@0FVW 4>3>2>@C C 28?04:0E, 2AB0=>2;5=8E 70:>=>< ; 2) I>4> ?@8<CAC C:;045==O 4>3>2>@C; 3) I>4> ?@54<5BC 4>3>2>@V2 ?@> ?5@540GC <09=0 C 2;0A=VABL. 21. 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, I> 28?;820NBL V7 7<VABC 4>3>2>@V2, AB>ACNBLAO =0A0<?5@54 ?@02 V >1>2'O7:V2 AB>@V=. @8 FL><C <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 04@5ACNBLAO 2AV< 2;0A=8:0< V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 70:>=><, 0 >1<565==O  :>=B@035=B0< ?> 4>3>2>@0< V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO, O: ?@028;>, 4>3>2>@><. 22. A=C20==O :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02 2V41820TBLAO =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV ?52=>3> AC1 T:B0. :FV>=5@ B0 " 7=0E>4OBLAO 2 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, I> BO3=5 70 A>1>N >1<565==O >1>E F8E AC1 T:BV2, E>G0 9 AB>A>2=> @V7=8E >1'T:BV2. @8 FL><C " O: 2;0A=8: <09=0 >1<56CTBLAO 2 ?@020E 2V4=>A=> =L>3> 2 V=B5@5A0E 0:FV>=5@V2, 0 0:FV>=5@8 O: 2;0A=8:8 0:FV9 >1<56CNBLAO 2 A2>WE ?@020E 2 V=B5@5A0E V=H8E 0:FV>=5@V2 B0 ". 23. 0 @V2=V 70:>=C 2@53C;L>20=V <56V :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02, O:8E <0NBL 4>45@6C20B8AO 2AV CG0A=8:8 3>A?>40@AL:8E B>20@8AB2, 0 =0 ;>:0;L=><C @V2=V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO >1<565==O 4;O >AV1, I> ?5@51C20NBL 2 :>=:@5B=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E 7 ?52=8< 3>A?>40@AL:8< B>20@8AB2><. 24. /: <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV A;V4 ?>7=0G8B8 6>@AB:5 @53C;N20==O >1;V:C 0:FV9, :>=B@>;N 70 4VO<8 " ?> 28?CA:C FV==8E ?0?5@V2, WE 1V@6>2><C >1V3C, 287=0G5==N ?8B0=L, >1>2'O7:>28E 4;O @>73;O4C 7030;L=8<8 71>@0<8 0:FV>=5@V2, I> T WE 28:;NG=>N :><?5B5=FVTN. "8< A0<8< 45@6020 2AB0=>2;NT <56V :>@?>@0B82=>W 2>;V. 56V " O: 2;0A=8:0 <09=0 AB>ACNBLAO: 0) 2AB0=>2;5==O ?52=8E 28<>3 B0 701>@>= 4> 4V9 >AV1, C?>2=>2065=8E @>7?>@O460B8AO <09=>< "; 1) 7<V= AB0BCB=>3> :0?VB0;C "; 2) ", AB2>@5=8E 2 ?@>F5AV ?@820B870FVW, 3) V=H>3>. 25. 56V B0 >1<565==O I>4> @>7?>@O460==O <09=>< " ?>;O30NBL C 28<>30E 4>: 1) C:;045==O 2V4 V<5=V " 7=0G=8E ?@02>G8=V2; 2) C:;045==O 2V4 V<5=V " ?@02>G8=V2 V7 70V=B5@5A>20=VABN; 3) C:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 :5@V2=8:0<8 DV;V9 B0 ?@54AB02=8FB2; 4) C:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 70;56=8<8 B>20@8AB20<8; 5) ?@>F54C@8 ?@8?8=5==O ". 0 2V4ACB=>ABV 2 #:@0W=V A?5FV0;L=>3> 70:>=C ?@> ", O:8< 18 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO 2V4?>2V4=V <56V, 701>@>=8, ?@8?8A8 B0 ?@028;0 ?5@5410G0NBLAO 2 AB0BCB0E B0 2=CB@VH=VE 0:B0E ". "8< A0<8<, O: ?@028;>, 2>=8 O2;ONBL A>1>N >1<565==O :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02 (?@02 2;0A=8:V2 0:FV9, ?0W2). 26. !;V4 @>7@V7=OB8 <56V B0 >1<565==O 2 ?@020E =0 0:FVN B0 2 ?@020E 7 0:FVW. > ?@02><V@=8E <56 B0 >1<565=L A;V4 2V4=5AB8 >1<565==O, ?5@5410G5=V 70:>=>402AB2>< B0 ;>:0;L=8<8 0:B0<8 ": 1) >1<565==O, 7C<>2;5=V 284>< 0:FV9; 2) >A>1;82>ABO<8 =01CBBO ?@02 =0 0:FVW 2 ?@>F5AV ?@820B870FVW; 3) A8BC0B82=V >1<565==O; 4) >1<565==O O: =0A;V4:8 ?>@CH5=L ?@8?8AV2 70:>=>402AB20; 5) >1<565==O, 28:;8:0=V @878:>20=VABN ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV " V @878:>20=VABN 2:;045=L >AV1 A2>WE :>HBV2 2 0:FVW; 6) >1<565==O ?@02 0:FV>=5@0 I>4> ?5@540GV ?@02 CG0ABV 2 7030;L=8E 71>@0E. > =5?@02><V@=8E >1<565=L =0;560BL =5?@02><V@=V 4VW B8E G8 V=H8E >AV1 (?5@54CAV< >@30=V2 ", @5TAB@0B>@V2), O:V ?5@5H:>460NBL 0:FV>=5@0< 2 74V9A=5==V =8<8 A2>WE ?@02. 27. 5E0=V7<8, AE>6V 7 >1<565==O<8 ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2, 0;5 B0:8<8 =5 T, F5 ?>@O4>: 2V4GC65==O 0:FV9 ", ?>@O4>: 74V9A=5==O ?@02, I> =040NBLAO >4=VTN 0:FVTN WW A?V22;0A=8:0<. "8< A0<8< 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO ;8H5 ?>@O4>: 74V9A=5==O AV?22;0A=8:0<8 0:FVW A2>WE ?@02, 0 =5 WE >1<565==O. ! 1. 56V T 2;0AB82VABN ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2 >1 T:B82=><C @>7C<V==V, N@848G=>N E0@0:B5@8AB8:>N 9>3> AB0B8G=>3> AB0=C, O:8< >:@5A;NTBLAO H8@>:5 :>;> <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0, 0;5 7 4>45@60==O< ?52=8E ?@8?8AV2 4VOB8 2V4?>2V4=8< G8=><, I> <0NBL 7030;L=89 E0@0:B5@ V 4VNBL 2V4=>A=> 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2. 1<565==O<8 T 7>2=VH=V9 2?;82 =0 AC1 T:B82=5 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV :>=:@5B=>W >A>18, I> 2BV;NTBLAO C 2V4?>2V4=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8 7 WW CG0ABN, BO3=5 70 A>1>N AB8A=5==O, 7<5=H5==O <>6;82>AB59 74V9A=5==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L V ?>;O30T C :>=:@5B=8E ?@8?8A0E 2;0A=8:C 74V9A=8B8 ?52=V 4VW 01> CB@8<0B8AO 2V4 ?52=8E 4V9. 2.  70:>=>402AB2V #:@0W=8 B0 =0C:>28E 4>A;V465==OE 2V4ACB=V9 T48=89 ?V4EV4 4> <56, >1<565=L B0 >1BO65=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. 1BO65==O B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 7<VHCNBLAO 2 70:>=0E #:@0W=8 @> 70157?5G5==O 28<>3 :@548B>@V2 B0 @5TAB@0FVN >1BO65=L V @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L. &V ?@02>2V :0B53>@VW : - T AE>68<8, >A:V;L:8: 0) AB>ACNBLAO AC1 T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 1) 72C6CNBL <>6;82>ABV 2;0A=8:0 I>4> 74V9A=5==O A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4; 2) ?>G0AB8 71V30NBLAO ?V4AB028 WE 2AB0=>2;5==O, >4=VTN 7 O:8E T =0A0<?5@54 4>3>2V@; - ?@>B5 <0NBL @>71V6=>ABV, >A:V;L:8 >1BO65==O<8 T 4>40B:>289 BO30@ 4;O 2;0A=8:0, 0 2V4B0:, =8<8 T B0:V CA:;04=5==O 4;O =L>3>, O:V T 70;56=8<8 2V4 9>3> ?@020 V O2;ONBL A>1>N 4>40B:>2V ?@020 V=H8E >AV1 =0 9>3> @VG (A5@2VBCB8, 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9, ?@020 7 4>3>2>@V2 >@5=48, =09<C B>I>). 1<565==O 6 =5 ?@8?CA:0T ?@02 V=H8E >AV1 =0 @VG 2;0A=8:0, 0;5 2V= 7 WE 2AB0=>2;5==O< =5 27<>7V 27030;V 74V9A=8B8 A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV. "0:5 AB0=>28I5 A:;040TBLAO ?@8 =0:;045==V 0@5HBC =0 9>3> <09=> 01> 701>@>=V 2V4GC65==O. 3. 56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV @V7=OBLAO 70 <5B>N WE 2AB0=>2;5==O V DC=:FVO<8. 5B>N <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T >E>@>=0 ?@02 V 70:>==8E V=B5@5AV2 2AVE >AV1 V ACA?V;LAB20 2 FV;><C 2V4 =54>1@>A>2VA=8E 4V9 2;0A=8:0. 5B>N 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L T 70157?5G5==O V=B5@5AV2 V ?@02 :>=:@5B=8E >AV1. 4. 0A048, =0 O:8E @C=BCNBLAO <56V B0 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, <0NBL 2V4?>2V40B8 7030;L=8< 70A040< F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20. "0:8<8 70A040<8 T V 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L C ACA?V;L=8E V=B5@5A0E; 74V9A=5==O ?@02 =0 <09=> 2V4?>2V4=> 4> 9>3> ?@87=0G5==O; 4>45@60==O ?@028; 5B8:8 4V;>28E 270T<8=; C@0EC20==O =5>1EV4=>ABV >E>@>=8 =02:>;8H=L>3> ?@8@>4=>3> A5@54>28I0; 30@<>=V9=5 ?>T4=0==O A2>1>48 4>3>2>@C V ?@8<CAV2 ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V >1<565=L; =54>?CI5==O <>=>?>;VAB8G=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 9 >1<565==O :>=:C@5=FVW; A?@0254;820 :><?5=A0FVO 2;0A=8:>2V <09=>28E CB@0B ?@8 >1<565==V 9>3> 2 ?@020E B>I>. 5. V4AB028 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T @V7=8<8. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL 287=0G0B8AO ;8H5 2 70:>=V, >A:V;L:8 BV;L:8 70:>= =040T ?>78B82=5 @53C;N20==O 2V4=>A8=0< 2;0A=>ABV (>=AB8BCFVO #:@0W=8, & #:@0W=8, # @> 2;0A=VABL,  #:@0W=8). 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO ?V470:>==8<8 =>@<0B82=>-?@02>28<8 0:B0<8, 0:B0<8 >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, 0:B0<8 =>B0@VCAV2, AC4>28< @VH5==O<, 4>3>2>@><. 6. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV VA=CNBL =0 ?>42V9=><C @V2=V ?@02>2V4=>A8=: 2>=8 28=8:0NBL 7 ?52=8E ?V4AB02 V 2BV;NNBLAO 2 >:@5<V ?@02>2V4=>A8=8, O:V, 2 A2>N G5@3C, 9 2?;820NBL =0 7<VAB ?@02>2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV. "0:, A5@2VBCB T @5G>28< ?@02><, O:5 VA=CT C 2V4?>2V4=8E @5G>28E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, V >4=>G0A=> 2?;820T =0 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, 72C6CNG8 9>3>. 7.  >3;O4C =0 B5, I> ?@02><>G=>ABO<8 2;0A=8:0 T 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O, 2V= <>65 >1<56C20B8AO O: C :>6=><C 7 B@L>E A2>WE ?>2=>2065=L, B0: V 2 WE :><1V=0FVOE (=0?@8:;04, C 2>;>4V==V B0 :>@8ABC20==V), 0 B0:>6 C 2AVE F8E ?@02><>G=>ABOE. V4B0:, >1<565==O< 2V;L=>3> @>7?>@O460==O 2;0A=8:>< A2>W< <09=>< 1C45 ?@8<CA>25 ?@8?8=5==O 9>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV (01> 28;CG5==O C =L>3> <09=0, 01> 28:C? B>I>).  B0:8E 28?04:0E 2;0A=8: 265 =5 74V9A=NT A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV =0 2;0A=89 @>7AC4, F5 =5 70;568BL FV;:>< 2V4 9>3> 2>;V. 8. 1<565==O O: 72C65==O AC1 T:B82=>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL B0:V =0?@O<:8: 0) 701>@>=0 2V4GC65==O <09=0, 0@5HB, O:V 2?;820NBL =0 ?@02> 2;0A=8:0 I>4> @>7?>@O460==O <09=><; 1) ?@8<CA>25 >1<565=5 :>@8ABC20==O <09=>< 2;0A=8:0 V=H8<8 >A>10<8; 2) ?@8<CA>25 ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: >1<565==O C 2V;L=><C @>7?>@O460==V A2>W< <09=><. 9. !?>A>10<8 2AB0=>2;5==O <56 B0 >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T 701>@>=8, ?@8?8A8 B0 7>1>2'O7C20==O. AB0=>2;5==O< <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV T 701>@>=0 74V9A=N20B8 4VW 7 <5B>N 70?>4VO==O H:>48 V=HV9 >A>1V; 7;>26820B8 ?@02>< 2 V=H8E D>@<0E; 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 7 <5B>N >1<565==O :>=:C@5=FVW; 7;>26820B8 4><V=CNG8< AB0=>28I5< =0 @8=:C B>I>. @02> 2;0A=>ABV >1<56CTBLAO, =0?@8:;04, 701>@>=>N 2V4GC65==O <09=0 2;0A=8:0. 01>@>=8 D>@<C;NNBLAO C 283;O4V ?@8?8AV2 (6>@AB:8E 01> >@VT=B>2=8E). 10. 1>2'O7:8 <0NBL =5 ;8H5 2AV V=HV >A>18 2V4=>A=> 4> 2;0A=8:0, O: B> ?@8?CA:0T :>=AB@C:FVO 01A>;NB=>3> ?@020, 0 9 A0< 2;0A=8: 2=0A;V4>: 2AB0=>2;5==O 9>3> >1>2 O7:V2. 1>2 O7:8 2;0A=8:0 <>6CBL <0B8 O: 7030;L=89 E0@0:B5@ 157 9>3> 2ABC?C 4> :>=:@5B=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= (2;0A=VABL 7>1>2 O7CT), B0: V 7C<>2;N20B8AO ?@02>2V4=>A8=0<8 2;0A=8:0 7 :>=:@5B=8<8 >A>10<8 (?@8 A5@2VBCB0E B0 V=H8E @5G>28E ?@020E). 1<56CNBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 9 ?@87C?8=5==O O: B8<G0A>20 =5<>6;82VABL 2;0A=8:0 74V9A=N20B8 A2>W ?@02><>G=>ABV. > =8E =0;560BL 7030;L=V 7C?8=5==O 4VW ?@020 (=0?@8:;04, <>@0B>@V9) B0 :>=:@5B=V 701>@>=8 =0 28:>@8AB0==O ?52=8<8 >A>10<8 A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59 (=0?@8:;04, ?@8 ?5@540GV <09=0 2 >@5=4C :>@8ABC20==O =8< 265 74V9A=N20B8<5 >@5=40@, 0 =5 2;0A=8:, O:89 ?@87C?8=OT 74V9A=5==O FVTW ?@02><>G=>ABV). 11. !;V4 2V4@V7=OB8: 0) =091V;LH 203><89 ABC?V=L AB8A=5==O 2;0A=8:0 (?@8 =0:;045==V =0 9>3> <09=> 0@5HBC, 70?@>20465==O ?@8B@8<0==O <09=0 2;0A=8:0 O: A?>A>1C 70157?5G5==O 28:>=0==O =8< 7>1>2 O70=L, ?@8 B0:8E A?>A>10E ?@8<CA>2>3> ?@8?8=5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O: =0FV>=0;V70FVO, @5:2V78FVO, :>=DVA:0FVO, ?@8<CA>289 28:C? C 2;0A=8:0 9>3> <09=0 C 72 O7:C 7 ACA?V;L=>N =5>1EV4=VABN, 0 B0:>6 C @07V 10=:@CBAB20 2;0A=8:0); 1) AB8A=5==O A5@54=L>3> ABC?5=O, O:V <>6=0 ?>4V;8B8 =0 B@8 3@C?8: ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V =0 <09=> 2;0A=8:0 B0:8E V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02, O: 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9, 0 B0:>6 2=0A;V4>: C:;045==O =8< 4>3>2>@V2 =09<C, >@5=48, 4>@CG5==O, :><VAVW, C?@02;V==O <09=><, 4>2VG=>3> CB@8<0==O B0 V=.; ?@8 70AB02V (V?>B5FV) 2;0A=8:>< A2>3> <09=0 B0 C 28?04:0E =0:;045==O =0 =L>3> 701>@>=8 2V4GC65==O; ?@8 70:@V?;5==V 2;0A=8:>< A2>3> <09=0 70 N@848G=>N >A>1>N =0 ?@02V 3>A?>40@AL:>3> 2V40==O 01> >?5@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O; 2) <V=V<0;L=8< AB8A=5==O< 2;0A=8:0 1C45: 2AB0=>2;5==O A5@2VBCBV2 =0 9>3> <09=>; 4VO;L=VABL 2;0A=8:0 C A?5FV0;L=8E 5:>=><VG=8E 7>=0E 01> 2 A?5FV0;L=><C @568<V V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, 0 B0:>6 ?@8 ?@02>2><C @568<V A?V;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV; 70;56=> 2V4 284C 4VO;L=>ABV 2;0A=8:0, I> 28<030T 4>45@60==O =8< 2V4?>2V4=8E 701>@>=, 2AB0=>2;5=8E 70:>=>402AB2><; ?5@51C20==O 9>3> C :>@?>@0B82=8E 2V4=>A8=0E. 12. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL 1CB8 :;0A8DV:>20=V 70;56=> 2V4: 1) @>7C<V==O A0<>3> ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@8@>4=>3> V O: ?>78B82=>3> ?@020; 2) <5B8 WE=L>3> 2AB0=>2;5==O - 2 ?C1;VG=><C 01> ?@820B=><C V=B5@5AV; 3) AD5@8 70:>=>402G>3> @53C;N20==O; 4) N@848G=>W G8==>ABV ?@8?8AV2; 5) ?@02>2>3> @568<C ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 6) ?52=8E >1'T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 7) AC1'T:BV2, =0 O:8E ?>H8@NNBLAO FV <56V. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL :;0A8DV:C20B8AO 70;56=> 2V4: 1) 465@5;0, O:8< 2>=8 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO; 2) =0O2=>ABV 01> 2V4ACB=>ABV 2>;V 2;0A=8:0; 3) N@848G=>W G8==>ABV ?@8?8AV2; 4) >1AO3C <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0 ?> 74V9A=5==N A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59; 5) ?@02>2V4=>A8=, 2 O:8E 2>=8 @50;V7CNBLAO. 13. ;0A8DV:0FVO <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV: 1) 28E>4OG8 7 10G5==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV O: ?@8@>4=>3> 01> ?>78B82=>3>, 9>3> <56V 2V4?>2V4=> 1C4CBL ?@8@>4=8<8 01> =>@<0B82=>-?@02>28<8; 2) 28E>4OG8 7 B0:>3> :@8B5@VN ?>4V;C ?@020 =0 ?@820B=5 V ?C1;VG=5, O: V=B5@5A, <>6=0 3>2>@8B8 ?@> <56V (>1<565==O) ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, 2AB0=>2;5=V 2 ?C1;VG=8E B0 ?@820B=8E V=B5@5A0E; 3) 70;56=> 2V4 AD5@8 70:>=>402G>3> @53C;N20==O <56V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO O: C ?C1;VG=><C, B0: V C ?@820B=><C ?@02V. @8 FL><C A;V4 2@0E>2C20B8 270T<=5 ?>T4=0==O =>@< F82V;L=>3>, 04<V=VAB@0B82=>3>, <8B=>3>, ?>40B:>2>3>, ?@8@>4>@5AC@A>2>3> B0 V=H8E 30;C759 70:>=>402AB20; 4) 70;56=> 2V4 N@848G=>W G8==>ABV ?@8?8AV2 <>6CBL 1CB8 7030;L=>>1>2'O7:>2V B0 @5:><5=40FV9=V <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, ?@02>2V B0 =5?@02>2V. 030;L=>>1>2'O7:>2V <56V 2AB0=>2;5=V >=AB8BCFVTN, 70:>=0<8; @5:><5=40FV9=V <56V =5 <0NBL >1>2 O7:>2>3> E0@0:B5@C, 0;5 2=0A;V4>: A2>TW 4>FV;L=>ABV V 2V4?>2V4=>ABV 7030;L=8< ?@02>28< 28<>30< 28:>@8AB>2CNBLAO =0 ?@0:B8FV (=0?@8:;04, 2>=8 <VABOBLAO 2 @8=F8?0E :>@?>@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O). >4V; <56 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV =0 ?@02>2V B0 =5?@02>2V 7C<>2;5=89 @>71V6=>ABO<8 <V6 ?@02>< B0 70:>=>402AB2><, I> V=>4V ?@>O2;OTBLAO 2 70:>=>B2>@G8E ?><8;:0E, O:V 2?;820NBL =0 <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV; 5) 70;56=> 2V4 ?@02>2>3> @568<C ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 9>3> <56V <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO 4;O 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2 01> 4;O B8E, <09=> O:8E ?5@51C20T C 2V4?>2V4=><C ?@02>2><C @568<V. A>1;8289 @568< 2;0AB8289 <560< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV DV78G=8E V N@848G=8E >AV1: 70;56=> 2V4 284C 4VO;L=>ABV; 4VNG8E C A?5FV0;L=8E 5:>=><VG=8E 7>=0E 01> 2 A?5FV0;L=><C @568<V V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV; ?@8 =5?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV V 10=:@CBAB2V; 2AB0=>2;N20=V :>=:C@5=B=8< V :>@?>@0B82=8< 70:>=>402AB2><; ?@8 @568<V A?V;L=>W 2;0A=>ABV; 6) <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <>6CBL AB>AC20B8AO 9 ?52=8E >1'T:BV2, 7>:@5<0 70:>=>< <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO >:@5<V 2848 <09=0, I> =5 <>65 =0;560B8 DV78G=8< V N@848G=8< >A>10< =0 ?@02V ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV; 7) 70;56=> 2V4 AC1'T:BV2 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, =0 O:8E ?>H8@NNBLAO <56V, >AB0==V <>6CBL 2AB0=>2;N20B8AO 4;O 2AVE 2;0A=8:V2 01> 4;O >:@5<8E WE :0B53>@V9. > >AB0==VE A;V4 2V4=5AB8 AC1 T:BV2 ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV, =0 O:8E ?>H8@NNBLAO 28<>38 I>4> =54>?CI5==O =54>1@>A>2VA=>W :>=:C@5=FVW. 56V 70 AC1'T:B=8< A:;04>< 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO V 70;56=> 2V4 3@><04O=AB20 >A>18. "0:>6 CAO:>3> @>4C <56V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO 4;O 2VBG87=O=8E V V=>75<=8E N@848G=8E >AV1 V ?C1;VG=8E CB2>@5=L. 14. 56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV <0NBL 70157?5GC20B8: 1) >E>@>=C 4>2:V;;O, 4>45@60==O ?@8=F8?V2 <>@0;V, >E>@>=C ?@02 V 70:>==8E V=B5@5AV2 V=H8E >AV1, 70E8AB V=B5@5AV2 45@6028 V ACA?V;LAB20; 2) A2>1>4C :>=:C@5=FVW <V6 ?V4?@8T<FO<8, 70E8I0NG8 A?>6820GV2 2V4 ?@>O2V2 =54>1@>A>2VA=>W :>=:C@5=FVW V <>=>?>;V7<C 2 1C4L-O:8E AD5@0E ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV; 3) 5D5:B82=5 28:>@8AB0==O ?@02 A0<8<8 2;0A=8:0<8 B0 V=. 15. ;0A8DV:0FVO >1<565=L ?@020 2;0A=>ABV: 1) 70;56=> 2V4 465@5;0, O:8< 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO >1<565==O, 2>=8 <>6CBL <VAB8B8AO 2 0:B0E >@30=V2 45@602=>W 2;048, 0:B0E >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, 0:B0E =>B0@VCA0, 4>3>2>@0E B0 AC4>28E 0:B0E. /: V <56V, 2AB0=>2;5==O >1<565=L <>65 ?5@5410G0B8AO O: ?C1;VG=>-?@02>28<8 (?>40B:>20 70AB020, 0@5HB), B0: V ?@820B=>?@02>28<8 0:B0<8. :B0<8 =>B0@VCA0 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO B0:5 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O: 701>@>=0 2V4GC65==O <09=0. >3>2>@>< CAB0=>2;NNBLAO A5@2VBCB8, 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9, O:V >1<56CNBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV. >3>2V@=89 E0@0:B5@ <0NBL >1<565==O, I> 28?;820NBL V7 4>3>2>@V2 =09<C, >@5=48, :><VAVW, C?@02;V==O <09=><, 4>2VG=>3> CB@8<0==O. !C4>28< @VH5==O< <>6CBL CAB0=>2;N20B8AO A5@2VBCB8, 0 B0:>6 =0 9>3> ?V4AB02V ?@8?8=OTBLAO ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV 2=0A;V4>: :>=DVA:0FVW <09=0, ?@8<CA>25 28;CG5==O 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 7 <5B>N ACA?V;L=>W =5>1EV4=>ABV; 2) ?>2 O70=>N 7 ?>?5@54=L>N T :;0A8DV:0FVO >1<565=L =0 ?@8<CA>2V (=>@<0B82=>-?@02>2V B0 AC4>2V >1<565==O) B0 4>1@>2V;L=V (4>3>2V@=V) 70;56=> 2V4 =0O2=>ABV 01> 2V4ACB=>ABV 2>;V 2;0A=8:0. @8<CA>2V >1<565==O 28=8:0NBL =0 ?V4AB02V 0:BV2 >@30=V2 45@602=>W 2;048, 0:BV2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, 0:BV2 =>B0@VCA0, AC4>28E 0:BV2. >1@>2V;L=V >1<565==O 2;0A=8: 2AB0=>2;NT 4;O A515 2 @57C;LB0BV A2>WE 2>;L>28E 4V9, =0?@8:;04, C @07V ?5@540GV =0;56=>3> <09=0 >A>1V 70 4>3>2>@>< =09<C (>@5=48), :><VAVW, C?@02;V==O <09=><, 4>2VG=>3> CB@8<0==O; 3) >1<565==O, O: V <56V ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, B0:>6 <>6=0 ?>7=0G8B8 O: ?@02>2V B0 =5?@02>2V. 5?@02>2V >1<565==O  F5 >1<565==O, 7C<>2;5=V =570:>==8<8 4VO<8 45@602=8E >@30=V2, >@30=V2   V >@30=V2 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O, O:V =5 2V4?>2V40NBL 70:>=C.  B0:><C @07V 2;0A=8: <>65 28<030B8 045:20B=>3> 70E8ABC A2>3> ?@020, =0?@8:;04, H;OE>< ?@54'O2;5==O ?>7>2C ?@> 287=0==O =570:>==8< 0:B0 >@30=C 45@602=>W 2;048, >@30=0   01> >@30=C <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O (AB. 393 &); 4) >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV E0@0:B5@87CNBL >1AO3 <>6;82>AB59 2;0A=8:0 ?> 74V9A=5==N A2>WE ?@02><>G=>AB59 V AB>ACNBLAO 2>;>4V==O, :>@8ABC20==O B0 @>7?>@O460==O <09=><; 5) >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 70;56=> 2V4 ?@02>2V4=>A8=, 2 O:8E 2>=8 @50;V7CNBLAO, <>6CBL :;0A8DV:C20B8AO =0 @5G>2V, 4>3>2V@=V B0 :>@?>@0B82=V. 16. 8=8:=5==O @5G>28E ?@02 =0 GC65 <09=> (A5@2VBCB8, 5<DVB5278A, AC?5@DVFV9) >1<56CT ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV, >4=>G0A=> 70157?5GCNG8 @50;V70FVN <09=>28E ?@02 287=0G5=8E >AV1. &8< >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV, O:V VA=CNBL 2 @5G>28E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, 2V4@V7=ONBLAO 2V4 7030;L=8E ?@02 CG0ABV, I> ACBV T <560<8 ?@020 2;0A=>ABV V A;C60BL FV;O< 70157?5G5==O @50;V70FVW V=B5@5AV2 7=0G=>3> :>;0 >AV1 B0 ACA?V;L=8E (?C1;VG=8E) V=B5@5AV2. 17. @8 >1<565==OE ?@020 2;0A=>ABV A:;040NBLAO 42>T @V7=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= 7 @V7=8< AC1'T:B=8< A:;04><: 0) 01A>;NB=V (<V6 C?@02><>G5=>N >A>1>N  AC1 T:B>< V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 V 2AV<0 V=H8<8 ?0A82=> 7>1>2'O70=8<8 >A>10<8, 2:;NG0NG8 2;0A=8:0) V 1) 2V4=>A=V (<V6 C?@02><>G5=>N >A>1>N V 2;0A=8:><). 18. !5@2VBCB T >1<565==O< ?@020 2;0A=>ABV B0 >4=>G0A=> @5G>28< ?@02><. V= O: >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO 7 <5B>N 70157?5G5==O ?@02 :>=:@5B=8E >AV1. @8 :>;V7VW A5@2VBCBC 7 ?@02>< 2;0A=>ABV >AB0==T ?>ABC?0TBLAO A5@2VBCBC. 19. # @07V 2AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC =0 :>@8ABL >A>18 70 2>;5N 2;0A=8:0 <09=0 (=0?@8:;04, C 70?>2VBV) A5@2VBCB=5 ?@02> B0:>W >A>18 T 4>2VG=8<. ;0A=8: 65 <09=0, O:89 =01C2 9>3> C A?04I8=C, =5 <>65 70 A2>TN 2>;5N ?@8?8=8B8 A5@2VBCB=5 >1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV. @> B0:5 >4=>7=0G=> AB25@46C20B8 =5 <>6=0, O:I> >A>18AB89 A5@2VBCB 28=8:0T 2=0A;V4>: A:;040==O AV<59=8E AB>AC=:V2 (B>1B> A5@2VBCB C 4@C3>3> 7 ?>4@C66O =0 <09=> ?5@H>3>, 4VB59 =0 <09=> 10BL:V2).  ?@8?8=5==O< AV<59=8E AB>AC=:V2 (@>7V@20==O< H;N1C) 2V4?040T V ?V4AB020 4;O >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC, I> T =5157?5@5G=8<. 0;56=89 @V25=L @53C;N20==O 2V4=>A8= ?@8 2AB0=>2;5==V >A>18AB>3> A5@2VBCBC ?>B@51CT 2=5A5==O 7<V= 4> G.1 AB. 405, ?.4 G.1 AB.406 & #:@0W=8, G. 3 AB. 109  #:@0W=8, # @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L, # @> V?>B5:C . 20. @8 2AB0=>2;5==V AC?5@DVFVN ?@02> 2;0A=8:0 75<5;L=>W 4V;O=:8 242VGV >1<56CTBLAO: ?>-?5@H5, B8<, I> 28=8:0T V=H5 @5G>25 ?@02> (AC?5@DVFV9); 0 ?>-4@C35, 2=0A;V4>: @50;V70FVW ?@020 =0 701C4>2C 28=8:0T ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 F59 >1 T:B =5@CE><>ABV C AC1 T:B0 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020. ">1B> >48= V B>9 A0<89 AC1 T:B 2V4=>A=> 4> @V7=8E >1 T:BV2, >4=0: ?>2 O70=8E <V6 A>1>N, 28ABC?0T =>AVT< @V7=8E @5G>28E ?@02, O:V >1<56CNBL ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV =0 75<5;L=C 4V;O=:C. 21. @8 5<DVB5278AV B0 AC?5@DVFVW, 2AB0=>2;N20=8E 4>3>2>@>< V @53C;L>20=8E =8<, 2V41C20TBLAO ?>T4=0==O @5G>28E B0 7>1>2 O70;L=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=. 1<565==O ?@020 2;0A=>ABV 2AB0=>2;5==O< 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV 1C4CBL AE>68<8 7 >1<565==O<8 ?@8 VA=C20==V V=H8E @5G>28E ?@02. 22. 09<, >@5=40 =5 <>6CBL 1CB8 2V4=5A5=V 4> :0B53>@VW @5G>28E ?@02, E>G0 ?@020 =09<0G0 (>@5=40@O) O: :>@8ABC20G0 GC68< <09=>< <0NBL ?52=V >7=0:8 @5G>28E ?@02 (7>:@5<0, =5 ?@8?8=ONBLAO 2 72'O7:C 7V 7<V=>N 2;0A=8:0->@5=4>402FO V 70E8I0NBLAO 2V4 1C4L-O:8E >AV1 O: ?@020 B8BC;L=>3> 2;0A=8:0). 23. V7=VABL ?@02>2>3> @568<C @5G>28E B0 7>1>2 O70;L=8E ?@02 :>@8ABC20GV2 <09=0 (=>AVW2 V=H>3> @5G>2>3> ?@020 B0 >@5=40@V2), I> =0;568BL 2;0A=8:>2V, =5 2V4V3@0T @>;V 4;O ACB=>ABV ?@02>2>3> @568<C 2;0A=>ABV, O:5 2=0A;V4>: B8E G8 V=H8E ?@02 1C45 2C6G8<, =V6 C WE 2V4ACB=VABL. 24. A=C20==O :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02 2V41820TBLAO =0 ?@02V 2;0A=>ABV ?52=>3> AC1 T:B0. :FV>=5@ B0 " 7=0E>4OBLAO 2 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E, I> BO3=5 70 A>1>N >1<565==O >1>E F8E AC1 T:BV2, E>G0 9 AB>A>2=> @V7=8E >1'T:BV2. @8 FL><C " O: 2;0A=8: <09=0 >1<56CTBLAO 2 ?@020E 2V4=>A=> =L>3> 2 V=B5@5A0E 0:FV>=5@V2, 0 0:FV>=5@8 O: 2;0A=8:8 0:FV9 >1<56CNBLAO 2 A2>WE ?@020E 2 V=B5@5A0E V=H8E 0:FV>=5@V2 B0 ". 25. 0 @V2=V 70:>=C 2@53C;L>20=V <56V :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02, O:8E <0NBL 4>45@6C20B8AO 2AV CG0A=8:8 3>A?>40@AL:8E B>20@8AB2, 0 =0 ;>:0;L=><C @V2=V 2AB0=>2;NNBLAO >1<565==O 4;O >AV1, I> ?5@51C20NBL 2 :>=:@5B=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=0E 7 ?52=8< 3>A?>40@AL:8< B>20@8AB2><. 26. 56V B0 >1<565==O I>4> @>7?>@O460==O <09=>< " ?>;O30NBL C 28<>30E 4>: 1) C:;045==O 2V4 V<5=V " 7=0G=8E ?@02>G8=V2; 2) C:;045==O 2V4 V<5=V " ?@02>G8=V2 V7 70V=B5@5A>20=VABN; 3) C:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 :5@V2=8:0<8 DV;V9 B0 ?@54AB02=8FB2; 4) C:;045==O ?@02>G8=V2 70;56=8<8 B>20@8AB20<8; 5) ?@>F54C@8 ?@8?8=5==O ". > =5?@02><V@=8E >1<565=L =0;560BL =5?@02><V@=V 4VW B8E G8 V=H8E >AV1 (?5@54CAV< >@30=V2 ", @5TAB@0B>@V2), O:V ?5@5H:>460NBL 0:FV>=5@0< C 74V9A=5==V =8<8 A2>WE ?@02. 27. !;V4 @>7@V7=OB8 <56V B0 >1<565==O 2 ?@020E =0 0:FVN B0 2 ?@020E 7 0:FVW. > ?@02><V@=8E <56 B0 >1<565=L A;V4 2V4=5AB8 >1<565==O, ?5@5410G5=V 70:>=>402AB2>< B0 ;>:0;L=8<8 0:B0<8 ": 1) >1<565==O, 7C<>2;5=V 284>< 0:FV9; 2) >A>1;82>ABO<8 =01CBBO ?@02 =0 0:FVW 2 ?@>F5AV ?@820B870FVW; 3) A8BC0B82=V >1<565==O; 4) >1<565==O O: =0A;V4:8 ?>@CH5=L ?@8?8AV2 70:>=>402AB20; 5) >1<565==O, 28:;8:0=V @878:>20=VABN ?V4?@8T<=8FL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV " V @878:>20=VABN 2:;045=L >AV1 A2>WE :>HBV2 2 0:FVW; 6) >1<565==O ?@02 0:FV>=5@0 I>4> ?5@540GV ?@02 CG0ABV 2 7030;L=8E 71>@0E. > =5?@02><V@=8E >1<565=L =0;560BL =5?@02><V@=V 4VW B8E G8 V=H8E >AV1 (?5@54CAV< >@30=V2 ", @5TAB@0B>@V2), O:V ?5@5H:>460NBL 0:FV>=5@0< 2 74V9A=5==V =8<8 A2>WE ?@02. 28. 5E0=V7<8, AE>6V 7 >1<565==O<8 ?@02 0:FV>=5@V2, 0;5 B0:8<8 =5 T, F5 ?>@O4>: 2V4GC65==O 0:FV9 ", ?>@O4>: 74V9A=5==O ?@02, I> =040NBLAO >4=VTN 0:FVTN WW A?V22;0A=8:0<. "8< A0<8< 2AB0=>2;NTBLAO ;8H5 ?>@O4>: 74V9A=5==O AV?22;0A=8:0<8 0:FVW A2>WE ?@02, 0 =5 WE >1<565==O. !!  !"%  : 30@:>2 .. 1O70B5;LAB2> ?> A>25BA:><C 3@0640=A:><C ?@02C.  .:.@84.;8B.,1940.- 192 A. 30@:>2 .. @>1;5<0 7;>C?>B@51;5=8O ?@02>< 2 A>25BA:>< 3@0640=A:>< ?@025 // 71@0==K5 B@C4K ?> 3@0640=A:><C ?@02C 2 2 B><0E. ". 2.  ., 2002.  !. 361 385. 30@:>2 .. @>1;5<0 7;>C?>B@51;5=8O ?@02>< 2 A>25BA:>< 3@0640=A:>< ?@025 // 725AB8O  !!! . B4. M:>=><8:8 8 ?@020.  1946. - ! 6. - !. 427-429. ::C@0B>2 ..., >@HC=>2 .., %>@52 ..  2>?@>AC >1 >3@0=8G5=8OE 8 >1@5<5=5=8OE ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 // >AC40@AB2> 8 ?@02>. - 2000. - ! 10  !.68-72. ;5:A552 !.!. 71@0==>5. - .: !B0BCB, 2003. - 480 A. ;5:A552 !.!. 1I85 4>72>;5=8O 8 >1I85 70?@5BK 2 A>25BA:>< ?@025.  .: .@84. ;8B., 1989.  288 A. ;5:A55=:> . CAA:0O D8H:0 //87=5A. 2004. 17 <0O (! 20). !. 43-46. ==5=:>2 . !8AB5<0 @CAA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. ".2. @020 25I=K5: >=>3@0D8O / 2-5 874., ?5@5A<>B@. 8 4>?. !1: "8?. .. !B0AN;528G0, 1900.  697 c. @EV2 8I>3> 3>A?>40@AL:>3> AC4C #:@0W=8. !?@020 ! 15/327, !?@020 ! !2/120. @EV2 %0@:V2AL:>3> 0?5;OFV9=>3> 3>A?>40@AL:>3> AC4C. A?@020 ! 1378-8/157. @EV2 %0@:V2AL:>3> @09>==>3> AC4C A?@020 ! 2-22/2002, ! 8-231-1996. A:=0789 !.. A=>2=K5 2>?@>AK B5>@88 A>F80;8AB8G5A:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020: 2B>@5D. 48A. ... 4-@0. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03 / ., 1947.  17 A. 0;;5AB@5< .. ;0ABL 8 <>@0;L // $8;>A>DA. =0C:8.  1991.  ! 8.  !. 88 101. 0@8=>20 . 5I=K5 ?@020  A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O :0B53>@8O? // %>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.  2002.  ! 7.  !. 38-47; ! 8.  C. 28 -39. 0@C ..  AB. 1 @0640=A:>3> :>45:A0. // !>2. 3>AC40@AB2> 8 ?@02>. - 1958.  ! 12.  !.118-122. 57A<5@B=0 .. 56V 74V9A=5==O ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV 2 #:@0W=V. 8A. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03.  ., 2001,  211 A. 57A<5@B=0 .. 56V 74V9A=5==O ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV 2 #:@0W=V // V4@8T<=8FB2>, 3>A?>40@AB2> V ?@02>.  2001.  ! 6.  !.47- 49. >=40@T2 .. ;0A=VABL V ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV // 0C:>289 2VA=8: =V?@>?5B@>2AL:>3> N@848G=>3> V=AB8BCBC ! #:@0W=8.  2000.  !1(1).- C.155-160. @038=A:89 .., 8B@O=A:89 .. >3>2>@=>5 ?@02>: 1I85 ?>;>65=8O. - .: !B0BCB, 1997. - 682 A. @0BCAL !.. C@A A>25BA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. !C1J5:BK 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020.  .: >A. 874-2>. N@84. ;8B., 1950.  367 A. @0BCAL !..  ?@545;0E >ACI5AB2;5=8O 3@0640=A:8E ?@02 // @02>2545=85.  1967.  ! 3.  !. 80  84. @0BCAL !.. @54<5B 8 A8AB5<0 A>25BA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020.  .: >AN@8740B, 1963.  197 A. 0AL:>2A:89 .: #G51=8: 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - K?. 2: 5I=>5 ?@02>.  !1.: 74. N@84. :=. <03078=0 0@BK=>20 .., 1896.  190A. 515@ . A=>2=K5 ?>=OB8O AB@0B8D8:0F88 // !>F8>;. 8AA;54.  1994.  ! 5.  !. 14 24. 5=548:B>2 .. >AC40@AB25==0O A>F80;8AB8G5A:0O A>1AB25==>ABL. - .; .: 74-2>  !!! , 1948.  839 c. 5=54V:B>20 .. >3>2V@ 4>2V@G>3> C?@02;V==O <09=>< 2 #:@0W=V: 02G.-=0C:. ?>AV1=8:. - %. : >=AC<, 2004.  215 A. 8=4H594 . #G51=8: ?0=45:B=>3> ?@020. 1I0O G0ABL:  2 B. ".1./ 5@. A =5<.  !1.: 74. . 85@>3;8D>20 8 . 8:8D>@>20, 1874.  358 A. 8B@O=A:89 . . >?@>AK A>1AB25==>AB8: AC451=>5 B>;:>20=85 // !>2. NAB8F8O.- 1993. - ! 2.- C. 24-27. 8B@O=A:89 .. >3>2>@ 4>25@8B5;L=>3> C?@02;5=8O 8<CI5AB2><.  .: !B0BCB, 2001.  191 A. V==8: .. >A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 V 28@>1=8GV :>>?5@0B828: ?@02>25 AB0=>28I5.- .: "-2> =0==O, 1998.- 309 c. V==8: .. =25AB8FV9=5 ?@02>. 02G0;L=89 ?>AV1=8:. .: BV:0, 2000.- 264 A. 0<10@>2 ..!. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. ".1. '0ABL >1I0O: #G51=8:.  !1.:  "8?. .. !B0AN;528G0, 1911.  780 A . 535;L ..$. $8;>A>D8O ?@020: 5@. A =5<./ 540:B>@K 8 A>AB028B5;8 .. 5@8<>2 8 B.C. 5@A5AO=F; 2B. 2ABC?. AB. 8 ?@8<. B.C. 5@A5AO=F.  .: KA;L, 1990.  528 A. 5=:8= .. @02> ;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 2 !!! . - .: =0=85, 1953. - 332 c. 5=:8= .. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8 2 !!! . - .: >A. 874-2> N@84. ;8B., 1961.  223 A. ;CAL .!. >@?>@0FVW B0 :>@?>@0B82=5 ?@02>: ?>=OBBO, >A=>2=V >7=0:8 B0 >A>1;82>ABV 70E8ABC: 2B>@5D. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03. / ., 2000.  23 A. >A?>40@AL:89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 16.01.2003 ! 436-IV// V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2003. - ! 18.  !B. 144. @0640=A:89 :>45:A >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. '0ABL 2B>@0O: "5:AB, :><<5=B., 0;D.-?@54<. C:07. / >4 @54. .. >7K@L, .. 0:>2A:>3>, !.. %>E;>20. - .: 564C=0@>4=K9 F5=B@ D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>3> @0728B8O.  1998.  480 A. @0640=A:>5 8 B>@3>2>5 ?@02> :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E 3>AC40@AB2: #G51. / B2. @54. .. 0A8;L52  .: 564C=0@. >B=>H5=8O, 1993.  560 A. @0640=A:>5 ?@02> >AA88. '0ABL 2B>@0O: 1O70B5;LAB25==>5 ?@02>: C@A ;5:F89 / B2. @54. .. !048:>2.  .: , 1997.  704 A. @0640=A:>5 ?@02>:  2 B. ". 1: #G51=8: / B2. @54. ?@>D. .. !CE0=>2.  2-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: , 1998. - 816A. @0640=A:>5 ?@02>: #G51=8::  2 :=. / >4 @54. .. !5@35520, ... ">;AB>3>.  5-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: . .. >6=8:>2, 2001.  ". 1.  632 A. @0640=A:>5 ?@02>: #G51=8::  2 B. - ". I / >4 @54 ..!CE0=>20. - .: , 1993.  384 A. @810=>2 .. @545;K >ACI5AB2;5=8O 8 70I8BK 3@0640=A:8E ?@02 // ACI5AB2;5=85 8 70I8B0 3@0640=A:8E ?@02. - .:!B0BCB, 2000. - !.19-212. @810=>2 .. ACI5AB2;5=85 8 70I8B0 3@0640=A:8E ?@02. - 74. 2-5, AB5@5>B.  .: !B0BCB, 2001.  411A. 0;L . ">;:>2K9 A;>20@L 682>3> 25;8:>@CAA:>3> O7K:0 :  4 B. ". 3. D>@<;. 80<0=B. !1.: " "80<0=B", 1996.  377A. 5:@5B 01V=5BC V=VAB@V2 #:@0W=8 @> AB0=40@B870FVN V A5@B8DV:0FVN 2V4 10.05.1993 ! 4693 // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1993. - N 27. - !B. 289 5@602=5 C?@02;V==O: B5>@VO V ?@0:B8:0 / 0 703. @54. 25@ O=>20 ..  .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 1998.  432 A. 5@=1C@3 . 0=45:BK.  ". 1. '.2: 5I=>5 ?@02>. / >4 @54. .$. 595=4>@D.  6-5 874, 8A?@.  !1.: >A. B8?>3@., 1905.  396 A. <8B@852 ... >=F5?F8O =0@>4>2;0AB8O 2 A>2@5<5==>9 >AA88 (3>AC40@AB25==>-?@02>2K5 ?@>1;5<K B5>@88 8 ?@0:B8:8). 2B>@5D. 48AA. ...4>:B. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.02./ ., 1994.  66 A. >6452 .. 8<A:>5 G0AB=>5 ?@02>: #G51. 4;O N@84. 2C7>2 8 D0:. .: >@<0 =D@0 , 1999.  784 A. D8<>20 ..  A>>B=>H5=88 25I=KE 8 >1O70B5;LAB25==KE ?@02 // >AC40@AB2> 8 ?@02>. - 1998. - ! 10. - !. 35-44. 830;:8= . @020 =0 GC685 25I8 8 @5F5?F8O @8<A:>3> G0AB=>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020 2 =>2>< @0640=A:>< :>45:A5 #:@08=K // @54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2>, E>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.  2003. - !8.  A.48-50. 8B;>289 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 30.06.1983 ! 5464-X // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=AL:>W ! .  1983. - 4>40B>: 4> N 28. - !B. 573. C:>2 .  ?@020E 0:F8>=5@>2 2 A2O78 A ?>A;54=8<8 87<5=5=8O<8 0:>=0 #:@08=K   E>7O9AB25==KE >1I5AB20E // 87=5A.  1998.  ! 13.  !. 33-36. 030;L=0 B5>@VO 45@6028 V ?@020: V4@CG. 4;O ABC4. N@84. 2C7>2 V D0:. / 0 @54. .. &2V:0, .. ":0G5=:0, ..5B@8H8=0.  %0@:V2: @02>, 2002.  432 A. 0:>= #:@0W=8 (?@>5:B) @> 0:FV>=5@=V B>20@8AB20 2V4 18.12.2003 ! 3059-1 // 8A=>2>: >;>2=>3> =0C:>2>-5:A?5@B=>3> C?@02;V==O.  25.02.2004. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> =B8<>=>?>;L=89 :><VB5B #:@0W=8 2V4 26.11.1993 ! 3659-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1993.  ! 50.  !B. 472. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 10=:8 V 10=:V2AL:C 4VO;L=VABL 2V4 07.12.2001 3. N 2121-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001.  ! 5-6.  !B.30 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 22545==O <>@0B>@VN =0 ?@8<CA>2C @50;V70FVN <09=0 2V4 29.11.2001 ! 2864-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2002.  ! 10.  !B. 77. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 28:>=02G5 ?@>20465==O 2V4 21.04.1999 ! 606-XIV // DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  1999. - N 19 (28.05.99). - !B. 813 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 01> 287=0==O 9>3> 10=:@CB>< 2V4 14.05.1992 ! 2343-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  N 31.  !B. 440 (01> DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  1999. - N 33 (03.09.99). - !B. 1699). 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 2;0A=VABL 2V4 07.02.1991 ! 697-XII // V4><. 5@E>2. 048 # ! .  1991.  ! 20.  !B. 249. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 2=5A5==O 7<V= 4> 45O:8E 70:>=>402G8E 0:BV2 #:@0W=8 I>4> 70E8ABC =0A5;5==O 2V4 2?;82C HC<C 2V4 03.06.2004 ! 1745-IV // DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2004.  ! 25 (09.07.2004).  AB. 1633. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 2V4 19.09.1991 ! 1576-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1991.  ! 49.  !B. 682. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 45@602=5 @53C;N20==O @8=:C FV==8E ?0?5@V2 2 #:@0W=V 2V4 30.10.1996 ! 448/96-  // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1996.  ! 51.  !B. 292. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 5@602=C ?@>3@0<C ?@820B870FVW 2V4 18.05.2000 ! 1723-III // DVF. VA=. #:@0W=8.  2000.  ! 24.  !B. 981. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L 2V4 01.07.2004 ! 1952-IV // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2004.- ! 51.  !B.553. (01> DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2003. - N 52 (09.01.2004) (G0AB8=0 1). - !B. 2734). 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70157?5G5==O 28<>3 :@548B>@V2 B0 @5TAB@0FVN >1BO65=L 2V4 24.06.2004 N 1892-IV ( 1892-15 ) // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 ( ). - 2004. - N 11. - !B.140. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70157?5G5==O A0=VB0@=>3> B0 5?V45<VG=>3> 1;03>?>;CGGO =0A5;5==O 2V4 24.02.1994 ! 4004-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1994. - N 27. - !B. 218. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 7030;L=V 70A048 AB2>@5==O V DC=:FV>=C20==O A?5FV0;L=8E (2V;L=8E) 5:>=><VG=8E 7>= 2V4 13.01.1992 ! 2673-XII //V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 50.  !B. 676. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70AB02C 2V4 02.10.1992 ! 2654-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 47.  !B. 642. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70E8AB 2V4 =54>1@>A>2VA=>W :>=:C@5=FVW 2V4 07.06.1996 ! 236/96-  // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1996.  ! 36 (03.09.96).  !B. 164. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70E8AB 5:>=><VG=>W :>=:C@5=FVW 2V4 11.01.2001 ! 2210-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 12. - !B. 64. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70E8AB ?@02 A?>6820GV2 2V4 12.05.1991 ! 1023-XII // V4><. 5@E>2. 048 # ! .  1991.  ! 30.  !B. 379. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> V=AB8BCB8 A?V;L=>3> V=25ABC20==O (?09>2V B0 :>@?>@0B82=V V=25AB8FV9=V D>=48) 2V4 15.03.2001 ! 2299-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001.  ! 21.  !B. 103. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> V?>B5:C 2V4 05.06.2003 ! 898-IV // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8, 2003, N 38. - !B. 313 (01> DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2003. - N 28. - !B. 1362). 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> V?>B5G=5 :@548BC20==O, >?5@0FVW 7 :>=A>;V4>20=8< V?>B5G=8< 1>@3>< B0 V?>B5G=V A5@B8DV:0B8 2V4 19.06.2003 ! 979-IV // DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2003.  ! 30.  (08.08.2003).  !B. 1526. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ;VF5=7C20==O ?52=8E 284V2 3>A?>40@AL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV 2V4 01.06.2000 ! 1775-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2000.  ! 36.  !B. 299. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> <VAF525 A0<>2@O4C20==O 2V4 21.05.1997 ! 280/97-   // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1997.  ! 24.  !B. 170. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 0FV>=0;L=C 45?>78B0@=C A8AB5<C B0 >A>1;82>ABV 5;5:B@>==>3> >1V3C FV==8E ?0?5@V2 2 #:@0W=V 2V4 10.12.1997 ! 710/97-  // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1998.  ! 15.  !B. 67. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> =>B0@V0B 2V4 02.09.1993 ! 3425-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1993.  ! 39.  !B. 383. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> >1 T4=0==O 3@><04O= 2V4 16.06.92 N 2461-XII (2461-12 ) // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  N 34.  !B.505. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> >?>40B:C20==O ?@81CB:C ?V4?@8T<AB2 2V4 28.12.1994 ! 334/94-  // V4><. 5@E. 048 #:@0W=8.  1995.  N 4. - !B. 28. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> >A>1;82>ABV ?@820B870FVW >1'T:BV2 =57025@H5=>3> 1C4V2=8FB20 2V4 14.09.2000 ! 1953-// V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2000.  N 45.  !B. 375 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> >E>@>=C :C;LBC@=>W A?04I8=8 2V4 08.06.2000 ! 1805 III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2000.  ! 39.  !B. 333. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?;0=C20==O V 701C4>2C B5@8B>@V9 2V4 20.04.2000 ! 1699-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2000. - N 31. - !B.250 (01> DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2000. - N 20 (02.06.2000). - !B. 813). 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?>@O4>: ?>30H5==O 7>1>2'O70=L ?;0B=8:V2 ?>40B:V2 ?5@54 1N465B0<8 B0 45@602=8<8 FV;L>28<8 D>=40<8 2V4 2 1.12.2000 ! 2181-III // DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2001.  ! 7.  !B. 259. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?>AB02:8 ?@>4C:FVW 4;O 45@602=8E ?>B@51 2V4 22.12.1995 ! 493/ 95-  // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1996.  ! 3.  !B. 9. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?@820B870FVN 45@602=>3> <09=0 2V4 04.03.1992 ! 2163-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 24.  !B. 348. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?@820B870FVN =525;8:8E 45@602=8E ?V4?@8T<AB2 (<0;C ?@820B870FVN) 2V4 06.03.1992 ! 2171-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 24.  !B. 350. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> A?5FV0;L=89 @568< V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV =0 B5@8B>@VW <VAB0 %0@:>20 2V4 11.05.2000 ! 1714-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2000.  ! 32.  !B. 259. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> AB0=40@B870FVN 2V4 17.05.2001 ! 2408-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001.  ! 31.  !B. 145. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> DV=0=A>289 ;V78=3 2V4 11.12.2003 ! 1381-IV // DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2004.  ! 1.  !B. 3. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> FV=8 V FV=>CB2>@5==O 2V4 03.12.1990 ! 507-XII // V4><. 5@E>2. 048 # ! .  1990.  ! 52.  !B. 650. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> FV==V ?0?5@8 V D>=4>2C 1V@6C 2V4 18.06.1991 ! 1201-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1991. - N 38. - !B. 508. 5<5;L=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 25.10.2001 ! 2768-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 3-4. - !B.27. (01> DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 46 (30.11.2001). - !B. 2038). 8=G5=:> !.. >=40@L .!. !>1AB25==>ABL  A2>1>40 - ?@02>. - >AB>2 =/.: 74-2> >AB. C=-B0, 1995.  189 A. 5@8=3 . =B5@5A 8 ?@02>: >=>3@.: 5@. A =5<.  /@>A;02;L: "8?. 3C15@=. 75<. C?@02K, 1880.  328 A. 5@8=3 . 1 >A=>20=88 70I8BK 2;045=8O. 5@5A<>B@ CG5=8O > 2;045=88.- .: "8?. .. 0<>=B>20, 1883.- 179 c. >=F52 .. :F8>=5@=K5 >1I5AB20. : AL 89, 2002.  752 A. >DD5 .!. !?>@=K5 2>?@>AK CG5=8O > ?@02>>B=>H5=88. // G5@:8 ?> 3@0640=A:><C ?@02C: !1. AB. / B2. @54. .!. >DD5.  .: 74 2> #, 1957.  !. 30  36. >DD5 .!. @0640=A:>5 ?@02>: 71@0==K5 B@C4K.  .: !B0BCB, 2000.  687 A. >DD5 .!. !>25BA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>. - .: .@84. ;8B., 1967. - 494 A. >DD5 .!. !>25BA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>. 1I0O G0ABL. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8. 1I55 CG5=85 >1 >1O70B5;LAB20E: C@A ;5:F89.  .: 74-2> 5=8=3@04A:>3> C=-B0, - 1958. - 511 A. >DD5 .!. &828;8AB8G5A:0O 4>:B@8=0 ?@><KH;5==>3> :0?8B0;87<0 // >DD5 .!. 71@0==K5 B@C4K ?> 3@0640=A:><C ?@02C: 7 8AB>@88 F828;8AB8G5A:>9 <KA;8. @0640=A:>5 ?@02>>B=>H5=85. @8B8:0 B5>@88  %>7O9AB25==>3> ?@020 . ., 2000.  778 A. A@0D8;>2 . @02>20O ?@8@>40 25I=KE ?@02 =0 68;K5 ?><5I5=8O // %>7 2> 8 ?@02>.  1999.  ! 2.  C. 91 96. 0<KH0=A:89 .. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8: ?@545;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O.  .: ."-, 0:>= 8 ?@02>, 2000. - 303 A. 0AA> .. >=OB85 > 70;>35 2 A>2@5<5==>< ?@025.-  .: !B0BCB, 1999.  284 A. 815=:> . . >@?>@0B82=>5 ?@02> #:@08=K. #G51=>5 ?>A>185. -X: -A?040, 2001. - 288 A. V15=:> . . 0@04>:A8 =>2>3> &: G8 701>@>=5=> CG0A=8:0< 3>A?>40@AL:8E B>20@8AB2 ?@87=0G0B8 ?@54AB02=8:V2 // .@84. 307.  2004.  27 B@02. (! 10).  !. 19. ><<5=B0@89 : @0640=A:><C :>45:AC >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88.  : .@8=D>@<F5=B@, 1997.  448 A. >=>20;>2 .. ;045=85 8 2;045;LG5A:0O 70I8B0 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025.  2-5. 874. 4>?.  !1.: .@848G5A:89 F5=B@ @5AA, 2002.  337 A. >=AB8BCF8O #:@0W=8 2V4 28.06. 1991 ! 254:/96-  //V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1996. - N 30. - !B. 141. >?K;>2 .. 5I=K5 ?@020 =0 75<;N 2 @8<A:><, @CAA:>< 4>@52>;NF8>==>< 8 A>2@5<5==>< @>AA89A:>< 3@0640=A:>< ?@025. - .: !B0BCB, 2000. - 255 A. @8<V=0;L=>-?@>F5AC0;L=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 28.12.1960 ! 1003-V // V4><. 5@E>2. 048 #:@0W=AL:>W ! .  1961. - N 2. - !B. 15. C;038= .. 71@0==K5 B@C4K ?> 0:F8>=5@=><C ?@02C. - .: !B0BCB, - 1997.  330 A. C;8=8G . @02> 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC: ?>=OBBO, 2848 B0 ?>@O4>: @50;V70FVW // .@84. 6C@=0;.  2003.  ! 10 (16).  !. 64 68. C@48=>2A:89 ..  CG5=8N > ;530;L=KE >3@0=8G5=8OE ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 =542868<>ABL 2 >AA88: >=>3@0D8O. - 45AA0: -:>=. "8?., 1899.  388 A. +6 c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p0AB: A>1AB25==>ABL 8 C?p02;5=85 :0?8B0;0<8 (?p8p>40 ?p02, p5F5?F8O 2 ?p02> #:p08=K) /HH #:p08=K. &5=Bp 8AA;54. ?p>1;. ?p54?p8=8<0B5;LAB20 8 <5=546<5=B0; >4 p54. . . >p>=>2>9. - .: H0C:. 4C<:0, 1995. - 173 A. 0940=8: .. >2V@G0 2;0A=VABL C F82V;L=><C ?@02V #:@0W=8 (D>@<C20==O, ?>@V2=O;L=89 0=0;V7 V ?>=OBBO) // #:@0W=AL:5 :><5@F. ?@02>.  2004.  ! 5.  !. 37 56. 0940=8: .. =AB8BCB 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV (B@0AB): (?@8@>40 ?@02, C<>28 @5F5?FVW 2 ?@02> #:@0W=8): 2B>@5D. 48AA. ...4>:B. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03. /., 1996.  24c. 0940=8: .. @>1;5<8 4>2V@G8E 2V4=>A8= 2 F82V;L=><C ?@02V.  .: 8402=8G>-?>;V3@0DVG=89 F5=B@  8W2AL:89 C=-B , 2002. - 502 A. 0;58= .!. .@848G5A:0O >B25BAB25==>ABL 8 A?@0254;82>ABL.  .:.@84. ;8B., 1992.  192 A.  HYPERLINK "http://www.lib.academy.sumy.ua/BiblList.Asp?WhatAction=RefList&Pos=1&ResCount=20&SearchStr=0;58=0%20..&RefType=AvtList&RefValue=6126&BaseType=BookList" \t "Sites" 0;58=0 .. 8G=K5 =58<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020 3@0640=: ?>=OB85, >ACI5AB2;5=85, 70I8B0.- 2-5 874., 8A?@. 8 4>?..- .: -@5AA, 2001.- 244 c 0;L:> .. !B8<C;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O 2 ?@025.  2-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: .@8ABJ, 2003.  250 A. 0=C:O= .. 3@0=8G5=8O ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 ?> 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C $: 2B>@5D. 8A. & :.N.=. 12.00.03./ ., 1997.  25 A. 0A:0;528G . 1>;>=L A 284>< =0 0;L<8CA // 5@:0;> =545;8.  2002.  13 :2VB. (! 14).  !. 12. 0BB58 #., !CE0=>2 .. A=>2=K5 ?>;>65=8O ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8.  .: , 1999.  305 A. 595@ . . CAA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>:  2 G. '. 2. > 8A?@. 8 4>?. 8-<C 874., 1902. - .: !B0BCB, 1997. - 455A. 8B=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 11.07.2002 N 92-IV ( HYPERLINK "javascript:OpenDoc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i4 17 G5@2. 1992 @. @> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABi =0 >:@5<i 2848 <09=0 // V4><. 5@E>2. 048.  1992.  ! 35.  !B. 517. @02>2>5 8 >@30=870F8>==>-M:>=><8G5A:>5 @53C;8@>20=85 E>7O9AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8: >=>3@. / C:. 02B>@. :>;. .. C:.  .: >=4>@, 2002.  316 A. @02>2K5 A8AB5<K AB@0= <8@0: -=F8:;>?548G5A:89 A?@02>G=8:/B2. @54. ./.!CE0@52.-2-5 874.,87<5=5=. 8 4>?.- . :74-2>   , 2001.- 840A. @8=F8?K, ?@545;K, >A=>20=8O >3@0=8G5=8O ?@02 8 A2>1>4 G5;>25:0 ?> @>AA89A:><C 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C 8 <564C=0@>4=><C ?@02C: :@C3;K9 AB>;.// >AC40@AB2> 8 ?@02>.  1998.  ! 7.  !.20-42; ! 8.  !.39-70. CH:V= ., !5;V20=>2 . V4=>A8=8 ?V4?@8T<=8FB20: ?@02>289 AB0BCA WE AC1'T:BV2 // @02> #:@0W=8.  1994.  ! 5.  !. 9  15. 018=>28G .., 0=:528G .. 4V9A=5==O ?@02 ;N48=8: ?@>1;5<8 >1<56C20==O (7030;L=>B5>@5B8G=V 0A?5:B8). @0FV L2V2AL:>W ;01>@0B>@VW ?@02 ;N48=8 V 3@><04O=8=0. 0C:>2>-4>A;V4=>3> V=AB8BCBC 45@602=>3> 1C4V2=8FB20 B0 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O :045<VW ?@02>28E =0C: #:@0W=8 / .. 018=>28G, .. 0=:528G; 54:>;.:   01V=>28G (3>;>2, @54.) B0 V=. !5@VO . >A;V46. B0 @5D. 8?. 3.  L2V2.: AB@>=, 2001.  108 A. 09E5@ .. 1A>;NB=K5 8 >B=>A8B5;L=K5 ?@020 // 725AB8O M:>=><. D0:. 5=8=3@. ?>;8B5E=. 8= B0.  1928.  K?. 1.  !. 273-306. VH5==O 5@602=>W :><VAVW 7 FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 D>=4>2>3> @8=:C 2V4 11.12.2003 @. N 571 @> 70B25@465==O @8=F8?V2 :>@?>@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O // .@84. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2004.  !19.  !B@.15 (4>40B>:) VH5==O >=AB8BCFV9=>3> !C4C #:@0W=8 ?> A?@02V ! N 1-11/2005 2V4 11 B@02=O 2005 @>:C // DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8. - 2005. - N 21 (10.06.2005). - !B. 1135. >7 OA=5==O !# 2V4 06.10.94 @. N 02-5/706 @> 45O:V ?8B0==O ?@0:B8:8 28@VH5==O A?>@V2, ?>2'O70=8E 7 C:;040==O< B0 28:>=0==O< :@548B=8E 4>3>2>@V2 // .@84. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2002.  !5.  !. 18-19. >7 OA=5==O !# 2V4 12.03.99 @. N 02-5/111 @> 45O:V ?8B0==O ?@0:B8:8 28@VH5==O A?>@V2, ?>2'O70=8E 7 287=0==O< C3>4 =54V9A=8<8 // .@84. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2002.  !6.  !. 26. >73>= .. 3@0=8G5=8O ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 AC?@C3>2. // @>1;5<8 70:>==>ABV: 5A?C1;. <V62V4. =0C:. 71. / 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /@>A;020 C4@>3>.  8?. 63.  %., 2003.  !. 122 127. OA5=F52 .. #A;>28O 8 N@848G5A:85 ?>A;54AB28O >B:070 2 70I8B5 3@0640=A:8E ?@02 // !>2. NAB8F8O. - 1962. - ! 9.  !. 8 -15. !0<>9;>20 .. @02> ;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 3@0640= 2 !!! : 2B>@5D. 48A. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03./ #, 1965.  16 A. !0@10H !. @02> C45@60=8O :0: A?>A>1 >15A?5G5=8O 8A?>;=5=8O >1O70B5;LAB2. .: !B0BCB, 1998.  258 A. !0D8C;;8= .. "5>@8O 8 ?@0:B8:0 ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O E>7O9AB25==KE A2O759 2 !!! .  !25@4;>2A:: 74-2> #@0;. C=-B0, 1990.  139 A. !5@51@>2A:89 . . >?@>AK A>25BA:>3> 02B>@A:>3> ?@020.  .: 74-2>  !!! , 1983.  256 A. !8=09A:89 .. CAA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>.  .: !B0BCB, 2002.  638 A. !V<59=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 10.01.2002 ! 2947-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8 .  2002.  ! 21-22.  !B. 135. !:;>2A:89 .  2>7<>6=>AB8 >3@0=8G5=8O ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 4>3>2>@>< // %>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>. - 1999. - ! 5. - !. 109-113. !:;>2A:89 .. 20;8D8:0F8O >B=>H5=89 ?> 70AB@>9:5 8 ?@02> =0 >1J5:B AB@>8B5;LAB20 2 AC451=>9 ?@0:B8:5 // %>7-2> 8 ?@02>.  1999.  ! 5.  !. 109-113. !:;>2A:89 .. !>1AB25==>ABL 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025.  .: 5;>, 1999.  511A. !;547L !. =0G5 @0A:@>NB 8 ?@8@CG0B (: 03@5AA8 872=5 3>B>2LAO 701;03>2@5<5==>) // 5@:0;> =545;8.  2002.  14-20 45:. (!48).  !. 11. !;8?G5=:> !. . @02> 4>25@8B5;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8.  %.: >=AC<, 2000.  176 A. !;NA0@52AL:89 .. "5>@5B8G=V ?@>1;5<8 4>3>2V@=>3> C?@02;V==O GC68< <09=>< 2 #:@0W=V // 8A... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03 ; 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<.. /@>A;020 C4@>3>  %., 1999.  169 A. !>25BA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>: #G51=8: 4;O 2KAH8E CG51=KE 702545=89. ". 1./ >4 @54. 4-@0 N@84. =0C:, ?@>D. ..%. 0;<K:>20 8 4-@0 N@84. =0C: .. "0@E>20. - !0@0B>2: 74-2> !0@0B. C=-B0. - 1991. - 452 A. !>;>2L52 .  2>?@>AC > ?@8@>45 ?@545;>2 8 >3@0=8G5=89 ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8// V4@8T<=8FB2>, 3>A?>40@AB2> V ?@02> .  2004. - ! 10.  !.74 -78. !>F8>;>38O / C:. 02B. :>;;. .. A8?>2.  .: KA;L, 1990.  448 A. !?0A81> .. 5:>B>@K5 2>?@>AK ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 F5==K5 1C<038 // @54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2>, E>7-2> 8 ?@02>.  1997.  ! 1.  !. 19 23. !?0A81>-$0B5520 .. :F8>=5@=K5 >1I5AB20: :>@?>@0B82=K5 ?@02>>B=>H5=8O.  %0@L:>2: @02>, 1998.  256 A. !?0A81>-$0B5520 .. @0640=A:89 :>45:A  >B25BK =0 2>?@>AK G8B0B5;59 // 0;0 5=F8:;. =>B0@VCA0.  2004.  ! 2.  !. 54-61. !?0A81>-$0B5520 .. 5B0<>@D>7K A>1AB25==>AB8 8;8 4><>@>I5==K5 E>;48=38 // @54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2>, E>7-2> 8 ?@02>.  1999.  ! 4.  !. 26 32. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. @> ?8B0==O N@848G=>W ACB=>ABV C?@02;V==O 2 ACG0A=8E C<>20E // @>1;5<8 70:>==>ABV: 5A?C1;. <V62V4. =0C:. 71. / 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /@>A;020 C4@>3>.  %., 2002.  8?. 53.  !. 122-132. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. :FV>=5@8 O: AC1 T:B8 ?@02>2V4=>A8= (?8B0==O B5@<V=>;>3VW) // iA=8: :045<VW ?@02>28E =0C: #:@0W=8 - 1999 - ! 2  !.72-80. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. ;0A=VABL O: :0B53>@VO F82V;L=>3> V ?>40B:>2>3> ?@020 // :FV>=5@=V B>20@8AB20: 0:FVW, 2;0A=VABL, :>@?>@0B82=5 C?@02;V==O: 1. AB0B59.  %0@:V2: 8402=8G89 V< 0945@, 2002.  172 A.  !. 125-130. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. > ?8B0==O A?V22V4=>H5==O :>@?>@0B82=>3> V F82V;L=>3> ?@020 // VA=8: V=AB8BCBC 2=CB@VH=VE A?@02.  1999. - !6.  !.27-29. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. 5:>B>@K5 ?@>B82>@5G8O 2 @53C;8@>20=88 N@848G5A:8E ;8F @0640=A:8< 8 %>7O9AB25==K< :>45:A0<8 #:@08=K // 0;0 5=F8:;. =>B0@VCA0.  2004.  ! 4.  !. 10-15. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. :@5<V 0A?5:B8 ?>=OBBO N@848G=8E >AV1 // V4?@8T<=8FB2>, 3>A?-2> V ?@02>.  2001.  ! 8.  !. 21 24. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. 8B0==O C?@02;i==O 45@602=>N i :><C=0;L=>N 2;0A=iABN // V4?@8T<=8FB2>, 3>A?-2> V ?@02>.  1999.  ! 10.  !. 9-14. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. @02>20 ?@8@>40 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= 2 0:FV>=5@=8E B>20@8AB20E. // VA=8: :045<VW ?@02>28E =0C: #:@0W=8.  1998. -!3.  !.58-66. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. @> ?8B0==O N@848G=>W ACB=>ABV C?@02;V==O 2 ACG0A=8E C<>20E // @>1;5<8 70:>==>ABV: 5A?C1;. <V62V4. =0C:. 71. / 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /@>A;020 C4@>3>.  %., 2002.  8?. 53.  !. 122-132. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. !B> ?@>1;5< 7V AB0BB5N 100 & // 0;0 5=F8:;. =>B0@VCA0.  2004.  ! 3.  !. 6-9. !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. &82V;L=>-?@02>2V ?@>1;5<8 0:FV>=5@=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=.: 2B>@5D. 48A.... 4-@0 N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03 / 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /. C4@>3>.  %., 2000.  36 A. !B5D0=GC: .. ;>26820==O ?@02>< O: =>25;0 F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20 // 2>;NFVO F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20: ?@>1;5<8 B5>@VW V ?@0:B8:8: 1. =0C:. ?@0FL. - .: =-B ?@820B=>3> ?@020 V ?V4?@8T<=8FB20. #.  2004. - !.101-112. !B@>3>28G .!. "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020.  .: >AN@8740B,1949.  489 A. !CE0=>2  . 5:F88 > ?@025 A>1AB25==>AB8. - .: .@84. ;8B., 1991. - 240 A. !CE0=>2 .. >=OB85 8 284K >3@0=8G5==KE 25I=KE ?@02 // 5AB=8: >A:. C=-B0. !5@. 11. @02>.  2002.  ! 4.  C. 3 36. !CE0=>2 .. @>1;5<K ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O >B=>H5=89 ?C1;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 8 =>2K9 @0640=A:89 :>45:A >AA88 // @0640=A:89 :>45:A >AA88: @>1;5<K. "5>@8O. @0:B8:0. / B2. @54. .. 0:>2A:89: !1. ?0<OB8 !..%>E;>20.  .: 564C=0@>4=K9 F5=B@ D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, - 1998.  !.208  216. "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020. C@A ;5:F89 / >4 @54. .. 0BC7>20 8 .. 0;L:>.  .: .@8ABJ, 1997.  672 A. "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020: #G51. 4;O 2C7>2 / >4 @54. ..>@5;LA:>3>, .. 5@520;>20.  2-5 874., 87<. 8 4>?.  .: >@<0, 2001.  616 A. "8<>=8=0 ... 0B53>@8O >3@0=8G5==KE 25I=KE ?@02 2 4>:B@8=5 8 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 (>1I85 ?>;>65=8O) //:BC0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. K?.2 / >4 @54. .. @038=A:>3>.  .: !B0BCB, 2000.  !.44-73. "8<G0A>25 ?>;>65==O ?@> ?>@O4>: ?@>2545==O ?@8;N4=8E B>@3V2 7 @50;V70FVW 0@5HB>20=>3> =5@CE><>3> <09=0: 0B2. =0:07>< V=VAB5@AB20 NAB8FVW #:@0W=8 2V4 27 6>2B=O 1999 @. N 68/5, 70@5TAB@. 2 V=VAB5@AB2V NAB8FVW #:@0W=8 2 ;8AB>?040 1999 @. 70 N 745/4038//DVF. 2VA. #:@0W=8.  1999. - N 44 (19.11.99). - !B. 2214. ">@:0=>2A:89 . @545; 0:F8>=5@=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 // %>7 2> 8 ?@02>.  1999.  ! 3.  !. 19 24. #G5=85 >1 0:F8>=5@=KE :><?0=8OE: 0AAC645=85 . "0@0A>20.  .: #=82. B8?., 1878.  706 A. $545@0;L=K9 70:>= $ 1 0:F8>=5@=KE >1I5AB20E A ?>AB0B59=. :><<5=B. 2 2845 2>?@>A>2 8 >B25B>2.  .: $>=4 564C=0@>4=K9 8=AB8BCB @0728B8O ?@02>2>9 M:>=><8:8, 1996.  192 A. $545@0;L=K9 70:>= $  70I8B5 ?@02 8 70:>==KE 8=B5@5A>2 8=25AB>@>2 =0 @K=:5 F5==KE 1C<03 A 87<. 0 18.06.2005 // >AA89A:0O 3075B0, !46 11.03.99, !>1@0=85 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 !10, 08.03.99, 54><>AB8 $545@0;L=>3> !>1@0=8O, !8, 11.03.99. %0@8B>=>2 .., %0@8B>=>20 .. 0B53>@VW ?@820B=>3>, ?C1;VG=>3> B0 A>FV0;L=>3> ?@020 C 7030;L=V9 A8AB5<V ?@020 //@820B=5 ?@02> V ?V4?@8T<=8FB2>. 8?.2, 2000-2002: 1. =0C:>28E ?@0FL.  ., 2002.  !. 35-38. %0@L:>2 .. @02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 75<5;L=KE A5@28BCB>2 2 3@0640=A:>< 8 75<5;L=>< 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 // %>7 2> 8 ?@02>.  2000.  ! 9.  C. 29 35. %2>AB>2 .. !8AB5<0 @8<A:>3> ?@020: #G51=8:. - .: !?0@:, 1996.  310 A. %@>?0=N: .. "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020: #G51=>5 ?>A>185 4;O 2KAH8E CG51=KE 702545=89 / >4 @54. .. !B@5:>7>20.  2-5 874., 4>?., 8A?@.  .: 010E>2, ":0G52, 8<>2, 1996.  384 A. &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8:: # 2 :=. / .. 75@0 (:5@V2=8: 02B. :>;.), .. >1@>20, .!. >235@B B0 V=.; 0 @54. .. 75@8, .!. C7=5F>2>W.  .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2002.  ".1. - 720 A.  ".2.  640 A. &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8:: # 2 B. /0 703. @54. .. >@8A>2>W, .. !?0A81>-$0BTT2>W, .. /@>FL:>3>. .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2004. - ".1. - 480 A. - ".2. - 552 A. &82V;L=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 16.01.2003 !435-IV// V4><. 5@E>2. 048.  2003.  !! 40-44.  !B. 356. &82V;L=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8: 0C:>2>-?@0:B8G=89 :><5=B0@ / 0 @54. @>7@>1=8:V2 ?@>5:BC &.  .: AB8=0, 2004. - !.646. - 2B>@: !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. '5@54=8:>20 . .  25I=KE ?@020E ?> @0640=A:><C :>45:AC >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 // :BC0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@02>:!1.AB0B59/>4 @54. !.!. ;5:A5520; >A. H:. G0AB=>3> ?@020. #@0;.>B4-=85. - .: !B0BCB, 2000.- 317A. - !. 109 - 110. (5@H5=528G . $: #G51=8: @CAA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. ".1. - : !B0BCB, 2005.  461 A. (5@H5=528G .$. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0:2B>3@0D, 2001. - 720 A. (5@H5=528G .$. 1I0O B5>@8O ?@020.  K?. III.  > 8A?@. C 8 4>?. 8-<C 874., 1911. - M.: 74. #, 1968.  805 A. (5@H5=528G .$: #G51=8: @CAA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. > 874. 1907.  .: !?0@:, 1995.  556 A. (:@54>2 .. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8 2 !!!  // B2. @54. ... ">;AB>9, . . /:>2;52.  .: .@84. ;8B., 1989.  206 A. )5==8:>20 . B. 5I=K5 ?@020 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025 >AA88. .: , 1996.  200 A. )5@18=0 .. @02>25 AB0=>28I5 0:FV>=5@V2 70 70:>=>402AB2>< #:@0W=8.- .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2001.- 160 c. -=F8:;>?548O ?@020: #G51. ?>A>1. / >4 @54. .%. %CBK7, ..!5@359:>.  C10=L: 74-2> C10=. 3>A. C=-B0, 1995. - 228 A. /2>@AL:0 . 5G52V ?@020 C ?@>5:BV &82V;L=>3> :>45:AC. // #:@0W=AL:5 ?@02>.  1997.  '.3.  !.124-125.  %0@8B>=>2 .., %0@8B>=>20 .. 0B53>@VW ?@820B=>3>, ?C1;VG=>3> B0 A>FV0;L=>3> ?@020 C 7030;L=V9 A8AB5<V ?@020 //@820B=5 ?@02> V ?V4?@8T<=8FB2>. 8?.2.- 2000-2002. - !. 35-38. - !.37.  &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8:: # 2 :=. ".1. / .. 75@0 (:5@V2=8: 02B. :>;.), .. >1@>20, .!. >235@B B0 V=.; 0 @54. .. 75@8, .!. C7=5F>2>W.  .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2002.  720 A.  !.172.  "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020. C@A ;5:F89 / >4 @54. .. 0BC7>20 8 .. 0;L:>.  .: .@8ABJ, 1997.  672 A.  !.129. "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020. C@A ;5:F89 / >4 @54. .. 0BC7>20 8 .. 0;L:>.  .: .@8ABJ, 1997.  672 A.  !.204.  NH5@ $. >=AB8BCF8>==0O 70I8B0 ?@02 8 A2>1>4 ;8G=>AB8: 5@. A D@0=F.  .: 74. 3@C??0 @>3@5AA  #=825@A, 1993.  258 A.  !.272.  -=F8:;>?548O ?@020: #G. ?>A>1. / %CBK7 .%. 8 !5@359:> .. - C10=L: C10=. 3>A. C=-B, 1995. - 228 A.  !.68.  !>F8>;>38O / C:. 02B.:>;. A8?>2 .. - .: KA;L, 1990. - 448 A.  !. 138.  @0BCAL !..  ?@545;0E >ACI5AB2;5=8O 3@0640=A:8E ?@02 // @02>2545=85. - 1967. - ! 3. - !. 80  84. - !.82.  070@ /. !>1AB25==>ABL 2 1C@6C07=>9 ?@02>2>9 B5>@88: 5@. A =5<.  .: .@84. ;8B., 1985.  192 A.  !.46.  >DD5 .!. !>25BA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>. 1I0O G0ABL. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8. 1I55 CG5=85 >1 >1O70B5;LAB20E: C@A ;5:F89.  .: 74-2> #, 1958. - 511 A.  !.311.  (5@H5=528G .$. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0: 2B>3@0D, 2001. - 720 A. - !.229  "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020: #G51=8: 4;O 2C7>2. / >4 @54. ?@>D. .. >@5;LA:>3> 8 ?@>D. ..5@520;>20.  2-5 874., 87<. 8 4>?.  .: >@<0, 2001.  616 A.  !.129.  &82V;L=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 16.01.2003 !435-IV//V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2003. - !! 40-44. - !B.356.  018=>28G .., 0=:528G . M. 4V9A=5==O ?@02 ;N48=8: ?@>1;5<8 >1<56C20==O (7030;L=>B5>@5B8G=V 0A?5:B8). @0FV L2V2AL:>W ;01>@0B>@VW ?@02 ;N48=8 V 3@><04O=8=0. 0C:>2>-4>A;V4=>3> V=AB8BCBC 45@602=>3> 1C4V2=8FB20 B0 <VAF52>3> A0<>2@O4C20==O :045<VW ?@02>28E =0C: #:@0W=8 / 54:>;.: .. 01V=>28G (3>;. @54.) B0 V=. !5@. . >A;V465==O B0 @5D5@0B8. 8?. 3. - L2V2.: AB@>=, 2001 . - 108 A.  !.37.  "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020: #G51=8: 4;O 2C7>2. / >4 @54. ?@>D. .. >@5;LA:>3> 8 ?@>D. .. 5@520;>20.  2-5 874., 87<. 8 4>?.  .: >@<0, 2001.  616 A.  !. 96  &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8: 2 2 B. /0 703. @54. .. >@8A>2>W, .. !?0A81>-$0BTT2>W, .. /@>FL:>3>. ".1.  .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2004. - 480 A. - !. 304  &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8:: # 2 :=. / .. 75@0 (:5@V2=8: 02B. :>;.), .. >1@>20, .!. >235@B B0 V=.; 0 @54. .. 75@8, .!. C7=5F>2>W.  .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2002.  ".1. - 720 A.  !.275  @0640=A:>5 ?@02>: #G51=8::  2 :=. />4 @54. .. !5@35520, ... ">;AB>3>.  5-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: . .. >6=8:>2, 2001.  ". 1.  632 A.  !.360.  !CE0=>2  . 5:F88 > ?@025 A>1AB25==>AB8. - .: .@84. ;8B., 1991. - 240 A.  !.280.  &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8: 2 2 B. /0 703. @54. .. >@8A>2>W, .. !?0A81>-$0BTT2>W, .. /@>FL:>3>, - .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2004. - ".1.- 480 A. - !. 304 -305.  >DD5 .!. !>25BA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>. - .: .@84. ;8B., 1967. - 494 A.  !. 355-356.  "0< A0<>.  !.360.  0<KH0=A:89 .. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8: ?@545;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O.  .: ."-, 0:>= 8 ?@02>, 2000. - 303 A.  !. 43.  (5@H5=528G .$. #G51=8: B>@3>2>3> ?@020. - > 874. 1907 .  .: ! , 1995.  556 A. - !.165  5=548:B>2 .. >AC40@AB25==0O A>F80;8AB8G5A:0O A>1AB25==>ABL. - .; .: 74-2>  !!! , 1948. - 839 c.  !.42.  C@48=>2A:89 ..  CG5=8N > ;530;L=KE >3@0=8G5=8OE ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 =542868<>ABL 2 >AA88: >=>3@0D8O. - 45AA0: -:>=. "8?., 1899.  388 A. +6 c.  !.64.  8=4H594 . #G51=8: ?0=45:B=>3> ?@020. 1I0O G0ABL:  2 B. ".1 / 5@. A =5<.  !1.: 74. . 85@>3;8D>20 8 . 8:8D>@>20, 1874.  358 A.  !.301.  ;5:A552 !.!. 1I85 4>72>;5=8O 8 >1I85 70?@5BK 2 A>25BA:>< ?@025.  .: .@84. ;8B., 1989.  286 A.  !.38.  0<KH0=A:89 .. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8: ?@545;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O.  .: ."-, 0:>= 8 ?@02>, 2000. - 303 A.  !. 74.  5@8=3 . =B5@5A 8 ?@02>: >=>3@.: 5@. A =5<.  /@>A;02;L: "8?. 3C15@=. 75<. C?@02K, 1880.  328 A  !.129.  (5@H5=528G .$. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0: 2B>3@0D, 2001.  720 A.  !. 38.  &8B. 70: (5@H5=528G .$. 1I0O B5>@8O ?@020.  K?. III.  > 8A?@. 8 4>?. 8-<C 874., 1911. - M.: 74. #, 1968.  805 A.  NH5@ $. >=AB8BCF8>==0O 70I8B0 ?@02 8 A2>1>4 ;8G=>AB8: 5@. A D@0=F.  .: 74. 3@C??0 @>3@5AA  #=825@A, 1993.  258 A.  !.235.  5=:8= .. @02> ;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 2 !!! .- .: =0=85, 1953. - 332 c.  !. 32.  @0BCAL !.. @54<5B 8 A8AB5<0 A>25BA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020.  .: >AN@8740B, 1963.  197 A.  !. 125.  !B@>3>28G .!. "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020.  .: >AN@8740B, 1949.  489 A.  !. 403.  0;L . ">;:>2K9 A;>20@L 682>3> 25;8:>@CAA:>3> O7K:0 :  4 B. ". 3. D>@<;. 80<0=B.  !1.: " "80<0=B", 1996.  377 A.  !. 89.  09E5@ .. 1A>;NB=K5 8 >B=>A8B5;L=K5 ?@020 // 725AB8O M:>=><. D0:. 5=8=3@. ?>;8B5E=. 8= B0.  1928.  K?. 1.  !. 273-306.  !. 273.  0BB58 #., !CE0=>2 .. A=>2=K5 ?>;>65=8O ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8.  .: , 1999.  305 A.  !.208.  C@48=>2A:89 ..  CG5=8N > ;530;L=KE >3@0=8G5=8OE ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 =542868<>ABL 2 >AA88: >=>3@0D8O. - 45AA0: -:>=. "8?., 1899.  388 A. +6 c.  289 A.  !. 64  <8B@852 ... >=F5?F8O =0@>4>2;0AB8O 2 A>2@5<5==>9 >AA88 (3>AC40@AB25==>-?@02>2K5 ?@>1;5<K B5>@88 8 ?@0:B8:8): 2B>@5D. 48A. ... 4-@0 N@84. =0C:: 12.00.02 .  ., 1994.  26 A.  !. 10  %2>AB>2 .. !8AB5<0 @8<A:>3> ?@020: #G51=8:. - .: !?0@:, 1996.  310 A.  !. 224.  5@=1C@3 . 0=45:BK.  ". 1.'.2: 5I=>5 ?@02> / >4 @54. .$. 595=4>@D.  6-5 874, 8A?@.: 5@. A =5<.  !1.: >A. B8?>3@., 1905.  396 A.  !. 81.  %@>?0=N: .. "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020: #G51=>5 ?>A>1. 4;O 2KAH8E CG51=KE 702545=89 / >4 @54. ?@>D. .. !B@5:>7>20.  .: 010E>2, ":0G52, 8<>2, 1995.  384 A.  !.223.  ;5:A552 !.!. 71@0==>5. - : !B0BCB, 2003. - 480 A. - !.223.  8=4H594 . #G51=8: ?0=45:B=>3> ?@020. 1I0O G0ABL:  2 B. ".1 / 5@. A =5<.  !1.: 74. . 85@>3;8D>20 8 . 8:8D>@>20, 1874.  358 A.  !. 301.  535;L ..$. $8;>A>D8O ?@020: 5@. A =5<./ 540:B>@K 8 A>AB028B5;8 .. 5@8<>2 8 B.C. 5@A5AO=F; 2B. 2ABC?. AB. 8 ?@8<. B.C. 5@A5AO=F.  .: KA;L, 1990.- 265 A.  !. 109.  ;5:A552 !.!. 1I85 4>72>;5=8O 8 >1I85 70?@5BK 2 A>25BA:>< ?@025.  .: .@84. ;8B., 1989.  286 A.  !. 38.  @0640=A:>5 ?@02>: #G51=8::  2 :=. / >4 @54. .. !5@35520, ... ">;AB>3>.  5-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: . .. >6=8:>2, 2001.  ". 1.  632 A.  !. 331.  ;5:A552 !.!. 71@0==>5. - .: !B0BCB, 2003. - 480 A.  ! 86.  5@8=3 . 1 >A=>20=88 70I8BK 2;045=8O: 5@5A<>B@ CG5=8O > 2;045=88.- .: "8?. .. 0<>=B>20, 1883.- 179 c.  !.129.  5=548:B>2 .. >AC40@AB25==0O A>F80;8AB8G5A:0O A>1AB25==>ABL. - .; .: 74-2>  !!! , 1948.- 839 c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c.  !. 32.  @0BCAL !.. @54<5B 8 A8AB5<0 A>25BA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020.  .: >AN@8740B, 1963.  197 A.  !. 125.  !B@>3>28G .!. "5>@8O 3>AC40@AB20 8 ?@020.  .: >AN@8740B,1949. - 489A.  !. 403.  >=40@T2 .. ;0A=VABL V ?@02> 2;0A=>ABV // 0C:>289 2VA=8: =V?@>?5B@>2AL:>3> N@848G=>3> V=AB8BCBC ! #:@0W=8.  2000. - !1(1).- C.155-160.  !. 157.  5=:8= .. @02> ;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 2 !!! .- .: =0=85, 1953. - 332 c.  !. 33.  @0BCAL !.. C@A A>25BA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. !C1J5:BK 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020: #G51=8: 4;O N@848G5A:8E H:>;. - .: >A. 874-2>. N@84. ;8B., 1950.  367 A.  !.258.  02;>2 .. 5:>B>@K5 2>?@>AK B5>@88 3@0640=A:8E ?@02>>B=>H5=89 2 G0AB8 ?5@2>9 =>2>3> 3@0640=A:>3> :>45:A0 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 // !1>@=8: =0CG=KE B@C4>2, ?>A2OI5==K9 ?0<OB8 .. OA5=F520 / B2. @540:B>@K .. 0;?8=, .. 0A;O-52, .. >;8=A:0O. - .: .@8AB, 1995.  !. 45-47.  !.45.  5=:8= .. @02> ;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 2 !!! .- .: =0=85, 1953. - 332 c.  !.15.  @0640=A:>5 ?@02>: #G51=8::  2 :=. / >4 @54. .. !5@35520, ... ">;AB>3>.  5-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: . .. >6=8:>2, 2001.  ". 1.  632 A.  !.340.  >:@>2A:89 .. A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. 74. 3-5, AB5@5>B. .: !B0BCB, 2001.  354 A.  !.192.  >DD5 .!. &828;8AB8G5A:0O 4>:B@8=0 ?@><KH;5==>3> :0?8B0;87<0 // >DD5 .!. 71@0==K5 B@C4K ?> 3@0640=A:><C ?@02C: 7 8AB>@88 F828;8AB8G5A:>9 <KA;8. @0640=A:>5 ?@02>>B=>H5=85. @8B8:0 B5>@88  %>7O9AB25==>3> ?@020 .  ., 2000.  778 A. - !.93  C@78= ...  2>?@>AC > ?>=OB88 AC1J5:B82=>3> ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 // &828;8AB8G5A:85 70?8A:8. 562C7>2A:89 A1>@=8: =0CG=KE B@C4>2. #@0;LA:>5 >B45;5=85 >AA89A:>9 H:>;K G0AB=>3> ?@020. K?.1  .: !B0BCB, 2001. - !.330-346. - !.342  @0BCAL !.. C@A A>25BA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. !C1J5:BK 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020: #G51=8: 4;O N@848G5A:8E H:>;.  .: >AN@8740B, 1950.  367 A.  !.51.  @0640=A:>5 ?@02>:  2 B. ". 1: #G51=8: / B2. @54. ?@>D. . . !CE0=>2.  2-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: , 1998. - 816A.  !. 100.  (5@H5=528G .$. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0: 2B>3@0D, 2001.  720 A.  !.283.  >DD5 .!. !?>@=K5 2>?@>AK CG5=8O > ?@02>>B=>H5=88 // G5@:8 ?> 3@0640=A:><C ?@02C: !1. AB. / B2. @54. .!. >DD5.  .: 74 2> #, 1957.  !. 30  36.  !.30  !5@51@>2A:89 . . >?@>AK A>25BA:>3> 02B>@A:>3> ?@020. .: 74-2> :045<88 =0C: !!! , 1956.  256A.  !. 49.  A:=0789 !.. A=>2=K5 2>?@>AK B5>@88 A>F80;8AB8G5A:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020: 2B>@5D. 48A. ... 4-@0. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03 . - ., 1947.  17 A.  !.13.  @810=>2 .. ACI5AB2;5=85 8 70I8B0 3@0640=A:8E ?@02. - 74. 2-5, AB5@5>B.  .: !B0BCB, 2001.  411A.  !.24.  @810=>2 .. @545;K >ACI5AB2;5=8O 8 70I8BK 3@0640=A:8E ?@02 // ACI5AB2;5=85 8 70I8B0 3@0640=A:8E ?@02. - .: !B0BCB, 2000. - !.19-212. - !.22.  57A<5@B=0 .. 56V 74V9A=5==O ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV 2 #:@0W=V // V4@8T<=8FB2>, 3>A?>40@AB2> V ?@02>.  2001. - !6.  !.47-49.  !.47.  (5@H5=528G . $. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0:: 2B>3@0D, 2001.  720 A.  !.283.  !.35.  5=:8= .. @02> ;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 2 !!! .- .: =0=85, 1953. - 332 c.  !.17.  5=:8= .. @02> ;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 2 !!! .- .: =0=85, 1953. - 332 c.  !. 154.  ;5:A552 !.!. 1I85 4>72>;5=8O 8 >1I85 70?@5BK 2 A>25BA:>< ?@025.  .: .@84. ;8B., 1989.  286 A.  !. 53.  !CE0=>2  . 5:F88 > ?@025 A>1AB25==>AB8. - .: .@84. ;8B., 1991. - 240 A.  !.21.  !0D8C;;8= .. "5>@8O 8 ?@0:B8:0 ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O E>7O9AB25==KE A2O759 2 !!! .  !25@4;>2A:: 74-2> #@0;. C=-B0, 1990.  139 A.  !. 15.  5=548:B>2 .. >AC40@AB25==0O A>F80;8AB8G5A:0O A>1AB25==>ABL. - . ;.: 74-2>  !!! , 1948. - 839 c.  !. 270.  @0BCAL !.. @54<5B 8 A8AB5<0 A>25BA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020.  .: >AN@8740B, 1963.  197 A.  !. 58.  &8B. 70: >7>;8= .. !>25BA:>5 8 8=>AB@0==>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02> (?@>1;5<K 2708<>459AB28O 8 @0728B8O).  .: 0C:0, 1989.  289 A.  !. 218.  &8B. 70: 070@ /. !>1AB25==>ABL 2 1C@6C07=>9 ?@02>2>9 B5>@88: 5@. A =5<.  .: .@84. ;8B., 1985.  192 A.  !.20.  5@602=5 C?@02;V==O: B5>@VO V ?@0:B8:0 / 0 703. @54. 25@ O=>20 ..  .: .@V=:>< =B5@,1998.  431A.  !.10.  !CE0=>2 .. @>1;5<K ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O >B=>H5=89 ?C1;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 8 =>2K9 @0640=A:89 :>45:A >AA88 // @0640=A:89 :>45:A >AA88: @>1;5<K. "5>@8O. @0:B8:0 / B2. @54. ..0:>2A:89: !1. ?0<OB8 !..%>E;>20.  .: 564C=0@>4=K9 F5=B@ D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>3> @0728B8O, 1998.  !. 208  216.  !. 208.  8=G5=:> !.. >=40@L .!. !>1AB25==>ABL  A2>1>40 -?@02>. - >AB>2 =/.: 74-2> >AB. C=-B0, 1995.  189 A.  !. 89.  8B@O=A:89 . . >?@>AK A>1AB25==>AB8: AC451=>5 B>;:>20=85 // !>2. NAB8F8O.- 1993.- ! 2.- C. 24-27.  !. 24.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. @> ?8B0==O N@848G=>W ACB=>ABV C?@02;V==O 2 ACG0A=8E C<>20E // @>1;5<8 70:>==>ABV: 5A?C1;. <V62V4. =0C:. 71. / 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /@>A;020 C4@>3>.  %., 2002.  8?. 53.  !. 122-132.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?;0=C20==O V 701C4>2C B5@8B>@V9 2V4 20.04.2000 ! 1699-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2000. - N 31. - !B.250 (01> DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2000. - N 20 (02.06.2000). - !B. 813).  @EV2 8I>3> 3>A?>40@AL:>3> AC4C #:@0W=8. !?@020 ! 15/327.  0<KH0=A:89 .. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8: ?@545;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O.  .: ."-, 0:>= 8 ?@02>, 2000. - 303 A.  !.33.  !8=09A:89 .. CAA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>. - .: !B0BCB, 2002. - 638 A.  !.208.  @810=>2 .. @545;K >ACI5AB2;5=8O 8 70I8BK 3@0640=A:8E ?@02 // ACI5AB2;5=85 8 70I8B0 3@0640=A:8E ?@02. - .:!B0BCB, 2000. - !.19-212. - !.25  0;L:> .. !B8<C;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O 2 ?@025.  2-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: .@8ABJ, 2003.  250 A.  !. 35, 84.  0BB58 #., !CE0=>2 .. A=>2=K5 ?>;>65=8O ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8.  .: , 1999.  305 A.  !.208.  C@48=>2A:89 ..  CG5=8N > ;530;L=KE >3@0=8G5=8OE ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 =542868<>ABL 2 >AA88: >=>3@0D8O. - 45AA0: -:>=. B8?., 1899.  388 A. + 6 c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http://www.lib.academy.sumy.ua/BiblList.Asp?WhatAction=RefList&Pos=1&ResCount=20&SearchStr=0;58=0%20..&RefType=AvtList&RefValue=6126&BaseType=BookList" \t "Sites" 0;58=0 .. 8G=K5 =58<CI5AB25==K5 ?@020 3@0640=: ?>=OB85, >ACI5AB2;5=85, 70I8B0.- 2-5 874., 8A?@. 8 4>?. .: -@5AA, 2001.- 244 A.  !.36.  30@:>2 .. @>1;5<0 7;>C?>B@51;5=8O ?@02>< 2 A>25BA:>< 3@0640=A:>< ?@025 // 71@0==K5 B@C4K ?> 3@0640=A:><C ?@02C:  2 B. .: "  &5=B@ .@=D>  , 2002. - ".2. - !.361-385  !0<>9;>20 .. @02> ;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 3@0640= 2 !!! : 2B>@5D: 8A. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03.  ., 1965. - 16 A. !.11.  @810=>2 .. @545;K >ACI5AB2;5=8O 8 70I8BK 3@0640=A:8E ?@02 // ACI5AB2;5=85 8 70I8B0 3@0640=A:8E ?@02. - .: !B0BCB, 2000. - !.19-212. - !.55. >:@>2A:89 .. A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. 74. 3-5, AB5@5>B.  .: !B0BCB, 2001.  354 A. - !.119.  OA5=F52 .. #A;>28O 8 N@848G5A:85 ?>A;54AB28O >B:070 2 70I8B5 3@0640=A:8E ?@02 // !>2. NAB8F8O. - 1962. - ! 9.  !. 8 -15. - !.9.  0@C .. AB.1 @0640=A:>3> :>45:A0 // !>2. 3>AC40@AB2> 8 ?@02>.  1958. - ! 12.  !.118-122. - !.118.  !B5D0=GC: .. ;>26820==O ?@02>< O: =>25;0 F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20 // 2>;NFVO F82V;L=>3> 70:>=>402AB20: ?@>1;5<8 B5>@VW V ?@0:B8:8. 1. =0C:. ?@0FL. - .: =-B ?@820B=>3> ?@020 V ?V4?@8T<=8FB20. #.  2004. - !.101-112.  !.106.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 2;0A=VABL 2V4 07.02.1991 !697-XII// V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=AL:>W ! .  1991. - N 20. - !B. 249.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70E8AB 5:>=><VG=>W :>=:C@5=FVW 2V4 11.01.2001 ! 2210-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 12. - !B. 64.  ;5:A552 !.!. 71@0==>5. - .: !B0BCB, 2003. - 480 A.  !. 91.  @8=F8?K, ?@545;K, >A=>20=8O >3@0=8G5=8O ?@02 8 A2>1>4 G5;>25:0 ?> @>AA89A:><C 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C 8 <564C=0@>4=><C ?@02C: :@C3;K9 AB>; // >AC40@AB2> 8 ?@02>.- 1998.  ! 7.  !.20-42.  !.29  8E09;5=:> .. 5G>2>-?@02>2V >1<565==O ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV 70 AB0@>402=V< @8<AL:8< B0 ACG0A=8< F82V;L=8< ?@02>< #:@0W=8: 8A. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03. - 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /@>A;020 C4@>3>; 0C:. :5@. ..V4>?@83>@0.  0?>@V66O, 2003.  224 A.  !.97. ;5:A552 !.!. 1I85 4>72>;5=8O 8 >1I85 70?@5BK 2 A>25BA:>< ?@025.  .: .@84. ;8B., 1989.  286 A.  !.54.  0;L:> .. !B8<C;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O 2 ?@025.  2-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: .@8ABJ, 2003.  250 A.  !.96. 0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 22545==O <>@0B>@VN =0 ?@8<CA>2C @50;V70FVN <09=0 2V4 29.11.2001 ! 2864-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2002.  ! 10.  !B. 77  535;L ..$. $8;>A>D8O ?@020: 5@. A =5<./ 540:B>@K 8 A>AB028B5;8 .. 5@8<>2 8 B.C. 5@A5AO=F; 2B. 2ABC?. AB. 8 ?@8<. B.C. 5@A5AO=F.  .: KA;L, 1990. - 265 A.  !.202.  (5@H5=528G .$. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0: 2B>3@0D, 2001.  720 A.  !.229.  ;>94 5==8A. 45O ?@020: 5@. A 0=3;. . . .<0H520, .. . .<0H52 / 0CG. @54. .. . .<0H52  .:., 2002.  416 A.  !.355.  &8B 70: -=F8:;>?548O ?@020: #G51. ?>A>1. / >4 @54. .%. %CBK7, ..!5@359:>.  C10=L: 74-2> C10=. 3>A. C=-B0, 1995. - 228 A.  !.111.  (5@H5=528G .$. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0: 2B>3@0D, 2001.  720 A.  !.229. ;>94 5==8A. 45O ?@020: 5@. A 0=3;. . . .<0H520, .. . .<0H52 / 0CG. @54. .. . .<0H52  .:., 2002.  416 A.  !.355.  070@ /. !>1AB25==>ABL 2 1C@6C07=>9 ?@02>2>9 B5>@88: 5@. A =5<.  .: .@84. ;8B., 1985.  192 A.  !. 46.  C;038= .. 71@0==K5 B@C4K ?> 0:F8>=5@=><C ?@02C. - .: !B0BCB, - 1997.  330 A.  !. 246.  5=:8= .. @02> ;8G=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 2 !!! .- .: =0=85, 1953. - 332 c.  !.35.  8E09;5=:> .. 5G>2>-?@02>2V >1<565==O ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV 70 AB0@>402=V< @8<AL:8< B0 ACG0A=8< F82V;L=8< ?@02>< #:@0W=8: 8A. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03. - 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /@>A;020 C4@>3>; 0C:. :5@. ..V4>?@83>@0.  0?>@V66O, 2003.  224 A.  !.104.  &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8::  2 B. /0 703. @54. ..>@8A>2>W, ..!?0A81>-$0BTT2>W, ../@>FL:>3> .- .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2004. - ".1. - 480 A. - !. 304.  >AB0=>20 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8 2i4 17 G5@2=O 1992 @. @> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABi =0 >:@5<i 2848 <09=0 //V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8. - 1992. - ! 35. - !B.517.  5<5;L=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 25.10.2001 ! 2768-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 3-4. - !B.27. (01> DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 46 (30.11.2001). - !B. 2038).  >:@>2A:89 .. A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020.  5B@>3@04.: 74. N@84. :=. A:;. @02>, 1917.  : >AN@8740B, 1960.  240 A.  !. 108.  >A?>40@AL:89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 16.01.2003 ! 436-IV// V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2003. - ! 18.  !B. 144.  &V ?@>1;5<8 0=0;V7C20B8<CBLAO 2 ?V4@>74V;V 1.3. FL>3> 4>A;V465==O.  5@=1C@3 . 0=45:BK.  ". 1. '.2: 5I=>5 ?@02> / >4 @54. .$. 595=4>@D.  6-5 874, 8A?@.  !1.: >A. B8?>3@., 1905.  396 A - !.61.  (5@H5=528G .$. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0: 2B>3@0D, 2001.  720 A.  !. 281.  ==5=:>2 . !8AB5<0 @CAA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. ".2. @020 25I=K5. - !1: "8?>3@0D8O ..!B0AN;528G0, 1900. - 697 c.  !. 356.  (5@H5=528G . $. #G51=8: @CAA:>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. ".1. - : !B0BCB, 2005.  461 A. - !.288.  0<KH0=A:89 .. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8: ?@545;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O.  .: ."-, 0:>= 8 ?@02>, 2000. - 303 A.  !. 117.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70E8AB 5:>=><VG=>W :>=:C@5=FVW 2V4 11.01.2001 ! 2210-III // DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 7 (02.03.2001). - !B. 260.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. > ?8B0==O A?V22V4=>H5==O :>@?>@0B82=>3> V F82V;L=>3> ?@020 // VA=8: V=AB8BCBC 2=CB@VH=VE A?@02.  1999. - !6.  !.27-29.  !.29.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. ;0A=VABL O: :0B53>@VO F82V;L=>3> V ?>40B:>2>3> ?@020 // :FV>=5@=V B>20@8AB20: 0:FVW, 2;0A=VABL, :>@?>@0B82=5 C?@02;V==O: 1. AB0B59.  %.: 84. V< 0945@, 2002.  172 A.  !. 125-130.  !.125.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> FV==V ?0?5@8 V D>=4>2C 1V@6C 2V4 18.06.1991 ! 1201-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1991. - N 38. - !B. 508.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> >?>40B:C20==O ?@81CB:C ?V4?@8T<AB2 2V4 28.12.1994 ! 334/94-  // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1995.  N 4. - !B. 28.  &8B 70: 030;L=0 B5>@VO 45@6028 V ?@020: V4@CG. 4;O ABC4. N@84. 2C7>2 V D0:. / 0 @54. .. &2V:0, .. ":0G5=:0, ..5B@8H8=0.  %.: @02>, 2002.  432 A.  !.4.  VH5==O 5@602=>W :><VAVW 7 FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 D>=4>2>3> @8=:C 2V4 11.12.2003 @. N 571 @> 70B25@465==O @8=F8?V2 :>@?>@0B82=>3> C?@02;V==O // .@848G=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2004.  !19.  !B@.15 (4>40B>:).  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ;VF5=7C20==O ?52=8E 284V2 3>A?>40@AL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV 2V4 01.06.2000 ! 1775-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2000. - N 36. - !B. 299.  0:>=>< #:@0W=8 @> AB0=40@B870FVN 2V4 17.05.2001 ! 2408-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8. - 2001. - N 31. - !B. 145.  5:@5B>< 01V=5BC V=VAB@V2 #:@0W=8 @> AB0=40@B870FVN V A5@B8DV:0FVN 2V4 10.05.1993 ! 4693 // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1993. - N 27. - !B. 289.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 10=:8 V 10=:V2AL:C 4VO;L=VABL 2V4 07.12.2001.  N 2121-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001.  ! 5-6.  !B.30.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> V=AB8BCB8 A?V;L=>3> V=25ABC20==O (?09>2V B0 :>@?>@0B82=V V=25AB8FV9=V D>=48) 2V4 15.03.2001 ! 2299-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001.  ! 21.  !B. 103.  V==8: .. =25AB8FV9=5 ?@02>: 02G0;L=89 ?>AV1=8:. .: BV:0, 2000.  264 A.  !.230.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 2V4 19.09.1991 ! 1576-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1991.  ! 49.  !B. 682.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 7030;L=V 70A048 AB2>@5==O V DC=:FV>=C20==O A?5FV0;L=8E (2V;L=8E) 5:>=><VG=8E 7>= 2V4 13.01.1992 ! 2673-XII //V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 50.  !B. 676.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> A?5FV0;L=89 @568< V=25AB8FV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV =0 B5@8B>@VW <VAB0 %0@:>20 2V4 11.05.2000 ! 1714-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2000.  ! 32.  !B. 259.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 01> 287=0==O 9>3> 10=:@CB>< 2V4 14.05.1992 ! 2343-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  N 31.  !B. 440 (01> DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  1999. - N 33 (03.09.99). - !B. 1699).  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70E8AB 5:>=><VG=>W :>=:C@5=FVW 2V4 11.01.2001 ! 2210-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 12. - !B. 64.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> =B8<>=>?>;L=89 :><VB5B #:@0W=8 2V4 26.11.1993 ! 3659-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1993.  ! 50.  !B. 472.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70E8AB 2V4 =54>1@>A>2VA=>W :>=:C@5=FVW 2V4 07.06.1996 ! 236/96-  // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1996.  ! 36 (03.09.96).  !B. 164.  @02>2>5 8 >@30=870F8>==>-M:>=><8G5A:>5 @53C;8@>20=85 E>7O9AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8: >=>3@. / C:. 02B>@. :>;. .. C:.  .: >=4>@, 2002.  316 A.  !. 276.  @EV2 %0@:V2AL:>3> 0?5;OFV9=>3> 3>A?>40@AL:>3> AC4C. !?@020 ! 1378-8/157.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. @02>20 ?@8@>40 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= 2 0:FV>=5@=8E B>20@8AB20E // VA=8: :045<VW ?@02>28E =0C: #:@0W=8.  1998. -!3.  !.58-66.  !.63-66.  >73>= .. 3@0=8G5=8O ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 AC?@C3>2 // @>1;5<8 70:>==>ABV: 5A?. <V62V4. =0C:. 71. / V4?. @54. . /. "0FV9. - %.: 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8. - 2002. - 8?. 63. - !. 122-132.  !.122.  5<5;L=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 25.10.2001 ! 2768-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 3-4. - !B.27 (01> DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 46 (30.11.2001). - !B. 2038).  >AB0=>20 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8 2i4 17 G5@2. 1992 @. @> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABi =0 >:@5<i 2848 <09=0 // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 35.  !B. 517.  @810=>2 .. ACI5AB2;5=85 8 70I8B0 3@0640=A:8E ?@02. - 74. 2-5, AB5@5>B.  .: !B0BCB, 2001.  411A.  !. 48.  @0640=A:>5 ?@02>: #G51=8::  2 :=. / >4 @54. .. !5@35520, ... ">;AB>3>.  5-5 874., ?5@5@. 8 4>?.  .: . .. >6=8:>2, 2001.  ". 1.  632 A.  !.144.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> >1 T4=0==O 3@><04O= 2V4 16.06.92 N 2461-XII ( 2461-12 )// V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8. - 1992. - N 34. - !B.505.  >AB0=>20 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8 2i4 17 G5@2. 1992 @. @> ?@02> 2;0A=>ABi =0 >:@5<i 2848 <09=0 // V4><. 5@E>2. 048.  1992.  ! 35.  !B. 517.  57A<5@B=0 .. 56V 74V9A=5==O ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV 2 #:@0W=V: 8A. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03. - ., 2001. - 211 A.  !. 116-117.  @02>2>5 8 >@30=870F8>==>-M:>=><8G5A:>5 @53C;8@>20=85 E>7O9AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8: >=>3@0D8O / C:. 02B>@. :>;. .. C:.  .: >=4>@, 2002.  316 A.  !.276.  8B=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 11.07.2002 N 92-IV ( HYPERLINK "javascript:OpenDoc('1344-15');" 1344-15) // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048. - 2002. - ! 31.- !B.1444.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?>@O4>: ?>30H5==O 7>1>2'O70=L ?;0B=8:V2 ?>40B:V2 ?5@54 1N465B0<8 B0 45@602=8<8 FV;L>28<8 D>=40<8 2V4 21.12.2000 ! 2181-III // DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2001.  ! 7.  !B. 259.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 01> 287=0==O 9>3> 10=:@CB>< 2V4 14.05.1992 ! 2343-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  N 31.  !B. 440 (01> DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  1999. - N 33 (03.09.99). - !B. 1699).  0;L:> .. !B8<C;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O 2 ?@025.  2-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: .@8ABJ, 2003.  250 A  !. 150.  @8=F8?K, ?@545;K, >A=>20=8O >3@0=8G5=8O ?@02 8 A2>1>4 G5;>25:0 ?> @>AA89A:><C 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C 8 <564C=0@>4=><C ?@02C: :@C3;K9 AB>; // >AC40@AB2> 8 ?@02>.  1998.  ! 7.  !.20-42. - !.31.  @8=F8?K, ?@545;K, >A=>20=8O >3@0=8G5=8O ?@02 8 A2>1>4 G5;>25:0 ?> @>AA89A:><C 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C 8 <564C=0@>4=><C ?@02C: :@C3;K9 AB>; // >AC40@AB2> 8 ?@02>.  1998.  ! 7.  !.20-42.  !.24.  0=C:O= .. 3@0=8G5=8O ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 ?> 70:>=>40B5;LAB2C $: 2B>@5D. 48A. & :0=4.N@84.=0C:. 12.00.03.  ., 1997.  25 A.  !. 13.  C;038= .. 71@0==K5 B@C4K ?> 0:F8>=5@=><C ?@02C. - .: !B0BCB, 1997.  330 A.  !. 65.  0;L:> .. !B8<C;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O 2 ?@025.  2-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: .@8ABJ, 2003.  250 A.  !. 151.  &82V;L=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8: =0C:>2>-?@0:B8G=89 :><5=B0@ / 0 @54. @>7@>1=8:V2 ?@>5:BC &.  .: AB8=0, 2004. - !.646. - 2B>@: !?0A81>-$0BTT20 ..  ><<5=B0@89 : @0640=A:><C :>45:AC >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88.  : .@8=D>@<F5=B@, 1997.  448 A. - !.253  >:@>2A:89 .. A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - 74. 3-5, AB5@5>B. - .: !B0BCB, 2001.  354 A.  !. 210.  0@8=>20 . 5I=K5 ?@020 - A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O :0B53>@8O? //%>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.- 2002.- ! 7.- C. 38-47.  !. 40.  )5==8:>20 .. 5I=K5 ?@020 2 >AA88. - .: , 1996.  200 A.  !.195.  &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8: :# 2 :=. =.1 / 0 @54. .. 75@8, .!. C7=TF>2>W.  .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2002.  720 A. - !.479.  &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8::# 2 B. ".1 / 0 703 .@54. .. >@8A>2>W, .. !?0A81>-$0BTT2>W, .. /@>FL:>3>  .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2004.  480 A. - !.358.  0AA> .. >=OB85 > 70;>35 2 A>2@5<5==>< ?@025.  .: !B0BCB, 1999.  288 A.  !.90.  0AL:>2A:89 .: #G51=8: 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - K?. 2: 5I=>5 ?@02>.  !1.: 74. N@84. :=. <03078=0 0@BK=>20 .., 1896.  190 A.  !.180.  &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8::# 2 B. ".1 / 0 @54. 0 703 .@54. .. >@8A>2>W, .. !?0A81>-$0BTT2>W, .. /@>FL:>3>  .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2004.  480 A.  !.358.  0@8=>20 . 5I=K5 ?@020 - A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O :0B53>@8O? //%>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.- 2002. - !8. - !.28-39.  !. 37.  595@ . . CAA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02> (2 2 G. '0ABL 2). > 8A?@. 8 4>?. 8-<C 874., 1902. - .: !B0BCB, 1997. - 455A.  !. 22-23.  (5@H5=528G .$. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0: 2B>3@0D, 2001.  720 A.  !. 230.  !8=09A:89 .. CAA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>. .: !B0BCB, 2002.  638 A  !. 208 .  595@ . . CAA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02> (2 2 G. '0ABL 2). > 8A?@02;5==><C 8 4>?>;=5==><C 8-<C 874., 1902. - .: !B0BCB, 1997. - 455A.  !.171.  >:@>2A:89 .. A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020.  5B@>3@04.: 74. .@84. :=. A:;. @02>, 1917.  : >AN@8740B, 1960.  240 A. - !.197-198.  0<10@>2 ..!. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. ".1. '0ABL >1I0O: #G51=8:.  !1.:  "8?. .. !B0AN;528G0, 1911.  780 A . - !.326.  0<KH0=A:89 .. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8: ?@545;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O.  .: ."-, 0:>= 8 ?@02>, 2000. - 303 A.  !. 198.  &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8: :# 2 B. ".1 / 0 @54. 0 703. @54. .. >@8A>2>W, .. !?0A81>-$0BTT2>W, .. /@>FL:>3>  .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2004.  480 A.  !.357-362.  595@ . . CAA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>:  2 G. '. 2. > 8A?@. 8 4>?. 8-<C 874., 1902. - .: !B0BCB, 1997. - 455A.  !.433.  A@0D8;>2 . @02>20O ?@8@>40 25I=KE ?@02 =0 68;K5 ?><5I5=8O //%>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.  1999.  ! 2.  C. 91-96.  !.92-93.  >:@>2A:89 .. A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020.  74. 3-5, AB5@5>B.  .: !B0BCB, 2001.  354 A.  !.7.  (5@H5=528G .$. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0: 2B>3@0D, 2001.  720 A.  !.245.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70AB02C 2V4 02.10.1992 ! 2654-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 47.  !B. 642.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> V?>B5:C 2V4 05.06.2003 ! 898-IV // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8. - 2003. - N 38. - !B. 313 (01> DVFV9=89 2VA=88: #:@0W=8,. - 2003. - N 28. - !B. 1362).  @038=A:89 .., 8B@O=A:89 .. >3>2>@=>5 ?@02>: 1I85 ?>;>65=8O.  .: !B0BCB, 1997.  682 A.  !. 225, 227.  >DD5 .!. !>25BA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>. 1I0O G0ABL. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8. 1I55 CG5=85 >1 >1O70B5;LAB20E: C@A ;5:F89.  .: 74-2> 5=8=3@04A:>3> C=-B0,  1958.  511 A.  !.75  5=:8= .. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8 2 !!! . - .: >A. 874-2> N@84. ;8B., 1961.  223 A.  !.34.  D8<>20 ..  A>>B=>H5=88 25I=KE 8 >1O70B5;LAB25==KE ?@02 // >AC40@AB2> 8 ?@02>. - 1998. - ! 10. - !. 35-44.  !.39.  30@:>2 .. 1O70B5;LAB2> ?> A>25BA:><C 3@0640=A:><C ?@02C.  .:.@84.;8B.,1940.- 192 A.  !.31-32.  (5@H5=528G .$. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. - "C;0: 2B>3@0D, 2001.  720 A.  !. 180.  !CE0=>2 .. >=OB85 8 284K >3@0=8G5==KE 25I=KE ?@02 // 5AB=8: >A:. C=-B0. !5@. 11. @02>.  2002.  ! 4.  C. 3 36.  !.5.  &8B 70: 0@8=>20 . 5I=K5 ?@020 - A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O :0B53>@8O? // %>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>. - 2002. - ! 8. -C. 28-39.  !.33.  595@ . . CAA:>5 3@0640=A:>5 ?@02>:  2 G. '. 2. > 8A?@. 8 4>?. 8-<C 874., 1902. - .: !B0BCB, 1997. - 455A.  !. 265.  0<KH0=A:89 .. @02> A>1AB25==>AB8: ?@545;K 8 >3@0=8G5=8O.  .: ."-, 0:>= 8 ?@02>, 2000.  303 A.  !. 137.  >:@>2A:89 .. A=>2=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. 3-5. 874, AB5@5>B.  .: !B0BCB, 2001.  354 A.  !. 210.  >DD5 .!. @0640=A:>5 ?@02>: 71@0==K5 B@C4K.  .: !B0BCB, 2000.  687 A.  !. 616-617.  %2>AB>2 .. !8AB5<0 @8<A:>3> ?@020: #G51=8:.  .:!?0@:, 1996.  310 A.  !. 225, 299.  >DD5 .!. @0640=A:>5 ?@02>: 71@0==K5 B@C4K.  .: !B0BCB, 2000.  687 A.  !. 95.  0@8=>20 . 5I=K5 ?@020  A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O :0B53>@8O? // %>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.  2002. - ! 7.  !. 38-47.  !. 42.  >=>20;>2 .. ;045=85 8 2;045;LG5A:0O 70I8B0 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025. - 74. 2-5, 4>?.  !1.: .@84. F5=B@ @5AA, 2002.  337 A.  !.59.  V4>?@83>@0 .. 5G52V ?@020 =0 GC65 <09=> 70 =>28< &82V;L=8< :>45:A>< #:@0W=8 // VA=8: :045<VW ?@02>28E =0C: #:@0W=8.  2003.  !4 (35).  C. 149-156.  !. 150.  V4>?@83>@0 .. 5G52V ?@020 =0 GC65 <09=> // #:@0W=AL:5 :><5@FV9=5 ?@02>.  2004. - ! 5.  !.57-65. - !.59.  >?K;>2 .. 5I=K5 ?@020 =0 75<;N 2 @8<A:><, @CAA:>< 4>@52>;NF8>==>< 8 A>2@5<5==>< @>AA89A:>< 3@0640=A:>< ?@025. - .: !B0BCB, 2000.  255 A.  !. 72.  >6452 .. 8<A:>5 G0AB=>5 ?@02>: #G51. 4;O N@84. 2C7>2 8 D0:. .: >@<0 =D@0 , 1999.  784 A. !.325.  %2>AB>2 .. !8AB5<0 @8<A:>3> ?@020: #G51=8:. - .: !?0@:, 1996.  310 A.  !.213.  >=>20;>2 .. ;045=85 8 2;045;LG5A:0O 70I8B0 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025.  74. 2-5, 4>?.  !1.: .@84. F5=B@ @5AA, 2002.  337 A.  !. 52,66.  8E09;5=:> .. 5G>2>-?@02>2V >1<565==O ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV 70 AB0@>402=V< @8<AL:8< B0 ACG0A=8< F82V;L=8< ?@02>< #:@0W=8: 8A. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03. - 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /@>A;020 C4@>3>; 0C:. :5@. ..V4>?@83>@0.  0?>@V66O, 2003.  224 A.  !.144.  &8B 70: %0@L:>2 .. @02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 75<5;L=KE A5@28BCB>2 2 3@0640=A:>< 8 75<5;L=>< 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 // %>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.  2000.  ! 9.  C. 29-35.  C;8=8G . @02> 75<5;L=>3> A5@2VBCBC: ?>=OBBO, 2848 B0 ?>@O4>: @50;V70FVW // .@848G=89 6C@=0;.  2003. - !10(16).  !.64-68.  !.66.  >28F:89 .. 8<A:>5 ?@02>.  6-5 874. AB5@5>B. .: C<0=8B0@=>5 7=0=85, "!, 1994.  245 A.  !.107.  %0@L:>2 .. @02>2>5 @53C;8@>20=85 75<5;L=KE A5@28BCB>2 2 3@0640=A:>< 8 75<5;L=>< 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 // %>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.  2000.  ! 9.  C. 30.  >@0=4L5@ (. N;;8> 45 ;0). @0640=A:>5 ?@02> $@0=F88. ".1: 5@. A D@.  .: ., 1958.  742 A.  !. 112.  >154>=>AF52 .. C@A 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. 5@20O G0ABL. >BG8==K5 ?@020. - .: !B0BCB, 2002.  800 A.  !. 335.  !V<59=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 10.01.2002 ! 2947-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8 .  2002.  ! 21-22.  !B. 135.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> V?>B5:C 2V4 05.06.2003 ! 898-IV // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8, 2003. - N 38. - !B. 313 (01> DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2003. - N 28. - !B. 1362).  8B;>289 :>45:A #:@0W=8 2V4 30.06.1983 ! 5464-X // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=AL:>W ! .  1983. - 4>40B>: 4> N 28. - !B. 573.  @EV2 %0@:V2AL:>3> @09>==>3> AC4C. !?@020 ! 8-231-1996.  @EV2 %0@:V2AL:>3> @09>==>3> AC4C. !?@020 ! 2-22/2002.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> V?>B5:C 2V4 05.06.2003 ! 898-IV // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2003.  ! 38. - !B. 313 (01> DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2003. - ! 28. - !B. 1362).  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> =>B0@V0B 2V4 02.09.1993 ! 3425-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1993.  ! 39.  !B. 383.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 45@602=C @5TAB@0FVN @5G>28E ?@02 =0 =5@CE><5 <09=> B0 WE >1<565=L 2V4 01.07.2004 ! 1952-IV // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2004.- ! 51.  !B. 553 (01> DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2003. - N 52 (09.01.2004) (G0AB8=0 1). - !B. 2734).  /2>@AL:0 . 5G52V ?@020 C ?@>5:BV &82V;L=>3> :>45:AC // #:@0W=AL:5 ?@02>.  1997.  '.3.  !.124 -125.  !.124.  830;:8= . @020 =0 GC685 25I8 8 @5F5?F8O @8<A:>3> G0AB=>3> 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020 2 =>2>< @0640=A:>< :>45:A5 #:@08=K // @54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2>, E>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.  2003. - !8.  !.48-50.  !.49.  8E09;5=:> .. 5G>2>-?@02>2V >1<565==O ?@020 ?@820B=>W 2;0A=>ABV 70 AB0@>402=V< @8<AL:8< B0 ACG0A=8< F82V;L=8< ?@02>< #:@0W=8: 8A. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03. - 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /@>A;020 C4@>3>; =0C:. :5@. ..V4>?@83>@0.  0?>@V66O, 2003.  224 A.  !.172.  >?K;>2 .. 5I=K5 ?@020 =0 75<;N 2 @8<A:><, @CAA:>< 4>@52>;NF8>==>< 8 A>2@5<5==>< @>AA89A:>< 3@0640=A:>< ?@025. - .: !B0BCB, 2000. - 255 A.  !. 123.  C78:0 .. =AB8BCB @5G>2>3> ?@020: ?>@V2=O;L=>-?@02>289 0=0;V7 // 5@6020 V ?@02>: 1. =0C:. ?@0FL. .@848G=V V ?>;VB8G=V =0C:8. 8?.12.- .: =-B 45@6028 V ?@020  #:@0W=8,2001. - C.316-322.  !.320.  V4>?@83>@0 .. 5G52V ?@020 =0 GC65 <09=> 70 =>28< &82V;L=8< :>45:A>< #:@0W=8 // VA=8: :045<VW ?@02>28E =0C: #:@0W=8.  2003.  !4 (35).  C. 149-156.  !.150.  V4>?@83>@0 .. 8<AL:5 ?@820B=5 ?@02>. :045<VG=89 :C@A: V4@CG=8: 4;O ABC45=BV2 N@84. 2C7V2 V D0:.  3-B5 284., ?5@5@>1. B0 4>?. / .. V4>?@83>@0.  .: 84. 4V<  = .@5 , 2001.  440 A.  !.400.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> V?>B5G=5 :@548BC20==O, >?5@0FVW 7 :>=A>;V4>20=8< V?>B5G=8< 1>@3>< B0 V?>B5G=V A5@B8DV:0B8 2V4 19.06.2003 ! 979-IV // DVF. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2003.  ! 30.  (08.08.2003).  !B. 1526.  5=54V:B>20 .. >3>2V@ 4>2V@G>3> C?@02;V==O <09=>< 2 #:@0W=V: 02G.-=0C:. ?>AV1=8:. - %. : >=AC<, 2004.  215 A.  !. 14,73.  !;8?G5=:> !. . @02> 4>25@8B5;L=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8.  %.: >=AC<, 2000.  176 A. - !.123.  !;NA0@52AL:89 .. "5>@5B8G=V ?@>1;5<8 4>3>2V@=>3> C?@02;V==O GC68< <09=>< 2 #:@0W=V: 8A. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:.  %0@:V2, 1999.  169 A. - !.118.  0940=8: . . "p0AB: A>1AB25==>ABL 8 C?p02;5=85 :0?8B0;0<8 (?p8p>40 ?p02, p5F5?F8O 2 ?p02> #:p08=K) /HH #:p08=K. &5=Bp 8AA;54. ?p>1;. ?p54?p8=8<0B5;LAB20 8 <5=546<5=B0 / >4 p54. . . >p>=>2>9. - .: H0C:. 4C<:0, 1995. - 173 A. - !.126.  0940=8: .. @>1;5<8 4>2V@G8E 2V4=>A8= 2 F82V;L=><C ?@02V.  .: 84.-?>;V3@0D. F5=B@  8W2AL:89 C=V25@A8B5B , 2002. - 502 A. - !.147.  0940=8: .. >2V@G0 2;0A=VABL C F82V;L=><C ?@02V #:@0W=8 (D>@<C20==O, ?>@V2=O;L=89 0=0;V7 V ?>=OBBO) // #:@0W=AL:5 :><5@FV9=5 ?@02>.  2004. - ! 5.  !.37-56.  8E5520 ... >25@8B5;L=>5 C?@02;5=85 8<CI5AB2><.  .: .@8ABJ, 1999.  176 A.  !.132.  8B@O=A:89 .. >3>2>@ 4>25@8B5;L=>3> C?@02;5=8O 8<CI5AB2><.  .: !B0BCB, 2001.  191 A.  !. 32.  &82V;L=5 ?@02> #:@0W=8: V4@CG=8::# 2 B. ".2 / 0 703 .@54. .. >@8A>2>W, .. !?0A81>-$0BTT2>W, .. /@>FL:>3>  .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2004.  552 A.  !.327.  &82V;L=89 :>45:A #:@0W=8: 0C:>2>-?@0:B8G=89 :><5=B0@. / 0 @54. @>7@>1=8:V2 ?@>5:BC &#  .: AB8=0, 2004. - 928 A. - !.646.  !0@10H !. . @02> C45@60=8O :0: A?>A>1 >15A?5G5=8O 8A?>;=5=8O >1O70B5;LAB2.  .: !B0BCB, 1998.  258 A.  !.143.  !0@10H !. . @02> C45@60=8O :0: A?>A>1 >15A?5G5=8O 8A?>;=5=8O >1O70B5;LAB2.  .: !B0BCB, 1998.  258 A.  !.160.  "8<>=8=0 ... 0B53>@8O >3@0=8G5==KE 25I=KE ?@02 2 4>:B@8=5 8 70:>=>40B5;LAB25 (>1I85 ?>;>65=8O) //:BC0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@020. K?.2 / >4 @54. .. @038=A:>3>.  .: !B0BCB, 2000.  !.44 -73. - !.44.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?@820B870FVN 45@602=>3> <09=0 2V4 04.03.1992 ! 2163-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 24.  !B. 348.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?@820B870FVN =525;8:8E 45@602=8E ?V4?@8T<AB2 (<0;C ?@820B870FVN) 2V4 06.03.1992 ! 2171-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 24.  !B. 350.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> FV==V ?0?5@8 V D>=4>2C 1V@6C 2V4 18.06.1991 ! 1201-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1991. - N 38. - !B. 508.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 45@602=5 @53C;N20==O @8=:C FV==8E ?0?5@V2 2 #:@0W=V 2V4 30.10.1996 ! 448/96-  // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1996.  ! 51.  !B. 292.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> DV=0=A>289 ;V78=3 2V4 11.12.2003 ! 1381-IV // DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2004.  ! 1.  !B.3.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?>AB02:8 ?@>4C:FVW 4;O 45@602=8E ?>B@51 2V4 22.12.1995 ! 493/ 95-  // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1996.  ! 3.  !B. 9.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70E8AB 5:>=><VG=>W :>=:C@5=FVW 2V4 11.01.2001 ! 2210-III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2001. - N 12. - !B. 64.  >;>65==O ?@> :>=B@>;L 70 5:>=><VG=>N :>=F5=B@0FVTN, 70B25@465=8< @>7?>@O465==O< =B8<>=>?>;L=>3> :><VB5BC #:@0W=8 2 @540:FVW 2V4 18 ;NB>3> 2000 @. N 31-@ //DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  1998. - N 27. - !B. 1014.  !:;>2A:89 .. 20;8D8:0F8O >B=>H5=89 ?> 70AB@>9:5 8 ?@02> =0 >1J5:B AB@>8B5;LAB20 2 AC451=>9 ?@0:B8:5 // %>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>. - 1997. - .! 10. - !. 78 -83.  !.78.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> >A>1;82>ABV ?@820B870FVW >1'T:BV2 =57025@H5=>3> 1C4V2=8FB20 2V4 14.09.2000 ! 1953 // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2000.  N 45.  !B. 375.  !?0A81>-$0B5520 .. @0640=A:89 :>45:A  >B25BK =0 2>?@>AK G8B0B5;59 // 0;0 5=F8:;>?54VO =>B0@VCA0. - 2004. - ! 2.  !.54-61.  !.61.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?@820B870FVN 45@602=>3> <09=0 2V4 04.03.1992 ! 2163-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 24.  !B. 348.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> ?@820B870FVN =525;8:8E 45@602=8E ?V4?@8T<AB2 (<0;C ?@820B870FVN) 2V4 06.03.1992 ! 2171-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  ! 24.  !B. 350.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> >E>@>=C :C;LBC@=>W A?04I8=8 2V4 08.06.2000 ! 1805 III // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  2000.  ! 39.  !B. 333.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 70E8AB ?@02 A?>6820GV2 2V4 12.05.1991 ! 1023-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=AL:>W ! .  1991.  ! 30.  !B. 379.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> DV=0=A>289 ;V78=3 2V4 11.12.2003 ! 1381-IV // DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2004.  ! 1.  !B.3.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> FV=8 V FV=>CB2>@5==O 2V4 03.12.1990 ! 507-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=AL:>W ! .  1990.  ! 52.  !B. 650.  @0640=A:89 :>45:A >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. '0ABL 2B>@0O: "5:AB, :><<5=B., 0;D.-?@54<. C:07. / >4 @54. .. >7K@L, .. 0:>2A:>3>, !.. %>E;>20. - .: 564C=0@>4=K9 F5=B@ D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>3> @0728B8O.  1998.  480 A.  !.315.  @EV2 8I>3> 3>A?>40@AL:>3> AC4C #:@0W=8. !?@020 !2/120.  @0640=A:>5 ?@02> >AA88. '0ABL 2B>@0O: 1O70B5;LAB25==>5 ?@02>: C@A ;5:F89 / B2. @54. .. !048:>2.  .: , 1997.  704 A  !.169-170.  @0640=A:89 :>45:A >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. '0ABL 2B>@0O: "5:AB, :><<5=B., 0;D.-?@54<. C:07. / >4 @54. .. >7K@L, .. 0:>2A:>3>, !.. %>E;>20. - .: 564C=0@>4=K9 F5=B@ D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>3> @0728B8O.  1998.  480 A.  !. 305.  '5@54=8:>20 . .  25I=KE ?@020E ?> @0640=A:><C :>45:AC >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 // :BC0;L=K5 ?@>1;5<K 3@0640=A:>3> ?@02>: !1.AB0B59/>4 @54. !.!.;5:A5520; >A. H:. G0AB=>3> ?@020. #@0;.>B4-=85. - .: !B0BCB, 2000.- 317A. - !. 109 - 110.  0@8=>20 . 5I=K5 ?@020 - A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O :0B53>@8O? //%>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.- 2002.- ! 8.-C. 28-39.  !. 35.  )5==8:>20 . B. 5I=K5 ?@020 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025 >AA88. - .: , 1996. - 200 A.  !. 72.  %2>AB>2 .. !8AB5<0 @8<A:>3> ?@020: #G51=8:. - .: !?0@:, 1996.  310 A.  !. 140.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. @> ?8B0==O N@848G=>W ACB=>ABV C?@02;V==O 2 ACG0A=8E C<>20E // @>1;5<8 70:>==>ABV - 2002.  ! 53.  !.122  132.  !.132.  0940=8: .. =AB8BCB 4>2V@G>W 2;0A=>ABV (B@0AB): (?@8@>40 ?@02, C<>28 @5F5?FVW 2 ?@02> #:@0W=8): 2B>@5D. 48AA. ...4>:B. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03.  ., 1996.  24 c.  !.6-7.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. @> ?8B0==O N@848G=>W ACB=>ABV C?@02;V==O 2 ACG0A=8E C<>20E // @>1;5<8 70:>==>ABV: 5A?C1;. <V62V4. =0C:. 71. / 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /@>A;020 C4@>3>.  %., 2002.  8?. 53.  !. 122-132.  !.129.  !:;>2A:89 .. !>1AB25==>ABL 2 3@0640=A:>< ?@025.  .: 5;>, 1999.  511A. - !.118,131.  >?K;>2 .. 5I=K5 ?@020 =0 75<;N 2 @8<A:><, @CAA:>< 4>@52>;NF8>==>< 8 A>2@5<5==>< @>AA89A:>< 3@0640=A:>< ?@025. - .: !B0BCB, 2000. - 255 A.  !.158.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> <VAF525 A0<>2@O4C20==O 2V4 21.05.1997 ! 280/97-   // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1997.  ! 24.  !B. 170.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. 8B0==O C?@02;i==O 45@602=>N i :><C=0;L=>N 2;0A=iABN // V4?@8T<=8FB2>, 3>A?-2> V ?@02>.  1999.  ! 10.  !. 9-14.  !?0A81>-$0B5520 .. 5B0<>@D>7K A>1AB25==>AB8 8;8 4><>@>I5==K5 E>;48=38 // @54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2> E>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02> - 1999. - ! 4 .  !.26-32.  !.32.  @0640=A:>5 ?@02>: #G51=8::  2 B. - ". I / >4 @54 ..!CE0=>20. - .: , 1993.  384 A.  !.153.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. @02>20 ?@8@>40 :>@?>@0B82=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8= 2 0:FV>=5@=8E B>20@8AB20E. // VA=8: :045<VW ?@02>28E =0C: #:@0W=8.  1998. -!3.  !.58-66  CFL .. > 2@53C;N20==O 2V4=>A8= 2;0A=>ABV C =>2><C &82V;L=><C :>45:AV #:@0W=8 // @>1;5<8 ?V43>B>2:8 =>2>3> &82V;L=>3> :>45:AC #:@0W=8: "578 4>?>2V459 V =0C:.?>2V4><;5=L =0C:.-?@0:B. :>=D.  !.53  58.  !.53  CH:V= ., !5;V20=>2 . V4=>A8=8 ?V4?@8T<=8FB20: ?@02>289 AB0BCA WE AC1'T:BV2 // @02> #:@0W=8.  1994.  !5.  !.9-15.  !. 10  ">@:0=>2A:89 . @545; 0:F8>=5@=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 //%>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.  1999.  ! 3.  !. 19-24.  !.19 815=:> . . >@?>@0B82=>5 ?@02> #:@08=K: #G51=>5 ?>A>1. -X0@:V2: -A?040, 2001. - 288 A.  !.115.  !?0A81>-$0B5520 . . :F8>=5@=K5 >1I5AB20: :>@?>@0B82=K5 ?@02>>B=>H5=8O.  %.: @02>, 1998.  256 A.  !.31  ;CAL .!. >@?>@0FVW B0 :>@?>@0B82=5 ?@02>: ?>=OBBO, >A=>2=V >7=0:8 B0 >A>1;82>ABV 70E8ABC: 2B>@5D. ... :0=4. N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03. / ., 2000.  23 A.  !.13.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 3>A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 2V4 19.09.1991 ! 1576-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1991.  ! 49.  !B. 682.  >7 OA=5==O !# 2V4 12.03.99 @. N 02-5/111 @> 45O:V ?8B0==O ?@0:B8:8 28@VH5==O A?>@V2, ?>2'O70=8E 7 287=0==O< C3>4 =54V9A=8<8 // .@84. 2VA=. #:@0W=8.  2002.  !6.  !. 26.  0:>= #:@0W=8 (?@>5:B) @> 0:FV>=5@=V B>20@8AB20 2V4 18.12.2003 ! 3059-1 // 8A=>2>: >;>2=>3> =0C:>2>-5:A?5@B=>3> C?@02;V==O.  25.02.2004.  >7 OA=5==O !# 2V4 06.10.94 @. N 02-5/706 @> 45O:V ?8B0==O ?@0:B8:8 28@VH5==O A?>@V2, ?>2'O70=8E 7 C:;040==O< B0 28:>=0==O< :@548B=8E 4>3>2>@V2 // .@84. 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2002.  !5.  !. 18-19.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. :@5<V 0A?5:B8 ?>=OBBO N@848G=8E >AV1 // V4?@8T<=8FB2>, 3>A?>40@AB2> V ?@02>.  2001 - ! 8.  !.21-24.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. 5:>B>@K5 ?@>B82>@5G8O 2 @53C;8@>20=88 N@848G5A:8E ;8F @0640=A:8< 8 %>7O9AB25==K< :>45:A0<8 #:@08=K // 0;0 5=F8:;>?54VO =>B0@VCA0. - 2004. - ! 4.  !.10-15.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 5@602=C ?@>3@0<C ?@820B870FVW 2V4 18.05.2000 ! 1723-III // DVFV9=89 VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2000.  ! 24.  !B. 981.  >;>65==O ?@> ?>@O4>: @5TAB@0FVW 28?CA:C 0:FV9 ?V4 G0A @5>@30=V70FVW B>20@8AB2: 0B2. @VH5==O< 5@6. :><VAVW 7 FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 D>=4>2>3> @8=:C 2V4 30 3@C4. 1998 @. ! 221 // DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  1999.  ! 10.  !B. 398.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 2V4=>2;5==O ?;0B>A?@><>6=>ABV 1>@6=8:0 01> 287=0==O 9>3> 10=:@CB>< 2V4 14.05.1992 ! 2343-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1992.  N 31.  !B. 440 (01> DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  1999. - N 33 (03.09.99). - !B. 1699).  !?0A81> .. 5:>B>@K5 2>?@>AK ?@020 A>1AB25==>AB8 =0 F5==K5 1C<038 // @54?@8=8<0B5;LAB2>, E>7O9AB2> 8 ?@02>.- 1997.- ! 1.  !.19-23.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 0FV>=0;L=C 45?>78B0@=C A8AB5<C B0 >A>1;82>ABV 5;5:B@>==>3> >1V3C FV==8E ?0?5@V2 2 #:@0W=V 2V4 10.12.1997 ! 710/97-  // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1998.  ! 15.  !B. 67.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. :FV>=5@8 O: AC1 T:B8 ?@02>2V4=>A8= (?8B0==O B5@<V=>;>3VW) // iA=8: :045<VW ?@02>28E =0C: #:@0W=8. - 1999 - ! 2.  !.72-80.  $545@0;L=K9 70:>= $ 1 0:F8>=5@=KE >1I5AB20E A ?>AB0B59=. :><<5=B. 2 2845 2>?@>A>2 8 >B25B>2.  .: $>=4 564C=0@>4=K9 8=AB8BCB @0728B8O ?@02>2>9 M:>=><8:8, 1996.  192 A.  $545@0;L=K9 0:>= $  70I8B5 ?@02 8 70:>==KE 8=B5@5A>2 8=25AB>@>2 =0 @K=:5 F5==KE 1C<03 (A 87<5=5=8O<8 =0 18 8N=O 2005 3>40) // >AA89A:0O 3075B0, N 46, 11.03.99, !>1@0=85 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 N 10. 08.03.99, 54><>AB8 $545@0;L=>3> !>1@0=8O, N 8, 11.03.99  >=F52 .. :F8>=5@=K5 >1I5AB20. : AL 89, 2002.  752 A. - !.57  >;>65==O ?@> A:;040==O 04<V=VAB@0B82=8E 40=8E I>4> 74V9A=5==O 4VO;L=>ABV 7 2545==O @5TAB@V2 2;0A=8:V2 V<5==8E FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 ?>40==O 2V4?>2V4=8E 4>:C<5=BV2 4> 5@602=>W :><VAVW 7 FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 D>=4>2>3> @8=:C, 70B25@465=>3> @VH5==O< 5@602=>W :><VAVW 7 FV==8E ?0?5@V2 B0 D>=4>2>3> @8=:C 2V4 24.06.2003 N 290 // DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8.  2003. - N 31. - !B. 1644.  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> 0FV>=0;L=C 45?>78B0@=C A8AB5<C B0 >A>1;82>ABV 5;5:B@>==>3> >1V3C FV==8E ?0?5@V2 2 #:@0W=V 2V4 10.12.1997 ! 710/97-  // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1998.  ! 15.  !B. 67.  @0640=A:>5 8 B>@3>2>5 ?@02> :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E 3>AC40@AB2: #G51. / B2. @54. .. 0A8;L52  .: 564C=0@. >B=>H5=8O, 1993.  560 A. - !.152  0:>= #:@0W=8 @> FV==V ?0?5@8 V D>=4>2C 1V@6C 2V4 18.06.1991 ! 1201-XII // V4><>ABV 5@E>2=>W 048 #:@0W=8.  1991. - N 38. - !B. 508.  815=:> . . >@?>@0B82=>5 ?@02> #:@08=K: #G51=>5 ?>A>1. - X.: -A?040, 2001. - 288 A.  !.67.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. !B> ?@>1;5< 7V AB0BB5N 100 & // 0;0 5=F8:;>?54VO =>B0@VCA0. - 2004. - ! 3.  !.6-9.  V15=:> . . 0@04>:A8 =>2>3> &: G8 701>@>=5=> CG0A=8:0< 3>A?>40@AL:8E B>20@8AB2 ?@87=0G0B8 ?@54AB02=8:V2 // .@848G=0 3075B0.  2004.  ! 10 (22).  !. 19  V==8: .. >A?>40@AL:V B>20@8AB20 V 28@>1=8GV :>>?5@0B828: ?@02>25 AB0=>28I5.- .: "-2> =0==O, 1998.- 309 c.  !.39.  )5@18=0 .. @02>25 AB0=>28I5 0:FV>=5@V2 70 70:>=>402AB2>< #:@0W=8.- .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2001.- 160 c.  !.86.  !?0A81>-$0BTT20 .. &82V;L=>-?@02>2V ?@>1;5<8 0:FV>=5@=8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=.: 2B>@5D. 48A.... 4-@0 N@84. =0C:: 12.00.03 / 0F. N@84. 0:04. #:@0W=8 V<. /@>A;020 C4@>3>.  %., 2000.  36 A.  !.12.  #G5=85 >1 0:F8>=5@=KE :><?0=8OE: 0AAC645=85 . "0@0A>20.  .: #=82. B8?., 1878.  706 A.- !. 478.  )5@18=0 .. @02>25 AB0=>28I5 0:FV>=5@V2 70 70:>=>402AB2>< #:@0W=8.- .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2001.- 160 c.  !. 90.  ;5:A55=:> . CAA:0O D8H:0 //87=5A. 2004. 17 <0O (! 20). !. 43-46.  !.43.  !;547L !. =0G5 @0A:@>NB 8 ?@8@CG0B (: 03@5AA88 872=5 3>B>2LAO 701;03>2@5<5==>) // 5@:0;> =545;8.  2002.  14-20 45:. (!48).  !. 11.  0A:0;528G . 1>;>=L A 284>< =0 0;L<8CA // 5@:0;> =545;8.  2002.  13 :2VB. (! 14).  !. 12.  DVFV9=89 2VA=8: #:@0W=8. - 2005. - ! 21 (10.06.2005). - !B. 1135.  0=4:>D !.. ">20@8I5AB20 8 0:F8>=5@=K5 >1I5AB20. "5>@8O 8 ?@0:B8:0. - %.: 74 2> . #!! , 1926.  371 A.  !. 170.  CA0B>2 .". $>=4>2K9 @K=>:: 8=AB@C<5=BK 8 <5E0=87<K.  .: 564C=0@. >B=>H5=8O, 1991.  192 A.  !. 7.  )5@18=0 .. @02>25 AB0=>28I5 0:FV>=5@V2 70 70:>=>402AB2>< #:@0W=8.- .: .@V=:>< =B5@, 2001.- 160 c.  !.93.  C:>2 .  ?@020E 0:F8>=5@>2 2 A2O78 A ?>A;54=8<8 87<5=5=8O<8 0:>=0 #:@08=K  E>7O9AB25==KE >1I5AB20E // 87=5A.  1998.  ! 13.  !. 33-36.  !.33.     PAGE  PAGE 2 dhj6:T h:&+$<dh^<`a$ $dh`a$$dh`a$gd*N $dh`a$bd*$&6d觚zzjjh+CJUaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+56CJ\aJmH"sH"h+6CJaJmH"sH"h+CJ]aJmH"sH"hkCJaJmH"sH"h+CJOJQJaJmH"sH"h*NCJaJmH"sH"h]RCJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"hKCJaJmH"sH")dfjnprtvz|jnrtv㸫{dVh+0JCJaJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"hB*CJaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJOJQJaJmH"sH"h+CJ]aJmH"sH"h+6CJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"hl9CJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"jh+CJUaJmH"sH" "hx&vFTZ^bdѿtdуhKB*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+6CJaJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJOJQJaJmH"sH"#h+0JB*CJaJmH"phsH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"'$&(> "<>j6Hrt *:.RTﭚhZ<CJaJmH"sH"%h+B*CJ\]aJmH"phsH"h+CJ\]aJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h'B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"4 "&(*:,4PRx  "ӸӨӨӨӇ{ӨoooooooohCJaJmH"sH"h9CJaJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"" *h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"hX:CJaJmH"sH"h+CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+0JCJaJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"+  $ (*.024:D  ""r''++++ 8"8(8*8B4C̮̮̟̟̟̮̮̒̆̆wh+5@]aJmH"sH"ho CJaJmH"sH"h+6CJaJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"#jh+0JCJUaJmH"sH"h1CJaJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH",jh+0JB*CJUaJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"++6=BB4C:KxNRS,UXxZ\]@`:afglq|tv{p}`gd*N` Tp^T`p$dha$ $dh`a$4CNDPDDEEEFFGGGGGG"H4HLHZHHHHHHIIIII,J>J"K2KLLLLNRRSS*U,UXXvZxZ\\]]̺̺̺̺̺̺̺̺̺̺̺̺̺̬̘̇ h+6@CJ\aJmH"sH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH"hRW@CJaJmH"sH"#h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+@CJaJmH"sH")h+@B*CJ\]aJmH"phsH" h+@CJ\]aJmH"sH"3].^__:`@`8a:affgg&i*i.i0iiiiilm mNmPmlmqqqqqqq޵ޞ޵ޞƍƍkRk0jh+0J@B*CJUaJmH"phsH"'h+0J@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hAa@CJaJmH"sH" h+56@CJaJmH"sH"-jh+0J@CJU\]aJmH"sH" h@CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH" h+@CJ\]aJmH"sH" h+6@CJ]aJmH"sH" qqqqqqvv`xdxhxjxHx"Ȑ4зtccccUtFh+@CJH*aJmH"sH"h-q@CJaJmH"sH" h+6@CJ]aJmH"sH"&jh+@CJH*UaJmH"sH"ht@CJaJmH"sH"h+6@CJaJmH"sH"#h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"0jh+0J@B*CJUaJmH"phsH"'h+0J@B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"hAa@CJaJmH"sH"p}LHxȐnLD4`"8 & F ^`gdl`gd*N`48<>Z^bdfnʡΡҡԡptxz26:<f䳤zl^^hE@CJaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"hKG@CJaJmH"sH"hk}G@CJaJmH"sH"h+6@CJaJmH"sH"h+@CJH*aJmH"sH"hQ@CJaJmH"sH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"h3@CJaJmH"sH"#fjnp48<>8RVXZ䱢xj\h10@CJaJmH"sH"hhNy@CJaJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"h*N@CJaJmH"sH"hr@CJaJmH"sH"h+6@CJaJmH"sH" h+6@CJ]aJmH"sH"h;<@CJaJmH"sH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"h$w@CJaJmH"sH"z"  @   # 0' - B3 9 E $I Q DT gd*N`gd*N` & F ^`gdl PVlnprtvBFJL V p D H  siZh+6@CJaJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"hY@CJaJmH"sH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH" j]h+@CJaJmH"sH" j[h+@CJaJmH"sH"h3@CJaJmH"sH"h*N@CJaJmH"sH"h9@CJaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"jh+0J@UmH"sH""          ` f 4! 6! >! @! X! Z! " " # # # # 7 7 L7 R7 V7 X7 9 "9 = = = = D D D D D D D D E E E E $I {{{{h|@CJaJmH"sH"h+6@CJaJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH sH h*N@CJaJmH"sH"hL@CJaJmH"sH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"hC>@CJaJmH"sH"0$I 0I zV V NW RW VW XW [ [ [ [ _ _ _ _ f f f f f f f Xg Zg g {j[Nh+6@aJmH"sH"h+5@CJaJmH"sH" h+56@CJaJmH"sH" h+5@CJ]aJmH"sH"hJ@CJaJmH"sH"hN@CJaJmH"sH"hr\@CJaJmH"sH"'jh+0J@CJUaJmH"sH"hQ@CJaJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"h+6@CJaJmH"sH"DT ^W a f f Zg m hr z :~ ؃ >   x-DM gd._x-DM ! & F ,x-DM ^`,gdl`gd._ ^`g Nh Ph Th Zh ^h `h bh dh h h h h h h h h i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i z z | | :~ ~ @ D H J ~~rh,@aJmH"sH"h+6@aJmH"sH"h._@aJmH"sH"h+6@\aJmH"sH"h@aJmH"sH"h|@aJmH"sH"h@aJmH"sH"hAJ@aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"hi&@aJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH",J $ ( * , 0 2  8 H J n ~ ޞ   R  z N v }}}oh+0J@aJmH"sH"h!'@aJmH"sH"h+@]aJmH"sH"h+6@]aJmH"sH"hE@aJmH"sH"h+6@aJmH"sH"h._@aJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"h!%e@aJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"( R  z N > T   & F ,x-DM ^`,gdlx-DM `  & F ,x-DM ^`,gdlgd._! & F ,x-DM ^`,gdl 4 d < @   h l    0 2  B# }qbh+6@\aJmH"sH"h"@aJmH"sH"h(@aJmH"sH"hBY@aJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"h+6@]aJmH"sH"h+6@aJmH"sH"h+@]aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"ha@aJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"h+@aJmH sH $ . d " .  x 2 L |  v    & F ,x-DM ^`gdl`  & F ,x-DM ^`,gdl  & F xx-DM ^`xgdl  R# & B' * 2- / x3 x? G M FN U Y JZ ^ b d e l q Du z | v  v gdHFoB# H# L# N# & & & & & <' . . . . b0 d0 >> B> A A $A &A B B |C ~C C C C C C C C C C D 葆~~sk]jh+0JUmH"sH"hmH"sH"h!Jmh!JmmH"sH"hHFomH"sH"h!Jmh+mH"sH"h+mH"sH"hY;^@aJmH"sH"hHFo@aJmH"sH"ha@aJmH"sH"h+6@aJmH"sH"hNV@aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"hK,@aJmH"sH"#D D D D D "E JG LG NG PG RG TG XG ZG xU |U U U Y HZ ] ] ] ] ^ &_ b b e e Xf ^f f znaaaUhHFo@aJmH"sH"h+6@aJmH"sH"hQ@aJmH"sH"h+6@\aJmH"sH"h.@aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"h @aJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH")jhh+0J@UaJmH"sH"hhWJ@aJmH"sH"hh+@aJmH"sH" f f f f l .m Nm m q q q | | | N~ R~ V~ X~     x މ R  }qqqhR1@aJmH"sH"h@aJmH"sH"h=@aJmH"sH"h+@]aJmH"sH"hhW@aJmH"sH"hG|@aJmH"sH"h+6@]aJmH"sH"h+6@aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"hg,@aJmH"sH"*v R $ 2 Ɯ h , gdHFo! & F ,x-DM ^`gdl  & F ,x-DM ^`gdl! & F ,x-DM ^`gdl   ` b ĭ B D  `   " & * , 0 2 b f  ֿ ؿ uh+CJaJmH"sH"h< P@aJmH"sH"hcx@aJmH"sH"hZ @aJmH"sH"hHFo@aJmH"sH"hw:@aJmH"sH"h+6@aJmH"sH"hmi@aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"h @aJmH"sH"+, ҳ n 6 , b , $ B T $dh`a$$dh`a$gdX%`gdX% $dh`a$gdHFo   p r t z | ~ L h n r t R X \ ^ b   ȿ|ppbh+@NHaJmH"sH"hY%@aJmH"sH"hf@aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"hG@aJmH"sH"h+6@aJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"hdh+CJjhdh+0JCJU hCJh-h-CJh-CJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH" h+CJ& ` d h j 2 : & ,  $ B seseWeseseGh+B*CJaJmH"phsH"hX%@CJaJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"#h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hX%5@\mH"sH"h+5@\mH"sH"h+5@\aJmH"sH"hX%5@\aJmH"sH"h+6@aJmH"sH"hX%@aJmH"sH"#jh+0J@UaJmH"sH"he@aJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"   $ & 0 , < > H p    " H  b   n p  ( H "   h+6CJaJmH"sH"h+CJ\]aJmH"sH""h+B*CJH*aJmH"phsH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"@T , x  p  ` ~ 2   "   D :# & X) , / 4 $dh`a$$>0dh-DM ]>^0`a$ $dh`a$    0 2  & & ' ' ' ' ' ( X) , , b4 d4 6 "6 6 8 8 = @ RC XC ZE bE hE nE pE G G H H tI {{l{h+@\]aJmH"sH"hX%@aJmH"sH" h+CJh+@aJmH"sH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"hX%CJaJmH"sH"h+mH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJOJQJaJmH"sH"h+CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"&4 6 8 = @ RC ZE G tI N R S U V Z N] |] $dh`a$ $^`a$$dh -DM `a$`gdX%gdX%$dh^`a$` $dh`a$$dh`a$gdX%tI |I I K K L L M M N N N N R R S U U V V V V W W HX ^X `X tY Z 0Z Z Z ƽڮ|l`Rlډ`h+6@\]mH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"h+56@\]mH"sH"h+6@]mH"sH"h+@mH"sH"h+5@CJ\mH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+\mH"sH"h+mH"sH"hX%@aJmH"sH"h+@aJmH"sH"h+@]aJmH"sH"h+\]aJmH"sH"Z Z B\ \ ] ] Xc c c d e :e ~ Z $dh-DM `a$`$Cdh-DM ]C`a$gdX%$Cdh-DM ]C`a$$dh-DM ]`a$ $dh`a$$dh`a$gdX%l l Vr nr t *t t t t u u u u 8w @w w w w x fx jx x x y y z z z { { { | 4~ 6~ <~ >~ 2 4 R T Z ` b ŷūūūūūūū՞՞՞ŋh+CJaJmH"sH"%h+5B*CJ\aJmH"phsH"h+5CJ\mH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*aJmH"phsH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"hX%B*CJaJmH"phsH"- F Ɔ “  f ̕ ҕ  h  & V t v Ș    "    @ ĝ ~ H n | ֢ @ r ԩ ӽӽӽӽӽӽӽӽӽӽӽӽӽӽɽӽӽӽ㝎h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+6CJaJmH"sH"%h+6B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+B*CJaJmH"phsH"8 ̆ F R ̕ sggg $dh`a$$dh-DM ^`a$ $dh`a$$Cdh-DM ]C`a$&$ & F ,dh-DM ^`a$gdl'$ & F ,dh-DM ^`a$gdl ~ H  * v @  ĵ  4 Խ `gdX%`$:dh-DM ]^:`a$$jdh-DM ]j^`a$$dha$ $dh`a$ $dh`a$ H h T h ֮ n Ʋ ʲ d f 4 : < x * 8 R d f h ~ н Խ "    2 4 < > H ǽ}o}o}o}hX%CJOJQJmH"sH"h+CJOJQJmH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"h+mH"sH"#h+@B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+@CJaJmH"sH"h+@mH"sH"h+@CJmH"sH""h+56CJ\]aJmH"sH"h+6CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"+ `  V | < b d f h j l n p $dha$gd$dh -DM `a$gd>FgdX% $dh`a$`$dh`a$gdX% $dh`a$H J l p 8 ^ d   V |  .  Z < ` ƷƫΕypccN(h>Fh+B*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h+@]aJmH"sH"h+\mH"sH"h+CJ]aJmH"sH"h+CJ\]aJmH"sH" h+CJh+B*CJaJmH"phsH"h+@aJmH"sH"h+@\]aJmH"sH"h+mH"sH"h+CJmH"sH"h+CJaJmH"sH"h+CJOJQJmH"sH"hX%CJOJQJmH"sH"` b  v 0 " @ & ( N > ŹpaQahphCJ]aJmH"sH"hphCJaJmH"sH""hB*CJ]aJmH"phsH"hsKhCJaJmH"sH"hCJNHaJmH"sH"hCJ]aJmH"sH"h>*CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"h5CJ\aJmH"sH"h5CJ\mH"sH"h5CJ\mH sH "h+B*CJ]aJmH phsH p r t v x z | ~ p  H $ & F%dh-DM a$gd$ & F%dhdd[$\$a$gd$ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dha$gddhgd $dha$gd 6 ~ r < @ R t 6 0 n @ ( > H 0 $ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dh-DM a$gd$ & F%dha$gd  $ p r   | ~   |     d % N% 0 0 8 8 = D= I *I bJ ,K L M VN N N HP >R x#h@B*CJaJmH"phsH"#h@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hkhCJaJmH"sH"hCJ\aJmH"sH""hB*CJ]aJmH"phsH"hCJ]aJmH"sH"hsKhCJaJmH"sH"hCJNHaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH")0 $            $ & F%dh]a$gd$ & F%dhdd[$\$a$gd$ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dh-DM a$gd$ & F%dha$gd   $ D z        f r! " # % ' |( ) * (, F- $ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dh-DM a$gd$ & F%dha$gdF- @. / 1 2 3 4 6 n7 8 9 : ; = &? P@ hA B .D (E F F H I $ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dh-DM a$gdI bJ .K L L M VN N JP "R R S xT &U `V W &X Y ,Z 8[ [ \ ^ ^ $ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dh-DM a$gd$ & F%dha$gd>R R W &X v\ \ ] ^ _ _ ` ` Na 8b e "f (i *i j j j j $p &p ~p p p p s s t (w ty vy y hz } H} ~  L  ʸ櫙{hCJNHaJmH"sH"jhCJUaJmH"sH"#h@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hCJ]aJmH"sH""hB*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h@CJaJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"*^ _ ` 8b c d "f lg rh (i k pl dm *n n o q &s s t |u (w x y $ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dh-DM a$gdy hz | } ~  <  @ V ( * d $ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dh-DM a$gd$ & F%dha$gd  > @   ( & ( * ړ F L r  6 @ f h ŷӪᷪ|sfsf|U hWh@CJaJmH"sH"hWhCJmH"sH"hWhCJhWhCJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmHnHsH"uh;hCJ]aJmH"sH"hCJ]aJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"#h@B*CJaJmH"phsH"! R b d Z $ F n . V d f , F   8 : B $ 6 ( 8 F ʿ shCJNHaJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"h@CJNHaJmH"sH"hCJ]aJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"nH"sH"tH"h@CJaJmH"sH"h@CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"-d ` X & 6 n ` ( 8 ޤ f  $ & F%dh"-DM a$gd$ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dh-DM a$gd$ & F%dha$gd P t , N v : ھ ʿ 4  . > $ & F%dhdd[$\$a$gd$ & F%dh-DM a$gd$ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dha$gd  \ r H f $ & F%dh]a$gd$ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dha$gd$ & F%dh-DM a$gd   j d n * , . F H V X ` ̽vlvlvlhs@B*phhs@B*mH"phsH"hsmH"sH"hsjhs0JU(hhB*CJ]aJmH"phsH"h@CJaJmH"sH"hrhCJaJmH"sH"hrhCJaJh@CJaJmH"sH"hWhCJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"* * :  < 6  D p n ~ ^ $a$gdJ$a$$dh -DM `a$gd>F` b : < >      & : < > @  6 8 : Z    Z ^ ` d 0 B ߹ߡѹhsB*aJmH phsH hsB*aJmH"phsH"hsaJmH"sH"hsB*]mH"phsH"hsB*]phhs]mH"sH" hs]hsjhs0JUhsmH"sH"hs@B*phhs@B*mH"phsH"4B D F H l n n p r t . 2 `  n p  6 8 < > ^ | ~    : H ҺꢔꔢhsB*]mH"phsH"hsB*]phhs@ B*mH"phsH"hs@ B*phhs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhs@B*mH"phsH"hsjhs0JUhsmH"sH":H ^ ` b D F D F N P    2 4 R f h j    " $ &          " ص"hsB*CJ]aJmH"phsH"hsB*CJ]aJphhs0JCJaJjhs0JCJUaJhshs]mH"sH"hsmH"sH"hsB*]mH"phsH" hs0Jjhs0JUhsB*]ph5^ D f      V d | H  b   gdJ$a$gdJ $-DM a$$0-DM ]0a$$a$gdJ$a$" @           " $ : < > T V X Z   J L N P Z ` b d f h  d z | ~  ˽˽˽zljhs0JCJUaJhs@B*phhsB*phhJhsmH"sH"hsB*]phhsB*]mH"phsH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhs@B*phjhs0JUhsmH"sH"hshs@B*ph& H J L p F H P R " $ j l 2 6 8 J ͿͿ͹׵絭絣ssa[a hsCJ#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hsCJaJmH"sH"hsCJaJjhs0JCJUaJhs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhsmH"sH"hs hs@hsB*]mH"phsH"hsB*]phhs@B*ph hs0Jjhs0JUhs@B*CJaJph   b d f      P ^ f h      N R r z r t v x P R T       "                     ȺȺ촪촪ȺȺȺhsB*]mH"phsH"hsB*]ph hs0Jhs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*ph hs]hs]mH"sH"hsmH"sH"hsjhs0JUhsCJmH"sH"= t P           Z 0    ! X# $ X% 6& $( ) (+ $a$gd& $-DM a$$a$gdJ$a$   \ ^ d f l v             " $ T V                . 0 H J Z \  ߥ헑ߗvߗ!hhVhs@B*CJaJphhs0JCJaJ hs0Jjhs0JCJUaJhs@B*phhsCJaJmH"sH"hs0JCJaJhs0JaJ#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphhsjhs0JCJUaJ.  0 2 4          4         d f h ! ! ! ! V# X# Z# \# z# # $ $ $ $ ǽѧէѧѧяѧwѧmhsB*]phhs@B*phhs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhs@B*mH"phsH"hsmH"sH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhs@B*phhsjhs0JUhs@B*CJaJph#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH")$ $ F% V% X% Z% \% & 4& 6& 8& :& ' ' "( $( &( (( ) ) ) ) * * * * * + &+ (+ *+ ,+ :, <, >, @, , , , , R- d- - - - - - - .. 0. / / / F0 H0 &1 *1 ,1 2 2 (2 22 82 ĺĺңȝ hs0Jhs]mH"sH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhsjhs0JUhsmH"sH"hs@ B*mH"phsH"hsB*]phhsB*]mH"phsH">(+ <, , .. / F0 *1 T2 r3 04 4 5 t6 $7 H8 49 : $; < < l? \@ l> > hs0Jhs@B*mH"phsH" hs]hs@B*phjhs0JUhshsmH"sH"N> > ,? j? l? n? p? Z@ \@ ^@ `@ :A A B B B C C C C bD dD D D D D D E E "E F F F hF lF F F F F G G G G G ȴzpzpzhsCJmH"sH" hsCJjhs0JCJU#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphhs0JaJjhs0JCJUaJ hs0Jhs@B*phhs@B*mH"phsH"hs0JmH"sH"jhs0JUhshsmH"sH",F F G H I J ZL L N O &Q (Q R T |U V W pY Z [ \ ] ^ $a$gd&$dha$ "-DM $-DM a$gd& $-DM a$G G G G G G H H H H I I I I J J J J J J J J J J K K L L "L *L ZL \L ^L nL pL tL L L L fN ~N N N N N O O O O O O O O O O O ʸʴʸʸʸʸʸʸʸʸʸؔʸʸʸʸhsCJaJhsCJaJmH"sH"hs0JaJjhs0JUaJhs#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphhs0JCJaJjhs0JCJUaJ hsCJhsCJmH"sH"7O P P P P Q &Q (Q *Q ,Q R R R R \ xpeh&hsmH"sH"hsB*phhsB*mH phsH hsB*mH"phsH"hsB*mH"o(phsH"hsmH"sH"hsjhs0JUhsCJaJmH"sH"hsCJaJjhs0JCJUaJ#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphhs0JCJaJ&>\ D\ J\ L\ \ \ F] J] ] ] ] ] ] Z^ `^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ B` D` ` ` ` ` 4a 6a pa ra ta Tb Vb nb tb vb xb b b b b b c c c c c c d d d d d d d fe he ~f f 𾴦#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphhs0JCJaJjhs0JCJUaJhs0JmH"sH"hsjhs0JUhsCJaJmH"sH"hsmH"sH"hsmH sH :^ pa b d d ~f Hg Fh zi j k l m rn o o p q q r t u v w x $a$gd$a$gd&$a$gd& $-DM a$f f f f f Hg Jg Lg Fh Hh Jh Fi Li Zi \i fi hi ji ni xi zi |i ~i zj j j j j j j j j j j j k k k l l l l l dm fm m m m m m m m m m m nn rn tn o o o p p hsB*aJphhsB*aJmH phsH hsB*aJmH"phsH"hs@B*phhs@B*mH"phsH"hsB*mH"phsH"jhs0JUhsmH"sH"hs>p p q q q r r r r r r r r r r r s s s s "s $s s Ps t t .t 4t 6t Ft Ht Pt Rt Vt Xt dt ft ~t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t u u u v v v w w x x x x ڲ jhsB*UmH"phsH"hsmH"o(sH" hs0JhsmH"sH"hsjhs0JUhsB*aJmH"phsH"hs0JmH"sH"Bx y y z z { { { { p| r| t| v| z} |} ~} } } ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ < @ r     j l n p B D F H ƾƴƈzhsB*aJmH phsH hsB*aJmH"phsH"hsB*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhsB*phhsmH"sH" hs0Jjhs0JUhs jhsB*UmH"phsH"hsB*mH"phsH"0x { r| |} ~  l D F h l z X j p J  4 gd$a$$a$gd " D F H J ܄ * B D f h j l ( , F L l n p  2 p r v x z | ~ D V X Z    ɽɵɱձձ߱߱߱߱ձ߱Քձ߃hsmH sH hs]mH"sH" hs]hs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhshsB*phhsB*mH phsH hsB*mH"phsH"jhs0JUhsmH"sH"hsB*aJphhsB*aJmH"phsH"3 < > @ B ( * L  Đ j l v x X l n p r t J L   * f ~ Һhs@B*mH"phsH"hs@mH"sH"hshs@B*phhs@B*mH"phsH"jhs0JUhsmH"sH"I~ F H 4 6 8    " ( 2 J V \ h l z ~ . F H p f h j ̛  "  ؝ ڝ   \ ^  꿱ޛhs@B*mH"phsH"hsmH sH hsB*aJmH"phsH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs\mH"sH"hsB*phhsB*mH"phsH"hsjhs0JUhsmH"sH"=4 ~ \ b (  F z 4 T z ʩ j  & V f $a$gd5q$a$gd`C$a$$a$gdgd  J b d f & ( * ,  < B D F H J z | 4 6 8 T V X z |   6 8 N P ʩ ̩ j l n ( .  . 4 ­ T    ǻǻǻhs@B*mH"phsH"hsB*mH phsH hsB*mH"phsH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs0JmH"sH"hhsmH"sH"jhs0JUhshsmH"sH"< & ( *   0 6 @ T V X Z ޲ f h j ` f ʵ е R T 0 6  > @ Ը ڸ : < X ` b d ~ Ļ ƻ Ȼ | ~ Ϲݹݫϡ hs@hs@mH"sH" hs0JhsmH sH hsmH"sH"hs]mH"sH" hs]hshs0JmH"sH"jhs0JUhs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*ph= R > ` ~ Ļ  B ( p d D $a$gd:gd5q$a$gd5q$a$~          B D F ( * ,  n p r t ~  " $ ҼֶֶҼֶҬֶֶֶҼhs@ B*phhs@B*ph hs0Jhs@B*phhsCJaJmH"sH"hsjhs0JUhsmH"sH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs@mH"sH"; d f 0 8 D F : < R T n p | T X z | ~ f ϳhs@B*CJaJphhs0JaJjhs0JCJUaJhs@B*phhshsmH"sH" hs0Jjhs0JUhs@B*phjhs@B*Uph> z f B * L ( 0 ~    $-DM a$$-DM a$gd#~]$a$f h   . 0 B D F " & ( * < > Z \ r t , 0 2 4 6 : < > B D F H T V j l     * , > B D hsCJaJmH"sH"hs0JaJ hs0Jjhs0JU#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphjhs0JCJUaJDD F H L N P T V X Z v x ( * 8 : L N  ( * , " , 0 2 X f j ~ R X ߽߽ѵіhs0JCJaJ)h#~]hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs0JaJhs@CJaJmH"sH" hs0Jjhs0JCJUaJhs@B*CJaJph#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"8  r   @ B           زʨؖؖؖ|rh|^ZLhs@B*mH"phsH"hsjhs0JUhs@mH"sH"hs@B*phhsmH"sH" hs0Jjhs0JUaJ#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs0JCJaJhs@B*CJNHaJphhs0JaJjhs0JCJUaJhs@B*CJaJphhs@CJaJmH"sH"hsCJaJmH"sH"    4 ^   R T V     8 ~ r t v ¶¶’¶¶¶¶¶¶¶„jhs0JCJUaJhs@B*NHmH"phsH"hs0JaJmH"sH"hs0JaJjhs0JUaJhs@B*mH"phsH"hs@mH"sH" hs@hs@B*phhsjhs0JUhsmH"sH"2  R   ~ p r l ` D ^ B X D`$-DM a$gd#~] $-DM a$v X Z l n p < > T ^ ` b d D F H \ ^ F J \ ^ ˽uccSuhs@B*aJmH"phsH"#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hsCJaJmH"sH"hsCJaJhs@B*aJph#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"jhs0JCJUaJhsmH"sH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhsjhs0JUhs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJph N P T \ ^ ` b B D V X Z DFH`bǹ񫹫ǹǙ񹫹hs0JaJhs0JCJaJ#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphjhs0JCJUaJhsmH"sH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhs@B*phhsjhs0JU5       \NXZB6$-DM a$gd*N$-DM a$gd#~]$a$ $-DM a$       T X ~              ^ `       ٽ{mcmWmhs0JaJmH"sH"hs@CJaJhs@CJaJmH"sH"jhs0JCJUaJhsmH"sH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hs@B*phhs@mH"sH" hs@hsjhs0JU#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphhs0JCJaJjhs0JCJUaJ"TV 68\^`NPZ\^f"$@BDF|~68:㵱hsCJaJhs@mH"sH" hs@hsjhs0JUhs0JCJaJhs0JaJ#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphjhs0JCJUaJ<$&(<>RTVD T V X     !!! ! !!!:"<">"##$$ $"$$$$$$$.%8%:%<%&&&4'6'8'ѿѳߞѿђѿѿhs0JaJmH"sH")h*Nhs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*aJphhs0JaJhs0JCJaJjhs0JCJUaJ#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJph9$RT  !:" $8%&4'(D)H*2+,-.J0L0h1234 $dd[$\$a$gd*N$-DM a$gd*N$a$ $-DM a$8'(((F(J(L(N(P(T(V(X(Z(^(`(b(n(p((((((( )")$)*)0)2)D)F)H)|)~)))*&*4*6*H*J*L*N*0+2+4+6+8+,,,,񽹳hs@mH"sH"hsmH"sH"hs@mH"nH"sH"tH" hs@hsjhs0JU#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs0JCJaJjhs0JCJUaJhs@B*CJaJph5,, ,-------...J0L0N0P000D1F1h1j1222.32333333444444455۳ɳɳɳɑqqqۑihs0JaJhsB*CJaJmH"phsH"hsB*CJaJphhsjhs0JCJUaJhs0JCJmH"sH"hs0JCJjhs0JCJUhs0JCJaJ#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphhsmH"sH"jhs0JCJUaJ)4578@:T;p<=>@@ BCXDtEJG.IJJrKLN$-DM a$gd._$hdh^h`a$gd*N$a$$-DM a$gd*N $-DM a$55566\7b7l7r77777788899@:B:D:;;T;V;X;;;;;n<p<r<t<<<=J=P=μμμμܭܥμܥμܥyqܭeehsB*CJaJphhsmH"sH"hsCJaJmH"sH"hsB*CJaJmH phsH hsB*CJaJmH"phsH"hs0JaJhsh*NhsmH"sH"#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphjhs0JCJUaJ)h*Nhs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"'P=R=======2>6>b>h>>>>> ? ?@?B?D?p?v?@@ @ @@@@@JAtAǿǑsiaUhsB*mH"phsH"hsmH"sH"jhs0JUhs0JaJmH"sH"#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs0JCJaJhsB*CJaJmH phsH hsCJaJmH"sH"hsCJaJhs0JaJjhs0JCJUaJhs@B*CJaJphhsB*CJaJmH"phsH"hsB*CJaJph tAzA B BBBbBBB6CCCCCCCCCCVDXDZD\DtEvExEJGLGNGGH@HBH.I0IŹŹŹŹ͹ѫ{qͫahs@B*CJaJo(phjhs0JUhsB*CJaJmH"phsH"hsB*CJ]aJph#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs@B*CJaJphhsCJaJmH"sH"hsCJaJhsjhs0JCJUaJhsmH"sH"hsB*mH"phsH"hsB*mH phsH "0I2IJ J JJJJJJJJJJJpKrKtKvKTLVLdLhLxLzL|L~LLLLLLMMMMMMMMMNNOO谨ښhs@B*mH"phsH" hs@hsjhs0JUhsmH"sH"hs@B*aJmH"phsH"#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs0JaJjhs0JCJUaJhs@B*CJaJphhs0JCJaJ,NOPQRSUUWXYZl[P\]^`0abc2e@f hj$a$gdHFo$-DM a$gdHFo$a$$a$gd._ $-DM a$OOOO~PPPPPQQQQQQQRRRRRSS0S2SVSXSSSSTT Uܴ܎tbbbb܎Rhs@B*CJNHaJph#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hs0JCJaJmH"sH"hsCJaJmH"sH"hs0JCJaJhsB*CJaJmH"phsH"hsB*CJaJphhshsmH"sH" hs@hs@B*CJaJphhs0JaJjhs0JCJUaJ)h._hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH" U UUUUUUUUWWWWXXXXXXYYYYZZZ[&[f[h[l[n[p[[[\\ \\,\@\H\J\N\P\R\T\H]\]´ʴ||hshs@mH"sH"hs@B*mH"phsH"hsmH"sH"jhs0JUhs@B*phhs@B*CJaJphhs0JaJjhs0JCJUaJ)h._hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"0\]^]d]]]]]^^^^^_ ````,`>`t```0a2a4avaxa^bbbbccde.e0e2e4e6eRerrjhsCJaJhs@B*CJaJphhs0JaJmH"sH"#hs@B*CJaJmH"phsH"hsB*CJaJphhsB*CJaJmH"phsH"jhs0JCJUaJhsB*phhsB*mH"phsH"hs@B*mH"phsH"jhs0JUhshsmH"sH"(ReTeeeeee>f@fBf hhhjjjjjjjkkkkklllVmXmmmohqqtvwx|yVz{|n}~Nd.~gdHFogdHFo$-DM a$gdHFo $-DM a$$a$o@oBolox~xxxxxzy|y~yyƺƮ꨺ꚮຊxnjjnjhsjhs0JU#hsB*CJNHaJmH"phsH"hsB*CJaJmH"phsH"hs0JCJaJmH"sH" hs0JhsCJaJmH"sH"hsCJaJmH"sH"h5?hsCJaJh5?hsCJaJmH"sH"hs0JCJaJjhs0JCJUaJhsmH"sH")yTzVzXzZz{{{{||||l}n}p}r}~~~~~:JLNPRbdfh‚ƂȼҼ|||hsCJaJhsCJaJmH"sH"hsCJaJmH"sH"hsB*]phhs@aJhsCJNHaJmH"sH"hsCJaJmH"sH"hs0JCJaJjhs0JCJUaJhsaJmH"sH"jhs0JUhshsmH"sH"0,.06z|:<~`bdLN\^ln̿觙觙觙wwwwmg hs0Jjhs0JUjhTUhThsCJaJhsCJNHaJmH"sH"hs0JCJaJhsjhs0JCJUaJhsCJmH"sH"h-hsCJmH"sH"hfhsCJmH"sH"jhfhs0JCJUhsCJaJmH"sH"hsCJaJmH"sH"(~`‡ćڇ܇އ$dh -DM `a$gd>Fh]h&`#$ $-DM a$ćƇ҇ԇև؇ڇއ(hhB*CJ]aJmH"phsH"hThKkb0JmHnHuhs hs0Jjhs0JU 21h:pb. A!"S#n$n% ^  666666666vvvvvvvvv666666>6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666hH6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666662 0@P`p2( 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p8XV~_HmHnHsHtHB`B 1KG=K9CJ_HaJmHsHtHp@p  03>;>2>: 1)$$dh-D@&M a$@B*CJaJphH@H  03>;>2>: 2$$dh@&a$CJZ@Z P 03>;>2>: 3$<@&5CJOJQJ\^JaJN@N P 03>;>2>: 4$<@&5CJ\aJR@R P 03>;>2>: 5 <@&56CJ\]aJL@L P 03>;>2>: 6 <@&5CJ\aJ>> P 03>;>2>: 7 <@&D@D P 03>;>2>: 8 <@&6]R @R P 03>;>2>: 9 <@&CJOJQJ^JaJBA`B A=>2=>9 H@8DB 0170F0\i\ 1KG=0O B01;8F0 :V 44 la .k . 5B A?8A:0 C@ A=>2=>9 B5:AB A >BABC?><+$dh-DM `a$@B*aJph2&@2  =0: A=>A:8H*R@ A=>2=>9 B5:AB A >BABC?>< 2+$dh-DM `a$@B*CJaJph<@"<  "5:AB A=>A:8CJaJL@2L 5@E=89 :>;>=B8BC;  E$4)@A4 ><5@ AB@0=8FKHQ@RH A=>2=>9 B5:AB 3xCJaJfS@bf A=>2=>9 B5:AB A >BABC?>< 3x^CJaJbT@rb &8B0B0;$vdh-DM ]^`va$HoH Normal ddCJ_HhmH"sH"tH22 postbody1CJaJe@ !B0=40@B=K9 HTML7 2( Px 4 #\'*.25@9 CJOJQJ^JaJmH"sH"tH":U:  8?5@AAK;:0 >*B*ph<B@< A=>2=>9 B5:ABxfOf Normal Text$7x7$8$`7a$CJOJQJaJmH sH tH ZJ@Z  >4703>;>2>:$dh`a$5CJ\mH"sH">O> B5:AB A=>A:82CJaJPK![Content_Types].xmlN0EH-J@%ǎǢ|ș$زULTB l,3;rØJB+$G]7O٭VCWNIA!ޝ}7/݉%BR7Hw9!p<Ǥፉ.EB\ /T*Y>,cy'$gC."Vso+C1OǓt}8>V3mBb%DWs'O''Gw ~lh;UM!DzŬ;C K^ysJJ1KRμ)~.ک/ Y\n9?[]67)qnpJOF$ w;fCLL&׸m%]V%z-{ v8Ҩm-.xo(-ms~ۜ|s>Ͼ%O04h=یщ!eƌ\f :C*OiIA 64HpUa7 UO3 d:(fA@٣>N"Hhp&hA38 )SUUR'V5&HM.6xpyn,ބ!h^^Z4~0#w,,& g"Ic힍Q)˕C6%^+Hk!$A*#.D)irdq8Y^}q~C>Np%uJx?+al|zf[Ux5b>c!:M (MkIVEpYPҍN2$ÿ -.h۴"P6T{T 6]u̒VhVnR+n;)ȔbL X6Y`+qB]( 0H1$6_[s)k8Tm Aa?R d ڒɾ0{eRF& Ī't\{BHuM6`pGϽO+!XoN'^[crh2*tW<{1U+l_QSncX<)Q(wJH ٯ#zCm>nhf6t}M&ʺ6ײ'\gkNS:;\qN-S;kǺ"{DailL`̗/޿ ^o#I&%0]SPV!] PK! ѐ'theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0wooӺ&݈Э5 6?$Q ,.aic21h:qm@RN;d`o7gK(M&$R(.1r'JЊT8V"AȻHu}|$b{P8g/]QAsم(#L[PK-![Content_Types].xmlPK-!֧6 0_rels/.relsPK-!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-!^}-theme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-! ѐ' theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK] 37o7739:::6==,?@cDcFFqHdIMNgNiNQTXw[\\\\\\\\\] ] ] ^bcdff1fijknqrr\tuQx~X<"jlngĝBpLNMjBJ;` +@Tf Bk*NaF"3#v',h.8?;M=ST/\_fQhVkq^rsssthttttux~+x*N!;wyܢT\9zJ-SU[wN  x"$)%~+/134~57u::NPJVXwY]__ՐVX͓"Z-Vƥհdo#7[q<v"9eh  E*1S=^JMETzXXbblwrAsvx|H>@BDFHJLՍ׍0Rղ4˶ro' ujIxc)4 D  ) ,.1m2o2222)3+3-3CGCWfllqr6xО i1SV|l/  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz;KHO e d  l \ t v`2_Q^5U<'2Z !3""H#?$)%%K&&D''P((W))E***g++Q,,1--4../[001225334445Z667$88;9;::;'<<q=>>??@zA:BBlCCPDDEEpFFfGG{HHI3JJK LpLMfNNOOyPPQPRR"SSTjUUvV(W}WXXXeYY1ZZ[G\\]=^^^__^``lDLV^rJn< ܯ|2<`N|VNR 7fAMd<$ Rt(bM^hzs|^::x)B44@r4` %&:Jsԣd4C]q4f $I g J B# D f    tI Z l H ` >R  ` B H "    $ 82 > G O V >\ f p x  ~  ~ f D  v 8',5P=tA0IO U\]Re?#@(@sC}CCCGGSSK[U[]]aalbzbbb'c-cd(d"f+fCkLkmmrrlstsetotttwwGyJyȀ΀Q_Њ݊bcÚbh4<˲gv }DRIW4htcr3;HNZ`]g). -;8C ! -5R\""##' 'P5\5??@AHCVC(I8IMMNN3T6T}[[__ppFqPqqqfrrrsssst t[tctttttu u||u~x~,Vfϖؖ )5ȝѡԨݨ +9ζҹݹ|'KMq{PZ KYcq4=;F'5DMKX@@ABKBCD!H/HHHzIIJJK$KKKMMMM"N+NP/PPPRRRRxWWWW?XMX[[]]GmQmttQu_uuuGvOvvvxx|}~~IWΆۆ08=Fݐ/:air{|ir5;$ ',5ˢ!.P^è +1ai y<A #1DM/<}#@M%32>Uc$.<OY!,9D}fpY^_den?BCO.5n |   = P   %%H(W() )))))))G,O,Q,U,,,..001 11122222255-I0IOOPPQQ RRRR.T3TrWwW+Y8YrYYb bee e-e|kk]ofoooqqrr/s:sEsOs3t=tqt{tttuuDwNwDxOxxx%z/zlzvz{{;}G}~~ Їڇw&1=C"*3>ЕەJU%0OZ%0<(5B ScOZLUW`  6D#  IJJJLLSSoooouumv{v ,7]gJVWcˣ֣_lѦަHX<B29)*48ABGIKLXY_`klvwVcnw?Ncn*5 lv     " & ' , - : ; > ? G H U V _ q v w                      ))..c/i/66i7w7+:9:I>W>d?o?A$AzFFHIIIJJSSWWWW{YYZZw\\]]aaaaMcWch"h*h6h7h;hrFrGrSrfrlrnrxrrrrrrrrrrrsssssssssssssssstt-t7t=tCtPtXt}tttttttttt uuuu'u2uuuuu%v2vgvovvw www#w+w0w1w:wlwvwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwxxxZxdxexqxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxy y(y0y1y8y9yFyJyPyRyXyuyyyyyyyyyyyyz(z;zAzRzZz^zezyz~zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz{{ {{{!{*{D{N{T{[{\{j{k{u{v{{{{{{||L|Q|b|j|u||||||||||||||||} }}}}&}.}7}9}<}V}_}h}m}~}}}}}}}}}}}}}~~ ~ ~~~~%~*~~~~~3>FPQZ\abhqx{!)0ABLNRVYemt|~рހ#8?BEW^filswzʁҁ2=EL^abejrȂтނ#)69?@KTW^eɃσу؃ڃ݃Ʉ̄ӄ݄+1<?JS[^`dhknqsyŅDžޅ߅ >DJQRYaekoqvy~†ņֆ߆&+,03;<DEMNZchitu|}PUblotwˆ !$5:PY ty{379=).06LPRV՚ښ͜ќ*-GNVZ\_qz ,8@DOR]biq}QYou/138<AIQbgorW^ D -.58=>HITZ`abcnp   $,.18=@Fb 34mpu$PmnuwSWZ\\`z{dh25WXs CEJG06rxdp $'/Z]qu"#&-7?FPUq;tw{}BFO- . ; B D            E J       ^ _ m t   .    ")5pqrx9:,3[35OR9<CN[^&.UWhkacUTXAD"&GOPZ\bcdsv}*kn           H!Q!!!""e"l"{""""########$]%y%|%~%%%%&&&&&&&K'T'['b'j'k'u'v'}''''''''''''''''''''(( ( ((( (4(;(@(A(B(C([((())"))))):*C*K*R*S*V*p*y*z************+++!+"+8+U+a++,,(,*,],._.g.../0 0M000011*1.1U1Z1111a2c2}2~22222{3|3}33334 44445555"5+5152585:5C5D5M5S5Z5y55556U6V6d6q6~666677~7777777777777777777777D8F8X8Y8a8899~9999999:::7;C;E;;;;;;;;v<y<<< = =l=~=========>>>>>>>>s????@AAAAABBBBCWC[CCCCCDDDDDDDDE EEE;EEEEEEEEFdFsFxFzF}FFFFG9G=GGGEHJHHHH]IyI|I~IIIII%J)J0J1J6J7JXJZJJJJJKKKL LLLL$L&LMLPLLL M MM@MCMMMMMMbNcNqNNNNNNNNMOOOOOOOOO{P}PQ$QXQZQrQsQQQrRsR{R}RRRRRRRRS#S%SSS;TZZZ[[[[["[$['[B[K[L[U[[[b[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[["\|\~\\\\\ ]]]#]*]3]@]A]N]Q]\]]]h]l]r]s]{]|]]]]]]]]]]]]]^^ ^ ^^^^^#^0^5^=^@^B^F^N^U^a^d^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^___ _F_O_U_\_]_`_~____________$`+``````a aaa a"a%aHaQaRa[aaahaaaaaaaaaaaaaaadbbbc ccCcGcMcPcVc^cecfciccccccc ddd"d#d,d-d5dIdSdTd]dhdkddddddddddddddddddddee eee+e4e5e>eDeKeielemeqeseweyeeeeefff[g\gbgggggggghhhhh hhhhhiiii@jGjjj-k5k